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Porto-RicanFolk-Lore: Folk-TalM. . . H' '*^.?^''l*. 1 i 

lAurelto M. Esptnosa} 

Tales of Spanish Provenience Trom Zuiii . Franz Boas 62 

Riddles from Negro School-Children in New 

Orleans, La A. E. Perkins 105 

UmbunduTales, Angola, Southwest Africa. William C. Bill 116 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portu- (Frant Boas 1 

gueae South Africa \c. Kamba Simaneo} 

Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Amer- 
ican Follc-Lore Society 305 

Bulu Tales Georgt Schwab 209 

Two Folk-Tales from Nyasaland . . . A. Irving Hallowell 316 

Short Notes on Soul-Trapping in Southern 

Nigeria L.W.G. Malcolm 319 

Negro Spirituals from the Far South . A. E. Perkins 333 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, \A. M. Bacon 1 

Virginia \E. C. Parsons] '^ 

T j:- I -r . J T f Albert H. Tolman\ 

Ti«l.tional Texts and Tunes .... [j^^yQ ^ddy J "5 


Three Jamaican Folk-Stories .... Helen H. R^rts 338 

"Tar Baby" E. C. P. 330 

From "Sfriritual" to Vaudeville. . . . E. C. P. 331 


Mason and Espinosa's Porto-Rican Folk- 
Lore: Dicimas, Christmas Carols, Nurse- 
ry Rhymes, and Other Songs . . Loutit D. Dennis 99 
B I- . mj- n ■ • -> tAurelio M. Espinosa\ loi 
RepUes to MissDenms. review. . ■ [j, Alden Mason \ .03 

Gonules' The Black Border E. C. P. 333 


List of Abbreviations used in this Volume v 

Index to Volume 35 433 




BAE 19 James Mooney. Myths of the Cherokee 

(Annual Report, Bureau of American 

Ethnology, 19, Pt. i). 1897-98. 
Bolte u. Polfvka .... J. Bolte u. G. PoUvka, Anmerkungen zu 

den Kinder- u. Hausm^rchen der BrQder 

Christensen A. M. H. Christensen, Afro-American Folk 

Lore. Boston, 1892. 
Clouston W. A. Clouaton, The Book of Noodles. 

New York, 1888. 
Cole Mabel Cook Cole. Philippine Folk Tales. 

Chicago, 1916. 
D^hnhardt O. Dahnhardt, Natursagen. Beriin, 1907- 

Honey J. A. Honey, South African Folk-Tales. 

New York, 1910. 

JAFL Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

M AFLS Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society. 

Nassau R. H. Nassau, Where Animals Talk. Bos- 
ton, 1913. 

PaAM Anthropological Papers of the American 

Museum of Natural History. 

Schultze Leonhard Schultze, Aus Namaland und 

Kalahari. Jena, 1907, 










Prmi.itnm iM CiilxAiinaAnnK tm-H 

^o-1ticKx Polk- I Jine--~roLi -Tales 

1 J. Aldtn JU.ufln 
\Aiiniio U. Uipiti 

. Frtilis Boot ta 



^^L C. K. STBCHBRT & CO., HEW VOBK, Aobttv 


"'HE JOURNAL OF AMERtCA il tQ.urterlj r Edilor. 

Boas), imied by the Amcriuri Fuik-L^ue Sadety, i> daiitied for the c 
tloD tnd publication of the rollc-lotr uid mythology or the Amuicaa Conlini 
The »ub*ciiplIon price Is four dolUra mi annum. 

Thi; Ainerican Folk-I^ic Soueiy mu orgzniied Jacuary 4, tKSS. The Stx 
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Author! kloae are responsible Tor the contents of their papers. 

Beers of the American Folk-Lore Sodety(I92 

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I S'ttn'i Vifftri'iJ'Tit—]. WJin Fcwlia, Mnitta ii( Anittt«iii RlboDlocr, Widlosttni, D.C 
\iCmmiihn.-fat\iaviina- YhWV^i Pany, Kj Bnlllt SL.CnatHiage, Mau-i A. M. Etpli^ 
^iMd Sisiifoii!, \t.. PniTEfiily. tVIu Alio. Ca].: C.-U. lUibMu, Cculngtenl Suittr, Oltawi, f 
uiwaresi*: J- H. Kwwnau, 5536 WlKciodii Ant., Wulibgum, PX.) E K. Painun, Daj 
t. )ii,i Sblh TbotnpcMi, UDlrtrtlt;r of Uuiie, Otnno, Me, Fiw noc r«mr: R. D. DJisn, !*«■] 
ran. Ca'Bbrl4ae. Mut.i G. ^apli. Geological Sorvvji, OlUv*. Cia.; A. U Krotbcr, 
1 CallciD, S«a FnsciHo, CU. Fail dnidciiUi Piicj Carle GinUuil, Ametkmn Miu 
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I, New Vmk. Frulilou of Local BnatAet: C. FubcMir, C T, CMnuh, Milt kt. A. Omta^ 
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\ £JiUr r/'J*w'M4l.'~Tnai Bo«i. CoUmbim Vsltenity, New Vodi, N.V. 

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CAMUima. — /VfiiAwt; C T. CamU), Cuubridgei I'ia-PretUtml, Un. R. F. 
'i Loatll St., Cuiil»ld|e j T'^tuurtr, Caiktoe B, Noyu, Jo Fracdi A<«., Ccmbridp 1 J/ty^ 
Mill Faaalope Nora, Cambridge. 
Kx?miCKr.— l'i>/-/Vvi/dtM<i, Mn. FaacKi C Doncan. UIm Ju>ep:;lc< UcGfll: Sttrttary, 
lyraSudcn; 7r/Jiwrrr, John F- Smilh, liveaCoUtKC Bern, K7. 

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'Tt»fta!sx.-~StfttMty, Hut7 M. WDuc, Chamiuiof, Traa. 





Vol. 35.— JANUARY-MARCH. 1922.— No. 135. 





I. CUBNTOs DB JUAN HOBO, Continued. 


37. Juan y los objetos m&gicoB (59) 2 

58. Braulio el tonto y el enano del pozo (60) 7 

59. Juan y la princesa ootiechadDsal mar (61) 8 

60. Juan se compadece de un perro, un gato y una culebra (62) ... 14 
6t. Loa animales ayudan a Juan (63) 17 

62. El guaano ayuda a Juan (64): Juan arregla el asunto de los cabros 

(65) 18 

63. El traje de piel de piojo (66) 19 

64. La cAla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39): el pajaro virtuoso (24): 

el traj'e de piel de piojo (66) 21 

65. El Doctor Todolosabe (67) 21 

66. El ramo de todas las flores (68) 23 

67. LoaanimalesagradecidoB, y las adivinanzas de Juan (69) .... 23 

68. El lunar de la princesa (S5): las adivinanzas de Juan (70) .... 26 

69. Juan manda la cerda a misa (i): Juan mata la vaca (4): Juan mata 

a su hermano (a): Juan vende la carne a las moscas (6): las 
adivinanzas de Juan (70) 26 

70. Juan mata los polios (3): Juan manda la cerda a misa (t): Juan 

mata a su hermano (3): las adivinanzas de Juan (70) 34 


71. La olla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39) 3S 

72. La olla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39): El pito que resucita 

(40): Pedro noquiere casarseconia hija delrey (31) 36 

73. Pedro no quiere casarse con la hija del rey (31) 37 

74. Pedro vende el cuero de la vaca (71): Pedro no quiere casarse con 

la hija del rey (31) 39 

' Continued from p. 308 of Volume 34. 


2 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


75. Le pagan por un muerto (44]: Juan no quiere casarse con la hija 

del rey (31); EE gigante trata de matarlo en ei catre (76) ... 40 

76. Pedro sujetando el mundo (47) 43 

77. Pedro y loa objetos migicos (59) 43 

78. Pedro Be vuelve sirviente (La lista de pellejo [50]) 44 

79. La lista de petlejo (50} : Juan regresa con el perro (29) 45 

80. La lista de pellejo (50) : Juan corta matas de pl&tano y tas patas de 

I08 novillos (33) : Pedro lleva el rio (73) 47 

81. Pedro mata a la madre del gigante (72): Pedro se lleva el rfo (73): 

Pedro se lleva el monte (74}: Pedro mete el dedo en el palo {75): 
El gigante trata de matarlo en el catre (76): Pedro y el gigante 
tiran piedras mar afuera (77): La lista de pellejo (50): Pedro 

regresa con el perro (29) ; El p&jaro virtuoso (24) 47 

83. La lista de pellejo (50): El huevo y las batatas (78): Pedro se lleva 
el rIo (73): Pedro se lleva el monte (74): Pedro mata a la madre 
del gigante (72) 51 

83. Pedro y las hijas de su amo (79) : Pedro logra matar a su amo (80) : 

La tista de pellejo (50) 51 

84. Pedro y el Ie6n (81) 53 

85. Pedro se come las pajarillas del cabro (83) 53 

86. Pedro se come las pajarillas del cabro (83) : La muerte en el &rbol 

(83) 55 

87. La muerte en el 4rbol (83): La muerte en la damajuana (84) . . 56. 

88. La olla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39) : El sombrero maravilloso 

(85) : El compadre trata de matarlo (86) 57 

89. El sombrero maravilloso (85) 58 

90. El pito que resucita (40): Pedro logra matar a su amo (80} ... 58 

I. CuENTOS DE Juan Bobo, continued. 

Una vez habfa un hombre que se Ilamaba Juan Bobo. Vivfa con 
la madre en una casita en el campo. Un dfa le dijo a la madre que 
iba a elevarse hasta llegar donde estaba Dies para que le diera dinero. 
La madre le dijo que no, pero al otro dfa hizo un hacho y le dijo: — 
Mam& cuando V. vea que este hacho se eleva allf en aquel alto, es 
que yo me elevo con ^1. Demostr&ndole el alto se fui. Cuando lleg6 
tir6 el hacho en el aire y continu6 andando. Cuando hubo andado un 
poco se hall6 un viejo que le pregunt6 d6nde iba y €i le dijo: — A 
buscar dinero donde est4 Dios. 

Entonces el viejo le di6 una cajita y un bast6n y le dijo: — Cada vez 
que necesites dinero abre la cajita y tendr4s el que necesites, y al 
bastdn cuando te quieran atropellar dile: " j Descomponte bast6n!" 
El bast6nestar4dandopalos hasta que ledigas: "jCompontebast6n!" 
Juan tom6 el bastdn y la caja y se fu^. Cuando lleg6 la noche pidid 
posada para parar la noche y en la misma casa le robaroti la caja. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 3 

( Version a.) 

Un dla sali6 Juan Bobo de su casa sin permiso de sus padres para ir 
a casa de su padrino a pedirle el a^inaldo. Einpez6 a andar, y anda 
y anda hasta que lleg6 a la casa de su padrino. — Buen dia, mi querido 
padrino. Yo he venido para que V. regale mi ag:uinaldo. El padrino 
en seguida le dijo: — Buenos dfas querido ahijado, £c6mo no? Tu 
aguinaldo est& seguro. Despu6s te convid6 a sentarse y se sent6. 
At poco rate le trajo una pequena cabrita. — Toma, ahijado, esta 
cabrita. Cuando t(i necesitas dinero dile, "Abre chivita" y despu^s 
"Cierra chivita." Tomando Juan Bobo la chivita en la mano, le 
dijo: — iAy! Padrino, ^c6mo va a ser esto? — y se fu^. Como el 
camino era demasiado lejos, le cogi6 la noche y tuvo que dormir en 
una casita que encontr6 en una montana muy alta. Pregunt6 si le 
daban posada y le dijeron sf, y 3ubi6. Antes de entrar, dijo que trafa 
una cabrita que si le decfan "Sbrete" echaba dinero, y si le dedan 
"ci^rrate," no echaba nada. Las personas que estaban en la casa 
contentas al o(r esto le dijeron que entrara que iban a dormir. En 
seguida se acostaron y Juan Bobo como era poco sabio de verdad, 
empezd a roncar. Los de la casa entonces cog^eron la chivita de Juan 
Bobo y ia escondieron. 

Al otro dia cuando se levantd, procurd su chiva y no la encontr6. 
AllI se arreglaron y 61 volvi6 atris otra vez. — Padriijo, d^me mi 
aguinaldo que el otro me lo cogieron. Su padrino le di6 una potran- 
quita y le dijo: — Si necesitas dinero dile "abre potranquita." En- 
tonces empez6 a andar hasta que lleg6 a la casa otra vez. Pidi6 posada 
y en seguida le dijeron que si muy contentos. 

Se acostaron y empez6 el Bobo a roncar, y le cogieron la potranquita 
y la escondieron. Al otro dfa €\ no encontr6 su aguinaldo pero com- 
prendi6 que en la mlsma casa se la habian robado. 

Sali6 otra vez en busca del aguinaldo, pues hacfa tres dfas que no 
iba a su casa y no querfa llegar sin nada. — Padrino, d£me mi aguinaldo 
que me cogieron el que me di6 en la casa donde qued^ durmiendo. 
Al padrino le pudo mucho ya y le dijo: — Caramba contigo, ahijado. 
Toma este garrote; ll^vatelo y cuando quieras que 41 d4 palos, dile 
"ibrete garrote" y cuando no quieras, "ci^rrate." 

Lleg6 a la casa donde £1 dormfa y pidi6 posada. Subid con el 
garrote diciendo que no dijeran "abre garrote," pues daria palos. 
Ellos no le creyeron y dijeron "abre garrote" y empez6 a dar palos a 
viejas, mozas y ninas. Llamaron a Juan Bobo y 41 dijo que hasta que 
no le dieran sus Jntereses no deda ' ' ci4rrate. ' ' Se los dieron y el garrote 
no di6 m^ palos. 

{ Version b.) 

Una vez habfa una vtejita que era muy pobre y tenfa un hijo, 
que era bobo. Un dia le dijo el bobo a la madre: — Yo me voy a 


4 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

alquilar en casa de! rev- La madre le dijo : — Que tG te vas a alquilar, 
si tli no sirvea para nada. — SI, mami, veriis como yo te hago feliz. 

Y ella le dijo: — Bueno, vete a ver si te alquila. 

Y se fu£ el Bobo para en casa del rey. Al mes de estar en casa dd 
rey, dijo: — Mi Majestad, yoquieroque usted me d£ con que ir a ver 
a mi mamS. Y el rey le dijo: — Sf, ^c6mo no? Toma este mantel y 
cuando t^ llegues a tu casa t6 tiendes el mantel en la mesa y despu^s 
le dices: "Ponte, mantel," y £1 en seguida pone muchas cosas buenas 
y los mejores manjares. 

Cuando iba para su casa, entr6 en la casa de una vieja que vivfa 
al frente de la carretera, y lo IIam6 y le dijo: — Bobo, si4ntate en la 
hamaca, que te voy a hacer un poco de caf6, pero qu6date dormido. 

V cuando estaba dormido le cogid el mantel y le puso otro que no 
servfa para nada y despu^s lo Ilamd para que tomase el caf6, y despu^s 
que se lo tomd cogi6 su mantel que le habia cambiado la vieja y se fu6, 
y cuando Uegd a su casa, la madre estaba ablandando unas habichuelas, 
y el Bobo le dijo: — Mam&, iqui estia haclendo? Y ella le conteat6 : 
— Hijo, yo estoy haciendo unas habichuelas. — Pues marni, bote eso 
que yo traigo una cosa buena. Mam&, ponga la mesa para comer 
muchas cosas buenas. 

Y la vieja cogi6 las habichuelas y las bot6 y cuando 41 tendid el 
mantel le dijo: — Mamfi, v^ngase a comer muchas cosas buenas. Y 
cuando tendi6 el mantel, que ya la vieja estaba sentada, fu6 a poner 
d mantel y no le produjo nada; la vieja se qued6 sentada de lo ta&a 
desconsolada, y le dijo : — Ves hijo, que me hiciste botar las 
habichuelas. Bueno, y se fu6 el Bobo a casa del rey y le dijo ; — Rey, 
usted me ha engaSado a mi con su mantel. — Pues mira, aquella casa 
a que fuiste, aquella vieja te puso a dormir y te cogi6 el mantel nuevo 
y te puso otro viejo; pues mira, yo te voy a dar este bast6n y t(i 
cuando llegues a la casa, ella te ha de dedr, " Slibete, Bobo, te voy a 
hacer caf^." Y cuando tti te subas, en seguida te sientas en la hamaca 
y deja el bast6n abajo y t6 en seguida te levantas y mandas a subir 
al bastdn y en seguida le dices: " Vea, bastdn" y en seguida comienza 
a darie palos y palos hasta que ella te tenga que dar el bast6n y despute 
ella te da el mantel y tfi te vas en seguida. 

{Version c.) 

Efita era una vez que habfa un hombre que se tlamaba Juan Bobo. 
Un dia se tu6 a ganar dinero y donde trabaj6 le dieron una bolsa de 
dinero que cada vez que le deda, "iComponte bolsa!" empezaba a 
soltar dinero. 

Una vez Juan Bobo fu& a un baile y se llevd la bolsa. Cuando Ileg6 
al baile le dijo a la vieja: — Tenga esta bolsa, pero no le diga "com- 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 5 

pODte bolsa." No bi£n volte6 Juan la cara. cuando la vieja dijo: — 
iComponte bolsa! — y empez6 a soltar dinero. Despu^s Juan Bobo 
fu£ a procurar su bolsa y la vieja le dijo que no la tenia. 

Otro dfa Juan Bobo fu6 a trabajar a la misma casa y le dieron un 
bast6n que se le deda: "Componte bast6n" y empezaba a dar 

Un dfa fu4 Juan a la misma casa a un baile y le dijo a la vieja: — 
Jfay vreja, tengaese bast6n, pero no lediga "componte bast6n," No 
bien habia virado el pobre Juan la cara, cuando dijo la vieja: — 
iComponte bast6n! — y le cay6 a garrotazos. — jAy, ay, ay, ay! — 
deda la vieja y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Si usted me da la bolsa yo le 
quito el bast6n. — jToma, toma las Daves y c6ge1a! — decia la vieja 
gritando. Cogi6 Juan Bobo la bolsa y le dej6 el bast6n hasta que la 

Se acab6 mi cuento y se ivA por un roto. Y otro que sepa que se 
diga otro. 

{Version d.) 

Una vez la madre de Juan Bobo tenia muchas matas de coles y 
entre todas habfa una chiquita y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Mam&, dame 
esa matita chiquita de coles. 

Un dfa hizo un temporal y se llev6 la matita de Juan Bobo y al 
otro dfa fu6 a donde estaba el viento: — i Buenos dfas, viento! — 
rEntra! — le contestd el viento, y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Yo no vengo 
a entrar, yo vengo a buscar mi matita de coles. 

Y el viento le dijo: — Toma eate pano de mesa y veris todo lo 
que te dar&. Y Juan Bobo queria saber lo que le daba el viento y le 
dijo: — iComponte! Y el paiio le di6 muchas frutas y fu^ a una casa 
ydijo: — iGufirdemeeate paiio, pero no le digan " Componte paiio," 
porque da muchas cosas buenas! 

Y Juan Bobo se fu4. Al otro dfa fu4 a donde estaba el viento; — 
iBuenos dfas, viento! El viento tedijo: — iEntra! Y Juan Bobo le 
dijo: — i Yo no vengo a entrar, que yo vengo a que me den mi matita 

Y el viento le dijo: — ^Pero lo que te df ayer? Y entonces el 
viento le did un fuete de cuero. — Toma ese fuete de cuero y ver&s qu* 
muchas cosas buenas te dar&. 

Y Juan Bobo querfa saber lo que le daba y dijo: — iComponte, 
fuete! Y el fuete le cay6 a cantazos limpios, y lo llev6 a la misma 
casa donde llevd el paiio de mesa, y Juan Bobo les dijo: — Pero no le 
digan " Componte fuete," porque da muchas cosas buenas. 

La mujer en seguidita que se fu£ Juan Bobo se sent6 con los mucha- 
chttos en la mesa y dijo: — iComponte, fuete! Y el fuete cay6 a 
cantazo limpio y Juan Bobo que estaba allf escondido sali6 corriendo y 
didendo : — i Denme mi paiio de mesa, porque si no dejo que el fuete 
los mate! 


6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Y la mujer le di6 el paiio y Juan Bobo dijo: — i Descomponte fuete! 
Y el fuete no les di6 m&s y Juan Bobo vivi6 muy feliz de&pu^. 

(Version e.) 

Una vez Juan Bobo tenfa una mata de pl4tano en una lata, y le dijo 
la madre que le tuviera cuidado. Un dfa el viento le tuinb6 la mata de 
plStano y cuando Juan Bobo vino y vi6 que el viento le habfa tumbado 
la mata de plitano se fu£ detr^ del viento para matarlo. Cuando 
ya iba lejos se encontr6 con un hombre, y era el viento, y le pregunt6: 

— i Para d6nde vas, Juan Bobo? — Yo voy a encontrar al viento para 
mataHo. Y el hombre lo content6 y le di6 un burrito y le dijo que 
nunca le dijera al burrito, " Abre la boca, burrito." 

Juan Bobo iba ya de noche y se encontr6 con una casa donde vivfan 
un viejito y una viejita y pidi6 posada. Les di6 el burrito a guardar 
pero les advirti6 que nunca le fueran a decir que abriera la boca. 
Juan Bobo se qued6 dormido y la viejita y el viejito le dijeron: — 
Abre la boca, burrito. Y no acabaron de decirle cuando una cantidad 
de monedas salieron rodando por el suelo. Viendo que salia mucho 
dinero de la boca del burrito le volvieron a decir que abriera la boca, 
j»ero esta vez el burrito la cerr6. Los viejitos ya solamente tenlan un 
burro viejo y cuando Juan Bobo despert6 le dieron el burro viejo. 
Juan Bobo se fu^. 

Cuando lleg6 a la casa le dijo a la madre: — iMadre! ijajaj4! 
Rec6jase las mantas. La madre le dijo que ya venfa con unas de las 
de 41, pero cuando Juan Bobo le dijo al burrito que abriera la boca el 
burrito no lo entendi6. 

Entonces Juan Bobo se fu^ otra vez detr4s del viento didendo que 
lo iba a matar. Ya que iba lejos se encontr6 con el mismo hombre. 
El hombre le di6 un mantelito, pero le dijo que nunca le dijera, 
"Abrete, mantelito." 

Y Juan Bobo se fu4 y Ileg6 a la misma casa de los viejitos y volvi6 a 
hacer lo mismo de antes. Los viejitos le dieron posada y Juan Bobo 
les encarg6 el mantelito y les dijo que no le dijesen que se abriera. 
Juan Bobo se qued6 dormido, y los viejitos para experimentar le 
dijeron al mantelito que se abriera. Y en seguida habfa alK manjares 
de todas clases y todas buenas comidas. Ellos tenfan un mantel 
viejo y cuando Juan Bobo despert6 le dieron el mantel viejo y 41 se fu4. 

Cuando ya Juan Bobo iba llegando a la casa le grit6 a la m^re: 

— jMadre! ijajaj&f Ahora si es verdad. La madre le dijo que ya 
venta con otra, pero 41 le dijo al mantel viejo: — Abrete, mantelito. 
Pero no hubo nada. 

Entonces Juan Bobo se fu4 otra vez detriis del viento y se volvi6 a 
encontrar con el mismo hombre, y el hombre le di6 un palo dentro de 
un saco, pero le advirti6 que nunca le dijese: — Salte del saco. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 7 

Juan Bobo se fu4 y Ileg6 otra vez a la casa de los viejitos y ellos en 
seguida le mandaron subir, muy complacientes. 

Cuando ya se iban a acostar Juan Bobo les advirti6 que no le fueran 
a dear al palo que se saliera del saco. Pero luego que Juan Bobo se 
dumu6 los viejitos le dijeron al palo que se saliera del saco, y el palo 
se sali6 del saco y a)menz6 a dar palos a derecha y a izquierda, y los 
viejitos empezaron a gritar y a Ilamar a Juan Bobo para que los salvara. 
Cuando Juan Bobo despert6 les dijo- que si ellos le daban el burrito 
y el mantelito le mandaba al palo que se metiera en el saco. Los 
viejitos le dijeron que sf y le dieron a Juan Bobo su burrito y su man- 
telito y se fui. 

Cuando Juan Bobo iba llegando a la casa le dijo a la madre: — 
Ahora si es verdad. Y le djio al burrito que abriera la faoca y corrieron 
per el suelo grandes cantidades de monedas. Y le dijo al mantelito 
que se abriera y una mesa llena de buenas comidas se apareci6. 

Entonces Juan Bobo hizo un palacio y mand6 que viniesen todas las 
personas de la provincia a un gran convite. El dfa del convite le dijo 
al mantelito que se pusiese el sal6n Ileno de buenos manjares y de toda 
clase de licores. La gente de la provincia se fu4 toda a la casa de 
Juan Bobo y cuando todos estaban en la comida fu£ Juan Bobo y se 
par6 en una de las puertas del sal6n y mand6 cerrar la otra. Y en- 
tonces le niand6 al palo que se saliera del saco. Y el palo se saliA del 
saco dando palos a derecha y a izquierda y matd cas! a toda la gente 
que estaba en el palacio. Y Juan Bobo fu£ entonces el rey de la 
provincia y el mis rico. 


Tenia una madre un hijo que se llamaba Braulio el Tonto. No 
teniendo agua, ta madre lo mand6 al pozo para que le trajese un balde 
de agua. El muchacho cogi6 el balde y se fu^. 

El pozo era de barril, y por lo visto habfa que amarrar el balde de 
un estremo de la st^a y tirarlo. El muchacho amarr6 su balde y 
lo tir6. Al tiempo que lo tir6 se reventd la soga y el balde se qued6. 
El muchacho de tonto que era, se tir6 al pozo para coger el balde. 
Cuando vi6 que un hombre chiquito o sea un enano le habfa cogido el 
balde, el muchacho le dijo: ^ Dame mi balde. 

El enano ech6 a correr por una calle que habfa por debajo de la 
tierra y Braulio se le fu6 detrSs, dici^ndoler — Dame mi balde. 

El enano le meti6 la cabeza a un gran portfin que habfa y lo abri6 y 
el muchacho tambi^n le meti6 la cabeza y lo abri6. Llegaron entonces 
a la puerta de la capital encantada. E! enano le meti6 la cabeza a 
la puerta y pas6. El muchacho hizo la misma operaci6n. Entonces 
Braulio se qued6 entretenido con unas estatuas que habfa en la entrada 
y se le perdi6 el enano. Se puso y rompi6 las estatuas. Las estatuas 
eran gentes que habfa alii encantadas. 


8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Ya era la noche, y 61 estaba un poco estroptado cuaado se acoBtb 
a dormir. De^u£s que habfa dormido un sueno, vi6 una gran 
claridad. El crefa que era el dfa y se levantd. Eran las gentes que 
kX habia desencantado que venfan con hachos a alumbrarle el camino. 

Pero el muchacho no sabfa donde era que estaba. Las gentes le 
dijeron que se fuera a un aposento obscure que habfa en la casa, y qoe 
all! encontrarfa todas las fieras del mundo. Un camaroncillo que est& en 
el medio de todas, para m&s senal es tuerto y esxk sentado en un aill6n. 

Se iuk el muchacho y lo encontr6, y al frsele a tirar encima se te 
fu£ corriendo para un cerro, y se le volvi6 un burro al no encontraiio. 
Se luk a donde estaban las gentes y les dijo que lo habIa encontrado 
pero que se le habfa ido corriendo. Y se le habfa desaparecido. 

Entonces les dijeron que se fuera al cerro y un burro que estaba 
amarrado que le cortara una oreja y se la trajera. Se le cort6 la oreja 
y se la trajo. EI burro se vino detr4s de £1 y cuando Uegd a donde 
eataban, se par6 el enano, le di6 una gorra para que le dejara quieto; 
que con aquella gorra tenfa tanto poder como 41. 

La cogiA pero no le bastaba para pedirte su balde. El le dijo: — 
Dame mi gorra que yo te doy tu balde. 

El muchacho se puso a pelear con £1 y le dijo que le dejara que dX 
le daba su balde y que pidiera por su trabajo. El enano se estuvo quieto 
y le entregaron bu balde. Le dijeron que pidiera por su trabajo. El 
dijo, como tonto al tin: — Qutero una escopeta que a todo lo que le 
apunte lo mate, unas alpargatas que me trasporte donde yo quiera, 
y un bolsillo que nunca eet6 vacio. 

Todo lo que 61 pidi6 se lo concedieron porque 61 habfa desencantado 
una gran capital. Entonces se puso las alpargatas y dijo: — Tias- 
p6rtame con el balde lleno de agua a casa. 

Dicho esto y estando en su casa fueron dos cosas iguales. La madre 
le pregunt6 que le habfa pasado, y 61 le cont6 y le dijo que 61 tenia 
unas alpargatas que se las ponta y los trasportaba donde 61 querfa, 
y una escopeta que a todo p&jaro que le disparaba lo mataba, y un 
bolsillo que nunca estaba vado, y 66 que vivieron felices. 


Todos los dfas iba Juan Bobo a buscar arena a la playa en una 
yegua panda, y de compromiso tenia que pasar por el palacio del rey. 
La princesa lo velaba cuando pasaba para ponerle apodo, y Juan Bobo 
siempre le deda: 

— Permita Dios que te veas preiiada de mf. 

La princesa se iba detr&s de 61 y cuando llegaba a la playa y encon- 
traban un pececito en la orilla y la princesa le deda a Juan Bobo que 
lo cogiera, Juan Bobo le deda a su yegua: — Panda, dale una patada 
y b6talo al agua. La yegua le daba una patada y lo botaba al agua. 


PoTto-Rican Folk-Lore. 9 

La princesa entonces se iba para su casa y se ponia con mucho 
sufrimiento porque Juan Bobo no le cogfa el pescadito. 

Esto sucedfa todos los dfas, hasta que Ueg6 el dfa en que la princesa 
did a luz un nifio con una manzana en la mano. Todos los de la casa 
le pedfan la manzana al nifio pero £1 no se la daba, pero nj tampoco se 
sabfa quien era el padre del niiio. Ni I0 sabfa el padre, ni la madre ni 
ningi^n particular. 

Entonces et rey public6 en la prensa que su hija habfa dado a luz 
un nitio con una manzana en la mano y que a quien el niiio se la 
diera 4se se casaba con la princesa. Entonces comenzaron a venir 
blancos de todas partes, y grandes y prfncipes y caballeros y j6venes. 
Todos, uno por uno, le iban pidiendo la manzana al nino, y el nfi^o a 
nadie ee la daba. Todos los caballeros se fueron y al dfa sigtiiente dijo 
el rey que vinieran pobres y de todas clases. 

Juan Bobo supo la noticia y se fu6 donde la madre para que le pre- 
parara una muda de ropa, y le dijo que iba a pedirle la manzana al 
nino de la hija del rey. La madre le dijo que quizd estaba loco, que 
como se iba a subir al palacio con los trapos de ropa que llevaba y 
asf descalzo como estaba. Juan Bobo le dijo que le hiciera el favor de 
prepararle la ropa porque de todos modos ^1 iba a pedirle la manzana 
al hijo de la princesa. La madre se vi6 mortificada por su hijo y se 
puso y le prepar6 la ropa y luego que se la prepard se visti6 y se fu6 al 

Subi6 Juan Bobo y fu£ donde estaba el nino y le dijo: — Mi hijo, 
dame la manzana. El nino estir6 la mano y le di6 la manzana a Juan 
Bobo. El rey los cas6 y los ech6 en un barco y le di6 un barreno y le 
echd pan y vino. Los ech6 por la mar afuera y los atranc6 en un 
cuarto. Cuando el bareo iba por la mar afuera la princesa se puso a 
llorar, y cuando el barco se fu6 cogiendo agua ella le deda a Juan 
Bobo: — jAy, Juan Bobo, que nosahogamos! Y41 le decfa: — Come 
pan y bebe vino y acu4state a dormir. La princesa tenia miedo y 
volvfa a decir: — iAy, Juan Bobo, que nos ahogamos! — Come pan 
y bebe vino y acutetate a dormir. — iAy, Juan Bobo, que nos ahoga- 
mosl — Come pan y bebe vino y acu^state a dormir. 

Por (in el bareo ya se iba a pique y los que iban en el barco estaban 
ya con el agua hasta el pescuezo. Entonces dijo Juan Bobo: — Ven 
aquf, mi pecedto migico. Y el pececito se le apareci6 y le dijo: — 
i Qui quiere mi amo? — Que me eches a tierra y me hagas un palacio 
al lado del rey pero m&a grande y m&s bonito, y que siempre se disparen 
diez cafionazos al despertar el alba. Y as! fu€. 

Seguidamente se encontraron en tierra en un palacio muy bonito y 
muy grande. Al dfa siguiente se dispararon diez caiionazos al desper- 
tar el alba. El pueUo y toda la gente del rey se despertaron para ver 
lo que ocurrfa. Al ver aquel palacio que se habfa aparecido allf todos 


lo Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

se quedaron admirados. El rey entonces fu£ a ver quten era el que 
vivia allf, y vi6 que era su hija y entonces fueron reyes. 

( Version a.) 

Efita era una raadre que tenia un hijo bobo y todos los dfas lo 
mandaba a buscar lefia y pasaba el Bobo por en casa de un rey con 
el burrito, a buscar la lefia y la hija del rey se echaba a retr. 

Volvi6 la vieja a mandar al Bobo a buscar lefia, en otro Waje y la 
hija del rey volvi6 a relrse. La madre to mandd a buscar leiia con su 
burro y 61 le dijoi — Madre, yo no voy, porque la hija del rey se echa 
a re(r. Y ella le dJjo: — Hijo, v^te, que eso Dios no lo perdona. — 
Pues 4chame una alforjita de maduro y queso. Lleg6 al mar y se 
puso a almorzarse su alforja y venlan unos pecesitos y ^1 a tirarles 
chinitas de queso. Y lleg6 un f>ez muy grande y se dobl6 y le ech6 
mano y ledijo el pez: — jAy! su^ltame, buen trabador. ^Qu4quieres 
que te haga? — Pues yo lo que quiero es que me ayudes a cai^ar este 
burro de leiia. Y lleg6 y le ayudd a cargarlo. — Y ahora quiero que 
me hagas td un burrito de lena y que ande solo. Y se fu4, para en 
casa de su madre y al pasar por la casa del rey, se echaron a refr las 
muchachas de otro viaje. — jAy, mam&! iqu6 bobo que trae un burro 
de leHa que anda solo ! 

Se cansaron de relrse hasta que la mis chiquita se qued6 n^ndose, 
y entonces lleg6 el bobo y le ech6 la maldici6n. que permitiera Dios 
que se viera pranada por el pez. 

Se fu6 en casa de su madre y la muchacha se qued6 muy triste y 
acongojada y siguid su vientre creciendo y di6 a luz un nino var6n. 
El rey se asust6 al ver que su nJna. sin tener relaciones con nadie, 
habfa dado a luz un nino pero entre tanto mandaron a buscar a todos 
los reyes de las comarcas del mundo y al que el niiio le dijera papS, ese 
era el padre. 

Le pasaron toditos por encima y a ninguno le dijo pap&. Pues 
mandaremos a buscar a toditos los mendigantes. Entonces todos 
siguieron pasindole por encima, ya no quedaban m&s, y Bobo Ileg6 a 
las puertas del rey y dijo que 61 venfa a pasarle. El rey le dijo que si 
se atrevla a asegurar que 61 era el padre. Y 41 le dijo que sf. 

— Y por mi corona real que si usted no me hace ver eso, le mando 
quitar la vida. Lleg6, lo pasA por encima y dijo el nino: — jAylpapfi. 
— Pues le daremos la mano a este Bobo, con mi hija. 

Entraron y lo afeitaron y lo recortaron y lo vistieron y los casaron, 
y dijo el rey: — Higanme una caja muy grande para que quepan alios 
parados y acostados. La hicieron y los echaron dentro de la caja y 
se los llevaron y los tiraron en el mar. La mujer empezA a Uorar: — 
iAyl Bobo sin vergilenza, por culpa tuya estoy yo aquf. — Eso es 
bueno que te pase para que no seas burlona, pero quiero manifestarte 


Porto-Rican FoUt-Lore. 1 1 

que yo te defendert y te echarf a tierra y !e dijo al pez: — Pecesito 
mio, fehame a tierra, — y lo ech6 en tierra. Y entonces le dijo; — 
Ahora quiero que me saques de feta caja. Lo 9ac6 el pez y fel le pidi6 
que le hiciera un palacio en frente del rcy, mejor que de aqu^l, con 
todas las alhajas de un palacio; que tuviera sirvientes y cocinera y que 
estuviera a la hora de servir la mesa, para echarle al rey en los bolsillos 
Unas tazas, unos platillos, unos platos, unas cucharas y unos tenedores, 
y unos cuchillos. LlegA y le puso el palacio. Cuando el rey, por la 
manana se levant6 y vi6 aquel palacio, dijo: — iAy, mujer! imira qu£ 
palacio tan lindo est4 en frente de mi palacio! 

Se tir6 el rey y fu^ alt& al palacio ese y le pregunt6 por la salud y le 
dijo que si estaban buenos. El le dijo que si estaban buenos, que a la 
hora de la mesa lo esperaban all& con todita su familia, y para que en- 
traran a la mesa Uegd la sirvienta a servir la mesa con todos los platillos, 
y las tazas y los platos y las cucharas y los tenedores y los cuchillos. 

Sirvieron la mesa y comieron, y despu£s que comieron cont6 los 
platillos y falt6 uno y cont6 las tazas y faltd una. y cont6 los platos y 
falt6 uno, y contd las cucharas y faltd una, y cont6 los cuchillos y 
falt6 uno, y cont6 los tenedores y faltd uno. Y dijo el dueiio de la 
casa: — iQui^n los tendrfi? hay que registrar. El fu6 el primero 
que se registr6 y no los tenia, los registr6 a toditos y no los tenfan y 
faltaba el rey que registrar. — Mi seiior y rey, reglstrese usted. — 
iPero yo qu6 voy a tener, cuando los tengo en casa mejores? Pero 
me virart los bolstllos. Y se vir6 los bolsillos, cayendo al suelo todito 
hecho polvo, y dijo: — iAy! ^qui^n serS ese que me los ha echado? 
Dijo el Bobo: — Muy f&cil, segtin entr6 el nino en el vientre de su 
hija, pues 6stos son los que bot6 usted en aquella caja, en el mar. 

Cuando le dijo que aqu^llos eran los que habia botado, cay6 con 
un vahido, pero cay6 la dem&s familia tambi^n y los revivi6 a fuerza 
de perfumes y pulseras de vino en las coyunturas, y se levantaron y 
se fueron para su palacio y el Bobo se quedd en su palacio con su mujer. 

El rey mand6 buscar un cura para casarlos y los casaron y entonces 
el rey se quit6 la corona y corond a Balminio de rey y la reina se quitd 
la corona y corond a Josefa de reina y les hizo un palacio en frente del 
suyo y los puso a vJvir allf y siguieron viviendo una vida fellz. 

( Version b.) 
Habfa una mujer que tenfa un hijo bobo y lo mandaba todos los dfas 
a buscar letla a la playa, y tenfa que pasar por la casa del rey Gustavo. 
Ese rey tenfa tres hijas. Una se llamaba Maria, otra Matilde y la 
otra Julia. Cuando pasaba el bobo todos los dfaa se echaban a refr de 
i\. La madre del bobo le dijo que fuera otra vez por leiia y el bobo le 
dijo; — Yo no voy a buscar lefta porque las hijas del rey se rien de m(. 
Ella le dijo; — V6te, que eso no le hace. Entonces el bobo le dijo: — 


12 Journal of American Folk -Lore. 

H4game una parva de maduros y queso. Entonces la madre le did los 
maduros y el queso y se mont6 en un burro y se fu^ a buscar la lena. 
Se sentd a la orilla del mar a comerse la parva y despedazaba queso 
para que los peces se pusieran a comer. Y entonces se alleg6 un pez 
muy grande y lo cogi6. £1 pez le dijo: — Su^ltame. Y el bobo decfa: 
— Es pa que madre te coma. Y entonces el pez le contest6: — 
Su^ltame, y en cuantos trabajos te veas clama por el pez MaimAo. 

Y entonces el bobo le dijo: — Ay6dame a cargar el burro de lena y 
hazme otro burrito de lena que ande atr&s del burro grande. En 
seguida le hizo el pez lo que querla. Y cuando pasaron por la casa de) 
rey Gustavo las hijas del rey se asomaron y se iijaron en el burrito y 
Maria y Matilde al verlo les caus6 cuidado y se encerraron en un cuarto. 
Pero Julia la menor, empez6 a refrse, y decfa: — I>espu4s de ser bobo 
hizo un burro de lena que anda atr4s del otro. Y entonces el bobo le 
contest6: — Permita Dios que te veas preflada de mi por el pez 
Maim6n. Entonces ella se ech6 a llorar del bochorno que pas6. 

Y as( fu£ que a Julia le fu£ creciendo la barriga, y al poco tiempo 
tuvo un muchacho macho. El rey cuando lo supo le pregunt6 que si 
de quien era hijo y Julia le contestA que ella no habfa tenido amistad 
con nadie y no se habfa rosado con ninglin hombre. Entonces el rey 
enlut6 al palacio y mand6 buscar a todos los prfncipes de la ciudad para 
que le pasaran por encima y el muchacho dijera quien era su padre. Y 
le pasaron todos los principes por encima y a ninguno le dijo pap&. 

Y entonces el Rey Gustavo mandd buscar a toditos los bobos y a los 
pobres que habia en aquella ciudad para que le pasaran por encima dd 
muchacho. Y toditos vinieron y le pasaron por endma al muchacho 
y a ninguno le dijo pap&. Y s6lo quedaba el bobo que no lo hablan 
pasado por encima porque no lo habfa sabido todavfa. 

Pero cuando lo supo, dijo: — Madre, yo voy a j^asar por endma del 
muchacho. Y entonces la madre le dijo: — Muchacho, td est&s loco. 
SerS para que te maten. Y entonces el bobo le dijo: — Madre, yo 
m« voy porque es hijo mfo. 

Entonces se fu6 el bobo para la casa del rey. Y cuando Ileg6 le 
preguntaron los vasallos qu6 ae le ofreda, y el bobo les respondi6 que 
venfa a pasar por encima del muchacho de Julia. Entonces los vasalloe 
se lo dijeron al rey, y el rey le dijo que subiera y entonces le pr^uat6 
que si aseguraba que el muchacho era hijo de £1. El bobo le dijo 
que sf, y que si no que le mandara quitar la vida. Y entonces el rey 
le dijo que pasara y el bobo se arroll6 la cota y di6 un brinco por 
arriba del muchacho y el muchacho en seguida le dijo papS. Entonces 
el rey Gustavo le dijo a uno de sus vasallos que le trujiera un barbero. 

Y seguido vino un barbero y recort6 al bobo y le pusieron vestidura de 
prfncipe. Mandaron buscar un cura y casaron a Julia con el bobo, y 
tambi6n bautizaron al muchacho. [>espu4s que estaban casados el rey 


Porto-Bican Folk-Lore. 13 

mandd buscar un carpintero para que le hidera una caja donde 
cupieran solamente dos personas a cuerpo derecho y tumbado y de 
cualquier manera. Y seguido vino el carpintero y le hizo la caja, y 
echaron a Julia con el hobo y el muchacho y atrancaron bien la caja y 
la botaron mar afuera. 

Cuando se vieron en el mar Julia le decia al bobo: — Mira como me 
estoy mirando por la mald!ci6n que me echaste. Ya papS y mam& 
nos botaron al mar. Entonces el bobo le pasaba la mano a Julia y le 
deda: — No te apures que t(i est^ al lado de un hombre que no te 
dejar& padecer. Pero ella se insultaba y Uoraba, y deda: — Ya nos 
vamos a ahogar. Entonces el bobo la consolaba, y cuando ya le 
pared6al bobo que era a media nodie, dijo: — AquI, mi pez Maim6n, 
4chame a tierra. Y en seguida estaban en tierra y la caja abierta, y 
entonces el bobo le dijo a Julia: — ifVes? Yo te deda que tti estabas 
al lado de un hombre que no te dejaba ahogar. Y entonces el bobo le 
dijo al pez: — Quiero que me hagas un palacJo al lado del palado del 
rey que sea mAs grande y mis bonito que ii del rey Gustavo, y quiero 
que me des alhajas y animales y riquezas, y que me pongas a ml un 
pHncipe dvilizado, y que mi hijo y mi mujer me las pongas que no 
los conozca nadie, ni el rey Gustavo. Y tambi^n te necesito manana, 
a la tiora de la mesa [>ara que me le edies en el bolsillo al rey Gustavo 
una taza, una copa, un platillo, un cubierto y un tenedor, y que el rey 
no lo sienta cuando t& le eches eso. 

Y entonces se encontraron en su palado y empezaron a pasearse per 
el balc6n de su palado, y se asomaron los vasallos del rey Gustavo 
y vieron aquellos dos prindpes desconocidos y se lo dijeron al rey, y 
entonces el rey se levant6 y lo vi6 y no lo conocid. Y entonces el rey 
Gustavo le dijo a la reina : — Ahl htcieron un palacio sin permiso mCo. 
Voy a ver quien lo hizo. Y se tir6 y tui al palado. Entonces se 
tranquilizaron de parte y parte y el prfndpe reci^n venido allf le invit6 
para que la reina yi\y sus vasallos le acompaiiaran a almorzar. Y el 
rey Gustavo le dijo que con mucho gusto le acompaiiaba, y vinieron a 
almorzar. Y entonces el prindpe le dijo a la codnera al poner la 
mesa: — Cuenta toda la loza. Y la cocinera la cont6 y entonces 
comenzaron a comer aquellos manjares que el rey nunca habla comido. 

Despu^s que almorzaron el principe le dijo a la cocinera: — Usa de 
tu derecho y cuenta la loza otra vez. Y ella se puso a contar. Y 
con^ las copas y dijo: — Falta una copa. Y cont6 las tazas y dijo : — 
Falta una taza. Y cont6 los cubiertos y dijo : — Falta uno. Y cont6 
los tenedores y dijo: — Falta uno. Y entonces el prlncipe dijo: — 
Tenemos que registramos toditos, a ver quien tiene lo que falta. 
Entonces se nur6 los bolsillos del chaquetdn y del pantal6n, y asf 
empez6 por toditos los dem&s y el Ultimo que faltaba era el rey Gustavo. 
Y el prindpe le dijo : — ■ Usted no se mira lo suyo. Y el rey le contest6 : 


14 Journal of American Fotk-Lore. 

— Yo, teniendo de eaa loza en casa, ^para qui voy a coger ninguna? 

Y el principe le respondid: — Por eso no se espante u&ted, que yo 
soy dueiio de este palado y me registro primero que ninguno. Y 
entonces.el rey Gustavo se mird Ids bolsillos y cayd toda la loza al sudo. 
El rey se altivd y dijo: — ^C6mo puede ser esto? Y entonces le dijo 
el prfncipe: — No se altive, que eso no es gran coea, que con esa 
sutileza que entr6 esa loza en su bolsillo entr6 ese mucfaacho en d 
vientre de su madre. El rey no conocfa a ninguno y entoncea se did 
por conocido con Julia, el bobo y el muchacho. El rey les ech6 los 
brazos y se besaron y la reina tambi^n. Y entonces el rey y la reina 
se quitaron la corona y ee la pusieron al bobo y a Julia que era su hija. 

Y entonces se ofrecieron de parte y parte y era el bobo el nUs querido 
de todo el reinado, y quedaron viviendo una vida tranquila y fdiz 
para siempre. Y entonces el rey Bobo mandaba al rey Gustavo y 
4ste le obededa en todo porque el bobo tenfa la corona que el rey 
Gustavo le habfa puesto. 


Habia una vez un senor que tenia un hijo bobo, 

Un dia lo mand6 a comprar un medio de [)an, [>ero cuando iba por el 
camlno que iba se encontr6 con un hombre con un perro y le preguntA: 

— ^Para d6nde lleva usted ese perro? Y el hombre !e dijo que a 
matarlo porque era malo. — cQuiere usted un medio y no lo mata? 
EI hombre contest6 que sf. 

Cuando lleg6 a su casa su madre lo reprendid, y al otro dfa lo maad6 
y le dijo que no volviera a hacer como el dfa antes. 

Lo que la madre le dijo lo ech6 en saco roto, pues se encontrd con 
otro hombre que iba a matar un gato. Le pregunt6 que para qu4 
lo queria, y cuando le dijo que lo iba a matar, le volvi6 a dar el medio 
porque lo dejara vivo. Si mucho le habIa peleado la madre el dfa 
antes mucho m^ lo hizo esta vez. 

Al siguiente dfa lo mand6 la madre otra vez a comprar el medio 
de pan, y cuando volvia se encontr6 con un hombre que llevaba una 
culebrita para matarla. Hizo lo mismo que con el gato y el perro y 
le di6 el medio y cogi6 la culebrita y se la trajo para su casa. La 
madre no le dijo nada, sino que mis nunca lo mandarf a a comprar cosas. 

Juan, que asf se llamaba el bobo, cogi6 la culebra y la puso en una 
tina y alii fu4 creciendo, hasta que un dfa le dijo a Juan: — Juan 
d^jame ir que ya no quepo aquf. Y Juan le dijo: — Vete. La ser- 
piente antes de irse, le regal6 una sortija y le dijo: — Toraa esta 
sortija. Es de virtud y todo lo que tii le pidas te lo concederS. De 
hoy en adelante ya no eres bobo. Y se fu*. 

Juan le pidi6 a la sortija una casa bien lujosa y que Mercedes, 
lindfsima hija de don Guillermo, se casara con 41. Y asf fu4. Se 
caa6 con ella y ya nadie le deda Juan Bobo sino Don Juan. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 15 

Don Juan le regal6 la sortija a Mercedes y le encarg6 que no la 
botara. Pero un dia se presentA un prendero que ae !a fu^ a comprar, 
y viendo que ella no querfa vend^rsela le dijo: — Quiero verla. Y 
cuando ella se la ensen6, dijo: — Sortija, por la virtud que tienes y 
la que Dios te ha dado ponme en Madrid con Mercedes. Y en seguida 
se hallaron en Madrid los dos. 

Cuando don Juan llegd a su casa y no habl6 a su esposa se fu£ a casa 
de don Guillermo y le cont6 que su hija habia desaparecido. Don 
Guillermo no estaba para bromas y le denunci6, dici^ndole que il 
le habfa matado a su hija. Fu£ puesto en prisi6n y no se le hizo caso a 
lo que 61 deda. 

Cuando el perro y el gato supieron que su amo estaba preso y sin 
tener que comer fueron a un almac^n y en lo que el perro entretuvo 
a los perros de la casa el gato empezd a sacar todo lo que pudo y se to 
llevaron a la c&rcel. Luego se fueron en busca de la serpiente y le 
contaron lo que pasaba. Y ella les dijo que el hombre que se habIa 
Fobado a Mercedes y la sortija vivfan en Madrid y tenfa la sortija 
escondida en una parte que si destomudaba ca(a al suelo, y que ellos 
dos se proporcionaran un ratdn y se fueran a buscarlo. 

A^ lo iban a hacer, pero no se habtan hallado ning&n rat6n, cuando 
vieron venir un vapor que iba tripulado por ratones y le dijeron al 
capitdn: — Si no nos prestas un ratftn te comemos a ti con toda tu 
gente. El capit&n dijo que si y siguieron su cantino. Cuando llegaron 
a casa del prendero estaba durmiendo. EI gato le dijo al rat6n: — 
M^tele tu rabo por la nariz para que destomude. Asl lo hizo el 
rat6n y cuando destornud6 cay6 la sortija y la cogi6 el gato como m&s 
listo y regresaron a su pats. 

Despu^s de muchfsmos trastomos por su viaje de regreso llegaron 
a la cSrcel y le dieron la sortija a don Juan. EI en seguida le pidiA 
que le trajera a su esposa a casa de don Guillermo con el prendero y 
as( sucedi6. Cuando don Guillermo comprendi6 lo que habfa pasado 
puso a don Juan en libertad, pidi^ndole perd6n. 

Volvieron a vivir juntos ellos y se trajeron al gato y al perro para 
su casa. La serpiente era una encantada y sali6 mSs tarde de su 
encantamiento y ellos vivieron muy felices. 

( Version a.) 

La madre de Juan Bobo tenfa tres medios y mand6 a buscar un 
medio de came a Bobo y 6ste encontr6 un perro ahorc&ndose y di6 el 
medio por el perro. 

Se lo Ilev6 a la madre y la madre le di6 otro medio y el Bobo se 
volvi6 y encontrd que estaban ahorcando un gato y di6 el otro medio 
por el gato y le IIev6 el gato a la madre. 


l6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

La madre le di& el otro medio para que volviera a busc:arle el otro 
medio de came, y el Bobo se fu6 a encoatrar ahorcando una culebn 
y la culebra le di6 una sortija de virtud, y el Bobo dijo: — Sordja, por 
ta virtud que t6 tienes y la que Dies te ha dado, que te des comida a 
mi madre, de todas clases. Y despu^s que almorzaron se fu£ para en 
casa del rey a pedirle a la hija para casarse con ella. 

El rey le contestd que si le hacla un palado en medio dd mar, 
reluciente, de oro y plata, que i\ lo viera a la hora de levaotarae, que 
le daba a la hija. Y el Bobo dijo: — Pues sf iri, 

Fu£ y le pidi6 a la sortija que le diera un palado en mettio dd mar, 
reluciente, de oro y plata, que cuando d rey se levantara le rduciera d 
balc6n. V d rey al ver eso, mand6 buscar al Bobo para casario con 
la bija y ponerla debajo dd palado. 

A los tres dias o cuatro, de estar ella debajo dd palado, pas6 un 
quincallero vendiendo prendas y la hija dd rey le dtjo que dia tenia 
prenda fina, mejor que 61. El quincallero se la cambi6 par otia que 
ae pareda a la de ella. Al pooi rato de haber salido d quincallero, 
le dijo a la sortija: — Sortijita, por la virtud que tA tienes y la que 
Dios te ha dado, quiero que ta mujer se venga en seguida detr&s de ml. 

Ella se fu£ con 61 y se embarcaron para la isia de los Ratones, y 
cuando fu6 Juan Bobo y no encontr6 a la mujer, se fu£ a darle raz6a 
al padre y el padre lo mandd aprisionar a cadena perpetua, y no habti 
sd, ni sombra, ni le daban ni agua. 

El perro salid, fu£ a donde estaba el gato y le dijo: — Nuestro amo. 
quien nos salv6 la vida, est4 sufriendo; vamos a llevarie que comer. 
Y el gato le contestd: — V£ al panadero y quftale un rollo de pan, y 
yo me voy a una tienda y veo donde est&n los quesos y le quito un 
canto a uno. 

Ya el perro tenia un rollo de pan ; se lo entregA al gato, porque era 
el que podfa subir a donde estaba el amo, y fu£ y le Ilev6 el pan y d 
queso y le dijo el amo al gato que tenia sed, que le Ilevara agua. EI 
gato le llev6 agua y el amo le dijo al gato : — Me faltan tres dfas pars 
morir, voy a ver si van a la isla donde estk dla y pueden conseguir la 
sortija aunque sea. 

Y fu£ el gato a donde estaba d perro y le dijo: — Busquemos la 
manera de ir a donde est&n ellos. Y el perro bused un candray y m 

Entraron de candongueros el perro y el gato y se embarcaron para 
la isla de los ratones. Al llegar all&, el gato se pasaba las ufias por la 

Llegd el centinela a donde estaba el rey y le dijo: que venfa un 
hombre con vdntidnco machetes y deda que por la barba que tenia, 
que no iba a dejar uno de ellos. 

Vino el rey con toda su tropa a redbirlo en la orilla del mar y dlos 
al entrar le dijo el gato que no iba a hacerles ningAn mal, que iba en 


Porto-Rkan Folk-Lore. 17 

busca de una princesa que se habfa ido con un qumcallero, y que 
querfa que le ayudaran a conseguir a la princesa. 

Los ratones lo llevaron a la casa, y estaban durnuendo cuando 
Hegaron, y como ya estaban dormidos, los ratones buscaron per toda 
la casa y no encontraron la sortija, y al no encontraria lo despertaron 
dici^ndole, que entregara la sortija o le quitaban la vida. 

El quincallero se la entregd, el gato la cogi6 y volvieron y se embar- 
caron y en medio del mar le dijo el peiro que le enseiiara la sortija y 
el gato le contests que £1 tenfa la mano muy bronca y la podfa dejar 
caer; pero tanto insistid que se la tuvo que dar. Al cogeria el perro, se 
le cay6, tuvieron que virar para atr&s y al virar para atr&s volvid y lo 
vi6 el centinela y le dijeron al rey que decfan los dos seiiores que si 
primero no les habfan hecho nada que ahora acababan con ellos. Y se 
prepard el rey con todo su batall6n. Y el gato le dijo que la sortija se 
le habfa perdido en medio del mar y tenlan que ayudarle a buscarla. 
Y el rey mandd a los ratones que le ayudaran a buscarla y fueron y )a 

El perro y el gato caminaron y volvieron a caer a su tierra y el 
gato en seguida fu^ a donde estaba su amo, le entreg6 la sortija y el amo 
dijo: — Sortija, por la virtud que td tienes y la que Dios te ha dado 
que me pongas y en veinticuatro horas est6 yo con mi mujer en mi 

A las veinticuatro horas lo mand6 buscar el rey y le entregd el 
palacio y la mujer y entonces el rey mandd matar al quincallero, por 
ser el culpable. 


Habia una vez una aldea en la cual vivfa un Bobo. Este oy6 decir 
a sus amigos que habfa un rey que ofreda la mano de su hija al que le 
derribase un &rbol que habfa en el jardfn del palacio. 

El Bobo le dijo a su madre que se casaria con la hija del rey, porque 
61 le iba a derribar el irbol. Entonces la madre le prepard una patata, 
un boHo de pan y un queso, para su viaje. 

En ta maiiana sali6 de su casa y estuvo andando hasta que encontr6 
un guaraguao y le dijo: — Te doy la patata y en los apuros que me 
vea clamo por ti. El guaraguao acept6 el trato. 

Siguid andando y m&s adelante encontrd, una cigtieRa y le dijo: 
— Te doy el queso y en los apuros que me vea clamo por ti. La 
cigileiia tambi^n ccnvino en el trato. 

Siguid andando y por Ultimo halld un perro al cual le dijo lo mismo 
que a la dgiiena y al guar^:uao. 

Bien entrada la noche llegd el Bobo a palacio y se presentd al rey. 
El rey lo llevd al sitio donde estaba el irbol y le entregd una hacha. 


l8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

El Bobo tmpexb a picar con todas sus fuerzas hasta estar d ftrbcd 
casi derribado, pero entonces se present6 la hija del rey y se le 9ent6 
en el tronco del &rbol y quedd fete como antes. Entonces el Bobo 
clam6 por la cigUeiia y en seguida vino ^ta y derrib6 el &rbol. 

Cuando el rey vi6 que habta derribado el Srbol, le dijo que tenia que 
cuidarle veinticuatro palomas en tres dfas sin que le faltara ninguna. 
Se puso a cuidarlas, y el primer dfa vino la hija del rey y le pidi6 una. 
EI Bobo le dijo que si permitfa que le diera dos latigazos le daba la 
paloma. Aei fu£, pero en seguida llam6 al guaraguao y ^te se la 
quit6. La nina Uorando se volvi6 a su palado. 

Al dta siguiente ia& la madre y le 3ucedi6 igual y despu6s lot el 
padre y le aconteci6 lo niismo. Al cumplirse los trea dias vino t^ 
Bobo con sus palomas. El rey vi^ndolas completas le dijo que tenia 
que cogerle en una noche tres fanegas de trigo, que se le habfan 
mezclado con arroz. 

El Bobo llam6 a la cigileiia y al guaraguao, y entre los tres escogieron 
el arroz y el trigo. A! ver el rey esto, dijo que tenia que decirle tres 
verdades. EI Bobo le cont6 las tres cosas que le habian sucedido en 
el palacio. 

El rey tuvo entonces que cumplir su palabra y el Bobo de la aldea 
ae casd con la hija del rey y vivieron felices por muchos aiios. 


{64) Un dta sali6 Juan y dijo: — Mujer, yo me voy a ver si hallo 
vida, porque aquf no puedo estar. 

Salid y Ileg6 a una casa a ver si le daban trabajo. — Sf , — le dijo el 
dueno, — yo lo quiero a usted para que vea los animales. Yo no le 
he preguntado a usted como se llama. — Yo me llamo Juan. 

Estuvo un aiio trabajando y al aAo arregld su cuenta y le dijo: — 
Arr^gleme mi cuenta, que pienso tr a donde e&ik mi familia. Y £1 
se vino con doscientos pesos que le sobraron. 

A poco tiempo que anduvo Ilegd a una isia extraiia y encontrA una 
hormiga trabajando y vi6 que llevaba un gusanito la hormiga y se lo 
quit6 y se Ilev6 su gusanito yen el camino le dijo el gusanito: — Juan, 
en los trabajos que tii te veas, clama pjor m(. 

Y stgui6 adelante y lleg6 a un caiiaveral y cort6 una caiia para 
com^rsela, porque llevaba hambre y el dueno lo denunci6 y iuk dtado 
para el juicio; fueron, y entonces le dijo el gusanito: — Yo te voy a 
defender el juicio y hablo por ti. 

Lo llamaron, y el gusanito le deda al ofdo las palabras que tenia 
que contestar al Juez, y £ste le dijo a Juan : — i Ddnde est& su defensor? 
i Usted es el mismo defensor? — Sf, yo mismo. — Bueno, pues usted 
fu6 quien cort6 la carta. — Yo no la he cortado, a mf me la dieron, — 


Porlo-Rican Folk-Lore. 19 

le dice entonces el defensor; y para [>erjudicarlo le habfan puesto la 
caiia en las manos, y £1 lo dice porque lo vi6 y para justificarlo traer4 
nueve tesdgos, que cree que el dueiio de la hacienda no los traeri. — 
Traiga cada parte sus testigos, — dijo el Juez. El hacendado vino 
con tres testigos y Juan vino con nueve. — Entonces le fallaremos el 
juicio, porque Juan gand el juicio. Entonces se fu4 Juan y el abogado 
y le dijo el gusanito: — No vuelvas a hacer eso, porque te puedes ver 
en pnsi6n. Y se desaparecid y se fu£, y Juan se fu£ para donde estaba 
su familia, y le dijo a la mujer: — En toda mi vida me habla pasado 
!o que me pasd en mi viaje. 

Y le dijo ella que le contara qu6 habfa sido. 

— Me ha pasado que por cuenta de una caiia me vf en juicio, pero 
me vuelvo. 

(65) Se volvid y cop6 otro camino y se encontr6 dos cabros peleando 
por un terreno y cuando 41 los vi6 les dijo: — iQa6 les pasa? Ellos 
le dijeron que peleaban por una parcela de terreno. Y kl les dijo: — 
No peleen que yo los arreglo. Ellos se separaron y se puso uno en 
un lado y el otro en el otro lado y el tal Juan se puso en medio y cuando 
estaba ttrando los cordeles para medJr el terreno, se tiraron a pelear y 
lo ptncharon en medio y lo despatarraron con los rifles y no volvi6 
a donde estaba su familia, porque muri6 en el acto. 


Una vez habfa un rey en una naci6n. Un dfa Ilam6 a su barbero 
para que lo recortara, y el barbero le encontrd un piojo, y le dijo: — 
iSu majestad tiene piojos? — i El rey piojo! No, el rey no tiene piojo. 
— Sf , su majestad tiene piojo. — Pues ens^nemelo. EI barbero le di6 
un piojo. Entonces el rey lo ech6 en una caja, y le daba comida, y el 
piojo fu£ creciendo tanto que ya no cabfa en la caja. 

Despute el rey mand6 hacer una jaula de manera que 61 no se pudiera 
salir y lo puso en la jaula. Lo alimentaba todos los dfas, y creci6 
tanto que no cabla en la jaula. Entonces el rey mand6 hacer un 
corral expresamente para 61, y lo puso en el corral, y el creci6 hasta 
llegar a ser del tamano de un buey. El rey no quiso dejarlo crecer 
m&s, y lo mand6 matar. De I& piel del piojo se hizo un traje. Ame- 
nazando al sastre que hizo el traje y a sus criadoscon penade muertesi 
divulgaban de qu6 era su traje. 

Entonces el rey mand6 publicar que 41 que adivinara de qu4 era el 
traje que 41 llevaba puesto, se casaba con su hija. Al otro dfa empe- 
zaron a venir j6venes a adivinar y ninguno aceptaba. Lleg6 el caso 
que Juan Bobo averigu6 que el rey habla ofrecido su hija al que adivi- 
nase de qu4 era su traje. 

Juan Bobo le dijo a su mamS: — MamS, mamS, yo voy a adivinar 
hoy, — Pero muchacho, no han adivinado los adivinos. Vas a adivinar 


ao Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

t6, que eres un bobo. Juan Bobo se tui donde el rey, y le dijo: — 
Seiior rey, yo voy a adivinar pero quiero pensar un dfa por una 
esquina de la cocina. Y Juan Bobo por la noche se acost^ detris 
del fog6n, y las dos criadas del rey estaban hablando, y le dijo una a 
la otra que quien seria el que tba a adivinar qu£ era de la pie) de un 
piojo. Al otro d(a Juan Bobo se fu6 a adivinar, y le dijo al rey: — 
Seiior rey, yo 9on6 anoche que su traje era de la piel de un piojo, y 
estoy seguro que es de un piojo. Entonces el rey abrazd a Juan Elobo, 
didendo: — Juan, t& eres mi futuro yerno. Despu4s el rey preparfi 
a Juan Bobo y a su hija y se casaron. 

{Version a.) 

Este era un rey que tenia una hija. Un dfa se puso su sirvienta s 
eapulgaria y le hall6 un piojo. Y echaron el piojo en un barril y al 
dfa siguiente ya habfa creddo tanto que no cabla en el barril. Lo 
mataron, le sacaron el cuero y le hicieron de 41 un vestido a la hija 
del rey. 

El rey dijo que el que le adivinara de qu4 era el traje de su hija se 
casaba con ella. Fueron todos los principales de la corte, condes y 
ricos caballeros de la ciudad a ver si adivinaban y ninguno pudo 

Habfa una seiiora que tenia un hijo que era bobo, y 68te le pidi6 
permiso a su niam4 para ver si adivinaba. Su madre querfa hasta 
matarlo por su atrevimiento pero 61 no obedeci6 y se fu6. 

Cuando iba por ei camino se hall6 en el camino a un hombre ente- 
rrado en la tierra con una oreja de fuera. Lo desenterr6 Juan Bobo y le 
pregunt6: — ^Qu6 es lo que haces aquf? Y el muerto le contest6: — 
Oyendo todo lo que pasa por el mundo. EI bobo le pregunt6 que si 
como se llamaba y 41 le contest^ que se llamaba Oidor y Oir4. El bobo 
le contestd que siendo Oidor y Oir4 le dijera de qu4 estaba hecho el 
vestido de la hija del rey. Y le respondid que era del cuero de un 
piojo. El bobo lo convid6 para que fuera con 41 y entonces se fueron 
los dos juntos. 

M&s tarde hallaron un hombre que tenia una piedra muy graode 
amarrada de una piema. El bobo le pregunt6 porqu4 tenia aquella 
piedra amarrada de su piema. El hombre le contest^ que era porque 
andaba demasiado. La piedra pesaba cien quintales. El bobo le dijo 
que si se querfa ir con 41 y el hombre se fu6 con ellos. 

Al poco rato de andar se encontraron con otro hombre en las orillas 
de un Ho. Le hizo la misma pregunta y el hombre le respondid que 
estaba esperando que e! rfo creciera para tomar agua. El bobo le dijo 
que porqu4 no tomaba de la que el rfo tenia y el hombre le respondid 
que 6sa no le daba para calmar la sed. Lo invitaron a que fuera con 
ellos y se fu4. Se fueron todos juntos. 


Porlo-Rican Folk-Lore. 21 

Mfis adelante vieron un flechero apuntando para el aire y el bobo 
le pregunt6 a quien le apuntaba. El flechero le respondi6 que a un 
mosquito que estaba en los elementos. Lo invitaron a que se fuera 
con ellos y se fu6. 

Liegaron todos juntos al palacio del rey. El Bobo le dijo al rey 
que iba a adivinar de qu4 era el vestido de su hija. El rey le dijo: 

— Diga la primera. El bobo dijo: — Ser4 del cuello de un gargajo. — 
No. Diga la segunda. — Sedt del cuello de un piojo. El rey le dijo 
que si, que se casada con su hija, pero que primero 6\ y sus compaiieroB 
tenian que comer todas las comidas que 41 mandara hacer. 


(39) P^s6 una vez que Juan Bobo calentd una olla de agua en su 
casa y se fu4 a la orilla del r(o con la olla y el ^ua. Vino un hombre 
y le dijo: — Juan Bobo, iqu& haces t& allf? — Esta olla que calienta 
el ^ua sin candela. — Juan Bobo, ^en cuinto me la vendes? — En mil 
pesos, — Sf, d&mela ac&. Y le did los ochavos y Juan Bobo se fu4 
corriendo para donde estaba su mami. 

Su mamd le dijo: — jCdmo los has conseguido, muchacho? — 
Porque puse a calentar una agua y me fuf a la orilla del rfo y pasd 
un hombre y me la compr6. 

(24) Un dfa htzo una cueva en la calle y empez6: — Si se me va, 
por aqu{ lo cojo, por aqul. Pas6 un hombre y le dijo: — iQuf: haces 
td allf? — El ruisetior del rey, que se me fu4. — Juan Bobo, v^ndemelo, 
que te doy un milI6n de pesos. — Y Juan Bobo le dijo: — SI, — y ae 
lo compr6. 

(66) Un dfa aupo Juan Bobo que el rey tenia un flux y que el que 
adivinara se casaba con la hija del rey. Juan Bobo vi6 un rat6n y 
le dijo que fuera por la noche a casa del rey y le dijera de qu4 era el 
flux del rey. El ratdn se fu4 a casa del rey y por la noche oy6 al rey 
que ledecfa a su hija: — ^Qui4n adivinarS queeste fluxesde cuero de 
pulga? El ratdn lo oy6 decir y se fu4 corriendo para donde estaba 
Juan Bobo, se lo dijo y Juan Bobo le di6 un queso al rat6n. At otro 
dfa se celebraron las bodas y se fu6 Juan Bobo a adivinar. AlU 
estaban los soldados por si Juan Bobo no adivinaba, matario. Juan 
Bobo adivin6 y la reina se queria casar con el principe. Y el rey dijo: 

— Cuando ella se levante, al que ella se levante mirando con 4se se 
casa. Y la reina se Ievant6 mirando a Juan Bobo y se casaron ellos doe. 


Una vez habfa un joven que vivfa con su mami. Un dia a la 
reina se le perdid una gargantilla y le dijo al rey que publicara que 


23 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

el que adivinara donde estaba la gargantilla que se casarfa con la 
princesa. Todo el mundo iba pero no adivJnaba. Entonces Juan k 
dijo a su madre que iba a adivinar donde estaba la gargeuitilla, y se 
fu6. Cuando le dijo al rey que £1 iba a adivinar, el rey le dijo que si, 
pero que tenta tres dfas para cumplir su palabra. El dijo que estaba 
bien. El primer dfa fu£ una de las sirvientas; entonces 61 dijo: — 
iGracias a San Matfas, que de las cuatro he visto una! La sirvienta 
se fu£ asustada, porque realmente allf habta cuatro sirvientas y entre 
ellas era donde estaba la gargantilla. Por la tarde fu4 otra y 61 dijo 
que gracias a Dies, porque de las cuatro habla visto dos. Ella ae fu£ 
asustada y se los dijo a sus amigas. La tercera era muy astuta y <iijo 
que ella iba a Uevarle el caf6. Y se fu6; 61 dijo: — jGracias a Sao 
Andr6s, quede las cuatro he visto a tres! Ella fu6 asustada tambi&i 
haeta que se tuvieron que descubrir. El no lo sabfa, pero no se des- 
cubri6 sino que dijo que 61 ya lo sabfa, pero que las iba a salvar del 
peligro. Entonces les dijo que cogteran el pavo m&s grande y le echaran 
la gargantilla dentro del maiz y ellas asf lo hicieron. Cuando se cunt- 
plieron los tres dfas el rey lo llain6. Juan Bobo dijo que lo dnico que 
tenia que hacer era coger al pavo mis grande, que lo abrieran y que 
le encontrarian adentro la gai^antilla. Mataron al pavo miis grande 
y realmente le encontraron la gargantilla. El rey le dijo que 61 no 
se podia casar con la princesa, pero que le iba a dar una cantidad de 
dinero y que si 61 querfa que se quedara allt. Juan dijo que no, porque 
tenia que ir a ver a su mami, y asf lo hizo, y vivid feliz con su mamA. 

Dijo un rey que el que le trajera el ramo de todas las flores, el 
saber de todos los sabores y la redoma de todas las aguas se casarfa 
con su hija. El joven que se fu6 a buscar estas tres cosas IIeg6 a donde 
estaba Juan Bobo, y ledijo: — Estecaminoi^parad6nde va? Y Juan 
Bobo le respondifi: — Este camino no va ni viene. — Y tu padre 
i!d6nde estS? — Dando un ped6n que no se lo devuelven. — Y tu 
madre ^d6nde est&f MirSndose a sf misma. — ^Y aquella que grita? 
— Llorando los gustos pasados. — Y ese rfo, iestk Hondo? — No ae le 
puede Ilegar al fondo, y el ganado de casa pasa y no se moja ni el loma 
Y entonces el joven se fu6 corriendo en el caballo y el caballo se cana6 
porque Juan Bobo le habi& dlcho que si iba corriendo se cansaba. V 
asf pas6 y mir6 para atrds y lleg6 y le pregunt6 al bobo porqu6 no le 
pagaban al dfa al padre y le dijo: — Porque esti enterrando un 
muerto. — Y tu madre, ;qu6 era lo que hacfa? — Confes&ndose. Y 
como dijo que el camino no iba ni venla, porque la gente iba y venfa, 
pero el camino siempre estaba alK. — Y tu hermana, ^porqu6 estaba 
gritando? — Porque habfa dado a luz. — Y el rio que no llegaban las 
piedras al fondo, <!porqu6 pasan los patos y no se mojan? — Vuelan 


por ericima. Y como el caballo sc le cans6 crey6 que el bobo era un 
joven tnieligente y podia adivinar donde estaban el ramo de todas las 
Qores, el sabor de todos loe salmres y la redoma de todas las aguas. 
V vino y le pregunt6 al bobo de los tres objctos, y el bobo le dijo que 
el ramo dt- todas las ilores era una colmena, que le Ilevara un panat al 
rey, que tee era el ramo de todas las tlores, Y le dijo que la redoma 
de todas aguas era una bolella de agua, y que el sabor de todos tos 
sabores era un grano de sal. Y siguiendo los consejos de Juan Bobo 
el joven Ilev6 estas cosaa al rey y se cas6 con la hija del rey. 


Sucedid un caso como otros muchos, en la muy noble y leal Villa 
de Mala Rabia de la provincia de la Perruca del reino de la Perrada 
de donde era rey Don Pedro Grullo. Habia en esa Villa un Juan 
Bobo, como muchos. Tenia el rey una muy linda hija tucrta de un 
ojo y bizca del hermano. 

El rey ech6 una drcular por la cual se le hacfa saber a los malos 
rabioaos, que le daba una fuerte dote y la mano de su bclllsima. 

La princesa rabiosa que querla dccir en aquel lenguaje {lioja de 
RMa) al hombre fuese quien fuere, si sordo de laa dos piemas o bizco 
de las orejas, tullido de las caderas, a su hermosfsima hija se la darfa 
por pareja al que le adivinara las adivinanzas que le dijera y dijera 
una que se la adivinara «I que entrase en lid y acertare, pagaba con 
la pensadora. — iAy! madrc, dijo Juan Bobo, voy a adivinar. — ^A 
donde quiefes ir, pcdazo de borrico, ya no te cansas de darme tormcntos 
dc un modo y quieres d4rmelo de otro? A ver si te vas a dormir. 

Hiza un gran llo el liobo con su dnica y larga camisa y tom6 camino 
de la ciudad donde se prometEa la mano dc la princesa. Atravesando 
monies y malezas. pues no se conoclan carreteras, l]eg6 a la orilla del 
mar y encontr6 un pecccito saltando en la orilla de tierra; lo echd al 
agua. — Gracias. Juan Bobo — le dijo una ronca voz. Era la madre 
del pcz. — i LIbretc Dios de los lobos y de antmales daflinos. 

Sigui6 tiu camino contentlsimo con aquella ejemplar bcndicidn; 
ilt^ a la orilla de un rio, quiso vadeario y no pudo y vi6 un viejo 
caballo que eataba en un altlsimo barranco; cntendid que tenia sed 
•in poder l)ajar al riu y Juan Bolx> le di6 agua con su sombrero. — 
Gtudaa, bobo dc los boboe, — dijo el caballo que por civrto estaba 
muy Haco, — ay6dame a bajar y monta en ml. 

Asf lo hizo el bobo dc Juan y cmprcnde cl caballo vcloz carrera y 
li el bobo no ve a tiempo unos pichones los hubiera estropeado, pero 
ki cvit6 quvbrando cl caballo al mismo tiempo. — Sc han cafdo de su 
nido, — dijo el caltallo, — en c*e &rbo\ que su copa se picrde en las 
oubo, csti su nido; su madrc Mora por ellos. Sube y devuMveselos a 
M oiadre. 

24 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Lo que hizo el bobo subiendo y subiendo; seis dias estuvo en esta 
penosa a£censi6n manteni^ndose de la fnita que el &rbol tenfa. 

Baj6 a los seis dfas justamente y alK encontr6 al tiaco roctnante; 
mont6 en 41 y emprenden veioz carrera y en un abrir y cerrar de ojo6 
llegaron pues a la ciudad donde gobemaba el rey que prometfa la 
princesa en casamiento. Not6 que en la gran puerta al entrar en la 
ciudad. habia una gran muralla de cabezas humanas. Eran las de 
todos aquellos que no pudJeron adivinar las adtvinanzas que la princesa 
les decfa y las suyas eran adivinadas por elias. 

Juan Bobo sin encomendarse a nadie se dirigid al palacio yantesde 
Uegar vi6 que ardfa una gran lioguera frente al regie alc&zar que tenia 
de extensi6n una legua. Eran los cuerpos de los que quisieron adivinar. 

Juan Bobo pic6 espuelas a su flaco rocfn y helo aquf que brinc6 por 
ella ycay6 en el patio, con admiracidnde todos. — Frun, fnin, — resopid 
el caballo. — Aqul me tenuis, — dijo Juan, — a adivinar sin que roe 
adivine. — iNo te admira extranjero, el espect&culo que forma el 
niont6n de cad&veres y cabezas que has visto al entrar a la gran 
ciudad ? 

Esto le dijo un ordenanza. — A adivinar y a que no me adivinen, 
vengo. Fu4 presentado ai rey, el que lo mir6 con marcado desprecio 
al contemplar su larga cota hecha de cotf. 

En aquel tiempo se habfa presentado la princesa, la que en seguida 
dijo la siguiente adivinanza: 

— Yo cai de un alto irbol; 
mitoE son los hombres todos 
adiviname de modo 

u n6 d« qui se ceg6. 
Tu cabeza hombre de Dios 
por necio y por temerario, 
otros m&s que tfi de sabios 
mi padre se las cortd. 

— Aqui tengo una en el bolsillo, — dijo Juan. Caf-mito, mi Dios, — 
sacando un gran caimito de) bolsillo. 

Perdi6 la princesa, pues era caimito lo que la adivinanza agnificaba. 
Y dijo Juan en seguida: 

— Quiero subir por la escala 
i en qu£ tu poder se basa? 
Adivfname princesa 

hija dtgna de tu raza. 

No pudieron adivinar y Juan Bobo cachondiindose les di6 tres dfas. 
Consultaron a los grandes sabios, mandaron emisanos a todos los 
patsesconocidosy porconocer; nadie adivin6. Se dieron por vencidos 
y con vencidos. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 35 

Entonces Juan Bobo lea dijo: — El que [a coma si no es de mata, se 
muere. Calabazas, Dies mlo, calabazas. 
Y todos quedaron convencidos de que eran calabazas. — El Bobo, 

— dijo la princesa, — me pertenece. El rey dijo: — Todavia hay 
que chuparse los dedos. — A la princesa se le ha perdido el otro dfa 
en un paseo de mar, una sortija, y el adivinador adivinando tiene que 

Juan Bobo cx>nfiando en su caballo para la hufda dijo: — Un 

Baj6 al patio, cabalgd y salid aceleradamente. Clav6 espuelas al 
flaquenco y parti6 como un rayo. Llegado que hubo a la orilla del 
mar, el caballo se plant6 par^ndose en dos patas. Juan Bobo le dijo: 

— Ahora es que te toca correr, ^te resiates? iAdelante, caballo! 
Entonces el caballo le dijo: — M4s caballo eres tii y mira como 

hablas. iPife a tierra, insensate! — y tomfi la forma de un caballero 
(e) caballo, se entiende, porque Juan Bobo lo era), saca un largo pito, 
extranfsimo por su forma, t^elo y sale un tremendo y largo individuo. 
Al momento estaban todos tos peces en tierra. — JA ver, sefiores! — 
dijo el caballo-caballero, — jqui£n de ustedes sabe de la sortija de la 
princesa Vizcafna? — Yo no si, — dijeron todos. — Falta el mero, — 
dijo el Juez. Vuelve el caballo-caballero y toca el pito; pres4ntase e] 
mero con su tremenda y grande barrigaza. — ^Sabes de la sortija de 
la princesa VizcMna? — Me la iba a tragar cuando la chopa me la 
quit6 delante, y me los tr^^u^ a la sortija y a la chopa. i Helos aqui! 

— y los arroj6 al momento. 

Juan Bobo loco de alegrfa, corre al palacio y le entrega la sortija 
al rey. — iQueda algo mSs? Dijo el rey: — Tienes que conoceria 
entre todas las mujeres que te presente. 

El rey habfa mandado buscar a todas las bizcas de su reino y de los 
dem&s. Tuvo tanto gusto en seleccionarlas que todas pareci^ una 

Aquf los apuros de Juan, cuando en seguida llegan tres pajaritos 
y se paran dos en tos hombros y uno en la cabeza, y Juan Bobo conocid 
a los tres p&jaros que habta echado en el nido. — jOh maravillas de 
las maravillas! — dijo orgulloso el rey, — i hasta los pajarilloe vienen 
a celebrar tu hermosura! 

No hay duda que Juan Bobo distinguid a la princesa. El rey no 
tuvo m&s remedio que entreg4rsela por esposa. El rey muri6 y 
Juan Bobo fu6 elegido rey. 

Rein6 y gobem6 a su pueblo con sabidurfa, sin absolutismo siendo 
absolute el reinado. Qutere dear; un modelo de reyes y no olvid6 
a Bu niadre a quien hizo venir a su corte. 


26 Journal of A merican FoUt-Lore, 


(55) Habfa una vez una madre que tenfa un hijo que era bobo. En 
la ciudad donde 61 vivfa habitaba un rey que tenfa una hija, la cual 
tenia un lunar en una pierna. El rey mandd a buscar toda la gente 
que vivla en las provincias cercanas y cuando hubo llegado toda la 
gente, lea dijo que quien le adivinara lo que tenfa su hija en una pienia, 
ist se casaria con elta. El bobo que oy6 lo que el rey habia dicho, dijo 
a su mamA: — Mam4, yo voy a adivinar lo que tiene la hija del rey en 
la piema. La madre le dijo: — Pero bobo, ^cdmo t(i vas a adivinar 
lo que tiene la hija del rey en una piema? Pero tanto se empefid el 
bobo que la madre )o dej6 ir. 

El bobo se fu4 y se escondi6 debajo de una escalera. Estaba toda 
la gente reunida tratando de adivinar cuando sali6 el bobo de su 
escondite y dijo: — Seiior rey, lo que su hija tiene es un lunar en la 
piema derecha. El rey qued6 asombrado al ofr aquella frase y por 
no dejar casar a su bellfsima hija con un bobo, mandd hacer tres panes 
para el bobo con ars^nico. 

(70) La madre del bobo tenia una perrita que se llamaba "Ni&a" 
y una yegua que tenia por nombre "Paula." El bobo que no se 
comfa nada sin darle a la perra y a la yegua, le di6 un pan a cada una 
y se qued6 asombrado al ver que tan pronto conto se lo comieron 
quedaron muertos; bot6 el que habIa dejado para &. 

Su madre que habIa salido y en el camino habla sabido que el rey 
trataba de envenenar a su hijo, se apresur6 a llegar a su casa, pensando 
encontrar a su querido bobo muerto, y cual no serfa su sorpresa al ver 
que cuando llegd, 61 la recibi6 dici6ndole: — Mam&, pan mat6 a Paula 
y Paula mat6 a tres; apunt6 a quien no ol y a quien no vf, niat£; 
comi came con palabra de la iglesia y encima de duro puse blando y 
encima de blando iban muchtsimas moscas cantando. Esto querfa 
decir que encima de la yegua iban muchas moscas cantando. El 
resultado fu6 que el rey no dejd casar a la linda hija con el bobo. 


(i, 4, 2) [Viase 34 : 146-150.I 

(6) Sali6 Juan Bobo con la came de la vaca por la calle a vendetia. 
Nadie le querla comprar la came, solamente las seiioritas del manto 
negro que detr&s de k\ le hacfan : — Juem, juem, juem. Bueno, Juan 
Bobo les vendi6 la came a cllas, y Ics preguntaba: — ^Cu&ndo vengo 
a cobrar? Y ellas s6lo hacian: — Juem, juem. juem. Entonces 61 
dijo: — Me dicen que a la tarde, que a la tarde yo venga. Las 
senoritas del manto negro no le pagaron y 61 le di6 las cuentas al juez 
y al alcalde. Este le dijo que donde quiera que viera una la matara. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 27 

Pasd Juan Bobo por la iglesJa y entrd. Estaba el cura diciendo la 
misa y tenia una mosca en la frente. Juan Bobo )Ieg6 y le did un 
macetazo que lo aclioc6. En seguida la policla y el alcalde cogieron a 
Juan Bobo para llevarlo a la c4rcel. Eldecla: — iA mime Ilevan para 
la c&rcel? No. Dejen al juez venir aquf. Yo he preguntado a £1 
si 61 no me di6 el permiso para que matara donde quiera que encontrara 
una de ellas. Yo no iba a matar al cura. ^Porqufe k\ se dejd caer? 
No le hicieron nada. 

{70) La madre de Juan Bobo no encontraba que hacer con 41 porque 
no la dejaba vivir tranquila. Un dfa que £1 iba para la ciudad, la 
madre le envenen6 un pedazo de pan y se lo did. Juan Bobo se mont6 
en una yegua panda que tenfa y continu6 su camino. Cuando £1 
se consider6 que la yegua tenfa hambre dijo: — Panda tendrci hambre. 
Deja darle un pedazo de pan. Cuando llegd a un rfo Panda tom6 
agua y se muri6. Entonces vinieron dos p&jaros y comieron de ella 
y se murieron ; despu4s hizo una creciente y se llevd a Panda y los 
pdjaros. Juan Bobo siguid para el pueblo, en donde habfa una gran 
fiesta a consecuencia de un triunfo que habia en el palacio del rey, 
que el que dijera una adivinanza y el rey ni la reina ni la princesa no 
adivinaban, se casaban con la princesa. Juan Bobo Ileg6: — Yo voy 
a adivinar. Todo el mundo se echd a reir al ver a Juan Bobo. El 
empezd: — Pan matd a panda, panda mat6 a dos y un duro sobre un 
blando matando a tree. Nftdie en el palacio pudo adivinar y Juan 
Bobo se casd con la princesa. 

(Version a.) 

(70) Esta era una vez que la hija del rey de Verona por ser Anica 
hija era muy antojadiza. Se le ocurri6 una vez que aquel a quien ella 
no le adivinara una adivinanza se casaria con ella. 

Su padre encontrd exagerado el capricho pero como tiunca la con- 
trariaba le did gusto. Mandd el pregdn a anunciar por calles y pueblos 
el deseo de la princesa. Vinieron los duques, condes, marqueses y 
otros grandes caballeros, y a todos les adivinaba ella la adivinanza. 
Vino toda la nobleza y a todos les adivinaba. Por dltimo vino el 
pueblo y era juego para ella adivinar lo que ellos pensaban. 

En el pueblo de A vivfa una mujer que tenfa un hijo llamado Juan 
Bobo. Oyd el pregdn y un dfa le dijo a la madre: — Hazme una 
alforja y prep&rame a Mozo, mi burro, que me voy a adivinarle a la 
princesa su pensamiento. Su madre se desesperd porque era demasiado 
feo y bobo para ir al palacio. Quiso quitarle la idea de que fuera, 
pero €i se empeiid en ir. Por (iltimo, llorando mucho, le prepard la 
alforja con veneno. Al otro dfa le puso la ropa de los dfas de fiesta, 
le did la alforja y le ensilld a Mozo, le did la bendicidn y se quedd 
llorando. El le deda: — Madre, no te apures que de £sta vas a 
quedar rica. Se fu£ muy contento. 


28 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Anduvo una milla y cuando ya cstaba muy cansado lleg6 a la orilb 
de una Canada y dijo: — Buen sitio es £ste para descansar. Se ape6, 
amaiT6 el burro, le quit6 la alforja, la oli6 y dtjo: — \Qa€ buen dof 
tiene! Bebi6 agua y se acostd. 5e dunni6 en segutda. EI bum, 
no encontrando yerba, se comi6 la alforja y en el acto cay6 muerto. 
Bajaron dos grullas, le pjcaron en la barriga al burro y quedaron muer- 
tas. Bajaron otras tres y picaron a las grullas muertas y quedaron 
muertas. Con esc se despert6 Juan Bobo, mir6 el cuadro y dijo: — 
jAji! Pan mat6 a Mozo, Mozo niat6 a dos, dos mataron a tre&. 
Cogi6 un palo y se fu£. 

Tenta mucha hambre y anduvo hasta que mis no pudo. EncontrA 
una palma de albaricoques, vi6 el cielo abierto, pero las palmas eras 
tan altas que a duras penas alcanzd ctiatro o seis. Se las comid y 
dijo: — Pas6 por un duro. 

Sigui6 andando. Cuando ya no podfa m&s se encontr6 oon un 
platanal y se alegrd mucho. Comi6 hasta que m&s no pudo y al fin 
dijo: — Ahora, a palado. A las pocas horas lleg6. No lo querfan 
dejar entrar porque lo vieron tan feo y tan bobo. 

Se asomd la princesa, y al verlo pregunt6 qui£n era aquel simi^ 
Le dijeron que era uno que pretendfa decirle una adivinanza. Ella 
se n6 mucho y dijo que queda pasar el rato con £1, que lo dejaran 
entrar. Subi6 Juan Bobo y ella le dijo que ella queria que le dijeta 
(a adivinanza a ella sola. Juan Bobo le dijo que no, que mandan 
a buscar la mAsica y la tribuna para ^1 subtr. Y asf se cit6 el pueblo 
para las tres porque le caus6 gracia al rey la presencia de Juan B<^. 

A las tres de la tarde no cabfa la gente en palacio. Todos querfan 
ofr la simpleza con que k\ saldrfa. Se subid a la tribuna y dijo : — Mi 
seiiorita, la princesa, pan mat6 a Mozo, Mozo mat6 a dos, dos mataitm 
a tres, pask por un duro y un blando me la gan6. Ella pens6, discurrid 
y le pidi6 tres dfas para ella pensar. Entonces el pueblo grit6: — Se 
la gan6, se la gan6, se la gan6. 

J uan Bobo le concedt6 los tres dfas, pero el rey exigi6 que se quedara 
en palacio y €\ aceptd. Lo trataron muy bien. 

La primera noche que durmi6 en palacio fu£ a su cuarto una de las 
camareras de la princesa, a conquistarlo, a ver si por oro o dinero o 
halagos k\ le decta el significado de la adivinanza, pero £1 le exigi6 
una prenda y no quiso. A la otra noche ini otra mis bonita y oon 
m&s ofrecimientos, pero tampoco quiso decirle la adivinanza. A la 
tercera noche fu^ la misma princesa, y a ella sf Ic dijo, pero exigi6 sn 
cadena de oro. Al otro dfa era cuando tenia que adivinarle. Ella 
sali6 muy contenta porque crefa haber triunfado. 

Se volvi6 a llenar el palacio de gente. Al subir Juan Bobo a la 
tribuna el rey le dijo: — Si mi hija te adivina ta brutalidad que has 
dicho te mando ahorcar. Y 41 le dijo que estaba bien pero que pedfa la 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 29 

grada de hablar tres palabras. Volvi6 a decir la adivinanza y la 
princesa la adivind. El p.ueblo comenz6 a gritar: — iQu4 lo ahorquen! 
iQufe lo ahorquen! Entonces fel dijo; — Tengo concedida la gracia de 
hablar tres palabras, las cuales son: La primera noche de estar en 
palado vino una paloma blanca, le apunti, la mat^, me la comi y 
all& van laa plumas. Cuando dijo esto tir6 una enagua. Al verla 
todo el mundo se sorprendid. — La segunda noche vino otra paloma 
blanca, le apunt^, la niat£ me com! la came y alii van las plumas — y 
tir6 una canusa. — La tercera noche vino una paloma real, le apunt^, 
no la mat£, pero all& van las plumas — y tir6 la cadena de oro de la 
princesa. Y entonces todos gritaron: — iSe la gan6! iSe la gan6! 
Entonces por que no se casara con la princesa le dieron un mulo 
caifiado de dinero, y entonces se acord6 de su madre y se fu£ para su 

iVersion b.) 

(70) Una vez un rey tenia una hija y dijo que et que le dijera una 
adivinanza que no la hubiera en ninglJn libro, se casaba con su hija. 
Juan Bobo estaba oyendo lo que dijo el rey y en seguida se fu6 para 
su casa y le dijo a la madre : — May, yo voy a adivJnar en casa del rey. 
La madre le dijo: — Juan Bobo, d^jate de esas cosas, que tfl no sabes 
nada, t6 lo que vas es a estorbar alii. El dijo: — Si, may, yo voy a 
adivinar. La madre como no queria que Juan Bobo fuera a adivinar, 
le hizo Unas tortas, les ech6 veneno y se las di6. 

Juan Bobo se fu£, pero no se comi6 las tortas; le did una a una 
perra que tenia y la perra se muriiS; vinieron tres moscas y se pegaron 
sobre la perra y se murieron. Cuando iba Juan Bobo, vi6 a un 
pichdn que estaba en un nido, le tir6 con una piedra y el pichdn se 
fu€ volando, pero mat6 a tres pichoncitos que estaban en el nido. 
Juan Bobo cogid los pichoncitos y se los Ilev6. 

Cuando iba con los pichoncitos entr6 en la iglesia y los chamusc6 en 
la l&mpara del Santfsimo y tom6 agua bendita. Juan Bobo sigui6 
caminando, cuando iba pasando por un puente de un Ho, vt6 que 
cuatro perros trafan a un caballo muerto. Los perros iban ladrando. 
Juan Bobo anot6 todo esto en la memoria y sigui6 hasta que IIeg6 en 
casa del rey. 

El rey no crela que fuera Juan Bobo el que adivinara, y Juan Bobo 
iu6 et que adivin6 y se cas6 con la hija del rey, porque dijo una adivi- 
nanza que no la habfa en ningtin libro, porque fu^ ^1 quien la 5ac6 de su 
memoria, de acuerdo con lo que le habfa pasado y habia visto. 

La adivinanza es la siguiente: "Torta matd a Paula, Paula muerta 
mat6 a tres. Apunt^ a quien vf y mat^ a quien no vf. Comf con las 
palabras de la iglesia y bebf agua ni del cielo, ni de la tierra. Pas£ 
por un duro sobre de un blando y vl bajar un muerto con cuatro vivos 


30 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

{ Version c.) 

(70) Habfa un rey que tenfa una htja y dijo que iba a celebrar uiu 
fiesta para que el joven que dtjera una adivinanza y 61 no se la adivi- 
nara, ^se se casaba con su hija. 

Habfa un bobo y i\ le dijo a su madre que iba a ir a casa dd rey. 
Entonces la madre del bobo le dijo que no fuera, porque lo matabai 
a £1 y a ella. Pero el bobo se puso a pensar c6mo hada la adivinaaa 
que el rey no adivinara. 

Se fu£ a la tienda y conipr6 tres bollos de pan, y se los dieron cn- 
venenados y £1 se los di6 a una mula que se llamaba Paula. La mub 
se murid y la botaron; entonces tres perros comieron de ella y gt 
murieron tambi4n. El se fu£ a cazar y vi6 una paloma, y le tir4 y no 
mat6 a la que vid, sine a otra que estaba detr^. 

Se fu^ a la iglesia y recogi6 los papeles escritos y as6 a la paJomita. 
Entonces 61 dijo; — "Pan mat6 a Paula, Paula mat6 a tres; apuntia 
quien v(; mat6 a quien no vf y con palabras de ta iglesia la as^ y mt 
la comf." 

Al d(a siguiente se iu6 el bobo a casa del rey y todos subieron, im* 
el bobo se qued6 abajo. Todos dijeron sus adivinanzas y el rey se las 
adivinaba. Preguntd que si no quedaba nadie m^, y le dijeron que 
quedaba un bobo abajo. 

El rey lo mand6 subir y €\ dijo su adivinanza. — " Pan niat6 a Paula, 
Paula mat6 a tres; apunt£ a quien vf, mat£ a quien no vf y con pala- 
bras de la iglesia la as6 y me la comf." El rey no se la adivin6 y d 
bobo se cas6 con la hija del rey. 

( Version d.) 

(70) Habfa una vez una madre que tenfa un hijo que se llamaba 
Juan y la gente le deda Juan Bobo per su manera de ser. Un dfa el 
rey dijo que el que supiera una adivinanza que fuera a su casa y si £1 
no la adivinaba el que fuera se casaba con su hija. 

Un dfa Juan Bobo oy6 decir esto en la ciudad y se fu£ y le djjo a la 
madre que querfa ir a la casa del rey. La madre le dijo que c6mo iba 
a ir a la casa del rey asE sucio. Juan Bobo no hizo caso y se fu£ con 
una perrita que 61 tenfa y que se llamaba Pana. La madre le habfa 
dado un paetelillo con veneno para que Juan Bobo se muriera. 

Sigui6 su camino y en el camino le did mucho hambre a la perrita 
y Juan Bobo le did el pastelilto y la perrita se murid. Siguid su 
camino y cuando fu6 para atr4s para ver si venfa Pana encontrd tres 
p&jaros que estaban muertos porque tambi^n habfan comido de la 
perrita. Despufa vinieron cuatro pijaros mis y comieron de los tres 
y se murieron tambi£n. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 31 

Entonces Juan Bobo dijo que ya haUa encontrado una adivinanza 
y le dijo: — Mam&, por matarme a mf mat6 a Pana, Pana matd a tres 
y tres mataron a cuatro. 

Siguid su camino con una escopeta que trafa y ■v\6 a un p&jaro y le 
apuntd para matarlo, y di6 la casualidad que habfa dos p&jaros 
en la rama y mat6 al que no apunt6 y el que le apunt6 se fu^ volando. 
Entonces dijo: — Pues ya tengo algo mSs para mi adivinanza y la 
repiti6: — Mami, por matarme a mf mat6 a Pana, Pana mat6 a tres, 
tres mataron a cuatro, apunt6 al que vf, mat6 a) que no vf. 

Siguid andando hasta que al fin lleg6 a una iglesia. Y a Juan Bobo 
le di6 hambre y cc^6 todos los Hbros de la iglesia y hizo con ellos una 
h<^:uera y alK as6 el p&jaro y se lo comi6. Despuis ie di6 sed y cogi6 
el J^ua bendita y se la bebi6. Entonces dijo que ya tenia mis para su 
adivinanza y la repiti6 toda: — Mam4, por matarme a mf, mat6 a 
Pana, Pana mat6 a tres, tres mataron a cuatro, apuntd al que vf, 
mat6 al que no vf, con palabras santas lo as^ y me lo comf, tom6 ^;ua 
que no fu^ Ilovida ni credda. 

Entonces Juan Bobo siguid andando y cuando fu£ a o^r el vapor 
para ir a la casa del rey cuando iba navegando pasaron dos pajaritos 
cantando. Y entonces Juan Bobo dijo: — Esta adivinanza no me la 
adivina el rey y entonces le anad!6 a la adivinanza lo que le habfa 
pasado navegando por el mar. 

5igui6 navegando hasta que U^d a la casa del rey. Juan Bobo 
no se atrevta a entrar y se qued6 por detr&s de las escaleras. El sali6 
al balc6n y v!6 a Juan Bobo y le dijo que entrara. La casa estaba 
llena de gente. Habfa condes, raarqueses y muchos j6venes guapos 
y bien vestidos. Cuando Juan Bobo entr6 y se vi6 entre tanta gente 
estaba lo m&s asustado. Cuando empezaron a decir las adivinanzas. 
todas las que decfan el rey las adivinaba. Juan Bobo se qued6 para 
lo Ultimo, y ya que habian dicho todas las adivinanzas Juan Bobo 
empezA a decir la suya: — Mami, por matarme a mf, matAa Pana, 
Pana matd a tres, tres mataron a cuatro, apuntd al que vf y mat4 al 
que no vf, con palabras santas lo as^ y me lo comf. Tom£ agua que 
no fu6 Ilovida ni crecida, y yendo navegando por el mar dos pajaritos 
pasaron cantando. Entonces todos empezaron a aplaudirlo y el rey 
no se la pudo adivinar. Y entonces el rey cogi6 a Juan Bobo, lo 
vistid bien y la noche siguiente se cas6 con la hija del rey y siguieron 
viviendo felices por muchos aAos. 

( Version e.) 

(70) A11& por Io3 aiios en que vivfa mi abuelo habfa un rey que tenfa 

una hija muy hermosa y se la ofrecid al que viniera el dfa del sorteo 

de la princesa y adivinara una adivinanza que no estuviera en su 



32 Jourtial of American FoUt-Lore. 

Todos lo9 reyes y prfndpes y grandes peiaonajes de la conum 
entera asistieron al sorteo. Cuantas adivinanzas daban otras tantas 
perdfan, pues todas se encontraban en el libro del rey. 

Juan Bobo oy6 decir del sorteo y le dijo a su madre: — Mami, 
quiero ir a ver si adivino una adivinanza que no t&Xk en el libro dd 
rey para casarme con la hija del rey. La madre le dijo: — Muchacho, 
<!C6mo vas a ir para que te tiren por la escalera abajo? Si vas te vof 
a dar una paliza. Y Juan Bobo le dijo: — No, usted va a ver com 
me caso con la princesa. 

La madre no le hizo caso y Juan Bobo cogi6 y se fu4 para el monte. 
Allf se encontr6 con una vieja que estaba sentada en una piedra mo- 
liendo ajo para echarles a unos huesos de came que tenia para hacer 
unas sopas. Juan Bobo se acerc6 y le dijo : — Madre vieja, I qu£ hace 
usted ahl? Y la vieja le dijo: — Mi hijo, moliendo ajo para can 
huesitos mortantes que ves ah( y que las aves cantantes ya se van a 

Juan Bobo se calld la boca y se fu4 corriendo para su casa y le dijo 
a su mam&: — Mami, s&came ropa que me voy al sorteo en la casa 
del rey. La madre, por no contradecirle, te sacd ropa, Juan Bc^x> se 
vi8ti6 y se fu6. 

Lleg6 a donde el rey y se qued6 en la cola de la fila, pues toda la 
comarca estaba en la fila adivinando. Despu4s de que nadie aoertaba 
a adivinar porque todas las adivinanzas estaban en el libra del rey, 
el rey alcanz6 a ver a Juan Bobo y le dijo: — iQak quieres tOit Y 
Juan Bobo le respondid: — Seiior rey, yo vengo a adivinar, para ver 
si me saco a la princesa su hija. Todos se echaron a refr, pero el rey 
le dijo a Juan Bobo: — Pues di, a ver si adivinas. Entonces £1 dijo: 
— Seiior rey, a que no me adivina esta adivinanza: Ajo, majo, pico 
en piedra, ave cantante en hueso mortante. Todos se miraron con 
asombro. EI rey bused su libro y no encontr6 la adivinanza. EI rey 
se disgust6 mucho por no poder adivinar la adivinanza y exigi6 al bobo 
que explicase la adivinanza. Y entonces el bobo dijo : — Pues seiior, 
rey, yo iba por un monte, encontr^ una vieja moliendo ajo en una 
piedra, que quiere decir "ajo, majo, pico en piedra." Y la vieja me 
dijo que era para una sopa que iba a hacer con unos huesos mortantes 
que las moscas se los iban a Uevar, y eso quiere decir "a\'e cantante eo 
hueso mortante." Como los huesos eran de animal muerto por eso 
dice que eran huesos mortantes, y como las moscas zumban por eso 
dice aves cantantes. 

Entonces el rey no tuvo que hacer sino darle su hija como esposa, 
y demfis esti decir lo orgulloso y contento que se pondrfa el bobo con 
una esposa reina. 

(70) Existid en tiempos muy remotos y a&a. no se recuerda la fedia, 
un rapazuelo muy aodrajoso, pero de un talento escudriilador y alga 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 33 

o6lebre. Este era Juan Bobo. Muchacho adn de 18 aRos de edad, 
decidid correr fortuna o lo que es lo mismo, arriesgarae a los tropezones 
mundanos. Le pidi6 a su madre la i^nica herencia que le perteneda; 
efitoes: una yegua gorda como una espina, tuertadelojoderecho.coja 
por haber mudado un casco o pezutia ; y lo que es mejor, pues le senta- 
ban tan bien los aperos por ser deforme del espinazo, a cuyo nombre le 
i^radaba el de "Panda." Al fin su madre decidid concederle el 
permiso al chico, y un vieraes muy temprano, sali6 & de su casa. 

Habfa un palacio muy cerca de aquel poblado en el cual habitaba un 
rey que tenia una hija, la cual por medio de un libro adivinaba todas 
las jerigonzas que los grandes letrados le dedan. El rey pard mayor 
recreo habia ordenado que el hombre que dijese una adivinanza y su 
hija no la adivinara, se casarfa con ella, posefdo de que nadie lograria 
8U empeiio. Juan Bobo oyendo estas voces decidi6 llegar al palacio, 
pero aun no habia pensado ninguna para exponeria ante la princesa. 

Mientras iba caminando conversaba a solas pensando lo que iria a 
decir ante la princesa y en esto su yegua desfallecia de hambre. Por 
fin decidid alimentar a su bestia con una libra de pan, pero el panadero 
le cogi6 tan to asco al animal que le vendi6 envenenado para los ratones. 
Juan cogid su pan y prosigui6 su canuno hasta llegar cerca de la orilla 
de un rfo. All! le di6 ^ua y el pan, pero pocos momentos despu^s el 
animal no pudo sostenerse y cay6 muerta a consecuencia del veneno 
que tenia el pan. I Cu^ grande fu6 su sorpresa al ver que su yegua 
habfa matado a tres ratoncitos que por alll jugaban! Pocos momentos 
despute el rfo sobrevino de madre y se llev6 la yegua con la corriente. 
Mientras la muerta bestia se deslizaba suavemente por el rfo abajo, 
tres mazambigues iban posados sobre su lomo con direccidn hacia el 

Mientras el bobo pensaba en su interior: pan mat6 a panda; panda 
matd a tres; un duro sobre de un blando y un muerto caigando a 
tres; vi6 pasar cerca de si un rebano de ovejas. 

Como el hombre que va desenfrenado, cogi6 una piedra y i pamf 
la lanz6 hacia el camero m^ gordo que habfa visto; pero la desgracia 
le persegufa y acert6 a matar al m^ flaco del rebano. No logrando 
sus deseos se puso a pensar nuevamente: — Apunt6 al que vf y mat£ 
si que no vt, Aquf complete nuestro hombre su deseo formando una 
estrat£gica adivinanza: 

Pan mat6 a panda, panda mat6 a tres; un duro sobre de un blando 
y un muerto cargando a tres; apunt£ al que vf y mat£ al que no vt. 

Lleno de alegrfa iba repitiendo estas frases mientras caminaba. 

Al amanecer arrib6 al palacio pidiendo permiso para ir a presencia 
de la princesa, pero los polizontes que hacfan la guardia real, no querfan 
dejarle entrar. Enterada la princesa de lo ocurrido orden6 que entrara 
inmediatamente, a lo cual accedid con la mejor corte^a de un pobre 


34 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

labrador. Cuando la princesa pregunt6 cuales eran sue deseos i 
dijo, sin acertar a decide princesa, pues tal era el jtJbilo que loi 
bargaba en aquellos momentoe: — Mi reina, yo vengo a casarme 
vos. La princesa asombrada ante aquella osadfa le dijo: — iSf, 
conseguir^is lo que pedis, si diciendo una adivinanza yo no lo 
adivinarla. Convinieron y Juan Bobo se expltc6 de la manera i 
cortfe que pudo: — A1I4 vamos con e! caiionazo — dijo 61; — I 
mat6 a panda, panda matd a tres; un duro sobre de un blando y 
muerto cargando a tres; apunt6 a1 que vl y mat£ al que no es. 

Qued6 estupefacta la princesa por espacio de tres dfas, al final 
los cuales no pudiendo adivinar tuvo que acceder a los deseos de Ji 
Bobo. Luego 61 explic6 ante la corte su sonada adivinanza: Pan, 
el que 61 compr6 en la panaderfa; panda era la yegua; mat6at 
eran los ratones muertos al caer la yegua; un duro sobre de un blan 
era la yegua sobre el rio; un muerto cargando a tres, eran los I 
mazambigues sobre la yegua en et rio; apunt^ al que vf y taxti 
que no es, era cuando 61 apunt6 al camero gordo y niat6 al flaoi 

Stete dlas de5pu6s de estos sucesos, Juan Bobo pasd a ser el pdnc 
de aquella comarca y gobernador de una gran villa. 


Habfa una vez un bobo que se Ilamaba Juan y tenia un peno< 
se Ilamaba V61ez y habla en una ciudad un rey que tenia una hij; 
dicho rey decia que el que le echase una adivinanza y 61 no se 
pudiera adivinar se casarfa con su hija y st n6 lo mandarfa a afaorc 
Juan tenia su madre y un hermano. 

(3) Un dia se fu6 su mami para misa y le encarg6 que cuidara 
gallinas. <Qu6 hizo Juan? Las metid a todas en un saco y las gallti 
se murieron ahogadas. Cuando su madre Ileg6 de misa se quiso vol* 
loca al ver lo que Juan habia hecho,- quiso castigarle pero 6ste M 

El domingo siguiente volvi6 su madre a misa y le dijo que le cuid 
los pavos; los ensart6 uno por uno y los coloc6 en la pared. Cuai 
regres6 su madre de misa y vi6 que le habia matado todos los pa' 
le di6 una fuetiza. 

(i) Otra vez su madre tuvo que salir a una diligenda y le enca 
que le cuidase la cerda. cQu^ hizo Juan? Visti6 a la cerda y 
mand6 a misa. Cuando su madre regres6 y le pregunt6 por la oe 
le dijo que la habia vestido y la habia mandado para misa. 
madre se puso furiosa y le di6 un castigo. 

(3) Fu6 otro domingo a misa y le encarg6 que le cuidase al n< 
y no lo dejara llorar. Tan pronto como lo oy6 Uorar, le tap6 la b 
con un pafiuelo y el muchachito se murid. 


Porto-Rican Folk-tore. 

(70) Cuando su madre vino y encontr6 al hijo mucrto prepar6 una 
lortilla para matar a Juan y como ^1 era tan bobo llam6 al perro y le 
rir6 la mitad y vi6 que el perro se miiriii y ie dijo que il no comfa esa 
tortilla. Se fu* a botar al perro y se pararon ires moscas encima del 
perro y se murieron y vi6 tambi^n en un palo un cuco en una rama y 
otro cuco en la rama de n»&s arnba y debajo del palo habfa un becerro 
que decfa; — iMee! — entonces 6\ dijo: — jYa tengo la adivinanta 
que le voy a decir al rey. Le ech6 la adivinanta al rey que era la 

Tortilla mal6 a V&ez. 

Vtiez inat6 a trea. 

Cuco Bobre cuco, 

Debajo de cuco un mee. 

Garabato empafej6. 

iAdivinad vuestra merced! 

El rey no pudo adtvinarlo y Juan se cas6 con la hija del rey. 

II. CuENTos DE Pedro db Urdehalas. 


Pedro Animala y Compai Conejo eran enemigos. Y Compai Conejo 
andaba buscando a Pedro Animala para matarlo. Un d(a Pedro 
Animala esiaba haciendo la comida cuando vi6 a Compai Conejo 
que vciUa. Entonces Pedro Animala cogi6 ta oUa y la puso en el 
medio del camino, cuando Ilcg6 Compai Conejo y le dijo: — Ya te voy 
a comer. Hoy sf que no tesalvas. Y Pedro Animala le respondid: — 
No me mates. Mira que yo tengo una olla maravillosa. Y como el 
agua cstaba hirviendo todavta, Compai Conejo lo crey6 y dijo: — (La 
veflcleii? Pedro Animala le dijo que no y entonces Compai Conejo le 
dijo: — Si no me la vendes no te perdono la vida. Y Pedro Animala 
le dijo: — Bucno, por ser usied, se la voy a vender y me Iia de dar dos 
mil pesos. Compai Conejo se los di6. Compai Conejo se fu^ muy 
contento y ec (ui para su casa y Ic dijo a su mujcr: — Toma esta olla, • 
pun la cTtmida dentro de elta y no te ocupes m&s. Y la mujer se crey6 j 
y cogiA la olla y puso los alimentos a cocinar sin candela. Y a laa,J 
doer cuando te sentaron a almorzar hallaron la comida fria y cnida. J 
V entonces Compai Conejo se convencid una vcz m&a de lo malo que ' 
era Pedro Animala. 

(Vfrsion a.) 

Una vu habia un hombre que era muy astuto y maldito, y se 
llamaba Pedro Urdcmalas. Una vcz tenia un compadrc. Un dla ' 
en que la mujer de Pedro dc Urdemalas cstaba haciendo la comida, 
vi6 venir al compadre y le aacA ta leila al caldero en que la comida 
M eataba codnando. Cuando d compadrc de Pedro de Urdemalas 

36 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

Ileg6 encontr6 el caldero sin teAa y la comida hirviendo. Eotcmces 
61 dijo: — Compadre, iqai le parece? Mire, que caldero que hace 
comida sin leiia. Y entonces el compadre dijo: — Yo le dcjy lo que 
V. me pida. Y entonces sac6 de su bolsillo un puiiado de monedat 
de plata y se lo di6 a Pedro de Urdemalas. Al otro dfa cuando la 
mujer del compadre de Pedro de Urdemalas fu6 a poner el caldero 
para cocinar el almuerzo, puso el caldero sin leAa y se fueron a coa- 
versar para la sala y el caldero no habfa hervido todavia. EQa 
hacfa m&s de cinco horas que lo habfa puesto. Ententes £1 dijo: — 
Yo mafiana voy a casa de compadre Pedro para devolverie el caldero. 
Cuando 41 fu6 a devolver el caldero, Pedro de Urdemalas se habfa 
ido a otro pueblo lejano. 

(Version b.) 

En cierta ocasi6n bubo un hombre que hacfa muchas maldades. 

Un dia no tenfa dinero y pens6 en el modo de adquirirlo. Se 
bu8c6 un caldero y se fu4 al monte. Allt hizo juego, colocA el caldero 
al fuego y puso algunas legumbres dentro de 61 para hacer un coddo. 
Tan pronto como el coddo estuvo coddo sa]i6 al camino con su 
caldero y lo puso en medio de 61. Pronto aparecieron por alU tns 
cabaileros, preguntaron a Pedro qu6 hacfa y 61 les conteatA: — Esti^ 
preparando mi comida. — jC6mo haces tu comida en caldero y nn 
fuego? — Porque este caldero no lo necesita. Y si asf no fuera d 
agua no estarfa hirviendo. Los hombres, deseando adquirir el calden, 
le rogaron a Pedro que se lo vendiera, pero 61 les contest6 que no podia 
vend6rselo porque era el mayor capital que 61 podfa poseer. Pero 
luego los hombres le ofrecieron unos nules de pesos y Pedro se deddi6 
a vend6rselo. Le entregaron el dinero a Pedro y se fueron muy 
contentos con su caldero. Y Pedro bailaba de la alegrfa que tenia por 
haber hecho tan gran maldad. 

Pasado algtin tiempo los hombres tuvieron necesidad de cocer tu 
comida y Ilenaran el caldero de agua y arroz y lo pusieron en el camino, 
pero el agua no hervfa. Se volvieron atr&s para devolverie lo que le 
habfan comprado porque no servfa, pero no le encontraron. 

(39) Esta era una vez y dos son tres que habfa un hombre muy mato 
que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas. Este hombre le debfa una cand- 
dad a un seRor. Un dfa el seiior fu6 a cobrarle a Pedro [lero 61 aabfa 
que 61 tba y se puso a cocinar en una olla de barro y cuando el seiior 
venEa cerca de 61, la ape6 y 3igui6 hirviendo sin carb6n. En seguida salid 
a comprirselo pero Pedro decfa que no se la vendla a ver si le deda 
que le daba vuelta. Entonces le dijo: — Si me das dncuenta pesos, sf. 


Porto-Sican Folk-Lore. 37 

I — El senor hizo el trato y le I]ev6 la olla a su seiiora y le dijo que no 
ki tenia que ponerle carb6n, por que ella hervfa s6la. Y ella lo hizo asi. 
i Al medio dfa cuando fu^ a verla estaba igual que cuando la puso. 
I (40) Se lo dijo al esposo y 61 en seguida se fu4 para donde Pedro. 
1: Pedro sabia que £1 iba y le dijo a la madre: — Cuando venga Manuel 
I. a cobrarme, V. se pone a pelear conmigo. Yo le pongo esta vejiga 
I de sangre y le clavo este cuchillo en el pecho, y V. cae corao muerta. 
i Entoncesyo empiezo a tocarle/ y V. se vamoviendohasta que se pare. 
f A^ lo hizieron y cuando ^1 IIeg6 se pusieron a pelear y en seguida £1 la 
I mat6 y empez6 a tocaiie hasta que se par6. El hombre en seguida se 
t lo sali6 a comprar y se lo di6 por cien pesos de vuelta. Se fu£ a su 
casa y Riat6 a la mujer y pasaron dos policlas y le condenaron a cadena 
perpetua y all! niuri6. 

(31) El rey lleg6 a saber que k\ era tan malo y lo mandd a buscar. 
Lo iban a tirar por un barranco y cuando lo tenfan preparado, empez6 
a decir: — No me caso, no me caso. El hombre le dijo: — i Por qufe 
tu dices que no te casas? — El dijo: — Por que me quieren hacer 
casar con la hija del rey y yo no quiero. — Entonces, salte que yo me 
caso. Pedro se fu^ y vinieron y lo tiraron. A los pocos dfas pas6 por 
allf Pedro como con cien ovejas y el rey dijo: — Pedro, yo te tir6 a 
ti por aquel barranco el otro d(a. El le dijo: — Si V. me ha hecho 
un favor; si allf hay m&s ovejas. — Pues, ven esta tarde para que me 
tires. Y vino Pedro y lo tir6. Todavta no ha salido. 


Habfa una vez en un pueblo, gobernado por un rey, un hombre 
Ilamado vulgarmente Pedro Animates. Este hombre era un pillo 
fino. Una vez este mismo hombre rob6 a un pobre campe«no unas 
vacas. El campesino se dirigi6 presurosamente al pueblo a dar la 
queja al rey. El rey envi6 en seguida una patrulla de soldados a 
arrestar a Pedro Animales. Los soldados encontraron a £ste cuando 
se dirigfa hacia el pueblo a vender lo que habfa robado. La patrulla 
de soldados lo at6 y lo Ilev6 a presencia del rey. 

Muy cerca del pueblo habfa un risco, por donde acostumbraban 
hechar a los ladrones. El rey orden6 que colocaran a Pedro Animales 
en la parte arriba del risco. Los soldados cumplieron la orden recibida 
y 61 fu£ metido en un saco, y puesto en el sitio ordenado hasta nueva 
orden del rey. 

Mis tarde pasaron por allf unos caminantes, y se pararon en el sitio 
indicado, cuando oyeron una voz que salla de dentro del saco que decia: 
— No me caso; no me caso con la hija del rey. 

Uno de los caminantes le pregunt6 porqu6 estaba metido en aquel 
saco y 61 le dijo que porque no queria casarse con la hija del rey. 
■ Ba decir, tocar el pito para que resucitc. 


38 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Entonces uno de ellos le dijo que lo metiera dentro del saco que ^I 
se casaba. Este desatd el saco y Pedro Animales se sali6 y meti6 a) 
otro, retirSndose para su casa ri^ndose. 

El rey orden6 que empujaran a Pedro Animates por aquel precipiclo. 
Cuando llegaron al sitio indicado oyeron que el hombre decfa que se 
casaba con la hija del rey. Los soldados ejecutaron la orden recibida 
y empujaron aquel hombre por aquel precipicio. 

Unos dlas despu^s apareci6 Pedro Animales con un rebano de cabros. 
El rey se espant6 al verlo por alU y mandd a llamarlo. El compareci6 
ante el rey y le contd que abajo del precipicio hablaunhombrequele 
regalaba cabros al que era tirade por aquel risco. Mucha gente 
ambiciosa por tener estos animates le dijeron a Pedro Animales que 
fuera a la tarde al risco para que los empujara. 

Et fu6 y los empuj6 y retir&ndose para su casa ri^ndose decfa que 
fueran a buscar cabros al limbo. 

(Version a.) 

Durante el tiempo en que esta isia era gobemada por los reyes 
existla un hombre llamado Pedro de Urdemalas. Era tan mato que el 
rey lo mand6 prender y ae dispuso a matarlo. Lo prendieron y cuando 
lo iban a matar pidi6 que le dejaran un dta m^ de vida. El rey se lo 
concedi6 y lo metieron dentro de un saco y le pusieron un plomo 
adentro, lo ataron a un Srbol sobre el mar, para al otro dta cortar la 
aoga y que se ahogara. Luego que lo dejaron solo se puso a gritar: 
— No me caso. No me caso. No me caso con la hija del rey. Un 
pastor que iba pasando con sus ovejas lo oy6 gritar y se acerc6 y le 
preguntd que pasaba y que por qui gritaba. Y Pedro de Urdemalas 
te respondi6 que era que no se querfa casar con la hija del rey y que 
por eso lo iban a matar. Entonces el pastor le dijo que lo metiera a 
ti en el saco y que cuando lo vinieran a matar €1 dirfa que sf. As! lo 
hicieron y el pastor sacd a Pedro de Urdemalas del saco y se meti6 41, 
y Pedro lo amarr6 bien y se fu£ con las ovejas. Cuando vinieron a 
ver a Pedro para matarlo el pastor empezd a gritar: — Me caso. Me 
caso. Ahora sf me caso con la hija del rey. Creyeron que estaba loco 
y lo echaron en el mar. Y Pedro sigui6 siendo va&s travieso que 

{Version b.) 

Una vez Pedro de Urdemalas le Toh6 unas cabras al rey y el rey lo 
amarrd en la codna. Al poco rato pas6 un hombre por la cocina 
y Pedro empez6 a decir: — No me caso; no me caso. Entonces el 
hombre le pregunt6 que le pasaba y Pedro te dijo que el rey querfa 
casarlo con su hija y 41 no querfa. Entonces el hombre le dijo: — 
Vo me amarro y me caso, — y se amarrb 61 y solt6 a Pedro. Al poco 


Porto-Bican Folk-Lore. 39 

rato el rey mandd a que le echaran agua caliente. Entonces empezaron 
a ecfaarie agua caliente y el hombre empez6 a dear: — Yo me caso, yo 
me caso, — y lo quemaron todo. 

C Version c.) 

Una vez habia un hombre que se llamaba Pedro Animala. Este 
hombre acostumbraba discutir con el rey y hacerle maldades. EI 
era muy diestro y sabfa que nunca podrla el rey matarlo. Un dla le 
hizo una cnaldad tan mala al rey que lo echaron dentro de un saco para 
que por la maflana sjguiente lo tirasen a tos golfos del mar. Entonces 
lo echaron en el saco para por la maiiana siguiente tirarlo. 

En cuanto la gente se fu6 empez6 a gritar: — No me caso. No me 
caso. No me caso con la hija del rey. Cuando €1 deda esto lleg6 un 
pescador y le preguntd: — ^Porqu£ estds gritando? jQu6 te pasa? 
Y Pedro le respondi6: — Porque me quieren casar con la hija del rey 
y yo no quiero. V por eso me van a echar a los golfos del mar, porque 
no quiero casarme con la hija del rey. Entonces el pescador ledijo: — 
^Quieres que yo me entre dentro del saco y yo digo que me caso? 
Entonces Pedro dijo que si y £1 salid y el hombre se entr6. El hombre 
decfa: — Yomecaso; no me tiren al mar que yo me caso. Entonces 
cuando vinieron a tirarlo, oyeron la vozy dijeron:^iAh! iCon qu6 
t6 te casas? Y lo cogieron y lo tiraron al mar. Entonces Pedro se 
tui para una montaiia y reuni6 come mil cabros. Al poco tiempo 
Riarchd para la ciudad cocheando en voz alta a su ganado. 

Cuando el rey oy6, dijo: — iQu4 voz tan parecida a la de Pedro! 
Si no se hubiera tirado al mar dtjeran que era 61. Cuando llegd al 
palacio grit6 a sus cabros y pareci6 ser el mismo. 

En.tonces se asomaron a la puerta y dijeron: — Pedro, iao hace 
tan tos aiios que le tiraron en el mar? — Sf , pero crefan hacerme un mat y 
me hicieron un bien. Mire, en el mar he sacado esta riqueza. Si allf 
cada salta era un cabro, y cuando sail de allf traje estos animales. 
El rey dijo: — Si es asC, tirenme a mi. Y lo tiran, y Adi6s. 


(71} Una vez habfa un hombre que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas. 
La madre tenia una choza y un dla Pedro le rompi6 la casa a su madre 
y le horc6 la vaca. PeI6 la vaca, le sac6 el cuero, lo sec6 y se fu£ a 
venderlo. Dijo a la mam&: — No se apure, madre. Pidi6 caro por 
el cuero y no lo vendi6. El venia por el camino. Vi6 una luz y no se 
atrevfa a pasar y tir6 el cuero y los bandidos huyeron. Cogi6 el dinero 
y 11^6 a su casa. 

(31) £1 rey sabia lo que 61 tenia y lo ech6 en un saco y lo amarr6 
en un estante de la casa para echarle al mar. El vi6 a un hombre 


40 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

con un rebafio y i\ deda: — Yo no me caso con la hija del rey. 
El hombre le pregunt6: — iQuk te pasa, Pedro? Le dijo que lo 
querfan hacer casar con la hija del rey, y 61 no queda. El dijo: — 
Salte tfi, y yo me entro, y 61 le dijo que si. Lo 3olt6 y 61 entr6 
y el rey lo cx3ff6 para echarlo al mar. El rey se fu6 para su casa y 
Pedro sali6. EI rey dijo: — i;Pedro,note acabo de echar en el mar? 
— SI, pero yo me encontr6 esto. — Y el rey dijo : — Echame a m(. — 
Y lo ech6 y quedd gobemando el palacio del rey. 


(44) Habia una vez dos hermanos que vivlan con su querida madre 
en una continua desuni6n. El mayor de ellos no podia ver al mis 
pequeiio, y viceversa. Un dia, vi6ndose los dos escasos de dinero se 
decidieron matar a la madre, para poder hacer dinero con elia. Lleg6 
la noche y los dos bien combinados, le quitaron la vida a la pobre 
anciana. A la maiiana siguiente la echaron dentro de un saco y 
cargaron con ella. Se fueron donde estaba un hortelano que estaba 
cosechando unas habas y los dos muchachos pusieron a la madre 
hincada de rodillas, como recogiendo los granos. El hombre crey6 que 
lo que ella hacia era robarle los frutos y decidi6 pegarle un tiro. Al 
caer la vieja al suelo, Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande se echaron a gritar, 
y el hombre de lo mis apurado los llam6 y les di6 una talega de dinero 
para que no dijeran nada. 

Luego cogieron a la vieja y echaron a andar. Cuando estaban ya 
cerca de una ttenda de campo se acercaron los dos y vieron que unos 
jibaros estaban haciendo la compra de sus casas y adem&s tentan unas 
bestias, que eran quienes los iban a conducir a sus hogares con sus 
compras. Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande velaron cuando los jibaros 
compraron un saco de jamdn y todno y lo echaron dentro de las banas- 
tas del caballo; mientras Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito velaban para 
ver cdmo podfan cambiar el saco donde tenfan a la vieja muerta, por el 
saco del jam6n y el tocino. Cuando vieron que nadie los veia, se 
acercaron y pusieron a la vieja en las banastas y cogieron el saco de 
jam6n y tocino y echaron a correr. Conduyeron los jibaros de com- 
prar, se pusieron en camino, pero resulta que ese dIa hada un sol muy 
picante y ya la vieja estaba demasiado podrida. Durante el camino 
uno de los viajeros le dice al otro: — Compay, <!usted no sabe que el 
jasmdn y el tocino se nos est&njabombando un poco? Debemoe andar 
para Uegar pronto y ponerto a ventear. 

A todo esto, el jlbaro que llevaba a la vieja en la banasta habIa 
dejado a su mujer sin tener que comer hasta que Uegara £1, pero result6 
que la pobre mujer, viendo que no tenia nada que darle al chiquito 
de aimer, se fu6 al corral y cortd una calabadta nueva que habfa en 


Porto-Rican Polk-Lore. 


la mata y se la puso a sancochar. En los momentoe que ya la iba a 
sacar de la olla, vi6 venir a su marido car^ado de provisiones. El 
jfbaro legritabaa una distaiiciade 20030 metrosyledecfa: — Mujer, 
mujer mla, abre la puerta y bota todito lo que est^s haciendo que aquf 
Uevamos de todo; coire y ven busca el jasm6n y el tocino, que parece 
que se noe quiere jabombar un poco y ponlo al viento para que se 
refresque. La pobre senora corrifi llena de alegrfa y bot6 la calabaza 
y Be puso a correr hasta alcanzar a su marido. Cuando los dos estaban 
cerca de su casa, dlcele el j(baro:^Mira mujer, saca primero el 
jasm^ y el tocino, antes que se daiien mSs. Y la mujer cogi6 el saco 
y lo desamarrd delante del jEbaro. At ver los dos que lo que habia en 
el saco era una vieja encamijada en lugar del jam6n y tocino (ya la 
vieja tenia como un mes de estar podrida) , se echaroti a correr dejando 
todo lo que tenfan, quedindose sin comer la mujer. el chiquitoyel 

Durante esta escena Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito se aparecieron y 
cargaron con las dcmis provisiones y con todas las besdas. Luego tos 
pobres jfbaros estaban de lo m&s asustados y no se atrevieron a regresar 
a su hogar hasta que sc muricron de hambre en el monte. 

Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande vendieron todas sus provisiones y 
partieron el dinero; cogicron de nuevo a la vieja y echaron a carmnar, 
vieron dos Iiombres que estaban peleando a machetazos y entre Juan 
Grande y Juan Chiquito la mctieron por en medio y los jfbaros por 
machetearse los dos, punalearon a la vieja dentro del saco. Entonces 
salreron Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito gritando:^ — i Socorro! iCaridad! 
iQue estas gentes han matado a may! iPor Dios, corran polictasi 
jQue la han asesinado todita! Cuando los hombres oyeron los gritos 
de Juan, les pusieron en Us manos un (aleg6n de dinero para que se 
llevoran a la vieja y la cnterraran sin que dijeran nada de que ellos la 
haUan matado. 

Tomaron el dinero y el saco con la vieja y <^'charon a andar de 
nuevo; lucgo al partir Ioh ochavos, Juan Grande querfa emborricar 
al Chiquito y w arm6 una disputa. Entonces Juan Chiquito se 
desuniA de su hermano Juan Grande; pero ^tc como m4s lija, Ic 
dej6 la ntadre a Juan Grande y se qued6 con el dinero dej&ndole 
dicho a Juan Grande que todo el dinero mis que hiciera con la vieja. 
locogiera pam ^1. 

(31) Sc fu< Juan Chiquito a correr fortuna, saliA a un camino y 
al<:anz6 a ver una congregaciiSn de vacae, bueyes y ovejas, con un 
capataz que las trafa para \-enderla« en e) pueblo. Entoncnt dice 
Juan Chiquito: — jAh! aqui me voy yo a salvar con cstc capataz. 
Cuando venia el maestro del ganado bien cerra, Juan Chiquito ae 
ineti6 dentro de un saco y ae tendi6 a lo largo en medio de la carretrra. 
\ti6 que el capataz estiivtera bien cerca y sc puso a mtirmuntr Uk 

43 Journal of American Fcik'Lore. 

siguientes palabras: — iAy, ay! iqu6inju8ttcia! ]Me quieren casarcn 
la hija del rey y yo no quiero! Asf es que mi rey me va a nutar, 
porque yo soy un desgraciado para ella. Cuando repiti6 estas frases 
Juan Chiquito, el capataz que lo oy6 mand6 a los peones que ae paraian 
con el eianado, mientras (A se puso a escuchar las palabras de Juan 
que deda, y dijo para si: — iCaray! A este hombre lo quieren casar 
con la hija del rey y i\ no quiere, ^Por qu6 8er& eato? jCaramba! 
Si ^I quisiera meterme a mf dentro del saco para poder casamte yo coa 

Entonces sacd a Juan del saco y ae meti6 41, dej&ndole toda su fortuna 
a Juan Chiquito con todo el ganado tambi^n. Juan Chiquito hadte- 
dose el tonto lo aceptd y lo amarr6 bien, dej&ndole encargado que 
dijera que ya £1 se habfa decidido a casarse con la hija del rey. El 
c^iataz muy contento se qued6 en medio de la carretera diciendo lo 
mismo que Juan Chiquito le habfa dicho que dijera. Juan Chiquito 
se hizo de dineit) negociando todo el ganado, entonces guard6 el dinero 
y regresA en busca del capataz dici^ndole: — ^Qu4 dices amigo? jTe 
has decidido a casarte con mi hija? El capataz de lo mSs contento k 
respondi6 que sf. Entonces lo 0^6 Juan Chiquito y lo meti6 dentro 
de una banasta de la bestia y se lo llevd cerca de un peii6n y lo arroj6 
con todo y bestia al mar donde no apareci6 mils. 

(76) Juan Chiquito viendo que ya era rico, decidiA regresar a dofide 
estaba su hermano Juan Grande, a ver qu4 era de su vida. Llegd a la 
casa del hermano, pero como el hermano le tenia roHa, dijo para sf : — 
Esp^rate, ^te me vk a pagar las verdes y las maduras todas de una 
sola vez. Juan Chiquito se imaginaba todo lo que Juan Grande pen> 
saba. Juan Grande se puso a amolar un machete para matar a Juan 
Chiquito y poder i\ quedarse con el dinero. 

Juan Grande no tenia m&s que una cama de su niam4, para £1 y 
Juan Chiquito y le dijo a Juan Chiquito que 61 se iba a trabajar y no 
venfa hasta la media noche, que se acostara a la parte derecha de la 
cama. Juan Chiquito le dijo que estaba bien. Se fu6 Juan Grande 
diciendo para sf: — iCaray! A ^te lo mato yo esta noche, y ese 
capitalazo lo coserk yo todito. Lleg6 la hora de dormir y Juan 
Chiquito como m^ listo ya sabfa lo que Juan Grande querfa haoer 
con (A. Cuando se fu£ a dormir le encargd a la madre que se acostara 
a la derecha de la cama y lo dejara a £1 a la izquierda ; cosa que cuando 
Juan Grande viniera a matarlo le enterrara el punal a la vieja y no a £1. 

Juan Grande de regreso lleg6 a la media noche con otro cdmplice 
que dej6 afuera. Entr6 a lo oscuro y ink poco a poco hasta que ttxrA 
a la vieja y muy crefdo de que era su hermano le enterr6 el pufial 
hasta To&s no poder. Juan Chiquito que estaba despierto oyendo todo 
lo que pasaba, sali6 gritando: — iAy, ay! ique han matado a may! 
jPolicfas, guardias, corran! ijuan mi hermano ha matado a may vieja! 


Porto-Eiean Folk-Lore. 43 

Juan Grande de to nt&s asustado le<lijo.- — MJra muchacho, que me 
vas a cx>inprometer; toma este dinero que me queda a mi y no digas 
nadita mis. 

Cogi6 Juan Chiquito el dinero y se ech6 a andar de nuevo burlindose 
de Juan Grande. Ahora Juan Grande querla averiguar como Juan 
Chiquito faabfa hecho aquella fortuna tan grande y se le fu4 detris 
preguntindole de qu£ manera habfa hecho £1 esa fortuna. Juan 
Chiquito ya molesto le respondi6: — Mira, si quieres hacer fortuna 
como yo hice m6tete dentro de un saco y ponte a decir esto: " I Ay, 
que mi rey me quiere casar con su hija y yo no quiero! " Y repites estas 
palabras muchas veces y t(i ver&s que mucho dinero te vas a hacer. 

Juan Grande creldo de que era verdad, void y esperd que viniera 
mucho ganado por una carretera y se puso en medio dentro de un 
saco, didendo lo que Juan Chiquito le habla dicho. Pero resultd que 
el que venfa con el ganado era Juan Chiquito y al oirlo decir lo mismo 
que €\ le habfa dicho que dijera, se ech6 a refr y le pas6 con todos los 
animales por encima. Luego despu£s que htzo eso, lo cogi6 y lo 
meti6 en una banasta y lo ech6 por un risco abajo, y £sta es la fecha en 
que no se sabe del santo ni el rastro de Juan Grande. 

Y Juan Chiquito, como m&s sabio qued6 lleno de fortuna a cuenta 
de sus antecedentes. 


Una vez Pedro de Urdemalas prometi6 matar a Juan el Astuto. 
Juaa el Astuto encontrd una vez a Pedro y no sabiendo que hacer 
para evitar a Pedro tom6 una gran piedra en la cabeza, y cuando 
Pedro se acerc6 ie dijo: — lAy, amigo Pedro, qufe cansado estoy con 
esta piedra! Si lasueltoel mundoseacabari. Y Pedro de Urdemalas 
le dijo: — Pues pigame a mt mis veinte pesetas y asf no se acabari el 
mundo para tl. — Pues sujetame aqul la piedra para irte a buscar el 
dinero a casa. Pero ten cuidado que no se te caiga. Pedro acept6 
y se qued6 cuidando la piedra para que no se acabara el mundo. Pasa- 
ron horas y horas yjuannoregresaba. Y Pedro cada vez mis cansado 
ya se sentfa desfallecer. Por Ultimo ya de noche y ya extenuado de 
cansado que estaba, dijo: — iQu£ se acabe el mundo! — y tir6 la 
piedra. El mundo no se acab6 y Pedro prometi6 vengarse de Juan y 
le persiguid sin tregua. Y despufe Pedro le jug6 una buena a Juan 


Este era un hombre que tenia un asno muy vtejo que ya no le pagaba 
ni tan siquiera la yerba que se comfa. Un dfa el hombre le dijo a su 
espoea: — Si me das esas piezas de oro que has ganado pronto salgo 
de este asno viejo que ya no sirve para nada. La mujer convino en 


44 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

eso y el hombre se fu£ para el pueblo para vender el asno. Y al D^ar 
al pueblo le puso unes onzas de oro al asno debajo de la cola, y empei6 
a gritar: — Vengan a comprar este asno que caga onzas de oro. Y 
vinieron muchos a ver lo que pasaba y vteron que sallan unas onzas <le 
oro. Y Pedro les advirti6 que era de tres en tres dfas que pasaba b 
operad6n. En seguida un hombre viejo se lo compr6 y le di6 a Pedro 
una gran cantidad de dinero. Y se fu£ para su casa muy oHiteota 
El otro se f u£ y abasteci6 al asno muy bien y cuando se lleg6 el dia de 
la operaci6n comenz6 a darle ejenncio para que c^;ara onzas de era 
En poco m&s lo mata, d&ndole palos por las patas y pcv la cabeia, 
pero nada que brotaba onzas de oro. Y no sabfa el hombre que era 
todo la astucia del otro que le habla puesto las onzas debajo de la cola. 


Una vez habfa un senor que alquilaba sirvientes pero nunca la 
p^aba. Sali6 Pedro de Urdemalas a buscar colocact6n y se alquiK 
con £1. Primero el sefior le mand6 a tumbar un monte y como a 
media noche los viejos de la casa les mandaron una comida. 

El dta stguiente lo mandaron a arar con los bueyes, pero le Sb 
tanto hambre que tuvo que matar un buey para com^rselo. Vut a h 
casa y el senor le pregunt6 donde estaban los bueyes. Y Pedro de 
Urdemalas le dijo: — Me com! uno, 

Despu^s lo mandaron a banar unas mulas y eran tan malas que la* 
ahog6. Lleg6 a la casa y el senor le pregunt6: — '<!D&ide estAn mis 
mulas? Y Pedro respondi6: — Las ahogu6. 

Por la noche el viejo y la vieja lo Uevaron a un saltxt para ecbarlo, 
[lero il los ech6 a ellos primero y les grit6: — AI1& van los cascaietea. 
Ahora soy yo el rico. 

(Version a.) 

Una vez habfa un hombre que tenia un hermano. Este bombre se 
llamaba Pedro. Un dfa el hermano se (ui a trabajar y Pedro le dijo: 
— Tfi tienes que pasar por un rlo donde encontrarb una ptedra 
redonda. No te pares en etla por que f&cilmente te puedes caer. 
Has deencontrar un hombre bobo pero no te flesde £1 que te puede 
dar un pescozdn. Tambi^n pasar^ por donde esti un perro flaco. 
Ten cutdado que te puede morder. 

Por fin Ileg6 a una casa que era de un gigante, el cual estaba al- 
quilando peones por meses. EI pe6n que entrara tenia que trabajar 
con una orden que el que le diera coraje de uno de los doe le sacaba 
una lista de pellejo. Un dfa le di6 coraje y le sacaron una Itsta de 
pellejo al hermano de Pedro y se fu6 otro viaje a bu casa. 

Cuando Ileg6 a su casa, Pedro se tu€ a casa de ese individuo dtciendo 
asl asu hermano; — A mf no me pasaloque ati tehapasado. Pedro 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 45 

paa6 por el rfo donde estaba la piedra y no la movJ6, por el hombre y 
no le di6 el pescozdn, por el perro y no lo mordi6. 

L1^6 a casa del gigante y se alquild con las mismas condiciones que 
el primero. Un dfa el gigante le dijo que tenfa que ir con 41 a buscar 
agua. Entonces se fueron. El gigante cogi6 dos baniles, uno en la 
cabeza y otro en un dedo. Pedro se fak adelante para el do. Cogi6 
un pico y una pala y se puso a hacer una zanja. Cuando lleg6 el 
gigante, le pregunt6 a Pedro qu£ hada. Entonces £1 le dijo que iba a 
llevar el rio a bu casa. £l no iba a llevar aquellas chispas de agua a 
su casa para cada rato estar buscando agua. Entonces el gigante le 
flijo que lo dejara que €\ no iba a llevar una cosa tan peligrosa a su 
casa que 61 llevaba la necesaria. 

Otro dia le dijo que tenia que llevarle las ovejas, ri^ndose a su casa. 
Entonces Pedro cogid un cuchillo y se fufe donde las ovejas y les cort6 
el labio de arriba. Cuando las Ilev6 a la casa del gigante, le pregunt6 
a Pedro que habfa hecho. Entonces i\ le dijo que si no le habiadicho 
que le llevara todas las ovejas ri^ndose. 

Otro dfa le dijo que se las llevara bailando, y €i las cogid y le cort6 
una pata a todas. Otro dfa el gigante le dijo que iban a hacer una 
comida para ver el que m&s comiera. Entonces Pedro cogid la piel 
de una oveja y se la amarrd delante del abdomen y mand6 a preparar 
una camisa grande. 

Ll^6 el dia de la comida, y Pedro una cucharada se la echaba por 
la boca y muchas por el saco de piel que tenia delante del abdomen. 
Por fin, ya el gigante no podia comer m&s pero Pedro continuaba 
oomiendo. Entonces el gigante le dijo a Pedro que le daba una gabela 
para comer y si lo cansaba le sacaba una lista de pellejo. Entonces 
Pedro se fu^ donde estaban unas mujeres lavando, cogid un cuchillo y 
se cortd la piel que tenia amarrada delante del abdomen, y cay6 la 
comida al suelo. 

Entonces les dijo a las mujeres que estaban lavando que si pasaba 
por all! un gigante corriendo que le dijeran que si le querfa alcanzar 
tenfa que cortarse el abdomen segtin hi lo habfa hecho, para que saliera 
la comida. 

Cuando el gigante pasd le preguntd a las lavanderas que si por alif 
no habfa pasado un hombre corriendo. Y ellas le dijeron que les 
habfa dicho que si lo querfa alcanzar, tenia que cortarse el abdomen 
para botar la comida. El gigante se cort6 el abdomen y cay6 muerto. 

Pedro estaba un poco mis adelante, arriba de un Arbol ri^ndose cuan- 
do vi6 que el gigante se habfa matado 41 mismo. Entonces Pedro 
ee ape6 y se fu£ a casa del gigante y se hizo dueiio de todo lo que tenfa. 


(50) Habia una vez y dos son tres que habia un hombre que se Uamaba 
Juao Bobo y se fu£ a colocar. Cuando hubo andado mucho, lleg6 a 


46 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

una casa. La casa era del diablo y dijo: — Mqul pueden alquilarme? 
— SI, — dijo el diablo, — Pero para la comida y el almuerzo es un 
huevo y un canastD de pan. Y el que le d£ a>raje se le saca una lista 
de pellejo. 

(29.50) Juan Bobo le dijo que estababien.yalir a trabajar tenia que 
ir con una perra, y hasta que no se viniera la perra que ^1 no se viniera. 
AI otro dia se fu^ la perra adelante y Juan Bobo atr&s. Cuando 
llegaron Juan Bobo se puso a trabajar y eran las doce y media y la 
perra no se iba. Cuando llegaron las dos de la tarde, se fu6 la perra 
y Juan Bobo atr&s. Cuando llegaron le pusteron a Juan Bobo un 
huevo y un canasto de pan. El se conii6 el huevo con un bollo de pan. 
Cuando acab6 le quitaron el plato y el canasto de pan y lo puso en la 
alacena, y se fueron. Cuando llegaron las ocho de la noche estaba 
Juan Bobo trabajando. AI momento la perra se fu6 y ^1 se le fu£ 
detr&s y a Juan Bobo le Ai6 coraje. EI diablo le pregunt6 si tenia 
coraje y le dijo que como no le iba a dar coraje, y el diablo cogi6 y le 
sac6 una lista de pellejo. Juan Bobo se fu6 y se lo cont6 a Pedro de 

(50) Pedro sefu^acolocardondeestaba Juan Bobo,y lepreguntd al 
diablo que si habia trabajo. El diablo dijo: — 51, pero para la comida 
yel almuerzo es un canasto de pan, y el que led£ coraje se lesaca una 
lista de pellejo, y el mayordomo es una perra. — Sf , esti bien, — dijo 
Pedro. AI otro dIa se lueron la perra adelante y Pedro detr&s. 
Pedro cort6 una vara y le cay6 a varazos, y la perra se vino corrieodo. 
El diablo le dijo: — i Porqu^ te has venido tan pronto? — Por que la 
perra se vino. Le dieron uh canasto de pan y un huevo. yseeentd. 
Se puso a comer pan y se comi6 un canasto de pan y dej6 el huevo 
enterito, y le pusieron otra canasta y al Ultimo se la comi6 con el 
huevo, y todos los dias le hacia lo mismo. 

Un dla el diablo le dijo que el que agujerara una palma le 
daba un burro lleno de oro y hizieron la apuesta. Pedro se fu£ por 
la noche con una barrena y agujer6 la palma y la llen6 de sebo, 

A! otro dla se fueron y el diablo meti6 el dedo y se le parti6 y Pedro 
de Urdemalas meti6 el dedo y pas6 al otro lado y le di6 el burro lleno 

El diablo dijo: — Vamos a hacer una apuesta de un burro lleno de 
oro, el que llcve una vara mis lejos. 

Pedro: — Barrita, barrana, que vaya y caigas en Duana y mates la 
vieja que m^ vieja haya. 

Diablo: — No, no no tires por que me matasa mimadre, — y le di6 
cl burro lleno de oro. 

Pedro estaba en la hnca con el diablo y vi6 en un irbol un pichdn. 
Le cay6 a piedras y el diablo le dijo que no le tirara que era su mujer, 
y Pedro sigui6 tir&ndole y el diablo le repiti6 lo mismo. 

Pedro: — ^Y a V. le da coraje por eso? 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 47 

Diablo: — No eso no me da coraje. Pedro le sigui6 tirando. 

Diablo: — No le tires que es mi mujer. 

Pedro: — ^Y a V. le da coraje? Diablo: — ^Cfimo no me va a dar 
coraje si me vas a matarami mujer? Pedro le sacd lalistadepellejo 
y se iai. 



(50) Era una vez una vieja muy rica. No le duraban mucho tiempo 
los alquilados. Un dla pas6 una seiiora con un muchacho. Ella la 
Uam6 y le dijo que a le alquilaba a su hijo. La seiiora contest6 que 
si y quedaron a dos pesos mensuales. La anciana le explic6 los trabajos 
que el muchacho tenfa que hacer; buscar agua, llevar a darles a los 
caballos y baiiarlos. 

Convino el muchacho con la anciana en que al primero de los dos 
que le diera coraje se le sacaria una lista de pellejo desde el cerebro 
hasta el tal6n: — No tengas cuidado que a mf nunca no me da coraje 
y de un muchacho menos. 

Al dfa siguiente ella lo mand6 a buscar agua, despu^s a banar los 
caballoB. Al otro dfa lo niand6 a buscar leiia, no habiendo m&s. 

(33) El muchacho le cort6 la pata a los chivos y a los cabros, las 
hizo un paquete y las llevo. 

(73) Lo mand6 a buscar agua y llev6 un pico y una pala y le trajo 
el rio a la casa, por que la vieja querfa siempre tener mucha agua 
y mucha letia. 

Lo mand6 a darle agua a los caballos y 41 le cortd el hodco a todos 
ellos. Cuando ella vid a los caballos le dijo a Juan que porqu^ habfa 
hecho eso, A lo que 61 contest6: — ^Te da coraje? — No, vete 
bliscame los cabros. Los trajo y al asomarse ella a la puerta, lo vi6 
en el estado que 41 los trafa. Entonces si que a ella le di6 coraje de 
todo lo que 41 le hizo mal. Cuando ella estaba dormida, 41 cogid un 
cuchillo, le sac6 una lista de pellejo desde la cabeza hasta el taI6n y 
la vieja se muri6. Juan qued6 rico de lo que ella habia dejado. 


(72) Una vez fu4 Pedro de Urdemalas y se alquil6 en la casa del 
gigante por meses, y el gigante le dijo: — Seiior Pedro, aquf sale un 
cuco todas las noches. Y Pedro le dijo: — No tenga usted cuidado 


48 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

que yo esta noche lo cazo. Y apenas oscurecid se fu£ Pedro abajo 
de un irbol de chino que habfa y carg6 la escopeta. Y al momento 
oy6 que decfan en el firbol: — iCuco, cuco, cuco! Y Pedro le dispar6 
con la escopeta un tiro. Y bajd la madre del gigante y el gigante le 
dijo: — i Ay, Pedro, qu6 ya usted me ha matado a mi madre! — Pues 
usted me dijo que era un cuco que com(a gente. — Pues stibase, que 
qu£ vamos a hacer. Ya no hay remedio. 

(73) Al otro dfa le dijo el gigante a Pedro : — Vamos a buscar agua. 

Y cuando Pedro vi6 que el gigante cogi6 dos cuarterolas en cada mano 
y que £1 no podta con ninguna o^d una azada y un pico y cuando 
lleg6 al rio comenz6 a hacer una zanja. Y el gigante entonces le dijo: 
— iQu6 va V. a hacer, senor Pedro? Y Pedro le dijo: — Me voy a 
llevar el rto, porque yo no voy a estar viniendo todos los dias con esa 
jicarita a buscar agua. Entonces el gigante le dijo: — Pues mejor 
es que no se Ileve ninguna, porque usted se va a llevar la casa con el 
rio, y entonces se vinieron vados. 

(74) Al otro dfa le dijo: — Senor Pedro, vamos a buscar leiia. Y ae 
fueron. Y Pedro se llevd sc^as y bejucos y comenz6 a amarrar el 
monte. El gigante arrancd dos palos de los m&s grandes y le dijo a 
Pedro: — Seiior Pedro, iqu€ va usted a hacer? Y Pedro le dijo: — 
Yo voy a amarrar el monte para llev&rmelo. — No, no se lo Ileve, 
porque entonces el monte se pudre y se pudre la casa. Y volvieron 
sin nada. 

(75) Otro dfa le dijo el gigante a Pedro : — Ahora vamos al monte 
y en el orteg6n m&a fuerte vamos a clavar el dedo a ver quien lo clava 
m&s adentro. Y Pedro se fu£ adelante y bused una barrena y fu£ 
y hizo un agujero en el ortegdn y lo tap6 con tierra. Y cuando fu£ el 
gigante tir6 el dedo y lo clav6 todo. Y entonces fu6 Pedro y tir6 el 
dedo por el agujero que habfa hecho y meti6 hasta parte de la mano. 

Y cuando el gigante vi6 que tenia miis fuerzas dijo entre sf: — Ya s4 
que no voy a poder matar a este diablo. V&monos a casa. 

(76) Por la noche Pedro sabfa que aquella noche lo iba a querer 
matar el gigante. Hizo un muiieco de hojas de plStano y lo visti6 con 
su ropa y lo acostd en el catre y lo arrop6 bien. Y entonces €1 se meti6 
abajo del catre. 

Cuando el gigante creyd que ya Pedro estaba durmiendo se levantd 
poco a poco y c(^6 la maceta del pilar que pesaba dncuenta libras 
y tjii donde £1 estaba acostado y le buscA la cabeza y le di6 con todas 
sus fuerzas tres golpes, y volvid y se acostd. Entonces madrugd 
bien temprano para irse a buscar pl&tanos para ir a comerse a Pedro. 

Y cort6 una carga buena de pl4tanos y se voIvi6 para su casa. Y 
cuando iba Uegando vi6 a Pedro asomado por una ventana con una 
venda en la cabeza. Y cuando lleg6 ledijo: — Seiior Pedro, jqu£ tal 
ha pasado la noche? — No muy bien, porque parece que vino un 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 49 

zancudo y me ha dado tres picotazos en la frente, que me tiene con 
dolor de cabeza. Y entonces dijo el gigante entre si: — fete diablo 
no tiene muerte. 

(77) Y otro dia le dijo; — Hoy vamos a tirar mar afuera a ver 
quien tiene m&s alcance. Y se fueron. Y el gigante dijo: — Vamos 
a tirar. Y tiF6 el gigante y dijo: — Lanza, lanza, cae en Franda. 
Y entonces Pedro tir6 y dijo : — Lanza, lanza, cae en Francia y r6mpele 
la panza a la m&s vieja de Francia. Y el gigante dijo: — Seiior 
Pedro, no vuelva a tirar la lanza, porque 4sa es mi abuela y usted la 
vaa matar. 

(50) Despute hicieron un arreglo que el primero que le diera coraje 
el otro lo matara. Y al otro dfa le dijo el gigante a Pedro : — Seiior 
Pedro, usted me va a hacer un trabajo en los pl&tanos. Y Pedro le 
dijo que si, y (u6 y lo puso a trabajar. Y Pedro le dijo: — j Usted 
quiere este trabajo por el parejo? Y el gigante le dijo que sf. Sigui6 
Pedro trabajando y todo lo hizo por el parejo, pl&tanos y todo tum- 
bados. Y cuando el gigante fu^ a ver el trabajo y vi6 que Pedro 
todo lo llevaba por el parejo, le dijo: — Seiior Pedro, iqu^ ha hecho 
usted? Ueted me ha desmolido la finca. — ■! Y que a usted le da coraje 
por eso? — Por eso no. A ml no me da coraje. 

(39) Al otro dfa le dijo el gigante: — Vfiyase a hacerme un trabajo 
con esa perra y cuando la perra se venga se puede usted venir. Pues 
siguid trabajando y ya eran las doce y la [>erra no se iba. Cort6 Pedro 
un fuete y le dt6 a la perra una buena azotada y la perra sigui6 para 
la casa. Y cuando lleg6 le dijo el gigante: — iYa usted se vino? — 
St, sefior; usted me dijo que cuando la perra se viniera me viniera yo 
tambi£n. Sf, sefior, asf (u4. ^ Y a usted le da coraje por eso? — No, 
seiior, no me da coraje. 

(24) Un dIa venia Pedro por un camino y vi6 a un senor que venla 
con un caballo, y se sacd un estudio para quitarle el caballo. Cogi6 el 
sombrero y lo tir6 como tapando alguna cosa. Y entonces vino 
el sefior del caballo y le dijo : — jQu^hacesalll? Y Pedro lerespondi6: 
E^toy tapando unos pichondtos de urdiera. Pedro de Urdemalas 
se habia c^ado y tenia tapada la cagada abajo del sombrero. Y 
entonces le dijo al del caballo: — Sujete usted este sombrero y pr^teme 
el caballo y qu^deseme aquf mientras yo vengo. Y asf lo hicieron. Y 
se fu£ Pedro de Urdemalas en el caballo y el hombre se qued6 con el 
sombrero. Cuando ya hada mudio tiempo dijo el hombre: — Ya 
£ste no va a volver. Y meti6 la mano, poco a poco para coger a los 
pidiondtos y se engrudd de cagada, y dijo: — Es derto que me la 
urdid ese Pedro de Urdemalas. 

( Version a.) 

(50) Este Pedro era un hombre que se elogiaba de mucho poder y 

valor, y aunque careda de ambas cosas, con su astuda sola enganaba 


50 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

a cuantos lo trataban. Un dia fu£ a pedir colocad6n a la casa de m 
gigante cuyo m£todo era dar colocactdn a aqu61los que le igualaban 
en fuerzas. Guiado por su arroganda el gigante le concedi6 d entpleo, 
did^ndole que sotamente tendrfa que ayudarie en sus faenas. 

(73) El primer dfa lo convid6 para que le trajera doe barriks dc 
agua. Pedro cogi6 una pala, y no hadendo caso de los barriles se 
puso a cavar una zanja. — iQai haces, Pedro? — le preguntd d 
gigante. — Pues voy a Hevar el rio a la casa, porque yo no voy a eslar 
cargando agua todos los dfas en chisi>as de barriles. — i Ay, Pedro, vai 
a inundarme la casa! No Ueves ^ua. Ya aabes, Pedro, que de estt 
mode habfas de escaparte de tu trabajo. 

(74) Al dfa siguiente fueron los dos a buscar lefla. En un aolo 
momento hizo el gigante un gran haz de leiia y se aentd a aguardar a 
Pedro. Viendo que Pedro se tardaba mucho se fu£ a ver que estafaa 
haciendo, y le pregunt6 : — i Qu£ haces, Pedro ? — Estoy cortando csto 
bejucos para amarrar la montana y Uev&rmela. — Quita, Pedro, — 
dijo el gigante, admJrado, — yo no te voy a permitir que Ueves lai 
sabandijas a casa. No Ueves lena. 

(75) Viendo el gigante que no encontraba nada difldl pata Pedro, 
un dfa le dijo que la maiiana siguiente tenfa que barrenar el dedo en 
una palma que habfa en el patio. Durante la noche Pedro estuvo 
pensando como se las harfa para salir bien. Se prcqxirdonA um 
barrena y despuds de haberle hecho un agujero a la palma de un lado 
a otro lo ocult6 con cebo. Cuando lleg6 la hora de la ejecud6n cos 
gran tranquilidad y confianza traspas6 la palma por el agujero con d 

(77) Por fin lo convid6 el gigante [>ara disparar en desaflo das 
Aechas, y Pedro de Urdemalas teniendo que tirarla a mayor diftfanda 
La acci6n fu6 ejecutada pHmero por el gigante, y como ya Pedro saUa 
que sus fuerzas no podfan igualar a las del gigante recordd que haUa 
oldo dedr que la bisabuela de 4ste era la de nUis edad en Francia, y 
con adem4n de atirmacidn se par6, y cogiendo la flecha, dijo: 

— Lanza, lanza, lanza, 
r6mpele la panza 
3 la vieja m&a vieja 
que se halle en Franda. 

Entonces el gigante, sujet&ndole la mano le dijo : — Si has de matar 
a mi bisabuela que quiero tanto no dJspares. QuMate por ah(, que 
yo te mandar^ dar el almuerzo, pero no vuelvas a meterte en mis 

Y aqui termina la escena, y asf conocemoe que *ste era el modo de 
vivir de nuestro ya conocido Pedro. 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 



(50) Muchos alios atr&s cuando los espanoles comenzaron a poblar 
a Puerto Rico vino un espanol muy malo. Sieinpre colocaba a la 
genie, pero era con una condicjfin, y esta conc)ici6n era que tenia que 
trabajar hasta que cantara el cuco. Pero como el cuco nunca cantaba 
todos saltan perdiendo. Y lo que pcrdlan era una lista de pellejo. 
Al An todos se enojaban y sallan de la casa de este hombre con una 
lista menos de pellejo. 

(78) Habia otro ptcaro que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas de lo 
malo que era y oyendo decir del mal amo dijo que con ^1 no iba a hacer 
lo que habia hecho con los otros. Vino a la casa del hombre y se 
a]quil6 con la misma condici6n que los otros. Per la maiiana le 
pusieron para comer un huevo con dos batatas, pero 61 se comi6 el 
huevo y pidt6 otro para comfrselo con las batatas. Y entonces se 
comi6 las batatas y pidi6 mAs para comer con el huevo. Y as! que 
ya eHtuvo bien lleno se fu^ a hacer sus oficios. 

(75) La mujer del hombre le mand6 a buscar agua pero llegd la 
nochc y viendo que no venia lo lueron a buscar y le preg;unt6 el duerio 
que por qu6 hab(a tardado. y Pedro le respondi6 que estaba haciendo 
una canal para llevar el agua a casa. Al duei^o le did coraje y entonces 
Pedro ie dijo: — Si a ustod le da conije le arranco a usted una lista 
de pellejo. Y el hombre contestd: — No, no tcngo coraje. 

(74) Despufe lo mandaron a buscar tefla pero viendo que no venfa 
fueron a buscarlo y lo encontraron tumbando el bosque. Entonces el 
MeAor le dijo que por qu^ no le habfa llevado la feiia y ^1 le cnntestd que 
estaba tumbando el bosque para no tener que buscar m&s lena. 

(73) Por la ROche el marido Ic dijo a su mujer que Pedro le queinaba 
la podenda que u no »e le iba a arruinar y como el trato era hasta que 
cantaran los cucos. lo mejor que debia hacer ella era subtrse a un palo 
y cantar como cuco. Ella asf lo hizo pero Pedro que la oy6. dijo: — 
Cuco eo este tiempo. — y cogiendo su escopeta, le tir6 un tiro y matd a 
la mujer de su amo. Cuando el espaAoI lo supo no »c pudo cuntener 
dd coraje y Pedro tu6 el que le arranc6 una lista de pellejo. El Ic 
tavo que dar la mitad de su capital. 

^^f AHO (80): LA USTA DB PELLEJO (50). 

^V (79) Habfa una vezun seAor que tenia treshijas. Eate seAor estabt I 
Hvabajaodo, y un dfa sali6 Pedro de Urdemalas a alquilarsc con £1. Em J 

Vfior estaba en la tala y le mand6 a la casa a buscar tres amda*. 

Y cntonco Pedro les dijo a taa tn» hijas de ese seOor que lo quisiemn, 

52 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

y ellas le respondieron que no podfa ser porqueellaseran senoritas 
recatadas. Entonces Pedro se asom6 a la puerta y le grit6 al senor 
que estaba en la tala que si eran todas tres senoritas y el senor le 
respondi6 que sf. Y al contestarle el padre de las muchachas que si 
y al ofrlo ellas, pues no pudieron menos que quererlo. Y viendo ese 
senor que Pedro de Urdemalas tardaba con las azadas se vino para su 
casa y halld lo que habfa hecho Pedro de Urdemalas con sus hijas. Pedro 
sali6 corriendo y se fu£. 

(80) Y en el camino se encontrd con un cabro y lo cogi6 y lo mat6 
y ae echd las tripas del cabro dentro del seno. Y al pasar por donde 
estaban unas mujeres lavando se di6 una puiialada al seno y dej6 las 
tripas allf, y les dijo a las mujeres: — DIganle a ese hombre que viene 
detr&s de mf que si quiere alcanzarme que haga lo que bice yo, que se 
tire una puiialada al seno y deje las tripas allf. Entonces Pedro de 
Urdemalas se fu£ corriendo cuando el hombre que Ilegaba adonde 
estaban las mujeres les pregunt6 si Pedro de Urdemalas habia pasado 
por allf. Ellas le dijeron que sf y que si lo querfa alcanzar que hidese 
como £1 habfa hecho, que se tirara una puiialada al seno y dejara las 
tripas allf. Y entonces el hombre bnito lo hizo y qued6 muerto. 

(50) Y entonces Pedro de Urdemalas sig:ui6 su camino y al fin lleg6 
a una casa donde vivfa un gigante y se alquild con £1. Hicieron el 
trato que el primero que se enojara tenia que sacarse una lista de 
pellejo en seguida. El gigante lo mandd a buscar agua en una canasta 
y £1 se puso a agrandar el pozo. Ya iba a oscurecer y no venfa con 
el agua, y al fin el gigante se fu£ a donde estaba y le pregunt6 lo que 
le habfa pasado que se tardaba tanto. Y Pedro de Urdemalas le dijo 
que £1 lo que queria hacer era Ilevarse el pozo a la casa para no tener 
que venir a buscar agua otra vez. Al gigante no le pareci6 bien esto 
pero no dijo nada. Y Pedro le pregunt6 que si se enojaba por eso. Y el 
gigante entonces dijo que sf, y Pedro le arranc6 una lista de pellejo 
desde los pies hasta la cabeza. 

84. PEDRO Y EL Le6n (8i). 

Una vez habfa un matrimonio y tuvieron un hijo y le buscaron 
nombre y le dieron el nombre de Pedro de Urdemalas. 

Fu£ creciendo y Ileg6 al cuerpo de hombre y un dfa salid a dar un 
paseo a la montana y allf se encontr6 con un le6n y le dijo: — Te voy 
a comer. Despfdete del padre Dios, que te voy a comer. — No, no 
me comas — le dijo Pedro de Urdemalas, — antes de que me comas te 
voy a pedir un favor, y es que hagamos una apuesta para ver quien es 
m&s valiente. Y el le6n le dijo que sf. Y la apuesta consistfa en 
hacer un boquete en un palo con el dedo. 

Y entonces, Pedro de Urdemalas, como era m&s sabio, cogid y 
se fu£ por la noche y tomd un machete y le hizo un boquete al palo. Y 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 53 

otro dfa fueron al palo el le6n y Pedro de Urdemalas. Y llegd el 
le6n y le dijo : — Pues dentre usted el dedo primero que yo. Y Pedro 
de Urdemalas nieti6 el dedo en el boquete que habfa hecho el dia antes. 

Y entonces el le6n Iu6 a hacer el boquete en el palo y se le rompi6 el 
dedo y no le pudo dentrar al palo. V entonces Pedro gan6 la apuesta 
y el le6n no se lo comid. Y todo fu£ por la mafia que dispuso Pedro. 
Entonces Pedro lleg6 y se fu6 con sus padres y el le6n se fu6 para las 

Pedro sali6 otra vez y despufe Ileg6 a la casa de un gigante y le hlzo 
lo mismo porque era mis sabio que nmguno de ellos. 

Y Ileg6 donde una cueva donde nadie entraba porque U^aban 
muchos leones y tigres. Y como ya habia Uegado el tiempo que estaba 
ya barbudo sus padres salieron para ver donde estaba su hijo Pedro. 

Y cuando lo llegaron a ver todos se contentaron mucho porque ya 
hacfamucho tiempo que no sevefan. Y vieron a Pedro que llevaba 
por allf en la cueva un cordero y un plato y una cuchara. Y cuando 
se fueron a venir los padres Pedro ee entristeci6 lo m&s mucho y por no 
ver donde estaban sus padres se cogi6 y se traspasd para otra cueva, 
donde no podfa salir a buscar comida porque tambi^n habfa muchos 
leones y tigres. Y al fin salid de allf y pas6 por un bosque y se vino 
para donde sus padres y se qued6 con ellos. Y ya ellos estaban 
andanos. Y despu^ faltd Pedro y se quedaron los dos viejos solos. 


Era Cristo y llevaba cuatro, y uno de los cuatro era Pedro de Urde- 
malas. Y le dijo Cristo a Pedro: — Pedro, t6 te quedar&s para que 
hf^as el almuerzo para mf y mis otros disdpulos, y yo lo que te encargo 
es que de todoe los cabros uno es para mf , y es lo que yo quiero. TA 
coger&s el cabro mejor que haya, el mSs gordo. Por este camino 
derecho nos seguir&s despu4s que est6 el almuerzo. 

Y cuando vino Pedro con el almuerzo Cristo le dijo: — Yo no quiero 
mi almuerzo con 61 de los discfpulos. Y como no lo quiso el almuerzo 
no le pidi6 la pajarilla del cabro. Y le dijo a Pedro: — Manana se 
van ustedes y matan el cabro y me dan la pajarilla, que no quiero 
m^ comida. Entonces Pedro le trajo el cabro, pern i] se habfa comido 
la pajarilla. Y el Seflor le preguntd : — ^Yqu^hidstecon la pajarilla? 
— Pues Seiior, no fenfa pajarilla. — Pues maiiana lo matas td y me 
traes la pajarilla. — Todos los cabros que est&n en la montana no 
tienen pajarilla. Y era porque Pedro siempre se comfa la pajarilla. 

Y entonces dijo el Seiior; — Pondrfe cuatro montones de dinero y 
este dinero es para el que me diga quien se come las pajarillas de los 
cabros. Y entonces Pedro sigui6 trayendo los cabros al Seiior y no 
se comfa las pajarillas. Pero el Senor no le di6 el dinero, porque 
solamente querfa saber quien era el que se comfa las pajarillas. Y 


54 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

entonces, Pedro desde ese dta para ac& sigui6 trayindole las pajarillas 
todos los dias. 

Y siguieron andando por unos bosques y al fin llegaron a donde 
estaba rezando un vecino y Pedro le dijo al Seiior: — Senor, ^porqu4 
no entra a rezar? Y el Seiior le respondi6: — Porque esos estin 
rezando y estin [>ensando en lo que van a robar. Y al cabo de un 
rato llegaron y el senor de la casa salud6 a Jesds y a sus discfpulos 
y los convid6 a subir, [>ero 41 le dijo que iba de paso. 

Entonces se qued6 en la escalera y all! se apareci6 una gallina de un 
vecino. Y el hombre sali6 y le dijo a su mujer: — Mujer, mira la 
gallina que se nos ha aparecido. Y la mujer le dijo al Seiior: — 
D4me unos granitos de mafz para amarrarla. Y el Seiior le dijo que 
esa gallina no era de ella. 

Y entonces se levant6 y entF6 Pedro de Urdemalas, y le porfiaba 
al Senor y le deda : — Esa 9er& una gallina que se le ha desapareddo 
y quizi tiene hambre. Y el Senor le dijo que se callara, y le dijo: 
— Ahora voy a arreglar a todos los hambrientos que andan por 
el mundo. Y dejd Jesucristo a los disdpulos cinco dIas »n comer ni 
beber para saber lo que Uevaba Pedro de Urdemalas, porque maliciaba 
que llevaba algo. Y Jesds era 61 de adelante y Pedro era il de atrfis. 
Y Pedro de Urdemalas cogfa de las pinas maduras y se las escondia a 
Jestis y se las comfa. 

( Version a.) 

Pues, senor, habfa una vez un hombre muy travieso que se llamaba 
Pedro de Urdemalas. Una vez fu£ a alquilarse a casa del cura. El 
cura lo aquiI6 por dos pesos. Todos tos dfas rompfa algo en la casa 
del cura y nunca cogfa un centavo. Despu6s de estar dos aiios en 
esa casa, le dijo al cura que tenia ganas de salirse, porque estaba 
cansado de trabajar, y tenfa que descansar. 

£1 cura le dijo que si se querfa salir del alquilar que se saliera pero 
losentfamucho. Pedro le dijo al cura que lesacara la cuenta. El cura 
le dijo que no le quedaban m&s que tres centavos. El seiior Pedro, 
al otr esta respuesta del cura se asustd, porque despu6s de haber 
trabajado tres aiios no le quedaban m&s que tres centavos. El seiior 
Pedro dijo que tenia que comerse aquellos centavos donde no hubiera 
mimes y moscas. Los conipr6 de morcillas, pan y otros friquitines. 
Se fu4 andando por un camino. Anda, anda y anda hasta que llegd a 
un sitio aislado y se sentd. Pero no hizo nada m^ que sentarse y en 
seguida se le llend lo que comfa de moscas y mimes. 

Le di6 un coraje tan grande que se puso a echar maldiciones. Siguid 
andando y donde fu6 Pedro cogi6 lo que comla y bot6 la mitad. Una 
vez que H estaba cansado de andar y ya tenfa hambre dijo que se iba 
a sentar a comer. Se le present6 un viejo y le dijo que le diera que 
comer porque tenfa hambre. 


PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 55 

Entonces el viejito no se fu£. EI viejo era Dios. Una vez encontrd 
un puerco y el viejo le dijo : — Ve a coger ese lech6n para com^rnoelo. 
Pedro le dijo: — Miren a este viejo que se estS creyendo que yo soy 
picaro. Ve t(t si quieres. Yo voy a buscar candela. Entonces el 
viejo ta6 y cogi6 el lech6n y Pedro busc6 la candela. Pero antes de 
irse, d viejo le dijo que 61 querfa el coraz6n del puerco. Pero en lo 
que el viejo (u6 a buscar lefia, £1 matd el puerco y se cotni6 el coraz6n. 
Cuando el viejo vino, Pedro le dijo que el puerco no tenia coraz6n. 
Pero el viejo le dijo que tenia pero que estaba bien. 

EL ArBOL (83). 

(83) Habia una vez un hombre llamado Pedro Animala y salid por 
un camino a dar un paseo. Despu^ de poco andar se encontrd con 
doB hombres y estos dos hombres eran San Pedro y San Jos6, y £1 no 
lOB conocfa. San Joe£ y San Pedro le dijeron a Pedro Animala si se 
querfa ir con ellos. Y-.Pedro Animala se fu6, pero cuando iban de 
viaje los cogid un aguacero y se metieron en una casa. Pedro Animala 
se meti6 en el lado que estaba cubierto y San J056 y San Pedro tuvieron 
que meterse en el lado que estaba descobijado. Y al terminar la 
lluvia Pedro Animala mir6 a San Jos4 y a San Pedro y como los vi6 
secos y & estaba poco mojado habiendo estado en la parte cubierta se 
puso a echar maldiciones, p>ero San Jos4 y San Pedro vieron que era 
ignorante y le dijeron que se callara, y que eso le pasaba por ser tan 

Despu^s ellos «guieron su camino y llegaron a una casa en donde 
vivlan los dos santos en el tiempo que vivfan en la tterra. Y cuando 
estaban alU le dijo San Pedro a Pedro Animala un dfa que le matara un 
cabro negro y le llevara la asadura porque iban a dar un paseo. Pedro 
Animala niat6 el cabro, fri6 la asadura y se la comi6. Cuando vol- 
vieron los santos trafan un boUo de pan muy pequenito, y Pedro 
Animala estaba enojado porque decfa que aquel pan no daba para 
nada. Pero los santos no hadan caso de lo que Pedro Animala decfa. 
Lo Uamaron para que comiera y al mismo tiempo le pidi6 San Pedro la 
asadura. Pedro Animala respondi6 que ningfin cabro negro tenfa 
asadura, pero los santos no le dijeron nada y se pusieron a comer. 
Y Pedro Animala no pudo terminar de tanto que habla. Ni tampoco 
pudo terminar el pan que tan pequeilo le habfa [>arecido. Los santos 
le dijeron a Pedro Animala que comla m^ con los ojos que con la 
boca y ti les dijo que era verdad. 

Un dfa San Joe6 se puso a contar un dinero que tenia. Hizo cuatro 
moatones y Pedro, como era tan grosero, le tir6 los montones porque 
dijo que no eran miis de tres. Y entonces San Pedro hizo cuatro 
mcmtfXKs; uno para San Pedro, otro para San Jos6, otro para Pedro 


56 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Animala y otro para el que se habCa comido la asadura del cabro. 
Pedro dijo que se la dieran a £1, que como tenfa hambre se la habfa 

Entonces San }osk y San Pedro le dijeron a Pedro Animala que si se 
querfa ir con ellos para el cielo y que moriHa santo. Y Pedro Animala 
les dijo que no. Y entonces le dijeron a Pedro que les pidiera algo. 
Y Pedro Animala les dijo que le dieran un saco que todo lo que ^1 
quisiera cayera en el saco. Tambi^n les dijo que le dieran una baraja 
que todo lo que 61 ganara fuera para ^1. Y tambi^n les pidi6 un tiple 
que cuando 61 lo tocara todos salieran bailando. Los santos le di- 
jeron que eso no podia ser, y entonces Pedro Animala les dijo que 
no le dieran nada. Pero ellos le concedieron lo que les pidi6. Y 
entonces los santos se fueron para el cielo y Pedro Animala se quedd en 
la tierra. 

(83) San Pedro despu4s de mucho tiempo mand6 a la muerte para 
que se llevara a Pedro Animala. Y cuando la muerte venfa lo m&s 
contenta Pedro Animala le dijo que no viniera con changuerfas si no 
querfa que la echara en el saco. Y la ech6 en el saco y la amarr6 bien. 
A los siete aiios junt6 muchos muchachos y con piedras comenzaron 
a tirarle a la muerte y todita la mataron. 

Entonces mandaron al diablo para que fuera a buscar a Pedro. Ei 
diablo Ueg6, brincando lo miis contento. Y Pedro le dijo que si 
como habia venido tan contento y que por eso lo iba a echar en el 
saco. Y en seguida lo ech6 en el saco y lo amarr6 bien lo mismo que 
a la muerte. Y entonces San Pedro mand6 que lo llevaran al purga- 
torio. Lo llevaron y cuando ^1 vi6 a las &nimas comenzA a tocar el 
tiple y ellas comenzaron a bailar. Entonces San Pedro mand6 per 
& y lo dej6 por el mundo porque no sabia que hacer con 61. 

Al muchcf tiempo que Pedro Animala estaba ya cansado de vivir 
en el mundo reparti6 todo el dinero que tenfa y se fu6 para el cielo. 
En el cielo no lo querfan recibir y 61 tom6 el saco y todo lo que tenia y 
lo tir6 en el medio de la sala. San Pedro lo puso debajo de la mesa, 
y Pedro Animala comenz6 a pelliscarle las piemas a San Pedro. Y al 
fin, como no lo dejaba hacer nada le puso una picdra de candela y la 
puso en la puerta de subir, y alll pellisca a todos los que pasan. 


(83) Pedro Malo era un hombre a quien le gustaba mucho haoer 
maldades; ya la gente no lo podfa soportar, hasta que un dla vino la 
muerte a buscarlo y 61 estaba lo m&& contento para irse con la muerte, 
per^ le dijo que tenfa primero que irle a buscar un p&jaro que tenfa 
en un irbol cerca de su casa. Resultd que 61 tenfa el irbol embreado 
y cuando la muerte fu6 a subir al firbol se qued6 pegada; 61 la dej^ 
pegada al Srbol por un largo tiempo hasta que pudo despegarse y fu£ 
a donde estaba el Sefior sin Pedro Malo y tuvo que volver a buscarlo. 


PorUhBican Folk-Lore. 57 

(84) El estaba decidido a irse, pero que primero tenia que lavarle una 
damajuana y cuando ella se meti6 dentro de la damajuana, le puso un 
tap6n y la tap6. Cogi6 la damajuana, la puso en el cogollo de una 
palnia; 4sta tenia muchos cocos y un dCa vino un coquero a tumbar los 
cocos, se encontr6 con la damajuana y se volvi6 loco de alegrla creyendo 
que era su feliddad; que estaba Ilena de dinero. Quiso destaparia y 
cuando la destapd 8ali6 la muerte y creyendo que era Pedro Malo lo 
a)gi6 por el pelo y lo Ilev6 al cielo. Result6 que no era £1 y tuvo que 
venir a ponerlo de donde lo habia cogido. 

Estaba tan asustsido y era tanto el nuedo que tenia el hombre, que 
cuando lo puso en los pimpollos de la paltna, quiso bajarla tan ligero, 
que cuando iba bajando se cay6 y se matd. Donde ^1 crey6 haber 
encontrado su feliddad encontr6 la muerte. 


(39) Maria Niquitalia se cas6 con un hermano de Pedro de Urde- 
malas. Este hermano era un hombre muy rico y era su compadre de 

Un dfa se puao Pedro a hacer una tala en la orilla del camino, y 
puso un caldero a hacer una sopa por donde el hermano su compadre 
tenia que pasar. Y no tenia nada lumbre. Y el hermano le pregunt6: 
— iCbtao es que puede usted hacer esto? V Pedro que habfa botado 
los tizones y las cenizas y todo cuando vi6 venir al compadre le respon- 
dio.: — Compadre, 6sta es mi felicidad. Este caldero puede cocer la 
comida ^n lumbre ni nada. Y el compadre en seguida le comprd el 
caldero por dos mil pesos. 

(85} Pues entences Pedro tom6 sus dos mil pesos y se iuk par \ el 
pueblo y puso trescientos pesos en tres partes, y despu^ se vino y 
le dijo al hermano: — Compadre, manana vamos al pueblo. Vamos a 
hacer unas compras para surtir una tienda. Y 6ste le dijo: — Sf, 
vamos. Y 61 llegd y se llev6 a! compadre y se despach6 de los trescien- 
tos pesos que habta dejado en cada parte y se despach6 de todo. 

Y cuando llegaron a las dendas le pregunt6 a uno, cambiAndose el 
sombrero: — iQak debo por este picoJ* Y le dijo el dueiio de la 
tienda: — No debe nada. Y asl hizo en los tres comercios. Y el 
compadre lleno de admiracidn le dijo: — ^Qu6 es eso que no le cobran 
nada? Y £1 le dijo que era su sombrero que dondequiera que iba 
hacfa asl y nada le cobraban. Pues tantas eran las majaderias que 
tuvo que venderle el sombrero al compadre. 

(86) Y entonces el hermano se fu* con la mujer y le dijo: — Ahora 
ti tenemos la feliddad. Y al otro dfa se fu£ con unas cuantas bestias 
para el pueblo y todo lo que compr6 lo tuvo que pagar y se vino 
injuriado para matar al compadre. 


58 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Pero ya Pedro hab(a comprado una cabra con una pichona y dej6 la 
pichona amarrada y le dijo a la mujer: — Cuando mi compadre est£ 
aquf tnandas la cabrita adonde mf para yo salir cuando 41 est£ aquf. 

Cuando el compadre lleg6 ella lo mand6 a subir y £1 le dijo que no, 
que solamente venfa a buscar a su compadre. Y entonces ella le dijo: 

— Sybase, que ahora voy a mandar a buscarlo. Y arranc6 carrera 
con la cabrita en las manos, y vino a saludar al compadre y le dijo : — 
Compadre, yo vengo a matarlo. Pero lo dej6 al ver eso. 


(85) Una vez estaba Pedro deseoso de obtener dinero y se vali6 de 
unade sus tretas. Se encontr6 a tresduenosde tiendasydeposit6en 
cada tienda cien pesos y les dijo que cuando £1 viniera con un sombrero 
de tres picos y les doblara un pico le dieran los cien pesos. 

Se fu4 Pedro y a [>oco se encontr6 con un hombre en el caratno. Y el 
dijo que £1 tenia un sombrero de tres picos y con 41 iba a cualquier 
casa de comercio y le doblaba un pico al sombrero y luego le daban 
cien pesos, y nunca le cobraban nada. 

Entonces el hombre le dijo que queria vet la suerte esa. Y se fueron 
entonces a las tiendas donde Pedro tenia depositados los trescientos 
pesos. Al llegar los dos hombres a la tienda seguido Pedro le dobl6 
una punta al sombrero y seguido le dieron los cien pesos. Y despu^s 
se fueron a las otras dos tiendas y allf hizo lo mismo. 

El hombre se qued6 con ganas de comprar el sombrero, y al poco 
tiempo le dijo a Pedro: — V^ndamelo que yo se lo pago bien. Pedro 
no quiso esperar muchas sdplicas y dijo que sf. — jCufinto quiere 
usted por 61? — Dos mil pesos. — No, es mucho. Le doy mil. — 
C6jalo ; pero no se lo debf a de vender. 

Y entonces Pedro cogi6 sus mil pesos y se fu4 corriendo lejos de 
aquel pueblo. Un dia el hombre cogi6 su sombrero y se fu4 a una 
tienda y le dobl6 la punta del sombrero pero nada que le dieron. Y 
fu6 a muchas tiendas y en todas le pas6 lo mismo. No le dieron 
nada. Despu£s pens6 un rato y al fin se convencid que aqu£l era 
Pedro Animala, y cogid el sombrero y lo ttrd hecho pedazos, y dijo: 

— Si yo cogiera a Pedro lo mataba. 

(40) Una vez se encontrd Pedro de Urdemalas en necesidad de 
dinero y le dijo a la mujer que 41 tenia un tiple y que con ese tiple 41 
podfa hacer dinero, haci4ndose ella la muerta, y que cuando 41 tocara 
y le mandara hacer cualquier movimiento que lo hiciera. En seguida 
la mujer se hizo la muerta. Pedro la amortajd. Y en seguida vino 
el compadre de Pedro para ver a la muerta. El compadre vi6 que 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 59 

Pedro estaba sin pena ninguna y le dijo que si como era que estando 
su mujer muerta no tenia pena ninguna. Y entonces Pedro le 
dijo: — Compadre, yo tengo aquf mi instrumento de resucitar a los 
muertos y ya usted verk como yo la resucito ahora mismo. En- 
tonces cc^6 el tiple y le toc6 a la mujer. Despufe de tocar un rate 
te dijo a la muerta:' — Mueve una piema. Y en seguida la muerta 
movi6 una pierna. Entonces de la misma manera le mandd que 
moviera la otra pieroa, y la muerta la movi6 tambi^n. Y sigui6 
Pedro tocando y mand4ndole a la mujer que moviera los brazos, la 
cabeza, y todo hada la mujer. Despu6s el hombre le dijo a la mujer: 
— P&rate. Y ella di6 un brinco y cay6 parada. 

Entonces Pedro le dijo a su compadre: — Ya ve, compadre, que lo 
que le dije es verdad. Y el compadre le dijo: — Compadre, v^ndame 
el tiple. Y Pedro le respondi6: — No, compadre, porque 6sta es la 
suerte mla. Y la mujer dijo tambi^n que no, — Pues, compadre, le 
doy do8 mil pesos por tl. Entonces Pedro se habl6 con la mujer y 
despu^s le dijo a su compadre: — Compadre, si usted vtene y nos 
resucita cada vez que uno de nosotros nos mu^ramos le vendo el tiple. 
Le di6 los dos mil pesos, y at fu£ a su casa con el tiple. 

L1^6 y le dijo a la mujer que tenia un tiple que resucitaba a los 
muertos. Y le dijo la mujer que ella ni crela eso. Y entonces el 
marido C0gi6 un palo y le di6 hasta que la dej6 muerta y cay6 al suelo. 
El hombre cc^6 en seguida el tiple y lo toc6 y le dijo a la mujer: — 
Mueve una piema. Y la mujer no se movia. Y sigui6 tocando el 
tiple y mand4ndole a la mujer que se moviera pero no se movfa. El 
pobre se voIvi6 loco, pues como querla mucho a la mujer y vela que no 
resucitaba se decidi6 matar a Pedro. Y cogi6 un punal y se fu£ a 
matar a Pedro de Urdemalas. 

(80) Ya Pedro lo sabia y cogi6 y mat6 un cabro y le sac6 el cuero 
y se aforr6 de la cintura para arriba y se ech6 las tripas del cabro y 
arrancd a correr y el compadre detr&s. Y cuando iba corriendo pas6 
por una quebrada y allf estaba una mujer lavando, y le dijo: — Por 
aqul va a pasar un hombre que viene detr&s de ml para matarme, y 
dfgale que si me quiere alcanzar que se pegue una putialada y deje las 
tripas aqul como yo, y que en seguida me alcanzarS. Y cogi6 el puiial 
y se di6 una fuerte puiialada y dej6 allf las tripas. Pero 4stas eran las 
tripas del cabro. Y sigui6 corriendo. 

Cuando pas6 el compadre y le preguntd a la mujer que estaba lavan- 
do si habfa visto pasar por alll a Pedro de Urdemalas, ella le dijo que 
sf, y que si lo querfa alcanzar que hiciera como €[, que se habla dado 
una pufialada y habfa dejado allf las tripas para correr mucho. Y la 
mujer le enseii6 las tripas del cabro que crefa que eran las de Pedro de 
Urdemalas. Y el hombre sac6 un puiial y se did tambi^n una putialada 
y se le salieron las tripas y cay6 muerto. Y Pedro se volvid para su 
casa, ri£ndose. 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 







) Juan manda la cerda a tnisa, 

34 : I4fr-i50. 154. 17^. '73. 

184-187, 190, 207; 35:26. 

) Juan mata a su hermano, 34: 

14&-150. 154. '62. 171-173. 

184, 185, 187, 190, 207; 35: 

) Juan mata los polios, 34 : 146, 

147. 149. 150, 154. 184-186, 

207: 35:34- 
} Juan mata la vaca, 34 : 146. 

147. '50; 35:26. 
) Juan vende la vaca al santo, 

34: 152. 
) Juan vende la came a las mos- 

cas, 34 ■■ 147. 150-155. 181. 

193: 35; 26-27- 
I Juan echa una aguja dentro de 

una canasta, 34 : 156, 157, 

187. 193- 
Juan echa a su hermano a los 

animales, 34 : 156. 
Juan echa una carrera con la 

olla, 34 :i56, 157, 187. 
Juan va a las bodas de su her- 
mano, 34 : 157, 180, 205, 206. 
Juan vende un pavo, 34 : >57- 

159, 170, 173. 180- 
Juan calienta a su abuelita, 34: 

159. 160. 
Juan pierde su dinero, 34 : 161. 
Juan y el cura, 34 : 161. 
Juan en la casa de los bandidos, 

34 : 162. 
Juan se limpia con un trapo 

del fog6n, 34 : 162. 
Juan entierra los rabos de los 

cerdos, 34 : i6a, 172. 
La hija coja del rey, 34 : 163. 
Juan hace reir a la hija del rey, 

34 : '63. 
La gallina que tenia s6Io una 

pata. 34 : 164. 

) Incidents. 

(21) i Cuanto cuesta el burro? 34: 

(22) El muHeco de brea, 34 : 164. 

(23) Juan y los quesos, 34 : 165. 

(24) El pajaro virtuoso, 34 : 165: 

(25) Cuando Juan se casd, 34 : 166. 

(26) Juan se va a misa, 34 : 166, 167. 

(27) Patelin. 34 : 168. 

(28) Huevos de yeguas, 34 : 168. 

(29) Juan regresa con el perro, 34: 
168. 169: 35 : 45-47. 49- 

(30} Juan lleva una carta al diablo. 

(31) Juan (Pedro) no quiere casarse 
con la hija del rey, 34 : 170, 

171. >84; 35:36-42- 

(32) Juan tira piedras en vez de 
quesos, 34 : 170. 

(33) Juan corta matas de pl&tano y 
las patas de los novillos, 34: 
172; 35:47- 

(34) Juan mata a una vieja, 34: 

172, 173- 

(35) Juan, 'a mujer y su cortejo. 34; 

(36) El p&jaro adivino, 34 : 174. 

(37) Juan se cae de un palo, y ae 
muere cuando el burro menea 
la cola, 34 : 174-176- 

(38) El conejo que llama a bu amo, 
34 : 176. 

(39) La olla que calienta el agua sin 
fuego, 34 : 176. 177- 179; 35: 
31, 35-36. 37. 57- 

(40) El pito que resudta. 34 : 176, 
178; 35 : 36. 37. 58-59- 

(41) Juan dembra clavos, 34 : 179. 

(42) Pedro tira a bu hermano deatro 
de un pozo, 34 : 179. 

(43) Juan manda dinero con el vien- 
to. 34 : 180. 

(44) Le pagan por un muerto, 34: 
147. 180-182; 35:40-41. 


Porto Sican Folk-Lore. 

(45) Juan vende centavos, 34 : 183. 

(46) Juan riega el male despufo de 

cortalo, 34 : 184. 

(47) Juan Bujetando el mundo, 34: 

184: 35 : 43. 

(48) Juan ahoga a su bermano, 34: 


(49) Juan vende la came a yo, 34: 


(50) La Ubu de pellejo, 34 : 186: 

44-47, 49-52- 

(51) Juan y la princesa, 34 : 187. 
($2) Juan ae echa eo la cabeza bunxi 

ylefla, 34:187. 
(53) "Medio almud," 34 : 188-190. 
(54} Juan hace hablar a la princeaa, 


(55) El lunar de la princesa, 34: 

192-197: 35:26. 

(56) Juan y los ladrones, 34 : 198- 


(57) Juaa y los bandidos, 34 :20i- 


(58) Juan y loa bandidos bajo del 

4rbol, 34 : 160, J04-207. 

(59) Juan (Pedro) y los objetos 

inigicos, 35 : 2-7, 43-44- 

(60) Braulio el tonto y el enano del 

POTO, 35 : 7-8. 

(61) Juan y la princesa son echados 

al mar, 35 : 8-14. 

(62) Juan se compadece de un 

pcrro, un gato y una culebra, 
35 : 14-17. 

(63) Loa animalea ayudan a Juan, 

35 : 1 7-' 8. 

(64) El gusano ayuda a Juan, 35: 


(65) Juan arregia el asunto de loa 

cabroa, 35 : iS-19. 

(66) El traje de piel de piojo, 35: 


(67) El doctor todolosabe, 35 : 2i- 


(68) El ramo de todas las flores, 35: 


(69) Los animates agradecidos, y las 

adivinanzas de Juan, 35 : 33- 

(70) Las adivinanzas de Juan, 35: 


(71) Juan (Pedro) vende el cuero de 

la vaca, 34: 171; 35 : 39. 
(73) Pedro mata a la madre del 
gigante, 35:47-48. 51. 

(73) Pedro se lleva el rio. 35 : 47-48, 


(74) Pedro se lleva el monte, 35: 


(75) Pedro mete el dedo en el palo, 

35 : 47-48, 50. 

(76) El gigante trata de matarlo en 

el catre. 35 : 40, 42-43. 47" 

(77) Pedro y el gigante tiran piedras 

mar afuera, 35:47.49-50. 

(78) El huevo y las batatas, 35: 


(79) Pedro y las hijas de su amo, 35 : 


(80) Pedro logra matar a su amo, 


(81) Pedro y el le6n, 35 : 52-53. 
(83) Pedro se come las pajarillaa del 

cabro, 35 : 53-56. 

(83) La muerte en el irbol', 35 : 55- 


(84) Lamuerteenladamajuana, 35: 


(85) El sombrero maravilloso. 35: 


(86) El compadre trata de matarlo, 

35 : 57-58. 


Jottmal of American Folk-Lore. 



A POOR Hopi boy lived with his mother's mother. The people 
maltreated him, and threw ashes and sweepings into the house in 
which they lived. They were very unhappy. One day the boy asked 
his grandmother, "Who is my father?" His grandmother replied, 
" My poor boy, I do not know who your father is." — "I want to find 
my father, because all the people treat me so badly. We cannot con- 
tinue to live in this place." Then his grandmother said, "Come, 
grandchild! you must go and see the Sun: he knows who your father 

On the following morning the boy made a prayer-stick and went 
out. Many young men were sitting on the roof of the kivn. When 
they saw him going by, they said, "See where that little boy is gcnng!" 
One of them remarked, "Don't make fun of him! I believe the poor 
little boy has supernatural power." 

The boy took some sacred meal made of com-meal, pounded tur- 
quoise, coral, and shell, and threw it up. When he looked up, he 
saw that the meal formed a trail which led upwards. He climbed 
up; but when he was half way up, the trail gave out. Then he threw 
more of the sacred meal upwards, and a new trail was formed. Aittx 
he had done so twelve times, he came to the Sun. But the Sun was 
so hot, that he was unable to approach him. Then he put new prayer- 
sticks into the hair at the back of his head, and the shadow of their 
plumes protected him against the heat of the Sun. 

He asked the Sun, "Who is my father?" — "I only know childreo 
who are conceived in the day-time, for all children conc«ved in the 
day-time belong to me." 

Then the boy gave to the Sun a prayer-stick, and turned to go 
back. He fell down from the sky, and landed in the Hopi vill^e. 

On the following day he went westward; and when he came to 
Holbrook, he saw a cottonwood-tree. He chopped it down, and cut 
off a piece of the trunk of his own length. He hollowed it out, and 
made a cover at each end. Then he went home. There he took 
some sweet com-meal and prayer-sticks. He carried them to his 
box and entered it. Then he closed the door. He had a small hole 

■ C<Jlected In Zufli, 1910. from "Nick ." 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuSi. 63 

in the door through which he could [leep out. Then he lowered the 
box into the river and drifted down. 

He drifted for four days and four nights, and finally the box drifted 
ashore at the place where the two rivers join. He felt the box striking 
the shore, and tried to get out; but he was unable to open the door. 
Then he took the plug out of his peep-hole and looked out. It was 
about the middle of the forenoon. All his efforts to open the box 
were in vstin, and he thought he would have to die inside. 

In the afternoon a Rattlesnake-Girl came down to the river. When 
she discovered the box, she took off her mask and looked into it. She 
asked the boy, "What are you doing here?" The boy replied, 
"Open the door! I caimot get out." The girl asked, "How can I 
open it?" — "Take a stone and break the door." 

Then the girl broke the door with a stone, and the boy came out. 
The girl said, "Let us go to my house!" She took him along; and 
when they entered, he saw many people inside, — young men, girls, 
and old people. They were all rattlesnakes. They asked him, 
" Where are you going? " The boy replied, " I want to find my father." 
The girl replied, "I will go with you; you cannot go alone." 

She made a small tent of rattlesnake-skins. She carried it down to 
the river, and then entered it. Then they travelled in the tent for 
four days and four nights. Finally they reached the ocean. There 
they saw a meteor, which fell into the sea and entered the house of 
the Sun. They asked the meteor to take them along, and in this 
way they reached the Sun's house. 

When they entered, they saw an old woman who was working on 
turquoise, coral, and white shell. When she saw them, she fain'.ed. 
She was the Moon, the mother of the Sun. After a little while she 
awoke; and the boy asked, "Where is my father?" The Moon 
replied, "He has gone out, but he will soon be home." 

In the evening the Sun came home, and the old woman gave him 
venison and wafer-bread to eat. After he had eaten, he asked the boy, 
"What do you want here?" The boy replied, "I want to know my 
father." The Sun replied, "I am the father of the whole world. I 
think you are my son. When I go into the other world, you shall 
accompany me." Eariy in the morning he said, "Let us go!" He 
opened the door in the ground, and they went out. He sat down on a 
stool of crystal. He took a fox-skin and held it up. Then daylight 
a[9)eared. After a little while he let the fox-skin down, and took the 
tail-feathers of the macaw and held them up. Then the yellow rays 
of sunrise appeared. After some time he let them down, and said 
to the boy, "Now let us go!" He sat down on his stool, and made the 
boy sit down behind. Then they went out into another world.' 

' Hie namtor mH ft waa probaUy China. From here on until the return of tb« boy 
the Mory it baaed od Old-Worid cleneat*. 


64 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

After they had travelled for some time, they saw people with long 
ears (LacokU ianenakwe). When they went to sleep, they c»vered 
themselves with their ears as with blankets. The Sun said to the boy, 
" Look at those people ! When the droppings of bluebirds fall on them. 
they die." The boy said, "How is that possible? How can people 
be killed that wayP Let me kill the birds!" The Sun said, "Go 
ahead! I shall wait for you." Then the boy jumped down, took a 
small cedar-stick, and killed the bluebirds. Then he made a fire 
and roasted and ate them. Tlie people shouted, "Look at this boy! 
He is eating Navahoes!" — "No," said the boy, "these are not 
Navahoes, they are birds." Then he went back to the Sun. 

They went on. About noon they came to another town. The 
Sun said to the boy, "Look! here the Apache are coming to make war 
on the people." The boy saw a whirlwind moving along; and when 
wheat-straw was blown against the legs of the people, they fell down 
dead. The Hopi boy said, " How can people be killed by wheat-straw? 
Let me go down and tear it up." The Sun said, " I shall wait for 
you." The boy jumped down, gathered the wheat-straw, and tore it 
up. The peof^ said, "Beholdthisboy, how he is killing the Apache!" 
The boy replied, "These are not Apache. That is wheat-straw." 
Then he went back to the Sun. 

They came to another town. There he saw people with very long 
hair reaching down to the ankles of their feet. They had a lai^ pot 
in which thin mush was being owked, and onions were tied to its 
handles. The mush was boiling over; and when it hit a person, he 
died. The Sun said, "Look at the Jicarilla Apache, how they kill the 
people!" — "No," said the boy, "these are not Jicarilla Apache. It 
is mush. I will go down and eat it." The Sun said, "Go! I shall 
wait for you." Then the boy jumped down. He dipped the mush 
out of the pot, took the onions from the handles to which they were 
tied, and ate the mush with the onions. The people said, "Behtdd, 
how this boy eats the brains, hands, and feet of the Jicarilla Apache!" 
The boy said, "These are not Jicarilla Apache! It is corn-mush. 
Come and eat with me!" — "No," they said, "we are no cannibals. 
We do not eat Apache warriors." Then the boy went back to the Sun, 
and they went on. 

Finally they came to the house of the Sun in the east. There 
the sister of the Sun waited for them, and she gave them venison-stew 
for supper. After they had eaten, the Sun said to his sister, "Wash 
my son's head." She took a large dish, put water into it, and yucca- 
suds; she washed his head and his body, and gave him new clothing, 
the same kind as the Sun was wearing, — buckskin trousers, blue 
moccasins, blue bands of yam to be tied under the knees, a white sash 
and a belt(?) of fox-skin,* turquoise and shell ear-rings, a white ahirt, 
' More probably a pendant. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuRi. 65 

silver arm-rings, bead bracelets, and a bead necklace. She put 
macaw-feathers in his hair, and a sacred blanket (mtha) over his 
shoulder, and she gave him a quiver of mountain-lion skin. 

Then the Sun said to him, "Go ahead! t am going to follow you." 
Then the boy went ahead. He took the fox-skin, held it up, and the 
dawn of day appeared. Then he put it down and raised the macaw- 
feathos. He held them up with the palms of his hands stretched out 
forward, and the yellow rays of sunrise appeared. Then he dropped 
his hands and went on into the upper world. When he came up, the 
people of Laguna, Isleta, and the other eastern pueblos, looked east- 
ward and sprinkled sacred meal. The Sun said, "Look at the trails 
(the life) of the people! Some of them are short, others are long. 
Look at this one! He is near the end of his trail; he is going to die 
soon." Then the boy saw an Apache coming, and within a short time 
he killed the man whose trail had appeared so short. He saw every- 
thii^ that was happening to the people. The boy said to the Sun, 
"Let me go and help the people!" 

Then he jumped down and went to the place where the Laguna 
people were fighting against the Apache. He told the people to wet 
their arrow-points with saliva, and to hold them up to the Sun, who 
would then help them. He killed ten of the warriors. Then the 
boy went back to the Sun. 

They went on, and saw a number of Navahoes who were going to 
make war upon the Zuiii. He killed them. Then he saw his own 
people, the Hopi. 

A Mexican was playing with his wife. When the Sun saw them, he 
threw the Mexican aside, and cohabited with the woman. He said 
to the boy, " I do not need a wife, for all the women on earth belong 
to me. If a couple cohabit during the day-time, I interfere as 1 did 
here. I am the father of all the children that are conceived in the 

In the evening the Sun entered his house in the west. The boy 
wanted to go back to his own people. Then the Sun's nMsther made 
a trail of sacred flour, and the boy and the Rattlesnake-Woman went 
back eastward over it. At noon he came to the house of the Rattle- 
snakes. The Rattlesnake- Woman who accompanied him said, "I 
want to see my father and my mother. After that let us go on I" 
They entered the house, and she told her relatives that the Hopi boy 
was her husband. Then they went on. 

In the evening they arrived in Hopi. There the boy went to his 
grandmother. An dd chief said, "Behold, a handsome man is going 
into the bouse of these poor people!" He invited him to come into 
the chiefs house. The boy, however, replied, "No, I am going into 
this bouse." The war-chief said, "We do not want you to enter this 


66 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

dirty house." Then the boy replied, "Tell your people to clean the 
house. It is mine. When all of you treated me badly, I went up to 
the Sun, and he helped me." 

On the following evening the chief called a council. The boy went 
there and told all that had happened to him. He said to them, " You 
shall teach the people how to act rightly. The Sun told me to in- 
struct you to forbid all bad actions." The people accepted his instruc- 
tions. They went to tlean his house, and all worked for him. The 
boy gave peaches, melons, and wafer-bread to the poor. Every 
evening after sunset he gave them to eat. The women would come 
with their dishes, and he gave them venison-stew and peaches. He 
said to the chief, " ! teach the people how to act. Even if you are my 
enemy, I must show you how to act rightly." 

After some time, twin children were bom to his wife, — a boy and 
a girl. They had the shape of rattlesnakes. The youth's sister used 
to carry them on her back. When any children saw them and kissed 
them, the rattlesnakes would bite them, and the children died. 


A poor Mexican lived in Los Lunas. Every day he went out to 
chop wood; and when he came home, his little dog would come out 
of the house to meet him. One day he went down to the river. There 
a catfish spoke to him, and said, "What are you doing?" He replied, 
"I am cutting wood." The catfish said, "When you go home, you 
must give me the first thing that meets you." * The Mexican thought 
that, as usual, the dog would meet him, and promised the catfish tn 
bring him. He turned to go home; and when he approached his house, 
his little son came out to meet him. The man began to cry, and said, 
"] must sell you to the catfish. I promised to take you there." He 
then took his own son and sold him to the catfish for a thousand dollars. 
The fish took the boy, and they lived together in the water. 

The boy grew up. He had no clothing. The fish owned an orchard 
under water, in which apples, grapes, and peaches were growing. 

When the boy was grown up, he travelled up the river under water, 
and went as far as Albuquerque. There he saw an Antelope-Giri 
coming down to the water. The catfish said to the boy, "Catch that 
antelope!" He went out of the water and followed the Antelope-Giri. 
She ran up the mountain, and he pursued her. The antelope was 
always a little ahead of him. He followed her the whole day loi^, and 
was led far to the north. Finally he came to a prairie. The antelope 
ran ahead over a low hill, and disappeared from his view. 

■ Heai^ by my informant from a Mexiam In Galup In iSga. 

■ Se« Bolte und Pollvka. a : 318. jifi. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 


When he came to the lop of the hill, he saw a large white house. 
The boy thought, "I have lost the antelope; I think I will stay here 
over night. I roust have something to eat." He entered the house, 
which was entirely deserted. However, a fire was burning in the 
fireplace, and the table was set. He saw tobacco and com-leaves on 
the table, and he made a cigarette and smoked it. Then he sat down 
•If the table, on which he found chili with meat, l»cans, biscuit, and eggs. 
I If did not know who had brought the food. After he had eaten, he 
■-.u down next to the fireplace; and when he looked back, the dishes 
had been taken away, although he did not see any one coming or 
going. When night came, he became tired. He went into another 
room, and he found a bed ready made. He went to bed and went to 
sletp. About midnight he awoke, and he noticed that a woman was 
next to him. He spoke to her, and asked, " How do you come here?" 
She replied. "I live here, I want to marry you. Ask your parents 
and your sisters and your brothers whether they will agree. For four 
nights you may not see me.' To-morrow morning you will not find 

The youth asked, "Who is my father?" The woman replied, 
"Your father lives in Los Lunas. He has a store there. He sold 
you to the catfish, and with the money that he obtained he bought 
a store." And she told him what had happened when hts father sold 
him to the fish. "To-morrow take my horses; they know the way to 
your father." 

The following morning he found himself alone in the house. He 
looked around, Beautiful clothes were on a chair next to his bed, — 
a hat. necktie, overcoat, trousers, and whatever was needed. He 
dressed himself and went out. There he found warm water, comb, 
and soap, a looking-glass, and a towel, and his breakfast was ready 
on the table. Outside there was a buggy with large bay horses and a 
beautiful lap-robe, 

After he had eaten his breakfast, he jumped into the buggy, and 
the horses took him to Los Lunas. There he found his father working 
cm ilie platform in front of his store. When the buggy arrived, the 
man said, "Where do you come from? Where are you going?" 
The >*oung man was invited into the house, and his father aslced him 
what he wanted. The young man replied, " I want to ask you some* 
thing." — "What do you want to ask?" — "Somebody wants to I 
many me." — "Well, if somebody wants to marry you. why don't 
you marry her? I have no right to interfere. You are not my son." 
— "Yes," replied the other, "you are my father." Then his mother 
came in, and he also asked her permission to marry. His mother 
* Amor and Pirchri Bol» und Polfvka. i -. 147. »6t, but alao ■ : 3171 ] : 114. 

68 Jourttal of American Folk-Lore. 

became angry, and said, " It does not concern me if you want to marry, 
you are not my son." — "Yes," said he, "you are my mother." — 
"How do you know that?" Then the young man turned to his father, 
and said, "Is it not true that at one time you went to the river and 
sold to the catfish whatever was going to meet you in front of your 
house? You thought it was going to be your dog; but your boy came 
to meet you, and you had to sell him to the fish." — "Yes," said the 
old man, "it is true." — "The fish has raised me, and I am your son." 
Then the old woman wept and recognized her son, and his parents 
were full of joy to see him. They prepared dinner for him; and after- 
wards they asked him, "Who is the girl that wants to marry you? 
Is she pretty?" The young man replied, "I have not seen her. I 
saw her only during the night." — "Is she rich?" — "Yes, evidently 
she is rich, because she has given me my clothes, and this buggy and 
the horses are hers. I am not g(»ng to see her for four days." His 
father said, "You must see her to-night. Let me give you these 
matches and three candles. You must see whether she is pretty or 

Then the boy drove back home; and when he arrived, he left the 
buggy outside, and somebody unharnessed the horses and put them 
into the stable. He sat down near the fireplace. The table was set, 
and he ate his supper. Then he went to bed and slept. At midnight 
he woke up, and he found the girl next to him. She asked, " What did 
your father say?" He replied, "Father asked me how you looked; 
he asked whether you are rich. I told him that you gave me my 
clothes, and that the buggy and the horses were yours." The girl 
replied, "You will see me after three days." Then they went to 
sleep. The young man, however, waited until the giH was fast 
asleep. He shook her, but she did not wake up. Then he quietly 
took one of his candles, lighted it, and held it over the girl, who was 
lying on her back. She had a gold necklace and gold ear-rings, and 
rings on her fingers. She had beautiful black curly hair, and she was 
very pretty. While he was looking at her, a drop of wax fell on her 
forehead, and she woke up. She said, "Why did you look at me? 
Did 1 not tell you that you must not see me for four days? Now you 
will never see me again, and your house will disappear." He embraced 
her and spoke kindly to her, but she was angry and pushed him away. 
Finally he went to sleep. 

On the following morning at sunrise he awoke, and he found himself 
in the burrow of an antelope. There was no house to be seen, only 
antelope-tracks were all around him. 

Then .the young man was afraid. He did not know what to do. 
He did not know which way he had come, nor which way the Antelope- 
Girl had gone. Finally he started and went eastward. He walked 


Tales of Spanish Provenience front ZuHi. 69 

a whole day. He was hungry, thirsty, and tired. In the evening 
the coyotes were howling around him, and followed his tracks. Later 
on, after sunset, wolves pursued him. He took up a stick and tried 
to defend himself. Finally he found a piii6n-tree, and climbed it. 
There he spent the night. Early in the morning the coyotes and the 
wolves which had been sitting under the tree ran away. At some dis- 
tance he saw a light, and he resolved to go there. He climbed down 
the tree and went in the direction in which he had seen the light. 
After he had gone some time, he came to a fire. A man was sitting 
there. It was Distela Glande [estrella grande) who was camping 
there. He had a whole steer boiling in the kettle, and a big trough 
full of water. Distela Glande said to the boy, "Where did you come 
from?" — "I came from the West." — "Where are you going?" — 
" I do not know." The great star said, "You shall stay with me. You 
shall cook for me and carry water for me. Every morning you must 
kill a steer, boil it, and lill this trough with water." He gave a piece 
of meat to the boy, while he himself ate the whole steer, and he drank 
sixty gallons of water. In the morning he went out. He wore two- 
mile boots, and with every step he made he covered two miles. The 
boy staid in camp, killed the steer, boiled it, and carried water. At 
sunset the great star came back, and found everything ready. This 
was repeated every day. The great star forbade the boy to enter the 
house which was near by. After some time, however, the boy became 
tired, and said, "I should like to know why the star forbade me to 
enter the house; I want to see what is in it." He opened the door 
and went in. In the stable he saw a large bay horse, saddle, bridle, 
saddle-blanket, and saddle-bags. The horse said to him, "Where do 
you come from?" The boy told him how he had camped with the 
great star. Then the horse said, "The big star is going to eat you; 
take good care! To-morrow morning saddle me, and I will carry 
you away." Then the boy went into the other house to the east. 
There he found a well of blue lead. Accidentally he put his foot into 
it, and the lead cut his foot. Then he went out, shut the door, and 
bandaged his foot. 

In the evening the big star came back. They had supper; and 
after they had eaten, the big star asked the boy, "What has happened 
to your foot?" The boy replied, "While I was walking, I fell, and the 
knife and the axe cut me." Then the big star got angry, and said to 
his knife, "Why do you cut my boy? If I tell you to cut my meat, 
then cut my meat, but not my boy." Then he spoke in the same way 
to his axe, and scolded it. They did not reply. He broke the bones 
of the steer, took out the marrow, rubbed it on the boy's foot, and 
bandied it. 

On the fdlowing morning the big star started out again. When he 
had gone twenty steps, the boy went into the stable, saddled the 


70 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

horse, and was ready to make his escape. The horse said, "Take my 
comb and brush and the steer's stomach, and cut out the lead welt 
and put it in my bag." The boy obeyed. The lead well was like a 
wagon-tire, which he put on the horse. Then he mounted, and the 
horse ran westward. 

When the big star had gone some distance, he said, "I believe the 
boy went into the house, and my axe and my knife did not cut him at 
all. Maybe he has made his escape." He turned back; and when 
he came home, he found the door open, and the horse and the boy 
gone. Then he went in pursuit,' and said, "If I catch them, I am 
going to kill both horse and boy, even if they are my horse and my 
boy." Although the horse was running quickly, the big star was 
faster, and came near. The boy saw him coming, and said to the 
horse, "He is coming, he is going to kill us!" Then the horse said, 
"Throw the comb behind you!" He threw it backward over his 
shoulder, and at once it was transformed into a large lain. The 
big star could not cross it, and had to take a long round-about way 
in order to follow the fleeing horse. But be continued in pursuit; 
and when he came near again, the boy cried, "He is coming near! 
He is going to kill us!" The horse said, "Throw the brush over your 
shoulder!" and when it fell down, it was transformed into thick 
timber. The big star could not pass through it, and had to walk 
around it, but he continued his pursuit. When he drew near again, 
the horse said, "Take the steer's stomach and throw it down!" and 
when it fell down, it was transformed into rocks and canyons. The 
big star had to take a long round-about way, but after a while he drew 
near again. Then the horse said, " Feed me some of the lead." After 
the horse had eaten it, he said, "Now hold on to the pommel of the 
saddle and sit tight." Then the horse began to buck, and shot forth 
bullets, which killed the star. When he was dead, the horse said, 
" Now cut off his head and throw it eastward!" The boy did so, and 
it was transformed into the morning star. Then the horse ordered the 
boy to cut out his heart and throw it westward, and it became the 
evening star. The horse ordered the boy to cut out his intestines and 
throw them westward, and they became the seven stars. All the stars 
were made out of the body of the great star. 

Then the boy said, "Now let us go on!" After a while they came 
to a river. There they met a Negro who was carrying a bundle on his 
shoulder. The horse said to the boy, "Let us kill him!" — "How 
shall we kill him?" asked the boy. "Ride close up to him, and I am 
going to kick him." The boy rode up to the Negro, and asked him, 
"Where do you come from?" The Negro replied, "I come from the 
king. I was looking for work, but he had no work." The boy said, 
> See Bolte und PoKvka, a : 140. 


Taies cf Spanish Prooemence from Zuni. 7 1 

" I am going to the king in order to ask for work." The Negro said, 
"Maybe you won't 6nd any," — "I shall go, anyway," answered 
the boy. Then he turned; and as soon as he had done so, the horse 
lacked and hit the head of the Negro, who fell down dead. Then 
the horse told the boy to jump down and to skin the Negro. The 
boy obeyed, and skinned him, beginning at the feet. Then the horse 
told him to put on the Negro's skin; and he himself transformed 
himself into an old ugly horse with hanging hips, and blind in one eye. 
They tied a stone to the Negro's body, and threw it into the river. 
Then they went to the king's house. 

When they came near the town, the horse said, "Go to the king. 
If he says that he has no work for you, tell him that you want to help 
him prune the plum-trees, peach-trees, apple-trees, and grapes; and 
it would be well if the king would allow you to do so." The boy went 
to the king's house and knocked at the door. When the cook came 
out, he said to him, " I want to see the king." The cook went back 
to call the king, who came out. He asked the boy, "What do you 
want?" The boy said, "I want to work for you." — "I have no 
work, for I have enough men to look after my sheep, to cut wood, 
and to do all my work." — "Have you no work at all for me? I am 
sure you have an orchard with peach-trees and pear-trees." — "Yes." 
he said. "Then give me an axe, hoe, and shovel. I am going to 
chop down the trees and spread soil over them, and next year you will 
have an abundance of fruit. Then you can earn a great deal of 
ntoney." When the king's wife heard what the boy proposed, she 
objected, because she thought he would spoil the orchard; but the 
boy said, "If I should spoil the orchard, you may cut off my head." 
Then he made a contract with the king, and they signed their names to 
the agreement. The king gave him a new shovel and hoe, and sent 
somebody with him to show him a small house in the orchard in which 
he was to live. His food was sent to him there. On the following 
morning the boy cut down the trees, and spread soil over them. Then 
new beautiful trees sprang up. 

The king had four beautiful daughters. They had to take supper 
to the boy in the evening; but the three eldest ones were afraid of him, 
and did not want to go. Only the youngest one took food to him. 
The boy lived there for a whole year. The following year the trees 
bloomed beautifully, and were full of fruit. The king had to pay the 
boy for the fruit. 

Then the horse said to the boy, "Let us go to the king and ask him 
whether he will not rather give you one of his daughters in marriage 
than pay you. If he refuses, ask the girls whether they want to 
marry you." 

One day at noon the king's youngest daughter came to bring dinner 
for the young man. She entered the house, but he was not inside. 


72 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Then she looked out, and saw him behind the house, standing near a 
ditch in which he was washing the Negro's skin ; and she saw that he 
was very beautiful and that he was white. After he had washed the 
Negro's skin, he put it on again ; but the girl had seen him. He went 
into the house, and the girl smiled at him. The boy said, "Have you 
been here a long time? 1 have been outside washing myself." The 
^rl said, "Is that so? Let us eat!" Up to that time she had never 
eaten with him. She staid there a long time before she went home, 
but she did not tell her father what she had seen. 

Then the horse said, "Now go to the king and offer to marry his 
daughter." The boy obeyed, and said to the cook, "Call the king." 
The king came out, and asked him, "What do you want, my boy?" 
The boy replied, "1 want to marry one of your daughters." Theking 
laughed, and said, "My daughters do not want to marry you." — 
"Maybe one of them wants me, anyway. If one of them will marry 
me, you do not have to pay me for the fruits in your garden." The king 
said, "Let me try! but I am sure they will refuse you." Then he 
called the eldest one. He said, "Inezelita, come out!" She came, 
and asked, "What do you want, father?" The king said, "Do you 
want to marry this man?" She laughed, and slammed the door and 
went in. The boy said, "Try the next one." Then the king called 
her, and said, "Ancelina, come out!" She came out, and asked, 
"Father, what do you want?" The king asked, "Do you want to 
marry this man?" She became angry, and said, "I do not want to 
have such a man for my husband," slammed the door, and went in. 

— "Well," said he, "ask the next one," — "I am sure she does not 
want to." — "Try it, anyway," The king called her, and said, 
"Ancalina, come out!" She came. "What do you want, father?" 

— "Will you marry this man?" — "No," she said, "I do not want to 
have an ugly husband," slammed the door, and went in. "Now, I 
have one more daughter. She is the prettiest one. I am sure she 
does not want you." — "Try it, anyway." Then the king called, 
"Angelina, come out!" — "Father, what do you want?" — "Do you 
want to marry this man? If you want him, take him!" The Idng 
motioned to her, indicating that he wanted her to refuse. She, 
however, said, "Yes, I will marry him." Then the king became angry, 
and said, "If you marry him, you may not stay in my house." And 
Angelina replied, "I shall go with him." The boy married her, and 
said to the king, "Now you may keep all your fruits, and you do not 
need to pay me." He took her to the small house in the orchard, and 
there they lived. 

About* this time the Navaho attacked the town, and the king's 
Mexican soldiers were killed by them. The people said, "Tell your 

■ See Bolte und Pollvka, 3 : 97. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zuiii. 73 

son-in-law tu go to war with us." Then the king sent a letter to his 
son-in-law. and ordered him to join the army. His wife made cakes 
and biscuits for him, and he accompanied the soldiers. The king had 
a number of sons who also joined the army. When they came near 
ihe Navaho. the boy said, "Don't let us eat now! Let us eat after 
wc have given battle!" but the soldiers did not obey him. They 
ramped, prepared their food, and ate before they attacked the Navaho, 
The Navaho killed many Mexican soldiers. The boy, however, gave 
to his horse some of the lead to eat; and when it had eaten enough) 
the horse began to buck, and killed the Navaho. Then he jumped 
down and scalped them. He put their scalps in his belt and returned 
home. He found his wife in tears, because she believed that he had 
been killed. He left his horse outside and went in, and his wife was 
delighted to see him. He put the scalps outside in the orchard, and 
ihe people saw them. 

After some time the Navaho attacked the king again, and again 
the young man went to war and scalped many of the Navaho. When 
he came home, he put up the Navaho scalps, and the people saw them. 

The Navaho attacked a third time, and the same thing happened 
as before. The Navaho killed many soldiers; but the king's son-in- 
law finally overcame them, and brought home their scalps. The 
pei^le did not understand how he saved himself, while all the other 
9oldier3 were killed. 

Finally his people said, "If (he Navaho come again and he kills 
them, then he shall be our father and king." Before they set out to 
war. the horse said tn the boy, " Let us now appear in our proper form I 
These wars must end. \'er>' soon there will be no more lead left, and 
then I cannot help you." On the following day, when they set out 
to attack the Navaho, the horse appeared as a large bay horse with 
a beautiful saddle, and the young man appeared in his proper form; 
he had taken off his Negro skin. He had a beautiful mustache. 
The king ttaw him, and said, "Since my son-in-law is a beautiful rich 
man, wc must treat him well. Cook for him, and give him the best 
lo eat. He shall be your master." Then the soldiers went to the 
Na%'aho country, and there they prepared food and gave him to eal. 
He gave the remaining lead lo his horse, and told the soldiers, "Now 
you shall see how I fight!" The other soldiers stood there and saw 
htm. I'hc horse began lo buck, and killed all the Navaho. Then 
be said, " Now all the N'a\'aho are dead, and you are »aved ; and from 
now on you shall no longer maltreat me. The soldiers said, "Now 
you are our father, >'ou arc no longer a slave." They took the scalps 
of the Navaho and went home. When Ihcy arrived home, he did 
not go back to lii* orchard, but went into the king's house and took 
the king's place, and his father-in-law was no longer king. 

74 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

3. SACATE CALz6n.' 

Once upon a time there was a poor Mexican woman who had a 
cow and a calf. She had nothing to eat, and no clothes to wear. 
She said to her son, "Sell this cow and the calf in the town." The boy 
aslred his mother, "What shall I ask for the cow?" She replied, " Forty 
dollars." — "And how much shall I ask for the calf?" — "Twenty 
dollars," she said. Then the boy started with the cow and the calf. 

While he was walking along, he met a traveller, who asked him, 
"Where are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going to town to 
sell this cow and this calf." The man replied, "What do you want 
for them?" — "Sixty Dollars." — "I will give you six beans. ■ Each 
one is worth ten dollars, so that is as much as sixty dollars." The boy 
accepted the six beans, and went back home.* 

His mother asked him, "Did you sell the cow and the calf?" — 
"Yes," he replied. "And where is the money?" The boy showed 
her the six beans. Then the mother beat her son, and said, "Go 
away! I do not want to see you any more. Now I have nothing to 
eat, and nothing to live on." 

The mother took away all his clothing and turned him out. He 
had nothing to eat. The boy went his way for three days. Finally 
he came to a level place. There he saw a bird's nest, and four little 
birds in it. He said, "I am going to take this bird's nest and eat the 
birds, because I am hungry." He went along; and when he came to 
a spring, he sat down in order to eat. High grass was growing around 
the spring. He tore it off, and made a pair of trousers, shirt, and hat 
out of it. While he was sitting there, he met God (Lios) ; and God 
asl^ him, "Where are you going?" He said, " I am going eastward, 
and 1 am going to see whether the king has any work for me." — 
"What kind of work do you want to do?" — "I can cook for him, or 
I can chop wood, or I can carry water, — any kind of work will 
satisfy me." God asked, "What are you carrying under your shirt?" 
The boy said, "A bird's nest." — "What do you want to do with it?" 
— "When I am hungry, I shall cook it, and eat the birds." — "Don't 
do that!" — "But what shall 1 eat?" — "Save the birds; and when 
you reach the king's house, they will help you." Then God took a 
package out of his bag and gave it to the boy. It contained meat and 
eggs and bread. He said, "Eat this. To-morrow you will reach the 
king's house." 

The following morning the boy arrived there. He knocl^d at the 
door; and the king sent out his cook, who asked, "What do you 
want?" The boy said. "1 want to work. I can carry water, sweep 
the house, or chop wood." Then the king engaged him. He was 

> Told to Nkk by his grandfather, who heard the Mory near Isleta. 
■ See Bolte tmd Pollvba, i : 440. 


TaUs of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 


shown a small house in the comer of the yard, where he was to live. 
The boy chopped wood, swept the house, and carried water, and every 
evening he went into his house. On account of his grass suit he was 
called "Sacate Calzfin." 

When the boy came home, he put one of his birds on the tabic, 
and at once it was transformed into a lamp which gave beautiful light. 

In the evening the king's daughter sent the cook to carry supper to 
the boy. The cook took it there; and when he reached the house, he 
saw tile l>eautirul lamp on the table. The cook had never seen a lamp, 
because the people used only candles. He went back and told the 
king's daughter that Sacate Calz6n had a new kind of lamp. The 
king's daughter said to him, "Ask him what he wants for it. I will 
givne him a trunk full of money." The cook went back and asked 
Sacate Calzfin, "How much do you want for your tamp.-"' The boy 
replied, "I don't want to sell it." — "But the king's daughter wants 
lo have the lamp." The boy replied, " I do not want any money. I 
will give it to her if she will allow me to sleep under her bed." The 
cook went back and told the king's daughter what the lx>y had said. 
She replied, "It is well. Let him sleep under ray bed." Then she 
took the lamp, and the boy slept under the bed of the king's daughter. 

On the following morning he went back to work, and in the evening 
he went to his house. He put another bird on his table. It was 
inmsformed into a beautiful lamp which gave a light even clearer than 
ihc former one; and when the cook brought his supper, he saw the 
lamp. He went back and told the king's daughter what he had seen. 
She offered two trunks of money for it. The cook went back, and said. 
"The king's daughter offers you two trunks of money for the lamp." 
— "No," the boy said. "1 will not sell it, but she may have it if she 
wilt allow me lo sleep under her l>ed." The cook went back and 
reported what the boy had said. The king's daughter agreed again, 
and the t>oy slept under her bed the second night. 

On the following day he went back (o work, and in the evening he 
put the third bird on his table. It was transformed into a still more 
beautiful lamp; and when the cook came and saw it, he reported to 
the king'ii daughter that Sacate CalzAn had a still more beautiful 
lamp. She offered him ihrt-e trunks of money for it, but again he 
agreed to let her ha^'e it only if she allowed him to sleep under her bed. 

The following morning he worked again, and in the evening he 
put the fourth bird on his uble. It was as beautiful as a gasoline 
lamp. \V1>en the cook brought the supper, he saw it, and told lite 
king's daughter that Sacate Calz6n had a still more beautiful lamp. 
She offered four trunks of money for it, but he did not accept it. The 
boy said, " I will give it to her if she will allow me to sleep on her lied." 
l-'inally sJie rooKnted. 

Abmit (his time the Idng had a quarrel with another king. Sacate 

76 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Calz6n determined to help the king for whom he was working. He 
took off his straw trousers and put on good clothing. He said to his 
wife, "I am going to work for the king with whom your father is 
quarrelling; and when he asks me, I am going to tell him that I have 
married the king's daughter, and I am going to stake my life against 
all his property. About noon I shall stop work, and then you must 
come and bring my lunch." 

Then he went to thf other king. He put on his straw trousers, 
and looked like a poor man. He knocked at the king's door and 
asked for work. The .'ting asked him, "What can you do?" — "I 
can make adobe." — "How much do you want?" — "I want one 
and one-half pesos." — "I will pay you that, and give you a lunch 
besides." Sacate Calz6n replied, "I do not want your lunch. My 
wife always brings my lunch." — "Who is your wife?" — "She is the 
king's daughter." — "That is not true. 1 don't believe it." — "Well, 
let us bet! If my wife, the king's daughter, does not come to bring 
my lunch, you may cut off my head, and you stake all your property 
against it." The king called three witnesses, and they set down the 
bet in writing. Both the king and Sacate Calz6n signed their names. 
Sacate Calz6n said, "I wish my wife would come right away!" and 
the king remarked, "Don't exj»ect her! At one o'clock you will be 
dead." Then the boy said, "I wish my wife would come right away, 
then I should stop work right now." Again the Idng said, "At one 
o'clock you will be dead." — "Oh, no!" said the boy, "at one o'clock 
I am going to own all your property. Your wife and your daughters 
will belong to me." Thus they quarrelled. 

A little before noon the king saw dust of horses like a sandstorm. 
The boy said, " Here my wife is coming." He washed and cleaned 
himself; and soon his wife came, accompanied by soldiers who guarded 
her; and she brought cake, pie, and tortillas; and when they came 
to Sacate Calz6n, they stopped. She alighted; and the king asked, 
"Is that your husband?" She replied, "Yes." Then she showed 
him their marriage certificate, and the king had lost his bet. Sacate 
Calz6n threatened that he was going to cut off the king's head. He 
said to him, "Now in a moment you will be dead." The king said, 
" I will work for you, and all my property shall be youra." 


A long time ago there was a king (L^ya) who was very rich. He had 
six thousand sheep and four thousand cattle and horses. He bad a 

■ Told to Nick by hto tather's Eatber. In put of the itory Nick called the hero "LAla 
BUnco." then be cotrected hinuelf and called him "Utnco BUla." I preaiune the name 
ii a distortion of "Btania Flor." "Flora" is a girl't name Id ZuDi, and i* pronounced 


TaUs of Spanish Provenience from ZtiHi. 



lutiful daughter. He said. "If any one can shear all my sheep in 
day, he may marry my dauRhtcr." All the young men tried it, 

It nobody succeeded. 

The Sun heard about this, and thought he fould try. He Ijecame a 
and went down to Old Mexico. Then Jie travelled westward; 
after he had passed the top o( the White Mountains, he came to a 
ing. There he took his bow and his lightning arrow and shot into 
spring. Ill the fourth world below, his arrow hit some saliva, 
ich was transformed into a person, who came out of the spring 
and sat down on the ground. The Sun saw, him. He was a small 
dark man, and looked like a Zuiii. The Sun said, "Are you here. 
my son ? I want you to go to Old Mexico to the daughter of the Idng. 
If any one is able to shear his sheep in one' day, he is to marry his 
daughter. You shall do so." — " I will trj-," said the boy. The Sun 
»atd, "Somebody shall go with you. Be sure not to eat anything 
that the king may give you. Wait until you come to a lake in the 
southeast. There you will find a large white horse which belongs to 
me. The king's daughter will like to have it. Do not eat until after 
you have caught the horse and taken it to her." The boy promised to 
obey. "You must stay there for twenty-five years. Then come 
back here, and 1 will send you home." 

The boy started on his travels through Old Mexico. Finally he came 
to a mountain. There he met a mountain-lion, who asked, "Where 
are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going to Old Mexico to 
marry the king's daughter. I am going to shear his sheep." The 
mountain-lion said, "May I go with you?" The Imy accepted his 
ofTcr, and they went on together. After some tinie he met a ttear, 
^^ho asked, "Where are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going 
••<i Old Mexico to marr>' the king's daughter. I am going to shear his 
-h«p." The bear said, "May I go with you?" The boy said. 
"Come along!" and they went on. After some time they met a wild- 
tat, whoaskt^, "Where are you going?" He said, "I am going to Old 
Mexico to marry the king's daughter. I am going to shear his sheep." 
— "May I go with >"ou?" The boy said, "Come along!" After 
they had gone some time, they met a wolf, who asked. "Where are < 
you going?" — "I am going to Old Mexico to marry the king's 
daughter." — "May I come along?" The boy accepted him, and 
[itlie>" went on westward. The boy was carr>'ing some sacred meal. 
%vtry now and then he would swallow a little of it, but he did not 
eat anyihins else. Every night they camped, and in the morning they 
went on. 

On the fourth day they reached the top of a Urge mountain. 
There the mountain-lion said, "To-morrow morning at sunrise we 
fthall reach the king's house." They camped, and early the following 

78 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

morning the animals called the boy. They said, "Now you must 
have a name. How shall we call youP" None of the animals knew 
how to call him. After some time the wolf said, " I shall give you a 
name. Sit down on top of the mountain! When your father the Sun 
rises, I shall call you. Then answer!" The boy sat down on the top 
of the mountain and looked eastward. When the sun rose, the wolf 
shouted, "My son, LSIa Blanco!" The boy replied, "What do you 
want? I like that name." Then they went down the mountain. 
At the foot of the mountain the animals said, "We shall stay here. 
You goon!" 

Early in the morning LSIa Blanco arrived at the king's house. He 
saw that the people had tied together the feet of the sheep and were 
shearing them. Some were shearing five sheep, others six sheep. 
He looked into the corral and saw the foreman shearing the sheep. 
While Laia Blanco was standing there, the foreman turned around and 
saw him. He asked, "What do you want? Do you want some work? 
What can you do?" — "1 can help you shear the sheep." The boy 
entered the corral, and they gave him a rope to tie up the sheep. 
He, however, took a sheep between his knees and sheared it. Then 
he caught another one and did the same. In one hour he had sheared 
many sheep. Then the foreman went to the king and told him 
about it. He said, "Come and look at this boy!" The king came, 
and said, "You are a good workman. You can shear sheep well." 
Then six flocks of sheep were driven into the corral, and he sheared 
them. The king asked, "What is your name?" The boy replied, 
"My name is LSIa Blanco." — "I never heard of such a name," 
said the king. The boy continued, and sheared many sheep. One 
flock after another was driven into the corral, and he sheared them all. 
He succeeded in shearing the six thousand sheep all in one day. Then 
he went to the king's house. The king's daughter brought him his 
supper; but he said, "I am not hungry." She urged him to eat, but 
he refused. He staid in the house, and the king's daughter wanted 
to marry him. She said, " I should like to have you for my husband." 
But he refused her, and said, "Watt a while." He said, "It is too 
warm for me in the house. I shall sleep outside." He carried his bed 
to the corral, and put it down among the sheep and pigs. The follow- 
ing morning at breakfast- time the people looked for htm, but could 
not find him. His bed in the corral was empty. Finally they found 
him lying among the pigs, where he had slept. They said, "Get up! 
Breakfast is ready." He, however, swallowed a pinch of sacred meal; 
and when the king's daughter invited him to eat, he refused. She 
said, "You must eat something!" but he replied, "I am not hungry." 

After some time the king's daughter asked for wood for her fire. 
He went out and carried wood for her. He put the wood into the 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuSi. 79 

stove and helped her cook. After some time she saw the people 
going into the corral. He asked, "What are they doing there?" 
She said, " I do not know. Maybe they are marking father's cattle." 
He said, " I shall go and see." She wanted him to stay, but he refused. 
Many irons were in the fire, and the people branded the steers and 
marked their ears. There was one wild steer of which the people 
were very much afraid. They asked the boy whether he would mark 
the steer. He said, " 1 can do it." They told him to mount a large 
white horse and to catch the steer. "No," he replied, I cannot ride: 
the horse might fall, and the steer might gore me." He went into the 
corral. The steer was pawing the ground. Then he talked to him, 
spit on him, took him by the horns and threw him. He called one of 
the men to come with a hot iron and to brand the steer on the side. 
The people became angry, and said, "You branded him on the wrong 
side. You must brand him on the left side." — "No," said LSIa 
Blanco, "that is wrong; this side is better." He continued, and 
branded many cattle. He finished this work in one afternoon. Then 
he went home. 

When the king saw the strength and ability of L&la Blanco, he 
wanted him to marry his daughter; but the young man refused. The 
Idng said so him, "You must get my white horse in the southeast. 
For five years 1 have tried, but nobody has been able to catch it." 
LAIa Blanco said, "Wait for four days. You must give me one man, 
who must drive a post into the ground four feet deep, and you must 
give me a long rope." Then the king bought a long rope and gave it 
to him. The king's daughter made biscuits, cakes, and pie for him; 
and she gave him meat and eggs, potatoes and coffee, and fork, knife, 
and spoon. He took these along. He camped at night, and after 
four days he came to the lake; and there, a short distance away, he 
saw the horse sleeping. As he went along, he saw some gophers, 
who asked him, "Where are you going?" — "I want to catch the 
horse." The gophers said, "We will awaken the horse. Three times 
he will ran around the lake; the fourth time he will pass close by you; 
then catch him with your lasso. Stand between two cedar-trees." 
Then Lftla Blanco made a fire and prepared breakfast, but he did not 
eat. Meanwhile the gophers made a burrow towards the horse. They 
came up under him and bit his side. The horse jumped up and ran 
once around the lake. LSla Blanco was holding the lasso in his left 
hand. Three times the horse ran around the lake. The fourth time 
it passed close to the boy. He threw his lasso and caught it. The 
horse fell on its side, and he quickly hobbled its fore and hind legs. 
Then the gophers said to him, "Now you must get its saddle." LSIa 
Blanco went to the lake, and there he met Old-Woman-Spider, who 
said to him, "Have you come?" — "Yes," he said, "I want to get the 


8o Journal of American Folk-I^ore. 

saddle for the horse." She replied, "Come in here, step into this 
spider-web, and close your eyes! I will let you down into the water, 
and don't open your eyes until you get there!" Ldla Blanco obeyed, 
and he entered the water in the spider-web. Then he found himself 
in another world. When the spider-web stopped, he opened his eyes, 
stepped out, and turned to the east. There he saw a large white 
house, which he entered. In the house was a large white saddle, a 
white bridle, white shoes, spurs, saddle-bags, and a saddle-blanket and 
clothing, — trousers, shirt, and hat. He took all of these, put them 
in the spider-web, and shook the rope. Then Old-Spider-Woman 
pulled up the rope. When he came out of the water, Old-Spider- 
Woman said to him, "Now open your eyes!" She a>ntiaued, "Take 
this!" When he looked to the north, he saw much gold, which he 
put into his saddle-bag. When he looked to the south, be saw much 
silver, which he put into the other saddle-bag. The Spider-Woman 
asked him, "Did you take everything?" — "Yes," he replied. Then 
he went to the horse. He saddled it, took off the hobbles, and made 
the horse rise. Then he said to the gophers, " Now eat all that I have 
cooked! I am not going to eat." The gophers thanked him. He 
mounted the horse, and it started running towards the lake. The 
gophers shouted, "Pull him back!" Then he pulled the left side of the 
reins, turned the horse's head, said good-by to the gophers, swung bis 
hat, and rode home. The horse ran like lightning. At night he came 
home. He put the horse into the stable and took of! the saddle. 
Then he went to the house. The king's daughter gave him supper, 
but he refused it. He said, "I have caught the horse," and told her 
all that had happened. 

On the other side of the street lived a poor Mexican who had raised 
a pig for his many children. He said, "Let us put our pig into the field 
in which LSla Blanco's horse is! The horse will kill the pig, and we 
are going to get money for it. Then we can buy something good to 
eat." They took their pig out and put it into the field. On the follow- 
ing morning it was found that the horse had killed it. Then the old 
man said to L41a Blanco, "Why don't you put your horse into the 
corral, so that it cannot Idll my pig?" The king's daughter heard his 
complaint, and sent out to inquire what the trouble was. The poor 
Mexican said, "L&la Blanco's horse has killed my pig. He shall 
pay for it. Where is he? Call him out!" Then they called him 
out; but he said, "Tell the man to come in." When Uie poor man 
came in, he said, "Your horse has killed my pig: now you shall pay 
me." — "What do you want for it?" he asked. The poor man said, 
"Five dollars." Then the king's daughter opened her trunk and gave 
the five dollars to Lanco Blila. He replied, "No, I don't want your 
money; 1 shall pay him with my own money." He went to his 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 8i 

saddle-bag, and said to the poor man, "Five dollars is not enough for 
you, you need more." He took out two handfuls of gold and gave 
them to him, and he gave to his children silver money. He said to 
the children, "Save this money, so that you may have some when 
you are grown up." Then he turned to the old man, and said, "I 
know that you took your pig to my horse in order to have it killed. 
Why don't you come to me and ask rae for money? I am perfectly 
willing to give it to you." Then the man was ashamed. The poor 
man said to him, "Now you may keep my pig, skin it, and eat it." — 
"No," said Lanco Blftla, "I do not want your pig. You can skin it, 
and eat it with your children." Then the poor man went home. He 
bought beans and sugar and flour for his children. He bought new 
furniture. He skinned his pig, and ate it with his children. 

Lftla Blanco still refused to sleep in the house, but went into the 
corral and slept with the pigs. 

One day another king sent a letter, and asked that Lanco Bl&la help 
him against a giant. Lanco Blila agreed. The king's daughter 
prepared food for him. He wrote to the king that he would be there 
in four days. He started, and arrived at the king's house. The king 
said to him, "When you go to fight the giant, I shall send my soldiers 
with you." He gave him six wagons of hay and com for his horse. 
" If you do not kill the giant and bring me his scalp, I am going to 
cut off your head. If you do kill him, then you may cut off my head, 
and those of my wife and daughter." Lanco Blila replied, "If you 
want that agreement, then let us make it in writing! and you, your 
wife, and your daughter must sign." The king did so. Then Lanco 
Bl&la started with the soldiers. After he had gone some distance, 
he left the soldiers behind, and camped by himself. Then his animals 
— thelion, the bear, the wild-cat, and thewolf — came and joined him. 
They said to him, "The house of the giant is one mile away from here. 
Tell your soldiers to go to sleep, because to-morrow they are going to 
fight." Lanco Bl&la did as the animals asked him, and after an hour 
all the soldiers were asleep. Then the lion told him, "Now kill all 
the soldiers! Cut off their heads!" The soldiers were in bed, always 
two in one bed. With one stroke he cut off the heads of each pair of 
men, and he killed all their horses and mules. Then the animals told 
him to go to sleep. When day dawned, the lion said, "When the sun 
rises, call the giant." Lanco Blila started, and stopped at an arroyo. 
Shortly after sunrise the giant came out of his house. He looked 
around, and Lanco BlMa called him. The giant tried to find who had 
called him, and went around the mountain. Then Lanco Bl&la 
called again. The lion spoke to him, and said, "Go a little farther 
aloQg! Maybe he will see you then." Lanco Bl&la went on, and 
shouted again. He called to the giant, "Come down! I want to fight 


82 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

you." Then the giant saw him, and came. Lanco BlSla said, "You 
are a strong man. Let us see who is the stronger! If I am stronger 
than you, I shall Idll you." They began to wrestle. After a little 
while Lanco Bl&la became tired, and called to his animals for help. 
Then they bit the giant. The bear tore open his side and tried to 
kill him. The giant said, "You cannot kill me. My heart is in my 
house. If you find it, then 1 shall die." The animals went into the 
house. There they saw a lai^e hammer hanging over an anvil. 
Lanco Bl^a asked the giant, "What is this?" He replied, "If I do 
not succeed in killing a person who comes here, I take him into the 
house and kill him with this hammer." He placed a human bone on 
the anvil and released the hammer, which shattered the bone. He 
sdd, "That is the way that I kill people." At another place a laige 
saw was hanging. They asked him, "What is this?" He replied, 
"If I do not succeed in killiag people outside or with my hammer, I 
kill them with this saw." He placed a human bone under the saw, 
pulled a rope, and the saw came down and cut the bone to pieces. 
Instill another room he had a large stove. The animals asked, "What 
is this?" He said, "If I do not kill people before they come here, and 
if my hammer and my saw do not lull them, I put them in the stove. 
Then I roast them and eat them. Now look for my heart! If you 
do not find it, you cannot kill me. The animals looked for the heart, 
but they could not find it. And he said, "If you do not find it, you 
are going to die." 

In one of the rooms there was much yellow com. They searched 
among it. Among the corn they found a coral as large as a fist. 
That was the giant's heart. When Lanco BlSla took it up, the giant 

Then they went out. The lion said, "Now go and take all his 
cattle!" Lanco BI91a turned around, and in a canyon near by he 
found horses. In still another one he found mules. He released all 
of these. All these animals were cannibals. He told them, "From 
now on, eat grass and yucca and brush, but do not eat human b^ngs!" 
Then he went back to his animals. The Hon said to him, "Now we 
have done our work. Tell us where to go." Lanco Bl&la said to him, 
"Go northward, up the mountain, and kill deer, which shall be your 
food." — "Thank you," said the lion, and went away. Then the bear 
asked him, "Where shall I go?" — "Go northward and live on the 
high mountains, and eat black ants, weeds, and roots." He said to 
the wild-cat, "Go southward and live on rabbits." To the wolf he 
said, "Go to the east; kill antelopes, eat their flesh, and drink their 
blood." Then the animals left him. 

The giant, however, came back to life; but he was blindi and could 
not find the door of his house. While he was stumbling about, he fdl 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 83 

into the door of his stove. The wood in the stove was burning, and 
his body was consumed. His heart burst, and a targe fire came out 
of the mountain. 

Lanco Bl&la was riding back to the king's house. The scalp of the 
giant was dangling from his arm. He travelled as fast as he could. 
Suddenly he saw the fire from the mountain pursuing him and coming 
nearer and nearer. He threw a comb back over his shoulder. It was 
transformed into a lai^ take, which detained the fire. Gradually, 
however, it found its way around the lake. When it came near again, 
Lanco Bl&la threw a hairbrush back over his shoulder. It was trans- 
formed into a canyon and mesas, and it took the Area long time to pass 
these. When it came near again, he threw his sword down, which 
became a long river. After some time the fire crossed the river too. 
Then Lanco Bl&la said, "1 do not know what to do now." Then his 
horse said to him, "Ask your father to help you." Then he took a 
dollar gold-piece, wet it in his mouth, and held it up to the sun. He 
asked him for help. At once a cloud came down; and when the fire 
came near him, a heavy rain poured down, which extinguished the 
fire. Then he filled his hands with water four times, and gave it to his 
horse to drink; and he himself also drank four times from his hands. 

In the afternoon he reached the king's house. When he arrived 
there, he asl^ one of the servants to call out the king. He said to 
him, " Here is the giant's scalp. Now I am going to kill you. 1 am go- 
ing to cut ofT your head." He told him that the giant had killed all the 
soldiers, and that they were not worth anything. The king replied, 
" I have lost my life." Lanco Bl&la said to him, " Now look up to the 
sun for the last time! Soon you are going to die." The king looked 
up, and cried. Lanco Bl&la took hold of his head. He took a large 
knife and pretended that he was about to cut his throat. Then the 
Idng said, "Watt a moment! Keep me as your slave. Let me work 
for you! I will cut wood for you and do whatever you tell me." — 
"That is good," said Lanco Bl&la. "Then I am not going to kill you." 
The king called his wife, and Lanco Blila threatened to kill her; but 
she also offered to work and wash for him. She said, " I do not want 
to die, because my husband is foolish." Then they called their 
daughter. She wept, and said, "Do not cut ofF my head! rather 
marry me!" Lanco BlSla replied, " I have a wife." — "That does not 
matter, you might as well have two wives." — " If you are willing to 
treat my wife as a sister, I will take you." Then he took the king, his 
wife, and his daughter along to the other king's house. He went 
ahead, and they walked behind him. When he arrived at his house, 
he took the saddle off his horse, and he asked his new wife to take 
it into the house. He said to her, "If you cannot lift it, you are no 
longer my wife." She tried to lift it, but it was too heavy. Then 


84 Jourttat of American Folk-Lore. 

Lanco Biaia said, "You are weak, I don't want you." He lifted the 
saddle and carried it in. Then his new wife said, "Let me carry your 
saddle-blanket!" — "No," he replied, "you are too weak;" and he 
himself carried it into the house. Then he said to his new wife, 
"You are too bad, you try to kill people. You must not do so. If a 
man wants to marry you, why don't you take him? My wife is soon 
going to come." 

Then the first king's daughter, his wife, arrived. He showed her the 
giant's scalp. She cooked for him, and now he ate. For five years 
he staid with his wife. Then he went back to the White Mountains. 
When he arrived on top of the mountain, he sat down near the spring 
at which he had originated. The Sun came down and asked him what 
he had done, and he told him everything that had happened. The Sun 
said, "I am glad to hear this. Now the Mexicans are going to be 
better. They will not act as they have done heretofore." He took 
the boy and shot him back into the spring from which he had come. 


A long time ago a Mexican priest lived in Znin. A Mexican girl 
cooked for him. One morning after she had prepared breakfast, she 
called the priest; and while he was sitting at the table with the girl, 
he said to her, "You are going to give birth to a child." — "No," she 
said, "that is not true." The priest continued, "You are going to have 
a wise son." The girl replied, "You are no seer. How do you know 
what is going to happen?" — "I know it," he retorted. She, however, 
laughed at him, and would not believe him. However, after a month 
the young woman gave birth to a boy. She hid the baby in a trunk. 
Then she washed herself, put on new clothing, and prepared the 
breakfast for the priest. When the priest was sitting at the table, the 
infant knocked against the trunk with his feet; and the priest asked, 
"What is in that trunk?" The young woman replied, "Maybe it is 
a cat." The priest did not say anything. After a little while the 
noise was heard again, and he asked again, "What is in that trunk?" 
The young woman replied, " It is a cat." He, however, said, "That 
is no cat, it is a child. Take him out! " The young woman asked him, 
"How do you know that?" The priest repeated, "Nevermind! I 
know it. Take him out!" Then she opened the trunk, and the child 
was standing there. He looked like a six-year-old child. He was 
standing, and holding with his hands to the sides of the trunk. The 
priest said, "You are a wise child." The boy grew up quickly; and 
one day the priest said to him, "Stand in the doorway." While the 
boy was standing there, looking out of the house, the priest went 
quietly up to him and suddenly clapped his hands, in order to frighten 

' See Boltc tmd Poltvks. I : M. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zuni. 85 

the boy. The child, however, was not afraid. "Indeed," said the 
priest, "he is a boy without fear." He said to the young woman, 
" I'll bet that he will not have the courage to go at midnight to church 
to ring the bells. If he does so, I will pay you much money." The 
boy heard it, and said, " I am not afraid. If I win, you shdl give me 
an undershirt and drawers, trousers and stockings, a hat, and a ker- 
chief to tie over my hat, a mule and saddle, and an axe, canteen, pan, 
cup, knife and fork, and also give me some bacon and potatoes. If I 
lose, then you may have all that my mother has, and you can keep 
the money that you owe her." They made the bet in writing, and 
signed it. Sunday night the boy wanted to go to the church; but his 
mother said, "No, first go to sleep, and do not start until twelve 
o'clock." The boy lay down and slept. During this time the priest 
went to the churchyard and took a body out of a grave. He carried it 
up the ladder of the steeple, placed it there, and he said to the dead 
man, "When the boy comes to ring the bells, frighten him. Do not 
let him pass." Then he went home. 

A little before twelve o'clock the mother called the boy; and she 
said to him, "Now go and ring the bells." He put on his hat, and 
tied the kerchief around it. He went up the ladder as quickly as he 
could. When he had almost reached the top of the church, he saw 
somebody on the ladder. He said, "Who are you?" Then the dead 
one let a green light shine from his eyes, his nose, and his mouth, and 
tried to frighten the boy. He, however, said, " Doesn't that look nice? 
Let me see it once more!" And again the green light shone from the 
dead man's face. The boy said, "That is remarkable. How do you 
do that? Let me see it once more!" He made him repeat this four 
times. Then he said, "Now go out of my way! I have to go up to 
ring the bells." The dead man said, "Never mind! I will make room 
for you. You can pass by me." — "No," said the boy, "maybe you 
will push me down." Then the dead one said, " No, I only wanted to 
frighten you; but you do not know any fear." The boy asked, "Who 
sent you here?" — "The priest did. He told me to frighten you. 
Come up here! I am not going to do you any harm." But the boy 
mistrusted him, and said, "Maybe you will throw me down. Come 
down, or I am going to kill you with my axe." — "Where is your axe?" 
— "I have it at home." The boy jumped down the ladder and ran 
home. When the priest saw him coming, he said, " He did not ring 
the bells. He is afraid. Now you have lost your money." The boy, 
however, merely asked his mother, "Where is my axe?" She took it 
out of the comer, and said, "What do you want to do with it?" He 
replied, "1 want to kill some one with it." He ran back to the 
church; and the dead man asked him, "Where is your axe?" The 
boy, however, simply took it and cut up the dead man. He merely 



86 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

said, "I am already dead, I cannot die twice." But the boy passed 
without hindrance, and rang the bells. When the priest heard it, 
he said, "1 knew he was a wise boy. He is not afraid. He is ringing 
the bells." 

When the boy came home, he said to his mother, "Call the priest, 
and let him pay us." His mother said, "Oh, he will pay us to- 
morrow." — "No," retorted, the boy, "I want to have the money 
now." The priest heard him, and gave him the money that he had 

WTien the boy grew up. he said to his mother, " Make some bread for 
me. I am going out to look for work." His mother baked bread for 
him; and on the following morning, after breakfast, he asked the 
priest for a mule. The priest took him to the corral where he kept hi 
mules and horses. He said to him, "Take this small mute. It is the 
best one I have. When you are grown up, you may take a bigger one. 
The priest saddled the mule, and said to it, "At noon, when the boy 
takes dinner, kick him once and kill him." The mule asked, "Where 
shall I kick him?" The priest said, "Kick him in the testicles." 
Then the priest put on the saddle, and he gave to the boy a canteen 
and bread and whatever he needed. The boy mounted the mule, and 
rode to Calistea Canyon. He rode up some distance, and at noon he 
started a fire and prepared his dinner. He took the saddle off the 
mule and tried to hobble it. Then the mule put back its ears. The 
boy said. "Maybe you want to kick me." — "Yes," said the mule, 
"I am going to kick you in the tesricles." — "Who told you to do so?" 
— "The priest did." Then the boy said, "Wait until I put on my 
new clothing." He put on his overcoat, and tied his kerchief over his 
hat. Then he tried again to hobble the mule. The mule kicked and 
hit him in the testicles. Then the boy fell over in a faint. After a 
while he woke up: and the mule said to him, " Now you may hobble 
me." — "No," said the boy, "you are going to kick me again." The 
mule replied, "No. the priest told me to kick you only once, and so 
1 am not going to kick you again." Then the boy hobbled the mule. 
He made coffee and fried bacon and potatoes. Then he ate dinner. 
After dinner he took off the hobbles, and said to the mule, "Now I 
am going to ride you. I am tired." — "No," said the mule, "I 
am going to run into the arroyo and throw you. Then you will 
die. Nobody has ever ridden me." — "Oh," said the boy. "if 
you try to leave the trail. I am going to beat you with my 
stick." — "Well," said the mule, "try it." Then the boy buttoned 
up his overcoat, and tied his kerchief over his hat. and mounted, 
The mule tried to lea\-e the trail, but the boy beat it until it turned 
back. When the mule tried to turn to the left, he beat its head on the 
left-hand side: and when the mule bucked, he knocked it right on the 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuM. 87 

head. Finally the mule fell down. The boy said, "What is the 
matter with you? I think you are hungry," and he offered the mule 
biscuit. But the animal did not stir. The boy said, " It looks to me 
as though you were dead." Then he cut off four posts with forked 
tops, and two iong poles. He put up the posts, and laid the long poles 
across them. Then he took the mule's fore-legs and placed them over 
• one of the long poles, and he took the hind-legs and put them over the 
other poles, so that the mule was hanging in the air. Then he said, 
" Now I am going to ride you," and he sat down on its back. He made 
a whip and beat its feet, but the mule did not stir. Then he beat the 
left side, and the mule began to stir a little. Then he struck again the 
other side, and the mule stirred a little more. "Soon you are going to 
watK up," said the boy. "Now, look out!" When he struck the 
fourth time, the mule jumped off from the poles and ran the whole 
day without stopping. Finally the boy became very tired, and said, 
"Stop, you fool! stop! I am hungry. I want to eat." The mule re- 
plied, "I am going to run on until I a)me to a spring where there is 
nice grass. Let us eat there!" The boy wanted to stop, but the 
mule ran on, and after some time they arrived at the spring. Then 
the boy jumped off and started a hre. He made coffee, fried bacon, 
and ate. After dinner they went on. 

In the afternoon they came to a mountain. There he saw a number 
of Mexican men coming from the southwest. He met them at a 
crossing of the roads. They asked him, "Where are you going?" 
He replied, "1 am looking for work." The men said, "We are also 
looking for work. Let us go on together!" He asked them to put 
their loads on the mule, and they went on. When it was near sunset, 
they reached the Rio Grande. The men were going to camp there; 
but the boy said, "No, let us cross the river to-night!" The men said, 
" No, it is too late." But the boy insisted. Then the men got ready. 
They took off their shoes and trousers, and began to wade across the 
river. While they were in the water, the sun set. Meanwhile the 
boy was still on the eastern side of the river. They said to him, " You 
are too slow, you will never get across to-night." When it was dark, 
the boy started. He sent the mule ahead; but since it was dark, he 
lost it, and was unable to find it. He called the mule, and it answered 
from the east. Then he satd to the mule, " 1 am not going to drive 
you across, I am going to ride you across." He mounted, and rode 
into the water. Meanwhile it became quite dark; and he said to the 
mule, "Let us stop here in the water until to-morrow morning!" — 
" How can we do that? " asked the mule. " I am going to sleep sitting 
on your back, and you sleep standing in the water," said the boy. 
"Let us do so!" said the mule. 

When the boy awoke the following morning, they went on and 
1 the river. There the boy saw a white house. The two men 


88 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

who had accompanied him had gone into the white house the night 
before. When the boy rode near, he saw a number of people who 
carried their dead bodies out of the house. They took them to the 
Plaza; and the boy aslced, "What has happened to these people? 
How did they die?" And when he came near, he recognized his com- 
panions. The people told him that the house was haunted, and that 
whoever staid there over night was found dead on the following morn- 
ing. The boy, however, had no fear, and rode his mule to the white 
house. He took off its saddle and hobbled it. Then he entered. 
The house was entirely empty. He looked around and found a fire- 
place. The house was quite clean. Then the boy said, " I shall malK 
a fire here, and I am going to sleep next to the fireplace." He carried 
the saddle into the house, and started the lire. The people in the 
town saw smoke coming out of the chimney. When the governor 
heard about this, he said to his teniente: "Go and see who is there! 
Tell him to come out. If he stays in that house over night, we shall 
have to bury him to-morrow morning." The teniente went to the 
house and found the boy. He told him that everybody who slept in 
the house was killed; but the boy replied, "Why should I die in this 
good house? I am going to stay here." And the teniente replied, 
"H you insist, you will be dead to-morrow morning." — "No," said 
the boy, " 1 am not going to die." He could not be induced to leave 
the house. In the evening he fried potatoes and bacon. When his 
supper was ready, he placed the dishes on the floor. He poured out his 
coffee and began to eat. Then he heard above in the chimney a noise 
which sounded like wind. The t>oy said, "1 think agale is coming up." 
But presently a man's shoulder and arm fell through the chimney. 
The boy said, "What does that mean? Whoever has done that?" 
And he threw the arm and shoulder into a corner, and re-arranged 
his fire. After a little while he heard again a noise, and said, "Who is 
coming now?" Then the right shoulder and arm of a man fell into 
the fire. "Why do they always fool me?" said the boy, and he 
threw the arm and the shoulder into the corner. He arranged his 6re, 
and continued to eat. 5oon he heard a new noise. "Who is coming 
now?" said he. "Soon we shall have enough people here." Then 
the right leg of a person fell down into the fire, and almost extinguished 
it. The boy became angry, and said, "Who is the stupid fellow who 
throws these bones into my fire?" He took the leg and threw it into 
the comer, and re-arranged his fire. It was not long before the noise 
began again, and the left leg of a person fell down into the fire. He 
threw it into the corner, and re-arranged his fire. When it just b^^an 
to blaze up again, the head and trunk of a person fell down. The boy 
threw them into the corner, and started his fire again. Suddenly he 
saw a large Indian standing in the comer of the room. He said. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufti. 89 

"You are a brave boy. I thought you would die of fright when the 
bones came down the chimney. Other people who see it die." The 
boy replied, "Well, they must be very stupid." Then the tall man 
said to him, "Now we will wrestle. One of us must die, and the one 
who survives shall own the house." The boy said, "Wait until after 
I have eaten. When I am hungry, I am weak." The boy ate as 
though nothing had happened; and after a while the large man said, 
"Are you done now?" — "Wait a little while. First I have to put 
away my dishes." Then he put on his overcoat, and tied his kerchief 
over his hat, and said, " Now I am ready!" and they began to wrestle. 
The man was so large, that the boy could not put his arms around him; 
and he said, "Wait a little while, I have to stand on my saddle." 
Secretly he pulled out his little axe. Then he said to the man, "Now 
I am ready!" When the man put his arms around him, the boy took 
his axe and struck him with it, and the large man fell. He said to the 
boy, "You are fortunate. Now the house belongs to you. Here are 
the keys, but do not open the doors until to-morrow morning. If 
you do so to-night, you wiH die. When you are dead, the people 
will come to-morrow morning to bury you. When they carry you out, 
the priest will stand on one side; and after he has thrown the soil 
into the grave, then get up and come into the house through the east 
door." Then he gave him the keys. Immediately after this a whirl- 
wind came and carried away the lai^ man. The boy sat down to 
take a rest. Then he made his bed and went to sleep. He slept until 
midnight. Then he woke up, and said, "The big man is a liar, I am 
not dead." He went to sleep again, and woke up again before sunrise; 
and again he said, "The big man is a )iar. Why should I die?" 
He woke up again shortly after sunrise, turned over, and went to sleep 
again ; but when he went to sleep the fourth time, he died. 

In the morning the people from the town came to the house, and 
they found him dead. They said, "Let us dig a grave and bury him!" 
After they had dug a grave, a number of men came and carried him 
out. They covered him with a blanket, and carried him to the grave- 
yard. They put the body down into the grave, and threw soil on 
top of it. After a while the priest asked, "Are you done now?" and 
the people replied in the affirmative. Then they went away. Imme- 
diately the boy arose and ran back into the house. When the people 
saw it, they were surprised, and said, "Who is this boy running into 
the house?" He prepared his breakfast, and after that he opened all 
the rooms. In one of the rooms he found a bed. A sword lay on it, 
and under the bed was much money, — silver, gold, and paper. 
Then he opened another room, which was full of all kinds of medicines. 
He had a small cut on his hand, and decided to try the medicine. He 
put some on it, and at once the cut was healed up. He went into 



Journal of Americart Folk-Lore. 

another room, and found a bay horse, a carriage, corn and wheat 
oats, and a brush. Then he took his mule and put it into the staU 
and gave it to eat. 

After some u'me the people of the town had a celebration. H 
aske<I himself, "Shall 1 go there?" He cut off his left leg with hi 
sword. Then he applied the medicine to the wound, and it heala 
up at once. He carried his left leg in his hands. He put on | 
clothing. His coat and his trousers were torn, but his pockets v 
full of money. He went where horse-races and foot-races were beioi 
held, and where a cock-fight was going on. " Is there anybody win 
can run very fast?" — "Yes," said the people. He bet a thousand dot 
lars against the runner. The other man started ; and when he was wa; 
ahead, the boy began to jump. He moved along in somersaults c 
his hands and his one leg, and reached the goal first. The peopl 
asked. "Who are you? What is your name?" And the boy repliec 
"1 am Djamisa." The people said, "How can we get our raone 
back? Let us have a horse-race! He cannot possibly ride with \ 
one leg. Let us ask him whether he will run a race!" The boy agreed 
and they gave him a large saddle-horse. The boy staked all I 
money against that of another man. The horse which he was to ri 
was very wild, and stx men had to hold it. He took the rope and spok 
to the horse. Then he put his fingers into the horse's nose and on i| 
ears, and the horse stood there quietly. The people said, "Formerly 
when anybody touched the horse, it kicked. Certainly we are goin 
to lose now." The people told Djamisa to saddle the horse; but 1 
said that he would ride bareback without a bridle, and only with i 
rope and a halter. He made a noose in his rope, and put it ( 
horse's neck. He let the rope drag behind, jumped on the horse, whicl 
started at once. !t ran about in circles, and the boy came back to th 
people. Then he called the owner of the horse to sit behind hiffl 
He said, "The horse won't do you any harm. If it should kick yoK 
I will give you all my money." Then the other jumped on the hora 
and the two rode around the town. When they came back, the bof 
told the owner, "Now this horse has been broken. If it should e 
kick again, I will give you all my money." 

After a while Djamisa asked the people, "Where does the kioj 
live?" One man said to him, "Do you see the soldiers near tha 
cotton wood-tree? The king's house is near by." He went ihei 
When he came to the cottonwood-tree, the boy left his property lo lb 
branches of the tree. He reached the soldier, who forbade him 1 
go on. Djamisa said, " I came to see the king." — " You cannot 64 
him." — "Why not?" — "People must pay much money if ih^ 
want to see him. It costs a thousand dollars." — "Well, ! will giv 
you a thousand dollars." He paid the money to the soldier, wh 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufli. 


d him to pass. In the first room of the house, he found another 
tni^fd. who would not allow him to pass. The boy said, "I came to 
•ee the lung." — " You have to pay five hundred dollars if you want 
to see him." The boy paid it, and was allowed to pass. In the 
following room there was another guard, who demanded two hundred 
and fifty dollars: and after the boy had paid him, he came to a fourth 
one, who demanded one hundred and fifty dollars. Finally the king's 
cook came out. The boy said to him, "1 want to see the king," and the 
cook went in to call him. Djamisa was talking to the king when he was 
called to dinner. Djamisa asked him, " How much must 1 pay you in 
order lobe allowed to eat with you?" The king said, "Fifty dollars." 
He paid the money, and the king and Djamisa ate together. In the 
afternoon he said to the king. " Now 1 must go home, but 1 am going to 
comeback to see you." The king said, "I shouldlike toknow whoheis. 
He must have a great deal of money. He shall many my daughter." 
He sent out his soldiers to search for him. Meanwhile Djamisa had 
put on his leg. He wore overalls, and carried a small bundle on his 
shoulder. Thus he walked across the street. The soldiers asked him, 
"Did you see the man who visited the king?" — "How does he look?" 
— "He has only one leg." — "Which one?" — "The right one." 
The boy said that he did not know the man. The soldiers went back, 
and he continued on his way. He walked around the town to his 
house, and there he staid for several days. Then he went back to the 
king. The king asked him whether he would help him find the boy, 
and he asked fi^'e dollars a day as pay. The king's soldiers had looked 
through all the houses in the town without finding the man. Then 
the king thought, " Maybe he lives in the white house." The soldiers 
went there. Then Djamisa dressed himself like a soldier, and stood 
guard in front of the house, and did not permit the soldiers to go in. 
He asked them. "What do you want?" They said. "We want to see 
whether the man lives here who dined with the king." — " You cannot 
see him. It costs too much money. You have to pay a thousand 
dollan." The soldiers paid a thousand dollars, and the boy repeated 
everything that had been done to him at the king's house. Finally 
the .wtdier^ reached him. and delivered the king's letter. He read it, 
and said, "I do not want to marry the king's daughter." He wrote 
an answer, and sent it back through the soldiers. They took the letter 
tn the king; and when he had read it, he replied, insisting again that 
Djamisa should marry the king's daughter. The soldiers took the 
letter there, but again he declined. The king sent three letters; and 
when the boy continued to decline, the king finally wrote, " If you do 
not marry my daughter, I am going to put you into prison." Then 
Djamisa replied, saying that he would marry the king's daughter the 
following week on Monday. When the king received this letter, he 

92 Journal o} American Folk-Lore. 

ordered the cooks to prepare for a great feast. They killed cattle 
and made cakes and pies, and after a week the marriag;e was celebrated. 
Djamisa took the king's daughter to live with him in the white house. 
He was very rich. He had many sheep and catde, and herdsmen to 
take care of the herds. 

One day his wife received a letter from her mother, who had died 
some time before, and who was now in heaven. She wrote to her that 
a festival was going to be celebrated in heaven, and she asked her and 
her husband to come. Djamisa did not want to go, but finally he was 
persuaded. For four years he and his wife staid in heaven. When 
he came back, his sheep and cattle, horses and mules, were scattered, 
and he was quite poor. 

6. josfe Hoso OuAn del oso).' 

In the evening, in San Feli[>e, a girl went to get water. When she 
was at the spring, a bear came and carried her up the mountains to 
Cip'apulima, where he put her into a cave. The people searched for 
her, but they could not find her. Her mother looked for her in every 
house and among all her relatives, but there was no trace of the giri. 
In the evening her brothers took torches and went to the sprii^. 
There they found her water-jar filled with water, and they discovered 
her tracks and those of the bear. They followed them; but after a 
short time they lost the tracks, and could not find them again. On 
the following morning many people went up the mountains to look 
for her, but they could not find her. 

The bear married her. In the morning, when he went out, he put 
a lai^ rock in front of the cave and shut her in. The young woman 
was unable to lift the rock, and had to stay inside. After some 
time she had a child. She continued to live in the cave, and the 
bear did not allow her to go out. He fed her on venison, and she 
became very thin and weak. Then the bear said, " I have to get com 
and wheat for you." He went to San Felipe, where he took some com 
and wheat, which he gave to her. He stole a grinding-stone and a 
muller, and gave them to her. Then she made bread. One night the 
bear went again to the village, and stole a jar and everything that 
was necessary for cooking. Then the woman made stew of venison 
and com for herself and her child. 

Her son grew up. One day, when the bear was out, he asked his 
mother, "Why do you always stay here in this dark cave?" She 
replied, "Because your father stole me when I was a young gifl. 
He threatened to kill me if I did not go along." The boy asked, 

' Told to Nick by an old Zufli. See Bolte und Polhrln. 3 : 397; P. nuuer, tteUi> 
«uchungen zur deuUchen Heldentage, I : t-146. 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 93 

"Where is your home, mother?" — "My poor boy, your grandfather 
is Cazique in San Felipe." Then the boy said, "Let us go there!" — 
"How can we go? I cannot move the stone that closes this cave." 
— "That stone is not heavy. I can lift it." — "Let us wait until to- 
morrow, but don't speak to your father about it." Then the woman 
made many tortillas. When the bear came home, he asked her, 
"Why do you make so many tortillas?" She replied, "Because our 
boy eats so many. If 1 make a few only, he will not have enough." 
The bear did not reply. On the following morning, as soon as he was 
gone, the woman put on her moccasins, wrapped up the tortillas, 
the boy pushed away the rock, and they went out. They started for 
San Felipe. When the bear had gone some distance, he thought, 
"I do not know why my wife made so many tortillas. I believe that 
she and the boy intend to run away." He turned back, and saw that 
the cave was open and that they had escaped. He ran in pursuit, 
intending to kill them. After some time the woman became tired. 
Her boy said, "Mother, you must go on! Maybe father is pursuing us." 
He turned back, and saw the bear coming. He said to his mother, 
"You see, he is pursuing us. I am sure he wants to kill us." His 
mother replied, "Why did you tell us to run away? Now we must 
die." The boy, however, encouraged her, and said, "Go ahead! 1 
am going to wait for him here. I am going to kill him." A cotton- 
wood-tree was standing near by. He broke off a stick and struck it 
against a rock. The stick broke. Then he took another stick and 
tried it, and it was so strong that it did not break. The boy was 
left-handed and very strong. When the bear came up to him, he 
struck him on the side of the head and thus killed him. Then he went 
to his mother and tokl her that he had killed the bear. He said, 
"Now let us go on slowly!" 

They went along, and finally they arrived at San Felipe. The 
people reo^nized the woman. They led her into the house, and asked 
her what had happened to her. Then she told the whole story. 

The boy was very strong, and he beat all the children. The people 
called him Joai Hoso. His mother sent him to a Mexican school. 
He always carried an iron hammer, which was very heavy. He struck 
the children with it, and therefore he was put into prison and was 
to be killed. When he heard that the people intended to kill him, 
be broke the bars in the window of the prison, jumped out, and ran 
away. He went far away into another country. 

Finally he arrived at a Mexican town. In this town lived a king 
whose daughters had been stolen. All the people were searching for 
them. The Idng said to J086, "If you find my daughters, you shall 
marry one of them; and, besides that, I am going to pay you much 
money. It is four years since I lost my daughters." Jos^ said to 


94 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

the king^. "Get for me a long, heavy rope, and an axe." The king 
bought these, and gave them to Jos6. The king also gave him food to 
take along on his travels. Then josk went southward. There he met 
a Mexican who carried wood on his mule. The Mexican asked him, 
"Where are you going?" ]os& replied, "1 am looking for the king's 
daughters." — "How much is he going to pay you?" — "He is going 
to give me one of his daughters in marriage." — "Let me go with you!" 
— "Well, come along! Take your wood home and come back. I 
shall wait for you." — "No," said the man, "when my mule goes 
home, my children will unload the wood. I do not need to go with 
her." Then the two went on. After some time they met a man who 
also was carrying wood. The man asked them, " Where are you going? " 
They replied, "We are looking for the king's daughters." The man 
said, "I am going along with you," The three went on together. 
They came to a large mountain in which there was a deep pit. Then 
they cut a large prast and tied the rope to it; and Jos£ said to the others, 
"1 am going to climb down. You may follow me." He took hold of 
the rope and climbed down the pit. When he was half way down, 
the rope was at an end. He was standing on a stick which had been 
tied to the end of the rope, and he swung himself to and fro. Finally 
the rope struck the side of the pit, and he jumped off and stood on a 
narrow shelf of rock. Then he told the two Mexicans to come down 
too. They let themselves down along the rope, and stood with him 
on the narrow shelf. Finally Jos6 jumped down, and the Mexicans 
followed him. When they landed at the bottom of the pit, they found 
themselves in another world. There was a trail, which they followed, 
and finally they came to a house. They went in; and in the house 
they found the king's daughters. An old man, Mohapate (Huevoa 
glandes), was sitting there with spread legs. He had enormous testi- 
cles. When he saw the visitors, he became very angry; and when 
they came in, his testicles began to swell up. They became lai^erand 
larger, and filled the whole house. He was trying to choke the three 
men, but Jos£ took his iron and struck him with it. Then the man 
died. They went into the inner room, and led out the king's daugh- 
ters. They took them to another town. There Jos6 saw much jew- 
elry, — ear-rings, chains, and bracelets of gold and silver. The people 
in the town said to him, "We will help you get some of the jewelry." 
On the following morning he started back for the king's house. 
When he came to the pit, he stepped into a basket which was tied to 
the end of the rope, and wanted to go up. Jos6 had his heavy iron 
bar, and therefore the people could not pull him out. The two 
Mexicans said, "Leave your iron bar here! It is too heavy." — "No", 
he said, "I am not going to do that." Then they said, "Wait down 
here! Let us go up first!" Then the Mexicans and the king'B 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 95 

daughters were pulled up, and they left him down below. Jos^ 
waited for the basket to come back, but it did not come down again. 
Then he went back to the city in which he had seen the jewelry, and 
told the people what had happened to him. The people replied, 
"Wait! you will get the king's daughters and the money, anyway." 
They gave him a gray horse and a horn, and said to him, "If you need 
anything after you reach the king's house, call the horse, and we will 
send it to you, and also all the jewelry you want. When you are about 
two miles this side of the king's house, send the horse back." Then 
Joe6 mounted the horse and rode off. When he was near the king's 
house, he sent the horse back and walked towards the town. He 
did not go to his house, but crawled into a chicken-coop in which he 
lived. One day the. king questioned him, and said, "What are you 
d<Hng there?" He replied, "I am looking for work." — "What can 
you do?" — "I am a alversmitb, and I can make jewelry." Then 
he took out some of the jewelry which the people had given him, and 
showed it to the king. The king said, "I shall show this to my 
daughters. Maybe they want some rings and ear-rings." The king 
gave Jog4 silver to make jewelry for his eldest daughter. Then 
Joe^ took his horn and went some distance away from the city. With 
his horn he called his horse. When he blew the horn, the people of 
the town in the pit brought htm the jewelry. He mounted his horse 
and rode back to the city. He gave the jewelry to the king's eldest 
daus^ter, and pretended that he himself had made it. On the follow- 
ing day the next eldest daughter of the king wanted to have some 
jewelry, and the same thing happened as before. 

The king's daughters were to be married to the Mexicans who had 
taken them back. The day before the marri^e Jost went home. He 
changed his clothing, and took his iron hammer in his left hand. 
Then he went to the king's house. When the king saw him, he said, 
"You have gone out in vain. These two Mexicans have already found 
my daughters. Where have you been?" He replied, "I have been 
at home." — "I thought you went out to look for my daughters. " — 
"Yes, and I found them too." — "No, that is not true. The two 
Mexicans found them." Then Jos^ told him how he had met the two 
men carrying wood, and how they had gone with him; and he told the 
whole story, — how he had killed the old man. and how the Mexicans 
had finally left him at the bottom of the pit. The king said, " Is that 
true?" — "Yes, your daughters know about it." Then the king asked 
bis daughters. When the Mexicans saw Jos^, they were afraid, and 
did not dare to speak; and the king's daughters said now, "Yes, he 
found us, and be killed the old man." Then the king turned out the 
two Mexicans, because they had lied, and Jos6 married one of the 
king's daughters. That is the reason why Mexicans are always lying. 


96 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

7. SANTU. 

It was in 1899, at the time when the Santu Dance is held behind the 
church. The chief, the governor, and the tenientes were present. 
The Santu was standing on a table on blankets, and boys and girts 
were dancing for him. It was in the afternoon, after dinner, when one 
of the tenientes nudged me, and said, "Blood is coming out of the 
Santu's head." Then I saw how a little swelling appeared at the 
temple of the head of the Santu, and a drop of blood came out. The 
face of the Santu changed color, and looked very pale, like that of a 
dead person. I thought at first that it was no blood. A hole ap- 
peared which was nearly an inch deep, and I thought that the paint 
was coming off because the im^e had been wet; but I put my finger 
on and smelled of it, and it smelled like blood. It looked as though the 
Santu had been shot. I felt very badly. This lasted a little white. 
Then suddenly the hole disappeared, and the Santu looked as before. 
He was no longer pale, but had his regular color, and his eyes were 
quite vivid. 

The dance continued for four days. This happened on the fourth 
day. The following night we were sitting in a house, and were talking 
about this matter. There were twelve men there, all prindpaUs. 

In the same year, during the harvest dance, the people were dis- 
tributing peaches, apricots, and other fruits. The people were shoot- 
ing with six-shooters, as was the custom at that time. Then they hit 
one tray in the shoulder, and my niece was hit in the abdomen. She 
died the following day. I believe the Santu wanted to tell us that this 
was going to happen. Nobody knows who fired the shots. Since 
that time the officers have forbidden shooting. If a person shoots, he 
is put into jail. 

The Mexicans call the Santu "Santu Linio." If a Mexican wishes 
to pray to him, the keeper of the Santu has to bring him out. The 
Mexican may pay him fifty cents or twenty-five cents; rich peo[Je, 
as much as five dollars; or they may give him some calico. This 
money is given to the sacristan. 

During the Santu Dance everybody pays him. The paying is not 
demanded by anylM)dy; but the people, not only from Zuiii, but also 
from other pueblos, give to the Santu whatever they Hire, mtmey or 
candles. Whenever the Santu is exhibited, candles must be lifted 
for him. 

When a Mexican is sick and asks for the help of the Santu, the 
sacristan must bring him out, and the Mexican prays to him. The 
Santu is carried into the living-room, and candles are lighted. The 
Catholics and Americans do this, but not the Zuiii. 

In December, at the end of the year, the Santu is exhibited for etg^t 
days in the house. Then the Zuiii make little sheep out of clay, also 
pumpkins and ears of com. They bring these to the Santu, and 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 97 

pay money to him. For eight days these are left there in the house 
of the sacristan. After this time the people who made the clay figures 
take them away. They make a hole in the ground, in the house or 
in the corral, and bury the figures there. Then their corn and their 
stock will increase. During this time also two candles are left burning 
next to the Santu. 

Note. — Nick says that the Mexicans instituted the office of governor, 
but he does not know the form of political organization that prevailed 
before tfiat time. 


The Mexicans were plotting to kill all the Zuni on Sunday after 
church. A young war-chief overheard them, and understood what 
they were talking about. Therefore he informed the chief, and ^t 
night a council was called. There the young war-chief told the as- 
sembled people that the Mexicans were planning to kill them. There 
were forty or fifty war-chiefs in the assembly. They decided to kill 
the Mexicans before they had a chance to attack them. 

On the following Sunday they hid their bows, arrows, and war-clubs 
under their blankets, and went to church. After the sermon, when the 
people were singing a Mexican song, the war-chiefs arose. Ten or 
fifteen of them stood next to the door, and they called the boys and 
prls, and told them to hurry out of church. When all were out, they 
shut the door and killed all the Mexicans. One man, a Mexican, ran 
into one of the adjoining rooms. There were ten or fifteen rooms on 
each side of the church. The priest was sitting on the altar at the 
feet of the Santu, and crossed himself. The war-chiefs did not attack 
him. They tied his hands on his back. The Mexican who had 
escaped into the adjoining room crept up the chimney and made good 
his escape. 

After this had happened, the Zuni from all the seven towns left their 
pueblos and went up Corn Mountain. 

When the people of the Rio Grande Pueblos heard what had hap- 
pened, they held a council. They had learned that the Mexicans were 
about to send an expedition gainst the Zuni, and the Rio Grande 
Pueblos were summoned to accompany them. One young man, a 
good runner from Laguna, ran with all speed to the Zuni who were 
living on Com Mountain, and told them of the approaching war-party. 
The chief of the Zuiii invited the runner in, and gave him to eat and 
to drink. He told him not to drink any of the water from the springs 
in the valley, because the water had been poisoned. He also advised 
him that the Laguna people, who were compelled to accompany the 
Spaniards, should hold juniper-branches in the mouth, and that then 

< The nariBtor, Nick, said tliat he bad beard thia aCory firat at Mesita. and then again 
at a council in Zufli. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

they would not attack them. Before the Laguna runner left, I 
promised to send word to Zufli ten days before the warriors should 

Ten days after this, six or eight people from Laguna came on thei 
mules. They made a camp at the foot of Corn Mountain. The Z\i& 
chief sent down to inquire who they were. When the Laguna i 
them, they wept, because they thought that the Zuni were going i 
be killed, and told them that the Spaniards were coming with a largi 
army. When the chief of the Zuni heard the message, he sent word t 
them, warning them not to drink, because all the springs had beed 
poisoned. Then the members of the Shell Society went into theii 
kiwa, in which they staid for eight days. After eight da>-s the Spanis 
army arrived. The soldiers were on horseback. They rode fou 
abreast. They encamped at the place where the reservoir now ia 
After they had eaten, they attacked the mesa. The Zuiii defendet 
themselves with bows and arrows, while the Spaniards had muzzlft 
loading guns. At that time the head of the Shell Society came oul 
of the kiwa. He had long hair. He was painted black around tbi 
eyes. His forehead and chin were painted white. He had eagle 
down on his head. His body was painted red, and white lightning wa) 
painted on his clothing. He held a shell in his mouth. He had i 
bow and no other weapons. He stepped right to the edge of the ditS 
and when the Spaniards shot at him. he just blew out of his r 
Then the bullets could not hit him, and the soldiers tumbled about 
as though they were drunk. Blood flowed out of their eyes, not 
and mouth, and they died. Only a few were left. Then the Spaniards 
with the people from the Rio Grande Pueblos, went back. 

After a month they came back again with a new army. The Lagun 
sent word again, telling them that the soldiers were coming, 
made their camp at the same place aa before. After they had eaten 
they came to attack the Zuni. 

Then the priest, who had staid with the Zuni. said, "1 will write < 
letter to them and tell them that you have not killed me." But bt 
had no paper and no ink: therefore they took a rawhide, spanned i 
over a frame, and he wrote on it with charcoal. He wrote, " I am stU 
alive, but I have no clothing." Then they put a stone to the franM 
and threw it down. A soldier picked it up and carried it to tin 
commander. He read it, and gave orders to the soldiers to stO| 
fighting. They sent a priest's dress, paper, and ink to the father, i 
asked him to return with them to Mexico, He, however, replied 
saying that he could not wear the dress of dead people ; that he wante< 
to stay with the Zuni and wear their clothes. Then the Zuiii caini 
down from the mountain, and the soldiers went back. 

Porto Rican Folk-Lore: Dficimas, Christmas Carols. Nursery Rhymes, 
and Other Songa. Collected by J. Alden Mason; edited by Aurelio 
M. EsriNOSA. (Journal of American Folk-Lore. 31 : 389-450.) 
Previous to this time no collection of popular songs has ever been pub- 
lished from Porto Rico. A number of years ago Professor Juncos of the 
University of Porto Rico gathered considerable material; but he abandoned 
the idea of its publication because of its close correspondence with similar 
collections from Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Andalusia. Dr. Mason's col- 
lection is therefore a distinct contribution to our knowledge of the folk- 
lore of Spanish-speaking countries. 

It is noticeable that the songs gathered into Parts III and IV of Dr. 
Mason's collection have much more in common with those of other Spanish- 
speaking countries than have the tUcimas in Parts I and II. The cradle- 
songs and nursery rhymes are traditional, and arc found with little or no 
variation in Spain, Ai^entine. Chile, Cuba, New Mexico, and California. 
For example: Nos. 274-376 are heard in exactly this form throughout 
Spain; 315 and 339 substitute the name "Paco" for "Pepe;" 359 is sung 
throughout Spain to the same music, but with the refrain "La tarara sf, la 
tarara no," and the Irabalengua 360 occurs throughout Spain and Cuba. 
Some of the dicimas, also, are based on popular Spanish coplas or songs. 
The introductory lines of No. 169, for instance, occur in an Aragonese 
copla of popular origin. Other dicimas are Inspired by Spanish ballads. 
But the majority are distinctly of Porto-Rican origin, and reflect Porto- 
Rican thought and custom. Whether, however, these dicimas come from 
the true folk, and not rather from the lettered classes; and whether, there- 
fore, they may be strictly classed as folk-poetry, — is to be questioned. 
Dr. Mason tells us that he gathered his material from school-children, 
. who are drawn almost altogether from the literate population of the towns, 
and not from the true folk, who live in the country or in the mountains, 
and who, since they can generally neither read nor write, preserve their 
dependence upon oral transmission for their learning and their amusements. 
The native Porto-Rican of the country and the mountains is known as 
the jtbaro. He is very poor, and lives simply. His hut, or bohio, made 
of palm-bark or of dry-goods boxes, contains two rooms, where the ham- 
mocks or canvas cots for sleeping are kept folded in the corner by day. 
SometimeB he has a small garden, and keeps a cow or a goat. He lives 
on beans, rice, and native fruit. The mountain jibaro rarely works the 
year round; often he is employed only in the fall to help gather the cotTee 
or to cut the eugar-cane. The jibaro of the small town does all sorts of 
unskilled labor. He may work on the roads, or sell candy and fruit at 
evening outside the theatre, or keep a stand on the plaza. From these 
towa jibaro the school-children no doubt gather some true folk-songs; and 
from their contact with the towns the jibaro learn something of |K>litics. 


loo Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

especially when they gather at the barber>shop, which in Porto Rico is 
the centre for popular political discussion and amusement. But it is the 
ballad, the Christmas carol, and the nursery rhyme, — the traditional folk- 
poetry of Spain, — which the ^6oro sings among his own people when they 
gather in the evening at some one's house to dance; and this is the real 
folk-song of Porto Rico. The verses are ordinarily sung, not recited, to 
the accompaniment of the cuatro (a primitive sort of guitar about the size 
of a violin with four strings) or to a guicharo (an instrument shaped like 
a large pine-cone, over the roughened surface of which a forked steel in- 
strument is rubbed with a rasping sound). It is doubtful whether the 
dicimas included in Dr. Mason's collection fairly represent the popular 
art of these mountain people. 

In the first place, except in dicimas 79 and ia8, no grammatical errors 
or archaisms occur such as are common to the jtbaro. such as Irvje for 
traje, pulld for por alld, jacer for hacer, corleja for querida. If the transcriber 
has softened these corruptions out of a desire for clearness, such circum- 
locutions as molivado a que, resulta a que, resttltas de, so common to the 
jibaro, cannot be omitted or changed in the dicima without destroying the 
metre. Nor do the political dicimas employ the popular names for the 
political parties, — galas for the Republicans, ratones for the Unionists. 
So far as language is concerned, then, the dicimas do not reflect the true 

The popular political dicima not only lacks the language of the folk: 
it is hardly to be regarded as an expression of their feeling. It probably 
originates in the groups that gather in the barber-shop; or it appears in - 
the local newspaper, and bears about the same relation to the Porto-Rican 
folk-poetry as such songs as "Over there" bear to that of this country. 
It is not the jibaro, but the public-school student, who writes of Washington, 
Lincoln, and the Monroe doctrine. Nor are the specimens here collected 
representative in character. Although there are several dicimas in the 
collection which complain of Spain's treatment of Porto Rico, there is 
not one which expresses dissatisfaction with the United States Government, 
nor one which expresses the wish for independence. But the Unionist 
party, which stands for independence, has for many years been popular 
and influential; was, tn fact, especially prominent at the time when TDany 
of the complaints against Spain were composed, and, judging from its 
recent triumphs, continues to influence popular thought. Certainly a great 
deal has been written on this theme of independence besides Joat de Diego's 
"Cantos de Rebeldfa," so well known to all Unionists. Why are such 
verses absent from this collection? Perhaps the Porto-Ricans, with the 
courtesy and eagerness to please which Mr. Juncos calls "their propensity 
for festive exaggeration," felt that the recital of rebellious verses might be 
displeasing to an American collector. 

Many of the non-political dicimas are not popular in content or in spirit. 
Some, such as Nos. 3 and 233, are full of classical allusions, and are de- 
veloped by means of simile and metaphor not characteristic of folk-poetry. 
Such is No. 13, so similar in spirit to Jorge Manrique's "Coplas que hizo 
por la muerte de sa padre." The last stanza of the dicima is almost identical 


Reviews. loi 

with the third of the eoplas; and the sentiment, though common to Spanish 
poetry and thought, is by no means popular in tone. No. 35, which, if 
not compoMd by the well-known Porto-Rlcan poet, Jos* Gautier. is very 
aimilar to his work, is too figurative and of too tyric a quality to be popular 
in origin. No. 43, inspired perhaps by the lines taken from Espronceda's 
"Student of Salamanca," is not popular either in spirit or in content; 
No. 58, which is baaed on the same introductory lines, is developed in 
a much simpler way, and uses a theme more typical of the people. 

The same distinction should be drawn between Nos. 47 and 55. The 
former is too figurative, too carefully and consistently developed, for folk- 
poetry; the latter, more simple and direct, is probably a popular poem. 
The references to flowers uncommon in Porto Rico point to a foreign origin 
for Noa. 76, 90, and gi, probably to the Spanish ballads of the seventeenth 
century, which are literary rather than folk ballads. No. 255 was composed 
for a vaudeville singer, a copUHita, and sung several years ago at the Romea 
Theatre in Madrid: it can hardly be classed as folk-lore. And No. 160, 
"La vida del campesino," although it pictures exactly the life of 
the jiharo, is the work of Alejandrina Benftez, a lady of culture. The 
original, which I think was never published, may be found, according to 
Mr. Virgilio D&vila, in the possession of the Eugeuio Benltez Castailo 

Valuable as is this interesting collection of dicimas from Porto Rico, I 
think we should use considerable caution in assuming tt to be truly repre- 
•enUtive tA a folk-art. 

Louise D. Dennis. 

The above review by Miss Dennis is, on the whole, directed to show 
that many of the didmas under discussion are learned or semi-learned. 
Slace 1 have said as much in my introduction to the dicimas, I hardly 
think it was necessary for Miss Dennis to repeat what I had already said. 
I quote below from my introduction (p. 390) : — 

"The popular poets have often been under the influence of real poetic 
inapintion. One suspects in some cases seroi-learned influences: but even 
so, they are considered anonymous, have no known authors, and are in 
every respect the poetry of the people. ... I suspect, however, that in 
Porto Rico, and perhaps also in other countries, the dicima is cultivated 
by more pretentious poets; and it is not unlikely that many of the composi- 
tions that have attracted our admiration and attention are the product 
of learned poets, who composed them for the people and abandoned tbem 
to their fate." (See also pp. 391-293.) 

I would say now exactly what I said before; but 1 certainly do not, 
for that reason, believe that our complete collection of dicimas cannot be 
dasaed as folk-poetry. On the whole, the material is folk-lore, in apitc 
of the learned influences 1 speak of, and which Miss Dennis discovers 
•new. These dicimas are of the same type, as a rule, as those published 
by Lena (" Uber die gedruckte Volkspoesie von Santiago de Chile," 1895) : 
and he does not hesitate to call tbem Volkspotsie. I agree with him, and 
in general also with the remarks of Dr. Mason, given below. 


102 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

As to No. i6o, I am gtad to know that it is of known authorship. May 
I say that I do not coneider Doria Alejandrina Benttez much of a poetess? 
Any third-rate New-Mexican cantador can compose better ones, real popular 

As for the language, I have explained many times that one cannot publish 
folk-lore material in the original dialect, unless one makes a specialty of 
the dialect and has taken down personally every word of it. On the whole, 
however, the Spanish spoken by the most ignorant classes of Porto Rico 
is the same as that spoken by the ignorant in most Spanish countries. 
Nothing would be gained for dialectology unless It were in phonetic script, 
recording the exact sounds in question. As regards syntax, the dicimas 
reflect quite well, and are indeed representative of, the popular Porto- 
fttcan popular Spanish. 

But Miss Dennis raises the question as to just what are the marks of 
popular poetry or folk-lore. Here we enter a problem that is indeed in- 
teresting, but we may have quite different opinions on the subject. Per- 
sonally I am certain that folk-poetry has most of the elements of learned 
poetry, and often in a more refined degree. What poetry is prettier than 
the Spanish ballad poetry, and is it not popular poetry? If It is not, then 
I have yet to learn just what folk-poetry is. It is real art, — yes, real 
folk-art, — and much superior to the art of poets like Doiia Alejandrina 
Benftez. It may interest our reviewer to know that in Dr. Mason's bulky 
collection of Porto-Rican folk-lore' — and folk-lore it is, in spite of the learned 
and semi-learned sources of some of it — we found, among other things, 
some thirty odd traditional Spanish ballads, evidently thrown in just for 
good measure. That alone is sufficient, in my mind, to prove the real 
popular character of the collection as a whole. 

Stanfobd UNivmsirv. 

Miss Dennis raises the question whether the dicimas do not proceed 
from the lettered classes instead of from the country people, and whether, 
therefore, they are entitled to be considered as true folk-poetry. 

This question naturally resolves itself into two phases: (l) Is the dicima 
a popular poetical vehicle among the jibaros? and (2) Is the jVfaro the 
originator of these dicimas? Apparently Miss Dennis considers that both 
these questions should be answered in the negative, believing that practi- 
cally all the dicimas were composed by local poets in towns, where they 
were written down by the school-children. 1, however, shall insist on a 
dogmatic affirmative to the first question, and a qualified affirmative to 
the second. 

The dicima, despite the fact that it is a poetical vehicle of considerable 
artistic merit, comparing favorably in rigidity of form and general spirit 
with the English sonnet, appears to be the most popular form of poetical 
expression among the illiterate jibaros. At the velorios and other Bodal 
gatherings, according to my informants, it is the dicima rather than the 
aguinaldo which is most sung. It was a source of great surprise to me 

' Published in the Revue Hispanique, Vol. 43 (1918) ; " Roaances de Puerto Rico," 
publicados por Aurelio M. Espinosa. 


Reviews. 103 

to &nd these poems, many of them oC not a little lieauty, known and sung 
by illiterate mountain peasants. Quite a number of the decimas in the 
collection were written down by me in phonetic text from the dictation 
of jibaroi in out-of-the-way country barrios. I believe that there are few 
adult jtbaro men who have not memorized one or more dlcimas, which 
they sing, when called upon in turn, at social gatherings: and nearly every 
little country hamlet has its noted dicima singer, who has dozens of them 
at hb tongue's end. 

Miss Dennis offers three principal reasons for believing that the decimas 
are not truly of the country people: first, that the school -children who 
wrote them down came from the literate classes in the towns; second, 
that they contain few of the phonetic, dialectic, grammatical, and rhetorical 
linguistic peculiarities of the jibaro; and, third, that the collection contains 
no dicimas relative to the movement for independence. 

Despite Miss Dennis's evident intimate acquaintance with things Porto- 
Rican, I cannot agree with her that "school-children ... are drawn al- 
most altogether from the literate populations of the town, and not from 
the true folic, who live in the country or in the mountains." That was 
doubtless the case under the Spanish regime; but under the American 
school-system every child is required to attend school, and the law is 
enforced with considerable success. Many are my recollections of pleasant 
rides up into the mountains off the main roads with district school-super- 
visors to inspect their little country schools. I rather believe that the 
bulk of my material was written by little jibarilcs in these country schools. 
They, of course, got their contributions from their illiterate parents. 

As regards the question of dialectic peculiarities and provincialisms, it 
could hardly be expected that the children would record the mistakes of 
their elders. They are particularly taught to avoid all these vulgarities, 
and to write only correct standard Spanish. Only in cases where they 
wished especially to call attention to jibaro diction would they write Iruje, 
jactr, and puM. This was done in several cases, as Miss Dennis notes. 
To delete as of literary origin all (olk-poetry not written in dialect would 
be to throw out the baby with the bath-water. However, as Miss Dennis 
points out, we should expect to find such rhetorical provincialisms as are 
not grammatical errors, and which could not be corrected without destroying 
the metre. That these are few certainly indicated that the majority of 
the dicimas were composed by persons of some cultural background. 

To me, the lack of dicimas breathing a desire for independence is good 
evidence that the collection is truly exemplary of the poetry popular among 
the jtbaros. Unless conditions have changed greatly since 1915, there is 
no more loyal American citizen anywhere than the Porto-Rican jibaro. 
The devotion of this illiterate class, generally ignorant of a word of English, 
to America, is a great tribute to our colonial policy and adminiittriitiun. 
Several times men questioned me anxiously whether there was any truth 
in the rumors — for the more impossible the rumor, the more quickly it 
spreads — that Porto Rico was to be returned to Spain. " Ueltcr we all 
die fighting than go back again under Spanish rule." said one. I received 
the distinct impresuon that the movement for independence wai largely 


I04 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

confined to the better-educated populations of the towns, — the arttaaa 
proletariat, let ua say, — and not shared by the jibaro peasantry. 

I (eel, therefore, that the dicitnas in the published collection are fully 
representative of the poetry of the jibaro. The sources, however, an 
various, quite naturally. Many, as Espinosa has pointed out, are tradi- 
tional Spanish. Others give internal evidence of jibaro authorship. This 
group, naturally, are of a simple style. A third large group are probaUy 
the product of local amateur poets in towns and villages. Thus Noil 
tt5 and ll6 I recollect receiving directly from such a poet, the shoemaker 
of a tiny village. These and probably a few others were not widely known; 
but the great majority, irrespective of their authorship, had been memorued 
by jibaro singers, and incorporated in peasant folk-lore. Naturally it was 
impossible to separate the decimas into groups according to their ori^s. 
Were Spanish folk-lore perfectly known, the traditional dicitnas could have 
been separated. As for the others, only years of persistent research in 
Porto Rico could elucidate their authorship or locality of origin. Miai 
E)cnnis has done a great service by pointing out the origin of several, and 
it is hoped that other interested students of Spanish folk-tore and Porto- 
Rican literature will offer further aid toward the same end. 

J. Aldsn Masoh. 
Field Musbuu op Natural Histoby, 
CmCAco, III. 





Vol. 35.— APRIL-JUNE, 1922.— No. 136. 



[The riddles here collected were written down in March, 1920, by 
Negro public-school children of the McDonoug:h School 6 in New 
Orleans, La., and sent to me by the principal, Mr. A. E. Perkins, 
B.S., Ph.D., without his alteration or correction. The school draws 
from a district of English-speaking colored people, many of whom 
come from Mississippi. It is noticeable that the riddles show no 
trace of riddle-making as a live art. All are of English origin; there 
is not, BO far as I know, a single native African riddle among them; 
no local diaoges or inventions occur (with the possible exception of 
3 and 5) either of pattern or of subject-matter; not an original riddle 
appears in the whole list. The majority are of the modern conun- 
drum type. Of the sixty-four folk-riddles, thirty-six have preserved 
the English rhymed form. This differs from the Jamaica habit, 
\ri)ere the rhyme is likely to break down and the riddle to fall into 
pattern form. Only six story-riddles occur, but several of these were 
given more than once; and the elaborate explanations perhaps indi- 
cate a taste still active for this kind of riddling. — Martha Warren 


1. Round as a butterbowl, 
Deep as a cup. 

The Mississippi River 
Cannot fill it up. 

Ans. Sifter, strainer. 


2. Round as a biscuit, 
Busy as a bee, 

If you guess that, 
You can have poor me. 

^«j. Watch. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Round as a biscuit, 
Busy as a bee. 
The prettiest litde tiling 
Tliat I ever did see. 

3- My walls are red, 
My tenants are black, 
My color is green 
All over my back. 

Ans. Watermelon. 

4. Black within and red without. 
Four corners round about. 

Ans. Chimney. 

5. Large as a house. 
Small as a mouse. 
Bitter as gall. 

And sweet, after all. 

Ans. Pecan (tree and nut). 

6. Open like a barn-door. 
Shut like a trap. 
Guess all your lifetime, 
You won't guess that. 

Ans. Pair of corsets. 

7. Round as an apple. 
Deep as a cup, 

And all the king's horses 
Can't pull it up. 

Ans. Well. 

8. Taller than a house. 
Taller than a tree. 

Oh, whatever can it be? 
Ans. Star. 

9. Thirty white horses 
On a red hill. 

Now they tramp, now they romp. 
Now they stand still. 

Ans. Teeth and gum. 

10. House full, room full. 

And can't catch a spoonful. 
Ans. Smoke. 

11. As crooked as a ram's horn,' 
Teeth like a cat. 

Guess all your lifetime. 
You will never guess that. 

Ans. Brier-bush. 
> Varittnt: Crooked u a rainbow. 


Siddtesfrom Negfo Schoci-Ckildren in New Orleans. 107 

13. Rough on the outude. 
Smooth within; 
Nothing can enter 
But a big flat thing. 
When it enters, 
It wiggles about, 
And that is the time 
The goodie comes out. 

Ans. Oyster. 

13. A riddle, a riddle, as I suppose: 
A hundred eyes and never a nose. 

Ans. Sifter. 

14. From house to house he goes, 
A messenger small and slight. 
And whether it rains or snows. 
He sleeps out in the night. 

Ans. Path. 

15. Four legs up and four legs down, 
Soft in the middle, and hard all 'round. 

Ans. Bed. 

16. Long big black fellow, 

Pull the trigger, make it bellow, — Bang! 

Ans. Gun. 

17. Black we are, but much admired. 
Men seek for us till we are tired; 
We tire the horse, but comfort man; 
Tell me this riddle if you can. 

Ans. Coal. 

18. In marble walls as white as milk. 
Lined with a skin as soft as silk. 
Within a fountain crystal-clear, 
A golden apple doth appear. 

No doors there are to this stronghold, 
Yet thieves break in and steal the gold. 

Ans. Egg. 

[Variant^ A little white house with no windows or doors, but yet 
robbers break in and steal the gold. — Ans. Es£. 

19. Patch upon patch, 
A hole in the middle: 
Guess that riddle, 
I'll give you a gold fiddle. 

Ans. Chimney (of patched dirt). 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

20. Through the woods, through the woods I ran, 
And as little as I am, 1 lulled a man. 

What is it? 

Ans. Bullet 

21. Hicky More, Hocky More, 
On the king's Idtchen door. 

All the king's horses and all the king's men 
Couldn't pull Hicky More, Hocky More, 
OH the king's kitchen door. 

Atis. Sunshiae. 

22. As I was going through the garden-gap. 
Whom should 1 meet but JImmie Red-Cap; 
A stick in his mouth, a stone in hia throat: 
If you tell me this riddle, I give you a groat. 

Ans. Cherry. 

As I was going through the garden-gate. 
Whom should I meet but Dickie Red-Cap, 
With a stick in his hand and a stone in his throat: 
If you guesB my riddle, 1 will give you a goat. 

23. Old Mother Twitchet had but one eye. 
And a long tail which she let fly; 
And every time she went over a gap. 
She left a bit of her tail in the trap. 

Ans. Needle and thread. 

(Variant.) I had a little sister; she had one eye and a long 
tail. Every time she went through the gap, her tail got shorter 
and shorter. 

24. Little Anne Etdcoat 
In a white petticoat 
And a red nose. 
The longer she stands. 
The shorter she grows. 

Atis. Candle. 

25. Twelve pears were hanging high. 
Twelve men came riding by. 
Each man took a pear: 
How many pears were left on the tree? 

Ans. Eleven (the man's name was Eachman). 

Eleven hats hanging high. 
Eleven men came riding by. 
Each man took a hat. 
And that left eleven still. 


Riddles from Nesro Schocl-Chiidren in New Orleans. 109 

36. A Idng met a Idng 
In a great lane. 

He said to the other, 

"What U your name?" — 

"Gold ia my bridle, 

Gold is my rein. 

I have told you my name twice, 

And yet you don't know." 

Ans. U (?). 

37. As I was going over London Bridge, 
I met a London scholar: 

An' drew off his hat an' drew off his coat. 
What was the scholar's name? 

Ans. Andrew. 

il8. As I was going to St. Ives, 

I met seven wives. 
Each wife had seven sacks, 
Each sack had seven cats. 
Each cat had seven kits. 
Kits, cats, sacks, and wives. 
How many were going to St. Ives? 

Am. Only one. 

39. Sisters and brothers have I none. 

But that man's father is my father's son. 

Ans. A man is speaking of his own son. 

30. There was a man who had no eyes; 
He went abroad to view the skies; 
He saw a tree with apples on it; 

He took no apples off, yet left no apples on. 

Ans. The man had one eye, and 
the tree two apples. 

31. Nature requires five, 
Custom gives seven. 
Laziness takes nine, 
And wickedness eleven. 

Ans. Hours of sleep. 

33. Fifty is my first, nothing is my second. 

Five just makes my third, my fourth's a vowel reckoned: 
Now, to fill my whole, put all my parts together; 
1 die if I get cold, but never fear cold weather. 

Ans. L-O-V-E. 

33. As I was going to town to sell my eggs, I rode and yet walked. — 
Ans. Little dog named Yet. 


1 10 Journal of American Ftdk-Lore. 

34. What relation is that one to its own father who is not its 
father's own son? — Ans. Daughter. 

35. Two people were ratting on a log, — a large and a small one. 
71)e large one was the small one's father, but the small one was not 
his son. — Ans. His daughter. 

36. There was a man of yore. He was neither on land, nor in the 
sea, nor in the air. Where was he? — Ans. Jonah in the whale's belly. 

37. I haven't got it, don't want it, wouldn't have it. But if I had 
it, I would not take the whole world for it. — Ans, Bald head. 

38. I have an apple I can't cut, a blanket I can't fold, and so much 
money I can't count it. — Ans, Moon, stars, sky. 

39. At night they come without being fetched, and by day they 
are lost without lieing stolen. — Ans. Stars. 

40. Come up and let us go; go down, and here we stay. — Ans. 

41. When pulled, it is a cane; when pushed, it is a tent. — Ans. 

42. When held, it goes; when let loose, it lies down. — Ans, Pen. 

43. The man who made it did not want it; the man who used it did 
not want it. — Ans. CofBn. 

44. Go all 'round the house and make but one track. — Ans. Wheel- 

45. 'Live at each end, and dead in the middle. — ^nj. Plough (man 
and mule at each end). 

46. If he come, he no come; if he no come, he come. — Ans. If the 
crows come eat the corn, it would not come up; if the crows did not 
come and eat the corn, it would come up. 

47. On a hill there stood a house, and in the house there was a shelf, 
and on that shelf there was a cup; in that cup there was some suck, 
and you couldn't get that suck unless you broke that cup. — Ans. Egg. 

48. Goes up white, and comes down yellow. — Ans. Egg. 

49. Upon the house, white as snow; down on the ground, yellow as 
gold. — Ans. Egg. 

50. On a hill stands a house; in the house stands a trunk; in this 
trunk there is something nobody wants. — Ans. Death. 

51. Four legs and can't walk, four eyes and can't see, and smokes a 
pipe. — Ans. Chimney. 


mddles from Negro School-Children in New Orleans. 1 1 1 

53. White as a lily, it's not a lily; green as grass, it's not grass; 
red as fire, it's not fire; sweet as sugar, it's not sugar; black as ink, it's 
not ink. What is it? — Ans. Blackberry. 

{Variant^ White as snow, green as grass, black as smut. 

53. Red as blood, but blood it's not; black as ink, but ink it's not; 
white as milk, but milk it's not; green as grass, but grass it's not. 
— Ans. Watermelon. 

54. Four stiff standers, two lookers, two crookers, and one switch- 
box. — Ans. Cow. 

55. Two heads, no neck, no arms, no legs, no face. — Ans. Barrel. 

[Variant.) What object has tvro heads and one body? 

56. Tip tip upstairs, tip tip downstairs. If you don't mind out, 
tip will bite you. — Ans. Bee. 

57. Two legs sat upon three legs with one leg on his lap. In comes 
four legs, takes up one leg. Up jumps two legs, snatches up three 
legs, throws three legs at four legs, and makes four legs bring back one 
leg. — Ans. A leg of mutton, a man, a dog, and a stool. 

58. Four legs sat on two legs with four legs standing by. — Ans. 
Maid milking a cow. 

59. As I was going through the world of Wicky Wacky, I met 
Bone Backy. I called Tom Tacky to run Bone Backy out of the world 
of Wicky Wacky. — Ans. Field of com, a cow, and a dog. 

60. Once a slave's master told him if he could find a riddle that 
his master couki not guess, he would set him free. This is the riddle. 
Wliat is it that never slew anything, but yet slew twelve? — Ans. It 
is a crow that ate of a poisoned horse; and twelve murderers ate of 
the crow, and died. 

61. Six set and seven sprung, — 
Out of the dead the living run. 

Ans. A quail sat on six eggs, and hatched them 
in a dead horse-head. She and her little 
ones made seven. 

62. Love I sit, love I stand,' 
Love I hold fast in my hand. 

Ans. There was a lady that had a dog whose 

name was Love. When this dog died, she 

took his skin and patched a chair, her shoes, 

and her glove. 

t p BUMyUm fa Gcrmaii Riddlcf (JAFL ig [1906] ; 105); Guilford County, South 

Carolina (JAFL 90 {igiTl : »>3)' 


112 Journal of American Folk-lore. 

63. Horn eat a horn up a white oak-tree.' 

If you guesB that riddle, you may hang nie. 

Ans. A runaway slave, having been pursued till 
he took to a tree, was promised, by the 
white master who pursued him, his ac- 
quittal for killing a man, provided he told 
them a riddle they could not answer. He 
said this riddle. The man's name was 
Horn. He boiled a dead calfs horn, and 
ate it up in the tree. 

64. I sat high, I looked low. 

I looked for one to come, but two did come. 

The wind did blow, my heart did ache, 

To see what a den the fox did make. 

Ans. There was once a lady that had promised to 
marry a young man. He told hb sweet- 
heart to meet him a certain place in the 
woods. Now, this young lady was very 
rich; and this young man was going to kill 
her and take her jewels and money. 
When she reached the woods, she found a 
fresh grave dug. She wondered what this 
meant. She said she would climb a tree 
and wait until her beau came. She looked 
for him to come alone, but he brought some 
one else with him. They both waited 
and waited, but she did not come. Alter a 
while they left, then she too went home. 
The same night her beau came home and 
asked why wasn't she in the woods. She 
told him she had a riddle for him to guess, 
and if he guesses it right she will still 
marry him. However, he did not guess it; 
80 she told him, and they did not remain 
friends any more. 


65. What is the beginning of every end, and the end of every place? 
— Letter e. 

66. What is the usefulest thing in the house and the least thought 
of? — Dish-cloth. 

67. What is that which, by losing an eye, has nothing but a nose? — 
Ans. Noise. 

68. How many boiled eggs may a man eat on an empty stomach? 
Ans. One: after that, his stomach wouldn't be empty. 

1 Guilfoid County, South Csrolina (JAPL 30 It9i7] : 303). 


FiddUs from Neffo School-Ckiidren in New Orleans. 1 13 

69. What is the oldest table in the world? — Ans. Multiplication 

70. Who are the two largest ladies in the world? — Ans, Missouri 
and Missiauppi. 

71. What is it that you can feed, but can't give water? — Ans. Fire. 

72. What is it that a man can give to a lady, and can't give to 
another man? — j4fM. A husband. 

73. What is the best way to keep a man's love? — Ans. Don't 
return it. 

74. What is it a lady's husband can never see her with it on? — ■ 
Ans. A widow's veil. 

75. If a bear were to go into a dry-goods store, what would he 
want? — Ans. Muzzlin' (muslin). 

76. Who was the first whistler, and what tune did he whistle? — 
Ans. The wind. He whistled "Over the hills and far away." 

77. What is that you can hold in your left hand, and not in your 
right? — Ans. Your right elbow. 

78. If you saw a dude riding on a donkey, what fruit would it 
remind you of? — Ans. A pear (pair). 

79. What is it that doesn't ask questions, and requires answers? — ■ 
Ans. The door-bell. 

80. What is it you will break if you even name it? — Ans. Silence. 

81. What is the sure sign of early spring? — Ans. A cat watching a 
hole with her back up. 

82. What would happen if a colored waiter carrying a dish of turkey 
swimming in grease should accidentally let it fall? — Ans. It would 
be the fall of Turkey, the overthrow of Greece, the breaking up of 
China, and the ruin of Africa. 

83. Wha:t is the key-note to good manners? — Ans. Be natural 
(B natural). 

84. Who is the greatest of home-rulers? — Ans. The baby. 

85. What is it that belongs to you, yet is used more by your friends 
than by you? — -4ns. Your name. 

86. What word makes a girl a woman? — Ans. Age. 

87. What is the largest room in the world? — Ans. Room for im- 

88. If a man is born in England, raised in France, and died tn Mon- 
treal, what is he? — A dead man. 


114 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

89. Id what place did the cock crow so that all the world could bear 
him? — In Noah's Ark. 

90. What subject can be made l^ht of? — Gas. 

91. What snuff-box is that whose box gets fuller the more pinches 
he takes? — Ans. Candle-snuffers. 

93. What does a lawyer do when he dies? — Ans. Lies still. 

93. What is this it takes two to make one? — Ans. A bargain. 

94. What is the first thing you do when you make biscuits? — Ans. 
Wash your hands. 

95. What flower grows between your nose and your chin? — Ans. 
Tulips (two lips). 

96. Why is the letter a like a honeysuckle? — Ans. Because a b 
(bee) follows it? 

97. Why is a prudent man like a pen? — Ans. Because his head 
prevents him from going too far. 

98. Why is a boy like flannel? — Ans. Because he shrinks from 

99. What is the difference between a sentence and a cat? — Ans. 
One has its pause at the end of its clause; the other, its claws at the 
end of its p>aws. 

100. What is the difference between a soldier and a lady? — Ans. 
A soldier faces powder, and a lady powders her face. 

loi. What is the difference between a pie and a pair of trousers? — 
Ans. A pie has to be made before it is cut, and a pair of trousers has 
to be cut before it is made. 

102. What is the difference between an auto and a horse?— ~^fu. 
They kick at different ends. 

103. Why is a rooster on a fence like a penny? — Ans. Because 
the head is on one side, and the tail on the other. 

104. What is the difference between an old penny and a new dinw? 
— Ans. Nine cents difference. 

105. Why is a room full of married people like an empty one? — 
Ans. Because there isn't a single person there. 

106. Why is high tariff like overalls? — Ans. Because it protects 
the laboring-man. 

107. What is the difference between a conductor or motonnan and a 
cold in the head? — Ans. The conductor knows the stops, and the cold 
stops the nose. 


Biddies from Nep-o Schcol-Ckiidren in New Orleans. 115 

108. What is the difference between a stubborn mule and a postage- 
stamp? — i4«5. One you lick with a stick, and the other you stick with 
a lick. 

109. Why do preachers preach without notes? — Ans. Because 
their families would starve without greenbacks. 

no. Why does a stick of peppermint candy remind you of the 
United States? — Ans. Because it never has been licked. 

HI. Why did they make the Statue of Liberty's hand eleven inches 
instead of twelve inches? — Ans. Because, if it had been twelve inches, 
it woukl have been a foot instead of a hand. 

112. Why does a hen lay an egg? — Ans. To give the rooster a 
chance to cackle. 

113. Why is Philadelphia more subject to earthquakes than any 
other city? — Ans. Because she is a Quaker city. 

114. Why do the Spaniards waat Admiral Dewey's picture on 
their post^e-stamps? — Ans. Because it's the only way they can 
lick him. 

115. Why may a beggar wear a short coat? — Ans. Because it will 
be long enough before be gets another. 

1 16. Why is a dog warm in winter, and colder In the summer? — Ans. 
Because in the winter he wears an overcoat; and in the summer, 
pants and shirts. 

— 117. Why did the duck cross the pond? — Ans. Because she wants 

to get on the other side. 

n8. Why did the Kaiser defy the whole world? — Ans. Because he 

thought he could whip them. 
_ — "til). Why is your nose in the middle of your face? — Ans. Because 

it is the scenter (centre). 
— » 120. Why did Webster write the words in the dictionary? — Ans. 

Because he knew them. 
.«-w43i. Whydid Adam bite the apple Eve gave him? — Ans. Because 

he had no knife. 

122, Why should architects make good actors? — Ans. Because 

they are fine at drawing houses. 

New OstUNS, La. 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Kua kaile ufeko wa fina, kuenje Mbeu la Miapia va endeleko oku 
ka tambela ufeko waco, kuenje vo sanga pole ed vo sanga vangandiahe 
ka va yonguile oku eca ufeko waco pamue ku Mbeu, pamue ku Miapia. 

Kuenje va ngandiaco va eca oseo tunde ko Baitundo toke ko 
Dondi vati, U wa pttila lombili eye o tambula ufeko waco. Kuenje 
va katuka vosi, Miapia wa tambula opatolonya yahe, ed va pitila 
vosi kofeka Miapia wa kuata ocinjoko wa enda kusenge oku uia ed a 
enda kusenge Mbeu wa iiiiU vopatolonya ya Miapia, noke Miapia 
weya kusenge wa yelula opatolonya mu li Kambeu elunguko lia Mbeu 
onto ka kuete ovolu, Miapia wa kuata ohele wa soka hati, Mbeu wa 
enda ale kuenje wa palala lonjanga. 

Kuenje Miapia wa pitila kimbo liaoo ed a pitila vali komele yimbo wa 
tula opatolonya yahe muna mu ti Kambeu, wa linga omo si inila 
vimbo handi tete ha nia. Kuenje wa enda opatolonya wa yi ua. 

Kuenje Mbeu wa tunda lombili vopatolonya yina ya ambatele 

Miapia wa iiiila lonjanga vimbo kuenje Ufeko va wiha Mbeu. Miapia 

ed eya kusepge wa yelula opatolonya yahe wa sanga Mbeu wa tambula 

ale ufeko, kuenje Miapia wa sumua, Kambeu wa sanjuka. 



Once there was a beautiful maiden, and the tortoise and the swallow 
went to court her. They found her, and they found also her relatives, 
and they did not wish to give the girl either to the tortoise or to 
the swallow. 

However, the relatives set a test from Bailundo even to Dondi, 
saying, "He who arrives quickest, he takes the girl." So they rose 
up the both of them, the swallow taking his little hand-bag; and 
when the two arrived at the point indicated, the swallow took fr^t 
and went to the woods (to stool). Whilst he was thus gone, the 
tortoise climbed into the hand-bag of the swallow. Soon the swallow 
returned from the woods, picked up the hand-bag in which was the 
tortoise (this was his wisdom, as he did not possess fast legs), and the 
swallow was much disturbed thinking that the tortoise had already 
gone on before: so he flew hurriedly. 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 117 

Soon the swallow arrived at the village; and as soon as he reached 
the outskirts, he put down his hand-bag, in which was the tortoise, 
saying, " I shall not enter the village yet, until I first go to the woods." 
So he went, leaving his hand-bag behind him. 

Immediately the tortoise climbed out of the hand-bag which the 
swallow had carried, and speedily entered the village. The girl was 
given to him. When the swallow came from the woods, he picked up 
his hand-bag, entered, but found that the tortoise had already received 
the girl, and consequently was very sad; but the tortoise was happy. 


Kandimba wa mina kuenda Moma wa minavo kuenje va livala 
ukamba va Usola calua. Kandimba hati, A Moma eteke tu dta 
omala veto, ove vu Moma o tambulapo omala vange ndi Kandimba 
ama nSl^vo lomala vove. 

Kuenje va linga ndeci va likuminyile, omala va citile Moma va 
tandavata nQ momo ka va iktle oku nyama, omala va Kandimba vana 
va kala la Moma va yongola oku nyama avele ndodtua cavo coku 
nyama, momo Moma ka kuete avele okuti o nyamisako omala va 

Kuenje Kaniiimba ed a limbuka okuti omala vahe vana a dtile va 
kolako naito wa tila lavo osimbu Moma a enda vusenge, kuenje 
Moma ed eya vusenge wa sanga Kandimba wa tila lomala vahe, 
Moma wa d suvuka wa kongola olomoma viosi. Moma wa linga omo, 
Tu landuli Kandimba lomala vahe. 

Yu olomoma via imba ocisungo viti, Tu landula Kandimba wa lia 
ofuka yomoma. Tu landula Kandimba we — wa lia ofuka yomoma. 

Kandimba oku yeva ocisungo caco wa yokoka wa sanga ocinyama 
dnene hati, Mopele. Odnyama oku yeva ocisungo caco hati, Si 

Wa d linga kinyama viosi via d lembua. Noke wa sanga ocenye 
hati, Mopele. Ocenye hati, Omo. Kuenje ocenye ca iiiisa ondimba 
lom313 vayo kututa noke wa ndindflko leve, Eci olomoma vieya via 
pula Kacenye viti, Kandimba wo mol3? Eye hati, Ocili ndo mola yu 
kututa, oco wa va ilikila kelungi liili hati, Oko ku li Kandimba. 

Kuenje omoraa yimosi ya yongola oku inilH, ocenye citi, liiili n5 
vosi yene oco vu mola Kandimba, ed va iiiila ocenye ca yelula ovava 
a sanya ca itila kututa ku li olomoma kuenje olomoma via fa viosi. 
Kandimba wa popelua. 

Elungulo: Otuvina tutito tu tela oku kuatisa ovina vinene, vosi 
va lembua oku popela Kandimba pole Kacenye wa ci tgl3. 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


The rabbit was with young, and the python alao; and they swore 
friendship one with the other, for they loved each other a great deal. 
The rabbit said, "O Python! the day we give birth to our children, 
you. Python, take my children; and I, the rabbit, will have your 

So they did as they had agreed. The children of the python stretched 
themselves out long, because they were not habituated to nurse. 
The children of the rabbit were with the python, and they wished to 
nurse, as was their custom; but the python did not have "breasts" 
with which to nurse the children of the rabbit. 

Soon, when the rabbit perceived that her children which she had 
given birth to were getting stronger, she ran away with them whilst 
the python was in the woods. When the python returned from the 
bush, and she found that the rabbit had run off with her children, 
she was angry, and called together all the pythons, saying, "Let us 
follow the trail of the rabbit and her children!" 

So the pythons began singing, "Let us follow the rabbit who stole 
[ate] her debt to the python! . . . Let us follow the rabbit — the 
rabbit — who stole her debt to the python!" . . . 

The rabbit, hearing this song, began to shake (tremble). She found 
a large animal, and said to it, "Save me!" The animal, hearing the 
song of the pythons, said, "Impossible [I am not able]." 

The rabbit went to all the animals, and they all shunned doing 
anything. Finally she found a cricket,* and cried, "Save me!" The 
cricket replied, "All right." So then the cricket put the rabbit and 
her children into a burrow, blocking it up with dirt. When the 
pythons came, they questioned the cricket, saying, "Have you seen 
the rabbit?" And he replied, "Indeed, I have; she is in that burrow 
[pointing to a different one from that in which the rabbit was] — in 
there is the rabbit." 

So the one python wished to enter; but the cricket said, "All of 
you had better go in and find the rabbit;" and when they had done 
so, the cricket took hot water, pouring it into the burrow where were 
all the pythons, thus killing them. The rabbit was saved. 

Moral: Little things are able to accomplish large results; all 
shunned helping save the rabbit, nevertheless the little cricket was 
able to do it. 


Ulume lukai va ile oku pasula Kimbo liukai, ed va pitila kimbo va 

va yolela ca lua muele, kuenda va va telekela ovina via lua osanji! 

> A ipeciei that butrowi. 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Soutktvest Africa, 119 

onguhi! ontu! via lua muele esanju Hka oloneke viao). Kuenje eteke 
limue ulume wa popia lukai wahe hati, Okuetu hel3 oku enda kimbo 
lietu, ukai wa Unga Omo muele. Kuenje ukai wa d popia ku vangandi- 
ahe hati, HelS tu enda yapa ovo va tava. 

Omele ed kuaca va va nenela onjeke yepungu ovo va pandula, 
kuenje va wila konjila oku enda ende toke va pitila kolui lumue 
lunene ulume eye wambata onjeke yepungu, eci va kala keyau ulume 
wa kupuka lonjeke yepungu volui, ukai wa liyula hati, a mai we! a 
mai we! etaili veyange we! 

Kuenje ulume wa endele muele kombuelo yolui lonjeke wa yi seleka 
vusitu kuenje weya kukai wahe wa linga omo, Okuetu onjeke ya enda 
muelS, ukai hati, Ka ci lingi dmue. 

Eteke limue va enda kolonaka oku senda ed va kala loku senda va 
yeva onjila yi llla omo, ko — Ico — o, ulume hati. Yoyo omunga yo 
cinyuavava ondambi ya dtapulavakela opo ya lilila ndoto ndan5 ovava 
ngenda ha nyuapo muele. Kuenje wa enda wa sia ukai wahe lomala 
ponaka wa pitila kusitu una a sile onjeke yepungu eci a pitila wa 
siakala ondalu wa fetika oku kanga kuenda wa teleka asola wa lia. 

Eteke limue wa ci linga vali veya kolonaka eci a yeva onjila yaco 
yomungu ya lila vali yiti, ko — o ko — o, ulume wa popia omo, Yoyo 
omungu yocinyuavava ondambi yocitapulavakela, yapa weya vali 
kusitu kuna a sile onjeke yahe wa fetika oku kanga olukango loku 
teteka asola oco fetike oku lia ukai wahe yu, eye wa lisalukako ukai 
hati, Ca! cal ca! ove puai oco o linga linga ed? Omala va fa lonjala 
ove epungu liomlilS lia nyihile mSi o li malela vefe liove? Ulume osoi 
yo kuta eye ulume hati, Tu lie, ukai hati, Ove vumbua yomunu si li. 

Kuenje eteke limue umue ulume wa kelisa odmbombo ed va kala 
loku dl2 ukai wa yongola oku lombolola eci co lingile veyahe ponjala. 
Kuenje ukai wa tundila vodla wa fetika oku imba hati, Ca ndingile 
Sambimbi ponjala — , kuenje ulume wa yayulako letaviya hati, Weya 
ku d popie vali okai wange. Ukai wa imba vali hati, Ca ndingile 
Sambimbi ponjale — , vosi va taviya ndeci ca taviya veyaco vati, 
Weya, weya ku d popie vali okai wange — . 

Olusapo hati, Onjala ka yi osoi. 


A man and his wife went to visit the village of his wife. When 
they arrived at the village, they were received with great gladness; 
and they cooked for them many things, — a chidcen, a pig, meat. 
There was much joy all the days. It came to pass that one day the 
man said to his wife, "Partner, to-morrow we return home;" to which 
the wife replied, "Very well." Then the woman told her relatives, 
saying, "To-morrow we are going," and they acquiesced. 


1 20 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

When the morning broke, they brought them a sack of com, for 
which they were thankful. They started off on their journey, going 
on and on, until finally they came to a large river. The man was 
carrying the sack of com. When they were on the bridge, the man 
fell into the river with the sack. The woman cried out in anguish, 
"Mother, oh! Mother, oh! to-day my husband, oh!" 

The man was carried way down the river with the sack. He came 
to the bank, and hid the sack in a thick clump of trees. He returned 
to his wife, and said, "Partner, the sack went on down the stream." 
The wife responded, "Never mind! it makes no difference." 

One day they both went to the river-bottom gardens to hoe; and 
as they were di^ng over the ground, they heard a bird singing, 
"There, there, there!" The man said, "That is the messenger of 
drinking-water — a handsome person — awaiting me; and as it cries 
thus, I go to drink, even water." So he went, leaving bis wife and 
the children in the field by the river. He reached the thick woods in 
the ravine where he had hidden the sack of com; and upon arrival 
he built a fire, and began to parch some kemels and to boil the whole 
corn, and eat. 

One other day it happened again. They came to the river-fields; and 
as they heard the bird singing again, saying, "Ther-e, the-re," the man 
said, " There again the messenger calls and awaits me;" and off he 
went again to the woods in the ravine where he had hidden the sack of 
corn. He began to parch some and to boil the-whole com, and b^ian 
to eat. Behold, there stood his wife! He was frightened. The wife 
said, "Shucks, shucks ! and that's the way you do, is it? The children 
nearly die with hunger, and the com given me by mother for them 
your stomach is finishing it up!" The man, covered mth shame, 
cried, "Come, let us eat!" The woman answered, "You dog of a 
man, I won't!" 

It came to pass that one day a man made strong beer; and when 
they were dancing, the wife attempted to tell what her husband had 
done at the time of famine. In the midst of the place of gathering 
she began to sing, "So did Sambimbi at the time of famine." . . . 
And her husband began quickly a choms, saying, "Never mind! 
Don't tell it again, my own wife." . . . And the woman sang again, 
saying, "So did Sambimbi at the time of famine." . . . All now took 
up the chorus of her husband, saying, "Never mind, never mindl 
Don't tell it again, my own wife." 

Moral: Hunger (or famine) has no shame. 


Eteke limue va IJnga olonamalala pokati kavo va linga omo, tu ende 

tu ka lisalamaileko oco tu tale u o velapo oku salama, kuenje Kadn- 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. I3i 

jonjo eye wa livangako oku ka salama noke Ng:unduahelelg wo van- 
jiliya kuenje wo mola, va lisalamailako olonjanja via lua. 

Kuenje Kadnjonjo wa popia lokuavo Ngunduahelele hat!, Kuende 
ka satamevo, eye wa enda eel a kala loku enda wa sokolola hati, Htse 
nda ha salama pocanju ca Kadnjonjo ooo ka tela oku mola vali, 
kuenje wa d linga; 

Kadnjonjo wa kala loku vanjiliya ukuavo eteke liosi ko muile vali. 
Kuenje uteke weya wa sumua oco a linga omo, ndinga nye omo Ngun- 
duohelele ka moleha? Oco a linga hati, Hise nda agenda kocanju 
cange si ka pekelako, momo dla uteke weya kuenda nda kava. Wa 
enda ende — toke a pitila, pocanju cahe ed a vanjapo o lete pa nainS 
nai nai oku d mola usumba wo kuata ca lua. 

Yu wa imba odsungo cahe hati, Ngunduahelele kimbo kua yevala 
oluiya kuende ka taleko — . Ngunduahelele kimbo kua yevala oluiya 
kuende ka taleko — . Noke Ngunduahelele co Hnga ohenda yu wa tunda- 
po wa linga hati, Ame ukuele Ngunduahdele. Kuenje va yola yola. 


One day there was friendly strife between them; and they said one 
to the other, "Let us go and play hide-and-seek, and then we shall 
see who is best able to hide!" Then the bird went first to hide, and 
his playmate looked for him diligently until he found him. So they 
did many times. 

Finally the bind said to the other, "Now you go and hide!" As he 
was going to hide, he thought to himself, saying, "Well would it be 
if I went and hid in the nest of the bird, so he would not be able to 
find me;" and so he did. 

The little bird spent the entire day looking for the other, but without 
success. Finally night came on, and he was tired from his searching; 
and he said, "What shall I do because my playmate I cannot Bnd? 
This I will do: I will go to my nest and have a sleep, because night 
has come on and I am tired." He went on and on until he arrived. 
In his nest, when he looked, there shone something bright, so very 
bright that it frightened him to look at it. 

Greatly scared, he began to sing, "Playmate, playmate, in the 
village a proclamation is being sounded ! Go and see! . . . Playmate, 
playmate, in the village a proclamation is being sounded! Go and 
see!" . . . After that the playmate felt for the little bird, and so 
came out and said, "It is I, your playmate." So they laughed gayly 
at each other, and were happy. 


122 Journal of American Fotk'Lore. 


Ulume wa yongola oku ka pasula kuvala wahe oco a linga habr 
Ove a Katnalanga tuende o ka «ndikile kuvala wange, Kamalanga 
hati, Omo muele. 

Kuenje va kuta epunda Uavo noke va fetika oku enda kuvala toke 
va pitila, omanu va lua va yolela va linga omo, Akombe veya we! 
Tiakololo, oco va va lekisa kotijo ya posoka puai onjo yaa> yi li sungue 
vali lonjo ya ndatembo yahe, va lale ciwa ciwa kuenda va va telekela 
ovina via lua va lia. 

Eteke Hmue ulume wa kala naito lonjala oco wa sokolola epungu 
ti kasi kocumbo, oco a popia lukuenje hati, Kuende ka teye epungu 
kocumbo, oco Kamalanga ka tavele wa popia hati, Siti kulo kuvala 
ka ci tingi osoi? 

Ukulu wa tema wa popia lumalehe hati, Osoi ye? kulo kuvala wove? 
Siti kuvala wange? Noke omola ka tavete yu wa enda eye muele wa 
enda no atako ka walele cimue oco a pitila kocumbo wa teya epungu, 
lia lua enene wa li kutila [x>nanga wa lituika kutue, oco wa soka oku 
tiuka konjo vo yekisile noke onjo yo limba yu wa inila vonjo ya 
ndatembo yahe, eci o saDga wa sima hati, Ukuenje wange Kamalanga, 
oco a fetika oku popia hati, Ove si ku ihako epungu liange cosi oco o 
kasi muele atako lacimue a wala. Oco ndatembo yahe a linga omo, 
Mulo a ndatembo hamoko vonjo yove. Eye wa popia hati, Ku ka 
likembise ove muele Kamalanga si ku iha epungu liange. Noke hati, 
Mbanja n5 ndeti ndatembo yahe, ya! ya! osoi yo kuta wa tila oco eya 
vonjo muna a site ukuenje oco wa popia lahe hati, Tuende kimbo 
lietu. Ukuenje hati. Si endi luteke ulo. Kuenje eye wa enda ukuenje 
wa sala. 

Omele ya nena ongulu ya pia ca fina, oco va pula ukuenje vati, 
Ukombe wa enda pi? Eye hati, Wa enda kimbo. Ukuenje wa Uako 
vimue olositu vimue wambatelako ukuluwahe, ed o saoga kimbo wo 
wiha ositu yahe eye puai wa tema ca lua lukuenje. 

Ukuenje wa lombolola cosi komani nded ca ka pitUe kuvala kuenje 
omolt wa sanga esunga komanu. 


A man wished to go to his own wedding-feast: 80 he said to a boy, 
"Come on! I want you to accompany me to my wedding-feast." 
Kamalanga replied, "All right." 

So they tied up a little bundle, and started off for the wedding-feast. 
Soon they arrived; and all the [>eople were pleased to see them, 
crying out, "Our friends have come! our friends have come!" So 
they showed them a very fine house. This house, however, was next 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 123 

door to that of his mother-in-law. They slept very comfortably, and 
they were provided with many things to eat. 

However, one day the man became a little hungry, and cast eyes 
upon the cam in the garden near the house. Finally he said to the 
boy, "Go and break off some ears in the garden." But Kamalanga 
would not agree, saying, "Isn't this a wedding-feast? Won't it make 
shame to do that? " 

The elder became angry, and said to the boy, "Shame? Is this 
your wedding-feast? Isn't it mine?" But the boy would not go: 
so after a while he himself went, wearing nothing about his loins. 
Upon reaching the garden, he broke off a lot of com, tied it up in the 
cloth he carried, and placed it upon his head. He thought to return 
to the house from which he came; but, forgetting its exact location, 
he entered the house of his mother-in-law. Noticing a person, and 
thinking it to be that of his boy Kamalanga, he said, " I will not give 
you any of my com;" and there he was standing entirely naked. 
Soon his mother-in-law said, "This is the house of your mother-in-law, 
not yours." But he said, "Do not mock me, you Kamalanga! but I 
will give you no com of mine." Then he noticed there indeed was 
his mother-in-law [ Whew! Whew! Filled with shame, he ran out, 
and reached the house where he had left the boy, and said to him, 
"Come on! Let's go home!" The boy replied, "I am not going this 
night." So he went off alone, leaving the lad. 

In the morning they brought a pig deliciously well cooked, and 
asked the boy, "Where is our visitor?" and he replied, "He has 
retumed home." The lad ate some of the meat, and other of it he 
carried home with him to the man to whom he gave it, as it was 
intended for him. 

He flew into a passion with the lad; but, when the boy had explained 
to all the people what had happened at the wedding-feast, they took 
his side, and were greatly amused. 


Ulume wa fuka okasima kuenda o ka sole ca lua puai omolahe eye 
o ka lava lava otembo yosi. Eteke limue omola okasima kaco ko 
tila ka enda kisitu kupSIl p31i. Noke isiaco weya wa linga hati, A 
tate okasima ketu ka pi? Eye hati, Okasima ketu ka tila. Eye 
isiaco wa tema hati, Ove a molange wa huka, kuende ka vanje ndopo 
okasima osimbu hu lete. Eye hati. Pi ha ka sanga a tate? Eye hati, 
Kuende kisitu. Oco omola wa lila ca lua yu wa popia la isiahe hati, 
Songele okandma oko ha vanja lako oakasima, isiaco wa songa kuenje 
wa wiha. 

OmolS wa enda lika liahe kisitu, eci a pitila kusitu wa tete wa sika 
okanSma loku imba odsungo hati, Kumbiti, kumbiti okasimaka tate 


124 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

omo ka H omu? Olosima vio tambuluU viti, Mulo ka kemo ka enda 
kusitu kupombombo vanja oku ku li udla umue ka ku li ovidli vivali. 
Momo okasima kavo ka kuete icila vivali, wa c! linga kieitu via lua 
puai ka ka sangele, noke wa pitila kusitu wa sulako wa sika vali hati, 
Kumbiti, kumbiti okasima ka tate omo ka H omo? Oktsima vio 
tambulula vali viti, Mulo ka kemo ka enda kusitu kupombombo 
vanja oku ku li udla umue ka ku li ictla vtvali, puai noke wa ka mola 
yu wa ka kuata kuenje wa sanjuka. Wa ka tuala ku isiahe isiahe wa 
d sola puai omolS wa d patekela momo isiahe wo kangisa. 


A man had brought up a little monkey, and he loved it very mudi; 
but it was his child who had the care of it always. One day the little 
monkey broke away from the child, and ran to the thick woods of a 
ravine far, far away. After a while the father came, and said to the 
child, "Beloved, where is our little monkey?" And he replied, "It 
has run away." The father became very angry, and said, "You, my 
child, have done badly. Go at once and look for the little monkey 
while I am watching you." He replied, "O father! where shall I go?" 
— "To the woods in the ravine." So the child b^an to cry dis- 
tressingly, and said to his father, "Make me a little drum, and I will 
go and look with that." This the father did, and gave it to him. 

The child went all by himself to the th!ck woods; and when he 
arrived at the first one, he began to play his little drum, and to sing, 
"Kumbiti, Kumbiti, the little monkey of my father. Is he here?" 
All the monkeys replied, saying, "Here he is not, but has gone to the 
woods in the ravine of the Pombombo. Look there, and you will find 
just one tail, not two," because the little monkey did not have two 
(tails) , but only one tail. So he went to one ravine after another, but 
without success: he could not And it. Finally he reached the farthest 
woods, and he played again, singing. "Kumbiti, Kumbiti, the little 
monkey of my father, is he here?" All the monkeys replied, saying, 
" Here he is not, but has gone to the woods in the ravine of the Pom- 
bombo. Look there, and you will find just one tail, not two." Finally 
he saw the little monkey, and caught him, and in consequence was 
filled with joy. He took him to his father, who was very much pleased ; 
but the child always remembered how his father had wtxinged him. 


Ulume umue eci a kala kimbo liavo wa panga oku ka pasula kuvala. 
Wa enda vo tambula ciwa ciwa, kuenje omelS vo telekela ombelela yu 
vo simbuilamo ondungo yolongupa, ed a yi lia yo pepa muelS, kuenje 
osimbu omanu va enda kovapia wa sokolola sokolole — , Doke hati. 


UmbuTidu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 125 

Hise nda ngenda ha lesa vocine caco muna va tuile ondungo yolongupa 
yu wa enda kuenje wa iiiisa utue wahe voctne caco yu wa fetika oku 
lesa ondungio lelimi lialie ndomo ombua yi lesa lesa, noke wa yongola 
oku tundamo puai ka ca tavele, hati, ndinga ndeti, ndinge ndeti 
haimo ka d tava. Noke wa kupuka posi locine, olongulu vieya vio 
tindlSla ca lua oso! yo kuta. Kuenje omanu veya kovapia, valete 
ndatembo yavo yu locine kutue posi posamua. Ndatembo yahe wa 
fetika oku liyula ca lua alume veya va nyanula onjaviti va tetula 
odne oku tundamo haico oku enda kimbo liavo! 

A man living at his own village desired to go and visit at the 
wedding-feast at another village. There they received him with great 
appreciation ; and in the morning they brought him a dish which had 
been seasoned with a relish in which were peanuts, and it was very 
delicious to the taste. After the people had gone to work in the 
fields, he continued thinking how tasty that relish was; and finally he 
said, "I just think I shall go and lick out the mortar ' in which they 
mixed together that relish." So he stuck in his head and began to 
lick out the sides of the mortar with his tongue, the same as a dog 
would do it. After a while he tried to withdraw his head, but was 
unable to do so, though he tried every way he could think of. Finally 
he fell over on the ground, mortar and all, and the pigs came and 
began to roll him over and over, and it shamed him fearfully. Later 
the people came from the fields, and found their son-in-law there on 
the ground, with the mortar fastened tightly to his head. They made 
a great outcry; and the men then came, and they brought an axe 
with which they split open the mortar, releasing the man, who, with- 
out further ceremony, hastened back to his village. 


Ulume umue kotembo yonjala wa kala lombenje yowiki, noke omo 
onjala ya lua wa fela posi opo a kapa ombeje yowiki, eci onjala yo vala 
o pekela posi o puela loluneva. Wa ci linga olonjanja via lua. 

Kuenje eteke'limue ukai waye wo mola yu wo popia hati, Ove puai 

ku sokolola omala vetu. Kuenje ulume osoi yo kuta. 



Once upon a time, when there was great hunger, a man had a 

gourd of honey. As the famine became more severe, he went and 

a log hollowed out, and may be from aii [o twelve 


1 26 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

dug a hole m the ground, io which he placed the gourd of honey. 
Whenever he felt the pangs of hunger, he went and lay 00 the ground, 
and sucked up the honey with a hollow reed. This he did many times. 
However, one day his wife caught him in the act, and said to him, 
"That's how you do, is it? and you don't even think of our children!" 
And the man was tilled with shame. 


Eteke limue ukai wa ile kovapia Iom513he Casangu pole omolaco 
wo sola ca lua kuenda omanu vamue vo solevo ca lua. Eo a pitila 
kepia wa tula ohumba wa yelula om5t3 wo kapa pesita kuenje wa 

Wa fetika oku lima, eci a pitila pesita a kapele omSli ka ivaluldle 
wa lima lonjanga kuenje omola wo teta utue, oco wa lila ca lua muele 
wo yelula lusumba, noke wa yelula uti umue utito wa tuihinya utue. 
Yu wa enda kimbo loku lila ca lua. Eci a pitila nawa yahe had, 
A nawa om51§ eye ndu kuate. Eye wa fetika oku imba ocisungo, 
cect hati, Casangu o vela mutue, Casangu o vela mutue, o vela 
mutue ongongo ya Luanda, ongongo ya Luanda. Manjange, odndele 
cange Casanguwe! 

Omanu kuenje va tambula omdlt va limbuka okuti wa fa kuenje 
omanu va lila ca lua. Ukai wa lombolola ndect ca ptta, kuenje omanu 
vo tukula ukai weveke. 


One day a woman went to the field to work, taking along her child 
Casangu. Not only did she love this child greatly, but otheis did 
also. When she arrived at the field, she put down her basket which 
she carried, and took the child and placed him near a pile of brush 
which was to be burned, and covered him up. 

She began her work, tilling the ground and digging it over. When 
she reached the pile of brush in which the child had been nestled, she 
forgot all about it, and, hoeing vigorously, she cut off the child's head. 
Heart-broken, she cried a great deal, then she piclttd him up with fear. 
After a while she took a little piece of wood and joined the head to 
the body. Then she went on to the vill^e. When she arrived, her 
brother-in-law said, "O sister! let me hold the child." Then the 
woman began to sing, saying, "Casangu is sick in his head, Casangu 
is sick in his head, his head is sick. What hardship, what hardship! 
O my brother! O Casangu! My white child!" 

Then the people came and took the child, and saw that it was 
dead, and they all cried most bitterly. The woman explained just 
how it happened; and when they heard, they dubbed her a fool. 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 127 


Eteke limue ulurae wa yeva ondaka kukai wahe okuti imunu vi li 
loku yana ca lua kepia lietu. Ulume oku ci yeva wa yelula uta wahe 
wosika ukai lomUla hatt, Nda enda oku ka lavekela, ukai lomala vati, 
Oa> muele. Ca kala onolosi oco a enda wa kala konjila toku sima hati, 
etaili ha yambula imunu. Yu wa pitila kepia wa tumala vocipundo 
luta wahe noke wa yeva imunu vioviya kocipundo yu vio mola, eye 
wa seteka oku loya puai ya! ka ci telele, oco vo kuata loku veta ca 
Iva. Noke vo sasa kuenje omo vocipundo caco mua kala ombia londatu 
vo teleka; ed a pia vo simbula. 

Imunu via fetika oku iva epungii locipoke ha va endi kimbo liavo, 
ombia yomunu va yi sia piko loku feloka toke komgl§. Omele eci 
ukai eya kepia lomtla va ambata osema lovava eci va pitila pocipundo 
va sanga ombia ya pia onduko, eci va yt mola va yolela ca lua va sima 
okuti mbi tate wa tpaya ombambi lukai haico a simavo. 

Ovo kuenje va pika iputa ukai yapa o simbula ositu ; loku mahamo 
oco wa aveta omSIa vahe, noke wa siamo yimue ya veyahe momo wa 
soka okuti mbi wa ka yeva kusenge kuenje va kala vepia osimbu ya 
lua. Ukai wa nuala vepia hati, oco mbanje no ndeti konete yepia ya! 
ya! epia va li punda epungu! ocipoke! cosi ca enda limunu. Kuenje 
wa fetika oku lilula hati, Ene am^a epia va lipunda, so yene puai 
wa enda pi? eye he oko a lale kuto? Yu wa fetika oku lila kumosi 
Iom313 vahe. Ed veya vali vocipundo hati, oco mbanje iio vonele yula 
wa kala vodpundo o lete no utue wa veyahe yu. Va fetika oku lila 
lomSla vahe kuenje va enda kimbo, ed va pitila kimbo va fetika oku 
lenda ovaimo mekonda liositu yaco va lile kuenje omanu va yayulako 
oku va nyuisa ihemba, noke va sanja ca lua inumba, kuenje va kaya 
oco va fetika oku lombolola nded ca pitile kepia. 

Olusapo hati, Odhandeleko ci koka ekandu, momo olonjanja tu 
yeva okuti oku lia ositu yomunu imo li lenda. Ukai waco wa lia 
ositu ya veyahe lomalS vahe puai ka va lendele ovaimo puai apa a 
d limbuka wa lenda imo kumosi lomala. 


One day a man heard from his wife that thieves were stealing a 
great deal from their field. Upon hearing it, he at once picked up 
his gun and bade good-by to his wife and children, saying, "i am 
going to go and watch;" and they replied, "All right." It was 
evening; and as he went along the path, he was thinking that to-day 
he would punish those thieves. Upon arriving at the field, he hid 
himself in the field-hut, with his gun. Soon he heard the thieves 
coming toward the field-hut, and they saw him. He tried to shoot. 


128 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

but he was unable to do so. So they caught him and beat bim un- 
mercifully; then they cut him up. There being in the field-hut a big 
[>ot and fire, they cooked him up; and when it was done, they sea- 
soned it- 
Then the thieves began to steal the com and the beans, and after- 
wards went to their village, leaving the pot containing the man on 
the fire, where it kept on boiling until morning. In the morning, 
when the woman came to the field with her children, they brought 
meal and water. Arriving at the fiefd-hut, they found the pot with 
its contents thoroughly cooked. They rejoiced greatly when they 
saw it, as they thought that "father" had killed a deer; and so thought 
also the wife. 

So they made mush; and after the woman had seasoned the meat, 
she tasted it and gave to her children. However, she left some in 
the pot for her husband, as she thought that probably he had gone 
again to the woods to hunt. They awaited him a long time. Then 
the woman took a turn around her field to see how it was, and was 
astonished to see how it had been plundered, — com, beans, all, had 
gone with the thieves. So she began to cry loudly, saying, "My 
children, the field has been plundered; but your father, where is he? 
Did he not come here to sleep?" So she began to cry, together with 
her children. She came again to the rest-hut, saying, "I'll just look 
under the bed [which was in the field-hut]," and there she saw the 
head of her husband. She and her children b^an to weep bitterly as 
they returned to their village. As they arrived, their bodies (stom- 
achs) began to swell because of the meat which they had eaten. 
The people hurried and gave them medicine, because of which they 
vomited what they had eaten. Soon they were well, and they ex- 
plained all that had hap[>ened at the field. 

Moral; Knowing the law brings sin. Many times we have heard 
that to eat man's flesh will produce severe bloating. The woman ate 
the flesh of her husband, as did also her children; but they did not 
swell up, because they did it unknowingly. As soon as they realized 
it, however, they bloated immediately. 


Ulume wa kuela ukai puai ukai waco ukuaku lipongolola odnyama, 
eci ulume a enda vusenge eye eca olongupa komSlH vahe va vali, 
ukuavo wokatumba ukuavo wahe muele. Eci a va iha olongupa 
viaco va takila eyemuele lahe o takila, puai viahe o takila lombili 
eci a mala o nyeha olongupa viomola wokatumba, nda ka tava oku 
eca olongupa viaco nyoho yaco o lipongolola odnyama kuenje omol3 
o tila o londa vuti, eye yapa weya ale vemehi liuU waco oku takila uti 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 129 

okuti wu kupuka po^, oco a takilS omola kuenje omolS o liyula, 
Tate, tate wa ka yeva wa ka yeva ukongo wa ka yeva, Tate odnyama 

So yahe ed a d yeva hati, Oco — o. Eci ukai a yeva ondaka yulume 
wabe lahe wa yolokela volui wa liyavekamo kuenje wa pongoloka 
vali omunu. 

Kuenje eteke limue so yaco wa salama. Eye ukai wa eca vali 
olongupa, omol^ ed a fetika oku takila wo sakalaisa kuenje wa tilila 
vuti, ed ukai a fetika oku takila uti ulume wo loya kuenje ukai waco 
wa fa. 



A man married a woman ; but this woman was one who a)u1d change 
herself into an animal. When the man would go to the woods, she 
would give peanuts to her two diildren, — one her very own, the 
other a step-diild. Whenever she would give them peanuts, she also 
would eat some, but hers she would eat very quickly; and when she 
was through, she would snatch away by force those of her step-child. 
And if the child would not willingly give them up, the mother would 
change herself into a wild animal, and then the child would flee and 
climb a tree. Meanwhile the animal came to the foot of the tree and 
b^an gnawing it, so it would fall to the ground. Then the animal 
would begin to chew at the child, which would cry out loudly, " Father, 
father, who has gone to hunt, who has gone to hunt, the hunter who 
has gone to hunt, father, here's a wild animal of the woods!" 

The father, hearing the cry, responded, "All right! ... all right!" 
When the woman heard the voice of her husband, she ran quickly to 
the river and threw herself in, at which she became again a person. 

One day the father secreted himself near by. The woman again 
gave peanuts to the child ; and when it began to eat, she annoyed it 
in the same manner as formerly, and it fled for refuge to a tree. There- 
upon the woman began to chew at the tree, — in the guise of an 
animal, as before, — and the man flred at and killed her. 

Ulume wa kuela ukai puai kimbo liavo onjala ya lua. Oco ukai wa 
paiiinya ulume wahe hati, Tuende kimbo lia tate la mai momo oko 
ku li okulia kua lua. Olongupa, epungu, ocipoke, ovisiakala, olo- 
namba, lomutu. Kuenje va enda, eci va amako vonjila wa pula ukai 
wahe hati, Odli muele ku li okulia kua lua? Eye hati, Oco ku ii 
muele okulia kua lua. Ende ta kimbo va va yolela ca lua, onganja 
yodmbombo kolongolo, oku pitila konolosi via pia iputa lositu yosanji 


130 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wa lia. Haimo eci a imbapo wa sokolola hati, Ca! Ove vukai wange 
wa niaiia eci tua tunda kimbo heti, Ku mai oktilia kua lua tueya 
kulo vali okulia knna wa tukuile ka ku moleha? Wa tumila ukai 
wabe weya, hati, Cina tua popia vonjila ku ka ivaleko popo. Va 
pekela omele kua ca vo pikila vali iputa viosanji haimo ulume wa d 
petnbula hati, Ya iputa lika muele lokulia kuna kua sapu ilile ukai 
wange vonjila ka ku moleha, wa nemba, Oco wa kovonga ukai wabe 
hati, Ove vuniaiit eci tua likuminyile ca ku limba? Kuenje ukai wahe 
wa yevako wa ka ci sapula ku inahe. Yu va enda kovapia oku kopa 
olongupa, utombo, ovisakala, omutu, okulia kuosi. Eci veya vimbo 
va teleka kua pia, kuenje va longeka vohumba yimue yinene va nena 
konjo, ulume wa sanjuka eci a mola okulia kuaco. Wa lia viosi wa 
yukiyako vali iputa. Oku pitila vuteke ofi yeya wa fetika oku kenya 
kenya, omele kua ca vati, Ka tahi tu ka vanji ed d kuete omunu. 
Oku piti la kodmbauda wa taha hati, Ladmue d kuete omunu ofi a 
lale, puai oku kutulula osoi ndatembo yene kuendi ko kapi kedsa, 
ko singiltsi, puai tete ko nyuisi vimue ovihemba vievi. Pole oku 
singilisa kuaco kolui u kapi upanga umue wene, u yaliko esisa, olon- 
guaya povaka, kuenda oloiioma oku sikila vu ka imba odsuogo 

Olonamba kovisakala! 

Cililcuete kuete kumue! 

Omamale a nielco! 

Kuenje wa ecako ketako oku nia tiu, ttu, kuenje wa kaya ! Mekonda 
liosoi yaco wa tikula uta wahe wa enda vusenge loku kua kua heyi. 
heyi, ed a sanga ocinyama congelenge tai — i uta kuenje ca wila posi 
weya wa tetako udia waco wa tiuka vali vimbo loku kua kua ed a 
pitila wa eca urila waco komanu kuenje omanu vo kuama eyemuele 
haimo no oku kua kua kuahe, te poctnyama caco opo yapa omanu va 
d yuva vati, Avoyo olosande vio sengela, puai oco a liniI5 nilS n6 ndeti. 

A man married a woman, returning with her to his village. Because 
of great hunger, the woman said to the man, "Let us go to father's 
and mother's village, where there is to be found much food, — peanuts, 
com, beans, yams, tubers, and squash!" So they started off; and as 
they were going along the path, the man asked his wife again, "Is it 
really true there will be much food? " to which she replied, "Certainly, 
there is much food." They kept on going and going until they finally 
reached the village, where they received a most hearty welcome and 
were given immediately a gourd of beer to drink. In the evening 
they had mush with side-dishes of meat and chicken. However, when 


Umburtdu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 131 

he had finished, he b^an to think what the woman had said, saying 
in his mind, "Gracious! that woman of mine fooled me good, because, 
when we left the village, she said, 'At my mother's there's lots of 
food;' and now we come here, and where's the food, I should like to 
know?" So he sent and called his wife, and said, "What we talked 
about coming along the path, don't forget it!" They slept again; 
and in the morning they made him more mush with chicken; yet the 
man despised it, saying, "Gee! only mush! Where's that fine food 
toy wife told me about aiming along the path? There isn't any, 
that's all! She lied to me." So he called his wife, and said to her, 
"You poor stick, have you forgotten what you promised me?" After 
hearing what he said, she went and told her mother. Her mother 
went to the field and broi^ht back peanuts, cassava, yams, squash, 
and all sorts of things to eat. Then she cooked them all in fine shape, 
and filled a large basket full, and brought it to the house. The man 
was overjoyed when he saw the food, and ate the whole of it up; and 
not only that, but ate mush as well. When night came on, his stomach 
b^an to groan and groan; and when it was daylight, they said, 
"Let us divine, in order that we may discover what is the matter 
with him!" So they went to the witch-doctor and divined; and he 
said, "Nothing is the matter with the man except a stomach-ache, 
but, in order to pay him back for his treatment to his step-mother, 
go and place him upon a mat, and treat him as one possessed by a 
spirit. First, however, give him this medicine to drink. Then to do 
the thing properly, as one possessed with a spirit, place him upon a 
ridge in the field (as where the com grew) near the river, spread a 
mat over him, put a guava in each hand. Then let the big drums 
beat, and all sing as follows: — 

" ' Tubers and yams 

Have combined together! 

Now let his bowels move! '" 
Then they let go of him, and, my! what a movement! But he was 
cured. But it shamed him fearfully, and so he took his gun and went 
to the woods hallooing and calling; and when he found a gnu, bang! 
went his gun, and the big animal fell to the ground. Then he ran 
up and cut of! its tail, and returned to the village, hallooing. When 
be arrived, he gave the tail to the people; and they all followed him 
back to the woods, he hallooing all the way, until they came to where 
the animal was. They skinned it, saying, "Whew! but good luck has 
pursued him; and that accounts for the way his bowels just flew!" 


Onjala ya veta vofeka yavo pole vofeka mua tundile ukai mua 

akala okulia kua lua, kuenje ukai hati, Tuende kofeka yetu tu ka 


132 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

vanjeko okulia, kuenje va enda ect va pitita oko kimbo va va yolela 
ca lua, kuenje ekutnbi lionoloBi vo laleka onjala. Puai ed va kala 
kimbo liavo wa popele lukai wahe hati, Olonamba si lia lia. Ed va 
pitila oko ndatembo yahe wa fela olonamba hati, va ende va ka tuale 
ku ndatembo, ukai wahe hati, Ndatembo yove olonamba ka Ualia, 
puai omo olonjo vi Hsune:ue, ndatembo yulume wa d yeva, wa sika 
ovilua hati, Olonamba ndia ndia, olo namba ndia! ndiai 

Omol3he wa d yeva hati, Yeveleta a kuku tate hati, Olonamba 
ndia ndia. Kuenje ndatembo yahe oku d yeva wa enda kovapia oku 
ka fela olonamba kekumbi kueya vimue viowisu, vimue via pia: 
kuenje vo nenel^ wa lia otiolosi wa yukinyako iputa, oku pitila vuteke 
CO kokela odpulukalo eye oku d sokolola okutt nda o tundila posamua 
hati, Ka d tava momo kuvala ka va nila nilako, yu wa tambula 
oHualusa yahe wa nilamo yeyuka to lanin^, omele kua ca olio eteke 
lioku enda kimbo, omola hati, Va nene kulo ohualusa eye hati, Ya, 
ngambata no amuele momo muli vimue sanga o vi lola posi. Ed eya 
[>onjango oku liusika la ndatembo yaha ekolombele wa patahala, dna 
kapa pepunda mbu. Kuenje ong^ilu ya yeva elemba li tunda vohua- 
lusa kuenje ongulu ya kuatamo ohualusa mua kala aninS, waya waya 
powitii womanu; ndatembo yahe co linga osoi, oku tundapo wa tam- 
bula uta wahe wa enda vusenge wa loya omalanga wa loya vali 
omalanga yikuavo, wa tetako idla vi vali weya vali kimbo liuvala wahe 
wa eca ovidla viaco. Omanu vati, Ahamba ahe a nila vohualuea. 

Ukai wahe hati, Ahamba aco omo a linga linga omo nda a nilamo 
yapa hott, oku lia ositu kueya. 


The country of a man and his wife was greatly distressed by lack 
of food. However, in the country from which the woman came, 
there was much food ; and so the woman said, " Let's go to my country 
in search of food!" and off they went. When they arrived at tlw 
village, {the people) were greatly pleased to see them ; but when evening 
came, they found hunger. Before leaving thdr own village, the man 
had said to his wife, "Now, tubers I will not eat." When they 
arrived at this village, the mother-in-law went and dug some tubers, 
saying, "Take these to my son-in-law;" but his wife said, "Yes, but 
he doesn't eat tubers." Because of the houses being dose together, 
the son-in-law heard the conversation, and began to whistle, saying, 
"Tubers I will eat, tubers i will eat!" 

His child, hearing this from his father, cried out, "Listen to that, 
will you? Dad says he will eat tubers!" So his mother-in-law, upon 
hearing of it, went to the field to dig tubers. Later she brought some 
back uncooked, and some that were cooked. They brought them to 


Umbundu Tates, Angola, Southwest Africa. 133 

him, and be ate freely, after which he had mush as well. During the 
night, because of all that he had eaten, it brought on diarrhcea. How- 
ever, from custom of the wedding-feast, it would never do for him 
to go outside under the circumstances. So he took his bag (?) and 
stooled ia it, filling it completely full. The next day early they were 
to return to their village; and the child said, "Bring the bag, I'll 
carry it." But the father replied, "Oh, no! never mind! 1 will carry 
it, because it contains something which may easily drop out." When 
he came to the palaver-house to bid good-by to all, the bag was 
suspended from his shoulder; he had not put it in the bundle of the 
child. A pig, getring a whiff of the odor which came from the bag, 
snatched at it, and shook it before the crowd, and the contents were 
scattered far and wide. It surely was a most unpleasant situation 
for the son-in-law. Upon leaving, he at once took his gun and went 
to the bush, where he shot a lai^e deer. Then he shot a second one. 
He cut off the two tails, and returned to the village and handed out 
these tails. The people said, "It was his spirits which stooled in 
the bi^." 

And his wife stood pat, and affirmed, "Yes, that is the way his 
spirits do; and whenever they stool in his bag, then we know it means 
there is meat coming." 


Akisikisi vofeka a lua oco a takil^ omanu vofeka umuamue Hka wa 
sialamo eye ukai puai wa mina. Kuenje wa tilila kolui yu wa iiiil£ 
voluneva omo a kala toke wa dta. Eteke a cita omolahe kuenje hati, 
Tua tunda etu vosakunyanga, ohonji peka lisongo. Eteke limue hati, 
A m£u etailt sula omongua oco u mbumbe momo ngenda kimbo lia- 
kisikisi. Kuenje inahe wo vumba vumbe pe te vovaso omo mua saia. 
Wa tambula ohualusa yahe kuenda ohonji ende te pimbo liakisikisi 
wa sangapo Ilka ava va teleka olombia viositu vosl va enda kusenge 
oku yeva. Eye eci eya wa lia olombia viosi viositu, muele weya 
hati, Ndu takilS. Eyewa liyula hati, Ndekate no momo mepa, mepa, 
mepa! Kuenje wa tundapo weya vali ku nyoho yahe. Eteke leteke 
haimo n5 vamuele veya tupu va sanga olombia via liwa ale, va pula 
ava vakuaku tata vati, Helie o lia lia olombia? Ovo vati, Umue no 
okokuenje o F>epa ca lua. Kuenje vosi va lipaiiinya vati, Etaill tu 
usala oco tuiye tu vanje omunu waco, kuenje va lete no o li loku iya, 
vati, Okaliye yo o li loku iya. 

Eci eya wa IJa olombia viosi, eci va soka oku wipaya, eye hati, 
Ko ka njipali no mepa, mepa, mepa. Vo lekata vosi. Vo pula vati, 
O lingainga ndati. Eye hati, Ene vu ci yongola? Ovo vati, Oco, 
Hati, Ka tiavi olohui kuenda sandi olombiavinene u kapi plko ovava 
aco a feluke muele. 


134 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Kuenda vu vanji akuku anene eci ovava a feluka vou vu mla 
vakuku amo ngenda loku itila ovava katimba ene, puai ed njitila 
ovava lomue o litetela oku uha nS ne, momo omo va linga linga um- 
banda waco. Vosi va wiia vakuku aco eye wa itila ovava katimba 
avo kuenje vosi va fa. Wa tiuka ku nyoho yahe hati, Vosi nda va 
ipa pe. 



In a certain country the goblins (aktsikisi) were very numerous, 
and they were eating up all of the people. So it came about that but 
one person was left, and she a woman soon to give birth. So she ran 
away to the river, and crawled in among the reeds and hid there 
until she had a child. Then she came opt, the child carrying a bow 
in front. In course of time the boy said to her, "To-day you pound 
some salt, and you do me obeisance, because I am going to the village 
of the goblins." So his mother did as she was told, and minded him 
most explicitly. He took his bag and his bow, and went on and on 
until he arrived at the village of the goblins, where he found no one 
except those who were cooking big pots filled with meat. All had gone 
to the woods to hunt. He immediately ate up all the pots of meat; 
and when found by the leader who returned, the leader cried, "And 
I am going to eat you up!" The child screamed out, crying, "Just 
lick away at me, because I am sweet, I am sweet, I am sweet." Then 
he left, and returned to his mother. And so it happened day after 
day, when the owners returned from their hunt, they found the pots 
entirely empty. They asked those who tended the pots who it was 
that had been eating the meat; and they replied, "Just only a little 
boy, but he is very sweet." So they agreed among themselves, saying, 
"To-day let us stay at home and watch for that person, and see who 
it is." Soon they saw him coming; and the word was passed, "There 
he's coming." 

When he arrived, he finished up the pots; and as they thought to 
kill him, he said, "Do not kill me, for I am sweet, I am sweet, I am 
sweet." They licked him with their tongues; and then they asked 
hira, "How do you do it?" And he said, "Do you really wish to 
know?" and they said, "Sure." So then he told them to get together 
a lot of fire-wood and to find some big pots; to fill these with water 
and get them to boiling good. 

They were also to find some com-bins (these are made of bark, and 
portable) ; and when the water was boiling well, they were to climb 
into these bins. "I will sprinkle a little water upon your bodies; 
but not one of you make an outcry, but keep as still as mice, because 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 135 

it is only then that the charm will work." So when the water was 
boiling, they all climbed into the corn-bins, and he poured great 
quantities of boiling water upon them until they were all dead. Then 
he returned to his mother, and said, "Now we've got our pay, they 
are all dead." 


Otembo yaco ombela ka ya lokele olondui viosi via kukuta, ovin- 
yama lolonjila via fa lenyona. Evi via salapo kuenje via likongola, 
kuenje via londa komunda yimue c^u kovonga ombela. Komunda 
yaco kua kala vali ewe linene, u o kovonga ombela oko a talama 
lombinga peka. Tete Kandimba, kuenje wa londa lombinga peka 
vakuavo vosi va tumala posi vemi. 

Kuenje wa sika vombinga, — 

Pe — e, pe — e 

Ombela, ombela vongangele — ya ca etenya — a 

Pe — e, pe — e 

Ombela, ombela vongangele — ya ca etenya — a 

Ed ci linga ndeti ndombela ndombundu tui tui 

Ove a Hosi tu ka nyulla pi ovava 

Ed ci linga ndeti ndombela ndombundu tui tui 

Ove a Ho« tu ka nyuila pi ovava. 

Ndafio wa kala loku kovonga haimo ombela ka yeylle. Ovinyama 
viosi haico via linga haimo ombela ka yeyile. Kuenje va tumila 
Mbeu, hati. Eye. 

Ovinyama vimue vinene via fetika oku pembula Mbeu viti, Etu 
tumanu vodli tua ci tokoka etela lian5 1! tela nye? Puai hatmo vati. 
Eye n5. 

Eci Mbeu eya wa tambula ombinga wa londa kewe liaco wa ^kamo 
(cina ca tete haico). Kuenje ombela ya fetika oku lemila'eci a kala 
loku sikamo vali, kuenje ombeta yeya. Ovinyama viosi via komona 
viti, Mbeu ukulu, Mbeu ukulu. Oku imba kuaco umost ed a imba 
ovinyama viosi vi taviya. 

Hosi mekonda eye wa linga ndosoma eye wa tukuta, ndeci etu 
pokati ketu nda pa veta dmue tu tukula umue wa velapo. 

Once upon a time there was a great drought, because no rain fell. 
The rivers were dried up, and the animals and birds were dying with 
thirst. Those which remained gathered themselves together, and 
climbed upon a high mountain in order to invoke rain. Upon the 
mountain was a very lat^e stone, and the one seeking to call the rain 
would stand upon the stone with the whistle made from a deer-horn 


136 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

in hie hand. First the rabbit b^an, and he climbed upon the rock 

with the deer-hora whistle in his hand, all the others ntttng about 
the base. 
Then he would blow the horn and sing, — 

"Toot — ot — otttt! 

Rain, rain, come from afar! Drought, go away! 

Toot — ot — otttt! 

Rain, rain, come from afar! Drought, go away! 

As we do like this, may a little rain come as mist! 

To you the Lion, where shall we find water to drink? 

Ab we do like this, may a little rain come as mlstl 

To you the Lion, where shall we find water to drink?" 

Even though he called the very best he could, yet the rain did not 
come. And so tried all the animals in their turn, yet without success. 
Finally they sent and called the tortoise, telling him to come. 

But with this, all the large animals began to despise the tortoise, 
saying, "If we, the really wise and capable animals, are unable to 
accomplish anything, why call such a slow-poke as that?" However, 
the crowd said, "Let him come!" 

So the tortoise, taking the deer-horn whistle in his hand, climbed 
the rock, and began to blow the whistle and sing, as bad done the 
others. Soon the clouds began to gather; and as he continued calling 
and singing, the rain began to fall. Then all the animals weie as- 
tonished; and they began to say, "The tortoise is our ruler, the 
tortoise is our ruler!" One of them led the singing, and all the rest 
joined in the chorus. 

In the above the Lion is mentioned as be to whom all the other 
powers give obeisance. 


Ulurae wa tele onjanjo venyala kuenje weya kimbo, omele wa 
tunda hati, Ha nyuI3 olonjanjo viange, wa sanga mua fa odnjila 
cinene. Ulume hati, Etaili nda yeva kuenje wa nyanula ombueti oku 
ci tesola. Onjila ya popia hati, Mopele lienyala, oco ame eteke hu 
popele liesisi. Ulume kuenje wo pandululamo kuenje ca enda, ulume 
weya kimbo. 

Ukai wo pula hati, Ka mua file? Eye hati, Oco. 

Eteke limue ukai hati, Tuende o ka sindikile kimbo lietu, ulume 
hati, Omo muete. Kuenje ukai wa sula osema. 

Kuenje va katuka oku enda eci va pitila vonjila va fiualehSUL la 
Cinyoha congongo, onjila yosi wa yi sitika lapa va pita ka pa moleha, 
Cinyoha wa popia hati, Imbila! Imbila! Imbila! utandanjila! Kuenje 
va eca iputa eye wa tambula haimo hati, Imbila! Imbila! Imbila! 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 137 

utandanjilal Kuenje va eca ohumba yosema wa ina, haimo oku 
pinga ka liwekelepo toke ikuata viosi via pua loku eca. Noke wa 
eca omQlS lukai wahe, Cinyoha wa ina. 

Eye haimo hati, Imbila, utandanjila, ulume ladmue vali a kuete, 
oku tiukila konyima ka ci tava, oku enda kovaso ka ci tava, Cinyoha 
wa ^tika usenge wosi, kuenje ulume wa londa vuti. Wa ivaluka 
Cinjila una wa lingile hati, Mopele lienyala oco ame eteke hu popele 

Kuenje wa fetika oku kovonga Cinjila. 

Cinjila we — e, nda ku popelele lame ndo mopele — e 
Cinjila we — e, nda ku popelele lame ndo mopele — e 
Volongongo tua endele Itavali volon^ngoanjile — e 
Volongongo tua endele kavali volongongoanjile — e. 

Noke Cinjila wa yevako ed ulume a kovonga, haimo ulume wa 
kovonga vali (dna ca tete haico). Cinjila hati, Oco — o. Kuenje 
weya wo pula hati, Nye? Eye hati, Cinyoha. Kuenje Cinjila wa 
ipa onyoha yaco. Kuenje onyoha yaco va yi tola va sanga vimo 
onianu vana a inile haimo va kasilili lomuenyo, lukai wahe, kuenda 
omSIa vahe lovikuata viosi, kuenje va enda kimbo liavo. 

Oluaapo luaco lu lombolola ohenda. Ukuene nda wa ku linga ohenda 
love u lingavo ohenda. 


A man once set a snare in the plain, and then went on to his village. 
In the morning he says to himself, " I am going to have a look at my 
snares and see if perchance some laige bird has been caught." And 
so it proved. He found one, and he lifted his stick to kill it. Then 
the bird spoke to him, saying, "Save me here on the plain, and some 
day I will save you in the thick woods." The man heeded and untied 
the bird, and it went. When the man reached his village, his wife 
asked, "Did nothing get caught?" to which the man replied, "Aa 
you say." 

One day the woman said to the man, "Come, and let us go and 
visit our village!" to which the man responded, "All right, surely!" 
And the woman began to pound the meal for the journey. 

In time they got started; and as they were going along the path, 
suddenly there appeared before them a very large snake, so that the 
whole path was blocked, with nowhere to pass. The big snake spoke, 
saying, "Give me something, give me something, give me something, 
you there, standing upon the path!" They gave him their mush, 
which he took quickly, and yet demanded, "Give me more, give me 
more, give me more, you standing there upon the path!" So they 
gave him the basket of meal, which he quickly swallowed. However, 


138 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

he did not let up with his demands until all they had was given him. 
Finally he gave the child and his wife, and the snake swallowed them all. 

Yet he was not satisfied, and continued demanding more. The 
man could not flee, neither could he pass and go on ahead, for the 
snake blocked the whole woods. The man climbed a tree ; and then 
he remembered how long ago the bird had begged to be released, saying, 
"Save me here on the plain, and some day I will save you in the 
thick woods." 

So at once he began to call for the bird Cinjila: — 

"Cinjila, oh, I saved you! Will you not save me? 
Cinjila, oh, I saved you! Will you not save me? 
We have both been in trouble, — the two of us in trouble! 
We have both been in trouble, — the two of ub in trouble!" 

Before very long the bird heard the man calling, and yet he called 
a second time. Then the bird replied, "All r-i-g-h-t!" and when he 
came, asked what it was? The man replied, "The big snake." So 
the bird killed the snake; and when they cut him open, they found 
within him everything he had swallowed, — the woman and the child, 
both alive, and all their belongings. Then they proceeded on to 
their village. 

This proverb illustrates kindness: If you show tdndoess to another, 
some one in time will show you a kindness. 


Ka vili la Cisue va kala lakai vaco, oloneke vio« va kala loka 
sandiliya eci va kuatisa laco akai vavo. Nda nye? nda nye? 

Kaviti wa ipapa olomuku, kuenje o yuva ovipa viaco ha yali pula 
wukai wahe, ositu yaco va takila kuenje ca posoka. Kadsue wa 
ipaipa olosanji o sunya ovonya aco ha yali pula wukai wahe hati, 
Oco ukai wange a pekela ciwa, lacovo ca posoka. Eteke limue ukai 
wa Kavili wa enda konjo ya Cisue wa sanga ukai wa Cisue o lale 
povonya olosanji, kuenje wa tundamo lutima uvala hati, Ukai wa 
Cisue eye o lale pawa ame mbu. 

Kuenje #eya konjo yahe wa popia lulume wahe hati, Ame aa 
kuelele, wa kuela Nakacisue eye o lale povonya olosanji. Ame ndale 
povipa violomuku viano. Kavili kuenje co vala kutima yu wa enda 
ku Cisue hati, Ukuetu pi wa ka sangele ovonya olosanji? Cisue hati, 
Kimbo liomanu. Puai nda o yongola heli tunda omele muele ka 
salame ocipepi lolonjo eci omanu va yulula olosanji viavo o kuata, 
oco ame nda ka lingile oco. Kuenje beta Kavili wanda kimbo wa 
aanga akai a va likongela pamosi oku sula osema olosanji va vi yulula 
ale kuenje Kavili weya wa salama pokati kolohumba, osanji ya pita 
ocipepi lahe kuenje wa yi kuata, noke akai vo molt va vilikiya vati. 


Umbunda Taies, Angola, Southwest Africa. 139 

I&vili O! o kasi oku mSU3 olosanji! Kuenje umue ukai wa votoka 
had, Ndi kepa, kuenje we kapuma owisi vonyima pu, okavili ka 
lepuka kuenje va ka imba kilu lionjo. 

Ommbu ka kasi kilu lionjo ka litunga tunga omuenyo noke ka 
pasukapo ka senjeleketa posi ce kaka posi pu, ka tueha lolupesi keya 
koajo yahe ka popia lukai wahe hati, Ocipululu cove ca soka oku 
njipaisa lakai vomanu. 

Omo va lua va sia ed va d kuete, vati, Citito, Tu sanda eci ca lua, 
kuenje va d pumba. 


The weasel and the wild-cat lived with their wives; and every day 
they sought the best they could to help and please their wives, whether 
by this thing or the other thing. 

The weasel killed mice; and he would skin them, and spread the 
skins upon the bed of his wife. The meat they ate, and it was very 
fine indeed. The wild-cat would kill chickens; and he would pluck 
out the feathers, and with them would make a bed for his wife, saying, 
"So my wife will sleep wdl;" and that was very nice also. One day 
the wife of the weasel went to the house of the wild-cat, and she 
found her lying comfortably upon the bed of chicken-feathers. She 
turned back to her own house, saying within her heart, "The wife of 
the mid-cat sleeps with much comfort, but I not at all!" 

When the weasel arrived at her own house, she said to her husband, 
"I am not really married; but the wife of the wild-cat »i, for she lies 
upon a bed of chicken-feathers, while I sleep only upon the skins of 
rats!" The weasel, deeply grieved, went to the wild-cat, and said, 
"Friend, where did you get your chicken-feathers?" The wild-cat 
replied, "In the village, where people live. But if you wish some, 
to-morrow morning go very early and hide very near to the houses; 
and when the people let out their chickens, you catch one; that is 
how I did." So the next morning the weasel went to the vill^e, and 
found that the women had already gathered themselves together at 
the usual place to pound meal, the chickens having been let out 
already. The weasel came, and managed to hide himself among the 
baskets. Soon a chicken passed very near, and he caught it. There- 
upon the women saw him, and began to cry out, "The weasel, the 
weasel, he is eating up all our chickens!" One of the women got 
quickly up, and threw her pestle with which she had been pounding 
meal, and struck it upon the back. The little weasel fainted, and 
they threw it upon the top of the house. 

After lying there a little while, he began to revive ; and as soon as his 
strength came back, he slid with difficulty to the ground, and hurried 


140 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

as fast as he could to his house. Then he unburdened himself to her, 
saying, "Your greed was nearly the end of me in the hands of the 
women of the village!" 

Many people leave that which they have, saying it is little; they 
seek something bi^er, and are disappointed. 


Eteke limue Ongue ya paAinya Kandimba hati, Tu papale okasolo- 
solo eye hati, Omo. Kuenje Kandimba wa fetikako wa enda wa 
salama vocisuku cowangu Ongue ya landulako ya vilikiya hati, 
Kasolosolo — o kasolosolo — o nende wa ililapi, wa ilila kututu, ku 
moleha pululu, sikileko ovilua, fie — e, sikileko vali, tie — e. Kuenje 
wo vanjiliya noke wo sanga. 

Ongue la yovo hati, Linga lamevo ha salameko, kuenje ya enda ya 
salama vodsuku konele yonjila, ucila wo langeka nO vonjila hati, 
Oco Kandimba a linge hati, Uti, etimba liosi lia salama vowangu. 
Kuenje Kandimba wa landulako lahevo wa vilikiya hati, Kasolosolo — 
o kasolosolo — o, nende wa ilila pi? Wa ilila kututu ku moleha pululu 
sikileko ovilua, fie, sikileko vali, fie. Noke kandimba wa mola udia 
wongue vonjila, kandimba wa nyanult uti wa pumako ongue ya 

Kuenje kandimba wa enda vali oku ka salama, wa nola ombinga 
yomalanga wa yi kapa akala, Idlu liaco wa kapako ulela, kuenje wa 
yi, felela polumbandi eye muele wa lifelela ponele yaco odpepi lom- 
binga kuenje wa salama, wa tundisa lika etui limosi etimba lio^ ka 
U moleha. Ongue ya kala loku kovonga Kasolosolo — o kasolosolo — 
o, nende wa ilila pi, wa ilila kututu, kututu ku moleha pululu sikileko, 
fie, sikileko vali, fie. Ongue ya vanjiliya vanjiliye ko rauile. Noke 
weya polumbandi wa sanga ombinga letui limosi had, Haka! Nda 
mola owima. Kuenje wa vilikiya vakuavo hati, — 

Ene akulu, ene akulu. ndo tali cilo we, ca moIS mbolovolo. 
Ene akulu, ene alculu, ndo tali cilo we, ca molil mbolovolo. 
Polumbandi, polumbandi pa tunda ombinga we okutui kumue. 
Polumbandi, polumbandi pa tunda ombinga we okutui kumue. 

Vakuavo vo^ eci veya va vanjako va komoha vati, Haka! Ed ka 
ca la muiwa, ndano ovinyama vinene lomue wa d limbuka. Noke 
onjamba yeya hati, Ed ngenda ha d liataila, ed a pitila wa vanjako 
no sui hati, Haka! Ed d kola. Ovinyama viosi via nualS konele yaco 
oku piluka momo vati, Umue nda wa tundapo o fa, kuenje va nu^iako 
loku imba. 

Noke Mbeu weya hati, Ci kasi pi? Ovo vati, Ontanu vodli va tila 
ove o silivila nye? Kuenje vo takumuila konyima haimo wa lipilika, 
kuenje vo pitisa. Ed eya polumbandi wa mol3 ombinga kuenda etui 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Soutitwest Africa. 141 

hati, Ooo mude vu least oka piluldla ndeti? kuenje wa kuata vetui lia 
kandimba wo tundisapo, kuenda ombinga wa yi somolapo. Ovinyama 
viori via komoha olonduoge via Kandimba kuenda Mbeu viti, Mbeu 


One day the leopard cried out to the rabbit, saying, "Come, let us 
play hide-and-seek!" To this the rabbit agreed, and he began by 
hiding himself in a large patch of grass which had been kept for a 
fire-bunt. The leopard looked all about for him, cryinfc, "Whither, 
— oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you have gone ! Perhaps in a 
hollow log, and you cannot be seen! Whistl-e, whist-1-e, whist-1-e 
again!" And so he sought for him until he found him. 

Then it was the leopard's turn to hide; and he went and hid himself 
in a bimch of grass by the side of the path, hb tail protruding out 
into the path, for he said, "When the rabbit comes along, he will 
think it is a stick, because the whole body is hidden from view in the 
grass!" The rabbit began his hunt, and did as the leopard, crying 
out, "Whither, — oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you have 
gone! Perhaps in a hollow log, and you cannot be seen! Whist -I-e, 
wbist-1-e, whistl-e ^^ain!" Just then the rabbit saw the tail of the 
leopard in the path, and he lifted his stick and gave it a good whack. 
Then the leopard came out. 

Now, the rabbit went again to hide, and he picked up the horn of 
a large deer. He took it and put charcoal upon it, and on top of that 
be put oil. Then be went and dug in a threshing-floor, where the 
gnMind is very hard, and let most of the horn protruding. Then he 
dug again near by, secreting himself, leaving but one of his ears 
sticking out, the whole of his body being covered up. The leopard 
began to call, "Whither, — oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you 
have gone 1 Perhaps in a hollow log, and you cannot be seen ! Whist- 
I-e, wbist-l-e, whist-1-e again!" TTie leopard looked and looked, but 
could not find him. At length he came to the threshing-floor, and 
there he found a horn sticking out of the ground, and one ear! "Gra- 
cious me! I've seen an omen!" Then he began to call the other 
animals, saying, — 

"You rulers, come here! you rulers, come here! come and 

took at this: here is to be seen the Great One. 
You rulers, come here! you rulers, come here! come and 

look at this: here is to be seen the Great One. 
By the threshing-floor, by the threshing-floor, there 

appears a horn and but one ear. 
By the threshing-floor, by the threshing-floor, there 

appears a horn and but one ear." 


143 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

When the others all came and looked, they were greatly surprised, 
saying, "Gracious! such as this has never before been seen." Even 
among the very large animals, not one of them recognized what it 
was. When the elephant came, he said, "Shucks! I am going to 
tread upon it;" but when he approached nearer and saw, he ejaculated, 
"Whew! but this is a mystery!!" So all the animals went round and 
round the threshing-floor and began to divine, because they said, 
"If one leaves from amongst us, he will die!" So they continued 
walking around the spot and singing. 

Finally the tortoise came, and asked, "Where is it?" They snubbed 
him, saying, " If we, the people of great wisdom, are unable to solve 
the mystery, what do you think you can do?" So they cast him 
behind them; but he continued begging for a chance, so they let him 
through. When he came to the threshing-floor and saw the horn and 
the ear, he exclaimed, "Well, indeed! and that is why you are di- 
vining?" Whereupon he grabbed the ear of the rabbit and pulled 
him out; then he grabbed the horn and jerked that out. All the 
animals were greatly surprised at the wisdom of the rabbit and the 
tortoise, all declaring, "The tortoise is our superior, the tortoise is 
our superior!" 


Eteke limue nyoho yahe wa enda kovapia wa sia ombia yohale 
piko hati, Teleka, eci njiya sanga ya pia. Kuenje omolS wa kala 
loku teleka ya pia dwa. Ekumbi vokati kilu olohumbihumbi vieya 
via itiil3 vonjo via lia ohale yosi. OmolS vonjo wa tilamo mekonda 
liusumba, kuenje eci via mILIS oku lia via enda. Ed nyoho yahe eya 
wo lundila hati, Ove muele wa yi lia kuenje wo puma hati, wo laleka 
onjala hati, Wa lia ale ombelela. NdanS omolS wa sapula hati, 
Olonjila via yi tia, haimo hati, Esanda liove. 

Oloneke viosi wo sila sila haimo olonjila via lialia nyoho yahe 
wa enda loku puma puma hati, Ove o kasi loku lia lia. 

Eteke limue omolS wa kava hati, Ngenda ha liponda nO amuele. 
Kuenje wa tunda lolupesi oku yolokela kewe limue linene, ewe tiad li 
kuete eleva vokati kuenda uvelo. Omunu nda wa tema oko a enda 
oku liponda, ewe tiaco nda li lete omunu li asama ed omunu a iiii13 li 
kupikako vali. Ed omoia a kala loku yolokelako inahe wa kala 
lusumba hati, Omol^nge sanga o ka nyelelS kuenje wo landula loku 
kovonga hati, — 

Ove UtoHngo tiuka. 

Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo. 

Ove Utolingo ttuka. 

Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo. 

Ame hameko nda Ha akunde, akunde olohumbihumbi via tia. 
Ame hameko nda lia akunde, akunde olohumbihumbi via lia. 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 143 

Omola ka tiukile, kuenje wa pitila kewe, ewe oku mola omSlt 
lianama It yevala ngQlu, ngfllu. Kuenje om&IS wa iiiilS momo utima 
wo vala ewe kuenje lia tuvikako. Nyoho yaco oku sokolola omol3he, 
lahevo wa iniI3 wo sanga yu, Om8I£ wo pula hati, Nye weyilila vali? 
Eye hati Ove nda ku landula. 

Oliuapo luaco lu lombolola omanu vamue va lundaila nS vakuavo, 
umue ndanS o kasi oku iikala haimo vati, Ove muele. 



Once upon a time the mother of Utolingo went to the field, leaving 
a pot of cow-peas cooking upon the fire, saying to her daughter, 
" Cook them, so that when I come back they will be thoroughly done." 
So the child looked after them carefully until they were fully cooked. 
When the sun was at noon, there came many very lai^e birds, which 
entered the house and ate up all the aiw-peas. The child fled in ter- 
ror. After they had finished the cow-peas, every bit of them, they flew 
away. Later, when the mother returned from the field, she accused 
the child, saying, "You ate those cow-peas yourself." Then she beat 
the child, and would give her nothing more to eat, saying she had 
already eaten. But the child insisted that the birds had come and 
eaten the food. But the mother simply replied, "That's all nonsense!" 

And so it happened day after day, — the mother leaving the child, 
and the birds coming and eating as before. And the mother kept 
beating the child, saying, "You're the one who is doing the eating!" 

Finally the child became exasperated, and said, "What's the use? 
I am going to kill myself!" So she ran as fast as she could toward a 
big stone in which was a cave in its centre, with a doorway. A 
person becoming very angry would run toward this rock to kill him- 
self; and the rock, seeing the person coming, would split open, and, 
when the person had entered, would shut to again. As the child was 
hastening toward this rock, the mother became frightened, saying, 
" I'm afraid my child will be lost," and she hurried after her, crying, — 

"O Utolingo! come back! 
Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo, 

Utolingo! come back! 
Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo'" — 

" I did not eat the cow-peas, the birds ate them ; 

1 did not eat the cow-peas, the birds ate them;" 

was the reply by the child. 

But she would not return; and when she arrived at the stone, the 
stone, seeing the child, opened up, and there were heard sounds of 


144 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

rejoicing. The child entered because her heart was sore, and the 
stone closed in around her. The mother, thinking of her child, ran 
in also and found her. The child asked her, "And why did you 
come after me?" to which the mother replied, "Because I wanted to 
find you." 

This proverb emphasizes how some will continue to falsely accuse 
another, even though he continually declares he is guiltless. 


Akuenje vavali va tunda oku ka fetika ovitula, kuenda vonyokulu 
yavo, ed va pitila lolosinge ka va sangele, kuenje va fetika oku tunga, 
u o tungila nyokulu yahe u o tungila nyokulu yahe. Noke ombeta 
yeya ukuenje ukuavo wa tunga lombili osinge ya nyokulu yahe kuenje 
wa vunda, ukuavo puai ka malele lombili yu wa popia lukiiavo hati, 
Linga Maikulu a vunde vosinge yove, ukuavo ka tavele hati Lovevo 
vulume nye kua tungilile lombili? Ame si tava. 

Kuenje nyokulu yahe wa vunda vemi liud womanda, ombela ed ya 
kan9l£ ya tola uti waco mua vutida nyokulu yahe, kuenje wa fa. 
Ukuenje waco wa yelula nyokulu yahe wo vunga olonanga, wa lituika, 
wa enda lahe kesinya lia Kuanja ku li oviva vioku inba ava va fa. 
Ed a kala loku enda wa nualehela lekisikisi lio pula hati, Katuta ketu! 
Katuta ketu ! Nyokulu o ko tuala pi? Eye hati: — 

Kuku ho tuala vesinya lia Kuanja, 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — i, 

A ngelenge yo Ula hi — i, hi — i. 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — i, 

A ngelenge yo lila hi — i, hi — i. 

Ekisi hati, Neteleko utue ha linge onganja yoku nyuila kuenje wo 
tetelako, wo pitah31a. Akisi osi a nQalehelil lahe haico o linga. 
Umue okuokuo, umue okulu hati, ha linga oluiko luoku pika iputa. 
Noke wa nualehela lokahulukai hati, Nyiheko apuvi a lenetE wa wiha. 
Noke wa wimba onumbi hati, Nyokulu ka wimbe vociva d yela ovava. 
Kuenje wa pitila kociva caco, wa imbamo nyokulu yahe, eye wa kala 
kongongo nyokulu yahe wa tumuha olonjanja vi vali tatu yaco wa 
tnila. Kuenje vodva mua tunda ovindele lolondona lovikuata viavo. 
Nyokulu yaha, lahevo wa pongoloka wa linga ondona wo pula hati, 
Ame etie? Eye hati, Ove kuku. Kuenje weya kimbo, va tunga 
olonjo, lolombalaka imbo lieyuka ovindele. 

Ukuavo una wo limilile osinge ed a d vanja odpululu co kuata, 
kuenje wa popia nyokulu yahe hati, Linga hu ipaye oco tu m51a 
ovipako, nyokulu .yahe ka tava eye wa lipilika kuenje wo tesola, wo 
vunga onanga kuenje wa lituika. 

Ed a kala loku enda wa tokeka lekiu wo pula had, Katuta ketu? 
Katuta keta nyokulu o ko tuala pi? Eye hati, — 


Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 145 

Kuku ho tuala vesinya Iia Kuanja, 
■ Ngelenge yo iila hi — i; 

A ngelenge yo Ula hi — i, hi — i; 

Ngelenge yo Iila hi — i; 

A ngelenge yo Iila hi — I, hi — i. 

Nyifaeko utue waco, eye lea tavele hati, Kuku eye ha teta? Kuenje 
wa pitahali. Vosi a oQalehelil lavo lomue a tetetako. Kuenje wa 
nma hati, Ukuetu dtito ame mbelapo. Yu wa tokeka la kahuluwa wo 
pinga apuvi aco hati, Ame si kuete ovayo haimo ka tavele. Kahuluwa 
hati, Ndaii5 wa nimila linga hulmbe onumbi. Kuenje wo sapuila 
hati, Nyokulu ko tuale vodva ci kusuka ovava omo mu li ovindele, 
ukuele omo a ka imbilevo. Kuenje wa yoloka kociva catukuiwa, wa 
imbamo nyokulu yahe, eye wa kala kongongo loku talameia nyokulu 
yaiie wa iiiilSmo huti, ewe ka tumbulukile, wa kala osimbu noke kua 
tomboka otuvikasia kuenda odmbali co sapuila hati, Ovikasia evl 
omo mu U ed o yongola. Ed enda ka tunge onjo ya Ana lonjinena 
ku ka sie. Kuenda ed o ka tuvula ovikasia viaco ka kale lika liove, 
kuenda ka Uyikilemo. 

Kuenje weya kimbo, Wa popia lukuavo hati, Nda ka viupile, 
kuenje wa tunga onjo, ed ya pua wa liyikilamo lika liaha, wa fetika 
oku tuvula. O tuvula eyi mu li olonyihi, yikuavo olonyoha, yikuavo 
alimbondo, viosi muele mueyuka nS ovipuka vi lumana. Noke ed a 
mSi& vio katukila oku lumana, kuenje wa fa. 

Ekandu liaco lio pisa. 

Tete wa limila ukuavo orange, vali wa linga ongangu wa ponda 
oyokulu yahe oku peseta osonde. 


Two boys started off with their grandmothers to begin a new 
village. When they arrived, they did not find any huts in which to 
stay. So they at onoe began to build, — one boy building for his 
grandmother, and the other for his grandmother. Soon the rain 
began to fait. One boy had built his very quickly; and bo his grand- 
mother entered, and was protected from the rain. The other one 
had not finished; and so he begged of the other, saying, "Do a kind- 
ness, and let my grandmother come into your hut ! " The other would 
not, replying, "You also are a man. Why didn't you hurry faster 
with your building? I won't agree to it!" 

So his grandmother sought cover under a lai^e tree called the 
"omanda." As the storm increased, -he lightning struck the tree 
under wfaicfa she was; and it was torn open, and the grandmother 
was killed. The boy (Mcked her up and wrap[>ed her in cloth, put her 
upcBi his sbooMer, and started with her to the other side of the river 


146 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

Quanja, where there were pools into which they threw those who died. 
As he was on his way, he met a goblin,* who greeted' him with friend- 
liness, saying, "Where are you going with your grandmother?" And 
he responded thus: — 

" Honored sir, I am carrying her to the other dde of the river Quanja, 
The deer is crying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi; 
The deer is crying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hL" 

The friendly spirit said to him, "Cut me olT the head, that I may 
use it as a gourd with which to drink." He did so; and then on he 
went again, complying with all the requests made of him. One of the 
spirits would ask an arm; another, a leg with which he might stir his 
mush. Pretty soon he met a little old woman, who begged, "Give 
me the lungs, because they are soft," and so he did. Soon one advised 
him, saying, "Throw your grandmother into the pool, and the water 
will become clear!" When he arrived at the pool, he did as he was 
told. He stood upon the bank, and he saw her come to the surface 
twice ; and the third time she sank. Then at once from the pool there 
came forth white men and white women, with all their belongings. 
Among them was his grandmother, who was turned into a white 
woman. She aslrad him, saying, "Who am I?" And he recognized 
her. Then they all came to the village and built bouses and put up 
tents, 60 that the village was filled with white folks. 

Now, the other boy, who had been stingy about bis hut, forbidding 
the grandmother to shield herself in it from the rain, when be saw all 
that had happened, became filled with greed, and said to bis grand- 
mother, "Come, let me kill you! and we also shall become wealthy." 
But his grandmother rebelled, but he struck her and killed her, and, 
wrapping her in cloth, lifted her upon his shoulder. 

As he was going along the path, he met a friendly spirit, which 
greeted him kindly, and asked, "Where are you going with your 
grandmother?" He replied, — 

"Sir, I am going with her to the other side of the Quanja, 
The deer is crying hi — hi ; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi; 
The deer ia crying hi — hi ; 
Oh, the deer ia crying hi — hi!" 

"Give me the bead," said the spirit; but the boy replied, "And 
why, sir, should I do that?" Then he went on; and though he met 
many spirits, he would not comply with the requests of any of them, 
t A hideous masked person. 


Umbtmdu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 147 

for he said, "The other boy is insignificant, but I am far wiser." 
He met also the little old woman; and she hegged for the lungs, 
saying, "Give me, for my teeth are all gone," but he would not. 
Then she said to him, "Even though you are mean to me, let me give 
you advice: take your grandmother to the pool where the water is 
red, for there are found the white folks, and there is where the other 
boy went." So he hurried along to the pool described, and threw in 
his grandmother. He stood upon the bank waiting for her; for he 
said, "A stone will not come to the surface." He remained there a 
long time; and soon there appeared some little boxes, and with them 
a native servant, who said, "These boxes contain that which you so 
much desire. When you reach your village, build a very fine house, 
not forgetting to put in windows. When finally you open these boxes, 
be entirely by yourself, and be sure you lock yourself in." 

When he arrived at the village, he said to the other boy, "I have 
gone and gotten them too!" Then he built a house; and when it 
was finished, he shut himself in all by himself, and began to open the 
boxes. One he opened contained bees, another snakes, another 
hornets. All of them were filled with insects which bit and stung. 
When he had finished opening all of the boxes, then they assailed him 
and killed him. 

His own sin had condemned him. 

First, he was stingy about his hut; second, because of imitation, 
be killed his own grandmother, thus shedding blood. 


Oluavava lua tanga vuti, noke onyoha yomoma yeya vemi liaco 
oku vunda undembo. Kuenje okanende keya ka wila vuti waco, 
omunu lahevo ed a mola onende ya wila vuti kuenje wa kala loku 
yomba luta. Kuenje omoma ya paiiinya oluavava hati, Lupula 
okanende sanga omunu o ka loya, volofa viomunu u'mosi mu li olofa 
;viowini. Luavava ka tavele oku lupula onende. 

Noke omunu weya odpepi kuenje wa loya onende, kuenje ya 
kupukila kutue womoma, omunu hati. Ha ndlS onende o lete omoma 
kuenje wa nyintila ondiavit! wa topola omoma, kuenje wa yi vunga 
hati o yelula ka d tava, hati, O vanja olondovi ka vi moleha, Kuenje 
wa vanja vuti wa mola oluavava yu wo sungamo wosi yu wa kuta 
laco omoma. 

Moma wa popia la luavava hati, Sia d popele siti, Lupula onende 
momo volofa viomunu umosi mu li olofa viowini? 

Olusapo hati, Ukuele nda o sunila langeka vekaha llomunu umosi 
mu li ekaha licnrini. Kanende, la luavava, kuenda moma va takela 


148 Journal of Atnerican Fcik-Lore. 


The vine was in tbe tree whither it had climbed. Soon a big snake, 
the python, came and rested in the shade of the tree. A dove came 
also and perched in the same tree. Then a man, when he saw the 
dove fiy to the tree, stalked the bird, and he had a gim. Then the 
python called to the vine, saying, "Scare away the bird or perhaps 
the man will shoot it, and in the death of one there may be the death 
of many." But the vine would not consent to scare away the dove. 

Soon the man came close up and shot the dove, so that it fell upon 
the head of the snake. The man went to pick up the dove, and then 
saw the python; so he grabbed his axe and killed it. Then he folded 
it up to better carry it; but it would not work, and he looked around 
for some bark rope. He failed to find any, but saw the vine climbing 
up the tree; and so he pulled that down, and with it tied up the snake 
in a tight bundle. 

Then the python said to the vine, " Did not I tell you to scare off 
the dove, for in the death of one there might be the death of many?" 

Moral: Though some sleep, in the wakefulness of one is tbe 
wakefulness of many. Failure to warn resulted in the dove, the vine, 
and the python all being destroyed. 


Siokanda wa kala ocimunu wa enda loku ivava olongombe, lolosanji, 
lolohombo, lolongulu. Pokati pa kala olui lunene ka lu kuete eyau, 
ulume nda wa yongola oku ka iva o paiiinya Nokanda kuenje o tiapula 
onanga kovava a litepa, nda wa ka ivile o paiiinya vali ukai wahe o 
tiapula vali onanga kovava a litepa o pita. 

Eteke limue wa ka ivile olongombe vamuele vo mdl3 vo lupuisa, 
eci a pitila kolui wa kovonga Nokanda. 

Ulcaivange Nokanda we — e 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Ukaivange Nokanda we — e 
tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Va muele ongombe nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Va muele osanji nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Vamuele ongulu nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Va muele ohombo nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a. 


Vwibmndu Tales, Angola, Southwest AJrica, 149 

Eye ndanS «a ka ivile Nokanda ukuaku tepa ovava u limilft o lia 
lukai umne wifii. Nokanda eye wa enda loku popeta lombili, momo 
nda wa ka ivile va miiele vo lupuisa eye ed a pitJla kolui o kovonfca 
Nokanda ed a yoka ovava a Htokeka vali, va muele ndanO vo ktmma 
eci va pitila kolui ka va kuete apa va pita. 

Eteke limue ka tavele vali pokuenda wo pitisa, puai eci a tiuka 
odanO ulume wa kovonga haimo ka tavele, wa popia lahe hntj, U o 
lia lia lahe a ku pitise ame si tava. Kuenje vamuele eci vo sanga vo 
wipa, olongombe viavo va enda lavio. 

Olusapo hati, Ed a lia lia elau ka sokoluile ukuahenda. 


Siokanda was a thief, and he used to go and steal oxen and chickenii 
and goats and pigs. Near by his village was a large river which had 
no bridge. When the man wished to go to steal, he would call upon 
his wife Nokanda that she should dip a cloth in the water, and it 
would divide, and he would cross over. Then, when he had stolen, 
he would call ^ain for his wife to come and dip the cloth in the water, 
in order to divide it, and he would return safely. 

One day he went as usual and stole some oxen. The owncn saw 
him and gave chase. When he arrived at the river, he began to call 
Nokanda as usual : — 

" My own wife Nokanda, oh — o! 

IKp the doth in the water — O, 

My own wife Nokanda, oh — o! 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

niiat if the owner of the ox should come. 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

What if the owner of the chicken should come, 

Dq> the doth ia the water — O, 

Vtat if the owner <tf the [Mg should come. 

Dip the doth in the water — 0, 

Vihax U the owatr oi the goat should come, 

I^ tlie dotk in the water — O!" 

And tlie man, even when be went to steal and Nokanda would 
divkfe tiie water for Urn, be was stingy to ber, and he would go and 
cat with aonae ^^xs voman. NiAanda alw3>-s went quidcy w help 
htm out IB ins troidjfe. becamr. after be had vxtMn, t^ttimct the 
owaezB would mdi after him. As soon as be wouVJ arTi^-« at the 
river, he v^inld taB Ndcanda. and sbe would di%-ide the water: and 
after he bad pamiA, tfae vaicr came tagt^htT agarn. to that, even if the 
piinu e a JtaArilfa tank, they tcroid no place wJaeretbeyma^tpaiii. 


I50 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

One day, however, she refused to help him cross. When he reached 
the river on his way back, he called and called to her; but she replied, 
"Let the one with whom you are continually eating see you across 
this timel I won't do it." The owners, when they caught him, killed 
him, and went back with their oxen. 

Moral: One enjoying good luck and fortune forgets to be kind. 


Tahs and JPnwerbs iff the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 151 



Thb following tales were written by Kamba Simango, a native of 
Portuguese South Africa. The written material was dictated to 
Franz Boas and rewritten by him. The revised copy was again 
corrected by Kamba ^mango, whose mother tongue is the Chiodau 
of the coast. 

The alphabet used, so far as consistent with accuracy, is that used 
by the Mashona missionaries. 

Vowels: a, e (opoi), i, o (open), u. 

Long vowels (due to contraction) are indicated by a superior period 
following the vowel, as a*. These are always strongly accented. 
There is no significant pitch in Chindau, such as occurs in some of the 
neighboring dialects, as Sechuana. The only exception noted is the 
second person singular mii (low tone), while the third person mQ has 
the high tone. Accented syllables, however, have a raised pitch. 

There are no diphthongs. 

As in Kisuaheli, the voiceless stops are all slightly glottalized, and 
should be written p', t'. It'; but, »nce all of them are glottalized, the 
symbol ' has been omitted. The glottalization disappears only in 
the combination kw. The sounds th, ph, and kh are strongly aspirated 
surds. The voiced stops are b, d, g. In a few words we find a glot- 
talized b, d ('b, 'd). These'are probably Zulu loan-words. There 
are three pure nasals — m, n, n — corresponding to the positions of 
p, t, k (n like n in "sing"). The voiceless fricatives are /, s, s, h. 
The voiced fricatives are v, v, z, s, g. The/ is always sharply dento- 
labial; s is alveolar; s is alveolar, with strong rounding of lips, there- 
fore with marked ti resonance; A is a medial fricative, and seems to 
occur only after t and p. Among the voiced fricatives, v is bilabial; 
t>, labio-dental ; z, alveolar; z, alveolar with strong rounding of the 
lips, corresponding to i. These sounds correspond to the labialized s 
of Thonga * and Venda.* g is a medial fricative corresponding to the 
k position. This sound occurs probably exclusively after m, f, v, p, 
and r, and originates from the combination mu + vowel and vu -|- 
vowel. After m it is pronounced individually as a labial click; i.e., m 
+ a sound produced by suction with closed lips followed by a sudden 

1 H.-A. Jtwod, Elemenury Granmur o{ the Thonga-Shangaan Language, p. 9. 
■ Call Melnbof, Lautlehre der Bantuiprachen. p. 13. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

opening of the lips. The coast dialect has also the fricative sh (lilce sh 
in English). In the dialects of the interior this is generally replaced 
by s. The aflricative series contains the b and p stops followed by 
labio-dentals (that is, bp and p/), while the labial stops followed by 
bilabials are missing. The alveolar affricatives are combined with the 
sh series, — dj and ch. The affricatives with z and s (that is, dz and 
ts) are absent in the coast dialects. These take the place of dj and ch 
in the interior. The affricatives ending with z and s are rendered as 
bzandpi. The closure of the Ups, however, is very weak, so that there 
is sometimes an acoustic impression of an initial d or t in place of b 
and p. It seems, however, that etymologically these sounds go back 
to a a>mbination of labial sounds. Similar sounds occur in Thonga 
and Herero. 

While the dialect of the interior has apical r, we have here a sound 
which I have written 1 because its principal consituent seems to be a 
lateral trill combined, however, with a slight medial trill. Before w, 
this sound regularly changes to a strongly aspirated apical r, forming 
the combination rhw. The trill r occurs also before g. Finally we 
iind the open breath h and the semi-vowels y and w. 

When g follows n or d, it sounds in rapid speech like y. The n and 
d are at the same time more cerebral than in other positions. 

As in other Bantu languages, the combinations of nasals and stops 
as initial sounds of syllables are very common. The following cx>m- 
binations occur : — 

mb mph 

nd nth 

ffg nkh 

We have also the combination of nasal and fricative and aflricative in 
the following forms: — 

nsh nch 


In these combinations the second voiceless sound starts with a marked 
voicing, which, however, disappears in the course of the articulation. 










dCd) — 

th — 

B Bh 

- dJ 

— ch 






^'"'""{IST!;::: :::::: 




Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portugutse S. Africa. 1 53 

shuto ne zinthede vainga eham^ali. ftge imge nshilcu shulo wainga 
mumavushwa, na'chilimgo sola lakapfa. ena wakaK^wina mttgulu, 
ndin, muUlo auzini kumugumila. sola nelapela kupia shulo waka- 
buda mv^ulu, akalangalila kuti unoda kukhanganisa zinthede, ndiso 
wakabulukuta mumahuflgupia. na-songana na zinthede wakati kwali, 
ena wainga musola lichipia, mulilo wakamugumila kani wakaudjima 
Hge mata ake. zinthede alizivi kutenda mukutanga xakaleva shulo, 
kani shulo wakavangilila kuti saileva zaiva tokadi. shulo wakati kuna 
antbede, "vonal masimbe omahungupia ondinao pamuvili pangu." 
antbede na-vona mahuflgupsa wakatenda kuti shulo wainga musola 
lidiipsa. zinthede kuti achazopindwa wakati kuna shulo, ena anga- 
zodjimavo mulilo nge mata. nge imge nshiku sola laipsa zinthede 
wakati kuna shulo, unoenda ena kodjima mulilo. zinthede lakattgwina 
mumasola lakaedja kudjima mulilo nge mata kani alizivi kuudjima. 
{ana laka/ilamgo ngo vupsele vgalo. 

Hare and Baboon were friends. One day Hare was | in the grass 
by himself. While he was there, the grass burned. Hare went into 
a hole, I and therefore the fire did not reach him. When the grass 
was burnt [finished burning]. Hare came out | of the hole, and thought 
that he wanted to play a trick on Baboon. Therefore (5) he rolled 
about in the cinders. When he met Baboon, he said to him | that he 
had been in tbe grass when it was burning. The fire had reached him, 
but he had put it out | with his saliva. Baboon did not believe at 
first wliat Hare told him, | but Hare persisted (saying) that what he 
told was true. Hare said to ] Baboon, "See the cinders that were left 
after the burning, and which I have on my body!" (10) When Baboon 
saw the remains of the burning, he believed that Hare had been in the 
grass I and was burned. Baboon, that he might not be outdone, said 
to Hare that he | would also put out the fire with saliva. One day 
the grass was burning. Baboon | said to Hare he would go and put 
out the fire. Baboon went | into the grass. He tried to put out the 
fire with saliva, but be did not (15) put it out. He died in it on 
account of bis stupidity. 


zakaita, sakaita. zinthede lakaenda kunthalavunda kobrun<<hila 
muakane we>'x>. ndatendva lakaenda V/jvonn musikane wo Uka- 

murbwendo rhwala rgo chipili lakat/^Ia ^mba ku*.: a]i[>«Iel«7iie. 
simba wainga muzukuhi walo, ena wainga mupie'c. novali mu- 



1 54 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

gwansha zinthede lakati kuna simba, "unoziva kutt tinenda kwambiya 
wangu. ndinoda kuti iwewe unase kuva nomukodja. kuti nonda- 
kutuma kotola chilo uchado zolanaba. ndinoziva kuti iwewe uli 
muzukulu wakap/ava." simba wakatenda xese zakaleva zinthede. 
zinthede lakatize kuna simba, "kudali tovona muchelo, kuti inini 
nondati, ' madombidombi ngoangu,' iwewe wochizoti, ' makei^ekenge 
ngoangu.'" zinthede lainga lakaleba, ndiso, lakatanga kovona zese 
zainga mbeli kwavo. nolavona mumjinda wainga nomnnda djakaibtta 
lona lakati, "madombidombi ngoangu," simba echiti, " makengekenge 
ngoangu." novaguma pamumiinda zinthede Jakarta ni5inda djaka- 
p5uka, simba wakarga makenge. novavona kumga zinthede likati, 
"madoledole ngoangu;" simba waiti, " marundunundu ngoangu." 
zinthede lakatanga kum^a, nolapedja kumga lakaimindula kumga dmba 
achito wamga. simba wakamga mamindu. novapedo nomuzi wa'm- 
biya va zinthede lona lakati kuna simba, "unouvona uwu mutiu 
kani? wona mutombo unotwi mundapolapola. kutt inini nondapiswa 
ngo kurga, nondati kouli, 'simba, muzukulu, endocha mudji, wo mundo* 
polapola,' iwewe uzoza wo'ucha uwu." simba wakatenda m. nova- 
guma kwambiya vakabikirhwa lupiza. norhwaziswa zinthede nola- 
pedja kushamba nyala lakatukutidja munwe walo mulupiza likati, 
"simba, muzukulu, ndap5a! gogomai, wocha mudjt womundapola* 
pola." simba waakaenda achigogoma kocha mudji. na*vipinda zi- 
nthede lakarga lupiza rhwese. lakasiya lushoma. simba wakaviya 
nawo mudji kani zinthede alichaiudepi. lona lakati kuna simba, 
"naviya nowapinda madjimgalamu angu akaza akarga lupiza. ngo- 
kuti 2ona zai ita zailunsha andizivi kualambisa." lakatatidja simba 
ndawo zinshi djaivonesa kuti madjim^lamu mazinshi akashamba 
nyala paidjo. simba wakarga lupiza rhwakasiwa. zinthede lakaita 
izi nshiku djese djovaigalayo. kwati novaviya kanyi simba ingawa- 

shulo wakabvunsha simba kuti waionda ngenyi. ena wakaronzera 
shulo sakaita zinthede. murhwendo rhwe chitatu zinthede lakada 
shulo kuti alipelekedje kwambiyalo. shulo wakatenda kuenda nalo. 
zinthede lakapangilila shulo kudali ngo zolakapangila simba. shulo 
wakatenda eakaleva zinthede, ena aizivi kupikidja nalo. novavona 
mumsinda zinthede lichiti, "madombidombi ngoangu," shulo waka* 
leva zinthede lichito lapedja kuleva izi. zinthede lakalega kurga 
mjinda, shulo wakadjirga. novaguma pakumga shulo wakatanga 
kuleva zinthede lichito lapedja kuleva solaida kuleva. lona alizivt 
kuimga kumga. shulo wakaimga. novapedo no muzi zinthede laka- 
tatidja shulo mutombo. shulo wakati, "eya, ndtnozoza kocha mu- 
tombo nomgandi mdtuma." lakabvunsha shulo kuti alidi lona kuti 
ena alilunshe. shulo wakati azolilunshipi. nova/amba mukuvo mfl- 
doko shulo wakati ^cuna zinthede, walasha mupasha wake, waka* 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 155 

v{ilila 8ule koulonda. ena wakav^itila lax:ha mudji wo mundapolapola. 
wakaucha akaukanda muchivanga chake. wakaviya vona vakaenda 
kumuzi. novaguma wakapuwa lupiza, zinthede nolapedja kushamba 
nyala lakatukudja munwe walo mulupiza likati, "shulo, muzukulu, 
nda|»a! endocha mudji wo mundapolapola." shulo wakangwinisa 
nyala yake tnuchivanga chake, akatola mudji wo mundapolapola 
akalipa vona zinthede. zinthede lakalamfidja lupiza lichiti, simba 
sgaifiga muzukulu kwaye. shulo azivi kuleva chilo kani wakarga 
lupiza. vakaviya kanyi zinthede lakashola shulo zikulu. 

anthede ne laviya kanyi lakasunga chuma choko'lovola ndicho 
mukadji walo. lona lakada kuti livgilidjile shulo sakaita kwolili. 
i^e nsbiku yolaida kuenda ndiyo ne chuma lakaenda koba vana 
va shulo likavakanda muchivanga. lakapelekedjwa Mge chikodji, go- 
vola, ne shulo kuti vaite vubaba v^alo. zinthede lakapa shulo ku- 
thwala chivaifga chainga ne vana vake. nova/amba mushango muuluk 
shulo wakazwa sezwi ichilila, wakaitevela. naguma poyainga waka- 
vona muti wainga no nyuchi. wakabula vuchi ; achivurga wakazwa 
mazwi achiti, "baba ndipevo, baba ndipevo." shulo wakalingalinga. 
achiti panice ishili djailila kudalo, kani azivi kuvona shili. nargaxe 
wakazwa mazwi achikumbila wakanasa kupulukila, kazwa kuti mazw- 
aibna muchivanga, ndiso akachisunyungula, akavona vana vake novai 
limco, akavabudisa akavapa vuchi. wakavavakila dumba kuti vaga- 
lepo kumphela na-viya kurhwendo rhwake. wakashamula mulomo 
we chivaifga pamukoko we nyuchi, (djona) djakangwinamgo. nocha* 
zala wakachisunga chivanga ngo mflboshwe kudali ngo kQsunga 
kochakaitwa nge zinthede. shulo wakaviya kwakastya zinthede no 
■vamge, akavapa vuchi vgainga navgo. zinthede lakati kuna shulo, 
"shulo, nasa kubatisisa chivangecho." lakaza kochilingila chona 
chainga chakasungwa ngo masungilo alo, ndiso alizivi kuleva chilo. 

Icwati novaguma kwambiya va zinthede, lona nelachungamidjwa 
Hgo kuti, "mgakavanga vazinthede?" lakadavila nge chigonthi likati, 
"nda uwe, kunyadja mungwali nkhwo kutolela vana vake." — "hedjo 
vachikodji." chikodji chikati, "hedjo hadjo, bikanyi sadja, vusavi 
tinavjo." — "tambanyi va shulo." shulo akati, "tinotamba hedu, 
takabna kanyi tichina zano, zano takazolipuwa mugwansha ndi sezwi." 
— " djokulalama vagovola," govola likati, "tinolalama hedu, sainga 
sokala, makole ano tingaedjana." vanthu vakashamiswa nge sigonthi 
taitwa nge zinthede no vubaba v^alo. vakabikirhwa sadja lichina 
vusavi. nolaziswa, chikadji chichida kuvulaya govola kuti chimuJte 
vusavi, kani chikodji nochambulukila govola, govola lakachilova nge 
ndonga likachivulaya chona chikaitwa vusavi. novapedja kur^a 
vokumadjimbiya ve zinthede vakavungava munyumba kuti vaze 
koashila chuma. zinthede lakabrunsha shulo kuti abude mumba, 
■huk> wakabuda. ena achibuda wakachochotola djiso lake kuna 


1 56 Journal 0/ A merican Folk-Lore. 

govola kuti limutevele, nabuda govola lakamutevela. zinthede la- 
95 kada kuti govola ligale, kaiii lakati linoviya Imenda kunsha. vese 
vokuvumbiya vakavungana. misuvo yakakonywa ngokuti zinthede 
atichatdepi kuti shulo avone vana vake vachiitwa chuma chokulovola 
ndicho. shulo wakatanga kusunga misuvo yese Rgo kunsha. zinthede 
lakangwinisa mukono walo muchivanga kani alizivi kubudisa chilo 
100 ngokuti nyuchi djaililuma. vanthu vaigalila kuvona chuma. laka* 
ngwinisajEe nyala yalo nyuchi djaililunmee zikulu. lakachilasha chi< 
vanga pasi, nyuchi djakabuda djikaluma vanthu vese vainga mu- 
nyumba. vanthu vakaedja kubuda kani misuvo yese yainga yaka- 
sungwa ngo kunsha. vanthu vakatanga kulilova zinthede zikulu. 
105 novapjanya misuvo zinthede lakabuda likatiza ne lina mphonshe 
zinshi. shulo na govola vakaenda kanyi. shulo wakapinda ngo 
paikasiya vana vake akavatola akaenda navo kanyi kwake. zinthede 
alizivi kuzoendaee kwambiya walo. lakamutama mukadji wolaida 


It happened, it happened. Baboon went to a neighboring place to 
seek for | a girl there (to be his wife). When he was accepted, he 
went to see the girl to whom | he had proposed. 

On his second journey he took along Wild-Cat to accompany him. 
(5) Cat was the sister's son of Baboon. He was dull. When they 
were on their journey, | Baboon said to Wild-Cat, "You know that 
we go to my mother-in-law. | I want you to behave well. When I | 
send you to get a thing, do not refuse. I know that you, being | my 
sister's son, are meek." Cat agreed to everything Baboon said. (10) 
Baboon also said to Cat, " When we see wild fruits, I | shall say, ' The 
ripe ones are mine.' You then say, 'Half-ripe ones | are mine.'" 
Baboon was tall. Therefore he saw everything | in front of them. 
When he saw a fruit-bearing tree (species ?) the fruits of which were 
ripe, I he said, "The ripe ones are mine;" and Cat said, "The half 'ripe 
ones (15) are mine." When they arrived at the fruit-tree, Baboon ate 
the ripe fruit, | Cat ate the half-ripe ones. When they saw water. 
Baboon said, | "The clear is mine;" and Cat said, "The muddy is 
mine." | Baboonbegantodrink;whenhe finished drinking, he made the 
water muddy before Cat i could drink. Cat drank the muddy water. 
When they were near the kraal of (20) Baboon's mother-in-law, he 
said to Cat, "Do you see this tree? | It is medicine which is called 
cooling. When I am burnt ] by food, and I say to you, 'Cat, sister's 
son, go and dig the root of the | "cooling-tree," ' come here and dig this." 
Cat agreed to this. [ When they arrived at the mother-in-law's house, 
ground beans were cooked for them. When the ground beans were 

1 See Carl Meinhof, Alrilcanische Marchtn, p. 87 (MatumbI, East Africa); moR dis- 
tantly related, p. 146 (Kuanyama, Portuguese WeiC Africa). 


TaJes and Proverbs of the Vatidau of Portuguese S. Africa. 157 

brought, and Baboon (25) finished washing his hands, he thrust his 
finger into the ground beans, and said, | " Cat, sister's son, I am burnt. 
Run and dig the root of the 'cooling-tree.'" | Cat ran and went to 
dig the root. When he was gone, | Baboon ate all of the ground beans. 
Cat came back | with the root, but Baboon did not eat it. He said 
to Cat, (30) "When you were gone, my sisters-in-law came and ate 
the ground beans. | Because what they did was shameful, I did not 
stop them." He showed Cat [ many places, and told him that many 
of his sisters-in-law washed | their hands at these places. Cat ate the 
ground beans that were left over. Baboon did this | every day while 
they were there. When they came home. Cat was (35) thin. 

Hare asked Cat why he was thin, and he told | Hare what Baboon 
had done. The third trip Baboon wanted | Hare to accompany him 
to his mother-in-law. Hare agreed to go with him. | Baboon in- 
structed Hare, and told him in the same way as he had told Cat. 
Hare (40) agreed to what Baboon told him. He did not argue with 
him. When they saw j a fruit-tree, while Baboon was saying, "The 
ripe ones are mine," Hare | said, before Baboon had finished, (the 
same) that he said. Baboon did not eat | the fruit. Hare ate it. 
When they arrived at the water, Hare began | to say, before Baboon 
had finished saying, what he wanted to say. He did not (45) drink 
the water. Hare was drinking. When they were near the kraal, 
Baboon | showed the medicine to Hare. Hare said, "Yes, I shall 
come to dig | the root when you send me." (Baboon) told Hare that 
he did not want him | to disgrace him. Hare said he would not dis- 
grace him. When they had gone a | little distance. Hare said to 
Baboon that he had lost his arrow. (50) He went back to look for it. 
Then he went back to d^ the root of the "cooling-tree." | He took 
it and put it into his bag. He came back, and they went | to the kraat. 
When they arrived, they were given ground beans; (and) when 
Baboon had washed | his hands, he put his finger into the ground 
beans, and said, "Hare, sister's son, [ I am burnt. Go and dig the 
root of the cooling-tree." Hare put (55) his hand into his bag, and 
took out the root of the cooling-tree | and gave it to Baboon. Baboon 
did not accept it. Cat | was his sister's son. Hare did not say 
anything, but he ate | the ground beans. They went home, and 
Baboon rebuked Hare much. 

When Baboon arrived home, he gathered things to pay for (60) his 
wife. He wanted to take revenge for what Hare had done to him. | 
It was on the day he wanted to go with the things that he went to 
steal the children | of Hare, and he put them into a bag. He was 
accompanied by Hawk, | Dove, and Hare, who were his spokesmen 
{fatherhood]. Baboon gave to Hare | the bag to carry in which were 
his children. When they had walked a little ways, (65) Hare heard 



158 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

a honey-bird (species ?) ^nging, and followed it. When he reached a 
place j where he saw a tree on which were bees, he took oEF the honey. 
When he was eating the honey, he heard | a voice saying, "Father, 
give me some." Hare looked around. | He thought that perhaps 
birds were mnging this, but he did not see any birds. When he was 
eating again, | he heard voices; and when he listened carefully, he 
heard that the voices (70) came from the bag, therefore he untied the 
bag, and he saw his children inside; | he took them out, gave them 
honey. He built a shed, that they | might stay in it until he came 
back from his journey. He opened the mouth | of the bag at the 
beehive (of the bees), and they entered into it. When | it was full, 
be tied up the bag left-handed, in the same way as (75) it had been 
done by Baboon. Hare arrived at the place where he had left Baboon 
and I the others, and gave them honey which he had. Baboon said 
to Hare, | "Hare, carry that bag carefully." He came to examine 
it, I and it was tied in the way he had tied it. Therefore he did not 
say anything. 

When they arrived at Baboon's "mother-in-law's, he was greeted 
(80) by saying, "Are you strong, Sir Baboon?"' and he replied with a 
proverb, saying, ] "TTianks.* The way to serve r^htly the wise one 
is by taking his child." — "How are | you, Sir Hawk?" Hawk said, 
"How is it? We have cooked sadja and 1 meat." — "Greetings, Sir 
Hare!" Hare said, "We are well, | we came from home without any 
particular purpose. Purpose was given to us on the way by the 
honey-bird." (85) — "Of life. Sir Dove."* Dove said, "We are 
living. How is life? It was thus | of old. Nowadays we can try 
one another." The people were astonished much by what ] was said 
by Baboon and his spokesmen. Sadja was cooked for them without | 
meat. When it was brought. Hawk wanted to kill Dove to make 
him I meat (for the sadja); but when Hawk wanted to pounce on 
Dove, Dove struck him with {90) a stick and killed him, and he was 
made meat. After they had finished eating, 1 the people of Baboon's 
mother-in-law gathered in the house and came | to receive the presents. 
Baboon told Hare to go out of the house, | and Hare went out. As 
he was going out, he winked his eyes | to Dove to follow him. When 
Hare had gone out. Dove followed him. Baboon (95) wanted him to 
remain, but Dove said that he would come back after going outside. 
All I his mother-in-law's people were assembled. The doors were 
shut because Baboon | did not want Hare (to see) that his children 
were made things by which payment was made. | Hare b^an to tie 
up all the doors from the outside. Baboon | put his hand into his 

' That ia. "Are you well?" 

' Nda Kwt, the answer to Eieeting. 

■ Porm of grectioK- 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 59 

bag, but be did not bring out anything (100) because the bees stung 
him. The people were waiting to see the presents. | ^ain he put 
his hands in, and the bees stung him very much. He threw down 
tlie I bag, the bees came out and stung all the people in the [ house. 
The pet^le tried to go out, but all the doors were tied | from the 
outatde. The people began to beat Baboon very much. (105) When 
they broke the doors. Baboon went out and ran away, having many 
wounds. ] Hare and Dove went home. Hare passed by | where he 
had left bis children. He took them and went with them to his home. 
Baboon | did not go back to his mother-in-law. He failed to get the 
irife whom he had wanted | to marry. 


1^ luhiku imge shulo wakati kune zinthede, "chekulu ngatende 
koba manduwi kum&sevula. ndinoziva musevula una manduw! 
akanaka." zinthede likati, "eya, chakwe ndinotAa imb^a Mgokuti 
ndakazwa kuti kwounoda kuti tende kuna imb^a djakapangama." 
shulo wakati, "atizovoneki Ago vanthu." shulo na zinthede vakaenda 
koba manduwi. kwakati novaguma kumflsevula wakaleva shulo 
vakataHga kudupula matepo e manduwi. novadupula matepo mazi- 
Dshi vakaenda pamun^/uli wo muti, vakatanga kuchenga manduwi. 
shiik> na-guta watanga kutamba no zinthede akati, "tetegulu ndo- 
tamba no mfilomo wenyukani? " zinthede likati, "ndozorhgangenyi? " 
— "ndotamba ne nyala djenyu?" — "ndozokavangenyi?" — "ndo- 
tamba no nsheve djenyu?" zinthede likati, "ndozwangenyi?" — 
"ndotamba no mgishe wenyu?" zinthede likati, "eya." shulo 
wakacha lindo, wakakohomela hoko, wasunga bote pahoko, waka- 
sungila mgise ' we zinthede nge bote lakasungila pahoko. napela 
kusui^a mgise we zinthede wakaup/uchila mulindo. napedja kuita 
in vakaenda pachulu akamima echiti, "chekulu, vanoba manduwi, 
chekulu, vanoba manduwi." zinthede lakati, "shulo, sinyi 20 unoi- 
tak>?" shulo wakanangila kumima. vanthu ne imbga vakaza vachi- 
gogoma. shulo wakatiza. zinthede lakaedja kutiza kani lakakoner- 
hwa figokuti m^ise walo wainga wakasungwa. lakaedja nge simba 
gulu lakagula mgise walo lakatiza vanthu nembga vachito vakaguma. 
kHia atizivi kukatiganwa zaita shulo kwalo. 


One day Hare said to Baboon, "Sir,* let us go | and steal peanuts 

from a garden! I know a peanut-garden in which there are good 

peanuts." | Baboon said, "Yes, but I am afraid of dogs, because | I 

hear that where you want us to go, there are dogs. They are apt to 

* Cbckuhi, itoo iMed m term for moctwi'i brother; ordinarily tetegulu. 


i6o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

bite." (5) Hare said, "We are not going to be seen by the people." 
Hare and Baboon went | to steal peanuts. It happened that, when 
they arrived at the peanut-garden mentioned by Hare, | he began to 
pull out the vines of the peanuts. When they had pulled many 
peanut-vines, | they went into the shade of a tree and they b^an to 
eat the peanuts. | When Hare had eaten enough, he wanted to play 
with Baboon. He said, "Mother's brother, shall I (10) play with 
your mouth?" Baboon said, "How am I going to eat?" | — "Shall 
I play with your hand?" — "How am I going to pick?" — "Shall I j 
play with your ears?" Baboon said, "With what shall I hear?" — | 
"Shall I play with your tail?" Baboon said, "Yes." Hare | dug a 
hole, and he drove into the ground a stake and tied a rope to the 
stake, and (15) tied Baboon's tail to the rof>e which he tied to the 
stake. When he had finished | tying Baboon's tail, he put back the 
soil into the hole. When he had finished doing this, | he went to a 
white ant-hill and called out, "Mother's brother is stealing peanuts! | 
Mother's brother is stealing peanuts!" Baboon said, "Hare, what 
are you doing?" | Hare persisted and shouted, and the people and 
the d<^ came (20) running, and Hare ran away. Baboon tried to 
run away, but could not | because his tail was tied. He tried with 
great foree, | and broke his tail before the people and the dogs arrived. | 
Baboon ran away, but he did not foi^t what Hare had done to him. 


fige gole lakatama ndilo kuna m/ula kwakava ne chikava chikulu. 
makandwa ese o kumga akaoma. kumga neyatamika munyika mgese. 
mambo we zikala, mphontholo, wakakoka nyama djese kuza kubanshe 
lake, kuti djizoveleketa nthango yo kucha si me. nodjavungana 
mphuka mambo mphontholo, wakadjibrunsha kuti, "mangwana izanyi 
mgese kocha mgimbo. mphuka inolega kuza, aizomgi kumga yo 
m um^imbowo . ' ' 

mumangwana /umi mphuka djakavungana pandawo yakasanwa 
ndi mambo no manganakana ake, kuti sime lichiwepo. mphuka 
djailicha sime ngo kutamba. djaitamba imj|e ftge imge. djakadula 
lumbo kuti djiimbe djichitamba. urgu ndir^o lumbo r^odjakadula. 

chinyanshensheleka nshe ' 
kuputu, fcuputu, bufcuta mphuli 
tinolukanda kuna vabongo. 

djakamba lumborgu, djichitamba djikaita lindo gulu, kani kumga 

aizivi kubca, rtgokuti »go kutamba kwadjo djaivangisa musanga. 

makani djakavangilila kutamba. nguva ya shulo neyaguma, shulo 

azivi kuwanika. mambo wakatuma mutume komudana. mambo 

' Repeated four times. 


Tola and Proverbs of the Vandau of Porluguese S. Africa. i6i 

nabptmsba ahulo kuti, "watama ng:enyi kuza kocha sime?" shulo 
wakadavila, "andidi kucha Bime ngokut! inini ndinom^a maveto." 
mambo wakamulekela. 

mphuka nedjalemba kutamba djakagurhwa musana, f^okutd kunifa 
aiavi kubca. hamba yakati, " ndilegelenyivo ndiche sirae." nyama 
djese djakaseka hamba, djjchiti, "unga zoitenyi iwewe?" kamba 
likati, "zanyisa isisu nuuka meso, a^ingazoitwi ndiwe." hamba 
wakavangilila kuti atenderhwe kucha sime. no djamutendela, waka- 
f^ivina multndo, ak^ukunyula tnusanga.wakachindirhwange nyama. 
mphuka djese djakalingila xaitwa ndi hamba. hamba nangalaftgala 
mulindo, wakabovola kumfa, sime likazala f^ kumfa. mphuka 
djakadakala ngo kuvone kumfa. 

zuva nelovila nyati wakati, kuna mambo, "sime ngalilindwe, 
figokuti shulo walamba kuti besa kucha sime, makani nazwa kuti 
tabovola kumga, unoza kochela kumga musime ledu. wakalega kucha 
ngokutj achaidepi kubata basa, maveto a'leva kuti anoamfa, aitiga 
mamanomano kuti alegerhwe." mambo ne mphuka djese djakati, 
"uRoleva sokadi nyati. tinomuziva shulo muntbu wakangwala tikulu." 

bof^o wakati, "ndakulinda inini vusiku uv^ vgo kutanga." shulo 
na-zwa kuti kumga ya bovorhwa, wakaenda kobula vuchi akuvudila 
mubazi akatola mapazi ake akaenda kusime Icochela kum^a. naguma 
pasime wakati, "haye, haye." bongo akati "ndiyani?" shulo akati; 
"ndini inini, ndina ch^ona, chamunanua kamge, kuviya ndisunge." 
bof^o akati, "watinyi?" — "ndini inini, ndina chigona, chamu- 
nain5a kamge, kuviya ndisunge." bongo akati, "sedelayi." shulo 
wakasedela akananuisa bongo vuchi. bongo nolavila vuchi, wakati 
kuna shulo, "ndipese." shulo wakati, "kut! watenda kusungwa, 
ndinokupaxe." bongo wakati, "eya, ndisungeyi." shulo wakamu- 
sunga, kani azivi kumupa vuchi. shulo wakangwina musime. waka- 
chela kum^a. napedja kuchela kumga, wakairundula akaenda kanyi 
kwake. mumangwana /umi bof^o wakawanika nakasungwa, kani 
azivi kuleva kuti wakamusunga ndiyani. 

kamba wakati, "ndinozolinda sime nyamasi." nalavila zuva, tAm)'t 
wakaza akati, "haye, haye," kudali nge za'kaleva ngo muvuniku 
mga kalinda bongo, kamba wakadavila kudali nge zakaiu )y/nf("- 
shulo namunanuisa vuchi wakamusunga kamba. waka'^.hfrU kutiiiin, 
na-zadja mapazi ake wakaimwdula. djese mphuka djaliri'U wtn-., 
djakasuf^wa ndi shulo, kani adjichailevepi kuti shulc^ waVntViwrn^imi 
kudini no kuti shulo wainga ne chilo chaidjipa. 

hamba wakati unolinda sime ngo urgo vusiku. nyama illnkn^iin^ym 
ndi shulo, djakamusdca kudali nge sedjakaita &]if.\iv.},H <tuf. /.ir/n 
nelavila hamba wakaenda mukumja. shuk. naguma vhVuU, "hay*: 
haye." azivi kuzwa munthu wakadavila, ndiVi wHVH^'i. "titUvn UiU 
vona, ndaiziva kuti avangazo pjkidjani neni." w.tV:tfrttf\H ttumisif. 



1 62 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

kochela Icumga. nepedja kuzadja mapazi ake wakavundula kum^a 
kudali ngo musambo wake, noambuka, nelasala gumbo limge mukumga, 
hamba vakabata gumbo la shulo. shuio wakatetezela hamba, makani 
hamba azivi kuveleketa. kunsha nokwaedja shulo wakawanika pa- 
sime wakaendeswa kuna mambo. nyama djakadakala sikulu ngo 
kubatwa kwa shulo, makani shulo wainga mungwali, ndiso wakati 
kuna vamambo, "ndtnoda kutamba ngoma yangu uchito watonga 
ndava yawgu." mambo wakatendela shulo kuti atambe ngoma yake. 
shulo wakamba lumbo rhwake, wakabuunsha mphuka djaiva pabanshe 
kuti djimumbile achitamba urgu ngo lumbo rhwake: — 
nandi, shulo, Icupembela unoviyalini? mangwana, 
kuti, shulo, kupembela unoviyalini? mangwana, 
iwe shulo wapembela unoviyaltm? mangwana. 
nandiwe, shulo, kupembela unoviyalini? niaHgwaaa. 
kuti, shulo, wapembela unoviyalini? mangwani. 

nodjavona ahulo achitamba, mphuka djakanyaukirhwa djakata- 
mbavo djikaita bukuta gulu, shulo wakatiza. mambo ne mphuka 
djaiti shulo ulipo unatamba navo. nyama adjizivi kuvonana nge 
bukuta, djimge djaibayana. bukuta nelanganuka, mphuka. djaka- 
psai^a shulo, kani shulo azivi kuvanika. magumo. 

One year which was lacking in rain there was a great drought. | 
All the lakes (of water) were dried up. Water was not to be found 
in the whole country. | The chief of the animals. Lion, called all the 
animals together to come to his court | to talk over the matter of 
digging a well. When the animals were assembled, (5) Chief Lion 
told them, saying, "To-morrow ] all shall come to dig a well. If an 
animal should not come, he will not drink the water of | the well." 
On the following day many animals assembled at the place which 
was selected, | according to the order of the chief and his advisera, 
where the well was to be dug. The animals (10) were to dig the well 
by dancing. They were to dance one by one. They composed | a 
song which they were to sing and to dance to. This song which they 
composed was, — | 

Trotting, trotting, nshe (four times]. 
Stamping, stamping, dust rises, 
We give this to Hyena.* 

(15) They sang this song dancing, and making a large bole; but 
' See Jacotwt. The Treasury of Ba-Suto Lore, i : 3a. wh«re alao comparative notea we 

given; also Natalie Curtis, Songs and Tales from the Dark CoDtlnent (New York. 1910), 

p. 45 (Vandau); tune of song (.Ibid.), p. til, 

* Tliat is. the next dancer was to be Hyena. The animals were thu« called ooe by one. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 163 

the water | did not come out, because by dancing they made the hole 
hard. But | they pernsted in dancing. When the turn of Hare came, 
Hare was not | found. The chief sent a messenger to call Hare. The 
chief aaked | Hare why he did not come to dig the welt. Hare an- 
swered, (20) "I do not want to dig the well, because I drink dew." 
The chief | let htm go. 

When the animals were tired dancing, they were discouraged 
because the water | did not come. Turtle said, "Let me try to dig 
the well!" All the animals | laughed at what Turtle said. "What can 
you do?" Leopard said, (25) "We red-eyes are baffled. It would 
never be done by you." Turtle | persisted that he be allowed to dig 
the well. He | entered the hole, and burrowed in the sand which was 
packed hard by the beasts. | All the animals looked at what was 
being done by Turtle. When Turtle disappeared j in the hole, he dug 
through to the water, and the well was full of water. The animals 
C30) were glad because they saw the water. 

When the sun was setting, Buffalo said to the chief, "The well 
should be watched, | because Hare refused to help dig the well; but 
when he hears that [ we struck water, he will come to drink water in 
our well. He refused to dig | because he did not want to work; he 
mentioned that he drank dew; it was (35) an excuse, so that he 
might not be troubled." The chief and all the animals said, | "What 
you say is true, Buffalo. We know Hare is very wise." 

Hyena said, " I shall watch this night to begin." When Hare ] heard 
that water had been dug out, he went to get honey, which he put | into 
his calabash, and he took his calabash and went to the well to fetch 
water. When he arrived (40) at the well, he said, "Haye, haye!" 
Hyena said, "What is it?" Hare said, | "I myself taste once what is 
in the calabash. It is done again when I tie." ] Hyena said, "What 
did you say?" — "I myself | taste once what is in the calabash. It 
is done again when I tie." Hyena said, "Come here!" Hare [ came 
near, and gave a taste of honey to Hyena. Hyena tasted the honey, 
and said (45) to Hare, "Give me more." Hare said, "If you are 
willing to be tied, | I shall give you more." Hyena said, "Yes, tie 
me." Hare tied him, | but he did not give him the honey. Hare 
entered the well. | He dipped out water. When he had finished 
getting water, he disturbed it and went to his house. | The next 
morning Hyena was found tied, but (50) he did not tell who had 
tied him. 

Leopard said, "I shall watch the well this night." When the sun 
set. Hare | came and said "Haye, haye!" as he had said the night 
before | when Hyena was watching. Leopard answered in the same 
way as Hyena had done. | Hare let him taste the honey. He tied 
Leopard, dipped out water, (55) and filled his calabash. He disturbed 


i64 Journal of American Foik-Lore. 

the water. Atl the animals that watched the well ) were tied hy 
Hare; but they did not tell that Hare had tied them, | and that Hare 
had the thing which he gave them. 

Turtle said he would watch the well that night. The animals tied 
by Hare laughed at him in | the same way as (at the time) iriien they 
were digging the well. When the sun (60) set, Turtle went into the 
water. Hare arrived, and said, "Haye, | haye!" He did not bear 
a person answer; therefore he said, "Serves them rigl)t, [ I knew they 
would tire of trying to get me." He went into the well | to draw 
water. When he finished filling his calabash, he disturbed the water, | 
as was his custom. When he came out of the water, his one leg 
remained in the water; (65) Turtle had taken hold of the leg erf Hare. 
Hare be^ed Turtle, but | Turtle did not speak. When day broke. 
Hare was found at the | well. He was taken to the chief. The 
animals were very glad because | Hare was captured. But Hare was 
wise; therefore he said | to the chief, "I want to dance my dance 
before you judge (70) my case." The chief allowed Hare to dance his 
dance. | Hare sang his song, and aslod the animals who were in 
court I to Mng for him while he danced to this song: — 

" Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming back? 

— To-morrow. 

Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming back? 

— To-morrow. 

(75) You, Hare, if you go away, when are you coming back? — To-morrow. 
Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you comii^ back? — 

To-day, Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming 

back? — To-morrow." 

When the animals saw Hare danicng, they had a desire to danoe also, | 
and they made much dust, and Hare ran away. The chief of the 
animals (80) thought that Hare was there dancing with them. The 
animals did not see one another | on account of the dust, and stabbed 
one another. When the dust settled, the animals looked for | Hare, 
but Hare was not to be found. The end. 

shulo wakati kune hamba, "ngatende koba malungu, ndinoziva 
kuna malungu makulu, atizovoneki »go vanthu ngokuti vanomga 
dolo." hamba yakati, "tapo." shulo ne hamba vakatola rivanga 
zavo kuti vazoJse malungu. novaguma kumamunda vakacha ma- 
lungu, novapedja kucha shulo wakati, "ngativese mulilo tikoche 
malungu. tirge." vakavesa mulilo, vakakocha malungu. naibva 
shulo wakati kune hamba, "ngatikande malungu muzivanga xedu." 


TakM and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 165 

novapedja Iniita ai shulo wakad kune hamba, "iwe enda ngdno, Ini 
ndende sgeno, tichidana vanthu kuti, shuto ne hamba vanoba ma- 
lufigu." hamba wakati, "eya, ngaite iso." shulo wakaleva kune 
hamba, kuti, "ukavona vanthu vachiza viyai utole chivanga chako, 
ntize." ehulo wakaenda i^o kumboshwa achimima kuti, "shulo ne 
hamba vanoba malungu." hamba azivt kuenda, wakangwina muchi- 
vaMga cha shulo. shulo na-zwa vanthu vachiza wakati, "hamba w£, 
tizai, vanthu voza kuno." shulo wakaviya achigogoma akatola 
chivai^a chake. ena achaizivepi kuti hamba waiva muchivanga 
chake. shulo wakagogoma achiti, "hamba wabatwa nge vanthu." 
kwati abulo nalemba kugogoma wakati, "ndakugala pamun^fuli 
pomuti odirge malui^u." wakangwinisa mukono wake muchivanga 
wakabatabata malungu achipsanga lungu lakakula; na-chaliwana 
wakudulula chivanga. hamba wakabuda muchivanga akati, "shulo, 
iwewe wait! wakangwala, kani auzivi. inini ndapedja kur^a malungu 
aii^a muchivanga mgako, iwewe uchindithwala." shulo wakaisiya 
hsmba akaenda kanyi kwake. 


Hare said to Turtle, " Let us go and steal sweet-potatoes ! I know | 
where there are large sweet-potatoes. We are not going to be seen 
by the people, because they are drinking | beer." Turtle said, "Let 
usl" Hare and Turtle took their bags | to put into them sweet- 
potatoes. When they arrived, they began to dig sweet- (5) potatoes. 
After they had dug. Hare said, "Let us make a fire, so that we may 
roast I the sweet-potatoes! Let us eat!" They made a fire, and they 
roasted sweet-potatoes. When the | sweet-potatoes were done. Hare 
said to Turtle, "Let us put the sweet-potatoes in our bags ! " | When 
they finished doing so. Hare said to Turtle, "You go this way, I | 
shall go the other way, shouting to the people that Hare and Turtle 
are stealing (10) sweet-potatoes." Turtle said, "Yes, let us do so!" 
Hare said to | Turtle, "When you see people coming, come back, 
take your bag, and | run away." Hare went to the left side, shouting, 
"Hare and | Turtle are stealing sweet-potatoes!" Turtle did not go, 
but went into | Hare's bag. When Hare heard the people coming, 
he said, "Turtle, (15) runaway! The people are coming here!" Hare 
came back running. He took | his bag. He did not know that 
Turtle was in his bag. | Hare ran, saying, "Turtle is caught by the 
people." I When Hare was tired running, he said, "I will sit down 
in the shade | of a tree and eat sweet-potatoes." He put his hand 
into his bag (20) and felt for sweet-potatoes. He looked for a large 
sweet-potato there, but he did not find it. He emptied | the bag. 

■ Nualie Curtl*. Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York, igio). p. 43 


1 66 Journal oj American Folk'Lore. 

Turtle was in the bag, and said, "Hare, | you thought you were wise, 
but you are not. I ate the sweet-potatoes' | in your bag while you were 
carrying me." Hare left | Turtle and went to his house. 

{Version o.) 
shulo na Tophemhge vainga vashamgali. nge nshiku mpAembge 
wakati kuna shulo, "kudali nendichina minyanga ndingatodjana 
newe inini. iwewe nouna minyanga ungatodjana neni." wge imge 
nshiku vachitamba shulo wakati kuna mpAembge, " ndino iziva nshila 
yo kubzula ndiyo minyanga, iwewe ungazobzula minyanga yako inini 
ndingazoishonga yona nge djimge nshiku." mphembge ngokuti waida 
kuti vusham^ali v|avo vuvangisise wakada kuti minyanga yake 
ibzurhwe. ndizo wakati kuna shulo, " ndi noda kuti undidjidjise ku- 
bsutwa kwe minyanga." shulo wakati kuna mpfcembge, "ngatende 
kopsanga huni." nevaviya ne huni shulo wakatola mbende akaizadja 
nge kumga. akaigadja pachoto akati kuna mpAembge, "kuti iwewe, 
nge djim^e nshiku, uzobeule minyanga yako ndiyisimile, inini, ndizo- 
baule nsheve djangu nge djimge nshiku, udjisimile, no kuti tovavili 
tiwane ili simba lo kubsula nsheve ne minyanga yedu, zinodikaoa 
kuti tingwine mumbende ili pachoto mumfe nge mumge, kuti nsheve 
ne minyanga yedu ip/ave, izonasa kubmlika." mpiembge wakatenda 
zakaleva shulo. shulo wakati kuna mpAembge, "inini ndinotanga ku- 
ngwina mumbende ngokuti ndinozivazotinoita." shuloachitowangwina 
mumbende yainga pachoto wakabounsha mpAembge kuti, ena nagugu- 
dja pamUfiniko mpAembge ngazouduhumule. shulo wangwina mumbe- 
ndempftembgewakadumaidja mbende ngomufiniko. muliloauchalvepi 
muzinshi. shulo wakagala muvokulu achito wagugudja pamflfiniko. 
kumga neyopisa shulo wakagugudja pamQfiiiiko mpAembge wakaudu- 
humula. shulo akabudga mumbende. mpAembge wakangwina mu< 
mbende. shulo wakaidumaidja ngomufiniko. na'pedja kuidumaidja 
wakakokela huni pachoto. mpAembge wakangwina mumbende 
kumga noyongayopisa. azivi kugalamgo mukuvo mukulu kumga 
noyopisa zikulu noyoda kuvila. na-zwa kupisa kwe kumga waka- 
gugudja pamQfiniko kani shulo wakati kwali, "auto, wagala 
mukuvo mukulu unoti ndiwo minyanga yako ip/ave. aulangalili kani 
kuti inini ndagalamgo mumbende mukuvo mukulu? nsheve djangu 
adjidi mukuvo mukulu kudjip/avisa djona. minyanga yako iaoda 
mukuvo mukulu kuip/avisa." mpAembge wakapulutana zakaleva 
shulo, wakalegela shulo kuti adumaidje mbende. shulo wakakanda 
buwe pamdfiniko. mpAembge nagugudja. shulo azivi kuduhumula 
mbende. kumga ingayovila. mpAembge wakagugudja pamflJiniko 
nge simba kani shulo wait!, "nguva yako aito yaguma." noyavila 


T(Ues and Proverbs of the Vandau oj Portuguese S. Africa. 167 

kum^a mp&embfe wakaita simba kuti abu'dge, kani mufiniko wainga 
una buwe; ndieo ena wakaiilamso mumbende. na-ibva mp/iembge 
shulo wakatola minyanga yake akaiita nyele padjidja achiti, 

ndatamba na mpAembge 

□yalala telele kuteku, 
mpAembge waibca 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
n da tola minyanga, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
minyanga ya mpAembge, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
ndaita nyele, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
tijondo lid] all, 

nyalala telele kuteku. 

shtilo waimba lumborgu achilidja nyele yo minyanga ya mpAembge 
sham^ali wake. 

{Version b.) 

shulo na mpAembge vaiva shamgalt. vushamgali vgavo vgainga 
vgakavafiga rikulu, vakagondisana kutj, "tafa ngativigane." vaka- 
tendelana muzilo zese sovaita. 

f^e imge nshiku vaiveleketa ngo kungatodjani kwavo, kudali nge 
minyanga ya mpAembge ne nsheve dja shulo. mpAembge wakati kwa 
shulo, "kudali notakatodjana vanthu vangazoti till vabalirhwana." 
mpAembge wainga shamgali wozokadi, sese zailondzela shulo eaiva 
2okadi, kani shulo wakatanga kutonthola, ngokuti waiemula chimo 
ne minyanga ya mpAembge. mpAembge waimunyisa shulo mitambo 
yese yo vaitamba kudali ngo kugogoma no kubzalana. shulo wakati 
kuna shamgali wake, " ndailangalila chilo chingatiita kuti titodjane 
rikulu. andizivi kukulondzela kuti madjitetegulu angu aJva ne 
minyanga kale, ona akada kuva ne nsheve djakaleba, ndizo akabzuta 
minyanga ayo. kuti no ndakupa mutombo iwewe unozova ne simba 
lo kubnita minyanga yako, uisimile nge nshiku yo unoda." 

mpAembge waida kudakalisa shamgali wake, wakati, " iso zingaita 
sakanaka." shulo wakati, "ngatende kopjanga huni." novaviya 
ne huni valtatola mbende hulu kakuizadja nge kumga kakuigadja 
pamulilo wo vakavesa. shulo wakati kuna mpAembge, "simba lo 
kubmla minyanga lili mukumga neyodjiya, ngokuti inini ndinoziva 
mutombo ndakutanga kungwina mumbende. ndidumaidje! muBnipo, 
no nd^:ugudja pamufiniko uzo uduhumula." shulo wakangwina 
mumbende yaiva pachoto, kumga noyadjiya wakagugudja pamu- 
finiko, mpAembge wakaiduhumula mbende. shulo nabudga mpAe- 
mbge wakangwina mumbende, shulo wakaidumaidja a kadila buwe 
panyezulu po mOfiniko akanasa kukokela huni pamulilo. mpAembge 


1 68 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

nazwa Icupisa kwe kumga wakagugudja pa mUfiniko kani shulo azivi 
kuuduhumula. ndiso mpAembge wakabikwa, na-ibva shulo wakabula 
mbende akabmta minyanga ya mpAembge akaiita nyele. akachilidja 
30 lumbo. 

ndatamba na mpAembfe 
nyalala telele kuteku, 
mpAemb^ waibna 
nyalala telele kuteku, 
35 ndatola minyanga, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 

minyanga ya mpAemb^e, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 

ndaita nyele, 

40 nyalala telele kuteku, 

djondo lidjali, 

nyalala telele kuteku. 


{Version o.) 
Hare and Duiker were friends. One day Duiker | said to Hare, 
" If I had no horns, I should be like you. | If you had no ears, you 
would be like me." One | day while they were playing, Hare said to 
Duiker, "I know a way (5) of pulling off the horns. You will be able 
to pull off your horns, and I | shall borrow them some day." Because 
Duiker wanted | their friendship to be strengthened, he wanted his 
horns | to be pulled. Therefore he said to Hare, " I want you to teach 
me the I pulling of the horns." Hare said to Duiker, "Let us go 
(10) and look for fire-wood 1" When they came back with the fire-wood, 
Hare took a pot and filled it | with water. He put it on the hearth. 
He said to Duiker, "You | some day may be able to pull off your 
horns, so that I can put them on; | and some day I shall pull off my 
ears, and you put them on. So that both of us | may obtain this 
power of pulling off our ears and horns, it is necessary (15) that we 
go into this pot on the fire one by one, that our ears | and horns may 
become pliable, so that they can be pulled." Duiker agreed | to 
what Hare said. Hare said to Duiker, " I shall begin | to go into the 
pot, because I know how to do it." Hare went | into the pot which 
was on the fire. He told Duiker that when he knocked (20) oa the 
lid. Duiker should take it off. When Hare had entered the pot, 1 
Duiker covered the pot with the lid. There was not much fire. | 
Hare staid a long time in the water before he knocked on the lid. | 
When the water was hot. Hare knocked on the Ud, and Duiker 
uncovered it. | Hare came out of the pot. Duiker went into the jrat. 

1 Compare £. JacotCet. The Treasury of Ba-Suto Lore, I : 13-14, l>. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 169 

(35) Hare covered it with the lid. After he had covered it, | he piled 
fire-wood on the hearth. When Duiker had gone into the pot, | the 
water was getting hot. He did not stay in very long before the water 
became very hot, | and it was about to boil. When he felt the heat of 
the water, | he knocked on the lid; but Hare said to him, "You have 
not staid (30) very long (to be time not enoi^h) for your horas to be 
soft. Don't you remember, [ I staid in the pot a long time? My 
ears | do not need much time to make them soft. Your horns need [ 
a long time to make them soft." Duiker listened to what Hare said. | 
He let Hare cover the pot. Hare put (35) a stone on the lid. Duiker 
knocked, (but) Hare did not uncover | the pot. The water was 
boiling. Duiker knocked on the lid | with strength; but Hare said 
to him, "Your time has not come yet." When the water was boiling, | 
Duiker used (made) great power to come out; but the lid had | a 
stone (on it), therefore he died in the pot. When Duiker was cooked, 
(40) Hare took his horns and made whistles, singing, — 

" I played with Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Duiker ia cooked, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
(45) I took his horns, 

Be quiet telele kuteku. 
The horns of Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
I made a whistle, 
(50) Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Which I am playing. 

Be quiet telele kuteku." 

Hare was singing this song and playing on the whistle made from 
the horns of Duiker, | his friend. 

( Version b.) 

Hare and Duilrer were friends. Their friendship was I very strong. 
They pledged each other, "When we die, we will bury each other." 
They | agreed in all things they did. 

One day they were talking about their not being alike in regard to 
the (5) boms of Duiker and the ears of Hare. Duiker said to [ Hare, 
"If we were alike, people would say we were brothers," | Duiker 
was a true friend; all he told Hare was | true; but the friendship of 
Hare began to be cold, because he envied the head | and horns of 
Duiker. Duiker beat Hare in all games (10) they were playing, such 
as running and touching each other. Hare said | to his friend, " 1 was 
I erf something that would make us quite alike. | I never did 

1 you that my great-grandfathers had | horns long ago. They 


I70 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wanted to have long ears, therefore they plucked out | their horns. 
When I give you medicine, you will have the jMwer (15) to pull out 
your horns and wear them, any day you like." 

Duiker wanted to please his friend. He said, "This is | good." 
Hare said, "Let us go to look for fire-wood ! " When they came back] 
with the fire-wood, they took a large pot, filled it with water, and 
put it 1 on the fire. Hare said to Duiker, "The power to (20) puti out 
your horns is in the water when it gets warm; because I am the one 
who knows | the medicine, I shall begin and go into the pot. Cover 
me with the lid; and when I knock on the lid, lift it." Hare went 
into I the pot which was on the fire. When the water was lukewarm, 
he knocked on the lid. | Duiker uncovered the pot. When Hare 
came out, (25) Duiker went into the pot; Hare covered it, and put a 
stone I on top of the lid, and carefully put fire-wood on the fire. When 
Duiker | felt the heat of the water, he knocked on the lid; but Hare 
did not I uncover it, therefore Duiker was cooked ; when he was done. 
Hare took the pot | up from the fire, and pulled ofl the horns and 
made whistles, and played and (30) sang, — 

" I played with Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Duiker is cooked. 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
(35) I took his horns. 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
The horns of Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
I made a whistle, 
(40) Be quiet telele kuteku, 
Which I am playing. 

Be quiet telele kuteku." 


(Version a.) 
nge imge nshiku mphontholo yakavona shulo ikati, "ehe, ndiwe, 
iwewe wakavutaya vana vangu!" shulo wakati, "andinipi." mpho- 
ntholo yakati, "unot! wakangwala iwewe. ndinokuziva ndiwe 
wakavavulaya. ndaiti wainga wakanaka, kani uli bandu. ndaka- 
kugonda no vana vangu, iwewe wakapinduka kuita bandu. imapo, 
ndikutatidje ! " mphontholo yakatanga kuza kuna shulo, shulo waka- 
tiza, mphontholo yakamugogomela. shulo nalemba, wakapinimidja 
kuti wavangilila kugogoma mphontholo inozomttbata. achilangalila 
izi wakavona buwe lakacheama, wakaenda pasi palo akali batilila. 
mphontholo yakatevela shulo pasi pe buwe. shulo wakati, "mpho- 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 171 

ntholo, tetegulu, batilanyi buwe, linozotlwila." mphontholo yaka- 
kanganwa kuti yaida kuvulaya shulo, yakalangalila kuti yalegela 
kfibata buwe yona ne shulo vanozowirhwa ndilo, yakabatilila buwe. 
shulo wakalegela buwe akabva pasi palo achiti kune mphontholo, 
" batisisanyi buwelo, linozo muwila." mphontholo yakagalapo pasi 
pe buwe nshiku zinshi. neya/a nge nshala no kulemba yakalegela 
buwe, kani buwe alizivi kuwa. mphontholo yakabva pasi pe buwe 
ichisoffgeya shulo. ichiti, "pondi nozovonana na shulo apazomeli 

(Version A.) 

mambo mphontholo wakazwa kUtokota kwa shuto kudjo nyama 
djese. shulo waizivga ndidjo djese mphuka kuti wainga mungwali 
rikulu, ngokuti waiziva misambo yese. wakanyisa mphuka djese 
kuita misambo mizinshi waifiga ne vgilu, ngokuti kudali nawanika 
mumfumfu waiziva mazano mazinshi okubva ndiwo mumfumfu. 

kwati vana vatatu va mambo mphontholo nevabarhwa, mambo 
wakada kuti shulo avadjidjise mazano ese amoziva. shulo wakadana 
nd imambo mphontholo. naguma wakabvunshwa ndi mambo mpho- 
ntholo, kuti unoda kuti shulo adjidjise vana vake misambo yese 
yaanoziva. yanoziva shulo wakatenda kuita mudjidjisi wo vana va 
mambo. mambo wakati kuna shulo, "iwewe ne vana vatatu vangu 
munozogala munyumba yakasoserhwa, apana munthu unozotenderhwa 
kungwina munyumba. neni no mukadji wangu atizongwinipi mu* 
nyumba. tinokutumila nyama no kur^a kunodika ndiwe nevana." 

shulo no vana vatatu va mambo vakagala munyumba yakaleva 
mambo. ena wakavadjidjisa vona «ge zuva lo kutanga kuita misambo 
ne mitambo, kudali, ngokulova kata, kubealana no kumphuka 
mitanda. zuva nelavila mambo mphontholo no mukadji wake vakaza 
kunyumba kuti vabminshe kutamba kwe vana vavo, shulo wakati 
kuna mambo mphontholo, "v^tnavatamba^akanakanyamasi mitambo 
yondavad jidj isa." 

shulo ne vana novorga kur^a. ena waivapa maphondo. vana 
novakumbila shulo kuti vanoda nyama shulo wakati kovali, "ndinomu* 
vapa maphondo ngokuti ndinoda kuti meno enyu avange, kuti mgar|a 
nyama yakap/ava meno enyu angavangipi." mumangwana fumi 
shulo wakadjidjisa vadjidji vake kutamba mitambo no kuita misambo. 
zuva nelavila mphontholo no mukadji wake vakaza kobuunsha kugala 
ko vana vavo. shulo wakavavonesa vana mumge nge mum^e. 
Wakatakula vana pavachansha achiti, "vonanyiili zinthikinyaiHngi- 
lanyi ili zinthikinya I" mambo no mukadji wake wakadakadjiswa 
nkulu ngokuti shulo wakakolodja vana vavo vushoni. nshiku djese 
shulo waitamba no vana, vona vakanga voziva mitambo mizinshi, 
vadjibali vavo wakaza nshiku djese kovavona no kozwa kuti vaidjidja 



172 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

shulo wakaziva kuti kudali wadjidjisa vana ve mphontholo misambo 
yese, nyama djese adjingawani kup/ala no kudakala, ngokuti mpho- 
ntholo djinozodjitambudja. naye shulo no vukama vgake vanozova 
mungozi. nduo wakalangalila zano lokuvulaya ndilo vana ve mpho- 
ntholo vachito valuka. 

oiunife mutambo wovaita wainga wo kumpHuka mulilo. shulo 
wakaphinga m^ana mumge ngo muti achimphuka, mgana wakawila 
pa mulilo, akapsa akafa. zuva nelavila mphontholo wakaza kovona 
vana vake, shulo wakatakula vana pavgalo achiti, "lingilanyi ili 
zinthikinya." wakatakula mgana mumge kavili. nge nshiku yaka- 
tevela shulo wakaphingaze mumge mgana naye wakawila pamulilo 
akapja aka/a. zuva nelavila mphontholo naza, shulo wakatakula 
katatu mgana wakasala. shulo wakaphinga mfana we chitatu naye 

shulo namulayo mgana we chitatu wakalangalila zano laimubudisa 
mungozi yaingamgo. ena wakapganya musuvo wo lusosa, akasoso- 
nyula lusosa, akazikwenga, akap/anyangula vuboya vgake. waita m 
kuti anase kubvunsha mphontholo kuti manthede avulaya vana vake. 
zuva nelavila mambo mphontholo wakaza kovona vana vake, kani 
wakavona shulo nali kunsha kwe lusosa, nakagumbatana achilila. 
mphontholo wakapinimidja achtti pamge vana vake vamukwenga 
shulo ngokuti ifigavokula, kani mphontholo nabvunsha shulo kuti 
waililangenyi, shulo wakasumula ndava yo kufa ko vana. no kuti 
manthede akaza akavavulaya. ona akadoda kumulaya naye ngokuti 
wakavikila vana. mphontholo wakavona musuvo wakapganywa no 
vana vake vakavulawa, ndizo wakachenezwa zikulu, azivi kubvansha 
mibfunsho mizinshi. ena ne hama djake vakaenda kolonda manthede. 
mphontholo ne hama djake vakaawana manthede nakavata. 
vakavulaya manthede mazinshi. mashoma akatiza. mumangwana 
/umi ao manthede, akatiza akaza kobininsha mphontholo kuti waka- 
vulailenyi hama djao maulonyi. mphontholo azivi kuda kOpulutana 
zakaleva manthede, kani nevasoveta ndava mphontholo no manthede 
akatendelana kuti vaende kunyumba kwainga ne vana, mphontholo 
vati vakavulawa nge manthede. novaguma panyumba sakavoneswa 
kuti apana zinthede lakaza panyumbapo nge nshiku yakavulawa 
ndiyo vana. mphontholo watenda kuti manthede azivi kuvulaya 
vana vake. makani wakalangalila kuti, shulo ndiyena wakavavu- 
laya akusukumidjila ndava kuna manthede. wakabvunsha manthede 
kuti unopaluka sikulu ngokuti wavulaya hama djao djichingazivi 
kuita chilo kwali. 

mphontholo wakatevela shulo kanyi kwake, namuvana wakamu- 
songeya achiti, "ndiwe, iwewe wakavulaya vana vangu ukati kwendili, 
vakavulawa nge mathende!" wakag(^omela. shulo nalemba kugo- 
goma wakavona buwe lakacheama wakaenda pasi palo akalibata. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 73 

mphontholo m^:unia, shulo wakati kwali, "chekulu, batililanyi buwe, 
liootiwila." mphontholo wakakanganwa kuti waida kuvulaya shulo, 
wakabatilila buwe ngokuti waiziva kuti buwe no lawa lalwila ena ne 
abulo. pam^e shulo waipona ngokuti ena mudoko. mphontholo 
nabata buwe. shulo wakalilegela akabva pasi palo, achiti kuna 
mphontholo, "batilisa buwelo kuti walegela linozokuwila iwewe." 
mphontholo wakagala pasi pe buwe mazuva mazinshi achingazivi 
kuTfa chilo no kuvata hope, kwati nalemba na/a nge nshala ne hope 
wakalegela buwe akawa pasi. ena waitAa kuti buwe laizomuwila 
kani alizivi kuwa. mphontholo wakankweva pasi pe buwe akaenda 
kanyi kwake. 

mphontholo na-va ne simba wakaenda kanyi kwa shulo kuti amu- 
vulaye. waiti shulo achaizivepi kuti wakabva pasi po buwe, ndico 
waiti unowana shulo nakavanairhwa. wakaenda kanyi kwa shulo 
mumangwana matete, ngokuti waiti shulo wainga wakavata, kani 
shulo wakaziva nshiku yakabva ndiyo mphontholo pasi po buwe, 
kutanga nge nshiku yakamusiya ndiyo mphontholo pasi pe buwe, 
shulo wakaenda kolingila nshiku djese kuti azive kuti mphontholo 
wainga pasi palo. mphontholo naguma kanyi kwa shulo wakanyangila 
achenda fcu musuvo, akagugudja musuvo nge simba; kani shulo 
achangemjopi mumba, wainga kunsha achikota mashana pachulu, 

D wakavona mphontholo ichiza. mphontholo navona shulo pachulu, 
wakatai^a kumugogomela, shulo wakati za akatevela gwansha li- 
chainga ne mavushwa mazinshi. mphontholo ingayoda kumubata, 
shulo na'guma pandawo yainga no magulu mazinshi, wakangwina 
mulimge. mphontholo ngokuti waigogoma sikulu wakapindilidja 

i pamagulu. navgilila wakalingila pamilomo yao, kani yese yainga ne 
Boka dja shulo djaivonesa kuti wakangwina m^adjo mgese achigogoma| 
mphontholo wakashamiswa ngokuti shulo achaingepi nthambo, azivi 
kuvona kuti shulo wakangwinisa kudini mimilomo yese ngenguvayo 
yakamuvona achingwina gulu ngokuti achaizivepi gulu lakangwina 

> shulo, mphontholo wakatanga kup/uchila magulu ese ngo mtlsanga. 
na-guma pagulu gulu, wakavona kuti lainga ne chi/emelo chikulu 
chainga nthambo mumavushwa, wakaenda kolingila pamulomo wacho, 
akavona soka dja shulo, akaziva kuti shulo wakabudjja ndicho. 
mphontholo azivi kulasha nguva, wakatevela lusoka rhwa shulo, 

J akagogoma nkulu ngokuti waiziva kuti shulo inga wa nthambo. 
luaoka rhwa shulo rhwakaenda pachitulu, mphontholo naguma po 
wakanasa kuchipota kuti avone kuti shulo azivi kuenda kuimge ndawo. 
na'tama kuvona lusoka rhwa shulo luchibva pachitulu wakatanga 
kuvfanda mavushwa nokuchindila malindo aivona, kan! azivi kuwana 

a shulo. shulo wakangwina mugulu Hmge lainga ne chi/emelo chainga 
ngo mumavushwa, ngo kunshila kova kabva ndiyo. shulo wakabudga 
ndicho icho chi/emelo akoenda kanyi kwake. nali ptchulu, chakaleba 


1 74 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wakavona tnphontholo achitevela lusoka rhwake, a-chivganda ma< 
vushwa o pachitulu no kup/uchila malindo, waimuseka. 

135 zuva nelavila, mphontholo nalemba, na/a nge nshala, na-tama 
kuwana shulo, wakaenda kanyi kwake. achenda kanyi wakalangaliU 
achiti, pam^e shulo azivi kuenda pachitulu. 

mazuva tnazinshi akapinda mphontholo na shulo vachinga zivi 
kusongana. nge iragCi nshiku shulo wakadobatwa ndi mphontholo, 

130 i^okuti wakamuvona achikota mashana. shulo na-vona mphontholo, 
wakaima pamtitanda wainga mumavushwa kuti anase kuvamukulu 
kani wakamugomela no kuti waiita zimanomano mphontholo achado- 
muziva kuti wairhwala. mphontholo wakamubvunsha kuti wainga 
ndiyani ena. shulo wakati wainga shulo mavuvu, muzukulu wa shulo 

135 no kuti wainga unorhwala nkulu, no kuti uv^ vutenda vf akamugumila 
Rgo medji wak^a. mphontholo wakabimnsha kuti ena wakavona 
shulo tetegulu wake kani. shulo mavuvu wakati, eya, wakamuvona 
zulo achenda iyo-, mphontholo wakatevela shulo, kwakatatidja shulo 
mavuvu. mphontholo napinda shulo wakaseka ngokuti wakamu- 

140 khanganidja. 

nge im£e nshiku mphontholo wakasoftgana na shulo achenda kanyi 
kwa shulo, wakamugogomela, shulo wakatizila kugandwa. naguma 
pagandwa wakatanga kugula ngo piainga pachina kumga, kani painga 
no matope, na-pakati wakaima. mphontholo navona kuti shulo 

145 waima waiti kani wakabatwa nge muchuvda, ndizo mphontholo 
wakatanga kumumphukila, kant azivi kumugumila shulo ngokuti 
mphontholo achimphuka. shulo wakatar^ia kugt^oma. mphontholo 
wakawila mumatope akanasa kuzamirhwam^o. shulo wakabca mu- 
matope akaima pamutunthu akalingila mphontholo achiguza muma- 

150 tope, akamuseka sikulu, achiti, "kudali, iwewe, wavangtlila kundigo- 
gomela unozotambudjika, ngokuti ndinozokulaila iwewe." wakamu- 
siya mphontholo nakazamirhwa mumatope. mumangwana /urn! 
mphontholo wakavoneka nge hama djake nakazamirhwa, djona 
djakamubesa kumukweva kumQtunthu. 

ISS mphontholo wakanaswa kucheneswa zikulu ndi shulo. wakamu- 
songeya zikulu, naye shulo inga walemba kutambudjwa ndi mphon* 
tholo, ndiso wakatola mitanda yainga ne mabako, akanasa kuiladjika 
ngo kutevelelana. mutanda wo kumphil! wainga mulomo mudoko. 
mphontholo navona shulo wakamugogomela nge simba gulu. shulo 

160 waiziva kuti kudali nachagogomesa mphontholo waizomubata, ndiro 
wakangwina mubako lokutanga, naye mphontholo wakangwinavo. 
shulo wakangwina mgelechipili naevo mphontholo wakamutevela. 
mphontholo waig(%oma sikulu shulo ingawoda kubatwa. wakangwina 
mubako doko, mphontholo naye wakangwina nge simba gukulu, kani 

165 azivi kubudgamgo, wakazimanika. shulo wakaza kovona mphontholo 
akati, "iwewe, aig^obfi umgo mubako." magumo o lungano. 


Taies and Prooerbs trf the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 75 


(Version a.) 

One day Uon saw Hare, and said, "Yes, you { are the one who 
killed my children." Hare said, " I am not the one." | Lion said, 
"You think you are wise. I know you | are the one. I thought you 
were good, but you are murderous. I (5) trusted you with my chil- 
dren; you turned out to be murderous. Wait, | I will show you."* 
Lion htgan to (come) run after Hare; Hare | ran away; Lion ran 
after him. When Hare began to be tired, he thought | that, if he 
kept on running, Lion would catch him. When Hare thought thus, | 
he saw a leaning stone. He went under it and held it up. (10) Lion 
followed Hare under the stone. Hare said, "Lion, grandfather, hold 
the stone! It will fall on us." Lion | forgot that he wanted to kill 
Hare, but thought that, if he should | let go his hold of the stone, he 
and Hare would be crushed by it, and held the stone. | Hare let go 
of the stone and ran away, saying to Lion, (15) "Hold the stone 
fingly, that it may not fall on you!" Lion staid under | the stone 
for many days. When he felt hungry and tired, he let go of | the 
stone, but the stone did not fall. Lion came out from under the stone | 
and threatened Hare. He said, "Where I see Hare, no j grass will 
grow." * 

( Version b.) 

Chief Lion heard the reputation of Hare among all the animals. | 
Hare was known to all the animals as very wise, | because he tcnew all 
kinds of tricks. He outdid all the animals | in many tricks; he 
had wisdom; for, when he was found in danger, (5) he knew 
many plans by which he could come out of danger. 

Thus the three children of Chief Lion (who were bom), — the chief | 
wanted that Hare should teach them all the plans he knew. Hare 
was called | by Chief Lion. When he arrived, he was told by Chief | 
Lion that he wanted Hare to teach all the tricks (to) known to him. 
Hare agreed to become the teacher of the children of the | chief. 
The chief said to Hare, "You and my three children | shall stay in a 
house which is fenced in, and no person is allowed ] to go into the 
house. Even I and my wife are not allowed | in the house. We 
shall send meat and food needed by you and the children." 

(15) Hare and the three children of the chief lived in the house 
mentioned by | the chief. Hare taught them the first day to play 

' Sm Leo Frobenliu. VolkimOrchen der Kabylen, 3 : 7; L«onhard SchulEW. Au» 
NamalaDd gad Kalahari (Holtrntot). p. 4M; E. Jacottet. The Trcaiury ol Ba-Suto 
LoK. 1 ; 40, iKbun Mh«r comparative notei orr liven. 

* Sic Leoahard Schultle. Au» Namaland und Kalahari, p. i&(.; E. JacottPt. I. (.. I : 44: 
a. JAFL 30 : 137; Porlo Rico UAFL 34 : 1S4. No. 47; IS ■- 43. No. 47). 


176 Journal of American Folk-lAtre. 

tricks I and games; such as playing kata, to touch one another, and 
jumping I poles. When the sun set, Chief Lion and his wife came | 
to the house to ask about the well-being of their children; and Hare 
said (20) to Lion, "The children played well to-day the games | which 
I taught them," 

Hare and the children were eating food. He gave the children the 
bones. When the children | asked Hare for meat, Hare said to them, 
"I give you | the bones because I want your teeth to be strong; if 
you should eat (25) soft meat, your teeth would not be strong." 
The next morning | Hare taught his pupils to play games and to do 
tricks. [ When the sun set, Lion and his wife came to ask about the 
well-being [ of their children. Hare showed the children one by one. | 
He lifted the childred on a platform, saying, " See! (30) this one is very 
fat." The chief and his wife were well pleased | because Hare treated 
their children nicely. Every day | Hare played with the children, 
and they came to know many games. | Their parents came every 
day to see them and to hear that they were learning | nicely. 

(35) Hare knew that, if he taught the children of Lion all his tricks, ] 
all the animals would not find happiness and comfort, because the 
Lions I would trouble them. Hare and his relatives would be in 
danger. | Therefore he thought out a plan (oQ how he could kill the 
children of Lion | before they were grown up. 

(40) One game they played was jumping over the 6re. Hare | 
tripped one of the children with a stick while he was jumping, and 
the child fell | into the fire and burned and died. When the sun set. 
Lion came to see | his children; and Hare lifted the children on the 
platform, saying, "Look! this one | is fat." He lifted one child twice. 
On the following day (45) Hare tripped another child, who also fell 
into the fire | and died. When the sun set and Lion arrived, Hare 
lifted I the one remaining child three times. Then Hare tripped the 
third child, and | he died. 

Hare thought of a plan to get out of (50) the danger in which he 
was. He broke the gate of the enclosure and untied | the enclosure. 
He scratched himself and ruffled his hair. He did these things | in 
order to tell Lion that baboons had killed his children. | When the 
sun set, Chief Lion arrived to see his children; but | he saw Hare 
outside of the fence with folded arms, crying. (55) Lion thought 
and said that perhaps his children had scratched | Hare because they 
were growing; but when Lion asked Hare why I he was crying. Hare 
told his story of the death of the children, and that | baboons had 
come and killed the children. They wanted to kill him because | he 
was protecting the children. Lion saw the broken gate and (60) that 
his children were killed; therefore he was made very angry; he did 
not ask | many questions. He and his friends went to follow the 


TaUs and Proverbs of tite Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 77 

baboooa. | Uon and his friends found the baboons sleeping. | They 
killed many baboons, and s few escaped. In the morning | these 
baboons who had escaped arrived to ask Lion why (65) he had killed 
their friends the night before. Lion did not want to listen to | what 
the baboons said; but when they had talked over the affair, Lion 
and the baboons | agreed to go to the house where Lion's children 
had been, who. Lion | said, had been killed by the baboons. When 
they arrived at the house, he was shown | that no baboon had come 
into the house in which had been killed (70) the children. Lion 
thought and saw that the baboons had not killed | his children. How- 
ever, Hare was he who had killed them, | and shifted the responsibility 
to the baboons. He told the baboons | that he was very sony because 
be had killed their friends without their { having done anything to him. 

{75) Lion followed Hare to his house; and when he found him, 
he ) threatened him, and said, "You killed my children, and you said 
to me that | they had been killed by the baboons." He ran after 
him. When Hare was tired | running, he saw a leaning rock, and he 
went under it. He held it up; and | when Lion arrived. Hare said to 
him there, "Sir, hold the rock, (80) it will fall on us!" Lion foi^t 
that he wanted to kill Hare, | and held the rock, because he knew 
that, if the nxk fell, it would fall on him and | Hare. Perhaps Hare 
might have escaped because he was smalt. Lion | held the rock. 
Hare let it go, and came out from under it, and said to | Lion, "Hold 
on to that rock! If you let go, it will fall on you." (85) Lion re- 
mained under the rock many days without | food and sleep. 
When he was tired, and dying of hunger and sleep, | he let go of the 
rock. He was afraid the rock would fall on him, | but the rock did 
not fall. Lion dragged himself from under the rock, and went ) to 
his home. 

(90) When Lion had strength (again), he went to the house of Hare | 
to kill him. He thought Hare did not know when he had come away 
from the stone, therefore | he thought he would find Hare unawares. 
He went to the house of Hare | in the morning, because he thought 
Hare was asleep; but 1 Hare knew the day when Lion had come from 
under the stone, (95) because, from the day on which he left Lion 
under the stone. Hare had gone to watch every day to know that 
Lion I was still under it. When Lion arrived at the house of Hare. 
he stole up to it | and went to the door. He knocked at the door 
with force, but Hare 1 was not in the house; he was outside sitting 
basking on an ant-hill, (100) and saw Lion coming. When Lion saw 
Hare on the ant-hill, | he began to run after him ; and Hare ran away, 
and followed a path | which had not much grass. Lion was about to 
reach him | when Hare arrived at a place which had many holes. 
He entered | one. When Lion arrived at the place, he passed (105) by 


178 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

the hole, because he was running fast. He returned to look at the 
mouths (of the holes) ; but all of these had | footprints of Hare, which 
showed that Hare had entered into all of them running. | Lion was 
puzzled because Hare was not far. He could not | see how Hare had 
entered all the mouths during that time | when he saw him entering 
the hole; because he did not know which hole was entered (no) by 
Hare, Lion began to cover all the holes with sand. | When he arrived 
at a large hole, he saw that it had a lai^ opening | a distance away 
in the grass. He went to look at the mouth, | and saw in it the tracks 
of Hare, and he knew that Hare had come out from it. | Lion did 
not waste time; he followed the tracks of Hare, (115) running fast, 
because he knew that Hare was far away. | The tracks of Hare 
went to a hummock of grass. When Lion arrived at | the hummock, 
he carefully went around it to see that Hare did not go to another 
place. I When he failed to see the tracks of Hare coming from the 
hummock, he began [ to beat down the grass and to cover the holes 
which he saw; but he did not find (120) Hare. Hare had entered a 
hole with another opening | in the grass on the way from which he 
had come. Hare came out | by a side^hole, and went to his house. 
When he was on a long ant-hill, | he saw Lion following his tracks, 
brushing down the grass [ of the hummock and covering the holes. 
He laughed at him. 

(125) When the sun set, when Lion was tired and dead of hunger, 
when he failed | to find Hare, he went to his home. As he was going 
home, he thought | perhaps Hare had not gone to the hummock. 

Many days [>assed before Lion and Hare | met each other. One 
day Hare was almost caught by Lion, (130) because he saw Hare 
basking in the sunshine. When Hare saw Lion, | he sat on a log, so 
that he seemed to be large. The log was in the grass. He was 
groaning much. He pretended | to be sick. Lion asked him who | he 
was. Hare said he was Hare Mavuvu, the grandson of Hare, (135) 
that he was very sick, and that this sickness had come to him j the 
past month. Lion asked him whether he had seen | Hare, his grand* 
father. Hare Mavuvu said yes, he had seen him | the day before, 
going that way. Lion followed the Hare in the direction Hare | 
Mavuvu had pointed out. When Lion had gone. Hare laughed 
because he had (140) fooled him. 

One day Lion and Hare met while Hare was going to the house | of 
Hare; Lion ran after him, and Hare ran away towards a lake. When 
he arrived | at the lake, Hare began to go across where there was no 
water, but where it was | muddy. When he was in the middle, he 
staid there. Lion saw Hare (145) standing there, and thought that 
he was caught by a vine; therefore Lion [ jumped at him, but did not 
reach Hare because, | when Lion jumped, Hare began to walk away. 


Teles and Pnmerbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 79 

Lkm I fell into the mud and sank deep into it. Hare went out of | 
the mud and sat on dry land. He watched Lion struggling in the 
mud; (150) he laughed at him much, saying, "If you persist running 
after me, | you will be in trouble, because I shall serve you right." | 
He left Lion sunk in the mud. In the morning | Lion was seen by his 
friends sunk (in the mud). They [ helped to pull him out of the mud. 
{155) Lion was made really angry at Hare. He | threatened him 
much, and Hare also was tired of being troubled by Lion ; | therefore 
he took a log which was hollow, and laid it down carefully. | The log 
had a large opening at one end, and the other mouth was small. | 
When Lion saw Hare, he ran after him with great power. Hare 
(160) knew that if he did not run fast, Lion would catch him ; therefore j 
he entered the first hole, and Lion also entered. | Hare entered the 
second hole, and Lion followed him. | Lion was running fast, and 
Hare was almost about to be caught. He entered 1 the small hole, 
and Lion also entered it with great force, but (165) he could not come 
out. He wedged himself in. Hare came to see Lion, | and said, 
"You will not come out of the hole." That is the end of the story. 

nge limfe zuva shulo wakaenda kanyi kwa djongwe. na-guma 
wakabfunsha mukadji wa djot^we kuti, "djongwe waendapi." ena 
wakati, "djongwe uli mubelele kani mflsolo ne gumbo limge lake 
zaenda kom^ dolo." mukutanga shulo azivi kutenda sakalevga ngo 
mukadji wa djongwe. na-vona djongwe nali mubelele nakaima nge 
gumbo limge achina mQEolo, wakashamJswa sikulu. shulo wakaenda 
kanyi kwake achilangalila zakaitwa ndi djongwe. naguma kanyi 
wakasumulila mukadji wake cakaita djongwe. mumangwana /umi 
shulo wakazwa djongwe achilila. wakaenda kanyi kwake. djongwe 
wakatanga kusumulila shulo sakaita no vanthu vakam^a nave dolo. 
shulo namubvunsha kuti, "wakatumisa kudini milsolo ne gumbo, 
kuti zende Icomga dolo?" djongwe wakati, "Jnini ndakacheka mOsolo 
ne gumbo langu. iwewe unolangaHla kuti wakandivona ne ndakaima 
nge gumbo limge ndichina milsolo. ndakacheka gumbo no mOsolo 
wangu zikaenda komgadolo. nezapedja zakaviya kwendili." shulo 
f^okuti achaidepi kupindwa ndi djongwe navtya kanyi, wakubvunsha 
mukadji wake kuti, "mangwana ndinoda iwewe utole chipanga ucheke 
milsolo ne gumbo limje langu, ngokuti ndinoda kuti zende komga 
dolo, kudati nge zakaita djongwe." mukadji wake wati, "unozofa," 
kani wakavangilila kuti aiite * zalevalo. ndizo kunsha nokwaedja 
mukadji wake wakacheka mflsolo ne gumbo lake, kani azizivi kwenda 
komga dolo. shulo natama kumuka mukadji wake wakaenda 
kobnunsha djongwe kuti mulume wake azivi kumuka. djongwe 
lakati, "ndaiti shulo mungwali, kani mupiele." 
> Or ■■lie. 


l8o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


One day Hare was walking to the house of Rooster. When be 
arrived, | he asked the wife of Rooster, "Where is Rooster?" She \ 
said, " Rooster is in the house, but his head and one 1^ | went to drink 
beer." At first Hare did not believe what was said by (s) the wife of 
Rooster. When he saw Rooster in the house standing on | one leg 
without head, he was very much astonished. Hare went | to his 
home thinking about what was done by the Rooster. When he arrived 
at home, | he told his wife what the Rooster was doing. The following 
day I the Hare heard Rooster crowing. He went to Rooster's house, 
and Rooster (lo) began to tell Hare what he had done and how the 
people had been drinking beer. | When Hare asked him, "How do 
you send your head and your leg | to go and drink beer?" Rooster 
said, "I cut off my head | and my leg. You remember that you saw 
me standing | on one leg, and I was without head. I had cut off my 
leg and my head, (15) and they had gone to drink beer." The Hare, | 
because he was unwilling to be surpassed by Rooster, when he came 
home, said [ to his wife, "To-morrow I want you to take a knife and 
cut off I my head and one leg, because I want them to go and drink | 
beer, the same as Rooster did." His wife said, "You will die," (20) 
but he insisted that she should do what he had told her. Therefore, 
when day broke, | his wife cut off his head and his teg, but they did 
not go I and drink. When the Hare failed to rise, his wife went | and 
told the Rooster that her husband did not arise. Rooster | said, 
" I thought Hare was wise, but he was a fool." 


ngo imge nshiku nshou yakasonga na ne hamba. hamba yakati 
kuna nshou, "mgakavanga chekulu, muchaitawani?" nshou yaka- 
davila kuti yonayaitamba. hamba wakalbvunsha kuti yaiendepi. 
nshou yakati yai/amba/amba hayo kuti ivone nyika. nshou yakati 
kuna hamba noyapedja kuilingila, "iwewe muzukulu ulJmu/upi 
zikulu." hamba ikati, "ndiyani ulimu/upi? amuzivi kuti inini 
ndingamudalika?" nshou ikati, "kudalika iyani?" — "kudalika 
imgimgi," hamba yakaipingula ikatise, "viyanyi mangwana ndinozo- 
muvonesa kuti ndingamudalika." nshou noyapinda hamba yakadana 
hamba im^e. ikati koili, "ngatiche malindi mavili, kozoti nshou 
noyaza mangwana inini ndtnozongwina mulindi Hmge. iwewe uzo- 
Bgwine mgolimge lindi. kunozoti nshou noyaima pakati po malindi 
inini ndinozoti, 'koili chekulu, vanshou, ndomudalika,' iwewe wochizo- 

> Sm Otto Dcmpwolff, Die Sandawe (Abhandlungen des Hambiirgwche KoloaUlnnl- 
tuts. 34 : 163). Hamburg, 1916; M, Heepe. Jaunde-TcKte (Hamburg, 1919), pp. 119. 333; 
Natalie Curtis. Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York, 1910), p. 48 
(Vandau); American Negroes (JAFL 30 : igo. 136, 337; 33 : 401; 34 : ?). 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. i8i 

buda mulindo, uzoti, 'ndadalika,' inini ndizongwina mulindo langu. 
iwewe wochizotivo, 'ndodalika.' inini ndizoita zowaitalo." nshou 
yakaguma Icudali ngo Initendelana kwayo ne hamba. noyaguma 
hamba yakati, "tetegulu, imgimgi mgakandipikidja zulo kuti andi- 
ngaiDudaliki. ndinoda kumuvonesa kuti inini ndingamudalika ; 
imanyi apa." nshou yakasekiswa nge zakaleva hamba. hamba 
yakati, "inini ndadalika." noyapedja kuleva kudalo imge hamba 
yakati, "ndadalika." yona ikatise, "ndodalika." imge yakabuda 
mulindo ikati "ndadalika." hamba yakati kuna nshou, "chekulu, 
ndamunyisa ini ngokuti ndamudalika kaviti." nshou yakashama 
aikulu ngokuti azivi kuvona kuti hamba yakaidalikisa wani. 

One day Elephant met Turtle. Turtle said | to Elephant, "Are 
you well, grandfather? How do you do?" Elephant | replied that 
he was well. Turtle asked him where he was going. | Elephant said 
he was just walking about to see the country. Elephant said (5) to 
Turtle, when he finished looking about, "Grandson, you are very 
short." I Turtle said, "Who is short? Don't you know that I can 
jump over | you?" Elephant said, "Jump over whom?" — "Jump 
over I you," replied Turtle; and he added, "Come to-morrow, and 
I'll ] show you that I can jump." When Elephant was gone. Turtle 
called (10) another turtle. He said to him, "Let us dig two holes. 
In this way, when Elephant | arrives to-morrow, I go into one hole, 
you go into | the other hole. When Elephant stands between the 
two holes, I I shall say, 'Grandfather, Sir Elephant, I jump over you,' 
Then you ] will come out of the hole. You will say, ' I have jumped.' 
I shall go into my hole. (15) You will also say, ' I am going to jump,' 
and I shall do what you have done," Elephant [ arrived, as it was 
agreed between him and Turtle, | When he arrived. Turtle said, 
"Grandfather, you made a bet yesterday that I | could not jump 
over you. I want to show you that I can jump over you. | You 
stand here." Elephant was made to laugh at what Turtle said. 
Turtle (20) said, " I am going to jump," When he had finished saying 
that, the other turtle | said, "I have jumped." He also said, "I am 
going to jump," and the other one came out | of the hole, and said, 
"I have jumped," Turtle said to Elephant, "Sir, | I have won over 
you, because I have jumped over you twice," Elephant wondered I 
very much, because he did not see how Turtle jumped over him. 

■ See Carl Meinhof, Afrilmnlsche Marchen. p. 93 (Konde, near Lake Nyassa); abo 
referencea in note (/6t^.. p. 335). See also comparative notes in Chkar Dilbnhaidt. 
Natunagen, 4 : 46-96; American NeKroe* (JAFL 30 : 174, }14, 315; 33 ; 394: MAFLS 


1 82 Journal of American Fotk-Lore. 


mambo we nyama nada kupa mphuka djeae mgishe, wakatuma 
mutume kodjikoka kuti djize kwali djipuwe mgishe. mphuka djese 
djakaenda kwa mambo koashila mgishe, kani nshou aizivi kuenda. 
yakatuma muvge kuti uviye ne mgishe wayo. muv^e nowaguma kwa 
mambo wakasana mgishe mukulu wawo. nowopinda wakalafigalila 
kuti nshou waubminsha kuti nga'utolele mj^she. wakatola mgishe 
mQdoko akaviya nawo akaupa nshou. ngokuti nshou aizivi kuenda 
kozitolela mgishe yoga, mutume wayo wakaviya ne mgishe mttdoko 
uchi ngazivi kutodjana ne chimo chayo. 

Hence the proverb, nshou yakatama mgishe ngo kutumita. 


The chief of the animals wanted to give tails to all the beasts. 
He sent | a messenger to tell them that they wouM all be given tails. 
All the animals | went to the chief to receive tails; but the elephant 
did not go, ] he sent the jackal to bring his tail. When the jackal 
arrived at (5) the chief's place, he selected a lai^e tail for himself. 
When he had what he desired, he remembered | that the elephant had 
asked him to bring him a tail. He took a [ little tail, and took it back 
home and gave it to the elephant. Because the elephant did not go | 
to get his tail, and his messenger only brought back his little tail, [ it is 
now of this size. 

(10) Hence the proverb, the elephant lacks a tail because he sent 
for it. 


ngo vumfe vusiku bongo lakaguma pagandwa likavona chilo 
chaimunikila mukumga, lakapinimidja kuti chilo icho chaimunikilalo 
mugandwa iphondo le nyama. lakanasa kulingilisa kuti livone polili 
phondo. laka/unduluka kuti linase kumphukila mukumga lonyula 
phondo. lakamphukila mukumga kani, alizivi kunyula phondo. 
iakaambuka, likaima pamphilipili pe gandwa, likalingila mukumga 
tikavonase mgedji uchimunikila mugandwa, likamphuklla^e muga- 
ndwa, kani alizivi kunyula phondo. bongo lakamphukila mugandwa 
likamphela lavundula kumga, kumga neyadola, lakavonaxe mgedji 
mukumga. lakaedjerhwa pagandwa lichiedja kunyula mgedji wo 
lakavona mugandwa, lichiti iphondo. ngo uvgo vusiku bongo alizivi 
kuwana chilo chokurga ngokuti lakatambisa nguva yalo ngo kuda 
kunyula mgedji wo laiti iphondo gulu le nyama. 

One night Hyena arrived at a lake and saw a thing | which was 
shining in the water; he thought that the thing which was shining | 
' See JAFL 3a : 394. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 83 

in the pond was a bone of game. He looked carefully, so that he 
saw where | the bone was. He went back in order to jump well 
into the water to take out (5) the bone. He jumped into the water, 
but did not take out the bone. | He came out of the water, and 
stood at the edge of the lake and looked into the water; ] again he 
saw the moon shining in the lake; he jumped again into the lake, | 
but he could not take out the bone. Hyena jumped into the lake [ 
until the water was muddy. When the water was clear again, he 
saw again the moon (id) in the water. Day broke upon him at the 
lake while he was trying to take out the moon which | be saw in the 
lake, and which he thought was a bone. That night Hyena could 
not I find anything to eat, because he wasted his time in the effort | to 
take out the moon, which he thought was a big bone of game. 

kwakad malule na-pedja kuita nyika ne vanthu wakatuma rhwaim 
kuti r^rondzele vanthu kuti munthu wa/a ngamuke. rhwairi 
rhwakaenda ne masoko ku vanthu. malule wakatuma sosomodji 
miunasule mga rhwaiei akati, " sosomodji, enda worondzera vanthu 
kuti, vafa figalove." sosomodji lakaenda lichigogoma, likaguma kune 
vanthu rhwaiei r^chito rhwaguma. sosomodji lakati ku vanthu, 
"malule wati, 'munthu wa/a «gaalove."' vanthu vakati, "eya." 
rbwatvi norhwaguma ku vanthu rhwakavarondzera masoko akabva 
kwa malule aiti, "wa/a ngamuke." makani vanthu vakati, " malule 
watuma sosomodji kutirondzera kuti wa/a ngalove. tinotenda masoko 
aza ne sosomodji." ndiso vanthu kuti vi^a vanolova ngokuti vena 
vakatenda masoko akaza ne sosomodji. 


It happened, when the Creator had finished making the world ahd 
the people, he sent Chameleon | to tell the people that when a person 
dies he will come to life. Chameleon | went with the message to the 
people. The Creator sent the Lizard [ after Chameleon, saying, 
"Lizard, go and tell the people (5) that when one dies, he will stay 
away." Lizard went running; he arrived among | the people before 
Chameleon arrived. Lizard said to the people, | "The Creator said, 
'When man dies, he will stay away,'" The people said, "Yes." ] 
When Chameleon arrived among the people, he told them his message 
which came | from the Creator, and which said, "Whoever dies shall 
wake up." However, the people said, "The Creator (10) has sent 

■ Sn Cari tMahal. Arrikanbchc MOrcbcn. p. Oj (Kainba. Brltiah Eut Africa); bImi 
■otca. p. 314; E. JacMtet, The Tmiury of Ba-Suto Lore, i : 46; Nitalie Curtli, Songi 
and Tkka from tbe Dark ContlDcnt, p. 76 (Zulu). 


184 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Lizard to say that people who die stay away. We have accepted the 
message | which came with Lizard." Therefore people who die stay 
away, because they | accepted the message which was brought by 

nshunshu ishili ina chimo cho munthu. inogala mum/ula. yona 
ina simba lo kupa munthu bsoka no vubeze. kuti noyada kupa 
munthu vubeze, inomutola yoenda naye kanyi kwayo mukumga. 
munthu naguma kanyi kwayo unopawa matope ne hove mbishi kuti 
5 ar^e. inomupa izi kuti imutike. kudali munthu una chichunge 
unotenda kurga zaanopuwa ndiyo. napedjwa kutikwa unopuwa 
bzoka no vubeze, unopalurhwa ndiyo. inomupa mutundu ne zembe 
no mi torn bo naze zese zaanonyinda nyamsolo. 
vanthu vanogata ne nshunshu vakaita inga isisu. avana mapapilo, 
ID vanoveleketa lulimi rgotinozwa. vanolidja no kutamba ngoma djo 
manthiki kudali ngeso tinoita isisu. vanthu vakatorhwa ndiyo 
nshunshu kutinovaviya vanoti nshunshu ima mua ne nyumba inga 

vazinshi vanthu vanoti vakavona ngome dje nahunshu ne dja- 
15 kanikwa pachitulu no pamagomokomo. vamge vano6 vakazwa ngoma 
djichilidjwa vachizwaze no mazwi o vanthu achiimba manthiki. 

kuti nshunshu noyada kutola munthu inomusa bepo gulu. ili bepo 
Itnomuthwala lomuendesa kuna nshunshu. no kudali nshunshu 
inogala mum/ula, munthu wo inotola abilipi noyamOtola. 
30 neyapedja kumupa munthu vunanga, inomuendesa kanyi kwake 
kuti aende ku vanthu vake kotata. 

mubvumo nowawa mgoyo wawo auvoneki ngokuti unotorhwa nge 
nshunshu. inoutola kuti iuite mutumbo. 

nshunshu ina simba lokundondomedja ngatava no vanthu vayo. 
25 pamge inotola ngalava ka kusiya vanthu mum/ula. 

mphazinshi vanthu vanoti vakavona ngalava zinshi dje nshunshu 
dji chi/amela mukumga. vanthu novaphedo padjo djinoflgalangala. 

Nshunshu is a bird which has the form of a human being. He lives 
in the water. He [ has the power to give man a supernatural helper 
and the power of healing. When he wishes to give | to a man the 
power of heating, he takes him and goes with him to his house in the 
water. | When the man arrives in his house, he is given mud and 
raw fish to (5) eat. He gives these to him in order to try him. If 
the man has courage, | he is ready to eat what is given by him. When 
the trial is complete, he is given | a supernatural helper and the power 
of healing; he is initiated (literally, "torn to pieces") by him. He 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 185 

givfs him the medidne'receptade, the divinatory bones [ and medt- 
dnes, and everything that the medidne-man needs. 

The people who live with the nshunshu act as we do. They have 
no wingB. (10) They speak a language which we understand. They 
play instruments, and dance with songs of the | manthiki, just as we 
do. The people who have been taken by the | nshunshu say, when 
they come back, that the nshunshu has a village and houses, just as | 
■we have. 

Many people say they have seen the drums of the nshunshu where 
(15) the water is dose to the sun, on an island or on the bank of a 
river. Others say they have heard the drums | when they were 
played, and they also have heard voices of people singing the manthiki. 

When the nshunshu wants to take a human bdng, he causes a 
heavy gale to arise. This gale | makes them go towards the nshunshu. 
Although the nshunshu | lives in the water, the person whom he takes 
does not get wet when he is taken to him. 

(20) After he finishes giving the power of healing to a man, he lets 
him go to his home, | that he go to his people to practise. 

When a palm falls, the heart (centre bud) is invisible, because it is 
taken by the | nshunshu. He takes it in order to make medidne out 
of it. 

The nshunshu has power to sink canoes and thdr people. (25) 
Sometimes he takes the canoes, and leaves the people in the water. 

There are many people who say that they saw many boats of the 
nshunshu ] floating on the water. When people come near them, 
they (the boats) disappear. 


vanalume vavili vaka/uma munyumba imge. mganalume waka- 
/uma thethadji mfldoko wainga wakanaka rikulu. vese vo kuvambiya 
vake vaimuda ngokut! wainga wakap/ava. vadjim^Iamu vake 
vaivungana kwali kuti vazwe ngano djaiita. mganalume waka/uma 
thethadji mukulu wakava ne thima, ngokuti achaidikepi ngo vo 
kuvambiya, kudali ngo mulovozi wake. 

kwakati mabonole naibva, ava vadjimulovoz! vailJnda munda wo 
mabonole, ngokuti nguluve djalrga mabonole no vusiku. 

mulovozi wainga ne thima wainga ne vuta ne mipasha. ngo vusiku 
vgailinda mulovozi wake, wakamushonga vuta ne mipasha kuti alinde 
Mguluve. pakati povusiku nguluve djakaza korga mabonole. (mu- 
lume we thethadji mQdoko) waka/ula nguluve ngo mupasha, waka- 
■hoMgwa ndi nyevansht wake, nguluve yakatiza no mdpasha. mu- 
mai^wana /uml, wakaenda kolingila paka/ulila nguluve, kani azJvi 
kuwana mupasha. wakatevela mukhondo we nguluve mugwasha 
mphda na-guma mukati rage gwasha mga. kachinda. wakavgivilila 


t;M Xommai of American Folk-Lere. 

;iJcibBuiisfaiL mulovaa wake, katt mupasha waka/tila odi wna agnlnTe 
wokapiinhi. ck- tgaluve. mutovozi wake wakati, vnta ne ■mpad^^ 
y3i\'a yu vuoki. adis>. waida mupasha wake, wakapowa '"pa'^a 
fwiTJTrahi Ieuq. ilip«; mupasfaa wake wakalashwa i^o mokTvos wake, 
lani xsivt kucemiu. wakavaf^ilila kuti unoda mupasha wake wo 

muluv^ w^tkuiasha mupasha wakaecda mugwasha kxNitewla. 
vsdjisde VTivu v^ikitci. it)facaide mipasha ya-da kulipa □di^'o mro 
mupuaha ■ ni^i-thiltri , makaui mune wo mupasha azivi kutenda kmda 
mipttijha vT? mili^> dzivi kupulutana vatezala no vambiya vakc 

muIu^-^Mi T||t;:,|l!|f<h:i mupMshs. wakolouda mukhondo we ^olmt 
>~aka.nii^ mpheiit lut $uim pamuzt w« chikalavga, akachibninsha, kud 
waiK%-eLi tgulu\-v >-a k^'ulti ou vusiku, yakatiza no mupasha. waka- 
.-hitaimiiii^ kuti muiw wu milpoiiha, ozivi katenda kuUpirhwa mupasha 
wake cfaikolavsu chokulumila nyoka. chona chainga mune we 
ii^u\'e va ka.'iila. otiw chokamuvouesa mudala tainga ne mipasha 
mianghi. yukavt\'u tw ••tfutuvv dja^/Virfawa nge vanthu. wakasana 
mupasha wake, wakawndtt chikalavga akulu iigo vunyasha v^cbo. 

no puida. chikuUv^ duikiunuptt mupUa no mdtombo. chakamfl- 
djid^isa kutambgu ki>mupila oo kurjtwa komiltombo, kuti azodjidjise 
V3aigc kutanib«i mupiU. uwu mupila waichakwa ftgo mulomo, au- 
chaimidjwepi. kudali mimchu wuuAmidja, napuwa mutombo wai- 
2ouIucha. munthu achikanvi kur$a mutombo aiigauluchipi. 

oa viva no mupu:^^. wukamupa mukivozi (wake) mupasha wake, 
mumadeko wakadjidji^si x'-jtiljimc^Uamu vake kuchaka mupila, kudali 
Kgesa kadjidjiswu tge chikaUvja. vanthu vazinshi vakaza kovona 
kuiamba kup^a komupiU. mutowzi we thima, navona kuti vese 
vanrhu vaishamiswu i«so kdchakwa ko mupila, wakati kuna mukadji 
wake no vadjimgaiamu. kuti vanthu vese ve kanyi kwake no vana 
vadoko, vanozi\-a kuchalci mupUa kudak>. kuti avonese kuti uniza 
kuchaka mupila. waku«nda kochaka mupila. mupila nowakhandir- 
hwa kwali wakaumidja. kani aii^i kuulucha. ndijo mune. mulovozi, 
muTie wo mupila wakada mupila wake, wakada kulipa rige ivage 
mipila. kani mune wawv «-akaIambii. at^ti waida mupila wake. 
ndava yakashamisa \'anthu. Rj^^kuti kudati mupila upuwe mune wawo 
unowanika ngo kumucumbuU munthu wakaumidja. 

%'anthu novrachaiziMi kuti wunoiiawani. wakafammsha muk}vozi 
wake kuti. "ajizi\Skunakakuvaneihima; ngokuti kudali adavafigilila 
kuda mupila wangu iwewe unotumburhwa. unoai^ t^;o kuchunga 


Two men married into one family. The man who | married the 
younger sister was \'er>- meek. All his mother-in-law's peo{de [ loved 
him because he was good. All his brothers-in-law and sisters-in-4aw | 


Tales and Prooerbs ef the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 1 87 

assembled around htm to listen to the stories he told. The man 
who married (5) the elder sister was envious because he was not loved 
by I his mother-in-law's people as was the man who had married his 
wife's mster. 

When the com was ripe, these men who had married sisters watched 
the oorn^arden, | because the wild pigs were eating the corn at night. 

The one man of the two who had married sisters, and who was 
jealous, had a bow and arrows. On the night (10) when the other 
man who had married the younger sister was watching, he loaned 
him his bow and arrows to watch | against the wild pigs. At midnight 
the wild fMga came to eat the com. | (The husband of the younger 
sister) shot a wild pig with the bow | which his elder brother (that is, 
the man who had married the elder sister) had loaned him. The 
wild pig ran away with the arrow. | The next morning he went to 
look where he had shot the wild pig, but he did not (15) find the arrow. 
He followed the tracks of the wild pig into the woods | until he reached 
the middle of the woods, where there was a thicket. Then he returned, | 
and told the man who had married the elder sister that the arrow 
with which he shot the wild pig j went away with the wild pig. The 
man who had married the elder sister said that the bow and arrows | 
were his heritage, and therefore he wanted his arrow. He was given 
many arrows (20) to pay for the arrow which was lost by the man who 
had married the younger sister, | but he did not accept them. He 
insisted that he wanted his arrow | which he had inherited. 

The man who had married the younger sister, and who had lost the 
arrow, went into the woods to look for it. | Their wives' brothers 
said he should accept the arrows with which he wanted to pay for 
(25) the arrow which was lost, but the owner of the arrow did not 
agree to take | the arrows in payment. He did not listen to his 
father-in-law and his mother-in-law. 

The man who had married the younger sister, and who had lost 
the arrow, followed the tracks of the wild pig | which he had shot, and 
arrived at the kraal of an old woman, whom he told that | he was 
following a wild pig which he had shot during the night, and which 
had run away with the arrow. (30) He told that the owner of the 
arrow did not agree to be paid for his arrow. | The old woman took 
pity on him. She was the owner of | the pig he had shot: therefore 
she showed him the inside of the bam, in which were many arrows | 
which had come back with the pigs which were shot by people. He 
■elected | bis arrow. He thanked the old woman very much for 
her kindness. 

(35) As he was leaving, the old woman gave him a rubber ball and 
medicine. She taught j him how the ball-game was played and the 
way the medicine was eaten, that he might teach [ the others to play 


i88 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

ball. This ball was played with the mouth; | it was not swallowed. 
When a person swallowed it and he took medicine, | he spit it out. 
If the person did not eat the medicine, he could not spit it out. 

(40) When he came back with the arrow, he gave it to the man 
who had married his wife's elder sister. | In the afternoon he taught 
his brothers-in-law to play ball in the way | he was taught by the old 
woman. Many people came to watch ] the new way to play ball. 
The jealous husband of the elder sister, when he saw that | the people 
were surprised on account of the way of playing ball, said to his wife 
(45) and his brothers-in-law that all the people of his home, even 
small children, j knew how to play ball in that way; and to show 
them, I he went to play ball. So he went to play ball. When the 
ball was thrown at him, | he swallowed it, but he could not spit it out: 
therefore the owner, his wife's sister's husband, the owner | of the 
ball, wanted his ball. He wanted to pay with other balls; (50) but 
its owner refused, saying he wanted his own ball. The case | puzzled 
the people, because, if his ball were given to the owner, it would 
have to be I by cutting open the man who had swallowed it. 

The people were puzzled what to do. He told the one who had 
married the elder sister, [ "It is not good to be jealous, because, if I 
should insist (55) on wanting my ball, you would have to be cut 
open. You will die if you continue to be | cruel." 


vanalume vavili valnga cakavakilana pedo. mumge wakap/uya 
mbudji. mganalume achaiva ne mbudji wainga ne thima. nge 
nshuku imge mbudji yo muvakirhwana wake yakaenda mumunda 
m^ake mgo mabonole, yikarga mikutu mitatu. mune we munda 
naivona mbudji, wakaitola akaenda nayo kumunowayo achiti, " mbudji 
yako yar^a mikutu mitatu yo mabonele angu, ndiso ndinoda kutota 
mabonele angu ali mundani mgayo." iyi mbudji yainga yo mabioka, 
yaiva no mavala akachena akaiita mbudji yakanaka. mune we 
mbudji wakati, " ndinokulipila mabonole arfiwa v^e mbudji yangu. 
enda, wo tiuna mikutu mitanthatu mumunda mgangu." mune we 
mabonole wakati, "andidi mabonole ako, ndinoda angu ali mundani 
mge mbudji yako." mune we mbudji wakatetezela muvakirhwana 
wake kuti aende konuna mabonole mumunda m^ake alipe ndiwo, kani 
muvakirhwana wake azivi kutenda. mganalume, waiva ne thima 
ngokuti achaivepi ne mbudji, waiti wawana chivambo chokuti muva- 
kirhwana wake avulaye mbudji yake ndicho. mune we mbudji 
wakati, "eya, ndinovulaya mbudji yangu, utole mabonole ako ali 
mundani xagayo." mbudji yakavalawa wakatola mabonole ake. 

kwati nge imge nshiku mjfanalume waiva ne mbudji wakanika 
vulungu vfake. m^ana wo munthu wo mabonole wakaenda painga 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 189 

no vulut^^, akatola mphumba yo vulung:u akaimidja. mune wo 
vulungu walcati, "mgana wako wamidja vulungu vgangu, ndinoda 
vulungu Vfangu vuli mundani mgo mgana wako," baba wo tngana 
wakati, "ndinokulipila." mune wo vuluwgu wakalamba. wakaenda 
kwamambo. mambo wakati, "cya, iwewe, waiva ne thima nge 
mbudji yake yakarga mabonole ako. auzivi kupulutana zakalevga 
Ago muvakirhwana wako. mupe vulungu V£ake vuli mundani mgo 
mgana wako." mune wo vulungu navona mai wo mgana, achiputa- 
ptita achilila, wakamulumila nyoka, akati, kuna muvakirhwana wake, 
"ndinokul^eta, kani, iwewe, uchavaee ne ttiima, ngokuti lona alizivi 
kunaka. thima linozokutamisa hama. 


Two men had built (houses) as neighbors near together. One of 
them owned | a goat. The man who had no goat was jealous. | One 
day the goat of his neighbor went into his garden | of com. He ate 
three oomcobs. When the owner of the garden (5) saw the goat, he 
took it and went with it to its owner, and said, "Your goat | has 
eaten three of my corncobs: therefore I want to take | my com which 
is in the stomach of the goat." This goat was bzoka, [ and had 
white spots, which makes a goat nice-looking. The owner of | the 
goat said, " I will pay you for the com eaten by my goat. (10) Go 
and cut six corncobs in my garden." The owner of | the corn said, 
" I do not want your com. I want my com which is in the stomach | 
of your goat." The owner of the goat pleaded with his neighbor, | 
asking him to go and cut com in his garden and to pay himself with 
it, but I his neighbor did not agree. This man, who was jealous (15) 
because he did not own a goat, found a reason why his neighbor | 
should kill his goat. The owner of the goat | said, "Yes, I | will kill 
my goat, so that you may take your com which is | in its stomach." 
The goat was killed, and he took his com. 

So one day the man who had the goat dried (20) his beads in the 
sun. The child of the man who had the com went near [ the beads, 
and he took one ^rain) of the beads and swallowed it. The owner 
of I the beads said, "Your child swallowed my bead; I want [ my 
bead that is in the stomach of your child." The father of the child | 
said, "I will j)ay you." The owner of the beads refused. He went 
(25) to the chief. The chief said, "Yes, you were jealous of | his 
goat, which ate your com. You did not listen to what was said ] by 
your neighbor. You must pve him his bead, which is in the stomach 
of I your child." When the owner of the bead saw the mother of the 
child suffering | and crying, he felt pity, and said to his neighbor, 
(30) "I will let you go; but you must not be jealous, because it is not | 
good. JeakMi^ will deprive you of friends." 


190 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

kuiyi nyilca yedu, ngo kwanshikazi kuna mulambo mukulu uno 
danwa ngo kuti naile. nge nguva imse kwakaguma mumuUmbo 
ngwena hulu. yona yakaenda kundawo djese, yakavulaya mabvuta 
ne nombe no vahavisi vadjo; no va/ambi yailuma. kutAa ko vanthu 
kwakava kukulu nkulu. akuchaivepi no munthu wainga ne umba 
lokuvulaya ngwena. mambo we nyika no manganakana vakasangana 
no vanthu vazinshi kud vasovela ndava ye ngwena, kuti kuivulaya 
ngwena. novavungana kubanshe tukovo rhwakaguma. rhwakakwila 
pamutanda rhwakaveleketa rhwakati, "matombo no manganakana, 
munondivona im^imfi, ndaza komuli, ndilt mudoko sikulu, andinga 
mubesipi nge simba, muiyi ndango yenyu ne ngwena; kani ndinga- 
mubesa ngoku mupangila, kuti muchazotambudjikase. kungwala 
kunonyisa chichunge chikulu chenyu. xakanaka kuti muchida ku- 
nyisa mukolole mukulu, itanyi 120, achito wakula achina nmba. mu> 
noiseka ngwena ichili doko icbito yava ne simba, kani kuti neyakula 
munoitiza muchiitAa sikulu. ngwena djino ndinyenya zikulu ngokuti 
ndinoti djichito djabudga mumanda ndinodjir^a. ndingadjirga no 
kudali djili makuma shanu nge nshiku im^e. imgim^i munodjilegela 
ngwena mphela djakula mgozoda kudjivulaya. djuvulaenyi djito 

In this country of ours there is in the north a targe river t called by 
the name "Naile." At one time there arrived in the river | a large 
crocodile. It went everywhere, and killed sheep | and cattle and their 
herdsmen; it bit even travellers. The fear of the people (5) was 
very great. There was no person who had power | to kill the crocodile. 
The chief of the country, and the nobility, assembled | with many 
people to talk over the matter of the crocodile, to say what they 
could do to kill | the crocodile. When they arrived at the court, the 
fox arrived. He climbed | on a log and spoke, and said, " King and 
Noblemen, (10) you see me; I came to you; I am very small; I 
cannot | help with strength in this your matter with the crocodile, 
but I can | help by advice, that you may not be in trouble again. 
Wisdom I surpasses your great bravery. It is wise, if you want | to 
overcome your great enemy, to do so before he grows up and before 
he has strength. (15) You laugh at the crocodile when it is small 
and before it has strength ; but when it is grown up, | you run away 
and you are much afraid. Crocodiles do not like me much, 00 account 
of I what I do before they come out of the eggs. I eat them. I can 
eat I even fifty in one day. You leave 1 the crocodiles until they are 
grown up. Then you want to kill them. Kill them before (20) they 
grow up. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Porlugfuse S. Africa. 191 


sakaita xakaita. — Icwatva ne msanalume walnga ne vakadji vatatu. 
waida mukadji mumce nlculu. vamge vakadji vake vakava ne 

Mge imge nsbiku m^analume wakabata hanga akaviya nayo a-kapa 
vachide vake kuti albike. pakati po vusiku mum£e mukadji wainga 
no vusanshe zikulu wakaenda kunyumba ya chide, akaba hanga. 
mumangwana /umi chide azivi kuwana hanga, wakabvunsha mulu- 
m^ake. mulume wakacheneswa zikulu akabifunsha vakadji vesevake 
kuti unovabidjisa gona kuti awane waba hanga. gona laivabidjisa* 
laiffga lokuambuka mulambo ngo ku/amba palunnga rbwaitandikwa 

zuva lichito laguma lo kubila gona mukadji wakaba hanga waka- 
pangila m^ana-ke mfidoko we kadji, kuti, "nonda/a pano, iwewe tola 
mulanda wako wende kwa thethadji wako mgali. ena unbzokukolodja. 

zuva lokubita gona ne laguma vakadji vo mganalume no vanthu 
vakavungana pamulambo. luslnga norhwapela kutandikwa pamu- 
lambo. vakadji mumge nge mumge vakatanga ku/amba palusinga 
kuti vaambuke mulambo. kwaiti mukadji wakaba, hanga napakati 
po mulambo lusinga rhwalda vuka, ena waiwila mumulambo. va- 
chano vakatanga ku/amba palusinga vachemba lumbo ur^: 

luuxga Iu«nga, 

kuti ndilint 

ndakabe ganga, 

ganga la chide, 

luuMga davuka, 

ndiwile mga budji 



ena ngokuti a-zivi kuba hanga wakaambuka mulambo achifamba 

mukadji we chipili yakava nguva yake yo kufamba lusinga. wa- 
kamba lumbo rhwakambiwa mge vachano. napakati po mulambo 
lusinga rhwakadadjuka akawila mumulambo aka/ilamgo, ngokuti 
ndiyena wakaba hanga. 

mgana wo mukadji na'vona kuti make va/a wakalonga zilo eake 
akatola mulanda wake akaenda kwathethadji wake mgali. vachito 
I Literally, "to wet the gourd" i.c., to make a trial with a gourd containing medicinn. 


192 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

vaguma kumuzi kwathethadji wake ena no mulanda vakazolola 
pagandwa vakashamba. novapedja kushamba vachisimila nguvo avo, 
mulanda wakati kuna tenshi wake, "ngati tenganisane nguvo djedu 
ndivone kuti Mguvo djenyu djinondinakila kani." novapedja kusi- 
mila mulanda wakati, "nguvo djenyu djinondinakila, no djangu 
djinomunakilavo imgimgi. m^ochithwalanyi mutani. ndtnozomule- 
gela kuti musimile nguvo djenyu tichito taguma kwathethadji wenyu. 
inini ndinozotola muthwalo." 

novatenganisa va k^amba mulanda nakava muzale no mu2ale 
nakava mulanda. nonavona muzi muzale wakati kuna mulanda, 
"wochindipa »guvo djangu ngokuti tapedo wo muzi wa thethadji 
wawgTi." mulanda wakati, "ndino mupagalegale." ena wakavangila 
ki^amba. muzale wakavangila kuda nguvo djake makani mulanda 
azivi kumupa. 

na.vaguma kwathethadji wake, ena wakaashila mulanda achiti ndi 
thethadji wake, no kudali thethadji wakati ena ndiye wair^;a bama 
yake. m^ali azivi kupulutana xakaleva ngokuti mulanda waiti, 
"ena unonyepa. inini ndini thethadji wako." ngokuti mgali achai- 
zivepi hama yake wakatola mulanda achiti ithethadji wake, thethadji 
wo sokadi wakaendeswa kunyumba yo valanda. 

yaiva nguva yokulinda shili. ndi£0 thethadji wakaitwa mulanda 
wakapuwa basa lo kulinda shili kumunda wo mupunga. achilinda 
shili kumamunda waimba tumbo urgu achilila. 

mai vaileva 

linde, linde, 
ku/a kwatigu pano 

linde, linde 
enda kumukulu 

linde, linde, 
mukulu ndi yani? 

linde, linde, 
mukulu ndi mgali 

linde, linde, 
miali wandilasha 

linde, linde, 
Kgo kuda mulanda 

linde, linde. 

achimbalo bvuli la mai wake lakaza kwali lichiti, "mgali walasha 
hama yake kudali, achitola mulanda achiti ihama yake." bmili la 
mai wake laimushambidja lichimupa nguvo djakanaka djo ku^mila. 
naviya kanyi mulanda waiti muzale namuvona achiza nakasimila 
nguvo djakanaka wakava ne thima wakabminsha mgali achiti, "the- 
thadji mgali, mulanda unoviya kumamunda nakasimila nguvo 
djakanigala. ngati djitole." ena wakadjitola nguvo. 


Tales and Preverhs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 193 

mazuva ese a-lcaenda kolinda shili bruli la mai wake laiza kwali 
lichishova mfali nge sakaita kuhama yake. zuva nelavila waiviya 
na-kaeimila nguvo djakanaka imsa nakani wadjitolerhwa. 

imge ndiiku mulume wa mgali wakada kuziva munthu waipa mu- 
landa nguvo. wakaenda kovandila kumamunda. wakazwa mulanda 
achitnba. achimbalo wakazwa izwi le bvuli lichlvele keta tichiti, 
"mgali kudali ktina hama yake." wakavona bvuli lichipa nguvo 

na-pedja kuvona in wakaviya kanyt achigogoma akasumilila 
mukadji wake m^ali achiti, "takalasha thethadji wako ngo kuda 
mulanda. inini ndavona bculi la mai wako lichineleketa na thethadji 
wako." Ddiso lagaM wakacha Undo mubelele akaadja bonde palo 
akagadjika kur^a akadana mulanda waiti ndi thethadji wake, ena 
nagala pa^ wakawila mulindo aka/ilam|o. mga\i wakatola thethadji 


It happened, it happened. — There was a man who had three wives. | 
He loved one wife very much. His other wives were | jealous. 

One day the man caught a guinea-fowl. He brought it home, and 
gave it (s) to his beloved one to cook it. At midnight one of the 
wives who were | very jealous went to the house of the beloved one 
and stole the guinea-fowl. | The next day the beloved one did not 
find the guinea-fowl, and told her husband. | Her husband became 
very angry, and told all his wives. [ that he would bring them to trial 
to find out who stole the guinea-fowl. The trial was crossing (10) 
a river by walking over a rope which was suspended across 1 the river. 

The day before the trial was to come off, the wife who had stolen the 
guinea-fowl | instructed her little daughter, "When I am dead here, 
take I your slave and go to your elder sister Mgali. She will take care 
of you." 

(15) When the day of the trial came, the wives of the man, and the 
people, I gathered at the river. After the rope had been put over the 
river, I the wives one by one began to walk on the rope | to cross the 
river. It would be, when the wife who stole the guinea-fowl came | 
to the middle of the river, the rope would break, and she would fall 
into the river. (20) The first wife began to walk on the rope, singing 
this song: — 

"Rope, rope, 
If I am the one, 
(35) Who stole the treasure, 
Dyandyali, — 
The treasure of the beloved one, 
Dyandyali, — 


194 Jownud cf American Fcik-Lore, 

ropel breski 
{30) Dyandyali, 

1 fall into the river Budje, 


There I ahall die, 


(35) Since she had not stolen the guinea-fowl, she crossed the river 
walking I on the rope. 

Then it was the turn of the second wife to walk on the rope. | She 
sang the song as it was sung by the first wife. When she arrived 
in the middle of the river, | the rope broke; and she fell into the 
river and died in it, because (40} she was the one who had stolen 
the guinea-fowl.^ j 

When the child of the wife saw that her mother was dead, she 
packed up her belongings, | took her slave, and went to her sister 
Mgali. Before | they arrived at the house of her sister, she and her 
servant took a rest I on the shore of a lake, and they washed them- 
selves. After they had washed themselves, while they were putting 
on their clothing, (45) the slave said to her mistress, "Let us exchange 
our dresses | and see how your dress suits me!" After they had | 
dressed, the stave said, "Your dress suits me, and my | dress also 
suits you. Now you carry the basket. I will let you have | the 
clothes you were wearing before we arrive at your usta-'s (bouse). 
(50) Then I shall take the basket." 

When they had exchanged their dresses, they walked along, the 
slave being the mistress, and the mistress | being the slave. When 
they saw the kraal, the mistress said to the slave, | "Give me my dress, 
because we are near my sister's home." | The ^ve said, "I will 
give it to you by and by." She continued (55) to walk. The mistress 
urged her to return her dress, but the slave | did not give it to her. 

When they arrived at her sister's (house), she received the slave, 
thinking that she was | her sister, although her sister said that she 
was her sister. | Mgali did not listen to what she said, because the 
stave said, (60) "She liesl I myself am your sister." Because Mgali 
did not know | her sister, she took the slave, thinking ^e was her 
sister. The real sister | was sent to the house of the servants. 

It was the time for watching the birds (so that they should not eat 
the fruits of the garden) : therefore the sister who was made a slave | 
was given the work of watching the birds in the garden of rice. While 
she was watching (65) the birds in the garden, she would sing this 
song, and she would cry: — 

' E. Jacotlet. The Treasury of Ba-SuCo Lore, I ; iSo; Natalie CurtU. Songt uid Tain 
from the Dark Continent (New York. 1910). p. 49 (VandauJi tune of Mnga Uhid.), 
pp. 114-13&. 


Tales and Prooerhs t^ the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa, 195 

"Mother nid, 

Oh, mtchl oh, watch! 
When I die, my daughter dear, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
(70) Go to your aister, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
To your elder uster. 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
Your elder uster Mfali, 
(75) Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
Mgali that apurns me. 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
And loves the slave. 

Oh, watch! oh, watch!" 

(80) While she was singing, the soul of her mother came to her, 
saying, "Mgali forsakes | her sister in this way, taking the slave and 
thinking she is her sister." The soul of [ her mother washed her, 
and gave her beautiful clothing to put on. | When she came home, 
the slave who said that she was the mistress, when she saw her coming 
dressed in | beautiful clothing, became jealous, and told Mgalt, saying, 
(85) "Siater Mgali, the slave is coming from the garden dressed in 
beautiful clothing. ] Let us take it!" She took away the clothing. 

Every day she went to watch the birds, the soul of her mother came 
to her, and | blamed Mgali for what she was doing to her sister. At 
sunset she came back | clothed in beautiful new dresses, but they 
were taken away from her. 

(90) One day the husband of Mgali wanted to know the person 
who gave ] the slave the dresses. He went and hid in the garden. 
He heard the slave | singing. As she was singing, he heard the voice 
of the soul speaking, and saying, | "Mgali should do thus to her 
sister." He saw the soul giving a dress [ to the slave. 

(95) After he had seen all this, he returned home running, and told 
his I wife Mgali, saying, "You spumed your sister and loved | the 
slave. I myself saw the soul of your mother s[>eaking with your 
sister." | Therefore Mgali dug a hole in the house and spread a 
mat over it | and placed food on it. She called the slave who had 
said she was her sister. When she (100) sat down, she felt into the 
hole and died there. Then Mgali took her sister. 

18. LtJHGANO. 

zakaita, zakaita. — kwaivana mambowainga mutenthe. uwu mam- 
bo wainga ne mganawekadji walcanyala zikulu. madumbi omunthala- 
vunda no nthambo, vana ve madjimbavge. vakazwa kunyala ko 
munyakwava kuchitokotiswa nthambo no munthalavunda. vese 
vaida ku/uma munyakwava. 


196 Journal c^ American Folk-Lore. 

makavila akaza mumf^e nge mum^e kobrun^la munyakwava. ese 
ainasa kuzichwanya ngokuti aipinimidja kuti nyakwava navona ffguvo 
djaisimila unotenda ku/um^a ngo mumge wayo. makani ese madumbi 
akalambga nge baba wa nyakwava. madumbi achaimuvonepi nya- 
kwava, ngokuti wainga mungome. kwaiti madumbi na-za kobou- 
nshila, mambo nalamba, no oenda kanyi, nyakwava waialingila nali 
pajanela' nye zulu kwe ngome, kuti avonwe ndiwo. 

madumbi ese naedja kubounshila nalambga, mambo wakad, "ma- 
dumbi unochipuwo chakanaka sikulu ndiyena unozo/uma nyakwava. 
ese makavila akalonga kuti aende kunyika djili ntbambo kotenga xOo 
zakanaka zikulu. 

kwaiva no mudjimbav^e waiva ne vanavelume vatatu. vona 
vakaenda kunyika djili nthambo kothettga silo sakanaka. 

ava vadjinyenyi ne vanukuna vakaenda koshambadja ngo mumaba- 
tikinya kunyika djilin thambo zikulu. vese vo vatatu vainga oe 
mabalikinya avo. vaka/amba mazuva ne mgedji midnsh ivachito 
vagumila nyika. vakazoguma pachitulu chikulu chainga no vanthu. 
vakavona vanthu vair^a vachete vanalumenevanakadjivai/amba pa 
mutiinthu. kwad hama nthatu nedjaambuka pamutunthu. djakapala- 

mumge wakavona mganalume wainga muchete mukulu achiluka 
chisenga akamubninsha kuti, " unozoitenyi ndicho chisenga ichi chaka- 
dali kuleba?" mucbenshebou wakatanga kundzela mulumb|ane basa 
lo chisenga achiti, "ichi chisenga china simba ]o kundigumisa kun^ 
kakuli nthambo zikulu nge nshiku im^e." mulumbgana wakachitenga 
chisenga. mumge wakaenda kuchikalavga chaiita ms^Eona akuchi- 
bcunsha kuti, "unozoitenyi ndiwo aya magona?" chikalav^a chakati, 
" nge magona aya kuti munthu na/a, ndingamumusa i^;oku munanuisa 
m^uta e gona." mulumbgane wakatenga gona. mulumbfane we 
chitatu wakaguma pamuzi wo mganalume, mfiti we supeyo.' akumu- 
bvunsha kuti, "unozoitenyi nge idji supeyo?" mgiti we supeyo 
wakamuvonesa nyika djili nthambo nge supeyo. 

novapedja kutenga vakaenda kumabalikinya avo, vakatanga kuta- 
tidjana sovakatenga. vachilingila musupeyo vakavona vanthu va- 
zinshi vakavungana kungome ya mambo. vakanasa kulii^lisa, 
vakavona nyakwava nali mumavelo m^ayaya wake, vakavooaze 
kuti nyakwava wairhwala, no kuti madjibeze ai'mupa mutombo. 
novalingilaze musupeyo vakavona nyakwava na-/a, na mambo achi- 
edjelela vushonl mutembe wa nyakwava kuti wende kcugwa. mu- 
lumb^ane waiva ne gona wakati, "kudali nd^vma kanyi vachito 
vamuviya nyakwava ndingamumusa nge gona laf^u." wainga ne 
chisenga wakati, "ch'senga changu chinotigumisa kanyi nyama^." 
< Portuguese derivation. 


Tales arid Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 197 

idji hama nthatu djakasiya mabalikinya adjo djikapakila pachisenga. 
<jiisenga chakapetenyuka. chikavagumisa kanyi kwavo nge nguva 
doko, vakaenda kungome ya tnambo mutembe wa nyakwava ingawoda 
kovigwa. idji hama nthatu djakangwina mungome djikaenda mu- 
kwalatu' m^owa iva no mutembe. mulumbgane wainga ne gona 
wakagwadama pambeli po mutembe akatanga ku/unyungula gona 
lake, mambo navo vese vainga munyumba vakashama zikulu nge 
saida kuitwa nge idjo hama nthatu. napedja ku/unyungula gona 
wakabmta munongola akaunamiisa nyakwava achiti, "nyakwava, 
mukayi." nyakwava wakamuka. vanthu vakashamiswa nge saka- 
itwa f^o mulumbgane. mambo wakati kumulumbgane wakamusa 
mgana wake, "iwewe, wochi/uma mfana wangu." makani hama 
nthatu nodjapedja kusumula nthango yavo, mambo azivi kuziva kuti 
ndiya ni wo vatatu unozo/uma nyakwava, ngokuti cese vaita basa 
gulu kumusa nyakwava. supeyo yakavavonesa ku/a kwa nyakwava, 
ngokuti chisenga chakavazisa kanyi nge nguva doko, gona lakamusa 
nyakwava. nthat^o yakakhahamadja mambo ne banshe lake, hama 
nthatu djakatendelana kuti nyevanshi wadjo nga/ume nkyakwava. 
mambo wakapa hama mbili mitunthu yo kutonga kuti avonese 
kutenda kwake nge sovakaita kwali. 


It happened, it happened. — There was a chief who was a rich man. 
This chief 1 had a daughter who was very pretty. The young men 
of the neighborhood | and those from far away, the sons of the noble- 
men, heard of the beauty of the | princess being praised far and near 
by. All {5) wanted to marry the princess. 

The suitors came one by one to woo the princess. All | were nicely 
dressed up, because they thought that, if the princess saw the dresses | 
that they had on, she would be willing to be married to one of them. 
But all the youths 1 were refused by the father of the princess. The 
youths did not see (lo) the princess, because she was in the castle. 
When the youths came to ask | for her, the chief refused them. When 
they went back home, the princess looked at them from \ the window 
high up on the castle, so that she could be seen by them. 

All the youths tried to woo her, and were refused. The chief said, \ 
"The young man who has a very good gift, he will marry the prin- 
cess." (15) All the suitors prepared to go to distant countries to buy 
very | nice presents. 

There was a nobleman who had three sons. They | went to a far 
country to buy nice things. 

These [older] brothers (and younger brothers] went in boats to 
(20) trade in very distant countries. Each of the three had | a boat. 
' Portuiueie derivation. 


198 Journal 0} American Folk-Lore. 

They sailed many days and months before | they reached the country. 
They arrived at a large island on which there were people. | They 
saw the people who were there, very old men and women, who walked 
about on | the land. Then the three brothers went ashore. On the 
land they (25) parted. 

One saw a man who was very old weaving; | a braid of palm-leaves; 
and he asked him, "What are you going to do with that braid?" | 
The old man began to tell the man about | his work, and said, "This 
braid has the power to make one arrive (30) in a country which is 
very far, in one day." The man bought | the braid of palm-leaves. 
Another one went and met an old person who made calabashes. 
He I inquired, "What are you going to do with these calabashes?" 
The old person said, | "With this calabash, if a person is dead, I 
awaken him by drawing on a stick through his mouth | the fat of the 
calabash." The young man bought the calabash. The third youi^ 
(35) man arrived at the kraal of a man, a maker of looking-glasses. 
He I questioned him, "What are you going to do with this looking- 
glass?" The maker of looking-glasses | made him see a distant land 
by means of the mirror. 

When they finished their trade, they went on board their boat, 
and they began to | show one another what they had bought. When 
they looked into the mirror, they saw many people (40) gathered in 
the castle of the chief. They looked carefully, | and saw the princess 
lying in the lap of her nurse. They also saw that the princess was 
sick. The doctors were giving medicine to the princess. | When 
they looked again into the mirror, they saw the princess was dead. 
The chief | was making ready to have the princess buried. Her 
corpse was being arranged carefully, for it was going to be buried. 
(45) The young man who had the calabash said, " If I can arrive at 
home before | they bury the princess, I can awaken her with my 
calabash." The one who had | the braid of palm-leaves said, "My 
braidofpalm-leavesmakesusarriveathometo-day." | Tbenthethree 
brothers left their boat. They got on the braid of paJm-leaves. | 
The braid unrolled, and made them reach their home in a Uttle while. 
(50) They went to the castle of the chief. The corpse of the princess 
was about | to be buried. Then the three brothers went into the 
castle. They went into | the room in which was the corpse of the 
princess. The young man who had the calabash | kneeled before the 
corpse and began to open his calabash. ] The chief and all those who 
were in the room wondered very much at (55) what was gtnng to be 
done by the three brothers. When he finished opening the calabash, | 
he pulled out a stick and passed it over the mouth of the princess, 
and said, "Princess, | wake up!" The princess awoke. The people 
wondered on account of | what was done by the young men. The 


TaUs and Proverbs of the Vandau oj Portuguese S. Africa, 199 

chief said to the young man who raised | bis daughter, "You shall 
many my child." When the three brothers (60) finished telling their 
story, the chief did not know who | of the three should marry the 
princess, because all did great work | in awakening the princess. The 
mirror made them see the death of the princess, | the mat carried them 
home in a short time, and the calabash awakened | the princess. 
Therefore the matter puzzled the chief and his court. The three 
brothers (65) agreed among themselves that the oldest should marry 
the princess. | The chief gave the two other brothers countries to 
rule to show | his gratitude for what they had done for him. 

19. VA5AGOLE. 

sakaita sakaita. — kwaiva no mambo wakagala mugole. ena wainga 
no mgana wokadji wakanfala zikulu. uwu munyakwava waiwga ne 
yaya no mamge mapuntha aitamba nawo. mapuntha no munya- 
kwava ainga akangala zikulu. ese ainga n5urhwa. nshiku djese 
munyakwava no yaya wake no mam^e mapuntha vaizapasi vachibva 
mugole koshamba mugandwa laittga lakanaka. ili gandwa lainga 
pedo ne gwasha, munyakwava ne vasikane vake vaedeluka no 
kwenda mugole ngo mitengela yovaiva vayo. kwaiti vasikane vo 
mugole novaza kolum^la mugandwa madumbi o munyika akavanona 
akada kuvabvunshila. kani vasikane novavona vanthu vachiza ku- 
gandwa, vaiambuka mukumga vakatola mitengela yavo vakambuluka 
vachenda mugole. madumbi mazinshi o munyika vana vo madji- 
mambo no madjinganakana akada kufuma munyakwava. ona 
akaedja kutola mutengela wake, mamge madumbi akatola mutengela 
wo munyakwava. kwaiti mudumbi natola mutengela wo buntha 
alichaizendepi no vamj^ vasikane mugole, kani laizotevela mudumbi 
lichimba lichilidja nthuzwa yalo. kuti mfldumbi nalingila sule 
mutengela waizombuluka uchenda kumusikane. ena milsikane wai- 
zombuluka achenda mugole. ndiso ao makavila aiutola mitengela 
aiiti nazwa musikane achimba achilidja nthuzwa ailingila sule mu- 
tengela yaienda kuna vamune wayo. 

vana vo madjimbavge no vo manganakana novakonerhwa kubata 
mapuntha o mugole, mudumbi mumge m^ana wo mulombo wakati, 
ena unoenda kuti aedje kutola mutengela wo musikane wo mugole. 
aya madumbi akakonerbwa kutola mutengela akamuseka sikulu, kani 
ena wakavaftgilila kuti unoenda koedja kutola mutengela wo musikane. 
wakavindala mugwasha, mapunthu o mugole na'guma na'pedja 
kungwina mukumga, mulumb^ane wakatola mutengela wo munyak- 
wava. mapuntha navona achitola mutengela ona akabva mukumga 
akatola mitengela yawo akambuluka. munyakwava wakasala, wa- 
katanga ku'idja nthuzwa yake achimba 



200 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

earn -dumb! we we, ndekande; wochJzwa nthuzwa yanguyowe, ndekande. 

sam-dumbiwewe, ndekande. 

tongo lingilewe, ndekande. 

samdumbiwewe, ndekande; mfanawe ndoda kupindawe, ndekande. 

sam-dunibiwewe, ndekande. mganawe wochilingilawe, ndekande. 

Bamdumbiwewe, ndekande. 

ndoda kwendawe, ndekande. 


kani mulumbfane a'zivi kuUngila sule. na'/amba mukuvo mukulu 
nyakwava wakabi>unsha mulumbfane achitl, imai iwewe wakundif uma. 
mulumb^ane newakaima. munyakwava wakati kwati, iwewe unoenda 
neni kanyi kwangu mugole. musagole no mulumbgane vakaenda 


It happened, it happened. — There was a chief who lived in heaven. 
He had | a child, a very beautiful girl. This princess had as | attend- 
ants a nurse and other girls, with whom she played. The girls who 
were with the | princess were very beautiful. All were supremely 
beautiful. Every da^ (5) the princess and her nurse and the other 
girls came down from | the sky to bathe in a lake which was nice. 
This lake was | near a forest. The princess and her girls came down 
and I went up to the sky by means of plumes which they had. When 
the Sky girls | came to bathe in the lake, and the young men of earth 
saw them, (lo) they wanted to court them; but when these girls saw 
men coming to | the lake, they came out of the water, took their 
plumes, and flew away, | going up to the sky. Many youths, the 
sons of I chiefs and noblemen, wanted to marry the princess. They | 
tried to take her plume. Some of the youths would take the plume 
(15) of the princess. When a youth took the plume of the girl, | she 
could not go with the other girls to the sky; but she would follow the 
youth, I singing and playing her reed rattle. If the youth looked 
back, I the plume would fly away and go to the girl ; and ^e, the girl, 1 
would fly away, going to the sky. Therefore these young men would 
take the plume, (20) and, when they heard the girl singing and playing 
her reed rattle, would look back, | and the plume would go to its owner. 
When the sons of royalty and of nobility had failed to talK 1 the 
> See Natalie Curtis, Songs and Tales from the Dark Coatlnent (New York tl9li>P, 
pp. S1-S3; tune of song, pp. 137-138. 


Taies and Proverhs <^ the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 30i 

Sky girk, a youth, the son of a poor man, said | he would go and tty 
to take the plume of the Sky girl. (25) Those youths who had failed 
to take the plume laughed heartily at him; but | he persisted, (saying) 
that he would go and try to take the plume of the girl. | He hid 
himself in the forest. The Sky girls arrived; and, after | they had 
gone into the water, this youth took the plume of the princess. | When 
the girls saw that he bad taken the plume, they came out of the water. 
(30) Tliey took their plumes and flew away. The princess remained. | 
She began to play her reed rattle, singing, — 

"0 dear young man! ndekande; do listen to my ratde, ndelcande!" 

"Keep still!"' 
"0 dear young man! ndekande!" 
(35) "KeepstiU!" 

"Just look! ndekande!" 

"O dear young man! ndekande; O child! I want to go, ndekande!" 
"Keep still!" 
(40) "O dear young man! ndekande; O child! look now! ndekande!" 
"O dear young man! ndekande!" 
"Keep still!" 
"I want to go, ndekande!" 
(45) "KeepstiU!" 

However, the youth did not look back. When he had walked a 
long way, | the princess asked the youth (to marry her), saying, 
"Wait, you shall marry me." | The youth stopped, and the princess 
said as follows: "You shall go | with me to my home in the sky." 
The Sky person and the young man went to | (50) the sky. 


(Dialect of Gaza Land.) 

nge zuva rim|:e thika richir^a nyama rakadztp^a nge godo. na- 
rashongana ne zinyamtltanda rakati, "zinyamfltanda, ndinozokupa 
musharo mukuru, kudai ungapotedza soro rako mdmukuro wangu, 
uduse godo randidzipa." zinyamtltanda rakapotedza soro raro md- 
mukuro we thika. rikadusa godo. zinyamfltanda norapedza kQdusa 
godo, rakati kuna thika, "wochindipa musharo wangu wowandigon- 
disa." thika rakati, "unoda musharo wakadini. azizivi kQbvira 
senda kuitira here? sokupodedza soro rako mukanwa mge thika, 

' "Keep «ilU" it a choruB »ung by the people. In the three long lines the chorja 
sings, "Keep stllll" with the words "Do lUtenl" "O childl" The singer may go on 
extemporizing additionttl long lines, such aa "Mjanawe, zuva lovllawe lO chitdl the sun 
is setting];" "Mfanawe ndasiva ndogave (O child! I am left akin«l:" etc. The word 
"ndelcande" is not translatable. 


202 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

rikabuda risa remadzwa. iwewe nasa kundibonga, ngokuti ndini 
10 ndakuitire nyasha dzisikabmri dzokureka soro rako kQpotera mdkanwa 
mgangu. apana chiro chinopinda mflkanwa m^e thika chinobuda." 

{Coast Dialect.) 
nge zuva limge bongo lichirga nyama lakakham|;a nge phondo. 
nolusongana ne zinyamiltanda lakati, " zinyamdtanda ndinozokupa 
musalo mukulu, kudali ungangwinisa miisolo wako mtimukulo wangu, 
ubfise phondo landikhama." zinyamfitandu lakangwinisa mdsolo 
5 walo mQinukulo we bongo. Ukabisa phondo. zinyamfitanda nola- 
pedja kflbisa phondo lakati kuna bongo, "wochindipa mushalo w^ngu 
wowandigondisa." bongo lakati, "unoda mushalo wakadini. smzivi 
kanaka zenda kuitila ? zokungwinisa mdsolo wako mukanwa mge 
bongo ukabudga ucha lemadjwa. iwewe nasa kundidenda, ngokuti 
10 ndini ndakuidile nyasha djichingabuili djokulega rndsolo wako kfl- 
ngwina mfikanwa mgangu. apana chilo chinopinda milkanwa mge 
bongo chinobudya." 

One day Hyena was choked by a bone. | When he met Crane, he 
said, "Crane, I will give you | a great reward if you can put your 
head into my throat | and take out the bone which chokes me." 
Crane put his head (5) into the throat of Hyena and pulled out the 
bone. When Crane had finished pulling out | the bone, he said to 
Hyena, "Now give me my reward that you promised me." | Hyena 
said, "How much of a reward do you want? Is it not enough | what 
I have done for you, to put your head into the mouth of Hyena | and 
come out without being hurt? You had better thank me, because I 
am the one (10) who did a kindness to you beyond expectation while 
allowing your head to enter my mouth. | Nothing that enters the 
mouth of a hyena comes out again." 


1. Simba lo ngwena lili mum/ula. 

(The strength of the crocodile is in the water.) 

2. Meno e imbga alumani. 

(The teeth of the dogs do not bite one another.) 

3. Zitiyo kuenda mumphala kuvona ndi mai. 

(Chicks that go into the chicken-house see their mother.) 

4. Mfana walilila nyele yo lu/uta. 

(The child cried for a reed flute [that means, do not make an 
effort to get what has no value].) 

■ The lincB correspond to the Gaza Land venloii. 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 203 

5. Vulombo, vulombo hav£o desa lo kumga alikokotwi. 

(Misery, misery, indeed! A calabash of water which is licked 
clean! [that means, Even if I am poor, I do not propose to be 
exploited. If I did, I should be like a calabash that has been 
licked clean].) 

6. Funda mutako ngeine nyama. 

(By walking back, game is obtained [that means, it is often worth 
while to go back in order to get things which you own rather 
than to eeek something new at a distance].) 

7. Y^^Ia Malopanyi kunamunyu. 

(He died in Malopanyi, where there is salt [that is, the game died 
where there is salt available for cooking the venison, — success 
under the most favorable circumstances].) 

8. Chipanga achizivi vatendji. 

(The knife does not know its owner [that is, it cuts every one, 
even its owner].) 

9. TVgalipole wakapsa ndilo. 

(Let it cool off, he has burnt himself.) 

10. Wakalasha djindja ngokuda ganga. 

(He has denied his tribe on account of gain.) 

11. Zambuko lehanga ndi Hmge chasala sule chachikwali. 

(When guinea-hens fly up, a chikwali [a small bird flying slowly] 
remains behind.) 

12. Lembe le hove lakavodjwa nge hove imge. 
(A pile of fish can be spoiled by a single flsh.) 

13. Kuwila mumapiti chemapete. 

(Cockroaches fall into the mush [that means, one cockroach after 
another falls into mush without learning by the fate of the 
preceding ones].) 

14. Kanyi akuna chtlima. 

(In the home is no darkness [that is, one is always happy at 

15. Djila le mphepo ntho kukevelana. 

(The bed-cover of the wind [cold] is by [from] pulling apart [that 
means, if you are under one cover, and each pulls the narrow 
cover to himself, both will get cold].) 

16. Milo aina/embo. 

(The nose has the power of smell [that means, man has sense in 
order to understand what is going on].) 

17. Mota aizivi vugalo. 

(The boil does not know its place [that is, misfortune comes to 
both rich and poor].) 



204 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

i8. Kutambisa munyu ngo kulunga djerge. 

(He threw away the salt with which frogs are seasoned.) 

19. Nshou ailemerhwi ngo mulembe wayo. 

(The elephant does not feel the weight of his trunk [that is, the 
rich do not feel their wealth as a burden].) 

20. Kuziluma mgishe che makone. 

(To bite one's tail like the makone [a hsh] [that is, to act against 
one's own words].) 

21. ATgalava hulu yaka^la padima. 

(Even a large ship may be wrecked in darkness [that is, small 
things may spoil great plans].) 

22. Vulombo avusekwi. 
(Poverty is not laughed at.) 

23.* (Isisu) kakulilila muhana che hamba. 

([We] weeping inside [in the chest] like the tortoise [that is, we 
weep without being able to offer resistance to an enemy},) 
24.* Hove djinotevela mulambo wadjo, 

(Fish follow their river [that means, people will support their 
own family or tribe].) 
25.* Andichalambi kununa pachoto ngo pondali. 

(I do not refuse to yield fat when I am on the hearth [fire] [that 
means, I yield to pressure].) 
26.* Andinyiswi nge chilo chichina mulomo. 

(I am not defeated by a thing that has no mouth [that is, man 
must persevere, for the future does not speak].) 
27,* Mulilo wo mbava aukotwi. 

(By the fire of a thief not to be warmed [that is, if you associate 
with bad people, you may be taken as one of them].) 
28.* Manthede a-nofengana pakurga, napam/um/u anobesana. 

(Baboons quarrel over food, [but] in danger help one another.) 
29. KQsukuta mbeleko mgana achito abarhwa. 

(To tan the carrying-blanket of a child before it is bom [that is, 
borrowing trouble].) 
* Revised from Natalie Curtis, Songs and Tairs from the Dark Contimnt (New York. 


Thirty-Third Annual Meeting oj the Society. 


The thirty-third einnual meeting of the American Folk-Lore Society 
was held on Wednesday, Dec. z8, 1921, at the Brooklyn Institute 
Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y., in affiliation with the American Anthro- 
polc^cal Association and the Maya Society. 

A meeting of the Council was held at nine in the morning. There 
were present Messrs. Farabee, Dixon, Boas, Swanton, Nelson, Hrd- 
li£ka, Kidder, and Peabody. 

The regular meeting of the Society was held at two in the afternoon. 
The reports of the Secretary, Editor, and Treasurer were presented 
as follows : — 

seckbtary's report. 

The member^p of the Society is as follows: — 

igio 1931 

HoDCBBry memben 6 7 

Life memben 13 la 

Annual memben 3SS 393 

Subaeriblng llt»«i1e« 18S 179 

Total S9S S9I 

Four members have died during the year, — Charles P. Bowditch, 
Mrs. J. T. Duncan, Mgr. Lionel Lindsay, Miss Sarah Yerxa. 

Charles Peabody, Secretary. 

The report of the Secretary was accepted. 

treasurer's report, 1921. 



Membenhip, Cmnadian Branch^B 

Contribution from Canada for French number . . 

Chailea Peabody, contribution 

Hougillon, Mifflin Co., sale of plates .... 

Total receipts 



2o6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Total receipts brought forward ; 

New Era Co., manufacture of Journal: 

April-June. 1930 ) 458.98 

July-Sept.. 1910 831.6s 

Oct.-Dec., 1910 669.10 

Index, vol. for 1919 31S.86 

Reprints 83.68 

Rebates to branches 76-45 

Miss Andrews, work on Journal (t3 Qontha) 315.00 

Postage. Editor 14.15 

Postage, annual meeting 3.15 

Postage, Boston Branch 3.00 

Cosmos Press, printing 13-19 

Express 7.71 

Exchange. Canada 169.50 

Total expensea 


Balance paid to Publication Fund from money borrowed . . . 

Balance on hand. General Fund * 


Balance from 1910 t 156.37 

Dr. Parsons. Philippine Memoir 1000.00 

Contributions to fund 75.00 

G. E. Stechert, sale of Memoirs: 

Vol. in 3.50 

Vol. X 14.50 

Newell-Moore Fund, income 85,00 

Refund from General Fund >34-8o 



Miss Andrews, work on Memoir: 

Vol. XII t 117.60 

Vol. XV 66.47 

G. Beaverson, music blocts for Memoir, Vol. XV 308.15 

Express on Memoir, Vol. XV 1.39 

Total 503-71 

Balance t Sl^^S■^^ 

Alfred M. Tozzbr, Treasurer. 
The report of the Treasurer was accepted. 

* The General Fund still owes the Publication Fund 1384.85 borrowed tn 1910. 
f Practically this entire sum is now due for Memoir, Vol. XV, 


Thirty-Thvd Annual Meeting oS the Society. 207 


Owing to exceptionally unfavorable conditions, the publication of 
the Journal of American Folk-Lore has lagged inordinately behind 
during the present year. Early in the year the October-December 
number for 1920 was brought out. Immediately after that a printer's 
strike occurred in the New Era Printing Company, and it has been 
utterly impossible to have any work done during the rest of the year. 
Notwithstanding constantly repeated demands, no proof was forth- 
coming until December. The first and second numbers of the present 
year are now in type, — the first number entirely in pages, — so that 
there is some hope that publication may be resumed. 

The question arises, sines there is no sign of improvement in the 
conditions of the Lancaster printing-office, whether a change in printer 
should not be considered. The lower price which formerly prevailed 
in Lancaster no longer exists. The Editor suggests that a commit- 
tee consisting of the Treasurer, Secretary, and Editor be appointed to 
consider the question of printing. 

Volume 12 of the Memoirs of the Society, " Filipino Popular Tales," 
by Dean S. Pansier, was completed during the year. 

It seems necessary that the Society, during the next year or two, 
should restrict itself as much as possible in the publication of its Journal, 
unless special support can be secured. The financial condition, as it 
appears from the Treasurer's report, is so unfavorable, that the 
publication of a journal of more than five hundred pages is no longer 

The Editor wishes to express his thanks to his associates, Dr. Elsie 
Clews Parsons, Professor George Lyman Kittredge, Professor Aurelio 
M, Espinosa, and Mr. C.-Marius Barbeau. 

Professor Aurelio M. Espinosa has reported in the Journal on the 
general results of his collecting- trip to Spain, which was made possible 
by the active interest of our former President, Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons. 
The discussion of his material is progressing; and we may hope to 
obtain, as a result of this enterprise, material that will enable us to 
carry forward the much-needed comparative study between American 
and Peninsular Spanish folk-lore. 

Franz Boas, Editor. 

The report of the Editor was accepted. 

Officers for the year 1922 were elected as follows: — 
President, F. G. Speck. 
First Vice-President, E. C. Hills. 
Second Vice-President, J. Walter Fewkes. 

Councillors: for three years, Phillips Barry, A. M. Espinosa, 
C.-M. Barbeau; for two years, J. R. Swanton, E. K. Putnam, Stith 


2o8 Jourruil of American Folk-Lore. 

Thompson; for one year, R. B. Dixon, E. Sapir, A. L. Krod>er; past 
Presidents, P. E. Goddard, R. H. Lowie, Elsie Oews Parsons; Presi- 
dents of local branches, C. Peabody, C. T. Camith, Miss Mary A. 
Owen, Reed Smith, W. H. Thomas, John M. Stone, J. H. Owe. 

Editor of Journal, Franz Boas. 

Associate Editors, Geoi^e Lyman Kittredge, A. M. Espinoea, 
C.-Marius Barbeau, Elsie Clews Parsons. 

Permanent Secretary, Charles Peabody. 

Treasurer, Alfred M. Tozzer. 

The following papers were read : — 
"The Scalp-Dance at Zufii in J921," by Elsie Clews Parsons. 
"The Vision in Plains Culture," by Ruth Benedict. 
"New Phases in the Study of Primitive Music," by Helen H. Roberts. 
"The Ritual Bull-Fight and its Connection with the Growing of 

Irrigated Rice," by C. W. Bishop. 
"The Deer-Hunt in the Southwest," by Esther Schiff. 
"The Shaker Religion of Puget Sound," by T. T. Waterman. 
"Complexity of Rhythm in Primitive Decorative art," by Gladya 


Charles Peabody, Secretary, 




Vol. 35.— JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1922.— No. 137. 



A i^ bo na, mdt ve kOld, ve' ke wulu afan afan. ane a nga yene 
tit t tele a wua je nga. ane tit 6 nga wu. tite te £ mbe jde' na, 
mvin.' eyone te mdt a nga jd na, me tame * ba tite jam. eyoi! a 
nga mane tune tit £kOp, ane tite j£ 6 nga kdld si a ke mbi afan. ane 
mOt a nga loone tite na, a mvin, te ke, ^yon w' aye ke afane den, ke * 
betit b' aye jfl wo na, d ne te 6k6p amu j6? ke, w" aye dane w6'6 
0son. ma fe £yon m' aye kui ja ke bdt b' aye jd me na, j^ d bili £kdp? 
tyoli m' aye kate be na, 6kdp mvin, ke me ke,* m' aye wd'O dsone ya 
kate bOt io6. ajd di e ne te yian. ane mvin € nga bulan a zu bOmbd 
d. ane mdt a nga mane ba tit a ke je ja. ane mdte te a nga ke 
kui ja d£ a loone btnga b4 a kape be tit ise, ve ^mien a nji di je amu 
a nga yene je angdndd. nal£ mdt a ne ngule ya jaii kyoti a bo a mate 
besine hi ve beta bulan vdm be n£. 


(i) It did happen thus, Man left, [and]^ went [to] walk [in the] 
forest (forest). Then be did see | [an] animal (it) standing and fired 
(it) [his] gun. And then [the] animal (it did) died. Animal (that it 
was) had the name (thus) | Mvin. Then Man (he) did say thus, I 
first cut up [my] animal (mine). When | he had finished skinning 

> Sw thia Journal, aj: 106-1141 ^7- 366-2881 3*' 418-437. 

* !'« i« an untraniUtablt particle when used u in norrativei of this kind. 

* tirin is the antflopc C€Pkalophus udypyv- 

* Ttmt li an auxiliary verb meaninE "do first." Ae uaed here, it expresses adverbial 

' Kt, as uaed beic, ha« about the significance of our exclamation "hml" 
■ K«iiwJk(iaequiTalentto"hinl I ti>o."or "hml 1 also." 

' Wordi in poreDtheses are literal translations of words not required in reading the 
Engliih tranilatioD. Word* in brackets are added in order to make the s 

14 209 


210 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

[the] animal, then [the] animal (his it) did get up [from the] 
ground and went running [into the] forest. And so || (5) Man (he) 
did call [the] animal thus, O Mvin, not go, when you will go [into the] 
forest to-day | [the] animals (they) will say [to] you thus, You have 
no hide why (for)? You will (surpass to hear | shame) [be ashamed]. 
I too when I shall reach [my] village [the] people (they) will say [to] 
me thus, Why (you have) [have you this] hide? | I shall tell them thus, 
[It is the] hide [of] Mvin, I too, I shall (hear shame) [be ashamed] to | 
tell [the] people [the] news. (Matter this it) [This you must) not do. 
And 50 Mvin (it) did return and come [to] lie || (10) [on the] ground. 
And so Man (he) did finish cutting up [the] animal and (went) [took] 
it [to the] village. Then Man (that be) did go | [and] reach[ed] [his] 
village (his) and called] [his] wives (his) and divided [among] them 
[all the] meat (all), but himself he not ate [of] it because | be did (see) 
[look upon] it [as something] horrible. Thus one (he has power) 
[may] (to) perish when he (does he) runs away | [from] (haters) [his 
enemies] (his), but ^;ain returns [to the) place [where] they are. 


A nga bo na. ze ve ke a jefie ' betit. ane a nga viane * yen ikafi. 
ane a nga jd na, m' aye zu kpw£ £kane jame ji akiti. ane nji ke 6 
nga ke a wulu. ane nye ke a nga yene fe ve £kafie te. ane a nga jd 
na, m' aye zu kpw£ £kane jame j! aldti. ane wo'o ke a nga ke afan 
ve yene fe ^kaiie te. ane bese be nga ke tdban. ane* ze a nga tatt 
sill wo'o ba nji na, mi ate * zu bo j£ va? ba fe be nga stli nye na, wo 
ate zu bo j£ va? ane ze a nga jd na, m' ate zu kpw£ ikaOe jt. wo'o 
na, mafem'atezukpw^^kaiie ji. anenjikeangajdna,mafem'ate 
zu kpw£ £kaiie ji. ane bese be nga jd na, a nto ve bia bese bi jibi * 
kpw£. eyorie te be nga jd na, za a yeme bete ydp? nji na, ma 
m'ayeme bete ydp. ane nji a nga bete ydp a tyi'i ika9 a fnesdii. a 
maneya bo nal£ ve sili na, za a zu ka 4kaii? wo'o na, ma. ane be 
nga sili na, za a yem fial * 6kait? ze na, ma m'ayem. ane wo'o a 

■ Jdl meaiu literally "to search for." but ii often lucdtntheicDKol" to huit." 

* Viant, uttu, or ria'a — an aiuclliary v«rb, meaning "to do the unexpected HuU»4 
of the expected." and cannot leadily be translated to make (ood leadinc In "^"g"-** 

* Ane la used to Introduce sentences In narrative, much as tlie unlettered In oar <nra 
countrr uae the word "and" to introduce senlenceaM«« — "and to, then, aa, Uke, since." 

* .4f<i«anauziliary verb, and is the slgoof the Dear past; anything wfaldthaatnnapind 
during the present day or the pievioua night; as, "ml «U ao Cyofle vC?" <"«4ieii dtd yon 
arrive [to-day or during the previous nightl? ") Nf U an auxiliary verb, nwd wUh remote 
put; i.e., any action which has talien place liefore or prerioui to laat nl^it. 

* JM — "endure or bear," but is frequenUy used as auxiliary verb in the weatt of 
"to do unwillingly." 

* Oil-palm nuts grow Id large bunches, between "thorny" protuberanceB or splim. 
which severely lacerate the handj of the Inexperienced : 80 the bttochea of auta ate generally 
backed to pieces by the natives. During the tiadclng-proceaa, moat of the ripe niUa Eall 
out of their sheaths. 


Bulu Tales. sii 

nga tate ke f<£ a jd be na, me tame ke tyi'i Gka6. eyofi a mbe f£ a 
i^ jO £mien na, aka'a nsA'an m'ate yene ze a sdlcfe'^ £kali! nge a 
tUt me aal£ ye me nyitii? ane a nga tup a ke ti. eyoii be yangeya 
wo'o Obe nt£ ze na, hi ja£ya yange wo'o. a!* nji, tame ke tyi'i bia 
akai. ane nji a nga ke f£. ane a nga wulu a nga jd toiien na, aka'a 
mbo'ane m'ate yene ze a bo! nge a bo me nal£, ye me nyiiieP ane 
nye fe a nga tup, ve U'i ze a tele. 


(l) It did happen thus. Leopard did go and hunted animals. 
Then he did see {a] bunch | [of ripe oil'[>alm nuts]. And so he did say 
thus, I shall come {and] cut down [my] bunch (my this) to-morrow. 
Then Gorilla also (he) | did go and walked. And he also (he) did 
•ee also only [the] bunch (that). And so he did say | thus, I shall 
(Xime [and] cut down [my] bunch (my this) to>morTow. Also Chim- 
panzee (abo he) did go [into the] forest [| (5) [and] saw also [the] 
bunch (that). And so [they] all (they) did go [and] met. So Leopard 
(he) did &nt | ask Chimpanzee and Gorilla thus, You did come [to] 
do what here? They too (they) did ask him thus. You | did come 
(to] do what here? So Leopard (he) did say thus, I did come [to] 
cut down [this] bunch (this). Chimpanzee | [said] thus, I too (I) did 
come [to] cut down [this] bunch (this). And so Gorilla too (he) did 
■ay thus, I too (I) did | come [to] cut down [this] bunch (this). Then 
all (they) did say thus, (There is only [then let us] we) [Then let us] 
all (we suffer) || (10) cut [it] down. Then they did say thus. Who (be) 
knows [how to] dimb up? Gorilla thus, 1 1 (I) know [how to] climb up. 
And so Gorilla (he) did climb up and cut [die] bunch with [his] teeth. 
He I fini^ed do[ing] thus [and] asked thus, Who (he) comes [to] tie 
Hn a bundle] [the] palm-nuts? Chimpanzee thus [said], L Then 
they ] did ask thus. Who (he) knows [how to] pick out [the] palm-nuts? 
Leopard [said] thus, I (I) know [how]. And so Chimpanzee (he) | 
did first go [to the] forest and said [to] them thus, I go [to] cut leaves 
pn irtiich to wrap the palm-nuts after they have be«i separated from 
the bunch]. When he was [in the] forest he || (15) did say [to] himself 
thus. What a clawing I did see Leopard [when] he clawed [the] bunch! 
If he I claws me like that [shall] I (live) [escape]? And so he did 
^lierce) [run away], and went [into the] forest. When they did wait | 
(far] Chimpanzee [a] little while Leopard [said] thus. We are tired 
waiting] for Chimpanzee. Oh! Gorilla, go cut [for] us | leaves. So 
Gorilla (he) did go [into the] forest. As he (did walk) [was walking) 
he did say [to] himself thus. What | a doing I did see [that] Leopard 
(he) did! If he [should] do me thus, I shall live? And so || (30) he 
too (he) did run away leaving Leopard (he) standing [there]. 

' A csa tn^amir be bcM trantlated by onr "Mtyj" h. "Say. Bill, wbeic wc ymi 


212 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


A nga bo na. mdt ve lu'u binga betan. binga bete be mbe mbi 
na, ngon 6stmesan. a dbi'i^ zen a dson metok* a dtdkan a dwd- 
meld. nde nnd wop a ng:a jd be na, dubeine me bibdbold.' in 'ye ke 
mvan/ ane a ngadafi 666£:d mbe anen. aneangayen ando'o: e to 
nwuman abut, ane a nga bete ydp a kpw£ aado'o ydp. ane a nga 
bo ve ko a ku si ve wu. ane a nga bo ve mane nyuiielan. eyoii be 
nga to nlam binga hi be nji yem jam nnd wop a nga bo. ane dsi- 
mesan a nga simesan nn6 wop. nde a nga loen dbi'i zen, nye a nga 
yene zen nndm a nga ke. ane be nga ke zene wd£ ve yen 0666 nnO wop 
a nga daii. 6son metok* a nga daiie be: be kui kindi'i yat. woiia 
be nga kui ando'o si a yen nndm a nto ve afufua afufus. ane be nga 
loen 6tdkan, nnye ve tdkan nndm. eydne te be nga loen dwdmelA. 
nnye ve wdmeld nn6m. ane be nga ke ja a vak amu be nga yen 
mva6. eyofi nnfim a nga ye nyi nda wua bese ve suti nye. 6simesan 
na, a ne Unworn amu me nga simesan nye. dbt 't zen na, a ne £tlwom 
amu me nga bi zen. dson metok na, a ne £nwom amu me nga sod 
6sd£. dtdkan na, a ve Unworn amu me nga to'e nye. dwfhneld na, 
a ne ^fiwom amu me nga wdmeld nye. nde be nga ke be betyi'i mejd. 
nye na, ke! mie bese, a ne nnd wonan bese. 

(i) It did happen thus. Man married (five) women. [Those] 
women (those, they) were (names) [named] | thus. Remembering and 
Finding-Path and Sounding-Fords and Picking-Thlngs-Up and Bring- 
to-Life. I And so [their] husband (their he) did say [to] them thus, (Put 
to) soak [for] me cassava. I shall go | hunting. Then he did cross 
[the] river: it was large. And he did see [a] wild mango tree: it 
V3S II (5) bearing much [fruit]. And so he did climb up and threw 
down wild mangoes [from] above. And so he did j (do) slip (and) 
[he] fell down (and) died. And so he did (do) finish crumbling to 
pieces. As they [ did remain [in] town [his] wives (his, they) [did] 
not know (thing) [what their] husband (their, he) did do. And so 
Remembering | (she) did remember [their] husband (their). So she 
did call Finding-Path she (she) did | (see) [find the] path [their] 

' Bi - "to catch, to Ulte," literally. 

* So9 mrtok — to sound the depth of a Btream at a ford or CTcaaloA-plaee. The one 
who does this advances with a stick or pole with which the depth of water U Moertalned 
at each step before the step U taken. Atok (plural tiulok) !■ a pond or wide place In a 

' BibSbotS (singular IbSboU) - the long sticks of cooked canava. the "atafi of life" 
of West African coast, commonly called "kank" by Europeans. Before a Jonmey U 
undertaken, enough of these "sticks" are cooked to last for the Journey. 

' Mvan — to go hunting or fishing out in the forest by camping theic for aome time. 
Rude shelters, called hibtm, are buJIt out In the forest when people go mmm. 


Bulu Tales. 313 

husband (he) did go. And bo they did go [that] path there, [to] see 
[the] river [tbeirl husband (their) j| (10) (he) did cross. Sounding- 
Fords (she) did cross them: they reached [the] bank (beyond) [on the 
other side]. Then | they did reach wild mango tree under and saw 
[that their] husband (he) was very small pieces. And so they did | 
call Pick-Things-Up. She picked up [the pieces of her] husband. 
Then they did call Brii^-to-Life. | She brought back to life [her] 
husband. And so they did go [to the] village and rejoice[d] because 
they (did see | good) [felt glad). When Husband (he) was about to 
enter [the] hut [of] one of (them) [his wives] all quarrelled over htm. 
Remembering || (15) [said] thus, He is mine because I did remember 
(that of) him. Finding-Path [said] thus, He is mine j because I did 
find [the] path. Sounding-Fords [said] thus. He is mine because I 
did sound | [the] river. Picking-Things-Up [said] thus. He is mine 
because I did pick [him] up (him). Bring-to-Life [said] thus, | He is 
mine because I did bring [him] to life (him). And so they did go to 
(cutters) (the settlers of] disputes. | He [said] thus, Hml you all, he 
is husband yours all. 


A nga bo na, ze a nga komb6 yen abaii amu a nga yi wd£ nye 
ane a nga wulu afan ve te ke yen abaii. ane a nga yen zum a bet 
Mt yOp a yene fe abo abafi wd6. ane a nga sili zum na, za a ne abo 
di? zumu * na, abo abafie le. le na, tame * zu me ne va. ane zu- 
mu a nga sise si. ane ze a nga nyoile jdm be kalan ajO a jO mmu na, 
kalan na, iyofi w'aye yen abaii a bA si va te ve'ele kate nye na, ze a 
Ku val6, amu m'aye w06 nye. ane ze a nga kdld. ane abafi a nga 
zu a ke dyo. ane zumu a nga yene ze a za'a Obe dyap a jd nye na, 
wuhi'u avd I'wulu'u av6I ane abaS a nga kOldsi'ake mbtl a kui 
AsM. ze ve wO'O ahk ane a nga yene abail momo. mds mfe £yofi 
abojl a nga bd dyo wd6, zumu a nga beta yene ze a za'ak. ane a nga 
jOabaAe na, wuhi'u avO! wulu'u avd! ze a zu bi wo. eyoAe ze a 
nga loii ta ane * a nga ko£ abafi a tubeya.' azu lale ze, zumu a nga 
bo fe nal£. ane ze a nga ya'a a ke jeA dbam a jd nye na, d tame ■ 

■ In Bnhi folMak*. n"''"^'^ often have ui extn letter or two aAxed to the retul«r 
—mi III W1111I fill llwl ■iitiiiil, ■■ fill I iiiinili Until fur ftii > "tottolae;" tamalot *nm! 

* UotruMktable beie. 

■ The wonla, "waln'ii avdt wtilu'u AvOr' when properi)> Intoned mni ([wkeD. aouai 
vcfT attdi Uka the call at the green forctt pifeon or dov«. 

* KJUti m "deput" or "leave tround or euth." Uteiallr- 

> Taitym - paM torm at the verb (h^. which lltenlly mean* "to plera or bore." 
WlienaMdlntlMMn«o("toninawa]r,"lt itlUcoDveintbitldeaof forcing a way through 
the Jnde when running to eecape. 


214 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

15 wd6 ma anon ese wo aye yen. ajd te 6bam w'abi anon ese a so ratet 
te a zu kui mfiee wu amu zumu a nga kpwe'ele ze a du'u nye. 


(i) It did happen thus. Leopard (he) did wish [to] see Otter 
because he did wish [to] kill him. | And so he did walk [into the} 
forest but [did] not go [to] see Otter. Then he did see Pigeon (he) 
upon I [a] tree (up) and he saw also [the] track [of] Otter there. And 
BO he did ask Pigeon thus, (Who he has) [Whose] track | [ts] this? 
Pigeon [said] thus, [That is the] track [of] Otter (that). Leopard 
[said] thus, Come [where] I am here. And so Pigeon j] (5) (he) did 
come down. Then Leopard (he) did take [the] thing (they swear 
palaver) [upon which they take an oath at a palaver] and said. Pigeon 
(thus), I swear thus when you (shall) see Otter (he) lying down here 
not try [to] tell him thus. Leopard (he) | comes there, because I shall 
kill him. And so Leopard (he) did leave. Then Otter (he) did | come 
and (go) [went to] sleep. And then Pigeon (he) did see Leopard (he) 
come rather far [away] and told him thus, | Walk quickly ! walk quickly ! 
And so Otter (he) did arise and (go) ran and reached || (10) [the] 
river. Leopard (hear badness) felt bad when he did see Otter (not 
any) [gone]. [Another] day (another) when | Otter (he) did lie asleep 
at that place. Pigeon (he) did again see Leopard (he was) coming. 
And so he did | say [to] Otter thus. Walk quickly! walk quickly! 
Leopard (he) comes to catch you. When Leopard (he) | did reach 
[the] tree he did find Otter (he) [had] run away. (Coming) [When 
he came] (three) [a third time] (Leopard) Pigeon (he) did ] do ^ain 
thus. Then Leopard (he) did become angry and (go) looked] for 
Hawk and said [to] him thus. You || (15) kill (for) me [all the] birds 
(all) you will see. Because of this Hawk (he) catches [all the] birds 
(all coming) [beginning with that] day (that) | (coming reaching) [to 
this] day (this) because Pigeon (he) did torment Leopard and deceived 


I A nga bo na, mvd'6m ba be aydme bidm bise bi alOan f £ > be nga 
ke tabe k\i jia. bise na, j6m e se ngul* ya kui va amu bia bese bi ne 
ayok. m6s kzm mSt a nga 16t v6m ate. ane a nga yen wW 61* 6te. 
nye nya, me ke b6'6* w66. ane a nga ke nyoii nduan ja, ba be b6te 

5 befe. ane m6t ate a nga bet 616 y6p. eyoii a nga ke kui beb6 v6m 
wd6 6 nga to, ane * biom bise bi aldan bi nga Idpe nye. mvd'dm fe 

■ Things which live in the (oreat and which sting. 
> Ngid aigniGes literally "strength" or "power." 

■ B6'6 — literally "to chop out of « hollow tree," whether honey or edfble gniba. etc. 
The word is b6k. It changes to bi'6, when followed by another word, (or eui)baa)r. 

< Atit is untranslatable as used bere. 


Bulu Tales. 215 

£ nga zu ktpe nye. ane a nga ku si, te fe ngule ya bd'd wd^. ve 
mvO'dm & nga kobd melu mese* ve na, ma! ma!* eyon bidm bise 
bi alOan bi nga wd'd ajd te,*be nga jd na, bi a* ye fe tabe va. w6na 
bi nga kdld. mvd'dm ve li'i £tam. m6s mfe ni6t mfe a nga beta ke 
Idte vdm ate, a yene wd£.* nye fe a nga bulan ja a nyoii nduan a 
loene bdte befe. nde be nga ke kdban nduan. m6te wua a nga bet 
£16 y^ vdm wd6 6 nga to. ane a nga dub * nduan abdii. mvd'dm 
fok 6 nga zu a ya ve £ njt bo nye jam, amu bi6m bi aldan bi maneya 
kdld. aso mds ate azukui den, bdt b'abd'd wd£. 


(l) It did happen thus, Honey-Bees and they [all] small things that 
sting [into the] forest (they) did | go [to] live [in one] tree (one). All 
[said] thus, [No] thing (it not) can (to) reach here because we all (we) 
are I fierce. [One] day (one,) Man (he) did pass [that] place (that). 
And so he did see [that] honey-tree (that). | He [said] thus, I [will] 
go chop out [the] honey. And so he did go [to] get fire [from the] 
village, he [and other] people (other). |[ (5) Then [that] man (that, 
he) did climb [up the] tree (up). When he did (go) reach near [the] 
place [where the] j honey (it did stay) [was], [all the] things (all) 
which sting (they) did sting him. [The] Bees too ] (they) did come 
[and] sting him. And so he did fall down, [he was] not again able to 
chop out honey. But | [the] Bees (they) did talk continually thus 
only, III! When [all the] things (all) | which sting (they) did hear 
(them] saying that, they did say thus, We [shall] not (again) [longer] 
remain here. Then || (10) they did leave. (The] Bees [were] left 
alone. [Another] day (another] man (another, he) did again go | pass 
[that] place (that), and saw [the] honey-tree. He also (he) did return 
[to the] village and get fire and | called [the] [other] people (other). 
And so they did go [to] light [a] fire. [One] man (one, he) did climb | 
[up the] tree (up) [to the] place [where the] honey (it did remain) 
[was]. Then he (did) put (in) [the] fire (into the] hollow of the tree. 
[Other] bees | (others, they) did come and became angry; but they 
[did] not do [to] him [any] thing, because things (they) [that] stlng(ing) 
(they finished |1 (15) to go) [had gone] away. (Beginning) [From that] 
day (that) until to-day, people (they) cut out from trees honey. 

■ Udu mat - literally "all the nights," but is ueed only in the aen«e of "daily," 
"every day," or "continually." 

* "Mai Mai" The m ii. In narrating the tale, drawn out In Imitation of the hum of 
the bees. Ma • the penonal pronoun "I," used emphatically. It is "me" unless so 
used. The inference it. of course, that the other insects were offended at the be«>, whose 
humming they interpreted as meaning, "We have driven away the man." 

* A}8 — literally "a saying, word, or' an affair" ("palaver"). 

* A, spoken with rising inflection, algnlfiet negation. 

* Wit [s used both for "honey" and ■ "bee" or "honey-tree." 

* Dup, the t beconiing b, forming the word dub, means liteiall)' "to aoak In water, 
•oak, OTwet:"bence"tow«kthebolknrof the bec-tiee with fire, to kill the bees." 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 



In February, 1920, the following Yao texts were recorded from the 
dictation of Dr. Daniel Malekebu, an educated Bantu, who was then 
living in Philadelphia. Native to the re^on of Blantyre, south of 
Lake Nyasa, Dr. Malekebu has since returned to his people as a 
medical missionary. He speaks English fluently, and the free trans- 
lations of the tales are based upon the word-for-word rendering which 
he gave. No claim to further accuracy can be made, however; and 
the writer is unqualified to offer any detailed linguistic analysis. 
The phonetics of the texts have to some degree been corroborated by 
notes made on thb dialect by Dr. F. G. Speck, through whom I made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Malekebu, and at whose su^estion the 
attempt was made to salvage this bit of African folk-lore. 

The phonetic orthography has the following values: — 


a as in father. 

e like a in fait. 

i aa in pique, 

o as in note. 

u like 00 in boot. 


b, p, d, t, g, k, m, n, B . . . . approximately as in English. 

)) palatal nasal, like ng in Engligh rtfif. 

1 as in English, except before the vowd 

u, when palatalizadon seems to take 

tc, dj surd and sonant prepalatal affricatives, 

like ch in English church, and j in 

w, y semi-vowels. 


Kweleko wakuli wandu wawili, menagowo Italidji akalulu ni akwi- 
tete. Lualine wasosile kudja kutdwambo kusuma iiguo. Nipo 
powayitce kutdwamboko ni wosepe wasumile ijguo, nambo akwitete 
wasumile iiguo djambone, nambo akalulu wasumile iguo djakusakala; 
nipo akalulu walidji waijgakondwa. Powadjawulaga kumaifgwano 


2\t» Folk-Tales from Nyasaland. 217 

akalulu wambuledje akwitete ligotigo i7guo djakusalala. Wandjigele 
ni kumdjotca pamoto. Nambo miasi wakwiwadjasitce pamasamba 
Dt djapavgwitce tddjuni. Ntpo akalulu powagonile tcidjuni tdtca- 
djtmbile nyibo, "wawuledje akwitete ligoiTgo nguo djakusalala akwi- 
tete." Nipo akaluluwawadjikamwile tddjunitd ni kutciulaga. 
Nambo miasi djakwiyadjasitce nt kupai]gania tcidjuni. Nambo 
akalulu powadjesile wadjilekugona son! tcidjunitce tcadjile kwimba 
nyibo djakve, "niwawuledje akwitete ligoi;go nguo djakusalala akwi- 
tete." Powayitce kumust wandu watite, "akwitete alikwapi? " Nipo 
akalulu watite, " awile." Nambo tcidjunitce tcadjimbile nyibo djakwi, 
"niwawumledje akwitete ligoiTgo iiguo djakusalala akwitete." Nipo 
wandu wamkamwile akalulu ni kumbulaga. 


(Once) there were two people. Their names were Mr. Rabbit and 
Mr. Grasshopper. One day they wanted to buy doth at Quilemane; 
and after they arrived at Quilemane, they both bought doth. Mr. 
Grasshopper purchased a very beautiful piece of cloth ; but Mr. Rabbit 
bought a piece of cloth (that was) less beautiful, and Mr. Rabbit was 
unhappy. On their way home Mr. Rabbit killed Mr, Grasshopper 
because of Mr. Grasshopper's beautiful cloth. He took him and 
burned him (the grasshopper) in the fire, but (it happened that) his 
blood was spilled on to a leaf and was transformed into a bird. When 
Mr. Rabbit went to sleep, this bird started to sing a song (over and 
over again): "He has killed Mr. Grasshopper because of Mr. Grass- 
hopper's beautiful doth." (Now,) Mr. Rabbit was able to catch 
this bird, and be killed it; but its blood was spilled, and was (again) 
transformed into a bird. When Mr. Rabbit had walked another day's 
journey, he went to sleep again, and (then) the bird went to singing 
its song (over and over again): "He has killed Mr. Grasshopper 
because of Mr. Grasshopper's beautiful cloth." When Mr, Rabbit 
arrived at the village, the people asked, "Where is Mr, Grasshopper?" 
And Mr. Rabbit replied, "He is dead." But the bird once again 
sang its refrain: "He has killed Mr. Grasshopper because of Mr. 
Grasshopper's beautiful cloth," and the people caught Mr. Rabbit 
and killed him. 

Lualine mwa Africa liakuli lisimba liadjile kwilambo. Ni liyasimene 
mbalapi, nipo lisimbali lidja kamwile mbalapisi, nipo djinebalap! 
djatite, "ndawidjine naga lisimba liitd kwende tuitce makoijgolo getu 
pampepe nipo tumanyane." Nambo lisimba liyaitce kusosa kuijka- 
mula balapi lisimba lipilaitce balaptsi siyatandite kumenyana. Nam- 


2i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

bo lisimba iiganaliulaga. Balapidjine djatite, "naga lisimba liitce 
kwende tuitce mitwe djetu pampepe kai^ga listmba tiliitce tutuminyane 
lisimbali." Lyaitce nipo mbalapisi djawitcile mitwe potnpepe, nipo 
wamanyane ni waliuledje Mmbali. 



One day in Africa there was a lion which went to the plains. And 
he found a zebra, and this lion he caught this zebra. And the other 
zebras they said, "When the lion comes the next time, let us place our 
feet together and kick." (So,) when the lion came waiting again to 
catch the zebras, they (got togedier and) b^an to kick. But they 
did not succeed in killing the lion. One of the zebras then said, 
"When the lion comes, let us put our heads tc^therl We shall 
(then) kick the lion when he comes." He (the lion) came; and (this 
time) the zebras placed their heads together, and they kicked and 
they killed the lion. 


Short Notes on Soul-Trapping in Southern Nigeria. 2ig 



Tbe object of the present communication * is to record certain 
observations concerning the trapping of a man's ukpdfl, or bush-soul 
as it is more commonly called, in the E6k area, southern Nigeria, 
West Africa. The whole question of the religious beliefs of the natives 
of certain tribes in southern Nigeria appears to be a complex one, 
more especially with r^;ard to their ideas concerning the functions of 
the soul.* In the present paper I propose to refer only to that entity 
which has been called the "bush-soul." 

According to Miss Kingsley,* the Efik believe that every person is 
endowed with four distinct souls,* one of which is external and dwells 
in wild-beast form. This external soul may only exist in any wild 
animal, but never in one domesticated or in a plant.* 

In order that a man may know the nature of his bush-soul, he 
invokes the aid of a wizard, who, according to the amount of payment 
given, will designate any animal he thinks may be desired. Thereafter 
tbe connection between the man and the animal is both close and 
intimate. For example, a leopard was captured in Old Town, Calabar, 
on the iSth of October, I9l5t and an old man appeared before the 
authorities and claimed that the animal was the possessor of his 
bush-soul. He begged that it might be released, but permission was 
refused. He then asked that he might be allowed to measure it with 
a length of rope, and as a final request asked that he might be allowed 
to strike it with his fist before it was shot. Alt these requests were 
recognized as subterfuges, in order to allow the animal to escape when 
the door of the cage was opened. 

> The fnformatlon coatatned In these noteawu collected at Calabar in 1918. For 
pennl«ion to cooault his notes 1 have to thank the Rev. J. K. MacGregor of that town. 

■ J. G. Praier, The Golden Bough, Balder the Beautiful. 3 (t9>3) = 304-306; (Mlta) 
11. Klngdey, Travels In West Africa (1897). 459-4<^i; J- Parkinson, "Notes on the 
Bfik Belief in Bush-M>ul" (Man. 6 [1906) : No. So); A. E. Crawley, The Idea of the 
Soul. 1909. 

• Ankermann does not contlder that the Efik have four touU. He sayi. "Ich halte 
dtese Teilung tOr IirtQmllch imd verwelse demgegenaber auf die litlerte Bemerkung 
Nassaus Qber die veischledenen ErBcheinungaformen der Seele; die erste, dritte und vierte 
Seele Miss KlngsleyB slnd jedenfallt elne und dasaeIbe."~"Totenkult und Seelenglaube 
bel Afrikanlacben VOIkem" (Zeitachr. fOr Ethnol., 1918 : iia). 

' J. G. Fraser, of. «A., 305- 


220 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Concerning the Efik belief in the external soul, Goldie > says that 
the "ukpong is the native word we have taken to translate our word 
'soul.' It primarily signifies the shadow of a person. It also signifies 
that which dwells within a man, on which his life* depends, but which 
may detach itself from the body, and, visiting places here and there, 
again return to its abode in the man. Besides all this, the word is 
used to designate an animal possessed of an ukpong, so connected with 
a person's ukpong, so they mutually act upon each other. When the 
leopard or crocodile, or whatever animal may be a man's ukpong, 
gets sick or dies, the like thing happens to him. Many individuals, 
it is believed, have the power of changing into the animals which are 
their ukpong." 

To trap a man's soul, the wizard {abiaidififl) learns from all possible 
sources what are his proposed victim's chief desires. This is done 
generally by an enemy, who conveys the informatidn to the wizard. 
The two then go to a secluded spot in the forest. A cock is held up 
by the wizard, and the soul is called to come for the thing which is 
most de^red. Sometimes this is the name of a favored girl, some 
particular food, or material wealth. The wizard then holds up a 
wooden dish (aqua); and if the soul has not come and lodged in it, 
use must be made of some other favored desire. When the wizard 
considers that the ukpdH is in the dish, it is speared. 

As a mail has an animal as well as a human ukpdfl, it is the former 
which Is trapped and speared. If the ukpdH of a leopard is sought, 
parts of the body of this animal would be used to trap it. Sometimes 
the ukpdH is not killed outright, but only wounded. In such a case 
the man whose ukp&H has been trapped will become seriously ill. 
If the ukpdfl is killed, then the human ukpdfl will sever its connection 
with the man's body and go straight to the home of the dead (obio 
ekpo). There is thus a real and sympathetic relationship between the 
animal and its ukpdfl. It is the latter which is captured by the wizard, 
the animal itself remaining in the forest. It is believed that only a 
wizard can see the ukp6fi, and it is not every wizard who has the 
ability to trap it. 

When the ukpotl has been injured, the man affected immediately 
makes inquiries, and consults a rival wizard, who, by means of "medi- 
cine," endeavors to find out who has trapped the ukpdfl. In one way 
or another, in which money may be spent freely, the identity of the 
trapper is ascertained. In many cases a family feud results after a 
man's ukpdfl has been injured. If the guilty person is found, he is 
forced to undei^o the mbiam test, and be judged by the tribal au- 
thorities. If all the facts are not brought to light, the wizard is 
compelled to reveal the whole affair. 

< H. Goldie. Calabar and its Mission (Edinburgh and London. 1901). Si-Jt. 


Short Notes on Soul-Trapping in Soi^hern Nigeria. 221 

It is poemble for a man to have more than one animal ukpSH; 
but this is not common, except in the case of chiefs. Bueh-souls may 
also be inherited. 

An ukpdH may be purchased, but in no case may a man have more 
than one inherited and one purchased ukpoH. To purchase an ukpdH 
the wizard is approached, and informed of the man's deare, and on 
the payment of a heavy sum of money this desire is generally gratified. 
It may be used to make a man strong or rich, or to harm a rival or 
enemy. For ecample, the owner of a large flock of sheep or goats is 
envied by a neighbor, who purchases a leopard ukpsn, which will 
result in the real animal destroying them. In this way the power of 
the purchased ukpOH may be stronger than that of the inherited one, 
because it can be chosen for a definite purpose. If a man enjoys 
good or indifferent health, if he is poor or rich, it is all the result of 
his having a corresponding ukpdtl. The inherited ukpSH may die; 
and in this case the man will weaken, but not die. If the purchased 
uipdH dies, then the man will weaken and die. 

The animal ukpSH is transferable. If a man has a bush-cat (ikiko) 
ukpdfl, and it is trapped, "medicine" is made in order that the trapper 
may become forgetful. If the actual animal dies, then Its ukpoA may 
be transferred to some other animal. I was unable to find out what 
are the beliefs concerning the duality of the ukpoH in animals. 

Frazer ' says that when a man dies, then the animal which contains 
his external soul "becomes insensible and quite unconscious of the 
approach of danger. Thus a hunter can capture or kill him with ease." 

It is believed that everything, both animate and inanimate, is 
endowed with an ukpdH. Thus, when a chief died in the Efik area, 
he was buried with his women slaves and personal belongings, the 
ukpda of all these bdng believed necessary to the a)mfort of the 
chief's ghost in the home of the dead (obio ekpo). Included among 
the slaves was the woman (akani ukpohort) who tended the late 
chief's boxes and kept the key of his money-box. Her right hand was 
bored, and the keys thrust through the opening; the woman who 
tended the lights had a native lamp attached to her right hand in a 
like manner. In addition to slaves, all the late chief's personal 
belongings were buried with his body, in order that their ukpdff might 
accompany his ghost to the home of the dead. 

The explanation of the Efik belief in the bush-soul is somewhat 
di£Bcult to understand. Frazer * considers that here we seem to have 
something like the personal totem "on its way to become hereditary, 
and so grow into the totem of a clan." 

Ankermann considers that the evidence at present is insufficient, 

' J. G. Frazer, o#. cil., 3os-Jo6. ■ Ibid., na (note). 


222 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

but that there appear to be traces of sex totemism. Further, if, as 
Frazer * thinks from information supplied by Mr. Henshaw, a man 
may only many a woman with the same sort of bush-soul, then w« 
have an example of totemic endogamy. 

Bbistol. Encland. 

1 J.G.Fiaier, of. eil., aaj. "... A man may only maiTy a woman who baa the same 
mt of bush-eoul aa himself; for example, if his btuh-Mul is a leopBrd, bis wife must also 
have a leopard for her biuh-soul. Furtliet, we learn . . . that a person's bush-soul netd 
not be that either of his father or of his mother. For example, a child with a hippopotamm 
for his bush-^iul may be bora into a family, ail tlte members of which have wild plft 
for their iHuh-ooiUs; this liappens when the clilld is a reincarnation of a man whose ^^"twI 
soul was a lilppopotamus." 


Nepo Spirituals from the Far South. 



The Negro spirituala of slavery times were composed in the fidda, 
in the Idtdien, at the loom, in the cabin at night, and were inspired 
by some aad or awe-inspiring event. The death of a beloved one, 
even one of the master's family, the hardness of a master or his cruelty, 
the selling of friends or rdatives, and heart-rending se{)arations, a 
camp>meeting, a great revival, the sadness and loneliness of old age, 
unusual phenomena such as the bursting of a comet, — any of these 
might be sources of in^iration. 

Negro folk-song maJdng still goes on. The "Titanic" sank on 
Sunday, April 14, 1913. The following' Sunday I saw on a train a 
blind [Hcacher selling a ballad he had composed on the disaster. The 
title was "Didn't that ship go down?" I remember one stanza: — 

"God Almighty talked like a natural man. 
Spoke so the people could understand." 

To-day spirituals divide themselves roughly into r^:ular service 
scmgs, class or covenant meeting songs, and prayer-meeting songs. 
The service songs are usually sung to slow time, and are soft and 
melodious. By "service" I mean the preaching-service. The audi- 
ence must be led up to a point of fervor and sympathy for the sermon. 
The songs reveal struggles passed through during the last week or 
mooth by the members. The earnest and touching "amena," the 
moans and frequent interruptions from voices in the midst of the 
amg, expressing faith, telling of triumphs over troubles and of ordeals 
passed Uirough, go down to the fundamentals of Negro religious life. 

" What trials have we seen. 
What conflku have we passed. 
Fightings without and fears within, 
Snce we assembled last?" 

This stanza is a quotation, not from a ^iritual, but from a hymn that 
is much loved by Nt^ro churoh congr^ations; for the Negro, with a 
few changes in time and tone, and an adaptation of various other 
parts of hymns to suit his taste, has slightly turned many of the 
standard church-hymns into modified spirituals. 
A growing sentiment for standard and classical mu«c, both in 
li and social life, is tending to push the spirituala into the back- 


224 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

ground. They must go, in fact. Many, many years will pass by, of 
course, before they will be forgotten and have fallen into complete 
disuse by the rural church, and in the church of the masses in the 
cities even; nevertheless they are passing away. They are almost 
entirely discarded to-day by the 61ite church of the race. They have 
no striking meaning for the spirit and life of the forward and intelligent 
groups of Negroes of to-day. 

(A fragment.) 
This time another year 
I may be gone in some lonesome graveyard, 
Lord! how long? 

{A fragment.) 
When the moon go down in a purple stream, 
Purple stream, 
And the sun refuse to shine, 
And every star shall disappear, 
King Jesus will be mine. 

(-4 fragment.) 
Dark clouds is er risin'. 
Thunder-balls er bursdn'; 
King Jesus come er ridin' 'long 
Wid er rainbo' 'cross his shoulders. 

Don't care wher' yer bury my body. 
Don't care wher' yer bury my body. 
Don't care wher' yer bury my body; 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine. 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine. 

Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden. 
Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden. 
Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden; 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine! 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine! 

I wish that heaven was mine, 
I wish that heaven would be mine, 
I wish that heaven was mine; 
Oh, save me, Lord, save me! 


Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 

I called to my brother, 
My brother hearkened to me, 
The laa' word I heard him say 
Wa«, "Save me, Lord, save me !" 
I wish that heaven was mine, etc. 


Dead and gone, dead and gone, 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My dear mother died a-sfaoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor brother died a-shoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor sister died a-shoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor father died a-shoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor Elder died a-shoutin'. 

All the friend 1 have's dead and gone. 

In the mornin' when I rise. 
In the mornin' when I rise. 
In the momis' when I rise. 
Give roe Jesus. 

Give me Jesus, give me Jesus; 
You may have all this world, 
Give me Jesus. 

Ef it's 'fore day when I rise, 
Ef it's 'fore day when I rise. 
El it's 'fore day when I rise. 
Give me Jesus. 

* A very popular class-meeting song. 


226 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Ef it's midnight when I rise, 
Ef it '8 midnight when I rise, 
Ef it's midnight when I rise. 
Give me Jesus. 


Where shall I be when the first trumpet sounds, 
Where I be when it sounds so loud. 
It sounds so loud till it wake up the dead; 
Oh, where shall I be when it sounds? 

Moses, Moses, he did live till he got old. 
Where shall I be? 

He was buried in the mountain, so I'm told. 
Where shaU I be? 

Joshua was the son of Nun, 
Where shall I be? 

Prayed for the Lord to Stop the sun, 
Where shaU I be? 

<" !■ those diys came John the BaptUt, preadUng in the wOdemeM U Judca, 1 
ayiOf, Repoit 3>«: (or the klosdom of heaven is at hand."— Matt. UL i. a.) 

And halleluyer, good Lordl 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 

I heard Rachel cry, 
Heard Rachel cry. 
Heard Rachel cry. 

What Rachel cryin' erbout? 
What's Rachel cryin' erbout? 
What's Rachel cryin' erbout? 

She's cryin' erbout her child, 
She's cryin' erbout her child, 
She's cryin' erbout her child. 

What's the matter with her child? 
What's the matter with her child? 
What's the matter with her child? 

Oh, the Icing's gain' slay her child, 
The king's goin' slay her child. 
The king's goin' slay her child. 


Negro Spirituals from the Far SouA. 2: 

Oh, the Lord's goin' save her child. 
Not, the Lord's gcnn' save her child, 
Now, the Lord's goin' save her child. 

Oh, halleluyer, good Lord! 
Hatleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lordi 

Ob, the old Ark's er-movin', movin', movia', 
The old Ark's er-movin', movin' erlong. 

Heaven's so high, heaven's bo high. 
None can enter but the sanctified. 

When I git to heaven, be able to tell. 
Two archangds gmn' tone one bell. 

When I git to heaven, ain't I gwn' to shout, 
Nobody dare can take me out. 

C But they that wait apon the Lord aholl renew their ttieiigth; they ihall mo) 
p with whi^ M easlea; they ihsll run, and not be wcsry; and they ihall walk, ■ 
ot taint."— lauAM zl. 31.) 

Go, Mary, go! Run, Martha, run! 
Go tell de Lord I am on my way. 

Got my 'ligion in de bard time, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Got my 'ligion in de hard time; 
'Member dyin' day. 


Don't care what you call me, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Don't care what you call me, 
'Member dyin' day. 


Call me a slothful member, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Call me a slothful member; 
'Member dyin' day. 



238 Journal of American Ftdk-Lore. 

Can me a long-tongue liar, 
Jeaus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Call me a long-tongue liar, 
'Member dyin' day. 


("Let not rour heart be troubled, uettber let it be afrkld. ... I so unte 
Patber: ttx my Father la greater than L" — Sr. Jobk «iv. aj. a8.) 

Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go, 
To ease a my troubled mind? 

Go to God 

To ease my troublM mind, 

Go to God 

To ease a my troublfid mind. 

Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go. 
Where shall I go. 
To ease a my troubled mind? 

In the valley 

To ease my troubled mind. 

In the valley 

To ease a my troubIM mind. 

Where shall I go, etc. 

On my knees, etc. 

(" The Lord God called unto Adam, and nOd unto him. Where art thou? " — 
lli. 9.) 

Lord called Adam, 
Adam refused to answer; 
De secon' time he called him. 
He said, "Lord, here am I!" 

Little chil'un, you'd better b'lieve; 
U'm mos' don' worryin' wid de crosses; 
Little chil'un, you'd better b'lieve. 
Try ter git home to heb'n by am by. 


N€ff9 SpiritmahSrom &e Far South, 119 

Mcr knee-boDes is o'^ftdua*. 
Mer body's rackin' wid de pain, 
I b'li«ve ter in«r soul U'm a chile of God. 
And beb'a is er my aim.* 

14. h&stek's in db field.* 
Sister, carry de oewa on, 
Ma«ter'a in de field; 
Sister, carry de nem on, 
Master's in de field. 

Pray iodependen', pray bold, 
Master's in de field; 
Pray independen'. pray bold. 
Master's in dc field. 

Brother, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field; 
Brother, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field. 

Walk independen', walk bold. 
Master's in de field; 
Walk independen', walk bold. 
Master's in de field. 

Elder, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field; 
Elder, carry de news on, 
HaAer's in de field. 

Sbont independen', riwut bold. 
Master's i> de field; 
Shorn tndependea', shout bold. 
Master's in de field. 

15. VAu. am MEx Ktms asd pkat. 

Sister Mary was walkia' in de gardea. 

Wi4«ri3' de wikcrtd plants; 

Sbc pst <;o 4« -wings ot Nook's don, 

^dt a 7'^: loos trai beUad, 

A ir-st ■ j-.~^ craS fcehnd her, 

Jbut a p'CaE loag iraa bchtad. 


30 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Fall on mer kneea and pray-a<a, 
Fall on mer knees and pray. 
Fall on mer knees and pray-a-Bi 
Fall on mer knees and pray. 

i6. i'h coin' i;p hove. 

("AQ the day* of my appointed time will I wait, till my cbange come."— Job sir. 14.) 
Oh, wait dll my change comes! 
I'm goin' up home. 
Oh, wait till my change comea! 
I'm goin' up home on de doud. 

Moses, Moses, he did live till he got old; 
Died in de mountain, so I'm told. 

H for Hannah, how happy was she. 
Walking on de pillan of Galilee! 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
Tell me where my Saviour't gone. 


Pluck one block out uv Satan's wall. 
Heard stumble, and I saw him fall. 

17. that's another WITNSSS for JfT LORD. 
Read In Gene»s, you understand, 
Methus'lah was de oldest man. 
Lived nine hundred and dxty-nlne, 
Died and went to heaven in due time. 

Methus'lah was a witness for my Lord, 
Methus'lah was a witness for my Lord. 

You read about Sampson from his birth, 
Strongest man that lived on de earth; 
'Way back yonder in ancient times. 
He slayed three thousand of de Philistines. 

Sampson he went wandering about. 

For his strength hadn't been found out; 

His wife dropped down upon her knees. 

Said, "Sampson, tell me where your strength lies, pleaae." 


Negro Spiriiuals from the Far South. 331 

Delila talked ao good and fair; 
He told her his strength lie in his hair; 
"Shave my head just as clean as your bands. 
And my strength'!! be like a cachual man's." 

Wasn't that a witness for my Lord? 
Wasn't that a witness for my Lord? 

Isaiah, mounted on de wheel o' time. 
Spoke to God Ennighty way down de line: 
Said, "O Lord! to me reveal 
How can this vile race be healed?" 

God said, "Tell de sons of men 

Unto them'll be bom a Icing. 
Them that believe upon his way, 
They shall rest in de latter day." 

Isaiah was a witness for my Lordt 
Isaiah was a witness for my Lord. 

There was a man amongst de Pharisers 
Named Nicodemus, and he didn't believe; 
He went to the Master in de night, 
And told him to talce him out er human nght. 

"You are de Christ, I'm sure it's true. 
For none do de miracles dat you do; 
But bow can a man now old in sin 
Turn back still and be bom again?" 

Christ said, "Man, if you want to be wise, 
You'd better repeat and be baptized; 
Believe on me, de Son of Man, 
Then you will be born'd again." 

An' you'll be a witness. 

sisterl won't you help me? 
astert won't you help me to pray? 
sistert won't you help me. 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

I'm er-rollia', I'm er-roUin', 

I'm er-roUin', through ao unfriendly world; 

I'm er-rollin', I'm er-rollin'. 

Through an unfriendly world. 


Journal <^ American Folk-Lore. 

O brother! woa't you hdp me? 
O brother! won't you help me to pray? 
O brother! won't you help me, 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

O preacher! won't you hdp me? 

O preacher! won't you help me to pray? 

O preacher! won't you help me, 

Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

O mourner! won't you help me? 
O mourner! won't you help me to pray? 
O mourner! won't you help me. 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

Christian! won't you help me? 
Christian! won't you help me to pray? 
Christian! won't you help me. 
Won't you help me in tbe service of the Lord? 

Wasn't that er tryin' time with the siniier? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the dnner? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the rinner? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

What you goin' to do when the worid's on fire? 
What you goin' to do when the world's on fire? 
What you goin' to do when the world's on fire? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Don't you see that fire er-boiiln*? 
Don't you see that fire er-boilin'? 
Don't you see that fire er-boilia'? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Oh, what er tryin' timel 


Nggro spirituals from the Far South. 3^ 

("And Jacob went out from Beodieba. uid went toward Hartn. . . , And bi 
vmawd. ind bebokt a l«dder aet up on the earth, and the top of It reatjied to heavien 
id bdtold the Mifel* of God aacendloK and deacendlog on tt." — Gin. zzviU. to-ta^ 

Oh, when U'm dead and buried, 

Don't yer grieve after me; 

When U'm dead and buried, 

Oh, I don' wan' yn to grieve after me! 

We're climbin' Jacob's ladder, 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
We're climbin' Jacob's ladder. 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
We're climbin' Jacob'* ladder, 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
Oh, t don' want yer grieve after mel 

Every round gits higher and higher, 

Don' yer grieve after me; 

Every round gits higher and higher, 

I see my Jcaus comin', don't yer grieve after me, etc. 

All er my nna are taken erway, 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
All er my nns are taken erway. 
Oh, glory to His name ! 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 

Sister Mary wore three links of chain, 
^ter Mary wore three links of chain. 
Sister Mary wore three links of chain, 
Every link had Jesus' name. 
All er my nns are Uken erway. 
Taken erway. 


If I had er died when I was young, 
I had er died when I was young. 
If I had er died when I was young, 
I wouldn't have had this race to run. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 



Journal of American Folk- Lore, 

The tallest tree in Paradise, 

The tallest tree in Paradise. 

The tallest tree in Paradise, 

The Christians call it the tree of life. 

All er my uns are taken erway. 

Taken erway. 


As I went down in the valley to pray. 
As I went down in the valley to pray, 
I went down in the valley to pray, 
I went down in the valley to pray. 
My soul got happy and I staid all day. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 


If I had wings like Noah's dove. 
If I had wings like Noah's dove. 
If I had wings like Noah's dove, 
I'd fly away to the world above, 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 


Good-momin', good-mornin'! 
Jine de momin* bandl 
Good-momin', good-moroin'I 
Good-momin', good-momin'] 
Jine de momin' bandl 

Oh, run eriong, mourner, and ^t your o 
Jine de momin' band 1 
By your Father's side set down, 
Jine de momin' band I 

Look up yonder what I see, 
Jine de mornin' bandl 
A band of angels after me, 
Jine de momin' band! 

Shout, my dster, fer you are free, 
Jine de momin' band! 
Fer God's done bought your liberty, 
Jine de momin' band! 


Nepo Spirituals from the Far South. 

33. thbbb's bk uttlb wheel er-rollin' in hy heart. 

^ There's er little wheel er-rollin' in my heart, 
There's er little wheel er-rollin' in my heart. 
There's a little wheel er-rollin' in my heart. 
An' surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

I'm er-prayin' fer my brother in my heart, 
I'm er-prayin' fer my brother in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my brother in my heart, 
An' surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

I'm prayin' fer ray sister in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my sister in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my sister in my heart. 
An* surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

34. i'h bk fore uttlb orphan chile in de world. 
I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl', 
Chile in de worl', 
I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl', 
I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl'; 
Good Lord! I cannot stay here by myself. 

My mother an' father both are dead. 

Both are dead, etc. 

De train done whistled, and de cars are gone, 
Cars are gone, etc. 

My brothers an' dsters all are gone. 

All are gone, etc. 

I got my ticket fer de train, 

Fer de train, etc. 

25. there's love-feast in heaven to-dat. 
Hail, oh, haill Hail, oh, haU! 
Hail, oh, haUl 
There's love-feast in the heaven to-day. 


336 Journal of American Foik-Lore. 

God &mighty »poke to Brother Jonah one day, 
Love-feast ici the heaven to-day; 
He told Brother Jonah to go hia way, 
Love-feast in the heaven to-day. 

I looked towards the Northen pole. 
Love-feast in heaven to-day; 
I saw dark clouds and fire roll. 
Love-feast in heaven to-day. 

Oh, look up yonder what I see. 
Love-feast in heaven to-day; 
A band of angels after me, 
Love-feast in heaven to-day. 

26. don' git wbart. 

Christiaiis, don't git weary. 
Christians, don't git weary. 
Christians, don't git weary. 
For the work is 'most done. 

I have a brother over yonder, 
I have a brother over yonder, 
I have a brother over yonder, 
For the work is 'most done. 

Brother, don't git weary. 
Brother, don't git weary. 
Brother, don't git weary, 
For the work is 'most done. 

Big carap-meetin' over yonder, 
Big camp-meetin' over yonder. 
Big camp-meetin' over yonder. 
For the work is 'most done- 
Elder, don't git weary. 
Elder, don't git weary. 
Elder, don't git weary. 
For the work is 'most done. 

I have a mother over yonder, 
I have a mother over yonder, 
I a mother over yonder, 
For the work is 'most done. 


Nepo Spirituals from the Far South. 237 


(A Fragmenl.) 
By an' by I shall see Jesus, 
By aa' by I shall see Jesus, 
By an' by I shall see Jesus, . 
In that land over there. 


{A Fragmmt.) 

Arise, O mourner! I been down and tried. 

Arise, O mourner! I been down and tried. 

I done been up, and I done been down, 

Been down and tried, 

I done been upon de groun', 

I been down and died. 

Arise, mourner! etc. 


This melody embodies in words and music the elemental fervor and 
emotion characteristic of the Negro. The notes are inimitably soft 
and soothing, with moderate time. The refrain may be stmg in solo 
or unison. It is one of the old and now exceedingly popular Negro 
songs, and is most frequently asked for by white auditors who vi^t 
Negro schools, colleges, and public entertainments with programmes 
of a literary and religious nature. 

Swing low, sweet chariot, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
Swing low, sweet chariot, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 

I looked over Jordan, an' what did I see, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
A band of angels comin' alter me, 
Comin' for to cany me home! 

If you get there before I do, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
Jes' tell my friends I'm comin' too, 
Comin' for to carry me home ! • 



238 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I'm sometimes up, an' sometimes down, 
Comin' for to carry me home; 
But still my soul feels heavenward bound, 
Comin' for to carry me home. 



("For an angel' went down at a certain seaaon Into the pool, and troubled tlw water: 

whosoever then first after the troubllns o( the water stepiied in wa* made whole of what- 

■oever dlwaae he bad." — ST. Jobn v. 4.) 

Come down, angel, and trouble the water. 
Come down, angel, and trouble the water. 
Come down, angel, and trouble the water, 
O rock er my aoull 

Before I'd lay in hell one day, 

rock er my soul ! 

r ung an' pray my soul ervay, 

rocker my soul! 


1 love to shout, I love to sing, 

rock er my soul! 

1 love to praise my heavenly King, 
rock er my soul! 

Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 
Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 
Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 

rocker my soul! 

1 think I hear the sinner say, 
O rocker my soul! 

My Saviour taught me how to pray, 
O rocker my soul! 


Jesus told me once before, 
O rock er my soul ! 
To "go in peace an' sin no more," 
O rock er my soul ! 
• (Chorus.) 

> Not "anseli," ai it is often rendered, but "angeL" 


Negf^o Spirituals from the Far South. 239 

I hope to meet my brother there, 
rock er my bouU 
That used to join me here in prayer, 
rock er my Boult 


GbservaHons and Cemmtnt. — I do not think the early rendition of 
this old and popular spiritual by the early Fisk Jutnlee Singers was 
strictly true, either to words or music. This would be expected, as 
the original would be exceedingly difficult to put to mu^c. There are, 
in fact, no keys and chords that a)uld fully comprehend many of 
these mdodies. The only true and exact rendition would have to be 
made by the use of the graphophone. Different sections of the South 
have different renditions, of course, as most of the sfMrituals have, 
varying but slightly usually in both words and music. The above 
rendition or wording differs from the Flsk Singers' rendition, and I 
believe it more true to the ordinal song. It is provincial to Misassippi, 
Louisiana, and western Alabama. 

Coin' stand on the walls of Zion 
An' view that ship come sailin', 
Goin' stand on the walls of Zion, 
To see it give erway. 

BrotherB, ain't you mighty glad 
Coin' to leave this sinful army? 
Brothers, ain't you mighty glad 
To see it give erway? 

^ters, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 

Mourners, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 

Christians, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 


The words and music are by Rev. Charles P. Jones, noted Evangelist 
and Bong-vrriter, of Christ Church, Jackson, Miss. Here may be 
seen an evolution in N^ro spirituals, the irresistible influence of 
higher contact with the white man, and the effect of education and 



»40 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

changing social and religious conditions of the Negro. Dr. Jones is 
one of the most eloquent and unique characters in the Negro pulpit 
to-day; and be has filled some of the most distinguished white pulpits, 
both North and South. His religious fervor, implicit faith in a 
literal interpretation of the Scriptures, education and natural ability, 
have given him a national r^utation. 

("For wbatMCver a nutn towetfa, that sluUl he nlao nap." — Go,, vi. 7.) 

Reap what we bow! Oh, BQlemn thought, 
With what an awful meaning fraught! 
Yet iurely we to judgment go 
To reap just what in life we sow. 

Yes, reap just what we sow; 
Let's mind, then, what we do; 
'Tis God's decree for you and me 
To reap just what we bow. 

Reap what we sow! Oh, when and where 
Shall this reward so sure appear? 
Beginning in God's church foi^v'n, 
'Twill end in either hell or heav'n. 

Reap what we sow! No wealth or power 
Can help us in that judgment hour, 
Except the wealth of faith ak>ne: 
We're sure to reap what we have sown. 

Reap what we sow! O God of grace! 
Pardon us ere we meet Thy face! 
Grant UB full cleansing from all dn, 
The Spirit place our hearts within. 

Reap what we sow! Oh, grant that we 
Sow to the Spirit constantly. 
That when we shall to judgment go 
We'll reap just what in life we sow. 

33. it's me, o lord! standin' in de need of pkaybk. 

("Lrt my prayer come before tbee: Incline thine ear unto my t»y."— ft. IsorriU. a.) 
It's me, it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer; 
It's me, it's me, Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer. 


Nepo Spirituals from the Far South. 241 

It'a not my brother. 
But it's me, O Lord ! 
Standin' in de need of prayer; 
It's not my brother. 
But it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer. 

It's not my sister, etc. 

It's not my elder, etc 

It's not my mother, etc. 

The reader will notice the a>n8tant recurrence of "mother," 
"brother," "Mster," and "elder," This is common in the Negro 
spirituals. The word "Brother," "Sister," may refer to a fellow- 
member in the church, or a brother or sister by blood. "Elder" is 
the title usually applied to the minister in the humbler type of churches 
and the less educated group. " Mother," the word dear to all peoples, 
is not less dear to the lowly or the proud of colored race. 


("And I beard the number of them which were settled: and there were lealed an 

hundred and lorty and four thouwnd." — Rev. vll, 4.) 


John saw the Holy Number, 

'Way in de middle of de air; 

John saw de Holy Number, 

'Way in de middle of de air. 

I got er little book, 
Gwi' read it through, 
'Way in de middle o' de air; 
I got Jesus well as you, 
'Way in de middle of de air. 

Come over, then, 
John saw de Holy Number, etc. 

Some er des mornin's bright and fair, 
'Way in de middle o' de air, 
Gwi' hitch on my wings 
And try de air, 
'Way in de middle of de air. 



343 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

If yer wan' er dream dem heabenly dreams, 
'Way in de middle of de air, 
Jcb' lay your head on Jordan's stream, 
'Way in de middle of air. 

("O ye dry booes. hear the word o[ the Lord. . . . Behold, I will cause bteatb to enter 
Into 70U, and ye shall live: . . . and as t prophesied, there ms a ncrise, and behold t 
shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone." — BtSKm. xzxtII. 4-7.) 

Most of the spirituals are founded on some striking Bible incident 
or character, the sequence of which incident or life gives comfort to 
the "traveler from earth to glory," 

O little child'un! 
O little child'un! 
little chitd'un! 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergio. 

Some go ter meetin' fer to sing an' shout. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ei^n; 
'Fore six months dey's all turned out. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin, 

Talk erbout me, but 'taint my fault. 
Dry bones gwine ei rise ergin; 
Me God Ermighty gwine er walk an' talk, 
Dry bones gwine «r rise ergin. 

If you 'spect ter git heab'n when you dies. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin, 
Better stop your tongue frum tellin' lies, 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

Got my breastplate, sword, and shiel', 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin, 
Gwine boldly marchin' through de fiel', 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 


Neffo Spirituals from the Far Souffi. 243 

36. thbbb's ek wheel in de middle de wheel. 

("The kpfieuaiice of the wbeela and their work wtu like unto the colour of a beryl; 
•nd tlie7 four had one llkeneas: and their appearance and their work was M tt were ■ 
wheel in the middle of a wbecL" — Eikkiii. L i6.) 

There's er wheel in de middle of de wheel, 
'Zeldel saw de wheel: 
There's er wheel id de middle of de wheel, 
'Zekiel saw de wheel. 

Well, de little wheel represent Jesus Christ, 
'Zeldel saw de wheel; 
And de big wheel represent God Himself, 
'Zeldel saw de wheel. 


("And be Mid unto bint, Ariae, £0 tby way: thy faith hath made thee whole." — 
LvkextU. 19.) 

This is a very popular class-meeting song with the Methodists. 
The tone cA the song is slow, rhythmic, and mellow, soothing and 
cotnforting to the pilgrim who has resolved to be courageous and hopeful 
under his struggles toward "Heaven an' immortal glory." 

All I want, 
All I want,. 
All I want. 
Is a little more faith in Jesus. 

Oh, run 'long, mourner, and git your crown, 
A little more faith in Jesus; 
By your Father's side set down, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 

My father says it is the best, 
A little more faith in Jesus, 
To live and die a Methodest, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 

I love my brother,' yes, I do, 
A little more faith in Jesus; 
I hope my brother loves me too, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 
* " Brother " ia here used ai a mrmber of the church of the Kune faith and order. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I love the Lord, he heard me cry, 
A littJe more faith In Jeaue; 
And I'm gwi' trust him till I die. 
A little more faith tn Jesus. 

38. com' 'er roce trouble over. 

Gtnn' er rock trouble over, 
I believe, 

Rock trouble over, 
I believe; 

Coin' er rock trouble over, 
I believe that Sabbath has no end. 

I wouldn't be a sinner, 

Tell you de reason why, 

'Frald de good Lord might call me. 

And I wouldn't be ready to die. 

I think I got religion, 
I believe, 
Think I got religion, etc. 

Lord, I want to be like Jesus 
In er my heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be like Jesus, 
In er my heart. 

In my hearti In my heart! 
Lord, I want to be like Jesus 
In er my heart. 

Lord, I don' 'ant to be like Judas 
In my heart, in er my heart. 
Lord, I don' 'ant to be like Judas 
In er my heart. 


Lord, I want to be more holy 
In my heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be more holy 
In er my heart. 



JVegro Spirituals from the Fat South. 245 

Lord, I want to be a Christian, 
In er ny heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be a Christian 
In er my heart. 


This is perhaps one of the oldest of the most popular of the Negro 
spirituals. Of its otact origin, locality, and authorship, no one knows 
definitely. It was very probably composed in some of the far South- 
em States, — not unlikely Lousiana, South Carolina, Geoigia, or 
Mississippi, possibly Virginia. The origin of this song is said by 
some to have been on the Red River in Louisiana. This is possible, 
but it is difficult to establish exact date and place of the origin of the 
oldest of these melodies. The swing, rhythm, soothing melody, the 
heart-searching pathos of its sentiment and tone, were bom of a patient 
and suffering soul, — one whose joy here was founded upon a hope of 
relief from suffering here and an entering into joy on the other side. 
It was also likely composed in cotton, rice, or cane fields. It combines 
with the swing of the body tn u»ng the hoe. The "steal away" likely 
meant stealing off down in the woods or into a valley to pray. Prayer, 
on the part of the slave, often meant dissatisfaction with his lot as a 
slave; but the meaning <A the words was often bidden by sharp tums 
from the facts in mind. Slaves were not infrequently punished for" 
praying. It was thought in some way, possibly, to have the power of 
bringing the condemnation of God upon the system of slavery. But 
singing was necessary for the dull, heavy, monotonous life of the slave. 
This melody has been sung all over the English-speaking world and in 
other tongues. 


Steal away, steal away. 

Steal away home to Jesus! 

Steal away, steal away home! 

I ain't got long to stay here. 

My Lord calls roe. 
He calls roe by the thunder. 
The truropet sounds In er my soul: 
I ain't got long to stay here. 

Green trees er-bendin'. 
Pore unoera stan' er-tremblin', 
The trumpet soun's in er roy soul: 
I un't got long to stay here. 



246 Joumtd oj American Fdk-Lore. 

Tombstones er-buratin'. 
Pore sinners stan' er-tremblin'. 
The trumpet soun's in er my soul: 
I ain't got long to stay here. 


Save roe, save roe, roy Lord I 
Save me, save from sinking downl 

If I had er died when I was young. 
Save me from nnking down! 
I wouldn't have had this risk to run, 
Save me froro anldng downl 

Ever since my Lord has set free. 
Save me from rinking downl 
This old world has been a hell to me. 
Save me from dnldn' downl 

Soroetimes I hang my head and cry. 
Save me from sinldn' downt 
But I'm goin' serve God till I die. 
Save me from nnldn' down! 

42. good-night! the lord's ek-cohin*. 

Good-night! the Lord's er-comin', 
Good-night! the Lord's er-comin'. 
Good-night! the Lord's er-comin', 
And the Lord's er-comin' down. 

I hang my harp upon the willow-tree, 
It sounded over in Jubilee. 

God showed Noah the rainbow sign, — 
No water, but fire, next time. 

There is a fire in the east, fire the west. 
There's fire amongst us Methodests. 


Nepo Spirituals from the Far South. 

43. 'yos' don' tauon* erbout he. 
You may talk erbout me 
Jes' as much aa you please. 
But me an' God Ermighty gwi' walk an' talk. 


Oh, mos' don' talldn' erbout me by an'^by, 
'Mos' done talldn' erbout me by an' by. 

Oh, dat liar run, and dat liar shout. 
But my good Lord will fin' fiim. 

Rough, rocky road 
'Mob' don' travellin'; 
Rough, rocky road 
*Mos' don' travellin'; 
Rough, rocky road 
'Mos' don' travellin'; 
Boun' to carry my soul to my JeauB, 
Boun' to carry my soul to my Lord. 

Mourners on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Sisters on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Elders OR the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Backsliders on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

The crown the good Lord give me 
Shine like a mornin' star. 
The crown the good Lord give me 
Shine like a mornin' star. 

Brother, you want more faith, 
More faith, more faith. 
Brother, you want more faith. 
Shine like a mornin' star. 
■ A vtxy old ipliitiia]. 



248 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The robe the good Lord give roe. 
Shine like a momia' star, 
That robe the good Lord give me, 
Shine like a roornin' star. 

Sister, you want more faith, 
More faith, more faith, 
Sister, you want more faith, 
Shine like a mornin' star. 


This is one of the most thrilling of the later jubilee songs. It is 
much used for taking up collections in churches. It invariably sug- 
gests patting of feet, swaying of the body, and rhythmic bodily 
motions, the audience often rising to great heights of emotion and 

Every time I feel the sjririt 
Movtn' in my heart, 
I will pray. 

01' Pharaoh thought he had roe fast. 

But the sea dried up an' let roe pass. 


You ask me why I sing so bol', 
It's the love of Jesus in my soul. 

Jordan's River, so chilly and cold. 
Chills the body, but not the eouL 

I want to go to heaven. 
And I want to go right; 
I want to go to heaven 
All dressed in white. 



Another late and exceedingly popular melody. The long, droll, 
and recurrii^ rhythm, the prolongs peculiar in mudi (rf the Negro 
folk-songs, are touchingly beautiful. It is a song of triumph, joy, 
and implicit faith in the promise of the Lord. 

Oh, I know the Lord, 
I know the Lord, 
I know the Lord 
Has laid His hands on me. 


Negfro Spirituals from the Far South. 

I never felt such love before, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me, 
Sayii^, "Go in peace and tan no more," 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 

He took me from the miry day, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me, 
And told me to walk the narrow way, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 

Some seek the Lord, but don't seek right, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me, 
They sin all day and pray all night, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 

( Very plaintive and loudiinz.) 
Sing a ho that I had the wings of a dove, 
Kng a ho that I had the wings of a dove, 
Sii% a ho that I had the wings of a dove, 
I'd fly erway and be at rest. 

A. B. PlMCtNa, 

3911 Mhan St., 

Nnr OU.BANS, La. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 




Tales . . 


Incriminating the Other 

Fellow 252 

Playing Godfather. . . . 253 
Playing Godfather: Tell- 

Tale GreaBe 355 

Tell-Tale Grease .... 256 
Tar Baby; Mock Plea . . 256 
Tar Baby: The Lord dines 258 
Playing Godfather: Tar 

Baby: Mock Plea . . . 359 

Take My Place 260 

False Message: Take My 

Place 261 

In the Bag 362 

Watcher Tricked: Fox flies 262 
Lion brooks no Rival . . 264 
The Ugliest Animal ... 264 
Picking a Quarrel .... 264 
Buzzard makes Terrapin 

his Riding-Horse . . . 265 
Why Frog lives in the 

Water 266 

Little Pig and Wolf ... 267 
Dog and Dog-Head . . . 369 

Keeping Pace 370 

Relay Race 371 

"I once had a Brother" . 272 

Trouble 272 

The Escape 273 

The Password 274 

In the Bee-Tree 274 

Playing Dead Twice in the 

Road 275 

Cartload of Fish .... 276 
Rabbit seeks Meat . . . 277 


Above Ground and Below 

Ground 277 

Dancing out Sand .... 378 

Fatal Imitation 278 

In Liquor 379 

Why Dogs chase Cats . . 379 
Nobody but You and Me. 379 
Who dat says "Who dat 

says 'Who dat?'". , , 280 

Magic Flight 280 

Flower of Dew 2S1 

The Little Girl and Her 

Snake 381 

The Test 383 

Soul or Sole 383 

Mate to the Devil. ... 282 

Woman-Cat 283 

Broom-Charm 2S4 

Out of Her Skin 2S5 

The ^Witches .... 286 

Can't set Still 287 

The OM Woman, Her 

Daughters, and the Kid 287 

Haunted House 288 

Haunted House 289 

The Dismembered Ghost . 390 

Buried Treasure 290 

Haunted Bridge 391 

The Single Ball 391 

What darkens the Hole . 392 

The Slave turns 393 

Sweet-Potatoes 292 

Master's Hog 393 

What did Vou say? . . . 393 

Master's Fowls 293 

Saving Hog 394 

Going to Heaven .... 294 
The Lord and Langton , . 295 


FoUt-Lore from EUtabeth City County, Va. 


, 296 
, 396 


HuDtiag on Sunday . . . 395 
The Frightened Guest . 
Dividing the Soula . . . 

Not too Lame 397 

Skeleton 399 

FintOut 299 

Rnbtnt'Meat 300 

Brick on Her Head ... 300 
Choonng a Wife .... 300 

Hot Hands 300 

Chair on His Head ... 301 
The Deer-Stalker .... 301 
Clock runs Down .... 303 
Moon Cheese: Irishmen 

at the Well 303 

Bricks and Mortar . . . 303 
En^ishraan and Irishman 309 

. 304 


Mare's Egg 

Mother of All the Ticks 

Three Ends 

String Beans 

You, Naither 304 

Understand 304 

Lumber Business .... 304 

Yah and Yea 304 

Judgment Day 305 

Cobble. Cobble. Cobblel . 305 

Silver Dollar 305 

Toad-Frog 305 

93. Green Irishmen 305 

93. Trunk 306 

94. Why Shingle? 306 

95. Three More Fools: Mr. 

Hard-Times 306 

96. Pamelance 307 

97. Who fills the Penitentiaries 308 

98. Punishment after Death . 30S 

99. Beating Dead Dog . . . 308 
100. Where's Mr. McGinnis? . 308 
loi. The Lcffd's Family . . . 308 
103. Horse and Cart 309 

103. Who struck Patrick? . . . 309 

104. Missing Word 309 

105. Com in the Ear 309 

106. Which Way does the Road 

go? 309 

107. Spreang 310 

108. Curly Tail and Straight 

Tail 310 

109. To Torment already . . . 310 

no. Officers Only 311 

III. Rank 311 

113. No Extra Expense. ... 311 

113. In the Camp Reading- 

Room 311 

114. Length of Service .... 311 

Riddles (1930) 313 

RiDDLBs (1894) 336 

Two decades or more ago Miss A. M. Bacon conducted a folk-lore 
society in Hampton Institute. Some of the material recorded was 
published io "The Southern Workman." Through the kindness of 
MisB Henon of the Institute the unpublished material was given to 
me to edit, and appear* in the followii^ collection. The moat notable 
put of MiM Bacon's collecdoa is, I think, the so-called "Irishman 
Stories." These noodle-tales have a widespread distribution in the 
Sooth; and Mim Bacon was the first recorder, as far as I know, to 
recognize the place of the tales in the hospitable folk-lore of N^[roes.' 
How iKMpitable Negro folk-lore is to new-comers is also evidenced in 
the following collection by the war-time tales or anecdotes of W. D. 
Elam of Virginia, and still more strikingly in Tale No. 68, in which 
appear Mutt and Jeff, most recent of folklorish or quasi-folklorish 

■ 6m "bWuMB Stories" (Southeni Warkauui. iS (lawJ : i9»-im). 


252 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

A few noodle-tales and others I recorded from the Institute students 
in 1920. As Hampton Institute students are drawn from many parts 
of the country, these tales, as well as the tales recorded by Miss Bacon, 
are of varied provenience, — from Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, the 
Carolinas, etc. From North Carolina is contributed the English tale 
of " Dividing the Souls," told very much as I heard it told a few years 
ago near Greensborough, No. 28, "Rabbit seeks Meat," has a partic- 
ular distribution in the Sea Islands and Georgia; and it is infeiaUe, 
from the reference to Georgia at the conclusion of the tale, that the 
narrator was from Georgia. No. 18, "Do% and Dog-Head," has a like 
distribution ; and from the name of the narrator, La Patten, it is prob- 
able that he came from the Sea Islands, once the home of French 

During my visit to Hampton I also collected tales from three schools, 
— from Whitrier School , which is under the administration of Hampton 
Institute, and which draws its pupils lai^ly from the two nearest 
towns, Phcebus and Hampton ; from the Public or Union Street School 
of Hampton; and from the Orphan Home maintained by Mr. and Mrs. 
Weaver. With the exception of a few tales contributed by inmates of 
the Orphan's Home, these tales from the school-children may be con- 
udered part of the county folk-lore. 

The tales collected tn 1920 are given with the name and home of 
informant or writer. The tales taken from the Institute records are 
in some cases undated, and in some cases untocalized. 

Riddles i to 123 were recorded from the school-children in 1920; 
riddles 124 to 137 were recorded by Miss Bacon in 1894 (124-13S 
from J. W. Bedenbaugh, a student from Bradley, N.C.; and 136-137 
from Maun of Georgia). 

E.C. P, 



{yersion a.) 

Once upon a time Brer Rabbit and Brer Wdf vent to steal a cow 
from a man. They caught the cow and killed it, and took off the hide. 
Then Brer Rabbit told Brer Wolf that "whoever owns this oow is 
coming, and the way you must do is to get into the hide and wrap up." 
So when the man came. Brer Rabbit said, "The way to do to find out 
who stole the cow is to put the hide on the fire.'* Brer Wolf cried, " It's 
not me, it's Brer Rabbit!" Brer Rabbit replies, "Knock him in the 
mouth! He is a grand rascal! He'll spoil a gentleman's creditl" 

< Recorded by A. M. Bftcon. 


P^k-Ijore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 253 

^Version 6.') 
There was once a man, an' he bad an overseer an' a head man. An' 
when the overseer was supposed to be watchin', he would go out to 
see his giii and leave the head man to watch. An' every momin' one 
sheep was missing, until one day the man said, " Every day one of the 
sheep are gone." So that night, instid the overseer goin' to see the 
girl, he watched and seed what the head man did; an' when the head 
man picked up the sheep, the overseer said, "Ha, ha! You're the one 
that been taking away the sheep! Now you take that sheep and carry 
it to the man." The head man reached down after the sheep, and 
fHcked it up and let it fall, and said, "I can't carry it. I betchyer you 
can't pick that sheep up." And while the overseer was pickin' the 
sheep up, the head man reached and got bis gun, and said, "Now you 
kyarry that sheep to the man." An' he made him kyarry the sheep to 
the man, an' said, "Here's the man that was takin' away your sheep." 
So that's the way that the man lost bis job. 


{Version o.') 

There was oncet a boy, an' he was called to name the baby. First 

he named it Topped-Off. The second time he was called he named it 

Half-Gone. The third time he was called he named it All-Gone. The 

fourth time he said it was Peanut-Butter. 

(Version 6.*) 
Once upon a time B'o' Rabbit and B'o' Fox lived bother. They 
used to put their dinner to cooking before they went to work in the 
tnoming, so that it would be done when they reached home In the 
■vening. All went on very well until one day they decided to have 
black pease for dinner. Now, B'o* Rabbit was very fond of black pease 
and he was very greedy, so he begun to think of a plan to eat all the 
pease by himself. At last he thought of a scheme. When he had been 
working a while, B'o' Fox was startled by hearing B'o' Rabbit cry out, 
"Who's that calling me?" B'o' Fox said, " What's matter, B'o' Rabbit? " 
B'o' Rabbit replied, "Some one's calling me, so I am gwine see what 
Jey wants, be back in a minute." When he came back, B'o' Fox said, 
"Who was it?" — "My aunt sent for me to come and name her baby." 

> iDformaat, Gladys Bright of Hampton. Compare South Carollnft (JAFL 3' ■ 36^ 
167), Benca (Nbsmu, 85-95}. Bushman (Honey, 34). Compaiatlve, BdAPLS 13 : 7o 

I laformant, MoHan Gee of Phabuo. Compare South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 5-«>- 
'Tot. a, 3; JAFL 34 : 1-4), North Carolina (JAFL 30 : I93-I93. 3i5-3i6). Peuuylvanla 
JAFL 30 ; ais-ai6). Comparative, MAFLS 13 : i> a (note i). 

■ Written by Minnetta in ipoa. 



354 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

— "Well, what did yer name it? " — "Jiist-B^:un." — "What a funny 
name!" said B'o' Fox, but B'o' Rabbit said nothing. B'o' Rabbit 
worked about ten minutes, then hollered out, "I wish you all would 
stop calling me." — " What's matter now, B'o' Rabbit?" asked B'o' 
Fox. "Somebody is a-calling me agin, and I am dead tired of it too, 
but I guess I'll have to go and see what dey wants." This time he 
statd a little longer than the first time. When he came back, B'o' Fox 
said, "Who was it calling you this time?" B'o' Rabbit said, "My 
cousin just come home from the North; and dem folks at home dey 
done tell her that I was fust-rate at naming babies, bo nothing could 
do but she must call me to name hem." — "Well, what did yer name 
it? " — " Half-Gone," replied B'o' Rabbit. Well, B'o' Rabbit worlred 
for half an hour, then hollered out, "I declare, I won't go a step. No, 
indeed! not if I knows myself." B'o' Fox said, "What an airth de 
matter wid you, B'o' Rabbit?" — "Somebody is calling mes^in, but I 
ain't a-gwine." — "You had better go and see what dey wants," said 
B'o' Fox. "Well, long as you think I ought to go, I guess I have to go," 
said B'o' Rabbit. At the end of an hour B'o' Rabbit returned in hig^i 
spirits, greeting B'o' Fox with, "Another baby to name." — "Wdl, 
I never, sence I been born ! Another baby to name! Well, what did you 
name it?" — "All-Gone," replied B'o' Rabbit. "That's a miglity 
queer name," said B'o' Fox; but B'o' Rabbit held his peace, and 
worked on in silence for the remainder of the day. When they reached 
home that evening, they were surprised to find the pease all gone, and 
they had to go to bed supperless. 

{Version c' ) 

One day Bro' 'Possum gathered a laige kittle of pease and put them 
in a kittle to cook. In the mean time he ask' Sister Weasel to oome 
over and help him work in the garden and have dinner with him. Siatet 
Weasel came; and, as she couldn't leave her three little babies home, 
she brought them along, too. 

Bro' 'Possum had told Sister Weasel abou' the pease he had on cook- 
ing; and the whole time she was working, she was thinking of how she 
could get into the house to eat them befo' Bro' 'Possum did. At last 
the thought came to her mind that she would tell Bro' 'Possum to let 
her go into the house to name one of her babies. When she thought 
the pease were done, she said, "Bro' 'Possum, got to go in de house to 
name one ob my babies. Won't be gone long." — "All r^ht. Sis' 
Weasel! Don't stay long!" 

Sister Weasel went into the house, and found the pease nice and 
done. So she ate the top off and ran back to work. "What did you 
name your baby, Sister Weasel?" asked Bro' 'Possum. "Top-Off," 

> Written by Gladys Stewart of Phabui. 


Folk-Lore from EUMobeth City County, Va. 255 

answered Sister Weasel, working all the time. In a few minutes Sister 
Weasel fdt hungry again; and she said to Bro' 'Possum, " Bro"Po8sum, 
I got go in and name my second baby." — "All right. Sister Weasel! 
but don't stay long!" said Bro' 'Possum. 

Sister Weasel went in this time and ate half of the pease. This time, 
when she came out, Bro' 'Possum asked, "Well, Sister Weasel, what 
dxl you name this one?" — "Half-Oine," said Sister Weasel, and away 
■he went chopping in the garden. Pretty soon she felt hungry again; 
for, once she had tasted those pease, she couldn't atop until she had 
eaten them. So she said, "Bro' 'Possum, let me go in now and name 
my last baby, and I won't bother you any more." Bro' 'Possum gave 
his OMisent. This time Sister Weasel cleaned the kettie, and came 
runnii^ out agin. "What did you name this baby. Sister Weasel?" 
asked Bro* 'Possum. "All-Gone," said Sister Weasel, and went hard 
at her woric. Pretty soon Bro' 'Possum noticed that Sister Weasel was 
getting sluggish on the job. and he thought that she was hungry. So 
he sakl, "Come, Sister Weasel, let's eat the kittle of pease, and we will 
feel more liln working." — "All right! " said Sister Weasel. When 
Bid* 'Possum went into the house and found that the pease bad gone, 
be became very angry, and told Sister Weasel that she had eaten all 
his pease. "Now, Bro' 'Possum, I haven't eaten your pease," said 
Sister Weasel. "You have eaten my pease, Sister Weasel, and I am 
going to eat you for my dinner." When Sister Weasel heard this, she 
became frightened, for well she knew that Bro' 'Possum would eat her 
up with little trouble. But what was she to do? Bro' 'Possum's 
gaiden, which he loved dearly, was a long ways from the house, but 
one with a keen eye could see all over the garden. Sister Weasel knew 
that Bro' 'Possum could not do this, on account of his poor ught. So 
she said, "O Bro' 'Possum! just look how the Wren children are steal- 
ing your crop!" At this Bro' 'Possum forgot all about his pease, an' 
ran down to his garden. In the mean time Sister Weasel grabbed her 
babies and ran as fast as she could to the woods and hid. After she got 
herself ludden, she laughed to herself of how she had fooled Bro' 


Once the bear and the rabbit had some butter. There was a good 
deal of it. They were out working tt^ther in the field. After a little 
while the rabbit looked up toward the house, and said, "Buh Bear, I 
hear some people calling me up to the house." The bear said, "Go and 
see who they are." Buh Rabbit went to the house and ate some of the 
butter. Then he came back and worked for a little time. After a 
while be said, "Buh Bear, I hear those people calling me again," and 
he went to the house a second time. This he did three or four times, 

■ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 


256 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

lentil he had eaten all the butter. After a time Buh Bear said, "It is 
time to stop work and go to the house and get something to eat" 
When they got to the house, the bear found that the butter was all 
gone. Then he said, "Buh Rabbit, you ate that butter when you 
came to the house. Le's build a fire and lie down before it! and the 
one that ate the butter it will run out of bis mouth." So they lay down 
before the fire and went to sleep. Soon Buh Rabbit awoke, and found 
that the butter had run out of his mouth on to a piece of bark under 
his head. He slipped the bark under the bear's head, where the bear 
found it when he awoke. 


Two men went to buy some cheese. They put it out in field. One 
said he wanted some water. He went back and ate the dieeae. Tfaey 
went to sleep. The one who wakes up with grease on bis face will be 
the one who took the cheese. 

The greedy onewalffis up, and greaseis on hisface; but be takes and 
rubs it on the face of the other. 

5. TAR baby: hock plea. 
{Versum a}) 
Once Broder Rabbit and Broder Fox decided to be friends. So they 
were to go out at night to steal from Broder 'Possum, but it seemed 
dat Broder Rabbit would try and play off on Broder Fox. Well, they 
went on ; Broder Rabbit pretended to be Broder 'Possum's best friend. 
Well, Broder 'Possum said to Broder Rabbit one day, "Look hefe, 
Broder Rabbit! does you know dat somebody is stealing all my milk 
and com?" Broder Rabbit he laughed, and said, "Well, Broder 
'Possum, that's too bad! Us ought to catch that person, and wiaX. 
we do for him will be a plenty." Broder 'Possum thought Broder 
Rabbit was de man, so he fixed for him. So one night Broder 'Possum 
set up a tar man near his com-crib. Up comes Broder Fox and Rabbit 
with their sacks. Broder Fox he spy the man, he stops; but Mr. 
Rabbit he walks on ; and when he saw the man, he was frightened very 
much, but he took courage and went on. He walked up to the tar man, 

> Infoimaiit, Marian Gee of Ptucbiu. CompaiE South Carolina (JAFL 34 ; >-4: 
MAPLS 16 ; 8-14. N(M. 3-6}. Babamai (MAFLS 13 : i-a). 

■ Written by Cbarlea E. Flagg of Montgomery, Ala., In 1899- Por "Tar Babr" coaa- 
pare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 4; MAFLS 16 : 15-39. Nol I3-I5)i Porto Rico CJAFL 
34; 164-165); comparative, Folif-Loie, 30 ; 317-134. For "Mock Ptc«" oompareSoolk 
Carolina (JAFL. 31 : 394; 34 : 5; MAFLS 16 : 11-14 !No«. 6, 7), aO-aQ [Noa. 14. IsDi 
Florida (JAFL 30 : aij); Mpongwe (Naarau. 33-13); Buahman (Honey, T7~7l, Sa-Ss); 
Hottentot (Schultze, 477) 1 Ptiilippinea (Cole. 177-178; MAPLS 11 : 3l4 ff .) ; BDosl (JAFI, 
6; 49); Cheroicee (BAE 19 : 273-373, 178-379); compaiBtive, MAPLS 13 : 13 (note 4), 
Dabnhardt. 4 ; 43-45. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 257 

and railed out, "Oh, yes! I cotch you here at Broder 'Possum's crib. 
You de fellow been stealing com." The man didn't speak. Then 
Broder Rabbit walked up to strike him. He slapped the man, and 
bis hand stuck. "Let my hand go! I got anoder one here." He then 
pound away with the other hand, and that stuck. "You better let 
go my hands! I got two foots here." Then he pound away again, and 
his foot stuck. He kicked again, and his other foot stuck. "You 
better let my foots go! I got a head here, I'll butt you." Then he 
gave a hard butt, and there he was hard and fast for Broder 'Possum 
the next morning. 

Well, the next morning Broder 'Possum came down and found 
Broder Rabbit stuck fast to the tar man. "O Broder Rabbit! I 
thought I would catch you. You are the one who has been stealing 
from me." — "Oh, no, Broder 'Possum! I was just watching to see 
if I could catch anybody for you, and, «ime to behold, I cotched this 
man. I walked up and spoke, and he wouldn't speak, so I struck him; 
and every time I struck him, ray hands and feet would stick, so I kept 
him until this morning for you." — "Well, that's all right, Broder 
Rabbit. •! put this man here just to catch you. So now I am going 
to punish you." — "Lord! Broder 'Possum, what is you gwine to do 
to me?" — "I am going to throw you in the river." — "Oh, please 
throw me in right now, Broder 'Possum! I likes dat very much." — 
"No, I won't throw you there, I'll put you in the fire." — "Oh, I 
don't care! I want to go in the fire, I am cold. Please put me in now, 
Broder 'Possum!" — "No, I won't do that, I'll tie you and throw you 
in the brier-patch." — "O Broder 'Possum ! please don't throw me in 
the patch, those briers will stick me to death." — "Well, I am going 
to throw you in, anyway." Then he bound Broder Rabbit and threw 
him into the patch, but the rabbit was just where he wanted to be. 
After he was loosed, he laughed at Broder 'Possum, and went on his 
way with Broder Fox. "Well," said Broder Fox, "I guess, when you 
gwine steal again, you will be a little more shy." 

{Version i.*) 
A man once had a nice spring, but sometimes it was muddy. Some 
one told him that it was a rabbit that did it, and to put a tar baby 
down there and it would scare him away. He did so; and when the 
rabbit saw it, she hailed, "Who are you? " She said, " If you don't tell 
me your name, I will slap your head ofF." So saying, she tried it, and 
her hand was stuck. She cried, "You had better turn me loose, I 
have another hand," and she let him have it. That one was stuck. 
She kept on this way until hands, feet, tail, and head were stuck in 
the tar. Now what? The man came,and was satisfied with his scheme. 
< Written in 1899. 


258 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

So he said to her, "I have you, Miss, and I'll fix you. I will fling you 
in this spring and drown you." — "Please put me in there!" said she. 
" No," said he, "I won't put you in there, because you want to go in 
there." There was a pile of bushes on fire, and he said, "I am going 
to fling you in that fire." She said, "All right! lUke fire." — "No, 
no, Miss ! I sha'n't please you so much." So he found a cluster of briers, 
and said that he had a great mind to fling her in there. She cried and 
yelled, begged him not to put her in such a place. He thought he had 
found the right place to punish her. So he let her go; and when she 
landed there, she cried out to him, "This is my home; my mammy 
and daddy were bom in here." 

{Version c.*) 
Mrs. Hare had a fine lot of ducks, and every now and then she would 
miss one or two of them. Mrs. Hare became troubled about her ducks; 
and she tried very hard to catch the thief, but was unable to do so. 
After a while she thought of a way to catch the thief. She moved the 
ducks, and put in their place a big pot- of tar. That night Mr. Fos 
came, as he had done before, and stuck his paw down after a duck, 
but something held his paw; and he said in a loud voice, "Turn me 
loose, turn me loose! I say, you better turn me loosel I have another 
one back here, and I'll let you have it presently." At last he threw his 
other paw into the tar, and that was held fast. He did not give up 
the fight, and continued to fight until all of his paws were made fast. 
Then he said, "Look here! You better turn me loose! I got a great 
big club back here; and if you don't turn me loose, I'll let you have it, 
sure," (Unfinished.) 

On« there was a farmer who owned a cabbage*patch. Every morn- 
ing Mr. Rabbit would go an* eat the farmer's cabbage. One morning 
the farmer made a tar baby and put it out there beside the cabbage- 
patch. The next morning, when Mr. Rabbit came down to the cab- 
bage-patch, he didn't know what to make of the tar baby. So he 
said, "Good-morning!" but the tar baby didn't say a word. So Mr. 
Rabbit said, "Good-moming! If you don't speak to me this time,I 
will hit you." So Mr. Rabbit said, "Good-moming!" The tar baby 
didn't say a word. Mr. Rabbit hit him with his paw, and it stuck fast 
in the tar. Mr. Rabbit said, "Turn me aloose! " And then Mr. Rabbit 
lacked the tar baby, and his feet stuck fast in the tar. The n«ct morn- 
ing, when the farmer came down to the cabb^fe-patch, the farmer 
said, "I have you now! " So he carried Mr. Rabbit home and threw 
him in the rye-field. Mr. Rabbit ran home. 

> Written by J. H. Tboniag in iS^g. > Written by Martha JanM. 


Fcik'Lore from Elixabelh City County, Va. 259 

Not long after that Mr. Rabbit put out signs that the Lord was com- 
ing. So one day the Lord came to see the farmer. The Lord sat down 
and had a nice dinner. After the dinner was over, the Lord went out 
doors and pulled off his clothes, and said, "I told you I was going to 
eat at your house some day." 

7.> PLAYING godfather: TAH BABY: MOCK PLEA. 

A fox once hired a rabbit to help him work on his farm, and the fox's 
wife had to cook for them. They began work early in the morning, 
wia\a Mrs. Fox was cooking pease, of which the rabbit was very fond. 
He ¥n)uld work to get to the end of the row before Mr. Fox, and answer 
as if some one had called him. Mr. Fox would say, "Who is that?" 
The rabbit would say, "Your wife called me, I don't know what she 
wants." Mr. Fox would say, "Go see what she wants." The rabbit 
would go to the house and say, "Mrs. Fox, Mr. Fox says give me a 
I^te of pease, please." — "All right!" said Mrs. Fox, "tell him there 
are only two more left." When Mr. Rabbit began work, he would 
run to the end of the row and back, and answer again. Mr. Fox would 
say, "Who is that?" The rabbit would say, "Your wife called me 
again. I don't know what she wants." — "Go and see what she wants," 
said the fox. Then Mr. Rabbit would go, and say to Mrs. Fox, "Mr. 
Fox says give me another plate of pease." — " Please tell him there's 
only one more left." Mr. Rabbit ate the pease and went back the 
third time. At noon Mr. Fox said, "Come, Mr. Rabbit! we'll go and 
get our dinner." The rabbit said, "Oh, no, Mr. Fox! I don't care for 
any dinner." — "I don't want anybody to work for me without eat- 
ing," said Mr. Fox. Mr. Rabbit went, but would not keep up with 
Mr. Fox. Mrs. Fox met Mr. Fox in the yard, and asked where he was 
going, and also told him there was no dinner because he had sent 
Mr. Rabbit to eat all the pease. 

Mr. Fox said, "Nevermind, nevermind! I'll catch you. Go in the 
dairy and bring me that butter." The rabbit went in and stuck his 
front paw in the butter, but it stuck fast. He said, "Never mind, 
never mind! I have another paw here." He stuck it in, and it stuck 
fast. "Never mind, never mind! I still have another one here." He 
stuck that one in, and it stuck fast. "Never mind, never mind! got 
one more here," and that stuck fast. "Never mind, never mind! I 
got a mouth here." He put his mouth in, and it stuck fast. 

Then Mr. Fox came upon him, and said, "Now I have you! I am 
going to kill you; I am going to throw you in a pile of briers." The 
rabbit said, "Please don't throw me in the briers! You may bum me, 
you may roast me, but please don't throw me in the briers! You will 
tear my face and eyes to pieces." Then Mr. Fox took him, and threw 
■ Writtea by Nellie V^lnia Hudsina. 


260 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

him in the briers. The rabbit laughed, "Ha, ha, ha! you threw me 
to my home in bamboo-briers. I was bred and born in a brier-patch." 


{Version o.* ) 
Oncet upon a time a man had a daughter, an' he had a very large 
cabbage-patch. He used to leave his daughter home while he go to 
work. An' every day when he went to work, the rabbit would come 
and steal his cabbage. One day he staid home. He caught the rabtnt 
and put him in a bag, and hung him up a tree to starve. The rabbit 
heard a fox comin'. He tol' the fox to come up there and untie the 
bag, and, if he'd get into the bag, he'd hear the singin' in the clouds. 
The icfx. got in the bag. The rabbit tied him up in there, and left the 
fox hoUerin', "Me no hear no singin* in the clouds!" As the rabbit 
was ninnin' across the cabbage-patch, the man saw him, and threw 
the hatchet at him and cut his tail ofT. An' rabbits haven't had any 
tails since. 

{Version h? ) 
Bear plants potatoes and beans, which are stolen. Bear says, "Who's 
dat been medlin' in my field and been eatin' my peas and taters? Oh, 
well! I'll get him yet! I knows what I's gwine to do. I'll set for dat 
ar gent'man, and I's sure to git him'." . . . Rabbit visits Bear, and tells 
him that Fox is the thief. Bear sets a snare, which Rabbit himself is 
caught in. Fox comes up, and Rabbit begins to sing, and says, "0 
Mr. Fox! I see all kinds of beautiful things, now I am swingin' in this 
pleasant swing. O Mr. Fox! I see a beautiful city ober yonder." — 
"Bro' Rabbit, may Iswingsomeand seesomet'in' too?" — "Not yet, 
Bro* Fox; you can swing some by and by." — "Oh, let me swing some 
now, Bro' Rabbit!" — "All right, Bro' Fox! you may swing. Now, 
Bro' Fox, you come here and git me out ob dis swing, and let me put 
you in, so you can see some ob de beautiful t'ings I's been seein'." 
After Fox is in the snare. Rabbit says, " Bro' Fox, when you are in, let 
me know) so I can push you and make you swing high." — "All right, 

Bro' Rabbit! I's all right. Now push me! I see no heaben and dty 

dat you told me 'bout." Bear comes up. Rabbit says, "Mr. Bear, 
Mr. Bear, I told you dat Fox been eatin' your taters and peas. Now 
you see for yourself." — "Well, sir, Mr. Fox, what's you doin' in dis 
trap?" — "Mr. Rabbit got me in here. He was in here firs'." — "I 
don't believe it. I care for no 'souse. Guess I's 'bout as well kill yer 

■ Informant. Lillian Courtney of Hampton. Compsre South Cuolina (JAFL 34 : 14- 
ij; MAFLS 16 r 37-38. No. iy, 41-43. Nos. a8, ig). Alabama (JAFL 3J : 400-401). 
Porto Rico CJAFL 34 '■ 170-17S). Liberia (JAFL 33 : 414-415). Compeiative, MAFLS 
13 : 81 (notes 2. 6); JAFL 30 ; 329. 

■ AbetiBct from tale written by W. T. White in 1903. 


Folk-Lore from Elaabeth City County, Va. 261 

iVersion c' ) 

One day Brer Rabbit stole some cabbag:e from Brer Wolf. Brer 
Wolf caught Brer Rabbit and put him into a hollow Ic^, and put a 
block of wood into each end to prevent Brer Rabbit from getting out. 
He said that he was going to starve Brer Rabbit to death. After Brer 
Rabbit had been in there a half a day, Brer Wolf passed by and hailed 
him. "Hello, Brer Rabbit! "said he. Brer Rabbit answered, "Hello!" 
The next day Brer Wolf passed again. Brer Rabbit spolw so low that 
be could scarcely be heard. Brer Wolf said to himself, "He is 'most 
dead." About noon Brer Wolf came back again, and hailed, but 
received no answer. Brer Wolf got an axe and pounded upon the log, 
but he got no answer. He then called and called, but no answer. So 
he said, " Brer Rabbit is dead." Brer Wolf took the block out of the 
end of the log, laughed to himself, and walked away. After he was 
gone, Brer Rabbit laughed, too. He came out of the log greatly tickled 
at Brer Wolf's foolishness. In a few days he met Brer Wolf. Brer 
Wolf said, "Hello, Brer Rabbit! I thought you were dead." Then he 
caught Brer Rabbit again, and decided to box him up and throw him 
into the river. Brer Wolf called Brer Bear, Brer Elephant, and Brer 
Foot to see the fun. After Brer Rabbit was put into the box, it was 
found that there were no nails to nail the cover down with. So they 
put the cover on, and all went away after nails. 

As soon as they were gone. Brer Rabbit came out. He found a 
stone, and put it in the box and fitted the cover on, just as before. 
When Brer Wolf came back without looking into the box, he and his 
friends began to nail down the cover of the box. 

When they were ready, they said good-by to Brer Rabbit, but he 
wouU not speak. They laughed, and said be was mad. Then they 
flung the box into the river, and it sank. 

In two or three days Brer Rabbit came back with cheese and butter 
aod milk and gokl and silver. He gave them all some, and thanked 
them for throwing him into the river. He told them that he had had 
a good time. Then Brer Wolf asked them to put him into a box and 
throw him into the river. They did it, but have not seen him since. 


Once a rabbit went up to a man's house and told his little daughter 
that her father said let him go into the garden, but turn him out a 
loag time before dinner. At noontime the little girl's father came 

■ iBtonwK. B. B. Edirardi. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

* Recorded by A. M. Bkcon. Compaie South Carolina (JAPL 34 : 14-16; MAPLS t6; 
40-41. No*. 9T-«e). Georila (JAFL 33 : 40)). Comparative. MAFLS 13 : t» (notra t, 
6); mha JkulUa Ajwcbe (PaAM 8 : 133). Wlchlu (Doney. Pub. Caroe(l« iMtliution 
(iBOVL 54}- 


262 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

home and went into the garden. He saw that something bad beoi 
eating his peas, so he asked the little girl who had been eating his peas. 
The little girl told him about the rabbit. The father told the little 
girl that the next time the rabbit came, she should keep him there 
until he returned. The little girl did as she was bidden. When the 
man came home and found the rabbit, he caught him, and tied him 
with a rope. The rabbit got a great many little strings and put them 
on a sttck, so as to make a little fiddle. Late in the afternoon an 
opossum came along, and saw the rabbit tied and playing on the fiddle. 
Brer Opossum said, " Brer Rabbit, what is you doing tied dere? " The 
rabbit said, "Don't you see my fiddle? I am going to play for dese 
people, and dey gib' me five dollars a hour. Don't you wish you were 
in my place?" The opossum said, "Brer Rabbit, if you let me take 
your place, I will show you where you can get any land of food yon 
want, and I will give you half the money." At first the rabbit refused, 
so as to make the opossum think that he meant what he said ; hut 
finally he let the opossum untie him and take bis place. Night came, 
but the opossum found nobody to play the fiddle for. After a time a 
man came in with a kettle of hot water and poured over him. That 
was all the pay he got. At last the opossum was unloosed and went 
away sadder and wiser. 

10. IN THE BAG.* 

Once upon a time there lived a fox whom the people called a chicken- 
thief. One morning early he took a bag and went to the village to get 
a chicken. After getting the chicken, he went to a farmer's house, 
where he asked if he might leave his bag. Before leaving, be told the 
woman not to open the bag, then he trotted to the village. As soon as 
the fox was out of sight, she opened the bag, and out flew the chicken. 
The farmer's wife put a stone in the bag, and fixed it like the fox had 
it. The fox came back, thanked her, and lan home. He got the water 
ready, and then went to put his chicken in. Time he opened tbe b^, 
the stone rolled in and scalded the fox to death. 

II. WATCHER tricked: FOX FUES.' 

Where there was a turkey-buzzard fly. Once there was a fox and a 
buzzard who were good friends. They used to go hunting together. 
One day they took their guns and went a-hunting. They came to a 
tree where there was a holler in the tree. 01' tox decided there was 
somethin' up the holler, a rabbit or somethin'. So he got some dry 
wood and made a fire in the holler, and smoked it. He smoted and 
smoked it, and nothin' came down. But he was sure there was some- 

■ Written by Marian Gee of Phtebua. Compare Soutlt Cuollna (JAFL 34 : ai). 

' Inlonnant, Josephine Johnson of Windsor. Vo. For blbUocnphy of "Wuefati 
Tricked" see JAFL 30 : 178 (note 1). 


Folk-Lorefrom Elizabeth City County, Va. 263 

thin' up there. So he tol' the turkey-buzzard to stay and watch the 
holler, and see that nothio' came down, while he went back home to 
get an axe to cut the tree down. The buzzard promised that he'd do 
ao. The fox went home to get an axe, and the buzzard set down by 
the tree to watch the holler. While the fox had been talkin' to the 
tHUzard, the rabbit had been thinldn' of some way to come down the 
boiler. So after de fox left, Rabbit said to de buzzard, "Mr. Buzzard, 
they tell me you have silver eyes and a gold bill." An' the buzzard 
■aid, "Well, so I have." The rabbit said, "Look up yonder an' let 
me see them! " An' the buzzard was very glad to show his gold bill 
and nlver eyes. So he poked his head in the holler and looked up at 
the rabtnt. The rabbit raked up a handful of trash and threw in his 
eyes. The buzzard went off to get some water to wash his eyes; and 
while he was gone, the rabbit came down. The buzzard came back 
and sat down by de holler and waited for the fox. Fox came and cut 
down the tree, and didn' see the rabbit run or anything. So he ask, 
"Mr. Buzzard, where is dat rabbit? " And de buzzard said, "He was 
up dere de las' time I see him." So de fox decided to split de holler 
open. He ^>lit it, and still didn' see any rabbit; an' he ask again, "Mr. 
Buzzard, where is de rabbit? " Buzzard said, " He was up dere de las' 
time I saw him." Den de fox got angry wid de buzzard, and ran at 
him with bis axe to Idll him. And de buzzard ran and ran so fast, dat 
be split his dress wide open, and he took de two sides of his dress 
and commence to fly, used dem for wings. So you see de buzzard's 
been flyin* ever since. 

Buzzard was angry wid de f(»c, and wanted to get even with him: 
BOone day he came flyin' over de fox, singin', — 

"Way down yonder, whey I come f'om, 
Dey t'row away meat, 
Dey t'row away bread. 
Everyt'ing good dey t'row away." 

And de fox say, "What's that, Mr. Buzzard? Sing dat again." And 
de buzzard sang it: — 

"Way down yonder, whey I come fom, 
Dey t'row away meat, 
Dey t'row away bread. 
Everyt'ing good dey t'row away." 

FoK asked de buzzard, " Mr. Buzzard, could you take me down there? " 
Buzzard say, "Yes, jump up on my back." Fox got on de buzzard 
back. Buzzard went flyin' 'round. He went way up in de air. When 
he'd gotten high enough to kill the fox, he turned from one side to the 
other. Every time he turned, de fox would run to de oder side, and 


264 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

de buzzard saw he couldn' turn him off in dat way. So he turned over 
upside down, and Fox fell to de ground and was killed.' 


Lion was supposed to be the head of ail the beast in that place. He 
got so lazy ev'ry day, he had an animal come in ev'ry day so he could ] 
eat it. Ev'y^sy animal went in. So finally it came the rabbit's turn 
to go in. He was one of the wisest animals of that time. He was ' 
supposed to be there at twelve o'clock. He came hoppin' along the 
road, stoppin' everywhere, lookin' at everything, until it threw him off 
time. Wonders, whey he goin', what could he do to keep the lion from 
gettln' so angry with him. So finally he came across a well. The 
thought came to him as he looked into the well, he saw his shader, be 
had a scheme to fool the lion. He had been told by the other animals 
that any way he could get rid of the lion, they would pay him, give 
him praise of being the wisest animal of the forest. He entered the 
lion's room pretendin' he had been ninnin', doin' all he could to get 
there on time. The lion asked him why he was so late. The rablnt 
began to tell him the story why he was so late. So he tol' the lion, 
if he didn' believe what he had tol' him, to follow him, and he 
would show him. So the lion went with the rabbit to the well. The 
rabbit tol' the lion to get up on the curb of the well and look down into 
the well, and he would see what had delayed him. So he did. When 
he looked into the water, he saw another face, not knowing that it was 
himself. He frowned, he grit his teeth, and the other lion did the same 
thing. The lion on top, thinking that he was master of all the beasts 
of the forest, jumped into the well, and that was the last of the lion. 
And the rabbit got the praise of being the wisest beast of the forest. 


There was a gathering, a bunch of animals. The bear was the head 
of this gang. They had a feast. The bear got thirsty; and he said, 
"The ugliest animal in the house could get me some water." The 
animals looked at one another. Finally they looked 'round and saw 
3. monkey. The monkey say, "You all need not look at me, because 
I'm not the ugliest animal in the house." 


Onct there was two foxes. They were always friends. They never 
say an unkind word to each other. So one day Fox say, " Let us have 

1 L. Frobenius. Volksmaichen der Kabylen, 3 : 6. 

■ Informant. William Franklin of Montgomery County, Alabama. 

• Informant. Clarence Thomas of Atlantic City, NJ. 


FdUt-Lore from Elitabeth City County. Va. 265 

a quarrel! " So the other one say, "All right! " "The other fox say, 
"How was we to start the fuss?" The firs' fox say, "That was easy 
to start." So the first fox got two stones; and he say, "These are my 
stones." The second fox say, "All right! Then you shall have them." 
The first fox say, "You can't do like that; you mus' say something 
badt. You never start a quarrel." The first fox say, "This whole 
fores' belong to me." The second fox say, "How come I to be in here? " 
An' he said, "I can easy get out." The firs' fox said, "No, you won't 
get out. We have always been friends, an' anything I have will always 
be yours, and anything you have will always be mine." So they gave 
up the silly game, and never tried it again. 


(VersioH o.') 
Once there was a buzzard and a terrapin who went to see the king's 
daughter. The buzzard said to the terrapin, " Where are you going? " 
The terrapin asked him what that was to him. The buzzard he said, 
"I just asked you." Then he said he was going to see the king's 
dai^hter. The buzzard asked the terrapin to just let him ride on his 
back, and he would go with him. The terrapin let him ride as far as 
the fence, then told him that when he came to the gate he must get 
down. The buzzard said, "All right!" but when they came to the 
gate, he said, "Just carry me as far as the door, and I will get down." 
But when they got to the door, the buzzard popped his spur into the 
terrapin, and rode into the house on the terrapin's back. Then the 
girl md she would have the buzzard, because he was so smart. 

{VersioH b.') 
The rabbit and the fox were going to see a girl, and the fox was 
getting the best of the rabbit. So B'o Rabbit, when he went to see 
the girl, would talk against B'o Fox to her. When the fox came, the 
girl would tell him what the rabbit had said. The fox got mad and 
west to see the rabbit, and asked what he was talking about him for. 
The rabbit denied it, and said, "If I could see that girl, I would face 
ber in that story, and I would go over there now if I wasn't sick." The 
fen was so anxious to have the rabbit and the girl together, he said, 
"Get on my back, and I will carry you over there." The rabbit had 
told the girl that his papa had the fox for his riding-horse the last 
twelve months, and he expect to have him the next twelve. The rabbit 
made out he was so sick until he couldn't go; but the fox told him to 
get on his back and go, anyway. Then the rabbit decided to go, but 

< RcEordcd by A. U. Buoa. Compaic South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 6; MAFLS i6 : S3- 
SS. Nos. 3S-40]. CompuallTc, MAFLS 13 : 30 (note 1). 
* T nil ■■Mill Aoanlai Tjaoo. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 


266 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

said he could not ride without a bridle, saddle, switch, and spur. The 
fox said, "Get them, and we will go, for some one is telling a story." 
They went on until they got near the girl's house, and the fox told the 
rabbit to get down ; but the rabbit made out he was so sick, and asked 
the fox to carry him to the comer of the house. When they got there, 
the rabbit gave the fox a cut with the switch and a kick with the spur, 
and made him jump up on the girl's steps, and said, "Look here, gid! 
what I told you? Didn't I say I had Brother Fox for my riding-hoise?" 
The fox wanted to fight, and jumjjed out and pulled off the bridle and 
saddle; but the rabbit ran off. When the fox met the rabbit, he wanted 
to kill him; but the rabbit said to the fox, "I am not the rabbit did 
you that way. He had little eyes, but I got big eyes." 

{Version c' ) 
The bear and rabbit agreed to go to a party one night, and the bear 
called at the rabbit's house. The rabbit said that she was ^ck and 
could not go. The bear ui^ed her to go, for the girls would be so disap- 
pointed if they did not go. The bear had to argue considerable to get 
her to consent, and then on condition that the bear carry her part of the 
way, for she could not walk. The bear said that he would. So she 
dressed, put on her spurs, took her reins and whip in her hand. Says 
the bear, "What are you going to do with these?" — "I want the giris 
to think I rode horse-back." The bear thought no more about it, but 
started off. After getting near the house, the bear asked the rabbit to 
get down off his back, he did not want the ladies to see her sitting upon 
his back. She said that she was so sick, that, if she had to walk, it would 
kill her. So the bear pitied her and carried her to the yard, and 
ordered her to get down or he would break her neck. Meanwhile, 
during the ride, she had slipped the lines about the bear's neck: so 
she drew them tight, drove the spurs into his side, and gave him a 
crack over the head with the whip. She made him trot around the 
house a few times, calling the ladies out to see the si^t. Finally she 
dismounted, tied the bear to the post, and walked in the dance-hall 
and said, "Ladies, I told you all that Mr, Bear was my ridii^-horse." 


Once there was a frog and a terrapin who were going to see the same 
girl. The girl said that she would have the one that could stog the 
most beautiful song. Then the frog began to sing, "Cludc u-lu-lu, 
cluck u-lu-Iu!" The terrapin was frightened because the f n^ sang 
such a beautiful song, and he tried to ^ng too; but he couM only say, 
"Jerusalem, Jerusalem!" The girl said that the trog'a eong was the 
■ Written in 1899. ■ Recorded by A. M. Bkob. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 267 

best. Then the terrapin said, " Come, let us go down to the creek and 
get a drink! and we will try again." The frog agreed, and they started 
for the creek. The frog got there first, and sat down on the bank to 
wait; and while he waited, he bej^an to sing. Soon the terrapin came 
up softly behind the frog and pushed him into the water, and spoiled 
his song. Then the girl said she would have the terrapin. The frog 
grieved so, that he never came out on the land to live any more. 


{Version a.') 
Once there lived a little pig in a very close little room. A wolf would 
come by every day and try to fool the little pig out, so he could eat him. 
One morning the wolf called, but the pig did not answer him. The 
wolf was very sure the little pig was in there: so he said, "I know 
where a plenty of grapes. You better come and go with me." When 
the wolf was gone, the little pig put out for the grape-vine. By that 
time the wolf came to the pig's home and called him again. He did 
not receive any answer. Then he put out to the grape-tree too. When 
the pig saw the wolf, he hid in some moss on the tree. The wolf saw 
the pig before he got there; and when he got there, he called the pig, 
but he did not get any answer. By that time the wolf started to climb 
the tree. When he got to the little pig, the little pig ran out and jumped 
and ran away, and got home before the wolf caught him. By the time 
the little pig jumped in his door and shut it, the wolf had his head in 
the door, and it caught his head. He said to the pig, "Let me go! I 
will not hurt you." The pig opened the do' a little, and the wolf jumped 
in. The pig caught him by the leg, but he was afeard: so he said, 
"Yonder come de dogs." — "Let me in! Let me in! Hide me in the 
box! The dogs will catch me!" said the wolf. The pig did so, but he 
got angry and began to put holes in the box. "Wkat are you doing?" 
said the wolf. "Putting holes so you can get air," said the pig. "Oh, 
indeed ! " said the wolf. When the pig got the holes in the box, he put 
on some water. When it was very hot, he said, "Don't you want some 
cool water poured on yo' to mek yo' feel good?" — "Yes," said the 
wolf. So the pig po'ed hot water on him and killed hira. 

{Version b.' ) 

A long time ago Brer Wolf and Brer Rabbit were good friends, but 
for some reason or other they became deadly enemies. Brer Wolf 
decided to do Brer Rabbit harm. Brer Rabbit staid in his house most 
of the time, so Brer Wolf couldn't get at him. Wolf, however, thought 

' Intormant, Joe Seawriibt. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina 
aAFL 34 : 17-18). North Carolina (JAFL 30 : ITS-IT6). 

> Written by W. P. Naicom In 1903. 



268 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

of a way to get him out by stratagem. He knew that Brer Rabtnt 
liked fruit: so he went to Brer Rabbit's door one night, and told him 
he knew where some fine lai^e apples grew, and asked him if he would 
like to go and get some. Brer Rabbit very politely accepted the invi- 
tation, and agreed to go for the apples next morning at five o'clock. 
Brer Wolf trotted ofF home to dream of the sweet revenge he was going 
to have on Brer Rabbit, but Brer Rabbit was on to his tricks. Promptly 
at three o'clock he went after his apples, and was back quite a while 
before five o'clock. As the clocks struck five, Brer Wolf tapped on the 
door, "Are you ready to go for dera apples, Brer Rabbit? " says 'e. 
Brer Rabbit says, "La", Brer Wolf, my watch said five o'clock long 'go, 
and I thought you wasn't comin', so Ise done been." Brer Wolf was 
so mad he couldn't stand still; but he did not give up his hope (ot 
revenge, so he told Brer Rabbit 'bout some peaches which were farth^ 
away from Brer Rabbit's house than the apples. Brer Rabbit gladly 
consented to go, this time at four o'clock; but when Brer Wolf came 
after him next morning, he had been fooled again, and Brer Rabbit 
was inside enjoying his peaches. This time Brer Wolf was so mad dat 
his har turned gray, but he wouldn't give up. He decided to send Brer 
Rabbit on a fool's errand: so he told him about some fine pears. They 
grew on a distant hill very far away. There wa'n't no pears dere at all. 
Brer Wolf jest want to get Brer Rabbit out of his house one more time. 
They agreed to go at three o'clock this time. Brer Rabbit started out 
ahead of time, as usual ; but Brer Wolf, who had caught on to him, 
started out early too. He first caught sight of Brer Rabbit sittin' on 
de hill resting, den he kinder laughed up his sleeve when he thought 
how tired he must be from walking so far, an' how mad he must be for 
bein' fooled. After waiting a while, so's to catch his wind, he started 
out as if to speak to Brer Rabbit. 

Brer Rabbit knew there was trouble in the wind: so, as soon as he 
saw Brer Wolf comin', he made a break for home. R^ht down de hill 
he went, and Brer Wolf started right behind him. It was a race for 
life; and Brer Rabbit did his level best, while old Brer Wolf was equal 
to the occasion. 

They ran through cornfields, through woods and across fields, 'til 
they got in sight of Brec Rabbit's house. The sight of the house gave 
Brer Rabbit new courage and strength; so that he made a final break, 
and got in the house and locked the door just as Brer Wolf rushed 
'ginst it. 

Brer Wolf tried all of his force to open the door; and as he failed, 
he decided to come down the chimney. Brer Rabbit had oo intention 
of letting any one come down the chimney after him: so he just set 
a big kettle of boiling water right under the chimney; and when Brer 
Wolf dropped down, he went smack into the kettle. Den Brer Rabbit 
slapped on de cover, and he had Brer Wolf just where he wanted him. 


Folh-Lore from Elisabetk City County, Va. 169 

Brer V/tM make all kinds of whining entreaties for Brer Rabbit to 
let bim out, but it wasn't no better for him. Brer Rabbit made a das 
stew of Brer Wolf, and eat apple-sauce and peaches along with him. 
After this he went after fruit whenever he got ready, without fear of 
being caught by Brer Wolf. 


The rabbit and the frog were partners, and they were living on the 
same plantation. They had raised some rice, and were going to London 
mth it: so they sacked it up and got ready to start. The rabbit could 
travel faster than the frog, so he would stop once in a while to wait for 
the frog. "Ber Frog, can' you come no faster den dat? " said Ber 
Rabbit. " You des' goon, Ber Rabbit, I bedar,"said the frog. "Ye«, 
I know you will when you eat up all dar rice," said Ber Rabbit. The 
rabbit thought that the frog was eating the rice because the frog panted 
ttnder his throat, and the rabbit thought he was chewing. "Well," 
said the rabbit, "I ax yer eat some mine, too," said the rabbit. "You 
shall not eat all your rice and be fat, and me be poor." So the rabbit 
began to eat, and ate till he ate all his rice mostly. They both wanted 
to buy a hound, so they could catch a deer. When they go to London, 
the frog had enough to buy him a hound, but the rabbit had just enough 
to buy him a dog's head. On the way back home the frog's dog jumped 
a deer and caught it. The frog could not keep up with the dog, but 
the rabbit he kept up and did the hallowing. When the dog caught the 
deer, B'o' Rabbit ran the frog's dog away, and put his dog-head there. 

When the frc^ got there, Ber Rabbit said, "Ber Frog, 1 thought 
your dog was some 'count, but dar dar dog-head of mine he can fly. 
Des' iook how be stick to dar deerl Your old dog scared to go dar. 
Hold him dog-bead! Don' let him go!" — "Now, Ber Frog, you go 
over dar wfaar you see dar fire at and get some fire, and I will give you 
half." They saw the moon rising, and they thought it was a fire. Ber 
Frog went hopping just as fast as he could. Soon as he thought he 
was far atoagh so that the rabbit could not see him, he hopped behind 
a large tree and soon came back. " Ber Rabbit, dat man would not 
let me hab oo fire." Den Ber Rabbit look in de wes' and saw a star, 
"WdL yonder is a man; go ober dar." 

Away Ber Frog went, but soon came back again. " Ber Rabbit, 
dat man say you come. I walk too slow." Away Ber Rabbit went, 
leavisf Ber Frog to watch till he come. Ber Rabbit aoon came again. 
"Ber Frog, dar man lib too far dat a way." — "Weil, Ber Rabbit, 
des' go right over dar to dat man, he don' live ver>- far. You can go 
dar." — "Ber Frog, you oughter go, for somebody mout take dat 

I Uhnnom; La Patcen. Recorded by A. M. Bacnn. Compare South Carolina 


270 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

deer away from you." — " No, dey won't, ndder! Um a man, — a 
good man, too," said Ber Frog. So Ber Rabbit vent again. 

While Ber Rabbit was gone, Ber Frog hid the deer so Ber Rabbit 
could not see him. Then he went jumping up and scream an' holler, 
an' call, " Ber Rabbit, Ber Rabbit! " Ber Rabbit came running. " Wha' 
de matter? Wha' de matter? " — "A grade [great] big red-eyed man 
don' come an' took dar deer 'way from me." — "Look a yere, Ber 
Frog, yo' don' Bay his eyes was red? " — "Yes, his eyes was red," Ber 
Frog he say. "Well, I don' keer, " say Ber Rabbit. "Any ol' fool 
ought know a old dead dog-head can catch no deer. Yo' ol' dog caught 
him. I des' make fool out you." — "Ber Rabbit, I knowed dat you 
was lying. I don' carried dat deer home. I knowed my dog caught 
dat deer. I ain' gwine gib you a bit, neider. Now you go 'long to your 
bouse. I go to mine." And away they both went. 


(Version o.') 

Once there was a rabbit and a snail who were courting the same girl. 
The girl finally said she would marry the one that could win in a race 
and reach her house soonest. Brer Snail lived in a little house fust in 
front of Brer Rabbit's house. Early one morning Brer Rabbit came 
along, and said, "Hello, Brer Snail! Are you ready?" — "Not yet, 
Brer Rabbit," said Brer Snail. I must eat my breakfast first, and then 
I must fasten up my house." But he only wanted to keep Brer Rablnt 
until he could get on his tail. At last he told Brer Rabbit he was ready, 
and Brer Rabbit started off on a run. The distance they had to go was 
five miles. At the end of the first mile Brer Rabbit called out, "Hello, 
Brer Snail! " ex[>ecting Brer Snail to answer far away; but Brer Snail 
answered close at his heels. Then Brer Rabbit ran all the faster. At 
the end of the next mile he called again. Brer Sn^ answered in a low 
voice, as though he were far behind. Brer Rabbit called him at the 
end of each mile, and each time Brer Snail made his voice fainter. At 
the end of the five miles Brer Rabbit called for the last time. Brer 
Snail's voice was so low that it could scarcely be heard. So Brer RabUt 
thought he would take a walk, and come back in time to go into the 
house before Brer Snail got there; but, as he turned, Brer Snail jumped 
off his tail, and went into the house and jumped into the girl's lap. By 
and by Brer Rabbit came in. He sat down by the nde of the giri. Bat 
the first voice he heard was Brer Snail's, saying, "Hello, Brer Rabbit! 
Ise here, you see!" 

> Informant, Henry Rhetta. Recorded by A. M. Bacoo. Compare w**™*"" (JAFl. 
30 : 139), South Carolina (Christensen. 58-61). North Carollnk UAFL 3D : ilg), FoiB- 
BVlvania (JAFL 30 : Jog). Chickasaw (JAFL 36: 999). See alao DUmhanlt. Nator- 


Folk-Lore from Elusabeth City County, Va. 271 

{yersion &.') 
A terrapin and fox had a dispute about a girl aa to which should 
marry her. Bro' Fox told Bro' Terrapin that the one who got to the 
gill's houae and nt down by her ude first should be the one to marry 
her. Bro' Terrainn agreed to this, and they both started off for the 
goal. In the mean time Bro' Terrapin grabbed hold of Bro' Fox's tail ; 
and irtien Bro' Fox reached the girl's house and was sitting down by 
her side, Bro' Terrafun advised him not to intrude on his good nature: 
cooaec)uentIy Bro' Terrapin won the girl. 

{Yersion e.*) 
Onoe upon a time a buzzard met a wren. " Mr. Wren, dahs one thin' 
Ildndodiatyoucan't,"saidMr.Buzzard. "Whattsit,Mr.6uzzard?" 
said the wren. " I kin fly so high, you Idn scarcely tell me from de 
doud." — "All right, Mr. Buzzard! S'pose we hab a race! " So the 
btuzaid and the wren started. When the buzzard spread his wings, 
the wren lightly sat in the hollow of his back and went on up with him. 
" Wha* air ye, Mr. Wren? " said the buzzard when he had gone a little 
distance. " lae right heah, Mr. Buzzard." Higher and higher went 
Mr. Buzzard. "I yi, Mr. Wren!" — "lyi. Mr. Buzzard, Ise right heah 
above ye, go a UT higher, Mr. Buzzard." — "No," said Mr. Buzzard, 
"well go down to the earth." ... — "Well, Mr. Wren, you're alius 
idiove me. Why is't you neber fly higher den de fence ef you kin fly so 
high? " — " Wdl, you see, Mr. Buzzard, ef I tell you dat, you will be 
jus' aa wise I be." 

Once on a time there was a prize put up on a race between the rabbit 
and the turtle. It was said that the one who won should have a beauti- 
ful young girl for his wife. The turtle, knowing that the rabbit could 
make better qwed than he could, went around the day before the race 
and got all his friends to help him. He was careful to get turtles about 
his own size, so that they could ea«ly be mistaken for himself. The 
turtle posted them at different places along the road, and told them to 
be ready. When the rabbit came along at each point where there was 
a turtle, the turtle would cry out, "Hello, Brer Rabbit!" Then the 
rabbit would run all the faster. When Brer Rabbit reached the end 
ofhisjoumey, there was a turtle to cry out, "Hello, Brer Rabbit! You 
aee I have won the race." 

■ Written bjr W. N. Brown In tSoQ. 

* Writlm by Lncr C. Burow ol Pfa<rbui. 

* MoTBknt. Cornrlliu Cmzr. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compuc Bulu (JAFL 
99 ■• >T7). Bcn^ (Nunu, gs-0S>. Philippine* (Cole, B«; MAFLS 13 : 43S~4i9). Chero- 
kee (BAE 10 : >7»-aTi}. Jicsrillm ApMhe (PitAM S : 137). South CanJlnA (JAFL 31 : 
394: UAPtS lO : 79. No- TO). Florida UAFL 30 : uj-iKi). Comparative. MAFLS 
ij : IM <mMc I), JAPL 3* : 39^ (note 9). MAFLS 16 ; 79 (note i). 


272 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


One day Brer Fox was hungry. As he wandered about the wood, he 
saw a squirrel upon the branch of a tall tree. "Hello, Brer Squirrel!" 
he said. "Hello, Brer Fox!" replied the squirrel. Then said Brer 
Fox, " I once had a brother who could jump from limb to limb." — 
"So can I," replied Brer Squirrel. "Let me see you!" said the fox. 
So Brer Squirrel jumped from limb to limb. "Brer Squirrel, I have a 
brother that can jump from tree to tree." — "I can, too." So Brer 
Squirrel jumped from tree to tree. " Brer Squirrel, I had a brother who 
could jump from the top of a tall tree right into my arras." — "I can, 
too," said Brer Squirrel, and he did. Brer Fox ate him up. 

Brer Rabbit was lying in his bed near by, and saw all that was done. 
"Brer Fox," said he, "you are a mighty smart man, but I bad a brother 
who could 4o something you cannot do." — "What was it?" said 
Brer Fox. "My brother could let anybody tie a large rock around his 
neck, and jump off this bridge into the water, and swim out." — "So 
can I," said the fox. Then Brer Rabbit fixed the rock and the string, 
and Brer Fox jumped, but he has not been heard of since. 


( Version a.' ) 
The turkey and the rabbit were once going through an old field, and 
the rabbit asked the turkey what made his eyes so red. Brer Turkey 
told him it was trouble. Then Brer Rabbit asked him what trouble 
was. Brer Turkey said, " Come with me into the field, and I will show 
you trouble." Brer Turkey made believe he was after water, but he 
was only setting the field a-fire in different places. By and by Brer 
Rabbit heard the fire begin to roar, " Brer Turkey! Brer Turlrey! " he 
cried, "how are you going to get out of this field?" BrerTurlrey said 
he was going to fly out. "Take me with you. Brer Turlrey! " said the 
rabbit. But Brer Turkey said he could hardly get himself out. Brer 
Rabbit ran through the fire, and that is how he lost his tail. The fire 
caught it and burned it off. And Brer Rabbit has never had a tail 

{Version b.*) 
One day Brer Rabbit was complaining, in the presence of Brer Fox, 
of the many troubles he saw every day. Brer Fox said to Brer Rabbit, 
"Brer Rabbit, you are all the time talking about troublel trouble!! 
trouble!!! I certainly would like to see trouble one time." — "Well," 
said Brer Rabbit, "I'll tell you where to go; and if you do just like I 

' Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Published in Southern Wotknuui, aS : 113. 
) Informant, Ella Anderson. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compwe South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 59-60, No. 48)- 

' Written by J. H. Thomas in 1899. 


Folk-Lore from Elisabeth City County, Va. 273 

tell you, you will be able to see it," — "All right! " said Brer Fox, 
"I'll be there, sure." — "You go away down the road and lie down in 
that hay-field and go to sleep; and when trouble comes by, I will call 
you." — "All right, Brer Rabbit! I'll b? there." Brer Fox went and 
laid down in the centre of the hay-field and went to sleep ; and as soon 
as he had gone to sleep. Brer Rabbit made a large ring around Brer 
Fox. When the ring was about five feet high, Brer Rabbit set the hay 
on fire, and then cried out, "Brer Fox! O Brer Fox, Brer Fox!" About 
this time Brer Fox awoke, and, finding himself surrounded with the 
flames, he soon thought that he saw trouble, and cried out, "Trouble! 
Trouble! Trouble!" 


( Version o.* ) 

Once a girl was picking peas in a pea-patch, and a rabbit came along. 

Brer Rabbit went to eating peas. He found them so good, that he 

kept eating and singing, too. 

"Picking peas, 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over there." 

By this time the girl stopped and listened to the rabbit. As soon as be 
had finished his song, she said, "Stng that song again," and the rabbit 
sang again. 

"Picking peas. 

Land on my knees. 

Heard old woman call 

Right over you." 

While he was singing, she caught him and carried him to the house, and 
told her father and mother to listen to Brer Rabbit sing. The mother 
said, "Put him on the floor." Then Brer Rabbit sang, — 

"Picking peas. 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over you." 

When he had finished, they said, "Sing that song again." Brer Rabbit 
say, "Put me on the bed, and I will." So the little girl put him on the 
bed, and he sang the same song again. Then the father and mother 
said, "Sing that song again." Brer Rabbit say, " Put me in the window, 
and I will." So they put him in the window; and he sang, — 

> Inlanmiit, Sarah Denuniii^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare Cherokee 
(BAE 19 : 174. 379). Compaiative. MAFLS 13 : 135-137. 


274 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Picking peas, picking peas. 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over you." 

And with that he jumped out of the window and ran away into the 
woods, and they never saw Brer Rabbit again. 


Once a 'possum and a wolf planned to go to a king's palace. The 
wolf went to the house to eat some rice. When he got to the rice-house, 
he said to the door, "Glue up! " and the door got tighter and tighter, 
but did not open. Finally the king caught him. Then the wolf begged 
him to let him go, and he would never come there again as long as be 
lived. So the king let him go. 

Then the wolf went back home; and when he got there, he found 
the 'possum. "Hello, fellowl" he said. "Where you been?" The 
'possum said he had been to his girl's house. 

Then the wolf told him he had been to the king's house, and that 
he had had some rice to eat. The 'possum wanted to know where it 
was. Then the wolf told him about the door, and that when he got to 
it, he must say, "Buckle loo!" and the door would open. Then the 
'possum went into the house and did as the wolf said, and the door 
flew open. Then he ate all the rice he wanted, and, as he came out, 
said to the door, "Glue up, glue up! " and the door got tighter and 
tighter. Before the 'possum could get out of the house, the king came, 
and said, "Who is this in my house?" The 'possum said, "It is me. 
King." And he asked the king to let him out, but the king burnt him up. 

Brer Buzzard was going to kill Brer Rabbit. One day Brer Buzzard 
met Brer Rabbit in the road. Brer Rabbit had two jugs of syrup. 
Brer Buzzard said, " If you don't give me one of those jugs, I will kill 
you." He gave one of them to Brer Buzzard. Then Brer Buzzard 
said, "You will have to give me both jugs." Brer Rabbit did so. "Now 
I have both jugs," said Brer Buzzard, "and I am going to kill you, 
anyhow." Brer Rabbit said, "Brer Buzzard, please let me off, and 
I will carry you to a bee-tree." Brer Buzzard said, "All right! " They 
went on ; and when they got to the tree. Brer Rabbit went up first and 
ate honey until he saw the bees and came down. Then Brer Buzzard 
went up. He was so greedy, that the bees stiu^ him on the head. It 

' Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina UAFL 34 : 131 MAFLS 16 : 
36-37, Nos. aa, 33). Comparative, Folklore. 39 : ao6-3l8, 

■ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Caraliiui (MAFLS t6 : 3S-36. No. 3i}. 

Alabama GAFL 33 : 400). 


Folk-Lore from EUsabeth City County, Va. 275 

swelled in the bolllow so that he could not get tt out. Then Brer Buz- 
zard said to Brer Rabbit, "Run for the doctor, and ask him what I 
shall do!" Brer Rabbit ran around the tree, and said, "Two good 
wrings and one good snatch." But that wouldn't do. Brer Rabbit 
ran around the tree again, and said, "Take the hatchet and chop it 
out." Brer Buzzard said, " Come on, and get it out for me ! " Brer 
Rabbit went up there and chopped around, and then cut his head off. 
Then Brer Rabbit got a piece of mud and put it on his neck, and said, 
"Now flutter, now flutter, if you can!" 

{Version a}) 
Once a rabbit and wolf went out one day to catch some fish. The 
wolf caught all the fish, and the rabbit didn't catch any. So the rabbit 
said to himself, "I am going home to my wife." Then he said to the 
wolf, "Brer Wolf, you have caught all the fish, and I have not caught 
any; and to-morrow morning your wife will be eating fish, and mine 
will be qu'rrling." — "I don't care," said Brer Wolf. " Please give me 
some fish for my wife! " — "I'll not, Brer Rabbit." Then Brer Rabbit 
said to himself, "Nevermind! I will go and lie in the road where Brer 
Wolf has got to come along." Brer Rabbit went and laid in the middle 
of the road. The wolf came along with his basket of fish. The old 
rabbit pretended to be dead. Brer Wolf kicked him over, and said, 
"Ha! here ts an old dead rabbit," and passed on. The rabbit went 
under the hill and got in the road again, and lay in the road as if he 
was dead. The old wolf came on and kicked him over, and said, "Ha! 
here is another dead rabbit," and passed on. Brer Rabbit went around 
him and got into the road again. When Brer Wolf came along to this 
dead rabbit, he set his basket of fish down, and went back to get the 
first rabbit; and then the rabbit got his basket of fish. 

{Version b?) 

A rabbit once said to a fox, "Let us go fishing!" — "All right!" 
said the fox. The fox took the basket and went in the boat; while the 
rabbit sat upon the bill and played the violin, which she said would make 
the fish bite. When she saw that the fox had his basket full of fish, 
she ran down the path some distance, feigning to be dead. When the 
fox came along and saw her, he wondered, but passed on. After the 
fox had passed some way, the rabbit jumped up and ran through 
the bushes, heading the fox, and lay down in the road as before. And 
the rabbit did this way the third time; and when the fox found the 

■ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 11-13). Com- 
parative, Folklo[«. aS : 408-414. 

• Written in 1899. 


376 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

third dead rabbit, he said that be would go back and couat tbesn- He 
put his fish down by this last dead rabbit, and went back to cxnmt; but 
when he returned, he had found no dead rabbits and his fish wine gone; 
for, when he turned his back, the rabbit got up and took the basket <A 
fish away. 

{Version c,') 

Near St. Louis there lived a bear who loved to go a-fishing. Once be 
fished all day in the Mississippi River. A cunning little hare thought 
of a trick to play Bear to rob him of hts nice string of fish. He ran 
around in front of the bear, and lay down across hts path as if he was 
dead. The bear kicked him, and, sedng he was stiff, jumped over him. 
The hare got up and ran around the bear, and lay down acn»s his path 
again. " There lays another old dead hare," said the bear. The hare 
jumped up and ran around a third time, and lay down across the bear's 
path. "What a nice meal I should have if I had those two which are 
left behind ! " said the bear. He laid down his fish and went back to get 
them. He could not find them; and when be hurried back to get his 
fish, there was no trace of them, nor of the hare which he had left with 
the fish. 

(Version d*) 

Once a fox heard a rabbit had outwitted a wolf. He dedded not to 
be friends to her any more. But Mis' Rabbit came and begged hia 
pardon, and it was granted. Mr. Fox offered to go hunting with Mis' 
Rabbit; but the rabbit was lazy and played off sick, and staid at Mr. 
Fox's house till he was very near ready to come back. Then she ran 
way down the road, and curled up and played off dead. Brer Fox 
came 'long and looked at her; but he thought probably she had been 
dead too long, so he passed on. As soon as Brer Fox was out of ^ght. 
Mis' Rabbit jumped up and ran through the field and got ahead <^ 
him, and laid down again to fake Mr. Fox. This time he looked at her 
and he looked into his bag. His bag was large enough to accommodate 
one or two more, so he put Mis' Rabbit in, and put his bag in the grass, 
and went back to get the other rabbit. Before he was around the 
comer Mis' Rabbit jumped up and ran home with Mr. Fox's game. 
So Mr, Fox found no game when he returned. 

But one day Mis' Rabbit was walking along, and she asked Mr. Fox 
what he killed. He said he killed a lot of game, but be had learned 
a headful of har' sense. She laughed and went on. 


A boy had some fish ; and he saw a fox, and he thought he was dead, 

and he put him upon the fish. An' he wasn' dead; and when the boy 

' AbMract from tale written by W. O. Clayton in 1903- 
• Written by Basaette in 1903- 

I Informant. Verna Turner of Hare Valley, Va. Compare compoiatiTe. JAFL Jj : 30J 
(note I). aI«o South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 39-40. No. 35). 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 277 

was pullin' his cart along, the fox took his lish and ate um. An' when 
the boy got home, he didn' have any fish. 


The king's daughter was rich, and she wanted some alligator-meat 
to eat. The rabbit took his harp and went to the creek, and began to 
ung on his harp. The alligator came out to join in a dance; but the 
rabbit struck after him with a lai^e club, so he went back. The rabbit 
went and kilted a squirrel, and dressed himself in the squirrel's skin. 
He went back to the pond and began playing again. The alligator 
came out and played. The rabbit walked around playing until he got 
a chance to kill the alligator. He killed him, and carried him to his wife. 

Then the rabbit's wife said that she wanted some panther-meat. The 
raMiit went to the woods and built a lire and blew a horn; and when 
the panther came, he told him that he would let him eat him if he would 
come through his fire. "I will," said the panther; but the panther 
did not know about the rabbit's tar baby in the middle of the fire. It 
caught him, and he died. The rabbit took him to his wife. 

When the rabbit and his wife were nearly ready to go to their new 
place, his wife asked for some elephant-meat. She did not think that 
he could get elephant's meat; but he said, " I can get any kind of meat." 
He met the elephant, and said, " I heard that you could carry a stack 
of hay, a can of oil, a box of matches, and me on the top." — "I can," 
said the elephant. "Why, do you want to try it?" — "Yes." — "I 
don't believe you can," said the rabbit. They got the hay on the ele- 
phant's back, and the rabbit got upon the hay and took the oil and 
matches. As the elephant walked on, the rabbit put his oil on the hay. 
He thought the oil would sting the elephant; but before the elephant 
could speak, he said, "Hay stings people backs, don't it, brother Ele- 
phant?" — "Yes," said the elephant, "but I don't mind that." When 
they got nearly to the place where the rabbit would have to get down, 
the rabbit lighted a match and stuck it to the hay. Then he got down, 
and said, "What is that on your back? " After the elephant died, he 
took some of the meat to his wife. Soon after this the rabbit and his 
wife moved to thdr new place in Georgia. 


Once a rabbit and a fox undertook to work a farm tc^ether. They 
made an agreement that the rabbit was to have all that grew above 

■ iDfomunt. Boyd Rhetta. Recorded by A. M. Bftcon. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 14-19, No. 8). Georiia and comparative CJAFL 31 : 404, 416-417). 

■ Informant. Lmteva vmioughby. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compatc North 
Carolina UAFL 30 : its: 3> ' 390. South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 109-111. No. iii). 
Bilozl UAFL 6 : 4S). CompaiatiTe. Boltc n. PoUvka, 3 : 355. 


278 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

the ground, and the fox all that grew below the ground. The first 
year they planted peas. When the peas were ripe, the rabbit had them 
all. Buh Fox was angry at this, and said the rabbit cheated him. Buh 
Rabbit said, " Don't let's quo'rl ! I wMl tell you how to settle this fuss. 
Next year you shall have all that grows above the ground, and I will 
have what grows below." So it was agreed. The next year they 
planted potatoes; and again they had trouble, for Buh Rabbit got all 
the crop. Hekeptonthatway until he starved the fox to death. Then 
he had all the crop, and all the land too. Buh Rabbit sure is sharp. 

Once the rabbit and the fox went courting a king's daughter. The 
king said he would give her to the one who would dance sand out of 
the rock. The fox danced and danced, but could not dance any sand 
out of the rock. At last the rabbit had his turn. Before he began, he 
tied a bag of sand with a little hole in the bottom in each of his 
trouser's legs. Then he danced, and the sand flew. He said, "O Buh 
Fox! just look, just look! " The fox knew that his chance was k>st 
The rabbit won the king's daughter. 


One day Brer Rabbit was very hungry, and he did not feel like 
working, so he thought he would get a meal in some foul way. He 
saw a fisherman coming along the road one day with his tray of fish on 
his head, plying his trade. So he immediately jumped into his hole 
and stuck his foot out, so as to trip up the fisherman. Not noticing 
where he was walking, the fisherman came along and stumped his foot 
against Brer Rabbit's, upsetting his whole tray of fish. Brer Rabbit 
then ran out and got a full supply of fish, and then ran back in. Before 
long Brer Wolf came along past Brer Rabbit's house, and smelled the 
fish that Brer Rabbit was cooking. He called in to Brer Rabbit, 
"Where did you get all dem fish, Brer Rabbit?" — "From the fisher- 
man." — "Well, gimmie some, den!" — "No, but I'U tell you how 
to get 'em. You go home and stick your big toe up out of de gnnmd; 
and when de fisherman comes along, he will stump his foot against 
yours, and throw away all his fish; then you run out, get as much as 
you want. " — "All right! " says Brer Wolf . BrerWoIfwenthome and 
did this, but this time the fisherman was very particular where he 
walked ; and when he came by Brer Wolf, he recognized the toe, and 
with the big stick he had he beat poor Brer Wolf's toe until it was well 

> Recorded by A. M. Bacon. ■ Wiitten by Samuel D. HoUowk^ In ipi>3. 


Ft^k-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 279 

32. IN LIQUOR.' 

Brer Rat fell into a barrel of whiskey one day, and couldn't get out: 
so he cries to Brer Cat, and says, " Brer Cat, if you take me out of this 
barrel, and when I dry, HI let you eat me." — "All right!" says 
Brer Cat. So Brer Cat took Brer Rat out of the barrel of whiskey and 
put him in the sun so that he would dry quickly. Meantime Brer Rat 
was looldng for some hole that he might run into. Finally he saw one, 
and with a jump he hkl himself. Then Brer Cat says, "Oh, no! that's 
not fair. Brer Rat." — "What's not fair? " — "You said, if I tookyou 
out of that barrel of whislny, you would let me eat you when you dry." 
■ — "A man's liable to say anything when he's in liquor." 


Once upon a time a dai^ married a cat ; an' every evenin' when the 
dawg came home, the cat was ack, and he never get any supper. One 
day the dawg decided to stay 'round the comer of the house and watch 
his wife. The cat went to playin' with the kitten. When she saw the 
dawg comin', she ran and put a marble into her mouth, an* said she 
had the toothache. An' the dawg started to chasin' her. Dai^s been 
chasin' cats ever since. 


(Version a.*) 

Once an old man, an' his name was Uncle Mose; and some one tol' 
him that if he could stay in this haunted house, he would give him all 
the meat he could eat. So he went to this house, and he started a 6re 
on the hearth, and he put on his frying-pan with the meat in it. A 
little animal came in the chimney and turned the frying-pan over, and 
said, "There's nobody but you and me here to-night, Uncle Mose." 
And he set his frying-pan up again, and he turned the frying-pan over 
^aio, and said, "There's nobody but you and me here to-night. Uncle 
Mose;" and Uncle Mose said, "Yes, an' I ain't a-gwine to be here 
long." ^ 

{Version b.* ) 

There was once a haunted house; and the man said to John, "If 
you stay in this house. 111 give you two bushels of gold." So that 
night, white John was in there layin' back to get a good smoke, a cat as 
big as a man came, and said, "John, ain't nobody here but me an' you." 
John said, " Hoi' on! 'tain' nobody gwine be here but you pretty soon." 

> Written by Samuel D. HoUowar. 

* lofanaant, LUUaa Coartocr c< Hanptoo. 

■ Infomant, ThomM L. Mao of Phcebiw. Compan Hanpton, Va. (Soutbern Work- 
man. iS : 449). South CoTolioa (JAFL 34 : it). Conpantlvc, JAFL 3a : 367 (note i). 

• InfonnaDt. Gbdr* Brifht o( Hampton. 



28o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

He ran so fast 'til he came to a rabbit; said, "Rabbit, don't you 
know you ought not to get in a skyared man's path? " He ran so fast 
'til he outran the rabbit. He came to a man. The man said, " I tUdn' 
know you could run so." John said, "You haven't seen anything yet; 
jus' wait a minute." 

An' John came to the man's house that offered him the two bushels 
of gold. The man said, "John, I thought you was goin' to stay in the 
house." — "No, I ain't goin' to stay in that house, either." And then 
he tol' him about the kyat and the rabbit and the man. 

(Version c.') 
Mr. Scott offered Uncle Tom a cartload of watermelons if he would 
stay in a haunted house one night. Uncle Tom went into the bouse 
and looked all through it. He didn't see anything. Then he sit down 
an' went to sleep. After a while a pair of boots came down. Then a 
barrel came down. Then a broom came down. An' it woke Uncle 
Tom. Then the ghost came down. The ghost said, " It ain't nobody 
here but you and me."* Unde Tom said, "I ain't gwine to be here 
long." Then Uncle Tom b^an to run. He got tired, and sit down on 
a stone. When he looked around, he saw the ghost an' all the things 
sittin' down 'longside of him. The ghost said, "Ha! You ain't got 
rid of me yet! " Then Uncle Tom began to run again. He ran all the 
way to the farmer's house. To!' the farmer he could bave.his ol' water- 
melons, if he wanted to, he wasn' gwine to stay in that old haunted 
house for nobody. 


Oncet there was a man. He said he wasn't afraid to stay in the 
house where any one died. And some man tol' htm if he'd stay in 
there, he'd give him two thousand dollars. And he was uttin' there 
smokin' his pipe, an' some one came there and said, "Whodat?" And 
this man said, "Whodat says 'Whodat?'" Theother man says, "Who 

dat says 'Who dat says " Who dat? An' the man tqpk up his hat- 

and flew. 


Was a little girl named Katie; and an old woman lived in a house by 
herself, and everybody believed she was a witch. As Katie was paasin' 
by, the old woman opened the door and told her to come in, and the 

' Informant, Lucy Morris of Phocbua. * 

■ When thp scory was retold. It lan. "There's plenty of-u here to-night.'' 

' fnfotmant, Vema Turner of Hare Valley, Virginia, 

• iDfonnant, Thelma Caimady of Hampton. She heard the itorr from bcr fniid- 
toother. who lives at Newport Newt. Compare Bahama* (MAFLS 13 ; 50-A0, with 
bibliograpbioa notCB); also South Carolina (MAFLS 16 151-53, No. 36), ZofitCIAFLjS: 


Fdk-Lore from EUzabeth City County, Va. 281 

little girl went in and saw a beautiful room with lots of pretty pictures ; 
and the old woman said she would give her some apples to eat. And 
after she finished eating the apples, the old woman told her to stay 
with her all the time. An' then Katie remembered that her mother 
sent her on an errand to get something for supper. She told the ol' 
woman that she would stay, but she had to get something for her 
mother for sup[>er, else she wouldn' have anything. An' she told her 
she could have anything she wanted; and she took a wand and hit 
the table, an' in Katie's mother's house there came lots of good things, 
and ^e was wonderin' where they came from. And Katie 'greed to 
stay with her for a week. An' at the end of the week she had a dream. 
She dreamed that a elf came and told her that the witch was goin' to 
Idll her. The next night she dreamed the same thing. The elf left 
her a comb and a handkerchief, and told her to drop them when the 
witch came after her. She jumped out the window in the middle of 
the night; and as she was almos' nearin' home, she looked behind and 
saw the witch comin' after her. So she dropped her oomb, an' a fores' 
grew up; and it took the witch a long time to get through. Then, after 
she got through, Katiedropped her handkerchief, and a river came. An' 
the witch had to cross the river. As she was almos' home, she came to 
a woods where a wood-cutter was cuttin' down some trees. The wood- 
cutter saw the witch, so he cut off her haid. He took Katie home. 
And her mother told her that came of children that disobeyed. 


Once there was an old woman who staid in the wood. She was a 
witch. A man and his young wife were out in the woods. The old 
mtch saw the young woman, and she changed her to a nightingale. 
The man wept a great while, and he began to seek some way to get 
his wife. He was out walking, and he found a crimson flower with dew 
in the middle. He pulled the flower and went to the witch's house, 
and went to the cage of his wife; and she came out, and they went 

Once upon a time there was a Uttle girl name' Little Annie Johnsen. 
Her father's name was Charles Johnsen. Her mother's name was 
Carrie Johnsen. This Little Annie lived in the woods. Every morning 
when she ate her breakfast, she always leave something in her plate. 
It was a milk-snake that lived in her back yard, and every morning she 
would carry food to this snake. Her mother and father wonder why 
she would go down to the back yard so much. Her mother followed 

> Recorded by A. M. Bacon. See Bolte a. PoUvka. a : 69. 

* Written by Benilce Pieney, Compaic Nortb Carolina (JAFL 30 : 185), Alabamm 
(JAFL 33 : 373). Compantive, Bolte n. Potlvktt, a : 459. 



282 Journal of American Folk'Lore. 

her one morning, and she found her down the back yard feeding the 
snake. This little girl was eight years old. This snake was very kind 
to her. 

39. THE TEST.' 
During slavery-time Marse George owned a good number of pigs. 
So Uncle Dick and sev'el other slaves made up a plot to kill some of 
these. So the night for the slaughter came, and they succeeded in 
killing three. As they were taldn' them home, they met Marse Geoi^ 
younges' boy; but he didn' make out what dey have, but wondered 
what were dey doin' out dat late. So nex' day 'bout ten o'clock Marse 
George called Uncle Zeke and tol' him to roun' up his hawgs. So it 
was found dat four was missin'. So Marse George sent for Broder 
John, and tol' him to call all his niggers up. An' he did as he was tol'. 
Marse George said, "Some of you been stealin' ma hawgs." He then 
asked his wife's opinion 'bout de matter. So she suggested that a rope 
would be tied between two magnolia-trees, and the one that didn' 
jump it stole the hawgs.* So de day appointed came, an' Marse 
George's dawg led it. So it finally came Marse George's horsier and 
he missed de rope. So he was given hundred lashes and put back on 
de farm. 

40. SOtJL OK SOLE.' 

Once upon a time there lived a girl. She wanted to know any kind 
of dance, and sing any kind of song. One day while she was alone, a 
man stood before her. He said, "You are always thinking about 
dancing and singing." He said, "If you want to, I mil make you so 
as long as you want to. You must give your soul to my master when 
your time is up." — "I should like to be with him for twenty-eight 
years," she said. The time rolled by quickly. When her time was up, 
she heard a loud noise, saying, "I am coming! I am coming! I am 
coming after you! According to your word, I am coming after youl" 
The master had come after her soul. She did not want to give him her 
real soul. She took up an old shoe-sole and threw it at him. The ugly, 
man-like thing did not know the difference, and he was contented. 


Once there was a woman who could do anything she wished to do. 

If she didn't like some one, she would speak to him, and in that way 

hurt him ; and if one of her friends should get cross with another person 

> Informant, Armstead V. M. Jonei of Scotland. La. 

* This BppcEus to be a variant of the teat of Jumping the fire. See, compuKtive. 
JAFL 31 : 394 (note 3) and MAFLS 16 : 14 (No. 7). It aeenu to be a variant at the wide- 
apread South African story of the te»t by walking the rope (aee JAFL 35 : 193). 

> Written by William Herbert. 

' Informant. Betty Wiley. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 


Fotk-Lore from Elisaieth City County, Va. 383 

that she didn't like, she would throw something on the ground and 
make something that belonged to that person fall dead. In that way 
she threw a dipper of water on the ground for ^ite to a man, and made 
one of his fine horses fall dead in the street. This woman was said 
to be a mate to the Devil, and he could give her power to hurt any one 
that she didn't like or got cross with. She had power to kill if she would 
only speak when she was angry. There were a great many rooms to 
her house; and in one of the rooms up in the fourth story was a dark 
room, always with a blue candle in there burning, and an old man said 
to be the Devil. This man staid in there always, and never came out. 
The way he was seen was by a very small window. He at length opened 
it, and an old woman was going by, when she saw him. This story is 
what she told. 


{Version o.') 
Long, long ago there lived an old miller. His family was very small. 
There was no one but him and his wife alone. This old man was not 
very rich, and had to work very hard to save what he had. His mill 
was the greater part of his property. He ran it day and night, or the 
larger part of the night. His wife was an old witch,and would come to the 
mill every night while this old man was there. She came in the form of 
a cat, Tlie old man would stop his mill after everybody was gone with 
their meal. He would spend the other part of the night reading. This 
cat would come every night and get in his lap. Sometimes the cat 
would not let him read, she would make so much noise. The old man 
was very tired of her. One day he was telling one of his friends about 
the cat, how it acted. This friend called himself very wise. So he said 
that it was the miller's wife. This friend told him how he could prove 
that it was his wife. The miller was told to cut off one of the cat's 
paws ; and if it was his wife, it would be her finger. The miller laughed 
at his friend, but he did as he was told. The cat came in that night as 
usual, and sat in the miller's lap. The miller began playing with her; 
and while he was playing, he slipped out his knife and cut off one of 
her paws. The cat left the mill as quick as she could. The miller put 
the paw in his pocket, and it turned into a finger. The miller went 
home the next morning, and found his wife in bed claiming she was 

{Version A.*) 

Once upon a time there was a man whose wife was a witch, and he 

owned a gris'-mill. He employed a man to keep the mill. Every night 

■ Recorded bjr A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAPL 34 : 9-10; MAFLS 16 : 
34-15. No. la; JAFL 30 : 196). 

■ Written in iSqq. 


284 Journal of American Ftdk-Lore. 

this keeper would light his candle and read his Bible. After a few 
nights a cat would come in and get upon the table and put out the 
light. Finally the old mill-keeper became enraged, and cut the cat's 
left paw off. The cat hurried out on three legs. As soon as the man 
cut off the paw, it became a hand, upon which was a beautiful ring. 
On it was the name of his employer's wife. The next morning the old 
keeper went to the house and asked to see the lady, without explaining 
his business. The landlord objected, of course, as the lady was ill in 
bed. Then the man drew from his [>ocket this hand, and told the full 
story. The husband looked at the ring and knew it. Then he carried 
the man into his chamber, and told her that this man wanted to see 
her. The man wanted to shake her hand. She refused. Then be 
took from his pocket this hand and ring. Her husband was there, and 
she knew he would not want her any more. So she got up out of the 
bed and began to plan for her departure. 

She ordered a boy to go to the store and bring her two tin plates, 
but not to put his tongue to them; if so, he would break her craft 
The boy got the plates and did not fail to put his tongue to them. The 
witch took the plates, placed them to her side, and became a tHrd. 
She took her flight; and, after getting a few rods in the air, the [dates 
fell off, leaving her without wings: hence she fell to the ground and 
smashed into bits. These bits became moles, and burrowed in the 

{Version a,') 

Once an old colored man was harassed several nights by what he 
said was an old witch riding him, so he planned to catch her. She 
came every night in the form of a yellow cat. This night, as the old 
man lay down before the open hre-arch, which had in it a big hot fire, 
he saw this same yellow cat come in the door and take her seat right 
before the big fire in front of him. He immediately got up, and took 
his broom and put it across the door; and then he went back, stirred 
the hre up, put on several more logs, and made it as hot as posnble. 
The yellow cat, which was the old witch, could not move out of her 
place, but simply turned from one side to the other. She oould not 
move as long as the broom lay across the door. After the old man had 
burned almost all the fur and skin off the cat, he removed the broom 
and told her to go. No sooner was the broom removed than the cat 
flew. The old man said that he knew who she was: so the next day 
he went to this neighbor's house to see how she was; and before he 
got there, the woman's husband met him, and asked why he burned 
his wife so badly last night. He said that she was in bed, with the skin 
burnt off of her. 

> Written by Nannie WUiiama In l»99. 


FoVt^Lore from EUtabelk City County, Va. 285 

If it is a white cat, it is a white woman ; a yellow cat, a yellow woman ; 
and a black cat, a black woman; and if you put the broom across the 
door vrhea the cats come in, they cannot leave until the broom is 
removed, so it is said. 

{Version o.*) 
Once there was a woman that could turn into a witch. When the 
husband would go to bed, she would slip out, and go off into the woods 
and turn into a bear. Once she went o£F and turned into a bear, and 
a man shot her in the shoulder. When she went home, her husband 
asked her what had happened. She said that she got hurt through an 
accident. The next time she turned into a panther, and wandered off 
in a very thick woods and ran the women and children. One night she 
was off, and a man saw her and shot her in the hip. While she was 
gone, the husband missed her and got up. He saw her skin lying by 
the hre. He got some red pepper and put it inside of the skin. Then 
he locked the door to keep her from coming into the house that night. 
When she came back, she slipped through the keyhole and went to get 
into her skin. Every time she went to get in, the pepper would bum 
her. She would say, "Skinny, skinny, don't you know me?" Then 
she would try again: it would bum her still. She wouW say, "Skinny, 
skinny, don't you know me? " The husband woke up. She got into 
it, but could not stay. Then she was tarred, and burnt to death. 

(Version b.*) 

Once it was said that an old tady had a very bad enemy near her. 
She got mad. - She tried in all ways to do her hami, and she could not. 
At last she decided to witch her, and so she did. The old woman at 
night slipped out of her skin and went to do her conjure-work. While 
she was gone out to conjure the woman, her husband went up there. 
No one was there. He went back home, looked in the comer of his 
chimney, and there lay a bundle. He took hold of it. While looking 
at it, it was a person's skin. Then he went into the house looking at 
the skin, and it was the old lady's skin. He then went to work boiling 
some fed pepper. Then he rubbed the skin all over and put it back. 
By and by the old woman came back and tried to get back into her 
skin ; but it burnt her so, she had to jump out again. Again and again 
she tried; but each time it burnt her so, she could not get into it. 
Finally she said, "There is a bad witch working on me. I must go 
home and get a doctor." 

> Recorded b]r A. M. Bacon. Conpore South Carolina (JAFL34 .- lO-ii; MAFLS16 : 
63-64. No. S3)- Comparative. JAFL ^^ : 147; 3a : 363 (note i). 

■ Recorded by A. M. Baoon. 


386 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Once upon a time there was a house which was scarcely noticed, 
that stood just outside of a very famous little village. In this house 
lived an old lady and her five daughters. The house looked terribly 
bad outside; but if any one had gone inside of it, they would have 
found it very different from the outside. The old lady and her five 
daughters were witches, and it is said that they got all they wanted 
from the village stores. One afternoon two travellers happened by 
this house just about sunset, and asked if they might stay all night. 
The old lady told them they could if they would be satisfied with the 
place she would give them, as she was not a rich person. The men 
told her it was all right, just so they were not out of doors. She asked 
them to come and sit down, she would have them something to eat in 
a few minutes. So she did. And the two men ate, and then went to 
bed very soon, for they were very tired from walking so hard. One of 
them went to sleep very soon after he got into bed; but the other one 
would not go to sleep, because he thought the old lady and her daugh- 
ters were up to something. Just as soon as the old lady and the family 
thought the men were asleep, they reached up the chimney and (each) 
got an old greasy horn * a juice and put to their mouths, then said a few 
words* and was gone. The man that was not asleep grew very much 
frightened for a while, but soon got over it. As soon as he got over his 
fright, he got up and put on his clothes, and looked for the horns that 
the old lady and the 6ve daughters used. He succeeded in finding the 
horns up the chimney. And as soon as he got them, be put one of 
them in his mouth and said a few words, and out he went. When he 
stopped, he was in a man's store in the village, where be found, to his 
surprise, the old lady and her daughters. He did not know bow he 
got in the store: so he went up to the old lady and b^an to talk mth 
her, but she gave him no answer. The old lady looked at her dai^hters, 
and said a few words which the man could not understand; and out 
they went, and left the man alone in the store. The man said as near 
as he could the same things that the old lady said, but could not get out. 
He would rise up as far as the ceiling of the store and strike his bead, 
but could not get out. When day came, the poor man was so afraid, 
that he did not know what to do. The clerk of the store came down 
very soon and unlocked the door. " I have been missing things out 
of my store for a long time," replied the clerk, thinking that the man 
had hidden himself in the store before he closed it the night before. 
"Oh, no!" replied the man. "If you will allow me a chance, I will 

> Written in igoi by W. S. Burreli. Recorded by A. M. ZnetM. CompMc North 
Carolina (JAFL 33 ; 332). 

* Variatil; Gourd. 

• Variant: "Flute. I'm gone." The other witches respond, "I'm »ft«r jrou." 


Foih-Lore from Elieabeth City County. Va. 287 

tell you just hov I happened to be here." So he told the clerk all 
about it, and also took the clerk to the old lady's house, where his 
partner was. When the clerk entered the old lady's house, he saw 
several things that he knew he had in his store and had missed them. 
So he went back to the village, and sent the sheriff after the old lady 
and her dat^hters, and let the man go free. When the old lady and 
her daughters were brought to trial, they were guarded by (?) ; smd 
when they got ready to pass the sentence on them, they began to sing 
a little song, which every one wanted to hear. They sang for about 
fifteen minutes; and as they sang, they began to move directly up- 
wards until they got so far up in the air that a person could hardly 
see them, and then disappeared. Those that were guards began to 
quarrel with each other because one did not shoot and the other did 
not shoot. So they got mad, and began shooting each other.^ 

46. can't set still.* 
There was once an old woman who was very anxious to get to church 
to tell her experience, as most of the Baptist people are; but this old 
woman was the last one to get to church, and every one was through 
telling their experience, so she was called upon as soon as she got in 
church. She got up twisting and turning, and then began, "Well, 
sisters and brothers, Ise had a mighty hard time to-day, I went to 
chum my milk, and the pig routed it over. I went to set my hen, and 
she flew up and broke my egg». I got my old horse and started to 
church, he stuck a fence-rail in his side, and I had to walk, and I'm so 
full of sea-ticks I can't set still." 


Once there was a widow living in a house with two daughters, and 
she had a ktd and kidktns. Gloves were very much in fashion then; 
and the girls used to keep asking their mother if they might not kill 
the Idd, so as to have some gloves made out of the skin. But the 
mother said no, she had only that one kid, and could not spare her. 
At last the girls made a plot to have the kid, anyway. One night they 
asked their mother if they might bake some cakes. The mother let 
them do so. They baked and baked. At last the mother came to the 
fire to see if they had not nearly finished. They pushed her into the 

' Variant; The witch puts something in the mouth of the man on the gallows, and 
OD his head one of the black caps she and the other witches used in their flight. The loan 
repeats the password after her; and they vjwish to sight, leaving only a little amoke. 
Back in her house the old witch gave the young man his clothes, and said, "This is a lesson 
for you. Always mind your own business, and not old peoples'." (Burrell.) — Compare 
Maryland QAFL 30 ; 309-3to). 

* Written by Aiaminta in 1899. 

' Informant. Ida Woode, Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 


288 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

fire, and she was bumed to death. Then they killed the Idd and 
skinned it, and got ready to make the gloves. That night, after they 
were in bed, the mother came back, and said, "Daughter, daughter!" 
The daughters were too frightened to answer; but the Idd answered, 
and said, "Baa, baa, little mother!" The next moniii^ the girls took 
the ashes of their mother and carried them off into the woods. The 
next night the mother came back and began to call at the gate, but she 
did not hear any answer. She came to the door and called, but still 
heard no answer. Then she pushed the door open, and went into tbe 
house and called and called, but did not get any answer. At last 
she jumped into the bed and tore the girls in pieces. 

There was a travelling preacher who was looking for a place to stay 
just for one night. He went to a very rich family and ask them, if 
they had a room, would they let him stay until morning. They tdd 
him that they did not have a room there, but there was an old house 
that sat over there in the field, it was very haunty, and "If you can 
stay, you are welcome to it, for several men have been there, but did 
not come out again." The preacher went over there to the old bouse, 
opened the door, and went upstairs, made himself a good fire in the 
fireplace, and sat there reading his Bible until twelve o'clock. He 
heard the dishes and pans rattling, and the chairs moving about, and 
some one scuffling around the floor. He said to himself, "I did not 
know that there were another family in here." He did not pay any 
attention to that, he went on reading his Bible. Afto-awfaile he heard 
some one coming scuffling up the stairs. They said to him, "Mr. 
White said come down and have supper." — "Tell him that I am not 
at all hungry, I have just been to supper." The second lime be sent 
a cat. It scratched on the door and said, "Mr. White says please 
come down and have supper." — "Tell him that I do not care for any- 
thing, I have just been to supper." The third time fae said, "Mr. 
White says, if you don't come down, you wish you had." The preacher 
began to feel frighten', and said, " I will be down there in a minute." 
The preacher went down there to supper. There was a table all set 
with pretty dishes and plenty to eat. All the chairs around the table 
were filled with people except one, and that was for the preadter. 
When he sat down, they ask him if he would bless the table.' He said, 
"Yes, I will." This is the blessing that he said: "Good Lord, make 
us thankful for what we are about to receive, for Christ sake. Amen." 
When he raised his head up, everybody was gone, and he was left there 
in the dark. He had to feel his way back up to his room. This was 
the only man ever lived there that did not get killed or ran away before 
' Written by Elsie Johnson. 


Folk-Lore from EUzabeth City County, Va. 289 

morning. The next morning the preacher left the house, and thanked 
the people for letting him stay there. 


Once upon a time was a family of people who were different from all 
the people around them. They had very nice stock around them, a 
large orchard, all kinds of poultry, and a beautiful flower-yard. When 
one of the family died, they that remained buried the one that was 
dead. When all of them died but one, he became very lonely and died 
very soon. There was not any one to bury him, so he lay on his bed 
and decayed. After his death the house was said to be haunted, and 
no one could go inside of it. The next year after the last one of this 
family died, the fruit-trees bore a tremendous quantity of fruit, but 
00 one came to get it. 

When people rode along the road which was near the house, they 
were often tempted to take some of the fruit that hung over the road; 
but when they put their hands to get the fruit, some one would speak 
to them and frighten them, 90 that they would foi^et the fruit. One 
day an old man who was a thief came by the house, and saw all the 
fruit and the poultry, and a lai^e number of eggs lying under the 
flowers. He asked the people around why they did not get some of 
those things that were wasting there. The people answered by telling 
him if he could get any of them, he might have them. "Very well," 
replied the old man, "I will have some of those things before I sleep 
to-night." So he laid his coat that had his arms down just a little 
ways from the house, and stopped there until night came. As soon 
as it was a little dark, the man arose and went inside of the orchard, 
and tied eight hens which were up a large apple-tree to roost. When 
he had tied the eight, he discovered a light somewhere, he did not know 
where. He looked down on the ground, and there were two large dogs 
with lamps on their heads, which were giving him a good light. When 
he saw this, he became so frightened that he turned the hens loose and 
fell backwards out of the tree. The dogs jumped after him just as 
soon as he got to the ground. The man jumped up and began to run 
as fast as he could, with the dogs right behind him. His home was 
about four miles, and he ran every step of it. When he got to his house, 
he fell in the door speechless, and lay speechless for a long time. When 
he came to his senses, he told his wife and family about what had 
happened to him. After that there was not a man in the community 
that was any more honest than he was. He had been a rogue all of 
bis life up to this time. After this happened he always worked for 
what he got. 

> InformaDt, Duncan. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 



290 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Once there was a very rich family of people, and they all died. 
Everybody was afraid to go there. Finally aome one put up a sign- 
board which said, "Any one who will go to this house and stay ova 
night can have the house and all that is in it." 

A poor boy came along and read it. " I will go," said he, and he 
went at sunset. He found all that he wanted, and went to work to 
cook his supper. Just as he was ready to eat it, he heard a voice from 
the top of the chimney. He looked up, and saw a 1^. The 1^ said, 
" I am going to drop." — "I don't care," said the boy, " jes' since you 
don' drop in my soup." The leg jumped down on a chair. Another 
1^ came, and said, "I am going to drop." — "I don' keer," said the 
boy, "jes" since you don' drop in my soup." One after another all the 
members of a man came down in the same way. The little boy said, 
"Will you have some supper? Will you have some supper? " They 
gave him no answer. "Oh," said the little boy, "I save my supper, 
and my manners too." He ate his supper and made up his bed. "WiW 
you have some bedroom? Will you have some bedroom?" said the 
little boy. No answer. "I save my bedroom, and my manners too," 
said the little boy; and he went to bed. Soon after he went to bed, 
the legs pulled him under the house and showed him a chest of money. 
The little boy grew rich, and married. 


It is said once a very rich man died, and his store was haunted; and 
his brother wanted some one to stay there at night, but everybody 
was afraid. Then he said that he would give fifty dollars to any man to 
stay there one night. A doctor said that he would stay there that 
night; and he went in and closed the door, and took his newspaper to 
read. Now everybody was quiet, and he was reading away, he heaid 
something walking on the doorsteps. Then he raised up his head, 
and the door flew open and in came a cow with no head ; and be jumped 
up and ran out the other door. When the owner of the store heard 
this, he said, " I will give five hundred dollars to any one that will stay 
here the next night." Then a preacher said, "I will stay;" and the 
preacher went in and closed the door, and took his Bible to read. He 
said to himself, "I will go uspstairs," and away he went. When all 
the town was still, he heard something coming in; he read on, then 
he heard it coming upstairs; read on, it came to him; then be looked 
up and saw four men without a head,* with a cofKn. Brought it to 

> Recorded by A. M. Bacoa. Compare Peimsylvaiila (JAFL 3« : itT). ZidU (JAFL 
35 ; 88), Cape Verde lalanda (MAFLS 15 Ipt. i) : (35, 24! fnote ij). 

* Informant. Jonas McPhetsoa. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 
Una (JAFL 30 : 195), South Carolina (JAPL 3> : 368}- 

' See JAFL 3» :398. 


Folk-Lore from EUxaheth City County, Va. 291 

him, sat it down, and started toward him. The preacher left, and told 
the news; and when the owner heard this, he said, "I will give five 
thousand dollars to any one that will stay here one night," Then a 
poor man said, "I will stay." He went in and closed the door, and 
in a few minutes he heard something coming in at the door. He was 
very much afraid ; but he said, " I will not run, but I will ask it what 
it wants here." At this moment the door flew open, and in came a 
man without head and arms. The poor man said, "What do you want 
here? " Then he said, "That is what I have been coming here for, for 
some one to ask me that. Sir, my money is down under the hill; and 
if you come with me, I will show it to you, and you may have two 
thousand dollars of it, and I want you to divide the rest with my 
brothers." And he did so. 


There is a bridge near my home known as the "Haunted Bridge," 
During the Civil War the Northern army came through this country, 
doing a great deal of damage. A man by the name of Mr. Cheek, who 
lived within fifty yards of my home, heard that this army was approach- 
ing. He made ready to escape on his horse. He started off in haste. 
He came to this ditch. He was in a hurry to cross. The crossing was 
called "Ford," The bridge has been built there since then. He made 
his horse run into the ditch, and both himself and the horse were killed. 
It is said by a good many people, at night when they cross the bridge, 
he can be seen at any time on his black horse, on a dark stormy night 
especially. There was a man who lived near Mr. Cheek's house whom 
Mr. Cheek did not like. I heard this man say that Mr. Cheek comes 
to his house every night and knocks. The man says he knows it is 
Mr, Cheek. Sometimes he gets up and opens his door, and once or 
twice he saw him in the form of a cow, 


There was once a slave and his mahster. The slave could tell any 
kind of a tale for his mahster, so his mahster used to take him around 
with him to visit his friends. On one occasion the mahster told the 
following tale, and a^ed Jake, his slave, to verify it and also tell jus' 
how it was done. "Yesterday Jake and I were out on East Mountain, 
huntin', and we saw a deer on West Mountain. And I aimed, and shot 
the deer throt^;b his right hind-heel and his right ear with one shot, — 
Didn't I do it, Jake?" — "Yes, sah, mahster! you certainly did it." — 
"Well, an right, Jake! You jus' tell this gentleman how I did it." 

• Rnx. RccotdMi by A. M. Bacon. 
* liif«roaat. Paytca Brcnm of PulaaU Couaty, Virginia. Compoic North Carotins, 
G««xi>'BalB^M(JAFL3o:i9i);G«<rgia(JAFL3i : 370) ;Soiitli Carolina (MAFLS i6 : 
1 1 7. No. us). 


292 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Jake scratched his head and thought a moment, and said, "Oh, yes! 
mahster, you mean the deer dat was scratchin' his head? De deer had 
his right foot up, scratch his right ear, when mahster shot, and the 
bullet went through his right heel and his ear." It was a very piau^ble 
story ; but Jake turned to his mahster, and said, " Look here, mahster! 
please get dem shots a little closer together nex' time." 


Two Negro boys went out bear-hunting. They knew where there 
was an old bear with a cub. So they went; and the mother-bear was 
out from her hole, intending to get the baby-bears. And Jake staid 
on the outside to watch for the old bear, and Ike went in to get the 
baby-bear. While Ike was in, the baby-bears begin to cry; and the 
mother-bear, not being very far away, hurried to see what was the 
trouble. She came so swiftly, that Jake didn't have time to call to 
Ike; but jus' as the mother-bear went into the hole, Jake seized her 
by the tail. Ike was within, and the light had been shut off; and Ike 
hollered, "Hey! What darken de hole?" An' Jake replied, "If dis 
tail-hol' slips, you'll see what darkens de hole." 


Once upon a time there was a king who had a daughter. Her name 
was Mabel. One night Mabel was invited to a big dance. The slave 
who worked for her father was to carry her to dis daJice. Before they 
could get there they had to cross a little river. The slave pulled his 
shoes off and took her on his back. After while they arrived at dis 
house where the dance was. When she got in dis house, she did not 
notice him. When she got ready to go, the slave carried her to the 
river. He had to pull off his shoes, as before. When he got half way 
the river, the slave dropped her in the water, and said, "Ben Jones' 
horse ti'ed," 


Once upon a time there was a little slave who always said that he 
didn't like sweet-potatoes. Every night he would go to his master's 
potato-hill and steal his potatoes. Then he would go back to his tittle 
house and sit around the tire, and say, — 

"Sn-eet-'tatoes, ycr nice, 

Are blows an' bites. 

1 eats a peck every night." 

> Informant. Payton BrowD of Pulaski County, Vlrslnia. Compart Geoiiia (JAFL 
31 : 371). South Carolina (MAFLS 16 ; 118, No. 114). 
■ Written by Adeline Wyche. 
' Written by Helen Bailey. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 293 

The next time that he went to the hill, his master watched him. After 
he had gotten into the house and cooked the potatoes, his master 
opened the door and went in. "I thought you said that you didn't 
like potatoes," said the master. He carried him down to the place 
where he whipped his slaves at, and whipped him. 

"Yes, master, blows an' bites. 

I eata a peck every night. 

Sweet-potoB, sweet-potoes. 

Yes, master, I ain't gwoin' eat no mo' dem 'tatoes." 

57. master's hog.> 
Once there was an old man who, every time his master killed a hog, 
would kill one too. One day he killed a very large hog, and was trying 
to carry it upstairs. The old man kept saying, " Push, old lady, push! " 
The old woman would say, "Pull, old man, pull! " She looked, and saw 
their master coming, and she turned the hog loose. The old man saw 
bis master coming, and he began to pull, and call out, "Push, old lady, 
push! It's the heavies' hog I eber kill; but push, old lady, push!" 
But old massa came up and caught the hog, and pulled until the old 
man turned it loose. Old massa went and got a switch, and began 
with the son first. The old man would say, "Stand to it, my son! 
stand to it!" He drew blood; but the old man say, "Stand to it, my 
son! Neberfail. Standtoit!" 

58. WHAT Dm YOU SAY?* 
Long ages ago, when our fore-parents were slaves, every rainy day 
they would have pease to eat. One day when the master brought the 
pease to his slaves, one of them said, "Um ti'ed a pease. We's got 
pease fur dinner, and we's got pease fur suppers." His master heard 
what he said. He came right away, and asked him what did he say. 
"Not'ih', master," said he; "I just say, 'More rain, more grass grows.' " 

59. hastek's fowls.* 
Master b^an to miss bis fowls: so one night he walked down the 
field towards Aunt Dinna's bouse, and he saw a big fire with a pot 
over it. Now Aunt Dinna began to dng, — 

"Massa, ain't you ^ad your old game-hen 
Been on the foos' so long? 
But Ah got 'em in the pot at las'." 
Aunt Dinna sang over this tune three or four times while taking the 
feathers from the old hen. So the master b^an to sing, — 

■ Recorded by A. U. Bacon. Conxwre Sotttb Carotiua (JAFL 34 : »>■ 

■ Written by Helen Bailey. CampsR Sovtb Carolins (MAFLS 16 : 54). 
' Written by Tbone. 


294 Journal of American Folk'Lore. 

"Aunt Dinna, ain't you glad my old gsme-heD 

Been on the roos' so long? 

You got 'em in the pot at las'. 

But, Aunt Dinna, ain't you 8on7 

You got my old game-hen in the pot. 

For Massa gwine to cut your back at last." 

In this community, every time any one killed a haii^, it was neces- 
sary to give some of it to the nrighbors. So Sis Garret husband killed 
a hawg; and Sis Garret said, "Garret, you ain't gwine give away all 
dis hawg. Us gwine to save it fur us chillun." Soon after dey had 
killed de hawg, and cut it up and salted it down. Sis Jenkins canw 
to see Sis Garret. When Sis Garret saw Sis Jenldns comin', she 
exclaimed, "Oh, my Lord! Garret, yonder comes Sis Jenkins. Push 
de meat under de baid." He get out de bouse. Now, Sis Jenkiu 
came in, and said, "Good-momin', Sis Garret! I been Hear you Idll 
hawg." Sis Garret say, "Yes, I been kill; but he been a small one, 
and Garret an' de chillun done eat um all up." An' Sis Jenkins 
answered, " Yere! " An' den de two women begun to talk about first 
one thing and then the other. While they sat talking. Sis Garret's 
large gray kyat came in and ran under the bed. Suddenly the kyat 
came back out, dragging a large piece of fresh pork. Sis Jenkins 
exclaimed, "Sis Garret! What's datde kyat been have?" SsGanet 
jumped up and stretched her apron in front of de kyat with the meat; 
and she shouted, "Oh, my Gawd! Skyat! Skyat!" 

Once there was an old slave who prayed to the Lord that he wouk) 
take him home, soul and body. At last, one day when his master was 
gone off, he told his wife that next day he would bid the world good-by, 
for the Lord had made known to him that he was going to take him up, 
soul and body. So next day he went out to a tree where he often went, 
and prayed, "O Godie! take me to the place^here people don't have 
to work! Master give live hundred lashes every night and morning." 
His master was out in the bushes, and heard everything that was said. 
So he went to town and bought a line and windlass. He took the line 
and climbed to the top of the tree. By and by the old slave came back, 
and prayed, "O Lord! take me to heaven, where massa can't beat rae 
anymore! Send me a line from heaven!" Helookedup, and there was 
the line. He took hold of the rope and put it around his neck. He 
said, "Lord, Ise ready to go." Now his master began to draw him up. 
The slave said, "Wait, Lord! Let me down again!" He let him down. 


Fdk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 295 

He then said, "God, I ready! Let me go again!" and he started up 
again. Then he said, "O Lord! let me down again, and get some moss 
hay and put it on my neck! " He put the hay on his neck. Then he 
said, "I go now, I know. Farewell, everything! " He left the ground. 
He did very well till he got up about nine hundred feet, then he got 
to whirling around. He said, "O Lord! letmeback!" but his master 
did not let him back. He said, "O God! don't you hear me? Let me 
back! " His master then got so ticklish until he turned the windlass 
loose, and down he fell. When he reached the ground, he had no breath 
left. He lay there like a dead man for a long time. When he came to 
his right sense, he got up and ran home. When he got home, he said, 
"Alice, I want you tell me what you praying to God for. You just /^ 
as well pray to the Devil : for God made known to me that He was^^ 
going to take me where He is; and when He got me way up. He let me 
fall back to the ground. I ain't gwine pray no mo', an' I don' want to 
see you pray no more. You is just losing your time, and you might get 
more sleep. I don' want see you at such a thing again." 


Once there was an old man named Langton; and whenever he 
prayed, he would say, "O Lord! please come and take poor Langton 
home out of his suffering! " Every night he did that, people began to 
notice it:~so some mischievous boj-s said that they would try his faith. 
One night they came to the old man's door, and waited until the old 
man began to pray. When he got to his old saying, one of them knocked 
on the door, — bam, bam, bam! The old man stopped praying and 
listened, and no one said anything. After a while he began again; and 
soon he said, "O Lord! please come and take poor Langton home out 
of his sufferings ! " Oneof the boys knocked on the door, — blip, blip, 
blip! The old man stopped again, and asked, "Who is that? " One 
of them replied, "The Lord has come to take poor I.angton home out 
of his sufferings." The man jumped off his knees and blew the light 
out, then with a very excited voice exclaimed, "Langton has been 
dead and gone a fortnight! " 


Once there was a man who would go hunting every night, — Monday 

night, Tuesday night, Wednesday night, Thursday night, Friday 

night, Saturday night, Sunday night. And doing this, the preacher 

begged him to cease hunting so much. He would hunt Sunday nights. 

> WriUni by PraU in 1S99. Compuc South Carolina (MAFL5 (6 : ST-S*. No. 46). 
Virfiiua (JAFL 33 : 361-363, and MUiofiBirfiksU aotc). 

> lofociDUit. AUeo EwiDf o< Bntlet County. Alabama. Compoic North Cari^IiM 
OAFL 30 : 1S4}. 


296 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

But he didn't heed. One Sunday he went out with the dawgs. He 
treed a 'possum. All at once something up in the tree b^:an naming 
the days of the week: "Monday night, Tuesday night, Wednesday 
night. . . poor 'possums can't get no rest," Came down out of the tree, 
ketch the dawgs, beat them. The man ran away home, said that was 
a cure for hunting Sunday nights. 


Once upon a time a master had a boy working for him. One Sunday 
his master went to church and told him to cook a duck. The bo)* 
cooked the duck, and said, "I will taste the wing;" then be said, "I 
will taste the other wing;" and then he ate all the duck. Then it was 
too late to cook another duck. His master brought the preacher to 
take dinner. The master was sharpening his knife. The boy said, 
"He is sharpening his knife to kill you." The preacher began to run. 
The boy said to his master, "There he goes with the duck!" The 
master began to run after the preacher. 


This story my grandmother told me 'bout slavery-time. 

There was an old man on the plantation. He was lame, he bad a 
cork leg, and he insisted he couldn't get along without a cane to help 
him walk. He had two grandsons at that time who were very eager to 
hunt nuts in the woods. One afternoon in the fall these two boys went 
hunting walnuts. On the way back, for fear that some of the other 
children would take their nuts, they stopped by the cemetery to hide 
them. So they went in and hid the walnuts behind a tombstone, 
intending to leave them there until night, and then come and get them. 
To be sure that nobody had bothered them, they brought two out, — 
two walnuts, — and put them outside of the gate. That night after 
supper they sneaked outside the cabin to the cemetery to divide their 
walnuts. They sat down in the cemetery and began dividing them 
in this way: "Two for me, and two for you; two for me, and two for 
you." About that time one of the slaves [}assed the cemetery. It 
was about midnight. He heard these boys talking. So he ran very 
fast to the cabin, 'cause it frightened him hearing these boys in the 
cemetery, and told Uncle Remus that Satan and the Lord were in the 
cemetery dividing the souls, saying, "Two for me, and two for you." 

1 WritteD by William H. Hairis. Compare compatatlve. MAPLS 13 : 77; alto Smith 
CaTolina (MAFLS 16 : 140. No. 159)- 

■ Informant, Gentia Carter of Greengbotough, N.C. Compare North ^fFnit™ 
(JAFL30 :i77).CharlottFville. Va. (JAFL30 : 115). Id the Negn>mu«ial comedy Lin. 
played this aeMon la New Yorii, tlie graveyard •cene of this well-icaown Eii(Udi-Nefn> 
tale Is introduced, the ghostly voice saying, "You calce the tali one, and I'll take the short 
one." in this dramatic veraioo the two grave-robbers being tall and short. 



Folk-Lore from Elisabeth City County, Va. 297 

Uncle Refflus doubted this statement, and they both went to investi- 
gate. They stopped just at the gate to listen; and they heard these 
boys saying, "Two for me, and two for you; two for me, and two for 
you." 'Bout that time Uncle Remus said, "Lord, I believe dey is." 
The boys had just about finished dividing the walnuts, and, remember- 
ing the two outside the gate they left, one said, "Two for me, two for 
you, and those two outside the gate you can have either one of them 
you want." Uncle Remus, not sure which one would get him, Satan 
or the Lord, dropped his stick which he used for thirty years, and ran 
back to the cabin. 


(Version o.*) 
A rich planter fell from his horse in a fox-hunt, and was lamed for 
life. He was carried about in a litter by four slaves. When his wife 
was about to die, she made him promise to bury with her all her jewels. 
The planter was carried every day to the grave, and every night would 
send a servant to see that the grave was undisturbed. One night the 
servant returned in haste to report that some one was robbing the 
grave. The litter-bearers had gone to a cake-walk on the next planta- 
tion, so the planter made his servant carry him on his back. . . . The 
slaves reasoned, "We belongs to marster, an' de chickens dey belongs 
to marster." And so they felt free to take what they wanted. Two 
slaves planned to steal a sheep and to bury it for safe-keeping in the 
graveyard. One went to the pasture to get the sheep; the other, to 
the graveyard to dig the hole. When the planter came on the back of 
the servant, the man di^ng thought it was his partner with the sheep. 
" Is he fat? " he asked. The servant was frightened by the voice from 
the grave, and said, "Fat er lean, take him!" and dumped his master 
into the hole, and ran back to the house. He was the fastest runner on 
the plantation; but when he reached the house, he found his master 
there already, with the bed-clothes over his head. 

{Version 6.» ) 

McAllister's plantation adjoined Joe Jenkin's, and their slaves 
were neighbors. 

Joe's coachman was a big strapping fellow, with swarthy skin, 
kinky hair, pearl teeth gracefully set in a bright-red gum that was very 
promineot whenever he parted his weighty lips to speak or grin. Sam 
was v«y fond of McAllister's house-maid. Lily Bell prided herself 
as the belle of all the plantations, far and near. She was a mulatto of 
medium height and uze, beautifully shaped, with bright rosy cheeks, 

■ Written bj I. C- Diammd in iSgg. His venion has been abbreviated. Compan 
North Carolina (JAFL 30 : iS4). Alabama (JAFL 3a : 3s»S). 
* Written by Jofan A. Jeataa* In 1903. 


298 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

dark eyes that sparkled under heavy eyelids, and her head was covered 
with thick, b)ack, glossy hair. 

Sam was always in the height of glory when he was en route to "raa 
Bell's house;" but once when he got there, her charming features 
and musical voice had not the usual pleasant effect on him. Lily Bell 
got uneasy as she stared at Sam from head to foot. 

"Why, what's the mattah wid ma Sam, humph? Who's been atter 
you, dem hans or dem hants? Oh, talk, Sam! Don't you hear yo' 
honey talkin' to you?" All this time Sam stood with head bent. After 
a while he broke silence: "Wal, you see, Lily Bell, I is so glad you 
t'ink so much ob Sam; but to-night you came near not faabin' any 
Sam, 'cause de hants like ter skeered me to deaf." — "Why, Sam!" — 
"Yes, indeed, honey! 'tis er fact! As I wus comin' ober here ter-night 
by de cemetary, I saw two white hants standin' up straight, and one 
on de ground." — "Whar did yer see dem, Sam?" — "By de grave- 
yard." — "O Sam! I know you are 'fraid to go back to-night." Just 
at this instant Lily Bell's brother spoke. "I ain't erfraid of hants; 
and ef I could walk, I would go home wid you, Sam." This boy was 
deformed. He had almost reached his first score, and he had never 
walked. Sam was much comforted by Tom's remarks, and he felt 
ashamed of himself for being afraid, if poor afflicted Tom was not 
afraid of hants. The graveyard which Sam had often passed at night 
was about two miles from the cabin where Lily staid. He thought that 
was quite a ways to carry a man, but finally he accepted the proposi* 
tion. "Will you do it, Tom, sure enough?" — "Yes, Sam, ef you tote 
me, I will." — "Den, all right, Tom! Ef Lily will excuse me, I will 
be goin' right now, 'case I am in a big hurry." 

The objects Sam saw at the graveyard were not hants: they were 
men. Two men had been in the act of stealing McAllister's sheep and 
coming to the graveyard to dress them. This is what Sam saw. After 
taking leave of Lily Bell for the night, he started home with Tom on 
his back. He dared not look up, but walked with his head downward. 
Just as they reached the graveyard, one of the rogues who was waiting 
for his partner to come with a sheep, through mistake took Sam for his 
partner. So he rushed to Sam, and, rubbing his hand on Tom, he said, 
" Is he fat, John? " Just then Sam dropped Tom, sayiiq;, "Take him, 
fat er lean! I don't want him." Sam started back to Lily's home as 
fast as he could run. Poor Tom was so frightened, he knew not what 
to do. Although he had never walked, that night he beat Sam running, 
and got back home before Sam did. On investigation the next morning, 
it was found out just what had been taking place at the graveyard. 
The slaves of both plantations were never after that afraid of haunts, 
and Tom continued to walk. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 299 


There were once some men who offered one hundred dollars to the 
man who would bring them the skeleton of a dead person. That night, 
before the man got to the cave, one of the men who offered the money 
went and got in there and hid himself. The man came along and went 
into the cave to get his skeleton. The man in the cave said, "So, sol ■ 
dat's my head." The man tried three time; but each time he was 
frightened by the man hid in the cave, who kept saying, "Dat my 
head, dat my head." Finally he grabbed the skull and ran away. The 
man ran till he came to the house; then he said, "Here, take your 
fikuU! The Devil is on behind." 


{Version a?) 

Once Mutt and Jeff got together, thinking what they wanted to do. 
"Say, Jeff! I know where I can get me some meat. Let's go round 
yonder and see that house to-night! There's a cow round there I want 
to get," They got there that night 'bout twelve o'clock. Mutt tol' 
Jeff, "Take this axe. I wantcher ter hit the first thing that come out 
in the head," So Mutt went in, and lef Jeff on the outside. Cow had 
a young calf. Mutt didn' know it. Cows are very bad when they have 
young calves. Mutt went under the house (in olden time [>eople used 
to keep the cow under the house) to get the cow. The cow run him out 
first. So Jeff struck him on the head and knocked him to de groun'. 
When he became conscious, he asked Jeff, "What didcher hit me for? 
What didcher mean?" Jeff said, "Nofin (nothing), only to do what 
you tol' me to do." 

{Version b?) 

Story about two Dutchmen. They went out one night to ketch 
some sheep. They knew where it was a pas'ure, and to this pas'ure 
there was only one gate. Dutch people they don't seem to remember 
as well as we do, and one of the men told Sam to go 'roun' in the pas'ure 
and drive the sheep to him. An' Sam went in at this gate, and this 
other man was called Pat. Pat staid at the gate; and when Pat sent 
Sam in, he said, if anything came at the gate, he was goin' to kill it. 
Sam went in the pas'ure and roamed all aroun', but he couldn' fin' 
any sheep. After he had hunted all round in the pas'ure, he had for- 
gotten what Pat had told him, and, not thinking, came back to the 
same place that he went in. Pat not knowin' any better, when Sam 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

> lafonDBiit. Ficd Davenport of Ncwbuiy, S.C. Compttre South Carolina CJAFL 

• InfOTmant, AusiwUne O. Green of Amelia County, Vlrgiiila. 


300 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

came up through the gate, Pat took him for a sheep. Pat was standin' 
outside the gate with a large club; and, when Sam came out, Pat 
struck him with the club and knocked him out. At the same time 
Pat thought that Sam had a sheep; but when he came to find out, be 
had knocked Pat in the head. Pat said to himself, "This will end up 
my tryin' to get other people's sheep." 


Once a old man caught a rabbit, and was telling his friends how 
good rabbit-meat was. He said, "It is good fried, it is good stewed, 
it is good baked, it is good any way you can cook it." * While he was 
bragging about it, the rabbit jumped out of his hand and went in full 
speed across the held, while the old man watched him. After a while 
the old fellow hallowed out, "Go ahead! you are not any good. You 
are dry meat, anyhow, and I never did like you." 

Once there was a little girl name' May, and she went to her grand- 
mother's to stay for a while. She had a pretty little pink dress, and 
it was gettin' too small for her. Her grandmother told her she couldn't 
wear it next summer, because it was too small. And she tol' her to put 
a brick on her head, so she wouldn' grow more. And when she went 
back to her mother, her mother asked her why was she so small. She 
tol' her she had been wearing a brick on her head. 


It was once a boy. Had been out to seek his wife. So he met three 
daughters, and he loved them all, but he didn't know which one to 
take. So his mother told him to invite them all to his house and give 
them each some cheese. The first one ate the cheese with the skin and 
all. The second cut the skin off, and took half the cheese with it. The 
last one did not cut too much nor too little. So that was the one he 
chose for his wife. 

72. HOT HANDS.' 

Once upon a time there was an old doctor who used to rob graves so 
as to experiment on the bodies. So he happened to know of an oM 
Irishman who died with a peculiar disease; and one night when people 
were busy and everything seemed favorable, he took hia team and went 

< Written by E. T. Sully In 1899. 
' Compare JAFL 30 : 175, 

■ Informant, Vcrna Turner of Hare Valley, VirgloEB. 

< Informant, Mary Jett of Phcebu*. 
» Written by W. Young in 1899. 


Folk-Lore from EUxabetk City County, Va. 301 

to the graveyard, got the body, and put it in his wagon. A young man 
who wanted to have some fun climbed in behind the wagon, and got 
under the seat with the coffin. The doctor stopped at almost every 
saloon and got something to drink, so as to steady his nerves. Very 
soon he was quite drunk. He also found a partner to ride with him. 
Every now and then he would feel to see if the corpse was all right. 
This fellow who was under the seat touched the doctor's hand every 
now and then. By and by the doctor mentioned it to his partner, and 
eaid, "Say, Mike! this fellow's hand is hot." The fellow who was 
under the seat said, "Yes, if you had been in hell as long as I have, 
your hands would be hot too." 


Two Arishmen. One of them had been in America quite a while, 
and he knew about the deer. He took this new Arishman out with 
him, gave him a gun. He put him on a stand. He tol' him, he says, 
"The first thing you see comin' by here makin' high jumps," he says, 
"shoot him." Tol* him, "After you shoot him and sure you kill him, 
blow your horn," So pretty soon, while he was on the stand, a frawg 
ninnio' out of the way of a snake came by, jumpin' as high as he could 
to get out of the way of the snake. This Arishman saw him, put up 
his gun and shot him, — shot him and blew his horn, blew his horn, 
blew his horn. The other feller didn't come for quite a while, seen 
the deer hadn' gotten there that quick. While he was there waitin' 
for the other Arishman to come, a real deer came runnin' by. He saw 
him, big thing, with a set of horns on his head. He ran out the way. 
So pretty soon afterwards the other Arishman came, said, "Did you 
get him, Pat?" — "Yes, by Jesus! I got him." Took him down there 
and showed him the frawg, said, "This isn't any deer, Pat. Did you 
see any deer comin' down here? " No, he hadn' seen any deer; said, 
"I saw somethin' comin' through here with a chair on his head, but 
I didn' see no deer." 


Up in the mountains of Virginia, in the days of slavery, a white man 
took one of his daves with him deer-hunting. He told Jim (the N^ro 
slave) to stand at the foot of the mountain while he went up with the 
hounds to chase the deer down, and when the deer came past to shoot it. 
Not long after Master ascended the mountain, the deer came past; 
but Jim was so very much astonished at the speed of the deer, he forgot 
to shoot. The hounds and Master followed close behind the deer; the 

* InteniMtit. Werier D. Elm of Sowtz County, Vireinia- Campan Florida OAFL 
30 : an): aln StMUtaen Worknas. >S (iS99> : 'M- 

* Writteo br K- C. Lcwb of Manama Va., in 1S99- Se« Sdatlwni Workman. 3%: 199. 
Cmnpaie Florida UAFL 30 : itj). Geotpa OAFL 31 = 3-o-37i)- 


302 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Master exclaiming, " Did he pass yer, Jim? " — "Yea, Sir Massey, he 
just done pass." — "Well, why didn't you shoot him?" — "T wom't 
no use, Massey, 'cause, de way he was gwine when he passed here, he 
will butt his brains out 'gin a tree." 


Oncet they had a clock, and it had been ninnin' a long time. So 
the clock stopped runnin', and they didn't know what was the matter. 
So one was named Mike; and he said to Ike to take the clock apart 
and see what was the matter. He found a bug inside. He said it 
couldn' run because the engineer was dead. 

76. uoON cheese: irishmen at the well.* 
Once upon a time two Irishmen came to a well as they were travelling 
through the country one night. One of them happened to look down 
into a well, and saw the moon, which he took to be a cake of cheese. 
Calling the other, he said, "Faith, Pat, and, ma Jesus, here is a cake 
of cheese! How are we going to get it?" The other said, "Pat, you 
catch hold of the top of the well, and I will go down and catch hold of 
your feet, then we shall be able to reach the cheese." So these two 
went down, one hanging to the other's feet. The one at the top said, 
"Faith, Pat, and, ma Jesus, hold on, Pat! Let me spit on my hand and 
catch a fresh grip!" So he let go his hold to catch a fresh grip, and 
they both went tumbling down into the well. I do not know whether 
they got the cheese or not; the person that told the story to me said 
he left about that time. 


A feller asked an Arishman why did he put mortar between the 
bricks. An' the Arishman said, "To hold the bricks together." The 
feller said, "The mortar keeps the bricks apart." 


There was once two huntsmen, — an Englishman and an Irishman. 
One day they went hunting. Their success were two turkeys, — a 
real turkey and a turkey-buzzard. When the hunt was over, of course 
the Englishman thought he was the smartest man. He suggested how 
the game ought to be divided. He said, "Pat, I Idlled both the real 

1 Informant, Louise Man of PhcebuB. 

1 Written by E. M. Evaoa in 1899. See Southern Worknwn. aS : 193. 
Florida OAFL 30 : aaa-asjj, Sojth Carolina (MAFLS 16 : II7> No. 133). 
and comparative: Clouaton. 46-47, 49-53; Dttlmbardt, 4 : 33a. 

■ Informant, Williams. 

« Written by Prances. 


Folk-Lore from Elixabeth City County, Va. 303 

turkey and the buzzard; but you may take the turkey-buzzard, and 
I the turkey; or I'll take the turkey, and you the buzzard." — "Say 
that again," said Pat to Joe; and he said it again the same way. "You 
haven't said turkey to me the first nor the last, now I'll take the real 
turkey," said Pat to Joe, and leave the smart Englishman very sor- 

Onoe there were two Irishmen, and they bought a watermelon. So 
they sat down in a c»mer of a fence to eat it. On looking up, they saw 
two colored men peeping over the fence at them. One of them said, 
"Pat, let us eat the watermelon and give the poor niggers the guts! " 
So they ate the rind, and gave the poor niters the melon. 

80. uabe's egg.* 
Once an Englishman sold an Irishman a goose-egg, and told him it 
was a mare-e^, and, if he would carry it home and put it under a 
setting hen, he would have a young colt in about three weeks' time. 
So away went the Irishman with his egg, and in getting over a fence 
he let his e^ fall. When the egg fell, up jumped a rabbit. The Irish- 
man did not know it was a rabbit, but thought it was a oolt that had 
come out of the egg; and away he went running and whistling after his 
colt until the rabbit was out of sight. 


It was an Arishman, walking up a road, came upon a gold watch. 
He stopped and looked at it, and heard it ticktn'. So he decided that 
mus' be the mother of all the ticks. He had trouble with the ticks. 
So he took his foot and stamped it all to pieces. Pretty soon he met a 
man looking for his watch. He asked him had he seen a watch in the 
Foad down there. He 'plied no, he hadn't seen no watch. So he kep* 
after him. So he said, no, he'd seen a big tick down there, must habe 
been the mother of all the ticks. So he stamped down on the tick. 
That's all he had seen. He took the feller back there, and of course 
he found his watch. 

~ 82. THREE ENDS.* 

Once there was a sea-captain who thought he would have some fun 
with one of his witty Irish sailors. The captain said to him, "Pat, 

> Written by Lelia Gilbert in 1899. See Southern WorkmaD. aS : 193-194. 

■ Written by E. T. Sully in 1S99. See Southern Workman, aS : 19^-193. Compois- 
Uto. ClouitoQ, 37-38. 

■ Infonnant, Wetlejr D. Elam of Sussex County, Virginia. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 65). See klso Southero Workman, a8 (1899) : 193. 

* Written by W. Vouog in 1899. 


304 Journal ef American Folk-Lore. 

here is a piece of rope. If you find three ends to it, you can marry the 
best-looking of my daughters, and she is very beautiful." Pat took 
the rope, and studied and studied and studied for several days. He 
never even ate his meals, and the captain had a hard time trying to 
get him to work. At last Pat went to the captain and said that he had 
found three ends to the rope, and called the captain to the ship's side. 
He showed the captain both ends of the rope, and then threw it over- 
board, and said, "Faith, and there's the other end 1" 


An Irish girl was told to have string beans for dinner. She asked 
her mistress for a needle. Her mistress asked what did she want it for. 
She answered, "And, in faith, how can I string the beans without a 
needle? " 


There were once two Irish families living near each other; and as 
it is the custom of nearly every one to wash on Monday, one of these 
old Irish women thought that she would wash too. So she went to her 
neighbor, and said, "Faith, en is you gwine to use your wash-board 
this morning? " The reply was, " No, and you naither." 


Two Irishmen, Bill and Mike, were once working on a building. 
Bill was on the wall, laying brick; Mike was just below, mixing mortar. 
Just before throwing down some worthless brick, Bill hollowed to Mike 
to stand from under. Mike stepped to one side, but not far enough 
for Bill to see whether he had moved or not. BUI shouted again, "Do 
you understand?" — "No," said Mike, thinking that he meant if he 
stood under the wall. "You'd better understand, or you'll get hurt." 
Mike stepped beneath the pendulum. Just then the brick fell, and 
Mike was severely wounded. 


Once an Irishman in this country sent to Ireland for his brother. 
He informed him of his extensive trade in the lumber buainesa, and 
urged him to come at once. His brother spent most of his money to 
come to America. When he landed, he asked an officer to direct him 
to a certain street. On turning the corner of the street he was looking 
for, he saw his brother standing in front of a store peddling his lumber 
trade, selling matches. 

> Written by Lutie JarvU in 1899. ' Written by AnuDiatt ia iSgp. 

' Written by Keadrick in 1899. • Written by Lee GUI In 1S99. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 305 

87. YAH AND YEA.> 

Once upon a time an Irish boy and a Dutch boy were fussing over 
a piece of tough beef. The fuss got so great that they decided to each 
take an end in his mouth and pull for the prize. So they got an extra 
party to count three for a signal to begin pulling. As is known, when 
a Dutchman says "yes," he opens his mouth with "yati>" and the 
Irishman says "yes" as "yea" through his teeth. When the extra 
party asked if they were ready, the Dutchman said, "Yah," and the 
Irishman held his teeth with "yea" on the stake, and therefore won. 


Uncle Sam and Pat were out hunting one night, when, about twelve 
o'clock, there came up a terrible storm. It grew worse, and there 
came a crack of lightning. Pat got up in the tree; but Uncle Sam 
thought the day of judgment was surely coming, and he knelt down 
and began to pray. He wanted Pat to pray, too; but Pat didn't 
believe in the day of judgment, and wouldn't. Then there came 
another crack of lightning, which made Pat drop out of the tree; and 
be fell down on his knees, too, and began to pray, "O Lord! if judg- 
ment day is coming, save my soul, if I've got one! " 


One day an Irishman was walking along by the farmyard; and 
when he came along, the old turkey called out," Cobble, cobble, cobble, 
cobble, cobble!" But the Irishman didn't like it, and called back, 
" I'm no cobbler, but a good workman by trade." 

An Irishman came to this country, and, just after he landed, a 
friend took him over the town. He saw a silver dollar lying in the 
street, and was going to pick it up; but his friend told him not to do 
that, for he would find plenty of them lying about round the comer. 
So he believed it and went on; but when they got around the comer, 
his friend left him and went back to pick up the dollar, and the poor 
Irishman found no more. 

91. TOAD-FROG.' 

An Irishman was going along the road, and he met a colored man. 
The colored man asked him had he ever seen a enake. "Faith, I saw 
one just now coming along the road," said the Irishman; "but it was 
hopping so fast, and it didn't have any tail." It was only a toad-fros; 
he had seen. 

' WrittcD by W. H. Young In iSw. 

■ Informant, W. T. Antkraoo. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in iS»9- 
• Informant, R. R. Uotoo. Recorded by A. M. Baaia in 189s, Po«iMy thi* tak 
wa« (usgeated by the tale ot " Playing Dead Twice In the Rowl " (Folk-Lot*. 3> : 40*)- 


3o6 Journal of American Folk'Lore. 


It is said that some one went down to Hades once, and there he saw 
the Devil, and the Devil showed him all around. He saw all kinds of 
people there in the fires, — the Germans and English and Japanese 
and Negroes, — but no Irishmen. So he asked the Devil how it was 
that he had no Irishmen; and the Devil said, "Oh, we have some 
here! " and he took him round to a place where the heat could strike, 
but there was no fire burning. When asked why they were not in 
with the others, the Devil said, "We are just drying them here; they 
are too green to burn now." 

93. TRUNK.* 

An Irishman was passing a Jew store; and the Jew said, "Walk in, 
sir, and let me sell you a trunk! " — "Faith," said the Irishman, "and 
what am I going to do with a trunk? " — "Why, put your clothes in 
it," the Jew said. "And will you have me go naked, thenP " said Pat. 


An Irishman was asked why he did not shingle his house. And he 
replied that when it rained, it was too wet to do so; and when it was 
dry, the house did not need it. 


{Version a.) 

An Irishman who had not been in this country very long, fell ia 
love with an American girl; but the girl's father objected to h& 
marrying him, because he was such a fool. He told the Irishman that 
if he would go off and find another such big fool, he might marry his 
daughter. So he went off looking for a fool; and he found a man who 
had moss all over the top of his house, and had put his cow up on the 
top of the house to eat off the moss. Then he found another man who 
didn't know how to get into a pair of trousers: so he hung them up in 
a tree, and climbed up and jumped down into them,* 

Another man brought some money that he had saved up for a long 
time to his wife, and said, "Put this money away for hard times; and 
when Mr. Hard-Times comes, you give that money to him, and not 

> Informant. R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon In I899. 

■ Informant, W. T. Anderson. Recorded by A, M. Bacm Id 1899. 

' Informant. R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. See Southeni WorkmM. 
a8 ; 330-331. Compare Bahamas (MAFLS 13 : 93-94). CompaiatiTe; Clonaton, 191- 
304: Bolte u, Potlvlia, LIX. 

• This is H long story, not always told of an Iriahman. Anotbrr Incident In Mr. Hvd- 
Tinies's story is where the man comes to a house where the moon la atabtlof In brlfbtlr. 
and the whole family is scrubbing the house to get off the moooalilne. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 307 

to any one dse." But some one out of doors who wanted to get the 
money beard their conversation; and when the husband had gone, 
he knocked on the door. The woman went to the door, and said, 
"Good-morning! Who are you?" The man said, "I am John Hard- 
Times." She said, "Oh, you must be the man my husband meant 
for me to give the money to! " and the man said yes, he was. So she 
went and got the money which she had put away very carefully, and 
gave it to him , and he went off. When her husband returned and heard 
what she had done, he was much disturbed, of course, and said to her, 
"All right! Pull the door behind you, and come and find the man." 
And he started off; and she takes the door off the hinges and drags 
it behind her, and he looks back and sees her. Well, finally they find 
Mr. Hard-Times and get the money back; and finally, I believe, he 
kills her, she is so stupid. 

So the young man finds out all these fools; and, as it turns out, the 
old man is the biggest fool of all, and the young fellow marries his 

{Version b: Three More Fools.) 

An Irishman lived in an old house; and there was considerable moss 
on the roof of the house, and he wanted his cow to eat the moss, so he 
tied a rope round her head and b^an to pull her up. Some one who 
was passing called out to him, "Why, don't do that! You'll kill the 
cow! What are you doing that for?" The Irishman said he wanted 
her to eat the moss. "Well, why don't you pull it off and throw it 
down to her? " the man said ; and the Irishman said he hadn't thought 
of that. 


'Bout a boy named Pamelance. His mother sent him to his aunty's, 
an' she gave him some butter; an' he put the butter up in his hat, 
an' it melted all down over his face. And when he got home, his mother 
said, "Lord-dee mussy, Pamelance! What dat you got dere.boy?" 
He said, "Butter, mammy." — "Don'tcher know dat's not de way 
to carry butter? You ought to take it and put it in a leaf, and take 
it to the water an' cool it an' cool it an' cool it." So the next day he 
¥rent to his aunty's, she gave him a little puppy; and he took it to the 
water and cooled it and cooled it and cooled it 'til it died; an' then he 
brought it home. His mother said, "Lord<dee mussys, Pamelance! 
What dat you got dere, boy?" — "Dawg, mammy," — "Don'tcher 
know dat's not de way ter carry a dawg? You oughter take it and tie 
a little string around it, and let the dawg walk home." So the next 
day he went to his aunty's, she gave him a loaf of bread. An' he took 
it and tied a string around it, and pulled it home. And when he got 

I Infonnant, Vema Turner of Hare Valley, Viriinia. Compare Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 
156). Comparative, Cloiwton, 113-136. 



308 JourfuU oj American Folk-Lore, 

home, his mother said, "Lord-dee mussy, Pamelancel What dat you 
got dere, boy? " So the next day he went there, his almty gave him a 
cake. An' he took the cake and mashed it all up in his hand, and 
brought it home; and his mother asked him what did he have. He 
tol' her he had some cake. She tol' him that wasn' the way to cany 
cake, said she wasn' goin' to send him to hia aunty's any mo'. 


Once an Irishman was making a grand speech, and crying out, 
"Who puts up all the fine buildings? — The Irish. And who puts up 
the court-houses? — The Irish. And who builds the State penitentia- 
ries? — The Irish. And who fills them? — The Irish, begobs!" 


Once an Irishman was going along thrcmgh a desperate piece of 
woods, when along came a panther. He struck it and killed it, but 
continued to beat it, and was pounding it to jelly when another man 
came along and asked what he was doing that for. "Don't you see 
it's dead? " — "Yes," said Pat, " but I want to show him that there's 
punishment after death." 


A Aog attacked an Irishman; and he took a stick and beat him to 
death, and kept on beating. Some one asked him why he did that 
when the dog was dead. "Faith, he may be dead," be said, "but he 
doesn't know it." 

100. Where's mr. hcginnis?* 

They say that the Irish laborers never work so faithfully as iriien 
the train is coming, because often the railroad-inspectors are on the 
train, and they notice if they leave off work too soon. Once a working- 
man was killed by working too long when the train was comii^; and 
the foreman said to an Irishman there, "Go and tell Mrs. McGinnis 
that her husband was killed by the train." Pat started off quickly; 
but the foreman called him back, and said, "Tell it to her gently." 
Pat hurried to the house, and said to the woman, "O Mrs. McC^nnisI 
Where's Mr. McGinnis?" — "Down on the railroad working," said 
Mrs. McGinnis. "You're a liar," said Pat, "he's dead." 

loi. the lord's familt.' 

An Irishman went to a Quaker's meeting one night, and sat there, 

and no one said anything. At last one got up, and said, " I feel like 

■ Inlormant. R. R. Moton. Recorded by A, M. Bacon In iBm. 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 309 

I was married," and sat down again. After a while some one else got 
up, and said, "Who you feel like you was married to? " and sat down. 
By and by the first one got up, and said, " I feel like I was married 
into the Lord's family." Then the Irishman got up, and said, "I'm 
afraid you will never see your father-in-law." 


An Irishman used to go to town and get drunk; and sometimes, 
when in that condition, he couldn't find his horse. Once when he did 
this, some boys took his horse and left a cart in its place. When the 
Irishman came along, he didn't know what to think of it. And he 
said, "Iflhia^ me, I've lost a horse; and if it isn't me, I've found 
a cart." 


Two men got fighting. They were about the same size; and an 
Irishman came up, and asked in a loud voice, "Who struck Bill 
Patrick?" No one answered; and he asked again, "Who struck Bill 
Patrick?" A great big man stepped up; and the Irishman said 
quickly, " Faith, you gave him a hell of a licking." 


Two Irishmen got into a prize-fight; and when one wanted to give 
up, he was to say a certain word. Well, they fought and fought and 
fought and fought; and they both wanted to stop, but couldn't think 
of the word. Finally one thought of it; and the other said, "Bejabers, 
I'm glad you thought of it, for I've been trying to for a long time, and 


An old man had been driving a pair of mules; and he gave them to 
an Irishman, and told him at twelve o'clock to give the mules "twelve 
(y)ears of com in the (y)ear." At noon he went out, and saw the 
man shelling up a little of the com at a time, and trying to pour it into 
the mule's ears. He called out, "How's this? I told you to give it to 
them in the ears?" The Irishman said, "Well, I'm trying to give it 
to them in the ears, but they won't take it." 


Some one asked an Irishman, "Which way does this road go? " — 
"Faith, I've been living here twenty years, and it's never gone 

> Recorded by A. M. Bacon to 1899, 


310 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

anywhere yet." Another [)erson asked him how his potatoes turned 
out. "Faith, they didn't turn out at all, I had to dig them out." 
When some one who wanted a drink asked if he had any spirits 
about his house, he said, "You dumb fool! do you think my house is 


Two Irishmen went into the great city of Richmond sooa after 
coming to this country, and concluded they would go on a spree: so 
they bought a cigarette and divided it in halves, and got five cents' 
worth of [>eanuts. One said, " Pat, if our wives could know how we 
was spreeing, wouldn't they wape? " 


Two men, one an Irishman, testing their strength, got into a pen 
of h(^. The one who should throw out the most h(^ was to win the 
bet, and both were blindfolded. Whenever the other man threw out 
a hog, the Irishman would pretend he threw one out too. At last 
there was only one little pig left with a straight tail; and the Irishman 
threw it out, and said, "Every pig that I threw out, I gave his tail a 
curl." And so there was only the one little straight-tailed pig that the 
other man could claim. 


Said a white sergeant and a white corporal and himself died and 
went to heaven. Said, of course, the sergeant was in front, and the 
corporal behind, and he in the rear of all. Sergeant went up to 
St. Peter's gate, and St. Peter asked him what was hedoing there. Said 
he came to heaven. St. Peter asked him, "What have you done to be 
permitted to the Kingdom of Heaven?" Said he'd been over the top 
sev'el times and killed sev'el Germans. So St. Peter told him, said, 
" I'm sorry, but you ain't done enough to be admitted to the Kingdom 
of Heaven." So he sent him to Torment. So up went the onporal. 
He asked the corporal what he'd done to deserve the rig^it to tbe King- 
dom of Heaven. He told him he had captured a machine-gun, won 
a croix de guerre and a distinguished service-cross. So he tohl him he 
was sorry, but he couldn't be permitted on that. This time the colored 
feller walked up; and he said, "I walked up and told St. Peter the 
truth. Asked me what I'd done to be admitted. I tol' him I'd been 
down there at Brest for the last eighteen months in a stevedore regi- 


Folk-Lore from Elisabeth City County, Va. 311 

ment. He tol' me, "Come on up, John! You been to Torment 

Soldier said that in France he went to a caid, ordered a drink. By 
the time the waitress had brought him a drink, in walked a M.P, 
(Military PoUcel, and told him this place was for officers only. So 
he went down the street to another czik and ordered another drink; 
and in walked another M.P., who told him it was for officers only. He 
stopped; he said to himself that he 'fraid that the next time there'll 
be a war, it'll be for officers only. 


'Bout a colored private doing guard-duty. When he firs' went to 
camp, sergeant had entire charge of him, knew nothing about any 
other officers. Considered aei^eant highest man in the army. One 
night sergeant said, "Have you seen the colonel anywhere 'round 
here to-night?" — "No, I haven' seen any colonel." He was gone for 
few minutes, came back ^ain. "Have you seen the colonel 'round 
here?" — "No, I haven' seen any colonel." Little later an officer 
came up to him. He hollered to him. "Is that the way you salute 
an officer? I'm the colonel of this post." He brought his gun down to 
present. Said, "You the colonel of this post? You better go to that 
guard-house and see the sergeant. He's been looking for you all night. 
He'll give you the devil when he sees you." 

Some feller got some one to read his letter and answer. Came to 
commandant, asked for a stamp; said, "Give me a red one, last time 
I sent a brown one." Commandant said, " If you want a red one, 
must pay extra." — "Give me a brown one, then, 'cause I don't want 
to go to no extra expense for that gal." 


Feller in camp, couldn't read or write. He passed through the 
reading-room, and he was holdin' a letter upside down. The secretary 
asked him, "Can't you read writin'? " — "Can't read readin' first." 


Pat and Mike were in the army. They were asked how long they 
was in it. Said, there as long as they couldn' get out. 

> Informant. Wealey D. Elam of Susoez County. Virginia. 


312 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

RIDDLES C1920). 

1. Whitey sent Whitey to drive Whitey out of Whitey. — Ans. A 
white man sent a white dog to drive a white rabbit out of a white 
cotton- patch.' 

{Variant,) White driving white out of a white cotton-field. — 
Ans. A dog driving sheep out of a cotton-field. 

2. Goes up white and comes down yellow. — Ans. Egg.* 

3. Goes all around the house in the day-time, and sits up in the 
comer at night. — Ans. A broom.* 

{Variants.) (i) What work all day long, an' stay in the comer 
at night; (2) All round the house, and never come in. — Ans. A 

4. Can run, but can't walk. — Ans. A train. 

5. Can holler, but can't talk. — Ans, A train. 

6. Deep as a cup, 
Round as an apple, * 
All the king's horses * 
Can't pull it up. 

Ans. A well.* 

7. If he comes, I no come. If heno come, I come. — Ans. A fanner 
planting corn. If the crows come, it will ruin his crop, then the com 
will not come; but if the crows don't come, his crop will come. 

8. Up and down, up and down. 
Never touches the s^y nor ground. 

Ans. Pump-handle. 

9. Black within. 
Red within, 

Four corners all round about. 

Ans, Chimney.' 

Four udea. 
Black inside. 
Red inside. 

' Compare JAFL 3" : 375 (No- 3). 388 (No. i). 439 (No. 4) J 34 = 34 (No. 66). «7 (No. 
S3); MAFLS t6 : isa (No. a). 

» Compare JAFL 34 : 34 (No. 64); MAFLS 16 : 165 (No. TS)- 

' Compare JAFL 30 : ao4 (No. as): 3= : 3po (No. 33); 34 ; 30 (No. »). 

' Variant: Biscuit. 

> Variant: Little Kins'a honea. 

« Compare JAFL 30 : aoi (No. i); 3» : 389 (No. 16); 34 = a^ (No. 13 )i MAFLS 1A : 156 
(No. aS). 

' Compare JAFL 30 : Jo6 (No. 51); 34 : aS (No. 19). 


Folk-Lore from BUMobeth City County, Va. 313 

10. ' A houseful, 

A yardful, 

Can't ketch s apoonful.* 

Ans. Smoke.* 

11. A hOlful, 
A bowlful. 

An' can't ketch a bowlful. 

Ans. Mut. 

12. All round the house an' make but one track. — Ans. Whed- 

13- Walldn' over the water, 

And never touching the water. 

Ans. A lady walking on the bridge, 
with a tub of water on her 
Above water 
'Low water. 

Am. Woman with a pail of water 
on her head walkin' over a 

14. In the water. 
Out of the water. 
Never touch the water. 

. fEgg in the ahell. 

'I Nail in bottom of ship. 

15. In the water. 

On top the water. 

Out the water. 

But does not touch the water. 

Ans. Egg inside of a duck. 

16. As I waa gung over London Bridge, 
I met a London tchtdar; 

He tipped his hat an' drew his cane, 
And in this riddle I call bis name. 

Ans. Andrew.* 

■ VtHtmU: (I) SUll I oui't ttt ■ bowlful; (]} Yet you cw't IM a tblmbMul. 

* Conpwc JAFL 30 : >oi (No. 3); 34 : >6 (No. I); UAFLS 16 : 153 (No. A). 

* CoBpan JAFL 30 ; aoa (No. e); 31 : 390 (No. 34); 34 ; ag (Ncx 30}. 

* Thit riddb fa printed In a collection of Conundrnnw. Riddles and Pnade* pablUwd 
In PhUadtlpUn In tVH- Serenl riddles |lTcn In thla colkction were ndted bjr the 
■cbool-cfalldna. m<Mt ol wUdi I bsTc not Indnded. Riddle No. is, wbettMr diawn tram 
thii foOfctlow or not bsi an cMaUUied dfcalation. CampsK JAFL 30 : m6 (No. 49)1 
34 : 3< <No. 47). 

■ Ghni In Ccmandfums. Riddle* and Pimlea. Compare JAFL 34 : 37 (No. >7>, 


314 Journal of American F<dk-Lore. 

A man walking over I^ndon Bridge, 
An' drew off his hat. 

Ans. His name Andrew. 

17. Two legs sic on three legs; 
In come four legs. 
Grabs up one leg; 

Up got two legs, 
An' made four legs 
Bring that one leg back. 

Ans. Man sitting on a chair. 

Dog came in, ham lay down; 

dog got it, made bring back.' 
Two legs sittin' on three legs, 
With one leg in bis lap; 
Up come four legs, 
Snatch one leg; 

Two legs threw three legs at four legs 
To make four legs bring one leg back. 

Ant. Man sitting on tbrce-Iegged 

stool, with ham in his lap, 


18. -Little red house 

With white fence all round it. 
Door keep opening and shutting. 

Ans. Tongue and teeth. 

19. Something that has a white ivory fence. — Ans. Teeth. 
30. Went out on two lege 

An' come back on four legs. 

Ans. A man on two legs came 
back sitting in a chair. 

21. There's a being that first goes on four, next 00 two, next on 
three. What is it? — Ans. Man. 

22. Go out in the fields in the day-time, and come and sit up on the 
table at night. — Ans. Milk.* 

33. Hamsic Dumphy sat on a wall, 

Hamsie Dumphy had a great fall. 

All the king's horses 

An' all the king's men 

Can't put Hamsie Dumphy together again. 

Ans. Egg.* 
' Compare JAFL 34 : 34 (No. 6a); MAFLS 16 : 163 (No. 61). 
» Compare JAFL 34 : 31 (No. 4>)- 
> Compare JAFL 30 : ao6 (No. 51); 34 ; a$ (No. 4); MAFLS 16 : 165 (No. 74). 


Folk-Lore from EUtabelh City County, Va. 

Eyes that can't see, 
Tongue that can't talk, 
. An' Boul that cannot be saved. 

Ans. Shoe.* 
Little Paddy Rew, 
King of the Jew, 
Pull off his sockB, 
Put on his shoea. 
Spell that in four letters. 

Ans. That.» 

What has an eye, 
But cannot see? 

Ans. Needle. 

What has a head, 
But has no hair? 
Ant, Pin. 

What has teeth. 
But cannot eat? 


What has hands 
An' has no fingers? 
Ans. Clock. 

What has legs, 
But cannot walk? 



31. What has a face. 

But cannot see? ' 

Ans. Clock. 

33. What has a mouth, 

But cannot eat? 

Ans. Doll. 

33. What has a trunk, 

But needs no key? 


J Elephant. 

t CompoR JAPL 30 : >03 (No. ai); 34 : 3) (No. 50). 
' Compare MAFLS i6 ! 173 (No. 16a). 

■ Compare JAFL 34 : 3' (No. 51). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : ">* (No. 34); 34 : 3' (No. 51). 

■ Variant; But bas no mouth (compaie JAFL 30 : 304, No. 14). 


3i6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

34. What goes through the wood 
An' never touches a limb? 

Am. Voice.* 

35. Old woman had so many children, she dido' know what to do. — 
Ans. That was hen. She had so many chickens, she couldn' ^t on 

36. If you feed It, it will live; 

If you give it water, it will die. 

^fM. Fire.* 

37. What goes 'round 

An' makes a thousand tracks? 

Ans. A broom. 

38. Eleven pears was hangin' high. 
Eleven mans go riding by. 
Each take a pear. 

Ans. Eleven man had the 
name of Eleven.* 
Seven pears hanging on a tree, 
Seven men came pasan' by. 
Each man took a pear, 
And left six hangin' there. 

Ans. All seven men took pear. 

39. Take one hawg-foot bone and lay it at the door, an* it'll be all 
men's door. — Ans. Court-house door.* 

40. Hickamor hackamor. 

On the king's kitchen door, 
All the king's horses 
And all the king's men 
Can't pull Hickamor, Hackamor, 
Off the king's kitchen door. 
Ans. Sun.* 

41. The longer you cut it. 
The longer it grows. 

Ans. Ditch.* 
> Compare MAPLS 16 : 156 (No. 37). 
' Compare JAFL 34 : 36 (No. 79). 
» Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 13); 3» =375 (No. 4); 34 =33 (No. S^i^ (No. 39). 

• Compare JAFL 34 : 30 (No. 3^)- Recorded at Hampton (Soutlmn Worfcmui. 
March. 1894) ai. "There are bonea enough in a bog'* foot to lay at ew a y man's door In 
the country. — A ni. The court-hoiue ii every man's door In the coo&tiy." 

• Compare JAFL 34 : ag (No. a6); MAFLS 16 : 161 (No. sa>. 

• Compare JAFL 31 : 3S9 (No. 13). 


Fatk-Lore from Eluabeth City County, Va. 317 

43. Uttle Mitt Nannicoat 

Had a loDg petticoat. 
The longer she stands. 
The shorter she graws. 

Am. Candle.* 

43. Between the earth, 

Between the sky, 
Not on a tree. 
Now, I've told you. 
Now, you tell me. 

^fij. Knot on the tree.* 

44* Dead in the middle, 

'live at each end. 

Ans. Horse, plough, and a man.* 

45. What land of a husband would you advise a young woman to 
get? — Ans. A single man, and leave the married man alone.* 

46. As I was goin' to my Whilly Whicka Wbackum, 
I met Bum Backum. 

I called Jim Whackum 
To run Bum Backum 
Out of my WhUly Whicka Whackum. 

Ahs. As I was g<Hng through my garden, 

I met a rabbit, and I called to my 

dog to run him out.' 

47. What ifl that that the Pre«dent has seen and the Lord has never 
Men? — Ah3. a man to equal himself.* 

* Compsn JAFL 30 : mi (No. ig). 175 (No. 5): 3* : 440 (No. lo); 34 : 14 (No. I): 
1)0 (N». J); UAFL5 16 : 1O9 (No. ill). 

t ComiMR JAFL 30 : nj (No. 40)1 34 =33 (No. S^). 

■ Coapaie JAFL 30 : Mt (No. 6); 31 : 388 (No. 4); 34 : 36 (No. 77); UAFLS 16 : 155 
(No. IT): also G>Ua (Haiwd Afrkan StndlM, 3 : 198, No. 3). 

* Conpuc JAFL 34 : 37 (No. 00). 

* CoopMc JAFL 34 : 94 (No. 67); UAPLS i(t : ija (No. 3). Recorded at Hamptoo 
(Soatfaern Wortmaa, Hwdi, 1894} ••.— 

"Aa I went sctom my Whirly-Whicka-Whsckuin, 

I met Tom Tsckum 

And called Bom Bukum 

To drive Tom Tacknm 

Om of my Whirir-Whlcka-Whackuni. 

Ant. Whirty-WUcks-WhKknm Is ■ fldd. Tom 
Tmckum it a bone. Bom Backum It a dof ." 
Pc^bty -Uatter of all UMten" (Jacoba. En|Iidi Fairy Tales} Is tlw source of thl* 

* Cempm JAFL 30 : so? (No. 51 


3i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

48. As I was in my chamber, 
I heard something fall. 

I sent my maid to pick it up, 
But she couldn't pick it up at all. 

Ans. Snuff. 

49. The cat, the goose, and the bee. 
The world is ruled by these three. 
Who are they? What is it? 

Ans. Parchment, pen, and wax. 

50. Round as a rainbow, 
Teef (teeth) like a cat. 
Think of many things 
Before you think of that. 

Ans. Brier.' 

51. Mouth like a barn-door. 
Ears like a kyat. 
Guess all night. 

And can't guess that. 

Ans. Owl.» 

52. He wears a hat 
Stuck on his neck 
Because he has no head. 

And many times his hat comes off 
When we are sick in bed. 

Am. A bottle of medicine. 

53. As I was going 'cross London Bridge, 
I met Sis Sally Ann. 

She was drunk, and I was sober, 
So I kicked her over. 

Ans. A bottle of whiskey.* 

( Variants.) 
(i) As I was goin' up London Bridge, 
I met my sister Nancy. 
I cut off her head and drank her blood, 
And left her body standin'. 

Ans. Bottle of wine.* 
I Compare JAFL 30 : 304 {No. 31); 34 : 35 (No. 74). 
' Comixue JAFL 30 : 304 (No. 33), 

■ Compare JAFL 30: 377 (No. ao):3i : 375 (No. 6)134 :a4(No. i);MAPLSiO : [5^ 
160 (No. 46}. 

* Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman. March, 1S94) u, — 
"As 1 was going along one da)', 
I met my sister Ann. 
I wrung her neck and mcked ber blood. 
And let her body atan'." 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 319 

(3) As I was going 'cross London Bridge, 
I met old Sally Gray. 
I sucked her blood an' ate her meat, 
An' threw her skin away. 

Ans. Watermelon.* 

54. This is a joke I was fooled by: 

Which must I say. 
The yolk of a egg is white. 
Or the yolk of a egg are white? 

Ahs. I'm not to say either, because 
the yolk of an egg is yellow. 
55 Long stick. 

Black feller. 
Pull his cock. 
And hear him beller. 

Am. Gun.* 

56. What goes to a spring and never drinks? — Ans. Path.* 

57- Mention a thing has two heads, 

Two feet, one each side, four the other, 
And one tail? 

Ans. Lady on horseback. 

58. A riddle, a riddle, at I suppose, 

A hundred eyes, and never a nose. 

Ans. Sifter.* 

59. Two lookera, 
Two crookers, 
Pour slanders, 
One switch about. 

Ans. Cow.' 

60. A thousand eyes. 
But yet can't see. 

Ans. A cinder-sifter.' 

61 . What runs all the way from San Francisco to New York without 
moving? — Ans. Railroad-track. 

* Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman. March. 1894} ai, — 

"Aa I was walking in the Geld, 
I met old Father Gray. 
I ate hii meat and drank hii blood. 
And threw hit hide away." 

■ Compare JAFL 30 : aoi (No. iS); 34 : 36 (No. 8a}. 

■ Compare JAFL 33 : 389 (No. 7); 34 ; a6 (No. 9, variant 3). 
' Compare JAFL 34 : 38 (No. 11). 

* Compve JAFL 30 : aoi (No. 7); (MAFI^ 16 : 154 (No. 15). 

* Compare JAFL 34 : *8 (No. ai). 


320 Journal of American Fo^-Lore. 

62. Why is a hen on a fence like a penny? — Ams. Because the bead 
on one side, and the tail on the other. 

63. I made a three-legged stool, and how many ait on it?~~A«. 
One man named More Yet.' 

64. What goes all down street and comes back home, and sits in tbc 
corner and waits for a bone? — Ans. Shoes.* 

65. What's the difference between a mountain and a hill? — Am. 
No difference, a hill is a young mountain. 

66. Two men beard of a job, 

And both of them wanted a job; 
And they got to fighting. 
And kill each other. 
And who ml] get the job? 

Ans. Undertaker. 

67* Round as a apple, 

Busy as a bee. 
Pretties' litde thing 
I ever did see. 

Am. Watch.* 

68. Why is a txnmful of married women similar to an empty room? 
— Ans. Because there's not a single one in there. 

69. Why do sailors wear their trousers large at the bottom? — Ans. 
Because they're made that way. 

70. A Indian man first time in town we a white man riding. A 
white man is lazy: he walks while he is sitting down. — Ans. Wlute 
man was riding a bicycle. 

71. What makes the clock look 'shamed? — Ans. Because he got 
his hands over his face. 

72. A man rode, but yet he walked. — Ans. A man ridin' across 
the bridge, and had dog named But Yet.* 

73. Why is an egg and a colt so much alike? — Ans. Because both 
of 'em have to be broke. 

74. Why is a policeman and a rainbow ao much alike? — Ans. 
Because he never turns up until after the storm. 

75. What's that? 

I haven't got it. 

I would not have it. 

If I had it, 

1 wouldn' take the world for it. 

Ans. Bald head.* 
' Compare JAFL 31 : 37s (No. s). 
' Compare JAFL 31 : 3S9 (No. 9); 34 : 3i (No. 40>- 

• Compare JAFL 30 •■ »oi (No. a); 3= : 389 (No. 17); 34 : a' (No. 17). 

• Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 17): 34 : as (No. 6). 

• Comiwre JAFL 30 : 904 (No. 34); 3* : 389 (No. 14). 


Fo^-Lonfrom Elizabeth City County, Va. 321 

76. "Now, see itere / 

Timothy Tit Con's wife is dead, poor thing! " 

Which is proper, 

I is crazy or I am crazy? 

Ans. Theone that'll answer say "lam cra^y." 
Which is the properest, 
I am a fool, or I is a fool? 

Ans. You are a fool. 

77. Once in a man. 
Twice in a moment. 

What is not once in a thousand years? 

Ans. Letter M.' 

78' As I was goin' up heeple steeple, 

I met some Christian people; 
Some were nickle, and some were nackle. 
And some were the color of brown terbacker. 

Ans. Partridge.* 

79. If two pigs come to five dollars, what will a hawg come to? — 
Ans. Com. 

80. Where is the lirst place you hit a nail? — Ans. On the head. 

81. Why does the sun rise in the east? — Ans. Because yeast will 
rise anything. 

83. What is two things flapping and one going in and out? — '4fu. 
A ba¥^ with bis ears flapping and his nose going in and out. 

83. What kin is a child to his father when he's not his son? — Ans. 
His daughter. 

84. How many cow's tails will it take to reach the sky? — Ans. 
One, if it was long enough.' 

85. Why is a dirty boy like flannel? — Ans. Because it shrinks 
when it's washed.* 

86. Man who made it didn' use it. 

The man who bought it didn' want it. 
The man who used it didn' know it. 

Ans. Coffin.* 

■ Compare JAFL 34 : 13 (No. 3)- 

■ Compan JAFL 30 : 103 (No. 10); 3a : 390 <No. lo); MAFLS 16 ; 163 (No. 61). 
Recorded at Hampton (Southeni Workman. March. 1S94) as, — 

"As I went down by Heeple Steeple, 
There I met aheap of people; 
Some were nick, and some weie nacky, 
Some were color of brown terbacky. 

Ans. Bees." 

■ CompaicJAPL34:S4(No. II). 

• Gfvm In Conundnmu, Rfddle* and Piuilea. 

• Compare MAFLS 16 : 173 (No. 160). 



332 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

87. Goes to the well three times a day, and never drinks, —^u. 

88. Up to the house an' never come in. — Ans. Path.' 

( Variant.) What is it that goes all around the house and nev<er 
comes in? — Ans. Path. 

89. Buffy fluffy on the land. 

Two pink pillars on which to stand. 

Ans. A hen with pink feet. 

90. Go all around the house and put a white sheet in the window. — 
Ans. Snow. 

91. Two ducks in front of two ducks. 
Two ducks behind two ducks. 
Two ducks between two ducks, 
How many ducks? 

Ans. Four.* 

92. What is the difference between a school-boy and a postage- 
stamp? ^^«. One you stick with a lick, one you lick with a stick. 

93. Nib nib noddy. 

Two [y]ears and one body. 

Ans. Barrel.' 

94. Brass button. 
Blue coat. 

Can't catch a billy-goat. 

Ans. Policeman. 

95. Or the hill sits a green house. 

In the green house sits a white house. 
In the white house sits a red house. 
In the red house sits a black house. 
Ans. Watermelon.* 
( Variants.) 
(i) On the hill there's a green house, 

In that green house there's a white house. 

In that white house there's a red house. 

In that red house are a lot of Htde black and white men. 

Ans. Watermelon. 
(2) A lot of little black children 
Live in a red house. 

Ans. Watermelon.* 
■ Compare JAFL 30 : 103 (No. it); 3» ■• 390 (No. as); 34 : »6 (No. g); UAFLS lO : iss 
(No. 33). 

• Compare JAFL 34 : 84 (No. 10). no (No. 6); MAFLS 16 : (No. 15). 

• Recorded at Hampton (Soulhem Workman, March, 1894) is,— 

"Butgyand knottr. 
Two beadt and one body." 

• Compare Cape Verde lalandi (MAFLS 15 |pt. a] : aij-iiO, No. i). 

• Compare JAFL 31 : 388 (No. 3). 


Fotk-Lorefrom Elaabeth City County, Va. 32 

96. Green rind. 

Red meat, 
Full of syrup. 
Hard to beat. 

Ans. Watermelon. 

97 • On the hill there's a house, 

In that house there's a closet, 

In that closet hangs a coat. 

In that coat is a pocket, and 

In that pocket there's an Indian head. 

Ans. A penny. 

98 • Green within green. 

Seven doors within the seam. 

Ans. Green house with green 
graves around it, and 
seven doors. 

99. Red outside. 
White inside. 

Ans, Apple.* 

100. What is the difference between a sailor and the letter d?- 
Ans. They both follow the c. 

101. Black as a coal. 
Slick as a m<^ 
Red along tail, 
And busted hole. 

Ans. Frying-pan.' 

102 . Long legs, 
Short thighs, 
Bald head. 
And no eyes. 

Ans. Tongs.' 

103. Higher than the house. 
Higher than the tree. 

Oh, what can this little thing be? 

104. Whitey went upstairs, 
Whitey came downstairs, 
Whitey left whitey upstairs. 

Ahs. A hen went upstairs, 

and laid a egg (aigg).* 

> Comp«DC HAFLS I6 : IM. ■ Compare JAFL 34 : a8 (No. 19). 

■ Compare JAPL 30 : 101 (No. 4); 34 : » (No. 23). 

* Compan JAFL 30 : 176 (No. g); 34 : 39 (No. a?); MAPLS 16 : 159 (No. 4»). 

■ Conpuv JAFL 30 : 104 (No. ao); 3s : 3SS (No. i); 34 : ^S (No. J). 


324 Journal cf Amerkan FcH-Lore. 

105. IpjMC ippie upstain, 
Ippie ippie downstaira, 
If you don't watch out, 
[ppie ipiMc'U bite yer. 

Ans. Waq>.> 

106. 01' Mother Twichet 
Had but one eye 
An' a long tail; 
Dat she let fly. 
An' ev'y time 
She went thro' a gap, 
I bite off her tail. 
She lef in the crack. 

Ans. Needle.* 

107. Black we are, but mucb adnUred; 
Men seek for ub until they're tired: 
We tire the horseo, but comfort man. 
Tell me this riddle if you can. 

- Am. Coal.* 

loS. As I went through the garden gap. 

Who could I meet but Dick Redcap, 
A stick in his hand, and a stone in his throat. 
Tell me this riddle, I'll give you a goat.* 

Ans. Cherry.* 

109. Flower of Virginia, 
Fruit of Spain, 

Met together in a shower of rain. 

Put in a bag. 

Tie it up with a string. 

Tell me this riddle, I'll give you a [»a. 

Ans. Plum pudding.* 

1 10. As I was going somewhere, 
I saw a ship come sailin'. 
It was loaded with people. 
As I drew near, 

I didn't see a single peraon. 

Ans. They were all mairied. 

■ Compare JAFL 3° t 306 (No. 50); 3> : J^O (No. 11); 34 : >7 (No. 11). 

> Gtven in a^chaoI-Kader, Work and PUy with Laniuase, by RobUiu and Row. Com- 
pare JAFL 34 ! ii« (No. 3>- 

■ Compaie JAFL 34 : 85 (No. 11). 

* This riddle nai told to me sevenl tlmea. and the "froat" of the origtakal «raa ahnTi 
rendered "goat." 

• Learned from ■ book. Compare JAFL 34 : S5 (No. 14). 


Falk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 325 

111. As I was gotn' up London Bridge, 
I met three living people, 

They were neither men, women or children. 

Alts. Was a man, a woman, and a child.* 

1 12. Big at the bottom. 
Little at the top. 

In the middle go flippity flop. 

Ans. Churn,* 

113. Thirty white horses 'pen a red hill. 
Now they tramp, now they champ. 
Now they stand still. 

Ans. Teeth and gums.* 

1 14. What is that all young misses look for and don't wish to find? — 
Ans. Hole in stocking. 

115. Why is a black hen greater than a white hen? — Ans. Because 
a black hen can lay a white egg, and a white hen can't lay a black e^. 

116. There was a man of Adam's race 
Had a certain dwelling-place. 
Not in heaven, not in hell. 

Not on earth where human dwell. 

Am. Jonah in the whale's belly.* 

1 17. When does a dawg wear the mos' clothes, — in winter, or sum- 
mer? — Ans. In summer, because he wears a coat, and pants. 

118. Why does a hen cross a road ? — Ans. To get on the other side. 

119. Black an' white an' red all over. — Ans. Newspaper.* 

120. I had a little sister 
They call Peep Peep; 
She wades the water 
Deep, deep, deep; 

She climbs the mountain 
High, high, high. 
Poor little thing 
Has but one eye. 

Ans. SUr.* 

121. Oncetaman had a goose, a fox, and a bag of corn tocarry across 
the river in a boat. He couldn' leave the fox with the goose, because 
the fox would eat the goose. He couldn' leave the goose with the com, 

' Compare JAFL 34 : 15 <No. 33). 

' ComiMie JAFL 30 -.aai (No. 16); 31 •390 (No. 11); 34 : 34 (No. 63); MAFLS 16 : 
1ST {No. 34). 

' CompMe JAFL 34 : as (No. 3. »»rtoiK i). 

* Compue JAFL 34 : 83 (No. 8). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : aoi (No. 8); 34 : 3i (No. 44). 88 (No. 67). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 306 (No. 53). 


336 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

because the goose would eat the corn. He could only carry one at a 
time. How did he take thera over? — Ans. He carried over the goose 
and left the goose over, and came back and got the com and carried the 
goose back. He carried the fox over and went back and got the goose.' 

122. A man had twenty sick sheep (sounds like twenty-six). One 
died. How many did he have left? — Ans. Nineteen* (but the guesser 
will most always say twenty-five). 

RIDDLES (1S94). 

123. White told White to take White and run White out of White.' 

124. Two big biscuits, one cup of coffee, 
Gwine to Augusta black and dirty. 

Ans. Locomotive. 

125. "Fry me some eggs, fry me some eggsl " — 
"Got no lard, got no lard!" — 

"Tallow will do, tallow will do." — 

"Cloddy land, doddy land." — 

"Plough it deep, plough it deep!" — 

"Muddy de water, muddy de water!" 

Ans. A pond full of green frogs 
talking to themselves- 
When the sixth frog says 
"Muddy de water," he see 
his enemy, they all dis- 

126. As I was walking out one day, 
I saw a wonderful thing. 
'Twas not in the earth, 
'Twas not in the sky, 

'Twas (k)not in a tree. 

Where could this wonderful thing be? 

Ans, In a tree.* 
127- Green Morocco built a ship. 

An' he built it for his daughter, 

An' I've told her name three times, 

An' I'm ashamed to tell three times over. 

Ans. Her came was Ann. 
128. Travels round the fields all day, 

Comes home at night and sits under the bed. 

Ans. The farmer's shoes.* 
I Compare JAFL 33 : 37S (No- Oi MAFLS 16 : 161 (No. 56). 
' Compare JAFL 34 : 36 (No. 85). 84 (No. 18); MAFLS 16 : IJS (No. 1S7). 
• See No. I. 
' See No. 43- 
> See No. 3- 


Folk-Lore from EUxabeth City County, Va. 337 

139, Clink, dank, under the bank. 

Ten against four. 

Ans. The cow being milked. 

130. As I was gioing acroBS London Bridge, 
I heard an dd man give a squall. 

His head was bald, his bill was — (?),* 
Such an old man never was bom. 

Ans. An owl. 

131. Black on black, and black on brown. 
Three legs up, and nx legs down. 

Ans. A black man on a brown horse, with a 
black pot upside down on his head.* 

132. Up chip cherry, down chip cherry. 
Many man in jerry 

Can climb chip cherry. 

Ans. The sun.* 

133. Hitty titty in the house, 
Hitty titty out of doors, 

Nary man can catch hitty titty. 

Ans. Smoke. 

134. Nine cows had ten calves, and nary one had two. — Ans. One 
cow's name was Nary One. 

135. I love love, love can't love me; 

I feel love, but love can't feel me. 

Ans. A man who committed a crime had to get up 
a riddle that no one could tell, if he would 
save his life. He killed bis dog, whose name 
was Love, and put a piece of him in his 
pocket; then, with his hand in his pocket 
touching the piece of the dog, he gave out 
this riddle. No one could guess it. His life 
was saved.* 

136. If he come, he no come. 
If he no come, he come. 

Ans. Planted com. If the crow come, 
corn no come.* 
I The miniiis wonl b probably "honi." Compare JAFL jo : ao6 (No. 48), 

* Compaie JAFL 30 : »0S Co- 3^). 

■ Vet7 popular In tbe Sea Idand*. South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : i5>-t J3> No. 5). 
' Compan JAFl, 30 : '°3 (No. aj); 3a : 389 (No. 18); UAPLS 16 : 157 (No. 37). 

• See No. 7. 



Journal oj American Felk-Lore. 


Three Jauaican Fole-Stories. — The following Ananoi stories and 
the BODgB which go with them were collected inddentally by the writer in 
Jamaica during the winter of 1920-21, while making a study of Jamaican 
folk-song as part of the Vassar College study of Jamaican folk-lore, which 
is conducted by Miss Martha W. Beckwith. They were acddentaHy 
omitted from the larger collection to be published as Memoir XVII of the 
American Folk -Lore Society. 

I. King's Daughters an' Anansi. — Once de king had t'ree daughter; an' 
him said, if any one know de name ob his daughter, he will gib dem oae to 
marry to. Anansi heah. One day de t'ree daughter were pasang, on'dey 
saw a tree wid some cherries; an' den Anansi said, if dey wanted a cherry, 
he would pull dem; an' de lady tell him to go an' pull dey; an' when he 
pull dem, he t'row dem. When he was comin' down, he t'low kiraself off 
a tree, an' de king's daughter begun to cry; an' one said, "Po' me William 
Daniel!" an' de odder said, "Po' me Corning, po' me walk lak a turn be 
shem shem!" So one day de king were looking out, an' him heah Ananii 
coming playing, " Me Corny mek me get me William Daniel." An* Anann 
marry to him. 

When Anansi fall down off a tree, him form die, but he didn' dead at all, 
an' de king daughter get a carriage an' tek him home. 

[The tune that Ananu was playing is given below. It was obtaiaed 
from Winifred Leach of Brown's Town.] 

h f^;. JMJ. fi\ j i ;. jj . j i ; ^^ 

An' nw Com -;mek megrt msWil-liuBDaa-iel hte 

wslk Isk a tom-bs ihnn, ■baDi,Uu walk lak a tam-bs ibtm, Asa. 

[This story is of European derivation, and is also given by Jekyll ("Ja- 
maican Song and Story," No. 11), as " Yung-Kyum-Pyung;" but the story 
is not quite the same, and the songs are very different.) 

3. Anansi an' Tumble-Tud. — Once Anansi an' Tumble-Tud w«nt to 
Kingston. De two ob dem brought a barrel each ob cheese. When dey 
were coming back, Anansi an' Tumble-Tud ate up one barrel; an' when he 
ketch part ob de way, Tumble-Tud tol' Anansi to eat his; but Anansi tol' 
him to roll it home, an' he will gib him some ob his. But when dey come 
home, Anansi kep' his barrel. Dey call de barrel "timbal." 


Notes and Queries. 329 

rrhe tong which is sung is what Anaosi sang to his barrel or the way 
home, when he was struggling with it, before be inveigled Tumble-Tud into 
doing the work. It was obtained from the same source as No. I.] 

maB«ek-7 nm - bd, 

3. Bra Yebel. — H'Anansi walk him groun', an' him plant it, an' him 
plant i^antain, an* he had two plantain, bear two bunches, an' ebry day 
him gwine a' him groun' an' da watch dose plantain. Had groun' nex' toa 
fiel' belong to Bra Yebel, an' Bra Yebel hab two daughter, an' Bra H'Anan» 
ben want de two daughter to oo't, an' he ax Bra Yebel fe gib him daughter 
(e marry to. Bra Yebel tell him, "No." Well, Bra H'Anansi bex wid 
Bra Yebel. One day Bra H'Anansi went bahk to de fiel' an' cut off half 
ob de plantain an' went away wid it; an' de nex' day Bra H'Anansi go 
bahk a de fiel', miss de plantain, an' say Bra Yebel tief it. But him dida' 
call out Bra Yebel name yet. 

[Calling out the name means actually to accuse a person of guilt. Evi* 
dently, however, Anansi soon decided to make up a song in which he could 
hint about what Bra Yebel was supposed to have done: for this is the song 
be sang, which I obtained from Alfred Williams of Maroon Town, — } 

Helen H. RoBBRia. 



330 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Tar Baby." — In the "Scientific Monthly" , of September, itaa, 
Dr. W. Norman Brown of the Johns Hopldns University makes an argument 
for the African origin of "Tar Baby" as ^^ainst the Jacobs theory tA 
origin in India. In Dr. Brown's brief the strongest point is the lack d 
versions of "Tar Baby" in the folk-lore of peoples otherwise borrowing 
from India, and yet the point is in itself inconclusive: tales do not have to 
travel, however well established the folk-lore highway may be. 

However, until we get other versions, European or Arabic, of "Tar 
Baby," to add to the Portuguese Negro versions from the Cape Verde 
Islands, in which "Tar Baby" appears in conjunction with the "Master 
Thief" cycle. I fully agree with Dr. Brown that the hypothesis I advanced 
in "Folklore," that "Tar Baby" may have travelled in that cycle from 
Ada, is tenuous. 

"Tar Baby" is undoubtedly, as Dr. Brown points out, more popular or 
widespread to-day in Negro cultures than in other cultures; but that is 
far from proving that the tale was not carried from outside into Africa. 
I Tales, like customs or other cultural expressions, may very well start, or, 
better say, take a distinctive form, in one place, and accrue greatly in vogue 
or in color in another place. In fact, such process is highly characteristic 
. of cultural change. 

It is in just such change in tales that folk-lorists are coming to be more 
and more interested, as well as in the areas of tale-distribution, rather than 
in the "origins" of tales. Of what tale can it be known that it is not 
borrowed? j' Now, in studying distribution and change, it is important, we 
know, to distinguish very clearly between the pattern of the tale and its 
dress or setting. In his discussion of "Tar Baby," Dr. Brown has in several 
particulars failed to do this. Whether the personage of a tale is animal or 
human, is immaterial to the pattern, or whether or not the tale is us^ to 
point a moral; and in "Tar Baby" the nature of the trap ia immaterial, 
— "Tar Baby" is a misleading title, — or even the escape from the predica- 
ment, or, in last analysis, basing the incident as a whole on a theft. The 
pattern of "Tar Baby" is what Dr. Brown properly calls "the stick-fast 
motif," — how different parts of the person in succesnon are caught and 
held. This being so, I fail to see how Dr. Brown can eliminate the version 
from India which he dtes, that of the Samyutta NikSya, as the earliest 
recorded version of the same tale of which we have so many lately-recorded 
versions in Africa and in America. 

A close parallel to the India version was found by Professor Aurelio 
M. Espinosa on his recent expedition to Spain; and to be added to the 
bibliography of the tale, as given by Dr. Brown and in "Folklore" 
(30 : 227-334), are the following references: Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 164- 
165); Pueblo Indians (Taos), Parsons in MS.; and, recentiy noted by 
Dr. Boas, Guiana Indians (T. Koch-GrOnberg, Vom Roroima rum Ori- 
noco, 2 [1916] :47); Africa, F. Bachmann, "NyihaMarchen" (Zt. f. 
Kolonial-Sprachen, 6 : 64-86); C. Mitterrutzner, "Die Sprache der Ban 
in Zentral-Afrika," 10-15(1667); "Afrikanlache MSrchen," 95, 313, 325, 
335 (J«na. 1921). 



Notes and Queries. 331 

From "SpnuTCAl," to Vaudeville. — In the Negro musical comedy 
"Shuffle Along," which had a long run in New York City in 1932, one 
BODg was BO notably in music and verbal form of the familiar type of "spir- 
itual," that I made inquiry about its history, and, through the kindness of 
Mrs. Grace Nail Johnson, was given by one of the Four Harmony Kings 
who sang the song a note on how the song was learned by the quartette, 
and the following wording: — 

I. Alii*t It ■ ibaioe to steal on Sunday, 
Ain't It ■ shame to steal on Sunday, 
Ain't It ■ shame to steal on Sunday. 

Ain't it a shame, 
Ain't It a abame to Meal on Sunday, 
When you got Monday, Tuesday. Wednesday, 
Thursday, Friday, Ssturday too. 

Ain't it a shame? 

a. Ain't It a ilkame to drinic bootch on Sunday, et& 

3. Ain't it a allame to slilmmy on Sunday, etc. 

4. Ain't It a shame to samble on Sunday, etc. 

The quartette first heard the song at a Negro meeting in St. Louis by 
" Jutnlee singers." " We learned it only to use in our jubilee work, but we 
used it one night as an encore in ' Shuffle Along,' and it was at once a big 
hit. It is the biggest number we use now. We had several oRers from 
publishers who wanted to put the song into a jubilee catalogue ; but before 
this could be done, J. S. B. and W. H., hearing us sing the song, slipped 
and had it published. But they added a whole lot to it, which^has spoiled 
it, and is not the way we sing it at all. Now the Black Swan Record Com- 
pany have put it out, with us singing it. . . . It is a wonderful song, that 
not only expresses the religious feeling of older days, but fits into this day 
and time." — A bit of acculturation, indeed! 

E. C. P. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


The Black Border. By Aubkose £. Gonzalbs. Columbia, S.C., 1932. 

The stories of this " Black Border," which is the coast and idands o( 
South Carolina and Geoi^a, are etories, not by the folk, but about them, 
and are not entirely interestinK to the folk-lorist, unless the literary settiDg 
which is determined by the white Southern point of view b taken itself as 
folk-lore. The attitude of the writer towards the Negro dialect that he 
has recorded, it is to be said, with considerable care, can hardly be taken in 
any other way. For example, after drawing attention to certain vowd* 
sounds, he tells us that "in no other tongue, periiaps, can so much be 
expressed with bo little strain upon brain or lips or glottis as by the Gullah's 
laconic use of these grunting jungle-sounds," — for the student of phonetics, 
a rather diverting reference to the subtle sounds and tones of the languages 
of Africa. 

In a primer by two students of African phonetics — Daniel Jones of the 
University of London, and Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje of Kimberley — 
occurs this maxim: " Don't imagine that a difficult language can be turned 
into an easy one if you only clothe it in an inaccurate but familiar-looldng 
orthography." May not this apply to the writing of dialect as well as of 
mother-tongue — to "Gullah" as well, say, as to Sechuana? It requires 
special training to write languages according to a rigid phonetic system; 
and, when so written, they are a sealed book to the general reader. In 
this country it has become a tradition to write N^^o dialect according to 
an orthography which is neither phonetic nor conventional, but a mixture 
of the two stirred by the whim of the writer. As the task of writing dialect 
phonetically, with the Queen's English involved, is not to be undertaken 
single-handedly, would it not be well to agree to keep as closely to conven- 
tional orthography as possible, expressing the elisions, which bulk lai^ id 
Negro dialect, by apostrophes, and changing letters only when actually 
there is a ditTerence in pronunciation? To take instances from the Gullah 
glossary given as an appendix in "The Black Border," why not write 
"dange'ous" instead of "dainjus," "chll'" instead of "chile," or, "bery 
well den" instead of "berrywellden"? and why write "cundemn" for 
"condemn," "fast'n" for "fasten," "i'on" for "iron," "goonil" for "gun- 
wale," "pawpus" for "porpoise," "'nuf " for "'nough"? Is this proneness 
to out-dialect dialect associated in any way, one wonders, with such prac- 
tices as referring to Negroes as "darkies" or of classifying by indirection 
through using the term "educated Negro" where, in equivalent circum- 
stance, the term "educated white" would not be used? Such verbal habits 
will have to receive attention from the psychologists when the psychologists 
undertake a serious study of the feeling of cultural superiority. 

But, besides orthographic oddities and cultural self-asserdveness, there 
have strayed into Mr. Gonzales' Gullah glossary bits of interesting Negro- 
lore. Small frogs are called "fry-bakin frogs" from their call, "Fry-bacon, 


JReoiem. 333 

tea-table! fry-bacon, tea-table!" "grin' salt" (grinding salt) is said of a 
circling hawk or vulture; "sweet-mout' talk" is that of a philanderer; 
"long mout'" describes the suriy or contemptuous pushing-out of the lips 
of an angry or discontented person; "long talk ketch nin'way nigguh" 
means that talk by the roadside caused runaway slaves to be caught by 
the "patrol;" "plat-eye" is the name of an apparition common to the 
Georgetown section of the coast; and so on. 

E. C. P. 






Vol. 35.— OCTOBER-DECEMBER. 1922.— No. 138. 



TBB pteaent collection is a continuation of the one in this Journal, 
nax [1916]. 155-197. entitled "Some Songs Traditional in the United 
State*." That paper will be cited here as Part I, with the page refer- 
ence added. As in the earlier paper, the material will be arranged in 
tfaefoUowing divisions: I. Older ballads (those in Child); II. Modem 
baHadt (excluding homiletic ballads and play-party songs); III. 
- Homiletic ballads; IV. Play-party aongs. The texts under I are 
numbeied as in Child. Under each of the other divisions the arrange- 
iDent is alphabetical by titles. A generally accepted title is used when 
practicable. It is not the intention to print a text which is virtually 
m duplicate ol oae already in print and generally accessible. 

If any ballad treated here is mentioned in one of the four following 
HMs, the fact is indicated, unless reference is made instead to a pub- 
ikbed venion of that collector. 


FhHUps Barry [cbeck-liitl, no date (approximately 1907I. Privately printed. 
(A New Eogland collection; 84 batlada described.) 

H. M. Belden. Sosg-balladt . . . known in Mtisouri, ad ed., 1910. Pri- 
vately printed. (145 titles.) 

Leolst Pound, Folk-Song of Nebraika and the Central West, A Syllabus. 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 1915. (More than 500 title*: 16 
"Koneer and Western Songs" given in full.) 

Hubert G. Shesrin and Joatah H. Combs, A Syllabus of Kentucky Folk- 
Songs. Trausylvania University, Lexington, Ky., 191 1. (About 
3SO titles.) 

n to the volumes of this Journal, cited as J AFL, the follow- 

mwiif coUectJao hu bwn put In form by the undrni(iw<l: but Mlw Eddy ha* 
d (o Buch to It, tbat It aeemt only fair to name her ai loint author. Almoat 

•D «f Uk sin bne printed have come [ram h«T. I have no knowtcdsc ol muiic. Min 

■Mr li irylag t« ooUcct aU thr folk-«on|i lurvivlni in tradittoa In tbc State o( Ohio. 

fegCk the «ai4i and t^ aiis. Sfae wUI welcome aMutance. The addtea PerryirUle, O.. 

win shnra maUt bcr. — A. H. TouMAit. 

« MS 


336 Journal oj American FoUt-Lore. 

> ing collections have been examined for texts and parallels. These are 
ustially referred to by title only. Books printed before 1898 are not 
cited for texts of ballads contained in Child's great collection, com- 
pleted in that year. References which seem to contradict this prin- 
ciple are given for the tunes. Some of the books named were not be- 
fore me when this paper was first written in 1917. References io 
Kittredge, "Ballads and Songs" (JAFL xxx, 283-369), are usually 
not repeated here. 

1. Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of England, Jama 

Henry Dixon (in vol. xvii of the publications of the Percy Society). 

2. Ancient Scots Ballads, with the traditional airs . . . Geoi^ Eyre-Todd. 

London, n.d. [1894 ?]. 

3. Ballade and Songs of Lancashire, ed. by John Harland, edition of 1875. 

London, Routledge. (Contains few follc-songs.) 

4. Cowboy Songs, John A. Lomax. New York, 1910. (An enlarged edi- 

tion came out later.) 

5. Early Ballads . . . alsoBalladsandSongsof the Peasantry of Eagjand, 

Robert Bell. London, 1877. (Reprints much of Dixon's odlectioQ, 
No. I above.) 

6. English County Songs, Lucy E. Broadwood and J. A. Fuller Maitland. 

London, 1893. 

7. English Folk-Songs, Wm. Alexander Barrett. London, n.d., Novcllo. 

8. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, <^ve Dame 

Campbell and Cecil J. Sharp, with introduction, notes, and tnbUog- 
raphy. Putnam, 1917. (Especially valuable.) 

9. English Minstrelsie, S. Baring-Gould. 8 vols., Edinburgh [t89S-97]. 

(Not many folk-songs included.) 

10. English Traditional Songs and Carols . . , with accompaniments, Lucy 

E. Broadwood. London, 1908, Booaey. 

11. The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, Ella Mary Leather. London, 191). 

12. Folk-Songs from Dorset, H. E. D. Hammond. London, 190S, Novello. 

13. Folk-Songs from the Eastern Counties, R. Vaughan Williams. London, 

1908, Novello. 

14. Folk-SongB from Hampshire, George B. Gardiner. London, 1909, 


15. Folk-Songs from Somerset, Cecil J. Sharp and Charles L. Marson, five 

series. London, first edition, 1904-09. 

16. Folk-Songs from Sussex, W. Percy Merrick. London [1913), Novello. 

17. Folk-Songs of the Kentucky Mountains, Josephine McGill. New York 

and London, 1917, Boosey. 

18. A Garland of Country Song, S. Baring-Gould and H. Fleetwood Shep- 

pard. London, 1895, Methuen. 

19. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 6 vols, and Part I of Vol. vii. London, 

1899-1922. (In progress.) 
30. Lonesome Tunes: Folk Songs from the Kentucky Mounuins, Vol. I, 
Loraine Wyman and Howard Brockway. New York, 1916, H. W. 
Gray Co. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 337 

ai. The Minstrelsy of England, Alfred Moffat and Frank Kidson. London, 

1901. (Not many folk-eongs are included.) 
23. Modem Street Ballads, John Ashton. London, 1888, Chatto. 

33. Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs, (Miss) M. H. Mason. London, 

new ed., 1908. 

34. One Hundred English Folksongs, Cecil J. Sharp. Boston, 1916, Ditson. 

35. The Popular Songs of Scotland, with . . . melodies, George F. Graham. 

London, new ed., 1884. 
26. The Quest of the Ballad, by W. Roy Mackende. Princeton University 
Press, 1919. (Nova Scotian material. Referred to as "Mackenzie," 
with page- numbers.) 

37. Real Sailor-Songs, John Ashton. London, 1891. 

38. The Roxburghe Ballads, Wm. Chappell and J. W. Ebsworth. 8 vols. 

London and Hertford, Printed for the Ballad Society, 1871-99. 

39. The Roxburghe Ballads, Charles Hindley, Esq. 2 vols. London, 1873, 

1874, Reeves and Turner. 

30. Scots Minstrelsie, John Greig. 6 vols. Edinburgh, vol. ii dated 1893. 

31, The Shirburn Ballads, 1585-1616, Andrew Clark. Oxford, 1907, 

33. Songs and Ballads of Northern England, John Stokoe and Samuel Reay. 
London [1892], Scott. 

33. The Songs of Scotland, J. Pittman and Colin Brown. London, n.d., 


34. Songs of the West, S. Baring-Gould and others. London, 5th ed. with 

additions [1913), Methuen. 

35. Traditional Tunes . . . with Words, Frank Kidson. Oxford, 1891. 

36. Vagabond Songs and Ballads of Scotland, With Many Old. . .Melodies, 

Robert Ford. Paisley, new ed., 1904, Gardner. 

In this list N08. I, 3, 5, 22, 26, 37, 38, 29, 31, print no tunes; Nos. 
4, 36, print some airs; the other collections give both words and music. 
For a valuable list of books on the subject of traditional music, see 
"Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 61-65; i". '44 f-. 244 f-, 319 L; 
iv, 82, 142; V, 252. Nos. 4, 8, 17, 20, in the above list, contain texts 
and airs found in the United States. No. 26 is Nova Scotian material. 

Some ballads taken up in Part I, and not elsewhere mentioned in 
this article, have interesting variants in "English Folk Songs from 
the Southern Appalachians." I cite Part I by page and title, and 
the texts of Mrs. Campbell and Mr. Sharp by numbers. Part I, 
p. 158, "The Twa Brothers" (Child, No. 49), = No. 11 in C. and S. 
(4 texts, 5 airs); p. 159, "Lord Thomas and Fair Annet" (Child, 73), 
= No, r6 in C. and S. (2 texts, 11 airs);' p. 171, "Dog and Gun," 
= No. 52 in C. and S.; p. 190, "The Unlucky Young Man," — com- 
pare No. 115 in C. and S.* 

T\ie onnpilers of this collection are most grateful to Professor Kit- 

' See also Mackeniie. pp. 97-99. 

* (See alM "Posey Boy." Sturgls and HusbcB, Saagt from tbe Hills ol Veimont 
{New York I1919I), pp. 7-9.) 


338 Journal of American FM-Lore. 

tredge for advice and assistance. His addidonB and annotatioai 
are indicated by brackets. 
The material h»e presented was first put together in 1917.' 


(numbbbkd as in child), 


Part I, 156; JAFL xzz, 386; One Hundred EDgliah Folkaong*, No. 

English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. a (4 texts, 5 ain); 

Mackenzie, pp. 93-95. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, ii, 282 (3 ain); 

Songs of Northern England, 130; English County Songs, 164. 

Obtained through Miss Eddy, from Mrs. Betty Mace, Pemyville, 0. 

LittU Golden. 
I. Come listen, come Ibten, young people all, 
A Btory unto you I will tell. 
Of a false-hearted knight and litde Golden, 

And the truth unto you I will tell, tell, tell. 
And the truth unto you I will tell. 

3. He went unto her father's house 

About nine o'clock at night; 
Up bespeaks the parrot, 

And unto the Golden did say, 
"What is the matter with my little Golden, 

That you are up before day, day, day. 
That you are up before day? " 

3. "Hold your tongue, my pretty parrot. 

No tales on me do tell. 
And your cage shall be lined with the yellow glittering gold. 

And hung on yon willow tree, tree, tree. 
And hung on yon willow tree." 

4. They took of her father's yellow glittering gold. 

Likewise of her mother's fees. 
And the two best horses in her father's stable 

Wherein stand thirty and three, three, three. 
Wherein stand thirty and three. 

5. She jumped on the bonny, bonny brown. 

And he on the dapplin' gray; 
They rode till they came to the sea-beadng shore. 

Long, long before it was day, day, day. 
Long, long before it waa day. 
■ Profeaaor LouIm Pound of the Unlvenity of Nebraska ha* broufht on 
snthology of Amerkaii folk-poetry, American Ballad* and Soagi (Scrlbaer'a, 19M), 
an Introduction, notei, and an Index. For many of the ballad* beic giT«B gDod 
laar be found there. By a regrettable ovenisht, referencea to tbat book iMve not 
Inserted In icadlns tbe proof of the preaent coUectlon, except In a few caws. 


TradUtonal Texts and Tunes. 

6. "Take oS, tmkc off that fine nlk gown. 

And lie It on yonder stone; 
For it u too fine and over-costly 

To rot in a watery tomb, tomb, tomb, 
To rot in B watery tomb." 

7. "O turn your head around about, 

And gaxc at the leaves on yon tree; 
Ain't it a pity such a rebel as you 

A naked woman should see, see, see, 
A naked woman should see? " 

8. He turned his head around about, 

To gasc at the leaves on yon tree; 
So manfully she picked him up. 

And plunged him into the sea, sea, sea, 
And plunged him into the sea. 

Saying, " Six king's daughters you have drownded herei 

And the seventh has drownded thee, thee, thee, 
And the seventh has drownded thee." 

10. She jumped on her bonny, bonny brown. 

And led home the dapplin' gray, 
She rode till the came to her father's stable, 

One long hour before it was day, day, day. 
One long hour before it was day. 

11. Then up bespeaks her father, 

And unto the parrot did say, 
"What's the matter with Iny pretty P(4ly, 

That you're plattering so long before day, day, day. 
That you're plattering so long before day? " 

13. "Two strange (or wild) cats came to my cage door, 

And said they would murder me, 
And I was calling to little Golden, 

To drive these cats off away, 'way, 'way, 
To drive these caU off away." 

Part 1, 157: JAFL xxi, 389-290; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. tS; 
Ancient Scots Ballads, 48: Scou Mlnstrelsie, iv, ia8; Songs of Scotland, 136; 
The Songs of England, cd. J. L. Hatton, London, Boosey, n.d., 11 1 ; Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, v, 117-120, 12a (., 244-248: Engliah Folk Songs 
bttm the Southern Appalachians, No. 6 (5 texts and airs); Shearin, Modem 
Language Review, idv (1919), 311-314. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The following air comes from Miss Emma Schiader, UnivCTsity of 

Chicago, "as I remember having heard my mother sing it, in Qie- 
banse, III. It probably came from England with my grandporeots, 
who came to America in 1845." 


'j |J|J iiV J'J'U Jj-h HiJHI 

make my bed soon. For I'm tick 

.. 1 . . 1 ;- 1 

at thehev1,AndI Uin wadUedown." 

^'»i [ ill: ]n=3=t 

. 1 


- ^ - 

" 1 ' [J 


For references to American texU see JAFL xxx, 394-397. Add En^h 
Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 13 (3 texts, 5 aira); Mac* 
kenzie, pp. Ii2~ii8. 

Miss Eddy sends a fragmentary text of "Lord Bateman," gotten 
in Ohio. 


See Part 1, 160; JAFL xxx, 303-304: English Folk Songs from the South- 
ern Appalachians, No. 17 (4 texts, 7 airs); Mackenzie, pp. 134-126. 

This text and air came to Miss Eddy through Miss Jane Goon from 
Mrs. Liza B. Bowman, Akron, O. 

[. Sweet Wil-Uam a-roae one mer-iy May morning, And dreoed himself in 
bine, Sty-lng, "Come tell un>to me the long, long k>veTlut'ibe- 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

hag, long love That's between La - dy Margaret and 

2. "I know no harm of her," he said, 

"And I hope that she knows none of me, 
But to-mocTow morning by eight of the dock 
Lady Margaret my bride shall see." 

3. Lady Margaret was standing in her own hall door, 

A-combing back her hair, 
When who did she spy but Sweet William and his bride, 
As they to the church drew near. 

4. She throwed down her ivory comb, 

And with silk she tied her hair. 
And this pretty, fair maiden went out of the room. 
And never was seen back there. 

5. The day was far spent and the night was coming on. 

When most of the men was at work; 
Sweet William he said he was troubled in his head 
By a dream that he dreampt that night. 

He dreamed his room was full of wild swine, 
And his bride's bed swimming in blood. 

7. The night was far spent, and the day coming on, 

When most of the men was asleep. 
When Lady Margaret's ghost appeared, 
And stood at his bed's feet. 

8. "How do you like your bed," says she, 

"And how do you like your sheet? 
And how do you like your newly-married bride. 
That lies in your arms and sleeps? " 

9. "Very well dcvl like my bed," said he, 

"And also I like my sheet, 
But the best of all is that fair lady in white 
That stands at my bed's feet." 


343 Journal of American FoOt-Lore. 

10. Her face was as white as the driven snow. 

Clad in that yonder doud, 
And day-cold was her lily-white hand. 
That held her lily-white shroud. 

11. Then he called on his merry maidens all. 

By one, by two, by three, 
And the last of all on his new married bride. 
Lady Margaret she might go and see. 

13. Oh, is she in her high bower-ee, 
Or is she in her hall, 
Or is she in her gay coaches, 
Among her merry maidens all? 

13. No, she is not in her high bower-ee. 

Nor she is not in her hall. 

But she is in her new coffin. 

Laid out against the wall. 

14. " Take down, take down, those sheets," said he, 

"Made out of the silk so fine. 
And let me kiss them day-cold lipa. 
For so oft they have kissed mine." 

15. " Take down, take down, those sheets," said he, 

"Made out of the linen so fine. 
To-day they are over Lady Margaret's corpse. 
And to-morrow they will be over mine." 

16. L.ady Margaret she died as if to-day. 

Sweet William he died on the morrow; 
Lady Margaret she died of pure, pure love. 
Sweet William he died of sorrow. 

17. Lady Margaret was buried under a cherry-tree top, 

Sweet William was buried under a willow. 
And they both grew high, and they both grew together. 
And they tied in a true-lovers' knot. 


Part I, 160. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 
18; Folk-Songs of the Kentucky Mountains, 9-13. Journal of the Folk- 
Song Sodety, vi, 31-33. 

Miss Eddy sends an excellent text that comes from Peonsylvama. 
She gets the following air from the singing of Mrs. Daniel Rose, Shreve, 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

Tt resembles the tune to ' Lord Lovel ' in Sharp's ' One Hundred 
EngtUh Folksongs,' No. 36, and sounds very well with his accompani- 

"Wberesrc yaa p>-inK, Lofd Lov-er?"ilieiaid,"Oh,whereAre you 


2o-iog?"»id she. 'Tm (o-inK a>my, Ur Nan-cy BcU.Stnuice 

coonlriet tor to see, ■ee,Me,Stran2ecoi)niHei(or to see." 


Id Part I, 160, two references are wrong. They should read: Journal of 
the Folk-Song Society, i, 265-367: JAFL xx, 256. Add; JAFL xxx, 317: 
English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, Nu. 31 (6 texts, to 
airs): a Nova Scotian text is in Mackenzie, pp. IOO-103. Scots Mtnstrelsie, 
i, 93; Ancient Scou Ballads. 188; The Popular Songs of Scotland. So; The 
Songs of Scotland, 133; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 7; Journal 
of the Fulk-Song Society, ii, 80 (3 airs). 

Since Part I was in print, Miss Eddy has obtained two more texts 
from Ohio, one from Kentuck>', and the following tunes. The first air 
is from the singing of Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville. O. ; the second, 
from the singing of Mrs. Brannan, Lily, Ky. "This is the way she 
■ang mo8t of the stanzas." 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

93. LAlfEIN. 

Part I, 163-164; JAFL zxx, 318; English Folk Songs from the Southern 
Appalachians, No. 23. 

Miss Eddy sends Miss Goon's air for "False Lambkin," {Hinted in 

False Lambkin was 

f|V l r- J J 7TJ J J. J | J i J l^ 

He buih Lord Ar-nold'B 

- tie And the Lord p^ him n 

Part I, 164-166; JAFL xxx, 322; Folk Song* from the Southern Appala- 
chians, No. 26. Journal of the Folk-Song SodeCy, v, 233-356; English 
County Songs, 86; Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs, 46. 

The Jew's Daughter. 
Obtained by Miss Eddy from the singing of Mrs. Charles Wise, 
Penysville, O. 

s their ball, ball, ball, Went 

to ton their balL.. 

2. At first they tossed it a little too h^h, 

And then a little too low. 
Over in the Jew's garden flew one of the balls. 
Where no one dared to go. 

3. Out came the Jew's daughter all dressed in silk. 

Crying, "Come in, little boy, 
Come to, come in, my pretty little boyi 
You shall have your ball again." 

4. "No, I won't come in, no, I sha'n't come in. 

Unless my playmates do, 
For ofttimes have I heard it said 
Whoever went in should never come out again." 


TradiUonal Texts and Tunes. 345 

5. At first she showed him a ripe yellow apple. 

And then a gay, gold ring. 
And next a cherry as red as blood. 
To entice the little boy in. 

6. She took him by his lily-white hand, 

And drew him across the hall; 
Down in the dark cellar she went with him. 
Where no one could him amid (call]. 

7. And there she laid him upon a table 

Beside a great bow-knife, 
And called for a basin all lined with gold 
To catch his heart-blood in. 

8. "Lay my Bible at my head. 

My prayer-book at my feet. 
And when my playmates call for me, 
Pray, tell them I'm asleep. 

9. "Lay my prayer-book at my feet. 

My Bible at my head, 
And when my parents call for me, 
Pray, tell them that I'm dead." 

The Blaeberry Courtship. 

"The Blaeberry Courtship," or "The Blaeberries," which seems to 
be founded on the traditional ballad of "Lizie Lindsay," has not, I 
think, been hitherto found in the United States; but Mackenzie 
prints a text from Nova Sa)tia ("The Quest of the Ballad," pp. 230- 

See Ancient Scots Ballads, 2481 The Popular Songs of Scotland, 264; 
Scots Minstrelste, ii, 316; The Songs of Scotland, iiS; Handbook of the 
Songs of Scotland, ed. by William Mitchison, 1851, 17; Songs of the North, 
ed. by Macleod, Boulton, and Lawson (1885), 66 (with air); Stokoe, Songs 
of Northern England, 62-63. [Also: Ford, Vagabond Songs, ii, 77-82, 
and Auld Scots Ballants. 121-125; Whitelaw, The Book of Scottish Ballads, 
t845< 376-378: Gavin Greig, xiiii: The Goldfinch [chapbook], J. Marshall, 
Newcastle, 12-16; broadsides printed by George Walker, Jr. [Durham) and 
Stephenson [Gateshead], and a Glasgow chapbook ["The Blaeberry Court- 
ship:" Harvard College 25276.43. 23, No. ij, "printed for the Booksellers."] 

Obtained through Professor Edith Foster Flint of the Univeraty of 
Chicago, and Mrs. M. P. Starr of Chicago, from Mrs. Annie McAllister, 
Winnetka, III., an ^ed Scotchwoman, who learned the words from 
her mother. 


34^ Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I. Ib the Highlands of Scotland there dwells a young man; 
He's well educated, as we understand; 

a. He's awa' to the Lowlands to ask for a bride, 
And he's rolled himself up in a bra tartan plaid. 

3. It's "Vi^l you come wi' me," said he, "bonnie lassie; 
Ob, will you come wi' me those HlghJands to see? " 

4. "I'll no leave those Lowlands nor brown corn-fields. 
Not for all the blay-berries your wild mountain yidda." 

5. Down comes her father, a gray-haired old man: 
"Could you not get a mistress in all your own land? 

6. "But small entertainment's for our Lowland damea, 

For to promise them blay-berries on your wild heathery plains." 

7. Down comes her mother, her daughter to advise, 
Saying, "If thou go with him, thou wilt not be wise. 

8. "He's a real rakish fellow, and as bare as the era'; 

He's a king to the Katherines [worms] * for a' that we kna*." 

9. She's awa' now, poor thing, she's awa'; 
She's awa' to a place her two eyes ne'er saw. 

10. "Don't you remember, school-fellows were we? 

I was slighted by all the house, darlin', but thee. 

11. "These lands and fine livings were all gle'd to me; 
And I wooed you, my darling, to share them with thee. 

13. "You're welcome from .... you're twice welcome home. 
And welcome as mistress to Bailywell Toun." 

Milka' coos [cows], lasdes, and come away borne. 
Put on your hat, farmer, for that is too low, 
For a peacock to bow to a crow. 

For American texts see JAFL xxx, 325-327. Add En^ish Polk Songs 
from the Southern Appalachians, No. 29 (5 texts, 11 airs). 

English texts: Songs of the West, No. 76 (a shortened text; we Intro- 
duction) ; Real Sailor Songs 74, 2d text. 

> ThU KloM i« In Uis. Stair'i US. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


The House Carpenter. 

American texxa of "The House Carpenter" are not uncommon. 
Usually they do not vary greatly from the de Marsan broadside (New 
York City, about i860), reprinted in Henry de Marsan's " New Comic 
and Sentimental Singers' Journal " (i, 626 [No. 83]), and by Barry (JAFL 
xviii, 207). 

Miss Eddy sends three variants and three airs. In one of her texts 
the wife jumps overboard. I print the airs. The first is from the 
anging of Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, O. The second air was obtained 
from Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, O. The third was taken down 
by Professor Eschman, Denison College, Granville, O., from the 
nnging of Professor Lily Bell Sefton. 

"Well met, well met, my own trae love, Well met, well met,">ud 

\ p ^, J i rrf c c If Cj^ ^P 

be. "I've jmt re - tamed from tbe talt. salt lea. And it ■ 

I f J J' n J I ,r-^^-^-r^ 

ill for the love of thee, I've just re - tomed from tbe 
salt, salt lea. And it's all for the love of thee." 

J J' '" J J I J 

"Well met, well met, my on 

lelove, Well met, well met,"said 


348 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I New] (e) 

> ^ n 1 J • J J [ 1 J n 1 J -p 1 J ■ J J 

"I've jort comefrom the lalt, salt «««. And 'tw«i »U on ac- 

k'^ \ ^li * K iJi r > t ^^^ 

count ot thee. For I've jon bad an of-fer of a 

)j ^^J hj^lj-Z-PJ ;! ^ 


Idng'adaugh-ter fair. And ihe fain woald bare mar - TMd me." 

' > J 1 J ■ ." j j" ;" f ^ 1 1 I- .- 1 ^ 


'■Well, « you're h«l «i o( - to of > Uai'i <Uiijl..t« bir, I 

y ■! J r J 1 "I' t tU J* P / .^ ^ > I 


think you're much to blame, For I've late - ly beenmar-ried to a 


T ^ J r J N' h rlJ J' 1' J^^ 


think he'B 


Part I, 166; JAFL xxx, 328; English Folk Songs from the Southern Ap- 
palachians, No. 33 (2 texts, 3 airs). Andent Scots Ballads, 116; Ancieot 
Poems, Ballads, and Songs, 312-214. 

Miss Eddy sends in a coherent but incomplete text from Ohio. 
[" 'Twas on Christmas day " may be found also in " The Nightingale " 
(London, Tegg), pp. 144-145.I 



Belden, No. 33: Pound, 14. This is derived from the favorite ballad 
"The Children in the Wood," printed in Percy's Reliques, lii, 169 ff. 
(Wheadey's edition); also in Child's EngliBh and Scottish Ballads (1857- 
58), iii, 136 ff.; in Davidson's Universal Melodist, ii, 184 (with tune); aod 
elsewhere.' A semi-comical version is given in Modern Street Ballads, 134. 

From Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo. 

■ [See Charles Kent, The Land of the "Babet in the Wood." Loodon (1910)1. 


TraditiotuU Texts attd Tunes. 349 

1. Oh, don't you remember, a long time ago. 

Two poor little children whose names I don't know. 

Were stolen away, one fine summer day, 

And lost in the woods? So I've heard people say. 

2. And when it came night, oh, sad was their plight! 
The moon did not shine, and the stars gave no light. 
They cried and they cried, and they bitterly sighed; 
Poor babes in the wood! They lay down and died. 

3. And when they were dead, the robins so red 
Brought straw berry- leaves, and over them spread; 
And sang them a song the whole night long. 
Poor babes in the wood! Poor babes in the wood! 

[This children's song was printed in 1818 at Newburyport, Mass., 
in a tiny volume called "A Song Book for Little Children," pp. 7-9 
(Harvard College Library, 25276.43.82). Miss McGill has found it 
in Kentucky ("Folk Songs of the Kentucky Mountains" (1917], pp. 
103-106 [with tune]). It is regularly included in collections of nursery 
rhymes: Halliwell, 5th and 6th eds.. No. 52, p. 35; Mrs. Valentine, 
"Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles," Camden Edition, No. 53, 
pp. 36-37; Louey Chisholm, "Nursery Rhymes," p. 68; "The Old 
Nursery Rhymes, or The Merrie Heart," 5th ed., pp. 66-67; Andrew 
Lang, "The Nursery Rhyme Book" (1897), p. 56; Miss Mason, 
"Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs," p. 22 (with tune); Baring- 
Gould, "A Book of Nursery Songs and Rhymes," No. 27, p. 40 (4 

The long ballad of "The Children in the Wood" was often printed 
in this country as a broadside in the eighteenth and the early nine- 
teenth century. Harvard College has an eighteenth-century copy 
"Sold at the Heart & Crown in Comhill," Boston (Child Broadsides), 
and another of about 1800 or earlier without imprint; also two broad- 
sides printed in Boston by Nathaniel Coverly the younger, — one of 
about 181 1 ("Nathaniel Coverly, jun. Theatre Alley"), the other 
somewhat later, ca. 1818-28 ("N. Coverly, 16 Milk St."). A New- 
buryport (Mass.) broadside in the same library dates from early in 
the nineteenth century, and has a tantalizing imprint: "Sold by the 
Thousand, Groce, Hundred, Dozen, or jingle, at the Bookstore and 
Printing-ofHce of W. and J. Oilman, Middle-street, Newburyport: 
Where may be had, wholesale or retail, a variety of Ancient and 
Modem Popular Songs and Ballads. — Price 3 cts." The Boston 
Public Library has an eighteenth-century American broadside of this 
pietx (without imprint: H90a.309). The ballad is included in a 
song-book entitled "The Warbler," published at Augusta, Me., in 


3 50 Journal of American F<M-Lore. 

1805, pp. 177 fF. (Brown University). In 1796 "The Maseadiuaetts 
M^iazine," viii, 444-445, reprinted, without indicatUHi of souite, 
part of a favorable critique on the piece from "The Westminster 
Magazine" of January, 1774. Among the many Ei^ish broadsida 
containing the ballad, one is particularly noteworthy: it ia a huge 
twopenny sheet published by Catnach and illustrated with eight 
delightful cuts (Harvard Collie Library). There is a quas-comic 
version, "It's a woful tale I'm about to relate" (broadside, Bebbii^- 
ton, Manchester, No. 406: Harvard Cdlege).] 

Part 1, 167. See JAFL xxx, 348-349. 

" King Arthur " (English County Songs, 20 resemble this, so does 
" The Three Sons " (One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 80). Both 
of these versions confirm Professor Kittredge's view that the text in 
Part I is complete; but Mrs. Fanny H- Ferris, Wheaton, 111., says that 
in her youth she used to sing an additional stanza. 

[In fact, two stanzas were appended to the song in one sophisticated 
version: — 

Nov if these three roguish chaps, 
Who flourished under the long, 
Had lived to see as much as me. 
They'd surely have learned to dug. 

Then the miller could sing to his love, 

And the weaver comfort his wife, 
And the little tailor make ballads for 

To keep thesi three rogues right. 

Thus the song appears in "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 12" (New 
York, cop. 1864), p. 39, and "The ' We Won't Go Home till Momingl' 
Songster" (New York, DeWitt, cop. 1869), p. 19. The latter baa 
also the following prose introduction: "Spoken: In good old colony 
times, when our forefathers were under the king, there were three 
roguish chaps, who fell into mishaps, just because they coiildn''t ang. 
The Publisher would advise all boys to learn to sing, and then they 
will be found in the company of young ladies enjoying a musical feast; 
this, will keep them from falling into mishaps." The same (with the 
same prose preface) is in "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Send- 
mental Singers' Journal," i. 293 (No. 41). The regular version occun 
' [Tbis vereion is adopted by Gnnville Bantock. Oat Hundred Sonas ot EdkIumI 
(BostoD, cop. 1914), No. 3'. pp. S3-S4- See alwj Percy C. Buck, The Oxford Song Book. 
igi6. pp. iio-iit (from the Scottiah Studenu' Song Book); The Vaushall Comic Sang 
Book. ed. by J. W. Shatp. Pi"^ Seriea, p. 187. Hardy'i Under the Greenwood T^cc. 
Put IV, chap. 1, contain! a fragment cocuiMing of the first line (" King Anhnr bad thicc 
Moa") and the whole of the last stann.] 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 351 

in "The Stonewall Song Book," nth ed. (Richmond, Va., 1865), 
p. 34, and, with some variations. In "Frank Brower's Black Diamond 
Songster and Ebony Jester" (New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, ojp- 
1863), p. 42.' In the latter the song begins, — 

Old Daddy Hopkins had three sons, 

Ab big rogues as ever did swing; 
And he kicked them all three out of doors. 

Because they could not sing. 

A curious parody, " In Good Republican Times," turns the ditty to 
political uses. It is found in "The Wide-Awake Vocalist; or, Rail 
Splitters' Song Book. Words and Music for the Republican Cam- 
paign of i860" (New York, cop, i860), pp. 46-47. It begins, — 

In good Republican times. 

When foes were turning their coats, 
Some roguish chaps did bait their traps 

To catch the people's votes. 

The song about three rogues beginning "When Arthur first in court 
began" (JAFL xxx, 349) was inserted by George Colman the Younger 
in his comedy "The Battle of Hexham; or. The Days of Old," first 
performed at the Haymarket on Aug. 11, 1789. He labels it "Old 
Glee, and Old Words" (act iii, London, 1808, p. 21). It may be 
foimd also in "The Busy Bee, or Vocal Repository" (London (17^ 1), 
i, 30-31; "The Royal Minstrel" (London, 1844), pp. 32-33; and Mrs. 
Valentine's "Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles," No. 3, pp. 2—3. 
In this country I lind it in "The Singers' Magazine and Universal 
Vocalist" (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 1835), i, 275; in "Henry 
de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 754, 
No. 99 ("King Arthur"), and also, as a separate piece of music, 
"When Arthur first in court began, A Cheerful Glee for Three Voices 
Composed by Dr. CaUcott, Arranged with an Accompaniment for the 
Piano Forte," Philadelphia, John F. Nunns (Harvard College Li- 


Belden, Herrig's Archiv, cxx, 66 (one of ten ballads there printed on the 
theme of "The Returned Lover"); JAFL xxvi, 362 (Pound), a text and 
full references; Barry's No. 30 resembles this; Shearin's veruoa, 24, seems 
not to have a happy close. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, i, 19: iii, 387- 
389; cf. vi, 273, and vii, 112; Traditional Tunes, 88 ("the air resembles 
that below"). 

■ [Thb Kmpter i* reprinted in The UniverBal Book of Son^i and Smser'i CompauiiaQ 
(New YoA, Dick ft Fit^erald, cop. 1864)!. 


Joftrnai i^ American Folk-Lore. 

Miss Eddy got a text and this ! 
Davis, Perrysville, O. 

r from the anging: of Mrs. Margaret 

As I walked out one mom-inK Ail in the month of May, Down 

by yon flow -ery gar -den 1 hap-pened for to ttmy. I 

o - ver-heard a fair maid In sor - rowdotli comptain. "Ali 

iTo the references in JAFL xxvi, 362, may be added Gavin Grog, 
*' Folk Song of the North-East," xlviii ; an English slip of the first half 
of the last century (no imprint: Harvard Collie); and, for America, 
"The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. Huestis, cop. 1846), pp. 
44-^5; "Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic Songster" (New Ymic, 
Cozans), pp. 44-45; "The Arkansas Traveller's Songster" (New York, 
cop. 1864), p. 56; "The Wandering Refugee Songster" (New York, 
cop. 1869), p. 34; "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Seatimental 
Singers' Journal," i, 40 (No. 5); "The Vocalist's Favorite Songster" 
(New York, cop. 1885), p. 185; "Delaney's Irish Soi^ Book, No. 1," 
p. 8; " Wehman's Irish Song Book No, l " (cop. 1887), p. 10; "Wehman 
Bros.' Pocket-Size Irish Song Book No. 2" (New York, «q>. 1909), 
p. 12; broadsides published by Johnson (Philadelphia), A. W. Auner 
(Philadelphia), De Marsan (New York, List 2, No. 36, formerly J. 
Andrews), and Wehman (New York, No. 414). There is an American 
copy of Irish provenience in the Child MSS., i, 39 (Harvard College 
Library). Dr. B. L. Jones has found the song in Midiigan. Mac- 
kenzie (pp. 175-176) reports a version from Nova Scotia. 

"The Banks of Claudy" was taken up by the Nc^ro Minstrels in 
the fifties of the last century and turned to comic uses. The fdlowii^ 
version appears in the "Words of the Songs sung by the Campbell 
Minstrels (organized 1849), . , . Mr. Fox, Proprietor," St. James's 
Hall (London, J. Mallett, Printer), p. 15. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 353 


Written and sung by Mr. C. H. Fox. 

'Twas on a summer's morning, all in the month of May, 

Down by a flow'ry gardjuen where Betsy she did stray, 

I over-hear'd a dameuel in sorrow to complain 

All for the loss of her true luwyer who plow'd the raging main. 

Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! 
Oh! OH! 

I step't up to this damsuel, I put her in surprise, 
I knew she did not know me, I bein' in 3 singular disguise; 
Says I, my charming creturer, my gay young heart's delight, 
How far have you to trawiel this dark and dreary night? 

The way, kind Sir, to Plugsocket if you please to show, 
So pity a fair distracted maid, for there I have to go, 
In search of a faithless-hearted young man, Takemush is hia name, 
All on the banks of Plugsocket I'm told he does remain. 

If Takemush be was here to-night he'd keep me from all harm, 
But he's 00 the Geld of battuel with his gatlient uniform; 
As he's on the field of battuel, his foes he will destroy. 
Like a roaring king of worruiers he fought the wars of Troy. 

The same parody, without the fourth stanza, is printed in "Charley 
Fox's Sable Songster" (New York, F. A. Brady, cop. 1859), pp. c^-io. 
It has a few Darkey touches (such as "oberheard" for "overheard") 
and the following chorus: — 

With my oh! oh! oh I oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! 
He was my darling:* 
He was the boy with the auburn hair; 
His name was Mackavoy. 

The hero's name is Sakmush, not Takemush, and the banks are those 
of Plucksocket. See also a de Marsan broadside (New York), List 8, 
No. 45, originally published (it seems) by J. Andrews in 1858 (3 
stanzas and chorus); "Songs of the Florences" (New York, cop. i860), 
P- 35 (4 stanzas and chorus); "American Dime Song Book No. 2" 
(Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother, cop. i860), pp. 11-12 (4 stanzas and 
chorus). In 1896 "Delaney's Song Book No. 13" gave the same 
' < rnwword"bciy"itacddentall)'omitc«d.l 


354 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

four stanzas and chorus, but with amuang local adaptations : the heFoine 
is journeying " to Mauniyunk" (Manayunk, Pa.)r her lover's name is 
" Snicklef ritz, " the banks are those of the "SchullikiU," it is "Johnny 
Kizer" who would keep her from all harm, and "Like a roaring boy 
from Darbta he fought in Germantown" (p. 22).] 


I find no previous American text. Barry, No. 50. English County 
Songs, 116; English Folk-Songs, No. 45; Traditional Tunes, 53, 173; Jour- 
nal of the Folk-Song Society, i, 333 (air only) ; Vagabond Songs and Ballads 
of Scotland, 78 (with air). 

Miss Eddy reports that "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" in W. 
Christie's "Traditional Ballad Airs" (Edinbui^h, 1876, i, 258) has 
substantially the story of "The Banks of Claudy." 

Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Jane Vanscoyoc, Perrysville, 0. 
The opening stanza seems to have come in from the song "Jack Mun- 
ro. " In the complete English ballad, Mary kills her uncle too, and 
gets all his money. 

1. There was a wealthy merchant. 

In London he did dwell. 
And he had a lovely daughter. 
And the truth to you I'll tell. 

2. Her parents died and left her 

A large amount in gold. 
She then lived with her uncle. 

Who was the cause of all her woe. 

3. Her uncle had a plow boy 

Young Mary loved quite well. 
And in her uncle's garden 
Their tales of love they would tdl. 

4. Her uncle overheard them, 

He bargained with a squire 
Their plans to overthrow. 

"We will banish young Willie 
From the banks of sweet Dundee." 

6. So early on one morning 

He knocked at this maiden's door. 

And unto her did say: 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

7. "Arise, ariM, young Mary, 

And a lady you may be. 
For the squire is a-waiting 
On the banks of sweet Dundee." 

8. "What care I for your squire, 

Or lords and dulces likewise? 

For young Willie's eyes appear to m 

Like diamonds in the skies." 

9. As young Mary was a-walking 

Down in her uncle's grove. 
She met this wealthy squire 

Who wants to make love to her. 

And he put his arms around her, 
And tried to throw her down. 

II. "Stand off, stand off," cried Mary, 
"For dauntless I will be." 
She the trigger drew, and the squire slew. 
On the banks of sweet Dundee. 

[There are two songs which go by the name of "The Banks of Sweet 
Dundee." The original song, to which Profeasor Tolman's text 
belongs and his references apply, and which is also known as " Un- 
daunted Mary," is common in English broadsides. It runs to ten 
stanzas. See Harvard broadsides as follows: 25343.17, vi, 149, and 
ix, 79 (Bebbington, Manchester, No. 83); vii, 117 (Catnach); xi, 15 
(Such); Pitta; George Walker, Durham, No. 6. The Walker broad- 
side has an additional stanza, which appears also in Ford (as cited 
above) and in the text collected by Greig iti Scotland, "Folk-Song of 
the North-East," Ixvi. For America see "De Witt's Forget-Me-Not 
Songster," p. 94; "We Parted by the River Side Songster" (New 
York, cop. 1869), p. 44; "Henry de Maraan's New Comic and Senti- 
mental Singers' Journal," i, 37 (No. 5); "Irish Corae-All-Ye's," p. 68; 
" Delaney's Scotch Song Book No. I " (New York), p. 3 ; " Wehman's 
Irish Song Book No. i" (New York, cop. 1887), p. 117; "Wehraan 
Bros. Pocket-Size Irish Song Book No. 3" (New York, ojp. 1909), 
pp. 6-7; Wehman broadside No. 374; Andrews broadside. List 6, 
No. 8t. An imperfect copy was taken down in 1910 by Mr. F. C. 
Walker in St. John, New Brunswick. Mackenzie (pp. 47-48) prints 
a Nova Scotian veruon. 

The other song is a sequel or "answer." This is the piece published 
by Christie (i, 258-259) as "The Banks of Sweet Dundee." It re- 
counts the heroic deeds of Mary's lover, who has been pressed into the 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

navy, and tells of their happy reunion. Harvard Collie has it in 
broadsides issued by John Ross (Newcastle, No. 19: 35242.17, iv, 
184) and J. O. Bebbington (Manchester, No. 320: 25242.17, x, 68), 
and Greig gives a text (" Folk-Song of the North-East," xxx). A some- 
what different "answer," telling the same story, is in broadsides issued 
by Ryle & Co. (25242.17, vii, 238) and C. Paul. I have no record of 
the printing of either "answer" in America.] 


I give this title to two songs which have a similar situation. Since 
this article was written. Professor Kittredge has discussed "the liter- 
ary relations of this piece," also "the curious varieties in which it 
occurs and its mixture with other songs." See texts of "The Drowsy 
Sleeper" and comments QAFL xxx, 338-343); also "The Silver 
Dagger" 0AFL xxx, 361-363)' 

No. I. 

This is the form called by Professor Kittredge "The Drowsy Sleep- 
er." The lover is at the girl's window. She will not "ask" her father 
(waken her father), because he has with him a weapon (dagger) with 
which to kill her lover. She remains faithful. The concli^on does 
not surest suicide. 

American texts: JAFL xxix, 300; xxx, 338-341, 3 texts (Kittred^); Bd- 
den, Herrig's Archiv, cxix, 430 f., 3 texts; English Folk Songs from the South- 
ern Appalachians, No. 47, Texts A and B, with airs. Shearin, 33; Pound, 18. 

English texts: Folk-Songs from Sussex, 13; Journal of the Folk-Song 
Society, i, 369; One Hundred English Folksoags. No. 47 (10 stanzas); Folk 
Songs from Somerset, No. 99. Compare Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 
iii, 78 fit. 

Miss Eddy gets the following fragment from the onging; of Mr. 
Henry Maurer, Perrysville, O. 

court some oth - er, Or 
from your moth . er. And 
I lA vcrsEon of this piece ("The Shining DagEer"), with tune, la (Ivcn by Stmxb m 
Hughes, SoDgs Irom the Hills ol Vermont {Boatoo U8l9U> PP- 3^-3>.l 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 357 

No. 2. 

The ntuatton is the same at lirst as in No. i, but the lover and 

maid commit suicide with the same "silver dagger." Professor Kit- 

tredge points out that this form is a mixture of "The Drowsy Sleeper" 

("The Bedroom Window") and "The Silver D^ger." 

American texts: JAFL xxx, 341-343, texts IV and V (Kittredge) ; Eng- 
lish Folk Son^ from the Southern Appalachians, No. 47 (text and air). 
Barry, No. 30; Pound, 18. 

Miss Eddy sends an excellent text. The lover kills himself with 
"the silvery weapon." 


It is interesting to find an American version of this well-known 
broadside ballad. 

Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songa, 60 (64 stanzas); Child reprinted this 
text in his earlier collection (1857, iv, 161); Percy's text in the Reliques 
has emendations (ii, 171, Wheatley's ed.); Hindley, Roxburghe Ballads, i, 
48; Chappell, Roxburghe Ballads, 1, 38. The traditional text in the Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, i, 303, resembles mine. 

Part I of "The Blind Be^ar of Bednall Green" or "Tom Strowd," 
a play written in 1600, has come down to us (reprinted in Bullen's 
edition of Day and in Bang's "Materialien"). The former existence 
of the lost Parts II and III, recorded in Henslowe's Diary as written 
in 1601, shows that the theme was popular. Not much of Part I is 
derived from the ballad; but at the close of the play another character 
proposes to the blind beggar (a wronged nobleman who has assumed 
this di^:uise) that the be^ar and he "drop angels" on a wager, and 
the beggar wins. 

The text recited to Miss Eddy was learned nearly sixty years ago. 

[The version was certainly learned from print. It is almost word 
for word the same as that perinted in "The Forget Me Not Songster" 
(New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 129-130; "Home Sentimental 
Songster" (New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 323-324.] 


An English text is in "Traditional Tunes" (Kidson, loi). 

Johnny (Jemmy) is about to go "aboard a bold privateer," but will 
return to his Polly. 

[Miss Eddy's Ohio version, learned nearly sixty years ago, is almost 
identical, word for word, with that in the broadside printed by J. 
Andrews, List l. No. 50 (New York); but Andrews has one more 
stanza, at the end : — 



358 Journal cf American Feik-Lore. 

"Oh, my dearest Polly, your friends do me dislike, 

Besides you have two brothers who'd quickly take my life. 

Come change your ring with me, my dear, come change your ring with me, 

And that shall be our token, when I am on the sea." 

The song was very popular on the American stage in the fifties and 
sixties of the last centuty.* It may be found in "The Ethic^Man 
Serenader's Own Book" (New York, Philip J. Cozans), pp. 23-24; 
"The American Dime Song Book" (Philadelphia, cop, i860), pp. so- 
il;* "American Dime Song Book No. 2" (Philadelphia, cop. i860), 
pp. 48-49 : " Beadle's Dime Song Book No. i " (New York, cop. i860), 
p- S3; "Mr. and Mrs. Barney Williams' Irish Boy and Yankee Gal 
Songster" (Philadelphia, i860), p. 32 ("sung by Mrs. Barney Wil- 
liams") ; "Songs of the Florences" (New York, cop. i860), p. 27 ("as 
sung throughout the United States by Mrs. W. J. Florence, intli 
hand-organ accompaniment, in her inimitable character of Frau Von- 
spitenislidicks, in the Protean Farce of 'Mischievous Annie' ") ; " Chris- 
ty's New Songster and Black Joker" (New York, cop. 1863), p. 55 
(" Der Bold Privateer," in German dialect, " as sung by W. A. Christy, 
in the character of the 'Organ Girl ' "). 

The circulation of the song in American broadudes is curiously 
attested by "Tony Pastor's Combination Song or A Bunch of Penny 
Ballads" (sheet music, Boston, cop. 1863; Harvard CoU^(e Library). 
This begins, — 

As you walk through the town, on a fine summer day, 
The subject of my song you have met on your way, 
On railings and on fences, wherever you may go. 
You will see the Penny Ballads stuck up in a row. 

And "The Bold Privateer" is mentioned among these penny ballads.* 
Harvard College has two (and doubtless more) English broadsides 
that contain "The Bold Privateer:" 25242.17, vii, 178 (Catnach); 
ix, 179 (Bebbington, Manchester, No. 185).] 

An American text in JAFL xiv, 140, from which I take the title. 
The song begins, — 

"Bonaparte he's awa' from his wars and his ^htiog; 

He's gone to the place that he takes no delight in." 
■ (A iliffetent aaag, but sugscsted by thlg, !■ "The Bold Privateer. S«D( by Rollin 
Howard, in Howard at Home," for which tee Henry de Manan'i New Comic and Senti- 
mental Singers' Journal. I. 1S5 (No. 40}.] 

• [■■Music published by Firth, Pond & Co., S47 BrowJway, Ne* York.'l 

• ["The Goot Lager Bier" (de Marsan broadside, List 11, No. 33) !■ to be nrBg to the 
tune o( "The Bold Privateer."! 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

Beldeo, No. 36. The Journal ol the Folk-Song Society (ii, 88-90) prinu 
a traditional text and two airs, also the broadside texts of Catnach (5 stan- 
zas) and Such (6 stanzas).* 

Miss Eddy sends an incomplete Ohio text. 

[This song occurs in "The American Songster," edited and published 
by John Kenedy (Baltimore, 1836), pp. 247-248; also in the editions 
published by Nafis & Cornish (New York, no date) and Cornish, 
Lamport & Co. (New York, 1851, same pages); "Marsh's Selection, 
or. Singing for the Million" (New York, Richard Marsh, 1854), iii, 
129 S.; "The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. Huestis, 1846), pp. 
80-81 (Brown University); "The Forget Me Not Songster" (Nafis 
& Cornish), pp. 205-206; the same (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher), 
pp. 118-119; "Elton's Songs and Melodies for the Multitude" (New 
York, T. W. Strong), p. 51; "Wehman's Irish Song Book No. i" 
(New York, cop. 1887), p. 113; "Delaney's Song Book No. 14" (New 
York [1897]), p. 22; broadside, de Marsan (New York), List 14, 
No. 10.] 


Part I, 168. Professor H. M. Belden has made a full and valuable study 
of this ballad, entitled "Boccaccio, Hans Sachs, and The Bramble Briar" 
(Publications of the Modern Language Association, xxxiii I1918J, 327-395)- 
English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 38 (1 text, 4 airs) ; 
cf. Mackenzie. 153-154. One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 3; Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, 1, 160; v, 133 If. 

Miss Eddy gets this air from Miss Jane Goon, Perrysville, O. 

chant Who had two sons and a 


Pound, 40. Miss Eddy's form, written down by a relative in 1856, cor- 
responds closely to the text in Lomax, Cowboy Songs, 34. I print only the 
last two stanzas, which improve upon the words there given. 

■ [Harvard College haa ttieee two broadiidea (35143.17, vii, 184; sil, 30); also one by 
J. O. Bebbington (35241.17. iz. 116.] 


36o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

6. "But, comrade, there is one I fain 

Once more would look upon, 
She lives upon the sloping hill 

That overlooks the lawn. 
The lawn where I shall nevermore. 

In springtime's pleasant hours. 
Go forth with her in merry mood. 

To gather wood and flowers.* 

7. "Tell her, when death was on my brow, 

And life receding fast. 
Her voice, her form, her parting words. 

Were with me to the last, 
On Buena Vista's bloody field. 

Tell her 1 dying lay, 
And that I knew she thought of me 

Some thousand miles away." 

[This poem was written very soon after the battle which it com- 
memorates (fought on Feb. 22 and 23, 1847), for it is printed in Albert 
G. Emenck's "Songs for the People," i, Il2~ll6 (Philadelphia, 1848, 
cop, 1847). Emerick remarks: "We have cut the for^:oins verses 
from a newspaper, and set them to music . . . The talented author. 
Colonel Henry Petnken, is wholly unknown to us personally" (p. Il6). 
Miss Eddy's text agrees word for word with Emerick's in the two 
stanzas given above.] 

THE butcher's BOY. 
Part I, 169-170. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. 101 ; compare also the close of No. 106. Cf. One Hundred English Folk- 
songs, No. 94: cf. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, v, 181-189; cf. The Folk- 
Lore of Herefordshire, 205-306. 

Miss Eddy gets a text superior to that in Part I and the first air 
below from Mrs. M. M. Moores, and the second air from Miss Helen 
Chapel, both of Perrysville, O. 

In Jer- sey City, where I diddwell, A bntchei'i boy 1 lored ao 

J, ;J'J1J. nuu. ;JJ1 i . f^.l^ M 

Tradilumiil Texts and Tunes. 


i j|, J, ; J J i J^^^-f-j-^ J^^r-^^p i 

[To the references for "The Butcher Boy" given in JAFL xxix, 169- 
170, may be added "The Genevieve de Brabant Songster" (New 
York, cop. 1869), p. 18; "Delehanty & Hengler's Song and Dance 
Book" (New York, cop, 1874), p. 135; "Henry de Marsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 16 (No. 3); "Delaney's 
Song Book No. 18" (New York [1898]), p. 24; "Wehman Bros.' Good 
Old-Time Songs No. 3" (New York, cop. 1914), p. 72, In all, the 
text is almost identical, letter (or letter, with that in the deMarsan 
broadside, and the same is true of Miss Eddy's copy. See also the 
Nova Scotia version in Mackenzie, pp. 9-10. A slip recently ac- 
quired by the Harvard College Library (no imprint) carries the date 
of the piece back to the eighteenth century ("The Cruel Father, or, 
Deceived Maid"). The broadside song "Sheffield Park" (Catnach; 
Jackson & Son, late Russell, Birmingham) resembles "The Butcher 


Lomax, " Cowboy Songs," has the following songs that concern gold- 
mining in California: p. 9, "The Days of Forty-Nine;" p. 15, "Joe 
Bowers;" p. 25, "The Miner's Song." See also, later, "The Dying 
Calif ornian." 

These words and the air come through Miss Eddy from Mrs. M. M. 
Moores, Perrysville, O. 

banka of the Sac ■ ra - men - to shore. Then Ho, boyi. 

> (Pan of thig Bong has been used as a chant]'. See "The Banks of the Sacramento" 
in BuUen and Arnold's Songs of Sea Labour <cop. 1914), p. 11. The tune ia dtSocnt.] 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

world, I'm told, On the banks of the Sac - ra 

2. As oft we roam o'er the dark sea's foam, 
We'll not foi^t kind friends at home, 
But memory kind still brings to mind 
The love of friends we left behind. 


3. We'll expect our share of the coareest fare. 
And sometimes sleep in the open air, 

On the cold damp ground we'll all sleep round [aound]. 
Except when the wolves go howling round. 

4. As we explore to the distant shore. 
Filling our pockets with the shining ore, 
How it will sound as the shout goes round. 
Filling our pockets with a dozen of pounds. 


5. The gold is there almost anywhere. 
We dig it out rich with an iron bar. 
But where it is thick, with spade or pick 
We take out chunks as big as a brick. 


Pound, 181 Shearin, 11. Miss Eddy sends an Ohio text. 
Ix)vely Caroline is courted by a hired man. 
6. Enticed by young Henry, 
She put on her other gown. 
And away went young Caroline 
Of Edinburgh town. 

Later Caroline is deserted. 

II. She gave three shrieks for Henry, 
And plunged her body down. 
And away went young Caroline 
Of Edinburgh town. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 363 

[American printed copies occur in "The Forget Me Not Songster" 
(New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 175-177; also in the edition pub- 
lished by Turner & Fisher, Philadelphia, pp. 130-132; "The American 
Songster" (Philadelphia, W. A. Leary & Co., 1850), pp. 44-48; and 
in the reprint by Richard Marsh, New York, entitled "The Star 
Song Book," pp. 44-48 ; " Marsh's Selection, or. Singing for the Mil- 
lion" (New York, 1854), iii, 44-48; "Home Sentimental Songster" 
(New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 319-321; "Henry de Marsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 519 (No, 69); "Elton's 
Songs and Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), 
pp. 311-312; "Delaney's Scotch Song Book No. i," p. 2; broadside, 
J. Andrews, New York, List 3, No. 69 (Brown University), Dr. 
B. L. Jones has found the song in oral circulation in Michigan. 

The following songs in the Andrews-de Marsan series of broadsides 
are to be sung to the tune of "Caroline of Edinburgh Town:" "lx>S8 
of the Arctic" (List i. No. 79), "The Fate of a False Lover" (List 3, 
No. 25), "The Lily of the West" (List 3, No. 70), " Execution of James 
Kelly" (Lists, No. 23). 

For English copies see the Harvard broadsides: Pitts, 25242.17, 
iv, 110 (John Gilbert, Newcastle-on-Tyne, No. 5); v, 152 (Catnach); 
X, 132 tJ. Bebbington, Manchester, No. 389); xiii, 53 (Such, No. 359; 
also among the Child Broadsides); John Harkness, Preston, No. 212. 
See also a chapbook, "The Ballad Singers' Budget" (Newcastle, W. & 
T. Fordyce), pp. 6-7, The New York Public Library has the piece in 
a broadside by Swindells, Manchester. There is a Dublin broadside 
(P. Bereton) ; and the song occurs in Irish chapbooks, — " Caroline of 
Edinbui^h Town" (Waterford, W. Kelly, ca. 1828: 25276.3.5, iii. No. 
93). "Oh, Erin! my Country" (same printer: 25276.3.5, ii, No. 59). 

Another broadside ballad recounts the well-deserved " Fate of Young 
Henry in Answer to 'Caroline of Edinburgh Town ' " (Pitts). He is 
twice shipwrecked, and the second disaster ends with his drowning. 
The piece closes thus : — 

So Henry is dead and gone, and none his (ate do mourn, 

Some did rejoice with heart and voice to think he'd ne'er return. 

So a warning take for your sweethearts' sake, you young men all around. 

Think of Henry and Caroline of Edinboro' Town. 

This answer occurs also in " The Ballad Singers' Budget" (dted above), 
pp. 8-9.] 


Part I, 171. Miss Eddy gets this air from Mrs. M. M. Moores, 
Perrysville, O. 


364 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I will tell yoD of a fel - low. Of a fel - low T lu*« 
aeen.Who la nd - tber white nor yel • tow, Bnt ia al • to - g«th-«r 
green. And his name it u - n'tchamung. For it's on- It Ccaunoo 

Bill: Andhewisb-es me to wed him. But 1 hard - ly think 1 wUL 

["Hardly think I will" in " Rodey Maguire's Comic Variety Song- 
ster" (New York, cop, 1864.), pp. 33-34 ("as sung by Rodey Ma- 
guire"), and "The Maiden's Resolution " in " Spaulding's Bell Rii^en' 
Songster," pp. I&~17 ("as sung by Emma Bailey"), are versions of 
this piece. "I Hardly Think I Can" (mentioned in JAFL xxx, 171, 
note i) may be found also in "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and 
Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 187 (No. 28).] 

I take this title from Miss Pound (JAFL xxvi, 359). She com- 
ments, "The model for this piece was evidently the 't am dying, Egypt, 
dying,' of William Haines Lytle's well-known poem, 'Antony to 
Cleopatra.'" Miss Eddy obtained a text in nine stanzas, and the 
first air below, from Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, O. A much 
longer text of fifteen stanzas and the second air came to her from Mr. 
Charles B. Galbreath, State Librarian, Columbus, O. It was learned 
from his father, who lived in Columbiana County, Ohio. In this 
variant the dying man expects to be buried at sea. 

And thy pres-ence seeroeth dear ■ er When tbj arm* aronndme fold. 


Traditional Texts arid Tunes. 365 

Lay npnear - cr, broth- er, near- er. For mylimba are grow-ing 

4}j j'j'iJ i jjl:-J J^m ;j 

cold. And thy pr«s-ence>eeineth dear -er Whentbyarmi a-roundme 

i j fi^ ;j|j f iy \ ! ij j; i J f ^^ a 

fold. 1 am dy - inE,broth-er, dy - ing. Soon you'll misa me in "your 

bertb. For my form will soon be ly - in? 'Neath the o-cean'abri>ny snri 

["The Dying Californian or The Brother's Request — Ballad — 
Poetry from the New England Diadem ' — Music by A. L. Lee" was 
published in Boston by Ditson in or about 1855 (the date of the copy- 
right), and it is still in Ditson's list. The words circulated widely 
in song-books and broadsides. See broadsides of J. Andrews (List I, 
No. 26, New York),* Horace Partridge (No. 277, Boston), and Weh- 
man (No. 540, New York); "Johnson's New Comic Songs No. 2" 
(2d ed., San Francisco, 1863, cop. 1859, first issued i860), pp. 35-36; 
"The American Song Book" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother, cop. 
1859), pp. 56-58; "The American Dime Song Book" (Philadelphia, 
Fisher & Brother, cop, i860), pp. 56-58; "Beadle's Dime Song Book 
No. 1 " (cop, i860), p. 51 ; "The Shilling Song Book" (Boston, Ditson, 
<»p. i860), p. 64; "Irwin P, Beadle & Co.'s Ten Cent Song Book for the 
Million" (New York, cop. 1863), p. 57; "Geo. Munro'sTen Cent Song 
Book for the Million" (New York, cop. 1863), p, 57; "The Love and 
Sentimental Songster" (New York, cop. 1862), pp. 45-46 (reprinted 
as Part II of "The Nightingale Songster" [New York, cop. 1863] and 
also as Part III of "The Encyclopaedia of Popular Songs" [New York, 
cop. 1864]); "The American Song Book No. 2 for the People" (New 
York, cop. 1866), pp. 48-49; "We Parted by the River Side Songster" 
(New York, cop. 1869), p. 35; "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and 
Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 125 (No. 20); "Delaney's Song Book 
No, 7" (New York [1894]), p. 23; "Wehman Bros.' Good Old-Time 
Songs, No, i" (New York, cop. 1910), pp. 107-108.] 

1 |I eaa find no other tiace ol any magBzine or annual called The New England Diadeni.1 
* (The tune of "Our FKer-Boy" (de MaiBan broadside. Lbt i6. No. 69) la indicated 
■1 "Air: June* Bird; or Dying Californian."! 



Journal of American Fotk'Lore. 

Part I, 173-177; a text and full information in JAFL xxvi, 364-366; Eng- 
lish Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 1 12. "John Grumlte " 
is in Kennedy's Handbook of Scottish Song, London, 1866, 33 f.; Scots 
Minstrelsie, ii, 1601 Songs of Scotland, 130. 

The first air came to Miss Eddy from Mr. Henry Maurer, the 
second air from Miss Lucille Wilson, both of Perrysville, O. 

** thought be could do n 

workin a day Than his wife oonld do tn tliree. 
Written by her father in an album with "Aahta- 

From Miss Eddy. 
>ula, O., 1852," on the cover, 

I. Down in the lowlands a poor boy did wander, 
Down in the lowlands a poor boy roamed. 
By his friends he was deserted, he looked so dejected. 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home: 

3. "Oh, where is my cot, oh, where is my father, 

Alas they are gone, and has caused me to roam; 
My mother died on the pillow, my father sank in the billow," 
Cries the poor little fisherman bo far away from home. 

3. "Bitter was the night, and loud roared the thunder, 

The lightning did flash, and our ship was overthrown, 
I clasped my master round O, I gained my native ground O, 
Lost my father in the deep, far, far away from home. 


Traditional Texts and Turns. 367 

4. "I waited on the beach, right 'round me roared the water, 

I waited on the beach, but alas, no father came. 
It's now I'm forced to range, exposed to every danger," 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home. 

5. A lady when she heard him, she opened her window. 

And in the kindest manner desired him to come in; 
Tears fell from her eyes as she heard his mournful cries, 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home. 

6. She begged (rf her father to find him some employment. 

She begged of her father no more to let him roam; 
Her father said, "Don't grieve me, this boy shall never leave me. 
Poor boy, I will relieve thee, so far away from home," 

7. Many years he labored to serve his noble master, 

Many years he labored, till he a man became; 
It's now I'll tell each stranger the hardship and the danger 
Of a poor little fisherman's boy far, far away from home. 

[This song occurs as "The Poor Fisherman's Boy," or "The Fisher- 
man's Boy," in the following Harvard broadsides: Pitts; Hill, Lam- 
beth; 25242.17, iv, 36 (W. R. Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne) ; v, 151 
(Catnach); xi, 4 (Such, No. 4); and also in a chapbook, "The Ballad 
Singers' Budget" (W. & T, Fordyce, Newcastle), pp. 9-10 ("The 
Fisherman's Boy:" 2527643.5). For American texts see "Marsh's 
Selection, or. Singing for the Million " (New York, Richard Marsh, 
1854), ii, 197-198; " Elton's Songs and Melodies for the Multitude " 
(New York, T. W. Strong), p. 94.] 

THE fisherman's GIRL. 

From Miss Eddy. Written by her father in an album with "Ashta- 
bula, Ohio, 1852," on the cover. 

1. It was down in the country a poor girl was weeping, 

It was down in the country poor Mary Ann did mourn, 
She belongs to this nation, "I've lost each dear relation," 

Cries a poor little fisherman's girl, 

"My friends are dead and gone." 

2. " Oh once I'd enjoyment, my friends they reared me tender, 
I passed with my brother each happy night and morn, 

But death has made a slaughter, poor father's in the water," 
Cried a poor little fisherman's girl, 
"My friends are dead and gone." 


368 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. " So fast falls the snow, I cannot find a shelter. 
So fast falls the snow, 1 must hasten to the thorn. 

For my covering ia the bushes, my bed it is the rushes," 
Cried the poor little fisherman's ipri, 
"My friends are dead and gone." 

4. It happened as she passed by a very noble cottage, 
A gentleman he heard her, his heart for her did burn. 

Crying, "Come in, poor lonely creature," he viewed each drooping feature 
Of a poor little fisherman's girl, 
Whose friends are dead and gone. 

5. He took her to the fire, and when he'd warmed and fed her 
The tears began to fall, he fell on her breast forlorn. 
Crying, "Live with me forever, we part again, no, never. 

You are my dearest sister, 
Our friends are dead and gone," 

ft. So now she's got a home, she's living with her brother. 
Now she's got a home, and the needy ne'er does scorn; 
For God was her protector, likewise her kind conductor. 

The poor little fisherman's girl, 

When her friends were dead and gone. 

[This song is found in Harvard broadsides : John Ross, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne; 25242.17, iii, 185 (Todd), and v, 189 (Rial St Co.). The 
Todd broadside has ridiculous corruptions, but the Rial text is aiinost 
exactly that of Professor Tolman. Both broad^des, however, have 
(as stanza 2) the following additional stanza (I follow Rial): — 

" Oh, who has a soft heart to give me some shelter; 

For the winds do blow, and dreadful is the storm 

I have no father nor mother, but I've a tender brother," 

Cried a poor little Fisherman's girl, "my friends are dead and gone." 

For American texts see "Marsh's Selection, or, Singing for the Mil- 
lion" (New York, Richard Marsh, 1854), ii, 210-211; " Elton's Songs 
and Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), p. 160; 
"Home Sentimental Songster" (New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 53— 
54. Of these, the second (Elton) lacks the stanza just quoted; the 
other two have it.] 


The lover of Flora kills his rival. In Shearin's tact, 16, Flora is also 
the "girl from Mexico," and the lover is in prison at the close. 

"Songs of the West," No, 58, gives two airs. The editor arbitrarily 
cuts o& the story at the end of my stanza 6. In the full English story, 
common in broadsides, the murderer escapes the gallows. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 369 

Sung to Miss Eddy by Mr. Henry Maurer, Perrysville, O. (10 

Whenfint I came to Loo - is* rille Some pleasore there to find, A 
dam - Ml there fiDin Lex- ing- ton Was p)eai-inK to my mind. Her 

of the West. 

[For American texts ("The Lily of the West") see "The Dime 
Songster No. 3" (Indianapolis, C, O. Perrine, cop. 1859), p. 8; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Song Book No. 5" (New York. cop. i860), p. 48; "Uncle 
Sam's Army Songster" (Indianapolis, C. O. Perrine, cop. 1862), p. 20; 
"Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," 
i, 187 (No. 28); broadside, J. Andrews H. C. L. (also de Marsan, Brown 
University), New York, List 3, No. 70 ("Air. — Caroline of Edinbui^h 
Town ").^ In all of these the girl is from Michigan, and her name 
is Mary. There are six double stanzas, the last being, — 

Since then I've gain'd my liberty, I'll rove the country through, 
I'll travel the dty over, to find my loved one true; 
Although she stole my liberty, and deprived me of my rest, 
Still I love my Mary, the Lily of the West. 

English broadside texts (" Flora, the Lily of the West ") occur among 
the Harvard broadsides as follows: Taylor, 14 Waterloo Road; 25242. 
17, i, 122 (Spencer, Bradford); u, 180 (no imprint); iii, 65 (Forth, 
Pocklington) ; iv, 54 (John Gilbert, Newcastle-on-Tyne) ; v, 61 (no 
imprint, but apparently J. Cadman, Manchester, No. 139); v, 201 
(Catnach); xi, 35 (Such, No. 35). The Harvard Library has also an 
Irish broadside. In all these the hero is released because of "a flaw 
in the indictment." They agree to a hair, each having seven stanzas, 
except Catnach and the Irish copy (six).] 

■ {Compaie "Mimurcta, the Lily of the West," in The Fifth Avenue Sonciter 
<Be«dle'i Dime Sonx Book Series, No. ii. cop. i86S}, pp. 1S-19.I 


370 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Obtained by Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo., from Mr. Frank 
Covell, at the time assistant keeper, Split Rock Light, Minn., and 
from Mr. Ole Fonsted, Beaver Bay, Minn. Mr, Covell learned his 
songs in the neighborhood of Fremont, Mich. In one reference Mr. 
Cooper gave Mr. Covell's residence as Beaver Bay, Minn. 

1. My name is Edward Hallahan,* 

As you shall understand; 
I belong in the county of Waterford, 

In Erin's happy land. 
When I waa young and in my prime. 

Kind fortune on me smiled; 
My parents reared me tenderly, 

I being their only child. ' 

2. My father bound me to a trade 

In Waterford's own town; 
He bound me to a cooper there 

By the name of William Brown. 
I served my master faithfully 

For eighteen months or more; 
When I sailed on board the "Ocean Queen," 

Bound for Bermuda's shore. 

3. When we arrived at Bermuda's shore, 

I met with Captain Moore, 
The commander of "The Flying Cloud" 

Belonging to Trimore; 
So kindly he requested me 

Along with him to go 
To the burning coast of Africa, 

Where the sugar-cane doth grow. 

4. We all agreed excepting five, 

And these we had to land. 
Two of them being Boston men. 

And two from Newfoundland; 
The other was an Irishman 

Belonging to Trimore. 
Ob, 1 wish to God I had joined those men, 

And staid with them on shore! 

5. "The Flying Cloud" was as fine a boat 

As ever sailed the seas, 
As ever hoisted a main topsail 
Before a lively breeze; 
1 [Mackenzie reporta this ballad from Nova Scotia, aad prints elgbt itaiuu (pp. 151- 
153). His text begiiu. "My Dame la Robert AndeiBon. "] 


TradtUoiuU Texts and Tunes. 3 

I have oftttmes seen our galliant ship, 

As the wind lay abaft her wheel. 
With the royal and sicysail set aloft, 

Sail nineteen by the reel. 

6. Oh, "The Flying Cloud" was a Spanish boat, 

Of five hundred tons or more; 
She would outsail any other ship 

I ever saw before. 
Her saib were like the drifting snow. 

On them there was no stain; 
And eighteen brass nine-pounder guns 

She carried abaft her main. 

7. We sailed away without delay. 

Till we came to the African shore; 
And eighteen hundred of those poor slaves 

From their native isle [?] sailed o'er; 
For we marched them all along our decks. 

And stored them down below; 
Scarce eighteen inches to a man 

Was all they had to go. 

8. The very next day we sailed away 

With our cargo of slaves. 
'T would have been much better for those poor souls 

Had they been in their graves; 
For the plague and the fever came on board, 

Swept half of them away. 
We dragged the dead upon the decks, 

And threw them in the sea. 

9. We Baited away without delay. 

Till we came to the Cuban shore; 
We sold them to a planter there, 

To be slaves forevermore; 
The rice and coffee fields to hoe 

Beneath the burning sun. 
To lead a long and wretched life. 

Till their career was run. 

10. And when our money was all gone, 

We put to sea again. 
Then Captain Moore he came on deck. 

And said to us his men, 
"There's gold and silver to be had. 

If with me you will remain; 
We will hoist aloft a pirate's flag, 

And we'll scour the raging main." 


372 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

II. We robbed and plundered many a ship 

Down on the Spanish Main; 
And many's the widow and orphan child 

In sorrow must remain; 
For we made them to walk our gang-plank. 

And gave them a watery grave; 
For the saying of our master was, 

"A dead man tella no tales." 

13. At length to Newgate we were brought, 

Bound down in iron chain. 
For robbing and plundering merchant ships 

Down on the Spanish Main. 
It was drinking and bad company 

That made this wretch of me. 
Now let young men a warning take, 

And a curse to piracy! 

American text: JAFL xii, 251. Barry, No. 71; Belden, No. 104; Pound* 
English texts: Songs of the West, No. $1; Traditional Tunes, 7ft-4t. 

Young Rogers will not marry Katie unless he is also given the 
gray mare. Later she ridicules hira for "courting my father's gray 

Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, Perrysville, O. 

jew-elt, fine lingi, Be-ndei to her no-tko fall 

[Harvard broadsides: 25242.17, ii, 152 ("Rc^er the Miller and the 
Grey Mare," Harkness, Preston, No. 564); iv, 179 ("Young Roger 
and the Grey Mare," Forth, Pocklington, No. 144); xii, 3 ("Grey 
Mare," Such, No. 156; also among the Child Broadsides). See Greig, 
Ixvii (1 stanza). The New York Public Library has the piece in a 
broadside issued by Swindells, Manchester ("Roger the Miller"). 
A text from Michigan (from Ireland) was sent to Child in 1881, and 
is in the Child MSS., xxiii, 76, la (846).] 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 373 


American texts: JAFL xxv, 7; xxviii, 156; Belden, Herrig's "Archiv," 
cxx, 6&-69; "English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians," No. 48; 
Mackenzie, 189-195 (2 texts). See Shearin, p. 14. 

[Ftw British copies in oral circulation, see Christie, i, 250-251 
("Young Johnnie's been a Cruising**); Greig, cxv ("The Brisk Young 
Sailor Lad"); "Songs of the West," No. 91 ("The Green Bed," re- 
written'); "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," 1, 48; iii, 281-282; 
V. 68 ("The Green Bed"). There is a Scottish copy, taken down in 
1876-77, in the Murison MS., fols. 35-37 (Harvard College). The 
song is common in broadsides: Harvard College, 25242.17, ii, 46 
("Jack Tar, or The Green Bed Empty/'George Walker, Jun., Durham, 
No. 91); vii, 10 ("Liverpool Landlady"); x, 155 ("Jack Tar; or. The 
Green Bed Empty," Bebbington, Manchester, No. 413). See also 
Ashton, "Real Sailor-Songs," 47 (2 texts).] 

For "The Saucy Sailor," a common English song with a similar 
situation, see " English Folk-Songs," No. 32 ; " Folk Songs from Somer- 
set," No. 92; "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," iv, 342-345 (9 airs); 
"One Hundred English Folksongs," No. 45; "Songs of the West," 
No. 21. 

["Saucy Sailor Boy" in broadsides: Harvard College, 25242.17, vii, 
113 (Ryle & Co.); x, 96 (Bebbington, No. 350); xii, 105 (Such, No. 
260); Such, No. 164 (also among the Child Broadsides). Somewhat 
similar is "Tarry Sailor" (25242.17, v, 63).] 

Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Jane Vanscoyoc, Perrysville, O, 

1. Young Johnny's been to sea. 

And young Johnny's been on shore; 
Young Johnny's been to Ireland, 
Where he has been before. 

2. Saying, "I'll go and see young Polly 

Before my voyage [I] take;" 
He called upon her mother. 
And unto her did say: 

3. "Bring forth your daughter Polly, 

And set her on my knee; 
And we will drown melancholy; 
And when 1 return again, married we will be." 

4. And when he returned again. 

As he had promised before,' 
He called to see young Polly.' 
Her mother met him at the door, 

> [Reprinted in a eumptuously illustrated volume. The Golden Vanity and Tbe Gieen 
Bed . . . With Pictures by Pamela Colman Smith (New York, 1899).] 

> I have transposed theae lines. 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

5. Saying, "What luck, what luck, young Johnny? " 

"On Bea, oh, 1 lost my ship 
And cargo on the raging main. 

6. "Where U your daughter Polly? 

Go bring " 

7. "Oh, my daughter Pdl/s absent. 

And has been all the week. 
So now for your lodging. 
Young Johnny, you may seek." 

8. By this time John pulled out 

Two handfuls of gold; 
The right of the money 
Made the old woman new; 

9. Saying, "You're welcome home on shore. 

I'll go bring my daughter Polly, 
And we'll drown melancholy. 
And married you shall be." 

10, "Before I He within your door, 
I'd lie within the street; 

II. "I'd go to yonder tavern. 

And make the tavern hurl; 
A bottle of good brandy. 
And on my knee a girl." 


Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, Perrysville, O. The teart 
is inferior to that in JAFL xx, 267. 

writ - ten Concern- ing a youth and ear • Ir bride. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

Fuller text in Lomax, " Cowboy Songs," 172. 
Throi^h Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, from Mr. Frank Covell. See under 
"The Flying Cloud." 

I. 'Twas in the town of Arcady 
In the county of Le Peer, 
There stood s little shingle-mill, 
Had run about one year. 

3. 'Twas there this young man lost his life, 
Caused many to weep and wail, 
'Twas there this young man lost his life, 
And his name was Harry Bale. 

3. Harry was a sawyer. 

Head sawyer in a mill. 
He'd followed it successfully 

Three years, three months, until 

4. Death had called for htm to go. 

And leave this world of care. 
We know not when 'twill be our time 
Poor Harry's fate to share. 

Miss Eddy sends a text, six stanzas. This air is from Mr. Charles 
B. Galbreath, Columbus, O., learned from his father. 

flow. Where my par • enttwll) greet me, white man, let me go. 
[The regular title of this song is "The Indian Hunter." By this 
name it occurs in "The Singer's Magazine and Universal Vocahst" 
(Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 1835), i, 138-139; "The Bijou Min- 


376 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

strel" (Philadeiphia, Turner & Fisher, 1840), p. 148; "Hadaway's 
Select Songster" (Philadelphia, 1840), pp. 198-199; "The Popular 
National Songster" (Philadelphia, John B. Perry, 1845), p. 277; 
"The Southern Warbler" (Charleston, S.C, 1845), pp. 32-33 ("Air. — 
Meetingof the Waters"); "The Virginia Warbler" (Richmond, 1845), 
pp. 32-33; "The Singer's Gem" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother), pp. 
141-142; "The Popular Foi^et-Me-Not Songster" (Miscellaneous 
Songs, p. 128); "Home Sentimental Songster" (New York, T. W. 
Strong), pp. 240-241; "The National Songster" (New York, Richard 
Marsh: a reprint of "The Popular National Songster"), p. 227; 
"The Rose-Bud Songster" (Richard Marsh), p. 227; "Marsh's Selec- 
tion, or. Singing for the Million" (New York, 1854), i, 227; ii, 227; 
"Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic Songster" (New York, Philip J. 
Cozans), p. 120; "The Jenny Lind Forget-Me-Not Songster" (New 
York, Richard Marsh), p. 280; "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 3" 
(cop. i860), p. 30; "Beadle's Dime Songs of the Olden Time" (cop. 
1863), p. 29; "We parted by the River Side Songster" (New York, 
DeWitt, cop. 1869), p. 61; J. Andrews, broadside, List 3, No. 63; 
"Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," 
i, III (No. 18); " The New York i Ct. Ballad Sheet " (Lieder), i, 96 
(No. 12); "Franklin Square Song Collection, No, 7" (New York, 
1891), p. 50 (with tune). Sometimes the song is entitled "The Indian's 
Prayer," — "The Indian's Prayer. Music composed by I. B. Wood- 
bury" (Boston, E. H. Wade, cop. 1846: Harvard College); "The Home 
Melodist" (Boston, Ditson, cop. 1859), p. 5 (only 4 stanzas);* "The 
Shilling Song Book" (Boston, cop. i860), p. 57 (only 4 stanzas); "The 
Arkansas Traveller's Songster" (New York, cop. 1864), pp. 42-43 (4 

"The Indian Hunter" is also the title of Eliza Cook's celebrated 
poem beginning "Oh, why does the white-man follow my path?"* 
It has often been printed in America: see "The Granite Songster" 
(Boston, 1847), pp. 11-12; Edward I. White, "The Boston Melodeon," 
ii (cop. 1852), 3; " Dempster's Original Ballad Soirees. Third Series" 
(Boston, 1854), p. 6 ("The Indian's Complaint"); "Elton's Songs and 
Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), p. 71; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Song Book No. 4" (cop. i860), p. 50; "The People's Free 
and Easy Songster" (New York, William H. Murphy), p. 147; "Sam 
Slick Yankee Songster" (New York, cop. 1867), p. 72. Broadsides: 
J. Andrews, New York, List 4, No. 19 (Brown Univeraty); J. Wrigley, 
New York, No. 384; A. W. Auner, Philadelphia. The poem was set 
to music by Henry Russell.*] 

■ Witb I. B. Woodbury's miuic. 

' [Melaia and Other Poemi (authorized American edition), New York. 1(44, pp. 343- 

■ ("The Indian Hunter . . . Written by Eliia Cook. The m 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 



A young girl disguises herself as a sailor to serve with her lover. 
When he is badly wounded, she carries him to a doctor. Later she 
discloses herself, and they are married. A reconciliation with the 
girl's father concludes the fullest form of the story. — Barry, No. 33 ; 
Belden, No. 14; Shearin 9 ("Jackaro"). 

American texts: JAFL xii, 249: xx, 369-273 ("JacWaro") ; see xxv, 9; 
Cowboy Songs, 204; English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. 55 (3 texts, 4 airs) ; Lonesome Tunes, i, 38 ; a shortened form from Nova 
Scotia is in Mackenzie, 135-137. 

In the following broadside ballads a lady di^uises herself in order 
to serve with (be near) a sailor (soldier) lover or husband ; — 

Roxburghe Ballads, ed. by Ebsworih, vii, 727-733, 737-739; viii, 146- 
148; viii, part ii, p. cxxxviii.* Compare also "The Merchant's Daughter of 
Bristow," in Child, edition of 1857-581 iv, 328, and in Roxburghe Ballads, 
ed. by Ebsworth. ii, 86 ff. 

Miss Eddy sends an incomplete text of six stanzas, and a full one 
of thirty-three stanzas. 

[For America see also "The American Sailor's Songster" (New 
York, Cozans), pp. 172-174; "The Washington Songster" (New York, 
Turner & Fisher), pp. 172-174; "Uncle Sara's Naval and Patriotic 
Songster" (New York, Cozans), pp. 21-23; Shearin, "Sewanee Re- 
view," July, 1911. For England, see "The Siren" (Newcastle, J. 
Marshall), pp. s~7; broadside. Walker, Durham, No. 108 (Harvard 
College); cf. "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 227-228. Greig, 
xlv, has the piece.] 

The first air was sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrys- 
ville, O.; the second, by Mrs. Virginia Summer, Canton, O. 

And he had a love - ly daugh - ter. The truth 

-7?-riij J : i-j-^-^^-^j 

tell. An • 

An - 

Henry RiukU. Boatcm. C, H, Keith, 67 and 69 Court St." I1848-S1I. Alro "The Indian 
Hunter, A Song Written by Eliza Cook, the Music Composed ... by Henry RuMeli. 
N. Y., Jaa. L. Hewitt & Co." (Both in Harvard College Library.) Thl« long wat on the 
prognunme of the "Grand Farewell (and poaltively the last) Concert of the Hutchhwon 
Family" at Manchester, England, June 13, 1S46, p. q.] 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Recorded by Shearin, lo, as "Jack Wilson;" ' Pound, 34; Macken- 
zie, p. 143. Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Mary Boney, Perrysville, 
O. Learned by her abnost 60 years ago. 

I. I am a boatman by my trade. 
Jack Williams is my name. 
And by a false deluded girl 
Was brought to guilt and ahame. 

3. In Catherine Street I did resort. 
When people did me know; 
I fell in love with a pretty girl. 
Which proved my overthrow. 

3. I took to robbing night and day 

To maintain her tine and gay. 
And all I got I valued not, 
But gave to her straightway. 

4. And next to Newgate I was brought. 

And bound down to irons strong. 
With rattling chains around my legs, 
And long to see them on. 

5. I wrote a letter to my love. 

And some comfort to find. 
Instead of a friend to me. 
She proved to me unkind. 
' (Compare Shearin, Sewuiee Review, July. i»il.l 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 379 

6. Add in a scornful manner said, 

"I hate thievish company: 
As you make your bed, young man, 
Down on it you must lie." 

7. la these lonesome cells I lie, 

It's no more than I deserve; 
It makes my very blood run cold 
To think how I've been served. 

8. If I ever regain my sweet liberty, 

A scJeron vow I make. 
To sliuQ all evil company 
For that false woman's sake. 

9.. With trials o'er, and sentence passed. 
Hung I was to be, 
Which grieved my parents to the heart. 
To think of my misery. 

10. But the heavens proved kind to me. 
As you shall plainly see; 
I broke the chains to scale the walls. 
And gained my sweet liberty, 

IThe Harvard College Library has broadsides of "Jack Williams" 
printed by Pitts, Such (No. 25), and J. O. Bebbington (Manchester, 
No. 364). 

For American texts see "The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. 
Huestis, 1846), pp. 156-157; "The American Songster" (Philadel- 
phia, W. A. Leary & Co., 1850), pp. 74-76 (reprinted by Richard 
Marsh, New York, as "Star Song Book"); "Marsh's Selection, or, 
Singing for the Million" (New York, 1854), vol. 3, pp. 74-76; "New 
American Song Book and Letter Writer" (Louisville), pp. 109-110; 
"The Foi^et Me Not Songster" (New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 
I12-113; "The Washington Songster" (New York, Turner & Fisher), 
pp. 167-168; "The American Sailor's Songster" (New York, Philip 
J. Cozans), pp. 167-168; "The Popular Forget-Me-Not Songster" 
(Popular Songs, pp. 109-110); "Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic 
Songster" (New York, Cozans), pp. 54-55.] 


Barry, No. 65; Belden, No. 51. 

Miss Eddy sends two texts of this interesting American ballad. 
These agree well in language; but the one sung by Henry Maurer, 
PerrysviHe, O., is inoimplete. Mr. Maurer's air is given below. 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Mr. Charles B. Galbreath, Ohio State Librarian, has thoroughly in- 
vestigated the history of this song, and has published the results ctf 
his inquiry. Miss Eddy sends the following references: — 

"The Battle of Lake Erie in Ballad and Hietory." by C. B. Gal- 
breath, Ohio ArchEeoIogical and Historical Publications, xx (1911). 
415-456; see especially pp. 417-423. For the author of the son^. 
see "Memoir of Charles Miner," by Charles F. Richardson anu 
Elizabeth Miner Richardson, Wilkesbarre, 1916. The very letter 
spoken of in the song is printed in part on p. 72 of this memoir.' See 
also " The Ballad of James Bird," by C. B. Galbreath, Ohio Archaeolc^- 
cal and Historical Quarterly, January, 1917, xxvi, 52—57. 

The letter of James Bird to his parents was dated Nov. 9, 1814. 
Mr. Charles Miner (1780-1865), the author of the ballad, printed it 
in his own paper, "The Gleaner," Wilkesbarre, Penn., late in 1814. 
The ballad gives the facts of Bird's career accurately and with con- 
siderable fulness. Has this country produced any historical ballad 
that has passed into tradition, which is more interesting than this? 

The text here printed was copied from a manuscript owned by Mrs. 
Letitia Coe, Perrysville, O., written by her sister Mary Tannehill 
about 1855. It reproduces the original poem of Mr. Miser with sub- 
stantial accuracy, stanza for stanza. Some of the changes from the 
words of the author seem to me improvements. The following lines 
of the original have been noticeably departed from in this variant: — 

12, 2. Here will Bird his cutlass ply. 

18, 4. But f0r him would heave a sigh? 

19, I. Lo! he fought so brave at Erie, 


i>ii J' / ^ ; 

\r: r i'u^JiJ-i\f=^r^ 

I. Soui of free-dom, 

a IK 1 

lis - ten to me, And ye dinghten too, give car; 


^J. J'j jlj, ..-^XJT^'g ; Jlr^^ti 


I ud'androoumfnlnory As 

s told yon aoon ahall heu. 

2. Hull, you know, his troops surrendered, 

And defenseless left the West; 
Then our forces quick assembled 
The invaders to resist. 

3. Among the troops that marched to Erie 

Were the Klngstoo volunteers. 
Captain Thomas then commanded, 
To protect our west frontiers. 
' [Reprinted from ProceedinKi and Colleaiong of the Wroming HIitarkal and Geolo^ 
cat Society, xiv, 55 ff, (Wilkes- Barre. igis): utt etpedaUy pp. Ir7-i»«-l 


TradiUmal Texts and Tunes. 381 

4. Tender were the scenes of parting. 

Mothers wrung their hands and cried. 
Maidens wept their love in secret, 
Fathers strove their tears to hide. 

5. There was one among that number 

Tall and graceful in his mien, 

Firm his step, his look undaunted, 

Scarce a nobler youth was seen. 

6. One sweet kiss he snatched from Mary, 

Craved his mother's prayers once more, 
Pressed his father's hand and left him, 
For Lake Erie's distant shore. 

7. Mary tried to say, "Farewell, James," 

Waved her hands, but nothing spoke. 
"Farewell, Bird, may heaven protect you," 
From the rest a parting broke. 

8. Soon he came where noble Ferry 

Had assembled all bis fleet; 

There the gallant Bird enlisted, 

Hoping soon the foe to meet. 

9. Where is Bird? The battle rages; 

Is he in the strife, or no? 
Now the cannons roar tremendous, 
Dare he nobly meet the foe? 

10. Ah, behold him, see him. Perry! 

On the selfsame ship they fight; 
Though his messmates fall around him, 
Nothing can his soul affright. 

11. But behold, a ball has struck him, 

See the crimson current flow. 
"Leave the deck!" exclaimed brave Perry; 
"No," said Bird, "I will not go. 

13. "Here on deck I'll take my station, 

Ne'er will Bird his colors fly, 

I'll stand by you, gallant captain. 

Till we conquer or we die." 

13. So he fought, though faint and bleeding. 
Till our stars and stripes arose. 
Victory having crowned our effort. 
All triumphant o'er our foes. 


382 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

14. And did Bird receive a pension? 

Was he to his friends restored? 
No, nor ever to his bosom 
Clasped the maid hU heart adored. 

15. But there came most dUmal tidings 

From Lake Erie's distant shore. 
Better if poor Bird had perished 
Midst the cannons' awful roar. 

16. "Dearest parents," said the letter, 

"This will bring sad news to you; 
Do not moum your first beloved. 
Though this brings his last adieu. 

17. "1 must suffer for deserting 

From the brig Niagara; 
Read this letter, brother, sister, 
Tib the last you'll have from me." 

18. Sad and gloomy was the morning 

Bird was ordered out to die; 
Where's the heart not dead to pity 
But from him we'll heave a sigh? 

19. Though he fought so brave at Erie, 

Nobly bled, and nobly dared. 

Let his courage plead for mercy. 

Let his precious life be spared. 

20. See him march and bear his fetters, 

Harsh they clang upon the ear; 
Yet his step is firm and manly, 
For his breast ne'er harbored fear. 

31. See him kneel upon his coffin; 

Sure his death can do no good; 
Spare him! Hark, God, they've shot him I 
See! his bosom streams with blood. 

33. Farewell Bird, farewell foreverl 

Friends and home you'll see no more; 
For your mangled corpse lies buried 
On Lake Erie's distant shore. 

["James Bird" has been many times printed, — in a Philaddphis 
chapbook of about 1820 ("Sold by R. Swift:" Harvard College Li- 
brary, 25276.43.81), for instan<^, and in the following collectionB, 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 383 

am<Higst others: William McCarty's "Songs, Odes, and other Poems, 
on National Subjects" (Philadelphia, 1842), Part II, pp. 254-256 
("Mournful Tragedy of James Bird. Tune — The Tempest"); Foi^t 
Me Not Songster" (New York, Nafis 8l Cornish), pp. 97-99; "The Bo- 
quet Melodist" (New York, Wm. H. Murphy), pp. 225-227; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Songs of the Olden Time" (New York, 1863), pp. 10 ff.; 
"Delaney's Song Book No. 16" (New York [1897I), p. 25. See also 
"The Boston Transcript," Dec. 4, 1909. Dr. B. L. Jones has found 
the song in Michigan. 

"The Tempest," to which the piece was sung,* is the well-known 
" Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer," by George Alexander Stevens,* 
familiar to our fathers and grandfathers not only as a song,* but as 
the tune of an elaborate country-dance.] 

Sung to Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper by Mr. Frank Covell. See under 
"The Flying Cloud." 

1. Come all you tender Christians, 

t pray that you draw near; 
'Tis of the terrible accident 
I mean to have you hear. 

2. Tia of a young and comely youth, 

James Whaien he was called, 
Was drownded from Le Claron's raft, 
All on the upper falls. 

' [Tbe tune oE "Our Pifer-Boy" (dr Maraan broadaide, List i6. No. 69) U indicated 
SB. "Air; James Bird; or Dying Calif ornian. "] 

* ITbe Choice Spirit's Cbaplet. edited by G. A. Stevens (London. iTTt). PP. 19S-300. 
Cf. "The Marine Medley," in Songs, Comic, and Satydca), by G. A. Stevens, 1773, pp. 
ao-i4(ided.. 1783, pp. 10-14; Philadelphia ed.. 1778. Songs, Comic. Satyrical, and Senti- 
mental, pp. 30-24}. See also The Busy Bee (London [17- |), ii. 113-116; The Muses 
Delight (Liverpool, 1TS4)> P- iQi; The Convivial Songster (London [17- J), pp. 330- 
333 (with tune); The Vocal Magaiine or Compleat Bntish Songster (London, 17S1}, 
p. 34s; The Musical Miscellany (Perth, 1786). pp. 109-111 (with tune); Calliope or The 
Musical Miscellany (London, 1788). pp. 30-31 (with tune); Rltaon. English Songs, 1783, 
11, 137-139 (ided., by Park. 1813, ii. 144--146); Chappell, A Collection of National English 
Airs, 1840, i. 3S-3G, ii, 5 (with tune); The Social Vocalist, ed. by Charles Sloman (London, 
1843), pp. 530-533; Fairbum's Everlasting Songster, pp. 48-49; Helen K. Johnson, Cur 
Familiar Songs, pp. 130-131 (with tune); Clutstopher Stone, Sea Songs and Balladt, 
pp. 18-S0.I 

•[Under the title of "The Tempest" or "The Storm." See. for example. The Boston 
Musical Miscellany, iBii, pp. 143-145 (with tune); The American National Song Book 
(Bofton. cop. 1843). pp. 16-17 (incomplete, with tune); Tbe Southern Warbler (Charles- 
ton. 1845), PP' 5S-<^; The Songster's Museum (Albany, l83l). pp. 5-7; The Universal 
Songster (New York. 1819). pp- 11-13; TheAmerican Minstrel (Philadelphia, 1834}. P- 44; 
Kettedy's American Songster (Baltimore, 1S36), pp. 157-160; The Nonpareil (Baltimore, 
1S36), pp. 5-7; Home Sentimental Songster (New York. T. W. Strong), pp. 143-14S.I 


384 Journal 0^ American Folk-Lore. 

3. The water being in its raging course, 

The river booming high, 
When the foreman unto Whalen says: 
"The jam you'll have to try. 

4. "You're young and noble active; 

Though death is lurking near. 
You are the man to lend a hand 
The waters for to clear." 

5. Then up spoke young Whalen 

Unto his comrades bold: 
"Come on; altho' 'tis dangerous, 
We'll do as we are told. 

6. "We'll obey our orders bravely, 

As noble men should-do." 
And as he spoke, the jam it broke, 
And let young Whalen through. 

7. There were three of them in danger. 

But two of them were saved. 
But noble-hearted Whalen, 
He met a watery grave. 

8. One tender cry for mercy, 

"O God, look down on met " 
And his soul was gone from earthly bourne. 
Gone to Eternity. 

9. For no human form could live upon 

That foaming watery main; 

Altho' he struggled hard for life. 

His struggles were in vain. 

10. The foaming waters tore and tossed 

The logs from shore to shore. 
And here and there his body lies 
A-tumbling o'er and o'er. 

11. Come all you jolly river boys. 

And listen to Jimmie's fate. 
Be cautious and take warning 
Before it is loo late. 

13. For death is lurking near you, 
Still seeking to destroy 
The pride of many a mother's heart) 
And many a father's joy. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 385 


Part I, 178. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. 45, corresponds to "The Old Woman of Slapsadam," Part 1, 179. 
Miss Eddy sends a text of "Johnnie Sands." 

{"Johnny Sands Comic Ballad Composed by John Sinclair" was 
published by Ditson at Boston (cop. 1842). Sinclair is thus made 
responsible for the tune, not the words. Evidence of the popularity 
of this song may be seen from its inclusion in the following song-books, 
in addition to those cited in Part I: "The Dime Songster No. 3" 
(Indianapolis, C. O. Perrine, cop. 1859), p. 17; "Beadle's Dime Song 
Book No. 6" (New York, cop. i860), p. 10; "American Dime Song 
Book No. 2" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother,cop. i860), pp. 33-34; 
"Billy Birch's Ethiopian Melodist" (New York, cop. 1862), pp. 26- 
27; "The Lotta Firefly Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), p. 24; 
"The Annie Hindle Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), pp. 21-22; 
"I Really Think She Did Songster" (New York, Hilton & Syme), 
p. 8 ("as Bung by Charles E. Harris"); "Henry de Marsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," Vol. I, No. 4, p. 31 ; Frank 
B. Ogilvie, "Two Hundred Old-Time Songs" (New York, cop. 1S96), 
No. 124, pp. 114-115 (with tune credited to "Sinclair"). It may 
also be found in "The Book of Modern Songs," ed. by J. E. Carpen- 
ter (London, 1858), pp. 31-32; and "British Minstrelsie" (Edinburgh 
[1899], Part IV, pp. 22-24 (with "J- Sinclair's" music).] 


English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 62 (2 

texts and airs). This song has some resemblance to No. 1 12 in Child, 

"The Baffled Knight." Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, 

Perrysville, O. 

I Cnrnf i •" Te young and £ool - jsh lads. Come lis • ten 
I. v^me. J j^ ^ id - dfe. Sing do ri aye. Sing do ri 

nil' ' III ' ' Ml r 

to my sto • rr; TU tell voa bow I 6xed a 

id-die o dan - dy, I'll tell, etc, 

plan To fool Min Ka • tic Mor - ey. Siitg Mor ■ ey. 


386 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. I told her that ray sister Sue 
Was in yon lofty tower. 
And wanted her to come that way 
And spend one happy hour. 

3. But when I got her to the spot, 

Saying, "Nothing is the matter, 
But you must die or else comply. 
There is no time to flatter." 

4. She squeezed my hand and seemed quite pleased. 

Saying, "There is no fear, sir. 
But father he is coming this way. 
And he will see us here, sir. 
(Refrain.) ' 

5. "If you'll but go and climb that tree, 

Till he does pass this way, sir, 
Then we will gather grapes and plums. 
And we will sport and play, sir." 

6. I went straightway and dumb the tree. 

Not being the least offended. 
My true-love came and stood beneath, 
To see how I ascended. 

7. But when she got me to the top. 

She looked up with a smile, sir, 
Saying, "You may gather your grapes and plums. 
And I'll run quickly home, or," 

8. I straightway did descend the tree, 

A-coming with a bound, sir; 
My true-love got quite out of sight 
Before I reached the ground, sir. 

9. But when my thoughts I did relent, 

To see what I'd intended, 
I straightway made a wife of her. 
Then all my troubles were ended. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 387 

["Katy Mory" in fifteen stanzas, the last two quite free in their 
nature, occurs in an American broadside of about 1830 (no imprint): 
"Katy Mory, and Poll and Mistress" (Harvard College). Stanza 
8 of Tolman's text is not in the broadside; stanzas 2, 4, 9, 11, 12, 14, 15, 
of the broadside, are not in Tolman.] 


Sung to Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo., by Mr. M. Peak, Hurts- 
ville, lo. 

I. O'er swamps and alligators 
I'm on my weary way; 
O'er railroad ties and crossings 

My weary feet did stray; 
Until at close of evening, 

Some higher ground 1 gained. 

'Twas there I met with a Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

a. "Good-eve to you. kind maiden! 

My money does me no good. 
If it were not for the alligators, 

I'd stay out in the wood." 
"Oh, welcome, welcome, stranger! 

Altho' our house is plain. 
We never turn a stranger out 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain." 

3. She took me to her father's house; 

She treated me quite well. 
Her hair in flowing ringlets 

About her shoulders fell. 
I tried to paint her beauty, 

But 1 found it was in vain; 
So beautiful was the Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

4. I asked her if she would marry me; 

She said that could never be; 
She said she had a lover. 

And he was far at sea. 
She said she had a lover, 

And true she would remain. 
Till he came back to her again 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

5. Adieu, adieu, fair maiden! 

I never shall sec you more. 

I'll ne'er forget your kindness. 

In the cottage by the shore. 


388 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

At home in social circles 

Our flaming bowls we'll drain, 
And drink to the iiealth of the Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 


Part I, 182. Mrs. M. M, Moores, Perrysville, O., corrects sta 
4 and 6 as there given, making them read, — 

Their brother grew afflicted 
And rudely thrown abed. 

6. The Jews came to the sisters, 
Ihit Lazreth in the tomb, 

The following is Miss Goon's air: — 

mom - ing and at 

ing, Ther raised their to! - cei Ugfa. 


Part I, 184: JAFL xxx, 334-335; Sturgis and Hughes, Songa from the 
Hills of Vermont (Boston [1919]), 22-35 (with tune). 

The text of Professor Kittredge QAFL xxvi, 176) diETers decidedly 
from others; it ends with the young lover dying in "New Bedlam." 
Like the text in Part I, but that in JAFL xxviii, 147. " Eng- 
lish Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 57 " (2 texts, 5 
airs). An air, with less than a stanza of the words, is in "Journal of 
the FoIk-Song Society," ii, 81. 

Miss Eddy obtained a text and air from Mrs. Daniel Ross, ^ireve, 
O. The air follows. 


Traditiotuil Texts and Tunes. 


The songs of the lumbermen, known as "lumber-jacks" or "shanty 
boys," make an interesting group. This collection has the following 
song-ballads of this class: "Harry Bale," "James Whalen," "The 
Mossback Son and the Shanty Boy," "The Shanty Boy's Alphabet." 
The following have already appeared in this Journal: "The Big Eau 
Clair" (xxii, 259), "Shanty Teamsters' Marseillaise" (xxvi, 187), 
"Silver Jack" (xxviii, 9). Lomax, "Cowboy Songs," has "Harry 
Bale" (p. 172, a much fuller text than here), "Foreman Monroe" 
(p. 174), "The Shanty Boy" (p. 252). 


Part I, 185. Miss Eddy sends a text of 32 lines and 2 airs, the 
latter from Mrs. M. M, Moores and Miss Helen Chaj»el, Perrysville, O. 

[Additional American references are: "Beadle's Dime Song Boole 
No. 2" (cop. i860), p. 28; "The Thomas M. Hengler New Sensation 
Songster" (New York), p. 41; "Wehman's Song Book No, 3" (New 
York, cop. 1891), p. 17; "Franklin Square Song Collection, No. 7 
(New York, 1891), p. 98; Stuigis and Hughes, "Songs from the Hills 
of Vermont" (Boston [1919]), pp. 36-39 (with tune). "Henry de 
Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 7 (No. l); 
"Delaney's Song Book No. 2" (New York [1893]), p. 8; "Wehman 
Bros.' Pocket -Size Irish Song-Book No. 3" (cop. 1909), p. 49; broad- 
side of J. H. Johnson, Philadelphia.] 


Journal 0/ American Folk-Lore. 

bome lo beronce fa-ther'idcxu-, Ciy- m2,"F&<ther, oil, pray let aie 

r^i r ^-U' jjj J' j i j. i j-^^ 

in I Takm pi - tjr od me, I im-plore I Oh, the child u my 
boa-om will die From the windthatblew'cronthewildmoorl" 

j.iij';j; ni' J'U' J jj. j'i 


^Kjllj'j'J'; J'U j'j:/';^^ 


Newell, Games and Songs of American Children (2d ed„ 1903. New York), 
No. 41 : Modern Language Notes, xxviii (November, 1913), 215 f. Beldeo, 
No. 100; Shearin, 20 (Shearin's summary ends, " But bis wife asBUtnes di- 
rection at his death"); Dixon, 204 ("Ancient Poems," etc.); Bell, 414 
("Early Ballads." etc.): Songs of Northern England, 58; Soi^s of the 
West, No. 13 (the miller asks each son " what toll " he will take) ; Ballads 
and Songs of Lancashire has a dialect version, "The Lancashire Miller." 

Miss Eddy obtains the words, except the iinal stanza, from Mrs. 
M.M.Moores; the final stanza and the air, from Mrs. Moores' brother, 
Mr. Henry Maurer; both of Perrysville, 0. 

[This is a somewhat disordered version of the famous broadside 
ballad "The Miller's Advice to his Three Sons, On takiag of Toll:" 
Roxbut^he collection, iii, 681 (white letter, early eighteenth century, 
Ebsworth, "Roxburghe Ballads," vol. viii, part ii, pp. 611-613) 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


Douce, iv, 44. Harvard College has two copies of a similar eighteenth- 
century broadside, one of which belonged to Percy. Greig, xli, gives 
the piece. 

Four stanzas from American tradition are quoted by Ceclia Thaxter, 
"Among the Isles of Shoals" (Boston, 1901), p. 81; cf. Miss Harper, 
"Modem Language Notes," xxviii, 215-216 (November, 1913). Dr. 
Alma Blount has sent in a text from the State of New York. F. C. 
Brown, p. 10, reports the piece from North Carolina; B. L, Jones, 
from Michigan. Newell prints a good text under the title of "The 
Miller of Gosport" ("Games and Songs of American Children," 1884, 
pp. 103-104).] 

me wlut all too' 11 have. With a foil loll lol - li dolldar-" 

2. "Why, father, you know my name it is Ralph, 
Out of every bushel I'll steal one half, 

Out of every bushel that I do grind, 
For that's the best living that I can find, 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

3. "O son, O son! if this you do. 
You will not do as 1 have done. 
To you the mill I cannot give, 

For by those means no man can live. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

4. He called upon his second son: 
"O son! my race is almost run; 
And if to you the mill I give, 

Pray, tell to me what all you'll have. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

5. "Why, father, you know my name it is Dick, 
Out of every bushel I will steal one peck. 
Out of every bushel that I do grind, 

For that's the best thing that I can find. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 


393 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

6. He called upon his youngest son: 
"O son! my race is almost run; 
And if to thee the mill I give, 
Pray, tell to me what all you'll have. 
With a foil, loll, lolU doll day." 

7. "Why, father, you know I'm your darling boy. 
In stealing corn is all my joy. 

I'll steal ail the corn, and swear to the sack. 
And whip the mill-boy when he comes back. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

8. "0 son, son! if this you do, 
'Tis you will do as I have done, 
The mill is thine," the old roan cried. 

And shut his d old eyes and died. 

With a foil, loll, lolli doll day. 

9. But now he is dead and in his grave, 
The greedy worms his body do crave; 
But where he is gone I cannot tell. 
But I rather suppose it is down to hell. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day. 

JAFL xxvi, 134 f. (with references) ; English Folk Songs from the Southern 
Appalachians, No, 119; Barry, No. 76; Pound, p. 76. Journal of the Folk- 
Song Society, ii, «6 (with references). Compare the Folk-Lore of Here- 
fordshire, 209 f. 

Miss Eddy gets the following words from Mrs. L. A. Lind, Can- 
ton, O. 

( Version a.) 

1. Mr. Frog went a-courting, he did ride, e-ha! 
Mr. Frog went a-courting, he did ride, 

A sword and pistol by his side, e-ha! 

2. He rode up to Miss Mousie's door, e-ha! 

He gave three raps and a very loud roar, e-Eiat 

3. He sat down and he took her on his knee, e-ba! 
Said he, "Miss Mousie, will you marry me, e-ha?" 

4. Says she, "I cannot answer that, e-ha! 
Till I see my Uncle Rat, e-ha! " 

5. "Uncle Rat's in London town, e-ha! 

And 1 don't know when he'll come down, e-bal " 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 393 

6. Uncle Rat came riding home, e-ha! 

"And who's been here since I've been gone, e-ha? " 

7. "A very wealthy gentleman, e-ha! 
Who says he'll marry if he can, e-ha! " 

8. Uncle Rat he grinned and smiled, e-ha! 
To think his niece should be a bride, e-ha! 

9. "Who shall the wedding guests be, e-ha? " 
"A little busy bug and a bumble-bee, e-ha! " 

10. "And where shall the wedding supper be, e-ha? " 
"Down in the valley in a hollow tree, e-hal " 

11. "What shall the wedding supper be, e-ha? " 
"A slice of bread and a cup of tea, e-hal " 

12. The first came in was Major Dick, e-ha! 
He ate so much it made him sick, e-ha! 

13. The next came in was the bumble-bee, he ho! 
He tuned his fiddle in his knee, e-ha! 

14. The next came in was the old dun cow, e-ha! 1 
She wanted to dance, but didn't know how. 

15. The next came in was Colonel Bed-Bug, hi ho! 
He had whiskey in a jug, e-ha! 

16. The old song-book lies on the shelf, hi ho! 
If you want any more, sing it yourself. 

{Version b.) 
Sent by Miss Eddy. Sung by Miss Lucille Wilson, Perrysville, 
O. Learned from the singing of her father. His home was in western 

Ratktr Jtwly. 

f,> J J J J l J ^ = j l .l. ; I .]_J I 

■word and pii • tol by his *ide, A - ha, a - hal 


394 Journal of American Ftdk-Lore. 

2. He rode till he came to the little Mouse's house. 
And he chased little Mouse alt 'round th« house. 

3. He took little Mouse upon hb knee. 

And said, "Little Mouse, will you marry me? " 

4. "I can't consent to a thing like that 
Until I see my Uncle Rat." 

5. Old Uncle Rat came riding home, 

"And who's been here since I've been gone? " 

6. "A very nice young man indeed, 

Who smokes and puffs and chews the weed." 

7. "And where shall the wedding supper be? " 
"Down in the meadow by the big oak-tree." 

8. "And what shall we have for the wedding supper? " 
"Three green peas fried in butter." 

9. The mouse went swimming in the lake, 

And there she was caught by a big black snake. 

10. The frog went a-swimming in the brook, 
And there he was caught by a b^ fish-hook. 

[The oldest record of "The Frog and the Mouse" is the mention 
of "The frog cam to the myl dur" in "The Complaint of Scotland" 
(1549, ed. Murray), p. 64, if, indeed, ttiat song was really a version 
of our ditty.' On Nov. 21, 1580, a "ballad" entitled "A moste 
Strange Weddinge of the ffrog^e and the mowse" was entered to 
Edward White in the Stationers' Register (Collier, ii, 132; Arber, 

The oldest extant version, "The Marriage of the Frogge and the 
Mouse," is printed in [Ravenscroft's] " Melismata," 1611 (with tune): 
reprinted in "Selections from the Works of Thomas Ravenscroft" 
(Roxburghe Club (1822, Part II], p. 16, with tune); and by Rimbault, 
"Notes and Queries," ist series, iii, 51 ; Rimbault, "A Little Book 
of Ballads and Songs," 1851, pp. 87-88; Cbappell, "Popular Music 
of the Olden Time" (1855), i, 88 (with tune); Btitten, "Lyrics from 

1 (Id commentinB on th« tongs cited la The Comptalnt, Fbtartan remuta: "I km 
told that No. 17 ('The frog cam to the myl diu') lued Utclj to be luaf on tbe Mace ia 
Edinburgh, and contaiiu a mocic courtship between a bog end a moDK. of Miae Mtyrkal 
merit" (Select Scottish Ballads, 17S3. il. P. xxxli); but tbja la not v 
dence for Identification.] 

■ [Duly noted by Warton in 1781 (History of English Poetry, Ul. 445).! 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 395 

the Song-Books of the Elizabethan Age," 1887, pp. 60-61; E>eanner 
and Shaw, "Song Time," p. 19 (with tune); Walter Crane, "The 
Baby's Opera," pp. 24-25 (slightly altered and with the "Rowley" 
burden) ; Vincent Jacl^on, " English Melodies," 1910, p. 32 (in part, 
with tune). From the "Melismata" comes, obviously, the text from 
a "MS. dated 1630" printed by Robert Chambers, "Popular Ryhmes 
of Scotland" (new edition [1870]), pp. 56-57. 

There is a group of Scottish tex ts from oral tradition — at least 
five in number — which are closely related to the song in " Melismata," 
but are associated with one another by special features: (i) Robert 
Pitcaim's Ballad MSS.,' ii (1817-22), 115-116 (Harvard College 
MS. copy, 25241.27), printed in Maidment, "Scottish Ballads and 
Songs," 1859, pp. 153-156; (2) the same, ii, 119-121 (Harvard College 
MS. copy, as above), printed in Maidment, pp. 157-158 ; (3) [Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe] "A Ballad Book" (privately printed, 30 copies 
I1823]; new ed., by David Laing, 1880), No. 30, pp. 86-88; reprinted 
from C. K. Sharpe by Rimbault, "A Little Book of Ballads and 
Songs," 1851, pp. 89-91; by Aytoun, "The Ballads of Scotland," 
1858, ii, 94-95 (2d ed., 1859, ii, 97-98); by Robert Chambers, "Popu- 
lar Rhymes of Scotland," new ed. [1870], pp. 55-56; by BuUen, " Lyrics 
from the Song-Books of the Elizabethan Age," 1887, pp. 186-187; 
and by Edith Emerson Forbes, "Favourites of a Nursery" (Boston, 
I9I7)>* PP- 158-159; (3) Kinloch MSS. (1827 and after),* Harvard 
College Library, iii, 11-15; (4) Macmath MS.,* pp. 21-23 (Harvard 
College MS. copy, fols. 16-17; also in Child MSS., i, 159-163); (5) 
fragment, with tune, "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 226. 
All of these except No. 4 have a "Cuddy alone" burden (with some 
variation) which is akin to the "Kitty alone" burden in Ritson (see 
below); the burden of No. 4 has some resemblance to that in "Melis- 

An Englbh traditional version, related to the song in "Melismata," 
is printed in [Ritson's] " Gammer Gurton's Garland," 1810, pp. 1-2 ; * 
thence (but without the reference) by Halliwell, " The Nursery Rhymes 
of England" (Percy Society, 1842), No. 93, pp. 70-72 (2ded., No. 118, 
pp. 87-89; 5th and 6th eds.. No. 173, pp. rio-112); and from Halli- 
well in Mrs. Valentine, "Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles" (Cam- 
den ed.. No. 197), pp. 119-121, This Ritson text is not quite com- 
plete, as one may see by comparing it with "Melismata," on the one 
hand, and, on the other, with the texts (belonging to this same tradi- 

> ISee Macniath, The Blbliosrapby of Scottish Ballads in Manuscript (EdinbUTgh 
Biblioiraphical Society), p. 8; Child, v, 39B.I 

' (Erroneouslv credited to Percy'i Reliquea.] 

' (See Mkcmath. t.c.. p. 9; Child, v, 308.] 

• See Macmath, p. 11; Child, v, 399.] 

• [Compare Ritwm, Scottish Sonis, 1794. i. p. kII.] 


396 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

tional version) furnished by Rimbault, "A Collection of Old Nursery 
Rhymes," pp. 26-27 (with tune), and Miss Mason, "Nursery Rhymes 
and Country Songs," pp. 8-9 (with two tunes, and burdens different 
from each other). A still longer text, belonging, to all appearances, 
to this group, is that suppressed (but for one stanza and the burden) 
by Baring-Gould and Sheppard (who print a tune), "A Garland of 
Country Song," No. 13, pp. 30-31. Here belong also the fragmentary 
text (from an Irish nurse) in Mrs. Leather, "The Folk-Lore of Here- 
fordshire," 1912, p. 210,' and a two-stanza fragment (with the "Kitty 
alone" burden) from Missouri In Belden's MS. collection; as well as 
(apparently) a copy written down for me in 1894 by Hon. Nathaniel 
Gordon of Exeter, N.H. Mr. Gordon could recollect but six stanzas, 
corresponding to stanzas 1-5 of the Ritson-Halliwell ver^on; his 
fourth stanza is wanting in that text, but is an integral part of the 
song, being a good representative of a stanza in " Melistnata." I 
subjoin his fourth stanza, with the burden or chorus; — 

Said he, "Madam Mouse, are you within?" 

Rigdum boUo-metty kimo 
"Oh, yes! kind tat, I sit and spin." 

Rigdum boUo-metty kimo 

Kimo karro dilla darro 

Strim stram poiheT-riidlt 
Luther bonner rigdum 
Rigdum bolto-meUy kimo} 

At about the same time I obtained one stanza from Miss Frances 
Perry of Exeter, N.H,, with a variant of the same burden. Another 
copy with the same burden is printed by Sturgis and Hughes, "Songs 
from the Hills of Vermont" (Boston [1919]), pp. 18-20 (with music). 
Belden has a good but condensed copy with this burden, and a frag- 
ment of one stanza with a distorted form of it. This "kimo" burden 
is that of Mrs. Leather's fragmentary Herefordshire vernoa (p. 209), 
and has been reported in "Notes and Queries," ist series, ii, 188, and 

' [Mra. Leather's first vcraioD (p, 109) ia a corrupt fiasment of fotir ttmniM.I 
■ [Mr. Gordon had also heard the Bong wltb a diffeient burdeii: — 
There was a frog lived to the well. 
Perry merry dictum o-domlne* 
And a mouse liv'd In the roiU. 

Perry merry dictum tt-domlnn, 
Tmm er hattarootu, er patterraomi 
Er ferry merry tempemtotu, 
Er perry merry dietum o-JomIhm. 
For thli burden In another song, see Child. 1. 414 (note); Folk-Loie JcMinMl, ifl. tTSi 
JAFL xxix, IST- See also Jacobs, EoglEsh Fairy Talet (tSoo). pp. 73> ■34-1 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 397 

in Folk-Lore, xviii, 449.* It is quite different from the "Kitty alone" 
burden in Ritson and Baring-Gould (or the "Cuddy alone" of Scottish 
texts). Rimbault's burden is different from both, and Miss Mason's 
burden is still another. A form or development of the "kimo" bur- 
den appears in the Negro minstrel song to be mentioned presently. 
An Irish version in "Notes and Queries," 1st series, ii, 75, has 
several old features which connect it closely with the text in "Melis- 
mata," b ut varies from that text by introducing a number of wedding 
guests , — the bee (with a fiddle), the snail (with bagpipes), the pig, 
the hen, and the duck. Here belongs a shorter text in "Journal of 
the Irish Folk-Song Society," iv, 2a (with tune). A similar elabora- 
tion occurs in several American copies : see Perrow's Mississippi text 
(JAFL xxvi, 134-135); Wyman and Brockway, "Lonesome Tunes," 
i, 25-29;* an unprinted variant collected by Miss Wyman in Letcher 
County, Kentucky;* Campbell and Sharp, "English Folk Songs from 
the Southern Appalachians," No. 119; a fragment printed in the 
"Boston Transcript," Feb. 4, 1911, Part ii, p. 8; a New York copy 
in the same newspaper, Feb. 18, 1911 ; five texts (some of them fr^- 
ments) in Belden's MS. collection; Professor Tolman's first text 
(above), and five unprinted copies in my possession, from Massachu- 
setts, Pennsylvania, and the South (MSS., iii, 126-127, 129-130, 133; 
iv, 72; V, 185-186). Three of these last make a special sub-group by 
virtue of their conclusion : — 

The frog he swam to the lake, 

And there was swallowed by a big black snake. 

The big black snake he swam to land, 
And there was caught by a nigger man. 

The nigger man he went to France, 
And that's the end of my romance.* 

With this general group (though lacking the elaboration in guests) 
belong a nine-stanza text in the "Boston Transcript," Jan. 28, 191 1, 
Part ii, p. 8, and two unprinted copies in my possession (MSS., iii, 125; 
vii, 171), one of them from North Carolina. A tendency to elabora - 
t ion (fo x, etc.) may also be seen in the Scottish copies . 

About 1809 3 'orm of the traditional English version was so modified 
by omissions and the insertion of modem features as to fit it to the 
comic stage of the time (the frog, for instance, takes "his opera hat" 
> (Sm also Jacob«, English Fairy Talet (iBgo), pp. 73, 134. A curious variation of 
this burden may be seen in the comic song "Polly. Won't You Try Me, O?" at "sung l>y 
Mn, Florence at Drury Lane;" braadeide, Ryte ft Co. (Harvard College).] 
1 (The burden U practically the same aa in Mr. Gordon's first version (above).] 
■ (Compare also the Kentucky "Bed-Time Sons" (Wyman and Brockway, 1, aa-a^.\ 
* [There are varieties in detail here, of course, among the three.) 


398 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

along when he goes a-courting), and was sung in this shape ("The 
Frog in the Cock'd Hat" or "The Love-sick Frog") by the famous 
coitiedian Liston, to "an original air by C. E. H., Esq." (Charies 
Edward Horn).' Liston's song begins, — 

A frog he would a-wooing go, 

Whether his mother would let him or no, — 

and has the burden "Heigho! says Rowley," etc. It may be found 
in "Fairbum's Catamaran Songster, or Theatrical Galamathias" for 
1809 (London), pp. 31-32;* a Pitts broadside, "The Frog in the 
Cock'd Hat" (Harvard College); "The Vocal Library," No. 1758, 
p. 648; "The Yankee Songster's Pocket Companion" (Gardiner, Me., 
1824), pp. 77-79; "Davidson's Universal Melodist" (London, 1847), 
1, 166-167 (with tune); Helen K. Johnson, "Our Familiar Songs" 
(New York, 1881), p. 434 (with tune); Baring-Gould, "A Book of 
Nursery Songs and Rhymes," No. 17, pp. 27-30; and, with omis^ons 
and slight changes (probably from secondary tradition), in IW. A. 
Wheeler] " Mother Goose's Melodies" (New York. 1877), pp. 7-19, and 
Robert Ford, "Children's Rhymes," 1903, pp. 118-120 (from Ford, 
in Louey Chisholm, "Nursery Rhymes," pp. 32-34). The Liston 
song, oddly crossed with older tradition, occurs in Alexander Laing 
of Brechin's MS. (Harvard College Library),* No. 8, pp. 9-11 (Scot- 

That particular form of the traditional ditty which underlay Lis- 
ton's rifacimento is tolerably well represented, it appears, by the ver- 
sion (from Yorkshire) in Rimbault, "A Little Book of Ballads and 
Songs," pp. 93-94, and by that of ca. 1790, of which a fr^ment is 
given in "Notes and Queries," ist series, u, lio* (cf. li, 45-46).* 
It must have differed but slightly from the texts in Ritson's "Gammer 
Gurton's Garland" (and Halliwell) and in Rimbault's "CollectioB of 
Old Nursery Rhymes," pp. 26-27; but the burdens in the cases cited 
show much variety, only the Ritson-Halliwell copy bavii^ "Kitty 
alone" • (equivalent to the "Cuddy alone" found in most (rf the Scot- 
tish texts). 

> [Sm Notes and Queries, lat Beiies, i, 458; Baring-Gould, A Garlaiid of Countiy Song, 
p. 31; and A Boole of Nursery Soegg and Rhymes, p. 153.I 

• ["The Frog in the Cock'd Hat, or The Rat, the Mouse, the Dock, and the Cat, and 
her Kittens. Sung by Mr. 'Liatonaltlii Thtalrt Royai,CoM»IGariM;aMrft)r Mr. Johannot, 
oJ AstUy's Amphitluatrt. with UHirersal APPlaust,"] 

' ISm Child, V, 39a.] 

• [This Notes and Queries version has H " Heigho crowdJe " burden, whkfa UBj ormar 
not be the origin of the Rowley burden. The Notes and Oueriet man date* hla recollec- 
tion back to ca. fjgo.] 

• [A remnant appears, perhaps, in a ring-game song (No. 10) adkcted in Uiclii^a 
by Miss Emelyn Gardner.] 

• [A form of this burden it printed by Baring-Gould and S 
Country Song, p. 31.] 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 399 

D'Urfey's stupid and indecent burlesque, "A Ditty on a high Amour 
at St. James's" (banning "Great Lord Frog to Lady Mouse"), 
may be found with a tune in "Pills to Purge Melancholy" (1714). 
V, 298-300, and in "The Merry Musician or A Cure for the Spleen" 
(1716), pp. 17-18; without music, in "The Hive" {1732), iv, 135-137. 

A burlesque utilizing the "kirao" burden was once very popular 
on the N^:ro minstrel stage in two forms, known respectively as 
"KeemoKimo"and "Kitty Kimo." For"Keemo Kimo" (3 stanzas) 
see "K*emo Komo, Geo. Christy and Wood's Celebrated Banjo Song 
As Sung by P. H, Keenan. Arranged by A. Sedgwick. Published 
and Sold by Geo, Christy & Wood's Minstrels, 444 Broadway, 
N. Y." (cop. 1854 by H. Wood); "George Christy and Wood's 
Melodies" (cop. 1854), pp. 7-8 (a song-book afterwards included in 
"Christy's and White's Ethiopian Melodies," Philadelphia, Peter- 
son); "The Christy's Minstrels' Song Book" (London, Boosey), vol. 
ii, part ii, pp. 56-57 (with tune); "Beadle's Dime Melodist" (New 
York, cop. i860), pp. 26-27 (with tune); "Howe's Comic Songster" 
(Boston, Elias Howe), pp. 94-95 (with a fourth stanza). For "Kitty 
IGmo" (4 stanzas) see de Marsan broadside, List 3, No. 12 ("com- 
posed and arranged by Charles White"); "Henry deMarsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, p. 138, No. 22 ("Com- 
posed and arranged by Charles White, and sung by Old Dan Em- 
mit"); Wehman broadside, No. 651; broadside, "Wholesale Depot, 
37 Green Street" (Harvard College); "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 
3" (cop. i860), p. 64; "Gus Williams' Old Fashioned G. A. R. Camp 
Fire Songster," p. 14; "Wehman Bros.' Good Old-Time Songs No. l " 
(New York, cop. 1890), p. 86. Each of these two fomis has one stanza 
about the frog; the rest is riotous and delightful nonsense. The 
burden is a development of the "kimo" form (see above), and appears 
also in Campbell and Sharp's No. 120, p. 319. Quite a different song 
entitled "Keemo Kimo" (likewise obviously American) is found in an 
English broadside issued by Bebbington of Manchester (No. 367: 
Harvard College Library, 25242.17, x, iii). It gets its burden from 
the minstrel song, but has cut quite loose from "Frog and Mouse."] 

This modern American lumbermen's song resembles a mediseval 
"debate." An interesting parallel is the English debate "The Hus- 
bandman and the Servingman," — "Ancient Poems, Ballads, and 
Songs," etc., 42;' "English County Songs," 144; "Folk Songs from 
1 ["God Bpeed tbe Plough, and bless the Com-mow. A Dialogue between thr Hus- 
band-man and the Servins-Dan " Is Roxburghe, II, IBS; PepyB, Iv, 371; Euing, la?; Craw- 
ford, 845, S46. See Collier, A Book of Roxburghe BalladB, 1S47, pp. 313-316; Roxburibe 
Ballada, ed. Ebsworth, vl. jao. 5'3-SaSi Crawford Catalogue, rSpo, pp. 301-301; Davlea 
Gilbert, Some Ancient Carols, 3d ed., 1833, pp. T»-75.] 


400 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Somerset," No. 71. The Servingman confesses himself beaten. 

A similar debate between "the Serving-man and the Husband-man" 
(also called the " Plough-man ") is in "Roxburghe Ballads," Chappell, 
i, 300; in the edition of Hindley, i, 385. 

Shearin lists, p. 21, "Kaintucky Boys ... A dibat between a 
Virginia lad and the Kentucky maiden whom he comes to woo. She 
scorns lands and money, and lauds the superior manliness of the 
Kentucky lads." A variant in Shearin praises the boys of Owsley 
County, Kentucky. 

Two texts have come to me that agree very closely, — one through 
Miss Helen Dye from Mr. Willard Dye, Cadillac, Mich.; the other 
from Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo. 

[This dibat has a curious resemblance to the famous mediaeval Latin 
poem "De Phyliide et Flora," in which two damsels discuss the com- 
parative merits of a knight and a clerk as lover: Wr^ht, "The Latin 
Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes," pp. 258-267, 353- 
371; Schmeller, "Carmina Burana," 1847, pp. 155-165 (3d ed., 1894, 
pp. 155-165); Haur^u, "Notices et Extraits," xxxii (pt. l), 259-269; 
cf. Laistner, "Golias," pp. 70-96.] 

I. One evening as I was walking out, 

Just as the sun went down, 
I walked along quite carelessly 

Till I came to Trenton town. 
There I heard two maids conversing. 

As slowly I passed by; 
One said she loved her moas-back bod, 

White the other, her shanty boy. 

3. The one that loved her moss-back aon. 

These words I heard her say; 
"The reason why I love him, 

For at home with me he'll stay; 
He'll stay at home all winter, 

To the woods he will not go; 
And when the spring comes on again. 

His lands he'll plough and sow." 

3. "All (or to plough and sow your land," 

The other girl did say; 
"If crops should prove a failure, 

Your debts you could not pay. 
If crops should prove a failure. 

Grain-markets would be low. 
The sherifl of ttimes sells you out 

To pay the debts you owe." 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 401 

4. "OfT with the sheriff selling us out! 

That does not me alarm; 
For what's the use of being in debt 

When you're on a good farm? 
From off your farm you'll earn your bread, 

Without working in storm and rain; 
While your shanty boy works hard each day 

His family to maintain." 

5. "Oh, how I love my ehanty boy, 

Who goes out in the fall! 
For he's both stout and able. 

And fit to stand the squall. 
With pleasure I'll embrace him. 

In the spring when he comes down; 
His money with me he'll spend quite free, 

While your moss-back son has none." 

6. "Oh, how you praise your shanty boy. 

Who goes out in the falll 
He's called up before day-break. 

For to stand the storm and squall; 
While happy and contented, 

My boy with me he'll stay. 
And tell to me sweet tales of love. 

Till the storm has passed away." 

7. "I cannot bear that silly trash 

Those moss-back sons do say. 
The most of them they are so green 

The cows would eat for hay. 
How easy it ia to mark them. 

Whene'er they come to town! 
You'll see the boot-blacks gather round 

And say, 'Moss, how are you down? ' " 

8. "Now, what I've said of your shanty boy, 

I hope you'll pardon me; 
And from that ignorant moss-back son 

I will try and get free. 
The very next chance that I do have. 

With some shanty boy I'll go. 
And leave that ignorant moss-back son 

His buckwheat for to bow." 

HY grandma's advice. 

Grandma advises against mani^e. The apeaJax ia more afraid 
)f dying an old maid. Five stanzas. 



403 Journal of American FoUt-Lore, 

Pound 62. Sui^ to Miss Eddy by Mr. Henry Msurer, Penys- 
ville, O. 

[For American copies see "The Home Melodist" (Boston, cop. 
1859), p. 44 (with mudc); "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. a" (cop. 
i860), p. IS ("Music published by H. Waters, 333 Broadway, N. Y.'O; 
"The Shilling Song Book" (Boston, cop. i860), p. 93; "Father Kenqi't 
Old Folks Concert Music" (Boston, oop. 1874). p. 87; deMaisao 
broadside (New York), List 7, No. 59. "My Grandma's Advice" 
Btill keeps its place in the Oliver Ditscm Company's catalogue, and 
may be had at any time (words and muac). The song is a vaiiatioa 
on "The Old Maid" ("When I liv'd with my Grandam on yon liuk 
green"): "The Lover's Harmony," No. 17, p. 134 (Pitts [1B40]).] 

[SkooU Aroon.] 
See Journal of the Folk-Song Society, ti. 253-354, iii, 36-31 ; En^liah Folk 
Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 93 ("Putman's Hill"). 

(Version a.) 
Mrs. Maxwell, Canton, O., wrote this down for Miss Eddy baa 

I. If I was up on yonder hill, 
There I'd sit and cry my fill. 
Till every tear would turn a mill, 
Cabible and a boo saluria 00. 

Shoolie, shoolie, shoolie rure, 
Shoolie za-ca-ra-ca Sally Bobicue, 
It's when I saw the Sally by the heel, 
Cabible and a boo saluria 00. 

3. Sell my dock and sell my reel. 

And likewise sell my spring wheel. 

To buy my love a sword and shield, 

Cabible and a boo saluria 00. 


3. My true-love has gone to France 
To seek a fortune in advance, 
If ever he comes back, there'll be a war-dance, 
Cabible and a boo saluria 00. 

(Version b.) 

Recited to Miss Eddy by Mr. Charles B. Galbreath, State Librarian, 

Columbus, O. Learned from hb father in Columbiana County, (%io. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 4 

1. My true-love has gone to France, 
Seeking his fortune for to advance, 

And if he ever returns, it will be but B chance, 
Suck-a-gill to a wanyan slonyan. 

Shule, shule, shul-a-make-a-rule. 
And a shula in a grSss, and a shula cooka you. 
And a grass in a won, oh dill, oh-la-done, 
Suck-a-gill in a wanyan slonyan, 

2. My old daddy was very cross. 

He neither allowed me a cow nor a boss. 
Be it for the better, or for the wuss, 
Suck-a-gill to a wanyan slonyan. 

3. My old mother was a very fine man. 
She used to ride the Darby ram ; 
He sent her whizzin' down the hill. 

And if she ain't got up, she lays there still. 

{Version e.) 
Obtained through Miss Eddy from Mrs. L. A. Lind, Canton, O. 

I. My daddy was so very cross 
He gave me neither cow nor horse; 
He's none the better, I'm none the worse. 
Comapalala boosi Laurie. 

Shoo li, shoo li, shoo li roo. 
Shoo li, sack a rack, a salobabo cue, 
While I sigh for Salobabo lee, 
Comapalala bood Laurie. 

3, I'll dye my dress, I'll dye it red. 
All over the world I'll buy my bread. 
So that my parents will think me dead. 
Comapalala boo« Laurie. 

3. I wish I were on yonder hill, 
'Tis there I'd ait and cry my fill. 
And every tear would turn a mill. 
Comapalala boon Laurie. 


i «!f.^r r 

Journal of American Ft^k-Lore. 
{Version d.) 

I. My old dad-dy'i gone to France, There to par-chase me m 

TC-rr finechance;lf I sbonldiigh for Sal-ly Bob-o-tiak,CQne 

Ub - m - lil . s-boo -a lo - ra; Sha • It - ibn - li. thn - H - im^ 

Shn - U - la -ca -nt-catbtb-a - lU - U-coe, U I dioaldii^ far 
Z»ch - ■ - ri - ah ) ^^ 

bal.h/ Bob -o- link, Come lMb-a-]il-la-boo-a<lo • n. 

3. I dye my dress, I'll dye it red. 

And o'er this world I'll beg my bread. 
So my parents think me dead. 
Come bib-a-lil-la-boo-za-Io-ra, etc 

[Version a is dose to the common vemon of "Shule Arooo." See 
Mantis O'Conor, "Old-Time Songs and Ballads of Ireland" (cop. 
1901), p. no (also published as "Irish Come-all-ye's"); "Delaney'a 
Irish Song Book No. 2," p. 5; "Wehman Bros.' Pocket-Size Iriflh 
Song Book No. 3" (cop. 1909), p. 95; Redfem Mason, "The Song 
Lore of Ireland" (New York, 1910), p. 267; Alfred Moffat, "The 
Minstrelsy of Ireland," 4th ed., pp. 104-105; Joyce, "Old Irish Folk 
Music and Songs," 1909, No, 425, pp. 236-237; "Journal of the Irish 
Folk Song Society," October, 1912, xii, 27 (a peculiar version) ; "Songs 
of our Land" (Boston, Donahoe [185- ]), pp. 57-58 ("Shuile Agra," 
with additional stanzas). A text "adapted by the editor," Alfred B. 
Graves, may be found in "The Irish Song Book," pp. 6-7; in "Sixty 
Irish Songs," edited by William A. Fisher (Boston, cop. 1915), pp. 
154-157; and in Boulton and Somerwell's "Songs of the Four Nations" 
(London, 1893), No. 40, pp. 210-214 (with an Irish translation by 
Dr. Douglas Hyde, "Sinbhail a Graidh"). 

The well-known Yale song entitled "Shool" is a comic rifacimtnic 
of "Shule Aroon." See Charles S. Elliot, "Songs of Vale" (New 
Haven, 1870), pp. 50-51; C. Wiston Stevens, "College Song Book" 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


(Boston, cop. i860), pp. 40-43; Henry R. Waite, "Cannina Colligen- 
aa" (Boston, cop. i860), p. 44; the same, "Student Life in Song" 
(Boston, cop. 1879), pp. 119-121; "Camp Songs" (Boston, Ditson, 
cop. 1861, p. 41).] 

NO, sir! 
Pound, 43; Wolford (see biblif^raphy under Division IV), 73. See 
"O, No, John!" in "Folk Songs from Somerset," No. 94, and in "One 
Hundred English Folksongs," No. 68 (this air should be compared 
with the second one printed below). Compare the fragment in 
"Journal of the Folk-Song Society," iv, 298. Miss Eddy sends two 
variants. The first air was learned by her as a girl; the second she 
gets from the singing of Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, O. 

Al - waya to an 

the young nun No. No, No, 

; J' J ^-iM^^fl fl i J' J' tm 

No, nr. No, Al • ways to an - awer the toudk man No. 

■o; Tell mewhy,whenaikedaqi]eition. Yon will always answer 
Chokub. I 1 

No. No,nr, No.iir, No,nr, No,iir, No,rir, No,iir, 

No, wr, No. No sir, No, . .TTT. sir. No, sir. No. sir. No, lir. No. 


4o6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

["No, %!" (almost word for word like No. i) occurs in "Gems of 
Minstrel Song" (cop. 1882 by W. F. Shaw), p. 33 ("Words and Mtuic 
Arr. by A. M. Walnfield"); "Popular Songs and Ballads" (cop. 
18S2 by W. F. Shaw), p. [62] (with the same note as to words and 
music); "Delaney's Song Book No. 23" (New York [1900I). p. 26. 
It is manifestly an adaptation of the familiar "No, Jcrfm!" A Uad 
of "answer" to the song is "Yes, Sir!" in "Delaney's Song Book 
No. 23," p. 26. 

In another and more sophisticated working-over of the same motif 
the dia]<^ue is reported, not given directly: "Nol No! Sui% by &fn. 
Wrighten, at Vauxhall" (e^hteenth-century slip. Harvard College, 
25242.3, fol. 132). It begins, — 

That I might not be plagu'd with the nonaente <A men. 

I promiB'd my mother agaia and again. 

To says \nc\ as she bids me wherever I go. 

And to all that they ask, I should answer them no. 

A duet on the same theme is "No! nol" "The American Minstrri" 
(Cincinnati, 1837, cop. 1836), pp. 303-304 ("The cel^>rated duet 
sung by Mr. Sinclair and Mrs. Rowbotham"); "The Anger's Own 
Book," new edition (Philadelphia, cop. 1832), p. 46 (with singers as 
above); the same (reprint by Leavitt and Alien, New York), p. 46; 
"Burton's Comic Songster" (Philadelphia, 1838), pp. 98-99, also 
in the reprint of 1856 (" Billy Burton's Comic Songster," New York, 
Richard Marsh), pp. 98-99 ("Sung by Mr. Brunton and Mrs. Row- 
botham"); "The Bijou Minstrel" (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 
1840), p. 274; "Col. Crockett's Free and Easy Song Book," p. 241 
("Sung by Mr. Sinclair and Mrs. Rowbotham"); "The Arkansas 
Tra\-eller's Songster" (New York, cop. 1864), p. 61 ("The celebrated 
Duett in the Burletta of 'No.' As sung by James Dunn and Mra. 
W. G. Jones, at the New Bowery Theatre. Air — 'Isabel'"). 

A simple and pretty \-erdon of the " No" theme is "You shan't, Sr!" 
("The Melodist, and Mirthful Olio," London, 1828, ii, 148-149.) 

Other related pieces of older date are: (i) "The Dumb Lady; Or, 
No, no, not I; I'le Answer" (begins, " Underneath a little Mountain ") : 
Roxburghe collection, ii, III ; Pepys, iii, 128; Douce, 65 v.; Hutb, i, 
83; Crawford, No. 1224 (Roxbui^he Ballads, ed. Ebeworth, iv, 35^- 
354; Crawford Catalogue, p. 443); and (2) ''O nay, nay. not yet'* 
(begins, "A \-oung man n-alking all alone"): "Merry Drollery," Part 
1, 1661, pp. 32-33, in Ebsworth's reprint of "Choyce Drollay," 1876, 
pp. 204-206; "Percy MS,, Loose and Humorous Songs," pp. 92-93. 
One may note two other songs of similar tenor, — "No, my Love, 
not I" (Harvard broadsides- '»=-»a2.i7, iv, 103, John Gilbert, New- 
castle, No. 17; and \'i, 82, u-ham. No. 40); and "No, Tom, 


Trad4Honal Texts and Tunes. ^yj 

No" (35243.17, ii, 33, George Walker, Jun., Durbam, No. 18). Com- 
pare alio "Roxburghe Ballads," ed. Ebewortb, vi, 157 -158; vii, 30i.] 


Sufv to Mtas Eddy by Mtw Lucille Wlaoa, PerrysvUle, O. Learned 
from the singing of her father, whose home was in western Pennsyl- 

J. I J I J ; J' .f l i e J' J I J ^^ 

1. Old gTMiddiddr's dead sadlsid fn bbiraoc. Laid In htacnvc. 

I j*.^ M J' J - J, I J I J ; _ j^ 

lid fat faia Knve, Old frand - dad • dy*! dead aad 

^' c J ^ Iff f J J' J M^ ^ 

Ud la hk gnrc ^ Laid, yci^ laid in hk grare. 
3. There sprang up an apple-tree right at his head. 

3. When all the apples were ready to pick, 

4. There came an old woman to gather them up. 

5. Old grsnddaddy jumped right out of his grave, 

6. He gave the old woman a wonderful kick. 

7. She managed to climb up a ■trawberry hill, 

8. And there she sat down and made her last will. 

9. The aaddle and bridle hangs on the shelf, 

to. If you want any more, you may ^ng it yourself. 

[See Newell, "Games and Songs of American Children," 1884, 
I^. loo-ioi ("Old Grimes"); Barry, No. 74 ("OW Grumble"); Pound, 
p. 57; JAFL xiii, 230-334 ("Little Johnny Wattles"); F. C. Brown, 
"Ballad-Literature in North Carolina," p. 11 ("Old Grumley"); 
"Focus," iii, 155-156 ("Old Grundy"), iii, 374-375 ("Bobbie"). Dr. 
B. L. Jones reports the song from Michigan ("Old Crompy," "OM 
PWnpey," "Old Crony," "Old Jumbly"). I have a copy from Maine 
whidi preserves the Protector's name ("Oliver Cromwell went down 
to Whitehall"). 

For English texts see Gomme, "Traditional Games," ii, 16-34 
("OM Roger"), and "Children's Singing Games," pp. 48-51; Broad- 
wood and Fuller Maitland, "English County Songs" ("Oliver Crom- 
well"); Gillington, "Old Hampshire Singing Games," pp. 4-5 ("Old 
Roger"); Norman Douglas, "London Street Games," 1916, pp. 76- 
77. Compare Leather, "Folk-Lore of Herefordshire," p. 363.J 


4o8 Journal of American Polk-Lore. 


Belden, No. 52, "Momee (Maumee);" Pound, 66, "ftwtty Mattmee, 

The Pretty Mohea;" Shearin, 12, "The Pretty Mohee (Maumee)." Wy- 

man, Lonesome Tunes, i, 53 fT. Pound, American Ballads and Songi, 

1933, 197 f. 

A young man is attracted by a fair Indian lass. Afterwards, when 
jilted, he longs to return to her, "And spend all my days with my 
pretty Mohee." 
Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper sends a text, nine stanzas. 
[This song has been found in Kentucky by Miss Loraine Wyman, 
and in Michigan by Dr. B. L. Jones. It is printed in an abbreviated 
form in "Delaney's Song Book No. 16" (New York [1897]), p. 24. 
"The Little Mohee" appears to be a chastened American remaking 
of the favorite English broadside song of "The Indian Lass," which 
b^lins, — 

As I was walking on yon far distant shore, 
I went into an alehouse for to spend an hour. 
As I sat smoking and taking my glass, 
By chance there came in a young Indian lass. 

She sat down beside me and squeezed my haad, 
"Kind sir, you're a stranger, not one of this land, 
I have got fine lodgings if with me you will stay. 
My portion you shall have without more delay." 

See Kidson, "Traditional Tunes," pp. 109-111; "Journal (rf the FcJk- 
Song Society," ii, 262 ; and the following Harvard broadsides: 25242.17, 
iii, 100 (Forth, Pocklington, No. 146); iv, 70 (John Gilbert, New- 
castle, No. 74); iv, 140 (John Ross, Newcastle, No. 74); vi, 213 (no 
imprint, No. 128); x, 124 (Bebbington, Manchester, No. 380); ». 36 
(Such, No. 36) ; Nichols, Wakefield. " The Indian Lass " is extant in 
an American broadade, — de Marsan, List 14, No. 40.] 


Belden, No. 66. I take the title of this interesting song-^lebate 
from Hamlin Garland's autobit^aphy, "A Son of the Middle Bor- 
der" (Macmillan, 1917), see pp. 43-45, 466. He speaks of the song 
as "embodying admirably the debate which went on in our home as 
well as in the homes of other farmers." The book brings out vividly 
the importance of ballad -singing as an element in pioneer life. 

Copied in an album by Rev. Franklin Eddy, father of Mise Eddy, 
with the date 1852, Ashtabula, O. The tune sung by Mr. Henry 
Maurer, Perr>-s\-ille, O 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

1. "Since times are so bard, I must tell you, sweetheart, 
That I must leave off with my plough and my cart. 
Away to Wisconsin a journey I'll go, 

To double my fortune as other folks do. 

"Whilst here I must labor each day En the field, 
And the winter consumes all that summer doth yield," 

2. "O Collins! we witnessed your sorrow at heart. 

I see you've neglected your plough and your cart; 
Your hogs, sheep, and cattle at random do run; 
And your best Sunday jacket goes every day on. 

"Then stay on your farm, and you'll suffer no loss, 
For a stone that keeps rolling can gather no moss." 

3. "O wife, let us go! and don't let us stay; 
I long to be there, I long to be great; 
You'll be some great lady, and perhaps that 1 
Will be some great governor before I shall dte. 

Chorus: "Whilst here I must," etc. 

4. "O husband! remember that land will be too dear. 
And you'll have to work hard for many a year; 
Your hogs, sheep, and cattle will all be to buy. 
And you'll scarcely get settled before you will die. 

Chorus: "Then stay on your farm," etc, 

5. "0 wife, let us go! and don't let us stand; 
I'll purchase a farm all cleared by the hand, 
Where hogs, sheep, and cattle are not very dear. 
And we'll feast on fat buffalo half of the year. 

Chorus: "Whilst here I must," etc. 

6. "0 husband! remember that land of delight, 
Where Indians do plunder by day and by night; 
They'll plunder your houses, and burn to the ground, 
And your wife and your children lay mangled around. 

Chorus: "Then stay on your farm," etc. 


410 Journal of American Potk-Lore. 

7. "0 wife! you've convinced me, I"ll argue no morei 
I never had thought of your dying before; 
I love my dear children, although they are small; 
And you, my dear wife, ts more precious than all. 

"Then I'll stay on my farm, if I suffer no loss. 
If the stone that keeps rolling can gather no moss." 


The following may all be called variants of "The Sailor Boy:" 
"Journal of the Folk-Song Society," i, 99; "One Hundred English 
Folksongs," No. 72; JAFL xxx, 363-364 (see for references).' 

The last two stanzas of the text here given are found in "The 
Butcher's Boy," Part I, 169-170. 

Sung to Miss Eddy by Mr. Henry Maurer, Perrysville, O, 

weep and mount For the sake of the lov • cr that neT-er w{U 

2, Black is the color of my true-lover's hair. 
His resemblance is the lily's fair. 

To tell, to tell, will give me joy. 

For none will 1 have but my sweet sailor boy> 

3. Father, father, build me a boat, 
That I may on the ocean float; 
And every ship that I sail by. 

There I'll inquire for my sweet sailor boy. 
[< Add: Cbriatopber Stone, Sea Songa and Ballads, pp. 174-17A; Cuala pRSS E 
side for August, 1909 (Second Year, No. 3>.| 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 411 

4. As I sailed down from Spain, 

I saw three ships sail over the main, 

I hailed a happy captain as he passed by. 

And there I inquired for sweet Willy boy. 

5. "Captain, captain, tell me true. 
Doth sweet Willy sail with you? 
To tell, to tell, 'twill give me Joy, 

For none will I have but sweet Willy boy." 

6. "O fair lady! I'll tell you true. 

He was drowned in the gulf below; 
On &toc Isle as we passed by. 
There we left your sweet sailor boy." 

7. She dashed her boat against a rock, 

I thought the lady's heart was broke, 
She wrung her hands and tore her hair. 
Just like a lady in despair. 

8. "Bring me a chair to sit upon, 
And pen and ink to write it down." 

At the end of every line she dropped a tear, 
At the end of every verse cried, "Oh, my dear! " 

9. "Dig my grave both wide and deep; 
Put a marble stone at my head and feet, 
And on my breast a turtle dove. 

To show the world that I did love." 

THE sailor's BRIDB. 
Pound, 42. 


Sent by Miss Eddy. Written by Rev. Franklin Eddy in an album 
dated Ashtabula, O., 1852. 

I. 'Twas early spring when I was young. 

The flowers they bloomed and the birds they sang, 
All was happy, but none so happy as I, 
When my lovely sailor lad was nigh. 

Trol lol lu, trol lol la, etc.. 
All was happy, etc. 

3. The evening star was shining still, 

And twilight peeped o'er the eastern hill; 
The sailor lad and his lovely bride 
Sat weeping by the ocean's side. 


412 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. 'Twas scarce three months ve had been wed, 
And oh, how fast the moments fled! 

But we were to part at the dawning of the day. 
And the proud ship bore my love away. 

4. Long months passed by, he came no more 
To his weeping bride on the distant shore; 

The ship went down 'mid the howling of the storm. 
And the sea engulfed my sailor's form. 

5. 'Tis autumn now, and t am alone. 

The flowers have bloomed, and the birds have flown; 
All is sad, yet none so sad as I, 
For my sailor lad no more was nigh. 

6. My sailor sleeps beneath the wave. 
The mermaids they Icneel o'er his grave. 
The mermaids they at the bottom of the sea, 
Are weeping their sad tears for me. 

7. I would that I were sleeping too, 

In the slent wave of the ocean blue; 
My soul to my God, my body in the sea. 
And the wild waves rolling over me. 


Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, O. Miss Eddy 
sends a third text, which is a little shorter. 

lUnkhow ma • ny find a grave Bcneaththe wide, oat-ipreadfaig wave 

. But now I will relate a case 
Which happened in my early days. 
Of a sailor boy whose heart was true 
But now he lies in the ocean blue. 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 413 

3. 'Twas early spring, the year was young. 
The flowers did bloom, the birds they sung. 
But not a bird was happier than I, 
When my loved sailor boy was nigh. 

4. The moon had risen o'er the eastern hills. 
The stars they shone in the twilight still; 
The sailor boy and hb bride 

Were walking by the ocean side. 

5. 'Twas scarce three months since first we met, 
But oh, how swift the moments fledl 

And we must part at the dawning of the day, 
And the proud ship bears my love away. 

6. Long months passed away, he came no more 
To his weeping bride on the ocean shore; 

The ship went down at the howling of the storm. 
And the waves closed o'er my lover's form. 

7. Would that I were resting too, 
Beneath the waves in the ocean blue; 
My soul at rest in the bottom of the sea. 
And the blue waves rolling over me. 


Sung to Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo., by Mr. Frank Covell. 
See under " The Flying Cloud." 

1. A is the axe that cutteth the pine; 
B is the jolly boys, never behind; 
C is the cutting we early begin; 

And D is the danger we ofttimes are in. 

And it's merry, merry, so merry are we; 
Not a mortal on earth is more happy than we. 
Then it's a heigh derry derry, and a heigh derry down. 
The shanty boy is willing when nothing goes wrong. 

2. E is the echo that makes the woods ring; 
And F is the foreman, the head of our gang; 
G is the grindstone we grind our axe on; 
And H ia the handle so smoothily worn. 


3. I is the iron that marketh the pine; 
And J is the jolly boys, never behind; 
K is the keen edges our axes we keep; 
And L is the lice that keeps us from sleep. 



414 Journal of American Folk'Lore. 

4. M is the moss we stick in our camps; 
And N is the needle ve sew up our pants; 
is the owl that hoots in the night; 

And P is the tall pine we always fall right. 

5. Q is the quarrels we do not allow; 

And R IS the river our logs they do plough; 
S is the sleighs so stout and so strong; 
T is the teams that haul them along. 

6. U is the use we put our teams to: 

V is the valley we haul our logs through; 
W is the woods we leave in the spring. 
I've told you all I'm a-going to dug. 
Part I, 188. A text in JAFL xxiii, 447. English Folk Songs from the 
Southern Appalachians, No. 41. See also JAFL xxx, 363.* Pound, Ameri- 
can Ballads and Songs, 1922, 68 f. 

"Roxburghe Ballads," ed. Ebsworth, vi, 230 f., seems to be an 
early form of this piece. The lover is a Keeper. In the same collec- 
tion, vii, 559 ff., he becomes a Seaman. 

This air was sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Virginia Summer, Canton, 
O. The latter learned it from her mother, who died deven years 
ago, aged dghty-four. 

Sol - dier, (^ sol - dier jnR com - ing from the plahi. He 
conn - ed a la • dy of hoo • or and fsme. Her 

n^^^^ ^1 ^ ' ^^ I I I 

rich - es were so great that tbeyKarce-ly cooM be told. And 

W J' J' J J- J J ^, I W i^ ^ 

ret the loTcd a sol • dier for be - ing ao bold. 

> [Printed ca. 1800 or earlier In The Echo; or, Columbian Sont«er, ad ed., 
MaM., pp. 150-153.] 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 415 


Part I, 188; see references there. Much information here ^ven 
comes from Professor Kittredge. Brackets indicate verbatim quota- 
tions from him. 

The statements made by Robert O. Morris of Springfield, Mass., 
in the "Springfield Weekly Republican" of Oct. 8, 1908, are based 
upon "An Historical Address delivered at the Centennial Celebra- 
tion of the Town of Wilbraham," in 1863. [The exact form of the 
record is given by Chauncey E. Peck ("The History of Wilbraham," 
p. 79): "Timothy Mirrick, the son of Lt. Thomas and Mary ' Mir- 
rick, was bit by a ratel snake on August the 7th, 1761, and died within 
about two or three ours, he being 22 years, two months and three 
days old and vary near the point of marridg." The fullest account 
of the tragedy (apart from articles in this Journal) is given by Peck, 
pp. 79-84. It is much su[>erior to that of Stebbins.] 

Dr. Rufus P. Stebbins, the orator at Wilbraham's centennial cele- 
bration, furnished Mr. Morris a text which he believed to be the exact 
words of the author's copy. According to direct tradition, he says, 
the author was one Nathan Terry. {Practically the same text was 
printed by J, G. Holland ("History of Western Massachusetts," ii, 
161-162), who calls his version "an authentic copy, preserved in the 
family." It was reprinted in JAFL xiii, 107-108. E. E. Hale re- 
prints Stebbins's text in his "New England History in Ballads" 
(1903. PP- 86-88).] 

Mr. David A. Wells, of national reputation, also investigated this 
ballad. He gave Nathan Torrey as the name of the author. He 
gave as approximating the original text a version (also in the "Weekly 
Springfield Republican," Oct. 8, 1908) very similar to that of Steb- 
bins. "At Wilbraham's centennial celebration this poem was lined 
off in the old-fashioned way and sung by the audience" (Morris). 

[The more or less comic version given by the famous humorist John 
Phoenix (George H. Derby) in "The Squibob Papers" (New York, 
1865), pp. 45-52, is reproduced (with due credit) in "The Wandering 
Refugee Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), p. 40; "The 'We Won't 
Go Home till Morning" Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), p. 52; 
"Yankee Robinson's 'Beautiful Amazon' Songster" (New York, cop. 
1870), p. 46; and "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental 
Singers' Journal," i, 40 (No. 5). 

Another comic version is printed in "Hooley's Opera House Song- 
ster" (New York, cop. 1864), p. 56 ("sung by Archy Hughes"), and 
in "Bryant's' Songs and Programme for the Week commencing Oct. 
30th, 1865," vii, 761-762, No. 48 ("sung by the Quisby Oglers;" 
> [Morria givea the name wroiiEly as Eunice.) ■ (Bryant's Minstrela.l 


4l6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Music of this Song for sale by Wm. A. Pond & Co., 547 Broadway, 
New York"). 

An older and shorter comic version is given in " Book of Words of 
the Hutchinson Family," New York, 1851 (= "Book of Poetry of the 
Hutchinson Family," New York, 1858), p. 37 ("as sung in the oW 
fashioned Continental style").] 

Miss Eddy's father, Rev. Franklin Eddy, when twenty years old, 
copied the following form of the poem in an autc^aph book dated 
Ashtabula, O., 1852. 

The Major's Son. 

1. On Springfield Mountain there did dwell 
A noble youth who was known full well; 
He was the major's only son. 

And he was aged twenty-one. 

2. On Monday morning he did go 
Down to the meadow for to mow; 

He mowed one round, and then did feel 
A poison serpent at hts heel. 

3. When he received this deathly wound. 
He threw his scythe upon the ground; 
Returning home was his intent, 

A-calling loudly as he went. ^ 

4. His voice was heard both far and near. 
But not a friend to him appeared; 
They thought 'twas workmen he did call: 
Alas, poor man! he fell alone. 

5. When daylight gone and evening came, 
His father went to seek his aon; 

And when he came to where he lay, 
He was dead and cold as any clay. 

6. Hb eyes and mouth were closed fast, 
His hands were laid across his breast. 
They thought he laid him down to rest; 
Alas, poor man! he breathed his last. 

7. In seventeen hundred eighty-one. 
When this sad accident, was done. 
Let this a warning be to all 

To be prepared when God doth calL 

Miss Eddy obtained a version of "Springfield Mountain" from 
Mr. C.B.Galbreath, State Librarian of Ohio, that was " fwmeriy very 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


popular in western Ohio." This form is superior to any of the four 
texts given in Pound, "American Ballads and Songs " C1922), 97-100. 
Miss Pound holds that ballads naturally deteriorate in tradition. The 
Galbreath text is a singable ballad. The original memorial poem is 
heavy and prosy in comparison. 


Sung to Miss Eddy by Mr. Summer, Canton, O.; learned by him 
about 1869. Lomax ("Cowboy Songs," pp. 44-46) prints a longer 
form. See JAFL xxv, 14 (Belden); xxvi, 186. Pound (p. 28) prints 
a text; reprinted in Pound, American Ballads and Songs, 1922, 163 f. 
I have heard a Kentucky variant sung by the Rev. G. R. Combs, 
Paris, Ky. [B. L. Jones ("Folk Lore in Michigan," p. 4) reports the 
song. Wehman's broadside No. 748 ("The Texan Ranger") lacks 
the third stanza of Miss Eddy's text.] 

tnm-blei Thmt'i hap-pened d 

2. My name 'tis nothing extra, 

But it I will not tell, 
I am a roving ranger. 
And I'm sure I wish you well. 

3. It was at the age of sixteen 

I joined a jolly band, 
We marched from San Antonio 
Unto the Rio Grande. 

4. Our captain he informed us, 

Perhaps he thought it right. 
Before we reached the station, 
"Boys, we will have to fight." 

5. I saw the black smoke rinng, 

I saw it bathe the sky, 
The very first thought struck me, 
"Now is my time to die." 

6. I saw the Indians comii^, 

I heard them give the yell, 
I saw their glittering gUnces, 
And the arrows round me fell. 


4i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

7. But full nine hours we fought them 

Before the strife was o'er. 
The lilce of dead and woundAl 
I never saw before. 

8. Six of the noblest rangers 

That ever saw the West, 
We buried by these comrades, 
There ever for to rest. 

9. I thought of my old mother. 

In tears to me did say, 
"To you they are all strangers. 
With me you'd better stay." 

10. I thought she was old and childish, 

And this she did not know, 
My mind was bent on roving, 
And 1 was bound to go. 

11. Perhaps you have a mother, 

Likewise a sister, too, 
Perhaps you have a sweetheart. 
To weep and mourn for you. 

12. If this be your condition, 

Although you bve to roam, 
I advise you by experience. 
You had better stay at home. 


( Version a.) 
The following song, sent by Miss Eddy, comes from the collectioii 
made by the father of Mr. Charles B. Galbreath, Columbus, O. 

Jimmy and Diana. 

1. In Cumberland city, as you shall all hear. 
There lived a young damsel both comely and fair. 
Her name was Diana, scarce fifteen years old, 

And she had to her position [portion?] a large sum (tf pAd, 

2. Besides an estate, when her father did die. 

Which caused many a young man to court the lady; 
Among the whole number sweet Jimmy was one. 
Who strove for to make this fair damsel his own. 

3. Hand in hand together they used for to walk. 

To hear the small birds sing, and sweetly they'd talk; 
He said, "My Diana, sweet, innocent maid. 
My lovely Diana, my heart you've betrayed." 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 419 

4. In two or three weeks after, her father did say, 
"Go dress yourself up in your best rich array. 
For I've a knight for you worth thousands a year. 
And he says he will make you his joy and his dear." 

5. "To wed with any young man I don't feel inclined, 
To wed with any old man I won't be confined. 
Besides, I'm too young, and I pray you, therefore. 
To let me live single one year or two more." 

6. "0 stubborn daughter! Oh, what do you mean? 
Go dress yourself up, no more fit to be seen," 

In this wretched condition this maid was forced out, 
And she went a-roving the groves all about. 

7. She went to yonder bower where the small birds stng sweet, 
Where she and her Jimmy they used for to meet; 

She sat herself down by the side of a tree, 
And a strong dose of poison ended her misery. 

8. She had not been there one half-hour, I'm sure. 
Till Jimmy came roving the groves o'er and o'er; 
He espied his Diana, a note laying by. 

And in it she told him, " 'Tis for you I die." 

9. He kissed her cold clay lips ten thousand times o'er; 
"I'm robbed of my jewel; I'm robbed of my store," 
He fell on his sword like a lover so brave; 

Now Jimmy and Diana both lie in one grave. 

[This is an interesting version of the serious ballad on which the 
celebrated comic song of "Villikens and his Dinah" was founded 
(see JAFL xxix, 190-191). One other serious version is appended 
for comparison.^ 

(Version 6.) 

Communicated by Emelyn E. Gardner about five years ago with 
this note : — 

"The following ballad was sung to me by Mrs. Zilpha Richtmyer 
of West Conesville, N,Y. She had learned it from her mother, who 
had learned it from ker mother, who had brought it from England 
with her more than a century ago." 

> |This serious ballad, "Willtaro and Dlnab." Is known in broadsides, —Catnach, for 
example, and W. King, Oxford. A copy given me by Mr. P. C. Walker in iQto dIfFen 
from Catnach In only a few small points: It was taken down by bim In St. John, New 
Brunswick. " from the recitation of Mrs. Robert Lane, who emigrated from Enslond at 
a very early age." and whose songs "mainly descended from her mother, a native ol 


420 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


1. Come, listen k while, and to you I will tell 
Concerning a damsel who ia London did dwell. 
Her name 'twas Diana, scarce sixteen years old. 
And her fortune 'twas full thirty thousand in gold; 

2. Besides a large estate, if her father should die. 
Which caused many a suitor to court this lady. 
Among this whole number Sir William was one; 
There was none that she fancied like to Sir William, 

3. Her father came home on one certain day. 
And unto his only dear daughter did say, 

"O daughter, dear daughter! you need never fear, 
I've another match for you worth thousands a year." 

4. Said she, "Honest father, oh, don't me confinel 
But to marry this citizen is not my design." — 
"Consider ten thousand a year you shall have." 
Said she, "I would rather go choose me a grave." 

5. Sir William, when walking the garden around, 
Espied his Diana lying dead on the ground, 
With a cup of strong poison and a note \y\a% by. 
And in it did tell how Diana did die. 

6. "Sir William, Sir William, I bid you farewell. 

And the love I bore for you there's no tongue can tell. 

But take my advice now, although 1 am gone. 

And marry some fair maid both handsome and young." 

7. He kissed her cold lips a thousand times o'er, 

And called her his dear one, though she was no morCi 
Then fell on his sword like a hero so brave; 
Now he and Diana both sleep in one grave.] 


Part I, 191. Miss Eddy sends two airs. The first Is from the 
singing of Mrs. M. M. Moores, PerrysvJlIe, O.; the second, from Mis. 
Ryland, Ashland, O. 

As an interesting example of the way in which ballads get localized, 
Mr. Henry Maurer tells Miss Eddy that this song was written con- 
cerning "Charlotte Dills, who was frozen to death at Auburn, lod., 
in 1862. She had two brothers who were lawyers, and one who was 
a minister." 

In his full account of this poem and its author (JAFL xxv, 156-168), 
Mr. Phillips Barry tells us that the ballad was composed by WUiam 


TradUional Texts and Tunes. 421 

Carter "before he left Vermont, in 1833;" and points out that the 
ori{^nal occurrence is claimed for the poet's birthplace, Benson, or 
Bensontown, Vt. (pp. 158-159). Barry prints a full text in JAFL 
xxii, 367-370. Pound, American Ballads and Songs, 1922, 103-107. 

See text and notes, JAFL xx, 274 f. 

Sent to Miss Eddy from the Frenchburg School, Frenchburg, Ky., 
by its president. Rev. A. G. Weidler, 

1. Sweet Mary was a servant girl; 

She loved the sailor boy 
Who ploughed the main much gold to gain, 
Down in the Lowlands low. 

2. "My father keeps a public-house 

Down by the seaside shore, 

And you can enter there to-day, 

And there all night may stay. 

3. "I'll meet you in the morning here; 

Don't let my parents know 
Your name, young Edward dear. 
Who ploughs the Lowlands low." 


422 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

4. Young Edward he eat down to drintdog there 

Till time to go to bed, 
But little was he thiaking then 
What Boon would crown his head. 

5. Young Edward rose and went to bed; 

Had scarcely gone to sleep, 
When Mary's cruel father bold 
Into his room did creep. 

6. He killed him there, and dragged him 

Down the seaside shore; 
He sent his body bleeding 
Down to the Lowland low. 

7. Sweet Mary she lay sleeping. 

She dreamed a frightful dream; 
She dreamed she saw her lover's blood 
Flowing in a stream. 

8. She arose, put on her clothes. 

Just at the break of day; 
"Father, where is that young man 
Who came last night to stay? " 

9. "He's dead, he's dead, no tales to tell; 

His gold will make a show." 
"You've killed the one that loved me. 
The one that loved ine so. 

10. "My true-love Is in the ocean. 
The waves roll o'er his breast, 
His body is in motion, 
I hope his soul's at rest." 

[A Kentucky text of "Young Edwin (Edward) in the Lowlands," 
contributed by Miss Pettit, was printed in JAFL xx, 274-375, with 
references to "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," i, 124, and to 
broadsides published by Catnach and Bebbington. Miss Loraine 
Wyman has also found the song in Kentucky; and Campbell and 
Sharp print versions (with airs) from North Carolina, Tennessee, 
and Georgia (No. 46, pp. 169-172). Belden has it from Missouri 
i(No. 79); Shearin, from Kentucky (p. 9, "Driver Boy"); and B. L. 
Jones reports it from Michigan (Folk-Lore in Michigan, p, 4, "Young 
Emma"). Mackenzie records it in Nova Scotia ("Young Edmund" 
■or "Young Emily"), and prints two stanzas (The Quest of the Ballad, 
pp. 154-155). It is known in Scotland and Ireland (see i-ef ei e n ce s 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 423 

in Campbell and Sharp, p. 330), as well as in England. In addition 
to the broadsides already mentioned, the Harvard College Library 
has Forth (Pocklington), Such (No. 228), John Gilbert (Newcastle, 
No. 30), Pitts, Jackson & Co. (Birmingham, late J. Russell), and 


The homiletic ballads of the United States are a very characteristic 
product. I print some pieces that have lately come to me, also two 
which I mentioned in Part I, 191-192, by title, but which seem good 
enough, in their doleful way, to deserve preservation. 

Six songs in JAFL xiv, 286-292, are examples of the homiletic 
type. An interesting collection of religious and homiletic ballads is 
printed in the "Journal of the [English] Folk-Song Society," ii, 115- 
139. Many of these are intended for anging as Christmas carols. 

AWFin,! AWFUL t awful! 
Belden, No. 42. Mr. W. J. Button of Long Beach, Cal., writes 
me: "I recall a song that was in oral tradition in my youth [sixty 
years ago]. I heard it in Indiana, though I think it came from Ken- 
tucky. I remember only one stanza [a form of stanza 2 below]: — 
" 'I saw a youth the other day, 
All in his prime, he looked so gay, — 
But he trifled all his time away. 
And now he's brought to Eternity. 
Oh, it's awful! awful! awful!' 

This stanza and several others, sung in a minor key, never failed 
in their effect — at least, on one youthful hearer." 

Professor Belden has printed the two opening stanzas of the piece 
in JAFL XXV, 18. He kindly sends me the following complete text, 
with permission to print. He has three variants. This text was 
taken from the manuscript ballad book of Mrs. Lida Jones, compiled 
probably in the sixties, and was secured for Professor Belden by Miss 
Ethel Lowry from Mrs. Jones's nephew, C. A. Scott of Everton, Dade 
County, Missouri, in 1906. The name at the bottom is presumably 
that of the person from whom Mrs. Jones obtained the text. 

1. Death is a melancholy call, 

A certain judgment for us all. 
Death takes the young as well as old. 
And lays them in his arms so cold. 
'Tis awful! awful! awful! 

2. I saw a youth the other day. 

He looked so young, he was bo gay; 
He trifled all his dme away, 
And dropped into eternity. 

'Tis awful! awful! awful! 


424 Journal of American Fdk'Lore. 

3. As he lay on his dying bed. 
Eternity begins to dread. 

He cries: "O Lord! I see my state; 
But now I fear I've come too late." 
'Tis awful ! awful ! awful ! 

4. His loving parents standing round, 
With tears of sorrow dropping down. 
He says: "0 father, pray for me! 

I am going to eternity." 

'Tis awful! awfull awful! 

5. His tender sister standing by 

Says: "Dearest brother, you must die; 
Your days on earth will soon be past; 
Down to the grave you must go at last." 
'Tis awful! awful! awful! 

6. A few more breaths may be percdved 
Before this young man takes his leave. 
"O father, fare thee well! 

I'm drawn by devils down to evil." * 
'Tis awfull awful! awful! 

7. The corpse was laid beneath the ground. 
His loving uster standing round 

With aching heart and troubled mind. 

To think her brother in hell's confined. 

'Tis awful ! awful I awful ! 

Locr Clary. 

THE drunkard's DOOM. 

Miss Eddy obtained the following text and air from Mrs. \^ifjiiia 
Summer, Canton, O. A shorter text and the second air came from 
Miss Jane Goon, Perrysville, O, 

r"J i J. ;J'.r;' ih. r ir- c r j |p 

I. At dawn of day 1 saw a man Stand by a|n>C M-loac^ 

^/ r i f c r I ij J J JN. J'J ^ 

Hb eyes were sunk, his lips were parched; Oh, that's the dnmkard'adooak. 
a the feU mooosrUable asMtte iiadf.— 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

a. His little son stood by his side. 
And to his father said, 
"Father, mother lies dck at home. 
And sister cries for bread." 

3. He roM and stagg;ered to the bar, 

As oft he'd done before. 
And to the landlord smilingly said, 
"Just fill me one glass more." 

4. The cup was filled at his command. 

He drank of the poisoned bowl, 
He drank, while wife and children starved. 
And ruined his own soul. 

$. A year had passed, I went that way, 

A hearse stood at the door, 

I paused to ask, and one replied, 

"The drunkard is no more." 

6. I saw the hearse move slowly on. 

No wife or child was there, 
They too had flown to heaven's bright home. 
And left a world of care. 

7. Now, all young men, a warning take. 

And shun the poisoned bowl; 
'Twil! lead you down to hell's dark gate. 
And ruin your own soul. 

eyes were red, hit lips were finb< I viewed him o' er and o' 


I have a version of thia poem, ninety-two lines long, entitled "The 
Death of a Young Woman," gotten by Miss Eddy from Miss Jane 
Goon, Perrysville, O. It is less effective than the shorter form of 
fifty lines here printed. A third text of fifty-six lines, no longer in 
my possession, was copied by Mrs. Jonah Simmons Brown, Warren, 
Ind., from her mother's copy-book, where it is dated Dec. 10, 1842. 
This is the only evidence I have as to the age of the piece. Unfor- 


426 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

tunately my three texts of the poem were listed in Part I, 191-192, 
as belonging to two separate [>oems. This, I now see, was a mistake. 

The fact that three fonns of this homiletic ballad from two States 
have come to me, shows that it enjoyed a wide circulation and great 
popularity. But I have also direct testimony on this ptnnt. Mrs. 
Ella Adams Moore, wife of Professor A. W. Moore of the University 
of Chicago, writes me as follows concerning the piece: " I never heard 
the poem except in Illinois, but some cousins from southern Indiana 
used to sing it with other ballads similarly affecting and edifying. I 
remember being tremendously stirred by them in my tender youth. 
... I believe this particular poem had rather a wide circulation. 
I never really kntw any of it; but I have heard it often." 

The text here printed comes through Mrs. Pearl H. Bartholomew 
from Mrs. Anderson, both of Warren, Ind. It was obtained in 1914, 
when Mrs. Anderson was eighty-five years old. 

I. A while before this daniBel died, 

Her tongue was speechless, bound and tied; 
At length she opened wide her eyes. 
And said her tongue was liberalized. 

3. She called her father to her bed. 
And thus in dying anguish said: 
"From meeting you have kept your child, 
To pleasures vain and wanton wild. 

3. "To frolics you would let me go. 
To dance ray soul to pain and woe. 
But now, dear father, do repent, 
And read the Holy Testament. 

4. "Your head is blooming for the grave; 
You have a precious soul to save. 
Your children teach to serve the Lord, 
And worship God in one accord," 

5. Her tender mother she then addressed,