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INDEXED FiFTr-FiRsr tear oF.imiS^. 


fort 1, Fol. SX. 

Ffflh Stries. 

81st March, 1899. 


She STournal 

of the 

Rogal ^ocictg of SLntiquarics 






PA PE RS —co/if //»!/«</. 

A ftirt]i«r Vote on the Bnrroimdiiigi of Saint 
Pitriek'i Do Iniula, Dnblin. Beftoration 
•f the Xorth Close, 1899. The Poiiiliility 
•f Seeorery of the Aneient Well of Beint 
fatiiek. By Thomas Dkew, r.h.a., 
Vice-President (Two Illustrations), . 

fldkoeoaree, County Kerry. By P. J. Lynch, 
Fdlam, Han, Provincial Secretary^ Afun- 
Oer (Two Plates and Two Illustrations), . 

Chttkaioge, County Kerry. Bv Miss 
HiCKSON, Hon, Local Secretary^ Kerry ^ . 

lotei and Folklore from the Sennei Copy of 
tk« **IHndtenelias." By T. J. Westropp, 
iLA., 1C.&.I.A., Fellow^ .... 

I«tM reliBrring to the A^eher Chaliee. By 
James G. Robertson, Hon. Fellow (Two 
riates and Three Illustrations), 

Oi ft Fortified Stone Lake-Dwelling on an 
IdttA in Longh Cullen, County Kayo. By 
Edgar L. Layard, c.m.o. (One Plate), . 

9i ?atriok's Croeseo." By Dr. William 
i 2ER, M.R.I.A., Fellow, Hon. F.S.A. 
(! U) (FiTC Illustrations), • . • 


The Cryptie Eloment alleged to exist in 
Ogham Inieriptions. By K. A. Stewart 
Macalister, M.A., 

The Irish Channel and Dnblin in 17M. Ex- 
tracts from the Diary of William Bulkcly, 
of Bryndda, near Amlwch, Anglesey, a 
Grand Juror of that County. Communi- 
cated by H. A. COSORAVE, M.A., 








fmon of Dnrrow. By the Rev. SiiCR- 
• DE CouRCY Williams, m.A. (Three 
s and One Illustration), 




Xiseellanea — Report on the Photographic 
Survey Collection — ^Tobemahalthora, near 
Louisburg— Kilelton in Glenfas— Tihilly, 
Parish of Durrow, King's County (One 
Illustration)— Dun Aenghus, Aran— Rath- 
michael — Earthwork Fort or Rath in 
County Longford — Monasterboice Cross — 
The Cross of Monasterboice— Monaster- 
boice Great Cross, 61 

Votiees of Books, 



The Annnal General Xeeting, Dnblin, 17th 
January. 1899, 

Eyening Xeetings, 









The Extra Volume for 1893-95, " The Annals of Clon- 
macnolse/' being Annals of Ireland from the Earliest 
Period to a.d. 1408. Translated into English, a.d. 1627, 
by Conell Mageoghagan, and now for the first time printed. 
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the late Rev. 
Denis Murphy, S.J., LL.D., M.R.I.A., Vice-President. 
Price 16/—. To be had by Members from Messrs. Hodges, 
Figgis, & Co., Grafton-street, Dublin, at the reduced 
price of 10/—. 

The Extra Volume for 1896-97, " The Register of 
Wills and Inventories of the Diocese of Dublin in the 
time of Archbishops Tregury and Walton, 1457-1483," 
from the Original Manuscript in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Two Plates and three Illustrations. 
Edited, with Translation, Notes, and Introduction, by 
Henry F. Berry, M.A., T.C.D., Barrister-at-Law. Price 
15/—. To be had by Members from Messrs. Hodges, 
Figgis, & Co., Grafton-street, Dublin, at the reduced 
price of 10/—. 

JUST PU BUSH ED, with Numerous Illustrations, Price 5/-, post free. 











(Lord LkutrnanI and Cuslui Kotulonim of Co. KuHmnman.) 

Pieiidsnt of tlu.- Knjul Sorirly of Anlfquarici of Ireland, iK.^;-i»04- 





Hin WMpi Sistotiial aidi acc^sological 3««iciiition 

rotmsiDi IN 1M9, it 

Site Siltenng 9rctEEotogical Sotlttg 





roB THE eociEir 








R 1901 L. 

The Council wish it to be distinotly understood that they do 
not hold themselves responsible for the statements and opinions 
contained in the Papers read at the Meetings of the Society, 
and here printed, except as far as No. 26 of the General Bules 
of the Society extends. 


THE Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society 
of Antiquaries of Ireland now placed in the hands 
of the Fellows and Members, form the Ninth Volume 
of the Fifth Series of The Journal (Volume Twenty- 
nine of the Consecutive Series). It will be found equal 
to any of the previous Volumes as regards the interest- 
ing variety of its contents, and the importance of the 
subjects discussed. 

The principal feature of the Volume is, no doubt, 
the full account of the places visited by the Society 
in the Islands off the West Coast of Scotland, the 
Orkneys and Caithness, in the month of June, 1899 ; 
this forms a valuable and instructive chapter for the 
Irish Student in Comparative Archaeology. 

Of the five Celtic nationalities, the Society has still 
to visit Brittany and the Isle of Man to complete the 
Series, and by so doing, place on record the distinctive 
characteristics of the existing Antiquarian remains still 
to be seen in these countries. 

In the Prehistoric Section, 'Mr. Lynch, Mr. Westropp, 

and Col. Edgar Layard contribute careful Papers on 

Caherconree, Co. Kerry, the Dolmens and Stone Forts 

of the Burren, Co. Clare, and the Stone Lake Dwellings 



on Lough Cullen, Co. Mayo. The interest in Ogamic 
literature is well sustained by the valuable Paper of 
Professor Rhys, giving the results of a careful exami- 
nation and reading of the stones forming the Drum- 
loghan Cave. Mr. Macalister also contributes Notes on 
the disputed point of there being a Cryptic element in 
these inscriptions. 

Of early ecclesiastical foundations, the short Paper 
on Kilmakilloge, Co. Kerry, by Miss Hickson, and the 
exhaustive notice of the Termon of Durrow, by the 
Rev. De Courcy Williams, show much careful study. 
Mr. Drew's Note on the Surroundings of St. Patrick de 
Insula, and the account of Grey Abbey, Co. Down, by 
Mr. Phillips, deal with later periods of the subject. 

The Round Towers of Armoy and Drumbo are 
described and illustrated, and the first part of a valuable 
Paper, by Dr. Macnamara, on the Cross of Dysert O'Dea 
has been published. Lord Walter Fitz Gerald gives an 
interesting account of a small Holed Cross at Moone, 
abounding in symbols of a possibly pre-Christian period. 

In Folklore the notes from the Rennes copy of the 
Dindsenchas will be found of interest to the students of 
this subject; and Mr. Ball's Papers on the Residents of 
Monkstown, as well as the two short Papers by the late 
Rev. Dr. Stokes on ^^Swiftiana" and Moira House, afford 
interesting studies of social life in recent times. 

In Ecclesiology Mr, Buckley contributes some 
notes of mudi interest, and Mr. Robertson describes 
the Archer Chalice. 

Sir Thomas Grattan Esmonde writes about the 


antiquities in his own immediate neighbourhood, and 
his contribution shows what a busy man can do for 
Archaaology when imbued with a desire to assist. 

Amongst the Fellows and Members lost to the 
Society by death, during the past year, must be men- 
tioned the following contributors to our Journal: — 

The Right Rev. Charles Graves, Bishop of Limerick, 
Ardfert, and Aghadoe, was bom in Dublin the 6th of 
November, 1812. He was the youngest son of J. Crosbie 
Graves, Esq. Entering Trinity College in 1829, he 
obtained Scholarship in 1832, and graduated in 1835. 
He took the M.A. in 1838, and D.D. in 1861. In 1836 
he was elected a Fellow of Trinity College, and was 
co-opted a Senior Fellow in 1862. From 1843 to 1862 
he held the Professorship of Mathematics. He was 
Dean of the Chapel Royal from 1860 to 1866; Dean of 
Gonfert from 1864 to 1866. In 1866 he was consecrated 
Bishop of the United Dioceses of Limerick, Ardfert, 
and Aghadoe. He departed this life in Dublin, 
July, 1899. Elected a Member of the Royal Irish 
Academy in 1837, he was Secretary to its Council 
in 1848 ; Secretary to the Academy in 1856 ; and 
was President in 186L He became a Member of the 
Kilkenny Archaeological Society in 1850, the year after 
it was founded, held the office of Vice-President, and 
was a Fellow of our Society at the time of his death. 
Distinguished as a Mathematician, his first contributions 
to the Proceedings of the Academy were on Mathematical 
subjects, but he read a Paper on the Age of the "Book 
of Armagh" in 1846, and he commenced what proved a 



long series of Communications^ to its Transactions and 
Proceedings on Ogam characters in 1847. His first 
Paper in our Journal appears in Volume I., on p. 305, 
"On the Age of Ogam Writing," and he was an 
occasional contributor until 1890. 

William Frazer, who died 16th of April of the 
pre&ent year, was born in 1824, he was the son of a 
Dublin merchant descended from a Scottish family. 
In 1848 he became a Licentiate of the Royal College of 
Surgeons, Ireland, and in 1872 was elected a Fellow. 
He also acted as one of its Examiners, and was a 
Member of Council. He was elected a Member of the 
Royal Irish Academy in 1866; a Member of Council in 
1881 ; and, at the time of his death, he held the office 
of Librarian. 

His connexion with the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland commenced in 1887, when he was elected a 
Member ; he became a Fellow in 1892, and a Vice- 
President in 1895. The Society of Antiquaries of 
Scotland elected him an Honorary Fellow in succession 
to the late Bishop Reeves. 

As an antiquarian writer, Dr. Frazer was prolific 
and versatile ; his contributions to the Proceedings 
of the Royal Irish Academy number thirty, and his 
contributions to the Journal of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries number twenty-four, extending over the 
period from 1890 to the time of his death. 

Miss Hickson, whose demise occurred early in the 
present year, was one of the Local Secretaries for her 
native County of Kerry. She became a Member of 


this Society in 1879, and continued a contributor from 
that year to the tinie of her death. 

Her first Paper was on the " Fitzgibbon Pedigree/' 
which appeared in Vol. XIV. (Consecutive Series), and 
in the following volume a note on ** Castle Ishen '^ 
appeared, followed by ** Notes on Kerry Topography, 
Ancient and Modern," which commenced in Vol. XV., 
and ran through the Vols. XVI., XVII., XVIII., and 
XIX. Further communications from her pen relating 
to that County appeared in each succeeding Volume, 
and her last contribution was a Paper on ^'Kilmakilloge, 
in the County of Kerry." It appears in the Journal for 
the present year, and was published after her death. 

30th December, 1899. 






A further' Note on the SurroundingB of Baint Patrick's De Iniula, Dublin. 
Restoration of the North Cloee, 1899. The Possibility of Recovery of the 
Ancient Well of Saint Patrick. By Thomas Drew, R.H.A., Viet. President 
(Two lUustntions), . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 

Caherconree, County Kerry. By P. J. Lynch, Fallow, Hon. Provincial Secretary , 

Muneter (Two Plates and Two Dlustrations), , . . • . . 5 

Kilmakilloge, County Kerry. By Miss Hickson, Hon. Local Secretary, Kerry, 18 

Notes and Folklore from the Renncs Copy of the ** Dindsenchas.*' By T. J. 

Westropp, M.A., M.R.I.A., lJ;^tr, .. ,• ..21 

Kotes referring to the Archer Chalice. By James 6. Robertson, Hon. Fellow 

(Two Plates and Three Illustrations), . . . . . • 28 

On a Fortified Stone Lake-Dwelling on an Island in Lough Cullen, County 

Mayo. By Edgar L. Layard, O.M.G. (One Plate), .. .. ..32 

On " Patrick's Crosses." By Dr. William Frazer, M.R.I.A., Fellow, Hon. 

F.S.A. (Scot.) (Fire Illustrations), .. .. .. .. ..35 

The Termon of 'Durrow. By the Rev. Sterling de Courcy Williams, M.A. 

(Three Plates and One Illustration), . . . . . . . • 44 

The Cryptic Element alleged to exist in Ogham Inscriptions. By R. A. Stewart 

Macaliater, M.A., . • . . . • • • 52 

The Irish Channel and Dublin in 1736. Extracts from the Diary of William 
Bulkely, of Bryndda, near Amlwch, Anglesey, a Grand Juror of that 
County. Communicated by H. A. Cosgiave, M.A., .. .. .. 56 

Miscellanea — Report on the Photographic Survey Collection — Tobernahaltliora, 
near Louisberg — Kilelton in Glenfas — Tihilly, Parish of Durrow, King's 
County (One Illustration) — Dun Aenghus, Aran — Rathmichael — Earth- 
work Fort or Rath in County Longford — Monasterboice Cross — The C)x>98 
of Monasterboice — Monasterboioe Great Cross, . . . . 61 

Notices of Books, . . , . . . . . . . . . 72 


Annual General Meeting, Dublin, 17th January, 1899, .. .. .. 80 

Evsoing Meetings, . . . • . . 88 





Descriptive Sketch of Clondalkin, Tallaght, and other places in West County 

Duhlin. By F. Elrington Ball, M.R.I.A., FeUow (Four Illustrations), . . 93 

The Mace of the Ancient Corporation of Athenry, County Gal way. By W. F. 

Wakeman, San. Fellow (One Illustration), . . • . . . . . 109 

Swiftiana. By the late Rer. G. T. Stokes, B.D., M.R.I.A. (One Illustratioa), HI 

Moira HouBe. By the late Rev. G. T. Stokes, D.D., M.R.I.A. (One Illustra- 

tion), •• •• •• ., .. ,, •• ..113 

The Monuments of Clonmacnoise. By R. A. Stewart Macalister, M.A., . . 116 

Miscellanea — Annoy Round Tower, Co. Antrim (Four Illustrations) — The 
Gallan near Saggart— Chess in Ireland — Tohernahalthora and Tobergrania 
— Photographic Survey, .. .. .. .. .. ..121 


Second General Meeting, Dublin, 12th April, 1899, . . . . . . 129 

Evening Meeting, 12th April, 1899, 

• • 

Scottish ArchsBological Tour of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland 
conjimction with the Cambrian Arcbseological Association, 

Bibliography of the Western Islands of Scotland, . . •• 

Introductory (Three Illustrations), .. .. 

Section I. Sanda and Eildalton (Eight Illustrations), .. •• 

,, II. Oroneay, lona, and Tiree (Twenty-one Illustrations), 
,, III. Canna, Dun vegan, and Rodil (Twenty Illustrations), .. 

• 133 


. 134 

. 144 

. 147 

. 151 

. 161 

. 198 

PAirr III. 

The Tennon of Durio-^e. By the Rev. Sterling de Courcy Williams, M.A. 

(One Illustration), .. .. .. .. ' .. .. 219 

Some Residents of Monkstown in the Eighteenth Century. By Francis 

Elrington Ball, M.R.I.A., J>//oM7, .. .. .. .. ..233 


The Ancient Stone Croaaee of Ui-Feurmaic» County Clare (Part I.}. By 
Dr. George If. Macnamara, Mon, Local Seeretaty for North Clare 
(K|^t lUnstraUona), .. "., 244 

Misoellanea— Bronze Caldron at M ilkernagh Bog, near Granard, Co. Longford 
(Two Illiutrations) — Holy Well and Antiquitiea near Cabir, Co. Tipperary 
(One niuatration)— <' Chief Benti belonging to the * Earie* of Kildare in 
the Manor of Adare *'~A Cashel on Sliabh na Caillighe (One lUuatration) 
—Note on Sliabh na Caillighe (Fire Illustrations)—" Chief Bent " a Boee 
— Suidhe Mochuda Ogam Inscription, . . . . . • 256 

Noticee of Books, .. ., ., .. .. ,. 268 


Scottish ArchsBological Tour of the Boyal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland in 
conjunction with the Cambrian Archaeological Association— Sections I V.~ 
VII. (Thirty-nine Illustrations) ; Supplementary, Parts I. and II. (Thirty- 
eight Illustrations), .. .. .. «. .. 266-360 

■ • • • ■ 

Third General Meeting, Belfast, 16tb August, 1899, . . . . . . 361 

£zcurrion8 — The ''Giant's Bing'' (Four Illustrations) — Drumbo Bound 
Tower, Co. Down (Three Illustrations) — Grey Abbey (Four IllustrationB) 
Armagh, Newgrange, Dowth, &c., .. .. 363-366 



Prehistoric Bemains in the Burren, County Clare. (Part II.— Kilcomey and 
the Eastern Valleys.) By T. J. Westropp, M.A., M.B.I.A., Fellow 
(Fourteen Illustrations), .. .. .. •• •• •• 867 

On a Holed Cross at Moone. By Lord Walter Fits Gerald, M.B.I.A. (Four 

illustrations), .... ... . . . • . . . . • > 386 

The Driunloghan Ogams. By Principal Bhys, LL.D., Kon, Fellow, . . 390 

Notes on Crannog and other Finds in North County Wexford. By Sir Thomas 

H. GrattanEsmonde, Bart., M.P. (Four Illustrations), .. .. 404 

The Minutes of the Presbytery of Laggan. By the Bev. William T. Latimer, 

B« A*, FtUoWf •• •• .. •• •• •• •• 407 

Gold Plates and Discs found near Cloyne, County Cork. By Bobert Day, 

J.P., F.S.A., Fellow (Three Illustrations), . . . . ..418 



The De Yerdons of Louth. By W. H. Grattan Flood, 

Notes Ecdesiological. By H. J. G. BiMkley, . • . . . . • • 

MiflceUanea — ^The Freseryation and Custody of Local Becords — Congress of the 
Boyal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland — Clonfert 
Cathedral — The Cairan Ogam Stone — Throwing-stones or Hammer-stones (P) 
(Two Illustrations) — Commonplace Book relating to Ireland — Ballynilard 
Cross— Tomhstone in Ardfert Friary — Blackstairs or Knock Branduff (?) — 
Barry 0' M eara, •• .. •• .. •• •• •• 

Notices of Books, . . . . . . . • • . . . . • 






Fourth General Meeting, Duhlin, 10th Oetoher, 1899, 
Evening Meeting, 31st Oetoher, 1899, . . • • 

„ „ 28th Novemher, 1899, 

Corrigenda, • . • . . • . . . . 

Index to Volume iz., 6th Series, . . . • 



The Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, 




Hon. Gen. Secretary, 

Hon. Gen. Treasurer, 

Council for 1899, 

Hon. Curators, 

Bankers, . , 

Hon. Prov. Sectetaries, " 

Hon. Local Secretaries, 

Fellows of the Society, 

Hon. Fellows of the Society, 

Memhers of the Society, 

Societies in Connection, 

Genersl Rules of the Society, 


















An atterUk prefixed indicmtee a PUte. 


* Portrait of The Bight Hon. O'Conor Don, Ptendent {FroniitpieM). 


St. Patrick's Cathedral (Helton's Views, 1793), Soatli-East and West 

oiQee, •• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• »f V 

•Oahirconree, Co. Kerry, View of Wall, and General Yiew from the North- 
east, .. •• •• to face 10 

Plans of Fort and Bampart, and Eleration of Ram* 
part, •• •• .. •• IS 

Sections of Rampart, . . . . 14 

Remains of Entrance and Outside of Wall, to face 16 
The Archer Chalice (1606), .. .. .. .. ..2a 

*Rothe House, Kilkenny, Well in Courtyard, . . to foes 30 

* ,, „ Front View in 1898, and Monograms of the Archers, 

to face 31 
*Lough Cnllen, Co Mayo, Stone Lake -Dwelling (Three Views), 
The Ornament on Upper Panel of the Shrine *' Corp Naomh," 


Sculptured Stone at Meigle, and Figure from St. Manchan 
Circular Plates of Gold in the R.I.A. Collection, 
*fiook of Durrow, Page of Interlaced Ornament, 
• ,, „ First Page of St. Mark's Gospel, - 
^Portion of llie Crozier of Durrow, 
Seal of the Monastery of Durrow, 

8 Shrine, 

to face 


.. 37 

.. 38 


to face 44 

to face 46 

to face 60 

.. 61 


Diinmag^ Castle, Ca Duhlin (from Courtyard), 

Tallaght, St. Maelruain's '*Lo8set," Co. Dubliu, 
,, Chimney-piece, Old Bawn, .. 

Bwthfft"*'***™ Caatle, Co. Dublin, . . 

Mace of the Ancient Corporation of Athenry, 

Autograph of Dean Swift, 

Moira House, City of Dublin, . . 

Armoy Bound Tower, Co. Antrim, . • 


EleyatioD, Section, and Plan, 

Plan and Elevation of Doorway, 













Diagram Map of Voyage along West Coast of Scotland, 
The Steamahip << Magic,*' 

St. Columba'B Pillar-atone, lona Gathedxal, Scotland, 
Map of Sanda Island, • • . . 

Sanda Island Cross, . . 
„ „ Cross and Window of St. Ninian's Church, 
„ ,, Ground-plan „ „ 

Islay, Map of South-eastern portion, 

,, Kildalton Cross, East and West Faces, 
Colonsay and Oronsay, Map, . . . . 

Oronsay Priory, Plan, 

,, ,, East Window and Gable, 

,, M Cloister Court, .. .. 

High Cross, West Face, and East Face, 
Second Cross, . . . . 

„ Priory, Tombstone in Chancel, 
lona, the Nunnery — Plan, 

,, ,, View from North-west, 

St. Gran's Chapel, Plan, 
,, ,, „ West Doorway, 
,, ,, ,, West End, . . 

,, ,, ,, Monument, .. 

Cathedral, Plan, .. .. .. 

„ ' from the West, and the Chancel, 
St. Martin's Cross, 
Tiree and Coll, Map, . . . . 

,, Soroby Cross, West Face, 
,, KirkapoU, Grave Slab, 
„ „ Doorway, 

Canna, Map, 
,, High Cross, East Face and Side, 
„ Cross and Fragments of CaiTing, . . 

Dunvegan Castle, 

,, ,, in Fourteenth Century. In 1790, 

„ „ Plan, 

„ „ Sea-gate, 

Dunvegan Loch, Map, 

,, Drinking-horn, 
Lewi8 and Harris, Map, 
Rodil, St. Clement's Church, 

,, Becessed Tomb of Macleod of Dunvegan^ 1528, and Effigy, 

f ) 

















































Map of the Tei-mon of Durrow, 

St. Tola's Cross, Dysert O'Dea, Co. Clare, North Side of Base, 

, , South and West Sides of Base, 

„ North Side of Base, 

„ East Face and Panels, . . 

,, North and South Sides of Shaft,. 

„ West Face of Shaft, .. 

„ West Side of Head, 





Bronze Caldron from Milkernagh, Co. Longford, 

. . 252 
. . 253 
256, 257 



• • 



f * 

Holy Well, Tobftr-Iosa, near Cahir, 

Flan of BaUinyalley Caahel, Slieve na Ciullighe, 

Carved Stones in Cairns, „ „ 

St. Flannan's Cbapel, Eilean Mdr, Scotland, 

Plan of the Bothies of MacphailPs Sons, Eilean M6r, Scotland, 

Cftllemish, Hebrides, Bird's-eye View of Great Circle and Ayenue, 

,, ,, Second Circle, Plan, 

Broch of Dun Carloway, Hebrides (East Side), . . 

„ (West Side), .. 
Teampull Bona, North Bona, Plan of Oratory, . . 

„ „ f» ») West End Interior Elevation, 

„ „ »i >t Cross at West End, 

Maeahowe Tumulus, Orkneys, Plan and Section, 

„ „ „ Interior and Plan of Chamber and Passage, 

Stennis, Orkneys, Bing (from West), . . 
,, ,, Cromlech (from North), 

firogar, Orkneys, Great Circle (from South-west). 
„ „ Great Circle and Watch-stone, 

Haeshowe. Inscriptions in Kunes, and Carving of Dragon 
Map of Orkney Islands, . . . . . • 

Kirkwall, Orkneys, St. Magnus Cathedral, Plan, 

,, Interior, Cboir and Nave, 

North Transept and Choir, 
Doorway, South Transept, 
Exterior (from South-east), 
Egilsay Church and Bound Tower, Plan and View (from South-east), 
Keiss, Caithness, the Shore Broch (Interior), 

the Boad Broch (Older Foundations and Interior), 
„ ,, (Interior and Entrance to Chambers), 

Eilean M6r, Sound of Jura, St. Carmfdg*s Church, Plan, East End, 

Interior, • » . . . • • . 

Oigha, Kilchattan Church, East End, Window, and Cross, 

•, Island, Map, . • , . • 

Kfldalton, Islay, Church and Smaller Cross (from North-east), 

Smaller Cross (West Face), 
Interior, .. •• •• 

Effigy in South Wall, • . 
Oronsay Priory, Window and Side Chapel, . . • • 

„ ,, Exterior (from East), .. 

looa Cathedral (from South-east), ., 

„ „ Doorway in North Wall of Choir, . . 

KirkapoU Church and Crofter's Cottage, Tiree, . . 
Dunvegan Castle, Skye, 

Cup (Two Faces), 
Cup (Perspective View), 
Rodil Church, Hanis, Tower (from Soutfi-west), . , 

„ „ ,, Windows and Figures, 

Eilean M6r, Flannan's Isles, Oratory and Cell, . • 

„ „ „ ..„ Silhouette, . 

CaUemish Great Circle and Third Circle, 
Sec9i;Ld Circle (from West), . . 
Crofter's Cottage, . . 

• • 













260, 261 


















288, 289 






298, 299 

.. 300 



306, 306 















326, 327 

328, 329 

.. 329 

330, 331 

., 330 

.. 331 



Galleniish Second Circle, Plan, 

,, Third „ ,, .. ,, 

Eiloan M6r, Flannan Isles, Cell and Oratory, Plans, 

Dun Carloway and Crofter's Cottage ; SouUiem Hill, Nortli Rona, 

North Rona, Temple Rona, South-west View, 

,, ,, ,» ,, iSllSt, • • • • • • 

,, ,, Cell on Island, . . . . . . . . 

Haeshove Tumulus, 

Keiss, Caithness, Castle from the Seashore, 
,, „ Querns, &c., from Brochs, now at Keith Castle, 

Eilean M6r, Sound of Jura, Cross, . . . . . . 

St. Carmaig's Church, 











Head of Cross, 

Gigha Island, Eilchattan (North-east View), 

,9 »» i» Ogam Pillar, 

« Giant's Ring" Cromlech and Plan, . . 
Lagan (View on), 
** Giant's Ring " Cromlech, . . 
Drumbo Round Tower, View and Doorway, 

it ft tt • • • • 

Grey Abbey, Co. Down, 

"West Door, 
Choir Arch, 
General View, .. 






.. 332 

.. 333 

.. 332 

.. 335 

.. 336 

.. 387 

.. 389 

.. 840 

.. 341 

.. 343 

.. 344 

.. 345 

.. 346 

.. 347 

353, 354 

.. 355 

357, 358 

.. 359 

.. 361 

.. 362 

.. 363 

.. 364 


Prehistoric Remains in the Burren, Co. Clare : 

Baur — South, Plan and Elevation of Cromlech, . . . . 369 

Lisananima Fort, the Gateway, . . . . . . . . 371 

Cragballyconoal, Plans of the Cromlechs, . . . . . . . . 372 

Poulaphuca Cromlech (from North-west), Plan, and Elevation, . . 374 

Caherconnell Fort, Plan, .. .. .. .. 376 

Poulnabrone Cromlech, Plan ; Cahercashlaun, Plans, .. 376 

Cahercashlaun Cliif Fort (from the North), .. ..377 

Poulnabrone Cromlech (from the East), . . . . . . . . 378 

.Caheranardurrish Fort, Gateway, .. .. .. .. 379 

CoolnatuUagh Cromlech (from North-east) and Plan, . . 382 

Holed Cross at Moone : 

Sketches of Two Faces of Cross, . . . . . . 385-388 

Fragments of Cross, . . . . . . 386, 387 

Crannog and other Finds in North County Wexford : 

Bullan Stones at Eillanerin and Ballynastragh, . . 404 

Quern Stone from Clonsillagh Crannog, . . . . . . 406 

Golden Plate found near Castlemartyr, Cork, .. 414 

,, Discs (two), .. .. .. .. .. 416 

Throwing- stones or Hammer-stones, . • . . . . 428 

*Comacine Panel of Interlaced Work of Sixth Century, from the Church of 

San Clemente, Rome, .. •• •• •• •• to face 434 

*Comacine Knot, Church of S. Ambrogio, Milan, and Sculpture from Sant' 

Abbondio, Como, .. .. .. •• to face 436 

*Churoh and Round Tower of S. Apollinare in Classe, Ravenna, . . to face 436 





I* I, I I ,^ 



Bt THOMAS DEEW, E.H.A., Vicb-Prbmdewt. 

[Read Fsbbuabt 28, 1899.] 

^^HE whole of the lands known as the Liberty of St. Sepulchre, near 
Dublin, were, in 1190, possessed by the Archbishop of Dublin, and 
on them was the church of St. Patrick de Insula. 

John Comyn, Archbishop of Dublin, 1190-1, defined the limits of the 
precinct, verge or c$meterium of the church, and applotted "eight areas 
surroundiug the cemeterium for building canons' houses" (vide charters). 

The boundaries of the respective plots have been strictly maintained 
for seven centuries. They are still definable on the south, cnst, and 
west sides of the Cathedral in existing leaseholds, and were so on the 
north side until 1890. 

The Liberty of St. Patrick's, as created by Comyn, was walled and 
fortified, and dignitaries' houses were built. They were, however, nut 
maintained. As related by Stanihurst (about 1570) the unfortunate 
dignitaries, ''being so daily and hourly preid and molested by their prowl- 
ing mountain neighbours, were forced to suffer their buildings to full 
into decay, and embayed themselves within the city walls." 

The Act 17 & 18 Charles II., cap. 14, for abating the nuisance and 

JOUU. K. F.A.I. , VOL. IX., YT. X., 5tH 8BR. B 



nDsaiuUry candition, and " beaatifying " tlie pieces ot ground aurroand- 
ing the Cathedral, deBoribe them in the preamble as " in a maimer lying 
wa«t«." PortionB appear to have been sublet hy some of the dignitariea 
at low rents, and to have shared in the sordid, unregulated, aadoflensive 
condition of funeral neglect of the Cathedral precincts. 

St. I'Ancci'a Catiiehual. 
(Mallcm'* View. 179}-) 

In 1661 the Bean and Chapter, for sanitary considerations, ordained 
that the portion of the cemetery on tlie north side, appurtenant to the 
Cathedral under Oomyn's foundation, should he paved. It still remained 
the property of the Cathedral Corporation within their esempt jurisdic- 
tion of the Liberty of St. Patrick's, and would appear not to have become 
dedicated as a public thoroughfare until the removal of the remaiDs of 
St, Patrick's Gate, at the west end, with certain houses that stood thereat 
on the " Ot'conomy " plot, by the ^'ide Street Commissioners in 1824. 

The exempt jurisdiction and property of the Dean and Chapter in the 
street traversing the ancient cemetery, and known to us« St. Patrick's 
Close, did not lapse until comparatively few years ago, and lias tor that 
interval vested in the Corporation of Dublin. 

It is now sought, under a Bill promoted last session in Parliament by 
Lords Ardilaun and Iveagh, and James Talbot Power, Esq., to establish 
an open park or city garden on the north side of the Cathedral. It is 


proposed by it, inter alia, to reatore to the Cathedial its verge asdgned 
by its founder, Archbialiop Comyn, in 1190, held by it for aDCceuive 
centuries and eMential as a. foreground to the dignity of thii ancient and 
stately charch, vhich has been rescued, maintained and restored to the 
citiiens of Dublin in the past thirty years by private nmniflcence. 

Wmmi Filont op Br. Patsick'i Catiudilii., 
(Uallon'i View, i;m.) 

The veritable ancient well of St. Patrick, where baptisms were 
traditionally said to have been periformed by the Saint himself, was, on 
the authority of Archbishop Uaaher who saw it in his time, enclosed in 
houses standing on the north Close. 

" In patriciante ecclesiie clauBtro, non procul a Campanili, ilium 

patricij. fontem vidimus (intra privates tedes inclusum nuper- 

rime et obstructum) ad quern. Dublinienses ucophytos ab eo 

foisee baptizatos, juxta ciyitatem ad Austnun, ex Jocilino jam 

audivimns," Britt. Ecol. Antiq. folio 449. — Ma»on's Siitor]/. 

Antiquaries of reverent instinct, and eccle Biologists are hereby warned 

of a coming chance of recovery of this famous and sacrosanct well, on the 

restoration of the ground sometime desecrated as a public street, " non 

procul a campanili," and within the area of the houses marked on my 

map as in possesMon of Henry Hunt, or Rotton, in 1750, removed by 

the Wide Streets Coinmiseion in 1624. 



Bearing in mind that the inevitable accuraalation process in citj 
bounds has in seven centuries raised the surface of the ground 6 feet, 
and perhaps more, above the ancient ground level, a hope may he enter- 
tained' by the pious that the well of St. Patrick is not lost for ever. It 
was seen by TJssher in Queen Elizabeth's day, and Malton, writing in 
1790, took upon himself to say that it was still to be found under the 
hall of the house nearest depicted in his view of the west end of St. 
Patrick's — that it may be but covered up, and may be brought again to 
light, is not impossible. 

'*The well is mentioned by Andowe, who was Proctor of the 
Oeconomy in 1509. He describes the House of the Preb. of Howth 
as situated ' Juxta fontem Sancti Patricii.' A MS. of Dr. John Lyon 
mentions it as in the outer court of the Archdeacon of 61endaloch*s 
cloister*' (Mason). 

TJssher's reference would have been about 1590. It was then " very 
lately enclosed in private houses and obstructed." Dr. John Lyon 
(compiler of the "Novum Registrum of Christchurch ") and Malton 
would bring the latest memory of St. Patrick's well to the beginning of 
the century. The forecourt, or enclosure, of the Archdeacon of Glenda- 
loch's ground, could be still defined from accurate maps ; not so the 
House of the Prebendary of Howth, which is not existent in the 
Cathedral Survey of 1750. It may be added that the so-called well 
of St. Patrick, shown in the south transept, is no well, and but a small 
collection of surface water in a hollow, not seven inches deep ; nor has 
it any pretensions to antiquity or sanctity. It must of necessity be 
drainage from adjoining vaults, in which are recorded many interments- 
of the Loftus families and others. 


( s ) c.^-^ 



By p. J. LTKCH, Fellow, Hun. Fuotikcial SECRiTAHr, Muictm. 

[Submitted Noyembbb 29, 1898.] 

npHEBS are few places is Kerry of greater historical interest than Caher- 
conree, tlie fort- of Curoi Mac Daire, Xing of West Munster, who 
reigned ut the time of the Incarnation. It gives Die name to the highest 
western peak of the Sliere Mis range of mountains, 2713 feet high. 
The fort is situated on a spur of the mountain at an elevation of 
2050 feet as registered hy two aneroids. It is shown on the joining of 
Ordnance sheets 37 and 46, co. Kerry. For a long time I have desired to 
visit this fort, but the variety of conditions necessary, that is the time, op- 
portunity, and, most essential of all, suitable weather, formed a combination 
most difficult to secure. However, last July, after one disappointment — 
Heavy driving mists having set in on my arrival at the foot of the moun- 
tain—a second attempt was made under most favourable circumstances. 
I was accompanied by two members of our Society, Dr. William Fogerty, 
and his brothers Mr. Robert Fogerty, c.e., and Surgeon Goo. Fogerty, u.v. : 
the latter kindly volunteered his services as photographer, and all rendered 
valuable assistance in preparing the record of our visit. I cannot omit 
also to acknowledge the kindness of Lord Yen try's steward, Mr. Hender- 
son, who accompanied us, and from his knowledge of the mountain helped 
us considerably. 

There are two ways of approach from the northern side of the range, 
either by the Glen of Derrymore, which is wild and picturesque, or from 
the village of Camp by the valley of the Finglas river called Glen Fas, 
This is the easier way to ascend, as from the end of the glen there is a 
gradual rise following the course of the Finglas stream for about half-way 
up the mountain ; the remainder of the distance is steeper and more 
difficult to climb. 

History* records that, ut the base of Caherconree, was the meeting 
of the Milesians, after landing in the Kenmare river, with the Tuatha- 
Be-Danann, and here, after their return from Tarn, was fought theii* 
first battle in which the Milesian Queen Scota was killed. A large flat 
rock at the eastern end of the Slieve Mis range, near Tralee, is known as 

^ I have adopted the spelling of the Ordnance map for convenience of reference, 
though it is in many cases not the most correct. Smith writes Caherconrigh, 0' Curry 
liss it Cathair Chonroi or Conrai, 0' Donovan Cathair Conrui — Con is the genitive of 
Cfi, hound, or hero. In the nominative it is C(k lioi, genitive Con Boi. 

'Keating's " History of Ireland.'* 


Scota's grave. Here, too, fell the Milesian princess Fas. Local tra- 
dition asserts that she is buried where the ruined oratory of Kilelton' 
now stands, a little eastward of Glen Fas. 

The fort figures prominently in the nncient history of Ireland. In 
the Irish triads it is ranked as one of the three old buildings of Ireland, 
with Dunseverick in Antrim, and Dun Cearmna on the old Head of Kin- 
sale. In G'Donovon's translation of the twelfth century MSS., ** The 
Battle of Magh Rath " (Moira) — said to have been fought a.d. 637 — 
after recounting several of the battles of the TJltonians, the bard con- 
tinues : — 

*' Seven battles around Cathnir Conrui, 
The plundering of Fiamuin, son of Fonii, 
'I'he plundering of Curoi — lasting the renown, 
With the seventeen sons of Deaghaidh.*' 

In the Leabhar na h- Utdhre, a MS. which O'Curry ascribes to about the 
eleventh century, mention is made of Cathair Conroi in connexion with 
the dispute as to who was entitled to the champion's share at the feasts 
of the Red Branch knights at Emuin Macha, which was to be decided ut 
the fort of Curoi Mac Daire, The deeds of daring performed by the three 
knights, Laeghoire Buadhach, Conall Cearnach, and notably Cuchtrlainny 
the great Ultonian hero, outside the rampoi-t of Caherconree on that 
occasion, as told by this a,ncient chronicler, are fully translated by O'Curry ,* 
and form one of the wildest and most fanciful of our Celtic sagas. 

After this comes the old story Orgain Cathrach Chonrai (or the 
slaughter of Cathair Conroi), which was one of the great stories which the 
Ollamh was bound to relate before the king. In it we are told how 
Blanaid, the wife of Curoi — a princess from the Isle of Man — who had 
been carried away as a prize in a successful assault on her father's strong- 
hold, led by Mac Daire, arranged the plot by which her lover, the knight 
Cuchulainn, was to effect an entrance to the fort, the signal being that 
she was to pour milk into the stream, which rises about 200 yards below, 
until it ran white. At the given signal Cuchulainn and his men entered 
the fort, and murdered Curoi Mac Daire, who is said to be buried on 
Caherconree.' The faithless Blanaid fed to Ulster with her Ultoniun 
lover, and the stream is known as the Finnghlas, or white stream, ever 
since. These romantic tales connected with the legendary history of Ire- 
land, as they are related by Keating, or translated from ancient MSS. by 
0' Curry, lend an additional interest to Caherconree ; but as the purpose 
of this paper is more with the fortress itself than the legends connected 
with it, I must I'efer those who are not fully acquainted with them to the 

1 See *• Kilelton in Glenfas,*' by Mifs M. Hickson, Jom^al^ Ji.iS.A,!., 6th Ser., vol. 
viii. (1898), p. 309. Mr. Borlase, in hia valuable Moik, *' The Dolmens of Ireland," 
note, pp. 840-841, states there is no ruined church near Glen Fas, though Wiiidele 
refers to a visit to this oratory on his way to Cuherconree. 

'* O'Curry's '* Manners and Customs of the Ancient Irish," vol. iii., p. 75. 

» 0*Donovan*s ** Battle of Magh Rath," p. 212. 


pages of those writers.^ I know there are some modem scholars of 
eminence who seek to roh us of the reality of those heroes, whose deeds 
have heen glorified hj oar ancient bards, and to locate them amid the 
gods of a new mythology. The turgidity of the style of our ancient 
poets in recounting the deeds of their heroes at the dawn of history 
tends to elevate them above the sphere of ordinary mortals, and in time 
confounds them with the supernatural, and, no doubt, induces scepticism; 
still, for the present I prefer to believe with Mr. Standish O'Grady* that 
"Cuculain and his friends are historical characters, seen as it were 
through mists of love and wonder, whom men could not forget, but 
for centuries continued to celebrate in countless songs and stories; they 
are not literary phantoms, but actual existences; imaginary or fictitious 
characters, mere creatures of idle fancy, do not live and flourish so in the 
world's memory." 

Much confusion has existed amongst antiquaries, not only as to the 
position of this fort but as to whether it had any existence. Smith, in 
his ^'History of Kerry," at page 156, states: — "The other mountains that 
run westerly into the barony of Corkaguiny, go by various Irish names. 
A remarkable one of these is Cahirconrigh, or Cauir Conrigh, t. «. the 
fortress of Conrigh or King Con. On the top of this mountain a circle of 
stones (massy) laid one on the other in the manner of a Danish entrench- 
ment — several of them are from 8 to 10 cubical feet, but they are all very 
rude ; from the situation of the place it resembles a beacon or place of 
guard to alarm the country, but from the prodigious size of the stones 
it rather seems a monument of some great action performed near this 
place, or, perhaps, a sepulchral trophy raised over some eminent person. 
'Jliis piece of antiquity stands on the summit of a conical mountain, 
which is more than 700 yards above the level of the sea, and forms a kind 
of peninsula between two very fine bays." O'Flanagan' described it as 
a heap of loose stones that appear to have been collected on the moun- 
tain. Dr. Woods^ refers to it as a wall, forming with the verges of the 
liill an irregular triangle within which the inaccessible parts of the 
mountain are enclosed. He also describes two gates about 1 1 feet wide, 
some sunken pits, and the entire as situated on the summit of the moun- 
tain, all of which are so inaccurate that it was probably only written from 
hearsay. 0* Donovan, in a note to the "Battle of Magh Rath," published 
in 1842, writes of Cathair Conrui : — ** i.e, the Caber or stone fort of Curoi 
Mac Daire: it is still the name of a mountain situated about 6 miles S.W. 
of the town of Tralee in Kerry, near which Curoi Mac Duirc, King of 
the Deagads of Munster, resided in the first century. In the ' Book of 

1 Keating's <* History of Ireland " ; O'Curry's ''Manners and Customs " ; '*Cathair 

' " Coming of Cuculain/' Stondisb O'Grady. (London, 1894.) 

' ** Transactions of Gaelic Society," p. 60. 

*'*An Inquiry Concerning the rrimitive Inhabitants of Ireland." Dr. Thomas 


Leinster/ folio 16 a, b, it is stated that theLecbt, or monument of Ciiroi, 
is on Slieve Mis mountain, of which Caherconree is the highest part. The 
cairn or sepulchral pile of Curoi is still to be seen on the north-east 
slioulder of the mountain, but bis cahcr or fort has been long since de- 
stroyed, though Dr. Smith, in his ' History of Keny,' states that the 
ruins of it were to be seen on the summit of the mountain in his own 
time : but this is utterly erroneous, for the feature called Caherconree 
on this mountain is a natural ledge of rocks." O'Curry believed that 
some portion of the fort remained, for after relating the legend of 
Blanaid and the white stream, he writes: *' and therefore any one taking 
this white stream, still so well known in the locality, for his guide, and 
following it up the mountain, may, perhaps, discover the ancient Cathaii* 
Conroi, some vestiges of which must still exist." ButO'Cuiry, with that 
accuracy and minuteness of researcb for which he is remaikable, goes 
still further in his efPorts to locate it, by quoting from the old tale Cath 
Finntragha^ or ** Battle of Ventry Harbour," where the Journey of Finn 
Hac Cumhaill into Kerr}" is described, '^ and then over the long white 
strand of the Bay of Tralee, with his left hand to Cathair na Clam Batha^ 
whicb was called Cathair Chonrai, and to Slieve Mis, and thence on to 
Ventry."^ O'Curry continues : " Another curious bit of additional infor- 
mation, if it be coiTect, is supplied by this tale, namely, that Cuthair 
Conroi was called also Cathair na Claen Baiha^ that is, the Cathair of ths 
sloping rath, and, probably, Claen Bath, or slopiog rath only ; and this 
may lead further to the identification <tf the old Cathair, since, perhaps, 
it may still be known under the name of Cathair na Claen Batha, or of 
Claen Batli only.'' I am not aware that the fort has been known in recent 
times as Claen Bath, but, curiously enough, a reference to the elevation 
of the rampart, wbich I have prepai^ed to accompany this paper, will 
show how con*ectly the description of sloping rath applies to Caher- 
conree. The ground slopes to an angle of 10^ as measured by a clino- 
meter. In later years the fort was visited by Mr. "Windele, of Cork, and 
though he did not attempt a measured survey, still his pa])cr, published 
in the Ulster Journal of ArchtBology^ vol. viii., 1860, may be said to be 
the first authentic description of the Cahir, and gives a very fair general 
idea of it. To come to later times, either Win dele's paper had not come 
under the notice of our eminent antiquary Professor Khys, or, if so, hi^ 
remained sceptical; for in his inaugural address* as President of the 
Cambrian Archaeological Association, read at our joint meeting in Killar- 
ney in 1891, and published in our Journal^ he states : — *' It seems to mc 
somewhat incredible that there should ever have been a fortress on so 
high a mountain " ; and after quoting O'Donovan's note, see ante^ he adds 
us a footnote : ** it would be greatly to the credit of the R. S. A. I. if it 

1 '* Manners and Customs,'* p. 82, vol. iii. 

* ** Early Irish Conquests of Wales and Dumnonia," by John Bhys, m.a. (Journal 
Jt,8,A.Lf 6th Ser., yol. i., p. 642). 


were to publish a detailed survey of the top of the mountain in their 
Journal^ that is if it has not been done already." I hope the present 
effort may succeed in convincing Professor Rhys that the remains of a 
cahir of light royal proportions exist on the mountain, and that its 
position and surroundings go far towards substantiuting the legendary 
history connecting it with Curoi Mac Daire. The entire subject-matter 
of the Professor's address is most interesting in connexion with Caber* 
conree, for though he has been described as one '^ of those antiquaries 
who desire to relegate all things traditional in Irish history to Ar^'an 
mythology,"' in that address, to use his own phrase, lie has turned over a 
new leaf, and his arguments to identify Cuchulainn with the Sentantii of 
Britain, mentioned by Ptolemy, and Curoi Mac Baire with Curausius, 
are, as might be expected, learned and exhaustive ; but for the sake 
of the memory of our Munster monarch, I would (ircfer to think, with 
Mr. Borlase, that Carausius may liave been identical with the pirate 
rover, Lughaidh Muccon, of evil notoriety ;' however, that is a branch of 
the subject outside tlie scope of this paper, and may safely be left to 
these two eminent antiquaries to investigate. 

More fortunate than Windele's party, who visited Caherconree in a 
thick mist, we were favoured with lovely summer woathcr, and a perfectly 
clear atmosphere. Wliiit strikes you most as you approach the fortress 
is its commanding situation, which londn a grandeur to it which is all 
nature's own. It is a rocky projecting eminence foimed, as it were, as 
the site for a stronghold ; and which man completed, by the erection of 
this massive wall across the plateau on the top. This manner of forming 
ii fort, by taking advantage of the natural cliff formation of a projecting 
promontory, is also to be met Avith in some of what are called ClifE 
castles ill Cornwall; Mayai (or Mayou) is a good example.' Also at 
•St. David's head in Wales,* and some in Scotland, of which Dun Chruban* 
is a typical example. In Ireland, Dubh Cathair on Aran, and Dunbeg 
in Kerry, are like constructions. 

Tlie view from inside the fort is magnificent. A large area of lar 
Humhan," or West Munster, surrounds you. To the north Tralee Bay lay, 
as it were, at youi- feet ; beyond it, the estuary of the Shannon opened 
under the headlands of the Clare coast, with the Aran isles, and the 
Twelve ** Pins " of Connemara in the distance. To the east, the view 
extends to the Duhallow countiy, and beyond it. Towards the south 
KiUamey's lakes glistening between wood and mountain, with the Laune 
hke a thread of silver, connecting them with the waters of Dingle bay, 
while that wide arm of the sea stretched grandly along between the moun- 
tain ranges of Iveragh and Corcaguiny, which were streaked, and silver 

* Borlase, " Dolmens of Ireland,** p. 1028. » /-Wrf., p. 1038. 

» " ArchflBologia Cambrenaia,*' Ser. 3, vol. xi. * Ibid., Ser. 6, vol. xv. 

» <* Stone Fortifications in Scotland'* (Christison), p. 140. 

* Wiiidele describes lar Mumban as tlie country lying west of a line drawn from 
limerick to Cork. 


speckled over, with the numerous hays and estuaries of the coast lino, 
looking like inland lakes — the Tision hounded hy the far off peaks of 
the Caha mountains — all formed a panorama as imposing as could he 
found on any coast line in Europe. From this it may he inferred that a 
surprise to the watchful warders of Caherconree was an impossihility. 

The improhahility of this heing a Boyal residence, because of itf^ 
great elevation, has heen urged by some : hut residences at high levels 
were not unusual in early ages. Dr. Oinstison, in a tabulat<d statement 
of the levels of the Scotch forts, gives one in Aberdeen, 1851 feet high, 
and four at over 1500 feet elevation; and on this subject he states : — 
" But besides this indirect proof we have direct evidence that the early 
inhabitants of Britain did live at such high altitudes as these. Within 
Scotland itself, at Eildon, there are plain indications of habitation by a 
large population, at a height of 1300 feet ; and in Wales the fortress of 
Treceiri, 1 500 feet above the sea, contains within its walls, the remains of 
many solid stone houses. Taking even the highest of the Scottish forts, 
Tap o' Noth, it is scarcely possible to look on it as a mere temporary* 
refuge, if we regard the massive bulk of its walls, and the great labour 
it must have taken to collect and place the materials." Even now-a-days 
in Great Britain, we have residences at high levels. The inns on some 
of the English moors are over 1600 feet high, the King's Pit Inn at Tau- 
hill, Yorkshire, is 1 727 feet over sea level. I am certain that the Celtic 
warriors, encamped dver the well- wooded slopes of Derrymore, and Glen 
Fas, in those days, enjoyed a more genial climate than the residents in 
Tap o' NToth or Treceiri. 

To speculate on the age of Caherconree leads up to the general ques- 
tion of the age of our stone forts, which has engaged the attention of 
many eminent antiquaries for a long time, and still remains a subject 
for conjecture. Mr. Westropp, in a recent paper, published in our 
Journal,^ on the stone forts of Northern Clare, dealt veiy exhaustively 
with the subject, quoting extensively from a vast array of authorities on 
tlie point. It is unnecessary, therefore, for me to overload tliis paper 
with references, which must be quite fresh in the memory of my foUow- 
members. With most of his conclusions I agree, only I would go further 
and say tliat the Firbolg legend, that these stone forts were the ** strong- 
holds of a hunted and persecuted race " — the ** ruined fortresses of a 
lost tribe "' — may be dismissed completely, as I see less reason for 
supporting it in reference to the Aran forts than of any other. These 
stupendous works, involving such outlay in labour and materials, are not 
the structures that a decaying race, beaten to the very ocean brink, on a 
barren island, would think of raising. They are more the strongholds of a 
]>owerful and aggressive people, having great resources at their command.' 

* Journal, It.S.A.L, 6th Series, vol. vi., p. 142, to vol. vii., p. 116. 

'**ChriBtiBn Archil eel me,*' by Miss Stokes, p. 15. 

' Is it not strange to think that ihe sons of Umor who, on returning to Ireland, we 

Caiiiuuumiek : Uknui 


On this branch of the subject O'Curry, referring to Coherconree, 
states : — *' It is of some importance in the discussion on ancient stone 
edifices to find still in existence one, not only of undoubted authenticity, 
bat even preserving through ages down even to the present day the name 
of the man for whom it was built, as well as that of the man who built 
it| for in the list of builders in stone who were attached to certain great 
men already quoted from the Book of Leinster, Cingd&rn is set down as 
Cwroi Mae Dair^t eaitUoir^ or stone-bmlder." So it was Cingdom who 
erected the stone rampart possibly inside Claen Batba, or the sloping 
rathy to the order of Curoi Mac Daire — I presume an existing rath, 
for it is natural to suppose that Caherconree remained an impor« 
tant military position from the time of the first engagements in Glen Fas. 
Those early Celtic invaders, whether they came from the banks of the 
Danube by way of Spain or Britain, were undoubtedly a fighting race, 
possessing a knowledge of the military science of their time, and would, 
doubtless, see the strategic importance of this position, where they 
received the first challenge from the enemy. One of the chiefs of what 
is known as the Milesian expedition was Nar, and an old poem 
states: — 

*' The erection of Cathair Nair great fortification 
At Slieve Mis was perfonned by Fulman." * 

This may have referred to the early fortification which the more 
modem scribe calls a cathair (rath and cahir' are often confounded), 

ire told, made choice of the rich plains of lleath, vhouJd finally undertake the labori- 
ous work of erecting these massive fortifications to secure themselves on the harren 
rocks of Aran P 0*Donovan labours to prove that Dun Engus would hold 1060 cows ; but 
the entire island, at the present day, after centuries of labour to bring the barren 
patches between the rocks into cultivation, will not support more than ooe-third thut 
number of cattle — and there are three other liirffe forts on this island, that may also be 
expected to have provided cattle enclosures. The question is, if these were the settled 
habitations of any race of people, how were they and their cattle to find support on the 
rocky surface of Aranmore P It is much more probable they were the strongholds of a 
race of sea rovers, ^ho erected them to secure and safeguard their treasures and 
spoils of conquest, and we know that such there were at about the peiiod in history to 
which these forts have been referred to. Carausius was such a one, whose fleets were 
manned by mercenaries from the Continent, and who carried his conquests over all the 
British iales. Then this LughaidhMaccon, mentioned by O'Flaherty (*'Ogygia," p. 148), 
was another sea rover (see ante). He was an exile of the race of 1th who, in a.d. 195, 
we hear of as landing m Qalway Buy, and in the buttle oi Attagh Mucruimhe, he slew 
Art son of Con. His forces consisted of bands of Fiankish and Saxon mercenaries. 
This incident is referred to very fully by Mr. Borlase in the ethnological section of his 
** JD>olmens of Ireland," vol. iii., p. 1038. True, he suggests that '* the forts of Aran may 
have been occupied by a division of a tribe from the mainland," who held out success- 
fully against the invaders ; but no division of a tribe that could subsist on Aran could 
be expected to erect such massive fortifications. Much more probable that the forts were 
erected by these pirate chiefs or kings, with the labour of their foreign mercenaries, 
to secure therein their wealth and treasure and to serve as the rendezvous after their 
marauding expeditions. 

^ " Poem of Flan of Bute," 1056, quoted by Windele in the paper referred to, 

2 See Joyce's '* Irish Names of Places,*' pp. 270, 283. 

12 ROVAL society of antiquaries op IRELAND. 

and the present structure was the work of Curoi Mac Daire^ and 

Such forts as Caherconree may be classed amongst the remains of 
our ancient military architecture, and the progress of this art in con- 
nexion with those stone forts, which rank as military in a sense (in 
distinction from the more purely domestic cahirs), can be clearly traced, 
to whatever cause it may be attributable. The stone wall at Caherconree, 
which, judging by the extreme weathering of the stones, and its section, I 
look upon as one of the very oldest of our stone forts — was an advance 
upon the earthen rath. A further stage of progression may be noticed in 
the improved section — wider terraces and steps-— of the Aran forts ; while 
Dunbeg,' with its extended circumvallations, its entrance defences, and 
neatly formed squints, &c., marks a very great advancement in the 
history of the art. Forts like Staigue, Caher Gel, and others in which a 
different interior section prevails, appear to be of a later date, and 
may be classed as a combination of the domestic and military, a kind of 
residential fortress, to meet the requirements of the numerous chieftains 
who had then established themselves in the country ; these in time give 
place to the keep and castle of succeeding invaders. 

With the assistance of Mr. Eobert Fogerty, c.e., I was able to pre- 
pare the drawings and sections of the wall shown on page 14 ; which, 
together with the very successful photographs taken by Surgeon Fogerty, 
and which he has kindly placed at my disposal, will give a better idea of 
the fortress than the most lengthened descnption. The view of the fort 
taken from the N.E. shows the entire wall. Unfortunately the wall is in 
shadow, as it is only early in the day the sun shiues on it. The fort is 
formed by a wall of uncemented masonry, built, as may be seen from the 
map, across the base of a triangular spur of the mountain, the apex of 
which points S.W. This may be described as the western end of the 
Slieve Mis range, which terminates thus abruptly at this point. The 
sides of the triangle are formed of cliffs, almost perpendicular, and nearly 
200 feet high. These cliffs gradually widen out from the ends of the 

' Curoi Mac Daire was a famous sea i-over (see Addi-ess of Profeasor Bhya, note, 
ante), and his conquests extended far beyond the British isles. Keating mentions that 
he had two royal palaces, Dunclaire and Duneochainuhaighe. The former, " The 
Fort uf the Boai*d,*' 0' Donovan locates in the townland of Farranicairega, paiiah of 
Ballinacourty (near Annascaul), Co. Keiry. The Litter, *' The Fort on the Brink of the 
Haigue," is doubtless Bruree, Co. Limerick. Caherconi-ee must have been considered 
the most secure of his strongholds, for it was there he bsoug^t the beautiful Blanaid 
after her capture, and it it with this legend is interwoven some of the most intei'esting 
portions of the history of Caherconree. 

s See my *< Drawings of Dunbeg Fort " {Journal Jt.S.A.I.^ 5th Series, vol. viii., 
p. 326). Dr. Christison, in << Early Fortifications of Scotland," p. 153, remarks: 
*< Nothing is more remarkable in these primitive fortresses, M'hether Scottish, Welsh, 
or Irish, than the apparent total absence of port-holes or windows of any description.*' 
The squints at either side of the entrance to Dunbeg fort, which are neatly formed 
in the masonry, about 8 inches square, afford an example of such port-holes. They 
could be used foi observation from the guard -room, or to defend the original entmnce, 
with long spears. 


SCAUt. 09 


'-' / 

Elevation op Rammrt 


Plah Af lUMPAirr 

Map Plan of Fort, and Eleyntion and Plan of Rampnrt, Caherconree. 



fort wall into quick escarpments (covered with verdure) curving north 
and sputh, and dropping, on the south side, 1800 feet down to the level 
of the bed of the Finglas river, which is only 2^9. feet over sea level at 
the base of Caherconree. The cliff is of the Old Red Sandstone conglome- 
rate which covers the top of the mountain, and of this the rampart was built. 
The supply was abundant. The stbnes are generally of a medium size, 
about 2 to 3 cubic feet, though ther^are many larger stones to be met 
with. The entire leugth of the maip.'wall, from end to end, would be 
about 350 feet. It runs straight in the centre and recedes at eitlicr end. 
On the south side a light wall extends for some distance along the top of 



3 ..™-' 

1 :• ? r r 


a ysw. 

Plan of Korth side of Entrance and Sections of Wall, Caherconree Fort. 

the cliff; the remains are there, but it cannot have been more than 3 or 
4 feet thick. This gives to the rampart, as spread out in its present 
ruinous condition, the appearance of forming a regular arc of a circle, and 
may have led to the mistakes originally made in describing it as a circle. 
Indeed some time ago I received a sketch of the fort, from a gentleman, 
made after a second visit and drawn as a circle figured seven chains 

The wall was built in one thickness. The faces are formed with 
the best of the stones set ImgthwUe acrosB the wall — that is, with the 
end outwards — and the interior was filled with an inferior class of work. 
This may be seen in the photograph of the masonry of the rampart, where 


a eection of the parapet appears. This style of building was noticed 
by Professor Babington in Treceiri, and referred to by Dr. Christison in 
a paper in AreluBologia Cambremu (5th Ser., vol. zt.). It is not seat 
Don Engus, Staigue, Dunbeg, or any other Irish fort I am acquainted 
with. The thickness of the rampart as measured at the entrance is 
abont 16 feet 9 inches, but as there must be close on 4 feet of d^hrit 
under this level, there may have been another terrace increasing the base 
of the wall to about 20 feet thick. If the chamber shown on section n 
was formed in the thickness of the' wall, as at Staigue (and I think this 
most likely), the rampart should be at least 20 feet to enclose it, but this 
is all conjecture, as the greater portion of the inner faces of the ram- 
part lies a confused heap of stones. The outer face and some portions of 
the parapet remain standing. This is in part due to the greater decay in 
the stone, on the inner or weather side of the wall, and also no doubt to 
the vandalism to which I will refer later on. The terracing on the inside 
can be traced in a few places, which I have shown by the sections, as 
far as the debris would permit, but in no case does the section show the 
level of the original surface, or the base line of the wall. I find in these 
forts the Breudths of the terraces very often vary. 

The wall is perpendicular on the outside. The parapet is well 
defined where the wall stands. It is shown on photograph of entrance, 
and measures 4 feet 6 inches wide and 4 feet 6 inches high, and I should 
say this would be something near to the original top of the rampart. 
At Treceiri the parapet is from 3 to 4 feet high and 5 feet wide.^ The 
height taken outside at. one point measured 10 feet 6 inches. Allowing 
for some original coping to the rampart, and adding, say, 3 feet 
for accumulation at the base, I should say the original wall was probably 
about 15 feet high. The chamber shown on section n is the only one 
we could discover inside the fort. It is Q -shaped, measuring 8 feet 
ulong the line of the fort wall, which forms one side of it, with 6 feet 
projection inwards. We searched for the pits described by Dr. Woo<ls, 
but could see none. I had one depression of the surface inside the wall, 
which looked like one, opened up. I found 18 inches of solid peat, and 
then the debris of the fallen wall, but no indication of a chamber. This 
debris must have been there for centuries while this 18 inches of peat 
was forming from the vegetation which covers the top of the mountain. 
Iliere are something like the remains of two cloghans appearing on the 
outside of the wall, marked X on the plan, but these may have been 
shepherds' shelters at some time. At the south end of the vallum there 
is an artificial formation of stones, which has all the appearance of being 
the remains of a chamber of some kind. From its position, this may 
have been the suidhefaire, or watching seat, referred to by 0' Curry,* 
which was situated outside the wall. It was from this seat that 

1 See " Treceiri and Eildon," Arch. Camb., 6th Series, vol. xiv., p. 22. 
< << Manners and Customs," vol. ill., p. 79. 



Oucbulainn performed those wonderful feats of prowess described in the 
Zeahhar na h- Uidhre. It would be the natui*al position for a sentry, so as 
to command tho approaches from the south, east, and west ; but, owing 
to the slope of the ground, a similar arrangement should obtain for the 
northern end of tlie vallum. The defences at that end have all fallen 
away or are covered up with the vegetation. These are the only signs 
of chambers we could discover. Like to most other foi-ts, there is no 
appearance of a water supply inside. At 1 25 feet from the noithem 
end of wall we exposed portions of both the jambs of the entrance. The 
northern side stands 2 feet over the dehris, and I believe this to be about 
the level of the lintels, but there are no signs of the covering stones. I 
have been informed that some years ago the farmers living on the south 
side of the mountain were in the habit of removing the 1 ag stones from 
the Caber, and using them as lintels in the building of thtir houses. The 
means employed was to secure a chain around the stone, and yoke it to 
a donkey or mountain pony ; this would account for the disappearance of 
the covering stones, and the steps to terraces (if any), and to the destruc- 
tion of the entrance ; possibly the ruinous condition of the interior of the 
wall may be due to tlie same cause. Though Caherconree, from its posi- 
tion, escaped the depredations of the enterprising road-contractor, it was 
not safe from the vandalism of the sordid farmer, that ruthless destroyer 
of our stone forts and cloghans. The sides of the entrance appear to 
have been straight, with no break or recess of any kind ; but the front 
line of the wall curves regularly into it, as shown on the plan of north 
side. This is the only bit of detail noticeable about the entrance ; but, 
simple as it appears, it indicates an idea of style, bejond the rude piling 
of stone upon stone, and necessitated the use of some hammer tools at 
least to shape the stones. Indeed it is idle to suppose that any of our 
stone forts could have been erected without the use of some tools to 
quarry out the materials and hammer such stones as rough steps, &c.y 
into the required lengths. In the photograph taken of north side of 
entrance, the figure marks the inside, and the outside is 15 feet distant 
(see plan), the curve does not show. The largest stone seen in the photo- 
graph is 5 feet long by about 8 inches high. The passage is 7 feet 6 
inches wide. This was the width of the original entrance of Dunbeg, 
afterwards reduced to 3 feet 6 inches. The passage inside the present 
door at Dun Engus is 7 feet wide.^ There is a second breach in the 
rampart 100 feet south of the entrance. This may have been what is 
referred to by Dr. Woods as a second entrance, but there is nothing to 
indicate that it was so. There was a fosse outside the stone rampart. 

^ Mr. Westropp is of opinion the present door (3 feet 6 inches wide) is the original 
one of Dun Engus. (See Journal^ M,8,A.L^ oth Ser., vol. v., p. 258.) I believe thi« 
is not so, and that it is an insertion. The upright joint shown to the right on the 
illustration accompanying his Paper is the side of the original opening, ns a similar 
joint appears on the opposite side of the door. I measured between the joints ; it is 
8 feet. 



The top of the Tallum can be traced along at 40 feet from the wall. On 
the line of the yallam many large stones crop up, and it would appear as 
if it were constructed of earth and stones combined. From the entrance 
out to the line of the vallum many large stones may be noticed, in part 
covered with the vegetation. Tliis may denote the remains of a passage 
or defence of some kind to the entrance, but without an excavation it i» 
impossible to state. 

Within the limits of a visit no extensive clearings could be 
attempted. We might have gone a little farther, but, towards 
evening, the clouds commenced to gather over Tralee Bay ; the moun* 
taineers whispered siguificantly of the discomforts of a night on the 
mountain. Our meteorologist gave orders to pack up, and so, reluctantly^ 
we left Caherconree. It is to be hoped that careful excavations may at 
some time be made along the inner and outer lines of the rampart, ftc, 
securing the dangerous portions, but carefully avoiding any attempt to 
restore it. What is required for our prehistoric monuments is not 
restoration, but protection and properly directed scientific research. 

JOVK. H.S.A.I., TOL. IX., PT. I., Sth 8BH. 

( 18 ) 


By miss IIICKSON, Hon. Local Secretaht, Kbkkt. 
[Submitted Mauch 28, 1899.] 


JT CANNOT see any good reason, as yet, for believing that the primitive 
missionary saint of this remote place in the ancient Desmond, now 
part of Kerry, was a Saint Killian. I do not profess to be skilful in 
hagiology, but I have studied sufficient of the subject, so far as it relates 
to Ireland and Great Britain, to know that after the year 660 or 700 the 
names of the primitive saints in Wales and Ireland, founders of churches, 
were often superseded and forgotten,^ and the names of later saints were 
substituted for them, better known and calendared in the Eoman Breviary, 
and mentioned by Colgan and Butler. An instance of this is given at 
page 448, vol. viii., Fourth Series of this Journal^ in the case of St. 
Grigoir of Corcaguiny. According to Rev. Father Shearman, this pri- 
mitive saint was patron of Glenbegh in Iveragh, but the patronage was 
transferred in later ages to Pope Gregory the Great. The patron day at 
Glenbegh was changed to the 12th of March,' the festival of that great 
Pope, after the English Invasion of 1171 and the acknowledgment of 
Henry the Second as Lord of Ireland by Pope Adrian, or it may have 
been at a much earlier date, circa a.d. 700, when the Irish Church fully 
admitted the Papal Supremacy. Such changes were extremely natural, 
in fact inevitable, between the latter year and the present century, in a 
land of change like Ireland. "Within the last fifty years, the name of 
Kilmeany, in North Kerry, almost certainly a corruption of the Irish 
Kilmuine, the Church of the Shrubbery or brake, has been transformed 
into Kilmuire. My own memoiy of it goes back full sixty-five years, 
and it was then and long after always called Kilmeany. It is very 
interesting to note that this old name is the same as that of the famous 
old church of St. David in Wales (so closely connected with St. Patrick 
and his mission to Ireland), Latinized in modem times to Menevia. The 
ancient church of St. Mochaemog, or Mocheallog, was probably at or 
near the oratory, or cloghaun, which Mr. Biggar found near what he 
calls the lake of St. Mochionlane, but which I always, thirty or forty 
years ago, knew as Lough Quinlan, and believed to be a corruption of 
the Irish for the Church {llan) of the Arbutus. Llan, as Dr. Joyce 
and other authorities say, was the very oldest name for Iiish Christian 

» Vol. i., Fifth Series, 1890, pp. 47 and 48, and vol. viii., pp. 314 and 412. 1898. 
^ A passage in the first volume of the *' Annab of Ulster," translated by W. M. 
Hennessy, notices this change. 


•churches, and it is, as we know, common in "Wales. Lands near tlie 
liTer and the Dominican monastery in Tralee are called in the Survey of 
Forfeitures, in 1587, Lough Llan Cannaan («. $. the Lake of the Church 
of the Canons) alias Lvhghort Cannaan (the hcrh garden of the Canons), 
tolerahly plain indications that hefore the Dominicans came to Tralee, 
which was long after 1225, there had been a primitive settlement first of 
Welsh monks and then of Augustinian canons at the same place, between 
i..D. 500 and 1100. In the same way the Irish name of the modem 
iSchull in South Cork, evidently a corruption of the Irish place-name 
Seumhaly now pronounced Scool, a most appropriate one for a district full 
of cliffs and mountain precipices, and also found in Clare (see Joyce's 
'* Irish Names of Places," Second Series, page 363), has in modem times 
been said to be a corruption of the Latin Scholia, because there was a 
college or school there in medieeval times dedicated to the Blessed 
Virgin. The students and people of this college, who probably knew 
little or nothing of the Irish language, and were well versed in Latin, 
transformed this old place name of prehistoric and pagan ages into 
Scholia, and by degrees it became the popular SchuU for the mixed race 
of modem days. Hundreds of our present place-names originally de- 
scriptive of the natural features of the country, have been transformed 
again and again in this way. I have no doubt, as I already observed, 
at page 312 of this Journal for December, 1898, that the place now 
called Kilelton, because St. Eltan, a primitive Christian Missionary, 
founded a church there over a pagan tumulus was in pre-Christian times 
called Kilelty, a corruption of the Irish for the wood of the doe, a 
creature connected with pagan traditions and worship. (See Joyce, 
Ist vol., p. 427, and Borlase's ** Dolmens of Ireland.") If the Lough 
Qttinlan of Tuosist, in a graceful poem by Denis Florence Mac Carthy 
(**Book of Irish Ballads," edited by Sir S. Ferguson, p. 49, A. H. Duffy's 
edition), is not a corruption of the Irish for Lake of the Arbutus, it is 
probably simply the Lake of Quinlan or O'Quinlan, still the name in 
Kerry of a well-known old Irish family. 

Although Tuosist w^os occupied and owned by the O'Sullivans in and 
before the sixteenth century (when the septs of Mor and Beare of that 
clan had patent confirmatory grants from Queen Elizabeth, recorded in 
the Carew MSS. in the Lambeth Library, with full pedigrees of each 
sept), it must be remembered that before A.n. 1100 the O'Sullivans were 
not in Kerry or Desmond at all. The name Tuosist witnesses to the 
O'Siosta (O'Shea) clan having been the original owners of Iveragh, and 
part of what became O'Sullivan Beare's lands after 1500. And the new 
terelations afforded by the calendared State Records, too much neglected, 
and the examination of the Desmond Survey of 1587, open up curious 
-questions connected with place-names and personal names in the modern 
Kerry and upset many accepted popular notions about them. The 
O'Siosta sept or clan is listed in the Desmond Survey as subject to the 



forfeiting Earl of 1580, and in the calendared Fiants of Queen Elizabeth^ 
which I gave at page 48 of the volume for 1890 of this Journal, the- 
rectory of Kilmaekeolloh G'Cestie. as the English surveyors wrote the 
Irish words, is mentioned. In other sixteenth- century State Records, 
and in Bishop Crosbie's returns for the Regal Visitation of 1615 (he was^ 
a native Irishman and his wife an O'Lalor, both better versed in Irish.* 
than modem writers), it is written 'Kj^mBHoehuinta, the O* Siesta name 
being still carefully indicated, although it was altered a little and poli- 
tically and socially eclipsed by the O'Sullivans. That it was the- 
original of the modern O'Shea is certain. Ancient records and State- 
Papers prove the O'Sheas were the old owners of Iveragh, and had 
acquired from the O'Falveys lands in Gorcaguiny. Daingean Ui Chuts, 
now Dingle, may have been part of these, for certainly the O'Siosta- 
name was, as we have seen, frequently written O'Chuista. The last 
mention of it as a surname I can find is in a pardon of Elizabeth's reign,, 
calendared by the Deputy Keeper R. 0. I., dated 10th September, 1601,. 
to " John O'Coshe of Stradbally, in Gorcaguiny," not very far from the- 
Daingean Ui Chuii, now Dingle.' 

*■ Jottnudf vol. i., Fifth Series, p. 688, note. 

( 21 ) 



By T. J. WE8TR0PP, M.A., M.RJ.A., Piux>w. 
[Read Notbmbsu 24, 1897.] 

n^HB Dindsenclias, ''Tales of the Dans" of Ireland, not merely the 
forts, hut other prominent ohjects (such as palaces, tomhs, lakes, 
hills, and hays), is an ancient collection of tales collected and added to 
hy various writers from time to time down to the eleventh or twelfth 
century. It is attributed to Amorgein, poet of the Deisi of Tara, and the 
•earliest copy is found in the Book of Leinster. 

The recent translation of its prose tales by Dr. Whitley Stokes in 
Revue Celtique^ suggests that to many of our members even a very plight 
sketch of some fragmentary results of its study might prove welcome.' 

It must have received many additions before 1150, as its loose 
texture facilitated such insertions, so the internal indications of dates 
are of very little value, and, I think, the latest — ^the cessation of the 
Tailtin Games about 925 — precedes the date of our earliest copy by 
two centuries. The dates noticeable in the main work (sections 1-130) 
relate to the fifth and sixth centuries. The second part (to 1 53) mentions 
^t. Columba, Guaire Aidne, and one event in a.d. 557, while the third 
part names the sons of Aed Slaine, who were joint Kings of Erin in 
A.D. 664. 

This would suggest an original work of some antiquity with two 
appendices spread over two centuries ; but several very important poems, 
by which the prose is '^ verified," are much later than the seventh cen- 
tury (one is of the beginning of the eleventh), so we dare not lay much 
stress on the date marks. 

There are some old features, however, supporting the theory of an 
early substratum in the present collection. The Guchulainn and Bed 
Branch legends are referred to twelve times,^ while there are only three 
allusions to Finn.' Women hold a very high place in it as the equals of 
men or even their superiors — ^rulers; warriors, poets, druids, athletes, 
and rent-collectors of both sexes appearing. Glare is assigned to Gon- 
naught, suggesting an earlier date than circa 610, when Dioma, King of 
Cashel, crashed the Gonnacian's claims to ''Lughad Redhand's cruel 

^ '* Revue Celtique," vol. xv. (1894), p. 272, &c., and vol. zvi. (1895), p. 310. 
' Sections 53, 54, 66, 95, 119, 120, 130, 132, 71, 72, 104, 105. 
2Sectioiis27, 31,49. 


Bword land " at the decisive battle of Knocklong. Monastic, and eveit 
Christian, influence is practically absent ; the morality (or non-morality) 
is Pagan, but the worse forms of vice and cruelty scarcely appear. 
There are very few suggestions of the Graeco-Roman myths, and those- 
80 vague that we cannot assert them to be necessarily shadows of the 
legends of Circe and Helen. 

The older religions do not make much figure in the stories. "We 
have the well-known legfend of the prostrations of Tigemmais before the 
idol Crom, and an allusion to a Saxon idol, Hethurion. But the inhabi- 
tants of the Sidhs, or elf-mounds, and the deified or demonic Tuatha Do 
Danann constantly appear. 

Topographical Abhangekent. 

"When we examine and mark on the map the localities of the stories 
so far as identified, we notice a certain topographical arrangement 
which has evidently been slightly impaired by the later additions. 

We commence with the oft-quoted sections on Tara and Brugh, and 
find two groups of names in Leinster, one along the northern counties, 
from Lough Bee to the Boyne, along the coast to Dublin, and thence 
inland to ITaas and MuUaghmast. The second group lies along the- 
Ifunster border and the Nore and Barrow. 

In Munster we find a group in the hills south of Kilmallock,^ and a 
few names round the coast. Killamey, with, perhaps, Limerick andt 
the Shannon or its estuary, are included. 

In Connaught a large group of names lie round Galway Bay fronk 
Kagh Adhair, near Quin, to Clew Bay. A second group, from Drom- 
elifp, near Sligo, and Lough Conn, joins the Korth-Leinster group at 
Lough Ree. 

irister, by contrast, is poorly represented by some half-dozen names 
chiefly on the coast; the rest extend round Lough Erne, and fronx 
Emania to Dundalk. 

The first supplement is almost confined to Ulster and Connaught, 
the second is miscellaneous, but ends with the legend of Emanipt and. 
Macha's brooch, as if to balance Tara in the opening section. 

To sum up, we have lines of names from Sligo to the Boyne mouthy 
and from Armagh to Waterford, with groups round Lough Erae and 
Galway Bay ; and a suggestive interest is shown in the Red Branch, 
heroes and the sons of Huamore. 

The stories may be roughly divided in this proportion — 30 marvels,. 

23 monsters and wonderful animals, 16 violent deaths and battles, 13- 
deaths from love, grief, or shame, 11 forts and cairns built, 10 love cases- 
and elopements, 9 forests and clearings, 7 wells and waterbursts, II 

* 1 Also of note in the <* Mesga Ulud." 




Wonders, as in all simple states of -society^ were in great demand. 
Othello's repertoire scarcely contains more quaint hobgoblins nnd 
monsters. "We meet at the outset the horrible Mata of the Boyne — 
a sort of giant tortoise^ with 7 heads and 7 score legs. Its great 
** hurdle of ribs," and shinbone, when cast up by the sea, give names to 
Athcliath (hurdleford) or Dublin, and Inver-Colptha (shinbone inlet), 
the Boyne mouth. Its other bones formed a mound in the cemetery of 
Brugh. l^ext we meet Meche, son of the Morrigain ; he had three 
hearts, which were snakes, and would have grown and wasted all 
Ireland had not MacCecht slain him. The reptiles were burned and 
thrown into the Barrow, but even in their ashes so lived their wonted 
poison that the rapids stayed and the fishes died. Ever since then the 
Barrow has been '' dumb " and sluggish (Berba = dumb water). Lutair, 
a monster with 17 heads, and legs 50 cubits long, wins the love of a 
lady, whose scandalized wooer storms the house and slays the inmates.^ 

The more conventional monsters are also well represented. A harper 
tried to bring the fairy Baine out of her mound by harping, but, instead 
of a lovely woman, a dragon springs out, and he dies of the fright. Is 
there here an ungallant meaning intended by some poet whose ladylove's 
amiability had not stood the test of marriage ? In this tale another dragon, 
a fiery one, unaccountably masquerading as a salmon, is a stepmother, and, 
after being driven out of her lake by St. Fursey, will arise at the Last 
Day and afflict Ireland in revenge for John the Baptist ; but how the 
Irish, of all nations, got involved in this disgrace is left a secret be- 
tween the saint and the ptast. A very dangerous monster, the Kosualt, 
is also described, which spouts at Murrisk in Mayo, and a pestilence 
ensues. This is stated of the whale in other ancient works. When the 
whale spouts upwards flying creatures die ; when downward it kills the 
&sh, and when at the land a plague ensues.^ 

Uncanny human creatures abound. 01c Ai comes out of the Cave of 
Cruachan to fight, gnashing his teeth, and shaking his beard so fiercely 
that Erne and her maidens take to flight, and are drowned in the 
lake that bears her name. Nothain, daughter of Conmaer, can eat a 
dinner for a hundred every day. On this liberal ration she lives for 150 
years, and only dies for a point of honour, so as not to outlive the last 
survivor of her home circle.' We meet crowds of suggestive names, as 
** Coimgin Homskin " (a sort of Irish Sigurd or Achilles), ** Ceman 
Hardhead," •* Hundred Ears," " TJinche Key Mouth," " Shield Mouth," 
<' Horse Head," *« Four Heads," and " Borg the bellowing."* 

Outside Ireland and its inmates lies the ocean with its sea folk and 
those mystic Isles, the Isle of Truth and the Land of Promise, containing 

1 SecUoiis 4, 28, 13, 23. > Seotions 47, 76. ^ Sections 80, 87. 

* Seotiont 61, 26, 38, 27, 39, 78, 80. 


tbe Paradise of Magh Mell. From a perusal of the Dindsenchas the 
inhabitants who visit oiir Island seem to be usually beset by misfortune. 
Clidhna, daughter of Genand, comes out of a ''tulach" (mound) in 
Magh Mell. She embarks in a boat of bronze with luchna, the " curlr* 
Laired," but he enchants her, and the boat drifts to the south of Ireland, 
gets overturned, and the lady is drowned in the surf which bears her 
name. Sinind, another inhabitant, goes to visit a well under the sea, 
and getting drowned gives her name to the river Shannon.^ 

Similar fates befall mortals. Euad, an Irish lady^ is put to sleep by 
the mermaid's songs, and drowned near Assaroe {^as ruaid). Another 
Euad (a man) loves nine fair nymphs, and on his proving false they 
pursue his bronze boat ; he is escaping when one of the ladies beheads 
ber son and throws the head after its father. The other sisters stop 
and cry "Is olbine!" "Oh, great crime," whence the name Inbher 
jQ-ailbine, the Delvin river, north of Malahide. Even a casual meeting 
with such beings may prove fatal, for Eoth is torn up by the sweetly- 
singing mermaids of "Waterford Harbour, which was called Port Lairgi, 
from his thigh.^ 

The " Isle of Truth " has certainly no right to appear in so menda- 
cious a topography, and we only hear of a sod brought from it to form a 
judgment-seat from which no unjust sentence could be pronounced.^ 


Next to monsters and miracles, magic excited most interest, but we 
•can only allude to some strange spells and personal traits of the en- 
■chanters. Blighting, blemishing, and death could be hurled at any 
unfortunate mortal who in any way offended a wizai*d or bard. Aige 
became a fawn and then a bag of water by the malice of the Siabra 
(elves), loosed on her by her enemies, while her brother Fafne put blotches 
-on the King of Erin. Be swelled up and died for having concealed au 
ale-feast from a poet, and Gel, in the same story, gives her rath to a 
sage who had threatened to blemish her. The oft-quoted legend of 
Lough Derg tells us how Perch ertne, the poet, " the cruellest man in 
Eiin," asks for King Eochy's only eye and gets it. It is some comfort 
to know that as a reward for the monarch's generosity both his eyes are 
restored by the benevolent well in which he washed the bleeding socket. 
Carman, the Athenian, blights the corn of the Tuatha De Danann, 
but is defeated and held as a hostage. While Athime sings against 
Leinster from the top of Howth. The earliest Milesian army has much 
of this irregular waiiare to contend against ; it is deceived by phantom, 
opponents on Slieve Mish in Kerry, and is fought by Cicul's men, who 
only use one leg, arm, and eye to make their spell work better, and so 
get deservedly exterminated.* 

> Sactions 45, 59. ^ Sections 81, 5, 42. > SjBctioa 100. 

« Sections 15, 21, 04, 18, 20, 41. 


Magic could, howeyer, be also nsed for protection and mercy. 
JLlgoba warms the Milesian camp with fires kindled by wringing his 
hands ; Maistiu embroiders a protectiye cross on her father's tunic, while 
the magic doctors (Diancecht, by a bath of herbs at Moytura, and 
Trostau, the Pictish wizard, by a bath of milk at Ardlemnachta) revive 
4md cure the wounded and dying. The four birds of Baile haunt 
Carbre Liffechair ; '* Tortha, Tortha, I come, I come," sang two, *' Tiagu, 
Tiagu, I go, I go," sang the other two* These dreadful and unen- 
durable lampoons were hurled at the Kiog for 7 times 50 nights. At 
last the persecuted monarch consulted his wizard Bicne, and the latter, 
by means of a magic tree to which he stuck the persecutors, silenced 
the satires of these troublesome fowls, " and there was no mocking of 
Cairpre thenceforward. "' 

The enchanter could also be punished, as he richly deserved, even 
by non-miraculous means, as when Mide cut out the wizard's tongues, 
or Bub, who was drowning her husband's second wife by spells, was 
struck by a slingstone cast by a faithful servant, and fell into the pool 
of Dublin, which bears her name.* 

Some of the spells deserve special note and research. We find the very 
curious case of Find, who pursues his enemy till he sees his shadow, and 
breathing a charm on his own spear, darts it through the shade, upon 
vhich the fugitive falls dead. All this is to the last degree suggestive 
of confusion between the shadow, soul, and life. Fraech of Camfree 
shakes a rowan tree over the '^ Black linn " of the Suck, and, thereby, 
disturbs and is wounded hjeipiastf while the enchanted pig -men are 
told to *' shake the tree of Tarbga and eat the salmon " in Mayo. A 
tub made of twigs drip^ while the tide flows and stops when it ebbs, 
and the peak of Howth increases in height in sympathy with the 
growth of Erin (whence Inis Erinn or Ireland's Eye) till that heroine is 
incommoded " by the spears of the wind," and her fosterer stops its 
growth.' Both these stories are interesting as showing the supposed 
sympathy of inanimate objects with men and the life in nature. In- 
deed, this belief has not yet died out even at Howth, for the existence 
of the old tree near the Castle is said to be connected with the duration 
of the earldom of Howth. 

Natdeal History. 

BijBLDS, &c. — The next subject of interest I may describe as '* natural 
history." The physiology is nearly as wonderful as the animals' 
actions. We have already heard of the three snakes as hearts. Man an nan 
Mac Lir casts three griefs out of his heart, and they become three 
''Loughs," two being Strangford and Waterford Harbour. Mac Oc 
shapes his kisses into the satirical birds which persecuted Cairbre 

^ Sections 62, 32, 39, 108, 117. > Sections 7, 26. 

* Sections 49, 132, 71, 11, 109. . 


Jiiffechair. A ludy's lover and brother also become birds, and a flock from 
the *' Land of Promise " meet St. Patrick at Cruachan Aigle, and smiting- 
a lake with their wings turn it white. Other remarkable fowls appear ; 
Cuchulain flees from black bii-ds, having ravens' bodies and thick feet 
lor swimming in the sea, each being 7 hand-lengths in size. 

Very different from the satirical birds is Bairche's hen. She is- 
twice mentioned, and on one occasion this infallible cure for insomnia 
lulls a man to sleep for three fortnights by her clucking. Only one 
other bii-d need be noted — a hawk, reared by Mossad, who fed it so well 
that it ended by devouring horses, herds, and men, and when it could 
get no more food it ate Mossad himself.^ 

' Cattle. — These are not forgotten. Some shed their horns for grief at 
the loss of their herdsmen. Two swallow worms which become the ** Dun *' 
bull of Cuailgne and bis opponent " Whitehom." Bres forces Nechtan, 
the King of Munster, to supply 100 men with the milk of dun cows. 
Nechtan avenges himself by singeing and staining all his cattle dun 
colour, and also making sham cows full of liquid peat. Bres was 
under a geasa, or obligation, to drink the product, and so drank the de- 
lectable beverage, from which he never recovered, but died after 7 yeara 
7 months and 7 days on the Old Head of Kinsale.* 

Swine. — Of cpurse swine then as now were of national importance. 
Derbrenn, the Irish Circe, keeps six human beings in the form of swine. 
A woman desires a steak from one, and a tale is, accordingly, told of the 
chase of these unhappy creatures across Connaught. Another great pig- 
hunt is that of Ailill and Meave after the magic swine which .come out 
of the Cave of Cruachan and blight the crops. When at last the herd 
is run to earth Maeve catches the last by the hind leg as it vanishes 
underground, and it leaves its skin in her hand and disappears. We 
also hear of a grey one-eyed pig running under the Bog of Allen, and 
several wamors are killed by swine. Lena feeds his grandfather's pig 
till there are 7 inches of fat on its nose ; he then sells it, but, in the act 
of driving it to its new owner, falls asleep in a trench. The pig goes 
rooting round and buries him alive, though the unfortunate man is able 
to stab it through the earth before he is quite smothered.' 

Dogs, Wolves, and Deeb. — Few other animals take a leading part 
in the stories. We would expect much about dogs and wolves and get 
very little. One hound dies of anger at failing to overtake its quarry ; 
another is found in a human skull ; and Connall Caimech is pursued 
by the three red wolves of the Martini.* 

Four elf kings of the Sidhs on Moenmagh quarrelled about certain 
lady elves who had rejected them. Fearing lest they might be seen by 
mortals and lose their powers of invisibility they took the form of deer, 

* Sections 98, 117, 105, 68, 54, 89, 149. •* Sections 16, 66, 123, 46. 

» Sections 71, 70, 112. * Sections 37, 101, 72. 


and fought till they made five mounds of their antlers and hoofs. A 
well hroke out to stop the slaughter, and made a lake of ''many 
colours" (re-aeh), now Lough Keagh, which turns sheep red every 
seventh year at the proper hour.* 

Wateb — The last story hrings us to the subject of waterbursts^ 
which, evidently, had much interest for an ancient audience. Lakes and 
streams break foi-th from all sorts of improbable objects, the gore of a 
man's heart or its sorrows, a magic horse, a grave, or a calf shed ; they 
spring forth to honour the birth of a king, or to drown a violater of 
their honour ; they embody themselves and appear to moitals, as when 
the River Slaney was seen in a dream as a fair lady fighting her lake- 
son (bom after 800 years) and leaping through his body.* 

Tubes. — Trees were held in high esteem, especially the rowan, oak, ash,, 
and yew. The Moognoe oak and Tortan ash at Ardbraccan were, however, 
cut down in 740 and 660 (as the Bili or oak of Magh Adhair in Clare was 
cut down in 982). The £o liossa yew in Fermanagh was called with 
awe " The Trinity's Mighty One," an echo of ** The Trees of the Lord " 
in olden time. The ash trees of Uisneach and Dathi grew in Westmeath, 
while the giant oak Eomughna or Moognoo near ''the pillar of th<» 
living tree "* suggests ''the oaks of the pillar," at which Abimelech in 
Israel and the O'Brien in Thomond were inaugurated princes of their 
respective clans. Clearings and plantings are recorded in Armagh, 
Roscommon, Galway, Tipperary, Carlow, and Kilkenny.* The trees, 
are cut with BX>ear8 in one instance. 

It is hard to refrain from giving some account of the buildings, 
manners, and customs of the actors in these tales, and their occasional 
pithy sayings. The burial lore alone is of great interest, and the con- 
struction of forts gets valuable side lights. I will only note that Dun 
Criffan on Howth was visible from inland Meath, and (if this statement 
is reliable) cannot be the fort at the great Bailey to which the name is. 
applied, but rather that on the " Boon Hill," now levelled.* 

As actual records of name origins, these legends must be considered 
as of little, if any, value. The most complex and wonderful origins are 
given for the simplest and most obvious names, and often, for the better 
instruction of students, three or four divergent " reasons" are recorded. 
In fact one is often reminded of the variants in certain Arab legends 
without their pious ending, "but which is true. Alia alone knows." 
For other, if not for philological, reasons the value of the work is con- 
siderable. While hoping that even so slight a sketch as is here given 
may help our students of local folk-lore, I will leave to others to study 
more fully these strange waifs from the past, and close with the last 
words of the supplement — " it endeth — Amen — it endeth." 

1 Section 158. > Sections 137, 79, 40, 67, 60, 19, 40. » Sections 34, 50, 160. 
« Sccdons 13, 48, 44, 62, 69, 134. ^ Section 3. 


Bi JAUE3 O. R0BEBT80M, Hon. Fellow. 

Tir ezhibitmg the accompuiyiiig illustration of this interestini; relio 

connected with Kilkenny, I regret to add that there Is nothing 

knovn respecting its history. I have not been able to leam where or 

TLe Aruhei' CbiUiue. 

bjvrhomit has been so carefully preserved from the year 1606 to 1896, 
Then it made its appearance in the shop window of Messrs. Bichards 
-and Walsh, watch and clock makers, South Anne-street) Dublin. 


The following description of the chalice will, I hope, with the aid of 
the iUufltration, contrihute to render the appearance of this relic more- 
clearly understood. 

Premising that subsequent to the writing and reading of my paper, 
I learned that, in describing the chalice, I had been anticipated in ft 
pamphlet entitled, "The Altar Plate of the Franciscan Church, Cork, &o., 
bj Bobort Day, v>.8.a., &c.," as I consider Kr. Day's description much 
sapeiior to my own, I have adopted it. I am also indebted to him for 
the photograph. 

" This ehftlice reflembles those in the Franciscaii church, Cork. It is of the same- 
period and character, and its double inscription affords a clue to the earlier part of itr 
bistory. It is 7^ inches high ; the bowl is 3| inches in diameter and 3 inches deep ; 
the base is b^ inches in extreme width. The bowl is plain and undecorated, and resta 
on the usual six-sided stem, which is divided by a chased knot of six roses fully blown. 
Theioot spreads out into six panels, of which originally five were plain, and one only 
engraved with the crucifixion. The blood flows from the Saviour's hands and side, and 
upon the mound upon which the cross rests are the spear and ladder, while at the 
Bedeemer's feet are the emblems of mortality, and above His head the letters 

'* All this engraved work was done when the chalice was made, and before it waa 
overlaid with gold. It was then the chalice of Walter Archer, and used in his private 
ehspel, or in his house, and so continued until he had, some thirty years after, a second 
inscription engraved beneath the foot. 

" There are two inscriptions on the chalice, both engraved in Boman letters ; the* 
first is on the plinth of the base, and is in larger letters than the other, which is under 
the foot. They 


BICABDI X 1606. 



When or before he presented this chalice he hnd the five remaining panels filled 
with effigies of S. Franciscus, S. Patricius, S. Gualterus, 8. Bemardus, B. Maria, all 
these being engraved over the gilding, and not under it, as in the first panel. 

St. Francis, standing, holds a crucifix in his crossed hands, which, with his side, 
show the stigmata. He wears the hood thrown back from his forehead, around which 
is a ciicular-rayed nimbus. St. Patrick is mitred, and stands, with crosier and arch- 
bishop's cross, in the act of blessing, while a noxious reptile is powerless at )iis feet. 
St Walter holds a crosier in the right hand, and a vine branch, with grapes, and three 
ears of com, in the left ; above his head is a vesica-shaped nimbus. St. Bernard has a 
tircnlar nimhus, and his hands are joined in an attitude of prayer. 

St Mary is represented as seated, and draped in a hooded mantle. Her head is 
circled with a plain nimbus, a cross is above her forehead, and a star is upon her right 
shuolder. She holds the Infant Saviour on her knee, who has a rayed nimbus, and He 
points to the star with the two first fingers in the act of blessing. 

In the apper and lower angles of some of the panels acorns are introduced, and over 
the figure of St. Francis a rose of pounced work. Under the panels are the names of 

* The ' I ' in Capelias would appear to be an error of the engraver, it should be> 



the snintSy the whole resting on a flanged and six-pointed foot. There are not any hall 
•or town, marks, and the chalice was probahly made in Kilkenny, as it has all the 
•character of local Irish manufacture. It weighs IZ oz, 9 dwt." 

Mr. Day omitB pointing out that the name S. Gvalterus is engraved 
in larger letters than those of the other saints, and it may be that the 
name of Walter was given to the donor of the chalice, because he liad 
been born on that saint's day. There are now very few traces of gilding 
upon the chalice. 

In closing the description of the chalice, it may not be out of place to 
remark, that its style seems to have been that which prevailed about the 
-first quarter of the seventeenth century, not only as regards the hexagonal 
«hape of stem and base, but also the practice of engraving the names of 
•donors under the foot. I have a small engraving of a chalice Exhibit- 
ing the above-mentioned points of design, date 1626 ; and I understand 
that the Kilkenny chalice, described by the Rev. J. F. M. ffrench, 
displays them. 

As it may add to the interest of my subject, I beg to make a few 
brief allusions to the Archer family, described by the late Mr. John G. 
A. Prim, one of the most active founders of this Society, as a '* highly 
respectable mercantile family." The earliest mention of them which I 
-can find is in the ** History of the Cathedral of St. Canice," where it is 
stated that certain lands in the county of Kilkenny were demised to 
Gregory Fitz-John Archer in the year 1402 ; from the same source in the 
portion of the work devoted to '* Inscribed Monuments,*' I learn that 
Margaret Archer, wife of Nicholas Hakked, nephew of Bishop David 
Hakked, died a.d. 1528.^ On the inscription sculptured on the front of 
the pediment over the very interesting (if not unique) well in the court- 
yard connected with Kothe's house, we find it recorded that John Rothe 
■and Rose Archer, his wife, had built the well, dated 1604, and adjacent 
house and offices.' Mr. Prim quotes the following extract from a royal 
visitation of 1615 (Library of Royal Irish Academy): — "Sir Lucas 
Archer was Titular Abbott of the Holy Crosse and the Pope's Vicar 
"General for the Diocese of Ossory, Archdeacon of the same, dwelling at 
Kilkenny.'* Again, I find that, in the year 1623, Peter Archei** was 

* In p. 3, Hist. MSS., Com. Kep. 14, App. p. vii» voJ. i. of the printed MSS. of 
the Marquis of Ormonde, amongst other names, we find th{it uf James Archer, of 
Artery sitoune, 1543. 

' The inscription on front of the well affords pi'esumptivc evidence* that the well wtm 
open to the public, M'ho would pass through nn open archway from the street, then. 
called the coal-niarket ; the name of Parliament- street was substituted, and the coal- 
market removed, within my own recollection. The old Parliament House of the 
-Catholic Confederates stood on the site of the present entrn nee- gates of the new markets. 

^ Archer^s Grove is a beautifully situated, small demesne (dOaciDS Ir. m.), over the 
Nore ; immediately under it are mills M'hich, for many years, stood in ruins, until 
within the last three or four years, when Mr. Edward Fennessy took them, and has 
put one into a very substantial condition. On going through it with hiui about two 
years ago, he directed my attention to a very rudely -carved stone set in the inside of 
•a gable wall. On it are carved the initials of P. A., probably of Peter Aroher, and 
the arms of the family (see illustration). 

[I ut Uutke'b IIoi 


,• — i 

A3 * 


'.r N'^v 

*'ira.NT \liiw 01- Kuthb's Uuusk. Paulume>t-»t., Kilkenm, IB IBU8, 
After the io«l ud ch[ianeyi bjid been restored, but before Ibe &iint had been resaiMcd. 



¥ayor of the Bull Bing; a post which seems to have conferred both honour 
and fees upon the holder. I may add to this that I attended the lastbull- 
lait which was held in Kilkenny. I think it was on Michaelmas Day, 
1832, the day on which mayors were elected under the old system. 

Several sculptured stones^ about the churchyards, and medieeval 
Louses of Kilkenny bear witness to the high social standing of the Archer 
family, but I regret that I can only exhibit somewhat imperfect illustra- 
iioDS of two of these. Sereral places also 
bear the name of the family, such as Archer* s 
Lease, Archer's Grove, Archer's Fields, 
and Archer Street. 
Their town house 
also remains in 
good condition; 
^though modern- 
ised, still some of 
the muUioned win- 
dows and octagonal 
cutstone chimney 
shafts are to be 
seen, and the ac- 
companying rubbing and reduced copy of it will give a good idea of 
the sculptured coat of arms which is set in the street f t'Qpt,; over 
the hall -door.' 

I believe that the late Rev. John F. Shearman, p.p., m.r.i.a., was 
bom in this house, which is still in the possession of his brother's widow, 
in whose hands it is in remarkably good keeping. 

Monogram of Peter Archer. 

Insignia of Martin Archer. 

* Many years ago, when examining tombstones in St. Patrick** churchyard, 
Kilkenny, I observed the tOp of a thick and carefully wrought stone exposed a little 
over the ground; on it were neatly carved the arrow-heads of the Archer family, and 
two or three lines of a Latin epitaph could be seen. I intended to have ^ot the earth 
removed about it, but when I subsequently wont to look after it, the stune had been 
reburied or removed — I could never lind it again. 

' See illustration. From the inscription underneath it we learn the source whence 
the late Sir Martin Archer Shee, p.h.a., was so named. The following is the in- 
st-ription under the insignia of Martin Archer, in old English characters : — 

Jnstyma Merit 

ni prober 

* * * Kilhenotensts 


*• • The rubbing fails to give the letters cut here, pi-obably '^civitatis ** or 
dvis.*' The annonal insignia is a shield bearing a chevron with three arrow* 
Jieads, in allusion to the name of Archer. 


( 32 ) 





[Read Janvauy 17, 1899.] 

T^NcouRAGEi) by the kind reception given by the Eoyal Society of Anti- 
""^ quaries of Ireland to my former communication on the fortified 
Btone lake-dwelling on Lough Skannive in Counemara, I venture to send 
to the Society the foUowiug notice of another stone lake-dwelling seen 
by me on Lough CuUen, near Foxford, in the county Mayo. 

My son and I were fishing for pike on this lough, and on nearing an 
island, about the centre of it, we immediately recognised a stone lake- 
dwelling, but fax larger than those on Skannive. On questioning our 
boatmen we learnt that the island was called *' Garrison Island " ; why, 
they could not tell ! ''But who," we asked, *' constructed the builds 
ing ? " '' Ah ! sure " was the reply, " some small farmer had the island 
and biult a house for himself on it " ! ! and this was all the informationt 
we could obtain about it. We determined to return another day, with 
the kodak camera, and examine the structure. This we accomplished^ 
and I have the pleasure of forwarding some views taken by my son from 
various points, for the purpose of illustration. I will now describe 
the structure, and further allude to the pictures. 

The island on which it is built is ovoid in shape, and about 150- 
yards long. The building occupies the whole of the wider end, and 
stretches from side to side down to the water. It is nearly circular, 
being 102 feet across from E.S.E. to W.N.W., and 103^ feet measured 
across that line, at right angles, the outside of the walls being included. 
They are 8 or 9 feet in thickness, and about 17 feet high on the land 
side, and, perhaps, 20 or 25 feet to the water, where they drop into- 
the lake. 

They are formed of stones of various sizes, some being very large, 
weighing probably several tons. These are shown in the views marked 
1, 2, and 3. A strong mortar or cement was used in some places to bind, 
the stones together ; I send a piece to show its coarseness and hardness. 
Over and inside the cavity shown in the centre of view 2, there is a 
large stone upheld, apparently, entirely by this strong cement. At first 
we were inclined to think that this cavity was a doorway, from the even 
surface of the left side ; but the inside is so blocked up with stone and. 

^ - i ■ ■« ..Jl . 

'i'Mfe NEW YOHK 




cement that we were forced to the conclusion that it was merely a break 
ia the continuity of the wall, caused hj the falling out of the stones from 
being imperfectly ** bonded " on that left side. Supposing it to haye 
been a doorway, it could only have been a source of weakness to the 
citadel. It would have been shut with a wooden doori and thus vulnerable 
by fire. I conceive that access was obtained to the inside of the building 
by ladders that coidd bo let down from the top and withdrawn at 

Some of the stones are about two yards long by one thick, thus dif- 
fehng essentially from those used on Lough Skannive, where they are 
all small. 

On the north and west sides the building is much dilapidated. The 
nearest shore of the lough is on the west side. 

Yiew 3 is that of the south side, showing the '' round " of the build- 
ing to the westward. Unfortunately, we get a view of my son's 
fishing-rod, which was not seen in the tiny reflecting glass of the kodak ! 
A view was taken from the same side, but nearer, to show, by com- 
parison with the human figure, the size of some of the stones. A blur 
in the plate injured this view. ' 

Yiew 2 shows the portion of the building facing due east. It is 
covered with ivy. 

Yiew 1 W9S taken from a distance. If this is covered partly by view 3, 
a good idea is given of the round of the building. 

Inside the building wo scrambled up by the broken part, and 
measured the diameter of the building by means of the line on my 
fishing-rod. This part of the wall was beautifully laid with large 
stones, following the round of the inside curve veiy accurately, and 
below them was a second ** course," projecting 9 or 10 inches, and 
very evenly and nicely laid. YVe conjectured these were to enable 
people to stand on them and pass up stones to the warriors above, to 
harl down on the foe outside. 

Just below we could trace two small room?. The largest 10 feet 
6 inches by 12 feet, with walls 3 feet thick. The smaller (separated 
from it by the remains of a wall, or a stone raised floor 6 feet thick) 
is 10 feet 6 inches by 7 feet. The whole of the interior is a mass 
of stones of the size of those used in the building of these rooms. No 
mortar was seen about them. 

One of oar boatmen said that three years previously he had accom- 
{Minied a gentleman who had moved some of the stones in an endeavour 
to reach a shieldrake's nest, and had found a lot of bones. ^ He said 
they found a ^' long bone " which had been broken by the fall of a 8tone on 

* The bones sent by Mr. Lajard were examined by Dr. Frazer, f.u.c.b.i., 20, 
Harcourt- street, Dublin, and were pronounced by aim to be those of cattle. — 

i» f . M. FKbBNCH. 

jovji. B.S.A.I., VOL. XX., PT. X., 6th sku. D 


it ; he pointed out the spot, and being lame and unable to go to it myself, 
' over the rough floor, I sent him to see if he could find any remains. He 
brought back the fractured '^long bone" and a portion of a pelvis, 
showing the socket of the hip-bone, which I herewith send for the inspec- 
tion of an anatomist who would be able to say what they are. 

At present the only living tenants of the ruin are numerous ''bank 
martins " {IRrundo riparia) which nest in the crevices between the stones 
composing the outer wall. As we sat eating our lunch, the birds were 
flying all round us. Suddenly a sparrow-hawk dashed in among them, 
and seizing one proceeded to devour it within sixty yards of us ; we tried 
a rescue, but the spoiler flew off with his prey. 

I regret the impei'fection of two of the views. Unfortunately, we 
could not develop the negatives until our return home to Budleigh, 
Salterton : consequently, the blemishes were not seen till too late to 
replace the films by taking others. 

( 35 ) 


By Dr. WILLIAM FRAZER. M.R.I.A., Pbllow, Hon. F.S.A. (8co ^^ JJFtjjk »t ^^ 

[Read June 15th, 1898.] 

Part I. — Stone and Bkonzb ** Patrick's Chombb." 



A BKLL shrine was purchased in 1887 for the Museum of the Royal 

Irish Academy, known as the ''Corp Naomh," with its leathern 

'^polaire/' or portable case. Substituted for the original bell was a 

block of hard wood ; and the shrine itself was damaged in parts, and had 

additioiis made to it of later date, such as a bronze crucifix, a small silver 

plate placed under one arm of the cross with opposed figures of a griffin 

and lion ; also about five inches in length of silver bordering nailed on, 

which need not be further described. I ascertained from the catalogue 

of the Industrial Exhibition, held by the Royal Dublin Society in 1853, 

that this shrine, numbered 1962, was shown there by Mr. Qeorge Smith 

us ''The Corp Naomh, or Holy Body, supposed to be the shrine of an 

ancient bell, with the figure of our Saviour on it, formerly belonging to 

the chapel of Templecross, Co. Meath." A reference was made to Val- 

lancey's " Collectanea," vol. vi., page 73, which enabled its history to be 

further elucidated. It related to a " Chorographical Description of Co. 

Westmeath,'* written in 1682 by Sir Henry Piers, Bart., containing the 

following extracts: — 

'^ Tristemagh — west of here, not a quarter of a mile, is seated a small 

and well-built chapel now in good repair." " We have from ancient 

days a certain relique remaining even yet amongst us, kept by a certain 

gentleman, a great zealot of the Roman Church, with no small veneration ; 

they call it the * Corp Nou * [in a note, * properly Corp Naomh 'J, that is 

in English, the Holy or Blessed Body. The thing itself is no more than 

a small piece of wood shaped somewhat like a Bible of the smaller 

volume, laced about with laces of brass, and on some parts studded over 

on the one side with pieces of crystal, all set in silver, and here and there 

larded with silver, set or chased into the wood, and fastened with nails, 

some brass and some silver. On the other side appears a crucifix of 

'braas, and -whether it hath anything hidden within, is known, I believe, 

to no man living, but it hath been, and is held to this day, in great 


Piers describes its employment for administering oaths and for 
curing diseases, and relates a legend of its miraculous recovery when 
lost, which it is needless to repeat. The shrine came into the possession 
of the Piers' family about this time, and from their representatives 



reached the Smiths, from whom it was purchased for the Museum. On 
its purchase I was given a good water-colour drawing, and subsequently 
had photographs taken. 

The semi-circular upper part of the shrine is original and early work, 
composed of hard yellow bronze ; it measures four and three-quarter 
inches wide at its base, and is two and a-half inches high ; the front and 
back are decorated with figures deserving special notice. It is sur- 
rounded on its free edge by a narrow border of bronze, about half an 
inch wide, perforated by a running-knot pattern. The centre figure on 
the front is an ecclesiastic whose head projects beyond the border, his 
feet reaching to the lower edge, they are represented with sandals, and 
the entire figure is two and three-quarter inches high. The face has 
whiskers and a well-defined beard arranged in seven curls, which extend 
slightly beneath the lower part of the interlaced border. The costume 
of this ecclesiastic consists of an outer wrap or mantle bordered by wide 
edgings, and the material represented seems as if its series of cross lines 
was intended to hold either enamel colours or Niello. The mantle covers 
an inner garment extending down to the ankles, having a broad band at 
its lower margin. The pattern marked in incised lines on this portion of 
the figure appears to represent some fabric similar to tartan. A square- 
shaped book is held by both hands across the waist of this figure, such 
as is borne by ecclesiastics represented on certain Scottish stone monu- 
ments, which will be more fully referred to, likewise on some of the 
figures in the pages of the Book of Kells, and also on the small bronze 
plaque of early date, of a cleric, in the Museum of the Academy, that 
would appear to have belonged to a shrine, as it has perforations for 
rivets suitable for fastening it. 

On eh;her side of the central figure of the Corp Naomh is a horseman 
facing inwards, mounted on a small horse. Similar in all particulars to 
those represented on several Scottish monumental stones, such as those 
at Eerriemuir, near Kirkcaldly, at Edderton, in Ross-shire, and at Meigle 
(see for reference '^ The Sculptured Stones of Scotland," published by 
the Spalding Club, and Private Plates by Bishop Browne, when Disney 
Lecturer at Cambridge, 1890). These horsemen have long pointed 
beards, and their peculiar head-dress, with long tails or appendages, may 
aid in suggesting a probable date for them, being similar to one worn by 
a horseiuaa on a coin of Sweyn, King of Denmark, figured by Dr. L. B. 
Stenerson. Unfortunately, there were two Sweyns, dating a.d. 914 and 
A.D. 968 : hence it is uncertain to which of these the coin mentioned is 
attributable. The caps or helmets appear composed of some felted 
material, not made from plates of metal, and date much earlier than 
the Danish kings, for similar headgear is sculptured on a number 
of the Scottish stones at Aberlemno, Rossie, East Wemyss, and 
Scoonie. For reliable representation of these I am indebted to Bishop 

ON " patrick'h CROSS>:a." 37 

Above each horBeman is represented a lai^e bird with extended 
^ings ; these birds may symboliBe the martyrdom of the central figure, 
that of the cleric. See, bearing on this Bnggeetion, a paper by Rev. B. 
M'Carthy, D.n,, Todd ProfesBOr, on "The Tripartite Chronicle of Marianus 
ScotuB," which states : — " hie erant Ares. Typus Martyrum." On the 
shoulders of the central ecclesiastic's figure are placed two conspicuous 
circular ornaments, having transverse markings forming the Early Eastern 
Cross, with its equal-rayed limbs, which recall onr once popular and uni- 
versally worn " Patrick's Crosses." The custom of wearing tbeae on the 
Saint's anniversary, in pairs, one on each breast or shoulder, continued in 
Dublin until a few years ago, and has not yet altogether disappeeredfrom 
country districts. They were usually made from paper with the aid of 

Umament on Upper Ftuel at end of tlie Shiioe " Corp Naomh." 

water-colour paints, ribbons, and sometimes ahomrocks, I purchased 
specimens in the city in 1897. Being distinctive emblems of Christian 
teaching, they might bo expected to be the recognised badge of those who 
possessed rank in the Celtic churches. 

Thus, referring again to the stone monuments preserved in Scotland, 
there is at Invergowrie, on the Firth of Tay, situated within the bounds 
of tho kingdom that belonged to the Southern Picts, a slab, the upper 
panel of which has carved on it the figures of three clerics, all of whom 
are habited in garments corresponding to those worn on the figure now 
described on the Corp Naomh bell shrine, that is, composed of outer coats 
or mantles covering tunica descending to the ankles, and also each sup- 
porting square hooks similarly held across the middle of their bodies, and 


the central figure, ia addition, saBtaiiiH a bell which is Euspended be- 
neath the book. For a satisfactory illuBtration of thiebcll Bishop Srovoe's 
plate must he referred to, for the drawings shown in the " Sculptured 
Stones of Scotland," vol. ii., plate 86, are less accurate, and omit the bell 

On this slab, both the lateral figures are decorated with juiir* of 
these St. Patrick's crosses, identical in all 
respects with that on our belt shrine, affixed 
to each shoulder. These make it obvious that 
such Christian emblems were employed in 
pairs, and the importance of this conclu- 
sion will appear hereafter when considerinn 
similar gold objects, the description of which 
is the special purport of my communication. 

If we inquire after early representations 
more strictly of Irish origin, there is thf 
bronze figure of n cleric once ornamented 

Sculptured Stone at Meigle. Figure Irum Si. Uaiicb'n't Shrine. 

with gold on its surface in the Academy Museum, measuring 7) inches 
high, holding a short baculus with both hands, and on the shoulders are 
distinctive disks with central crosses. A drawing of this figure is found 
in our Journal, 4th scries, vol. iii, p. 7, which give details of costume 
and ornaments, Ac. It would appear to be one of the missing figures 
once belonging to the Irish shrine of St. Uenchon. 

When examining drawings of some of the tombs preserved in the 
island of lona, that of the abbot Uackinnon attracted my notice ; this 
a long line of Culdee and Celtic clerics died i.i>. 1500; 

OM "Patrick's cbossbs." 39 

big tomb, dmilar to too many others at lona, has anBtained Hrious 
damages, for an evil disposed person vaa detected, having broken oS the 
face of the abbot, endeavoaring to steal it. On the shonlders of this 
figure appear to be carved the remains of tvo of these " 8t. Patrick's 
Croiiea." Should subsequent investigatioa confirm my conjectare ws 
will obtain a valuable link in the history of these objecta, and bring 
down the period of their employment for ecclesiastical dress oniament 
to ■ comparative late date. 

Put II. — Gou) "Pitxicx's Cbosses" — i fubthek ConiRiBdnojr ro 
THi HisTOBT or Gold Oiaiiusrm fodnd iir iKEUirn. 

We are now in a position to inquire whether our Museums in their 
itorea of Irish antiquities preserve for ns any decorative ornaments that 
iTould correspond with those sculptured disks in stone and bronze, 
bearing the Chrietian symbol of a central Greek or eastern cross, if so 
it should enable us to throw further light upon their hi8t«ry. For 
example, if found complete they ought to occur in pairs, for so were 
they worn on each shoulder according to the numerous ecclesiastical 

Cinmlar FUte of (ioJd in U.I.A, Colleoliaa, Elcieiloe nod Art Museum. 

representations already enumerated. I restrict the present inquiry to 
Celtic Ireland, tor the Continent has yielded a considerable number of 
"Maltese " or "Greek" crosses with equal-sized arms, made from thin 
lamiofB of gold, similar in this respect to ours, and likewise having each 
tiro perforations for attaching them to the dress of the wearer, a marked 
feature in the Celtic gold crosaes, as I hope to show, but differing in not 
having around the cross the circular golden disk. These ere obtained 
(rem Gaulish and Germanic cemeteries, and from graves in Lombardy, 
N that in one sense they are not distinctively Irish and Celtic, but 


appear to show a much ^der Continental distribntion, the limita of 
which it vould be very iDstructiTe to inveatigate. A. long list ot these 
Continental gold croeses ia contained in the Oaulle Arehsahgiptt, 
vol. 13, and ezampleB are preserved in the museums of Augsburg and 

Forming a well-marked section of the gold antiquities of the Beyal 
Irish Academjr Museiun are a series of eleven thin circular disks of gold, 
all of which have modifications or variations of Greek crosses in their 
centre, surrounded by borders, either plain or decorated hv linear- 
punched elevations of rather rude execution, still connected in style of 
ornamentation with our other gold objects; they range in transverse 

Circular Plata of Gold in E.l.A. Collection, Science and Art Uuacum. 

measurement from about 2 inches to nearij' 4^ inches across. In the 
largest pair of these objects the ornamentation is peculiar to it, consist- 
ing of six borders of dots placed at regular intervals from each other, 
and two lines disposed in zigzag patterns, the rnys of the cross being 
marked by lines of raised dots. All the disks have, near their centres, 
two small perforations which would permit of their being sewn to any 

Of these eleven disks eight were discovered by their finders concealed 
in pairs. Cue is imperfect, and the history of the remainder tells only of 
their being acquired for tlie Kuseum of the Academy. If We go beyond 



the limits of Ireland, there is, in the Stourliead Collection, one of these 
objects, of which a p^Ur were found associated with an unbnraed inter- 
ment in Wiltshire. See a description by Dr. Thamham in '' ArchsBo- 
logia/' vol. 43, p. 527. There is also said to be a pair preserved in the 
Ashmolean Museum. So that all the evidence yet obtained appean 
conclasive as to these occurring in pairs similar to each other wherever 
they are found. 

The subjoined list records in tabular form the transverse measure- 
ments of all gold disks in our Museum, their respective weights given in 
pennyweights and grains, and brief accounts of their history so far at 
can be ascertained : — 















< I 

t 2ft 


8 , 2}l)y2| 

f 9 ' 2ft 

•-lO 2 J 

11 If 

dwt. gx. 

6 19 
4 10 

13 20 
13 2 

14 12 

4 12 
4 17 

4 4 

2 4 

Reference in 
Museum Catalogues. 


Old Registry, 267 





14 15 , Register, Hl^. 





4 13 Old Registry, 270. | 

Register, mK 

Petrie Collection, 

Old Registry, 268. i 




Ballina, Co. Mayo ; obtained 
by Rev. Dr. Todd. Figured 
in Wilde's " Catalogue." 

Found in Co. Wexford in 1838, 
and were in Collection of R. 
i\ntbony, Tiltown, in 1845. 

Found at Tidavnet, parish of 
Teach Damned, Co. Mona- 
ghan. Purchased, in 1872, 
from A. R. Nugent. 

From Dean Dawson's Collec- 

Co. Roscommon. Found with 
another (see Paper in Dublin 
Fenny Journal^ yd. i., pag« 

Co. Roscommon. From Major 
Sirr*s Collection. 

In Wilde's *• Catalogue " ; 
marked imperfect. 

A pair obtained at Ballysbannon, now in Ashmolean Museum. (See Camden*! 
•• Britannia," 1722; also figured in Ware's ** Antiquities.") 

A pair found in a barrow near Mere, Wiltshire, with an unbumed body. (See 
K. Tbumham, m.d., ** Archeologia," vol. 43, p. 527.) One is preserved in 
the Stourhead Collection. 


There seems every reason for believing those gold disks, vith their 
distinctive Greek Crosses, found in pairs in Ireland, andj figured on our 
shrioes and stone monuments, were intended to denote the Christian faith 
of the wearer, and as such worn by Celtic clerics here and in Scotland. 
They are not restricted to one small district from which a precarious 
supply of alluvial gold might be supposed to come ; and, whilst I have 
failed to ascertain their specific gravity, I have no doubt of their 
weights, which enable me to range them in the same general group 
with the other gold ornaments previously described by me in detail ; 
furthermore, we now know that somewhat similar objects of gold are 
discovered from time to time in Germany, Gaul, and Lombardy, countries 
where the only source from which they could be made was by employing 
the universal circulating medium of standardized Roman aurei. I have 
already given my grounds for stating that our lunulse and rings of every 
kind were made from Roman coin reworked, and these gold disks are 
no exception, whilst they are obviously referable to dates subsequent 
to the Christian era, therefore to the same period which other con- 
siderations induced me to date the making of all our Irish gold articles 
save torques, which I have not examined, and purposely exclude from 
my present investigations. I will repeat what I have said before that 
this gold came from Britain subsequent to the reign of Diocletian, and 
was obtained by Celtic invaders, who, for two or three centuries, overran 
that Roman Colony and obtained from it, not only gold, but great num* 
hers of captive slaves. Parenthetically, I may further assert that the 
rapid spread of Christianity under St. Patrick — himself a slave captured 
in Britain — was due essentially to those captives, out of whom became 
organized the Celtic churches in every locality, and which led to the 
conversion of their masters, and to the tolerance of the new religion by 

The style of ornamentation, though perhaps ruder and somewhat 
debased, is correlated in its designs, and particularly in its mode of 
execution, with that of our other gold ornaments. 

The following tabulated lists give the exact weights of each gold 
disk in grains, and if such numbers are divided by the fixed weight 
of gold coin from the end of Diocletian's reign to the teindination of the 
Eastern empire, that is 70 grains of coined metal, we ought to ascertain 
how many aurei were required to make them ; but, for a time antecedent 
to this period of reduced gold currency, aurei were in circulation of a 
heavier standard, namely, 72 grains each : it may be expected that some 
of the disks would fall under the heavier scale. As they are found in 
pairs they were made in pairs, and by adding these weights together 
the result works out coiTcct. Each disk may vary somewhat from ita 
fellow, which would show that the workman did not divide the metal 
into parts with strict accuracy when melting it. 

ON " Patrick's crosses." 


AimBi BEQimiRD FOR Makivo Gold Diskb. 









redurml to 


•5 / 332 \ 
•- / 351 1 



■il 1 


Result* calculated in Roman Aurei, 

245 grains, weighing 3} aurq^ exact. 

646, equfll to 9 heavier aurei of 72 grains each, 
less 2 grains. 

699 grains, equal to 10 aurei less 1 grain. 

To make a pair would require 3 heavy aurei plus 
1 grain. 

To make a pair would require 3 aurei exact. 

213 grains, weigliing 3 atirei plus 3 grains. 




[Read Mabch 29, 1898.] 

SEcnoK I. 

^' If you really intend to go deeply into tlie question of Celtic Anti- 
quities " (said Professor Max Muller), " it is to Ireland you must 
go " ; and I think I may be justified in saying that even in Ireland we 
could hardly find a more favourable field for study than the county in 
which I now reside, since, amongst many others, it presents such fields 
for inquiry as Clonmacnoise, Rahin, Tihilly, and Durrow. 

On a previous occasion I read a Paper on '' The Old Churchyards of 
Burrow Parish," and I then brought before you some of the interesting 
remains which have so far withstood, to some extent, the ravages 
wrought by the hand of time, aided and abetted by the trying nature 
of our climate and the destructive habits of our race. 

I have now to show you illustrations of a different kind, which will 
direct your notice to objects of interest connected with my parish which 
coiild hardly be said to come under the title of my former paper ; and I 
give, as addenda, some extracts from ancient documents and notices of the 
annalists in which I find reference made to this ancient and historic 

This will, I think, help to group together the important records of 
the parish, and show that Durrow continu^d^ to be an important centre 
of learning for many years, and that though the light kindled then by 
St. Columba may have waxed dim or even flickered for a time, that 
still the lamp of truth which he kindled has never been altogether 
quenched, even though it may never have shone so brightly as in its first 
and most palmy days. 

Any account of monastic life in Durrow which did not take notice of 
its celebrated MSS. would be very incomplete indeed. Concerning one 
of them I cannot, I think, do better than quote the words of the late 
Professor Stokes, whose loss I am sure we aU feel. Writing about tlie 

^ Cf, Reeves's '* Antiquities of Irish Churches," in which he speaks of Durrow 
amongst " the earliest and most important, but not most enduring, of St. ColumbiL* 
foundations." I suppose he alludes to Durrow afterwards being changed to 
Auguitinian monastery. 

Id TriDitj Collcie 




celebrated epiatle of Cnmmian,* written to the Abbot of I Columkille in 
the jear 634, be says : — *' I call it a marrellous composition because of the 
Tasiness of its learning. It quotes, besides the Scriptures and Latin 
aothors, Greek writers like Origen, Cyril, and Fachonius, the head and 
reformer of Egyptian monasticism, and Damascius, the last of the cele- 
brated neo-Platonic philosophers of Athens, who lired about the year 
600, and who wrote all his works in Greek. Cummian discuiweB the 
calendar of the Macedonians, Hebrews, and Copts, giving us the Hebrew, 
Greek, and Egyptian names of months and cycles, and tells us that he had 
been sent as one of a deputation of learned men a few years before to 
ascertain the practice of the Church of Rome with regard to Easter.'' 
" This long letter " (said Professor Stokes) '' proves to demonstration that 
in the first half of the seventh century there was a wide range of Greek 
learning, not ecclesiastical merely, but chronological, astronomical, and 
philosophical, away at Dnrrow in the very centre of the Bog of Allen." 
It will be in the recollection of all who are interested in the subject that 
Commian's epistle engages in controversy on the great Pascal question 
as to the time when Easter should be celebrated. St. Cummian ad* 
vocated the Roman method, while Segenius and the monks of Hy held to 
the opposite, as observed by St. Columba. St. Fintan of Taghmon (the 
founder of Tihilly, now in the parish of Burrow) also held to the Irish 
method of ob^rving Easter. Perhaps, however, it is only right to men- 
tion that all writers do not seem as certain respecting Cummian's identity 
with Durrow as was Professor Stokes. Reeves, in his ^* Adamnan " 
(Lib. T., p. 27), tells us that Cummian, in 636, appeared at a Synod at 
Campus Lene (or Magh Lena), near the modem TuUamore, when he 
pleaded for uniformity of practice. Colgan's ** Acta SS.," p. 411, says, 
" Cummian is said to have been Abbot of Durrow.'' Lanigan thinks the 
notice of him. does not refer to the great monastery of Durrow, but to 
Bisert Chuimin. However, in vol. ii. page 393, he says that *'He seems 
to have been a Columbian monk, and was probably educated in the 
Colombian monastery of Durrow, which was subject to the superinten- 
dence of the Abbot of Hy. At the time of the proceedings now related 
be had apparently an establishment of his own, which was in all likelihood 
that of Disert Chuimin, so called from his name, now Kilonin or Elilcum- 
min in the King's County, near Eoscrea." A work which is in the monas- 
tery of St. Gall in Switzerland, called *' De poenitentiarum mensura," 
was also, Lanigan thinks, written by him. 

I have also obtained a copy of a photograph of a MS. which 

' There were evidently about this time a number of celebrated men of ihia name. 
MiM Margaret Stokea tells ua of a Cummian who came from Ireland to end his days 
it Bdbbio ; he flouiiahed drea 630-670. She also teUa how hia tomb is covered with 
ioterlacing bearing a strong resemblance to that which we find on the High Crosses 
of Ireland in liie tenth century (ef. ** Six Months in the Appennines,*' and also her 
Mcoont there of the sarcophagus of Cummian). There is also a Cummiau who was 
Abbot of Clonmacnoise. Colgan, too, mentions a number of people of that name. 


is in the Bodleian Library, of which I shall speak more presently. 
But the best known of our MSS. is, of course, the Book of Burrow, 
which is in the Library of Trinity College, Dublin. And, as I look at 
those illustrations, I think with pride of the literary work which used to 
be done in my parish in olden times, though it be mingled with regret 
that we cannot now attempt to emulate the skill and artistic taste of the 
scribe who wrote it. Perhaps it may interest you to hear that I am 
sometimes asked by persons whether I have obtained any of the informa- 
tion I have been able to get about Burrow from this celebrated book. It 
may not therefore be amiss to say, as briefly as I am able, something 
of what is known about "The Book of Burrow." To beg^ with — 
Its antiquity is proved beyond doubt both by the character of the book 
itself and also from the fact that it is recorded that the first book-shrinc 
or comdach we read of, the date of which can be fixed with any historical 
certainty, was made for this book by the King of Irelaiid, Flann Sinna, 
son of Malachy, who reigned between tlie years 877 and 916. This book- 
shrine is indeed now loat» but it was seen by Roderick O'Flaherty in 1677, 
who wrote the following on the flyleaf of the Gospel it was made to en- 
shrine (" Inscriptio Hibemicis Uteris incisa cruci argenteaein opeiimento 
hujus Libri in transversa crucis parte nomen artificis indicat ; et in lon- 
gitudinc tribus lineis a sinestra et totidem dextra et sequitur *)^ oroit acus 
benducht Choluimb Chille do Flaund Mac Mailsechnaill do Bigherewn 
la sa ndernadacumdach so ' " (t.^.. An inscription in Irish letters cut on a 
silver cross in the corner of the book or the transverse part of the cross 
indicates the name of the maker, and on the length three lines from the 
left, and the like number on the right, as follows : — *' Columkille's prayer 
and blessing for Flann, son of Mail Sechnaill for the King of Ireland by 
whom the case was made "). This Flann, son of Malachi, was King of 
Ireland, a.d. 879-916. The Most Bev, Br. Healy, writing of this 
work, describes it as follows : — 

'* The < Book of Durrow ' is a highly ornate copy of the Four Gospels, 
according to Jerome's version ; it is written across the page in single columns. 
The MS. also contains the Epistle of St. Jerome to Pope Bamasus, an explana- 
tion of ceiiain Hebrew names, with the Eusebeian Canons and synoptical 

This description may fitly be supplemented by a quotation from the 
" National MSS. of Ireland," by John Gilbert, f.s.a. 

'*<Tbe Book of Burrow is," he says, "an ornamental copy of the Four 
Gospels in the Vulgate version, written across the page mainly in single columns, 
and preceded by the Epistle of St. Jerome to Pope Damasus, an explanation of 
Hebrew names, Eusebeian Canons, and synoptical tables. It contains symbolical 
representations of the Evangelists, and pages of coloured, spiral, interlaced, and 
tesselated ornamentation. The general number of lines on a page is 25 or 26. 
Among the capitals, Greek letters are occasionally introduced, and the ptfculiar 
red dotted and lineation occur abundantly throughout the book.** 

Miss Margaret Stokes, commenting on the fact that it was associated 

The Fiiuti f aok up ^t. Miuk'h Gudi-BL, i 
Ib Trinity College, E 


with the name of St. Colnmba, and venerated accordingly as early aa the 
ninth century, yet points out that the fact that it is according to St. 
Jerome's Tersion would indicate that it was not so old as the sixth century, 
as at that period a different yersion was in use. Accordingly, we find that 
the date ascribed to it in Trinity College Library is the seventh century. 
Miss Stokes also points out a curious fact connected with the book, i.e. 
that, in the miniature, at the end of the book, of an ecclesiastic, the Irish 
tonsure and not the Boman is used* On what was originally the last folio 
of the book (now folio 15, by error of binding), we find the usual request 
of the Irish scribe : — 

"Rogo beatitudinem tuam scS praesbiter Patriei ut quicunque hunc libellUm 
manu tenuerit memineiit Columbae ■criptoris qui hoc scripsi [ — ] met eTange- 
lium per xii dierum spatium gra dni Hri.*' 

** I pray thy bleuedness, holy Presbyter, Patrick, that whoever shall take 
this book into bis hands may remember the writer Columba, who have myself 
written this Gospel in the space of twelve days, by the grace of our Lord.**^ 

I am indebted further to Miss Margaret Stokes for this remark, that 
while *^ the Book of Durrow has fewer varieties of design in it than the 
Book of Kells, yet that those it does possess belong to the most charac- 
teristic and archaic style of Christian art." The MS. was preserved at 
Durrow until the year 1623, when it was taken possession of by Henry 
Jones, who had been scout-master to Cromw^irs army in Ireland, then 
Vice-Chancellor of Trinity College, Dublin, and afterwards Bishop of 
Meath. O'Flaherty saw the Book in 1677.* ** I have seen," he says, 
"handwritings of St. Columba in Irish characters, as straight and aa 
fair as any priest, of about 1000 years standing, and Irish letters 
engraven in the time of Flann, King of Ireland, deceased in a.d. 916." 
I cannot refrain from repeating again the reference to this Book which 
is in the "Annals of Clonmacnoise." The writer tells us that 
St. Columba wrote 300 books with his own hand, and that they were all 
New Testaments, and also that he left a book to each of his churches in 
the kingdom — 

" which Bookea liave a strange property, which is that if they, or any of them, bad 
sunck to the bottom of the Deepest waters, they would not lose one letter, eigne, or 
cbaiacter of them, w*^ I have seen partly by myselfe of that book of them which is 
at Dorow, in the £* County, for I saw the Ignorant man, who had the same in his 
Custody, when sickness came on cattle, for their Remedy putt water on the booke, 
and Suffered it to rest there for awhile ; and saw also catile retume thereby to their 
former or pristin state, and the book to receave no loss." 

This is a very old tradition, and it seems to owe its origin to an incident 
recorded in Adamnan's '^Lile of St. Columba.'* In Book ii. two 
chapters are devoted to this subject. In chapter viii., he tells us of a 

' Lower down is the following :— '' Oru pro me frater mi dns tecum sit." 
' Beneath the inscription in the Book quoted above there is an entry — ** Hanc 
loicriptionem interpretatus est £o. Flaherty, 19 Jan. 1677." 


, yo«th who fell into the River Boyne, and was drowned, his hodj not 
being recovered for twenty days, when a leaf of a book, written by 
St. Golamba, was found in his pocket, dry and uninjured, amongst a 
number of others, which were not only corrupted but putrified ; and 
then he proceeds in chapter ix. to give us the following narrative.^ 

<' At another time a book of hymns for the week, written by S. Columba's 
own hand, together with the leather satchels in which it was contained, f dl from 
the shoulders of a certain boy, who slipped off a bridge and was drowned in a 
certain river in the province of Leinster, which little book remaining in the 
water, from the Nativity of our Lord until the end of Easter Week, and after* 
wards found on the bank of the river by some women who were walking there, 
is carried in the same satchel, which was not only wet but putrified, to one 
Jogenan, a Presbyter, and a Pict by nation, to whom it had previously belonged, 
and when the same Jogenan opened the satchel, he found his little book incor- 
rupted, and as clean and dry as if it had remained all that time in a case, and had 
never fallen into water. But we bave learned without doubt, from men of 
experience, that other like things occiured with respect to books written by 
the hand of S. Columba, which books, be it known, being immersed in water, 
could in no way be corrupted." 

I have to express my gratitude to the liev. Dr. Abbott, who has 
kindly allowed me to exumine this most interesting MS. connected with 
the history of Durrow, and which was preserved there for so many 
centuries; but I would add that he did not give me permission, nor, 
indeed, did I seek for it, to experiment with it in this way, or bring 
back the water cure for the diseased cattle of my parish. However, 
my inspection of the book satisfied my mind as to the veracity of the 
account given in the '' Annals of Glonmacnoise," as I had ocular proof, 
from numerous water stains, that water evidently had been poured on the 
book in the way the writer describes. Another fact regarding the book 
which I thought of interest is the precatory entry in Irish made in it by 
Connell M'Geoghegan, the translator of tlie ** Annals of Clonmacnoise," 
in May, 1633, and who probably made the entry at the time 
the book was in 'Hhe ignorant man's" possession, to whom Connell 
M'Geoghegan refers as quoted above. The date, too (1633), has 
an interest for me. For the date of Connell M^Geoghegan's visit 
to Durrow is the same (as its hall-mark indicates) as that of 
the presentation of the silver chalice, which is still used in 
Durrow Church. I think, therefore, I may be justified in supposing 
that this silver chalice was presented at this time to Durrow Churchy 
by the translator of the ** Annals of Clonmacnoise," when he visited 
Durrow, wrote his name in its celebrated book, and had ocular 
proof of the historic water-cure. The M*Geoghegans were at this time 
people whom oue would expect to make a gift of the kind, for in the 
'* Martyrology of Donejfal," completed about 1620, we find a memorandum 

' I have, for the most part, followed the translation of Henry Frowde here, and in 
other places where I quote from Adamnan*s '* Life ot St. Columba." 


which not only shows that the Book of Colnmcille, called the Book of 
DuTTOw, was at Durrow, but adds that Durrow was then in the district 
of the M'Geoghegans. The name then continued in the district for 
some time, and a Connell M'Qeoghegan attended yestry meetings in 
Darrow parish, as his signature witnesses, in 1713, 1714, 1719, 1721, 
and 1722. 

Then with regard to the illumination of the book itself. One feature 
vhich especially interested me and attracted my attention was how 
largely the zoomorphic element entered into the designs. My mind at 
once reverted to the strange interlaced dragons on Tihilly Cross which 
hare been so well illustrated for me in a former paper by Mr. Westropp. 
One cannot help wondering what brought such strange and hideous 
2D0Q8ter8 into a beautifully written sacred document. In each case 
there is a striking contrast between the beautiful geometrical inter- 
lacing, fret patterns and spirals which we find there, upon which the eye 
always rests with delight, and these strange uncouth monsters. It is 
the same, I think, as the feeling one has in some grand cathedral when 
you turn from examining the tracery of its windows or the symmetry of 
its arches and doors, and your eye rests on some hideous gargoyle. And 
yet there is undoubtedly an interest and strange fascination in them. As 
I write, some of the uncouth monsters outside the beautiful churches 
of Normandy appear before me, and I contrast the Angel Choir in Lincoln 
Cathedral with " The Devil overlooking Lincoln " and its well-known 
cross-legged imp. But to return to the Book of Durrow. Another 
curious illustration is the calf or bull, at the commencement of St. Luke, 
with a spiral on its leg or hip. I drew a comparison in my mind at 
once with the High Cross, and thought of the same kind of decoration on 
the angel's wing. I daresay other parallels will occur to the reader's 
mind of this archaic design. I have seen the same kind of spirals in the 
British Museum on gold ornaments found at Enkoni, near Salamis, in 
Cyprus, and which go back to the Mycenaean Period. There is also an 
Irish MS. there, written by Maelbrigte Hua Macludnaig at Armagh, 
A.i>. 1138, in which there is a figure which bears a striking resemblance 
to the one in the Book of Durrow. It has been noticed by more than 
one writer that there is not the slightest trace of a floral or foliaceous 
design in this MS., and Mr. Brun, in his description of the book, seems 
to make a strong point of this ; and also I note that Miss Margaret 
Stokes (whose opinion is of value) says that there is no sign of any 
floral forms being used. Nevertheless, it seems to me that one 
cannot look at the ornamented page used as a frontispiece to the 
Epistle of St. Jerome, without seeing that leaves are used for decora- 
tive purposes amongst the trumpet and interlaced patterns which we 
find there, even though they do not take a prominent place in the 

tOVU. B«S.Ji.l., VOL. XX., PT. I., 6tH 8ER. £ 


Section II. 

From the Book of Durrow I pass to another interesting relic of Bur- 
row's past celehrity. It, too, has heen removed from our care and taken 
for safe keeping to the Eoyal Irish Academy's Museum. I refer to the 
Durrow Crozier. Miss Margaret Stokes, in her " Early Christiian Archi- 
tecture in Ireland," reminds us that the crozier originally had its origin 
in *' the oaken staff of the itinerant hishop, which is still visible through 
the chinks and openings in which it was afterwards enshrined (chap. iii. 
** Stone Churches with Cement"). The best example of this which I have 
come across is the Crozier of Durrow, which exemplifies to perfection 
what Miss Murgaret Stokes here describes, and this is made the more in- 
teresting since O'Donnell, in his "Life of St. Columba," informs us that 
when Scanlann, after the Synod of Drumceatt was liberated, St. Columba 
gave him his staff to serve as his safe conduct, directing him to proceed to 
Dermagh and deliver it to Laisranus. Whether it is too great a demand 
to make from you to ask you to suppose that this is the same staff wliich 
we now have in the Museum I must leave yourselves to decide, but no 
one can see the Crozier of Durrow without at least being convinced that 
it bears signs of very great antiquity. Indeed, in the Museum we see a 
notice which tells us that its date is the sixth century. We are also in- 
formed that the head is wanting, that the casing and knobs are of bronze, 
with jewel settings, and that the upper knob is inlaid with gold. It 
seems, however, a matter for regret that when old relics of this kind 
were handed over to a Museum the traditions respecting them were not 
preserved. Some traditional history must have been connected with 
this crozier, which we would expect to have been handed down in 
the McGeoghegan family who were its custodians. 

An interesting notice in the ** Annals of the Four Masters" tells us 
that Farrell Hoe Oge, the son of Farrell Eoe,^ son of Donough, son of 
Murtagh More McGeoghegan, a captain of great repute and celebrity, 
was killed and beheaded at Cruagh-abhal (now Croughool, in the parish 
of Churchtown) by the son of the Baron of Delvin and the grandson of 
Pierce Dalton. They carried his head to Trim, and from thence to 
Dublin for exliibition, but it was afterwards brought back and buried 
along with his body in Durrow Cholum Chille. 

Dean Butler, in his book on Trim, mentions that there seems to have 
been some old ecclesiastical connexion at one time between Durrow and. 
Trim, as a monastic seal of the fourteenth century was found near 
Mullingar bearing on the obverse side the inscription, ** Si^ill. M. 
Abbatis S. Marie de Truim," and on the reverse, ** Si. M. Abb. S. Mai-ie 
de Durmag.," which, he adds, is figured in the Dublin Penny Journals 

Mn 1454, Farrell Roe Mageoghegan resigned liis lordship, and retirod into the 
monastery of Durrow Golumkille, having lost his sight. 


Jot.. R.5Jl.l.." 




^^'.^^= K^"^ 




The wal itself was in the poiwuion of Hr. U. Hurray, of Hnllingar, tn 
18S8. It is ascribed by Fetrie to the thirteenth ceatiiry, and ia now, I 
believe, in the Uuseum of the Royal Irish Academy. 

Srctioit III. 

Sir Henry Piers, in bis " History of Westmeath," gives at length a 
fall deacription of vhat a'termon land was : — " In time past," he says, 
" it was provided that whoever founded a church should endow the 
&ime with certain possessions for the maintenance of those who were to 
attend God's service therein, insomuch that a bishop might not consecrate 
any church before an instrnment of such a donation was provided by the 
fonnder: . . . Hence it came to pass that every church had allotted 
io it a certain proportion of land (with aervaats appertaining thereunto) 
free from all temporal impositions and exactions." ..." Neither is it to 
be doubted," he saya, " but that tl^ose who founded churches upon their 

hmds, being willing to assign an endow- 

ment unto them in places most convenient 
would, for this purpose, especially make 
-choice of the lands next adjoining to the 
bouse they had builded, aa ByJo ("Hist. ■ 
Eccles.," lib. 3, chap. 17) particularly re- 
cordeth, in his history of Bisliop Aiden, 
that he had no proper posseesion, " excepta 
■eeelesia sua et adjacentibus agellis." Now 
erenach and termon lands being free from 
«1I charges of temporal lords as also eccle- 
siitsttcol possessions, were by the fourth 
constitution of the council held at Cashel, 
-anno 1172, the bishops being the chief 
lords of them, and t)ie churches being 

commody built upon them, the reparation Seal of the Moontiery of Dutrow. 
«f a great part whereof being continually ,\m\aw»x. ""° " '"'*"" 

upon the erenach that belonged to them, 

there is no questioii to be made but they were of tliis nature, and for- 
asmuch OS unto these lands certain freedoms were annexed — 1.«. the 
privilege of sanctuary — the iand from thence was called termon or 
free and protected land, for the woi-d Tearmann is used in the Irish 
ton^e for a nanctuary (whence Tormon-fcckin, a town belonging to tlie 
.Archbishop of Armagh hath his denomination as it were the sanctuary 
of Feckin, and muy well be thought to have been borrowed by the Irish 
[ss many otiier words are) from the Latin Urmiau* by reason that suih 
privileged places were commonly bounded by special murks and bounds." 

(7*0 if conlinutd.) 

( 52 ) 



[Submitted March 28, 1899.] 

1^f"Y purpose in writing the work on "Irish Epigraphy" was not to* 
present a history of the various steps in decipherment, and for that 
reason I dismissed with a word a theory to which some Oghamists assert 
their adherence. The author of a treatise on Practical Chemistry does- 
not consider himself bound to devote a chapter to the mysteries of 
Alchemy, and I considered the cryptical theory as occupying the same- 
position with respect to modem scientific methods of decipherment as 
does Alchemy with regard to the processes of a present-day laboratory. 
Perhaps by the application of the cryptical theory important side-lights- 
have been thrown on archaeological difficulties, just as alchemical re- 
searches have indirectly led to important accessions of knowledge ; but 
neither the one or the other have produced direct results which cam 
stand the test of scientific criticism. 

The theory to be criticised, as I understand it, may thus be stated : 
" Certain inscriptions contain unintelligible combinations of sound ; 
these are therefore intentionally obscured in meaning, and their sense- 
must be sought by methods of decipherment other than those ordinarily 
employed. It is legitimate also to employ other methods of decipher- 
ment, even in the case of inscriptions which prima facie appear stmght- 
forward, if historical identifications can thereby be substantiated." 

These statements have been deduced from papers in which the^ 
cryptical method in dealing with individual inscriptions has been followed^ 
Let us examine how far they are justifiable. 

I. * ' Certain inscriptions contain unintelligible combinations of sound. "* 
This was more true twenty years ago than it is now, for very few tran- 
scripts current at that time were reliable. And even of those inscriptions; 
which remain unintelligible, how many owe their obscurity to fracture or- 
abrasion, or faultiness in spacing the letters, or in placing them relatively 
to the stem-line ? When inscriptions, which from these causes remain 
undeciphered, are omitted from the category the number remaining- 
to which by hypothesis ** cryptical " methods may be applied is very 
small indeed. 

II. •' These are therefore intentionally obscured and must be treated* 
as such.*' The flaw in this statement lies in the therefore. For there is- 
a suppressed premiss always glossed over by the ** cryptologist,'* namely^ 


that we have full knowledge of Irish during the Ogham period, and know 
that the fonns current durmg that period were not the forms employed 
on these inscriptions. It is obvious that this must be admitted before 
we can logically come to the conclusion involved in the cryptical Yiypo- 
thesis ; yet it has only to be stated to render its absurdity self-evident. 
Our best scholars are every now and then compelled to own themselves 
beaten by obscurities in Middle Irish ; this is even more the case with 
the glosses that remain to us of Old Irish, and d fortiori must be true of 
proto-Irish, as we may for the moment call the language of the Ogham 

A favourite argument with the cryptologists used to be the difFerenoe 
between the apparent case-inflections of the Oghams and those to which 
we were accustomed in manuscript Irish. But this has now become a 
very striking argument against the theory. Far from -oi and -as genitives 
being merely Grecised and Latinised names, it has been demonstrated 
that such must have existed in the language before the period of our 
oldest MSS., and therefore that they occupy a normal and natural place 
in linguistic development. 

And as new inscriptions are discovered we find that the forms they 
present accord inevitably with canons deduced from monuments already 
known. Not only so, but inscriptions which the pioneers of Ogham 
study pronounced hopelessly defaced, have been made to yield their 
secrets by a judicious application of the same canons to the fragments 
that may happen to be left. Obviously no stronger disproof of any 
iiypothesis of arbitrariness on the part of the engraver of the legends 
could be adduced. We do not find in Oghams such interesting state- 
ments nowadays as '' Lugud died in the sea on a day he was fishing " — 
which some forty years ago was read into the Ajrdmore inscription, and is 
still served up in all the guidebooks for the benefit of the unsophisticated 
— but 'we know that if maqi be preceded by a name in -ias we must look 
for another maqi before that again ; and a great many other useful facts 
of the same sort. 

III. But it is claimed that inscriptions other than those which are 
obscure may be treated cryptologically : and many papers have been 
produced based on this tacit assumption. As it stands the Agha- 
bullog^e inscription seems straightforward, save for the iofiuence the 
weather has had on it ; yet by a most brilliant process of reasoning an 
endeavour has been made to show that the letters Corrpmao upon it mean 
Ola»» It is impossible to disprove such theories by criticism ; but not 
the least cogent argument against them is the chaotic state into which 
it immediately throws Irish epigraphy. For we have no criterion as to 
whether any given inscription is or is not cryptographic, and have no 
guarantee that some missing link does not lie hidden to prove that, say, 
Dala^i maqi Dali does not mean Finn mac Cumhaill ! 

Bef erence may be made to two individual cases of alleged cryptography. 


not because they are exceptional in any way, bat because special stress- 
has recently been laid upon them. One of these is the inyersion of the- 
letter on the Camp stone. But it remains to be shown that this is not 
the result of mere illiteracy on the part of the engraver. Professor Rhys- 
accounts for his downward reading of Kinard East II by supposing the 
engraver to have copied in ignorance scores marked for him on a stick. 
That the inscriptions were at least sometimes engraved by scribes, and 
not by the deceased's relatives, is shown by the existence of the memo- 
randum of the name Dalagni scratched on the same arris with the maiib 
inscription on the Monataggart stone No. II. Some such hypothesis is- 
at least as admissible in the case of the Camp stone as is the idea 
of conscious obscuration. What would be the object of such an 
obscuration? We are told that the deceased may have had some- 
personal stain of birth or morals; but such an assumption is wholly 
gratuitous. In such a case the deceased's representatives would most 
likely abstain from setting up a monument at all rather than take the- 
trouble of putting up a memorial which no one could read. 

The second is the difficult Maumenorig inscription. The argument 

involved in the cryptical treatment of this legend may thus be stated : — 

The inscription displays the sequence of letters cololol. 

It is known that three saints named ^' Colman" ''dwelt on the bosom 

of the Maum " ; and the townland adjacent to Maumenorig is Cill na- 

g Colman, the '' cell of the Colmans." 

Therefore the '' bosom of the Maum " is Maumenorig, and this is the- 
monument of the three Colmans in question. 

Therefore cololol means **the three Colmans." 
I quote from memory, for here in Syria, where I am writing, I am 
away from most of my books. But I think this is a fair statement of the- 

I readily admit the strongest portion of this argument — the extra- 
ordinary coincidence between the various names — ** bosom of the Maum,'* 
*' Maumenorig," " three Colmans," ** Cell of the Colmans." But I can- 
not agree that cololol is to be interpreted as '' the three Colmans." 

I assume that the sequence of letters in question does occur on tlie- 
stone, though I do not believe this to be the case. My own reading is- 
quite different. It has been called into question, and I do not propose* 
at present to refer to it, though I can claim that it was made with due 
care ; for I visited Maumenorig in the company of a friend well versed, 
in the Ogham script, with whom I discussed each score one by one ; and 
for several months I had a good paper-squeeze of the inscription suspende<i 
on the walls of my study, so as to be constantly available for exami- 

Against the interpretation of Cololol as "the three Colmans," I 

I. It is unnatural. Would it occur to any person speaking axk 


Arjan language to express triplicity by suppressing tbo final half of a 
dissyllable and triplicating part of the first? Colcoleolman migbt have 
been admitted ; bnt Colohl is quite too freakish ! 

II. It is unnecessary. Nothing is known against ''the three 
Colmans" to explain why their commemorator should have so darkly 
veiled their identity. 

III. It is possible to interpret the sequence of letters otherwise. If 
its undoubted existence on the stone rendered it necessary to explain 
AKMcoLOLOLNALiTiK I should prefer even Anm Colol ol na litir — ''Name 
of Colol, famous of letters " (ol^ uaill) or any other interpretation that a 
use (judicious or otherwise) of O'Reilly's dictionary might suggest!! 
It does not follow that because three saints lived at Maumenorig that an 
inscription found there is necessarily their memorial. Nor does it follow 
that because a syllable happens to be triplicated there is necessarily any 
cause other than accident for the phenomenon. One of the Whitefield 
stones reads Lagohhe Mueotueacae ; and we can easily imagine a future 
investigator digging up in a nineteenth -century graveynrd the tomb of 
" Ann Buchanan and Ananias, her husband ! " 

There is nothing analogous to the system of monumental epigraphy 
presupposed by the cryptic theory. Memorials all over the world are 
intended to preserve the memory ; with us in Ireland they would be 
intended to conceal it. The crypt-runes — a system of writing which I 
think was suggested by the ogham character — never appear as being 
much above the level of playthings. Their use in the magnificent viking 
lay engraven on the Rok stone is certainly remarkable, but neither there 
nor anywhere else, so far as I know, do they conceal the name of the 
deceased {^rlikr at Maeshowe is merely a graffito). The anagrams of 
the seventeenth-century tombstone-cutters, though founded on the name 
of the deceased, never concealed it, as it was always stated plainly 
upon the stone. Surely it is unreasonable to suppose that the early 
Irish Christians, however esoteric or mystic their faith may have been, 
alone of all the nations darkened the memory of the dead. 



Extracts from The Dlabt of William Bulkblt, of B&tndda, nbae 
Amlwch, Akolesey, a Grand Jurok of that Countt. 

[Read Novbmbbb 29, 1898.] 

'T^HB Diary from which these extracts are taken consisted of three 
volumes, of which the first and third are now only forthcoming. 
It hegins in the year 1734, and ends in the year 1760, and gives a most 
minute account of the writer's everyday life. The two journeys of 
Mr. Bulkely to Duhlin, which are detailed in the following extracts, 
took place in 1735 — one in the spring of that year, and the other in the 
following autumn. 

The Diary is now in the possession of Mr. Warren Evans of Henblas, 
Anglesey, a kinsman of the writer :- 

March 25th, 1735. The wind E. ; a clear, fine, pleasant morning. 
About noon it began to be veiy cold and cloudy, and continued so 
without raining till night. This day I had an account that the 
Sessions begins 11th of April; and being obliged to go to Dublin 
before that time to transact business, I am obliged to set out to-morrow 
for Dublin, and God Almighty be my Director and Protector. 

26th. Set out for the Head about 7, and being obliged to go about, we 
did not arrive there till 12 in the forenoon, paid the Custom House fees 
for searching my Portmanteau, 2«. ; paid 6d. for carrying it ashore ; paid 
in the house, 10«. Set sail at 9 in the evening. Yery calm all the night. 
27th. About 1 1 in the forenoon we came within sight of the Hill of 
Hoath ; came to the bay at 4 in the evening, and was near 8 before 
we landed at Eings End ; paid Quilho the Master of the Packet boat 
£1 1«. for our passage, gave the cabin boy 6(f. ; paid the boatman that 
carried us from the ship to Kings End Is. ; spent at Rings End in stay- 
ing for a coach \\d.\ paid for a coach to Dublin 2«. \Qd, 'Twas near 
1 1 at night when we came to Dublin, my poor daughter being mightily 
tired, and almost starved with cold. 

28th. The wind N. W. ; a dark, dirty day, from morning to night ; 
paid 2d. for ale. 

29th. The wind S.W. ; dark and cloudy, yet dry ; paid bd. for ale 
in Bride-street. 

Ap. 1st. Bought this day a pair of shoe buckles cost lis. 6d.f and a 
pair of knee buckles for 6s. ; paid Is, for 6 pencils, and 6d. for an ounce 


und a half of Spanish snufp. Went with Mr. Wm. Parry to the King's 
Park, called Phoenix, about half a mile from the town, where Mr. Ben. 
Parry hath a lodge, being one of the keepers. Eeturned from thence 
and dined with Mr. Owen Lewis, the surgeon, at his lodging in Stephen's 
(sie) Hospital. 

2nd. The wind W.S.W. ; a clear day. Was at Dublin Market^ over 
the Water. A very great plenty both of Fish of all sorts, as likewise 
Flesh and Fowl. Beef very dear, the best pieces sold for Sd, a pound. 
1 o'clock in the eyening had notice of the Prince Frederick Packet being 
to go over that oTening ; came to my lodging in a hurry ; packed up my 
things to be gone ; my poor child crying that she was forced to leave me 
at so short a warning. Delivered Mr. Parry 40 guineas to be laid out on 
her occasions ; took a coach half an hour past two in the evening ; came 
to George's Key ; took water at 4, and came on board the packet boat, 
taking leave of my good friend and cousin Wm. Pari-y on the Key. 

3rd. The wind £.S.£. ; weighed anchor at 4 in the morning ; sailed 
all that day against the wind ; made very little way, being not above 
7 leagues from the Irish shore by night, the wind continuing £., some- 
times N.£. all the night ; I was at this time heartily tired of my voyage, 
but not sick. 

4th. The wind due E. ; the old crazy ship stretching the 6 hours' ebb to 

the north, and the 6 hours' flood to the S. to gain 2 leagues in a tide. 

Before night we were got within 4 or 5 leagues of the Head, but about 

aunset a great storm arose and blew easterly all the night, and by the 

morning we were drove back again in sight of the Irish shore. Could 

not rest for the noise aboard all the night. The Master at last resolved 

to give over any further attempts for the Welsh shore, and to turn back 

to Dublin, where we arrived at 8 in the evening, April 5, being Easter 

Eve ; gave the master 58. for what I had eat and drunk aboard ; gave the 

men one shilling ; came ashore and took lodgings on George's Key ; 

entertained the master of the packet boat at supper, together with Mr. 

Hugh Hughes of Ehoscolyn, who is an Excise officer at Wicklow for 

whom I paid 4s, 

6th. The wind K.E. and very cold. Dined to-day at Mr. Wm. Parry's. 
Came to my lodging at 8. Drank some hot punch and went to bed, 
having got a severe cold on board that leaky, crazy vessel. 

7th. The wind E. blowing high and very cold. Walked with Mr. Wm. 
Parry to the Phoenix Park. Saw the first swallow this year by the 
PhcBnix, which is the ruins of a palace in the said Park that was in the 
last century built by Henry Cromwell, the late Protector's son, on the 
ruins of which they have now marked out a place for the building of an 
arsenal.' Dined with Mr. Wm. Parry, and came to my lodgings at 9. 

' Ormond Market. 

^ 'I'hU ai-senal, now known as the Magazine Fort, was built in 1738. 


9tli. The wind S.E. ; dull and cloudy ; paid the barber 6d, for 
shaying me. Went to-day to the Com Market at Thomas-street, never 
saw poorer wheat and barley, the barley especially. Yery good white 
oats that they asked for 7d. a stone, for the barley, 8d. 

10th. The wind S.E., raining very hard all the morning as it did most 
part of the night. About 5 this morning I was alarmed with a knock- 
ing at my chamber door, that the Packet boat was just going off, which 
was something surprising, because I had been assured the night before 
she would not go till Friday. No delay being to be made in the matter 
I was forced to get up, pack up my things in a hurry and to go aboard 
where I arriyed about 9. Weighed anchor about 10; made no great way, 
the wind being contrary and calm. 

11th. The wind N.E., pretty still and cold, came within sight of the 
Head by day and landed in Holyhead Bay at 12 in the forenoon. Gave 
Thomas Hughes, the master, lOs, 6d. for my passage. Came to Mr. 
Yiner's the Postmaster^s house, where I had before lodged. 

12th. Set out from Head about 9 in the morning, and arrived at 
home upon Mr. Yiner's horses at 2 in the evening. 

Oct. 10th, 1735. About 10, D. Williams of Bodelwyn, John Bulkely 
of Gronant, myself and man, set out for the Head on our way to Dublin. 
We arrived at Holyhead by 2 in the evening. 

11th. About 5 in the evening the Wyndham Packet boat set saiL 
Came to anchor in Dublin Bay at 6 in the morning. 

12th. Paid 10«. 6d, for my passage ; to the cabin-boy, 6d. ; Is, to the 
packet wherry. Came to a lodging at George's-quay at 8 in the moming.^ 

1 dth. Came this night to my lodging in Longford- street at Mr. Burton, 
a grocer's house. Agreed with a barber to shave me thrice a week and 
dress my wig for I2d. a week. 

14th. The wind S.E. ; a dirty, rainy day, from mom to night. Put 
the two watches — my daughter's and my own — ^to Mr. Forrest the watch- 
maker, on Essex-bridge, to mend. 

16th. Went to the Market at Thomas-street; a great deal of com of 
all sorts, and something high. Returned to Coramarket-street, bought 
there a piece of cloath for 328., Irish value. 

16th. Went to the play-house in Longford-street' to see ihe Beggars* 
Opera, Paid \M, there. 

17th. Went to Peter's Church. Gave there 3rf. charity. Walked 
afterwards in Stephen's-grecn till dinner. 

18th. Walked in the Green. Dined at Mr. Rose the apothecary, in 

20th. Went to the Cattle Market at Smithfield. A great number 
of cattle there, but none very fat as I thought. Paid an English half- 

* This play-house stood at the corner of Aiiogier-street and Longford-street. It 
was opened on the 19th of Mnrch, 1734. 


crown to see the tragedy of Don John at the plaj-house in LongfonU 

29th. Paid 29$., Irish, for a dozen knives and forks ; 8«. lOd,, Irish, 
for drags. 

30th. Went to Dunlarj to shoot. No sport. Cost me 2«. to-day. 

Slst. Dined at Cos. Wm. Parry, and also sapped there upon a shoulder 
of mutton roasted and what they call there Coel Callen, which is cahhage 
boiled, potatoes and parsnips, all this mixed together. They eat well 
enough, and is a Dish always had in this Kingdom on this night. Apples^ 
nuts, ale, &c., after supper. 

Not. Ist. The wind 8.W. ; a dirty, rainy day. Tired myself in 
walking to Olasminiog ^ for mulberry -trees I had bought there. 

3rd. Went to Mr. Walker's gardens at Marybone and Kilmainham. 
Bought of him the following trees, which I had taken up and packed, 
and sent on board the '' Cloxan," viz. 12 English elms, 12 apple-treea 
of different kinds, graffed on Paradise stocks and dwarf trees, 12 Para- 
dise stocks, 12 yards of dwarf box for edgings of borders, 6 curran-treea 
of the white, large kind, for walls. Paid 17«. 6d, Irish, for them. 

4th. Cost me at the play-house in Longford-street, to see Tamerlane 
acted, 5t. Eng, 

13th. Went to the play-house in Bansford-street * to see the Royal 
Mtrchant, or The Beggar* e JBueh, acted. Cost me 2». lOd. Irish. 

21st. Bought Mr. Henry Morgan of Henblas, 100 English elms, of 
Mr. Walker. 

26th. Sold my lands in Dunkitt* to Dean Alcock* for £126 Irish 

27th. Treated Mrs. Parry, her daughter, Miss Crook, and my 
daughter, to the Play called The Pilgrim. Cost me 14«. 6d. Eng. 

30th. Heard a very good sermon to-day at Peter's. 

Dec. 10. Dined at Sot's Hole. 

15th. Went to Smock-alley play-house' to sec Harry the IV, acted. 
Cost me 2s. Sd, Irish. This was the first play that ever was acted at the 
new play-house in Smock-alley. 

22nd. Was at Smock-alley play-house to see The Recruiting Offieer^ 

28tb. Walked to the Quay along with Mr. Hugh Hughes ; and having 
put all my things in the boat, and paid a rascally coachman 13(/. Irish 
for carrying my things to the Quay, we set out from George's- quay at 6. 

^ Now known as Constitution Hill. ' Thia play-house was also opened in 1734. 

' A pariah in the county Kilkenny, four miles from Waterford. 

^ Alexander Alcock, Dean of Lismore. 

' Smock-alley Theatre was taken down in 1735, and rebuilt in the same year. 
GObert ("Histoiy of Dublini" yoI. ii., page 74) states that it was re-opened on 
Thmsday, llth December, 1736, with the Comedy of Love Makes a Man, or the FqpU 


in the evening, and by 7 came on board the Carteret packet boat, Thomaa 
Hughes, of Holyhead, master. Paid 1#. for my passage to the ship, but 
the weather being so stormy the master resolved to stay where he was 
till morning. 

29th. At 6 in the morning we weighed anchor, but the wind being 
cross and moreover very high, we made but little way till 1 in the even- 
ing when the wind settled at S., and by 6 in the evening we were at 
anchor in Holyhead. Paid half a guinea for my passage. 

( 61 ^ 

Beport on the Phot<^;rapliio Survey CoUeotion (continued from the 
J<mrnal of the Society for 1898, p. 65). — In reporting the accessions to the 
Sodety's collection for the year 1898 I am happy to be able to point to a 
considerable advance. Prehistoric archaeology, in consequence of the 
more extensive and intelligent appreciation of its value to students 
both in our islands and abroad, comes well to the front. We have now 
photographs of many very characteristic forts, cromlechs, circles, and pillars. 
in Mayo, Glare, Limerick, and Kerry. It is much to be wished that our 
members in Cork and Galway would devote some of their time this year 
in working np similar remains in their counties, which are very poorly 
represented in the series. 

Among ecclesiastical buildings, St. Doulough's stands first in import- 
ance in the 1898 collection; the accessions of views of Iniscleraun and 
Inisbofin churches are also noticeable. The rule being that only per- 
manent photographs can be admitted to the collection, several silver 
prints kindly sent do not appear on our list, but are preserved for use 
in the illustration of the Journal as occasion arises. 

The total increase for 1898 is 178 views. The increase for 1895 was 
174; for 1896, 107; for 1897, 141. It would help not a little if the 
excellent plan of our late curator, Mr. Kobinson, could be carried out, 
and a complete series of views obtained of a group of antiquities, if even 
in a single parish. Unfortunately there are no less than eight counties 
with 10 or less photographs, while only six counties are represented by 
Jaore than 50 views. 

The following gave permanent photographs : — Mr. E. R. M*C. Dix, 7. 
Mr. G. F. Handcock, 2. Mrs. Shackleton, 18. The Curator, 127. The 
Society, 16. The following lent negatives: — Dr. George Fogerty, 12. 
Mr. T. Mayne, 10. The Photographic Society of Ireland, pdr Mr. P. W. 
Smyth, 5. Rev. Mr. Brereton, 4. The following presented silver 
prints : — Mr. Handcock, 2. Mr. M. P. Garvey, per Mr. J. Coleman, 5. 
Mr. J. Coleman, 1. 

Br. C. Browne has kindly lent numerous negatives of the Western 
islands and coasts, Achill, The Mullet, Iniskea, Clare, Caher Island, and 
Aran. They are now in the hands of the photographer, Mr. T. F.^ 
Oeoghegan, and shall appear in the report for 1899. 

The number of views in each county at the end of 1898 is : — 

Antrim, 45. Armagh, 3. Carlo w, 5. Cavan, 10. Clare, 187. 
Cork, 14. Donegal, «7. Down, 74. Dublin, 89. Fermanagh, 15. 
Galway, 73. Kerry, 56. Kildare, 19. Kilkenny, 46. King's County,. 


129. Leitrim, 11. Limerick, 47. Londonderry, 3. Longford, 10. 
Louth, 31. Mayo, 32. Meatb, 54. Monagban, 6. Queen's County, 
5. Roscommon, 28. Sligo, 30. Tipperary, 30. Tyrone, 8. "Water- 
ford, 17. Westmeath, 17. Wexford, 29. Wicklow, 27. Total of 
permanent photographs, 1087, ue. in Ulster, 211 ; Leinster, 351 ; 
Munster, 351 ; Connaught, 174. 

The additions to various counties during year are : — 

Clare. — Cromlechs, Ballymihil, Baur, Bemeens, Clooney, Cragbally- 
•conoal (two), Creevagh (2), Fanygalvan, Kilkee, Maryfort (2), Miltown, 
Newgrove, Parknabinnia (four) (3), Poulnabrone (3), Rosslara (2), 
Tyredagb Lower. 

Forts. — Ballyallaban, Ballykinvarga (3), Caberaboagh (2), Caberan- 
srdurrish (Glensleade) (2), Cahercommane (3), Caberconnell, Caher- 
•cuttine (Nougbaval), Cabergrillaun (2), Cabermackirilla (Carran), Caber- 
nhaugbnessy (2), Casblaun Gar (3), Carran, Doonmore (Horse Island), 
Mullach-Dabrien (2), Rougban. 

Moundj pillar, and hasin stone, Magh Adhair. 

" Castles^'* Ballyportrea (3), Clooney, Coolistiegue (2), Elmbill, 
Inchiquin (2), Kilnaboy ** Court," Lcmeneagh, Lisoffin (2), Miltown (2), 
Mountcasbel, Newtown (Clonlara) (2), Rosslara (Fertain) (2), Tyredagb. 

Ecclesiastical. — Carran, Coad (2), Incbicronan (5), Kilballyone (2), 
Kilcredaun (8), Kilcrony (2), Kilnaboy (4), cross ; church and round 
tower; Killoe (3), Killone (4), Kilragbtis, Nougbaval, Skagbavanoo 
•cross, ^ Temple an aird, near Kilcredaun. 

Dublin. — St. Doulough^s (5), church and cross, from E. ; from S.W. • 
from S. ; from W. ; well—" The Hell Fire Club:' Monkstown, castle (5)! 

Galwat. — Aran Isles, Manisterkieran church and cross (3). Temple 
macduach, N.W. 

Kkury. — Fahan, Caberadadurrish, Cabemamairtinech (2); Caher- 
•conor, fort und clocbaun. Glenfahan, clochaun. Templebeg. 
Kilkenny. — Gowran, interior of church. 

Leitbim. — CreevaUa, insLxy ixom S.E. ; church; cloister. 

Limerick. — Lough Gur (11), cromlech; monoliths; great circle; 
second circle ; buUaun ; castle. Pigeon House. Knockanaffrin. 

Longford. — Iniscleraun, **TheClogas" (5); Templemore (2) ; Temple- 
murray, " Cliurcb of the Dead." 

Mayo. — Ballina, ** Clocbogle," cromlech. Breastagh, ogam inscrip. 
tion ^4) ; cromlech. Errew, monastery (2). Kileummin, church (3). 

^ This cross was found a few years ago by the Hon. Local Secretary, Dr. George 
Macnamara. It lies under a " blessed bush,*' on the outer ring of a fine rath, in the 
townland of KeUs. 


KiUala, rouad tower. Moyns, friary, the cloister. Eathfran, monastery, 
from E. ; from S.W., church, side chapel; cromlechs (2). BoM^rk^ 
friaiy, from E. 

Qoieh's CoxjvTT.^^BallyadaiiMy Castle, parish church, Bo wen monu- 

JioecoMMON. — Lough Key, friary, church. 

Sligo. — Ballitadare^ church, 8. Sligo, friary, cloister, O'Conortomb. 

TippBRART. — Borri»'in'0$8oiy, castle. Di9ert^ church. 

WiisrMBATH. — Inishofin (3), Greater church, romanesque window, lesser 

WicKLow. — AghgowU^ church, from "W. ; side windows, west door, 

T. J. Wbsieopp, Hon. Curator and Lihrarian, 

Tobemahalthora, near Lonitbiirg. — It is marked on sheet 84 of the 
Ordnance one-inch map, close to the road near Lough Nahalthora. Being 
& dolmen over a holy well it is of unusual interest. It is somewhat 
rained. The type is the long dolmen with a porch, the inner cell cut off 
Ij a transverse slab which does not extend quite across the gallery. One 
-covering slab remains over the cell, but does not come quite up to the 
transverse slab. Thr^^e large flogs lie near, which seem to have been sides 
and cover of the building originally much longer. If common belief did 
not connect these flags with the dolmen they would have been removed, 
as the well is but a few yards from a quarry worked for such flagstones. 
The sides of the cell are not exclusively of single stones from ground to 
roof ; part of one side is built up. 

Outside the dolmen and parallel with it are small slabs embedded 
in the ground, showing that it once had a casing of stones or stones and 
^ods. Being so enclosed and having a covered porch, it would be quite 
dark inside, and it would be impossible to see whether there was any- 
thing in tlie water or not. This seems to have been the case at the well 
called Slan, which St. Patrick opened. Tircchan's description of Slan, 
though not quite excluding the possibility that it was a long dolmen 
such as Tobemahalthora certainly was, shows it to have been rather a 
square cist like the Tobergrauia in the county of Clare, described by 
0' Donovan (quoted by Hr. Borlase, '^ Dolmens of Ireland/' vol. i., p. 95). 

At present these two seem to be the only holy wells retaining an 
original pagan dolmen. 

Tobemahalthora is still frequented, but not much ; bits of clothing 
left by persons who have made stations are occasionally to be seen, as at 
other holy wells. It is not dedicated to or associated with the name of 
4uiy saint, resembling in this respect the spot by Lough Case, near 
Boughmakeone {Journal, B, S. A. /., 1897, p. 186, and 1898, p. 233). 



The altar was built for pagan worship, at a remote period, probably 
consecrated for Christian worship, and is in use to this day. In other 
such cases the altar has disappeared, or has been included in a church in 
the case of certain dolmens. This is unaltered save by ruin of time or of 
deliberate destruction. Only that the third of the loose slabs would not 
cover a porch in which the other two were used for the sides, I would 
suspect that a missionary remored them, as St. Patrick removed the 
stone at Slan. Of course these slabs may not be really connected with 
the well, or they may not have been set up. The structure may not have- 
been completed. 


FT. IN. 

Entire length of structure about 14 
Sides of well, . . . .90 
West end, including breadth of 

sides 4 8 

East end, 5 

Entrance, inside stone to stone, . 8 
One slab on top, i.e. covering, 

east end, . . . .52 

FT. IN. 

On slab on top, ue. covering, 

west end, . . . .5 5- 
Length about the same, . .58 
Uncovered part of well, . .21 

Height, 8 0- 

Three slabs near the well measure 
about 6 ft. 6 in. by 2 ft. 8 in. 

The well of Slan is, in my opinion, that by tradition once holy, but 
now not venerated, close to the ruined church at ManuUa, which is- 
called Temple Askinneen. — H. T. Enox. 

Eilelton in Olenfas. — At page 309 of the Journal iot 1898, I saic) 
that there was a fort a little to the north of the old church on Glandiue, 
which church is marked on the old Ordnance maps of O'Donovan's Sur- 
vey, and that the fort is marked on same map as Liosparheenreilig, pro- 
bably meaning the liss or foi-t of the little field of the relics, but I find 
that Dr. Joyce, in his truly valuable work, ** Irish Names of Places," 
vol. i., p. 318, says that reilig is an Old Irish word for cemetery or grave- 
yard. This is the more interesting, because the Very Rev. A. Isaac, 
Bean of Ardfert, Member, who resides at Kilgobbin Rectory, close to 
Glandine, has, on reading my paper on Glenfas in Eilelton, written ta 
me to say that, while kindly approving of my paper, he could find no- 
trace of a church or churchyard at Glandine. The church marked on 
the map of 1848-50 has, no doubt, been quite swept away, like many 
others, since John O'Donovan saw it, or the last vestiges of it, and marked 
it on the Ordnance map ; but the words LiosparJcemreiligy as interpreted 
by Dr. Joyce, another eminent Irish scholar, a worthy successor of 
O'Donovan, remain as further confirmation of the existence of the ancient 
church at Glandine before 1 650, when the land was granted to Mr. Car- 
rique. His descendant, in or about 1760, having inherited the estates 
of Crotta, near Lixnaw, under the will of a maternal uncle, Henry Pon- 
sonby, who died childless, the Carriques, assuming the name and arins of 


Ponsonby in addition to their own, abandoned their residence at Glan- 
diae, and settled at Crotta, irhich they sold in the present centnry. It 
la to be hoped that the old sitei of churches and forts marked on O'Dono- 
ran's map, but since swept away by ignorant vandals, may be marked 
on the new Ordoanoe Sheets as having existed in 1B50. All the 
historic and prehistoric remains in this glen ought to bo preserred as 
National monuments. — Uibt Aonbs Hiczsoir. 

Tihill;, Fariih of Burov, Xing'i Ooonty. — The accompanying 
iUastration is taken from a rubbing of a stone found at Tihilly lately 
when the land near the church was being ploughed. I think it will be 
of interest to add it to those I hare already published in the Journal of 
theR.8.A.I. fortho year 1897 (vol. rii., flth Series: "Old Grave-yards of 
Lorrow Parish"). I conclude it was a tombstone from the shape of the 
stone, but unfortunately there is no 
trace of an inscription or name of 
any kind. The figuring somewhat 
resembles some of that on the Yhx 
Vanrice tombstone from Welch Island 
in the parish of Qeashill, which ap- 
peared in Miscellanea (First Quarter, 
1898). Tihilly owes its foundstion 
to the celebrated St. Fintan Munnu, 
who founded Taghmon, in the county 
Wesford, and also gave its name to 
Taghmon in the county Westmcath. 
St. Fintan, we are told, studied for 

a time nnder Sinnell, of Cluaininis, ^J— ^^— ^^:^~ 

an island in Lough Eme, who is ._ , ^ . t-i.h ^- ■ ^ . 

, stone tound It lihillj, King • Lounly. 

aeecnbed as the most learned man 

in Ireland or Britain. Adamnan, in his " Yita S. Columbn," Book i., 
chap, ii., has made us familiar with the story of how his youthful 
dedre to enter the monastery at lona was fnistratcd, and how Baithen 
told him of the prophecy of St. Columba about him. " That it had not 
been predestined for him in the foreknowledge of God that he should 
become the monk of any abbot because he had long ago been chosen of 
God as an abbot of monks." This story, Adamnan tells us, was told him 
by Oissene, who bore witness that he himself heard it from the mouth 
of the same St. Fintan, son of Tailchan. St. Fintan accordingly sailed 
over to Ireland in peace. He seems to hare been one of those remark- 
able men who impress their personalty on people. In appearance he is 
described as fair, with curly hair and a high complexion. And in temper 
and disposition, even though he was a saint, he is described as rough. 
This latter description of his character corresponds with the story of 


his leaving Tihilly, wbich he gave over to the Yirgin Cera in a man- 
ner which, to say the least of it, was ungracious, if not unsaintly. On 
his retum to Ireland from lona, he took up his abode at an island named 
Cuimrige, or Cuinrige, where he founded a church at Athcaoin. But 
having ascended a mountain to pray, he was so much disturbed by the 
cries and turmoil at the battle of Slene (perhaps Sleenhair, near Mullingar, 
A.D. 602) that he determined to leave this unhallowed spot. He next 
passed on to his own territoiy, in the neighbourhood of Ely, but did not 
visit nor salute anyone. He then built Tech-Telli (now Tihilly) in the 
north of the King*s County, where he remained five years. He permitted 
his mother to visit him, with his sistersy but said if she came again he 
would depart to Britain. Well does the old poem say : 

** The mother that bore thee, Fintan, Monnu, 
Bore a eon hard to her family.'* 

Soon after St. Fintan had established himself at Tihilly, a virgin 
(Cera) presented herself with five companions, and said to the steward : 
'< Tell the strong man who owns the place to give it to me, for he and 
his fifty youths are stronger than I and my five maidens are, and let him 
build another house for himself." Fintan complied with her request, 
ordering his pupils to bring only their axes, books, chiismals, with their 
ordinary clothing, and the two oxen which drew the wagon with the 
books ; but he refused to bless her, and told her that the church would 
not be associated with her name but with that of Telli, son of Segin. 
He and his party then proceeded to the Ui Barriche, in the barony of 
Slieve Margy. in the Queen's County. — SxEBUifG de Courcy Williahs. 

Dun Aenghus, Aran. — With regard to the question as to the construc- 
tion of the rampart of Dun Aenghus before its oxiginal character vanished 
in the drastic restoration some years since — as I enjoyed the privilege of 
having examined and sketched carefully, and with the greatest leisure, 
the noble ruin before it was so much rebuilt — I venture to add my notes 
on the subject. 

The interior face, especially between the gateway and the sea, was 
either entirely destroyed or buried under the dihru. The sides of the 
passage leading to the gateway were also mere heaps of rubbish, from at 
any rate some 4 feet below the inner lintel. The gate was quite perfect, 
but showed settlement. The outer face of the western segment was 
entire, but towards the north-west a portion had fallen outward, leaving 
a face of masonry as well and carefully built as the outer facing itself. 

This sufficiently proves that the wall consisted at least of two sec- 
tions. A similar feature also occurred in the Clare forts of Ballykinvarga, 
Caherschrebeen, Caherbullog (lower), and the now demolished upper fort 
of Ballyallaban. I did not see any such trace in Dun Conor, though a 
large piece of the wall had fallen on the side towards Killeony. 


In most, if not all of the other cahen which I have examined, the 
wall is certainly in one piece with two faces and filling. 

As regards my application of the term '' original structure '* to the 
gate of Dun Aenghus, as noted hy Mr. Lynch on p. 16, aupra^ I must 
explain that it was simply to mark it as the gateway seen by Fetrie, and 
not a reconstruction of our own time. From the marks of rebuilding in 
such forts, I am as little ready to attribute it to the first foundation of 
the Dun as to attribute the latter or its neighbouring cahers exclusively 
to the sons of Huamore.> — T. J. Wkstbopp. 

Bathmichael. — So long ago as 1894 attention was called \Jou,rn<d^ 
1894, p. 181] to injudicious work done at this very interesting spot. 
In consequence of this letter, Mr. Dix promptly visited the ruins, and 
•called the attention of the Bathdown Board of Guardians to the certain 
danger to the scribed stones and the removal of the stone basin {Journal^ 
he, eit, p. 291). One of the members traced the missing **bullaun" to 
the master of the workhouse. 

Since that time, on the occasion of several visits to the graveyard, I 
iiave looked for the basin, hoping that the good feeling of those concerned 
in its removal would have led to its restoration. On my last visit to the 
rains this had not been done ; so an object, interesting and valuable 
at its original site, but of no artistic value, and therefore merely a 
"curiosity" is exposed to the risk of being thrown aside as *' rubbish" 
any day. Could no expression of public feeling be made known to pro- 
•cure its restoration ? The guardians did their part promptly and well in 
removing the scribed stones from the steps ; let us hope others will 
equally do their duty towards this venerable place. 

I also noticed a *^ mill " stone (a large, flat block of granite, with an 
oblong hollow, in which grain could be rubbed into meal by a hand-stone) 
turned up in the field near the road, south-east from the ruins. This 
might also be removed, and placed in the church. — T. J. Wbstbopp. 

Earthwork Fort or Bath in County Longford. — ^When out shooting 
«oine short time ago, my attention was called to a very well-preserved 
foit in the townland of Aghaward, about one mile from the village of 
Ballinalee, on the farm of Mr. John Harris. It lies at a distance of about 
oO yards from the back of his house, and 200 yards from the county road, 
from which, however, it is hidden from view. Its shape is pretty nearly 
circular; and though the bank of earthwork which protects the outer edge 
of it all round is concealed under a luxuriant growth of furze, yet one 
<an get a very good idea of its shape and formation. 

^ See the Journal (1896), pp. 142-145. 



On a subsequent occasion I visited the place again, and made careful 
measurements with a tape, ascertaining the following particulars : — 

The diameter of the inner circle, up to where the protecting wall of 
earth comes, is just 80 feet. Prom the top of this bank to the lowest 
spot outside, which was excavated all round, we get a height of 18 feet ;. 
and the height from bottom of excavated trench to level of field is 9 feet ; 
thus an attacking party would first of all have to drop this distance into 
the trench, and then scale a more or less perpendicular wall of earth, 18> 
feet, and, it is to be presumed, in the face of a determined defence. The 
width of this trench at the field level is about 25 feet, whereas at the 
bottom it is only 1 1 feet. The circumference of the inner protected part 
18 80 yards, and the outside, taken at the base of the protecting bank, is- 
180 yards. 

Nothing, apparently, even in the way of tradition, is known about 
this fort. There are, of course, numbers of these in this part of the 
country, but perhaps few which have so well escaped demolition and 
disfigurement, and hence I thought it worth while sending some descrip- 
tion of it. Mr. Harris, to whose courtesy I am indebted for assisting me 
to take measurements, &c., tells me that he is probably going to plant it 
up with larch and spruce trees, so that, in a few years, it might not be so- 
easy to supply the particulars 1 am now enabled to do. Very probably, 
if some careful digging were done, ''finds " would be made, but there 
are few in this part of the country who care to undertake the labour and 
expense entailed thereby. — J. Mackat Wilson, Hon, Sec, Co. Longford, 

Honasterboice Cross. — The following letter has been received from, 
the Director of the Science and Art Department, Dublin : — 


'* I saw in the Journal of the Society, published September 30th, the note by Mr.. 
0. H. Pentland, respecting alleged scraping of the Great Cross at Monasterboice. 

" On November 3rd, I went to Monasterboice with Mr. G. Coffey, Superintendent 
of Irish Antiquities in the Museum ; we examined the cross of which the cast was 
token, and could see no mark or scratch upon it whatever. In two or three small spots* 
only, there is a very little white powder adhering to the undersides of the cross-arms, 
ftnd the adjacent parts of the shaft, these being protected from the rain which had 
washed the other parts ; a soft brush and some water would take this powder off 

''It is true that the cross looks as if all the lichen had come off the stone, but in 
winter the plant dies down, so that it is hardly apparent, and on looking at the other 
cross, which our men did not touch at all, we saw that this presents a similar 
appearance, as if stripped of the lichen with which it was covered laat spring, excepting 
only the upper parts on which some very long lichen grows. 

** When a tuft of lichen falls off, it is a fact that a light coloured patch shows upon 
the stone ; the reason of this is that the lichen consists partly of mineral substances^ 
calcium oxalate especially, and others, in some cases to the amount of 6 per cent, of 
the whole plant, and these substances it can only obtain from the stone upon which it. 


'* In disBolying these minerals from the stone, the lichen disintegratee a thin surface 
layer, and thns it is a destroyer, not a preseryative of the rock or stone upon which 
it grows. 

" Whether all the lichens fell off, or whether some were pulled off, is a matter of 
little consequence, as they will soon grow again and continue their slowly destructive 
process ; but Mr. G. H. Pentland wrote to me last July as follows : — ' Are you aware 
that your workmen are engaged in scraping the earrings with iron tools, polishing the 
faces of the saints, and rounding off the ravages of time by scraping away the surface 
•of the stone P A party from my house saw them at work yesterday, and they tell me 
that the old cross will look brand-new, just as if out of a 8tone-cutter*s yard. I hope 
you will put a stop to this disgraceful sacrilege at once, and have the work done 
properly if it must he done at all.' 

*' The formatore or modeller employed is of great experience, and one of the yery 
best men who could he found at his trade, which consists in taking casts from delicate 
works of art, and as I have ahore stated, there is not, so far as Mr. Coffey or I can see, 
a single scratch or mark upon the stone of any kind. 

*' As any person can see for himself, no scraping or scratching with any tool, steel 
-or otherwise, has been done on any part of the cross. 

" It is, perhaps, hardly necessary to point out that the * ringing sound of metai 
-en stone,' heard by Mr. Pentland' s friends, was simply the sound of a hammer on a 
bolt-head, either in fixing the scaffold, or in bracing together the backing of the cast. 

"Such statements are, however, likely to mislead the public, and interfere with 
the very important work of obtaining casts of the beautiful specimens of early 
Christian art and architecture in this country, which are gradually being lost, by the 
-action of weather, time, and accident ; I therefore brought the above facts to the 
notice of the Board of Works, and have received from them the following reply. I 
shall be obliged if the Society will he so good as to publish it together with this letter. 

" I am. Sir, your obedient servant, 

** G. T. Plunkbtt, 

** Director, 
** Deeemher 22nd, 1898." 

*' Opficb op Public Works, Dublot. 

<« December 2Uty 1898. 

'* In reply to your letter of the 18th ult., asking to be informed if the Board are 
satisfied tlmt no damage has been done to the cross at Monasterboice in taking a mould 
from it, I am directed by the Commissioners of Public Works to inform you, that the 
Superintendent of Ancient and National Monuments reports that, after the moulding 
had been taken, he visited the cross and examined it. He reports as follows : — 
* There was not a trace of injury to the carving. To remove the lichen, some 
instmment may have been used, but it was for this purpose alone. I could trace no 
sign of acraping.' He further stated that he observed some white marks at the base of 
the cross, which appeared to have been a portion of the plaster forming part of the mould, 
but that such marks were * very trivial,* and ' there was nothing that the rain would 
not remore.' 

'* I am Sir, your obedient servant, 

** (Signed), H. Williams, 

** Seeretarjf, 

** To Thb Dibectob, Scibncb and Abt Museum, 



The CroBS of Monasterboioe. — The following note has been received 
fiom Mr. G. H. Pentland, Black Hall, Drogheda, under the date of 6thi 
January, 1899: — 

I am much obliged to you for sending me a copy of Colonel Flunkett's letter. It 
directly contradicts the statements I made in our Society's Journal. 

Colonel Plunkett says the cross is in no way injured. I am very glad to hear this, 
but think that, under the circumstances, the cross has been fortunate. 

Colonel Plunkett says cautiously that the cross loohs as if all the lichen had come- 
o£f the stone, and gires as the reason that the plant dies down in winter, instancing the- 
similar state of the lower part of the other cross. 

This reason will not serve. The whole cross was bare of t)ie long lichen last 
August. Moreover, the reason that the lower part of the other cross is bare is that the- 
peasants pick off the lichen as far as they can reach for a remedy against whooping 
cough. They cannot reach the upper part. I noticed this bareness last summer, and 
ascertained the cause from the caretaker. 

Colonel Plunkett says that lichen is a destroyer, not a preserver. 

I should have thought that the protection it affords against the weather would more- 
than compensate for the small amount of nourishment it takes from the stone. 

However, the most important part of Colonel Plunkett' s letter, so far as I am per- 
sonally concerned, is the paragraph in which he says : ''As any person can see for him- 
self, no scraping or scratching with any tool, steel or otherwise, has been done on any 
part of the cross." 

If he means by this that no scrapes or scratches could now be detected on the stone,. 
I would have nothing to say ; but the whole tenor of his letter shows that he means to 
convey that the lichen was not scraped off the cross at all, but simply died off. On this- 
point I must join issue with him. 

Cdonel Plunkett' s own modeller showed me how he scraped the lichen off the cross 
with a small tool, I presume of steel. He did it before my eyes as I stood beside him 
on the scaffolding, and he did it for the purpose of showing me how carefully ho 
worked. He did not use his ordinary tools, as he explained to me, because it would 
spoil their edges. I asked the caretaker how the lower part of the cross was cleaned 
{i.e., the part Mr. Adam complained of) ? and she told me the workmen had scraped tho 
Hchen off it. When I examined the cross again, on August 8, the workmen had gone, 
and it was quite bare of lichen, not picked bare like the shaft of the other cross, but 
scraped bare, and looking very different. I am perfectly convinced that the entire 
eross was scraped from top to bottom in the way the modeller showed me. 

I wish to say that the modeller seemed to be a most careful and intelligent mao^ 
and I think he deserves great credit for doing so little damage. 

As to the disfigurement of the cross, I cannot do better than refer to Mr. Patrick 
Adam's opinion. He is a well-known artist (R.A. of Scotland), and had just been 
visiting Clonmacnoise and other iiiins with a view to making paintings of them ; so 
I think his (pinion should carry some weight. He considered that i^m an artistic 
point of view the cross was quite disfigured by removing the lichen. 

Honasterboioe Oreat Cross. — In Part 3, vol. viii., p. 264, Mr. G. H» 
Pentland, b.a., j.p., published an account of some; circumstances attending^ 
the taking of moulds of the Great Cross of Monasterboice in July, 1898. 
To this communication the Director of the Science and Art Department, 
Dublin, has taken exception. His letter appears anUa^ pp. 68, 69, along 
with an enclosure from the Secretary of Public Works, Dublin. 

This correspondence was forwarded to Mr. G. H. Pentland, and his. 


letter in reply is also printed. Onr Members must form their own con- 
closions as to the cleaning, scraping, or scratching of the cross from the 
correspondence. When the eross was moulded in 1852, in order that a 
cast of the cross should be on yiew at the great Industrial Exhibition 
of 1853, the work was carried out, not only by skilled hands, but also 
under the superintendence of a committee. Had similar precautions 
been taken in 1898, there would probably hare been no complaint. 
Should moulds be taken from other Irish crosses, it is to be hoped that 
the latter will be carefully inspected both before and after the moulding. 

The Director of the Science and Art Department, Dublin, is possibly 
not to be held altogether accountable for his statements about the lichens 
on the cross ; these lichens do not die down in winter. Mr. Pentland 
gives the true explanation why one of tliese {Ramalina farinaeea) 
had been stripped off the other cross, excepting the upper parts, on 
which a considerable quantity of lichen still grows, t. e, the parts 
beyond the reach of an ordinary hand and arm. Calcium oxalate is 
certainly not a " mineral substance," nor are the lichens of necessity 
annual plants or destroyers of the stony surfaces on which some of them 
Tegetate. A great deal depends on the surfaces and substance of the stone. 

The Great Cross has been under a more or less close inspection since 
1852, and it seems probable that the minute incrusting lichen {Zecanora 
par$Ua)y which has grown over all the surfaces of the cross, which were 
exposed to a sufficiency of moisture, has acted rather as a protectiye 
than a destroying agent. It is a species which clings so tightly, that no 
mere rubbing would entirely remove it from the stonework ; it is this 
lichen which Mr. Pentland says was scraped off. The lichen which was 
found at the base of the cross, and which had grown up over the 
inscribed stone {Farmelia taxaiilis\ is much more easily peeled or 
washed off, and with the grass and weeds that grow up over the base- 
ment, might, from time to time, be even beneficially removed. 

Subjoined is the Eesolution of the Council of 29th November, 1898, 
as forwarded to the Board of Public Works, Dublin, and their reply of 
2l6t December, 1898: — 

"Tluit the Council of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland have 
learned with surpriae the determination of the Commissioners of the Board of 
Works (27th August, 1898) to enter into special arrangements with ihe Science 
and Art Department with reference to any future taking of casts of Ancient 
Monuments in their custody, and consider that before entering into any such 
arrangements with the Science and Art Department, or other Bodies, the Board 
should lay each individual case before their National Monuments Committee for 
their special advice thereon." 

" I am directed to state that the Board note the opinion of the Royal Society of 
Antiquaries, and are glad to find that it agrees with their own view. The letter of 
27th August last did not mean that the National Monuments Committee would not he 
consulted, but only that in each case, if permission were given, special arrangements, 
Bs .required by the particular cases, would be made with the Science and Art Depart- 
ment, with the object of defining the limits of action of that Department." 


i^ottceis: of 9i$ooli$« 

[NoTB. — The Works marked thus (*) 4tre by Members •/ the Society. "] 

\Beffister of Wills and Inventories of the Diocese of Dublin in the time of 
Archbishops Tregury and Walton^ 1457-1483. Edited by Henry F. 
lierry, m.a. 

The Society is to be congratulated upon the enterprise of the Council in 
the production of the above work. It forms a kind of companion volume 
to Mr. Mills' " Account Roll of the Priory of Holy Trinity, Dublin, 
1337-46," the annual volume for 1891, and both reach the high- water 
mark of competent editing. They bear the impress of ripe scholarship, 
great industry and research, and sound critical sense. We have had 
enough and to spare of the everlasting serving up of old material in 
books on Irish subjects, against which uU self-respecting scholarship 
should set its face. In the preparation of tlie works for the annual volumes 
both care and judgment is observed ; and in the selection of Mr. Mills 
and Mr. Berry by the Council, as editors for the works in question, 
they chose scholars whose competency for the tasks entrusted to them 
needs no comment from us. These books have been printed at the 
Dublin University Press, and in a manner which is a credit to this firm. 
In tlie case of Mr. Berry's work, immense labour and patience must 
have been spent upon it, on account of the bewildering form of the 
contracted Latin in which the MS. was written, and which has been 
carefully reproduced in typo. Mr. Berry, to whom we accord our 
warm gratitude, has spared us the reading of this, by giving us a full 
translation, page by page, of the by no means attractive text, notwith- 
standing its admirable typography. 

Of the high value and importance of the '' Kegister of Wills and 
Inventories" it is difficult to give an estimate. Mr. Berry gives us an 
introduction of considerable length, which forms not only a most valu* 
able contribution to our knowledge of the condition of the social life of 
the fifteenth century, but adds largely also to our knowledge of the 
ecclesiastical affairs of the diocese of Dublin at that time. As in 
Mr. Mills' work, so in Mr. Berry's, we breathe the very atmosphere 
of the Middle Ages. It is from such sources as these that the 
historian seeks inspiration ; and it is impossible to over-estimate eke 


importance of Mr. Berry's book as a contribution to the knowledge of 
the social customs and domestic life of the fifteenth century. 

To the genealogist the book is full of interest, and vre bclieye it will 
solve many a vexed question in family pedigrees. 

The wills are full of lists of household furniture, apparel, plate, 
jewellery, farming and trade implements ; and what is of far more 
importance, particulars of prices of these, as well as of food, farm pro- 
duce, live stock, &c. Horses and cows were worth about 5«. each, 
hogs Is.f sheep 4d. Six measures of wheat were worth 8«., seven of 
oats 3«., three of barley 2s, Zd, Compared with these, utensils were 
dear : one pan and three brass pots we read were worth ld«. 4^., a chest 
1«. ; again, two brass pots 8«., two pans lOa., two brass skillets 13«. 4d. 
One pair of blankets we find valued at 2<., and three sheets at 2«. We 
are reminded of Shakspere's will and his *' best bedstead," in reading of 
Bichard White leaving to Margaret White 13«., the best brass pot, and 
all his household stufE. The funeral feast was evidently an expensive 
affair, for we find from such wills as that of Joan White : ''for bread 
^ measures of wheat, for ale 6 measures of malt, for meat one cow, for 
the funeral 4 priests with their clerks, for wax 4 pounds." Utensils 
were left to the parish for general use, as Joan White leaves, in the will 
quoted, '' one three-legged pan and one trough with two trundles for the 
use of my neighbours of the said town of Leixlip, for the health of my 
sonlund (the souls) of my ancestors." Nicholas Delaber leaves a pot 
and skillet to pass in common among the rich and poor of Balrothery for 
ever. Turf, as Mr. Berry points out, is but once mentioned ; and but 
one book, the Fupilla OcuH, a manual for the clergy, belonging to Arch- 
bishop Walton. Particulars of the goods left to the churches and the 
poor, in and around Dublin, are of great interest^ and leave a favourable 
impression of the Christian chanty that existed, and exercised its salu- 
tary influence over those rude and troubled days. 

The most important wills in the collection are those of Archbishops 
Tregury and Walton, the latter being remarkable for the quantity and 
value of the household and ecclesiastical articles in Walton's possession. 
Mr. Berry gives us some new facts concerning the life and career of 
Tregury, as he does on many other names and obscure points in the wide 
field covered in the " Wills and Inventories." His comments and 
elucidations are full of valuable information on many technical terms, 
and on the names and places in Dublin and the neighbourhood. We 
can only say, in conclusion, that seldom have we perused a work of 
deeper interest, whether we turn to the text itself, or to Mr. Berry's 
valuable annotations. We congratulate Mr. Berry on the production 
of such a work, in this most uninviting and difficult of fields of research, 
a work which need fear no comparison with any of a similar kind 
produced in the sister kingdom. 


Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ireland, 1536-1&10. Edited by Sir 
Arthur .Vicars, 7.8. a., Ulster Kin g-at- Arms. (Dublin : Edward 
Ponsonby, 116, Graf ton -street.) 1897. 

Thk great importance of wills for the study of family and social history 
and biography is so generally recognised, that all interested in these 
brunches of inyestigation in Ireland have looked forward to the appear- 
ance of this long promised publication. 

The wills formerly lodged in. the Prerogative Office form by far the 
most important testamentary collection yet preserved in Ireland. The 
Court of Prerogative is of earlier origin than the Patent of James I.» 
mentioned by Sir A. Yicars in his Preface. It was established by the 
Act 28th Henry YIII., c. 19, which extended to Ireland the application 
of the Act of Faculties, then lately passed in England. This Act vested 
in the King and his ofScers the jurisdiction in testamentary and matri- 
monial matters, formerly exercised by the Pope and his legate, and 
clothed the King in this country with powers similar to those which he 
had already acquired in England. 

On the formation of the Record Commission in 1810, they undertook, 
as one of their most useful labours, the arrangement of the wills and 
other records of the Prerogative Office. Sir A. Vicars is, however, 
mistaken, in asserting that no Indexes previously existed; for the 
Commissioners reported of that Office that '' there are Indexes and 
Alphabets suited to public convenience, and not considered defective." 
But the fuller Index, prepared under the Commissioners' direction, is of 
the greatest value, and of this we were promised a print, carefully 
edited, by constant reference to the original wills, and with other 
editorial improvements. 

The volume has been produced in the most attractive form ; beauti- 
fully printed by the University Press in well-marked type ; and prettily 
and artistically bound in maroon cloth, with the arms of Ulster stamped 
in gold on the front. Unfortunately an examination of its contents, and 
a comparison of some parts with the publicly accessible original Index, 
show a most serious array of inaccuracies and omissions. We readily 
pass over some slips in the Preface; but in the Index itself we are 
confronted with errors of three kinds — (a) a large number of wills are 
entirely omitted ; {h) names are misspelt ; (e) wrong dates are attached 
in many instances. 

We note a few instances of each class of error which have come 
under our notice — [a) Wills entirely omitted from Sir A. Vicars' Index — 
1709, Allen, Richard, of Coolecurkey, Co. Wicklow; 1602, Boilings, 
John, Corballis, Co. Meath ; 1696, Black, David, Cork, merchant; 1804, 
Brien, John, Salson, Co. Fermanagh; 1731, Bumaby, John, Dublin, 
gentleman ; 1747, Civill, Eichard, Dublin, merchant; 1637, Costerdine,. 
George, Coleraine, gentleman ; 1728, Eaton, John, Castlekelly, Co. 


Sjlkenny, Esq. ; 1760, Eccles, John, Eatra, Co. Boscommon, gentleman; 
1648, Esmonde, Lawrence, Lord Baron of Limbrick; 1757, Maxwell, 
Artlinr Hamilton; 1738, Kathbome, Joseph, Dublin, chandler. 

(3) Testators' names misspelt : — 1800, Allebgone, "William {reete 
Allebym); 1661, Ardfert, Thomas, Earl of {reeU Ardglass); 1799, 
Angier, Elizabeth (reeU Augier) ; 1631, Apfnll, John {reete Axfull} 
1793, Meakins, John, chandler {reeU surname Chandler) ; 1744, 
Pilkington, Mary, widow of Baron P. {reete Pocklington). 

{c) Wrong years assigned to wills : — 1770, Alexander, Bobcrt {rede 
1790); 1755, Aylward, Michael {reeU 1785); 1780, Eaton, Kichard 
{reete 1786) ; 1700^ Moore, James {reete 1788) ; 1775, Morgan, John 
{reete 1675); 1792, Pentony, Christopher {reete 1769). 

These are but specimens of the frequently recurring errors through* 
out the book, their frequency increasing os the work goes on. As a 
test, we have collated the short letter '' Q," which occupies only one of 
the 502 pages in the book. Passing over seyeral minor errors (two in 
dates, one in a reference number, and two in the spelling of names), 
we found the following four wills wholly omitted : — 

1776. Quea, Mary, of Maralin, co. Down. 
1805. Quin, Elizabeth, Dublin, widow. 
1791. Quin, Henry, of Dublin, Doctor of Physic. 
1791. Quinan, Anna, alias Wood. 

It is a matter of much regret that a work so beautifully produced, 
and calculated to be of so much use, should be marred by so many 
defects, which a reasonable care could have prevented. Much as we 
should wish to speak in praise of any work produced by the genial and 
courteous Editor of this Tolume, we are in duty constrained to warn 
students of the inaccuracy of a work which purports to be an edition of 
an official Index, and which comes stamped with a quasi-official 

Sieicry of Com Milling. Vol. ii. WatemiilU and Windmills. By Kichard 
Bennett and John Elton. (London : Simpkin, Marshall & Co., 
Ltd.; Lirerpool: E.Howell, Church-street.) 1899. 

Tbx promise given in the first volume of this interesting and valuable 
work is well carried out in the second part. As the former section 
related to hand mills and slave and cattle mills, this turns to more 
advanced machines. 

The watermill seems to have come into use over 2000 years ago : 
the earliest known allusion to it being in a pretty epigram, by Anti- 
pater of Thessalonika, about 85 b.c, bidding the mill slaves rest till the 


(lawn, ''for Ceres has commanded the water nymphs to perform your 

The horizontal wheel was of nse in Northern and Western Europe 
at a very early period. Several Irish examples are given from the 
early volumes of the Journal of this Society, and the Ulster Journal of 
Areh€Bology, Similar mills are still in use in the Scotch Islands, 
^Norway, and even Boumania. 

The familiar vertical wheel, with its more complex machinery, is 
first described by Yitruvius about twenty years before the Christian 
era, and the type soon became more widespread than the simpler form. 
We note an edict of Honorius and Arcadius (a.d. 398) to prevent 
'Mmpudent" persons from diverting the water supply of the State 
mills ; but the imperial favour must have been shown from about 
A.D. 144, as the "Collegium" of the millers, or "corpus pistorum," 
erected a marble tablet, with figures of a millstone, and a basket of ears 
of com, commemorating their protector, Antoninus Pius. The Iloman 
laws relating to mills are given to a.d. 417, and a chapter on fi.oating 
mills abounding in quaint illustrations. 

To return to Ireland, the authors throw doubt on the legend of 
Cormac mac Airt's mill at Tara, said to have been erected by a Scotch 
millwright in the middle of the third century. They argue that the 
watermill was unknown in Roman Britain (where apparently no ruined 
mill, and only one millstone larger than a quern, has been found) ; they 
allow, however, that it may have been more directly imported ; and, 
considering the communication with Spain and Ptolemy's acquaintance 
with the great havens of Ireland in the previous century, we do not 
feel disposed to surrender so explicit and probable a legend of the great 
king, standing in the twilight of semi-historic tradition. 

Mills appear in our Annals from 651 ; and the miraculous mill of 
St. Fechin of Pore is noted not only in Giraldus Cambrensis, but in 
native authors. It refused to grind on a Sunday, and was too holy to 
be approached by a woman! St. Moling also spent eight years in 
building a mill in county Carlow, but the only miracles there shown 
were the holy man's " extraordinary patience and perseverance." The 
important enumeration of the parts of a mill in the Rrehon laws are 
given, but are too familiar to Irish antiquaries to need more than passing 
]'eference. The Welsh and Anglo-Saxon laws relating to watermills are 
abstracted, and there is a valuable chapter on the mills '* written in the 
Domesday Book." 

The early records of windmills seem to be unusually obscure and 
unreliable ; tliere seems to be no clear proof of their existence in 
England before 1200, and their records only become abundant from the 
close of the thirteenth century. Space does not allow notice further of 
their history. 

The authors have certainly produced a most useful volume. The 


mere collection of facts from so many scattered works would be good 
service to arcbseology, but tbey bave done more in good arrangement 
and condensation. Tbe book equally abounds in interesting and often 
yery picturesque illustrations, not only from tbe ancient manuscripts, 
but from existing buildings. Tbe very bistory is a cbeerful and 
encouraging story of buman advance from bard, and often bopeless, 
drudgery, to an intelligent adaptation of tbe forces put iit tbe disposal 
of man by kindly nature. As in tbe case of some of our most price- 
less legacies from tbe past, tbe names of tbe inventors and early 
improvers are lost, and only tbeir work remains to claim our 

*An UJster Parish : hein^ a SUtary of Donagheloney ( Waringstoum). 
By Edward Dupre Atkinson, ll.b., m.b.s.a.i.. Rector of Donagb- 
cloney, 168 pp., 8vo., 2s. 6d. net (Dublin : Hodges, Figgis & Co., 
Limited). 1898. 

Not since Messrs. Ball & Hamilton produced tbeir admirable work on 
'* Tbe Parisb of Taney " bas any tbing so good in tbe way of a parisb bis- 
tory been produced in Ireland as Mr. Atkinson's book on Donagbcloney. 

It is encouraging to find sucb an increasing interest in tbe antiqui- 
ties and bistory of our native land, and tbougb mucb remains to be done, 
tbe examples set in producing reliable parisb bistories are likely to be 
followed, as eacb new effort acts as a stimulus and incentive to otbers to 
undertake similar work elsewbere. 

Tbe present work commences witb tbe early traditions of tbe locality, 
and contains an account of tbe old proprietors, tbe Magenises of Clancon- 
nell, and tbe part taken by tbem in tbe rebellion of 1641, and goes on to 
tbe Cromwellian forfeiture and tbe transfers of tbe property to tbo Waring 
family wbose representatives still remain in possession. Interesting 
letters from members of tbe old Magenis family to tbe Warings are 
given, and also unpublisbed letters of Bisbop Jeremy Taylor, Addison, 
Dnke Scbomberg, and otbers, wbicb add to tbe bistorical value of tbe 

Some cbapters are devoted to ecclesiastical events, witb notices of tbe 
Clergy, Cburcbwardens, and principal parisbioners, also extracts from 
tbe vestry, minutes and registries, and tbe connexion of tbe families of 
Magenis, Waring, Magill, Mead, Young, and Blacker witb tbe parisb are 
noticed at lengtb. 

Tbe illustrations are botb numerous and excellent. A plan of tbe 
village drawn in tbe year 1703 a.b., is given, and it is astonisbing 
to find tbat tbe position of so many of tbe bouses, gardens, and 


£eld8 shown thereon, remains practically unchanged to the present 

A chapter is devoted to the linen industry which is the staple trade 
of the locality, and an account is given of its introduction thereto. The 
•chapter dealing with the monuments and inscriptions on the headstones 
is highly interesting, and will prove valuable in assisting many persons 
now resident elsewhere, whose ancestors belonged to the parish, to trace 
their kindred. The value of such works to genealogists in this connexion 
cannot be too highly appreciated. 

The time and labour involved in producing such a work must have 
been very great, and the learned author is to be congratulated on the suc- 
cessful result of his admirable research and industry. It is to be hoped 
other local histories will follow. It is now more than twenty years since 
Mr. Richard Linn, Fellow, formerly of Banbridge, but now of Christ- 
church, New Zealand, commenced to collect materials for the history of 
the adjoining parish of Seapatrick; he has recently obtained extracts 
irom the Public Record Office of many original documents, and the 
appearance of his work is looked forward to with interest. There are 
other workers in the field ; the Rev. Sterling De Gourcy Williams is 
doing good work in Durrow, and the Rev. William F. T. Falkiner is 
making exhaustive investigations in Killucan ; their labours when given, 
in the form of local histories will gratify a large number of our members. 

The Life of Theobald Wolfe Tone. By Alice L. Milligan. (Belfast, 

1898.) 8vo, 121 pages. 

Few even amongst those least in sympathy with the revolutionary aims 
and efEorts of Wolfe Tone will now be disposed to deny that he was a 
most striking and interesting, if not unique, personality, who, rightly or 
wrongly, has won an imperishable name in Irish history. Though brief 
his span of existence, whose tragical termination took place in his 
thirty-sixth year, few lives were, in their way, so stirring and momen- 
tous ; and though he failed in his plans, the fault could not be laid upon 
him. Most that is now known of him is due to his autobiography, a 
work which his son published early in this century. 

Edited by Mr. Barry O'Brien, the main substance of this life has 
been recently re-published by T. Fisher Unwin, London, in two bulky 
volumes. The present year having again brought Wolfe Tone's name 
into prominence, it was only to be expected that some account of his 
life's work should be presented in a more accessible form ; and in Miss 
Milligan's little volume accordingly we have a well-written and fairly- 
adequate, if brief, sketch of the life and aims of this extraordinary man. 
Of Tone's political work in Ireland it does not, however, claim to say 


sufficient, but dwells at a greater length on the narrative of his negotia- 
tions with France, and the story of his arrest, trial, and death. Appended 
to Miss Milligan's presentment of Wolfe Tone is a very interesting 
sketch of a visit paid by some Irish -Americans, in 1861, to his grave in 
BodeDstown churchyard, which, but for Davis's pathetic lines, would 
not improbably have long passed out of recollection. 

Miss Milligan's book on Wolfe Tone concludes with a full account of 
his descendants in America, that is not to be found in any previous 
publication relating to him. 

Apropos of Wolfe Tone, it may not be amiss to mention that an 
interesting Paper, by Mr. G. D. Burtchaell, dealing with his connexion 
with Trinity College Historical Society, and giving, in extenso. Tone's 
speech, as chairman, at the close of its 20th Session, will be found on 
page 395, vol. viii., of our Joumalf 1888 [vol. xviiL, consecutive series]. 

( 80 ) 


The Annual General Meeting of the Society was held in the Society's 
Booms, 6, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, on Tuesday, 17th January, at 
4 o'clock, p.m. ; 

Edward Percetal Wrioht, k.a., ic.d., x.r.i.a., Vice-President, 
in the Chair, in the absence of the President. 

The following were present during the proceedings : — 

Fellowt. — Thomas Drew, b.h.a., Viee-PreHdent ; Bev. J. F. M. fiPrench, m.r.i.a., 
Vice-Fretident ; J. J. Digges La Touche, ll.d., m.k.i.a., Vice' President ; Kobert 
Cochrane, f.b.a., m.r.i.a., Hon. Gen. Secretary ; F. Elrington Ball, u.r.i.a. ; Francis 
Joseph Bigger, m.u.i.a. ; G. D. Burtchaell, m.a., m.k.i.a. ; John Cooke, m.a. ; B. S. 
Longworth Dames, b.a., m.r.i.a. ; P. M. £gan; Lord Frederick Fitz Gerald; Lord 
Walter Fitz Gerald; J. B. Garstin, m.a., y.s.A., m.r.i.a. ; George A. P. Kelly, m.a. ; 
Bichard Langrisbe, f.r.z.a.i. ; T. J. Mellon; S. F- Milligan, m.r.i.a. ; James Mills, 
M.R.I.A. ; William B. J. MoUoy, m.r.i.a. ; P. J. 0*Beilly ; Count Plunkett, m.r.i.a. ; 
Countess Plunkett ; J. G. Bobertson, Son. Fellow ; Bev. Canon Stoney, d.d. ; Colonel 
P. D. Yigora ; Thomas J. Westropp, m.a., m.r.i.a. 

Memhert. — J. Poe Alton; Samuel Baker ; H. F. Berry, m.a. ; Bobert Bestlck; 
James Brenan, r.h.a. ; Bey. K. C. Brunskill, m.a. ; Bev. B. A. Burnett, m.a. ; 
John Carolan ; Bev. William Carrigan, c.c. ; Anthony B. Carroll ; W. P. Chapman ; 
Very Bev. Canon Conlan, p.p. ; H. A. Cosgrave, m.a. ; £. B. M'C. Dix ; Henry- 
Dixon ; G. Duncan ; Bev. A. L. Elliott, m.a. ; Bev. William Falkiner, m.a., m.r.i.a. ; 
S. A. 0. Fitzpatrick ; Thomas Greene, ll.d. ; Very Bev. T. Hare, d.d.. Dean of 
Ossory ; W. A. Henderson ; H. Hitchins ; Bev. H. Hutchins, m.a. ; Very Bev. H. 
Jellett, D.D., Dean St. Patrick's; Bichard J. Kelly; Bev. Canon Keman, b.1). ; 
Bev. H. W. Lett, m.a., m.r.i.a. ; Mrs. T. Long ; Bev. F. J. Lucas, d.d. ; Bev. H. 
C. Lyster, b.d. ; B. MaoSheehy, ll.d. ; James M'Connell ; Mrs. McDonnell; Miss 
H. G. Manders ; G. £. Matthews ; Bight Bev. W. £. Meade, d.d., Bishop of Cork ; 
Bev. Joseph Meehan, c.c. ; Joseph H. Moore, m.a. ; Bev. J. A. Nowlan, o.s.a. ; 
Miss Peter ; T. Plunkett, m.r.i.a. ; Bev. A. D. Purefoy, m.a. ; J. M. Quinn ; Miss 
Beynell ; Bernard Herron Boice; Bev. George W. Booke, m.a.. Precentor; Bev. J. 
J. Byan, v.p. ; Mrs. J. F. Shackleton; £. W. Smyth; Mrs. £. W. Smyth; Bev. 
C I Maurice Stack, m.a.; C. W. Steele; Bev. Joseph A. Stewart; W. C. Stubbs, 
M.A.; F. P. Thunder; H. P. Truell, m.d.; J. Walby ; Captain W. P. Hussey 
Walsh; B. D. Walshe; Very Bev. G. P. White, m.a., b.d.. Dean of Cashel; W. 
Grove White, ll.b. ; Bev. S. de Couroy Williams, m.a. ; Bev. George Otway Wood- 
ward, M.A. 

The Miiiutes of last Meeting were read and confirmed. 


The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 
declared duly elected : — 


Ball, Fnnda Elrington, m.b.i.a., J.r. {Member, 1896), Mopoon, Dundrum, Co. 

Dublin: proposed by llobert Cochrane, f.b.a., Hon, Oen, Secretary, 
Black, Charles Herbert, Dunedin, Otago, New Zealand : proposed by Richard Linn, 

Doyle, Rer. Richard Barry, 1513 Supoiior-street, Cleyeland, Ohio, U.S.A.: proposed 

by Robert Cochrane, f.s.a., m.k.i.a., E<m, Secretary, 
Keaniey, Francis Edgar, ll.d. (Dubl.), Qeorge-street, Limerick : proposed by H. 

C. Callinan, ll.b., Fellow, 
Macan, Arthur V., m.b., 53, Merrion-squnre, Dublin: proposed by J. J. Digges 

La Touche, ll.d., m.k.i.a., VicC' President, 
Upton, Henry Arthur Shuckburgh, j.p. {Member^ 1896), Coolatore, Moate, Co. West- 

meath : proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, m.a., m.r.i.a., Fellow. 


Coitello, Thomas Bodkin, m.d.. Bishop -street, Tuam : proposed by R. J. Kelly, 

B.L., J.p. 

Dovdal], J. P., Mullingar : proposed by James Tuite, m.p. 

£sgle, Edward, 60, Pembroke-road, Dublin : proposed by A. Patton, m.d. 

KtsGei-ald, Peter, j.p., Cragbeg, Limerick: proposed by W. A. Fogerty, m.d.. 

flackett, Kirkwood, Valuation Oflfice, Ely-phu^e, Dublin: proposed by 0. A. P. 

Kelly, M.A., Fellow, 
Hicks, Frederick J., 28, South Frederick-street, Dublin : proposed by Robert 

Cochrane, f.s.a., m.b.i.a., Son, Secretary, 
flxDgston, George, Collector of H. M. Customs, Custom House, Dublin : proposed by 

Robert Cochrane, f.s.a., ic.b.i.a., Hon, Secretary, 
Jordan, Myles De Exeter, m.d., Castlebar : proposed by P. Newell, b.a. 
Lawlor, Rer. Thomas, p.p., Kilorglin : proposed by P. J. Lynch, m.k.i.a.i., Fellow. 
Librarian, St. Patrick's College, Maynooth : proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, m.a., 

M.R.I.A., Fellow, 
X*Connell, John, j.p.. College-green House, Belfast, and Rathmona, Donaghadee : 

proposed by S. K. Kirker, Fellow. 
Kalone, Laurence, Inmsmaan, Queen's Park, Monkstown : proposed by T. Drew, 

B.H.A., VicC'Pretident, 
Jfslone, Mrs., Innismaan, Queen's Park, Monkstown : proposed by T. Drew, b.u.a., 

Nichols, Mrs., Kilbrack, Doneraile, Co. Cork: proposed by W. J. Grove White, 


Sellens, Frank Karshall James, The Tillage House, Raheny : proposed by John 

Cooke, M.A., Fellow, 
^alah, y. J. Hussey-, Barrister-at-Law, 4, Curzon«street, Mayfair, London, W. 

proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, m.a., m.b.i.a., Fellow. 
^'al^e, Richard D., 20, Harrington-street, Dublin ; proposed by Francis P« 

Tddham, Charles Cecil, d.i., b.i.c, 8iK-mile*bridge, Co. Clare: proposed by T. £. 

GalUGamble, d.i., &.i.c. 

JOVB. B.ff.AiI., TOL. IX., PT. I., 5Ttt SBBt G 


The Report of the Council for the year 1898 was read as follows : — 

The Council hare to report that the deaths of Beyen FellowB, one Hon. Fellow, and 
twentj-three Members have been notified during the course of the year 1898. The 
number of names now upon the Roll is 1369 : — 206 Fellows and Hon. Fellows, and 
1164 Members. 12 Members have resigned, and 16 names have been removed for 

The Fellows who died were — Lord Carlingford, k.p., a Yice-President for 1888- 
89; the Earl of Desart; Lavens Mathewson Ewart, M.&.I.A., a Vioe-President for 
1892-97; Harold Frederic; Herbert Webb Oillman; Sir Stuart Knill, Bart; the 
Rey. Samuel Martin Mayhew ; and Sir John Thomas Gilbert, il.d., Hon. Fellow. 

Among the Members the Society has lost the Rey. George Thomas Stokes, d.d., 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History, Uniyersity of Dublin, who, at the time of his death, 
and for seyeral years, was a Member of the CouncU. Dr. Stokes was elected a 
Member of the Society in 1887, and the following Papers by him were published in 
the Journal:—*' Dudley Loftus : A Dublin Antiquary of the Seventeenth Century" ; 
<<Athlone in the Seventeenth Century"; <<Killeger Church, Co. Dublin"; and 
'* Ishind Monasteries of Wales and Ireland," all of which appeared in vol. i., 6th Ser. 
(1890-91) ; " St. Feehin of Fore, and his Monastery," vol. ii. (1892) ; " The Antiquities 
from Kingstown to Dublin," vols. iii. (1893) and v. (1896) ; << St. Hugh of Rahue : 
his Church, his Life, and his Times," vol. vi. (1896). " Liber Niger," vols. iii. [1898], 
and vol. vii. [1897]. A Memoir of Dr. Stokes appears in the Preface to the Journal of 
the Society for 1898. 

The Rev. John Elliott, who was elected a Member in 1884, was for several yean 
Hon. Local Secretary for Armagh. 

The Vice-Presidents who retire by rotation at the Annual General Meeting far 
1899 are— Colonel Vigors; Mr. Milligan ; the Most Rev. Dr. Sheehan, Bishop of 
Waterford and Lismore; and Dr. Frazer: and the following have been duly 
nominated :--For Leinster, Lord Walter Fitz Gerald ; for Ulster, the Rev. Dr. Buick ; 
for Munster, the Rev. Edmond Barry, p.p., m.b.i.a. ; and for Connaught, the Most 
Rev. Dr. Healy, Bishop of Glonfert. 

Three Members of Council were co-opted to fill vacancies which occurred since the 
last Annual General Meeting:— Mr. T. J. Westropp, m.a., m.b.i.a., Fellow and Mr. 
F. Elriogton Ball, x.u.x.a., on the 26th of January, in place of Dr. Wright and 
Dr. La Touche, elected Vice-Presidents, and Mr. William C. Stubbs, m.a., Son, LoetU 
Secretary for North Dtihlin, on the 29th of March, in place of the late Professor Stokes. 
The Council met twelve times, and the Members attended as follows : —Mr. Ball, 
8 (since election) ; Mr. Kelly, 7 ; Mr. Westropp, 7 (since election) ; Mr. Moore, 6 ; 
Dr. Joyce, 6 ; Mr. Stubbs, 6 (since election) ; Mr. Cooke, 6 ; Lord Walter FitJs 
Gerald, 6 ; Mr. Mills, 4 ; Mr. Molloy, 4 ; Count Plunkett, 4 ; the Rev. Mr. Barry, ; 
the Hon. Secretary, 10. 

The Members who retire by rotation are— Mr. Cooke, Dr. Joyce, and Mr. Moore ; 
and the Rev. Mr. Barry's seat has become vacant. 

To fill the vacancies on the Council, the following have been nominated in 
accordance with the Rules: — ^William Frazer, f.r.o.s.i., m.b.i.a., hon. f.s.a. (Scot.), 
Felhw; Seaton F. Milligan, u.vl.i.a,, Fellow, Hon, Provincial Secretary^ Ulster; W.Grore 
White, LL.B. ; Richard Langrishe, f.u.i.a.i.. Fellow ; George Coffey, b.a.i., m.r.i a.. 
Fellow; and the Rev. Canon Healy, ll.d., Mon, Local Secretary for Horth Meath, 

Mr. Cochrane, after many y cat's of labour, which has resulted in the Society taking 
the leading position it now proudly occupies, has desired to be relieved from the 
office of Honorary Treasurer. The Council cannot allow the opportunity to paaa 
without recording their f uU sense of the importance of the work done by Mr. Cochrane. 
Most fortunately for the interests of the Society, Mr. Cochrane will still occupy the 
position of Honorary General Secretary to the Society. 


Mr. F. Elrington Bally m.s.i.a., Member of Councfl, has been duly nominated for 
elee^n as Hon. Treasoier. 

Mr. John Cooke, m.a., and Mr. James G. Bobertson haye been re-nominated as 
Auditon of the Treasurer's Accounts. The financial condition of the Society is satis- 
futory, and the Auditors' Beport will be brought forward in accordance with Bule 20 
in due course. 

The Society haTing entered on the Fiftieth year of its existence, the event was 
celebrated by a Banquet held in the Antient Concert Rooms in Dublin, on Wednesday, 
the 15th of June, to which a large number of invitations were issued to distinguished 
penons and representatiTOs of the more important kindred Societies. A full account 
of the proceedings was published in the Journal for 1898, page 187. The arrangements 
were satisfactorily carried out by a committee consisting of Dr. Wright, Via-Fretidenif 
Mr. Kelly, Mr. Ccoke, Mr. Westropp, Mr. Burtchaell, and Mr. Cochrane, Hon, Sec, 

The usual Quarterly Meetings were held during the year, and were fully reported 
in the Joumai, The Summer Meeting was held in Ballina for the province of 
Connaught, the arrangements for which were carried out by the Bight Bev. 
MoDsignor O'Hara, Eon, Secretary for North Mayo, in conjunction with the Hon. 
General Secretary. The Members of the Society were hospitably entertained on the 
occasion by the Earl and Countess of Aniin. 

The Council have entered into the possession of new premises at No. 6, St. 
Stephen's-green, and have given up the rooms occupied for the last six years at No. 7. 
In the new premises there is sufficient accommodation to hold the usual Meetings, and 
provide lor the Library and other property of the Society. Notice to surrender the 
premises hitherto rented by the Society in Kilkenny has been given. In case the col- 
lection of the objects of Antiquity can be adequately housed and cared for in Kilkenny, 
the Council suggest thai they diould be fully empowered to make all the necessary 
srrsngements for the proper legal transfer of the collection, so far as the objects in it 
may relate to the county or city of Kilkenny, to a local Committee. The collection 
BO trsnafemd to be known for the future as '* The Kilkenny Museum." 

It is well known to all students of the Antiquities of Ireland that, on the passing of 
The Church Act (Ireland), 137 of the Ancient Monuments of Ireland were vested in the 
Boaid of Works (Ireland). Under the Ancient Monuments Acts of 1882 and 1892, 
some 48 more became vested in the Board. Many matters of difficulty in connexion 
with the preservation of these Monuments were constantly arising ; some of them 
eatailed subjects about which there was a great deal of controversy ; and there was a 
very general notion abroad that it was desirable that some of the Irish Antiquaries 
should be consulted before repairs or restorations were undertaken by the Commissioners 
of the Board of Works to Irish Monuments. The Chairman of the Board of Works 
proposed (1892) to your Society, and to the Boyal Irish Academy, that each body should 
appoint two representatives who, with a Commissioner of the Board of Works, should 
be a Committee to meet monthly and consult with the Superintendent of Ancient 
Konnments before any more Monuments were scheduled or repairs or restoration 
effected on those at present scheduled. Fully alive to the importance of such a consul - 
tstive Committee, your Society at once selected their then President, Mr. Thomas Drew, 
and Dr. B. P. Wright to represent your Society, while the Boyal Irish Academy Com- 
aittee selected Lord Walter Fitzgerald and the late Bev. Denis Murphy, s.j., as their 
Rpresentatives. Since then Dr. La Touche has been selected to fill Mr. Drew's place, 
who had resigned, and Mr. J. Bibton Oarstin has been selected by the Boyal Irish 
icidemy Committee to fill the vacancy caused by the death of the Bev. D. Murphy. 
From reports made to your Council from time to time, they are inclined to think that, 
ss a Committee of Advice, this Committee fulfils a very useful part, and they have 
mson to believe that every fair consideration has been given to the labours of the 
Committee by the Commissioners. A list of the Monuments scheduled under the advice 
of this Committee from their appointment up to this date is in preparation. 


The Index for the Volumes of the Proceedings and Papers for the forty years, 
1849-1889, is progressing, up to the letter * K ' heing in type. 

The Annual General Meeting has heen fixed for Tuesday, the 1 7th of January, 
1899. Arrangements are being made to have a Midsummer Excursion to the Western 
Islands of Scotland, in which the Cambrian Archsological Association have arranged 
to join. 

The preliminary programme of this Excursion is appended. 

Thb places of interest in Scotland to be visited are — 

1. Sanda Island— Cross and St. Ninian's Church (see Captain White's 

" ArchflBological Sketches in Kintyre and Knapdale "). 

2. Kildalton Crosses and Church, Island of Islay, seven miles from Port 

Ellen (see R..C. Graham's '* Sculptured Stones of Islay"). 

3. Passing up the Sound of Islay to Oronsay,* to see the Priory, Monu- 

ments, Inscribed Stones, and Crosses (see Mac Gibbon and Ross, 
" Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland "). 

4. Crossing the Firth of Lorn, and passing up the Sound of lona, the 

well-known Crosses and Ecclesiastical remains at lona, west of the 
Island of Mull, will be visited. 

5. Sailing north-west, the unique ecclesiastical remains on the Island 

of Tiree will be visited, and a landing may be made on the Island 
of CoU. 

6. Passing west of Rum Island, the Island of Canna will be visit^ed, to 

see the Ancient Cross (depicted in Stuart's *^ Sculptured Stones 
of Scotland"). At Canna there is a fine natural harbour. 

7. Sailing up Little Minch into Dunvegan Loch, Isle of Skye, the 

Town and Castle of Dunvegan will be seen; the latter is the 
residence of The M'Leod of M'Leod ; a portion of the house was 
built in the 9th century. 

8. Crossing Little Minch to the Outer HebrideSy Eodil in Harris will be 

seen (Church with curious Sculptures). 

9. Passing through the Sound of Harris, and sailing north, the next 

call will be at Cullemish, on the Island of Lewis — Stone Circles. 

10. Dun Carloway Pictish Tower, on the north-west of Lewis Island, 

six miles north of Callemish. 

1 1 . Flannan Isles ancient bee-hive Oratory : North Bona and Sula 

Sgeir, in the North Atlantic, early Christian Oratories (see Dr. 
Joseph Anderson's ** Scotland in Early Christian Times"; Muir^s 
** Ecclesiological Architecture " ; and Mac Gibbon and Ross, 
** Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland"). 

12. The Stone Circles of Stennis, near Stromness, Maeshowe, and 

Kirkwall Cathedral, Orkney, will next be visited (see J. R. 
Tudor's "Orkney and Shetland"; Sir H. Dryden's *« Kirkwall 
Cathedral"; and Farrer's "Maeshowe"). 

' South of Oronsay the water 18 not very deep, and landing involves a long row. 


13. Sailing south to Keias Bay, Caithness, the ancient Brochs, or Pictish 

Towers, now under investigation hy Sir Francis Tress Bany, 
Bart., V.P., Eeiss Castle, will, hy his kind permission, he visited. 

14. In the return journey, passing down Sleat Sound, round Ardna- 

murchan Point, and through the Sound of Mull, Eilean Mor, in 
the Sound of Jura, at the mouth of Loch Swine, will he visited 
(Cross and Stone-roofed Church). 
l^. Sailing south through the Sound of Jura, the party will visit Gigha 
Island, off the west coast of Eintyre, to see a reputed Ogom- 
fitone, the only one ever heard of in the west of Scotland ; after 
which the steamer will return to Belfast. 

The steamer will leave Donegall-quay, Belfast (opposite the office of 
the Belfast S.S. Company), on Tuesday morning, June 20th, at 10.30, 
retuming on Wednesday, June 28th, at 10 o'clock, a.m. ; and the sea 
Excursion will, it is contemplated, occupy eight days. 

An illustrated programme and map of the routes are in course of 

These arrangements have heen approved of hy the Council of the 
Society, subject to such modifications as the Hon. Gen. Sec. may find 
necessary or desirable. 

This Excursion has been undertaken at the request of some of the 
leading Archaeologists of the United Kingdom (Members of this Society), 
to enable places and objects of great Antiquarian interest to be visited, 
otherwise inaccessible except at considerable expense, and a good deal 
of inconvenience. 

The Directors of the Belfast Steamship Company have consented to give, for 
the use of the partj, their favourite Express Passenger new twin-screw steamer 
*^Mag%c,*^ commanded by Captain Dunlop, accompanied by the Manager of the 
Steamship Company, James McDowell, Esq. 

The S.S. *'Maffie" was built by Messrs. Harhmd & Wolff in 1893; gross 
tonnage, 1640 tons ; length, 322 feet ; breadth of beam, 39 feet ; and is fitted up 
with large and well- ventilated State Rooms, Dining Saloon, Smoke Room, 
Promenade Deck, Bath Room, &c., and has electric light throughout. The 
catering will be done hy the Steamship Company, comprising first-class cuitini 
— break&st, lunch, dinner, and tea. 

The Lifeboats of the Steamer (eight in number) will be available for landing 
the party. 

llie ** Maffie" has accommddation for 220 first-class passengers in berths, 
but it is proposed to limit the number to 120, for the greater comfort of the party 
and to avoid crowding. 

Ticketa vpill be issued by the Belfast Steamship Company at £10 
each, but the application for same must be made to the Hon. General 
Secretary, or the Hon. Provincial Secretary, accompanied by a remit- 
tance of the amount, or a deposit of £5, not later than 11th April, 
Qexty on which date the list for Members' applications will close. 


The dates and places of the Meetings for the year 1899 are as 
follows : — 

Annual General Meeting, 17th January, . . . DuBUir. 

Evening Meetings, 28th Feb. and 28th March, , Dublin. 

General Meeting for 2nd Quarter, 11th April,* . Dublin. 

General Meeting for drd Quarter, 16th August,* Belfast. 

General Meeting for 4th Quarter, 10th October,* Kilkknnt. 

Evening Meetings, dlst Oct. and 28th Nov., . • Dublin. 

The Report was unanimously adopted, and it was proposed, seconded, 
and passed by acclamation : — 

*'That the thanks and gratitude of the Society are due to Mr. Cochrane 
for the admirable manner in which he has carried out the duties of Honorary 

The Chairman then declared the following Honorary Officers duly 
elected : — 

Vige-Pbesidsnts — 

For XeintUr^ . Lord Waltsk Fitz Gbkald, m.b.i.a. 
For UUter, . Thb Bby. Gborob R. Buick, m.a., ll.d., m.b.i.a. 

For Munttir, . Thb Rby. Edmond Barrt, y.p., m.r.i.a. 
For Connaught^ . Tub Most Bby. John HbAXiT, d.d., ll.d., k.r.i.a., 

Bishop of Clonfert. 
HoK. Tesasubbb — 

AvniTOBS — 

F. Elrinoton Ball, m.b.i.a. 

John Cookb, m.a. 
Jambs G. Bobbrtson. 

Mr. Westropp and Mr. Dix were appointed Scrutineers of the Ballot 
for Members of Council. 

Names removed from the HoU in 1898 : — 

Leceated (31). 

Fbllows (7). — Lord Carlingford, k.p., m.r.i.a.. Member, 1867 ; Fellow, 1888 ; 
Vice-PreiideiU, 1888-1889 ; the Earl of Desart, 1872 ; LaYens Mathewson Ewart, 
M.R.I.A., 1891; Viee-Fretident, 1892^97; Harold Frederic, 1898; Uerbett Webb 
Gillnian, b.a., Member, 1891; Fellow, 1897; Sir Stuart Knill, Bart., ll.d., 1872 ; 
the BeY. Samuel Martin Mayhew, f.s.a. (Scot.), 1890. 

Hon. Fbllow (1).— Sir John T. Gilbert, ll.d., f.s.a., m.r.i.a«, r.h.a., 1891. 

Mbmbbrs (23).~Thomas Bamewall, 1893; John Bemal, 1889; Maria, Lady 
Chapman, 1893; M. Edward Conwaj, 1865; Laurence Doyle, b.l., 1869; Rev, 
John Elliott, 1884 ; Samuel Gordon, m.d., 1890 ; J. J. Griffin, m.d., 1897 ; John P. 
Hartford, 1890; BeY. Alfred T. HarYey, m.a., 1891; BeY. B. B. Kane, ll.b., 
1892; BeY. William Kilbride, m.a., 1868; George Listen, 1894; Very Bcy. Edward 

* Excursions will be arranged in connexion with these Meetings. 


WiUiam M'Kenna, p.p., T.7., 1892; John H^Lougblin, 1800; Ber. John Mtdden, 
cc, 1890 ; Thomas Mathews, 1890 ; Thomas GriiEii O'Donoghue, 1894 ; Dr. Edwaid 
P. O'Farrell, 1892; Bot. Professor Stokes, D.n., M.B.I.A., 1887; Wm. Geo. Strype, 
M.ixsT.o.B., 1898; Mrs. Thompson (Miss Butler), 1891; William Biehaid Wade, 

JCetigned (12). 

MncBSva (12).— Major H. G. 8. Alexander, 1896 ; F. J. Beckley, b.a., 1892 ; Mrs. 
Bennet, 1896; Chetwood H. Bo wen, 1896; James W. Crawford, 1890 ; Bot. John 
H. Dayidson, m.a., 1894; D. GriiBth Davies, b.a., 1894; Henry P. Goodbody, 
1897 ; Miss Goodbody, 1897 ; Bev. John Prenderg^t, o.c, 1890 ; William Bing- 
vood, 1893 ; William Bussell, 1897. 

The following Fellow (1) and Members (14) have been taken off the 
Boll, owing, at the commencement of the year 1898, upwards of two 
years' arrears : — 

Pbllow (1).— -W. H. Upton, 1892, £3. 

Mbmbbrs (14).— Very Bey. J. A. Anderson, o.s.a., 1891, £1 ; W. J. Fits Gerald, 
1892, £1; J. A. Hanna, 1887, £1; Bev. J. 0. Hannay, m.a., 1891, £1; H. A. 
Hinkson, m.a., 1892, £1 ; William Irwin, 1892, £1 ; W. G. Jefferson, m.a., 1894, 
£1 : Bev. Edward Lavell, cc, 1893, £1 ; Joseph Molloy, 1890, £1 ; Bev. Joseph 
Moorhead, b.a., 1895, £1 ; W. P. O'Neill, x.k.i.a., 1891, £1; Michael B. Stokes, 
1895, £1 ; Charles F. Walker, 1895, £1 ; Bev. T. J. Whitty, cc, 1889, £1. 

The following Pablications wore receiyed daring the year 1898 : — 

American Antiquarian Society, New Ser., toI. zii., Parts 1, 2. Anthropological 
Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol. zxyiu, Nos. 3, 4 ; New Ser., vol. i., Noe. 
2, 8. L'Anthropologie, yoI. ix., Nos. 1-6. Belfast NaturaUsto' Field Club, 1897- 
1898, Proceedings, toI. iv., Series 2. Bristol and Gloucester Archaeological Society, 
xz., Psrt 2, Programmes ; Gloucestershire Becords, 2 ; Catalogue of Books. British 
Arehndogical Association, Journal, yol. iv.. Parts 2-4. British and American 
Archaeological Society of Bome, yol. iv.. New Series, Parts 1, 2. Bulletin of 
Museum of Science, Philadelphia. Bulletin of Free Museum of Science, Penn- 
sylTsnia. Cambrian Archaeological Association, Archasologia Cambrensis, Parts 67, 
&8, 60, 61. Cambridge Antiquarian Society, Proceedings, vol. zxxix., No. 3 ; list 
of Members. Cork Historical and Archasological Society, Journal, vol. iv., Ser. 2, 
Nos. 37-39. Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club, vol. xviii. Hon. 
Society of Cymmrodorion, Transactions, 1896-1897. Geological Surveys, U.S.A., 
Bulletins and Monographs, vols, xxv-zxviii., and Atlas. Ditto for Canada, 1898. His* 
torical State Society of 'Wisconsin, Proceedings, 45 ; Growth of Society, &o. Institute 
of Civil Engineers of Ireland, vol. zxvi., 1897. Kildare Archaeological Society, 
Tol. 4, Nos. 6-7. Numismatic Society, Journal, Ser. 3, Nos. 69, 70, 72. Bevue 
Celtique, vol. xix., Nos. 1-4. Boyal Archasological Institute of Great Britain and 
Ireland, Ser. 2, vol. iv.. No. 216 ; vol. v., Noe. 1—3. Boyal Institute of British 
Arehitects, vol. v., Ser. 3, Parts 6-10, 11-15, 16-20 ; vol. vi., Parts 1>5 ; Kalendar, 
1898-1899. Boyal Institute of Cornwall, vol. xiii., Part 2. Boyal Irish Academy, 
Piooeedings, vols, v.-z., Ser. 2; vol. i.. Parts 1, 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 12; vol. ii.. 
Farts 1-8, Ser. 3 ; voL ii.. Parts 1, 2 (being all back volumes relating to archaeology ; 
Ser. 3, vol. iv.. No. 5. Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of Ethnology, 1891-1892, 
1894-1895. Sod^t^ d'Arch^ologie de Bruxelles, tome ix. ; tome xii., Uv. i., 2-4. 
8odH5 Boyale des Antiqnaires du Noid, Memoires Nouvelle Serie. Aarb6ger for 
Hor&k Oldkindighed, 1897-1898. Society of Antiquaries of London^ Ser. 2» 


Tol. xYii., No. I. Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-npon-Tyne, Archeologia 
Aeliana, vol. six. ; Proceedings, vol. viii., 1898, and Programmes. Society of 
Antiquaries of Scotland, Proceedings, vol. yii., Ser. 3. Society of Architects, 
Journal, New Ser., vol. v, Nos. 4, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 ; vol. vi., Nos. 1, 3. Society 
of Biblical Archaeology, vol. zx.. Parts 1-8. Somersetshire Arch«ological and 
Natural History Society, Proceedings, vol. xliii., 1897. Suffolk Institute of Archae- 
ology and Natural History, vol. ix.. Part 3. Surrey Archaeological Society, vol. xiv., 
Part 1. Wiltshire Archaeological Society, vol. xxx., Parts Ixxxix.-xc. Yorkshire 
Archaeological Journal, vol. xiv.. Part 4; vol. xv.. Parts 1, 2. The Antiquary 
for 1898. Folk-Lore, viii., 3 ; ix., 1 and 3. The Irish Builder for 1898. Scot- 
tish Brochs: their Age and Destruction (J. W, Cursitor, the Author). Napoli 
Nobilissima ; Revista de la Asociaci6n Artistico- Arqueologica Barcelona (Cavaliere 
Salazar). Devenish, Lough Erne (Rev. J. £. MacEenna, the Author). The 
Coinage of Scotland, 3 vols. — Edward Bums, f.s.a. (Messrs. Adam and Charles 
Black). History of Mills and Milling (Richard Bennett, t)ie Author). Excavations 
at Eesserlock, Conrad Merk ; Antiquities of South America, W. BoUaert ; Monumens 
Celtiques, M. Cambry (W. E. Kelly). Royal Societies* Club, Report and Member 
List. Gaelic League Publications, Introduction to Eeating*s History (Messrs. 
M. H. Gill). The Reliquary for 1898. The permanent Photographs received during 
the year appear in a separate report at p. 61, atttea. — T J. W. 

The Meeting then adjourned to 8 o'clock, p.m. 

Evening Meeting. 
The Society met in the Society's Rooms, at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

The Right Hon. O'Conor Don, iL.n., m.e.i.a., President^ 

in the Chair. 

The President said he did not think he could preside at this their 
first meeting in their own rooms without congratulating them upon 
the fact that they were no longer wanderers seeking the hospitality of 
generous kindred societies. They had now at length a habitation and 
a home which they could call their own ; and he thought that any of 
them who had gone through the premises, which they had been fortu- 
nate enough to secure, would agree with him in thinking that the 
Council and their Secretary acted very wisely in immediately taking 
advantage of the offer made to them of rooms which he must say were 
admirahly adapted to their purposes. They had now a fixed ahode and 
a fixed habitation of which as a Society he thought they need not be 
ashamed; and the best of it was he had been informed that the pre- 
mises had been secured without any considerable immediate expense, and 
without adding substantially to any of their annual liabilities. He there- 
fore thought that the thanks of the meeting were due to their officers 
who had secured these premises with their corresponding advantages at 
such little cost. The year that had just passed had been a memorable 
one in their annals. During it they had celebrated their Jubilee, and 


thej were now entering upon what he hoped would be a new career of 
increasing utility in a new home surrounded by so many of their old 
friends and supporters (applause). On the other hand, as in all things 
himian, they had many losses to deplore. They could not help feeling 
the void that had been caused by the death of many valued members and 
dear personal friends. Amongst those whose loss would, perhaps, be 
most felt by the society was that of Dr. Stokes. He was a familiar figure 
at almost all their meetings, and his pen had enriched their journals with 
many historical descriptive pieces, contributed,, almost every year, since 
he was elected. They had also lost Sir John Gilbert, whose name would 
ever be associated with those who devoted their lives to diligent and 
careful research amongst the records of their country. They had also to 
deplore the loss of Lord Carlingford, the Earl of Dcsart, and Sir Stuart 
EniU who, although an Englishman, took the deepest interest in Irish 
archaeological lore. He need not dwell on the other losses they had sus- 
tained. The names in the obituary list were familiar to most of them. 
They had a considerable amount of business to get through, and he would 
not detain them longer, but would conclude by expressing the hope 
that the Society might, year by year, increase in prosperity and utility 
until it had accomplished all the objects for which it had been founded. 

Mr. Bigger exhibited a photograph of a portrait of Hugh O'Keill, 
Baron Dungannon, son of the Earl O'Neill, who was buried in Borne in 

Kr. Thomas Plunkett, ]i.b.i.a., Enniskillen, Hon. Local Secretary for 
Fermanagh^ exhibited and described a very fine well-formed bronze 
sword, 25^ inches long, which was found in a shallow bay last summer 
during low water near the old castle of Crom, on the shore of upper Lough 
Erne, about three miles from Kewtownbutler. He described other bronze 
swords, daggers, celts, &c., that he secured during the drainage opera- 
tions a few years ago. When a cutting was being made through a ford in 
the lake at Eastbridge, Enniskillen, a great number of stone implements 
were unearthed, which came into his possession. Lough Erne traverses the 
centre of Fermanagh, and runs in a north-westerly direction to the sea, 
and must have been a great highway during both the Stone and Bronze 
Ages ; and the number of stone and bronze weapons lately found in 
its fords and on its shores clearly shows that it has been the scene of 
many a conflict between tribes who lived in the Neolithic Period, as 
w^ as those who lived in the Bronze Age. Mr. Plunkett also exhibited 
a portion of a bronze sword mould which was found on the surface of an 
ancient crannoge associated with rude huts which were found at a depth 
of 21 feet underneath peat. 

The Eev. G. Otway "Woodward, m.a., exhibited an earthenware 
Chafing-dish of the last century. 

JOUK. R.8.A.I., VOL. IX., PT. X., OTH BBK H 


The Scratineers having handed in their Report, of. the result of the 
Ballot, the President declared. the following dnly cjlected :— 

Membebs of Council : ' ' 

William Frazek, f.b.c.s.i., m.b.i.a., hon. f.s.a. (Soot.)> Fallow, 
ExcHABD Lanobuhb, F.B.I.A.I., Fellow, 
Thb Rbt. Canon Hbalt, lI.d. * ' 

Sbaton F. Millioan, ' M.B.I.A., Fellow. 

The following Papers were read (illustrated with lantern slides)^ 
and referred to the Council: — '• 

** The Antiquities of Fore, Co. Westmeath," hj Francis Joseph :Bigger^ k.b.i.a.. 

» • 

« A Fortifled Stone Lake-i Dwelling; in Lough Cullen, Co. Mayo ". (oommunipated by 
Edgar L. Layard, c.K.o.), by the BeT. J. F. M. ffirench, m.r.i.a., Fm»- 

The Society then adjourned to Tuesday, 28th February, 1899. 

An EyENiNa Meetiito was held in the Society's Rooms on Tuesday, 
28th February, at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

The Ret. Cakon J. F. M. ffbench, m.iui.a., Vtee-Presidentf 

in the Chair. 

A Paper was read by Mr. Thomas Drew, b.h.a., Vice-President, 
entitled — **A further Note on the Surroundings of St. Patrick's de 
Insula, the restoration of the North Close, 1899, and the possibility of 
the recovery of the ancient "Well of St. Patrick." Before reading the 
Paper, Mr. Drew referred to the ancient history of the cathedral, and 
pointed out that even now careful observation would reveal ancient 
stones and interlaced Celtic ornamentation, which was nndoubtedly 
anterior even to the ancient period of 1190. Touching upon the ancient 
"Well of St. Patrick in " St. Patrick's-lane," he showed its traditional 
position to be near Morrison's Hotel, in Nassau -street, near the Provost's 
Garden, a spot now covered by the hackneycar-drivers* stand. In the 
course of an imaginary walk from this spot to the Well of St. Patrick in 
the Coombe some interesting facts relative to Old Dublin were given. 
He advised those who wished to study the matter to read Gilbert's ** His- 
tory of Dublin," and also the numerous interesting archaeological book 
treasures which were stored in the library of Christ Church Cathedral. 
Incidentally he pointed out that ancient Dublin was 8 feet below the 
present surface. In some places it was 6 feet, and in some 13, but in 
every instance where the original strata and foundations could be seen 
they would prove interesting and of practical use, not only from an 
archseological but from a geological point of view. He pointed out that a 


rivulet existed across Grafton-street, and the imderminiiig of the soil by 
its coarse was, some time ago, the cause of a well-remembered erent, when 
the front of Mr. Brunker's, the jeweller's shop, fell into the street. He 
regretted that so many interesting records had been lost by the ignorance 
or neglect of rectors and church- wardens of the past, and contrasted their 
action with the action of similar officials elsewhere, who endeavoured to 
preserve the ancient names, which often formed an important clue to the 
tradug of the real history. As an instance of the craze for cutting things 
short, he mentioned that St. Andrew's Church was originally St. Andrew 
Thingmote. This Thingmote of the Danes was in close proximity, and 
on it were given the Danish laws of the country ; the hill was levelled 
to fill up St. Patrick's-lane, and make what was now Nassau and the 
adjoining streets. In dealing with ancient Dame-street, then a narrow 
lane, he referred to the King William statue, and mentioned that though 
it was nowadays ascribed to Van Haust, it was said to be the work of 
Orinling Gibbons, although it was found among work ascribed to this world- 
famed artist, which, if he had executed it all, would have made him exist 
from the fourteenth century to the nineteenth. He farther pointed out the 
sacrilegious use to which the crypts of Christchurch were put about the 
period of 1710 by being used for ale-shops and taverns of the vilest 
character. On the top of the hill near Nicholas-street stood the old town 
hall, the only portion preserved being the two statues which stood in the 
niches above the door, and which were now in Christchurch Cathedral. 
It was a singular fact that the foundations in this particular neighbour- 
hood, though it was so high, were worse than in other parts of Dublin, 
owing to the boggy nature of the ground. The locality formerly had a 
name meaning the ''Hazel Bidge," and he had seen whole cartloads of 
hazel nuts thrown up in the course of excavations, proving that hazel 
grew plentifully at one time in that particular neighbourhood. Passing 
on to the Coombe he pointed out how in those days, owing to titular 
authorities leasing out the grounds allotted to them near the cathedral 
to poor persons, the ground became filled with wretched shops and 
dwellings which were built close up to the church, and he spoke with 
pleasure of the effort which is to be made by one of Dublin's greatest 
citizens to remove the present-day congestion, and restore to the 
ancient cathedral some of its early, fair, and salubrious surroundings. 
He pointed out that in early Dublin the cathedral was in the centre of a 
little city fortified in itself, the surrounding walls having four towers, 
one of which was called St. Patrick's, and was the principal one. 
FinaUy he referred to the particular spot near the foot of the cathedral 
tower at which it was believed the ancient "Well of St. Patrick's would 
be found. Mr. Drew then read his Paper, which was referred to the 
Council for publication. (It is printed at p. 1, ante.) 

The Meeting was then adjourned to 28th March. 


An EyionNa MBETora was held in the Society's Booms on Tuesday, 
28th March, at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

Mb. Thomas Dbew, b.h.a., Tics- President, in the Chair. 

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : — 

<<A Communication on the Palaeolithic Period, with Evidences of the Antiquity of 
Man*' (Illustrated by Lantern Slides), by Geo. Ccffey, b.b., m.r.i.a. 

** Tallaght, Co. Dublin, and some places in its Neighbourhood" (to be visited by 
the Society on the 13th of April next). Illustrated by Lantern Slides, by 
F. Elrington Bull, ii.ili.a. 

The following Papers were taken as read, and referred to the 
Council for publication: — 

'* Notes on Crannog and other Finds in Co. Wexford,*' by Sir Thomas Grattan 
Esmonde, Bart., m.f. 

*' The Monuments at Clonmacnoise," by R. A. S. Macalister, m.a. 

*'The Cryptic Element alleged to exist in Ogham Inscriptions," by £. A. S. 
Macalister, m.a. 

** Kilmakilloge, Co. Kerry," by Miss Hickson, Hon, Local Secretary ^ Xcrry North. 

The Society then adjourned to 12th April, 1899. 



^ct 2, Vol n. 

fot ifiuarrec 

90(b Jue, 18M. 

%hc (Journal 

of the 

Rogal ^ocietg of Antiquaries 





8kOt«k of CloBdAlkiB, Tallftcht, 
nd Mkar pUMt 1b T«*t Oowitr ItabUii. 
Bf F. Elkincton Ball, m.k.i.a., FM>w 
!Foor nhutratioiu), . , . . M 

• Xbm ^ th« Aatint Coipontios of 
ilUvT, C«mt]r Salwsy. By W. F. 
Vakkkah, IftM.Felltm {One JUuiiiation), 100 

Th» iMond eananl XaatlxK, Dublin, 
I April, 1E99, 

By the late Rev. G. T. Stokbs, 
.i.A. (One niastntioD), 
B. BythelaleRev.G.T.STOKES, 
.I.A. (Oneliliutratioii], 


— Annoy Round Tower, Co. An- 
- Ulnstratioiu)— The Gallan near 
Chest in Ireland— Tobemihal- 
ud Tobergniiia — Photogiaphic Sur- 

i BvMiiar KMtbv, uth April, irae, . 

SMttUh AxehBolagioal Tou of the H«y»l 
>o«i«ty of Antlqiiariei of Iroland In 
JiuotloBwitk tho CAntbrUnAialiMolagloal 

Ill BibUogTAphj of tho Wettem IiUndi of ■oet- 


lBtredaotoi7 (Three IlluslraUoni), 

SmUmi I. Bud* ud KlldAlten (Eight IlliU' 


,, U. Orttawy, Iona,sndTlno(TwenIy- 

oae lUuslralions}, 




The Extra Volume for 1893-95, " The Annals of Clon- 
macnoise," being Annals of Ireland from the Earliest 
Period to a.d. 1408. Translated into English, a.d. 1627, 
by Conell Mageoghagan, and now for the first time printed. 
Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the late Rev. 
Denis Murphy, S.J., LL.D., M.R.I.A., Vice-President. 
Price 16/—. To be had by Members from Messrs. Hodges, 
Figgis, & Co., Grafton-street, Dublin, at the reduced 
price of 10/—. 

The Extra Volume for 1896-97, ^' The Register of 
Wills and Inventories of the Diocese of Dublin in the 
time of Archbishops Tregury and Walton, 1457-1483,*' 
from the Original Manuscript in the Library of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Two Plates and three Illustrations. 
Edited, with Translation, Notes, and Introduction, by 
Henry F. Berry, M.A., T.C.D., Barrister-at-Law. Price 
15/—. To be had by Members from Messrs. Hodges, 
Figgis, & Co., Grafton-street, Dublin, at the reduced 
price of 10/—. 












On/en rtctived by MR. KILUOAN, Bank Buildings, Belfast. Price Sd„ by post S^d. 

Four Copies free for Is, per post. 

'^ J 


«■ ■ u 







[Read Mabch 28, 1899.] 

T EAYnre Dublin by the South Circular-road, Dolphin's Bam is first 
passed through. This district, originally called Kamanclone- 
gnnethe, probably derived its present name, which was used so early as 
the year 1396, from some member of the Dolphin family, th^n well 
known in Dublin. Near here Strongbow and Dermot are said to have 
entrenched themselves before they attacked Dublin.^ 

Crossing the Grand Canal by Camac Bridge, so called from one of the 
directors of the Canal Company in 1791, the highway, once the mail- 
coach road to Limerick and Cork, is followed for about a mile, until we 
come to a road on the left leading to the village of 


or Cndmghlinn, the curved glen. The only object of interest here is the 
tower of the church, on which there is a well-carved skull, and a tablet, 
with the words, *^ How dreadful is this place ; none other is the house of 
God, and this is the gate of Heaven." It contains a narrow spiral 
staircase and two rooms ; in one of these latter there arc the fragments 
of a tombstone said to have been erected to the memory of one of Queen 

1 See M'Cready's *' Dublin Street Names,*' and D'AIton'a <* History of the County 
Dublin," to which the writer is indebted for much of the information m this Paper. 

jorTR. R.S.A.I., VOL zz., PT. II., 5tu bkk. I 


Anne's waiting-women. Inscriptions on tlie gate-piers record that the 
church, which is dedicated to St. Mary, was rebuilt in 1817, and that 
the walls of the churchyard were rebuilt in 1725, and repaired one hun- 
dred years later.^ It is interesting to note that the rector, in 1 725, was 
the Rev. Roger Ford,* and that at the beginning of the present century 
a namesake, and no doubt a descendant, of his held the rectory. 

The manor of Crumlin, together with the manors of Newcastle, Sag- 
gart, and Esker, was annexed to the Crown, and was called King's land. 
The tenants had to pay a higher rent — 9d. per acre — than those on the 
other royal manors, because, on one occasion, '* the lobbish and desperat 
clobberiousnesse," i.e. unwashed rabble, smote the Seneschal on the head 
and left him for dead, on his endeavouring to collect the rent. In the 
centuries immediately succeeding the Korman conquest, Crumlin was a 
place of some importance, and was the cognomen of a family, members of 
which filled various public positions.* The town was walled in and pos- 
sessed a provost and other officials. In the church, which was given by 
King John to the economy fund of the collegiate church of St. Patrick, 
service was regularly performed, and we find a pious parisliioner, in the 
fifteenth century, leaving money for the support of the three lights of the 
church of St. Mary the Virgin of Crumlin, and for regilding the chalice.* 
Besides the Crown, the Priory of the Holy Trinity owned land at Crumlin, 
including a wood called " Gifford's grove," and land known as the **com 
mill *' and ** Kevin's farm."* In the sixteenth century the manor of 
Crumlin became of all others ** the worst and most wasted," owing to the 
incursions of the "Wicklow tribes ; and in 1594 the town was plundered 
and burnt by a band of insurgents under the leadership of Walter Reagh 
FitzGerald.* They carried away the lead with which the church was 
roofed, and although the blaze of the burning town was seen from 
Dublin, and they were pursued by a troop of horse, they escaped. 
Cromwell is said to have encamped near Crumlin, and King William 
did so after the battle of the Boyne, several of his proclamations being 
dated from that village. 

In the last century the commons of Crumlin, now enclosed, were 
famous for horse races held on them ; and the "great house " had several 
distinguished occupants, including Chief Baron Dcane,^ who only lived 

^ See description of Crumlin Church by James R. Fowler, in *' Joumal of the 
Memorials of the Dead," vol. ii., p. 287. 

' He kept a school in Molesworth-street, and Robert Jcphson and Edmund Malone 
were educated by him. See Gilbert's "History of Dublin," vol. iii., p. 262. 

3 Adam de Cnunlin was in the 13th century Sheriff both of Dublin and of Meath. 
See Swectman's ** Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland,'* 1293-1301 pastim. 

^ See Berry's '< Register of the Diocese of Dublin in the time of Treg;ury and 
Walton," p. l'50. 

* " Calendar of Christ Church Deeds." 

< See the Journal for 1898, p. 303. 

^ He married a sister of Henry Boyle, Ist Earl of Shannon, and had five daughters 
wlio all made great matches. See Burke's ** Landed Gentry," ed. 1847» p. 446. 


some muntbs after hia appointment, on the acceBsion of George I., to the 
chief seat in the Exchequer, the Hon. Captain Allen, father of the fourth 
atid fifth Tiacounts Alien,' Philip Walsh, an emiuent King's counsel, who 
was engaged for the plaintiff in the great Annesley peerage case, and 
Lord Liale, who married a daughter of Chief Baron Deane.* 
Resuming our way along the main road, we come to the 

Castue of DunxiOH, 

or, Dmimneacb, the ridged land^ as this district was called from the 

eand ridges, now known 

as the Green Hills. Mr. ■ "^ 

Dix has describt?d it in 

his artii:leB on " The Les- 


Drimiugh Cutl«. 

and underneath them there is a high arched way through which a laden 
cart could pass. On the side of the castle next the road there is a turret 
which contained the stairs, and a chimnejr-flue supported on corbels. On 
the xide furthest from the rood, against which a substantial house has 

■ Sr* ibe JiMinial for 1B98, p. 3B, noW I. 

I Fautkatr'i Dablut Jaamal, April 21-2J, 17o2 ; imd Fat'i Oeeiirrencei, March 2-fi, 



been built, there is another turret.* As D' Alton mentions, traces of its 
once broad and deep fosse are still visible. There are several outbuild- 
ings, more or less ancient, and a little distance off in the direction of a 
neighbouring paper mill, are the ruins of a small square tower, which 
can be seen from the glen close by. It is from this glen Crumlin is 
supposed to tuke its name. 

The castle of Drimnagh came into the possession of the great family 
of Barnewall at the commencement of the thirteenth century. They 
built the castle, and for upwards of four centuries it was occupied by 
members of the family. In the beginning of the seventeenth century it 
was leased to Sir Adam Loftus, a nephew of Archbishop Loftus, who was 
afterwards appointed Lord Chancellor of Ireland, and created Viscount 
Loftus of Ely. It was alleged that he endeavoured to deprive the 
rightful owner of his inheritance, and proceedings were taken to pre- 
vent his felling the trees, with which the castle was then surrounded. 
During the Civil War, the Duke of Ormonde, impressed by the solidity 
and strength of the castle, had some idea, before the battle of Rath- 
mines, of erecting fortifications around it, and of making it his head- 
quarters. My friend, Mr. Stubbs, tells me it was subsequently occupied 
by Colonel Nicholas Walker, a CromwoUian officer, who is stated to 
have been on the scaffold at the execution of Charles I., with a vizor 
concealing his features, and who retired to reside here after the Resto- 
ration. In the Hearth Money Returns for 1664, **Lt.-CoL " is 

returned as the occupier, and there are stated to be three *^ smoaks" or 

Proceeding on by Mount St. Joseph's Monastery, we arrive at the 

village of 


or Cluain Dolcain, Dolcan's Meadow. It is remarkable as the site of one 
of the four round towers, still to be seen in the county Dublin. This 
tower stands near the present church, and the ruins of an ancient one, but 
is now separated from them by the high road. It differs from roost 
other round towers in a singular projecting base which is generally sup- 
posed to be of modem construction, but which Dr. Petrie considered to 
be part of the original design. He says that the towers at Boscurbery, 
in Cork, and Brunless in Brecknockshire have similar bases. Tlie base 
is nearly thirteen feet in height, and composed in great pai*t of solid 
masonry. Above the base. Dr. Petiie says, the tower measures forty- 
five feet in circumference, and with the exception of the chiselled stones 
round its doorway, it is altogether constructed of common rubble masonry 
of the calp limestone of the district. It is eighty-four feet in height, and 
the walls are upwards of three feet thick. About fifteen feet from the 
ground is the door, which has inclining jambs. Towaixis the top, which 

» See Irish Builder for 1897, p. 49. 


is terminated by a conic coTering, are four small quadrangular apertures. 
The tower can be ascended inside by means of ladders. 

No traces of the original church remain ; the ruins, Dr. Petrie con- 
sidered, were tlie remains of a church of some architectural importance, 
and he formed the opinion, from drawings made in 1780, when it was 
more perfect than in his time, that it was a structure of the thirteenth 
century.' In the churchyard there is a large cross of granite without 
ornament, 9 feet in height, and made of a single stone ; also a small 
one, apparently much older, and a curious font, of great size, made of 
rough granite. 

On the left-hand side of the road, as we enter Clondalkin, in the 
grounds of a place called Floraville, there is a small battlemented tower. 
Mr. Dix says it is about 1 1 feet square, and contained two stories. In 
the side facing the road there are three windows, and between the two 
highest a head carved in stone is to be seen ; on the other side there 
are modem buildings in which remains of an old castle can be traced. 
It iskdown to some of the inhabitants as TuUy's Castle.' 

The ancient church of Clondalkin owed its origin to St. Mochua, alias 
St. Machotus, who established a monastery at that place. Subsequently, 
Clondalkin became a place of great celebrity, and the head of the 
religious bouse was a bishop or chorepiscopus. During the Danish inva- 
sion it was one of their settlements, and at Dun-Awley, as it was called 
by them, Aulaff, the Danish King of Dublin built a fortress which was 
burned by the Irish. In 1171 the native forces under Eoderic O'Connor 
advanced to this neighbourhood with the intention of attacking Dublin, 
but after skirmisbing with the English invaders for some days they with- 
drew. The church of Clondalkin was confirmed by King John to the 
See of Dublin, and was subsequently annexed by the Archbishop to the 
Deanery of St. Patrick's. Amongst the principal tenants were the Neill 
family whose name is still preserved in one of the townlands. Thougb 
''mere Irish" they occupied the unusual position of being free tenants, 
and had not to render any service to the lord of the manor ; also they 
were given power to use fhiglish laws. Prom the will of William Neill of 
Clondalkin made in 1471, it appears that he was a man of substance, a 
tanner by trade, and that his son, to whom he leaves his tan-house, was 
in holy orders. He bequeaths to the parish church for the purchase of 
a prayer-book or book of lessons 40s, ; also to the altar of St. Mary a 
chalice weighing sixteen ounces, to the altar of St. Biidgid 6«. Sd., and 

> Petiie's '<£8«ay on the Bound Towers of Ireland," p. 393 ; and *'Post Chaise 
Companion of Ireland." One of Uie drawings to which Dr. Petrie refers is probably 
a picture by T. Archdeacon made about that time. There is a copy of it in a collection 
of drawings by Gabriel Beranger preserved in the Boyal Irish Academy. The follow' - 
ing note is appended : — ** East view of Clondalkin Church. These old remains were 
demolished by the blowing up of the powder-mills in their neighbourhood sometime 
after ihe drawing was taken." 

' See IrUh JBmldtr for 1898, p. oT. 


to the altar of St. Thomas the same sum, for the maintenance of the 

In the sixteenth century Clondalkin was accounted one of the walled 
and good towns of the county. At the heginning of the next century 
Daniel Molyneux, Ulster King-at-Arms, grandfather of the famous phi- 
losopher, and of the well-known physician and antiquary, purchased an 
estate there. Towards the close of the last century it was the scene of 
a most tremendous explosion thus described in JSxshaw^s Magatine under 
the date 25th April, 1787 :— 

" This afternoon the powder-mills at Clondalken, belonging to Counsellor Cald- 
beck, by some unknown accident blew up. Two men, who were at work in the mill, 
were destroyed, and many of the neighbouring houses greatly shattered ; it also 
occasioned the sudden fall of a stack of chimnies near Meeting-house Yard [on 
Usher's-quay], but fortunately no accident occurred in consequence of the same. 
The explosion was severely felt in the most distant parts of the county, and even in 
the county of Eildare, for some miles, near the bank of the canal.*' 

There were 260 barrels of powder in the mill, and it is said the whole 
building was torn up from its foundations, and that ponderous ruins tons 
in weight were cast to the distance of five or six fields. 

Setting out from Clondalkin by the road to Tallaght we pass by 
Newlands. There, at the beginning of this century, resided Aithur 
Wolfe, Lord Kilwarden, and from thence he set out on that ill-fated 
night in July, 1803, to meet his death at the hands of the rebels in 
Thomas-street. Afterwards it was Occupied by the Right Hon. George 
Fonsonby while Lord Chancellor of Ireland. Adjoining Newlands is 

Belgabd Castle, 

now a modem house, the residence of the late Sir Henry Lawrence, Bart.^ 
but once a strongly fortified dwelling. It was deemed one of the most 
important castles on the border of the Pale, and often served to pro- 
tect the surrounding country from the incursions of the O'Bymes and 
O'Tooles. It was one of the seats of the Talbots — a family of great 
renown amongst the English settlers — and there, D' Alton says, the faith- 
ful follower of James I., Kichard Talbot, Earl of Tyrconnel, was bom. 
It descended in the female line to the Dillon family, and then to the 
Trant family. Towards the close of the last century the ancient castle 
fell into ruins, and the moat which surrounded it was filled uf). 
Not far off is the 

Castle of Ballyuount, 

or Baile Mota, the town of the moat, which is locally supposed to have 
been connected with Belgard by an underground passage. Gabriel 
Beranger, when making sketches of Ballymount, explored a passage 

^ See Sweetman's '* Calendar of Documents relating to Ireland," 1306; the 
JourtMl for 1890, p. 56 ; and Berry's '* Register of the Diocese of Dublin," pp. 94^ 


whicli Btarta from near the castle, and which gives rise to this idea, for 
a considerahle length. He formed the opinion that it was an aqueduct 
for supplying the fortress with water; he found that it had several 
branches, and that it was built of stone then in good preservation.^ Bal- 
Ijmount Castle has been converted into a farmhouse and offices, but a 
tower which stands across the lane leading to the farmstead, and which, 
as it is arched, was probably the entrance gateway of the castle, is 
still nearly perfect. Mr. Diz and Mr. Briley have given a most ex- 
haustive description of the place in the Iruh Builder f and have traced 
many remains of the old castle in the farm offices. The mota consisting 
of two mounds, surmounted by the remains of a watch-tower or fort, is 
to be found in the field at the top of the lane.' 
We come next to the village of 


a place which bears few traces of its antiquity and former greatness, as the 
site of a religious house in very early times, and as the chief seat of the 
Archbishops of Dublin for five centuries. Tallaght, or Taimhleacht, the 
plague-monument, is said to derive its name from being the burial-place 
of the firsb colonists of our country, of whom 9000 were carried off by 
plague in one week. There is no doubt' that it was used as a place of 
interment from the number of cists found in the neighbourhood, and 
one found recently near the Green Hills, which is now to be seen 
intact in the National Museum in Kildare-street, is considered by 
Mr. Coffey to date from before Christ.' 

In the eighth century after Christ a monastery was established at 
Tallaght by the patron saint, St. Maelruain.* In process of time his name 
became corrupted into MoUrooney, and the country people thought their 
patron was a female. Until about twenty-five years ago, St. Maelruain's 
festival, on the 7th July, was observed, and it was the custom to carry 
about in procession on that day a pole — which was preserved from year 
to year — decked with fiowers called a garland.' 

After the Norman Conquest, Tallaght, with its appurtenances, was 
confirmed to the See of Dublin, and the church was subsequently annexed 
to the Deanery of St. Patrick's. At the beginning of the fourteenth 
century the surrounding country was so constantly devastated by in- 
cursions of the mountain tribes, that, in order to have a place of refuge 
for the inhabitants, the bailiffs of Tallaght — for such it possessed — were 
given a royal grant towards enclosing their town with walls, and the 

1 See the Journal for 1876, p. 152. ' See Iruh Builder for 1898, pp. 9, 19. 

' A very interesting paper on thifl cist was read recently by Colonel Plunkett before 
tbe Boyal Irish Academy. 

« See O'Hanlon's '* lives of the Irish Saints/' vol. yii., p. 98. 

^ See O'Curry's letters on the county Dublin in the Ordnance Survey Manuscripts 
preserved in the Boyal Iri^ Academy ; and O'Hanlon's ** Liyes of the Iiish Saints," 
Tol. i., p. 71. 



Archbishop of Dublin — Alexander Bicknor, celebrated for his efforts 
to banish beggars — was given a remission of maney in consideration of 
his building a castle there as a protection. A few years later this castle 
was plundered by the O^Tooles, and many of the Archbishop's servants 
were slain. Subsequently, about the year 1340, according to D' Alton, 
Bicknor erected, possibly by adding to the structure which already 
existed, a castle of remarkable size and strength, which was looked upon, 
as an important stronghold of the Pale, the bounds of which ran close 
by. A picture of this castle was made for Mr. Monck-Mason, it is 
said, for his projected history of Christ Church Cathedral, but from what 
source information as to its design was procured is not known.' Mr. 
Handcock, in his ''History of Tallaght," mentions that he had been 
told that there were pictures on the walls of the palace, which was 
built in the eighteenth century on the site of the castle, representing 
the erection of the castle, and suggests that it may have been from these 
the picture was designed for Mr. Mason. 

Bicknor occupied the castle from time to time,' as did no doubt 
his successors in the See. Towards the close of the fifteenth century, 
Archbishop Tregury, who died at the castle, is said to have much repaired 
it. In the sixteenth century we find the archbishops frequently dating 
letters from Tallaght, and the great Archbishop Loftus almost constantly 
resided there until he erected his own magnificent castle at Eathfarnham. 
In his time the Irish were ** never more insolent," and his nephew, with 
some of his men, was slain at his gate.^ Probably the castle fell into 
disrepair during the troublous times which succeeded the death of Arch- 
bishop Bulkeley, who died there, in 1 650, and possibly it was not again 
used as an episcopal residence. It was little suited for such, even in 
the ideas of those times, judging from the fact that it could only boast 
of eight chimneys. 

Archbishop Hoadly, on his promotion to the See in 1729, found the 
castle in a state of ruin. He pulled it down and built on the site a 
modern house, which, though large and commodious, was architecturally, 
Austin Cooper says, a piece of patchwork, so devoid of order or regularity 
as to be past describing. The halldoor was approached by a double 
flight of steps. The hall was lofty, and was lighted by two tiers of 
windows. The dining-room and drawing-room w^ere large rooms, and the 
former contained a chimney-piece on which the arms of the See empaled 
with those of Archbishop Hoadly, were engraved, with the date 1729, 
and the words, ''Johannes Hoadly, banc domum refecit." Towards the 
close of the century, this mansion was repaired by Archbishop Fowler, 
who in the course of his improvements, Mr. Handcock says, showed little 

^ See the Journal ior 1870, p. 40. 

' Presents from the Priory of the Holy Trinity were sent to bim there. See Mills's 
*♦ Account Roll of the Priory." 

^ See *' Calendars of State Papers, Ireland," ^a4«tm. 


regard for ancient relics. At the beginning of the present century it 
began to fall into decay, and, about 1822, it was sold to Major Palmer, 
Inspector-General of Prisons, on condition that the building should be 
completely demolislied. This was done, and witli some of the materials 
Major Palmer built a house for himself, which he sold afterwards to Sir 
John Lentaigne, from whom it passed to its present owners, the 
Dominicans, who have built a handsome monastery on the site. The 
chimney-piece was carried off by Major Palmer's brother, theBev. Henry 
Palmer, and erected by him in the church of Tubrid, in the Diocese of 
Lismore, where it remains to the present duy, and gives the impression 
to all who read the inscription that Tubrid Church was erected by 
Archbishop Hoadly.i 

In the grounds of the monastery there still remains a square tower, 
a portion of the ancient castle of the archbishops. It was repaired by 
Sir John Lentaigne, who placed in it any ancient relics which he found 
in the grounds. It was evidently built with the materials of a more 
ancient building, for, while repairing it, a stone was found in one of the 
walls with a head carved on the side which was set inwards. A walk 
running from north to south in the gardens used to be known as ''the 
friars' walk," and an eminence at one end of it as '' the bishops' walk." 
There is an enormous walnut tree, known as St. Maelruain's tree, in the 
garden. It covers about a quarter of an acre, and must be of extra- 
ordinary age. It looks like two trees, but it was originally one tree 
dividing into two branches, which about the close of last century 
separated from one another close to the ground.' 

The ancient eill or church of Tallaght'was replaced in Anglo-Norman 

times by a church, of which the belfry still remains, and which had, 

probably, some pretensions to architectural beauty. Amongst the vicars 

of **St. Maelruain's of Taulaght" in the fourteenth century was John 

Colton, afterwards Archbishop of Armagh, who is so well known on 

account of his visitation published by the Irish Archaeological Society. 

One hundred years later we find a successor of Colton's in the vicarage 

binding himself ta pay to the Dean of St. Patrick's eight silver pence 

yearly, to build on the glebe a house '' of four couples," which he was 

to keep '' stiff and staunch," and to make new ditches. In the beginning 

of the seventeenth century the church was ''in good repair and decency," 

but during the Commonwealth a Captain Henry AUand, who was 

quartered with a troop of horse in Tallaght, pulled off the roof, and 

carried away the slates, timber, and paving stones to his own houses. 

After the Kestoration he was compelled to pay compensation, and the 

^ See *' Parochial and Ecclesiastical Notes on the Parishes of Tuhrid and Ardfinan, 
in the Diooesis of Lismore," compiled by, and in the possession of, the Rev. C. T. 
M*Cread7, d.d. 

^ A woodcut by O'Hanlon, from a drawing by H. O'Neill, of this tree, forms the 
hontispiece to the first volume of 0*Hanlon*e *' Lives of the Irish Saiints.'* 


church was rebuilt, but probably with little attention to its original 
ileaign. It was one of the nnmerons churchea which Archbishop King 
cansed to he repaired ;' and fifty years later Sir Timothy Allen greatly 
improved it. 

This church was replaced in 1S29 by the present one. In taking it 
down the foundations of en older bnilding were found underneath it, no 
doubt the remains of the ancient eill. The present church was built 

ai. Haelniain's "Loeeet," Tnlluiilic. 

parallel to the former church, but a few yards from its site, and the helfry 
is connected with it by a porch.' The belfry is of considerable height, and 
contains three stories which are connected by a wind in ft stone stairs. The 
top is castellated, and there are in it three openings for bells. 

In the churchyard there arc the remains of an ancient stone crosa, 
known locally as " St. Mollrooney's loaf and griddle," and a very large 

t. 7, ITOS, in Archbishop King's CuireipoiideiK.'e in Trimly 

if the belfry and porch ftppeaia in O'Hanlon's " Livrt of the Iruh 
i., p. 71. 


stoBG font, which is known as ** St. MoUrooney's losset."^ Mr. Eugene 
O'Curry thought it was intended for the baptism of adults, and Mr. 
Handcock says it is traditionally stated that it was used for washing tho 
feet of pilgrims who frequented the sacred shrines of Tallaght. In a 
petition presented by the churchwardens, in 1662, with regard to the 
destruction of their church by Captain Alland, they complained that he 
had fed his horses in the font, and Mr. Handcock suggests that this must 
hare been the losset. There are several old tombstones, amongst them, 
one to Colonel John Talbot of Bclgard, the date of whose death is indis- 
tinct, but is probably 1697; also one to Patrick Fieragh, of ''Fur 
House," who died in 1715.' The late Mr. A. J. Fetherstonhaugh of the 
Public Eecord Office, thought that the name Fir House was derived from 
the name of that family. 

At the entrance of Tallaght, on the right-hand side of the road com- 
ing from Dublin, Mr. Diz, with his marvellous talent for unearthing 
ancient remains, has found the ruins of an old castle amongst some 
modem buildings.' It is known to the villagers as Bancroft's Castle. 
At Talbot's Leap one of the Talbots is said to have jumped across the 
river when pursued by Cromwell's soldiers. The ** Mitre House," 
which is near the church, and another old house which is to be found 
at the otlier end of the village, were the inns of Tallaght in the 
coaching days.^ 

Not far from Tallaght is 

Old Bawn, 

a most interesting old house of the seventeenth century, fast falling 
into ruin. It is built in the style then common, with wings extend- 
ing from the house on. each side of the hall-door, and encircling a 
flinAll court-yard. It has high pointed gables and great fluted chimneys, 
and in the centre of the roof there was a small cupola, surmounted by a 
weathercock, with a clock bearing the date 1727. The hall-door is in a 
porch with pillars formed of round and square blocks of stone, placed 
alternately. The ceiling of the hall is low, with large carved beams 
dividing it into squares ; the walls are wainscoted, and there is a curious 
chimney-piece with the arras of the Bulkeleys, who built the house, on 
it, and with heads on either side of the slab. The dining-room has a 
similar ceiling to the hall, and is also wainscoted. The chimney-piece 
in it, which reaches to the ceiling, is a very remarkable one, represent- 
ing, as Mr. Handcock supposed, the building of the walls of Jerusalem 
by Nehemiah. lumbers of workmen, beautifully modelled in plaster, 

^ For meaning of **loe8et," see Berry's '* Register of the Diocese of Dublin," 
p. 227- 

* See "Journal of Memorials of the Dead," vol. i., p. 353 ; vol. ii., p. 98 ; vol. 
iii., p. 456. The date 1667 supplied in the inscription on Tulboi's tomb is incorrect. 

2 See Iruh Builder for 1898, p. 157. 

^ For more information about Tallaght and its neighbourhood see Mr. Handcock's 
'' History of Tallaght,'* of which a new edition is shortly to be published. 


are busily engaged in building a gate, ond each of them, while working 
with one hand, holds in the othtr some weapon. On each side of the 
chitnney-piece there are lai^ figures. Tlje staircaBe, which has carved 
bannisters, and is lighted by a coloured window, leads to two upptr 

Chiuiney-pime, Uld Biixn. 

The chimney-piece, in the dining-room, bears the date 1635, but 

' See Handcovk's " Hutory of Tallagbt," 'p. 47. The w 
Ui Mr. W. P. Briley, who haa made a most careful exam 
•'diLitiODol information. 


the house was probably built at a later period. Oldbawn, other- 
wise Shanbawn, came, about the year 1627, into the possession of 
Dr. William Bulkeley, the eldest son of Archbishop Bulkeley, who was 
afterwards appointed his father's Archdeacon. Lodge says he was a 
person of great virtue and piety, one who made it his employ only to 
serve the church, and his diversion only to improve and adorn his estate 
with plantations, which from a wild land he brought to a most delight- 
ful patrimony. In the rebellion of 1641, his property suffered greatly, 
and the buildings which then existed at Old Bawn, and which were 
valued at £3000, were destroyed. His father, as I have mentioned 
before, died at Tallaght in 1650, and Archdeacon Bulkeley then, prob- 
ably, began to build the present house, which could boast of twelve 
chimneys. His eldest son, Richard, was created a baronet, but the 
title became extinct on the death of his sons without male issue,' and 
Old Bawn came into the possession of the Right Hon. James Worth 
Tynte, M.F. for Youghal, on his marriage with a granddaughter of Sir 
Richard Bulkeley. Mr. Tynte's grandson, James Stratford Tynte, who 
was general of the volunteers, was created a baronet, but on his death 
without male issue, that title also became extinct.' 

There is a tradition that on the night of Archbishop Bulkeley's death 
a coach, drawn by six headless horses, containing two travellers attended 
by two footmen, drove up to the door of Old Bawn, but the fact that 
the Archbishop neither lived nor died there may be a rude shock to those 
who credit it. 

Passing by AUenton, where stood the old church of Killinniny, we 
come to 

MouicT YnvvB CsoMLEcn, 

one of the largest of the rock monuments in the county Dublin. Indeed, 
Mr. Borlase, in his great work on the Dolmens of Ireland, says that, 
supposing the immense roofing stone was ever raised on to the summits 
of pillars of the height of the two which lie beside it, it must have been 
one of the most magnificent megalithic monuments in the world. He 
is^ however, inclined to think that it rested obliquely upon several pillars 
placed on the north-west side.* 

Gabriel Beranger, who is specially remarkable for his skill in por- 
traying these monuments, made a sketch of it, which shows several more 
stones round it than are now to be seen. He has accompanied the sketch 
with sucli a curious note,* that I think it is worth reproducing : — 

** This druidical monument is situated on Mount Venus, in the garden of 

Cullen, Esq., in a small grove accessible by a long serpentine shrubbery. It was, 

1 See Lodge's ** Peerage of Ireland," ed. by Archdall, vol. v., p. 14, et $eq, 
^ See Blacker's ** Skeicbes of Booterstown," p. 127, et paanm. 
' See Borlose's <* Dolmens of Ireland," vol. ii., p. 382. 

* The sketch and note are in a book containing a collection of his drawings pre- 
serred in the Royal Irish Academy. 


vhen Btanding, one of the greatest monuments of that kind. The top'stonei which is 
20 feet long, 6 feet 1 inch broad, and 4 feet 4 inches thick, is fallen down, and rests 
on the ground on one side. Another side leans against a rough stone pillar, 7 feet 7 
inches high above ground, and 15 feet in giilh at 2 feet above the soil ; it must be very 
long underground to sustain the great weight that presses against it, M-ithout giving 
way. At 6 feet distance from the standing pillar lies another stonu, 12 feet long, 4 
feet broad in some parts, and 2 feet thick above the soil. Large fragments of 6, 5, 
and 4 feet long, and some smaller, lie under and near the top stone, which, I suppose, 
are pai'ts of other supporters or pillara, on which the top stone wa;s formerly standing. 
All those fragments are very sound and show no marks of decay, so that it might be 
supposed that this monument was destroyed by some shock or concussion of the earth. 

<< Since the above drawing was taken, I was rambling among the mountains in 
•quest of more monuments, and mistaking the bed of a torrent for a road, I found my- 
self engaged in a wild place with high banks on each side, having saillant angles on 
one side, and re-entering angles opposite to them, interspersed with an immensity of 
stones sticking out of the sides of the banks, or heaped confusedly on the ground so as 
to baiTicade my passage. On examining this place, and finding it impossible to ad- 
vance, 1 returned and ascended the foot of the hill and gained the edge of the chasm, 
in which bottom I was bewildered. Following this way I disco verod that this chasm 
was a fissure in the foot of Tybroden mountain, which could not have been made but 
by an earthquake. Then reflecting on the destruction of the above-mentioned monu- 
ment on Mount Venus, in the neighbourhood, and on the other at Eilteman, shaken 
from two of its supporters, and recollecting the Scalp, which is a split in a hill on the 
skirts of the counties of Dublin and Wicklow, I plainly discovei'ed the track of the 
shock or concussion of the earth, and measuring the direct distances on a map of the 
•county of Dublin, 1 drew two parallel lines from Mount Venus to the Scalp, the dis- 
tance between the two lines being half a mile, and within these lines I found, from the 
■Cromlech on Mount Venus to the chasm of Tibroden 1} mile, from Tibroden to Xil- 
teinan 3 miles, from Eilteman to the Scalp 1 mile, so that I have traced the effects of 
the concussion on a space of 5^ miles in length and half a mile broad. 

** All my enquiries in town and country were vain ; nobody knew or heard nothing 
concei*ning it, only the Histoiical Annals of the city of Dublin in Wilson's Directory, 
contain these few words, 'Earthquake felt in Dublin in 1690* — queiy was it this 
■concussion that left its traces as above mentioned?" 

From Mount Venus we proceed to 

Kaxhfaukham Castle, 

This fine castle, one of the great residences of the county Dublin, was 
l)ui!t towards the close of Queen Elizabeth's reign by her Irish Chan- 
cellor, Archbishop Loftus, and thither his enemies said, while causes 
were pending before him, angels, beasts of the field, and fowls of tbe 
air used to fly or run.* It is now the residence of Mr. Edwaxd 
Blackbume, a.c. 

Kathfamham, or Eath fearn, the rath of the alder tree, was given, 
soon after the Korman Conquest, to the Bret family, and they continued, 
to hold it for three succeeding centuries. In the sixteenth century tlie 
manor came into the possession of Viscount Baltinglass, and is includcMl 
amongst the lands of which he was possessed when he was attaintccl.^ 

* ** Calendar of Carew Papers," 1676-88, p. 370. 


Sir Henry Wallop, Vice-Treasurer and Treasurer at War, desired, in the 
rears 15B1-82, to obtain a lease of it from the Crovu, and it is probable 
that it was then Loftua became possessed of it, for in 1585 wc find him 
dating a letter from Bathfarnbam.' The Breta, hoirevcr, had still some 
intereat iu the place, wliich the Archbishop purchased in 1593 from their 
TL-preaentative, Viacount Butterant. 

It is not known whether a castle existed at Itathfamham before 
LottuB built the one wbicti still stands there. The present learned 
owner, in a most Taluable and interesting history of the castle which he 
hai compiled, and which it is much to be desired he would put in print, 
argaee with great legal subtlety on circumstantial evidence that one must 
have existed ther«. Bad thinks portion of the present structure is older 
than the sixteenth centurr. 


of a theatre in Dublin, and who subsequently published the first road- 
book to England, in a noble folio volume. Before the battle of Kath- 
mines the castle, which was then occupied by the forces of the Parliament, 
was stormed and taken by the Duke of Ormonde. 

In 1723 the castle was sold by Philip, Duke of Wharton, whose 
mother was the only child and heiress of Adam Loftus, created Baron of 
Bathf amham and Viscount Lisbum, to Speaker Conolly. From ConoUy's 
nephew it was bought by Archbishop Hoadly, who was promoted to the 
See of Armagh from that of Dublin. In 1766 it came again into the 
market, and was sold by Mr. Bellingham Boyle who had married Arch- 
bishop Hoadly's only child, to Nicholas Loftus, second Earl of Ely, who was 
descended from a younger son of Sir Adam Loftus. Of this poor young 
man, and of his uncle who succeeded him a few years later, I hare told 
something in a Paper read recently before the Society. It was the uncle, 
Henry, Earl of Ely, who built the magnificent classic gateway on the 
Dodder, and who embellished and improved the castle, employing, 
amongst others, the gifted Angelica KaufPmann. During the present 
century it was for many years unoccupied, until purchased by the 
Eight Hon. Francis Blackburne, sometime Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 
the father of the present owner. 

Rathfamham. appears to have been a favourite outlet of Dublin at the 
close of the seventeenth and beginning of the eighteenth century. The 
curious Dunton, when engaged in his famous scuffle with the Dublin 
booksellers, sometimes took a ramble there. ^ Archbishop King, when 
Bishop of Derry, retired to it from *'the air and bustle of Dublin," 
which he could not endure.' While later on, Dr. Sheridan, Swift's 
friend, went there to die. 

The church of Rathfarnham was united to the Archdeaconiy of 
Dublin from very early times. The present church is modern, but the 
remains of the ancient one are to be seen in the old churchyard where lie 
buried Archbishop Magee, and Barry Yelverton, Lord Avonmore. 

Returning to Dublin through Rathgar and Rathmines, where, just 
250 yoaps ago, the forces under Ormonde and Jones met in dea^lly 
combat; and crossing the canal by La Touche Bridge, so-called from 
William Digges La Touche, a Director of the Canal Company in 1791, 
the city of Dublin is reached. 

1 Dimton'8 *• Dublin Scuffle," p. 371. 

^ See letters of March 31 and April 6, 1697, in Archbishop King's Correspondence 
in Trinity College Library. 

( It's ) 


BY W. F. WAKEMAN, Hon. Fbllow. 

[Bead AuocBT 2, 1898.] 

Alp. 371 of vol. iii. of our Journal, 4tli 
■^ Series, 1874-75, will be found from 
the pen of the Bev. Jamee GraTes, a descrip- 
tion, accompanied by a beautifully executed 
illastration, of the ancient and very curious 
civic seal of Atheniy (" The Font of the 
KiugB"), a most important strongliold of 
the Anglo-Normans in Ireland, during the 
thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. In 
the same Paper our late distinguished and 
lamented Secretary offered some remarlis 
upon the subject of a formidahlc- looking 
mace (here for the first time figured) which, 
with the seal, formed part of the insignia of 
the ancient Corporation of Athenry. Mr. 
Grarea then stated that the Association tad 
to thank Mr. Wakeman, who hud procured, 
through the infiuence of the Hev. Mark 
Perrin, the exhibition of these articles 
" which were in the keeping of Johu 
Blakeny, Esq., of Abbert, county Gulwuy, 
whose family were formerly patrons of 
the borough, and that gentleman had in- 
trusted them to Mr. Perrin to lay before 
the meeting." 

The macD is, as shown in the accompany- 
ing etching, of very singular desigu, being a 
clenched fist, cooped below the wrist, solidly 
cast in bronze, or antique brass, and mounted 
on a. stout ashen handle. It is probably the 
oldest object of its class (a civic mace) to be 

pointed to in the British Isles. The metallic Aihemj, Cu. g»Iw»^ 

portion measures 4^ inches in length, and 
3^ inches across the nuckles. The handle la about 7 inches long, and 

lOVH. ILK.A.t., VuL. IX., PT. tl., 5TU »■». K 


looks pretty old, but has probably succeeded an elder one, or, perhaps, 

more than one. The weight of the wliole is I lb. 14^ oz. 

Through several interesting communications presented to our 

Journal by Mr. Robert Day, of Cork, we are familiar with the appearance 
of not a few of our old corporation maces. Compared with this Atheniy 
example, however, they would appear to have been designed more for 
show than use, and may be considered as mere '' baubles/' late in date, 
and interesting only as examples of silversmith's work of their respective 
periods. The Athenry mace was not intended to be used as a toy, or to 
grace a civic procession. It was a weapon, which, when need required, 
might prove highly persuasive in the hand of a ** pretty " man who pre- 
ferred action to verbal argument. 

To the kindness of the Rev. W. H. Browne, Rector of Monivea, near 
Athenry, I am indebted for the use of an excellent photograph from 
which the accompanying etching was made. 

An account of ** Maces, Swords, and other Insignia of Office of Irish 
Corporations (chiefly those in the Exhibition of the Arts and Crafts 
Society of Ireland at Dublin) by John Ribton Garstin, v.p.e.i.a., f.s.a.," 
with copious illustrations, was published by that Society last year, 
(royal 8vo., second issue, price Is.). According to the great work of 
Messrs. Jewett and Hope on the Corporation Plate, &c., of England and 
Wales (Introduction), as referred to by Mr, Garstin, p. 5, the weapon 
described by Mr. Wakeman can scarcely be called a mace. Being only 
about 11 inches long, it seems more suitable for use as a Chairman's 
hammer or ruler for demanding silence or order at meetings. The 
Royal Irish Academy has a small oak hammer for this duty as well as a 

( 111 ) 


[Baad Sbi'tkhhfu 2S, 1867.] 

T PROFOSB to bring under the notice of the Roral Societ}r of Antiquaries 

o{ Ireland a series of relics of our gfcat genius Swift, of wliom 

you hare lately heard something from me. I deai)>nate them Siriftiana. 

1 exhibit a copy of hie own handwriling when it wns at thi' heiglit 

■of its perfection, as I found it the other doy in the very first work 
which Swift published under his own namu. T suppose everyone 
kmwsthat lie had a greut objeution to sucli open und avowed publi- 
cation, none of hia celebrated writingM like the "Tale of a Tub," or 


the**Drapier Letters," having his name attached. But the "Life and 
letters of Sir William Temple " appeared in an avowed shape, described as^ 
by Jonathan Swift, publisher, where it has been suggested to me that 
Swift designates himself publisher, not editor, to escape the law of libel. 
Now observe the language of the dedication, "To his Grace Narcissus, 
Lord Primate of all Ireland, by his Grace's most obedient and most humble 
servant, the Publisher." You will observe that the hand is not only 
beautifully formed and clear ; but the language of the dedication to> 
Primate Marsh is most respectful and grateful, simply because Arch- 
bishop Marsh had just a few months before given him the stall of 
Dunlavin in St. Patrick's Cathedral, though indeed Swift subsequently 
changed his tone and temper. Now if you are critical in the matter of 
Swift, and his handwriting, you may take this dedication as a standard 
thereof, being, as I believe, the earliest specimen of the Dean's hand- 
writing which can be identified and dated. The proof of identification 
is as follows : — We turn to the title page of this volume of Temple's- 
letters containing this dedication, signed Jonathan Swift, and there on the 
top of tlie title-page we have Archbishop Marsh's Greek motto, which 
he inscribed in every book he possessed iravLa)(^ t^i' dKijOeiav, an<J 
then at the bottom of the same page, the Archbishop writes the words- 
^' Ex dono Kcverendi Editoris," and signs himself Narcissus Armachanus. 
This fact determines the time of writing these words, as Archbishop 
Marsh was translated to Armagh on February 10th, 1703, after which, 
date these words must have been written. Swift was just then about 
thirty-five years of age, and at the very height of his vast powers. 

And now for another of my Swiftiania, you will find it in a specimen 
of his writing some twenty-five years later. I take it from the fly-leaf" 
of Clarendon's ** History of the Rebellion," preserved in Marsh's Library, 
where he gives utterance to a number of his cherished opinions. On the 
top of the page he first of all writes, ** Judicium de authore," opinion 
about the author. Then he bursts out into the following diatribe against 
the Scotch : ** The cursed hellish villany, treachery, treasons of the Scots^ 
were the chief grounds and causes of that execrable rebellion"; and then 
comes another favourite idea : — 

**The word of a king; this phrase is repeated some hundred timcs^ 
but is ever foolish and too often false." 

( 1"'* ) 



[Read 8iPT*M>Ki 28, 1S97.] 

CouB of the old Dublin streets, as Weaver's-square, Ward'a Hill, 
Chambers- street, Francis -street, French-street, contain most pic- 
iaresque old bouses, constructed in times when men built for beauty as 
well as for utility. People in tbt: squares and fashionable streets 
have no idea of these beautiful old houses. The picture I exhibit in 
the once fnmous Uoira House, on Ussher's Island, which is now 
reduced to the hnmble state of being the Mendicity Institution, after 

Moira Uoiise. 

being frequented by preachers, like the Wcslejs and Wliitefield (of 
whom tlic first Countess of Moira and her uiotlier Ludy Huntingdon 
were great followers), celebrated ladies, distinguished statesmen, and 
ootorietiea like Lord Edward Fitzgerald and Wolfe Tone. The Moira 
House you to-day look upon is only a miserable relic of the Moira 
House which once existed, a full ond complete picture of which I now 
present to your eyes. Let me give you n sketch of its history : — 

Moira House was for sixty years the residence of tlie Riiwdon 
family. The Rawdon family were a famous Yoikahirc family about 


300 years ago, say the time of Elizabeth and James I. When large- 
properties were being carved out here in Ireland by clever adventurers^ 
George Bawdon was then an adventurous young fellow in the Court 
of Charles I., and he took an active part in Ulster in the troubled 
time between 1641 and 1662. Ho ultimately found himself at the 
Restoration on the winning side, when he gained a large estate in tlie 
county Down, where the town of Moira now stands. He was made a 
baronet ; his son and descendants took the "Whig side and were great sup- 
porters of William III. and the Hanoverian dynasty, by which means th(? 
Kawdon of his day was created Lord Eawdon in the year 1750. Sir John 
Lord Kawdon built Moira House, as now exhibited, about 1752; and 
now I wish to make an open confession and give credit where credit is 
due, for I do not think it is quite honest to publish books or lectures and 
never give a hint where you have got your materials. I have myself 
suffered a good deal in that way. Any information I have to give you 
about Moira House I derive solely from the learned researches of one of 
Dublin's too little known literary men, Mr. Edward Evans, to whose con- 
tinuous, most industrious, and unrewarded exertions, published twice n 
month for years past in the Irish Builder^ the existing knowledge of old 
Dublin and its mansion houses is largely, I might say almost entirely due. 
Take up the Irish Builder for 1894; turn to p. 221 of that year, and 
you will find a most comprehensive survey of the history of the Rawdon 
family and of Moira House. There Mr. Evans tells us of John the First 
Earl of Moira who built the house, Lady Huntingdon's son-in-law. He 
then tells us of Francis the Second Earl of Moira and First Marquis of 
Hastings, well known as the Governor- General of India. His was the time 
when Moira House, as you see it on that screen, was in the very height 
of its glory. Tlie second Earl, in early days, frequently entertained at 
Moira House men like Lord Edward Fitzgerald, who for u time was con- 
cealed in the gardens attached to the mansion, Theobald Wolfe Tone, 
William Todd Jones, William Sampson, and Thomas Russell, who were Bel- 
fast United Irishmen, and others of the same type of opinion. I shall 
now simply quote Mr. Evans's words, describing the building : — ^* Moira 
House was detached from the dwellings on either side, and stood back 
from the street about 40 feet, from which it was separated by a screen- 
wall about 8 feet high. On the western end of this screen -wall was a 
covered entrance showing a pediment over an arched doorway which led 
into the mansion ; while at the eastern end another entrance of similai* 
design helped to conceal the out-offices. The main building consisted of 
ground, first, and second floors." '^ Each floor showed seven large win- 
dows, three being in the centre, and two on either side. Aldborough 
House on the North Circular Road is an almost exact reproduction of 
Moira House, the chief point of difference being that in Aldborough, 
House the door was in the centre, while in Moira House the doors were 
in the sides." The interior of the house was embellished in a style of 


great splendour by a Dublin artist named Healy. The principal room 
was an octagon about 20 feet long by 20 broad and 16 feet bigh, having 
one window reaching from top to bottom, with sides inlaid throughout 
with mother-of-pearl, while the ceiling was decorated in a style of 
similar magnificence, to which I should think Angelica Kauffmann con- 
tributed in her Dublin visit of 1771 wben she decorated so many houses 
whicb are still in existence. I saw a few days ago the pictures she 
painted in the drawing-room of 52, Stepben's-gi-ecn just as fresh and per- 
fect as if done last week. In 1826 Moira House fell from its high estate 
as a resident Irish peer's abode, and was sold to the Society for suppress- 
ing street-begging in Dublin. The top story was then taken away ; the 
decorations removed, and the gardens covered with offices and buildings 
of various kinds. The two wings were taken down ; the curtain wall 
which connected them was removed and replaced by a dwarf wall of 
granite surmounted by an iron railing. The picture I exhibit is repro- 
duced from that originally published in the Hibernian Magazine for 
March, 1811. I only hope that this communication may be the means 
of stirring up a greater interest in our splendid and historic Dublin 
mansions, and, above all, in those neglected contributions to local histor}' 
made by my friend Mr. Evans, to which I have called your attention^ 
and from which I have so largely quoted. 



[Read January 17, 1899.] 

Tn accordance with my promise recently made in a note in the Journal, 
I suhmit herewith a detailed list of the monuments now remaining 
in the cemetery at Clonmacnoise. This list is not classified : such a 
classification cannot he attempted till all the drawings, on which I am 
engaged, can he completed, as time permits. 

There are 88 of the 180 figured in ** Christian Inscriptions in the 
Irish Language " still extant : namely, those indicated in that work by 
the following figures : — 

2, 3, 7, 8, 11, 12, 20, 22, 23, 24, 26, 27, 29, 31, 32, 35, 36. 39, 40, 
42, 43, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 54, 56, 57, 59, 61, 63, 68, 69, 70, 72, 74. 
76, 78, 79, 80, 82, 84, 89, 90, 92, 93, 95, 99, 100, 101, 103^, 103*, 
105, 106, 107, 112, 115, 117, 124, 126, 127, 130, 131,132, 133, 135, 
136, 137, 138, 141, 145, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 155, 158, 159, 
160, 166, 167, 169, 172, 173, 177. 

Of the remainder : — 

15 had disappeared before the publication of the above-named work : 
viz., Nos. 1, 4, 5, 14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 28, 48, 55, 96, 119, 156, 171. 

59 have disappeared since : viz., Nos. 6, 9, 13, 18, 19, 25, 30, 33, 
34, 37, 38, 41, 44, 46, 50, 58, 60, 62, 64. 65, 66, 67, 71, 73, 75, 81, 
83, 85, 97, 98, 102, 104. 114, 116, 118, 120, 121, 123, 125, 128, 134, 
139, 140, 142, 143. 144, 146, 154, 157, 161, 163, 164, 165, 168, 170, 
174, 176, 178, 179. (On tlie other hand, I found Nos. 7, 20, and 
177 recorded as being lost or removed in the ** Christian Inscriptions.") 

15 are recorded as being at Lemanaghan, or elsewhere, or in the 
II. I. A. collection: viz., 10, 52, 77, 91, 94, 108, 109, 110, 111, 113, 
122, 129, 153, 162, 175. 

3 are illustrations of the high cross of King Flann, and do not come 
within the scope of tliis list. These are 86, 87, 88. 

In addition there are 100, not recorded in the "Christian Inscrip- 
tions " which are entered in the following provisional list : — 

1-88. Crosses recorded in "Christian Inscriptions" (some of these 
have suffered serious injury, and a few others are not very 
accurately delineated). 


89. Latin (?) cross in panel, key-end semicircular, eared, containing 

two shaped spirals. Inscription, , , en . , . Small fragment. 

90. Greek (?) cross in panel, centre circular, key-end narrow rec- 

tangle. Small fragment. 

91. Latin cross, plain circular centre piece, semicircular key-ends. 

Inscription, or do maelsi. Perfect. 

92. Xo cross. Inscription, , , , a?e . . . Very small fragment. 

93. Four "Celtic" crosses, the arms joined to make a square. Pro- 

bably an altar-slab rather than a monument. 

94. Greek cross in panel, centre **invccked." Inscription illegible 

{'^ gad . . . 1^ . . .). Almost perfect but much worn. 

95. Greek cross in panel, circular centre enclosing lozenge. Half 


96. Small fragment with eared semicircular key-end containing key 

pattern. Inscription, . . han . . ? Worn. 

97. Greek cross in panel, centre and key-ends square. About half, 


98. Fragment bearing eared semicircular key-end. Inscription illegible. 


99. Latin cross, plain semicircular key-end left. Centre gone. In- 

scription, do murethach. Fragment only. 

100. Small fragment with semicircular key -end. Inscription, ar . , .n , , , 

101. Very small fragment with one key-end, triangular in shape, base 

curved, containing key-pattern. 
J 02. Greek cross in circular frame, key-ends square. Inscriptions, 

^ttr<?)w*. Perfect. 
^03. Plain semicircular key -end. Inscription, . . . elU . . ennaeU 

(?). About an eighth left. 
i04. Greek cross in panel, the angles filled with L-shaped lines parallel 

to the arms of the cross. 
105. Latin cross in panel, centre and key -ends square without ornament. 

Top lost. 
W6. Celtic cross covered with key -pattern. Inscription illegible. Very 


107. Greek cross in square panel. Centre circular containing a lozenge. 

Inscription, gasscel. Very scaled and worn. 

108. Plain Latin cross, circular centre, semicircular key-ends, bottom 

squared. In fair condition. 

109. Greek cross in square panel, centre **invecked," and containing 

a pellet, key-ends narrow, oblong. Inscription, letheecc . . . 
About three-quarters left. 

110. Plain Greek cross in square panel. Perfect. 

111. Celtic cross, fich6. Bottom only left. 

112. Celtic cross, centre invecked, ends square, the bottom working 

into two spirals. Inscription illegible. Worn. 


113. Greek cross in panel, centre in vecked, containing a lozenge, ends 

rectangular. Inscription, . . sotn . . Worn. 

114. About a quarter of a cross, semicircular key-end witli key-pattern. 

115. Plain Latin cross. Perfect. 

116. No cross. Inscription, -\-or , , . g , . , . Small fragment. 

117. Celtic cross, plain circular centre. Inscription, end ar mael . . , 

Bottom broken. 

118. Plain Latin cross, ends square. Inscription, ordom ... Flaked. 

119. Very small fragment of a key-end. 

120. Greek cross in panel, circular centre containing pellets. Half 


121. About a quarter of a similar cross. 

122. About a quarter of a Celtic cross. 

123. 124. Two very small indefinite fragments. 

125. Fragment of the bottom of a cross in a panel. 

126. Latin cross in "wall of Troy" panel, circular centre, bottom 

ficlie with a pendant. Top lost. 

127. 128. Two small fragments of eared key-ends with key-patterns. 

129. No cross. Inscription, . . uid . . Small fragment. 

130. Greek cross in square panel; centre square containing a crosslet. 

Inscription, augal ? Bottom broken. 

131. Small fragment bearing a plain semicircular key-end. 

132. Doubtful fragment. 

133. Greek cross in square panel, circular centre containing a lozenge. 

Bottom broken. 

134. 135. Small fragments, one of them the comer of a key -end. 

136. Apparently an altar slab. 

137. Plain cross, triskelion in centre, semicircular key-ends. 

138. Plain cross in square panel. Half left. 

139. Celtic cross. Centre only left. 

140. Greek cross in square panel. Inscription, .... chu . . . ? Worn. 

141. Greek (?) cross in "wall of Troy" panel. Swastika in key-end. 

Fragment only. 

142. Fragment of an eared semicircular key -end. Small fragments 


143. Plain cross, circular centre containing knot. Inscription, or do , . . 

Quarter only. 

144. Greek cross in square panel, lozenge in centre. Worn, side 


145. Greek cross in square panel, centre containing crosslet, key -ends- 

each containing a tuu crosslet. Perfect. 

146. Celtic cross, centre invecked. Inscription, or do angiu. Perfect^ 

but scaled. 

147. Greek cross in square panel, circular centre containing a dot^ 

Inscription (?) + presalL Bottom fractured. 


148. Latin cross, plain, cared key-ends. Side lost. 

149. Bottom of a cross, with spirals. 

150. Latin cross, tetraskelion in centre, key- ends cared semicircles. 

Inscription illegible. Perfect, but worn. 

151. Bottom of a cross in a panel, probably of late date. 

152. Latin cross, tetraskelion in centre, key-pattern in key -ends. Per- 

fect, but worn. 

153. Latin cross, knot in centre. Side lost. 

154. Greek cross in ** wall of Troy " panel, circular centre. In- 

scription, . . naee . . Small fragment only. 

155. No cross. Inscription, do ehoind. 

156. Greek cross in square panel. Circular centre. 

157. Small fragment inscribed 'o, 

158. Small fragment inscribed nd, with part of the edge of a cross- 

in a circular panel. 

159. Latin cross, key pattern in centre and key-end. Inscription,. 

mace. About a quarter only left. 

160. Fragment of a Latin inscription in five lines. 

161. On one face, plain cross with triongular ends, worn. On the 

opposite face, a cross very elaborately ornamented with inter- 
lacing work. Fragment only. 

162. Latin cross, shaft ornamented with key-puttern. Inscription,. 

. . . dam ... . Fragment only. 

163. Small fragment inscribed +or. 

164. Greek cross with triangular ends. Inscription, »«^rfrMyoZ. Perfect, 

165. Small fragment inscribed uid. 

166. Small fragment bearing the corner of a key-end. 

167. Greek cross in ** wall of Troy" frame, circular centre. Perfect. 

168. No cross except initial to the inscription, + or do d . , . Scaled. 

169. Very small fragment of a cross. Inscription, ar anm . . . 

170. Square arm of a cross. Inscription . . . tu{?) . . 

171. Greek cross, square panel, centre lozenge-shaped. Inscription,. 

. .Jina . . Side gone. 

172. Latin cross, centre gone, key-ends semicircular eared. Inscrip- 

tion, . . -j^bede . . Quarter only remains. 

173. Centre of a cross. Small fragment, much scaled. 

174. End of a key, Avith letters di. 

175. Small fragment of a shaft with is, 

176. Small fragment of Celtic cross with o a. 

177. Bottom of a small cross with ** pall-shaped " centre and looped 


178. Top fragment of a Celtic cross with cu, 

179. Greek cross, in square panel. Inscription rednta. Perfect. 

180. An arrangement of interlaced hexagons in a circle, broken to 

form a cross. Almost perfect. 


181. Latin cross, circular centre with key-pattern, semicircular ear key- 

ends. Inscription, or do , . Corner lost. 

182. Celtic cross, plain-square centre pieces and key-ends. Inscription, 

muirechtach. Perfect. 

183. Fragment bearing eared semicircular kej'-end and tiar . . . 

184. Cross pattee in a circle. Inscription or do muirethaeh. Perfect. 

185. Latin, plain circular centre piece. Inscription, . . aill. Fragment 

186. Altar slab. 

187. Greek cross with wall of Troy panel. Inscription, . . ct€09. Top 


188. Cross and triskelion in centre, plain semicircular keys. Inscrip- 

tion, or do . , , 

Of the above many have, no doubt, been omitted from the ** Christian 
Inscriptions," because they boi-e no inscriptions. Of the inscriptions 
above cited a few doubtful examples are given subject to revision, as 
this is not intended to be more then a proliminaiy catalogue. 


Inscribed slabs now at Clonmacnoise, recorded in ** Christian 

Inscriptions," . . . . . .88 

Inscribed slabs now at Clonmacnoise, not recorded in ** Chris- 
tian Inscriptions," . . . . .100 

Total number of slabs existing at Clonmacnoise, . 188 

Inscribed slabs lost from Clonmacnoise before publication of 

*' Christian Inscriptions," . . • . .15 

Inscribed slabs lost from Clonmacnoise after publication of 

** Christian Inscriptions," . . .59 

Total number of slabs lost from Clonmacnoise, . 74 
Slabs in the neighbourhood of Clonmacnoise, or removed 

thence to Dublin, . . . . . 15 

Total, . 277 

( lill ) 

Aimoy Round Tower, Co. Antrim. — The tovrer is in the FroteBtant 
EpiKopal Cbnrch grounds, within three-quarters of a mile of Armoy, 
ud one mile of Armoy railway etatioa. It is 35 feet 6 inches higli 
OTST the present Icrel of the ground &t tho doorway, and about 2 feet 
more on the oppoeite side where the ground is lower. The internal 
diameter at the lerel of the doorway is 8 ft. 4 in., and the thickness of 

Aimoy Bound Tawar. 

(From > Photofnpfa by Mr. S. K. Kicker.) 

Uie walls is 3 ft. 6 in. The walls battier on the outside about one inclt 
niSfeet, and orerhongto the same extent on the inside; hut there is uu 
offKt at each place where, no doubt, there was a floor originally, reducing 
tbe thickness of tlie wall equal to the extent of overhang in tlie story 
Ww, and which thus kept all the floors of the same size. 

There are no windows at present, but there are the remains of two 


■openings at tlie top. They do not appear to have been windows, but 
probably openings made when the tower was used for a modem belfry. 
There was probably a window originally in each story, but they have 
been built up, and the masonry is so well bonded into the original work, 
that there is no trace of them now. 

The tower is built with what is locally known as "mountain freeze" 
— a laminated seliistose sandstone — with Layde sandstone dressings to the 
doorway. The stones are large, especially lengthwise, well bonded and 
■dressed t« the curvature of the walls, hut not regularly coursed nor 

DoocB-aj — Arniuy Itound Towet. 
^From a Phatogcapfa by Mr. S. K. Kirkcr.) 

squared. The mortar has weathered out of the joints to a conaiderable 
depth both inside and outside, ond the joints should be pointed with 
cement ond pinned to preserve the structure. 

The doorway, which is on the south-west side (as shown on |>1an 
herewith), is 6 feet high, 1 foot 8 inches wide at bottom, and I foot 
ii^ inches at top of jamb. It has a semicircular head cut out of a single 
fttone, and there is a flat band or architrave 6 inches by 1 inch on outer 
face, and traces of an impost of same dimensions; but the stom-a are 
much weathered, and some of the origiual stones have been removecl 


from the jambs, so that it is difficult to get accurate dimeustODB. There 
are two stouee in the thicknesa of t)ie wall at the head aud the cill 
of doorway, and the stones are rehated on the inner face for the door. 




ha already stated, there are offsets at each floor level on the inside 
fate of wall, and at two of them projecting courses of stones wliich 
'onned very good supports for the floors. There was probably a similar 



projecting course at tlie lerel of upper floor shown on the section of tower 
herewith, but it would be removed to make room for the modem bell and 

The present surface inside the tower is at same level as on the out- 
side, 4 feet below the cill of doorway, but, doubtless, originally there was 
a full story below the level of entrance, say 10 or 12 feet, and at the 
same time the ground on the outside would be at a similarly lower level, 
but has been raised by interments made in the churchyard adjoining the 
tower. — S. K. Kirker, Hon. Local Secretary for South Down. 






Since writing the above, I have seen an article on this tower, by 
Edmund Getty, in the Ulster Journal of Archaologpt vol. 4, page 173. 
The author explored the Armoy Round Tower in the year 1843, and 
collected some historical facts connected with it, which are given in tlie 
above-mentioned work, from which I extract the following : — 

** What remains of the tower has been fitted up as a belfry, by putting a wooden 

roof on the waUs, of which about 40 feet are still standing 

*'In the course of the excavations only loose deln-is, with small portions of wood 


and stone, and jaws of animalfl, were thrown out for sereral feet ; but at length a 
skull and other human remains were found, packed up against the wall on the north 
side. These were evidently in the same position as at first placed. Portions of horn 
were also found, and remains of the fallen part of the tower. Anything discovered 
hitherto was considered of little importance, as all to this depth may hare been 
disturbed at some period posterior to the erection of the building. The skull, nerer- 
theless, had an appearance of considerable antiquity. When the search waa continued 
to a further depth of some feet another skull was found, embedded like a fossil, lying 
on the south-east side of the line of entrance, but without any other bones of the 
skeleton with it. This skull lay with the upper part towards the centre of the tower, 
and the lower jaw towards the wall. The material it was embedded in was stiff clay ; 
and there was this peculiarity attending it, that it was contained in a hollow space in 
the wall, which appeared to have been constructed to contain it, in the manner of a 
rude niche. Mr. Benn and Mr. Bimie, with the writer, examined it in ntu, and were 
all equally struck by the fossil- like appearance it presented — an appearance previously 
observed in similar instances. It is an interesting circumstance to notice that the 
three upper cervical vertebras were found in connexion with this skull, or in titu as 
respects the cranium, and no other bones were found in the same place that seemed to 
be parts of the same body. The inferences drawn by the parties present was, that 
the head buried here had been, when in a recent state, severed from the trunk. The 
under jaw and vertebne were nearly on the same horizontal line — in fact just so much 
of the vertebral column remained as must have been removed with the head if taken 
off, while the muscles and integuments were recent This relic was obtained, fortu- 
nately, in a nearly perfect state. In the place where it lay a fire had been burned, 
and it had been deposited on a bed of peat ashes and charcoal before being covered 
with the clay. Several pins, formed of deer*s antlers, were found : they seemed to 
have been used by the builders in setting out their work. A portion of a line, made 
of twisted hair, was also discovered, and a piece of sandstone, most probably used for 
whetting the workers' tools. 

** The discovery of a head so distinctly interred separate from the body gives more 
than usual interest to the skuU exhumed from the tower. That such a practice was 
not without precedent with the ancient Irish is proved by several facts. For instance, 
in the case of the skulls found in an ancient burial-ground near the Giant's Ring, so 
accurately detailed in the UUter Journal of ArcJugology^ vol. iii., p. 360, and, in 
several instances, recorded by the Four Moiters : — 

" * Age of Christ 56&— After that Dermot, son of Fergus Cerrbheoll, had been 
20 years King of Ireland, he was slain by Aodh Dubh, son of Suibhne, King of 
Balaradia, of Rathbeg, in Moy Line. Bit head was conveyed to Clonmacnois, 
and interred there, and his body was buried at Connor.' " 

The Oallan near Saggart. — The article by Mr. R. A. Stewart 
Macalistcr, which appeared in the third number of the Journal for 1898, 
describing the '' Gates of Glory " near Dingle, has reminded me of two 
standing-stones near Saggart, which, owing both to their similarity to 
the " Gates of Glory," and their nearness to the city, equally deserve 
to have attention drawn to them. 

These stones are in a field on the left hand side of the road, which 
runs from near the tramway embankment to the village of Saggart, a 
little more than half way to the village, and can be easily seen over a 
gate when passing by. Their distance from the gate is about twenty 

/OUft. &.S.A.I., VOL. IX., VT. II., OTU 8SK. L 


paces. They are not shown or marked on the 6-inch Ordnance Sheet of 
the district. 

These stones also bear an odd local title, namely <' Adam and Eve," 
and anyone who knows them will, when looking at the picture of the 
*^ Gates of Glory," be instantly reminded, as I was, of these county 
Dublin stones. The words *^ Adam and Eve " may be a kind of trans- 
lation of an Irish name, or may represent, more or less imperfectly of 
course, the sound of Irish words. 

The *^ Adam and Eve " stones, one of which is larger and a little 
taller than the other, are 5 feet 2 inches apart at the bottom, and 8 feet 
1 1 inches at the top. One stone is pointed, namely that on the left as 
one looks at them from the gate. It is triaugular in shape, the apex 
being towards the gate. The base at the far side measures 4 feet 
9 inches, the inside face is 3^^ feet, and the remaining one is half a foot 
less. It stands 4 feet high from the ground, and bears a strong resem- 
blance to an eye tooth. It is presumably ** Eve," as being the smaller of 
the two. It was perhaps partly brought into its present shape by the 
hand of man. 

The stone on the right is rather square or oblong in shape, but 
irregular. It is 4 feet 6 inches high. The side next the gate measures 
Sjt feet, the opposite 4 feet, and the two ends measure 2 feet and 2^ feet 
respectively. The top is flat and only about 2 feet square, owing to the 
slope upwards on the inside face, which causes the great distance 
between the stones at the top. A line drawn from one stone to the 
other would run roughly from N. E. to S. W. 

The similarity of the "Adam and Eve" to the ** Gates of Glory" 
may now be noted. A stone in each set is bigger and taller than its 
companion, and in each case the stone to the east is the smaller one, and 
tapers to a point at the top. As to the general size, both the stones in 
the " Gates of Glory " are taller than the " Adam and Eve," but this is 
an uncertain indication of difference, for the earth in the one case may 
have become heaped up about the stones, or in the other it may have 
been worn away. The line of the stones in both sets is from east to 
west, and the base distance between the two stones in each case is 
practically the same ; in the county Dublin stones 5 feet 2 inches, and 
in the other 5 feet 3 inches. 

At the south end of the village of Saggart, by the right hand side of 
the road, upon which are Swift's Castle and the Paper Mills facing each 
other, but a little beyond them, is a large boulder, somewhat resembling 
in shape a tortoise's shell, having round it a groove nearly making 
a circle. This stone measures 6 feet by 4, and is 3 feet thick in the 
centre. The groove or circle which occurs 2 feet from the ground, has 
a circumference of about 9 feet, and a diameter of about 3 feet. Whether 
this marking is ancient or not, I cannot say ; but here also we find a large 
marked stone at not a great distance from a GaUan. From the <' Adam 


«nd Eve " stones to this boulder is half a mile along the road, but the 
direct distance between them is only about half as much. There is also 
^ratched on the boulder a cross measuring 1 foot 3 inches long, by 
6 inches wide. 

These stones are well known to me, but I am indebted to Mr. W. 
P. Briley for all the foregoing measurements, to obtain which he kindly 
made a special visit. 

Mr. Briley has shown me, in the tract on '^Breatha Comaithcesa" 
(Jadgments on Go-Tenancy), a list of twelve kinds of marks on land, by 
which the necessary boundary in such cases was defined, the second of 
which is the stone mark (Ail Bla). Other instances of this mark are 
Ail Adrada (stone of worship), Ail Amnscuithc (immovable stone), and 
Ail Leachta (monumental stone). This tract now forms, I am told, the 
middle of the 4th volume issued by the Brehon Law Commission, and 
the passage occurs at page 143. Li the part of the adventures of 
Lomnochtain, which appears in the Gaelic Journal for March, 1899, 
there is a mention, Mr. Briley says, of the Liaig na mBeann (peaked 

The prehistoric remains still eft in the south of the county of Dublin, 
deserve far more attention thiinthey have yet received. — £. B. M'C. Dix. 

Chess in Ireland. — What are the earliest authentic historical allusions 
to the game of chess in Ireland ? 

In the *' Chess-Players* Annual'^ by Rowland, the following are given 
as the Irish names of the several pieces, &c. : — 



Rioghan and Ban Rioghan. 






Zaochj or Ridire, 










Rranamh, or FiihchiolL 

Prom what source are the Irish names of the pieces derived? 
By whom, and when was the game introduced into Ireland ? — 
C. Tegison, Fellow, 

Tobemahalthora andTobergprania. — ^Mr. Knox in his very interest- 
ing note* on Tobemahalthora refers to Tobergrania, Co. Clare, as men- 
tioned in '* The Dolmens of Ireland." The latter is described in the 

1 Supra, p. 63. 


Ordnance Survey Letters (K.I. A.) there quoted, as a square cist, and 
compared at some length with the well ** Slan." Unfortunately, the 
account in the Ordnance Survey Letters is misleading, and my note 
regarding the same to Mr. Borlase did not reach him in time to be 
inserted in his valuable work. 

As I hope before long to give a short note with plans of Tobergrania 
and the two neighbouring dolmens, I need only point out — 1. Tober- 
grania is not a square cist but a genuine and perfect dolmen, tapering 
eastward, and with antae to the west. 

2. That it is not a well, having no spring inside. The bog evidently 
rose around it, causing the interior to fill with surface water ; since the 
bog has been so much cut away it is now usually quite dry. 

3. There is no hole in any of the stones — only a depression or 
** scoop " out of the west block as in other dolmens of the district. 

4. It is understood by the peasantry to have been made by the sam& 
persons as the other dolmens, one of which is still known as '^Labba 
* yermudh' augus Grania." The '* Grania '* in each case being supposed 
to be the same person. — T. J. Westbopp. 

Photographic Survey. — In the report on this collection in the- 
Journal f p. 61, the name of Dr. Kalph "Westropp Srereton appeared by 
mistake as **Rev. Mr. Brereton." He also calls attention to an error 
on p. 63, where Borris-in-Ossory Castle, and Disert Church, appear aa 
in Tipperary instead of in Queen's County. The cromlechs of Tober- 
grunia and Altoir Ultach, near Feakle, were also accidently omitted 
under county Clare, on p. 62. — T. J. Westbopp. 

( 129 ) 

The Skcokd Gkkkbal Meeting op thb Socibtt for the year 1899 was 
held in the Society's Booms, Dublin, on Wednesday, 12th April, at 
4.30 o'clock, p.m. ; 

EuwABD Percetal Wkiobt, H.A., H.D., v.-p. B.I.A., Vice- President, 

in the Chair. 

The following were present during the proceedings, or joined 
Excursion on the following day : — 

Fellows. — Thomas Drew, b.h.a., Via- President \ Bev. Canon ffrench, x.k.i.a., 
Vtee- President ; Robert Cochrane, F.8.A., x.u.i.a., Mon, General Secretary ; F. 
Ellington Ball, h.h.i.a., Hon. Treasurer \ 6. D. Burtchaell, m.a., ic.&.i.a. ; John 
Cooke, M.A. ; B. 8. Longwoiih Dames, b.a., m.r.i.a. ; Bishop Donnelly; P. J. 
Donnelly; J. B. Garstin, m.a., ».d., f.s.a., m.r.i.a. ; Charles Geoghegan; Dr. G. 
£. J. Greene, m.a., d. sc, m.b.i.a. ; B. Langtishe, f.u.i.a.i. ; Very Bev. Canon 
M'Geeney ; James Mills, m.k.x.a. ; William B. J. Molloy, m.k.x.a. ; P. J. O'Beilly ; 
Count Plunkett, m.k.x.a. ; Colonel Philip D. Vigors ; Thomas Johnaon Westropp, 
JI.A., M.K.X.A. ; W. W. Wilton, m.r.x.a. ; Bobert Lloyd WooUcombe, m.a., ix.d., 


Members. — Bev. A. W. Ardagh, m.a. ; Miss Badham ; 8. Baker ; H. F. Berry, 
M.A. ; B. Bestick ; James Brenan, b.h.a. ; Bev. K. C. Brunskill, m.a. ; Bev. B. 
A. Burnett, m.a. ; John Carolan ; Miss Clark ; Bev. A. Coleman, o.p. ; Bey. M. H. 
F. CoUis, B.D. ; William Cookman, m.d. ; A. D. Cooi>er ; H. A. Cosgrave, m.a. ; 
Miss Cuimingham ; Bey. H. W. Davidson, b.a. ; Bev. H. Davy, m.a. ; Very Bev. 
Abraham Dawson, m.a.. Dean of Dromore ; Bev. J. J. Duan; Bev. W. Falkiner, 
M.A. ; 8. A. 0. Fitzpatiick ; Frederick Franklin, p.u.i.a.i. ; Joseph Gough ; Mrs. 
J. Greene; Lieut. -Colonel John J. Greene, m.b. ; Thomas Greene, ll.d. ; Mrs. T. 
Greene; Mrs. A. Hamilton; Bev. Canon Healy, ll.d.; W. A. Henderson; H. 
Hitchins; J. Holmes; Mrs. Holmes; Miss Hynes ; Archdeacon Jameson, m.a.; 
T. C. Kenny ; Bev. Canon Keman, b.d. ; Bev. Canon Lett, m.a., m.k.x.a. ; Bev. 
John W. Lindsay, d.o. ; Mrs. T. Long ; T. I^owry ; Bev. Dr. Lucas ; Bev. Thomas 
Lyle, M.A. ; Bev. H. C. Lyster, b.d. ; F. M'Bride ; Bev. G. M*Cutchan, m.a. ; 
Dr. Mac Sheehy ; John P. M'Knight ; T. Mason ; W. M. Mitchell, b.h.a. ; M. 
Hooney ; Bev. D. Mullan ; Mrs. Murtagh ; P. L. Nolan, b.a. ; Lieut. -Colonel 
OTallaghan Westropp ; D. J. O'Donoghue ; Bev. £. 0*Leary ; Miss Oldham; J. £ 
Palmer; Miss A. Peter; Miss M. £. Pim; Thomas Plunkett, m.k.i.a. ; Bev. Dr 
Powell ; Miss Beynell ; T. Bice ; Bev, Precentor Booke, m.a. ; Mrs. J. F. Shackleton 
Kev. E. Scriven, m.a. ; T. J. 8haw ; Mrs. Sheridan ; £. W. Smyth, j.p. ; T. Smyth 
Mrs. Stacpoole ; Bev. B. Stanford, m.a. ; William C. Stubbs, m.a. ; W. J. Thomas 
F. P. Thunder ; H. P. Truell, m.d. ; B. D. Walshe ; Bev. Hill Wilson White, d.d. 
M.&.X.A. ; B. Blair White ; W. Grove White, ll.b. ; Bev. Precentor Willcocks, m.a. 
Rev. G. Otway Woodward, b.a. 

The Minutes of the Annual General Meeting were read and 


The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 

declared duly elected : — 


O'Ryan, James, Manager, Proyincial Bank of Ireland, £ilrusli : proposed by H. C*. 
Cullinan, ll.b., Fellow. 

Speth, George William, f.u. hist. s. (Member , 1897), La Tuyo, Edward-road^ 
Bromley, Kent: proposed by W. J. Chetwode Crawley, d.c.l., Felloto. 


AUen, Mrs. W. J., Linwbinney, Lurgan : proposed by S. F. Milligan, m.b.i.a.. Fellow^ 
Bolton, Miss Anna, Rathenny, Clough Jordan : proposed by Henry Dixon. 
Dickenson, Colonel Wykebam Corry, Earlsfort Mansions, Dublin : proposed by Joha 
Cooke, M.A., Fellow, 

Duncan, James Dalrymple, t.b.a. (Scot.); Meiklewood, Stirling, N. B. : proposed by 

James Fleming, Jun. 
Fitz Gerald, R. A., 47, Ailesbury-road, Dublin : proposed by J Foe Alton. 
Fitz Simon, D. O'Connell, Glancullen, Golden Ball : proposed by the Rev. T. A.. 

O'Morchoe, m.a. 

Flood, William H. Grattan, Enniscorthy : proposed by Dr. G. E. J. Greene, j.p.,. 
&c.. Fellow. 

Gibson, Henry, j.p., Ardnardeen, Clontarf : proposed by John Panton. 

Gill, R. P., A. INST. C.B.I. , Fattbeen, Nenagh: proposed by Henry Dixon. 

Gorman, James, General Valuation Office, Ely-place, Dublin : proposed by A. P. 
Morgan, b.a. 

Heathcote, Miss Beatrice, Beecbwood, Totton, Southampton : proposed by T. F» 
Cooke-Trencb, m.b.i.a.. Fellow. 

Homer, John, Chelsea, Antrim -road, Belfast : proposed by Francis Joseph Bigger, 
M.B.I. A., Fellow. 

Hynes, Miss, 55, Upper Leeson- street, Dublin : proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, m.a.,. 
M.B.I.A., Fellow. 

Keating, Miss, Raheen, Enniscorthy : proposed by G. D. Burtchaell, m.a., m.b.i.a.. 

Kenny, Thomas Canice, 5, Biighton Yale, Monkstown, Co. Dublin : proposed by^ 
George E. Matthews. 

Kerr, Miss, 2, College-avenue, Londonderry: proposed by W. J. Browne, m.a.,. 
M.B.I.A., Fellow, 

Lowry, Thomas, 2, Clarinda Park East, Kingstown, Co. Dublin : proposed by George^ 
E. Matthews. 

Librarian, Natural History and Philosophical Society, Armagh : proposed by R. Gray,. 


M*Cann, James, Simmonscourt Castle, Donnybrook : proposed by Pierce L. Nolan, b.a^ 
Murray, Daly, j.p., Beech Hill, Cork: proposed by the Rev. P. Hurley, p.p. 
Osborne, Rev. J. Denham, m.a., 27, Belvidere-place, Dublin : proposed by Willian^ 

Gray, m.b.i.a.. Fellow. 
Patersoo, Thomas, Tildarg, Merrion-road, Dublin : proposed by T. J. Westropp,. 

M.A., M.K.I.A., Fellow. 
Pollock, Hugh, Barrister-at-Law, 50, Northumberland-road, Dublin: proposed hy 

H. F. Berry, m.a. 
Rooney, William, 23, Leinster-avenue, North Strand-road, Dublin: proposed hy 

Henrv Dixon. 

Stoney, Robert Vesey, d.l., Rossturk Castle, Westport : proposed by H. P. Truell, m.d. 

White, Rev. Newport John Davis, d.d.. Marsh's Library, St. Patrick's, Dublin : 

proposed by John Cooke, m.a.. Fellow. 
Williamson, Rev. Charles Arthur, m.a., Camew, Co. Wicklow: proposed by the- 

Rev. Canon ffrench, m.k.i.a., Vice-Preeident. 

The Report of the Auditors for the year 1898 was read, and adopted 
as follows : — 


lIlLi .iLlil. it 

I 15 ii i|i -I 'i 

r ' I a im k- If sf t 4 

Eu S - U - o B I ■= 3 2 5 C ^ ?E S J : gJ5 : -s G 

^ Si 

i I 

.^ ,g 


1 s 


i^ II 



The Eeport of the Council concerning the Society's Museum was 
ready and adopted as follows : — 

At the Annual General Meeting of the Society, held in Dublin on the 17th of 
January last, the Council were empowered to make all the necessary aiTangements 
for the legal transfer of the collection of Antiquities at Kilkenny to a Local Com- 
mittee, the Committee to make the necessary arrangements for the housing and 
caring of the same in Kilkenny. The collection thus authoiised to be transferred was 
to consist of objects relating to the county and city of Kilkenny. To carry this resolu- 
tion into effect, the Council appointed a Committee to negotiate mattera with the 
Kilkenny Committee, and the former Yisited Kilkenny on the 11th and 12th March, 
1899, and had several interviews with the Kilkenny Representatives ; it soon became 
apparent that a considerable portion of the Museum consisted of objects which it was 
not in the power of the Committee to hand over, i.e. such as the Kavanagh Collec- 
tion of Egyptian and Grecian Antiquities; various finds presented to the Society, 
l^ut found in the adjoining counties. It was also evident that certain objects in the 
Museum were, under the circumstances of the case, of a nature not desirable for a 
small local Museum, such as a set of Morticed Boards from a Crannoge, or fragments 
of Sepulchral Urns, which latter would require skill and practice in placing the 
fragments together to make them of the slightest value. The Council, on this, 
concluded that the present state of afPairs justified a new reference to the Society. 

The Council therefore beg to recommend for the approval of the Society : — 

*' That with the exception of the specimens as in the Schedule attached, the collection 
of Antiquities in Kilkenny, at present the property of the Royal Society of Antiquaries 
of Ireland, be transferred to two or three Trustees, to be appointed on behalf of a Kil- 
kenny Museum Committee, on the conditions that the collection be adequately housed 
and cared for in Kilkenny, the said Trustees to be responsible for the preservation and 
exhibition of the specimens, and that if, at any time, there be a default in this under- 
taking, the collection shall revert to the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, to 
be disposed of as tbey shall see fit. That the Society also empower the Council to 
approve of a Deed of Trust to this effect, between the Trustees acting for the Kilkenny 
Museum Committee, and the Trustees of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 

*' That the Council be authorised to deposit with the Royal Irish Academy the 
various articles in the Schedule, numbered 1 to 10, on condition that they be placed 
on view in the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, and to be marked or labelled as 
* Deposited by the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland.' " 

''The Schedule. 

1. A Stone with Cup-and-Ring Markings. 

2. Several Planks of Crannoge Timber, showing Mortices. 

3. A selection of Pottery, &c., from simdry Crannoge Finds outside the county 

of Kilkenny. 

4. Various Fragments of Sepulchral Urns. 

5. A Necklace of Stone Beads. 

6. A Stone Mould for a Celt. 

7. Sundry Skulls — Two from Kilkenny, one from Louth, three extra European. 

8. Small Stone Box from Louth. 

9. Poi-tion of a Pastoral Staff. 

10. A Bronze Vessel with many inserted pieces. 

11. The Rubbings of Sepulchral Brasses (say one-third) to be retained for iho 
Society's Rooms.'' 

The Society then adjourned to 8 o'clock, p.m. 


EvsffiNo Mbktino. 
The Society again met in the Rooms at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

TflOHAS Dbxw, R.H.A., Vice-Presi'd^ntf in the Chair. 

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council : — 

'* Notes on the Arohaological Tour to the Western Ifllands of Scotland — Ions" 
(Illustrated by Lsntem Slides), by F. J. OReilly, Fellou;.^ 

** The Domestic Buildings of the Church of the Holy Trinity in the Fifteenth and 
Sixteenth Centuries," by James Mills, m.k.x.a., Fsihw, 

The remaining Papers were taken as read, and referred to the 
Conncil : — 

*'The Stone Crosses of Uifearmaic, Co. Clare/' by Dr. George U. Mac Namara, 
Son. Local Secretary, North Clare. 

"llie Augustinian Houses of Clare, Killone, and Inchicronan, Co. Clare," by 
T. J. Westropp, x.a., x.k.i.a., Fellow. 

"delations of the King of Connaught with the King of England in the Twelfth 
and Thirteenth Centuries," by U. T. Knox, x.b.x.a., Fellow. 

** The Identification of Slan, Co. Mayo," by H. T. Knox, m.&.la., Fellow. 
The Society then adjourned. 

' The substance of this communication is incorporated in the account of Zona, 
psge 173. 


OF ANTIQUARIES OF IRELAND in conjtoctiok with thr 

The places of interest in Scotland visited were — 

1. Sanda Island — Cross and St.Ninian's Chnrcb (see Captain White'» 
'' Archseological Sketches in Eintyre and Enapdale "). [See p. 151.] 

2. Eildalton Crosses and Church, Island of Islay, seven miles from 
Port Ellen (see R. C. Graham's ** Sculptured Stones of Islay"). [See 
p. 154.] 

3. Passing up the Sound of Islay to Oronsay, to see the Priory^ 
Monuments, Inscribed Stones, and Crosses (see Mac Gibbon and Ross, 
" Ecclesiastical Architecture of Scotland "). [See p. 161.] 

4. Crossing the Firth of Lorn, and passing up the Sound of lona, the- 
well-known Crosses and Ecclesiastical remains at lona, west of the Island 
of Mull, were visited. [See p. 173.] 

5. Sailing north-west, the ecclesiastical remains on the Island of 
Tiree were visited. [See p. 188. J 

6. Passing west of Rum Island, the Island of Canna was visit-ed^ 
to see the Ancient Cross (depicted in Stuart's '^ Sculptured Stones of 
Scotland"). At Canna there is a fine natural harbour. [See p. 198.] 

7. Sailing up Little Minch into Dunvegan Loch, Isle of Skye, the 
Town and Castle of Dunvegan were seen ; the latter is the residence 
of The Macleod of Macleod ; a portion of the house is said to have been 
built in the ninth century. [See p. 201.] 

8. Crossing Little Minch to the Outer Hebrides, Rodil in Harris was- 
seen (Church with curious Sculptures). [See p. 211.] 

9. Passing through the Sound of Harris, and sailing north-west, the 
next call was at Eilean Mor, on the Plannan Islands, to see the Ancient 
Church of St. Flannan, Bee-hive Oratory, &c. 

10. The next call was at Callemish Stone Circles, Island of Lewia 
and Dun Carloway Pictish Tower, on the west of Lewis Island, six 
miles north of Callemish. 


11. A succeBsful landing was made at North Bona, in the North 
Atlantic, to inspect the Early Christian Oratories (see Dr. Joseph Ander- 
son's " Scotland in Early Christian Times " ; Muir's *' Ecclesiological 
Architecture"; and Mac Qihhon and Boss, '^ Ecclesiastical Architecture 
of Scotland"). 

12. The Stone Circles of Stennis, near Stromness, Maeshowe, and 
Kirkwall Cathedral, Orkney, were next yisited (see J. R. Tudor's 
"Orkney and Shetland " ; Sir H. Dryden's " Kirkwall Cathedral" ; and 
Farrer's "Maeshowe"). 

13. Sailing south to Keiss Bay, Caithness, the ancient Brochs, or 
Pictish Towers, now under investigation hy Sir Francis Tress Barry, 
Bart., M.p., Keiss Castle, were, hy his kind permission, visited. 

14. In the return journey, passing down Sleat Sound, round Ardna- 
murchan Point, and through the Sound of Mull, Eilean Mor, in the 
Sound of Jura, at the mouth of Loch Swine, was visited (Cross and 
Stone-roofed Church). 

15. Sailing south through the Sound of Jura, the party visited 
Gigha Island, off the west coast of Kintyre, to see a reputed Ogam- 
stone, the only one ever heard of in the west of Scotland ; after which 
the steamer returned to Belfast. 

The steamer left Bonegall-quay, Belfast (opposite the office of the 
Belfast S.S. Company), on Tuesday morning, June 20th, at 10 o'clock^ 
and returned on Wednesday, June 28th, at 8 o'clock, a.m. 

This Excursion was undertaken hy the Society at the request of 
some of the leading Archseologists of the United Kingdom, to enahle 
places and ohjects of great Antiquarian interest to he visited, otherwise 
inaccessihle except at considerahle expense, and a good deal of incon- 

The Directors of the Belfast Steamsbip Company gave, for the use of the party, 
their fayourite Ezpreas Passenger Twin-screw Steamer '* if a^i^.*' 

The 8.8. **Mttgie " was built by Messrs. Harland & Wolff in 1893 ; gross tonnage, 
1640 tons; length, 322 feet ; breadth of beam, 39 feet; and is fitted up with large 
and well ventilated State Rooms, Dining Saloon, Smoke Room, Promenade Deck, 
Toadies' and Gentlemen's Bath Rooms, &c., and has electric light throughout. The 
catering was done by the Steamship Company, comprising first-class cuisine — break- 
&0ty lunch, dinner, and tea. 

The lifeboats of the Steamer (eight in number) were used for landing the party. 
The ^*Maffie^^ has accommodation for 220 first-class passengers in berths, but 
for the greater comfort of the party, and to avoid crowding, the number was limited 
to 130. 

Tickets were issued by the Belfast Steamship Company at £10 each, on 8th 
May, to those members who made the application, in the proper form, to the Hon. 
Secretary, at the specified date. 

The Irish Railway Companies gave the usual facilities of return tickets at single 


fares, on the production of a voucher, furnished by the Hon. Secretary ; and for the 
convenience of Members residing in England, the Belfast Steamship Company issued 
Saloon return tickets — Liverpool to Belfast — for 16/- ; ordinary rate, 21/-, on pro- 
duction of a similar voucher. The London North-Western Railway Company, though 
applied to several times, refused to grant facilities similar to those given by the Irish 
Railway Companies. 

The Liverpool Steamer arrived in Belfast between 8 and 9 o'clock, a.m., alongside 
the berth from which the ** Magic " departed. 

The party landed in the ship's boats at the nearest accessible points, 
and proceeded on foot to the places visited. Mr. David MacBrayne, 

of Glasgow, kindly granted the use of his red boats for landing at 

Vehicles were procured at Stromness, Idndly arranged for by 
Mr. James W. Cursitor, f.s.a. (Scot.), to take the party to Stennis, 
Maeshowe and back, on Saturday afternoon, 24th June. 

On the return of the party to Belfast on Wednesday morning, 28th 
June, an Excursion was made to **The Giant's Ring" — Cromlech and 
extensive Earthworks. 

The Lord Mayor of Belfast courteously held an Afternoon Reception 
for the members of the Excursion party on that day. 

Another Excursion was arranged for Thursday, 29th June, to Port- 
rush, Dunluce Castle, and Giant's Causeway. 

On Friday an excursion was arranged to Drogheda, to visit Dowth 
and JS'ewgrange ; also Mellifont Abbey, and Monasterboice Crosses and 
Bound Tower. 

Facilities were afforded to those who wished to remain for visiting 
the chief places of interest in the city and neighbourhood of Belfast. 


TxuR Table. 
[NOTE. — Grtenwich time was observed on the Sea-tripJ^ 

FIRST DAY— Tuesday, June ao (Accession Day):— 

10 a.iii. — ^The steamalup left Donegall-quay, Belfast, at 10 a.m. Members 
trayelling via Liverpool by the Belfast Steamship Company's 
steamers, arriyed alongside the " Moffie** at 9 a.m. 

18.80 p.m. — ^Arrived at Sanda Island (52 miles) ; and after lunch, visited the 
Island and ruins, embarking at 2.30 p.m. 

2.80 p.m. — Left Sanda Island for Eildalton (36 miles) ; anchored at Ardmore at 
4.30 p.m. ; landed in ship's boats and re-embarked at 7.30 p.m. 

SECOND DAY— Wednesday, June ai (The Longest Day) :— 

7 a.m. — Landed at Oronsay (29 miles) ; returned to ship at 9.30 a.m. 
9.S0 a.m. — Started for lona (29 miles) ; landed and visited ruins, and returned 
to ship for lunch at 2 p.m. 
2 p.m. — On to Scamish, Island of Tiree (18 miles); landed at 3 p.m., and 
returned to ship for dinner. 

THIRD DAY— Thursday, June aa:— 

7 a.m. — Landed on Canna (31 miles) ; returned to ship at 9.30 a.m. 

Steamed to Dunvegan (45 miles) ; landed at 12 noon, and returned 
to ship for lunch at 2.30 p.m. ; steamed to Rodil in Harris (25 
miles), which was visited at 5.30 p.m. ; returned for late dinner. 

FOURTH DAY— Friday, June aa {Midsummer Eve— Full Utoon) :— 

7 a.m. — Landed on Flannan Isles (56 miles) ; landed at Callemish (30 miles) ; 
re-embarked at 2 p.m., and steamed for Loch Carloway (6 miles) ; 
landed and visited Dun Carloway, and returned for dinner. 

FIFTH DAY— Saturday, June 24 {Midsummer Day— St John Baptist):— 

7 a.m. — Landed on North Bona (85 miles), 7 a.m. ; left at 10.30 a.m., for 
Stromness, Orkney Mainland (93 miles) ; 3 p.m., landed at Strom- 
ness ; visited Stennis, 4^ miles distant ; and Maeshowe, about a 
mile further on ; returned to ship for dinner ; steamed for Scapa 
Bay, H miles from Kirkwall. 

SIXTH DAY— Sunday, June as {4th Sunday after Trinity) :— 

9 a.m. — ^Visited Kirkwall for Church ; returned for lunch ; visited Kirkwall 
again in the afternoon. 

SEVENTH DAY— Monday, June a6 :— 

9 a.m. — ^Landed at Keiss Bay, for Keiss Castle ; visited Brocha there ; and 

returned to ship for lunch. 
9 p.m.— Started at 2 p.m. for return joiuney, round Cape Wrath and Ardiia- 

murchan Point. 


EIGHTH DAY— Tuesday, June 37 :— 

9.80 a.m. — Landed at Eilean Mor (236 miles) at 9.30 a.m., after breakfast ; called 

at Gigha Island (16 miles) ; returned to ship at 7 p.m. ; dined on 
board; and — 
Reached Belfast (80 miles) on Wednesday morning — ^breakfast on 

{Bod of Sea Trip.) 

NINTH DAY— Wednesday, June a8 {Coronation Day) :— 

10.80a.m. — ^At 10.30 a.m. started in carriages for *'6iant*s Ring'*; Afternoon 

Reception by the Lord Mayor of Belfast, at the Exhibition Hall, 
Botanic Gardens. 

TENTH DAY— Thursday, June ap {St Peter'a Day) :— 

9 a.m. — Left by train (Belfast and Northern Counties Railway Terminus) fur 
Portrush, Dunluce Castle, and Giant's Causeway ; returned to 

ELEVENTH DAY-Frlday, June 30 :- 

7.80. a.m. — ^Left by train (Great Northern of Ireland Railway Terminus) for 

Drogheda to visit the Valley of the Boyne, Dowth, Newgrauj^, 
Mellifont Abbey (ruins of), and Monasterboice Round Tower and 


Hon. Oen, See. 

Gaklic Woilds is Sailing Dibbction8 West Coast of Scotland. . 


Approximate proDun- 
ciation by Admiralty 

English Meaning. 




































Innis, or Inch. 







Ob, or Oban. 

Poll, or PuiU. 














A yen. 























































A shealing, or hut 


Stream, or brook. 

High point. 




A paas, or gap. 






Foot, mouth of river. 

A firth, or strait. 

Bay, or creek. 



Hill, or knoll. 



A heap. 



A ridge. 


Mound, fort. 





Green, or gray. 

Bill, or beak of bird. 



Choice pasture island. 

Slate, or slab. 

Gray, or blue. 



Moss, or moor- land. 


Creek, or hayen. 

Pool, or bog. 


A point of land. 

Salt-water bay. 

A rock in the oea. 

A peak. 

A steep rook, or conical hill. 

Nose, promontory. 

Hillock, or knoll. 

A conical hill. 

Strand, or sand beach. 



Non— In the pronunciation of Gaelic, dh is yery frequently silent ; bh is 

frequently pronounced as r. 


Nambs and Addbesses of the Meubbbs of the Excursion. 

Bennett, Charles A., Esq., Lee View, Sunday's Well, Cork. 

Bennett, Joseph H., Esq., Blair Castle, Co. Cork. 

Biddulph, Colonel Middleton W., /.p., Annaghmore, Tullamore, King's County. 

Blosse, E. P. Lynch, Esq., Glanavon, Peterston-super-Ely, Cardiff. 

Boustead, Miss, Settlebeck, Sedbergh, Yorkshire. 

Bowman, Davys, Esq., Holyrood, Malone-road, Belfast. 

Bros, W. Law, Esq., Camera Club, Charing Cross-road, London, W.C. 

Browne, William J., Esq., m.a., m.k.i.a., 5, Crawford-square, Londonderry. 

Browne, Mrs. W. J., ,, ,, 

Buggy, Michael, Esq., Solicitor, Kilkenny. 

Buick, the Bey. George Raphael, m.a., ll.d., Vtee^Pretidsntf S.S.A.I., Cullybackey, 
Co. Antrim. 

Bumard, Robert, Esq,, f.s.a., Hillsborough, Plymouth. 

Bumard, Mrs. Robert, ,, ,, 

Carolan, John, Esq., j.f., 77, North King-street, Dublin. 

Clark, George W. 0' Flaherty, Esq., Downpatriok. 

Cochrane, Robert, Esq., f.s.a., m.k.i.a.. Son. See. Roy. Soe. Ant, Ireland, 17, High* 
field-road, Dublin. 

Coleman, the Rev. A., o.f., St. Catherine's, Newry. 

Corbett, D., Esq., f.u.c.8.i., St. Stephen's- green Club, Dublin. 

Corbett, E. W. M., Esq., j.f., c.c, Pwll y Pant, Cardiff. 

Corcoran, Bryan, Esq., 31, Mark-lane, London, E.C. 

Corcoran, Miss, The Chestnuts, Sutton, Surrey. 

Crawford, R. T., Esq., Estate Office, Ballinrobe. 

Davids, Miss Rosa, Greenhall, High Blantyre, N.B. 

Davies, John Hudson, Esq., Netherton Villa, Copthome-road, Shrewsbury. 

Day, Robert, Esq., j.f., f.s.a., President, Cork Hist, and Arch. Assoc., Myrtle Hill 
House, Cork. 

Drinkwater, the Rev. C. H., m.a., St. George's Vicarage, Shrewsbury. 

Drury, George, Esq., 112, Rathgar-road, Dublin. 

Earle, Miss, Glynmalden, Dolgelly, North Wales. 
Elliott, John, Esq., m.d., 24, Nicholas-street, Chester. 
Evans, Miss £., Walmersley Vicarage, Bury, Lancashire. 
Evans, Rev. L. H., Vicarage, Rhayader, Radnorshire. 

Felix, the Rev. John, Cilcain Vicarage, Mold. 
Fisher, the Rev. J., Ruthin, North Wales. 


Fogertj, George J., Esq., m.d., George-street, Limerick. 
Fogerty, William A., Esq., m.d., 67, George-street, Limerick. 
Foley, J. M. Galwey, Esq., County Inspector, r.i.c, Enms. 
Frazer, William, Esq., Downshire-road, Newry. 

Gray, Mrs., Craigantemple, Portrush. 

Griffilli, John E., Esq., r.L.8., F.a.A.8., &c., Bryn Dinas, Upper Bangor, N. Wales. 

Oriffito, Mrs., ,, ,, ,, 

GriiBth, Miss Lucy, Gljrnmalden, Dolgelly, North Wales. 

Gailbride, Francis, Esq., j.p., Newtownbarry, Co. Wexford. 

Gwynne-Hughes, Colonel W., j.p., d.l., Glancothie, Nantc:tredig, Carmarthenshire. 

Hayes, Thomas, County Inspector, u.i.c, Eden-terrace, Limerick. 

Heathcote, Miss Beatrice, Beechwood, Tatton, Southampton. 

Heron, James, Esq., b.b., j.p., TuUyvery House, Killyleagh, Co. Down. 

Heron, Mrs., ,, ,, ,, 

Homer, Mrs. John, Chelsea, Antrim-road, Belfast. 

Hughes, Harry W., Esq., Solicitor, Copthome-road, Shrewsbury. 

Hughes, John P., Esq., Bellevue, Llandilo. 

James, Charles H., Esq., 64, Park -place, CardifiF. 

James, John Herbeii, Esq., 3, King's Bench Walk, Temple, London, E.C. 

Jones, the Rev. Canon David, v.a.. The Vicarage, Llandegai, Bangor, North Wales. 

Jones, the Rev. David, m.a., Llangemiew Rectory, Abergele. 

Jones, Mrs. fl. Watts, Glyn, Dwygyfylchi, neor Conway. 

Kempeon, Frederick R., Esq., Roath House, Cardiff. 

Eermode, P. M. C, Esq., f.s.a. (Scot.), Hillside, Ramsey, Isle of Man. 

Kennode, the Rev. 8. A. P., m.a.. The Vicarage, Conchan, Isle of Man. 

Kerr, Miss Jane, 2, College- avenue, Londonderry. 

Kirk, Henry, Esq., Franklin-street, Belfast. 

Eirker, Samuel Kerr, Esq., c.b., 180, Duncaim-street, Belfast. 

Lawrence, Arthur, Esq., Lavemock House, near Penarth, Glamorganshire. 

Lewis, R. Shipley, Esq., Solicitor, Llandilo. 

Linton, H. P., Esq., Solicitor, 3, Llandaff- place, Cardiff. 

Lloyd- Philipps, F. L., Esq., x.a., Penty Park, Clarbeston-road, Pembrokeshire, Pusf 
Firesident, Camb. Arch, A»»oc, 

Maconachie, the Rev. J. H., b.a., Erindale, Cliftonville-a venue, Belfast. 

H'Crum, Robert G., Esq., j.p., Vice-Chairman, County Council, Milford, Armagh. 

Macfadyeii, J., Esq., 26a, Renfield- street, Glasgow. 

M^Dwaine, Robert, Esq., Secretary, County Council, Downpatrick. 

MahoQj, T. H., Esq., Clonaid, Blackrock-road, Cork. 

Mahony, J. J., Esq., Fort Villas, Queenstown, Co. Cork. 

Maityn, Edward, Esq., d.l., Viee-Fretideni, U.S.A.!., Tillyr.i Castle, Co. Galway. 

MiHigan, Miss Alice L., The Drift, Antrim-road, Belfast. 

JOriU B.8.A.f., VOL. IS., PT. II., OTH SBU. M 


Milligan, Seaton F., Esq., m.u.x.a., Han. Frovineial Secretary for Ulster, Bank 
Buildings, Belfast. 

Moffatt, the Rev. Dr., 1, Pulmerston Villas, Rathmines, Dublin. 

Morgan, Colonel W. Llewellyn, r.b., Biynbriallu, Swansea. 

Moriarty, the Rev. Ambrose J., d.d., The Cathedral, Shrewsbury. 

Morris, the Rev. Canon Rupert H., d.d., p.b.a., St. Gabriers Vicarage, 4, Warwick- 
square, London, S.W. 

Morrogh, Henry H., Esq., 6, Charlemont-terrace, Cork. 

Munro, Robert, Esq., m.a., m.d., Mon, Secretary, Society of Antiquariee rf Scotland, 
48, Manor-place, Edinburgh. 

Munro, Mrs. Robert, 48, Manor-place, Edinburgh. 

Neill, Sharman D., Esq., 12, Donegall-place, Belfast. 
Neill, Mrs. Sharman D., „ „ 

Nichols, Mrs., Kilbrack, Doneraile, Co. Cork. 

0*Keeffe, P., Esq., m.d., Mountjoy Prison, Dublin. 

0*Leary, the Rev. Edward, p.p., Ballyna, Moyvalley, Co. Kildare. 

Owen, the Rev. Canon Trevor, m.a., p.s.a., JJangedwyn, Oswestry, Hon, Secretary^ 
Camh. Arch. Assoc, 

Phillips, J. J., Esq., c.b.. Architect, 61, Royal Avenue, Belfast. 
Phillips, J. W., Esq., Solicitor, Tower Hill, Haverfordwest. 
Plunkett, Thomas, Esq., M.B.I.A., Enniskillen. 

Quan-Smith, S. A., Esq., Bullick Castle, Co. Dublin. 

Richardson, Miss, Craigantemple, Portrush. 

Scott, William Robert, Esq., m.a. (Dubl.), 4, Murray-place, St. Andrews, N.B. 

Scott, Mrs. W. R., „ ,, 

Sherlock, Miss Rose, Sherlockstown, Sallins, Co. Kildare. 

Sheridan, Mrs. E., St. Helen's, Rathgar, Dublin. 

Shackleton, George, Esq., Anna Liffey Mills, Lucan, Co. Dublin. 

Shackleton, Mrs., Anna Liffey House, Lucan, Co. Dublin. 

Simpson, Mrs., West Church Manse, Ballymena. 

Small, John Francis, Esq., Solicitor, Coroner, Hill-street, Newry. 

Smyth, Mrs. E. Weber, 73, St. Stephen* s-green, Dublin. 

Spurrell, Walter, Esq., Carmarthen, South Wales. 

Stewart, the Rev. Joseph A., m.a., Killowen, Lisbum. 

Stirrup, Mark, Esq., p.o.s.l., High Thorn, Bowden, Cheshire. 

Stoney, Robert Vesey, Esq., c.e., d.l., Rosturk Castle, Westport, Co. Mayo. 

Strangeways, William N., Esq., Breffni Villa, Eglinton-ixMid, Donnybrook, Co. Dublin. 

Tate, Alexander, Esq., c.e., Rantallard, Belfast. 

Tate, Miss, ,, „ 

Taylor, A. Grimwood, Esq., m.a., Solicitor, St. Mary^s Gate, Derby. 


Tempest, William, Esq., j.f., Biindalk. 

Thomas, the Yen. Archdeacon, m.a., f.8.a., Llandrinio Re<:toi7, Llanymynech, 
Oswestry, and The Canonry, St. Asaph, Chairman of Com, ^ Camb. Areh. Attoe. 

Thomas, B. H., Esq., Town Clerk, Carmarthen, South Wales. 

Thomas, Mrs. R. M., 21, Ficton-terrace, ,, „ 

Thomas, T. H., k-ca., Esq., 46, The Walk, Cardiff. 

Thomas, the Rev. W. Mathew, m.a., Billingboro' Vicarage, Folkingham, Lincoln- 

Trench, Thomas F. Cooke, Esq., d.l., m.r.i.a., Millicent, Sallins, Co. Eildare. 

Trench, Mrs. Cooke, ,, ,, ,, 

Truell, Henry Fomeroy, Esq., m.b., j.p., d.l., Clonmannon, Rathnew, Co. Wickiow. 

Turner, Robert, Esq., Solicitor, English-street, Armagh. 

Yachell, Charles Tanfield, Esq., m.d., 11, Park-place, Cardiff. 

Watkins, Arthur M., Esq., m.d., Dodington, Whitchurch, Salop. 
Webster, William, Esq., Solicitor, 36a, Church-street, St. Helens. 

Westropp, Thomas Johnson, Esq., m.a., M.a.i.A., Mon. Provincial Secretary for 

Leinstery 77, Lower Leeson -street, Dublin. 
Wigham, Miss, Albany House, Monkstown, Co. Dublin. 
White, James, Esq., m.d., Kilkenny. 

White, Mrs. R. Blair, Ashton Park, MonkstoM-n, Co. Dublin. 
White, W. GroTO, Esq., ll.b.. Crown Solicitor, 18, Elgin-road, Dublin. 
Williams, H. Whiteside, Esq., Solva, Pembrokeshire. 
Williams, the Rev. R. E., Braunston Rectory, Rugby. 


Bev. Dr. Boick, h.b.j.a., Viee-Prei, Roy, Soc, Ant, Ireland, 
lloBKKT CocHUANK, F.S.A., Son, Gen, See. Roy, Soc, Ant, Ireland, 
Edwabo Marttit, D.L., Ftce-Pres. Roy. Soe, Ant, Ireland. 
Seaton F. MiLLiOAir, m.r.i.a., Son, Prov, See. for Ulster. 
Dr. Robert Munro, Hon, Sec.^ Society of Antiquaries, Scotland, 
Het. Cai7on Trevor Owen, f.s.a., Hon, Sec. Camb, Arch, Assoc. 
Ven. Archd. Thovas, f.s.a., Chairman of Com. Camb. Areh, Assoc, 
TaovAS J. Westropp, x.a., m.r.i.a., Hon, Prov. Sec, for Leinster, 




OF Scotland. 

Martin's ** Western Islands of Scotland," a.d. 1703. 

Pennant's ^'Tour (1772) in Scotland, and Voyage to Hebrides," 1790. 

Macculloch's *' Description (Geological, &c.) of Western Islands," 1819. Three- 

yols. ; plates. 
Daniel's ''Voyage, West Coast of Scotland," vol. iii., with plates, 1818. 
T. Gamett's « Tour through Highlands and Western Islands," 1811. 
BoswelFs " Tour to the Hebrides with Dr. S. Johnson," 1776. 
''Lewisiana, or Life in Outer Hebrides" (W. A. Smith), 1874. 
*' Studies in the Topography of Galloway " (Sir Herbert Maxwell), 1885. 
** Celtic Scotland " (Dr. W. F. Skene) ; three vols. ; 1877. 
Gregory's << History of the Western Highlands and Isles" (1493-1626), 1836. 
Buchanan's ''Hebrid Isles," 1883. 
Gordon-Cumming's '* In the Hebrides," 1883. 
Hugh Miller's '< Cruise of the Betsey.'* 

*' History of the Hebrides under Norwegian Rule"; ''Chronica Begum MannisB et. 
Insularum" (Professor P. A. Munch of Christiana), 1860. 

Sir Walter Scott's " Lord of the Isles." 

" Legends of the Isles" (Poems by C. Mackay). 

Montalembert's "Monks of the West," vol. iii. 

" Encyclopedia Britannica," Article — Hebrides. 

„ ,, Article — Gaelic. 

,, „ Article — Colomba. 

" Life of St. Columba, Founder of Hy," by Adamnan, edited by Bishop Reeves. 

"Island of Sanda" — ^Article in Proceedings, Royal Irish Academy, vol. viii., p. 132^ 
by Bishop Reeves. 

" Scotland in Pagan Times " — Rhind Lectures in Archaeology (Dr. Joseph Andenon) ; 
two vols.; illustrated; 1883-1886. 

" Scotland in Early Christian Times " — Rhind Lectures in Archaeology (Dr. JosepK 

Anderson); two vols. ; illustrated; 1881. 
" Place-Names of Scotland " (Rev. J. B. Johnson, b.d.), 1892. 
Captain White's " Archasological Sketches in Eintyre and Knapdale," 1873—76. 
" Ecclesiological Notes on Islands of Scotland " (T. S. Muir), 1886. 

Carved Stones of Islay" (R. C. Graham), f.s.a. (Scot.), 1895. 

Ecclesiastical Architecture, Scotland" (Mac Gibbon and Ross) ; three vols. ; 1897^ 
" Sculptured Monuments of lona and Western Highlands" (J. Drummond), 1881. 
" Cathedral of lona " (Bishop Swing), 1866. 
" lona" (Duke of Argyll), 1870. 

Oronsay and its Monastery— lona's Rival " (F. C. E. M'Neill). 






^'Romance of Skye*' (Maclean). 

William Black's Novels. 

^* A Painter's Camp in the Highlands *' (Hamerton). 

Article— JTarpw'* Monthly, vol. Tii., page 67 — ** Gossip re Western Highlands" 
(W. Black). 

Article— JTtfr/w'j Monthly, vol. xvi., pp. 489-780-944- 

'' Journey to the Hebrides" (£. R. Fennel) ; illustrated. 

^'Ossian and the Clyde" (Rev. ?. Hately Waddell), d.d. 

^* Characteristics of Old Church Architecture in the Mainland and Western Islands " 
(T. 8. Muir), 4to, 1861 ; illustrated. 

^'Notices of Bee-hive Houses in the Outer Hebrides " — Froceedings of Society of 
Antiquaries, Scotland, vols. iii. and vii. (Capt. F. W. L. Thomas) ; illustrated. 

'"The Duns of the Outer Hebrides" — *' Arcliaeologia Scotia," vol. v., 4to (Captain 
F. W. L. Thomas). 

*^ A Voyage round the Coasts of Scotland and the Isles " (James Wilson) ; 8vo; two 
vols. (Edinb. : 1842.) 

^Historical Account of the Ancient Culdees of lona and of their Settlement in 
Scotland, England, and Ireland" (Dr. Jamieson) ; illustrated; 1811. 

**' The Culdees of the British Islands as they appear in History " (Bishop Reeves), 1864. 

"' The Orkneys and Shetland : their Fast and Fresent State " (the late J. R. Tudor), 

^*The Church of St. Magnus, in Orkney" (Sir Henry Dryden, Bart.), 1871. 

'''Sculptured Stones of Scotland," Spalding Club (John Stuart), 1856-67. 

"The Cathedral or Abbey Church of lona" (the Messrs. Buckler) ; illustratid ; 4to; 

with some account of the Early Celtic Church, and of the Mission of St. Columba, 


^'The Monks of lona " (J. S. Mac Corry), 1871. 

"Prehistoric Remains of Caithness " (S. Laing, laith notes by T H. Huxley), 1866. 
** Notices of Runic Inscriptions discovered in the Orkneys " (James Farrer), 1862. 
""Maeshowe," illustrations of Runic Literature, &c. (J. M. Mitchell), 1863. 

"Essay on the Age and Uses of the Brochs and Rude Stone Monuments of the Orkney 
Islands and the North of Scotland" (James Fergusson), 1877. 

*" Notes on the Structure, Distribution, and Contents of the Brochs, with special 
reference to the question of their Celtic or Norwegian Origin " — A Reply to 
Mr. James Fergusson' s Essay (Dr. Joseph Anderson) ; Froceedings of Scottish 
Society of Antiquaries, vol. xii., pp. 314-355. 

""The Scottish Brochs: their Age and their Destruction" (James W. Cursitor, 
P.8.A. (Scot.)), 1896. 

^'Celtic Antiquities of Orkney" (Lieut. F. W. L. Thomas, r.n.) — ** Archceologia," 
vol. 34, p. 98. 




DiftgTun Kap of Bovte, Bootttih Arobnologio*! Tonr, Boy«l Bocietj of Antiquaries 
of Ireland. 

[Tie Dolled linei ifiaw the Soi'le.] 



Wheic a Scottish Archieological Tour, chiefly among the Western 
Islands, was resolved upon by the Society, it was not so much with the 
intention of giving the members an opportunity of exploring a new 
chapter of archaeology, as with a view that they should investigate 
in the Hebrides what is admittedly a characteristic postscript to the 
history of Celtic Art, Archaeology and Ecclesiology. 

There may be a few antiquaries to whom the postscript has more 

interest than the original chapters, but Irish Archaeologists have often 

looked to the Western Highlands and Hebrides with longing as to 

pastures new in which they might expect to And peculiar developments 

of the arts of ancient Erinn, in which Celtic art may often be found 

to have been intensified, but in which during the progress of the ages 

its individuality naturally became absorbed and transformed by the 

changing fashions of the mediaeval epochs as well as by political and 

social environments. The subject was one upon which our late 

Vice-President Bishop Beeves delighted to hold converse, and to write 

about ; his researches representing Scoto-Celtic art and Ecclesiology 

were for reaching and very painstaking, and undertaken at a time when 

research was much more difficult than at present. His monograph 

respecting the shrine of St. Patrick's Bell and the details of its art-work 

is a classic on the subject, and the results of his explorations in lona, 

and visits to Tiree and Coll, Eildulton, Sanda, and elsewhere in the 

Hebrides (in preparation for his work of editing Adamiian's Life of 

St. Columba), have been given to this and similar Societies in Ireland 

and to various archaeological publications. It was therefore with great 

certainty as to what was in store for the members of this Society, and 

of the kindred associations who joined in this interesting tour, that this 

excursion was planned. * 

The following notes are compiled, not so much as a comprehensive 
guide, but as an aid to the study, in the very limited time at disposal on 
the spot, of the objects and places laid down in the itinerary. Certain 
books mentioned in the Bibliography given at page 144 may, with 
profit, be perused before starting ; but the grammaire de grammaire of 
Scoto-Celtic art will be found in the Khind Lectures in Ai^chaeology, 
1869 to 1872, by Dr. Joseph Anderson, referred to frequently in the 
following pages. 

Such an important undertaking as the present tour could not have 
been attempted if it had not been for the experience gained in the 
cruises around Ireland in tho ''Caloric," in the summers of 1895 and 


1897, which gave bo much satisfaction to the Etrcheolo^sta who took 
part in them ; nor wouljl the labour involved in planning and 
working out the details of such a trip for 1899 have been undertaken 
but for the solicitations of the leoding archeeologists of the United 
Kingdom, amongst whom Dr. Uunro, Honorary Secretary of the 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, may be named as one who from the 
first was most enthusiastic in liis support. In our former tiips in the 
"Caloric," the number was limited to eighty; but as a longer cruise 
was anticipated, it became desirable to get a larger vessel, ond after 
careful consideration of all the ships available and suitable, the splendid 
S.S. "Magic," the best offered, was chartered, and the number to be 

Thb Stiambhip "Mioic." 

taken was fixed at 130, which, while just sufficient to remunerate the 
Steamship Company, gave the largest party which could conveuiently 
be landed in the boats, or managed on shore. 

This extension of the numbers mude it possible to invite the members 
of the Cambrian Arcbteological Association to join, while at the same time 
enlarging the oichteological field, and enabling another Celtic nationality 
to take part in the proceedings. It is interesting to note that four out 
of the live Celtic national itii's are represented, and if any of our Sreton 
friends had been present the Celtic gathering would have been complete. 

The determination of a route bad engaged attention for the past twelve 
months, and the views of about o score of representative archteologists 


were obtained, which eventually resulted in the selection of the places now 
settled on. A very general wish was expressed to limit the period to eight 
days on sea, and at the same time to keep down the cost to that at which 
it has been fixed. This limit to the time has caused the daily programme 
for the first part of the voyage to be rather crowded, but with reasonable 
expedition the work set out can be accomplished. There will, however, 
be no time for dawdling. In the last half of the trip there will be much 
more time in which to carry out the programme, which can be done more 

In the preparation of the Guide there was no difiBculty in getting 
valuable material for the purpose. One of our members, Mr. J. J. 
Phillips, C.E., Architect, who in company with the He v. Dr. Buick, 
Vice-President, had spent a holiday in yachting around the Inner 
Hebrides, and had visited all the islands he has described, gives 
most interesting Papers on Sanda, Kildalton, Oronsay, Tiree, Coll, 
Canna, and Dunvegan. Mr. John Cooke, v. a., whose recent stay in 
lona has given him an intimate knowledge of the subject, contributes 
a description of the island and its antiquities, which is supplemented 
by Mr. P. J. O'lleilly, Fellow, who so graphically described and 
illustrated, in his lecture on the 1 2th April last, at a general meeting 
of the Society, the principal points of interest to be seen on the 
tour. To Dr. Joseph Anderson, Keeper of the National Museum, and 
Assistant Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, members are 
indebted for the communications on Callemish and Dun Carloway in 
Lewis, as also for the papers on Stennis and Macshowe, while the notice 
of the recent investigations of the Eeiss Brochs, by Sir Francis Tress 
Barry, Bart, m.p., is the more valuable on account of his having spent 
some time at Eeiss last summer, so that this contribution is the result of 
recent personal examination. The illustrations of Eeiss are from photo- 
graphs taken by Sir F. T. Barry, kindly furnished by Dr. Anderson. 

Mr. James W. Cursiter, f.s.a. (Scot.), of Eirkwall, an enthusiastic 
collector and able antiquary, furnishes interesting notes of Eirkwall 
and the locality, and in the course of a lengthened correspondence, 
writes to say that he will be delighted to sliow his collection to 
members on the occasion of their visit. It is a matter for congratulation 
that he has also kindly consented to act as ^' guide, philosopher, and 
friend" to the party while on Orkney Mainland. 

As regards the illustrations, which it is hoped will be found a 
pleasant feature of the Guide, thanks are due to the following — To 
Mr. J. J. Phillips for the series of sectional maps and photographs 
taken by him ; Rev. Dr. Buick for photographs : Dr. Anderson for 
obtaining from the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland permission to 
reproduce drawings of Maeshowe, illustrations of Eildalton Cross, and 
of Canna, Dunvegan, Bx>dill, and Stennis. To the well-known publisher, 
3£r. David Douglas, of Edinburgh, for the loan of blocks, illustrating the 


antiquitiea on Sande, Tiree, Coll, Flannan Isles, North Kona, Eileun 
Mor, and Oighn Island, from Muir's "Ecclesiological Notes on the 
Westcni Islands of Scotland," he has also courteously allowed the 
illiistratioDR for lona and Kiikirall Cathedral to be reproduced from the 
valuable work, hj Slessrs. MacGibbon and Ross on the " Ecclesiastical 
Architecture of Scotland," also published by him. 

The valuable assistance given freely by Dr. Joseph Andercon 
deserves grateful acknowledgment ; he has throughout evinced the 
greatest interest in the success of the expedition, and has contributed 
materially to the value of the present Guide Book. 

Mr. Seaton F. Milligan, Son. Prov. See. for Uhter, has been inde- 
fatigable in his exertions in carrying out the arrangements at Belfast 
in connexion with the Steamship Company, and, without his valuable 
assistance, it could not have been brought to so successful im issue. 

£t. Columba'i rillow.slone, lona Cathednl. (-^tb ■ 




TUESDAY, JUSK 20, 1899. 


The Island of Sanda, at the western entrance to the great estuary of 
the Clyde, lies about one and a half miles from the south-east end of the 
peninsula of Kin tyre (Cantire). Associated with it are several smaller 
islets and reefs, not very interesting. 

In the times of the Scandinavian irruptions, it had an importance 
as the station of the galleys of tlie Norsemen during the contests for the 
possession of Cantire and the Clyde islands. 

Sanda Island 

**— ♦— c 




Bishop Reeves* tells us ** the received name of the island is of Norse 
origin," but the Irish name is Abhuinn, of which Aven, as it is known 

* Vide an interesting memoir by the late Bishop Reeves in the Uhter Journal 
•f ArchcNtlogy, voL ii., p. 217. 



among the Highlanders, is merely a variety. Fordun, in the fifteenth 
century, calls it Insula Awyn ; and Dean Munro, at the close of the 
sixteenth, Avoyn ; while George Buchanan latinizes it Avona, which he 
interprets "portuosa," as if a deflexion of "haven." The sand-stone, 
of which Sanda is composed, is elevated to the north, the dip heing to 
the south. At its hilly end, it is ahout 300 feet high, while on 
some of the shores it is hroken into cliffs. A large natural arch in 
one of these cliffs forms a very picturesque 

The landing-place is at the pier, in a shingly 
bay on the north side of the island, from which 
an ascending path leads directly across to the 
Ship Ilock, a nigged peninsula, upon which is 
perched the lighthouse. 

The chief objects in Sanda of interest to the 
antiquary will be easily found near to the land- 
ing-place, and consist of the ruins of a chapel, 
dedicated to St. Ninian, on the north of which 
there is a massive cruciform standing-stone about 
7 feet in height, with a weather-woni boss on 
one face ; a few yards to the west of it is a simple 
erect slab, about the same height, having incised 
on its west face a Latin cross, with some Scoto- 
Celtic peculiarities. 

It is on record^ that *^ in the island of Sunda 
was found the aim of Saint Ultan, which, en- 
closed in a silver reliquary, was religiously 
presened in the early part of the seventeenth Cross, Sanda island. (From 
century by a descendant of the distinguished aSketch by Mr. Thomas J. 
race of MacDonnells." 

The buined GflimcH of St. Ninian measures externally 32 feet 
9 inches by 21 feet 3 inches ; the doorway on the north-west side is flat- 
headed, the jambs being plain chamfer-edged. The windows are flat 
lintelled, and irregularly placed as in plan ; the window in the eastern 
gable is not central, and there is nothing in the western gable to indicate 
that there had been a window at that end of the church, which must 
have been very ill-lighted and gloomy. On the south side of the liigli 
altar there is a small projecting piscina of circular form. When Muir 
visited it in June, 1866, he states that,' ** lying within the church 
are the bowl of a baptismal font, and a poor slab inscribed, ^ Macdonald, 
1682,' and pictured with a galley and sword." 

* The Pi-oceedings of tlie Royal Irish Academy, vol. viii., pp. 132, 136. 

* Muir's ''P^oclesiologicul Notes of the Scottish Islands," pp. 7, 267. 


There are Toriona accounts as to the dedication of this church ; 
icconliDg to the beat received account, it was originally dedicated to 

, Igland of Suida. 

St. Nintan; accordingto another account, it was dedicated to St. Columba; 
■nd in a third account' to St. Shenaghau, who is said to have come 


St. NiDian'i, Saada. S.-E. Window. 

^m Ireland, and to hare been left by Columba, in charge of Kil- 


of Cumbridge Cundea Socielj, p. BO. 


We are informed,' " tlie ftrat name in all tlie Scottish Calendar, and 
presumably the first bringer of Christianity to Scotland, was St. Ninian 
of Withorn, born 360 a.j>. ; his name also appears as Ringan and Binan. 

Ground Tlan, Church of St. KinUn, Sanda Iglui'i 

Ho is commemorated in twenty -five churches or chapels, extending from 
Ultima Thule to the MuU of Galloway." 

EiLD ALTON — Island or laur. 

Tho island of lelay, and particularly the south-eastern end of it, 
lying so near Ireland, was one of the favourite routes by which in the 
sixth and seventh centuries the colonizatian of Western Scotland and 
the Hebrides was accomplished. The whole district is strongly im- 
pressed with social and ecclesiastical features of the Celtic type. The 
language always hore the name of the colonists, and the Scottish 
Gaelic or "Erse" of the present day is only a modem modification 
of it. 

But the objects in Islay which chiefly iutcrcst Irish archeeologists are 
the stone monuments and carved stone ci'osses, the characteristics of 
which cau be best studied in Kildalton grave-yard as a preliminary to 
those of Oi-onsay, and lona, and elsewhere in the Hebrides. "The 

' Johnaou's " Place Names of Scotland," p. 92. 



Carved Stones of Islay " fonnR the subject of a very beautiful monograph 
by Mr. R. G. Graham ; it is a book which, for its illustrations and the 


'morp Bay 


Mull at 



Lnfrliat Mtim' 

accompanying text, should be carefully studied. The following short 
extracts will be of interest : — 

" The written history of Islay i» fragmentary, and the monuments of her past are 
no less so ; but for all that, they extend over a lengthened period, from the days of 
hill forts, and standing monoliths, until later times M'hen, in the great days of the 
Western Church, the island became covered with chapels, under whose protecting walls 
there are still to be seen many of the exquisite crosses and gravestones which form so 
peculiar and interesting a featnre of the Western Highlands. 

** There aze about a hundred examples of carved work in this island alone. Many of 
these are so much worn and defaced that only indications of their designs can be traced, 
but the remainder are of the greatest uiterest, some indeed being works of art in the 
fullest sense of the term. The stones belong to various periods. There are little 
CTD e scs rudely cut on undressed slabs of stone, and these are probably the most ancient. 
Then in the crosses of Kildalton and Eilnave, and iii the cross-bearing slab found at 
Doid Hhairi, now in the garden at Ardimersay, there are examples of a style which 
aeems to have been directly derived from Ireland ; but far the greater number belong 
to the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries, when the art assumed and 


retained its special Argyllshire character, the plaited work of the Irish monument» 
developing into the richly foliated scrolls, which form one. of the great heauties of 
the West Highland carving. 

** The Irish origin of the style is generally allowed. Prohably it was modified or 
altered to some extent during the period of the Norwegian occupation, but before the 
art attained its highest deyelopment, there seems to have come another influence which, 
accepting the beauty of the older patterns, avoided their angularities, and enriched 
rather than changed them. Whence this last influence came, if it did come, I do not 
know ; but, as many of the Argyllshire churches were built about the thirteenth century, 
it seems conceivable that stone carvers were brought from the south to work at them, 
and that some may have remained in the country employed in the sculpture of crosses 
and monumental slabs, for which there must have been a great demand, if we judge 
from those which, in spite of bad weather and worse neglect, still lie crumbling in the 
churchyards. . . . 

** One marked feature of the Islay stones is the number of crosses which they include. 
There are remains of no less than seventeen, of which a few are in excellent preserva* 
tion, though the majority are more or less broken. Many of these show exceptionally 
good work ; indeed more care seems generally to have been bestowed upon crosses than 
upon tombstones, and those of Islay are no exception to the rule. The iconoclastic 
spirit which followed the Reformation probably accounts for the rarity of crosses in the 
west, and for the mutilated condition in which they are commonly found. Stones 
which bear representations of the crucifixion are often found broken, while neighbour- 
ing monuments with subjects less calculated to arouse sectarian prejudice have escaped 
intact. . . . 

** Not only are there many chapels and graveyards to be found all over Islay, but, as 
may be seen from an Ordnance map, there are a great number of hill forts, and sites of 
foils, which can hardly now be traced. . . . 

*' Besides the hill forts there are remains of later fortifications, held at one time by 
the lords of the Isles. These consist of a castle on Island Finlaggan, another on a little 
island on Loch Gorm, and the castle of Duniveg at the south of the island. 

** The place-names of Islay throw little, if any, light on her history, except that the 
number of Scandinavian names points to the importance of the early Norwegian 

Landing at Ardmore, Kildalton is not far from it, and will be easily 
found as on the map. The ancient grave-yard contains many objects of 
great interest to the Irish Archaeologist, of which detailed lists and 
descriptions are given in Graham's "Carved Stones of Islay," to which 
we are indebted for the following abstracts : — 

^* Kildalton Church is eight or nine miles from Port Ellen, and stands between the 
road and the sea. It measures 56 J feet long by 20 feet wide, and the walls are 3 feet 
thick. The masonry is peculiar, the side walls being composed of about ten courses of 
rudely shaped stones, with smaller ones between. There are doors both on the north 
and south side, and each door is provided with a long bolt-hole. There are two pointed 
windows in the east, and one small window high up in the west gable. There are also 
two windows in the north and south walls at the east end of the building. 

** All the windows are round-headed, with the exception of those in the east wall. 
The doors and windows were originally faced with white sandstone. On the north 
and south walls, just to the west of the chancel windows, there are holes both on the 
ground level, and at seven feet up, which look as if they had been connected with a 
rood or chancel screen at some time. Traces of plaster are to be seen on all the 


Tkis Great Czoaa of Kildaltov. — This cross stands 9 feet liigh, and 
is a monolith. It now stands erect on the spot it formerly occupied, 
with the same stone as basement, though part of it is hidden by the new 
steps, by being built into the foundation, in the hope of making it more 
flecure. Dr. Joseph Anderson thus describes this beautiful object ' : — 

• • • ■ • 

*'The fine cross at Kildalton, Islay, is one of two examples of the type with the 
encircling glory now remaining erect in Scotland, the other being St. Martin's Cross at 
lona. This type is a common one on the cross-slabs of Pictland, and the high crosses 
of Ireland mostly show the same form. In its ornamentation, however, the Kildalton 
Cross is much more distinctly related to the Scottish group of crosses than to the Irish 
group. In the general scheme of decoration on the Iiish high crosses the Crucifixion is the 
central subject on the face, and Christ in glory on the other, the spaces on the arms, 
shaft, and summit, being filled in with scenes from Scripture. It is characteristic of 
the Scottish crosses of dates prior to the twelfth century, however, that the represen- 
tation of the Crucifixion rarely occurs, and the scheme of decoration is usually more 
largely composed of panels of ornament, than of panels filled with figure subjects. 

" On the Kildalton Cross the obverse alone presents figure-subjects. These are 
placed in the four arms of the cross, almost equidistant from the centre. Taking them 
in their urder from the top downwards, there are first two angels side by side, and 
below them David rending the jaws of the lion, with a sheep (to indicate the fioek) in 
the background. The same subject occurs on the cross at Kells, and on that at Kil- 
cullen, in both cases with a sheep in the background. Underneath again are two birds 
facing each other, and feeding from the same bunch of grapes— a very common emblem 
of early Christian times, though of rare occurrence in Britain. The subjects in the 
two panels at the extremities of the arms of the cross are more obscure, but that on the 
right maybe the sacrifice of Isaac by Abraham. There is an altar placed between the 
two figures. The smaller figure is in the act of placing something (the wood) on the 
altar. The larger figure holds a knife or sword in the right hand, while with the left 
he grasps the youthful figure by the hair, ns in act to slay him. The group in the 
upper part of the shaft — the virgin and child, with two angels shadowing the central 
figure with one wing each, while the other wing droops by the side — is not open to 
doubt. The angels are cluthed like those in the summit of the cross, and the Virgin 
seated and crowned. 

** But the ornamentation of the cross, which is carried out with an intensity of 
elaboration and refinement thoroughly characteristic of Celtic work, is not less interest- 
ing than its symbolism. The scheme of decoration is on both faces similar. A rope- 
vork border is carried along the outlines of the cross, and the central space is filled by 
a circular moulding of the same kind, which just touches the inward curves at the 
intenections of the shaft, arms and summit, and is, of course, concentric with the 
larger circle of the 'glory* which binds all together. The whole surface is then 
divided into fifteen panels, each filled with a complete design. On the obverse, six of 
tl.ese are filled with symbolic figure subjects, and nine witb patterns of ornament. 
The central circle has a boss in the middle of the space, projecting fully 3} inches. 
This boss is formed of interlacements of the legs and bodies of four lacertine creatures, 
whose heads project at the four comers. Bound the boss on the flat is an interlacement 
of two strands, with a figure-of-eight knot. Next to the central circle are three panels 
or spaces, two in the arms and one in the shaft, filled up with patterns made up of 
bosses formed of the interknitted bodies of serpents, the anterior portion of their bodies 
escaping and curving away on the flat to form the borders and divisions of the patterns. 

* " Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland," vol. v., New Series, 
Uarch 12, 1883. 

JOUR. B.8.A.I., VOL. IX., PT. II., OTH 8ER. N 


" nnderaeath the group of Ihe Virgin and child i> n long panel on the shaft, filled 
viib a beautiful and moat elaborate puttern, Bjrmmetiically formed of fire group* of 
triple ipirals, the memben of irhicli escape and re-enler, while the flat ipacea betveea 
the principal meiuben are filled wiih n diaper uf escaping spirali derived fiOM theae. 

u bicb run into boiect, wind up to Ihcir ironiies, and again eBl^ape to run ofF on t]ie flat 
and form other hosjcs, so [hat the whole of the sculpture is built up on a kind of 
uiuthi-matical iilon, and evcty detuil is depi-iident upon and connected witli all tlie i-ei>t 


in ( lyiUm of (pin] eurT««. The cUbontl* mgcauitj of thi( >p«eiei of deooration ii 
mI; UBdentood afler in attempt hu been made to recoDitruct iti deUils od the flat by 
the uulogy of siiDikr piltarni, which maj- be itudied in the illuBUoated Book ot 
Undiihme, ai ihowa ia the Palieograpbicn] Bucietj's facaimilei. 

"Tuiniiig no* to the reverie, the tvi-o lowtr painU on the bhuft are treated a 
<J«ign ijoimetricallj- afrjioged in two p.irts, the une of «hi<;h icpcuts anil bul.iiiiN 
oOier, but riih tome vaiiutious in the and in the dutaiU. Euoh 


consists of a pattern made by four larger and four smaller bosses arranged round*a 
central boss, with a triplet of still smaller bosses in each of the spaces between the 
larger ones. Two of the four larger bosses in each case haye an open concavity at the 
top, in the centre of which is a little boss, or prominence. All the larger bosses are 
constructed of the interknotted posterior portions of the bodies of serpents, the anterior 
portions of which e8cai)e from the bottom of the boss and curve away on the flat to form 
the interlacing border lines that enclose and complete the design. The wasting of the 
stone makes it uncertain whether the smaller bosses are not also made up of interlacing 
serpents, but there is no doubt that this is the theory of the design, and the Celtic 
sculptor never shrank from a detail which was clearly involved in the construction of 
his design. The upper panel on the lower part of the shaft is filled with a design com- 
posed of bosses, formed by a series of escaping spirals proceeding from a central boes, 
having a hollow in the top with a triplet of small bosses in its interior. In this case' 
again, every detail of the design is connected with all the others, the spirals which form 
the diaper over the flat surface rising to the top of ettch of the bosses and running the 
reverse way, to escape again at the bottom and curve along to form another boss. 
Eound the circle enclosing the great central boss are four lions, carved in very^high 
relief, the two in the arms facing each other, but the two in the shaft and summit 
both facing upwards. The heads of all the four are gone, the tails of the two in the 
arms have (he conventional wave over the back, while those of the two in the shaft 
and summit sweep down on the flat and curve away to mingle with the serpentine 
interlacements there. The four large bosses, viz. the great central boss and the three 
in the extremities of the arms and summit, are formed in the same way as the others, 
of the bodies of serpents interlaced or knitted up, the heads and anterior portions 
escaping to form interlacements on the flut. Four lacertine animals with heads turned 
backwards, biting their own tails, ai*e added to complete the design in the summit of 
the cross. The ring or * glory * uniting the shaft, arms, and summit, which is less 
weatherworn on this side, shoAS alternating patterns of interlaced work and fretwork 
in the four quadrants." 





These Islands lie about ten miles west from Jura, and about nine miles 
due north of Islaj (see General Chart of Itinerary). The collectiye 
length of the two islands is about twelve miles, of which Colonsay is 
about nine and a half miles ; and the fertile island of Oronsay lies as 
a pendant to the south of it. The narrow strait by which they are 
separated becomes dry at low water. 

The geographical connexion of these two islands is thus very intimate, 
and their geological structure is identical ; they form, in fact, but two 
parts of one chain of hills, the highest of which does not exceed 
300 feet. The predominant rock is micaceous schist, generally attended 
with numerous and conspicuous contortions, and often presenting a 
smooth and glassy surface. 

Among the sandhills on the south-eastern shore of Oronsay there are 
several shell-mounds of the period of the Early Stone Age. These, 
especially the largest of them, known locally as Caistcal-nan-Gillean, 
opposite to the islet of Ghurd-mail, when explored by Mr. Symington 
Grieve and Mr. "W. Galloway (1881-84), were found to contain a series 
of implements of bone and stone (including flat harpoons with barbs on 
both sides) analogous to those from the Oban Caves, and closely corre- 
sponding with those from the intermediate layers in the Cavern of Mas 
d'Azil in France, which M. Piette attributes to the transition between 
the Falseolithic and the Neolithic. At Oronsay these implements 
were associated with the remains of common indigenous shell-fish 
and fishes, and with bones of the still existing red deer, wild boar, 
grey seal, common seal, otter, and marten, also remains of wildfowl, 
including the wild swan, guillemot, razor-bill, and the now extinct 
great auk, or garefowl. (Se.e Symington Grievc's monograph on the 
great auk or garefowl, London, 1885, pages 47-61 ; and a paper by 
Dr. Joseph Anderson in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries 
of Scotland, vol. xxxii., page 306, '^ On the contents of a small Cave 


or Rock Shelter at Druimvargie, Oban, and of three Shell-mounda in 

The party will land in boats in the sandy bay, Port-nan-Each, at the 
eastern side of Oronsay ; and the remains of the priory, with its two 
fine crosses and monumental sculptured slabs, will be reached by a 
pleasant walk of about fifteen minutes over the sandy green sward. This 
priory nestles at the foot of the southern slope of Ben Gran, the highest 

tirpmt m ctnehaidk 


"/Han €ttn ^ 

hill on the islan d(306 feet high). Erom this hill magnificent views can 
be obtained, the chief feature being the Paps of Jura, with Islay to the 
south, and in favourable weather the Donegal mountains on the horizon 
to the south-west. 

In ** Adamnan," Colonsay is called "Colosus"; there are various 
suggestions as to the derivation of the name, but the best authorities 
consider that the derivation is Columba's or Colum's Isle ; in the tenth- 
century Norse, Columba being' called '* Koln," with the Norse ending 


" ay *' for isle ; similarly we find Orans-Ay, Oran's Isle. The conjunction 
of the names of these two famous Celtic saints was but natural. Oran 
or St. Odhran was the Irish friend of St. Columba (died 548). 
Traditions narrate that St. Columba and his fellow-voyager, St. Oran, 
landed on Oronsay aftor leaving Erin, but finding that the latter country 
could be still seen from the highest point of the island (Ben Oran), they 
forsook it, and sailed north to lona. The ancient name of this hill was 
"Camcul-ri-Eirinn," or, "the place where he turned his back toward 

I^ear Ben Oran, on an adjoining hill or rock, is an old fortress, 
Bun Domhnuill, on the top of which there are stone circles, which are 
probably the vestiges of stone bee-hive houses of very early times. 

There are numerous remains of churches which once existed in these 
islands ; the vestiges of nine ancient churches, and the sites of three 
more (ten in Colonsay, and two in Oronsay) being still traceable. 
According to the records, the most important was the monastery of 
Eiloran in Colonsay, of which no remains now exist ; but there is to be 
seen on the site, a fine cross, 5 feet 4 inches high; the summit of 
the stone is carved into the representation of a man's head (figured in 
Dr. Anderson's work, ** Scotland in early Christian Times,*' p. 121). At 
Xilchattan there are slight remains of a chapel, a burying ground, and 
two standing-stones, called '* Carraghean." There are several duns or 
forts in Colonsay, strongly fortified, in view of each other, and of 

The Pbiout of Oronsat, which is the principal object of our visit, 
contains many objects of great interest to the archaeologist. This 
Priory of Canons Ecgular of St. Augustine appears to have been 
founded as a cell of the Abbey of Holyrood, Edinburgh, in the fourteenth 
century, by John of I si a, the son of Angus Oig, and chief of the clan 
Donald, who, through his wife, became possessed of many of the western 
islands, and, uniting her possessions to his own, assumed the title of 
Lord of the Isles. It must in its prime have been a very influential 
monastic establishment, as there are unmistakable evidences that the 
original priory included the site of the manor house, and the extensive 
farm buildings. It falls to the lot of few abbeys to have been 
so carefully conserved by modem owners as the Priory of Oronsay. 
F. C. E. McNeill, Esq., is the author of a very interesting monograph, 
entitled, ** Oronsay and its Monastery, lona's Rival,*' which is well 
worthy of perusal, as is also the description of the priory buildings given 
in vol. iii., MacGibbon and Iloss's ** Ecclesiastical Architecture of 
Scotland," from which we make the following extract : — 

Obonsat Pkiory. 

''The general airangexnent of the buildings is peculiar. The ground slopes 
lapidly from north to south, necessarily carrying the drainage with it ; yet, contrary 


to the UBital cuBlam, tlie cloutors aod residential bulldinge vere placed to the north of 
the church. EicluuTe of the projectiou at the □orth-east and aouth-weit angles, and 
a mortuary chapel on the south, the structure! occupy a paraUelogram about 87 feet 
from north to louth, by So ieet (rom erut to west. The latter length is also that of the 
chuich proper, which occupies the south side of the square, but has at t}ie west end a 
narthex about IS feet square iatemally, which projects heyond the general range oE 
the buildings. The walls of the nartbei are now level with those of the church, hut 
as there are roughly hewn corbel stonee for carrying a floor orerheod, it is probable 
this is only the lower stage of a belUtower, of which the upper part has been long 
since demolished. The greater thickness of the walls, and two sadly injured freeetona 
buttresses on its south face, favour this idea. Entrance is obtained bj a doorway 
Mdlh a phiin pointed freestone arch, having a hood moulding dose to the westmoet 

•ORONSAy Friorv- 

I b^r 

buttress. The church is, internally, nearly 18 feet in width ; and at the right hand, 
on entering, (here remains the solid foundation of a stone stair leading to a tribune or 
organ -gallery, recesses for the ends of massive beams to carry it being slill viaible, 
together with rough rubble corbelling on either sidd. 

" On the leftis a narrow doorway, neatly formed with thin schist stones, leading 
to the cloisters. Internally, the church is entirely devoid of architectural decoration ; 
but an eiteosive range of stalls, of which traces still east, and other wood-work, 
including an open roof, must have redeemed an otberivisa bald interior, into which 
very little light can hare been admitted. The principal source of light was a 5 feet 
wide window at the east end, divided by mullions, into'.three Unciform light*, the 
pointed arch-beadsof which run up to the main arch. The other gable is modem, uid 


tonna the entrance poroli to what maj have formerly been the chapter-hoiua, but 
which has been appropriated in recent timoB SI a hutial-place by the proprielor of the 
island. Apart from thii there were only three windows in the naya, two very mutll, 
and anothei rather longer with a cuaped head, all formed in freeatona, and on the 
exti-eme east end of the south wall neat the altar, a square-headed window with slab 
lintel and sill. Between theie windowi a plain schist doorway gives access to the 
mortoary chapel of the M'Duffies or M'Ftea, which is about 25 feel long by 12 feet 
wide orer the walla. These are unbonded into the south wall of the church, and 
were corered with a plain lean-Co roof, in which there was evidently a piieat'a 
apartment. The chapel ia lit from the south by two small windows, and in a receas 
on the north tide is the burial-place of Abbot M'DufBe, covered with a carved slab, 

Urunsay I'riorj'. Jjjgt window and gable. 

representing the abbot fully vested, with his right hand raised in benedictioo, and a 
paatoral staff in bis left. Pennant says : — ' In the same place ia a atone enriched 
with foliage, a stag surrounded with dogs, and ship with full sail ; round which is 
inscribed, " Hie jacet Murchardus MacduGe de CoUonsa, a.d. Ifi39, Mense Hart On 
me ille, Ammeu." '' Beyond this chapel, at the south-east angle oE the church i* a 
aingulnrly massive buttress, at the bottom of whjuh, on the level of the floor, and 
accessible by a narrow opening from tbe interior of the church, ia a curious ambry, 
about 3 feet cube, strongly liotelled overhead, and designed, no doubt, forthesafa 
keeping of the church treasure, but is now desecrated as a * bone-hole.' The altar 
stili remains built of freestone, evidently re-used from some previoua building. 

' I'ennaot, vol. ii., p. 271. 


" On Uie north side of the clinTicel tlie armngement ia Tery peculiar, an opening 
about 8 feet *ide, irilh & plain poinfed freeatono nrch resting on ichist impost cap«, 
givei acoeu to a kind of tmnre or pagsage, having an ambry at the g;n)iind level on 
the left, and a blocked up mndonronthe right. It ia formed between the north vail of 
the church and the aouth end of the chapler-house, which is gabled independently of 
the chutcb. Its only apparent use may have be^n as a sacrisly. It is loofed in by 
large Sat atones, with a rapid slope to th« east. The east range of buildings is pretty 
oomplets, except on the north, where the gable fell some years ago. On the ground 
flooralargeapartment, 19 feet 6 inches long, by 15 feet 4 inihes vide, witha doorway 
mtering on the east cloister-walk, was no doubt the cbapter-house. 

"Tlie range o( domestic buildings on the north has been sadly ruined, tbishaTisg 
been Ibe point where entry was obtained in recent times, for the removal of materials. 

Uron^ay I'riory. Vjcw lu ulolaler. from a pliotogniph by Kev. Dr. Ituick. 

and thus of the north and south walls only fngments remain. A maasiTe wall, stQl 
hai^ily inlBCl, Fncloaea the cloistrr on the weat. The internal area is rather over il 
feet square, with cluister- walks about 7 feet broad, and the arcading presenta soma 
very singular (ealurea. 

" CUnilfr. — The south arcade, vhicb is evidently the moat ancient, is composed of 
five low narrow arches with circular henda, very neatly turned with thin schist alaba, 
without any freestone or architectural dressing of any kind. The other three airadea 
▼ere evidently part of a later restoration, and (he peculiar form in vhieh they were 
constructed is evidenlty due to the nature of the materials employed, vi^. schist 
alabs of the same quality as that used for the sculptured slaba. 

" The north range of the buildings, irliich do duubi contained the refectory and 


dormitories, has been too much dilapidated to admit of any intelligible description. 
In a line with it, howerer, and extending eastward beyond the priory square (s^e plan), 
there is a small chapel of very early character, built entirely in rubUe, without any 
freestone dressings. It is 17 feet OTor the walls, and 33 feet in breadth ; but 
for no apparent reason the west gable is slewed round to the south, making an 
inequality of 2 feet in the length of the sides. There has been a wide window in the 
east gable, but owing to the demolition of the wall its character cannot be judged. 
There are two small windows in the north side and one in the south, mere slits with 
no proTisions for frames or glazing. There is an entrance doorway on the south side 
at the west end, and a priest's door at the east. On the north side there is a very 
small door, nearly opposite that of the entrance on the south. 

'* The foundations of the altar still remain, and a line of stones still indicates the 
position of the chancel rail. The base of the pulpit remains on the north side, and at 
the west end there has been a tribune or organ gallery, which has been acceB^ible by 
a door in the east gable of the priory buildings. In this gable, on the ground floor, 
an archway has been formed 6 feet 8 inches in width, with a plain pointed rubble 
arch, which seems to have been subsequently filled in, and a square-headed doorway 
of much smaller size substituted. 

*' Immediately to the north of this chapel, and separated from it by an 8 foot wide 
passage, is a most interesting example of a monastic bam and byre, 39 feet in length, 
by 22 feet in breadth. It is an excellent specimen of rubble building, with freestone 
dressings in the windows, &o., in the same style as the church, and may be coeval 
with the later restoration. The windows are small, and on the north side close to the 
ground are openings for the discharge of refuse from the byre. In the south-east 
angle a small chamber has been formed for the herd, with a little eyelet and ambry, and 
it would no doubt be cut off by partitioning from the other occupants. At the south- 
west angle there is a small door opening inwards, and some indications that a chamber 
had been formed between the building itself and the north wall of the priory. At 
the south wall head (internally) there has been inserted a 4 or 5 foot long schist slab, 
with a quaint human head carred in the centre. 

** It serves no purpose where it is, and must evidently have been a relic of some older 
structure. There can be no doubt there was a doorway to the west, but, if so, the 
present entrance shows no traces of it. The building is still roofed, and in use.^' 

In Mr. McNeill's monograph of Oronsay Priory, reference is made on 
page 23 to a curious chamber in the south-east corner of the chancel, and 
adjacent to the altar ; this chamber is entered by an opening in the 
wall, 18 inches wide, the interior space of 3 feet square being obtained 
in the thickness of a buttress, evidently erected for the purpose.^ This, 
though primitive in its construction, is a good example of an ancient 
Sacrament house, ambry, or tabernacle, in which the sacred vessels of 
the church were appointed to be kept. Keference is made to the article 
on Scottish Sacrament Houses, which appeared in Proc. Soc. Antiquaries 
of Scotland, 1890 to 1891, by A. Macpherson, f.s.a. (Scot.). It has been 
suggested, however, that possibly this chamber may have been the cell 
of an anchoret. 

* See page 165, ante (last paragraph). 


The C&osses, etc. 

Cross No 1. — In the graveyard close to the south-west angle of the 
narthex, stands the Great Oronsay Cross. We present illustrations 
of the east and west faces. It is a monolith, 1 2 feet 2 inches high, by 1 foot 
6 inches wide, and 4^ to 5 inches thick, and is socketted into a thick 
slab, about 3 feet 3 inches square, which rests on a pedestal of masonry 
nearly 4 feet high. 

On the west face of the cross is a crucifix, sculptured in high relief, 
with a back ground of irregular interlacing ornament. 

The Irish archaeologists of the party, accustomed to the pure type of 
interlacing work, spirals, and fretwork, and other distinct characteristics 
of Celtic detail in the crosses of the mother country and elsewhere, will 
be puzzled by the strange foliageous scrollwork which is the proTailing 
characteristic of the decoration of both sides of this celebrated Oronsay 
cross. It will also be noticed that the arms and summit of the cross 
protrude from a solid circle at the top of the shaft, that there are no 
recesses at the intersections, nor is the disc or circle pierced, and that in 
fact, both in outline and in ornamentation, the cross, '^ perhaps the best 
specimen of its type," is a very degenerate rendering of the Opus 
Hibernicum. "We are informed by Dr. Joseph Anderson^ that ** this 
ornamentation is Celtic only in the secondary sense of its being an 
adaptation of a local survival of Romanesque forms, which were 
imported from the Continent, and passed over to the western Highlands, 
and flourished in complete isolation there for centuries after the native 
sculpture of the eastern area had given place to the current forms of 
European art. The pure Celtic art of Scotland is that of the eastern 
area, which retains the forms and preserves the spirit of the primary 
school, which worked out its designs with such wonderful skill and 
patient elaboration on the pages of the Gospels and Psalters, and 
transferred them subsequently to the metal-work and stone-work of the 
period intervening between the age of the best manuscripts and the 
twelfth century." 

This cross is supposed to have been erected to the memory of Colin, 
a prior, who died in 1510; as it bears the inscription, Mae eit Crux 
Colini Filii Cristi, On the socket- stone there is a much- worn inscrip- 
tion which it is impossible to decipher. 

Ckoss No 2. — Standing in a pile of masonry at the north-east of the 
priory buildings is the low^er stone of the shaft of another cross, 3 feet 
3 inches high, one of its faces worn smooth, the other covered with 
intertwining scrollwork of stems, terminating in broad-leaved foliage. 
This stone is surmounted by a disc which did not belong to it originally, 
judging from the character of its sculpturing (we are informed that 

^ <* Scotland in Early Christian Times," Second Series, p. 130. 


tome years ago it lay in the gruTuyanl). The disc or head of the croM 
lias a rewss or cusped niuhe sunk iu one of its faces, vitbia which i« 

From a Phulograi.h by Kev. Dr. Buitk. 
*i:iilp'ured in bas-rulict the figure of an oeelesiustic curiously robed. 


Iq Mr. McNeill's monograph of Oronsay Priory will be found an 
interesting account of many of the beautiful tomb-stonea and inonuments 

TombatoDeB, Oronaay Priory. From ti photograph by Rcr. Dr. Buicb. 

80 carefully priscrrcd in the priory. The above illustration ehowB a 
few of thoae tomb-stonos placed on end against a wall, prominent 
amongst which is one recently found, on the head of which is carTcd 


a galley with reefed sail, and Borrounded by emblems of an artificer 
— hammer, anvil, and rule. It probably marked the last resting-place 
of the craftsman who was engaged in the erection of this priory. 


lona lies west of Mull, from which it is separated by the troubled waters 
of lona Sound, between one and two miles wide. It is somewhat barren, 
and no trees grow on its wind-swept surface. It is S^ miles long by 
H miles broad, and contains an area of about 2000 acres. The present 
name may probably be derived from a Latin adjective I-aua (quali- 
fying insula) which Adamnan usually calls it, due to an error of tran- 
scription for lova. Its original name was /or iZy ; it subsequently became 
known as leolmkill, the island of St. Columba of the Church. The little 
inlet where he and his companions first landed is known as Port-na' 
Curraeh. The low hill above it is called Cam-ctd-ri-Erin^ the calm of 
farewell to Erin, for from its summit no trace of Ireland lies upon the 
distant horizon. 

Of the buildings of St. Columba's time there are now no remains. 
The interesting ruins in lona are of medisBval foundation ; and their 
present well-preserved condition attests the care bestowed upon them 
by the Duke of Argyll, whose family have held possession of the 
island since the close of the seventeenth century. Their recent restora- 
tion was carried out under the careful direction of Dr. Bowand 
Anderson, of Edinburgh. 

The monastic history of lona divides itself into two epochs — the 
Columban, or primitive, or Irish era, and the Benedictine or mediaeval 
one. Founded by Columb in the middle of the sixth century, the 
monastery of lona remained for almost seven hundred years an Irish 
settlement governed by a line of Columban abbots, the first twenty of 
whom were coarbs of Columb- cille and wielded jurisdiction from lona 
over the Columban monasteries of Ireland ; while the remainder of them 
were subject to Columb' s successors governing their order from Eells or 
Derry. The latter arrangement was due to attacks made on lona 
by ^orse sea-rovers who despoiled it for the first time in 795, and again 
raided it in a.d. 802. In 806 the community, already reduced to 86 in 
number by these incursions, were exterminated by the Norsemen ; and 
the Abbot Cellach, who governed the order from a.d. 802 to a.d. 815, 
and was the twentieth successor of St. Columb, fled to Ireland, and, 
establishing himself at Eells, made the latter the head-house of his 
order. The l^orse attacks continued ; and in a.d. 850 Eenneth MacAlpin, 

fOVVL. B.6.A.I., VOL. IX., FT. 11., 5tH SBn. 


the first king o! the united Picts and Scots, removed portion of the 
relics of Columb-cille from lona to Dunkeld ; the latter was erected as 
the mother-church of the Columban order throughout Scotland, and 
lona ceased to be the seat of the primacy of Colamb-cille. It has been 
suggested that the Columban abbacy ended with Duncan MacMaenagh, 
whose death is recorded in the Iiish annals at a.d. 1099, and that a 
priory of Culdees, or anchorites, succeeded the Columban abbey, because 
from the date of Mac Maenagh's death the Irish annals are silent as 
regards lona for fifty years. The entry in the ''Annals of Ulster" at a.d. 
1154, quoted by Dr. Skene in support of this opinion, which relates how 
** The Chiefs of the Family of la; Augustine the Sagart Mor; Duibhsidhe, 
the lector ; MacGilladuibh the Disertach ; and MacForcelaigh the Head 
of the Culdees," went to Derry to endeavour to induce Flaherty 
O^Brolchain to take the abbacy of lona, seems to me to afford complete 
proof that the Columban monastery existed on lona contemporaneously 
with the later Culdean community in the first half of the twelfth 

Numerous references to lona occur in Irish annals relating to this 
Columban period of its history, but these references cease suddenly with 
two entries recording events which happened in the year a.d. 1203. The 
first of these records the death of Domhnall O'Brolchan, ** prior et 
excelsus senior," who, as Dr. Reeves believed, was Prior of Derry and 
probably also held the Priory of lona ; and the last, and closing, entiy 
states that " a monastery was erected by Cellach without any legal right, 
and in despite of the Family of Hy, in the middle of Cro Hy " ; and 
relates how many of the Family of Derry and the clergy of the north of 
Ireland passed over into Hy, and **in accordance with the laws of the 
Church," " pulled down the aforesaid monastery." 

** This passage," says Dr. Reeves, **is the parting mention of lona 
in the Irish annals, and as it closes a long line of notices running through 
seven centuries, it leaves the island as it found it, in the hands of Irish 
ecclesiastics and an important outpost of the Irish Church." 

Since Dr. Reeves wrote thus, documents discovered in the archives of 
the Vatican have shown that the Irish annals were subsequently silent 
as regards lona, because Reginald, Lord of the Southern Isles (who died 
in 1207) had founded on it a nunnery for " black " or Benedictine nuns, 
and a monastery for ''black" or Benedictine monks, and that the 
Benedictine monastery had supplanted the old Columban one. In a naval 
battle, fought in 1164, Somerled, King of Argyle, had wrested lona and 
the remainder of the southern Hebrides from Godred, the !Xorse King of 
the Isles. This Somerled it was who had advised the community of 
I to endeavour to induce the energetic Flaherty O'Brolchain, Abbot, 
and subsequently Bishop, of Derry to accept the Abbacy of I ; and it was 
his son and successor, Reginald, who introduced monks of that branch of 
the Benedictine order, whose head-house at Tyron in the dioceee of 


•Chartres had been founded in 1109 by Bernard, Abbot of St. Cyprian, to 

A Papal letter, dated December 12th, 1203, and addressed to 
** Celestinus, Abbot of the Monastery of St. Columba of Hy," recites 
that a monastery had been erected on lona " according to God and the 
rule of St. Benedict." This identifies the Cellach of the Irish annals who 
clearly is identical with the Celestinus of the Roman document. Not- 
withstanding that Cellach's church in Gleann-na-Teampull in the middle 
of Cro Hy was so ruthlessly pulled down by the irate TJlstermen, the Bene- 
dictines made their foothold good ; lona passed into their hands, their 
monastery flourished on the ruins of the Culumban foundation, and it 
is chiefly the wreck and remnant of it which to-day remains. 


I Through all the vicissitudes of its existence the site of the monastery 
of lona, and the area over which most of its dependent chapels were 
distributed, seem to have remained the same — a gently -sloping plain 
(little more than half a mile in length from north to south, by quarter to 
half a mile in width from east to west) descending to the sea about mid- 
way on the island's eastern shore from the rocky ridge which forms 
its backbone. The names of two of the small coves which indent the 
ooast of this portion of lona bear witness to the neighbourhood of the 
adjoining monastery. 

Port-a-Mkuilinn is so called because the stream which turned the 
monastery's mill discharges itself into it ; while the name of Part-na- 
Ifuinnterj the Harbour of the Family or Community, showed that it was 
the landing-place usually used in olden times by those who occupied the 

Save for the boats which still bear to lona many of the Highland 
dead upon their journey to their last resting-place, aud which invariably 
discharge their burden at Port-na-Mairiear, the Harbour of the Martyrs, 
the present landing-place is usually the little pier, half rock, half masonry, 
which juts into the water at Port Itonan. This cove is opposite the 
southern end of Threld, the only village on the island : a single line of 
houses, mostly poor and small and thatched, and the best of which 
accommodates a general shop and the post office. 

At the noi-them end of this small village, called by the islanders 
** The Street," the site, but the site only, of Adamnan's Cross is pointed 
out. Here at Port Eonan visitors are usually lauded, and from hsre they 
usually begin their examination of the ruins of the island by following 
the roadway which ascends the slope westward from the pier to the 



The Nunnery. 

This Nunnery was that founded for ''black " or Benedictine nuns by 
Reginald, whose sister, Beatrix, was its first abbess ; and which is 
mentioned in the Papal Letter of a.d. 1203. 

A more ancient nunnery, which probably was connected with the 
Columban monastery of lona, is said to have existed on the little island 
called Eilean^na-mhan, the Island of the Women, which lies in the 
Sound, close to the shore of Mull, and nearly opposite the abbey church 
of lona, and on which, some years since, there were traces of a building 
called by the country people ** The Nunnery." 

The Nunnery, lona. Ground-plan. 

The ruins of the Nunnery of lona consist of the foundations of a 
cloister about 68 feet square, which is bounded on the north by the 
convent church, on the east by the lower portion of the walls of the 
chapter-house, the stone seat of which remains, and by those of other 
offices; and on the south by the foundations of what once was the 


refectory. An upper story, io Thicb t)ie dormitories were probably 
situated, existed above tbe cbapter-bouse and other offices vbich formed 
the lower portion of tbe clointer's eaatcm side ; but no vestige of any 
bailding exists upon tbe western one. 

Tbe cburcb, now greatly mined, is described by the old Statistical 
Account of 1765 as being then quite entire, one end of it arched, and 
Tery beautiful. An oblong structure, about 58 feet long by 20 wide, it 
was divided into nave and choir, and upon its northern sido there 
was an aisle extending almost the full length of the church. To 
this aisle three round-headed arches in the north wall of tbe church 
gave access. 

The Nunnery, lona. View from North-Vest. 

The choir, which was vaulted, and was about 20 feet in length, 
occupied the east end of the nave. Its floor was raised about 2 feet 
above that of the latter, and it was lighted by two pointed windows 
which were separated only by a narrow pier. A doorway in the north 
wall of this clkoir gives access to a small vaulted sacristy or chapel, 
occupying the cast end of the aisle; and abovo this sacristy is a small 
apartment lighted by a little pointed window in its northern wall, and 
approached by a staircase constructed in tbe thickness of tbe same. Tbe 
aisle was probably at one time further divided into two chapels by 
a wall carried across it to the easternmost of tbe two central columns 
supporting the arches in the north wait of the church. A tall, round- 
headed, inward- splayed window in tbe west wall ; another smaller 
window of the same type above it j two otiicrs in the clerestory of the 


northern wall ; and, probably, two more in the south wall, lighted the 
nave. A peculiarity of this church is that the clerestory windows are 
placed above the columns, not above the arches which the latter bear. 
The vaulted choir and the sacristy adjoining it are believed to date from 
the commencement of the thirteenth century when the nunnery was 
founded ; the nave, aisle, and the apartment above the sacristy, though 
believed to be of somewhat later date, are probably not much less 

This medisBval Nunnery flourished for almost four centuries. Its last 
abbess, Anna, died in a.d. 1543. A memorial of her exists here in a fine 
monumental slab on which she is depicted, with hands folded on her 
breast, her head resting on a cushion supported by two angels, above 
whom are the towers of a castle and a comb and miiTor ; the latter, 
which are common on the tombs of mediaeval Scottish nuns, being 
emblems of the fact that women who forsook the world for the cloister, 
left the little vanities of the toilet behind. "Hicjacet Domina Anna 
Donald! Terleti filia quondam Priorissa de lona que obiit anno mdxliii.," 
is the inscription on this monument. The figure of the prioress occupies 
but a portion of the slab, about one-fourth of which was broken off by 
the fall of part of the stone vault of thin flags which roofed the choir. 
At the feet of the figure of the prioress, a panel bearing the inscription,. 
** Sancta Maria ora pro me," stretches across the stone, and above this,, 
on the broken end of the slab, is the lower portion of a figure of 
the virgin seated on a throne, her feet resting on the transverse panel ; 
the two effigies thus facing towards each other. The sun and moon 
represented above the Yirgin's head on the detached fragment are 
emblems of the title Queen of Heaven. Dr. Skene mentions another 
memorial of this abbess, existing at Soroby on Tiree.^ 

The Nunnery was dependent on the abbey, and, like it and all 
Benedictine houses, was under the invocation of St. Mary. A gi*ant 
made in 1508 by James IV. of Scotland, terms it the monastery of the 
nuns of the most beloved Virgin in the Isle of St. Columba. Bower, 
an Angustinian abbot of the monastery of Incholm, states that in his time 
its nuns were Augustinians who wore the rochet. My recollection of the 
effigy of the Abbess Anne is not sufficiently distinct to enable me to 
say whether it confirms or contradicts this statement ; but, if the 
monument be not too much weathered, the habit in which the last 
Abbess of lona is depicted on her tomb may determine the question 
whether Angustinian nuns succeeded the Benedictine ones brought by 
Reginald to lona. The rochet was an over-garment of white linen with 
long sleeves, fitting closely to the arms, and ending at the hand. If the 
effigy presents closely- fitting sleeves, ending on the wrists beside the 
hands, Bower's statement is probably correct. 

Close to the nunnery is Temple Ronan. 

^ See the description of Tiree, p. 190. 


Tekple Ronan. 

This rained chapel, which measures roughly 37 by 16 feet, stands 
about 30 feet north of the west end of the nunnery church. 

It probably is named from the St. Ronan commemorated in the 
Scottish calendars at Eebruary 7th, and believed to haye given name to 
the Island of Rona off Lewis, and to that other Rona in the Sound 
of Skye, who is supposed to be the person whose death is recorded 
by the ** Annals of Ulster'* in a.d. 737. 

The present mediaeval structure, which probably dates from the 
fourteenth century, was once used as a parochial church. 

Professor Munch found in the archives of the Vaticon a Papal 
presentation, dated September 10th, 1372, presenting Mactyr, son of 
John the judge, and a clergyman of the diocese of the Isles, to the 
parochial church of Hy. This rectory must shortly afterwards have 
been acquired by the Benedictine abbot, for, in 1380, Macvurich terms 
the secular clergyman of Hy, a vicar; and in 1561 the ^'teindis of 
Ycolmkill, called the personage of Tempill Ronaigc," were part of the 
possessions of the Abbey of lona. 

Following the roadway leading northwards from the Nunnery, the 
next interesting object is 

MACLEiil's CfiOSS. 

This fine fifteenth or sixteenth century monument stands by the 
roadside about 120 yards north of the Nunnery. Carved from a thin slab 
of hard whin-stone, 10 feet 4 inches high, the back of its slender 
elongated shaft and small unpierced wheel, now turned to the roadway, 
is closely covered with a raised floriated ornament that has been 
preserved quite crisp and sharp through the hardness of the stone. 
The front faces the field on the west side of the road; the centre of the 
wheel, on that side, exhibits a small draped figure of Christ crucified, 
which is flanked by representations of a dagger on one arm and a 
chalice on the other : a fleur-de-lis occupies the panel in the head 
above the central figure. Dr. Reeves says that *Hhe name of this cross 
is plainly a misnomer." The nature of its ornament shows that it is a 
mediaeval monument, while the presence of the dirk and chalice seems 
almost conclusive proof that it is a memorial cross intended to com- 
memorate some warrior who had turned cleric. 

The fleur-de-lis^ which is the crest of the Macauls and Cowies, may 
possibly help to identify the family to which the person the monument 
"was intended to commemorate belonged. 

A contingency regarding the name borne by this cross, which seems 
to have been overlooked, is that the name may have been originally 
applied to an older monument occupying the same site. 

The cross is inserted in a slab resting on a pedestal of rude 


rabble masonry which seems much more ancient than the cross. The 
Scotch Maclean, or Mae Oilla Eoin is the Gaelic equivalent of the Irish 
Malone, or Maol JEoin^ and the plinth which bears this cross may, 
possibly, haye originally borne an older one erected to commemorate 
that Maol Eoin who is believed to have been the 27th abbot of lona and 
to have governed it from 1009 to 1025. 
Near Maclean's Cross is 

Cnx Cainvech. 

Of this ancient church, which was situated north of the Nunnery and 
not far from Maclean's Cross, the site, marked only by some remnants of 
the sepulchral monuments of its cemetery, remains. About 350 yards 
north of the Nunnery, on the east side of the ancient roadway, called 
the " Street of the Dead," which leads from Port na Mairtear to the 
Nunnery, and thence northwards to the abbey church, is 

Temple Gran, 

named from Columb's kinsman Gran, who, though not included in 
the list of his disciples, seems to have been the first of his fraternity 
who died upon the island, and over whose remains Columb raised the 

first church of Hy. Passages in 
Adamnan's "Life of Columb" 
show that this primitive church 
was built of timber, and had an 
erdam, or side cliamber, which 
served as sacristy. This timber 
structure was probably super- 
seded, at an early period, by a 
stone church, that seems to have 
St. Gran's Chapel, Ground-Plan. given place in turn to the edifice 

now standing, which probably 
reproduces the dimensions of its predecessor. The present structure 
measures 29 feet 8 inches, by 15 feet 10 inches internally, and is 
lighted by two narrow windows, placed opposite each other, at the 
eastern ends of its northern and southern walls ; that in the northern 
being 2 feet, and that in the southern wall 3 feet high. There is no 
east window ; and the altar probably stood in front of a niche in the 
south wall, which lies behind the spot traditionally known as Gran's 
grave, a spot distinguished in Pennant's time by a plain red slab. A 
piscina projecting from the wall beside this niche upon the west would 
be correctly placed on the Epistle side of an altar standing in front of 
the recess, which is a late mediaeval insertion, surmounted by a canopy, 
with a crocketted weather-table, terminated at either end by rude 
effigies of animals. 


The doorvaj U described in almost all guide-books and works upon 
Scotch architecture, as a Normaa one, but its imposts, jambs, and 
CHpitali are Iriah-Eomanesque in character, and rosemble those of 
DumerouB Irish doorways and chancel -arches, dating from the eleveath 
to the early portion ol the twelfth century. The ornament of its arch 
appecre to be distinctly Scotch in style, and of a later period than the 
junbs, and there seems to be a difference in the character of the 

St. Onuk's Chapel. West doorvay. 

masonry of the upper and lower portions of the wall around the 
door. The lower part beside the jambs is built of small stones irregu- 
larly laid, and seems to be coeval with the jambs, while the upper 
portion around and above the arch is built of larger and better stoocs 
arraiiged in regularly laid courses, and seems to be contcmporaneoas with 
the south wall and otfaer portions of the building, and with them, and 
the coins and arch of doorway, to date from a re-edification of the 


churcb, vhich appears to have taken place tbrough the liberality of 
Qaeen Margaret at the latter end of the eleventh century. Ttiere can 
be little doubt that Temple Oron occupies the site of the first cbnrch of 
&y. The early Christian Irish nsually interred their dead to the south 
and east of their churches, and in cemeteries 'where hut one church 
exists they seldom buried to the west, and almost never buried to the 
north of it ; so that, apart from tradition, which makes the Temple Oran 
the site ot Oren's grave, and makes the Belig Oran the chief and most 

St. Oian's Cljupol. View from west. 

sacred cemetery on the island, the site of the former in the north- west 
comer of the latter is that which the disposition ot the cemetery woxild 
indicate as the probable site of the church around which the famous 
Relig Oran grew. 

Tbe Relio Oban. 

was described by Dean Monro in 1594, when three touibs, " formit 
like little chapels," bore inscriptions on their gablep, stating that the 
northern one was the tomb of the Korse, the central of the Scottish, and 
the southern of the Irish kings. These tombs were probably sepulchral 
monuments of the bee-hive class, like those at Kilmalkedar and many 


other ancient Irish chnrches. All ventige of them has dinnppeareU, and 
"rertain slight remains, arched within," were all of them that Pennant 
could discover in 1772, at a part of the cemetery then called "The 
Sidge of the Kings," which probably is identical with the railed 
enclosure between Temple Oran and the roadway, that contairs the 
so-culled tombs of the kings. The monnmcnta of thia cemetery gener- 
ally Beem to bavo been removed from their original poeitionn, and sub- 
jected to a species of sorting process, by which tombs of the same 
character were gathered into groups. Another railed enclosure, south 
of Temple Oran, containa a number of medisval slabn, bearing floriated 

ornament or effigies of mail-clad warriors, that are alleged to be tombs 
of the Macleans; the McKinnons and Mc Quarries, who also were 
descended from, the Houso of Lorn, and buried 'in the cemetery, being 

Of the multitude of sepnlehnd monuments dating from the Columban 
era which the Kelig Oran must have contained, but few remain. One 
of these bears, in Irish characters, the inscription, " ^ Op t)0 TTlail- 
pacapic" — "Pray for llaelpatriek " ; an inscription now imperfect 
through exfoliation, in tho winter of 1852-53, of that part of the stone 
bearing the latter portion of tho inscription, and which probably com- 
memorates " Haolpatrick D'Banin, Bishop of Conor, a man to be 


venerated, full of sanctity of life, mildness and purity of heart," who, 
as the Four Masters say, '^ died at a good old age inHy of Golumh-ciUc." 
Another slab is inscribed ''Or ar anmin Eogain "«^a prayer for the 
soul of Eogain ; while a third bears three inscribed crosses and the 
fragment of a fourth, and seems to date from the Columban era, and to 
furnish an example of the practice of marking the number of interments 
made in a grave by the number of crosses incised upon the monument 
above it — a practice which a late mediaeval slab here, called ** The 
Tomb of the Four Priors," shows to have survived in lona till a 
comparatively recent date. The cemetery is extremely small, and does 
not seem to have at any time been larger than it now is ; and the 
contiouous overcrowding, due to its limited area, and the esteem with 
which it was regarded, explains the almost total disappearance of Irish 
inscribed-stones from it during the seven centuries which have elapsed 
since the Benedictines were established on lona. 

The Cathedbal. 

To the north lies the Cathedral (St. Mary's), whose low tower is a 
most conspicuous object from the suri'ounding shores and waters of the 
Sound. " The Cathedral consists of a nave, central tower, transepts, choir, 
south aisle of the choir, and sacristy on north side of choir. The interior 
length is 148 feet, and the width across the transepts 71 feet. The walls 
of the nave are about 12 feet high, but the remainder of the church 
retains nearly the original height. Adjoining the church on the east are 
some remains of the monks' dwelling-rooms, and the chapter house, which 
is nearly complete, has a double I^orman doorway, and retains its vault. 
At the north-west angle, outside the nave, are foundations of a cell or 
chamber, in which it is said the shrine and bones of St. Columba were 
placed. The tower, at the crossing, 70 feet high, rests on pointed 
arches. There are four square window openings to emit the souad of 
the bells, each filled with different tracery of elegant design and late 
date. On the north side of the altar is the monument of Abbot Mackinnon 
(d. 1500), on the south of Abbot K. Mackenzie, and in the centre that of 
Macleod of Macleod, with effigy in armour. On the south side are three 
elegant sedilia, which, together with the fine east window, are in the 
Decorated Gothic of the fourteenth century." On a pillar of the north 
transept, there are figures of Adam and Eve, and the serpent twined round 
a tree. On the second pillar in the south aisle of the chancel is a 
carving of the Crucifixion, and an angel with scales weighing good deeds 
against evil, and the devil depressing the scale with his claw. Another 
pillar has a carving of the banishment of Adam and Eve from the 
Garden of Eden. On .the floor beneath the east window is an ii*on cage 
made to enclose an ancient stone said to have been the pillow of St. 
Columba. It is interesting to note that the eye-stone of St. Columba in 



f'.-Ml ^ — 

so 10 to so 00 %n ooico 

The Ground-plan of Tona Cathedial. 


Olencolamkille, county Donegal, needs no suck protection ; though fre- 
quently taken for purposes ol healing the afSLcted, it is always retnrned 

to its place in a niche in the rude stone cell. 

The slight eminence to the left is called the "Abbot's Uonnd," 

and here tradition tella that on the day St. Coluniba died he ascended it 

to take a last farewell of his beloved settlement. He blessed it and 

said : " Unto this place albeit so small and poor, 

great homage shall yet be paid, not only by the 

kings and peoples of the Scots, but by the rulers 

of barbarous and distant nations with their people 

also. In great reneration shall it be held by the 

holy men of other churches." This prophecy 

has been amply fulfilled ; and oua of the thou- 
sands who yiait it yearly, there must be many 

"whoso piety "does "grow warmer among the 

ruins of lono," and who come not within the 

limits of Dr. Johnson's envy. 

To the west of the doorway is St. Martin't 

Orou, erected, it is said, to St. Martin of Tours. 

It is 14 feet high, 1^ feet wide, and stands on a 
p«destal of Mull granite. It is finely carved 

with the later Celtic ornamentation and figures. 

Xear it arc the old JFell, pointed out as that of 
tfae monastic establishment, and the remains ol 
t^o ancieut crosses. Pennunt says that in his 
time stones were on the pedestal of a ci-oss and 
'were turned round three times in the direction 
of the course of the sun, to liurry on the end of 
the world, which would happen when the stone 
was worn through. The turning of the stones is 
-well known in Ireland, and one of the uses thuy 
were put to was that of cursing an enemy. 

" To the north-east of the abbey is a small 
quadrangular chapel, of which the dedication 
is unknown ; also a single gable representing 
the Buhop't Houie." — (From the "Hand-book 
of Scotland.") * — 

There were more of the remains of what is gt. Mmtiii's Grots, Ions, 
called the Bishop's House standing in (Tohnson's 
time, as it Lad two storys and a chimney. 

About a mile distant from the ruins and to the south-west of Dun-ii, 
the highest point of the island, are some remnius of beehive cells similar 
to those in the remote headlands and islands of the west and south-west 

' Bj* kind jierniiuion of Uc. JoIid Muiiitf . 


coasts of Ireland. A little to the north on the way is a fine granite 
cross erected by the Duke of Argyll in 1879 to the memory of his first 
wife. The island has two churches, and a recently erected house and 
chapel for clergy of the Episcopalian Church. 

The islanders are generally long-lived ; they retain that true native 
Celtic characteristic of giving a friendly welcome to those who come to 
stay among them. Nowhere will the stranger be received with greater 
kindness and courtesy than on lona. 


Lying five and a-half miles to the north-west of the island of Mull 
are the islands of Tiree and Coll, with numerous rocks and small islets 
adjacent. The two islands are included in Argyleshire, and, although 
separated from each other by Gunna Sound, may, for the researches of 
the antiquary and the geologist, be treated as one, as they are in the 
Admiralty sailing directions. They should be of particular interest to 
the geologists of the party, as they are formed of gneissic rocks, tough 
and massive, exhibiting great variety in crystalline structure. These 
islands are the first of this geological character which are met, but this 
interesting archsean rock will be seen in greater mass and denseness of 
structure in the islands of the Outer Hebrides, the chief of which (Harris 
and Lewis) are included in the itinerary. In the Outer Hebrides it forms 
the backbone or core of the primitive mountain chains, from which much 
of the material has been derived that has gone in very ancient geological 
times to build up the sedimentary formations of the British Isles. It is 
merely mentioned here, en passant j as the subject is of great interest, but, 
for fuller details, reference should be made to a publication of Dr. 
John MacCuUoch,^ and to a series of articles on the Long Island or 
Outer Hebrides, by Mr. James Geikie' ; also to Sir A. Geikie's ** Ancient 
Volcanoes of Great Britain." 

A landing will be made at Scarnish on the eastern side of Tiree ; the 
members can easily travel by road to Sorobt (site of the ** Campus lunge^* 
of Adamnan) on the south-east portion of the island, in order to examine 
the cruciform pillar of granite rising 3 feet 8 inches from a heavy plinth 
called Maclean's Cross, the form of which is unique, each face present- 
ing the appearance of two distinct crosses, one of them laid against 
the face of the other (figured on page 190, from Muir's **EcclesiologicaI 
Notes"). At this place will also be seen the shaft of a cross, decoratiid 

* ** Western Islands of Scotland," vol i., pp. 67 et teq, 

* In " Good Words," 1879 ; also in " FragmenU of Earth Lore," by Mr. Jamea 
Geikie, pp. 125 ei seq. 

_! L. 



on one of its faces with foliage, and on the other with curious figures. 
Of the ancient church, which Adamnan mentions, no traces remain ; but 
the burial ground contains nine ancient slabs, embellished with the usual 
devices. In returning, it may be possible to visit HelipoU and Crossipoll. 
If time permits, a short visit may be made to Kirk a poll, at the north of 
Kirkapoll bay, to inspect the vestiges of ancient churches in the vicinity, 
as well as the decorated tombstones. (For illustrations of door and 
tombstone, Kirkapoll Church, see page 193.) 

To the Irish archsBologist, the islands of Tirce and Coll have an 
€special attraction. In an interesting paper, evidencing great research, 
by Bisliop Reeves, i we get a very accurate survey of the ancient eccle- 
siastical establishments, not merely in Tiree, but including also those in 
Coll and Gunna, as the outcome of a visit he paid to the island of Tiree 
in the summer of 1852, accompanied by Mr. W. F. Skene, of Edinburgh. 
He considered that Tiree was second only to lona among the numerous 
Scoto-Celtic Columban foundations, and identifies it as being the ancient 
Ethica Tebka. and Ethica Insula mentioned in Adamnan's ** Life of St. 
Columba." Ethica is mentioned in ** Adamnan" as being some five hours' 
sail from lona, if favoured by a wind from the south-west, and as having 
a monastery in the plain of Lunge (Magh Lunge in Tiree), to which 
Columba sent a certain penitential Connaughtmau to do penance for seven 

If we search Adamnan's '* Vita S. Columbae " for the early notices of 
Terra Ethica, we find that it is, historically and ecclesiastically (if not 
geographically), associated with Ireland, as one of the stations chosen by 
her most honoured saint, Columba, and that it was a favourite resort of 
her most noted pilgrims and ecclesiastics. 

"We learn from the hagiologists that the Irish ecclesiastics who were 
oontemporaneous with Columbcille (a.d. 563-595) and with his immediate 
successors, were very enterprising voyagers, and frequently visited the 
western islands of Scotland to enjoy communion with the holy men who 
had settled there. The island of Tiree is frequently referred to as 
**Heth" (inregione Heth), (Terra Heth). It is thus mentioned in the 
Life of St. Comgall,' founder of the Monastery of Bangor in the Ards of 
Down. St. Brendan, the famous Celtic voyager,* in the region of Heth, 
laid out a church and a village beside it, . . . and after that he took ship 
and returned to Ireland." And in the Life of St. Baithene, St. Columba's 
immediate successor, we find it mentioned that the Monastery of CampuB 
Navis was founded by St. Columba in Terra Heth, &c. We leani from 
Adamnan that Tirce was the granary and farmstead of lona.' In modem 
times, even as late as 1846, it exported a plentiful supply of potatoes to 
the Glasgow market. 

* In the Vlater Journal of Archmokgy, vol. ii. * "Adamnan," book ii., p. 47. 
» " Vita S. Comgalli," cap. 22. * « Vita S. Brendani." 

* "Vita S. Columbae," lib. in., cap. 7. 



The following ia Bishop Reeves' accurate detcriptioiL of the eccle- 
siaatical remains in Tiree and Coll ' : — 

" During the period of Scandinavian rule in the Isles, Tiiee seems to 
have shared in the general subjugation ; at least yre may infer, from the 
names locally preserved, tliat a large infusion of strangers took place 
among the old inhabitants, introducing such names as Barrapoll, Crossa- 
poll, Hclipoll, Yassipoll, EirkapoU, Soroby, Scamish, Heynish, Hough 
4c., chiefly as agricultural denomination b, while the ectlesiastical or 
hietorical features of the island retained the older names of Kilcliainnech 
Xilmoluag, Kilbride, £ilwillin, Kilfinnan, Dallimartin, Ballimeanach 
Sollinoe, Balliphuil, Balliphctrish, Kennavara. In this way the Teutonic 
Poll, or Boll, signifying " a dwelling," came, as a suffix, to bo aasociated 
with the cognate prefis, the Celtic Baile, bringing into juitaposition 
names of such remote extraction as HelipoU and BalUnoe.' . . . 


" 1. Soroby, which is situated over a little bay in the farm of Balli- 
muttiii, in the south-east 
side of the island, is now 
known as a largo and 
much- used churchyard, 
from which all tmces of 
its ancitnt church have 
of lute disappeared. It 
rL'taius, however, a very 

both for its massiveness 
and tarly designs. It is 
not half as tall as the 
lona crosses, but is pro- 
bably more ancient than 
either. It is about 5 feet 
high, having a large cen- 
tral boss, and set in a 
coar,*e stone socket. In 
anotherpart of the ground 
are numui-ous monumen- 
tal slabs, similar to those 
in lona. One is duserr- 
ing of especial notice, 
which appears to have 
originally belonged to 

■ Ul»Cer Journal of Arcluciilagy, vul. ii., p. 238, tt lupra. 

' See the jadicious obiervatiuiu of Chulmeiioa this subjec'. — "CiJedcnia," voL i., 
p. 266. 




that great family of crosses for which lona was once famed. It bears,, 
in fine relief, the figure of Death holding by the hand a female eccle* 
siastic, and on a panel underneath the inscription : — hec est crux 


broken ojff, but it appears to have been a memorial or votive cross 
erected during the incumbency of Anna, but afterwards carried away 
to Tiree to serve as a tombstone for some obscure individual. 

^* This spot is, in all probability, the ' Campus Lunge ' of Adamnan,. 
lying over against lona, retaining its old relation to the abbacy there, 
and though it has assumed a new name, yet partially retaining the old 
one by proxy in the little adjoining creek which still is known as Port- 



''2. It is a curious fact that there is a spot on the island still called 
Kilbride, that is, *Brigid's Church.' It is on the north side, in the 
farm of Comagmore ; and human remains, which are found here, indicate 
a cemetery where a small chapel is known to have existed, the walls of 
which were removed to help in building some adjacent cabins.' 

" Abdchain. 

*' 3. The name of another church in the island is preserved by Adamnan 
in the title of a chapter, which runs thus : — * Concerning the presbyter 
Jindchan, who was founder of the monastery in the land of Eth, which 
is called in the Scotic tongue Artchain.' * 

^' This name is obsolete now, unless it be supposed to have passed 
into Ardkirknish which belongs to a spot on the north side in the farm of 
Balphetrish, a little to the south-east of the farm-house, where there was 
formerly a chapel with its cemetery. 

"4. Or it may be in the farm of Kenoway, to the S. "W. of Balphetrish^ 
where is a rocky space still known as Kilfinnian, having the faint vestiges 
of a quadrilateral building measuring about 21 feet by 10, and lying east 
and west. Here still-born children have been occasionally buried. 

^ This was probably the Soror Anna, whose tombstone remains in the Nunnery of 
lona, and still bears the inscription: — '*hic jacbt domina. anna donalui tekleti 


♦* lona," p. 25. 

^ The indefatigable Timothy Pont, who furnished the chief materials for Blaeu's 
maps of Scotland, calls it Port-Luinge, but it is laid down entirely too far north. In 
Blaeu's maps the island is called Tyrryf . The best modern maps of Argyll omit Port 
na Lung, and, though more correct in their outline of Tiree, have far fewer names laid 
down than the old geographer. 

' At Comaigbeg, in digging pits in sandy ground, there were found at different 
times human skeletons, and nigh them skeletons of horses.'' — Old Statistical Sur\''ey,. 
Tol. X., p. 402. 

* **Vita S. Columba;," lib. i., cap. 36. 



" 5. But the most coospiououi remaiDB in the island are those nt 
Eirkapoll, in the neigbourhood of the mod era parish church, and on the 
north ude of the Eirkspoll Bay. Here are two 
distinct burying- grounds. One of them con- 
taini the ruins of an old churcli, and several 
«f the narrow decorated tombstones of the 
lona pattern, some of which are probably to 
be reckoned among the numerous spoliations 
of the Sacred Isle : one of them, in particular, 
which bears the following inscription on the 
bevel of its margin : — i^ PmaoKirs : pbioe : sz 
I : MIS : DBDiD ; fhilippo : iohikkis : et : ems: 
WLII9 : *«H0 : BoiiiNi 11° cccc° xct". This Prior I 

was of the Clana Mac Finnguine, now called 
UakinnoQ, and is thus noticed by Mac Firbia : — 
'Finnguine, abbot of Hy, brother to Bomhnall, 
son of Gillebride." : 

" 6. About SO yards to the south-east is 
another, but seemingly more modem cemetery, 
called Claodh-Odhrain, that is, ' Oran's grave- 
yard * from St. Columba's disciple, the first, 
who was said to have been interred in lona, and Gr«»eSl«b,Kiikipoi!Church- 

.,,,_,._ , , yird.Titee. (From a Sltrtrb 

irom whom the Belig Oran, or great cemetery tyMr.T. J. Weiiiopp,) 
there, takes its name. 

" A little distance north of these graveyards, is arocky eminence, the 


Doorwaj of Church, 
summit of which is occupied||by the ruin of another church of emallor 
aill toAo Gitlebrighde. — GcueiiL MS., 


dimensions, but more ancient than that in the principal graveyard. It 
measures 23 feet by II feet 6 inches. It possesses the peculiarity observ- 
able in the old churches at lona, and Kilkennich, and Templepatrick in 
Tiree ; that it has no east window, but instead, two narrow deeply-splayed 
windows on the north and south near the east angles. The doorway, 
round-headed, is in the south, near the west angle. The rock on which 
this little fabric stands is nearly circular, and, what is very curious, tho 
natural unevenness of the floor has never been rectified. 


*^ 7. The farm of Kilchennich, on the west side of the island, takes its 
name from an old church built by, or in commemoration of St. Canice. 
It is 28 feet 6 inches long, and 13 feet wide, without any east window. 
The east and west gables are entire, and part of the side walls are stand- 
ing. The doorway, with a circular head, is in the west. Close to it is 
a curious mound, about which human bones are continually exposed hy 
the drifting of the sand, while the space within the walls is quite choked 
up. The writer in the Statistical Survey observes : — * There is at tho 
chapel of Kilkeneth, in Tiry, a burying ground so sandy, that, by blow- 
ing, heaps of human bones are seen, and coffins often exposed before half 
consumed. It is now surrounded by sand-banks higher than the side 
walls ; they no longer bury here.' * 



'^ 8. At the north-west angle of the island is the farm known by the 
very ecclesiastical name of Kilmoluag, that is, the ' Church of Ifoluoc' 
This saint, who was the founder and patron of Lismore in Scotland, was 
a native of Ireland, and his festival is marked in the Calendar at the 
25th of June. The Duke of Argyll, is now his lay representative, and 
his pastoral stafE is preserved as an heir-loom in his Grace's family. The 
Annalist Tighemach thus records his obit at 592 : — ' The death of 
Lughaidh of Lismor, that is, Moluoc' ' The stones of the old chapel 
were employed to build the walls of cabins, and the space where the 
cemetery is shown to have been is now in tillage. 

" 9. The south-west point is the highest ground in Tiree, and is 
appropriately called Kennavara, that is, Ccann an mhara, ' the eminence 
of the sea.' At the foot of the declivity, in a little recess on the shore^ 
looking south-west towards Skerryvore light-house, in a small green 
space, stands the east wall of a church built of stone and mortar. On the 
south there stands a pillar-stone with two crosses incised on it of which, 
the lower is the more ancient. The little area which is now overgrown 
with flags and rushes, seems to have been a cemetery. There are also 

1 ** Old Statistical Survey of Scotland," vol x., p. 401. 

* " Obitus Lughaidh Lissmoir .i. Moluoc," a.c. 692. See Dr Todd's "Introduc- 
tion to the Obits of Christchurch," p. Ixv. 


the traces of a rude enclosure of stones surrounding the consecrated space. 
It is called Templepatrick. 

'^ A former minister of the parish gives the following description of 
the spot : — 

'"At the hill of Ceanmharra, on a yery nigged declirity, is situated St. Patrick's 
Temple. The vestige of a wall encloses it in one-third of an acre of land. It is 26 
by 1 1 feet within the walls, the side walls 5} feet high ; one gable six inches thicker 
than another; without roof, and ill-built of stone and lime. A square altar at the east 
end is still eighteen inches high. The cross without the pedestal, four feet. Within 
61 yards of it, at the shore, on the top of a rock, is made a hollow two feet diameter 
and four deep, called by the country people, ** St. Patrick's Vat." ' ^ 

*' 10. A little to the north, in the farm of BarapoU, is a small eminence 
called Knock-a-chlaodh,' close to some cahins, which, it is stated, were 
hnilt out of the walls of a chapel that formerly stood there. The drift- 
ing of the sand has exposed the burying- ground, and, when visited 
by the writer in July, 1852, the first object which caught his eye was 
a bleached skull and other bones lying bare on the surface of the 

'^11. At Heynish, the southerly part of the island, was a small 
burying-ground, called Claodh-beg.^ It is now effaced. 

"12. In the farm of HelipoU, near CrossapoU, and a little south of the 
Island House, is a plot called Templefield, which derived its name from 
a chapel, the site of which is now occupied by a school-house. 

" 13. Lastly, at Kelis, on the north-east side, near the ferry between 
Tiree and Coll, in ground occupied by Neil Clarke, was a chapel, with 
its burying- ground, called Croish-a-Chaolish. 

"All these burying-places are of great antiquity, some of them which 
are still used having monuments that indicate their early appropriation, 
while even those which have become obsolete may, with reason, be 
referred to a very remote period, and, by their number, evidence both a 
large population and a great subdivision of ecclesiastical interests in the 
island during the ages which preceded the centralizing movement of 
Church patronage. And, though it is not pretended that all these 
thirteen religious stations can date their origin from such an early period 
as the sixth or seventh century, still there can be little doubt, when we 
compare their number with the moderate extent of the island, and the 
fact that Tiree and Coll, with the intervening islet of Gunna, now form 
but one parish, that this island was well known and much frequented at 
a very early stage of Christianity in Scotland. 

> " Old Statistical Survey," vol. x., p. 402. 

' The word *' claodh" is a common one in the west of Scotland, signifying a " hury- 
ing-ground." Thus St. Haulrubha's grave at Applecross is called "Clud Maree." 
Cladh and Cludh are given in O'Reilly's '* Irish Dictionary " in the same sense. 


'' Adamnan's casual obseryation, * in caeteris ejusdem insulae monas- 
teriis,' accounts for the multiplicity of religious vestiges in the island, 
wliile they reflect upon his narrative the attestation of a genuine state- 

"GuNNA Islet. 

'' The Island of Gunna, which lies in the sound between Tiree and 
Ooll, but nearer to the latter, has the remains of a chapel and cemetery. 
It was exclusively the burial-place of the Mac Neills of Coll. 

''Island of Coll. 

'' The Island of Coll, which at a distance appears to be a continuation 
of Tiree, is separated from it by a sound about three miles wide. It 
holds no place in ancient church history like Tiree, but still it possesses 
a large share of ecclesiastical traces, and it may not be amiss to embrace 
the present opportunity of putting them on record. ^ 

''1. At Caoles, opposite to Gunna, the foundation of a chapel and the 
traces of a cemetery are still visible. 

''2. At Crosspoll, adjoining Caoles, is a burial-place which is still 
used, and the foundations of a chapel are also to be seen. 

''3. At Breachachadh, which also adjoins Caoles, was a chapel, with 
its cemetery, called Ardneish; but about eight years ago the tenant 
removed the ruins for building purposes, and put the disused cemetery 
under tillage. 

''4. At Breachachadh also, on the east side of the farm called Fasach, 
is the ruin of a chapel with a burial-ground which was used within the 
memory of some old people now living. 

''5. At Clappach, in the middle of the island, there was a chapel and 

''6. At Gallanach, also near the middle of the island, was a chapel 
and burying-ground. 

" 7. At Kilfinnaig is a cemetery which is still used, and where there 
was formerly a chapel. 

''8. At Arintluich, on the south-east of the island, was a chapel and 

"9. At Kilbride, south-east of Gallanach, was a chapel and cemetery. 

*' 10. At Greamsary was a chapel and cemetery called Bearrigrein. 

" * There b.vq fifteen remains of old chapels or churches, at some of 
which are burying- grounds and crosses still to be seen,' said the Rev. 
Archibald M'Coll, in 1794, when writing the account of his united 
parish of Tiree and Coll for the Statistical Survey, and that this 
was no exaggeration the preceding recitals prove, giving thirteen for 
Tiree, one for Gunna, and ten for Coll." 

^ For this list I am indebted to my intelligent friend, Mr. Lachlan M^Quonie, the 
Duke of Argyll' 8 ground -officer in Tii-ee. 


The rocky, hilly, sandy island of Coll is ten and three-quarter miles 
long, and has a mean breadth of rather less than three miles. The 
derivation of the name is puzzling, as in the Gaelic, Irish, and Welsh, 
" Coll " means ** hazel," and ** Coil " a " wood," neither of which have 
any application in the etymology of the island as we find it. Its 
highest hill is Ben Hogh, 347 feet. The island differs considerably in 
general appearance from the low-lying aspect of Tiree. Coll has so many 
rocky protubei'anceB that, viewed from the boat, the northern end in 
particular seems to present one entire surface of rocks, but when the 
visitor traverses the island it will be found to be interspersed with green 
spots which comprise over one-third of its extent, in particular at its 
southern end, which has more the appearance and character of its 
neighbour. It is more diversified than Tiree, and in consequence has 
somewhat more of the element of picturesqueness. 

Overlooking Loch Breachachadh, on the south-east of the island, is 
the Castle of Coll, which may be found interesting ; near to this is the 
modem house in which Dr. Johnson and Boswell were lodged in the 
year 1773. Mention is made by M'Culloch of the remains of so-called 
Danish forts, which are found in various parts of the island. 


TBVRSDAT, JUNE 22, 1899. 


CiiTNA Iblams' (Kanin, "arabbit," SvediBh, "the isle of rabbits") is 
4i miles long east and vest, and about one mile wide. Tbe eaBtem end 
rises to a height of 724 feet at Sook Ooitl. 

The landing-place is in Canna Harbour, vbich ia naturally formed 
between Canna and Sanday Island. Kot far from the harbour will be seen 

the veatiges of an old tower perched on a lofty rock, and accessible by a 
narrow path. Pennant gives a view of it, and says; "This tower vas 
bnilt by some jealons 'regulons' to confine a handsome wife in." 

' Somepersonsliving on the isluid said it ims derived from a Gaelic n-ord, aignifj. 
ing freah or bright green. 


The cliffs of Canna Island are highly magnetio, so mnch so that on 
one of the hills st the eastern extremity, which has thereby acquired the 
name of Compass Hill, a morinct's compass varies as much as a quarter, 
the north point standing duo west. This bfiuenco is sometimes limited 
to B tew feet, and never extends to any 
considerable distance. Compass Hill in 
Erse is colled Soak-Dheiro, or the red 
projecting rock. 

BonnsroLL, or Pillar Rock, is a detached 
pyramid 82 feet high, which lies a short 
distance from the Dorth-eastem part of 
Canna Island. 

The objects of archKoIogical interest 
ore easily accessible from the harbour. Of 
the church, which was dedicated to 8t. 
Columba, only slight traces remain. Lying 
close to each other, and not far from the 
horbonr, ere two places of sepulture. 
Standing in the more ancient of these 
graveyards is a cross, 6 feet 6 inches high, 

' the tipper portion and one arm being broken 

I off. It is formed of a hard, pale, red- 

coloured stone, said to have been brought 

I from the neighbouring island of Rum. It 

is of onique design; both faces present a Cmna Ctou, Eatt fui und ooe lide. 

j double plane, the outer one covered with '/w^* ^^V^"" "^ "'' ^""^ 

I worn carrinf^ of grotesque character, and 

with wasted interlacing work. Near it there was recently found a 
portion of a very remarkable cross-shaft, with a figure of a man and a 
serpent on one side, and serpentine and interlacing patterns of plain 
bands on the other, as shown on next page. In the more modem 
burying-ground there are two or three slabs, on one of which is a carved 

! raven. There is also a tall, red-coloured, weather-worn pillar-stone. 

There is an ancient structaro in " Sgor na Bean Naomh," at the 

I west end of Canna, called The Altak, which has been described by 

the Rev. J. E. Somervillc, F.a.i. (Scot.) :— 

" ll b built of fiagatoiiM of Torridon unclitone, and contains s 'cells' in vhicb 

are I&id a quantity of votiTe ofTeringi, consigting of rounded pebbles from the geasbore. 

I The erection {onns the centre of a large circle of atone, about 100 yards in diameter, 

vitliin vhich and around tbe altar are arranged five cairns of stoneB. Near it is a 

I Bagged nndei^round panage about 2 feet aquare, up whicb, to a spring ot water, gick 

people bad to cmwl, and were then laid in a bed made of etoncs, and left for the night 

I in tbe expectation of a cure. The structure seemed to consist of what in Ireland is 

I called a 'station' adjoined to a holy well. Its form is like that of Tobar Ashig in 

I Skye, and Ihe well of the Virtues in St. Kilda. Martin, describing a stone-covered 

I holy welt in Gigba, which aUo cured diseases, meotions that the offerings left consisted 


Ivgelf ot pebble* of prettilj vtriegited itonei. Supantitioui T«i«ntioii of altar- 
BtoDM vhich irere uwd botb for bleuing and cuning, and for ivearing octlii Qpon, 
WM common in Scotland and Ireland, and reference waa made to tbe Black Stonea of 
Icna and other initaacee." 

In Sardat Islakd there baa been erected s Boman Catholic church 
designed in Bomanesque Rtyle, the npsidal chancel and altar ot which 
ftre worthy of inspectioa by ecclegiologists of tbe pttrty. 

Ddhteuait Castlb, Ibue of Sktb. 

One of the most interesting castles in Scotland is Danvegan, the ancient 
seat of Uacleod of Macleod. It has the repntationot being probably the 
oldest inhabited residence in Scotland which retains its castellated fea- 
tures in conjunction with many structural additions, ancient and modem. 

DuDvegon Caslte, 1S9S. 
iFrom ■ Pkotoftaph by lbs Kcr. Ur. Kukk.) 

The rock on which the taatlc is perched cornmiinda a loch of the same 
name which is well lund-Iuckcd, iilthough it is not altogether sholtcred 
from the violencu of occasional gules from the westward ; it is a branch of 
Loch Fidart on the western side of the Isluud of Skye. 

r ^ 






■ § ' 

■ I" 


i » 







The original structure of the castle waa (as the early pictures show) 
a aqoare fortalice, which, with the wall along the eHcarpment of the cliff 
circumvaUating the plateau on the top of the rock, conatitutcd a High- 
land fortress of considerable strength. 

The castle itself has heen frequently added to, and has been very 
much modenused interiorly as well as exteriorly in the late decades of 
the last century aa welt as in an early period of the present century. 
This frequent patching and piecing, and the consequent mixture of 
styles, chiefiy on the landward side, from, the earliest and rudest to 

Dunvagui Castle ia the FourteeDth Ceatiuy. 

the bits of French BeDaisaonce and Scottish Baronial, lend interest and 
pictnTesqueness to the structure, although it cannot compare in extent 
or massiTeness or acientific plan aa a medisBTol fortress with many of 
the Scottish castles, such as at Craigmillar, Linlithgow, or Stirling, 

The barbican entrance erected by Norman If acleod, the 19th chief, and 
by his successor, is not the least striking or useful addition to the modem 
castle. The former approach was by a steep and most incoavenlent flight 
of steps commencing at the bottom of the ravine or natural fosse, the 
previous descent of which was equally inconvenient ; the entrance to the 
principal floor of the castle is facilitated by this barbican, the plateau of 
which was banked up nearly to the level of the principal floor, and 
encompassed with a wall and turrets. 

I<cgend ascribes the origin of the castle to the ninth century, but 
matter-of-fact scrutiny shows it to be of fourteenth-century construction. 


The castle is thus described by Mr. Lockhort Bogle in the Proceedings 
of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, in the volnme for 1695 : — 

" It VM limply a manive oblons keep, with n small but lofty tower embsdded in 
the aoTth aide. From ila structura ws know it to bavB been built in the fouTt«eDth 
oentury, and it was restored to use again in the end of last century. The Hacleodsof 
Qlenelg, othenriM styled of Harria and OiinTegaii, bad ebartere of David II. (1329- 
71], M tbia part of the eaatle, which belongi to the fourteenth century, muat have 
been built by tbem. 

Duavegan Castle. Plan of the Giound-floor. 

" The B«a-gate waa 7 feet 3 inches wide, by S feet 6 inches high. Until the limea 
of Che ISth Uacleod [about 1750), this entranoe wtu the only means of access to the 
castle, and to it a rude flight of steps led up from the edge of the sea. A eomewfaat 
similar arrangement existed at Eilan Donan Castle, in Kintsil. Soswell says the only 
approach to Ihe csstle, before the opening of the ]sDd-gate, was by boat to the aea- 
gate. The walls of what are now the cellars are 11 feet thick, eod originally forme 
one Isrge hall with arched roof and flreplace. Above it is mother hall of the same ajie, 
probably for the use of the chief and his guests, while the lower was for retainers. 

"The dungeon, which was under the small tower, is i feet i inches by 6 feet, and 
can only be entered through a square opening in the small chamber above, secured by 
large atone with iron ring, and it extends into the gloom below, where it baa been 
excavated out of the solid rock to the depth of 16 feet. It has a narrow loop-hole 
facing the north, but high up near the arched roof, so that the inmate of thia homblo 



priioii must luTe been enTeloped in darbneat or semi-twilight on the brightett tUy. 
Here it is known lao Dubb, one of the esrly chiefa, who waded through the blood of 
hii neareet relatiTcs to sttain the chief tainthip, bad impriioned ■ome of bis victimf . 
The bottom of the dungeon wiia itrewn with the bonea of aheej), wbich uidt, in bygone 
timei, have been thrown lo the piisonera." 

It is on record that, early id the sixteenth century, Alister Crotach, oi' 
"The Humpbacked," built a very strong square tower, which "remaiiis 
outwardly as tt was raised by the chief, a beautiful piece of tuediieTal 
castle building." Additions and alterations were made by Rorie Moi'e 

The Soft-gate, Dunvegan Castle. 

who was knighted by Jamiis VI., and by John Breac Sfaeleod, who liveil 
I in the last quarter of the seventeenth century. " He was the last tokee]> 

tip the old feudal style of life in the Highlands, and retained his liarpci, 
I jester, bard, and piper, who, with numerous retainers, thronged his halU 

and contributed to foster among his people the fame and glory of their 

Chief." Normun Macleod, the 19th chief, as already stated, opened out 
I a doorway on the land side ; the 20th chief made additions and alteration!- 

■ about the end of the last century ; and so through the long line of chiefi*, 

I inclading the late Macleod, the castle assumed its present form. There 

j are other two sites in the North which rival or surpass Dunvegan in the 


length and continuity of their feudal history, namely Redcastle on the 
Beauly Firth and Dunrobin ; hut neither has retained so much of the 
ancient castellated structure. Redcastle, indeed, which dates from 1179, 
has heen renewed like the Highlandman's gun — stock, lock, and ban*el. 

In this castle is preserved the Bratach Shi or fairy flag of the family, 
as the fable goes, bestowed on it by Titania, the Ben Sh% or wife to Oberon, 
King of the Fairies. Pennant relates the fable, with annotations. This 
flag is of yellow silk, and is said to have been taken by a Macleod from 
a Saracen cliief during the Crusades ; it is only to be displayed on great 
occasions when the clan is in imminent peril, and it is traditionally 
invested with miraculous associations. 

Among the warlike relics is a shield of iron, too ponderous to be 
conveniently carried by a warrior of the present day. In noticing this 
implement of defence, Pennant observes that each chieftain had his 
armour-bearer who preceded his master in time of war ; and so predomi- 
nant was the attachment to the military character that the same formality 
was observed even in a state of peace, on all solemn occasions. A remark- 
able family relic which is preserved at Dunvegan Castle is the Hebridean 
drinking-cup, mentioned by Sir "Walter Scott, in his notes to the '* Lord 
of the Isles," as one of the greatest curiosities in Scotland. The following 
description of it by Scott may be of interest : — 

*'The vessel is nine inches and three-quarters in inside depth, and ten and a-half 
in height on the outside, the extreme measure over the hrim heing four inches and 
a-half. It is divided into two parts, hy a wrought ledge, heautifuUy ornamented, 
about three-fourths of an inch in breadth. Above this projecting ledge the form of 
the cup is square, the upper part or moutli being widened ; and below the ledge it is 
rounded off, so as to terminate in a flat circle, like the bottom of a tea -cup ; and in 
this inferior convexity the four short feet, which support the whole, are inserted. 
The material of the cup is wood, to all appearance oak, most curiously inlaid and 
embossed with silver work. There nre at regular distances a number of projecting 
sockets, which appear to have been set with jewels ; two or three of them still hold 
pieces of coral ; the rest are empty. At the comers of the projecting ledge, where the 
square form of the vessel terminates, there are four larger sockets, probably for 
precious stones. The silver ornaments are of extremely elegant workmanship, and 
appear to have been richly gilt. The ledge, brim, and legs of the cup aie of silver. 
According to the family tradition, it was the property of Neil Ghlune-dhu, or Black- 
knee, but of this pei-sonage nothing is remembered but the name. On the four exterior 
sides of the upper part, or mouth, is a legend, in the Saxon black letter, which has 
been read thus : Ufo Johannis Mich Magni rriticipia de Hi Manae Vick Liahia Moffrytieil 
€t sperat Domino Jhesu davi clementiam illorum opera. Fecit Anno Jhtnini 993 Onili 
Oimi. It may be read in English : Ufo, the son of John, the son of Magnus, Prince 
of Man, the grandson of Liahia Macgryneil, trusts in the Lord JTesus that their works 
(his OMvn and those of his ancestors) will obtain mercy. Oneil Oimi made this in tbo 
year of God nine hundred and ninety -three." 

This interesting cup is simply an Irisb wooden mether, veiy highly 
ornamented in silver. The inscription, so strangely misread by Sir 
"Walter Scott, is given much more correctly by "Wilson ("Prehistoric 
Annals of Scotland," vol. ii., p. 484) — **kat9aiiixa ingen y >*£ill itxok 



1493" — followed by the 15th vene of the 144th PBalra in the veraioit 
at the Yiilgate — " Oculi omnium in te spcrant Bomlne et tu dan escam 
illomm in tempore opportuno." The death of the chief, John Uagutre, 

V\t5TEnn R)RTK)M 

IsLC Of 5^i'E 


isrcconled in the "Annals of the Four Masters" under the j-far 1503. 

The cup itself is probably older than its ornamental cosing, but the style 

«f the ornament in ]>ierced work, filagree, and niello, agrees will enough 





vith the dat« given in the inacription. (See a detailed descriptioii of 
the decoration in the Arehteohgieal Journal, vol. lii., p. 79, by Alexander 

The Bunvegan Cap was exhibited at the Dublin Exhibition of 1853. 
and it is noticed in the Dublin Uttiverttty Magcaine of November, 1858, 
p. 637. It is also described at length in the Journal of this Society for 
the year 1860, p. 56, vol. vi., Cousec, Series, in which its Irish origin 
and workmanship are clearly shown, and that it was made In the 
fifteenth century, at the cost of Catherine Ifacgrannal, wife of Uagnirc. 
Prince of Fermanagh. See also the Journal for 1880, p. 360, vol. xt., 
Consec. Series, fot a notice of Mary, daughter of Sir John Macleod, who 
married Maurice, second Lord of Kerry, who was sammoncd to attend 
Edward I. in his Scotch wars. Janior branches of the Kacleod familj- 

Drinldng-boi-n, Dimveg*n Cattle. 

settled in Kerry, and in the records between 1400 and 1600, their 
names are set down as Mac Allied, Fitz Elgoth, Mac Lyod, and Mac 
Elgott ; in the seventeenth century it assumed the fonn Mac Eligot. 
which it has since retained. 

History and legend alike speak of Roderick or Korie More, the con- 
temporary of James VI., whose drinking-horn is one of the relics remain- 
ing in the custlc. It is nn ox's horn, omamented with a silver rim, and 
capable of containing half a gallon of wine. " Every laird of Macleod it 
is siiid, as a proof of his manhood, must drink it ofF full of claret without 
laying it down. In the time of Roderick (chief from 1590 to 1626) 
there was a great amount of hospitality and excessive drinking in the- 

In uUudinK to the joyous festivities for which the Castle of Dun- 
vegan was distinguished at tliis early period, Scott with his usual felicity, 
cites, from the Leahhar Dearg, a song of gratitude, composed by Mac 


Yuirichy a bard of clan Bonald, in honour of his noble host Sir Eoderic 
Mor Macleod. The fervid enthusiasm of the original roay^ as he observes, 
have been lowered in the literal translation which he communicates ; but 
enough remains to show that the poet had derived inspiration from the 
redoubted horn which bears the name of the chieftain, when he poured 
forth his ardent effusion : LaudihuB arguitur tini vinMt4s JTofnet^ut, 

*'' To Sir Rodbbic Muk Maclboo,' — 

'* The »x nighu I remained in the Dunvegan, it was not a show of bospitality I 
met with there, but a plentiful feast in thy fair hall among thy numerous hosts 
of heroes. 

*'The family placed all around, under the protection of their great chief, raised by 
his prosperity and respect for his warlike feats, now enjoying the company of his 
friends at the feast, amidst the sound of harps, overflowing cups, and happy youth 
unaccustomed to guile or feud, partaking of the generous fai'e before a flaming fire. 

*' Mighty chief, liberal to all in your princely mansion, filled with your numerous 
warlike host, whose generous wine would overcome the hardiest heroes, yet we con- 
tinue to enjoy the feast, so happy our host, so generous our fure." 

Pennant relates that near to Dunvegsn is an *' Anaif or supposed 
Druidical place of worship, of which there are four in Skye. He appends 
some curious speculations as to the use of these structures. But to Irish 
archaeologists familiar with the terra as applied to the church in which 
the patron saint was educated, or in which his relics are kept, the word 
will suggest other associations. (Sec the Glossary to the Senchus Mor, 
vol. iii., under Annoit.) 

Map of Li« is II nd JJai- 


RoDiL IS Harris — Outer Hrbridks. 

The name Hebrides, or Western Islands, is applied in a general 
sense to all the islands on the west coast of Scotland. The Gcjter 
Hebrides form one series, the geological formation of which is almost 
exclusively gneiss; to this series belong Lewis with Harris, north and 
south TJist, Benbecula, Barra, and the isolated islands of St. Kilda. 
The Inner Islands are composed chiefly of trap rock and slate. These 
arc Skye, Eigg, Rum, Canna, Tiree and Coll, Mull, lona, Staff a, Lismore, 
Ulva, Kerrera, Colonsay, and Oron say, Jura, and Isla. Also the islands 
lying within the estuary of the Clyde, such as Arran, Bute, the Cum- 
braes, &c., and to the same group were anciently assigned the peninsula 
of Kintyre, the island of Kathlin, and the Isle of Man. In William 
Macculloch's "Western Islands," 1819, they are so treated, and in that 
book will be found a somewhat remarkable geological map of the 
Hebrides, showing the almost uniform axis of the islands to lie north- 
east. The total number of islands of any size is about five hundred, 
but of these rather less than one-fifth are inhabited at present. 

The Hebrid Isles are distributed among the Scottish counties of Ross, 
Inverness, Argyll, and Bute. The chief occupations of the inhabitants 
are farming and fishing. The hum bier class of the natives for the most 
part speak Gaelic, and it will no doubt be an interesting experiment 
for the members of this excursion who speak Irish to enter into con- 
versation with the natives speaking Gaelic or Erse. 

Sailing in a north-westerly direction from Loch Dunvegan, for a 
distance of 45 miles, Rodil is reached, situate on the shore of a small 
bay, at the southern extremity of that portion of "The Long Island" 
which is called Harris. The nortliern and larger portion of this island 
is called Lewis, and the two together form the largest island of the 
Hebridean group. 

Harris is rather barren and mountainous ; the highest peak, called the 
** Deer Forest," is 2229 feet in height. Roneval mountain is 1506 feet 
in height, and near its base, and close to the water's edge lies the village 
of Rodil, in a land-locked bay. There is a house here formerly inhabited 
by Macleod of Harris, and above it on the rising ground stands the 
ancient church of St. Clement's, which is the chief object of antiquarian 
interest in this region. This edifice was burnt down in 1784, and was 
a ruin when visited by Sir Walter Scott ; it was restored about 1870, 
and has been well described by Mr. Alexander Ross, f.s.a. (Scot.) — who 
restored it — in the Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland 


(vol. 19 for 1865, p. 118), from vhich, by permiBsion, the following 
extracts are made, and illustrations reproduced : — 

" Tbe cliiin:h lies due eut nnd wmt, and ia crucifotm in plan, meaaiiHiig 
61 feet in length by IS feet in breadth, with tninieptg meuiiring S feet hy 17 feet 
6 inobeg, and 10 feet by 15 feet. There is a equara tover at the weat end, of tbe 
(ult width of the church, and about ib feel high, capped with a slated roof. The 
church ia fonnded on ■ rery uneven aurface, the towir being on a rock many feel 
above Ihe level of the nave, but acceaaible from il by a slairin the vail now cloaed up. 
The modem building is genemllf of very common material and workmanibip, but the 
more ancient ilructura setnia lo have been of better materiiil and mare nflned conalrue- 
tion. Judging by its preaent appearance, Inm -inclined lo conclude that the original 

View of St. Cleiiienfs fhiiK'li, Rodil. H»ni*. 

buildiiig had become so far ruinous that only the lower portione of the walla of the 
nave, tower, Iransepl, and easi gable remained inlact, and that the upper portion of the 
walU of the nave and lower had been built out of the old mnterials without much 
regard to characteror design. The wiodnwa were buQt square for wooden aaahee, nnil 
the upper portion of the tower repaired with fragnLenta of the old moulded comers and 
rybfllB and sculpturea used promiscuously, as waa found convenient, so Ihnt severe at 
the Bculptured Hgures have been plncod in most unlikely positions, aa chnnce tu some 
eitent dictaled. The positiona of the figures over the door are notable ejoinples o( 
this. One of the figures on the south side of Ihe tower ia remarkable on account of its 
dreaa. The lower portions of the walls of the nave, the tninaept archea, and the side 


and end windows of the chancel ore eTidently of early date, as are also the tomh« 
recessed into the walls, the arches of which are apparently of contemporary workman- 
ship with the arches of the transepts. The arches both of the tombs and of the tran- 
septs are ctist in a pale yellow freestone with alternate bands of hordblende schist, but 
the filling in of the panels at the back of the tombs appears t<> suggest possibly a later 
date or a subsequent adaptation. . . . The east window is cut out of hornblende schist, 
and is a very remarkable piece of work of its kind. It is of three lights, with a circle or 
wheel ovt-r, divided by six straight spokes. The mouldings are decorated with rows of 
nail-head ornaments, as are also the labels on the windows and tombs. A plain font, 
or holy-water stoup, it is not easy to say which, lies on the floor of the nave. 

"The tomb bearing the inscribed panel is situated to the east of the transept, unci 
eihibits the full-length effigy of a knight in armour of plate, placed under a recesse : 
arch. The feet of the effigy, which are to the east, rest upon an animal, and over the 
head is a panel with the following inscription in black letter : — 

^it : locvlus : cop08t;tl 
pdum : ^llexader : filiva : vilmi 
"JSftnc : €!Iod : dnb : de dutjegan 
^nno : dni : m* : ccccc* : xxviii** 

" The first word of the second line is partly illegible, and the inscription is so ungram- 
maiical that it cannot be strictly construed, but its meaning appears to be that Alex- 
ander, son of William Macleod of Dunvegan, made this tomb, a.i>. 1528. . . . 

*' The effigy of the person commemorated by Uiis elabonitcly sculptured tomb at 
Aowdill (see illustration, p. 217) is represented in armour of plate corresponding to the 
period. The conical bassinet is surrounded by a jewelled wreath ; the camail short, 
the military belt confining the lower part of the close-fitting jupon worn over a haubeik 
with yandyked edge, the thigh-pieces curiously hinged, the knee-pieces peaked, and 
the BoUerets short and obtusely pointed. The sword, which is cross-hihed, is held by 
both hands in front of the figure, the pommel reachiitg to the breast, and the point uf 
the sword placed between the feet. 

*' The deccHtition of the panels forming the back of the recess is very peculiar (see 
illustration, page 216). On the left and over the feet of the effigy, there is a hunting 
Kene, in which a huntsman on foot, armed with sword and spear, is followed by 
two attendants, each with two hounds in leash. In the panel immediately in front is 
a group of three stiigs. The panel adjoining the inscription bears a representation of 
St. Michael weighing souls, the devil sitting by, and evidently taking a practical inte- 
rest in the operation. In the second row of panels, beginning again at the left, we 
have fi»t the representation of a castle, then three panels with canopied niches, of 
which the centre one represents the Virgin crowned and seated on a throne, and bearing 
iu the right hand a sceptre, while with the left she supports the Holy Child upon her 
knee ; the two panels on either side represent abbots — the one on the left with mitre 
and crosier, and the right hand raised in the attitude of benediction ; the one on the 
right presenting a skull, as the emblem of mortality, in his right hand, and holding the 
crosier with his left. The last panel in this row shows a galley in full sail, and the 
side pierced for seventeen oars, not borne heraldically upon a shield, but represented 
pictorially, as if it formed part of the symbolism with which it is surrounded. The three 
upper panels immediately underneath the crown of the arch contain figures of angels. 
In the centre panel are two angels face to face blowing trumpets, and on either side a 
single angel with a censer. The fronts of the voussoirs of the arch are also decorated 
with a series of sculptures, the centre-piece over the crown of the arch representing 
God the Father seated, crowned with a tiara, and holding between the knees the figure 
of the crucified Saviour nailed to the cross, with angels on either side. Of the eight 


panels bordering the Bides of the arch, one on each side is filled with the figure of an 
angel holding u censer, and three on each side are filled with pairs of figui'es holding 
inscribed scrolls which are now illegible. There are traces of a nimbus surrounding 
tlie heads of some of the figures which are best preserved. Sir Walter Scott regarded 
them as figures of the twelve Apostles ; but they seem more likely to be merely emble- 

** Of the other two effigies, the one in the nave to the west of the transept represents 
a man in armour with high peaked bassinet and camail over a habergeon reaching to 
thu knee. The nature of the defences of tlie feet and legs is not indicated. He holds 
a long straight cross-hilted sword in front, the pommel reaching to the breast and the 
point placed between the feet. A dagger hangs at his left side, but the military belt is 

There is another eflSgy at the end of the south transept, but it is much 
defaced. In the south and west faces of the tower are two carved figures 
(male and female) of the class of objects called Sheela-na-giga in Ireland. 

Buchanan states that the church was built in 1498 by Alexander 
Macleod of Harris who was then owner of the property. The inscrip 
tion on the highly elaborate tomh gives 1528 as the date of its erection, 
and if it was erected to the mcmorv of Alexander Macleod it must have 
been erected in his lifetime, as he did not die until 1546. The church had 
fallen into a ruinous condition in 1784, at which date it was partially 
I'cpaired by an Alexander Macleod of Harris. There is an inscription 
on a tablet on the west wall of the church recording this restoration . 
The last restoration in 1870 was done at the expense of the Countess 
of Dunmore, under the supervision of Mr. Alexander lloss, Architect. 

The etymology of Kodil seems to he rather unsettled, the spelling is 
variously given as Eowardill, Rodell, liowdill, Ilodel, and several other 
valiants, but Ilodil seems to be one most commonly adopted. 

{To he continued.) 



fact 3, Vol IX. 

FUUi Serlea. 

%h.e tJournal 

of the 

Rogal ^ocietvf oi Antiquaries 




IlaTeniwii of Dnnow. By Rev. Steiling 
mCoukcy Williams, U.A. (One llloslra- 

lion) : 

■i SesUwnti of Konkitom in tho ISth 
Smnzj. By Francis Elbinoton Ball, 

ILI.I.A., Fettira, ! 

k* Aaeimt SUuo Gtoum of ITi-Fe«rmale, 
Omd^ Cl»ra (Part I.). By Dr. George 
U. lllACHAIiIAttA, Him. Local Secretary for 
North Clare (Eight Illustrations], . i 

BroDze Caldron at Milker- 
B^b Bog, near Granard, Co. Longfcril 
(I»o Hlostra lions) —Holy Well and Anil- 
ities near Cabir, Co. Tipperaiy (One 
IlbilTalioll) — " Chief Rents belonging to 
file 'Earie' of Kildare in the Manor of 
Adare "~ A Cashel on Sliabh na Cailliehe 
{One must ration) — Note on Sliabb na 

XiMSllUCK— eonfinufi. 
Caillighe (Five Il]ustnitions)-« CWetRent " 
a Rose — Soidhe Mochnda Ogam losciip- 
tion, SH 

HottewofBoob, 983 


■eottUh ArehBOloglBftl Tom «f tha BojU 
Soeiatj of Antiqnariai of Iieland in eon- 
jnnetlon with tha CunbriftB Arshnologloftl 
A»»oeUUon— Sections IV.-VII. (Thirty- 
nine Illustrations) ; Supplementary, Parts 
I. and II. (Thirty-eight Illustrations), 966-35 

The Third Qaner*! Meeting, Belfast, i6lh 
August, 1899, 851 

Exeimioni— The "Giant's Ring" (Foarll- 
luslralions) — Drumbo Roand Tower, Co. 
Down (Three Illustrations)— Grey Abbey 
(Four Illustrations) — Armagh, Newgraiige, 
Dowth, &c., 858-866 




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Edited, with Introduction and Notes, by the late Rev. 
Denis Murphy, S.J., LL.D., M.R.I.A., Vice-President. 
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"Hf tsF."W '<0:-> » ' ' 


., TOR, LENOX *N0 










( Continued from page 61.) 
[Bead Ma&ch 29, 1898.] 

'T'he ''Annals of the Four Masters" when recording the death of 

Breanain, Lord of Teffia, tell us that it was he that some time 

before granted Durrow to God and St. ColumbkiUe ; and it is interesting 

farther to observe that there is a document still extant, which tells us 

exactly how the Termon of Durrow was enclosed. Bishop Reeves in his 

** Antiquity of Irish Churches" (p. 46) tells us how amongst the poems 

ascribed to Bt. Columba is one which refers to certain mounds and 

boundary fences erected in the Termon of Durrow by three Pictish 

abbots:^ Tiugulb, Erolbh, and Torulb. This MS. is preserved in the 

Sodleian Library ; and Miss Margaret Stokes, some time ago, kindly 

wrote to me, telling me that through the kindness of the librarian, 

jE^icholson, she had got a photograph of the MS. ; and also obtained 

1 Xhese names have more of a Danish appearance. Miss Margaret Stokes informs 
me tbat there is no evidence that these three brethren were abbots, as supposed by 
Bisbop Beeves ; they appear to be lay brethren, who did the manual labour of the 
r, like the Cutbosians, and who let their beards grow. 

^017&. R.8.A.I., VOt. n., PT. III., OTH 8EK. 



a translation of it from her brother, Mr. Whitley Stokes, which she 
was good enough to send to me, which reads as follows : — 

ColumcilU sang — 

''I. Tiugulb of the abbot's house, Erolbh and Torulb to whom one 

comes, three brothers without dispute whose honour or 

hospitality is best I know." 
'' II. Three descendants of the conquering Picts ; gladness they had 

at every time ; fortune filled them to the ground in the 

abbot's house at Durrow." 
"III. Holy Colum gave decrees to Laisren' — no deceitful cause — ^to 

make dykes (mounds) in Durrow so that there might not be 

a breach therein." 
"lY. They build the bold mounds (dykes). They see their active 

workmen thrice fifty (150) conquering champions, with 

every sober wise man." 
" V. From the time that the work ended it is everyone's voice what 

ever is said : the sober synod went on Sunday into the Abbot's 

"YI. Thus went the sages, after the mound (dyke) and the dirt 

(mire) with a shovel and a cutting-spade in each man's hand 

without avoidance " ? 

The Picts inquire of the Abbot — 

"YII. What shall we do now for we are not reading with them, and 
we are without labour and without toil to subdue us under 
this discipline " ? 

ITie Abbot answers — 

" YIII. Cut ye down the brave forest so that it become smooth beams 
(stakes) ; three trees for every hairy monk proclaim no weak- 
ness of effort." 
*'IX. To put them (the beams or stakes) in a comely row on every 
side around the monastery so that the congregation may have 
a protection against danger with the (its) blasts (?) " 
**X. When the monastery was secure they see that is a . . • 
business ; they build mounds at the Glebe. Meseems it is a 
fervent, manly deed." 

TiugulFs Share, 

" XI. Look ye forth at the share of the old man Tiugulb, the prince 
who collected (? connected) it, from the monastery westward 
to the bog with just (regular bordering mounds.") 

1 This is the same Laisrea placed over Durrow by St. Columba, who was afterwards 
Abbot of lona (see Reeves' *' Columba," pp. 37, 40, 372). These Pictish abbots seem 
to have worked in Laisren's time. It is quite evident that the monastery at Durrow 
was only begun by St. Columba, and the building not completed until afterwards. 


** XII. ' With its site of a laborious milP on its angle.' He was saying 

'tis then the shadow is strong, there has been no grinding, 

there is none." 

JSroWs Share. 

" XIII. The share of Erolb, «. e. the green field (Tamnach— dear 

bequest; at the end of the lawn of Ethne's son (•'.«. St, 

Columba) was arrayed with mounds, so. that it is a help to 

our order." 

Torulh's Share. 

'^XIY. The youngest of the valiant children, Torulb, without weakness 

of effort, chose a land without any sorrow (i. e. the land ot 

Cinnead's daughter). He planted a pillar at its comer.' 
'^XY. The land of Ease and hospitality {^loss, thence westward to 

Greenan,' from Sine* to the lawn) is common to them all. . . • 

There was enough of a storeroom of eating. 
"XVI. The vineyard (jloss, to the west of Greenan which Erolb got he 

put under smoothness of - - - - ) not wrong .... as far as 

the side of Tiugulb's land. 
"XYII. Many mounds, many choice causeways, many roads, and many 

ways they made round Ross Grencha, i,e, Durrow, along with 

the husbandry of their house." 

^ If my supposition is correct, Tiugulb's share was to run a dyke, or mound, from 
the direction of where the old church and holy well are situated, to whera on my map 
I suppose, from the fall in the stream, a miU might have been situated. The bog 
would just come in here, and it would be the very *' angle '* at which the dyke would 
meet the other, which, from this point, would run in a south and east direction, until 
the monastery was enclosed. 

' I have not been able to identify either of the places mentioned above, as I can 
find no trace of the Tamnach, '* the land of Ethne*s son,*' the land of Cinnead's 
daughter; nor can I find the pillar-stone, unless, perchance, the large, rough boulder- 
stone, which appears on the plan, were used as such. 

' The name Greenan is not preserved on the Demesne of Durrow so far as I can 
learn either. 

* Sine is one of the places we can identify, it is just beside the avenue, and is 
well known on the place as Seehawn. The meaning I have heard for the word * See- 
hawn' in the neighbourhood is given variously, as Church council, and white house 
on the hill. Joyce tells us that the word * Sheawn ' is always applied to a fairy mount, 
and that they are generally beautiful green, round hillocks, with an old fort on the 
summit. He also tells us that the name * Sion ' is its equivalent. Of this we have 
MXk example in Sion hill, near Killucan, Westmeath, where, on the summit of a very 
fertile hul, we have one of those raths or mounds. He also gives us an interpretation 
for Seehawn (Suidhe achen), according to which it signifies simply the seat. See- 
hawn, he tells us, is the name of a place near Drumdaleague, in Cork, so called 
because it was the seat of O'Donovan. Another note on the word * Seein ' is curious 
and interesting. It is, he says, the same as * See fin,' with the / aspirated and 
omitted. The name ' See fin ' {* Suidhe Finn') he derives from the renowned Finn- 
mac-Coole, who resided at the hill of Allen, in Kildare, and was the leader of the 
Fenians. One of the principal amusements of these old heroes, when not employed 
in war, was hunting; and during the long sporting excursions they had certain 
favourite hills, on which they were in the habit of resting and feasting during the 
intervals of the chase. These hills, most of which are covered by cams, or moats, 
are called Seefin, i.e. Fin's Seat, or resting-place — can it be that this place in Durrow 
was called Seefin, or Seein, because there the refectory of the monastery was situated 
where they had ^* enough of a storeroom of eating " ? 



Mr. Whitley Stokes says the original is here and there corrupt and 
unintelligihle, and he has no copy from another MS. which might- 
enahle him to learn the right readings ; but, he adds, '' as far as I can 
discover, the gist of those lines is as follows : — Three brethren in the 
abbot's house named Tiugulb, Erolf^ and Torolf, descendants of the 
isonquering Picts, and honourable men, were led by fortune to the abbot's 
house at Rosgrencha*^ Laisren was then abbot of Durrow, to whom the- 
holy Colum had given certain decrees. Thus, he was to make mounds 
or dykes without a breach — in fact, to make the cashell of the monastery.* 
(4) Accordingly, the MS. goes on to tell us, these three, with 150 work- 
tpen, who are described as ^ conquering champions,' working under 
them, each one of the three sober, wise men, probably with his fifty 
labourers under him, built the bold mound or dyke. (5) When the work 
is ended the sober synod went on Sunday into the abbot's house as they 
had left the moun4, carrying their muddy shovel and cutting-spade, and 
they ask the abbot, * What shall we do now ; (7) we do not read with 
you, and T^e require labour and toil for our discipline and our subjection?' 
(8) Then the abbot answers, ' Gut ye down the brave forest, so that it- 
become smooth beams : three trees for every hairy monk.' And the 
abbot tells them also to fix up these beams of planks in a comely row 
all round the monastery, so as to form protection for the congregation 
in the monastery against danger and blasts of wind.' (10) When this, 
task was finished they began to do the same work for the glebe, which 
dwelling seems to have stood apart from the other monastic buildings. 

^ In a previous Paper I mentioned how this old name is still preserved on the- 
place, one part of the demesne being still called Grancha. 

'This agrees well with what is related in Adamnan's '* Life of St. Coliunba,** 
where it also directs our attention to the fact that St. Columha did not complete the- 
monastery at Durrow, but that this work was left to Laisren, his successor (Book iii., 
chap. zY.). '* At another time, while the holy man was sitting writing at his little cell, 
suddenly his countenance changed, and he pours forth this cry from his pure breast^ 
saying, * help, help ! ' But two brothers stund at the door, named Colgu, son of 
Cellagh and Lugne Mocublain, ask him the reason of such a sudden cry. To whom 
the venerable man gave this answer, saying, * I have directed the angel of the Lord^ 
who was just now standing among you, with all hoste to help one of the brethren, 
who has fallen from the top of the roof of the great house (round tower), which is at 
the present time being built in Durrow ' ; and then the saint added these words, saying, 
' how wonderful, and almost unspeakable, is the swiftness of angelic flight, equal, as. 
I think, to the rapidity of lightning, for that heavenly spirit, who just now flew away 
from us hence, when that man began to slip, came to his help, as it were, in the 
, twinkling of an eye, and bore him up before he could touch the ground, nor could 
he who fell perceive any fracture or injury ; how amazing, I say, is the most rapid 
and seasonable help which, quicker than can be said, with such great spaces of land 
and sea lying between, can so very rapidly be rendered.* " See also as a further 
evidence of the same Uiing, Adamnan, Book i., chap, xxix., quoted below. 

3 The planks were probablv set up on the top of the mound already raised around 
the buildings, thus they would prove sufficiently high to break the force of the wind. 
One can well imagine the special need for such protection in Durrow, for though well 
sheltered apparently both by wood and land shelter, at times the wind seems to sweep- 
over the ridge of land which runs across it. The gardener at Durrow Abbey tells me 
that his p;reat difficulty in springtime arises from this wind, which proves very destruc- 
tive to his plants and fruit-trees. 


The narrator then proceeds to tell the share each of these master huilders 
had in the work. First we have Tiugulb's share. Tiugulb, prince and 
old man was he, who enclosed the ground behind the monastery and 
the bog. This might mean that he made the dyke or mound on the 
north side of the monastery. A bog or morass of some kind must have 
occupied the low ground between the monastery and the high ridge of 
ground planted with trees, bounding the demesne from the north, and 
running from east to west. He also seems to say that there was a mill 
at the angle (12), which had fallen into disuse, l^cxt follows Erolb's 
share. He took the green field at the back of the lawn of Columb, the 
son of Ethne, and enclosed it with mounds, so that it became of great 
use to the community.^ Then we have Torulb's share (14). Torulb, 
the youngest of the brave men, chose the land of Cinnead's daughter — a 
land without sorrow ; and he planted a pillar at its comer. There is 
an evident allusion to the refectory in the next verse, speaking of a 
common hall or land between the bam and Sine,' where there was 
enough of a storeroom of eating ; and a gloss is added, saying that this 
place lay to the west towards GrecDau. The vineyard also enclosed by 
Erolb lay west of Greenan, and extended as far as Tiugulb's laud. 
They made, besides, many causeways, roads, paths round Itosgrencha, 
I. e. Durrow,' along with the husbandry of their house." 

* All this description corresponds with the general appearance of things at Durrov 
now. We have the bog there still on the west side, and we may feel sure that, before 
the country was drained, a narrow strip of bog, or morass, lay between the monastery 
<and the high ridge of land where we see the Esker covered with wood, which bounded 
Burrow on the north. To the west and south there is a natural rising ground, which 
would make it yery easy to erect mounds which would be of service, and when topped 
with a pallisade such as is described, they would be very efficacious in affording 
shelter. Then right in front of the church, on the western side, we have the old 
mound, near which Hugh de Lacy is said to have met his death. Perhaps it was this 
Tiugulph, with his fifty unshaven assistants, who raised this as a shelter and souroe 
of defence for the monastery. We have also, at the north and west, a little stream 
which rises just under my house, runs through Durrow, bounding the holy well, and 
partly fed by it, and passes on through the Dog. At the place where I suppose the 
mill may have been there is some fall in the stream, but as it appears at present, I 
should hardly think the water-power sufficient to work a mill. The attempt may 
have been made to use this wuter-power, and when not found very successful, it 
probably had to be given up. At the back of the monastery, where we hear of no 
defence towards the east and north-east, its position was probably made secure by 
reason of the density of the wood, and also by bog and water. Where there is only a 
small stream now, old inhabitants will tell you there was sufficient water for Mr. 
Stepney to have had a boat for his children ; and the Ordnance Survey Map confirms 
this by marking the site of the holy well as St. Columba*s Island. Our poem then 
gives one the idea of a kind of semicircular defence, with a fence erected on it, and 
mounds interspersed at intervals, enclosing a space where the monastic buildings 
were erected, and which was also laid out with choice causeways and mounds, and 
this, as 1 have said, agrees with the general appearance of Dun-ow even now. 

' Sine. Tradition says that the silver bell of Durrow is buried at Seehawn, 
beneath a tree. 

^ 1 have before mentioned another name by which Durrow was called, Dorsum 
Amsennm, or Pleasant Kidge — a name which fitly describes a long Esker which runs 
to the north of the site of the monastery from east to west, and which is still made 
pleasant in early summer, with its verdant foliage, and plenitude of oak-trees ; where 
the groimd is covered with a carpet of spring flowers, which show us how 


One of the few narratives of the^lace, which I have heard is told of 
SeehawH) or Sine. St.Columha, it is said, was journeying from Borrow on 
one occasion, followed by a vast concourse of admirers. But when he came 
as far as Kilclare (the same place as that to which the murderer of Hugli 
de Lacy fled), he discovered that he had left his book behind him. Thia 
fact he mentioned to one of his followers, who passed the intelligence 
back through the crowd, till it reached the last man, who stood at See- 
hawn and reached for the book, passing it on from hand to hand until it 
was given to the saint. This narrative, which shows how large was the 
saint's following (the concourse of people who followed him covering a 
mile and a-half), helps to explain St. Columba's love for Durrow and his 
affection for its inhabitants, expressed in the old ballad which professes 
to be his address to Cormack : — 

** Connack, beautiful is thy church, 
With its books and learning ; 
A devout city with a hundred crosses, 
Without blemish, without transgression. 
A holy dwelling, confirmed by my yerse. 
The green of Aed, son of Brennan ; 
The oak plain of far-famed Rosgrencha ; 
The night upon which her pilgrims collect 
The number of her wise — a fact widespread — 
Is unknown to any but the only God." 

The enlargement and improvement of Durrow after St. Columba left 
it, as we have seen above, was energetically pushed forward by Laisran 
when he was abbot there. The story shows that zeal for work was 
tempered by thoughtfulness for those under them by the saints in olden 
times ; and I think, from my knowledge of the locality, I may add that 
this tradition of 1 300 years ago is still observed on the place by the pre- 
sent proprietor in his dealings with his dependents. *' On one very cold 
and wintry day" (Adamnan tells us, book i., chap, xxix.) "the saint 

immeasurably superior Nature is to Art — when the sun, with its quickening power» 
again makes Durrow a Greenan ; and the joyous note of the blackbird, as of yore, may 
be listened to with pleasure by all who have an ear to hear. At such a time' the 
words of the old ballad come back to us, in which the saint is represented as looking 
back from the land of his exile to the monastery he had founded, and telling hia- 
friend Cormack how happy he should be in a place of such piety and beauty :— 

** How happy the son of Dimmna, of the devout church, 
When he hears in Durrow the desire of his mind ; 
The sound of the wind against the elms — when 'tis played. 
The blackbird's joyous note — when he claps his wings. 
And listens at early dawn in Rosgrencha — to the cattle, and the 
Cooing of the cuckoo from the tree — on the brink of summer." 

We do not then wonder at the variety of names for Durrow, all expressing its natural 
beauty. It is interesting also to notice that a portion of the Esker, which at Duirow 
was called Drumcain, Dorsam Amsenum, or Greenan (t.^. sunny spot, or Royal Site), 
is, a little further on, still known by the name Tara, a name which Joyce teJU us has 
much the same signification. 


wept, being afflicted by a great sorrow. His attendant Diormit, asking 
him about the cause of his sadness, received from him this reply : ' Not 
without reason, my son, am I sorrowful in this hour at the sight of my 
monks whom Laisran is distressing during the construction of some great 
building (round tower?), though they are even now worn out by heavy 
labour, a thing which greatly displeases me.' Wonderful to say, at that 
very moment of time Laisran, dwelling in the monastery of Durrow, is 
some way compelled, and as if kindled by some inward fire, orders that 
the monks cease from their labour, and that some refreshment of viands 
be prepared ; and not only were they to cease from work on that day, 
but to rest on other days of severe weather. The saint hearing in spirit 
these consoling words spoken by Laisran to the brethren, ceased to weep, 
and though himself dwelling in lona, related them throughout, with 
wondrous joy, to the brethren who were there at the time ; and he 
blessed Laisran, the comforter of his monks."^ 

Eespecting these mounds, then, let me in continuation add all that I 
have been as yet able to ascertain. I have made some small attempt at 
excavation on each of them. The first of these is that which is asso- 
ciated with the murder of Hugh de Lacy, immediately to the north of 
which the old castle of Durrow stood, and which was itself covered with 
buildings at one time. Some remains of the old walls still may be found 
on top of it, and when I excavated I found that the mound was raised 
about 6 feet with small stones and debris from the old buildings which 
were ruthlessly destroyed, I believe, at the time that the Stepneys were 
at Durrow.' A tradition has been told me of this mound, similar to 
others which one hears of other moats of the same kind. It is said that 
a certain native of Durrow travelling abroad was summoned to the bed- 
side of a very aged Dane, to whom he had shown at some time some 
kindness. The dying man asked him if he knew where Durrow was, 
and upon his answering that he knew it well, he directed him to go to 
this moat for him, telling him he would find an entrance on its north 
side, and directing him to bring him something which he had left inside. 
The simple kindhearted Irishman went on his mission, came to Durrow, 
found all as he had been told ; and after effecting his entrance to the 
moat, and braving the wrath of an angry cat and also a watch -dog, on 
whose head he was directed to throw an apron, he found not only the 
garment he was told to bring, but much gold and silver as well. Being 
Tery much frightened, and lest he should receive injury, he left the 
treasure untouched, and returned with all haste to fulfil his promise. 
But the story goes on to tell how, instead of being much pleased, the old 

^ See also iii., Adamnan, Book iii., cap. zv., quoted above. 

^ A find is piobably in store for some antiquary- in the future in Durrow. In 
1798, Mr. Stepney was building his garden wall, and when the foundations were 
being prepared, it is said he took possession of all the arms in the possession of people 
in the nei^bourhood, and buried them beneath the garden M-all. At present there is 
8 tennis-ground where the old stableyard used to be. 


Dane was very wrath. ''You did me a aervice," he said, ''and I thought 
to reward you. I gave you a great opportunity ; hut since you have not 
availed yourself of it, you will always remain in need." I give the 
tradition as it has heen told me, for I think it seems a pity that these 
old traditions should he forgotten. This one in particular shows how 
widespread and how lasting was the impression made hy the inroads of 
the Northmen, since the time of their incursions is still rememhered, 
and also that connected with their names there is almost invariahly 
linked some tradition of the magic which they practised. It seems 
especially interesting to hear this tradition, too, ahout this mound, since 
we have a written record of the Danes who were employed in making 
mounds in Durrow.^ 

But from a story which, perhaps, may he deemed too mythical and 
superstitious to he worthy of the regard of serious-minded people, we 
may pass to one which is well authenticated, and which, though already 
well known, it cannot he out of place to repeat while the site of the 
fell deed is in your view. I venture therefore to tell again the story of 
the murder of Hugh de Lacy. A contemporary who was a great admirer 
of his, " Giraldus Camhrensis," gives us a graphic history of him ; 
indeed, historians at all times have heen much taken up with his life 
and work ; for of all the Norman conquerors of Ireland no one seems to 
have left a deeper impress of his strong hand and iron rule. His castles, 
moreover, are still pointed out to us, hy which he overawed the whole 
of the kingdom of Meath and also Kildare. Wherever there was a 
favourahle site and a good post of advantage, there De Lacy seems to 
have erected a stronghold. His very features and appearance are de- 
scrihed to us so vividly that we almost think we see him, as we read 
of his dark features, flat nose, deep-sunk piercing hlack eyes, and the 
horrihle scar caused hy a wound which disfigured a countenance which, 
even apart from this, would not have heen attractive. His appearance 
altogether was uncouth : small in height, ill-proportioned in shape, with 
short neck and hairy hody, it would seem as though the gifts and graces 
which nature had denied to him in his external appearance, she had more 
than compensated for hy reason of the muscular strength of hody which 
fitted him to carry out the feats of daring which his courageous spirit 
prompted, or enahled him to follow out the wise counsels for the admi- 
nistration of his government that his vigorous intellect devised. We 
only regret to learn that so many fine qualities of the mind were spoiled 
hy his immorality and covetousness, and that, from the account of him 
given hy Giraldus Camhrensis, we are forced to the conclusion that his 
moral character, like his physical features, was disfigured hy a scar. 

^ Cf, MisB Margaret Stokes's ** Early Christian Architecture," chap. xiii. A 
tradition, in many respects similar to this, used to be told me when a little child, of 
a large mound at Ruthwire, near Killucan. As Durrow is connected wiUi the name 
of Hugh, so Hath wire is connected with the name of Robert de Lacy. 


So poweifnl had the g^eat Hugh de Lacy become that the King of 
England (Holinshed tells us) was by no means sorry when he heard of 
his death. Leland, in his history, however, tells us that his death was 
avenged, if not by his master, yet by his friend Sir John de Courcy. 
In conjunction with young Lacy, son to the late lord, he is said to have 
taken severe vengeance for the murder of his gallant countryman {ef. 
^'Giraldus Cambrensis'' and also Hanmer); and it is not without signi- 
ficance, in connexion with this piece of history, that we find that the 
name of the old country of the Foxes, who instigated the murder, and 
which was then called Munter Thadgan, has been changed, and the barony 
now bears the name of Kilcoursey. 

But the power of DeLacy is shown in another way, for just as after 
ills death there was a contention between Bective and St. Thomas* Abbey, 
Dublin, as to who should have his body, so that they were not content 
to let him rest in peace in Durrow, but Bective should claim his head 
and St. Thomas' Abbey his body ; so also with respect to the occasion of 
his death, there has been some dispute between those who record it as to 
which place should have the honour ascribed to it of being the site of his 
murder. Even in this neighbourhood there are some who will tell you 
that he was slain, not at Durrow itself, but at Shancourt or Bosdeala 
Castle, which is about a mile away. In 1838 John Daly of Eilbcggan, 
aged 82, told O'Connor that it was while engaged in making a trench at 
Shancourt that De Lacy was murdered. In 1898 John Daly of Durrow, 
about the same age, gave me much the same account. It is evidently to 
reconcile these two traditions that some say he was engaged making a 
causeway between Durrow and Shancourt, and that it was while engaged 
at this work he met his death. However, if De Lacy thought it advisable 
to have these two strongholds so near one another (t.^. Shancourt and 
Durrow), it is an evidence that Durrow was an important Celtic strong- 
hold, and an especially advantageous position to make secure ; and the 
event proves that he was not wrong in his judgment, for there the strong 
l^orman Conqueror himself was treacherously slain. Tradition tells us 
that the murderer dressed himself in mean garments, and took the place 
of one of De Lacy's workmen when he went to dinner, and in this way 
got the opportunity he sought for to accomplish the end he had in view. 
One thing, however, seems clear to me, and that is, that all the authentic 
accounts agree in making the Castle of Durrow,^ lying immediately at 
the monastery of St. Columba, the site of the murder. At any rate this 
is the account taken from the "Annals of Ulster*': — "1186. Hugo 
de Lacy, the profaner and destroyer of the sanctuaries and churches of 
Ireland, was killed in revenge of Columbkille while making a castle at 
Durrow. He was killed by O'Meyey of Teffia." We have the history 

^ The '* Annals of Clonmacnoise " point out to us that, even before De Lack's 
time, a castle existed in Durrow, since they tell us that the English, on this occasion 
(1 186), '* finished and aided '* the castles of Durrow, Byrre, and Kinnety. 


in a still more interesting form in the ** Annals of Lough C6 ": — 
"a.d. 1186. Hugo de Lacie went to Durrow to make a castle there, 
having a countless numher of the English with him, for he was king of 
Meath, Breefny, and Oriel, and it was to him the tiihute of Connaught 
was paid, and he it was who won all Ireland for the English. Meath, 
from the Shannon to the sea, was full of his castles and English (fol- 
lowers). After the completion of the work by him, he came out to look 
at the castle, having three English along with him. There came then 
one youth of the men of Meath up to him, having his hattleaxe con- 
cealed, named Gilla-gan-inathar O'Meyey, the foster-son of the Fox 
himself, and he gave him one blow so that he cut off his head, and he 
fell, both head and body, into the ditch of the castle." 

I made excavations at two other places also. On the top of 
another mound we found stones, which seemed to indicate that the soil 
at some time had been moved. Then we came on some cinders, and 
soon afterwards found an entire skeleton of a man. I have been told of 
one other instance of a rath being opened, and of cinders being found 
buried with a body. There was not the smallest trace of cremation, and 
the idea suggested itself to me that perhaps the cinder may have been 
made emblematic of the life which was extinct, and perhaps also of its 
being capable of being rekindled. The other place, outside the grave- 
yard itself, which I have made any attempt to excavate was at the 
mound called Sine or Seehawn. There I found just a trace of mortar,* 
which would show that the tradition of the place, which says the 
monastery was situate there, was not altogether wrong. In this part of 
the demesne also the rabbit-holes are oftentimes found to contain num- 
bers of human bones. I do not know that any other object of interest is 
to be found outside the graveyard, except, indeed, the holy well, which 
is still resorted to for cures, as the dead tree, covered with rags, which 
stands beside it, testifies. Patron-day, June 9th, is celebrated at Durrow 
with due honours. The peasants, too, will tell you how Mr. Stepney 
long ago closed the well, and forbade anyone to use its waters ; but how 
the spring would not be repressed, but, as a punishment to the sacri- 
legious proprietor, burst up through the drawin groom floor. One could 
wish that our Saint had also some method equally efficacious to repress 
those ardent aspirants after cheap celebrity, who, in order to put them- 
selves in evidence, must needs scratch their names on and deface the 
inscription which in modem times has been put over the well. Under 
the directions of Captain Garvey (the father of Mr. Toler Garvey, the 
agent) the well was again cared for and covered in, and a suitable 
inscription placed over it, with lines taken, I believe, from poetry sup- 
posed to have been written by St. Columba about his other monastery at 
Derry. The words are, nevertheless, quite as applicable to Durrow : — 

** Here angels shall enjoy my sacred cell, 
My sloe, my nut, my apple, and my well." 


For one thing the reference to the apple will recall to those familiar 
with Adamnan's '* Life of St. Columha," the pretty story that is told 
(Book ii:, Miracles of Power, chap, ii.), entitled ** Of the Sour Fruit of 
a certain Tree which was turned into Sweetness by the Blessing of the 
Saint." I think the story bears repetition, -so I may be pardoned for 
again quoting from Adamnan : ** There was a certain tree yery full of 
apples near the monastery of Campus Koboris (i,e» Burrow), in .the 
southern part of it, and when the inhabitants of the place made some 
complaint about the exceeding bitterness of the fruit, one day in the 
time of autumn the Saint approached it, and seeing that the tree bore 
abundant fruit to no purpose, which hurt rather than delighted those who 
tasted it, raising his holy hand, blessing it, he says, ' In the name of 
Almighty God, let all thy bitterness, O bitter tree, depart from thee, 
and let thine apples, up to this time most bitter, be turned into the very 
sweetest.' Wonderful to say, and no sooner than said, in the same 
moment all the apples of that tree lost their bitterness, and, according 
to the word of the saint, were turned to sweetness."* 

Whether we are inclined to believe this miracle in its literal sense 
as implicitly as Adamnan seems to have done, or not, we have to acknow- 
ledge amongst the good deeds which these monks performed, the know- 
ledge of agriculture that they acquired, by which bad land was so 
enriched, that to this day it bears testimony to their skiU. At the 
present time the best land in Burrow is round the spot where the 
monastery stood. It is, I think, with the exception of the land in the 
vicinity of TihiUy, the only grass-land in the parish which is capable 
of fattening cattle, and yet, so far as I can judge, the subsoil is much 
the same as the district all around. The rabbit-holes show the same 
kind of fox-sand which, in this district, lies close to the surface in all 
the upland. This same thing was pointed out to me lately by one well 
qualified to be a judge in agricultural matters, where land was tilled in 
the neighbourhood of an old monastic building which for centuries had 
been a luxuriant pasture. He pointed out to me that the land had no 
natural richness, but owed its fertility to the superior management it 
had received in the past. Whether, then, St. Columba actually performed 
a miracle on this apple-tree at Burrow, or not, we know his successors 
evidently showed their sympathy for those not gifted with miraculous 
powers in the knowledge of practical agriculture and horticulture they 
imparted, teaching alike the farmers how to till their land, and 
gardeners how to graft their apple-trees. 

Another characteristic of these saints in old times strikes me as being 
one which is, I believe, only found amongst the most civilized people 
and refined natures, i.e, kindness to animals. This Christian duty, 
which-seems to be reviving at the present day, appears to have been 

1 A similar miracle was ascribed to St. Mochoenoc : ef, Colgan's ''Acta SS.," 
p. 893. 


understood by them. The most enthusiastic amongst us, in this respect, 
have scarcely come up to our predecessors who lived in these monastic 
institutions. Their affection for their animals led them even to depict 
them on their crosses amongst the most sacred surroundings. Adamnan, 
relating the story of St. Golumba's life, is careful to relate his con- 
cern for a crane which came to lona from Ireland, and needed food 
and rest ; and in his story of the saint's death, we read how the 
old white horse was inspired by God to perceive that which was 
hidden even from Golumba's own associates. And equal emphasis is 
laid upon the animal's affection for the saint, and the saint's concern for 
the old horse who had served him so well. 

An account of Durrow, too, would be incomplete, if it did not take 
notice of the rivalry which existed between Durrow and Clonmacnoise, 
the foundation of Eieran the carpenter. The *' Annals of Clonmacnoise " 
tell us of a great battle, in 759, between the Family of Durrow 
and Clonmacnoise, at Argamoyne. In 1070 we are told of another 
battle with another great monastic institution, for we are told 
how the people of Teffia came to the Termon land of Killeaghie, and 
preyed and spoiled it. But our Adamnan once again comes in, 
and tells us that this spirit of warfare was not the spirit of its 
founder, and that in the oldest and best days of both places. 
Christian love and Christian fellowship existed such as should exist 
between all who claim that sacred title (Adamnan, Book i., chap. iii.}. 
'^ At another time the blessed man, while staying some months in the 
central part of Ireland, founding, by Divine favour, his monastery, 
which is called in Scotia (Irish) Dair mag (Durrow), thought it well to 
visit the brethren who were dwelling together in St. Kieran's monastery 
at Clonmacnoise ; and, on hearing of his arrival, everyone from the fields 
about the monastery, together with those who were found gathered to- 
gether within it, following, with all eagerness, their Abbot Alither, set 
off, with one consent, going outside the enclosure of the monastery to meet 
St. Columba as an angel of the Lord. And they humbly bowed, with 
their faces to the earth, as they saw him, and, with all reverence, they 
kissed him, and raising their voices in hymns and praises, they conduct 
him through, with all honour, to the church; and tying together a 
canopy of poles, they had it borne by four men, walking in pairs, around 
the saint as he walked, lest, mark you, a man of St. Columba's age, 
should be thronged by the crowding together of such a multitude of the 
brethren. And in that same hour a certain servant-boy, much cast 
down in countenance, and meanly clad, and not yet approved by his 
elders, came behind, hiding himself as much as he could, that he might 
touch even the fringe of that cloak which the blessed man wore, 
secretly, and, if possible, without his knowing or perceiving it. But 
yet this was not hidden from the saint, for that which with his bodily- 
eyes he could not see done behind him, he perceived by spiritual vision. 


and 80 he suddenly stops, stretches out his hands behind hiio, catches 
the hoy by the neck, and drawing him forth, sets him in front of him, 
while all those who are standing around say, send him away ! send him 
away ! why dost thou detain this wretched and troublesome boy ? But 
the saint, on the other hand, utters these prophetic words from his pure 
heart : * Suffer it to be so now, brethren — suffer it be so now ' ; but to 
the boy, who is trembling all over, he says : ' my son, open thy 
mouth, and put out thy tongue.' Then the boy, at his bidding, and 
with much trembling, opened his mouth, and put out his tongue, and 
the saint, stretching forth his loring hand, reverently blesses it, and 
thus prophetically speaks, saying : * Although this boy may now appear 
to you one to be despised, and of very low esteem, let no one despise 
him on that account ; for, from this hour, not only will he not displease, 
but he will greatly please you, and in good conduct, and the virtues of 
the soul he will, by degrees, advance from day to day ; wisdom also, and 
prudence shall, from this day, bo increased in him more and more, and 
great is his future career in this your congregation. His tongue also 
will be endowed by Ood with wholesome doctrine and eloquence.' '^ 
This was Erene, son of Crasene, afterwards famous, and of the greatest 
note among all the churches of Scotia (Ireland).^ 

' Besides those passages quoted above, we find the followiBg interesting references 
made to Durrow in Adamnan's "Life of St. Columba," Book i., cap. 49: — <*The 
foreknowledge of the Blessed Man concerning the war which took place after manv 
years in the fortress of Cetbrin, and about a certain well near to tbat place." In this 
oarratiTe Adamnan incidentally tells us of a *< soldier of Christ, Finan by name, who, 
for many years, led an Anchorite's Life near the monastery of Durrow (Roboreti 
Monasterium Campi)." In Book ii., chap, 39, we are told of Libran of the Reed 
Ground. In the course of the narrative we are told how Libran faithfully took 
the monastic vow ; and when he was being sent back by the holy man to .the 
monastery, in which he previously, for seven years, served the Lord as a penitent, he 
received from him, as he bade him farewell, these prophetic words uttered concerning 
himself: — '* Thou shalt live a long life, and close the present life in a good old age — 
not, however, in Britain, but in Ireland, will thy resurrection be." Hearing the 
word, he (Libran) wept bitterly, on bended knees, and the saint seing him much 
distressed, began to console him, saying: — "Arise, and let not thine heart be 
troubled ; thou shalt die in one of mine own monasteries, and with my chosen monks in 
the kingdom shall thy portion be ; with them shall thou awake from the sleep of death 
to the Resurrection of Life." He then having received from the saint no ordinary con- 
solation, greatly rejoiced, and made well by the benediction of the saint, went on his 
way in peace — which true prophecy of the saint concerning the same man was after- 
wards fulfilled. For while he served the Lord in obedience in the monastery of the 
Plain of Lange, though many rolling years after the passing away of St. Columba 
from the world, the monk being sent, in extreme old age, to Scotia (Ireland) on some 
monastic service, as soon as he went down from the ship, passed through the Plain of 
Breg (in Meath), and came to the monastery of Oak Plain (Durrow), and there received 
as a gneet in the guest house ; afflicted by some infirmity, on the seventh day of his 
.sickness he departed in peace to the Lord, and was buried amone the chosen monks 
of St. Columba, according to his prophecy to rise to eternal life." 

In Book III., chap. 9 tells of the soul of a blacksmith carried off to heaven by 
angels. This Columb Coilrigio lived in the central portion of Ireland — ** In Mediter- 
ranea Scotio." In Book i., chap. 3, which I have quoted above, Durrow is thus 
described : — <* In Meditemxnea Hibemin parte monasterium quod ScoticS dicetur 



I don't think I could condnde with an incident better calculated to 
leave on your minds a pleasing impression of life in ancient times in 
Irish monasteries, or a narrative better calculated to give us a lofty 
idea of the character of him who founded Burrow more than 1300 years 
ago. I can best comment od it by using the words of the prophecy 
ascribed to St. Patrick, and said to have been uttered, concerning 
St. Columba, one hundred years before his birth, that ''there should 
descend of ffergus one who, for sweetness of life and hospitality, would 
prove a very good man." 

Termon of Durrow* 

( 233 ) 




[Read Notbmbbk 29, 1898.] 

Tn order to realize the appearance of Monkstown in the last century we 
must picture to ourselves a thinly peopled and rural tract of country, 
bordered by a rocky and barren shore, and approached by roads, which, 
from their condition, and from the footpads, who frequented them, were 
alike dangerous and disagreeable to the traveller. The paiish extended 
from Blackrock to Dalkey, embracing all the land on which Kingstown 
is now built, then called Monkstown Commons,' and the church was the 
only one, save that of StiUorgan, between Dublin and Bray, and served 
not alone for the residents in Monkstown, but also for those in the parishes 
of Dalkey, KilHney, Kill, and TuUy.» 

Of the history of Monkstown Dr. Stokes has told us much in his 
inimitable papers on '* The Antiquities from Kingstown to Dublin,''' but 
the basis for this paper is a document, which had not then come under 
his notice, a return made, in 1766, by the curate of Monkstown, for a 
religious census of Ireland, which was taken in that year by order of the 
Irish Parliament. In some cases the clergy gave only the number of their 
parishioners, but fortunately for us, the curate of Monkstown returned 
the names of those within his charge.* 

Let us DOW suppose ourselves in the year 1766, setting out in the 
month of April to take a walk through the parishes, already mentioned, 
which formed the ecclesiastical union of Monkstown. Starting from 
Blackrock, we pass up by what has since been called Temple Road, and 
come to the foot of Temple Hill, where, turning round the corner, we 
descend towards the sea, and find ourselves in Newtown Castle Byrne, 
or Newtown on the Strand, as Seapoint was then called. There a 
number of detached houses have been recently built, each of them 
surrounded by a garden, and by more or less land.'^ 

*8ee Rocque'B " Map of the County Dublin," published by Laurie and Whittle. 

*Stillorgan and Kilmacud were also included in the ecclesiastical union of 
Monkstown until 1764, when StiUorgan Church began to be used, and a resident curate 
was appointed. See the Journal for 1898, p. 21, note 4, and p. 331, note 6. 

' See the/ottrMa/for 1893, pp. 343-56, and for 1895, pp. 5-15. 

• The " religious returns " of 1766 are preserved amongst the ** Irish Parliament 
Becords,*' in the Irish Public Record Office. 

* ** Newtown'* is plainly shown on Rocque's map, the survey for which was made 
about 1750, to have been situated wbere Ardenza Terrace and Seapoint Railway 
Station now stand. It was a small town, and in an old lease the square of Newtown is 


We come first to ** the cell hard by ye Sable Rock " with its watch- 
tower and lawn, where dwells Lord Charlemont's most devoted hermit, 
his old tutor, Edward Murphy.^ He is ever glad to share a chop and 
some fruit with his friends, and exhibits to us with delight all the rare 
things which he had acquired abroad when travelling with his noble 
pupil. He shows us his busts of the Roman emperors and empresses 
— a truly imperial series — which were modelled for him at Rome from 
the originals by an artist called Simon Viei-pyle, who for four years, 
winter and summer, stood in the chilly Capitoline museum to execute 
the task, and which were pronounced by connoisseurs to be duplicates 
not copies.' Then he exhibits his curious calabash bowl, his Italian 
artificial flowers, his glass and china, and his Turkish bows and arrows. 
We gently chaff him on the descent from Irish kings which he claims, 
and he tells us how delighted he was with Killamey, where he had been 
a few years before, and that he had never seen abroad a finer view than 
was to be obtained from the top of Mangerton. Poor fellow ! he is de- 
pendent on Lord Charlemont's bounty. He is far from well, but wishes 
'Ho go out of this world like a gentleman, that is to say, as a gentleman 
slips out of a room without disturbing his friends who stay to take the 
other bottle," and it is only when " two wonder-working leeches, the 
celebrated Dr. Trotten, and the sage Dr. Noddy" become necessary for 
the prevention of further havock, that he teUs his patron of his illness, 
who at once increases his "dearest ^Noddy's" pension.' 

mentioned. The ** Great Room of Castle Byi-n, near the Blackrock/' was well known. 
Assemblies were constantly held there ; and we find Lord Cbancellor Jocelyn dining 
there in 1749, with the gentlemen of the Court of Chancery, on the anniversary 
of the battle *of the Boyne. See Faulkner* 8 Dublin Journal, April 28, to 
May 2, 1741 ; July 4-8, 1749, and Fue^t Occurrences, May 31 to June 4, 1743. 
Blacki'ock was then a much smaller place, but later on it began to increase in 
impoitance ; and in Fue*8 Occurrencee, July 10-14, 1764, it is announced that a 
spacious ball-room has been ox)ened at " the Sign of the Ship at Blackrock.'' Much 
information about Newtown is to be obtained from an advertisement of an auction at 
Dick's Coffee House in Skinner s Bow, of Mr. Edward Shanley's concerns at 
**Newtown-on-the-Strand, now Newtown Castle Byrne," in Fue*9 Occurrences^ 
Sept. 6-10, 1757, and from a deed poll from Howard and others to LaTouche, of 
Feb. 3, 1758, in the Registry of Deeds* Office. 

^ Murphy, who was a native of Tipperary, was a scholar and graduate of Dublin 
University. Sir John Gilbert, in editing the Charlemont Correspondence, has styled 
him, *' Eev.," but he was not in orders. In the announcement of his death, on 
Sept. 12, 1777, it is mentioned that he was "one of the best classical scholars in 
Europe.*' — Fxshaw^s Magazine, From an interesting communication to ** Notes and 
Queries '* for 1899, on Barry 0*Meara, who was a grandnephew of Murphy, I have 
found that Murphy was buried in the Queen's County. The author is mistaken, 
however, in saying that Murphy is styled ** Rev.** on the tombstone. 

2 Murphy left these busts to Lord Charlemont. He says in his will that they 
would be useless to his relatives, as there is no one in Dublin with "taste, cash, or 
spirit enough " to buy them, and their transit to London would be attended with 
such breakage as to render them worthless. They were presented, in 1868, to the 
Royal Irish Academy, by the 4th Earl of Charlemont, and are now ranged round the 
room, known as the museum, on the book-cases. See Proceedings of tne R.I.A., for 
1868-9, App., pp. xxzvii, xlv. 

^ See " Correspondence of James, 1st Earl of Charlemont," edited by Sir John 
Gilbert, Hist. MSS. Com., Rep. 12, App. pt. z., vols. i. and ii., paewn ; also- 


GloBe by lives the Rev. Thomas Heany,^ the curate of MonkBtowD, 
whom we find busy preparing the census return. He was appointed to 
this cure in 1742, on the death of the Rer. Allen Maddisoo,' who had 
held it for fifty years. Heany, who had previously been curate of St. 
Peter's and of Donnybrook, owed his appointment to Lord Chancellor 
Jocelyn, whose friendship he enjoyed through his marriage to a daughter 
of Walter Harris. A year after he was given the curacy of Monkstown, 
when driving from town with his wife, he had a terrible experience of 
the dangers of the Black rock-road. Near Booterstown his horse ran back, 
and he and his wife had only time to leap out of the chaise before the 
horse and vehicle disappeared over a great precipice and were dashed to 

Not far off we find the country residence of Lieu tenant-General John 
Adlercron, who is now living in his house in Daw son-street. As colonel 
of the 39th Regiment of Foot he took no inactive pai-t in the operations 
in the Eust Indies under Lord Clive, and after his return the Lord 
Lieutenant, the Earl of Halifax, was amongst those who partook of his 
hospitality at Newtown.* 

We come next to the villa belonging to the Lord Chief Baron, the 
Right Hon. Edward Willes, who is also now residing in town, in his 
house on the north side of St. Stephen's Green. The villa is called by 
him Rockfield, and stands on what is known as the Castle field. It is a 

unpublished letters in the Charlemont MS. Correspondence in the Royal Irish 
Academy ; letter from Chief Baron Willes, Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 29252 ; and 
Prerogative Will of Edward Mui-phy. 

^ lleany was a scholar and M.A. uf Dublin University. He was ordained at St. 
Peter's, uii June I, 1729, and was licensed curate of i)t Peter's and of Donnybrook, 
on March 4, 1735, and of Monkstown un February 12, 1742. He married in 1739 
Elizabeth Harris, and died in February 1769. See Todd's ** Graduates of Dublin 
University," ** Dublin Diocesan Registers,*' and Ex»haw'» Magazine. 

* Maddison, who was a native of Fermanagh, graduated in 1685, B. A , in 
Dublin University, and proceeded M.A. in 1688. He was licenaed curate of 
Monkstown, on April 26, 1691, and was collated in 1709 to the Prebend of 
Lulliaghmore in Kildare. He was buried under the Communion Table of the old 
Church of Monkstown, on January 29, 1742. See Todd's *' Graduates of Dublin 
Universiiy," Cotton's ** Fasti iicclesiae Hibemics," Monkstown Parish Registers, 


' See Dublin Consistorial Will of Thomas Heany, and Fue^s OccurreneeSy 
June 25-28, 1743. 

* General Adlercron was descended from Huguenots, who settled in Dublin at the 
close of the seventeenth century. He became Colonel of the 39th Regiment in 1752, 
and embarked in March, 1754, from Cork for tiie East Indies. He was promoted to 
the rank of Major-General in 1758, and Lieutenant -General in 1760. He manied in 
St. Peter's Church, Dublin, on July 18, 1737, Elizabeth, daughter of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Arabin, and had three children — John, who m'Os guzeitcd in 1757, a comet in 
the dragoons, married, in 1774, Miss Berminghum, and died in 1782: William Hargmve, 
who was also a dragoon officer, onddied in 1780, leaving large chaiitable bequests ; and 
Elizabeth, who married, in 1766, Sir Capel Molyneux, Bait. Adlercron died at 
Newtown, on July 27, 1766, **of an apoplectic fit after eating a hearty dinner." See 
Lr Touche's ** Registers of the French Churches in Dublin," "Notes and Queries," 
3 S., iv. 383, 460; Prerogative Wills; Exshaw's Magazine for 1757, p. 608; 
Lyons's *' Grand Juries of the County Westmcath," vol. ii., p. 3: Ftie^t Occurrences y. 
March 9-12, 1754, April 20-24, 1762, July 29, 1766. 

JOUK. R.B.A.I., VOL. IX., FT. HI., 5tH BER. S 


pretty little house — a thatched cahin, as he loves to call it — sarroimded 
by a few acres of land, and a garden which slopes down to the sea. From 
one window of his parlour .he looks out on the channel, which divides 
him from his English home ; and from the other he has a charming view 
of the Dublin mountains, of valleys and of woods, with country houses 
here and there, and the little town of Newtown underneath, and of Lord 
Allen's obelisk* in the distance, then considered the truest in proportion 
and beauty of any monument of tlie kind on this side of the Alps. 

Willes deserves more than passing mention, and I must digress for a 
moment to say a little about him. He was an Englishman, a member of 
an old Warwickshire family, and a cousin of the great Chief Justice 
Willes. He held in England the offices of Recorder of Coventry, Attorney- 
General of the Duchy of Lancaster, and King's Seijeant-at-Law when 
elevated, in. 1767, to the chief seat in the Irish Exchequer vacant by the 
promotion of Bowes to the Chancellorship. Duhigg does not estimate his 
legal attainments very highly; and in the Exchequer he was overshadowed 
by the great Anthony Malone, then Chancellor of the Exchequer, who 
from love of his profession, exercised his right of sitting in court with the 
barons. Willes has, however, left behind him letters and memoranda 
relating to Ireland, which, while proving the thorough knowledge that 
he acquired of the country and of the people, show that he was possessed 
of a mind of no ordinary intelligence and activity. They indicate, also, 
that he was a man of the highest integrity, and that he acted, as he says 
himself, on the principle that a judge ought, like Cassar's wife, to be 
above suspicion. 

The letters are addressed to his friend, the then Earl of Warwick. 
In them he describes the country through which he passed when going 
the five circuits. While on the North-West he visited the Qiant's 
Causeway, and while on the Munster, Killarney. Of these places he 
gives most interesting accounts. He was usually accompanied on circuit 
by his wife, a lady *' of excellent, cheerful spirits." In most of the 
towns, entertainments were given in honour of the judges and bar; and 
in Cork, where the Chief Baron was much struck by the beauty of the 
women, there was a specially large and brilliant assembly. The Chief 
Baron's eldest son graduated in Trinity College ; and while a student we 
find him making a speech in the Printing-house to the Duke of Bedford 
when, as Lord Lieutenant, he visited the University, and again, six years 
later, addressing, in the Philosophy School, the Earl of Northumberland 
when he came to the college in a similar capacity. This son afterwards 
took orders, and, though of a retiring disposition, gained a high reputa- 
tion as a scholar. The Chief Baron sufPcred much from both gout and ague, 
which were aggravated by the discomforts which lie had to endure on 
circuit. In the year of which I am writing — 1766 — his health coni- 

^ See the Journal for 1898, p. 30. 


^leteiy' broke down, and he sought relief in his native air. He never 
^returned to this country, and died two years later at Newbold Comyn, 
his seat in Warwickshire.^ 

Adjoining the Chief Baron's villa is a handsome house, surrounded by 
fruit trees and flowering shrubs, belonging to Mr. Thomas Burroughs, an 
eminent attorney, related by marriage to the Nugcnts of Clonlost, in the 
county "Westmeath.* 

yfe come next to Seapoint House, the country seat of the Honorable 
Robert Marshall, one of the judges of the Common Fleas. He is now, 
I think, at Bath trying to restore his health, which has been sadly broken 
of late. 

Here I must again digress to notice briefly one who, though forgotten 
as a judge, is still recollected as the co-residuary legatee (with Bishop 
Berkeley) of the unhappy Vanessa. He was the son of Mr. John Mar- 
shall of Clonmel, and was called to the bar in 1723, the year in which 
Vanessa died. Bishop Stock has accused him of no kindly feelings to- 
wards Swift, but this feeling, if it ever existed, must subsequently have 
changed, for he was one of those who endeavoured to promote a national 
memorial to the Dean after his death.' Having secured a seat in 
parliament, as one of the representatives of his native town, Marshall was 
appointed a serjeant-at-law. He was leading counsel for the claimant 
in the celebrated Annesley peerage case, and obtained a verdict for his 
client. As a speaker he was probably tedious, and possessed of little 
natural eloquence; one of those grave Serjeants who, if they rose to speak 
in the House of Commons near midnight, were, Francis Hardy tells us, 
as certain, though sad, harbingers of day as the bird of dawning ever 
was. In 17*54 he was raised to the bench. As I have mentioned, he 
was in bad health at the time of which I am writing. He resigned his 
seat on the bench a few months later, but lived for some years after his 
retirement. His wife, who was a Miss Wooley, a granddaugliter of Sir 
Abraham Yarner, was said to have brought him a fortune of £30,000.* 

' Chief Baron Wille8*8 memoranda, and a copy of his lettei-s to the Earl of 
Warwick, are in posBession of Mrs. Willes, of Newbold Comyn. There is anotlier copy 
of the letters in the British Museum, Add. MS. 29252. See Hist. MSS. Com. 
Rept. 2, App., p. 103, and Bept. 3, App., p. 435 (where he is confounded with his 
cousin, Edward Willes, who was Solicitor- General and a Judge of the King's Bench 
in England); Colvile's "Worthies of Warwickshire,'* p. 812; Field's '* Memoirs of 
the Rev. Samuel Parr," vol. i., p. 204; Field's "Account of Warwick,*' pp. 
^30,380, Faulkner's Dublin Journal, March 15-17, 1757 ; Exshaw's Magazine 
Hay 5 and June 3, 1757 ; lease from Coates to Willes, of June 29, 1763, and from 
Willes to Day, of March 22, 1769, in Registry of Deeds Office. 

- See iW# Occuneneet, Oct. 23-26, 1762, and May, 26-29, 1764, and for his 
death at Bath, Skater' » Dublin Chronicle, May 23, 1789. 

' Since 1 read this paper. Dr. Birkheck Hill has published Swift's letters to 
Knightley Chetwode. From one of these it appears that Swift thought Marshall 
was responsible for the publication of the poem of Cadenus and Vanessa. Hill's 
"Unpublished lettei-s of Dean Swift," p. 189. 

* See paper on «* Robert Marshall of Clonmel, Esq.," by F. E. Ball, in the 
Journal of the Cork Historical and Archaeological Society for 1897, p. 263; Carroll's 
"Succession of the Clergy of St. Bride," p. 26 ; and Hardy's ** Life of Charlemont,' 
vol. L, p. 139. 



We make our way next to Newtownpark-avenue. In a small bouse 
near the Bray-road lives Mr. "William Ralphson, of Clongill, a very 
wealthy and charitably-disposed gentleman,^ and in the house after- 
wards known as Bockfield' we find a family called Manning. 

We proceed then to the church of Monkstown.' About twenty 
years before our visit it was enlarged, but it is still a small structure. 
On the east of the churchyard lives Mr. Robert White, and on the 
north, almost on the roadside, opposite to Monkstown Castle, is the 
house which Yiscoun4; Ranelagh built and now occupies.^ Some years 
ago he claimed, as the descendant of the second son of the first Viscount, 
the title which had lain dormant for nearly fifty years, since the death 
of his cousin, the notorious Earl of Ranelagh. He is Chairman of 
Committees in the House of Lords, and is dependent on the grants voted 
to him by the peers, and on a small pension from the Crown, as the 
fortune of his ancestors went in the female line, and his father, wh» 
was an officer, dissipated such means as he had. The English 
Government has in him a zealous supporter, but he is popular on 
account of his interest in local affairs, especially in the improvement of 

^ He died on Dec. 14, 1784, and left large legacies to his three nieces, who had, 
married respectively. Dr. Stuck, Bishop uf Killalu, Dr. Newcombe, Bishop of 
Waterford, and the Eev. Henry Palmer, Archdeacon of Ossory. The residue of his 
property he bequeathed to trustees for charitable purposes. The latter gave £3000 to 
the Rotunda Hospital, with which the Governors bought houses in Cavendish Row. 
These, until recently, bore a tablet with the words, ** Halphson's Rents." A ward 
in the hospital is also called by his name. See Faulkner* 8 Dublin Journal, Dec. 
14-18, 1784, Sleater't JDublin Chronicle, June 18, 1789; Irish Builder for 
1897, pp. 57, 71 ; and lease from Gill to Ralphson of April 30, 1770, inRegi;>try of 
Deeds Office. 

' Rockfield, now the residence of William P. Geoghegan, Esq., is one of the oldest 
houses in the neighbourhood, und though to some extent spoilt by alterations, retains 
many of its original charming, and quaint characteristics. It was occupied during 
his vice-royalty by the Marquis of Townshend ; and probably it was the companion of 
Wolfe who caused the martial design, with the words, ** Britain's Glory " underneath, 
to be erected on the wall of tbe staircase. Subsequently it was occupied by Sir 
Frederick Flood, and later on by Sir Jioyle Roche. See Dublin Evening Post 
Feb. 6, 1794, for advertisement uf '* Rock vale," and leases in Registry of Deeds 

* A wood-cut of the ruins of this church will be found in the Dublin Penny 
Journal, vol. iii., p. 241. It was built after the Restoration, on the site of the ancient 
*' chapel of Oarrickbrennan." In 1748, it was decided to build an additional aisle 
** for the more convenient accommodation of the purishioners." This wus duh^^at a 
cost of some £80, besides the expense of pews and flagging, which was borne by 
those who were given seats in the aisle. Some thirty yeai s later it was reported to 
Parliament that the parishioners had resolved that the church was not sufficient for 
their accommodation, and that being very old, and in a ruinous condition, it ought not 
to be enlarged, but taken down and re-built on a more extensive plan. in 1785, a 
petition wus presented to the Privy Council for a change of site ; and in the same year, 
on September 1, the foundation-stone of a new church was laid by the Lord Lieutenant , 
where the present church of Monkstown stands, and on its completion it wus 
consecrated on August 30, 1789. This church, which was called St. Mary*s, and of 
which a picture appears in the Jowmal for 1895, p. 7, was replaced by the existing 
marvellous structure, about the year 1830. See Exshaw^s Magazine for 1785^ 
p. 503, and for 1789, p. 502; Monkstown Vestry Book, 1744-77; and "Iriab 
Parliament Records ** in Iribh Public Record Office. 

* See Monkstown Vestry Book, 1744-77. 


the port of Dublin. He is a constant attendant at the Monkstown 
Testries, and active in his efforts to repress the footpads on the Dublin 

At Monkstown Castle, still a habitable dwelling, lives, I think, Mr. 
Robert Elrington, who has recently arrived from Jamaica, and whose 
native servant is no doubt an object of much curiosity.* 

We setoff then to Salthill, where resides Mr. William Roseingrave,' 
with the amiable and accomplished young lady he has recently married. 
He is one of the secretaries in Dublin Castle, and is a member of a 
family renowned for their musical talents. 

Walking along the shore we come to the small village of Dunleary, 
and find the pier, the building of which was undertaken in 1756 by 
parliament; in response to a petition of Dublin merchants, rapidly 
approaching completion. Some £15,500 has already been expended on 
it, and a young engineer officer^ called Yallancey,' is now engaged in 
completing it.* It has already proved of great service in bad weather, 
and as many as eight vessels at a time have safely anchored under its 
protection.' Close to the pier lives Mr. George Glover, the surveyor of the 
port, and in front of his house lies the revenue yacht, " the Newtown 
Barge,*' on which he often entertains his friends. He was recently 
publicly tlianked by the Corporation of Weavers for his exertions to 

1 See **Lan8downe Papers, Ireland,'* Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 24137, vol. ii., ff. 59, 
72; Blacker*8 ** Sketches of Booterstown,** pp. 174-176; Gilberl's '^Historj of 
Dublin," vol. iii., p. 274 ; Prerogative Will of Charles Viscount fianelagh, 1797; 
Cockayiie*s'* Complete Peerage"; "Monkstown Paiish Begisters"; Haliday*s 
"Scandinavian Kingdom of Dublin," edited by John P. Prenderga^t, p. xiv ; 
SUater'a Dublin Chronicle, October 11th, 1787. Lord Banelagh had a numerous 
family. His eldest son, M'ho was a captain in the navy, acted as aide-de-camp to the 
Lords Justices appointed on the death of the Duke of Rutland, and displayed great 
bravery when the packet, in which he was crossing on one occasion, was wrecked at 
Holyhead. See SUaterU Dublin ChronieUy Nov. 8, 1777, and Exshau>*8 Magazine for 
1790, p. 671. For an account of the exploits of Lord Ranelagh's descendant, who 
gained such an unenviable notoriety in connexion with Madame Uachel, of *' beautiful 
forever" fame, see Notet and Queries^ 8 S., vi. 322. 

' Probably Mr. Elringtou was a descendant of Thomas Elrington, the well-known 
Dublin actor of the beginning of the eighteenth century. He subsequently went to 
reside at MUltown, and died in 1774. See Fue*B Occurrences^ May 23-27. 1769« and 
Sept. 1—4, 1770; Dublin Grants, Intestacy, 1774, Robert Elrington; Monkstown 
Baptismal Register, 10 Nov., 1766. 

* Uoseingrave was the second son of Ralph Roseingrave, organist of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, and grandson of Daniel Roseingrave, and nephew of Thomas Roseingrave, 
both well-known composers of their day. He was Chief Chamberlain in the Court of 
Exchequer, 1749—59 ; customer and collector of Kinsale, 1749-61 ; sometime Keeper 
of the Privy Signet for the Right Hon. Edward Southwell, Secretary of State for 
Ireland; Secretary to the Ix)rds Justices; and compiler of the Dublin Gazette. He 
died at Salthill, Feb. 28, 1780. See Irish Builder for 1877, p. 192 ; PreroKative Will ; 
Faulkner** Dublin Journal, Nov. 28 to Dec. 2, 1749 ; Dublin Oazette, July 8, 1760; 
"Diet, of Nat. Biog." under "Daniel Roseingrave." 

* The well-known Irish archaeologist. General Vallancey. 

\ Bee *' Journals of Irish House of Commons," Nov. 3, 1755 ; March, 1756 ; and 
April 19, 1785. Under Vallancey^s direction, £1900 more was expended on the pier. 
It was original 1 J intended to spend £21,000 on it, and £18,500 was actually voted by 
Parliament for its construction. 

* FaMner's Dublin Journal, Nov. 13-17, 1764. 


prevent tbe smuggling of silks.^ In past years Lord Tullamore, Lord 
Southwell, and LordLanesborough resided at Dunleary ; and Mr. Johi^ 
Garden, of Bamane, in the County Tipperary, has now a house and larg^ 
place of over a hundred acres close by.' 

Next we walk across the dreary commons of Monkstown to Bullock^ 
where, in a comfortable house under the castle, lives Mrs. John Watsonj 
the widow of a revenue officer, whose only son was killed a few years 
ago while attending races at Bray.' 

We pass then through Dalkey, a decayed and deserted town, and 
come to Loftus Hill, the residence of Colonel the Hon. Henry 
Loftus, M.P., for Bannow, in the County Wexford. The name of this 
house has been several times changed ; built by the Malpas family, who 
own the soil, it was originally called Mount Mulpas; then Captain 
Edward Maunsell, who occupied it for some years, called it Kocksborough^ 
and now Mr. Loftus has changed its name to Loftus Hill. He has 
rebuilt the house, and, possessed of an unbounded passion and skill for 
improvement, has reclaimed the land, and planted the gardens with 
every kind of fruit tree, and with a most superb collection of flowers.* 

Henry Loftus is the Count Henrico Loftonzo, who flgures so 
prominently in the pages of '' Baratariana," and I must stop our walk 
to tell you something of his history. He was the younger son of 
Nicholas Loftus, a descendant of the great Archbishop Loftus, on whom 
a barony and viscounty were conferred. These titles were now in 
possession of Henry's elder brother. The latter had mariied the 
elder daughter and co-heiress of Sir Gustavus Hume of the County 
Fermanagh. She had died soon after the birth of their only son. This 
son was extremely delicate, and his father, who led a most dissipated 
life, treated him with the greatest cruelty. In the year of which I 
am writing, 1766, the father became seriously ill, and died in October 
at his brother's house in Cavendish -row, having a few days before been 
created Earl of Ely. 

Then began one of tlie causes celehrea of the eighteenth century. 

» Faulkner' » Lublin Journal, July 3-6, 1762, and April, 13-16, 1765. 

» See Faulkner's Dublin Journal, March 26-30, 1746, and Sept. 24-27, 1748, for 
advertisements of the great dwelling-house and garden in the town of Dunleary, where 
those peers had resided; also lease from Coleman to Garden of Oct. 1, 1753, in Kegistr^ 
of Deeds Office. 

3 See Faulkner's Dublin Journal, June 3-7, and July 26-'29, 1760, and "Re- 
collections of the Life of John O'Keeffe,** vol i., p. 293. \ 

* See Faulknei's Dublin Journal, Sept. 23-26, 1762, for advertisement of Rox- 
borough, formerly called Mount Malpns, containing about 150 acres of land, enclosed 
by a stone M'all, and a new, well-finished house of six rooms and iwo large closets on 
a floor, with offices. Also see '* Topographical Description of Dalkey and the Environs ". 
by Peter Wilson in Exshaw's Magazine for 1770, p. 489, and lease from Malpas to 
Maunsell of July 12, 1763, and from Maunsell to Loftus of Feb. 28, 1764, in Regutry 
of Deeds Office. Loftus Hill appears to have been on the site of the present Killiney 
Castle. In 1790 Killiney Hill was in the possession of Lord Clonmell, the Chief Justice 
of the King's Bench. It was said he was about to build a house there, and he had about 
190 labourers employed in making roads. See Slealer's Dublin Chronicle, Nov 11, 1790. 


Henry LoftuB lost no time in getting his nephew, now the second Earl 
of Ely, under his control, and brought him up from Clermont, near 
Wicklow, where he was living, to his own house. The only sister 
of the young Earl's mother had married Mr. George Rochfort, of 
Rochfort, in the County Westroeath, and they had long sought to proT& 
that their nephew was an idiot, in order that their son might succeed to 
the Hume estates. A commission was now issued by the Chancellor, 
and, after an inquiry lasting six days, the young Earl was found 
to be of sound mind. The Rochforts appealed to the English House of 
Lords, and resorted to every form of legal procedure to obstruct Henry 
Loftus in the management of the Earl's affairs. Meantime, Loftus 
appears to have taken every care of his nephew. In 1769 he took him 
to Bath and Spa in pursuit of health, but the Earl died a few weeks 
after his return, at Rathfamham Castle, the ancient seat of his family^ 
which he had repurchased. 

By a will made a few days before his death, he left everything to 
his uncle, Henry Loftus, who succeeded to the barony and viscounty. 
It wns contested by the Rochforts, who again raised the question of 
their nephew's capacity. In the end the will was established. 
According to the pages of " Baratariana," Count Loftonzo deserted his 
old political friends, in order to obtain a favourable judgment from the 
innocent Phil Tisdal, who was judge of the Prerogative Court, as well 
as Attorney-General and leader of the House of Commons. These pages 
tell also of his wife's ambition to secure the Lord Lieutenant, the 
Marquis of Townshend, as husband for her niece, the lovely Dolly 
Monro, and of Loftonzo's intrigues to obtain an Earldom. A large 
picture of Loftus and his wife in the Irish National Gallery bears 
witness to the stately magnificence of the man.^ 

Adjoining Loftus Hill, in a small house called Ballinclay, lives Sir 
Oliver Crofton, a baronet of not the most immaculate character. Loftus 
hus found him anything but a pleasant neighbour. Last year he threw 
down their boundary wall, and Loftus had to seek the protection of the 
House of Commons on account of his conduct, and that of his servants — 
two of whom were taken into custody by the serjeant-at-arms. Some 
twenty-five years ago he stood his trial for killing Mr. John Massy, of 
Duntrileague, in a duel ; and his proceedings after the death of his 
predecessor in the title did not raise his reputation.' 

We come next to Rochestown House, temporarily occupied, I think, 
by Mr. Edward Nicholson, collector of excise for the city of Dublin,. 

^ See BroM*n*8 ** Reports of Cases determined in Parliament," edited by Tomlins, 
Tol. i., p. 460, vol. vii.,p. 469 ; Prerogative Cause Papers, Ely v. Rochford, 1769-70, 
in Irish Public Record Office ; '< Rathiarnhani Castle, its Sale and History," by John! 
P. Prendergast, in Irish Timea^ May 19, 1891; ** Baratariana,** p. 161 et passim;. 
Faulkner's Dublin Jourtial, Jun. 24-27, 1767. 

* See •'Journal of Irish House of Commons," Nov. 14, 1766 ; Ftte*s Occurrencesy 
Jan. 24-27, 1740-41; Aug. 21-24, 1742; June 14-18, 1743; Aug. 12-16, 1746; 
Mf7 7^11, 1761 ; Jan. 26-29, 1763 ; Prerogative Will of Sir Oliver Crofton, 1784. 


who is married to a granddangliter of the third Earl of Inchiquin.i 
It is a fine mansion, the largest in the neighhourliood, and the well- 
planted demesne is one of much heauty. We admire tlie stately drive, 
and the great gates, and listen to the pleasant music of the tinkling bells 
which the sheep carry round their necks.' It is the scat of the Malpas 
family, to whom nearly the whole of Rochestown belongs. This family 
settled at Dundalk in very early times. At the close of the sixteenth 
century, three brothers, sons of Walter l^Falpas of Dundalk, came to 
Dublin. One of them married a daughter of Alderman Robert Kennedy, 
who had purchased Rochestown from the Talbots, its original owners. 
Kennedy had five sons, but they died without issue, and under a decree 
of innocence, his great-grandson, by the marriage of his daughter to 
Francis Malpas, succeeded to the property. He married a daughter of 
the third Viscount Fitzwilliara of Merrion ; and it was his son who built 
the obelisk on Killiney Hill, and his great-grandson, Mr. John Malpas, 
who is in possession of the property at the time of our visit.' 

Passing by Johnstown, the residence of Mr. Love Biatt, we come to 
Cabinteely House,* the residence of Mr. Michael r»yrne, the present 
representative of the O'Bymes of Cabinteely,* who inherited the property 
through the marriage of one of their ancestors to a daughter of the 
house of Cheevers. He is an elegant and accomplished gentleman, and 
sings French songs with much taste in a select coterie in Dublin, of 
which he is a member. He was educated at Eton and Oxford, and 

* See Lodge's " Peerage of Ireland," by Archdall, vol. i., p. 108, vol. ii. p. 60; 
Prerogative Will of Edward NicLoUon, 1780. He was M.P. for Old Leighlin, 

* See Wilson's ** Desciiption of Dolkey " in £xshaw*s Magazine lot 1770, p. 489 ; 
Gaskin's "Irish Varieties," p. 198; and Dublin Journalf Kov. 10-14, 1741, for 
advertisement of the demesne of Bochestown, consisting of 34 acres divided into six 
parks, with house in good order, and extensive stabling and offices, including brew- 
house and grillroom, with a good hopper, malt-house, kiln, and ver}' good pigeon- 
house; also gardens, orchard, pleasure garden, and bowling green. The house, M-hich 
still exists, hears a tablet with the Malpas arms, and underneath '* John Malpas, Esq., 

8 A member of the family — Sir John Malpas — was the victor of Edward Bruce in 
the battle of Faughart, near Dundalk, in the fourteenth century. Tlie Malpas suc- 
cession, 80 far as relates to ihe ownership of Bochestown, is' as follows: — Francis 
Malpas married Mary, daughter of Alderman Kennedy. His son, Patrick, married, 
and died in 1662-3. His eldest son, Christopher, married, in 1674, Bose, daughter of 
William, 3rd Viscount Fitzwilliam, and died in 1718. His eldest son, John, who 
built, in 1741, the obelisk on Eilliney Hill, married Frances, daughter of Matthew, 
7th Baron of Louth, and died in 1766. His eldest son, Christopher, married, and died 
in Germany in 1765. His eldest son, John, married, 1st, in 1757, Catherine, daughter 
of Sir Andrew Aylmer, Bart., and 2ndly, in 176*2, Martha, daughter of Thomas 
Wheatley of Ashlon, Cheshire, and died in 1793. His only surviving child (by the 
second marriage) and heiress, Catherine, married, in 1789, Bichard Wogan Talbot, 
afterwards created Lord Talbot de Malahide, and the Bochestown estate thus passed 
again to the Talbots. See D'Alton's ** Eing James's Irish Army List," p. 292 ; 
** History of St. Audoen's Chuich," in the Jrish Jiuiidtr for 1886-87 pa»9im; Pre- 
rogative and Dublin Consistorial Wills; Dublin Grants; and Funeral Entries in 
Ulster's Office. 

* See Monkstown Baptismal Begister, Oct. 8, 1778. 

^ This is the house now called Marl^eld. The house now known as Cabinteely 
House was not then built. 


acquired liis knowledge of continental languages while senring for a 
time as an officer in the Austrian army.' 

Walking on a little further we come to Brenanstown, where lives 
Captain Luke Mercer, the well known revenue officer, and where in a 
mild winter, three years hefore our visit, strawherries ' ripened, and 
apple trees came into hloom.' As commander of ** the Thompson,'' and 
afterwards of " the Besshorough," galley, Mercer was renowned for his 
efforts to prevent smuggling on the coast. He now occupies a higher 
position, and seldom goes to sea, unless to escort the Lord Lieutenant 
to or from our shores. He takes usually with him then an escort of a 
hundred soldiers, and a plentiful supply of provisions and wine, lest the 
voyage may he prolonged.' 

Eetracing our steps, we come to the ruined church of Kill, and find 
living in Kill Ahbey, Mr. Isaac Espinasse, who served for a time as an 
officer in the dragoons. His father, a descendant of a noble French 
family, fled from France after the revocation of the edict of Nantes, 
and settled in Dublin. Be took after a time this house and a large tract 
of land, which is held under the Chapter of Christ Church Cathedral. 
It is one of the oldest houses in the neighbourhood, and bears the date 
of its erection, 1595, over the door.* 

On our way to Blackrock, we pass Maunsell Lodge, the residence of 
the widow of Captain Edward Maunsell, the former owner of Loftus HilL 
Her son, Thomas Eidgate Maunsell, has developed a taste for genealo- 
gical research, and is collecting material for a pedigree of his family.* 

How scattered and few, in 1766, were the houses of any importance 
we have now seen ; and it is not surprising to find that the total population 
of the five parishes — Monkstown, Dalkey, Killiney, Kill, and Tully — was 
then only 1933 — less than an eighth of thepresentpopulation of Kingstown. 

^ HiB mother was a sister of Bubert Nugent, afterwards created Baron Nugent, 
Viscount Clare, and Earl Nugent. Through his uncle's influence B^rne was retuined 
in 1768 to the British Parliament as M.P. for 8t. Mawes. He died at Cahinteelj, 
when only in his 28th year, on Nov. 7, 1772, and was buried Mith great funeral pomp 
in the family vault in St. Audoen*s. * * See BecoUections of t)ie lite uf John 0*Keeffe/' 
vol. i., p. 294 ; Dublin Gazette, Nov. 7-10, and U-17, 1772 ; also see a pedigi-ee of the 
O'Byrnes of Cabinteely, by G. D. Burtchaell, in the Luh Jiuilder for 1887, pp. 114, 
288. It was £arl Nugent who built the present Cabinteily House, which was origin- 
ally called Clare Hill. 

* See Ftte't Oecurrenres, Dec. 12-15, 1763. Brenanstown had been, previous to 
Mercer^s occupation of it, the residence of Francis I^ Hunte, an eminent Dublin 
physician, who died there in 1760. See Faulkner'* » Jjubliu Journal, Dec. 1—4, 1750. 

' Captain Mercer died in March, 1781. His niece married (-hief Justice Curleton. 
Pairagraphs in Dublin newspapers frum 1733 to 1766 ; Ex»haw'» Magaiitie for 1781 ; 
** liord Charlemont's Correspondence," vol. i., p. 216. 

* See pedigree of the Espinasse family in Beriy's ** Pedigrees of the Famihes of the 
County Kent," p. 333 ; *' Brown's (.'uses determined in Tarliament," edited by Tomlin, 
vol. vii., p. 345. Kill Abbey is still in the possession of the Espinasse family. 

^ Captain Maunsell, who was descended from the same ancestors as the Maunsells 
of Limerick (see Buike^s " landed Gentry," 1898, under Maunsell, of Thorpe Malson), 
served as High SherifP of the County Dublin in 1755, and died in York-street on Jan. 
26, 1766. Hemanied, in 1746, Catherine, widow of William Bobeits, n^^Bidgaie. She 
died on March 2, 1779. See Exthaw't Magazine; Dublin Grants; and Prerogative 
Wills ; also letter from Thomas Bidgate Maunsell in the Cole collection in the British 
Museum, Add. MS. 5846, p. 67. 





BY DR. GEO. U. MACNAMARA, Hon. Loc. Sec. fob Nohth Clarb. 

[Submitted April 12, 1899.] 

Part I. 

V^HEN dealing with objects of antiquity of a similar character, it is 
often desirable, when practicable, to take them in groups 
corresponding to the ancient tribal divisions of the countiy. On exami- 
nation, this arrangement will, I think, be found the most convenient, 
not to say scientific; for, besides bringing the subjects treated of into a 
clearer light, it lends itself more readily to the use of future archaeolo- 
gists; and even the tourist — that most exacting of individuals — can 
hardly object. A few words, therefore, in the nature of a general glance 
at the district here concerned, may not be considered out of place. 

"Ui-peapmaic, Cin6l-peapmaic, or the Upper Cpio6a-ceb of 
Ddl-caip, one of the primary divisions of ancient Thomond, corresponded 
exactly, as far as can be known, in extent and boundaries, with the 
modem barony of Inchiquin. It consisted of nine parishes, and formed 
the extreme limit on tho north-west of the extensive territory of Ddl- 
cais, or the tribal lands occupied by the free non-tribute-paying descen- 
dants of Cas, the eponymous ancestor of the tribe. The O'Deas 
(lJa-t)ea&ai&) were lords of Ui-Fearmaic down to at least the middle of 
the 16th century,* and being descended from Aengus-Cinnathrach, the 5th 
son of Cas, were of the royal blood of OilioU-Olom, king of Munster. 
Under them the O'Quins (Ua-Cuinn), the Clann- (or Muintir) Iffear- 
nain, an interesting but insignificant sept, occupied the country immedi- 
ately around Corofin : the 0*GrifFys (Ua-Jp^obca) and Mac Brodys 
(Tnac-0puait)ea6a), the south-eastern part of the district called Cinel- 
Cuallachta ; * and the Mac-Enchros and O'Huires (now Crowes and 
Howards), the western part touching on Ibrickan, known as Breintir- 
Fearmacach. The exact boundaries of these subdistricts cannot now be 
accurately defined.' 

1 Vide Annals, Four Masters, year 1558. 

* This is meniioned in the ** SVars of Torlogli," and probably consisted of the eastern 
portion of Dysart i)arish and the adjoining part of Kilnaiuona, containing the castles of 
Ballygriffy and Mugowna. 

^ Breintir-Fearniacach, now called Breintre, was, according to Dr. J. O'Donovan, 
composed of seven townlands north-east of Mount Callan, but, unfortunately, be does 
not name them (ride note, Annals, Four Masters, under year 1599.) 


The tribe-name, TJi-Feannaic, appears to have been derived from 
Fermac,^ 6th in descent in the O'Bea pedigree from Aengns-Cinnathrach, 
or Aengus of Ceannathrach, who got this distinctive soubriquet from a 
well-known mountain of the name adjoining the lake of Inchiquin.f 
Because of this nickname of the progenitor of the O'Deas, the con- 
clusion is irresistibly forced upon us, that he and all his kinsmen 
and followers, who formed the stock from which in after-times the 
Ui-Eearmaic descended, must have settled in this district during Aengus's 
lifetime {circa a.d. 450), not very long subsequent to the Dalcais conquest 
of Clare, which latter event took place soon after the murder of Crim- 
thann, king of Ireland, on Sliabh-Oighidh-an-High' (a.d. 378), namely, 
in the last quarter of the 4th century. For Lughaid-Menn, K.M. (son of 
Aengus-Tireach), and his son Connal, violently wrested that county from 
the king of Connaught, ''in eric of Crimthann, son of Fidhach," his- 
murdcred kinsman, on which account Thomond received the name 
of *' Lughaid-Kedhand's cruel Swordland."^ It is of much interest, 
moreover, to note that the inhabitants of this district, from the time of 
their settlement in Ui-Fearmaic under Aengus Cinnathrach, i.c, about 
sixty years after King Lughaid's conquest, down to sometime in the 
12th century — when a general movement westwards of the race of Cas 
seems to have taken place — were altogether isolated from the rest of 
their kinsmen. They were surrounded on all sides by tribes of difPerent 
blood, and were, in fact, the only Dalcais septs west of the Fergus, 
Magh-Adhair, and Sliabh-Echtgh6. On the north-west they meared with 
the Cinel-Aodha of Echtghe and Aidhn6 (the O'Shaughnessys), who were- 
of Eremonian race ; on the north and west with the Corcamodhruadh 
(the O'Loghlens and O'Connors) of the line of Ir ; on the south-west 
with the Corcabhaiscinn^ (O'Donnells of Thomond, etc.), descendants of 
Lnghaid, son of Ith ; and oh the south and east with the TJi-Cormaic 
(O'Hehirs), who were an offshoot of the TJi-Fidhgheinte (an Eoghanact 
sept), and their kinsmen of Magh-Adhair* east of the Fergus, who had 
settled there at an early period. 

* Probably peaprhaic = a strong or able man. In 1594 there was a family named 
Mac Fearmacaigh in parish of Killurd, barony of Ibiickan ('I'rans. R.I. A., vol. zv., 
Kg. xxxiv.). From this family the Castle of Dun-M6r-mbic-an-Fearmacaigh, now 
Dunmore, in above parish, must have received the name (Annals, Four Masters, 1599). 
y , ' Ceannathrach means Hill of the Serpent or Serpents, and is now Kintleii (Ceannt- 
aleibhe}, 1) miles north-west of Corofin. Perhaps the legend that Ireland was not 
always exempt from venemous reptiles may have, iifter nil, some real foundation in. 
fact. The name is probably pre-Christian, as from very early times the king of Cashel 
had a residence, the site of which cannot now be identified, on or near this mountain. 

' Now the Cratloe Mountains, north-west of Limerick. 

* Vide ** Death of Crimthann" (*' Silva Gadelica**). Lughaid had probably 
invaded the district before Crimthann's murder. 

* This particular part of Corcabhaiscinn became settled in the 12th century by tho 
MacGoimans (now O'Gormans) of Leinster, who were of ihe race of Cathaoir-Mor^ 
king of Ireland, and the district got the name of Ui-Braccain {ride interesting note, 
"Book of Rights," p. il2). 

« " Donnchadh Va-h Aichir, Lord of Magh-Adhair, died," A.i». 1099. At thia^ 
date Magh-Adhair had not yet become part of IJi-Caisin. 


The O'Deas, G'GrilFys, MacBrodjs, and MacEnchros, held their 
ground in Ui-Fearmaic until Oromwellian times, seTeral of them heing 
landholders in tlie district in 1641 ; hut the O'Quins, in some unknown 
and mysterious way, lost their patrimony, and were reduced to insig- 
nificance in or ahout the twelfth century, from which time their lands 
having heen appropriated by the O'Briens, they figure no more in the 
chequered history of Thomond. 

The north-eastern half of Ui-Fearmaic is of carboniferous lime- 
stone formation, and rich in antiquities, both pagan and Christian. The 
south-western half consists of the superimposed shale rock, but, with the 
exception of a few scattered earthen forts, is verily an archaeological 
desert. Building stone, no doubt, was hard to be got in the latter half, 
and wood was probably plentiful ; but, as the ciyilization of the entire 
district was practically identical, I am unable to o£Per any explanation of 
this extraordinary fact. 

"With these preliminaiy remarks, I now turn to the proper subject- 
matter of this paper. The ancient crosses to be described are four in 
number, namely, Dysert-O'Dea, Kilnaboy, Skcaghavanuoe, and Kilvoy- 
dane. That of Dysert-0*Dea may fairly be ranked in the first class of 
our Irish stone crosses; and, although previously described by more than 
one writer of ability, for one reason or another has not been dealt with as 
thoroughly as it deserved. i There are special reasons, as will be seen, 
why the history of the Kilnaboy cross should be minutely entered into, 
for its very identity has been impugned. The crosses of Skeaghavannoe 
^nd Kilvoydane may not be considered of much archaeological interest, 
but, as they have never been described before, and will complete the 
■ancient crosses of the district, I thought it well to include them. 


This very fine old cross stands about 150 yards east of the well-known 
church of Dysert-Tola, on a small mound composed of loosely-packed 
stones, covered with a thin sodding of grass. It may be said to consist 
of a quadrangular base, on which rests u large block with sloping sides, 
suppoiting the shaft, head, and cap. 

The base is a solid square piece of masonry, 2 feet 4 inches high, and 
measuring 4 feet 9 inches north and south, by 3 feet 9 inches east and 
west. It consists of several limestone blocks, nnd was originally 7 inches 
higher, for the top is incomplete, and one of the corner-stones which 
formerly finished it, with corresponding moulding, may be seen loose on 
the ground near by. There is a panel 23 inches high by 20 inches wide, 
with key-pattern ornamentation, cut on the centre stone of the north 
side. On the same side, between the aforesaid panel and the north-east 

1 Vide "Journal R.S.A.I.," vol. iv., Part 2. Mr. T. J. Westropp informs me 
that the sketches of Dyseit Cross in his Paper, M'eie done from photographs, and 
consequently, he was unable to give the details of the sculpture as fully as froia 


comer, is a purposfleMiBmall, deeply- sunk panel, inchea high by 6 inches 
wide, with rope-knot ornament. The angles of the base have ronnd 
conier-moaldings, at each side of which is a shallow channel, which, 
when the work was complete, was continaed along the top, and ends at 
the bottom in varions nondescript pattems (see p. 250, figs. 2 to 5). 
The south side of the base also has a panel cut on the central stone 
similiir to that on the north, but measuring 24 inches high by 16f 
inches wide. The east and west sides are devoid of all ornament except 
the corner-mouldings. On this square base rests what was once a nngle 
block, 1 foot 9 inches high, sloping from 4 feet 3 inches north and south, 
by 3 feet 4 inches east and west at the bottom, to 2 feet 6 inches by 
1 foot 9^ inches respectively at the top. The north-west comer hns 
been worn or broken off for 23 inches on west side, and B inches on 
north side, horizontal measurement, and in the gap a new piece of stone 
was inserted at the time the cross was repaired by the late Hr. Francis 
H. Synge, of Dysert. 

The upper block is much holed and channelled by time, which to a cer- 
tain extent might bo accountL'd for by the inferior quality of the stone. 

St. Tola's CrOH, Djien O'Dea.— North aide of Btue. 

but the style and character of the wurkmanahip would lead one to infer 
that its age is anterior to the rest of the cross. The carvings on it are rude 
but of great interest, and a good light and sharp ej-es are requisite in 
order to appreciate the details, many ot whith, on account of the decayed 
condition of the stone, take aome time, even under favourable circum- 
stances, before they can be adequately realized. By dint of careful 
rubbings, however, and much time and cIomc inspection, the various 
objects in the accompanying fngruvings have, I think, bucn luade out as 
satisfactorily as their weatherworn condition permits. 

On the east face is a panel of snake-knot pattern, of very pretty and 
intricate design, but much worn and injured towards the suutliern end. 

Under the panel, in inciHcd capitals, is the following inscription : 

"this ckoss was BEWLr kkpaiked bit michael u | dka som oi' comkok 


' The pedigree of Michael U'Dca, the rcatorer of t)>e cross, is given in ■■ O'llart's 
Irish Pedigreen." It has all (lie auppuiance of being geauiue, but, like tlia olhcr 
matter in that work, sadly wiuiu autbority. 


On tlie eouth is the figure of a man with his hands raised, each, one 
on either side, being in- 
serted into the open month 
of a monster, the fohia of 
vhich are distributed in 
snake • knots over the 
panel. TTDdcrneath, iii 
incised capitals, is cut : — 
•*! . ^ „ _ *, "bb-bbectsd bt nUKCU 
St Tola's Cross, Dywrt G'Dea.— South uda of Base. =^^H««'M SIM | GB OF 
TKiB 1871." 

On the west side is a most extraordinuy carving of two winged 
angels, the wings consisting of a series of hanjo-shaped members, 
intended, as I take it, to represent feathers. A hand of each figure is 
holding a staff with pear-shaped head, which latter is much worn, and 
possibly may have orif;inalIy been intended for the head of o crosier ; but 
if such were really the case, there is now no trace of scroll upon it to 

West side of Base. 

-eDablo one to decide the matter. The whole has a most bizarre appear- 
ance, forcibly recalling to raiad some specimens of Assyrian sculpture. 
In the centre, towards the bottom of this panel, which is very much 
dilapidated for its northern half, is a sickle-shaped object, to which two 
"feathers," similar in design to those on the angels' wings, appear to 

The stone is so damaged by tho weather, a great portion of it being 
totally defaced, that it is very hard even to suggt^st an explanation of this 
curious piece of sculpture. Perliaps, however, it embodies some legend or 
tradition, now long forgotten, connected with St. Tola ; or, if we interpret 


the sickle -shaped object as intended for a serpent or dragon, may it aot 
1« a fandful representation of the, killing by divine agency of the breie- 
Moeh, or badger-monster vhich long ago was eaid to have committed 
awful havoc on the people of this part of the country, until securely 
chained for ever by St, Mac Creiche, about 200 years before the days of 
Tola, to the bottom of Loch Broicsighe.' In not many years hence, time, 
which has already played sad havoc with the stone, may have probably 
completely obliterated this strange carving. 

On the north side, ia liigh relief, are the figures of four men in 
tanicB, the two central once holding a staff with' a tan or crutch head, and 
ringed near the lower end. The figure at the east end of the panel holds 
a short pastoral staff, with a crook touch of the same type as the Dysert 
crosier in the collection of 
the Royal Irish Academy.' 

The figure to the west is 
so damaged that it is im- / 

posnble to state anything // 

further concerning it. It /'/ 
has been ingeniously sng- / 
geeted that this group rcpre- ^^ 
wnta two men swearing on 
3 sacred staff, in the presence 
of a bishop and another 
person.' This is a vtry jjorth sido of Rue. 

rational explanation ; but it 

also may, and, I think, with more probability, have been intended for 
the ceremonious planting of a termon boundary mark, with full form of 
brebon law, in the presence of the ecclesiastical and lay authorities and 
their witnesses. Be these opinions correct or not, the carvings are of 
a very ancient date, and deserve the close attention of archteologista. 

The shaft consists of one whole stone, 4 feet 1 1 inches high, and ]6i 
inches of the lower end ot another atone, of which the head of the cross is 
formed. It measures at the bottom 2 feet H inches north and sonth, by 
14J inches east and west, tapering to 17 inches by U inches respectively 
at the top. On the east face, entirely on the lower stone, is the figure 
of St Tola, in very high relief, in full episcopal canonicals, mitre on 
head, and the left hand holding a pastoral staff, with a scroll head not 
at all like the Dysert crosier in the Boyal Irish Academy's collection. 
The front peak of the mitre is worn off, whicli gives it a resemblance to 
a cap; but I think there can he no doubt whatever it was intended 
for a mitre. The right hand was formed out of a separate stone, fixed by 
a tenon into the body of the figure, but is now wanting. As is usual in 

'Now the lake of Eath, one mile north-west of the croas. Vidt O'Curry'g 
M. £ C., vol iii., p. Z2i, for this legend of tbe badger- monster. 

• Tutt "Journal H.S. A.I. ," vol.iv., Part 4, p. 339. ' Iitd.,Vazli, p. 156. 



similar carviiigs of a bishop, and aa can b« inferred from the direction of 
the now empty mortice, the hand was held forth at right angles to the 
body, aa in the act of giving the episcopal blessing. 

The north, south, and west faces of the shaft are each divided into 
four panels of nearly eqnal length, except the lower two on the west 

fuce, the one nearest the base 

on that side being Sf feet high, 
while that immediately above 
it is only 9 inches. On the 
north side the top panel shows 
a zigzag fret pattern, the three 
lower ones are formed of dif- 
ferent varieties of beast-knots, 
the lowest being finished at 
the bottom with a fret-border 
4 inches high. On the west 
side the two middle panels have 
beast-knot patterns, and the top 
and bottom panels are fret- 
pattem, the lowest having a 
corresponding border of snake- 
knot pattern, 4 inches high. 
Of the panels on the south 
side, the top one is key-pattern, 
the three lowest ornamented 
with various zooniorphic de- 
signs, the lowest finished at 
the bottom with a fret bonier 
*'**'^ similar to that on the nurth 
n South Bate -face of the shaft. 

Tan HEAn, exclusive of the 

s2 feet 8 indies high, 

I feet 3 inches 

across the arms. These have spiral rolls in their hollows instead of the 
circle usual in Celtic crosses, and are 14^ inches high by 10 inches thick. 
On the east face, over the figure of St. Tola, and extending downwards for 
a foot on the shaft, is a representation of the crucifixion. The Saviour 
is clothed in a garment resembling a shirt, extending to the middle of 
the calves, and covering the arms to the wrists. The head of this figure 
is formed of a separate stone, and until a few ycors ago it was quite 
loose, being held in position only by two wooden wedges. Even after 
the rc-eruction of the cross by Mr. Synge, in 1871, at the suggestion of 
my father, tlje late Dr. Michael Macuamoi'a of Corofin, it was a common 
occurrence for persons suffering from headache, with the aid of a laddi r 
to remove this stone, and put their lieads for a short time into the hok- 

St. Tola's Cross, Sysert O'Dea. 


for the purpose of being cared of the ailment. Fearing that it might 
be lost or injured by this practice, Mr. Browne (a brother, I believe, of 
Un. Synge), who happened to be on b visit to Dyaert, got the head 
lutened in its place with cement in the year 1863, and bo it remaiaa 

North and south aides of Shaft. 

On the west face are five raised lozenges, 5^ inched square, forming a 
cross, four of them ornament«d with rosettes, and the remaining one 
with Bnperimposed trefoils, Between the lozenges are scrolls of an 
earlier type, the whole producing a Tery pleasing effect. The arms are 
embellished with^zoomorphs, and the neck with a leaf pattern, but the 


former are much worn from ezpoBore to the full bnmt of the west wind. 
The head of the cross, although it is evident that much thought and care 
have been expended on it, is strangely irregular in its lines, the end of 
the southern arm oveihan^g about an inch ; but, perhaps, this only 
gives it a character, and adds to its pictureaqueness. 

The Cap is a plainly-cut, nnomamented stone, shaped somewhat like 
the roof of a house. It is 9 inches high, measuring north and south 
14 inches, by 9 inches east and 
west, and now fastened on the 
top of the vertical arm with cement. 
Similar stones, now lost, were once 
attached to the ends of the horizon- 
tal arms, each by a single tenon, 
the mortice holes for same being 2^ 
by 3 inches. The total height of the 
cross from the top of the sloping 
base block to the summit of tha 
capstone is at present 10 feet. 

The cross appears to belong to- 
the same period as the oft-described 
" romanesque" doorway of the 
church, that is to say, the middle 
of the twelfth century, but many 
of the details strangely point to a 
later style.' So much is this the 
case, that some may think part of 
the cross was newly done in imita- 
tion of older work, when it wa» 
"restored" in 1683 by Uichael 
O'Dca. The block with sloping 
sides immediately under the shaft, 
judging by its weather-worn state 
and the rudeness of the human 
figures, certainly looks older than 
the head; but this appearance may 
iw ^^^^^^^^s" ■"' ^'"^ ^^ ^^^ ^ *''® inferior texture of 
Weat face of Shaft. ^^^ ^^^^' '^^ ^ ^'' "iMCOimt. 

able inferiority of our early Irish 
eiardt when delineating the human form. 

To Tola, of the race of Corbmac, son of Teige, son of Cian, son 
of Oiloll-Olum, K.M., the church of; Oipeapc-Cola, in Dalcais, wa» 

" The half-flmahed asd plain panele of the croaiei of KelU (Ueath) and Clomiuc- 
noiae surest that some portiooB of our croseeB may have bMO completed much later 
ikan the main structure. Thia would eiplain not a tew difBcultie* as to apparently 


dedicated, and his f eait-day iraa held on March 30th.' He is also, with 
good reason, aupposed to have been its founder, and identical with Tola, 
wn of Sonohadh, bishop of Cloain-Iraird (Clonard), in connty Ueath, and 


also' the founder of Disert Tola in barony of Delvin, connty Westmeath, 
whose death, the Four Hasters say, took place in 733.* His holy 


well is about 260 yards south-east of the cross, and now forms the head 
of an open trench, its very existence being forgotten by the people. 
There is no legend that I have heard of in connexion with the cross, but 
there is a very quaint one told about the round tower — to wit : — ^This 
tower, it is said, was originally erected about a mile away, close to the 
church of Rath-Blathmac, and it only came to rest in its present position, 
north-west of the church of Dysert O'Dea, in the following manner : — 
While the holy man, who lived at Rath, was one day overcome with 
sleep, St. B&ndla of Dysert stole the bell-tower, and, throwing it on her 
shoulder, made off with it towards her own church as fast as her legs 
could carry her. Before she had fully accomplished her design, the 
clergyman of Rath awoke, and, seeing his beloved tower being borne 
off towards Dysert, started in hot pursuit after the thief. St. B&ndla, 
staggering under her heavy load, was of course no match for the owner of 
the bell-tower, so, finding herself about to be overtaken, just where the 
stream crosses the road a little west of Mr. Synge's lodge, gave the tower 
a most effective and judicious pitch, and landed it in its present position 
near her own church of Dysert, where it stands to-day a crumbling but 
weighty witness of the truth of the story ! In the effort of casting the 
tower she fell on her knee, the impression of which was as plain as the 
nose on your face, upon a stone in this very spot, until some alterations 
were made by Mr. F. H. Synge, which covered it from view.^ 

The accompanying drawings of St. Tola's Cross have been made from, 
rubbings taken by Mr. T. J. Westropp and myself, and reduced by him 
to present scale. For this, and for many other things, I tender hun my 
sincere thanks. 


The patron saint of Dysert is now invariably called Bawkawul by 
the people of the parish, who know nothing whatever of St. Tola. How 
this extraordinary verbal corruption came about will be best told in the 
words of Eugene 0' Curry, who, besides his great ability as an Irish 
scholar, had the advantage of investigating the matter sixty years before 
our time. He says : — ■' 

^^ The people all about here call it Cros-Bhanala, who they think was 
a woman, was {sic) the patron saint of the parish, but it is easy to see 
how this mistake grew up with the corruption of the name. They have 

^ No matter how ridiculous a legend at first sight may appear, there is always hidden 
in it, one may be sure, some nucleus of truth — no matter how small — ^like toe fly in. 
amber. Many carved stones in the present church of Dysert belong to a much older 
structure, and may have been brought, for aught we know, from the more ancient site 
of Rath. Something such as this, we^ may be certain, started this curious story, 
which is a downright credit to the imaginative powers of the natives of Dysext. 


a habit of distinguishing objects and places by their colours — as Boims 
hhtm an Aolmhaighe, White limy Burren ; Teampull duhh na hEidhnighe^ 
the black church of Eidhneach ; Croisa geala Cillfhumnabhraeh, the 
white crosses of Eilfenora ; and in the present instance, Cro9 bhdn 
Thola, i.e. the white cross of Tola, which subsequently was corrupted 
into one word thus, Croa BhanGla, which was further altered into 
Bdndla, and supposed to express the name of the foundress of the 
church. There was no person in the parish to whom I explained the 
progress of this corruption who did not believe it to be the truth, and 
acknowledge that doubts were always entertained in the parish on the 
same subject, as the name of Banala could not be found among any of the 
Irish saints. It is curious to find, however, that the Disert Tola, in the 
county Westmeath, is called by the natives Viieart Awla.^^^ 

^ Ordnance Survey Letten, R.I.A., 14 B23, Oct. 23rd, 1839. The cross was in 
rains when this letter was written, and there was no tradition as to how or when the 
injary was done. St. Tola's patron day was kept at this time, both in Dysert and the 
adjoining parish of Kilnamona, on the 30th March, which looks as if they were once 
united, representing, perhaps, the ancient tribal division of CintUCuaUaehta, O'Cuny 
also adds (p. 144) : ** I must correct my assertion that everyone [to whom] I mentioned 
the progress of the corruption of the name Banala believed it" : and tells the legend of 
how the round tower was carried off from Rath to Dysert, as told him by one Jimmy 
Kishane, and which is virtually the same as that given above . 

The name of the saint is rendered " St. Naul " on the label attached to the crosier 
of Dysert in the collection of the Royal Irish Academy. 

t 256 ) 

Branie ^Caldron fiituid at Hilkemagli Bt^, naur Grantrd, Co. 
Loi^fDrd.— This finej cauldron (now in 017 poBaession) was found in 
June, 1884, under 12 feet of turf, in Uilkernagli Sog, near Oranard, in 
the county Longford. It is made of thin aheets of bronze about ^ of 
ku incb tbick. The bottom piece is round, 16} inches in diameter ; the 
bext row connsts of two stripB, 2 feet 4 inches long, 3} inches wide ; 
the second row Is formed of three pieces, 1 foot 8 inches, 1 foot 8 inches, 
and 2 feet 5} inches long; all of these are 3} inches wide ; the third 
row has three pieces, each 1 foot 10^ inches long and 3^ inches wide. 

Bronie Caldron from Uilkeniagb Bog, Co. Longford — Side View. 
{YcoM A Photo by H. A, S. UpCoD.) 

The top piece forming the rim has only two pieces, each 2 feet 4 inches 
long and 7 inches wide joined together under the handles. These top 
pieces are narrowed in to form the mouth, and are then spread oat for 
li inches, and finally turned round a bronze ring 19 inches in diameter 
and f inches thick, thus forming the edge. The top of this rim is 
ornamented with a raised punching from underneath, which is well 
shown in the accompanying photographs. The caldron is riveted 
together with conical bronze rivets about i inch apart, and the plates 


also lap about tlie same. These conical riveti are undoubtedly' for 
cmamentation, ae they are placed acroee monjr of the bronze plates, thus 
jiring the idea of a joint. 

The handles consist of two bronze rings 4^ incbes in diameter and 
f inch thick ; the eyes which hold them are 1^ inch wide, and hare 
A ribbed ornamentation. These eyes are fastened to the caldron hj 
twisted bronze stays 3^ inches long, fastened to the sides, two inside 
aud two out. 

The caldron measures 19 inches diameter outside, 16^ inches across 
the mouth, 13^ inches deep, and has a girth round the lai^eat diameter 
of 57 inches. It is in a perfect state of preservation. — Hbsxt A. 8, TJpiov, 

le Caldron froni Mtlkemagh Bog, Co. Longford — Interior. 
(FioBi a Photo bj H. A. S. Uplon.) 

Anoifliit^ Caldron. — Ur. W. J. Thomas sends a report on the same 
object above described by Major Upton, in which he says: — 

" This interesting relic of a bygone age was found (during the opera- 
tion of cutting turf) by Mr. V, Gavigan of Senroe, Oranard, bo far 
back as the month of June, 16H4. The site of the diecoTcry waa Mil- 
kemagb bog, near Oranard, at n depth of twelve feet from the surface. 


. The largest circumference of the cauldron is 5 feet 6^ inches, the outer 
rim diameter 17 inchoB, the inner 15^ inchea, breadth between oater 
portion of handles 22J inches, and greatest depth 13^ inches. 

" The vessel now forma part of the private collection of Slajor Henry 
A. 8. TJpton of Coolatore, Moate, "Westmeath, and probably rivals, if it 
does not eclipse, the best specimens of either bronze or iron, cauldrona 
beretofore discovered." 

Holy Well and AntiqoitiaB near CaMr, Co. Tippenuy. — I enclose 
a pen sketch of a "Holy Well" nearCahir, county Tipperary. Perhaps 
some member can, from the form 
of the cross incised in the upright 
stone (a) give some idea of the 
antiquity of the place. In the 
drawing I have omitted the modem 
covering roof erected over the 
ancient stones, and also the varioas 
figures, pictures, and other objects 
standing on or near the flat hori- 
zontal slab (S), and -which almost 
hide the deeply cut cross and circle 
(a). The well is named after the 
Blessed Lord (Tub ar-Iosa — Cubap- 
At Tobar-Io»a (TubbereeM), near Cahir. lopa, pron. Tubbereesa), and gives 
an abundant supply of pure water. 
There is also, about two miles from Cahir, in the north slope of the 
tialtees, another "Holy Well" — St. Pekaun's (i.». Pecan or Becan). 
This ancient sanctuary contains, besides the Holy Well (which once 
possessed a "holy trout," since impiously caught!), a small roofless 
chapel with an inscribed stone, apparently an object of reverend 

There is also, near at hand, the remains of an upright cross, broken 
maliciously. I was told that the culprit was soon after taken with a 
pain and died — an end not unmerited, if the story be true, as the act 
was one of sacrilege, not merely wanton mischief, as the cross would 
appear to have been one of peculiar sanctity, if it he the same as 
Becan's cross mentioned by Colgan. Near at hand there are what seem 
like the ruins of an anchorite cell, containing a stone marked with two 
knee hollows. 

The whole place is a most pathetic example of the persistent reverence 
for antiquity, which is such a marked trait in the character of oar 

The place is remote and little visited now ; and is about four miles 
from Bansha and two from Cahir. 


Smith's ''Diet, of Christian Biog.," vol. i., p. 300, under Beean (2) 
quotes from Colgan that the above-mentioned Becan (2) dwelt at the 
monastery of Kilbrecain or Cluainaird-Mobecoc, in Munster, O'Clery 
puts the ** site of this church in Muscraighe Breoghain (barony of 
Clanwilliam in Tipperary)." This latter is, in fact, the district in 
which St. Pecann's Well is situated. — G. Nuttall Smith, Member, 

'' Chief Bents belonging to the * Earle ' of Kildare in the Kanor 
of Adare." — In looking over an old manuscript rental in the valuable 
collection of our member, Mr. John Morton of Limerick, I find the chief 
rent of the lands of Ballycullane, county Limerick, stated as ^* one red 
rose and one penny." ^ It would be interesting to know if other cases of 
flowers forming portion of a rental have come under notice of the 
Society or its members. 

Truly there is poetry in the memories of of the past — ** Sweet Adare," 
innocent of visions of ''Land Commissions" et hoe genus omne ! The 
rental is undated, but is, no doubt, of the seventeenth century, as it 
refers to the '' Earle of Kildare " (patent for the Marquisate, dated 19th 
March, 1761), whose county Limerick estates were, by an Act passed 
about 1692, enabled to be sold, and were disposed of in 1711, when the 
manors of Adare and Croom were purchased by ancestors of the Earl of 
Bunraven, and Mr. Crokcr of Ballynagarde, respectively. — R. W. 
Chbistie, Member, 

A Cashel on Sliabh na Caillighe. — A little to the north of a line 
joining the summits of Belrath hill and 
Patrickstown hill, but in the townland 
of Ballinvalley, lies the only structure 
of the kind with which I am acquainted 
in that part of the country. Its owner, 
Mr, Woods, having kindly given per- 
mission to excavate, I set men to work 
last year to remove strips of the sod 
about 3 feet wide, and the same dis- 
tance Impart. The result was disappoint- 
ing, as nothing was found except the 
lemains of the dwelling with a fire- 
pkce of a couple of flagstones in its ^^^ j^ BolliiiTalley. 

centre, as shown in the plan. 

The bounding wall is dry built, and in parts is about 8 feet high. 

* Such lerrices were very common, being apparently copied from Englia)! 
axamplea; they cannot be regarded as a certain evidence of Irish custom, or of 


bot it is mnoh injured; its greatest diameter is 116 feet. The floor 
enclosed slopes towards the west at an angje of Y° 30', — E. GBonoit 


Kote on Sliabli na Caillighe. — A few atones in the caimB on this 
range of hills have, I believe, hitherto escaped publication, and I enclose 
drawings of some of them. 

The illustrations, figs. 1 and 2, show both sides of a slab measuring 
€ feet 8 inches x 3 feet 9 inches, which divides two of the nortbeni 

Flo. 1.— In Caii-n L, Fio. 2.— In C«irt L. 

chambers in cairn L. Conwell, in a general view of the interior of this 
coim, shows part of one side of this stone, bat this can hardly be considered 
a satisfactory representation of it. 

Fig 3 represents the remains of a stone about 7 feet long, at present 
lying on the floor of cairn L. The rather peculiar ornamentation on 
it has been cut or scratched and not punched, the latter being the 
most usual method employed among the incised stones of Sliabh na 


Fig. 4 IB from a fragment' in cairn IT, 

Fig. 6 representB what teems to be a diriding stone* between two 
chambers in cairn T, but the irregnlarity of the plan 
of the Btonea remaining in this cairn makes it impos* 
sible to be sore of their purpose. The existing 
inscribed stones in the cairns on these hills, irhich 
have not been illustrated, probably do not exceed 
half-a-do£en in number, and for the most part are of 
snch trifling interest as not to be worth publishing, 

Fts. 3.— In Cftim L. Fio. 4.— In Cum U. Fio. G.— In Cairn V. 

the designs being either a few concentric rings or irregular scrawls, 
apparently without meaning or design. One exception is a slab in the 
western chamber of cairn H, on which are incised a number of 
U-shaped marks. Owing to the partial destruction of the chamber I 
cannot get at this stone to draw it, by reason of the dibri4 which 
covers it. 

I append a list of all the references to illustrationa of stones in these 
calms with which I am acquainted : — 

£»fenneu to Iiueribgd Stoiut in Cairn* on Sliahh na Cailligh», 
Journal M.a.J..!., 6th Series, toI. v., pt. 3, pp. 805-316; toL tL, 
pt. 1, pp. 63-59; pt. 3, p. 257; vol, vii., pt. 1, pp.34, 38, 50; pt. 4, 
p. 427; Tol. Tiii. pt. 2, pp. 17i, 172. 

SVaniaetiont R.I.A., Tol. xxxi., Part II. 

ProtMdingt 8. A. Scotland, pp. 294-340, vol. iii., 3rd Series. 

"Pagan Ireland," by Col. Wood-Martin, p, 46. 

** Discovery of tiie Tomb of OUamh Fodhla," by E, A. Conwell. 

E. Cbofton Rothemu. 
' Len^ 1 ft. a in. * 4 ft. 3 in. high. 


" Chief Eent '' a Eose.— JSnch "floral tributes" as Mr. diristie 
mentions, were (like the "pepper-corn rent") not uncommon in Tudor 
aad Stuart times. A good example, in the neighbourhood of Limerick, 
is given by Mr. Lenihan in the "History and Antiquities" of that 

Dr. Thomas Arthur, in the reign of Charles I., mentions a lease of 
Cratloe at the rent of a red rose. — T. J. W. 

Snidhe Mochuda Ogam Inscription. — This ancient site, still well 
known in the locality as Suidhe Hochuda, or the seat of Carthach, or 
Carthage, consists now of a standiug-stone to the south-east of which 
is a small enclosure of stones, 8 feet loug by 6 feet broad, on an 
eminence rising above the Araglen river, which divides the counties of 
Waterford and Tipperary. It is situate in the parish of Lismore, and 
county of Waterford, and the name of the townland is marked on 
the Ordnance Survey Map as Seemochuda. It has recently been 
conjectured that the markings on the stone are Ogam inscriptions, and 
recent investigations have verified this surmise. The standing-stone 
was not known to bear an inscription of any kind until seen on the 
8th of May this year, by the Rev, Patrick Power, Diocesan Inspector of 
Schools, Waterford. After holding an examination in Upper Ballysag- 
gartmore National School, he paid a visit to Suidhe Mochuda, attracted 
by the name, and in hopes of finding some memorial of St. Mochuda. On 
coming close to the standing- stone, he at once perceived that it bore an 
Ogam inscription, and he deciphered most of the inscription. He 
arranged to meet the Rev. Edmond Barry, p.p., Vice-President^ at the 
stone, on the 11th, and again on the 14th, of that month, but though 
each was there on both days, on neither day did they meet. Father 
Power's account of his discovery is announced to appear in the next 
number of the " Journal " of the Waterford and South-east of Ireland 
Archaeological Society. 

The stone was tilso visited by Professor Rhys and Mr. Cochrane, 
who took rubbings and photographs, and a Paper by the Professor, 
on the subject, is held over until next issue, in order to permit of 
Father Power having the advantage of priority of publication, to which 
he is by courtesy entitled. 

( 263 ) 

[NoTB. — I%e worki marked thut (*) are by Memhere of the Society, "] 

*Histcry of Ennueorthy. By William H. Grattan Flood. (Enniscoitliyi 

1898.) 223 pages. Price 3«. 6d. 

We gladly welcome this addition to our Irish local histories. The author's 
ohject was to provide a convenient historical handbook setting forth the 
facts chronologically and impartially. In this he has been on the whole 
successful. He has shown that Enniscorthy has a history, and that 
apart from the tragic events of '98, with which it is so closely identified, 
and his chapters on Enniscorthy in ancient, mediaeval, Elizabethan, and 
Puritan times well repay perusal. Particularly interesting is the 
extract which he gives from Sir William Brereton's diary. Sir William 
visited Enniscorthy in the summer of 1634, a summer such as wo have 
just had, of intense heat. A cousin of his was then agent to Sir Henry 
Wallop, an ancestor of the Earl of Portsmouth, the present lord of the 
soil, and after he had *' bestowed wine" on the worthy knight, he 
introduced him to the judges who were '' riding '' the circuit, and to 
several of the l«cal celebrities. Brereton was much struck by the 
handsome dress of the upper classes ; and draws attention to the advan- 
tages of the Wexford route from England, by narrating how Sir Adam 
Oolclough had dined at Milford, and supped in Enniscorthy on the same 
day — a marvellously expeditious journey in those times. The history 
contains a valuable account of the Boman Catholic Church in the 
diocese of Ferns, and also notices of the other churches and sects. The 
want of an Index will, we hope, be supplied in the next edition. 

*Maees^ Swards^ and other Insignia of Offie$ of Irish Corporations, Sfo. 
By John Ribton Garstin, h.a., v.-p. b.i.a., f.s.a. (Dublin : Published 
by the Arts and Crafts Society, 1898.) 66 pages ; royal 8vo ; illus- 
trated. Price Is. 

This work is reprinted, with additions and corrections, from the 
'^ Journal of the Arts and Crafts Society of Ireland," and the objects 
described are chiefly those which were on view at the Exhibition of 
that Society in Dublin, 1896. Of the Maces described and illustrated, 
the following is a list: — Dublin, Athy, Belfast, Callan, Carrickfergus, 
Cork, Galway, E[ilkenny, Londonderry, Limerick, Wexford ; also those 
of the Royal Irish Academy, the College of Physicians, and the College 
of Surgeons. 

Of the Maces not shown at the Exhibition, two in Dublin Castle, 
and one belonging to Trinity College, Dublin, are illustrated ; and the 
Maces of the Irish House of Commons, of the Lord Chancellor of Ireland, 


and of the Corporations of Drogheda, Armagh, Carlo w, Portarlington, 
Castlemartyr, and Hillsborongh, are described, but not illustrated. 

An elaborate description is given of the ''Sword of Estate" at 
Dublin Castle, the deHvery of which to the Lord Lieutenant constitutes 
him Chief Governor, and two photo-zincographic illustrations present it 
to the reader. The splendid Sword of Dublin citj is shown, and the 
very ancient one of Limerick. The " Ferara " of Deny, and the hand- 
some Sword of Kilkenny, with others of almost equal interest, historic- 
ally and artistically, are illustrated and described. The comparatively 
modem Oar of the Dublin Admiralty Court is figured, and its history 
given. The Mayoral Chain of Belfast is represented ; and the extra- 
ordinary Chain of Limerick's Mayor, with its historical series of links, 
is described. 

The descriptions are accurately given, and the details and charac- 
teristic nature of the ornament of each type, with the makers* marks, 
where such exist, are carefully noted. The incidental references to the 
date letters of the Irish hall marks afford many contributions to the 
recovery of their meaning, which has yet to be cleared up, and as to the 
elucidation of which — obscured by "Chaffers" — ^Mr. Garstin has long 
been engaged in collecting materials. The illustrations are well 
executed by Mr. Milford Lewis of Dublin, and what is of equal 
importance, the plates are well printed; indeed, the •* get-up " of the 
work is highly creditable to the Arts and Crafts Society, and to the 
University Press. 

An account of the Cork Corporation Mace is given in the i/0tim0/ 
of our own Society for the year 1886, p. 344, and for 1890, p. 300. 
The Kilkenny Mace is described and illustrated in the volume for 1870, 
pp. 280-305. The Londonderry Mace is similarly described and illustrated 
in the volume for 1863, p. 386 ; and an illustration and description of 
the Mace of Castlemartyr will be found at p. 302 of the volume for 
1890. The Mace of the Cork Guilds is illustrated and described at 
pp. 341-361 of the volume for 1886 ; and a description of the Drogheda 
Mace will be found at p. 100 of the volume for 1897. With these 
exceptions, our Irish Civic Insignia have scarcely been noticed in print 
until the book under review was published. 

In the introductory chapter, Mr. Garstin traces the evolution of the 
mace from the mediaeval club, until it ceased to be of the form of 
a weapon, and developed into a simple emblem of authority, with 
eventually the Eoyal or State arms embossed or surmounted thereon, as 
indicative of the regal authority under which the charter of incorpora- 
tion was held. 

As this work seems to be difficult to obtain, it is hoped a new 
edition will be issued. It is most interesting and instructive, and the 
author is to be congratulated on the workmanlike manner in which he 
has handled the material at his disposal. 


*De$criptwe Catalogue of a CoUeetion of Manuscripts formerly belonging 
to^ and mainly the handiwork of William Esetbs, d.d., p. r.i.a., Lord 
Bishop of Down and Connor and Dromore^ now in the Diocesan Library ^ 
Belfast. Compiled by John Bibton Garstm, b.d., f.s.a., t.-p. b.i.a« 
Privately printed. (Belfast, 1899.) 8vo. 

This is a neatly got np and carefully compiled pamphlet of 15 pages, 
comprising the particulars of twenty -nine manuscripts, all of which are 
now deposited in the Diocesan Library in Belfast. Mr. Garstin, in a 
prefatory note, says the late Bishop Beeves left a large collection of 
manuscripts, chiefly of his own compiling and writing, which were, 
after his death, divided roughly into three collections, the largest of 
which was acquired for Trinity College, Dublin, and a small collec- 
tion, relating chiefly to Armagh, was bought for the Public Library 
there ; the third collection, consisting of the twenty-nine items above 
referred to, found its way to the Diocesan Begistry, Belfast, of which 
collection the brochure under notice forms a catalogue. 

In addition to the work of classification, the compiler prepared an 
elaborate summary of the contents of different parcels, which is of the 
greatest value to the local historian, and students of the affairs of the 
united dioceses. Many of the documents were prepared for publication, 
but Beeves* s inveterate habit of not allowing anything to go to press 
until thoroughly revised, and subjected to the most minute examina- 
tion, BO exacting was his taste and scholarship— prevented them being 

Item No. 12 contains fifteen manuscript papers on Diocesan History 
and Antiquities, read before the Down, Connor, and Dromore Church 
Architecture Society, and the Itarris Society, 1842-1846, only a few of 
which have been published ; and, no doubt, an opportunity will arise of 
giring the remainder of these papers to the public, as well as some of 
the more important of the other items. 

Mr. Garstin deserves the thanks of all for his promptness in acced- 
ing to the request made to him to undertake this work, and for the 
painstaking care and ability displayed by him in its execution. 

These manuscripts will find an appropriate resting-place along with 
the books presented to the diocese by Principal Beichel. The collection 
was secured mainly owing to the intervention of the late Lavens Ewart, 
v.-p. B.S.A.I., and the dioceses are indebted to his family for carrying out 
hiB wish that this Catalogue should be printed. 

Though most of the items relate to the counties of Antrim and 
Down (comprising the dioceses of Bishop Beeves), several are of general 
interest to students of Irish topography and family history. 

[Mr. Garstin authorizes us to state that he will be happy to supply 
copies {gratis) to members on application to him.*] 



OF ANTIQUARIES OF IBELAITD m cokjumctiok with thi 

[Ountinutd fiom pagt SIS.) 

F&IDJ.r, JUNE 23, 1899. 


A Lunmra was successfully effected on tbe largest of the&e isIandB, the 
weather having proved favourable; a heavy swell comes in from the 
Atlantic, and, to ensure a safe landing, it is necessary that the 
weather should have been fine for a considerable time previous. 
Eilean M6r is the 
largest of this group, 
and south-east of it 
lies Eilean Tighe, 
the next in extent; 
Soraidh lies to the 
extreme south ; and 
two miles to the 
west, there is the is- 
land rock called Ro- 
dhoreim ; in addition 
to these there are 
about a score of rocky 
islets at various die- ^ 
tances around, which ~ 
prevent the steamer ' 

gettbg clo.e t. the »■ '■"-■• ££; »S "'...If- "■"■' 


Eilean Mor is half a mile in length, and about a quarter of a mile in 
breadth at its widest part. It rises abruptly from the sea, and attains a- 
height of nearly 3Q0 feet, where it is comparatively level, and aSonls 
some grazing for sheep. On this island is a primitive oratory dedicated 
to Flannan, an Irish saint,' the following description of which is taken 
from Martin's ""Western Islands of Scotland," a.d. 1703: — 

" The ttigfeit of thaea ulsndB is called Island More ; it has the ruioi of a Cbappel 
' Ib« Fbuman lalee deiive their name from on Iiiaii biabop, St. Flannan, son at 

peocEiiiDiNQS. 267 

dedicated to St. Flaniun, from whom the iiUad derifea ila lume ; when they cons 
within about twenljr poceaot the All ar, the j all strip themielTei of their upper gannenta 
■t once, and their uppciclolhei being laid upona >tone, which atands there on purpOM 
for that u>e, all the crew praj three times berore Aej begin Fowling ; the first da]' 
they Buy the first Prayer advaiicing townrdi Ihe Chnppel upon their knees ; the second 
ptayer is laid u ihey go round the Chappel ; the third is (aid hardly or at the Chippel 
and tliisii their Morning Service. Their Vespers arc performed with the like number o( 
Prayers. Aoolher Kule is, Thatit is abjolulely unUwful to kill a Fowl with a Slon 
for tlial thej reckon a great Barbarity, and directly contrary to ancient Custom." 

Through the courteey of Ur. David Douglas, publisher of Uuir's 
" Ecclesiological Satve," an illuetratiun of the tittle edifice is here re- 
produced, and from the same work the foUowinf; deacriptiye extracts 
are taken. (For more recent illustrations, sec pp. 328, 329, and 342) : — 

" Eitemally Ihe chapel of St. Plannan'a is a low quadrilateral building of 
ancemenled tlones, with slightly sloping walls and a stone barrel- vaulted roof risiug 
from its spring to a height somewhat higher than tiie height of the supporting walls. 
Outside tbe measurements are : — Length of north side, 11 feet 11 inches; length of 
south side, 12 feet 2 inches; width ofeatt end, 10 feet 3 inches; width of nest end, 
9 feet 2 inches; height 8 feel 10 inches. 

"Within Ibe dimensions iire: — length, 7 feet 3 inches; width. 1 feet 6 ioehe* ', 

height from floor 
lo roof, which is 

! formed ol narrow 
sbit>8 laid across, 
S feet 9 inches. 
J Singularly 
I enough, the only 
I aperture in the 
c building is a door* 

height and 1 foot 
lOinchesin width. 

Ground-ptiD of one of (bo Building on Eilru M6r, ciIIeiI iha witnin, tbe ma- 

Boihiei of MscpbailJ'i Soni. sonry is very rude, 

the stones being of all aises and shapes, in greater part closely united, but in the joiut- 
ings no lime has been used. The other buildings, tvo in number, called by Iain 
Mac Donsld SiHhim Clann Igphail (Bothies of Macphnill's sons Or kinsmen), are 
situated near to the edge of a liigh preiipice at tbe uent end of tbe island, the ki^er 
one is a low narrow erection, internally about 30 feet in length. It stands east and 

Theodonc (Turlougb), Sing of Tboniond, and a lineal ancestor of Kin^ Brian. 
Flsnnan seems to have been bom near Killaloe, and sent lo Si. llbithmet for hu eariier 
education. Earing dislinguiahed himeelf by bis piety and obeciience, be returned and 
entered the monastery founded by St. Molua st KiUaloe, from which that place 
derives its name. Being elected bishop by advice of Molua, he seems lo have visited 
Kone, and been confirmed in his offiee by ihe Pope, John (? John IV., 640, or 
John VII., 700). Wo eventually learn that "the some Flannan. zealous in holy 
labours, disseminated the words of the Holy Gospel in ihe maritime islands of 
Scotland." His friend Molua ia described as " leverenied among the gicalett 
prelitel of Ireland, or saints of Scotland, and more especially in the Orkneys." So 
Flumsn evidently followed the footsteps of his venerable preceptor. (See Bishop 
Reeves's " Adamnan," p. '227.) 


west and consists of two apai-tments, the east one a square of nearly 8 feet, tlie vest 
an irregular oval, 5 feet by 4 feet 6 inches (see plan). A very low and narrow passage 
6 feet in length, connects the one with the other, and there is another passage of like 
kind, 8 feet in length, leading into the larger apartment from the east end. Both 
passages are roofed with large slabs laid across, the chambers capped by a beehive kind 
of dome, with a small circular hole in the crown, 6 feet 10 inches from the floor." 

Calleknish Stonk Circle. 

Callemish is a small township near tlic head of East Loch Roag, on the 
north-west coast of the island of Lewis. There are four stone circles in 
the district round the head of the loch. Of these the largest, which is 
also in some respects the most remarkahle of all known stone circles, is 
situated close to the township, and less than half a mile from the shore, 
where there is an inn much frequented in the season hy sportsmen. The 
circle consists of twelve stones, arranged round a central stone which 
is 17 feet high, and 5^ feet hroad at the hase. The other stones do not 
exceed from 10 to 13 feet in height, some hcing even less, hut the special 
peculiarity of their arrangement consists in a douhle line, or avenue, of 

SL^ t 4 

!r--Tz!r--irJ:rJ!5^-J^^. ?^ 


t.iiimi-li... ■ I i>. I 

Bird's-eye View of Callernish Circle and Avenue. 

standing stones leading up to the circle from the north, and three lines 
of stones projecting from it to east, west and south, so that the ground- 
plan shows a rough resemblance to the form of an Irish cross, with a 
circle connecting the shaft, arms and summit. The circle is about 40 feet 
in diameter, tlie lines of the avenue leading up to it are 27 feet apart, 
and consist of nine and ten stones respectively, the whole length of the 
avenue being about 270 feet. The number of stones in the lines stretch- 
ing to east and west of the circle is four, and in that to the south, five. 
The total length of the stone- setting from north to south is 408 feet, and 
the width across the arms from east to west 130 feet. The stones are 
securely sunk into the boulder-clay ; and until 1857, there was an 
accumulated growth of peat over the site, fully 5J feet in thickness. 
When this was removed by Sir James Mattheson, there was discovered 
between the central stone and the eastern side of the circle, the lower 


part of a circular chambered cairn 20 feet in diameter. The passage, 
which was 2 feet wide, opened in the east side of the cairn, lietwcen two 
of the stones of the circle, and led to a central chamber consisting of two 
compnrtiueats, the lai^cr 6 feet 9 inches, by 4 feet 3 inches, and tbo 
smaller opening out of it to the back 4 feet 4 inches bj- 2 feet 7 inches. 
Ab uBual, the floor of the chamber presented evidences of cremated 




Cftllei-nisli Circle. 

The other cirelca, which are uU much smaller, onil of the ordinarj- 
type, are situated further towards thehoiid of the loch on the north-eaat 
side. In one of thL'm, about a mile distant from the cross-shaped circle, and 
from which about 7 feet of peat were removed, a small cairn, and four 
small stone cists were exposed within the enclosed area. The cists were 
paved with rounded water-worn pebbles, and are suid to have contained 
charcoal, but the contents were not carefully examined. 



Ddm Caelowat. 

The Broch on the west coast of le-wis, known as Dun Carloway, is 
situated near the head of Loch Carloway, an inlet branching off from 
taet Loch Rong on its northern aide. It standa on the spur of a hill 
called Beinn-na-duine, rather more than half a mile inland from the 
southern shore of the loch, and about the same distance from the shore 
of Loch Roag. Although like the largest of the Glenelg Brochs, nearly 
one-half of the structure is gone, it is still one of the best preserved , 
examples in Scotland, On the south side it is about 34 feet high, and 
viewed in this aspect it seems almost entire. It is of the usual Broch 
type, but with some variations, being a circular tower of dry built 

Broch of Dun Carlowa}', Lewis, Etut Side. 

masonry, with a wall 12^ feet thick, and having no opening to the 
exterior except the doorway on the north-east side on the level of the 
ground, which goes straight through the wall, giving access to the 
enclosedcircular oreaor court, about 25 feet in diameter. On the other side 
of the court an inner doorway gives access to the stair constructed in 
the thickness of the wall, by which the galleries are reached, the wall 
above the ground floor being carried up with a hollow space in its thick- 
nesB, which is crossed at about every six feet of height by horizontal 
tiers of slabs, which serve the double purpose of tying the outer and 
inner shells of the tower-wall together, and of foi-ming floors and roofs for 
the galleries, which go completely round the buildingiii the interior of the 


wtil, and are lighted by ranges oi window -openings looking into the 
interior court. Five of these galleries still remain in the side of the tower 
which IB least dilapidated. The inner face of the tower-wall, looking 
into the court, is perpendicular, the exterior shows a batter of one foot 
in five. The doorway is five feet high and tbree feet wide, crowned with 
a maselTC lintel, and having checks for a door about three feet within 
the entrance ; and beyond them on the right side is the opening to a 
guard chamber, from which again there is an opening to the basement 
gttUery, which is roofed by overlapping atones and not by flags, as in the 

Broch of Dun Cailoway, Lewis, Weat Side. 

cue of the superior galleries. The higher galleries are so narrow and 
incommodious that Captain Thomas thought they were merely galleries 
of cODstruction, intended not for accommodation, but simply to lighten 
the weight of the superior mass of the wall. £y an ingenious calculation 
be estimated that allowing the basement for cattle, the interior would 
f^fford accommodation for sixty people, and if that number hod been 
employed in its construction, they could have built it easily in seven 



Part I. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 24, 1899. 


Leatino the narrow and picturesque Loch Carloway, with its bold 
steep slopes, and sailing in a north-easterly direction, the wild and 
beautiful outlines of the western coast of Lewis are seen to advantage 
for some distance, where the whole force of the Atlantic breaks on the 
rugged shores. It takes four hours' steaming to reach North Rona, an 
island so far north that its position is not to be found on the ordinary 
maps of Scotland. It may, however, be fixed on any map, by making it 
the apex of an equilateral triangle, whose base of forty miles is a line 
drawn from the Butt of Lewis to Cape Wrath, North Bona is accessible 
from three places ; but, owing to the long swell from the Atlantic, 
landing is attended with great difficulty. 

This island was visited by the late Mr. T. S. Muir in 1857 and 1860, 
an account of which is given in his valuable work, ** Ecclesiological 
Notes on some of the Islands of Scotland,'' published, in 1885, by 
Mr. David Douglas of Edinburgh, through whose kindness the two illus- 
trations of Temple Rona are here given, as well as extracts from the 
work, one of which is a quotation from an account given by Sir Qeorge 
Mackenzie to Sir Eobert Sibbald, about the end of the seventeenth 
century, as follows: — 

*' The island of Rona hath for many generations been inhabited by five families, 
which seldom exceeded 30 souls in all ; they have a kind of commonwealth among 
them, in so far, if any of them have more children than another, he that hath fewer 
taketh from the other what makes his number equal, and the excrescence above 30 souls 
is sent with the summer boat to the Lewes to the Earl of Seafortb, their master, to 
whom they pay yearly some quantity of meal, stitched up in sheep's skins, and feathers 
of sea-fowls. They have no feuel for fire upon the island, but by the special providence 
of God, the sea yearly casts in so much timber as serves them. Their sheep there have 
wool, but of a blewish colour. 

** There is a chappel in the midst of the isle, where they meet twice or thrice a day. 
One of the families is hereditary Beddall, and the master of that stands at the altar 
and prayeth, and the rest kneel upon theii' knees and join with him. Their religion 
is the Bomish religion. There is always one who is chief, and commands the rest, and 
they are so well satisfied with their condition that they exceedingly bewail the condi* 
tion of those, as supernumerary, they must send out of this island.*' 

Martin, in the ** Western Islands of Scotland," a.d. 1703, gives a 


cnriouH acconnt of the primitive inhabitants and of their extreme hospi- 
tality to strangers and peculiar method of salutation : — 

" One of (he Nntivei would nc«di eipresi high esteem for my Penon bjr making a. 
turn round about me Sun-waj^t, sad nt the wme time bleuing me, and wishing me all 
bappinei*. . . . They conducted me to the Little Village, where thej dwell, and in 
ibe way thither there were three Inelocuiee ; and aa I entered each of theae, the In- 
habitanta Bererall; uluted me. Inking me by the Hand, and laying, TisTeUei, you are 
welcome here. . . . 

" About fourteen years ago 
A nForm of Kats, but none 
knowB how, came into Bona, 
iDd in a abort time eat up bU 
the com in the laland. In a 

; Few monthi after aome Seumcn 

landed there, who robbed the 

I poor peopleoflheir Bull. Theae 

misfortunea and the want of a 

I tupply from Lewis for the space 

I of a year occsaioned the death 

of all that Ancient Race of 

The island is rented 
by a farmer for grazing 
sheep ; it is only half a 
mile in length, and at its 
greatest height is 360 feet 

I above the level of the sea ; 

j on the western side are 

I difEs about 90 feet high ; 

I the eastern shore elopes 

' downwards to the sea. 

, There is a rock called 

i Oouldig Mhor, about half 

. a mile south of tho south- 

' east point of the island, 

I and between that and the 

I island another called Ooul- 

I dig Beag. There is a small 

I rock, seen only at low water, 

j near the south-west point. 

I which is dangerous to navi- 


The best landing place IWmpull Konn. 

is Poul Houtham on the 

eonth, also Geodh Sthu on the oast, and the most fa'vourable winds are 
tor the foimer a northerly or easterly, and for the latter a southerly or 
westerly wind. 



The last human inhabitant of tlie island was Donald Macleod, King 
of Bona, who left it in 1846. 

Mr. Muir's description of the chapel of St. Bonan is as follows : — 

** Of this rude and diminutiye building not much can be said. On the outside it is 
most part a rounded heap of loose stones, roofed over with turf. Within you find it 
a roughly -built cell 9 feet 3 inches in height, and at the floor 11 feet 6 inches long 
and 7 feet 6 inches wide. The end wall leans inwardly a little, the side one so 
greatly that, where they meet the flat slab-formed roof they are scarcely 2 feet apart. 
Beyond the singularity of its shape there is nothing remarkable in the building, its 

Tearapull Rona. West-end interior elevation of smaller Cell. 

only minute features being a square doorway in the west end, so low that yon haye to 
creep through it on your elbows and knees ; a flat-headed window, without splay on 
either side, 19 inches long and 8 inches wide, set over the doorway ; another window 
of like form and length, but an inch or two wilor near the e ist end of the south ^'all ; 
and the altar -stone, 3 feet in length, lying close to the east end. 

"Attached as a nave to the west end of the cell, and externally coextensive with 
it in breadth, are theremiins of another chapel, internally 14 feet 8 inches in length, 
and 8 feet 3 inches in width. Excei)t the north one, which is consider.ibly broken down, 
all the elevations are nearly entire, the west one retaining a part of the gable. 



** A rade flat-headed doorway, 3 feet 5 inches in height, and 2 feet 3 inches M'ide; 
in the south wall, and a small window of the same shape, eastward of it, are the only 

' ' At what time either these buildings were put up it iA impossible to say. Both are 
alike rude in their masonry, and between them there is scarcely a difference in the cha- 
racter of their few inartistic details ; but be the age of the larger one M-hat it may, the 
cell, which may be termed the chancel of the structure at large, is certainly by many 
hundred years the older erection and in all probability the work of the eighth or ninth 

" In the burying-ground, which is fenced by a low wall, with a doorway in the 
south-west, there are seveml truncated plain stone crosses, the tallest one only 2 feet 
6 inches in height. At the intersection of the curves it is pierced with a triangular 

group of three small round holes, touching which, as 
also the pillar itself, there is a variously-told tradition 
among those of the Butt. Of St Bonan, too, and 
of the teampuU he raised in the midst of his solitary 
retreat, a deal of legendary story is still afloat among 
the 'idle-headed eld* at the north end of Lewis.'' 

U^\ ^,,, /^^ The tradition is that Kenan, who was a 

\V' 1, ' J God-fearing man, was so grieved with the 

scolding and quarrelsome women of Eor- 
rapidh, where he lived, that he prayed to be 
taken to some place where he could not hear 
them. His prayer was answered, and a large 
whale appeared, on whose back he was trans- 
ported across the waters and landed at Srdn 
an Teinntein (the fireplace point) in Rona. 
The saint, after diivin gout some wild animals 
which inhabited the island, built the east end 
of the present teampull. 

Anotlier and a much later cliurch, called 
TeampuU na Manach^ was erected ** outside 
the graveyard, and about fifteen yards from the east end of the present 
teampull, with an altar in the middle, 4 feet square by 3 feet high, and 
Having a round gray stone on the top.*' This altar and a part of the 
wall of the church are said to have been standing early in the present 
century. Further illustrations of the ruins on North Rona, as they now 
exist, are given at page 336. 



Cross at west end of Teampull 

North Barra, or Sula Soeir. 

About twelve miles to tlie south-west of North Rona is Sula Sgeir, 
a high rocky island, with precipitous sides about one-third of a mile in 
length ; at the east side of the southern point is a stone-roofed oratory, 
called Tigh Bennaichte (Blessed House), measuring internally about 


14 feetlongy 8 feet wide at the middle, and 6 feet 4 inches at the ends. 
The walls rise with a curve towards each other, and are roofed with 
stones laid horizontally. The doorway is in the south-west end, and 
has inclined jamhs and flat head. It measures 3 feet 5 inches high, 
16 inches wide at top, and 22 inches at bottom. There is a small window 
in the east end and an altar stone, 2 feet 8 inches long, on a raised base. 
The possibility of landing on this island was so uncertain, that it was 
not attempted. 



Pakt II. 

SATURDAY, JUNE 24, 1899. 


Obenet is peculiarly ricli in prehistoric remains — chambered cairns, 
stone circles, cist burials, and Brochs. Captain Thomas estimated that 
there might be in the Islands about 2000 tumuli, chiefly containing 
cist-burials, and Mr. Petrie has enumerated about 70 Brochs. Of the 
chambered mounds Maeshowe is the most interesting, and the two 
stone circles at S tennis are by far the most remarkable in Scotland. 

Maeshowe, which is situated near the farmhouse of Turmiston, 
about six miles from Stromness on the road by Firth to Kirkwall, was 
explored by Mr. Farrer in 1861. In external form it is a truncated 
conical mound, 90 feet in diameter at the base, and over 30 feet in 
height. At a distance of between 80 and 90 feet from the base of the 
mound it is surrounded by a circular trench, between 30 and 40 feet in 
width and from 4 to 8 feet in depth. The entrance passage to the 
chamber in the interior of the mound opens on the south-west, and is 
54 feet in length, with checks for a door about halfway inwards, and 
another pair of checks, consisting of slabs set on end, near the entrance 
into the chamber. The chamber, which is well built, is nearly a square 
of 15 feet on the floor, and about 13 feet of the height remains. Above 
the height of 6 feet the coved roof commences, the coving being effected 
by each successive course of the long flat stones projecting several 
inches beyond the course on which it rests. At the height of about 
3 feet above the floor are the openings of three small cells occupying the 
centre of each side of the chamber, except the side by which the passage 
enters. No relics were found in the course of the excavation to give a 
clue to the purpose of the mound, although there can be little doubt 
that, like other great chambered-mounds, it was sepulchral. But on tho 
walls there had been scratched a number of inscriptions in runes of the 
later Yiking time, one of which records that ** the Orkhaug was broken 


open by the Jerusalem -farera in the time oi the blessed Earl," whicb 
probably refers to the pilgrimage of Earl Eognvald and his followers to 
the Holy Land in 1153. Altogether there are 24 separate inscriptions. 
They are mostly mere idle scribblings, such as " Thatir the Yiking 
came here to weary," " Hermund Kardaxe carved these Bunes," &c., and 

1^1^' ... t X £ Vfi^. 

Hnesliove. Ground-plan and eeetion of Mound uid Ditch. 

Bome of them may owe their origin to the eircumatance recorded in the 
"OrknoyingaSaga" (Edinburgh, 1873, p. 159) that Earl Harold with a 
hundred men spent a Yiile Day at Orkahaug. 

Tab Stone Cibcles of Stenkis are about a mile or more to the 
westward of Uaeshowc, and are reached by the road to Skaill whicb 

HMihowe. Interior of Chamber. 
IFron > DrioiDE by Capt. W. Si. G. Burke, : 

Havshowe. Ground-plan of Chamber and Fassoge. 


branches off the road from Stromnesa to Kirkwall. The larger circle 
Bta&da on a moor slopiog to the Loch of Stennis, within a circular trench 
30 feet wide, enclosing an area of about 2^ acres. The diameter of the 
enclosed area is 366 feot, and the ring of pillar-stonea stands about 13 
feet within the trench on a circle 340 feet in diameter. The original 
number of etouos appears to have been 60, placed about 17 feet apart. 
OnlylSarenow staoding, 10 others are prostrate, and the stumps or 
fragments of 13 more are recognisable. 

The smaller circle stands on a tongue of land projecting into the loch 
at the Bridge of Brogar, rather more than half-a-mile from the larger 
circle. It also stood on a platform 104 feet in diameter, surrounded by 
a wide ditch or hollow, with a slight mound round it on the outer side.- 
Only two stones of the original circle remain standing and one prostrate. 

Ring of SteDDu, from Ihe Weatward. 

Three others were destroyed by the tenant of the farm in 1814 along 
with the " Stone of Odin," a monolith with a hole througli it, which 
stood about 150 yards to the north of the circle, and was much used by 
the young people who grasped hands through the hole as a solemn 
plighting of troth. 

To the north-west is a great solitary standing stone near the 

Not fu distant from the larger circle is the Kiug of Bukan, and 
several tumuli are visible, most of which have been opened and de- 

In the Museum of the Natui-al History Society at Stromncss, and in 
the private museum of Mr. James Cursitor, f.s.a. (Scot.), Kii'kwall, are 
interesting coUcttiona illustrating the Natural History, Geology, and 
Arch»ology of the Orkneys. 

Biog of Brogar— Large Circle of Stennii— from the Soulh- west. 

View of Cromlech, Slennia, from the Northward. 


The following brief description of the main Archaeological features 
of Stromness, Stenuia, Maeshowe, and Kirkwall has been communi- 
cated by Mr. James Cursitor, f.s.a. (Scot.) : — 

In this short Piiper I am compelled, by the circumstances of the case, to restrict 
the matter to the remains of antiquity on the line of march laid down in the 
programme of the Excursion. Stronmess, the beautifully situated town where the 
landing in Orkney is to be made, is a modem place, and boasts of no remains of 
antiquity in its immediate vicinity. It possesses a small museum, but with the 
exception of the geological department, it offers little of interest to the visitor, and is 
poor in objects of antiquity or local interest. 

Stromness is built on the junction of the granite, schists, and conglomerate Old Red 
Sandstone formations, good sections of which are frequently exposed in the course of 
quarrying, while some of the fish remains found in the neighbourhood are possibly 
the lowest in the palsdontological scale ever discovered. About two miles from the 
town, when driving to Stennis, on the right-hand side of the road, the visitor will get 
his first sight of two standing-stones (standing-stones are scattered over the group of 
islands), and the two now referred to are, doubtless, outlines of the system of Brogar, 
which may be discerned across the loch of Stennis, about three miles off. At the 
Farm of Howe, on the ground of which these two stones are situated, are the remains 
of a Broch, which has not yet been explored. The word howe^ in Orkney, has not the 
Scottish meaning of a hollow, but that of an eminence, and is a very common place- 
name in Orkney, and, I think, in almost every instance, the farm so named, has a 
Broch on its land. 

On reaching the Bay of Waithe there will be observed, on a point of land pro- 
jecting into the loch, about 400 yards away, the remains of an ancient chambered 
burial-mound, called Unstan, doubtless, as the name implies, at one time the site of a 
standing-stone. The mound was opened a few years ago, and was found to contain 
a chamber, north and south, 21 J feet long, by 6 J feet wide, divided into five or six 
compartments by large stones placed on edge, having another small chamber off it, 
about the middle, on the west side, the entrance to the large chamber being on the 
east side, and a little to the south end of the middle. The relics discovered at the 
opening consisted of flint arrow-heads, knives, and a scraper, pottery of several clay 
vessels richly ornamented with incised lines of triangular pattern, and a considerable 
quantity of bones of man and beast. There are a few other burial-mounds of this 
variety in the county, notably one on the island of Papa "Weetra, and another, 
discovered last year by General Burroughs, near his house of Wumbland, in the 

island of Bowsa. 

About one mile further along the road, on the right, and almost opposite the 
Stennis Hotel, there is a glacial moraine, in which was discovered, about four years 
ago, a single-chamber burial-place, constructed of heavy stones, and having a drain- 
like entrance. 

Another mile further along the road you turn off north-west to the left, towards 
the stones of Stennis and Brogar. The former, Stennis, or *' Ness of the Stones," is 
the first to bo arrived at, and two upright monoliths, with one prostrate, are all that 
remain of the once standing-stones of which the group consisted. The circular 
space can yet be easily traced, and in its area is a broken dolmen, but whether this 
circular space was surrounded by upright stones, or only partially, is as yet an open 
question. The space is 104 feet in diameter at the stones, and the highest stone 
about 18 feet above ground. Near this stood the famous Stone of Odin, although its 
distance is variously stated at from 70 to 150 yards in a northerly direction. 

At the near end of the Bridge of Brogar, on the left-hand side, stands a 
solitary stone, about 20 feet high, called the Watch Stone. Cixwsing the bridf^. 


.Il-t'iill Ki/.e. (Kiuin ■ Rubbiiiti;.) 

I ■ I ■ I ' I - 

js soMi^fs 


the road passes through a mound at its north end, which has yielded seyeral good 
relics of antiquity, and a few yards further on there are three standing-stones on a 
slight rising ground. 

The farm of Brodgar, from which the circle takes its name (Brodgeiri = a spear- 
shaped piece of land, from the shape of the point of land), is next passed, where a fine 
panoramic view of the large circle is obtained, and a very few minutes suffices to reach 
it. At a little distance from the large circle, in different directions, may be observed 
several bulky mounds of earth, and from their irregularity in disposition, shape, and 
size, they probably never formed part of the scheme of the remains of the stones, but 
were simply heaps of the eailh removed in the course of excavating the trench 
surrounding the circle. These mounds, however, have yielded steatite urns, contain- 
ing burnt bones, attributable to the last period of Norse paganism. The circle itself 
is the largest of its sort in Great Biitain, measuring within the stones a diameter of 
340 feet, to inner edge of ditch, 366 feet, to outer edge, 424 feet ; there are still erect 
thirteen stones, and a few prostrate. They are all arranged with the apex of the 
angle of fracture in one direction. There is a sort of bridge access across the ditch on 
the north and south. No burial has ever been discovered within the area. 

If the visitor takes up his position in the centre of the area, and looks towards the 
Watch-stone, he will detect another stone at a gieater distance, in the exact same line, 
at a place called Tormiston (probably Thor's Stone). This, of itself, is evidence of a 
connexion between the outlying monoliths and this central circle which, with measure- 
ments and bearings, has been the subject of a recent astronomical theory of some 
merit, which will probably be further followed up to good result. 

For a distance to the north-west the district abounds with tumuli and prehistoric 
erections, including two circles without stones, and a dolmen. Before leaving the 
district, the visitor should note a standing-stone about 140 yards to the east of the 
circle, having evidence of being, at one time, surrounded by at least four others, 
the stumps of which remain. Re-entering the vehicles, the same ground is gone 
over till the main road is reached, a few yards from the junction with which, and on 
the left hand, is situated the Stone of Tormiston, and the alignment, previously 
referred to, may be observed and verified from this end in passing. 

Maeshowe is shortly thereafter reached ; the mound is about 36 feet high, and 
92 feet in diameter, and is surrounded, at a distance of forty feet, by an earthen 
rampai-t, about 4 feet high. The entrance to the internal chamber is on the west 
side, and is at present 36 feet long. The visitors should note the size of the stones 
forming the sides and roof of the passage, which are about 18 feet long, and the 
recess near the dooi-way, probably for receiving the stone, which served for a door. 
The central chamber is 14 feet 10 inches, by 15 feet 4 inches, and has three oeils off 
it at about 2 feet above the floor level, each measuring 4 feet 6 inches, by 6 feet 
6 inches, 6 feet 9 inches, and 7 feet, respectively. The characters on the walls chiefly 
belong to the Norwegian division of the Scandinavian runes, and to the latest time of 
their use, and probably date a.d. 1130. (The inscriptions must not be associated with 
the erection or date of the structure, of which, doubtless, the carvers had as little 
information as we have to-day.) They are interesting as being the largest collection 
in Great Britain. In the left-hand comer, on entering, between the buttress and the 
wall, about 4 feet up, is an inscription containing the Runic alphabet, and between 
it and the entrance to nearest cell, there is an inscription, the lower portion of which 
is an attempt at depicting the vowels in the Liuwuna, Bought or Palm form, which was 
somewhat after the manner of the Ogham, the bitmches on one side of the stem-line 
indicating the class or division of the alphabet, the branch on the other side indicating 
the number of the letter in the class. Another example of these Palm runes is to be 
seen in the opposite corner of the chamber at the left side of the cell, at the beginning 
of the inscription. But the most interesting bit of carving remaining is the Dragon, 



on the buttress, in the right-hand comer facing the entrance. Before learing the 
chamber take up a position with your hack to tlie inner wall, and face the entrance. 
The view through the entrance passage is then very restricted, but careful obseryation 
will enable you to discern, in the distance, the stone of Tormiston, already referred 
to ; and an interesting fact, pointed out in the Paper referred to is, that the distanoe 
between this spot and the stone at Tormiston is the same as that from it to the 

Kirkwall and its Cathedkal. 

The run from Stromness to Scapa Bay takes about an hour. Shortly 
after rounding Houton Head, and passing the Holm of the same name 
will be observed the parisli church of Orphir, at the east side of which, 
and almost adjoining it. are the remains of a circular church ; nothing 
but the semi-circular apse and a fras^ment of the arc on e^ch side remain. 

Kirkwall Cathedral. Ground-plan. 

This is the only known church of the kind in "Scotland, although there 
are five in England. This one was built in the beginning of the twelfth 
century. Near it stood the palace of the Earls of Orkney, probably at 
the site of the farm house nearest the ruin. In a bay in this vicinity 
King Haco arrived in Orkney after his defeat at Largs, and went over- 
land to Kirkwall, where he died in the Bishop's Palace. 

From the anchorage in Scapa Bay may be seen tlie roofs of the houses 
in Kirkwall overtopped by the cathedral. The site chosen for its erection 
makes its tower a landmark seen from a longdistance, from Caithness in 
the south, and from several of the north Isles of Orkney. In Scapa Bay, 
N.N.W. from the anchorage, there is a distillery with a burn alongside 
of it running into the bay. At the mouth of this bum on its west side 


ie the Broch of Lingrow, witt its numerons Beoondary builtlings. ThiB 
Broch yielded many interesting relics which now enrich the National 
oollection in Edinburgh, some of the pottery being of a pattern not 
rapreeented in any ether museuni in Europe. The walk from Scapa to 
Kb-kwall IB about two miles. In Kirkwall the cathedral claims special 

Kirkwall Cuthediiii. Uhoir looluDg eaat. 

interest. It was originally built by Earl Rognrald in 1138, and dedi- 
cated to his uncle Earl Uagnus, who was slain in Egilaay in 1116, and 
afterwards canonized. The building is small, but ao beautifully pro- 
portioned that it creates ^in the mind a faUe impresEion of size. It ia 
218 feet in lengith, and meaeuTes acroes aieles and nave 45 feet. Its 


lUTToiniesi lenda to its appearaoce of height. It measnres 89 feet acroaa 
tlie transepts, and has a triforum and clerestory for its wbole length on 
each side, as well as round the transepts. There are chapels attached 
t« the east side of both transepts. The body of King Haco lay in state 

Kiikwall Cathedral. The Crossing and South Truiaept. 

here, and many earls and bishops have been interred irithin its walls, 
but few records of their resting-places are now preserved. The centre 
of the building is the oldest, but by some such artifice as re-casing, 
secondary work with pointed arches, having loond-headed ones above 
them, is to ba seen as in the arching of the principal piers supporting the 


tower. The cboir was lengthened by Bishop Stewart in the beginniiig 
of the sixteenth century by three bays. The probability ia that before 
that time tbe choir terminated in a semicircular apse. The junction of 
the old and new is well shown in the brood pillars, third from the central 
piers, in one of which, on the north side, relics supposed to be those of 
St. Magnus arc prescrred ; a specially driven stone on the east end of 
the pillar marks the xpot. The three bays on the west cud of the nave 
were added in the end of the sixteenth century by Bishop £ci<I, and it 
may be that the former west front was le-erected in it» prcipnt position 

liiikwnll t'dlliulral. Diimviiij,m South Transept. 

at that time. Very good examples of ornamentiLtion in two colours of 
sandstone are to be seen in the doorways ; alternate rings, bands, and 
chequers of yellow and red being introduct'il with good effect. The 
vaulting of the three bays at this end was not completed, the present 
vaulting being only of lath and plaster. 

The remains of St. Uognvald are supposed to be deposited in the south 
wall of the choir aisle in the first hay from its junction with the transept 
underneath a window. Some of the decorative colouring which doubtless 
overspread the interioi may be observed on the groining of t)ie vauiting 

292 KOYAL aocsEin of antiquabies of irblahd. 

and mouldings of axchee at the east end of the south nave aisle. Several 
mason's marks are to he found infiide, and are moro distinctly to be 
seen on the^baae course outside of the south transept. 

In the south tronsept are collected within a railing some sculptured 
atones, vood carving, tiles, &c., which have been found in the building, 
among which are effigies of St. llagnus, and St. Olaf, the former having 
a sword in his hand, the remains of the tomb of Bishop Tullocb, and 
armorial bearings of different bishops and carls. Uutilated and 
neglected as the church is to-day, it is described by Worsaae as " incon- 
testably the most glorious monument of the time of the Norwegian 
dominion to be found in Rcollnnil." 

Kirkirall Cutbcdra]. \'iev from aoutli-eait. 

Two large brass alms-dishes wtre exhibited of very fine workman- 
ship, with representations of the Fall. Around the rim of ona are the 
words, in raised capitals, " had 4D*m qehaek gods wooet wtb soo vasx 


To the south of the cathedral stand the ruins of the Earl's Palace 
and those of the Bishop's Palace. The former, built in the sixteenth 
century by Earl Patrick Stewart, ia a fine specimen of the Scotch baronial 
architecture of the time, und with its large dimensions, its high pitched 
corbelled gables, and projecting bay windows, must have been a very 


imposing structure. It contains a grand staircase, chapel, suites of 
rooms, and a large banqueting hall, 55 feet long by over 20 feet in width, 
haiinjj^ two fireplaces and four large windows. The larger firq^iaM 
presents fire \mik vpwnMK «C Ifas laiwmL «nk m ffooAvod, and on the 

panels on the coroneted pillars on each side of it are the initials p. b. o. 
(Patrick, Earl of Orkney). It was in this house that Montrose last 
slept in a bed before his defeat at Corbiesdale. 

The Bishop's Palace, notable as the place where King Haco died, is 
in the form of a parallelogram, 112 feet by 27 feet, with a modem round 
tower in its N.W. angle. The building has been altered and remodelled 
so frequently that little of the original remains. It consisted of three 
floors and attics. The tower was built by Bishop Reid, whose arms and 
initiab are still to be seen on a panel near the top. About half way up 
the wall in a recessed arch stands a figure in a short tunic, haying long 
hair, but it is not believed to represent that prelate. The tower is five 
stories in height. The lower story in the building seems to have been 
vaulted throughout. The others have only floors of wood. The tower 
is surrounded at the top by a double corbelled projecting cornice, with a 
parapet on its outer edge, leaving a pathway around the little square 
chamber forming its top story. Opposite the west front of the cathedral 
in Broad-street stands the market cross on its base of three steps. It 
bears the date 1627, and the remains of the iron staple which held the 
branks (or some such instrument) is still imbedded in it. Opposite this 
is the town house of the family of Baikie of Tankemcss, originally 
the residence of some of the dignitaries of the cathedral, viz. the 
treasurer, sub-chanter, archdeacon and chancellor. The sculptured stone 
over the archway leading into the courtyard bears the date 1574, and a 
verse from the 22nd Psalm. 

At the other end of Broad- street stood the Castle of Kirkwall, built 
by the Saint Clairs of Orkney, in which family the earldom was vested 
from 1379 to 1468. An inscription in the wall of the Castle Hotel 
records its site, and a few relics of the building are also inserted in the 

The name Kirkwall, from the Norse Kirkiuvagr or Church Bay, is not 
derived from the Church of St. Magnus, but from an older structure 
which stood in Bridge-street, about a hundred yards from the harbour on 
the east side of the street, supposed to have been erected by Bognvald, 
Brusi's son, to the memory of King Olaf the Holy, who perished at Stickle- 
etad in 1030, and it was to this church that the remains of Earl Magnus 
were brought on their arrival at Kirkwall to wait the completion of the 
cathedral to receive them. 


From the top of the tower of Kirkwall Cathedral a very fine view is 
obtained. Several of the North Isles of Orkney are visible, and among 



them almost directly north at a distance of eleven miles, lies the island 
of Egilsay, where St. Magnns was mnrdered by liis cousin. The name 
of Egilsay is of douhtful denTatioD, opinion being divided between Egil, 

Plan of Church in Egilsay. 

a proper name (Egils-isle), and the Celtic Eglais, from the Latin Ecctesia 
(church isle). The island is famous as having been the scene of the 
tragedy referred to, as well as from the fact that on it there is a veiy 




Churuh in E^ilsu}'. 


ancient churcli of unique structure. It is highly probable that it was on 
account of the presence of the church there that the earl cousins selected 
it as a meeting-place to arrange their differences. The church conBisti 


of nave and chancel with a round tower incorporated at the west end of 
the nave, and is the only known instance of such a comhination. The 
tower in some respects resembles those of Ireland, and contained four 
stages, one above the other ; one entrance to the tower seems to have 
been over the nave, but under the roof. The tower has a diameter of 7 feet 
8 inches internally at the base, is slightly tapering, and about 45 feet 
liigh. The top of it which was removed in 1782 was shaped like a 
conical dome, and there was a slight projection running round the tower 
below the dome. The roof of the nave seems to haye been of wood with 
apartments between it and the stone roof of the building, while the 
chancel is stone-vaulted with a chamber above. The church is visible 
from the tower of the cathedral, and, like the cathedral itself, forms a 
landmark visible for a long distance. 



MONDAY, JUNE 26, 1899. 


"The county of Caithness is remarkably rich in prehistoric remains — 
chambered cairns, groups or alignments of standing-stones, cist-burials, 
and Brochs, or so-called Pictish towers. Groups of chambered cairns, 
both of the long and short form, and homed at both ends, and also 
-of the round form, in the Yarhouse Hills, and at Garrywhin, near 
Bruan, seven miles south of Wick, and at Camster, about fourteen miles 
from Wick, have been investigated and described by the late Mr. A. H. 
Bhind {Ulster Journal of Archaohgy, 1854, p. 100) and Dr. Joseph 
Anderson (** Scotland in Pagan Times, Bronze and Stone Ages," 1886, 
pp. 229-267). Alignments, or groups of standing stones arranged in 
rows, analogous to those of Carnac in Brittany, but on a smaller scale, at 
Yarhouse, Clyth (four hundred stones in twenty-two rows of 50 yards), 
and Camster, and an oval (226 feet in length) of thirty-five stones at 
Achkinloch, in Latheron, are also described (** Scotland in Pagan 
Times," 1886, pp. 126-134). But the Brochs, of which about eighty- 
have been enumerated in the county (Anderson's " List of the Brochs 
in Archaeologia Scotica," vol. v., p. 178), are by far the most numerous 
and striking of the Prehistoric remains, and nowhere have so many of 
them been excavated as in the district of Xeiss. 

The village of Xeiss lies on the north-west side of the Bay of Keiss, 
seven miles north of Wick, and a quarter of a mile north of the village 
is Keiss Castle, the manor house of the estate of Keiss, the property of Sir 
Francis Tress Barry, Bart., m.p. for Windsor. Of the eight Brochs which 
he has excavated within the past ten years, three are situated within a 
radius of about a quarter of a mile between the castle and the village ; 
one is at the head of the bay, about two miles to the south, and another 


u at Nybiter, nearly the BBme diBtanco to the north of the Ctutle. Tho 
others being more distant are beyond the reach of the present exour- 

The Eeisb Bboce, behind the village and close to the seashore, iras 
dug into by the lat« Ur. Samuel Laiug, h.p., in 1864, and is described 
at " the Harbour Uound" in his " Preliistoric Remains of Caithness" 

wall, and MLUodary liuililiags o 

(From a pbatogtipb by S[t F. T. Bur;, But.) 

(1866), p. 22. But his excavations were merelj- sufficient 'to enable 
him to conjectnre that the butldiog must be classed among the Brocha, 
and the whole of the details have since been worked out by Sir Francis 
Burry, Bart. TheBrochisadry-buiit circular tower, having a wall 12 ft. 
thick, enclosing an area, or court, 38 feet in diameter and open to the 
sky. The entrance faced the sea, but on thut side only the foundations 


remain. The wall on the land aide remains to a height of about 12 feet. 
To the left of the entrance a doorway in the interior wall gives acceaa 
to the stair constructed in the thickness of the wall, which presumably led 
up to a series of circular galleries superimposed above each other, with 
openings for light looking into the interior court, as may still be seen in 
the more entire Broehs of Mousa, Glenelg, and Dun Corloway, There 
is & blocked entrance with a guard chamber on the opposite side of the 
court. Throughout the interior are remains of secondary constructions, 

K«iu Hoail Broch. Foundation courseB of exterior wall of older 
(From i. Pholoiraph by Sir F. T. Barr?, Bart.) 

the foundations of which are placed on the deirt'i at various levels, 
showing successive phases of occupation. Out-buildings of various 
kinds surround the exterior in a vciy irregular manner. Among the 
objects found have been pieces of rude pottery — several with impressed 
chevrony ornamentation — two small pieces of Roman " Samian ware," 
a small crucible with a portion of melted bronze adhering to the 
bottom of the interior ; bone pins and implements of deer-horn, including 
a long-handled comb with eight prongs on the toothed end ; a mould, a. 


lamp, and a rudely-ihaped cup of undBtcnc ; leveral grain rubbers, aod 
a large stone mortar, similar to those used for busking barley. Among 
the food refuse wore bones of the common domestic animals and birds, 
including the Great Auk, antlers of red deer of great size, and quantities 
of the shells of the common edible shellfish of the adjacent coast. 

Keiu Roud BrocI;. Interior, showing ectiance lo tloii and rDoms in tbickncss of 

wall, and piiiitioiiB of daba in area. 

(yrom a I'liolograph by Sir F. T. Birty, Bart.) 

The Broch at the TiVdite Gate is also situated close to the seashore, 
about halfway between thu village and Kciss Caslle. It is of Bmnllcr 
fize, having an internal iliamttiT of 26 feet, and a wall 13 fc<^t thick. 


Only about 6 feet of the height remoms. The entrance faces the tee, 
and IB 2 feet 10 inches in vidth at the outside, videning inwards and 
showing two pairs of door-checke formed of slabs set upright edgeways 
in the wall, and projecting from 6 to 8 inches. There is no Btair. Two 
secondary walls cross the interior from front to back, and the entrance 
passage is prolonged exteriorly through a cluster of out-buildings, one 
of which showed part of its beehive-roofing. Among the objects found 
in this Broch, which vere of the usual character, the most rem^irkable 

Keiu fioad Broch. Interior, showiug CDtraiices to Cbamberd in thickneu of wall. 
(From a Photogmph by Sir F. T. Butit, BmI.) 

was a large jar of coarse, unglozed pottery, which when reconstmcted 
from ita fragments measured 17 inches in height by ITi inches in dia- 
meter at tlie mouth, tapering to 7 inches in diameter at tlic bottom. 

The RoAB Bkoch, close to the public road from KeisB to John o' Groats, 
and less than a (juarter of a mile froiii the two seaside Brochs, is the 
largest and most interesting of the three. ITie main structure, or Broch 
Iiroper, has an internal diameter of 34 feet, and a total thickness of wall 
of 15 feet 9 inches ; but the original wall seems to have been only about 


12 to 13 feet thick, and an exterior facing of from 2 to 3 feet thick haa 
l>een added all round. The entrance faces N.E., and is 2 feet 6 inches 
wide, having checks for a door about halfway in. On the right side of 
the passage is a guardchamber. To the left of the main entrance is the 
entrance to a stair in the thickness of the wall, with twelve steps re- 
maining, and an oblong chamber 12 feet bj 5 feet at the bottom of the 
«tair. Across the court to the right of the main entrance is another stair 
with eleven steps remaining, and at its foot the largest chamber known 
to have been found in a Broch, being 30 feet in length and 4 feet in 
width. None of the roofing stones remain, but its walls are entire to 
the height of 6 feet, and the rounded end is coved by overlapping stones. 
The interior court is subdivided by partitions of slabs set on end, and 
there is a large underground chamber beneath the floor level. There is 
also a small chamber in the wall, to which access is gained from the 
court through a square opening cut in a slab forming the front of the 
chamber. A unique feature of this Broch is that a circular court about 
33 feet in diameter has been added in front of the main entrance, and 
partially founded on the exterior wall of the Broch, where it touches it 
tangentially. Outbuildings of the usual kind are placed around the ex- 
terior walls, and the whole group is surrounded by a massive enclosing 
wall, irregularly circular, at a distance of 40 to 50 feet outside the wall 
of the Broch proper. 

Among the articles found in this Broch were several bone pins, one 
finely made with an ornamented head, a bone needle, a long-handled 
comb, a small bronze ring, a disc of stone, H inches diameter, with 
incised markings resembling runes ; whorls, whetstones, a stone lamp, 
a stone cup, and several grooved stone weights or sinkers, &c. 



TUESDAY JUNE 27, 1899. 


EnxAir M!6s is the largest of a sniikll group of islands in the^^Sound of 
Jura, soutb of and directly opposite to the promontory wliich. ) divides 
Loch Swine from the Sound. This island contains the remainB of 
St. Carmaig's Church and other ruins, also some tombstones with 

carving. Eilmorey, in £napdale, on the mainland, three miles south 
of Castle Swine, contains some very interesting ecclesiastical and other 
remains, which are close to the shore. 


At the north end of the island the rains of St. Carmaig'B Church 
will he found. The hnilding is 37 feet 3 inches long, and 19 feet 
11 inches broad, divided into two compartments, forming chancel and 

The chancel has two narrow and deepl^'Splayed windows in the 
east«m gable, and another light in the northern wall. The chancel- 
arch has been filled in, leaving only a small, flat-headed doorway, with 

Chnrcli of Bt. Cumaig, Eilean M6r. Eut elevBtion. 

u spertore at one side (see plan of chancel, p. 302). In the Bouthem 
nd« there is an arched receBs in the thickness of the wall, containing 
Ute mutilat«d efSgy of an ecclemastic. The chancel roof is vaulted, 
and over the vault is a small chamber with a square-headed aperture on 
its vest gable : the nave is roofless. 


South-east oJ t^ie cfaarch is a small mined stniotaTe, 9 feet 6 inoboB 
in length) knovn as the tomb of St. Cannaig. 

At the west end of the churoh is a oross about 6 feet in height, on 
tlie east face of which are some carvings, representing a horseman, and 
a nondescript animal, resembling an elephant ; and on the highest ptnnt 
of the island is the stamp of another sculptured cross. 

Church of St. ConuBig, Eilean Mdr. Chancel-arch, fnmi NaTs. 

At the south-eastern part of the island there is a small roofless 
building, intemallj II feet square, said to be the cell erected by 
St. Carmaig when he first landed on the island. 


QtoKA Iburd.' 

The Tint to this island vu mode on the recommendation of Principal 
Bfays, U.D., .fibn. FtHoui, who ws* anxious to have the reputed Ogam-atone 
earefnUy examined.* The iiland is about six milea long by about one 
and a-half miles broad, and is four miles distant from the mainland of 
the Eintyre coast. Oigha belongs to Ur. W. J. Torfce Scarlett ; on 

St. Catau'i Chuicb, Gigha lEland. £ast elsTatioD. 

it are some ecclesiastical remains at Eilchattan, near the village of 

I See map, iiage 307. 

* The diatance from the landing- place, or pier, at the eouth-eaat end of tlis iiland 
to the stone ia aboat a mile, after passing; the north entrance to the mansion- hoiue, 
and turning up the Brat road to the left. Passing the mini of a ohspel, and some 
interesting elaba, the path lies straight to the base of the knoll on which tho stone 
standi. (It is figured in Captaia While's " Archceological Sketches in Enapdale," 
pUte IT.). There are sereral tumuli and other remain* at the northern ead of the 
island, but there is no proper landing-place or road than. 


A whole day coQld be well spent on this pleaBont and picturesqut' 
island in examining the forts, cromlechs, boulders with cup-and-circle- 
markings, crosses, and ecclesiastical remains. Of the latter, the church 
oJ St. Catan is the most interesting. Internally it measures 33 feet 
by 1 5 feet 2 inches ; the east window still remains, indicating a building 
of thirteentb-century date. This window is a narrow lancet, 5 feet in 
height (see drawing). The remains of a large octagonal font may he 
seen at the east end of the nliiirch. 

8l. Outau'e, Oigba. Kait Wiiidon'. Cron, Gighs. 

There are some sculptured slabs lying about and a broken cross, the 
latter measuring about 3 feet in length. 

There is anotber broken cross erect in an old burying-ground near 
Tarbert farm, and not far from it is a pillar-etonc, 7 feet high. 

Still further to the north will be found what T. S. l£mr cousidors 
tjie most interesting spot in Gigha : — 

" Conceive scattered over a weird -looking plot bo many Cyclopean -like cells, 

cromlechB, kistvaeiiB, or wbaterer else or othervite you mitj call them, each 

more or iesa alabtingly roofed over nlth a ponderous slab, and showing ia two 

or thiee ot tbem appearances of passages, in all likelihood, to underground 


There are three hill forts, and some cup-marked sea rocks, north of 
Eilchattan, on the west side of the island. 

Ou Cara, a small island south of Oigha, there is a mined chapel ; 
it measures externally 29 feet in length ; the east and west ends 
are nearly entire; there is no opening in the east end; the doorway vas 
in the middle of the north side. 

For an account of the Oigha Ogam, see page 346. 

t^ih'it Vfrhert 
^ T\ffan Stearnail 

Mull of Cara 




Paet I. 

The foregoing pages, descriptive of the places and objects visited, were 
written before the voyage was commenced, and were published in the form 
of an Illustrated Guide, for the use of the members of the party on the 
tour. The adoption of the past tense instead of the future, and the intro- 
duction of some minor changes and corrections is all that was necessary to 
transform the matter, already in type, into a record of the proceedings, 
as fortunately the programme originally settled on, after much care and 
deliberation, was carried out in a surprisingly faithful manner, taking 
into account the disttinces traversed and the difficulty of access both by 
sea and land, of the greater portion of the places visited. Some new 
illustrations, taken from sketches and measurements made on the journey, 
have been introduced, and others in the Guide withdrawn where they 
were found to have been defective. Advantage is now taken of the 
opportunity of reproducing some of the many excellent photographs 
taken on the trip, and the comparison of some of the structures as they 
now exist, with the illustrations already given, most of which were 
drawn nearly fifty years ago, will form an interesting study, and show 
the extent of the ravages of time in that period. 

Of the photographs I have had an opportunity of examining, those 
of Mrs. Shackleton come first, both as regards number and execution. 
Mrs. Simpson's are not far behind — ^lier photographs at Kildalton, taken 
at 9 o'clock on the evening of 20th June, are marvellous. Mr. Kirker's 
collection is very fine ; and the Rev. Dr. Buick, Mr. T. J "Westropp, and 
Mr. Law Bros secured many good pictures. Dr. Fogerty was very 
successful, and some others appear to have worked diligently, but I have 
not yet seen their pictures. 

Sanda, our first resting-place, was reached at 2 o'clock in the after- 
noon, after a run of three hours from Belfast, steaming at a moderate 
rate. The weather though more settled than when starting, was dull 
and cloudy, and not well suited for the use of the camera. The exami- 
nation of the two weatherworn crosses, and the remains of the little 
church a short distance from the landing-place, did not occupy more 
than one hour, and the short walk on land was much appreciated by 
those who had been threatened with tnal de mer ; it was a complete 
restorative, and on again joining the ship they soon found their 

FKUCEEUlNOil. 309 

" M«-legB," and for the rest of the Toy^e no one Boifared any meon> 
Tenience in thii respect.' 

Onr oonrM nov broaght oa round the striliuig and picturesque head- 
land of the Hull of Cantyre, round which ire steamed very closely, and, 
with ftjfreah breeie, bright sunshine, and genial woimth, the ever* 
ehanfpn^riew of the magnificent coast scenery was greatly enjoyed. 

Eildallon Church and Smaller Croes— from ibe Dorth-e*BL 
(Ftom > PhDtagripb by Un. SbuUrtm.) 

After a delightful mn nf two hours, we anchored again in Ardmore 
Bay shortly alter six o'clock, and ininiodiatcly oftcr dinner landed on 
Islay. A. pleasant walk of a couple of miles brought us to Eildalton 
grsTeyard, containing the ruins of the church and a large ciosa, while on 
the side of the road is anotlier high croHf. The latter cross is shown to 

I At Banda ths doormy of the church U in the north wall, and has a flat tintel ; 
the null window in the aonth wall has alaping jambi. which, with the head ot lintel, 
ia.'n a broad chunter running round : the remains oE the atone altar, under the east 
window, are still to b* seen. 


the right of the view of the church ; the large cross in the graveyard u 
not very distinctly seen near tlie Trail of the church. The head of 
the Bmaller crosB, east face, ie shown ; it has a device of a geomebical 
pattern, end is of quite a different type to the larger cross. Id the 
church are several monuments which, though rather mdely executed, 
and in low relief, are of considerable interest. Id the recess in the 
south wall, close to the east gahle (see the interior view), is a represen- 
tatiou of a knight in armour on an upright alab, and there ia some 
lettering to the right of the figure, rather illegible, in which may, with 
difficulty, be traced, Etc jacet . . . ab . . ; to the left is a small human 
figure. This monument appears to have been intended for a recumbent 
position ; it is now placed upright in a recess in the wall, where ■ 
window existed. This window is now blocked up externally, but the 
jambs and arch can still be seen. 

Siiiuiler CniEa, Kilddtoti (vest face). 
(From a Fhotograph by Mn, Sbackleton.) 

This monument belongs to the fourteenth century period, ^e 
pointed hatinet on the head has taken the place of the helm, and attached 
to the hatinet is the eamail, or tippot of mail, which did not go out until 
the commencement of the fifteenth century ; the feet appear to be 
covered with socks of mail lengthened into a point, which iDdicates a 
period before tollerete, formed of articulated plate, were in use as cover- 
iogs for the feet. Sollerett came into use in the fourteenth century, and 
their absence would indicate that the monument belongs to the eariy 
period of that century. (See page 312.) 

The date of the church, as indicated fay the two lights in the east 
guble, with pointed arches outside, and rouud-heoded arches inmde, 


vonld denote the transitional period to the pointed style of the 
thirteenth century, and is, therefore, a little earlier than the 

Before the ute of the altar is another knight's tomb ; there is a 
floriated cross, with a large svord, to one side of the shaft, and a band 
of foliage to the other. There ia another slab with s plain, raised, 

Eatt end Interior of Kildalton Chuicb. 
(Fnm a Pholograph by Mri. SLmpun.) 

Latin cross, also several other slabs. In the south-west comer of the 
church is a quaint tombstone, on which is represented a musket and 
powder-horn, surrounded by an inscription, in incised capitals, " hkae 


The proprietor is Mrs. Kamaay, ot Kildalton House, seven milts 


from Port Ellen. The cotmtry aroond is very Bpanel; popolated ; than 
is a large expaDse of moor-laud and heather, and a« we retraced our 
steps over the andulating ground to where the boats waited on the 
beach, the scene was very beautiful. Though it was nearly 10 o'clock 
before we returned to the ship, there was even then aufBcieot li^t on 
lund and water to see and admire the charming surroundings of the Bay 
of Ardmore, in which we anchored for the first night of the voyage. 

Effigy in South Wall of EildoltOD Churo]i. 
(From I Photograpk bj Mt*. Simpum.) 

Next morning, at S o'clock, an early start was made for Oronsay, 
and as wo sailed northwards, through the Sound of Islay, most of the 
party came on deck to view the etriking scenery. "We had the Faps of 
Jura to the right, and the cast coast of Islay to the left. Oronsay was 


reached at 8 o'clock. The proprietor, Qesentl Sir John C. H'Neill, 
I.O.B., T.O., Coloosay House, had isatructed his manager, who is alio 
the local pilot, to meet the party, and ahow ua the ruina ol the Priory, 
and other placea of isterest on the ialand. The ruina are very oarv* 
folly oonaeired hy Bir John U'lfeilL Hia brother, Ur. Ualcolm U'lfeill, 
haa a marine reaidenoe close to the Priory. 

Oransay Priorj. Window in Side Cbapel, looluDg wail. 
(FrDm a Photognph by Mr. Kiiket.) 

In the email chnpel to tlm south of the nave there ia a curious 
window in the west wall, a photograph of which, from the inside, is 
given. It ia about 2 ieet in height, and is formed of a aingle stone, 
the stab having been perforated in the solid. The window ia finiahed 
with a trefoil head; this window gave light to a small apartment over 
the chapel. 

The atracture marked bera end byre on the plan (sec p. 164, aiUt), 
and deacribed as siich in the cstra^t on p. 167, seems to have been 
originally the prior's lodging, and the building south of it was the 
prior's chapel. 

The apartment marked Chapter House on the plan haa been con- 
verted into a burial-place for the U'NciU family. A doorway facing 
the east, with a gable over, has been erected. This ia shown on the 


photograph here reprodnced ; a portion of the prior's chapel, and it> 
south door entrance, is seen to the right hand. 

The BO-called hermit's cell, or sacrament house, is an aumbry of a 
size larger than usual ; aumbries were fonned hy making recesses in 
the thickness of the southern vail of the church near the altar. In 
the present instance, a massive buttress, on the outside, adds consider- 
ably to the thickness of the masonry where the aumbry was placed, 
and advantage was token of this to get a greater depth than the 
thickness of an ordinary wall would permit of; beyond this no signi- 
ficance can be attached to its construction. - The high altar is detached 
from the east wall. 

Oronsay Priory. View from the e«sl, 
(From a Pbotograph by Mr. U. C. Cocbrue.) 

After our examination of Oronsay, all were on board shortly after 10 
o'clock, and the journey was resumed for lona. We were suprised to find 
that the course taken brought us to the west of the Island of lona instead 
of througli the Sound, the depth of water in the lowest portion of which 
is much more than is sufficient for our vessel. This entailed some loss 
of time in steaming around the northern portion of the island, and 
entering the Sound from the north, and as the anchorage selected was 
more than a mile from the landing-place, still further delay was caused. 
This inconvenience was, in a measure, ameliorated by the promptness 
with which Mr, David Mao Brayne's local agent, Mr. Alexander Ritchie, 
came alongside with the capacious lauding boats, and took the party 
ushore. Mr. Ritchie acted as guide until the local clergyman, tha 


Kev. Arcltibald Macmillan, kin<]lj took charge of the party, aod pointed 
out, in detail, the features of tliis mont interest iag spot. ]£r. Macmillaii, 
since be came to reside on the island, has made a study of its history 
and antiquities, and has published a work on the subject of great value 
to anyone desiring information on the subject.' 

During our visit, Ur. Mac Braynu's daily steamer from Oban landed 
II large party of tourists on the island. The facilities thus afforded 
bring lona within easy access of all. The antiquities hero are the best 
known of all those visited on the tour. 

lunu Catliedml, from the Mutli-euat. 
(From ■ Phatc>|:rapfa hy Mn. Sinpuo.) 

The party were photographed, in a large group, by Messra. Maclure, 
Macdonald & Co., of Glasgow, and a fine picture has been the result ; 
there are about eighty figures in it. The cathedral forms an excellent 
background. The plate measures 15 inches by 12 inches. 

The ishind of lona has been the property of the Argyll family for 
about two hundred years. The prestiit Duke has this year, and since 

, by ll 
: John 

Meuiea & Co., 1B9S.) 

PR0CB£DING8. 317 

•our visit, made over the rains to tmstees, under certain conditions, one 
of which is that the buildings are to be re-roofed. 

The deed of transfer is a document likely to become of historical 
interest, and as it was executed the year in which the two Societies 
visited lona, its interest is farther enhanced. The text of the document 
is therefore here given in full : — 

" Deed of trust by His Gi^ce the Duke of Argyll relative to lona Cathedral and 

"I, the most noble George Douglas Glassell Campbell, Duke of Argyll, Marquis 
of Kintyre and Lome, x.o., k.t., considering that, for fifty-three years, since my 
succession to the estates of the Argyll family, I have found myself the proprietor of 
the island of lona, with its ancient architectural remains, and that elsewhere in 
Scotland its ancient cathedrals have been generally appropiiated to public use ns 
parochial churches, and are not, therefore, the subjects of individual ownership, 
whilst the cathedral of lona, the most interesting of them all, has long been wholly 
deserted, and has no position or recognition whatever corresponding to its public 
interest : Considering further that I huve laid out a considerable sum in preserving 
the cathedral from further decay, and have so strengthened and repaired the M'alls, 
that it is now nearly fit to be re- roofed : Considering further that although the said 
architectural remains may be safe in my hands, and in the hands of my immediate 
successors, yet the vicissitudes of pergonal position and character in those to whom 
such property may descend offer a very imperfect security for the protection of, or for 
the appropriate use of, buildings of such great historic interest to the whole Christian 
world, and that I have come to the conclusion that it would be well for me to transfer 
my rig;ht of property and ownership in the said buildings to a public trust in con- 
nexion with the Established Church of Scotland : Therefore I do hereby dispone and 
convey to and in favour of the persons hereinafter named as the present holders of 
the several offices hereinafter mentioned so long as they shall continue to hold sucii 
offices, viz. the Right Rev. John Pagan, d.d., Moderator of the General Assembly of the 
Church of Scotland ; Sir John Cheyne, q.c, Procurator of the said Church of Scotland ; 
the Very Rev. Robert Herbert Story, d.d., ll.d., Glasgow, principal Clerk of the said 
General Assembly; the Very Rev. James Cameron Lees, d.d., ll.d.. Minister of the 
High Kirk, Edinburgh (commonly called St. Giles's Cathedral) ; the Rev. Pearson 
M'Adam Muir, d.d.. Minister of St. Mungo's Church, Glasgow (commonly called 
Glasgow Cathedral) ; Sir William Muir, x.c.s.i., d.c.l., Piincipal of the C^niversity 
of Edinburgh ; the said Very Rev. Robert Herbert Story, Principal of the University 
of Glasgow; the Rev. Alexander Stewart, d.d., Principal of St. Mary's College, 
St. Andrews ; and Sir William Duguid Geddes, ll.d., Principal of the Univei-sity of 
Aberdeen ; and to the persons who shall from time to time succeed to those before 
named in the said several offices, and tjiat as trustees for the purposes after mentioned, 
or to such of the persons before named, and of those succeeding to them as aforesaid 
as shall accept, all and whole those three parts of the island of lona, in the county of 
Argyll, which form the site of what are called the ruins of lona, comprehending the 
cathedral, the ancient chapel of St. Oran and the nunnery, and the adjoioing burying - 
grounds, together with the said buildings themselves and all the ancient tombstones 
and relics in and about the same, and the enclosing walls of the said subjects, which 
portions of the said island hereby disponed ai-e coloured pink on the plan or sketch 
annexed, and subscribed by me as relative hereto ; and are bounded as shown on the 
said plan or sketch ; with entry as at the date of delivery hereof ; and I assign the 
writs, but to the effect only of maintaining and defending the right of my said 
disponees and their foresaids in the subjects hereby conveyed, and for that purpose I 
•bind and oblige myself and iny heirs and successors to make the same fortlicuniing to 



my said diflponees and their foresaids on all necessary occasions upon a receipt and 
obligation for redelivery thereof within a reasonable time and under a suitable penalty ; 
but these presents are granted in trust always for the purposes following, viz. : 
(1) The said subjects shall be held by the said trustees and their foresaids for behoof 
3f , and as inalienably, except in the event after mentioned, connected with the Church 
of Scotland, as at present by law established, and shall be preserved, used, and 
managed (subject always to the provisions hereof) in accordance with such directions 
as may from time to time be given, or such rules and regulations as may from time to 
time be framed in regard thereto by the said trustees acting on behalf of the said 
Church ; (2) I declare it to be my wish that the cathedral shall be re-roofed and 
restored so as to admit of its being used for public worship, under the direction of the 
Eaid trustees, and the other ruins carefully preserved ; but it is my hope and wish 
that the said trustees will, and may occasionally allow, as it may be convenient, the 
members of other Christian churches to hold services within the said cathedral, as I 
have myself allowed during my ownerabip thereof; and to prevent any doubt on the 
subject, I hereby expressly declare that the parish minister and kirk-session of lona 
fur the time being shall have no pait in the management of the said subjects, or of the 
worship in the cathedral (except in so far as the use thereof may be allowed to them 
for the purpose of worship by the trustees), all such powers being solely vested in the 
trustees foresaid ; (3) I specially provide and declare that it shall not be lawful for 
the trustees acting under these presents ever to sell, alienate, or burden with debt the 
subjects hereby disponed or any part thereof ; (4) In the event of the said Church of 
Scotland being disestablished, I hereby declare it to be my wish that the said subjects 
shall be and become the property of such church ur body of Protestants and Presby- 
terians as Her Majesty's Secretary for Scotland, Her Majesty's Lord- Advocate for 
Scotland, and the Sheriff of the county of Argyll for the time being, or the majority 
of them shall, in their own absolute discretion, determine to be the Church or body 
most nearly representative of the previously Established Church of Scotland ; and the 
said trustees hereinbefore appointed shall be bound to denude of the said subjects 
hereby disponed in favour of such new ex-officiis trustees as the said Secretary for 
Scotland, Lord- Advocate for Scotland, and Sheriff of the county of Argyll, or the 
majoiiiy of them, shall appoint ns most suitable to represent the said last -mentioned 
Church or body, and thereafter the said trustees so appointed, and their successors in 
office, shall hold the said subjects for behoof of such Clunx-h or body, but subject to 
all the provisions and declarations herein contained as applicable to the altered circum- 
stances, and pai-ticularly to the declaration that it shall never be lawful to the trusteea 
to sell, alienate, or burden with debt the said subjects, or any part thereof : and I 
consent to registration hereof for preservation. In witness whereof these presents, 
written on this and the preceding page by Douglas Gordon Hunter, clerk to Messrs. 
Lindsay, Howe & Co. , "Writei-s to the Signet, Edinburgh, are, together with said plan 
or sketch annexed, subscribed by me at Inverai-ay on the twenty-second day of September 
eighteen hundred and ninety-nine, before these witnesses. Her Crrace, Ina, Duchess of 
Argyll, and Francis Robertson Mac Donald, Doctor of Medicine, Inveraray. 

" (Signed), •* Auoyll. 

** Ina. Auoyll, Witness. 
**F. R. Mac Donald, Witness." 

Leaving lona at 4 o'clock, p.m., the harbour of Scarnish, in Tirei*, 
was reached at 6. 15 o'clock ; the atmosphere was a little hazy, and the rate 
of progress on this portion of the journey was very slow. At Scarnish 
we were met hy Mr. Macdiarmid, the local agent of the owner, the 
Buke of Argyll ; by his Grace's instructions, he had been waiting for 

KirkipoU Chorcb, Tiree. 

rom ■ PhatDcraph b; Mr. Kirkei 


UB nnco 3 o'clock. Eirlcapoll, two milea distaDt from the Itmding-plHce, 
was visited, and tlie rfinainB of the two ancient chnrchee, and eeTeral 
interesting graTc slabs, were examined. At Soroby there are more 
ancient tombstones and a remarkable cross. 

The rains of "St. Patrick's Church" at EeDnavara, the furthest 
west point of Tiree, and about six miles from where we landed, and the 
other ancient sites, were not visited, as only two vehicles, carrying three 
persons each and a driver, were obtainable. The Duke, who took a 
great interest in the 'expedition, mentioned, in a letter to the writer. 

LliinvB)j:aii CusLle — tntraiicsjl'oivh. 
IProm a PhoIOKraph by Mrs. SkicVMon.) 

that the island abounds in stone implements, but time would be needed 
to search for them. He also suggested our visiting Eileann naomh, 
the Hinba of St. Columba's time, an island north-west of Scarha, one 
of the Garveloph group, containing one of the few bee-hive cells now 
remaining in Scotland, but as the programme was already i^uite filled, 
it was not possible to take it in. 

Next morning we anchored in tho beautiful land-locked harbour of 
Canna at 7.30 o'clock, and, shortly after, landed in the ship's boats. A 
walk of a mile brought us to the cross near to the old graveyard. 


The croBS was in the miildle o(> s field, recently ploughed np, but the 
proprietor, Ur. Allan Thom, tboaghtfoily preserred an excellent path- 
way to and around tho crou, which enabled the party to examine it 
with eaM. A drawing of the east face, and one ride, by Ur. Westropp, 
is given at p. 199. The canons croei shalt, depicted on p. 200, was 
examined on the lawn in front of Ur. Thorn's residence, after which we 
got on board, and steamed oat of the harbonr for Dunvegan at 9.30 a.m., 
arriving at l'i.30 a.m. 

(From a Pbotoiraph by Mr. S. K. Kirkec.) 

The run from Tiree to Canna and Dunregan brought us close to the 
the island ^of Uum, the mountuin peaks of which are of remarkable 
grandeur, and, ncaring the Isle of Skye, the dark serrated ontline of the 
Cnchullin Hills showed out boldly against the horizon. The sea was a 
dead calm, 'and there was a slight haze oa tho land, which, later in the 
day, during our visit to Dunvegan, turned into rein. The barometer 
waa steady at 29-9 ; the air quite mild — tilmost warm. 


Arriyed at Dunvcgan Castle, the pai-ty ivere received by UDcleod of 
Uacleod, the twentj'tliird (hieftain of Iiis clan ; Imving been introduced 
to tbe memberB of bis family, we were conducted Ly him throngh 
the i^aatle. The famous Bunvegan Cup, of Iiish design and vorkman- 
ahip, was greatly admired, and several pliotogiapliB of it were taken ; 
two views by Mr. Kirker, and one by Mre. Sbackleton, are here repro- 
iluced. Thia cup is fully described at p. 206, ante. The celebrated 
drinking-horn was uliown, and the lirataeh Ski, or fairy flag of tlie 

family; also origioal letters from Dr. Johnson after his visit in 1773, 
auit from Sir Walter Scott, written in 1815, to the grandfather of the 
present chieftain. It was hero that Sir Waltei' conceived the idea of 
writing " Tlie Lord of tlie Isles," and, on his visit to Dnnvegun, 
accumulated much of the material for that charming historical romance. 
The (luDgeon, the fairy chamber, the coats of uiajl, and family pictuies, 
also relics of I'lince Charlie, wei'o fhown and examined, after which u 

procei!:dix\gs. 323 

<?opy of the Illustrated Descriptive Guide to the places visited, printed 
on large paper, rubricated, and bound in vellum, was presented to 
Macleod as a memento of the visit of the Society of Antiquaries of 
Ireland, and of the Cambrian Archaeological Association, to Dunvegan. 

In making the presentation on behalf of the party, the Rev. Dr. 
Buick said : — 

*• Macleod of Macleod, it now devolves upon mo, ns one of the Vice- 
Presidents of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, to convey to 
you the best thanks of the members present for the opportunity you 
have so kindly given us of seeing for ourselves your ancient, historic, 
and picturesque home, and of making the acquaintance of yourself — ^the 
representutive of a long line of illustrious and heroic Highland chiefs. 

** I undertake the duty with pleasure, but, like another Irishman, of 
wbom I have often heard, * I wish to say u few words before I begin.* 
Yo!i will understand, then, that 1 have not that fluency of expression, 
and that facility in the production of the flowers of rlictoric, which are 
generally supposed to be characteristic of Irishmen; as also that I am 
an Ulsterman, and, in consequence, far removed from the subtle influences 
^f that celebrated stone which gives to its devotees the power of paying 
compliments so appropriate and so exquisite in finish that some very 
matter-of-fact people will insist upon it that they carry along with them 
a suspicion, or, perhaps, 1 should say, rather more than a suspicion, of 
exaggeration and unreality. 

** And now having said this much for myself, let mc speak for the 
others as well. We are greatly indebted to you, sir, for the welcome 
you have so cordially given us, and still more for the attention you have 
so graciously paid us. We have spent a charming time under your roof. 
We have been greatly inttrested in all we have heard and seen — in 
the famous horn and Irish cup; in the fairy chamber and dungeon grim; 
in the wonder-working flag and Jacobite relic ; in the lelt( rs of Johnson 
And Scott ; and in the splendid and attractive views from your walls 
and windows. We go away wiser than we came, and we carry with us 
memories that are sunnier far than the day is bright. We shall not 
soon forget our visit here. Again we thank you witli all our hearts, 
and as good words are specially good when backed up by corresponding 
xieeds, and your old proverb still holds — ' giff gafP makes guid freens,' 
we ask your acceptance of this copy of our Guide-book, which you may 
wisli to keep as a souvenir of our visit, and giving it, we wish you, 
Madame Macleod, and your daughters long life, a full cup, and that 
blessing which maketli rich, and addeth no sorrow. May you have a 
measure of health, prosperity, and happiness proi)ortionc'd to the capacity 
of your famous honi, and may your romantic home, * Dunvegan high,' 
seu many another century in and out, and need as little in tho future, 
as in the past, tlie intervention of your fairy flag I " 


The Yen. Archdeacon Thomas, Chairman of the Camhrian ArchsBolo- 
gical Association, on behalf of that Society, also thanked Macleod for his 
courteous welcome. Having referred to the wild grandeur of the scenery 
they had so recently passed on the western coast of the island, he remarked 
that hitherto on their excursion their experience had been entirely of an 
ecclesiastical character, and that it had been singularly interesting, and 
especially so their yisit to Ion a, so dear to the Celtic and the Christian 
heart ; they were happy now in making their first acquaintance with 
the military remains of the country in a castle with such a striking 
history as Dunvegan ; the many centuries of its existence conjured up 
in their minds weird visions of fierce raids by sea and land, of prisoners 
in the gloomy dungeon, of giant prowess with the sword and the drinking 
horn. The relics they had seen bespoke the fairy guardianship of the 
family, and its steadfast loyalty to the throne of the Stuarts ; and they 
had ocular evidence not only of the delicate workmanship of the Irish 
artist in metal-work, but of the presence under that hospitable roof of 
Scotland's most distinguished son, historian, poet, and romancer ; of 
England's great scholar and lexicographer, and of Wales' most instruc- 
tive traveller and naturalist (Pennant). To be the happy possessor of 
such a house of treasures, and to be the twenty-third Macleod to own it 
in succession, were, indeed, things to rejoice in ; to bo so full of know- 
ledge and enthusiasm in their possession, so courteously to welcome our 
Societies to inspect them, and to impart that knowledge in their eluci- 
dation, greatly added to the debt under which Macleod of Macleod had 
that day laid his Celtic invaders. He was sure they would all carry 
home with them, and long retain in their memory, a vivid impression of 
that pleasant occasion. 

The passage across the Little Minch to Harris was uneventful. The 
afternoon was hazy, and a typical ** Scotch mist " came on, which rather 
obscured the view of tlic headlands. 

Rodil was reached about four o'clock. Here we were met by Mr. 
Koderick Campbell, the local pier-master, and the party landed to visit 
St. Clement's (Rodil) Church, which is described and illustrated at 
pages 214-215, ante. This remarkable structure is now used for the 
Presbyterian form of worship. 'J'here is no clergyman resident at Rodil, 
so the service is intermittent. 

In the west and south faces of the tower are inserted some remarkable 
sculptured stones, which have attracted the attention of antiquaries. 
One in the south wall is on a level with the string-course, which is 
carried over it after the fashion of a hood moulding ; it is a rude repre- 
sentation of a female form in a sitting posture ; there is an object at 
the right hand side, above the seated figure, not clearly discernible. 
This class of sculpture is of frequent occurrence on mediaeval buildings 
in Ireland, and is known by the name of Sheelah-nct-gig. A list of Irish 

Cpper portion of ths Tower of Koilil Chiiri-li, fiMi 
(Prom I Phdlopaph by Mr, S. K. Kirk 


specimens was compiled by the late Dr. 'William Frazer, Ftliote, H<ni> 
Fellow of the Society of Antiqaariea of Scotland, in which he ennmeTatw 
thirty-six examples. (See Journal R.S.A.I. for the year 1894, pp. 77 
and 392.) 

There are some examples Id England, to one of which attention was 
called during our visit to the church of Fenmon, near Beaumaris, with 
the Cambrian Ai'cheeological Association in 1894. Last year the writer 
obserred a remarkiible specimen orer a window in the south chancel wall 
of the parish church of Holgate, thirteen miles north of Ludlow. The 
parish clergyman said it was called "a Saion idol." 

Window arid Figure in iLe Suuih \^'iill of the 'i'uwei' of Rudil Cburcb. 

In the west face of the tower at llodil are two sculptured male 
figures ; they do not appear to bo in titu, and seem to have be- 
longed to an earlier edifice. Figures of this type are very rare in 

We visited Lord Dunmore's marine ixtsidence at Bodil in hopes of 
seeing his collection of antiquities, but tliey had been reoiovcd to London 
a short time previously. 

Ucmaining at unchor in Itodil Bay, during the evening & number ot 


lutirei oane on board to see the large «hip; thejr entertained the 
partf with some Hebridean music, and sang tereral Gaelic soiigi. 
A. Welsh member sang "Hen Wlad tj Nbadau," in which all the 
Cambrians joined in chorus. 

D (he We<t Wall ot tl>« loiri 

Pabt II. 

On Friday morning, Juno 23n1, the weii;hing oE tlic anchor at 
2 a.m., aroused those of uB who wished to see the passage of the Sound 
of Harris. The costume of the pnrty on deck at tliis hour of the niom- 
iag was rather miecellaQeous, one Crarelled associate appeared in full 
Cingalese garb, including native sandals and turban. 

Hounding Benish, in a short time we wero close to the narrows, 
apparently completely bloclced up with rocky istots; it was a capital 


bit ot mfmoeUTring for a local pilot with such a Urge Tewel, aa he had 
to turn at right angles in the channel and head for the ibore, to which 
we approached within about the " llagic's " length, then ahe had ta b« 
turned again at a right angle into the fair way for the next pair of 
beacons ; the first turn is regulated by three white beacons on shoie 
near the village of Obbe, which must be kept in line until the two 
westward sea beacons open out, and thence forward it is a clear ran 
to the Flannan Isles. 

The " Magic " was thus safely brought through a passage which 
twelve hours before had been declared to the Committee to be " utteiiy 

St. FlaDDsn'a Onlorj, Eileau UOr, Flannan IiUs, from the uuth-TeM^ 

I had, however, some months before, while arranging the route, 
made myself acquainted with the pOBBibilities of naTigating this 
channel before deciding to go that way. Fortunately I had arranged 
with Mr. Roderick Campbell, of Rodil, to have his son Kenneth, a 
clever young pilot, in readincse, and, on bis coming on board, demon- 
strated that with a flowing tide and against the current, and with 
his knowledge of the cbanscl, its navigiitioii was a simple matter. He 
said, hawever, that the "Magic" was the largest vessel that ever 
piissed through tlie Sound of Hairis, and he was proud of having 
taken her tbruugh. 

We arrived off the Flannan Isles at 7 o'clock a.m., and got quite 
close to Eilean Uor, tlie latest of the group. This island rises almost 
precipitously from the sea. The difficulty of access was considerable, 


bat fortunately the vork in connexion with the erection of the new 
lighthouse was K"iDK °^i ^^^ atepa bad been partly cut into ttie face 

Triple Cbsmbered CeU, Eilian U6r. FUnaan Idea. 

of the rock. A rope waa stretched up the slope by which wa were 
able to baul ourselveB up on hands and knees, nud one bv one, as very 
little footboM r-ould bo obtained for thp fii-st 5n or 6fi ffft. 

1 Hit, Fluntmii laUi. 

Aftei' this a narrow, steep and uuprutectcd truck run along the edge 
of the slope for about 200 feet, and brought us by a dangerous and 

I'ullBmish LiigB Sloio Circle— OBneral Vic 
(From • Photo^riph l.y lb; Ret. [>r. Ruick. 

Cftllernub Stone r'irtle (No. i), fmm tlie vest, wi.ere ibe Ciiin and Ston«Cisla were found. 
U'runiaE'linioGMpblyMr. S. K. Kirkrr.) 

Dfi I'ircle neur (Inltemuli, No. 3. 
a PhotDfrkph bjr ths Rev, Dr. Buick 

Crofter's Cottage, CRlIemieh. 
Ftam ■ PhoMfraph by iin. Sinpioc 



r rsiii. ox . - J. 

CuUenibb Stone Circle (No. 2)— Ground Plan. 

jimd Plon of Doiib 

;cll and St.' Flannaii 


toilsome ascent to the summit. The men at work on the island said 
the sea had been quieter that day and the two days previously than it 
had been any time since they came ; notwithstanding this only three 
boats were allowed to laud, and many were disappointed. 

^ '^ 


* \ 



^ ^ 



10 20 50 40 50 

I 1 i 1 I I 

Scale^ o/^ feet 

Ground Plan of Callernish (No. 3) Circle. 

The ruins here are getting into a very dilapidated condition ; they 
can hardly escape rough usage where there are so many workmen 
about. The drawings prepared by Mr. T. J. Westropp from photographs 
and measurements (the latter taken by Mr. Kirker), show how tlie ruins 
were in June last. At 9 o'clock we were again under steam for Callernish 

2 A2 


Dud Carluway and ('ivltri'ii Cullu^; 
(Fnni ■ Phaloirapb by Hr. S. K. Kirk 

I Is'urth Itoiiu^ — Auu 
a IMxHagraph b) Mr. 


in Loch Itoafr» which was reached at 11 o'clock a.m. The illustrations 
given at pp. 268 and 269 are here supplemented by photographs which 
•conyey a very good idea of the condition of these monuments. The 
country around is very poor ; the village of Callernish, called locally 
Oallunish, contains dwellings of a very rude description. Only some of 
the party visited the outlying circles, which are of minor importance ; 
illustrations of these are also given. 

At 1.15 p.m we started for Loch Carlo way, and landing here 
soon made way for the Broch of tliat name. Dr. Munro gave a short 
dissertation on this und Scottish Brochs in general. It occupies a com- 
manding position on a rocky plateau, which is well illustrated in the 
accompanying photograph, with a crofter's cottage at the base of the hill 
in the foreground. 

We returned to the ship shortly after 6 o'clock, and remained at 
anchor in Loch Carlo way for the night. 

I^orth Kona came into view early on Saturday morning, and by 7 a.m. 
we had anchored on the south-east side of the island, barometer 
reading 30-2 and rising ; wind W.N.W. The water was smooth, and 
this enabled us to effect a landing ; there was no beach where we 
landed, but a sort of table rock at a level of about 10 feet above the 
water. After several attempts, u small ledge of rock was eventually 
found at the level of the water, on which, by the exercise of some 
agility, a footing was obtained and the upward ascent commenced. 

Our boats were sun-ounded by seals and cormorants, one of the latter 
getting into a boat. The morning was bright, the air balmy, and the 
island presented a lovely appearance. The green pasture was almost 
hidden by the growth of sea pink, the perfume of which was evident on 
n earing the shore. 

On the island we were surrounded by eider ducks, cormorants, sea- 
pies, pufSns, and gulls of every description in myriads. Their nests 
were met. with eveiy few yards; in some of these were eggs, and in 
-others the downy, young birds. The fledglings running about showed 
no disposition to get out of the way, and it required some care to avoid 
treading on them. 

The island has steep hills to the south, ending in noble cliffs ; the 
northern part is flat, and little more than 30 to 40 feet high, all covered 
with sea pink. 

The ruins are on the south side, to arrive at them we had to cross 
the highest part of the island, but as there was a gentle wind, and 
the morning bright and cool, the climb was delightful. 

The ruins on North Bona are much more dilapidated than those on 
the Flannan Isles. The photographs reproduced show their present 
condition, and an examination of Mr. Muir's diawings, made in 1859, of 
the interior of the church, at page 274, ante^ will give some idea of the 
extent of the injury in the intervening period. It is not yet too late to 

TaiQipul Kona (St. Konai.'s Church), Norih Konn, f 
(From a Pholograph by Mr. S. K. Kirker.) 

Tfampi.l Itoi • — St. Eonaii'* I hiucb, li-oiu the » 

{From a Phomcriipli bj- tbe Rei-. Dr. BiiEck.) 

pKOCEEDisas. 337 

hare these moBt interesting Rtinctures properly conBcrvod. Bestoration 
or baildiug ap a new St. Ronan's Church is not suggested, only the re- 
placing of the stones in tho same position ts indicated in Mr. Uuir's 
■ketches. His ground plan is practically correct, and there is internal 
eridence that the elevation of the small cell interior, aa represented on 
page 274, is a correct drawing. The actual cost of proriding the necee- 
sary labour for this purpose, that is, bringing the men from the mainland 
and housing them on the island, would not be very great; no doubt 
some competent archffiologist could be found willing to incur the expense 
of Tisiting the place to supervise the work. Without such superrision it 
would be better not to touch the remains. 

CeU on North Kona. 
(From I PholDirapli bj tie Re*. Dr. Bii;ck.) 

We left North Bona after a three hours' stay, which seemed too 
short for such a delightful spot, and after a charming run B.S.E. of 
about five hours we arrived at Stromnc^s about 3.40 p.m. 

On the way we passed tho rocky iBlets of Suill and Skerry, in the 
former of which is a lighthouse, a lonely one, as tho nearest land ia 
Cape Wrath, barely visible over the southern horizon. We passed 
through a large " school " of porpoises, which accompanied our ship for 
Hme distance. We had bright sunshine and a fresh breeze, and tho 
distant hills of Scotland were visible to the south as we came ia 
light of the great red cliffs of the Island of Hoy in the Orkneys, the 
flat low shores of Pomona lying more to the north. We got a good 
view of the bold rock pUlar called the " Old Uan of Hoy," towering out 
of the sea, 450 feet in height. 


At Stromness the place of anchorage selected was very inconvenient, 
as we had to pull in the small boats nearly two miles through the 
current from Scapa Flow, at that time running westward with great force, 
landing on a very rough beach, and then walk over a rough path for 
another two miles, to a ro£id at the remote end of Stromness. Carriages 
had been in waiting at the quay, where our boats ought to have landed. 

While toiling towards the shore we were hailed by Mr. Cursiter 
of Kirkwall, who joined the party and accompanied us during our visit 
to the Orkneys and also to Caithness. 

That evening we anchored in Scapa Bay ; at midnight it was so 
bright, that it was easy to read and write without artificial light, and a 
member of our party made a water-colour sketch on deck. 

KutKWALL has been the capital of the Orkneys from about the 
time when the first Earl Rognvald erected the Church of St. Olaf there 
in honour of his foster-father, King Olaf the Holy, who fell at Stiklestad 
in A.n. 1030. The Cathedral, Commenced by the second Earl Kognvald 
in 1 1'37, received the relics of St. Magnus previous to the departure of 
the Earl and his band of Jerusalem-farers for the Holy Land in 1152. 
The relics of the pilgrim Earl himself were committed to it in 1158. 
The remains of King Haco, who died in the Bishop's Palace here on 
his return to Orkney after the Battle of Largs in 1263, lay in state before 
the High Altar, and were temporarily interred for three winter months 
pending their removal to Bergen. In 1290 the remains of the unfortu- 
nate Maid of Norway were temporarily deposited here previous to their 
removal to Bergen by Bishop Narve ; and in 1540 King James V., on his 
tour round the Islands, heard High Mass celebrated by Bishop Maxwell, 
whose successor added the triple western portal to the now completed 
Cathedral, which at the present day is the noblest Norman edifice in 
Scotland. The Bishop's and Earl's Palaces, both now in ruins, still 
testify to the departed glory of this metropolis of the Islands. 

The proceedings in connexion with the Orkney and Caithness portion 
of the tour are well described in John o' GroaVs Journal of 30th June 
last, a weekly paper published in Wick, and which had once for its 
editor. Dr. Joseph Anderson of Edinburgh. From it the following 
account, somewhat condensed, is taken : — 

''Akbival at Keiss. 

'* A visit to the Keiss Brochs, which had been opened by Sir Francis 
Tress Barry, Bart., m.p., was included in the programme of the tour, and 
it was expected that the steamer containing the party would arrive off 
the harbour of Keiss on the forenoon of Monday, June 26th. Promptly at 
10 a.m. that day a party from Wick drove up to Keiss village, to find that 
the ship had arrived, and that a good many had landed several hours 
before the programme time. One of the first recognised was Mr. James W. 
Cursiter, p.s.a. (Scot.), Kirkwall, who had come with the party that 

puoceiiDiNos. 33& 

■Doming from Bcapa Bay. Hr. Cnraittir, whose enthueiasin and ability 
as an antiquary are nidely known, noted ue giiido to the distinguished 
Tiaitors while they were on the Orkney mainlanil, and all were loud in 
their praiMS of Ur. Cursiter'a zeal and kindness. 

" The Dbputatioh Faau WiOic 
condsted of Bailies Kae and Kimpson, Ucbd of Guild Nicolsoo, Councillor 
Oann, Mr. George Ounn, 3fr. Kobcrt Kobcrtson, J. P., Ur. Cliarlea 
Johnston, Mr. Aluxandur Sinclair, jun,, and Mr. R. J. 0. Millar. 
This party was afterwords joined by l)r. Alexander, Councillor Mackay, 
ex-Bailie Smitton, Ur. D. Wares, Mr. A. Uackenzie, Hr. T. Bain, 
Ur. Lung, iinil Mi*. Manluwull. On ati^litins fruni their coiivcyunees at 

KeisB, they were quickly surrounded by members of the excursion party 
who had come on shore, and who had completed their examination of the 
Brocbs, and were preparing to re-embark." 

" Full of the sabject of their tour, and evidently greatly delighted 
with the scenes through which they had passed, the archseologists were 
ready to impart all iuforraation sought for. While the Wick party were 
in course of enjoying their nonvereution, and descriptions of the places 
of interest which they had visited, a conveyance drove up containing a 
party of twelve of the leading members of the tour, who had gone speci- 
ally to inspect the Nybster Broeh, and who had now returned. They 


were accompanied by Hi, James Nicolsoo, factor for Sir F. T. Bany, 
and by Mr. John Nicolson, the well known and indefatigable local 
antiquary, who was in his element with the antiquarian visitore, all of 
whom expressed their gratification at meeting Ur. Nicolson, and their 
delight with all they had seen. . . . 

"In Obenet 
we may first refer to the landing of the party on Saturday afternoon at 
the quaint old town of Rtromness, with which they were specially 

Uld CuslIc of KeibB, fruiii llie sen. 
( From a Wa(er-co[our Sketch.} 

channed. From Stromness they drove to Stennis and the Maeahowe 
tumulus, which they inspected with gnat interest. Here they were 
very kindly received by Mr. Magnus Speuce, who gave the party a most 
interesting lecture on these remarkable mounds and atone circles, &c. 
The "Magic" then steamed for Scapa Bay, where the party wore 
accompanied by Mr. Cursitcr and other friends interested in archKology. 
On Sunday morning all proceeded to 



where they attended dirine service at the different chunhes according 
t5 their denomination. MoBt of them worshipped in the Cathedral; 
it happened to be parade Sunday for the local voluntoerB, and the 
mneie waa led by the Toluntccr brans band. . . . Father Coleman, o.p., 
8t, Catherine's, Newry, conducted the service nnd preached in the 
Kirkwall Roman Catholic Chapel, which was attended by a considerable 
number of the party, and a good many worshipped in the local Episcopal 

GtiDtling uid othur Impletuenti luund in tliH Kitraa BrwliB, now ut Kiiiai Uutle. 

" The rich antiquarian and historical remains ot Kirkwall were 
inspected with keen interest. Mr. Cursitcr acted as guide to the Earl's 
and Bishop's Palaces, the splendid Cathedral, and tho other features ot 
the ancient town. Ur. Cursiter's private collection, illustrating the 
natural history, geology, and archicology of the Orkneys, was also 
visited. It is probably the most complete collection of its kind in tho 
North of Scotland, and includoB Honio things perfectly unique. 

•'The members were particularly anxious that their thanks should 
be publicly conveyed to Mr. Cursiter, who most courteously received 
the party, for bis kindness, uot only in making the local arrongoments in 


connexion with their visit, but also for writing an excellent summary 
of the main archaeological features of Stromness, Stennis, Maeshowe, 
and Kirkwall. In the afternoon he and Mrs. Cursiter and their daughter 
entertained the tourists to tea and other refreshments in his private 
garden, and a most pleasant time was spent in the capital of the Orkneys. 
**Mr. Cursiter was presented with a magnificent J^ditian de luxe of 
the Programme of the Tour, specially bound in white vellum, containing 
portraits and autographs of the principal excursionists, which included 
not only antiquaries, but distinguished botanists, geologists, &c. The 
presentation was made, in the names of the Societies, by the Rev. Dr. 
Buick, who very happily expressed the great indebtedness they were 
under to Mr. Cursiter." 

" The Visit to Caithness. 

" Leaving Scapa Bay early on Monday morning, the "Magic" steamed 
close to and anchored off Keiss Barbour about 7 o'clock, a couple of 
hours earlier than the programme time. The party were accompanied 
by Mr. Cursiter, and by means of the ship's boats, and that of Mr. J. 
Henderson, the local harbour-master (who is also Sir F. T. Barry's boat- 
man), a large number soon landed. Firet they visited the Harbour 
Broch, and then the old Castle of Keiss, from which they proceeded to 
the modem Keiss Castle, the manor-house of t)ie estate, and were 
shown over Mr. Barry's collection by the housekeeper, Mrs. Munro. 
Thereafter they examined the Keiss Broch, and the Keiss Road Broch, 
and noted their various features. As already stated, a party had pro- 
ceeded to the 2^ybster Broch, with which they were particularly well 
pleased, as also with the noteworthy Mervyn Tower and its sculpture 
work and the antiquities collected by Mr. John J^icliolson. 

** Dr. Munro, the Secretary of the Society of Antiquaiies of Scotland, 
said that the Nybster Brocli was one of the most interesting of the 300 
in Scotland. A peculiar feature of it is that^while it lias two stairs outside 
it has none inside. The excavations conducted by Sir F. T. Barry were, 
he said, of great importance from an arcliseological point of view. The 
•eight broch s which had been excavated showed the main characteristics 
that are common to all the other Scottish brochs, about eighty of 
which are in Caithness alone. The special function of the brochs was 
originally for defensive purposes, but there had been buildings added on 
afterwards by a later people, and the different periods represented by 
the outbuildings form an interesting study." 

Ntbsteb Beoch stands on a seaworn cliff or headland, and consists of 
a central circular room, with the usual hearths, slab compartments, and 
"wells." The entrance passage leads to the north-east. There are 
numerous subsidiary buildings about it. The walls are reduced to 
6 or 8 feet in height. A low modem flagstaff tower, with quaint 


oarrings of Thor and other goda and heroes, armorial bearings, ftc, 
■taada on the seaward portion of the site. 

Leaving Keiss Bay -we steamed northward along the bold coast of 
Caithness, past the Stacks of Dnncansby, and westward into the'Peut- 
land Firth, throngh a rosfaing 
tide and a roaring sea. We were 
now going "full speed ahead," 
though at John o' Groat's Houhc 
we were not two miles from the 
shore. Passing between Stronia 
and the mainland we again saw 
the " Old Man of Key," and wore 
soon round the fine headland of 
Dtinnet, while Thurso came well 
into Tiew with a fishing fleet of 
at least a thoutmnd ve?»>(!la cross- 
ing our track for the northern 
fishing grounds. 

We now get further from the 
shore and make direct for Cape 
Wrath, which we pass at 4. SO 
p.m., and turning at almost a 
right angle, steam due south. 
The day was most delightful, and 
the coast sceuery magnificent : 
high cliffs in parts, with back- 
grounds of mountain peaks 1400 
to 3000 feet high. Later in tlio 
evening we passed Russy Island 
and on to the narrows of Kyle 
Akin, we entered Loch Alsh, 
having the splendours of a de- 
parting red sunset behind and a 
full moou neing over the dark 
hills abea<). The anchor wa» 
dropped in Loch Alsh at 11.50 wi«» 

Early on Tuesday n 

ir anchorage, and those who ghatt of Cn«.. Eile«,. Md., of Jurs. 
Were early on deck were rewarded 

bvtho fine views. The morning was clear and somewhat cold, with a 
smooth sea, and deep dark shadows from the hills around. 

On the way to Oban we pastwd between Duart Point and the Lady's 
Rock : the latter so dangerous to navigation and the cause of many a 
■hipping disaster. It is intended to erect a beacon light at the point as 


a memento of the late William Black the novelist, who has in his 
writinge depicted many suenea in the Hebridus and west of Scotland. 

We had a abort delay at Oban to land six of our party who wished 
to travel in Scotland, after which the course was continued through the 
Sound of Kenxra and past Corryvrechnn. We arrived at Eilean Mor, 
and landed there at 10 o'clock on Tuesday morning, and proceeded 
across the rocks and heather to the ruins. The church of St. Carmaig, 
the fihftfta of two crosses, and St. Carmaig's cell were examined. 

The nave of the church seems to have been at one time transformed 
into a reiiidence ; it is now rnofleBs ; bnt thp chancel has n roof, and is in 

St. Carmaig'i Church, Eilean H6r. 
(From X Pbolog..-iph by Mr. S. K. Kirkw-l 

a fair state of preservation. The smaller east window and a light in the 
north wall of chancel are each cut out of a single stone. The former is 
a later insertion ; originally it was of the same size as the larger window. 
In the nave there is a small window in the west gable, high up in the 
wall, intended to light a sleeping apartment which had been fonued in 
the roof over tlic nuve. The lintel of this window is n sculptured elab, 
which may have been a narrow tombstone or the shaft of the cross. 
There is a head of a cross in the nave, as is shown in the accompanying 
illustration (see p. 845), and the shaft of another cross, which stands a 
short distance east of the church (see p. 343). The carvings on the 
east face, eomnicucing at the top, ore — (1) an interlacing of several 


I) a hoTBc with a diminutive rider, 
e animals ia a handsome fretwork, 
two grotesque men wrestling, and 
lorated bosB alone adorns the west 

;heHt point of the ialaod is of mach 
<ns and foliage, and a long (nearly 

ir Gigha Island, and lauded at the 

Dper landing places are at the east 
ch time was lost in clambering over 
jf the island to get to the reputed 
ur visit to Gigha, as it was on the 
Bsor Khys, that I was induced to 

I for the journey, as the discovery 
least important result of our tour, 
m ; one of the Litter, by Jlr. Kirkcr, 
There was not much difficulty in 
ddle of the right-hand side, but the 


rest is too much worn. The pillar stone on which Uie inscriptions are cat 
stands on a bold knoll, north of Eilchattan Church, and the collective 
labour of the party made out, as a tentative reading, the letters — 

Ji(i)Q(i) 0*01 s, or vAoui cANous, 

The pillar is 5 feet 8 inches high, the sides tapering up from 12 inches 
t« 8 inches, and from 11^ inches to 9 inches. 

South of the church are two large earthen mounds, the eastern with 
a fosse and outer ring. 

St. CftlHn'B Church, Uighn Islmid— Nonh-esst View. 
(From a Pbotagiapli by Mil. Shackkton.) 

Professor Rhys hns kindly contrihufed the following note on 
" Thr Gioha Ogam. 

" Mr. Cochrane handed mi', when I was lately in Dublin, a photo- 
graph and calico rubbing of the Giglia Ogam, and I have been poring 
a good deal over them. "When 1 recommended the archieological party 
to land on Gigha, I felt rather doubtful that I was doing right. The 
first allusion I had ever seen to the supposed existence of an Ogam on 
that island occurs in one of the late I)r. Skene's works — I think it must 
be his ' Celtic Scotland ' — but I have no books where I ara writing. 

pEOCBiajiMGS. 347 

When in Scotland a few yean ago, I frequently tried to find infonna- 
tion about the stone, and while on a visit at Br. Copeland's house 
in Edinburgh, 1 met Urs. Margaret Stuart, who had heard of the stone, 
and promised to find oat more about it. So in March, 1 898, Mrs. Stuart 
wrote to me, assuring me that the etono had an Ogam on it ; and, on the 
strength of that letter, I suggested to Mr. Cochrane the desirability of 
the expedition landing on Gigha, and examining the atone — at that time 
I hoped to be one of the party. 
In the meanwhile, inquiries 
among members of the Glasgow 
Archsologicel Society elicited a ' 
letter from a leading antiquary 
of my acquaintance there ; he 
felt convinced that the stone has 
no Ogam on it. So, when the 
Irish and Welsh party returned, 
I expected to be severely scolded 
for indncing them to go on a wild 
goose-chase. It was a pleasant 
suTprise to me, therefore, to find 
that they are all conTinced of the 
reality of the Ogam, and I con- 
clude that the stone described by 
my Glasgow friend was not the 
one meant by Mrs. Stuart. I 
am delighted to find that this 
lady's record has received such 
welcome confirmation, and any- 
one looking at the photographs 
taken by Mr. Cochrane and others, 
will at once be convinced of the 
reality of the Ogam. Unfortu- 
nately, one cannot with safety 
go very much further, as the 
stone is evidently very weather- „. . „ 

— _ ■-._ .u ■ ti t J J Qigha Ogam Pillar-gtone. 

however, one sees, beyond doubt, 

a group of five scores on the JT'-side of the edge if you read upwards : 
then at a little distance one detects, with some dilBcuIty, another group 
of four or five similarly situated. This suggested to me double j, as a 
part of majqvi, as spelled in Ogams about Dingle, in Kerry. If that 
could be accepted as a trial reading, one would have to look below the 
first y for ma, bat there a piece of the edge is broken, and below the 
break there are two scores or grooves drawn slanting on the iT-side of 
the edge. On the whole, however, they seem to me too far opart, and 

WBB. B.S.A.I., TOt. W., PT. HI., 6tH SIR. 2 B 


certainly too far from the first supposed q, to be a part of the word 
maqqui. They are also too long, and I cannot regard them as parts of 
the writing, but as due to some accidental injury to the face of the 
stone. There might, however, have been ma : in fact I seem to find 
the a intact just above where the edge is broken, and Mr. Cochrane 
thought that an m was possible there, though he could not say much 
for it. On weighing the difficulties of this guess, I was forced to modify 
it. In the first place there was space enough for e or t between the 
first q, and what I have suggested might possibly be another q : then I 
have failed to convince myself that this latter can have consisted of 
more than four scores. All this would mean that the inscription began 
with maqui, followed by a name beginning with e^ to which I may add 
that the rubbing suggests subsequent groups of scores : the whole may 
be represented roughly thus : — 

y. , JiiiL:::::Jiii^^-^^-n. ::::^ 



The reader, however, must understand that all after the c is highly 
conjectural, and I ought to add that I have been lent a photograph by 
Mr. Williams, of Solva, which shows the left-hand edge of the stone as 
if bearing traces of Ogams, and on again scrutinizing the rubbing, I 
notice what appears like two slanting scores low on that edge ; but they 
are in a position approximately to be continuations of the two scores which. 
I have already ruled out of the reckoning. As I greatly distrust my 
own interpretation of rubbings and photographs of stones which X 
have not seen, I have appealed to Mr. Cochrane as to the left-hand edge, 
and his answer seems decisive : here it is : — ' As to the markings on 
the left edge, we all examined them most carefully, and were reluctantly 
obliged to come to the conclusion that there were no Ogam scores on 
that side.' 

'< The fact that the vowels appear to consist of notches shows that this 
Ogam stone belongs to the same ancient class as the majority of those of 
Ireland, Wales, and Bumnonia, and not to that embracing nearly all those 
found in the east of Scotland, in the Orkneys, and in the Shetlands. 
Maqui CagiUhi might be rendered {Lapis vel monumentum) FU%% CagiUhi^ 
and the formula of the name would be the same as that of Maqui Cairom 
tini on the Painestown stone in county Meath. As to the name CagiUibi^ 
the second element, Uhi^ is too uncertain to call for any further remark ; 
but oagi occurs elsewhere — namely, in the Netacagi of the Castletimon 
Ogam in county Wicklow. We have it also, perhaps, as cogim Cogidub^ 
ntu, and in the Welsh word cae, ' a hedge or fence.' Cae is derived 
from the same origin as the word hedge, earlier hegge, hege, and the Ghdlo*. 
Brythonic stem may be represented, perhaps, as cagio or eogio. I have 
already suggested how hypothetical the reading of the stone most be 


-regazded as being, and it is needless to point oat how desirable it is that 
it should be remoyed from its present exposed position, and carefully 
examined again. Lastly, I have heard that one of the party was told by 
one of the inhabitants of Qigha that he knows of another stone with 
similar < nicks ' on it. Let us hope that this information may turn out 

At 7.45 p.m., all were on board again ; the boats were stowed, the 
accommodation ladder unshipped| and the ''Magic," in a very leisurely 
manner, steamed south for Belfast, which was reached during the night. 
I^ext morning, immediately after breakfast, we left the ship, and so 
closed ''this wonderfully successful, enjoyable, and comfortable trip, 
accomplished with extraordinary precision as to time, and without the 
slightest accident, notwithstanding the dangerous landings which had 
to be made on the outlying islands, from boats, carrying, on an average, 
twenty-five passengers at each trip from the ship to the shore.'' 

From Belfast an Excursion was arranged to " the GKant's Eing," 
and to Drumbo Round Tower,' but time did not permit of a visit to the 

The Lord Mayor of Belfast held a reception at 4.30 p.m., in honour 
of the members of the two Societies taking part in the Excursion, in the 
Exhibition Hall of the Eoyal Botanic Gardens, for which upwards of 
1000 invitations had been issued. 

On Thursday an excursion was made to Portrush, Dunluce Castle, and 
the Gfiant's Causeway. Professor Bhys, who had joined the party that 
morning, travelled to Ballymena and met four other members of the 
Society, assisted at the examination of the Connor Ogam Cave, for opening 
up which a grant had been made by the Eoyal Irish Academy. The 
Professor's readings will be published later, but it may be of interest 
to state that the examination confirmed the accuracy of the surmise in- 
dicated at page 408 of the Journal of this Society for 1898, as to the 
correct reading of one of the inscribed stones. 

On Friday the party visited Drogheda for Dow th, Newgrange, Melli- 
font, and Monasterboice. After dinner at Drogheda they returned to 
Dublin and Belfast, and proceeded to their respective destinations. 

The principal feature of the Scotch tour was, that in the selection of 
places visited, an effort was made to see the typical and characteristic 
antiquities of the country, as well as those not easily accessible. 
Thus, the earliest Christian settlements and the remains of the earliest 
churches and oratories were visited ; the best examples of the high crosses 
of Scotland were seen, as well as later Christian churches and monastic 
buildings. A ruined cathedral and one still used for worship were visited, 

* For a descriptioii of these antiquities, see pp. 353, 356. 



with the remains of a bishop's palace and an earl's palace, as well as the 
residence of a Highland chieftain in continuous occupation for a thousand 
years, and the smaller uninhabited castle on the clifPs at Keiss. 

For earlier times we had examples of the prehistoric stone circles of 
Callemish, Brogar, and Stennis, and the sepulchral tumulus of Maeshowe. 
We had also the benefit of the most recent investigations concerning those 
peculiarly Scotch structures, the Brochs, and lastly a Scotch Ogam 
stone. In these days when comparative archaeology is beginning to 
receive the attention it deserves, it was fitting that as far as practicable 
'an opportunity should also be given for seeing Irish examples, and accord- 
ingly a visit was arranged to a Round Tower and High Cross, prehistoric 
sepulchral monument and ruined castle, ancient abbey and Ogam-stone, 
all within easy distance of Belfast, the starting point and finish of the 


Toe Thold General Mbetiko of the Sogiett for the year 1899 was held 
(by permiesion of the Belfast Natural History and Philosophical Society) 
in the Museum, College-square, Belfast, on Wednesday, 16th August, 
at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

The Ret. Jixbs O'Latbbtt, p.p., x.r.i.a., Fiee-President, 

in the Chair. 

The following took part in the proceedings : — 

Fellowi.—Wil^m J. Knowlos, m.b.i.a., Fiet-PreMidrnt ; Robert M. Toung, B.A., 
1I.11.I.A., Vice-Freudent ; Rev. George R. Buick, k.a., ll.d., m.ii.i.a., Viee'Fr0nd$nt ; 
Rev. Canon ffrencb, m.k.i.a., Vic$- Fruident ; Robert Cochrane, f.s.a., m.b.i.a., 
Hon, General Secretary; G. D. BurtchRell, M.A., ll.b., m.b.i.a. ; John Ribton 
Garstin, M.A., ll.b., b.d., f.s.a., t.p.,b.i.a. ; William Gray, m.b.xa. ; William B. 
Kelly ; 8. K. Kirker ; Rey. W. T. Latimer, b.a. ; 8. F. Milligan, x.b.i.a. ; William R. 
J. MoUoy, M.B.I.A. ; John Moran, x.A., ll.d., m.b.i.a. ; P. J. O'Reilly ; Professor 
W. R. Scott, M.A. ; Colonel Philip D. Vigors ; John Vinycomb, x.b.x.a. 

Members, — Rev. W. A. Adams, b.a. ; Yen. Archdeacon Baillie, m.a. ; J. B. Cassin 
Bray; William M. Campbell; W. T. Clements; Henry A. Cosgrave, m.a. ; Charles 
Elcock, Curator of Museum; William Faren; W. J. Fennell, ii.a.i.A.i. ; Albany 
Fetberstonhaugh, b.a. ; Robert Gray, f.b.c.p.i., j.p. ; Granby Higinbotham ; F. W. 
Lockvood ; Very Rev. 0. Mao Cartan, p.p., v.g. ; Robert G. M'Crum, j.p. ; Very 
Rey. Alexander Mac Mullan, p.p., v.o. ; Brian Mac Sheehy, ll!d. ; Rev. William 
M'Kean; John P. M<Knight; Rev. R. C. Oulton, b.d.: M. S. Patterson; W. H. 
Patterson, k.b.i.a. ; J. J. Phillips ; Rev. Charles Soott, m.a. ; Rev. A. 8. Woodward, 
X.A. ; Mrs. Woodward. 

The Minutes of the Second General Meeting were read and con- 

The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 

declared duly elected: — 


Gibson, Andrew, 49, Queen's-square, Bolfast : proposed by Robert M. Young, 
11.A., M.K.I.A., Vice- President. 


Barrett, Professor William F., f.r.b., De Vesci-terrace, Monkstown : proposed by 

John Cooke, m.a., Fellow, 
Bumard, Robert, 7.8. a., 3, Hillsborough, Plymouth ; proposed by Robert Cochrane, 

P.8.A., m.b.i.a., Son, General Secretary, 
Carmody, Rev. Samuel, m.a., Craigs, Co. Antrim: proposed by the Rev* W. P. 

Carmody, b.a. 
Ohestnutt, Miss Margaret, Finnart, Antiim-road, Belfast : proposed by John Chest- 

nutt, B.A., L.II.C.F. & s.f'Fellow. 
Cuthbert, David, BalUnskelligs, Co. Kerry: proposed by P. J. Lynch, M.&.I.A.I., 

Doherty, Rev. William, cc, St. Columba's Presbytery, Derry : proposed by W. J. 

Browne, m.a., m.b.i.a., Fellow. 
Doyle, Edward, Charleville Lodge, Cabra, Dublin: proposed by Arthur Hade, o.b. 
Fraser, William, Downshire-road, Newry: proposed by S. F. Milligan, m.b.i.a., 



GloBter, Arthur B., b.a., D. Inspector, N. S., Education Office, Marlborough -street^ 

Dublin : proposed bj A. P. Morgan, b.a. 
Gtordon, B. A., Ulster fiank, Balljmote! proposed by 0' Meant Conyngham. 
Griffith, John E., f.l.8., p«b.a.8.| Bryn Dinas, Bangor, North Wales : proposed by 

Robert Cochrane, f.s^a., m.b«i.a., Hon, Oentral Secretary. 
Griffith, Miss Lucy E*, Glynmalden, Dolgelly, North Wales, and Arianfryn, Bar- 
mouth : proposed by Robert Cochrane, F.8.A., m.&.i.a. 
Hackett, Rey. Frederick John, m.a., KildoUagh Rectory, Coleraine: proposed by 

G. D. Burtchaell, if.A., m.k.i.a.. Fellow. 
Hall, Ernest Frederick, The Lodge, Westport : proposed by William E. Kelly, 

Harington, A. H., h.a. (Oxon.)» Moorock, Ballycumber, King's Co. : proposed by 

the Rev. Sterling de Couroy Williams, m.a. 
Kelly, Rev. James, c.c, Doonpark, Claddaduff, Clifden, Co. Galway: proposed by 

Walter 8, Wall, /.p. 
Kelly, Thomas J., 37, Kildare-street, Dublin : proposed by D. J. O'Donoghue. 
M'Enemey, Rev. Francis, c.o., Westland-row, Dublin : proposed by the Rey. 

E. O'Leaiy, p.p. 
Manning, John Butler, 134, Capel-street, Dublin: proposed by O'Meara Conynghaml 
Morrogh, Henry H., 5, Oharlemont-terrace, Cork : proposed by T. H. Mahony. 
O'Malley, Arthur M., The Quay, Westport: proposed by William E. Kelly, j.p.| 

Sutherland, William, Provincial Bank, Clogheen, Co. Tipperary : proposed by R. W. 

Wade, Thomas G«, Solicitor, 28, Upper Fitzwilliam -street, Dublin: proposed by 

H. Hitchins. 
White, John, Derrybawn, Bushey Park-road, Rathgar : proposed by John CookCf 

M.A., Fellow. 
White, Miss Mary Butler, Sallypark, Templeogue : proposed by William C. Stiibbs, 


The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council : — 

<' Minutes of the Presbytery of Laggan, 1672-1696," by the Rev. W. T. Latimer, 

B.A., Fellow. 
'* Notes on the Palace, Library, and Observatory of Annagh,** by John Ribton 

Garstin, m.a., b.d*, p.8.a., Viee-Fresident R.I.A.^ Fellow. 

The following Paper was taken as read, and referred to the 
Council : — 
** The Cistercian Abbey, Grey Abbey, Co. Down," by J. J. Phillips, c.b.. Architect* 

Mr. Robert M. Young, m.a., h.r.i.a., Vice-President, proposed a 
Besolution to the effect ^* that the Society record its disapproyal of the 
manner in which the recent excavations at the Hill of Tara had been 
carried out." He expressed regret at seeing the historic place intei-fered 
with, and said that such work ought not to he undertaken except under 
.the supervision of competent archaeologists, and subject to their adTice. 
Mr. John Moran, ll.d., seconded the Resolution, wbich was put to the 
meeting and passed. 

The Society then adjourned. 



IITESDAT, AVQJ78T Ifl, 1899. 

After lunch the members started in carriages from the Imperial 
Hotel, Donegall-place, for the "Giant's Sing" and Drumbo Round 

The " QiANi's Ring." 

Tbis stmctnre is one of the earthen forts which abound in this 
conntrjr, and though not so largo as the rath of Downpatrick, or so 
high as the Fort of Dromore, it is of very considerable extent, and 
measares about 680 feet in diameter. On plan it is circular, and the 
snrrounding earthwork is about 80 feet in breadth at base ; the fosse 
is almost entirely filled up, and an enclosing wall has been built at 
the base of the earthwork, by a former proprietor, to preserve the 

Cremlech— "GUnt'i Rinj." 

The "Oiant's Bing" ie about four miles from Belfast, and the drive 
is along a pleasant road skirting the valley of the river Lagan. There 
is a laige cromlech in the centre of the Ring, and this is one of the 
few instances where sepulchral monuments are found inside the enclo- 
sure of a fort presnmahly used as a fortified residential structure) and 


posribly for religiouB or ceremomal usos. A queation, however, may 
arifle, as to whether the aromlech existed before the fort wm erected. 
There are authentic lecoids of tho dates of erection of forts, many of 
which belong to a period prior to the beginning of the present era, bnt 
there are no historical statements as to the time at which the cromlechs 
were erected, — the presumed date of that at Ballina, county llayo, i> 
based on unreliable evidence. 

It is ju 

enclosed, t 
was erecte 
Tu forts a 
used for a 


Tbste axe no hiatoric records throwing any light on the date of 
erection ot either the fort or cromlech at the " Giant's Bing." 

view on the Ligu, aeu the " Qiint'i KioK." (Fcum Walih't " Iriih Viewi.") 

In 1855 a sepulohral chamber was discorered in a field almost 
adjoining the north side of the mound. It is described in the UltUr 


and occupied a circular space of about 7 feet in diameter, and in it were 
found urns of burnt clay of rude design, aod filled with burnt bones. 
The internal space was divided into smaller chambers, and some human 
skulls were found separate from the other remains. 

The present occupier states that in his time a great quantity of 
bones have been found, not only in the enclosure, but also in the field 
adjoining. The area enclosed was cultivated about twenty-five years 
ago, when bones were still found, and a polished stone celt, about 
4 inches long, was picked up, and is now to be seen at the farmhouse. 

Drumbo Bound Towee, Co. Down. 

• • • 

The remains of this tower are in the graveyard attached to the 
Presbyterian Church of Drumbo. The tower stands in the more ancient 
part of the churchyard, and there are" no traces of any other ancient 
ecclesiastical remains near it at present, though some existed until 
comparatively recent times. 

The tower measures 51 feet 7 inches in circumference at the base, 
the walls are 3 feet 7 inches in thickness, and the internal diameter is 

10 feet, narrowing down to 9 feet. The doorway is 4 feet above the 
present ground level, is 5 feet 6 inches in height, with sloping jambs, 
21^ inches wide at base, and 19^ inches wide at top ; it is square-headed, 
and covered with a flat lintel. 

The doorway has all the quoins and the lintel worked to the curve 
of the circle; the head, or lintel, is within 16 inches of the full thick- 
ness of the wall ; the sill is not dressed inside to the radius of the curve, 
but stands out square with the jambs of the door. Some of the stones 
of the doorway are of large size, one to the left measuring 2 feet 8 inches 
long by 15 inches high, and another stone is 3 feet 2 inches long by 

11 inches high; the majority of the courses are 9 inches to 10^ inches 
high, and some stones are only 1^ inches to 2^ inches thick. 

The stone forming the masonry of the tower is a Silurian rock — the 
clay slate of the locality — undressed and uuRquared, but laid adroitly to 
suit the curve of the circle. The courses of masonry are small and 
irregular, many of the stones are split, and disintegration has set in, 
owing to the bad weathering qualities of this kind of rock, which has a 
tendency to develop " slaty cleavage." 

The masonry in the interior is rough, especially the lower portion 


below the lerel of the doonraj, and shova indicationa of bamg bees 
mbjected to the action of fire, after which it appears to hare been 
pinned and spawled with smaller BtoneB. 

There are several couraeB of putlog holes in the interior^in^iWhich 
beams were inserted to carry wooden floors. The first commences about 
15 inches below the sill of the door, and the next is 5 feet 3 inches 

DoorwBjr — Bound Tancr of Druiulio. 
(From a Phalograiih by Ur. S. K. Kirkgr, 1S99.) 

higher, with three other stages above. There are no windows in th« 
portion now remaining. The illustration on next page, from a photo- 
graph taken recently by Mr. Eirker. shows the tower as it now stands^ 
the double curve or batter observable is not part of the original design, 
BS the top portion has been rebuilt. A drawing taken fifty-Bix years 
■ago, aod reproduced on p. 359, shows tlie broken condition of the top_(i 


the tower, and tlie outward bulge therein obaen-able was not wholly takeo 
down — hence the waot of regularity in the upward Blope of the tower. 

There are many and frequent historical references to the ancient 
eccleeiaBtical foundation of Drumbo; and two chnrch festiraU are noted 

'Ibe Jlouiid Tuwer ui Itrimiuo. 
(Frum a Pbolograph by Mr. 5. K. Klrker. i»99.) 

in O'Clery'a Calendar nppeitainini; thereto, viz. July 34th, Loghnidh, 
of Drumbo, and August 10th, Cumiu, Abbot of Drumbo— hnt there are 
no references to the tower until it is mentioned in the Ulster Visitation 
Sook as being in a ruinouH condition in 1622. The interior was eica- 


Tited in 1841, and a hamaa skeleton, extended nearly east and west, 
was found under a lime concrete floor, the head resting to the west. 
There are notices of this tower in the T^ransimtioiu of the Boynl Irish 
Academy, toI. zx., pages 69 and 398 ; also in the Uhttr Journal of 
ArthaoUgy, toI. lit., p. 110. 

The Bound Tower of Dninibo. 
{Fran a Dnwinc made in 184].) 

On the retoni of the party to Belfast, Mr. R. Toung, j.p., Rath- 
Tarna, Antrim-road, courteously received and entertained the members 
to aft«moon tea, after which the Cave Hill was Tisited. 



At 10 o'clock, a.m., the members started from the Imperial ^otel, 
and droTe through the Tillage of Dundonald to the Xempe Stone 
Cromlech, and then through Newtown ards, visiting the cromlech in. 
Mountstewart demesne, after which they visited Grey Abbey. 

Gbet Abbex.^ 

Orey Abbey was founded in the year 1193 by Africa, daughter of 
dodfred, King of Man, and wife of John de Courcy. She supplied it 
with Cistercian monks from the Abbey of Holmcultram, in Cumberland. 
The Cranicon Mannia informs us that it was styled the Abbey of '' Holy 
Mary of the Yoke of God '' {Sancta Maria de Jugo Def)^ and that the 
foundress was buried in it. Her e£Bgy of grey freestone was, up till 
lately, in a recumbent posture in a niche of the chancel wall on the 
gospel side of the altar ; and though removed from its original position, 
it is still within the church, but much defaced. The Abbey was called 
in Irish Monaster-Liath (pronounced Monasterlea) — ^the Grey Monastery ; 
■and, in English, Hore Abbey ; but its conventual title was De Jugo Dei. 

As usual with monasteries of the Cistercians, Grey Abbey was erected 
in a secluded spot, sheltered by well- wooded hills, and watered by a 
clear stream, and never-failing springs. This practice of building in 
fiuch localities was enjoined by their rule. 

The cloister garth, or quadrangle, was oblong. 

The church occupied the north side of this quadrangle, and consisted 
of a nave, without aisles, 69 feet long and 24 feet 6 inches broad, vnth 
two transepts, each of which was 24 feet 6 inches square, and each 
terminating on the east side in two chapels, 1 1 feet 6 inches broad and 
16 feet deep. These chapels were separated from each other by a wall, 
from which sprang the stone arched barrel vaulting ; and each pair of 
ohapels had an external roofing over this vaulting, as is evidenced by a 
stone string course which marks the line of roof on the north elevation. 

The chancel, which was 24 feet 6 inches broad and 30 feet long, had 
its eastern end square, the gable having a double tier of triplet windows 
oi '^ early pointed'' form, with smaller windows at the top. The north 
and south windows lighting the eastern arm of the church were origin- 
ally of similar character and form, but at some subsequent date they 
have had decorated stone tracery inserted on the outside. The chancel 
arch and the south transept arch have fallen, but the choir arch and the 
north transept arch still remain. The walls above these arches give 

^ Abstract prepared by Mr. J. J. PhillipB, Architect, for the Society*! viait| from 
« monograph published by him in a.d. 1874. 

It Pit ^Llfii 


evidence of having been carried at least for one story above the roof of 
the four arms of the crux. Probably there was a low laBtem towi-r 
here vrhich was finished with a parapet. 

The west doorway is a good specimen of early English work ; it has 
no portico or narthex. This doorway, which had gone to ruin, was 
repaired, in 1842, by Mr. Uontgomery, who had the fragments collected 
and rebuilt, as far as possible, in their original position, though tbe 
centre is now somewhat distorted. 

We«t Doorway oi Grey Abbey. 

FonDGTly a rood screen was drawn across the nave, about half way 
np, from one side-wall to the other, on each side of which, in the part 
cut off towards the west, was an altar. The piscina for the altar on the 
south side of the door is still to be seen in the south side-wall of the 

The choir arch, or that at the junction of the nave and transepts, is 
perfect, becanse the arch had been walled up in 1626, when the nave 
was used as a church, and the walling was only removed in 1842. All 


trace of tlie faigh altar is gone, but on the south side there are frag- 
mentary remains of the sedilia and piaoina, and on the north, or gospel 
side, there are the remains of an arch in the position usually found over 
the wall-tomb of the founder of the Abbey ; this is the spot, it is said, 
which the recumbent flgnre of Lady de Courcy originally occupied. 
The cloister door in the south transept is of early English character 
externally, but internally it is covered by a low arch. In the middle of 
the south wall of this transept are the remains of the stone newel 
winding-stair, by which the monks descended for their midnight office 
from the dormitories. 

The eastern side of the quadmngle was bounded by the Bouth 
transept, and next by the 
nacristy adjoining it on the 
south side. This was a chamber 
of 24 feet by 12 feet, of which 
only the lower portion of the 
wuIIb remain. The chapter- 
house comes next in order — 
38 feet long end 28 feet 
broad ; its axis lies east and 
we^-t, and is diTidod into three 
alleys by two ranges of columns, 
as a few of the base* still 
remaining show. Scattered 
about are Tartous sections of 
clustered and circular columns, 
with one chastely moulded 
capital — the best preserved 
fragment of the Abbey — tes- 
tifying to the superior decora- 
tion of the chapter-house, chmr Arch, Qztj Abbey, 
which is indicated by the 

ornamentation displayed on the bases of the columns and jambs of the 
opening that gave access to the building from the cloister. It seems to have 
been lighted with three windows on the east side, and one on the north. 

The slype, or passage, occurs next in order. This was open at both 
ends, and had a doorway leading into the adjoining monks' day -room. 
It was 10 feet wide and 22 feet long, and served as a passage to the 
graveyard, or, perhaps, to the Abbot's House, which was generally to 
the east of this opening. 

Continuing along the eastern boundary of the quadrangle, the next 
apartment, which was 46 feet long and 21 feet wide, was the calefactory, 
frater-room, or monks' day-room, which had, as was usual, a single row 
of columns with octagonal bases, but nothing remains by which we can 
judge of the former appearance. 

JOOK. B.I.A.I., VOL. IX., FT. UI., 5tH lU. 2 C 


Soutb of tbis was the gong, a narrow passage , close to which ran the 
fluBliing sewer, emerging from a well -constructed arched tunnel, con- 
nected, no doubt, with some well-eupplied reserroir, and, by vulgar error, 
supposed to connect with Black Abbey. 

The dormitory extended over the calefactory, and usually over the 
entile range of faulted buildings as far as the south transept of the 
church, where there was, as we mentioned already, a stairway leading 
from the dormitories. 

At the south-east comer of the cloister garth are still to be seen a. 
few steps of the stair which led externally to the dormitories and to thv 

Grey Abbey — General View of Ruin. 

scriiitonum, where the monks wrote their beautiful manuscripts. This 
was generally over the chapter-house, but as only a few feet of the walls 
of the first story remain, scriptorium, dormitory, and infirmary have all 
but disappeared. 

The southern side of the garth, or quadrangle, was bounded by a 
passage to some external yard ; by the kitchen, in which yel remains 
the fireplace; and by the refectory, a stately hall, 71 feet long and 
28 feet broad. In the west hall are the stone steps which led to the 
pulpit, from which a monk read while his brethren were at their meals. 
A triplet of early pointed windows, the central one of which is higher than 
the others, gives a charming effect to the south gable of the refectory. 


The buttery, to the west of the refectory, occurs next, and last in order. 
The jamb of the doorway from the cloister to this office, and the trace of 
its roof on the west wall of the refectory, are the only evidences of its 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 11 th, 1899. 

The members left Belfast at 9.45 a.m., by the Great Northern 
Bailway, in a special carriage, arriving at Armagh at 1 1 a.m. The 
purty proceeded first to the Roman Catholic Cathedral, where they were 
received by the Rev. Mr. Quin, and shown over the new Synod Hall 
and Vestry. It was mentioned that the Pope had lately authorized the 
canons to wear the same dress as those of St. Jolm Lateran at Rome. 

At the old Cathedral, in the absence of the Dean, the party was 
received by the Rev. Chancellor Shaw-Hamilton, d.d., who also had the 
crypt open for their inspection. 

From the Cathedral the party proceeded to the Library, where they 
were received by two of the Governors (Chancellor Dr. Shaw-Hamilton, 
Mr. Garstin, p.s.a., v.p. k.i.a.), and by the Rev. C. Fans, Deputy 
Librarian, who exhibited and described some of the principal contents, 
including the collection of Ecclesiastical Bells and Antiquities presented 
by G. Beresford, Esq. Several of the important manuscripts were laid 
out for examination, including mediaeval registers of the See. 

After lunch, at the Charlemont Arms Hotel, the members drove to 
Navan Fort, or Emania, and afterwards to the site of the Battle of the 
Yellow Ford. At the latter place the Rev. W. T. Lutimer, b.a., read an 
interesting Paper on the engagement (a.d. 1598) which was fought there, 
and in which the English troops, under Bageual, were defeated. The 
text of this Paper will be printed later. For an account of Emania, 
with illustrations, see the Journal of the Society for 1884, p. 409. 

By invitation of the Most Rev. William Alexander, Lord Primate, 
the Society visited the Palace, where they were received by the Primate, 
who described the pictures. These were chiefly the gift of Primate 
Robinson (Lord Rokeby), and include full-length portraits of several 
of the English sovereigns, as well as the series of post-Reformation 
Piimates, commencing with Adam Loftus (temp. Elizabeth), of which 
photographs had been shown by Mr. Garstin at the meeting the previous 
evening in Belfast. All the pictures had lately been cleaned by 
Mr. John Tracey in Dublin, whence they had only just returned. 

The Palace chapel, with its fine carved oak fittings, recently 
restored, was open for inspection. 

Proceeding through the Palace grounds, the party drove to the Mall, 
where some of the members paid a hasty visit to the interesting Museum 
of the Philosophical Society, 


Time did not admit of a visit to the Observatory, though Dr. Dreyer, 
the Astronomer, was, with Mr. Garstin, one of the Governors, prepared 
to welcome the members. 

Mr. and Mrs. H. Bruce Armstrong courteously received and enter- 
tained the Society to afternoon tea at Dean's Hill. Miss Stronge, 
of Tynan, had an interesting collection of antiquities there for the 
members' inspection. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 18M, 1899. 

The Exoui-sion to-day was by the 7.45 a.m. train from Belfast, by 
the Greut ^Northern Kuilway, to Droghcda, and thence by carriages to 
the Tumuli of Dowth and Newgrange, and on to Slane Abbey. The 
members were met, and escorted to the top of the hill, by one of our 
local members, the Rev. John Brady, Rector, who was the bearer of 
an invitation from the Marchioness of Conyngham, for the party to 
visit the Castle nnd grounds, which, however, time did not admit of. 

The party returned by the south side of the Boyne, visiting Ross- 
naree, Cormac's Grave, Hill and Church of Donore, and back to 
Drogheda, where, after dinner, at the Central Hotel, the members 
proceeded by rail to their respective destinations. 


fan i, va. IX. 

fot 4Buatut 

Silt Dectmlwr, 1899. 

^he STournal 

of the 



Slogal pocietg of Mntiquaries 




a In tlM Bnrrra. Canatj 
Clan, (Part II.— Kilcomevand ihe Eastern 
Valltyi.) ByTHOMAS J. Wkstkopc, u. 

"■ " w (Fourieen HImtralions), 

■MB*. By 

■llaa (Four lllus- 

' taHoladCroHat Mmb*. ByLoRDWALTEK 



i Ba Drasloghui (^■nu. By Fkincifal 
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: IstM oa CrwuLog uid otlier Tlndi in Sorth 

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GlAl-TAK ElSUONDE, Bad., u.r. 

OlnsUa lions), .... 
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By the Ker. Williau T. Latiuer, b. 


floU IlktM Mid Slioi brand bmt CI071M, 

FtUon [Tbtee Illustrations), 
I Ba])*T«rdoiuofLoiLth. ByW. H.Grattah 

iologleaL By If. J. C. Buckley, 420 
firaonU Enlei of the Booiety 

MiiaollBBoa— The PrcMrralion and CuUody 

of Local Records — Congress of the Royal 

I Archxolopcal InititMe of Great Britain 

and Ireland — ClotifeTt Cathedral — The 

j Cairan Ogam Stone — Throwing -stones or 

I Hammer-stones (?) (Two Illusirations) — 

I Commonplace Book relating lo Ireland — 

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Friary- Blackslaira or Knock B[andulf(r) 

— Barry O'Meara, 

! HotleMof Book! (Three PUles), . 

Bming KeetinK. jist October, ie<)g. . 
' ,, ,, 18 ih November, [899, 


I Indox to Tolnme IX., 5th Series, . 
ud lilt of Memben tor 1699. 



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BY T. J. WESTROPP, M.A., M.R.I.A., Fbllow. 
[ReadJuNBl5, 189S.] 


TT'iLcoRNET Pakish is intersected by three valleys — Eanty, an extension 
of Poulacarran, Glensleade, a small abrupt basin at the end of a 
depression, and Kilcomey, a long irregular glen, bounded by picturesque 
cliffs. The name has been retained unaltered since, at any rate, 1302. 
Windows, probably as old as the eleventh or twelfth centuries, remain in 
its ancient church, one with a carved head in the style of that at Inchi- 
cronan, but no records or traditions of its founder seem to exist. The 
primitive structures appear to have hitherto attracted no attention, 
though Kilcomey Cave, with its ** outputs "of water, fish, and fairy 
horses,^ has received notice since the middle of the last century. 

Gough, in his edition of Camden's '^Biitannia," 1789,* after enume- 
rating some of the plants of the district, describes Kilcomey as '* a pretty 
low valley entered at the east end. On the north side of a small plain 
of an acre, under steep rugged cliffs, lies Eilcorran Cave, the mouth 
level with the plain, about three feet diameter, part blocked up." ''The 

1 1 have heard locally strange stories of the untameable recklessness and savage 
temper of alleged descendants of the fairy horses. 

* Vol. iii., p. 579. He seems to have confused the points of the compass. 

JOUU. B.8.A.I., VOL* IX., PT. IV., 6tH SBU. 2 D 


cave pours forth occasional deluges over the adjacent plain to a depth of 
about twenty feet. Sometimes, once in a year or two, commonly three 
or four times a year, preceded by a great noise as of falling water. It 
flows with great rapidity for a day or two.'" 

Gough, however, mentions none of the antiquities, and, as he states 
in another place^ '^ of the ancient cathairs we have now no remains but 
the duns," his information must have been defective. 

Of the forts, the Ordnance Survey Letters of 1839, and later writer^, 
give only a few names. Mr. J. Foote, of the Geological Survey (in a 
letter to George V. Du Noyer, January 8th, 1862), wrote enthusiastically 
of the ruins, but neither he nor Du Koyer published any description.^ 
He writes : — ** There are no less than seven cromlechs, sixteen beautiful 
stone forts, some having caves, and all walls of great thickness, an old 
castle, and a stone cross. Here is ground for the antiquary ! The place 
must have been creeping with druids. I never saw such beauties (of 
cromlechs). Here is one (Poulnabrone) I sketched yesterday. The 
end stone and some of the sides are down : the front stone 5 feet high 
[he gives the top slab as measuring 9 feet north and south, 12 feet east 
and west, with a slope to the S.S.W.]. All stand on little green mounds^ 
of earth, surrounded by bare sheets of rock, and some slope to the east." 
By a plun he shows that Ballymihil cromlech and the second at Bemeens 
were then still standing, and that the top slab still rested on the south 
cromlech of Cragballyconoal. He locates the "stone cross" where 
** monument " is marked on the Ordnance Survey map and where it 
still remains. 

The place has little or no history. Glensleade (glean a 8lao6) ap- 
pears in the 1380 rental and the 1569 map. In 1641, Caherconnell and 
Poulanine were held by Donough O'Brien, Lysagh O'Loughlin, and 
Mac Loughlen Roe O'Cullinan : Ballymihil and Glensleade by William 
O'l^eylan and Teige O'Loughlen. After the war, several of the Hogans, 
Gomyns, and Macnamaras were settled in the parish, and at a still later 
period a branch of the Lysaghts (Gillisaghta) settled in the Kilcorney 

KiLCORNET Yallet AND RiBess (Orduanco Survey Map, Sheet ix., 

Nos. 2 and 3). 

The Kilcomey Valley (save for its venerable church and the alleged 
site of Eilcolmanvara) only possesses an earthen tumulus 63 feet in 
diameter and 9 feet high, with a slight bank round the top. It 
lies to the south-west of the church, and commands b fine view of the 
cave-pierced cliffs. 

» Gough cites Dr. Lucas in ** Phil. Trans.," No. 466, p. 360. 

^ '* Britannia," ill., p. 483. * 

» Pu Noyer's " Sketches," R. S. A. I. library, vol. xi., pp. 8o, 87. 


The conspicuous cairn of Foulawack stands on the southern ridge 
near Poulcaragliarush. It is a shapely pile of flat stones, about 200 
feet in girth and 12 feet high, in good preservation. A kerbing of 
slabs set on edge girds its base ; and an attempt has been made to break 
in on the northern side. The sea is yisible from its summit ; this, 
with the bright, fresh outlook, and its contiguity to Eanty, the probable 
site of ancient fairs, recalls the legend of Amalgaid,^ who 'Mug'' 
tumuli and made his cairn, ''to make round it an annual meeting 
place for the clan," " to watch there for his vessels," and eventually 
to make it his resting-place. G>loom seldom surrounded the ancient 
chieftain's grave ; it lay on a fair site, and was regarded as a place of 
repose and comfort, so that a pagan king could sing : — 

« My mound — ^my protection after parting with my army, 
My pure, bright haven, my tomb, and my grave.*'' 

From the west end of the valley, a long ascent through rocks covered 
with mountain avens brings us to Lisstlishebit Caher, a small ring wall, 
8 feet thick. The gateway faces the east, has doorposts at the inner 
comers, and is only 3 feet wide. The neighbouring castle still shows a 
large well-built rectangular court and a lofty block of masonry. From 
its grassy summit, on a clear day, we get a most extensive view : the 
huge peaJu of the Galtees and Mount Brandon rise to the far south, 
more than sixty miles away. A pretty range of cliffs stand out against 
their belt of foam in Liscannor Bay ; behind us rise the great hills of 
Slieve Elva and Northern Burren ; the church and forts of Noughaval, 
down the slope, seem very near ; and Cahermacnaughten' lies about a 
mile to the north. 

Bavb. — On the north clifEs of Kilcomey two cromlechs lie among 
heathy tussocks in the townlands of Bavr, beside the steep road leading 

^ 7 .. 10 « %->%, 

Plan and Elevation of Cromlech, Baur South, 
to Glensleade. ]N'either of these are marked^ even on the new Survey. The 

* ** Dindsenchas" {lUvue Celtique), 189, p. 141. 

2 VerBo attributed to Art Aeinfer, Proc. B. I. A., 8 Ser., vol. ill., p. 536. 

3 Journal Jt.S.A.L, 1897, p. 120. 

* Unless a slight oblong at the wall be intended for the northern dolmen. 



one stands in the west boundary wall of Battb Korth and was once 
a noble specimen ; but its cracked blocks bear marks of fire.^ The top 
bas collapsed, and only the south side is fairly perfect, being 16 foet 
3 inches by 5 feet 10 inches. The upper edge was hammer-dressed. 
The cist tapers eastward from 9 feet to 5 feet 9 inches, and had 
low stones at the west ends, as at Tobergrania, &c. The other crom- 
lech lies in Baub Soitth, in the S. W. comer of the field marked 
12-543 on Sheet ix. 3 of the new Survey : it is a very perfect little cist, 
covered with a low mound. The dimensions are given in the plan. It 
is noteworthy for having an internal cist, 3 feet from the west end, 
and about a foot lower than the outer box. A somewhat similar arrange- 
ment existed in the huge cromlech of Derrymore, near O'Callagltan's 
Mills in this county, and other internal cists were found by Mr. Borlase 
at Tregaseal in Cornwall, where a layer of charcoal, human bones, and 
broken pottery lay on the ground, and little heaps of bones on the shelf. 
Several such cists occur in the dolmen of Karleby in Sweden, and con- 
tained crouching skeletons.* The Baur cromlech, however, has long been 
open and a shelter for goats. There were, at least, five defaced ccdrns 
along the edges of Baur and Foulnaskagh, and one near the end of that 
deep gully occupied by the old glebe of Kilcorney. They average about 
20 feet across, and are seldom more than 4 feet high. 

Cahkrliscolmakvaka lies in Poulnaskagh; its wall is levelled to 
within 2 feet of the field. The descent to the valley near this fort 
has three waterwom loaf-shaped rocks, about 8 feet high, across its 
pass. East of this, on the ridge near Caherconnell, are three very 
defaced cahers in Poulanine. Caheelisnaneoum, on the cliff edge, is of 
good masonry, and has long lintel blocks and a side enclosure ; its name 
(like that of Lisnaneoum" on the southern hill near the road to Noughaval) 
is said to have been derived from the ** drum " or long ridge on which 
the cahers stand. 

Eanty Valley (Ordnance Survey Map, Sheet ix., No. 4). 

From the ridge of Poulcaragharush, we look over a square valley. 
To our left lies the large fort of Caherconnell, to our right that of 
Cahergrillaun, and, far away to the north, shines the white cromlech of 
Cragballyconoal. The valley, with its north-eastern slopes, is mainly 
occupied by the four townlands of Eanty, Eantymore, Eanty beg North, and 
Eantybeg South, the Eanaghbeg of 1380. They seem, from the name, to 
have been the site of some important fair in early times, and retained the 

^ Seo ** Dolmens of Ireland/' vol. i., p. 74, for fires lit on cromlechs in Sligo on 
June 23rd, and in Spain on April 30th. <• 

' The interesting dolmen at Derrymore is not on the maps, and was only recently 
pointed out to me by Mrs. Gore of that place. For others, see ** Dolmens of 
Ireland,*' vol. ii., p. 442, and M. Du Chaillu's "Viking Age," vol. i., p. 75, and 
'^ Ancient Swedish Civilisation," by Dr. Montelius, p. 35, figures 35 and 36. 

3 A very sniall and featureless angular enclosure. 


older name, "Enogh," even in the Sooks of Petty's Surrey, 1655, in 
which we find ' " Enogh " as containing a number of aub-denoininatioDi. 
Among these we find the fort names, Lissanonamagh, Mober O'Loaghlin, 
DnuttliBeenysiyack (Drum LiBeeaiska), and Lisnagleyragb, one of the 
other divisions being Enoghhane. 

A. precipitous gorge cuts into the northern hill ; at its month is a 
■mall lake, while two forts stand one on either side. That to the west 
(l)is called from the 
pool Cahkhlisaitiski; 
that on the eastern 
bhifr(2) is called from 
some haunting spirit 
Neither calls for 
much notice ; they am 
small and oral, about 
87 by 50 feet, thf 
western being much 
gapped. A largir 

stone enclosure (3',., ■^^,.^^^,, ■ 7 J 

diamond - shaped iti 

plan, and (4) a sniiill Qatewaf of Li^nnuiima. 

oval fort, both greatly 

ga^iped, lie near the Carran road in Eantymore. Two more (5 and 6), 
one a fairly square fort, 110 feet across, the other oval, and both nearly 
levelled, lie east of the bohercen from Moheramoylon. Near these forts, 
in Eantybeg North, is a slight little ring-wall (7), called, like its neigh- 
bour, LiSAitAittUA. Its wails are only 5 feet high and thick, of thin 
slabs and poorly built. The gateway is perfect, and faces S.E., being 
5 feet 6 inches high, with inclined jiinibs, and from 3 feut !0 incheii to 
3 ftet 6 inches wide ; the lintel measures 6 feet 9 inchcB by 2 feet. 
The neighbouring farmers deny that any "spirit" has ever been seen 
in it ; so its name was possibly transferred from the lower fort. 

The Kidob abovk Olkvbleade (Sheet v., No. 16). 
CaASBALLTCONOAL. — We leave Ltsaniska, ascend the stony pastures, 
cross the bohereen from Caherconnell to Poulaphuca, and enter this 
townlnnd. Though it is in Oiightmoraa Parish, it so closely adjoins 
and is so nearly surrounded by the forta of Kilcomey, while so many 
miles of mouniaius, ncui'ly devoid of atitiquilics, Ue to the east, 
that we must describe its forts along with those of Ballymihil. It 
appears as part of Oughtmama in Potty's map of 1 686 ; but the name is 
not given. 

' '■ Book of Diatnbution," toI. ii., p. 68 (Clar 
UrdnanCB Surrey has •yBlanuticalt; omitted numbf 
namiji, in muij of which alone the older townland ni 


The ridge is about 700 feet above the sea. It slopes southward to 
Eantj, and falls westward in steep bluffs into Pou^orm. Eastward 
extends a bleak and featureless plateau to the valleys of Turlough and 
Eannagh. Nearly all the forts are small, oval, of light masonry, and 
nearly broken down to within 3 to 5 feet of the ground. 

An ancient disused road runs along the ridge in a nearly straight 
line, north and south, from Balljmihil cromlech to Lisananima : this 
forms the bounds of the parishes and townlands for most of its course. 
In Gragballyconoal, on the very bounds of Balljmihil, we find (1) a 
cromlech in a green mound; the top has been removed since 1862; the 
sides are about 6 feet high to the west ; the top edges have been hammer- 
dressed ; they slope towards the east, and, being coated with white lichen, 
form a conspicuous object across the valley.^ (2) A circular stone 
fort lies behind the Mackies' house, lately the scene of a night attack ; 
the southern segment has been destroyed, and the house built on its 

13-10 > 


II'.. lo" >m ^^ r' . '-^ ^ 

« - 


10'. i» 


s^ '^T^ 

» I I ■ ■ ^ \W 

The Southem and Korthem CronileehB, Cragballyconoal. 

site and with the material ; the rest is mostly about 8 feet high, and a 
soutcrrain forms an S-curve under the wall. This ''cave" is of the 
usual type, with side walls 8 feet apart, and roof slabs level with the 
ground. (8) Northwards lies a larger fort, D-shaped in plan, with the 
straight side to the south. It measures 120 feet internally, and contains 
a defaced circular cloghaun in the centre of the garth and measuring 
12 feet internally, and a straight souterrain, 8 feet wide, leading 
under the wall. The gateway faced S.S.E., and had three lintels, 7 feet 
8 inches, 7 feet 4 inches, and 9 feet long, and from 8 feet to 2 feet 
broad, and 9 inches thick ; one side-post still stands, but the width of the 
entrance cannot be accurately fixed. (4, 6, 6) Three nearly-levelled 
cahei-s lie a short distance to the east. This close grouping recalls 
the '< grianans and palaces" outside the royal dun, or the groups of 
** cahers, courts, and castles" seen by Ossian in Tir-na-nog.* (7) A 

^ The dimensions are fully given on the plan. 

2 ** Fenian Poems," Ossianio Society, iv., pp. 249 and 269. 


teoond cromlech lies in tlie remaint of a mound on a heathy moor. It it 
made of three rerj thin slabs, 3 inches thick, and scarcely 4 feet high ; 
the ends are removed ; the dimensions are given on the plan ; it slopes 
and narrows eastward. Near it, in Ballymihil, is a craggy field, set 
with upraised slabs, small stone 'Spiers," and heaps; a slab, rudely 
shaped like a cross, is set in one wall ; another rude cross, of greater 
size, lies southward down the slope. (8) Farther, to the N.E. of the 
cromlech, is a small circular caher, 59 feet internally. The gateway faces 
the south, and is 4 feet 6 inches wide, with two pillars on each side; the 
lintels have been removed, and the wall is only 4 feet thick and high. 
This fort commands, through a depression in the ridge, a striking view 
of the summit of Turlough Hill, rising to the N.E. in three terraces, and 
crowned with its conspicuous cairn — another instance of the sacrifice of 
a more commanding site to a more attractive or extensive view. 

Passing into Poulbatjit (9) we find a caher on a rising ground, with a 
fine outlook over Glensleade to the sea ; the Round Castle of Doonagore 
and the cliffs of Moher in the distance. The defaced gateway looks to 
the S.W., and is 4 feet 10 inches wide, with parallel sides of coursed 
QUisonry. The garth only contains a curved souterrain, 3 feet wide, 
lying to the N.E. On the crags below it, lies a heap of large slabs 
(10), most probably a fallen cromlech ; the top and largest slab meatiures 
12 feet from east to west, and is 8 feet wide. ' 

We now enter Ballymihil, and find a fallen cromlech (11) on tlie 
bluff overhanging Poulgorm ; the top is 1 1 feet 6 inches long, tapering 
eastward from 7 feet 7 inches to 6 feet, and 10 inches to 12 inches thick. 
The sides lie under it where they fell, and a rude dry-stone pier has been 
erected on the top to support a flag shaped like a round-headed cross, or 
rude human figure. We could learn nothing of its age or object ; but a 
somewhat similar, though smaller, slab lies in the cist at Coolnatullagh. 

Southward lies a straight-walled garth (12), only 3 feet or 4 feet 
high, CDclosing a curious rock ; still farther south is a ring-wall (13), 
quite levelled in parts, but with sections to the N.W. and S., still 9 feet 
to 1 1 feet high ; and, like Cahergrillaun, it shows smaller masonry on 
top from about 8 feet above the ground. Near it is a circular modem 
enclosure on the edge of the slope. In a valley far below the level of 
the plateau, but still in Ballymihil, a small ring- wall (14) lies on a 
projecting spur ; its wall is much gapped, and it only contains a modern 

PovLAPHrcA. — Following the bohereen eastward from the Mackies' 
bouse, we find, in a field at the highest point of Poulaphuca' townland, a 

^ it is aot« worthy that the '' pooka" on not a few becasioDB givee its name to sites 
where prehistoric remains occur. We find in Clare, besides this dolmen, another at 
Caherphuca, near Cruaheen. In Kerry we' find a Cloghaunaphuca, and even the 
pooka's footmark, amon^ the Fahan ruins. In Kilkenny ''The pooka's grave/' a 
dohnen. In Cork Camgaphacha, which Borlase savs is a pillar neaJr an enciittled. 
cromlech. In Queen's County the *' Dun of Clopoke. These show how videspnad 
this association of the '* pooka " with ancient remains. 


fine cromlech. It forms a cist of four blocks, with a massive top slab, 
10 feet hj 6 feet, and 10 incliee thick ; the interior is irregular, 8 feet 
9 inches long, and tapers slightly eastward (4 feet 4 inches to 4 feet 

linch). It stands 

in the remains of 

a cftim or monnd. 

A small oTor- 

thrown ciat, 3 ft. 

square, lies in a 

green mot:nd, 30 

Cromlech, Poulaphui!*, from N.W. feet north of the 

large dolmen. 

The site commands a very fine riew up the Turloiigh valley t to 

Belaclugga Creek, Galway Bay, and Corcomroe Abbey. Opposite lie 

the dark Slieve Cam and the finely terraced, cairn-topped mountain over 

Turlougli. Near rise the dark and steep cliffs of Cebuh, at the foot 

of which lies a large and fairly perfect caher, also in Foulaphuca. 

It is nearly circular ; much of the wall is standing to a height of from 6 to 

9 ft It seems to have traces of a terrace, but there are no other features. 

The old road drops from near the cromlech in steep curves to the 

pass from Aannagh to Turlough, one of the most beautiful glens of the 


Descending from Cragballyconoal westward, hy the very rough 
bohereen, we pass three forts in Poulgorm. One is a ring-wall of 
good masonry, over 9 feet thick ; the second lies a short distance to 
the north, and is a straight- walled enclosure ; the third is a small fort 
named Liehagaun. We then see before us a massive caher (which was 
seen first from Poulcaragharush) on the opposite ridge, though overhung 
by greater heights, between the valleys of Eanty and Eilcomey. 

Cabebcokitell (Sheet ix., No. 4) is a large und perfect fort, 140 feet 
to 143 feet in external diameter, nearly circular in plan, and girt by a 
wall with two faces and large filling ; it is 12 feet thick, and from 6 feet 

' This volley ii «a denuded of antiquitiea that, Uiou^ 1 hsve eiamined it, I muM 
entirelj omit it from tbii Pspvr. I also reierre the FinnevarT* group of fait* to & 
Uter occaiioD. 



50 FI 
1 — r -r 

Plan of Caherconnell. 

to 14 feet high, being most perfect towards the west. The masonry 
consists of fairly large blocks, many 3 feet long and 2 feet 6 inches high,, 
with spawls in the creyices, and 
a batter of 1 in 5. The inner 
face is nearly perfect, and had 
neither steps nor terraces. The 
gateway faced the east ; it was 
5 feet 8 inches wide, and had 
external side-posts. The garth is 
divided by a long wall running 
north-west and south-east ; at 
its northern end are two house- 
sites, one 30 feet long, and at its 
southern an enclosed hollow, pos- 
sibly a hut or souterrain. The 
names Caherconnell and Caher- 
maconnella (Cahermacnole) sug- 
gest the Ardconnell and Ard- 
micconnail of the *' Book of 
Rights," which appear with names 

of other places in this district.* Perhaps we may also connect it with 
the legendary Connal, son of Aenghus, of Dun Aenghus ; but, like most 
other early names and legends in Burren, the subject is too misty 
to justify any positive statement or even a strong theory, 

GLEVSLBAns (Sheet v., Nos. 15 & 16 ; Sheet iz., No. 4). 

PouLNABfioiv^B (Sheet iz., No. 4). — In a rocky field lying east of the 
main road is a beautiful cromlech {vide p. 378, plan, 376), noteworthj for 
the airy poise of its great top slab, which, contrary to the usual practice^ 
slopes towards the west. This measures 13 feet long, from 6 feet to 10 
feet wide, and a foot thick, and rests on three stones 5 to 7 feet high, 
the others having fallen. The structure forms a chamber, 9 feet 3 inches 
long, tapering eastwards from 4 feet 3 inches to 3 feet 9 inches inter- 
nally ; it stands in the remains of a mound, and is unaltered since 1862. 

Not far north from this cromlech there is a long grassy glen very 
suggestive of a river-bed, and running back into the plateau under the 
ridge of Cragballyconoal from near the grassy mound and fragments of 
wall which mark the O'Loughlin's castle in Glensleade. If we follow 
up this glen by a painful walk along very broken crags, full of avens, 
gentians, and long hartstongue ferns, we pass a well-built, small, and 
low ring wall, about 60 feet in diameter; it lies on the north crags, 
and the adjoining enclosures are all modem. We then come in sight of 

* See, howeyer, a note by Mr. P. Lynch, in the Journal U.S.A. I., 1892, p. 80. 

1/"'^ \:n;£=7 ^^^n j m 

Plan of Pouliuibrone Cromlech. 

Finn of CBbeicaihlttan. 


SouUmiii in CabercaBhluin. 



two lofty knolls, crowned with cliff forts, and forming a striking view 
as Been from the glen. 

CiHBHCA^HUDB (Sheet v., No. 16) in Poulnabrone is a natural tower 
of regularly stratified limestone rounded to the west, and falling in 
jagged clifts towards the north-east. Tliis rock rises 70 to 100 feet from 
the glen in even a bolder man than doe< Coshlann Oar,' The top is 
roughly oval, and is girt by a dry-stone wall, 4 to 5 feet thick, and at 
the most 6 feet high, most of it being nearly leTelled, and dinging to 
the very edge of the crags with needless care. The garth measures 
internally 152 feet east and west, and 75 feet north and smith; and 

Cliff Foil of CiUit'ivBsbluuii, from the norlb. 

contains a sonterraiii 80 feet from the wi^st. This cave is formed out uf 
a cleft about 7 feet deep, 27 feet long, and 4 to 6 feet wide; five long roof- 
slabs remain over the middle. The gap of the ruined eastern gateway 
leads down into a second and lower enclosure,' surrounded by a coarsely 
built wall of much larger blocks than the upper fort, many being 5 and 
6 feet long ; iu parts the wall is 5 and 6 feet high. The enclosure ia 
70 feet deep, making the entire length of tlic fort 240 feet from east to 

' Our Journal, 1896, p. 152. Such locks are sometimea called '' doonaun" bj tlie 

* TbesB outworica occurred in ancient Gaulish forts : for example, the drr-itona 
ramput made by order of VeroiDgelorix, on tbe bill slope of Alesia. " macenuo tr 
in altit.iiilinBiii pedum pieduxerant '' (" De Bello Gallivo." Til., c. 69), uid tbe great 
fort of the Beurray, near Aiilun ("The Mount and C'ily of Autun," HainertDD,p. S4). 


vest. The entnuice wm through a regular deft, sloping upwards 
through the crog-ledgo ; it wai about 4 feet wide, and roofed by lintels, 
now fallen ; it must have resembled the cleft under CBraan cliff fort.' 
This second wall was intended to protect the only easy ascent, and 
D'semhles one I recently found hidden in hazel scrub on the north slope 
of the knoll of the similar, though more massive, Cashlaun Oar. 

PonLOOBU Curr Fost. — On the opposite cliff overlooking, and about 
300 feet to the S.W. of Cahercashlaun, is a rude ring-wall 60 feet 
across ; it has a side enclosure, and has been much rebuilt, and used as a 

Ci&KRKAinnBLA. — This fort, and the large enclosure near it, seem 
also to be colled Cahemanebwee. It is a ring of good masonry, 50 feet 

internally, S feet thick, and at most 6 feet high. The nearly levelled 
gateway faced 8.8, E., and is 3 feet 4 inches wide; the sides are 
parallel, made of lar^e blocks running the whole depth of the wall. The 
mossy garth only contains a but- foundation near the gateway. The site 
is overlooked by a ridge scarcely 50 feet away, and slopes abruptly to 
the east and south. There is a side enclosure to the S.W. at a tower 
level, but joining the caber wall. 

EnciinsirBE. — About 300 feet to the N.W., on the summit of the 
ridge, is an old enclosure. It is a most disappointing object, seeming to 
bo high and largo and imposing, especially as seen from Cuheranardnrrieh. 
' Jaumol, S.S.A.I., ISVB, illuitntion facing p. 364. 


It is actually a rough wall, 3 feet tbick and 7 feet Ugh, enclosing an 
irregular space 110 feet across. There are no foundations in the garth, 
and it was probably a mediesval bawn. 

Going westward by a difficult way across waterwom and loose crags 
(full of fossil corals) and a level-floored depreeeion, we ascend the 
opposite ridge, and find two other cahers. 

Caheraitabdu&eish (Sheet v.. No. 15). — The eastern fort of the 
name (the other lies on the crest of the hill-road behind Rathborney 
Church) stands on a knoll above the deep basin-like hollow of Glensleade, 
some distance to the N.W. of the castle. Though surrounded by crags, 
there is abuudance of coarse rich grass both in and around its wall. The 

Gutevra)', CsboraunlmTish Fort. 

name is taken from the gateway which faces E.S.E., and is very perfect; 
it has sloping jambs, and is from 4 feet 10 inches to 4 feet 7 inches wide, 
and only S feet 3 inches high. As there is very little fallen rubbish, it 
suggests either that "Fort of the high door" is an archaic sarcasm, or 
that high doors were rare in ancient Burren. The gateway has three 
lintels ; the middle has slippt'd, and the outer measures 8 feet 2 inches 
Ijy 1 foot 6 inches by 9 inches ; it has two long slabs above it to spread 
the weight of the upper wall. The fort is o vol, from 110 feet to 116 feot 
internally ; the wall 7 or 8 feet thick, and 5 fuct to 8 feet high, of good 
loDg-etoned masonry. 

In the centre of the garth used to be a heap of stones suggestive of a 


fallen clochan. This is now cleared away, and only a small cist remains, 
3 feet wide, and at least 9 feet long, with a partition of slabs in the 
middle. This may have been one of those strange little slab enclosures 
to be seen in the floors of several Irish and Welsh forts and Scotch 
brochs. The filling of the wall has been much dug up by seekers after 
imaginary treasures, or more practicable nibbits. Unfortunately such 
gold dreamers abound ; all agree that nothing but a few coins of the 
** cross silver" have ever been found (and that very rarely) ; but these 
discouraging *' modem instances " never save our venerable buildings 
from these foolish and destructive attempts to discover fairy gold. Even 
in the last three years the right jamb of the gateway of this caher has 
been tampered with, and the pier is in considerable jeopardy. 

On the south slope of the knoll is a very small circular fort 47 feet 
internally, with walls 5 feet thick, and barely 3 feet or 4 feet high ; the 
gateway faced the south. A well-built bawn, lined on the inside with 
upturned slabs, runs down the slope near this little ring-wall. 

Hathborket Group (Sheet v., Nos. 7, 11, 12). 

Fart of this parish extends up to the central plateau ; therefore we 
must briefly note its forts and cromlechs. 

Gabbacloon has two old enclosures, fairly built, but much broken. A 
third, farther eastward, somewhat D- shaped in plon, bears the townland's 
name. Lisooogan, the leppasuasam of the 1390 rental, contains a 
square caher about 100 feet across with traces of an irregular, somewhat 
circular outer ring, 260 feet in diameter, to the west of the main road. 
The survey of 1655 names two cahers,' EaheriskeboheU and Eaherbally- 
ungane, or Kaherballyvanghane, lying between Lisgoog^n and Caher- 
wooly (Gaherodouloughta, near Cahermacnaughten), these I cannot 
localise unless they be the forts at Doonyvardan. Bsbkeens is a long, 
straggling townland. It bus a cromlech at its western end on the 
summit of the hill, and another on the hillside near the Gleninshen 
group, described below: a very dilapidated little ring-wall, less than 
50 feet in diameter, on its southern edge is called Cahebbervekn. Glek- 
iNSHEN, a bare craggy upland, with no trace of the ash trees which gave 
it its name, has the remains of a small well-built circular caher in the 
fields close to Caheranardurrish. There are five other forts : two circular, 
two rudely square in plan, the southern being Gleninshen caher; the 
fifth, much rebuilt for a sheep-fold, lies near the southern cromlech. 
In the western portion, close to the main road, are two cromlechs ; the first 
is nearly perfect, and has been described and figured by Mr. W. Eorlase 
under the name of Bemeens.' His description is, as usual, very 

1 *< Book of Distribution and Survey, Co. Clare," toI. i., p. 474. 

3 •< Dolmens of Ireland,'' toI. i., p. 66. The Gleninshen dolmen was not marked 
on the 1839 map, so I in ^.S.A.I. Journal, 1894, identified it as the Bemeen 
Cromlech, and was followed by Mr. Borlase. 


acenrate. '^ This dolmen lies E.N.B. and W.S. W. The roofing stone 

measures 10 feet 11 inches long, and 7 feet 6 inches hroad. The sides 

are respectiTely, 11 feet 5 inches and 11 feet loDg." It tapers from 

4 feet 5 inches to 3 feet 2 inches, and was surrounded hj a small caim» 

The initials '' J. O'D." are cut on one of its slahs, hut we can scarcely 

attribute them to our great Irish scholar, though he and Eugene 

O'Curry carefully examined the district. Of the second only the ends 

•and south side rise above the avens and cranesbiUs. The side measures 

13 feet 6 inches by 4 feet 3 inches by 10 inches ; the ends show that the cist 

tapered eastward from 5 feet 2 inches to 4 feet 4 inches : it was perfect 

in 1862. A third cromlech lies N.N.E. from, and in line with the two 

last up the slope of the hill in Bemeens. Its south side has collapsed 

since 1862; it is otherwise fairly complete. A more desolate region 

than exists to the east of these remains is hard to imagine. ** Silenee 

broods oyer the dead grey land " ; and the absence of all antiquities show 

that its loneliness is of no modem growth. The lines of habitation and 

trai&c across these uplands seem always to have been the same, namely 

from Belaclugga to Turlough and Tullyoommane, from Olensleade to 

Lemeneagh, and from Cahermacnaughten to Ballykinrarga, all three 

meeting the road from EHfenora, which ran eastward to the *' Bohema- 

micrigh," '< the stone road," which led to the ford of Corofin, the pass to 

central Thomond. 

Eastbbk Vallets (Sheet vi.). 

Very few prehistoric remains of interest lie east of the central plateau. 
The caher of Turlouoet, '' uamainn na Uuplai^e,'' has been destroyed 
since before 1839. There are several noteworthy cairns. GABiVBOwxa on 
top of, and giving its name to Slieve Carran, stands 1075 feet above the 
sea and is of considerable size. Two others are nameless, and stand on 
Turlough and Knockycallanan mountain ; one is on the summit,^ 945 feet 
above the sea. We have already noted Cappaghkennedy cairn,* with its 
fine neighbouring cromlech. Not far behind the darkly picturesque glen, 
bearing the unmelodious name of Clab (*' clob " as pronounced), on top 
of Gortaclare Hill (907 feet) is a spot called Cr$gana<ma%gh^ the site of 
some ancient ** fair " marked by several small circles of stones. Mr. 
Borlase states that there was a tradition of a battle fought on the hill 
top.' But I could get no definite information about the site. 

Bakkagh East and CooLNATULLAaH have three small cromlechs. The 
former townland contains two of these. One has fallen ; it lay in a field 
below the highest turn of the Castletown-road, and is not marked on 
the new maps. It was a cist, 4 feet 6 inches wide at the west end, 
and 6 feet 3 inches long internally ; it seems to have tapered to 3 feet 
6 inches, and the south side was 8 feet 6 inches long. 

> See iUostration of Poulaphuoa cromlech, tupra^ p. 374. 

* JourfMlf 1896, p. 364 ; Borlase's *' Dolmens of Ireland," toI. i., p. 73. 

' ** Dolmens of Ireland," p. 809. 



Cromlaoh, CootnatnlUgfa, fiom K.E. 

The perfect cromlech lies further to the north-east beyond a low 

rooky Talley. It is a small cist, nearly buried in the giound. The north 

and south slabs (respecti' 

vely 9 feet and 9 feet 9 

inches long) support an 

- irregalar top block. The 

- chamber tapers from 3 feet 
^ 3 inches to 2 feet 3 inches. 

. * Coolnatullagb cist was 
recently found by Dr. G. 
Macnamara; it lies half 
a mile east of the " kill," or old burial-place of Eilnatullugh, near 
the comer of a regular oblong plateau overlooking the valley from 
Coskeam to Castletown. It is a small cist of thin slabs ; in it stands a 
curious little stone, shaped like a rough cross. There are remains of a 
grass-grown cairn in this tovnland, perhaps the " tullagh " which gave 
it its name. A caher stood on the hill of Cobkeah ; but it appears to be 
nearly levelled. The peaks of this hill are called Doonmore and Duoubeg. 
To sum up, the few forts in the valleys from Turlough and Sladdoo to 
a and Qlencolumbcille are sm^ll, and defaced past all deM^riptloD. 

a;- 6., 9' 

„- U - 7.. 6 . 

Flan of CoolnatullBgli Cromlech. 

This Paper being confined to the third section of the district (the 
eastern and central ridges of Burren), leaves the forts of Ballyraughau and 
Lisdoouvama for another occasion. The interesting character of the 
hitherto undescribed uplands about Carran and the damage done t« their 
autiquities in the last twenty years rendered it necessary to secure as far 
possible a permanent record of " the waste dwellings and desolations of 
many generations " for future scholars who may hereafter find so much 


to censore in the apathy and destructiYeness of the vast majority of the 
present occupants of ancient Barren.^ 


FoKTS IN Clake. — The total numher is about 2300. Of these oTcr 
300 are in Burren, and about 200 each in Corcomroe and Inchiquin. 

CashlavnGar {Journal, E.S.A.L, 1896, p. 152). — I have since found 
the foundations of an outer enclosure of massiye blocks, often 5 to 7 feet 
long, overgrown with hazel bushes, on the northern flank of the knoll. 

Cahb&coickane {Ibid., p. 156). — The **Book of Distribution" (1655), 
p. 520, mentions Tully common, ''whose meares cannot be shown." 
Gleacrane (Glencurraun),Leahesse (Lisheen), Slewbegg,Lisheenageeragh, 
Dullisheen, Cahercomaine, alias Lysidlyane, stony pasture. Crecvagh is 
described as covered with dwarf wood (p. 442). 

TsESKAOH {Ibid., p. 365). — There is a large cairn in the deep gorge 
near the waterfall of the '' Seven streams." 

Cahebmobe GLENamN {Ibid., p. 365), '* Caherwoughtereen or Caher- 
ougherlinny " (einny ?) in *' Book of Distribution," p. 512. 

MuLLACH {Ibid,, p. 367). — "The defaced sets of steps " are more 
likely recesses for ladders. 

Cahkbhobe Eouohan {ibid,, p. 367). — Some remains, apparently of a 
gateway, facing the east, and 3 feet wide, exist in a brake of bramble. 
Mr. George Fitz Gerald, some years ago, found a cist of four stones and a 
top slab to the S.E. in the adjoining field. The remains of two skeletons, 
laid with the legs to the east, were found, and replaced under the belief 
that the cist was a Christian burial-place. The top slab is visible, and 
being only 5 feet 4 inches by 3 feet 3 inches, suggests that the bodies 
were not in an extended position. 

Cahebcuttink {Ibid,, 1 897, pp. 117, 11 8).— Two flights of five and four 
steps remain nearly hidden by grass and weeds to the E.S.E and N.W. 
by N. They are similar to the third southern flight, and lead upwards 
from the plinth or narrow platform. The fort name appears as Cahir- 
gotten or Cahimegotten in the Patent of Donough, Earl of Thomond, 

^ In Carron about 67 forts and 8 cromlechs remain. In Kilcorney about 28 forta and 
4 cromlechs. On Rath homey horder, 11 forta and 4 cromlechs. Craghallyconoal 
and Poulaphuca, 11 forts and 4 cromlechs. Parknahinnia and Glasgeimagh, 17 forts 
and 16 cromlechs — in all about 134 forts and 36 cromlechs, 5 gallans, and uncounted 
cairns. The ** Dolmens of Ireland " having omitted to give plans and descriptions of 
ao many of the cromlechs in this district, I have felt it to be all the more necessary to 
supply the omission. 

JOL'U. R.8.A.I., TOL. XX., PT. IV., 6tU BIB. 2 £ 


B^ixTKiSTiLBeA {lUd.^ p. 123). — ^The walls have several iqnigbt 
joints. The old name seems to have been ''Caher Loglin" in eait 
Ballykenuarga^ ''Book of DistribntioD," p. 189. Another fort in the 
western division (now apparently incorporated with Caherminane) was 
Gaheryline, perhaps that described in oar Journal, {Ihid., p. 125.) 

PAKXKABDnfiA (i3»J., 1898, p. 357, line 15), for "17 feet 10 inches," 
read '' 14 feet 10 inches." 

(Ihfd.^ p. 355, note 8, for "Slieve cam," read " Turlongh cairn." 

MoHERAMOTLAV {Ihtd.^ p. 365), for " An oval caher," read " A de&eed 
caher, possibly the Moher O'Longhlin in Eantj (1655)." 

One of the forts at the top of the map in same volume at p. 352 is 
wrongly named " Caherahoon." 

( 385 ) 



[Comman'm'>!d Octjubb 31, 18M.] 

lU ooXE Abkkt lies a^'vea miles tn the east of Atfay, ia the county 
^'- EildBre; the ancient form of the name was " Haem Choluim 
Chille," meaning, according to O'Bonovan, St. Columhkill'a property. 

The ruins here are architocturally uninteresting ; but whet makes 
the place famous ia the standing acnlpturcd High Croaa, which, in 
^in imperfect atato, ii illustrated in O'Neill's " Sculptured Crosses of 
Inland" (Plates 17 and 18). 

Hdal CroM at Uood«. 

Since the County Kildare ArchBological Society caused the missing 
portion of the shaft to bo inserted in 1893, the cross is one of the most 
perfect in Ireland, the roof-like capping-stone alone being wanting. 

Lying in three fragments near tlie High Cross are portions of 
another; these fragments consist of one arm, and parts of the shaft. 
They belonged to a ringed cross, closely resembling in sculpture, the 


Higli CroH, though of mnclk eligliter dimenBions, for iaaUaee. tin- 
lattor U about 12 inches thick at the ehoft, and tUa fnkgmantary one 
only 6 inches. 

These fragments have been lying in tJjeir preamt pwtioB for many 
years ; they were, I believe, discovered when a grave was being dug. 
Thi'y ore covered with strange s] mboUc unimal labjects ; an anima] in 
one panel (the one apparently grazing with ita tail ov«r ita bftck) being 
identically the eame as is carved on a panel of the B^ Crosa ; othtT 
pnnela contun " sea-horse-liVe " creatures with their tails inter-rolled. 

It was not until about the year 1897, when assisting Visa Hurgaiit 
Btokes in taking rnbbings and the meosuremeote of the two croasef, 
that I discovered a very enrions feature in the fragment of this one, 
that was that the erose-head when entire had a large perforation throng 
the centre of it, around which perforation on one aide three or four 
Bnakes or serpentti were originally coiled (as is shown in the accompany- 
ing illnstretion on page 3SS). 

Aa I do not know of another instance id a acnlptured cross being 
"holed" through the head in this manner, I believe this Uoone cross to 
be unique. 

ViseStokea in the last number of the "Journal of the County Eildaie 
Archieologieal Society " (No. 1, vol. iii., page 33), haa written a very 



interesting Paper on these fragments, in which she says that this is 
** one of the most striking examples of the combination of pagan forms 
with Christian that has been found in Ireland." 

It has been suggested to me that, taking into consideration the 
guarding of the central opening by serpents, and the possible repre- 
sentations on the various panels of *' Bulls ' with Human Faces," of 
"Boars Fighting," of " Deer and Fawn," of a " Flying Dragon," and 
of '' Bacchus on a Panther," with the interroUing of fish under the 
form of Hippocampi, it is not improbable that this cross is a remnant of 
some local paganism of a type not obscurely alluded to by Miss Stokes, 
in her Paper just quoted, in connexion with Phallic worship. 

A cross inscribed on a monumental stone in St. Andrew's church- 
yard in the Isle of Man is apparently of the same pattern as the one 
here described. On the inscribed cross there are no quadrants : the 
centre is represented as holed. On the long arm there is the outline of 
a Serpent with interlaced coils. The Serpent's head is in the form of a 
cross with short arms, and looking upwards towards the holed centre. 
On the head is inscribed a sauvaatika (vide Paper by Canon ffrench, in 
volume yiii., 4th Ser., of this Journal^ p. 488). 




[Submitted NoTBUBEii 28, 1899.] 

"^^T first yisit to the Drumlogban chamber, with its ten Ogam-inscribed 
stones, took place on August 10, 1883, when I hurriedly copied 
the inscriptions, so far as I could see or reach them. Last year Mrs. Rliy» 
and I went on August 25 to meet there, by appointment, Sir Thomaa 
Deane, and we examined the stones so far as we could ; but as no stone 
was uncovered, our readings remained of necessity imperfect. This year 
we agreed with Mr. Cochrane to meet there on August 8, and to have a 
fuller examination made. With the assistance of the gentleman who haa 
recently purchased the farm to which the chamber belongs, the inscribed 
ends of the stones were exposed by removing the earth which covered 
them, so we were enabled to trace the whole of the reading left on 
them ; for it is needless to say that about one-half of them have their 
upper ends damaged or broken off. By their upper ends I mean tfiose 
ends which were uppermost when the stones stood in the burial-place 
whence they were stolen to form supports and roofing slabs in the 
chamber where they are now. Mr. Brash's visit took place on September 
19, 1867 ; and he must have had the stones exposed to view, but to what 
extent he had them shifted he does not say. Furthermore, I do not 
know how often they have been exposed or shifted in the interval 
between 1867 and 1898. It will be seen, however, as one goes on with 
the examination of the inscriptions, that certain questions are found to 
attach to these points ; but I leave them to be discussed by Mr. Cochrane 
in his account of the site ; and I proceed to mention the stones in the 
order in which Mr. Brash gives them. See his '* Ogam-inscribed Monu- 
ments of the Gaedhil," pp. 272-8, and plate xxxvi. 

No, 1. This inscription was read by Mr. Brash as Manu Magu Nogati 
Moce Mac Arb; and I read it in 1883, Manumagunogatigah » 

Macorhi, which was also my reading in 1898. But this time, after having^ 
the end of the stone cleared of the earth covering it, one was able to fill 
the lacuna ; and the whole runs thus : — 

/' 1 1 1 1 1 ■"/'//'" 1 1 1 1 1 "// 7 •' V' 'V////!'" * 


To begin at the end ; the % of Macorhi cannot be traced with certainty, 
as the edge is at that point somewhat damaged and uneven ; the name 


Maeorhi occurs in several otber inscriptioDs, but, unfortunately, not once- 
with the case vowel perfect. On the other hand, Corhi and Corhhi occur 
perfect, so that there is hardly room for doubt as to the i of Maeorhi. At 
first sight the /-m^ {mo) looks like 7^-*- (ja) ; but on closer inspection 
one finds the second score deepened at the edge into a vowel-notch, which 
is not in a line with that score. Add to this that the latter is also not 
parallel with the first long- score, and that Brash gives no hint as to the 
existence of the second long score. Can it be the result of accident since 
the time when he copied the Ogam ? In this inscription the m's and y's 
are nearly perpendicular to the edge, while the t and the c's slope in the 
same direction as the r ; and so does the h decidedly. The first e begins 
so near the top of the stone that its first score crosses the comer to the- 
plane on which the remaining three scores lie on the top. 

The difficulties of the reading are inconsiderable : not 80 those of the 
language ; and the first question is, how Manumagunogati is to be 
analysed. In trying to answer this, I am forced to give more than one 
conjecture, but not without a hope that others may help me to the 
interpretation to be preferred. Guided by the usual analogy of Celtic 
proper names, I should first try Manumagu Nogati. In that case 
Manumagu might be treated as beginning with manu, regarded either as 
borrowed from the Latin manus, ** hand," or inherited in common by 
Latin and Goidelic. In Cormac's *' Glossary," man is given as a word 
for handj and as making mane in the genitive, like such feminines a» 
muecy *' a swine," genitive muteee, and deugy ** drink" genitive dige. 
Then as to magu, we seem to have in this the Goidelic magus, whence 
Irish had mug, " a slave or servant," genitive moga of the CT-deiclension : 
see Stokes's ''Urkeltischer Sprachschatz," p. 198, where he brings 
together the Gaulish Magu-Tix and Magonius, given as one of St. Patrick's 
names, and reduced in Welsh to Maun. Compare also the Welsh meu- 
dwy, ** a hermit," for an eailier mague devi, literally ^ervue Lei, or Cile 
De, "a Culdee." Here, however, the sense of servant or slave is 
perhaps only a sense superinduced on a word meaning boy or young 
man : compare page from iratStbv. So we are not compelled to suppose 
Manu-magu to have meant a slave or servant in manu, but rather a 
handy young man, a stripling who is ingenious or powerful with hia 
hands. This would seem to require us to suppose Nogati, another name 
or surname ; but I know of no such : the nearest approach is Nocati on 
a stone found in the parish of Knockane in Kerry, and now to be seen 
in the l^ational Museum in Dublin : provided Nocati was meant to be 
pronounced Nochati, the spelling Nogati may be regarded as not im- 
possible. Then comes the question of the syntactical relation between 
Manumagu and Nogati, Now as moeoi is a genitive, so must also be 
Nogatiy and Manumagu might be expected to be likewise ; but a genitive 
in If of the ITldeclension is rather unusual. If, however, Manumagu and 
Nogati represent one and the same man, the genitive is not obligatory : 


it might suffice that the name stand in what' is ealled the crude £oniu 
There are instances of the kind, but one cannot convert their Analogy 
into a' positive argument or dismiss all doubt as to the reality of a name 
Nogati, So I would try another aiuilysis, namely, into ManvmngwM 
Qatiy and treat maguno as a derivative from magu-s^ and synonyiuouB 
with it. Further, it might be the same word as St. Patrick's name 
Maganus ; for that is not always written Magonius, as will be seen on 
consulting Stokes's '* Patrick," p. 302, where Tirechan explains J/^Mtttf 
as meaning elarus. On etymological grounds the correctness of that 
interpretation may be doubted ; but the statement may be worth. men<' 
tioning, that the name was given St. Patidck by .Germanus. This leada 
us back to Gaul, where there was in the fime of the Roman domination 
a god Apollo Oranntu Mogounus: the inscription comes from Haut-Rhin : 
see Brambach, JS'o. 1915. It has already been hinted that MagunO, geui- 
tive of JUagunU'S may have had the signification of boy or stripling ; and 
one may hero mention such designations of another Apollo as I>ew Bamu 
JPuer Posphorus Jpollo Pgihtus and Bonus Pu&r Pospkorus or Bonus Bsus 
Puer Fosphorus : see the i)erlin ^* Corpus Insciip./' vol. iii., Nos. 1130, 
1132, 1133, 1136, 1137, 1138. I may be told that P{k)osphorus, " light 
bringing," might be construed as countenancing Tirechdn's tf^rtM ; bu4 
where is there a woi*d mag' or mog- referring to light ? The other name 
Gati might be referred to the Irish woi*d gat, Isier.gad, "a withy or 
ozier," from a stem gatdo, whence also the German gsrts, *' a twig, rod, 
staff." Our Gati might be the genitive of Gata-s or of a derivative Gatifis ; 
and as evidence of the existence of some such a form may be adduced 
the diminutive Gatigni or Gattagn-i, which occurs in another inscription 
found in the same county of Waterford, namely, at a place called 
Windgup. Perhaps this is, on the whole, the more passable hypo- 
thesis; but others may try others, such as treating the initial ma aa 
•equivalent to mo, ''my," or dividing the line into Mmuma Gfunogatii 
but I must confess that neither seems to me promising. It is clearly a 
case where it would be safe to have the opinions of more than one man. 
' No. 2. This was read as follows by Mr. Brash : — 



When he saw the stone exposed, he found the writing on the upper 
fudges which had previously been covered with earth ; and that earth 
appears to have been replaced without having the stone turned or 
making the Ogams visible from the inside of the chamber. At all eventa 
1 came away in 1 883 without a word about this inscription in my notes : 
that may be merely an accident of my carelessness, but I am inclined to 
believe that it is since then the stone was turned ; for in 1898 most of. 
the Ogams were conspicuous enough to anyone looking for them inside. 


and we reud what we could sec, all on the lower edges of the stone, as 
follows : — 




When last summer we had the inscrihed end exposed we were able 
to read more as follows : — 


gu I 

.^'llllm i i/mlUM! nih, ill 111' ''ill I II 


The first e slopes backwards ; otherwise the scoring is regular and clear 
until you come to the two top comers. The one on the left hand has 
been damaged since the Ogam was cut. The consonant near the corner 
is Cy not qUf I think : there is, it is true, a depression beyond the fourth 
score, but there is no cutting so far as I could ascertain by feeling it 
with my fingers, for one could not see quite so far. The vowel a is not 
certain , as the possible notch there might be the beginning of a group ; 
but I should guess that it .was not so, partly because one would be 
then getting rather too near the 9 of Zt'tos. Partly, also, because 
we know that the case ending should be a«, liable to be reduced to a : 
we have elsewhere the genitives UrcaviecM and RittacvecM with this 
element vie or vec in the second place. The other, the right-hand comer, 
was damaged by natural causes before the Ogam was cut, so when the 
inscriber had written Lito he found he had to finish by cutting s on the 
top of the stone, for at the exact spot where ho would have naturally 
begun it, close to the comer, he found a somewhat deep chink or split : 
he had therefore to cut the scores beyond it, so that the o and the s are 
separated by more than the usual distance. 

Now as to the names I have no explanation to offer of ealuno^ but as 
to vie-aiB) it is possibly the word represented in Irish hj/ich, "battle 
or fight." Then we come to ZitoSy which seems to be a simplified name 
founded on Celtic compounds, like Litu-maray Litu-gena^ and kindred 
forms in which litu is supposed to be the word which, in Irish, is lith^ *' a 
festival or fete." In Welsh the word liti occurs in a compound Utimaur 
glossing the JjoiiDrfrequeiM ; and it occurs in the " Book of Llan Dav," 
p. 120, twice in the form lytUy meaning a body of dependents. But to 
return to the Irish lithy the same would be also the Irish form of the 
nominative corresponding to LitoSy namely, Lith, I have only been able 
to find a single instance of it ; and one can easily imagine how a rare 
name Lith may have been edited away into the better known common 
noun lithy as is the case partly with the instance I allude to. It oecurs 


in the ** Martyrology of Gorman, May 17," where we have Lith ingm 
§lan Garhan — " Lith, Oarbdn's pure daughter." But Stokes, in a note, 
p. 404, suggests that it should be corrected into Ztth ingen nglan nGar- 
hatny and translated "the festival of Garban's pure daughters." This 
conjecture is introduced by a reference to the " Martyrology of Tallaght," 
which he gives as having Ingma Garhatn, " the daughters of Garbain." 
With great diffidence, however, I should argue in the contrary direction, 
and regard Gorman's verse as representing the more ancient version ; and 
to corroborate this view, I would mention that the " Martyrology of 
Donegal," as published, has simply Inghen Garhham, ** the daughter of 
Garbhain." Here also it will be seen, that the rare proper name seemfr 
to have created a difficulty; it was therefore dropped, but without 
making ** daughter" into "daughters." Should this conjecture recom- 
mend itself. I should rejoice to have unearthed an aDcestress to place by 
the side of of CoTca-Duthhne or Corcaguiny. The inscription 
consists of two lines, but the one on the left is probably to be taken first, 
and the rendering of the whole would be — (Monumentum) Calunovici& 
filii Generis Litus, ** (the monument) of Calunovix, son of the Kin of 
Litus or Lith." 

!No. 3. This stone was read thus by Mr. Brash : — On the left-hand 

..;,,, Ill, II 

I ill! 

and on the right 




/ Mill 

XA a I K 

• r I 1 L. 
< I i I I 

"With regard to the former I cannot help thinking that he has made- 
a triple mistake : he has changed the place of the edges; he has 
put the consonants on the wroog side of the edge, and he has read them 
upward^, instead of downwards, in continuation of the other edge. The 
two first mistakes were the result of his having to lie on his back ta 
copy : I have found myself committing the same blunder more than once. 
As to the third mistake, one would naturally read both lines in the same 
direction, unless one had the philological knowledge necessary to prevent 
one's doing so in a particular instance. That knowledge Mr. Brash did 
not possess ; and I say this without in tlie least wishing to disparage the 
gi'eat importance of the work which he had the courage to accomplish,. 

My reading of what I could see in 1883 was Maquiini uw ; and 

the same in 1898. Last summer, however, when the stone was exposed,, 
we read thus : — 

. , M I t ' ' I I. I J i-J 1 1 I I I ( 1 I 

7^ I • I Ti I I I I I I I I |l'''iM| • a • • • I I I 1 I I I I I 


T 1 

That is, Jfaqui Inis tfeas. With the exception that Brash has- 


dropped an i in the manipulation of his notes, the scores and notches 
which he and I fixed on as the right reading will he seen to he the same 
till we approach the hroken end of the stone. After his last t there 
are certainly two scores which would make I were it not that the stone 
hreaks off apparently in the midst of a groap. I suggest i rather than v 
or n, simply because the genitiye Inmiofuu occurs elsewhere, and would, 
Bo far as one can see, fit here, as nobody knows how much of the stone 
has been broken off. Then as to the other corner Brash reads -i-il^ (a<Q, 

where I prefer to think that there is a -^ {t) ; but in this I have probably 
been influenced by having jumped to the conclusion that the last word 
on the stone was fnatteas, the genitive of mat its ^ *' good," which becomes 
in later Irish maith^ for which Welsh has had mat, now mad, ** good." 
Mattias occurs elsewhere on one of the Koovesmore stones in the British 
Museum, and uu and eat are alternative spellings of what was probably 
pronounced jiM in the genitive of words of the /-declension. With regard 
to the reading I had till last summer thought that it was •!«, but I am 
now inclined to think that Brash was right in reading e rather than »'. 
Lastly, matteas may stand here as the latter part of a compound, or else 
as a separate word ; but if Inissionas was the name meant and mattsas 
followed directly, we should have Maqui InmionM Matteoiy '^ (The monu- 
ment) of the son of Inissiu the Good," unless one should rather treat 
iiiaqui Inissumoi as the name of the man commemorated : it would then 
be *^ (the Monument) of Maclnissen the Good." 

No. 4. This was read by Mr. Brash as follows : — 




But here the middle line should have been read in continuation of the 
first, and Brash's scoring would make slareeliave. In 1883 I could not 
get at the first line at all, and the rest I read — 

G G 


In this, I find, I put the scores for the consonants in seli on the wrong 
^ide, and in the case of one d, Mr. Brash had done "he same : I have 
:already suggested the explanation. In 1898 we could read the three lines 
except the end of the first, and except that the position was very awkward 
for scrutinizing the writing. What we then made out was — 








Last sammer, however, the light of day being let in, we were enabled 
to read the whole with more certainty as follows : — 




/.mil,,, 1,1111 


i l l! 



M II nr///// 



, /////nil.. ..11 


1 I I 

* « ; ■ ' I i I I I I t I I I I I I t t I I I 




V E 

I I I r I — I 
I A 

That is, Cunaleffea Maqui C . , . na Lareedi Ave Qveeia ; but I fear 
I hare hopelessly failed to indicate that the edge or ridge ^ is on a dif- 
ferent level from the edges a and h : I should also explain that the Ogam 
in winding its way from b to e follows a little broken ridge which con- 
nects them. In most of the scores onr reading, it will be seen, agrees 
with that of Mr. Brash. Kow with regard to the broken end of edg(* a, 
we hare there four scores which would make c ; but as the stone breaks 
suddenly off, the original group may have consisted of five, which would 
make qu ; and this raises the question as to the dimensions of the break- 
age. Judging from the ordinary length of our Ogam inscriptions, and 
considering that what we have here is longer than the average, I should 
be disposed to think that only a portion of the proper name is missing. 
We might in that case consider that it was a name beginning with C or 
Qm, and ending its genitive with na or sa, A,8 to the latter, Mr. Brash 
found a consonant of four scores intact, and I read the same in 1898 and 
the last time ; there is, however, nothing to show that the four did not 
belong to an original group of five, that is n, and I give it the preference, 
as genitives in n-a^s) are more common in Ogam inscriptions than in 
8-a{s) ; and the chances as to the initial c are greatly against qu. So I 
would suggest some such a name as Cunacena or Cunacenna as exactly 
satisfying the case. The next word Lareedi I take to be an epithet, of 
which more anon. Then we come to ave^ where one would have expected 
the genitive avi, but we fail to read more than four notches, which was 
also Mr. Brash's reading. I can only suppose the inscriber to have for- 
gotten that he should have gone on in the genitive, and to have relapsed 
into the nominative ave, which has been found also in the case of the 
Island Ogam. After ave we have a small breakage, which makes it some- 
what uncertain whether one is to read Qoeeia or Cvecia; but, on the 
whole, I think it is the former ; and so Brash read it. The five scores 
are, I think, best transcribed as a rule by qu ; but here I take it that the 
inscriber for some reason choee to give fuller expression to the sound of 
thut combination by writing it qv. Possibly the point was, that there 
were by his time two pronunciations: one in which the u or v was 
dropped, the one in fact which has triumphed, and another — ^the older 
one — which gave utterance to both the q and the ^ which followed it. 
This is what his spelling may have meant after the example of Latin 


QV, In an instance from Kerry we have qo used, to wit, in the name 
Vlfqoanaiy j^enitire of a name well-known in later Irish as Fiaehna. 
Lastly, we read the name as Qveeia and not Qveei, as we thought we 
detected an a after the •'. 

Chiriously enough the Island Ogam has not only the form ave hut also 
Cuntdegiy the nominative with which the genitive CunaUgea in this 
inscription goes : they stand respectively for earlier Cunalegi-t^ Cuna- 
Ugua9. Larcedi I take to he genitive of the la declension ; and, by 
analogy, the nominative should he Larcede^ though in later Irish there 
has been a tendency to make all the singular end in a ; so we have the 
genitive of this word given as an independent name Lareada in the ' 
'' Book of Lcinster," fo. 326'. It is possibly of the same origin as the 
Mod. Irish lorga or lairge, '* a leg or shank/' so the derivative may have 
meant, '' legged, shanky," in the sense, let us say, of having long legs. 
As to the name Qveeia^ we have a related genitive in a Devonshire Ogam 
inscription now in the British Museum, namely Q^ic%, which was 
probably masculine from a nominative Quica-s or Qusea-ft while ours 
stands for Qveci-a^i) from a nominative Qveei-s which might, as far as 
its form is concerned, be either masculine or feminine ; so it is possible 
that we have here another ancestress. According to these conjectures 
the whole might be rendered ** (The monument) of Cunalegis, son of C. 
of the Legs, descendant of Quecis." 

No. 5. This was read by Mr. Brash, Igu Maqi Dag ; and he states 
thut '* the scores are quite legible," by which one is, doubtless, to 
understand all the scores which he copied. The drawing in plate xxxvi. 
shows that his reading ended on a sloping part of the head of the stone. 
When 1 examined it in 1883, the stone was so placed that I was unable 
to see or to feel with my fingers the ^-side of the edge, or to get at all 
at the end : this was approximately my guess : — 

1 1 1 1 1 ' ' 1 1 1 I ' 1 1 1 1 

I I I t I I // I I I I 1 I I r I I 

But, in 1898, we were able tost^e, with a candle, both sides of the edge 
as follows : — 


It looked to us as if the stone had been broken off with the fifth notch 
of the «; but the last time we found this to be slightly more than what 
remains, which is 

1 1 III ''ill ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ( I 

rr-i Trr: i— rri -, -> ri f 

with two of the notches of the i gone. Restoring, therefore, these last, 
we have as our present reading Bigu maqui. How Mr. Brash came to 
overlook the h I cannot explain ; but I see no reason to doubt his reading 
of the second name as Dag, except that it cannot have been the whole of 
the name as originally cut. His drawing gives no indication that the 


«dge after Bag was damaged, but one cannot help suppoBing that it had, 
nevertheless, taken place, most probably when the stone was brought 
from its place in a burial-ground and fitted in the roof of this chamber. 
I do not know of any name which would complete the genitive into Dagi 
or Dago ; but there is no lack of longer ones, such H&Bagari and Bagagni^ 
suggested by Baigre and Bagdn respectively : Bagari occurs in Pembroke- 
shire reduced to da^abi in Roman letters. Lastly, one would like to know 
liow and when the accident occurred which carried away the Ogams for 
Bag^ which were there when Brash saw the stone in 1867. 

At first sight the name Bigu reminds one of Bede's Begv. (also found 
written Begiot)y with which Mr. Plummer warns his readers not to con- 
found the name of '* the very mythical Irish saint Bega^ whose name is 
preserved in St. Bees " : see Plummer's ** Bsedae Opera Historica," ii. 248, 
^Iso i. 257, 431. But Begu and Bega were both women, whereas our 
Bigu was a man, which seems a serious objection to any attempt to 
•equate the name Bigu with the English Begu. A difference of declension 
rules out the Lish masculine name Bwc^ as it made its genitive Bice and 
Becee, Beeei or Beiee, not to mention a probable difficulty as to the gut- 
turals g and ec. Lastly, Bigu would seem to offer us an instance of a 
genitive in u, to which allusion has already been made under No. 1 ; but 
it is more likely to be an indeclinable form like Conu, ButUj and Finnu. 

No. 6. This was read by Mr. Brash as Bir Maqi Mucoi Rottaia^ 
which has also been my reading from the beginning. 

.,...//////JIIII,..,,/.. .1111, ,..,., /////..Ill III...... 


The first t has a stone resting on it in such a way as to prevent one now 
from tracing the three scores with one's fingers ; but the reading admits 
of no doubt. The edge used is very uneven about the top, and it lias 
a sort of step between the o and the tt ; but it was doubtless there before 
the writing, which was continued beyond it. 

As to the names, it is to me doubtful whether the first one was meant 
to be Bir or Bir-maqui. A man's name, Bir, genitive Bera, occurs in t>ie 
Bennes Dinnsenchus, published by Stokes in the Revue Celtique: sec 
vol. XV., pp. 478-9. If we prefer Bir^ we have to treat it as a sort of 
-crude form doing duty for genitive ; and if we take Bir-maqui, we must 
regard a thematic vowel as omitted between the r and the tn. This 
seeuis the lesser difficulty. Eottais offers a difficulty in its ending ais ; 
xmd I can only explain it as another spelling of Rottes^ which, in its turn, 
would be the genitive of a feminine Rotta, to which corresponds a mas- 
culine Roth : see the Bennes Dinnsenchus {Revue Celtique^ xv. 432), 
where one reads of a Both, son of Cithang. Compare Avittorig-es as the 
genitive of Avitoria in Goidelic ; and as to tt^ the sound written ih in 
tlie earliest Old-Irish mss. is rendered in Ogam writing by tty when the 





inscriber takes the trouble to (listingaish it at all from t ; and so with ch 
and Ogmic ee. According to these conjectures the inscription may be 
treated as Birmaqui Mueoi Rottah^ and rendered ^' (Monumentum) Bir- 
maqui generis Rothae." 

No. 7. Mr. Brash has read this Maqui Xe, and no more. So did I 
also in 1883, but in 1898 we detected the end of the legend in what we 
read as in the right-hand top comer. This last time we further scruti- 
nized it, and did not feel certain of the a : the -rrrr (') is quite certain, 
unless one chose to regard it as yj* jf (/0» ^^^ which it would be hard to 
show preference : 


> t — - — ' ' ■ - 

/■ Mlli"" TUf 


7 T 

The stone is a fragment, and maqui was doubtless originally preceded 
by a proper name. How much is gone also at the other end it is impos- 
sible to say ; but supposing only one name to have followed the tnaqui^ I 
!»hould at once complete it as maqui Nelta-Segamonyu but for the fact 
that the three instances of Ncta-Segamonas, all occurring in the county, 
have that remarkable name immediately preceded by mucoi not by maqui. 
There are, however, other names which would fit, such as Nitattrena- 
Iwfos, without travelling beyond the instances in Ogam, or trying the 
initial ni instead of ne ; but it is useless to indulge in any more conjec- 
tures where the data are so slender. 

The formula mtieoi Neia-Segamonai^ ^* generis JVela^Segamonis" im- 
plies, I ouglit to explain, that Neta-Segamonas belonged to a time when 
group marriages still prevailed, and each child was reckoned a child of 
the gens or genus, or whatever you may choose to coll the g^oup, and not 
the child of any particular man in the group. 

No. 8. This was read by Mr. Brash as follows : — 

1 1 1 1 ] ' ' ' ' ' • I ' ' ' 1 1 f • , 

II 11 1 1 1 11 1 1 « 1 1 • • • ~ 


-^- 1! i I . M . . 1 . ■ > i i H 


In 1883 I read the first lino, which Mr. Brash makes second as if it 
had been written on the right cilge, as 


D OU N A 8 K 

1 r 

Tlic other line I considered almost hopeless, and copied thus — 

1 1 1 1 1 t * % % <' 1 1 1 1 It 

Tir — I I Mil. — '-'-' — ■ ' • ' - 

i-m — rr 
I f 

JOUU. K.8.A.I., VOL. IX., PT. IV., 5tH 8EK. 2 P 


The last group of scores was partly out of my reach on account of a stone 
which rested on that part of the Ogam. In 1898 I perceived that the 
two lines must have heen continuous before a bit of the top comer had 
heen broken, and we read thus : 


1 1 1 

• 1 

1 1 I 



i 1 1 


■| 1' 

N A 




I I ■ 


n il /.. M , 

(m)uco imedal^ 


In this reading I considered that the first vowel notch of the first e 
came in a straight line with the last score of the 8 preceding it — in the 
later reading that score disappears — and that the last notcli of the e 
similarly fell in with the first score of the qu; but before leaving the 
spot I came to the conclusion that this score consisted of an accidental 
wearing awny of the surface, and that the group consisted of only four 
scores, making e. Last summer we came to the conclusion that a little 
more, than we had thought, of the top comer of the stone had gone ; also 
we read Den as Mr. Brash had done long ago : — 

D E N a Y E c(a)(m)o CO IMEDALI 

It will be noticed that the breakage should include the final a of 
Denaveca, the m of mocoi, and one notch of the first o of tnoeoi ; for my 
guessing of the scores seemed to require mocoi rather than mueou Then 
the final vowel is doubtful on account of the edge having been damaged : 
we seemed to find three notches intact, but most likely the original 
group consisted of five, making i : at any rate u is less probable. 

With regard to the names, Denaveca would be a genitive containing 
the element veo or vie, as in Caluno-vica, while the first element dena 
stands probably for dena, represented in modem Irish by dian, ** swift or 
rapid " ; but Denavec- would be difficult to identify in later Irish, as 
the V would be eliminated, while the vowel following it would be liable 
to lose its original sound, and to be obscured and blunted as one of the 
results of the accent being on the first syllable. So it is even possible 
that we have it in Dianach^ or perhaps in DeneeCy commemorated on 
March 16 in the ** Martyrology of Gorman." This latter name Denecc 
seems to show traces of Ogmic spelliiig in its cc, for the "Martyrology 
of Tallaghf has JDenach, while that of Donegal makes it — ^probably in 
ignorance — into Beneg, The other name, Medali^ seems to be the genitive 
of an old word corresponding to the Welsh meddal — 'tender, soft, not 
hard.* Holder, in his " Alt-Celtischer Sprachschatz," gives a proper 
name Medalus from Augsburg ; and we seem to have a derivative in the 
genitive Meidle in the pedigree of Ciaran in the "Lismore Lives" : see 
Stokes* edition, p. 119. 


* No. 9. Mr. Brash has read this rough fragment jj- (W^^**^ » which 

should make Iri; hut I have always read it -r/ffff- •"^* (^0» ^^ pos- 

nhly an m following, and we seemed to detect one or two scores on the 

opposite edge. They are too far gone to he read, hut they serve to show 

that the original inscription was quite of the average length, reading 

prohably round the top and down the right edge, where the traces of 

writing still mock one. The hri is probahly part of the name Cairhre^ 

the genitive of which occurs on the Breastagh Stone in Mayo as Carrhri; 

and if the surmise as to the m should prove well founded, the inscription 

would seem to have run in the ordinary way Corrhri maqui X. 

No. 10. This was read by Mr. Brash as Deadest maqi muco[{] on the 

one edge, while, as to the other, he merely remarks that he could make 

nothing of ''a few scores much worn" which were on it. In 1883 I 

read the inscription all as Beagoi maqui fnuc[o%\ Botarai^ and, in 1 898, we 

made it into Beagog maqui mucoi Botraiy which last year's examination 

modified very slightly as follows : — 

Ii^,^._^ ^/,IM||,,,,, J,. J|l|,,,,,.,n i nlliw^^ 


D 1 

That is, Beago9 maqui mucoi Totrai. But this requires some explana- 
tion : the whole reads from right to left, which is unusual ; the first i is 
partly damaged, and on the left top comer the i of mueoi is gone, and 
also the first score of the t is left very doubtful, though, on the whole, I 
am inclined to regard the scores as t rather than d. The next difficulty 
is what I regard as r. The inscriber seems to have punched the halves 
of the long scores on the B-side, and then to have set to work to punch 
the other halves ; but he seems to have failed jbo get the two halves of 
each of the two first scores to meet and fall into line. I am not sure 
even that he really punched more than four on the iT-side. It is a point 
which I am not quite clear about, though I feel convinced that what he 
meant to cut was an /0f i i^ {r). 

Thus far the difficulties of the reading. A word must now be said 
concerning the names : Beag6s is the regular genitive of a name, BeaguSy 
of the IT-^eclension. It reminds one somewhat of Baig, genitive Bega^ 
which, however, could not be identified with it unless Baig could be 
proved to be a relatively late form of the nominative ; but even then 1 
am not at all sure whether the ea of Beagus could become e in the later 
stages of the language. However, I may remark that Beagu» probably 
consisted of three syllables, being made up of the prefix di, and the 
genitive of a word agu»y represented in later Irish by dg^ 'a fight or 
combat'; and the name Beagu% probably meant fond of fighting, or 
given to fighting it out. Non-negative compounds with the prefix di arc 



not easy to classify or charaoteme, so I may mention one or two of the 
most ancient of them instanced by Stokes in his ^* Urkeltischer Sprach- 
schatz": (1) di-gaio^ 'vengeance,' Irish digal, Welsh dial^ iiia. 
simplex being yo/, which seems to have meant any pain or passion; 

(2) di'^edo-ny Irish diad or dkad^ Welsh diwedd, ^ end or finish ' ;. 

(3) di'Mdi'Sy '* segnis, deses," Lish deeid^ which occurs as a gloss on the 
cognate Latin word deset, ' inactive, idle.' As to Totrai or Dotrai^ ono 
mi((ht possibly compare with it Jhthur or Dodere^ both of which occur 
in the ^' Kenoes Dinnsenchus." Then comes the question, what is to be 
made of the final ai. One might, in the first place, say that, if th* 
suggestion as to EMais^^Hottes, inl^o. 6, should prove well founded, it 
would be natural to suppose that ai here stands for aisy a eg. This, 
however, is very hypothetical ; and as tliere are a few other Ogmic 
instances of aij I may here mention the two which are most certain, 
namely, VeqQanai and Q^era%, Now the former of these is probably to 
be analysed into Veq^ana-i^ with Teqoana, represented in later Irish by 
the well-known masculine Fiachna. Similarly Querai would be Quera-i^ 
with Quera presumably the antecedent of the attested feminine, Cera. 
In that case one would have to regard the i of Veq^ana-i as the genitive 
ending of the A declension, and, to set the phonology approximately 
right, one would have to start, in the case of the masculine, with 
n genitive Veq^anaa-i, which, when the % came to disappear, would 
yield VeqQonai. The case of the feminine, however, is more doubtful, 
for here we should have nominative Quertud, and genitive Querases, und 
the doubt attaches to the question whether a{8)e{i) would yield at rather 
than, or as well as, ae. At all events, Querai seems the name of an 
ancestress : it occurs in an inscription which comes from Kerry, and i» 
preserved at Lord Dunraven's residence at A dare Manor. It reads : 
CoiUabhotas maqui Corhi maqui Mocoi Querai — '^ (Monumentum) Coillab- 
botis filii Corbi filii generis Queraie " ; but, according to these conjec- 
tures, we arc left without any means of deciding whether Totrai refers, 
to a man or a woman. 

In conclusion, I find, on reviewing the foregoing notes on the ton 
inscribed stones, that Mr. Brash's readings and mine coincide absolutely 
in a single instance only, to wit, Ko. 6. This will, perhaps, serve, to 
some extent, to illustrate the desirability of our Ogam monuments being 
examined by as many careful observers as possible : that seems to me, 
in a great many cases, to be the only chance of our obtaining reliable 
readings of them. Hence it is important that the stones should be made 
easily accessible to all h<ma fide students of Celtic epigraphy : that is 
emphatically not the case with the stones in the Drumloghan chamber. 
What should be done with that chamber itself, or what archasological 
value it may possess, I would not undertake to say ; but the tombstones 
in it are not in> siiu : they were stolen for the building of it from a 
neighbouring burial-ground, and they are immensely more valuable than 


the chamber. One might roughly say, on this point, that the Ogam 
inscriptions there and elsewhere stand to the study of the early Aryan 
language of Ireland somewhat as Latin inscriptions would to Latin, if we 
gapjpe co d the inscriptions to form the only specimens of the Latin language 
extant. Only that would he rastly to understate the case, since the 
whole body of Ogmic epigraphy is inconsiderable, both in quantity and 
▼ariety, as compared with the wealth of the lapidary Uteratuie of ancient 
Bome and her empire. Therefore the Ogams that exist ought to be 
valued all the more, and more care — more enlightened care — should be 
taken of them than has hitherto been done in many instances. 




[SubmittedJAMCABT 17, 1399,] 

^T^HX territory of Dubhthach TTa Lugair does not figure largely in the 
''' annals of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. This ia 
due, not so much to our nri^hteolopiicnl poverty, as to the lack of a record 
of those objects of antiqaarian 
interest, vbJch from time to 
time have been observed 
within its bounds. 

In this . Paper I propose to 
give a brief description of two 
or three finds, mode in this 
neighbourhood : a description 
which later on I hope to sup- 
plement with an account of 
some others. I begin with a 
BulUn S'one, KillanBrin. fine greenstone celt, found in 

October, 1898, on the town- 
land of Pallas, in the barony of Gorey. And here it is wortli recalling 
that this townland formed the norlhem frontier of the property, granted 
about 430 a.d., by Crimthann, son of Enna. King of Leinster, to his poet 
laureate, Dubfathacb. This 
property subsequently was 
merged in Hy £inshe1agh, 
and was afterwards, in 1638, 
made the Manor of Esmonde 
by Letters Patent of Cbaries I. 
Tlie Pallas celt is n weU- 
made implement ; it is practi- 
cally perfect, but for some 
small chips along the edge, and 
a larger one at the other end 
of the weapon. It measures 
8} inches in length, and Ti 
inches round its widest c 
cumference. It is somewhat 

BuIIbd Stone, Ballynattngh. 

weathered, bo that its colour is not so dark as it might be ; and its 
density is remarkable. It weighs exactly 2 lbs. 


Travellmg eastward through Dubhthach'a territoiy, we rencli the 

toirnland of Killanerin, where the bullan, ahown in the illuatration, 

was found. 

This bullan is of quartz. 

It stands 1 fool 5 iuclirs hi^h, 

and measures 2 feet 4 inchen 

by I foot 9 inches. The cup 

in tho centre mcoHurcs 1 foot 

bf 1 foot 1 inoh, and was 

originally about 7 inches deep. 
From Bullynastragh De- 
mesne, adjoining Eilloncrin, 

comes the bullan I'hown in the 

next tllustiation. Tortion of Mill-itone, CloniiUngh Crannog. 

This bullan is of granite. 

It stands 1 foot 4 inches high, and measures 2 feet by 1 foot 7 inches. 

The cup in the centre measures 8} inches by 9f inclics, and was 

originally some 5 inches deep. 

Thire is another bullan in Callynastragh Demesne ; but owing to its 

position, I have not betn able to photograph it. It is on the top of a 

large granite boulder. 

About ten yiars ago a cist was found near this (Ballynastragh) house, 

when a new garden was being laid out. Tlnforttinati-ly 1 was abroad at 

the time, and the ciat was not preserved. From the description of it 

given to me, it seems to have been a very good specimen. 

In a marsliy bottom, on the townland of Clonsillagh, which lies to 
the east of Ballynastragh 
Demesne, an interesting 
discovery was made, ac- 
cording to my informiition, 
some iifty years ago, in the 
shape of a crannog. I am 
not aware thiit the county 
Wexford has, so far, fur- 
nished another of these 
curious hubitiitions. All 
that rcmainn of the Clon- 
sillagh crannog finds is a 
fragment of its granite 
quern, which has come into 
Portion of Mill-stone, ClonaillHgli Crannog. my hands through the 

kindness of Mr. Hughes, 

on whose farm it was found. The accompanying illustrations give a 

Tery good indication of what is left of this mill. I have been unuble 

to trace the missing portions. 


The oak timbers of which the crannog was constructed were many of 
them built into neighbouring houses, where some of them are still to ha 

'J^he next discoveries relate to some valuable fossils found on the 
townlands of Killowen and Kilmichael, in the north-eastern comer of 
county Wexford, where Dubhthach's territory joined the sea. 

The first is portion of on Irish elk's antlers ; it is not a \(ery hand- 
some specimen, but it affords an opportunity for stating the fact that 
a number of others have been found in the locality. I have myseH 
a magnificent specimen, measuring 7 feet 6 inches across the tips of the 
antlers ; but owing to its position it cannot be well photographed. 

Next we have red-deer horns found in the same region some years 
since ; and a still more interesting find, viz. a red-deer's antlers dredged 
up in October, 189B, by fishermen on the Kilgorman Bank, off Kil- 
michael Point in 3^ fathoms of water. 

This find would support the theory that the fringe of sandbanks 
running down the Wexford coast were at some time or other portion of 
the mainland. 

The last to be described is an ancient boat, but it has no old- 
time connection with Dubhthach's territory. After many vicissitude<« it 
has found a resting-place here. The following description of this boat 
is given in his *' Half -hours with old Boatmen," by Mr. Patrick O'Leary 
of Graiguenamanagh, to whose good oflSces in 1897 I am indebted for its 
possession : — *Mn the year 1813 some workmen employed by Mr. Buys, 
who was a very extensive timber merchant iit New Ross, took up fuom 
the bed of the river (Barrow) a boat 17 feet long and 4 feet beam, neatly 
hollowed out of a single oak, which he presented to Sir Thomas Esmonde. 
Some years after, his men also took up a cap-piece of Irish oak, fifty feet 
long, which formed part of an ancient bridge, erected over the river by 
William Marshall, earl of Pembroke, in the thirteenth century." 

This ancient craft no longer bears the proportions that graced her 
in 1813. The years that have passed since her discovery have worked 
more havoc upon her frame than all the centuries the Barrow fiood 
«wept over her. She is now nothing but a wreck, 15 feet 3 inches at 
her greatest length, and 1 foot lOJ- inches at her widest port. Some 
traces of the fashioning of her prow are still observable ; but it requires 
the imagination of an antiquary to picture her, as, in the dim distance 
«f bygone times, she walked the waters a thing of beauty. 

[ 407 ; 


[Submitted August 16, 1899.] 

''pwo hundred years 'ago, a man's relation to his Church — especially in 
Ireland — determined far more of his other relations than at present. 
Hence, if we desire to know the causes from which many social and 
political changes have sprung in this country, it is necessary to study 
the constitution and history of our three larger Churches. The reading 
few in Ireland are pretty well acquainted with the main facts regarding 
the Latin and English Churches ; hut they know very little concerning 
the Scottish Criurch. Yet it was immigrants from Scotland that formed 
a majority of the Ulster "planters," and gave this northern province of 
ours its language, its customs, and some tilings peculiar in its code of 
morality. Accordingly, if we desire to kuow Ireland, we must know 
Ulster, and if we desire to know Ulster, we must study the vatious 
influences which have comhined to produce that world-renowned race of 
Irishmen, commonly called the Ut^steb Scots. 

As a Society we have nothing to do with the truth or error of the 
%'arious opinions that divide Christians ; hut it comes witliin the sphere 
of our operations to study how far some of the customs that sprung from 
these opinions have tended to affect the march of civilization in this 
kingdom of Ireland. Now, if we desire to get at the general principles 
which lie hehind these movements, we must deal with particular facts ; 
and to get at historical facts we must study original documents. If 
therefore we wish to know tlie Ulster Scots thoroughly, we must make 
ourselves familiar with the onginul records of that Church to which the 
majority of them heloiiged. In these we will find much that is new to 
most memhers of this Society — not only with regard to things ecclesias- 
tical, hut with regard to social customs and prejudices. 

For example : a man was yery seldom brought before the Session of 
a Presbyterian Church, two hundred years ago, for simply heating his 
wife as the result of a sufficient cause, but in several instances a heavy 
penalty was inflicted because an offending husband beat his wife oh the 
Sabbath Day. In fact, Sabbat h*brcaking was considered a much greater 
crime than wife-beating ; and this idea of Sabbath Sanctity has in several 
ways modified the customs of Society all over Ulster. 

The particular record to which I wish to direct your attention to-day 
is The Minute* of the Presbytery of Laggan, Of course " Laggan " has 
nothing to do with the river of that name, which, after slowly meandering 


through the classic regions of Ballymacarret, discharges its muddy 
waters into Belfast Lough. The Laggan from which this Preshytery 
took its name is not a river, hut a heautiful valloy that strttches from 
Eaphpc to Monorcunningliam, on the soutlioru sliore of Lough Swilly ; 
hut the congregations that were under the ecclesiastical supervision of 
this Preshytery extended to far hey ond the district from which it took 
its name. 

This yery volume itself is of historic celehrity. In 1681, it was 
eagerly sought for hy the High Sheriff of county Donegal, and hy the 
Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, as it was expected to contain records which 
might incriminate certain memhers of the Preshyteiy. 

Tliat Court had hcen guilty of a crime which was then considered 
peculiarly heinous. In February, 1681, they hud ordered a puhlic fast 
to he observed in all their congregations. Although this fast was alto- 
gether religious, and had no political significance whatever, several 
members of the Presbytery — Messrs. William Trail, of Ballindrait, James 
Alexander, of Kaphoe, llobeit Campell, of Kay, and John Heart, of 
Taboin, were arrested and brought to Dublin for examination before the 
Lord Lieutenant and Privy Council. In Mr. Trail's examination he was 
asked particularly about the minute-book of the Preshyteiy. In reply, 
he stated positively that he did not know where it then was, although 
he admitted that it had been in his possession when the fust was 
appointed. In fact, he was clerk of Presbytery himself, and we see 
from a document printed by Dr. Reid that when he heard a search 
was making for the book, he rode home in all haste, and had it conveyed 
to a place of safety. 

The end of the matter was that the authorities failed to discover it, 
but the four members were kept for eight months in piison, and were 
condemned to pay fines for this crime of proclaiming a religious fast. 

The Presbytery book which was then so eagerly sought for hy the 
magistrates of Donegal and the Lord Lieutenaut of Ireland, and which 
contains the original resolutions ordering this obuoxious fust, is the very 
volume that I purpose to describe. It is 7^ inches by 5|- inches, and 
bound in leather. It is written on both sides of the paper by several 
hands. Mr. Jatnes Alexander's penmanship is by fur the best, being in 
old English characters, and beautifully executed. It contains a record 
of the names of members, elders, and commissioners who attended the 
meetings of the Court, and also of the business transacted. The names 
recorded are often important as showing who were tlie leading members 
: in various congregations two hundred and thiity yeai*s ago. The clergy 
are designated by the title "Master," and are never called ** lleverend." 
This title did not come into general use among Irish Prcsbyteriuns, i«s 
applied to their ministers, until a good many years after the beginning of 
the next century. 

In reading over this volume, one of the first things that strikes us is 


allusion to a great number of collections for the poor. On the 2l8t of 
August, 1672, nt the very first meeting of wliich we have a record, it 
was reported that Master Robei't Wilson ond Master Thomas Drummond 
had brought in their collection for John Kinkead's child according to 
appointment, and that Masters William Semple, Thomas Drummond, 
Robert Wilson, and Robert Campbell had given in their collection 
acconling to the OTerture of the Committee for Master Simson's child. 

The money contributed was brought to the meeting of Presbytery by 
the ministers of the various congregutions by whom it was raised. There 
were no postal orders in those days, and contributions had to be 
"brought" or sent by a messenger. 

Each applicant for assistance had his case duly investigated and 
approved before being placed on the list. The Orphan * Simpson' to whom 
I have alluded was put on by on " Overture" or resolution of the Com- 
mittee — that is, the General Committee which was representative of all 
the Presbyteries, and acted as a kind of Synod, although its resolutions 
had no legislutive force until accepted by the Presbyteries. The poor 
who received assistance were generally adherents of the Presbyterian 
Church, but sometimes we have allusions to others, as, for example, 
captives with the Turks. On the 2nd of February, 168^, the Meeting 
(or Presbytiry) of Route proposed to the other Presbyteries that u 
general collection should be taken up for seven persons, who were 
prisoners with the Turks. The Presbytery of Laggan resolved to make 
this collection according to conveniency. 

Throughout the greater part of the book we find allusions to difficul- 
ties arising from the legal position in which all adherents of the Church 
were then placed. At a meeting held on the 24th of April, 1679, it 
transpired that the Rev. James Tailzior, of Enniskillen, had been fined 
in five pounds because he was unable to produce a certificate of being un 
ordained minister. 

In some of the previous entries there are allusions to the imprison- 
ment of the Rev. William Henry, of Bally shannon. In November, 1676, 
Mr. Henry was sent to preach in Connuught. The exact locality is not 
mentioned, but in all probability it was Sligo and also Moy water, near 
Killala. At any rate, something that he did when there was considered 
a crime, and, after his return home, he hud to go back to Connaught to 
meet certain charges. These, the minute states, were on account of 
** some trouble from the prelate of Killalley" (Bishop Thoinns Otwuy). 
The Rev. Robert Rule, of Derry, was directed to write to the Dublin 
ministers about the ** violance done to Mr. William Henry while he was 
preaching the Gospell in Connaught, and also to write a general hint of 
this business to my Lord Granard.*' 

Thus we are left in the dark as to the exact crime imputed to 
Mr. Henry, btit I presume that it was holding religious services after 
the forms of the Church of Scotland. At any rate, Mr. Henry was 


■arrested, removed to Dublin, kept in confinement there for more ihvn a 
year, and not set at liberty until he gave bonds for his future good 

A somewhat strange case is referred to in the minute of a meetiBg 
held at St. Johnston, on the 27th of March, 1678. It was then reported 
that during a temporary absence of Mr. Samuel Halliday, minister of 
Drumragh (Omagh), his place was supplied by Mr. John Bowat, of 
'Oappagh. When Mr. Bowot was in the act of baptizing a child in 
presence of the assembled congregation, a magistrate named Eakin 
rushed in furiously with his drawn sword, intending to arrest tiie 
officiating clergyman. But Mr. Bowat, comprehending his intention, ran 
K>ut without finishing the baptism in which he was engaged, and succeeded 
in making his escape. 

At this period, so much did the Presbytery stand in fear of the 
autliorities, that ordinations or installations often took place at night, 
and far from the parish in which the newly-appointed minister was 
settled. For example, on the 24th , of June, 1673, Mr. Archibald 
Hamilton, grundnephew of the first earl of Glaneboy, was installed 
minister of Armagh ; but the ceremony took place (as is proven by these 
records) after night in the house of William Douglas, of Bcnburb, seven 
miles from Armagh. 

An entry made in 1676, records the fact that in some single parishes 
as many as ''eight score" had been brought up before the '^ official 
<5ourts" for various offences arising out of their "Nonconformity/* 
Borne had been taken with writs, some excommunicated, and many of 
them almost ruined by the payment of fines. 

In October, 1678, it was reported that Mr. Stevenson, of Dungannoii, 
was then in jail as a result of being excommunicated for refusing to serve 
as a churchwarden. A year and three months afterwards he was still in 
the same prison, and there is no record of his liberation. 

Year after year these troubles seemed to increase, and after the arrest 
<]f the four ministers to uhicli I have alluded, there is a blank in the 
records from the 13th of July, 1681, till the dOth of December, 169D, 
from which it would seem that the Presbytery ceased to hold regular 
meetings. We have seen that this book is simply a record of the busi- 
ness transacted at the meetings of the Presbytery. To these meetings 
the ministers, elders, and all who had business there generally itxle on 
horseback. Bometimes we find members making excuse for absence or 
for not having fulfilled appointments^ because they were not ahU to ride 
40 far. In September, 1693, Mr. William Listen, of Letterkennj, 
excused his absence from the meeting because he was *' so valetudinary 
that he was unable to ride." Sometimes appointments to preach were 
not fulfiUed on account of the ** danger of the way," arising from the 
•disturbed state of the country. Even the Bevolution did not for some 
time render travelling safe. In May, 1694, Mr. James Alexander, of 


Baphoe, was appointed to Yisit Sligo and Mojwater. Four months^ 
afterwards it was reported that he had failed to keep his appointment,, 
but excused himself because the road was so infested with rapparees that 
he could not venture to travel. His excuse was accepted. 

This volume contains various allusions to the difficulty of sending: 
letters. In November, 1676, Mr. Robert Rule, Minister of Derry, was 
directed to write to Mr. James Inilzior and his congregation of Ennis* 
killon, but at the next meeting of Presbyteiy he reported that his 
instructions hud not been carried out, ae he was unable to find a bearer 
for the letter. This excuse was sustained, and his appointment renewed, 
which meant that he was to write as soon as he could get anybody to- 
carry the letter. In cases of great importance, the Presbytery some* 
times made a special order to send a letter by post. An instance of this- 
occurred in the case of Mr. Tailzior himself, to which we have already 
alluded, when he was tried and imprisoned upon pretence of his wanting 
a certificate of being an ordained minister. In this case, the Clerk of 
Presbytery was ordered to draw up the necessary certificate and transmit- 
it to Mr. Tailzior bt post. On another occasion, the Presbytery ordered 
a letter of importance to be sent by express. 

This disinclination to us^e the public post for the transmission of* 
letters must have arisen from other causes besides the mere expense- 
So far as I can make out, a letter could at that time have been seat 
anywhere throughout the bounds of the Presbytery at a cost of four- 
pence, which was certainly not a prohibitive rate for letters of impor- 
tance, although that sum represented a higher value then than it does- 

Borne of the entries enable us to form an opinion regarding the pro- 
gress made in planting the Korth-West of Ulster with Scottish Settlers. 
A tolerably correct idea of the position and strength of the Scottish 
immigrants can be obtained by a careful study of the places in which 
ministers were settled, and the amount of stipend paid by the different 
congregations. For example, it was reported in 1678 that, during the 
previous year, Donoughmore, county Donegal, had paid its minister 
thirty pounds, Ruphoe twenty-six pounds, and Letterkenny thirty pounds. 
During the same period, the whole part of Drumragh, including the 
town of Omagh, had paid less than four pounds. At that time, tliis 
parish formed merely what was called a ''pendicle," that is, it was 
attached to another parish, namely, Cappagh, and had only part of the 
services of its minister, Mr. John Rowat. 

This proves that, in 1673, there were few Scottish settlers about 
Omagh. In fact, there is one entry in the minutes which states plainly 
that the parish could not pay a higher stipend until the country would 
be better settled. Twenty-two years afterwards (1693) Omagh was able 
to offer thirty-three pounds a-year when they presented an unsuccessful 
call to Mr. Halliday, proving that meanwhile there must have been 


a great influx of settlers in this district. That tide of immigi-ation 
seems to have been particularly strong after the ReTolution, as every- 
where throughout the bounds of the Presbytery we find congregations 
increasing in numbers and in resources — many of them were enlarging 
their old churches or building new ones. For example, in 1694, the 
people of Donoughmore, county Donegal, were ordered to enlarge their 
meetinghouse, as it would not then contain more than one-third of the 

Among the records in this book are allusions to persons of historic 
fame. On page 257, which I have got photographed, there is an 
account of the ** trials" of Mr. Francis Mackemy, who afterwaixis went 
to America, and there founded the first Presbytery of the English- 
speaking branch of the Church. (The Reformed Dutch Church had, of 
course, a previous existence.) On the same page is the record of a call 
from Enniskillen to Mr. Samuel Kelso, who afterwards was so greatly 
distinguished in the defence of that town, when attacked by the armies 
of King James II. 

Besides this, it is interesting to find that the descendants of many of 
the ministers and laymen mentioned in these records are still active 
members of the community to which their forefathers belonged. I can 
trace families of farmers who now occupy the same holding that was in 
possession of their direct ancestors when this book was written, which 
proves how firmly these Ulster Scots have taken root in the soil, and how 
Irish they have become. 

Other matters there are of great interest in this volume, but some of 
them touch on the political and theological, and therefore cannot be dis- 
cussed before this Society. Such an entiy as the following sounds some- 
what strange in our ears : *' The Session of Adstra [Ardstraw] reports 
that Ro. Drew has stood two Lord's days publicly in that congregation 
in order to the removall of the scandall he lys under, and that the 
Session is satisfied with the ardency of his repentance. The meeting 
appoints the sd. Session to absolve him." On this I shall make no 

In conclusion, permit me to express a hope that the Historical Com- 
mittee of the General Assembly will publish this old Minute Book, which 
contains so much that is interesting and important, and which would be* 
an appropriate sequel to the three volumes of Synodical Minutes lately 

( 413 ) 



BY ROBERT DAY, J.P., F.S.A., Fbllow. 
[Read October 10, 1809.] 

Tn the Monitewr of August 25th, 1806, there was an account of a dis- 
covery of decorated gold plates near Cloyne, county Cork. This 
was copied into the Irish provincial papers, anl all that was 
known of it in 1824 will he found in Thomas Crofton Croker's 
" Researches in the South of Ireland," where he has preserved its 
record, and illustrated its only specimen, which hy the merest chance 
was saved from destruction. We owe its preservation, and Croker's 
historical record to the late Mr. Rohert Lecky of Cork, who died at his 
home in London in 1897, at a very advanced age. He was one of those 
men of whom any city might he proud. A marine engineer and iron 
shiphuilder by proft^ssion, a well known scientist and antiquary, the 
intimate fiiend of John Lindsay and Richard Sainthill, of J. W. Ley- 
cester, and John Windele, Abraliam Abel, Richard Caulfield, and T. C. 
Croker. He purchased all that was left, one specimen, of tlio gold find 
from Mr. Teulon, a well known Cork silversmith, and one of the last 
that used the '^ Sterling" mark upon the plate manufactured in his 
workshop. His place of business, which is well within my early re- 
collection, was in Patrick -street, where Grant & Co.'s warehouse now 
stands. I had known for some years that this gold ornament was in 
Mr. Lecky's possession, and through the kindness of Miss Lecky, after 
her father's death, I was permitted to acquire it. 

The facts connected with its finding were well known to Windele, 
whose memory carried him back to the time of its discovery. The 
following notice appears in Tuckey's ** Cork Remembrancer," under 
April 10th, 1806 (not 1805 as in Croker). 

^* A human skeleton, around which was found the remnant of a gar- 
ment with broad plates of figured gold of considerable value, was dis- 
covered in a quarry in the neighbourhood of Castle marty r ; several 
amber beads much injured by time, and something resembling a mitre in 
shape, were also found." 

This, as a contemporary account, is of peculiar value, and is singularly 
accurate, as one of the amber beads of mitre shape has been preserved 
with the plate of gold, and came to me with it. . 

As some of our readers may not have an opportunity of consulting 
Croker, I venture to give the extract from his graceful pen. After 


deecribmg Carrick-na- Crump, and the caTemous nature of the limestone 
coontiy about Cloyne, he says (page 253) 
that :— 

"A curioua discovery was made not far 
from Castlemortyr by a (juarryman ; in con- 
sequence of the croivbar liaving accidentally 
fallen through a fissure in the rock, he 
widened the aperture and descended in 
search of the instrument into a cavern, 
where he was not e little surprised to 
behold a human skeleton, partly covered 
with exceedingly tliin plates of stamped ur 
embossed gold, connected by bits of wire. 
He also found several amber beads. The 
sketch (fig. I) of one of these gold plates 
is [nearly] the same size aa the original, 
f'"' '■ which is in the possession of Mr. Lecky of 

Cork, with the fragment of a bead. The remainder of the gold was 

M>ld and melted in Cork and Youghal, and a jeweller who purchased 

tlio greater part told me the quantity he had melted, to use his own 

words, was " rather more than the contents of half a coal box." 
Circular diac -shaped 

plates of the aome 

character, doubly 

pierced in the centre 

for attachment to the 

garments as personal 

ornaments, have been 

figured and described 

from time to time. In 

the Ultter Journal of 

Arekmolagy, vol. iv., p. 

164, 1856, is a paper 

by Robert M'Adam on 

" Gold discs found in 

Ireland," with four 

illuatrations. One of 

these from Ballydehob 

is now in my collection. 

and with it n massive 

circular bronze armlet, j.^^ ^ 

4^ inches in diameter, 

which was broken by the finders, but restored by Uiss Swanton of 

Crownlea (Crann Liath), on whoEe ground both were discovered in 

1844. In the above Poper references are mode to Camden's 'fintannia,' 


1722, DulUn Penny Journal^ 1833, page 244. "Collectanea Antiqua," 
1854, ** ArchBBologia," vol. ii., Tramaetions, R.I.A.,* vol. 6, where 
the finding and description of similar gold plates are described, and 
on the authority of Mr. Windele, two others. One of these is that 
from Castlemartyr, described and figured by Croker. The other was in 
the possession of the late Mr. Wm. Wrizon Leycester, of Ennisraore, 
Cork, shortly after whose death I acquired it. It was said to have been 
found at or near Eallyvoumoy, Macroom, and is a remarkably fine 

Fio. 3. — Gold Disc found near Cloyne. 

example of its kind, measuring 4i inches in diameter (fig. 2). There are 
yet two others of smaller size, for which I am iudebted to the late 
Mr. Abraham T. Forster, of Garrettstown, that were preserved for 
many years in his picturesque home on the Old Head of Kinsale. 
There also, among the family heirlooms, is the silver collar of SS., 
given by Queon Elizabeth to Maurice Roche, Mayor of Cork, in 1571.' 

* Vide ** Journal of the Cork Historical and Archujological Society," vol. i., 2nd 
Series, 1895, p. 328. 

« Smith's *' Cork," p. 231. (Guy & Co., 1893.) 




Mr. Forster informed me that this pair of discs, which are very 
much alike, was found near Cloyne, county Cork, many years ago. 
They are of the same description of decoration as the larger plate from 
Bally vourney, and may he descrihed (fig. 3) as having a series of four 
concentric circular hands, that diminish as they approach the centre, 
and resting on these are a regular succession of chevrons, and upon the 
outer edge a horder to correspond, but having circular marks in each. 
These markings are also punched and incuse. The two smaller discs, 
although of the same character, have a series of short, straight, punched 
lines on the borders, and immediately adjoining these are two circular 
bands, between which there are a succession of double chevrons one 
within the other, and surmounting the doubly-pierced centre are three 
concentric circles, the outer having u series of raised punch-marks. 

In Wilde's ** Catalogue of the Gold Antiquities in the Royal Irish 
'Academy *' (a book that should find a place in every library), at pp. 82, 
83, are references and descriptions of the seven specimens that were in 
the museum in 1862, ** all of which bear a broad cruciform ornament." 
Two of the five in ray collection, here figured, have no semblance of a 
cross ; they are more suggestive of the sun, with its many rays, and 
points, and circles of light, and were worn upon the breast possibly by 
the votaries and worshippers of the orb that rules the day — the life- 
giving and active power of niilurc. 

If the story of the quarrymen at Castlemartyr is authentic, the 
garment powdered with gold, that covered the skeleton, was the same 
robe, either of state or office, that was worn in lifetime. In Ireland the 
most precious articles were buried with the dead. The votive offering 
was a free gift of the most costly character, differing altogether from 
the custom in Cyprus, where the very lightest and least costly imitations 
of the ornaments worn in life were placed in the tomb. 

( 417 ) 


[Read OaroBBK 10, 1899.] 

^HE late Father Denis Murphy, s. j., a few weeks before his 
lamented death, wrote to me expressing his regret that he had 
not seen the ** Annals of Croxden " before writing his article on the 
above subject, which was published in the Journal for 1895, p. 317. 
These Annals were compiled by a monk of Croxden Abbey, Staffordshire, 
and extend from 1177 to 1374. They contain information not to be 
found elsewhere, especially as regards the family of de Verdon, and 
^yere translated and published by the present writer in 1894. 1 there- 
fore lay before the Society a very brief rhumi of this great family, 
which will serve as a supplement to the Paper of my deceased acquaint- 
ance, who was such a painstaking and accurate historian. 

Bertram de Verdon of Alton [formerly written Alveton] Castle, 
Staffordshire, founded Croxden Abbey in the winter of 1176, and 
accompanied Prince John to Ireland in April 1185. He remained in 
Ireland from 1185 to 1187, having been appointed seneschal of that 
country; and in 1187 founded the Priory of Dundalk, dedicated to 
St. Leonard. Father Murphy says tliat Lopez gives *' 1296 " as the 
date of this foundation, but this is incorrect. Apart from other 
sources, we learn from the ** Calendar of Christ Church Deeds" that 
there was an appeal case tried in the year ** 1251," in which the 
Prior of St. Leonardos, Dundalk, was one of the arbitrators. 

In 1190 Bertram de Verdon went to the Holy Land in the train of 
King Richard, but was slain '^ at the victory of Joppa in June, 1192, 
and was buried at Acre on St. Bartholomew's Day." From the 
** Croxden Annals " we learn that Rohesia, ** widow of the noble 
founder," died January 17, 1215; and Kiug John, who died October 
19, 1216, left his heart, and (what was decidedly more valuable) £10 
a-year, to the monks of Croxden, in memory of past kindnesses whilst 

Bertram was succeeded in his Euglibh and Irish estates by Lord 
Nicholas de Verdon, who lived most of his time in county Louth and 
at Berti-am's-court, Dublin. William de Ashbourne [not far from 
Croxden], abbot of Croxden, died in 1237, and some of his nephews 
settled in Ireland. Father Murphy says that Ilohesia de Verdon 
**died at the end of 1246, or in the beginning of 1247," but the 
Croxden annalist gives us the exact date, namely, ** four days before 



the Ides of February, 1247." From the same authority we learn that 
Lord John de Verdon, *'a mighty patron of this house," died in 1274, 
** on the twelvth of the Kalends of November." His son, Humphrey de 
Yerdon, died at Paris in 1286. In 1288 Richard de Burgh besieged 
Lord John de Yerdon in one of his own castles in Ireland. 

Incidentally, Father Murphy states that the first Irish Parliament 
*' was held between 1289 and 1303." As a matter of fact there is yet 
preserved a statute which was passed in Ireland in 1268-9. Lord John 
de Yerdon, " eldest son of Theobald, Lord of Alton, died in the year 
1297, on the Ides of June, in Ireland." The chronicler of Croxden, 
William de Schepished, tells us that on the Feast of St. John the 
Baptist, 1298, "Theobald, son and heir of Lord Theobald de Yerdun, 
returned from Ireland, and was knighted by King Edward." This Sir 
Theobald " married Matilda, daughter of Edmund de Mortimer, Lord of 
Wigmore, in 1302, four days before the Kalends of August." 

In 1 307 Lord Theobald rebuilt Alton Castle, having previously been 
summoned to the Parliament o£1307, '^held at Carlisle on the octave 
day of St. Hilary," at which a cardinal legate was present. Father 
Murphy says that this nobleman ** died in 1308 " ; but the Croxden 
annalist, then prior of the house, tells us that the ohit occurred in 1309 
" on the Feast of St. Bartholomew, Sunday, August 24th, at Alton ;. 
and he was laid by the side of his ancestors at Croxden, with great 
solemnity, on the third day of the Ides of October." He was succeeded 
in his title and estates by Lord Theobald de Yerdon, who was Yiceroy of 
Ireland from June, 1314, to February, 1315 ; ** and he set out for that 
country before the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist." Hi» 
wife Matilda died September 18th, 1312, and was buried at Croxden on 
October 9th, her obsequies being presided over by Gilbert, Bishop of 
Enaghdune or Annadown — a see which was temporarily annexed ta 
Tuam in 1324. The brass erected to her memory was engraved thus: 


GIST ici." It is interesting to add that this brass (which is now a 
palimpsest) is the earliest known instance having a canopy which is 

Nicholas de Yerdon succeeded to the Irish property of Lord Theobald 
in 1320. At this period we find many of the Staffordshire towns re- 
presented in Ireland, and giving names to persons occupying high posi- 
tions in Church and State. For instance, "William of Leek, Henry of 
Alton, William of Ashbourne, William of Eudyard, etc. Lord Thomas 
de Fumivall, the new Lord of Alton, made many exactions on the 
Croxden monks in 1319 and 1320, but the annalist is careful to inform 
us that he had to pay a fine of £200 for marrying Lady Joanna Montagu, 
nee de Yerdon, without the king's license. Thomas, the first born son 
of Lord de Furnivall, was born at Alton Castle, on June 22nd, 1322, 
and a second son, William, on August 23rd, 1326. Lord de Furnivall 


died on February 3rd, 1332, and was succeeded in his title and estates 
by his son Lord Thomas. The name only continued in the direct line 
from 1317 to 1383, when Thomas Neville of Hallam shire, who married 
Lady Joan de Fumivall, assumed the title of fifth Baron Furnivall. 
He died at Alton Castle in 1406, and in 1408 his daughter Maud married 
Sir John Talbot Fumiyall. 

Lord Thomas de Furnivall died at Sheffield, October 14th, 1339, and 
was buried in the Abbey of Beauchief on May 9th, 1340. In 1447 Sir 
John Talbot was ennobled by the titles of Earl of Shrewsbury, Wexford, 
and Waterford, and Viscount Dungarran, as also hereditary Seneschal of 
Ireland. In 1474 and 1483 we find the name of Walter de Vcrdon, 
Chaplain of Ardee, among the deeds of Christ Church, Dublin. Alton 
Castle was dismantled by order of the Parliament in 1654. 




[Communicated Octobbh 10, 1899.] 

TTaviwo read with much interest a Paper on so-called "Patrick's 
"^ Crosses " in the Journal {ante^ p. 35), I wish to communicate to 
the Society the following notes concerning these objects. 

The author* of the Paper in question, in describing the figure of an 
ecclesiastic which is shown on the central portion of the upper part of an 
ancient metal shrine, now in the museum of the Eoyal Irish Academy, 
describes the costume of this ecclesiastic as consisting of ''an outer wrap 
or mantle, bordered by wide edgings. . . . The mantle covers an inner 
garment extending down to the ankles, having a broad band at its lower 
margin. The pattern, marked in incised lines on this portion of the 

figure, appears to represent some fabric similar to tartan On the 

shoulders of the central ecclesiastic's figure are placed two conspicuous 
circular ornaments, having transverse markings forming the Early 
Eastern Cross, with its equal-rayed limbs, which recall our once popular 
and universally-worn 'Patrick's Crosses.*" He also mentions ''the 
figures of three clerics " carved in a panel on a slab at In verge wrie (Scot- 
land), "all of whom are habited in garments corresponding to those worn 
on the figure now described on the ' Corp Naomh ' shrine, that is, com- 
posed of outer coats or mantles covering tunics descending to the ankles,'^ 
&c. I think it well, for the sake of ecclesiological as well as of artistic 
accuracy, to state that the " outer coats or mantles," or " wraps" as they 
are called in the above descriptions, are really the "copes" or pro- 
cessional cloaks of the clergy which have continued in use to the present 
day, with very little alteration from the original form of the Roman 
vesture called the "lacema" or "pluviale"; this garment, or rather 
" vestment," consisted of an ample mantle open in front, thus difPering 
from the closed " poonula " or, as it was afterwards called, the " casula" 
(now the chasuble), as we find this latter vesture in the early apsidal 
mosaic of the church of SS. Cosmas and Damien, in Rome, on the figure 
of St. Felix, Pope, a.i). 527. The "cope" or cloak was fastened on 
both sides of its front borders, or " aurifrigia" (vulgo "orphreys") by 
two disks of metal which covered the hooks, or " fibulae," which were 
inserted into each side of the cope, and which kept it securely on the 
shoulders of the wearer,* precisely as we may see it, at the present timc^ 

* The late William Frazer, m.u.i.a. 

' Some fine examples of **fibulse," or cope ** morses, *' were found some yoetrs ago 


in scores of Oerman and Belgian churches, Trbere the anple medisevnl 
forms of the vestments have been so intelligently restored to use. These 
disks of metal which are called cope ** morses *' (because their hooks btU 
into the staff) are often ornamented with sunk or ** bossed " crosses, roses, 
&c., exactly as shown ou the sides of the cope in the figure of the 
" ecclesiastic " on the ** Corp Naomh" shrine. Such morses, whetlier orna- 
mented with " plaques" or "patenes" — disks of metal, were universally 
used not only in the Celtic, but in all the churches of Latin Christianity : 
they do not in any way denote the rank of the wearers ; thus differing 
completely from tlie long-disused ornament called the " Rationale " op 
" Superhumerale," which was composed of precious materials, and was 
worn by many bishops from the ninth century, on the shoulders, over the 
chasuble. It corresponded to the "Ephod" or the " Rational" of the 
Jewish High Priest, and was often ornamented with circular disks of 
metal (gold or silver-gilt) such as we see on the ** Rutionals" preserved 
at Ratisbon, in the cathedral of Eichstadt, and in BambtTg, and on the 
Reliquary-busts of SS. Boniface and Willibald (also in Eichstadt in 
Germany) and of St. Lambert in the cathedral of Liege, Belgium. This 
** Rational" was certainly a ** recognised badge" of rank of some 
bishops ; not so the simple ** morse " plaques of their copes.* The ** inner 
garment extending down to the ankles " (mentioned by the writer of 
the article) ** having a broad band at its lower margin," of which the 
pattern is described as being " similar to tartan," is the ** tunica talaris," 
or the white linen vesture commonly called the ** alb " which reached to 
the ankles (as ordered by Rubrics of the Church), and which was often 
ornamented with a rich **parament" or applied border of embroidered 
material like that which is shown on the inner ** tunic " of the eccle- 
siastic on the shrine ; such albs belong to the category knows as " albae 
paratae " or ** frisiatae," and were very general from the eighth c6ntury 
up to the sixteenth in Europe. A fine example of such an alb is the 
** tunica talaris," which was found, some years ago, in the sepulchre of 
Saint Bernulph, Bishop of Utrecht (Holland) in a.d. 1056 : the pattern 
on the border of this alb is also of a " Tartan " type in parallel lines, as 
in tiie old Irish example, and is of the same depth of design. 

As regards the bronze figure of a cleric, now in the Academy 
museum, of which a drawing is to be found in the Journal, 3rd vol., 
4th Series, page 147, vol. 13, which figure is almost identical iu 
treatment with the other statuettes on tlie shrine of St. Manchan, I may 

in ChriBtian burial places in Franchimont and at Florennes (Namur), of Frankish 
origin : both betir crosses ** patees,'* or Early Eastern crosses, on their circular 
** paten es." 

* As a badge of rank on a cope, I know of only one example, and that is in a panel 
painting of Charlemagne, by Albrecht Uurer, dated anno 1512, which is now in the 
Museum of l>«uremberg. In this painting, Churlcmagne is shown as wearing the 
Imperial cope, stole, dalmatic, and crown : on both sides of the cope, over the 
shoulders, ate two large embroidered crosses of tlie Early Oriental lorni. 


remark that the " cope " is clearly indicated ; as well as the two " morse" 
*' patenes," or disks; the sunk " chatons" or apertures for "gems" of some 
sort (most prohahly cabochons either of amber or turquoises) on the sur- 
faces of these disks are now void of their settings: similar "patenes," 
set with crystals, are on the shrine of St. Servatius at Maestricht 
(Holland) of the twelfth century. A very curious indication of the ** linge 
plisse" or finger-wrinkled" linen of the alb (such as is artistically prac- 
tised in Italy to this day) is noticeable on the " inner tunic " or alb, of 
this figure, just below the hands holding the short episcopal " cambutta" 
or pastoral staff. I also notice that the pointed mitre is provided with 
the horizontal and the vertical ** orphreys " or bands which were used 
on many mitres from the eleventh century, such as we see in the figures 
of several bishops, in a ms. of the Abbey of St. Laurence, at Liege, now 
in the Royal Library of Brussels, which was written and ** illumined " in 
the early part of the twelfth century. The mitres of preceding epochs, 
dating from the tenth century, did not possess either these orphreys or 
the two long narrow bands or stoles called "fanons" or " flabellae," 
which were later additions. Respecting the thin circular disks of gold, 
all bearing modifications, or variations of Greek crosses, in their centres, 
of which disks the Museum possesses several specimens, it is very likely 
that some of these disks may have been attached to the " stoles " or bands 
of rich material (symbols of the priestly dignity) which were worn over 
the chasuble in the earlv Christian churches from the middle of the sixth 
century. There is a remarkable example of the use of ** Greek " crosses 
(in metal) as attached to such '* stoles," to be seen on an ancient figure of 
a bishop, carved in " basso-relievo," in white marble in the church of 
St. Michael of Pavia, dating from the tenth-eleventh century. Such 
metal ** cruciform" disks are still used on the vestments of the Oriental 
rites, as I have seen with the Russo-Greeks and the Maronites. A 
fine example of such ''disks" is shown as sewn on the collar of the 
"apparel" of the " Amict" of Bishop Geoffrey de Fae (a.d. 1334-L340) 
in a stained glass window in the cathedral of Evreux (France), also on 
the chasuble of the figure of Saint Omer in a miniature of the twelfth 
century in Belgium. There is a very remarkable " cope morse " or " mors 
de chape " (called also " bile de chape " in mediaeval French) preserved 
in the splendid Treasury of St. Servatius' Church at Maestricht in 
Holland, dating from circa 1500; on which Saint Servatius is shown 
in " bosse " as hearing an early ** Tan " staff (of which there is a rare ex- 
ample in the Kilkenny Museum), and habited in cope and mitre; the cope 
is fastened on the breast by circular disks or morses, precisely as in the 
ancient Iri^h figure of St. Manchan's shrine ; and the mitre has the same 
pointed shape, with the " orphreys," or bands thereon, as in the Irish 
figure. I have remarked that the two circular *' morse '* disks for holding 
the ** cope " or cloak on the shoulders of the wearer are shown on the 
sides of the mantle of a female, on a fine tomb-slab of circa 1340, 


in St. James' Church, in Tournai (Belgium).' A similar metal disk is 
graved on the left arm of the effigy in copper-bronze of William Neue- 
maer, circa 1325, in St. Laurence's Hospital, in Ghent. This disk is 
shown as being attached to the garment by cords, pasing through two 
perforations, as in the Irish disks. All such '^ morses'' were in pairs, as 
is proved by those which are now in the Museum. It seems very probable 
that such ** morses " replaced the ** button " fibulas of early times, 
wliich have been such a puzzle to archaeologists. 

^ I have noticed two ornamental ** patents*' on tlie mantle, or ** cope,'* of the 
engraved effigy on the cross of Alianore do Bohun, of the year 1399, in Westminster 
Abbey ; also on the cope (or " ranpa magna") of Joice Lady Tiptoft, circa 1446, in 
Enfield Church, Middlesex. These ''fibulas'* are rose-shaped, and serve to cover 
the cincture which keeps the two sidi-s of the garment together on the shoulders of 
the wearer. 

Magnificent antique specimens of such cope morses are to he found in the church 
Treasuries of Tongres and Namur (Belgium), which are rich in shrines, chalices, 
crosses, &c., in precious metals of the eleventh, twelfth, thirteenth, and succeeding 
centuries. Many of these objeeis are still in daily use. 1 have also seen some very 
fine cope "morses " made, in recent years, for use in English, Belgian, and German 
churches, designed by clever artists, and executed by skilled craftsmen. Small though 
they be, still ns objects of art, and specimens of the goldsmiths' and jewellers* work- 
manship, they are most remarkable, and worthy of attention. 


The Preservation and Custody of Local Records. — The following 
communication has been received on this subject : — 

" Treasury Chambers, "Whitehall, London, S.W. 
**30^A November, 1899. 

** Sir, 

" Local Records Committee, 

''The first Lord of the Treasury has appointed a Committee, consisting of the 
Right Hon. and Bight Rev. the Lord Bishop of London, Right Hon. J. Bryce, h.p., 
Sir Francis Mowatt, k.c.b., Sir H. Maxwell Lyte, k.c.b., Sir C. P. Ilhert, k.c.s.u, 
C.I.B., and Mr. S. E. Spring Rice, c.b., with instructions to inquire and report as 
to any an-angements now in operation for the collection, custody, indexing, and 
calendaring of local records, and us to any further measures which it may be adns- 
able to take for this purpose. 

'* With a view to eliciting information in regard to existing airangements for the 
custody of documents and suggestions for the future, the Committee have prepared 
two Schedules of queries, which hay^ been circulated to a number of local authorities ; 
but it has occurred to them that the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland, or some 
of its members, might also be disposed to assist in the matter, and they accordingly 
desire me to forward the enclosed duplicate copies of the Schedules, and to say that 
they would be glud of any ohservations which those Schedules may suggest to your 
Society, or any of its members. 

** I am. Sir, yours faithfully, 

*' Malcolm G. Ramsay, 

** Secretary. 
** The Secretary of 

** The Royal Society of Antiquariks or Ireland.'* 

The Schedules referred to are as follow : — 

I. With reference to existing arrangements in the place or district 
with which you are familiar, it would bo useful to know — 

1. What collections of documents relating to the history of the locality already 

exist ? What is the general nature of their contents P 

2. Are they in public or private custody ? 

3. In what building are they contained ? 

4. (a) Is the accommodation sufficient and satisfactory? In particular {b) is the 

building fireproof and dry, and {c) aie the rooms well lighted and otherwise 
adapted for the use of those who may wish to consult them f 

6. {a) Who are the custodians.** {b) By whom are they appointed? (c) What 
guarantees (if any) are there for the appointment of persons with proper 
qualifications P {d) How are they paid ? (e) Do they discharge any other 
functions ? 

6. What funds are available for the maintenance of the collection, or for adding 
to its contents ? 


7. (a) How are the documenta classified and arranged ? (6) Is there any list of or 

index to the contents of the collections ? {e) If so, is it written or printed ? 

8. To what date do tlie oldest documents go hack ? 

9. Hare any of them heen printed or calendared ? 

10. (a) At what times, and under whut conditions, are memhers of the puhlic 

allowed to inspect or copy documents in the collection P {b) Are there any 
niles about lending out documents ? (e) If so, have they worked well ? 

11. HaTO any of the documents, within your knowledge, been destroyed or injured 

by fire, damp, or other cause ? 

II. With reference to future arrangements, the foUo^ring questions, 
among others, appear to deserve consideration : — 

1. Is it desirable to establish throughout the country local offices, under public 

control, for the preservation, arrangement, and study of documents relating 
to the history and administration of the district P 

2. If BO, what local centres should be chosen ? and what authorities, local or 

central, should be entrusted with the duty of supervision ? 

3. What documents relating to local administration should be continuously pre- 

served ? 

4. What inducements can be offered to owners of documents of antiquarian yalue» 

whether general, ecclesiastical, local, or personal in their character, to place 
them in public custody ? 
It has been suggested that landowners, corporations, trustees of charities, and 
others might be willing to place title-deeds and other documents relating 
to local administration and history in the custody of local authorities, if it 
were made clear that they were so deposited for safe custody only, and that 
full rights of access, control, and removal would be reserved to the owner. 
Such an arrangement would, in fact, be not unlike that under which 
Government departments deposit departmental documents for safe custody 
in the Kecord Office. 

5. In what manner would it be expedient to dciil with documents such as parish 

registers, diocesan registers, churchwardens* accounts, old terriers, old 
manorial rolls, records of manoiial and local courts, old leases, old enclosure 
awards, maps, or others ? 

6. How can local collections bu best made available for the student P 

7. What Mould be the best mode of securing the sei-vices of competent custodians ? 

8. To what extent (if any) could local libraries, under public control, or managed 

by trustworthy local bodies, be made ubcf iil for the purposes of custody P 

To certain experts likely to be well acquainted with the subject, the 
following further question will be put : — 

What lessons are to be learat from foreign countries ? 

The Council have appointed a Coiimiittco to report on the matter 
referred to, and suggestions of members of the Society are invited. 

Congress of the Eoyal Archseological Institute of Great Britain, 
and Ireland. — The Hou. Secretary bus intimated, by letter dated 11th 
December, 1899, that the Koyal Arcbajological Institute has decided to 
visit Dublin next summer, probably at the end of July, and that the 


President and Council hope that the Council of the B. S.A.I, may be 
able to assist by suggestions for a programme. A reply lias been sent 
to the efPect that the Council will be happy to assist in the manner 
requested, and the use of the Society's Rooms will be offered to the 
visitors during their stay in Dublin. 

Clonfert Cathedral. — As requested by the Council on the last day 
of meeting, I had an interview with Mr. Fuller, who was good enough 
to show me the plans of Clonfert Cathedral, and to point out the works 
which had been carried out. The plans showed the arches leading into 
the transepts, which had come into view when the plaster was removed 
from the walls. The outlines of these arches are perfect, the opes 
having been built up in brick at some former period. It is clear, there- 
fore, that a north as well as a south transept did formerly exist, but no 
fiteps have been taken to rebuild it. As to the western doorway, it had 
been suggested to take down the inner members of it, which had been 
inserted in the fifteenth century, thereby enlarging the doorway to its 
original dimensions, and to erect the portion removed as an entrance to 
the baptistry, which immediately adjoins to the south of the entrance, 
but this suggestion has not been adopted, and the western doorway 
remains unaltered. 

As to the interior, the plaster was removed, and has not been 
replaced, the architect con sideling that it was not desirable, as the 
«tone dressings are flush with the faces of the masonry. The pointing 
of the masonry does not preclude the plastering of the walls being 
carried out at any future time. 

It may be well to point out that a heavy coat of original plaster is 
not to be found in any ancient church in Ireland, and where plaster 
does remain on the walls of any such building, it is almost invariably a 
mere skin of lime putty, which dies out on meeting the dressed stone. 

It therefore appears to nie that nothing has been done to Clonfert 
€uthedi*al which calls for action on the part of this Society. — Hichahd 
Lakgrishe, F.U.I.A.I., Member of Council, 

The Cairan Ogam Stone {A correction).— On the 19th of August last 
Mrs. Rhys and I, having some hours to spare at Kells, went to see the Ogam 
stone in the buiial-ground surrounding the ruined church of Cairan — I 
find that they call it Cairan's, not tSt. Cairan* s. I had visited it before 
with Mr. Cochrane, and examined the writing in a heavy downpour of 
rain : in fact we both got wet, especially Mr. Cochrane, in trying to 
read it. We had to raise it from a lying position, and we were unable to 
get it quite clean under the circumstances. It has ever since been 
standing as we put it, and it has been thoroughly cleaned by the 
weather : with this advantage and that of a very fine day, my wife and 


I soon discovered that I had committed a very Bcrious error in the read- 
ing. On turning to the Journal for 1898, p. 59, it will be found that I 
have practically given it thus : — 


No less than seven of the vowels were then guessed by me, partly or 
wholly, according to the spaces left them ; but now we were able to trace 
or place them exactly, except the % of maqui, where the third and 
fourth notch are gone, to which I shall return presently. My difficulty 
began this time with the first n of the above reading, and, on both of us 
repeatedly examining it, we found that it is not n at all but vag^ and 
that the whole reads thus : — 

-1111- ♦^ JJJ— »-^ IIIM " ' " ** / "*" ***** / * " -M>.»»M» ■■ III j^..^^^^y^ «fO«> 


The name Covagn- should yield Ciidn in later Irish, and Cuum occurs 
pretty frequently in the pedigrees in the Book of Leinster. The whole 
may accordingly be rendered {Lapia) Covagni filii Generis Lugunii or 
(*' the Stone) of Cuan, son of the kin of Luigni." I was much struck 
by the fact that the scores on the JZ-sidc of the edge and upwards as 
far as the apex are palpably deeper and less worn than those on the 
^-side. This suggests to me that the stone had been for a loug time in 
the wall of the little church, and so placed as to have the ^-side 
protected by stones built on it while the ^-side was exposed. Furtlier, 
I am inclined to think the apex on which the i of maqui had been cut, 
protruded slightly at an angle in the wall, so that the protruding 
part was neatly trimmed off by the mason, or smoothed away by eon* 
tinuous wearing. I should represent the original apex roughly thus : — 
The curve on which there should have been two vowel 
! / notches is gone, leaving the first, second, and fifth of the 
five to stand. It is particularly to be noticed that the 
space between the second and the fifth is rounded off 
* smooth, showing no breakage at all. Lastly, I may 
mention that I remarked in my previous account of the stone, that the 
scores of **the first » of Conni is badly spaced." I hope that the 
inscriber will be considered adequately avenged by this humble acknow- 
ledgment of mine, that the scores in question had never been intended by 
him to be read as w, and that the charge of carelessness I brought 
against him cannot be sustained, at any rate in this particular instance. 
I see now also that I cannot have paid attention to the photograph, hut 
I am not sure whether I had seen it when I wrote. — J. Rhys. 


Throwing- Stoaea or Hammer Stones (?). — Tbe two objects Ulustrated 
are made of a kiod of hard black, slatj: Umcstoiie. Both ore large pebbles; 
one side of each has been chipped into shape, and rather rudely polished, 
the other 

in its natural state. 
Their forms niay, 
roughly speakiiig, be 
described as lenticu- 
lar ; one side being 
more convex than tte 

The larger example 
is 3} inches in dia- 
meter and l-,'^ inches 
thiclc. It nFcighs 13 

ozs. for many years Put.ickatown Stone. 

it has been in the pos- 
session of Michael Fox, a farmer iu the townland of Patrickstown, 
Co. Meath, but he does not know where it was found. Owing to the 
varying hardness of the layers in the stone of which it is made, the 
natural side has been worn so as to present the appearance of approxi- 
mately concentric rings. The other side which is flutter is smooth all 
over, and has evidently been polished. The edge is a good deal battered. 
The smaller specimen was found at Lucan, Co. Lublin. In pro- 
portion to its diameter, it is much thicker than the last, its dimensions 
being 2} iuches by 1 j inches, and its weight 11 ozs. The edge is blunter 
than thiit of the latter .stone. These stones would suit very well for 
but it would hardly 
seem to be worth the 
maker's while to ex- 
pend the labour ne- 
cessary to shape and 
polish thtm with 
that end in view ; 
and although the 
same objection may 
be urged, I inclino 
to the belief that 
tliey were iiitendi-d 
Luofta Stone. ''>'^ throwing with 

the hand, their shBi)« 
and size being most admirably suited for that purpose. 

According to 'Windle, Irish literature gives several examples of the 
use of thro wing- stones, which were called " the warrior's stone," " the 

MI8C£LLAM£A. 429 

champion's flat stone," ^* the semi-flat stone of a soldier champion," etc. 
These stones appear to have been generally carried in a recess in the 
shield, and several instances of their use are given/ one being in a 
battle near Fore, supposed to have taken place in the first century B.C. 
It would appear that the two stones above illustrated are intermediatei 
so far as the workmanship expended on them goes, between the flint 
disc, stated by Col. Wood-Martin to be in the Museum of the lloyal Irish 
Academy, and illustrated at p. 386 of '* Pagan Ireland," and the rude, 
chipped flint, sling stones, mentioned by Sir J. Evans,' as of frequent 
occurrence in Northern England, especially near ancient encampments. — 


Commonplace Book relating to Ireland. — This curious Manuscript 
in the library of Trinity College (I., 1, 2) deserves to be better known 
to students of the state of Ireland in the reign of William III. Though 
containing much that is uncritical and fabulous, it also contains a large 
quantity of local information not to be found elsewhere. I give a brief 
table of contents with the pages : — 

" Hot springs, Lough Neagh, p. 2. Ei-uption of water from Lough 
Gariduff between Carlow and Wexford, August 27, 1693.' Ditto Sieve an 
Irun, r2th June, 1691, p. 25. Oily dew that fell on H. Peacock's farm. 
Limerick, 7th October, 1695, p. 26. Brevis d('Scrij»tio Wexfordiae ejus- 
dem excidii (*by a know not who '), p. 30. Wexford described, p. 41. 
Pilgrimages to Beg Erin, p. 43. Churches, their condition and patron 
saints ; gold chalice taken by Cromwellians, p. 48. Esmund family, 
p. 55. Wexford families, notes on tithes and assessments, p. 58. 
Graduates of T.C. D., 1625-86, p. 81. Population of Dublin, p. 82. 
Dublin Castle * in rubbish,' p. 84. The weakness of Kinsule, Cork, 
Limerick, and Athlone examined, also Deny, Cairickfergus, list of 
ordnance, &c., p. 85. Territory of West Connaught, 13th Februaiy, 
168J, by Mr. OTlaherty, p. 101. Leitrim, by Mr. Body, p. 139. The 
connogh worn by Mr. K. Dowdall, 1682, p. 145. Ardes Barony, Co. 
Down, by W. Montgomery, p. 149. Roscommon (Rathcroghan, Clonfree, 
Ac, p. 165), p. 158. Co. Down, p. 168. Antrim, p. 176. Remarkable 
wells in Antrim, p. 193. Down, p. 195. Antrim, p. 196 (curious scurri- 
lous poem on same page). Co. Donegal, p. 211 (Patrick's Purgatoiy, 
p. 215). Sir A. Chichester's epitaph, p. 216. Co. Clare, p. 224 
(O'Brien's lands, ancient monuments in Ennis Abbey, &c.) by Hugh 
Brigdall, p. 224. Co. Limerick, by D. Hignett, p. 239. Co. Cork, 
by R. Cox, p. 244. Co. Waterford, p. 258. Co. Kerry, p. 264. New 
Ross (1684), p. 267. Co. Wexford, by S. Richards, p. 283. Co. Kildart', 
p. 289. Co. Westmeath, by H. Penn, p. 299."— T. J. WEsxaorp. 

1 *' Life in Early Britain," p. 42, by Bertram C. A. Windle. 
' ** Ancient Stone Implement*,** chap, xviii. 
' Vide Journal^ vol. vi., p. 297 and note. 


Ballynilard Cross. — This cross is situated on the farm of Mr. 
William O'Brien in the townland of Ballynilard, about one mile from 
the town of Tipperary, and about 50 yards from the main road leading 
from Tipperary to Galbally. On the Ordnance Map it is simply marked 

There are no remains of any ancient buildings in the vicinity ; and 
the only well which I could find corresponding to the Holy Well of the 
Ordnance Map is the draw-well, about 10 yards from the cross used by 
Mr. O'Brien for supplying his cattle and house with water. 

I have been unable to learn from any of the clergy of the neighbour- 
hood of the existence' at any period of a burial-place in this townland. 
The upper portion of the field in which the cross stands shows some 
traces of having been built upon. Mr. O'Brien informed me that his 
uncle, a former tenant, about fifty years ago, removed several flags 
(possibly tombstones) from this portion of the field when constructing 
some drains. 

Close by the cross are its socket- stone and a rudely formed bullaun. 
Some sixteen years ago the cross was overturned by cattle ; and since 
that time has been simply fixed in the ground. It is composed of 
conglomerate, a formation which does not occur nearer than 10 miles 
from Ballynilard. The dimensions are : height, 5 feet ; breadth across 
the arms, 2 feet 7 inches. The upper portion of the obverse side is 
rudely decorated with five bosses and four corresponding indentations. 
On the reverse side there are four indentations but no bosses. 

Rev. D. Hanan, d.d., some years ago, had a photograph of this 
cross taken, and forwarded to the late Rev. D. Murphy, s.j., a very 
short time before the death of that eminent authority, who expressed 
great interest in the matter, but, unfortunately, was never able to visit 
Ballynilard. — A. P. Morgan. 

Tombstone in Ardfert Friary. — The difficulty regarding the tomb- 
stone in Ardfert which puzzled Miss Hickson may easily be solved. 
Mr. Wakeman correctly ventures the solution that it is the tomb of " a 
bishop or a mitred abbot." There is no doubt but that it is an effigy of 
an ecclesiastic ; this is evident from the crook. The theory put forward 
by Miss Hickson cannot stand, for a moment, namely, that the effigy 
probably represents Sir Gerald Fitz Maurice, 4th son of Maurice, 2nd 
Lord of Kerry, and Grand Prior of the Knights Templars in Ireland at 
the time of the abolition of the Order. 

Now, as a matter of fact, neither Priors nor Grand Priors of the 
Templars had even quasi-episcopal jurisdiction. They were frequently 
mere clerics, not even priests, and were not ** blessed" as abbots, or 
'* consecrated" as bishops; consequently they arc never represented 
with a mitre and crozier. 


Whilst Mr. Wakeman says that the monnment '* probably dates from 
the fifteenth century," Mr. Drew is of opinion that ** it may date from 
the latter half of the fourteenth century." Now the effigy of the abbot 
in question is undoubtedly of the fourteenth century ; and Miss Hickson 
equates }na pectoral cross with '*a badelaire or baselard." Her surmise 
that the surrounding figures are ** those of mourning relatives or friends " 
is absurd ; and Mr. Wakeman correctly says that each of those heads hat 
a nimhus, clearly indicating the saints of God. 

The only question really is, who was the mitred abbot, whose effigy 
remains as a mute testimony of his rule ? My own impression is that it 
represents Thomas, fifth son of Lord Kerry, who was Cistercian Abbot of 
Fermoy ; and also had Odomcy in eommendam, Archdall writes : '4303. 
Maurice, Lord Kerry, died in this year; at which time Thomas, hisffth 
son, governed the ahheys of Fermoy and Odomey,'*^ This Thomas was, 
therefore, a Cistercian abbot ; and he was interred with many members 
of his family at Ardfert Friary. I may add that the entire suppression 
of the Knights Templars in Ireland did not take place till 1312. — W. H. 
Okattan Flood. 

Blackstairs or Knock Brandnfft — Mr. Orpen has written an interest- 
ing Paper on the above, and many of his conclusions are well worked out. 
Mount Leinster was formerly known as Sliahh Suidhe Laighen, and 
Scollagh Gap was called Barna-Seumhal or Bamascool - the gap of the 
steep ascent or gap of the hill-side. Kennedy, however, gives it as 
^^ Bama Seoltaeh = a rift or cleft ; the picturesque pass between Black- 
stairs and Mount Leinster." Just as we have Bamanely anglicised as 
"the Devil's Bit," so we have Barnascumhal called ** Scollagh Gap." 

I think there is scarcely a doubt regarding Knock Branduff and 
Blackstairs, though the name of the townland at the foot of Blackstairs, 
a few miles from Newtownbarry, is Knock Brandon, The very proximity 
to the Black Eock Mountain seems to bear out the traditional association 
of King Bran Dubh with this part of the country. Carrig i)i(^ equates 
with Black Hock, which is close to Newtownbarry, and about four miles 
from Blackstairs. 

Regarding the river Boro, the late Mr. Kennedy wrote that its name 
was equivalent to " a babbling stream," and not from any reference to 
the Boromean tribute. I may add that the first syllable of Boro is 
always long, as is also the first o in Castleboro. He continues : — ** From 
the Blackstairs, the brawling Urrin runs down through woodland and 
meadow, till it falls into the Slaney below Enniscorthy ; and from Mam- 
a-Cnlliagh, between the White Mountain and Blackstairs, and near the 
entrance of Cahir RuadhU Den, flows the Boro nearly parallel to the 
Urrin, but drawing closer as it proceeds, till it also joins the Slaney at a 
lower or more southern point than the other." Here I may observe that 

JOUB. R.8.A.I., VOL. IX., PT. XV., 5tH BBR. 2 H 


Mam-a-Calliagh (literally, *• the breasts of the old women ") means tlie 
mountain defile not far from Blacks tairs. 

Templeshanbo was founded by St. Aidan, to whom it was given by 
King Bran Dubh ; and the patron saint of Ferns subsequently appointed 
St. Colman O'Fiachra its first abbot, whose ohit is chronicled on October 
27th, 595. Bran Buhh was slain at Ferns in the year 605. Professor 
Rhys tells us that the tribe or clan of the Sine were the Begaith Mae Sin^ 
who lived in North "Wexford. 

Certain it is that a branch of the Siol Brain for centuries lived in the 
district known to this day as "the Duffrey,*' and which formerly 
embraced Templeshanbo and Enniscorthy. Maurice Began tells us that 
** O'Byme of the Duffrey conspired against Strongbow, although he had 
given hostages.'* Eochaidh Airgtiach is said to have been slain in the 
DufErey, a.d. 285 ; but this event occurred near Larne, Co. Antrim. 
Compare also the analogous name Cromogue, from St. Mogue. — "W. H. 
Grattan Flood. 

Barry O'Meara. — I am desirous of obtaining information regarding 
the ancestry and descendants of this notable Irishman. He was son of 
Jeremiah O'Meara, who is variously said to have been a lawyer and a 
military man. A Jeremiah O^Meara had a grant of a crest and a confir- 
mation of arms, from Ulster, in 1775. Can any of your readers inform 
me if he was Barry G'Meara's father, and, if so, if any details of the 
grantee's ancestors are in the confirmation and grant? Barry O'Meara's 
second wife was Lady Leigh, whose career is known to me. Who was 
his first wife? The family, I believe, owned valuable property at Black- 
rock. It is surprising how little appears to be known of the family his- 
tory of a man who acquired such notoriety. I am aware of the memoirs 
of him and his granddaughter in the Dictionary of National Biography. 
— C. M. Tenison, Fellow, 

( 433 ) 

^otitt^ ol 9i3ooft$4 

[NoTB. — The Works marked thus {*) are by Members of the Society. "] 

Reeordi of the General Synod of Ulster from 1691 to 1820. In three 
Volumes. Volume m., 1778-1820. (Belfast, 1898.) 

The Historical Committee of the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church of Ireland has done well in publishing the old Minutes of the 
Synod of Ulster. Issued in three volumes, they cover the period from 
1691 till 1820, and they can be obtained, for 6«. %d, a volume, at the 
Assembly's Offices, 12, May-street, Belfast. The first volume was issued 
in 1890, and the last has lately appeared. 

Like all other minutes, they are a record of business transacted. 
From them we can easily see the matters which came up for considera- 
tion before the Supreme Court of the Presbyterian Church of Ireland 
during the ])eriod which they cover. 

A good deal of this business is, doubtless, purely ecclesiastical, with 
which, as a Society, we have nothing to do, but, besides this, there is 
much of general importance. There are, for example, many applica- 
tions for pecuniary assistance — sometimes to relieve captives with the 
Turks, sometimes to assist private individuals, and sometimes for cases 
of public charity. As an example of the latter, there is a petition 
from the town of Omagh when it was accidentally burned. This record 
is peculiarly interesting, as it fixes 1742 as the date of that catastrophe, 
although 1743 is the date given by the ordinary histories of the town. 

In the last-issued volume there are several allusions to the disastrous 
rebellion of '98. For example, in 1798, this record : — ** Mr. Ja'. Porter 
was executed at Grayabby on 2** of July, in Consequence of the sentence 
of a Military Tribunal which sat at Newtonards. He left a Widow 
and Family." 

Next year (1799) the following occurs: — ** Belfast Prcsb. report, 
That the Hev*. Tho'. L. Birch, and the llcv'^. Jas. Simpson, being 
charged with Seditious Practices, were permitted by Government to 
leave the kingdom. . . . That Mr. Archibald "Warrick, a probationer 
under care of the Presbytery, having been found guilty of Treason by a 
Military Tribunal, was executed at Kirkcubbin, in the month of Oct'. 

" Bangor Presb. report, That Messrs. Jas. Hull, John Miles, and 
David "Warden, lately licentiates of their Presbytery, having been 




charged with being concerned in the Insurrection of June 1798, and 
not having stood their Tryals, but aa thev understand having sailed for 
America, are not to be considered as probationers under their care. 
They further report that the Rev. Dr. Wm. Steel Dickson, hath been 
from the beginning of June 1798 a State prisoner, and is now at Fort 
(George in the Highlands of Scotland." 

** Tyrone Presb, report .... that Mr. Charles Wallace, being 
charged with Treason and Sedition, got leave to transport himself to 
America, and is not now under the care of the Presbytery." 

From these entries, it will be plainly seen that there is much of 
general interest and importance contained in these pld volumes. It is 
to be hoped that the Assembly's Committee will continue its work of 
publishing the numerous ecclesiastical records of the Presbyterian 
Church, as many of them are in danger of perishing. The old records 
of the Secession Synod, sorrowful to relate, have disappeared from the 
Library of the Presbyterian Church. 

W. T. Latiueb. 

The Cathedral Builders : The Story of a Great Masonic Guild, By Leader 
Scott. Royal 8vo, 454 pages, 80 full page illustrations. Price 21«. 
(London: Sampson Low, Marston, & Co., Limited.) 1899. 

This work is an interesting and valuable contribution to the elucidation 
of much that was obscure in the history and symbolism of early 
Christian art and architecture in Europe, and their later developments. 

The chief feature of the work is the singularly clear account which 
is given of a guild of master builders who lived on the island of Comacina 
on Lake Como, and were called '' Comacines " ; and the attempt of the 
author is to show that with this band of workers from 500 to 1200 origi- 
nated all the Italian art of the period, and from it all the. Gothic architec- 
ture of Europe. There may be some difference of opinion as to whether 
the author does not claim too much for this particular guild, and it is 
more likely that the view will be adopted that while the Comacine mas- 
ters were an important factor, in designing and erecting. the buildings of 
the period, there may have been other Guilds of Masons as well. 

The first historical record of the activity of the Comacine Masons is 
in the edict of King Rotharis, dated 22 November, a.d. 643, brought to 
light by the archseologist Muratori. 

There is a clause in this edict (Art. 144) relating to the conditions for 
compensation and liability to accidents in buildings under erection by the 
members of the guild. 

In the present day when we have a ** Workmen's Compensation Act '* 
passed in 1898, and since the date of its passing upwards of a thousand 
cases have been tried in the Courts of Law in the attempt to discover what 

t Tanul at S. AMimoGio, Milam. 


it means, it is interesting to turn to the seven 11 1 -century law on the 
subject : — 

*' Art. 144 of the engaging ot hiring of Magistri. If any person has engaged 
or hired one or more of tlie Comaoine Masters to design a work (conduxerit ad 
operam dictandum), or to daily assist his workmen in huilding a palace or a house, 
and it should happen hy reason of the house some Comacine should be killed, the 
owner of the house is not considered responsible ; but if a pole or a stone shall 
kill or injure any extraneous person, the Master builder shall not bear the blame, 
but the person who hired him shall make compensation.*' 

The author has drawn largely from a work on the subject by Professor 
Guiseppe Merzario, called Maestri Comacini\ published at Milan in 1893. 

The existence of the guild under tlie Longobard rule having been 
proved, and their intimate connexion with and responsibility for the erec- 
tion of the most famous buildings of thcLomburdic type, the author goes 
on to show the numerous foreign emigrations of the Comacine Masons and 
establishes the Norman and German link. 

An interesting cliapter on the origin of Saxon architecture by the 
author's brother, the He v. \V. Miles Dames, tends to show that the 
Comacines were the survival of the Koman Collegia, and that when 
8t. Augustine came to England he brought architects and masons with 
him, and that these would be chosen from the Comacines then firmly 
established under the patronage of the Popes. 

For Irish archaeologists, the most interesting theory is that developed 
in the chapter on the Hound Towers and Crosses of Ireland, whereby a 
Comacine influence is shown in the ornament of our Crosses. The 
interlaced work, so long considered as peculiarly Celtic, is shown to be 
purely Comacine, and wliether known as the Italian intreccio, meandro^ 
or *' Solomon's knot," it is the distinguishing badge of the Comacine 

The author, in this connexion, savs at page 82 : — 

'* In studying the scrolls and ge(mictrical decoration of the Comacines, one 
immediately perceives that the intreccio ^ot interlaced work is one of their special 
marks. I think it would be difficult to find any church or sacred edifice, or even 
altar of the Comacine work under the Longobards which is not signed, as it 
were, by some curious interlaced knot or meander, formed of a single tortuous 
line. The Comacine believed in his mystic knot ; to him it was a sign of the 
inscrutable and infinite ways of God whose nature is unity. The traditional 
name of these interlacings among Italians is ' Solomon's knot.* " 

In the ** Journal of the Kildare Archaeological Society," vol. i., page 
240, Mr. P. C. Cooke Trench, in an interesting paper on interlaced Celtic 
work, draws attention to the continuity of the strand which follows the 
** under and over " direction alternately throughout, and in this respect 
is similar to the Comacine work. In the description of the sculptured 
figures around the doorway of the Church of San Michele, Pavia, there 
are examples of almost every type to be seen in an Irish cross, and in 
many of these groups are things which at first sight do not seem to be 


connected with Christianity. In this respect, there is a striking 
similarity to the sculptures in the Holed Cross of Moone, descrihed by 
Lord Walter Fitzgerald, at page 385, ante. 

As regards the suggested origin of the Round Towers, the author 
thinks that at the time of the Irish Missionaries, when St. Fredianus 
became Bishop of Lucca, and St. Columban was abbot of Eobbio, they 
erected churches and monasteries there, and that it would be reasonable 
to suppose that they counselled the employment of similar workmen in 

By the courtesy of the publishers, illustrations are given of the 
interlaced work, and of the Round Tower attached to the Church of 
St. Apollinare in Classe, Kavenna. 

The autlior has attempted to deal with an enormous quantity of 
material ; whole chapters are devoted to the work of different Lodges of 
Freemasons ; that on the Sienna Lodge, extending over the period from 
A.D. 1259 to A.D. 1423, during which time there are entries regarding 
67 master masons, most of whom were employed at the building of 
Sienna Cathedral. Families are followed up for centuries, sons follow- 
ing their fathers in the Guilds, first as novices, then as masters. 

The author is a lady who has spent much time in Florence, and who 
has made a study of Italian art and architecture. The work slie has 
now produced is one of altogether singular value, and it shows a breadth 
of view in the main features, with a patient industry in working out 
details and dates which is unusual ; the result is a work greatly in 
advance of ianything that has been produced in recent yeara in archi- 
tectural literature. The book will no doubt run to a second edition, 
which will afford an opportunity of regrouping some of the subjects and 
chapters, and some of the matter, though important, could be placed in 
an appendix. 

* The Rietory and Antiquities of Tallaghtf in the County of Dublin. By 
William Domville Handcock, m.a. Second Edition, revised and 
enlarged. (Dublin : Hodges, Figgis, & Co., Ltd.) Price 3«. net. 

Miss White has done good service in bringing out a second edition of 
her uncle's well-known work on Tallaght, and has taken advantage of 
the opportunity of rectifying some defects which existed in the first 
edition. The revision has been carried out with much discretion and 
judgment, and a number of valuable footnotes and an appendix are 
added. The ancient history of the locality is carefully traced, and the 
description of the town, castle, and palace of Tallaght in former days 
is brightened by several engravings on wood, by Mr. Hanlon. Belgard, 
Tymon Castle, Kilnamanagh, and Old Bawn, are each dealt with in an 
interesting manner, and all the antiquities of this extensive district are 



The Fourth General Meeting of the Society for the year 1899 was 
held in Kilkenny on Tuesday, 10th October, at 8 o'clock, p.m. ; 

Edward Perceval Wright, m.a., m.d., v.r.i.a., v.-p. r.i.a., Viee- 

President, in the Chair. 

The following took part in the proceedings : — 

Feilawt. — The Rev. Canon fPrench, m. r.i.a., Vicc'Ii-etident ; Bobert Cochrane,. 
F.8.A., M.R.i.A., Jlon. Gen. iSecrelary ; P. M. £gan, j.p., Son. Local Secretary^ 
Kilkenny ; Colonel Philip D. Vigors, j.p., Hon, Local Seeretary, Co. Carlow. 

Members. — Michael J. C. Buckley ; Thomaa Hall ; the Very Rev. Thomas Hare, 
D.D., Dean of Ossory ; the Rev. Canon Hewson, b.a.' ; Miss Hynes; Mrs. Einloch ; 
Charles M*Neill; George Shackleton; Mrs. J. F. Shackleton ; Mrs. E. W. Smyth; 
John Willoughby ; Miss E. £. Younge. 

The Minutes of the Third General Meeting were read and confirmed. 

The following Candidates, recommended by the Council, were 
declared duly elected: — 

Corcoran, Miss, The Chestnuts, Mulgrave-road, Sutton, Surrey : proposed by Robert 

Cochrane, p.8.a.,, Hon, General Sefretary, 
Darley, Arthur, 15, Pembroke- road, Dublin: proposed by D. J. 0*Donoghue. 
Darle)', Henry Warren, 15, Pembroke -road, Dublin : prQposed by D. J. O'Donoghue. 
Evans, Mrs., 87, Ecelest on-square, London, S.W. ; and Moville, Co. Donegal: 

proposed by the Rev. J. H. P. Gosselin, b.a. 
Fleming, Miss H. S. G., Pallisade House, Oinagh : proposed by W. R. Scott, m.a.. 

Harding, ^ev. Charles William, m.a.. Canon, The Rectory, Droniore, Co. Down : 

proposed by the Rev. Canon Lett, m.a., m.r.i.a. 
Kinloch, Mrs., Kilfane House, Thomastown : proposed by Henry A. S. Upton, Fellow. 
M*Clintock, Miss Gertrude, Kilwarlin House, Hillsborough : proposed by John 

Ribton Garstin, m.a., f.s.a., v.-p. k.i.a.. Fellow. 
Trimble, Andrew, m.ii., b. ch., 2, Violet-terrace, Crumlin-road, Belfast: proposed 

by S. W. All worthy, m.a., m.d. 

The following Papers were read, and referred to the Council : — 

''Notes on an Ancient Bell and its Composition found at Kilmainham,'' by Edward 
Perceval Wright, m.a., m.d., m.r.i.a., Vice-Fresident. 

**6old Discs" (Cloyne, Co. Cork), by Dr. Wright, for Mr. Robert Day, f.s.a., 
M.R.I.A., Fellow. 

"The Verdons of Louth," by Mr. Cochrane, for Mr. W. H. Grattan Flood. 

** Ballyniland Cross, Co. Tipperarj*," by Mr. Cochrane, for Mr. A. P. Morgan, b.a. 


Mr. John Willougliby exhibited an Indian Prayer Bell, with large 
clapper, worked by the wind when the bell was suspended. 

Votes of thanks were passed to Mr. P. M. Egan, FelloWf Hon. Local 
Secretary^ for the arrangements made by him for carnages and lunch, 
and to the Rev. Canon Hewson for the Papers read by Lim at Gowran 
and Tullaherin. 

The Meeting then adjourned to Tuesday eveniog, 31st October, 

Mr. P. M. Egan, Hon, Local Secretary^ arranged the Excursion for 
Tuesday. The party left Kilkenny at 9.30 a.m., and drove to Gowhax, 
where the Church, which contains several ancient sepulchral monu- 
ments, among them that of the first Earl of Ormonde, who was buried 
there in January, 1337, was visited. With the Church was formerly 
connected a College of four vicars. The Castle was destroyed in March, 
1649-60, after its capture by the Parliamentary army under Colonel 
John Hewfion. The Rev. Canon Hewson read a Paper here on the 
** Ancient Church and Monuments." 

TuLLAHEBiN was ucxt visitcd, where are the ruins of a large Church, 
a Round Tower (** The Steeple of Tulla"), 73 feet high, and a stone 
with Ogham inscriptions. The Rev. Canon Hewson read a Paper liere 
desciiptiTC of the local antiquities. 

Thence the party proceeded to Tuomastown, and visited the ancient 
Church, and, after luncheon, a visit was paid to the ruins of the 
Cistercian Abbey of Jerpoint. The party returned to Kilkenny at 
6.30 p.m., and the members dine^ together at the Club House Hotel. 


An Evening Meeting of the Society was held at the Rooms, 
6, St. Stephen's-green, Dublin, on Tuesday, 31st October, at 8 o'clock, 
p.m. ; 

Thomas Dhew, Esq., b.h.a., Vice-President for Leinsier, in the Chair. 

The following Papers were read, and refeiTed to the Council for 
publication : — 

** Ancient Records of the Dublin Guild of Merchants, 1438-1671," by Henry F. 
Berry, i^i.A. (Illustrated by lantern slides, and the exhibition of some records of 
the Guild.) 

*' The Antiquities of Castle Bernard, King's County," by the Rev. Sterling deCourcy 
Williams, m.a. (Illustrated by lantern slides.) 

The Society then adjourned until Tuesday, 28th November, 1899. 


P1(0C£EDINGS. 439 


An Eyening Meeting of the Society was held at the Society's Rooms, 
6, St. Stephen*8-green, Dublin, on Tuesday, 28th November, at 8.15 
o'clock, p.m. ; 

Thomas Drew, Esq., u.h.a., Vice-President, in tlie Chair. 

Lantern Slides, illustrating the Society's Tour in Scotland, from 
Photographs taken by Mrs. Shackleton and others, were exhibited 
and described by Mr. Westropp. 

The following Paper was read, and referred to the Council for 
publication : — 

" The Antiquitiefl of Inchcleraun in Lough Bee, Co. Longford,*' by F. J. Bigger, 
M.K.X.A. (Illustrated by lantern slides.) 

The following Papers were taken as read, and referred to the 
Council for publication : — 

" MonJutown Castle, near Dublin, and its History,*' by F. EIrington Ball, M.&.X.A. 
'*New Beadings of the Drumloghan Ogam-stones," by Principal Bhys, ll.d. 

The Society then adjourned until the Annual Meeting in January. 


Pag© 11, line 16 of note, for ** Attagh," read " Magb.** 

,, 46, hne 22, for ** Bigherewn," read ** Big hereim *' ; line 23, for ** nderna- 
dacumdacb, " r^a<f ^'ndernadda cumdach." [N.B. — In the original Irish 
text from the ** Book of Burrow " (given on page 46), there are many 
peculiarities in the use of capital letters, divisions of the words, and 
spelling. The caligrapby is perfectly distinct.] 


Abbeys : see Monastenes. 

Abbots, Pictish, at Durrow, 219; of 

Holycross, 30 ; of O'Dorney, 431. 
'* Adam and Ere stone/' 126. 
Adlercron, Lieut. -Gen. (1766), 235. 
Aenghus Cinnatbracb {e. 430), 245. 
Aenghus, son of Huamore (first century), 

66, 376. 
Agbaward, Longford, 67. 
Aidan, St., 432. 

Alexander, James, ofHaphoe (1681), 408. 
Alms dishes, 292. 
Amber beads, 413. 
America, Irish settlenr, 412. 
Anderson, J., 149. 
Annadown, Bishop of, 418. 
Antiquaries, Royal Society of Ireland ; 

new rooms, 83 : see Proceedings ; 

Museum, 132. 
Antrim county, 121 ; old account, 429. 
Apples, legend, 229. 
Aran Isles (Gal way), 10, 11, 66. 
Archaeological Institute of Great Britain 

and Ireland, Royal ; congress, 425. 
Archbishops of Dublin, 1, 100-101, 

Archer, family, 28-31. 
Ardchain, Tiree, 192. 
Ardes, barony of {temp. William III.), 

Ardfen Friary, 430. 
Argyll, Duke of, his grant of lona, 317. 
Armagh, visited, 365 ; old account, 429. 
Arrooy, Antrim, 121. 
Arms : see Heraldic arms. 
Assaroe, name of, 24. 
Athenry, Galway, 109. 
Atkinson, £. D., 77. 
Augustinians, 133. 
Auk, great, bones of, 161. 
Aulaff, a Danish king, 97. 

Baine, a fairy, 23. 
Bairche's ben, 26. 
Ball, Francis Elrington, Fellow, 81 : 

papers, 93, 233, 436. 
Ballinastragh, "Wexford, 405. 

Ballykinvarga, Clare, 384. 

Ballymount, Duhlin, 98. 

Ballynilard, Tipperary, 429, 430. 

Bally voumey, Cork, 415-416. 

Baptism disturbed (1678), 410. 

Barnaneely, Devil's Bit, 431. 

Bamewall, 96. 

Barrow river, name, 23 ; canoe found in, 

Basin stones, 404, 405. 

Baur cromlechs, Co. Clare, 369. 

Bawnawla, St., 254. 

Becan, St., 259. 

Beg Erin pilgrimages (e. 1695), 429. 

Belfast, Society meets at, 349, 351. 

Belgard, Dublin, 98. 

Bell, silver, 223 ; notes on ancient, 

Bennett, Richard, 75. 

Beranger, Gabriel, his notes, 97, 105. 

Bemeen, Clare, 380, 381. 

Berrv, Henry^ 72. 

Bibliography of Scotch tour, 144. 

Bicknor, Archbishop, 100. 

Birds, satirical, 25. 

Birroaqui ogam, 399. 

Black, Charles, 11 ; Fellow, 81, 92. 

Blackstaiis, or Knock Brandulf, 431. 

Blanaid, wife of Curoi, 6. 

Books presented to Society, 87 ; minute 
of presbytery of Loggan, 407 ; notices 
of, 72, 263, 433 ; Commonplace, relat- 
ing to Ireland, 429 ; of Durrow, 46. 

Boro river, 431. 

Breinter Fermacach, Clare, 244. 

Brenanstown, Dublin, 243. 

Brereton, R. W., 61. 

Brocha in Scotland, 207, 296, 301. 

Bro|^ar stone circles, Orkneys, 280. 

Bronze, sword, 89 ; caldron, 256. 

Buckley, M. J. C, 420. 

Buick, Rev. G., 149, 324. 

Bulkeley, William (1735), 56, 105. 

Bull bait in Kilkenny, 31. 

BuUan, Co. Wexford, 404, 405. 

Burren, county Clare, prehistoric remains 
of, 366, 384. 

By me: sec 0' Byrne. 



Oahcrs, or stone forts, 367, 384 ; on cliffs, 
377; Caberanardurrish, Glare, 378,380; 
Cahercaslilaun, Clare, 377 : Cahercom- 
inaun, Clai*e, 383 ; Caherconnell, Clai-e, 
374, 375 ; Caherconree, Kerry, 6-17. 

Cahercuitine, Clare, 383 ; Caherlisan- 
anima, Clare, 371; Caherlisaniska, 
Clare, 371 ; Caherliscolmanvara, Clnvf, 
370 ; Caherlisnanroum, Clare, 370 ; 
Cahemamweela, Clare, 378. 

Cairan, Ognm, Meath, 426. 

Caims, 367-369, 381. 

Caithness, Scotland, brochsin, 296, 301. 

Caldron, bronze, 266-267. 

Callemish stone circles, Scotland, 268, 

Canna Island, Hebiides, 198. 

Canoe found in BaiTow, 406. 

Carmaig, St., cburch of, Eilean M<$r, 303, 

Carnbower cairn, 381. 

CaiTan, Clare; prebistoric remains, 381, 

Carrique family, 64-66. 

Carvings, prebistoric, 260-261. 

Cosbel on Slievenacalliagb, 267. 

Casblaungar fort, Clare, 383. 

Castlebemard, King's County, 438. 

Castlemarlyr, mace uf , 264 ; gold found, 

Castles, 95, 98, 201, S20, 340. 

*« Caibedral Builders," 434. 

Cathedrals, Armagb, 365. 

Clonfert, 425. 

Dublin, 1,133. 

lona, 317. 

Kirkwall, 287. 

Cattle folk-lore, 26. 
Cavun county, ogiims, 390. 

Cuves of Ki'lcorney, 367, 368: see also 

Celt found. 404. 
Ccnnatbrach, bill over Incbiquin Lake, 

Clare, 245. 
Cera, St., 66. 
Chafing dish, 89. 

Chalice regilt, 93 ; Archer, 29 ; gold, 429. 
Charity, bow collected (1680), 409. 
Cbarlemoiit, Lord, 234. 
Charter vesting lona Catbedral in Trus- 
tees, 817. 
Chess in Ireland, 127. 
Chicbester, family cpitapb, 428. 
Cbiinney -piece, uldbawn, 105. 
Christie, K. W., 259. 
Churches ancient, 99, 101, 302-303, 336, 

Cingdom, Curoi's builder, 11. 
Circles of stones : (-lare, 381 ; Scotland, 

268, 269. 
Cists, 99, 380 ; burial, 383 ; double, 369, 

370 ; Ballynastragb, 405. 
Clare county, 127, 224 ; forts, number of, 

383 ; old acfount, 429. 

Clare, county, pbotograpbs of, 62. 

Prebistoric remains, 367, 884. 

Clocbauns, 329-332. 
Cloister arcade, 166. 
Clondalkin, Dublin, 93, 96. 

Clonfert Catbedral restorations, 426. 

Clonmacnoise, monumental slabs, list of, 

family fights witb Durrow, 230. 

Clonsillagh crannoge, Wexfonl, 405. 

Cloyne, Cork, gold ornaments, 413. 

Cocbrane, Kobert, 390, 426 

Coffey, George, lecture, 92. 

Coillabotas ogam, 402. 

Coll Island, Scotland, 196. 

Colonsay Island, Scotland, 161. 

Columba, St., pillow-stone, 160, 173, 

Comacine Guild of Masons, 434. 

Comyn, John, Arcbbisbop of Dublin, 1 ; 
of Clare, 368. 

Connal Ceaniacb, 6. 

Oonnaugbt, kings of, 133; old accounts 
of, 428. 

** Connogb " worn, 429. 

Connor ogams, 349. 

Coolnatullagb, Clare, 382. 

Cooke, J., 149. 

Corb ogam, 390, 391, 402. 

Cork, mace of, 264 ; gold ornaments, 
found at Cloyne, 413; silver collar 
presented by Queen Elizabetb, 416; 
old account of, 429. 

Com milling, history of, 76. 

Corp Naomb shrine, 36-37, 420. 

Coskeam hill and fort, Clare, 381. 

Covagni ogam, 427. 

Cragballyu)noal, Clare, 371-373. 

Crannoge, stone, 32 ; Clonsillagh, Wex- 
ford, 404. 

Cratloe, Clare, rent, 262. 

Ci-eganennagb, Clare, 381. 

Crinitbann, Ardrigh (fourth century), 

Crofters' cottages, 319, 331, 334. 

Ci-oker, T. Crolton, quoted, 413. 

Cromlechs, Antrim, 353, 355 ; Clare, 368, 
382 ; Dublin, 105 ; Mayo, 62 ; Stennis, 
Orkney, 281 ; Marks of hammer on, 

Cromwell, Henry, his bouse, in Dublin, 

Crosses high, 133, 244 ; Moone, 386, 389 ; 
Scottish, 152, 153, 154, 159, 168, 170, 
171, 179, 187, 191, 199, 200, 276, 309, 
343, 345 ; Patrick's crosses, 36, 43,420 ; 
rude-stone, 373; incised, 117, 120. 

Crowe family, Clare, 244, 246. 

Croxden, Annals of, 417. 

Crozier of Durrow, 60. 

Crumlin, Dublin, 93. 

Cryptic, element in ogams, 62. 

CucbuUin, 6, 20. 

Cullinan family, Clare : see O'Cullinan. 



CummiaD, Paschal letter, 45. 
Cunacena and Cunalegea ogam, 396. 
Cup of Dunvegan (1493), 207, 321, 

Curoi mac Daire, 5. 
Curaitor, James W., 136, 280, 341. 

Dalkey, in, 760, 240. 

Danes : see Norsemen. 

Bay, Robert, 413. 

Dea : see O'Dea. 

Deagus ogam, 401. 

Deelin, Clare, 374. 

Denaveca ogam, 400. 

Deer, red. antlers, 406. 

DeUin, near Malihide, Dublin, 24. 

Derbrenn's swine, 26. 

Derrymore, Tulla, Clare, 370. 

De Verdon : see Verdon. 

Dindsenchas, Notes on the Rennes copy, 

Disc, gold, 415, 437. 

Dix, £. R. M'C, 61 ; on Castles of 
DubUn, 97, 125, 127. 

Dolmens : see Cromlechs. 

Dolphin family, 93. 

Donaghcloney, 77. 

Donegal, old account, 429. 

Down County, 360 ; old accounts, 429 ; 
Ardea, 428. 

Doyle, Rev. R. B., Fellow, 82. 

Dnigon, carving of, 284. 

Drew, Robert, his repentance, 412 ; 
Thomas, 1, 90, 91, 438, 439. 

Drimnagh, DubUn, 95. 

Drumbo, Antrim, 356, 359. . 

Drumloghan, ogams, 390, 436. 

Dubhthach Ua Luguir, territory, 404. 

Dublin, county excursion, 93 ; Monks- 
town, 233, 243 ; castle, 429. 

Dublin city : Cathedral of St. Patrick 
de insula, 1 ; Christ Church Cathedral, 
133; city in 1735, 56; CromwelFs 
House, 57 ; Guild of Merchants (1438, 
16, 11), 435 ; Liberty of St. Sepulchre, 
Moira House, 113 ; Meetings of Society 
at, 80-88, 129, 133,437^; Old houses, 
photographs, 62 ; Swords of, 264 ; 
Well of St. Patrick, 3. 

Dun Aenghus, Aran, 66, 67. 

Dun Carloway Bro«:h, Scotland, 270, 271, 

Dun Ceammna, Old Head of Einsale, 

Dun Crimthann, Howth, 27. 

Dun Domhnuill, Scotland, 163. 
Dunleary (in 1760), 239. 

Dunvegan Castle, Skye, 201, 320. 

Durrow, Termon of. King's County, 44, 

Book of, 44. 

Dysert O'Dea, Clare, cross, 246, 

Eanty forts, Co. Ckre, 367, 370, 371. 
Earthquake, supposed, 106. 
Earthworks, 67, 346 : see also Raths. 
Ecclesiological notes, 420. 
Egilsha, Orkneys, round tower, 293. 
Kilean M6r, ArgylUhire, 302, 313. 
Kilean M6r : see Flannan Isles. 
Elizabeth, Queen, gives silver collar to 

Mayor of Cork, 415. 
Elk, Irish, 406. 
Elrington, Robert (1760), 239. 
Elton, John, 75. 
Emania, Annagh, visited by R.S.A.I., 


Ennis, Clare, old account, 429. 

Enniscorthy, History of, 263. 

Erne, Lough, name, 23. 

Esmond**, Sir T. 11., 404,406; family, 

Espinasse family, 243. 
Evans, Edward, on old Dublin houses, 

Excursions, 133, 266, 438. 

Fairs, anciently held at chiefs graves, 369. 

ifrencb, Canon J. F. M., 90. 

Fieragh, Patrick (1715), 103. 

Finan, anchorite, 231. 

FinglHS, Kerry, 5-6. 

Fires lit on cromlechs, 370. 

Fits Gerald, Walter Reagfa, 91. 

Lord Walter, 385. 389. 

George, opens cist, 383. 

Fits Maurice, 430. 
Flannan, St., of Killaloe, 266. 
Fknnan Isles, Scotland, 266, 328, 332. 
Flood, W. H. Grattan, 263, 419, 430-2. 
Floraville Tower, Dublin, 97. 
Fogerty, Dr. George, 5, 12, 61. 

Ford, Rev. Roger (1725), 94. 

Fore, antiquities of, 90. 

Forts : see Brochs, Cahers, Duns, Raths. 

on heights, 10, 32, 367 ; cliff, 377. 

Frazer, Dr. William, 35; notice of his 

death, in Preface, vi, vii. 
Freemasons, 436. 

Gaelic words, 139. 

Gallans near Saggart, 125. 

Galleys, carvings of, 172, 173. 

Galway county, 62, 66 : see also Aran. 

Garracloon, Clare, 380. 

Garridiilf Lough, burst of waters from 

(1691), 429. 
Garstin, John Ribton, 110, 263. 
Garvey, M. P., 61. 
Gateways of forts, 371, 373, 375. 
Gaulish forts, 377. 
Giant's Causeway, 349. 
Giant's Ring, Down, 353. 
Gibson, Andrew, Fellow, 351. 
Gigha Island, Scotland, 305, 345. 
Gilbert, Sir John, death, 89. 
Glen Fas, Kerry, 5. 



Gleninehen, Clare, 380. 

Glenquin, Clare, 383. 

Glensleade, Clare, 368, 376. 

Gold, antiquities of, 39, 41 ; ornaments 
found at Cloyne, 413-416 ; discs, 415, 
437 ; Chalice, 429. 

Gouldig mhor. North Rona, 273. 

.Gowran, excuraion to, 438. 

Gmves, Rt. Rev. Charles, Bishop of 
Limerick, notice of his death, in Pre- 
face, V, vi. 

Rev. James, 109. 

Grey Abbey, Down, 360, 866. 

Guilds, Masons*, 434. 

Merchants', 438. 

Haco, King, 389. 
Hakked family (1528), 30. 
Hammer stones, 428. 
Handcock, G. H., 61. 
Harris, Island of, 213. 
Heany, Rev. J. (1742), 236. 
Hebrides, 213. 
Hehir : see O'Hehir. 
Hen, legend of Bairche's, 26. 
Heraldic Arms, 31. 
Hewson, Canon, 438. 

Col. John (1649), 438. 

Hick&oii, Miss, 18, 62, 430 ; notice of 

death in Preface, iv. 
Hoadley, Archbishop of Dublin, 100, 101. 
Hogan family, 368. 
Holycross, Abbot of, 30. 
Holy well : see Well. 
Horn of Dunvegan, 210. 
Horses, headless, 106. 
Howard (O'Huire), 244. 
Howth, 26, 27. 
Hoy, Orkneys, 337. 
Hughes, Hu-h (1735), 57. 

Inchiquin, Lake, Clure. 245. 
Index to Prerogative Wills, Dublin, 74. 
Iniscleraun, antiquities, 439. 
Interlacings in Italy and Ireland, 435. 
lona, Scotland, papers on, 133, 173, 315. 
Ireland, Commonplace book relating to, 

Ireland's Eye, 25. 
Iiiah Channel (1735), 66-60. 
*' Island of Truth," 24. 
lalav, Island of, 152-154. 

Jerpoint Abbey visited, 438. 
Jerusalem farers, 278. 

walls, building of, 103. 

John (King), legacy of his heart, 417. 

Kearney, Fras. E., Fellow, 81. 

Keiss, Scotland, 296, 301, 338, 340, 342. 

Kerry, 5-18 ; photographs, 62, 430. 

Kilbride, Tiree, 192. 

Kilchattan Eli^ha, 305, 306. 

Kilchennich, Tiree, 194. 

Kilcomey, Clare, 367, 368. 

Kildare county, old account, 429. 

Kildalton Islay, 154, 309. 

Kilkenny Well and Kothe's House, 30-31. 

Museum, 132 ; meetings, 437. 

Killala, Bishop of, and Presbyteiiana, 409. 

Killaloe, St. Flannan of, 26(i. 

Killamerin, Wexford, 406. 

Killelton, Kerry, 64. 

Kill of the Grange, Dublin, 243. 

Kihuakilloge, Kerry, 20, 90. 

Kilmoluag, 194. 

King s County, 44, 65, 116, 219. 

Kinsale, weakness of (1695), 429. 

Kirkapoll, Tiree, 193. 

Kirker, S. K., 121, 125. 

Kirkwall, Orkneys, 287, 341. 

Knock Branduff, 431. 

Lacy, Hugh de, 226. 

Laggan, minutes of presbytery, 407. 

Laisren, Abbot, of Durrow, 222, 226. 

Lake-dwellings, stone, 32. 

Langrishe, Richard, 426. 

Larcede ogam, 396. 

Latimer, Uev. W. T., 407. 

Layard, Col. Edgar L., 32. 

Leeky, Robert, 413. 

Legends, 21-27, 254. 

Leiirim county, old account of, 429. 

Liberties of St. Sepulchre, 1. 

Limeiick county, 62 ; oily dew, 429 ; old 

account of, 429. 

city mace, 263, 264. 

Lisananima, Clare, 371. 

Lisgoogan, Clare, 380. 

Lissylisheen Custle, Clare, 369. 

l.itus ogam, 394. 

Loftus, Archbishop Adam, 96, 100, 106 ; 

Henry, 240. 
Londondeny, 264. 
Loivgford county, 62, 67, 266. 
**Losset," St. MoUrooney's, 102. 
Lough CuUin, Mayo, 32.* 
Lough Gariduff, 429. 
Lough Neagh hot springs, 429. 
Louth county, de Verdon of, 419. 
Lucan, Dublin, 428. 

I.ugad Mean, con'queror of Thomond, 246. 
Lynoh, P., 5, 375. 
Lysaght family, 369. 

Mucalister, Robert A. S., 62, 92, 116. 
Macan, Arthur V., Fellow, 81. 
Maces of corporations, 109, 263. 
Mac Encliroe (Crowe), 244, 246. 
Mac Geoghegnn, 48, 60. 
MiicliOtus, iSt., or Muchua, 97. 



Mackenzie, F., 412. . 

Macleod of Macleod, 201, 203 ; of Hama, 

213, 215. 
Macnamaray of Burreny 868. 

George U., 244, 382. 

MacNeill, of Oronsay, 313. 
Maelruin, St., or MoUrooney, 99. 
Maeshowe Tumulus, Orkneys, 277, 

Magenis, of Clanconnell, 77. 
Magh Mell, 24. 
Magic Folklore, 24. 
"Magic" Steamship, 136, 148. 
Magnetic mountain, Canna, 199. 
Maguire cup (1493), 207. 
Malpas, of DubUn, 240, 242. 
Manumagu ogam, 390. 
Marehall, Hon. Robert, 237. 
Massy; of Duntrileague, 241. 
Maumenoiig ogam, 64, 66. 
Maunsell, Edward, 243. 
Mayne, T., 61. 
Mayo county, 82, 62-63. 
Meath county, 349, 366, 426, 428. 
Meche, son of the Murrigan, 23. 
Merchants, guild of (1438), 436. 
Milkemagh, Longford, 266. 
Milligan, Miss A., 78. 

SeatonF., 160. 

Mills and Milling, 341. 

Millstones and hand-querns, 341, 40o. 

Mochuda ogam, 390. 

Moenmagh (near Loughrea), 26, 27. 

Moheramoyian, Clare, 384. 

Moira House, Dublin, 113-116. 

Molua, St., of Killaloe, visits Orkneys, 

Monasterboice Cross correspondence, 68- 

Monasteries, 31, 133, 166, 360. 

Monkstown, Dublin, some residents of, 

233, 243, 439. 
Monogiaui, SI. 
Monsters folklore, 23. 
Moone cross, Kildare, 385. 
Morgan, A. P., 430. 
»* Morses," 420-422. 
Mote, 99. 

Mound enclosures, 220. 
Mount Venus, Dublin, 106. 
Mulluch, Clare, 384. 
Munnu, St., 66. 
Murechtach, tomb of, 170. 
Murphy, Kd. (1766), 234. 

Neile, Wm. (1471), 97. 

Xeta Segamon ogam, 399. 

New Ross, 429. 

Ninian, St., his church at Sanda, 152. 

Noreemen, 97, 161, 173, 191. 

North Rona : see Rona. 

Notes Ecclesiological, 420. 

Notes from the Dindsenchas, 21. 

Notes on Archer chalice, 28. 
Nuns and convents, 176. 
Nvbster Caithness, Broch at, 342. 

O'Brien, 368. 

O'Byrne, 242, 432. 

O'Conor Don, 88. 

()' Conor, Roderic, 97. 

O'Cullinan, 868. 

O'Dea, 244, 247. 

Odomey, Abbot of. Kerry, 481. 

Ogams, 62, 262, 347, 349, 390, 402, 426, 

Ogilby, Master of the Revels, 108. 
O'Griffy, 244, 240. 
O'Hehir, 246. 
O'Huiro : see Howard, 
Old Bawn, Dublin, 103. 
O'Longhlen, 3r>8. 
Omagh, 411, 412, 433. 
O'Meara, Barry, 432. 
O'Neill, Baron of Dungannon, 39. 
O'Nevhm, 368. 
O'Quin, 244. 246. 
Oratories, 266, 274, 328, 332. 
O'Reilly, 81, 133, 149. 
Orkney Islands, 277, 338. 
Oronsay, Scotland, 161, 313, 314. 
Ondiir Round Church, Orkneys, 287. 
O'Shea, 20. 

O'Siobta (O'Shett!"), 20. 
*' Overture '* among Presbyterians, 409. 

Pallas, "Wexford, celt found, 404. 

Piirknabinnia, Clare, 381. 

Parliament, earliest Irish, 418. 

Patrick's crosses, 35-43, 420. 

Patrick's Purgatory, old account, 429. 

Patrickstown, Meath, 428. 

Peacock of liinicrick, 429. 

** Pendicle," moaning of, 411. 

Pentland, G. H., 70. 

Philips, J. J., 149, 360. 

Photographic collection, 61, 128. 

Phuca, 373. 

Piasts. 23. 

Piclish Abbots of Durrow, 219. 

Pillar-stones, 221, 268-269. 

Plans, 13, 123, 164, 164, 176, 180, 186, 

232, 285, 287, 332, 333, 361, 369, 372, 

:i74, 376. 381. 
Phiys in DuMiii, 59. 
Phmkett, Col. G. T., 69. 

T. 89. 

" Poll " in place-names, 191-193. 

Pomona, Orkneys, 285. 

Postal arrnnpement (1676), 410. 

Poulaphuca cromlech, 373-374. 

Poulawack, Clare — caim, 369. 

Poiilbawn, Clare— fort, 373. 

Poulgorm, Clare, 378. 

T'oulnahronc, Clare— cromlech, 375, 379. 



Presbyterian Church, 407, 433. 
Proceedings, 80, 129, 266, 351, 437. 

Querasa ogam, 402. 
Querns, 341. 
Quin : see O'Quin. 

Ralphson, Wm. (1766), 238. 

Eamsay, M. G., letter, 424. 

Banelagh, Viscount (1766), 238. 

Rannagh, Clare, 381, 382. 

Baths, 67. 

Bathblamaic, Clare, 254. 

Rathbomey, Clare, 380, 381. 

Rathcroghan, 429. 

Rathfarnham, Dublin, 106. 

Rawdon, Geo. (1641), 114. 

Records, Committee on preservation of, 

Reeves, Bishop, manuscripts, 265. 
Register of ancient Dublin wills, 72. 
Relig Oran, 182. 
Rent of a rose, 259, 262. 
Rhys, Principal, 8, 346-390, 426-427. 
Robertson, J. G., 28. 
Roche, Maurice (157), 415. 
RodU in Hebrides, 213, 216. 
Rognwald, Earl (1138), 288. 
Rona, Island of North, Scotland, 272, 

334, 335. 
Ronan, St., 275. 

Roscommon Co., old account of, 429. 
Rose paid in rent, 259, 262. 
Rosengrave, R. (1766;, 239. 
Rosgrencha : see Durrow. 
Rotheram, E. C, 259, 261, 428, 429. 
Roughan fort, Chire, 383. 
Round Towera, 96, 121, 294, 356, 436. 
Rowan-tree, 25. 
Runic inscriptions, Maeshowe, 284. 

Sabbath, broken by wife-beating, 407. 

Saggart, Dublin, gallan, 125. 

Saints, figures of, 29. 

St. Clair of Orkney, 293. 

Sanda Island, Scotland, 151. 

Satirical birds, 25. 

Scota, Queen, 6. 

Scotland, voyage round, 85, 133, 140 ; 

committee, 143; settlers from (1673), 

Scott, Leader, 434. 

Seal of Durrow, 51 ; of Athenry, 109. 
Shackleton, Mrs., 61, 439. 
Shadow folk-lore, 25. 
Sheelanagig, 214, 218, 326, 327. 
Shell mounds, 161. 
Shenaghan, St., 153. 
Sidh, elf -mound, 20. 
Silver plate, 28 ; Cork, 413 ; collar, 415. 
Skulls, burials of, 125. 

Skye Island, 201. 

Slan, well of. Mayo, 133. 

Slieve Carran, 381. 

Slieve Mish, Kerry, 5, 12, 24. 

Slieve-na-Calliagh, 259. 

Soroby, Tiree, 188. 

Souterrains, 372. 

Stennis, circles of stones, Orkneys, 280. 

Stokes, Rev. Dr. George, his death, 82 ; 

Papers by, 111, 113. 
Stiomness, Orkneys, 338, 341. 
Suidhe Mocbuda Ogam, 262. 
Sula Sgier, or North Barra, 275. 
Swedisn dolmens, 370. 
Swift, Dean Jonathan, 111. 
Swiftiana, 111. 
Swine folk-lore, 26. 
Swords, bronze, 89 ; corporation, 264. 
Synge, Colonel, repairs cross, 247. 

Tailzior, Rev. James, 419. 
Talbot, Colonel J. (1697), 103. 

Sir John, Seneschal of Ireland, 


Tallaght, Dublin, 92, 99. 

History of, 436. 

Tare, defacement of, 352. 
Teeskagh, Clare, cairn, 383. 
Teffia, lord of, 219. 
Temple Oren, lona, 174, 180. 
Temple Ronan : see Rona. 
Termon of Durrow, 219, 232. 
Tenison, C. M., 432. 
Teulon, Mr., of Cork, 413. 
Thomas, Ai-chdeacon, 324. 

WilUam J., 257. 

Tihilly, King's County, 65. 
Tipperary, 258, 429. 

Tiree, ScoUand, 188, 319. 
Tobergrania, Clare, 127. 
Tober losa, Co. Tipperary, 258. 
Tobemahalthore, Mayo, 63, 127. 
Tola, St., of Dysert 0*Dea, 249, 250, 

Tombstones, 116, 120, 193, 211, 212; 

canopied, 216. 
Totra of^am, 401. 
Trail, William (1681), 403. 
Treasure dreams, 880. 
Treen, ancient, folk-lore, 27. 
Tristemagh, Westmcath, 35. 
Tullaherin, visit to, 438. 
Tumuli, 277, 239. 
Tuosist, 19. 

Turks, Irish prisoners takenby, 409, 433. 
Turlough, Clare, 373, 374, 381. 

Ui Fermaic, Clare, crosses of, 244. 
Ulster parish, histoir, 77 ; Synod of 

Presbyterian Church, 433, 434. 
Upton, H. A. S., Fellow, 81, 256. 
Usher, Archbishop, 3, 4. 



Vftllanoey, Genenl, 238. 
''YaneMa," wiU of, 237. 
Vequ^ans Ogam, 402. 
Vercingetorix, outworka made by, 377. 
Verdoa family, 417, 419, 437. 
Vestments, ecclesiaatical, 420-422. 
Vican, Sir A., 74. 
Vierpyle, Simon (1766), 234. 

Wakeman, W. F., 109. 

Walnut-tree at Tallaght, 101. 

Waterford, 262. 

Water-mill, 76. 

WelU, holy, 3, 30, 31, 228, 268. 

Weatmeath, 36, 269, 429. 

Westropp, T. J., 21, 61, 66, 128, 333, 

367, 429, 439. 
Wexford, cmnnoge, 92, 404, 429. 
Whale folk-lore, 23. 
Willes, Edward, Chief Baron (1766). 

Williiuna, Rev. S. de C, 44, 6o-69, 

Wills, Register of Duhlin, mtdieeval, 73; 

later prerogative, 74. 
Wilaon, J. Mackay, 67, 68. 
Windele, John, 8, 416. 
Wolfe Tone, Theobald. 78. 
Woodward, Rev. G. Otwav, 89. 
Wright, E. P., Vice-President, 80, 129, 



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