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Br 29.8 



l^arbarli College i.ifarar8 




FEOM THE BEQUEST OF 

MRS. ANNE E. P. SEVER 

OF BOSTON 

Widow of Col. Jaices Waessn Sever 
(Class of 1817) 




JOURNAL 

OF THE 

Cork Historical & ARCHitoLociCAL 

Society. 

VOLUME XII. SECOND SERIES. 
1906. 



ioaRDflL 



> OF rue 



$ ^ 



ii^HS EOLOGICfll I 

CieTY i 




Br 99-8 







. ^^ux^ 



CORK: 

Printed and Publishbd by Guy and Co. Ltd. 

1906. 



CONTENTS VOL. XII. 

[second series.] 
0>ntributed Papers. 



Pace. 



The English Settlement in Mallow under the Jephson Family. 

By Henry F. Berry, i.s.o., M.R.I a. - - - i 

Some Account of the Family of O'Hurly. (Illustrated.) (Con- 
tinued from Vol XI.) - - - - - 26, 76 

Robert Fitz Stephen. By R. Vaughton Dymock - - 34 

The Goldsmith of Cork. By M. S. D. Westropp - - 37 

The Account of the Proprietors of the Cork Institution. (Illus- 
trated.) By Robert Day, f.s.a. - - - - 44 

Munster in A.D. 1597. (With Map.) By James Buckley - 53 

Five Cork Publicists. (With Portraits.) By Cn. - - 69, 136 

PAGB. PAGE. 

John Francis Magnire • 69 John George McCarthy • ia6 

John Nicholas Count Murphy • 72 William JosephO'Neill Daunt 128 
Sir John Pope Hennessy 73 

A Side-Light on Irish Clerical Life in the Seventeenth Century. 
With Notes and Comments by Rev. Canon Courtenay 
Moore, M.A., R.D., Council Member - - - 88 

The Council Book of Bandon Bridge, 1765-1840. By Robert 

Day, F.S.A. -..-.-.g5 

Historical and Topographical Notes of Cork, compiled chiefly 
from Manuscript Sources. By Colonel T. A. Lunham, c.b., 

M.A., M.R.I.A. ------ 99 





PAGB. 




PAGE. 


St Anne Shandon 


• 99 


The Red Abbey 


• lOI 


St. Catherine's ParUh 


- 99 


Barry Oge - 


102 



VI. CONTENTS. 

PAGE. 

The Life of Saint Fin Barre. Translated and Annotated by 

Colonel T. A. Lunham, c.b., m.a.» m.r.i.a. - - 105 

Sir Teague O'Regan of Ballynacl(^hy, County Cork. (Illus- 

trated.) By Francis J. H^aly, Barrister-at-Law - - 121 

On a Gold Lunette from the County Kerry. (Illustrated.) By 

Robert Day, f.s.a. - - - - - - 136 

Sir Walter Scx)tt's Visit to Cork in 1825. By Canon Courtenay 

Moore, m.a., r.d.. Council Member - - - 138 

The Battle of Knockanaar. By Walter Jones - - - 140 

Carbriae Notitia. A Treatise on the Ancient and Modern State 
of Eastern and Western Carbery, Co. Cork ; with Pedigrees, 
Lists of Bishops, etc. ; Origin of Crome-a-boo from the 
©'Donovan's Castle of Crome - - - - 142 

Account of the Bishops of Cork. (Illustrated.) Edited, with 

Notes, by Colonel T. A. Lunham, C.B., m.a., m.r.i.a. - 155 

An Irish Account of the Battle of Kinsale - - - 169 

The Rhincrew Duel in 1826. By Courtenay Moore, Canon, m.a., 

Council Member - - - - - ^ ^77 

A History of the O'Mahony Septs of Kinelmeky and Ivagha. 

By Rev. Canon O'Mahony - - - - - 183 

Medals of the Kerry L^ion and Baltimore Legion. (lUus- 

trated.) By Robert Day, f.s.a. - - - - 195 



Historical and Topographical Notes, etc., on Buttevant, Done- 
raile. Mallow, and Places in their Vicinity. (Illustrated.) 
Collected by James Grove White, j.p. Separate pagination 65-128 



CONTENTS. 



vii. 



Notes and Queries. 





Author. 


Paok. 


A Kerry Amulet - - - 


J.C. 


- ISO 


A Memorial of 1798 - 


R.D. 


• I03 


A Stolen Silver Verge 


R.D. 


- ISO 


An Early Cork Headmaster - 


J.C. 


- 48 


An Unrecorded Cork Silversmith 


R.D. 


- 149 


Carrigafly - . - - 


J.C. 


- ISO 


Castlehaven - - - - 


Dorothea Townshend 


- 201 


Cork Scientific Society, 181 3. (Illus- 






trated.) , - - - 


Robert Day 


- 48 


Dixon Arms - - - - 


Peirce G. Mahony, 


Cork 




Herald of Arms - 


- ISO 


From Bristol in 48 hours 


R.D. 


- 149 


Names of Shortis and Looby or Luby - 


D. Lackey, Major, r.a. 


- 202 


Re Spencer Pedigree. (With Portrait.) 


W. Devereaux 


- 50 


Spencer - - . - 


W. Devereaux 


- 152 


The Bishop's Horse - 


J.C. 


- 49 


The Book of Fermoy - - 


J.F.L. 


- «53 



The Clapper Bridge at Springfield, 

near Ballybeg Abbey - ^ Walter Jones 



30O 



The Last Descendants of the Poet 

Spenser - - - - J.C 



The Volunteers of 1782 



- 151 
Courtenay Moore, Canon,M.A. 104 



The Walls of Youghal in the 17th 

Century - ^ - J.C. 



- 103 



VUl. 



CONTENTS. 



Miicellaneoiu. 



Reviews of Books 



Ficdtioiis and Symbolic Creatures in Art, with Special Referenee 

to their use in British Heraldry. R.D. 
Books^ Tracts, etc., printed in Dublin in the 17th Century. J.B. 
Dromana: The Memoirs of an Irish Family. (iUuslraied.) J.B. 
An leA^AtttAnn. The Joomal of CumAnn n^ teAftAtttAfin. J. fi. 
Jommal of the Galway Archaeological and Historical Society. J. B. 
The Diocese of Limerick, Ancient and MedievaL J.B. 
Irish Peasant Songs in the English Language. J.B. 
AbttAin tiiA^ 6ai5e Connate, or the Religions Songs 

Connacht. J.B. • 

Irish Register Society of Dublin. J.B. 
A History of the County Dublin. J.B. - 
A Smaller Social Hbtory of Ancient Ireland. J. B, 
The Origin and Early History of the Family of Poe or Poe. 
Index to the Wills of the Diocese of Kildare in the Public Record 

Office of Ireland. C. ... * 

Journal of the Galway Ardueological and Historical Society. D. 
The Journal of the County Louth Archaeological Society. D. 



Paob. 
Sa, 154, aoa 

52 

154 
154 
155 
156 
aoa 
20a 

aoj 
ao3 
204 

ao4 
204 

J05 
ao5 
S06 



Proceedings of the Society 



196 



Second Series— Vol. XII. No. 69. 



[January -March, 1906. 



Journal of the 
Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. 




The English Settlement in Mallow under the 
Jephson Family. 

By Henry F. Berry, I.S.O., M.R.I.A. 



^N papers which appeared in the pages of this Journal (Jan. 
and Feb., 1893), the present writer dealt with the history 
of the manor and castle of Mallow in the time of the 
Tudors, more especially at the period of the Desmond 
rebellion, as derived from original sources. It is now 
proposed to take up the story of Mallow from the early 
days of King James the First, when the town and neigh- 
bourhood were being settled with English people by the Jephson family. 
With a view to the better understanding of the story, it will be necessary, 
in the first instance, to give a short account of that distinguished family, 
whose influence has so largely dominated the place for 300 years, and 
which is still happily represented in the direct line by Mrs. Jephson- 
Norreys, of Mallow Castle. 

As we have seen, Sir Thomas Norreys (or Norris) had obtained a 
grant of the manor, on its forfeiture by the Desmond Fitzgeralds. This 
illustrious man, fifth son of Henry, baron Norris of Ry,cote, was born in 
1556, and took his degree of B.A. from Magdalen College, Oxford, in 
1576. He adopted the profession of arms, and from the year 1579 was 
actively engaged in the campaign against Gerald, Earl of Desmond. In 
1583, he was sent into Ulster against Hugh O'Neill, and in 1584 joined 
Perrott's expedition to frustrate the designs of the Scots in Antrim. In 
1585, Norreys became Lord President of Munster, and was returned as 
member of parliament for Limerick. In the year 1588, he was knighted 
by Sir William Fitzwilliam, and had a grant of 6,000 acres in and round 
Mallow, under the scheme for the plantation of Munster. The year 1594 
saw the celebration of Sir Thomas Norreys* marriage with Bridget, daugh- 
ter of Sir William Kingsmill, of Sydmonton, Hants, by Bridget, daughter 
of George Rawleigh. 

By June, 1597, Munster was reported to have been reduced by him to 
tolerable quietness, and on the death of Sir John Norreys, his brother, 
he was appointed to the post of Lord President of that province. During 
the general insurrection of 1598 the property of Sir Thomas suffered 



2 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

severely.. When, in the succeeding year, Lord Deputy Essex visited Kil- 
kenny, Norreys went thither to meet him, and in his return journey, on 
30th May, was met near Kilteely, Co. Limerick, by a body of Irish under 
Thomas Burke, during an encounter with which he was severely wounded 
in the neck. He was able, however, to return to his own home in Mallow, 
where he died, 20 Aug, 1599. 

In addition to his prowess and abilities as a soldier. Sir Thomas 
Norreys was gifted with literary tastes ; his friend, Lodowick Bryskett, in 
the Discourse of CiviU Life, names him as one of a distinguished company 
met at the latter's residence near Dublin, to whom Edmund Spenser un- 
folded his plan of the Fairie Queens. That Norreys was a friend of the 
poet is further attested by the fact that when occasion offered, he sent 
letters by Spenser to the Privy Council in England. In a letter of 21 
Dec, 1598, he mentions that a note of 9th Dec. was sent by Mr. Edmund 
Spenser, the poet. < From the friendship between the two, it may well 
be supposed that as their estates of Mallow and Kilcolman were only 
separated by a distance of about eight miles, Norreys and Spenser must 
have had frequent opportunities of enjoying each other's society, and 
that the poet must often have visited Mallow. It is interesting to know 
that the town was certainly visited by Edmund Spenser on two specific 
occasions, on both of which he sat in a judicial capacity, having Sir 
Thomas Norreyis as a colleague, at a sessions of the peace,* held in 
Mallpw on 23 May and 16 Sept., 36 Elizabeth (1594), before Norreys as 
Vice-President of Munster, James Gould, justice, and John Ashfield, 
attorney-general of the province; Arthur Hyde, John fitzEdmund, Edmund 
Spenser, and Stephen Waters, justices of the Queen for the county of 
Cork. Enquiry was made as to murders, treasons, &c., committed in 
the cantred of Mallow and the neighbouring cantreds, when several of 
the Ohonownans of Tullilease were found to have taken cows, &c., by 
force, and to have violently assaulted other members of the same clan. 

Sir Thomas Norreys left an only child, Elizabeth, born in or about the 
month of March, 1595. Queen Elizabeth was her godmother, and Mrs. 
Jephson-Norreys still preserves at the Castle a china cup, saucer, and plate, 
together with a christening suit of Venetian lace, presented by the Queen 
to her godchild. 3 Sir Thomas* widow. Lady Norreys, married as her 
second husband, a Mr. Packington, by whom she left a family, and she 
died before 1608. General William Jephson, in his will dated 1658, men- 
tions his uncle Packington, who would have been her son ; and Bernard 
Packington, archdeacon of Cork, in his will, proved in 1674, speaks of 
being surety for Colonel William and Colonel John Jephson. On 8th 
March, 1594, about the date of his marriage, Norreys had made a feoff- 
ment of his property to Francis Weyman, of Doneraile, to his own use 
for life, and after his death to that of his wife, and then for his own heirs. 
Francis Kingsmill, brother of Lady Noireys, and uncle of the heiress, was 
granted the wardship of his niece, Elizabeth, with an allowance of £$ 
a year for her maintenance and education ; which, taking into account the 
value of money at the time, was, no doubt, a sufficient sum for a child 

X '* Calendar State Papers,*' Ireland, 1598-9, p. 514. 
• " Plea Rolls" (Miscel ) Elizabeth, No. 34. 

3 An Exchequer Inquisition taken at Youghal, 17th Dec, I. James. I., No. 10, finds that 
she was aged fuur years and five months at the date of her father's death. 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 3 

four years old. Kingsmill had come over to Cork with Sir George Carew, 
and he lived at Ballybeg, near Buttevant. He died 25 July, 1620. 

Elizabeth Norreys married Sir John Jephson, of Froyle, Hants, M.P. 
for that shire, 1620; M.P. Petersfield, 1623-5, and a major-general in 
the army. He was knighted in 1603 by Sir George Gary. The date of 
their marriage has not been ascertained, but as a pardon of alienation 
was made to them as man and wife on i ith June, 1607, her age at the 
time she became Lady Jephson cannot have been much more than twelve 
years. Their eldest son, William Jephson, would appear to have been 
born when his mother was about fifteen years old. 4 She died in 1623, at 
the early age of 28, and Sir John Jephson died 6 May, 1638, having 
married, as his second wife, Mary, daughter of Sir Henry Duke, knt., 
widow of Sir Francis Ruish, and of Richard Gifford, of Castlejordan, Co. 
Meath. The will of Mary, Lady Jephson was proved in 1655. 

By his first wife, Elizabeth, Sir John Jephson had four sons and four 
daughters : 

I. William, a major-general in the army, M.P. for Stockbridge, Hants, 
and M.P. for Co. Cork in 1656. During the rebellion of 1641 he 
raised a troop of horse at his own expense, and the Lord President, 
St. L^er, highly extolled his conduct and bravery. The State Papers 
of the period, and the **Egmont Papers," recently published by the 
Historical Manuscripts Commission, under the able editorship of 
Mrs. S. E. Lomas, show that he was considered as a man of high 
character and ability, whose opinions carried weight. Lord Inchiquin 
desired Jephson to succeed him in the command in Munster, which 
proved his high opinion of the latter's* qualities. It was Wm. Jephson 
who first proposed to confer the title of King on Cromwell. In 1657, 
he was appointed Envoy Extraordinary to the King of Sweden, and 
died in London on 1 1 th Dec. , 1658, soon after his\ return from that mission. 
He hadmarried Alicia, daughter of Sir John Denham, who re-married Sir 
Francis Hawley. By his will, dated 7 Dec, 1658, he appointed Edward 
Worth, D.D.,his brother, Col. John Jephson, and Col. Edmond Temple 
trustees, and bequeathed to his wife ;^6oo a year out of the lands apper- 
taining to the abbey of Ballybeg. The document displays anxiety 
that she and ber family should reside in Ireland. "For encouragement 
of my wife to live in Ireland, which I hope God will incline her to do, 
for her poor children's sakes, I desire that she may live in my house 
at Mallow, which I give her for life, with all gardens and orchards, 
the long warren in the glyn, and all lands behind the castle to the 
Gallows Hill lane, with the little meadow under the castle, if she 
shall live there however until my son and heir come to age." The 
testator added, **If my wife do not care for my son, John, to live with 
her, then I give him my house at Cork with the land belonging to it.** 
Dame Alicia Jephson is found living in 1665 in the parish of St. Peter, 
Cork,» John Jephson having, no doubt, settled at the castle on his 
marriage. At the same period Col. John Jephson, her brother-in-law, 
had a house in Mill Street, Cork. 

4 A Chancery InquUition, 1638, No. 497, finds that William Jephson was 28 years old in 
1638, at the lime of his father's death. 

5 «• Hearth'Money Roll," Cork, (Pub. Rec. Off.). 



4 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

General Jephson further directed all his goods in England (except 
a jewel given him by* the King of **Swedland"), his furs, coach and 
harness, to be sold in London. The jewel he bequeathed to his wife 
for life, and after her death it was to become an heirloom. 

Apropos of their residence in Cork, there is in the**Egmont Papers" 
an amusing letter from Jephson to his great friend, Sir Philip Percival. 
It is dated Cork, 30 July, 1646, and begs that the shoemaker who is 
making his wife's shoes may make him two pairs of thin waxed boots, 
wFth double soles **to march Cork streets." 

2. Norreys (Colonel), who died in Dublin in 1653. Colonel Norreys 
Jephson married Eleanor, daughter of Sir Henry Colley, of Castle 
Carbery, Co. Kildare, by whom he is said to have had a son, Norreys. 

3. John (Colonel), who was resident at Dromaneen, near Mallow, in 1650, 
and at Killknockane, near the same town, about 1662-8, ^ was alive 
and resident in Mallow in 1685. He married, first, Bridget, daughter 
of Richard Boyle, archbishop of Tuam, and secondly, Philippa, 
daughter of Sir Henry> Neville. By his first wife he had (among other 
issue) John, born at Dromaneen, cir. 1650, who entered T.C.D. 1667; 
William, born in Dublin, cir. 1658, who entered T.C.D. 1675; and 
Michael. From this branch springs the family of Mounteney Jephson. 

4. Thomas. 

1. Alice, married Sir Nicholas Purdon. 

2. Elizabeth, married John Gifford, of Castlejordan. 

3. Frances, married John Wolveridge, of Hants. 

4. Mary, married Sir Richard Kyrle, or Kirle, who were both living in 
Mallow in 1659. 7 In 1667 Kyrle had a grant of the lands of Droma- 
neen, &c, Co. Cork, which were subsequently sold to Richard Newman. 
Sir Richard Kyrle became governor of Carolina, where he and Lady 
Kyrle died in 1684. Their wills were proved in the consistorial court 
of Cloyne in 1685. 

Major-General William Jephson, to whom we now return, is said to 
have had four sons and four daughters : 

I. John (Col.), born cir. 1638-9. • He married, in 166 1, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Francis, Viscount Shannon, sixth son of Richard, Earl of Cork, who 
predeceased him. Colonel Jephson was elected M.P. for Mallow 1692, 
and died September, 1693, at the house of his friend. Sir Humphrey 
Jervis, in Dublin. John Jephson had been sent as a boy of eight or 
nine to school in England, and together with William O'Bryen, Lord 
Inchiquin's eldest son, was under the charge and supervision of Sir 
Philip Percival. Among the **Egmont Papers" appears a receipt of 
July, 1646, by John Mason, for money paid by Percival for half-year's 
schooling of the two lads, with 2s. 6d. for the tailor and is. 6d. for 
bows and arrows to Mr. Jephson 's account. There is also an account 
of £6 13s. 4d. for diet of Henry Estonne and David Sachet, who 
appear to have been their personal attendants. In December, 1646, 

6 *• Subsidy Rolls," Co. Cork (Pub. Rcc. Off.). 

7 Census, 1659, Royal Irish Academy. 

B A Chancery Inquisition taken at Cork in 1661, finds that he was 19 years old at the time 
uf his Other's death in 1658. 



tfiE ENGUSH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. $ 

Mr. Jephson had a scarlet coat, ^^3 13s. od. ; and a suit of French 
grey, ;^'3 14s. 5d. In June, 1647, Percival wrote to Lord Inchiquin 
that Mons. Sachet had dealt very unfaithfully and by his false report 
to Major-General Jephson had brought him into dislike with the school- 
master, which was remembered to the child's disadvantage, '*so that 
his son goes no more thither. Neither should yiours or mine stay, if 
I could find a better place, so I will keep him there until I know your 
pleasure. I could not get Sachet to attend them as he ought, or to 
instruct them in the French tongue, and now am charged with scores 
in ale houses for him, and thereby come to know how he spent his 
time, his money and theirs." 

John Jephson left an only child, William, born cir. 1665, who was 
M.P. for Mallow 1695 — 1698, in which latter year he died. William 
Jephson married the Lady Anne Howard, daughter of George Earl 
of Suffolk, on 2 February, 1677, when he would have been about 
twelve years old. A Chancery/ Bill filed 26 October, 1686, discloses 
the circumstances of this marriage between two children, which ended 
in much unhappiness to both. In those days interested parties con- 
nived at such alliances between minors, who went from the altar back 
to the schoolroom or nursery, and when the poor wretched victims met 
later on, to undertake together the cares of matrimony, they not in- 
frequently conceived an extreme aversion from each other. 

The Bill was filed by Lady Anne Jephson, an infant under 21 
(though for nine years in name a wife), by William Lord Inchiquin, 
her guardian, against John Jephson (her father-in-law), Edward Denny, 
Henry Boyle, of Castlemartin, and William Jephson, her husband. 
It stated that when a marriage between her and William Jephson was 
proposed, her aunt, the Countess of Northumberland, 9 agreed to 
give her ;^i,ooo in consideration of a competent jointure. The marriage 
was celebrated according to the rites of the Church of Ireland at the 
date above-mentioned, and the trustees of the marriage settlement 
were Roger, Earl of Orrery, and Francis, Viscount Shannon. Plaintiff 
asserted that she was but twelve at the time, while her husband was 
fourteen or fifteen. Soon after, he set out to travel, and misled by 
youth and unprincipled persons, deserted her. She was left to shift 
for herself, and though they lived together afterwards, their intercourse 
was in much unkindness. She prayed a decree for arrears of main- 
tenance, &c. 

John Jephson answered on 2 May, 1688, asserting that at the time 
of the marriage his son was only twelve, while Lady Anne Howard 
was nearly twenty, and that at no time did they live together. He 
made certain accusations against her, and alleged that the Bishop of 
Cork caused enquiries as to her conduct to be made. On the evidence 
adduced, considering William Jephson *s extreme youth and disinclina- 
tion towards her, and their not having lived together, the Bishop de- 
clared the marriage void. Lady Anne had gone away some years 
before, and was resident in England. 

On 4 June, 1691, a decree in the suit, which appears to have 
decided it in favour of Lady Anne, was pronounced. It is evident 
that the marriage had not been legally pronounced void, as she was 

9 Daughter of Theophilus, 2ncl Earl of Suffolk, and sister of the Countess of Orrery. 



I 



6 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

to recover from the defendant, John Jephson, ;^56o in full of arrears 
for her separate maintenance to November, 1690, and he was ordered 
to pay her ;^6o per annum for the next two years, instead of the ;^8o 
mentioned in the settlement. The defendant was to be allowed to 
produce a deed in his custody, which provided that in case of the 
parties not living together maintenance was to be at the lesser rate. 

William Jephson died in Dublin in 1698, without issue. In some 
law proceedings he is said to have been a **very profuse person," 
who consequently ran himself considerably into debt. Both his father 
and he were also spoken of as being **very ill managers," and William 
Jephson was compelled to have an Act of Parliament passed to enable 
him to meet his liabilities. The state of his affairs seems to have 
laid him open to the snares of designing persons, and his successor 
in the estates, while a minor, was engaged, through his mother and 
guardian, in a number of lawsuits for the protection of his interests. 

By the settlement made on the marriage of William Jephson and 
Lady Anne Howard in 1677, in failure of their issue, the estates were 
settled to the use of William Jephson, of Boarstall, in England, brother 
of John Jephson (and William's uncle), who died without issue in 
1692. Failing his heirs male, then to the use of Anthony Jephson, 
another brother of John, who died in 1688, leaving two sons, William, 
born about 1687, who died without issue in 17 15, and Anthony, who 
carried on the succession. Thus, when William Jephson died in 1698, 
the estates vested in his cousin, William, then a boy of about eleven 
or twelve years of age. 

2. William, who was private secretary to King William the Third, 
and Secretary to the Treasury for some years before his death. 
He married Mary, daughter of William Lewis, by Mary, daughter 
of Sir John Denham, of Boarstall, who after his death, s.p., in 1692, 
remarried Sir John Aubrey. King William presented his portrait, 
painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, to Wm. Jephson, and in the original 
handsome carved oak frame it still hangs in the drawing-room of 
Mallow Castle. 

3. Denham, died before 1677, s.p. 

4. Anthony, of whom hereafter. 

I. Mary. 2. Penelope. 3. Alicia, married, February, 1664, to Bartholo- 
mew Purdon, of Ballyclough. 4. Frances. 
Anthony Jephson, fourth son of General William Jephson, married 

{cir, 1685) Mary Gibbings, daughter of John Gibbings, and sister of 

Rev. Simon Gibbings, rector of Mallow, 1720 to 1721, when he died. 
Anthony Jephson died in 1688, having had two daughters, Mary; 

and Katherine, who married — Fowke, and d. 1724; and two sons, viz.: 

1. William, born cir. 1687; M.P. for Mallow 1713-15; died, s.p., 1715-16. 

2. Anthony, M.P. for Mallow 1713-55, who married, in 1712, Philippa 
Wakeham, daughter of William Wakeham, of Barryscourt, Co. Cork, 
by his wife, Mabel Dawley, daughter of Walter Dawley, of Ballyda- 
heen,«® near Mallow, by whom he had: 

>o Lieut. Walter Dawley had a grant, under the Act of Settlement in 1669, of Ballydaheen, 
406 Irish acres. 



THE ENGLISH SETtLEMENT IN MALLOW. 7 

1. Anthony, who married, 22 December, 1741, Hannah, daughter of 
Chief Justice Rogerson. He died, s.p., June, 1742, and his widow 
married Thomas O'Caliaghan, father (by his first wife) of the first 
Lord Lismore. 

2. Denham (CoL), M.P. for Mallow 1756 — 1781, who married, in 1746, 
Frances, daughter of Sir John Aubrey, and died 1781, having had 
three sons — ^Denham, M.P. for Mallow 1768 — 1800, who died May, 
1813; Anthony, died June, 1794; and John, died 1773, none ^^ 
whom left issue. 

3. William, M.P. for Mallow 1761-8, who married, in 1750, Eleanor, 
daughter of J. Walsh, of Dullardstown, Co. Meath, and widow 
of William Harrison. He died June, 1779, leaving a son, William, 
afterwards Colonel Jephson (father of the late Sir Denham Jephson- 
Norreys, Bart.), who died December 1814; and a daughter, 
Philippa Wakeham, who, in 1770, married Robert Waterhouse. 

4. Robert, died s.p. 1772. 

5. Norris (or Norreys), rector of Mallow, born cir, 1727, married in 

1755, Deborah Lombard (who died 1788), and died 1768, s.p. 

I. Mary, married, in 1741, Philip Viscount Strangford. 

Anthony Jephson married, secondly, January, 1742, Catherine, daughter 
of Agmondisham Vesey, of Lucan, by whom he had no issue. He died 
December, 1755, and in his will dated 12 December of that year he men- 
tions his lease for lives in Scarteen, held from Benjamin Lawton; Lower 
Kilknockane, near Mallow, held from Savage French ; Short Castle, from 
Mr. Clayton; and among several tenements in Mallow one known as 
the Red House, on the north side of the street. He also speaks of Puson's 
holding, near Short Castle, and his fee simple in Hook's, Melton's, Dale's, 
King's, Rowan's, Kerron's, Beare's, and O'Brien's holdings; the Bar- 
racks; the osier beds, garden and islands near the great bridge; and 
Cornelius Sullivan's holdings in Mallow; the glin, held from R. Longfield, 
and Lysaght's holdings. 

The forgoing pedigree has only been brought down to the middle 
of the eighteenth century, as it is not intended that this paper should 
extend beyond that limit. In any accessible pedigrees of the Jephson 
family, few dates are to be found, so wherever possible they have been 
supplied in the present instance. The following corrections of the pedi- 
grees in Foster and Burke, and of those in MS. in Ulster's office must 
be noted. These writers state that Wm. Jephson, second son of General 
Wm. Jephson was M.P. for Mallow 171 3- 15, and died in 1715. He has been 
confused with his nephew, William Jephson, son of Anthony Jephson. 
The uncle died in 1692, and it was the nephew who represented Mallow 
in Parliament, and died in 1715-16. 

Then the identity of Anthony, fourth son of General William Jephson, 
has been merged in that of his second son, Anthony, who, according to 
the pedigrees, must have been nearly one hundred years of age when he 
married his second wife. Anthony, the father, died in 1688, and he had 
married, dr. 1685, Mary Gibbings," of the Gibbings' Grove family, 

" Eq. Ex. Bills, Raines f^. Jephson, 17th Jan., 1704; Jephson v, Raines, jist Jan., 1709, 
and Jephsim v, Newman, i8th Jan., 1703. 



8 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

whose name does not appear in any of the pedigrees. Anthony, the son, 
married, first, in 171 2, Philippa Wakeham," but her existence has also 
been ignored ; and Hannah Rogerson, the wife of their eldest son, Anthony, 
has been assigned, as his wife, to the father. In the elucidation of these 
points I have to express my thanks and indebtedness to Mr. George 
Dames Burtchaell, LL.B., of Ulster's office, for much kind help. 

To return to Sir Thomas Norreys — he was found, by an Exchequer 
Inquisition >3 taken on his death, seised of Carrigillan (parish of Kil- 
shannig) by feoffment of O'Callaghan; also of Ballyda (Ballydaheen), 
Ballygarrett, Ballyrelishe (Ballyellis), and Mallow. In 1608, Sir John 
Jephson (his son-in-law) had a grant in fee farm of Bally beg, which had 
already been granted in trust for an unexpired term, for the use of Lady 
Norreys (then deceased), widow of Sir Thomas. 

On 21 August, 10 James I. (161 2), the following grant was made to 
Elizabeth Lady Jephson, wife of Sir John : — ^The castle, manor, lordship, 
and cantred of Moallo als. Mallo, town and lands of Callinferriekerrie als. 
the old Town, Ballingerald als. Geraldstowne, Ballihough als. Ballilough 
als. Loagheneston, the old town within the Earl's Wood, Ferrencorragh- 
enesoudrie als. Shoemaker's town, the Short Castle als. Castlegarr, Comi- 
guere als. Sheep's butter, Corrarbagh and Clc^hlaces; the entire fishings 
in the river Awemore; Gortinigragie, Crosseclenit, Glantannoratclehy, 
Killetragh, Drumbegg, Killinknoperson, Killanknockan, Gortaghyvore, 
Moennypadden, Cisenusgie, Ballynemunterie, Gortgowne, Aghtyanylahine, 
Cowlerowe, Ballileake, Knocknepatyne, Leakynolwohy, Ballyhankyne, 
Thenarloyne, Lissenegill, and Killelittie, all lying in the cantred of Moallo ; 
the parcels called the North field, the Wheat field, Gallowes Hill, the East 
field, the Upper Quarter, the Lower Quarter, Careleshill, and the Low 
Meadow, in said cantred. Total, 6,oooa. Eng, The fishing weir and 
two mills on the river Owenmore als. Broadwater, and a ferry over said 
river. 

A chief rent of ;^i2 13s. gd. out of Short Castle als. Castle Garr, in 
Moallo, and 524a. in the tenure of Richard Aldworth, Esq. ; £6 15s. sd, 
out of a house called the Starch house, a close of 7 acres, meadow and 
137a. called Croghan Early in the town and cantred of Moallo, in tenure 
of Robt. Williamson, gent; jQS 5s. od. out of a house and other buildings 
in Moallo in tenure of Thomas Bets worth, gent. ; ;^8 9s. od. out of a 
house and 332a. called San ton's als. Dover's land ; ^10 2s. 6d. out of a 
messuage and 405a. called Killeynegrowhane als. Begg's land; £j i6s. 6d. 
out of certain messuages and 309a. called Hamon's land als. Drom- 
slegagh (also Carbery beeves); liberty to impark 300a. with free warren 
and park; to hold courts leet and baron at Moyallo; a Friday market, 
and 2 yearly fairs, one of them on St. Philip's Dayf, the other on St. Luke's 
Day; rent £1; to appoint clerks of the market, and grant licences to 
butchers, bakers, merchants, and publicans in the town; to appoint a 
bailiff for return of all writs and mandates within said lordship. Rent 
for all (save Carbrie beeves), ;^44 8s. lofd. and ^d. for each acre of 
waste land reclaimed. To hold for ever as of Carrigrohane Castle, for a 
fine of ;^50, subject to the conditions of plantation. 

In the same year (161 2) Sir John Jephson himself had the following 
grant : — ^A stone house and other buildings in Moallo ; a garden and 

" Cloyne Mar. Lie. Bond, 17 12. «3 I. James I., No. 10. 



tHE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. ^ 

yard la. ; the Hill Close, 22a., and 328a. called Ballinecourties als. Balli- 
lough in tenure of Thos. Betsworth ; a messuage in Moallo, with garden 
and yard adjoining; la. in tenure of Edward Harries or his assigns; a 
house and yard in Moallo in tenure of Patrick Pluck; near Moallo, 4a. 
meadow or pasture in tenure of Thomas Miller, gent. ; Stanton's als. 
Dover's lands, 332ia., in tenure of Jane Smith, widow; Killeyneogrow- 
ghan als. Begg's land, within said manor, containing a house and 405a., 
late in tenure of Morrice Gerald als. Morrice Begg; three roods in the 
town of Moallo; 4 messuages built thereon and 2a. meadow and pasture; 
Hammon's lands als. Dromsligagh in Moallo; 309a. in tenure of Ralph 
Hammon, Abbey of Ballybeg, &c. 

By a Chancery Inquisition (No. 12), taken at Mallow 30th October, 
161 1, before the following jurors — Edmonde Barrye of Ballyspillane, Cor- 
mock O'Callighane of Carrignemocke, William McRichard of Kiltoyg, 
Gerrat Arrundell of Aghidillane, William Magner of Castlemagner, 
Phylipp Coggane, of Cowlemore, Gerrote Barry of Leamlarye, David 
Nagle of Moneanymne, Donyll McCartie of Clandonyll, Garrett Barry 
of Downe [ ], it was found that Sir John Jephson, Knt., was seised, 
in fee, in right of Dame Elizabeth, his wife, of the manor, &c. , of Moalloe, 
with all the cantred of Moalloe, the lands lying in Ballynferrykerrey als. 
the olde Towne, Ballingerrald als. Gerraldstowne, Ballyhough als. Loagh- 
neston, the olde towne within the Earle's Wodd, Farrenkoraghensoudry 
als. the Shoemaker's towne, Corniqueer als. Sheep's Butter, the lands of 
Carraghbagh, and Cloghlaces ^als. Cloghlucas, Gortnigragy, Crosscle- 
ment, Glantannoratclehy, Killetregh, Killincnoperson, Killancnockane, 
Drumbegg, Gortaghivore, Moennyhpadyne, Cisenusgy, Ballyynnymyn- 
tery Gortegowne, Ahtyaynilaghin, Cowlerwoe, Bally licke, Cnock- 
anepattyne, Leackynolwohy, Ballyhankyne, Thenarloyne, Lisnegilly, 
Killelittle, together with all the lands, of late named and callel the North 
feilde, the Wheat feilde, the Gallows Hill, the East feilde, the Upper and 
Lower Quarters, Carlessehill, the lowe medowe, all held of the King 
by fealty, &c. Rent, ;^33 6s. 8d. 

The jurors also found that David Lord Roche had a claim to Cross- 
clement as a parcel of Ballydah, and also to Cowle Roe as parcel of 
Carriggowne. 

Said Sir John Jephson was also found seised in fee by custom and 
prescription, in one weare for fishing on the river of Awmore als. Broad- 
water, the clerkship of the market of the town of Mallow, a weekly 
market on Friday, 2 fairs in the year, one on St. Philip's Day and the 
other on St. Luke's Day; licensing of wine and aqua-vitae, ale sellers, 
butchers, mercers, bakers ; a ferry on the Awmore, two water mills, and 
freedom of serving writs for the bailiff of the manor. 

Chief rents in Carbury. Rent of £12 13s. gd. out of Short Castle 
als. Castlegare, in the town of Moalloe, and 524a. now in tenure of Richd. 
Aid worth, Esq., which he holds of the manor by homage; £6 15s. sd. 
out of messuages, &c., called Starch House, within said town; with one 
close or meadow, 7a., together with i37ja. in Croghan Early, now in the 
tenure of Robert Williamson, gent. ; £8 5s. od. out of a stone house and 
other buildings in the town in the tenure of Thos. Bettesworth ; j£S 9s. od, 
out of anotfier stone house and 332a. in Saunton's als. Doover's lands; 
j£io 2s. 6d. out of a messuage or tenement and 405a. in Kyllcynegrow- 



10 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOCJiCAL SOCIETY. 

ghan als. Begges' lands; ;^7 i6s. 6cl. out of a messuage and 309a. called 
Hamon's land als. Drumslag<^h. 

He also held in fee one stone house and other buildings and houses 
in the town, one garden and one backside containing one acre ; one close 
of meadow or pasture adjoining, called the Hill close, 27a. ; 328a. in 
Ballynecurteis als. Ballelough, now in the tenure of Thos. Bettesworth, 
held of the manor at the rent of £S ss. od. 

Said Sir John Jephson was also seised in his own right of a stone 
house, messuage and tenement in the town; garden, &a, la. in tenure 
of Edward Harries, and in another tenement in tenure of Patrick Plucke, 
with 4a. pasture near said town, in the occupation of Thomas Myller; 
and 332ia. called Saunton's als. Dover's land in tenure of Jane Smith, 
widow, which said Sir John held of the manor. Rent, ;^8 9s. od. Also 
of Killeyneogrowghan als. Begges' land, in the occupation of Maurice 
Gerralde als. Moris Begg, reint £i<x 2s. 6d. ; and 3 roods in the town, 
on which lately four messuages were erected; and 2a. meadow and pas- 
ture near the town, and 309a. meadow, &c. ; Hamon's land als. Drom- 
sligoe, sometime in the occupation of Ralph Hamon, j£y 165. 6d. rent. 

And by a further Inquisition taken at Mallow 14 August, 1638, Sir 
John Jephson was found to have been seised of Mallow, Ballynferrekerrey 
als. ould Town, Gortagoone, Cooleroe, Ballylogh, Killknockane, Bally- 
finicory, Cloghlucas, Ballygerrott, le North feild, le Wheats feild, le 
Gallows Hill, lo East 'feild, le Upper and Lower Quarter, Cornicragoe, 
Crossclement, Lackinlea, Ballyhankin, Mabuts, Carelesse Hill, &c. ; rent 
out of Short Castle, in the occupation of Dame Anne Clayton, widow; 
rent out of the Starch House, &c. ; fishing in the Awemore, all in right 
of the Lady Elizabeth, his wifei Said Elizabeth died 15 years past. Said 
John Jephson died 6 May, 1638. William Jephson is his son and heir, 
and was 28 at the time of his father's death. 

An Inquisition '* taken in 161 1 affords much information as to those 
who held lands within the manor, principally lessees of Sir John Jephson. 
The enquiry was directed to the point whether the Undertakers in Munster 
had performed their obligations, and carried out the conditions of settle- 
ment laid down for them, and the document in question included Spenser's, 
Hyde's, CufFe's, and Audley's lands, being endorsed **Co. of Corke, viz., 
that parte near Malloe." The Inquisition was taken at Mallow on 7th 
August, 161 1, before Sir Richard Morison, Vice-President of Munster; 
Edward Harris, Chief Justice of said Province; Sir Pierce Lane, Knt. ; 
Henry Goswell, Second Justice ; and Edward Becher, Escheator of Mun- 
ster, with the following as jurors : — Myles Roche, of Killehe, gent. ; 
Artt O'Quyeffe, of Dromeagh, gent. ; John Barry, of Ballyclohie, gent. ; 
William Magner, of "Castellmagner, gent. ; Richard Condon, of Dongel- 
lane, gent. ; James fitz Nicholas Barry, of Walsheston, gent. ; Donill 
o'donyvane, of Castell o'donyvane, gent. ; David Tyrrie, of Downe- 
george, gent. ; David Roche, of Ballywilliam, gent. ; Philip fitz John 
Barry, of Kilmichell, gent. ; John fitz Garret Barry, of Bally [ ], gent. ; 
Fynyne McCarty, of Banduff , gent. ; Philip fitz William Barry, of [ ], 
gent. ; and Owen McTeig McCarty, of Drishane, gent. These jurors 
found that the manor, castle, &c., of Moalloe, containing 6,000 acres, 
were granted by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Thomas Norreys, Knt., after 

u Chancery, No. 7. 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 11 

whose death same descended to Elizabeth, his daughter and heir, then 
wife of Sir John Jephson, who was seised thereof in right of his wife. 
Sir John Jephson was found to be seised of the demesne lands of the 
seignory, being i,ooo acres, and the following held in fee-farm — Richard 
Aldworth, Esq., Short Castle and 300 acres; Robert Williamson, gent., 
the Starch house and 316 acres; Roger Wallen, gent., one house and 300 
acres of Ballyfintery ;. 

Next are named as lessees for terms of 21 years — Robert Hoames, 
an old castle and house, with 300 acres, called Clc^hlucas ; Gregory New- 
man, a house and 300 acres, called Dromsligagh ; William Smith, Chur- 
beston and Gortaghmore, 400 acres; Thomas Bettesworth, house and 
lands of Bally logh, 300 acres ; Thomas Bellamy, the Lower Quarter, 300 
acres; John Gibbes, Corraghen Early, 200 acres; Thomas Langly and 
Walter Jenkins, the Upper Quarter, 360 acres ; Philip Waghen, Lackeny- 
loagh, 100 acres ; William Hollydaie, a house and four acres of meadow ; 
Walter Harris, a house and the Water meadow, 60 acres; Thomas 
Edwardes and William Newman and Donston Heard, held the Mill 
meadow, 120 acres ; and Thomas Myller, 5 acres of meadow. 

Next are supplied the names of 25 copyholders, who held houses and 
gardens in the town of Mallow — ^John Wreg, John Joanes, George Harbcrt, 
Thomas Basnet, Cuthbert Eliott, Christopher Grigg, Thomas Dowdall, 
Francis Robinson, David Dawkins, William Peiton, Robert [ J, 
William Stoane, Hugh Laughan, Tymothy Lee, Reynarde [ ], 
William Gilbert, John Uppcott, Matthew Harris, Nicholas Dodington, 
John Foster, Walter Harris, Christopher Gifford, Robert Hoames, 
Michael [ ], and Philip Vaghan. 

Lastly, the jurors found that many undertenants of the freeholders 
and farmers were of the **meere Irish.** 

Of all these names, the only ones that are still to be found in the 
neighbourhood are those of Jephson, Norreys, Aldworth, Newman, 
Williamson, and Harris. 

The terms of the plantation having been carried out, and an English 
settlement formed in Mallow, the next step was the incorporation of the 
town, and on 2^ February, 10 James the First '5 (1613), on the petition of 
the inhabitants, that King granted it a charter. The town with all 
within its precincts was to be a free borough, and to be known as the 
borough of Mallow. Under it a corporation, consisting of a provost, 
twelve free burgesses and a commonalty was created, and Robert Holmes 
was named first provost; the first free burgesses were — Sir John 
Jephson, Knt. ; Robert Williamson, Thomas Bettesworth, Philip Vaughan, 
Thomas Edwards, John Hed, John Gibbes, William Keiton, Leonard 
Kinge, Francis Robinson, Walter Harris, and Thomas Powell. The 
provost and free burgesses were to have power to send two fit men to 
parliament, and when the sheriff of Co. Cork received a writ for election 
of members, he was to make his precept to the provost and burgesses. 
As many of the inhabitants as they should admit were to form the com- 
monalty. The provost was to be elected annually on the feast of the 
Nativity of St. John the Baptist, and to enter on office at Michaelmas 
following. A court of record was to be held on Friday in each week 

15 Pat. Roll, II. James L, pt. 4, m. 44; see Irish Corp9raii0m Commission Riport^ toI ii. 
Enquiry held at Mallow, 17th Sept., 1833. 



i 



li CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAt SOCtEtY. 

before the provost, which court was to have jurisdiction in personal actions 
to the amount of five marks. Two sergeants at mace were to be appointedi 
and the provost was to be clerk of the market. 

The Corporation Commissoners reported in 1833 that Mallow had 
then no corporation, nor was there any trace of such. 

Another charter was granted to the town in 1688 by King James the 
Second. On 29 August in that year David Miagh, merchant, was named 
first provost of a new body, and the following were named as the first 
26 free burgesses — John Jephson, Esq., David Nagle, Esq. ; Pierce Nagle, 
Esq.; John Longfield, Esq., Edward Nagle, gent.; David Barry, genL ; 
William Curtayne, gent. ; John Barrett, gent. ; George Hennessy, gent. ; 
James Roch, gent. ; William Sheehane, gent ; John Fitzgerald, gent. ; 
John Raynes, merchant ; Richard Barrett, gent. ; James Barrett, gent. ; 
William End, merchant; George Goold, merchant; Stephen Keene, 
Thomas Kingsmill, merchant ; Daniel Savery, merchant ; John Callaghane, 
gent. ; Dermod Mullane, gent. ; Richard Rowland, merchant ; Francis 
Bretridge, merchant; Anthony Callaghan, innkeeper; Terence Mahony, 
innkeeper. Cornelius Callaghan, gent., was to be town clerk. 

The Commissioners in 1833 re^rted that the power of returning 
members to parliament had for a long time been exerdsed by the free- 
holders in that part of the manor within the limits of the borough, the 
prejcept being directed to the seneschal of the manor instead of the pro> 
vost and burgesses, as directed by the charter. 

There was a possibility of the Mallow property passing from the 
family of Jephson to that of Boyle at an early period. The great Earl 
of Cork fixed his eye on it as a provision for his heir, Lord Dungarvan, 
during the Earl's own lifetime, and on his death then for his son, Robert 
Boyle; and in 1636 he offered Sir John Jephson ;^i 5,000 for the place. 
The following extracts from the Lismore Papers explain Lord Cork's 
views on the transaction, but the negotiations appear to have fallen 
through. 

**24 Febr., 1633. I wrott my letters to Sir John Jephson touching my 
purchase of Moallo, Balliless [Bally-ellis]. >^ 

12 Febr., 1636. After I had by my Lord Digby made an offer to Sir 
John Jephson, and his son and heir, Mr. Wm. Jephson, to treat with the 
L. President of Mounster and Mr. Tho. Betsworthe for the purchace 
of the howse, town and seigniory of Moallo, the Rent Beeves of Carberye, 
and the leases of 2 ploughlands neer Moalloe, wherein Sir John hath 
a lease of 19 yeares yet to come, at vli. per annum, for which I was de- 
manded eighteen thousand pounds ster. amount thereof, uppon the per- 
fecting of my assurance and their delivery, up of the quiett possession 
therof unto me, and to secure the payment of the laste five thousand 
pounds ster. to their good contentment, and to paie eight in the hundreth 
till I did satisfie the same, either at Moallo, Lismoor, or Dublin, Water- 
ford, Yoghall, or Cork. But under eighteien thousand pounds ster. to 
be all paid in England, they would not descend nor make any abatement; 
whcruppon it was agreed between us that against Candlemas Day I 
should employe Mr. John Walley to Moallo to view and take the par- 
ticulars of the purchase into a juste valluacon, and to examen upon sight 
of the Deeds of ffee ffearmes and leases, what was graunted to every 

«« " Licmore Papcfi,** vol. it., First Senen, p. 13, 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 1 3 

particular tennant, what rent was reserved, whether the rents were duely 
answered, and whether all suche things as were in graunt or lease were 
worthy the; rentes. And in regard of the L. President's R[emoval?] from 
Moallo, to his own house at Donnarayl^, they were lyke to continue con- 
stant rents or would admit any improvement. 

Wheruppon it appeered that Sir Randall Cley ton's and Williamson's 
their ffee ffarme rents did amount unto xix li. xs. ijd. ster. per annum : 
which in regarde they were drie rents, that for the tyme to come could 
not be encreased, were valued at twelve yeares' purchaze, and did for 
sale amount unto 234^. 2s. ster. 

The manner house of Moallo, with the orchards, gardens, curtiladges, 
howses of office, pidgeon house, &c., with the 150 acres of land, laied as 
a demesne to the house now occupied by the Lo. President, with the 
parck of deer, valued at cxlli. a year, did amount at 16 yeares' purchaze 
unto 2,240!!. ster. 

The leased lands (which are veary high lett, and dowbtfull whether 
they will continew the payment of them) which being rented at 608 li, 8s. 4d., 
vallewed at 16 yeares* purchac, doe amount unto 9,730 li. 13s. 4d. ster. 

The coppiehowldes now rented xxxiijli. ijs., rated for sale at 16 yeares' 
purchaze, doe amount unto 52911. 12s. ster. 

The smale connye warren and some waste quillets of land over esti- 
mated to be worthe xvj li. vs. rent, when heerafter they shall be tenanted, 
vallued at 16 yeares' purchace, amounts unto 260 li. ster. 

The rent of O'Callaghan's lease, wherof 19 yeares ar unexpired, at 
the yearlie rent of sili. 6s. 8d., vallued at five yeares' purchac, doth 
amount unto 256 li. 13s. 4d. 

The Earle's rent beeves of Carbry, for which is paid yearly in money 
62 li. iss., vallued at 12 yeares' purchace, amounts unto 75311. Totall, 
14,00411. ster., out of which allowance is to be given to the purchaser 
for the King's Exchequer rent, which being for the manner and seignorie 
xxxiijli. vjs. viij, ster, and for the faires and marckets xvs. (besides 
the fees of acquittances and quietus est) dothe at twelve yeares' rate for 
the purchace amount unto 40911., and the remayn de claro for the pur- 
chaze at those extream high rates above particularly menconed, dothe 
amount unto 13,59511. os. 8d. ster. ; yet in regard I was desirous to have 
a house, fytting and readie for my son and heir, Dongarvan, to dwell 
and keep house in by himself during my own lyffe, so as after my decease 
might be in a readiness, and then yealded up to my yongest son, Robert 
Boyle, wherby he might have that seigniorie as a good addicon to the 
rest of his estate, and be therin placed amongste his other 4 brothers, I 
offered fyfteen thowsand pounds ster. for it. 

12 May, 1636. I sent the L. Rannalaghe's letters, which he wrote to 
Sir John Jephson (with myi advice), in answer of his proposicon for the 
sale unto me of the fee simple of Moallo,. and the rent beeves of Carbry, 
for ;^8,ooo, which letters were by me this day delivered to my- tenant, 
Mr. Jessop, of Ballyknock, to be lefte at Sir John's lodging at a gon- 
maker's ner the turning stile in Holborn. 

4 June, 1636. This day Ned Woodward, my lo. Digbie's man, em- 
barcqued at Dublin, and he carried over to his Lo. my letters to Sir John 
Jephson and sundry letters, papers, and the surveigh towching Moallo, 
with my letters of attorney and enstruqtions for to treat and conclude with 



14 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Sir John and his son for Moallo, O'Callaghan's lease, and the rent beeves 
of Carbry, and to give ;^i5,ooo ster. for them. 

26 August, 1636. I forgave Mr. Fysher, the preacher of Moallo, ;i^io 
ster., dwe unto me for my half-year's rent at Easter, 1636, owt of the 
parsonadge of Moallo, wch Mr. Fysher, as assignee to Sir John Jephson, 
should (if not forgiven him) have paid unto me." 

On the 23rd October, 1641, broke out the rebellion, the consequences 
of which were severely felt in Mallow. The ruin to the country around, 
and the paralysis of trade, caused such decline and stagnation, that niany 
years elapsed before the district recovered its prosperity. In the out- 
break, in addition to the royalist and parliamentary parties, which were 
ranged on opposite sides at the time in England, Ireland had the Catholic 
Confederation, the objects of which were the upholding of the English 
throne, with the house of Stuart, and the maintenance of the Roman 
Catholic religion. The Marquis of Ormond commanded the royalist 
army in Ireland, and in Cork the Confederate Catholics were led by 
Richard Butler, Lord Mountgarrett, whose ancestor was a member of 
the Ormond family, while he himself had married a daughter of Hugh 
O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone. Lord Ikerrin acted as lieutenant-general of the 
forces. 

After much consultation, (|the Confederates resolved on coming to 
the county Cork. Marching from Cashel, they reached Kilmallock, where 
they were joined by Lord Burke of Castleconnell, Fitzgerald of Clenlis, 
and other lords and gentlemen of the county Limerick, with their fol- 
lowers. Being thus reinforced, they determined to march over Bally- 
houra mountain, near which lay Sir William St. Leger, Lord President of 
Munster, who at once set out for Mallow. Mountgarrett proceeded as 
far as Buttevant, and summoned all the gentlemen of Cork to meet him 
there on loth February, 1642; when Lord Roche, O'Callaghan, Magner, 
and many others joined him. It was decided to march on Mallow, as 
being a prosperous English settlement in a fruitful country; a move was 
made next day, when auxiliaries met the Confederate army between the 
two towns. At this time Lord Inchiquin, who subsequently commanded 
in Munster, and Captain William Jephson were together in England, and 
having obtained a regiment of foot and some horse, they were hastening back 
to Ireland. Inchiquin and Jephson, on landing atYoughal about the middle 
of March, went to Mallow, and thence Inchiquin went to Doneraile, where 
St. Leger died during his visit, and the military command then devolved 
on him. 

At this period Mallow had but one street, consisting of nearly 200 
houses, thirty of which were of stone, strong, and slated. It was pro- 
tected by two castles — ^the great castle, built by the Earl of Desmond, at 
the south-east end ; and Castlegar, or the Short Castle, at the north-west. 
The former was entrusted for its defence to Arthur Bettesworth, who 
had a garrison of about 200 men; and Short Castle was in the hands of 
Lieut. Richard Williamson, who had to protect some twenty families 
that took refuge in it. In addition to the castles, a strong stone house 
in the middle of the town had been fortified and garrisoned, which the 
Irish party determined to attack on the night of the 14th February. The 
O'Callaghans, under Capt. Hennessy and Callaghan O'Callaghan, began 
the attempt, when one Michael Hudson, one of its defenders, was killed. 
The house was owned by Richard Aldworth, of Mallow, yeoman, who 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 1 5 

Stated in his Deposition <7 that '* Michael Hudson was slain in the house 
deponent kept for refuge from the rebels." Several other deponents 
mention Hudson's death, and Katherine Hudson, his widow, who states 
his death to have taken place on 13th February, swore to having been 
robbed of goods, &c., to the value of £13^ by Cahir O'Callaghan and 
his following. Hudson's death greatly disheartened the English, and 
by treachery of the O'Callaghans the Irish party got possession of the 
house. They next laid siege to Short Castle, which withstood many 
assaults from Sergt. -Major Purcell, during which several breaches were 
made in the walls. After a time its defenders surrendered on honourable 
terms, the garrison and refugees being permitted to go to the great 
castle. Short Castle was totally consumed, and all the goods of the 
refugees destroyed. John Wiseman,*^ in his Deposition, says that 
when the rebels came he was in it, and saw Jonathan Smith and Edward 
Proctor slain by shots fired by them. When defence could no longer 
be made, he and several others obtained quarter for their lives. The 
rebels then set fire to the town in several places, but many of the houses 
are said to have been saved through the wetness of the season. Lord 
Mountgarrett and his army remained six days in Mallow, and departed 
without making any attack on the great castle. Differences are said to 
have arisen between his commanders and some of the chief gentlemen 
of the county Cork, who on his sudden departure betook them to the lord 
of Muskerry. In the **Egmont Papers" appears an information, 11 
March, 1643-4, by James Cusacke, appointed by the General Assemby 
to supply the place of H.M. Attorney-General in Ireland, at the relation 
of Dermott McCartie, alias McDonoghe, which professes to assign a 
reason why the castle was not surrendered. One Cnogher Reagh 
Callaghane, of Bellaballagh, Co. Cork, while professing to be a member 
of the true Catholic cause, and enjoying all privileges within the Catholic 
quarters, was all his life a chief instrument to Sir Philip Percival, Sir 
James Cragg, and other evil ministers of the state, and gave them con- 
tinual intelligence. When Lord Mountgarrett was encamped near 
Mallow, said Cnogher Reagh repaired privately to Mr. Retchfoord 
(Bettesworth), commander of the castle, and by his information prevented 
the surrender of the castle. In any case the place was saved for that 
occasion, and if this information be correct, it is clear that Bettesworth, 
relying on tidings received, held out until the enemy took their departure 
from the neighbourhood. 

The "Egmont Papers" afford an idea of the feelings and conduct of 
some of the English families during those anxious times. Thomas 
Bettesworth, in a letter to Percival, dated 12 November, 1641, remarks 
that he does not observe the people about Mallow more terrified than 
they have cause to be, though in some particular persons, the appre- 
hension of danger works more strongly. ** Captain Hargill fof Carrig- 
leamleary] is gone to Cork to dwell. Mr. Philpott is gone to Newmarket, 
which are all the removes I hear of in these parts. Mr. Jephson is very 
apprehensively active, as becomes the issue of such a father and grand- 
father, and there are few men in the province fitter to lead a company 
of foot or a troop of horse." 

• tr " Depositions/' Co. Cork, vol. ii, p. II (Library T.C.D.). 
i» " Deposittons," Co. Cork, vol iii. p. 215 (Lib. T.C.D.). 



l6 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

On 27 November, Sir William St. Leger wrote from Doneraile to 
Sir Philip Percival **that Tom [Bettes worth] will not leave hunting and 
ploughing for all this. He is not half so much afraid as they are in 
those parts." In a letter of later date, Bettesworth speaks of a fair 
afternoon on the bowling grcsen at Mallow. Thomas Bettesworth was 
one of the English settlers in that town, where, in 161 1, he had a house 
and also 300 acres of land at Ballylogh, and he was one of the first twelve 
free burgesses under the charter of James I. He appears to have acted 
as agent and man of business for some of the magnates in the neighbour- 
hood, chiefly for the Jephsons, and was on terms of intimate friendship 
with them, with Sir Philip Percival, Sir William St. Legcr, Sir Hardress 
Waller, and Lord Inchiquin. Bettesworth represented Mallow in Parlia- 
ment for six months in 1634, having as his colleague William Kingsmill 
of Ballyowen, but he resigned his seat in consequence of urgent neces- 
sity for going to England. He died between 1648 and 1653, leaving a 
widow, Elizabeth Bettesworth, sons Arthur and Thomas, and several 
daughters ; also a brother, Richard, who resided at Pallas, Co. Limerick. 
I have given these particulars with regard to Bettesworth, because there 
was reason for believing that it is to his pen we are indebted for the 
fullest account we possess of the siege of Mallow. This is to be found 
in the Sloane MS., No. 1,008, fol. 98 (British Museum), under the title 
of ''A Discourse of the Siege of Mallow, with some passages precedent 
and subsequent thereunto,*' which was edited by the late Mr. Herbert 
Webb Gillman, and appeared in the December, 1895, and January and 
February., 1896, numbers of this JoumaL The account is of peculiar 
interest, as the writer was undoubtedly in the district at the time of the 
occurrences narrated by him; he was familiarly acquainted with Mallow, 
describing the town, the park, and the Jephson family, with which he 
was on intimate terms. Mr. Gillman says that the unknown writer was 
a pedant, bombastic, and very verbose, airing his knowledge of Latin 
on every possible occasion, not only in using Latin words, but in framing 
his sentences on the model of that language. In his letters, published 
in the **Egmont Papers,** Thomas Bettesworth meets all these require- 
ments, and so striking did the similarity^ between their style and that 
of the unknown writer appear, that I ventured to communicate with Mrs. 
Lomas, who has so ably edited the Papers. With the utmost kindness 
and alacrity, shei examined the Sloane MS., and reported that it certainly 
was not in Bettesworth *s handwriting, but thought it may possibly have 
been a copy of a * 'relation** written by him. Bettesworth was certainly 
in the castle during those eventful days. The particular copyi in the 
Museum was made for someone who did not know the neighbourhood, 
as particulars and descriptions which would have been unnecessary in the 
case of a correspondent acquainted with it are added. The writer breaks 
off as if he had written up to 1642, and at the end of the narrative says 
he must take leave of poor Mallow, **to which I acknowledge much 
endearment.** He states that Captain William Jephson, for a year or 
two after his father*s death, was engaged in England in settling his 
affairs and in attendance on parliament, until September, 1641, when he 
resolved to live in Ireland ; he then brought over a family and wife, **a 
gentlewoman of honour and endowment" — ^Alicia Denham — ^purposing to 
spend much of his time at Mallow, It seems a cruel fate that such 
untoward events should have happened immediately on the family settling 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 1 7 

in the district, and it is almost certain they were shut up in the castle, 
during the siege of Mallow, under the* charge of the Bettesworths, father 
and son. 

The writer, further, speaks of the excellent relations subsisting be- 
tween the Jephsons and their tenants, and praises their landlord's care 
over them. The native Irish made money yearly round the town by 
selling wood, timber, cloth, flesh, corn, &c. There was a well-frequented 
weekly market, and between Hallowtide and Christnuis no less than loo 
fat beeves were killed weekly. 

Large congregations attended church service on Sunday, and were 
ministered to by a '* learned and vigilant pastor." This was Rev. Thomas 
Fisher, rector from 1637 to 1661. His Depositions '9 as to losses through 
the rebellion show that he suffered to the extent of £iS7 6s. od., besides 
the loss of his church livings at Ballyclough, and damage in the rectory 
of Mallow for that year — ;^50, the living being generally worth ;^8o 
ster. Fisher had been ordained in 1624 by the Bishop of Limerick. 

The writer of the account goes on to describe the pleasant and fruitful 
situation of Mallow, with its store of wood and timber, and the great 
river Blackwater running near, plentiful in salmon, and along which a 
service of boats of three or four tons, for carrying goods between Mallow 
and Youghal, had lately been inaugurated. He describes the fair and 
large demesne attached to the castle, the pigeon houses, coneygeere, and 
the spacious park, well impaled, four and a half miles in circumference, 
furnished with fallow deer. **I am confident," he writes, **that for a 
house with the elements of fire, air, earth and water belonging to it, for 
English neighbourhood, for convenient vicinity to the sea, for hawking 
at pheasant, partridge, rail, quail, heathpoll, ^ for hunting the hare, deer> 
fox, otter; for fishing, fowling, bowlinge, and for all other requisites con- 
ducing to pleasure or profit, there is no place in the kingdom that can 
scarce parallel this." 

To return to the course of events subsequent to the departure of the 
army that laid siege to Mallow — ^various cessations of hostilities between 
the contending parties were arranged, and in April, 1645, when one of 
these periods expired, Lord Castlehaven led an army into Munster, while 
the English army was ill prepared to meet it. The forces advanced to 
Mallow, which at once yieflded on quarter, «« and they then attacked 
Liscarroll and other castles of Sir Philip Percival, which one by one 
surrendered. Arthur Bettesworth, who was again in command at Mallow 
Castle, was exonerated from blame, but Captain Reymond, who held 
Liscarroll for Sir Philip, and who was censured by I>ord Inchiquin for 
inactivity, was condemned for its surrender. In the **Egmont Papers" 
under date 21 May, 1645, we find a warrant from Col. Tames Barryi, then 
governor of Mallow Castle, to the Catholic forces, to permit Captain 
Thomas Reymond, late of Liscarroll, and now kept at Mallow for the 
assurance of the safety of the convoy that conveyed the rest of his men 
and goods to Cork, to pass with a trumpeter to Cork, by virtue of the 
lord general's authority. He was subsequently sent to England with 

«9 " Depositions," Co. Cork, vol. i., p. 199, and vol. iv., p. 67 (T.C.D.). 
*o Heath pewt is a Cumberland word for blaclccock. 

2» ** I marched to Mallow and took it, but with some shot of cannon, and left a garrison in 
it. Doneraile and Liscarroll made no resistance."— Lord Castlehaven 's Memoirs, 1684. 

2 



1 8 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

his wife and family. In Depositions" made in 1653, Thomas Gilborne 
states that he was present at the surrender of Mallow Castle to Lord 
Castlehaven; another deponent, William Arnold, ithat he was present 
on the same occasion, and Lewis Evans was a soldier also then on duty. 
The castle must have been recovered^ as early in December, 1646, Lord 
Inchiquin writes that Gen. Stephenson and Col. Purcell are declared to 
have sworn positively to take Mallow out of his hands (**Egmont Papers'*). 
On the nth of that month he was fortifying the bridge and castle, and 
on i8th Col. Pigott informs Sir Philip Percival that Mallow is very 
important to Inchiquin, he having no other pass over the Blackwater, 
if retreat were necessary. "This winter he fortifies the bridge, and the 
burned house, without both which 'twere not safe for him to advance 
to any place." 

We now come to consider the results of the rebellion, so far as it 
entailed loss, and in many cases ruin on the hitherto prosperous members 
of the community that was gradually being formed, clustering round the 
venerable walls of the ancient castle, under the fostering care and pro- 
tection of the Jephson family. Particulars are to be found in the four 
volumes of Depositions preserved in Trinity College, and in a supple- 
mental volume numbered VI., which were made by suflFerers in co. Cork. 
These documents furnish valuable information as to inhabitants of Mallow 
and their property in the middle of the seventeenth century. Vols. V. 
and VI. of the series for co. Cork are of a different character from vols. 
I. to IV., in which the Deponents simply swear to the injury sustained 
by them, the Depositions being taken soon after the occurrences to which 
they relate. In the case of those included in vols. V. and VI. each 
deposition is made with a view of identifying certain leaders of the Irish 
party, as having been seen in arms by deponents, and as engaged in 
sieges, assaults, and sackings. These were all made in 1652-3, at a 
much later period than the prior ones, and would seem to have been 
sworn for the High Court of Justice, established by the English Parlia- 
ment, with a view to the outlawry of the leaders in the movement of 
1 64 1, and confiscation of their property. Those for the Mallow district 
chiefly concern Wall of Wallstown, O'Callaghan of Duhallow, MacCarthy 
of Muskerry, Nagle of Monanimy, O'Callaghan of Dromaneen, and 
others. Appended is a short summary of such Depositions as were made 
by Mallow folk. 

Vol. I. 

Page 3. Philip Vaughann, jun., of Mallow, gent., robbed by Richard 
Barret, of Fahaugh and Lord Mountgarrett's army, during the siege of 
Mallow, to the amount of £193 los. od. Sworn 30 May, 1642, before 
Phil. Bisse,«3 Tho. Bettesworth, Ric. Williamson. 

Page 14. George Chinery, jun., on behalf of Geoi^e Chinery, sen., 
robbed 16 February, 1641, at Short Castle, Mallow, by^ the forces of Lord 
Mountgarrett, who forcibly took his goods, &c Estimates his losses at 
;^i,78o. 

Page 28. Katherine Hudson, widow, Michael Hudson, her husband, 

•• "Depositions," Co. Cork, vol. vi. pp. 71, 75 (T.C.D.). 

•3 Archdeacon of Cloyne, 1641. On his return from holding these enquiries, he was 
murdered between Cork and Youghal. 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. IQ 

killed on 13 February, by the soldiers of Donough O'Callaghan; losses 
amount to ;^i34. 

Page 32. Elizabeth Maguire, widow, dispossessed of farms at 
Bridgetown and Comans, part of Monanimy. She describes herself as a 
British Protestant, and represents her losses at a sum of ;^ 1,1 20. 

Page 42. Any Standish, widow, British Prot., losses ;^79 7s. od. 

Page 83. Donnell Shighane, late of Mallow, yeoman, an Irish Pro- 
testant, attacked by Teige 0*Hinsy of Killelaha. ;^34. 

Page 90. Francis Riddle, yeoman, on behalf of Randall Clayton, of 
Mallow, gent., whose castle, houses, and other tenements in Mallow 
were burned about 1 1 Feb. , to the damage of ;^45o. 

Page 93. Henry Keightly, innkeeper, lost during the siege of Mallow 
to the amount of ;^267. 

Page 94. Eedy, wife of John Forest, carpenter, whose house was 
burned, claims on behalf of her husband, ''sick and absent/' £120. 

Page 143. Anthony Klngsmill (Deposition signed **Antonie Kinges- 
miir*), late of Mallow, clerk, among other losses, which amount in the 
whole to £gi 4s. od., claims for being deprived of the benefit of his 
house and land in the west end of Mallow, ;^30. In ecclesiastical means 
he lost ;^ioo. 

Page 145. Richard Parsons, 'Ballynard (PBallyjnaraha), Co. Cork, 
shepherd, ^^45. He was in Mallow during the siege, and deposes 
as to the rebels burning 20 houses. 

Page 158. Thomas Haynes, merchant, British Prot., mentions the 
lease of a house in Mallow, and deposes to the loss of jQg22' 

Page 199. Thomas Fisher (signs Fysher), clerk, British Prot., states 
his losses at £1^7 6s. od. The following impoverished Protestants — 
Richard Alder, George Kitely, Henry Kitely, Francis Bidle, Stephen 
Chinery, John Collins, Morris O'Mohurt, and John Powell — ^were in- 
debted to him, but are now utterly disabled from paying. 

Page 223. Thomas Morris, British Prot., ;^io7 iis. od. 

Page 238. Ann Cockringe, widow, had a tanyard. Four English 
framed houses burned, and a stone house injured, jQyjo. 

Page 239. William Holmes, British Prot., malt, beer, kiln, and 
wooden vessels destroyed, to the damage of jQ^^ 15s. od. 

Page 254. Swithin Noble, Castlemagner, ;^S4. 

Page 282. Stephen Chinery, yeoman, jQiy>. 

Vol. II. 

Page 2. Edmond Stiles, British Prot., losses £1^. 

Page 4. Arthur Bettcsworth, g«nt., estimates his losses at ^^2,279. 
He was dispossessed of farms and leases at Kilma<k^line, Cnockduffe, 
Skarteen, and Quartertown, and a house in Mallow. During the time 
Lord Mountgarrett stayed there, acting in rebel fashion, the goods of 
all British Protestants in or near Mallow were destroyed. Jonathan 
Smith, Edward Proctor, and Michael Hudson were killed^ and the 
soldiers of Cahir O'Callaghan murdered one William , Lynes and his wife 
near Mallow. 

Page II. Richard Aldworth, yeoman, British Prot., claimed to have 

lost ;^4S7 I2S. od. He was dispossessed of a farm at Ballinasse, barony 

of Duhallow; of a farm at Cornygrasse, and of houses in Mallow and 



20 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Doneraile. Michael Hudson was slain in the house deponent kept for 
refuge from the rebels, by one of Donogh McCahir O'Callaghan's men, 
whom he brought to assist the rest of the rebels at the siege of Mallow. 

Page 19. Thomas Bettesworth, of the town and parish of Mallow, 
in behalf of Captain William Jephson, who, on 8th, 9th, loth February, 
lost and was forcibly dispossessed of property to the amount of ;^i,6ii. 
Among other items, in spoiling, burning, and destroying his town of Mallow, 
;^30o; destroying his park, killing and chasing his deer, ;^20o; burning 
a barn and other houses near the castle of Mallow; ruining his gardens, 
£200, He was also dispossessed of Carrigilane, parish of Kilshanny, 
worth jQ'jo net yearly. All was occasioned by Lord Mountgarrett's 
army of 4,000 to 5,000 men, who continued at Mallow in rebellious manner, 
committing all manner of spoil, destruction, and hostility on the goods 
and houses of all his tenants, British Protestants, in and near Mallow, 
and by killing some of them, viz., Jonathan Smith, Edward Proctor, 
Michael Hudson, and others, from Friday, nth February, 1641, until 
Wednesday following. Sworn, 25th May, 1642, before Phil. Bisse, Ric. 
Williamson. 

Page 96. Robert Dariing, tailor, ;^62 i6s. od. 

Page 116. Timothy Lee, yeoman, ;^43. He had two houses in 
Mallow and household stuff burned by the King's forces of Mallow, **to 
prevent the rebels, the besiegers, that they should not come near the 
castle there." 

Page 198. Francis Bedell, gent., ;^935. 

Vol. IIL 

Page 88. Henry Kinveton stated his losses at ;^843. The following 
English Protestants in Mallow were ruined in their estates, and as they 
owed him money, he cannot make good his losses : — Gamaliel Warter, 
Richard Williamson, John Hodder, William Hodder, Henry Som^ers, 
Wm. Woodland, Jo. Baker, William Holmes, Gregory Newman, Stephen 
. . . Keightley, Jo. Forrest, Thomas Wright, Emanuel Phayre, 
Sweeting (Swithin) Noble, David . . John Shaw, Christopher Wright, 
Robert Tanton, Philip Holmes, Wm. Bur . . . Germine, Geo. Bos- 
tocke, Elias Cotterell, Jo. Bayly, Mary Bayly, James . . Aldworth, 
Adrian Grible, Elizabeth Court, James Fenton, Henry Henley, . . . 
Dore, Wm. Bird, Jo. and Thomas Parsons, James Midgell, Diggory Trix, 
Peter Do . . . Daniel Powell, Francis Beedle, Rc^er Donegan. 

Page 150. John Rice, weaver, £6$. 

Page 173. Thomas Blake lost tallow and shop goods to the value of 

Page 206. Robert Staunton, yeoman, ;^35. He had a farm in Gort- 
nygrosse. 

Page 215. Jonn Wiseman, cooper, ;^30. When the rebels came to 
take the Short Castle on 28 February, 1641, he was in it, and saw 
Jonathan Smith, gent., and Edward Proctor, yeoman, slain by shots 
from the rebels. When defence could no longer be made, deponent and 
several others got quarter for their lives. 

Page 221. Christopher Wright, yeoman, ;^30o. He had a lease of 
land at Roskeen. 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 21 

Vol. IV. 

Page i8. Richard Williamson, Mallow, gent., British Prot., claims 
to have lost ;^8oo. His house and other buildings in Mallow, farms, &c., 
ruined. His wife, Grissell Williamson, lost an annual rent of ;;^30, pay- 
able to her by John Harrison, Esq., and Gamaliel Waters (Warter), Esq. 
Deponent being in command of Short Castle, was eye witness of Jonathan 
Smith and Edward Proctor being slain. 

Page 65. Robert Troogose, Gortnagrosse, yeoman, £20^. 

Page 67. Thomas Fisher (signed Fysher), Mallow, clerk, claims for 
loss of a house and 40 acres at Ballymoney, barony of East Carbery, 
which came to his wife as heir of her father, Robert Sicawsell. Also 
the tithes of Ballyclough and rectory of Mallow, amounting to ;£8o. 

Page 73. Philip Vaughane, yeoman, ;^i73. 

Page 153. Charles Hargill, Carriglemleary, Esq., £,2A^S* 

Page 157. John Collins, yeoman, £120, 

Page 160. Thomas Wright,, dyer, £177- His house in Mallow, 
with barley and malt, burned. He was also dispossessed of a farm at 
Corrigolane. 

Page 166. William Rouse, yeoman, £gS' He also had a farm at 
Corrigolane. 

Page 167. Francis Brettridge, £^6^ 2s. od., and debts, ;;^37 i8s. od. 
lost land at Castlemagner, and his dwelling in Mallow despoiled. 

Page 215. John Basley, yeoman, ;^7o. 

Page 216. John Eagan, shoemaker, claims for the burning of his 
house, and loss of a copyhold in Mallow, which he held from Captain 
William Jephson, for two lives, at 155. a year rent. 

Page 221. Stephen Chinery, maltmaker, £1$^- 

Page 246. John Collins, yeoman, ;^iio 12s. od. 

Page a6i. Thomas .Bettesworth, Es(q., ;^3^4i4. Dispossessed of 
farms at Buttevant, and lands in Mallow, Ballygibbin, and Clanawley. 
Part of his goods were driven away by soldiers of Dermod Carty, alias 
McDonogh, and Donogh McCahir O'Callaghan; part by Lord Mount- 
garrett's army, and more carried to Kerry, and Clenlesse, co. Limerick, 
and to Kilbolane, belonging to Edmond Fitzgerrald and Sir William 
Power, Knt. 

Psigre 300. William Wakelet, weaver, ;;^42. 

Page 309. Gregory Newman, gent., £396. He mentions farms, at 
Drumslegoe and Baltydonell. 

Page 313. Ales Timberlake, wife of John Timberlake, late of Mallow, 
smith, £2g^. He had held a lease of Comagrosse and houses in Mallow. 

Page 315. George Keitley, gent., £206^ house burned. 

Page 320. John Marnes, miller, ;^866 12s. od. He had mills at 
Mallow ; a mill and land near Doneraik, and land near Mallow. 

Vol. VL 

Pages 59 and 66. 7 March, 1653, Mallow. Deposition concerning 
Richard Walde (Wall), of Walestown, barony of Fermoy, in 1641. 

Richard Williamson, aged 45 ; Philip Holmes, 44; and Philip Vaughane, 
48, depose that they lived at Mallow in that year, and knew Wall in actual 
rebellion. 

Page 71. Concerning Donogh O'Callagban, of Duhallow. William 



22 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCrt/EOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Arnold, 36, lived in Mallow in 1641, and saw O'Callaghan at the head 
of his own company; he was also at the taking of the Short Castle, in 
Mallow, and afterwards at the taking of the Great Castle, which were 
then held out by the English. Thomas Gilborne, Mallow, gent., 35, saw 
O'Callaghan at the surrender of Mallow Castle to Lord Castlehaven. 

John Waters, Mallow, 40, was a soldier in Mallow garrison, and gave 
similar evidence. 

Page ^2. Concerning Mortogh McDaniell Carthy, of Inaky, barony 
of Muskerry. John Barkeley, Mallow, 35, deposes; also John Brookes, 
Mallow, 50, who came prisoner with him to the garrison of Mallow, when 
the Irish came to besiege same. 

P^c 75. Concerning Conogher Reagh O'Callaghan, Duhallow. 
William Roberts, Bally dahin, 30, lived in Liscarroll in 1641. Thomas 
Farmer, Ballydahin, 30, gave evidence; also Lewis Evans, Mallow, 53, 
soldier in Mallow Castle, who saw O'Callaghan at its surrender. 

Page yj. Concerning John Nagle, Monanimy, who was killed at Mallow. 
William Arnold, Mallow; Thomas Farrill, Mallow, 40, and Richard 
Shepheard, Cork, who was a soldier in Mallow garrison, made depositions. 

Page 79. Concerning Teige Roe 0*Callaghan, Roskeene, barony of 
Duhallow. John Waters and Thomas Beasley, Mallow, depose. 

Page 89. Concerning Dermod O'Callaghan, of Gurtroe. Richard 
Baniard, Mallow, 30, lived at Gurtroe in 1641. Deponent was stripped 
by O'Callaghan, being in actual rebellion, and tunned naked to the garri- 
son of Mallow ; he also saw him strip Peter Drake, an Englishman, keeper 
of a park to the then Lord President. 

Thomas Haynes, Ballyhooly, 24, was taken prisoner by the Irish, 
who carried him to the castle of Dromineene, where he saw O'Callaghan 
wearing arms. Walter Harris, 40, Mallow, also made a deposition. 

Page 93. Concerning Morris Gibbon, of Garrineagranage, barony of 
Kilmore. Philip Holmes, Mallow, 44, lived always in those parts, and saw 
Gibbon brought prisoner into Mallow, where he was casually killed in 
the "Marshalsey" by the fall of a house. 

Page 97. Concerning John Roch, Castlekevin. 

Maurice Roch, 48, in his evidence, said that among the English living 
near in 1641 were Captain Hargill (since dead); John Latchford, now 
near Cork; John Groves, now in co. Tipperary; and William Grove, Esq., 
Cahirdowgan. 

Page 103. Concerning Morris Fitzgerald, of Castle Ishen, parish of Kil- 
bolane. William Boulster, of Castlelishine, 50, lived as a tenant to him, during 
the war, and saw him m arms, when he had command of an Irish com- 
pany at the battle of Liscarroll. 

Coming to the end of the Commonwealth period, the copy of a Census 
taken about 1659 furnishes many interesting particulars as to the residents 
in the town of Mallow, and in the townlands around that formed the 
manor. The names of heads of the English families, and of the officers 
of the English garrison, the strength of which was 117 men, are supplied, 
while the prevailing surnames of the Irish population are given. In the 
town, at the period, were 114 persons of English, and 349 of Irish descent. 

The original of this Census is among the MSS. of the Marquis of 
Lansdowne, the document having come to him from his ancestor. Sir 
William Petty. By permission of the then holder of the title, in the year 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 23 

1855, a copy of it was made, which is now deposited in the Royal Irish 
Academy. 

THE TOWN OF MOYALLE. 

Alicia Jephson, widow of Wm. Jephson, Esq. ; John Jephson, Richd. 
Kirle, Esq., and Mary, his wife; Randall Clayton, Thomas Farely, Mrs. 
O'Callahane, Eliza Betsworth, Jo. Jones, Robert Williams, Richd. Doare, 
Esq. ; Teige Hog^ane, Thos. Waits, J. Brookes, Phil. (Brookes, Jo. 
Waggoner, Thos. Murrough, Tho. Blakston, Stephen Keene, Tho. Bar- 
nard, Wm. Holmes, Fras. Bevridge, Saml. Kirby, Jno. Murphy, Tho. 
Grant, Wm. Chartres, Dom. Thirry, Richd. Hawkins, Wm. End, Thos. 
La ts ford, Susanna Alder. 

Principal Irish Names : — O'Callaghane 7, O'Callahane 3, McCnougher, 
5, Hickey 4, Bourke 4, O'Leanaghane 6, O'Morroghon 5, O'Shighane 9, 
McTeige 4, Moyallo 22. 

Moyalle Town. No. of people, 463. Of these 114 Eng., 349 Irish. 

Kile Knockane and Dromsliggah, 22; Kill Ittrigh, 4; Clogh Lucas, 29; 
Curragh In Early, 14, Richard Williamson, Esq. ; Ballinveniter, 49; Bally- 
lagh, 9; Ballyhankine, 5; Lower Quartertown, 31, John Fowke; Upper 
Quartertown, 33, Anthony Mulshenoge, Esq. , Anthony Mulshenoge, gent. ; 
Gortnygraggy, 13; Garrison 0f Moyello, 117, Henry, Stratford, Phil. 
Harris, Markes Weekes, Mat. Pennefather, John Gennery, English. 

Totals— English, 234; Irish, 555. 

During the Commonwealth period, the following entries appear, as to 
ministers at Mallow, and their salaries.** ** Establishment for 1655: — 
Nicholas Pierce, Moyallow, ;^8o (suspended); John Mascall, Moyallow, 
jQiSo (moved to Cloyne); John Norcott, Moyallow, ;;^ioo, 4 June, 1658. ' 

Later, Norcott was curate of Mallow. In 1661, he appeared at a 
visitation, to exhibit Letters of Orders. In the* 'Chapter Book of Cloyne," 
under date 12 July, 1700, is the entry : **Mr. Northcote the elder was 
vicar of Clonmeen in the time of the usurper Cromwell. "*5 

The following extracts from Subsidy Rolls of co. Cork give names of 
those who contributed in Mallow and its neighbourhood. The subsidy 
was an aid or tribute granted to the King for the **ui^ent occasions of 
the Kingdom," which was levied on every subject of ability, according 
to the value of his lands or goods, and always with assent of Parliament. 
This form of taxation was frequently resorted to in the reigns of 
Charles I. and Charles II. 

Subsidy Roll, 1662. Co. Cork. 

Farm of Moyallo. 

Teige Hogan William Bigley 

Walter Babbidge John Jephson, of Knockane 

John Flinn Richard Williamson, of Curagh- 

Francis Bretridge inearle 

John Murphy 

«4 Commonwealth, vol. A/22, Precinct of Cork (Pub. Rec. Oflf.). 
as Brady's Records of Cotk^ Cloynt and Ross ^ ii. 139. 



24 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi£OLOGICAL SOCIETY, 

Farm of Moyallo in the town. 

1665. 

Robert Williams Richard Doare, of Cloghlucas 

John Beasley Thomas Farley, of Ballylc^h 

Thomas Graunt John Fowkes, of Lower Quarter- 
John Jephson, Esq., of Killknock- town 

ane Thomas Latchford, of Northfield 

Farm of Moyallo with the town. 

1667. 

Teige Hogan Thomas Farley, of Bally viniter 

John Dawkins John Jephson, Esq., of Kilknock- 
John Beaseley ane 

Edward Miller Randolph Clayton, Esq., of Scar- 
William Bigley teen 
William End 

Farm of Moyallo 
1668. 
Teige Hogan Thomas Farley, of Bally viniter 

John Dawkins John Jephson, Esq., of Kilknock- 

John Beazeley ane 

Edward Mills Randolph Clayton, Esq., of Scar- 

William Bigley teen 

William End, junr. 

Thomas Bunworth, Suh-CoUectot, 

There is a tradition that James the Second, on his way from Cork to 
the North, took Mallow Castle and burned it. 

In the year 1690, after the battle of the Boyne, some of King James ' forces 
were under orders to burn Mallow, but Richard Nagle, Attorney-General 
under that king, who possessed property in the neighbourhood, sent 
warning to the garrison, who took prompt measures, and by obtaining 
reinforcements from the Danish regiment, frustrated the design. Mac- 
Donough, leader of the Irish, was routed in the great meadow near the 
bridge, and a number of his party were killed. «^ 

The old church had been greatly injured in the war, but was repaired 
by 1692. There is an agreement «7 extant, made between Rev. John 
Bulkeley, rector of Mallow, and Daniel Savery, Reuben Huddy, John 
Blake, and Richard Banyard, dated 4th March, 1692, which would appear 
to have been drawn up with a view to the proper fencing and embellish- 
ment of the grounds of the renovated sacred building. The signatories 
agreed with the rector to build a stone wall from the gate leading to the 
garden called the churchyard garden, in the tenure of Capt. John Raines, 
in a line as far as the bounds of Banyard 's holdings, not to be built less 
than twelve feet from the north-east and north-west corners of the church : 
they to have the piece of ground between the said wall and their several 

•6 Smith's C^Jk, i. 332. Church Papers (Dio. Cloyne), P.R.O. 



THE ENGLISH SETTLEMENT IN MALLOW. 25 

gardens, paying 40s. a year. They were also to plant ash trees on the 
west side of the wall to the church in the season. The document is wit- 
nessed by Tho. Ellis, J. Raines, Rd. Gwynne. 

Rev. John Bulkeley, son of John Bulkeley, a Welsh gentleman of the 
island of Anglesey, entered T.C.D. in 1673. He was rector of Mallow and 
Mourne Abbey, 1692 to 1702. 

On 8th December, 1726, "^ Thos. Ruby, John Swyny, Ann Chapman, 
SamL White, John Welsh, Jo. Banyard, Marie Jouet, E. Brookes, and 
Daniel Linnihan, inhabitants of Mallow, agreed to deliver to the rector 
and churchwardens possession of every part of the churchyard that had 
been encroached on, according to such order as the Bishop at his next 
visitation should make. This is in a single paper, and no clue is given as 
to the nature of the encroachments. 

A Bill filed in the Equity Exchequer on 17th January, 1704, gives the 
names of a number of Mr. Jephson's tenants, which will be of interest. 
The plaintiff, John Raines, Esq., Mallow, was himself tenant of the farm 
called Mallow Park, and Keightley's closes, and proceeded against Mary 
Jephson, widow of Wm. Jephson, who died in 1698, for sums of ;;^440 
and ;^i20, which had been secured by judgments on his property. He 
had issued a sci. fa. against the heir and tenants of said Jephson, 
and the sheriff returned the heir as Wm. Jephson, a minor, whose guardian 
was his mother, Mary Jephson, ;5tated to be sister of Rev. Symon 
Gibbings ; the tenants were Ed. Dodsworth, Ph. Belcher, Rd. Beare, 
Rd. Baniard, Fras. Brettridge, John Brookes, John Bingham, Arthur 
Beazley, John Bulkley [rector], John Blake, James Barrett, Laurence 
Clayton, Esq., Nich. Collins, Peter Curtis, Thos. Coanagh, Ph. Checkley, 
Arthur Dillon, John Dawly, John Dale, William End, Nicholas Erbery, 
Cornelius Riordan, Henry Woods, John Fling, Francis Kell, Dermott 
Keeffe, Edmond Henesy, William Kelly, John Longfield, Hugh Lawton, 
Alice Lane, Thomas Miles, Christopher Marriott, Bartholomew Mogh, 
James Dowley, Morrish Murphy, Robert Noble, Edward Reynolds, Philip 
Exham, William Ballard, Richard Rowland, Arnold Raines, Aaron Stiffe, 
Hugh Lawton, Daniel Severy, George Start, Richard Warren, Richard 
Walters, Richard Williamson, and Isaac Johnson. 

Mention is also made of the North fields, held by William End and 
Philip Bellcher, and of holdings in the town of Mallow by John Lysaght, 
Lieutenant Richard Beare, the great meadow, late in possession of Stephen 
Keen; Thomas Barnard's holding; a holding late in possession of Allen 
Bordatample, widow Foott's holding, and those of Nicholas Erbery, 
William End, William Bickley, Richard Baniard, John Dawkins, Francis 
Brettridge, Ann Mills, Peter Curtis, Adam Stately, Thomas Grant, and 
Christopher Cole. 

John Raines, the plaintiff in the foregoing Bill, had a lease from Mr. 
Jephson of a house called "the Crown House" in Mallow, and, in 171 1, ^ 
certain premises known as the sign of **the Bear," with a malt house, 
previously occupied by Anthony Callaghan, were leased to Richard Beare, 
from whose family Bearforest derived its name. Another messuage in 
the town is mentioned, described as lying between Beare's holding and 
the little bridge on the causeway leading to the Blackwater bridge. 

■« Church Papers (Dio. Cloync), P.R.O. 

99 Chancery Bill, Jephson v. Cotter and Others, 28th April, 1777. 



26 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

In the middle of the eighteenth century, the Barracks must have been 
situated in the immediate vicinity of the bridge and river, as this Bill 
notices an agreement of 1754, relating to the said premises, bounded 
on the north by a row of houses leading to the Barracks, and south by 
the brook called Reevoge, running from the bridge under the Barracks ; 
and on the west by a wall dividing certain premises from the high road 
leading to Mallow Bridge. This would appear to locate them in the 
ground immediately to the right of the present entrance to Mallow Castle. 

Among the Parliamentary Accounts 3© in the Record Office, are reports 
and returns made as to the state of the half troop Barrack, which show 
that in 1752 the buildings were in a bad state of repair — ^walls damp, locks 
wanting, grates defective, glass broken. In the old barracks eight men 
were assigned to each room, but as the establishment then stood, there 
were not men enough to fill them. The accommodation included rooms 
for a captain, lieutenant, cornet, quartermaster, and sergeant, and five 
rooms for men. 

^^ ^753» ^ report was made as to the old and new Horse Barracks, 
but no clue is given as to the situation of the latter. The old was con- 
demned, though the stables were allowed to be in tolerable repair. The 
new were **scarce habitable,'* the walls drawing water. This report was 
made by Captain William Hill (Royal Dragoons of Ireland), under the 
command of Lord Molesworth. 

30 Bundle 12, Nos. 332, 333, and 403. 



Some Account of the Family of O'Hurly. 

{CofUinued from Vol, XL, page 183.) 

O'HURLEY OF BALLINACARRIGA. 

I HAT the Hurleys of Ballinacarriga are of Limerick origin 
is certain, but it can hardly be granted that the Randal 
Hurley who built the castle of Ballinacarriga was son of 
Thomas O'Hurley of Knocklong, who attended Perrott's 
Parliament in 1585. Tradition has it that Randal 
Hurley, the founder of the castle, spent many years in 
Spain. Returning he married Catherine O'Cullinane 
daughter of the physician to McCarthy Reaghs. That 
they possessed wealth and power is evident from the possessions they had, 
the connections they made with the McCarthies and De Courcies, and 
the traditions of the country. In a note by D. McCarthy Glas, on 
the McCarthys of Gleannacroim, and the Hurleys of Ballinacarriga 
Castle, he says there is an unbroken succession of Randal Oges from 
1530 to 1740, of no fewer than eight. 

Randal, son of Thomas Hurley of the Parliament, erected the castle 
of Ballinacarriga, near Dunmanway in the Co. Cork, and married 
Catherine Collins (sic) O'CuUinane a chief in Carbery, by whom he had 
a son : 





Dalunacarriga Castle— The Keep. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF 0*HI/RLY, 27 

Randal Oge Duflf, who married Ellen de Courcey, daughter of John, 
i8th Baron Kingsale, by whom he had : 

Randal Oge Beg, who was outlawed in 1641. He married twice, first, 
a daughter of Tadg Onorsie MacCarthy of Dunmanway, by whom he 
had a son Randal ; and secondly, the widow of Gerald, 19th Baron 
Kingsale, by whom he had Dermod, mentioned in the ** Depositions " 
made in 1641, and Daniel, called of Dromgarra. Randal, the eldest 
son of Randal Oge Beg was outlawed with his father in 1641. He 
left a son : 

Randal, called of Ballinacarriga, who had a daughter Angelina, married 
to Cormac Glas McCarthy, ancestor of the MacCarthy Glas, and 
had a son : 

Randal, who had a son : 

Randal, who had a son ; 

Randal Oge, who had a son : 

John Hurley, who emigrated to America with his family in or about 1810. 

— Cronnelly's Irish Family History, p. 353. 

On the 23rd March, 1517, Edmund De Courcey, brother of Nicholas, 
baron of Kingsale, resigned at Timoleague Abbey, when he took the 
habit of St. Francis, his See of Ross in favour of John O'Murrilly, 
abbot of ** Fonte Vivo,"^> in the parish of Myross, who is described as 
being of the Diocese of Cork. Lady Alynora, daughter of the Earl of 
Kildare, wife of McCarthy Reagh, Kilbrittain ; Cornelius Cathalan, 
guardian of the Convent, and Maurice 0*Murrilly, cleric, are witnesses. 
One of the causes mentioned for his resignation is his great age, over 
80 years. John O'Murrilly is described as a learned, grave, and prudent 
man, also that he, the Bishop of Ross, is connected by certain bond of 
affinity with the said abbot, John. On the 4th November, same year, 
the resignation was accepted. John was appointed Bishop of Ross with 
the retention of the abbey in comtnendam and one or two benefices. 

Thbinbr Monumenta— Hib. and Scot., p. 519.— dccccxvi. 
Document of the Resignation of the Bishop of Ross. From Misc. 

Orig. Doc. 

In the name of God. — Amen. May it appear evident and known to all 
by the tenour of the present public document, that in the year 1517 of the 
Incarnation, according to the ecclesiastical computation of England and 
Ireland, in the fifth Indiction, the 3d year of the Pontificate of our Most 
Holy Father and Lord in God, Pope Leo the loth, and on the 23d day of 
March, in the place commonly called Tymoleague. In presence of the 
undersigned witnesses by me appointed and trusted by me, the respectable 
and venerable man, John Horryle, Lord Abbot of the Monastery of the 
Blessed Mary De Fonte Vivo, in the Diocese of Ross, shewing and pre- 
senting to me, the undersigned notary, the letter of the resignation of the 
Reverend Lord and Father in Christ, Edmund Cursy, Bishop of Ross, 
into the hands of the above Most Holy Father and Lord Pope Leo X., at 
the instance of his most dear brother, the aforesaid abbot, sealed with the 
seal of the aforesaid Lord Bishop Edmund, and written with his own 
hand ; and likewise he earnestly prayed me by the best means, manner, 

(3) This Cistercian Monastery was founded by the McCarthys. Blessed Thaddeus,De Courcey, 
and O* Hurley were in succession abbots of it, which is a proof of the connection between them. 



28 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

and form, by which he could best and most efficaciously do, so that on the 
consideration of a suitable salary, to certify without doubt in and out of 
Court, before opportune, necessary and suitable persons, even the Pope, his 
officials, also the King of England, his deputy in Ireland, and the other 
officials of the forementioned most powerful and noble King, when and 
as often as may be necessary (sic). Since these things which are duly 
executed according to the requirements of the canons and sacred laws 
usually fade from weak human memory, when not having them in due 
order transferred to writing ; which letter of Resignation is as follows : — 
May it appear to the Most Blessed and Holy Father and Lord in Christ, 
Pope Leo X., and whose feet, though absent, I humbly kiss, and to all 
other and such seeing the present letters, hearing and reading them, that 
I, Edmund, by the grace of God and the Apostolic See, Lord Bishop of 
Ross, in my own mind, and by many long days of deliberation moved and 
influenced, perceiving that I am weakened in body and mind to discharge 
the great care of the episcopal dignity, and of so many souls as the weight 
and requirements of law requires, in my advanced years and nearly 
decrepid age, the consideration of which, and my aspirations towards the 
contemplation of my great Redeemer, freely, quietly, of my own accord 
and peacefully, resign, by word and deed, my episcopal dignity into the 
hands of the aforesaid Most Holy Pope, especially in favour of and r^;ard 
of my spiritual lord and brother, John, by the patience of God, Lord 
Abbot of the Monastery of the Blessed Mary de Eonte Vivo, of the 
Cistercian Order, in the Diocese of Ross, whom it pleases us with 
deliberate and willing mind, with the approbation of the Apostolic See, to 
raise to the same episcopal dignity of Ross. In greater testimony of the 
faith of all and each, we affix our seal with the above-mentioned sign of 
the Public Notary, and in his presence. 

These witnesses being present, namely —Lady Alynora, daughter of 
the Earl of Kildare, and Brother Cornelius Cathalan, guardian of the 
Convent of Friars Minor of Observance of Saint Molagy ; Maurice 
Murryly, clerk, being invited and required. 

These presents are given and had, as written above, in the year, 
Indiction, month, day and place, as above. 

L.S. — Et Ego Donatus O'Morthy, clericus Dublini ensis diocesis. 
Public notary by apostolic and imperial authority, having promised all 
and each, namely the resignation made in the forgoing form by the fore- 
said Lord Edmund, and written by his hand and given into the hands of 
the aforesaid Abbot John, with the request of my office r^;arding this 
document, I have been present in person, these all and each as done I 
have seen, heard, published, written, required and asked in testimony of 
the aforementioned I have subscribed with my usual sign and name, and 
the erasure in the end of the second line in the word Tymolage between 
the word desired and the word in presence, does not harm, as I the same 
notary have written with my hand, at sessions held at Youghal, 
2 August, 1642. Randal Hurly, of Beallanecarrigy, and Randal, his son ; 
William Hurly, Ballinwarde, and James Hurly of same place ; William 
Hurly of Lisgubby ; Donagh McDonel Hurly of Bummeonderry ; 
Daniel Oge Hurly of Kilbrittain, James Hurly of Grillagh, Ellen Hurly 
of Grillagh-Ighteragh." 

The resignation was accepted, and John was appointed Bishop of Ross 
in 1517. He did not enjoy his dignity long, as he died on January 9th, 
1 519, and was buried like his predecessor in the Abbey at Timoleague. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 29 

Besides Ballinacarriga and Ballinivard which they built, the O'Hurleys 
also owned Derry Castle, and Monteen and Ballinvoher, built by the 
McCarthys in 163 1. Dermod O'Hurley, surnamed Tresalia, or ** light- 
footed," is said to have owned them in James the Second's time (Bennett). 
A daughter of Randal Oge, who built the castle, and died 163 1, married 
Dermod M'Daniel Carty alias Mac Crimen, of Ballinvoher. Randal is 
said by tradition to have been at the siege of Kinsale. 

Randal Oge fought for James at Limerick, and pined the forces under 
Sarsfield for France, leaving his disconsolate wife behind, who was his own 
cousin, Ellen O'Cullinane, daughter of Ciiil TMC4I Oi|i, so called on 
account of his gold tooth. 

Bennett gives a list of immediate descendants of the O'Hurleys of 
Ballinacarriga. One of these was Parish Priest of Clontead, and he made 
the graveyards at Clontead, Kilmonoge and Ballyfeard. This latter has the 
inscription on a limestone slab inserted in the masonry of a gate pillar : 

Revdus Renaldus 

hurly hoc 

Presidium 

mortuorum 

Fieri Fecit 

Anno Domini 1783. 

He was the son of James, otherwise Se^njuf 21 Cu[i}4||i. 

Here are several tombs belonging to Irish families of distinction : the 
McCarthy Reaghs of Kilbrittain ; in centre of choir there is one to the 
O'Cullinanes— ** Hie jacet bonus vir Dominus Thade O'Culleineab totan 
curn suis filiis eorum et successoribus. Requiescat in pace. Amen. A.D. 
163c." There is also a tomb of the De Courceys, Barons of Kinsale. 

[The celebrated fair of Ballyboy, near Dunmanway, is called in Irish 
^2loi)Od |l4t)x>4ll Ose," Fair of Randal Oge. Ranell Oge Hurley, gent. 
Dec. 19, 1615, Nydenagh More, a Fair, on 25 July and day after ; rent 
6s. 8d. Ir. (old style)]. 

There is in the Catholic Cathedral, Cork, a very beautiful chalice, 
silver gilt. The lower part of the cup is beautifully chased. The nodus 
is also of exquisite workmanship, while the base, of five sides, has on 
first panel a simple cross, and beneath *' Dns. Ranaldus Hurly." Second 
panel has, under figure of the B. Virgin, beneath three stars, ** Et. Dna. 
Eulina de Curcy." Third panel. Double Eagles (De Courcey arms), and 
beneath, ** Conjuges Me Dei." Fourth panel has a palm tree, and beneath, 
"Servitio D.D. 1633." Fifth panel has only ** I.H.S." Encircled. On 
the inside of the base is the inscription : ** Ex Dono I. Coppinger d. m. 
parich Sta. Maria, 1722." 

Intermarriages of the Hurleys and de Courceys :— Edmond Oge de 
Courcey of Kilnacloona, married Julianna, daughter of Dermod Mac 
Teige O'Hurley, chief of his ancient sept, and was father of John de 
Courcey, i8th Lord Kingsale, who, 1601, fought against the Spaniards at 
Kingsale. His only daughter, Ellen, marrieicl Randal Hurley, of Bally- 
nacarrigy, Esq. His son, Randal Oge, married Helen, daughter of Sir 
John Fitzgerald of Dromana, Co. Waterford, widow of Gerald, 19th 
Lord Kingsale. [Note. — Randal married twice (i) a daughter of Teige 
Onorsie McCarthy ; (2) Ellen de Courcey.] 

In the Fiants and from documents in the appointment of John Hurley 
— resignation of De Courcey, we find there were Hurleys in Co. Cork long 
before 1585. Indeed, there is a tradition that before the present castle was 



30 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi*:OLOGICAL SOCIETY, 



built there was a residence where some remains are still at a place called 
Gloun, about a mile to the south of Ballinacarriga. 

In 1490, Br. William O'Hurily was sub-prior of the Franciscan 
Convent, Youghal, and there is, bearing his name, a list of books, 
property of the convent, on that date. 



DOWN SURVEY. 
An Index of Papist Proprietors and Pages Where to Find Them. 





Pages. 


William oge Hurly . . 


. 9.13 


Randall oge Hurly . . . . 10, 12, 13 


Randolp Hurley 


12 


Donogh McDaniel Hurley, Ir. Pa. 


12 


David Hurley, Jr. Pa. 


. 13. H 


David McWiUiam Hurley, Ir. Pa. 


13 


Morris McWilliam Hurley, Ir. Pa. 


13 


William McRanll Hurly, Ir. Pa. 


13 


Kenneth Parish. 






A. R. P. 


99 Wm. oge Hurly . . East Ballivillon 


. 519 oooar. &pa£t. 


9911 The same . . of the same . . 


. 133 


99 I The same . . . . Balechanure . . 


. 089 ar. & pa:. 


99 lA The same . . of the same . . 


. 020 



KiLBRITTAIN. 

No mention of Hurleys. 

Rathclarin, 
No mention of Hurleys. 

KiLMOLODT AND TiMOLEAGUE. 

No mention of Hurleys. 

Desert. 
No mention of Hurleys. 





Fanelobbish. 








131 Randulph oge Hurley 


Ard-Cahane ,. 


. 0266 


oar. 


& woody. 


Parish of Ballimonie. 








151 Randall Hurley, Ir. Pa. .. 


Yeadon Curroe 


. 603 


2 3 «r 


& pas. 


151 The same 


of the same 


. 154 


00 




152 Donogh McDaniel Hurley 


Bununumery, 6 gns. 


. 164 


00 ar. 


&pas. 


153 Randall oge Hurley 


Ard-Eah als. Ballincarrig . 


. 206 


2 16 


M 


154 The same 


Kilcashaneals. Budderinine 321 


36 


ft 


Parish of Kilmina. 








164 Randal oge Hurley, 6 gnes,' 




' 






and the other 6 claimed in 


- Clone-criggin 


■ 188 


ar 


. &pas. 


mortgage by Earl of Cork, 










165 David Hurley, 2 gns. 


Lottir 








166 Wm. oge Hurley 


part of Knock-Eah 


. 196 


I 19 ar. 


&pas. 


i66b The same 


of the same . . 


. 243 


3 8 


If 


166 1 The same 


Lisinroe, of the same 


. 039 


3 8 


It 


167 The same 


Ballinvard, 6 gns 


. 100 


16 


tt 


168 The same 


East Lisnabrinny 


. 228 


3 00 


fi 


169 David McWm. Hurley, 4 gns 


., Conowe 


. 058 


2 


»i 


M The same 


of the same . . 


. 037 


00 


$t 


170 Morris McWm. Hurley . . 


Uskubber . . 


. 138 


2 00 


II 


v The same 


of the same . . 


. 020 


2 00 ar. 


&pas. 


173 William McRanell Hurley 
178 Wm. oge Hurley, Ir. Pa. . . 


Killinyne 


. 145 


32 


If 


Knockduffe . . 


. 307 


2 00 


tt 




Pi 
< 



3 

o 
I 
3 

H 
< 

< 
o 

< 
u 
< 

< 



^- 



rl 




residing at same place, are probably 



O'HURLEY,, 

arriga, paid. 
5oi. 



DoiiRoB O'HuRLSY, ConnoghorO'Hurley, 
ilnacarriga, pard. of Templebrian, pard. 
g., 1601. 14 May, 1601. 



Tena 



par< 
Sod 



Som 



H,= 



= DONAL O'HURLEY. 



= DONOGH 0*HURLBY. 



MORIERTAGH O'HURLEY, 

of Templebrian, pard. 14 
May, 1601. 



LEY (above, c.) 



CONNOGHBR O'HURLEY, 

of Templebrian, pard. 
14 May, 160 1. 



I 
John O'Hurley, 
of same, pard, 
14 May, 1601. 



fOGHE Rob O'HURLEY, 

Eniskean, paid. 1579. 



DONAL O'HURLEY, 

of Fyall, pard. 
1579. 



D TOGETHER AS BELOW. 



m of Kinsale, to Shane O'Hurley (Fiant 5,209), at 
lis brother, I take to be sons of Teige, with whom 



dau. of 



RLEY, 

ineer, 
inKcr, 
ilMac 
,pard. 
I. 



Shane Oge 0'Hurley,=Ellen, dau. of 
of Ballinabooly, Par. I . . . . 
Kilrone, pardoned with | MacEnestlis. 
his wife, dau. and grand- I 
sons, 14 May, 1601. J 



I 

CoNNOGHOR O' Hurley, 
of Rincurran, pardoned 
13 Feb., 1602. 



Teige O'Hurley, 
of Rincurran^ afsd. 
pard. Feb., 1602. 



iLEY, Teige 0*Hurley, 

ifsd. CONNOGHOR O'HUR- 

LEy,of*«Belly,"afsd. 



Ellen, wife of Connoghor 
O'Morehy, of Ballymo- 
dan, both pardoned 14 
May, 1 601. 



)0*Ht] 



Dermod 0*Hurley, Teige 0*Hurlpy, 
both of Dundaneer, afsd., pardoned 14 
May, 1601, and Teige again Feb. 1602, 
then of Rincurran. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 



31 



186 David Hurley, Ir. Pa. 
i86d David Hurley, Ir. Pa. 



Inshidowny Parish. 
. part of Kilbarry 



KiLNEGROSSE. 

No mention of Hurleys. 



051 o 32 ar. &pa8. 
040 o 32 



99 Wm. oge 1 
55"J lwm.ogeI 
93 2 J •• 



BOOK OF DISTRIBUTION. 
Kenneth Parish. 
Wm. oge Hurley, Ballivillon, given to Wm. Wright. 

Hurley, of the same. 

Ballehanure, to Theophilus Carey and Thos. Duggan. 

Faneloobbish. 
131 Randal oge Hurley, Ardcahane, to Capt. John Jacock. 

Balumonie. 

151 Randal Hurley, Ir. Pa., Yeadon Curroe, to John Sicklemore. 
15 lA The same of the same to Wm. Blackboume. 

152 Donogh McDaniel Hurley, Bun-un-umery, to Benj. Croft. 
TArd-Eah als. Ballincarrig „ 

Randal oge Hurley i Kilcashane als. Budderinine, to Richard Dashwood and 
I Ld. Kingston. 

KiLMiNE Parish. 

164 Randal oge Hurley, Clonecriggin, to Benj. Croft. 

165 David Hurley, Lottir, to Capt. SamL Foley, the Duke of Yorke, and Francis 

Burneham. 

1 Knock Eah, Lissinroe, to Lord Kingston, John Freak, and 

166 Wm. oge Hurley, j- Fras. Beamish. 

J and Ballinvard, to Bishop of Dublin. 
168 Wm. oge Hurley, Lisnabrinny, to Charles Nicholett. 
169A David McWm. Hurley, Cahircanowe, to Lord Kingston, John Freake, and 

Fras. Beamish. 
170 Morris McWm. Hurley, Liskubber, to Lord Kingston. 
173 Wm. McRannell Hurley, Killinyne, given to John Abbott. 

Inchidowney. 
186 David Hurley, pt. of Kilberry, to Susan and Fran. Evat 
i86d David Hurley, of the same, to Susan and Fran. Evat. 






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34 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Robert FitzStephen, 

By R. Vaughton Dymock. 



jS a Welshman, I feel a little diffidence in making an effort 
to write an article the object of which is to interest Irish 
readers ; but, as the gallant free-lance who is the subject 
of this narrative was half Welsh, and as he played a 
somewhat important part in the Irish history of his day, 
it occurs to me that some account of him may interest 
the readers of this Journal, so I have attempted to set 
before them as much of his life as I have come across in various re- 
searches into the history of that age. 

FitzStephen was the <son of Stephen, who was Constable of Cardigan 
in the reign of the English King, Henry I., and of the celebrated — some 
would say notorious — Princess Nesta. This lady's father, Rhys ap Tudor, 
was killed in battle at Brecon in 1093, and Henry of England assumed 
the office of guardian to her. Unfortunately for herself, she was remark- 
ably lovely, and she was completely in the power of her self-constituted 
guardian, by whom she was deeply wronged. She has been called 
* 'infamous" because she yielded to his advances; but there is nothing to 
show under what threats or inducements she did so, and it can hardly 
be supposed that this profligate monarch was a likely person to train her 
up in the way she should go. She subsequently married Gerald of 
Windsor, the Constable of Pembroke, by whom she became the ancestress 
of the great Irish family of FitzGerald; while her daughter, Angharad, 
was the mother of Giraldus Cambrensis, a gentleman whose writings on 
Ireland do not win the unqualified approval of Irishmen. Nesta had the 
ill-luck to inflame the passions of her cousin, Owain of Powys, who, 
though a brave and skilful soldier, was also a selfish profligate. He de- 
termined to carry fier off; and having entered the castle at Cenarth, on 
the Teifi, he and his men surrounded the room where she and her husband 
were sleeping. Nesta, with presence of mind and ready wit, contrived 
to effect Gerald's escape, but she and her children were taken by Owain, 
though he subsequently restored the children at her request. Owain, 
however, would not restore her, even at the command of King Henry, 
and a war followed, as the result of which Owain fled to Ireland, and 
Nesta found her way back to her husband, who appears to have rejoiced 
at her return. He died some years afterwards, and Nesta subsequently 
married Stephen of Aberteifi, the modern Cardigan. History records 
but little of this Stephen ; he seems to have been the builder of a bridge 
at Llanbedr (now called Lampeter), from which the town came to be 
known as Llanbedr, Pont Stephen. 

Robert FitzStephen was, as I have said, a child of the marriage. A 
person named Maurice FitzStephen is also mentioned by Giraldus, but 
whether he was Robert's brother or not does not appear, and there is 
nothing else to shew whether Nesta had or had not any other children 
by Stephen. Of Robert's early life little is known, but there is a tradition 
of his boyhood which I mention for what it is worth. When he was 



ROBERT FITZSTEPHEN, 35 

about fourteen, his uncle, Griffith ap Rhys (Nesta's brother), together 
with Owain Gwynedd and Cadwalader, the princes of North Wales, 
marched an army against the barons settled in the south^ whose forces 
advanced to Cardigan to meet them. FitzStephen already shewed some- 
thing of the martial spirit of his later years, and was anxious to go out 
and fight the Welsh, a spirit highly approved of by his father and his 
brothers, the FitzGeralds, who were disposed to allow him to fight. His 
mother, however, opposed his wishes, and though she was a woman of 
gentle and yielding disposition in a general way, she succeeded in 
carrying her point, her husband and her elder sons, who were devotedly 
attached to her, being unwilling to thwart her. Perhaps it was as well 
for young FitzStephen that it was so. The Welsh turned the Norman 
flanks, and Stephen's army was completely defeated, losing three thousand 
killed, besides a large number who were taken prisoners. 

We next hear of FitzStephen in the reign of Henry H. That monarch 
declared war against Owain Gwynedd, and sent a fleet to land men in 
Anglesey. The invaders, of whom FitzStephen was one, and his half- 
brother, Fitz-Henry (a natural son of Nesta by Henry) another, began 
to rifle the churches, but they were defeated by the men of Anglesey, 
and FitzHenry was killed. FitzStephen, severely wounded, escaped to 
his ship, and nothing more is heard of him for some years. 

When Dermot came to solicit the aid of the Normans in recovering 
his kingdom, FitzStephen was a prisoner in the hands of his cousin, 
Rhys, son of the aforesaid Griffith. He had, it appears, been captured 
in his own castle of Aberteifi, through the treachery of his own men, 
Giraldus says, and had refused an offer made by Rhys to release him on 
the condition of his going over to the Welsh. Keating *s History of 
Ireland says that he was detained by Ralph Griffin (presumably Rhys ap 
Griffith is meant) for treason against King Henry, but this is very 
improbable, seeing that Rhys, though nominally a vassal of Henry's, 
was very often at war with him. Dermot approached Rhys with a view 
to obtaining the release of so redoubtable a warrior, and his request, 
backed by the prisoner's brothers, Maurice FitzGerald and David Fitz- 
Gerald, bishop of St. David's, was ultimately granted, but on what terms 
I cannot say. Rhys was a good hand at a bargain, and it is not likely 
that he got the worst of the deal. 

FitzStephen came over to Ireland with less than 500 men. He landed 
in a creek of the bay of Barrow, where a narrow chasm, which he is said 
to have jumped, was long known as ** FitzStephen *s stride." He then 
marched on Wexford, making two unsuccessful assaults on the town, 
but the Irish, finding that they could not hold it, surrendered to Dermot, 
who handed it over to FitzStephen. The Norman leader proceeded to 
erect a fort on the rock of Carneg, at the narrowest part of the river, 
and then marched with his Irish allies against the men of Ossory. These 
men fought with the dashing courage of their race, but, being enticed 
into the open plains, they were charged by FitzStephen's horsemen, and 
defeated with great slaughter. Dermot 's behaviour after the battle is 
not pleasant reading. More raids followed, after which the Prince of 
Ossory submitted to Dermot — bl peace, says Giraldus, which was false 
on both sides. 

The early successes of the adventurers caused an alliance of the Irish 



36 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

to be formed against them, under Roderic O'Connor, prince of Connaught 
and overlord of all Ireland. Dermot, seeing that some of his own fol- 
lowers went over to the enemy, fell back on Ferns, which place was 
fortified under the direction of FitzStephen. Roderic sent messages to 
the Normans, offering them presents on condition of their leaving Ireland 
in peace, a land, he said truly enough, in which they could challenge no 
sort of right ; but FitzStephen refused his offer. Roderic then approached 
Dermot, with the same result. However, peace was shortly afterwards 
made, Dermot acknowledging Roderic as overlord, and Roderic restoring 
Leinster to Dermot. Just at this time, however, Maurice FitzGerald 
came across with 140 men ; Dermot threw treaties to the winds, and 
marched on Dublin, leaving FitzStephen in the fort at Wexford. This 
**fort** was only a slight rampart of mud and stakes; strange as it may 
seem, the Normans do not seem to have anticipated any attack by the 
Wexford men. Dermot and FitzGerald laid waste the country round 
about Dublin, and the people of the district sued for peace, which was 
granted them on not very advantageous terms. FitzStephen shortly after- 
wards went to Limerick to aid Duvenald, Dermot's son-in-law, against 
Roderic. He was successful in this campaign, and Duvenald threw off 
Rodericks yoke. 

Strongbow came over soon afterwards, and joined Dermot *s army, 
which then marched on Dublin, leaving FitzStephen in Wexford with a 
small garrison. The men of Wexford invested his camp, and the Earl, 
though he took Dublin, found himself shortly afterwards closely besieged 
by a large army, while the Danes and others came with a large fleet and 
blockaded the city by sea. So closely was Strongbow pressed that he 
offered to become Roderic 's vassals on terms, which the Irish monarch 
refused to consent to. John the Mad (or the Wode), a Norwegian, landed 
an army which assaulted the town, but was repulsed with severe losses 
through the energy and courage of Miles de Cogan. Gilmoholmock, an 
Irish chieftain, joined the Normans, and Hasculf, the leader of the Danes, 
was captured, and afterwards beheaded. Hearing of the danger of 
FitzStephen, Strongbow and his followers made a desperate sortie, 
cut their way through the investing army, and marched in the direction 
of Wexford, but they were too late, for the town had already capitulated, 
whether through treachery, as Giraldus says, or otherwise, I am unable 
to say. Strongbow attempted a rescue, but the men of Wexford, after 
burning the town, retreated to an island in the bay, taking with them 
their prisoner, loaded with fetters, and threatening to kill him if they 
were pursued. 

They then sent an embassy to Henry of England, accusing FitzStephen 
of treason towards him, and offering to hand him over. Henry, though, 
as subsequent events showed, he did not understand the Irish, thought, as 
was probably the case, that if he refused to listen to them the captive's 
life might be endangered, so he pretended to be enraged with FitzStephen, 
and he thanked these men for the service they had done him. Shortly 
afterwards he came to Ireland with over four thousand men, and landed 
at Waterford. FitzStephen was brought to him in chains, and on being 
accused, handed the king his glove, saying that he would offer redress on 
the guaranty of his peers. He was subsequently released, and went to 
Dublin with the king, who left him there with his nephews, Miles de 



THE GOLDSMITHS OF CORK. 37 

Cogan and Meiler, a son of the Henry FitzHenry who was killed in 
Anglesey. 

FitzStephen subsequently fought in the king's wars in Normandy, after 
which, returning to Ireland, he obtained a grant of lands in County 
Cork.' His last years were embittered by domestic griefs, both his sons 
dying in his lifetime. His daughter api>ears to have married her cousin. 
Miles de Cogan, but there was presumably no issue of the marriage, for 
on FitzStephen 's death his heir was Raymond le Gros, son of William 
FitzGerald, though part of the lands were granted by him to Philip de 
Barri, brother of Giraldus. FitzStephen died in 1182, aged about sixty. 
According to his nephew, Giraldus, he was **stout in person, with a hand- 
some countenance, somewhat above the middle height; he was bountiful, 
generous, and pleasant, but too fond of wine and women." 

In conclusion, we may say that FitzStephen was a typical Norman 
baron, no better and no worse than the majority of such worthies. How 
far he was implicated in the plundering of the Anglesey churches, I am 
unable to say; but that is the only outrage in which history indicates 
him as having taken a possible part. We do not, for example, find his 
name associated with such a cruel outrage as the slaughter and ill-treatment 
of the Waterford captives by Hervey de Montmaurice. FitzStephen 
was perhaps not a very great general, as witness his frequent reverses both 
in Wales and in Ireland; but he was certainly a fine soldier, and his 
pluck and determination in face of the repeated rebuffs of fortune cannot 
fail to win our admiration. It seems unfortunate that his name should 
have been so entirely extinguished that it is now known only to students 
of history. 

> For a copy of the Charter by which this grant was made see Gibson's History of the 
County anei City of Cork, vol. i. p. 20. 



The Goldsmiths of Cork. 

By M. S. D. Westropp. 

I T is well known that goldsmiths worked in many provincial 
towns in Ireland in early times, and it is probable that 
Cork was not without some members of the craft. The 
names of several goldsmiths residing in Limerick, Water- 
ford, Dungarvan, and Kilmallock, in the i6th century, are re- 
corded. Goldsmiths are mentioned as being in Cork from the 
beginning of the 17th century, but prior to 1656 nothing 
seems to be known concerning them. However, in that year, on May 31st, 
they were incorporated with the braziers, pewterers, founders, plumbers, 
whiteplate-workers» glaziers, saddlers, and upholsterers of the city under 
the name of **The Master, Wardens, and Company of the Society of 
Goldsmiths of the City of Cork,'' and John Sharpe, goldsmith; Robert 
Goble, brazier; Edward Goble, brazier; John Hawkins, saddler; Thomas 
Holmes, saddler, and Robert Phillips, saddler, were appointed trustees 
of the Company. 




38 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETV. 

A similar company existed in Kinsale, and was incorporated in 1687. 

As there was no regular assay office in Cork, it is not known how the 
quality of the plate was tested. Perhaps each goldsmith assayed his 
own plate, or probably got some other member of the fraternity to assay 
it for him. 

The goldsmiths of Cork appear to have tried several times to obtain 
an assay office in the city, but to no purpose. 

In the Council Book of Cork entries occur in the years 1714 and 1786 
referring to the appointment of an assay master and the establishment 
of an assay office ; and among the minutes of the proceedings of the Gold- 
smiths ' Company of Dublin I have found copies of several letters on the 
same subject from the goldsmiths of Cork. 

In 1807, they presented to the Right Hon. John Foster, Chancellor of 
the Irish Exchequer, a memorial respecting the establishment of an assay 
office in Cork, signed by Carden Terry, John Toleken, Isaac Solomon, 
James Conway, Samuel Reily, John Nicolson, Nicholas Nicolson, James 
Heyland, Thomas Montjoy, Joseph Gibson, John Whelpley, and William 
Byrom. 

Another application was made in the following year, and was for- 
warded to Col. Longfield, M.P., and by him presented to the Right Hon. 
John Foster. 

The Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin always opposed these applica- 
tions, and the correspondence dragged on till 1813, when the Cork gold- 
smiths seem to have given up in despair. The latter stated that they 
had been trying for the last twenty years to obtain an assay office in 
Cork, and were making 15,000 oz. of plate annually. 

Besides the plate stamped in Cork, I have found in tjie books of the 
Dublin Goldsmiths' Company many entries of plate having been sent to 
Dublin to be assayed and stamped. 

William Clarke sent large quantities from 1709 till his death in 1733, 
and other entries occur during the eighteenth century. 

From 1807, probably owing to the increased duty, a great deal of 
Cork plate was sent to Dublin to be stamped, and Cork was not the only 
town which thus sent plate, as entries of a similar nature occur respecting 
Limerick, Waterford, Kinsale, Kilkenny, and Clonmel. 

Previous to the year 1656 probably no marks were stamped on Cork 
plate, except perhaps a maker's mark; but from that time a town mark 
appears to have been adopted, and on pieces of Cork plate of the second 
half of the seventeenth and early part of the eighteenth centuries this 
consists of parts of the city arms. 

The full city arms, a three-masted ship between two one-towered 
castles, in three separate stanips occasionally occurs, but more often 
the ship alone, or two castles, or the ship and one castle separately 
stamped are to be found. 

Sometimes, as on the church plate at Carrigaline, Co. Cork, the 
ship between two castles is found all in one stamp. On some examples 
the maker's mark alone occurs. 

Probably each goldsmith had his own town mark stamp, which may 
account for the numerous varieties which occur. 

Early in the eighteenth century the ship and castles town mark was 
discontinued, but for what reason is not at present known. Probably 



THE GOLDSMITHS OF CORK. 39 

its use terminated between the years 1709 and 1715. The first entry of 
Cork plate having been sent to Dublin to be assayed occurs in November, 
1709, and probably this fact may have had some connection with the 
change of marks. However, from about this period till about 1840 the 
town mark consisted of the word STERLING in various forms. The 
spelling varied somewhat, STERLING, STARLING, STIRLING, 
STARLIN, and STERLIN being found. The word was often abbre- 
viated to STER,, STEB and STERO, sometimes it is found in two parts, 

f STER I . . . „ |STE| „ . 

I T TKP 1 ^" separate stamps, and very occasionally Pot txtqI sill ^^ one 

stamp. The letters are always capital Roman letters, at least as far 
as is at present known. 

The word STERLING is nearly always accompanied by the maker's 
mark, but instances occur of STERLING alone. It was probably thus 
used by journeymen silversmiths who were not empowered to strike their 
marks. 



The mark 



STER 
LING 



STER 
^' BING 



in one stamp sometimes found on 



plate, I am inclined to think has nothing to do with Cork, but belongs 
to Chester, and perhaps to Sheffield or Birmingham before the establish- 
ment of assay offices in those towns in 1773. 

The shape of the punch containing the word STERLING also varied, 
generally it was long and narrow, with rectangular or rounded corners, 
and often the outline was serrated. Shaped punches were very un- 
common, though sometimes a bow-shaped punch occurs. Late in the 
eighteenth century the word STERLING or STIRLING occurs in incuse 
letters without any surrounding punch. Very rarely the word DOLLAR 
is found instead of STERLING, the only example I have seen is on a 
punch ladle in my possession. The word most probably indicated that 
the article was made out of Spanish dollars, which furnished a good deal 
of silver for the manufacture of plate during the eighteenth century. 

In Cork newspapers of about the end of the eighteenth century there 
appear advertisements from silversmiths for dollars. 

The makers' mark, like the town mark, also varied a great deal. 
From 1656 to about 1730 it consisted of the initials of the Christian and 
surname of the maker, often accompanied by some heraldic device, such 
as a crown, a fleur-de-lis, a star, or an animal. From about 1730 to 
about 1840 (after which no plate appears to have been made in Cork), the 
mark generally consisted of the initials only, in a rectangular, oval, or 
rarely in a shaped punch, though exceptions occur. Sometimes the name 
in full, either with or without the initial of the Christian name, occurs, 
and either in a punch or in incuse letters alone. 

As the Goldsmiths' Company of Dublin had control of the working 
of the precious metals throughout Ireland, perhaps an order made by 
them in 1731, prohibiting the use of any ornaments with the maker's 
mark, may have affected the Cork goldsmiths, as it is about this period 
that the heraldic devices disappear. 

A great variety occurs among the marks of individual Cork gold- 
smiths. In some cases a single goldsmith employed as many as five 
different stamps. 



40 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH/EOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



From about 1807, when the duty on plate was increased, the Dublin 
hall marks are found, in addition to the word STERLING, on Cork plate ; 
but generally the Cork goldsmiths simply stamped their initials on it 
before sending it to Dublin to be assayed. Entries occur in the Dublin 
goldsmiths' books up to about 1830 of Cork plate having been stamped 
in Dublin. However, all the plate was not sent to Dublin for assay, so 
whether that simply marked STERLING paid duty or not is not at 
present known. It speaks well for the quality of Cork plate, when among 
the numerous entries in the Dublin goldsmiths' books of plate being sent 
up for assay, I have not come across any instance of it having been broken 
for being below standard. No date letter was ever used in Cork, and 
such occurs only on Cork-made plate stamped in Dublin; so the only 
means of arriving at the approximate date of any piece is a knowledge 
of the working life of the goldsmith, and the form and decoration of the 
article. 

The following list, based on that of the late Mr. Cecil Woods, who was 
the first to compile a list of the goldsmiths of Cork, has been corrected 
and enlarged by dates and names which I have found in contemporary 
records. 

[All the following are either stated to have been goldsmiths, silver- 
smiths, or jewellers, or else it is thought highly probable that they were 
such.] 



Earliest 
Notice. 


Names. 


Latest 
Notice. 


Remarks. 




John Agherne, goldsmith . . 

William Armour, jeweller, mentioned . . 


1699 


Died. 


1777 






1824 


John Armstrong, goldsmith, mentioned. . 


1828 


Then dead. 


1693 


Charles Behegle, goldsmith, warden . . 


1697 


Died. 


1694 


Walter Burnett, warden 


1729 


Probably then dead. 


1699 


Adam Billon, admitted a freeman 


I7I9 


Then living. 


1702 


George Brumley, warden . . 


1729 


Probably then dead. 


1725 


Jonathan Buck, silversmith, mentioned. . 


1764 


Died. 


1728 


William Bennett, warden. 






I761 


Peter Baker, goldsmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Croker Barrington, silversmith.mcntioned 


1783 


Probably then dead. 


1770 


1777 


Then living. 


X843 


R. & W. Bradford,silversmith8 and cutlers, 
mentioned 


1857 


W. Bradford died. 


I71O 


William Clarke, goldsmith, warden ; 


1733 


Died ; Mrs. Clarke canried on 




master 17 14 




business till 1736. 


1725 


Simon Peter Cadier, jeweller, admitted 
a freeman 


1759 


Probably then dead. 


1726 


Daniel Crone, silversmith, admitted a 
freeman 


1759 


Probably then dead. 


1772 


John Christian, goldsmith and silver- 
smith, mentioned. 






1777 


Daniel McCarthy, silversmith, mentioned 


1782 


Died. 


1790 


Michael Cooper, silversmith, mentioned 


1795 


Probably then dead. 


1808 


Daniel Corbett, jeweller, mentioned 


1824 


Not mentioned then. 



THE GOLDSMITHS OF CORK. 



41 



Earliest 
Notice. 



Names. 



Latest 
Notice. 



Remarks. 



1722 
1757 

1758 

1770 

1787 
1828 

1783 
1824 

1710 
I712 
I714 

1772 
1795 



1618 
1694 

I719 
1787 

1809 
1809 
1812 
1824 

1632 
1680 
1706 
1746 



1762 

1775 
1783 
1786 

1795 
1808 

1824 

1824 

l8$2 



Edward Dunsterfield, warden. 

Michael McDermott, silversmith, men- 

tiuDed 
George Duglas, silversmith and chaser, 

mentioned. 
Alexander Douglas, goldsmith, admitted 

a freeman 
Thomas Donallan, silversmith, mentioned 
Peter Donovan, jeweller, mentioned. 

John Egan, jeweller and plater, mentioned 
William Egan, working jeweller, men- 
tioned 

George Farrington, goldsmith, quarter 
brother in Dublin Company 

James Foulkes, goldsmith, warden, ad- 
mitted a freeman 

James Foucauld, jeweller, admitted a 
freeman 

John Foley, goldsmith, mentioned 

Samuel Fryer, silversmith, admitted a 
freeman 

Richard Gould, goldsmith, mentioned . . 
Robert Goble, admitted a freeman and 

master of the guild 
Robert Goble, jun., goldsmith, warden . . 
Joseph Gibson, goldsmith and jeweller, 

mentioned 
S. (?) Green, silversmith, mentioned 
Richard Garde, silversmith, mentioned . . 
Phineas Garde, silversmith, mentioned . . 
John Garde, jeweller, mentioned 

John Huethson, goldsmith, mentioned . . 

John Hawkins, warden 

John Harding, warden 

George H odder, goldsmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Peter Hyatt, jeweller 
John Hillary, goldsmith, mentioned 



Bligh Harrison, jeweller, mentioned 
John Humphreys, silversmith, mentioned 
Thomas Harman, silversmith, admitted 

a freeman 
James Heyland, silversmith, mentioned 
William Heyland, goldsmith and silver- 
smith, mentioned 
James Hackett, silversmith and jeweller, 

mentioned 
Edward Hawkesworth, jeweller, men- 
tioned 
John Herlihy, silversmith and jeweller, 
mentioned 



1784 

1783 
1795 



1795 
1850 



1728 
1729 
1729 

1795 
1830 



1636 
1722 

1737 
1825 



1828 
1843 



i6s6 
1702 
1729 
1771 

1784 
1785 



1789 
1787 
1799 

l8[2 

1824 
1850 
1852 



Died. 

Probably then dead. 
Probably then dead. 



Probably then dead. 
Probably then dead. 



Died. 

Probably then dead. 

Then dead. 

Probably then dead 
Then dead. 



Then dead. 
Probably then dead. 

Died. 

Died about then. 



Then living. 
Then living. 



Probably then dead. 
Then living. 
Probably then dead. 
Died. 

Died. 

Died; his widow, Maiy Hillary, 

carried on business for a few 

years. 
Died. 

Probably then dead. 
Probably then dead. 

Then living. 
Then living. 

Died about then. 

Then living. 



42 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCRAOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Earliest 
Notice. 



1691 

1748 
1843 



1752 
1756 

160I 
1737 

1761 

1795 
1812 

1692 

17IO 

1716 

1722 

1809 

1810 
1852 

1852 

1721 

1763 
1787 

1805 

1807 



1824 

1678 

1714 
1783 

1626 

1673 
1702 



Names. 



Notice. 



John James, siWersmith, warden ; master 

1692 
John Irish, silversmith, mentioaed 
William Jackson, silversmith aodjeweller, 

mentioned 

Thomas Knox, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Joseph Kinselagh, jeweller, mentioned ; 

admitted a freeman 1780 

Morice Leyles, goldsmith, mentioned . . 
Peter Lane, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
George Lee, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
John Long, silversmith, mentioned 
John Loughlin, jeweller mentioned 

Charles Morgan, goldsmith, warden; 

master 1697 
John Mawman, warden 171 1, and 

master 17 16 
William Martin, goldsmith, warden ; 

master 1720 and 1727 
Reuben Millerd, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman ; warden 1723 
Kean Mahony, working silversmith, 

mentioned 
Thomas Montjoy, mentioned 
Patrick Mahony, goldsmith and jeweller, 

mentioned 
Patrick McNamara, silversmith, men- 
tioned 

William Newenham, goldsmith, warden ; 
master 1726 

John Nicolson, silversmith, mentioned . . 

Joseph Nicolson, goldsmith and jeweller, 
mentioned 

John Nicolson, silversmith, admitted a 
freeman 

Nicholas Nicolson, silversmith, men- 
tioned ; admitted a freeman 181 3 



Henry Obree, goldsmith, mentioned 

Samuel Pantaine, jeweller, warden ; 

master 1679 
Christopher Parker, warden 
Charles Purcell, jeweller, mentioned 

James Howe, goldsmith, mentioned 

James Ridge, master 

Caleb Rathrum, warden ; master 1707 . . 



Remarics. 



1733 
1775 

1765 
1783 

1617 
1759 

1787 

1812 

1701 
1729 
1739 
1737 
1850 
1824 



1734 

1805 
1795 

1824 
1830 



1689 

I72I 
1787 

1630 
1700 
1746 



Probably then dead. 
Then living. 

Died. 

Probably then dead. 

Then living. 
Probably then dead. 

Probably then dead. 

Then living. 

Then living. 

Probably then dead. 

Died. 

Died. 

Then living. 

Probably then dead. 



Died. 

Probably then dead. 
Probably then dead. 

Then dead. 

Then living. From about 1807 
to 1820^ John and Nicholas 
Nicolson were partners. 



Died. 

Then master. 
Probably then dead. 

Then living. 
Probably then dead. 
Died. 



THE GOLDSMITHS OF CORK. 



43 



Earliest 
Notice. 



Names. 



1738 

1758 
1772 

1777 
1783 

1790 

i6s6 

1674 
1685 

1726 

1787 

1788 

1807 
1809 
1834 

1843 

1 761 

1766 

1795 
1795 

1692 
1726 

1756 
1768 
1775 

1777 
1795 



»799 

1803 
t8i2 



John Rickotts, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
William Reynolds, goldsmith, admitted 

a freeman 
Patrick Ryan, silversmith, mentioned . . 

Samuel Reily, goldsmith, mentioned 
William Roe, goldsmith and jeweller, 

mentioned 
William Reynolds, silversmith, admitted 

a freeman 

John Sharpe, goldsmith, admitted a 

freeman, and elected master 
Richard Smart, warden ; master 1676 . . 
Anthony Semait, goldsmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Thomas Smarley, mentioned 
John Sheehan, silversmith and cutler, 

mentioned 
Richard Stevens, silversmith, admitted 

a freeman 
Isaac Solomon, silversmith, mentioned . . 
John Seymour, silversmith, mentioned . . 
James Salter, goldsmith, mentioned 
Thomas Seymour, silversmith, mentioned 

Francis Taylor, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Garden Terry, goldsmith, mentioned ; 

admitted a freeman 1785 
John Toleken, silversmith, mentioned 
William Teulon, silversmith, mentioned 

Caleb Webb, goldsmith, warden 
Joseph Wright, silversmith, warden 
Stephen Walsh, goldsmith and jeweller. . 
Richard Walsh, silversmith, mentioned. . 
John Warner, goldsmith, admitted a 

freeman 
Peter Wills, jeweller, admitted a freeman 
John Williams, silversmith, mentioned . . 



James Warner, silversmith, admitted a 

freeman 
John Whelpley, silversmith, mentioned. . 
George Wiber, jeweller, mentioned 



Notice. 



1738 
1787 

1795 

I8I2 
1795 

1795 
1675 

I69I 
1700 

1795 
1830 

1845 

1827 
1840 

1783 

I82I 

1824 
1843 

1696 
1738 
1783 
1787 
I8I0 

1820 
1807 



1830 

1824 
1824 



Remarks. 



Died. 

Probably then dead. 

Then dead. Business carried 
on by his widow, Ann Ryan 
Probably then dead. 
Probably then dead. 

Then living. 



Probably then dead. 

Then living. 
Probably then dead. 



Then living. 

Then living. 

Died about then. 
Then living. 
Left the country. 

Probably then dead. 

Died. 

Then living. 
Then living. 

Then master. 

Died. 

Probably then dead. 

Probably then dead. 

Probably died about then. 

Then living. 

Died about then. John 
Williams and Garden Terry 
were partners from about 
1795, and from about 1807 
to 1 82 1 Mrs. Jane Williams 
carried on the business. 

Then dead. 

Probably then dead. 
Then living. 



44 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH/KOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



The Account of the Proprietors of the Cork Institution, 

From the 20th Day of March, 1807 [when they were incorporated] 
to the 3th day of January, 1808, both days inclusive. 



By ROBERT DAY. F.S.A. 



THE CHARGE. 
Received subscriptions from the undermentioned forty-five original proprietors, 
ten guineas each, ;£477 15s. od. 



1 Rev. Thos, D. Hincks, charter. 23 

2 Sir Richd. Kellett, Bart., charter. 24 

3 Lady Kellett. 25 

4 Mr. R. Kellett. 26 

5 Mr. W. Kellett. 27 

6 Wm. Crawford, Esq., charter. 28 

7 Arthur Crawford, Esq. 29 

8 William Crawford, junr., Esq. 30 

9 William Beamish, Esq., charter. 31 

1 1 The late Sir Jas. Chatterton, Bart. 32 

12 Lady Chatterton. 33 

13 The late Michl. Wood, Esq. 34 

14 Mrs Wood. 35 

15 The late Saml. McCall, Esq. 36 

16 Thos. McCall, Esq. 37 

17 John Cotter, junr, Esq. 38 

18 Abraham Lane, Esq. 39 

19 Richard Lane, junr., Esq. 40 

20 Doctor Longfield, charter. 41 

21 Doctor Calanan, charter. 42 

22 Doctor BuUcD. 



Doctor Milner Barry. 

Abbott Trayer, Esq. 

Cooper Penrose, Esq., charter. 

Richard Fitton, Esq., charter. 

Rev. John Fortescue. 

Peter Maziere, Esq. 

Robert Burke, Esq. 

Henry Hewitt, Esq. 

Reuben Harvey, Esq. 

John Lecky, Esq. 

Thos Cuthbert, Esq., charter. 

Miss Cuthbert. 

William Clear, Esq. 

Mrs. Falkiner. 

Mrs. Baker. 

David Reid, Esq. 

Mr. James Haly. 

Thomas Gibbings, Esq. 

Strettell Jackson, Esq. 

Danl. Callaghan, Esq. 



Received subscriptions from the following seventy-eight additional proprietors, 
also paid before the commencement of the charter, at 20 guineas each, ;£ 1,774 10s. od. 



1 The Earl of Bandon. 22 

2 The Earl of Shannon. 23 

3 The Lord Viscount Bernard. 24 

4 The Rt. Honble. Lord Ennismore 25 

5 Lord Carbery. 26 

6 The Marquis of Thomond. 27 

7 The Earl of Donoughmore. 28 

8 The Earl of Cork and Ross. 29 

9 The Rt. Honble. Lord Ponsonby. 30 

10 Honble. Richard Hare. 31 

1 1 Mr. Thomas Beale. 32 

12 Jas. Lane, Esq. 33 

13 Thomas Carroll, Esq. 34 

14 Rev. M. Donovan. 35 

15 R. McCarthy, Esq., Trinville. 36 

16 Thomas Harris, Esq. 37 

17 Haywd. St. Leger, Esq. 38 

18 William Jones, Esq. 39 

19 Thos. Harvey, Esq. 40 

20 Richd. Foott, Esq. 41 

21 Robert McClure, Esq. 42 



Josh. Hoare, Esq. 

William Stawcll, Esq. 

Wm. Thompson, Esq. 

Stephen Roche, Esq, 

James Roche, Esq. 

Mr. Jas. T. Bacon. 

Jas. Morgan, Esq. 

Jos. Dev. Jackson, Esq. 

The late Mr. J. Fullam. 

Geo. Tisdall, Esq. 

Geo. Stevelly, Esq. 

Edwd. Riordan, Esq. 

Richd. Aldworth, Esq., Newmarket. 

R. R. Aldworth, Esq. 

R. D. Oliver. Esq., R.N. 

Thomas Bury, Esq. 

Patrick Hayes, Esq. 

Wm. J. Baldwin, Esq. 

Doctor Gibbings. 

Robert Homan, Esq. 

Gerrard Callaghan, Esq. 




Membership Card- Cork Scientific Society. 

{Dcsignci by T. C. Crokcr, etched en calico for the Cork Scifnit/ic Society^ fSrj.) 





Seals— Cork Institution. 



THE ACCOUNT OF THE CQRK INSTITUTION. 45 

43 John Cuthbert, junr., Esq. 61 Wm. Maxwell, Esq. 

44 Jacob Mark, Esq. 62 J. B. Houghton, Esq. 

45 James Sughrue, Esq. 63 Late M. A. Laffer. 

46 M. S. Osborne. 64 Doctor Ronan. 

47 M. Goold. 65 Edwd. Pope, Esq. 

48 Jos. Pike, Esq. 66 Charles Hervey, Esq. 

49 Walter Church, Esq. 67 Doctor Halloran. 

50 J. D. Church, Esq. 68 Martin Farrell, Esq. 

51 John Leslie, Esq. 69 Denis Moye [qre. Moylan], Esq. 



52 



ohn Martin, Esq. 70 Brooke Brazier, Esq 



53 Edwd. Morrough, Esq. 71 Barry Cotter, Esq. 

54 John Morrough, Esq. 72 Sampson Stawell, Esq. 

55 Anthony Perrier, Esq. 73 Isaac Hewitt, Esq. 

56 M. Berven. 74 Edwd. Murry, Esq. 

57 Thos. Newman, Esq. 75 Willm. Lapp, Esq. 

58 John Cotter, Esq. 76 The late N. F. Lane, Esq. 

59 Robert Courtney, Esq. ^^ Lt. Col. Wm. Baker. 

60 Wm. Wise, Esq. 78 Cornelius 0*Leary, Esq. 

Subscriptions , . . . . . . . . . ;£2252 5 o 

Parliamentary Grant for 1807, through Dublin Society ;^2ooo o o 
Deduct calls and poundage . . 60 o o 

1940 o o 

Cash for an orrery which was superfluous » . . . . . 5^3 9 

Total charge ; . . . . . . . £^\^^ 18 9 

• THE DISCHARGE. 
Philosophical Apparatus, &c. 

Paid Thos. D. Hincks, for the original proprietors of Philosophical Apparatus 
and for a complete transfer of the following articles, viz. : — 
Globes, Telescopes, Microscope, Airpump, Optical Instruments, etc., etc., 

;^I43 British 
1 145 sulphur gems, with cabinet and catalogues, ;£i6/i8/3. . 
Minerals, at sundry times purchased from Mawe, Binns, etc. 
Sundry chemical articles purchased from Messrs. Knight . . 
A small galvanic trough . . 

Apparatus for mechanical powers, and other articles 
A gazometer, made by our townsman, Mr. FitzGerald 
Sundry chemical articles procured from M. Accum 
Do. Do. 

Do. Do. 

A galvanic trough with zinc plates for putting in 
Sundry articles from Cork Glass House 
A pair of large copper scales 
Sundry articles for the lecturers 
Sundry articles of chemical apparatus— tests, etc. 
Prussiate of potash in crystals 
A second-hand chemical chest, with tests, etc. . . 
361b. of mercury at from 6s- to 6s. 6d. per pound 
A spirit of wine barometer by Feroni 
The first syllabus, with sundry articles of printing 
A black furnace 

A botanical press and large book for plants 
Sundry articles through George Aickin 
Glasses and sundries 



;£l60 


17 


6 


18 


18 





52 


17 


0^ 


26 


13 


7 


3 


10 


10 


56 


S 





22 


15 





22 


19 


6 


9 


3 





3 


9 


3 


5 


13 


9 


10 


3 


10 


I 


II 


8 


3 


8 


7 


14 


14 


10 





12 


10 


II 


I 


3 


II 





4 


2 


16 


io>4 


41 


13 


2 


7 


19 


3 


I 


i4 


i>^ 


4 


13 


8>^ 


4 


14 


io}i 



46 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi«OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



A stone mortar, and various other articles 

A new conductor for an electrical machine, and repairs 

An electrical machine conductor, etc, by Mr. FitzGerald 

Charts of history and biography 

Cash paid at Waterford Glass House 

Sundry articles for fitting up Lecture Room, Library, Laboratory, etc 

Books bought for the Institution, which are in the Library 

Freight, duty, etc, at sundries, as per book 

Paid to the original proprietors for philosophical apparatus 

Thos. D. Hincks, for expenses to London, etc., on account of the 

Institution, in January, 1803 
More— Expense of advertising Institution at sundry times, from 

November, 1802, to January, 1807 
More — A plate for tickets, printing, etc 
Philosophical apparatus, purchased from original pro- 
prietors, and other expenses previous to the 
incorporation . . . . . . £fi^9 2 3K 

Jas. Lynch and Son, for spring and ivory ball for com- 
pound impulse syringe, ball stop-cock for fountain . • 5 16 10 K 
Jer. Joyce, for an astronomical magic lantern, purchased 

by him for the society . . . . • • ^7 9 7 



Books, stationery, and advertising . . 

Rents — Rev. A. Hyde, half-year's rent of the present house of the 

Institution to ist November, 1807 
Wages— John Henry and Wife, 12 weeks' wages to 24th December, 

1807, at 7s, 7d. per week 



I 14 l\% 

10 4 9 
I II 6 
3 16 2 

66 10 loyi 
206 13 8 

11 9 9 
806 o sji 

28 8 9 

8 13 4 
5 19 9 



872 8 9 

86 8 2^ 

45 o o 

4 II o 



INCIDENTS. 

Thos. D. Hincks, a sum voted to him by the proprietors for his zeal 
and attention to the objects of the Institution for the preceding 
year 

More paid by him for a box of minerals 

For ^£2,64 1 6s. 6d. 3^ per cent, stock at 72 per cent 

1 38 days' interest due thereon 

Commission 



Total discharge 

Balance in favour of the public 

The charge as above . . 
The above brought down 
To which must be added the following sums 
not paid till after the period of the 
account, viz. : — 
Rev. A. Hyde, half-year's rent to ist 
November, 1807 

Edwards and Savage, for books . . 
Thos. Whitney, binding books 
Rev. Thos. Hincks, a sum voted for 
his care and attention 



2 5 

S «9 



6 
9 


113 IS 








113 IS 







5 


5 


;Cl90« «5 







34 18 


9 




3 6 


3 













;£k>54 


S 


£3P&2 8 


4>i 




113$ lo 


AH 




£4197 18 


9 




j£i'35 «o 


AH 





The true balance in favour of the public 



167 o 3 
£iyn 10 7 



THE ACCOUNT OF THE CORK INSTITUTION, 47 

This Statement of Accounts and List of Proprietors is, in many ways, 
a document of much local interest, for although a hundred years have 
only passed since the Royal Cork Institution was incorporated, even now 
its short-lived records read like ancient history as all those upon its roll 
of membership have passed away, only in some cases to be remembered by 
the few, whose memories will be awakened by the republication of their 
names— names that in their generation helped to make Cork famous as a 
centre where the arts and sciences had their home and flourished. Ampng 
those in the original Charter are— Sir Richard Kellett, the banker ; Rev. 
Thomas Hincks, D.D., whose portrait was in the Library of the 
Institution ; William Crawford, whose statue, by Hogan, is in the 
Savings Bank ; Doctors Longfield and Calanan, Cooper Penrose, etc. 
The Charter is in the writer's possession ; it is of vellum, and measures 
32 by 24 inches, and has an emblematic border, the initial letter con- 
taining a portrait of King George III. Among the endorsements upon it 
are tKose of the Earl of Granard, and the Right Hon. John Philpot 
Curran, Master of the Rolls, and suspended from the Charter by a white 
silken cord is the g^eat seal of Ireland, which measures six inches in 
diameter. In the Statement of Accounts purchased from the Cork Glass 
House and the Waterford Glass House are sad reminders of lost industries, 
as are those from our townsman, Mr. FitzGerald, who, for a gazometer, 
received ;^22 15s. od., and was paid for an electrical machine conductor 
;^io 4s. 9d. George Aicken, who supplied sundry articles for ;^4 13s. 8d., 
was a watchmaker in Queen's Place ; his name may still be found on 
some of the brass clock dials which are now so much in demand. The 
sulphur gems, numbering 1145, were casts by Tassie, who, with a partner, 
traded in London as Tassie and Wilson, where they reproduced in 
sulphur, and in a specially prepared glass, intaglio copies of antique gems 
simulating garnet, emerald, amethyst, crystal, etc. 

In 1812 was published the first 8vo. volume of the Munster Farmers' 
Magazine, which was conducted under the direction of a Committee of 
the Cork Institution. It was printed by J. Haly, bookseller. Exchange, 
and was followed by volumes II. and III. in 1813 and 1814. The titles 
bear the impress of a seal, which is here reproduced from the original. 

This is altogether different to the authorised seal of the Company, 
which is of steel, and was designed and engraved by William Stephen 
Mossop (born in Dublin, 1788). It is nearly two inches in diameter. 
The design represents Hibernia helm'ed, standing erect, and holding a 
wreath surrounded by various emblems of art and manufactures. The 
original matrices of both are in the writer's collection. The foundation 
of this Institution was a great boon to the province of Munster, and 
especially to the citizens of Cork. Its spacious rooms contained a 
valuable Reference Library, and were filled with scientific instruments and 
electrical appliances. There was also a museum consisting of Irish 
antiquities, minerals, shells, etc. Its Lecture Hall was largely availed 
of until the premises were transferred to the uses of the Cork Free 
Library. 



48 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY, 



Notes and Queries. 

Cork Scientific Society, 18 13.— An Early Cork Headmaster. —The Bishop's Horse.— -^^ 
Spencer Pedigree. 

Cork Scientific Society, 1313. — One of the first papers<»> contributed 
to this Journal was written by its President, the Rt. Rev. R. A. Sheehan, 
D.D., Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, on the literary history of Cork, 
and its learned societies, the pioneer of which was the Cork Society of 
Arts and Sciences, founded in 1782, and followed in 1792 by the Cork 
Library Society, and in 1803 by the Cork Institution, which, under Royal 
patronage, flourished for many years. Next in order came the Cork 
Literary and Philosophical Society, and it, after a short life, was suc- 
ceeded in 1813 ^y the Scientific Society. Through the kindness of Miss 
Lecky, of London, I have recently acquired a design for either an admission 
ticket or card of membership of this society, etched on a piece of calico 
measuring 4 by 4J inches, and signed by Thomas Crofton Croker. It 
was then the fashion for many public bodies and societies, especially those 
that were devoted to the arts, music> and the drama, to issue pictorial 
cards of admission and membership, which were designed and engraved 
by artists such as Bartolozzi, Cipriani, Angelica Kauffman, and others of 
equal repute. This design by Crofton Croker, who was then a young 
man, is characteristic of the period. In it we find Architecture repres- 
ented in the ruined castle, the genius of Numismata in the coin and medal 
cabinet, Painting in the figure holding the brushes, and half hidden by the 
artist's palette. These Jpicture engraved cards of a century ago are 
eagerly sought for by collectors, not alone as works of art, but for their 
local and historic interest. This example has the well-known signature 
of the gifted author of the Notes on Smith's History of Cork, The Fairy 
Legends of Ireland, The Popular Songs of Ireland, Researches in the 
South of Ireland, and many papers contributed to the Percy and Camden 
Societies, which are valued and prized by all lovers of Irish literature. 

Robert Day. 

f«) Vol. i., 1892, p. 4. 



An Early Cork Headmaster .—Colman O'Cluasaigh, the Ferleighinn, or 
Head Master of the great seminary of Saint Finbarr, Cork, died about 
the year 666. Of his poetical compositions I know but two specimens 
remaining (wrote the late Professor O 'Curry, in his Manners and Customs 
of the Ancient Irish, 1873, ^^^' "•> P- 9^)- ^^^ ^^^^ *s a fragment of 
twelve lines of an Elegy written on his pupil Saint Cumani Foda (son of 
Fiachna, King of West Munster), who was Bishop of Clonfert, and died 
in the year 661. This fragment is given in the Annals of the Four 
Masters, The second piece by O'Cluasaigh is a Hymn of 27 stanzas, or 
108 lines, which is preserved in the ancient Liber Hymnorum in the Trinity 
College Library, Dublin. The argument of O'Cluasaigh's Hymn declares 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 49 

that it was written by Coiman Ua Cluasaigh, Head Master, of Cork, as 
a **shield of protection" to himself and his pupils against the mortality 
called the **Buidhecuid," or Yellow Disease, which ravaged Erin and 
Britain in the time of Diarmaid and Blathmac, sons of the monarch Aedh 
Slaine, who reigned as joint Sovereigns of Erin from a.d. 657 to 664, in 
which year they both died of this '^Yellow Plague." The hymn states, 
further, that it was in the year of their death Coiman wrote this poem, 
on the eve of preparing to leave his college with his pupils, and repair 
to an island of the sea at no great distance from the land; the then 
popular belief being that no plague, mortality, or distemper could extend 
beyond the distance of **nine waves" from the land. It is stated in the 
Preface that some persons supposed that Coiman wrote but the two first 
stanzas, and that his pupils wrote the other twenty-five, in two lines or 
half a stanza each — ^which would show that the number of his pupils was 
fifty. O 'Cluasaigh *s poem begins thus : 

**The blessing of God come upon us; 
May the Son of Mary screen us ; 
May He protect us this night. 
Wherever we go^though great our numbers." 

The writer then invokes the intercession of the Patriarchs, the Apostles, 
the Blessed Virgin Mary, and many other saints of the New Testament by 
name. Another feature in this poem is, that although the text is mainly 
Gaedhelic, it b interspersed with Latin lines and phrases, as, for instance, 
the fifth stanza. [The Liber Hymnorum, edited by Dr. Todd, has been 
published by the Irish Archaeological and Celtic Society.] 

The Biflliop's Horse.— The following interesting anecdote illustrative 
of the Penal Days in Cork is copied from the late Count Murphy's Ireland 
Industrial, Political and Social , published by Longmans, London, in 1870. 
**It was about the year 1758, that, as Dr. Richard Walsh, the Catholic 
Bishop of Cork, was one day riding through the North Gate of that city, 
he was offered £^ for his horse by a Protestant butcher named Nunn. 
The Bishop could ill spare the horse, which was a most valuable animal 
to him, as he used to ride it on the visitation of his diocese, which ex- 
tended as far as the wild and remote district of Bantry, sixty miles off. 
A happy thought, however, occurred to him on the moment. The Protest- 
ant See of Cork was then filled by Dr. Jemmett Brown, an excellent man, 
who strongly disapproved of the oppression of the Catholics, and secretly 
afforded protection, on many occasions, to their persecuted priests. Dr. 
Walsh rode off at once to the episcopal residence at Riverstown, Glan- 
mire, and told his story to the Lord Bishop. His Lordship received him 
most kindly, and at once reassured him, saying, **E>octor Walsh, you 
can't do without a horse, so we will settle the matter thus : you make me 
a present of the horse ; I lend him to you ; you may use him as long as 
you please; and if Nunn or anyone else offer to buy him for ;^s, refer the 
parties to me, and take no further trouble about it." 

Dr. Walsh was Bishop from 1747 **^ ^^s death in 1763, aged 75. Dr. 



50 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Jemmett Brown was transferred to Elphin in 1779. His memory, M. 
Murphy adds, was long held in affectionate regard by the Catholics of 
Cork. 

J. c. 

Be Spanoer Pedigree.— 

Dear Sir, 

I don't know if it will interest you and your readers on the above 
subject, which appeared in your last number, but if it would, you will find 
herein extracts from the pedigree of Joseph Sherlock, who married Alicia 
Bume — ^it may throw some light on the matter. Though the great 
Sherlock family was decadent since the rebellion of 1641, yet it was 
previously a powerful one. 

I have a Sherlock pedigree beginning a.d. iioo, and written up to 
1671 by George Sherlock of Cahir Abbey, Co. Tipperary, where he died 
in that year. I have also his will, and it shows to what a state of abject 
poverty he was reduced in those thirty years following the rebellion of 
1641, which left him nothing to hand down to his children except his 
pedigree. In this pedigree the Mitchelstown branch appears as herewith : 

Sir George Sherlock lived at Lei trim Castle, near Kilworth, Co. Cork, 
until his death in 1614. 

Patrick Sherlock, with the young Lord Barry, his stepson, lived at 
Barryscourt, Co. Cork, during the minority of his lordship, up to 1620. 

The Sherlocks are mentioned in Gaelic song as gathering for battle 
in Co. Cork in 1150, and called therein **The Clan Skirlag." 

In 1282, John Scorlog, junior, was summoned as a juror to attend at 
Kilmallock, Co. Limerick. 

In 1397, Nicholas Scorlogh was bailiff of Limerick. 

In 1 43 1, Richard Scorlog was archdeacon of Cork. 

In 1599, Richard Sherlock was high sheriff of Co. Clare. 

The townland of Ballyscurlog, near Castlelyons, Co. Cork, still 
retains the name of the family; it is now owned by the Nasons. 

The blue books of Fiants of Hen. VII., VIII., Mary, Elizabeth, and 
James L teem with their possessions in Munster from Dingle to Water- 
ford, Mitchelstown to Youghal. 

Around Leitrim, Co. Cork, Sir George Sherlock Assessed eight 
townlands, including Kilmurry, all confiscated after 1641. 

Lord Cork's **Lismore Papers" frequently mention the family. 

The rebellion of 1641 utterly ruined it, except the Butlerstown Castle, 
near Waterford, branch, which flourished many subsequent years and 
produced some distinguished men, among them particularly the brave 
knight. Sir Thos. Sherlock. 

Dr. Davis's full name was John Nicholas Crofts Atkins Davis, In- 
spector-General of Army Hospitals. He reversed his initials, as you can 
see, to disguise his identity when he wrote the Spencer pedigree. I feel 
sure, if he were still living, that he would hail with pleasure a reply after 
58 years' silence. Thanks are due to you, Mr. President, and to your 
Committee, for bringing to light this pedigree, which has produced 
this hurried reply from me, an outsider. You can judge for yourself 
whether it was a runaway match and of Joseph Sherlock's ancestry by 
the following extracts. 




Spencer. 

{From an original Picture in the possession of the 
Earl of Kinnoull.) 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 5 1 

Extract from the Pedigree of Sherlock, of Mitchelstown, Co. Cork. 

1660. 
John Sherlock = Mrs. Cooke, widow of Capt. Thos. Cooke, of Lord 
of Brigown I Broghill's cavalry, who was killed in action. His 
Mitchelstown. | son, Thos., succeeded to the Dungalane, &c., estates 
I in Co. Cork. 
1691. 
Thomas Sherlock = Elizabeth Sherlock =Wm. Devereux,* of Kilfinan, 
died 1699. I Co. Limk. 

1717. 
Joseph Sherlock = Ann Wright, dau. of Stephen Wright of Sleavins, 



of Cloonkilla, 
near Mitchelstown, 

d. 1747, buried 
Cloyne Cathedral. 



Imokilly, and his wife, Eliz. Garde ; she, Elizabeth, 
was dau. of Thos. Garde of Kilmacahill, Imokilly, 
and his wife, Alse Croker. These Wrights are 
same family as that of Golagh. 
1760. 
Joseph Sherlock = Grace Adams of Glenbruhane, Co. Limerick, came 



cornet of horse 

i734» 
died 1812. 



originally from Hollyland, Pembrokeshire ; repre- 
sented now. by Goold-Adams. 



1792. 
Joseph Sherlock* Alicia Burne, dau. of Capt. James Burne, 52nd Regt., 
died 1812. I and his wife, Rosamund Spencer. 

1814. 
Joseph Sherlock = Ann Monsel, of the Lord Emly family, 
died 1837 s. p. I 

Extract from Pedigree of George Sherlock, of Cahir Abbey, 1671. 
de Mitchelstown. 



Peter Sherlock 


= 


Rosa White. 


James „ 


= 


Christina Burk. 


Peter 


= 


Anastasia Murphy. 


Patricius ,, 


= 


Anastasia Kingston. 


Peter 


= 


Anna Devereux.* 


Patricius ,, 


= 


Kath. Roch. 


James ,, 


rr 


Mary Bedford. 


Patricius ,, 


= 


Maria Lombard. 



(Circa 1300 to 1500 inserted by self. — W. D.) 

Extract from the Marriage Licence Bond of Joseph Sherlock and Alicia 

Burne. 
**Know all men by these presents that we, Joseph Sherlock, M.D., 
and Robert Watts, Esq., both of Mallow, and bound in sum of ;^i,ooo, 
dated 7th July, 1792, if no let or impediment, then Joseph Sherlock is 
bound to solemnize matrimony with Alicia Burne, of Mallow, spinster. 
That there is no precontract of marriage of either of the said parties with 
any other, nor suit pending in any court cencerning same. And that the 
consent of parents and friends of both parties be thereunto first had and 
obtained, and lastly, that the said matrimony be publicly solemnized 
according to the Canons of the Church of Ireland. 

**Wm. King. **Joseph Sherlock, (seal). 

"Jos. Haynes, D.R, ''Robt. Watts." (seal). 

W. Devereux. 



52 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Reviews of Books. 

Fictitious and Symbolic Creatures in Art, with Special Reference to 
their use in British Heraldry. By John Vinycomb, m.r.i.a. 9x6, 276 
pp. Chapman & Hall Ltd. los. 6d. nett. 

This work, by a writer whose name will be recognised as an expert in 
artistic and literary work in the North of Ireland, treats of a phase in 
Heraldry which up to the present could only be found by searching 
through many authors. He has grouped a vast amount of information, 
which must be the outcome of deep and long research into a most 
interesting and instructive volume. It is fascinating reading, apart from 
the undoubted value of the vigorous drawings, and is highly educational 
both ^n an antiquarian and in an artistic sense. The work not only 
shows with scholarly exactitude and explicitness what in Heraldry these 
impossible beings are and mean, but also diversifies its pages with not a 
little of the traditional lore that has gathered about them. Their interest 
for the herald and decorative artist is, however, not any less because they 
are not certified by the enlightened natural history of the present day, and 
a book about them, so useful both for general study and occasional 
reference, is sure of a welcome from many. 

By the same author we have a new work on Bookplates, a limited 
edition of 300 copies, numbered and signed, "50 Bookplates (Ex Lihris) 
by J. Vinycomb, M.RJ.A., executed in various styles and modes of 
reproduction.^^ 

This interesting collection by the famous Irish designer of Bookplates 
and Heraldic emblazonment will be a revelation to many, from the varied 
and beautiful examples of his skill, heraldic, pictorial, symbolic, and 
decorative, forming indeed a memorable work on this phase of Art. 
To those concerned in the Bookplate cult, this collection, the work of one 
man, will be of interest as showing the many sided ability of the artist. 
Each plate is mounted on dark tinted leaves, quarto size, 11)^ x 8^in., 
with preface, notes on marks of ownership in books, suggestions for a 
Bookplate, &c. Privately printed. Direct from the author, J. Vinycomb, 
Holywood, Belfast. Post free, 5s. nett. r j3^ 



Enquiries. 



O'SulllTan-Beare and O'Mahonj Familiei. — Information as to the 
genealogies of O'Sullivan-Beares and O'Mahonys of Schull to present date; also 
crests and coat of arms of both families. 

Haje« Familj. — Information as to the marriage and descendants of William 
Hayes and (n6e) Miss Bury. Mr. Hayes was in the Carabineers or 6th Dragoon 
Guards, and his wife was grandmother of the " Swan of Erin." They were married 
in either Doneraile, Buttevant, or Cork City, about 1770- 1777. 



Second Series— Vou XII. No. 70. 



[April -Juke, 1906. 



Journal of the 
Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. 




Munster in A.D. 1597. 

(From a State Paper in the British Museum, Reference : Titus, 

B. 13, fol 508). 

By JAMES BUCKLEY. 

[HERE is not a more copious and interesting state docu- 
ment relating to tiie history of Munster in Elizabethan 
times than that now printed here. The writer, Nicholas 
Browne, was the second son of Sir Valentine Browne, an 
English undertaker, who had acquired a grant of 6,000 
acres of land in County Kerry, a slice of the vast and 
fruitful territory confiscated on the fall of the Earl of 
Desmond and his adherents in the year 1583. Old Browne and his 
bucolic son were born planters, and if their neighbour and compatriot 
grantees were only endowed with as firm a resolution to hold what they 
had acquired, and abide as closely by the terms of their grants, there is 
sufficient reason to suppose that the attempted plantation of South 
Munster would — at least from an Englishman's standpoint — ^have been 
productive of a condition of affairs bordering on success. The Brownes 
came to stay. From the commencement of their connection with Munster 
they entertained ideas of becoming extensive Irish landed proprietors, 
and the opportunities of the time were indeed conducive to the develop- 
ment of such an ambition. They had for neighbour, in their adopted 
home, Donal MacCarthy m6r, who in 1565 was created Earl of Clancar. 
He, like all Irish chiefs, notwithstanding what Aenghus O'Daly^ in an 
ill moment may have written to the contrary of them, was endowed with 
a proverbial weakness for lavish spending — a trait almost invariably asso- 
ciated in course of time, if consistently lived up to, with the absence of 
the means to satisfactorily indulge. Money was practically unknown 
amongst the Irish lords and land-owners in those strenuous days of frays 
and forays, and the facility for raising it by the simple means of mort- 
gage was introduced to the notice of MacCarthy m6r by the newcomers. 
The former must have been greatly impressed by the efficacy and deftness 
of this financial operation, as a mortgage of a portion of his territory to 
the Brownes was soon in the course of preparation — a transaction which 
was destined for quite half a century to be the subject matter of a notable 
drama, and which of late day has been narrated in a most vivid style 
by Daniel MacCarthy (Glas) in his Life and Letters of Florence Mac- 
Carthy mdr,^ Nicholas Browne entered into possession of the mortgaged 



J Scj Trtbti of Ireland : Dublin, 1852. 



• London, 1867. 



54 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHitOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

lands, presumably according to the prevailing custom rather than of 
the age, for the suflicient reason that no intcr-est on the mortgage 
was forthcoming, and soon afterwards rejoiced in the confirmation 
of his security by receiving a royal patent of the lands, to hold in per- 
petuity in the event of the death of MacCarthy m6r without leaving an 
heir. Towards the latter end of the year 1596 MacCarthy m6r died, 
leaving but one legitimate child — the daughter, Ellen — as his heir; and 
she, some ten years before, had married Florence MacCarthy, tanist of 
Carbery. When the long and anxiously awaited moment arrived for 
Browne and his lawyers to enforce his title deeds, it was only then that 
he became aware of the worthless nature of these documents. He had 
hitherto fondly cherished the delusive idea that on the death of MacCarthy 
m6r, without leaving male issue, there was nothing to stand between him 
and the mortgaged lands ; and such would also appear to have been 
the intention of the Queen's minister who directed the patent to be 
made out to him. He had an ingenious rival in Florenc'e MacCarthy, who 
claimed the lands on behalf of his wife as heir to her father, the deceased 
Earl of Clancar. Browne could no longer stand upon his title deeds alone. 
He had recourse to various expedients to enlist the sympathies of those 
in authority with his claim, and the document here printed for the first 
time is one of many written by him, his friends and advisors, to the Privy 
Council and the Queen's ministers in London, in the expectation of 
influencing them to partition MacCarthy m6r's possessions, and so to 
enable him the more easily to obtain what he sought. 



Anxo 1597. 

Ireland. The meanes howe to kecpe the Prouynce of Mounster and 

MouNSTER. suche are of anye force thearin from beinge able hereafter 

to raise any power but suche as shalbe quickly suppressed 

vvthout the Princes charge, exhibited by. M'^ Nicholas 

Browne to the Lo : Tresorer. 

The inhabitantes in the said Prouynce are three seuall kyndes of people. 

The firste are suche Inglishe g'ent that either are seated uppon the 

Quecnes auntient farmes or lately planted as undertakers. 

The second are suche antient Englishc houses as came into that 
countrie wtli the conqueste, who cither obserueinge the antient rytes, 
customes and fashions, that weare in use when their forefathers came 
into that country, muche diffcringe from the fyneries of this age in 
England : Or vlls for wante of the due execution of lawes& Justice wc^hathe 
byn kepte backe by the grcatnes of some that haue byn raised to highe 
authoritie thcare. for the suppressinge of the Irishrie, hathe caused them 
to be reckoned as Irishe cncmyes : and noe difference made bctvvcne them 
and the other, wdi makes their case miserable, beinge naturally hated by 
their auntient Enemy es, whose bloud they haue drauen, and distrusted 
by the Englishe from whome they descende. 

The third are of the houses of the meere Irishe, whoe weare neauer 
throughlie banished, but are expectinge from tyme to tyme to take 
aduantage to recou' these landes that their Auncestors weare banished 
from, and to expcll the Englishc, and their races. 



MUNSTER IN A.D, 1597. 55 

Capt. 2. 

ffirste for the Inglishe inhabitants, i thinke they will not prooue 
of any force : for some of them that enioye the Landes neuer come uppon 
them : but setteinge them to suche Irishe or Inglishe, that will giue them 
moste benefitte, make the beste comoditie they maye for the present. 
Others that sette downe and remayne theare become grasiers, maltemcn 
and gray[n]marchants, and seeke nothinge but a pryuate gayne, w^^ 
soe they inayc come by, they care not howe troublesom they proue to the 
countrie, and neuer prouide to be of any power or strength to offende or 
defende themselues from any Irishe enymie, to whose spoile they lie open 
at all tymes : Soe that they seeme to lyue only to feede a couetuous humo', 
not careinge either howe to defende their lyues (or that w^h is more 
dearer vnto them) their goodes. And therfore I accounte them like 
fowlesJatted vppe in mewes to be spoiled at the pleasure of suche of the 
countrie people as they shall at any tyme discontent, whearby her Ma*^® 
is deceaued of her intent of replauntinge that Country w^ loiall and 
faithfull subiects, and the countrie people make noe accounte of them 
as men that may be any hindrance to any their intended purposes vpon 
aduantage of any alter[c]ation, but accompte all their gatheringes to be 
but stores laid vppe for them whensoeuer they shall see their tymes. 

Capt. 3. 
The seconde sorte of the people are the noblemen and gentlemen of 
auntient Englishe races whose Auncestors beinge licenced and sent by the 
kinge vnder the leadinge of some greate men came firste into Ireland, 
and weare asscotiates in the conqu^este. And haueinge euerie man his 
portion of lande at that tyme allotted to them, healde y mediately the 
same from the Prynce. And by reason they had noe heades ouer them, 
but euery man defended his owne againste the Irishrie, they weare often 
tymes vnablc to houlde their owne : wheare vppon by the allowance of 
the Kinges of England the Geraldyns (beinge wise and valiant men, and 
of beste forces) weare made firste presidents in that Prouynce, and had 
forces maynteyned vppon the comon purse of the Inglishe gent : w«^ 
charge afterwarde in the tyme of peace they conuerted to their owne use 
as due rents belonging'e to them selues,^ nameinge the freeholders of the 
countrye to be but their Tenantts, and to haue holde their Landes from 
them, whoe beinge unable to followe their righte rather submytted them 
selues to the Geraldines then they would seeke their redresse by suite, 
or be dryuen to defende them selues bothe againste the Geraldynes and 
the Irishrie, whearby the Geraldynes grewe mightie, and weare created 
Earles of Desmonde:* whose ambition not contayneinge it selfe in the 
boundes of allegeance proued at lengthe tWeir subusson and ouerthrowe. 
Wch howse beinge decaied, those free houlders are nowe in statu quo 
prius holdinge ymediately from the Queene. And soe longe as they 
maye defende them selues from the Irishrey and haue neu [never] a Geraldyne 
to unite their forces under one heade, they are like to contynue in dutifull 

3 These exactions were termed cotgn and Ovety, 

4 " 1329. On the 27th of August, this year, he [Maurice FitzGcrald] was created Earl of 
Desmond, with a royal jurisdiction or palatinate in the same, by patent dated at Gloucester." 
Smith, StattofCo, Kerry: Dublin, 1756, p. 238. 



56 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETV. 

obedyence, haueinge tasted allreadie the moste lamentable myserie that 
euer fell uppon any people for their late rebellions. But this only is the 
greateste mischeife that they haue broughtje them selues unto : that they 
beinge poore,weake, vnfurnished, and in a mann[er]unpeopeled, their auntient 
Kncmyes the Irishrey riche, stronge, well wfeaponed & populous, are 
rcadie uppon eueric occasion to ouercome and banishe them cleane out of 
their countries and landes: w^^ thinge is not to be reamedied, but either 
v/^^ the greate charge of the Prince, or ells by weakeninge of euery septe 
of the Irishrey by kcepinge suche bowses as are decaied theare from 
riseinge, and suche other as are in controuersie to giufe encouragement 
to the weakest partie in their suite, and as neare as may be to bringe 
the ende of their contentions for lande to be ordered by deuydeinge of 
their landes amonge them, whearby thear shall ppetuall factions be 
maynteyned, and the followers will still adioyne to the possessors of the 
lande : wch pollicies the auntient gouernors in Ireland weare wonte moste 
strictelye to obserue, ffor they would allwaies nozell the Irishrey in their 
controuersies, giueinge fewell to their fier, and aideinge still the weakeste 
partie, wci» kepte them in contynuall trouble at home to the greater quiett 
of the Inglishe neighbours nexte adioyneinge to them. But as con- 
cerninge the meanes of disabellinge the Inglishe races from enteringe 
into any sturres, either by their discontent of Religion or mislike of the 
course of Goument, I find this the on lie meanes to keepe them from a 
heade, that [n]either of his owne power is able to compell, or by Insinu- 
atinge into authoritie by cuUor therof constrayne them to enterteyne his 
actions, ffor wt^out suche an heade or forren forces, they are in suche 
emulation, and settled ranckor, one againste another, that euen in their 
owne pryuate famylies thear is to be found a Roland (as we tearme it) 
for an Olyuer : w^h as they be at this preasent, in my owne knowledge, 
I will breifely sette downe in euery howse of them. 

In the County of Kerry the great howses of the 
Englishe races are these underwritten w^^ their enemyes 
dwellinge by them. 
Kerry. Enemyes. 

Thie Baron of Licksnawe, als His base brother, Garrett fitts 

Mac Morris, thcis other are Morris, a man well knowne to 

dwellinge in Clanmorris, and his the state, and of good substance, 

contynuall aduersaries. Jamtes Oge Piers, a man of 

good substance, preferred by 
Gounor Zouch. 
James mc shane of Lickferun. 

The knight of Kerry, whoe is allwaies at controusie wth McMorris 
and the Marchants of Dinglechush, are his aduersaries about controuersie 
of Landes, w^^ are for the moste pte sould by his father. 

Limerick. In the Countie of Limerickc, woh was wonte to be the Earle 
of Desmondes choise seate, theare are noe Lordes of Coun- 
tries of the Inglishe race but the Knight of the Valley, whoe hathe but 
sniall'e landes, and paycth greate Rents, but is in mortall hatred w**^ 
Ochonnor Kerry, whoe is his nexte neighbour. 



58 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH/EOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



The County of Cork. 

The Vicount Butteuant, Lo : His brothers, Willm Barrys 

Barry. sonnes, whoe thinke them selues 

wronged by him for keepeinge 
the Country of Barry from them, 
well he tooke from their father. 

His brother, John Barry, a 
man neuer contented w^^^ him, 
but assertinge his brothers Ene- 
myes, and a smalle matter will 
bringe them lelousie one of 
another. 

Other Septs theare are of his 
owne howse that accounte them 
selues wronged by him. 

His uncle, John Roche, and 
allmostfc all the ffreeholders of 
that Countrie. 

Patrick Condon,* a mortall 
Enemy of his. 

The White Knight* in like 
manner. 

MacDonnogh in like manner. 

His Sonne is often in dis- 
pleasure wth him, whoe beinge 
broughte uppe w^^ Sir Willm 
Stanley,* Jaques' and in Spayne, 
is to be doubted, that if occasion 
weare could not proue soe loiall 
a Subiecte: but it is thoughte 
the twoe brothers can neauer 
agree. 

Patrick Condon is his Enemye. 

Lo : Roche his mortall Ene- 
mye. 

Dermond McOvven his mortall 
Enemye. 

5 The following extracts from two Roche pedigrees in the British Museum, account for the 
strained relations existing between Condon and Lord Roche. {Seep, 59). 

6 See Unpublished Getaldine Documents, part iv. : Dublin, 18S1. 

7 In a letter dated Shandon, 2nd May, 160c, written by Carewe, Lord President of Munster, 
to Cecyll, there is a short character sketch given of the White Knight. ** The White Knight 
hathe sent sundrye messendgers unto me promisinge to be an honest man : A more faythlesse 
man never lyved upon the earthe." 

8 The Rev. George Hill in his Macdonnells of Antrim, p. 170, says of Sir William Stanley:— 
"Stanley was knighted by Sir William Drury, lord justice of Ireland, in the year 1579. On the 
close of the war with Sorley Boy (Feb., 1585*6) he was placed in command of 1000 men sent lo 
serve in Holland, and appointed Governor of the town of Deventer, in the Netherlands, which town 
with its garrison of 1200 men, changed sides in the war, going over under Stanley*s command 



The Lorde Roche, whoe is 
counted a man of moste Enemys 
in Munster, ffor in his owne kyn- 
dred he hathe manye. 



The White Knight,^ a man 
subtill & pollitike, and thoughe 
he make greatje shewe of seruice, 
yet it is not, in my opynion, 
good for the state that a man of 
his place should be soe furnished 
w^Ji furniture and good weapon 
as he is. He is muche borne 
wth & lyues wth lesge checke of 
lawe then any in the Prouynce. 



MUNSTER IN A,D. 1 597. 



59 



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w 



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P!5 



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U cd u ^ i-i 



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i -^Qm 



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pq § 
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S o 



6o CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Patrick Condon, his aduer- Mc ma [oge] Condon, a gent 

saries are of his owne kinsemen. of vtearie faire lyueinge. 

Edmond Gankah^** a greate 
riche man. 

Lo. Roche and the White 
Knighte. 

Waterforde. In the Countie of Waterford. 

The Lo : Power, whose ene- Mac Power of Kilmeyney saith 

myes are chciftely of his owne he is a Power of an elder howse, 

howse. and they are still in controuersie 

wt^ him and haue byne at greate 
suite in Lawe. 
The Lo : Desces howse is in a manner cleane decaied, theare remayne- 
inge noe more but him selfe of it. 

Capt. 4. 
The third sorte of men are the mcere Irishe Septes whoe weare firste 
subdued by the Englishe Conquerors, but not utterly rooted out, and 
keepeinge them selues in the strongest mountaynes many yeares togeather, 
tooke their opportunities from tyme to tyme to recouer suche Landes as 
laye nexte their strengthe : And often tymes takinge vantages by the 
Inglishe dissentions bothe in Ireland and alsoe in England, they haue 
displanted many of the antient Englishe gent out of their lyueinge, 
whearby they have augmented thearto verie large teritorics. And 
further had gone to the banishment of all the reste but that the Englishe 
ffreeholders in the County of Kerry and County of Limerick makeinge 
one of the Geraldynes the leader by the consent of the Kinge of England 
at their comon charge, euery freeholder and gent accordinge to his Landes 
raised a power, and w^^ muche adoe did bridle the Irishry from wyninge 
more uppon them. But the Lo". of the County of Corke takeinge euery 
one uppon them to defende them selues, did soe for the present tyme, 
but since many of them are utterly ouerthrowen : viz. : the Carewes : 
Coursis : Arundells : Lombardes : Barretts : and Gogans, besides many 
other of the Barrys and others. At this tyme these Irishe septs are of 
greater force and strength then they weare these 300 yeares, and in 
greate hope of an alter[c]ation, to the rooteinge of the Englishe cleane of 
the Prouynce. ffor they in the Earlte of Desmonds rebellion kepte 
them selues from utter spoyleinge and loste verie fewe of their people. 
And the Earles howse beinge decaied, theare is not any man of power 
sufficient to confront them. And it is not convenient that uppon euery 
sturre that they shall offer that the Prince shoud be putte to charge. 

from the English service to that of the Spaniards. English historians represent Stanley as being 
hribed to act thus, but it is more likely that, having become a Roman Catholic, he felt dis- 
satisfied with the English service. A rumour was spread in Ireland that he was soon to return 
at the head of an invading Spanish force." 

9 Captain Jacques de Franceschi, who served under Stanley, was suspected of being con- 
cerned in a plot against Queen Elizabeth's life. 

»o Gankah (cock-nose) is now pronounced, as if spelled, Gyowticoch in the barony of 
Condons and Clongibbons. 



MUNSTER IN A.D. 159/. 6l 

Wherfore, under correction, I thinke it g^ood for the state to take 
the benefitte of suche a course as may keepe these meere Irishrie weake 
and unable from unitfeinge them selues to the disturbeinge of the Coun- 
tries quiette. 

Those Septs of the meere Irishrie are dispersed throughe out all the 
whole ProuyncfB of Mounster, and in euery countie theare are some of 
them, but neither of byrthe, force, nor lyueinge alike. 

Waterford. In the Countie of Waterford theare are a septc of the 
Obriens dwellinge by the mountaynes of the Comeroh, but 
they are become followers to the Lo : Power and the Lo : of Desses, that 
in a manner they are of noe reckoninge nor enioye any landes but at 
their pleasures. 

TiPERARY. In the Countye of Tiperary dwelleth Omulrian, a man of a 
faier lyueingle, but lyeinge betwene the Butlers and the 
Bourkes, and therfore cannot extende to any greate force. 

Limericks. In the Countie of Limericke th<e Obriens of Poblebrian and 
of Harlo haue faire landes, but they are in the myddeste of 
diuerse Englishe Septes, nor of any greate force of them selues. 

Kerry. In the County of Kerry is 0*Konnor Kerry, fronted w^i^ his 
auntient Enemyes the Lo : FitzMorris and the Knighte of the 
Valley, betwjene whome theare is deadly hatred. O'Konnor his Country 
is but small, and he is not able to make aboue 7 skore men : but by 
reason of his woodes and bogges he was wonte to keepe his ownfe in 
dispite of them bothe. 

CoRKE. The Country of Desmond, w^^ was a countie of itself e in Sir 
John Perrotts tyme, and nowe is pte of the County of Kerry, 
is whollie possessed w***^ the meere Irishe of the Clancartys and others, 
and in the Countie of Corke nexte adioyneinge theare are threte other 
countries, called Carbry, Muskry, and Dowalla, wcli are all inhabited 
wth the said Irishrey : these are the said septs that beinge banished into 
the mountaynes haite recouered vearie greate territories. And doe hope 
for a tyme wherin they maye recouer the whole Prouynce, w«li they 
accounte to be their owne inheritance, and as famyliarly doe reckon w*^^ 
landes weare their auncestors 400 yeares since, as if they had byn but 
dryuen out of them in their owne memorie. 

Capt. 5. 
Desmonde. Of these fower Irishe Countries Desmond is counted the 
cholse, bcing'e the seate of McCarty More, from whome 
all the reste of the Clancartys doe descende, and to whome they owe 
riseinges and cheifTries, especially the Lordes and flFreeholders in the 
Country of Desmond. This w&s the howse that specially contended w^^ 
the Earles of Desmond : and to the supressinge of whome the said 
Earles weare firste raised, w«l» not w^ standinge they could neuer bringe 
to passe thoughe thiey by dyuerse pollicies kepte them weake and in 
trouble, whearby they could not attempte these many yeares to hurtc 
any of the Inglishe Septes. ffor thiear beinge many howses yssued out 
of McCarty Mores howse, whearby his lande grewe to a very small 



62 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

proportion, then he began to exacte duties and ympositions uppon those 
yonger howses, \v^^ they would not endure ; but beinge not able of them 
selucs to dlefende their righte, called the Earle of Desmond to their aide, 
whoe p®sently assisted them and contynued them Enemyes to MacCarty 
More, and soe contynue untill this daie. Only nowe it is to be fieared 
in respecle that ihcar is noe Earle of Desmond, that if thear shuld be 
a McCarthy More, all those Septes that vveare before his Enemyes 
(haueinge now noe man to defende them from him), must be constrayned 
to yeilde vnto him : whearby thear forces beingfe united and none of any 
power to resiste them, howe dangerous it will proue to the nexte weake 
adioyneinge Countries, and consequently to the whole Prouynce, for 
mischeifcs creep pedetentim to greate matters. The Northe of Ireland 
may be a sufficient example therof, w^h somtyme was as well inhabited 
w^^ the Inglishe as any other pte of Ireland, and now scarce any monu- 
ment lefte of them. Nowe the beste meanes for her Ma^-i® to preuente 
the greatncs that this howse may growe unto is offered at this tyme : 
wch if it be taken shalbe good many ages after, if not, it cannot in all 
neason be but it shall proue the ruyne of manye good subiects w^^ 
they may beste vnderstand that dwelle amonge them, and find'e the 
inclination of the people, for the bringinge upp»e of their youthe, and 
knowe the customes, factions and alliances, and verie seacretts of their 
domesticall causes. 

Capt. 6. 

Theare is no righte heire of that howse at this p^sent : but all the 
countries doe make nqe other accounte, but that her Ma^-i® hathe the 
only righte unto it, bothe by the Surrender of the late Earle and alsoe 
by his attaindor : for his daughter she hathe not any tytle unto his landes, 
for by his Inglishe tenure he helde thfem of the prince, but to his heires 
males : And by the Irish tenure neuer any woman inherited any landes : 
but euery Irishe Lo : hath certayne followers that are allwais bounde to 
paye the daughters portions, if the Lo : had neuer soe many daughters, 
in respecte of diuerse offices they had from them. And if woemen 
should haue inherited, then this late Earles eldest brothers daughter 
should haue enioyed it : or his fathers eldest brothers daughter : or his 
grnnde fathers eldest brothers daughter, wch three lyneally, one after 
another, died w^Iiout any yssue but daughters : whose yssue are in many 
places of the Country, yet neuer could enioye any of the Countrey by 
their mother tytle. 

\Vherfore since the righte is only in her Ma^i® I doe thinke a course 
nowe may be taken, whearby that name of McCarty More may be cleane 
abolished, the Lordes and freeholders may be releyued from extorcions 
thrit weare not wont to be offered to them, and her Mat^® may dieale 
li^ratiously wth them that make clayme yet can challenge noethinge of 
dutlp. And wth all soe brydle them that they shall not be able to raise 
any power or forcte that may be troublesome to the state hereafter. 

Capt. 7. 

flRrste you muste understande that in Desmond theare are twoe 
iqf rente septs, \^ch are called the Oswliuans and the Odonoghes, whoe 
vppon verie iuste occasions haue byn auntient enemyes to McCarty More, 
and from whome the McCarties tooke muche landes, and exacted diuerse 




MUNSTER IN A,D. 1597- 63 

cheiffries, and mu[r]thered and kylled diuerse of them. Theise Septes 
doe allvvaies desier the weakeninge and ouerthrovve of the Clancarties, 
and nowe would be vearie glad to hould rather of her Ma^i« and paie 
their cheife rents to her then to any of the McCartites, wherby their landes 
shall falle to be inheritable by their children accordinge to the Englishe 
tenure, and none shall seeke for Rode or names of Lps and capteinshipps, 
but accordinge to the comon lawe, wch custome is the cheifeste cause 
that contynued these septes to yeilde an obedience to McCartie, euerie 
man feareinge that McCartie should giue the name of his LorP® to his 
kinsman, and assiste him againste him selfe. And by this meanes all 
the Irishrie of Ireland contynue their strengthe, and thfe higher keepe the 
lower in subiection, either in disposeinge of offices or in giueinge Rods 
and names of LorPs of Landes. 

If, then, her Ma^ie shall reserue to her selfe what soe feuer cheife Rents 
weare due from the Los of Countries and free holders to McCartie More 
she shall filee them from their wonted extorcions. And they houldinge 
ymediately from her Ma^^e shall lyue like fellowe Subiects : noe man 
haueinge soe great a supioritie ouer them as to unyte their powers to 
the disturbinge of the Countries quiett. But if her Ma^^® shall bestowe 
the said Cheife rents uppon any of the said Clancarties she shall giue 
the comaunde of 7 or 8 thousand able men to be disposed after his incly- 
nation to good or euill : wci» snakes me thinke better for her Mat^e rather 
to giue them some other recompence, and to cause the said cheife rents 
to be reared by her ow^ne officers to h^r owne use then by that meanes 
to giue soe greate a power unto any one of the Irishrys hande : since (as 
I said before) theare is neuer an Earle of Desmond or any other of like 
power in the Country to confronte him. 

McCarties daughter maye recouer her marriage goodes uppon those 
followers that weare t>ted to the payemt of the same, w^^ accordinge to 
the accounte of the Countrye is moste due. But if it be her Ma^^ 
pleasure to graunte to her & Florence McCartie suche landes as weare 
her fathers, it is requisite they should hould them by guifte from his Matie, 
and not by their owne righte : and that those landes be specially named 
in their graunte, leaste generallitites keepe the Countrie in feare that 
more is intended to them then is the princes pleasure. And by that 
meanies they shall not be able to wronge any of the free houlders, by 
cullor of her Ma^-'^s graunte, whoe doe greatlie desier to be freed from 
the yoake of McCarties bondagcr And if her Ma*^© should send a comis- 
sion into that country to suche as should surr»ender their freeholdes and 
to take them from her agayne, and not to be dryuen to any greate paynes 
or charges in passeinge their graunts, it would enfranches a greate 
company of poore men to their greateste ioye and comforte, and to the 
grteat quiett of the countrie. Also if her Ma^i« contynue her compassion 
towardes Donell McCartie, and shall passe to him such landes as he 
possesseth to be holden from her selfe, he will neuer yeilde to Florence 
but wilbe of a contrarie faction, and they shalbe contynuall spies to serue 
one againste another. 

Cap. 8. 

Also I that haue tenne yeares lyued upon Odonogh Mores landes of 
Onought Odonogh and Tege McDermondes of Coshmag, who bothe weare 
slayne in action of rebellion, and attaincted by acte of Parliamt, haue 



r 



64 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH.LOLOGICAL SC)CIETV. 

abiden many crosses amonge them, ffor the Earle's base sonne, Donell,*^ 
was for the space of sixe yeares contynually in rebellion, and doinge noe 
hurte uppo any but my selfe : he and his rebells murdered my men, 
spitefully killed my horses and cattell, tooke the praye of my towne, and 
laide diuerse malitious plottes for my life, w«i* all men thought to be done 
by the procurement of his ffather to dryue me by the terror of suche 
dealeinges to forsake my landes. But I beinge preuented of the Earle 
of Clancarties daughter (by Florence McCartie) whome I should haue 
maried by her Ma^ consent, whoe passed a Patent to me of the country-. 
And beinge spoiled by Donell McCartie dailie; and vppon the deathe 
of Sr Valentynte Browne, my father, beinge lefte succorlesse in the harte 
of the wilde countrie of Desmond (those landes beinge the substance of 
my poore estate) for my better strength, and to maynteyne my owne, I 
maried wt Sir Owen Oswliuan's^^ daughter, whoe before was contracted 
to Florence McCartie, wherin he haueinge falsiefied his faithe and oathe 
procured the said Owen and all his ffreindes to be his vtter Enemyes : by 
wck matche I grewe able to raise companies for my defence, and have 
w^ them soe followed the said Donell McCartie (thoughe it weare to my 
greate paynes and charge), as all the Inglishe and Irishe in that Prouynce 
can testifie, that I drewe his followers from him, diuers I slewe and 
broughte to the triall of the lawe. And lastlie, I reduced him (beinge 
principally assisted by the good countenance of worthie Sir Thomas 
Norrys) from thueeskore to him selfe and twoe more comfortles and freind- 
lesse. And sinse that he mighte knowe the difference betwene his wildc 
kynde of life and ciuillitie, I was contente uppon his suite to giue him coun- 
tenance in the countrie, and wth all encoraged him to come into Ingland 
to sue for grace at her Ma^** handes, v/^^ she moste gratiouslie hathe 
afforded him to his greate comforte. Uppon these Landes w^^ I enioye 
I have fortified the Castell of Molaheff, and bestowed 500 markes in 
buildeinge one it. And alsoe planted diuerse Inglishe men wth many 
other of my Wyues kyrtesmen & followers, whoe togeather doe not 
accompte of suche of the Clancarties that are our Enemyes, and betwene 
whome thear are diuerse causes of naturall hatred. 

And thus these landes of myne lyeinge in the myddest of the Clan- 
carties, if the state shall giue me but suche countenance as I shall from 
tyme to tyme deserue, shalbe a meanes still to disable any of them 
from attcmpteinge any thinge againste the state. Soe that if her Ma^^« 
shall liut reserue the cheife rents to her selfe, graunte noethinge to 
Florenrc McCartie but by the spiall names of suche landes as weare his 
father in lawes, contynue Donell in those landes he enioyeth, and gyue 
mp but lawfull fauor and countenance to wynne me the more reputacon 
in the countrie, these willbe the meanes that the Country of Desmond 
shall not wthout forreyne forces be able to breede any disquiette to the 
state & country. 

" Donell was styled the "Robin Hood of Miinster." He was nurtured in woods and 
hogi, and knew no pursuit save the pursuit of Browne's cattle, no pastime but the worrying of 
hta Engliish peasantry, and the wanton destruction of everything that was his, his plunderings 
were cotmltess and his murders were not a few. (See Life and Letters of Florence McCarthy 
mar, p. 147,) 

" i\f. The daughter of O'SuUivan bear. O'Sullivan mor was married to Florence 
^Cwthy's aunt. 



ik 



MUNSTER IN ^.D. 1597. 



6 = 



But her Ma**^® oughte to haue great regarde one whome she bestoweth 
the Castell of Ballycarbrye and the Haven of Dealynche (als Valencia), 
wch is a very large and faier hauen, and in a remote place, dangerous to 
be in any mans hande that shall fauor any Comon Enemye. 

I haue heare under settc downe a table of all the Lordes and free- 
holders in the Country of Desmond, and howe euerie one of them stande 
affected to the howse of McCartie. And I finde non of them to be freindes 
to him, but suche as haueinge wronged the righte heires of their landes 
and haue byn maynteyned by him thearin, or ells are officers and had 
their landes gyuen them for riminge^^ or harpeinge or suche like. 



Houses of lordes 
and freeholders 
in Desmond that 
for the most 
parte yeildcd 
cheif rentes to 
McCartie More 
whereof some are 



Clancarlis 

whereof 

.som weare 



Freindes tc 

McCartie 

More. 



Others 

tooke parte, 

wth his 

Enemies. 



'McFynin 
Clandonell fuin 
Slughteming rudry 
Slughte Nyddy 
Slughte Donell Brick 
Slught fynin duff 
Clantege Kettah 



f Slught Cormock of 

DowngutU 
Slugh Cormock of 
' Hallycarnig 
Slught Owen More 

of Bordmang 
I Clandermond 
Clandonell ro 
i McTegenetwoe 



Theis tooke parte wth the Eaiie of Des- 
mond. 



I Theis tooke parte w'h Oswlyuanbere. 



Other 
Septes 
wherof 
V^some weare 



Freindes < 



Others that 

desier y« 
weakningot 
Clancartis 
hold often 
warres w^^ 
them. 



'Falys 

Odaly fiin McCar- 
tie, cheif pioner 

O'Kettane, his 
harper 



^ Oswliuanbere f 
of 



Oswliuans whoe 
these senerall 
Lordes vndcr them, ^ 

(Odonogho 
More 
Odonogho 



glan 



Slught Murry 



/ McFynin duf. 
1,. ^^^^ I Clanlauras. 
his ownc I siughtne Carrowe. 
^^P^^ JBristy. 



I Sluchtne bonane. 



Oswliuan 
more of 

\Mac Crehon 



(Odonogan. 
Olnichehan. 
Olinieetdell. 
Olinche. 

McGillecuddy. 

McMonertah. 

McGillenevIan. 

Sleight Cappah ne Coshy. 

Slught Toig. 



Cap. 9. 

Carbry. The howse of Carbry, wc^ Ls a greate country of the meere 
Irishry, lyethe in the County of Cork, and the cheif e lorde therof 
is called McCarty-Reugh, and hathe many greate lordes of lande and 
freeholders under him. This country hathe passed from Lord to Lorde 
by the custome of Tanistry, and fower brothers enioied the LordP therof 
one after another, euery one of the yonger brothers oppressinge the eldest 
brothers sonnte that was the righte heire, and is nowe Lo: Florence 
McCartie is, accordinge to the country accounte, Taniste thearof, and 

13 I'.A Rhyming. 



66 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



expecteth to be Lo : thearof if he out lyve McCarty Reugh that nowe is, 
but he hath a patent therof from the Prince, and his sonne hopes to keepe 
his inheritance by that, w^^ if he shall perseuerc to doe when God shall 
call his father, then will Florence McCartie and his brethren and Sir 
Owen McCarties sonnes ioyne togeather against him : and they vvilbe a 
stronge faction : but the other hathe greate frindes alsoe, and wilbe able 
to keepe his owne from them : but theis controuersies shalbe vearie goode 
for the quiett of their neighbours, whome other wise they would moleste 
uppon any aduantage or alter[c]acon. And when suche controuersie 
falleth out amonge them, if it may be decided by pticon as the Counsell 
did in Oswliuan Beeres howse, it would mightely weaken them, and take 
awaie the greate names of McCartys from them; by the w^^ name they 
giue the Rode to the other. And indeede the country custome is that 
euery man shall haue his portion, wch if he surrender to the Prince he 
maye take it agayne and establishe an Inheritahce to him and his heires 
vvtbout the wronge of any. 



Vnder McCariy Reugh 
arc these Lordes, 
viz : — 



Freeholders. 



Some of the 
Clancarties. 



Others 



Mc Ingenauras. 
Mc Felimy. 
Clandermond. 
Clantege ro neskarde. 
Mc Tege glin. 

Oniahownefun. 
Odonouan. 
Odriscall. 

Omahowne Carbry. 
O Croly. 



Theare are many other ffreeholders, but these are all of them Lordes 
of greate Landes, and scarce any of them but that theare arje dissentions 
in their howses, and competitors of the lande : and the cheifest occasion 
is still betwene them that challenge by lyneall descent and them that 
challenge by Tanistry. And neuer lightly any wronge comytted upon the 
Subiects but by suche as come to the. Lordshippe of the countrey by 
Tenistrey. ffor those knowinge their righte to be of noe value, and that 
their heires shall not succeede them labor by all meanc to make their 
followers to accompte them most worthie of the place by the warlike 
sturringe and troublinge their neighbours, and seekinge to conquere landes 
from the Englishe, and allwaies they seeke the ouerthrowe of the righte 
heire, whoe lightly is dryuen to file the countrie dureinge their goument 
as this McCartie Rfeugh was whiles his three uncles successiucly enioyed 
the lande. 

Capt. io. 
The howse of Muscrye is a nother greate Contrie of the Irishrie, and 
the Lordes of that place haue byn these many descents verie subtell and 
wisemen, for they haue taken the oportunitie of the warres in England 
and ffrance and haue forced many Englishe freeholders to make their 
landes by estate in lawe to them by endurance of Imprisonment, and suche 
like as Barrett did of Castlenehinch, and some of the Roches for Carig- 
nevar, and the Gogans for Castlemore, Clohinda, and many other landes. 
Theare hathe alsoe byn muche murderinge amonere themselues for their 
landes : and about thre discents since the right heire, w^^ is Tege 



MUNSTER IN A.D. 1 597- 67 

mc Owen of Twohogees, was putte out of his inheritance by the aunces- 
tors of these men that are nowe in controuersie for it. He wc^ enioyes 
the lande is called Cormock mc Dermond, sonne of Dermonde mc Tege, 
wc^ Dermond mc Tege was eldeste brother to Sir Cormok mc Tege, 
yet the lande descendinge to Sir Cormock by the Custome of Tanistry, 
he sought to haue contynued the same to his owne children by surren- 
dringc the landes to the Queene, wc^ indeede he had noe righte unto 
but dureinge his owne life, and his takeinge the same from her Ma^i® to 
him and to his heires Males, whearby bothe his younger brothers that 
clayme by Tanistry and his eldest brothers children that are next heires 
in succession shoulde be disenherited. But it is fallen out hitherto f arre 
contrarie to his intent, for his eldeste brothers sonne enioyes the whole 
lordeshippe of the Countrie, wc^i is the greatest lyueinge in the Prouynce, 
amounteinge to 400 plowghe landes, wc^ he setteth for 8oO;^ p. ann., 
besides his prouisions for his howse of horse meate & mans meate, 
and the beareinge of his charges to Dublyn and in his suits. Sir 
Cormock his owne children hathe neuer a foote in the country. In like 
manner his third brother, called Donell ny County, nor any of his 
children. But his youngest brother, Calloghan mc Tege, hathe twoe 
castells, one dureinge his life, w^^ is Castle More, w^^ the landes theare 
unto; the other, wcli is Castle Carrygomuck, w^^ the landes, to him 
and to his heires for euer. But sure is myne opinyon Sir Cormock 
mc Tege and his brother, Donell, haue a righte to haue their shares in 
the country, bycause I see the order of the Irishrie (whose controuersies 
are decided by their Brehownes) is to giue a lyueinge to euery gentleman 
of the Septe whose fathers ore grandfathers weare lordes of the countries. 
And I am pryue that if Sir Cormock mc Teges sonne, Charles, woulde 
haue yeilded to stande to the order of the countrie, that he might longe 
eare this haue had his portion to lyuc one, wc^ Cormock mc Dermond 
hathe soughte at his handes. But he standinge uppon the excellent 
seruices of his father, w^^ haue byn as many as euer any Irishe man 
hathe done, bothe in serueinge uppon th/e rebells and in releyueinge 
of hir Ma*8 souldiers, and he relyeinge also vpon his Pattent, hathe and 
dothe this daie refuse all country order, thoughe they are at this instant 
offered him. And hopeth to be rekyued by the Counsaill heare accordinge 
to the course of the comon lawie. 

Theare are diuerse gentlemen that are termed freehoulders in the 
Country of Muskry, but the lordes of Muskry haue mightcly tyrannised 
ouer them that this daie their cheife rents are as heauie as any other 
Tenants landes in the Country. 

These are under the Lo : of Muskry: — Oleary, a greate Scpte; Iflon- 
low, Clanfinin, Clancnogher, Fartwoghnedromen, Oherly, Ohely, Ocrumyn, 

The Lordte of Twoghogee dothe owe noe cheiffrie to the Lo : of 
Muskry, wch is bycause his graund father was disenherited of the LordP 
and country of Muskry. 

Cap. II. 

DowALLA. The Country of Dowalla ?ilso is a greate howse of the Irishrie, 

and McDonogh is called the cheife Lord thearof. Thear is 

grente controusie about the LordP of that Country, w^^ one Donogh 



68 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

McCormock dothe at this p^sent enioie, and Dermond McOwen 
doth sue againste him. Dermond alledg?einge that himselfe was lawfully 
seised thearof , whose fathers eldest brother died seised thearof as by righte 
descendinge to him by his ffather, whoe died seised thearof, whose fathers 
eldest brother died seised thearof, whose father & grandfather died 
seised thearof. Donogh mc Cormock saith that his greate grandfather 
was the eldest brother, and that the youngest brother, from whom Der- 
mond is descended, did murder him and usurped the place ever since, 
and that his owne father was murthered by Dermond mc Owens father. 
Dermond answereth that Donoghs greate grandefather was a bastard of 
the VVhitie Knight's daughter, and that his [Dermond *s] auncestor was 
a lawful! sonne of the Earle of Desmonds daughter, and for the killinge 
of Donoghs father, his father did it in reuenge of the killinge of his 
father likewise, soe that it was but one for another. Theise are twoe 
howses neuer to be reconciled. And if a particon weare made of the 
country I thinke it woulde weaken them bothe, and their neighbours 
hereafter should haue the lesse cause to feare any of them. Theare arc 
three other lordes of Dowalla that have veary faire countries and paye 
cheife rents to Mc Donogh : viz., O'Kalloghan, 0*Keif, and McAulyue. 

Cap. 12. 

Thus haue I sette downe all the diuisions and factions throughe the 
Prouynce of Mounster, bothe in the Auntient Inglishe septs and also in 
the Irishe howses, wch controuersies amonge the Irishrie if they wearc 
decided by giueinge shares to euerie one, and deuydeinge to suche as 
haue moste likelyhoode of right, And they to hold their landes from the 
Prynoe by inheritance, would be a meane to bringe much comoditie to 
the Prynce by Wardeshippes and otherwise, and mightely wteaken them 
that they should haue allwaies enoughe to doe to defende thiem selues 
one from another. And they would neuer ioyne under any onie heade 
bycause they will neuer endure to acknowledge a superioritite one ouer 
another. And wti^out they ioyne all tc^eather they shall neuter be able 
to doe any greate harme or make any rebellion to doe hurte or hasard 
to the state, 

A parcell of the Earle of Clancars pedigree, proueinge thearby that, 
accordinge to the custome of the Irishry, noe woman haue inherited any 
land, especially in his howsfe : — 

Teige LEIGH McCarty had 
yssue. 



DoNELL, whoc had noe sonnes but diuerse Cormock 

daughters maried to Los whoe have 
yssue by them in the Country. 



Teige, who had noe Donell. 

yssue but daughters. 



I I 

Teige, who had issue. Donbll, late Earle. 

I I 

Catblyn. Ilyn. 




John Francis .Maguirk. 




i^lVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 69 



Five Cork Publicists. 



I. 

IF th« numerous eminent and memorable Corkmen of the 
nineteenth century, there was none so many-sided as John 
Francis Maguire — ^not one that possessed such strong and 
varied claims to the respect, esteem, gratitude and re- 
membrance, not merely of the city of his birth, but of his 
Irish fellow-countrymen in general, for that unswerving 
and unselfish devotion to the interests and advancement 
of his native land, which formed his distinguishing characteristic through- 
out life, and was productive of so many beneficent and abiding results. 

He was the eldest son of John Maguire, a merchant of Cork city, 
where he was born in 1815. John Francis Maguire was intended by his 
father for the Bar; but during his course of study for the legal profession 
he became a frequent contributor to the newspapers and periodicals of 
that day. 

So deeply immersed in literature and politics had he, in fact, become 
by the time he was called to the Bar in 1843, that he had no longer 
the leisure, or perhaps the inclination, to devote himself to a legal career. 
He had, two years previous to that, viz., in 1841, established the Cork 
Examiner newspaper; and owing to the able advocacy by the Examiner 
of the popular movements in favour of Repeal and Temperance, then 
being simultaneously conducted by Daniel O'Connell and Father Mathew, 
the new Cork paper, of which he continued Editor for a great many 
years, rose rapidly in public opinion, and became a recognised authority 
on Irish national affairs. 

In 1847 Mr. Maguire was brought forward as the Repeal candidate 
for Dungarvan in opposition to the famous Irish orator, Richard Lalor 
Shell, who defeated him, however, but only by fifteen votes. After a 
second unsuccessful candidature against C. F. A. Ponsonby, he was 
returned as M.P. at the General Election of 1852 ; and he continued to 
represent Dungarvan in Parliament until 1865. From 1865 **1^ ^^s death 
he represented his native city, Cork; and whilie in Parliament acted with 
the party of Irish members then known as the * 'Independent Opposition," 
who were pledged to resist every government that refused to concede 
Tenant-right, the Disestablishment of the Irish Protestant Church, and 
other Irish Nationalist demands. Offers of office were made to him in 
the course of time by both English parties ; but, unlike many of his friends, 
Mr. Ms^uire steadfastly and consistently declined them all. 

In 1857 he described the position of his party in Parliament as * 'having 
voted Lord Derby out of office and Lord Aberdeen into it in 1853. They 
had displaced the Aberdeen Cabinet on the motion for enquiry into the 
Crimean war disasters; and they had voted Lord Palmerston into office." 
In all debates on the Irish Land Question h|e took a very prominent part, 
more especially in the years 1856, 1858, i860, and 1863; and he gave 



70 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

a general support to the Irish Land Bill of 1870, from which such great 
hopes were entertained. With equal vigour he advocated improvements 
in the Irish National Educational System, the abrogation of repressive 
laws, and the necessity for relieving the distress which prevailed in 
Ireland between the years 1862 and 1865; and he succeeded in procuring a 
reform of the English Poor Law, by which the period of settlement 
required for rfelief was reduced to six months. As the law stood, no 
Irish pauper could claim relief unless he had resided for four years in 
an English parish. 

On the loth of March, 1868, in moving a resolution on the state of 
Ireland at that time, Mr. Maguire laid great stress upon the evils of the 
Irish Church Establishment. His speech was the means of eliciting from 
Mr. Gladstone his first Ministerial declaration against that institution; 
and whilst they were dealing with this question, he gave the Gladstone 
ministry an independent support — ^though he frequently pressed them on 
the subject of the treatment of the Fenians who were then in prison. 
That he was an advocate of Home Rule was shown by his notice of motion 
in favour of it, which he gave in during the year 1871, though he was 
persuaded not to proceed with it just then. Questions of foreign policy 
also considerably interest)ed him; and as a strong supporter of the 
Papacy, he denounced the policy of Lords Palmerston and John Russell 
as **truckling and cowardice to great powers, and oppression to small 
ones." On May the 7th, 1861, he was thanked by Lord Palmerston for 
his motion for papers with regard to the Ionian Islands ; and his speech 
on that occasion, of which the exordium was very eloquent, drew forth an 
exhaustive rieply from Mr. Gladstone. 

He actively promoted local enterprise in Cork, his native place, by 
endeavouring to introduce the linien industry into the South of Ireland, 
and by obtaining from Parliament a vote for the construction of the 
naval works at Haulbowline (which only within the past twelve years or so 
have become an accomplished fact). He was elected Mayor of Cork in 
the years 1853, 1862, 1863, and 1864, on all of which occasions he dis- 
tinguished himself by earnest endeavours for the improvement of the city, 
more especially in the year 1853. 

Besides being an energetic politician and an active and beneficent 
citizen, Mr. Maguire was a brilliant raconteur, and a very able writer. 
An ardent Catholic, he visited Pope Pius IX. three times at Rome ; and 
after his first visit to the Eternal City in 1856, he published Rome and 
Its Rulers, in recognition of which the Pope made him a Knight Com- 
mander of St. Gregory the Great. After his third visit, he issued, in 
1870, a third and enlarged edition of this valuable book under the title of 
The Pontificate of Pius the Ninth, which was published by Longmans, 
London. 

In 1866 he spent six months in travelling through Canada and the 
United States; and on his return to Ireland he published The Irish in 
America, a work which won him immense popularity amongst the Irish 
people all over the world, and in other quarters as well; and was quoted 
by Mr. Gladstone in 1868. It was written from personal knowledge; 
and, as Mr. Maguire modestly states, he only ventuiled on the task 
when he saw that no other person had intimated any intention of doing so. 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 7 1 

Partly the outcome of this volume was the pamphlet he published (Cork, 
Mulcahy, 1869), entitled, America in its Relation to Irish Emigration 
which he had delivered as a lecture at Cork and Limerick. 

Mr. MsLguittd was also author of The Industrial Movement in Ireland 
in 1852, published in 1853. This was his first book, and forms an interest- 
ing and exhaustive History of the First Cork Exhibition, in the promo- 
tion of which he took a prominent and effective part. ^ 

In 1863 he brought out his Father Mathew : A Biography, the most 
pleasing and popular of his works; whilst mainly to his efforts was due 
the erection of the Father Mathew Statue that now stands in St. Patrick 
Street, Cork. His last work was a novel, issued in three volumes, called 
The Next Generation (London : Hurst & Blackett, 1871). An ardent advocate 
of Women's Rights and a supporter of Female Suffrage, this novel was 
written by Mr. Maguire, with the design of setting forth the possible 
state of Society when these ** rights" were conceded to the fair sex. 

In 1872 the Hon^e Government Association reprinted in pamphlet form 
(Dublin, Falconer) entitled Home Government for Ireland, ten articles 
by him, reprinted from the Cork Examiner. Mr. Maguirp was collecting 
materials for a History of the Jesuits, when, under thte stress of his literary 
and political work, his health unfortunately gave way, and he died on the 
ist of November, 1872, a,t his residence*, Ardmanagh, the red brick 
mansion, specially built for him, on the brow of the hill over the steam- 
boat pier at Glenbrook, near Passage West. From Ardmanagh his re- 
mains were removed for interment in St. Joseph's, otherwise known as 
the Mathew Cemetery, Cork. 

A national tribute was most deservedly raised for his widow and 
children; and was contributed to, amongst others, by the late Queen 
Victoria, by the then HomSe Secretary, subsequently Lord Aberdeen, as 
well as by several Conservative members; for Mr. Maguire had been on 
friendly terms with thte leaders of both the English political parties in the 
House of Commons. At the meeting held in Dublin to promote this 
tribute the first resolution, after setting forth the general sorrow felt at 
this great Irishman's death, went on to say : **We all recognise and 
honour his unselfish devotion to what he believed to be the public good ; 
his generous consideration for the feelings of others; and his indefatig- 
able zeal for the advancem(ent of the social, moral, and material interests 
of Ireland." 

The statement in the Dictionary of National Biography and tlie 
Cabinet of Irish Literature (first edition) that Mr. Maguire died in Dublin 
is, of course, incorrect; as is also that made in the D.N.B., that he was 
author of Young Prince Marigold and other Tales, a book which was 
written by his widow, Mrs. Maguire, who died recently. 

An abridged edition of Mr. Maguire 's **Rome'* was brought out by 
the late Mgr. Patterson, Bishop of Emmaus; and a similar edition of 
his 'Tather Mathew" by Rosa Mulholland (Lady Gilbert). 

< Mr. Maguire it appears was the author of a still earlier work, 7/ti Dccirint of Total 
Abstinence /ustifietf, by J.F.M. A small 8vo volume of 76 pagts, Coik : Priiilcd by William 
Martin, 36 Princes Street, 1838. 



72 CORK HISTORICAL- AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

n. 

John Nicholas Count Murphy belonged to a branch of the Murphy 
family which has long been one of the foremost, most wealthy, and most 
benevolent amongst the Catholic citizens of Cork — a family that has given 
a Bishop to the Catholic diocese of Cork, and a Member to Parliament 
in the person of the late Mr. Nicholas Dan Murphy ; whilst several of its 
scions have been conspicuous both at the Irish and English Bar. 

Count Murphy, in whom was typified to such a memorable extent the 
benevolent disposition and charitable deeds associated with his family 
name, was the eldest son of Mr. Nicholas Murphy, a tea-merchant 
of Cork, and a direct importer of that commodity, whose importation is 
now confined almost exclusively to London. He was also one of the 
Directors of the Midleton Distillery, the management of which fell later 
on into the hands of his son, John Nicholas (afterwards Count) Murphy, 
an occupation which did not, howev^, preclude the latter from following 
the bent of his mind in the direction of pious and beneficent projects. 

On its formation in Cork he became President of the local branch of 
the now world-wide Catholic Charitable Society of St. Vincent de Paul ; 
and he continued for many years an active member of it, visiting as such 
the poor and the distressed in their hontes ; and aiming at their moral and 
material improvement, until the delicacy of his health compelled him to 
withdraw from this noble Christian work. 

In his learlier years, too, he took a prominent part in Cork's municipal 
affairs; and on the spontaneous vote of both sides of the Town Council 
he was elected Mayor, the duties of which office he discharged during 
his year's tenure of it in the manner that was to be expected from one of 
his great intelligence, energy and benevolence. He interested himself 
specially during his Mayoralty in the condition of the poor in the Cork 
Union Workhouse; and to his advocacy was due some very important 
reforms in regard to their treatment within its walls. 

But with all his useful and charitable occupations he was an assiduous 
scholar, and a cultivated lover and student of literature. He was for 
several years President of the Cork Library, a post which he had to 
relinquish on account of the precarious state of his health, which sadly 
impedled the energy of a mind so filled with the desire to be useful to his 
fellow beings. 

The importance and extent of his studies, however, have been well 
exemplified in the three solid, scholarly, and valuable works that have 
emanated from his pen, viz., Ireland Industrial, Political and Social, 
London, 1870; Terra Incognita; or the Convents of the United Kingdom, 
London, Longmans, 1876. This work may be considered as forming an 
elaborate exposition of what might be called the Convent Question, for it 
sets out in detail the characteristics of thie grelat Catholic Religious 
Orders; following their ramifications not only through Ireland and Eng- 
land, but all over the world, indicating their constitution, and setting forth 
in a striking manner the greatness of the works of benevolence and 
religion to which their members devote themselves. It also gives a good 
account of the rise of the National School system in Ireland. 

His third book has for title, The Chair of Peter ; and forms a masterly 
vindication of the Papacy. It is a work of remarkable erudition, a monu- 




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FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 73 

ment of conscientious labour; and it might almost be said is one that 
exhausts the subject. So highly was it esteemed by the Pope, that its 
author received at his hands the dignity of Count of the Holy Roman 
Empire. The second edition of this volume appeared in 1886, London, 
Burns & Oates. 

As might be expected from one of his lofty character. Count Murphy's 
charity was munificent. He gave largely to public collections; and in 
private was consistently generous. His principal and most abiding effort 
in this direction is the beautiful building occupied as a Children's Hospital 
and Convent on Wellington Road, Cork. His original intention was to 
make this establishment a sort of sanatorium for the Sisters of Mercy 
and an orphanage for the children of respectable parents ; but some diffi- 
culties having arisen in the fulfilment of this purpose, it was subsequently 
deemed more advisable to devote thte building to its present object, and 
to place it in charge of the Irish Sisters of Charity, whose foundress, Mrs. 
Aikenhead, was a Cork lady. 

Count Murphy died at his residence, Clifton, Montenotte, on the nth 
of September, 1889. His only child, who was married to Mr. Coltsman 
Cronin, of Glenflesk Castle, Killamey, is also dead ; but his widow, the 
Countess Murphy, still survives, to whose piety and generosity is due 
thte beautiful Oratory recently attached to the South Infirmary, Cork. 
To his cousin, Mr. Nicholas Murphy, the Sisters of Mercy at Queenstown 
are similarly indebted for their branch house at Rushbrooke, near that town. 

in. 

Sir John Pope Hennessy was the son of Mr. John Hennessy of Bally- 
hennessy, Co. Kerry, by his wife, Elizabeth, daughter of Mr. Henry 
Casey, of Cork, John Pope Hennessy was educated principally at the 
Cork Queen's College; and was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple, 
London, in 1861. 

He entered the House of Commons as member for the King's County ; 
and was one of the very few Irish Catholics who at that time attached 
themselves to the Conservative party. His Parliamentary career was an 
active one. He received the thanks of the Roman Catholic Committee of 
England for the ** Prison Ministers' Act"; and an address of thanks from 
the miners of Great Britain for some amendments he secured in the Mines' 
R^ulation Bill; and he was also instrumental in procuring more favour- 
able conditions for the subordinate officers in the Customs' Service. 

He opposed the Government system of education in Ireland on the 
ground that the so-called National system was anti-national ; but he voted 
in favour of the Anglican Church in England, whilst advocating con- 
current endowment in Ireland, by which the Irish ecclesiastical property 
founded before the Reformation would have been restored to the Catholic 
Church, and some of the ancient abbeys revived. He also, whilst a 
Member of Parliament, drew the attention of the House of Commons to 
the decline of the population of Ireland; and urged the Government to 
keep the people at home, by amending the Irish land laws, and reclaiming 
the waste lands, of which such extensive tracts aite still to be seen through- 
out Ireland. 

Mr. Hennessy 's services to his party were rewarded by his appointment 



74 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

as Govfemor of Labuan in 1867. From there he was promoted to be 
Governor of the West African Settlements in 1872 ; of the Bahamas in 
1873; of the Windward Islands in 1875; of Hong Kong in 1877; and 
finally Governor of the Mauritius in December, 1882. 

Whilst Colonial Governor of Mauritius his disagretement with Mr. 
Clifford Lloyd, an ex-R.M. famous in the days of the Land League, who 
had subsequently received an appointment in Mauritius, led to questions 
in Parlianlent, and to the despatch of Sir Hercules Robinson to that island 
to investigate the quarrel. This resulted in Governor Hennessy's return 
to London, where he laid the matter before the Secretary of State, and 
he was restored to his office for the remainder of his term. Later on, he 
was congratulated on his successful administration of Mauritius; and on 
his retirement from that post he was awarded the full pension he was 
entitled to as Colonial Governor. In April, 1880, he was created Knight 
Commander of the Order of St. Michael and St. George. 

Sir John Pope Hennessy contributed papers to the ** Proceedings" of 
the Royal Society and to the "Reports*' of the British Association, of 
whose Mathematical Section he was Hon. Secretary, besides which he was 
Chairman of the Repression of Crime Section of the Social Science 
Congress. He also contributed to the Philosophical Magazine, the 
Nineteenth Century, one of his papers in which was on **What do the 
Irish read?** the Contemporary Review, and to Subjects of the Day. In 
1883 he published in London a notable book on Ralegh in Ireland, with 
his Letters on Irish Affairs — a volume due probably to the fact that he 
had purchased and for a timie resided in Sir Walter Raleigh *s famous 
mansion at Youghal, which is now owned by another Irish Colonial 
Governor, Sir Henry Blake. 

On his final return to Ireland Sir John Pope Hennessy purchased the 
historic mansion of Rostellan Castle and the adjoining property, most of 
the farms on which he sold to their then tenant-occupiers. Still strong 
and active, he sought once more for Parliamentary IxMiours, allying him- 
self this time with the anti-Parnellite section of thfe Nationalist party. 
He contested North Kilkenny in December, 1890, and won the election, 
beating Mr. Vincent Scully, the Parnellite candidate, by 1,147 votes, an 
exdess of almost two to one. 

A rather amusing though not strictly accurate account of Sir J. P. 
Hennessy's first appointment as Colonial Governor occurs in Reminiscences 
of a Country Journalist, by Thomas Frost (London : Ward & Downey, 
1888). "One of the leader-writers on the Liverpool Albion (a one time 
famous newspaper) was John Pope Hennessy, at that time a Clerk in the 
Education Department of the Privy Council, who wrote only on the 
proceedings of that Department. On leaving Downing Street he studied 
for the Bar, and was called, but never held a brief. In 1858 he obtained 
a seat as M.P. in Parliament, in which capacity he harassed the Govern- 
ment with questions and motions to such an extent that he had no diffi- 
culty in inducing them to appoint him to the Governorship of the Gold 
Coast. He did not k>ng remain in that torrid and notoriously unhealthy 
locality, being shifted to the more agreeable surroundings of thte Island* 
of Barbadoes.** 

In SirC. G. Duffy's My Life in Two Hemispheres, Sir J. P. Hennessy's 
Parliamentary carter is pictured in quite another light. According to 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS 75 

one of Sir C. G. Duffy's correspondents, **Disraeli's rise to political 
importance was nothing to Hennessy's. Hennessy got on at once, and 
made no fatal failure in the House; but rose from the beginning. He 
would certainly sit in the next Cabinet : important concessions had been 
made to him in Continental countries by the Pope for example, and at 
the Tuileries. He was at home with everybody from Pio Nono to Louis 
Napoleon, who was his personal friend. The Irish priests applauded him, 
and so did the Irish Fenians. He had negotiated a great commercial 
transaction with Rothschild tete-a-tete. There was no one in the Tory 
party between him and Disraeli.** **Cashel Hoey,'* continues Sir C, G. 
DuflFy, **who did not rate Hennessy so extravagantly, said it was unde- 
niable that he had established friendly relations with various powers, 
potentates, and dominions bitterly hostile to each other, and that Disraeli 
was fond of him. A day or two later,** adds Sir C. G. Duffy, ** Hennessy 
called on me. He is a dapper, dandified little fellow, with a frank, cordial 
smile. He told me that if he had been ten years older he would have 
been an active ally of mine in 1848. His father bred him up an ardent 
Nationalist ; and he still only wanted a fair opportunity to serve the good 
old cause." 

On page 379, vol. ii., of the same work Sir C. G. DuflFy publishes a 
letter, dated Government House, Hong Kong, July 20th, 1878, from 
which the following extract is taken: — **You once gave me a word of 
encouragem/wit to republish my little sketch of the literature of the Young 
Ireland party. I am thinking of doing so now; and perhaps if justice 
is to be done to them it should be expanded into a volume. . . . From 
the age of twelve and during my boyhood I was a student of the Nation 
and of Disraeli's works. Those dear little volumes that your namesake 
(James DuflFy) printed, and the prophetic political novel, were my constant 
companions in the hohreens about Cork, when Father Michael 0*Sullivan 
said I was neglecting the classics in the Mansion House School. No 
doubt you ar<e answerable for the gross ignorance of Greek that thousands 
of boys of that generation in Ireland got involved in. But, though I am 
sometimes ashamed of it, I am well satisfied with the cause; and would 
not exchange my national sympathies for the scholarship of Gladstone. 
Always yours — Pope Hennessy." 

**I knew Pope Hennessy,** wrote Edmund Yates, the novelist, in 
The World, **for ov^r thirty years. I first made his acquaintance when 
he was elected for Queen's (?) County, and just called to the Bar by the 
Inner Temple, where he lived with Alfred Austin {the present poet- 
laureate), Joseph Devey, Eyre Lloyd, and other bright spirits. The last 
time I saw him was at a club, on the eve of quitting his friends and his 
party, much graver than his wont, and speaking somewhat dolefully of 
the exigencies of his political career. I believe that he was actually 
elected for Queen's County (?) whilst yet he held an appointment under 
Government, if I remember rightly, in the Education Office." 

How successful that after career of Sir John Pope Hennessy has been 
we now know ; but those who were present at the Father Mathew Cen- 
tenary Celebration held at Cork in October, 1890, at which hie delivered 
a splendid address, and appeared in perfect physical and mental strength 
and vigour, could have little foreseen that twelve months later he would 
be laid in the grave. His remains were interred in the family burial 



76 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

place in St. Joseph's Cemetery, Cork. On his coffin was the inscription : 
**Sir John Pope Hennessy, Knight of Malta, K.C.M.G., died 7th October, 
1891, aged 59. R.I. P." 

It might truly be said that his death at this comparatively early age, 
with all his ripe judgment and world-wide experience of men and things, 
was a great national loss.^ 

(To he continued,) 

< As showing the feeling of affection and gratitude entertained for the late Sir J. P. Hennessy, 
it may be of interest to recall that on the day of his obsequies, a coloured man, a native of 
Mauritius, who happened to arrire as a sailor in a ship at the Jetties on the previous day, having 
heard of the death of the late Governor, attended the funeral and paid a large sum for a wreath 
to lay on his grave. 

In the Sierra Leone Weekly News^ Freetown, March 7th, 1896, is recorded the importation 
of earthenware plates beautifully made, on which was printed the portrait of Sir John Pope 
Hennessy, K.C.M.G., and underneath it the words, '' The Poor Man's Friend," as a memento 
of the relief granted through him to the poorer inhabitants of that Colony in 1872. 




Some Account of the Family of 0*Hurly. 

{CanHnued from page 33.) 
DESCRIPTION OF BALLINACARRIGA CASTLE. 

^HE Castle is situated in the townland of Ardea, Parish of 
Ball)nnoney. It is a strong, square tower, 96 feet high, 
and stands on the crest of a bold, bare rock, which rises 
more than forty feet above the adjoining lake to the 
south. It is a striking object from the road between 
BalUneen and Dunmanway, and was evidently selected to 
guard an important pass to Clonakilty and Rosscarbery 
to the south, hence the name B64l-f)4-C4titil54, ** mouth 
of the rock." It is supposed to be much older than the date 1585. 
Tradition has it that the original residence of the Hurleys was at the 
townland of Gloun, about a mile further south, and the extensive remains 
of buildings are there still to be seen. Formerly the castle walls, now 
disappeared, were guarded by four small, circular towers, only one of 
which remains. The stones of the walls and towers were used to 
build the flour-mills situated on the level under the castle, which now in 
turn are in ruins. The castle remains, but requires to be protected from 
further vandalism. 

The entrance to the castle is in the east wall, strongly protected from 
within, and to the right are the stairs, which lead to the top, and to 
galleries in the north wall which connected the several floors— three up to 
the great arched floor. The plastering is still on the walls, and the 
corbels to support the roof may be seen. The keep was off the entrance, 
lighted by one small window to the south. The second floor has a 





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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 77 

chimney-shaft S.E. To S.W. is an ornamented window, in the limestone 
casing, having curious carving of a woman pointing to carved roses over- 
head—three joined together, two also ; they are supposed to be Catherine 
Cullinane and her children. Could they have been made to represent 
triplets and twins ? which might give some grounds for the ridiculous 
tale mentioned by Bennett, Hist. Bandon, which represents her as having 
seven children at one birth. This window probably lighted the chatelaine's 
apartment, and had an extensive view to the south over the lake. This 
floor has also windows to the north and west. The third floor has one 
broad window to the west. To the right, over the entrance at a con- 
siderable height, is a grotesque figure in limestone, which is supposed to 
be the owner of the castle looking down with contempt at his enemies. 

At the top of the stairs is the living portion of the castle, the parapet 
wall, corbels to support floors of bedrooms, one ornamented window to 
the east over the principal door. It contains also chimney-shafts. 

To the west of this portion of the castle, over the great arch, or, as 
called by the people, SUf-Uji, or ** green floor," from the greensward that 
covers it, is the principal great room of the castle. Probably it was used 
as a chapel in prosperous times. It was used as such before the present 
Catholic Church was erected, and many old inhabitants remember having 
assisted at Mass there. There are two handsome windows with circular 
heads, one in N.W. angle of this room, another to the S.W. They are 
cased in limestone and carved. The second has carved figures of the 
crucifixion. To the right is a figure clad in ecclesiastical garb, probably 
a cope, fastened to the breast with a brooch. Both palms of the hands 
extended. The left supports the shaft of the cross. It probably represents 
St. John. The other, with head veiled and both hands extended, probably 
represents the B. Virgin. There are nine panels carved in Irish inter- 
laced work and tracery, intermixed with palm trees, oaks, and acorns. 
In one is half a palm, and beneath, in bold, Roman character, are the 
letters ** R.C." The ornaments beneath the tracery are small chess 
squares, rising from interlaced Irish work. 

In the north-west window the panels have suffered much from time 
and vandalism. The panels on the left contain figures of the Pillar, with 
the ropes, ladder, crown of thorns, and hammer ; heart pierced by two 
swords. On the second is a pot on l^s on which stands a cock ; also a 
crown of thorns, which has nearly disappeared ; near the brasier is repre- 
sented St. Peter warming himself before.the denial of his Master, and grief 
on his countenance when warned of his treachery by the voice of the cock. 
Next a spear, also a foot with nail ; two scourges, one at each side of a 
pincers, and, finally, a hand extended and pierced through the palm. On 
the right, on the first panel, is the date 1585 ; underneath, the initials 
** R. M. C. C." (Randal Murrilly, Catherine Cullinane.) The panels, 
like the others, are in chess-board pattern. The raised figure with hands 
extended and raised to the height of the eyes, supported by wings, pro- 
bably represents St. John the Evangelist. 

Until the present chapel was built (i8i5)at Ballinacarriga, Mass was 
celebrated in the upper chamber of the castle as above, called SUf-Uft. 
The entire of the parish of Fanlobbus and part of Ballymoney forms 
the present parish of Dunmanway, in the Catholic arrangement. It 
would appear that Mass was celebrated at the castles of Togher and Ballin- 
carriga, at which the retainers assisted, and hence the existence of Togher 
and Ballinacarriga Chapels* The late Daniel McCarthy Glas, Esq., caused 



yS CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

to be erected in the Catholic Church, Dunmanway, three handsome mural 
tablets with inscriptions : 

" Sacred to the Memory of Cormac MacCarthy Glas, son of Felim, son of Tadhg- 
an-Duna, last Chieftain of Glean-na-croim, and of his wife, Angelina, daughter of 
Randal oge Hurley of Ballinacarriga Castle, in the neighbouring parish of Ballimoney." 

** Also to the memory of Daniel, son of Daniel, son of Denis, son of Cormac Glas, 
and of Daniel, son of Daniel, son of Daniel, and of his wife Harriet, daughter of 
Admiral Sir Home Popham, K.C.B., K.M." 

"Also to the Memory of their Children, Elizabeth, who died A.D. 1849, ^g^d 
15 years, in the City of Bath, in England; and H. Popham T. McCarthy, Captain in 
the Royal Artillery, who died at Madras, A.D. 1S65, aged 29 years, and was buried in 
the Cathedral of that City, where his brother officers erected as a tribute of their afifec- 
tion and respect a monument to his memory. 

When Cromwell's soldiers were at Ballinacarriga they were most 
anxious to capture a daring rebel named **CrohooreaGunna." This soub- 
riquet he obtained from a gun which he always carried in times of danger, 
the barrel of which was eight feet in length, and with which he was 
always sure to aim at his mark. After several vain attempts to take him 
prisoner they were advised to take his mother, of whom he was exceed- 
ingly fond, and in that manner alone could they hope to secure the son, 
as he would immediately come to her rescue or die in the attempt. 

The soldiers, acting on the advice they received, surrounded the house 
and took his mother with them. The news was conveyed to Crohoore in 
one of his hiding places. He smiled, and said she would not be long 
there. Accordingly, when the shades of evening were falling, Crohoore 
shouldered his gun and remained opposite the castle until the soldiers were 
retiring for the night. They were ascending the stairs, Crohoore raised 
his gun, and shot the candle from the officer's hand. All were immedia- 
tely thunderstruck and almost paralysed with fear. Crohoore's mother 
was sent home nexfmorning provided with a horse and pillion and an 
escort. She told them when the shot was fired : 

86 ri)o ri)4e e 45ur -oo '6e4T)45 x^ *7lU. 

Anglicised : — This is my son, and he will do more. 

She obtained information while in the castle that a mounted horseman 
was to go to Bandon next day. Crohoore set oflf at once to intercept the 
messenger ; shot his horse from under him, and carried oflf the ammunition. 

Crohoore's mother was a widow, and he was an only child. 

The name of the gun was ** Andoo." It was buried in Corrin Lake; 
some eighty years since it was taken up and made into horse shoes. 

Randal Oge, dying in 1631, was succeeded by his son, Randal Oge, 
whose name appears on the chalice. In 1641 he was one of the first of 
the Irish chieftains to take up arms. At the sessions held at Youghal, 
August 1642, Randal Hurly of Ballinacarrigy, and his son Randal ; 
William Hurly, Ballinwarde ; James Hurly, of same place ; William 
Hurly of Lisgubby, Donough McDonel Hurly of Bunanamera, Daniel 
Oge Hurly, Kilbrittain ; Ellen Hurly, Grillagh Itteragh, were indicted 
for high treason, and outlawed. Randal possessed a good estate, which 
"/as forfeited. Ardcahan granted to Captain Peacock ; the three plough- 

ds of Eaden Curra granted to John Sicklemore and William Black- 

rne ; Ardea-Kilcaskan, and Buddrimeen granted to Benjamin Crofts, 




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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF O HURLY. 



79 



He had six sons, two became priests. Having fought in Limerick 
he returned home, and is buried in Clogough graveyard. His brother 
was father of seven sons and three daughters. Two of the sons, James 
and Jeremiah, were within the walls of Limerick during the siege in 
William's reign. James was called Seamus Atroher, or the marksman. 
He killed six troopers who were sent to arrest him. They called to his 
house and asked him about himself. He pretended to lead them where 
they might find him ; and leading them from the main road left them 
floundering in a bog, and shot them all. Another story of him is, seeing 
a soldier violating a girl from a distance, he shot the miscreant dead. 
He had several sons. James and Randal were priests, the former died 
young, the latter was P.P. of Clontead, Kinsale. His other sons, 
Daniel, Jerh., John and Patrick, grew up and were married. He had 
also Michael, who with other descendants, lived in parish of Desertserges. 
He had a son Daniel, who was father of Daniel Hurly, a respectable 
mechanic of Clonakilty. 



Ground Plan Ballinacarriga Castle, 

{By the iat* li. IV. GiUman, M.R.S.A,) S 



I. 







Vrih. 



M. Md S. aslli ■ «M COiM ia 



I of raak. It Mtpi, 1" logk led to fird %cmt 
WT «' •*« Did. Cmiuc* id iHto Imm nun. N.E. ta|tr 
la itkin. n «*pi Man kad -«« Mcaad ficoc i.nd«t .mh, 
I. imhHd by alH ■lwda»S» vcM .liM il fet* hlfk. O 



WMovt M N tiid W , Md « M &, ih* W. Mt af ihMi im hM en H. mi ipriAC<"e of ud>> • . ' 
«wna|ifCubMtM,.adMb«rl|IMmif«nM>-4hN«iahH4iatc<h*t.*i><ii«oioiBii« * 
tagMhw |«r Cm cfeiUmil. A Mmitf ud ii«r!M« oa iccMd Ihw. • aii pini M ' -. 
pan^i. Loop ia W. vill •till m iid« loo^ ,' | ^ 

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Stairs are in N.E. angle at second floor. N. wall is about 7 feet thick, and has a mural 
gallery in ... . wall 32 feet 8 inches long; 30 inches in thickness of wall outside thig 
gallery, 3 feet 3 inches wide, and 7 feet high, led to garderobe ; outside it (to W.) is 



8o 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



the machicoulis opening, which is entered by a galleiy starting from W. window on 
second floor. This has loops in both faces to field, and loop at the angle to N.W., and 
loops (long) defending N. and W. walls ; 4 steps led to this, commencing after the 15 
which lead to second floor. At S.E. corner of second floor is entrance by 2 steps to the 
chimney of the machicoulis at S.E. angle, which machicoulis is of similar construction 
to that at N. W. angle. A very nice pointed arch A leads from the £. side of this work 
to the S. end (? to support the solid masonry above). There is a mural gallery from 
this work, in thickness of E. wall leading to cuUde-sac northwards, 17 feet long and 
6 high, and 6 wide, a guardroom. 

An old man says there is a similar one below this in thickness of same wall with 
entrance from first floor. There is a mural chamber similar above this again, with 
entrance from the staircase, f.^., same entrance as to second floor, a nicely-pointed arch ; 
14 steps lead to this from level of second floor ; 17 steps lead to top floor (over the 
arch). 

First floor is (20 feet by 9 feet, or) 1 1 feet in height reckoned by the corbels. The 
walls retain their plaster all round. In the S. wall there is, two feet from W. end, a 
handsome window, with round-headed arch formed of cut limestone. On E. side of 
this window at springing of arch is Catherine Cullinan with, on her right hand, five 
roses — three joined together, and two joined together (say five children). S.E. of this 
is a fireplace 7 feet wide, with shaft going up to gable alongside of shaft on top floor. 
There is a loop for defence facing W. 

The entrance is in a small mural chamber in N. wall at top of loth stair from 
basement, and a beginning of circular stairs at N.E. 

Sixteen circular stairs lead to entrance (which is in £. wall at its N. end) to the 
second floor. 

Three circular stairs more lead to mural galleiy in N. wall, running westward, 
38 inches wide, 6 feet 8 inches high, flat roof, and 27 feet long. 



FIANTS, ETC., CONCERNING HURLEY FAMILY. 

These may interest persons, who by having them in exUnso^ would throw much 
light on family history. 

INDEX TO FIANTS, CHARLES I. 



Hurley, Andrew, pardon and alienation 


2205B 


•1 


Catherine, wardship of 


856 


fi 


Dermod Mac Owen, pardon 


71 


„ 


Dermott, par. alienn. 


3299 


„ 


Ellen, Wardship of 


856* 


M 


John, par. alienn. 


1885 


II 


John, livy., lice., alienn. and par., of do 


2909* 


• 1 


Margaret, Wardship of 


856* 


II 


Mary ib. 


856 


II 


Maurice, license, alienation. . 


1476 


• 1 


Maurice, par., alienn. and lice., of do. 


2338 


II 


Maurice, livy. and par., alienn. 


2356* 


II 


Morrice, alien., par. 


535 


,, 


Ranell oge ib. 


1438" 


„ 


Ranell oge, livy. and alienn., par. 


II72* 


II 


Ranell oge ib. 


I258* 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 8i 

Bttnanamera, Ranell oge, livy. and par., alieoD. . . 1376* 

Hurley, Ranell oge, alienation, par., and license 1406* 

„ Thomas, alienation, par. . . 686 

„ Thomas, lice., alienation 1476 

„ Thomas, grant lands 2601* 

„ Wm. Mc Ranell, livy. and alienn., par. . . 1258 
„ Daniel oge, par., alienn,, gt, wardship, etc , of 2263* 

„ Edmund, par., alienn. .. «. 2104 

„ Maurice, livy., alienn,, par. . . . . 1330 

„ Maurice, livery . . ... . . 2081 

„ Rannell oge, livery, marriage, and alienn. 2640* 

„ Thomas ib. .. 2640* 

O'Hurley, Maurice, livy., alienn., par. . . 924 

* Fiants given in extenso (12). 27 as per Index. 

PATENT ROLL 13, JAMES I.— Page 297. 

Grant from the King to Florence Mc Donell Cartie, of Banduff, and Ronell oge 
Hurley, of Balanecarigeline, in Cork Co., gent., assignes of Sir James Simple, Knight, 
Cork Co., in Carbery bar. The town, townland, or quarter, of Gortnemacklagh, in 
Slughtcorky territoiy, containing 3 plowlands, Kilcaskane ; Ardkeaghane, i\ plowland; 
Niddeineghmore, 3 plowlands ; Kilcaskane, i\ plowlands ; Inshyfune, o*rwise 
Inshefwon, i plowland, being parcel of Edencurra qr. ; the Castle of Ballinacarrig, 
o'rwise Bealanecarrigeh,* and 2 plowlands of Ardea qr., in the occupation of 
Ronell oge Hurley. 

The lands marked thus (*) are created the Manor of Bealanacarrigeh, with the 
same demesne and privileges, to hold for ever, as of the Castle of Dublin in common 
soccage 19th December. 13th. 

PATENT ROLL 13TH. JAMES I., PART 3.— Page 296. 

II. Grant from the King to Florence McDonell Cartie, of Benduff, and Ranell oge 
Hurley, of Belanecarigehin, in Cork Co., gent., assignees of Sir James Simple, Knt., 
Cork Co., in Carbuiy Barony. The town, townland or qr. of Gortenamucklagh*, in 
Slughtcorky territory, containing 3 plowlands; Ardkeaghan,* i} plowland; Nid- 
deineghmore,* 3 plowlands ; Kilcaskane, l} plowland ; Inshyfune, o'rwise Inshefwon, 
I plowland, being parcel of Eadencurra qr. ; the Castle of Ballinecarrigg, o'rwise 
Bealanecarrigeh,* and 2 plowlands of Ardea qr., in the occupation of Ranell oge 
Hurley; Kilmyne and Lisgubba,* i plowland each ; in Glanvolla territory, the eastern 
half plowland of Kilvree or Kilbirie, the western half plowland of Kilverogh or 
Kilvairogh, Bonyvinerie* i}i plowland in Ardea qr., the eastern half plowland of 
Cluonycregien in said qr. ; in Garranarde and Millynetishida, 3^ gnives ; in the tenure 
of Teige McDavid O'Cruoly, and Donogh McDavid O'Cruoly, in Kiltallowe territory, 
the Castle of Bandufif, and 1% plowland adjoining, called Knocknemadog* ; 
the }i plowland of Donganon,* Cashell*; i plowland Madrany,* 9 gnives; the western 
half plowland of Furrowe, called Kaherneknowe,* Garron-Iven in Furrowe,* in 
Clanloghlin territoiy ; i plowland, 3 northern gnives of Coneturke* ; 2 carucates of the 
lands of Dromellihie in Clanloghlin territory, in the tenure of Florence McDonell 
Cartie ; DrouscoUis or Drouscollib,* 9 gnives ; Bueghmogh, in Clanshane, i plowland, 
in the tenure of Finneen McShane Cartie ; Buoltinagh, i plowland ; Maulebrack and 



82 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Knockmoknell, in Clanshaoe, i}^ plowland; Lissoycuny, i}^ plowland; ( gnive of 
Knocknestnoky in Clanshane, lately in the tenure of Dermott McDonogh Cartie; 
Aghyoghilly, i plowland ; Kiltebrudolly, ^ plowland ; Knocknanoss, ^ plowland in 
Knocknastnoky ; 3 gnives in Clanshane, in the tenure of Dermott McTeige Cartie and 
Fineen Reogh Carty ; Lissynetotane, }i plowland; in Knocknestnoky in Clanshane, i^ 
gnive, in the tenure of Teige McFinneen Cartie and Donogh McDennott Carty; in Gollan ; 
in Kiltallowe territory, i car. or 3 gnives, in the tenure of Connor McFinnen 0*Cruoly, 
3 gnives in the tenure of Autiff Mc Finnen;. 2 gnives in the tenure of Donogh 
McDonell ; 2 gnives in the tenure of Donogh McDonell ny Cartin and Moylan 
Mc Melaghlin ; i gnive in the tenure of Atiliff McDennott and John McTeige ; ^ gnive 
in the tenure of Dermott Oge O'Cruoly ; Dromitclughy and Liscronin, in Kiltallowe, 
i car ; in Dromfeigh, in Kiltallowe, 8 gnives, lately in the tentire of David 0*Cruoly ; in 
Glanbeallaghytoyne, in Carownjrmadrie qr., in Kiltallowe territory, i car, in the tenure 
of David O'Crowly; Conigrinagh, in Caherowgariff, in Kiltallowe, i car; Knock- 
phonene, in Kiltallowe, 8 gnives, lately in the tenure of David O'Crowly ; in western 
Croighan, 3 gnives, in the tenure of the same; in Knockyphoneny, i car; Aghikinie, in 
Carhownemadery, i car; in Lyssynyleagh, | car, lately in the tenure of Mulrony 
McConnor O'Cruoly, Cormacke Mc Connor 0*Cruoly, and Finnin McConnor O'Cruoly, 
in Clonyreigh, o'rwise Clonyreogh ; in Slught-Cormocknekilly, 9 gnives, lately in the 
tenure of Cormock McDonogh Cartie; Sinnagh, in Carrov/nemadery, i car; in 
Dromfeigh, in Kiltallowe, 4 gnives ; in Grillagh, 4 gnives ; in Shanbally-Inlieh, in 
Kiltallowe, 2 gnives, in the tenure of Dermott McCormock O'Cruoly; in Knock- 
agheduff, }i car ; in Knockduff, )i car ; Malengeerah, in Knockphonery qr., 4 gnives ; 
in West Crohane, in Kiltallowe, i gnive in the tenure of Donogh McCormocke 
O'Crowly ; in Knockadufi, in car., in the carucate of Farrenmeane, in Kiltallowe ; in 
Dromfeigh qr., 4>^ gnives, in the tenure of Teige McFinnin Kittagh; Dromeircke, 
)i car, and in Carrigenukery, in Knockphonery, 4 gnives, in the tenure of Aulifife 
O'Cruoly; Gortroe in Carrowgarriff, }^ car; in Farrenmean, in Dromfeigh qr., 2Ji 
gnives, lately in the tenure of Brian O'Cruoly, son of Mulrony O'Cruoly ; in KillyvuUin 
and Knockanereogh, f car, lately in the tenure of Will O'Murrihy ; | of the same 
lately in the tenure of Teige O'Murrihy ; Monyroyre, }^ car, lately in the tenure of 
Will McDonogh McShane O'Murrihie and Dermott McShane O'Murrihie ; Gurran- 
druigh, I car; Mealmeany. i car; Knockvrittily, o'rwise Knock vorteleh, )i car; 
Aghlenon, in Slught-Cormocknekilly, ij^ car; Kiltinsimon, }{csa; the castle, town, 
and towolands of Doonanore, in Cleere Island; 2}i car, known by the names of 
Knockanyoge, o'rwise Knockanerick, Gortincragh, Burren, Glarygort, and Myllinemony ; 
in Coshmore Quoylagh, in Slugh Teige O'Mahowne, i>^ car ; Kilvickedare, Gortegi- 
llan, and Camlane, 2 car, and i}i gnives in Cliere Island; in Croshimore, Carhowe, 
and Ardgrott, i car and 8 gnives, in the same island ; in the tenure of Dermott 
McGilleduff, Connogher McGrivan, except all chief rents, services, royalties, customs, 
and privileges, to Donell McCartie, then the King's ward. The lands marked 
thus (*) are created the manor of Banduff with looa in demesne ; power to create 
tenures ; to hold a court baron ; to hold a fair at Killtobridolly on St. Bamabas's Day 
and the day following, unless said day fall on Saturday or Sunday, in which case the 
said fair is to be held on the Monday following, with a court of prepowder and the 
usual tolls, rent 6/8 ; to hold a fair at Mydenaghin on St. James's Day and the day 
following, unless the said day fall, etc., as before, rent 6/8. The lands marked 
thus (*) are created the manor of Bealanacarrigeh, with the same demesne, and 
privileges, To hold for ever as of the Castle of Dublin, in common soccage, 
19th Dec 13th. 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 83 

FIANT CHARLES L, 856. 

Appended to the Latin text of this Fiant is—" This contayneth a warrant for the 
grant of a speciall Liverie and meane rate to bee made to Wm. Kent, brother and 
next heire of Mourice Kent Fitzjohn, late of the cittie of Cork, gent, deed, for the fine 
of £70 Ir., payable at Mich's and Easter next by equal portions. And alsoe a warrant 
for a grant to be made to Charles Hargill, esq., of the Wardship of Marie Hurley, 
Ellene Hurley, Margarett Hurley, and Katherine Hurley, daughters and co-heirs of 
Andrew Hurley, late of Kilmallock, Co. Limerick, marchant, deed., for the fine of four 
score pounds Ir., to be paid at the feast of St. Michaell, Arch, 1629, and the feast of Easter 
then next following, and att the feast of St. Michael, Arch., 1630, and att the feast of 
Easter then next following by equall portions. And is done by direction of Sir Wm. 
Parsons, Knt. and Bart., Master of the Court of Wards and Liveries. 
[Date quite obliterated.] *' Wm. Parsons. Hi. Bolton." 



FIANT CHARLES I., 1172. 

Appended to the Latin text of this Fiaat is — '*This contayneth a warrant for a 
speciall Livery and meane rates to be made to Redmond Harket, sonn and heire of 
Perce Harket, late of Rath McCarty in the Co. Tipperary, gent., deceased, in conson 
of the fine'of ;£io Ir., to be paid at Easter and Michalmas next by equall portions. And 
alsoe a pardon of alienation to be made to Ranell oge Hurley and Florence McCarty 
for certayne landes in the Co. Corke aliened by David Boy O Crowly, late of Dromly- 
cloghy in the Co. Cork afforesaid, gent., deed., for the fine of £y> Ir., to be paid at 
Easter and Michalmas next insewinge, and at Easter Anno Dno 1632, by equall 
portions. And is done by directions of Sir William Parsons, Knight and Baronet, 
Master of the Court of Wards and Liverys. 

"William Parsons. Richd. Bolton." 



FIANT CHARLES I.. 1258. 

Appended to the Latin text of this Fiant is — "This contayneth a pardon of severall 
alienations and meane rates made by loan ny Dermod and others unto William 
McRanell Hurley, conson of the fine oi £10 Ir., payable at Easter and Michas next by 
equall portions. And hkewise another pardon of alienation and meane rates made by 
Thomas Roch and Sheely, his wife, and others unto Ranell oge Hurley and Florence 
McDonell Cartie in conson of the fine of ^£22 Ir., payable one moietie thereof at 
thensealeing, and the residue thereof at Easter next, and is done by direction of Sir 
Wm. Parsons, Knt. and Bart., etc. 8th Deer., 1632." 



FIANT CHARLES I., 1376. 

" This contayneth a wanrant for a speciall livery and measne rates to be made unto 
Fynen McDermot Cartie, sonn and heire of Dermod McCnoghor Cartie, late of 
Maddame in the Countie Corke, gent., deed., for the fine of ;f 10 Ir., to be paid at 
Easter and Michaelmas. And alsoe a warrant for a pardon of alienation for certain 
lands in Co. Cork, aliened by Donnell Mc Teige Hurley, gent., deed., unto Florence 
Mc Donnell Cartie and Randell oge Hurley, for the fine of £^ Ir., to be paid at Easter 
and Michaelmas. And is done by direction of Sir Wm. Parsons, etc, 3rd Deer., 1633. 

••Rich. Bolton." 



$4 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGlCAL SOCIEli. 

FIANT CHARLES I., 1406. 

[First part torn.] '*Cum Fynin O Crowley nuper de Knockhaduff (Fanlobbus ?), 
Co. Cork, gent., defunct, sent fuit in Donco et de feodi nel de ab statu hereditar in 
Dnco vel in usu de et in dimidi un Car. terr. in Knockaduff et un aL car terr. in 
Currahvillie et quatuor gneeves terr. pte un gneeve terr. (in tres ptes in Drunfeigh 
(Kenneigh?) et isten Co. Cork. Et sit inde seit existen — sit inde seit existen 
vignit Annos elapsos ante caption Inquisition infer nris mentionat p. suile post prmisd 
pote diandor vel descendi in usu possessior vel non con Thadeo Mc Fjmnyn 
fil et heredi suo qui fuit plen etat tempore mort pris sui poti qui quiden Tbadeus 
Mc Fynnan immediat post mort pdi F. Mc Fynnyn O'Crowley pris sui pmiss intri 
et fuit inde silletor seit ut pdicit et sit inde seit enisten p. factu srud gerin dat 
decimo die Julii, 1614, alienavit p. miss, pdi quitus dam Florence McCartie et Rannell 
oge Hurley heredi et assignat suis in p. petion virtute cuius ydem Florence McCartie 
et Rannell oge Hurley puer seit de tal statu de et in oibus et singul p. miss poti et 
peti F. McCartie et R. oge Hurley sic inde seit existen postea seit decimo sexto die 
Decembr., 161 S, p. fait eoy in Roth Chancelladure dei Regni nri Hibe irrotulat sursu 
reddider in manus imp. pertrus nri Regis Jacobi ora et singul p. misi peti Prout p. 
Inquisiti inde capt. apud the King's ould Castle vicessimo die Aug., 1632 (virtute 
Commission tire sut mergno sigil plen appet et Cunnigs ? etia Cormac O'Crowley 
Dromicke in Con pde gen defunct seit fuit in Dmco suo ut de feodi vel de al statu 
hereditar in Dmco volem usu de et in dimidi un Car terr in Dromicke et tribus 2 
gneeves terr in Knocknyfonery existen in in Com pdi. Et sit inde seit existen obijt sic 
inde seit existen triquit ano elapsos ante caption Inquisitor infermos mentionat p. sive 
post cuius mortem pmiss pti descender vel descender debuer in usu possession vel 
reidton Awhffe O'Crowley fil et heredi suo qui fuit plen etat tempore mort prio sui pdi. 
Qui quidem Awliffe O'Crowley imediat post mortem pdi Cormac O'Crowley prio sui 
in p. miss intriunt et fuit inde sillatos seit ut pdicitur. Et sic inde seit existen p. factu 
sind geren dat 8 July, 161 4, a]Iienavit pmis potlpfat F. McCartie et Rannell oge Hurley 
in p. pelin (Virtute cuius ydem F. McCartie et R. oge Hurley fuer seit de tal statu de 
et in on et singul pmiss et pdr F. McCartie et R. oge Hurley sic inde seit existen 
postea scilt deo decimo sexto die Deer., 161 5, pdi p. factu eos in Rottul Cancell nre 
pdi irrotulat sursu redditur in manus imp pro nri ora et singul p. miss ultim. Prout p. 
Inquisition inde capt apud the King's ould Castle dco vicissimo Aug., 1632, virtute 
Commission nre sub magno Sigil 1 nro pleni appet Que ora et singul prmiso pdi 
tempore mort pdi Fynnyn O'Crowley et Cormac O'Crowley respective tenebant de 
imp Regni Elizabetha et de imp patre nro respective in capite p. servio et tempore 
consedr alienat pdi et car alter respective tenebante de deo patre nro p. eandi tennr 
sciatoe igitur qdi nos de gra nra special ac existen scientia et nro motu nris et pro et 
in conson sexagent et duo libr in Hanapo nro cuius Regni nro Hibe ad vin nro solvendi 
roodo et forma sequent . . pdi p. dilect et fidel sub dit nro F. McCartie et R. oge 
Hurley. Necnon de advisament et consensu dilect et fidel Consilia nostro in dco 
Regno nro Hibe Wm. Parsons, etc, authoritat et approvit ad indexdeat disponend 
(inter ab de oibus) libaton intrusion et alienaton sive licentia nra aut alicuiis progenitor 
nostro fuit. Pardonarimus renuso etrelaxo ac pp. sentes p. fat Thadeo McFynnin, 
Auliff O'Crowley, Florence McCartie, et Ranell oge Hurley . . et eos) civilibet 
respective eosj ingressus intrusion exit reddit emolument et medi propr omni et 
singul pmiso pdi a tempore mort pdi Fynin O'Crowley et Cormack O'Crowley respec- 
tive usq pdi decima sexta Deer., 161 5, et vias fir et denar suis nobis debit seu denire 
debeni ratone intrusion et ingress pdi respective. Ac etiam ulter Pardonovimus 
remisso et relaxo ac pp. sentes pfat Thadeo McFjmin, Aulifie O'Crowley, Florence 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 85 

McCartie, et Ranell oge Hurley et eosj cuillbet respective sepat alienaton pdi respect 
tive. Ac oes intratones et intrusion in pmisso in aliqua inde pcite p tentu virtute sepa- 
alienaton pdi seu cas ulter respective. Et pro nobis heredi licentia dmnus et con- 
tedimus pfat T. McCartie et R. oge Hurley p seipsos firman et tentes suos in ora et 
singul pmiss pdi licite et impune ingrediant ac ea ora et singul habiant teneant et 
gavdiant tenor intention et effect sepat alienaton pdi absqz aliqua molestaton, vexaton 
pturbaton seu gravamine nri heredi vel successor nros ratone colore vel plentu sepat 
alienaton pdi seu eat alter respective. Ac ora et singul p. miss ad ptimen p fat 
Florence McCartie et Rannell oge Hurley entra manno nras p sentes liberamus 
tenendi sedid form et effect sepat alienaton pdi seu eat alter respective. Ac manus 
nras ab ulter tenendi p miss pdi seu aliqua inde pcell ratone sepat alia pdi pp sentes 
unoneamus: Et ulterius sciatec quod nos de gra nra special ac en testu scientia et 
vera motu in nris etu conson quatuir libr in Hanapis nro pcto ad usu nro solvendi in 
Pascbe p Johan Barry de Ballynccorra, Co. Cork, gent. Necnon de advisament et 
consensu pdi Concessimus et licentia dadimus ac p psentes per nobis heredi et 
successor nros contedimus et licentia domus pfat John Barry qdi ipse duos ptis divi- 
dendi vill et terr de Ballynecorra pdi in Com. Cork, pdi continen in totu du Car terr. 
Vel tot et tant inde p all et quant eidem John Barry placuerit dare et 

comedere warrantizare et cognoscere p fir sive fir et p coem recupation seu p cois 
recupatoes in cur nra Coram Justicia nris de coi Banca nro et alienare, vendere et 
warrantizare p feoffament sive feoffament concession sive concession vel easj aliquid 
vel aliquod aut aliter seu ac quounqz modo et forma sine modis et formis quibus 
cunqueu valeat et possit Richd. FitzEdmond Gerald de Ballymarter in Com pdi et 
heredi suos. Ac et in pro nobis heredi et successor nris licentia ' et plen apper 
postestent damus et concedimus pfat Rich. FitzEdmond Gerald pdi ipse vur et singul 
pmess in ptinend de pfat John Barry recipera et ora et singul p misso in ptinend 
intrare valeat et possit habendi et tenendi eadi pmiss p fat Rich. Fitz Edmond 
Gerald de nobis heredi et successor nris p fermir inde debit et de consuet in p petin 
proviso semp qdi si be tre nre Patent nos irrotulat seu intrat forent in officio Auditor 
nri ciu: nre Ward et Libacon pdi infra spatin triu? mens post dat p sentin qudi 
time vacue erunt et nul vigor et effect in lege. Eo acte expresso marco etc. In 
cuius rei testimon." [Date obliterated.] 

[The end torn away.] **Wm. Parsons. Richd. Loftus." 

FIANT CHARLES I., 1438. 

Appended to the Latin text of this Fiant is the following: — "This containeth a 
warrant for a pardon of alienation for certain lands in Co. Corke aliened by Donnell 
McCnoghor Cartie als Mantagh unto Charles McDermod Cartie for the fine of £'y> 
Irish,. to be paid before the ensealinge. And alsoe a warrant for a pardon of alienation 
for certain lands in the sa'd Co., aliened by Dermod McCormucke O'Crowley, als. 
Mrocke unto Rannell Oge Hurley and Florence McCartie, for the fine of £^0 Ir. to 
be paid at Michas. and at Easter next by equall portions, and is done by direction of 
the Honble Sir Wm. Parsons, etc., 29th May, 1633. 

"Richard Bolton. Wm. Parsons." 

FIANT CHARLES I., 2263. 

"This contayneth a Warrant for a Pardon of alienation for certaine lands in 
Co. Cork, aliened by Daniell McCartie, als, McCartie Reagh, late of Kilbrittine, Co. 
Cork, Esq., deed., unto Donogh O'Callaghane and others, for the fine oi £So os. od. 

"Wm. Parsons. Richd. Loftus." 



86 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

FIANT CHARLES I., 2356. 

Appended to the Latin text, which bears date, 30th June, 1637, is—" This con- 

taineth a warrant for a pardon of alienation for certain lands in Co. Limerick aliened 

by Murtogh McConnor G'Bryen, gent., unto Maurice Hurley, Esq., for the fine of £$ 

English, to be paid in Easter and Michaelmas terms. And is done by direction of Sir 

Wm. Parsons, Kt. and Bt. 

"Wm. Parsons. Rich. Loftus." 

FIANT CHARLES I., 2601 
*• This Fyant contayneth a grant from his Majesty to Thomas Hurley, his heirs, 
and asssigns, of the Castle, Manor, town, and lands of Knocklongie, and divers of the 

lands in the Co. Limerick, to be houlden of the Chiefe Lord of by the rents and 

provisoes thereout due and accustomed, payinge therefore yearly unto the Crowne the 
annuall rent, £$ 3s. i>^d. English, whereof £z 5s- 6d. is added by way of increase of 
new rent incurred and due from Mich'as, 1634, unto Mich'as, 1637. Twelve and 
ninepence is to be paid as a fine before the ensealing of the above grant. And in the 
above grant there is an exception of all advowsons. His Majesty's composition Royal 
generall hostings, if any there be, and therein are contayned all such claims as are 
prescribed in and by our order of composition and agreement io that behalfe, made 
betweene your Loppe and others of His Majesty's Comrs., which order bears date 
' 1st Deer., 1637. And is done according to the tenor of your Loppes (Lordships') 
Warrant of 31st January, 1637. 

" Date of Fiant, 21st Feby., 1637." 

FIANT, CHARLES I., 2640. 
Appended to the Latin text, dated 8th March, 1637, is— "This contayneth a 
warrant for a speciall livery and measne rates to be made unto Thomas Hurly, 
Sonne and heire of Maurice Hurly, late of Knocklonge, in Co. Limerick, Esq., deed , 
for the fyne of £^2 os. od., Eng. And also a warrant for a pardon of alienation and 
measne rates for certaine lands in the Co. Limerick and Tipperary, aliened by the said 
Maurice Hurly, unto Richd. Stronge and others,* for the fyne of £go os. od., English. 

"Wm. Parsons. Rich. Loftus.*' 

* These were R. Shee, David Barry, R^inald Hurly, and Daniel Rian, Costiaghe 
McF^an. 

FIANT CHARLES I., 2909. 
Appended to the Latin text of this Fiant, which bears date, 13th Dec, 1638, is — 
*^ A Warrant for the pardon of alienation and meane rates for certaine lands in Co. 
Tip., aliened by Richard O'Quircke, als. O'Quaircke, and Dannell O'Kearney, gent, 
unto John Hurley, gent., for the fine of £7 los. English, to be paid in Easter and 
Michaelmas terms next by equal portions. And is done by direction of Sir Wm. 
Parsons, Knight and Baronet, etc, *' Ri Loftus Wm. Parsons." 



WILL OF RANDAL HURLY, 1628. 
At Kilmallock, ist Feb., 1628. I, Randall Hurly, of Kilmallock, Burgess, do make 
this my last Will. I appoint my son and heir, Thomas Hurly, sole exor. I bequeath 
to my wife, Eliza Rosh, the stone house and garden, besides the lands of Baligidyn- 
Edy. I bequeath to my son, Morris Hurly, the stone house which I have in the High 
Street of Kilmallock, where my father did dwell. I bequeath to my third son, Symon 



SOME ACCOUNT OF THE FAMILY OF o'hURLY. 87 

Hurly, a tenement I have in the Church land. I bequeath £40 to be bestowed for my 
soul as my brother, Morris, shall think fit. I leave to my brother, William, £1. 
I bequeath to my sister, Ann Hurley, £\o. I appoint my brother, Andrew Hurly, and 
my cousin, Jasper Kerny, overseers of this my Will 

(Signed) Randal Hurly. 

Witnesses, Edward Fitzharris, Wm. Gannan, Teige O'Connor. 
Proved 13th Novr., 1628. 

WILL OF WILLIAM McRANDELL HURLEY, 1641, DIOCESE OF 

CLOYNE. 

In nomine Dei Amen. I, Willia McRandell Hurley of Ballinwarde, Doe bequiett 
my soule To the Allmightie God and my Boddie to be buried in the pish Church of 
Killmyne, or where my sou Willia thinketh fitt, I bequiett and leave unto my son and 
heier Willia oge Hurley, To his heiers for evr all my Estate in all my lands which I 
nowe possesse, or which I ought To possesse, saveinge and reservinge unto my 
second son David McWillia and the heiers Males of his Boddie Lawefullie Begotten, 
or to begotten, the five Gnyves of Cassilloskie, the two Gnyves of Lettir, and foure 
Gnyves of Cahirconvoy, payeinge all Rents or reservations that is expressed in a ffeoff- 
ment by my formerlie past unto the saide David, and for want of such Issue Males 
Lawefullie Begotten, or to begott [ ] by the said David ye remainder of this I leave 
him to revert unto my son and heier Willia oge Hurley. And alsoe I doe Bequiett and 
leave unto my daughter Ellinore ny Willia the sume of one hundred poundes ster. when 
shee is to be maried, uppon my son Willia oge Hurley towards her preferment, I Do 
alsoe Bequiett and leave unto my five other yonge Daughters in Squall Division, equallie 
to be divided Amonghst them the sume of 'one hundred poundes ster : uppon my son 
and heier Willia oge Hurley and the saide hundred poundes to be paide in the next 
Insueinge five yeares after my death, viz. twentie poundes in each yeare of the said 
five yeares, and allsoe I Doe bequiett and leave my Legacie unto my five daughters 
formerlie mentioned, Two partes of all my Cowes and horses saveinge the parte I 
Bequietted allreaddie, and Equallie to be divided Amongst them in Squall Division 
and the other third parte of the saide Cattle I Doe bequiett And leave unto my nowe 
maried wife, and allsoe I Doe bequiett, and leave my Legacie unto my son Morish 
Hurley all the moneyes Due unto me by specialities or be what meanes they shall 
appear due unto me uppon Creditors Directlie or undirectlie the one moytie or halfe 
of all my Come nowe groweinge uppon Ballinwarde and the other moytie or halfe I 
Doe leave it unto my maried wife, I Doe bequiett and leave unto my said son Morish, 
and unto my saide maried wife, three Cropes of the newe sanded Land, nowe uppon 
Ballinwarde, and Two Cropes of the Wheate stumble land uppon Ballinwarde affore- 
saide, formerlie bequitted unto my son and heier and allsoe I bequiett and leave unto 
my son and heier Willia oge Hurley four silvr Cupes of the olde makinge That I had 
in the tyme of his mother my first maried wife which Cupes I have in this tyme, and 
nowe I leave unto my wife the other two Cupes 1 had in her one time dureinge her 
life, Condicionalie to dispose of them to one of my sons after her death, and further- 
more As I shall A[ ]swere before God That the Estate that I made unto my son Willia 
is the true fifeoffment, and allsoe the fieoffment That my son James [ ]th or my wife 
with a reservation that all things may be to my last [ ]ill and Testament. It was 
onelie Invented and Antidated— Antidated for To destroy the Estate of my son and 
heier Willia oge Hurley and allsoe I Doe Testifie that will or flfeoff'ment That my son 
James hath Touchinge anie division of lands is but meere fraude and Deceite and donne 
by the persuadeinge of his mother and others, Allsoe I doe revoke all former wills or 



88 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Testaments, and I nowe beinge of pfect witt and memorie, though not stronge in 
boddie, doe frcelie, Clearlie, and absolutelie leave and bequiett all my lands which I 
hold in fee semple unto my son Willia oge Hurley, and his heieres saveinge and 
reservinge for my son David as is above mencioned, I doe bequiett and leave my son 
and heier Willia oge Hurley my sole executor of this my last will and Testament, and 
Willia McRandell hurley als duflfe ovrseer ovr my yonge Children, To ovrsee theire 
partes of this my Will and Testament. As wittnesseth my hand the Aleventh of 
August. 1641. WILLME HURLEY. 

Being prsent whose names Insue — Dermitius collom; Sharles Carthy; Cahir 
Carthie ; Morish Hurly ; Donat Charte. 

Jurat' coram mgro Ludovico Vigours p noiato executor 12** 8 bris 164 1. 



A Side-Light on Irish Clerical Life in the 
Seventeenth Century. 

Being some Passages from the Autobiography of the Rev. Devereux 

Spratt, B.A., Oxon, who was Rector of Brigown, Mitchelstown, 

Diocese of Cloyne, from 1661 to 1663; and died at 

Mitchelstown, 1688. 

With Notes and Comments by Rev. Canon Courtenay Moore, 
M.A., R.D., Council Member. 




£J^- 



N the Parish Church at Mitchelstown there is a Brass with 
the following inscription: — **To the Glory of God, and in 
Memory of Rev. DeVereux Spratt, bom May ist, 1620, in 
^ fc Somersetshire; graduated at Oxford; ordained 1640, in 
^^ im ^^^ Diocese of Ardfert and County of Kerry, Ireland. 
^Jl^ Imprisoned and besieged there in 1641. Escaped under 
"^^ escort to Cork. Captured off the coast by an Algerine 
Corsair, and sold as a slave in Algiers. Ransomed by Leghorn merchants. 
Returned to England, 1647. Rector of this parish of Brigown, or Mitchels- 
town, from 1661 to 1663. Died 1688." **In journeyings often, in perils 
of waters, in perils of robbers, in perils by mine own countrymen, in perils 
by the heathen." — 2nd Cor. xi. 26. Erected by Vioe-Admiral Spratt, 1886. 
Taking this Memorial Brass as a sketch, or outline of the varied and 
eventful carreer of the Rev. Devereux Spratt, I will endeavour to fill it in 
as far as possible from the Autobiography in the Author's own words : — 
**May the first, a.d. 1620, I was born in a parish called Stratton-upon- 
the-Vosse, in the County of Somerset, wherte I was religiously educated 
by my parents, Mr. Thomas Spratt and Elizabeth, his wife, my father 
being a revei^end, godly divine, whom God made instrumental in the 
conversion of many a soul. 

**When I was fourteen years old my father died. Afterwards I was 
sent to M&udling Hall, in the University of Oxford, where I took my 
degree; after which I removed for Ireland, my mother Elizabeth being 



IRISH CLERICAL LIFE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 89 

called thither by her father, Mr. Robert Cooke, a reverend divine, pastor 
of the parish called the Island of Kerry, in the County of Kerry, where I 
remained not long, but was called to the head town of the county, named 
Tralee, where I was tutor to Sir Edward Denny *s three sons. 

** After, by persuasion of friends, I entered into the function of the 
ministry. I chose for my first text Proverbs xiv., the latter part of the 
30th verse." (There is evidently an error here, as the words of this text 
are, **Envy the rottenness of the bones"; and the correct heading, no 
doubt is Proverbs xi., verse 30, **He that winneth souls is wise'*). He 
describes his sermon as divided into three hfeads, an orthodox method of 
treatment which long after his time continued prevalent. 

**Oct. 23, 1640. — The horrid rebellion of Ireland broke forth. In Feb., 
1641, it reached us, the whole country being up in rebellion, and two 
companies besieging us in two small castles, where I saw the miserable 
destruction of 120 men, women, and children by sword, famine, and many 
diseases, amongst whom fiell my mother Elizabeth and my ypungest 
brother Joseph, both which lie interred there. This was a sad affliction ; 
yet I was comforted by the good end Josfeph made, being but eight 
years old, yet begged of me to pray for him, and gave good assurance 
of dying in the Lord. 

** After two months' siege both castles were surrendered upon articles 
into the hands of the Irish rebels. Then the Lord removed me to Bally- 
begg Garrison, where I prfeached to the poor stripped Protestants there; 
and passing thence to Ballingarry, an island of the Shannon, I fell sick 
of a fever, out of which the Lord delivered me. 

**Then, having an oppo>rtunity, I returned tb Biallybegg, Captain 
Ferreter being my convoy, where I remained in the discharge of my 
calling until the English army came to carry us off, at which time the 
enemy burned both the Castle and town of Tralete, and twice set upon 
us in our march to Cork, but with the power of God we will still beat 
them. 

**Then at Cork I petitioned the Lord Inchiquin, who gave me a pass 
for England." This nobleman, I take it, was the notorious Murrough 
O'Brien described in the Aphorismical Discovery as **this poor wavering 
panther Inchiquin, with so many jumps and leapings from King to Parlia- 
ment, from Parliament to King." — (See Murphy's Cromwell in Ireland^ 
Appendix II., page 368). 

Spratt continues — **And coming to Youghal in a boat, I embarked 
in one John Filmer's vessel, which set sail with about six score passengers ; 
but before wte were out of sight of land we were all taken by an Algerine 
pirate, who put the men in chains and stocks. This thing was so grievous 
that I began to question Providence, and accused Him of injustice in His 
dealings with mte, until the Lord made it appear otherwise by ensuing 
mercy." 

I here break for a moment the course of Spratt 's narrative to notice 
that so early as the end of the twelfth century such piratical seizures by 
the Algerines were so severely ffelt, that a systematic effort was made to 
ransom Christians carried into captivity by them. Therfe is an historical 
work on this subject, entitled Annales Ordinis SS. Trinitatis pro Redemp- 
Hone Captivorum, by a Father Bonaventure Baron. In this work it is 
mentioned, that in 1198 Felix de Valois and John de Matha waited on 



go CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^COLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Innocent III., and submitted to him a project for ransoming captives from 
the Saracens, who at that period made frequent descents on the shones 
of the Mediterranean, and carri»ed off multitudes of prisoners to Tunis 
and Algiers. The Pope sanctioned the formation of an ordter for the 
redemption of thiese captives, which, forty years after its institution, 
numbered six hundred Convents in France, Italy, Spain, and other coun- 
tries. It is interesting for us to know that Ireland took part in this truly 
philanthropic and Christian work, for in the yesLV 1230, in the pontificate 
of Gregory IX., this order of Trinitarians was introduced into Ireland 
by certain Scotch fathers, chief of whom was John Comyns of Dunbar; 
and later on in the century, I believte in 1279, the Trinitarian Convent 
of Adare, which is popularly known as the Black Abbey, was built by the 
Earls of Kildare, who endowed it with ample rtevenues. The monks of 
this Convent devoted themselves to the object of their institute, viz., the 
redemption of captives ; and Baron, in his book of Annals, already referred 
to, quotes from the Book of Adare the statement that the Irish Trinitarians 
had ransomed 6,300 captives, and that 40 of thie fraternity had, in their 
efforts to that end, themselves suffered martyrdom. Of this number, the 
Trinitarian Convent of Adare had furnished a large proportion. 

Arthur O'Neill, twice Provincial of his Order in Ireland, after founding 
some Convents in Scotland, went with two companions to Egypt, where 
they diied martyrs in 1282. Gerald Hubert suffered the same happy death 
in Palestine in 1291. The Book of Adare also commemorates Gregory, 
Cormac, John, Redmond, Thaddeus O'Higgins, and 2'^ other martyrs, 
all of the Convent of Adarife, who laid down their lives in distant lands 
for the redemption of their fellow-men. — (Meehan's Rise and Fall of the 
Franciscan Monasteries, 4th edit., p 287). 

It may be noted here in passing, that the thirteenth century was much 
more fruitful in great men, great measures, and great monuments than 
many people suppose. It was the age of S. Thomas Aquinas, Innocent 
III., S. Louis, Albert the Grieat, Roger Bacon, Giotto, and Dante. It 
witnessed the birth of the Universities of Oxford and Paris, of the 
Cathedrals of Cologne and Amiens, of the Summa Theologice, the Divine 
Comedy, and the Imitation of Christ, It was the age in which the English 
Barons wrung the Magna Charta from King John; in which gunpowder 
was discovered, thie telescope invented, and in which also the principles 
of political representation and Parliamentary debate sprang into fresh 
life ; in which, lastly, the great nationalities of modem times were settling 
themselves definitely into their places. But not to digress further. The 
severe scourge of this Algerine piracy continued for many centuries, as 
we find Spratt and his companions in misery captured off the coast of Cork 
in 1641 by these pests of humanity. Davis's poem, **The Sack of Balti- 
more," refers to the same subject. To return to the Autobiography: 

'*Upon my arrival in Algiers I found pious Christians, which changed 
my former thoughts of God, which was that He dealt more hard with 
me than with other of His servants. God was pleased to guide for me, 
and those relations of mine taken with me, in a providential ordering of 
civil patrons for us, who gave me more liberty than ordinary, especially 
to me, who piieached the Gospel to my poor countrymen, amongst whom 
it pleased God to make me an instrument of much good. 

**I had not stayed long there but I was like to be freed by one Captain 



IRISH CLERICAL LIFE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. QI 

Wilde, a pious Christian; but on a sudden I was sold and deliveiled to 
a Mussulman, dwelling with his family in the town, upon which change 
and sudden disappointment I was very sad. My patron asked me the 
Heason, and withal uttered these comfortable words, *God is great!' 
which took such impression as strengthened my faith in God, considering 
thus with myself. Shall this Turkish Mahometan teach me, who am a 
Christian, my duty of faith and dependence upon God." 

**An. Dom. 1645. — ' rjemember there was a canvas boat made in our 
meeting house in Algiers, which was carried forth and hid in a brake of 
canes by the sea side, which carried five of my consorts over the Medi- 
terranean Sea to the Majorka Island in six days. The reason of my 
mentioning this is because of three signal providences which appeared 
relating to them. The first when they had been three days at sea, and 
all in a despairing and starving condition, it pleased God that a tortoise 
sprang up by their boat whom they took and eat his flesh and drank his 
blood, which very much encouraged them to go forward. The second 
was thteir lying down all to sleep the fifth day upon the discovery of the 
high land Tramontire without any sentinels, and that they should all awake 
before their leaky boat sank. The third relating to myself, which often- 
times I have seriously with great admiration admired — ^viz., that I had 
not been seized upon and made to pay the ransom for them that ran 
away, seeing I was much suspected to have a hand in contriving the boat. 
But providtence so ordered that I was never questioned ; although a Moor 
who dwelt over against our meeting house seeing me one day upon the 
mole viewing their ships, frowi^ed and grinded his teeth at me, which 
made me ever after keep close until I got away. During my abode therle 
they took five sail of English vessels; and their Armadores kept an 
account of 1,700 sail of Christian ships they had taken. The Lord stir 
up the heart of Christian princes to root out that nest of pirates.'* (This 
was not accomplished until the bombardnvent of Algiers by Lord Exmouth 
in 1 81 6, when the total abolition of Christian slavery was secured). 

** After this a bond of ;^i,ooo preserved in my pocket at sea, when 
all else was lost, was now like to be lost, the chest wherein it lay being 
broken up by thieves. 

** After this God stirred up the heart of Captain Wilde to be an active 
instrument for me at Leghorn, in Italy, amongst the merchants there 
to contribute liberally towards my ransom, especially a Mr. John Collier. 
After the Captain returned to Algiers he paid my ransom, which amounted 
to 200 cobes. Upon this a petition was presented by the English captives 
for my staying amongst them, which he showed me, and asked me what 
I would do in that case. I told him he was an instrument under God of 
my liberty, and I would be at his disposing. He answered no, I was a 
free man, and should be at my own disposing. Then I replied, I will stay, 
considering that I might be more serviceable to my country by my con- 
tinuing in enduring afflictions with the people of God than to enjoy liberty 
at home. Two years afterwards a proclamation issued that all free men 
must be gone. I then got my free card, which cost 50 cobes, and departed 
with several of my countrymen to Provence, where I found the English 
merchants very civil to me." 

**At T I embarked in a vessel bound to London. We touched at 

Malaga, where I went ashore to refresh myself. From tbfuice we put to 



92 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

sea again, and coming upon the coast of Cornwall the Vice- Admiral Baltin 
invited me on board his ship, and kept me a time as chaplain to his 
squadron. And going to the Downs I parted from him and went to 
London, thence to a kinsi^an, one Mr. Thomas Spratt, minister of Green- 
wich, who carried me with him into Devonshire, where I was preferred to 
be a preacher in a parish called Membry, where I continued one year, 
thence I was placed in a parish called Withycombe, where I preached 
divers years, and the Lord wrought by my ministry for the conversion of 
some and the building up of others. 

*' After, I had a design for Ireland about private occasions and to visit 
old relations, when the Lord opened a door of settlement for me in a place 
in the County of Cork called Mitchelstown (spelled in the Autobiography 
Michaells Towne), where I continued for a certain time preaching the 
Gospel. From thence I was removed to a parish four miles off in the 
County of Limerick called Galbally; where I found some good people, 
and continued three years amongst them. 

Here again for a moment a break may be made in the quotations from 
the Autobiography, as we have now reached the close of Spratt's captivity ; 
and find him once again in Ireland. 

The Mr. Thomas Spratt, his kinsman, ministler of Greenwich, just 
referred to, was the father of Dr. Thomas Spratt, Bishop of Rochester, 
an historian and poet, who was born in 1636 and died in 1713. He wrote 
the History of the Royal Society, the History of the Rye House Plot, a 
Life of Cowley, and a few poems. This prelate is frequently referred to 
in Lord Macaulay's History of England. He assisted at the Coronation 
of William and Mary : an infamous attempt to ruin him was made by 
hiding a treasonable document in a flower-pot in his palace at Bromley. 
This was done by a ruffian named Blackhead, acting in partnership with 
an accomplice named Young. The plot, however, was discovered : and 
Lord Macaulay observes, that although all the Bishop's papers were 
strictly examined **much good prose was found, and probably some bad 
verse, but no treason." Blackhead confessed his share in the crime, but 
Young attempted to brazen it out, saying to the Bishop before the Privy 
Council — * *There is such a thing as impeachment, my lord. When Parlia- 
ment sits you shall hear more of me." **God give you repentance," 
answered the Bishop ; ** for depend upon it, you are in much more danger 
of being damned than I of being impeached." Lord Macaulay says his 
** account of this plot is chiefly taken from Spratt's relation of the wicked 
contrivance of Stephen Blackhead and Robert Young, 1692. There are 
very few better narratives in the language." 

We have some little difficulty in fixing the ^exact date of Devereux 
Spratt's settlement in Mitchelstown. There is an old deed in the possession 
of the Spratt family, dated June i8th, 1658, in which it is stated that he 
thien acquired in fee farm grant for ever a certain portion consisting of 
55 Irish acres of the Bally begg Estate from his friend Sir William Fen ton. 
Therefore he probably resided in Mitchelstown in that year, though not 
regularly appointed rector of the parish until 1661. 

Returning again to the Autobiography, wie find him saying : — 

**Upon the restoration of King Charles H. I was earnestly invited by 
my honoured friend. Sir Wm. Fenton, to return to Mitchelstown, which 
I did, and continued there preaching the Gospel the space of three years, 



IRISH CLERICAL LIFE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 93 

until a subscription was pressed upon me by M. L. B. C. , which I refused. 
Then, May 26th, 1663, there was sequestration issued out upon my 
livings, and June 3rd after I had a summons, thrieatening excommunica- 
tion. So I resigned and sat still a certain time, waiting upon God, not 
knowing for the present what to do.** 

The Sir William Fenton referred to in this paragraph was the son of 
a Sir Geoffrey Fenton who came to Ireland in 1579. Sir William married 
Margaret, the daughter and hieiress of Maurice FitzGibbon, who inherited 
the estates of the White Knight; their daughter and heiress married Sir 
John King, who was cheated Baron Kingston by Charles II. in 1660. 

What Dfevereux Spratt refers to by ** subscription was pressed upon 
me by M. L. B. C.** for a time puzzled me very much, but I believe 
the solution is this : these four letters mean Michael, Lord Bishop of Cork. 
In this year, 1660, Dr. Michael Boyle, son of the Archbishop of Tuam, 
was appointed Bishop of Cork, Cloynle, and Ross. This prelate was 
afterwards translated and re-translated to Dublin and Armagh, and with 
the Primacy held the office of Lord High Chancellor. While in Dublin 
he beautified the Palace of St. Sepulchre's. This ancient residence of the 
Archbishops of Dublin stands near St. Patrick's Cathedral, and is now 
used as a police barrack. Weighed down with infirmities. Primate Boyle 
died in Dublin in the y^r 1702, and was buried at midnight under the 
altar in St. Patrick's. The initials M. L. P. I., later in the Autobiography, 
doubtless refer to him as Michael, Lord Primate of Ireland. 

Of his domestic life, when settled at Mitchelstown, Devereux Spratt, 
gives the following account: — *'I met there one Ensign White, who sold 
me Torbey and part of Ballybeg at 6s. 8d. per acre, which I still enjoy 
and keep by God's guidance." This property is still in possession of the 
Spratt family. Allowing for the different value of money in Charles II. *s 
reign, 6s. 8d. per acre seems a Very moderate price for the fee-simple of 
a property. He says : — ** After I had built upon the premises, I had 
thoughts of marriage, and so to change my condition; and it pteased 
God at that time to present me with an object suitable, and a helper meet 
for me, viz., Mary Palgravte Cubett, to whom I was married, with her 
father, James Cubett's, consent, and at his house at Tepper, nigh the 
Tlass, April 6th, An. I>om. 1660, by a reverend and godly divine, orie 
Mr. Daniel Curray, who some years after, coming into the County Cork 
to visit his Christian friends, he fell among the bogs, and getting cold, 
came at last to my house at Torbey, where an old distemper falling upon 
him, he lay sick about half a year, and so he died, and he is interred in 
the chancel at Mitchelstown in my burying-place. 

**Sep. 13th, 1673. — The Lord sent a dreadful judgment of continued 
rain for many months together, whereby the harvest was like to be all 
lost; the judgment continued and a famine foUowVed it.'* There are many 
indications of the deep personal piety of the Author to be found in the 
Autobic^raphy, who frequtently set apart special days for the examination 
of his conscience. 

Under Oct. 17th, An. Dom. 1685, he notes that '^Thousands of poor 
French Protestants fled into England and Ireland, where they had great 
sums of money raised for them. I collected in the Union of Tippierary 
of persons, with myself, who gave no less than ;^7. I set apart a day 



94 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

of humiliation to seek tUe Lord for them, for spiritual support under 
suffering." 

The year 1660 has already been referred to as that in which Deverfcux 
Spratt was appointed Rector of Mitchelstown, and as it was in the same 
year that Sir John King was raised to the peerage as Baron Kingston, 
by Charles II., a very interesting and honourable incident in the life of 
this nobleman may^ here be fittingly noticed : — Bishop Heber MacMahon, 
who commanded an Irish army defeated at the battle of Scariff-hollis, was 
captured soon after near Enniskillen by a party of horse despatched for 
that purpose by Major-General Sir John King, the Go>^rnor of the town. 
The Bishop was committed to prison to await the sentence of General 
Coote, and while in prison was treated with much humanity by Sir John 
King, who visited him, and resolved if possible to save his life ; with this 
end in view, he wrote to General Coote, asking him to spai^ the prisoner ; 
his intercession, however, was fruitless, the ileply being that the Bishop 
should be hanged forthwith. The despatch which brought this letter 
enclosed the death-warrant, and on perusing it Sir John King thought 
he detected some legal informality, which justified him in postponing the 
execution till he had made a last appl^al for the prisoner's life. But this 
renewed effort was as unsuccessful as his former one, and he recteived 
an angry reply rebuking him for remissness, and charging him to lose no 
nK>re time in consigning the Bishop to the gallows. Sir John was reluct- 
antly obliged to convey this sad dews to the prisoner, whom he provided 
with a priest, and he absented himself from the execution. After it was 
over be allowed some sympathising friends to remove the remains for 
burial to Devenish Island, where they rest under the shadow of Saint 
Laserian's Oratory. 

Before concluding th(e notice of Devereux Spratt 's Clerical appoint- 
ments, the following may be noticed : — 

**Jan. 24th, 1668. — I was removed to an English plantation newly 
settled in the town of Tipperary, who unanimously gavte their consent for 
my living as Pastor and teacher amongst them, and so I got titles for 
that place, where I still remain." 

Dr. Brady, in his Diocesan Records of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, gives 
the following list of Spratt *s appointments : — 

From 1641 to 1664, Chancellor of Ardfert; from 1661 to 1663, Pre- 
bendary of Brigown; from 1676 to 1685, Prebendary of Lattin, Diocese of 
Emly; in 1668, Rector of Tipperary; h)e was also Rector of Kilgobbin 
and Vicar of Stradbally, Diocese of Ardfert and Aghadoe." 

Some of Devereux Spratt *s experiences connected with the tenure of 
land are amusing and worthy of notice. As we have already seten, he 
bought land in the neighbourhood of Mitchelstown for 6s. 8d. per acre. 
I quote from the Autobiography again : — 

**July 15th, 1 67 1. — Oile, Patrick Condon, who rented my retrenchments 
from the Lord Kingston of Ballybeg, began his pranks disturbing my 
tenants and pounding their cattle; and March 12th, he gave new alarms 
of war with many threats. Aug. 28th, two actions were commenced; I 
got a reference to the Lord President and to the Chief Justice. At the 
hearing I saw much of God in a seasonable guidance. The report wfent on my 
side. Not long after, Condon still persisting in his malice, being over- 
come with drink at a certain feast, stole away privately from the rest of 



IRISH CLERICAL LIFE IN THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 95 

the company, his horse threw him in a dry ditch and broke his neck, so 
he died.'' 

'*30th Aug., 1681. — ^There was a dangerous combination against mte 
by T. P. and J. S., to put a cheat upon me about a parcel of glebe and 
tithe, which accordingly they did to my considerable loss.** In the year 
1687 we find him at Clonmel Assizes about ejectments, so that until the 
date of his d<eath he was worried with legal proceedings. 

A few words by way of summary are now offered. The MS. of this 
Autobiography is still in possession of the Spratt family. It consists of 
about one hundred closfcly written pages, dealing in a regular and syste- 
matic way with theology and religion ; and also of thirty pages of closely- 
written personal narrative. This second part of the Diary was published 
as a pamphlet by thte late Vice-Admiral Spratt, R.N., C.B., F.R.S. (a 
direct descendant of Rev. Devereux Spratt), in the year 1886. This 
distinguished officer was an honorary member of the Archaeological Insti- 
tutes of Berlin and Rome, and published' in the year 1865 a work, in two 
volumes, entitled Travels and Researches in Crete. 

The spelling of the extracts made from the Autobic^raphy in this 
paper has been modernized, but the style has been closely followed. It 
is very clear and pointed, and is a proof, in addition to the classical quota- 
tions which are to be found in it, that Devereux Spratt had profited by his 
studies at Oxford Univtersity. His Latin and Greek are professional, so 
to speak, being taken from the Septuagint version of the Psalms and 
from the writings of St. Augustine. From this Father he quotes a cele- 
brated passage well known to most theologians, and uses it in a shortened 
form as if he fjelt quite at home with it. The passage in full is **Accedit 
verbum ad elementum et fit sacramentum. * * He shortens it into **Adsit 
vierbum et fit sacramentum.** There is a marked absence of any obsolete 
words in the Autobi<^raphy, which is noteworthy, as the spelling is often 
very old-fashioned. 

One of the ftew words of this kind is **flam.'* **He puts me off with 
a flam** (an old word for falsehood or deception). Still it is to be found 
in the song in Kingsley*s Alton Locke : — 

"And their pockets full they crams 
By their patriotic flams.** 

As rtegards Devereux Spratt *s eventful career, undoubtedly the most 
notable and praiseworthy incident in it was his remaining in voluntary 
captivity to support and sustain his fellow-countrymen in their affliction 
after his own ransom had been paid, and continuing with them until 
obliged by the Algerines to return to England. There is a memorial 
tablet to him in the English Church at Algiers, as there ought to be; 
and there is at Mitchelstown the Brass already, described. To a 
parochial record of this kind one should naturally attach a great value, 
not merely on antiquarian grounds, but because it commemorates an act 
of Christ-like self-denial, that well deserves to be held in grateful and 
lasting remembrance. There is also, I think, a very touching fidelity on 
Spratt *s part to the Church of his ordination. He was an Englishman by 
birth, an Oxford man by education, and his early Clerical career, begun 
in Kerry, had witnessed the terrible scenes of 1641, amid which his 
mother and brother had died, and from which he himself narrowly escaped 



96 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH/EOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

with his life; yet not long after his release from captivity — after a brief 
interval of Clerical work in the Diocese of Exeter — ^we find him again in 
Ireland, where he remained until his death in 1688 — ^an evidence of his 
fidelity to the Church of his ordination, and also an indication of that 
attractive and fascinating power which Ireland has so often exercised 
over settlers within her borders. 

Copy of inscription on a Memorial in the Church of Holy Trinity, 
Algiers : — **To perpetuate the memory of the Reverend Devereux Spratt, 
who with a hundred and twenty of his countryman was captured by an 
Algerine Pirate within sight of the shores of Ireland in 1641, and sold 
into slavery at Algiers. When his freedom was subsequently purchased, 
he refused to avail himself of it, choosing rather to suffer affliction with 
the People of God than to enjoy liberty at home." 




The Council Book of Bandon Bridge, 1 765- 1 840. 

By ROBERT DAY, F.S.A. 



HIS volume, although written by many hands, is, in 
greater part, a clear and bold manuscript of 596 pp., 
measuring 15 inches high and 9)^ inches wide. 

Fresh from the binder's hands it is a noble volume in 
whole vellum, with uncut leaves, and illuminated title 
page, designed by one of the foundation members of this 
society, Mr. Vinycomb of Hollywood, County Down. 
The book commences with a list of oaths of office 
which were taken by the Provost, Burgess, Common-Councilman, Town 
Clerk or Steward, Freeman, Constable, Attorney and Clerk of the Market 
Jury. It contains a few memoranda of apprenticeships commencing in 
1760, which throw some light upon the staple trades and industries of the 
town, where the manufacture of woollen cloths and linen fabrics in their 
many varieties prospered, and afforded employment to the families who 
had settled in its immediate neighbourhood under the protection of its 
walls and bastions. It is much to be regretted that the earlier minutes of 
this Corporation cannot be consulted, as all trace of the old Council Book 
has disappeared, although it must have been known to Bennett, who in 
his history has only alluded to it in the most brief and passing way. Its 
records would probably have commenced in or about anno 1610, when 
King James I. granted certain privileges and patents to the town, such as 
tolls, markets, fairs, and customs, etc. , etc. 

From the general character of the Council Book of 1765-1840, the 
minutes would not be of sufficient interest to publish in extenso, but a 
series of extracts can be culled with advantage from their pages, which 
would be valued by the descendants of the families who were the pioneers 
and settlers in what Spenser, called **The pleasant Bandon crowned 
with many a wood." 



COUNCIL BOOK OF BANDON BRIDGE, 1765-184O. 97 

Extracts from the Council Book of Bandon, 1765-1840. 

The list of Indentures commences on February 3, 1760. 
3rd Feb., 1763. William, son of John Richardson, to Gregory Cole and Alice Cole, 

his wife, for seven years to instruct him in Linen Weaving. 
24th July, 1761. Benjamin, son of John Hosford, to Jonathan Wheeler of Bandon, to 

learn the art of combing and cambled Weaving. 
2nd Feb., 1766. William, son of John Parrott of Bandon, to Wm. and Catherine Roe, 

to learn Shoemaking. 
1st March, 1766. Edward Duke, son of Edward Duke Minhear, of Bandon, Victualler, 

to Edward Duke Minhear his father, and Mary his mother, to learn said Edward 

the father's art which he now useth. Arthur Bernard, Town Clerk. 

2$th Dec., 1768. Lewis, son of Thomas Good, deed., to his grandfather Wm. Lewis, 

for 7 years, to learn Wool Combing and double Worsted Weaving. 
24th June, 177 1. Robert, son of Robert Lisson to Wm. Roe and Catherine, his wife, 

7 years, to learn Shoemaking. 
25th March, 1775. John Callaghan, grandson of Wm. Lewis, to Geo. Sealy, Esq., for 

7 years. 
24th June, 1775. Indenture between John, son of John Regan of East Gully, to 

John Rogers of Sugar lane, Linnen Weaver, for 7 years. 
19th Nov., 1779. Jonathan, son of Jonathan Bassett, deed., to Thomas Biggs, jr. 
1st Nov., 1779. Richard Daunt, son of Ann Popham, to Thomas Biggs aforesaid, for 

7 years. Indenture dated 15th March, 1780. 
nth Nov., 1782. Joseph, son of Thos. Giles deceased, apprenticed to Geo. Sealy, 

Esq., for 7 years to learn the art of Woolecombing. 
22nd July, 1783. William, son of Robert Morgan, apprenticed to Geo. Sealy, Esq., 

aforesaid. 

" Borough of Bandon Bridge. At a general assembly of the Provost and Burgesses 
of sd. Corporation. Before Jonas Tanner, Esq., Provost thereof, this 31st day of 
Jany., 1765. 

" Whereas, by the late inundation wch happened on the fifteenth Inst., the late 
Bridge of the Town of Bandon was carried away, and the communication from one 
side to the other of sd River is cut off, by wch the inhabitants of said Town are 
great sufferers, and as it is thought the sum of Twenty Guiueas will be sufficient to 
repair the breach made by sd flood near the Bridge of Innishannon so as to make a 
communication for carriages to and from said Town of Bandon to Corke and other 
places. We therefore consent that sd sum or any part thereof as shall be necessary 
shall be immediately paid out in making said passage, to be paid hereafter out of the 
revenues of said Corporation, under the direction of the Provost, Burgesses, and com- 
mon Council of sd Corporation. 

"Jonas Tanner, Provost. John Sealy. 

"Artr. Bernard. Franc. Travers. 

"George Sealy. James Bernard." 

"At a general assembly of the Provost and Free Burgesses, held at the South 
Market house in said Borough before Jona. Tanner, Esq., Provost there, this — day of 
February, 1765. 

"Whereas by the great inundation on the fifteenth day of Jany. last, a great 
part of the Town of Bandon was overflowed, by which many of the inhabitants were 



98 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

great sufferers, and some so much distressed as to be under the necessity of accepting 
some publick benevolence. We therefore, in order to relieve such of them as are in 
greatest want of our assistance, do agree that the sum of Sixty-one pounds, eight 
shillings and sixpence shall be immediately borrowed from James Bernard, Esqre., 
who proposed to lend said sum, and according did pay the same to Jona. Tanner, Esq., 
Provost of said Bor., to be by him given to the following persons agreeable to the 
sums to their names annex'd. To witt : 

" To James Thelly • • ;£" 7 ' 6 "To Aldwell Ireland ^ £11 7 6 



Richard Moxlcy 




a 


9 


„ Jos.011iffe 


2 


5 


6 


Jerh. Sullivan 




8 


3 


„ Thos. Stephens 


I 


2 


9 


Humpy. Harrington 




5 


6 


„ The Widow Williams .. 


I 


2 


9 


John Davies, the sum of 




8. 


3 


„ Henry Holmes 


2 


5 


6 


Mary Kelly 




2 


9 


„ The Widow of Geo. 








Nicholas Fan- 




2 


9 


Davies 


3 


3 


8 


John Carbery 




2 


9 


„ Edward Browne 


I 


2 


9 


Mary Hunter 




2 


9 


„ The Widow Bumham .. 


I 


2 


9 


Thele, Daughter of James 








„ Mary Rice 


3 


8 


3 


Thele 




18 


9 


„ Henry Harding 


I 


2 


9 


Saml. Martin 




2 


9 











*' And we agree and order that the said sum of Sixty-one pounds, eight shillings 
and sixpence shall be paid to the said James Bernard, on or before the 25th day of 
March, 1766, out of the revenues of said Corporation, and whereas the sum of one 
hundred pounds for some years past was allow'd the Provost of sd Corporation to 
defray the expenses of entertaining the members of the same on the day of Election 
of Provost, and on other days and times, it is therefore agreed and ordered that the 
Provost for the ensueing year shall not have any sallary, and all entertainments for the 
ensueing year shall be at some publick house, and the expence attending them and 
all other expenses attending the Provostship, shall be paid by the Treasurer out of the 
revenue of the Corporation. And whereas the Bridge on the River Bandon was by the 
sd inundation carried away, and it is thought necessary a proper boat should be pro- 
vided to carry on a communication from the north to the south side of the Town of 
Bandon. We do therefore agree and order that any sum not exceeding twenty pounds 
shall be expended in securing a boat and other necessaries for conveying passengers 
over said river, which same shall be repaid the person who shall expend the same, out 
of the revenues of the said Corporation. 

"JoNA. Tanner, Provost, Arthur Bernard. 
"George Sealy. Francis Traverse. 

"Rich. Savage." 

" At a general assembly of the Provost, Free Burgesses, and Common Council, 
the 24th of June, at the South Court-House, the following persons were appointed to 
applot the County Rate for March vth, 1763, to August, 1763, amounting to £g $3. yd.^ 
and £6 os. od. for the Bellman's sallary. The undernamed persons to meet at 
Mr. Dan Leonard's on the 8th day of July next — Messrs. Francis Travers, Richd. 
Dowden, and Thomas Wheeler, for the South side ; Messrs. John Travers, Thos. 
Holland, and Con Callaghan, for the North side. 

*' 26th September, 1765 — James Bernard, Esq., who was appointed Treasurer of 
this Corporation for the last year, did this day give up his Accts., by wch. it appeared 
that the sum of twenty-five pounds six shillings and sevenpence halfpenny was 



HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF CORK. 99 

remaining in his hands, wch. he paid over to Jona. Tanner, Esq., Provost, and we do 
appoint him, the said Jona. Tanner, Treasurer for the ensuing year, and we do order 
that the sum of twenty pounds stg. shall be paid to the said Jona. Tanner, which, wth 
the sum of eighty pounds ahready paid him, compleats the sum of one hundred pounds 
for his sallary for the year of his Provostship. 

"Jona. Tanner, Provost. Frances Travers. 

"Artr. Bernard. Richard Savage. 

"George Sealy. Isaac Hewett." 

(To be amtinued,) 



Historical and Topographical Notices of Cork, compiled 
chiefly from Manuscript Sources. 

"Pietas Corcagiensis." 

By Colonel T. A. LUNHAM, C.B., M.A„ M.R.I.A. 

" Historia vero testis temporum, lux veritatis, vita memoriae, magistra vitse, nuntia 
vetustatis," — Cic. De Orat.^ 2, 9, 36. 

ST. ANNE SHANDON. 

HIS parish was created and formed out of the parish of 
Shandon in 1738 under its present name by an act of 
Privy Council which defines its bounds. The Act divides 
St. Paul's and St. Anne's from St. Mary Shandon, and 
forms them into new parishes ; the Earls of Kildare and 
Barrymore, the patrons, consenting to such division by 
writings under their hands. Lord Barrymore is now 
said to be represented by Stawell. 

ST. CATHERINE'S PARISH. 

The exact boundaries, or precise situation of this ancient parish are 
now unknown. It has been long united to, if not merged in, that of St. 
Mary Shandon ; the church totally demolished, and its site undiscover- 
able. So early as 1628 the church was not in repair {Smithy vol. i. p. 69). 
Smith adds that ** anciently the Lord Barry presented to St. Catherine's, 
and the Lords Roche formerly were patrons of the rectory of St. Mary 
Shandon and the Bishop of the Vicarship." Wherever situate, the parish 
formed part of the possessions of Chore Abbey (Midleton), and after the 
dissolution was granted by Queen Elizabeth's patent to John FitzEdward 
FitzGerald, as appears by a record or entry thereof in the Auditor General's 
Office, Dublin. The FitzGeralds forfeited in the rebellion of 1641. 

That the Church of St. Catherine was demolished as early as 1617 
appears from an official Act, recorded in the Diocesan Registry Book of 
Cork, whereby the Bishop in that year provides for the spiritual concerns 




lOO CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

of the parish by annexing it to St. Mary Shandon, in such manner as to 
commit the care of souls to the rector of the latter parish. The book 
seems a good deal injured by time, and parts of the entry obliterated, 
but the following words are legible : — 

'*By -God's providence, Cork, Closme and Ross. To the inhabitants of St. 
Francis, commonly called Shandon, Abbey, St. Cathelin als, St Catherine, and of and 
npon the lands within the prednts of the said place, and of every of the same with- 
out the North Gate of the City of Cork, and to every of the said inhabitants of the 
said place and precinct and of an-ther. Greeting in our Lord God everlasting. 
Know ye, that I have by my power, so far forth as the laws and statutes of the land 
will suffer and permit, ordained and appointed, and by these presents do ordain and 
appoint, the Vicar of St. Mary Shandon, now being, and his successors of the said 
place, and precincts of St. Francis Abbey, St Cathalin, al$. St Catherine, and Gil 
Abbey, and the inhabitants, and every of the inhabitants thereof, aforesaid, to have 
the charge and care of souls adjacent and adjoining to the said parish Church of St 
Mary Shandon, aforesaid, and no other proper and peculiar parish Church or Churches, 
than of Abbeys or dissolved religious houses belonging to the same, willing and 
requiring by these presents the said inhabitants to resort, from time to time, or at all 
times, hereafter, upon Sundays and holidays, appointed in the Churches of England 
and Ireland, to the said parish Church of St Mary Shandon, and to pay to the Vicart 
Parish Clerk, and Sezton of the same, and to no other, such rights and duties, as 
for weddings, christenings, and burials, and other such spiritual and ecclesiastical 
services, are, and shall be due and payable. In witness whereof I have to these 
presents set my hand and episcopal seal. 

" Given at Bishop's Court the day and year above written. 

" William, Cork, Cloyne, and Ross." 

The date is obliterated, but that of the article in the registry next 
following on the same page is 1617. 

[William Lyon was a native of Chester, educated at Oxford ; Chaplain 
to Lord Grey (Lord Deputy of Ireland) ; Vicar of Naas, 1573. Consecrated 
Bishop of Ross in 1582 by patent dated May 12 ; and on Nov. 12, 1583, 
the Sees of Cork and Cloyne were given him in commendafns to hold 
during the Queen's pleasure ; afterwards, by a patent dated May 17, 1586, 
the three Sees of Cork, Cloyne and Ross were united in his favour. He 
appears to have been a prelate of an active and liberal spirit. He built the 
palace at Cork in 1588, and another at Ross, afterwards burned by the 
rebels. He greatly improved the revenues of his Sees, and died at Cork 
at a very advanced age, Oct. 4, 1617. (Cotton's Fasti, vol. i. p. 223.)] 

From the foregoing Act it appears that the Bishop provided for the 
spiritual concerns of St. Catherine's parish, then an impropriate rectory 
in the family of the FitzGeralds, and remitted the inhabitants to the 
parish Church of St. Mary Shandon, at a period when the Act enforcing 
attendance at the parish church by penalties was in full force. In fact it 
is clear that St. Catherine's was then in ruin. The Act of the 14 & 15 
Car. II., enacted that during the next twenty years, the Chief Governor, 
with the assent of the Privy Council, etc., might unite parishes in per- 
petuity, the patronage to become alternate. It may be presumed that the 
perpetual union of St. Mary's and St. Catherine's took place under that 
Act, but the Privy Council books having been burned after the passing 
of that Act in 171 1, no evidence of such union now exists. 



HISTORICAL AND TOPOGRAPHICAL NOTICES OF CORK, lOI 

Anno. 1660. Edward FitzGerald, probably under Elizabeth's grant, 
was impropriator. Thus the Visitation Book of that year : — 

** Rectoria de Shandon \ Thos. Goodman, 

Vicaria id. / Compt." 

** Rectoria de St. Catherine, Ed. FitzGerald, Impropriator." 

FitzGerald appears to have immediately after forfeited this impro- 
priation, for in the Visitation Book of 1668 there appears the following 
entry : — 

" Rec. et Vic. de ShandoD, Thos. Goodman. Rec. Impropriat. St. Catherine 
Spectat ad Shandon, ratione confiscationis ejusdem. 

In the Visitation Book of 1669, the first record is found in the registry 
of the patronage being alternate, thus — 

** Comes Kildare, \ Thos. Goodman, Clericus, Rect. et Vic. 

** Comes Barrymore [ Eccl. Paroch. de Shandon prope 

alternatione patroni) Cork, Institutus fuit, 26 Ap., 1661. 

St. Catherine's is not named, probably in consequence of its becoming 
part of Shandon by union. The Visitation Book, 1670, states — 

"Rect. et Vic. de Shandon, Thomas Goodman, in presentationem Comes de 
Kildare et Barrymore (sic), Rect. impropriat St. Catherine, Thomas Goodman, pt r 
Literas Patentes Domini Regis, ratione confiscationis ejusdem." 

GRANTS. 

Christ Church College, a slated stone house, called the College of 
Christ Church, with all the buildings thereof, near the church of Christ 
Church, viz., on the south side thereof, lately in the tenure of Walter 
Coppinger and Catherine Monsfield ; rent, 7s. 8d., Irish ; granted to 
Arthur Savage, Knt., Privy Councillor, 9th Feb., 13 Jac. I.; also the 
castle, town, and lands of North Maghen, ah, Maghen, or Mahon, with 
fishing-weir in the Harbour of Cork ; South Maghen, 2 acres ; Baltrasney, 
near Ballinloghy, 4 acres ; rent, 8s., Irish. 

To Sir J. FitzEdmond FitzGerald, of Cloyne, the old broken and 
ruinous castle, called the King's Castle, on the south side of the Quay of 
Cork, near and upon the wall of the City. 

Ardarostig, part of Roche's lands, to Sir Hans Hamilton, 108 acres ; 
conveyance to Edmund Roche, of Trabolgan, consideration ;£965, of 
townlands of Glanagoule, containing 1651 acres, Killuntaine 905 a. 16 p., 
Barony of Barrymore ; estate of Walter Coppinger and James his son, 
attainted June 27, 13 Jac. I. 

Grant of Dundanion Castle to Sir James Sempil, Knt., a native of 
Scotland. 

May 18, 9th Jac. I., grant to Pat. Tirry, Esq., ferry over the river and 
Port of Cork, to be held at Donegall, where the passage was then kept, 
viz., from the Cantred of Kerricurrihy to the Great Island. 

THE RED ABBEY, CORK. 

When the Red Abbey Sugarhouse was in operation, a man, cleanly 
clad, obtained employment as a labourer. While thus engaged he was 
remarked for strict attention to his duties, punctuality, and, above all, 
taciturnity, holding no conversation with his fellow-labourers. Even at 



I02 CORK HISTORICAL AXD ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETi'. 

dinner-hour he seldom left the premises, contenting himself with a crust 
of bread. At length, one day, watching his opportunity, he availed 
himself of the absence of the workmen at dinner, repaired to the great 
window of the abbey, opened a stone recess in the side of the window, and 
having taken something thereout, left the premises, and was never after 
seen. On the place being examined a few candle ends were found, and 
some papers but just destroyed, illegible from damp. Conjecture 
was made in vain as to what he had taken. Some thought from the 
candle ends that he had suddenly wrenched them out of some valuable 
candlesticks which he removed ; others suspected manuscripts, relics, or 
money. It is said that the bells of the Red Abbey steeple are buried 
somewhere in the abbey grounds, that the secret of the place is vested in 
three of the Augustinian friars of Brunswick Street Chapel, and that 
when one is dying he communicates it to another, uninitiated, with a 
charge never to reveal it, except when in articulo mortis. (MSS., RJ.A,) 
A similar legend is preserved r^arding the MacCarthy treasure 
buried in the lake of Blarney, the secret of its locality being transmitted 
under like conditions. 

BARRY OGE. 

In the rebellion of 1641 Barry Oge was among the first to take up 
arms against the English, and being master of the camp at Belgooly, 
where he, James Mellifont, and others their confederates, were sworn on 
oath by Father Donough, to be true to the Romish cause, that -they 
should, to the utmost of their power and to the hazard of their lives and 
fortunes, oppose and fight all Protestants whatsoever, either English or 
Irish, until all were expelled the Kingdom. This oath the loyal and true 
friends of Charles I. asseverated upon their knees, and, among other 
atrocious acts that same night, Barry Oge, Mellifont, and his son, went to 
a neck of land between the harbour and Oysterhaven of Kinsale, collected 
all the cattle, horses, cows, etc. , belonging to the inhabitants of Kinsale, 
took them to the camp, and divided them among the troops. They killed 
one Englishman whom they found tending his sheep, and hung up six 
other Englishmen and one woman in the camp of Belgooly. (Ibid.) 



Notes and Queries. 

A Komorial of 1708.--.Through the kindness of Messrs. Spink & Son, 
of London, I am enabled to describe an engraved copper memorial medal 
of William Orr. It is exactly the size of a crown piece when measured 
inside the milled edge, and is pierced for suspension. The obverse con- 
tains the emblems of a harp and cap of liberty, with the legend, ''Remember 
Wm. Orr," and on the reverse, **May Orr*s fate nerve the impartial arm 
to annul the wrongs of Erin." William Qrr suffered the extreme 
penalty of the law at Carrickfergus, on October 14th, 1798. During the 
time that elapsed between the dates of his trial and execution, he was 
attended by Father Quigly and two Presbyterian ministers, who, after 
his execution, carried his body to a Presbyterian meeting-house, where 



NOTES AND QUERIES. IO3 

two medical men endeavoui^d to restore him to life by injecting ihe blood 
of a calf into his veins. Not having succeeded, his body was laid in state, 
and his funeral was attended by a numerous company of Unitjed Irishmen. 
The cap he wore was cut into small shreds and distributed among them ; 
and Musgrave further rclatles that they, in every part of the kingdom, 
wore in memory of him some kind of emblem, in rings, lockets and brace- 
lets. This medal was one for a like purpose. 

R. D. 



The Walls of Toaglial in the 17th Century. — [From what we read in 
the following notfe of the state of the walls of Youghal in the 17th century, 
it seems a wonder that any portion of them should be left standing at the 
present day ; but that this is the case our readers ane aware from the 
persistent efforts made by our late member, Mr. M. J. C. Buckley (whose 
lamented death took place at Youghal in August, 1904), to get the Urban 
Council of that town to tak}e due steps to preserve what remains of their 
ancient Town Walls. We trust that the latter body will not much longer 
delay in their very creditable decision to follow out Mr. Buckley's exoel- 
i»ent suggestion, and thereby not only reflect credit on themselves, but add 
materially to the attractions of their ancient borough, by the judicious 
preservation of what happily is left of its historic Town Walls.] 

'*In the year 1631 Captain John Finsham and Captain Christopher Burge 
presented a petition to King Charles I. relative to several abuses and 
neglects committed by the townsmen of Youghall concerning the repair 
of their walls and fortifications, praying His Majesty would be pleased to 
grant them thte management of the said repairs, and the collection of the 
petty customs, and refer the same to whatever committee he thought fit, 
with power to enquire what sums \\7ere received and how expended ; and 
that the petitioners might receive the remainder of the said customs, 
towards repairing tlife walls and making a platform. The petition further 
represented that these customs amounted to about jQioo per annum, which 
the Corporation received since thle wars ; but that they had not expended 
X[^o upon the walls in that time, which were become weak and ruinous. 
That there was no place to mount ordnance to defend the harbour, which 
had encouraged pirates several times to enter the bay and surprise and 
carry off ships riding in the same — the town and fortifications being so 
weak that two ships with ease might batter down the walls and surprise 
the town. That one Ensign Steward obtained a grant for rectifying 
these abuses and for building a fort to defend the town and harbour, upon 
which letters were directed to the Earl of Cork, and to thte Lord President, 
directing them to examine the defects and to certify their knowledge of 
them; but the said Steward so demeaned himself in his demands (not 
pertinent to his grant), and so opposed th/3 said committees, that the 
Earl treated with the Mayor and his brethren, who undertook to build a 
platform at the key (quay) for the defende of the town and harbour. But 
they did not j>erform their agreement, which was made five years since; 
neither is there one piece of ordnance mounted in the town, which is 
subject to great danger. This petition was referred to the Lords' Com- 
mittefe for Irish affairs, signed at Whitehall, April 3rd, 1631 ; upon which 
an Order of Privy Seal was directed to the Lords Justices of Ireland that 



I04 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH.^EOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



they might enquire into the matter; and if they find thfe allegations of 
the petition to be true, that letters patent might be granted to the said 
Captains Finsham and Christopher Burge, to receive the remainder of the 
said customs and collect them for the future, for building of a new plat- 
form and the repair of th'e walls. Dated at Westminster, April 17th, 
An. Regnante 7. By His Majesty's Command. . . That the repairs 
thus sanctioned were carried out seems evident from the following fact. 
**In Queen Anne's wars with France a French privateer came into the bay 
of Youghal, and from thence sent her boat well armed into the harbour 
to plunder, which, on landing at Snugborough, they had begun to do, 
by taking away some linen drying on the hedg*es there. The townsmen 
immediately beat to arms and manned the Fort. The gunner levelled on*^ 
of the guns and fired at the boat. The ball was seen to take the water 
on the hither side of the boat and then to pass over her, which caused 
the Monsieurs to hasten away as fast as they could. ... In the time 
of Thomas Lord (from whose Ancient and Present State of Youghal, 
published in that town in 1784, the present narrative is taken), the walls, 
he writes, are ranged along the top of the hill almost the entire length 
of the town ; they are flanked with some old towers, which with the walls 
are at present weak and in a state of decay. The gates, being ruinous, 
were some time since taken down, and not a vestige of them now remains.*' 

J. C. 



The Volunteers of 1782.— The following is a correct list of the officers 
of the Mitchelstown Volunteers of this County, and the date of their 
enrolment. This cavalry corps consisted of one troop. Cavalry of the 
County of Cork — Mitchelstown Independent Light Dragoons. Enrolled 
1774; uniform scarlet, faced black, silver epaulettes, yellow helmets, white 
buttons ; furniture, goat skin, edged black. Officers in 1782 : — Colonel, 
Viscount Kingsborough ; Lieut. -Colon/el, Henry Cole Bowen ; Major, James 
Badham Thornhill; Captain, Harmer Spratt; Lieutenant, William 
Raymond; Cornet, William Alsop ; Chaplain, Thomas Bushe, Rector of 

Brigown and Chaplain of the College ; 
Surgeon, David Fitzgerald ; Secretary, 
John Ryan. — Gibson's History of Cork, 
McNevin's History of the Volunteers of 
1782. 

CouRTENAY MooRB, Canon, M.A. 




Enquiry. — Is annexed an Irish 
Crest? or could any member give the 
name of the family it belonged to. No 
information can be found of it in 
England ; but it is said to belong to 
an old Irish family of the name of 
Dixon. It cannot be traced back fur- 
ther than the i8th century. 

J. O. T. 



Second Series— Vol. XII. No. 71. [July— September, 1906. 

Journal of the 
Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. 

"Sacerdotes Domini induantur justitiam, et Sancti Tui exultent." 

The Life of Saint Fin Barre. 

Translated and Annotated by Colonel T. A. LUNHAM, C.B., 

M.A., M.R.I.A. 

PREFACE. 

[F the two Latin Lives contained in the Fasciculus printed 
by the late Dr. Caulfield in 1864, I have followed that 
copied from the Codex KiHcenniensis, preserved in Arch- 
bishop Marsh's Library, Dublin, as being the more 
complete, and exhibiting ampler details. 

The Bodleian MS. varies slightly in some particulars 
as, e.g., when the fire is said to have been miraculously 
extinguished by a heavy shower of rain (imhre valido)^ 
instead of by the fuel itself. And again, when the son and daughter are 
described as being both dumb, instead of the former as blin^, and the 
latter dumb. The Saint is also represented as having visited Rome, 
and having on his return journey obtained a horse from St. David, (this 
is also stated by Colgan, Actt. Sanctt. Hib. p. 428) on which he crossed 
the sea, and subsequently retained for the use of his brethren. In 
memory of this miracle a brazen horse was long preserved at Cork. 
In one place the Codex Kilken. reads: ** Hie sumus quaerentes locum," 
and the Bodleian: "Hie summus locus," **summus" being probably a 
corruption of "sumus." 

Nevertheless, judging from the identity of the language used in 
many instances, and various other striking similarities, we are induced 
to assign a common source (probably Irish) to both narratives. 

I have translated at length the quotations with which the notes are 
enriched, verifying, as far as practicable, the references. Dr. Caulfield's 
Introduction and all his notes are likewise reprinted in full, to which I 
h ave ventured to add a few on some points not otherwise discussed. 

8 




I06 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

INTRODUCTION. 

** During a visit to the Bodleian Library, Oxford, in the summer of 1862, 
my attention was called by the Rev. D. Macray, m.a. e. Coll. Mag. et 
Nov., to two MSS. each containing a life of St. Barre,' together with 
the biographies of numerous other Irish saints. These MSS. are thus 
described by Mr. Macray in his Cat. Cod. MSS. Bibl. Bodl. R. Rawlinson. 
— Vitae Sanctorum Hiberniae— 485. "Codex Membranaceus, in 4to. flf. 
168, sec. XV., ineuntis in fine mancus ; olim inter Codices Clarendoni- 
anos" 41-505. "Codex Membranaceus, manibus tribus bene exaratus, 
in principle mancus in folio, flf. 220, sec. xv. ineuntis. Olim inter 
Codices Comitis de Clarendon," (Uteris majusculis bene descriptum). 
In fine est nota Hibernice scripta de vita quadam S. Colmani in hoc 
volumine in abstracta quae in usum Thomae Mac Paulo Moriarty exarata 
fuisset ; ad oram inferiorem fol. 217 b sunt haec. Hie liber pertinet ad 
me Cormacum Moriartum anno Domini 1619. — Both MSS. are written 
in double columns. On my return I mentioned this discovery in a letter 
to that distinguished divine and antiquary, the Rev. William Reeves, d.d., 
Armagh, afterwards Lord Bishop of Down, Connor, and Dromore, 
who, with his customary kindness, sent me the following list of 
the lives' of St. Barre, from his reference book to the lives of Irish 
Saints— Barre—AfS. Hib, Bruss. iv. p. 2, p. 16, No. 2324-2340. Smith's 
MSS. R.I.A., No. 12, pp. 506-525 — No. 150, pp. 129-137— No. 168 pp. 
110-116. MS. Lat. Marsh Cod. Kilken. fol. 132 b-134— Trin. Coll. Dub. 
E. iii. ii. f. 109 aa-iio bb. Dr. Reeves subsequently furnished me with 
a transcript of the Marsh MS. with the Var. Lee. of the Cod. T.C.D. 
Both MSS. are large folios on vellum, written in double columns, circ. 
1200. These last mentioned MSS., with the copies which I made in the 
B9dleian Library, are presented to the reader in this fasciculus. The 
Mart)rrology of Donegal 3 contains the following notice of St. Barre. 
Septimo Kal. Octobris. **Bairre, Bishop and Confessor of Corcach, in 
Munster. Christ himself conferred the degree of Bishop upon him, as is evi- 
dent from his life. He was of the race of Brian, son of Eochaidh Muighm- 

z ''St. Finbar, the founder and patron of Cork. He is also the patron Saint of Dornoch, the 
episcopal seat of Caithness ; and the island of Barra, which derives its name from him." — Reeves' 
Adam. Columb. Ixxiv. The church in this island is called Kilbarr, t.«., St Barr's Church. 
'' There is a little chappel by it, in which the Mackneil, and those descended of his family, are 
usually interred. The natives have St. Barr's wooden image standing on the altar, covered with 
linen in the form of a shirt ; all their greatest asseverations are by this saint. I came very early 
in the morning with an intention to see this image, but was disappointed, for the natives pre- 
vented me, by carrying it away lest I might take occasion to ridicule their superstition, as some 
Protestants have done formerly, and when I was gone it was again exposed on the altar. They 
have several traditions concerning this great saint. There is a chappel (about half a mile on the 
south side of the hill near St. Barr's church), where I had occasion to get an account of a tradition 
concerning this saint, which was thus : The inhabitants having begun to build the church, which 
they dedicated to him, they laid this wooden image within it, but it was invisibly transported (as 
they say) to the place where the church now stands, and found there every morning." — Martin's 
fVestn, Islands f p. 92. "His festival is here observed 27th September, it is performed riding on 
horseback, and the solemnity is concluded by three turns round St. Barr's church." — lb, p. 99. 
"This island is very irregular and indented shape, etc., its dimensions are ten miles in length by 
seven in breadth." — MaccuUoch's Wistn. Isles , vol. i. p. 7a 

a Vid, Boliand^ Sep, i Vol. l p. 259. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. IO7 

heodhoin.^ Cumin, of Coindeire, states, in the poem which begins, 
** Patrick of the fort of Macha loves," that Bairre was humble to every 
person, and that he used to give assistance to every person whom he saw 
in want. Thus he says: — 

" Bairre, the fire of wisdom, loves 

Humility to the men of the world ; 

He never saw in want 

A person that he did not assist." 

Bairre spoke in his mother's^womb, and also immediately after his birth, 
in order to justify his father and his mother, as his life states in the first 
chapter. We find in a very old book which contains the Martyrology of 
Tamhlacht, and the history of the Female Saints, that there were seventeen 
holy bishops and seven hundred prosperous monks together with Bairre 
and St. Nessan,* at Corcach-M6r of Munster. We find in the same book 
that Bairre, Bishop of Munster and of Connacht, had a likeness in habits 
and life to Augustin, bishop of the Saxons. Colgan, in the life of St. 
Tamlacht, p. 607, gives an interesting passage respecting St. Barre's 
school at Loch-Irce,^ now Googane Barra, viz. : — ** One of that numerous 
multitude of disciples who frequented the School of St. Barre, Bishop of 
Cork, near Loch-Erce, in the South and maritime part of Munster, was 
St. Talmach, confessor of Christ, concerning whom and other fellow- 
disciples these things are recorded in the life of the same holy Bishop. 
After these things St. Barre came to a lake-, which in the Irish language 
is called Loch-Erce, near which he constructed a Monastery, to which, as 
to the abode of wisdom and receptacle of all Christian virtues, disciples 
flowed in crowds from every quarter in so great numbers, through zeal of 
holiness, that from the multitude of the Monks and cells it changed that 

4 Eochaidh Muigmidoin, 0d. 365 a.d. 

Brian, from whom descended Ui-brtuin Ratha, from this race sprang O'Canvan, like- 

I wise 0*Callanan. 

Cairbre. 

Eochaidh. 

Ninnedh. 

I 

Flann. 

I 
Cairtinn. 

I 
Art 

Amergen. 

Bairre. 

5 That St. Nessan was himself buried at Cork and at one time much venerated there. St Mn, 
(iEnghus) declares in his little book of litanies, where he enumerates St Barr himself and seventeen 
other saints, besides seven hundred others buried there, whom he beseeches in these words to be 
his intercessors with God : — " The seventeen holy bishops, together with the seven hundred 
servants of God, who with the blessed Barr and St Nessan are buried at Cork, whose names are 
written in heaven, all these I call to my aid, etc." — Colgomy pp. 629-30. He is commemorated 
at Cork, March 17 and December i. 

6 <* Lough Eirce, in the territory of Muskerry and of the descendants of Eochod Craodh."-— 
Ward's Rumold.^ p. 204. * 



I08 CORK' HISTORICAL AND ARCHi€OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

desert as it were into a large city. For, from that. school which he insti- 
tuted there, numerous men came remarkable for holiness of life and the 
praise of learning. Amongst whom were conspicuous, St. Eulangius 
or Eulogius, the instructor of St. Barre himself, St. Colman of Dore 
Dhunchon, St. Bathinus, St. Nessan, St. Garbhan, son of Finnbarre, 
St. Talmach, St. Finchadius of Ros-Alithir, St. Lucerus, St. Cumanus, 
St. Lochinus of Achadh-airaird, St. Carinus, St. Fintanus of Ros-coerach, 
St. Euhel of Ros-coerach, St. Trellanus of Druim-draighniche, St. Coel- 
chus, St. Mogenna, St. Modimocus, St. Sanctanus, and St. Lugerius son of 
Columb. All these and many others who came from that very celebrated 
school, by the merits of holiness and virtue constructed cells in diflferent 
places, and consecrated themselves and all these to St. Barre their father and 
master and his successors." An Irish life, kindly lent me by Mr. Windele, 
mentions a school of female saints, which was also at this place. The 
following abstract of the character of this holy man is from the Irish and 
Latin lives: — **His humility,- his piety, his charity, his abstinence, his 
prayers by day and by night, won him great privileges : for he was godlike 
and pure of heart and mind like Abraham ; mild and well-doing like Moses ; 
a Psalmist like David ; wise like Solomon ; devoted to the truth like Paul 
the Apostle ; and full of the Holy Spirit like John the Baptist. He was 
a lion of strength, and an orchard full of apples of pleasure. When the 
time of his death arrived, after erecting churches and monasteries to God, 
and appointing over them Bishops, Priests, and other degrees, and bap- 
tising and blessing districts and people, Barre went to Cill-na-cluana 
(Cloyne), and with him went Fiana, at the desire of Cormac and 
Baoithin, where they consecrated two churches. Then he said, it is time 
for me to quit this corporeal prison and to go to the heavenly King, who is 
now calling me to himself ; and then Barra was confessed, and received 
the sacrament from the hand of Fiana, and his soul went to heaven, at 
the cross which is in the middle of the church of Cloyne. And there 
came Bishops, Priests, Monks, and Disciples, on his death being reported, 
and to honour him ; and they took him to Cork, the place of his resur- 
rection, honouring him with psalms and hymns and spiritual songs, and 
the angels bore his soul with joy unspeakable to heaven, to the company 
of the Patriarchs, Prophets, Apostles, and Disciples of Jesus Christ, and 
of the Holy Trinity, the Father, the Son, and Holy Ghost. Amen." 



HERE BEGINNETH THE LIFE OF ST. BARR, BISHOP AND 

CONFESSOR. 

The elect saint of God, and worthy pontiff, Barr, was sprung from the 
race of the Connacthi, to wit, the descendants of Briuin.^ It happened 

7 Descendants of Briuin^ That is the Ui-briuin or descendants of Brian, son of Eochaidh 
Muighmedhoin, elder brother of Niall of the nine hostages; another life of this saint limits the tribe 
of this race to the Ui-briuin Ratha, the descendants of Cairbre son of Brian, "in whose territory 
in West Connaught, Hybriun-ratha, containing fourteen villages, is situated, Knoctua mountain, 
etc. Of this tribe was sprung St. Barr, first bishop of Cork, in Munster. Likewise our families 
of 0*Canvans, professors of medicine, hare the same origin, and O'Callanans are in like manner 
physicians."— O'Flaherty, Ogygia^p. 376. Ui-briuin Ratha was a sub-territory of the Briuin 
Seola, on the extreme coast of Jar-Connacht.— Vid. liardiman's West Qmnaughi f, 369, and 
the map facing title. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. IO9 

that a nobleman, of the descendants of Briuyn, begat in adultery a son 
named Amargenus, and took him to his own court. The nobleman, by 
an incestuous connection, had two sons.^ One of them was cast into a 
river, that the infamy might be concealed from men, which could not 
escape the knowledge of God. The other, to wit, Amargenus, was left to 
be devoured by the beasts of the desert. By Divine providence, however, 
a she wolf nourished him until he reached maturity. Afterwards, swine- 
herds roaming through the wild places of the forest, discovered him, and 
brought him to their own dwelling, and his appearance was distinguished 
and beautiful. They presently brought him to the nobleman,^ his father, 
who recognised and lovingly received him, as has been said above, into 
his palace. Afterwards, for modesty's sake, and at the command of his 
father, the son himself, Amargenus by name, comes into the province of 
the Momenenses, and dwelt in the southern part of Momonia, in the 
territory of the Hualiathain,*** and there his posterity grew into a great 
nation, so that they could not remain in the one place, but divided 
themselves through divers regions of Momonia ; but a certain portion 
of them came to the land of the Prince of Raithluyn," and there the 
holy Barr was born. 

This wonderful miracle God wrought on account of the holy Barr, 
while he was yet in his mother's womb, before he was born. His 
father, Amargenus, was smith to the Prince of Raithluyn. The prince 
himself was called Tyagnacus," who was descended from the son of 
Exhach, to wit, Cass.*3 Now in the prince's own territory there was a 
certain beautiful damsel, whom he himself wished to possess as a 
concubine, and commanded that no one should take her in marriage, 
which decree Amargenus the smith set at nought, being greatly enamoured 

8 Post ebrietatem deceptus similitudine Loth, cum sua filia concubuit. Cf. Gen, xix. 32. 

9 Nobleman or Count, We hear of these Counts in the histories of Charlemagne. The dignity 
was properly a military one, and is mentioned in the Grseco- Latin Glosses. 

v>Hwuiakain. Ui-Iiathain, or Olehan. <* Darius Kearb, &c., genuit Achaium Liathanach, 
ex quo Hyliathan in agro Corcagiensi." Ogfg, p, 381, vide etiam /. 169. " sed in Ardnemethia 
insula, quam domini Barry insulam hodie vocant, in Hy-liathain Corcagie plaga, &c" Ui. 
Liathain — " This tribe derived their name and origin from Eochaidh Liathanach, son of Daire 
Cearbo. After the establishment of surnames, OXiathain and O'h-Anmchadha were the chief 
fiunilies of this tribe. After the English invasion their territory was granted to Robert Fits- 
stephen, who granted it to Philip de Barry." Book of Rights^ pp, 72, 73. See also, Reeves' 
Adamnan^s Columba^p. 166. **0'Liathan and O'Gormliathain were anciently the names di 
two distinct counties now united under the name of the Barony of Bairymore." 

" RaithUin. This was the name of the seat of O'Maghthamhna (O'Mahony), who, according 
to O'h-Uidhrin, was the chief of the Cineal m-Bece, whose territory extended on both sides of 
the river Bandain (Bandon). His territory was erected into the Barony of Kinalmeaky. Book 
of Rights, p, 59. See also, Annals Four Mast, ann, 903, 1063. Castle Mahon, now the seat 
of the Earl of Bandon, is supposed to have been one of the residences of this sept, the last of 
whom, Conoghor O'Mahony, was slain in Desmond's rebellion, and died seized of the seigniory 
of Kinalmeaky. 

x> Tigemacus, Vid. Reeves' AdamnaWs Columba^p. 81, n, 

X3 Cas^ The Ui-Eathach Mumhan (or I vahagh) were descendants of Eochaidh, son of Cas, son 
of Core, King of Munster, son of Lughaidb, the fourth in descent from OilioU Olum, King of 
Uomiet,^Bcok of Rights^ p. 256. It comprehended the modern Kindmeaky.— /Iwr Mast, 
an, 1063. 



no CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

of the damsel, whom he married,** and of him she conceived the holy Barr. 
When the aforesaid prince heard this he was greatly incensed, and, sum- 
moning the parties before him, thus addressed the young woman, " Who 
is thy husband, or hast thou secretly conceived in adultery?" "Not in 
adultery," replied she, "but this man is my husband, and by him am I 
with child." Then was the prince '^ very wroth, and ordered them to be 
bound, and commanded his servants to make a great p>Te of the driest 
logs of timber, and to cast them both upon it. But the Divine power 
forbade this, for the elements, obedient to God, fought with one another 
to hinder the accomplishment of this design, for the fire was wonderfully 
extinguished by the very dry beams of wood, as if they were wet stones. 

This God did for the sake of the holy infant who was enclosed in the 
womb of his mother, whom they desired to burn. When the prince was 
informed of this, the parties were brought before him. Then the holy 
infant, Barr, with a distinct voice, spake from the womb of his mother'^ 
and said, ** O prince, you are engaged in the conunission of an iniquitous 
and sacrilegious act ; if you persevere any further in such a work, you 
will speedily die and go to hell." Then the prince, terrified, said to his 
servants, "Wait a little while, that we may see what he wishes for 
himself, and that we may know who is speaking to us." And when he 
knew surely that the infant spoke to him from the womb, he released his 
parents and sent them away, for he was unable to fight against God ; and 
all who were present magnified God for such wonders. After a short 
time was born the holy and marvellous infant Barr, who appeared full of 
the grace of God ; and straightway came the above-named prince, meekly, 
to behold him, and to seek his benediction ; so the holy child saluted the 
prince, beseeching him to deal kindly with his parents, and afterwards he 
remained silent until such time as it is suitable for infants to speak ; and 
the prince restored to his parents such things as they sought from him. 
Then they returned to their own country, to wit Campusdtlnteon, with 
their son, rejoicing ; and they reared him up with care, and excellent 
manners did show themselves in him in a wonderful way. 

At the same time there were three Anchorites '^ of Momonia, in the 
territory of the Laginenses, who were constrained by some cause to 
return to their own country, and passing by the house of Amargenus, the 
father of the blessed Barr, they turned in unto it,'^ and there by the Divine 
will they abode that night, and beholding the charming boy, the eldest of 
them said, " This boy is beautiful of face, but still more beautiful by the 
true faith ; I know that he is elect of God, and the Holy Spirit dwelleth 
in him. Would that he were with us and might read, for the grace of 
God shines in his countenance." Hearing this, Amargenus, his father, 
said unto them, " If ye will, take him with you, and let him read, for we 
are his parents, and we offer him to God." The elders replied, " Let him 

«4 Married her. Addit. MS. ct dormivit cum ea. 

IS Prince^ or Duke» The distinction between the duces and comites appears to have been 
that the former governed the larger, the latter the smaller, provmces. 

10 From his mothet^s womb, A similar narrative is told of St. Fursey (of whom see further 
on).— Colgan, ActU Santt^p, 75 ; also note,/. 89. 

'7 Tres Anchoritce. Their names were Breanuin, Lochan, and Fiodhac. Irish MS, — Vid. 
Reeves* Adam, Col, p. 366. 

»8 DedinaverutU, See Todd's St Patrick^ p. 317. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. Ill 

not come with us now, because we would go further, and again return 
hither, and come into the country of the Laginenses, and then he will 
accompany us on our departure, for now is this thing from God." And 
so it came to pass, for on that day the holy elders aforesaid, returning, 
took with them the blessed boy from his parents, in the time of summer. 
And now when they were come to that place which is called in Irish '^ 
Muncyllmonaid, the boy, being athirst, wept much, and sought a drink 
of milk. Then they, beholding a hind close by on the mountain, the 
senior said unto his servant, ** Go to that hind, milk her, and give the 
boy to drink of the milk, for the holiness of the boy will render her tame 
to thee ;" but he, trusting the word of the elder, approached her, and she 
was exceeding tame before the servant, even as unto her own offspring, 
and he milked her, filling a vessel full of milk, and brought it to the boy, 
who drank, and his thirst was quenched. In that hour, indeed, and in 
the same place, another of them said to his companions, **Now is it 
suitable that where God hath wrought so great a miracle for this holy 
boy there he himself also should learn his alphabet,*** and that he may 
be shaved,*' in the name of the Lord. And then he learned his alphabet, 
and all who were in that place marvelled at his genius, and he was 
shaved, according to the word of the holy elder. When therefore he was 
shaved, the elder said, ** Beautiful is the hair of this servant of God." 
Another elder replied, ** Well hast thou spoken, for his name is changed, 
and he shall be called Fyndbarr,** yet they shall not so call him, but even 
Barra;" for he was before called Lochan, and now by all he is named 
Barra, as the elder prophesied. On the same day also the holy elder 
Brendan,'3 performed seven glorious miracles in the name of Christ, and 
while he was in the same Mount Muncyl, where are the crosses of 
Brendan, he wept bitterly, and afterwards smiled. His disciples therefore, 

X9 Place called in Irish {Scotia). ** Scotia is the same place as Ireland, an island very close 
to Britain, narrower in extent but more fertile in situation." — Isidor, Ori^, lib. 14, c. 6. 

*o Alphaietum, For an account of the ancient use of letters among the Irish, see CVDonovan's 
Irish Gram* Iniroduc, A copy of the Roman alphabet, of great antiquity, inscribed on a 
stone, at Kilmalkedar, county Kerry, is engraved in Petrie's Round Towers^ etc, p. 133, also p. 
164. Camden says that the Saxons borrowed their alphabet from the Irish {Britannia sud/lne), 

«i Shaved, t.«., That he should receive the tonsure. The precise form of the Celtic 
tonsure may be considered as settled by the learned paper on that subject contributed to the 
Proceedings of the Society of Antiquarian of Scotland, hj the Bishop of Edinburgh (vol. xxx., 
pp. 325 sqq,)y whose conclusions have been accepted by those best qualified to judge. For the 
liturgical services used on the occasions of administration of the tonsure, see Morinus, Commenta- 
rius De Sacris Ecclesia Ordinationidus, p. 299. — Note by TranskUor. 

«« Fyndharr, "Various are the names and synonyms of this saint, for by some he is called 
Barr, by others Barry, Barrea, Barra, Barius, Findbarr, and Fin Barr ; more usually, however, 
by the last than the first name. The Irish word Finnia and Finnea signifies the same thing, 
that is, white, clear, and, metaphorically, beautiful ; and the word Finnbharr signifies now 
white or beautifiil crown of the bead, or fair or beautifiil hau'**'-Bollandf Sept. 25, 630. ** Barr 
was illustrious at Cork." Ussher, Ind, Ciron» 

•3 Brendanus, He founded Clonfert in 559, and died May 16, 577, aged 95. He is called 
by the Irish Cluainferta Brenainn, to distinguish him from Cluain ferta Molua, now Clonfert- 
mulloe. He was of the race of Ciar, son of Fergus, son of Ros, son of Rudhraighe, whose 
descendants, the Ciarraighe, gave name to several districts in Ireland, the principal of which 
was that now known as the county of Kerry. Ogygia^ p. 276. See also Reeves' Adanu 
Colum.t p, 221 17, 



ili CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHyEOLOGtCAL SOCIEtY. 

seeing him in such a case, wondered, and said, " Father, declare to us 
wherefore dost thou weep at one time and smile at another?" **Iwill 
declare unto you, O t>eloved sons," replied the holy elder. ** The reason 
why I so smile, it is because God has wrought great wonders and will 
perform even greater on account of a little boy standing close to us ; he 
is himself called Barro {als. Barra), and will obtain great honour with 
God and men ; but I am therefore grieved inasmuch as I have not been 
granted the request I now secretly proflfered to God,*^ but He has bestowed 
it upon this holy youth, who did not himself request it, to wit, that God 
would vouchsafe to me to dwell in the midst of these peaceful regions, 
where my monks might be able to remain in quiet after my decease ; for 
our habitation is on the border, where shall frequently arise quarrels and 
wars, and yet my God has bestowed a quiet dwelling-place upon this boy 
that he may live in great peace." Having spoken these words, the holy 
elder Brendan left the blessed Barr, and resumed his journey. But the 
aforesaid elders, with their boy Barr, went forth into the territory of the 
Laginenses, and, erecting a cell in the same locality, they commanded 
him to sign it (with the cross) and to bless it. On his refusing to do so 
before them, they said to him, '' It shall not be so, but thou shalt dedicate 
our cell, for every place which thou shalt have dedicated shall be blessed, 
and inhabited." Then he made the sign over their cell, which is called 
Cyllin Cantilir, and he abode there with his elders, and read with them. 
He increased there, moreover, in body, but still more in faith, love, 
patience, modesty, humility, chastity, and the rest of the virtues. Now 
when he had reached man's estate, there came to Rome a certain wise and 
holy man,*5 who was a pupil of Pope Saint Gregory, and skilled in 
ecclesiastical rules. To him those holy elders, the masters of the holy 
Barr, sent him to learn and read with one who had visited Rome. The 
holy Barr therefore came, together with certain other disciples, having 
received the blessing and permission of his elders, to read and to study 
with him. Now it happened that a certain good man had bestowed a 
field upon him,*^ in the which he might build a cell in the name of the 
Lord, and the man of God blessed the cell in that place, which is called 
Culcaysseal,'7 and he dispatched his disciples thither, who built a cell and 

34 ** Postnla a me, et dabo tibL"— Ps. ii. v. 8. 

»$ Alum^ttus S. Gregoriu Dr. Lanigan obsenres, "Although I find no reason for denying 
that Mac-Corb was the master of Barr, yet we are not boand to believe that he had been a 
disciple or hearer of Pope Gregory, whose name has, owing to its celebrity, been more than 
once introduced into the lives of some of our saints without any foundation."— ^^r^/. //<>/., 
voL ii., p. 314. 

a* Had btsttwed upcn him. The word used is immoiant^ i.e., obtuJU in fcrfttuuw^ ** pre- 
sented to him for ever." It often occurs in this sense in the Book of Armagh. So also in the 
Chrm. Pictotum^ ''immolavit Nechtonius Abemethige (Abemethy) Deo et St. Brigidae." This 
use of the word seems peculiar to Celtic Latin, for Ducange (s.v.) quotes but one authority for 
it, and that from a Welsh Charter in the Monasticum Anglicanum. Vide Reeves, p. 435, ir. '1 he 
Bodleian MS. reads offereL The Irish equivalent is Timecarnaim.'—NoU by TitMslaior. 

«7 Cuicaisseil. Otherwise written Cuil-Caisin, i.e., Caisin's comer or angle, new Coolcashin, 
in barony of Galmoy, county Kilkenny (vid. Ord, Surv, Sheet 9), It was held under the 
Viscount Mountgarrett, in 1635, ^ of his manor of Ballyne, Fottr Mast, an 844. ** Jac Sbortall 
nuper de Ballylorkan, in Co. Kilkenny, in vita sua seisitus fiiit, etc. (inter alia), 4 acr. ' arab. ' bosc ' 
et pastur.' etc., in Coolecashm. Predict.' J. S. ob.' March 4, 1635. Premissa teneb.' de Vioecom. 
Mountgarrett ut de manerio suo de Ballyne." — R^t. Canc^ Car. i. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. II3 

dwelt therein, and blessing them he proceeded on his way. Now as he 
was on his journey a mighty man met him, saying, " O man of God 
come with me, and in the name of Christ relieve my misery." He 
accordingly accompanied the man, who brought to him his son who was 
blind, and his daughter who was dumb. Then the holy man, beholding 
their wretchedness, and, full of faith, blessed them, and straightway they 
were made whole in his presence, for the daughter spake with a distinct 
utterance, and the son beheld with a clear vision, and he restored them 
whole to their parents, who had previously suffered no calamity. After 
this miracle the holy Barr and the Prince Fyachna met together in the 
same place. After mutual salutations, they heard loud lamentations pro- 
ceeding from their immediate vicinity. Then the prince said to the man of 
God, ** I am grievously- afflicted, O holy (man) of God, because my wife 
is now dead, for that sound of weeping declares that she is no more, 
inasmuch as she was dangerously ill." The holy Barr, aware that God 
would restore her by his supplication, said to the prince, ** Let your lady 
be washed in this water and she shall live." Then the holy man praying 
blessed the water, and the blessed water was carried to the dead princess 
that she might be washed (therewith), and when she had been washed 
with that water she arose in health, as if from a heavy slumber. Then 
the Prince Fyachna*^ granted unto the holy Barr to hold for ever that 
place which is called Raith-hyrair.*^ After these things, a certain mighty 
man tempted the blessed Barr, saying, ** We would fain see some wonderful 
sign of the marvellous things which God hath wrought by thee this day." 
To which the man of God replied, ** God is able to do whatsoever things 
he wishes. " It was then the season of Spring, and they were sitting without 
under the shade of a nut tree, and the saint, knowing that he (the prince) 
had tempted the Divine power, prayed secretly in himself, and the nut (t'-es) 
under whose shade they were poured down perfectly ripe nuts, so that their 
bosoms were quite full. Then said the saint, ** Learn now the power of 
God by such an act." The man therefore did as the servant of God 
would have him, performing penance. 

After these things the servant of God, Barr, came to the holy man, 
previously mentioned, and read with him the Gospel according to Saint 
Matthew, the Apostle, and the Ecclesiastical Regulations, which he had 
received and learned from Pope Gregory, and after the perusal of these 



38 Fiachna^ Kiog of Jannuman, to wit. Western Momonia, and reputed author of the 
hymn beginning " Celebra Juda festa Christ! gaudia." The scholiast notes that it was composed 
in the time of Domnallus, the son of i£da, son of Ainmerech, that is, Donald II., who, in our 
1st of kings, holds the fifteenth place."— Ussher, Wmrks^ ed. Elrington, vol. vi., p. 544. 

49 Raithairthir^ ut,^ the Eastern Fort. This was the name of the most eastern fort in the 
district, where the fair of Tailltin was held. The place is still so called in Irish, and Anglicised 
Oristown. — Four Masters^ ad, an, 784. '*Then St. Patrick came to the place of the Royal 
Agone (Fair ?), which u called Tailltin, to another son of Neill Corpre^ for there were three 
sons of Neill, whom Patrick found in this island, to wit, Leogare, Corpre, and Conall." Tertia 
VUa Sti Patricii^ Trias Thaum,^ p. 25, c 44 ; to which Colgan appends the following note :— 
"By 'Agone Royal,' he understands public contest and games, commonly called A&nack 
Tatl/ean, usually held at Taltenia in the territory of Meath (Mediae), of which frequent mention 
occurs in our histories, sacred as well as profane {cum sacris turn profanis) ;" p. 31 it. ; see also 
VUa foe, ihidy p. 77. '* lie built the city now called Domnach PadruiSi that is, the City of 
Patrick ; and a dwelling-place for Conall, which is now called RathyrUnr.^^ 



114 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

books his master said to him, ** I now desire to receive from thee the 
service (or reward) of my labour. ".3° ** It shall be given thee," replied the 
holy Barr, **if I have it." ** I would obtain of thee," said the holy 
master to him, **that we may both rise together in the same place at the 
day of judgment." ** It shall be so, even as thou hast said," replied Barr, 
** for in the one place we shall be buried, and rise together." 

After this, the holy man Maccuirp,3' the aforesaid master, proceeded to 
Rome to his own master, Gregory, to obtain from him episcopal rank, to 
whom the holy Gregory said, ** From me thou shalt not receive episcopal 
rank, for one who is worthier than I am shall consecrate thee, for in the 
place of your resurrection shall the angels of God consecrate both you and 
the holy Barr bishops ; " and he, admonished by these words, returned to 
Ireland. 

Meantime the holy Barry, by angelic command, proceeded to the 
land of the Mumenienses, and there built a cell, which is called 
Achad Duirbton. There the angel of the Lord came unto him, saying, 
** This shall not be the place of thy resurrection." Then the man of God 
came to the cell of Cluane,3« and there founded a church, and remained 
there until there came unto him two disciples of Saint Ruadan,33 seeking 
a dwelling-place. Then the holy Barr bestowed upon them his own 
place, with all that it contained, saying, ** Abide ye here, and I will go to 
seek another place, for my resurrection is not here." But the holy angel 

30 / now desire to receive from thee the service of my labour, Ferrus is the word used in the 
ext, which is probably a corruption for 'Terrum," explained by Ducange, sub voc, as "servitium 
quo vassallus agros domini arare tenetur.*' Service by which the vassal is held to till the fields of 
hb iCid.*' In the Bodleian MS. the word mercedem^ reward, payment, is used instead. — Note 
by Translator, 

3z Afaccuirp, In the former life, or in the Cork office, Torporius is read for Maccurbius 
(Maccuirp), of whom the following particulars are theie preserved : — '* Finbarr came to 
Torporius, the bishop, the well-beloved disciple of Pope Gregory, and learned from him the 
Gospel and Paul (BoUand), More accurately Corporius (in MSS. C. and T. the names are 
written without distinction). Maccuirp has the same meaning as "son of the body;** hence in 
Latin the name Corporius appears." 

There appears to have been an office for St Fin Barr recited at Cork. It had nine proper 
lessons ; there was also a proper Mass for his feast, Sept. 25, from which some extracts are 
supplied in the Acta Sanctorum^ taken from the Missa Propria Sanctt. Patron, ac Tutelar, 
FroHcia et Hibemice Clementis XII, Papajussu edita^ 1734.— iVa/« by Translator, 

3« Cell of Cloyne, Likewise that he had two brothers (St. Sedonius) whose names are ' 
inserted in the List of Saints, to wit, Saints MogabaM or Goban, Melteoc or Eltin, and that he 
appointed them to preside over the Church of Cloyne, situated between the mountains of Crop 
and Mairge, and was buried at Kennsalia (Kinsale). He is commemorated on the same day 
as the local patron. Colgan^ 573, and note. 

33 Ruadanus, In the Life of St, Puadan, founder of the Monastery of Lothranus, in the 
territory of Muskerry, (it is said that) he went to St. Finian, a very wise man, who dwelt in his 
own city of Cluain-iharaird, on the confines of the Laginenses, and region of Meath, and St. 
Ruadan abode there with the above-named St. Finian, reading various scriptures, and making 
great proficiency in them. — Ussher, Brit, Eccl, Antiqq, Works^ vol. vi., p. 472. He founded 
Lothran, in the Barony of Lower Ormond, Co. Tip, circ. 550. " Wherefore St. Ruadan was 
divinely sustained with his disdples." — Vid. Colgan^ p. 395. " He died at Lothran," 584. « 
Ussher, Ind, Chron. He is commemorated April 15. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. II5 

of God came to the saint, and led him with his disciples from the above- 
named place to another, where is now his city, which is called Corchaid, 
and said unto him, ** Abide in this place, for here shall thy resurrection be." 
Afterwards the holy Barr first fasted three days, and prayed without ceasing, 
desiring to bless his own place with prayer and fasting. Then a plebeian 
named Aed,3^ the son of Congall, of the descendants of Mchyer (Meichier, 
Cod. BodL), seeking a cow flying from the herd that she might bring forth 
alone, came to the place where the man of God was with his followers, 
and by the will of God drew nigh to the holy man, and in their presence 
brought forth a calf. The men beholding this marvelled, and asked them, 
saying, **What do ye here?" The saint of God, Barr, replied, we are 
here seeking a place in which we may entreat God for ourselves and for 
him who may have bestowed it upon us, for the honour of God." Now 
that piece of ground where they were belonged to the man who had been 
in search of the cow, but he, being influenced by the grace of the Holy 
Spirit, said to them, ** I present to thee, O Barr, saint of God, this ground 
in honour of God ; accept also the cow which God has brought to you." 
Then the man of God, giving God thanks, blessed him and all his descen- 
dants, and he himself with joy returned home. But the servant of the 
Lord remained there, leading a most holy and wonderful life, even 
unto the day of his death. At last, after no long time, the holy man 
Maccuirp, the master of the blessed Barr, returned from Rome, and 
coming to the holy Barr was received by him with honour, and narrated 
all the things which the holy Gregory had told him at Rome. When 
these things became known, many other Saints from other churches came 
to see (the fulfilment of) this promise. And on the appointed day they all 
entered the church and prayed, awaiting the ministration, and while they 
were thus praying, behold the angels of God appeared unto the Saints, 
and lifted up the holy Barr and the holy Maccuirp aloft by themselves, 
and consecrated them bishops there, and setting them down close to the 
altar, they declared them to be bishops. In proof of this power, there 
burst forth then from the earth, and close to the altar, much oil, until it 
even overflowed the shoes 35 of those standing there. Then did all give 
thanks to God for these marvellous things, glorifying the Saints whom 
the angels consecrated. After these things, on that day, the holy Bishop 
Barr, and the holy Bishop Maccuirp, and the other clergy with them, 
dedicated the cemetery of the church of the holy Barr, which is called 
Cork. And after they had consecrated it, they made this promise in the 
name of the Lord— to wit, that none of those buried in that ground 
should be shut up in hell after the day of judgment. Then the holy 
Bishop Maccuirp prayed that he might be the first buried in that cemetery; 
and his prayer was heard, for he himself was straightway seized by illness 
and happily passed away ; and with honour, by the venerable Bishop Barr 
and other holy clerics was he interred, the first, in the cemetery of Cork. 
He was a most holy man, who had been the disciple of the holy Gregory 
at Rome, and the master of the holy Barr, and had himself, together 

34 Aid, S9n of Congal. Aid, son of Conall, was the first Christian king of Munster (on the 
death of Aidus Niger, son of Crimthan, of the stock of Lativertix). He was of the family of 
the Dalcassian princes.— CJ^^'a, p. 389. 

35 Shoes (ficones), A species of shoes worn by our ancient saints. — Vid. VU. St. Kiercui, 
Colgan^ 5 March, c. viii. (Worn by monks and rustics, Ducangt [sub. vo€.) says.) 



Il6 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

with his pupil, the holy Barr, been consecrated bishops by the angels of 
God. In that place, moreover, the holy Barr abode until his death, and 
there in his honour arose the great city which is called by the same name, 
to wit, Cork. And many saints were there his disciples, of some of whom 
the following are the names :— Factna,^* son of Mongich, and Mocolmoc,^^ 

36 Factna^ son of MonggUh, St. Fachtnan, styled "the wise," who founded the See of 
Ross ; his festival is celebrated 14 Aag. *' For as Ireland was formerly called Iris by Diodoms 
Siailus, and the Irish in later times. In and Irenses, so at the time of Gildas there were in 
Ireland numerous famous schools, amongst others that of Ross, where Hanmer, in his collections, 
states that St. Brendan taught the liberal arts. This was also an episcopal see, in provincial 
Roman, Rossailither (s./., Ross of the Pilgrims), in the royal archives, Ros-hilary. 
To-day, from the region of Carbery, which is situated on the sea coast of the county 
of Cork, it is called Ros-Carbre, where there is a church, distinguished by the name of 
Sl Fachnan, whom the writer of the life of St Mocoemog celebrates as a wise and honour- 
able man, and mentions that he dwelt in the southern part of Ireland, close to the sea, in 
his own monastery, which he himself founded ; wheie there grew up a city in which constantly 
remained a large number of students, and which is called Ross-ailithry. — Ussher, ubi sup. 
Works^ vol. vi. p. 472. 

Diodoms Sktdus. The passage of DIodorus Siculus referred to, occurs in Book v. c. 32 
(voL ilL p. 318, ed. Wesseling). He considers the '* Britons," as he terms them, who inhabited 
Ireland to have been cannibals. Bede assures us that in the year 664 many English nobles and 
others, betook themselves to Ireland for the prosecution of Divine or secular studies, going from 
the cell of one master to that of another—" per cellas magistrorum "—and that the Scots, as the 
Irish were then called, willingly received them, and supplied them with food, books, and 
teaching gratis.— JETiJ/. Eccl. b. iii c. 27 ; Works ed. Giles, vol. ii. p. 381. See further on this 
subject :—Petrie'8 Round Tewers, pp. 136, 137; Killen, Eccl, Hist, of Ireland^ vol. i. p. 5I1 
and Lanigan, EccU Hist, vol. ii. p. 353, etc. Of St. Fachnan or Faghna, Hanmer writes :— 
" Mine author recordeth that he fell blind, and with many prayers and salt tears desired of Goi 
restitution of his sight, for the good of his convent and the students brought up under him ; a 
voyce was heard — ' goe get some of the breast milk of Broanus, the artificer's wife, wash thine 
eyes therewith, and thou shalt see.' He went to a prophetess named Yta, or Ytha, to learn 
how to come by this woman, and it fell out that this woman was her sister ; hee found her out, 
washed his eyes, and recovered his sight." — Hanmer 's Chronicle of Ireland^ pp. 118-119, ed. 
1809. Hanmer wrote circ, 1571. Speaking of the early Irish Seminaries, Dr. Killen says: — 
" They were not mainly schools for secular instruction, though in point of general literature, 
the teachers were iax in advance of almost all their contemporaries in Europe. At a time when 
Pope Gregory the Great was obliged to acknowledge that he was ignorant of Greek (see his 
Epistles^ vii 32, zi. 74), there were ministers in Ireland quite competent to read the New 
Testament in the original language." Opinions on this subject vary. The whole question has 
been ably discussed by the late Prof. G. T. Stokes in his exhaustive papers in the Proceedings of 
the Royal Irish Academy, Third series, vol. ii., pp. 177-202. {Greek in Gauly etc,^ and The 
Knowledge of Greek in Ireland.) Also by Mr. F. £. Warren, Liturgy and Ritual of the Celtic 
Chutchy p. 157; etc. "In the larger monasteries the disdples were instructed in mathematics 
and astronomy, as well as in ancient classics ; the Irish appear to have been the first who com- 
posed Latin rhythnm ; and are noted for their love of poetry ; and had long been accustomed to 
listen with delight to the music of the harp, their favourite instrument." — Kiilen uln sup. On 
Pope Gregory's ignorance of Greek, and hostility to the humanities generally, see some remarks 
in Gregorovius, History of Rome in the Middle AgeSy vol. ii. pp. 88-9 and notes. Gregor}''s 
own words are— "Quamvis Graecre linguae nescius. — Although ignorant of Greek."— Ep. 29, 
vi. Ind. XV. — Note by Translator. 

37 Mocolmoc. Colemanus, the son of Lenin, and Colmanus Chain, by others said to be Mochol- 
mog, son of Gillan, and Mocholmog Cainnitch, disciples of St. Barr, bishop of Cork were 
esteemed famous in theste times, especially the fanner, of whom, in the life of St. Brendan, ton 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. II7 

son of Gillian, and Mocholmoc Caunch,3' and Fachtnan,39 and Fergus, 
and Conaire, and Sibunus (Suibiseus?), Segenus,^ and Trlenus, and 
Bishop Liber, and many others. They themselves, on account of his 
holiness, were brought to other places, and they offered their own places, 
and themselves likewise, to their holy master Barr, and their places even 
unto this day render obedience to the successors of the holy Barr. 

of Findl(^, we read—' This Colman, son of Lenin, was distinguished among the saints for life 
and doctrine, he himself founded the church of Cloynr, which is to-day a cathedral, and famous 
in the region of Momonia." — Usshir^ vol. vi. p. 535. When Brendan on his journey came (to 
St, Jarlath, Bp. of Tuam), behold, even as his holy nurse predicted, he met a certain man 
travelling who was called Coleman, the son of Lenin, to whom St. Brendan said — ** Go 
man, repent, for God hath called thee to salvation, and thou shall be innocent as a dove in the 
sight of God, and therefore did he call him Coleman, as it were the hand of a dove, on account 
of the innocence of his work." — Cclgany p. 309. He is commemorated November 24th. 

3& Mocholmog CauncA, or Coleman Cham, the crooked, perhaps Coleman de Ceam-Achaidh: 
Mar. 31. ''Where that place is I cannot ascertain. One church named Camchluain is situated 
in the Diocese of Ossory, in Lagenia, and another in the Diocese of Derry in Ulster, which is 
sometimes styled Cambos, sometimes Camas, in the Martyrologia, and in that they say St 
Coleman is commemorated, 30th October. Whether he is identical with the Coleman we have 
been considering, or a different person with similar name, and local connection, I have no means 
of conjecturing."— C^^fsif, p. 799. 

39 Fachtnan, "Neither must we omit Mochoemeg, the bishop, and Findlugus, pupils of St« 
Carthag, in the same school of Rathen ; nor Fachtna, son of Monghich, Mocholmog, son of 
Gillem, Mocholmog Cainnich^ Fachtnan, Fergus, Conaire, Silennus, Segenus, Trienus, and 
Bishop Liber, disciples of St Barr (who was also called Lochan, Barroc, and Find-barr, a name 
he had in common with Finian of Clonard), bishop of Cork. ** — Ussher^ vol. vi. p. $44. 

Ussher here mistakes MongUh for a proper name. The feast of Fachtnae mace mongach, 
" the hairy child," is commemorated in the FelirB of Oengus^ Aug. 14. The epithet " hairy" 
is thus explained in a note in the Leabar Brecc — " When Fachtnae was bom much hair was on 
him, hence everyone used to say to him, ' mac mongach' (hairy child)."— Stokes' Felire of 
OtnguSt p. 131. — Note by Translator^ 

¥* Segenus, *' From the aforesaid island and College of Monks was Aidah, sent to instruct 
the English nation in Christ, having received the dignity of a bishop, at the time when Segenias 
abbot and presbyter, presided over that monastery."— j9a^ Hist. Ecd, lib, 3, cap. 5. An, 651 
died Segenus. Commemorated 12th August. 

Segenus Abbot of Hy, The island of Hy or lona, was granted to St Columba by the 
provincial monarch of the west of Scotland, to whom he was allied by blood. Adamnan relates 
Some particulars of an interview which they had this year, and the Irish Annals record the 
donation of Hy, as the result of King ConnalKs approval. This appears to have been in 563. 
At this time the island of Hy seems to have been on the confines of the Pictish and Scotic juris- 
diction, thus forming a most convenient centre for religious instruction with both peoples. — Vid. 
Bp.. Reeves' ed. oi Adamnan s Life of St, Columba^ p. Izxv.-vi. Conall, lord of Dalriada died 
in 574, whereupon his successor and cousin was formally inaugurated as sovereign by St. 
Columba, in the monastery of Hy. — ^Vid. Reeves ut sup. Also Skene, Celtic Scotland, vol. ii., 
p. 127 sqq. In his additional notes to the Life, Bp. Reeves writes : — " Comghall's son was 
Conall, the sixth king of British Dalriada, and in his reign the monastery of Hy was founded. 
Here arises the old question who granted that island to St. Columba?" Bede {Hist^ Eccl. iii. 
c. 4) says that Columba came into Britain in the ninth year of the reign of Bridius, King of the 
Picts, and that on their conversion they bestowed upon him the island for a monastery. After a 
learned discussion of the various reasons for his opinion, Bp. Reeves sums up the question of title 
as follows : — " Columba probably found Hy unoccupied and unclaimed, Conall kindly promised 
not to disturb him, and when the Picts were converted, Brudeus, the supreme lord, of course ^ve 



Il8 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Saint Barr, after the death of his master, Maccuirp, knew not whom 
to have as a Father Confessor. Accordingly, he thought to approach the 
holy elder Colling, that he might procure him as his father confessor, or 
to ask him in case he was himself unwilling, whom he should choose (for 
that office), and scholars affirm that that holy old man baptised the blessed 
Barr ; the holy Colling,^' happily filled with the prophetic spirit, foresaw the 
coming of the holy Barr, and spake unto his household, saying : ** A holy 
guest, with blessed companions, will come to us to-day. Prepare now for 
their coming hospitality (the guest chamber), the bath, and food." And 
afterwards the man of God was received there with honour. And the 
master of the household of the holy Colling said unto his blessed guest, 
giving them his benediction: "The holy old man, our master, rejoiceth 
greatly at your coming ; put off your shoes and let your feet be washed 
with water, and afterwards bathe." "We have more pleasure in first 
saluting the old man than in bathing," replied the holy Barr. When the 
servant had repeated these words to the holy Colling, he answered, "Say 
thou to the blessed Barr, that he should wash his feet, and this night 
partake of our charity, but on the morrow let him depart unto his own 
cell, and there I will salute him, for on the seventh day I will come unto 
him, and we will both mutually salute each other, for so it is pleasing unto 
God. For such a man ought not to endure so great toil on my account, 
and therefore I will not see him until I shall have endured as great labour 
on his [account]." And so it came to pass, for the holy Barr returned on 
the morrow, and the seventh day following, the holy Colling arrived, and 
as he was now entering the church at Cork, he was received with honour 
by the venerable Bishop Barr, and forthwith that old man fell down 
before the feet of the Bishop, saying, "Promise to accept whatsoever I 
shall now offer to thee." And the Bishop promised him. Then that 
saint saith, " Behold my body, and my soul, and my place, I present unto 
God and unto thee for ever." When he heard this speech, the holy Bishop 
wept bitterly, saying, "Alas, I had no thought in my mind but to offer 
myself with my place to God and to thee." The holy old man replied and 
said, "Not so, but even as I have said, thus shall it be, for thou art more 
precious and greater with God than am I, but instead of this offering, I 

to the in&nt institution all the right and title which the weight of his sanction could confer." — 
Reeves, p. 436. Full particulars regarding this famous monastery, its history, character, and anti- 
quities will be found in the work last referred to, which is a mine of information on this and kindred 
subjects, as well as a monument of learning and indefatigable industry. — Note by Trauslaior, 

4x Colingus, Eolyngus, BodL MS, St. Eulanguis or Eulogius in the Life of St, Talmack^ 
** After these things, he says, leaving the care of the new building to his disciples, and accom- 
panied by twelve companions, amongst whom were Saints Eulogius and Moedoc of Ferns, they 
'ravelled into Britain.'*— Zi/fe of St, Maidoc. 31st January. St. Olan was patron of Aghabulloge, 
a parish in the diocese of Cloyne. In the vicinity of the church are many remains of olden 
times, pillars, circles, oghams, rock basins and ratbs. The present church (which succeeded a 
medieval one) was built within a few years ; an Ogham inscription from this place is now in the 
Royal Cork Institution. In the churchyard is Olan's stone (a fine Ogham, 6 feet 6 inches in 
height) and cap, a circular concave stone, about which are many traditions. A very fine stone, 
12 feet 6 inches in height, with an Ogham inscription, was for many years used as bridge across 
a narrow part of the river Dallaheena, which runs near. This stone was removed and placed 
upright in its original position near St. Olan's Well, by Mr. Win dele, in August, 1851.— Vid. 
Rot, Pip, Colmani, p. 27. 1591. Rect. de Aghabollig spectat ad cancel et Hospit de Mora. 
1615. "AghaboUock als. Fanbalkey. Concellarius de Clone et Cormack McDonc^h Carty 
tenent rectoriam valor ill. lib." — See Brady's Records of Cork, vol. ii. p< i. 



LIFE OF SAINT FIN BARRE. I TQ 

beseech of thee that we may both await our resurrection in the same 
place." The holy Barr replied, **That shall be granted unto thee, but 
thou hast not answered the question regarding which I went unto thee, to 
wit, concerning my father confessor. *'Thou shalt have," said the holy 
Colling, **a true confessor, and a true frLend of thy soul, even Christ, may 
He now receive thy hand from my hand, and hear thy most pure con- 
fession." Which so came to pass, for there, on that day, the Lord Christ 
took the hand of the most blessed pontiff Barr out of the hand of the holy 
elder Colling, in the presence of a great company of angels and archangels, 
a number of saints, and of the faithful standing around, and having 
heard his pure confession, let him depart. Near the cross, which is called 
the Cross of Colling, this took place. From that day forth truly, even unto 
the death of Saint Barr, none could look upon his fleshly hand, because 
of its surpassing radiance. Therefore was it ever enveloped in a glove.*' 
When the time of the departure of the blessed servant of God, Barr, 
from this life to the true light, drew near, he made known to a few con- 
genial disciples that he should die in his own church, which is called 
Cork ; but being himself aware of his approaching dissolution, he pro- 
ceeded to the cell of Cloyne, unto the holy men, Cormac« and Buchen, of 
whom we have made mention above, the holy saint feigning that he 
would visit them ; for a period of seventeen years elapsed from the time 
when the blessed Barr built the church of Cork,** even unto his decease. 
Now after the arrival of the beloved champion Barr at the church of 
Cloyne,*s and after that he had saluted the aforementioned saints, he was 
straightway attacked by sickness, and having received the everlasting 
viaticum of the body and blood of Christ, in the place where now stands 
the cross in the midst of the church of Cloyne, surrounded by a number 
of the saints, he yielded up his most happy spirit to God. But his body 
was brought by an indiscriminate multitude of men, with the honour due 
to it, unto his own city of Cork, and there was he reverently interred, and 
afterwards by the venerable bishops, monks, clerics, and holy virgins, 
and great numbers of the common sort, his relics*^ were taken up. Signs 

42 Manica^ Chirotheca. Du Conge, 

43 Cormac, Colgan entimerates forty-eight saints of this name, as mentioned in the Annals, 
but observes — "I only notice that the greater number of saints of this n^me appeared in Ireland, 
amongst others, Saint Cormac, the pupil of Saint Ruadan, and afterwards of St. Barr." — 
Colgan^ p. 360. 

44 Built the Church, From a passage in Bede we learn the mode of building churches 
adopted by the early Irish. " Finan, in the Island of Lindisfame, erected a church suitable for a 
Bishop's See. Which, however, he built after the manner of the Irish (More Scoiorum)^ not of 
stone but of hewn timber, and thatched it with reeds." — Hist. EccL lib, iii. c. 25. For some 
interesting notices from the Chroniclers on Churches of Wood and Stonty vid. Genis^ Magavitu^ 
vol. 215, p. 213. 

45 Cellam Cluanie. Cloyne, where a See was founded by Colman MacLenin of Quain 
Uamadh in Ui Liathan. — Vide Supta^ p. 18, if. a. 

\^ ReliquuB, Irish " mf^itMa na naomh^^ See O'Brien's Irish Dic,^ sub voce Taise, 
Also, Reeve's Adam, Colutnb, p. 317. According to Bp. Reeves, mantra is the word used to 
designate the enshrined bones of a saint; the word miomta being used for other relics, consisting 
of articles hallowed by his use. Cf, Skene, Celtic Scotland^ vol. ii. p. 293, note. Among the 
customs which sprang up in the Irish Church, after she had been brought into closer contact 
with Rome, was that of disinterring the remains of their saints and enclosing them in shrines, 
which could be removed from place to place, and which were frequently used as a warrant for 



I20 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

acxx>mpanying them, and with psalms and hymns, and spiritual songs,^' 
were deposited in a silver shrine. 

These remarkable and marvellous gifts of miracles, which are seldom 
heard of, God bestowed upon the holy Barr. For the grace of God vouch- 
safed to him speech before his birth, while yet in his mother's womb, and 
immediately after his birth a distinct utterance, even before the suitable 
time for speech ; and an offering was made to him by great men before 
his baptism, and more ample grace of miracles without supplication. 
And angels ever were his guides wherever he went, and were often in his 
company, and that he received from them the episcopal rank, and that the 
Lord took his hand out of the hand of the saintly elder Colling, numerous 
saints beholding testify. The holy bishop Fursey^ when he was in the 
city of Cork, beheld the golden ladder beside the tomb of the man of God, 
to receive the souls ascending to heavenly realms, and he saw its top reach 
unto heaven. The happy Barr was great in heaven as well as earth, 
strong in faith as Peter, an illustrious teacher as Paul, powerful as 
Andrew, he overthrew vices as James, full of the grace of God as John. 
And what more shall I say? He drew unto himself all the virtues of 
perfect men, to wit, humility, obedience, patience, hope, faith, charity. 
He was himself a saintly father, and therefore deserved by his merit the 
Kingdom of Heaven, and the vision of the Eternal King. After many 
miracles performed, after he had fought the fight, finished his course, 
kept the faith, on the seventh of the Kalends of October, happily, amid 
choirs of angels, he departed to God. 

End of the Life of Saint Barr, Bishop of Cork. 

enforcing the priyileges of the monasteries of which the saint was the patron. Ccmmmtatio or 
condtuth were words used in this sense. Vid. Skene, he, cit,-^Noie by Translcdor. 

47 Eph. V. 19. 

48 Fursey, He was a man of a most noble Irish family. — Bede^ Hist, EceL i. 3. c. 19. 
Colgan quotes the genealc^ of St. Farsey from an ancient MS., where we read, " St. Fursey, 
son of Fintatan, was of the stock of Loga Laga, who was the son of Engenius Taighlech, and 
brother of Alilliiliolum, King, that is, of Momonia."— C^i^wi, p. 95. The mother of St. 
Fursey Peronensis was Gelasia, daughter of iCdhfinn, Prince of Hi-Briuniae, of the race of the 
kings of Connaoght.— /^. He was baptised by St. Brendan in an island in Osbren (Lough 
Corrib). Dr. Lanigan says the island here alluded to is Inisquin, in the same lake where 
St Brendan is said to have spent his latter days. Eccl, Hut, iL, p. 541. Hither St. Fursey 
retired. " Full of the grace of good works, neglecting his country and his parents, and devoting 
his time to the study of the Holy Scriptures in the monastery which he built in the above-named 
place."— Co/^piif, p. 77. *' Having spent twelve years in preaching the word of God to all, 
without any acceptation of persons, he set out for a certain small island in the sea, accompanied 
by a few of his brethren, whence he traversed very many coasts of the islands, and passing 
over, with a &vourabIe wind, arrived at the eastern part of England, where he was honourably 
received by King Sigebert, and softened the hearts of the barbarians by the word of God."— 
Ibid, p. 81. St. Sigebert, " induced by St. Fursey, from a king he became a monk, and from 
a monk a martyr."— Camden, BrUannia, " Having put all things in oider he set sail, and was 
then honourably received by Clodoveus, the King, and Patricius Archenaldus."— C^^i^, p. 82. 
He built a monastery in a place called Lagny (near the river Mame), and, not long after, being 
seized with illness, he died."— ^wV, ut Sup, Having filled Europe with his f^me, he died 
about 650. His festival is celebrated i6th January. 

St. Fursey, Fursey was son of a Munster prince. He acted as a missionary, first in 
England, afterwards in France. He became superior of a monastery at St. Quentin, near 
Peronne (whence he is styled " Perronensis "), where he died Hrc, 676.— Vid. etiam KiUen^ loe, 
£it-^Note by Translator. 



f 



SIR TEAGUE O REGAN OF BALLYNACLOGHV. 



121 




The Arms of the O'Regans. 

Sir Teague O'Regan of Ballynacloghy, 
County Cork, 

By FRANCIS J. HEALY, Barrister-at-Law. 




I HERE were originally three families of O'Regan in Ireland^ 
namely, two in Leinster and one in Munster. Of the two 
O'Regan families in Leinster, one of them was descended 
from Riaghan, brother of Donal, who is No. lOO in the 
Dempsey (chiefs of the Clanmaliere) pedigree. The other 
Leinster O'Regan family was descended from Dubhrean, 
brother of Dun, who is No. 104 in the Dun pedigree. That 
Dubhrean had Dubhda, who had Maolcroine, who had Giollamuire-caoch 
O'Riaghain, who was the last chief of Hy Riaghain, now known as the 
Barony of Tinehinch, in Queen's County, which gave its name to the 
parish of 'Oregon,* or Rosenalis, in said barony. The Leinster families 
of O'Regan were of the Heremonian stock, and were one of The Four 
Tribes of Tara {Baok of Rights), 

One of these was Maurice Regan, who was Secretary to Dermod 
McMurrough, King of Leinster, and who wrote an account of the Anglo- 
Norman Invasion of Ireland under Earl Strongbow and his followers, 
which is published in Harris's Hibemica, Dublin, 1770. 

The third, or Thomond, family of O'Regan, with which this article is 
concerned, derived their surname from Riagan, son of Donchrian, a 
younger brother of Brian Boroimhe (Boru), the i7Sth Monarch of Ireland, 
who, A.D. 1014, was slain at the battle of Clontarf, and who is No. lOf; 



122 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

in the O'Brien, Kings of Thomond, pedigree. The patrimony of this 
Munster family of O'Regan was located in the barony of Carbery, in the 
County of Cork, and their name appears in the old sept map of Ireland. 
Their pedigree is fully given by 0*Hart in his Irish Pedigrees. 

The most prominent member of this family in more recent times was 
Sir Teague 0*Regan, who entered the army, and made a distinguished 
figure in the service of King James II. in Ireland. He was Governor of 
Charlemont, and for his defence of that fort was knighted by King James 
at the Castle of Dublin, on 20th June, 1690. He was at the battle of the 
Boyne, and afterwards was Governor of Sligo at the time of the surrender 
of Limerick. He then embarked, with part of the army, for France, 
where he died without issue. 

This Sir Teague Mcjohn Reigane's ancestral property seems to have 
got, temporarily at least, into the hands of that redoubtable West Cork 
magnate. Sir Walter Coppinger, as will be seen by the subjoined copy 
of the original Deed Poll of Trust of Sir Walter Coppinger of the lands of 
Ballinacloghy, dated i6th day of October, 1635 • — 

**To all to whom these presents shall come, I, Walter Coppinger, of 
Kilfinane, in the County of Cork, Knight, sendeth greeting. Whereas, 
John McTeige O'Reigane, Ballynaclohy, in Carbree, in the Countie of 
Cork aforesaid, Gent., hath put the said Sir Walter Coppinger in truste 
about 20 years now past to pass free patent from our Soveraigne Lord 
Kinge James of sacred memorie to me and to my heirs for ever of the 
said Towne and Lands of Ballynaclohy, with all and singular the appur- 
tenances to the same belonging, which I have accordinglie performed. 
Nevertheless, the said John McTeige was and now is in the quiet and 
peaceable seizen and possession of the premisses, with all and singular 
the Hereditaments thereunto belonging. Now, know ye that I, the said 
Sir Walter Coppinger, in performance of the said Truste and confidence 
by the said John McTeige in me, the said Sir Walter Coppinger, reposed, 
do by these presents for me and my heirs release, remitte, and discharge 
the said John McTeige and his heirs for ever of anie right, title, claim, 
interest, or demand which I have, or that my heirs have had, or ought to 
have, in and to the said Towne and lands of Ballynacloghy, with sdl and 
singular the appurtenances and Hereditaments thereunto belonging, being 
now in the possession and lawful seizen of the said John McTeige, so as 
neither I, the said Sir Walter Coppinger, or my heirs, may have hereafter, 
claim, challenge, or demand in or to the said premises, or unto any part 
thereof, for ever, but to be debarred, excluded, and frustrated for, saving 
and reserving and doing suite and service for my Court Leet and Court 
Baron of my Manor of Kilfinane, and doing suite to my mill of Rourragh, 
to me and to my heirs for ever in as large and ample a manner as the 
same was granted by free paten te to me and to my heirs, do hereby 
covenant and grante to and with the said John McTeige O'Reigane and 
his heirs for ever that I, the said Sir Walter Coppinger and my heirs 
shall and will warrant and defende the said Towne and Lands of Ballyna- 
cloghy, with all and singular the appurtenances thereunto belonging or 
appertaining to the said John McTeige and his heirs, except as before 
excepted, against mee, the said Sir Walter Coppinger, aad my heirs, 
or either of us, and against all others claiminge by and under the Estate 



SIR TEAGUE o'rEGAN OF BALLYNACLOGHY. 1 23 

of me, the said Sir Walter Coppinger, and my heirs for ever. In witness 
whereof I, the said Sir Walter Coppinger, Knight, have hereunto putt my 
hand and seale the sixteenth day of October, Anno Dmi. 1635. 

Walter Coppinger. 

Signed, Sealed, and Delivered in presence of us whose names do 
ensue:— 'Flo. Carthy, Mortagh Donovan, Morrogh Donovan." 

In or about the year 1662 Tiege Mcjohn Reigane, afterwards known 
as Sir Teague, exhibited through his guardians and counsel his claim to 
the Commissioners under the Act of Settlement, claiming to be restored 
to the possession of the lands of Ballynaclohy and Gortniglogh, then in 
the possession of Lieutenant Portman ; and in his petition stated that his 
father, John McTeige Reigane, died in the year 1639 seized of said lands 
in his demesne as of fee by lawful descent from his ancestors, leaving the 
claimant, his eldest son and heir, an infant of the age of two years ; and he 
though a Roman Catholic, never joined with any of the rebels or 
usurped raiders. 

Upon this petition the Commissioners decreed him to be restored to 
the possession of the said lands. Teige Mcjohn Reigane thereupon 
entered into, possession, and continued therein for several years. 

In D'Alton's King James's Irish Army List, Dublin, 1855, we read 
that he. Sir Teague O'Regan, was the most remarkable of his name in 
this campaign, a truly gallant, and to his King loyal officer. In May, 
i6go, he was Governor of Charlemont, when, says Ihe Williamite writer. 
Story, **Cannon and mortar were sent up to force old Teague from his 
nest, if he would not quit it otherwise.** On the 12th of that month 
this veteran, **his provisions having been spent, and no hopes of relief 
appearing, desired a parley,** and ultimately surrendered on terms of 
the garrison being allowed to march out with their arms and baggage. 
In the following year, on the 23rd of July, Lieutenant-Colonel Ramsay, 
of the Williamite army, marching towards Sligo, found at Ballysadare 
Bridge, four miles thence, Sir Teague O'Regan, with eighty horse and 
about two hundred foot, very advantageously posted to hinder his passage 
that way; but Ramsay's party attacking them they gave ground after 
some time, and a reinforcement aiding Ramsay, the enemy were pursued 
almost to the fort of Sligo, about thirty being killed and nineteen wounded. 
Sir Teague narrowly escaping. In the September following, he being 
Governor of that fort of Sligo, was forced with his party by Colonel 
Michelburn from the several outworks and ditches and obliged to retire 
into the heart of the fort; and on the 21st of that month he was obliged 
to surrender that same, on terms similar to those given to Galway, him- 
self marching out at the head of 600 men. 

On Sir Teague's death, in France, without issue, the lands of Bally- 
naclohy devolved to his cousin and heir. Captain Daniel Reigan, of 
Knockridane. Captain Daniel Reigane is named in D 'Alton's King 
James's Army List, and was supposed by Mr. D 'Alton to have been the 
Major Regan who was afterwards killed at the siege of Derry. But 
Captain Daniel Regan, Sir Teague's heir, lived long after that event. ^ He 

X That the Captain Daniel Regan mentioned in D'Alton's King James's Anny List was no 
other than Sir Teigne's cousin and heir there can be little donbt. He belonged to Colonel Daniel 
ODonoran's In&ntry Regiment, the said Colonel O'DonoYan being a near Catholic neighbour 



124 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

was also possessed of other property! in West Cork in his own right. 
By Deed Poll, bearing date the 13th day of August, in the year 1641, 
Danielle Oge McDanielle 0*Riagane, of Killeenlea, conveyed the half 
plowland of Knockridane and the two gneeves of Killeenlea in mortgage 
to John Morphie, of the Leap, in the Countie of Cork. 

The above John, by Deed Poll, bearing date the i6th of August, 1662, 
assigned all his interest in the above premises to his son, John Morphy, 
then a student in Trinity College, Dublin, which John Morphie after- 
wards, on the 1 6th November, 1662, exhibited his claim to the Com- 
missioners under the Act of Settlement, and claimed as an innocent 
Protestant to be decreed to the possession of the lands of Knockridane 
and Killeenlea aforesaid, then in the possession of Lieutenant John 
Portman. The Commissioners, on hearing, decreed the lands to the 
claimant, and he entered into possession, and continued therein until 
his death in the year 1681 ; and by his will, dated loth March, 1681, 
he calling himself LL.D., devised said lands, after other remainders, to 
Daniel Reogane, his sister's son ; which Daniel became afterwards seized of , 
and continued so at the time of the capitulation of Limerick, 3rd October, 
1691, where he served as a Captain in the service of King James, and 
was declared by the Lords Justices and Council on the loth of December, 
1694, to be comprehended in and entitled to the benefit of the Articles 
made for the surrender of said city. This will be seen by the following 
copy of the Petition and Certificate and Adjudication of the five Lords 
Justices, that Captain Daniel Rhegan (0*Regan) was entitled to the 
benefit of the Treaty of Limerick, dated loth day of December, 1694 : — 

BY THE LORDS JUSTICES AND COUNCIL. 
Cyril Wick, W. Buncombe. 

The peticon of Capt. Daniel Rhogan, of Knockridane, in the County 
of Corke, claymeing ye benefitt of ye Articles of Lymerick, being sett 
downe to be heard before us, ye Lords Justices and Council, upon 
opening ye same by his Council this day in ye presence of their Maties 
Council Learned in ye Law, and upon Examination of several Witnesses 
upon oath in ye Case. It appeared to us that the said Captn. Daniel 
Rhogan was in Lymrick 3 day of October, 1691. That he hath since 
submitted to their Ma 'ties Government and taken ye oath of ffidelity, 
and therefore wee doe heerby Adjudge him, ye said Captain Daniel 
Rhogan, to be comprehended within ye Articles made for ye surrender 
of ye place, and to be thereby intituled to all ye benefitts and advantages 
of them. 

Given at ye Councile Chamber in Dublin ye tenth day of December, 
1694. 

Porter^ Cap. 

Rick. Cox. ^-r^^T- 

And. Jeffreyson. Will Kildare. 

•^ Cha. Feilding. 

Capt. Danl. Rhogan. Ry. Reynett. 

of his in West Cork, one of the 0*Donovans of Castle Donovan. This appears the more evident 
from the fact noted elsewhere in D* Alton's List, that Captain Regan's soldiers, a sergt. and six 
men, were awarded £1 los. 6d. for guarding the money sent from DubUn for Colonel 0»Donoviw'$ 
Regiment. 






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FACSiMiLii OF Petition and Certificate and Adjudication. 
Capt. Daniel Rhlgan. 1694. 



SIR TEAGUE O REGAN OF BALLYNACLOGHY. I 25 

Daniel 0*Regan lived to a great age, and left two sons, Morgan 
and Teige. Morgan had only one son, Daniel, who died without issue 
in the year 1807; Teige was a physician, residing at Macroom, where he 
died leaving two sons, Morgan O 'Regan, of the City of Cork, and James 
O'Regan of Mallow, M.D., who died in the year 1801. Dr. James 
O 'Regan was a fashionable physician at Mallow, in or about which town 
he owned a considerable amount of property, besides the ancestral lands 
in West Cork. He was married to Miss Catherine Moylan, of Cork, 
who was first cousin of Dr. Moylan, Catholic Bishop of Cork, born 
1735, died 181 5 (see Memorial in St. Mary's Cathedral, Cork), whose 
brother. General Stephen Moylan, fought for American Independence 
under Washington, whose intimate friend he was. On the death of 
Dr. James O'Regan his property passed to his son, James O'Regan, 
who was educated at Trinity College, Dublin, and was a barrister 
of great promise, a friend of Daniel O'Connell the Liberator, and a 
strong advocate of Catholic Emancipation. He died in 182 1, early in 
fife, at the outset of his career. The following is an extract from the 
Rent Book of James O'Regan, after the campaign of Waterloo, which 
is interesting, and speaks for itself: — **The distress of the country and 
the low price of corn, occasioned by the sudden cessation of war, having 
rendered a reduction of rent necessary, I have diminished the rents of 
those holdings I myself let (except that to Smyth), and have promised 
to write off all arrears now due, which, indeed, the tenants would be 
totally unable to discharge. — Sept. 28th, 1815." 

**A further reduction will probably be necessary." 

On his death his property passed by his will to his mother for her 
life, and subject to her life interest and an annuity to his sister, Mary 
O'Regan, to his brother, Morgan O'R^an, whose interest passed to 
the husband of said Mary O'Regan, namely, Thomas W. Cahill, M.D. 

Dr. Cahill took his degrees and spent his early life in Paris. He was 
a political prisoner, and confined for some time with other British sub- 
jects at Verdun; and after his release he served in the British army in 
the campaign and battle of Waterloo as an army surgeon. He died at 
Tivoli on the 15th of February, 1858. 

The only surviving child of Dr. Cahill and his wife, Mary O'Regan, 
was the late Mrs. Louisa Cagney, who married the late Michael Cagney, 
J. P., of Tivoli, Cork. They left issue seven sons, namely, David, 
Michael (deceased), Thomas, Francis, Charles, barrister-at-law (de- 
ceased), Albert, and James Cagney, of Harley Street, London, M.D. 
(deceased) ; and three daughters —Mary, wife of Jerome J. Murphy 
(deceased); Louisa, wife of George Waters, and Emily Cagney. 

The lands so held by Sir Teague O'Regan and his ancestors, which 
with other lands remained in the possession of his Catholic descendants for 
so many generations, in spite of the Penal Laws, and the social wreckage 
caused by the great famine of '47, were recently sold by the Cagney 
family to their tenant occupiers under the Land Purchase Act, 1903 ; and 
thus the connection of the O'Regan family with this property in West 
Cork, after many centuries of ownership in fee, came to an end. 




126 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



Five Cork Publicists. 

( Continued from page 76. ) 

IV. 

^S President of the Cork Young Men's Society and of the 
Cork Literary and Scientific Society, Member of Parlia- 
ment, a leading Solicitor in Cork, and a Land Court 
Commissioner uhimatdjfl, Mr. John George MacCarthy 
was not only a prominent Corkman, but a leading figure in 
his day in Irish life. 

He was bom in June, 1829, in the South Main Street, 
Cork. His father, who was a leather merchant, was a man of consider- 
able musical and literary attainments; whilst his mother came of the 
ancient stock of the O'Driscolls of the County Cork. It was no doubt 
to his father's house that he was alluding in his History of Cork, when 
he says : **I have good reason to remember a humble home over a shop in 
the South Main Street, where the languages and literature of France and 
Italy were household tongues and topics." His scholastic education, 
however, b^an under the care of the Rev. Michael O'Sullivan of the 
Mansion House School, then a powerful educational centre in Cork. 

In 1853, whilst yet a young man, Mr. MacCarthy was admitted a 
Solicitor ; and it was not long before his legal ability commenced to show 
itself. But while thus advancing himself in his profession he was also 
exhibiting remarkable zeal in other directions. When the Cork Catholic 
Young Men's Society was founded on the first of November, 1852, by the 
Rev. Father Leahy, of St. Mary's, Pope's Quay (who was afterwards 
Bishop of Dromore), amongst the band of eager young Catholics assembled 
on that occasion, in presence of Bishop Delany, was John George 
MacCarthy. 

Even then he was a remarkable figure ; and was elected first President 
of the Society — a position he held from 1852 until 1880, when he left Cork 
to reside in Dublin. He threw himself into the task of making the Young 
Men's Society a lever for the benefit of the youth of the city, with un- 
tiring zeal and force of character. He worked for its progress most 
assiduously, establishing classes for the study of science, mathematics, 
and other subjects; and by procuring the best preachers obtainable for 
conducting the annual retreats; and strengthening in every way the 
conspicuous features of the Society. 

Amongst the learned lecturers whom he attracted to the Society were 
Archdeacon (afterwards Cardinal) Manning, and Monsignor Capel. His 
own discourses were most eagerly anticipated by the members. With the 
versatility that marked his attainments he lectured on a variety of topics 
in the most interesting manner, whether dealing with the history of Joan 
of Arc in charmingly sympathetic style, or investing the sober study of 
astronomy with a garb of the most attractive interest. Politics and 
polemics he deemed entirely outside the Society's scope; but whatever 




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FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS^ 127 

debating skill was lost owing to their exclusion was amply counterbalanced 
by the discursive skill he awakened in other topics. The annual report 
of the Society as prepared by him came to be regarded as a literary treat ; 
for though the recital of its formal workings apparently offered but little 
opportunity for fresh treatment, the President never failed to open new 
ground with happy effect. The reading of the annual report was, there- 
fore, looked forward to with the liveliest interest. 

A Liberal in politics, with popular views on the Home Rule question, 
he entered Parliament in 1874 ^^ representative of Mallow. Previous to 
that year, he contested this constituency unsuccessfully against Mr. Henry 
Munster, a gentleman of large means, but comparatively unknown in 
Mallow. Mr. Munster *s fate was a sad one, for whilst out in America 
a fire occurred in the house where he was staying, and on leaping from 
the window to escape from it he was killed. In the 1874 Mallow election 
the candidates were, on the Tory side, Captain Creagh, of Doneraile, 
and Mr. William Johnson, Q.C. (now Judge Johnson); and Mr. MacCarthy 
and Mr. David Nagle (the founder of the Cork Herald) on the Liberal 
side. Messrs. MacCarthy and Johnson were returned; whilst Mr. Nagle 
received only six or seven votes in all. 

In Parliament Mr. MacCarthy was destined to add lustre to the 
reputation that had gone before him. In his early days an impediment 
in his speech sadly marred that impressive flow which characterised all 
his utterances. With the indomitable energy and perseverance that 
formed so marked a trait in his nature he fought against this defect and 
conquered it. Ekjquence and fluency distinguished his oratory, which 
was always a model of directness ; and never failed to rivet the listener's 
attention. These qualities did not pass unnoliced in the House of 
Commons. His speeches on all matters relating to the Land Question 
attracted especial attention; and doubtless operated largely in securing 
him the important appointment of Land Commissioner under the Gladstone 
Act of 1 88 1. He was that year Chairman of a Sub-Commission under 
the Land Act; and on the passing of Lord Ashbourne's Purchase Act he 
was appointed Land Commissioner — a post he held until his death. 

While faithfully discharging his functions as judge, he allowed no 
worldly consideration to warp his conception of right or wrong. One 
feature in his judicial career will probably be remembered. He published 
a letter pointing out the difficulty of valuing land, owing to foreign com- 
petition and adverse seasons ; and advised the farmers of the country not 
to be too hasty in concluding bargains under these circumstances. This 
laid him open to a charge of partiality, which was brought before the 
House of Commons. Mr. MacCarthy met the insinuation with his usual 
spirit; and forwarded a memorandum to the Speaker of the House in 
which he proved that the statements made respecting him were based on 
an entire misconception of the facts. No more was heard of these charges ; 
and Judge MacCarthy continued to fill his office to the satisfaction of all. 

In addition to the other positions he occupied while living in Cork, 
he was for some time an Alderman of the city representing the South 
Ward ; and he was also an energetic worker in the ranks of the Charitable 
Society^of St. Vincent de Paul. Anything that tended to the amelioration 
of misery, or the enlightenment of the people, had his warmest sympathy 
and support ; and this he succeeded in doing whilst a large legal business 



128 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi*:OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

and numerous other offices claimed his attention. He was proprietor of 
the Old Athenaeum, now the Opera House and Theatre Royal; and when 
the theatre was opened in March, 1877, he was elected Chairman of the 
Company. This connection he severed when he left for Dublin; and he 
also withdrew from the firm of MacCarthy & Hanrahan, and the Munster 
House and Land Agency on the South Mall, which formed his previous 
sources of income. 

Mr. MacCarthy was made a Knight of the Order of St. Gregory the 
Great in 1880, in recognition of his services to the Church. His death 
took place in London, on the 7th of September, 1892, on his way back 
from Homburg, whither he had gone to recruit his health. He left a 
widow (the daughter of Mr. J. Hanrahan, of Lakeview) and four children, 
the eldest a daughter, and three sons, all in the legal profession. 

Besides his Letters on the Land Tenures of Europe, Mr. John George 
MacCarthy was author of the following works : — Irish Land Question 
Plainly Stated and Answered. Longmans, London, 1870. A Plea for the 
Home Government of Ireland. Third edition; Sullivan, Dublin, 1872. 
A History 'of Cork. Sixth edition ; Guy & Co., Cork, 1875. The Farmers* 
Guide to the Land Act. Guy & Co., Cork, 1875. Henry Grattan: A 
Historical Study. Ponsonby, Dublin, 1876. Speeches on Irish Questions. 
Ponsonby, Dublin, 1877. The French Revolution of 1792.^ 



V. 

Differing in descent, position, and antecedents from the four dis- 
tinguished Corkmen previously sketched, Mr. William Joseph O'Neill 
Daunt stands out as a distinct, unique, and most interesting personality 
amongst the memorable Irishmen of the nineteenth century. Sprung 
from the landlord class, and brought up in the religious belief usually 
professed by that section of the community, Mr. O'Neill Daunt at an early 
age cast aside the traditions, interests, prejudices and predilections of his 
family and surroundings, and embraced the religious and political creed 
of the less favoured majority of the Irish nation. Never was there one so 
thoroughly, earnestly, and unwaveringly devoted to his adopted religious 
and political principles, even at the cost of pecuniary loss; and never 
was there a more appropriate and well-deserved title than that given 
to the only form ol memoir of him that we, so far, possess, A Life Spent 
for Ireland.* 

Though his was an old County Cork family, Mr. O'Neill Daunt first 
saw the light at TuUamore, King's County, on the 28th of April, 1807, 
where his father was then stationed as Captain of the Louth Militia. 

The Daunts came to England at the time of the Norman Conquest, 
and acquired estates in Gloucestershire. The old and historic manor 
house of Owlpen in that county, which still exists, formed the seat of 
the head of the family for many centuries, until about the time of Mr. 

I Mr. MacCarthy was first cousin of the late Most Rev. Dr. MacCarthy, Bishop of Cloyne. 
A large oil painting of him is to be seen in the Hall of the Catholic Young Men's Society in 
Castle Street, Cork. His concise and valuable Histoty of Cork^ it is to be regretted, is now 
long out of print. He was buried in Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin. 

9 London : T. Fisher Unwin, 1896. 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 129 

O'Neill Daunt 's birth. The last representative, Mary Daunt, married Mr. 
Staughton, of Ballyhorgan, Co. Kerry, and merged her patronymic in 
his. In Elizabeth's reign Thomas Daunt, of Owlpen, transferred himself 
and his fortunes to Ireland; and acquired on lease from Sir Warham 
St. Leger the lands of Tracton Abbey, between Carrigalinc and Kinsale, 
besides which he purchased the estate of Gortigrenane, also in the County 
Cork. This Thomas was succeeded by another Thomas, who lost 
considerably by the Civil War of 164 1. He was succeedied by Achilles 
Daunt, who .is said to have been captured and carried off by Philip Oge 
Barry to that dangerous rock outside Cork Harbour, which has ever since 
been known as Daunt's Rock — though whether Achilles was actually 
drowned or was rescued therefrom forms a disputed point. William, 
the fourth son of the first Thomas Daunt, of Tracton and Gortigrenane, 
was grandfather of William Daunt, of Kilcascan, which property he 
acquired in 1712; and the great-grandson of William of Kilcascan was 
Captain Daunt, the father of William Joseph O'Neill Daunt. 

Captain Daunt married the daughter of the Rev. Dr. Wilson, F.T.C.D., 
a famous Greek scholar and steadfast opponent of the Union, at whose 
death his widow Went to live at Tullamore, where, in the course of time, 
the eldest son of her daughter, Jane Daunt, was born. 

Mr. O'Neill Daunt 's youthful days .were spent at Kilcascan with 
his father, who, though he hated tithes, was in all things else a strict 
Tory, the story of whose tragic dieath, the result of a duel, has been 
recently narrated by the Rev. Canon Courtenay Moore in the pages of 
this Journal That sad event occurred in 1826, whilst the subject of this 
sketch was yet in his tetens ; and on being thus rendered his own master, 
free to act as he pleased, it was not long before he broke away from class 
and family traditions, and cast in his lot with the people. 

One of his first acts on acquiring independence was to become openly 
incorporated with the Catholic Church, into which he was received by 
his dear and venerated friend. Father Mathew. From the age of twenty- 
one to thirty-one his chief occupation was politics, during which period 
he was much in the society of his kinsman and neighbour^ Feargus 
O'Connor, afterwards of Chartist famte, of whom and his family he tells 
many interesting anecdotes in his Diary, from which is compiled A Life 
Spent for Ireland, as edited by Miss Daunt, his daughter. **They were," 
he writes, **very hospitable and viery amusing; and some of them at least 
comically conscious of their entertaining qualities." About this time he 
wrote what was probably his first literary effort, a novel called The Wife 
Hunter. 

In 1832 Mr. Daunt was return-ed M.P. for Mallow in the popular 
interest ; but was unseated on the petition of Sir Denham Jephson Norreys. 
The great O'Connell, for whom he entertained a profound reverence, 
unfortunately failed in his promise to free him from the pecuniary penal- 
tics this petition involved; and the mental anguish caused by this and 
certain other occurrences of a like kind brought on brain fever, to which 
Mr. Daunt very nearly succumbed. His faith in O'Connell as a man was, 
on this account, shattered; but with rare unselfishness, recognising his 
merits as a politician, he remained true to his leadership. In a book 
which he wrote subsequently to this period, entitled. The Gentleman in 
Debt, he depicted O'Connell as the Rev. Julius Blake. In 1841, however, 



I30 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

when O'Connell was elected Lord Mayor of Dublin, he gave Mr. Daunt 
the Secretaryship, by way of compensation for the pecuniary loss he had 
occasioned him through the Mallow contest. 

When the Repeal agitation expanded to its largest dimensions, Mr. 
Daunt went heart and soul into it, and gratuitously performed the duties 
of Repeal Director for Leinster, and Head Repeal Warden for Scotland, 
his travelling expenses alone bfeing recouped him. In this way he visited 
such towns as MuUingar, Athlone, TuUamore, and other places in Ireland, 
where Repeal meetings were held and addressed by him, in connection 
with which visits many interesting and amusing anecdotes are related in 
A Life Spent for Ireland. 

In 1843, his Repeal Mission took him to various other places in Ire- 
land; and during part of 1844, when O'Connell was arrested, he was 
also busy in the Repeal agitation. In June, 1845, he went to Scotland 
to hold meetings of the Irish there, the Scottish agitation of the questicm 
having been specially confided to him by the Repeal Association, whose 
proceedings he assisted in conducting in the winter of 1845 and spring 
of 1846, especially while O'Connell was absent from Dubhn. From June, 
1846, he resided at Kilcascan, chronicling in his Journal daily events, and 
mingling with these reflections, historical, political, and religious, all 
eloquently and interestingly written, amongst which he notes the first 
appearance of the dreaded potato blight. 

When the Famine that followed it broke out, Mr. Daunt was a con- 
stant attendant at the Relief meetings ; and in order to give employment 
to the starving people, he borrowed money from the Government to open 
a new line of road, the repayment of which burdened him for many years. 

On the 29th of March, 1847, he noted down in his Journal : '*In the 
midst of sharp privations of various kinds (caused by the Famine), I this 
day rode to Clonakilty to borrow money from the bank to pay the tithes 
to the Protestant minister. I have sometimes dined on Indian meal 
porridge and sheep's milk; sometimes on a pennyworth of rice, and gone 
supperless to bed. Of this I don't complain; for this is caused by a 
visitation of Providence. But of the Established Church I do complain, 
for it is the visitation of England, not Providence.*' Alluding to the 
death of O'Connell, in 1847, he feelingly wrote, under the date of March 
28th: **It is not easy to contemplate with indifference the exit of our old 
familiar leader ; to remember how often I have been among the band who 
surrounded him on Repeal platforms ; to hear the tones of his noble voice 
still ringing in my ears, and then to think that I shall hear that voice 
no more.** 

For several weeks after this last entry Mr. Daunt was confined to his 
bed by a low fever caused by his privations. While getting no rent, or 
next to none, the tithes and taxes were demanded with unremitting regu- 
larity, in addition to which he was involved in a vexatious and unjust 
law suit, attributable partly at least to O'Connell. 

In the October following he notes the pleasing intelligence that a 
German translation of his novel, Saints and Sinners, was published at 
Augsburg ; and in the ensuing month, Ihat he had disposed of his Personal 
Recollections of O'Connell to Chapman & Hall, London, by whom it was 
published in 1848. This work was described by the late Mr. Lecky, the 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 13I 

historian, as **a book of much charm and vividness, that will be of use 
to every biographer of O'Connell." 

In 1849 he was asked by the late Chevalier John Sobeski Stuart to 
assist in raising an Irish Brigade for the Papal Service — a scheme which, 
as he anticipated, proved a failure. Early in 1850 he attended a ** Pro- 
tection" meeting at Dunmanway ; and cwi the i8th of July of that year he 
records that the Irish Vice-Royalty was saved from abolition by an un- 
expected ally, the Duke of Wellington. On the 24th September he notes, 
rather dubiously, his having been extravagantly praised in Feargus 
O'Connor's Life and Adventures, a work which was written by Feargus 
himself. 

His account of his visits to England and Scotland, from 1851 to 1856 
more especially, are highly interesting, from the many notabilities that 
he met, the places he visited, and the store of anecdotes and incidents he 
relates in connection with them. 

On the 15th of August, 1856, he chronicles the holding of a ^'capital 
Anti-State Church meeting at Clonakilty; thousands present.*' This 
meeting attracted much attention; and resulting from it, a deputation of 
the Liberation Society from London arrived at Kilcascan to confer with 
him respecting the best mode of making an effective and combined attack 
against the Irish State Church. To Mr. Daunt, therefore, belongs the 
distinction of having, on that 15th of August, inaugurated the movement 
which, under his fostering care, culminated in the Disestablishment Act 
thirteen years later. He spared no exertions of brain and pen to further 
this cause, in which he enlisted the Irish Catholic hierarchy, and brought 
them **en rapport" with the English Voluntaries. The actual measure 
fell short of satisfying him ; and when all was done, others received the 
praise and thanks which properly belonged to him as the originator of the 
movement. 

On January 27th, 1857, he records the defeat of the Cork and Bandon 
Railway Company in the House of Commons — 2l company with which he 
was in conflict through having resisted the guarantee which they sought 
to impose; and on the 17th of November, 1859, he notes having sent ofif 
to Sir Bernard Burke a Chapter on **The O'Connors of Connerville, " 
written at the request of Sir Bernard for his series of ** Vicissitudes of 
Families." On the 4th of December following he moved the first resolu- 
ticm at a great Repeal meeting held at the Rotunda, Dublin; and in 
February, 1861, he notes in his Journal his evident disapproval of Mr. 
Gladstone's Income Tax: **Mr. Conner and I having successfully resisted 
the attempt to get one quarter from us in advance of income, Mr. 
Gladstone wrote to us a long letter in reply to our memorial, in which he 
did not controvert our statements, but very coolly pleaded the necessity 
of England raising eleven millions to fortify herself within a certain time. 
. . We thought it better to withhold payment than to prolong contro- 
versy with Gladstone, notwithstanding the temptation of publishing his 
letter, with the capital rejoinder to which he had laid himself open. So 
we didn't write and didn't pay, till the second quarter had elapsed." 

On December nth, 1861, he records having read an entertaining little 
book. The Leaders of Public Opinion in Ireland, which he afterwards 
reviewed as a labour of love in the Cork Examiner newspaper. By 



132 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

means of this review he got to Icnow its author, the recently deceased 
famous historian, Lecky. Referring to this circumstance in his letter to 
Miss Daunt, Mr. Lecky wrote: **This little volume of Irish biographies 
was at its first appearance an utter and absolute failure. The only excep- 
tion to the general indifference was an article from the pen of your father, 
which appeared in a Cork newspaper, and which was equally remarkable 
for its kindness towards myself and for its ample knowledge of the period 
I had treated. It was the first public recognition that there was some 
real merit in my writing, the first confident prediction that some future 
lay before me in literature. A letter of very sincere thanks which I wrote 
to my unknown critic was the beginning of a correspondence which con- 
tinued at intervals to near the end of his life.*' 

On June i8th, 1862, Mr. O'Neill Daunt received a letter from the 
London Liberation Society asking him to become one of the Executive 
Council; but this he declined on the score of health and his inability to 
attend the meetings in London. In the earlier part of this year he was 
engaged in a brisk controversy with Mr. H. Lavallen Puxley, of Dunboy 
Castle, on certain points of Catholic teaching and practice impeached by 
that gentleman, which called forth an address of thanks from the Bere- 
haven Catholics for having defended creed and country against Puxley. 

In 1 863- 1 866 he was extensively engaged in correspondence on the 
State Church question with the press and otherwise, letters from his pen 
appearing in the Times and othdr leading English journals, and in articles 
for such periodicals as the London Review. Later on, when the National 
and Home Rule Associations were started he gave them his powerful 
support and sympathy, and frequently attended their committee meetings 
in Dublin. 

On the 1 8th of March, 1866, he notes that the Nonconformist news- 
paper had a favourable review of the second edition, then recently issued, 
of his Ireland and Her Agitators. The review states that **I have done 
probably more than any other living man to keep alive the voluntary 
principle in Ireland. I have, indeed, done all I could," he adds — **I 
ha^e suffered severely both in mind and body by my politics ; but if my 
efforts can be of any appreciable value in promoting ecclesiastical volun- 
taryism in this country I shall not regret my losses." 

On the 26th of July, 1869, the morning papers having announced that 
the Bill for the Disestablishment of the Irish State Church had received 
the Royal assent, he thus comments on this event: **Now that the Bill 
has passed, let me briefly review my own share in the agitation. In 
1856, I and a few others commenced it in Ireland by a meeting at Clona- 
kilty in response to Mr. Miall and the Liberation Society. Thenceforth 
I kept up a correspondence with the Liberation Society, on the one hand, 
and with some leading Catholic prelates on the other, in the hope of 
getting both parties to work in the same harness. It was no easy task 
to get the Irish ecclesiastics to put confidence in the Liberation people. . . 
In December, 1864, J. B. Dillon, P. P. McSwiney, and the Catholic 
prelates founded the National Association; and the question whether to 
assist Voluntaryism or a division of the endowments between the Churches 
then being in the balance among some of the founders, Dillon was 
strenuously pressed to avoid the Voluntaries and to pin our faith to 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 133 

Russell, Gray, and the Whig party in general. I told him that such a 
course would destroy our chances of being emancipated from the State 
Church. He pressed me to go up to town and move a resolution at the 
inaugural meeting. Most of the Bishops, including Archbishop Cullen, 
attended; and I preached the most out-and-out Voluntaryism. Matters 
thenceforth went more smoothly till Mr. Aubrey de Vere and some less 
able men got up a little agitation for the division of the spoils between 
the Churches. This project I successfully opposed in and out of the 
National Association. My) friend;, Dr. jLeahy., Archbishop of Cashel, 
wrote: *What we want is disendowment, not endowment.* Meanwhile 
the English Voluntaries agitated far and wide. They brought our ques- 
tion into every corner of England and Wales. Without their alliance 
the Irish Catholics could not rive the chain. On the other hand, the 
English Voluntaries could have done nothing without us. . . In fact, 
our joint action was indispensable to success ; and it was I who originally 
created or promoted our alliance. Recently attempts were made to 
renew the miserable policy of partition by bribing the Catholic Priesthood 
with two millions' worth of manses, glebes, &c. . . I fought against 
it here, and the Liberation people did the same in England. It happily 
failed ; and the Bill passed without it. On the whole, I daresay, we have 
a qualified triumph — ^nothing to boast of." 

On the 17th August, 1869, he notes the arrival of his old friend. 
Colonel Scott, and Mr. J. P. Leonard, who were commissioned by the 
French* Government to establish an Irish Colony in Algeria. They were 
come to collect the colonists, who were not to exceed thirty-seven families, 
each head of which was required to bring with him at least ;^ioo. This 
scheme was originally devised by Marshal MacMahon. On the 5th of 
April following he received a letter from Colonel Scott, saying that the 
Irish emigrants to Algeria were getting on well, when honest and sober ; 
but that a large number of them, seduced by the cheapness of brandy, 
had become drunkards, struck for exorbitant wages, and were sent adrift. 

That same month he notes that the publisher of his Catechism of Ihe 
History of Ireland (Mulcahy & Co., Cork), informed him that he had never 
sold so many copies of any shilling book as he did of this Catechism. 

About this time Mr. Daunt was invited to become Member of Parlia- 
ment, various constituencies been desirous of having him for their repre- 
sentative; but he declined them all, as he did that he received in 1873 
from Messrs. Isaac Butt, A. M. Sullivan, and Professor Galbraith, who 
wanted him to settle in Dublin, and take charge of the Home Rule 
Movement, whose council meetings, however, he attended as often as 
possible. Besides assisting in preparing addresses, drawing up reports, 
writing letters to prominent persons, and to the public press, he also 
delivered speeches in various parts of Ireland, and, in fact, did everything 
in his power to forward the cause of Home Rule. On St. Patrick's Day, 
1875, when in his 68th year, he addressed an Irish political meeting in 
Glasgow, exactly thirty years after the time that he first addressed a like 
meeting in the same City Hall. 

Though now well on in yea^s, Mr. Daunt 's mental activity con^ 
tinued unabated ; and besides his efforts in regard to the political causes 
he had at heart, we find him, for instance, reviewing Lecky's History of 



134 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

England, contributing to Continental periodicals, such as La Civilisation, 
and to the Westminster Review, London, and compiling articles like that on 
**the Irish Difficulty," which Lady Florence Dixie brought under the 
notice of the Prince of Wales (now King Edward VIL), who courteously 
requested her to assure Mr. Daunt of the interest with which he had 
perused this statement of his political sentiments. About this time also 
he wrote the two important books on Irish history named at the end of 
this article. 

On the 17th of June, 1887, when in his 81st year, he wrote to the 
Pope, to lay before His Holiness his views of the extreme danger to 
the Catholic religion in Ireland of allowing the English Government to 
have any voice or influence in the appointment of Irish Bishops. This 
letter made a considerable impression at the Vatican. It delayed and 
nearly prevented the Persico mission. On the 14th of September following 
he went to Ballyneen Station to meet Mgr. Persico, then on his way to 
Skibbereen, and utilised the few minutes the train waited by impressing 
on the Pope's Envoy that the principles of Irish Catholicity and Irish 
nationality were so indissolubly interfused that any attempt to dissociate 
them would be very dangerous to religion. 

It was only in March, 1888, that Mr. O'Neill Daunt discontinued 
the Diary he had so faithfully kept for more than fifty years. 

He lived for some years longer, and though growing more feeble 
bodily, he lost nothing of his keen interest in Irish politics, or in anything 
that concerned the welfare of the country so dear to his heart. 

He frequently addressed letters to the newspapers bearing on Irish 
taxation, for he had the fiscal relations of the two countries at his fingers' 
ends. The prospect of a new and heavy impost filled him with indigna- 
tion; and the mental agitation Sir W. Harcourt's Budget proposals 
caused him actually hastened his end. The very last letter he addressed 
to a newspaper The Wexford People (which that journal reproduced in 
facsimile after his death) was on this theme, imploring the Irish members 
to pause ere they helped in heaping a fresh tax on their country. His 
words were of no avail, and a new bitterness was thus added to dying 
beds. 

His character stands pretty well revealed through the pages of his 
Diary. He was upright and honorable, unalterably true to his politics 
and religion, and to his private friends. His simplicity was that of a 
child; he could scarcely be brought to believe evil of anyone. His 
estimate of himself was a very humble one ; and he was quite free from 
those petty jealousies and spites that sometimes disfigure the careers of 
public men. His urbanity and gentleness were charming, his sweetness 
of manner and character increasing the more helpless, bodily, he grew. 

The end came very unexpectedly. On Friday, the 24th of June, 1894, 
Mr. Daunt complained in the morning of feeling unwell. Towards three 
o'clock he became unconscious, and without a struggle the soul of this 
truest of Irish patriots winged its flight to a happier land. Never had 
Ireland a son who loved her from youth to age with a more single-hearted 
devotion. 

Mr. O'Neill Daunt's life, character, and labours were felicitously 
summed up by the late Mr. Lecky, the historian, in the letter addressed 



FIVE CORK PUBLICISTS. 1 35 

to Miss Daunt, his daughter, which is prefixed to A Life Spent for Ireland^ 
as follows : 

**Your father, I need scarcely say, was one of the most ardent of Irish 
Nationalists. As he once wrote to me, *No earthly cause is so dear to my 
aflFection as the legislative independence of Ireland.' He was, however, 
a Nationalist formed in the school of 0*Connell. His aim was the 
union on a national basis of all classes, creeds, and interests in Ireland, 
and the restoration, through such aa union, of the National Legislature. 
His dream — if it was a dream — ^was at least a noble and a generous one; 
and he followed it from youth to old age with a consistence that never 
wavered, with a sanguine hope that no vicissitude in Irish politics could 
ever eflFectually quench. Standing apart from active politics, he was 
absolutely independent. He sought nothing for himself, neither place, 
power, or even popularity. . . Courage, consistency, and hopefulness 
are great qualities ; and your father possessed them in an eminent degree. 
No one, too, could come into close correspondence with him without 
feeling the transparent purity and disinterestedness of his motives, the 
honesty of his convictions, and, at the same time, the essential kindness 
of his nature. He had considerable literary skill, and a remarkably wide 
range of knowledge of recent Irish History. His knowledge of the sub- 
jects he treated was very large, and on the financial aspects of the Union 
he wrote with special authority. His strong conviction that the contribu- 
tion of Ireland was fixed at too high a rate, and that her taxation was 
excessive, has been well supported by excellent authorities in England as 
well as in Ireland. It is a subject on which he wrote much ; and he con- 
tributed largely to bring it to the forefront. He represented a type of 
Nationalist which is now rapidly passing away ; and, in my opinion, Irish 
life is much poorer for its loss.*' 

Besides \the three novels already named, viz.. The Wife Hunter, 
A Gentleman in Debt, and' Saints and Sinners, Mr. O'Neill Daunt wrote 
and published a fourth one, called Hugh Talbot, a Tale of the Confiscations 
of the 17th Century. His two biographical works, Ireland and Her 
Agitators (184;; and 1867), and Personal Recollections of O'Connell, will 
never lose their interest; whilst, in addition to his Catechism of Irish 
History, he wrote the three no less important and most recent of his 
hookS'-'Essays on Ireland; Dublin, Gill & Co. (1888); Ireland Since the 
Union; Dublin, Duffy (1888); and Eighty-five Years of Irish History 
London, Downey & Co. (1886). He was also author of the following 
pamphlets : — A Reply to Sharman Crawford's Observations addressed to 
the Repealers; Why is Ireland Discontented? a Letter to John Bright; 
fonathan Swift: an Undelivered Lecture; Impolity arid Injustice of 
Imprisoning O'Connell (1844); and on Mr. O'Neill Daunt devolved the 
labour of collecting the materials for O'Connell's Memoir of Ireland, 
Native and Saxon. 

ii ; ; ' Cn. 




136 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi«;OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

On a Gold Lunette from the Co. Kerry. 

By ROBERT DAY, F.S.A. 

UR Society is indebted to Major John MacGiliicuddy, of 
Ballinagroun, County Kerry, for the loan of a remarkably 
fine example of the Lunette, which was found upon his 
property, and has for generations been an heirloom in his 
family. The illustration that accompanies this paper is 
from a photograph, which shews the detail of the engraved 
work with distinctness. Although it has not been analysed, 
in colour and texture it has all the appearance of pure and unadulterated 
gold, differing in this respect from two in the writer's collection, which 
are of paler colour, caused either by an alloy cf silver, or more probably 
from having been made of native gold that contained a larger proportion 
of that metal in its composition. Like others of a similar kind, owing 
to the lightness of its fabric, and possibly from having been rolled up 
for convenience of carriage, it is crimpled, and slightly defective. The 
decoration, which is of the character usually found on these ornaments, 
was made with a graving tool that produced depressions on the upper 
surface and caused corresponding elevations upon the inner face of the 
crescent. On some the punch was also used, but on the three named, 
with one slight exception, the graving tool was alone employed, shewing 
in some places where it had slipped and gone outside the enclosing lines. 
This graceful ornament is more frequently met with in Ireland than in 
any of the Northern nations of Europe. It is crescentric in shape, ter- 
minating at both extremities in discoid projections that are placed at 
rit^ht angles with the plane of its surface, and were used to hold it in 
p ;sition, either when suspended from the neck, or worn upon the head, 
1.! \v hich case the inner edge would have rested on the arch of the wearer's 
forehead. The outer edge of this ornament has engraved upon it four 
concentric lines, forming as many spaces : one of these is filled with a 
succession of minute chevrons, another with a series of circular punched 
depressions that form a dotted line, leaving the remaining band plain 
and undecorated. The same description equally applies to its inner curve : 
where between three linear spaces, and connecting them, are panels filled 
with chevrons, lozenges with cross-barred borders extending in equal 
distances on both ends of the wings, leaving the wider portion of the 
central part free from design of any kind. Its weight is 2 0z. lodwt. i gr. 
the greatest width is 9 inches, depth 3J inches, height 8| inches, com- 
paring favourably with the largest specimen in the Dublin Museum, which 
is II J inches wide, lof inches high, 4 inches deep, and weighs 40Z. 3 dwt. 
2igr. 

In a paper contributed by the late Dr. Frazer to the Journal of the 
R,S.A,Ly vol. vii., 1897, will be found a list of all the lunettes that were 
known to him. Of these the National Museum in Dublin heads the list 
with 32 specimens, the British Museum 7, the Edinburgh National Museum 
4, Belfast Museum I, while 2 are in France, and 9 in private collections. 




Gold Lunette from Co. Kerry. 



GOLD LUNETTE FROM THE CO. KERRY. 1 37 

To these latter may now be added the one here described, another in 
Birr, and a third belonging to the Rev. J. Lee, P.P., Croom, making a 
grand total of 65 examples. 

There are many references to these lunettes in 0*Curry*s Manners 
and Customs of the Ancient Irish, where Lectures 23 to 29, inclusive are 
devoted to the dress and ornaments in Ancient Erinn (vol. iii., pp. 87-211). 
Among the latter is the tend, ^ or crescent, or lunette. Quoting from the 
Brehon laws, he instances the work-bag of a chief's wife and its legal 
contents, which consisted of four precious articles, namely, a veil of one 
colour, a mind or diadem of gold for the head, and a blade or lunette of 
gold, evidently for the neck, and silver thread of fine wire for embroidery. 
Passages are quoted from the Bringhean Da Derga, which occur in the 
descriptions given by the pirate chief Ingcel to Fer-rogain, of the interior 
of the Da Derga *s court, and of the disposition of the monarch Conaire^ 
mor^ and his followers; among these Ingcel **saw three other men, in 
front of these, they wore three lands [blades or crescents], used on front 
of the head, and also on the neck. I saw here, said Ingcel, nine men 
sitting upon couches. They wore nine short capes upon them, with 
crimson loops and a land [blade or crescent] of gold upon the head of 
each, and carried nine goads in their hands. They, said Fer-rogain, are 
nine apprentices who are learning chariot driving from the King's three 
chief chariot-drivers. I saw three others there, said Ingcel, with three 
lands [blades or crescents] of gold across their heads, and three brooches 
of gold in their cloaks. I knew them, said Fer-rc^ain. They are the 
King's three poets, namely, Sui, and Rosui, and Fer-sui, that is, sage, 
great sage, and greatest sage." The land or lunette must not be mis- 
taken for the mind n-dir or minoh 6ir, that is, the crown or diadem of gold 
that completely covered the head, while the land was simply the crescentric 
plate which was worn upon both the front and back of the head, and 
also on the neck. In further reference to this, in the Tdin Bo Chuailgne^ 
we are told that when Meah^ and her forces entered the territory of 
CuaUgne (in the present County of Louth), they encamped for a night 
on the brink of a river, at a place ever since called Redde Loiche. The 
story proceeds to say that Meab had ordered a comely handmaid of her 
household to go to the river to fetch water for her to drink and wash in. 
Loche was the name of this maiden, and she then went forth to the 
river, accompanied by fifty women, and carrying the Queen's mind of 
gold upon her head. Cuchulaind, the opposing champion of Ulster, 
was concealed near the river, and perceiving the procession of women 
coming towards him, preceded by a beautiful woman with a queenly 
mind upon her head, whom he believed to be the Queen herself, he let 
fly a stone from hb sling at her head, which struck her, broke the mind 
of gold in three places, and killed the maiden on the spot. Had this 
mirid been simply a land or lunette it could not have been so destroyed, 

s Lami or Lamm, a blade or leaf, a crescenti Lunette or frontlet of gold or silver. It was 
applied to a necklace whether for men or women, or to ornaments for spears and other inanimate 
objects when used after the manner of a necklace. 

« Conaire Mor, or the Great, assumed the monarchy of Erinn a century before the Incar- 
nation. 

3 Medbh Ihred in the century immediately preceding the Christian era. 

10 



138 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

as it would have yielded to the force of the blow and been preserved. The 
land or lunette, as the Niamh land, or flat crescent of gold, is referred to 
in a volume of Tales and Adventures of Find Mac CumhailL *'One day," 
said Cailte, *'Mac Cumhaill was upon Mount Sliahh Crot,^ and the 
Fenian warriors along with him, and we were not long here when we 
saw a lone woman coming towards us to the mountain. She wore a 
crimson deep-bordered cloak, a brooch [delg] of enriched yellow gold 
in that cloak over her breast, and a Niamh Land [or radiant crescent] of 
gold upon her forehead.*' Instances could be multiplied of the con- 
tinued use of this ornament from very remote times to a.d. 600. The 
crescent is still universally considered as a symbol of good luck, and is 
exemplified in the horse-shoe, which the peasant will nail to the lintel 
of his door as an emblem of good fortune. In like manner, the military 
gorget, which was concentric in form, was worn as an ornament upon 
the neck down to comparatively recent times. Why so used is uncer- 
tain, except that it represented the last vestige of plate armour, and 
had usually the armorial bearings and initials of the reigning monarch; 
but the shape in connection with the lunette is at least suggestive, and 
carries us back to far away times and customs. 

4 In the south west part of the Co. Tipperary. 




Sir Walter Scott's Visit to Cork in 1825. 

By Canon Courtenay Moore. M.A., R.D., Council Member. 

IR WALTER SCOTT'S first visit to Ireland was paid 
in 1815; it was a flying one. He merely crossed over to 
Ulster for a few hours, and saw the Giant's Causeway 
and Portrush ; unfortunately he left no impressions of his 
trip. The Causeway, no doubt, remains as he saw it, 
but Portrush, which was then little if anything more 
than a handful of fishermen's huts and a few small shops, 
is now a fine flourishing town, with great hotels, fine marts, and golf 
links second to none in Ireland. The population of Portrush in the 
season must approach ten thousand. About this time Scott, though he 
penned no impressions of his hurried Ulster tour, wrote an estimate of 
the poet Moore: **His songs are most of them exquisitely beautiful, and 
he seems almost to think in music, the notes and the words are so happily 
united to each other." 

Ten years later, i.e., in 1825, Sir Walter arrived in Ireland on a 
much larger and longer tour; his son, Walter, then a captain in the 
army, was stationed in Dublin, and was living at No. 10 St. Stephen's 
Green. On the 12th of July Scott and his party sailed from Glasgow 
by steamer, and arrived in Belfast the following day. It is not our 
business, interesting though the task would be, to follow his movements 
in any part of the country, except in the city and county of Cork ; but we 
may note here that Dr. Kyle, then Provost of Trinity College, and afterwards 



SIR WALTER SCOTT's VISIT TO CORK IN 1825, 1 39 

Bishop of Cork, intimated to him that the University of Dublin wished to 
confer upon him by diploma the degree of LL.D. The Lord Lieutenant 
at the time was the Marquis of Wellesley. It was on leaving Killamey 
that Sir Walter and his party proceeded to Cork. 

* 'Monday, 8th, we were early astir. Dined at Millstreet, where Cap- 
tain Bloomfield called, and pitied our poor fare, and proceeded to Mallow, 
where we slept — an English-like town and a very fine old castle. We 
breakfasted next morning at Cork." 

The name of this Cork hotel or house, unfortunately, is not given. 
Lockhart says : **He (Sir Walter) gave a couple of days to the hospitalities 
of this flourishing town and the beautiful scenery of the Lee, not forgetting 
an excursion to the Groves of Blarney, among whose shades we had 
a right mirthful pic-nic. Sir Walter scrambled to the top of the Castle, 
and kissed with due faith and devotion the famous Blarney Stone, the 
salute of which is said to emancipate the pilgrim from all future visita- 
tions of mauvaise honte.** Lockhart adds: **The ruins of the country 
around Cork are beautiful. 

In the Reliques of Father Prout there is an admirable account of Sir 
Walter's visit to Blarney; it is a most beautifully and sympathetically 
written paper, but as it may be familiar to many of our readers we make 
only the following very brief extract from it : — 

'*It was, in sooth, a great day for old Ireland: a greater still for 
Blarney : but greatest of all it dawned, Prout, on thee. Then it was 
that the light was taken from under its sacerdotal bushel and placed 
conspicuously before a man fit to appreciate the effulgence of so brilliant 
a luminary." 

One of the Cork daily papers of the time thus refers to the arrival of 
the ** Wizard of the North" :— 

**On yesterday morning this distinguished character arrived amongst 
us. Sir Walter was accompanied by Miss Edgeworth and his interesting 
daughter. Mr. Lockhart and Captain Scott completed the party. His 
travelling carriage was of a green colour, open at the top, and drawn 
by two horses. . . . During his absence at Blarney crowds collected 
near the door of his hotel, and the street was promenaded by ladies and 
gentlemen of the greatest respectability. On his return from Blarney a 
deputation of the Corporation waited on him and paid their respects; 
many individuals of rank called and did the same. Mr. Quinn, the Father 
of the Munster Bar, in the name of that body, invited him to dinner." 

Sir Walter, next to Blarney, seems to have been chiefly interested in 
what the newspapers of the day call **Mr. Bolster's splendid book-shop." 
Here he retired to the inner apartment, accompanied by Mr. Lockhart and 
Captain Scott, and conversed for a long time with Mr. Bolster, junior. 
John Bolster was the proprietor of Bolster's Magazine, and was locally 
known as ^'the corkscrew,** from the difficulty of getting him to pay for 
contributions thereto. Maclise, the great Cork artist, then a lad of 
fourteen, made a sketch of Sir Walter during his visit to Bolster's. This 
drawing is now in the Foster collection in South Kensington Museum. 
Sir Walter was much pleased with the likeness, and predicted that the 
young artist would rise to eminence. His success seems to have dated 
from that moment, five hundred copies of the drawing were lithographed, 
and immediately sold. Maclise thereupon opened a studio in Patrick St., 



140 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHifiOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



which was soon crowded with sitters for their portraits. I hope some 
competent person, such as our President, will indicate the present sites 
of Bolster's book-shop and Maclise*s studio in the Cork of 1825. 

Dr. Milner Barry thus describes this picture : — 

**The portrait of Sir Walter Scott taken in Cork when Maclise was 
only fourteen is a wonderfully executed drawing, and if not afterwards 
retouched displays the extraordinary talent of the boy-artist. It is a 
profile — ^head and shoulders — the shape of the head indicative of the 
massive brain, and the shrewd, pawky expression of the features are 
more fully apparent than in any other of the portraits of Sir Walter 
Scott I have seen. The portrait by Newton, also in the Foster collec- 
tion, looks tame and bucolic when contrasted with the pencil portrait of 
the juvenile Corcagian." 

On the return journey to Dublin Sir Walter made his first stop at 
Fermoy, where the party slept. Lockhart describes it as **a fair town 
and river at the foot of a mountain." "The country," he continues, 
** finely diversified all about here. Some considerable improvements going 
on, particularly at Lord Mountcashel's. " Thence they proceeded by 
Cahir to Cashel, **by far the most splendid antiquities we have met in 
Ireland are here." But we cannot enlarge further, as we have now 
got out of Cork into Tipperary, and so must say goodbye to Sir Walter. 

[Bolster's printing works were situated at the corner where the Messrs. 
Guy & Co., Ltd., have their printing, publishing, and fine art premises. 

Daniel Maclise lived in his father's home, at Nile Street, on the 
opposite side and fronting Messrs. Woodford, Bourne & Co.'s bonded 
stores. Much of his early work was done in the study of Richard 
Sainthill, of Topsham, Devon, who resided at the corner of Faulkener's 
Lane, looking out on Nelson Place. — R. D.] 



The Battle of Knockanaar. 

By WALTER JONES. 



** B4r t)4 Bj054j|ie -06)^ 3AC ujle, 
^y '6 n)6 x>ocuj|i 4|i d4d 
^\i Ai) 5Ct)OC fo T/Afi 6)y 1)4 t)5lj4'6 
<Do b4jre 41) TP)4t)r)4 'Crjoc 4t) ^)|i.' " 

I HIS great battle, which lasted five days, and in which two 
thousand combatants were killed, was fought about the 
year 249 a.d. The King of Greece and his wife, Queen 
AiM, wished to marry their daughter Miamh Nuadh 
Crothach to Tailc mac Treoin. She refused to wed him, 
and besought the aid of Fionn and the Fianna, who were 
feasting on the hill of Knockahur (crjoc tJO)|i), where the 
Doneraile Waterworks are now erected. Fionn readily 
offered to help her. He, his son Oisin, and his grandson Osgar 
took part in the battle. Osgar is buried in a glen over Mount Russell, 
near Charleville. Bawnfune, where Fionn pitched his camp, is near 




THE BATTLE OF KNOCKANAAR. 141 

Cahirmee. The battle was commenced near Doneraile and was continued 
through 3le4nt) da 3con)4r). (Glengomawn) and B4)le i)4 bpojbleds 
(Byblox) to Knockanaar hill, where Miamh was killed, as stated in the 
Irish stanza above quoted, whence the name of the battle. The well in 
which the wounded were dipped 'C4b4|i b|t4C4 0|1'D4 (Tubber brawka ora) 
was covered by a golden harrow, and lies on the hill. Queen Ail^ pitched 
her court at Se4!) coill d4 bpojbljt), afterwards called 41) Cu)\iv and Se4D 
CttJTi^, now Oldcourt. The killed of the Fianna were buried in the old fort 
at Cahirmee, where vast quantities of their bones may still be seen. The 
King of Greece and his two sons, Ciardan and Leagan, were buried in 
Knockawnamuhelee, a mound on the roadside near Buttevant. Gleno- 
sheen and Carrigoisin are called after Oisin, and it was here that he buried 
his silver trumpet. Fionn MacCumhal Grainne, his wife, and the Fianna 
won the victory. 

I give below the omens by which Queen Ail^ knew her sons would be 
defeated and killed, and the list of the leaders slain in this battle. 

There is a vivid memory of this battle amongst the peasantry of 
Munster. 

The Hill of Knockanaar lies close to the fair field of Cahirmee, mid- 
way between Doneraile and Buttevant. 

Ombns. 

CttHj4X>l) aile. Sorrowing of Ail6. 

1. I knew by the valiant hosts which were in the clouds over the DOn, that were 
in the shape of Suns of the air, that danger was not far from my three. 

2. 1 knew by the fairy voices piercing my ear. 

3. I knew by the tears of blood on my cheeks that ye would not return alive. 

4. I knew by the voice of the grey crows each evening at Cathair, that sorrow 
was anear me. 

5. I knew by the heavy voices of the ravens each morning since ye left, that it 
was fated to you to fall. 

6. I foresaw when ye forgot your greyhounds that ye would not return with 
victory. 

7. I foresaw, oh, gentle heroes, the stream of the waterfall beside the dun being 
like blood when ye set forth, this treachery of the Fianna. 

8. I foresaw by the visit of the eagle returning each evening beside the Dun that 
I should soon hear evil tidings. 

9. I foresaw when the tree withered, branch and leaf, that was before the Dun, 
that ye would not return victorious. 

10. I knew when looking after ye the day ye left the Court, when the black 
raven flew before ye, that it was no good omen of return. 

11. I knew when lying down to rest each long night, by the streams of tears from 
my eyes since we parted, that it was not a presage of defence to you. 

13. I knew by my Liagan's hound howling early each morning that my three 
were overcome. 

14. I knew by the frightful apparition which showed its face to me, that cut off 
my head and my two hands, that it was ye were weak, and 

15. I knew when there appeared to me a lake of blood in the site of the Dun, 
that my three were overwhelmed^ 



142 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCMiCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

List of the Leaders Killed at Knockanaar. 



Cooo Ciabbrach. 


Criag^UL 


FaUdh Flannda. 


CianiUi. 


ManiUo Gaois. 


Menng&n. 


CniigaiL 


CiandiUi. 


Caol liaunneach. 


Meandaire. 


Ciarn&iL 


Ceirin. 


Dorcblin. 


CraadAD. 


Caol-doanadh. 


Aodh Lagara. 


Bolgaire Searc 


CiardAo. 


Gorg&iL 


Mianiln. 


MullAo. 


Doon Dorchan. 


Loogadln. 


Meargach. 


MaoDus licLabar&ne. 


CiardAn. 


Faotan. 


LeAgAn. 


Daol Ciaban. 





Carbrias Notitisu 

A Treatise on the Ancient and Modem State of Eastern and Western 

Gurbery, G). G)rk ; with Pedigrees, LisU of Bishops, etc; Origin 

of Crome-a-boo from the Donovan's G»tle of Crome. 

(MS. on paper, in English, from about i6go.) 

[Extracts.] 

JARBRY, the largest and most famous barony in Irelandi 
hath, with the other territories of that island, often altered 
its dimensions and bounds, as the power and fortunes of 
its lords was more or less prevalent. It is not improbable 
that it did once extend as far north as the river Lee, ori 
as the old verse has it, from Carrig O'Glaneen or Misen 
Head to Cork; but, however that be, I shall describe 
its more certain extent from the harbour of Kinsale to the Bay of Bantry, 
containing all that great tract of land which at this day makes the baro- 
nies of East and West Carbery, Ibane, Barri Roe, Kinalmeeky, and 
Courceys. 

CARBRIiE NOTITIA. 

Sive de utriusque Carhrice occidentalis, scilicet et orientalis veteri et 
recentiore status Tractatio. P. i. Carrig O'Glaveen or Mizen Head. 

This noble country had no less in it than two Episcopal Sees, viz., 
Ross and Kinneigh, and six religious houses, viz., Timoleague, Ross, 
Abbeymahon, Cluggagh, Abbeystrewry, and Inisherkin. 

It is from this Kean Mac Moyle More (O'Mahony 's ancestor) that Iniskean 
takes its name; and it is from the Mahonies that Castlemahon and 
Droghad-i-Mahon (now Bandon Bridge) were soe called. There were 




CARBRIiE NOTITIA. 143 

two branches of this family: the best and eldest was O'Mahon Fune, 
who resided in West Carbry, and was commonly called 0*Mahon-on- 
Yever, or of the West. His chief seats were at Ardintenant and Castle- 
head ; and he is said to have twelve castles of his own. The other branch 
was called O'Mahon Carbry, and his seat was at Castlemahon in Kinal- 
meeky; for Kinalmeeky was then but a cantridge of Carbry (as Glana- 
chrime now is), and was the seate of this O'Mahon; and it is observable 
that the principal Irish alwayes kept as near the sea as they could, though 
in the most barren and mountainous countrys, and the reasons were that 
they had the profits of their creeks and havens; they had correspondence 
with and received advantages from Spaine and other foreign kingdoms; 
they were the freer from the English forces, those mountains being almost 
inaccessible; and consequently they had greater liberty of tyranislng over 
their followers and neighbours, and of securing such preys as they could 
take from them. Thus wee see O' Sullivan Mor at Dunkerran, MacCarty 
Mor at Iveragh, MacFinin at Glanrough, and the great 0*Mahon in Ivagh 
and Muintervary, the worst parts of Carbry. As for the O'DriscoUs they 
have beene for many ages past confined to their small territory of CoUi- 
more and Collibeg, and by some misfortune or other, had reduced their 
estate and name so low that there was not much left of either in the year 
1641 ; and though I doe believe that 0*Driscoll is of royall extraction, 
because I conceive he is descended from Conary Mor Mac Eidriscoll, king 
of all Ireland, since even Dr. Keating confesseth that his posterity were 
seated in Iveragh and the west of Munster, yet the Irish antiquarians say 
there are but eight royal families in Munster; whereof we have three in 
Carbry, viz., Mac Carty, O'Mahony, and O'Donovan. But, however 
this was before, it is certain that after the English conquest Dermod 
(MacCarthy) of Kilbawne, king of Cork, voluntarily submitted and swore 
allegiance to King Henry the Second at Waterford, to whom the King 
gave presents and a kind reception, and sent a garrison to Cork, anno 
1 172, from which time forward this Dermod and his heirs were for some 
time called Princes of Desmond by the English, &c. 

This Desmond founded Abbey Mahon for Cistercians, which he brought 
from Baltinglass, and left his estate and title to his son, Donall Mor Na 
Curragh. 

It seems that Carew was made Marquis of Cork, and settled himself 
in Carbry, and built a castle called Carew Castle, near the Abbey of Bantry 
(his castle was also called Downimarky), and that he gave Muintervary 
to O'Daly, who was his bard, and to O'Glavin, who was his fermon. 

Old Head of Kinsale, likewise called Down MacPatrick, from Patrick 
de Courcy, where his heire male still continues, ennobled with the title 
of Lord Baron of Kinsale and Ringrone. 

But the family of the MacCarthy s, though it were great and numerous, 
never recovered their former grandeur, notwithstanding the decay of the 
Cogans and Fitz Stephens and their heirs, Carew and Courcy, and that 
because of a branch of the Fitz Geralds of English race, which seated 
themselves in Munster, and particularly in Kerry; and being elevated 
with the title of Earle of Desmond, supported by great alliances, and 
having enlarged their possessions by marriages, purchases and tyranny, 
and more especially by the damned exaction of Coyne and Livery, 
did all they could to suppress their competitors, and especially the 



144 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

MacCarthys, being the most powerful and chief of them. No history can 
parallel the bloody, malicious, and tedious contests that have beene 
betweene these two families; in which, though the MacCarthys behaved 
themselves briskly, and slew no less tBan two Lords of the FitzGeralds 
in one day, namely, the father and grandfather of Thomas Nappagh, at 
Callan, in Desmond, anno 1164. Yet at length the more powerful Fitz- 
Gerald had the best of it, and imposed on Carbry a most unjust and slavish 
tribute, called EarFs Beeves, which though, as I conceive, not maintain* 
able by law, is yet tamely paid by the Carbrians to this day, for want of 
unity amongst themselves to join in proper methods to get legally dis- 
charged of it. 

However, the MacCarthys did not dwindle to so low a d^ree, but 
that they continued seized of almost six entire baronyes, viz., Glanaraugh, 
Iveragh, and Dunkerron, in Desmond, and Carbry, Muskry, and 
Duhallow, in the County of Corke; but the Earl of Desmond grew so 
powerful that upon his attainder there were forfeited to the Crown 
574,628 acres of land. 

But because I shall have frequent occasion to mention the MacCarthys^ 
it will be necessary that I first acquaint you with their Pedigree, banning 
nevertheless with Callahane of Cashel, King of Munster, because my 
observations will run no higher. 

[He then gives the Pedigree down to Charles **now living in 1686,'* 
which shows the age of the manuscript]. 

By this Pedigree it appears that MacCarthy Reagh, in the person of 
Donall Gud, became a separate branch of this noble family in the time of 
Donal Mor-na-Curra, who probably gave them Carbry for their portion 
and inheritance, and that MacDom^h did the like some time after, and 
received their estate in Duhallow from their father, Cormac Fin, and 
that the Lords of Muscry, more lately in the person of Desmond More 
Muscry, became a distinct branch of this family, and were seated in 
Muscry by their father, Cormac MacDoncl Oge. 

It is likewise manifest that Donell, Earl of Clancar, dying without 
issue male, his daughter and heir was married to Florence MacDonc^h 
MacCarthy Reagh, whose pedigree shall f<^low more at large; by virtue 
of which marriage Florence claimed the name and title of MacCarty Mor, 
w^iich Donel, natural son of the deceased Earl of Clancar, had usurped, 
and by the help of Tyrone, who was then come into Munster, he was 
established in that name and dignity, and his grandson and heir, Charles, 
is at this day owned and styled MacCarthy Mor. Nevertheless, the 
followers of these great men doe often dispute which branch of this 
family is the principal or chief of the ClanCarthys. 

MacCarthy Mor allies that he, having the title and name, and being 
likewise by his grandmother heir to the last Earl of Clancar, ought to 
be acknowledged chief without dispute. To this the others answere» that 
by the father's side (which is chiefly regarded in Ireland) he is younger 
son of the MacCarthy Reagh, and ought not to exalt himself above the 
chief of his house; that an Irish title and name must be governed by 
the Irish Law of Tanistry, which, like the Royall Law Salique in France, 
will not admit women to inherit estates and principalities ; suitable to the 
Law of Entails in England, which excludes this very MacCarthy Mor 
from being Earle of Clancar, though be b^ his heir at common law; 



CARBRIiB NOTITIA. 145 

neither had Tyrone any l^al power in Munster to confer the title of 
MacCarty Mor, or anybody which had not just right to it. 

MacCarthy Reagh alledges that he is the eldest branch of this noble 
family, which by the Law of Tanistry, ought to be preferred ; that he is 
a degree nearer of kin to the common ancestor, Donal Mor na Cut'ra, 
King of Corke, than any of the pretenders ; that Carbry is an ancienter 
principality than either Musk'ry or Duhallow, and that MacCarthy Mor 
is a younger brother of his house. 

But the Lords of Muscry say that because MacCarthy Reagh is the 
eldest branch of this family, that is, the first that separated from the 
common stock, he is, therefore, excluded from the inheritance till all the 
later branches are lopt by death ; for Tanistry respects the age and merits, 
yet designs only impotent age, and, therefore, a man's uncle shall be 
Tanist, but not his great-granduncle if alive ; and so by the Law of England 
a brother shall be preferred before an uncle, and an uncle before a great- 
uncle ; so that by both laws the nearest of kin to him that was last seised 
shall be his heir; and the Lords of Muscry are the undoubted heirs male 
to Cormac MacDonel Oge, Prince of Desmond, and to all his ancestors, 
even to Donel Mor na Curragh, from whom MacCarthy Reagh descends ; 
and they deny any difference in their degrees of kindred to the said Donel 
More; and if there were it matters not, since a man's grandson and 
heir ought to be preferred before his second son. As for the antiquity 
of Carbry, it proves nothing in this dispute ; and as for the relation be* 
tween MacCarthy Mor and MacCarthy Reagh, whatsoever it may argue 
amongst themselves, it is nothing to a third person, and therefore they 
conclude the Crowne of England has done them justice in giving, or 
rather restoring to them the style and title of Earl of ClanCarthy. 

But be this as it will, my province leads me to the particular pedigree 
of MacCarthy Reagh, who were Lords of this great territory of Carbry, 
and had the greatest chief rents out of it that was paid out of any Seniory 
in Ireland, in soe much that the MacCarthys have been styled Princes 
of Carbry, as well in many ancient histories, and records, as in his several 
Letters patents from the Kings of England. I begin with Donel Gud, 
because I have already shown his pedigree upward to Callahane of 
Cashel, King of Munster. 

Upon the death of Cormac in Liong, in the Infancy of Donel, Donogh, 
brother of Cormac, was MacCarthy by Tanistry, as was also his brother 
after his death; both of these prejudiced the heir exceedingly, but 
especially Donagh, who gave his son, Florence, no less than 2*;^ plough 
lands, as I think, worth ;^i,50o per annum, soe that 'twas said this 
Florence his estates in Carbry was better than his estate by his wife. 
Heiress of MacCarthy Mor, for he'd, &c." (as printed by Dr. Smith in 
his History of the County Cork). 

Of the nicknames of these MacCarthys I shall only observe that the 
name of MacCarthy Reagh came from Donel Reagh, and that Donel ni 
Pipy had that name from some pipes of wine which in his time were cast 
away in Burrin strand, and were consequently his right, being wreck, 
and, accordingly, he had them, which in these superstitious times was 
esteemed lucky and fortunate, and, as the Cornishmen call it, God's 
goods. This man's grandson^ Donel MacCormack, was a Protestant, 
and High Sheriff of the County of Cork, anno 1635, and his son, Charles^ 



146 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

who was as fine a gentleman as ever was of the family, being young and 
good-natured, was too easily persuaded to enter into the Rebellion of 
1 64 1, which occasioned the forfeiture of his estate, and the eclipse, if 
not ruin, of this ancient and noble family. 

But of all the Carties, none was ever more famous than the aforesaid 
Florence MacDonogh, who was a man of extraordinary stature, and as 
great policy, with competent courage, and as much zeal as anybody for 
what he falsely imagined true Religion, and the liberty of his country. 
He married the heiress of the Earl of Clancar, and purely by his merit 
dispossessed her bastard brother, Daniel^ from the name and state 
of MacCarthy Mor, and got the same for himself in her right, by 
the joint suffrage of Tyrone, and all the nobility and clergy, which is 
the more strange, for that in Ireland they always regard the male so 
much above the female that they often prefer a bastard son before a 
l^itimate daughter, which is grounded upon these two reasons, first, 
that the name and family is thereby preserved (as in the Roman adoptions), 
and, secondly, that the country being most commonly in feuds and wars it 
is necessary to have able men to protect every family, and that alsoe is 
the true reason of Tanistry (custom). This Florence, for marrying the 
Eari of Clancar's daughter without licence of the Queene, or for some 
other misdemeanours, or perhaps for reasons of State, was imprisoned 
for eleven years in England, and then being set at liberty, acted in Ireland 
as you may read at large in Pacata Hibemia, and was at length again 
apprehended, and sent to the Tower, where he died, &c. 

Besides the Carthys, the Tolanes were of some account hereabout; 
but that is but a nickname, for the Tolanes are Cullanes, and the Cullanes 
are Donovans originally. 

Near to this (Kilbrittain Cantridge) lies Clancrimin, a territory so- 
called from Mac-in-Crimin (of the Carthys), whose seat was at Ballynorro- 
heir, where he had one of the best Castles in the country, which he justly 
forfeited, together with his life, for a barbarous murther. Anno 164 1. 

BARRIROE. 

It is soe called from the Barrys, who possessed most part of it, and 
are lords of it to this day. It formerly belonged to the O'Cowhigs, a 
sept of the Driscolls, from whom Dawn O'Cowhig takes its name. 

In this country is also OTohig, who were bards to the Lords Barry, 
and for it had the lands of Glanavirane. 

Here is also a small territory belonging to O'Hea and his followers, 
called Pubble O'Hea. 

In this tract of land is Dundeady, a small castle in a narrow isthmus, 
much like that of Dunworly. It makes the promontory between the bays 
of Ross and Clonakilty. 

Rathbarry, a stately large pile belonging to the Barries, and Ahanilly, 
a small castle belonging to O'Hea, who is of the same family with 
O 'Donovan. 

All this barony was taken by Colonel Myn in the late wars, since which 
time Hodnet and O'Hea have not recovered their estates. 

Three miles west of Ross lies the harbour of Glandore, which is an 
exceeding good haven, and near it is a castle of the same name, and on 



CARBRI^ NOTITIA. 147 

the other side lyes a small territory called a Garry (quasi a garden), which 
is the best land in West Carbry, and off it, half a league in the sea, lyes 
a small island called the Squince, which produces an admirable sort of 
herbage that recovers and fattens diseased horses beyond expectation. 

The whole Peninsula from Ballydehab to Dunmanus Bay is called 
Ivagh, and did formerly belong to 0*Mahon Fune, the best man of that 
name. And so you come to Myntervarry, which lies between Dunmanus 
Bay and Berehaven, in which there is nothing worth observation, except 
Coolnalong, a pretty seat, belonging formerly to Muchlagh, a sept of 
the Carthys. This country was, according to Irish custom, given to 
0*Daly, who was successively Bard to O'Mahony and Carew; and to 
O'Glavin, who was the fermon or receiver. But let us pass from the 
rough seas to the smooth plains, whereof we shall find few, till we pass 
Clancahill, a territory belonging to the Donovans, a family of royal 
extraction amongst the Irish. They came hither from the Coshma, in 
the County of Limerick, and built there the famous Castle of Crome, 
which, afterwards, falling to the Earl of Kildare, gave him his motto of 
**Crome aboo," still used on his skutcheon. 

Here we shall find Castle Donovan, seated at the foot of the mountains, 
and not far from it Drimoleague, a small village. 

1528. — ^William Lyons, Bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, repaired 
the Bishop's house at Ross, which was, three years after, burnt by 
0*Donovan. He (the Bishop) died October 4th, 1617. N.B.— The date 
1528 is wrong; it should be 1588. I think the date immediately preceding 
it is 1552. 

Although I formerly said Kineagh was a Bishop's See, there is noe 
proof of it except a small old steeple, and Irish tradition that the Diocese 
contained 24 parishes. But for Ross, the Catalogue of the Bishops 
thereof follows. 

It seems that Carew (Robert de Carew) was made Marquis of Corke, 
and settled himself in Carbery, and built a Castle near the Abbey of Bantry, 
called Carew-Castle, alias Downimarky. 

This Barony (Courcy's) contains noe more than 3,572 acres of land, 
whereof 969 are in the liberties of Kinsale. Places of most note in it 
are : Ringrone, an old castle which gives title of Baron to the Lords 
Courcy. 2 : Castle ny Parke, a fort built on a small peninsula to command 
the Town and Harbour of Kinsale; but it not being sufficient for that 
purpose, its defects are supplied by a royal and magnificent structure at 
Rincorran. 3 : The Old Head of Kinsale, a noted promontory anciently 
called Duncermna, or Down-Cearmna, from Cearma, king of half Ireland, 
who, upon the division of the kingdom, between him and the Sovercy, 
came hither and built his royal seat, and called it after his own name. 
Of later years it was called Down M* Patrick as aforesaid. 

CANTRIDGE OF KILBRITTAIN. 

Xhis territory is still reckoned part of Carbry, and takes its denomina- 
tion from Kilbrittain, a large castle, the seat of MacCarthy Reagh; a 
proud situation, indeed, it is, being seated on an eminence, and environed 
with a large wall and six turrets, all of lime-stone. The sea flows very 
near it, through the harbour of Courtmacsherry, and supplies it with 



148 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

plenty of excellent fish. It had the privil^e of fairs and markets, and 
may be justly esteemed a fair seat. 

Not far from it, on the sea coast, lyes Coolmain, another castle of 
MacCarthy's, both which were taken from him by the Bandonians, in . 
May, 1642, and soe kept ever since. 

On the river Bandon, formerly called the river Classen, stands Kil- 
goban Castle ; and more to the west, on the same river, the pleasant seat 
of Ballimassee, and the Castle of Carriganass. As for Downdaniel 
Castle, though it be situated on the north side of the river, yet because 
it was the estate of MacCarthy, it has been alwaies reckoned as part 
of Carbry. 

Part of this Cantridge lies within the walk of Bandon, and is commonly 
known by the name of Bridewell. 

Ibawne and Barriroe make but one barony, divided into two halves 
by an arm of the sea that comes up to Clognikilty ; that part on the east 
being called Ibawne, signifies a plain country, or a country of fine fields, 
and is justly applied to this tract, being much better than the rest of 
Carbry. It was wrested from the old proprietors by Arundell, commonly 
called Lord Arundell of the Strand, who, besides havens and creeks, had 
a yearly revenue of ;^i,Soo> which was very great in those days, viz., an. 
1450. From him it was bought or taken by the Barry s, and now the 
lordship of this signory belongs to the Lord of Barrymore. In it are, first : 

Timoleague, a small village near the sea, protected by a strong castle 
on the east, and beautified by a stately abbey on the west This abbey 
was founded in the time of Edward 11. by the Lord William Barry, say 
some; by the Carthys, say others; but certainly it was much enlarged 
and beautified about the year 1516 by Edward Courcy, Bishop of Ross, 
and well filled with Friars of the Order of St Francis. 

Within a mile hereof stands the Abbey Mahon, alias de Sancto Mauro, 
or rather de Fonte Vivo, built by Dermitius MacCarthy, of Killbawne, 
King of Cork, about the year 11 72, and filled with Cistercian monks which 
he brought from Baltinglass. 

Near this, to the south, lyes Courtmacsherry, a pleasant seat on the 
sea, formerly belonging to Hodnet, an Englishman, whose ancestors came 
from Shropshire, but now degenerated into meere Irish, and commonly 
called Mac Sherry. 

To the westward lies Dunworthey (Dunwortley), a noted promontory, 
often fatally mistaken for the Old Head of Kinsale. It is fortified with 
a pittyful castle, made purposely on the entrance of a small peninsula 
to secure the preys which should be brought there. 

Two miles westward of this, in a small island in the bay of Cloghni- 
kilty, stands a small castle, which formerly belonged to the Lord Arundell 
of the Strand, whose heirs are now reduced to the extremest povertye. 

Ross, commonly called Ross Carbery to distinguish it from others 
of the same name; of old Ross Ailethry, and then a famous city and 
University, wherein St. Brendan was once reader. It is now a pretty town 
and a Bishop's See; cathedral probably built in the 6th century by 
Fachnanus, alias St. Fachna, then Bishop of Ross, to whom it is dedi- 
cated, to whose memory an anniversary is still observed on the i6th day 
of August, on which day, therefore, the Episcopal visitation is annually 
performed. This St Fachna was esteemed a very holy man, and is still 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 149 

revered as the patron, tutelar Saint of the Diocese, and besides the 
cathedral he built at Ross an abbey for Canons regular of the Order of 
St. Augustine. Near Ross, eastward, is a very small church, said to 
be built by a miracle one night to cover St. Fachna*s prayer-booke from 
the rain, which by forgetfulness he had left there the evening before. 
Of his successors Bishops of Ross, we shall have more in proper time. 

The Haven of Ross is barred, and alsoe very shallow, soe that ships 
may not adventure in. 



Notes and Queries. 

An Unrecorded Cork Silversmith.— From Bristol in 48 hours. ^A Stolen Silver Verge. — Dixon 
Arms.— Carrigafly. — A Kerry Amulet.— The Last Descendants of the Poet Spenser.— 
Spencer.— The Book of Fermoy. 

▲n Unraoorded Cork Silyertmith. — The following advertisement is 
from Phineas BagnelFs Cork Evening Post, 1772 : — **John Christian, gold 
and silversmith, at Patrick Ryan's, near the Exchange, Cork. He makes 
all sorts of curious work in gold, silver, and pinchbeck, in the most 
accurate manner and newest designs, with gold, silver, pinchbeck, chagrin, 
and tortoiseshell, watch cases, etwees, and instrument cases. He wrought 
a considerable time in Paris, London, and Dublin, and wants an Appren- 
tice." R. x). 

From Bristol in 48 hoars.--.The following letter, which is among my 
papiers, although undated, was written in 18 10, during the mayoralty of 
Paul Maylor, Esq. It places on record a passage of 48 hours, which 
must havte been one of unusual shortness for a sailing ship from Bristol 
to Cork, and takes us back to the long since disused custom of billeting 
troops upon the city householders. The author of the letter was Major- 
Gemeral (afterwards Lieutenant-General) Samuel Graham, previously of 
the 27th Inniskilling Fusiliers. In the MS. Register of the Freemen of 
the City and County of Cork, copied by Doctor Caulfield from the original, 
which was lost in the Courthouse fire of 1891, his name occurs as having 
received the Freedom of the city in a silver box on October 20th, 1808, 
where he is described as ** Brigadier-General Commanding the Garrison of 
Cork, for his polite attention and ready assistance to the Civil Power on 
all occasions.** 
**The Worshipful the Mayor of Cork. 

Mr. Mayor, Sir — I have the honor to acquaint your Worship of the 
arrival of the Plembroke Regiment of Militia, in 48 hours, from Bristol; 
and that I propose to land them this day : to be billetted in the City of 
Cork until Monday morning, when they shall march to Mallow, at which 
time the second division of the Warwick shall also leave this City, to 
make room for the Leitrim Regiment of Militia, which I propose to billet 
in the City of Cork on Monday, previous to its embarkation for England 
on Tuesday next. The Leitrim will march from Fermoy to Cork on 
Monday. — I have the honor to be your Worship's most obedient humble 
Stervant, Saml. Graham, Major-General. " 

R. D. 



150 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

A Stolen Bilrer Verge— In Phineas Bagnell*s Cork Evening Post 
the following notice, under April 9, 1772, occurs: — * 'Stolen last night 
from the Cathedral Church of St. Fin Barry (by some persons, it is sup- 
posed, who lay concealed in the Church after evening service) the Silver 
Verge belonging to the Church. I do hereby, in the name of the Dean 
and Chapter of Cork, promise to pay 20 guineas to any person who will 
discover and prosecute to conviction within six kalendar months from this 
day any person or persons concerned in stealing the said Verge. March 
23, 1772. — 'William Gregg." 

This Verge does not appear to have been recovered, as that now in 
use, doubtless of Cork make, has simply the date **i772'* upon it. Vide 
Caulfield's Annals of St, Fin Barre's, p. 79, Purcell & Company, 1871. 
R. D. 

Dixon Amui.— In reply to the query relative to the Arms as 
depicted in the last number of the Journal, they are those of Dixon of 
Ramshaw, Co. Durham, which were confirmed by Richard St. George, 
Norroy King of Arms at the Visitation of Durham, in 1615. They are 
blazoned as follows : — Gules, on a bend or, between six plates, three 
torteaux, a chief erminois. Crest. — A cubit arm erect erminois, cuffed 
argent, the hand bare, holding a roundle of the first. The mullet in 
chief and on the crest is the mark of cadency for a third son. This 
family does not appear to have had any connection with Ireland. There 
are some Dixon pedigrees in the Harleian Society's Publications. 

Peirce G. Mahony, Cork Herald of Arms. 



Carrigaflj.— It will probably be new to many readers of the Journal 
that at so near Cork as is Shanbally (between Monkstown and Carrigaline) 
there is a rock to which some historic interest attaches, respecting which 
the present note may help to elicit further information. Mention is made 
of it in Dr. Joyce's great Social History of Ancient Ireland (1903), as 
follows: **Just by the chapel of Shanbally, near Monkstown, there is a 
large rock with some ancient remains near its top. It is called on the 
Ordnance Survey Carrigaplau, representing the Irish Carraig-a-phlaig, 
i.e., the rock of the plague; but the popular anglicised name is Carrigafly, 
which better represents the pronunciation, the p being aspirated as it 
ought. Probably the victims of some long-forgotten plague were interred 
there." J. C. 

A Kerry Amulet. — This Kerry amulet is or was something of the same 
peculiar class of stone described by Mr. Day, our President, in his article 
on the Archer Butler Murrain Stone, in the Journal, No. 64, Oct.-Dec., 
1904, with the notable difference that the Kerry Stone was used for the 
benefit of the human rather than the bovine race. It is referred to in the 
late Father D. 0*Donoghue's Brendaniana, Dublin, 1893, as follows : 
**There is a very ancient and interesting church on the southern slopes 
of Kerry Head, in the parish of Bally heige, called Kilvicadeaghadh, i.e., 
church of the son of Deaghadh, the father of St. Ere of Slane, as his 
pedigree shows, or Dego, as latinised by our hagiographers. The church 
at present in ruins, though very ancient, cannot date from St. Erc's time; 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 15 1 

but it was built on the site of some foundation of his there, and not far 
from *a holy well,' which bears the same name as the church, being the 
well of Macadeaghadh. In connection with this well there is most re- 
ligiously preserved by the head of a family in the neighbourhood, who 
alone still use the old church as their burial place, a round stone amulet, 
called *The Baulyi,' which is even yet used for the cure of *the ills that 
flesh is heir to,' being immersed in the water from the holy well, which 
is then drunk * in honour of the saint of the well. ' I cannot say whether 
this amulet has come down from the days of Bishop Ere Macadeaghadh, 
or whether it may be a relic of his, such as *the white pebble which St. 
Columba blessed, by which God will effect the cure of many diseases' ; but 
the preservation of it for many centuries, and the still enduring faith of 
the people in its healing virtues, indicate the hoar antiquity of the venerable 
church, and of its religious associations." J. C. 

The ItaMt Deseendants of the Poet Spenser.— On the 20th November, 
1897, the late Mr. George Jacob Holyoake wrote from Eastern Lodge, 
Brighton, an earnest appeal to the Dublin Freeman's Journal on behalf 
of an aged Irish barrister and his two sisters, then far away in Auckland, 
New Zealand, in deplorable distress. These wer^ Gerald Supple, one of 
the Irish poets of '48, and his two sisters. **The three," wrote Mr. 
Holyoake, **are the lineal descendants, and the last, of the poet Spenser. 
I asked Mr. Chamberlain to use his influence to get for the sisters sonie 
allowance from the Civil List. He sent the facts to Mr. Balfour. Sir 
George Grey, who knew the Supples, wrote that he would support any 
effort made on their behalf. The most eminent clergyman in Auckland 
wrote attesting the integrity and the distress of the family. Mr. Balfour 
thought the illustrious indigence was too far away for the Queen's bounty 
to extend to it." It is to be feared that Mr. Holyoake's appeal to the 
Irish press was also unsuccessful. But in the succeeding year, 1898, 
death put an end to Mr. Supple 's privations, as will be seen from the 
following, copied from a newspaper cutting: **News has been received 
from Auckland, N. Z., of the death of Gerald Harold Supple, poet, his- 
torian, barrister, journalist, and a participator in the '48 rising. To the 
Nation, then under C. G. Duffy, he contributed a number of poems, two 
of which, ** Columbus" and **The Sally from Salerno," are to be found 
in various collections. He published two Irish historical works. ^ He was 
a prominent member of the Irish Confederates, and was imprisoned by 
order of Lord Lieutenant Clarendon in 1848. In the early fifties he emi- 
grated to Australia and settled in Melbourne, where he was called to the 
Bar, and wrote extensively in The Age, Argus, and The Australasian 
(newspapers). His stirring dramatic poem, **The Dream of Dampier : An 
Australian Foreshadowing," was first published in the Melbourne Review, 
and was hailed as a masterpiece by the colonial critics. A complete col- 
lection of his poems, including some that appeared in Bentley's Miscellany, 
was recently published by subscription in Melbourne. Efforts were being 
made to obtain a Civil List pension for him when he died in one of the 
Auckland hospitals, at the age of 75." This latter notice makes no 
reference to his sisters. 

» One of these was TAt History ofthi Invasion of Inland by the Anglo-Normans, Dublin, 
1856, 

J. c. 



152 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

SpmuMT.— Will of John Sherlock fitz George, late of Leitrim, Co. Cork, 
and Waterford, Esq. : — My body to be buried with my father and ances- 
tors in St. Nicholas Chapel, near the Cathedral Church, in Waterford. 
To my brother-in-law, John Sherlock fitz James, Esq., the money that 
remains to him of Sir Richard Everard, Knt., for tithe of ilectorial 
parsonage of Cahir towards the expenses of my funeral. I give to Chas. , 
my man servant, ;^i5. To Mr. Wm. Dobbyn £20, which I borrowed. 
To my uncle, Paul Sherlock, £^0, for tlU5 several parcels of plate in his 
hands as security for the payment of sd. £/^o, which, when paid ofif, the 
plate is to be returned to my executors, who are my brother-in-law, John 
fitz James, Esq., and my sister, Mrs. Johanna Sherlock. I appoint 
sd. John and Mr. Wm. Dobbyn overseers. 

Dated 29th July, 1629, in presence of Wm. Lonergane, Catherine 
Fellows, Edmond Lonergane. 

Probate to John fitz James Sherock and Johanna Sherlock, Executors, 
3rd October, 1629. 

Note. — Leitrim is near Kilworth, Co. Cork. 

Extract from Lord Roberts* book, Forty-one Years in India: — 
"Nicholson, at the head of a part of his column, was the first to ascend 
the breach in thte curtain, the remainder of the troops diverged a little 
to the right to escalade the breach in the Kashmir Bastion. Here Lieu- 
tenants Barter and Fitzgerald, 75th Foot, were the first to mount, and 
here the latter fell mortally wounded. The breaches were quickly filled 
with dead and dying, but the rebels were hurled back, and the ramparts, 
which had so long resisted us, were our own." 

Note. — ^When these two Corkmen were about to mount the scaling 
ladder Fitzgerald pushed Barter aside, telling him as he was the senior 
offider he was going to mount first. After they reached the breach, followed 
by their men, they began shaking hands and congratulating each other, 
when a shot from the enemy struck Fitzgerald down, mortally wounded. 
Barter eventually commanded the Gwalior Sikhs, and retired a Major- 
General, with K.C.B., sonve years later. For many years he lived at 
St. Anne's, Blarney, Co. Cork. His only son was accidentally killed out 
bear shooting in India; he was a Lieutenant in 73rd Regini*3nt. The full 
name of Fitzgerald was John Richard Sherlock Fitzgerald. His mother 
was a daughter of Richard Sherlock, of Woodlo<^e, Co. Cork, Esq. 
His (Fitzgerald's) first cousin is Mrs. Averina Purdon Bevan Sherlock 
Brf-asier-Creagh, of Woodville, near Buttevant, who has a very large 
family, most of her sons being officers of the army, navy and civil service. 

Record of services of John Richard Sherlock Fitzgerald, 7sth Regt. : 

Date and place of birth — 22nd January, 1827, Sydney, New South 
Wales 

Age on first entrance into the army at home^ — 17 2-12 years. 

Ensign 39th Foot, 29th March, 1844; Lieut., 62nd Foot, nth February, 
1846; Lieut., 73rd Foot, ist February, 1848; Lieut., 75th Foot, 3rd 
April, 1849. 

Abroad — East Indies, 13th November, 1844, to December, 1847; East 
Indies, 13th August, 1849, to 14th September, 1857 (killed at storming of 
Etelhi, 15th September, 1857). 

War Services. — Served during the East Indian Campaign of 1857. 
The commencenvent of the outbreak, including the advance under His 



NOTES AND QUERIES. 153 

Excellency the Commander-in-Chief, General Anson, on Delhi, and after his 
death at Kurnaul, under Major-General Sir H. Bernard, K.C.B. Battle 
of Badulee Ke Serai; siege and storming of Delhi; killed 14th September, 
1857. Lt.-Col. Herbert commanded the 75th Regiment during these 
operations. W. Devereux. 



The Book of rermoj.~.The late Rev. Dr. Todd (Proc. Royal Irish. 
Academy, 1870) says : **In presenting to the Academy a Catalogue of the 
contents of the ancient Irish MS. commonly called the *Book of Fermoy,* 
it was my wish to have accompanied it by some account of the history 
of the MS. ; but I r^ret to say that I have found but little to record. I 
am not surys that the title, *Book of FernK>y* is ancient, or that it was 
the original name of the volume; neither can I ascertain when the MS. 
was first so-called. It is not mentioned by Ware, Harris, Archbishop 
Nicolson, or O'Reilly, in any of their published writings. It has been said 
that it was once in the possession of the Chevalier O'Gorman; but this 
has not been established by any satisfactory evidence. There is in 
the box which now contains the MS. a paper giving a short and 
very imperfect account of its contents, written about the beginning of the 
nineteenth century, in which it is said to have been then in the possession 
of William Monck Mason, Esq. This paper is apparently in the hand- 
writing of Edward O'Reilly, author of the Irish Dictionary; but if written 
by him, it must have been written at an early period of his life, when his 
skill in ancient manuscript lore was very inferior to what it afterwards 
became. Unfortunately, the paper is not dated. The *Book of Fermoy' 
was sold in London, at the sate by auction of Mr. Mason's books, by the 
well-known auctioneers, Sotheby & Wilkinson, in 1858. There I pur- 
chased it, together with the autc^raph MS. of O'Clery.'s *Life of Rpd 
Hugh O'Donnell,* with a view to have both MSS. deposited in the Library 
of the Academy. For the *Book of Fermoy* I gave ;^70, and for the 
*Life of Red Hugh* £21 ^ in all ;^9i, which sum was advanced in equal 
shares by Lord Talbot de Malahide, Gen. Sir Thomas A. Larcom, the late 
Charles Haliday, and myself; and it may bfc worth mentioning, to show 
the rapid increase in the market value of Irish MSS., that the *Life of Red 
Hugh O'Donnell,' which, in 1858, brought the sum of ;^2i in a London 
auction, had hteen sold in Dublin, in 1830, at Edward O'Reilly's sale, 
for £2 7^* The *Book of Fermoy' might with equal propriety be called 
the Book of Roche. It is a loose collection of miscellaneous documents, 
written at different times, and in very different hands ; a great part of it 
relates to the family history of the Roche family of Fermoy ; but it contains 
also a number of bardic poems and prose tracts on the general history of 
Ireland, and a vfery curious collection of legendary, mythological, and 
Fenian tales. It begins with a copy of the Leabhar Gabhala, or *Book 
of Invasions,' written in the fourteenth or b^inning of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, very much damaged, and imperfect at the end. Then follows that 
portion of the book which contains the legendary and mythological tales, 
written in the fifteenth century. This is in many respects the most 
interesting and valuable part of the volume ; it contains also some bardic 
poems on the O'Connors, or O'Conors, of Connaught, the O'Keeffes of 
Fermoy, the MacCarthy, Rochie, and other families of the South of Ireland. " 

II 



154 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHifX>LOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Professor O 'Curry, in his list of lost books of Ancient Erinn {Lectures, 
p. 20) mentions the Leabhar dubh Molaga, or Black Book of Saint Molaga, 
and Keating, in the Introduction to his Hisix>ry of Ireland, also makes 
mention of the Leabhar dubh Molaga as being still to be seen in his time. 
It is highly probable that the earlier portion of the Leabhar Fearmaighe 
has been copied from the Leabhar dubh Molaga, and Very likely we have 
preserved in the 'Book of Fermoy' the entire contents of the Black Book 
of Molaga, which must have been compiled at one of the monasteries 
named from Molaga. 

J. F. L. 



Reviews of Books. 

Books, Tracts, etc., printed in Dublin in the 17th Century. By 
E. R. McC. Dix. With Notes by C. W. Dugan, M.A., M.R.S.A.L 
Part IV., 1676 — 1700. Dublin: 0*E)onoghue & Co., 15 Hume Street 
Price 2/6. 

It is with no ordinary feelings of pleasure that we take up this volume, 
the preceding parts of which have been noticed from time to time in 
the back numbers of this Journal. It is by devoted and unselfish students 
like Mr. Dix that we are inspired with the hope that we may yet obtain 
exact information regarding our countrymen's achievements in the world of 
letters. Mr. Dix aims at nothing if not perfection; his work, as evinced 
in this volume, is genuine, earnest and painstaking; and it must be a 
source of extreme gratification to him, as it must be to his readers, to 
at length behold in book form the full fruition of his great industry. 
No other city in these islands, it is safe to say, can point to so complete 
and voluminous a record of its press in the seventeenth century as Dublin 
can; and no one desiring to become familiar with the past literary 
history of the city can afford to dispense with this book. 

Dromana: The Memoirs of an Irish Family. By Th^rfese Muir 
Mackenzie (Thdr^se Villiers Stuart). Dublin : Sealy Bryers & Walker. 5s. 

When it is considered that amongst the members of the families by 
which they were (and frequently still are) inhabited, a monopoly of 
wealth and leisure, and to a great extent of education, was, in the near 
past, practically confined, it is remarkable how very few there are of the 
great old homes of Ireland of which anything in the nature of a history 
has been written. The present book is therefore all the more welcome, 
not alone as breaking the spells of silence that seem to have beset the 
subject, but as an example and encouragement to others, similarly circum- 
stanced as the author, to go and do likewise. It is the work of a des- 
cendant of many an illustrious family, who for five centuries held sway 
alternately in the picturesque old mansion of Dromana, that overlooks 
from its craggy eminence the broad and beautiful valley of the Black- 
water. The book reviews the long possession of Dromana by the Fitz- 
Geralds — cadets of the house of Desmond — the strife and conflict and 
serious scenes of life in which they acted their part ; their alliances, 




The Old Countess of Desmond. 

(From a re/utfif portr,iit, at Dromann.) 



REVIEWS OF BOOKS. 155 

social and marital; their leading men and their remarkable women. Of 
the latter, one stands out pre-eminently. She was Catherine, the **01d 
Countess of Desmond,** who is reputed to have lived 140 years, and 
to whom alone are devoted two interesting volumes, written by a quon- 
dam Common Speaker of the Council of the City of Cork. The old 
Countess was born at Dromana, and in the fulness of years v^as destined 
to become the second wife of Thomas, twelfth Earl of Desmond, a hoary 
old warrior, of whom, at the age of eighty and in the year in which he 
died, 1534, it was reported by Lord Surrey to Henry VIII. that ** albeit 
his years require quietness and rest, yet entendeth he as much trouble 
as ever did any of his nation. * * Of Catherine many strange and incredible 
stories are related, and her personality appears to have been growing in 
interest down to the year of her death, 1604. Other notable women have 
trod the halls of Dromana. Ellen FitzGibbon, wife of Sir John FitzGerald, 
and daughter of the White Knight, bore a strong resemblance in character 
and disposition to her famous contemporary, 3|i4lt)e X)) ^4|lle, the queen 
of the western seas : while the romantic stories that enshroud the marriages 
of Katherine, the last bearing the FitzGerald name who ruled in Dromana, 
are scarcely paralleled even in fiction. From the FitzGeralds the estate 
passed through females into the families of Villiers (Earls Grandison) and 
Mason, and, finally, to the present owner — Stuart. The book is inter- 
spersed with legends and stories of the past, of ghosts and haunted 
chambers. At the same time it is an agreeably and carefully written 
record based on a liberal view of Irish history. Its shortcomings are few, 
but sufldcient credit, we feel, has scarcely been accorded to other and 
earlier writers for the light their labours and research have shed on so 
many obscure passages in local history, particularly in the lives of the 
Earls of Desmond and their kinsfolk. A vein of national sentiment runs 
through the volume, but nowhere is it more commendably exhibited than 
on the back of the last page, which tells where the book was printed. 
The illustrations are many, and form an attractive feature of the book. 

^t) leAhAjiUDt). The Journal of Cun^ADn t)4 le4l54|iUnt). 

The association represented by this journal was established in June, 
1904, with the object, amongst others, of furthering the establishment of 
public libraries and reading rooms in Ireland. The first annual report 
is appended to the present number, and is delightful and encouraging 
reading, both as a record of work done and work in contemplation, and 
augurs well for the association becoming a great and useful force in 
the land. There are in Ireland a few quasi literary societies that have 
practically ceased to work for the country, or to shew anything to explain 
or justify their existence, and it is a really hopeful sign of the times to 
see fresh intelligence entering the arena where so much is wanted. The 
association means work, and it is with great satisfaction that we reproduce 
the following paragraph from the above report, to shew some of the 
excellent and absolutely necessary work with which it is identified : 

*'The publication of the Ordnance Survey Letters and of the companion 
MSS., the Townland Name Books, was considered by the Council. As 
no other public body seemed inclined to take up this important question, 
the Council, with the due sense of the onerous nature of the task, have 
determined to begin printing them. The Letters (at present in the Royal 



156 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGlCAL SOCIETY. 

Irish Academy) were written principally by John O' Donovan when making 
investigations to determine the townland names for the ordnance survey 
of Ireland. llie townland names were entered in books, at present 
lodged in the Ordnance Survey Department, Phoenix Park. The books 
contain, not only the names on the published maps, as decided by 
O 'Donovan, but the names in Irish, with their meanings, valuable biblio- 
graphical references as to where they occur in Celtic MSS., histories and 
topographies, with other information anent the same. Scattered through 
the Letters are interesting drawings of objects of antiquity, and some maps 
relating to the Irish counties. The Letters, apart from their value as the 
natural setting for the Townland Names, have a biographical and literary 
interest which alone would entitle them to publication. All who are aware 
of the meagreness of the printed material for the study of the history of 
our counties should welcome such valuable addition to the existing sources. 
There is also to be considered the larger interest of having, in accessible 
form, opinions on our antiquities, topography, etc., from the standpoint 
of a great Gaelic scholar. The MSS. relating to Down are ready for 
Press, but the Council are compelled to dela^ sending them to the 
printer until the membership has increased to such a degree as shall 
justify the expense of production. The Council trust that each member 
will endeavour to procure new members, in order that the first volume 
shall not be long delayed." 

The journal is intended to appear quarterly, and to contain papers in 
Irish and English. To the present number Mr. Henry Dixon contributes 
a valuable life of John O* Donovan, together with a complete bibliography 
of the works written, translated, or edited by that great Gaelic scholar. 
A most useful bibliography on the printed sources of Irish history is sup- 
plied by Mr. John Condon, while Mr. E. R. McC. Dix unfolds fresh and 
curious information anent ** Irish Pirated Editions." These are only a 
few of the good things contained in the journal. The publishers are 
Brown & Nolan, Ltd., Nassau Street, Dublin. 

Journal of the Galway ArctuBological and Historical Society — ^Vol. iv., 
No. 2. 

This number contains an unusually large selection of articles, all of 
great local interest. Mr. H. T. Knox supplies no fewer than three, the 
principal one of which has for its subject the famous Western hercMne — 
Grace O'Malley. This paper presents some ideas of the times in which 
she moved, but of a celebrity whose memory is so preserved in tradition, 
the little authentic information that appears to have survived the lapse 
of three centuries is disappointing. Of Fiddaun Castle, a ruined strong- 
hold of the O'Shaughnessys, which has been repaired recently by the 
Board of Works, a description and valuable sets of drawings are taken 
from an official report of the Board, contributed by Dr. R. Cochrane. In 
his article on ** Early Loughrea Printing,** Mr. E. R. Mac. Dix establishes 
the existence of a newspaper in that town at a much earlier date than that 
known to Dr. Madden, the author of Irish Periodical Literature. The 
article on Sir Peter French, and the splendid illustrations that accompany 
it, are of very curious interest, and are typical of what ought to be more 
largely contributed to kindred journals. 

J. B. 




Second Series— Vol. XII. No. 72. [Octobfr— December, 1906. 

Journal of the 
Cork Historical and Archaeological Society. 

Account of the Bishops of Cork. 

Edited, with Notes, by Colonel T. A. LUNHAM, C.B., 
M.A., M.R.I.A. 

" Nam eUi Pastores multi snmus, unum tamen gregem pascimus." — Cyprian, 
EpisU Ixvii. 0pp. p. 116, ed. Benedict. 

^HE following account of the Bishops of Cork is from a 
MS. once in the possession of the Augustinian Convent in 
Cork, written probably by some friar of that house. The 
original has disappeared, but a copy is preserved in the 
Library of the Royal Irish Academy, which I have fol- 
lowed. The compiler, whoever he may have been, can lay 
small claim to originality, as he has copied Ware verbatim 
in many instances. However, as the latter's writings are 
not very generally accessible, the present publication may not prove devoid of 
interest. I have added such notes as were suggested to me by its perusal. 
My best acknowledgments are due to the Rev. H. J. Lawlor, D.D., 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History in the University of Dublin, for his 
kindness in reading the proof of this paper, and for numerous valuable 
suggestions. 

Saint Barr,* by some called Finn Barr, or Fionn Barr, i.e., "white 
head." He founded the Cathedral Church in the beginning of the seventh 
century, and having sat seventeen years, or as some say seven, he, in the 

I Saint Barr, This Saint appears to have been claimed by Scotland as well as It eland. 
Scottish writers affirm that St. Finbar, or Fyml errus, wns Lorn in Caihania, now Caillmess ; 
the prince concerned in ihe histoiy is called Tigrlnatus, and the story of the saint reproving him, 
both before and after h s binh, for his cruelty, is in rxcordancc wiih the Lntin Lives printed by 
Dr. Caulficld. His euUus obtained to a considernble extent in Scothnnd, and various places are 
called after him. .See Bp. Forbes' Kal. Scoii Sninis, 275-8 an* i reflT., as quoted in his article 
" Barry," in Smith's Pict. Chriiiinn Biog, vol. i. p. 267. In the Breuiatium Awdotunse {Pars. 
Aest. Prop. SS ) fol cxv., tlie office for .'^t. Fin Uarr's Day is given. The rubric recites:— 
" Sancti Fymberri ]x.ntificis qui in Cathania m»gno cum l.onore habetnr;" then follows the 
collect--" Dens qui gloriosum famulum tuum Kymberrum ex ulero matiis elegisti, et nngelis 
niii>istrnniiba«, eund< m infula sublimasti prmiificali; concede, qusesumus, ut qui viiiis gravaniibus 
ad ima pertiahimiir, tjusdem merit is ad viitutum vestigia sub'cvemur. Per Domiimm nostrum.*' 
In the lections it is said''*Non ex ignobiii .Scotonim fantilia dtx rat iiartntelem." The circum- 
stances attending liis birth, education, his speaking while still in his mother's womb, hi.s vi>i: to 
Rome, and consecration by Pope Gregory, are duly narrated, aUo his leturn to h'coilnnd, and death 
on the seventh of the Kalends of October. No place is specified. St. Columba is likewise taid 

la 



156 CX>RK HISTORICAL AND ARCHifiOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

midst of his friends calmly submitted to death on the 25th of Sep- 
tember, at Cloyne. He flourished about the year 630, and was Preceptor 
to Colman, the founder and first Bishop of Cloyne. His body was 
conveyed to Cork and there honourably interred in his own church. His 
bones were a long time after deposited in a silver case. That Epistle 
concerning the ceremonies of Baptism is the performance of this Saint. 

Saint Nessan, a disciple of St. Barr, was educated under him in a 
monastery, founded by that Bishop (near Lough Eire), to which, as to 
the habitation (of) wisdom and the sanctuary of all Christian virtues, 
such numbers of disciples flocked from all parts, that it changed a desert, 
as it were, into a large city, as the writer of the life of Saint Barr says. 
I take this lake, called by the name of Lough Eire, to be the hollow or 
basin in which a great part of the city of Cork now stands, and which 
the industry of the inhabitants hath from time to time reclaimed and 
built on. It is described by the writer of the life of Saint Talmach to 
stand in the south and maritime parts of Munster, and the life of Saint 
Barr beforementioned acquaints us that he built a monastery and made a 
settlement near this lough. 

It is to the fame and reputation of this first Bishop of Cork, that 
history, or what appears in history, is indebted for its original. 

The festival of Saint Nessan is celebrated on the 17th of March and 
the 17th of December, but I find no account of the year in which he died. 

Russin, the son of Lappain,^ comorban of Saint Barr, he died on the 
7th of April, 685. 

to have long been a deacon under him. In the Lives^ printed by Dr. Caulfield, Amargenus, father 
of the Saint, and iron smith to the Prince Tyagnacus, is represented as having married a certain 
beantiful lady (satis pulchra) contrary to the command of the prince, who thereupon ordered 
that both husband and wife should be burned on a great pyre composed of the driest wood 
{iignis aridissimis). The Divine power, however, intervened, and extinguished the flames by the 
dry logs themselves, as if they had been wet stones {qttasi kumidis lapidibus). The parents of 
the Saint being brought before the prince, the holy Barr, though yet unborn, rebuked the latter, 
assuring him that if he did not amend his ways, he would soon die and go to hell {ibis in infer- 
num.). Another version of the legend is given by 0*Curry, Manners and Customs of the Ancient 
Irish^ vol. i. Introduction^ p. cccxxii. note^ where it is stated that the father and mother of 
Barra had anticipated the ceremony of marriage, and that the prince in consequence condemned 
them to the flames ; a miraculous fe.ll of rain, however, extinguished the fire, "because the child, 
who was then an infant in the womb of the noble lady, was beloved of the Lord, the Blessed 
Barra."— Z»// of St, Finbarr, 0*Curry MS., C.O.I., pp I-2, and MS, Book of Lismore, 

The Saint's real name was Lochan, and Finn Barr, white, or fair haired, only a surname. — 
Lanigan, EccL Hist, Irel,, vol. ii. p. 314. He is said to have been of the race of and eighth 
in descent from Brian, son of Eochaidh Muighmhedhoin, King of Ireland, A.D. 358-365. He 
was educated in Leinster under Mac Corb, a pupil of St Gregory the Great. His putative 
father seems to have been a Muskerry man. *• The race of the ancestors of this holy youth, i,e, 
Barra, came from the territory of Connaught into the territory of Muscraighe, and he, namely, 
Amergin, son of Dubh, obtained family possessions and land in it, 1./., in Achad Dorbchon [or 
rather, Duburchon, f .«., Googaun Barra], in Muscraighe, it is there the fitther of Barra had his 
residence," etc.— Fw/. O'Curry, ut supra. 

3 Russin, the son of Lappain, is mentioned as a successor of St. Barr {i,e,. Bishop of Cork), 
in the Annals of the Four Masters, which place his death on April 7, 685. Cotton, Fasti, vol. i. 
p. 216. ''Colgan is just in his observation that the comorban or successor of St. Barr and the 
Bishop of Cork are the same thing, because St. Barr founded an episcopal See and an abbey 
there." — Wart, ed, Harris, vol. L p. 556. 



THE BISHOPS OF CORK. 1 57 

Selbac, died 773. 

Cathmogan, died in 961. 

Columbmac-ciarucain, called comorban of St. Barr, died 990. 

Cealach-O-Selbac, died in pilgrimage in 1026. (The Annals of the 
Four Masters calls him bishop comorban of Barr, and the chief among 
the wise men of Munster.) 

Neil-O-Mailduih, died 1027. 

Airtrisairt, died in 1028. 

Cathal, died in 1034. 

Mugron-O-Mutan, called comorban of Saint Barr and Bishop, was 
inhumanly murdered in the night time by his own people, or, as the 
Annals of Lough Kee say, by robbers of Cork in 1057. 

O'Sebac, died in 1086 or 1085, or» according to the last-mentioned 
annals, he is called Ard-Comorban, or the High-Comorban, of Saint Barr. 

Machlothed O'Hailgenen, died in 1107. 

Patrick O'Selbac, died in nil. 

The See of Cork was vacant about the year 1140, and then a certain 
poor man who was a foreigner 3 (as Saint Bernard says), but a man of 
sanctity and learning, was by Malachy, Archbishop of Armagh, nominated 
bishop, and sent to that See with the approbation and applause of the 
clergy and people, yet the name of this bishop is not there mentioned. 

3 j4 certain poor man who was a foreigner. The following account of this election I translate 
from the Acfa Sanctorum Hibemice e codice Salmaticensi^ p. 608, sqq. It is contained in the 
Life of St. Malachy, as there given, and attributed to St. Bernard. According to Ware, IVorks^ 
ed. Harris, vol. i. p. 54, Malachy was Archbishop of Armagh, a.d. ii34-37> and subsequently 
performed the function of Legate in Ireland. The name of the bishop refeired to has not trans- 
pired, but the story is briefly alluded to by Ware, p. 557. 

" The Bishopric of a town in Ireland named Cork (Corkagia) being vacant, the electors 
failed to agree in their selection, preferring, as is often the case, to please themselves rather than 
God in the matter ; Malachy on his arrival, and as soon as he had learned the nature of the 
dispute, summoned a meeting of both clergy and laity, and endeavoured to reconcile their 
differences. Having persuaded them that the entire matter in dispute ought to b«% entrusted to 
him, upon whom devolved the especial care of that and the other churches throughout Ireland, 
he straightway names to them, in preference to any of the nobles of the land, a certain poor 
man, whom he knew to be holy and learned, although a stranger. When enquiry was made for 
the latter, it was discovered that he was confined to his bed, and so weak that he could not go 
forth, unless carried by the hands of assistants. ' Let him arise,' said Malachy, 'in the name 
of the Lord I command him, obedience shall make him whole.' What should he do? He was 
willing to obey, but considered himself unequal to the task, inasmuch as, although he might be 
able to go, he dreaded the ofHce of a bishop [formidabai epi5copari)\ thus the two enemies, the 
gravity of his disorder, and his fear of the burden of the episcopate, contended against his wish 
to obey ; the latter prevailed, the hope of his salvation coming to his aid. So he makes an 
effort, he moves himself, and fmds that he is stronger than before. His faith increases in pro- 
portion to his vigour, and again his firmer faith in turn adds to his ability ; already he is able to 
rise without assistance, to walk somewhat better, to move about unfatigued, and at length, free 
and unoppressed, to come to Malachy without any help of man. Malachy receives and places 
him in the episcopal seat amid the acclamations of priests and people. Thus was this matter 
peacefully accomplished, for none dared to oppose the will of Malachy in anything, beholding 
the miracle he had wrought ; nor did the man himself hesitate to obey, being rendered the more 
confident by so manifest a proof of the Divine will.*' 

This collection of Lives of Irish Saints from the MS. at Salamanca, was published in 1888. 
It forms a 4to volume, handsomely printed, 



158 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH.AOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Gilla Oeda O'Mugin, a native of Connaught and Abbot of the 
Monastery of Saint Finn Barr's Cave, near Cork, assisted at the Synod 
held at Kells under Cardinal John Paparo, Legate a Latere to the Pope, 
and Christian O'Chanarchy, Bishop of Lismore, the other IjegSLte, Anno 
Domini 11 52. Keating calls this prelate Gilla Aodh 0'He3m. He died 
in 1172, andwas highly celebrated by the Irish historians for his many 
virtues. Some call him the chief prelate for devotion, wisdom, and 
chastity, in all Ireland, that he was sanctified by God above, and was a 
man full of God's blessing. The Abbey of Augustine Canons of the 
Cave of Saint Barr, commonly called Gill Abbey, took its name from this 
Bishop, who is also reckoned among the principal benefactors of the 
Church of Cork.* 

Gr^ory succeeded the same year, 1172. He granted to the Abbey of 
Thomas Court, near Dublin, the Church of Saint Nessan,' at Cork, who 
was disciple to Saint Barr, the first Bishop of Cork. Gregory governed 
this See about fourteen years. 

R^inald succeeded, but (I) have not discovered the time of his conse- 
cration, or the time of his death. 

O'Selbaic, died in 1205. There is mention made in the Annals of 
Inisfaile, under the year 1205, of one O'Selbac, Bishop of Cork. It may 
be that he and Reginald, beforementioned, were one and the same person. 
Whoever was bishop in i igg obtained at the same time, from Pope Innocent 
III., a confirmation of all the possessions of the See of Cork. I find no 
account of the next successor,^ but when the vacancy of the See occurred 
in Anno Domini 12 15, King Edward III. endeavoured to advance Geoflfrey 
White to it, in whose favour he writ letters to the Archbishops of Dublin 
and Cashel, and therein styles him a learned, provident, and honest man. 
But it doth not appear whether he were consecrated or not. 

Gilbert succeeded on the isth of June, 1225. He was Archdeacon of 

4 Gill Abbey, refounded for Canons Regular of St Augustine, under the invocation of St. 
John the Baptist, in I134, by Cormac, King of Munster, or, as some say, Desmond; others refer 
the foundation to a later date. The son of the founder tells us that his father built the abbey for the 
strangers from Connaught, countrymen of St. Barr (?). Cf. Archdall, Monasticon^ p. 64 (ed. 1786). 
A cave existed in this neighbourhood, hence the monastery was sometimes called, " De Antro 
Sancti Fin Barri." Mons. Boullaye Le Gouz, writing in 1644, says, "Opposite this well 
(Sunday's well) to the south of the sea {i.e. river) are the ruins of a monastery founded by Saint 
Guillab^, there is a cave which extends far under the ground, where they say that Saint Patrick 
resorted often for prayer."— 7<yt«r of M, BouUaye Le Gout in Ireland^ A.D. 1644, edited by T. 
Crofton Croker, p. 29. 

Prior to the reign of Henry VIII., the Monasteries De Antro Sancti Fin Barri, a/r. Gill Abbey 
and Tracton, were in existence and possessed of considerable property. At the suppression in his 
reign, all these possessions were vested in the Crown by Act of Parliament. No Inquisitions 
temp, Henry or Mary appear, but some of Elizabeth and her successors are to be found, down to 
the Grants made to the Earl of Cork. (See my note to Cox's Description of the County and 
City of Cor k^ printed in foumal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland^ vol. 32, p. 366.) 
Fitzgerald, in his Cork Remembrancer^ chronicles that "in 1738 Gill Abbey Castle fell down, 
after 980 years standing." The remains of the monastery were demolished about the year 1745. 
A translation of the Charter of Cormac is given in Gibson's Hist. ofCork^ vol. ii. p. 348. 

5 St. Nessan. Now the (Hiurch of St. Nicholas, the " consideration ** being a cask of wine 
annually. 

6 1 find no account of the next successor. In the Hierarchia Catholica Afedii jEvi^ p. 219, 
Marianus, or Mauritius O'Brien, is described as having succeeded to the See, circ. 12 15. 




Seals of Cork. 

(From St, Fm Barr^s Cmtkedr*L) 



THE BISHOPS OF CORK. 1 59 

Cork, and before the end of the year was consecrated. He died about the 
year 1238. 

Laurence,^ who succeeded in 1264. 

Afterwards, on the 27th of March, 1265, the Dean and Chapter of 
Cork proceeded to an election. 

William of Jerepont, called in the Public Records William of 
Kilkenny, was restored to the temporalities of this See on the 28th of 
November, 1266, having been confirmed by (the) Pope's Legate. 

Reginald, Treasurer of Cashel, obtained restitution of the temporalities 
of this See on the sth of August, 1267. He died in Cork, 1276, and was 
buried in the Cathedral of Saint Barr, Anno Domini 1276. Prince 
Edward, then Lord of Ireland by donation from his father. King 
Henry IIL, granted to this prelate and to his successors, for the relief and 
amendment of the state of the Church of Cork, the right of patronage 
and advowson of the churches of the Blessed Virgin, or Maid, and Kil- 
mohonock, and also of the Chapel of St. Peter of Cork, to hold in 
Franckalmoigne, dated the 20th of May that year ; but we shall see, 
under his successor, that these advowsons were afterwards recovered to 
the Crown by the same Prince when he mounted the throne. 

Robert MacDonough, a Cistercian monk of great learning, succeeded 
in 1277, and was restored to the temporalities on the nth January that 
year. He died Anno Domini 1301. 

John MacCarrevile, or O'Carroll, Dean of Cork, being unanimously 
elected by the Chapter, obtained the Royal Assent on the isth June, 1302, 
and the same day had his Writ of Restitution to the temporalities, and 
the confirmation of the Archbishop of Cashel in July following. He was 
translated from this See to the Bishoprick of Meath by Pope John XXIL 
in 1 32 1, and afterwards to the Archbishoprick of Cashel in 1327. 

Philip, Bishop of Slane ^ (he was a Dominican Friar), having 
obtained a Provision from the Pope, was restored to the temporalities of 
his See on the 17th of July, 1321. Three yeai's afterwards he was sent in 
embassy to the Pope by King Edward IL, and cl charged his commission 
with such address that after his return he was called into the Privy 
Council of Ireland. But the Pope armed this prelate, together with the 
Archbishops of Dublin and Cashel, with a commission to inform them- 
selves strictly of what things were wanting and expedient for the peace 
and tranquility of that country. This prelate died in 1326, and before the 
end of that year. 

John Le Blond, Dean of Cloyne,^ was elected in his room. He sat but 

7 Laurence's succession is dated circ. 1238. — Uid, 

8 Philip, Bishop of Slane, V/are, Bishops, p. 559, writes :— ** I am of opinion that Philip 
of Slane took his name from the place of his birth/' He does not recognise him as bishop of 
that place. 

Philip is described as **[de Slane], Ordinb Prsedicatorum," not as already a bishop^ in 
the Hiirarchia Catholica Med, yEvi, 

These words "de Slane" are enclosed in brackets by Eubel, implying that they were not the 
documents upon which he based his work. 

9 fohn Le Blonde The facts regarding John le Blound {sic) are as follows :— He was Dean 
of Cloyne in 1325 {Calendar of Patent Rolls Ireland^ Rec. Comrs, p. 32, No. lox). Still Dean 
of Cloyne in 1330 (T,C.D. MS. F. i, 18, p. 18). 

He was elected Bishop of Cork, being then Dean of Clojme, according to the Patent Rolls, 



l60 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOaETY. 

a short time^ nay, it is questionable whether ever he was consecrated, 
but it is found that (on) the 12th of May, 1327, there was an order issued 
to the Dean and Chapter to authorize them to the election of a bishop. 

Waiter Le Rede,'* or Rufus, Canon of Cork, was advanced to this See 
by the provision of Pope John XXII. , and obtained restitution of the 
temporalities on the i8th of October, 1327. He was from this See 
translated to Cashel by the same Pope, Anno Domini, 1330. 

John De Baleconningham, Rector of Ardiomhin, in the Diocese of 
Down, being chosen Bishop of Down by the Prior and Convent of the 
Cathedral of Saint Patrick there, was confirmed on the 21st of August, 
1328, and, for a time, received the profits of that See by the King's 
mandate, but this was nulled by Pope John XXII., which disappointed 
him of his expectation of that Bishoprick. Notwithstanding this, the 
Pope advanced him to the See of Cork in 1330. He died on the 29th of 
August [in May] 1347, having governed that See seventeen years. 

John De Rupe, or Roch, Canon of the Cathedral of Cork, and a 
man descended of a noble family, succeeded, by election of the Dean and 
Chapter, and was consecrated by Ralph Kelly, Archbishop of Cashel, 
Christmas, 1347. He sat in this See ten years and six months, and died 
on the 4th of October [not, 'tis the 4th of July] (sic), 1358. 

Gerald De Barry, »» a person descended of a noble and ancient family of 
the Barrys, and Dean of Cork, and was consecrated Bishop of Cork in 
1359, and sat upwards of thirty-four years. He died worn out with long 
sickness in the 90th year of his age on the 4th of January, 1393, and was 
buried in his own cathedral. 

Roger Elsmore succeeded, by the order of Pope Boniface IX., and 
was restored to the temporalities on the 31st of March, 1396. He sat in 
this See ten years. 

One Gerald " next succeeded in 1406, of whom I find nothing said. 

and received the temporalities 22 March, 20 Edward II. (CaL Pat, RoVs^ Ir^lanJ, 37, No. 
161) ; but this is impossible, inasmuch as there was no 22nd March in that regal year, the king 
having been deposed Jan. 20. 

Licence to elect a successor to Philip, deceased, was issued 12 March, 1327 {CaL Pat, Roi/s^ 
Edward III. i. 33), and the temporalities were restored, 18 Oct., 1327, to Walter le Rede, suc- 
cetior to Philip, deceased, {ibid, 185), Blound being ignored in both cases. Walter le Rede, a 
Minor Canon of Cork, was provided, 20 Mar., 1327, as successor to Philip, deceased. Theiner, 
p. 236, Cal, of Papal Reg. Let/en^ ii. 256. 

Hence it seems quite certain that Blound was never Bishop, even if the patent for restitution 
of his temporalities b not a forgery. "Cork," in Cotton Fasti, vol. i. p. 218, is a misprint 
for "Cloyne." 

w Walter Le Rede, 1327, Mar. 20.— Eubel. 

IX Johannes Rocke appointed 25 Dec., 1327, on death of John. Gerald (Decanus ipsius 
eccl.) provided Nov. 8, 1362, on death of John, Roger obi. se 3 Dec 1395, on death of Gerald. 
Richard obi. se person pro se et predict. Rog., 13 Nov., 1406, on death of Roger— Eubel. 

«« One Gerald. Coilon, p. 220, queries, " Was he Bishop of Cloyne, not Cork ? For the 
temporalities of the See of Cork at this time were committed to the custody of Gerald, Bishop 
of Cloyne." Cotton*s authority is Cat. Rot. Pat, Ireland, 185, No. 41, which commits the tem- 
poralities to Gerald, Bi^hop of Cloyne, 14 Feb., 1407, on the death of the last Bishop. The See 
was vacant, and Richard elect 4 Oct., 14C6 {Col, Papal Utters, vi. 88). Hence Gerald, Bishop 
of Cork, seems to be a myth. 

Richard's name is omitted in the text, but we find in the Col, Rot, Pat. Hihern, 189* 
No. 7, licence to elect on death of Richard, 1408-9 (not 1407, Nov. or Dec. as Cotton says). 



THE BISHOPS OF CORK, l6l 

Patrick Ragged »3 succeeded, and was translated to the See of Ossory, 
Anno Domini 141 7, which he governed four years. He assisted at the 
General Synod of Constance in the years 1415 and 1416, while he was 
Bishop of Cork, where he acquired a vast reputation for learning and 
other endowments. 

Milo Fitz John, Dean of Cork, was consecrated in 141 8, and died 
in 1430. While this prelate sat in the See, Adam Pay, Bishop of Cloyne, 
was very active in Parliament, in 1421, to unite the See of Cork to that 
of Cloyne,'* but Milo not consenting, they were referred to the Court of 
Rome, the case being adjudged out of the cognizance of Parliament. 

Custody of the temporalities given to the Archbishop of Cashel, 18 Aug. 1410, and again (s^dt 
wicaHti\ 7 Ap. 1 41 2 {ib. 194, No. 4, 198, No. 27). 

13 Eubelhas' Patrick Foxe, on death of bishop unnamed, 14 Oct 1409; Patrick Ragged, on 
death of Alexander (nV) 25 May, 1410. It seems quite certain that no bishop had possession between 
Richard and Patrick Ragged. Possibly Eubel has erroneously distinguished the latter from Foxe. 

CaU Papal Reg. y vol. vii. -.—Patrick, Bishop of Cork, translation to Ossory validated by 
Martin V., 3 Non. Feb., 14 18. Milo (Milus, Miles) Fitzjohn originally provided by Gregory 
XII. (After a year's possession Milo ousted by Patrick (now), Bishop Ossory. Martin V. 
conSrms MiIo*s possession to Cork 3 Id. Jan., 1418.) John Paston, monk of Cluny, in the 
diocese of Macon, Prior of Bromholm, in the diocese of Norwich (1420), provided to the See of 
Cork, void by the death of Milus (xfV), by Martin V., 10 Kal, June, 1425. 

14 Union of Sees of Cork and Cloyne^ Confirmation of the petition of Adam, Bishop of 
Cork and Cloyne, by John xxii., union of said two Sees (whereof Cork scarcely exceeded in 
value £60 per an.), the letters of which Pope (dated at Avignon, 3 Kal. Aug. an. 10, i,e. 1326) 
were (at Avignon) 4 Id. Sept. an. 6, i.e. 1376, exemplified from the Register of the said Pope by 
Gregory XI. (Theiner, Vet. Mon, Hib. et Scot, Hist, illustr.^ p. 357). Lateran Regesta^ II, 
Kal. Oct. 14 1 8, I Martin v. {^Calendar of Entries in ike Papal Register^ vol. vii. p. 65). 

Note on tke Pastoral Staff of Cork and Cloyne.—** Episcopus Corcag. et Clonen. utitur in 
ecclesia Clonen. baculo pastcrali effigie Santi Colmani insignito, quern ab hac ecdesia mutuo 
accipit, et restituit, juxta temporis exigentiam." Actt. Consist, iii. 66. 

It would be interesting to know the &te of this Crosier, '* adorned with the likeness of St. 
Colman." It may have been ** borrowed " once too often. 

The following extracts from the flitrarchia Catkolica Medii jEvi, will illustrate the suc- 
cession of Bishops at this time. This learned and most valuable record, compiled from original 
sources, is the work of "Conradus Eubel, Ordinis Minor. Conventual, Sac. Theologige Doctor 
Apostolicus ap. S, Petrum de urbe Penitentiarius," Monasterii (Munster), vol. i. 1898 ; vol. ii. 
1 901, fol. 

Milo Fitzjohn, Jan. 1409. Jul. 18 et 26, a Gregorio XII. in Episcopatum Corcag. (non 
Carthagen) provisus, se («) obligaverat pro se et prsedict. Ricardo, Rogerio, Geraldo. — Div. 
Cam. tom. 2, fol. 30. 

Johannes Pastoris [Paston], Prior of the Priory of Bromholme, Order of Cluniacs, Diocese 
of Norwich, 1425, May 25. [Eubel in error in giving the name as Pastoris.] 

Adam Payn, Episc. Corkag. et Clonen. (Cork and Cloyne united). 

Jordanus, Chancellor of Limerick, 1429, June 15, "qui adhnc mense Decemb. 1434, sedisse 
dicitur." 

Joannes agebat SufTrag. Episcopi. Trajectan (i.e, Utrecht), 1442- 1449. 

The authority for John, Bishop of Cork, being Suffragan of Utrecht, is the Prolegomena of 
Batavia Sacra, p. 15, quoted in Cole MSS., 5858, PI. 285, F. p. 285 (British Museum). 

Geraldus Geraldini provisus 1643 (not 1465 as Brady says), Jan. 31, obi. se 1463, April 2. 

Ob, Jordani, Gulielmus (Roche), Archidiac. Clonensis in minoribus [ordinibus] constitutus, 
1472, Oct. 26. " Bullae de ejus provisione sunt in Camera Apostolica et nunquam fuenint 
redemptse." {Sckede di Garampi), 

On his resignation, Thaddseus Mechar [i.e, McCarthy], 1490, Ap. ai. 

' i,e. Bound himself to pay the sums due by himself and his predecessors to Rome. 



1 62 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGlCAL SOCIETY. 

Jordan. Upon the death of Milo Fitz John, the custody of the See of 
Cork was for a time committed to Nicholas, Bishop of Ardfert, and 
Richard Sculag, Archdeacon of Cork, but, before the close of the year 
1430, Jordan, Chancellor of Limerick, was, by Pope Martin V., advanced 
to the Bishopricks of Cork and Cloyne, both vacant at the time, and then 
canonically united, and received the temporalities on the 25th of 
September, 143 1. He sat in this See about thirty years. The foundation 
Charter of the Collegiate Church of Youghal, granted by Thomas, Earl 
of Desmond, and dated the 27th of December, 1464, is addressed to this 
prelate. How long after that date, the 27th of December, he enjoyed his 
Bishoprick I can't tell, but the year preceding there were very extra- 
ordinary attempts made to strip him of it. 

William Roch, Archdeacon of Cloyne,*' by false and fraudulent sug- 
gestions to the Pope, viz., that the bishop was so broken with age, and 
deprived of his strength and sight, that he could not by himself exercise 
the pastoral oflSce, obtained a deputation to be assigned a coadjutor to 
him, and by virtue thereof seized into his hands all the rents and income 
of the See ; and to strengthen the plot, presently after, one Gerald, of the 
family of the Geralds, a clergyman of the Diocese of Cloyne, and formerly 
a domestic of the Bishop's, caused some instruments to be forged whereby 
the Bishop, under pretence that through poverty he was unable to 
prosecute his right, had constituted this Gerald, and John O'Hedian, 
Archdeacon of Cashel, his proctors to make a resignation of his Bishop- 
ricks. O'Hedian employed John, Elect Bishop of Ardfert, who was then 
at Rome, his substitute to make this resignation into the hands of Pope 
Pius II., which done, a provision was obtained for O'Hedian to these 
Sees, under colour whereof the poor bishop was to be oppressed and drove 
from his Bishopricks. But Jordan the old was not wanting to himself. 
He applied both to the Pope and King for relief. The Pope sent a com- 
mission to the Archbishops of Cashel, Exeter, and Limerick, or to any one 
of them, to make a diligent and summary (search) into the premises, and if 
they found it to be as Jordan represented the case, that then they should 
remove the Coadjutor, and compel him to give an account to Jordan of 
the profits of the Sees, to the full possession whereof they were to restore 
him. The King, in aid to the Pope's commission, sent a Writ directed 
to the Lieutenant, or his Deputy ; to William Barry, David Roche, 
Edmond Barrett, to the Mayors of Cork and Youghal, to the Sovereign 

Patricias Cantum, (^) Abbas Monastcrii de Castro-dei [Fermoy] Ordinis Cbterc. Diocses. 
Clonen. quod retinet, 1499, ''^b* 'S- 

Johannes Edmundi de Geialdinis Cleric. Clonen. in minor, [ord.] conslitutns, 2f annos 
flgens, i499i Junii 26. 

X5 VVdllam Roth. These particulars are almost literally copied from Ware, whose woik 
the writer evidently had before him. This appears to be the case in numerous other . 
instances also. For Roche's appointment see Theiner Vet, Afon. p. 430. A letter from Pius II. 
referring to the evil conduct of this coadjutor towards his bishop, his removal and the resiiiution 
of Jordan, is given in Theiner, p. 449 ; also one from Paul II. on the same subject, p. 464. 

W Paincius Cantum (Caneton?). Ad diem iv. Mart. 1499, in Aiit, Consist, iii. 38, hsec 
annotantur— *'Clerici Sanct. Collegii petierunt ut Cedula Eccl. Corcag. et Clonen. unit, daretur, 
et bulla expediretur, cum ad relat. Cardinalis S. Praxedis de eis provisum sit, et per pluret 
testes constet de morte ii>satum Kpiscopi.'* — Eubel, Uierarehia CathoL Mi J, jEvL vol. ii. p. 
153. The fee payable on appointment to the See appears to have been 150 gold florins. 



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tHE BISHOPS or CORK, 1 63 

of Kinsale, and to all his liege subjects of Ireland, comnianding them 
upon all occasions to give assistance to the Pope's commissioners, and if 
they found that the said yViHi^^n Roche and Gerald made any opposition 
or resistance, that they should cause them to be arrested and committed 
to prison, there to remain until they were punished according to their 
demerits ; and, further, that they should maintain and defend the Bishop 
and his tenants in the possession, and all this under the penalty of 
imprisonment, the forfeiture of their inheritances, the confiscation of their 
goods, and the loss of their offices. Bishop Jordan, after this, continued 
quiet during his life, but Gerald succeeded him in these Sees, and after 
him William Roche. 

Gerald Fitz Richard, whom you have seen so active in attempting 
against all right to deprive his predecessor (Jordan), succeeded. He 
appropriated the vicarages of Clonmolt, Danigin, Donillam, and Bali- 
Ispelling, to the Abbey of Chore, or De Chore Benedicti, now called 
Middleton, in the County of Cork, the foundation of the Geraldines. He 
died 1479. 

William Roche, or De Rupe, who had by fraudulent suggestions and 
base practices obtained a Coadjutorship to Bishop Jordan, as was said 
before, succeeded, and resigned in 1490, yet, in 1496, we see a general 
pardon issued to this prelate, as Bishop of Cork, by King Henry VII., 
and also to David, Bishop of Cashel, Thomas, Bishop of Lismore, and 
many others, for being concerned in the Rebellion of Perkin Warbeck. 

Thady McCarthy, upon the resignation of William Roche, succeeded, 
in 1492, by a provision from Pope Innocent VIII. 

One Gerald, Bishop of Cork and Cloyne, is said to have resigned 
in 1499. 

John Fitzedmond succeeded, descended from the noble family of the 
Geraldines, by the Pope's provision, on the 21st of June, 1499. It is not 
known the year he died.*^ 

John Bennett, or, as some call him, Terrett, died in 1536. 

Dominick Terry, Rector of Shandon Church, in the City of Cork, 
was elected to succeed by virtue of a mandate from King Henry VIII., 
and was consecrated in 1536 by Edmund Butler, Archbishop of Cashel, 
and the Bishops of Ross, Limerick, and Emly. While he governed this 
See, I^rewis Macnemara, a Franciscan friar, obtained a provision of it from 
Pope Paul III., of the 24th of September, 1540, but Lewis died at Rome a 
few days after. 

John Hoyrden, a Canon of Elphin, was appointed to succeed Lewis 
Macnemara by the Pope's provision on the sth of November following. 
Yet, notwithstanding these provisions. Bishop Terry, on whom King 
Henry VIII. had conferred the same, received the profits all his time, and 
sat twenty years. He was a great favourer of the Reformation then in 
agitation. 

Roger Skiddy, Dean of Limerick, to which dignity he was advanced 
by King Edward VI. on the loth of May, in the sixth year of his reign, 
and at the same time was made Rector of Kilmore, in the Diocese of 
Meath, was appointed to succeed by Queen Mary, and was restored to the 
temporalities by Queen Elizabeth, as from the i8th of September, 1557. 
He had a Letter of Restitution from Queen Mary on that day, but she 

x< Probably about Aug., 1520. Se« Surrey's letter to Wolsey, a/. Brady's Rec^rdst vol. iii. 
P 45. 



164 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

dying before his actual investiture, a stop was put to his further pro- 
motion for some years. At length, he was again created Bishop by 
Queen Elizabeth, on the 29th of October, 1562, had his Writ of 
Restitution to the temporalities the same day, in which a retrospective 
clause that he should have the temporalities from the time of his first 
advancement by Queen Mary. His mandate for consecration bears date 
the last of that month, and it appears therein that he was only Bachelor 
of Arts when he was consecrated Bishop. He resigned on the i8th of 
March, 1566, having sat nine years and some months, computing from 
the time he received the profits, but not so long if you reckon from the 
time of his creation by Queen Elizabeth. This See was after his resigna- 
tion vacant almost four years. 

Richard Dixon, Prebendary of Rathmichael, in the Diocese of Dublin 
was advanced to this See by Letters Patent of Queen Elizabeth, dated the 
6th of June, 1570, and had a mandate for his consecration and Writ of 
Restitution the same day, by virtue whereof he was the same year 
consecrated, and the following year was deprived. 

(Mathew Sheyn, 1572 to 1582.) 

William Line, by some called Lyon.'' 'Tis said he was but a sergeant 
of Marines in Queen Elizabeth's service, and, for his good actions on his 
arrival in England, she made him a promise of preferment, which she 
did by desiring him to study a little in Oxford, and that the first vacancy 
that offered he should have it, and on his quitting the College he was 
chaplain to Arthur, Lord Grey, Lord Deputy of Ireland. He was Vicar 
of Naas by Letters Patent dated the 6th November, 1573, and on the 
24th of November, 1577, obtained a dispensation to hold the same with 
any other benefice for life, and license to live in England, and to transport 
the profits of his vicarage into that kingdom. On the 23rd of July, 1580, 
he was presented by Queen Elizabeth to the Vicarage of Randlestown aU 
Randanston, in the County of Kildare, which he held together with that 
of Naas. He was consecrated Bishop of Ross in 1582. The Patent for 
his consecration bearing date the 12th of May that year, and his Writ of 
Restitution two days after. The year following he received the Sees of 
Cork and Cloyne by a commendatory letter, and a grant from his good 
Mistress and benefactress, to hold until the Queen determined her pleasure 
for by Letter Patent, dated the 17th of May, 15 

annexed the two Sees to Ross in the person of this prelate. He died at 
Cork in a very advanced age on the 4th of October, 161 7, and was buried 
in the Cathedral. 

Mathew Sheyn ** succeeded next to Roger Skiddy, which ought to be 
placed before the above William Line, or Lyon, by Letters Patent from 
Queen Elizabeth bearing date the 29th day of May, 1572, and was 
consecrated the same year. He was a great enemy to the Catholic 
religion, and, an instance of it: — In October, 1578, he had publicly 
burned Saint Dominick's image at the High Cross of Cork. He died the 
13th of June, 1582. 

John Boyle, a native of Kent. He was advanced to the Sees of Cork 

17 IVilliam Line. The legend of his early! life here given seems apocryphal, and is not 
alluded to by either Ware or Cotton ; Brady, however, writes — that " he was said to have been 
in the sea line in his yonth " (referring to Bennett MSS.), Records, vol. iii. p. 5a 

xB He was educated first at Peterhouse College, Cambridge, but doe not seem to have 
graduated there. — Athma Cantab^, i. p. 454. 



THE BISHOPS OF CORK. 1 65 

and Cloyne by Letters Patent of James I., dated the 27th of August, i6i8, 
and was consecrated the same year, and with these two Sees held that of 
Ross in commendam. He died at Bishop's Court, near Cork, on the 
loth of July, 1620, and was buried at Youghal in a new tomb erected by 
his brother for his family, on which is the inscription—" Here lieth the 
Reverend Father John Boyle, D.D., Bishop of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, 
and elder brother to Richard, Earl of Cork, etc., who died July loth, 
1620, in the 57th year of his age." 

Richard Boyle, Dean of Waterford, Archdeacon of Limerick, and 
brother to Michael Boyle, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was, by the 
interest of his cousin-german, the Earl of Cork, advanced to the Sees of 
Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, by the Letters Patent of King James L, dated 
the 22nd of August, in the i8th year of his reign, and was consecrated in 
November, 1620, and on the 30th of May, 1638, was translated to the 
Archbishoprick of Tuam, and on the 19th of March died at Cork soon 
after his return from Bristol, and was there buried in the Cathedral of 
Saint Finn Barr, in a vault which he had prepared for himself while he 
was Bishop of Cork. 

William ChappeP' was born at Lexington, in Nottinghamshire, 

z9 William ChappelL A long notice of this eminent prelate is to be found in Ware, as well 
as in Cotton. His autobiography, in 320 Latin iambics, is full of pious thoughts and interesting 
details. It was published In vol. v. of Leland's CoUtctanea\ Oxford, 1716, 8vo ; and after- 
wards in Peck's Desiderata Curiosa. Unfortunately, a considerable portion of this curious 
narrative appears to have been lost, embracing the period of his life extending from 1607, when 
he obtained a fellowship at Christ's College, Cambridge, to 1633, when he was appointed Dean 
of Cashel. " He was invited," writes Dr. Mahaflfy, *• on Aug. 8, 16x2, by Temple and his 
fellows, to teach theology, and act as Dean and Catechist ; and various entries in the Particular 
Book during 1613 prove that he was actually in residence." Temple was the Provost of Trinity 
College, Dublin. Chappel was admitted Provost through the active instrumentality of Archbishop 
Laud, then Chancellor, and Wentworth, Lord Deputy, Aug. 24, 1634, Mr. Urwick says that 
Chappell accepted very reluctantly, but he avoided taking the Provost's oath of loyalty to the 
Charter and Statutes. Dr. Stubbs writes— '* Within a year from this (Oct. 1637) Cbappell was 
made Bishop of Cork, and was consecrated in Nov. 11, 1638. He was induced, however, to 
retain his provostship for eighteen months longer. He informs us that he was anxious to leave at 
once upon his consecration, but the King would not allow it. This did not meet with Arch- 
bishop Ussher's approval. Writing to Laud, July 9, 1638, he says, ' I was very sorry to see 
that clause of his Majesty's letter, whereby the Provostship of the College was granted to be held 
in commendam with the Bishopric of Cork and Ross, of which the party himself whom it 
concerneth is sensible enough that it can hardly stand with the solemn oath which he took upon 
the sending over of the new statutes, especially this clause being thereunto added — 'Non 
impetrabo nee procurabo, directe vei indirecte, dispensationem contra juramenta mea praedicta, 
aut contra ordinationes aut statuta CoUegii, vel ipsorum aliquod.' The eluding of oaths in this 
manner I do conceive to be a. matter of most pernicious consequence, and the party himself, 
as I hear, is not unwilling to give over that place to his brother.'" Ussher's IVorH, Elrington's 
edition, vol. xvi., pp. 36-7. The Caroline Statutes are those referred to above (13 Car. i). 
By them the appointment of Provost was vested in the Crown, the fellows surrendering their 
right of election, and receiving in return the life tenure of their fellowships. The Provost 
is further allowed to accept any ecclesiastical dignity short of a bishopric, provided it does 
not interfere with his residence and duties. On Chappell's final departure from the College, 
Tuly 20, 1640, we find the following entry in the Register— " The Right Rev. Father in God, 
William, Lord Bishop of Cork, being chosen Provost, 21 Aug., 1634, after he bad graciously 
reformed the students, happily procured new statutes, and rich amplyiog of the buildings, 



1 66 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGlCAL SOCIETY. 

December loth, 1582. He was consecrated in Saint Patrick's, Dublin 
on the nth of November, 1638. In the year 1641, on the 26th of Decem- 
ber, he fled for England on account of the fury of the Rebellion that 
broke out two months before, and landed the day following at Milford. 
In his journey he was seized at Tenby for not having a pass, and detained 
seven weeks in prison, and then was released by Sir Hugh Ownes. He 
fell under the imputation of Arminianism, and for his end he was pitched 
upon as a proper provost by Archbishop Laud. He continued provost 
upwards of a year and nine months after his promotion to these Sees by 
the King's special command, and did not resign until the 20th of June, 
1640. He would feign before this have quitted his bishoprick for a 
poorer in England, but all the applications he could make to Archbishop 
Laud could not prevail. He died at Derby in England on Whitsunday, 
1649, from whence his body was carried to Bilthrop in Nottinghamshire, 
and there interred near the corpse of his mother. 

Michael Boyle, Doctor of Divinity of the University of Dublin, and 
Dean of Cloyne, was son of Michael Boyle, Archbishop of Tuam, and was 
advanced to the Sees of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross by Letters Patent of 
King Charles II., dated the 22nd of February, 1660, and had his mandate 
for consecration and Writ of Restitution to the temporalities the same 
day, and was consecrated in Saint Patrick's Church in Dublin ~ on the 
27th of the same month by John, Archbishop of Armagh, assisted by the 
Bishops of Raphoe, Ossory, and Clogher, having b^n a little before 
called into the Privy Council. He was one of the twelve bishops who 
were all consecrated together in Saint Patrick's Church after the 
Restoration, but, not content with these three bishopricks, he held 
possession of six parishes in the west of his diocese as sinecures, under 
colour that he could not (find) clergymen to serve them. When Rc^er, 
Earl of Orrery, Lord President of Munster, went down to his Grovern- 
ment about the. close of the year 1662, he had it in consideration to see 

beautified the chapel, hall, Provost's lodgings, and the Regent House, with the garden and 
other places ; wonderfully increased the College plate and stock, reduced all things into a 
blessed order, and fjiuthfully governed for the space of six years as a glorious pattern of 
sobriety, justice, and godliness, resigned his provostship this day.*' Various and serious charges 
were brought against him by his enemies, amongst others, "That he had not taken the 
statutable oath on his first appointment as Provost, and notwithstanding had acted as Provost." 
That he had stated that the new statutes, promulgated July 20, 1636, had the assent of the 
Provost, fellows, and scholars, whereas, in fact, only he himself and two senior fellows, who 
had been previously deprived of their fellowships, had assented," etc. The decision of the 
Committee of the Irish House of Commons who investigated the matter was, that "The pro- 
ceedings of the Rev. Wm. Chappell, late Provost of Trinity, are great grievances, and fit to 
receive redress." See Stubbs, History of the University of Dublin^ pp. 74-80; Dr. Mahafiy, 
An Epoch in Irish History^ p. 231, etc. ; Urwick, Early History of Trinity College^ p. 36; 
Borlase, Reduction of Inland^ p. 154; Taylor's Hist, of the University of Dublin ^ pp. 29-30; 
Heron's Constitutional Hist, of the University of Dublin^ pp. 50-55 ; Carte, Life of Ormonde 
vol. i. p. 298-9 (ed. 1851). Carte says that the Provost's " answer seems to have puuled them 
(the Select Committee) a little." 

•o Consecrated in St. Patricias Church in Dublin, A full account of this imposing ceremony, 
compiled from a MS. of Dudley Loftus, will be found in Mason's Historical Annals of the Col- 
legiate and Cathedral Church of St, Patrick^ p. 192, etc. See also Mant, Hist, of the Church of 
IteUtndf vol. i. pp. 609- j^f. ; Ball, Reformed Church oflttland^ p. 156 and note, also note EE, 
Append, p. 345. 



THE BISHOPS OF CORK. 1 67 

that the bishops of the province did their duty. For this end he convened 
them together, and particularly admonished this bishop, who was nearly 
related to him, to provide clergymen for these vacant livings, and told 
him if he did not he would sequester the profits, and apply them to the 
support and education of some students in the University, upon which 
reproof the Bishop immediately fixed six clergymen in these vacant 
livings. He was translated to the Archbishoprick of Dublin by Letters 
Patent, dated 22nd of November, 1663, and from thence to Armagh on the 
27th of January, 1678. He died in Dublin on the loth or nth of 
December, 1702, and in the 93rd year of his age, and was buried about 
midnight without any funeral pomp in Saint Patrick's Church under 
the altar. 

Edward Synge, of the University of Dublin, was born in England at 
Bridgenorth, in Shropshire, and from thence was removed to Ireland by 
his eldest brother, George Synge, afterwards Bishop of Cloyne, under 
whose care he spent his younger days at the school of Drogheda. He 
had, early, some ecclesiastical preferments in the Cathedral of Saint 
Patrick's, Dublin, and was a petitioner, with the rest of the clergy of 
that city, on the 9th of July, 1647, to the Commissioners of the English 
Parliament, praying for liberty to use the Common Prayer, then lately 
prohibited, in their respective churches, and remonstrated against the use 
of the Directory introduced by order into the room of the Liturgy. He 
was also promoted to the Deanery of Elphin, and had some preferment in 
the County of Donegal, where, from the year 1647, ^^ constantly re- 
sided during the remainder of Oliver's usurpation. Anthony Wood 
styles him Synge alias Millington, which, on enquiry, was the name of 
the family, but that it was some time or other changed into Synge on 
account of a sweetness of voice and skill in vocal music, which the 
Millingtons were masters of. After the storms of Cromwell's Rebellion 
were blown away, and peace returned by the restoration of King 
Charles II., he was promoted from the Deanery of Elphin to the See of 
Limerick, and consecrated in Saint Patrick's Church, Dublin, on the 
27th of January, 1660, and on the 21st of December, 1663, was translated 
to the bishopricks of Cork, Cloyne, and Ross, and had his Writ of 
Restitution to the temporalities the same day. He died on the 22nd of 
December, 1678. With his death Cloyne became severed from Cork and 
Ross. 

Edward Wetenhall succeeded, and was in 1699 translated to Kilmore 
and Ardagh. (Smith's Cork, vol. i.*, p. 375.)" 

Dive Downes succeeded, and died in 1709."* 

Peter Brown died in 173 5. '3 

" Edward IVetmhali, a native of Lichfield, educated tinder Bashy at Westminster, and at 
Lincoln Coll., Oxon., Prsecentor of Ch. Ch., Dublin, lie was Bishop of Cork during the 
siege, Sept., 1690, and is referred to in Dean Davies' Diary, p. 154, "Whereupon the enemy 
let the Bishop come out to us, whom they (had) made prisoner in the city with all the clergy, 
and about 1,300 of the Protestants, and towards evening they beat a parley, and came to a 
treaty, whereon a truce was granted until the next morning," etc. 

33 Bp. Dire Downes has left us an interesting Journal of his Visitation of his Diocese in 
1699-1700. 

•3 Peter Browne, Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, Bishop of Cork and Ross 17 10, died 
Aug. 25, 1735. ^ °^^^ eminent metaphysician and divine. His Divitu Analogy , and Pro- 



1 68 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY- 

Robert Clayton was translated in 1745 to Cl(^her. 
Jemmet Brown was translated in 1773 to Elphin. 
Isaac Mann succeeded in 1772 ; died 1790. 

Roman Catholic Bishops of Cork since the Reporbiation. 

[Those names and dates marked with an asterisk have been corrected.] 

♦Nicholas Landes, 1568. 
♦Edmund Tanner, B. in 1580 (1574). 
♦Dermod McCreagh, 1580. 
*Wm. Terry, 1622. 

Robert Barry, V.A. of Ross, 1646. 
*Peter Creagh, trans, to Dublin, 1676. 

Robert Norbert, translated to Dublin, 1693. 

John Baptist Skym, 1701. 
♦Donatus McCarthy, 1712. 

Timothy McCarthy, 1730. After this, Cork and Cloyne were 
divided. 

Richard Walsh, B. of Cork 1748. 
*Honble. James Butler, afterwards Lord Dunboyne. 

Francis Moylan, elected 1786 ; died 181 5. 

Florence McCarthy, Coadjutor to Dr. Moylan, 1800 ; died, 1810. 

John Murphy, April 23rd, 1813 (1815). 

cednrtf eiCf of Human Understanding were much esteemed, also a A Letter in answer to a 
Book entitled " Christianity not Mysterious*^ Toland used to say, jestingly, that it was he who 
made Browne Bishop of Cork, meaning that his book was the occasion of it. — Harris Ware, 
Writers^ p. 296. For the strange purpose this book was made to serve in the disputes between 
the Houses of Convocation, see Perry Hist, of the Church of England^ vol, iii. p. 123; Lathbury, 
Hist, of the Convocation of the Church of Englemdy p. 348 ; Stoughton, Ecch Hist, of England^ 
vol. v., p. 275 ; Burnet, Hist, of His Own Times ^ vol. iv. p. 524 (ed. 1833). He published 
his Procedure and Limits of Human Understanding in 1729, and Divine Analogy in 1732. 
His tracts on Drinking of Healths ^ a custom to which he was greatly opposed, are well known. 
Two volumes of his Sermons were published posthumously. He erected a summer residence for 
the bishops at Ballinaspic, in the chapel of which he was buried. An interesting account of 
the discovery of bis coffin, and that of Bishop Mann (1772- 1778), by Dr. Caulfield, is given in 
Notes and Queries , second series, vol. xi., p. 104. The lid of Bp. Browne's coffin appears to 
have been loose, and on its removal his features were recognised by their resemblance to the 
portrait in the palace. 




IRISH ACCOUNT QF THE BATTLE OF KINSALE. 1 69 



An Irish Account of the Battle of Kinsale. 

HETHER the Battle of Kinsale is to be regarded as one 
of the decisive battles of Ireland, or to be set down merely 
as "a rout, not a battle" — as an eminent Irish writer, 
the late Rev. Denis Murphy, S.J., designates it on page 
cxliii. of his Life of Hugh Roe O'Dormell, Prince of Tyr- 
connell (1586 — 1602), which he translated from the Irish of 
Lughaidh O'Clery (Dublin, Sealy & Co., 1893), it was one 
of the most remarkable events of its kind that has occurred in the annals 
of our county, and has not hitherto had any special attention paid to 
it in the Journal, save in Smith's History, and incidentally in Mr. Florence 
O'SuUivan's very interesting article on Kinsale, which appeared in 
the Journal for Jan.-Mar., 1905, No. 65. Dr. Smith and most other 
writers rely on what is, so far, the fullest and best known account of 
this battle — that to be found in Hibernia Pacata; but it is much to be 
desired that a Spanish narrative of their achievements at Kinsale could also 
be consulted, such as may be discovered at some future time in the 
Spanish National Archives. 

In the absence of this Spanish record, without which our knowledge of this 
subject must necessarily remain more or less incomplete, we may take, as 
a kind of substitute, the Irish contemporary account of the Battle of 
Kinsale, as translated by Father Denis Murphy, which appears in the 
portly volume, now out of print, whose title we have just given, to which 
are added his explanatory notes, and a few others by the present writer. 

In his commendable desire to throw as much light as possible on the 
incidents chronicled in his Life of Hugh Roe O'Donnell, Father Murphy 
not only quotes freely from Hihemia Pacata, but also from a less known 
work, Fynes Morison's Rebellion, and from the Carew MSS. Calendar 
(London, 1867-1873). 

In the Calendar of these Carew manuscripts are **Diaries," in which 
the history of the siege is given in great detail. From these ** Diaries" 
Father Murphy gives a summary on pages cxxxv.-vii. of his Life of Red 
Hugh, which is reprinted as follows : 

**i6oi, Sept. 2'^rd. The Spaniards landed at Kinsale. 

Sept. 24th. Marshal Wingfield was sent to the Pale and to Dublin 
to assemble the forces and to get what necessaries the Council could, 
supply the army with. Sir Henry Danvers was sent for the companies 
at Armagh ; and Sir John Berkely for those at Navan. Captain Slingsby, 
with his foot company, and some of Sir Anthony Cooke's horse, marched 
to view the enemy, and entertained a small skirmish with them. 

Sept. 29th. The Deputy, President, and Council went to view Kinsale. 
They found the Spaniards possessed the town, and that the greater part 
of the shipping was at sea, returning into Spain. 

Oct. 8th. The Marshal and Sir John Berkley went to Kinsale to 
view a fit place to encamp in. 

Oct. 1 6th. The Lord Deputy left Cork, and encamped with the army 



170 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

at a place called Owny Buoy, five miles from Kinsale, rather choosing 
to take the field in that sort, unprovided, than the country should discover 
those wants, and fall away to the Spaniards. 

Oct. 17th. The army rose and marched within half a mile of Kinsale, 
where they encamped under a hill which is called Knock Robin, having 
not the means to entrench. 

Oct. 26th. The army dislodged and encamped on a hill on the north 
side before Kinsale, called the Spittle, somewhat more than a musket-shot 
from the town, and there entrenched strongly. 

Oct. 30th. Two culverins began to play on the castle of Rincorran. 
The same day they gave an alarm to our camp, drawing artillery out of 
the town, and with it played into our camp, and every shot that was made 
fell near the Deputy's quarter. Don Juan (the Spanish Commander-in- 
chief), perceiving the castle would be distressed, attempted to relieve it 
by boats, but Sir Richard Piercie beat them back. 

Oct. 31st. The cannon played without intermission. 500 of their 
principal men drew out of Kinsale, with show to relieve Rincorran by 
land. At six o'clock of the night they in the castle prayed admission of 
parley. The commander came to the President, but not agreeing about 
the conditions, for he insisted they should be licensed to depart to Kinsale 
with their arms, bag and baggage, the battery began afresh. 

The officer in command, not being permitted to retain his arms, 
threatened to bury himself in the ruins of the castle (Rincorran). But his 
company seeing him desperately bent not to yield, did threaten to cast 
him out of the breach, so as they might be received to mercy. He con- 
sented at length to yield, and that his people should be disarmed, and 
he should render his sword to the President. 

About two o'clock, when they found the weak state the castle was 
grown to, they sounded for another parley; but this not being accepted, 
many of them endeavoured to escape under the rock close to the water 
side. On deliberation it was thought convenient if the Spaniards would 
quit the place with promise of life only to be sent into Spain, that they 
should be received to mercy, in order to entice others that were in Kinsale 
by this merciful dealing to leave the place. In the end it was concluded 
that they should be all disarmed. They were brought prisoners into the 
camp, and thence sent immediately into Cork. [Charles Fort now occupies 
the site of Rincorran Castle.] 

Nov. 5th. Intelligence that Tyrone (Hugh O'Neill) was coming with 
a great army to join the Spaniards. Resolved, that the camp should be 
entrenched on the north side, and that the President with 2,100 foot and 
325 horse should draw down to the border of the province to stop, or at 
least hinder, his passage ; the Lord Barry and the Lord Bourke, with the 
forces of the country, to join with him. [The Lord Barry was David 
Fitzjames, Viscount Buttevant. He had joined in the Earl of Desmond's 
war against the English; but submitted to Lord Grey, and from that 
time forward was the constant supporter of the Crown, and was rewarded 
accordingly.] 

Nov. loth. News of the Earl of Thomond's landing with 1,000 foot 
and 100 horse at Castlehaven. 

Nov. i8th. The Deputy called a Council. Resolved, that the soundest 
course would be to invest the town at once and plant our artillery. 



IRISH ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF KINSALE. I7I 

Nov. 19th. A demi-cannon played upon Castle-ny-parke. The 
Spaniards attempted to relieve the castle by boat, but were repelled. 

Nov. 20. The Spaniards in the Castle hung out a sign for parley, 
and surrendered, being in number 17. 

Nov. 2ist. The Deputy went over into the island to view from thence 
how the town could be best invested. 

Nov. 22nd. Four other pieces planted. 

Nov. 23rd. The six pieces did great hurt to the town. The Deputy 
sent direction to Sir Richard Levison [Admiral of the Queen's Fleet sent 
to Ireland] to land three culverins and plant them in the Island about 
Castle-ny-parke [now the Old Fort]. 

Nov. 26th. Two regiments of the Earl of Clanricarde and Sir C. 
St. Lawrence were quartered upon the west side of Kinsale to keep the 
Spaniards and 0*Donnell from joining. [Moryson says that the total 
of the English army at Kinsale on Nov. 20th was 12,200 foot and 857 
horse. He gives the officers* names, and the number of men commanded 
by each.] 

Nov. 28th. In the morning a trumpet was sent to summon Kinsale ; 
he was not suffered to enter the town; but received his answer at the 
gate, that they held the town, first, for Christ, and next for the King 
of Spain, and so would defend it against all enemies. 

Nov. 30th. The Marshal went to the wall of the town to view which 
was the best place to make a breach, and found the wall close to the gate 
on the right hand to be the fittest. The artillery beat upon that place, 
and broke down a very great part of the wall. 

Dec. 2nd. The enemy sallied about eight o'clock in the night (being 
extreme dark and rainy), with about 2,000 men, and first gave slightly 
towards the new trenches upon the west side, and presently after with 
a great gross upon the trench of the cannon, continuing their resolution 
to force it with exceeding fury, having brought with them tools of divers 
sorts to pull down the gabions and trenches, and spikes to clog the artillery. 
Succours were sent from the camp, and repulsed the enemy, who at one 
time obtained possession of the trenches. [The Annals of the Four 
Masters state that '*The Spaniards slew many men, and would have slain 
more were it not for the Earl of Clarricarde, for it was he and those 
around him that drove the Spaniards back to Kinsale.] 

Dec. 3rd. Intelligence that six Spanish ships put into Castlehaven. 
In these were said to be 200 Spaniards, with great store of ordnance 
and munition. 

Dec. 13th to 20th. The weather fell out so extreme foul and stormy, 
and our intelligence concurring so fully of Tyrone's drawing near with 
his forces, we neither could nor thought it fit to attempt anything to any 
great purpose. 

Dec. 2 1 St. Towards night Tyrone showed himself, with the most 
part of his horse and foot in a hill between the camp and Cork, about a 
mile from us, and on the other side of the hill encamped that night, where 
he had a fastness of wood and water. [With Tyrone was now O'Donnell. 
They had joined their forces at Bandon.J 

Dec 22nd. Tyrone's horse and foot kept still in sight in the place 
where they showed themselves the day before. That night some of their 

13 



1/2 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

horse and 500 of their foot were discovered searching out a good way 
to the town. 

Dec 23rd. Our artillery still played upon the town, but we had no 
meaning to make a breach until we might discover what Tyrone meant 
to do. We intercepted letters of Don Juan*s, advising Tyrone to set 
upon our camp." 

Now that the two Hughs, O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and 0*Donnell, 
Earl of Tyrconnell, have appeared on the scene we shall presently repro- 
duce that Irish narrative of the Battle of Kinsale, which is due to Hugh 
Roe O'Donneirs share in the martial proceedings connected therewith. 

But first it will be advisable to recall to recollection what were the 
actual causes that led to the advent of the Spanish troops to Kinsale. 

Hugh O'Neill and Hugh O'Donnell were the leading Irish chieftains 
in Ulster, and were united by the closest family ties. Munster had been 
laid waste when the Earl of Desmond fell, its inhabitants had been robbed 
of their lands, and Undertakers (as they were termed) were introduced in 
their stead. The men of the North saw clearly that the whole strength 
of the English power would be directed against them now, and they 
prepared for the contest. Indeed, they seem to have been willing to 
admit the supremacy of the Crown, Father Murphy affirms; but they 
would not submit to the tyranny of the officials. . . . The reasons why 
O'Donnell took up arms against the English, as given to certain Com- 
missioners of the Queen in January, 1596, are published by Father Murphy 
on p. xlvii., but are too long for reproduction here. They were principally 
his unjustly long imprisonment and fear of the great extortion of the 
Sheriffs. . . . "These, and many like courses, together with the base 
practices daily used against his neighbours in Fermanagh and Connaught, 
caused O'Donnell to fall into his disloyalty, fearing his own turn would 
come to be banished." 

The Irish chieftains knew that without foreign aid the forces which 
they could bring together would be no match for the power of England. 
Hence they turned to other countries, those especially that were bound 
to them by the tie of a common religion, such as Spain, then the great 
Catholic power, whose King, Philip IL, was the staunchest supporter of 
the Catholic religion at home and abroad. In the month of July, 1695, 
O'Neill received a letter of encouragement from the Bishop of Killaloe, 
then at Lisbon, promising him immediate aid. **We have just learned 
with great satisfaction that you, the Earl of Tyrone, have openly taken 
up arms and joined with the other chieftains of Ulster against the Queen, 
and I have every confidence you will be successful. I have earnestly, but 
with great caution, persuaded the King to send you a fleet with which 
to oppose the enemy and subjugate the English Government, and that 
you may be free yourself and all your people from the oppressive yoke of 
the English for ever. Furthermore, I find the King's mind most ready 
and willing to send you assistance, and that immediately." On the 25th 
of September, 1595, O'Neill and O'Donnell wrote to the King of Spain: 
**Our only hope of re-establishing the Catholic religion rests on your 
assistance. Now or never our Church must be succoured. By the 
timidity or negligence of the messengers our former letters have not 
reached you. We therefore again beseech you to send us 2,000 or 3,000 



IRISH ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF KINSALE, 1 73 

soldiers, with money and arms, before the feast of SS. Philip and James 
(May I St). With such aid we hope to restore the faith of the Church, and 
to secure you a Kingdom." 

O'Neill wrote to Don Carlos, the King's son, a similar letter on the 
same date; and both also wrote to Don Juan del Aquila (who subsequently 
came to Kinsale), whose fame and goodwill they had heard of, asking 
him **to assist the bearer in obtaining aid in the war for the Catholic faith, 
whereby the King would establish the Catholic religion and acquire a 
Kingdom." Early in the following year the King of Spain sent an envoy 
to Ireland, Alonso Cobos,^ with three pinnaces, each having on board 
60 musketeers, which put in at Killybegs, whence the Envoy communi- 
cated with O'Donnell and O'Neill, who sent back letters by him to the 
King, as did other Irish chiefs, such as Maguire, MacWilliam Burke, 
Brian O'Rourke, and MacSwiney Banagh. It was the wish of O'Neill, 
O'Donnell, and the other chiefs, who made common cause with them, 
to send a joint letter signed by all to the King ; but their anxiety for the 
speedy arrival of aid from Spain and the Envoy's wish to avoid capture 
by the English ships, made him hasten his departure before this could 
be done. But he bore testimony to the universal desire of the Irish 
chiefs to cast off their allegiance to the Queen of England and to submit 
to the King of Spain. 

Towards the end of this year another Envoy would seem to have come 
from the King of Spain, who took back like letters to him from the same 
chiefs and others besides, such as Cormac O'Neill and Hugh MacDavid; 
and in the course of the year following Don Roderigo de Vayen was also 
sent by the King of Spain to confer with the Irish. He, too, landed at 
Killybegs, and went to Donegal (where O'Donnell then was), where he 
was entertained most generously, and at his departure was given presents 
of dogs and horses besides letters for his royal master. 

Meanwhile the rebellion of the Northern chiefs waxed and waned, 
mostly under the leadership of O'Neill, who, in the year 1600, paid a visit 
of conquest to Munster. When he left Ulster he passed along the borders 
of Breifny and Meath, through Westmeath, Athlone, Upper Leinster, 
North Tipperary, to Roscrea, Ikerrin and Holycross Abbey, thence to 
Cashel, where he was met by the Earl of Desmond, and they were rejoiced 
to see each other. [The Earl of Desmond and Florence MacCarthy More 
were as importunate as O'Neill and O'Donnell in calling on the King 
of Spain to give them aid. They were both transported in August to 
England, and consigned to the Tower of London for safe keeping, and 
died there.] They afterwards proceeded westwards across the Suir 
through Clongibbon, the Roches' country, and the country of Barrymore 
(Lord Buttevant), who was always on the side of the Queen, and refused 
to join him, whose territory consequently was plundered and burnt by 
O'Neill. His Munster campaign was marred by the death of one of his 
allied chiefs, Maguire, who was killed in a duel with Sir Warham 
St. Leger; but he received the submission of nearly all the Munster chiefs, 
both Irish and Anglo-Irish, and after spending somewhat less than three 
months on this expedition, O'Neill returned to the North by the same way 

z There is a detailed account, Father Murphy states, of Cobos* voyage to Ireland from 
Santander, Spain, which he left on the 22nd of April, in the Archives at St. Simancas. 



174 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHifiOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

he had come to Munster. **The province of Munster,** says Fyncs 
Moryson, **was much confirmed in rebellion by the Earl of Tyrone's 
journey into these parts.*' 

In the spring of the year 1600 two ships came from Spain to Killybegs 
under the command of Ferdinand de Barranova, laden with materials of 
war. In answer to the question why the King had delayed so long the 
promised relief, De Barranova said that his master was fully determined 
to aid them with men and money; but having been told that they had 
made peace with the English he wished to learn from messengers of his 
own what was the true state of affairs. For this purpose he now sent 
Matthew de Oviedo, a Spanish Franciscan, who had already visited 
Ireland at the close of the Geraldine war. A year later he was sent back 
to Spain for the purpose of soliciting further aid, and was instructed to 
proceed thence as agent of the Irish at the Papal Court. Now he came 
back as the joint Envoy of Pope Clement VIII. and of the King of Spain, 
Philip III., whose father, Philip II., had died in 1598. This Matthew 
de Oviedo was appointed Archbishop of Dublin ; but his subsequent stay 
in Ireland was a brief one. ^ O'Neill again wrote to the Spanish King from 
the Catholic camp, August 3rd, 1600, and from the Irish camp, September 
i8th following, beseeching further succour; and on the same date the 
Archbishop de Oviedo wrote to the King, again urging on him to take 
pity on the distressed condition of the Irish ; and by the i8th of the follow- 
ing month of May Tyrone's son, Henry, arrived out in Spain, in order, by 
the King's permission, that he might learn the accomplishments suited 
to his high station, and see the Catholic religion in its full splendour. 

So far, Hugh Roe O'Donnell's successes had met with no check. In 
the field he and O'Neill had shown themselves a match for the ablest 
generals that the English Government could send against them. But 
now the English began privately to entreat and implore Hugh's near 
kinsman, Niall Garbh O'Donnell, to join them, * 'offering to confer the 
chieftaincy of the territory upon him should they prove victorious. They 
promised him many rewards and much wealth, if he would come over to 
their alliance"; and he did so. He was envious of Hugh Roe's power, 
and thought, furthermore, that he, not Hugh, should be the chief of the 
clan, as by the English law of primogeniture he would have been. With 
this traitor kinsman, Niall Garbh, Hugh Roe O'Donnell was engaged in 
conflict when the long-expected arrival of the Spaniards took place at 
Kinsale. 

Ever since the close of the Desmond revolt the dread of the coming 
of the Spaniards was like an ugly dream ever disturbing the minds of the 
English officials in Ireland. There were doubts and conjectures on their 
part about the precise place the Spaniards would land. Next to Water- 
ford, Cork, they considered, was the most dangerous haven for the 
Spaniards to land at. They did not come, however, in 1600; but in the 
beginning of 1601 the immediate arrival of the Spaniards was looked on 
as a certainty, from intelligence received by merchants and from spies, a 
great number of whom, under the name of pensioners, were in the pay of 

« De Oviedo never saw Dublin nor entered the Pale, He appointed as his Vicar-General, 
with powers to act in his absence, Dr. Bernard Moriarty (a priest of the Diocese of Ardagh), 
then Archdeacon of Cloync— Father Meehan's Irish Hierarchy. 



IRISH ACCOUNT OF THE BATTLE OF KINSALE. 175 

the English Government in all the Spanish ports. So early as the 13th 
of January of 1601, Carew wrote to the Privy Council, praying that the 
victualling until Christmas next may be continued for 3,000 foot and 250 
horse, as heretofore; and that he should be sent between that date and 
Easter five lasts of powder, with lead and match proportionable, 200 
shovels and spades, 500 pick-axes, and 150 crows of iron. By the be- 
ginning of August the Lords of the Council were confident of the Spaniards* 
descent, and wrote that 2,000 men would embark immediately at Bristol 
for Ireland, and 4,000 more were appointed to be in readiness at two ports 
to be sent so soon as notice would be received by them of the Spaniards* 
landing. The places most suspected by the Deputy and Carew as to 
where the Spaniards would attempt to disembark were Cork and Limerick ; 
and into these cities the forces were gathered from all quarters, none 
being left outside but the wards in the several castles. 

The Lord President of Munster received the first official intimation of 
the sailing of the Spanish fleet to Kinsale by a letter from the Secretary 
Cecil, dated from the Court at Windsor the 12th of August, 1601. This 
letter is printed in Gibson's Cork, vol. i., as is also the note enclosed 
from Cecil *s private agent, dated from Lisbon the 25th of July previous. 
It contains no name, but the agent was thoroughly acquainted with the 
subject on which he wrote. He mentions five and forty ships, seventeen 
only fitted for men of war, whereof eleven were but small ships, and the 
other six galleons. The ships that carried the soldiers were not above 
200 tons, and the number of soldiers 6,000, whereof 3,000 were on board 
and 3,000 to come. [But these last did not come, as the number that 
landed at Kinsale was only about 3,000 in all. Another thousand may 
have landed at Baltimore and Castlehaven.] For the manning of the 
ships 1,500 sailors were sent to Lisbon from Biscay. [Some of the ships 
with troops on board intended for Ireland were sent to convoy treasure 
ships returning from the Indies, and were prevented from putting to sea 
afterwards by the stormy weather."] 

A Captain Love arrived in Cork Harbour,* and on the 13th of September 
sent the President a letter stating that he had seen five and forty sail at 
sea, on the north of Cape Finisterre, bearing north; he therefore con- 
jectured that Ireland was their destination. Everyone, writes the Rev. 
C. B. Gibson, who derives his information from Pacata Hihernia, was in 
daily expectation of the Spanish fleet, some fearing, some desiring it. 
When a strange sail appeared above the horizon, "It is a Spanish ship." 
If accompanied by a second, "It is the Spanish fleet." But the real 
Spanish fleet came at last, on the 20th of September, "towards night." 
The Sovereign (or Mayor) of Kinsale sent a messenger to inform Sir 
Charles Wilmot at Cork that a fleet of 45 ships were observed from the 
Old Head of Kinsale ; that they had passed the mouth of the river, and 
were bearing up for Cork Harbour. The information was correct; the 
Spaniards were preparing to enter the Cove of Cork when the wind 
"suddenly scorted, whereupon they tacked about and made for Kinsale.** 

There was no army in Kinsale to oppose their landing ; the garrison 
consisted of 50 foot and 40 horse, which were ordered to retreat to Cork, 

3 Mr. Standish O'Grady, in his edition of Pacata mbgrnia, London, 1806. thtnks that Cork 
was an error for Crookhaven, 



176 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiBOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

"the better sort of persons going with them with all their goods. " The 
Spaniards inarched with five and twenty colours towards the town. The 
gates were thrown open, and the Sovereign, with his white rod, went 
about billeting them upon the inhabitants. Stafford (Pacata Hihemia) 
says the people were more ready to receive them "than if they had been 
the Queene's forces.*' To encourage them in such good conduct, and 
"win their love by gentle and mild usage," Don Juan de Aquila, the 
Spanish General (who appears to Mr. Gibson to have been a man of 
singular politeness), made the following proclamation : — 

"A Proclamation made in Kinsale by Don Juan de Aquila, to give 
contentment to the Inhabitants of Kinsale. 

"We, Don Juan de Aquila, General of the Armie to Philip, Kinge of 
Spaine, by these presents doe promise that all the inhabitants of Kinsale 
shall receive no injury by any of our retinue, but rather shall be used 
as our brethren and friends; and that it shall be lawful for any of the 
inhabitants that list to transport, without any molestation in body or 
goods, and as much as shall remaine likewise without any hurt. 

"Don Juan de Aquila."* 

The whole Spanish force consisted of about 3,000 men, under the 
command of Don Juan, Maestro del Campo, General ; Don Francisco de 
Padilla, Antonio Centono, each a Maestro del Campo, and forty-two 
captains, besides other officers. Don Juan describes the town, in a docu- 
ment he sent or meant to send to Spain, as a place containing not above 
two hundred houses, on the side of a river, environed with hills, and without 
any kind of defence. There is in the middle of the haven a certain 
almost an island, in which it seemeth good to Don Juan to have a fort 
made." [This was the promontory where stands the now ruined "Old 
Fort."] Only part of their artillery was landed, and their store of 
biscuits and munitions got wet in the hurry of landing. The Queen 's people and 
forces had carried away all the cattle and coin of the district, and 
broken down the mills. All the Spaniards could get was "^ fewe cowes 
from the poore people, who are glad to sell." They had brought with them 
1,600 saddles, hoping, as had been promised them, "to find horses in 
Ireland." But no horses were to be had, and when the English troopers 
later on came to the walls to see what the Spaniards were about, the latter, 
having no cavalry, had to submit to the indignity. In this emergency 
Don Juan and his countryman Oviedo, the Archbishop of Dublin, who 
arrived with him, wrote letters, the former in Spanish, the latter in Latin, 
to Tyrone and O'Donnell to hasten their coming. The letter of Don Juan, 
in its novel brevity, is, Mr. Gibson says, worthy of Julius Caesar. The 
following is Mr. Standish O 'Grady *s translation of it: "We are here 
awaiting your most illustrious Highnesses, as we have written at large 
another way. Adios. — Don Juan de Aquila. 

"To the Most Excellent Lords O'Neill and O'Donnell." 

(To he continued.) 
4 The Rev. Denis Murphy spells the name del Aguila. 




THE RHINCREW DUEL IN 1 826. 177 

The Rhincrew Duel in 1826- 
By COURTENAY MOORE, Canon, M.A., Council Member. 

COMMUNICATED a short paper to the Journal on the 
above subject in 1903, and quite recently Dr. Welply, of 
Bandon, has been good enough to send me the following 
account of Mr. Connor's defence of himself when on his 
trial. Dr. Welply says it is many years since he copied 
this account from a paper -probably a newspaper of the 
period— which paper has unfortunately been lost. The 
account bears internal evidence of authenticity. It is as 
follows : — 

** Daniel Connor, Manch House, the principal, and Bernard Beamish, 
Palace Anne, the second, were tried in Waterford on Tuesday, March 20th, 
1827, by Judge Burton, for the alleged murder of the late Captain Daunt, 
in a duel on May 31st, 1826. Amongst those present were— Robert H. 
Eyre, Esq., Macroom Castle ; the Hon. Captain Bernard, Col. Longfield, 
Sir A Warren, Rev. M. Longfield, H. Gillman, Esq., &c., &c. 

"Judge Burton, having intimated to Mr. Connor that he might 
address the Court, 

**Mr. Connor rose, and said— * I hope that it will not be considered 
improper that I should say a few words before the evidence intended to be 
brought forward on my behalf shall be gone into. It is not my intention 
to enter into any elaborate statement, but as my counsel are deprived of 
the right of speaking in my defence, I am anxious to address to the 
Court and to the jury some brief, simple observations, not so much with 
a view to an argumentative and methodical palliation of an event, which 
I most deeply deplore, as in order to make you feel that however I may be 
deserving of censure in a moral point of view, yet that under the peculiar 
circumstances in which I was unhappily placed, I am not disentitled to 
your sympathy. 

** 'Gentlemen, what I shall say shall be perfectly plain, and wholly 
free from any appeal to passion. I mean to do nothing more than lay 
before you in a very short narrative the principal circumstances which 
have occasioned the disastrous incident of which you have already some 
of the details. 

** 'Gentlemen, I am a magistrate of the County of Cork. In the 
beginning of January, 1826, a case in which a person of the name of 
Haly was the plaintiff, and the unfortunate gentleman whose death has 
produced this trial was the defendant, came on for a hearing before the 
Ballineen bench of magistrates, of which I am a member. God forbid 
that I should now wantonly cast any imputation upon Captain Daunt, 
but I may be permitted to say, without any violation of propriety, that, in 
his conduct towards Haly, he was so far carried away by his feelings, or 
fell into such a misconception, that his conduct appeared to all the 
magistrates in an exceptional light. I expressed my opinion with respect 



178 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

to the injustice with which Haly been treated. Educated in England, 
I felt for the suflferings of a peasant. I spoke as a magistrate on a 
subject falling within my jurisdiction, and in which I was bound to 
decide. Captain Daunt made no observation at the time, but afterwards 
wrote to me for an explanation ; in reply to which demand I sent him, 
upon the loth of January, the following note: — 

" * Sir — In answer to your letter of yesterday, I beg to reply that I do 
not conceive myself called on to give an explanation for expressions 
which I may deem it my duty to apply to any proceedings before the 
Ballineen bench of magistrates. — I am, sir, your obedient servant, 

•* ' Daniel Connor. 

'• 'Phale, Jan. loth. 

" 'To Joseph Daunt, Esq., Kilcaskin.' 

" 'Captain Daunt again required an explanation, and I again said 
that I acted in the honest and conscientious discharge of a public duty. 
I referred him a second time to my office as Justice of the Peace, and I 
here protest that, in the whole course of the proceedings connected with 
Haly's case, I acted to the best of my judgment, and did not, in the least 
particular, go beyond my magisterial duty. Captain Daunt, not satisfied 
with the appeal which I had made to my functions as* a magistrate, sent 
Mr. William Atkin to deliver me a message. I informed him, as the fact 
was, that I had acted upon the advice of men of honour, and that the 
fairest course was to tell him that if Captain Daunt should persevere in 
sending a hostile message, I should instantly take legal proceedings 
against him, as otherwise magistrates would be exposed to similar 
demands from every person who should think proper to be dissatisfied 
with what they did in the discharge of their official functions. Mr. Atkin 
then informed me that Captain Daunt would seek for another opportunity 
of obtaining satisfaction. It is unnecessary for me to make any comment 
upon this melancholy transaction, for it must strike you that I by no 
means exhibited any strong predilection for duelling, although sufficiently 
provoked, and you must also perceive that Captain Daunt had formed the 
design of putting a public aflfront upon me. 

** * Gentlemen of the Jury, in a short time after I had refused to meet 
Captain Daunt, a lampoon was put into circulation by one of his sons. 
He acknowledged himself that he was the author of it, and that it was 
written and circulated with his father's knowledge and assent no sort of 
doubt can be entertained. It is composed in verse, and purports to be a 
report of Haly's case, at the Petty Sessions, and an account of which 
subsequently took place. In this lampoon my domestic privacy is invaded, 
my family is held up in derision, and even my wife is introduced with 
gross disrespect. I am represented in this metrical libel as a scandalous 
coward, boasting at one time of my courage, and at another seeking 
refuge in the arms of my wife from the chastisement which awaited me. 

** * Gentlemen, you have families yourselves. You are, or most of you 
at least are, married men, and you may judge what my feelings must 
have been, by asking yourselves how you would feel if a similar outrage 
were committed upon yourselves. It is not for me to give utterance to the 
language of animosity in speaking of a man whose name is now 
associated in my mind with nothing but sorrow, but you will forgive me 
for saying that the lampoon to which I have referred did exhibit a very 



THE RHINCREW DUEL IN 1826, 1 79 

vindictive disposition, and was a preliminary to the insult which I 
subsequently received. I proceed to the statement of the circumstances 
under which that insult was offered — 

** * Having previously mentioned, by way of parenthesis, that, on the 
23rd of January, the magistrates, who sat with me on the bench in Haly's 
case expressed, in a resolution passed by them, their approbation of my 
conduct, I come at once to the details of the circumstances from which the 
fatal meeting originated. On Tuesday, the 23rd of May, Captain Daunt 
met me in the house of Dr. Hickey, the rector of Murragh. There were 
about forty persons assembled, and in the evening dancing took place. 
At this assembly, in my hearing and in the hearing of others, Captain 
Daunt designated me as ** a cowardly scoundrel." Although this epithet 
and others of an equally opprobrious nature were lavished upon me in the 
presence of many persons of both sexes who stood near Captain Daunt, 
yet regard for my host who was a clergyman and my respect for the ladies in 
the room prevented me from at once giving way to indignation. I waited 
until the party had gone to supper, and sent for Captain Daunt, whom I 
requested to speak with me in the hall. I asked him, in the presence of 
Mr. Fergus O'Connor, and in a mild tone, whether the expressions 
uttered in the ball-room were meant to be applied to me. He answered in 
the affirmative. I told him he should meet me the next morning. He 
answered that he would not, and that I should give him his own time ; 
upon which I observed that as he had come with a deliberate design to 
offer an insult to a gentleman, he should also have come prepared to give 
satisfaction without delay. 

** 'Gentlemen of the Jury, I sent my friend, Mr. Beamish, with a 
message to Captain Daunt. Mr. Atkin acted as the Captain's friend. 
During eight days a negotiation took place between those gentlemen. 
Mr. Beamish sent to Mr. Atkin the form of an apology for the words 
used with deliberation in a public ball-room, but Mr. Atkin declared that 
no apology should be made by Captain Daunt until I had previously 
signed a written apology for what I had said in my magisterial capacity, 
and which my brother magistrates declared to be perfectly justifiable. I 
beg to call your attention to the important fact that a preliminary apology 
was required by Captain Daunt ; instead of tendering an apology he 
demanded one, and persisted in it to the last. My family is lampooned ; 
a gross trespass is committed upon my privacy ; my wife is introduced 
into contumelious rhymes ; I am insult^ in a public ball-room, and in 
the hearing not only of men but of women; I am called **a cowardly 
scoundrel"— and afterwards an apology is demanded from me ! 

** * Gentlemen of the Jury, Captain Daunt and Mr. Beamish, who' had 
the choice of place, appointed a spot at the distance of fifty miles from my 
residence in the County Cork. A place in this county was selected in 
which the friends and relatives of Captain Daunt reside. A crowd of 
persons interested for that gentleman assembled in the field, every one of 
them known to Mr. Walter Atkin, while Mr. Beamish and myself stand 
unattended and unknown. 

"* Gentlemen , of the Jury, you will not expect that I should go 
through the details of what took place on the 31st of May last. It is 
harrowing to my feelings to recall the image of that fatal scene in which 
I was involved, as much I hope by my misfortune as by my fault. I look 
back to that event with deep and unaffected grief. But, gentlemen, you 
will, I hope, recollect that I did not precipitate myself into the field with a 



l8o CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

blood-thirsty spirit. I was driven into it. I wanted moral courage so 
far as to be afraid of the prejudices of the world, and I was not brave 
enough to allow myself to be branded with the name of ** coward " without 
requiring that it should be recalled. Although I shall not go into any 
minute detail of the melancholy incident, permit me to state that nothing 
like an apology was offered by a gentleman who, so far from tendering 
one, had previously required one, and never waived. 

** * I leave the evidence, as to what took place on the 31st of May to the 
Court, but there is one important document to which I beg to direct your 
attention. Mr. Warren Gumbleton is the uncle and the father-in-law of 
Captain Daunt. He must be supposed to have been most deeply interested 
for the man with whom he was connected by such close relationship. 
You must believe that he received the earliest and the most accurate 
intelligence respecting the unfortunate transaction ; and of course his 
inquiries were made from persons the best qualified to give him 
information. Well, then, what account did Mr. Gumbleton give of the 
fatal event? On the 31st of May he published a letter in the following 
words : — 

"'Sir— From every inquiry as to the unfortunate affair of this 
morning between my nephew and Mr. Connor, I find everything was 
honourable and fair. In my opinion, from such conduct, there is no 
occasion for any public inquiry into it.— I remain, Sir, your very obedient 
servant, 

'* ' Robert W. Gumbleton. 

** 'Windsor, May 31st, 1827.'" 

[The name of the person to whom this letter was addressed is not 
given, and the date is inaccurate, 1827 instead of 1826. It was written on 
the day of the duel, which was fought in 1826.] 

To resume Mr. Connor's defence : — 

** 'Gentlemen, the statement made by the uncle and father-in-law of 
Captain Daunt, after every inquiry, ought to be, I respectfully submit, an 
ingredient in your consideration. I might— and my friend, Mr. Beamish, 
might— rest here, but, independently of the positive evidence of 
Mr. Gumbleton, I may also refer to my general character, and that 
of Mr. Beamish, which repel the imputation that we were actuated by a 
sanguinary motive. The conduct attributed to us is at variance with our 
whole lives. We are not gladiators. Upon professed duellists we look 
with equal scorn and detestation. The men who have been best 
acquainted with us will tell you that we are not destitute of humanity 
and kindly feeling. We shall produce many persons of high rank, and 
of the most unblemished lives, to give testimony on our behalf. What 
they will tell you with respect to myself I forbear from saying, but I may 
be allowed to say that of my friend — my dear, my true, my faithful friend — 
who sits beside me, and who is put in peril on my account— you will be 
told by men whose praise is valuable, indeed, that there never was in the 
human bosom a better heart. For him I feel a thousand times more 
anxious than for myself. 

" ' I have done — and yet one word more before I commit my case to 



THE RHINCREW DUEL IN 1 826. t8i 

you. Let me make one suggestion to you. God forbid that I should 
institute a defence for duelling, in the abstract, but we are the slaves of 
public opinion, which exercises a despotic dominion over us all. Make 
my case your own, and, though I have violated the injunctions of religion, 
do not deny me the benefit of a sacred precept, and **do to others as you 
would be done by." Had you been placed as I was, might you not be also 
situated as I am at this moment ? If I have been culpable in adhering to 
the rules of honour rather than those of true morality, yet from men 
living in the world like myself, and subject to its usages, I deserve as 
much sympathy as condemnation, and ought, perhaps, be considered as 
less guilty than unfortunate. 

** * Gentlemen, I thank you for the attention you have given me, and 
commit my life and reputation, and what is still dearer, the life and 
reputation of my friend, to you.'" 

It is stated in the MS. kindly furnished to me by Dr. Welply, that : — 
"After delivering this address in a solemn and melancholy tone, Mr. 
Connor sat down. The whole audience was moved, and the eyes of the 
judge were filled with tears." 

I have little to add by way of note or comment here, except to again 
express my thanks to Dr. Welply for his thoughtful kindness in placing 
the above interesting document in my hands. It is a most valuable 
addition to the account of the duel which appeared in the Journal 
in 1903. 

Mr. Connor's defence bears evidence of very careful preparation, it is 
a calm, clear, cool, reasonable statement of his case. Whether he read 
it from MS. or delivered it extempore from memory is not stated ; it evi- 
dently produced a great effect upon those who heard it, and naturally and 
justly so, for it was a well-balanced appeal, almost equally directed both to 
the head and to the heart. The opening of it contains a very interesting 
statement regarding the law of the period — ** As my counsel are deprived 
of the right of speaking in my defence, I am anxious to address the Court 
and jury." Was it the case in those days that a duellist could not be 
defended by counsel in open court? This is a legal point quite beyond 
me, but such seems to have been the law then, judging from Mr. Connor's 
statement. 

Mr. Connor was acquitted by the jury, as was also his second, 
Mr. Beamish, for whom there appeared to be little or no sympathy, but 
his case could not be logically separated from that of his principal, so he 
got free. The feeling against him was accounted for in the earlier paper 
on the subject published in 1903. 

It is a pity that further details of the trial are not available for 
reproduction. 

[In republishing in the ybufnal documents such as the above, that help 
to throw light on the past history of our county, which is the main object 
of our Society, yet may contain statements conflicting with others pre- 
viously printed in the Journal or elsewhere, the Editors cannot undertake 
to pronounce what is the true version of the affair in question. Each 
paper stands on its own merits, and the reader is left to draw his own 
conclusions.] 



l82 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



GENEALOGY OF MAHON AND HIS CORRELATIVES. 

(From Dr. J. Henthorn Todd's Ed. of Wars of the Gael and the Goill, 
With a few corrections and additions in brackets [ ]). 



CoRC, King of Munster (circ. a.d. 420), fourth in descent from Eoghan M6r, 
ancestor of the Eoghanacht Clans, son of OlioU Olum. 



Natfraich, K.M. 

Aongus, K.M. 

Fedhlimidh. 

Criomhthann. 

Aodh Dubh [ances- 
tor of McCarthies, 
0'Sullivans,0'Cal- 
laghans, etc.] 



1. Cas. 

2. Eochaidh (a quo 

Ui Eachach). 

3. Criomhthan. 



4. Aodh-Uargarbh. 

5. Tighernach. 

6. Fedlemidh, 

King of Mun- 
ster, A.D. 577. 

7. Fergus. 

8. B^ce (a quo 
CinelmB^ice). 

9. Ferdaleithe. 

10. Conaicce. 

11. Olioll. 

12. Cucongeilt. 

13. Concobhar. 

14. Cathniath. 

15. SpelUn. 

16. Cian. 

17. Bron. 

18. Maoimuadh. 

19. Cian (obiit. 

1014). 

20. Mahon (obiit. 

A.D. 1038). 



Leogaire. 
Aodh Clerech. 
Cairbre Rias- 
trim. 

Clairenach. 
Selbach. 
Ealaithe. 
Dunlang. 

8. Anbleithe. 

9. Flaithnia. 
Aongus. 
Dubhdaboirenn, 

K.M. 
Domhnail 
(obiit. 1015). 
Donnchadh, 
ancestor of 
O'Doni^hue. 



10. 
II. 



12. 



13 



MiinS Leamna [an 
cestor of M6r Maor 
Mar (High Steward 
of Mar), M6r Maor 
Leamna(HighStew- 
ard of Lennox), and 
of the Stewarts of 
Scotland]. 



(Mathgamhain, ancestor of Ui Mathgamhna, or O'Mahony.) 




THE O^MAHONYS OF KINELMEKV AND IVAGHA. 1 83 

A History of the 0*Mahony Septs of Kinelmeky 
and Ivagha. 

By^Rev. Canon O'MAHONY, Glbnvillb, Crookstown. 

HOSE who are not familiar with the arguments by which 
the general credibility of the ancient Irish annals and other 
records has been established, will doubtless conclude 
that a tribal history, commencing with the ancestor 
placed at the head of the Genealogical Table on the opposite 
page, must have been composed of legendary materials 
in its earlier portion. A perusal of Dr. O'Donovan's 
Introduction to the Annals of the Four Masters, pp. xlvi. — liii., or of 
sonve recent and more accessible work summarizing the results of the 
researches of our antiquaries in the last century, will show that the use 
of letters was known in this country before the time of St. Patrick, that 
the practice of recording contemporary events in the form of annals is 
as old as the fifth century, and that the annalists have passed unscathed 
through the ordeal of having their entries about astronomical phenomena 
confronted with the results of scientific calculation, thus inspiring confidence 
in the accuracy of their records of other events. That the life and 
actions of public men who flourished after the year 400 a.d. may be 
considered to fall within the authentic portion of Irish history is not 
now disputed by any critic who has earned for himself a reputation as 
a specialist in the investigation of that early period. 

The Genealogical Registers were authenticated by peculiar circum- 
stances not occurring in our time. Those registers, connecting chieftain 
and clansmen with a common ancestor in a remote past, originated from 
the exigencies of the Tribal System. The Tanist Law of succession to 
the chieftainship, and the Distribution of the Sept Land, presupposed 
the careful compilation and preservation of a tribal record. It was not 
as a similar record of a modem family would be, stowed away in the 
family archives; its contents were, so to speak, public property. An 
Englishman who visited Ireland in 1672 writes: "The people in general 
are great admirers of their pedigree, and have got their genealogy so 
exactly by heart that, though it be two hours' work for them to repeat 
the names only from whence they are descended lineally, yet will they 
not omit one word in half a dozen several repetitions. * 

In countries where the tribal stage had been long since passed through 
and forgotten, and where, moreover, Annals were not in use until some 
centuries after they were commenced in this country, Irish genealogies 
beginning with the third or second century were regarded with surprise 
and distrust. But it is very significant that no such distrust was enter- 
tained by Carew and Cox, who, especially the former, were in touch 
with the tribal system while still a living reality. 

> "A Tour in Ireland," 1672 4. -foumal of tht Cork Histontfii and Archttohgicai SocUty^ 
vol. X. p. 89. 



184 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

When the dispossessed chieftains of South Munster and their relatives, 
in the seventeenth century, took refuge in France, Spain, and Austria, 
they were careful to take with them documentary proofs that they held 
the rank of nobles in their own land. They obtained in their adopted 
countries a recognition of their status, an indispensable requisite in 
that period of unjust monopolies, for promotion in the military and 
diplomatic services to which many of them successfully aspired. To 
comply with the condition required from Frenchmen by the Heralds of 
Louis XIV. for enrolment among the noblesse, viz., that some one in a 
line of ancestors should have been designated by a name implying 
nobility, in a public record of a date preceding a.d. 1400, presented no 
difficulty to the exiled chiefs. But the Heralds of Louis cut off many 
centuries from their antiquity. They declined to follow the descendants 
of Core, King of Munster, to a date that would precede that accepted 
for th-e house of Montmorency (1028), and even that of the house of 
Bourbon (776). They would not go back to the commanders who led 
their clans to Clontarf, but arbitrarily fixed on a.d. 1200 as the limit; 
and accepting the evidence of the Irish records for the next successor 
to a chieftaincy after that date, placed in the roll of the French nobility 
** McCarthy de Reagh, 1209," and **0'Mahoni de Carbrye, a.d. 1220." 

For the compilation of a tribal history the genealogical list is, ot 
course, necessary material; indeed it must be the framework, the back- 
bone of the history. But, as has been already stated, it was compiled 
for a practical and not for a historical purpose. From the point of view 
of the historian the Genealach labours under several defects. It gives no date ; 
and the time when any person mentioned in it flourished can only be known 
from his place in the pedigree compared with some historical landmark, 
or must be ascertained from some other source. It does not give the 
names of females, and thus no account is kept of the intermarriages 
between families belonging to different tribes. It does not indicate the 
names of the chiefs (as such) ; any one of them who left no son gets no 
place in the list. Only in those rare instances (as in the case of the 
Western O'Mahonys after a.d. .1513), when succession by Tanist law 
was set aside by an influential ruler of a sept, does the geneak^ical list 
become also a list of chieftains. 

The important information omitted by the OUaves and Shanachies, 
who put together the pedigrees, is supplied by the Annals, by the 
biographies of the Saints in incidental references to their contemporaries, 
and by the Bards. Fortunately it was the custom, when a name of any 
important person was mentioned by Annalist, Hagiographer, or Bard, to 
define him by giving the names of his father and grandfather, and some- 
times his great-grandfather. For more recent times State Papers, 
especially ** Inquisitions,'* give useful information. 

Though for the purpose of this Record a very considerable stock of 
information is forthcoming from the above-mentioned sources, the present 
writer has to lament the loss of special authorities extant when Dr. Smith 
wrote his History of Cork. The principal of these was the **Saltair of 
Rosbrin,*' a genealogical poem on the O'Mahonys by a bard attached to 
Rosbrin Castle. As this was probably written in or soon after the time 
of Finin 0*Mahon, chieftain of Rosbrin, a.d. 1496, described in the 
Annals of Loch Ce and of the Four Masters as one of the most learned 
men of his time, it would, doubtless, have given the substance of what 



THE o'mAHONYS OF KINELMEKY AND IVAGHA. 1 85 

his historical collection would have contained about the sept. This has 
been sought for in vain ; and in all probability it was taken over to the 
Continent, as were many other historical documents, when the leading 
members of the ruined clans betook themselves to France and Spain 
after 1657. The other lost document, also sought for without success, 
is the **Book of Timoleague,** which would have given the names of 
the chiefs of Kinelmeky who were buried in that abbey (Annals Fvur 
Masters, 1240). That it gave such obits is known from extracts con- 
tained in a document about the De Courceys, preserved in Ware's collec- 
tion in the Bodleian Library, Oxford. 

Of the accounts^ written in English on the present subject, either ex 
professo in special chapters or articles, or incidentally in treating of 
other tribes or of county topography, there is not one that is not dis- 
figured by many erroneous statements. Cronnelly's special account, 
though creditable to one who has made the attempt under great difficul- 
ties, is meagre and inaccurate. O'Hart gives a translation of the 
pedigrees in the Royal Irish Academy; MSS., but his accompanying obser- 
vations are inaccurate and uncritical. The Lambeth pedigree of the 
Western chiefs (Sir George Carew's) is altogether incorrect for the 
period between Mahon (ob. 1038) and Dermod Mor (circa 1320). * So is 
the pedigree of the Heralds' Collie, inserted by Dr. Copinger in 
the new edition of Smith's History of Cork, and the **notes'* accompanying 
it (also by the Heralds' College). In Bennett's History of Bandon there 
is, as will be shown, what seems a deliberate invention intended to 
belittle the sept that preceded the new occupiers of Kinelmeky. And two 
articles that appeared in previous volumes of this Journal contain state- 
ments about the sept that will be shown to rest on entirely insufficient 
grounds. Hence a narrative that might, under other circumstances, be 
continuous, must be frequently interrupted by refutation of errors that 
have been allowed to hold their ground long enough. 



I. — The Hereditary Surname. 

O THAtgAttinA, or as it was anglicised down to, and during, the Eliza- 
bethan period, O'Mahon, was derived from Mahon (m-At$ArhAin, geni- 
tive case ttlAtgArhnA), the son of Cian and Sabia (SAt)tt), daughter of 
Brian Boru. Cian and Brian's daughter were married in 979, the year 
after the battle fought at DeAtAC-te^CcA, near Macroom, in which Brian 
was victorious, and his opponent, tn^ottfiu^t), the father of Cian, was 
defeated and killed. Mahon was thus of Eoghanacht and Dalcassian 
origin; and the marriage of his parents was intended to promote and 
secure peace between the rival races, that Brian might be free to proceed 
with the ambition? design of obtaining the sovereignty of Ireland. The 
marriage is alluded to in Dr. O'Brien's Annals of Innisfallen (a.d. 1014), 
and by 5^0^^ CAOiti, a contemporary poet, in his description of Cian's 
residence, Rath-Raithleann, which shall be quoted later on. As Mahon 's 
ancestors, Core and Fedlimidh, were Kings of Munster, and as his 
grandfather is also placed in the list of Munster Kings in the Book 
of Leinster (written 1166) the sept which bore his name was described 
as of royal origin by the ancient genealogists. This was known to the 
Anglo-Irish writers Sir Richard Cox and Smith. The former, after 



/ 



1 86 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCH.BOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

saying that the family or descendants of Mahon **are to be reckoned 
among the best families in Ireland/* adds,^ **for Kean Mac Moylemore 
(recte Maolmuadh) married Sarah, daughter of Brian Boru, and his son, 
Mahon, was ancestor of all the Mahonys. It is from this Kean that 
Inniskean derives its name, and from the Mahonies Droghid-I-Mahoun, 
or Bandon Bridge." See also Smith's History of Cork, book i., ch. i., 
p. 13, new ed. A considerable period elapsed after the death of Mahon 
(1038, Annals Four Masters) before his name became the hereditary sur- 
name of his descendants. 

It ought not to be necessary at the present day to discuss the opinion 
which at one time prevailed owing to the authority of Keating* — ^that 
it was in Brian's time and by virtue of an ordinance of his that surnames 
were assumed in Ireland. The author of a recent book on Irish Antiqui- 
ties does not seem to be aware that Dr. O 'Donovan refuted this opinion 
in a series of articles in the Dublin Penny Journal in 1841. Indeed, 
elaborate refutation might have been spared, for it is obvious that if 
Brian issued such an ordinance it would have been observed by himself, 
his sons, and those connected with him; and thus he would be called 
MacKennedy or O'Lorcan, and his sons by the same surname; or if he 
selected his own name to be permanent, his sons* would be Mac Brian, 
but by no means O'Brian; and Mahon would be Mac Kean or O'Maol- 
muadh; or if he imposed his own name or his sons', they and their 
descendants would be Mac Mahon. Ua, or O, grandson, would not 
be applied to a son. The opinion of Keating was an erroneous inference 
from the fact that the great majority of Irish surnames are derived from 
chiefs who were contemporaries of Brian. Or, to speak more precisely, 
the surnames are derived from the genitive case of the names of those 
chiefs, i.e., not from C-AfC-dC, but from C<^t^t-Al§, not from tTlAts-AtfiAin, 
but from tTlAts-ArhnA. But we have no evidence that, in the generation 
immediately after Brian, the O and Mac prefixed to a name had the effect 
of a permanent surname. 

Mr. MacCarthy Glas's assertion that *'the son of Carthach in 1045 
assumed the surname borne by his descendants" is an illogical inference 
from the solitary passage in the Annals — *'Muiredach, son of Carthach, 
died 1092." What evidence, then, would shew that a certain surname had 
been adopted at a particular date? If an Annalist, accurately transcribing 
a record contemporary with a certain chief, described, for instance, the 
great-grandson of Mahon as O'Mahouna, or the grandson of Carthach 
as MacCarthaigh, in such cases only would O and Mac be shown to be 
employed in a new sense extended beyond their ordinary meaning in a 
prose chronicle. If the entry in the Annals of Innis fallen (Dublin copy) 
for the year 1135 be an exact copy of an original written in that year, 
we should say that Cian (the second), great-grandson of Mahon, was the 
first designated by the surname: **Cian, son of Donc^h Donn, son of 
Brodchon, O'Mahony, was killed at the battle of Cloneinagh."* But 
this question is not of much importance. 

From the O'Mahonys, descendants of Mahon, son of Cian and Sabia, 

a See Cox*s Regnum Corcagiense, 

3 More accurate than Keating, but still partly mistaken, was the author of an old Irish MS. 
r.ife of Brian (a fragment T.C.D., H 2, 15) : "It was in his time that surnames were given. 
CucAt) ftomtire Ajt cuf . 

4 Near Mountrath. 



THE O MAHONYS OF KINELMEKY AND IVAGHA. 



187 



daughter of Brian, are to be distinguished the O'Mahonys of Uladh, 
Ulidia (Co. Down), about whom there are several entries in the Annals 
in the twelfth century — the last in 1149 — after which they disappear from 
history. They are supposed to have become Mac Mahons, Maughons, 
and Matthews,' which names are still found in that locality. Some of 
them must have gone over to Scotland in the frequent migrations that 
took place to that country in ancient times; certainly Sir Walter Scott 
found the name in the Highlands, for a **Dugald Mahony" figures in 
his Waverley. The identity of many surnames in the North with those 
in the South of Ireland has often led to erroneous conclusions. The 
O'Neills of the South, in the Dalcassian territory, were a different race 
from the great clan of Tyrone; and the Northern Mac Mahons, O'Connors, 
O'Callaghans, O'Murchoes (Murphys), are from ancestors totafly different 
from those of their Southern namesakes. 

But after the descendants of Mahon commenced to bear his name 
as a surname, the Tribe-name continued to be what it had been for six 
centuries. In the wide Sept-land, extending, as we shall show, from 
**Carn Ui Neid (the Mizen Head) to Cork,* 'over which Mahon and his pre- 
decessors ruled, there were many thousand families connected with their 
head by the bond of a common descent from more or less remote 
ancestors. The descendants of these tribesmen would not be entitled to 
take, or perhaps desire to take, the name of the ruling family, implying 
as it did a descent from one who was not their ancestor. The distinction 
between the chief's surname and the Tribal Name is distinctly brought out 
in the entry in the Annals of Innisf alien under the year 1171 : '*X>oi\6S 
O mAtS-AttinA Afi A0it)-eA6A(i," Donc^h O'Mahony over the Ui-Eacac." 
Slowly and gradually, in the course of some centuries, each individual 
member of his tribe began to describe himself by the surname at first 
confined to the chief's family. It would be unreasonable to suppose that 
the numerous families of the tribe, distinct from Mahon's, that lived in 
1035, ^^^ "^ descendants living in the seventeenth century. And, 
accordingly, it would seem then that the hereditary surname does not 
imply that each one who bears it descends from the son of Cian, which 
can be established only by proving descent from a chief or chief's relatives 
at the time of the disruption of the sept. The same observation applies, 
of course, to other Irish septs, and to the bearers of the name of the 
• Anglo-Irish families. The Norman nobles had thousands of Irish kern 
as their retainers; these gradually began to be called by the name of 
their feudal lord, and became the ancestors of numbers who now bear 
English names and think themselves of English! descent. 

II. 
The Sept-name,^ which, as has been already said, preceded by nearly 
six centuries the assumption of the Surname, was 

tH 6-A6-A6 trium-An, Clan Eochy of Munster. 
This was derived from an ancestor, B-AdAit), Eochy, who flourished about 
475, a grandson of Core, and a cousin-german of Aengus, King of 

5 Camhrmsis Eves us ^ vol. i. p. 247. 

6 Mr. H. W. Gillman has called attention to the superior antiquity of the O'Mahonys as 
compared with the other Eoganacht clans. — Cork A'ch, /oumaly vol. iii., 2nd series, p. 207. 

14 



1 88 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Cashel. The posterity of Eochy detached themselves from the main 
body of the Eoganachta, or descendants of Eoghan Mor, and formed a 
separate clan. They acquired the name of Eoganacht Ui Eacac, the 
first of the many subdenominations of the generic name that were given 
to clans of the correlatives according as they acquired a separate exist- 
ence. The clan's rapid advance to power and influence is evidenced by 
the fact that the grandson of Eochy, and son of Criomthan, Cairbre Crom/ 
became King of Munster, and the fourth in descent, Fedlimidh, obtained 
the same coveted dignity. Evidence of the important position which 
the clan continued to maintain is" afforded by a passage in the Wars of 
the Gael and the Goill, p. 19 (year 845) : **The men of the South of Erinn 
(not 'South Munster') gave battle to the Danes under Doncha, prince of 
the Ui Eachach." The chieftainship was always held by one of the line 
of Mahon's ancestors. Dr. O 'Donovan says: **Ui-Eachach, i.e., the 
descendants of Eochaid, son of Cas, son of Core, King of Munster. The 
Ui-Mathghamhna, or O'Mahonys, were the chief family of this race. 
They were seated in the barony of Kinelmeky, in the county of Cork, 
but they afterwards encroached on the Corca-Laighe, and became masters 
of the district called Fonn-Iartharach, i.e., western land.* In process 
of time, the Tribe became divided into two branches — ^virtually distinct 
tribes — but for many centuries comprehended under the old sept-name, 
Ui Eacach or Clan Eochy. To Criompthan, son of Eochy, two sons were 
born, Aedh and Laegaire. Nurtured by the same foster-father, Lugaid, 
the youths grew up with such strangely different dispositions that by an 
expressive but most unpleasant metaphor, it was said that ** Lugaid reared 
Aedh on blood and Laegaire on milk." The metaphor passed, after a 
time, into mythology, an illustration of Max Muller's **Myths from 
disease of Language," and it was gravely recorded that Lugaid '*the 
double-breasted" nursed one child with blood and the other with milk 
in the literal sense of the words. A genealogical fragment* in the Library 
of Trinity College, Dublin — ^an excerpt in a miscellany of the Firbisses — 
recording the story by way of annotation on the Ui Eachach pedigree, 
concludes: **Each of the youths took after his nurture, and the Cinel 
Aedh were fierce in war and the Cinel Laegaire thrifty and careful." 
The Cinel Laegaire in after ages, when surnames were established, be- 
came known as O'Donoghue. From Aedh, who was in the line of 
Mahon's ancestors, and who from his overbearing character was called 
**Aedh Uargarbh," descended the elder branch, the 

7 Cairbre, son of Criomphthan (otherwise spelled Creamthain). The above assertion is, of 
course, disputable, as there were many Criomphthans in those early centuries. liut it will be 
shown later on, that chronological reasons require that Criomphthan, father of Cairbre, should 
be the son of Eachaid, son of Cas. 

B O'Donovan's Edition of the Book of Rights, See also his notes to poem from " Saltair na 
Rann," in Prof. Kelly's Cambrienm Etfersus, vol. ii. p. 778, 

9 tugAix) Cichech ^o aIc t)a itiac Cfiiomt^^inn niAic e^^^A^ mAic CAif mAic Cuitic .1. 
Ao-o ocuf lAOgAitte f ojt A 6ifcib. t)A teAmnA^c t)o befte'o t)0 tAo£(Aitie) Ap a t\t, ocuf bA 
puit -oo be|tet> t>o -dot), conftosAb ca6 Af fin, Af nem SAifjix) f o^ Cm At nAo'tA ocuf fonuf 
poti ^net tAO^Aitie. For this extract the writer is indebted to Mr. John MacNeill, B.A., the 
distinguished Irish scholar and historical critic. 



THE O^MAHONYS OF KINELMEKY AND IVAGHA. 1 89 

ClNEL AeDH 

(whence Kinalea), or the race of Aedh, the first distinctive name of the 
sept long afterwards known as 0*Mahony. This name was preserved 
in the language of genealogists when for public use it was superseded 
by the name derived from Mahon, son of Cian. A genealogical register*® 
of the family in the R. I. Academy, transcribed from a very ancient one— of 
which the archaic quatrain it embodies is evidence — commences with 
the heading — Cinet -AOt)-A Ann f o fiof , **here follows the race of Aedh," 
i.e., the O'Mahonys. 

That the Cinel Aedh was the elder branch is shown by the collocation 
of the names, Aedh first, then Laegaire 

(i) In the genealogical fragment just quoted; 

(2) In the Irish Life of St. Senanus, a very ancient biography pub- 

lished in Stokes' Anecdota Oxoniensia; 

(3) In the poem of St. Colman quoted in the foregoing **Life";** 

(4) In the line of Aedh continued the chieftainship and the title of 

Ri Rathleann. The son of Aedh bears that designation in 
the ancient Life of St, Finhar, of which more later on. 

The head of the other branch was designated, down to the time when 
surnames were assumed, as **Chief, or Prince, of the Cinel Laegaire." 
The subsequent history of this warlike sept (0*Donc^hue) by no means 
bears out the forecast formed from the disposition attributed to its ancestor. 
It is nothing short of marvellous that during the course of many 
centuries, when fierce contentions raged everywhere around them, the 
two branches of the Ui Eachach Mumhan should have preserved unbroken 
the unity of their tribe until the fatal day after the battle of Clontarf, 
when they *'met in one camp" for the last time (Wars of the Gael and 
the GoiU, Dr. Todd's edition, p. 215). 

II. — ^The Territory of the Tribe. 

The * 'Cradle of the Race" was Rath Rathleann, with its numerous 
surrounding raths, that constituted an ancient tribal town, situate in the 
present Barony of Kinelmeky, near its northern and eastern boundaries. 

This rath was the seat of Core, who bestowed it, when he selected 
Cashel as the royal residence, on his second son, Cas, the father of the 
eponymous ancestor of the Ui Eachach, with the title of Ri Raithleann 
and perpetual exemption from tribute, as laid down in the Bcrok of Rights : 

"The Clan of Cas is not liable 
To the tribute of Cashel of the companies : 
It is not due from Glen Amhain, 
Nor from red Raithleann."** 

mMS. 23 G. 23R.I.A. 

"In the ancient Latin Lives of St. Senanus, the order of the names is "Aidus and Leogarius/* 
— See Colgan, Acta Sanciorum^ March 8th. As St. Colman, son of Leinin, according to the 
Four Masters, died in a.d. 6co, his testimony is that of a contemporary, Mr. O'Hart makes 
Laegaire the elder, but ** more suo " quotes no authority. 

I a Glen Amhain, when these lines were written, must have been in the possession of a dan of 
the race of Cas. It afterwards belonged to the O'Keeflfes, and finally became Roche's country. 



190 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHiEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

The extent of territory which was left with the Fort to Cas must 
have been considerable, as the designation of Ri, though rather prodigally 
bestowed in ancient Ireland, was never given to the chiefs of a small 
district. The original territory was increased by subsequent acquisitions 
until the Sept-land in the ninth century included the following :^ 

Kinelea and Kinelmeky. — ^The Tribe name, Cinel Aodha (above ex- 
plained) became a territorial name designating the entire of the district 
afterwards called by the names of Kinelea and Kinelmeky. The name 
Cincl-mBeice, **the race of B^ce,'*" fourth in descent from Aedh, did 
not become a territorial one until a later period. When Kinelea Citra 
(the modern barony of Kinelea)) and Kinelea Ultra (identified with Kinel- 
meky) were appointed Deaneries of the Diocese of Cork, those very 
names presupposed Kinelea as the general name of the district thus 
divided for ecclesiastical purposes. The old Rolls of the diocese of Cork** 
showed that "the Barony of Kinelmeky was included in(recte was identical 
with) the Deanery of Kinelea Ultra." As the race of Aedh unquestion- 
ably lived in ** Kinelea Ultra," it was the same race that gave its name 
to Kinelea Citra before those ecclesiastical appellations came into use. 
The place name, Kilmahbnoge, Coill tTlAtsAtfinA O15, **the wood of 
young Mahon," in the present Barony of Kinalea, is a survival from the 
eleventh century.*' 

Carbery. — In his Regnum Corcagiense, Sir Richard Cox, who con- 
sulted and often refers to Irish antiquaries, writes: "This noble country 
formerly belonged to the O'Mahonysand the O'DriscoUs. One branch was 
called O'Mahown Carbery, and his seat was Castle Mahon, which was 
then part of Carbery." This is not quite exact, as that castle was in 
Kinelmeky, which, as has been shown, was a more recent name of a 
division of Kinelea. The name Carbery, according to Irish usage, did 
not comprise Corca Laidhe, the patrimony of the 0*Driscolls since the 
dawn of history, nor Ivagha, when that district was detached from Corca 
Laidhe. In the poem of Mac Brody on the Eoghanacht Clans, and in 
those of other bards, Carbery is expressly distinguished from the two 
other place-names. As to the origin of the name, all Irish antiquaries 
concurred in deriving it from Cairbre (Riada), a contemporary of OlioU 
Olum, in the last quarter of the second century. In the nineteenth 
century the novel opinion was started, without any pretence of support 
from historical testimony, that the name was imported by the Hy Cairbre 

'3 Smith's derivation of Kinelmeky (Ken, "a head," neal, "noble," and mecan, a "root)," 
copied by Bennett {ffis/. Batufon), is obviously an impossible one. Kinel, a race, followed by the 
name of an ancestor, forms many tribe names in every part of Ireland. He had evidently not 
seen the name written in Irish. 

>4 Bishop Lyon, who had access to the archives, in 1558 wrote on this subject — " My Rolls 
prove the Barony of Kinelmeky to be in the Deanery of Kinelea ultra. — Calendar of State 
Papets, A.D. 1588. 

>5 Dr. O'Donovan, in his edition of O'Heerin, not knowing that Cinel Aodha was the 
tribe-name of the O'Mahonys, explained the place-name Kinelea as derived from Aedh Dubh, 
ancestor of the McCarthys, O'Sullivans, and O'Callaghans, and hence accepted the apparent 
meaning of O'Heerin's quatrain, that the latter sept was in Kinelea. But as Dr. O'Donovan 
declared the latter half of this quatrain — making the same sept live in Bearra^to be "a mistake," 
this self-contradictory passage of O'lleerin is no authority for any statement. Perhaps 
O'Heerin intended to speak of O'SuUivan " of the Cinel Aedh (Dubh)," who lived ia Beam, 
and that by a lapsus ealami be substituted the name of the other tribe. 



THE o'mAHONYS OF KINELMEKY AND IVAGHA. I9I 

Aedha,or O 'Donovans, when migrating from Hy Fidgiente, Co. Limerick, 
to their new tribe land in West Corlc, after the English invasion. The 
editor of Annals of the Four Masters, lapsing in this instance from that 
habit of keen criticism which is so conspicuous in his works, gave some 
countenance to this new opinion, but with evident misgivings. **The 
extension of the name," he says (beyond the tribal territory) * 'looks 
strange enough, as it took place since the year 1200, and as the race 
that transferred it did not remain (recte never was) the dominant family 
in the district."** It is not only improbable but impossible that any 
tribe occupying a small corner of a large territory could by habitually 
using a name of their choice get the name adopted in the larger terri- 
tories of their long-established neighbours, and that they could succeed 
in doing so in about twenty years. For the name, Cairbreach, an adjec- 
tive derived from Cairbre, was borne by O'Mahon in a.d. 1220, according 
to the historical proofs furnished to the French Heralds (see p. 184 ante) 
and as may be inferred from the entry in the Annals of the Four Masters ^ 
A.D. 1240, about the tomb of 0*M. Cairbreach in Timoleague Abbey. 
And according to the Bodleian Annals of Innisfallen, Donal Got McCarthy, 
assumed that name in a.d. 1232. Though the place-name Carbery does 
not occur in the Annals before the above dates, the present writer has 
found it in the B'ook of Leinster, in the portion which contains a copy 
of part of the War of the Gael and the Goill, chap xxviii. :**There came 
a great fleet of the foreigners with Ragnall and Ottir, the Earl . . . 
and they divided and ravaged Carbery and Muskerry between them, and 
one-third of them went to Corcach (Cork)." The Book of Leinster was 
written about a.d. 1166, and this portion was, of course, transcribed from 
a more ancient copy of an original commonly held to have been written 
by a contemporary of Brian Boru. See Dr. Todd's Introduction to Wars 
z^f the Gael, page xii. The name Carbery may have originated from 
Cairbre (son of Creamthan), who was King of Munster, according to 
the Four Masters, in a.d. 571. 

Ivagha, or the Fonn lartharach, ''Western Land." — "Long before 
the English Invasion," says Dr. O 'Donovan, '*the Ui Eachach Mumhan, 
or O'Mahonys, had from the Corca Laidhe that portion of their territory 
called Fonn lartharach, i.e.. West Land, otherwise Ivagha, comprising 
the parishes of Kilmoe, Scoole, Kilcrohane, Durris, Kilmaconoge, and 
Caharagh." It would have been foreign to his subject to quote the 
authorities which justified that statement. The following passages, 
brought forward for the first time by the present writer, prove conclusively 
that Ivagha was in the possession of the sept of the Ui Eachach in the 
ninth century. 

(i) In a poem of Mac Liag, Brian Boru's bard, Cian is described as 
**Cian an Cairn," i.e., of Carn Ui Neid, the Mizen Head. Giolla Caomh, 
a bard of the eleventh century, who flourished about 1050, refers to 
Cian as the * 'chief king of the hosts of Carn Ui Neid." 

(2) In the "Saltair na Rann,"*^ there is a poem on the Patron Saints 

'6 Appendix to last vol. of the Four Masters. 

17 The poem from which the above is an extract is not found in the MS. of the Sai/airna 
Hann, which Stokes edited, but was in the copy used by Keating and Colgan. See the former 
on the reign of Aedh Mac Ainmire, and the latter. Acta Snmtorum^ p. 646. They both ex- 
pressly attribute this poem to Angus C^le D^, who is known to have lived in the first half of the 



192 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

of the different tribes, which may be found at the end of vol. ii. of Pro- 
fessor Kelly's edition of Camhrensis Eversus. In it we read: '*The 
Ui Eachach, from Cam Ui Neid to Cork, are under the protection of 
Barra (St. Finbar).** On this passage Dr. O 'Donovan supplied the fol- 
lowing note: "Cam Ui Neid, the Mizzen Head." 

(3) In the Vision of Mac Conglinne the hero of that ancient tale is 
represented as going from Cork in quest of Cahal Mac Finguine, King 
of Munster, **to the West, to the residence of Pican, King of the Ui 
Eachach at Dun Coba,^* at the boundary between the Ui Eachach and 
the Corca Laidhe. He offered to cure the King of Munster of a malady 
from which he suffered, and the prince of the Ui Eachach promises him a 
reward of *a sheep from every fold from Carn to Cork.* " 

Some observations must now be made on the age of the Vision of 
Mac Conglinne. The Annals of the Four Masters record the death of Cathal, 
son of Finguinne, King of Munster, in the year a.d. 737. ** There is 
little doubt" (wrote the translator. Dr. O'Donovan), "from the obsolete 
language and style of this tract, the Vision of Mac Conglinne, that it was 
written in or shortly after Cathal's time. It contains some curious details 
of social habits and of historical and top<^raphical facts, &c. 

According to this judgment on the antiquity of the "Vision" by one 
whose authority stands even higher on questions of language than on 
questions of historical criticism, it is clear that a.d. 800 would be too 
recent a date to assign for the seizure of the western territory by the 
clan of thef Ui Eachach. Later criticism is far from invalidating 
O'Donovan 's decision. Professor Kuno Meyer, in his edition of 1892, 
discusses the question whether the language gives an indication of the 
date of this curious work. He answers : "In the absence of any pub- 
lished investigation on the characteristics of the Irish language at 
different periods, I cannot speak with certainty." But, nevertheless, 
following the traditions of German criticism, he tries to find an original 
and a superinduced part, and says : "In some form or other, the tale 
is proved to be older than the Leabhar Breac version of it," whose date 
he fixes "at the end of the twelfth century." There are, he thinks, 
"some forms in the language that belong to the twelfth century,"^* 

ninth centary. There is Intrinsic evidence that it dates from a time when the Eoganacht tribes 
(with the exception of the Ui Eachact) had not liegun to occupy any part of the present Co. Cork. 
The poem says, '*The Manstermen of Eoghan's race, to their borders, are under Ailbe's protec- 
tion/* i.e., in the territory comprised in the dioceses of Emly and Cashel, parts of Limerick 
and Tipperary. 

18 Rath Raithlean was his principal residence, but every Ri was assumed by the Brehon 
law to have three Duns.— i'^f Dr. Sullivan's Introduction to O'Curry's Manners and Customs of 
Ancient Irish. 

19 The passa|;e about the "King of the Ui Eachach," will serve as a specimen of the obsolete 
form of the Irish language in which the book was written : — 

"Imchij poT>echreA t>o taijit) CAchAt I " ** Now go at once to Cathal !" "Where is 

"CiA hAinnim 1 fit C-ArhAi?" Aft tTtAc Cathal?" asked Mac Conglinne. "Not hard 

Conjimne. **ni hAnnfA," oi mAnchin. "1 to tell," answered Manchin. "In the house 

CA15 pichAin meic moite pn-oe jtij huA of Pichan, son of Mael Find, King of Ivagha, 

n-echAch 10 'Dun ChobA 1 coctiich nuA n at Dun Coba in the borders of Ivagha and 

echAch ocuf CofCA tAigDe; ocuf fochp Corcalce, and thou must journey thither to- 

innochc connice inx)pn." night." 



THE O MAHONVS OF KINELMEKY AND IVAGHA. 1 93 

as if there were any ancient works whose grammatical forms transcribers 
did not modernize here and there. Not satisfied with this Icind of argu- 
ment, he proceeds to confirm it by an argument which is still weaker. 
The vagrant hero of this tale sarcastically offers the monks of Cork tithes 
on his bit of bread and bacon, and therefore **the work was written after 
1 152, when Cardinal Paparo, in the Synod of Kells, got the tithes 
enforced." But were not tithes in use in Ireland before? Yes, he 
admits, **they were mentioned earlier.'* This is understating the fact; 
tithes were not only mentioned but prescribed in the Brehon Law (see 
Brehon Laws, iii., 33, 39, 25), and we may presume that that regulation 
was not allowed to be forgotten. Gillebert, Bishop of Limerick, speaks 
of them as ordinarily paid in a.d. 1090. So the hero of the tale could be 
perfectly familiar with the exaction of tithes long before the twelfth 
century, and whenever he lived, he must have believed that the Clan 
Eochy occupied their western land in the time of Cathal, a.d. 735. 

In full harmony with the above testimonies is the statement in the 
Wars of the Gael and the GoUl, page 137 (Dr. Todd's edition) that "Brian 
sent forth a naval expedition upon the sea, namely, the Gaill of Ath 
Cliath and Port Ldirg6 (Dublin and Waterford), and the Ui Eachach 
Mumhan, and of such men of Erin as were fit to go to sea." This 
plainly implies a large sea coast in their territory. How considerable 
their contingent was may be inferred from the following passage in the 
same page of the work quoted: **And Brian distributed the tribute 
according to rights ... he gave a third of the tribute to the warriors 
of Leinster and of the Ui Eachach Mumhan." The fleet must have 
largely consisted of the forces which his son-in-law, Cian, sent from the 
region of **Carn Ui Neid." 

With the conclusion arrived at as to the date of the occupation of 
Ivagha, from the historical testimonies above quoted, the reader may 
now compare two conclusions that have been arrived at by two other 
writers, apparently by an easier process : 

(i) The author of the **Barony of Carbery," in a former number of 
the Cork Historical and ArchcBological Journal, vol. x., 1904 writes: 
"The O'Mahonys had begun to make conquests in the west before the 
English Invasion." And again: "The English drove the O'Mahonys to 
the west." The same writer's opinion abouf the origin of the name 
Carbery has been already refuted. 

(2) The author of the "Pedigree of the O'Mahonys," with notes 
appended, from the Heralds' College, published in the new edition 
of Smith's History of Cork, informs us that " Carew (i.e., the 
Marquis Carew) did make O'Mahon Lord of Ivagha." Dermod Mor, 
the O'Mahon referred to, was the ninth in descent from an ancestor wjio 
was called chief of that region long before the name of Carew appeared 
in any written document. There is no other authority than this writer 
for the assertion that "the O'Mahonys (and O'Driscolls) paid rent to the 
Norman invader," an assertion repeated in the "Notes on Carbery." 
The time at last came when they had to pay rent to the invaders, but it 
did not come for some centuries. It is not credible that the Englishman 
in Dublin, who in 1600 wrote this pedigree and notes, ever heard any 
"O'Mahons admit that they held their lands from Carew," or that he (the 
writer) ever was in communication with any member of the sept about 



194 cork' historical and ARCHiCOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

their genealogYf otherwise he would not have represented them as de- 
scended from "Key nek of Kelether in Munster." 

The eastern boundary of the Sept Land. — ^This was Cork, as appears 
from some of the testimonies above given and from an ancient Litany'® 
containing an invocation of the saints of Lough Irke, "in finibus Mus- 
cragiae et nepotum Eochadii Cruadh," i.e., at the boundaries of the 
Muscraighe (tribes) and of the descendants of Eochy — the Ui Eachach 
This preserves an epithet of Eochy not given elsewhere, Cruadh, the 
hard, the severe. Lough Irke, or Eirce, meant** the expansion of the 
Lee at Cork before the course of the river was confined within banks in after 
centuries. The eastern and western boundaries of the tribe land coincided 
with the eastern and western limits of the Diocese of Cork — "ab ipsa 
Corcagia usque ad Carninedam" — as defined in the decrees of the Synod 
of Rathbreasail,** a.d. mo. In the ancient Life of Si. Senanus Innis- 
carra is described as belonging to the "King of Raithleann," whose 
Muskerry possessions, afterwards divided among minor septs of the clan, 
may be seen in one of the maps of the Pacata Hibernia under the names 
of "Ifflonlua (recte Ui Flonn Lua), Clan Conc^her, and Clan Fynin" 
(Fineen). Smith takes Ui Flonn Lua in a wider meaning to include 
the parishes of Kilmurry, Moviddy, Canovee, and Aglish, and states that 
all these districts had been conquered at a remote day by Flan, an 
ancestor [predecessor] of Bece. The present writer has been unable to 
find any record of this Flann, except the lines quoted by Smith*' from 
an Irish MS., possibly the Psalter of Rossbrin, that genealogical poem 
that has been sought for in vain. The quaint old quatrain gives an 
account of the boundaries of the district which Flann acquired by con- 
quest, and declares that "he paid no tribute but to the Church." One 

M In the Acta Afartyrum, Litw^ica^ ete.^ per H. Vardenm (Ward), Loavain, A.D. 1662, 
p. 904, Ward maintains that this Litania was of the 9th century, or at latest the loth. 

•> So Sir James Ware. Dr. Caalfield was mistaken in identifying it with the lake at 
Gongane Barra. 

M Su Dr. Lynch's version of Keating's account of this Synod, Camhrtnsis Evirtus, vol. 
ii. app. 

•3 The lines were in the Din Direach metre, but most have been incorrectly transcribed by 
Smith, as the first two do not rhyme, and there is some omission in the third : — 

O ^t^ife C|tiche fUAifi pt^n 
X\A ciochA chu^f^ At>reoftinn 

niAft Af fhAlg CUAfl AChftOf 

^An chiof tiAch^^ Ach T>eA5Vdif . 

These simple lines were translated by Smith with all the pomp of eighteenth century 
poetical diction :— 

West from the stream of Gaisecrithe brook, 
To Muskery's paps, where holy Patrick struck 
His croder ; thence unto the southern main 
The conquering Flan o*er all this tract did reign. 
No rent, no tribute, for this land he paid. 
But to the Church alone, his offering made. 

The Four Masters, A.D. 747, have the entry: "Flann, son of Ceallach, lord of Muskerry 
died." He must have been a grandson or great-grandson of the Flann who is the subject of the 
foregoing verses, 



MEDALS OF KERRY AND BALTIMORE LEGIONS. 



195 



of the boundaries given in the verses was Glaise Crithe, a stream not 
identified. 

From the description of the Sept Land it will be seen that it was of 
great extent Indeed it would appear that **Eoganacht Raithleann," or 
Eoghanacht Ui Eachach," as it was also called, exceeded in extent 
Eoganacht Cashel or any other Eoghanacht, i.e., tribe-land of any clan 
descended from Eoghan Mor. 

(To he continued.) 



Medals of the Kerry Legion and Baltimore Legion. 

By ROBERT DAY, F.S.A. 

The Kerry Legion, 1782. 

HIS is a circular, engraved medal, 2 inches in diameter. 

Obverse : Filling the centre of the field a harp crowned, 

having at each side and below a shamrock, and round 

the margin the old motto of the corps, ** Strike hrad 

and true, men of the Kerry Legion." 

Reverse: **To Colonel Mahoney, for services 1782." 
This is partly surrounded by a wreath bearing the 
motto, ** Ducit Amor Patriae." 






The services here referred to were, doubtless, those which were rendered 
by Colonel Mahoney at the great convention of the Volunteers in Dublin, 
to which he was one of the delegates from Kerry, 1782. For another 
medal of this corps, see p. 217, vol. v. of this /ournal. 

Medal of the Baltimore Legion, 1804. 
In a Parliamentary Blue Book of the Volunteers of the United 
Kingdom, ordered by the House of Commons to be printed 9th and 13th 



196 



CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi€OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 



December, 1803, there is a list of such yeomanry and volunteer corps as 
had been accepted and placed upon the establishment in Ireland. Among 
these is the Ross Carbery and Baltimore Legion, which was composed of two 
companies, having Sir John Freke as their captain-commandant, and Percy 
Freke and George F. Evans as captains. Each company had two subalterns, 
five sergeants, one drummer or trumpeter, and one hundred rank and file. 
A silver, engraved medal of this corps has been recently acquired by 
me. It is oval ; 2^ inches long by i}i inches wide. 





Obverse : surrounded by a twisted rope border, " Baltimore (Cork) 
Legion. Presented by Sir John Freke, Captain-Commandant, to John 
Warren, 1804." 

Reverse : Enclosed within a similar border a shield, argent, royally 
crowned, bearing the City Arms of Cork, and resting upon a trophy of 
flags and banners, ** ist Coy." 

The original green cord for suspending the medal from the buttonhole 
is still attached. It is a fine example of, presumably, Cork silversmiths' 
work, and in brilliant condition. 



Proceedings of the Society. 

GENERAL Meeting of the Members of the Society was 
held at the Cork Library, Pembroke Street, on Friday, 
17th November last ; at which were present the President, 
Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A., Very Rev. J. A. Dwyer, O.P. ; 
Miss Fahey, Miss A. Fahey, Messrs. Joseph Bennett, 
C. Cremen, C. G. Doran, F. J. Healy, B.L. ; W. B. Lacy, 
T. H. Mahony, William Ogilvie, J. O'Keeflfe, T. 
Farrington, J. P. (Hon. Treasurer), and J. Coleman 
(Hon. Secretary). 

The latter made a brief statement, in which he dwelt on the fact that. 




PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. 1 97 

in spite of certain drawbacks which the Society had had of late to contend 
with, its position and prospects were of the most encouraging kind. 
New members were coming in, and also new contributors to the /ournal. 
The Hon. Treasurer then gave an account of the financial condition of 
the Society, and stated that the balance to its credit at the end of the year 
1905 amounted to £yS 4s. 2d. 

The following members joined the Society in 1906— Mesdames Romney 
Bennett, L. Brazier-Creagh, and Carroll Leahy ; Very Rev. Canon 
O'Mahony, Crookstown ; J. Carton, Dublin ; J, D. Hackett, N.Y. ; 
H. F. Webb-Gillman, I.C.S., India ; P. J. Lynch, M.R.LA.L, Limerick ; 
Garrett Nagle, R.M., Belfast ; E. R. Mahony, M.D., Glanmire; F. F. 
McCarthy, 70 South Mall ; Sinclair Payne, Upton ; Ezekiel W. Mundy, 
U.S.A. ; the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., and the Peabody 
Institute, Baltimore ; whilst papers have been either promised or received 
from the following new contributors— Very Rev. Canon O'Mahony, 
Rev. C. A. Webster, Messrs. R. A. S. Macalister, F.S.A., of the Palestine 
Exploration Society ; W. H. Grattan Flood, A. H. Jones, as also from 
Colonel Lunham, C.B., and Messrs. E. Evans, B.L., J. F. Fuller, 
R. Vaughton Dymock, and Walter A. Jones, Doneraile. 

After the election, as Council Member, of Mr. Peirce Gun Mahony, 
M.R.I.A., Cork Herald of Arms, Dublin Castle, who has taken a great 
and fruitful interest in the welfare of the Society, the President then 
exhibited the various, valuable, interesting, and unique objects from his 
collection, of whose nature and origin the subjoined paper gives a 
graphic description : — 

SERJEANTS' RINGS. 

** The position of serjeant-at-law is the oldest, and, until comparatively 
recent times, the highest dignity a barrister could achieve below that of a 
judge, dating from about the middle of the thirteenth century. Until the 
year 1875, the judges were invariably selected from that rank, and were 
outwardly distinguished from the other members of the bar by a well- 
remembered little round black patch upon the top of the wig. On the 
creation of a serjeant a number of gold rings (about 28) had to be 
bestowed by him on several persons of different grades— the King, the 
Chancellor, the Judges, and others. Even the Chief Usher of the Court 
of Common Pleas received one. His Majesty's was a massive affair, 
nearly an inch in breadth, with enamel centre, and massive gold ends. 
On the former was engraved a motto specially chosen for the occasion. 
The Chancellor's and Judge's rings were about one-third of an inch in 
breadth, and carried a motto on the outside, thus distinguishing them 
from the posey ring which invariably had the motto engraved upon the 
inner surface. At Windsor are candlesticks made altogether of Serjeants' 
rings, dating from the reign of King Charles I. Two only of such gift 
rings are in my collection, which are here for your inspection. One was 
found outside the lines at Chatham ; the other is from the County Dublin, 
and is of fine gold-~it measures tV of ^^ ^^^^ ^" breadth, and has on a 
sunk centre the motto "Honor God in Everi Plasb." The former is 
of silver, parcel gilt, somewhat similar in design, but on either side of 
the inscription is a raised rope border, protected by an elevated, reeded 
rim, and, in the deeply-depressed centre, a motto, often met with on posey 
rings of an early date, **Fbar and Love God." This is the oldest of 



\gS CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHi€OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

the two, dating from the reign of Queen Mary, while its fellow dates 
from that of James I. 

SOME PRIMITIVE SYSTEMS OF CURRENCY. 

To illustrate this subject I have brought the following : — 

1. A gold ring from Ashanti similar to those found in Ireland. 

2. Silver rings of the same character from the North of Ireland. 

3. Copper penannular ring from the Bonny River, another partly 
calcined, and one of iron from West Africa. 

4. Fish-hook money from Ceylon. 

5. Specimens of Siamese bullet-money in silver and gold, and one in 
process of manufacture. 

6. ** Coppers," or shield-money from Vancouver's Island- one having 
the bear totem. 

7. Five examples of the ancient bronze hoe-and-kn if e-money of China. 

8. Three Japanese gold kobangs, and one of silver. 

9. A specimen of the bronze axehead-money of ancient Mexico. 

10. Treaty belt of North American Indian wampum. 

11. Necklet formed of thirteen whales' teeth from the Fiji Islands. 

12. Specimens of copper ring-money, and one of bronze, from the 
Co. Cork, Ireland. 

13. A gold mammilliary fibula or ring-money- weight, 3 ozs. 4 dwts. 

14. Specimens of gold ring-money from various parts of Ireland. 

15. Examples of gold spiral wire-money, Scandinavian, but found in 
Ireland. 

16. Four kobangs, viz., three of gold and one of silver, as circulated 
in Japan down to comparatively recent times. 

Prior to the introduction of a silver coinage in Ireland, which the 
Irish Kelts borrowed from Rome at a period probably before Constantine, 
penannular rings and armlets of gold, bronze, and copper, were largely 
used for trade and barter. These have, from time to time, been turned up 
by the plough and spade, and found imbedded in peat. Of the gold ring- 
money there are eighteen specimens in my collection, five of which are 
illustrated in Professor Ridgeway's work on the ** Origin, etc., of Metallic 
Currency," where, after carefully weighing all the examples contained in 
the British Museum, Royal Irish Academy, and other collections, he 
discovered that these Irish gold rings were weighed on a standard of 
almost 13.5 gr. Troy, and were used for trading purposes as money, and, 
moreover, that it was highly probable larger gold ornaments were also 
used for the same purpose, as the universality of making them after a 
fixed weight is fully proved. Down to the present, or to very recent 
times, penannular rings of copper and iron were made in Birmingham 
for West Africa, where the latter are called **manillas," and the former 
pass as "Bonny River money," both being used as a medium of 
exchange. Some fifty years ago a ship from Liverpool to the West 
Coast became a total wreck in Dunworley Bay, Co. Cork. In her 
general cargo were some casks of these copper and iron rings, specimens 
of which were brought into Bandon and Cork, and sold to the local 
antiquaries. Many of the copper rings were consigned to the smelter, 
and I have one that was saved by Mr. Windele, in a half-melted condition, 
from the furnace in Mr. Wood's foundry on the Mardyke. The fact of 
these rings having at first been mistaken for Irish antiques proves how 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE SOCIETY. T99 

closely they resemble such in material, form, and outline, as rings 
exactly similar are found in Ireland, varying much in size and weight. 

Three massive copper rings from the County Cork were found 
together near Kanturk, having been purchased from the finder by the 
late Mr. Windele, and formed part of his collection of Irish antiquities. 
Shortly before his death they were acquired by Mr. Ralph Westropp, of 
Ravenswood, Carrigaline, from whom they came to me. These copper 
rings are in most part covered with a green patination resembling 
malachite, and are of much rarity. One is 3^ inches in outside diameter, 
and its clean-cut, flattened, circular, disc-shaped ends, are ijj^-inch in 
width. From the apparently unalloyed character of the metal of which 
they are composed they must be of a very high antiquity, preceding, or 
overlapping, the bronze age. These may have served the double purpose 
of having been used for ornaments and money, but I think, so far as 
these large copper rings are concerned, that this is improbable. To 
further illustrate these, I have one of bronze, smaller in size, and of much 
lighter weight, which was found in 1868 near Tullamore, King's County. 
It differs in having the circular ends larger, more graceful in design, and 
cupped, while the flat discs of the former have their inner edges almost 
meeting at the ends. To further illustrate these, there is also a gold 
fibula of the mammilliary type, with bowl-shaped, swelling, circular ends, 
the lips of which on the upper and under surface are decorated with an 
engraved chevron pattern. These are connected by a semi-circular bar, 
widening at the centre, and tapering to the ends. The extreme width 
of this beautiful ornament is 4fi inches, height 2^ inches ; weight, 
3 oz. 4 dwts. 

The most common form of ring-money in Ancient Erinn were the 
small, partly-closed rings of gold, which were probably carried on a 
strong cord, and differed in size and weight. Some, indeed the larger 
proportion, were of plain gold, while others had alternate bands of niello 
work, which possibly were intended as a safeguard against forgery. The 
old-time forgers used a core of copper, which they covered with gold to 
simulate the genuine article. 

Fragmentary pieces of gold wire are also found, but these are of 
Scandinavian origin, and were imported by Danish merchants, who, as 
occasion required, cut oflf a piece, and tendered it by weight. Such a 
piece was called scillingay and is the forerunner of our shilling. Of the 
three specimens of this wire-money two are quadrangular, and one 
circular and spiral. In the summer of 1889 I had a visit from Professor 
Soderburg, who, acting on a commission from the King of Denmark, 
visited the various museums and private collections of antiquities in the 
British Islands, for the purpose of identifying and recording any objects 
of ancient Danish work that were preserved in them. On showing him 
these spirals he at once recognised them as Scandinavian, and told me 
that after the fourth century the supply of coined money was cut oflf from 
Denmark, and gold wire was substituted, a piece being cut oflf from a 
spiral coil by the trader and weighed. I had then a bronze scales, closely 
resembling those used by apothecaries, which was said to have been 
found in Dublin. From its style and character I had labelled it of 
Danish tenth-century work, but he corrected my date by assigning it to 
the century immediately preceding. This, he said, was similar to that 
used in weighing the gold wire-money, and, as the museum in Lund* of 
which he was curator, had not one, I presented it to him. 



200 CORK HISTORICAL. AND ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

In the South Sea Islands the natives of Fiji employed whales' teeth as 
currency, the red teeth, which are still highly prized, standing to white 
ones something in the ratio of sovereigns to shillings with us. They 
were given to contracting parties when ratifying treaties, and were used 
as money, and also for decorating the person. 

Another medium of exchange was in circulation among the Coast 
Indians of Vancouver Island, and Pugit Sound, known as shield-money. 
This was graduated from small specimens that might be carried in a 
waistcoat pocket to others so large that one would be more than enough for 
a strong man. One such would be an equivalent for 400 blankets. These 
are known also as ** coppers " from the metal of which they are composed. 

The coins circulating in Burmah are ticals, or Siamese bullet-money. 
I have brought some in gold and silver of different weights, and one in 
process of manufacture. 

Among the fishermen who dwelt along the shores of the Indian Ocean, 
from the Persian Gulf to the southern shores of Hindustan, Ceylon, and 
the Maldive Islands, the fish-hook, to them the most important of all 
implements, passed into money. The one here is made from a quad- 
rangular piece of stout, silver wire, doubled into a fish-hook form, and 
bears an Arabic inscription. They were made both of copper and silver, 
and in their conventional form were known as **larin," or **lari," a 
name derived from Lari on the Persian Gulf, and were in circulation 
until the beginning of the last century. 

The wampum of the North American Indians is made up of beads 
shaped from small pieces of the common clam shell — an abundant bivalve 
on all the North American coasts. The beads are always of two colours — 
purple and white— and at one time passed as money, a certain quantity 
being the equivalent for a horse. The English and Dutch introduced 
machine-made wampum, but these are easily distinguished by their 
greater regularity. This specimen is one of the old treaty belts, 2 feet 
long by 2j4 inches wide, and composed of ten rows of Wampum. 

The subject matter of this paper has been treated in a very superficial 
way, in order to illustrate it by examples of ancient and modern money from 
my own collection. I have already referred to the great standard work by 
Professor William Ridgeway, of Cambridge, on the ** Origin of Metallic 
Currency, etc.," a study of which will amply recompense the reader." 

The President having concluded his address, Mr. F. J. Healy, B.L., 
read an interesting paper giving the late Mr. Denny Lane's ** Literary 
Reminiscences of Cork in the Last Century," and Mr. C. G. Doran 
having exhibited a rare early map of Cork, the meeting ended. 



Notes and Queries. 

The Clapper Bridge at Springfield, near Ballybeg Abbey— Castlehaven— Names of Shortis and 
Looby or Luby. 

T1l« Clapper Bridge at Springfleldf near Ballybeg Abbm;.— In 

Ireland of old people when crossing rivers experienced much dilnculty 
from the want of bridges. Generally, at the place where the river was 
sufficiently safe to wade or swim it, a wickerwork strand or rope was 
fixed across the stream as a guide and assistance to travellers. Some* 
times also at night friendly people on the other side of the river would 




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NOTES AND QUERIES. 201 

light up the ford with a wood-fire or by displaying torches of gorse or 
bracken, and so would materially assist the belated travellers in crossing. 
Again, where the streamlets were not deep, a number of stepping stones 
or **clochan" formed the way used in getting from one side to the other. 
And on larger rivers a **tochar" or causeway was made of huge boulders, 
heaved one after the other into the water till eventually they came above 
the surface. Such a causeway exists across the Shannon at Skeagh, 
between Co. Roscommon and Co. Lei trim, placed there by a giant race 
of the earlier inhabitants of the country, and afterwards utilised by the 
monks of Kilmore and Mohill Abbeys. It is still known as The Friars' 
Walk. 

About the year 750 a,d. wooden bridges came into use; but it was 
not till the coming of the Anglo-Normans, in the twelfth century, that 
the stone-bridge became general. The first attempts were primitive, 
and were known as Clapper bridges, which were of cyclopean mould, 
and are composed of enormous stones. The roadway or passage on top 
is made of huge transverse slabs, nine to twelve feet long, and four or 
five feet wide, and thick in proportion. The accompanying illustration, 
from a photo by Mr. A. H. Jones, Doneraile, shows an unusually perfect 
and well-finished bridge of this type, erected in the early part of the 
thirteenth century by the Augustinian friars of Ballybeg Abbey, near 
Buttevant, for convenience in crossing the Awbeg to their mill and lands 
beyond. The transverse slabs measure nine or ten feet each in length, 
and are wide and thick in proportion, and each weighs over a ton. 

A few Clapper, or cyclopean, bridges, as they are likewise termed, 
also exist in Devonshire; but they are now very rare, and this one at 
Springfield is the finest in Ireland, and is well worth a visit. 

These Clapper bridges were probably so-called from the resemblance 
of the spanning transverse stones running from buttress to buttress, 
which were very long, and comparatively thin in proportion to their 
length, to the clappers or staves of a barrel. 

The stone of which the Springfield bridge is composed is limestone, 
of which there is abundance in the adjacent quarry. 

A sarcophagus, containing the supposed remains of a friar, was found 
near here some eight years ago; also a chair and candlesticks, buried 
in a sort of tomb. Walter Jones. 

ihMtlahaTeB.-— May I add one or two notes to Mr. James M. Burke's 
interesting article on Castlehaven in your January (1905) number. Yet 
another claimant to the lands besides those he gives was the Clan of 
O'Mahony. The relatives of the proscribed Teige O'Mahon contested- 
the Earl of Cork's rights to the land on which Castletownshend is built 
in a long lawsuit, and the place was called in the Down Survey after 
them Sleu Teige. The building in the graveyard by St. Barahane's well 
is not a chapel, but the remains of the parish church, allowed to fall 
into ruin when the church at Castletownshend was built. The old castle 
from which Castlehaven takes its name was inhabited in the early part 
of the nineteenth century, and its chambers hung with tapestry. Sir 
Richard Levison, who fought with the Spanish at Castlehaven lies buried 
in St. Peter's Collegiate Church, Wolverhampton, where a superb figure 
in armour, by Le Sueur, preserves his memory. 

Dorothea Townshend. 



202 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHAEOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

Names of Shortis and Looby or Liiby.— Being interested in the fol- 
lowing surnames, and not finding them in O'Hart's Irish Pedigrees, fifth 
edition, I would feel obliged for any information regarding their origin 
and time of settlement in Ireland. The names are Shortis and Looby, or 
Luby, and, as far as I can learn, have been located in the Co. Tipperary 
(also Waterford) since the middle of the seventeenth century, or end of 
same. The name Shortis is said to have been originally Shorthose or 
Curthose, of Norman antecedents, and Looby of French origin, probably 
Huguenot, as 0*Hart gives **Loubier" as settling in Ireland. 

D. Lackey, Major, R.A. 



Reviews of Books. 

The Diocese of Limerick, Ancient and Medieval, by Rev. John 
Begley, C.C. Dublin : Browne & Nolan, Ltd. 

Until the arrival of this book our southern ecclesiastical province, so 
abreast in civil histories, enjoyed the unique, but unflattering, distinction 
of being the only one in Ireland of which no diocesan history, written 
from a Catholic standpoint^ had been published. One or more of the 
dioceses in each of the other provinces have had their historians, but 
there is still a very noticeable absence of interest displayed towards Irish 
ecclesiology. This book was worth waiting for, and presents an ex- 
cellent example of what such a history ought to contain, how and from 
what sources it may be compiled, and how apparently dry and incohesive 
materials may be handled so as to light up effectively the dark recesses 
of the past, their own and even succeeding ages. Some vfery important 
documents are laid under contribution in its preparation, noticeably the 
Black Book of Limerick — an unpublished document of the thirteenth 
century — the Papal taxation of the year 1302, and the Annates or first 
fruits of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Charters, diocesan 
decrees, and ancient rent rolls also find a fitting place. And while the 
plenitude of documentary evidence relating to the different parishes and 
religious houses in the diocese conveys an assurance of very exhaustive 
research, the existing remains of the ancient churches, abbeys, and 
religious foundations are not overlooked, as too frequently happens in 
such works, but, on the contrary, are described sometimes lengthily, and, 
in addition, are copiously and tastefully illustrated. 

The book deals with events in the history of the diocese down to the 
period of the Reformation, and it is to be hoped that a second volume, 
bringing the history nearer to the present time, will follow in due course. 
We congratulate the author on the able and painstaking manner in 
which he has produced his work, and express the wish that his book will 
be widely read. 

Irish Peasant Songs in the English Language, by P. W. Joyce, M. A., 
LL.D., T.C.D. ; M.R.I.A. One of the Commissioners for the Publication 
of the Ancient Laws of Ireland. Honorary* President of the Royal 
Society of Antiquaries, Ireland, Author of, &c. London : Longmans. 

This is a neatly got up little pamphlet, containing half a dozen "old** 



llEVIEWS OF BOOKS. 2O3 

Irish airs with words. We commend it to our readers, and trust it will 
receive sufficient support to justify the publication of other parts. The 
price, sixpence, is within the range of all. Copyright is claimed for the 
airs in this little collection, although they are admitted to be **old," that 
is, traditional, and if infringed on serious notice is threatened. We are 
accustomed to such claims (?), but have yet to learn that they possess 
any legal sanction. The airs and folk songs of our country are the 
birthright of all, and no one who collects them, be it from the boy who 
tends the herd or the nurse who rocks the cradle, and afterwards prints 
them, can prevent others doing the same. 

?lb|i4m '0)At>A du)3e Cot)t)ddc or The Religious Songs of Connacht, by 
Douglas Hyde. London : Fisher Unwin. 2 vols. 10/- net. 

Dr. Hyde displays in these volumes a very happy turn for collecting, 
editing, and translating the peasant literature of Gaelic Ireland. Those 
old songs and stories that have so long survived to cheer the lives and 
comfort the minds of a people so frequently acquainted with little other 
than a stiff struggle for existence, were in process of becoming lost and 
forgotten. Many, very many of them, have undoubtedly passed beyond 
recall, but th^ collector has still a fruitful harvest awaiting him. Dr. 
Hyde has found his quarry deep in the glen, high on the mountain side, 
in the straggling hamlet of the plain, in all situations in fact. His 
verse translations are remarkable pieces of literary handiwork — they are 
such very close renderings, in which the sense and form of the original 
are preserved. Here, for instance, is a quatrain taken from a piece 
called ** Repentance" by the blind poet Raftery, who flourished between 
seventy and eighty years ago: 

^ K)S c4 4[i t)eirt) Y 4 6jiutA)i ^<>4fl), 
'S 4 dtt)]ie4f c4f 1 hipedCA't 41) fib-dill, 

4>o^f5|ie4'D4in) o]tc 4t)oif 'f of ^ii'o, 
If le -00 5]i4f4 C4 tije 43 f fill. 

**0 King of heaven, who didst create 
The man who ate of that sad tree, 
To Thee I cry, oh turn Thy face. 

Show heavenly grace this day to me.*' 

Literally : O King, who art in heaven, and who createdst Adam, and 
who pay est regard to the sin of the apple, I scream to Thee now and 
aloud, for it is Thy grace that I hope for. 

Parish Register Society of Dublin. Vol. I. The Registers of St. 
John the Evangelist, Dublin 1619 to 11699. Edited by James Mills, 
I.S.O., M.R.I. A. Dublin: A. Thom & Co., 1906. 

We extend a welcome to this Society, whose purpose, as it announces, 
is to supply the genealogist and local and family historian with printed 
copies of the more important and older surviving registers, beginning 
with those of Dublin. The Registers of the City of Dublin, besides con- 
taining the descent of the many old city families, are of great importance 
to all investigating the history of scattered branches of English families, 
and the origins of American and Colonial settlers. During the unsettled 

«5 



204 CORK HISTORICAL ANP ARCH^OLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

times of the sev^teeoth century aumbers of English people caoiQ tQ 
Ireland, and many of thesQ resided, at least temporarilyi or died in Dublin^ 
This volume is the first issued by th^ Society^ and it is fitting that it 
should Qontain, as it doea» the oldest set of parish registers in Ireland. 
The editing exhibits the wonted care and ability of Mr. Mills. The 
introduction embraces much special information on old parish registers 
aod QQ the laws b> which th^ were instituted and are now controlled, 

A History of the County Dublin, Part IV. By Francis E. Ball 
Dublin : Thom & Co., 1906. 5/* 

In announcing the publication of this volume we can scarcely add 
anything in commendation of it to what has been already said of the 
preceding parts in the notices of them in this Journal. Mr. Ball is a 
skilled laborer in the fields of Irish history and biography, and exhibits 
much knowledge and research in the pages of this book. He invariably 
citQs his authorities for his statements, a circumstance almost as indis- 
pensable in a book of any importance as an index. The book is richly 
tUustratedji and is produced in the very best style. 

A Smaller Social Histoiy of Ancient Ireland. By P. W. Joyce, M.A. 
London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1906. 3/6. 

To any person who has read O 'Curry's Lectures, Wilde's Catalogue 
of Antiquities, and is accustomed to read the quarterly parts of the 
Journal of the Royal Society of Antiquaries, Ireland, the information 
for the greater part contained in this volume will not be found new. The 
book isi indeed, more remarkable for the great industry bestowed in its 
compilation than for any fresh light its pages may reflect upon the past. 
It brings together and systematises for the first time the opinions and 
conclusions of scholars on the subject, and information scattered over 
the pages of various books and the publications of learned societies. 
That there was a demand for such a work goes without saying. The 
nature of its contents, although it is questionable if its quality has not 
suffered from over compression, coupled with its cheapness and convenient 
size, go far to recommend it as a text book in our intermediate schools, 
which are much in need of some such work. The illustrations number 
over two hundred, but are mostly familiar to us. There is something 
solitary, eternal, and unchangeable about our antiquarian book illustra- 
tions, and it is a source of disappointment that so many old blocka that 
served so excellently to relieve many a dull and dreary page some fifty 
or sixty years ago should still be so frequently utilised. 

At p. 231 it is stated that Dr. Geoffrey Keating died in 1644. We 
shall be interested to know what evidence exists to establish this, and not 
1650, or any other year, as that of the great writer's death* The inscrip- 
tion dated 1644 on the tablet over the church door at Tubbridi^ Co. 
Tipperary, is scarcely sufficient, since It was the usage of those old days, 
tad long afterwards, for the living to erect memorials to tbeoasalveg 
soUcitiny prayers for tbq repose of th^ owr^ souls^ j. g. 

Tte Ongmaml Eanly History of the femUy of P^ or Po0,witk full F«ifk 
gr09» of the Irish Branch &f the Family, By Sir Edmund ThQ0M» Bewley, 
At. A., LL.D. DubHa : Printsd for ^hm Author by Ponsonby k Cibbs, 1906^ 



REVtCWS OF BOOKS, a05 

In this very ioterestiog, valuable and readable work Sir ^mund T. 
Bewley haa trao^ out with an exceptional amount of labour and re- 
search the orisrln and early history of the Anglo-Irish family of Poe, 
whose most famous scion was the highly gifted but unhappy American 
poot and author, Edgar Allan Foe. Of William Poe, who came of 
sturdy English yeoman stock, the first of this family to settle in Ireland > 
Sir Edmund Bewley, when he b^an this history, only knew that he had been 
a Cromweilian officer. But by dint of patient, persevering and exemplary 
research amongst the Chancery Inquisitions, Patent Rolls and Fiants, 
and Commissioner Rolls of Ireland, BilU in the Court of Chancery in 
England and Ireland, on the Equity- side of the Court of Exchequer, 
Ireland, Wills in the Probate Registry in England and the Public Record 
Office, Dublin, Feet of Fines, Ireland, the Calendar of the State Papers, 
Ireland and England, and various private Historical MSS. collections, 
the eminent author of this work has not only traced out the events of 
William Poe's life, but has dispelled forever many errors that had 
accumulated respecting the origin of this family, and especially of the 
ancestors of Edgar Allan Poe, who sprang from a Cavan branch of it. 
The most notable member of the family in England was a Doctor Leonard 
Poe, who was physician to several of the Kings of England, many inter- 
estmg particulars of whose life are here recorded. From their first 
settlement in Tyrone the Poe family spread to other parts of Ireland, 
coming so far south as Kilkenny and Tipperary, of all of whom Sir 
Edmimd T. Bewley has supplied full pedigrees. Only 200 copies of this 
important work have been printed, which is dedicated to Lieut. -Colonel 
W. H. Poe, whose name has been prominent of late in conjunction with 
Lord Dunraven, Captain Shaw-Tayk>r and others in reference to Irish 
Land Purchase and other questions of the day. 

Index to the WiUs of the Diocese of Kildare in the Public Record 
Office of Ireland. Edited by Sydney Cary. Dubfin : E. Ponsonby. Price 1/7. 

This work forms a notable addition to the literature of Irish Wills. 
Following the example of Dr. Caulfield, Sir Arthur Vicars, Ulster King 
of Arms, of Mr. Henry F. Berry, and of Messrs. Gillman and Green in 
our own Journal, Mr. Cary, not without considerable trouble and re- 
search, has here compiled a useful Index to the Wills of the Kitdare 
Diocese now in the Public Record Office, Dublin. A glance at the 
testators* names shows an unusual number of French surnames, which 
is of much interest as pointing to the descendants of the Huguenots, 
whose settlement in Portarlington more especially, towards the end of 
the seventeenth century, marked an important episode in the history of 
Ireland. Mr. Cary's valuable Index originally appeared in the Journal 
of the Kitdare Archceological Society, of which Sir Arthur Vicars is one of the 
Hon. Secretaries, and whose foremost contributor. Lord Walter FitzGerald^ 
is one of the most indefatigable Irish archaeologists of the present day. 

C. 

The Journal of the Galmay Archceological and Historical Society. 
Vol rV., No. 3. 

The summer number of this half-yearly Journal is in no respect inferior 
to its predecessors. The Presidential address is worthy of the scholarly 



206 CORK HISTORICAL AND ARCHitOLOGICAL SOCIETY. 

and able Archbishop of Tuam. It deals mainly with the ' 'redoubtable Grania 
Uaile,*'and contains besides many important suggestions. Dr. Costello 
contributes a very interesting paper on Some Old Galway Domestic 
Utensils, with seven capital but small illustrations. The principal con- 
tribution is that of the Rev. J. McErlean, S.J., namely, * 'Notes on the 
Pictorial Map of Galway," continued from a former number. The 
**Elenchus" is given in English with numerous notes, and the Irish words 
are correctly set down. This forms a most material aid to a correct study 
of the map. Mr. H. T, Knox endeaours to show Sir Richard Bingham 
in a more favourable light than he is usually depicted. Whether he 
succeeds or not each reader must decide for him or herself. The article 
is also illustrated. Mr. Dix contributes a note on four Galway-printed 
**Song Books," and gives a facsimile of the title-page of one. These 
ephemeral booklets (8 pp.) have died out completely, and it is desirable 
to rescue from total oblivion the few that occasionally turn up. They 
preceded the slip or sheet ballads which are yet not quite extinct. 

The Journal of the County Louth Archceological Society. Vol. I., 
No. 3. 

The date for the yearly issue of this Journal having been changed to 
October, the above number has only recently! appeared, but it is in every 
respect most creditable to the Society and those responsible for its pro- 
duction. It contains 106 4to pages full of valuable and interesting 
matter. It is richlyi and copiousy illustrated with drawings, plans, 
photographs, &c., and is quite a model for similar County Societies to 
imitate. Opening with an important address by the President upon the 
Ardagh Chalice, well illustrated, there follows a very interesting and 
valuable contribution by our fellow-member, Mr. Jas. Buckley, consisting 
of large extracts from the original diary of Captain John Stevens, an 
English Catholic Jacobite, who joined his sovereign here and took part 
in the campaign which ended so disastrously for his side at the Boyne. 
Original and authentic accounts from that side are very rare, and there- 
fore the more precious. Mr. Buckley's Introduction and Notes are as 
valuable as they are interesting, and only what would be expected from his 
pen. Mr. Hy. Morris, the very able and indefatigable S:ecretary, con- 
tinues his "Louthiana, Ancient and Modern." The drawings in the 
original work, written by Wright, 1748, are reproduced, and modem 
photographic views show in what state the antiquities now appear. 
Father Gogarty, C.C, contributes in his pleasant and eminently readable 
style an article on a Co. Louth Election in 1767. Mr. Jas. MacCarte 
deals with the Co. Louth Volunteer Regiments and their Uniforms, &c.) 
and for some of his information he acknowledges his indebtedness to our 
President, Mr. Robert Day, F.S.A. Other valuable contributions are 
those by Mr. J. H. Lloyd, Rev. N. Lawless, P.P. ; Laurence Murray, &c. 
There are likewise Notes and Queries, Reviews, &c. ; in fact a store of 
antiquarian, social, and historic lore which it would be very difficult to 
excel. The illustrations are excellent, and show the skill and ability of 
Mr. H. G. Tempest, Mr. Hy. Morris, and Mr. V. O'Connell. Lastly, 
Mr. William Tempest, the printer and publisher, upholds by his superior 
work the reputation for first-class printing executed in Ireland. The 
Society's membership has now happily risen to 170 in all. 

D. 



A FINE IS INCURRED IF THIS BOOR IS 
NOT RETURNED TO THE LIBRARY ON 
OR BEFORE THE LAST DATE STAMPED 

BELOW. 



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