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2. i-6 • ^ '^' 

llarbarti College Itltrarp 



One half the income from thli Legacy, which was re- 
ceived in 1880 under the will of 

of Waltham, Mauachuietts, is to be expended for books 
for the College Library. The other half of the income 
is devoted to scholarships in Harvard University for the 
benefit of descendants of 

who died at Watertown, Massachasens, in 1686. In the 
absence of such descendants, other persons are eligible 
to the scholarships. The will requires that this announce- 
ment shall be made in every book added to the Library 
under its provisions. 

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^uMMIiefe &p iS^t flLnuricati f ollt^Xorr Korittp 

G. E. STECHERT & CO., Agents 

NSW YORK : X51-X55 West ssth Strbbt PARIS : x6 wum vm CoKOk 


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7 '2-J'4. ^ 

Copjriglit, 1933, 

By Thb Amkrican Folk-Lorb SoaiTY 

All rights reserved 




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Porto-RicanFolk-Lore: Folk-Tales. . . H' ^^^j^'^'Z ] i 

\Aurelio M, Esptnosaj 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii . Franz Boas 62 
Riddles from Negro School-Children in New 

Orleans, La A. E. Perkins 105 

Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. WiUiam C. Bell 116 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portu- t Franz Boas ] 

guese South Africa \C. Kamba Simangoj 

Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Amer- 
ican Folk-Lore Society 205 

Bulu Tales George Schwab 209 

Two Folk-Tales from Nyasaland .A, Irving HaUoweU 216 

Short Notes on Soul-Trapping in Southern 

Nigeria L.W,G, Malcolm 219 

Negro Spirituals from the Far South . , A. E. Perkins 223 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, 

Traditional Texts and Tunes .... 

A. M, Bacon 1 

E. C. Parsons} ^^^ 

Albert H, Tolman\ 

Mary 0. Eddy J ^^^ 


Three Jamaican Folk-Stories .... Helen H. Roberts 328 

"Tar Baby" E. C. P. 330 

From "Spiritual" to Vaudeville. . . . E. C. P. 331 


Mason and Espinosa's Porto-Rican Folk- 
Lore: D^mas, Christmas Carols, Nurse- 
ry Rhymes, and Other Songs . Louise D. Dennis 99 

-n t' ^ \/f T\ • f • iAurelio M, Espinosa\ loi 

Repues to Miss Dennis s review . . 1 r ^u 1^ r 

*^ \J. Alden Mason J 102 

Gonzales' The Black Border E, C. P. 332 


List of Abbreviations used in this Volume v 

Index to Volume 35 . 433 

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BAE 19 James Mooney, Myths of the Cherokee 

(Annual Report, Bureau of American 
Ethnology, 19, Pt. i). 1897-98. 

Bolte u. Pollvka .... J. Bolte u. G. Polfvka, Anmerkungen zu 

den Kinder- u. Hausm^rchen der Brflder 

Christensen A. M. H. Christensen, Afro-American Folk 

Lore. Boston, 1892. 

Clouston W. A. Clouston, The Book of Noodles. 

New York, 1888. 

Cole Mabel Cook Cole, Philippine Folk Tales. 

Chicago, 1916. 

DSLhnhardt O. D^hnhardt, Natursagen. Berlin, 1907- 


Honey J. A. Honey, South African Folk-Tales. 

New York, 1910. 

JAFL Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

MAFLS Memoirs of the American Folk-Lore Society. 

Nassau R. H. Nassau, Where Animals Talk. Bos- 
ton, 1912. 

PaAM Anthropological Papers of the American 

Museum of Natural History. 

Schultze Leonhard Schultze, Aus Namaland und 

Kalahari. Jena, 1907. 

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Vol. 35.— JANUARY-MARCH, 1922.— No. 135. 


bt j. aldbn mason; bditbd by aurblio m. espinosa. 




57. Juan y los objetos migicos (59) 2 

58. Braulio el tonto y el enano del pozo (60) 7 

59. Juan y la princesa son echadoe al mar (61) 8 

60. Juan se compadece de un perro, un gato y una culebra (62) ... 14 

61. Los animales ayudan a Juan (63) 17 

62. E\ gusano ayuda a Juan (64): Juan arregia el asunto de los cabros 

(65) 18 

63. El traje de piel de piojo (66) 19 

64. Lra olla que calienta el agua sin f uego (39) : el pajaro virtuoso (24) : 

el traje de piel de piojo (66) 21 

65. El Doctor Todolosabe (67) 21 

66. El ramo de todas las flores (68) 22 

67. Los animales agradeddos, y las adivinanzas de Juan (69) .... 23 

68. El lunar de la princesa (55): las adivinanzas de Juan (70) .... 26 

69. Juan manda la cerda a misa (i): Juan mata la vaca (4): Juan mata 

a su hermano (2): Juan vende la carne a las moscas (6): las 
adivinanzas de Juan (70) 26 

70. Juan mata los polios (3): Juan manda la cerda a misa (i): Juan 

mata a su hermano (2) : las adivinanzas de Juan (70) 34 


71. La olla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39) 35 

72. La olla que calienta el agua sin fuego (39): El pito que resucita 

(40) : Pedro no quiere casarse con la hija del rey (31) 36 

73. Pedro no quiere casarse con la hija del rey (31) 37 

74. Pedro vende el cuero de la vaca (71): Pedro no quiere casarse con 

la hija del rey (31) 39 

^ Continued from p. 208 of Volume 34. 

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2 Journal of American Fclk-Lore. 


75. Le pagan por un muerto (44): Juan no quiere casarse con la hija 

del rey (31): El gigante trata de matarlo en el catre (76) ... 40 

76. Pedro sujetando el mundo (47) 43 

77. Pedro y I08 objetos m&gicos (59) 43 

78. Pedro se vuelve sirviente (La lista de pellejo [50]) 44 

79. La lista de pellejo (50) : Juan regresa con el perro (29) 45 

80. La lista de pellejo (50) : Juan corta matas de pl&tano y las patas de 

los novillos (33) : Pedro Ueva el Ho (73) 47 

81. Pedro mata a la madre del gigante (72): Pedro se lleva el Ho (73): 

Pedro se lleva el monte (74) : Pedro mete el dedo en el palo (75) : 
El gigante trata de matarlo en el catre (76): Pedro y el gigante 
tiran piedras mar afuera (77): La lista de pellejo (50): Pedro 
regresa con el perro (29) : El p&jaro virtuoso (24) 47 

82. La lista de pellejo (50) : El huevo y las batatas (78) : Pedro se lleva 

el Ho (73) : Pedro se lleva el monte (74) : Pedro mata a la madre 
del gigante (72) 51 

83. Pedro y las hijas de su amo (79) : Pedro logra matar a su amo (80) : 

La lisU de pellejo (50) 51 

84. Pedro y el le6n (81) 52 

85. Pedro se come las pajanllas del cabro (82) 53 

86. Pedro se come las pajarillas del cabro (82) : La muerte en el irbol 

(83) 55 

87. La muerte en el 4rbol (83): La muerte en la damajuana (84) . . 56 

88. La olla que calienta el agua sin f uego (39) : El sombrero maravilloso 

(85) : El compadre trata de matarlo (86) 57 

89. El sombrero maravilloso (85) 58 

90. £1 pito que resucita (40) : Pedro logra matar a su amo (80) ... 58 

L CuENTOS DE Juan Bobo, continued. 


Una vez habfa un hombre que se llamaba Juan Bobo. Vivfa con 
la madre en una casita en el campo. Un dfa le dijo a la madre que 
iba a elevarse hasta Uegar donde estaba Dies para que le diera dinero. 
La madre le dijo que no, pero al otro dJa hizo un hacho y le dijo: — 
Mam4 cuando V. vea que este hacho se eleva all! en aquel alto, es 
que yo me elevo con k\. Demostr&ndole el alto se fu4. Cuando lleg6 
tir6 el hacho en el aire y continu6 andando. Cuando hubo andado un 
poco se hall6 un viejo que le pregunt6 d6nde iba y 61 le dijo: — A 
buscar dinero donde esXJk Dios. 

Entonces el viejo le di6 una cajita y un bast6n y le dijo: — Cada vez 
que necesites dinero abre la cajita y tendr^ el que necesites, y al 
bast6n cuando te quieran atropellar dile: "jDescomponte bast6n!" 
El bast6n estar& dando palos hasta que le digas : " i Componte bast6n ! " 
Juan tom6 el bast6n y la caja y se fu4. Cuando lleg6 la noche pidi6 
posada para parar la noche y en la misma casa le robaron la caja. 

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(Version a.) 

Un dfa sali6 Juan Bobo de 8u casa sin permiso de sus padres para ir 
a casa de su padrino a pedirle el aguinaldo. Empez6 a andar, y anda 
y anda hasta que lleg6 a la casa de su padrino. — Buen dfa, mi querido 
padrino. Yo he venido para que V. regale mi aguinaldo. El padrino 
en s^;uida le dijo: — Buenos dfas querido ahijado, jc6'mo no? Tu 
aguinaldo est& seguro. Despu^ le convid6 a sentarse y se sent6. 
Al poco rato le trajo una pequeHa cabrita. — Toma, ahijado; esta 
cabrita. Cuando td necesitas dinero dile, ''Abre chivita" y despu^s 
"Cierra chivita." Tomando Juan Bobo la chivita en la mano, le 
dijo: — lAy! Padrino, ic6mo va a ser esto? — y se fu6. Como d 
camino era demasiado lejos, le cogi6 la noche y tuvo que dormir en 
una casita que encontr6 en una montafia muy alta. Pr^^nt6 si le 
daban posada y le dijeron sf , y subi6. Antes de entrar, dijo que trafa 
una cabrita que si le dedan ''ibrete" echaba dinero, y si le dedan 
"d^rrate," no echaba nada. Las personas que estaban en la casa 
contentas al ofr esto le dijeron que entrara que iban a dormir. En 
seguida se acostaron y Juan Bobo como era poco sabio de verdad, 
empez6 a roncar. Los de la casa entonces cogieron la chivita de Juan 
Bobo y la escondieron. 

Al otro dfa cuando se levant6, procur6 su chiva y no la encontr6. 
Allf se arreglaron y 61 volvi6 atr^s otra vez. — Padrino, d6me mi 
aguinaldo que el otro me lo cogieron. Su padrino le di6 una potran- 
quita y le dijo: — Si necesitas dinero dile "abre potranquita." En- 
tonces empez6 a andar hasta que lleg6 a la casa otra vez. Pidi6 posada 
y en seguida le dijeron que sf muy contentos. 

Se acostaron y empez6 el Bobo a roncar, y le cogieron la potranquit^ 
y la escondieron. Al otro dfa 61 no encontr6 su aguinaldo pero dom- 
prendi6 que en la misma casa se la habfan robado. 

Sali6 otra vez en busca del aguinaldo, pues hada tres dfas que no 
iba a su casa y no querfa llegar sin nada. — Padrino, d6me mi aguinaldo 
que me cogieron el que me di6 en la casa donde qued6 durmiendo. 
Al padrino le pudo mucho ya y le dijo: — Caramba contigo, ahijado. 
Toma este garrote; 116vatelo y cuando quieras que il di palos, dile 
"&brete garrote" y cuando no quieras, "ci6rrate." 

Lleg6 a la casa donde 61 dormfa y pidi6 posada. Subi6 con el 
garrote didendo que no dijeran ''abre garrote," pues darfa palos. 
EUos no le creyeron y dijeron "abre garrote" y empez6 a dar palos a 
viejas, mozas y ninas. Llamaron a Juan Bobo y 61 dijo que hasta que 
no le dieran sus intereses no deda " ci6rrate." Se los dieron y el garrote 
no di6 m^ palos. 

(Version b.) 

Una vez habfa una viejita que era muy pobre y tenfa un hijo, 
que era bobo. Un dfa le dijo el bobo a la madre: — Yo me voy a 

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4 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

alquilar en casa del rev . La madre le di jo : — Que t& te vas a alquilar, 
si tii no sirves para nada. — Sf , mam&, ver&s como yo te hago feliz. 

Y ella le dijo: — Bueno, vete a ver si te alquila. 

Y se fu6 el Bobo para en casa del rey. Al mes de estar en casa del 
rey, dijo: — Mi Majestad, yo quiero que usted me d6 con que ir a ver 
a mi mam&. Y el rey le dijo: — SI, ^c6mo no? Toma este mantel y 
cuando td llegues a tu casa tii tiendes el mantel en la mesa y despu6s 
le dices: "Ponte, mantel/' y 61 en seguida pone muchas cosas buenas 
y lo6 mejores manjares. 

Cuando iba para su casa, entr6 en la casa de una vieja que vivfa 
al f rente de la carretera, y lo llam6 y le dijo: — Bobo, si^ntate en la 
hamaca, que te voy a hacer un poco de caf6, pero qu^date dormido. 

Y cuando estaba dormido le cogi6 el mantel y le puso otro que no 
servfa para nada y despute lo llam6 para que tomase el cafi, y despu£s 
que se lo tom6 cogi6 su mantel que le habia cambiado la vieja y se fu6t 
y cuando lleg6 a su casa, la madre estaba ablandando unas habichuelas, 
y el Bobo le dijo: — Mam&, iquk est&s hadendo? Y ella le contest5: 
— Hijo, yo estoy hadendo unas habichuelas. — Pues mam&, bote eso 
queyo traigo una cosa buena. Mami, ponga la mesa para comer 
muchas cosas buenas. 

Y la vieja cogi6 las habichuelas y las bot6 y cuando 61 tendi6 el 
mantel le dijo: — Mam&, v6ngase a comer muchas cosas buenas. Y 
cuando tendi6 el mantel, que yz, la vieja estaba sentada, fu6 a poner 
el mantel y no le produjo nada; la vieja se qued6 sentada de lo m^ 
desconsolada, y le dijo: — Ves hijo, que me hiciste botar las 
habichuelas. Bueno, y se fu6 el Bobo a casa del rey y le dijo: — Rey, 
usted me ha engaflado a mi con su mantd. — Pues mira, aquella casa 
a que fuiste, aquella vieja te puso a dormir y te cogi6 el mantel nuevo 
y te puso otro viejo; pues mira, yo te voy a dar este bast6n y tfi 
cuando llegues a la casa, ella te ha de dedr, " Siibete, Bobo, te voy a 
hacer caf6." Y cuando td te subas, en seguida te sientas en la hamaca 
y deja el bast6n abajo y td en seguida te levantas y mandas a subir 
al bast6n y en seguida le dices: " Vea, bast6n" y en seguida comienza 
a darle palos y palos hasta que ella te tenga que dar el bast6n y despu^s 
dla te da el mantd y td te vas en seguida. 

(Version c.) 

Esta era una vez que habfa un hombre que se Uamaba Juan Bobo. 
Un dfa se fu6 a ganar dinero y donde trabaj6 le dieron una bolsa de 
dinero que cada vez que le deda, 'MComponte bolsa!" empezaba a 
soltar dinero. 

Una vez Juan Bobo fu6 a un baile y se Hev6 la bolsa. Cuando lleg6 
al baile le dijo a la vieja: — Tenga esta bolsa, pero no le diga "com- 

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PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 3 

ponte bolsa/' No \A€n volte6 Juan la cara, cuando la vieja dijo: — 
iCompcMite bolsa! — y empez6 a soltar dinero. Despute Juan Bobo 
tvtk a procurar su bolsa y la vieja le dijo que no la tenia. 

Otro dia Juan Bobo fu6 a trabajar a la misma casa y le dieron un 
bast5n que se le deda: "Componte bast6n" y empezaba a dar 

Un dfa fu6 Juan a la misma casa a un baile y le dijo a la vieja: — 
May vieja, tenga ese bast6n, pero no le diga ''componte bast6n." No 
tnen habfa virado el pobre Juan la cara, cuando dijo la vieja: — 
iCon^x>nte bast6n! — y le cay6 a garrotazos. — jAy, ay, ay, ay! — 
decfa la vieja y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Si usted me da la bolsa yo le 
quite el bast6n. — iToma, toma las llaves y c6gela! — deda la vieja 
gritando. Cogi6 Juan Bobo la bolsa y le dej6 d bast6n hasta que la 

Se acab6 mi cuento y se fu4 por un roto. Y otro que sepa que se 
diga otro. 

(Version d.) 

Una vez la madre de Juan Bobo tenia muchas matas de coles y 
entre todas habfa una chiquita y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Mam&, dame 
esa matita chiquita de coles. 

Un dia hizo un temporal y se llev6 la matita de Juan Bobo y al 
otro dfa fu6 a donde estaba el viento: — i Buenos dfas, viento! — 
lEntra! — le contest6 el viento, y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Yo no vengo 
a entrar, yo vengo a buscar mi matita de coles. 

Y el viento le dijo: — Toma este pano de mesa y ver&s todo lo 
que te dari. Y Juan Bobo querfa saber lo que le daba el viento y le 
dijo: — iComponte! Y el pafio le di6 muchas frutas y fu6 a una casa 
ydijo: — iGu&rdemeeste pafio, pero no le digan " Componte pafio,** 
porque da muchas cosas buenas! 

Y Juan Bobo se fu6. Al otro dfa fu6 a donde estaba d viento: — 
i Buenos dfas, viento! El viento le dijo: — iEntra! Y Juan Bobo le 
dijo: — i Yo no vengo a entrar, que yo vengo a que me den mi matita 

Y el viento le dijo: — ^Pero lo que te df ayer? Y entonces el 
viento le di6 un fuete de cuero. — Toma ese fuete de cuero y veris qu6 
muchas cosas buenas te dar&. 

Y Juan Bobo querfa saber lo que le daba y dijo: — iComponte, 
fuete! Y el fuete le cay6 a cantazos limpios, y lo llev6 a la misma 
casa donde llev6 d paiio de mesa, y Juan Bobo les dijo: — Pero no le 
digan "Componte fuete," porque da muchas cosas buenas. 

La mujer en seguidita que se fu4 Juan Bobo se sent6 con los mucha- 
chitos en la mesa y dijo: — iComponte, fuete! Y el fuete cay6 a 
cantazo limpio y Juan Bobo que estaba allf escondido sali6 corriendo y 
diciendo: — iDenme mi pafio de mesa, porque si no dejo que el fuete , 

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6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Y la mujer le di6 el paiio y Juan Bobo dijo: — i Descomponte fuete! 
Y el fuete no les di6 m&s y Juan Bobo vivid muy feliz despute. 

» (Version e.) 

Una vez Juan Bobo tenia una mata de pl&tano en una lata, y le dijo 
la madre que le tuviera cuidado. Un dfa el viento le tumb6 la mata de 
pl&tano y cuando Juan Bobo vino y vi6 que el viento le habfa tumbado 
la mata de pl&tano se fu4 detr&s del viento para matarlo. Cuando 
ya iba lejos se encontr6 con un hombre, y era el viento, y le pregunt6: 

— ^Para d6nde vas, Juan Bobo? — Yo voy a encpntrar al viento para 
matarlo. Y el hombre lo content6 y le di6 un burrito y le dijo que 
nunca le dijera al burrito, ** Abre la boca, burrito." 

Juan Bobo iba ya de noche y se encontr6 con una casa donde vivian 
un viejito y una viejita y pidi6 posada. Les di6 el burrito a guardar 
pero les advirti6 que nunca le fueran a decir que abriera la boca. 
Juan Bobo se qued6 dormido y la viejita y el viejito le dijeron : — 
Abre la boca, burrito. Y no acabaron de decirle cuando una cantidad 
de monedas salieron rodando por el suelo. Viendo que salfa mucho 
dinero de la boca del burrito le volvieron a decir que abriera la boca, 
pero esta vez el burrito la cerr6. Los viejitos ya solamente tenfan un 
burro viejo y cuando Juan Bobo despert6 le dieron el burro viejo. 
Juan Bobo se fui. 

Cuando lleg6 a la casa le dijo a la madre: — i Madre! ijajajd! 
Rec6jase las mantas. La madre le dijo que 3ra venfa con unas de las 
de €lf pero cuando Juan Bobo le dijo al burrito que abriera la boca el 
burrito no lo entendi6. 

Entonces Juan Bobo se fu4 otra vez detr^ del viento didendo que 
lo iba a matar. Ya que iba lejos se encontr6 con el mismo hombre. 
El hombre le di6 un mantelito, pero le dijo que nunca le dijera, 
**Abrete, mantelito." 

Y Juan Bobo se fu6 y lleg6 a la misma casa de los viejitos y volvi6 a 
hacer lo mismo de antes. Los viejitos le dieron posada y Ju^n Bobo 
les encarg6 el mantelito y les dijo que no le dijesen que se abriera. 
Juan Bobo se qued6 dormido, y los viejitos para experimentar le 
dijeron al mantelito que se abriera. Y en seguida habfa alH manjares 
de todas clases y todas buenas comidas. EUos tenfan un mantel 
viejo y cuando Juan Bobo despert6 le dieron el mantel viejo y 61 se fu6. 

Cuando ya Juan Bobo iba llegando a la casa le grit6 a la madre: 

— i Madre! ijajaji! Ahora si es verdad. La madre le dijo que ya 
venfa con otra, pero 61 le dijo al mantel viejo: — Abrete, mantelito. 
Pero no hubo nada. 

Entonces Juan Bobo se fu6 otra vez detris del viento y se volvi6 a 
encontrar con el mismo hombre, y el hombre le di6 un palo dentro de 
un saco, pero le advirti6 que nunca le dijese: — Salte del saco. 

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PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 7 

Juan Bobo se fui y l]eg6 otra vez a la casa de los viejitos y ellos en 
seguida le mandaron subir, muy compladentes. 

Cuando ya se iban a acostar Juan Bobo les advirti6 que no le fueran 
a decir al palo que se saliera del saco. Pero lu^^o que Juan Bobo se 
durmi6 los viejitos le dijeron al palo que se saliera del saco, y el palo 
ae sali6 del saco y comenz6 a dar palos a derecha y a izquierda, y los 
viejitos empezaron a gritar y a llamar a Juan Bobo para que los salvara. 
Cuando Juan Bobo despert6 les dijo que si ellos le daban el burrito 
y el mantelito le mandaba al palo que se metiera en el saco. Los 
viejitos le dijeron que si y le dieron a Juan Bobo su burrito y su man- 
teUto y se fu£. 

Cuando Juan Bobo iba Uegando a la casa le dijo a la madre: — 
Ahora si es verdad. Y le djio al burrito que abriera la boca y corrieron 
por el suelo grandes cantidades de monedas. Y le dijo al mantelito 
que se abriera y una mesa Uena de buenas comidas se apareci6. 

Entonces Juan Bobo hizo un palacio y mand6 que viniesen todas las 
personas de la provincia a un gran convite. El dfa del convite le dijo 
al mantelito que se pusiese el sal6n lleno de buenos manjares y de toda 
dase de licores. La gente de la provincia se fu4 toda a la casa de 
Juan Bobo y cuando todos estaban en la comida fu6 Juan Bobo y se 
par6 en una de las puertas del sal6n y mand6 cerrar la otra. Y en- 
tonces le mand6 al palo que se saliera del saco. Y el palo se sali6 del 
saco dando palos a derecha y a izquierda y mat6 casi a toda la gente 
que estaba en el palacio. Y Juan Bobo fu6 entonces el rey de la 
provincia y el m^ rico. 


Tenia una madre un hijo que se llamaba Braulio el Tonto. No 
teniendo agua, la madre lo mand6 al pozo para que le trajese un balde 
de agua. El muchacho cogi6 el balde y se fu6. 

El pozo era de barril, y por lo visto habfa que amarrar el balde de 
un estremo de la soga y tirarlo. El muchacho amarr6 su balde y 
lo tir6. * Al tiempo que lo tir6 se revent6 la soga y el balde se qued6. 
El muchacho de tonto que era, se tir6 al pozo para coger el balde. 
Cuando vi6 que un hombre chiquito o sea un enano le habla cogido el 
balde, el muchacho le dijo: — Dame mi balde. 

El enano ech6 a correr por una calle que habfa por debajo de la 
tierra y Braulio se le fui detr&s, dici^ndole: — Dame mi balde. 

El enano le meti6 la cabeza a un gran port6n que habfa y lo abri6 y 
d muchacho tambito le meti6 la cabeza y lo abri6. Llegaron entonces 
a la puerta de la capital encantada. El enano le meti6 la cabeza a 
la puerta y pas6. El muchacho hizo la misma operaci6n. Entonces 
Braulio se qued6 entretenido con unas estatuas que habfa en la entrada 
y se le perdi6 el enano. Se puso y rompi6 las estatuas. Las estatuas 
eran gentes que habfa allf encantadas. 1 ^^^T^ 

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8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Ya era la noche, y £1 estaba un poco estropiado cuando se acoBt6 
a dormir. Despute que habfa dormido un suei&o, vi6 una gran 
claridad. El crefa que era el dfa y se levant6. Eran las gentes que 
£1 habfa desencantado que venfan con hachos a alumbrarle el camino. 

Pero el muchacho no sabfa donde era que estaba. Las gentes le 
dijeron que se fuera a un aposento obscuro que habfa en la casa, y que 
allf encontrarfa todas las fieras del mundo. Un camaroncillo que est& en 
el medio de todas, para m&s senal es tuerto y est4 sentado en un 8ill6n. 

Se iui el muchacho y lo encontr6, y al frsele a tirar encima se k 
fu6 corriendo para un cerro, y se le volvi6 un burro al no encontrarlo. 
Se ink a donde estaban las gentes y les dijo que lo habfa encontrado 
pero que se le habfa ido corriendo. Y se le habfa desaparecido. 

Entonces les dijeron que se fuera al cerro y un burro que estaba 
amarrado que le cortara una oreja y se la trajera. Se le cort6 la oreja 
y se la trajo. El burro se vino detr&s de €\ y cuando lleg6 a donde 
estaban, se par6 el enano, le di6 una gorra para que le dejara quieto; 
que con aquella gorra tenfa tan to poder como 41. 

La cogi6 pero no le bastaba para pedirle su balde. El le dijo: — 
Dame mi gorra que yo te doy tu balde. 

El muchacho se puso a pelear con k\ y le dijo que le dejara que 41 
le daba su balde y que pidiera por su trabajo. El enano se estuvo quieto 
y le entregaron su balde. Le dijeron que pidiera por su trabajo. El 
dijo, como tonto al fin: — Quiero una escopeta que a todo lo que le 
apunte lo mate, unas alpargatas que me trasporte donde yo quiera, 
y un bolsillo que nunca est4 vacio. 

Todo lo que 41 pidi6 se lo concedieron porque 41 habfa desencantado 
una gran capital. Entonces se puso las alpargatas y dijo: — Tras- 
p6rtame con el balde Ueno de agua a casa. 

Dicho esto y estando en su casa fueron dos cosas iguales. La madre 
le pregunt6 que le habfa pasado, y 41 le cont6 y le dijo que 41 tenfa 
unas alpargatas que se las ponfa y los trasportaba donde 41 querfa, 
y una escopeta que a todo p&jaro que le disparaba lo mataba, y un 
bolsillo que nunca estaba vacfo, y s4 que vivieron felices. 


Todos los dfas iba Juan Bobo a buscar arena a la pla3ra en una 
yegua panda, y de compromiso tenfa que pasar por el palacio del rey. 
La princesa lo velaba cuando pasaba para ponerle apodo, y Juan Bobo 
siempre le decfa: 

— Permita Dios que te veas prefLada de mf . 

La princesa se iba detris de 41 y cuando Uegaba a la playa y encon- 
traban un pececito en la orilla y la princesa le decfa a Juan Bobo que 
lo cogiera, Juan Bobo le decfa a su yegua: — Panda, dale una patada 
y b6talo al agua. La yegua le daba una patada y lo botaba al agua. 

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Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 9 

La princesa entonces se iba para su casa y se ponfa con mucho 
sufrimiento porque Juan Bobo no le cogfa el pescadito. 

Esto sucedfa todos loe dfas, hasta que lleg6 el dfa en que la princesa 
di6 a luz un nino con una manzana en la mano. Tqidos los de la casa 
le pedfan la manzana al nino pero 61 no se la daba, pero ni tampoco se 
salrfa quien era el padre del nifio. Ni lo sabfa el padre, ni la madre ni 
ningAn particular. 

Entonces el rey public6 en la prensa que su hija haUa dado a luz 
un nifio con una manzana en la mano y que a quien el nino se la 
diera 6se se casaba con la princesa. Entonces comenzaron a venir 
blancos de todas partes, y grandes y prindpes y caballeros y j6venes. 
Todos, uno por uno, le iban pidiendo la manzana al nino, y el nii&o a 
nadie se la daba. Todos los caballeros se fueron y al dia siguiente dijo 
el rey que vinieran pobres y de todas clases. 

Juan Bobo supo la noticia y se fu6 donde la madre para que le pre- 
parara una muda de ropa, y le dijo que iba a pedirle la manzana al 
nino de la hija del rey. La madre le dijo que quizi estaba loco, que 
como se iba a subir al palacio con los trapos de ropa que llevaba- y 
asf descalzo como estaba. Juan Bobo le dijo que le hiciera el favor de 
prepararle la ropa porque de todos modos 61 iba a pedirle la manzana 
al hijo de la princesa. La madre se vi6 mortificada por su hijo y se 
puso y le prepar6 la ropa y luego que se la prepar6 se visti6 y se fu6 al 

Subi6 Juan Bobo y fu6 donde estaba el nifto y le dijo: — Mi hijo, 
dame la manzana. El niiio estir6 la mano y le di6 la manzana a Juan 
Bobo. El rey los cas6 y los ech6 en un barco y le di6 un barreno y le 
ech6 pan y vino. Los ech6 por la mar afuera y los atranc6 en un 
cuarto. Cuando el barco iba por la mar afuera la princesa se puso a 
llorar, y cuando el barco se fu6 cogiendo agua ella le deda a Juan 
Bobo: — i Ay, Juan Bobo, que nos ahogamos! Y 61 le deda: — Come 
pan y bebe vino y acu6state a dormir. La princesa tenia miedo y 
volvfa a dedr: — lAy, Juan Bobo, que nos ahogamos! — Come pan 
y bebe vino y acu6state a dormir. — i Ay, Juan Bobo, que nos ahoga- 
mos! — Come pan y bebe vino y acu6state a dormir. 

Por fin el barco ya se iba a pique y los que iban en el barco estaban 
ya con el agua hasta el pescuezo. Entonces dijo Juan Bobo: — Ven 
aquf, mi pecedto m&gico. Y el pececito se le apareci6 y le dijo: — 
iQu6 quiere mi amo? — Que me eches a tierra y me hagas un palacio 
al lado del rey pero m&s grande y m&s bonito, y que siempre se disparen 
diez cafionazos al despertar el alba. Y asf fu6. 

S^;uidamente se encontraron en tierra en un palado muy bonito y 
muy grande. Al dfa siguiente se dispararon diez caiionazos al desper- 
tar d alba. El pueblo y toda la gente del rey se despertaron para ver 
lo que ocurrfa. Al ver aquel palado que se habfa aparecido alH todos 

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lo Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

se quedaron admirados. El rey entonces fu6 a ver quien era el que 
vivia allf , y vi6 que era su hija y entonces fueron reyes. 

{Version a.) 

Esta era una madre que tenia un hijo bobo y todoe loe d(as lo 
mandaba a buscar lefia y pasaba el Bobo por en casa de un rey con 
el burrito, a buscar la lefia y la hija del rey se echaba a refr. 

Volvi6 la vieja a mandar al Bobo a buscar leiia, en otro viaje y la 
hija del rey volvi6 a refrse. La madre lo mandd a buscar leiia con su 
burro y k\ le dijo: — Madre, yo no voy, porque la hija del rey se echa 
a refr. Y ella le dijo: — Hijo, v6te, que eso Dios no lo perdona. — 
Pues 6chame una alforjita de maduro y queso. Lleg6 al mar y se 
puso a almorzarse su alforja y venfan unos pecesitos y 41 a tirarles 
chinitas de queso. Y lleg6 un pez muy grande y se dobl6 y le ech6 
mano y le dijo el pez: — i Ay! su61tame, buen trabador. iQui quieres 
que te haga? — Pues yo lo que quiero es que me ayudes a cargar este 
burro de leiia. Y Ileg6 y le ayud6 a cargarlo. — Y ahora quiero que 
me hagas td un burrito de leiia y que ande solo. Y se fu6, para en 
casa de su madre y al pasar por la casa del rey, se echaron a refr las 
muchachas de otro viaje. — i Ay, mam&! iqu6 bobo que trae un burro 
de leiia que anda solo! 

Se cansaron de refrse hasta que la m&s chiquita se qued6 ri6ndose, 
y entonces lleg6 el bobo y le ech6 la maldiddn. que permitiera Dios 
que se viera preiiada por el pez. 

Se fu4 en casa de su madre y la muchacha se qued6 muy triste y 
acongojada y sigui6 su vientre creciendo y di6 a luz un niiio vardn. 
El rey se asust6 al ver que su nitia, sin tener relaciones con nadie, 
habfa dado a luz un nifio pero entre tanto mandaron a buscar a todos 
los reyes de las comarcas del mundo y al que el niiio le dijera papi, ese 
era el padre. 

Le pasaron toditos por encima y a ninguno le dijo papi. Pues 
mandaremos a buscar a toditos los mendigantes. Entonces todos 
siguieron pas&ndole por encima, ya no quedaban m&s, y Bobo lleg6 a 
las puertas del rey y dijo que 61 venfa a pasarle. El rey le dijo que si 
se atrevfa a asegurar que 61 era el padre. Y 61 le dijo que sf. 

— Y por mi corona real que si usted no me hace ver eso, le mando 
quitar la vida. Lleg6, lo pas6 por encima y dijo el niiio : — i Ay I pap&. 
— Pues le daremos la mano a este Bobo, con mi hija. 

Entraron y lo afeitaron y lo recortaron y lo vistieron y los casaron, 
y dijo el rey: — H&ganme una caja muy grande para que quepan ellos 
parados y acostados. La hicieron y los echaron dentro de la caja y 
se los llevaron y los tiraron en el mar. La mujer empez6 a llorar: — 
J Ay! Bobo sin vergiienza, por culpa tuya estoy yo aquf. — E^ es 
bueno que te pase para que no seas burlona, pero quiero manifestarte 

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Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. ii 

que yo te defender^ y te echarfe a tierra y le dijo al pez: — Pecesito 
mk), ichaine a tierra, — y lo ech6 en tierra. Y entonces le dijo: — 
Ahora quiero que me saques de ^ta caja. Lo 8ac6 el pez y 61 le pidi6 
que le hiciera un palado en frente del rey, mejor que de aqu^l, con 
todas las alhajas de un palacio; que tuviera sirvientes y cocinera y que 
estuviera a la hora de servir la mesa, para echarle al rey en los bolsillos 
Unas tazas, unos platillos, unos platos, unas cucharas y unos tenedores, 
y unos cuchillos. Lleg6 y le puso el palacio. Cuando el rey, por la 
manana se levant6 y vi6 aquel palacio, dijo: — i Ay, mujer! i mira qu6 
palacio tan Undo est& en frente de mi palacio! 

Se tir6 el rey y fu6 all& al palacio ese y le pregunt6 por la salud y le 
dijo que si estaban buenos. El le dijo que si estaban buenos, que a la 
hora de la mesa lo esperaban all& con todita su familia, y para que en- 
traran a la mesa lleg6 la sirvienta a servir la mesa con todos los platillos, 
y las tazas y los platos y las cucharas y los tenedores y los cuchillos. 

Sirvieron la mesa y comieron, y despu^ que comieron cont6 los 
platillos y falt6 uno y cont6 las tazas y falt6 una, y cont6 los platos y 
falt6 uno, y cont6 las cucharas y falt6 una, y cont6 los cuchillos y 
falt6 uno, y cont6 los tenedores y falt6 uno. Y dijo el dueHo de la 
casa: — iQui6n los tendri? hay que registrar. El fu6 el primero 
que se registr6 y no los tenia, los registr6 a toditos y no los tenfan y 
faltaba el rey que registrar. — Mi senor y rey, regfstrese usted. — 
iPero yo qu6 voy a tener, cuando los tengo en casa mejores? Pero 
me virar6 los bolsillos. Y se vir6 los bolsillos, cayendo al suelo todito 
hecho polvo, y dijo: — jAy! jqui6n seri ese que me los ha echado? 
Dijo el Bobo: — Muy fAdl, segtln entr6 el nifio en el vientre de su 
hija, pues ^tos son los que bot6 usted en aquella caja, en el mar. 

Cuando le dijo que aqu^Uos eran los que habfa botado, cay6 con 
un vahido, pero cay6 la dem&s familia tambi^n y los revivi6 a fuerza 
de perfumes y pulseras de vino en las coyunturas, y se levantaron y 
se fueron para su palacio y el Bobo se qued6 en su palacio con su mujer. 

El rey mand6 buscar un cura para casarlos y los casaron y entonces 
el rey se quit6 la corona y coron6 a Balminio de rey y la reina se quit6 
la corona y coron6 a Josefa de reina y les hizo un palacio en frente del 
suyo y los puso a vivir alU y siguieron viviendo una vida feUz. 

{Version b) 

Habfa una mujer que tenia un hijo bobo y lo mandaba todos los dfas 
a buscar lefia a la playa, y tenia que pasar por la casa del rey Gustavo. 
Ese rey tenia tres hijas. Una se llamaba Marfa, otra Matilde y la 
otra Julia. Cuando pasaba el bobo todos los dias se echaban a reir de 
61. La madre del bobo le dijo que fuera otra vez por lefta y el bobo le 
dijo: — Yo no voy a buscar lena porque las hijas del rey se rien de mf . 
Ella le dijo : — V6te, que eso no le hace. Entonces el bobo le dijo : — ^ 

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1 2 Journal of American Folk -Lore. 

H&game una parva de maduros y queso. Entonces la madre le di6 los 
maduroe y el queso y se mont6 en un burro y se f u4 a buscar la leila. 
Se sent6 a la orilla del mar a comerse la parva y despedazaba queso 
para que los peces se pusieran a comer. Y entonces se alleg6 un pez 
muy grande y lo cogi6. El pez le dijo : — Su61tame. Y el bobo decfa : 
— Es pa que madre te coma. Y entonces el pez le contest6: — 
Su^ltame, y en cuantos trabajos te veas clama por el pez Maim6n. 

Y entonces el bobo le dijo: — Aytidame a cargar el burro de leiia y 
hazme otro burrito de leiia que ande atr&s del burro grande. En 
seguida le hizo el pez lo que querfa. Y cuando pasaron por la casa del 
rey Gustavo las hijas del rey se asomaron y se fijaron en el burrito y 
Maria y Matilde al verlo les caus6 cuidado y se encerraron en un cuarto. 
Pero Julia la menor, empez6 a refrse, y deda: — Despute de ser bobo 
hizo un burro de leiia que anda atr^ del otro. Y entonces el bobo le 
contest6: — Permita Dios que te veas prefiada de ml por el pez 
Maim6n. Entonces ella se ech6 a Uorar del bochomo que pas6. 

Y asf fu6 que a Julia le fu6 creciendo la barriga, y al poco tiempo 
tuvo un muchacho macho. El rey cuando lo supo le pregunt6 que si 
de quien era hijo y Julia le contest6 que ella no habfa tenido amistad 
con nadie y no se habfa rosado con ningtln hombre. Entonces el rey 
enlut6 al palado y mand6 buscar a todos los prfncipes de la ciudad para 
que le pasaran por encima y el muchacho dijera quien era su padre. Y 
le pasaron todos los prfncipes por encima y a ninguno le dijo pap&. 

Y entonces el Rey Gustavo mand6 buscar a toditos los bobos y a los 
pobres que habfa en aquella ciudad para que le i>asaran por encima del 
muchacho. Y toditos vinieron y le pasaron por encima al muchacho 
y a ninguno le dijo pap&. Y s61o quedaba el bobo que no lo habian 
pasado por encima porque no lo habfa sabido todavfa. 

Pero cuando lo supo, dijo: — Madre, yo voy a pasar por encima del 
muchacho. Y entonces la madre le dijo: — Muchacho, tfi est&s loco. 
Ser4 para que te maten. Y entonces el bobo le dijo: — Madre, yo 
me voy porque es hijo mfo. 

Entonces se fu6 el bobo para la casa del rey. Y cuando Ileg6 le 
preguntaron los vasallos qu6 se le ofrecfa, y el bobo les respondi6 que 
venfa a pasar por encima del muchacho de Julia. Entonces los vasallos 
se lo dijeron al rey, y el rey le dijo que subiera y entonces 1^ pregunt6 
que si aseguraba que el muchacho era hijo de 61. El bobo le dijo 
que sf, y que si no que le mandara quitar la vida. Y entonces el rey 
le dijo que pasara y el bobo se arroI16 la cota y di6 un brinco por 
arriba del muchacho y el muchacho en seguida le dijo pap&. Entonces 
el rey Gustavo le dijo a uno de sus vasallos que le trujiera un barbero. 

Y seguido vino un barbero y recort6 al bobo y le pusieron vestidura de 
principe. Mandaron buscar un cura y casaron a Julia con el bobo, y 
tambi^n bautizaron al muchacho. Despu6s que estaban casados el rey 

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Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 13 

mandd buscar un carpintero para que le hiciera una caja donde 
cupieran solamente dos personas a cuerpo derecho y tumbado y de 
cualquier manera. Y seguido vino el carpintero y le hizo la caja, y 
echaron a Julia con el bobo y el muchacho y atrancaron bien la caja y 
la botaron mar afuera. 

Cuando se vieron en el mar Julia le deda al bobo : — Mira como me 
estoy mirando por la maldici6n que me echaste. Ya papi y mam& 
nos botaron al mar. Entonces el bobo le pasaba la mano a Juliay le 
deda: — No te apures que td est&s al lado de un hombre que no te 
dejari padecer. Pero ella se insultaba y lloraba, y deda: — Ya nos 
vamos a ahogar. Entonces el bobo la consolaba, y cuando ya le 
pared6 al bobo que era a media noche, dijo: — Aqui, mi pez Maim6n, 
£chame a tierra. Y en seguida estaban en tierra y la caja abierta, y 
entonces d bobo le dijo a Julia: — ^ Ves? Yo te deda que td estabas 
al lado de un hombre que no te dejaba ahogar. Y entonces d bobo le 
dijo al pez: — Quiero que me hagas un palado al lado del palado del 
rey que sea m&s grande y m&s bonito que 61 dd rey Gustavo, y quiero 
que me-des alhajas y animales y riquezas, y que me pongas a mi un 
prindpe dvilizado, y que mi hijo y mi mujer me las pongas que no 
I06 conozca nadie, ni el rey Gustavo. Y tambi^n te necesito maiiana, 
a la hora de la mesa para que me le eches en el bolsillo al rey Gustavo 
una taza, una copa, un platillo, un cubierto y un tenedor, y que el rey 
no \o sienta cuando ttl le eches eso. 

Y entonces se encontraron en su palado y empezaron a pasearse por 
d balc6n de su palado, y se asomaron los vasallos del rey Gustavo 
y vieron aquellos dos prfndpes desconoddos y se lo dijeron al rey, y 
entonces el rey se levant6 y lo vi6 y no lo conod6. Y entonces el rey 
Gustavo le dijo a la reina: — Ah{ hicieron un palacio sin permiso mfo. 
Voy a ver quien lo hizo. Y se tir6 y fu6 aJ palacio. Entonces se 
tranquilizaron de parte y parte y el prfndpe reciin venido alU le invit6 
para que la reina y 61 y sus vasallos le acompaiiaran a almorzar. Y el 
rey Gustavo le dijo que con mucho gusto le acompanaba, y vinieron a 
almorzar. Y entonces d prindpe le dijo a la codnera al poner la 
mesa: — Cuenta toda la loza. Y la codnera la cont6 y entonces 
comenzaron a comer aquellos manjares que el rey nunca habfa comido. 

Despuds que almorzaron el prindpe le dijo a la codnera: — Usa de 
tu dei^cho y cuenta la loza otra vez. Y ella se puso a contar. Y 
cont6 las copas y dijo : — Falta una copa. Y cont6 las tazas y dijo : — 
Falta una taza. Y cont6 los cubiertos y dijo: — Falta uno. Y cont6 
los tenedores y dijo: — Falta uno. Y entonces el principe dijo: — 
Tenemos que registramos toditos, a ver quien tiene lo que falta. 
Entonces se mir6 los bolsillos del chaquet6n y del pantal6n, y as{ 
empez6 por toditos los dem&s y el Ultimo que faltaba era el rey Gustavo. 
Y d prfndpe le dijo : — listed no se mira lo suyo. Y el rey le contest6 : 

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14 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

— Yo, teniendo de esa loza en caea, ^para qu6 voy a coger ninguna? 

Y el prindpe le respondid: — Por eso no se espante usted, que yo 
soy dueno de este palado y me registro primero que ninguno. Y 
entonces el rey Gustavo se mir6 los bolsillos y cay6 toda la loza al suelo. 
El rey se altiv6 y dijo: — iC6mo puede ser esto? Y entonces le dijo 
el prindpe: — No se altive, que eso no es gran cosa, que con esa 
sutileza que entr6 esa loza en su bolsillo entr6 ese muchacho en el 
vientre de su madre. El rey no conoda a ninguno y entonces se di6 
por conoddo con Julia, el bobo y el muchacho. El rey les ech6 los 
brazos y se besaron y la reina tambi^n. Y entonces el rey y la rdna 
se quitaron la corona y se la pusieron al bobo y a Julia que era su hija. 

Y entonces se ofrederon de parte y parte y era el bobo el m&s querido 
de todo el reinado, y quedaron viviendo una vida tranquila y feliz 
para siempre. Y entonces el rey Bobo mandaba al rey Gustavo y 
fete le obededa en todo porque el bobo tenia la corona que el rey 
Gustavo le habfa puesto. 


Habfa una vez un senor que tenia un hijo bobo. 
Un dfa lo mand6 a comprar un medio de pan, pero cuando iba por el 
camino que iba se encontr6 con un hombre con un perro y le pregunt6: 

— iPara d6nde lleva usted ese perro? Y el hombre le dijo que a 
matarlo porque era malo. — <!Quiere usted un medio y no lo mata? 
El hombre contest6 que sf. 

Cuando lleg6 a su casa su madre lo reprendi6, y al otro dfa lo mand6 
y le dijo que no volviera a hacer como el dfa antes. 

Lo que la madre le dijo lo ech6 en saco roto, pues se encontr6 con 
otro hombre que iba a matar un gato. Le pregunt6 que para qu6 
lo queria, y cuando le dijo que lo iba a matar, le volvi6 a dar el medio 
porque lo dejara vivo. Si mucho le habfa peleado la madre el dfa 
antes mucho mis lo hizo esta vez. 

Al siguiente dfa lo mand6 la madre otra vez a comprar el medio 
de pan, y cuando vol via se encontr6 con un hombre que llevaba una 
culebrita para matarla. Hizo lo mismo que con el gato y el perro y 
le di6 el medio y cogi6 la culebrita y se la trajo para su casa. La 
madre no le dijo nada, sino que m&s nunca lo mandaria a comprar cosas. 

Juan, que asf se Uamaba el bobo, cogi6 la culebra y la puso en una 
tina y allf ink creciendo, hasta que un dfa ledijo a Juan: — Juan 
d^jame ir que y^, no quepo aquf. Y Juan le dijo: — Vete. La ser- 
piente antes de irse, le regal6 una sortija y le dijo: — Toma esta 
sortija. Es de virtud y todo lo que t<\ le pidas te lo concederi. De 
hoy en adelante ya no eres bobo. Y se Ink. 

Juan le pidi6 a la sortija una casa bien lujosa y que Mercedes, 
lindfsima hija de don Guillermo, se casara con 61. Y asf fu6. Se 
cas6 con ella y ya nadie le decfa Juan Bobo sino Don Juan. ^^^.^ 

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PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 15 

D<Hi Juan le regal6 la sortija a Mercedes y le encarg6 que no la 
botara. Pero un dfa se present6 un prendero que se la fu£ a comprar, 
y viendo que ella no querfa vend^rsela le dijo: — Quiero verla. Y 
cuando ella se la en8efi6, dijo: — Sortija, por la virtud que tienes y 
la que EHos te ha dado ponme en Madrid con Mercedes. Y en seguida 
se hallaron en Madrid los dos. 

Cuando don Juan lleg6 a su casa y no habl6 a su esposa se fu£ a casa 
de don GuiUermo y le cont6 que su hija habfa desaparecido. Don 
Guillermo no estaba para bromas y le denunci6, dici6ndole que 61 
le habfa matado a su hija. Fu6 puesto en prisi6n y no se le hizo caso a 
k> que 61 deda. 

Cuando el perro y el gato supieron que su amo estaba preso y sin 
tener que comer fueron a un almac6n y en lo que el perro entretuvo 
a I06 perros de la casa el gato empez6 a sacar todo lo que pudo y se lo 
llevaron a la c4rcel. Luego se fueron en busca de la serpiente y le 
contaron lo que pasaba. Y ella les dijo que el hombre que se habia 
robado a Mercedes y la sortija vivfan en Madrid y tenia la sortija 
escondida en una parte que si destomudaba cafa al suelo, y que ellos 
dos se propordonaran un rat6n y se fueran a buscarlo. 

Asi lo iban a hacer, pero no se habfan hallado ningtin rat6n, cuando 
vieron venir un vapor que iba tripulado por ratones y le dijeron al 
capit&n: — Si no nos prestas un rat6n te comemos a ti con toda tu 
gente. El capita dijo que sf y siguieron su camino. Cuando llegaron 
a casa del prendero estaba durmiendo. El gato le dijo al rat6n: — 
M6tele tu rabo por la nariz para que destomude. Asi lo hizo el 
rat6n y cuando destomud6 cay6 la sortija y la cogi6 el gato como mis 
listo y regresaron a su pais. 

Despuds de muchismos trastomos por su viaje de regreso llegaron 
a la c&rcel y le dieron la sortija a don Juan. El en seguida le pidi6 
que le trajera a su esposa a casa de don Guillermo con el prendero y 
asi sucedi6. Cuando don Guillermo comprendi6 lo que habia pasado 
puso a don Juan en libertad, pidi6ndoIe perd6n. 

Vol vieron a vivir juntos ellos y se trajeron al gato y al perro para 
su casa. La serpiente era una encantada y sali6 mis tarde de su 
encantamiento y ellos vivieron muy felices. 

{Version a,) 

La madre de Juan Bobo tenia tres medios y mand6 a buscar un 
medio de came a Bobo y ^ste encontr6 un perro ahorc&ndose y di6 el 
medio por el perro. 

Se lo llev6 a la madre y la madre le di6 otro medio y el Bobo se 
volvi6 y encontr6 que estaban ahorcando un gato y di6 el otro medio 
por el gato y le llev6 el gato a la madre. 

Digitized by 


1 6 Journal of American Folk- Lore. 

La madre le di6 el otro medio para que volviera a buscarle el otro 
medio de carne, y el Bobo se fu6 a encontrar ahorcando una culebra 
y la culebra le di6 una sortija de virtud, y el Bobo dijo: — Sortija, por 
la virtud que td tienes y la que Dios te ha dado, que le des comida a 
mi madre, de todas clases. Y despuds que almorzaron se fu6 para en 
casa del rey a pedirle a la hija para casarse con ella. 

El rey le contest6 que si le hada un palado en medio del mar, 
reluciente, de oro y plata, que 61 lo viera a la hora de levantarse, que 
le daba a la hija. Y el Bobo dijo: — Pues sf ir6. 

Fu6 y le pidi6 a la sortija que le diera un palado en medio del mar, 
reluciente, de oro y plata, que cuando d rey se levantara le reludera d 
balc6n. Y el rey al ver eso, mand6 buscar al Bobo para casarlo ooa 
la hija y ponerla debajo del palado. 

A los tres dias o cuatro, de estar dla debajo del palado, pasd un 
quincallero vendiendo prendas y la hija del rey le dijo que ella tenia 
prenda fina, mejor que 61. El quincallero se la cambi6 por otra que 
se pareda a la de ella. Al poco rato de haber salido d quincallero* 
le dijo a la sortija: — Sortijita, por la virtud que tfi tienes y la que 
Dios te ha dado, quiero que la mujer se venga en seguida detr&s de mf . 

Ella se fu6 con 61 y se emban^ux>n para la isla de los Ratones, y 
cuando fu6 Juan Bobo y no encontr6 a la mujer, se fu6 a dark raz6n 
al padre y el padre lo mand6 aprisionar a cadena perpetua, y no habCa 
sol, ni sombra, ni le daban ni agua. 

El perro sali6, fu6 a donde estaba el gato y le dijo: — Nuestro amo, 
quien nos salv6 la vida, est& sufriendo; vamos a llevarie que comer. 
Y el gato le contest6: — V6 al panadero y quftale un rollo de pan, y 
yo me voy a una tienda y veo donde est^ los quesos y le quito un 
canto a uno. 

Ya el perro tenia un rollo de pan ; se lo entreg6 al gato, porque era 
el que podfa subir a donde estaba el amo, y fu6 y le llev6 el pan y d 
queso y le dijo el amo al gato que tenia sed, que le llevara agua. EU 
gato le llev6 agua y el amo le dijo al gato: — Me faltan tres dias para 
morir, voy a ver si van a la isla donde est& ella y pueden conseguir la 
sortija aunque sea. 

Y fu6 el gato a donde estaba el perro y le dijo: — Busquemos la 
manera de ir a donde est&n ellos. Y d perro busc6 un candray y se 

Entraron de candongueros el perro y el gato y se embarcaron para 
la isla de los ratones. Al llegar all&, el gato se pasaba las uiias por la 

Lleg6 el centinela a donde estaba el rey y le dijo: que venia un 
hombre con veintidnco machetes y deda que por la barba que tenia, 
que no iba a dejar uno de ellos. 

Vino el rey con toda su tropa a redbirlo en la orilla del mar y ellos 
al entrar le dijo el gato que no iba a hacerles ningtin mal. que iba. en 

PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 17 

busca de una princesa que se habfa ido con un quincallero, y que 
queria que le ayudaran a conseguir a la princesa. 

Los ratones lo llevaron a la casa, y estaban durmiendo cuando 
ttegaron, y como ya estaban dormidos, los ratones buscaron por toda 
la casa y no encontraron la sortija, y al no encontrarla lo despertaron 
dicidndole, que entiegara la sortija o le quitaban la vida. 

Ell quincallero se la entreg6, el gato la cogi6 y volvieron y se embar- 
caron y en medio del mar le dijo el perro que le ensenara la sortija y 
el gato le contest6 que €\ tenia la mano muy bronca y la podia dejar 
caer; pero tan to insistid que se la tuvo que dar. Al cogerla el perro, se 
le cay6, tuvieron que virar para atr&s y al virar para atr&s volvi6 y lo 
vi6 d centinela y le dijeron al rey que decian los dos seiiores que si 
primero no les habian hecho nada que ahora acababan con ellos. Y se 
prepar6 el rey con todo su batall6n. Y el gato le dijo que la sortija se 
le habia perdido en medio del mar y tenian que ayudarle a buscarla. 
Y el rey mand6 a los ratones que le ayudaran a buscarla y fueron y la 

Ei perro y el gato caminaron y volvieron a caer a su tierra y el 
gato en seguida fu6 a donde estaba su amo, le entreg6 la sortija y el amo 
dijo: — Sortija, por la virtud que td tienes y la que Dios te ha dado 
que me pongas y en veinticuatro boras est6 yo con mi mujer en mi 

A las veinticuatro horas lo mand6 buscar el rey y le entreg6 el 
palado y la mujer y entonces el rey mand6 matar al quincallero, por 
ser el culpable. 


Habia una vez una aldea en la cual vivfa un Bobo. Este oy6 decir 
a sus amigos que habfa un rey que ofrecfa la mano de su hija al que le 
derribase un irbol que habia en el jardin del palacio. 

El Bobo le dijo a su madre que se casaria con la hija del rey, porque 
61 le iba a derribar el irbol. Entonces la madre le prepar6 una patata, 
un bollo de pan y un queso, para su viaje. 

En la maiiana sali6 de su casa y estuvo andando hasta que encontr6 
on guaraguao y le dijo: — Te doy la patata y en los apuros que me 
vea damo por ti. El guaraguao acept6 el trato. 

Siguid andando y m^ adelante encontr6 una cigiiena y le dijo: 
— Te doy el queso y en los apuros que me vea clamo por ti. La 
cigOena tambi^n convino en el trato. 

Sigui6 andando y por Ultimo hall6 un perro al cual le dijo lo mismo 
"lue a la dgtieiia y al guaraguao. 

Bien entrada la noche lleg6 el Bobo a palacio y se present6 al rey. 
El rey lo Il2v6 al sitio donde estaba el irbol y le entreg6 una hacha. 

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i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

El Bobo empez6 a picar con todas sus fuerzas hasta estar el &rbol 
casi derribado, pero entonces se present6 la hija del rey y se le 8ent6 
en el tronco del irbol y qued6 ^te como antes. Entonces el Bobo 
clam6 por la cigiiefLa y en seguida vino 6sta y derrib6 el irbol. 

Cuando el rey vi6 que habia derribado el &rbol, le dijo que tenia que 
cuidarle veinticuatro palomas en tres dias sin que le faltara ninguna. 
Se puso a cuidarlas, y el primer dfa vino la hija del rey y le pidi6 una. 
El Bobo le dijo que si permitia que le diera dos latigazos le daba la 
paloma. Asi fu6, pero en seguida llam6 al guaraguao y 68te se la 
quit6. La nifia Uorando se volvi6 a su palado. 

Al dfa siguiente fu6 la madre y le sucedi6 igual y despuds fu6 el 
padre y le aconteci6 lo mismo. Al cumplirse los tres dias vino el 
Bobo con sus palomas. El rey vi^dolas completas le dijo que tenia 
que cogerle en una noche tres fanegas de trigo, que se le habian 
mezclado con arroz. 

El Bobo llam6 a la cigiiefia y al guaraguao, y entre los tres escogieron 
el arroz y el trigo.* Al ver el rey esto, dijo que tienia que dedrle tres 
verdades. El Bobo le cont6 las tres cosas que le habian sucedido en 
el palado. 

El rey tuvo entonces que cumplir su palabra y el Bobo de la aldea 
se cas6 con la hija del rey y vivieron felices por muchos aiios. 



(64) Un dia sali6 Juan y dijo: — Mujer, yo me voy a ver si hallo 
vida, porque aqui no puedo estar. 

Sali6 y lleg6 a una casa a ver si le daban trabajo. — Si, — le dijo el 
dueiio, — yo lo quiero a usted para que vea los animales. Yo no le 
he preguntado a usted como se llama. — Yo me llamo Juan. 

Estuvo un aiio trabajando y al ano arregl6 su cuenta y le dijo: — 
Arr^gleme mi cuenta, que pienso ir a donde est& mi familia. Y 61 
se vino con dosdentos pesos que le sobraron. 

A poco tiempo que anduvo lleg6 a una isla extraria y encontr6 una 
hormiga trabajando y vi6 que Uevaba un gusanito la hormiga y se lo 
quit6 y se llev6 su gusanito y en el camino le dijo el gusanito: — Juan, 
en los trabajos que tti te veas, clama por mi. 

Y 8igui6 adelante y lleg6 a un Canaveral y cort6 una caila para 
com^rsela, porque llevaba hambre y el dueiio lo denund6 y fu6 citado 
para el juido; fueron, y entonces le dijo el gusanito: — Yo te voy a 
defender el juicio y hablo por ti. 

Lo Uamaron, y el gusanito le deda al oido las palabras que tenia 
que contestar al Juez, y 6ste le dijo a Juan : — l D6nde est& su defensor? 
i Usted es el mismo defensor? — SJ, yo mismo. — Bueno, pues usted 
fu6 quien cort6 la cafia. — Yo no la he cortado, a mi me la dieron, — 

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PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 19 

le dice entonces el defensor; y para perjudicarlo le habian puesto la 
cana en las manos, y 61 lo dice porque lo vi6 y para justificarlo traer4 
nueve testigos, que cree que el dueiio de la hacienda no los traeri. — 
Traiga cada parte sus testigos, — dijo el Juez. El hacendado vino 
con tres testigos y Juan vino con nueve. — Elntonces le fallaremos el 
juido, porque Juan gan6 el juicio. Entonces se fu6 Juan y el abogado 
y le dijo el gusanito: — No vuelvas a hacer eso, porque te puedes ver 
en prisi6n. Y se desapareci6 y se fu£, y Juan se fu6 para donde estaba 
su familia, y le dijo a la mujer: — En toda mi vida me habia pasado 
lo que me pa86 en mi viaje. 

Y le dijo ella que le contara qu6 habia sido. 

— Me ha pasado que por cuenta de una cafLa me vf en juicio, pero 
me vuelvo. 

(65) Se volvi6 y cogi6 otro camino y se encontr6 dos cabros peleando 
por un terreno y cuando 61 los vi6 les dijo: — <!Qu6 les pasa? Ellos 
le dijeron que peleaban por una parcela de terreno. Y 61 les dijo: — 
No peleen que yo los arreglo. Ellos se separaron y se puso uno en 
un lado y el otro en el otro lado y el tal Juan se puso en medio y cuando 
estaba tirando los cordeles para medir el terreno, se tiraron a pelear y 
lo pincharon en medio y lo despatarraron con los rifles y no volvi6 
a donde estaba su familia, porque muri6 en el acto. 


Una vez habia un rey en una naci6n. Un dia llam6 a su barbero 
para que lo recortara, y el barbero le encontr6 un piojo, y le dijo: — 
iSvL majestad tiene piojos? — i El rey piojo! No, el rey no tiene piojo. 
— SI, su majestad tiene piojo. — Pues ens6iiemelo. El barbero le di6 
un piojo. Entonces el rey lo ech6 en una caja, y le daba comida, y el 
piojo fu6 credendo tanto que ya no cabia en la caja. 

Despuds el rey mand6 hacer una jaula de manera que 61 no se pudiera 
salir y lo puso en la jaula. Lo alimentaba todos los dfas, y cred6 
tanto que no cabia en la jaula. Entonces el rey mand6 hacer un 
corral expresamente para 61, y lo puso en el corral, y el creci6 hasta 
Il^^ar a ser del tamaiio de un buey. El rey no quiso dejarlo crecer 
m^, y lo mand6 matar. De la piel del piojo se hizo un traje. Ame- 
nazando al sastre que hizo el traje y a sus criados con pena de muerte si 
divulgaban de qu6 era su traje. 

Entonces el rey mand6 publicar que 61 que adivinara de qu6 era el 
traje que 61 llevaba puesto, se casaba con su hija. Al otro dia empe- 
zaron a venir j6venes a adivinar y ninguno aceptaba. Lleg6 el caso 
que Juan Bobo averigu6 que el rey habia ofreddo su hija al que adivi- 
nase de qu6 era su traje. 

Juan Bobo le dijo a su mam&: — Mam&, mam&, yo voy a adivinar 
hoy. — Pero muchacho, no han adivinado los adivinos. Vas a adivinar 

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20 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

t6, que eres un bobo. Juan Bobo se fu6 donde el rey, y le dijo: — 
SefLor rey, yo voy a adivinar pero quiero pensar un dfa por una 
esquina de la cocina. Y Juan Bobo por la noche se acost6 detr&s 
del fog6n, y las dos criadas del rey estaban hablando, y le dijo una a 
la otra que quien serfa el que iba a adivinar qu6 era de la piel de un 
piojo. Al otro dia Juan Bobo se fu6 a adivinar, y le dijo al rey: — 
Senor rey, yo son6 anoche que su traje era de la piel de un piojo, y 
estoy seguro que es de un piojo. Entonces el rey abraz6 a Juan Bobo, 
didendo: — Juan, t6 eres mi futuro yemo. Despu^ el rey prepar6 
a Juan Bobo y a su hija y se casaron. 

{Version a.) 

Este era un rey que tenia una hija. Un dia se puso su sirvienta a 
espulgarla y le hall6 un piojo. Y echaron el piojo en un barril y al 
dia siguiente ya habia crecido tan to que no cabia en el barril. Lo 
mataron, le sacaron el cuero y le hicieron de kX un vestido a la hija 
del rey. 

El rey dijo que el que le adivinara de qu6 era el traje de su hija se 
casaba con ella. Fueron todos los principales de la corte, condes y 
ricos caballeros de la ciudad a ver si adivinaban y ninguno pudo 

Habia una senora que tenia un hijo que era bobo, y 6ste le pidi6 
permiso a su mami para ver si adivinaba. Su madre queria hasta 
matario por su atrevimiento pero k\ no obedeci6 y se fu6. 

Cuando iba por el camino se hall6 en el camino a un hombre ente- 
rrado en la tierra con una oreja de fuera. Lo desenterr6 Juan Bobo y le 
pregunt6: — <!Qu6 es lo que haces aqui? Y el muerto le contest6: — 
Oyendo todo lo que pasa por el mundo. El bobo le pregunt6 que si 
como se llamaba y 61 le contest6 que se llamaba Oidor y Oir6. El bobo 
le contest6 que siendo Oidor y Oir6 le dijera de qu6 estaba hecho el 
vestido de la hija del rey. Y le respondi6 que era del cuero de un 
piojo. El bobo lo convid6 para que fuera con 61 y entonces se fueron 
los dos juntos. 

M&s tarde hallaron un hombre que tenia una piedra muy grande 
amarrada de una pierna. El bobo le pregunt6 porqu6 tenia aquella 
piedra amarrada de su pierna. El hombre le contest6 que era porque 
andaba demasiado. La piedra pesaba cien quintales. El bobo le dijo 
que si se queria ir con 61 y el hombre se fu6 con ellos. 

Al poco rato de andar se encontraron con otro hombre en las orillas 
de un rio. Le hizo la nusma pregunta y el hombre le respondi6 que 
estaba esperando que el rio creciera para tomar agua. El bobo le dijo 
que porqu6 no tomaba de la que el rio tenia y el hombre le respondi6 
que 6sa no le daba para calmar la sed. Lo invitaron a que fuera con 
ellos y se fu6. Se fueron todos juntos. 

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PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 21 

M&s adelante vieron un flechero apuntando para el aire y el bobo 
le pregunt6 a quien le apuntaba. El flechero le respondi6 que a un 
mosquito que estaba en los elementos. Lo invitaron a que se fuera 
con ellos y se fu£. 

Llegaron todos juntos al palacio del rey. El Bobo le dijo al rey 
que iba a adivinar de qu£ era el vestido de su hija. El rey le dijo: 

— Diga la primera. El bobo dijo: — Ser4 del cuello de un gargajo. — 
No. Diga la segunda. — Seri del cuello de un piojo. El rey le dijo 
que si, que se casarfa con su hija, pero que primero 61 y sus companero^ 
tenfan que comer tbdas las comidas que 41 mandara hacer. 


(39) Pas6 una vez que Juan Bobo calent6 una oUa de agua en su 
casa y se fu6 a la orilla del rfo con la oUa y el agua. Vino un hombre 
y le dijo: — Juan Bobo, <!qu6 haces tli alii? — Esta oUa que calienta 
el agua sin candela. — Juan Bobo, ien cu4nto me la vendes? — En mil 
pesos. — Si, d&mela ac&. Y le di6 los ochavos y Juan Bobo se fui 
corriendo para donde estaba su mam&. 

Su mam& le dijo: — iC6mo los has conseguido, muchacho? — 
Porque puse a calentar una agua y me fui a la orilla del rio y pa86 
un hombre y me la compr6. 

(24) Un dia hizo una cueva en la calle y empez6: — Si se me va, 
por aqui lo cojo, por aqui. Pas6 un hombre y le dijo: — iQu6 haces 
tti alii? — El ruisenor del rey, que se me fu6. — Juan Bobo, v6ndemelo, 
que te doy un mill6n de pesos. — Y Juan Bobo le dijo: — Si, — y se 
lo compr6. 

(66) Un dia supo Juan Bobo que el rey tenia un flux y que el que 
adivinara se casaba con la hija del rey. Juan Bobo vi6 un rat6n y 
le dijo que fuera por la noche a casa del rey y le dijera de qu6 era el 
flux del rey. El rat6n se fu6 a casa del rey y por la noche oy6 al rey 
que le deda a su hija: — <!Qui6n adivinari que este flux es de cuero de 
pulga? El rat6n lo oy6 decir y se fu6 corriendo para donde estaba 
Juan Bobo, se lo dijo y Juan Bobo le di6 un queso al rat6n. Al otro 
dia se celebraron las bodas y se hik Juan Bobo a adivinar. AUi 
estaban los soldados por si Juan Bobo no adivinaba, matarlo. Juan 
Bobo adivin6 y la reina se queria casar con el prindpe. Y el rey dijo: 

— Cuando ella se levante, al que ella se levante mirando con fee se 
casa. Y la reina se levant6 mirando a Juan Bobo y se casaron dlos dos. 


Una vez habia un joven que vivia con su mamd. Un dia a la 
rdna se le perdi6 una gargantilla y le dijo al rey que publicara que 

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22 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

el que adivinara donde estaba la gargantilla que se casarfa con la 
princesa. Todo el mundo iba pero no adivinaba. Entonces Juan le 
dijo a 8u madre que iba a adivinar donde estaba la gargantilla, y se 
fu6. Cuando le dijo al rey que 61 iba a adivinar, el rey le dijo que s(, 
pero que tenia tres dfas para cumplir su palabra. El dijo que estaba 
bien. El primer dfa fu6 una de las sirvientas; entonces 61 dijo: — 
iGradas a San Matias, que de las cuatro he visto una! La sirvienta 
se fu6 asustada, porque realmente alU habia cuatro sirvientas y entre 
ellas era donde estaba la gargantilla. Por la tarde fu6 otra y 61 dijo 
que gradas a Dios, porque de las cuatro habia visto dos. Ella se fu6 
asustada y se los dijo a sus amigas. La tercera era muy astuta y dijo 
que ella iba a Uevarle el caf6. Y se fu6; 61 dijo: — iGracias a San 
Andr6s, que de las cuatro he visto a tres! Ella fu6 asustada tambi6n 
hasta que se tuvieron que descubrir. El no lo sabfa, pero no se des- 
cubri6 sino que dijo que 61 ya lo sabia, pero que las iba a salvar del 
peligro. Entonces les dijo que cogieran el pavo mis grande y le echaran 
la gargantilla dentro del mafz y ellas asf lo hideron. Cuando se cum- 
plieron los tres dias el rey lo llam6. Juan Bobo dijo que lo dnico que 
tenia que hacer era coger al pavo mis grande, que lo abrieran y que 
le encontrarlan adentro la gargantilla. Mataron al pavo mis grande 
y realmente le encontraron la gargantilla. El rey le dijo que 61 no 
se podia casar con la princesa, pero que le iba a dar una cantidad de 
dinero y que si 61 queria que se quedara alU. Juan dijo que no, porque 
tenia que ir a ver a su mam&, y asl lo hizo, y vivi6 feliz con su mam&. 


Dijo un rey que el que le trajera el ramo de todas las flores, d 
sabor de todos los sabores y la redoma de todas las aguas se casaria 
con su hija. El joven que se fu6 a buscar estas tres cosas lleg6 a donde 
estaba Juan Bobo, y le dijo : — Este camino i para d6nde va ? Y Juan 
Bobo le respondi6: — Este camino no va ni viene. — Y tu padre 
<!d6nde esti? — Dando un ped6n que no se lo devuelven. — Y tu 
madre £d6nde est&? Mirindose a si misma. — lY aquellaqucgrita? 
— Llorando los gustos pasados. — Y ese rio, iesti Hondo? — No se le 
puede Uegar al fondo, y el ganado de casa pasa y no se moja ni el lomo. 
Y entonces el joven se fu6 corriendo en el caballo y el caballo se cans6 
porque Juan Bobo le habi& dicho que si iba corriendo se cansaba. Y 
asl pas6 y mir6 para atr&s y lleg6 y le pregunt6 al bobo porqu6 no le 
pagaban al dia al padre y le dijo: — Porque esti enterrando un 
muerto. — Y tu madre, <!qu6 era lo que hada? — Confes&ndose. Y 
como dijo que el camino no iba ni venia, porque la gente iba y venia, 
pero el camino siempre estaba alll. — Y tu hermana, <!porqu6 estaba 
gritando? — Porque habia dado a luz. — Y el rio que no llegaban las 
piedras al fondo, iporqu6 pasan los patos y no se mojan? — Vuelan 

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PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. .23 

por endma. Y como el caballo se le cans6 crey6 que el bobo era un 
joven inteligente y podia adivinar donde estaban el ramo de todas las 
flores, el sabor de todos los sabores y la redoma de todas las aguas. 
Y vino y le pregunt6 al bobo de los tres objetos, y el bobo le dijo que 
d ramo de todas las flores era una colmena, que le Uevara un panal al 
rey, que 6se era el ramo de todas las flores. Y le dijo que la redoma 
de todas aguas era una botella de agua, y que el sabor de todos los 
sabores era un grano de sal. Y siguiendo los consejos de Juan Bobo 
d joven llev6 estas cosas al rey y se cas6 con la hija del rey. 


Sucedi6 un caso como otros muchos, en la muy noble y leal Villa 
de Mala Rabia de la provinda de la Pemica del reino de la Perrada 
de donde era rey Don Pedro Grullo. Habia en esa Villa un Juan 
Bobo, como muchos. Tenia el rey una muy linda hija tuerta de un 
ojo y bizca del hermano. 

El rey ech6 una drcular por la cual se le hada saber a los malos 
rabiosos, que le daba una fuerte dote y la mano de su bellisima. 

La princesa rabiosa que queria decir en aquel lenguaje (hoja de 
rosa) al hombre fuese quien fuere, si sordo de las dos piemas o bizd^ 
de las orejas, tullido de las caderas, a su hermosisima hija se la daria 
por pareja al que le adivinara las adivinanzas que le dijera y dijera 
una que se la adivinara el que entrase en lid y acertare, pagaba con 
la pensadora. — lAy! madre, dijo Juan Bobo, voy a adivinar. — lA 
donde quieres ir, pedazo de borrico, ya no te cansas de darme tormentos 
de un modo y quieres d&rmdo de otro? A ver si te vas a dormir. 

Hizo un gran lio el bobo con su thiica y larga camisa y tom6 camino 
de la dudad donde se prometia la mano de la princesa. Atravesando 
montes y malezas, pues no se conocian carreteras, lleg6 a la orilla del 
mar y encontr6 un pecedto saltando en la orilla de tierra; lo ech6 al 
agua. — Gradas, Juan Bobo — le dijo una ronca voz. Era la madre 
dd pez. — iLibrete Dios de los lobos y de animales dafiinos. 

Sigui6 su camino contentisimo con aquella ejemplar bendici6n; 
lleg6 a la orilla de un rio, quiso vadearlo y no pudo y vi6 un viejo 
caballo que estaba en un altisimo barranco; entendi6 que tenia sed 
sin poder bajar al rio y Juan Bobo le di6 agua con su sombrero; — 
Gradas, bobo de los bobos, — dijo el caballo que por cierto estaba 
muy flaco, — aytidame a bajar y monta en mi. 

Asl lo hizo d bobo de Juan y emprende el caballo veloz carrera y 
si d bobo no ve a tiempo unos pichones los hubiera estropeado, pero 
lo evit6 quebrando el caballo al mismo tiempo. — Se han caido de su 
nido, — dijo el caballo, — en ese irbol que su copa se pierde en las 
nubes, est& su nido; su madre libra por ellos. Sube y devudveselos a 
su madre. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

24 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Lo que hizo el bobo subiendo y subiendo; seis dias estuvo en esta 
penosa ascensidn manteni^ndose de la fruta que el &rbol tenia. 

Baj6 a los seis dias justamente y alii encontr6 al flaco rodnante; 
mont6 en 61 y emprenden veloz carrera y en un abrir y cenrar de ojos 
Uegaron pues a la ciudad donde gobemaba el rey que promeda la 
princesa en casamiento. Not6 que en la gran puerta al entrar en la 
ciudad, habia una gran muralla de cabezas humanas. Eran las de 
todos aquellos que no pudieron adivinar las adivinanzas que la princesa 
les decia y las suyas eran adivinadas por ellas. 

Juan Bobo sin encomendarse a nadie se dirigi6 al palado y antes de 
Uegar vi6 que ardia una gran hoguera frente al regio alc&zar que tenia 
de extensi6n una legua. Eran los cuerpos de los que quisieron adivinar. 

Juan Bobo pic6 espuelas a su flaco rodn y helo aqui que brinc6 por 
ella y cay6 en el patio, con adniiraci6n de todos. — Frun, frun, — resopl6 
el caballo. — Aqui me tenuis, — dijo Juan, — a adivinar sin que me 
adivine. — ^No te admira extranjero, el espect&culo que forma el 
mont6n de cad&veres y cabezas que has visto al entrar a la gran 

Esto le dijo un ordenanza. — A adivinar y a que no me adivinen, 
vengo. Fu6 presentado al rey, el que lo mir6 con marcado desprecio 
al contemplar su larga cota hecha de coti. 

En aquel tiempo se habia presentado la princesa, la que en seguida 
dijo la siguiente adivinanza: 

— Yo cai de un alto &rbol; 
mitos son los hombres todos 
adivfname de modo 

si n6 de qu6 se ceg6. 
Tu cabeza hombre de Dios 
por nedo y por temerario, 
otros m&s que td de sabios 
mi padre se las cort6. 

— Aqui tengo una en el bolsillo, — dijo Juan. Cai-mito, mi Dios, — 
sacando un gran caimito del bolsillo. 

Perdi6 la princesa, pues era caimito lo que ja adivinanza significaba. 
Y dijo Juan en seguida: 

— Quiero subir por la escala 
i en qu6 tu poder se basa? 
Adivfname princesa 

hija digna de tu raza. 

No pudieron adivinar y Juan Bobo cachondi&ndose les di6 tres dias. 
Consultaron a los grandes sabios, mandaron emisarios a todos los 
paises conocidos y por conocer; nadie adivin6. Se dieron por venddos 
y convencidos. 

Digitized by 


ParUhRican Folk-Lore. 25 

Entonces Juan Bobo les dijo: — El que la coma si no es de mata, se 
muere. Calabazas, Dios niio» calabazas. 
Y todos quedaron convenddos de que eran calabazas. — El Bobo, 

— dijo la princesa, — me pertenece. El rey dijo: — Todavfa hay 
que cfauparse los dedos. — A la princesa se le ha perdido el otro dfa 
en un paseo de mar, una sortija, y el adivinador adivinando tiene que 

Juan Bobo coniiando en su caballo para la hufda dijo: — Un 

Baj6 al patio, cabalg6 y sali6 aceleradamente. Clav6 espuelas al 
flaquenco y parti6 como un rayo. Llegado que hubo a la orilla del 
mar, el caballo se plant6 parindose en dos patas. Juan Bobo le dijo: 

— Ahora es que te toca correr, ite resistes? i Adelante, caballo! 
Entonces el caballo le dijo: — M4s caballo eres t6 y mira como 

hablas. i Pi6 a tierra, insensato! — y tom6 la forma de un caballero 
(el caballo, se entiende, porque Juan Bobo lo era), saca un largo pito, 
extranfsimo por su forma, t&nelo y sale un tremendo y largo individuo. 
Al momento estaban todos los peces en tierra. — jA ver, sefiores! — 
dijo el caballo-caballero, — jqui^n de ustedes sabe de la sortija de la 
princesa Vizcaina? — Yo no s6, — dijeron todos. — Falta el mero, — 
dijo el Juez. Vuelve el caballo-caballero y toca el pito; pres^ntase el 
mero con su tremenda y grande barrigaza. — ^Sabes de la sortija de 
la princesa Vizcafna? — Me la iba a tragar cuando la chopa me la 
quit6 delante, y me los tragus a la sortija y a la chopa. iHelos aquf ! 

— y los arroj6 al momento. 

Juan Bobo loco de alegrfa, corre al palacio y le entrega la sortija 
al rey. — <!Queda algo mis? Dijo el rey: — Tienes que conocerla 
entre todas las mujeres que te presente. 

El rey habfa mandado buscar a todas las bizcas de su reino y de los 
demiis. Tuvo tanto gusto en seleccionarlas que todas pareci&n una 

Aquf los apuros de Juan, cuando en seguida llegan tres pajaritos 
y se paran dos en los hombros y uno en la cabeza, y Juan Bobo conoci6 
a los tres p&jaros que habfa echado en el nido. — iOh mara villas de 
las mara villas! — dijo orgulloso el rey, — ihasta los pajarillos vienen 
a celebrar tu hermosura! 

No hay duda que Juan Bobo distingui6 a la princesa. El rey no 
tuvo m&s remedio que entreg&rsela por esposa. El rey muri6 y 
Juan Bobo fu6 elegido rey. 

Rein6 y gobem6 a su pueblo con sabidurfa, sin absolutismo siendo 
absoluto el reinado. Quiere decir: un modelo de reyes y no olvid6 
a su niadre a quien hizo venir a su corte. 

Digitized by 


26 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


(55) Habia una vez una madre que tenia un hijo que era bobo. En 
la ciudad donde 61 vivia habitaba un rey que tenia una hija, la cual 
tenia un lunar en una piema. El rey mand6 a buscar toda la gente 
que vivia en las provincias cercanas y cuando hubo Uegado toda la 
gente, les dijo que quien le adivinara lo que tenia su hija en una piema, 
£se se casaria con eUa. El bobo que oy6 lo que el rey habia dicho, dijo 
a su mamd: — Mami, yo voy a adivinar lo que tiene la hija del rey en 
la piema. La madre le dijo: — Pero bobo, ic6mo tA vas a adivinar 
lo que tiene la hija del rey en una piema? Pero tanto se empeii6 el 
bobo que la madre lo dej6 ir. 

El bobo se fu6 y se escondi6 debajo de una escalera. Estaba toda 
la gente reunida tratando de adivinar cuando sali6 d bobo de su 
escondite y dijo: — Seiior rey, lo que su hija tiene es un lunar en la 
piema derecha. El rey qued6 asombrado al oir aquella frase y por 
no dejar casar a su bellisima hija con un bobo, mand6 hacer tres panes 
para el bobo con ars^nico. 

(70) La madre del bobo tenia una perrita que se llamaba ''Niila" 
y una yegua que tenia por nombre "Paula." El bobo que no se 
comia nada sin darle a la perra y a la yegua, le di6 un pan a cada una 
y se qued6 asombrado al ver que tan pronto como se lo coi^aieron 
quedaron muertos; bot6 el que habia dejado para 61. 

Su madre que habia salido y en el camino habia sabido que el rey 
trataba de envenenar a su hijo, se apresur6 a Uegar a su casa, pensando 
encontrar a su querido bobo muerto, y cual no seria su sorpresa al ver 
que cuando lleg6, €1 la recibi6 dici6ndole: — Mam&, pan mat6 a Paula 
y Paula mat6 a tres; apunt6 a quien no oi y a quien no vi, mat€; 
comi came con palabra de la iglesia y encima de duro puse blando y 
encima de blando iban muchisimas moscas cantando. Esto queria 
decir que encima de la yegua iban muchas moscas cantando. El 
resultado fu6 que el rey no dej6 casar a la linda hija con el bobo. 


(i, 4, 2) [V6ase 34 : 146-150.] 

(6) Sali6 Juan Bobo con la came de la vaca por la calle a venderla. 
Nadie le queria comprar la came, solamente las senoritas del manto 
negro que detrds de 61 le hacian : — Juem, juem, juem. Bueno, Juan 
Bobo les vendi6 la carne a ellas, y les preguntaba: — £Cu4ndo vengo 
a cobrar? Y ellas s61o hacfan: — Juem, juem. juem. Entonces 61 
dijo: — Me dicen que a la tarde, que a la tarde yo venga. Las 
senoritas del manto negro no le pagaron y 61 le di6 las cuentas al juez 
y al alcalde. Este le dijo que donde quiera que viera una la matara. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

ParUhRican Folk-Lore. 27 

Pas6 Juan Bobo por la iglesia y entr6. Estaba el cura diciendo la 
misa y tenia una mosca en la frente. Juan Bobo 11^6 y le di6 un 
macetazo que lo achoc6. En s^^uida la pcdida y el alcalde cogieron a 
Juan Bobo para llevario a la c&rcel. El deda: — <! A mf me llevan para 
la c&rcel? No. Dejen al juez venir aquf. Yo he preguntado a 61 
si d no me di6 el permiso para que matara donde quiera que encontrara 
una de dlas. Yo no iba a matar al cura. £Porqu6 61 se dej6 caer? 
No le hideron nada. 

(70) La madre de Juan Bobo no encontraba que hacer con 61 porque 
no la dejaba vivir tranquila. Un dfa que 61 iba para la dudad, la 
madre le envenen6 un pedazo de pan y se lo di6. Juan Bobo se mont6 
en una yegua panda que tenia y continu6 su camino. Cuando 61 
se con8ider6 que la yegua tenia hambre dijo: — Panda tendri hambre. 
Deja darle un pedazo de pan. Cuando 11^6 a un rio Panda tom6 
agua y se muri6. Entonces vinieron dos p&jaros y comieron de ella 
y se murieron; despu6s hizo una credente y se llev6 a Panda y los 
p&jaros. Juan Bobo 8igui6 para el pueblo» en donde habia una gran 
fiesta a consecuenda de un triunfo que habia en el palado dd rey» 
que el que dijera una adivinanza y el rey ni la rdna ni la princesa no 
adivinaban, se casaban con la princesa. Juan Bobo lleg6: — Yo voy 
a adivinar. Todo d mundo se ech6 a rdr al ver a Juan Bobo. El 
empez6: — Pan mat6 a panda, panda mat6 a dos y un duro sobre un 
blando matando a tres. Nadie en el palado pudo adivinar y Juan 
Bobo se caa6 con la princesa. 

(Version a.) 

(70) Esta era una vez que la hija del rey de Verona por ser (inica 
hija era muy antojadiza. Se le ocurri6 una vez que aqud a quien dla 
no le adivinara una adivinanza se casaria con ella. 

Su padre encontr6 exagerado el capricho pero como nunca la con- 
trariaba le di6 gusto. Mand6 el preg6n a anundar por calles y pueblos 
el deseo de la princesa. Vinieron los duques, condes, marqueses y 
otros grandes caballeros, y a todos les adivinaba dla la adivinanza. 
Vino toda la nobleza y a todos les adivinaba. Por tiltimo vino el 
pueblo y era juego para ella adivinar lo que ellos pensaban. 

En d pueblo de A vivia una mujer que tenia un hijo llamado Juan 
Bobo. Oy6 el preg6n y un dia le dijo a la madre: — Hazme una 
alfoija y prep&rame a Mozo, mi burro, que me voy a adivinarle a la 
princesa su pensamiento. Su madre se desesper6 porque era demasiado 
feo y bobo para ir al palado. Quiso quitarle la idea de que fuera, 
pero 61 se empen6 en ir. Por Ultimo, llorando mucho, le prepar6 la 
alforja con veneno. Al otro dia le puso la ropa de los dfas de fiesta, 
le di6 la alforja y le ensill6 a Mozo, le di6 la bendici6n y se qued6 
llorando. El le deda: — Madre, no te apures que de 6sta vas a 
quedar rica. Se fu6 muy contento. 1 r^r^^]^ 

Digitized by VjOOQLC 

28 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Anduvo una milla y cuando ya estaba muy cansado Uegd a la orilla 
de una caiiada y dijo: — Buen sitio es £ste para descansar. Se ape6, 
amarr6 el burro, le quit6 la alforja, la oli6 y dijo: — iQu6 buen olor 
tiene! Bebi6 agua y se acost6. Se durmi6 en seguida. El burro, 
no encontrando yerba, se comi6 la alforja y en el acto cay6 muerto. 
Bajaron dos grullas, le picaron en la barriga al burro y quedaron muer- 
tas. Bajaron otras tres y picaron a las grullas muertas y quedaron 
muertas. Con eso se despert6 Juan Bobo, mir6 el cuadro y dijo: — 
iAj&! Pan mat6 a Mozo, Mozo mat6 a dos, dos mataron a tres. 
Cogi6 un palo y se fu6. 

Tenia mucha hambre y anduvo hasta que mis no pudo. Encontr6 
una palma de albaricoque$, vi6 el delo abierto, pero las palmas eran 
tan altas que a duras penas alcanz6 cuatro o seis. Se las comid y 
dijo: — Pas6 por un duro. 

Sigui6 andando. Cuando ya no podfa tn&s se encontr6 con un 
platanal y se alegr6 mucho. Conii6 hasta que mis no pudo y al fin 
dijo: — Ahora, a palacio. A las pocas horas lleg6. No lo querfan 
dejar entrar porque lo vieron tan feo y tan bobo. 

Se asom6 la princesa, y al verlo pregunt6 qui6n era aquel simple. 
Le dijeron que era uno que pretendfa decirle una adivinanza. Ella 
se ri6 mucho y dijo que querfa pasar el rato con 61, que lo dejaran 
entrar. Subi6 Juan Bobo y ella le dijo que ella querfa que le dijera 
la adivinanza a ella sola. Juan Bobo le dijo que no, que mandara 
a buscar la mtisica y la tribuna para 61 subir. Y asf se cit6 el pueblo 
para las tres porque le caus6 gracia al rey la presenda de Juan Bobo. 

A las tres de la tarde no cabia la gente en palado. Todos querfan 
ofr la simpleza con que 61 saldrfa. Se subi6 a la tribuna y dijo: — Mi 
senorita, la princesa, pan mat6 a Mozo, Mozo mat6 a dos, dos mataron 
a tres, pas6 por un duro y un blando me la gan6. Ella pens6, discurri6 
y le pidi6 tres dfas para ella pensar. Entonces el pueblo grit6: — Se 
la gan6, se la gan6, se la gan6. 

Juan Bobo le concedi6 los tres dias, pero el rey exigi6 que se quedara 
en palacio y 61 acept6. Lo trataron muy bien. 

La primera noche que durmi6 en palado fu6 a su cuarto una de las 
camareras de la princesa, a conquistarlo, a ver si por oro o dinero o 
halagos 61 le deda el significado de la adivinanza, pero 61 le exigi6 
una prenda y no quiso. A la otra noche fu6 otra mis bonita y con 
mis ofredmientos, pero tampoco quiso dedrle la adivinanza. A la 
tercera noche fu6 la misma princesa, y a ella sf le dijo, pero exigi6 su 
cadena de oro. Al otro dia era cuando tenia que adivinarle. Ella 
sali6 muy contenta porque creia haber triunfado. 

Se volvi6 a Uenar el palado de gente. Al subir Juan Bobo a la 
tribuna el rey le dijo: — Si mi hija te adivina la brutalidad que has 
dicho te mando ahorcar. Y 61 le dijo que estaba bien pero que pedfa la 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 29 

grada de hablar tres palabras. Volvi6 a decir la adivinanza y la 
princesa la adivin6. El pueblo comenz6 a gritar : — i Qu6 lo ahorquen ! 
iQu6 lo ahorquen! Entonces 61 dijo: — Tengo concedida la gracia de 
hablar tres palabras, las cuales son: La primera noche de estar en 
palado vino una paloma blanca, le apunt6, la mat6, me la comf y 
all& van las plumas. Cuando dijo esto t]r6 una enagua. Al verla 
todo el mundo se sorprendi6. — La segunda noche vino otra paloma 
blanca, le apunt6, la mat6 me comf la came y all& van las plumas — y 
tir6 una camisa. — La tercera noche vino una paloma real, le apunt^, 
no la mat6, pero all& van las plumas — y tir6 la cadena de oro de la 
princesa. Y entonces todos gritaron: — iSe la gan6! iSe la gan6! 
Entonces por que no se casara con la princesa le dieron un mulo 
cargado de dinero, y entonces se acord6 de su madre y se fu6 para su 

{Version b.) 

(70) Una vez un rey tenia una hija y dijo que el que le dijera una 
adivinanza que no la hubiera en ningtin libro, se casaba con su hija. 
Juan Bobo estaba oyendo lo que dijo el rey y en seguida se fu6 para 
su casa y le dijo a la madre : — May, yo voy a adivinar en casa del rey. 
La madre le dijo: — Juan Bobo, d6jate de esas cosas, que t6 no sabes 
nada, tti lo que vas es a estorbar all&. El dijo: — S(, may, yo voy a 
adivinar. La madre como no querfa que Juan Bobo fuera a adivinar, 
le hizo Unas tortas, les ech6 veneno y se las di6. 

Juan Bobo se fu6, pero no se comi6 las tortas; le di6 una a una 
perra que tenia y la perra se muri6; vinieron tres moscas y se pegaron 
sobre la perra y se murieron. Cuando iba Juan Bobo, vi6 a un 
pich6n que estaba en un nido, le tir6 con una piedra y el pich6n se 
fu6 volando, pero mat6 a tres pichoncitos que estaban en el nido. 
Juan Bobo cogi6 los pichoncitos y se los llev6. 

Cuando iba con los pichoncitos entr6 en la iglesia y los chamusc6 en 
la l&mpara del Santfsimo y tom6 agua bendita. Juan Bobo sigui6 
caminando, cuando iba pasando por un puente de un rfo, vi6 que 
cuatro perros trafan a un caballo muerto. Los perros iban ladrando. 
Juan Bobo anot6 todo esto en la memoria y sigui6 hasta que lleg6 en 
casa del rey. 

El rey no crefa que fuera Juan Bobo el que adivinara, y Juan Bobo 
fu6 el que adivin6 y se cas6 con la hija del rey, porque dijo una adivi- 
nanza que no la habfa en ningtin libro, porque fu6 61 quien la sac6 de su 
memoria, de acuerdo con lo que le habfa pasado y habfa visto. 

La adivinanza es la siguiente: "Torta mat6 a Paula, Paula muerta 
matd a tres. Apunt6 a quien vf y mat6 a quien no vf. Comf con las 
palabras de la iglesia y bebf agua ni del cielo, ni de la tierra. Pas6 
por un duro sobre de un blando y vf bajar un muerto con cuatro vivos 

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30 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

{Version c.) 

(70) Habfa un rey que tenia una hija y dijo que iba a celebrar una 
fiesta para que el joven que dijera una adivinanza y £1 no se la adivi- 
nara, £se se casaba con su hija. 

Habfa un bobo y 61 le dijo a su madre que iba a ir a casa del rey. 
Entonces la madre del bobo le dijo que no fuera, porque lo mataban 
a £1 y a ella. Pero el bobo se puso a pensar c6mo hada la adivinanza 
que el rey no adivinara. 

Se fu6 a la tienda y compr6 tres bollos de pan, y se los dieron en- 
venenados y £1 se los di6 a una mula que se llamaba Paula. Lk mula 
se muri6 y la botaron; entonces tres perros comieron de ella y se 
murieron tambito. El se fu6 a cazar y vi6 una paloma, y le tir6 y no 
mat6 a la que vi6, sino a otra que estaba detrds. 

Se fu£ a la ig^esia y recogi6 los papeles escritos y as6 a la palomita. 
Entonces £1 dijo: — " Pan niat6 a Paula, Paula mat6 a tres; apunt6 a 
quien vi; mat6 a quien no v( y con palabras de la iglesia la as6 y me 
la coml." 

Al d(a siguiente se fu6 el bobo a casa del rey y todos subieron, mas 
el bobo se qued6 abajo. Todos dijeron sus adivinanzas y el rey se las 
adivinaba. Pr^;unt6 que si no quedaba nadie m&s, y le dijeron que 
quedaba un bobo abajo. 

El rey lo mand6 subir y 61 dijo su adivinanza. — '* Pan mat6 a Paula, 
Paula mat6 a tres; apunt6 a quien v(, mat6 a quien no v( y con pala- 
bras de la iglesia la as6 y me la comf." El rey no se la adivin6 y el 
bobo se cas6 con la hija del rey. 

{Version d.) 

(70) Habfa una vez una madre que tenia un hijo que se llamaba 
Juan y la gente le decfa Juan Bobo por su manera de ser. Un dla el 
rey dijo que el que supiera una adivinanza que fu«a a su casa y si 61 
no la adivinaba el que fuera se casaba con su hija. 

Un dfa Juan Bobo oy6 dedr esto en la dudad y se fu6 y le dijo a la 
madre que querfa ir a la casa dd rey. La madre le dijo que c6mo iba 
a ir a la casa dd rey asf sudo. Juan Bobo no hizo caso y se f u6 con 
una perrita que 61 tenia y que se llamaba Pana. La madre le habfa 
dado un pastelillo con veneno para que Juan Bobo se muriera. 

Sagui6 su camino y en d camino le di6 mucfao hambre a la perrita 
y Juan Bobo le di6 d pastelillo y la perrita se muri6. ^gui6 su 
camino y cuando fu6 para atr&s para ver si venfa Pana encootr6 tres 
p&jaros que estaban muertos porque tambi6n haUan comido de la 
perrita. De8pu6s vinieron cuatro p&jaros m&s y comieroa de los tres 
y se murieron tambi6n. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 31 

Entonces Juan Bobo dijo que ya habfa encontrado una adivinanza 
y le dijo: — Mami, por matarme a nil mat6 a Pana, Pana mat6 a tres 
y tres mataron a cuatro. 

Sigui6 su camino con una escopeta que trafa y vi6 a un p&jaro y le 
apunt6 para matarlo, y di6 la casualidad que habfa doe p&jaros 
en la rama y niat6 al que no apunt6 y el que le apunt6 se Ink volando. 
Entonces dijo: — Pues ya tengo algo m&s para mi adivinanza y la 
repiti6: — Mani4, por matarme a mf mat6 a Pana, Pana mat6 a tres, 
tres mataron a cuatro, apunt6 al que vf , mat6 al que no vf. 

Sigui6 andando hasta que al fin lleg6 a una iglesia. Y a Juan Bobo 
le di6 hambre y cogi6 todos los libros de la iglesia y hizo con ellos una 
hoguera y alU as6 el p&jaro y se lo comi6. Despu^s le di6 sed y cogi6 
el agua bendita y se la bebi6. Entonces dijo que ya tenia m&s para su 
adivinanza y la repiti6 toda: — Mam&, por matarme a mf, mat6 a 
Pana, Pana mat6 a tres, tres mataron a cuatro, apunt6 al que vf, 
voaXk al que no vf, con palabras santas lo as6 y me lo comf , tom6 agua 
que no fu6 Uovida ni credda. 

Entonces Juan Bobo sigui6 andando y cuando fu6 a coger el vapor 
para ir a la casa del rey cuando iba nav^;ando pasaron dos pajaritos 
cantando. Y entonces Juan Bobo dijo: — Esta adivinanza no me la 
adivina el rey y entonces le aiiadi6 a la adivinanza lo que le habfa 
pasado nav^;ando por el mar. 

Sigui6 navegando hasta que lleg6 a la casa del rey. Juan Bobo 
no se atrevfa a entrar y se qued6 por detr&s de las escaleras. EI 8ali6 
al ba]c6n y vi6 a Juan Bobo y le dijo que entrara. La casa estaba 
llena de gente. Habfa omdes, marqueses y muchos j6venes guapos 
y bien vestidos. Cuando Juan Bobo entr6 y se vi6 entre tanta gente 
estaba lo m&s asustado. Cuando empezaron a decir las adivinanzas. 
todas las que decfan el rey las adivinaba. Juan Bobo se qued6 para 
lo Ultimo, y ya que habfan dicho todas las adivinanzas Juan Bobo 
empez6 a decir la suya: — Mami, por matarme a mf, mat6 a Pana, 
Pana niat5 a tres, tres mataron a cuatro, apunt6 al que vf y mat6 al 
que no vf, con palabras santas lo as6 y me lo comf. Tom6 agua que 
no fu6 Uovida ni credda, y yendo navegando por el mar dos pajaritos 
pasaron cantando. Entonces todos empezaron a aplaudirlo y el rey 
no se la pudo adivinar. Y entonces el rey cogi6 a Juan Bobo, lo 
visti6 bien y la noche sigulente se cas6 con la hija del rey y siguieron 
viviendo felices por muchos aiios. 

{Version e.) 

(70) A11& por los alios en que vivfa mi abuelo habfa un rey que tenfa 
una hija muy hermosa y se la que viniera el dfa del sorteo 
de la princesa y adivinara una adivinanza que no estuviera en su 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

32 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Todos Io8 reyes y principes y grandes personajes de la comarca 
entera asistieron al sorteo. Cuantas adivinanzas daban otras tantas 
perdfan, pues todas se encontraban en el libro del rey. 

Juan Bobo oy6 dedr del sorteo y le dijo a su madre: — Mam&, 
quiero ir a ver si adivino una adivinanza que no est€ en el libro del 
rey para casarme con la hija del rey. La madre le dijo: — Muchacho, 
<!C6mo vas a ir para que te tiren por la escalera abajo? Si vas te voy 
a dar una paliza. Y Juan Bobo le dijo: — No, usted va a ver como 
me caso con la princesa. 

La madre no le hizo caso y Juan Bobo cogi6 y se fu6 para el monte. 
AlU se encontr6 con una vieja que estaba sentada en una piedra mo^ 
liendo ajo para echarles a unos huesos de came que tenia para hacer 
Unas sopas. Juan Bobo se acerc6 y le dijo: — Madre vieja, iqai hace 
usted ahl? Y la vieja le dijo: — Mi hijo, moliendo ajo para esos 
huesitos mortantes que ves ah( y que las aves cantantes ya se van a 

Juan Bobo se call6 la boca y se fu6 corriendo para su casa y le dijo 
a su mam&: — Mam&, sicame ropa que me voy al sorteo en la casa 
del rey. La madre, por no contradecirle, le sac6 ropa, Juan Bobo se 
visti6 y se fu6. 

Lleg6 a donde el rey y se qued6 en la cola de la fila, pues toda la 
coitiarca estaba en la fila adivinando. Despute de que nadie acertaba 
a adivinar porque todas las adivinanzas estaban en el libro del rey, 
el rey alcanz6 a ver a Juan Bobo y le dijo: — iQu6 quieres t6? Y 
Juan Bobo le respondi6: — Seiior rey, yo vengo a adivinar, para ver 
si me saco a la princesa su hija. Todos se echaron a refr, pero el rey 
le dijo a Juan Bobo: — Pues di, a ver si adivinas. Entonces 61 dijo: 
— Seiior rey, a que no me adivina esta adivinanza: Ajo, majo, pico 
en piedra, ave cantante en hueso mortante. Todos se miraron con 
asombro. El rey busc6 su libro y no encontr6 la adivinanza. El rey 
se di8gust6 mucho por no poder adivinar la adivinanza y exigi6 al bobo 
que explicase la adivinanza. Y entonces el bobo dijo: — Pues seiior« 
rey, yo iba por un monte, encontr6 una vieja moliendo ajo en una 
piedra, que quiere decir "ajo, majo, pico en piedra." Y la vieja me 
dijo que era para una sopa que iba a hacer con unos huesos mortantes 
que las moscas se los iban a llevar, y eso quiere decir ''ave cantante eh 
hueso mortante." Como los huesos eran de animal muerto por eso 
dice que eran huesos mortantes, y como las moscas zumban por eso 
dice aves cantantes. 

Entonces el rey no tuvo que hacer sino darle su hija como esposa, 
y dem&s estd decir lo orguHoso y contento que se pondrfa el bobo con 
una esposa reina. 

( Version /.) 

(70) Existi6 en tiempos muy remotos y adn no se recuerda la fecha, 
un rapazuelo muy andrajoso, pero de un talent03.e^|^ri^^<|9£^ algo 

Parto-Rican Folk-Lore. 33 

o61ebre. Este era Juan Bobo. Muchacho adn de 18 afios de edad, 
deddi6 correr fortuna o lo que es \o mismo, aniesgarse a los tropezones 
mundanos. Le pidi6 a su madre la tinica herenda que le perteneda; 
esto es: una yegua gorda como una espina, tuerta dd ojo derecho, coja 
por haber mudado un casco o pezuna; y lo que es mejor, pues le senta- 
ban tan bien los aperos por ser deforme del espinazo, a cuyo nombre le 
agradaba el de "Panda." Al fin su madre decidi6 concederle el 
permiso al diico, y un viemes muy temprano, sali6 i\ de su casa. 

Habia un palacio muy cerca de aquel poblado en d cual habitaba un 
rey que tenia una hija, la cual por medio de un Hbro adivinaba todas 
las jerigonzas que los grandes letrados le dedan. El rey para mayor 
recreo habfa ordenado que d hombre que dijese una adivinanza y su 
hija no la adivinara, se casarfa con ella, posddo de que nadie lograrfa 
su empeno. Juan Bobo oyendo estas voces deddi6 llegar al palado, 
pero aun no habia pensado ninguna para exponerla ante la princesa. 

Mientras iba caminando conversaba a solas pensando lo que ir(a a 
decir ante la princesa y en esto su yegua desfalleda de hambre. Por 
fin deddi6 alimentar a su bestia con una libra de pan, pero d panadero 
le cogi6 tanto asco al animal que le vendi6 en venenado para los ratones. 
Juan cogi6 su pan y prosigui6 su camino hasta llegar cerca de la orilla 
de un rio. AlU le di6 agua y d pan, pero pocos momentos despuds d 
animal no pudo sostenerse y cay6 muerta a consecuenda del veneno 
que tenia d pan. iCu&n grande fu6 su sorpresa al ver que su y^^ua 
habia matado a tres ratondtos que por alll jugaban ! Pocos momentos 
despufe el rio sobrevino de madre y se llev6 la yegua con la corriente. 
Mientras la muerta bestia se deslizaba suavemente por el rio abajo, 
tres mazambigues iban posados sobre su lomo con direcd6n hacia d 

Mientitis el bobo pensaba en su interior: pan mat6 a panda; panda 
mat6 a tres; un duro sobre de un blando y un muerto cargando a 
tres; vi6 pasar cerca de si un rebaiio de ovejas. 

Como el hombre que va desenfrenado, cogi6 una piedra y ipam! 
la lanz6 hada el camero m&s gordo que habia visto; pero la desgracia 
le perseguia y acertd a matar al m&s flaco del rebano. No logrando 
sus deseos se puso a pensar nuevamente: — Apunt6 al que vi y mat6 
al que no vi. Aqui complet6 nuestro hombre su deseo formando una 
estrat6gica adivinanza: 

Pan mat6 a panda, panda mat6 a tres; un duro sobre de un blando 
y un muerto cargando a tres; apunt6 al que vi y mat6 al que no vi. 

Lleno de alegria iba repitiendo estas frases mientras caminaba. 

Al amanecer arrib6 al palado pidiendo permiso para ir a presencia 
de la princesa, pero los polizontes que hadan la guardia real, no querian 
dejarle entrar. Enterada la princesa de lo ocurrido orden6 que entrara 
inmediatamente, a lo cual accedid con la mejor cortesia de un pobre 

Digitized by 


34 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

labrador. Cuando la princesa pregunt6 cuales eran sus deseoe 61 la 
dijo, sin acertar a decirle princesa, pues tal era el jfibilo que lo em- 
bargaba en aquellos momentos: — Mi reina, yo vengo a casarme con 
vos. La princesa asombrada ante aquella osadfa le dijo: — iS(, vos 
conseguir^is lo que pedfe, si didendo una adivinanza yo no logro 
adivinarla. Convinieron y Juan Bobo se explic6 de la manera mAs 
cort6s que pudo: — A114 vamos con el caiionazo — dijo 61; — Pan 
mat6 a panda, panda niat6 a tres; un duro sobre de un blando y un 
muerto cargando a tres; apunt6 al que vf y niat6 al que no es. 

Qued6 estupefacta la princesa por espacio de tres dfas, al final de 
los cuales no pudiendo adivinar tuvo que acceder a los deseos de Juan 
Bobo. Luego 61 expllc6 ante la corte su soiiada adivinanza: Pan, era 
el que 61 compr6 en la panaderia; panda era la 3^egua; mat6 a tres, 
eran los ratones muertos al caer la yegua; un duro sobre de un blando, 
era la yegua sobre el rio; un muerto cargando a tres, eran los tres 
mazambigues sobre la y^^ua en el rio; apunt6 al que vf y mat6 al 
que no es, era cuando 61 apunt6 al camero gordo y mat6 al flaco. 

Siete d(as despu6s de estos sucesos, Juan Bobo pas6 a ser el prindpe 
de aquella comarca y gobemador de una gran villa. 


Habfa una vez un bobo que se Uamaba Juan y tenia un perro que 
se llamaba V61ez y habfa en una ciudad un rey que tenfa una hija y 
dicho rey deda que el que le echase una adivinanza y 61 no se la 
pudiera adivinar se casaria con su hija y si n6 lo mandaria a ahorcar. 
Juan tenfa su madre y un hermano. 

(3) Un dfa se fu6 su mam& para misa y le encarg6 que cuidara las 
gallinas. i Qu6 hizo Juan ? Las meti6 a todas en un saco y las gallinas 
se murieron ahogadas. Cuando su madre lleg6 de misa se quiso volver 
loca al ver lo que Juan habfa hecho, quiso castigarle pero 6ste se le 

El domingo siguiente volvi6 su madre a misa y le dijo que le cuidase 
los pavos; los ensart6 uno por uno y los coloc6 en la pared. Cuando 
regres6 su madre de misa y vid que le habfa matado todos los pavos 
le di6 una fuetiza. 

(i) Otra vez su' madre tuvo que salir a una diligenda y le encarg6 
que le cuidase la cerda. ^Qu6 hizo Juan? Visti6 a la cerda y la 
mand6 a misa. Cuando su madre regres6 y le pregunt6 por la cerda 
le dijo que la habfa vestido y la habfa mandado para misa. Su 
madre se puso furiosa y le di6 un castigo. 

(2) Fu6 otro domingo a misa y le encargd que le cuidase al nene 
y no lo dejara llorar. Tan pronto como lo oy6 Uorar, le tap6 la boca 
con un paiiuelo y d muchachito se muri6. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 35 

(70) Cuando su madre vino y encontr6 al hijo muerto prepard una 
tortilla para matar a Juan y como 61 era tan bobo llani6 al perro y le 
tir6 la mitad y vi6 que el perro se muri6 y le dijo que £1 no comfa esa 
tortilla. Se fu£ a botar al'perro y se pararon tres moscas encima del 
perro y se murieron y vi6 tambi^n en un palo un cuco en una rama y 
otro cuco en la rama de m&s arriba y debajo del palo habfa un becerro 
que deda: — iMee! — entonces 61 dijo: — iYa tengo la adivinanza 
que le voy a decir al rey. Le ech6 la adivinanza al rey que era la 


Tortilla inat6 a V61ez, 
V61ez mat6 a tres. 
Cuco sobre cuco, 
Debajo de cuco un mee, 
Garabato emparej6. 
jAdivinad vuestra merced! 

El rey no pudo adivinarlo y Juan se cas6 con la hija del rey. 
II. CuENTOs DE Pedro de Urdemalas. 


Pedro Animala y Compai Conejo eran enemigos. Y Compai Conejo 
andaba buscando a Pedro Animala para matarlo. Un dia Pedro 
Animala estaba haciendo la comida cuando vi6 a Compai Conejo 
que venfa. Entonces Pedro Animala cogi6 la olla y la puso en el 
medio del camino, cuando lleg6 Compai Conejo y le dijo: — Ya te voy 
a comer. Hoy si que no te salvas. Y Pedro Animala le respondid : — 
No me mates. Mira que yo tengo una olla maravillosa. Y como el 
agua estaba hirviendo todavfa, Compai Conejo lo crey6 y dijo: — ILsl 
vendes? Pedro Animala le dijo que no y entonces Compai Conejo le 
dijo: — Si no me la vendes no te perdono la vida. Y Pedro Animala 
le dijo: — Bueno, por ser usted» se la voy a vender y me ha de dar dos 
mil pesos. Compai Conejo se los di6. Compai Conejo se fu6 muy 
con ten to y se fu6 para su casa y le dijo a su mujer: — Toma esta olla, 
pon la comida dentro de ella y no te ocupes m&s. Y la mujer se crey6 
y cogi6 la olla y puso los alimentos a cocinar sin candela. Y a las 
doce cuando se sentaron a almorzar hallaron la comida frfa y cruda. 
Y entonces Compai Conejo se convenci6 una vez mis de lo malo que 
era Pedro Animala. 

{Version a.) 

Una vez habfa un hombre que era muy astuto y maldito, y se 
llamaba Pedro Urdemalas. Una vez tenia un compadre. Un d(a 
en que la mujer de Pedro de Urdemalas estaba haciendo la comida, 
vi6 venir al compadre y le 8ac6 la lena al caldero en que la comida 
se estaba codnando. Cuando el compadre de Pedro de Urdemalas 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

36 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Ileg6 encontr6 el caldero sin leiia y la comida hirviendo. Entonces 
61 dijo: — Compadre, iqu6 le parece? Mire, que caldero que hace 
comida sin leiia. Y entonces el compadre dijo: — • Yo le doy lo que 
V. me pida. Y entonces sac6 de su bolsillo un punado de monedas 
de plata y se lo di6 a Pedro de Urdemalas. Al otro dfa cuando la 
mujer del compadre de Pedro de Urdemalas fu6 a poner el caldero 
para cocinar el almuerzo, puso el caldero sin lefia y se fueron a con- 
versar para la sala y el caldero no habfa hervido todavfa. Ella 
hada m&s de cinco boras que lo habfa puesto. Entonces 61 dijo: — 
Yo manana voy a casa de compadre Pedro para devolverle el caldero. 
Cuando 61 fu6 a devolver el caldero, Pedro de Urdemalas se habfa 
ido a otro pueblo lejano. 

{Version b.) 

En derta ocasi6n hubo un hombre que hada muchas maldades. 

Un dfa no tenfa dinero y pensd en el modo de adquirirlo. Se 
busc6 un caldero y se fu6 al monte. Allf hizo juego, coloc6 el caldero 
al f uego y puso algunas l^^umbres dentro de 61 para hacer un coddo. 
Tan pronto como el coddo estuvo coddo sali6 al camino con su 
caldero y lo puso en medio de 61. Pronto aparederon por allf tres 
caballeros, preguntaron a Pedro qu6 hada y 61 les contestd: — Estoy 
preparando mi comida. — jC6mo haces tu comida en caldero y sin 
fuego? — Porque este caldero no lo necesita. Y si asf no fuera d 
agua no estarfa hirviendo. Los hombres, deseando adquirird caldero, 
le rogaron a Pedro que se lo vendiera, pero 61 les contest6 que no podfa 
vend6rselo porque era el mayor capital que 61 podfa poseer. Pero 
luego los hombres le ofrecieron unos miles de pesos y Pedro se decidi6 
a vend6rselo. Le entregaron el dinero a Pedro y se fueron muy 
contentos con su caldero. Y Pedro bailaba de la alegrfa que tenfa por 
haber hecho tan gran maldad. 

Pasado algtin tiempo los hombres tuvieron necesidad de cocer su 
comida y Uenaron el caldero de agua y arroz y lo pusieron en el camino, 
pero el agua no hervfa. Se volvieron atr&s para devolverle lo que le 
habfan comprado porque no servfa, pero no le encontraron. 


(39) Esta era una vez y dos son tres que habfa un hombre muy malo 
que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas. Este hombre le debfa una canti- 
dad a un senor. Un dfa el seiior fu6 a cobrarle a Pedro pero 61 sabfa 
que 61 ibay se puso a codnar en una olla de barro y cuando el senor 
venfa cerca de 61, la ape6 y sigui6 hirviendo sin carb6n. En s^^ida sali6 
a compr&rselo pero Pedro deda que no se la vendfa a ver si le deda 
que le daba vuelta. Entonces le dijo: — Si me das dncuenta pesos, sf. 

Digitized by 


Porto-Rican Folk-Lore. 37 

— El senor hizo el trato y le Ilev6 la oUa a su seiiora y le dijo que no 
tenia que ponerle carb6n, por que ella hervfa 861a. Y ella lo hizo asf. 
AI medio dia cuando fu£ a veria estaba igual que cuando la puso. 

(40) Se lo dijo al espoeo y 61 en s^^ida se fu6 para donde Pedro. 
Pedro sabfa que £1 iba y le dijo a la madre: — Cuando venga Manuel 
a cobrarme, V. se pone a pelear conmigo. Yo le pongo esta vejiga 
de sangreyle clavo este cuchillo en el pecho, y V. cae como muerta. 
Entonces yo empiezo a tocarle,^ y V. se va moviendo hasta que se pare. 
Asf lo hizieron y cuando 61 lleg6 se pusieron a pelear y en s^^ida 61 la 
mat6 y empez6 a tocarle hasta que se par6. El hombre en s^^ida se 
lo sali6 a con^>rar y se lo di6 por den pesos de vuelta. Se fu6 a su 
casa y mat6 a la mujer y pasaron dos polidas y le condenaron a cadena 
perpetua y alU muri6. 

(31) El rey lleg5 a saber que 61 era tan nialo y lo niand6 a buscar. 
Lo iban a tirar por un barranco y cuando lo tenfan preparado, empez6 . 
a dear: — No me caso, no me caso. El hombre le dijo: — i Por qu6 
tu dices que no te casas? — El dijo: — Por que me quieren hacer 
casar con la hija del rey y yo no quiero. — Entonces, salte que yo me 
caso. Pedro se fu6 y vinieron y lo tiraron. A los pocos dfas pas6 por 
all! Pedro como con den ovejas y el rey dijo: — Pedro, yo te tir6 a 
ti por aquel barranco el otro dIa. El le dijo: — Si V. me ha hecho 
un favor; si alU hay mis ovejas. — Pues, ven esta tarde para que me 
tires. Y vino Pedro y lo tir6. Todavfa no ha salido. 


Habfa una vez en un pueblo, gobemado por un rey, un hombre 
llamado vulgarmente Pedro Animales. E^te hombre era un pillo 
fino. Una vez este mismo hombre rob6 a un pobre campesino unas 
vacas. El campesino se dirigi6 presurosamente al pueblo a dar la 
queja al rey. El rey envi6 en seguida una patrulla de soldados a 
arrestar a Pedro Animales. Los soldados encontraron a 6ste cuando 
se dirigfa hada el pueblo a vender lo que habfa robado. La patrulla 
de soldados lo at6 y lo llev6 a presencia del rey. 

Muy cerca del pueblo habfa un risco, por donde acostumbraban 
hechar a los ladrones. El rey orden6 que colocaran a Pedro Animales 
en la parte arriba del risco. Los soldados cumplieron la orden redbida 
y 61 fu6 metido en un saco, y puesto en el sitio ordenado hasta nueva 
orden del rey. 

Mis tarde pasaron por allf unos caminantes, y se pararon en el sitio 
indicado, cuando oyeron una voz que salf a de dentro del saco que deda : 

— No me caso; no me caso con la hija del rey. 

Uno de los caminantes le pregunt6 porqu6 estaba metido en aquel 
saco y 61 le dijo que porque no queria casarse con la hija del rey. 

> Ee decir, tocar el pito para que resucite. j 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

38 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Entonces uno de ellos le dijo que lo metiera dentro del saco que il 
se casaba. Este desat6 el saco y Pedro Animales se sali6 y meti6 al 
otro, retir&ndose para su casa ritedose. 

EI rey ordend que empujaran a Pedro Animales poraquelpredpicio. 
Cuando Uegaron al sitio indicado oyeron que el hombre deda que se 
casaba con la hija del rey. Los soldados ejecutaron la orden redbida 
y empujaron aquel hombre por aquel predpido. 

Unos dias despu£s aparedd Pedro Animales con un rebano de cabros. 
EI rey se espant6 al verlo por alU y mand6 a Uamarlo. El compareci6 
ante el rey y le cont6 que abajo del predpido habfa un hombre que le 
r^^alaba cabros al que era tirado por aquel risco. Mucha gente 
ambidosa por tener estos animales le dijeron a Pedro Animales que 
fuera a la tarde al risco para que los empujara. 

El fu6 y los empuj6 y retir&ndose para su casa ri^ndose deda que 
fueran a buscar cabros al limbo. 

(Version a.) 

Durante el tiempo en que esta isia era gobemada por los reyes 
existfa un hombre llamado Pedro de Urdemalas. Era tan malo que el 
rey lo mand6 prender y se dispuso a matarlo. Lo prendieron y cuando 
lo iban a matar pidi6 que le dejaran un dfa m&s de vida. El rey se lo 
concedi6 y lo metieron dentro de un saco y le pusieron un plomo 
adentro, lo ataron a un &rbol sobre d mar, para al otro dia cortar la 
soga y que se ahogara. Luego que lo dejaron solo se puso a gritar: 
— No me caso. No me caso. No me caso con la hija del rey. Un 
pastor que iba pasando con sus ovejas lo oy6 gritar y se acerc6 y le 
pregunt6 que pasaba y que por qu6 gritaba. Y Pedro de Urdemalas 
le respondid que era que no se querfa casar con la hija del rey y que 
por eso lo iban a matar. Entonces el pastor le dijo que lo metiera a 
il en el saco y que cuando lo vinieran a matar €1 dirfa que sf. Asf lo 
hideron y el pastor sac6 a Pedro de Urdemalas dd saco y se meti6 61, 
y Pedro lo amarr6 bien y se fu6 con las ovejas. Cuando vinieron a 
ver a Pedro para matarlo el pastor empez6 a gritar: — Me caso. Me 
caso. Ahora si me caso con la hija del rey. Creyeron que estaba loco 
y lo echaron en el mar. Y Pairo sigui6 siendo mis travieso que 

(Version b.) 

Una vez Pedro de Urdemalas le rob6 unas cabras al rey y el rey lo 
amarr6 en la codna. Al poco rato pas6 un hombre por la cocina 
y Pedro empez6 a dedr: — No me caso; no me caso. Entonces el 
hombre le preguntd que le pasaba y Pedro le dijo que el rey querfa 
casarlo con su hija y 61 no queria. Entonces d hombre le dijo: — 
Yo me amarro y me caso, — y se amarr6 61 y solt6 a Pedro. Al poco 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 39 

rato el rey inand6 a que le echaran agua caliente. Entonces empezaron 
a echarle agua caliente y el hombre empez6 a decir: — Yo me caso» yo 
me caso, — y lo quemaron todo. 

( Version c) 

Una vez habfa un hombre que se llamaba Pedro Animala. Este 
hombre acostumbraba discutir con el rey y hacerle maldades. El 
era muy diestro y sabfa que nunca podrfa el rey matarlo. Un dia, le 
hizo una maldad tan mala al rey que lo echaron dentro de un saco para 
que por la manana siguiente lo tirasen a los golfos del mar. Entonces 
lo echaron en el saco para por la maiiana siguiente tirarlo. 

En cuanto la gente se fu£ empez6 a gritar: — No me caso. No me 
caso. No me caso con la hija del rey. Cuando 61 decfa esto lleg6 un 
pescador y le pr^:unt6: — iPorqu6 estis gritando? iQai te pasa? 
Y Pedro le respondi6: — Porque me quieren casar con la hija del rey 
y yo no quiero. Y por eso me van a echar a los golfos del mar, porque 
no quiero casarme con la hija del rey. Entonces el pescador le dijo : — 
iQuieres que yo me entre dentro del saco y yo digo que me caso? 
Entonces Pedro dijo que si y 61 sali6 y el hombre se entr6. El hombre 
decfa: — Yo me caso; no me tiren al mar que yo me caso. Entonces 
cuando vinieron a tirarlo, oyeron la vox y dijeron: — i Ah! dCon qu* 
t6 te casas? Y lo cogieron y lo tiraron al mar. Entonces Pedro se 
fu6 para una montafia y reuni6 como mil cabros. Al poco tiempo 
niarch6 para la dudad cocheando en voz alta a su ganado. 

Cuando el rey oy6, dijo: — iQu6 voz tan parecida a la de Pedro! 
SI no se hubiera tirado al mar dijeran que era €1. Cuando lleg6 al 
palado grit6 a sus cabros y pared6 ser el mismo. 

Entonces se asomaron a la puerta y dijeron: — Pedro, ino hace 
tantos alios que le tiraron en el mar? — SI, pero crefan hacerme un mal y 
me hideron un bien. Mire, en el mar he sacado esta riqueza. Si alH 
cada salta era un cabro, y cuando sail de alK traje estos animates. 
El rey dijo: — Si es as(, tfrenme a ml. Y lo tiran, y Adi6s. 


(71) Una vez habfa un hombre que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas. 
La madre tenia una choza y un dfa Pedro le rompid la casa a su madre 
y le horc6 la vaca. Pel6 la vaca, le sac6 el cuero, lo sec6 y se f u6 a 
venderlo. Dijo a la mam&: — No se apure, madre. Pidi6 caro por 
el cuero y no lo vendi6. El venfa por el camino. Vi6 una luz y no se 
atrevfa a pasar y tir6 el cuero y los bandidos huyeron. Cogi6 el dinero 
y lleg6 a su casa. 

(31) El rey sabia lo que 61 tenia y lo ech6 en un saco y lo amarr6 
en un estante de la casa para echarle al mar. El vi6 a un hombre 

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40 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

con un rebano y 61 deda: — Yo no me caso cx)n la hija del rey, 
El hombre le pregunt6: — iQu€ te pasa, Pedro? Le dijo que lo 
querian hacer casar con la hija del rey, y 61 no querfa. El dijo: — 
Salte t6, y yo me entro, y 61 le dijo que si. Lo solt6 y 61 entr6 
y el rey lo cogi6 para echarlo al mar. El rey se fu6 para su casa y 
Pedro sali6. El rey dijo: — <! Pedro, no te acabo de echar en el mar? 
— Sf, pero yo me encontr6 esto. — Y el rey dijo: — Echame a mt. — 
Y lo ech6 y qued6 gobemando el palado del rey. 


(44) Habia una vez dos hermanos que vivfan con su querida madre 
en una continua desuni6n. El mayor de ellos no podia ver al m&s 
pequeno, y viceversa. Un dia, vi6ndose los dos escasos de dinero se 
deddieron matar a la madre, para poder hacer dinero con ella. Lleg6 
la noche y los dos bien combinados, le quitaron la vida a la pobre 
andana. A la manana siguiente la echaron dentro de un saco y 
cargaron con ella. Se fueron donde estaba un hortdano que estal» 
cosechando unas habas y los dos muchachos pusieron a la madre 
hincada de rodillas, como recogiendo los granos. El hombre crey6 que 
lo que ella hada era robarle los frutos y deddi6 pegarle un tiro. Al 
caer la vieja al suelo, Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande se echaron a gritar, 
y el hombre de lo m&s apurado los llam6 y les di6 una talega de dinero 
para que no dijeran nada. 

Luego cogieron a la vieja y echaron a andar. Cuando estaban ya 
cerca de una tienda de campo se acercaron los dos y vieron que unos 
jibaros estaban hadendo la compra de sus casas y adem&s tenian unas 
bestias, que eran quienes los iban a condudr a sus hogares con sus 
compras. Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande velaron cuando los jibaros 
compraron un saco de jam6n y todno y lo echaron dentro de las banas- 
tas del caballo; mientras Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito velaban para 
ver c6mo podian cambiar el saco donde tenian a la vieja muerta, por el 
saco del jam6n y el todno. Cuando vieron que nadie los veia, se 
acercaron y pusieron a la vieja en las banastas y cogieron el saco de 
jam6n y todno y echaron a correr. Concluyeron los jibaros de com- 
prar, se pusieron en camino, pero resulta que ese dia hada un sol muy 
picante y ya la vieja estaba demasiado podrida. Durante el camino 
uno de los viajeros le dice al otro: — Compay, Ousted no sabe que el 
jastndn y d todno se nos est&njabombando un poco? Debemos andar 
para Uegar pronto y ponerlo a ventear. 

A todo esto, d jibaro que Uevaba a la vieja en la banasta habia 
dejado a su mujer sin tener que comer hasta que llegara 61, pero resultd 
que la pobre mujer, viendo que no tenia nada que dark al chiquito 
de comer, se fu6 al corral y cort6 una calabadta nueva que habia en 

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PartO'Rican Folk-Lore. 41 

la mata y se la puso a sancochar. En los momentoe que ya la iba a 
sacar de la olla, vi6 venir a su marido cargado de provisiones. El 
jfbaro le giitaba a una distancia de 20 o 30 metros y le deda : — Mujer, 
mujer mfa, abre la puerta y bota todito lo que est&s haciendo que aquf 
llevamos de todo; corre y ven busca el jasmin y el todno, que parece 
que se nos quiere jabombar un poco y ponlo al viento para que se 
refresque. La pobre sefiora corri6 Uena de al^;rfa y bot6 la calabaza 
y se puso a correr hasta alcanzar a su marido. Cuando los dos estaban 
cerca de su casa, dfcele el jfbaro: — Mira mujer, saca primero el 
jastndn y el todno, antes que se danen mis. Y la mujer cogi6 el saco 
y lo desamarr6 ddante dd jibaro. Al ver los dos que lo que habfa en 
el saco era una vieja encamijada en lugar del jam6n y todno (ya la 
vieja tenia como un mes de estar podrida), se ediaron a correr dejando 
todo lo que tenfan, qued&ndose sin comer la mujer, el chiquito y el 

Durante esta escena Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito se aparederon y 
cargaron con las demis provisiones y con todas las bestias. Luego los 
pobres jfbaros estaban de lo m&s asustados y no se atrevieron a regresar 
a su hogar hasta que se murieron de hambre en el monte. 

Juan Chiquito y Juan Grande vendieron todas sus provisiones y 
partieron el dinero; cogieron de nuevo a la vieja y echaron a caminar, 
vieron dos hombres que estaban peleando a machetazos y entre Juan 
Grande y Juan Chiquito la metieron por en medio y los jfbaros por 
machetearse los dos, pufialearon a la vieja dentro del saco. Entonces 
salieron Juan Grande y Juan Chiquito gritando : — i Socorro ! i Caridad ! 
iQue estas gentes han matado a tnayl iPor Dios, corran pdicfas! 
iQue la han asesinado todita! Cuando los hombres oyeron los gritos 
de Juan, les pusieron en las manos un taleg6n de dinero para que se 
Uevaran a la vieja y la enterraran sin que dijeran nada de que ellos la 
habfan matado. 

Tomaron el dinero y el saco con la vieja y echaron a andar de 
nuevo; luego al partir los ochavos, Juan Grande querfa emborricar 
al Chiquito y se arm6 una disputa. Entonces Juan Chiquito se 
desuni6 de su hermano Juan Grande; pero 6ste como m&s lija, le 
dej6 la madre a Juan Grande y se qued6 con el dinero dej&ndole 
dicho a Juan Grande que todo el dinero m&s que hidera con la vieja, 
lo cogiera para 61. 

(31) Se fu6 Juan Chiquito a correr fortuna, sali6 a un camino y 
alcanz6 a ver una congregad6n de vacas, bueyes y ovejas, con un 
capataz que las trafa para venderlas en el pueblo. Entonces dice 
Juan Chiquito: — jAh! aquf me voy yo a salvar con este capataz. 
Cuando venfa el maestro del ganado bien cerca, Juan Chiquito se 
meti6 dentro de un saco y se tendi6 a lo largo en medio de la carretera. 
Vd6 que el capataz estuviera bien cerca y se puso a murmurar las 

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42 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

siguientes palabras: — i Ay, ay! \qu€ injusticia! iMe quieren casar con 
la hija del rey y yo ho quiero! Asl es que mi rey me va a matar, 
porque yo soy un desgraciado para ella. Cuando repiti6 estas frases 
Juan Chiquito, el capataz que lo oy6 mand6 a los peones que se pararan 
con el ganado, mientras 61 se puso a escuchar las palabras de Juan 
que deda, y dijo para si: — iCaray! A este hombre lo quieren casar 
con la hija del rey y 61 no quiere, iPor qu6 ser4 esto? iCaramba! 
Si 61 quisiera meterme a mf dentro del saco para poder casarme yo con 

Entonces sac6 a Juan del saco y se meti6 61, dej&ndole toda su fortuna 
a Juan Chiquito con todo el ganado tambi6n. Juan Chiquito had6n- 
dose el tonto lo aceptd y lo amarr6 bien, dej&ndole encargado que 
dijera que ya 61 se habfa decidido a casarse con la hija del rey. El 
capataz muy contento se qued6 en medio de la carretera didendo lo 
mismo que Juan Chiquito le habfa dicho que dijera. Juan Chiquito 
se hizo de dinero negociando todo el ganado, entonces guard6 el dinero 
y regres6 en busca del capataz did6ndole: — <!Qu6 dices amigo? ^Te 
has deddido a casarte con mi hija? El capataz de lo m&s contento le 
respondi6 que s(. Entonces lo cogi6 Juan Chiquito y lo meti6 dentro 
de una banasta de la bestia y se lo llev6 cerca de un peii6n y lo arroj6 
con todo y bestia al mar donde no apared6 m&s. 

(76) Juan Chiquito viendo que ya era rico, deddid regresar a donde 
estaba su hermano Juan Grande, a ver qu6 era de su vida. Lleg6 a la 
casa del hermano, pero como el hermano le tenia rona, dijo para si: — 
Esp6rate, 6ste me v& a pagar las verdes y las maduras todas de una 
sola vez. Juan Chiquito se imaginaba todo lo que Juan Grande pen- 
saba. Juan Grande se puso a amolar un machete para matar a Juan 
Chiquito y poder 61 quedarse con el dinero. 

Juan Grande no tenia m&s que una cama de su mami, para 61 y 
Juan Chiquito y le dijo a Juan Chiquito que 61 se iba a trabajar y no 
ven(a hasta la media noche, que se acostara a la parte derecha de la 
cama. Juan Chiquito le dijo que estaba bien. Se fu6 Juan Grande 
didendo para sf: — iCaray! A 6ste lo mato yo esta noche, y ese 
capitalazo lo coger6 yo todito. Lleg6 la hora de dormir y Juan 
Chiquito como m&s listo ya sabfa lo que Juan Grande queria hacer 
con 61. Cuando se fu6 a dormir le encarg6 a la madre que se acostara 
a la derecha de la cama y lo dejara a 61 a la izquierda ; cosa que cuando 
Juan Grande viniera a matarlo le enterrara el punal a la vieja y no a 61. 

Juan Grande de regreso lleg6 a la media noche con otro c6mplice 
que dej6 afuera. Entr6 a lo oscuro y fu6 poco a poco hasta que toc6 
a la vieja y muy crefdo de que era su hermano le enterr6 el pufial 
hasta mis no poder. Juan Chiquito que estaba despierto oyendo todo 
lo que pasaba, sali6 gritando: — jAy, ay! ique han matado'a may! 
i Polidas, guardias, corran! i Juan mi hermano ha matado a may vieja! 

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PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 43 

Juan Grande de lo m&s asustado le dijo: — Mira muchacho» que me 
vas a comprometer; toma este dinero que me queda a mf y no digas 
nadita m^. 

Cogi6 Juan Chiquito el dinero y se ech6 a andar de nuevo burl&ndose 
de Juan Grande. Ahora Juan Grande querfa averiguar como Juan 
Chiquito habfa hecho aquella fortuna tan grande y se le fu£ detr&s 
pregunt&ndole de qu6 manera habfa hecho €1 esa fortuna. Juan 
Chiquito ya molesto le respondid: — Mira, si quieres hacer fortuna 
como yo hice m^tete dentro de un saco y ponte a decir esto: ** lAy, 
que mi rey me quiere casar con su hija y yo no quiero ! " Y repites estas 
palabras muchas veces y td ver&s que mucho dinero te vas a hacer. 

Juan Grande crefdo de que era verdad, vol6 y esper6 que viniera 
mucho ganado por una carretera y se puso en medio dentro de un 
saco, didendo lo que Juan Chiquito le habfa dicho. Pero resultd que 
el que venfa con el ganado era Juan Chiquito y al oirlo decir lo mismo 
que 61 le habfa dicho que dijera, se ech6 a refr y le pas6 con todos los 
animales por endma. Luego despute que hizo eso, lo cogi6 y lo 
meti6 en una banasta y lo ech6 por un risco abajo, y 6sta es la fecha en 
que no se sabe del santo ni el rastro de Juan Grande. 

Y Juan Chiquito, como m&s sabio qued6 lleno de fortuna a cuenta 
de sus antecedentes. 


Una vez Pedro de Urdemalas prometid matar a Juan el Astuto. 
Juan el Astuto encontr6 una vez a Pedro y no sabiendo que hacer 
para evitar a Pedro tom6 una gran piedra en la cabeza, y cuando 
Pedro se acerc6 le dijo: — jAy, amigo Pedro, qu6 cansado estoy con 
esta piedra ! Si la suelto el mundo se acabari. Y Pedro de Urdemalas 
le dijo: — Pues p&game a mf mis veinte pesetas y asf no se acabar& el 
mundo para tf. — Pues sujetame aquf la piedra para irte a buscar el 
dinero a casa. Pero ten cuidado que no se te caiga. Pedro acept6 
y se qued6 cuidando la piedra para que no se acabara el mundo. Pasa- 
ron horas y horas y Juan no regresaba. Y Pedro cada vez m&s cansado 
ya se sentfa desfallecer. Por tiltimo ya de noche y ya extenuado de 
cansado que estaba, dijo: — iQu6 se acabe el mundo! — y tir6 la 
piedra. El mundo no se acab6 y Pedro prometi6 vengarse de Juan y 
le persigui6 sin tregua. Y despu^ Pedro le jug6 una buena a Juan 


Este era un hombre que tenfa un asno muy viejo que ya no le pagaba 
ni tan siquiera la yerba que se comfa. Un dfa el hombre le dijo a su 
esposa: — Si me das esas piezas de oro que has ganado pronto salgo 
de este asno viejo que ya no sirve para nada. La mujer convino en 

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44 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

eso y el hombre se fu6 para el pueblo para vender el asno. Y al llegar 
al pueblo le puso unas onzas de oro al asno debajo de la cola, y empe26 
a gritar: — Vengan a comprar este asno que caga onzas de oro. Y 
vinieron muchos a ver lo que pasaba y vieron que salfan unas onzas de 
oro. Y Pedro les advirti6 que era de tres en tres dfas que pasaba la 
operaci6n. En s^:uida un hombre viejo se lo compr6 y le di6 a Pedro 
una gran cantidad de dinero. Y se fu6 para su casa muy contento. 
El otro se f u6 y abastecid al asno muy bien y cuando se lleg6 el dfa de 
la operacidn comenz6 a darle ejerddo para que cagara onzas de oro. 
En poco m4s lo mata, d&ndole palos por las patas y por la cabeza, 
pero nada que brotaba onzas de oro. Y no sabia el hombre que era 
todo la astucia del otro que le habia puesto las onzas debajo de la cola. 


Una vez habfa un seiior que alquilaba sirvientes pero nunca les 
pagaba. Sali6 Pedro de Urdemalas a buscar colocad6n y se alqu36 
con 61. Primero el seiior le mand6 a tumbar un monte y como a 
media noche los viejos de la casa les mandaron una comida. 

El dfa siguiente lo mandaron a arar con los bueyes, pero le did 
tanto hambre que tuvo que matar un buey para com^rselo. Fu6 a la 
casa y el seiior le pregunt6 donde estaban los bueyes. Y Pedro de 
Urdemalas le dijo: — Me comi uno. 

E>espu6s lo mandaron a banar unas mulas y eran tan malas que las 
ahog6. Lleg6 a la casa y el sefior le pregunt6: — ^D6nde est&n mis 
mulas? Y Pedro respondi6: — Las ahogu6. 

Por la noche el viejo y la vieja lo llevaron a un salto para echarlo, 
pero 61 los ech6 a ellos primero y les grit6: — A1I& van los cascaretes. 
Ahora soy yo el rico. 

{Version a.) 

Una vez habfa un hombre que tenfa un hermano. Este hombre se 
llamaba Pedro. Un dla el hermano se fu6 a trabajar y Pedro le dijo: 
— Td tienes que pasar por un rfo donde encontrar&s una piedra 
redonda. No te pares en ella por que f&dlmente te puedes caer. 
Has de encontrar un hombre bobo pero no te ffes de 61 que te puede 
dar un pescoz6n. Tambi6n pasar4s por donde est& un perro flaco. 
Ten cuidado que te puede morder. 

Por ffn lleg6 a una casa que era de un gigante, el cual estaba al- 
quilando peones por meses. El pe6n que entrara tenfa que trabajar 
con una orden que el que le diera coraje de uno de los dos le sacaba 
una lista de pellejo. Un dfa le did coraje y le sacaron una lista de 
pellejo al hermano de Pedro y se fu6 otro viaje a su casa. 

Cuando lleg6 a su casa, Pedro se fu6 a casa de ese individuo diciendo 
asf a su hermano: — A mf nome pasa lo que a ti te ha pasado. Pedro 

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PortO'Rican Folk-Lare. 45 

pas6 por el rfo donde estaba la piedra y no la movi6, por el hombre y 
no le di6 d pescoz6n, por el perro y no lo mordi6. 

Ll^;6 a casa del gigante y se alquil6 cx>n las mismas cx>ndidones que 
el primero. Un dia el gigante le dijo que tenfa que ir cx>n 61 a buscar 
agua. Entonces se fueron. El gigante cx>gi6 dos barriles, uno en la 
cabeza y otro en un dedo. Pedro se fu6 adelante para el rfo. Cogi6 
un pico y una pala y se puso a hacer una zanja. Cuando lleg6 el 
gigante, le pr^:unt6 a Pedro qu6 hada. Entonces 61 le dijo que iba a 
llevar el rfo a su casa. £l no iba a llevar aquellas chispas de agua a 
su casa para cada rato estar buscando agua. Entonces d gigante le- 
dijo que lo dejara que €1 no iba a llevar una cosa tan peligrosa a su 
casa que d llevaba la necesaria. 

Otro dfa le dijo que tenfa que Uevarle las ovejas, ri^ndose a su casa. 
Entonces Pedro cogi6 un cuchillo y se fu6 donde las ovejas y les cort6 
el labio de arriba. Cuando las llev6 a la casa dd gigante, le pregunt6 
a P^ro que habfa hecho. Entonces 61 le dijo que si no le habfadicho 
que le Uevara todas las ovejas ri^ndose. 

Otro dfa le dijo que se las Uevara bailando, y d las cogi6 y le cort6 
una pata a todas. Otro dfa el gigante le dijo que iban a hacer una 
comida para ver el que m&a comiera. Entonces Pedro cogi6 la piel 
de una oveja y se la amarr6 ddante del abdomen y mand6 a preparar 
una camisa grande. 

Ll^;6 el dfa de la comida, y Pedro una cucharada se la echaba por 
la boca y muchas por d saco de pid que tenfa delante del abdomen. 
Por ffn, ya el gigante no podfa comer m^ pero Pedro continuaba 
comiendo. Entonces el gigante le dijo a Pedro que le daba una gabela 
para comer y si lo cansaba le sacaba una lista de pellejo. Entonces , 
Pedro se fu6 donde estaban unas mujeres lavando, cogi6 un cuchillo y 
se cort6 la piel que tenfa amarrada delante del abdomen, y cay6 la 
comida al suelo. 

Entonces les dijo a las mujeres que estaban lavando que si pasaba 
por allf un gigante corriendo que le dijeran que si le querfa alcanzar 
tenfa que cortarse el abdomen segtin d lo habfa hecho, para que saliera 
la comida. 

Cuando el gigante pas6 le pregunt6 a las lavanderas que si por allf 
no habfa pasado un hombre corriendo. Y ellas le dijeron que les 
habfa dicho que si lo querfa alcanzar, tenfa que cortarse el abdomen 
para botar la comida. El gigante se cort6 d abdomen y cay6 muerto. 

Pedro estaba un poco m&s adelante, arriba de un irbol ri6ndose cuan- 
do vi6 que el gigante se habfa matado d mismo. Entonces Pedro 
se ape6 y se fu6 a casa dd gigante y se hizo dueno de todo lo que tenfa. 


(50) Habfa una vez y dos son tres que habfa un hombre que se Uamaba 
Juan Bobo y se fu6 a colocar. Cuando hubo andado ^yf^^^'ull^^^^^Qle 

igi ize y Q 

46 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

una casa. La casa era del diablo y dijo: — iAqut pueden alquilarme? 
— Sf , — dijo el diablo, — Pero para la comida y el almuerzo es un 
huevo y un canasto de pan. Y el que le d€ coraje se le saca una lista 
de pellejo. 

(29, 50) Juan Bobo le dijo que estaba bien, y al ir a trabajar tenia que 
ir con una perra, y hasta que no se viniera la perra que 61 no se viniera. 
Al otro dfa se fu6 la perra adelante y Juan Bobo atr^. Cuando 
llegaron Juan Bobo se puso a trabajar y eran las doce y media y la 
perra no se iba. Cuando llegaron las dos de la tarde, se fu6 la perra 
y Juan Bobo atr^. Cuando llegaron le pusieron a Juan Bobo un 
huevo y un canasto de pan. El se conii6 el huevo con un boUo de pan. 
Cuando acab6 le quitaron el plato y el canasto de pan y lo puso en la 
alacena, y se fueron. Cuando llegaron las ocho de la noche estaba 
Juan Bobo trabajando. Al momento la perra se fu6 y 61 se le fu6 
detr^ y a Juan Bobo le di6 coraje. El diablo le pregunt6 si tenfa 
coraje y le dijo que como no le iba a dar coraje, y el diablo cogi6yle 
sac6 una lista de pellejo. Juan Bobo se fu6 y se lo cont6 a Pedro de 

(50) Pedro se fu6 a colocar donde estaba Juan Bobo, y le pregunt6 al 
diablo que si habfa trabajo. El diablo dijo: — Sf, pero para la comida 
y el almuerzo es un canasto de pan, y el que le d6 coraje se le saca una 
lista de pellejo, y el mayordomo es una perra. — SI, est4 bien, — dijo 
Pedro. Al otro dfa se fueron la perra adelante y Pedro detr&s. 
Pedro cort6 una vara y le cay6 a varazos, y la perra se vino corriendo. 
El diablo le dijo: — iPorqu6 te has venido tan pronto? — Por que la 
perra se vino. Le dieron un canasto de pan y un huevo, ysesent6. 
Se puso a comer pan y se comi6 un canasto de pan y dej6 el huevo 
enterito, y le pusieron otra canasta y al ditimo se la comi6 con el 
huevo, y todos los dfas le hada lo mismo. 

Un dfa el diablo le dijo que el que agujerara una palma le 
daba un burro Ueno de oro y hizieron la apuesta. Pedro se fu6 por 
la noche con una barrena y agujer6 la palma y la llen6 de sebo. 

Al otro dfa se fueron y el diablo meti6 el dedo y se le parti6 y Pedro 
de Urdemalas meti6 el dedo y pas6 al otro lado y le di6 el burro Ueno 
de oro. 

El diablo dijo: — Vamos a hacer una apuesta de un burro Ueno de 
oro, el que Ueve una vara m&a lejos. 

Pedro: — Barrita, barrana, que vaya y caigas en Duana y mates la 
vieja que m&s vieja haya. 

Diablo: — No, no no tires por que me matas a mi madre, — y le di6 
el burro Ueno de oro. 

Pedro estaba en la finca con el diablo y vi6 en un irbol un pich6n. 
Le cay6 a piedras y el diablo le dijo que no le tirara que era su mujer, 
y Pedro sigui6 tir&ndole y el diablo le repiti6 lo mismo. 

Pedro: — <! Y a V. le da coraje por eso? ^ t 

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PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 47 

EHablo: — No eso no me da coraje. Pedro le sigui6 tirando. 

Diablo: — No le tires que es mi mujer. 

Pedro: — i Y a V. le da coraje? Diablo: — iC6mo no me va a dar 
cx»aje si me vas a matarami mujer? Pedro le sac6 la lista de pellejo 
y se fu6. 


(50) Era una vez una vieja muy rica. No le duraban mucho tiempo 
I06 alquilados. Un dia pas6 una seiiora con un muchacho. Ella la 
llam6 y le dijo que si le alquilaba a su hijo. La seiiora contest6 que 
sf y quedaron a dos pesos mensuales. La anciana le explic6 los trabajos 
que el muchacho tenia que hacer; buscar agua, llevar a darles a los 
caballos y banarlos. 

Convino el muchacho con la anciana en que al primero de los dos 
que le diera coraje se le sacaHa una lista de pellejo desde el cerebro 
hasta el tal6n: — No tengas cuidado que a mi nunca no me da coraje 
y de un muchacho menos. 

Al dfa siguiente ella lo mand6 a buscar agua, despu^ a barkar los 
caballos. Al otro dia lo mand6 a buscar leiia, no habiendo m&s. 

(33) El muchacho le cort6 la pata a los chivos y a los cabros, las 
hizo un paquete y las llevo. 

(73) Lo mand6 a buscar agua y llev6 un pico y una pala y le trajo 
d rio a la casa, por que la vieja queria siempre tener mucha agua 
y mucha leiia. 

Lo mand6 a darle agua a los caballos y & le cort6 el hocico a todos 
ellos. Cuando ella vi6 a los caballos le dijo a Juan que porqu^ habia 
hecho eso. A lo que 61 contest6: — iTe da coraje? — No, vete 
b6scame los cabros. Los trajo y al asomarse ella a la puerta, lo vi6 
en el estado que 61 los traia. Entonces si que a ella le di6 coraje dc 
todo lo que 61 le hizo mal. Cuando ella estaba dormida, 61 coigi6 un 
cuchillo, le sac6 una lista de pellejo desde la cabeza hasta el tal6n y 
la vieja se muri6. Juan qued6 rico de lo que ella habia dejado. • 


(72) Una vez fu6 Pedro de Urdemalas y se alquil6 en la casa del 
gigante por meses, y el gigante le dijo: — Senor Pedro, aqui sale un 
cuco todas las noches. Y Pedro le dijo: — No tenga usted cuidado 

Digitized by 


48 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

que yo esta noche !o cazo. Y apenas 08cureci6 se fu6 Pedro abajo 
de un &rbo! de chino que habfa y carg6 la escopeta. Y al momento 
oy6 que dedan en el irbol : — i Cuco, cuco, cuco! Y Pedro le dispar6 
con la escopeta un tiro. Y baj6 la madre del gigante y el gigante le 
dijo: — i Ay, Pedro, qu6 ya usted me ha matado a mi madre! — Pues 
usted me dijo que era un cuco que comfa gente. — Pues sdbase, que 
qu^ vamos a hacer. Ya no hay remedio. 

(73) Al otro dia le dijo el gigante a Pedro: — Vamos a buscar agua. 

Y cuando Pedro vi6 que el gigante cogi6 dos cuarterolas en cada mano 
y que 61 no podfa con ninguna cogi6 una azada y un pico y cuando 
Ileg6 al rfo comenz6 a hacer una zanja. Y el gigante entonces le dijo: 
— iQu6 va V. a hacer, seiior Pedro? Y Pedro le dijo: — Me voy a 
llevar el rfo, porque yo no voy a estar viniendo todos los dfas con esa 
jicarita a buscar agua. Entonces el gigante le dijo: — Pues mejor 
es que no se lleve ninguna, porque usted se va a llevar la casa con el 
rfo, y entonces se vinieron vados. 

(74) Al otro dia le dijo : — Sefior Pedro, vamos a buscar leiia. Y se 
fueron. Y Pedro se llev6 sogas y bejucos y comenz6 a amarrar el 
monte. El gigante arranc6 dos palos de los mis grandes y le dijo a 
Pedro: — Sefior Pedro, iqu6 va usted a hacer? Y Pedro le dijo: — 
Yo voy a amarrar el monte para Uevdrmelo. — No, no se lo lleve, 
porque entonces el monte se pudre y se pudre la casa. Y volvieron 
sin nada. 

(75) Otro dfa le dijo el gigante a Pedro: — Ahora vamos al monte 
y en el orteg6n m^ fuerte vamos a clavar el dedo a ver quien lo clava 
m&a adentro. Y Pedro se fu6 adelante y busc6 una barrena y fu6 
y hizo un agujero en el orteg6n y lo tap6 con tierra. Y cuando fu6 el 
gigante tir6 el dedo y lo clav6 todo. Y entonces fu6 Pedro y tir6 el 
dedo por el agujero que habfa hecho y meti6 hasta parte de la mano. 

Y cuando el gigante vi6 que tenia m^ fuerzas dijo entre sf : — Ya s6 
que no voy a poder matar a este diablo. V&monos a casa. 

(76) Por la noche Pedro sabfa que aquella noche lo iba a querer 
matar el gigante. Hizo un muneco de hojas de pl&tano y lo visti6 con 
su ropa y lo aco6t6 en el catre y lo arrop6 bien. Y entonces 61 se meti6 
abajo del catre. 

Cuando el gigante crey6 que ya Pedro estaba durmiendo se levant6 
poco a poco y 0^6 la maceta del pilar que pesaba cincuenta libras 
y fu6 donde 61 estaba acostado y le busc6 la cabeza y le di6 con todas 
sus fuerzas tres golpes, y volvi6 y se aco6t6. Entonces madrug6 
bien temprano para irse a buscar pl&tanos para ir a comerse a Pedro. 

Y cort6 una carga buena de pl&tanos y se volvi6 para su casa. Y 
cuando iba Uegando vi6 a Pedro asomado por una ventana con una 
venda en la cabeza. Y cuando lleg6 le dijo: — Sefior Pedro, iqu6 tal 
ha pasado la noche? — No muy bien, porque parece que vino un 

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PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 49 

zancudo y me ha dado tres picx>tazos en la frente, que me tiene con 
dolor de cabeza. Y entonces dijo el gigante entre s(: — Este diablo 
no tiene muerte. 

(77) Y otro dfa le dijo: — Hoy vamos a tirar mar afuera a ver 
quien tiene mis alcance. Y se fueron. Y el gigante dijo: — Vamos 
a tirar. Y tir6 el gigante y dijo: — Lanza, lanza, cae en Francia. 
Y entonces Pedro tir6 y dijo: — Lanza, lanza, cae en Francia y r6mpele 
la panza a la mis vieja de Francia. Y el gigante dijo: — Senor 
Pedro, no vuelva a tirar la lanza, porque £sa es mi abuela y usted la 
va a matar. 

(50) Despu^s hicieron un arreglo que el primero que le diera coraje 
el otro lo matara. Y al otro dfa le dijo el gigante a Pedro: — Senor 
Pedro, usted me va a hacer un trabajo en los pl&tanos. Y Pedro le 
dijo que si, y fu6 y lo puso a trabajar. Y Pedro le dijo: — i Usted 
quiere este trabajo por el parejo? Y el gigante le dijo que sf. Sigui6 
Pedro trabajando y todo lo hizo por el parejo, pl&tanos y todo tum- 
bados. Y cuando el gigante fu6 a ver el trabajo y vi6 que Pedro 
todo lo Uevaba por el parejo, le dijo: — Senor Pedro, iqu€ ha hecho 
usted? Usted me ha desmolido la finca. — iY que a usted le da coraje 
por eso? — Por eso no. A mf no me da coraje. 

(29) Al otro dfa le dijo el gigante: — Vdyase a hacerme un trabajo 
con esa perra y cuando la perra se venga se puede usted venir. Pues 
sigui6 trabajando y ya eran las doce y la perra no se iba. Cort6 Pedro 
un fuete y le di6 a la perra una buena azotada y la perra sigui6 para 
la casa. Y cuando lleg6 le dijo el gigante: — iYa usted se vino? — 
Sf, sefior; usted me dijo que cuando la perra se viniera me viniera yo 
tambi^n. Sf, seiior, asf fu6. iY a usted le da coraje por eso? — No, 
sedor, no me da coraje. 

(24) Un dfa venfa Pedro por un camino y vi6 a un senor que venfa 
con un caballo, y se sac6 un estudio para quitarle el caballo. Cogi6 el 
sombrero y lo tir6 como tapando alguna cosa. Y entonces vino 
el senor del caballo y le dijo : — i Qu6 haces allf ? Y Pedro le respondi6 : 
Estoy tapando unos pichoncitos de urdiera. Pedro de Urdemalas 
se habfa cagado y tenfa tapada la cagada abajo del sombrero. Y 
entonces le dijo al del caballo : — Sujete usted este sombrero y pr^steme 
el caballo y qu^deseme aquf mientras yo vengo. Y asf lo hicieron. Y 
se fu6 Pedro de Urdemalas en el caballo y el hombre se qued6 con el 
sombrero. Cuando ya hacfa mucho tiempo dijo el hombre: — Ya 
fete no va a volver. Y meti6 la mano, poco a poco para coger a los 
pichoncitos y se engrud6 de cagada, y dijo: — Es derto que me la 
urdi6 ese Pedro de Urdemalas. 

{Version a.) 
(50) Este Pedro era un hombre que se elogiaba de mucho poder y 
valor, y aunque carecfa de ambas cosas, con su astucia ^If^^^^J^^ji^gle 

50 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

a cuantos lo trataban. Un cUa fu6 a pedir colocaci6n a la casa de un 
gigante cuyo m^todo era dar colocaci6n a aqu^llos que le igualaban 
en fuerzas. Guiado por su arroganda el gigante le concedi6 el empleo, 
did^ndole que solamente tendrfa que ayudarle en sus faenas. 

(73) El primer dia lo convid6 para que le trajera dos barriles de 
agua. Pedro cogi6 una pala, y no hadendo caso de los barriles se 
puso a cavar una zanja. — iQ}ik haces, Pedro? — le pregunt6 el 
gigante. — Pues voy a Uevar el rio a la casa, porque yo no voy a estar 
cargando agua todos los dfas en diispas de barriles. — i Ay, Pedro, vas 
a inundarme la casa! No lleves agua. Ya sabes, Pedro, que de este 
modo habfas de escaparte de tu trabajo. 

(74) Al dia siguiente fueron los dos a buscar leda. En un solo 
momento hizo el gigante un gran haz de lefia y se sent6 a aguardar a 
Pedro. Viendo que Pedro se tardaba mucho se fu6 a ver que estaba 
hadendo, y le pregunt6 : — I Qu6 haces, Pedro? — Estoy cortando estos 
bejucos para amarrar la montafLa y llev&rmela. — Quita, Pedro, — 
dijo d gigante, admirado, — yo no te voy a permitir que lleves las 
sabandijas a casa. No lleves lefia. 

(75) Viendo el gigante que no encontraba nada diffdl para Pedro, 
un dia le dijo que la mafiana siguiente tenia que barrenar el dedo en 
una palma que habfa en el patio. Durante la noche Pedro estuvo 
pensando como se las harfa para salir bien. Se propordon6 una 
barrena y despu^s de haberle hecho un agujero a la palma de un lado 
a otro lo ocult6 con cebo. Cuando lleg6 la hora de la ejecud6n con 
gran tranquilidad y confianza traspas6 la palma por el agujero con d 

(77) Por fin lo convid6 d gigante para disparar en desafio dos 
flechas, y Pedro de Urdemalas teniendo que tiraria a mayor distancia. 
La acd6n fu6 ejecutada primero por el gigante, y como ya Pedro sabfa 
que sus fuerzas no podfan igualar a las del gigante record6 que habfa 
ofdo dedr que la bisabuela de 6ste era la de m^ edad en Franda, y 
con adem&n de afirmad6n se par6, y cogiendo la flecha, dijo: 

— Lanza, lanza, lanza, 
r5mpde la panza 
a la vieja m&s vieja 
que se Halle en Franda. 

Entonces el gigante, sujet&ndole la mano le dijo: — Si has de matar 
a mi bisabuela que quiero tanto no dispares. Qu^date por ah(, que 
yo te mandar^ dar el almuerzo, pero no vuelvas a meterte en mis 

Y aquf termina la escena, y asf conocemos que fete era el modo de 
vivir de nuestro ya conoddo Pedro. 

Digitized by 


PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 51 


(50) Muchos alios atr4s cuando los espaftoles comenzaron a poblar 
a Puerto Rico vino un espafiol muy malo. Siempre colocaba a la 
gente, pero era con una condid6n, y esta condici6n era que tenia que 
trabajar hasta que cantara el cuco. Pero como el cuco nunca cantaba 
todos saUan perdiendo. Y lo que perdfan era una lista de pellejo. 
AI fin todos se enojaban y saltan de la casa de este hombre con una 
lista menos de pellejo. 

(78) Habia otro pfcaro que se llamaba Pedro de Urdemalas de lo 
malo que era y oyendo decir del mal amo dijo que con 61 no iba a hacer 
lo que habfa hecho con los otros. \^no a la casa del hombre y se 
alquil6 con la misma condici6n que los otros. Por la mafiLana le 
pusieron para comer un huevo con dos batatas, pero €1 se comi6 el 
huevo y pidi6 otro para com^rselo con las batatas. Y entonces se 
comi6 las batatas y pidi6 m&s para comer con el huevo. Y asf que 
ya estuvo bien Ueno se fu6 a hacer sus ofidos. 

(73) La mujer del hombre le mand6 a buscar agua pero lleg6 la 
noche y viendo que no venfa lo fueron a buscar y le pregunt6 el dueno 
que por qu6 habia tardado, y Pedro le respondi6 que estaba hadendo 
una canal para llevar el agua a casa. Al dueno le di6 coraje y entonces 
Pedro le dijo: — Si a usted le da coraje le arranco a usted una lista 
de pellejo. Y el hombre contest6: — No, nolengo coraje. 

(74) Despu^s lo mandaron a buscar leiia pero viendo que no venfa 
fueron a buscarlo y lo encontraron tumbando el bosque. Entonces el 
senor le dijo que por qu6 no le habfa llevado la leiia y 61 le contest6 que 
estaba tumbando el bosque para no tener que buscar m&s leiia. 

(72) Por la noche el marido le dijo a su mujer que Pedro le quemaba 
la padenda que si no se le iba a amiinar y como el trato era hasta que 
cantaran los cucos, lo mejor que debfa hacer ella era subirse a un palo 
y cantar como cuco. Ella asf lo hizo pero Pedro que la oy6, dijo: — 
Cuco en este tiempo, — y cogiendo su escopeta, le tir6 un tiro y mat6 a 
la mujer de su amo. Cuando el espanol lo supo no se pudo contener 
del coraje y Pedro fu6 el que le arranc6 una lista de pellejo. El le 
tuvo que dar la mitad de su capital. 



(79) Habfa una vez un senor que tenia tres hijas. Este seiior estaba 
trabajando, y un dfa sali6 Pedro de Urdemalas a alquilarse con 61. Ese 
sefior estaba en la tala y le mand6 a la casa a buscar tres azadas. 
Y entontes Pedro les dijo a las tres hijas de ese seiior que lo quisieran, 

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52 Journal oj American Folk-Lore. 

y ellas le respondieron que no podfa ser porque ellas eran seiioritas 
recatadas. Entonces Pedro se asom6 a la puerta y le grit6 al seftor 
que estaba en la tala que si eran todas tres seiioritas y el seiior le 
respondid que sf. Y al contestarle el padre de las muchachas que sf 
y al ofrlo ellas, pues no pudieron menos que quererio. Y viendo ese 
seiior que Pedro de Urdemalas tardaba con las azadas se vino para su 
casa y hall6 lo que habfa hecho Pedro de Urdemalas con sus hijas. Pedro 
sali6 corriendo y se fuL 

(80) Y en el camino se encontr6 con un cabro y lo cogi6 y lo mat6 
y se ech6 las tripas del cabro dentro del seno. Y al pasar por donde 
estaban unas mujeres lavando se di6 una puiialada al seno y dej6 las 
tripas alM, y les dijo a las mujeres: — Dfganle a ese hombre que viene 
detr&s de mf que si quiere alcanzarme que haga lo que hice yo, que se 
tire una puiialada al seno y deje las tripas allf. Entonces Pedro de 
Urdemalas se fu^ corriendo cuando el hombre que llegaba adonde 
estaban las mujeres les pregunt6 si Pedro de Urdemalas habia pasado 
por allf. Ellas le dijeron que s( y que si lo queria alcanzar que hiciese 
como 61 habfa hecho, que se tirara una puiialada al seno y dejara las 
tripas allf. Y entonces el hombre bruto lo hizo y qued6 muerto. 

(50) Y entonces Pedro de Urdemalas sigui6 su camino y al fin lleg6 
a una casa donde vivfa un gigante y se alquil6 con 61. Hideron el 
trato que el primero que se enojara tenfa que sacarse una lista de 
pellejo en seguida. El gigante lo mand6 a buscar agua en una canasta 
y 61 se puso a agrandar el pozo. Ya iba a oscurecer y no venfa con 
el agua, y al fin el gigante se fu6 a donde estaba y le pregunt6 lo que 
le habfa pasado que se tardaba tanto. Y Pedro de Urdemalas le dijo 
que 61 lo que querfa hacer era llevarse el pozo a la casa para no tener 
que venir a buscar agua otra vez. Al gigante no le pareci6 bien esto 
pero no dijo nada. Y Pedro le pregunt6 que si se enojaba por eso. Y el 
gigante entonces dijo que sf, y Pedro le arranc6 una lista de pellejo 
desde los pies hasta la cabeza. 

84. PEDRO Y EL LE6n (8i). 

Una vez habfa un matrimonio y tuvieron un hijo y le buscaron 
nombre y le dieron el nombre de Pedro de Urdemalas. 

Fu6 creciendo y lleg5 al cuerpo de hombre y un dfa sali6 a dar un 
paseo a la montaiia y allf se encontr6 con un le6n y le dijo: — Te voy 
a comer. Despfdete del padre Dios, que te voy a comer. — No, no 
me comas — le dijo Pedro de Urdemalas, — antes de que me comas te 
voy a pedir un favor, y es que hagamos una apuesta para ver quien es 
m&s valiente. Y el le6n le dijo que sf. Y la apuesta consistfa en 
hacer un boquete en un palo con el dedo. 

Y entonces, Pedro de Urdemalas, como era mis sabio, cogi6 y 
. se fu6 por la noche y tom6 un machete y le hizo un boquete al palo. Y 

^'^^'^^ Digitized by LjOOQIC 

PortO'Rican Folk-Lore. 53 

otro dia fueron al palo el le6n y Pedro de Urdemalas. Y Ueg6 el 
Ie6n y le dijo: — Pues dentre usted el dedo primero que yo. Y Pedro 
de Urdemalas meti6 el dedo en el boquete que habfa hecho el dfa antes. 

Y entonces el le6n fu6 a hacer el boquete en el palo y se le rompi6 el 
dedo y no le pudo dentrar al palo. Y entonces Pedro gan6 la apuesta 
y el le6n no se lo cx>mi6. Y todo fu6 por la mafia que dispuso Pedro. 
Entonces Pedro lleg6 y se fu6 con sus padres y el le6n se fu6 para las 

Pedro 8ali6 otra vez y despu^s lleg6 a la casa de un gigante y le hizo 
lo mismo porque era m^ sabio que ninguno de ellos. 

Y lleg6 donde una cueva donde nadie entraba porque llegaban 
muchos leones y tigres. Y como ya habfa Uegado el tiempo que estaba 
ya barbudo sus padres salieron para ver donde estaba su hijo Pedro. 

Y cuando lo Uegaron a ver todos se contentaron mucho porque ya 
hada mucho tiempo que no se vefan. Y vieron a Pedro que Uevaba 
por alH en la cueva un cordero y un plato y una cuchara. Y cuando 
se fueron a venir los padres Pedro se entristeci6 lo m^ mucho y por no 
ver donde estaban sus padres se cogi6 y se traspas6 para otra cueva, 
donde no podfa salir a buscar comida porque tambi6n habfa muchos 
leones y tigres. Y al fin sali6 de alU y pas6 por un bosque y se vino 
para donde sus padres y se qued6 con ellos. Y ya ellos estaban 
andanos. Y despu^ falt6 Pedro y se quedaron los dos viejos solos. 


Era Cristo y Uevaba cuatro, y uno de los cuatro era Pedro de Urde- 
malas. Y le dijo Cristo a Pedro: — Pedro, tti te quedar&s para que 
hagas el almuerzo para mf y mis otros discfpulos, y yo lo que te encargo 
es que de todos los cabros uno es para mf, y es lo que yo quiero. Tu 
coger^ d cabro mejor que haya, el m4s gordo. Por este camino 
derecho nos seguir&s despu^s que est^ el almuerzo. 

Y cuando vino Pedro con el almuerzo Cristo le dijo: — Yo no quiero 
mi almuerzo con 61 de los disdpulos. Y como no lo quiso el almuerzo 
no le pidi6 la pajarilla del cabro. Y le dijo a Pedro: — Maiiana se 
van ustedes y matan el cabro y me dan la pajarilla, que no quiero 
mils comida. Entonces Pedro le trajo el cabro, pero €1 se habfa comido 
la pajarilla. Y el Seiior le pregunt6: — iY qu6 hidste con la pajarilla? 
— Pues Seiior, no tenfa pajarilla. — Pues manana lo matas t6 y me 
traes la pajarilla. — Todos los cabros que est&n en la montana no 
tienen pajarilla. Y era porque Pedro siempre se comfa la pajarilla. 

Y entonces dijo el Senor: — Pondrt cuatro mon tones de dinero y 
este dinero es para el que me diga quien se come las pajarillas de los 
cabros. Y entonces Pedro sigui6 trayendo los cabros al Seiior y no 
se comfa las pajarillas. Pero el Senor no le di6 el dinero, porque 
solamente querfa saber quien era el que se comfa las pajarillas. Y 

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54 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

entonces, Pedro desde ese dfa para ac& sigui6 tray6ndole las pajarillas 
todos los dfas. 

Y siguieron andando por unos boeques y al fin Uegaron a donde 
estaba rezando un vecino y Pedro le dijo al Seiior: — Senor, £porqu6 
no entra a rezar? Y el Seilor le respondi6: — Porque esos est&n 
rezando y est&n pensando en lo que van a robar. Y al cabo de un 
rato Uegaron y el seiior de la casa salud6 a Jesds y a sus disdpulos 
y los convid6 a subir, pero ^1 le dijo que iba de paao. 

Entonces se qued6 en la escalera y allf se apareci6 una gallina de un 
vecino. Y el hombre sali6 y le dijo a su mujer: — Mujer, mira la 
gallina que se nos ha apareddo. Y la mujer le dijo al Seiior: — 
D6me unos granitos de mafz para amarrarla. Y el Sefior le dijo que 
esa gallina no era de ella. 

Y entonces se levant6 y entr6 Pedro de Urdemalas, y le porfiaba 
al Seiior y le deda: — Esa ser& una gallina que se le ha desapareddo 
y quizk tiene hambre. Y el Senor le dijo que se callara, y le dijo: 
— Ahora voy a arreglar a todos los hambrientos que andan por 
el mundo. Y dej6 Jesucristo a los disdpulos dnco dfas sin comer ni 
beber para saber lo que Uevaba Pedro de Urdemalas, porque malidaba 
que Uevaba algo. Y Jestis era 61 de adelante y Pedro era €\ de atr&s. 
Y Pedro de Urdemalas cogfa de las pifLas maduras y se las escondfa a 
Jestis y se las comfa. 

(Version a.) 

Pues, seiior, habfa una vez un hombre muy travieso que se Uamaba 
Pedro de Urdemalas. Una vez fu6 a alquilarse a casa del cura. El 
cura lo aquil6 por dos pesos. Todos los dfas rompfa algo en la casa 
dd cura y nunca cogfa un centavo. Despu^s de estar dos afios en 
esa casa, le dijo al cura que tenfa ganas de salirse, porque estaba 
cansado de trabajar, y tenfa que descansar. 

El cura le dijo que si se querfa salir del alquilar que se saliera pero 
lo sentfa mucho. Pedro le dijo al cura que le sacara la cuenta. El cura 
le dijo que no le quedaban m&s que tres centavos. El seiior Pedro, 
al o(r esta respuesta del cura se asust6, porque despu6s de haber 
ti^bajado tres anos no le quedaban m&s que tres centavos. El senor 
Pedro dijo que tenfa que comerse aquellos centavos donde no hubiera 
mimes y moscas. Los compr6 de mordllas, pan y otros friquitines. 
Se f u6 andando por un ^camino. Anda, anda y anda hasta que lleg6 a 
un sitio aislado y se sent6. Pero no hizo nada m&s que sentarse y en 
seguida se le llen6 lo que comfa de moscas y mimes. 

Le di6 un coraje tan grande que se puso a echar maldidones. Sigui6 
andando y donde fu6 Pedro cogi6 lo que comfa y bot6 la mitad. Una 
vez que 61 estaba cansado de andar y ya tenfa hambre dijo que se iba 
a sentar a comer. Se le present6 un viejo y le dijo que le diera que 
comer porque tenfa hambre. 

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PoriO'Rican Folk-Lore. 55 

Entonces el viejito no se fu6. El viejo era Dios. Una vez encontr6 
un puerco y el viejo le dijo: — Ve a coger ese lech6n para cx>m6rao8lo. 
Pedro le dijo: — Miren a este viejo que se est4 creyendo que yo soy 
pfcaro. Ve tti si quieres. Yo voy a buscar candela. Entonces el 
viejo fu6 y cogi6 el lech6n y Pedro busc6 la candela. Pero antes de 
irse, el viejo le dijo que t\ querfa el coraz6n del puerco. Pero en lo 
que el viejo fu6 a buscar lefia, ^1 mat6 el puerco y se comi6 el coraz6n. 
Cuando el viejo vino, Pedro le dijo que el puerco no tenia coraz6n. 
Pfero el viejo le dijo que tenia pero que estaba bien. 


EL ArBOL (83). 

(82) Habfa una vez un hombre Uamado Pedro Animala y sali6 por 
un camino a dar un paseo. Despu^s de poco andar se encontr6 con 
dos hombres y estos dos hombres eran San Pedro y San Jos^, y 61 no 
los conoda. San J086 y San Pedro le dijeron a Pedro Animala si se 
querfa ir con ellos. Y Pedro Animala se fu6, pero cuando iban de 
viaje los cogi6 un aguacero y se metieron en una casa. Pedro Animala 
se meti6 en el lado que estaba cubierto y San Jos£ y San Pedro tuvieron 
que meterse en el lado que estaba descobijado. Y al terminar la 
Uuvia Pedro Animala mir6 a San J066 y a San Pedro y como los vi6 
secos y €L estaba poco mojado habiendo estado en la parte cubierta se 
puso a echar maldidones, pero San Jos6 y San Pedro vieron que era 
ig;norante y le dijeron que se callara, y que eso le pasaba por ser tan 

Despute ellos siguieron su camino y Uegaron a una casa en donde 
vivfan los dos santos en el tiempo que vivfan en la tierra. Y cuando 
estaban alU le dijo San Pedro a Pedro Animala un dfa que le matara un 
cabro negro y le Uevara la asadura porque iban a dar un paseo. Pedro 
Animala mat6 el cabro, fri6 la asadura y se la comi6. Cuando vol- 
vieron los santos trafan un bollo de pan muy • pequefiito, y Pedro 
Animala estaba enojado porque deda que aquel pan no daba para 
nada. Pero los santos no hadan caso de lo que Pedro Animala deda. 
Lo Uamaron para que comiera y al mismo tiempo le pidi6 San Pedro la 
asadura. Pedro Animala respondi6 que ningtin cabro negro tenia 
asadura, pero los santos no le dijeron nada y se pusieron a comer. 
Y Pedro Animala no pado terminar de tanto que habfa. Ni tampoco 
pudo terminar el pan que tan pequeno le habfa pareddo. Los santos 
le dijeron a Pedro Animala que comfa m&s con los ojos que con la 
boca y 61 les dijo que era verdad. 

Un dfa San Jo86 se puso a contar un dinero que tenia. Hizo cuatro 
montones y Pedro, como era tan grosero, le tir6 los montones porque 
dijo que no eran m&s de tres. Y entonces San Pedro hizo cuatro 
montones; uno para San Pedro, otro para San Jos6, otro para Pedro 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

56 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Animala y otro para el que se habia cx>inido la asadura del cabro. 
Pedro dijo que se la dieran a ^1, que como tenia hainbre se la habfa 

Entonces San Jos^ y San Pedro le dijeron a Pedro Animala que si se 
querfa ir con ellos para el cielo y que morirfa santo. Y Pedro Animala 
les dijo que no. Y entonces le dijeron a Pedro que les pidiera algo. 
Y Pedro Animala les dijo que le dieran un saco que todo lo que 61 
quisiera cayera en el saco. Tambi^n les dijo que le dieran una baraja 
que todo lo que €1 ganara fuera para 61. Y tambi6n les pidi6 un tiple 
que cuando 61 lo tocara todos salieran bailando. Los santos le di- 
jeron que eso no podfa ser, y entonces Pedro Animala les dijo que 
no le dieran nada. Pero ellos le concedieron lo que les pidi6. Y 
entonces los santos se f ueron para el cielo y Pedro Animala se qued6 en 
la tierra. 

(83) San Pedro despu6s de mucho tieropo mand6 a la muerte para 
que se llevara a Pedro Animala. Y cuando la muerte venfa lo m&s 
contenta Pedro Animala le dijo que no viniera con changuerias si no 
querfa que la echara en el saco. Y la ech6 en el saco y la amarr6 bien. 
A los siete aiios junt6 muchos muchachos y con piedras comenzaron 
a tirarle a la muerte y todita la mataron. 

Entonces mandaron al diablo para que fuera a buscar a Pedro. El 
diablo Ileg6, brincando lo m&s contento. Y Pedro le dijo que si 
como habfa venido tan contento y que por eso lo iba a echar en el 
saco. Y en seguida lo ech6 en el saco y lo amarr6 bien lo mismo que 
a la muerte. Y entonces San Pedro mand6 que lo Uevaran al purga- 
torio. Lo llevaron y cuando 61 vi6 a las &nimas comenz6 a tocar el 
dple y ellas comenzaron a bailar. Entonces San Pedro mand6 por 
61 y lo dej6 por el mundo porque no sabfa que hacer con 61. 

Al mucho tiempo que Pedro Animala estaba ya cansado de vivir 
en el mundo reparti6 todo el dinero que tenfa y se fu6 para el delo. 
En el delo no lo querfan recibir y 61 tom6 el saco y todo lo que tenfa y 
lo tir6 en d medio de la sala. San Pedro lo puso debajo de la mesa, 
y Pedro Animala comenz6 a pdliscarle las piemas a San Pedro. Y al 
fin» como no lo dejaba hacer nada le puso una piedra de candela y la 
puso en la puerta de subir, y allf pdlisca a todos los que pasan. 


(83) Pedro Malo era un hombre a quien le gustaba mucho hacer 
maldades; ya la gente no lo podfa soportar, hasta que un dfa vino la 
muerte a buscarlo y 61 estaba lo m&s contento para irse con la muerte, 
pero le dijo que tenfa primero que irle a buscar un p&jaro que tenfa 
en un &rbol cerca de su casa. Result6 que 61 taifa d &rbol embreado 
y cuando la muerte fu6 a subir al irbd se qued6 p^;ada; 6! la dej6 
pegada al irbol por un largo tiempo hasta que pudo despegarse y fu6 
a donde estaba d Senor sin Pedro Malo y tuvo que volver a buscarlo. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


PorUhRican Folk-Lore. 57 

(84) El estaba decidido a irse, pero que primero tenia que lavarle una 
damajuana y cuando ella se meti6 dentro de la damajuana, le puso un 
tap6n y la tap6. Cc^6 la damajuana, la puso en el cogollo de una 
palma; ^ta tenia muchos cocos y un dia vino un coquero a tumbar I06 
cocos, se encontr6 con la damajuana y se volvi6 loco de alegria creyendo 
que era su feliddad; que estaba llena de dinero. Quiso destaparla y 
cuando la destap6 sali6 la muerte y creyendo que era Pedro Malo lo 
cogi6 por el pelo y lo llev6 al delo. Result6 que no era 61 y tuvo que 
venir a ponerlo de donde lo habia cc^do. 

Estaba tan asustado y era tanto el miedo que tenia el hombre, que 
cuando lo puso en los pimpollos de la palma, quiso bajarla tan ligero, 
que cuando iba bajando se cay6 y se mat6. Donde 61 crey6 haber 
encontrado su felicidad encontr6 la muerte. 


(39) Maria Niquitalia se cas6 con un hermano de Pedro de Urde- 
malas. Este hermano era un hombre muy rico y era su compadre de 

Un dia se puso Pedro a hacer una tala en la orilla del camino, y 
puso un caldero a hacer una sopa por donde el hermano su compadre 
tenia que pasar. Y no tenia nada lumbre. Y el hermano le pregunt6: 
— iC6mo es que puede usted hacer esto? Y Pedro que habia botado 
los tizones y las cenizas y todo cuando vi6 venir al compadre le respon- 
dio.: — Compadre, 6sta es mi felicidad. Este caldero puede cocer la 
comida sin lumbre ni nada. Y el compadre en seguida le compr6 el 
caldero por dos mil pesos. 

(85) Pues entonces Pedro tom6 sus dos mil pesos y se fu6 par i el 
pueblo y puso trescientos pesos en tres partes, y despu6s se vino y 
le dijo al hermano: — Compadre, manana vamos al pueblo. Vamos a 
hacer unas compras para surtir una tienda. Y 6ste le dijo: — Si, 
vamos. Y 61 lleg6 y se llev6 al compadre y se despach6 de los trescien- 
tos pesos que habia dejado en cada parte y se despach6 de todo. 

Y cuando llegaron a las tiendas le pregunt6 a uno, cambi&ndose el 
sombrero: — iQu6 debo por este pico? Y le dijo el dueilo de la 
tienda: — No debe nada. Y asi hizo en los tres comercios. Y el 
compadre Ueno de admiraci6n le dijo: — iQu6 es eso que no le cobran 
nada? Y 61 le dijo que era su sombrero que dondequiera que iba 
hada asi y nada le cobraban. Pues tantas eranias majaderias que 
tuvo que venderle el sombrero al compadre. 

(86) Y entonces el hermano se fu6 con la mujer y le dijo: — Ahora 
si tenemos la felicidad. Y al otro dia se fu6 con unas cuantas besdas 
para el pueblo y todo lo que compr6 lo tuvo que pagar y se vino 
injuriado para matar al compadre. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

58 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Pero ya Pedro habfa comprado una cabra cx>n una pichona y dej6 la 
pichona amarrada y le dijo a la mujer: — Cuando mi compadre est^ 
aquf mandas la cabrita adonde mf para yo salir cuando ^1 e8t6 aquf. 

Cuando el compadre 11^6 ella lo mand6 a subir y 61 le dijo que no, 
que solamente venfa a buscar a su compadre. Y entonces ella le dijo: 

— Stibase, que ahora voy a mandar a buscarlo. Y arranc6 camera 
con la cabrita en las manos, y vino a saludar al compadre y le dijo: — 
Compadre, yo vengo a matarlo. Pero lo dej6 al ver eso. 


(85) Una vez estaba Pedro deseoso de obtener dinero y se vali6 de 
unade sus tretas. Se encontr6 atresdueiiosdetiendasydepositden 
cada tienda den pesos y les dijo que cuando 61 viniera con un sombrero 
de tres picos y les doblara un pico le dieran los den pesos. 

Se fu6 Pedro y a poco se encontr6 con un hombre en el camino. Y d 
dijo que 61 tenia un sombrero de tres picos y con 61 iba a cualquier 
casa de comerdo y le doblaba un pico al sombrero y lu^^o le daban 
den pesos, y nunca le cobraban nada. 

Entonces d hombre le dijo que querfa ver la suerte esa. Y se fueron 
entonces a las tiendas donde Pedro tenia depositados los tresdentos 
pesos. Al llegar los dos hombres a la tienda seguido Pedro le dobl6 
una punta al sombrero y seguido le dieron los cien pesos. Y despu6s 
se fueron a las otras dos tiendas y alU hizo lo mismo. 

El hombre se qued6 con ganas de comprar el sombrero, y al poco 
tiempo le dijo a Pedro: — V6ndamelo que yo se lo pago bien. Pedro 
no quiso esperar muchas sAplicas y dijo que si. — ^Cu&nto quiere 
usted por 61? — Dos mil pesos. — No, es mucho. Le doy mil. — 
C6jalo; pero no se lo debfa de vender. 

Y entonces Pedro cc^6 sus mil pesos y se fu6 corriendo lejos de 
aquel pueblo. Un d(a el hombre cogi6 su sombrero y se f u6 a una 
tienda y le dobl6 la punta del sombrero pero nada que le dieron. Y 
fu6 a muchas tiendas y en todas le pas6 lo mismo. No le dieron 
nada. Despu6s pens6 un rato y al fin se convend6 que aqu61 era 
Pedro Animala, y cogi6 el sombrero y lo tir6 hecho pedazos, y dijo: 

— Si yo cogiera a Pedro lo mataba. 


(40) Una vez se encontr6 Pedro de Urdemalas en necesidad de 
dinero y le dijo a la mujer que 61 tenia un tiple y que con ese tiple 61 
podia hacer dinero, haci6ndose ella la muerta, y que cuando 61 tocara 
y le mandara hacer cualquier movimiento que lo hidera. En seguida 
la mujer se hizo la muerta. Pedro la amortaj6. Y en seguida vino 
el compadre de Pedro para ver a la muerta. El compadre vi6 que 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

PortO'Rican Folk-Lare. 59 

Pedro estaba sin pena ninguna y le dijo que si cx>mo era que estando 
su mujer muerta no tenia pena ninguna. Y entonces Pedro le 
dijo: — Compadre, yo tengo aquf mi instrumento de resucitar a los 
muertoe y ya usted ver4 como yo la resudto ahora mismo. En- 
tonces cogi6 el tiple y le toc6 a la mujer. Despu6s de tocar un rato 
le dijo a la muerta: — Mueve una piema. Y en seguida la muerta 
movi6 una piema. Entonces de la misma manera le mand6 que 
moviera la otra piema, y la muerta la movi6 tambi6n. Y sigui6 
Pedro tocando y mand&ndole a la mujer que moviera los brazos, la 
cabeza, y todo hada la mujer. Despu^s el hombre le dijo a la mujer: 
— P&rate. Y ella di6 un brinco y cay6 parada. 

Entonces Pedro le dijo a su compadre: — Ya ve, compadre, que lo 
que le dije es verdad. Y el compadre le dijo: — Compadre, v6ndame 
el tiple. Y Pedro le respondi6: — No, compadre, porque dsta es la 
suerte mfa. Y la mujer dijo tambi^n que no. — Pues, compadre, le 
doy dos mil pesos por 61. Entonces Pedro se habl6 con la mujer y 
despufe le dijo a su compadre: — Compadre, si usted viene y nos 
resucita cada vez que uno de nosotros nos mu^ramos le vendo el tiple. 
Le di6 los dos mil pesos, y se fu6 a su casa con el tiple. 

Lleg6 y le dijo a la mujer que tenfa un tiple que resudtaba a los 
muertos. Y le dijo la mujer que ella ni crefa eso. Y entonces el 
marido cogi6 un palo y le di6 hasta que la dej6 muerta y cay6 al suelo. 
El hombre cogi6 en seguida el tiple y lo toc6 y le dijo a la mujer: — 
Mueve una piema. Y la mujer no se movfa. Y sigui6 tocando el 
tiple y mand&ndole a la mujer que se moviera pero no se movfa. El 
pobre se volvi6 loco, pues como querfa mucho a la mujer y vda que no 
resudtaba se decidi6 matar a Pedro. Y cogi6 un puftal y se f u6 a 
matar a Pedro de Urdemalas. 

(80) Ya Pedro lo sabfa y cogi6 y mat6 un cabro y le sac6 el cuero 
y se aforr6 de la dntura para arriba y se ech6 las tripas del cabro y 
arranc6 a correr y el compadre detr&s. Y cuando iba corriendo pas6 
por una quebrada y allf estaba una mujer lavando, y le dijo : — Por 
aquf va a pasar un hombre que viene detr&s de mf para matarme, y 
dfgale que si me quiere alcanzar que se pegue una puiialada y deje las 
tripas aquf como yo, y que en seguida me alcanzari. Y cogi6 el pufial 
y se di6 una fuerte pufialada y dej6 allf las tripas. Pero 6stas eran las 
tripas del cabro. Y sigui6 corriendo. 

Cuando pas6 el compadre y le pregunt6 a la mujer que estaba lavan- 
do si habfa visto pasar por allf a Pedro de Urdemalas, ella le dijo que 
sf, y que 9! lo querfa alcanzar que hidera como 61, que se habfa dado 
una puiialada y habfa dejado allf las tripas para correr mucho. Y la 
mujer le ensefi6 las tripas del cabro que crda que eran las de Pedro de 
Urdemalas. Y el hombre sac6 un pufial y se di6 tambi^n una puiialada 
y se le salieron las tripas y cay6 muerto. Y Pedro se volvi6 para su 
casa, ri^ndose. # nir\n]r> 

Digitized by VjOOQ IC 


Journal of American Fotk-Lare. 

Index to Inqdbnts. 

(i) Juan manda la cerda a misa, 
34 : 146-150, 154. 172. 173. 
184-187. 190, 207; 35 :26, 


(2) Juan mata a su hermano, 34: 

146-150, 154. 162. 171-173. 
184, 185, 187. 190, 207; 35: 


(3) Juan mata los poUos, 34 : 146, 

147, 149, 150, 154, 184-186. 

207; 35:34. 

(4) Juan mata la vaca, 34 : 146. 

147. 150; 35 '- 26. 

(5) Juan vende la vaca al santo, 

34 : 152. 

(6) Juan vende la carne a las mos- 

cas, 34 : 147. 150-155. 181. 
193; 35 : 26-27. 

(7) Juan echa una aguja dentro de 

una canasta, 34 : 156, 157, 

187. 193. 

(8) Juan echa a su hermano a los 

animales, 34 : 156. 

(9) Juan echa una carrera con la 

oUa, 34:156, 157. 187. 

(10) Juan va a las bodas de su her- 

mano, 34 : 157. 180, 205, 206. 

(11) Juan vende un pavo, 34 : 157- 

I59» 170, 173. 180. 

(12) Juan calienta a su abuelita, 34: 

159. 160. 

(13) Juan pierde su dinero, 34 : 161. 

(14) Juan y el cura. 34 : 161. 

(15) Juan en la casa de los bandidos. 

34 : 162. 

(16) Juan se limpia con un trapo 

del fog6n, 34 : 162. 

(17) Juan entierra los rabos de los 

cerdos, 34 : 162, 172. 

(18) La hija coja del rey, 34 : 163. 

(19) Juan hace reir a la hija del rey, 

34 : 163. 

(20) La gallina que tenia s61o una 

pata, 34 : 164. 

(21) ^ Cuanto cuesta el burro? 34: 


(22) £1 muneco de brea, 34 : 164. 

(23) Juan y los quesos. 34 : 165. 

(24) El pajaro virtuoso. 34 : 165; 


(25) Cuando Juan se cas6. 34 : 166. 

(26) Juan se va a misa. 34 : 166. 167. 

(27) Patelin. 34 : 168. 

(28) Huevos de yeguas. 34 : 168. 

(29) Juan regresa con el perro. 34: 

168. 169; 35 : 45-47, 49. 

(30) Juan Ueva una carta al diablo. 


(31) Juan (Pedro) no quiere casarse 

con la hija del rey. 34 : 170. 

171. 184; 35:36-42. 

(32) Juan tira piedras en vez de 

quesos. 34 : 170. 

(33) Juan corta matas de pl4tano y 

las patas de los novillos. 34: 
172; 35:47. 

(34) Juan mata a una vieja. 34: 

172. 173. 

(35) Juan, la mujer y su cortejo, 34: 


(36) El p4jaro adivino, 34 : 174. 

(37) Juan se cae de un palo, y se 

muere cuando el burro menea 
la cola, 34 : 174-176. 

(38) El conejo que llama a su amo, 

34 : 176. 

(39) La olla que calienta el agua sin 

fuego. 34 : 176. I77. I79; 35: 
21. 35-36. 37. 57. 

(40) El pi to que resudta. 34 : 176, 

178; 35 : 36, 37. 58-59. 

(41) Juan siembra davos. 34 : 179. 

(42) Pedro tira a su hermano dentro 

de un pozo. 34 : 179. 

(43) Juan manda dinero con el vien- 

to. 34 : 180. 

(44) Le pagan por un muerto, 34: 

147. 180-182; 35:40-41. 

Digitized by 


Porto Rican Folk-Lore. 


(45) Juan vende centavos, 34 : 183. 

(46) Juan riega el mafz despu6s de 

cortalo, 34 : 184. 

(47) Juan sujetando el mundo, 34 

184; 35:43. 

(48) Juan ahoga a su hermano, 34 


(49) Juan vende la carne a yo, 34 


(50) La lista de pellejo, 34 : 186; 35 

44-47» 49-52. 

(51) Juan y la princesa, 34 : 187. 

(52) Juan se echa en la cabeza burro 

yleiia, 34 ^ 187. 
{53) "Medio almud," 34 : 188-190. 

(54) Juan hace hablar a la princesa, 

34 •• 191. 

(55) £1 lunar de la princesa, 34: 

192-197; 35 :26. 

(56) Juan y ios ladrones, 34 : 198- 


(57) Juan y Ios bandidos, 34 : 201- 


(58) Juan y Ios bandidos bajo del 

irbol, 34 : 160, 204-207. 

(59) Juan (Pedro) y Ios objetos 

migicos. 35 : 2-7, 43-44- 

(60) Braulio el tonto y el enano del 

pozo, 35 : 7-8. 

(61) Juan y la princesa son echados 

al mar. 35 : 8-14. 
(62} Juan se compadece de un 
perrot un gato y una culebra, 

35 : 14-17. 

(63) Los animales ayudan a Juan, 

35 : 17-18. 

(64) El gusano ayuda a Juan, 35: 


(65) Juan arregla el asunto de Ios 

cabros, 35 : 18-19. 

(66) £1 traje de piel de piojo, 35: 


(67) £1 doctor todolosabe, 35 : 21- 


(68) £1 ramo de todas las flores» 35: 


(69) Los animales agradecidos, y las 

adivinanzas de Juan, 35 : 23- 


(70) Las adivinanzas de Juan, 35: 


(71) Juan (Pedro) vende el cuero de 

la vaca, 34:171; 35 : 39- 

(72) Pedro mata a la madre del 

gigante, 35:47-48. 51. 

(73) Pedro se lleva el rio, 35 : 47-48, 

50, 51. 

(74) Pedro se lleva el monte, 35: 

47-48, 50, 51. 

(75) Pedro mete el dedo eh el palo, 

35 : 47-48, 50. 

(76) £1 gigante trata de matarlo en 

el catre. 35 : 40, 42-43. 47- 

(77) Pedro y el gigante tiran piedras 

mar afuera, 35 : 47, 49-50. 

(78) £1 huevo y las batatas, 35: 


(79) Pedro y las hijas de su amo, 35 : 


(80) Pedro logra matar a su amo, 

35 : 51-52. 58-59. 

(81) Pedro y el Ie6n, 35 : 52-53- 

(82) Pedro se come las pajarillas del 

cabro, 35 : 53-56. 

(83) La muerte en el irbol, 35 : 55- 


(84) Lamuerteenladamajuana, 35: 


(85) El sombrero maravilloso, 35: 


(86) £1 compadre trata de matarlo, 

35 : 57-58. 

Digitized by 


62 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 



A POOR Hopi boy lived with his mother's mother. The people 
maltreated him, and threw ashes and sweepings into the house in 
which they lived. They were very unhappy. One day the boy asked 
his grandmother, "Who is my father?" His grandmother replied, 
" My poor boy, I do not know who your father is." — "I want to find 
my father, because all the people treat me so badly. We cannot con- 
tinue to live in this place." Then his grandmother said, "Come, 
grandchild! you must go and see the Sun: he knows who your father 

On the following morning the boy made a prayer-stick and went 
out. Many young men were sitting, on the roof of the kiwa. When 
they saw him going by, they said, "See where that little boy is going!" 
One of them remarked, "Don't make fun of him! I believe the poor 
little boy has supernatural power." 

The boy took some sacred meal made of corn-meal, pounded tur- 
quoise, coral, and shell, and threw it up. When he looked up, he 
saw that the meal formed a trail which led upwards. He climbed 
up; but when he was half way up, the 'trail gave out. Then he threw 
more of the sacred meal upwards, and a new trail was formed. After 
he had done so twelve times, he came to the Sun. But the Sun was 
so hot, that he was unable to approach him. Then he put new prayer- 
sticks into the hair at the back of his head, and the shadow of their 
plumes protected him against the heat of the Sun. 

He asked the Sun, "Who is my father?" — "I only know children 
who are conceived in the day-time, for all children conceived in the 
day-time belong to me." 

Then the boy gave to the Sun a prayer-stick, and turned to go 
back. He fell down from the sky, and landed in the Hopi village. 

On the following day he went westward; and when he came to 
Holbrook, he saw a cottonwood-tree. He chopped it down, and cut 
off a piece of the trunk of his own length. He hollowed it out, and 
made a cover at each end. Then he went home. There he took 
some sweet corn-meal and prayer-sticks. He carried them to his 
box and entered it. Then he closed the door. He had a small hole 

« Collected in Zufli. 1920. from 'Nick /'digitized by LjOOQIC 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 63 

in the door through which he could peep out. Then he lowered the 
box into the river and drifted down. 

He drifted for four days and four nights, and finally the box drifted 
ashore at the place where the two rivers join. He felt the box striking 
the shore, and tried to get out; but he was unable to open the door. 
Then he took the plug out of his peep-hole and looked out. It was 
about the middle of the forenoon. All his efforts to open the box 
were in vain, and he thought he would have to die inside. 

In the afternoon a Rattlesnake-Girl came down to the river. When 
she discovered the box, she took off her mask and looked into it. She 
asked the boy, **What are you doing here?" The boy replied, 
"Open the door! I cannot get out." The girl asked, "How can I 
open it?" — "Take a stone and break the door." 

Then the girl broke the door with a stone, and the boy came out. 
The giri said, "Let us go to my house!" She took him along; and 
when they entered, he saw m^y i>eople inside, — young men, girls, 
and old i>eople. They were all rattlesnakes. They asked him, 
"Where are you going? " The boy replied, " I want to find my father." 
The girl replied, "I will go with you; you cannot go alone." 

She made a small tent of rattlesnake-skins. She carried it down to 
the river, and then entered it. Then they travelled in the tent for 
four days and four nights. Finally they reached the ocean. There 
they saw a meteor, which fell into, the sea and entered the house of 
the Sun. They asked the meteor to take them along, and in this 
way they reached the Sun's house. 

When they entered, they saw an old woman who was working on 
turquoise, coral, and white shell. When she saw them, she fainted. 
She was the Moon, the mother of the Sun. After a little while she 
awoke; and the boy asked, "Where is my father?" The Moon 
replied, "He has gone out, but he will soon be home." 

In the evening the Sun came home, and the old woman gave him 
venison and wafer-bread to eat. After he had eaten, he asked the boy, 
"What do you want here?" The boy replied, "I want to know my 
father." The Sun replied, " I am the father of the whole world. I 
think you are my son. When I go into the other world, you shall 
accompany me." Early in the morning he said, "Let us go!" He 
opened the door in the ground, and they went out. He sat down on a 
stool of crystal. He took a fox-skin and held it up. Then daylight 
appeared. After a little while he let the fox-skin down, and took the 
tail-feathers of the macaw and held them up. Then the yellow rays 
of sunrise appeared. After some time he let them down, and said 
to the boy, " Now let us go! " He sat down on his stool, and made the 
boy sit down behind. Then they went out into another world.* 

> The narrator said it was probably China. From here on until the return of the boy 
the story i. tHwed on OM-Worid element.. ^.^.^.^^^ ^^ (^OOglc 

64 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

After they had travdled for some time, they saw people with long 
ears {LacokH ianenakwe). When they went to sleep, they covered 
themselves with their ears as with blankets. The Sun said to the boy, 
" Look at those people! When the droppings of bluebirds fall on them, 
they die." The boy said, "How is that possible? How can people 
be killed that way? Let me kill the birds!" The Sun said, ''Go 
ahead! I shall wait for you." Then the boy jumped down, took a 
small cedar-stick, and killed the bluebirds. Then he made a fire 
and roasted and ate them. The people shouted, "Look at this boy! 
He is eating Navahoes!" — "No," said the boy, "these are not 
Navahoes, they are birds." Then he went back to the Sun. 

They went on. About noon they came to another town. The 
Sun said to the boy, " Look! here the Apache are coming to make war 
on the i>eople." The boy saw a whirlwind moving along; and when 
wheat-straw was blown against the legs of the i>eople, they fell down 
dead. The Hopi boy said, " How can i>eople be killed by wheat-straw? 
Let me go down and tear it up." The Sun said, " I shall wait for 
you." The boy jumped down, gathered the wheat-straw, and tore it 
up. The people said, " Behold this boy, how he is killing the Apache! " 
The boy replied, "These are not Apache. That is wheat-straw." 
Then he went back to the Sun. 

They came to another town. There he saw people with very long 
hair reaching down to the ankles of their feet. They had a large pot 
in which thin mush was being cooked, and onions were tied to its 
handles. The mush was boiling over; and when it hit a person, he 
died. The Sun said, "Look at the Jicarilla Apache, how they kill the 
people!" — "No," said the boy, "these are not Jicarilla Apache. It 
is mush. I will go down and eat it." The Sun said, "Go! I shall 
wait for you." Then the boy jumped down. He dipped the mush 
out of the pot, took the onions from the handles to which they were 
tied, and ate the mush with the onions. The i>eople said, "Behold, 
how this boy eats the brains, hands, and feet of the Jicarilla Apache!" 
The boy said, "These are not Jicarilla Apache! It is corn-mush. 
Come and eat with me!" — "No," they said, "we are no cannibals. 
We do not eat Apache warriors." Then the boy went back to the Sun, 
and they went on. 

Finally they came to the house of the Sun in the east. There 
the sister of the Sun waited for them, and she gave them venison-stew 
for supper. After they had eaten, the Sun said to his sister, "Wash 
my son's head." She took a large dish, put water into it, and yucca- 
suds; she washed his head and his body, and gave him new clothing, 
the same land as the Sun was wearing, — buckskin trousers, blue 
moccasins, blue bands of yam to be tied under the knees, a white sash 
and a belt(?) of fox-skin,^ turquoise and shell ear-rings, a white shirt, 
t More probably a pendant. ^^.^.^^^ ^^ L^OOglC 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 65 

silver arm-rings, bead bracelets, and a bead necklace. She put 
macaw-feathers in his hair, and a sacred blanket (miha) over his 
shoulder, and she gave him a quiver of mountain-lion skin. 

Then the Sun said to him, **Go ahead! I am going to follow you." 
Then the boy went ahead. He took the fox-skin, held it up, and the 
dawn of day appeared. Then he put it down and raised the macaw- 
feathers. He held them up with the palms of his hands stretched out 
forward, and the yellow rays of sunrise appeared. Then he dropped 
his hands and went on into the upper world. When he came up, the 
people of Laguna, Isleta, and the other eastern pueblos, looked east- 
ward and sprinkled sacred meal. The Sun said, "Look at the trails 
(the life) of the i>eople! Some of them are short, others are long. 
Look at this one! He is near the end of his trail; he is going to die 
soon." Then the boy saw an Apache coming, and within a short time 
he killed the man whose trail had appeared so short. He saw every- 
thing that was happening to the people. The boy said to the Sun, 
"Let me go and help the people!" 

Then he jumped down and went to the place where the Laguna 
people were fighting against the Apache. He told the i>eople to wet 
their arrow-points with saliva, and to hold them up to the Sun, who 
would then help them. He killed ten of the warriors. Then the 
boy went back to the Sun. 

They went on, and saw a number of Navahoes who were going to 
make war upon the Zuni. He killed them. Then he saw his own 
people, the Hopi. 

A Mexican was playing with his wife. When the Sun saw them, he 
threw the Mexican aside, and cohabited with the woman. He said 
to the boy, " I do not need a wife, for all the women on earth belong 
to me. If a couple cohabit during the day-time, I interfere as I did 
here. I am the father of all the children that are conceived in the 

In the evening the Sun entered his house in the west. The boy 
wanted to go back to his own people. Then the Sun's mother made 
a trail of sacred flour, and the boy and the Rattlesnake- Woman went 
back eastward over it. At noon he came to the house of the Rattle- 
snakes. The Rattlesnake-Woman who accompanied him said, "I 
want to see my father and my mother. After that let us go on!" 
They entered the house, and she told her relatives that the Hopi boy 
was her husband. Then they went on. 

In the evening they arrived in Hopi. There the boy went to his 
grandmother. An old chief said, ** Behold, a handsome man is going 
into the house of these poor people!" He invited him to come into 
the chief's house. The boy, however, replied, "No, I am going into 
this house." The war-chief said, "We do not want you to enter this 

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66 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

dirty house." Then the boy replied, "Tell your people to clean the 
house. It is mine. When all of you treated me badly, I went up to 
the Sun, and he helped me." 

On the following evening the chief called a council. The boy went 
there and told all that had happened to him. He said to them, "You 
shall teach the i>eople how to act rightly. The Sun told me to in- 
struct you to forbid all bad actions." The people accepted his instruc- 
tions. They went to clean his house, and all worked for him. The 
boy gave peaches, melons, and wafer-bread to the poor. Every 
evening after sunset he gave them to eat. The women would come 
with their dishes, and he gave them venison-stew and peaches. He 
said to the chief, " I teach the i>eople how to act. Even if you are my 
enemy, I must show you how to act rightly." 

After some time, twin children were bom to his wife, — a boy and 
a girl. They had the shape of rattlesnakes. The youth's sister used 
to carry them on her back. When any children saw them and kissed 
them, the rattlesnakes would bite them, and the children died. 


A poor Mexican lived in Los Lunas. Every day he went out to 
chop wood; and when he came home, his little dog would come out 
of the house to meet him. One day he went down to the river. There 
a catfish spoke to him, and said, "What are you doing?" He replied, 
"I am cutting wood." The catfish said, "When you go home, you 
must give me the first thing that meets you." * The Mexican thought 
that, as usual, the dog would meet him, and promised the catfish to 
bring him. He turned to go home ; and when he approached his house, 
his little son came out to meet him. The man began to cry, and said, 
" I must sell you to the catfish. I promised to take you there." He 
then took his own son and sold him to the catfish for a thousand dollars. 
The fish took the boy, and they lived together in the water. 

The boy grew up. He had no clothing. The fish owned an orchard 
under water, in which apples, grapes, and peaches were growing. 

When the boy was grown up, he travelled up the river under water, 
and went as far as Albuquerque. There he saw an Antelope-Girl 
coming down to the water. The catfish said to the boy, "Catch that 
antelope ! " He went out of the water and followed the Antelope-Girl. 
She ran up the mountain, and he pursued her. The antelope was 
always a little ahead of him. He followed her the whole day long, and 
was led far to the north. Finally he came to a prairie. The antelope 
ran ahead over a low hill, and disappeared from his view. 

^ Heard by my informant from a Mexican in Galup in 1892. 
* See Bolte und Polfvka. 2 : 318. 516. 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 67 

When he came to the top of the hill, he saw a large white house. 
The boy thought, ''I have lost the antelope; I think I will stay here 
over night. I must have something to eat." He entered the house, 
which was entirely deserted. However, a fire was burning in the 
fireplace, and the table was set. He saw tobacco and corn-leaves on 
the table, and he made a cigarette and smoked it. Then he sat down 
at the table, on which he found chili with meat, beans, biscuit, and eggs. 
He did not know who had brought the food. After he had eaten, he 
sat down next to the fireplace; and when he looked back, the dishes 
had been taken away, although he did not see any one coming or 
going. When night came, he became tired. He went into another 
room, and he found a bed ready made. He went to bed and went to 
sleep. About midnight he awoke, and he noticed that a woman was 
next to him. He spoke to her, and asked, "How do you come here?" 
She replied, ** I live here. I want to marry you. Ask your parents 
and your sisters and your brothers whether they will agree. For four 
nights you may not see me.* To-morrow morning you will not find 

The youth asked, **Who is my father?" The woman replied, 
"Your father lives in Los Lunas. He has a store there. He sold 
you to the catfish, and with the money that he obtained he bought 
a store." And she told him what had happened when his father sold 
him to the fish. "To-morrow take my horses; they know the way to 
your father." 

The following morning he found himself alone in the house. He 
looked around. Beautiful clothes were on a chair next to his bed, — 
a hat, necktie, overcoat, trousers, and whatever was needed. He 
dressed himself and went out. There he found warm water, comb, 
and soap, a looking-glass, and a towel, and his breakfast was ready 
on the table. Outside there was a buggy with large bay horses and a 
beautiful lap-robe. 

After he had eaten his breakfast, he jumped into the buggy, and 
the horses took him to Los Lunas. There he found his father working 
on the platform in front of his store. When the buggy arrived, the 
man said, "Where do you come from? Where are you going?" 
The young man was invited into the house, and his father asked him 
what he wanted. The young man replied, " I want to ask you some- 
thing." — "What do you want to ask?" — "Somebody wants to 
marry me." — "Well, if somebody wants to marry you, why don't 
3^u marry her? I have no right to interfere. You are not my son." 
— "Yes," replied the other, "you are my father." Then his mother 
came in, and he also asked her permission to marry. His mother 
> Amor and Psyche; Bolte und Polfvka. 2 : 247. 267; but also 2 : 327; 3 ^ "4* 

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68 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

became angry, and said, ** It does not concern me if you want to marry, 
you are not my son." — "Yes," said he, '*you are my mother." — 
" How do you know that? " Then the young man turned to his father, 
and said, "Is it not true that at one time you went to the river and 
sold to the catfish whatever was going to meet you in front of your 
house? You thought it was going to be your dog; but your boy came 
to meet you, and you had to sell him to the fish." — "Yes," said the 
old man, "it is true." — "The fish has raised me, and I am your son." 
Then the old woman wept and recognized her son, and his parents 
were full of joy to see him. They prepared dinner for him; and after- 
wards they asked him, "Who is the girl that wants to marry you? 
Is she pretty?" The young man replied, "I have not seen her. I 
saw her only during the night." — "Is she rich?" — "Yes, evidently 
she is rich, because she has given me my clothes, and this buggy and 
the horses are hers. I am not going to see her for four days." His 
father said, "You must see her to-night. Let me give you these 
matches and three candles. You must see whether she is pretty or 

Then the boy drove back home; and when he arrived, he left the 
buggy outside, and somebody unharnessed the horses and put them 
into the stable. He sat down near the fireplace. The table was set, 
and he ate his supper. Then he went to bed and slept. At midnight 
he woke up, and he found the girl next to him. She asked, "What did 
your father say?" He replied, "Father asked me how you looked; 
he asked whether you are rich. I told him that you gave me my 
clothes, and that the buggy and the horses were yours." The girl 
replied, "You will see me after three days." Then they went to 
sleep. The young man, however, waited until the giri was fast 
asleep. He shook her, but she did not wake up. Then he quietly 
took one of his candles, lighted it, and held it over the giri, who was 
lying on her back. She had a gold necklace and gold ear-rings, and 
rings on her fingers. She had beautiful black curiy hair, and she was 
very pretty. While he was looking at her, a drop of wax fell on her 
forehead, and she woke up. She said, "Why did you look at me? 
Did I not tell you that you must not see me for four days? Now you 
win never see me again, and your house will disappear." He embraced 
her and spoke kindly to her, but she was angry and pushed him away. 
Finally he went to sleep. 

On the f(^owing morning at sunrise he awoke, and he found himself 
in the burrow of an antelope. There was no house to be seen, only 
antelope-tracks were all around him. 

Then the young man was afraid. He did not know what to do. 
He did not know which way he had come, nor which way the Antelope- 
Giri had gone. Finally he started and went eastward. He walked 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 69 

a whole day. He was hungry, thirsty, and tired. In the evening 
the coyotes were howling around him, and followed his tracks. Later 
on, after sunset, wolves pursued him. He took up a stick and tried 
to defend himself. Finally he found a piil6n-tree, and climbed it. 
There he spent the night. Early in the morning the coyotes and the 
wolves which had been sitting under the tree ran away. At some dis- 
tance he saw a light, and he resolved to go there. He climbed down 
the tree and went in the direction in which he had seen the light. 
After he had gone some time, he came to a fire. A man was sitting 
there. It was Distela Glande {estrdla grande) who was camping 
there. He had a whole steer boiling in the kettle, and a big trough 
full of water. Distela Glande said to the boy, "Where did you come 
from?" — "I came from the West." — "Where are you going?" — 
** I do not know." The great star said, " You shall stay with me. You 
shall cook for me and carry water for me. Every morning you must 
kill a steer, boil it, and fill this trough with water." He gave a piece 
of meat to the boy, while he himself ate the whole steer, and he drank 
sixty gallons of water. In the morning he went out. He wore two- 
mile boots, and with every step he made he covered two miles. The 
boy staid in camp, killed the steer, boiled it, and carried water. At 
sunset the great star came back, and found everything ready. This 
was repeated every day. The great star forbade the boy to enter the 
house which was near by. After some time, however, the boy became 
tired, and said, "I should like to know why the star forbade me to 
enter the house; I want to see what is in it." He opened the door 
and went in. In the stable he saw a large bay horse, saddle, bridle, 
saddle-blanket, and saddle-bags. The horse said to him, "Where do 
you come from?" The boy told him how he had camped with the 
great star. Then the horse said, "The big star is going to eat you; 
take good care! To-morrow morning saddle me, and I will carry 
you away." Then the boy went into the other house to the east. 
There he found a well of blue lead. Accidentally he put his foot into 
it, and the lead cut his foot. Then he went out, shut the door, and 
bandaged his foot. 

In the evening the big star came back. They had supper; and 
after they had eaten, the big star asked the boy, "What has happened 
to your foot?" The boy replied, "While I was walking, I fell, and the 
knife and the axe cut me." Then the big star got angry, and said to 
his knife, "Why do you cut my boy? If I tell you to cut my meat, 
then cut my meat, but not my boy." Then he spoke in the same way 
to his axe, and scolded it. They did not reply. He broke the bones 
of the steer, took out the marrow, rubbed it on the boy's foot, and 
bandaged it. 

On the following morning the big star started out again. When he 
had gone twenty steps, the boy went into the stable, saddled tKIQlC 

70 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

horse, and was ready to make his escape. The horse said, "Take my 
comb and brush and the steer's stomach, and cut out the lead well 
and put it in my bag." The boy obeyed. The lead well was like a 
wagon-tire, which he put on the horse. Then he mounted, and the 
horse ran westward. 

When the big star had gone some distance, he said, " I believe the 
boy went into the house, and my axe and my knife did not cut him at 
all. Maybe he has made his escape." He turned back; and when 
he came home, he found the door open, and the horse and the boy 
gone. Then he went in pursuit,^ and said, ''If I catch them, I am 
going to kill both horse and boy, even if they are my horse and my 
boy." Although the horse was running quickly, the big star was 
faster, tod came near. The boy saw him coming, and said to the 
horse, "He is coming, he is going to kill us!" Then the horse said, 
"Throw the comb behind you!" He threw it backward over his 
shoulder, and at once it was transformed into a large lake. The 
big star could not cross it, and had to take a long round-about way 
in order to follow the fleeing horse. But he continued in pursuit; 
and when he came near again, the boy cried, "He is coming near! 
He is going to kill us!" The horse said, "Throw the brush over your 
shoulder!" and when it fell down, it was transformed into thick 
timber. The big star could not pass through it, and had to walk 
around it, but he continued his pursuit. When he drew near again, 
the horse said, "Take the steer's stomach and throw it down!" and 
when it fell down, it was transformed into rocks and canyons. The 
big star had to take a long round-about way, but after a while he drew 
near again. Then the horse said, " Feed me some of the lead." After 
the horse had eaten it, he said, "Now hold on to the pommel of the 
saddle and sit tight." Then the horse began to buck, and shot forth 
bullets, which killed the star. When he was dead, the horse said, 
" Now cut off his head and throw it eastward ! " The boy did so, and 
U tvas transformed into the morning star. Then the horse ordered the 
boy to cut out his heart and throw it westward, and it became the 
evening star. The horse ordered the boy to cut out his intestines and 
throw them westward, and ihey became the seven stars. All the stars 
were made out of the body of the great star. 

Then the boy said, "Now let us go on!" After a while they came 
to a river. There they met a Negro who was carrying a bundle on his 
shoulder. The horse said to the boy, "Let us kill him!" — "How 
shall we Idll him?" asked the boy. "Ride close up to him, and I am 
going to kick him." The boy rode up to the Negro, and asked him, 
"Where do you come from?" The Negro replied, "I come from the 
king. I was looking for work, but he had no work." The boy said, 
1 See Bolte und PoUvka. a : 140. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 7 1 

" I am going to the Idng in order to ask for work." The Negro said, 
"Maybe you won't find any." — "I shall go, anyway," answered 
the boy. Then he turned; and as soon as he had done so, the horse 
kicked and hit the head of the Negro, who fell down dead. Then 
the horse told the boy to jump down and to skin the Negro. The 
boy obeyed, and skinned him, banning at the feet. Then the horse 
told him to put on the Negro's skin; and he himself transformed 
himself into an old ugly horse with hanging hips, and blind in one eye. 
They tied a stone to the Negro's body, and threw it into the river. 
Then they went to the king's house. 

When they came near the town, the horse said, "Go to the king. 
If he says that he has no work for you, tell him that you want to help 
him prune the plum-trees, peach-trees, apple-trees, and grapes; and 
It would be well if the king would allow you to do so." The boy went 
to the king's house and knocked at the door. When the cook came 
out, he said to him, '* I want to see the king." The cook went back 
to call the king, who came out. He asked the boy, ''What do you 
want?" The boy said, '*I want to work for you." — "I have no 
work, for I have enough men to look after my sheep, to cut wood, 
and to do all my work." — '* Have you no work at all for me? I am 
sure you have an orchard with peach-trees and pear-trees." — "Yes," 
he said. "Then give me an axe, hoe, and shovel. I am going to 
chop down the trees and spread soil over them, and next year you will 
have an abundance of fruit. Then you can earn a great deal of 
money." When the king's wife heard what the boy proposed, she 
objected, because she thought he would spoil the orchard; but .the 
boy said, "If I should spoil the orchard, you may cut off my head." 
Then he made a contract with the king, and they signed their names to 
the agreement. The king gave him a new shovel and hoe, and sent 
somebody with him to show him a small house in the orchard in which 
he was to live. His food was sent to him there. On the following 
morning the boy cut down the trees, and spread soil over them. Then 
new beautiful trees sprang up. 

The king had four beautiful daughters. They had to take supper 
to the boy in the evening; but the three eldest ones were afraid of him, 
and did not want to go. Only the youngest one took food to him. 
The boy lived there for a whole year. The following year the trees 
bloomed beautifully, and were full of fruit. The king had to pay the 
boy for the fruit. 

Then the horse said to the boy, "Let us go to the king and ask him 
whether he will not rather give you one of his daughters in marriage 
than pay you. If he refuses, ask the girls whether they want to 
many you." 

One day at noon the king's youngest daughter came to bring dinner 
for the young man. She entered the house, but he was not inside. . 

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72 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Then she looked out, and saw him behind the house, standing near a 
ditch in which he was washing the Negro's sldn; and she saw that he 
was very beautiful and that he was white. After he had washed the 
Negro's skin, he put it on again; but the girl had seen him. He went 
into the house, and the girl smiled at him. The boy said, " Have you 
been here a long time? I have been outside washing myself." The 
girl said, ''Is that so? Let us eat!" Up to that time she had never 
eaten with him. She staid there a long time before she-went home, 
but she did not tell her father what she had seen. 

Then the horse said, "Now go to the king and offer to marry his 
daughter." The boy obeyed, and said to the cook, "Call the Idng." 
The king came out, and asked him, "What do you want, my boy?" 
The boy replied, " I want to marry one of your daughters." The king 
laughed, and said, "My daughters do not want to marry you." — 
"Maybe one of them wants me, anyway. If one of them will marry 
me, you do not have to pay me for the fruits in your garden." The king 
said, "Let me try! but I am sure they will refuse you." Then he 
called the eldest one. He said, "Inezelita, come out!" She came, 
and asked, "What do you want, father?" The king said, "Do you 
want to marry this man?" She laughed, and slanuned the door and 
went in. The boy said, "Try the next one." Then the Idng called 
her, and said, "Ancelina, come out!" She came out, and asked, 
"Father, what do you want?" The king asked, "Do you want to 
marry this man?" She became angry, and said, "I do not want to 
have such a man for my husband," slanuned the door, and went in. 

— "Well," said he, "ask the next one." — "I am sure she does not 
want to." — "Try it, anyway." The king called her, and said, 
"Ancalina, come out!" She came. "What do you want, father?" 

— "Will you marry this man?" — " No," she said, " I do not want to 
have an ugly husband," slanuned the door, and went in. "Now, I 
have one more daughter. She is the prettiest one. I am sure she 
does not want you." — "Try it, anyway." Then the king called, 
"Angelina, come out!" — "Father, what do you want?" — "Do you 
want to marry this man? If you want him, take him!" The king 
motioned to her, indicating that he wanted her to refuse. She, 
however, said, "Yes, I will marry him." Then the king became angry, 
and said, "If you marry him, you may not stay in my house." And 
Angelina replied, "I shall go with him." The boy married her, and 
said to the king, "Now you may keep all your fruits, and you do not 
need to pay me." He took her to the small house in the orchard, and 
there they lived. 

About * this time the Navaho attacked the town, and the king's 
Mexican soldiers were killed by them. The people said, "Tell your 

> See Bolte und Polfvka, 3 : 97. 

Digitized by 


Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 73 

son-in-law to go to war with us." Then the king sent a letter to his 
son-in-law, and ordered him to join the army. His wife made cakes 
and biscuits for him, and he accompanied the soldiers. The king had 
a number of sons who also joined the army. When they came near 
the Navaho, the boy said, "Don't let us eat now! Let us eat after 
we have given battle!" but the soldiers did not obey him. They 
camped, prepared their food, and ate before they attacked the Navaho. 
The Navaho killed many Mexican soldiers. The boy, however, gave 
to his horse some of the lead to eat; and when it had eaten enough, 
the horse began to buck, and killed the Navaho. Then he jumped 
down and scalped them. He put their scalps in his belt and returned 
home. He found his wife in tears, because she believed that he had 
been killed. He left his horse outside and went in, and his wife was 
delighted to see him. He put the scalps outside in the orchard, and 
the i>eople saw them. 

After some time the Navaho attacked the king again, and again 
the young man went to war and scalped many of the Navaho. When 
he came home, he put up the Navaho scalps, and the people saw them. 

The Navaho attacked a third time, and the same thing happened 
as before. The Navaho killed many soldiers; but the king's son-in- 
law finally overcame them, and brought home their scalps. The 
people did not understand how he saved himself, while all the other 
soldiers were killed. 

. Finally his people said, ''If the Navaho come again and he kills 
them, then he shall be our father and king." Before they set out to 
war, the horse said to the boy, " Let us now appear in our proper form! 
These wars must end. Very soon there will be no more lead left, and 
then I cannot help you." On the following day, when they set out 
to attack the Navaho, the horse appeared as a large bay horse with 
a beautiful saddle, and the young man appeared in his proper form; 
he had taken off his Negro skin. He had a beautiful mustache. 
The king saw him, and said, "Since my son-in-law is a beautiful rich 
man, we must treat him well. Cook for him, and give him the best 
to eat. He shall be your master." Then the soldiers went to the 
Navaho country, and there they prepared food and gave him to eat. 
He gave the remaining lead to his horse, and told the soldiers, "Now 
you shall see how I fight!" The other soldiers stood there and saw 
him. The horse b^an to buck, and killed all the Navaho. Then 
he said, "Now all the Navaho are dead, and you are saved; and from 
now on you shall no longer maltreat me. The soldiers said, "Now 
you are our father, you are no longer a slave." They took the scalps 
of the Navaho and went home. When they arrived home, he did 
not go back to his orchard, but went into the king's house and took 
the king's place, and his father-in-law was no longer king. 

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74 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. SACATE CALz6n.* 

Once upon a time there was a poor Mexican woman who had a 
cow and a calf. She had nothing to eat, and no clothes to wear. 
She said to her son, "Sell this cow and the calf in the town." The boy 
asked his mother, ** What shall I ask for the cow? " She replied, '* Forty 
dollars." — "And how much shall I ask for the calf?" — "Twenty 
dollars," she said. Then the boy started with the cow and the calf. 

While he was walking along, he met a traveller, who asked him, 
"Where are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going to town to 
sell this cow and this calf." The man replied, "What do you want 
for them?" — "Sixty Dollars." — "I will give you six beans. Each 
one is worth ten dollars, so that is as much as sixty dollars." The boy 
accepted the six beans, and went back home.* 

His mother asked him, "Did you sell the cow and the calf?" — 
"Yes," he replied. "And where is the money?" The boy showed 
her the six beans. Then the mother beat her son, and said, "Go 
away! I do not want to see you any more. Now I have nothing to 
eat, and nothing to live on." 

The mother took away all his clothing and turned him out. He 
had nothing to eat. The boy went his way for three days. Finally 
he came to a level place. There he saw a bird's nest, and four little 
birds in it. He said, " I am going to take this bird's nest and eat the 
birds, because I am hungry." He went along; and when he came to 
a spring, he sat down in order to eat. High grass was growing around 
the spring. He tore it off, and made a pair of trousers, shirt, and hat 
out of it. While he was sitting there, he met God (Lios) ; and God 
asked him, "Where are you going?" He said, " I am going eastward, 
and I am going to see whether the king has any work for me." — 
"What kind of work do you want to do?" — "I can cook for him, or 
I can chop wood, or I can carry water, — any kind of work will 
satisfy me." God asked, "What are you carrying under your shirt?" 
The boy said, "A bird's nest." — "What do you want to do with it?" 
— "When I am hungry, I shall cook it, and eat the birds." — "Don't 
do that!" — "But what shall I eat?" — "Save the birds; and when 
you reach the king's house, they will help you." Then God took a 
package out of his bag and gave it to the boy. It contained meat and 
eggs and bread. He said, "Eat this. To-morrow you will reach the 
king's house." 

The following morning the boy arrived there. He knocked at the 
door; and the king sent out his cook, who asked, "What do you 
want?" The boy said, "I want to work. I can carry water, sweep 
the house, or chop wood." Then the king ei^;aged him. He was 

1 Told to Nick by his grandfather, who heard the story near Isleta. 
* See Bolte und PoHvka. 2 : 440. 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 75 

shown a small house in the comer of the yard, where he was to live. 
The boy chopped wood, swept the house, and carried water, and every 
evening he went into his house. On account of his grass suit he was 
called "Sacate Calz6n." 

When the boy came home, he put one of his birds on the table, 
and at once it was transformed into a lamp which gave beautiful light. 

In the evening the king's daughter sent the cook to carry supper to 
the boy. The cook took it there; and when he reached the house, he 
saw the beautiful lamp on the table. The cook had never seen a lamp, 
because the people used only candles. He went back and told the 
king's daughter that Sacate Calz6n had a new kind of lamp. The 
king's daughter said to him, "Ask him what he wants for it. I will 
give him a trunk full of money." The cook went back and asked 
Sacate Calz6n, "How much do you want for your lamp?" The boy 
replied, "I don't want to sell it." — "But the king's daughter wants 
to have the lamp." The boy replied, "I do not want any money. I 
will give it to her if she will allow me to sleep under her bed." The 
cook went back and told the king's daughter what the boy had said. 
She replied, "It is well. Let him sleep under my bed." Then she 
took the lamp, and the boy slept under the bed of the king's daughter. 

On the following morning he went back to work, and in the evening 
he went to his house. He put another bird on his table. It was 
transformed into a beautiful lamp which gave a light even clearer than 
the former one; and when the cook brought his supper, he saw the 
lamp. He went back and told the king's daughter what he had seen. 
She offered two trunks of money for it. The cook went back, and said, 
"The king's daughter offers you two trunks of money for the lamp." 
— "No," the boy said, "I will not sell it, but she may have it if she 
will allow me to sleep under her bed." The cook went back and 
reported what the boy had said. The king's daughter 2^:reed again, 
and the boy slept under her bed the second night. 

On the following day he went back to work, and in the evening he 
put the third bird on his table. It was transformed into a still more 
beautiful lamp; and when the cook came and saw it, he reported to 
the king's daughter that Sacate Calz6n had a still more beautiful 
lamp. She offered him three trunks of money for it, but again he 
agreed to let her have it only if she allowed him to sleep under her bed. 

The following morning he worked again, and in the evening he 
put the fourth bird on his table. It was as beautiful as a gasoline 
lamp. When the cook brought the supper, he saw it, and told the 
king's daughter that Sacate Calz6n had a still more beautiful lamp. 
She offered four trunks of money for it, but he did not accept it. The 
boy said, " I will give it to her if she will allow me to sleep on her bed." 
Finally she consented. 

About this time the king had a quarrel with another Inn^-^^ ^^BoqIc 

76 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Calz6n determined to help the king for whom he was working. He 
took off his straw trousers and put on good clothing. He said to his 
wife, "I am going to work for the king with whom your father is 
quarrelling; and when he asks me, I am going to tell him that I have 
married the king's daughter, and I am going to stake my life against 
all his property. About noon I shall stop work, and then you must 
come and bring my lunch." 

Then he went to the other king. He put on his straw trousers, 
and looked like a poor man. He knocked at the king's door and 
asked for work. The king asked him, "What can you do?" — "I 
can make adobe." — "How much do you want?" — "I want one 
and one-half pesos." — ** I will pay you that, and give you a lunch 
beddes." Sacate Calz6n replied, "I do not want your lunch. My 
wife alwa}^ brings my lunch." — "Who is your wife?" — "She is the 
king's daughter." — "That is not true. I don't believe it." — "Well, 
let us bet! If my wife, the king's daughter, does not come to bring 
my lunch, you may cut off my head, and you stake all your property 
against it." The king called three witnesses, and they set down the 
bet in writing. Both the king and Sacate Calz6n signed their names. 
Sacate Calz6n said, "I wish my wife would come right away!" and 
the king remarked, "Don't expect her! At one o'clock you will be 
dead." Then the boy said, "I wish my wife would come right away, 
then I should stop work right now." Again the king said, "At one 
o'clock you will be dead." — "Oh, no!" said the boy, "at one o'clock 
I am going to own all your property. Your wife and your daughters 
will belong to me." Thus they quarrelled. 

A little before noon the king saw dust of horses like a sandstorm. 
The boy said, "Here my wife is coming." He washed and cleaned 
himself; and soon his wife came, accompanied by soldiers who guarded 
her; and she brought cake, pie, and tortillas; and when they came 
to Sacate Calz6n, they stopped. She alighted; and the king asked, 
"Is that your husband?" She replied, "Yes." Then she showed 
him their marriage certificate, and the king had lost his bet. Sacate 
Calz6n threatened that he was going to cut off the king's head. He 
said to him, "Now in a moment you will be dead." The king said, 
"I will work for you, and all my property shall be yours." 


A long time ago there was a king (L^ya) who was very rich. He had 
six thousand sheep and four thousand cattle and horses. He had a 

1 Told to Nick by his father's father. In part of the story Nick called the hero "LAla 
Blanco." then he corrected himself and called him "Lanco Bl&la/' I presume the name 
is a distortion of "Blanca Flor." "Flora** is a girl's name in Zufii. and is pronounced 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zuni. 77 

beautiful daughter. He said, " If any one can shear all my sheep in 
one day, he may marry my daughter." All the young men tried it, 
but nobody succeeded. 

The Sun heard about this, and thought he would try. He became a 
man and went down to Old Mexico. Then he travelled westward; 
and after he had passed the top of the White Mountains, he came to a 
spring. There he took his bow and his lightning arrow and shot into 
the spring. In the fourth world below, his arrow hit some saliva, 
which was transformed into a person, who came out of the spring 
and sat down on the ground. The Sun saw him. He was a small 
dark man, and looked like a Zuiii. The Sun said, "Are you here, 
my son? I want you to go to Old Mexico to the daughter of the king. 
If any one is able to shear his sheep in one day, he is to marry his 
daughter. You shall do so." — " I will try," said the boy. The Sun 
said, "Somebody shall go with you. Be sure not to eat anything 
that the king may give you. Wait until you come to a lake in the 
southeast. There you will find a large white horse which belongs to 
me. The king's daughter will like to have it. Do not eat until after 
you have caught the horse and taken it to her." The boy promised to 
obey. "You must stay there for twenty-five years. Then come 
back here, and I will send you home." 

The boy started on his travels through Old Mexico. Finally he came 
to a mountain. There he met a mountain-lion, who asked, "Where 
are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going to Old Mexico to 
marry the king's daughter. I am going to shear his sheep." The 
mountain-lion said, "May I go with you?" The boy accepted his 
offer, and they went on together. After some time he met a bear, 
who asked, "Where are you going?" The boy replied, "I am going 
to Old Mexico to marry the king's daughter. I am going to shear his 
sheep." The bear said, "May I go with you?" The boy said, 
"Come along!" and they went on. After some time they met a wild- 
cat, who asked, "Where are you going? " He said, **I am going to Old 
Mexico to marry the king's daughter. I am going to shear his sheep." 
—"May I go with you?" The boy said, "Come along!" After 
they had gone some time, they met a wolf, who asked, "Where are 
you going?" — "I am going to Old Mexico to marry the king's 
daughter." — "May I come along?" The boy accepted him, and 
they went on westward. The boy was carrying some sacred meal. 
Every now and then he would swallow a little of it, but he did not 
eat anything else. Every night they camped, and in the morning they 
went on. 

On the fourth day they reached the top of a large mountain. 
There the mountain-lion said, "To-morrow morning at sunrise we 
shall reach the king's house." They camped, and early the following 

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78 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

morning the animals called the boy. They said» ''Now you must 
have a name. How shall we call you?" None of the animals knew 
how to call him. After some time the wolf said, " I shall give you a 
name. Sit down on top of the mountain ! When your father the Sun 
rises, I shall call you. Then answer!" The boy sat down on the top 
of the mountain and looked eastward. When the sun rose, the wolf 
shouted, "My son, lAla Blanco!" The boy replied, "What do you 
want? I like that name." Then they went down the mountain. 
At the foot of the mountain the animals said, "We shall stay here. 
You goon!" 

Early in the morning UUa Blanco arrived at the king's house. He 
saw that the people had tied together the feet of the sheep and were 
shearing them. Some were shearing five sheep, others six sheep. 
He looked into the corral and saw the foreman shearing the sheep. 
While LSla Blanco was standing there, the foreman turned around and 
saw him. He asked, "What do you want? Do you want some work? 
What can you do?" — "I can help you shear the sheep." The boy 
entered the corral, and they gave him a rope to tie up the sheep. 
He, however, took a sheep between his knees and sheared it. Then 
he caught another one and did the same. In one hour he had sheared 
many sheep. Then the foreman went to the king and told him 
about it. He said, "Come and look at this boy!" The king came, 
and said, "You are a good workman. You can shear sheep well." 
Then six flocks of sheep were driven into the corral, and he sheared 
them. The king asked, "What is your name?" The boy replied, 
"My name is LSlla Blanco." — "I never heard of such a name," 
said the king. The boy continued, and sheared many sheep. One 
flock after another was driven into the corral, and he sheared them all. 
He succeeded in shearing the six thousand sheep all in one day. Then 
he went to the king's house. The king's daughter brought him his 
supper; but he said, "I am not hungry." She urged him to eat, but 
he refused. He staid in the house, and the king's daughter wanted 
to marry him. She said, " I should like to have you for my husband." 
But he refused her, and said, "Wait a while." He said, "It is too 
warm for me in the house. I shall sleep outside." He carried his bed 
to the corral, and put it down among the sheep and pigs. The follow- 
ing morning at breakfast-time the people looked for him, but could 
not find him. His bed in the corral was empty. Finally they found 
him lying among the pigs, where he had slept. They said, "Get up! 
Breakfast is ready." He, however, swallowed a pinch of sacred meal; 
and when the king's daughter invited him to eat, he refused. She 
said, "You must eat something!" but he replied, "I am not hungry." 

After some time the king's daughter asked for wood for her fire. 
He went out and carried wood for her. He put the wood into the 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 79 

stove and helped her cook. After some time she saw the people 
going into the corral. He asked, "What are they doing there?" 
She said, ** I do not know. Maybe they are marking father's cattle." 
He said, " I shall go and see." She wanted him to stay, but he refused. 
Many irons were in the fire, and the people branded the steers and 
marked their ears. There was one wild steer of which the people 
were very much afraid. They asked the boy whether he would mark 
the steer. He said, "I can do it." They told him to mount a large 
white horse and to catch the steer. "No," he replied, I cannot ride: 
the horse might fall, and the steer might gore me." He went into the 
corral. The steer was pawing the ground. Then he talked to him, 
spit on him, took him by the horns and threw him. He called one of 
the men to come with a hot iron and to brand the steer on the side. 
The people became angry, and said, "You branded him on the wrong 
side. You must brand him on the left side." — "No," said lAla 
Blanco, "that is wrong; this side is better." He continued, and 
branded many cattle. He finished this work in one afternoon. Then 
he went home. 

When the king saw the strength and ability of LUla Blanco, he 
wanted him to marry his daughter; but the young man refused. The 
king said so him, "You must get my white horse in the southeast. 
For five years I have tried, but nobody has been able to catch it." 
L&la Blanco said, "Wait for four days. You must give me one man, 
who must drive a post into the ground four feet deep, and you must 
give me a long rope." Then the king bought a long rope and gave it 
to him. The king's daughter made biscuits, cakes, and pie for him; 
and she gave him meat and eggs, potatoes and coffee, and fork, knife, 
and spoon. He took these along. He camped at night, and after 
four daj^ he came to the lake; and there, a short distance away, he 
saw the horse sleeping. As he went along, he saw some gophers, 
who asked him, "Where are you going?" — "I want to catch the 
horse." The gophers said, "We will awaken the horse. Three times 
he will run around the lake; the fourth time he will pass close by you ; 
then catch him with your lasso. Stand between two cedar-trees." 
Then LAla Blanco made a fire and prepared breakfast, but he did not 
eat. Meanwhile the gophers made a burrow towards the horse. They 
came up under him and bit his side. The horse jumped up and ran 
once around the lake. UUa Blanco was holding the lasso in his left 
hand. Three times the horse ran around the lake. The fourth time 
it passed dose to the boy. He threw his lasso and caught it. The 
horse fell on its side, and he quickly hobbled its fore and hind legs. 
Then the gophers said to him, "Now you must get its saddle." L41a 
Blanco went to the lake, and there he met Old- Woman-Spider, who 
said to him, "Have you come?" — "Yes," he said, "I want to get the 

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8o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

saddle for the horse." She replied, "Come in here, step into this 
spider-web, and close your ej^es! I will let you down into the water, 
and don't open your ejres until you get there!" LAla Blanco obeyed, 
and he entered the water in the spider-web. Then he found himself 
in another world. When the spider-web stopped, he opened his eyes, 
stepped out, and turned to the east. There he saw a large white 
house, which he entered. In the house was a large white saddle, a 
white bridle, white shoes, spurs, saddle-bags, and a saddle-blanket and 
clothing, — trousers, shirt, and hat. He took all of these, put them 
in the spider-web, and shook the rope. Then Old-Spider-Woman 
pulled up the rope. When he came out of the water, Old-Spider- 
Woman said to him, "Now open your eyes!" She continued, "Take 
this!" When he looked to the north, he saw much gold, which he 
put into his saddle-bag. When he looked to the south, he saw much 
silver, which he put into the other saddle-bag. The Spider- Woman 
asked him, "Did you take everything?" — "Yes," he replied. Then 
he went to the horse. He saddled it, took off the hobbles, and made 
the horse rise. Then he said to the gophers, " Now eat all that I have 
cooked! I am not going to eat." The gophers thanked him. He 
mounted the horse, and it started running towards the lake. The 
gophers shouted, " Pull him back! " Then he pulled the left side of the 
reins, turned the horse's head, said good-by to the gophers, swung his 
hat, and rode home. The horse ran like lightning. At night he came 
home. He put the horse into the stable and took off the saddle. 
Then he went to the house. The king's daughter gave him supper, 
but he refused it. He said, "I have caught the horse," and told her 
all that had happened. 

On the other side of the street lived a poor Mexican who had raised 
a pig for his many children. He said, " Let us put our pig into the field 
in which LAla Blanco's horse is! The horse will kill the pig, and we 
are going to get money for it. Then we can buy something good to 
eat." They took their pig out and put it into the field. On the follow- 
ing morning it was found that the horse had killed it. Then the old 
man said to LAla Blanco, "Why don't you put your horse into the 
corral, so that it cannot kill my pig?" The king's daughter heard his 
complaint, and sent out to inquire what the trouble was. The poor 
Mexican said, "L&la Blanco's horse has killed my pig. He shall 
pay for it. Where is he? Call him out!" Then they called him 
out; but he said, "Tell the man to come in." When the poor man 
came in, he said, "Your horse has killed my pig: now you shall pay 
me." — "What do you want for it?" he asked. The poor man said, 
" Five dollars." Then the king's daughter opened her trunk and gave 
the five dollars to Lanco B141a. He replied, "No, I don't want your 
money; I shall pay him with my own money." He went to his 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 8i 

saddle-bag, and said to the poor man, "Five dollars is not enough for 
you, you need more." He took out two handfuls of gold and gave 
them to him, and he gave to his children silver money. He said to 
the children, "Save this money, so that you may have some when 
you are grown up." Then he turned to the old man, and said, "I 
know that you took your pig to my horse in order to have it killed. 
Why don't you come to me and ask me for money? I am perfectly 
willing to give it to you." Then the man was ashamed. The poor 
man said- to him, "Now you may keep my pig, skin it, and eat it." — 
" No," said Lanco Bl&la, " I do not want your pig. You can skin it, 
and eat it with your children." Then the poor man went home. He 
bought beans and sugar and flour for his children. He bought new 
furniture. He skinned his pig, and ate it with his children. 

Lftla Blanco still refused to sleep in the house, but went into the 
corral and slept with the pigs. 

One day another king sent a letter, and asked that Lanco Bl&la help 
him against a giant. Lanco Bl&la agreed. The king's daughter 
prepared food for him. He wrote to the king that he would be there 
in four days. He started, and arrived at the king's house. The king 
said to him, "When you go to fight the giant, I shall send my soldiers 
with you." He gave him six wagons of hay and com for his horse. 
" If you do not kill the giant and bring me his scalp, I am going to 
cut off your head. If you do kill him, then you may cut off my head, 
and those of my wife and daughter." Lanco Bl&la replied, "If you 
want that agreement, then let us make it in writing! and you, your 
wife, and your daughter must sign." The king did so. Then Lanco 
Bl&la started with the soldiers. After he had gone some distance, 
he left the soldiers behind, and camped by himself. Then his animals 
— the lion, the bear, the wild-cat, and the wolf — came and joined him. 
They said to him, "The house of the giant is one mile away from here. 
Tell your soldiers to go to sleep, because to-morrow they are going to 
fight." Lanco Bl&la did as the animals asked him, and after an hour 
all the soldiers were asleep. Then the lion told him, "Now kill all 
the soldiers! Cut off their heads!" The soldiers were in bed, alwaj^ 
two in one bed. With one stroke he cut off the heads of each pair of 
men, and he killed all their horses and mules. Then the animals told 
him to go to sleep. When day dawned, the lion said, "When the sun 
rises, call the giant." Lanco BldJa started, and stopped at an arroyo. 
Shortly after sunrise the giant came out of his house. He looked 
around, and Lanco Bl&la called him. The giant tried to find who had 
called him, and went around the mountain. Then Lanco Bl&la 
called again. The lion spoke to him, and said, "Go a little farther 
along! Maybe he will see you then." Lanco Bl&la went on, and 
shouted again. He called to the giant, "Come down! I want to fight 

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82 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

you." Then the giant saw him, and came. Lanco Bttla said, "You 
are a strong man. Let us see who is the stronger! If I am stronger 
than you, I shall kill you." They b^;an to wrestle. After a little 
while Lanco Bttla became tired, and called to his animals for help. 
Then they bit the giant. The bear tore open his side and tried to 
kiU him. The giant said, ''You cannot kill me. My heart is in my 
house. If you find it, then I shall die." The animals went into the 
house. There they saw a large hammer hanging over an anvil. 
Lanco Blftla asked the giant, "What is this?" He repUed, "If I do 
not succeed in killing a person who comes here, I take him into the 
house and kill him with this hammer." He placed a human bone on 
the anvil and released the hanmier, which shattered the bone. He 
ssud, "That is the way that I kill pec^le." At another place a large 
saw was hanging. They asked him, "What is this?" He replied, 
" If I do not succeed in killing people outside or with my hammer, I 
kill them with this saw." He placed a human bone imder the saw, 
pulled a rope, and the saw came down and cut the bone to pieces. 
In still another room he had a large stove. The animals asked, " What 
is this?" He said, " If I do not kill people before they come here, and 
if my hammer and my saw do not kill them, I put them in the stove. 
Then I roast them and eat them. Now look for my heart! If you 
do not find it, you cannot kill me. The animals looked for the heart, 
but they could not find it. And he said, "If you do not find it, you 
are going to die." 

In one of the rooms there was much yellow com. They searched 
among it. Among the com they found a coral as large as a fist. 
That was the giant's heart. When Lanco Bl&la took it up, the giant 

Then they went out. The lion said, "Now go and take all his 
cattle!" Lanco Bldla tumed around, and in a canyon near by he 
found horses. In still another one he found mules. He released all 
of these. All these animals were cannibals. He told them, "From 
now on, eat grass and yucca and bmsh, but do not eat human beings!" 
Then he went back to his animals. The lion said to him, "Now we 
have done our work. Tell us where to go." Lanco Blftla said to him, 
"Go northward, up the mountain, and kill deer, which shall be your 
food." — "Thank you," said the lion, and went away. Then the bear 
asked him, "Where shall I go?" — "Go northward and live on the 
high mountains, and eat black ants, weeds, and roots." He said to 
the wild-cat, "Go southward and live on rabbits." To the wolf he 
said, "Go to the east; kill antelopes, eat their flesh, and drink their 
blood." Then the animals left him. 

The giant, however, came back to life; but he was blind, and could 
not find the door of his house, While he was stumbling about, he fell 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 83 

into the door of his stove. The wood in the stove was burning, and 
his body was consumed. His heart burst, and a large fire came out 
of the mountain. 

Lanco Bl&la was riding back to the king's house. The scalp of the 
giant was dangling from his arm. He travelled as fast as he could. 
Suddenly he saw the fire from the mountain pursuing him and coming 
nearer and nearer. He threw a comb back over his shoulder. It was 
transformed into a large lake, which detained the fire. Gradually, 
however, it found its way around the lake. When it came near again, 
Lanco Bl&la threw a hairbrush back over his shoulder. It was trans- 
formed into a canyon and mesas, and it took the fire a long time to pass 
these. When it came near again, he threw his sword down, which 
became a long river. After some time the fire crossed the river too. 
Then Lanco BI^ said, "I do not know what to do now." Then his 
horse said to him, "Ask your father to help you." Then he took a 
dollar gold-piece, wet it in his mouth, and held it up to the sun. He 
asked him for help. At once a cloud came down; and when the fire 
came near him, a heavy rain poured down, which extinguished the 
fire. Then he filled his hands with water four times, and gave it to his 
horse to drink; and he himself also drank four times from his hands. 

In the afternoon he reached the king's house. When he arrived 
there, he asked one of the servants to call out the king. He said to 
him, " Here is the giant's scalp. Now I am going to kill you. I am go- 
ing to cut off your head." He told him that the giant had killed all the 
soldiers, and that they were not worth anything. The king replied, 
" I have lost my life." Lanco Blila said to him, ** Now look up to the 
sun for the last time! Soon you are going to die." The king looked 
up, and cried. Lanco Bl&la took hold of his head. He took a large 
knife and pretended that he was about to cut his throat. Then the 
king said, "Wait a moment! Keep me as your slave. Let me work 
for you! I will cut wood for you and do whatever you tell me." — 
"That is good," said Lanco Bl&la. "Then I am not going to kill you." 
The king called his wife, and Lanco Bl&la threatened to kill her; but 
she also offered to work and wash for him. She said, " I do not want 
to die, because my husband is foolish." Then they called their 
daughter. She wept, and said, "Do not cut off my head! rather 
marry me!" Lanco Biaia replied, " I have a wife." — "That does not 
matter, you might as well have two wives." — "If you are willing to 
treat my wife as a sister, I will take you." Then he took the king, his 
wife, and his daughter along to the other king's house. He went 
ahead, and they walked behind him. When he arrived at his house, 
he took the saddle off his horse, and he asked his new wife to take 
it into the house. He said to her, " If you cannot lift it, you are no 
longer my wife." She tried to lift it, but it was too heavy. Then 

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84 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Lanco BI41a said, *' You are weak» I don't want you." He lifted the 
saddle and carried it in. Then his new wife said, "Let me carry your 
saddle-blanket!" — **No," he replied, "you are too weak;" and he 
himself carried it into the house. Then he said to his new wife, 
"You are too bad, you try to kill people. You must not do so. If a 
man wants to marry you, why don't you take him? My wife is soon 
going to come." 

Then the first king's daughter, his wife, arrived. He showed her the 
giant's scalp. She cooked for him, and now he ate. For five years 
he staid with his wife. Then he went back to the White Mountains. 
When he arrived on top of the mountain, he sat down near the spring 
at which he had originated. The Sun came down and asked him what 
he had done, and he told him everything that had happened. The Sun 
said, "I am glad to hear this. Now the Mexicans are going to be 
better. They will not act as they have done heretofore." He took 
the boy and shot him back into the spring from which he had come. 


A long time ago a Mexican priest lived in Zuiii. A Mexican girl 
cooked for him. One morning after she had prepared breakfast, she 
called the priest; and while he was sitting at the table with the girl, 
he said to her, "You are going to give birth to a child." — "No," she 
said, " that is not true." The priest continued, " You are going to have 
a wise son." The girl replied, "You are no seer. How do you know 
what is going to happen ? " — "I know it," he retorted. She, however, 
laughed at him, and would not believe him. However, after a month 
the young woman gave birth to a boy. She hid the baby in a trunk. 
Then she washed herself, put on new clothing, and prepared the 
breakfast for the priest. When the priest was sitting at the table, the 
infant knocked against the trunk with his feet; and the priest asked, 
"What is in that trunk?" The young woman replied, "Maybe it is 
a cat." The priest did not say anything. After a little while the 
noise was heard again, and he asked again, "What is in that trunk?" 
The young woman replied, "It is a cat." He, however, said, "That 
is no cat, it is a child. Take him out ! " The young woman asked him, 
"How do you know that?" The priest repeated, "Never mind! I 
know it. Take him out!" Then she opened the trunk, and the child 
was standing there. He looked like a six-year-old child. He was 
standing, and holding with his hands to the sides of the trunk. The 
priest said, "You are a wise child." The boy grew up quickly; and 
one day the priest said to him, "Stand in the doorway." While the 
boy was standing there, looking out of the house, the priest went 
quietly up to him and suddenly clapped his hands, in order to frighten 

» See Boltc und Polfvka« i : aa. , ^^^1^ 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 85 

the boy. The child, however, was not afraid. "Indeed," said the 
priest, "he is a boy without fear." He said to the young woman, 
" I'll bet that he will not have the courage to go at midnight to church 
to ring the bells. If he does so, I will pay you much money." The 
boy heard it, and said, " I am not afraid. If I win, you shall give me 
an undershirt and drawers, trousers and stockings, a hat, and a ker- 
chief to tie over my hat, a mule and saddle, and an axe, canteen, pan, 
cup, knife and fork, and also give me some bacon and potatoes. If I 
lose, then you may have all that my mother has, and you can keep 
the money that you owe her." They made the bet in writing, and 
signed it. Sunday night the boy wanted to go to the church; but his 
mother said, "No, first go to sleep, and do not start until twelve 
o'clock." The boy lay down and slept. During this time the priest 
went to the churchyard and took a body out of a grave. He carried it 
up the ladder of the steeple, placed it there, and he said to the dead 
man, "When the boy comes to ring the bells, frighten him. Do not 
let him pass." Then he went home. 

A little before twelve o'clock the mother called the boy; and she 
said to him, "Now go and ring the bells." He put on his hat, and 
tied the kerchief around it. He went up the ladder as quickly as he 
could. When he had almost reached the top of the church, he saw 
somebody on the ladder. He said, "Who are you?" Then the dead 
one let a green light shine from his eyes, his nose, and his mouth, and 
tried to frighten the boy. He, however, said, " Doesn't that look nice? 
Let me see it once more!" And again the g^reen light shone from the 
dead man's face. The boy said, "That is remarkable. How do you 
do that? Let me see it once more!" He made him repeat this four 
times. Then he said, "Now go out of my way! I have to go up to 
ring the bells." The dead man said, " Never mind ! I will make room 
for you. You can pass by me." — "No," said the boy, "maybe you 
will push me down." Then the dead one said, " No, I only wanted to 
frighten you; but you do not know any fear." The boy asked, "Who 
sent you here?" — "The priest did. He told me to frighten you. 
Come up here! I am not going to do you any harm." But the boy 
mistrusted him, and said, "Maybe you will throw me down. Come 
down, or I am going to kill you with my axe." — "Where is your axe?" 
— "I have it at home." The boy jumped down the ladder and ran 
home. When the priest saw him coming, he said, "He did not ring 
the bells. He is afraid. Now you have lost your money." The boy, 
however, merely asked his mother, "Where is my axe?" She took it 
out of the comer, and said, "What do you want to do with it?" He 
replied, "I want to kill some one with it." He ran back to the 
church; and the dead man asked him, "Where is your axe?" The 
boy, however, simply took it and cut up the dead man. He merely 

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86 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

said, ''I am already dead, I cannot die twice." But the boy passed 
without hindrance, and rang the bells. When the priest heard it, 
he said, '' I knew he was a wise boy. He is not afraid. He is ringing 
the bells." 

When the boy came home, he said to his mother, "Call the priest, 
and let him pay us." His mother said, ''Oh, he will pay us to- 
morrow." — "No," retorted the boy, "I want to have the money 
now." The priest heard him, and gave him the money that he had 

When the boy grew up, he said to his mother, " Make some bread for 
me. I am going out to look for work." His mother baked bread for 
him; and on the following morning, after breakfast, he asked the 
priest for a mule. The priest took him to the corral where he kept his 
mules and horses. He said to him, "Take this small mule. It is the 
best one I have. When you are grown up, you may take a bigger one." 
The priest saddled the mule, and said to it, "At noon, when the boy 
takes dinner, kick him once and kill him." The mule asked, "Where 
shall I kick him?" The priest said, "Kick him in the testicles." 
Then the priest put on the saddle, and he gave to the boy a canteen 
and bread and whatever he needed. The boy mounted the mule, and 
rode to Calistea Canyon. He rode up some distance, and at noon he 
started a fire and prepared his dinner. He took the saddle off the 
mule and tried to hobble it. Then the mule put back its ears. The 
boy said, "Maybe you want to kick me." — "Yes," said the mule, 
" I am going to kick you in the testicles." — "Who told you to do so?" 
— "The priest did." Then the boy said, "Wait until I put on my 
new clothing." He put on his overcoat, and tied his kerchief over his 
hat. Then he tried again to hobble the mule. The mule kicked and 
hit him in the testicles. Then the boy fell over in a faint. After a 
while he woke up; and the mule said to him, "Now you may hobble 
me." — " No," said the boy, "you are going to kick me again." The 
mule replied, "No, the priest told me to kick you only once, and so 
I am not going to kick you again." Then the boy hobbled the mule. 
He made coffee and fried bacon and potatoes. Then he ate dinner. 
After dinner he took off the hobbles, and said to the mule, " Now I 
am going to ride you. I am tired." — "No," said the mule, "I 
am going to run into the arroyo and throw you. Then you will 
die. Nobody has ever ridden me." — "Oh," said the boy, "if 
you try to leave the trail, I am going to beat you with my 
stick." — "Well," said the mule, "try it." Then the boy buttoned 
up his overcoat, and tied his kerchief over his hat, and mounted. 
The mule tried to leave the trail, but the boy beat it until it turned 
back. When the mule tried to turn to the left, he beat its head on the 
left-hand side; and when the mule bucked, he knocked it right on the 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZuHi. 87 

head. Finally the mule fell down. The boy said, ''What is the 
matter with you? I think you are hungry," and he offered the mule 
biscuit. But the animal did not stir. The boy said, " It looks to me 
as though you were dead." Then he cut off four posts with forked 
tops, and two long poles. He put up the posts, and laid the long poles 
across them. Then he took the mule's fore-legs and placed them over 
one of the long poles, and he took the hind-legs and put them over the 
other poles, so that the mule was hanging in the air. Then he said, 
" Now I am going to ride you," and he sat down on its back. He made 
a whip and beat its feet, but the mule did not stir. Then he beat the 
left side, and the mule b^;an to stir a little. Then he struck again the 
other side, and the mule stirred a little more. "Soon you are going to 
wake up," said the boy. "Now, look out!" When he struck the 
fourth time, the mule jumped off from the poles and ran the whole 
day without stopping. Finally the boy became very tired, and said, 
"Stop, you fool! stop! I am hungry. I want to eat." The mule re- 
plied, "I am going to run on until I come to a spring where there is 
nice grass. Let us eat there!" The boy wanted to stop, but the 
mule ran on, and after some time they arrived at the spring. Then 
the boy jumped off and started a Are. He made coffee, fried bacon, 
and ate. After dinner they went on. 

In the afternoon they came to a mountain. There he saw a number 
of Mexican men coming from the southwest. He met them at a 
crossing of the roads. They asked him, "Where are you going?" 
He replied, "I am looking for work." The men said, "We are also 
looking for work. Let us go on together!" He asked them to put 
their loads on the mule, and they went on. When it was near sunset, 
they reached the Rio Grande. The men were going to camp there; 
but the boy said, " No, let us cross the river to-night! " The men said, 
" No, it is too late." But the boy insisted. Then the men got ready. 
They took off their shoes and trousers, and began to wade across the 
river. While they were in the water, the sun set. Meanwhile the 
boy was still on the eastern side of the river. They said to him, "You 
are too slow, you will never get across to-night." When it was dark, 
the boy started. He sent the mule ahead; but since it was dark, he 
lost it, and was unable to find it. He called the mule, and it answered 
from the east. Then he said to the mule, " I am not going to drive 
you across, I am going to ride you across." He mounted, and rode 
into the water. Meanwhile it became quite dark; and he said to the 
mule, "Let us stop here in the water until to-morrow morning!" — 
" How can we do that? " asked the mule. " I am going to sleep sitting 
on your back, and you sleep standing in the water," said the boy. 
"Let us do so!" said the mule. 

When the boy awoke the following morning, they went on and 
crossed the river. There the boy saw a white house. The two men 

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88 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

who had accompanied him had gone into the white house the night 
before. When the boy rode near, he saw a number of people who 
carried their dead bodies out of the house. They took them to the 
Plaza; and the boy asked, "What has happened to these people? 
How did they die?" And when he came near, he recognized his com- 
panions. The people told him that the house was haunted, and that 
whoever staid there over night was found dead on the following morn- 
ing. The boy, however, had no fear, and rode his mule to the white 
house. He took off its saddle and hobbled it. Then he entered. 
The house was entirely empty. He looked around and found a fire- 
place. The house was quite dean. Then the boy said, " I shall make 
a fire here, and I am going to sleep next to the fireplace." He carried 
the saddle into the house, and started the fire. The people in the 
town saw smoke coming out of the chinmey. When the governor 
heard about this, he said to his tenienie: "Go and see who is there! 
Tell him to come out. If he sta}^ in that house over night, we shall 
have to bury him to-morrow morning." The tenienie went to the 
house and found the boy. He told him that everybody who slept in 
the house was killed; but the boy replied, "Why should I die in this 
good house? I am going to stay here." And the teniente replied, 
"If you insist, you will be dead to-morrow morning." — "No," said 
the boy, "I am not going to die." He could not be induced to leave 
the house. In the evening he fried potatoes and bacon. When his 
supper was ready, he placed the dishes on the floor. He poured out his 
coffee and began to eat. Then he heard above in the chimney a noise 
which sounded like wind. The boy said, " I think a gale is coming up." 
But presently a man's shoulder and arm fell through the chimney. 
The boy said, "What does that mean? Whoever has done that?" 
And he threw the arm and shoulder into a comer, and re-aitanged 
his fire. After a little while he heard again a noise, and said, "Who is 
coming now?" Then the right shoulder and arm of a man fell into 
the fire. "Why do they always fool me?" said the boy, and he 
threw the arm and the shoulder into the comer. He arranged his fire, 
and continued to eat. Soon he heard a new noise. "Who is coming 
now?" said he. "Soon we shall have enough people here." Then 
the right leg of a person fell down into the fire, and almost extinguished 
it. The boy became angry, and said, "Who is the stupid fellow who 
throws these bones into my fire?" He took the leg and threw it into 
the comer, and re-arranged his fire. It was not long before the noise 
began again, and the left leg of a person fell down into the fire. He 
threw it into the corner, and re-arranged his fire. When it just began 
to blaze up again, the head and tmnk of a person fell down. The boy 
threw them into the comer, and started his fire again. Suddenly he 
saw a large Indian standing in the comer of the room. He said. 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from ZufU. 89 

"You are a brave boy. I thought you would die of fright when the 
bones came down the chimney. Other people who see it die." The 
boy replied, "Well, they must be very stupid." Then the tall man 
said to him, "Now we will wrestle. One of us must die, and the one 
who survives shall own the house." The boy said, "Wait until after 
I have eaten. When I am hungry, I am weak." The boy ate as 
though nothing had happened; and after a while the large man said, 
"Are you done now?" — "Wait a little while. First I have to put 
away my dishes." Then he put on his overcoat, and tied his kerchief 
over his hat, and said, " Now I am ready!" and they began to wrestle. 
The man was so large, that the boy could not put his arms around him; 
and he said, "Wait a little while, I have to stand on my saddle." 
Secretly he pulled out his little axe. Then he said to the man, " Now 
I am ready!" When the man put his arms around him, the boy took 
his axe and struck him with it, and the large man fell. He said to the 
boy, "You are fortunate. Now the house belongs to you. Here are 
the keys, but do not open the doors until to-morrow morning. If 
you do so to-night, you will die. When you are dead, the people 
will come to-morrow morning to bury you. When they carry you out, 
the priest will stand on one side; and after he has thrown the soil 
into the grave, then get up and come into the house through the east 
door." Then he gave him the ke}^. Immediately after this a whirl- 
wind came and carried away the large man. The boy sat down to 
take a rest. Then he made his bed and went to sleep. He slept until 
midnight. Then he woke up, and said, "The big man is a liar, I am 
not dead." He went to sleep again, and woke up again before sunrise; 
and again he said, "The big man is a liar. Why should I die?" 
He woke up again shortly after sunrise, turned over, and went to sleep 
again; but when he went to sleep the fourth time, he died. 

In the morning the people from the town came to the house, and 
they found him dead. They said, "Let us dig a grave and bury him ! " 
After they had dug a grave, a number of men came and carried him 
out. They covered him with a blanket, and carried him to the grave- 
yard. They put the body down into the grave, and threw soil on 
top of it. After a while the priest asked, "Are you done now?" and 
the people replied in the affirmative. Then they went away. Imme- 
diately the boy arose and ran back into the house. When the people 
saw it, they were surprised, and said, "Who is this boy running into 
the house?" He prepared his breakfast, and after that he opened all 
the rooms. In one of the rooms he found a bed. A sword lay on it, 
and under the bed was much money, — silver, gold, and paper. 
Then he opened another room, which was full of all kinds of medicines. 
He had a small cut on his hand, and decided to try the medicine. He 
put some on it, and at once the cut was healed up. He went into 

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90 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

another room, and found a bay horse, a carriage, com and wheat, 
oats, and a brush. Then he took his mule and put it into the stable 
and gave it to eat. 

After some time the people of the town had a celebration. He 
asked himself, "Shall I go there?*' He cut off his left leg with his 
sword. Then he applied the medicine to the wound, and it healed 
up at once. He carried his left leg in his hands. He put on poor 
clothing. His coat and his trousers were torn, but his pockets were 
full of money. He went where horse-races and foot-races were being 
held, and where a cock-fight was going on. " Is there anybody who 
can run very fast? " — ** Yes," said the people. He bet a thousand dol- 
lars against the runner. The other man started ; and when he was way 
ahead, the boy began to jump. He moved along in somersaults on 
his hands and his one leg, and reached the goal first. The people 
asked, "Who are you? What is your name?" And the boy replied, 
"I am Djamisa." The people said, "How can we get our money 
back? Let us have a horse-race! He cannot possibly ride with his 
one leg. Let us ask him whether he will run a race ! " The boy agreed, 
and they gave him a large saddle-horse. The boy staked all his 
money against that of another man. The horse which he was to ride 
was very wild, and six men had to hold it. He took the rope and spoke 
to the horse. Then he put his fingers into the horse's nose and on its 
ears, and the horse stood there quietly. The people said, "Formerly, 
when anybody touched the horse, it kicked. Certainly we are going 
to lose now." The people told Djamisa to saddle the horse; but he 
said that he would ride bareback without a bridle, and only with a 
rope and a halter. He made a noose in his rope, and put it on the 
horse's neck. He let the rope drag behind, jumped on the horse, which 
started at once. It ran about in circles, and the boy came back to the 
people. Then he called the owner of the horse to sit behind him. 
He said, "The horse won't do you any harm. If it should kick you, 
I will give you all my money." Then the other jumped on the horse, 
and the two rode around the town. When they came back, the boy 
told the owner, "Now this horse has been broken. If it should ever 
kick again, I will give you all my money." 

After a while Djamisa asked the people, "Where does the king 
live?" One man said to him, "Do you see the soldiers near that 
cotton wood- tree? The king's house is near by." He went there. 
When he came to the cottonwood-tree, the boy left his property in the 
branches of the tree. He reached the soldier, who forbade him to 
go on. Djamisa said, "I came to see the king." — "You cannot see 
him." — "Why not?" — "People must pay much money if they 
want to see him. It costs a thousand dollars." — "Well, I will give 
you a thousand dollars." He paid the money to the soldier, who 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 91 

allowed him to pass. In the first room of the house, he found another 

guard, who would not allow him to pass. The boy said, "I came to 

see the king." — "You have to pay five hundred dollars if you want 

to see him." The boy paid it, and was allowed to pass. In the 

following room there was another guard, who demanded two hundred 

and fifty dollars; and after the boy had paid him, he came to a fourth 

one, who demanded one hundred and fifty dollars. Finally the king's 

cook came out.' The boy said to him, " I want to see the king," and the 

cook went in to call him. Djamisa was talking to the king when he was 

called to dinner. Djamisa asked him, "How much must I pay you in 

order to be allowed to eat with you ? " The king said, " Fifty dollars." 

He paid the money, and the king and Djamisa ate together. In the 

afternoon he said to the king, " Now I must go home, but I am going to 

come back to see you." The king said, " I should like to know who he is. 

He must have a great deal of money. He shall marry my daughter." 

He sent out his soldiers to search for him. Meanwhile Djamisa had 

put on his leg. He wore overalls, and carried a small bundle on his 

shoulder. Thus he walked across the street. The soldiers asked him, 

'* Did you see the man who visited the king?" — "How does he look?" 

— "He has only one leg." — "Which one?" — "The right one." 

The boy said that he did not know the man. The soldiers went back, 

and he continued on his way. He walked around the town to his 

house, and there he staid for several days. Then he went back to the 

king. The king asked him whether he would help him find the boy, 

and he asked five dollars a day as pay. The king's soldiers had looked 

through all the houses in the town without finding the man. Then 

the king thought, "Maybe he lives in the white house." The soldiers 

went there. Then Djamisa dressed himself like a soldier, and stood 

guard in front of the house, and did not permit the soldiers to go in. 

He asked them, "What do you want?" They said, "We want to see 

whether the man lives here who dined with the king." — "You cannot 

see him. It costs too much money. You have to pay a thousand 

dollars." The soldiers paid a thousand dollars, and the boy repeated 

everything that had been done to him at the king's house. Finally 

the soldiers reached him, and delivered the king's letter. He read it, 

and said, "I do not want to marry the king's daughter." He wrote 

an answer, and sent it back through the soldiers. They took the letter 

to the king; and when he had read it, he replied, insisting again that 

Djamisa should marry the king's daughter. The soldiers took the 

letter there, but again he declined. The Idng sent three letters; and 

when the boy continued to decline, the king finally wrote, " If you do 

not marry my daughter, I am going to put you into prison." Then 

Djamisa replied, saying that he would marry the king's daughter the 

following week on Monday. When the king received this letter, he 

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92 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

ordered the cooks to prepare for a great feast. They killed cattle 
and made cakes and pies, and after a week the marriage was celebrated. 
Djamisa took the king's daughter to live with him in the white house. 
He was very rich. He had many sheep and cattle, and herdsmen to 
take care of the herds. 

One day his wife received a letter from her mother, who had died 
some time before, and who was now in heaven. She wrote to her that 
a festival was going to be celebrated in heaven, and she asked her and 
her husband to come. Djamisa did not want to go, but finally he was 
persuaded. For four years he and his wife staid in heaven. When 
he came back, his sheep and cattle, horses and mules, were scattered, 
and he was quite poor. 

6. jos6 Hoso (juAn del oso).^ 

In the evening, in San Felipe, a girl went to get water. When she 
was at the spring, a bear came and carried her up the mountains to 
Cip'apulima, where he put her into a cave. The people searched for 
her, but they could not find her. Her mother looked for her in every 
house and among all her relatives, but there was no trace of the girl. 
In the evening her brothers took torches and went to the spring. 
There they found her water-jar filled with water, and they discovered 
her tracks and those of the bear. They followed them; but after a 
short time they lost the tracks, and could not find them again. On 
the following morning many people went up the mountains to look 
for her, but they could not find her. 

The bear married her. In the morning, when he went out, he put 
a large rock in front of the cave and shut her in. The young woman 
was unable to lift the rock, and had to stay inside. After some 
time she had a child. She continued to live in the cave, and the 
bear did not allow her to go out. He fed her on venison, and she 
became very thin and weak. Then the bear said, " I have to get com 
and wheat for you." He went to San Felipe, where he took some com 
and wheat, which he gave to her. He stole a grinding-stone and a 
muller, and gave them to her. Then she made bread. One night the 
bear went again to the village, and stole a jar and everything that 
was necessary for cooking. Then the woman made stew of venison 
and corn for herself and her child. 

Her son grew up. One day, when the bear was out, he asked his 
mother, *'Why do you always stay here in this dark cave?" She 
replied, "Because your father stole me when I was a young girl. 
He threatened to kill me if I did not go along." The boy asked, 

1 Told to Nick by an old Zufii. See Bolte und Poljvka. a : 297; F. Panzer. Unter- 
suchungen zur deutschen Heldensage. i : 1-246. 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 93 

"Where is your home, mother?" — **My poor boy, your grandfather 
is Cazique in San Felipe." Then the boy said, " Let us go there! " — 
"How can we go? I cannot move the stone that closes this cave." 
— "That stone is not heavy. I can lift it." — "Let us wait until to- 
morrow, but don't speak to your father about it." Then the woman 
made many tortillas. When the bear came home, he asked her, 
"Why do you make so many tortillas?" She replied, "Because our 
boy eats so many. If I make a few only, he will not have enough." 
The bear did not reply. On the following morning, as soon as he was 
gone, the woman put on her moccasins, wrapped up the tortillas, 
the boy pushed away the rock, and they went out. They started for 
San Felipe. When the bear had gone some distance, he thought, 
" I do not know why my wife made so many tortillas. I believe that 
she and the boy intend to run away." He turned back, and saw that 
the cave was open and that they had escaped. He ran in pursuit, 
intending to kill them. After some time the woman became tired. 
Her boy said, " Mother, you must go on ! Maybe father is pursuing us." 
He turned back, and saw the bear coming. He said to his mother, 
"You see, he is pursuing us. I am sure he wants to kill us." His 
mother replied, "Why did you tell us to run away? Now we must 
die." The boy, however, encouraged her, and said, "Go ahead! I 
am going to wait for him here. I am going to kill him." A cotton- 
wood-tree was standing near by. He broke off a stick and struck it 
against a rock. The stick broke. Then he took another stick and 
tried it, and it was so strong that it did not break. The boy was 
left-handed and very strong. When the bear came up to him, he 
struck him on the side of the head and thus killed him. Then he went 
to his mother and told her that he had killed the bear. He said, 
"Now let us go on slowly!" 

They went along, and finally they arrived at San Felipe. The 
people recognized the woman. They led her into the house, and asked 
her what had happened to her. Then she told the whole story. 

The boy was very strong, and he beat all the children. The people 
called him Jos^ Hoso. His mother sent him to a Mexican school. 
He always carried an iron hammer, which was very heavy. He struck 
the children with it, and therefore he was put into prison and was 
to be killed. When he heard that the people intended to kill him, 
he broke the bars in the window of the prison, jumped out, and ran 
away. He went far away into another country. 

Finally he arrived at a Mexican town. In this town lived a king 
whose daughters had been stolen. All the people were searching for 
them. The king said to Jos6, "If you find my daughters, you shall 
marry one of them; and, besides that, I am going to pay you much 
money. It is four years since I lost my daughters." Jos6 said to 

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94 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

the king, "Get for me a long, heavy rope, and an axe." The king 
bought these, and gave them to Jos^. The king also gave him food to 
take along on his travels. Then Jos6 went southward. There he met 
a Mexican who carried wood on his mule. The Mexican asked him, 
"Where are you going?" Jos6 replied, "I am looking for the king's 
daughters." — "How much is he going to pay you?" — "He is going 
to give me one of his daughters in marriage." — " Let me go with you ! " 
— "Well, come along! Take your wood home and come back. I 
shall wait for you." — "No," said the man, "when my mule goes 
home, my children will unload the wood. I do not need to go with 
her." Then the two went on. After some time they met a man who 
also was carrying wood. The man asked them, " Where are you going? " 
They replied, "We are looking for the king's daughters." The man 
said, "I am going along with you." The three went on together. 
They came to a large mountain in which there was a deep pit. Then 
they cut a large post and tied the rope to it; and Jos6 said to the others, 
" I am going to climb down. You may follow me." He took hold of 
the rope and climbed down the pit. When he was half way down, 
the rope was at an end. He was standing on a stick which had been 
tied to the end of the rope, and he swung himself to and fro. Finally 
the rope struck the side of the pit, and he jumped off and stood on a 
narrow shelf of rock. Then he told the two Mexicans to come down 
too. They let themselves down along the rope, and stood with him 
on the narrow shelf. Finally Jos6 jumped down, and the Mexicans 
followed him. When they landed at the bottom of the pit, they found 
themselves in another world. There was a trail, which they followed, 
and finally they came to a house. They went in ; and in the house 
they found the king's daughters. An old man, Mohapate (Huevoe 
glandes), was sitting there with spread legs. He had enormous testi- 
cles. When he saw the visitors, he became very angry; and when 
they came in, his testicles began to swell up. They became larger and 
larger, and filled the whole house. He was trying to choke the three 
men, but J oak took his iron and struck him with it. Then the man 
died. They went into the inner room, and led out the king's daugh- 
ters. They took them to another town. There Jos6 saw much jew- 
elry, — ear-rings, chains, and bracelets of gold and silver. The people 
in the town said to him, "We will help you get some of the jewelry." 
On the following morning he started back for the king's house. 
When he came to the pit, he stepped into a basket which was tied to 
the end of the rope, and wanted to go up. Jos6 had his heavy iron 
bar, and therefore the people could not pull him out. The two 
Mexicans said, " Leave your iron bar here! It is too heavy." — " No", 
he said, "I am not going to do that." Then they said, "Wait down 
here! Let us go up first!" Then the Mexicans and the king's 

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Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zuni. 95 

daughters were pulled up, and they left him down below. Jos6 
waited for the basket to come back, but it did not come down again. 
Then he went back to the city in which he had seen the jewelry, and 
told the people what had happened to him. The people replied, 
"Wait! you will get the king's daughters and the money, anyway." 
They gave him a gray horse and a horn, and said to him, "If you need 
anything after you reach the king's house, call the horse, and we will 
send it to you, and also all the jewelry you want. When you are about 
two miles this side of the king's house, send the horse back." Then 
J066 mounted the horse and rode off. When he was near the king's 
house, he sent the horse back and walked towards the town. He 
did not go to his house, but crawled into a chicken-coop in which he 
lived. One day the king questioned him, and said, "What are you 
doing there?" He replied, "I am looking for work." — "What can 
you do?" — "I am a silversmith, and I can make jewelry." Then 
he took out some of the jewelry which the people had given him, and 
showed it to the king. The king said, "I shall show this to my 
daughters. Maybe they want some rings and ear-rings." The king 
gave Jos6 silver to make jewelry for his eldest daughter. Then 
Jos6 took his horn and went some distance away from the city. With 
his horn he called his horse. When he blew the horn, the people of 
the town in the pit brought him the jewelry. He mounted his horse 
and rode back to the dty. He gave the jewelry to the king's eldest 
daughter, and pretended that he himself had made it. On the follow- 
ing day the next eldest daughter of the Idng wanted to have some 
jewelry, and the same thing happened as before. 

The king's daughters were to be married to the Mexicans who had 
taken them back. The day before the marriage Jos6 went home. He 
changed his clothing, and took his iron hammer in his left hand. 
Then he went to the king's house. When the king saw him, he said, 
" You have gone out in vain. These two Mexicans have already found 
my daughters. Where have you been?" He replied, "I have been 
at home." — "I thought you went out to look for my daughters. " — 
"Yes, and I found them too." — "No, that is not true. The two 
Mexicans found them." Then Jos6 told him how he had met the two 
men carrying wood, and how they had gone with him; and he told the 
whole story, — how he had killed the old man, and how the Mexicans 
bad finally left him at the bottom of the pit. The king said, " Is that 
true? " — " Yes, your daughters know about it." Then the king asked 
his daughters. When the Mexicans saw Jos6, they were afraid, and 
did not dare to speak; and the king's daughters said now, "Yes, he 
found us, and he killed the old man." Then the Idng turned out the 
two Mexicans, because they had lied, and Jos6 married one of the 
king's daughters. That is the reason why Mexicans are always lying. 

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96 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

7. SANTU. 

It was in 1899, at the time when the Santu Dance is held behind the 
church. The chief, the governor, and the tenietUes were present. 
The Santu was standing on a table on blankets, and bo3rs and girls 
were dancing for him. It was in the afternoon, after dinner, when one 
of the tenientes nudged me, and said, "Blood is coming out of the 
Santu's head." Then I saw how a little swelling appeared at the 
temple of the head of the Santu, and a drop of blood came out. The 
face of the Santu changed color, and looked very pale, like that of a 
dead person. I thought at first that it was no blood. A hole ap- 
peared which was nearly an inch deep, and I thought that the paint 
was coming off because the image had been wet; but I put my finger 
on and smelted of it, and it smelled like blood. It looked as though the 
Santu had been shot. I felt very badly. This lasted a little while. 
Then suddenly the hole disappeared, and the Santu looked as before. 
He was no longer pale, but had his regular color, and his eyes were 
quite vivid. 

The dance continued for four days. This happened on the fourth 
day. The following night we were sitting in a house, and were talking 
about this matter. There were twelve men there, all principales. 

In the same year, during the harvest dance, the people were dis- 
tributing peaches, apricots, and other fruits. The people were shoot- 
ing with six-shooters, as was the custom at that time. Then they hit 
one boy in the shoulder, and my niece was hit in the abdomen. She 
died the following day. I believe the Santu wanted to tell us that this 
was going to happen. Nobody knows who fired the shots. Since 
that time the officers have forbidden shooting. If a person shoots, he 
is put into jail. 

The Mexicans call the Santu "Santu Linio." If a Mexican wishes 
to pray to him, the keeper of the Santu has to bring him out. The 
Mexican may pay him fifty cents or twenty-five cents; rich people, 
as much as five dollars; or they may give him some calico. This 
money is given to the sacristan. 

During the Santu Dance everybody pays him. The paying is not 
demanded by anybody; but the people, not only from Zufii, but also 
from other pueblos, give to the Santu whatever they like, money or 
candles. Whenever the Santu is exhibited, candles must be lighted 
for him. 

When a Mexican is sick and asks for the help of the Santu, the 
sacristan must bring him out, and the Mexican prays to him. The 
Santu is carried into the living-room, and candles are lighted. The 
Catholics and Americans do this, but not the ZufLi. 

In December, at the end of the year, the Santu is exhibited for eight 
dajrs in the house. Then the Zuiii make littie sheep out of clay, also 
pumpkins and ears of com. They bring these ^^j^ 

Tales of Spanish Provenience from Zufii. 97 

pay money to him. For eight dajrs these are left there in the house 
of the sacristan. After this time the people who made the clay figures 
take them away. They make a hole in the ground, in the house or 
in the corral, and bury the figures there. Then their com and their 
stock will increase. During this time also two candles are left burning 
next to the Santu. 

Note. — Nick says that the Mexicans instituted the office of governor, 
but he does not know the form of political organization that prevailed 
before that time. 


The Mexicans were plotting to Idll all the Zuni on Sunday after 
church. A young war-chief overheard them, and understood what 
they were talking about. Therefore he informed the chief, and at 
night a council was called. There the young war-chief told the as- 
sembled people that the Mexicans were planning to kill them. There 
were forty or fifty war-chiefs in the assembly. They decided to kill 
the Mexicans before they had a chance to attack them. 

On the following Sunday they hid their bows, arrows, and war-clubs 
under their blankets, and went to church. After the sermon, when the 
people were singing a Mexican song, the war-chiefs arose. Ten or 
fifteen of them stood next to the door, and they called the boys and 
girls, and told them to hurry out of church. When all were out, they 
shut the door and killed all the Mexicans. One man, a Mexican, ran 
into one of the adjoining rooms. There were ten or fifteen rooms on 
each side of the church. The priest was sitting on the altar at the 
feet of the Santu, and crossed himself. The war-chiefs did not attack 
him. They tied his hands on his back. The Mexican who had 
escaped into the adjoining room crept up the chinmey and made good 
his escape. 

After this had happened, the Zuni from all the seven towns left their 
pueblos and went up Com Mountain. 

When the people of the Rio Grande Pueblos heard what had hap- 
pened, they held a council. They had learned that the Mexicans were 
about to send an expedition against the Zuni, and the Rio Grande 
Pueblos were summoned to accompany them. One young man, a 
good runner from Laguna, ran with all speed to the Zuiii who were 
living on Com Mountain, and told them of the approaching war-party. 
The chief of the Zuni invited the runner in, and gave him to eat and 
to drink. He told him not to drink any of the water from the springs 
in the valley, because the water had been poisoned. He also advised 
him that the Laguna people, who were compelled to accompany the 
Spaniards, should hold juniper-branches in the mouth, and that then 

> The narrator, Nick, said that he had heard this etory first at Mesita. and then again 
at a council in Zufli. ^.^.^.^^^ ^^ LrrOOglc 

98 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

they would not attack them. Before the Laguna runner left, he 
promised to send word to Zudi ten days before the warriors should 

Ten days after this, six or eight people from Laguna came on their 
mules. They made a camp at the foot of Com Mountain. The Zufii 
chief sent down to inquire who they were. When the Laguna met 
them, they wept, because they thought that the Zuni were going to 
be killed, and told them that the Spaniards were coming with a large 
army. When the chief of the Zuni heard the message, he sent word to 
them, warning them not to drink, because all the springs had been 
poisoned. Then the members of the Shell Society went into their 
kiwa, in which they staid for eight da3rs. After eight days the Spanish 
army arrived. The soldiers were on horseback. They rode four 
abreast. They encamped at the place where the reservoir now is. 
After they had eaten, they attacked the mesa. The Zuni defended 
themselves with bows and arrows, while the Spaniards had muzzle- 
loading guns. At that time the head of the Shell Society came out 
of the kiwa. He had long hair. He was painted black around the 
eyes. His forehead and chin were painted white. He had eagle- 
down on his head. His body was painted red, and white lightning was 
painted on his clothing. He held a shell in his mouth. He had no 
bow and no other weapons. He stepped right to the edge of the cliff; 
and when the Spaniards shot at him, he just blew out of his mouth. 
Then the bullets could not hit him, and the soldiers tumbled about 
as though they were drunk. Blood flowed out of their eyes, nose, 
and mouth, and they died. Only a few were left. Then the Spaniards, 
with the people from the Rio Grande Pueblos, went back. 

After a month they came back again with a new army. The Laguna 
sent word again, telling them that the soldiers were coming. They 
made their camp at the same place as before. After they had eaten, 
they came to attack the Zuni. 

Then the priest, who had staid with the Zuni, said, "I will write a 

letter to them and tell them that you have not killed me.*' But he 

had no paper and no ink: therefore they took a rawhide, spanned it 

over a frame, and he" wrote on it with charcoal. He wrote, " I am still 

alive, but I have no clothing." Then they put a stone to the frame 

and threw it down. A soldier picked it up and carried it to the 

commander. He read it, and gave orders to the soldiers to stop 

fighting. They sent a priest's dress, paper, and ink to the father, and 

asked him to return with them to Mexico. He, however, replied, 

saying that he could not wear the dress of dead people; that he wanted 

to stay with the Zuiii and wear their clothes. Then the Zuni came 

down from the mountain, and the soldiers went back. 

Columbia University, 
Nbw York, N.V. ^ ^ 

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Reviews. 99 


Porto Rican Folk-Lore: D6cimas, Christmas Carols, Nursery Rhymes, 
and Other Songs. Collected by J. Alden Mason; edited by Aureuo 
M. EsPiNOSA. (Journal of American Folk-Lore, 31 : 289-450.) 

Prbvious to this time no collection of popular songs has ever been pub- 
lished from Porto Rico. A number of years ago Professor J uncos of the 
University of Porto Rico gathered considerable material; but he abandoned 
the idea of its publication because of its close correspondence with similar 
collections from Cuba, Santo Domingo, and Andalusia. Dr. Mason's col- 
lection is therefore a distinct contribution to our knowledge of the folk- 
lore of Spanish-speaking countries. 

It is noticeable that the songs gathered into Parts III and IV of Dr. 
Mason's collection have much more in common with those of other Spanish- 
speaking countries than have the dScimas in Parts I and II. The cradle- 
songs and nursery rhymes are traditional, and are found with little or no 
variation in Spain, Argentine, Chile, Cuba, New Mexico, and California. 
For example: Nos. 274-276 are heard in exactly this form throughout 
Spain; 315 and 329 substitute the name "Paco" for "Pepe;" 359 is sung 
throughout Spain to the same music, but with the refrain " La tarara sf, la 
tarara no," and the trahalengua 360 occurs throughout Spain and Cuba. 
Some of the dScitnas, also, are based on popular Spanish copies or songs. 
The introductory lines of No. 169, for instance, occur in an Aragonese 
copla of popular origin. Other dScimas are inspired by Spanish ballads. 
But the majority are distinctly of Porto- Rican origin, and reflect Porto- 
Rican thought and custom. Whether, however, these dScimas come from 
the true folk, and not rather from the lettered classes; and whether, there- 
fore, they may be strictly classed as folk-poetry, — is to be questioned. 

Dr. Mason tells us that he gathered his material from school-children, 
who are drawn almost altogether from the literate population of the towns, 
and not from the true folk, who live in the country or in the mountains, 
and who, since they can generally neither read nor write, preserve their 
dependence upon oral transmission for their learning and their amusements. 
The native Porto- Rican of the country and the mountains is known as 
the jibaro. He is very poor, and lives simply. His hut, or hohio^ made 
of palm-bark or of dry-goods boxes, contains two rooms, where the ham- 
mocks or canvas cots for sleeping are kept folded in the corner by day. 
Sometimes he has a small garden, and keeps a cow or a goat. He lives 
on beans, rice, and native fruit. The mountain jibaro rarely works the 
year round; often he is employed only in the fall to help gather the coffee 
or to cut the sugar-cane. The jibaro of the small town does all sorts of 
unskilled labor. He may work on the roads, or sell candy and fruit at 
evening outside the theatre, or keep a stand on the plaza. From these 
tcmn jibaro the school-children no doubt gather some true folk-songs; and 
from their contact with the towns the jibaro learn something of politics. 

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loo Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

especially when they gather at the barber-shop, which in Porto Rico is 
the centre for popular political discussion and amusement. But it is the 
ballad, the Christmas carol, and the nursery rhyme, — the traditional folk- 
poetry of Spain, — which the jibaro sings among his own people when they 
gather in the evening at some one's house to dance; and this is the real 
folk-song of Porto Rico. The verses are ordinarily sung, not recited, to 
the accompaniment of the cuatro (a primitive sort of guitar about the size 
of a violin with four strings) or to a guicharo (an instrument shaped like 
a large pine-cone, over the roughened surface of which a forked steel in- 
strument is rubbed with a rasping sound). It is doubtful whether the 
dScimas included in Dr. Mason's collection fairly represent the popular 
art of these mountain people. 

In the first place, except in decimas 79 and 128, no grammatical errors 
or archaisms occur such as are common to the jibaro, such as truje for 
traje, puUd for por alld, jacer for hacer, corUja for querida. If the transcriber 
has softened these corruptions out of a desire for clearness, such circum- 
locutions as motwado a que, resufta a que, resultas de, so common to the 
jibaro, cannot be omitted or changed in the dScitna without destroying the 
metre. Nor do the political dicimas employ the popular names for the 
political parties, — gatos for the Republicans, ratones for the Unionists. 
So far as language is concerned, then, the dicimas do not reflect the true 

The popular political dScitna not only lacks the language of the folk: 
it is hardly to be regarded as an expression of their feeling. It probably 
originates in the groups that gather in the barber-shop; or it appears in 
the local newspaper, and bears about the same relation to the Porto-Rican 
folk-poetry as such songs as "Over there*' bear to that of this country. 
It is not the jibaro, but the public-school student, who writes of Washington, 
Lincoln, and the Monroe doctrine. Nor are the specimens here collected 
representative in character. Although there are several dicimas in the 
collection which complain of Spain's treatment of Porto Rico, there is 
not one which expresses dissatisfaction with the United States Government, 
nor one which expresses the wish for independence. But the Unionist 
party, which stands for independence, has for many years been popular 
and influential; was, in fact, especially prominent at the time when many 
of the complaints against Spain were composed, and, judging from its 
recent triumphs, continues to influence popular thought. Certainly a great 
deal has been written on this theme of independence besides Jos6 de Diego's 
''Cantos de Rebeld(a," so well known to all Unionists. Why are such 
verses absent from this collection? Perhaps the Porto-Ricans, with the 
courtesy and eagerness to please which Mr. Juncos calls "their propensity 
for festive exaggeration," felt that the recital of rebellious verses might be 
displeasing to an American collector. 

Many of the non-political dicimas are not popular in content or in spirit. 
Some, such as Nos. 2 and 222, are full of classical allusions, and are de- 
veloped by means of simile and metaphor not characteristic of folk-poetry. 
Such is No. 12, so similar in spirit to Jorge Manrique's "Coplas que hizo 
por la muerte de sa padre." The last stanza of the dicima is almost identical 

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Reviews. loi 

with the third of the coplas; and the sentiment, though common to Spanish 
poetry and thought, is by no means popular in tone. No. 25, which, if 
not composed by the well-known Porto-Rican poet. Jos6 Gautier, is very 
similar to his work, is too figurative and of too lyric a quality to be popular 
in origin. No. 42, inspired perhaps by the lines taken from Espronceda's 
"Student of Salamanca," is not popular either in spirit or in content; 
No. 58, which is based on the same introductory lines, is developed in 
a much simpler way, and uses a theme more typical of the people. 

The same distinction should be drawn between Nos. 47 and 55. The 
former is too figurative, too carefully and consistently developed, for folk- 
poetry; the latter, more simple and direct, is probably a popular poem. 
The references to flowers uncommon in Porto Rico point to a foreign origin 
for Nos. 76, 90, and 91, probably to the Spanish ballads of the seventeenth 
century, which are literary rather than folk ballads. No. 255 was composed 
for a vaudeville singer, a copletista, and sung several years ago at the Romea 
Theatre in Madrid: it can hardly be classed as folk-lore. And No. 160, 
"La vida del campesino," although it pictures exactly the life of 
the jibaro, is the work of Alejandrina Benftez, a lady of culture. The 
original, which I think was never published, may be found, according to 
Mr. Virgilio D4vila, in the possession of the Eugenio Benftez Castaiio 

Valuable as is this interesting collection of dScimas from Porto Rico, I 
think we should use considerable caution in assuming it to be truly repre- 
sentative of a folk-art. 

Louise D. Dennis. 
Vassar Collbgb. 

The above review by Miss Dennis is, on the whole, directed to show 
that many of the dSdrnas under discussion are learned or semi-learned. 
Since I have said as much in my introduction to the dicimas, I hardly 
think it was necessary for Miss Dennis to repeat what I had already said. 
I quote below from my introduction (p. 290) : — 

"The popular poets have often been under the influence of real poetic 
inspiration. One suspects in some cases semi-learned influences; but even 
so, they are considered anonymous, have no known authors, and are in 
every respect the poetry of the people. ... I suspect, however, that in 
Porto Rico, and perhaps also in other countries, the dicima is cultivated 
by more pretentious poets; and it is not unlikely that many of the composi- 
tions that have attracted our admiration and attention are the product 
of learned poets, who composed them for the people and abandoned them 
to their fate." (See also pp. 291-292.) 

I would say now exactly what I said before; but I certainly do not, 
for that reason, believe that our complete collection of dScimcLs cannot be 
classed as folk-poetry. On the whole, the material is folk-lore, in spite 
of the learned influences I speak of, and which Miss Dennis discovers 
anew. These dScimas are of the same type, as a rule, as those published 
by Lenz ("Cber die gedruckte Volkspoesie von Santiago de Chile," 1895); 
and he does not hesitate to call them Volkspoesie. I agree with him, and 
in general also with the remarks of Dr. Mason, given below. # OOqIp 

igi ize y g 

I02 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

As to No. 1 60, I am glad to know that it is of known authorship. May 
I say that I do not consider Doiia Alejandrina Benftez much of a poetess? 
Any third-rate New-Mexican cantador can compose better ones, real popular 

As for the language, I have explained many times that one cannot publish 
folk-lore material in the original dialect, unless one makes a specialty of 
the dialect and has taken down personally every word of it. On the whole, 
however, the Spanish spoken by the most ignorant classes of Porto Rico 
is the same as that spoken by the ignorant in most Spanish countries. 
Nothing would be gained for dialectology unless it were in phonetic script, 
recording the exact sounds in question. As regards syntax, the dicimas 
reflect quite well, and are indeed representative of, the popular Porto- 
Rican popular Spanish. 

But Miss Dennis raises the question as to just what are the marks of 
popular poetry or folk-lore. Here we enter a problem that is indeed in- 
teresting, but we may have quite different opinions on the subject. Per- 
sonally I am certain that folk-poetry has most of the elements of learned 
poetry, and often in a more refined degree. What poetry is prettier than 
the Spanish ballad poetry, and is it not popular poetry? If it is not, then 
I have yet to learn just what folk-poetry is. It is real art, — yes, real 
folk-art, — and much superior to the art of poets like Dofia Alejandrina 
Benftez. It may interest our reviewer to know that in Dr. Mason's bulky 
collection of Porto- Rican folk-lore^ — and folk-lore it is, in spite of the learned 
and semi-learned sources of some of it — we found, among other things, 
some thirty odd traditional Spanish ballads, evidently thrown in just for 
good measure. That alone is sufficient, in my mind, to prove the real 
popular character of the collection as a whole. 

Stanford Univbrsitt. 

Miss Dennis raises the question whether the dicimas do not proceed 
from the lettered classes instead of from the country people, and whether, 
therefore, they are entitled to be considered as true folk-poetry. 

This question naturally resolves itself into two phases: (i) Is the dicima 
a popular poetical vehicle among the jibarosf and (2) Is the jiharo the 
originator of these dicimas? Apparently Miss Dennis considers that both 
these questions should be answered in the negative, believing that practi- 
cally all the dicimas were composed by local poets in towns, where they 
were written down by the school-children. I, however, shall insist on a 
dogmatic affirmative to the first question, and a qualified affirmative to 
the second. 

The dicima, despite the fact that it is a poetical vehicle of considerable 
artistic merit, comparing favorably in rigidity of form and general spirit 
with the English sonnet, appears to be the most popular form of poetical 
expression among the illiterate jiharos. At the vehrios and other social 
gatherings, according to my informants, it is the dicima rather than the 
aguinaldo which is most sung. It was a source of great surprise to me 

> Published in the Revue Hispanique, VoL 43 (1918) : "Romances de Puerto Rko." 
publicados por Aurelio M. Espinoea. j 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Reviews. 103 

to find these poems, many of them of not a little beauty, known and sung 
by illiterate mountain peasants. Quite a number of the dScimas in the 
collection were written down by me in phonetic text from the dictation 
of jibaros in out-of-the-way country barrios. I believe that there are few 
adult jibaro men who have not memorized one or more dScimas^ which 
they sing, when called upon in turn, at social gatherings; and nearly every 
little country hamlet has its noted dScitna singer, who has dozens of them 
at his tongue's end. 

Miss Dennis offers three principal reasons for believing that the dScimas 
are not truly of the country people: first, that the school-children who 
wrote them down came from the literate classes in the towns; second, 
that they contain few of the phonetic, dialectic, grammatical, and rhetorical 
linguistic peculiarities of the jibaro; and, third, that the collection contains 
no dScimas relative to the movement for independence. 

Despite Miss Dennis's evident intimate acquaintance with things Porto- 
Rican, I cannot agree with her that "school-children . . . are drawn al- 
most altogether from the literate populations of the town, and not from 
the true folk, who live in the country or in the mountains." That was 
doubtless the case under the Spanish regime; but under the American 
school-system every child is required to attend school, and the law is 
enforced with considerable success. Many are my recollections of pleasant 
rides up into the mountains ofT the main roads with district school-super- 
visors to inspect their little country schools. I rather believe that the 
bulk of my material was written by little jibaritos in these country schools. 
They, of course, got their contributions from their illiterate parents. 

As regards the question of dialectic peculiarities and provincialisms, it 
could hardly be expected that the children would record the mistakes of 
their elders. They are particularly taught to avoid all these vulgarities, 
and to write only correct standard Spanish. Only in cases where they 
wished especially to call attention to jibaro diction would they write truje, 
jacer, and puUd. This was done in several cases, as Miss Dennis notes. 
To delete as of literary origin all folk-poetry not written in dialect would 
be to throw out the baby with the bath-water. However, as Miss Dennis 
points out, we should expect to find such rhetorical provincialisms as are 
not grammatical errors, and which could not be corrected without destroying 
the metre. That these are few certainly indicated that the majority of 
the dicimas were composed by persons of some cultural background. 

To me, the lack of dicimas breathing a desire for independence is good 
evidence that the collection is truly exemplary of the poetry popular among 
the jibaros. Unless conditions have changed greatly since 191 5, there is 
no more loyal American citizen anywhere than the Porto-Rican jibaro. 
The devotion of this illiterate class, generally ignorant of a word of English, 
to America, is a great tribute to our colonial policy and administration. 
Several times men questioned me anxiously whether there was any truth 
in the rumors — for the more impossible the rumor, the more quickly it 
spreads — that Porto Rico was to be returned to Spain. "Better we all 
die fighting than go back again under Spanish rule," said one. I received 
the distinct impression that the movement for independence was largely 

Digitized by 


I04 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

confined to the better-educated populations of the towns, — the artisan 
proletariat, let us say, — and not shared by the jibaro peasantry. 

I feel, therefore, that the dScimas in the published collection are fully 
representative of the poetry of the jibaro. The sources, however, are 
various, quite naturally. Many, as Espinosa has pointed out, are tradi- 
tional Spanish. Others give internal evidence of jibaro authorship. This 
group, naturally, are of a simple style. A third large group are probably 
the product of local amateur poets in towns and villages. Thus Nos. 
115 and 116 I recollect receiving directly from such a poet, the shoemaker 
of a tiny village. These and probably a few others were not widely known ; 
but the great majority, irrespective of their authorship, had been memorized 
by jibaro singers, and incorporated in peasant folk-lore. Naturally it was 
impossible to separate the dScimas into groups according to their origin. 
Were Spanish folk-lore perfectly known, the traditional dScimas could have 
been separated. As for the others, only years of persistent research in 
Porto Rico could elucidate their authorship or locality of origin. Miss 
Dennis has done a great service by pointing out the origin of several, and 
it is hoped that other interested students of Spanish folk-lore and Porto- 
Rican literature will offer further aid toward the same end. 

J. Alden Mason. 
Field Museum of Natural History, 
Chicago, III. 

Digitized by 


TiXAS. — President^ Dr. Clyde G. Gltssco^i Rice Institate» Houston, Tex.; Via- Presidents, Mrs. 
Adele B. LooecAii, W. S. Hendrix ; Secretary^ W. P. Webb, San Antonio, Tex. ; Councillors^ Mrs. 
Lillte T. ShftTer (Southwestern Normal Sdiool, San Mafcos, Tex.), L. W. Payne, Jr. (2104 Pearl 
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VlitGmiA. — President^ John M. Stone, Mount Fair, \a.; Vice-President, Miss Martha M. Davis, 
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MorgantowOf W.Va.; Vtee-Presidint, Robert Allen Armstrong, West Virginia UniTersity, Morgan- 
town, W.Va. ; Secretary-Treasurer^ Walter Barnes, Fairmont Normal School, Fairmont, W.Va. 

Mixico.— TVmdWt/, Manuel Gamio, Inspector-General of Monuments, Mexico City, Mex. 

Canada. — President, Edward Sapir, Victoria Mnseum, Ottawa; Secretary, C M. Barbeau, 
Victoria Museum, Ottawa; Treasurer^ Gustare Lanctot, Dominion Archives, Ottawa t Editor, 
J. F. Kenney, Dominion Archives, Ottawa. v 

latmd as Mcoad-dam matter, July 6, 1911, at the Poet Offi^ at Lancaster, Pa., under the Act ol March $, ilf|. 


Reviews. — J. Alden Mason and Anrelio M. Espinosa, Porto Rican Folk-Lore: Dramas, 
Christmas Carols, Nursery Rhymes, and Other Songs (JAFL 31: 289-450). Louise D, Dennis, 
— Rq>]ies to above review. Aurelio M. Espinosa^ J, Alden Mason, 

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X. Eleanor Hague, Spanish-American Folk-Songs. 19 17. 11 1 p. $3.50. 

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i. Spinden, Folk-Tales of Salishan and Sahaptin Tribes. Edited 
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XII. Filipino Popular Tales. Collected and edited, with Comparative 
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JbL 2V, ViZi 

Vql. 35. APRIL-JUNE, 1922. No. 136. 






Ass0aati Ediiars, 






LEANS, La A. E, Perkins 105 

2. Umbundu Tales; Angola, Southwest Africa . . William C, Bell 116 

3. Talks and Proverbs of the Vandau of Port- (Franz Boas 1 

UGtTESE South Africa \c, Kamba Sitnango) 

4. Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the American Folk-Lore Society 205 


G. E, STECHERT & CO., NEW YORK. Agents. r^^^^T/^ 

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Boas), issued by the American Folk-Lore Society, is designed for the collec- 
tion and publication of the folk-lore and mythology of the American Continent. 
The subscription price is four dollars per annum. 

The American Folk-Lore Society was organized January 4, 1888. The Society 
holds annual meetings, at which reports are received and papers read. The yearly 
membership fee is four dollars. Members are entitled to receive The Journal of 
American Folk-Lore. Subscribers to the Journal, or other persons interested in 
the objects of the Society, are eligible to membcDship, and are requested to address 
the Permanent Secretary to that end. 

Authors alone are responsible for the contents of their papers. 

Officers of the American Folk-Lore Society (1 922)* 

President.— Y, G. Speck, UniTersity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 
First Vice-President, — E. C. Hills, UniTersity of California, Berkeley, Cal. 
Second Vice-President,— ], Walter Fewkes, fioreau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C. 

Councillors, — For three yean: Phillips Barry, 83 Brattle St., Cambridge Mass., A. M. Espinosa, 
Leland Stanford, Jr., Unirersity, Palo Alto, Cal.; C.-M. Barbean, Victoria Museom, Ottawa, Can. 
For two years: J. R. Swanton, 5526 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D.C; £. K. Putnam, Davenport, 
lo. ; Stith Thompson, University of Maine, Orono, Me. For one year: R. B. Dixon, Peabody 
Moseum, Cambridge, Mass. ; E. Sapir, Victoria Museum, Ottawa, Can. ; A. L. Kroeber, Affiliated 
Colleges, San Francisco, Cal. Past Presidents: Pliny Earle Goddard, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; Robert H. Lowie, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Elsie Clews Parsons, 
New York. Presidents of Local Branches: C. Peabody, C. T. Carruth, Miss M. A. Owen, Reed 
Smith, W. H. Thomas, John M. Stone, J. H. Cox. 

Editor of Journal, — Franz Boas, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Associate ^ Editors, — ^George Lyman Kittredge, Anrclio M. Espinosa, C.-Marius Barbean, Elsie 
Clews Parsons. 

Permanent Secretary, — Charles Peabody, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 

Treasurer. — Alfred M. Tozaer, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Officers of Local and State Branches and Societies* 

Boston. — President, Charles Peabody ; First Vice-President^ F. H. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Second Vice- President , H. D. HeathBeld, Boston, Mass.; Secretary , Miss M. Fish, 9 Prescott St., 
Brookline, Mass. ; Treasurer, Samuel B. Dean, 2 B Newbury St., Boston. 

Cambridge.— /V«x^«»/, C. T. Carruth, Cambridge; Vice-President, Mrs. E. F. Williams, 
8 Lowell St., Cambridge; Treasurer, Carleton E. Noyes, 30 Francis Ave., Cambridge ; Secretary^ 
Miss Penelope Noyes, Cambridge. 

Kentucky. — Vice-Presidents, Mrs, Fannie C. Duncan, Miss Josephine McGill ; Secretary, Miss 
Myra Sanders ; Treasurer, John F. Smith, Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

yivs&OM^i.— President, Miss Mary A. Owen, 9th and Jules Sts., St. Joseph, Mo.; Vice-Presidents, 
Mrs. Edward Scbaaf (2606 South Grand Are., St. Louis, Mo. ), Mrs. Era W. Case (2822 Troost St., 
Kansas City, Mo.), J. W. Rankin (311 Thilley Ave., Columbia, Mo.); Secretary, Archer Taylor, 
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo. ; Treasurer, C. H. Williams, University of Missonri, Co- 
lumbia, Mo.; Directors, A. E. Bostwick (Public Library, St. Louis, Mo.), Mrs. W. B. Ver Steeg 
(St. Louis, Mo.), Leah R. Yoffie (Soldan High School, St. Louis, Mo.). 

North Carolina. — President, William Johnston Andrews; Vtce-Presidents, Mrs. William N. 
Reynolds, Mrs. S. Westray Battle, Miss Maude Minish; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank C Brown, 
301 Faculty Ave., Durham, N.C. 

North TiKVLOVK,— Secretary, George F. Will, Bismarck, N.D. 

South Carouna.— PreM(ic«/, Reed Smith, 1628 Pendleton St., Columbia, S.C.; Vice-Presidetmt, 
Henry C. Davis, 2532 Divine St., Columbia, S.C. ; Secretary and Treasurer, F. W. Cappdfl 
Law Range, Columbia, S.C. 

Tennessee. — Secretary, Henry M. Wiltse, Chattanooga, Tenn. 


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Vol. 35.— APRIL-JUNE, 1922.— No. 136. 




[The riddles here collected were written down in March, 1920, by 
Negro public-school children of the McDonough School 6 in New 
Orleans, La., and sent to me by the principal, Mr. A. E. Perkins, 
BS., Ph.D., without his alteration or correction. The school draws 
from a district of English-speaking colored people, many of whom 
come from Mississippi. It is noticeable that the riddles show no 
trace of riddle-making as a live art. All are of English origin; there 
is not, so far as I know, a single native African riddle among them; 
no local changes or inventions occur (with the possible exception of 
3 and 5) either of pattern or of subject-matter; not an original riddle 
appears in the whole list. The majority are of the modern conun- 
drum type. Of the sixty-four folk-riddles, thirty-six have preserved 
the English rhymed form. This differs from the Jamaica habit, 
where the rhyme is likely to break down and the riddle to fall into 
pattern form. Only six story-riddles occur, but several of these were 
given more than once; and the elaborate explanations perhaps indi- 
cate a taste still active for this kind of riddling. — Martha Warren 


1. Round as a butterbowl, 
Deep as a cup. 

The Mississippi River 
Cannot fill it up. 

Ans. Sifter, strainer. 

2. Round as a biscuit, 
Busy as a bee, 

If you guess that, 
You can have poor me. 

Ans. Watch. 

^^5 Digitized by Google 

io6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Round as a biscuit, 
Busy as a bee, 
The prettiest little thing 
That I ever did see. 

3. My walls are red, 
My tenants are black, 
My color is green 

All over my back. 

Ans, Watermelon. 

4. Black within and red without. 
Four corners round about. 

Ans. Chimney. 

5. Large as a house, 
Small as a mouse. 
Bitter as gall, 

And sweet, after all. 

Ans. Pecan (tree and nut). 

6. Open like a barn-door. 
Shut like a trap. 
Guess all your lifetime. 
You won't guess that. 

Ans, Pair of corsets. 

7. Round as an apple, 
Deep as a cup. 

And all the king's horses 
Can't pull it up. 

Ans. WeU. 

8. Taller than a house. 
Taller than a tree. 

Oh, whatever can it be? 
Ans. Star. 

9. Thirty white horses 
On a red hill. 

Now they tramp, now they romp, 
Now they stand still. 

Ans. Teeth and gum. 

10. House full, room full. 
And can't catch a spoonful. 

Ans. Smoke. 

11. As crooked as a ram's horn,* 
Teeth like a cat. 

Guess all your lifetime. 
You will never guess that. 

Ans. Brier-bush. 
» VofftSiii: Crooked at a rainbow, digitized by 


Riddles from Negro SchooUCkildren in New Orleans. 107 

12. Rough on the outside, 
Smooth within; 
Nothing can enter 
But a big flat thing. 
When it enters, 
It wiggles about, 
And that is the time 
The goodie comes out. 

Ans, Oyster. 

13. A riddle, a riddle, as I suppose: 
A hundred eyes and never a nose. 

Ans. Sifter. 

14. From house to house he goes, 
A messenger small and slight. 
And whether it rains or snows. 
He sleeps out in the night. 

Ans. Path. 

15. Four legs up and four legs down, 
Soft in the middle, and hard all 'round. 

Ans. Bed. 

16. Long big black fellow. 

Pull the trigger, make it bellow, — Bang! 

Ans. Gun. 

17. Black we are, but much admired, 
Men seek for us till we are tired; 
We tire the horse, but comfort man: 
Tell me this riddle if you can. 

Ans. Coal. 

18. In marble walls as white as milk, 
Lined with a skin as soft as silk. 
Within a fountain crystal-clear, 
A golden apple doth appear. 

No doors there are to this stronghold. 
Yet thieves break in and steal the gold. 

Ans. Egg. 

{Variant.) A little white house with no windows or doors, but yet 
robbers break in and steal the gold. — Ans. Egg. 

19. Patch upon patch, 
A hole in the middle: 
Guess that riddle, 
I'll give you a gold fiddle. 

Ans. Chimney (of patched dirt). 

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io8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

20. Through the woods, through the woods I ran, 
And as little as I am, I killed a man. 

What is it? 

Ans. Bullet. 

21. Hicky More, Hocky More, 
On the king's kitchen door. 

All the king's horses and all the king's men 
G>uldn't pull Hicky More, Hocky More, 
Oflf the king's kitchen door. 

Ans, Sunshine. 

22. As I was going through the garden-gap. 
Whom should I meet but Jimmie Red-Cap ; 
A stick in his mouth, a stone in his throat: 
If you tell me this riddle, I give you a groat. 

Ans. Cherry. 

As I was going through the garden-gate, 
Whom should I meet but Dickie Red-Cap, 
With a stick in his hand and a stone in his throat: 
If you guess my riddle, I will give you a goat. 

23. Old Mother Twitchet had but one eye. 
And a long tail which she let fly; 
And every time she went over a gap, 
She left a bit of her tail in the trap. 

Ans. Needle and thread. 

{Variant.) I had a little sister; she had one eye and a long 
tail. Every time she went through the gap, her tail got shorter 
and shorter. 

24. Little Anne Etticoat 
In a white petticoat 
And a red nose. 
The longer she stands, 
The shorter she grows. 

Ans. Candle. 

25. Twelve pears were hanging high. 
Twelve men came riding by. 
Each man took a pear: 
How many pears were left on the tree? 

Ans. Eleven (the man's name was Eachman). 

Eleven hats hanging high. 
Eleven men came riding by. 
Each man took a hat. 
And that left eleven still. 

Digitized by 


Biddies from Negro Schoid-Ckildren in New Orleans. 109 

26. A king met a king 
In a great lane. 

He said to the other, 

"What is your name?" — 

" Gold is my bridle. 

Gold is my rein. 

I have told you my name twice, 

And yet you don't know." 

Ans. Is (?). 

27. As I was going over London Bridge, 
I met a London scholar: 

An' drew off his hat an' drew off his coat. 
What was the scholar's name? 

Ans. Andrew. 

28. As I was going to St. Ives, 
I met seven wives. 

Each wife had seven sacks. 
Each sack had seven cats, 
Each cat had seven kits. 
Kits, cats, sacks, and wives. 
How many were going to St. Ives? 

Ans. Only one. 

29. Sisters and brothers have I none. 

But that man's father is my father's son. 

Ans. A man is speaking of his own son. 

30. There was a man who had no eyes; 
He went abroad to view the skies; 
He saw a tree with apples on it; 

He took no apples off, yet left no apples on. 

Ans. The man had one eye, and 
the tree two apples. 

31. Nature requires five. 
Custom gives seven. 
Laziness takes nine. 
And wickedness eleven. 

Ans. Hours of sleep. 

32. Fifty is my first, nothing is my second. 

Five just makes my third, my fourth's a vowel reckoned: 
Now, to fill my whde, put all my parts together; 
I die if I get cold, but never fear cold weather. 

Ans. L-O-V-E. 

33. As I was going to town to sell my eggs, I rode and yet walked. — 
Ans. Little dog named Yet. 

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1 10 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

34. What relation is that one to its own father who is not its 
father's own son? — Ans. Daughter. 

35. Two people were sitting on a log, — a large and a small one. 
The large one was the small one's father, but the small one was not 
his son, — Ans. His daughter. 

36. There was a man of yore. He was neither on land, nor in the 
sea, oor in the air. Where was he? — Ans. Jonah in the whale's belly. 

37. I haven't got it, don't want it, wouldn't have it. But if I had 
it, I would not take the whole world for it. — Ans. Bald head. 

38. I have an apple I can't cut, a blanket I can't fold, and so much 
money I can't count it. — Ans. Moon, stars, sky. 

39. At night they come without being fetched, and by day they 
are lost without being stolen. — Ans. Stars. 

40. Come up and let us go; go down, and here we stay. — Ans. 

41. When pulled, it is a cane; when pushed, it is a tent. — Ans. 

42. When held, it goes; when let loose, it lies down. — Ans. Pen. 

43. The man who made it did not want it; the man who used it did 
not want it. — Ans. Coffin. 

44. Go all 'round the house and make but one track. — Ans. Wheel- 

45. 'Live at each end, and dead in the middle. — Ans. Plough (man 
and mule at each end). 

46. If he come, he no come; if he no come, he come. — Ans. If the 
crows come eat the corn, it would not come up; if the crows did not 
come and eat the com, it would come up. 

47. On a hill there stood a house, and in the house there was a shelf, 
and on that shelf there was a cup; in that cup there was some suck, 
and you couldn't get that suck unless you broke that cup. — Ans. Egg. 

48. Goes up white, and comes down yellow. — Ans. Egg. 

49. Upon the house, white as snow; down on the ground, yellow as 
%o\A. — Ans. Egg. 

50. On a hill stands a house; in the house stands a trunk; in this 
trunk there is something nobody wants. — Ans. Death. 

51. Four legs and can't walk, four eyes and can't see, and smokes a 
pipe. — Ans. Chimney. 

Digitized by 


Biddies from Negro Schod-Children in New Orleans. 1 1 1 

52. White as a Ifly, it's not a lily; green as grass, it*s not grass; 
red as fire, it's not fire; sweet as sugar, it's not sugar; black as ink, it's 
not ink. What is it? — Ans. Blackberry. 

iVarianl.) White as snow, green as grass, black as smut. 

53. Red as blood, but blood it's not; black as ink, but ink it's not; 
white as milk, but milk it's not; green as grass, but grass it's not. 
— Ans. Watermelon. 

54. Four stiff standers, two lookers, two crookers, and one switch- 
box. — Ans. Cow. 

55. Two heads, no neck, no arms, no legs, no face. — Ans. Barrel. 

(Variant.) What object has two heads and one body? 

56. Tip tip upstairs, tip tip downstairs. If you don't mind out, 
tip will bite you. — Ans. Bee. 

57. T^o 1^:8 sat upon three legs with one leg on his lap. In comes 
four legs, takes up one leg. Up jimips two 1^:8, snatches up three 
l^ps, throws three legs at four legs, and makes four legs bring back one 
leg. — Ans. A leg of mutton, a man, a dog, and a stool. 

58. Four legs sat on two legs with four legs standing by. — Ans. 
Maid milking a cow. 

59. As I was going through the world of Wicky Wacky, I met 
Bone Backy. I called Tom Tacky to run Bone Backy out of the world 
of Wicky Wacky. — Ans. Field of com, a cow, and a dog. 

60. Once a slave's master told him if he could find a riddle that 
his master could not guess, he would set him free. This is the riddle. 
What is it that never slew anything, but yet slew twelve? — Ans. It 
is a crow that ate of a poisoned horse; and twelve murderers ate of 
the crow, and died. 

61. Six set and seven sprung, — 
Out of the dead the living run. 

Ans. A quail sat on six eggs, and hatched them 
in a dead horse-head. She and her litde 
ones made seven. 

62. Love I sit, love I stand,^ 
Love I hold fast in my hand. 

Ans. There was a lady that had a dog whose 
name was Love. When this dog died, she 
took his skin and patched a chair, her shoes, 
and her glove. 

1 Pennsylvania German Riddles (JAFL 19 [1906] : 105); Guilford County, South 
Carolina (JAFL 30 [19x7] : 203). 

Digitized by 


112 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

63. Horn eat a horn up a white oak-tree.^ 

If you guess that riddle, you may hang me. 

Ans, A runaway slave, having been pursued till 
he took to a tree, was promised, by the 
white master who pursued him, his ac- 
quittal for killing a man, provided he told 
them a riddle they could not answer. He 
said this riddle. The man's name was 
Horn. He boiled a dead calf's horn, and 
ate it up in the tree. 

64. I sat high, I looked low. 

I looked for one to come, but two did come. 

The wind did blow, my heart did ache, 

To see what a den the fox did make. 

Ans. There was once a lady that had promised to 
marry a young man. He told his sweet- 
heart to meet him a certain place in the 
woods. Now, this young lady was very 
rich; and this young man was going to kill 
her and take her jewels and money. 
When she reached the woods, she iound a 
fresh grave dug. She wondered what this 
meant. She said she would dimb a tree 
and wait until her beau came. She looked 
for him to come alone, but he brought some 
one else with him. They both waited 
and waited, but she did not come. After a 
while they left, then she too went home. 
The same night her beau came home and 
asked why wasn't she in the woods. She 
told him she had a riddle for him to guess, 
and if he guesses it right she will still 
marry him. However, he did not guess it; 
80 she told him, and they did not remain 
friends any more. 


65. What is the beginning of every end, and the end of every place? 
— Letter e. 

66. What is the usefulest thing in the house and the least thought 
of? — Dish-cloth. 

67. What is that which, by losing an eye, has nothing but a nose? — 
Ans. Noise. 

68. How many boiled eggs may a man eat on an empty stomach? 
Ans. One: after that, his stomach wouldn't be empty. 

> Guilford County, South Carolina QAFL 30 [1917] : 203). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Riddles from Negro Schod-Children in New Orleans. 113 

69. What is the oldest table in the world? — Ans. Multiplication 

70. Who are the two largest ladies in the world? — Ans. Missouri 
and Mississippi. 

71. What is it that you can feed, but can't give water? — Ans. Fire. 

72. What is it that a man can give to a lady, and can't give to 
another man? — Ans. A husband. 

73. What is the best way to keep a man's love? — Ans. Don't 
return it. 

74. What is it a lady's husband can never see her with it on? — 
Ans. A widow's veil. 

75. If a bear were to go into a dry-goods store, what would he 
want? — Ans. Muzzlin' (muslin). 

76. Who was the first whistler, and what time did he whistle? — 
Ans. The wind. He whistled " Over the hills and far away." 

77. What is that you can hold in your left hand, and not in your 
right? — Ans. Your right elbow. 

78. If you saw a dude riding on a donkey, what fruit would it 
remind you of? — Ans. A pear (pair). 

79. What is it that doesn't ask questions, and requires answers? — 
Ans. The door-bell. 

80. What is it you will break if you even name it? — Ans. Silence. 

81. What is the sure sign of early spring? — Ans. A cat watching a 
hole with her back up. 

82. What would happen if a colored waiter carrying a dish of turkey 
swinmiing in grease should accidentally let it fall? — Ans. It would 
be the fall of Turkey, the overthrow of Greece, the breaking up of 
China, and the ruin of Africa. 

83. What is the key-note to good manners? — Ans. Be natural 
(B natural). 

84. Who is the greatest of home-rulers? — Ans. The baby. 

85. What is it that belongs to you, yet is used more by your friends 
than by you? — Ans. Your name. 

86. What word makes a girl a woman? — Ans. Age. 

87. What is the largest room in the world? — Ans. Room for im- 

88. If a man is bom in England, raised in France, and died in Mon- 
treal, what is he? — A dead man. 

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1 14 Journal cf Atnerican Folk-Lore. 

89. In what place did the cock crow so that all the worid oould hear 
him? — In Noah's Ark. 

90. What subject can be made lig^t of? — Gas. 

91. What snuff-box is that whose box gets fuller the more pinches 
he takes? — Ans. Candle-snuffers. 

92. What does a lawyer do when he dies? — Ans. Lies still. 

93. What is this it takes two to make one? — Ans. A bargain. 

94. What is the first thing you do when you make biscuits? — Ans. 
Wash your hands. 

95. What flower grows between your nose and your chin? — Ans. 
Tulips (two lips). 

96. Why is the letter a like a honeysuckle? — Ans. Because a b 
(bee) follows it? 

97. Why is a prudent man like a pen? — Ans. Because his head 
prevents him from going too far. 

98. Why is a boy like flannel? — Ans. Because he shrinks from 

99. What is the difference between a sentence and a cat? — Ans. 
One has its pause at the end of its clause; the other, its claws at the 
end of its paws. 

100. What is the difference between a soldier and a lady? — Ans. 
A soldier faces powder, and a lady powders her face. 

loi. What is the difference between a pie and a pair of trousers? — 
Ans. A pie has to be made before it is cut, and a pair of trousers has 
to be cut before it is made. 

102. What is the difference between an auto and a horse? — Ans. 
They kick at different ends. 

103. Why is a rooster on a fence like a penny? — Ans. Because 
the head is on one side, and the tail on the other. 

104. What is the difference between an old penny and a new dime? 
— Ans. Nine cents difference. 

105. Why b a room full of married people like an empty one? — 
Ans. Because there isn't a single person there. 

106. Why is high tariff like overalls? — Ans. Because it protects 
the laboring-man. 

107. What is the difference between a conductor or motorman and a 
cold in the head? — Ans. The conductor knows the stops, and the cold 
stops the nose. 

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Riddles from Negro School-Ouldren in New Orleans. 115 

108. What is the difference between a stubborn muk and a postage- 
stamp? — Ans. One you lick with a stick, and the other you stick with 
a lick. 

109. Why do preachers preach without notes? — Ans. Because 
their families would starve without greenbacks. 

no. Why does a stick of peppermint candy remind you of the 
United States? — Ans. Because it never has been licked. 

111. Why did they make the Statue of Liberty's hand eleven inches 
instead of twelve inches? — Ans. Because, if it had been twelve inches, 
it would have been a foot instead of a hand. 

112. Why does a hen lay an ^g? — Ans. To give the rooster a 
chance to cackle. 

113. Why is Philadelphia more subject to earthquakes than any 
other city? — Ans. Because she is a Quaker city. 

114. Why do the Spaniards wamt Admiral Dewey's picture on 
their postage-stamps? — Ans. Because it's the only way they can 
lick him. 

115. Why may a beggar wear a short coat? — Ans. Because it will 
be long enough before he gets another. 

1 16. Why is a dog warm in winter, and colder in the summer? — Ans. 
Because in the winter he wears an overcoat; and in the sunmier, 
pants and shirts. 

117. Why did the duck cross the pond? — Ans. Because she wants 
to get on the other side. 

118. Why did the Kaiser defy the whole world? — Ans. Because he 
thought he could whip them. 

119. Why is your nose in the middle of your face? — Ans. Because 
it is the scenter (centre). 

120. Why did Webster write the words in the dictionary? — Ans. 
Because he knew them. 

121. Why did Adam bite the apple Eve gave him? — Ans. Because 
he had no knife. 

122. Why should architects make good actors? — Ans. Because 
they are fine at drawing houses. 

New Orleans, La. 

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1 16 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 



Kua kaile ufeko wa fina, kuenje Mbeu la Miapia va enddeko oku 
ka tambela ufeko waco, kuenje vo sang^ pole ed vo sanga vangandiahe 
ka va yonguile oku eca ufeko waco pamue ku Mbeu, pamue ku Miapia. 

Kuenje va ngandiaco va eca oeeo tunde ko Bailundo toke ko 
Dondi vati, U wa pitila lombili eye o tambula ufeko waco. Kuenje 
va katuka vosi, Miapia wa tambula opatolonya yahe« ed va pitila 
vofii kofeka Miapia wa kuata ocinjoko wa enda kusenge oku nia ed a 
enda kusenge Mbeu wa iiiila vopatolonya ya Miapia, noke Miapia 
weya kusenge wa yelula opatolonya mu li Kambeu elunguko lia Mbeu 
omo ka kuete ovolu, Miapia wa kuata ohele wa soka hati, Mbeu wa 
enda ale kuenje wa palala lonjanga. 

Ku^je Miapia wa pitila kimbo liaco ed a pitila vali komde yimbo wa 
tula opatolonya yahe muna mu li Kambeu, wa linga omo si ifiila 
vimbo handi tete ha nia. Kuenje wa enda opatolonya wa yi sia. 

Kuenje Mbeu wa tunda lombili vopatolonya yina ya ambatde 
Miapia wa iiiila lonjanga vimbo kuenje Ufeko va wiha Mbeu. Miapia 
ed eya kusenge wa yelula opatolonya yahe wa sanga Mbeu wa tambula 
ale ufeko, kuenje Miapia wa sumua, Kambeu wa sanjuka. 


Once there was a beautiful maiden, and the tortoise and the swallow 
went to court her. They found her, and they found also her relatives, 
and they did not wish to give the girl either to the tortoise or to 
the swallow. 

However, the relatives set a test from Bailundo even to Dondi, 
saying, "He who arrives quickest, he takes the girl." So they rose 
up the both of them, the swallow taking his little hand-bag; and 
when the two arrived at the point indicated, the swallow took fright 
and went to the woods (to stool). Whilst he was thus gone, the 
tortoise dimbed into the hand-bag of the swallow. Soon the swallow 
returned from the woods, picked up the hand-bag in which was the 
tortoise (this was his wisdom, as he did not possess fast l^:s), and the 
swallow was much disturbed thinking that the tortoise had already 
gone on before: so he flew hurriedly. 

> Olocapo vio Umbundu. Vowels are to be pronounced according to their continental 
values; c is pronounced like the English ck, i ^^^ i r> 

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Umbundu Tales ^ Angola, Southwest Africa. 117 

Soon the swallow arrived at the village; and as soon as he reached 
the outskirts, he put down his hand-bag, in which was the tortoise, 
saying, " I shall not enter the village yet, until I first go to the woods." 
So he went, leaving his hand-bag behind him. 

Immediately the tortoise climbed out of the hand-bag which the 
swallow had carried, and speedily entered the village. The girl was 
given to him. When the swallow came from the woods, he picked up 
his hand-bag, entered, but found that the tortoise had already received 
the giri, and consequently was very sad; but the tortoise was happy. 


Kandimba wa mina kuenda Moma wa minavo kuenje va livala 
ukamba va lisola calua. Kandimba had, A Moma eteke tu dta 
omala veto, ove vu Moma o tambulapo omala vange ndi Kandimba 
ama nalUvo lomala vove. 

Kuenje va linga nded va likuminyile, omala va dtile Moma va 
tandavala n5 momo ka va ikile oku nyama, omala va Kandimba vana 
va kala la Moma v^ yongola oku nyama avele ndodtua cavo coku 
nyama, momo Moma ka kuete avele okuti o nyamisako omala va 

Kuenje Kanclimba ed a limbuka okuti omala vahe vana a dtile va 
kolako naito wa tila lavo osimbu Moma a enda vusenge, kuenje 
Moma ed eya vusenge wa sanga Kandimba wa tila lomala vahe, 
Moma wa d suvuka wa kongola olomoma viosi. Moma wa linga omo, 
Tu landuli Kandimba lomala vahe. 

Yu olomoma via imba ocisungo viti, Tu landula Kandimba wa lia 
ofuka yomoma. Tu landula Kandimba we — wa lia ofuka yomoma. 

Kandimba oku yeva odsungo caco wa yokoka wa sanga odnyama 
dnene hati, Mopele. Odnyama oku yeva odsungo caco hati. Si 
d telH. 

Wa d linga kinyama viosi via d lembua. Noke wa sanga ocenye 
hati, Mopele. Ocenye hati, Omo. Kuenje ocenye ca inisa ondimba 
lomala vayo kututa noke wa ndindako leve, Ed olomoma vieya via 
pula Kacenye viti, Kandimba wo mola? Eye hati, Odli ndo molS yu 
kututa, oco wa va ilikila kelungi lifii hati, Oko ku li Kandimba. 

Kuenje omoma yimosi ya yongola oku iiiila, ocenye citi, Iiiili no 
vosi yene oco vu mola Kandimba, ed va inila ocenye ca yelula ovava 
a sanya ca itila kututa ku li olomoma kuenje olomoma via fa viosi. 
Kandimba wa popelua. 

Elungulo: Otuvina tutito tu tela oku kuatisa ovina vinene, vosi 
va lembua oku popela Kandimba pole Kacenye wa d tSla. 

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1 1 8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


The rabbit was with young, and the python also; and they swore 
friendship one with the other, for they loved each other a great deal. 
The rabbit said, "O Python! the day we give birth to our children, 
you. Python, take my children; and I, the rabbit, will have your 

So they did as they had agreed. The children of the python stretched 
themselves out long, because they were not habituated to nurse. 
The children of the rabbit were with the python, and they wished to 
nurse, as was their custom; but the python did not have "breasts" 
with which to nurse the children of the rabbit. 

Soon, when the rabbit perceived that her children which she had 
given birth to were getting stronger, she ran away with them whilst 
the python was in the woods. When the python returned from the 
bush, and she found that the rabbit had run off with her children, 
she was angry, and called together all the pythons, saying, ''Let us 
follow the trail of the rabbit and her children!" 

So the pythons began singing, ''Let us follow the rabbit who stole 
[ate] her debt to the python! . . . Let us follow the rabbit — the 
rabbit — who stole her debt to the python!" . . . 

The rabbit, hearing this song, began to shake (tremble). She found 
a large animal, and said to it, "Save me!" The animal, hearing the 
song of the pythons, said, "Impossible [I am not able]." 

The rabbit went to all the animals, and they all shunned doing 
anything. Finally she found a cricket,* and cried, "Save me!" The 
cricket replied, "All right." So then the cricket put the rabbit and 
her children into a burrow, blocking it up with dirt. When the 
pythons came, they questioned the cricket, saying, "Have you seen 
the rabbit?" And he replied, "Indeed, I have; she is in that burrow 
[pointing to a different one from that in which the rabbit was] — in 
there is the rabbit." 

So the one python wished to enter; but the cricket said, "All of 
you had better go in and find the rabbit;" and when they had done 
so, the cricket took hot water, pouring it into the burrow where were 
all the pythons, thus killing them. The rabbit was saved. 

Moral: Little things are able to accomplish large results; all 
shunned helping save the rabbit, nevertheless the little cricket was 
able to do it. 


Ulume lukai va ile oku pasula Kimbo liukai, ed va pitila kimbo va 
va yolela ca lua muele, kuenda va va telekela ovina via lua osanji! 

> A spedes that burrowt. 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 119 

ongulu! ositu! via lua mude esanju lika olondce viaco. Kuenje eteke 
lixnue ulume wa popia lukai wahe hati, Okuetu hSlSL oku enda kimbo 
lietu, ukai wa hnga, Omo mude. Kuenje ukai wa d popia ku vangandi* 
ahe hati, HellL tu enda yapa ovo va tava. 

Omele ed kuaca va va nenela onjeke yepungu ovo va pandula, 
kuenje va wila konjila oku enda ende toke va pitila kolui lumue 
lunene ulume eye wambata onjeke yepungu, ed va kala keyau ulume 
wa kupuka lonjeke yepungu volui, ukai wa liyula hati, a mai we! a 
mai we! etaili veyange we! 

Kuenje ulume wa endele mude kombudo yolui lonjeke wa yi seleka 
vusitu kuenje weya kukai wahe wa linga omo, Okuetu onjeke ya enda 
muds, ukai hati, Ka d lingi dmue. 

Eteke limue va enda kolonaka oku senda ed va kala loku senda va 
yeva onjila yi lila omo, ko — ko — o, ulume hati, Yoyo omunga yo 
dnyuavava ondambi ya dtapulavakela opo ya lilila ndoto ndan5 ovava 
ngenda ha nyuapo muele. Kuenje wa enda wa da ukai wahe lomala 
ponaka wa pitila kudtu una a die onjeke yepungu ed a pitila wa 
dakala ondalu wa fetika oku kanga kuenda wa teleka asola wa lia. 

Eteke limue wa d linga vali veya kolonaka ed a yeva onjila yaco 
yomungu ya lila vali yiti, ko — o ko — o, ulume wa popia omo. Yoyo 
omungu yodnyuavava ondambi yodtapulavakela, yapa weya vali 
kusitu kuna a die onjeke yahe wa fetika oku kanga olukango loku 
teleka asola oco fetike oku lia ukai wahe yu, eye wa lisalukako ukai 
hati, Ca! ca! ca! ove puai oco o linga linga ed? Omill va fa lonjala 
ove epungu liom^ lia nyihile mii o li malela vefS liove? Ulume osoi 
yo kuta eye ulume hati, Tu lie, ukai hati, Ove vumbua yomunu d li. 

Kuenje eteke limue umue ulume wa kelisa odmbombo ed va kala 
loku dl^ ukai wa yongola oku lombolola ed co lingile veyahe ponjala. 
Kuenje ukai wa tundila vodla wa fetika oku imba hati, Ca ndingile 
Sambimbi ponjala — , kuenje ulume wa yayulako letaviya hati, Weya 
ku d popie vali okai wange. Ukai wa imba vali hati, Ca ndingile 
Sambimbi ponjale — , vod va taviya nded ca taviya veyaco vati, 
Weya, weya ku d popie vali okai wange — . 

Olusapo hati, Onjala ka yi oeoi. 


A man and his wife went to visit the village of his wife. When 
they arrived at the village, they were received with great gladness; 
and they cooked for them many things, — a chicken, a pig, meat. 
There was much joy all the days. It came to pass that one day the 
man said to his wife, "Partner, to-morrow we return home;" to which 
the wife replied, "Very well." Then the woman told her relatives, 
saying, "To-morrow we are going," and they acquiesced. 

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1 20 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore. 

When the morning broke, they brought them a sack of corut for 
which they were thankful. They started off on their journey, going 
on and on, until finally they came to a large river. The man was 
carrying the sack of com. When they were on the bridge, the man 
fell into the river with the sack. The woman cried out in anguish, 
"Mother, oh! Mother, oh! to-day my husband, oh!" 

The man was carried way down the river with the sack. He came 
to the bank, and hid the sack in a thick clump of trees. He returned 
to his wife, and said, "Partner, the sack went on down the stream." 
The wife responded, "Never mind! it makes no difference." 

One day they both went to the river-bottom gardens to hoe; and 
as they were digging over the ground, they heard a bird singing, 
"There, there, there!" The man said, "That is the messenger of 
drinking-water — a handsome person — awaiting me; and as it cries 
thus, I go to drink, even water." So he went, leaving his wife and 
the children in the field by the river. He reached the thick woods in 
the ravine where he had hidden the sack of com; and upon arrival 
he built a fire, and b^;an to parch some kernels and to boU the whole 
com, and eat. 

One other day it happened again. They came to the river-fields ; and 
as they heard the bird singing again, saying, "Ther-e, the-re," the man 
said, "There again the messenger calls and awaits me;" and off he 
went again to the woods in the ravine where he had hidden the sack of 
com. He began to parch some and to boil the whole com, and began 
to eat. Behold, there stood his wife! He was frightened. The wife 
said, "Shucks, shucks! and that's the way you do, is it? The children 
nearly die with hunger, and the com given me by mother for them 
your stomach is finishing it up!" The man, covered with shame, 
cried, "Come, let us eat!" The woman answered, "You dog of a 
man, I won't!" 

It came to pass that one day a man made strong beer; and when 
they were dancing, the wife attempted to tell what her husband had 
done at the time of famine. In the midst of the place of gathering 
she b^;an to sing, "So did Sambimbi at the time of famine." . . . 
And her husband began quickly a chorus, saying, "Never mind! 
Don't tell it again, my own wife." . . . And the woman sang again, 
saying, "So did Sambimbi at the time of famine." ... All now took 
up the chorus of her husband, saying, "Never mind, never mind! 
Don't tell it again, my own wife." 

Moral: Hunger (or famine) has no shame. 


Eteke limue va linga olonamalall pokati kavo va linga omo, tu ende 
tu ka lisalamaileko oco tu tale u o velapo oku salama, kuenje Kadn- 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 121 

jonjo eye wa livangako oku ka salama noke NgunduahelSK wo van- 
jiliya kuenje wo mola, va lisalamailako olonjanja via lua. 

Kuenje Kadnjonjo wa popia lokuavo Ngunduahelele hati, Kuende 
ka salamevo, eye wa enda ed a kala loku enda wa sokolola hati, Hise 
nda ha salama pocanju ca Kadnjonjo oco ka telS oku mola vali, 
kuenje wa d linga; 

Kadnjonjo wa kala loku vanjiliya ukuavo eteke liosi ko muile vali. 
Kuenje uteke weya wa sumua oco a Unga, omo, ndinga nye omo Ngun- 
duohelSle ka moleha? Oco a linga hati, Hise nda ngenda kocanju 
cange si ka pekelako, momo dla uteke weya kuenda nda kava. Wa 
enda ende — toke a pitila, pocanju cahe ed a vanjapo o lete pa nainU 
nai nSLi oku d mola usumba wo kuata ca lua. 

Yu wa imba odsungo cahe hati, Ngunduahelele Idmbo kua yevala 
oluiya kuende ka taleko — . Ngunduahelele Idmbo kua yevala oluiya 
kuende ka taleko — . Noke Ngunduahelele co linga ohenda yu wa tunda- 
po wa linga hati, Ame ukude Ngunduahelele. Kuenje va yola yola. 


One day there was friendly strife between them; and they said one 
to the other, "Let us go and play hide-and-seek, and then we shall 
see who is best able to hide!" Then the bird went first to hide, and 
his playmate looked for him diligently until he found him. So they 
did many times. 

Finally the bird said to the other, "Now you go and hide!" As he 
was going to hide, he thought to himself, saying, "Well would it be 
if I went and hid in the nest of the bird, so he would not be able to 
find me;" and so he did. 

The little bird spent the entire day looking for the other, but without 
success. Finally night came on, and he was tired from his searching; 
and he said, "What shall I do because my playmate I cannot find? 
This I will do: I will go to my nest and have a sleep, because night 
has come on and I am tired." He went on and on until he arrived. 
In his nest, when he looked, there shone something bright, so very 
bright that it frightened him to look at it. 

Greatly scared, he began to sing, "Playmate, playmate, in the 
village a proclamation is being sounded ! Go and see! . . . Playmate, 
playmate, in the village a proclamation is being sounded! Go and 
see!" . . . After that the playmate felt for the little bird, and so 
came out and said, "It is I, your playmate." So they laughed gayly 
at each other, and were happy. 

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122 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Ulume wa yongola oku ka pasula kuvala wahe oco a linga hatit 
Ove a Kamalanga tuende o ka sindikile kuvala wange, Kamalanga 
hati, Omo muele. 

Kuenje va kuta epunda liavo noke va fetika oku enda kuvala toke 
va pitiia, omanu va lua va yolela va linga omo, Akombe veya we! 
Tiakololo, oco va va lekisa konjo ya posoka puai onjo yaco yi U sungue 
vali lonjo ya ndatembo yahe, va lale dwa dwa kuenda va va telekela 
ovina via lua va lia. 

Eteke limue ulume wa kala naito lonjala oco wa sokolola epungu 
li kasi kocumbo, oco a popia lukuenje hati, Kuende ka teye epungu 
kocumbo, oco Kamalanga ka tavele wa popia hati, Siti kulo kuvala 
ka d lingi osoi? 

Ukulu wa tema wa popia lumalehe hati, Osoi ye? kulo kuvala wove? 
Siti kuvala wange? Noke omol^ ka tavele yu wa enda eye mude wa 
enda n5 atako ka walde dmue oco a pitila kocumbo wa teya epungu, 
lia lua enene wa li kutila ponanga wa lituika kutue, oco wa soka oku 
tiuka konjo vo yekisile noke onjo yo limba yu wa inila vonjo ya 
ndatembo yahe, ed o sanga wa sima hati, Ukuenje wange Kamalanga, 
oco a fetika oku popia hati, Ove si ku ihako epungu liange cosi oco o 
kasi mude atako ladmue a wala. Oco ndatembo yahe a linga omo, 
Mulo a ndatembo hamoko vonjo yove. Eye wa popia hati, Ku ka 
likembise ove muele Kamalanga si ku iha epungu liange. Noke hati, 
Mbanja no ndeti ndatembo yahe, ya! ya! osoi yo kuta wa tila oco eya 
vonjo muna a sile ukuenje oco wa popia lahe hati, Tuende Idmbo 
lietu. Ukuenje hati. Si endi luteke ulo. Kuenje eye wa enda ukuenje 
wa sala. 

Omele ya nena ongulu ya pia ca fina, oco va pula ukuenje vati, 
Ukombe wa enda pi? Eye hati, Wa enda kimbo. Ukuenje wa liako 
vimue olositu vimue wambatelako ukuluwahe, ed o sanga kimbo wo 
wiha ositu yahe eye puai wa tema ca lua lukuenje. 

Ukuenje wa lombolola cosi komani nded ca ka pitile kuvala kuenje 
omola wa sanga esunga komanu. 


A man wished to go to his own wedding-feast: so he said to a boy, 
"Come on! I want you to accompany me to my wedding-feast." 
Kamalanga replied, "All right." 

So they tied up a little bundle, and started off for the wedding-feast. 
Soon they arrived; and all the people were pleased to see them, 
crying out, "Our friends have come! our friends have come!" So 
they showed them a very fine house. This house, however, was next 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 123 

door to that of his mother-in-law. They slept very comfortably, and 
they were provided with many things to eat. 

However, one day the man became a little hungry, and cast eyes 
upon the corn in the garden near the house. Finally he said to the 
boy, "Go and break off some ears in the garden." But Kamalanga 
would not agree, sa3dng, " Isn't this a wedding-feast? Won't it make 
shame to do that?" 

The elder became angry, and said to the boy, "Shame? Is this 
your wedding-feast? Isn't it mine?" But the boy would not go: 
so after a while he himself went, wearing nothing about his loins. 
Upon reaching the garden, he broke off a lot of com, tied it up in the 
cloth he carried, and placed it upon his head. He thought to return 
to the house from which he came; but, forgetting its exact location, 
he entered the house of his mother-in-law. Noticing a person, and 
thinking it to be that of his boy Kamalanga, he said, " I will not give 
you any of my com;" and there he was standing entirely naked. 
Soon his mother-in-law said, "This is the house of your mother-in-law, 
not yours." But he said, "Do not mock me, you Kamalanga! but I 
will give you no com of mine." Then he noticed there indeed was 
his mother-in-law! Whew! Whew! Filled with shame, he ran out, 
and reached the house where he had left the boy, and said to him, 
"Come on! Let's go home!" The boy replied, "I am not going this 
night." So he went off alone, leaving the lad. 

In the moming they brought a pig delidously well cooked, and 
asked the boy, "Where is our visitor?" and he replied, "He has 
retumed home." The lad ate some of the meat, and other of it he 
carried home with him to the man to whom he gave it, as it was 
intended for him. 

He flew into a passion with the lad ; but, when the boy had explained 
to all the people what had happened at the wedding-feast, they took 
his side, and were greatly amused. 


Ulume wa fuka okasima kuenda o ka sole ca lua puai omolihe eye 
o ka lava lava otembo yosi. Eteke limue omola okasima kaco ko 
tila ka enda kisitu kup^ pala. Noke isiaco weya wa linga hati, A 
tate okasima ketu ka pi? Eye hati, Okasima ketu ka tila. Eye 
isiaco wa tema hati, Ove a molange wa huka, kuende ka vanje ndopo 
okasima osimbu hu lete. Eye hati. Pi ha ka sanga a tate? Eye hati, 
Kuende kisitu. Oco omola wa lila ca lua yu wa popia la isiahe hati, 
Songele okandma oko ha vanja lako oakasima, isiaco wa songa kuenje 
wa wiha. 

Omola wa enda lika liahe kisitu, ed a pitila kusitu wa tete wa sika 
okandma loku imba odsungo hati, Kumbiti, kumbiti okasimaka tate 

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124 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

omo ka li omu? Olosima vio tambulula viti, Mulo ka kemo ka enda 
kusitu kupombombo vanja oku ku li udlH umue ka ku li ovidl^ vivali. 
Momo okasima kavo ka kuete idlH vivali, wa ci ling^ Idsitu via lua 
puai ka ka sangele, noke wa pitila kusitu wa sulako wa sika vali had, 
Kumbiti, kumbiti okasima ka tate omo ka li omo? Olosima vio 
tambulula vali viti, Mulo ka kemo ka enda kusitu kupombombo 
vanja oku ku li ucila umue ka ku li icila vivali, puai noke wa ka mola 
301 wa ka kuata kuenje wa sanjuka. Wa ka tuala ku isiahe isiahe wa 
ci sola puai omolSL wa d patekela momo isiahe wo kangisa. 


A man had brought up a little monkey, and he loved it very much; 
but it was his child who had the care of it always. One day the little 
monkey broke away from the child, and ran to the thick woods of a 
ravine far, far away. After a while the father came, and said to the 
child, "Beloved, where is our little monkey?" And he replied, "It 
has run away." The father became very angry, and said, "You, my 
child, have done badly. Go at once and look for the little monkey 
while I am watching you." He replied, "O father! where shall I go?" 
— "To the woods in the ravine." So the child began to cry dis- 
tressingly, and said to his father, "Make me a little drum, and I will 
go and look with that." This the father did, and gave it to him. 

The child went all by himself to the thick woods; and when he 
arrived at the first one, he b^;an to play his little drum, and to sing, 
"Kumbiti, Kumbiti, the little monkey of my father, is he here?" 
All the monkeys replied, saying, "Here he is not, but has gone to the 
woods in the ravine of the Pombombo. Look there, and you will find 
just one tail, not two," because the little monkey did not have two 
(tails), but only one tail. So he went to one ravine after another, but 
without success: he could not find it. Finally he reached the farthest 
woods, and he played again, singing, "Kumbiti, Kumbiti, the little 
monkey of my father, is he here?" All the monkeys replied, sa3dng, 
"Here he is not, but has gone to the woods in the ravine of the Pom- 
bombo. Look there, and you will find just one tail, not two." Finally 
he saw the little monkey, and caught him, and in consequence was 
filled with joy. He took him to his father, who was very much pleased ; 
but the child always remembered how his father had wronged him. 


Ulume umue ed a kala kimbo liavo wa panga oku ka pasula kuvala. 
Wa enda vo tambula dwa dwa, kuenje omelS vo telekela ombdela yu 
vo simbuilamo ondungo yolongupa, ed a yi lia yo pepa muele, kuenje 
osimbu omanu va enda kovapia wa sokolola sokolole — , noke hati. 

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Utnbundu Tales , Angola, Southwest Africa. 125 

Hise nda ngenda ha lesa vodne caco muna va tuile ondungo yolongupa 
yu wa enda kuenje wa iiiisa utue wahe vodne caco yu wa fetika oku 
lesa ondungo lelimi liahe ndomo ombua yi lesa lesa, noke wa yongola 
oku tundamo puai ka ca tavde, hati, ndinga ndeti, ndinge ndeti 
haimo ka d tava. Noke wa kupuka posi lodne, olongulu vieya vio 
tinol51a ca lua osoi yo kuta. Kuenje omanu veya kovapia, va lete 
ndatembo yavo yu lodne kutue posi posamua. Ndatembo yahe wa 
fetika oku liyula ca lua alume veya va nyanQlH onjaviti va tetula 
odne oku tundamo haico oku enda kimbo liavo! 


A man living at his own village desired to go and visit at the 
wedding-feast at another village. There they recdved him with great 
appreciation; and in the morning they brought him a dish which had 
been seasoned with a relish in which were peanuts, and it was very 
delidous to the taste. After the people had gone to work in the 
fields, he continued thinking how tasty that relish was; and finally he 
said, "I just think I shall go and lick out the mortar ^ in which they 
mixed together that relish." So he stuck in his head and began to 
lick out the sides of the mortar with his tongue, the same as a dog 
would do it. After a while he tried to withdraw his head, but was 
unable to do so, though he tried every way he could think of. Finally 
he fell over on the ground, mortar and all, and the pigs came and 
began to roll him over and over, and it shamed him fearfully. Later 
the people came from the fields, and found their son-in-law there on 
the ground, with the mortar fastened tightly to his head. They made 
a great outcry; and the men then came, and they brought an axe 
with which they split open the mortar, releasing the man, who, with- 
out further ceremony, hastened back to his village. 


Ulume umue kotembo yonjala wa kala lombenje yowild, noke omo 
onjala ya lua wa fela posi opo a kapa ombeje yowiki, ed onjala yo vala 
o pekela posi o puela loluneva. Wa d linga olonjanja via lua. 

Kuenje eteke limue ukai waye wo molU yu wo popia had, Ove puai 
ku sokolola omala vetu. Kuenje ulume osoi yo kuta. 


Once upon a time, when there was great hunger, a man had a 
gourd of honey. As the famine became more severe, he went and 

> A mortar is made from the end of a log hollowed out, and may be from six to twelve 
inches deep, sometimes more. 

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126 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

dug a hole in the ground, in which he placed the gourd of honey. 
Whenever he felt the pangs of hunger, he went and lay on the ground, 
and sucked up the honey with a hollow reed. This he did many times. 
However, one day his wife caught him in the act, and said to him, 
"That's how you do, is it? and you don't even think of our children!" 
And the man was filled with shame. 


Eteke limue ukai wa ile kovapia lomdlihe Casangu pole omolaco 
wo sola ca lua kuenda omanu vamue vo solevo ca lua. Ed a pitila 
kepia wa tula ohumba wa yelula om51^ wo k£4>a pesita kuenje wa 

Wa fetika oku lima, ed a pitila pesita a kapele omolSL ka ivaluldle 
wa lima lonjanga kuenje om51^ wo teta utue, oco wa lila ca lua muele 
wo yelula lusumba, noke wa ydula uti umue utito wa tuihinya utue. 
Yu wa enda kimbo loku lila ca lua. Ed a pitila nawa yahe hati, 
A nawa om5l^ eye ndu kuate. Eye wa fetika oku imba odsungo, 
ced hati, Casangu o vela mutue, Casangu o vela mutue, o vela 
mutue ongongo ya Luanda, ongongo ya Luanda. Manjange, odndde 
cange Casanguwe! 

Omanu kuenje va tambula omdllL va limbuka okuti wa fa kuenje 
omanu va lila ca lua. Ukai wa lombolola nded ca pita, kuenje omanu 
vo tukula ukai weveke. 


One day a woman went to the field to work, taking along her child 
Casangu. Not only did she love this child greatly, but others did 
also. When she arrived at the field, she put down her basket which 
she carried, and took the child and placed him near a pile of brush 
which was to be burned, and covered him up. 

She b^;an her work, tilling the ground and digging it over. When 
she reached the pile of brush in which the child had been nestled, she 
forgot all about it, and, hoeing vigorously, she cut off the child's head. 
Heart-broken, she cried a great deal, then she picked him up with fear. 
After a while she took a little piece of wood and joined the head to 
the body. Then she went on to the village. When she arrived, her 
brother-in-law said, "O sister! let me hold the child." Then the 
woman b^;an to sing, saying, ''Casangu is sick in his head, Casangu 
is sick in his head, his head is sick. What hardship, what hardship! 
O my brother ! O Casangu ! My white child ! ' ' 

Then the people came and took the child, and saw that it was 
dead, and they all cried most bitterly. The woman explained just 
how it happened; and when they heard, they dubbed her a fool. 

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Umbundu Tales , Angola, Southwest Africa. 127 


Eteke limue ulume wa yeva ondaka kukai wahe okuti imunu vi li 
loku yana ca lua kepia lietu. Ulume oku d yeva wa yelula uta wahe 
wosika ukai lomSUa hati, Nda enda oku ka lavekela, ukai lomala vad, 
Oco muele. Ca kala onoloei oco a enda wa kala konjila loku sima hati, 
etaili ha yambula imunu. Yu wa pitila kepia wa tumala vodpundo 
luta wahe noke wa yeva imunu vioviya kodpundo yu vio molU, eye 
wa seteka oku loya puai ya! ka d tel^le, oco vo kuata loku veta ca 
Iva. Noke vo sasa kuenje omo vodpundo caco mua kala ombia londalu 
vo teleka; ed a pia vo simbula. 

Imunu via fetika oku iva epungu locipoke ha va endi Idmbo liavo, 
ombia yomunu va 3d sia pilo^ loku fdoka toke komele. Omele ed 
ukai eya kepia lomalU va ambata osema lovava ed va pitila pocipundo 
va sanga, ombia ya pia onduko, ed va yi mola va yolela ca lua va sima 
okud mbi tate wa ipaya ombambi lukai haico a simavo. 

Ovo kuenje va pika iputa ukai yapa o simbula ositu; loku mahamo 
oco wa avela omSUSt vahe, noke wa siamo yimue ya veyahe momo wa 
soka okud mbi wa ka yeva kusenge kuenje va kala vepia osimbu ya 
lua. Ukai wa nuala vepia had, oco mbanje lio ndeti konde yepia ya! 
ya! epia va li punda epungu! odpoke! cosi ca enda limunu. Kuenje 
wa fedka oku lilula had, Ene amSUa epia va lipunda, so yene puai 
wa enda pi? eye he oko a lale kulo? Yu wa fedka oku lila kumosi 
lomala vahe. Ed veya vali vodpundo had, oco mbanje ho vonele yula 
wa kala vodpundo o lete ho utue wa veyahe yu. Va fedka oku lila 
lomala vahe kuenje va enda kimbo, ed va pidla kimbo va fedka oku 
lenda ovaimo mekonda liositu yaco va lile kuenje omanu va yayulako 
oku va nyuisa ihemba, noke va sanja ca lua inumba, kuenje va kaya 
oco va fedka oku lombolola nded ca pidle kepia. 

Olusapo had, Odhandeleko d koka ekandu, momo olonjanja tu 
yeva okud oku lia ositu yomunu imo li lenda. Ukai waco wa lia 
ositu ya veyahe lomala vahe puai ka va lendde ovaimo puai apa a 
d limbuka wa lenda imo kumosi lomala. 


One day a man heard from his wife that thieves were stealing a 
great deal from their field. Upon hearing it, he at once picked up 
his gun and bade good-by to his wife and children, saying, "I am 
going to go and watch;" and they replied, "All right." It was 
evening; and as he went along the path, he was thinking that to-day 
he would punish those thieves. Upon arriving at the field, he hid 
himself in the field-hut, with his gun. Soon he heard the thieves 
coming toward the field-hut, and they saw him. He tried to shoot. 

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128 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

but he was unable to do so. So they caught him and beat him un* 
mercifully; then they cut him up. There being in the field-hut a big 
pot and fire, they cooked him up; and when it was done, they sea- 
soned it. 

Then the thieves b^;an to steal the com and the beans, and after- 
wards went to their village, leaving the pot containing the man on 
the fire, where it kept on boiling until morning. In the morning, 
when the woman came to the field with her children, they brought 
meal and water. Arriving at the fielcl-hut, they found the pot with 
its contents thoroughly cooked. They rejoiced greatly when they 
saw it, as they thought that ''father " had killed a deer ; and so thought 
also the wife. 

So they made mush; and after the woman had seasoned the meat, 
she tasted it and gave to her children. However, she left some in 
the pot for her husband, as she thought that probably he had gone 
again to the woods to hunt. They awaited him a long time. Then 
the woman took a turn around her field to see how it was, and was 
astonished to see how it had been plundered, — com, beans, all, had 
gone with the thieves. So she began to cry loudly, saying, "My 
children, the field has been plunder^l; but your father, where is he? 
Did he not come here to sleep?" So she began to cry, together with 
her children. She came again to the rest-hut, saying, "Til just look 
under the bed [which was in the field-hut]," and there she saw the 
head of her husband. She and her children began to weep bitterly as 
they retumed to their village. As they arrived, their bodies (stom- 
achs) began to swell because of the meat which they had eaten. 
The people hurried and gave them medicine, because of which they 
vomited what they had eaten. Soon they were well, and they ex- 
plained all that had happened at the field. 

Moral: Knowing the law brings sin. Many times we have heard 
that to eat man's flesh will produce severe bloating. The woman ate 
the flesh of her husband, as did also her children; but they did not 
swell up, because they did it unknowingly. As soon as they realized 
it, however, they bloated immediately. 


Ulume wa kuela ukai puai ukai waco ukuaku lipongolola odnyama, 
ed ulume. a enda vusenge eye eca olongupa komala vahe va vali, 
ukuavo wokatumba ukuavo wahe muele. Eci a va iha olongupa 
viaco va takila eyemuele lahe o takila, puai viahe o takila lombili 
ed a mala o nyeha olongupa viomola wokatumba, nda ka tava oku 
eca olongupa viaco nyoho yaco o lipongolola odnyama kuenje omoll 
o tila o londa vuti, eye yapa weya ale vemehi liuti waco oku takila uti 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Souikwest Africa. 129 

okuti wu kupuka pon, oco a takilS omola kuenje omotiL o liyulat 
Tate, tatewa ka yeva wa ka yeva ukcmgo wa ka yeva, Tate ocmyama 

So yahe ed a d yeva hati, Ooo — o. Ed ukai a yeva ondaka yulume 
wahe lahe wa yolokela volui wa liyavekamo kuenje wa pongoloka 
vali omunu. 

Kuenje eteke limue 80 yaco wa salama. Eye ukai wa eca vali 
olongupa, omolSL ed a fetika oku takillL wo sakalaisa kuenje wa tilila 
vutii ed ukai a fetika oku takila uti ulume waloya kuenje ukai waco 



A man married a woman ; but this woman was one who could change 
herself into an animal. When the man would go to the woods, she 
would give peanuts to her two children, — one her very own, the 
other a step-child. Whenever she would give them peanuts, she also 
would eat some, but hers she would eat very quickly; and when she 
was through, she would snatch away by force those of her step-child. 
And if the child would not willingly give them up, the mother would 
change herself into a wild animal, and then the child would flee and 
climb a tree. Meanwhile the animal came to the foot of the tree and 
b^an gnawing it, so it would fall to the ground. Then the animal 
would begin to chew at the child, which would cry out loudly, '' Father, 
father, who has gone to hunt, who has gone to hunt, the hunter who 
has gone to hunt, father, here's a wild animal of the woods!*' 

The father, hearing the cry, responded, "All right! ... all right!" 
When the woman heard the voice of her husband, she ran quickly to 
the river and threw hersdf in, at which she became again a person. 

One day the father secreted himself near by. The woman again 
gave peanuts to the child; and when it began to eat, she annoyed it 
in the same manner as formerly, and it fled for refuge to a tree. There- 
upon the woman began to chew at the tree, — in the guise of an 
animal, as before, — and the man fired at and killed her. 


Ulume wa kuela ukai puai kimbo liavo onjala ya lua. Oco ukai wa 
paiiinya ulume wahe hati, Tuende kimbo lia tate la mai momo oko 
ku li okulia kua lua. Olongupa, epungu, odpoke, ovisiakala, olo- 
namba, lomutu. Kuenje va enda, ed va amako vonjila wa pula ukai 
wahe hati, Odli muele ku li okulia kua lua? Eye hati, Oco ku li 
muele okulia kua lua. Ende ta kimbo va va yolda ca lua, onganja 
yodmbombo kolongolo, oku pitila koiiolosi via pia iputa lositu yosanji 

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130 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wa lia. Haimo ed a imbapo wa eokolola hati, Ca! Ove vukai wange 
wa niafla ed tua tunda kimbo heti, Ku mai okulia kua lua tueya 
kulo vali okulia kuna wa tukuile ka ku moleha? Wa tumila ukai 
wahe weya, had, Cina tua popia vonjila ku ka ivaleko popo. Va 
pekela omele kua ca vo pikila vali iputa viosanji haimo ulume wa d 
pembula hati, Ya iputa lika mude lokulia kuna kua sapu ilile ukai 
wange vonjila ka ku moleha, wa nSmba, Oco wa kovonga ukai wahe 
hati, Ove vuniaiii ed tua likimiinyile ca ku limba? Kuenje ukai wahe 
wa yevako wa ka d sapula ku inahe. Yu va enda kovapia oku kopa 
olongupa, utombo, ovisakala, omutu, okulia kuosi. Ed veya vimbo 
va tdeka kua pia, kuenje va longeka vohumba 3dmue 3dnene va nena 
konjo, ulume wa sanjuka ed a mola okulia kuaco. Wa lia viosi wa 
yukiyako vali iputa. Oku pitila vuteke ofi yeya wa fetika oku kenya 
kenya, omele kua ca vati, Ka tahi tu ka vanji ed d kuete omunu. 
Oku piti la kodmbanda wa taha hati, Ladmue d kuete omunu oil a 
lale, puai oku kutulula osoi ndatembo yene kuendi ko kapi kesisa, 
ko singilisi, puai tete ko nyuisi vimue ovihemba vievi. Pole oku 
singilisa kuaco kolui u kapi upanga umue wene, u yaliko esisa, olon- 
guaya povaka, kuenda oloiioma oku sikila vu ka imba odsungo 
hoti, — 

Olonamba kovisakala! 

Cilikuete kuete kumue! 

Omamale a nieko! 

Kuenje wa ecako ketako oku nia tiu, tiu, kuenje wa kaya ! Mekonda 
liosoi yaco wa tikula uta wahe wa enda vusenge loku kua kua heyi, 
heyi, ed a sanga ocinyama congelenge tai — i uta kuenje ca wila posi 
weya wa tetako udla waco wa tiuka vali vimbo loku kua kua ed a 
pitila wa eca udla waco komanu kuenje omanu vo kuama eyemuele 
haimo n5 oku kua kua kuahe, te podnyama caco opo yapa omanu va 
d yuva vati, Avoyo olosande vio sengela, puai oco a linilH nilH n5 ndeti. 


A man married a woman, returning with her to his village. Because 
of great hunger, the woman said to the man, "Let us go to father's 
and mother's village, where there is to be found much food, — peanuts, 
com, beans, yams, tubers, and squash!" So they started off; and as 
they were going along the path, the man asked his wife again, " Is it 
really true there will be much food?" to which she replied, "Certainly, 
there is much food." They kept on going and going until they finally 
reached the village, where they received a most hearty welcome and 
were given immediately a gourd of beer to drink. In the evening 
they had mush with side-dishes of meat and chicken. However, when 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 131 

be had finished, he began to think what the woman had said, saying 
in his mind, "Gracious! that woman of mine fooled me good, because, 
when we left the village, she Wd, 'At my mother's there's lots of 
food;' and now we come here, and where's the food, I should like to 
know?" So he sent and called his wife, and said, ''What we talked 
about coming along the path, don't forget it!" They slept again; 
and in the morning they made him more mush with chicken; yet the 
man despised it, saying, "Gee! only mush! Where's that fine food 
my wife told me about coming along the path? There isn't any, 
that's all! She lied to me." So he otlled his wife, and said to her, 
"You poor stick, have you forgotten what you promised me?" After 
hearing what he said, she went and told her mother. Her mother 
went to the field and brought back peanuts, cassava, yams, squash, 
and all sorts of things to eat. Then she cooked them all in fine shape, 
and filled a large basket full, and brought it to the house. The man 
was overjoyed when he saw the food, and ate the whole of it up; and 
not only that, but ate mush as well. When night came on, his stomach 
began to groan and groan; and when it was daylight, they said, 
"Let us divine, in order that we may discover what is the matter 
with him!" So they went to the witch-doctor and divined; and he 
said, "Nothing is the matter with the man except a stomach-ache, 
but, in order to pay him back for his treatment to his step-mother, 
go and place him upon a mat, and treat him as one possessed by a 
spirit. First, however, give him this medicine to drink. Then to do 
the thing properly, as one possessed with a spirit, place him upon a 
ridge in the field (as where the com grew) near the river, spread a 
mat over him, put a guava in each hand. Then let the big drums 
beat, and all sing as follows: — 

" * Tubers and yams 
Have combined together! 
Now let his bowels move! '" 

Then they let go of him, and, my! what a movement! But he was 
cured. But it shamed him fearfully, and so he took his gun and went 
to the woods hallooing and calling; and when he found a gnu, bang! 
went his gun, and the big animal fell to the ground. Then he ran 
up and cut off its tail, and returned to the village, hallooing. When 
he arrived, he gave the tail to the people; and they all followed him 
back to the woods, he hallooing all the way, until they came to where 
the animal was. They skinned it, saying, "Whew! but good luck has 
pursued him; and that accounts for the way his bowels just flew!" 


Onjala ya veta vofeka yavo pole vofeka mua tundile ukai mua 
akala okulia kua lua, kuenje ukai hati, Tuende kofeka yetu tu ka 

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132 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

vanjeko okulia, kuenje va enda ed va pitila oko kimbo va va yolda 
ca lua, kuenje ekumbi liofiolosi vo laleka onjala. Puai ed va kala 
kimbo liavo wa popele lukai wahe hati» Olonamba si Ua lia. Ed va 
pitila oko ndatembo yahe wa fda olonamba hati» va ende va ka tuale 
ku ndatembo, ukai wahe bati, Ndatembo yove olonamba ka lialia, 
puai omo olonjo vi lisungue, ndatenibo yulume wa d yeva, wa sika 
ovilua hati, Olonamba ndia ndia, olo namba ndia! ndia! 

OmolSLhe wa d yeva hati, Yevelela a kuku tate bati» Olonamba 
ndia ndia. Kuenje ndatembo yahe oku d yeva wa enda kovapia oku 
ka fSla olonamba kekumbi kueya vimue viowisu, vimue via pia: 
kuenje vo nenel2 wa lia ofiolosi wa yukinyako iputa, oku pitila vuteke 
CO kokela odpulukalo eye oku d sokolola okuti nda o tundila posamua 
hati, Ka d tava momo kuvala ka va nila nilako, yu wa tambula 
oHualusa yahe wa nilamo yeyuka to laninSL, omele kua ca olio eteke 
lioku enda kimbo» omolSL hati, Va nene kulo ohualusa eye hati, Ya, 
ngambata n5 amuele momo muli vimue sanga o vi lola pod. Ed eya 
ponjango oku liusika la ndatembo yaha ekolombde wa patahSLliL, dna 
kapa pepunda mbu. Kuenje ongulu ya yeva elemba li tunda vohua- 
lusa kuenje ongulu ya kuatamo ohualusa mua kala anin§, waya waya 
powiiii womanu; ndatembo yahe co linga osoi, oku tundapo wa tam- 
bula uta wahe wa enda vusenge wa loya omalanga wa loya vali 
omalanga yikuavo, wa tetako idla vi vali weya vali kimbo liuvala wahe 
wa eca ovidla viaco. Omanu vati, Ahamba ahe a nila vohualusa. 

Ukai wahe had, Ahamba aco omo a linga linga omo nda a nil§mo 
yapa hoti» oku lia ositu kueya. 


The country of a man and his wife was greatly distressed by lack 
of food. However, in the country from which the woman came, 
there was much food ; and so the woman said, ** Let's go to my country 
in search of food!" and oflF they went. When they arrived at the 
village, (the people) were greatly pleased to see them ; but when evening 
came, they found hunger. Before leaving their own village, the man 
had said to his wife, "Now, tubers I will not eat." When they 
arrived at this village, the mother-in-law went and dug some tubers, 
saying, "Take these to my son-in-law;*' but his wife said, "Yes, but 
he doesn't eat tubers." Because of the houses being close together, 
the son-in-law heard the conversation, and began to whistle, saying, 
"Tubers I will eat, tubers I will eat!" 

His child, hearing this from his father, cried out, "Listen to that, 
will you? Dad says he will eat tubers!" So his mother-in-law, upon 
hearing of it, went to the field to dig tubers. Later she brought some 
back uncooked, and some that were cooked. They brought them to 

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Umbundu TaleSt Angola^ Southwest Africa. 133 

him, and he ate freely, after which he had mush as well. During the 
night, because of all that he had eaten, it brought on diarrhcea. How- 
ever, from custom of the wedding-feast, it would never do for him 
to go outside under the circumstances. So he took his bag (?) and 
stooled in it, filling it completely full. The next day early they were 
to return to their village; and the child said, "Bring the bag, I'll 
carry it." But the father replied, "Oh, no! never mind! I will carry 
it, because it contains something which may easily drop out." When 
he came to the palaver-house to bid good-by to all, the bag was 
suspended from his shoulder; he had not put it in the bundle of the 
child. A pig, getting a whiff of the odor which came from the bag, 
snatched at it, and shook it before the crowd, and the contents were 
scattered far and wide. It surely was a most unpleasant situation 
for the son-in-law. Upon leaving, he at once took his gun and went 
to the bush, where he shot a large deer. Then he shot a second one. 
He cut off the two tails, and returned to the village and handed out 
these tails. The people said, "It was his spirits which stooled in 
the bag." 

And his wife stood pat, and affirmed, "Yes, that is the way his 
spirits do; and whenever they stool in his bag, then we know it means 
there is meat coming." 


Akisikisi vofeka a lua oco a takili omanu vofeka umuamue Ilka wa 
sialamo eye ukai puai wa mina. Kuenje wa tilila kolui yu wa inilil 
voluneva omo a kala toke wa cita. Eteke a cita omolahe kuenje hati, 
Tua tunda etu vosakunyanga, ohonji peka lisongo. Eteke limue hati, 
A mai etaili sula omongua oco u mbumbe momo ngenda kimbo lia- 
kisikisi. Kuenje inahe wo vumba vumbe pe te vovaso omo mua sala. 
Wa tambula ohualusa yahe kuenda ohonji ende te pimbo liakisikisi 
wa sangapo lika ava va teleka olombia viositu vosi va enda kusenge 
oku yeva. Eye eci eya wa lia olombia viosi viositu, muele weya 
hati, Ndu takilH. Eye wa liyula hati, Ndekate no momo mepa, mepa, 
mepa! Kuenje wa tundapo weya vali ku nyoho yahe. Eteke leteke 
haimo no vamuele veya tupu va sanga olombia via liwa ale, va pula 
ava vakuaku tata vati, Helie o lia lia olombia? Ovo vati, Umue no 
okokuenje o pepa ca lua. Kuenje vosi va lipaiiinya vati, Etaili tu 
usala oco tuiye tu vanje omunu waco, kuenje va lete no o li loku iya, 
vati, Okaliye yo o li loku iya. 

Eci eya wa lia olombia viosi, eci va soka oku wipaya, eye hati, 
Ko ka njipali n6 mepa, mepa, mepa. Vo lekata vosi. Vo pula vati, 
lingainga ndati. Eye hati, Ene vu d yongola? Ovo vati, Oco. 
Hati, Ka tiavi olohui kuenda sandi olombiavinene u kapi piko ovava 
aco a feluke muele. 

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134 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Kuenda vu vanji akuku anene ed ovava a feluka vosi vu wila 
vakuku amo ngenda loku itila ovava katimba ene» puai ed njitila 
ovava lomue o litetela oku uha no ne, momo omo va linga linga urn- 
banda waco. Vosi va wila vakuku aco eye wa itila ovava katimba 
avo kuenje vosi va fa. Wa tiuka ku nyoho yahe hati, Vosi nda va 
ipa pe. 



In a certain country the goblins (akisikisi) were very numerous, 
and they were eating up all of the people. So it came about that but 
one person was left» and she a woman soon to give birth. So she ran 
away to the river, and crawled in among the reeds and hid there 
until she had a child. Then she came out, the child carrying a bow 
in front. In course of time the boy said to her, "To-day you pound 
some salt, and you do me obeisance, because I am going to the village 
of the goblins." So his mother did as she was told, and minded him* 
most expliddy. He took his bag and his bow, and went on and on 
until he arrived at the village of the goblins, where he found no one 
except those who were cooking big pots filled with meat. All had gone 
to the woods to hunt. He inmiediately ate up all the pots of meat; 
and when found by the leader who returned, the leader cried, "And 
I am going to eat you up!" The child screamed out, crying, "Just 
lick away at me, because I am sweet, I am sweet, I am sweet." Then 
he left, and returned to his mother. And so it happened day after 
day, when the owners returned from their hunt, they found the pots 
entirely empty. They asked those who tended the pots who it was 
that had been eating the meat; and they replied, "Just only a little 
boy, but he is very sweet." So they agreed among themselves, saying, 
"To-day let us stay at home and watch for that person, and see who 
it is." Soon they saw him coming; and the word was passed, "There 
he's coming." 

When he arrived, he finished up the pots; and as they thought to 
kill him, he said, "Do not kill me, for I am sweet, I am sweet, I am 
sweet." They licked him with their tongues; and then they asked 
him, "How do you do it?" And he said, "Do you really wish to 
know?" and they said, "Sure." So then he told them to get together 
a lot of fire-wood and to find some big pots; to fill these with water 
and get them to boiling good. 

They were also to find some corn-bins (these are made of bark, and 
portable); and when the water was boiling well, they were to dimb 
into these bins. "I will sprinkle a littie water upon your bodies; 
but not one of you make an outcry, but keep as still as mice, because 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 135 

it Is only then that the charm will work." So when the water was 
boiling, they all climbed into the corn-bins, and he poured great 
quantities of boiling water upon them until they were all dead. Then 
he returned to his mother, and said, "Now we've got our pay, they 
are all dead." 


Otembo yaco ombela ka ya lokele olondui viosi via kukuta, ovin- 
yama lolonjila via fa lenyona. Evi via salapo kuenje via likongola, 
kuenje via londa komunda yimue oku kovonga ombela. Komunda 
yaco kua kala vali ewe linene, u o kovonga ombela oko a talama 
lombinga peka. Tete Kandimba, kuenje wa londa lombinga peka 
vakuavo vosi va tumala posi vemi. 

Kuenje wa sika vombinga, — 

Pe — e, pe — e 

Ombela, ombela vongangele — ya ca etenya — a 

Jt c c, pc c 

Ombela, ombela vongangele — ya ca etenya — a 

Ed ci linga ndeti ndombela ndombundu tui tui 

Ove a Hosi tu ka nyuila pi ovava 

Ed d linga ndeti ndombela ndombundu tui tui 

Ove a Hosi tu ka nyuila pi ovava. 

Ndado wa kala loku kovonga haimo ombela ka yeyile. Ovinyama 
viosi haico via linga haimo ombela ka yeyile. Kuenje va tumila 
Mbeu, hati. Eye. 

Ovinyama vimue vinene via fetika oku pembula Mbeu viti, Etu 
tumanu vodli tua d tokoka etela liano li tela nye? Puai haimo vati, 
Eye n6. 

Ed, Mbeu eya wa tambula ombinga wa londa kewe liaco wa sikamo 
(dna ca tete haico). Kuenje ombela ya fetika oku lemiliL'ed a kala 
loku sikamo vali, kuenje ombela yeya. Ovinyama viosi via komona 
viti, Mbeu ukulu, Mbeu ukulu. Oku imba kuaco umosi ed a imba 
ovinyama viosi vi taviya. 

Hosi mekonda eye wa linga ndosoma eye wa tukula, nded etu 
pokati ketu nda pa veta dmue tu tukula umue wa velapo. 


Once upon a time there was a great drought, because no rain fell. 
The rivers were dried up, and the animals and birds were dying with 
thirst. Those which remained gathered themselves together, and 
climbed upon a high mountain in order to invoke rain. Upon the 
mountain was a very large stone, and the one seeking to call the rain 
would stand upon the stone with the whistle made from a deer-horn 

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136 Journal of American Folk-Lore. .^ 

in his hand. First the rabbit b^^an, and he dimbed iipon the rock 
with the deer-horn whistle in his hand, all the others atting about 
the base. 
Then he would blow the horn and sing, — 

"Toot — ot — otttt! 

Rain, rain, come from afar! Drought, go away! 

Toot — ot — otttt! 

Rain, rain, come from afar! Drought, go away! 

As we do like this, may a litde rain come as mist! 

To you the Lion, where shall we find water to drink? 

As we do like this, may a litde rain come as mist! 

To you the Lion, where shall we find water to drink?" 

Even though he called the very best he could, yet the rain did not 
come. And so tried all the animals in their turn, yet without success. 
Finally they sent and called the tortoise, telling him to come. 

But with this, all the large animals b^;an to despise the tortoise, 
saying, "If we, the really wise and capable animals, are unable to 
accomplish anything, why call such a slow-poke as that?" However, 
the crowd said, "Let him come!" 

So the tortoise, taking the deer-horn whistle in his hand, climbed 
the rock, and began to blow the whistle and sing, as had done the 
others. Soon the clouds began to gather; and as he continued calling 
and singing, the rain began to fall. Then all the animals were as- 
tonished; and they began to say, "The tortoise is our ruler, the 
tortoise is our ruler!" One of them led the singing, and all the rest 
joined in the chorus. 

In the above the Lion is mentioned as he to whom all the other 
powers give obeisance. 


Ulume wa tele onjanjo venyala kuenje weya kimbo, omele wa 
tunda hati, Ha nyuliL olonjanjo viange, wa sanga mua fa odnjila 
dnene. Ulume hati, Etaili nda yeva kuenje wa nyanula ombueti oku 
ci tesola. Onjila ya popia hati, Mopele Uenyala, oco ame eteke hu 
popele liesisi. Ulume kuenje wo pandululamo kuenje ca enda, ulume 
weya kimbo. 

Ukai wo pula hati, Ka mua file? Eye hati, Oco. 

Eteke limue ukai hati, Tuende o ka sindikile kimbo lietu, ulume 
hati, Omo muele. Kuenje ukai wa sula osema. 

Kuenje va katuka oku enda ed va pitila vonjila va fiualeheUi la 
Cinyoha congongo, onjila yosi wa yi sitika lapa va pita ka pa moleha, 
Cinyoha wa popia had, Imbila! Imbila! Imbila! utandanjila! Kuenje 
va eca iputa eye wa tambula haimo had, Imbila! Imbila! Imbila! 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 137 

utandanjila! Kuenje va eca ohumba yosema wa ina, haimo oku 
pinga ka liwekelepo toke ikuata viosi via pua loku eca. Noke wa 
eca omola lukai wahe» Cinyoha wa ina. 

Eye haimo hati, Imbila, utandanjila, ulume lacimue vali a kuete, 
oku tiukila konyima ka d tava, oku enda kovaso ka d tava, Cinyoha 
wa sitika usenge wosi» kuenje ulume wa londa vuti. Wa ivaluka 
Cinjila una wa lingile hati, Mopele lienyala oco ame eteke hu popele 

Kuenje wa fetika oku kovonga Cinjila. 

Cinjila we — e, nda ku popelele lame ndo mopel 
Cinjila we — e, nda ku popelele lame ndo mopel 
Volongongo tua endele kavali volongongoanjili 
Volongongo tua endele kavali volongongoanjil 

Noke Cinjila wa yevako ed ulume a kovonga, haimo ulume wa 
kovonga vali (dna ca tete haico). Cinjila hati, Oco — o. Kuenje 
weya wo pula hati, Nye? Eye hati, Cinyoha. Kuenje Cinjila wa 
ipa onyoha yaco. Kuenje onyoha yaco va yi tola va sanga vimo 
omanu vana a inile haimo va kasilili lomuenyo, lukai wahe, kuenda 
omaliL vahe lovikuata viosi, kuenje va enda kimbo liavo. 

Olusapo luaco lu lombolola ohenda. Ukuene nda wa ku linga ohenda 
love u lingavo ohenda. 


A man once, set a snare in the plain, and then went on to his village. 
In the morning he says to himself, ''I am going to have a look at my 
snares and see if perchance some large bird has been caught." And 
so it proved. He found one, and he lifted his stick to kill it. Then 
the bird spoke to him, saying, "Save me here on the plain, and some 
day I will save you in the thick woods." The man heeded and untied 
the bird, and it went. When the man reached his village, his wife 
asked, "Did nothing get caught?" to which the man replied, "As 
you say." 

One day the woman said to the man, "Come, and let us go and 
visit our village!" to which the man responded, "All right, surely!" 
And the woman began to pound the meal for the journey. 

In time they got started; and as they were going along the path, 
suddenly there appeared before them a very large snake, so that the 
whole path was blocked, with nowhere to pass. The big snake spoke, 
saying, "Give me something, give me something, give me something, 
you there, standing upon the path!" They gave him their mush, 
which he took quickly, and yet demanded, "Give me more, give me 
more, give me more, you standing there upon the path!" So they 
gave him the basket of meal, which he quickly swallowed. However, 


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138 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

be did not let up with his demands until all they had was given him. 
Finally he gave the child and his wife, and the snake swallowed them all. 

Yet he was not satisfied, and continued demanding more. The 
man could not flee, neither could he pass and go on ahead, for the 
snake blocked the whole woods. The man climbed a tree; and then 
he remembered how long ago the bird had b^:ged to be released, saying, 
''Save me here on the plain, and some day I will save you in the 
thick woods." 

So at once he began to call for the bird Cinjila: — 

"Cinjila, oh, I saved you! Will you not save me? 
Cinjila, oh, I saved you! Will you not save me? 
We have both been in trouble, — the two of us in trouble! 
We have both been in trouble, — the two of us in trouble!" 

Before very long the bird heard the man calling, and yet he called 
a second time. Then the bird replied, "All r-i-g-h-t!" and when he 
came, asked what it was? The man replied, "The big snake.*' So 
the bird killed the snake; and when they cut him open, they found 
within him everything he had swallowed, — the woman and the child, 
both alive, and all their belongings. Then they proceeded on to 
their village. 

This proverb illustrates kindness: If you show kindness to another, 
some one in time will show you a kindness. 


Ka vili la Cisue va kala lakai vaco, oloneke viosi va kala loku 
sandiliya ed va kuatisa laco akai vavo. Nda nye? nda nye? 

Kavili wa ipapa olomuku, kuenje o yuva ovipa viaco ha yali pula 
wukai wahe, ositu yaco va takilH kuenje ca posoka. Kadsue wa 
ipaipa olosanji o sunya ovonya aco ha yali pula wukai wahe hati, 
Oco ukai wange a pekela dwa, lacovo ca posoka. Eteke limue ukai 
wa Kavili wa enda konjo ya Cisue wa sanga ukai wa Cisue o lale 
povonya olosanji, kuenje wa timdamo lutima uvala hati, Ukai wa 
Cisue eye o lale pawa ame mbu. 

Kuenje weya konjo yahe wa popia lulume wahe hati, Ame sia 
kuelde, wa kuela Nakadsue eye o lale povonya olosanji. Ame ndale 
povipa violomuku viano. Kavili kuenje co vala kutima yu wa enda 
ku Cisue hati, Ukuetu pi wa ka sangele ovonya olosanji? Cisue hati, 
Kimbo liomanu. Puai nda o yongola helSL tunda omde mude ka 
salame odpepi lolonjo ed omanu va yulula olosanji viavo o kuata, 
oco ame nda ka lingile oco. Kuenje heliL Kavili wanda kimbo wa 
sanga akai a va likongda pamosi oku sula osema olosanji va vi yulula 
ale kuenje Kavili weya wa salama pokati kolohumba, osanji ya pita 
odpepi lahe kuenje wa yi kuata, noke akai vo mola va vilikiya vati, 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 139 

Kavili O! o kasi oku m&ll olosanji! Kuenje umue ukai wa votoka 
hati, Ndi kepa, kuenje we kapuma owisi vonyima pu, okavili ka 
lepuka kuenje va ka imba kilu lionjo. 

Osimbu ka kasi kilu lionjo ka litunga tunga omuenyo noke ka 
pasukapo ka senjeleketa pod ce kaka posi pu, ka tueha lolupesi keya 
konjo yahe ka popia lukai wahe hati, Ocipululu cove ca soka oku 
njipaisa lakai vomanu. 

Omo va lua va sia ed va d kuete, vati, Citito, Tu sanda ed ca lua, 
kuenje va d pumba. 


The weasel and the wild-cat lived with their wives; and every day 
they sought the best they could to hdp and please their wives, whether 
by this thing or the other thing. 

The weasd killed mice; and he would skin them, and spread the 
skins upon the bed of his wife. The meat they ate, and it was very 
fine indeed. The wild-cat would kill chickens; and he would pluck 
out the feathers, and with them would make a bed for his wife, saying, 
"So my wife will sleep well;" and that was very nice also. One day 
the wife of the weasel went to the house of the wild-cat, and she 
found her lying comfortably upon the bed of chicken-feathers. She 
turned back to her own house, saying within her heart, "The wife of 
the wild-cat sleeps with much comfort, but I not at all!" 

When the weasel arrived at her own house, she said to her husband, 
"I am not really married; but the wife of the wild-cat is, for she lies 
upon a bed of chicken-feathers, while I sleep only upon the skins of 
rats!" The weasel, deeply grieved, went to the wild-cat, and said, 
"Friend, where did you get your chicken-feathers?" The wild-cat 
replied, "In the village, where people live. But if you wish some, 
to-morrow morning go very early and hide very near to the houses; 
and when the people let out their chickens, you catch one; that is 
how I did." So the next morning the weasel went to the village, and 
found that the women had already gathered themselves together at 
the usual place to pound meal, the chickens having been let out 
already. The weasel came, and managed to hide himself among the 
baskets. Soon a chicken passed very near, and he caught it. There- 
upon the women saw him, and began to cry out, "The weasel, the 
weasel, he is eating up all our chickens!" One of the women got 
quickly up, and threw her pestle with which she had been pounding 
meal, and struck it upon the back. The little weasel fainted, and 
they threw it upon the top of the house. 

After lying there a little while, he began to revive ; and as soon as his 
strength came back, he slid with difficulty to the ground, and hurried 

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140 Journal of American Folk-Lare. 

as fast as he could to bis house. Then he unburdened himself to her, 
saying, "Your greed was nearly the end of me in the hands of the 
women of the village!" 

Many people leave that which they have, sa3dng it is little; they 
seek something bigger, and are disappointed. 


Eteke limue Ongue ya paiiinya Kandimba had, Tu papale okasolo- 
solo eye hati, Omo. Kuenje Kandimba wa fetikako wa enda wa 
salama vodsuku cowangu Ongue ya landulako ya vilikiya hati, 
Kasolosolo — o kasolosolo — o nende wa ililapi, wa ilila kututu, ku 
moleha pululu, sildleko ovilua, fie — e, sikileko vali, fie — e. Kuenje 
wo vanjiliya noke wo sanga. 

Ongue la yovo hati, Linga lamevo ha salameko, kuenje ya enda ya 
salama vodsuku konele yonjila, udla wo langeka n5 vonjila hati, 
Oco Kandimba a linge had, Ud, edmba liosi lia salama vowangu. 
Kuenje Kandimba wa landulako lahevo wa vilikiya had, Kasolosolo — 
o kasolosolo — o, nende wa ilila pi? Wa ilila kututu ku moleha pululu 
sikileko ovilua, fie, sikileko vali, fie. Noke kandimba wa molU udla 
wongue vonjila, kandimba wa nyanuliL ud wa pumako ongue ya 

Kuenje kandimba wa enda vali oku ka salama, wa nola ombinga 
yomalanga wa yi kapa akala, kilu liaco wa kapako ulela, kuenje wa 
yi, felela polumbandi eye muele wa lifelSla ponele yaco odpepi lom* 
binga kuenje wa salama, wa tundisa lika etui limosi edmba liosi ka 
li moleha. Ongue ya kala loku kovonga Kasolosolo — o kasolosolo — 
o, nende wa ilila pi, wa ilila kututu, kututu ku moleha pululu sikileko, 
fie, sikileko vali, fie. Ongue ya vanjiliya vanjiliye ko muile. Noke 
weya polumbandi wa sanga ombinga letui limosi had, Haka! Nda 
mola owima. Kuenje wa vilikiya vakuavo had, — 

Ene akulu, ene akulu, ndo tali cilo we, ca molSL mbolovolo. 
Ene akulu, ene akulu, ndo tali die we, ca mol§ mbolovolo. 
Polumbandi, polumbandi pa tunda ombinga we okutui kumue. 
Polumbandi, polumbandi pa tunda ombinga we okutui kumue. 

Vakuavo vosi ed veya va vanjako va komoha vad, Haka! Ed ka 
ca la muiwa, ndano ovinyama vinene lomue wa d limbuka. Noke 
onjamba yeya had, Ed ngenda ha d liataila, ed a pidla wa vanjako 
no sui had, Haka! Ed d kola. Ovinyama viosi via nOali konele yaco 
oku piluka momo vad, Umue nda wa tundapo o fa, kuenje va nuSLlako 
loku imba. 

Noke Mbeu weya had, Ci kasi pi? Ovo vati, Omanu vodli va dla 
ove o silivila nye? Kuenje vo takumuili konyima haimo wa lipilika, 
kuenje vo pidsa. Ed eya polumbandi wa molU ombinga kuenda etui 

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Umbundu TdUs^ Angola^ Southwest Africa. 141 

hati, Oco muele vu kasi oku pilukila ndeti? kuenje wa kuata vetui lia 
kandimba wo tundisapo, kuenda ombinga wa yi somolapo. Ovinyama 
viosi via komoha olondunge via Kandimba kuenda Mbeu viti, Mbeu 


One day the leopard cried out to the rabbit, saying, "Come, let us 
play hide-and-seek!" To this the rabbit agreed, and he began by 
hiding himself in a large patch of grass which had been kept for a 
fire-hunt. The leopard looked all about for him, crying, "Whither, 
— oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you have gone! Perhaps in a 
hollow log, and you cannot be seen! Whistl-e, whist-1-e, whist-1-e 
again!" And so he sought for him until he found him. 

Then it was the leopard's turn to hide; and he went and hid himself 
in a bunch of grass by the side of the path, his tail protruding out 
into the path, for he said, "When the rabbit comes along, he will 
think it is a stick, because the whole body is hidden from view in the 
grass!" The rabbit began his hunt, and did as the leopard, crying 
out, "Whither, — oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you have 
gone! Perhaps in a hollow log, and you cannot be seen! Whist-1-e, 
whist-1-e, whistl-e again!" Just then the rabbit saw the tail of the 
leopard in the path, and he lifted his stick and gave it a good whack. 
Then the leopard came out. 

Now, the rabbit went again to hide, and he picked up the horn of 
a large deer. He took it and put charcoal upon it, and on top of that 
he put oil. Then he went and dug in a threshing-floor, where the 
ground is very hard, and le^t most of the horn protruding. Then he 
dug again near by, secreting himself, leaving but one of his ears 
sticking out, the whole of his body being covered up. The leopard 
began to call, "Whither, — oh, whither, — oh, oh, tell me where you 
have gone! Perhaps in a hollow log, and you cannot be seen ! Whist- 
l-e, whist-1-e, whist-1-e again!" The leopard looked and looked, but 
could not find him. At length he came to the threshing-floor, and 
there he found a horn sticking out of the ground, and one ear! "Gra- 
cious me! I've seen an omen!" Then he began to call the other 
animals, saying, — 

"You rulers, come here! you rulers, come here! come and 

look at this: here is to be seen the Great One. 
You rulers, come here! you rulers, come here! come and 

look at this; here is to be seen the Great One. 
By the threshing-floor, by the threshing-floor, there 

appears a horn and but one ear. 
By the threshing-floor, by the threshing-floor, there 

appears a horn and but one ear." 

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143 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

When the others all came and looked, they were greatly surprised, 
saying, ''Gracious! such as this has never before been seen.*' Even 
among the very large animals, not one of them recognized what it 
was. When the elephant came, he said, "Shucks! I am going to 
tread upon it;'* but when he approached nearer and saw, he ejaculated, 
"Whew! but this is a mystery!!" So all the animals went round and 
round the threshing-floor and b^^an to divine, because they said, 
"If one leaves from amongst us, he will die!" So they continued 
walking around the 9pot and singing. 

Finally the tortoise came, and asked, " Where is it? " They snubbed 
him, saying, " If we, the people of great wisdom, are unable to solve 
the mystery, what do you think you can do?" So they cast him 
behind them; but he continued begging for a chance, so they let him 
through. When he came to the threshing-floor and saw the horn and 
the ear, he exclaimed, "Well, indeed! and that is why you are di- 
vining?" Whereupon he grabbed the ear of the rabbit and pulled 
him out; then he grabbed the horn and jerked that out. All the 
animals were greatly surprised at the wisdom of the rabbit and the 
tortoise, all declaring, "The tortoise is our superior, the tortoise is 
our superior!" 


Eteke limue nyoho yahe wa enda kovapia wa sia ombia yohale 
piko hati, Tdeka, eci njiya sanga ya pia. Kuenje omoUl wa kala 
loku tdeka ya pia dwa. Ekumbi vokati kilu olohumbihumbi vieya 
via iflilft vonjo via lia ohale yost. OmoUL vonjo wa tilamo mekonda 
liusumba, kuenje ed via m&l§ oku lia via ^ida. Ed nyoho yahe eya 
wo lundila hati, Ove mude wa yi lia kuenje wo puma hati, wo laleka 
onjala hati, Wa lia ale ombdeUu Ndand omola wa sapula hati, 
Olonjila via yi lia, haimo hati, Esanda liov^. 

Oloneke viod wo dla dla haimo olonjila via lialia nyoho yahe 
wa enda k>ku puma puma hati, Ove o kasi k>ku lia lia. 

Eteke limue omolft wa kava hati, Ngenda ha liponda n5 amude. 
Kuenje wa tunda loluped oku yolokela kewe limue linene, ewe liad li 
kuete deva vokati kuenda uvelo. Omunu nda wa tana oko a enda 
oku liponda, ewe liaco nda 11 lete omunu 11 asama ed omunu a iniUL li 
kupikako vali. Ed omol§ a kala loku yokJcelako inahe wa kala 
lusumba hati, Omolinge sanga o ka nyelda kuenje wo landula kjka 
kovonga hati, — 

Ove Utdingo duka. 

Notdingo, NotoUngo, Notolingo. 

Ove Utolingo tiuka. 

Notolingo, Notdingo, Notolingo. 

Ame hameko nda lia akunde, akunde olohumbihumbi via lia. , 
Ame hamd^o nda lia akunde, akunde olohumbihumbi via UaOQlC 

Umbundu Tales, Angola^ Sauihwest Africa. 143 

Omola ka tiukile, kuenje wa pitila kewe, ewe oku mola omdll 
liasama li yevala ngfilu, ngfilu. Kuenje omdla wa ifiilil momo utima 
wo vala ewe kuenje Ka tuvikako. Nyoho yaco oku sokolola omolahe, 
lahevo wa i£iil§ wo sanga yu. Oin5l2 wo pula hati, Nye weyilila vali? 
Eye hati Ove nda ku landula. 

Olusapo luaco lu lombolola omanu vamue va lundaila nd vakuavo, 
umue ndand o kasi oku likala haimo vati, Ove muele. 


Once upon a time the mother of Utolingo went to the field, leaving 
a pot of cow-peas cooking upon the fire, saying to her daughter, 
"Cook them, so that when I come back they will be thoroughly done." 
So the child looked after them carefully until they were fully cooked. 
When the sun was at noon, there came many very large birds, which 
entered the house and ate up all the cow-peas. The child fled in ter- 
ror. After they had finished the cow-peas, every bit of them, they flew 
away. Later, when the mother returned from the field, she accused 
the child, saying, ** You ate those cow-peas yourself." Then she beat 
the child, and would give her nothing more to eat, saying she had 
already eaten. But the child insisted that the birds had come and 
eaten the food. But the mother simply replied, "That's all nonsense!" 

And so it happened day after day, — the mother leaving the child, 
and the birds coming and eating as before. And the mother kept 
beating the child, saying, "You're the one who is doing the eating!" 

Finally the child became exasperated, and said, "What's the use? 
I am going to kill myself!" So she ran as fast as she could toward a 
big stone in which was a cave in its centre, with a doorway. A 
person becoming very angry would run toward this rock to kill him- 
self; and the rock, seeing the person coming, would split open, and, 
when the person had entered, would shut to again. As the child was 
hastening toward this rock, the mother became frightened, saying, 
" I'm afraid my child will be lost," and she hurried after her, crying, — 

"O Utolingo! come back! 
Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo, 

Utolingo! come back! 
Notolingo, Notolingo, Notolingo*" — 

"I did not eat the cow-peas, the birds ate them; 

1 did not eat the cow-peas, the birds ate them;*' 

was the reply by the child. 

But she would not return ; and when she arrived at the stone, the 
stone, seeing the child, opened up, and there were heard sounds of 

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144 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

rejoicing. The child entered because her heart was sore, and the 
stone closed in around her. The mother, thinking of her child, ran 
in also and found her. The child asked her, "And why did you 
come after me?" to which the mother replied, "Because I wanted to 
find you." 

This proverb emphasizes how some will continue to falsely accuse 
another, even though he continually declares he is guiltless. 


Akuenje vavali va timda oku ka fetika ovitula, kuenda vonyokulu 
yavo, ed va pitila lolosinge ka va sangele, kuenje va fetika oku tunga, 
u o timgila nyokulu yahe u o timgila nyokulu yahe. Noke ombela 
ye3ra ukuenje ukuavo wa tunga lombili osinge ya nyokulu yahe kuenje 
wa vunda, ukuavo puai ka malele lombili yu wa popia lukuavo hati, 
Linga Maikulu a vunde vosinge yove, ukuavo ka tavele hati Lovevo 
vulume nye kua tungilile lombili? Ame si tava. 

Kuenje nyokulu yahe wa vunda vemi liuti womanda, ombela ed ya 
kaniUiL ya tola uti waco mua vunda nyokulu yahe, kuenje wa fa. 
Ukuenje waco wa yelula nyokulu yahe wo vunga olonanga, wa lituika, 
wa enda lahe kesinya lia Kuanja ku li oviva vioku inba ava va fa. 
Ed a kala loku enda wa nualehSlH lekisikisi lio pula hati, Katuta ketul 
Katuta ketu! Nyokulu o ko tuala pi? Eye hati: — 

Kuku ho tuala vesinya lia Kuanja, 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — i, 

A ngelenge yo lila hi — i, hi — i. 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — ^i, 

A ngelenge yo lila hi — i, hi — i. 

Ekisi hati, Neteleko utue ha linge onganja yoku nyuila kuenje wo 
tetelako, wo pitahala. Akisi osi a nualehelH lahe haico o linga. 
Umue okuokuo, umue okulu hati, ha linga oluiko luoku pika iputa. 
Noke wa nOalehela lokahulukai hati, Nyiheko apuvi a len^la wa wiha. 
Noke wa wimba onumbi hati, Nyokulu ka wimbe vociva d yela ovava. 
Kuenje wa pitila kodva caco, wa imbamo nyokulu yahe, eye wa kala 
kongongo nyokulu yahe wa tumuha olonjanja vi vali tatu yaco wa 
ifiila. Kuenje vociva mua tunda ovindele lolondona lovikuata viavo. 
Nyokulu yaha, lahevo wa pongoloka wa linga ondona wo pula had, 
Ame elie? Eye hati, Ove kuku. Kuenje weya kimbo, va tunga 
olonjo, lolombalaka imbo lieyuka ovindele. 

Ukuavo una wo limilile osinge ed a d vanja odpululu co kuata, 
kuenje wa popia nyokulu yahe hati, Linga hu ipaye oco tu mola 
ovipako, nyokulu yahe ka tava eye wa lipilika kuenje wo tesola, wo 
vunga onanga kuenje wa lituika. 

Ed a kala loku enda wa tokeka lekisi wo pula had, Katuta ketu? 
Katuta ketu nyokulu o ko tuala pi? Eye hati, — # OOQlC 

igi ize y g 

Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 145 

Kuku ho tuala vesinya lia Kuanja» 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — i; 

A ngelenge yo lila hi — i, hi — ^i; 

Ngelenge yo lila hi — i; 

A ngelenge yo lila hi — i, hi — i. 

Nyiheko utue waco, eye ka tavele hati, Kuku eye ha teta? Kuenje 
wa pitahaliL. Vosi a nualehelS lavo lomue a tetelako. Kuenje wa 
sima hati, Ukuetu dtito ame mbelapo. Yu wa tokeka la kahuluwa wo 
pinga apuvi aco hati, Ame si kuete ovayo haimo ka tavele. Kahuluwa 
hati, Ndan5 wa nimila linga bulmbe onumbi. Kuenje wo sapuila 
hati, Nyokulu ko tuale vodva d kusuka ovava omo mu li ovindele, 
ukuele omo a ka imbilevo. Kuenje wa yoloka kodva catukuiwa, wa 
imbamo nyokulu yahe, eye wa kala kongongo loku talamela nyokulu 
yahe wa inilimo buti, ewe ka tumbulukile, wa kala osimbu noke kua 
tomboka otuvikasia kuenda odmbali co sapuila hati, Ovikasia evi 
omo mu li ed o yongola. Ed enda ka tunge onjo ya fina lonjinena 
ku ka sie. Kuenda ed o ka tuvula ovikasia viaco ka kale lika liove, 
kuenda ka liyikilemo. 

Kuenje weya kimbo, Wa popia lukuavo hati, Nda ka viupile, 
kuenje wa tunga onjo, ed ya pua wa liyikilamo lika liaha, wa fetika 
oku tuvula. O tuvula eyi mu li olonyihi, yikuavo olonyoha, yikuavo 
alimbondo, viosi muele mueyuka n5 ovipuka vi lumana. Noke ed a 
m§U§ vio katukila oku lumana, kuenje wa fa. 

Ekandu liaco lio pisa. 

Tete wa limila ukuavo osinge, vali wa linga ongangu wa ponda 
nyokulu yahe oku pesela osonde. 


Two boys started off with thdr grandmothers to begin a new 
village. When they arrived, they did not find any huts in whidi to 
stay. So they at once began to build, — one boy building for his 
grandmother, and the other for his grandmother. Soon the rain 
b^an to fall. One boy had built his very quiddy; and so his grand- 
mother entered, and was protected from the rain. The other one 
bad not finished; and so he begged of the other, saying, "Do a kind- 
ness, and let my grandmother come into your hut!" The other would 
not, replying, "You also are a man. Why didn't you hurry faster 
with your building? I won't agree to it!" 

So his grandmother sought cover under a large tree called the 
"omanda." As the storm increased, the lightning struck the tree 
under which she was; and it was torn open, and the grandmother 
was killed. The boy picked her up and wrapped her in cloth, put her 
upon his shoulder, and started with her to the other side of the river 

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146 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Quanja, where there were pools into which they threw those who died. 
As he was on his way, he met a goblin,^ who greeted him with friend- 
liness, saying, "Where are you going with your grandmother?" And 
he responded thus: — 

** Honored sir, I am carrying her to the other side of the river Quanja, 
The deer is crying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi; 
The deer is crying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi." 

The friendly spirit said to him, ''Cut me off the head, that I may 
use it as a gourd with which to drink." He did so; and then on he 
went again, complying with all the requests made of him. One of the 
spirits would ask an arm; another, a 1^ with which he might stir his 
mush. Pretty soon he met a little old woman, who b^:ged, "C^ve 
me the lungs, because they are soft," and so he did. Soon one advised 
him, saying, ''Throw your grandmother into the pool, and the water 
will become clear!" When he arrived at the pool, he did as he was 
told. He stood upon the bank, and he saw her come to the surface 
twice; and the third time she sank. Then at once from the pool there 
came forth white men and white women, with all their belongings. 
Among them was his grandmother, who was turned into a white 
woman. She asked him, saying, "Who am I?" And he recognized 
her. Then they all came to the village and built houses and put up 
tents, so that the village was filled with white folks. 

Now, the other boy, who had been stingy about his hut, forbidding 
the grandmother to shield herself in it from the rain, when he saw all 
that had happened, became filled with greed, and said to his grand- 
mother, "Come, let me kill you! and we also shall become wealthy." 
But his grandmother rebelled, but he struck her and killed her, and, 
wrapping her in cloth, lifted her upon his shoulder. 

As he was going along the path, he met a friendly spirit, which 
greeted him kindly, and asked, "Where are you going with your 
grandmother?" He replied, — 

"Sir, I am going with her to the other side of the Quanja, 
The deer is aying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi; 
The deer is crying hi — hi; 
Oh, the deer is crying hi — hi!*' 

"Give me the head," said the spirit; but the boy replied, "And 
why, sir, should I do that?" Then he went on; and though he met 
many spirits, he would not comply with the requests of any of them, 

^ A hideous masked person. 

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Umbundu Tales, Angola, Southwest Africa. 147 

for he said, ''The other boy is insignificant, but I am far wiser.'* 
He met also the little old woman; and she b^:ged for the lungs, 
saying, ''Give me, for my teeth are all gone," but he would not. 
Then she said to him, " Even though you are mean to me, let me give 
you advice: take your grandmother to the pool where the water is 
red, for there are found the white folks, and there is where the other 
boy went." So he hurried along to the pool described, and threw in 
his grandmother. He stood upon the bank waiting for her; for he 
said, "A stone will not come to the surface." He remained there a 
long time; and soon there appeared some little boxes, and with them 
a native servant, who said, "These boxes contain that which you so 
much desire. When you reach your village, build a very fine house, 
not forgetting to put in windows. When finally you open these boxes, 
be entirely by yourself, and be sure you lock yourself in." 

When he arrived at the village, he said to the other boy, " I have 
gone and gotten them too!" Then he built a house; and when it 
was finished, he shut himself in all by himself, and began to open the 
boxes. One he opened contained bees, another snakes, another 
hornets. All of them were filled with insects which bit and stung. 
When he had finished opening all of the boxes, then they assailed him 
and killed him. 

His own sin had condemned him. 

First, he was stingy about his hut; second, because of imitation, 
he killed his own grandmother, thus shedding blood. 


Oluavava lua tanga vuti, noke onyoha yomoma yeya vemi liaco 
oku vunda undembo. Kuenje okanende keya ka wila vuti waco, 
omunu lahevo ed a mola onende ya wila vuti kuenje wa kala loku 
yomba luta. Kuenje omoma ya paiiinya oluavava hati, Lupula 
okanende sanga omunu o ka loya, volofa viomunu umosi mu li olofa 
viowini. Luavava ka tavele oku lupula onende. 

Noke omunu weya odpepi kuenje wa loya onende, kuenje ya 
kupukila kutue womoma, omunu hati, Ha ndlil onende o lete omoma 
kuenje wa nyinulil ondiaviti wa topola omoma, kuenje wa yi vunga 
hati o yelula ka ci tava, hati, O vanja olondovi ka vi moleha. Kuenje 
wa vanja vuti wa mola oluavava yu wo sungamo wosi yu wa kuta 
laco omoma. 

Moma wa popia la luavava hati, Sia ci popele siti, Lupula onende 
momo volofa viomunu umosi mu li olofa viowiiii? 

Olusapo hati, Ukuele nda o sunilil langeka vekaha liomunu umosi 
mu li ekaha liowifii. Kanende, la luavava, kuenda moma va takela 

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148 Journal of American Folk^Lore. 


The vine was in the tree whither it had climbed. Soon a big snake» 
the pjrthon, came and rested in the shade of the tree. A dove came 
also and perched in the same tree. Then a man, when he saw the 
dove fly to the tree, stalked the bird, and he had a gun. Then the 
python called to the vine, saying, "Scare away the bird or perhaps 
the man will shoot it, and in the death of one there may be the death 
of many." But the vine would not consent to scare away the dove. 

Soon the man came close up and shot the dove, so that it fell upon 
the head of the snake. The man went to pick up the dove, and then 
saw the pjrthon; so he grabbed his axe and killed it. Then he folded 
it up to better carry it; but it would not work, and he looked around 
for some bark rope. He failed to find any, but saw the vine climbing 
up the tree; and so he pulled that down, and with it tied up the snake 
in a tight bundle. 

Then the pjrthon said to the vine, *' Did not I tell you to scare off 
the dove, for in the death of one there might be the death of many?" 

Moral: Though some sleep, in the wakefulness of one is the 
wakefulness of many. Failure to warn resulted in the dove, the vine, 
and the python all being destroyed. 


Siokanda wa kala odmunu wa enda loku ivava olongombe, lolosanji, 
lolohombo, lolongulu. Pokati pa kala olui lunene ka lu kuete eyau, 
ulume nda wa yongola oku ka iva o paiiinya Nokanda kuenje o tiapula 
onanga kovava a litepa, nda wa ka ivile o pafiinya vali ukai wahe o 
tiapula vali onanga kovava a litepa o pita. 

Eteke limue wa ka ivile olongombe vamuele vo m5la vo lupuisa, 
ed a pitila kolui wa kovonga Nokanda. 

Ukaivange Nokanda we — e 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Ukaivange Nokanda we — e 
O tiapula onanga kovava — ^a 
Va muele ongombe nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — ^a 
Va muele osanji nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a 
Vamuele ongulu nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — ^a 
Va muele ohombo nda veya, 
O tiapula onanga kovava — a. 

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Umbundu Tales^ Angola, Southwest Africa. 149 

Eye ndano wa ka ivile Nokanda ukuaku tepa ovava u limilSL o lia 
lukai umue wiAi. Nokanda eye wa enda loku popela lombili, momo 
nda wa ka ivile va muele vo lupuisa eye ed a pitila kolui o kovonga 
Nokanda ed a yoka ovava a litokeka vali, va muele ndand vo kuama 
ed va pitila kolui ka va kuete apa va pita. 

Eteke limue ka tavele vali pokuenda wo pitisa, puai eci a tiuka 
ndand ulume wa kovonga haimo ka tavele, wa popia lahe hati, U o 
lia lia lahe a ku pitise ame si tava. Kuenje vamuele ed vo sanga vo 
wipa, olongombe viavo va enda lavio. 

Olusapo hati, Ed a lia lia elau ka sokoluile ukuahenda. 


Siokanda was a thief, and he used to go and steal oxen and chidcens 
and goats and pigs. Near by his village was a large river which had 
no bridge. When the man wished to go to steal, he would call upon 
his wife Nokanda that she should dip a cloth in the water, and it 
would divide, and he would cross over. Then, when he hac^ stolen, 
he would call again for his wife to come and dip the cloth in the water, 
in order to divide it, and he would return safely. 

One day he went as usual and stole some oxen. The owners saw 
him and gave chase. When he arrived at the river, he b^^an to call 
Nokanda as usual: — 

" My own wife Nokanda, oh — o! 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

My own wife Nokanda, oh — o! 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

What if the owner of the ox should come, 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

What if the owner of the chicken should come. 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

What if the owner of the pig should come. 

Dip the doth in the water — O, 

What if the owner of the goat should come, 

Dip the cloth in the water — O!" 

And the man, even when he went to steal and Nokanda would 
divide the water for him, he was stingy to her, and he would go and 
eat with some other woman. Nokanda always went quickly to help 
him out in his trouble, because, after he had stolen, ofttimes the 
owners would rush after him. As soon as he would arrive at the 
river, he would call Nokanda, and she would divide the water; and 
after he had passed, the water came together again, so that, even if the 
pursuers reached the bank, they found no place where they might pass. 

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ISO Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

One day, however, she refused to help him cross. When he reached 
the river on his way back, he called and called to her; but she replied, 
"Let the one with whom you are continually eating see you across 
this time! I won't do it." The owners, when they caught him, killed 
him, and went back with their oxen. 

Moral: One enjoying good luck and fortune forgets to be kind. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 151 



The following tales were written by Kamba Simango, a native of 
Portuguese South Africa. The written material was dictated to 
Franz Boas and rewritten by him. The revised copy was again 
corrected by Kamba Simango, whose mother tongue is the Chiadau 
of the coast. 

The alphabet used, so far as consistent with accuracy, is that used 
by the Mashona missionaries. 

Vowels: a, e (open), i, o (open), u. 

Long vowels (due to contraction) are indicated by a superior period 
following the vowel, as a*. These are always strongly accented. 
There is no significant pitch in Chindau, such as occurs in some of the 
neighboring dialects, as Sechuana. The only exception noted is the 
second person singular mii (low tone), while the third person m(k has 
the high tone. Accented syllables, however, have a raised pitch. 

There are no diphthongs. 

As in Kisuaheli, the voiceless stops are all slightly glottalized, and 
should be written p', t', k'; but, since all of them are glottalized, the 
symbol ' has been omitted. The glottalization disappears only in 
the combination kw. The sounds th, ph, and kh are strongly aspirated 
surds. The voiced stops are b, d, g. In a few words we find a glot- 
talized b, d ('b, 'd). These are probably Zulu loan-words. There 
are three pure nasals — m, n, n — corresponding to the positions of 
p, t, k (n like n in ''sing")* The voiceless fricatives are /, s, 5, h. 
The voiced fricatives are v, r, z, s, g. The/ is always sharply den to- 
labial; s is alveolar; s is alveolar, with strong rounding of lips, there- 
fore with marked resonance; A is a medial fricative, and seems to 
occur only after t and p. Among the voiced fricatives, v is bilabial; 
9, labio-dental; z, alveolar; s, alveolar with strong rounding of the 
lips, corresponding to s. These sounds correspond to the labialized s 
of Thonga ^ and Venda.* f is a medial fricative corresponding to the 
k position. This sound occurs probably exclusively after m, f, v, p, 
and r, and originates from the combination mu + vowel and vu -f- 
vowel. After m it is pronounced individually as a labial click; i.e., m 
+ a sound produced by suction with closed lips followed by a sudden 

* H.-A. Junod, Elementary GFammar of the Thonga-Shangaan Language, p. 9* 

* Carl Meinhof, Lautlehre der Bantusprachen, p. 2$, 

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Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

opening of the lips. The coast dialect has also the fricative sh (like sh 
in English). In the dialects of the interior this is generally replaced 
by s. The afFricative series contains the b and p stops followed by 
labio-dentals (that is, hv and p/), while the labial stops followed by 
bilabials are missing. The alveolar afFricatives are combined with the 
sh series, — dj and ch. The afFricatives with z and s (that is, dz and 
ts) are absent in the coast dialects. These take the place of dj and ch 
in the interior. The afFricatives ending with z and s are rendered as 
hz and ps. The closure of the lips, however, is very weak, so that there 
is sometimes an acoustic impression of an initial d or t in place of b 
and p. It seems, however, that etymologically these sounds go back 
to a combination of labial sounds. Similar sounds occur in Thonga 
and Herero. 

While the dialect of the interior has apical r, we have here a sound 
which I have written 1 because its principal consituent seems to be a 
lateral trill combined, however, with a slight medial trill. Before w, 
this sound regularly changes to a strongly aspirated apical r, forming 
the combination rhw. The trill r occurs also before g. Finally we 
find the open breath h and the semi-vowels y and w. 

When g follows n or d, it sounds in rapid speech like y. The n and 
d are at the same time more cerebral than in other positions. 

As in other Bantu languages, the combinations of nasals and stops 
as initial sounds of syllables are very common. The following com- 
binations occur: — 

mb mph 

nd nth 

ng nkh 

We have also the combination of nasal and fricative and affricative in 
the following forms: — 

nsh nch 


In these combinations the second voiceless sound starts with a marked 
voicing, which, however, disappears in the course of the articulation. 



, Aspirate. . . 
'Sonant. . 

Affricatives < 

Surd . . . 









dCd) — 

t — 

th — 

8 sh 

— dj 

— ch 










Breath h. 

Semi-vowels y. w. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 153 



shulo ne zinthede vainga shamgali. nge im^ nshiku shulo wainga 
mumavushwa, nachilimgo sola lakapsa, ena wakangwina mugulu, 
ndijo, mulilo auzini kumugumila. sola nelapela kupsa shulo waka- 
buda mugulu, akalangalila kuti imoda kukhanganisa zinthede, ndino 

5 wakabulukuta mumahungupsa. na-songana na zinthede wakati kwali, 
ena wainga musola lichip5a, mulilo wakamugumila kani wakaudjima 
nge mata ake. zinthede alizivi kutenda mukutanga sakaleva shulo, 
kani shulo wakavangilila kuti saileva saiva sokadi. shulo wakati kuna 
zinthede, "vonai masimbe omahungup^a ondinao pamuvili pangu." 

10 zinthede navona mahungup^a wakatenda kuti shulo wainga musola 
lichip5a. zinthede kuti achazopindwa wakati kuna shulo, ena anga- 
zodjimavo mulilo nge mata. nge imge nshiku sola laip^a zinthede 
wakati kuna shulo, imoenda ena kodjima mulilo. zinthede lakangwina 
mumasola lakaedja kudjima mulilo nge mata kani alizivi kuudjima. 

15 lana laka/ilamgo ngo vup^ele vgalo. 


Hare and Baboon were friends. One day Hare was | in the grass 
by himself. While he was there, the grass burned. Hare went into 
a hole, I and therefore the fire did not reach him. When the grass 
was burnt [finished burning]. Hare came out | of the hole, and thought 
that he wanted to play a trick on Baboon. Therefore (5) he rolled 
about in the cinders. When he met Baboon, he said to him | that he 
had been in the grass when it was burning. The fire had reached him, 
but he had put it out | with his saliva. Baboon did not believe at 
first what Hare told him, | but Hare persisted (saying) that what he 
told was true. Hare said to | Baboon, "See the cinders that were left 
after the burning, and which I have on my body 1" (10) When Baboon 
saw the remains of the burning, he believed that Hare had been in the 
grass I and was burned. Baboon, that he might not be outdone, said 
to Hare that he | would also put out the fire with saliva. One day 
the grass was burning. Baboon | said to Hare he would go and put 
out the fire. Baboon went | into the grass. He tried to put out the 
fire with saliva, but he did not (15) put it out. He died in it on 
account of his stupidity. 


jsakaita, sakaita. zinthede lakaenda kunthalavunda kobvunshila 

musikane weyo. nelatendwa lakaenda kovona musikane wo laka- 


murhwendo rhwala rgo chipili lakatola simba kuti alipelekedje. 

5 simba wainga muzukulu walo, ena wainga mup5ele. novali mu- 

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154 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

gwansha zinthede lakati kuna simba, *' unoziva kuti tinenda kwambiya 
wangu. ndinoda kuti iwewe unase kuva nomukodja. kuti nonda- 
kutuma kotola chilo ucbado zolanaba. ndinoziva kuti iwewe uli 
muzukulu wakap/ava.*' simba wakatenda jese zakaleva zinthede. 

10 zinthede lakatise kuna simba, ''kudali tovona muchelo, kuti inini 
nondati, 'madombidombi ngoafigu/ iwewe wochizoti, 'makengekenge 
ngoangu.*" zinthede lainga lakaleba, ndLso, lakatanga kovona sese 
zainga mbeli kwavo. nolavona munuinda waiitga nonmnda djakaibva 
lona lakati, "madombidombi ngoaifgu," simba echiti, "makengekenge 

15 ngoangu." novaguma pamunmnda zinthede lakarga msinda djaka- 
psuka, simba wakar^a makenge. novavona kumga zinthede likati, 
"madoledole ngoangu;" simba waiti, "maimndumindu ngoangu.*' 
zinthede lakatanga kum^a, nolapedja kumga lakaitrundula kum^a simba 
achito wam^a. simba wakamga mammdu. novapedo nomuzi wa'm- 

20 biya va zinthede lona lakati kuna simba, "unouvona uwu mutiu 
kani ? wona mutombo unotwi mundapolapola. kuti inini nondapiswa 
ngo kurga, nondati kouli, 'simba, muzukulu, endocha mudji, wo mundo- 
polapola,' iwewe uzoza wo'ucha uwu." simba wakatenda m. nova- 
guma kwambiya vakabikirhwa lupiza. norhwaziswa zinthede nola- 

25 pedja kushamba nyala lakatukutidja munwe walo mulupiza likati, 
''simba, muzukulu, ndap^a! gogomai, wocha mudji womundapola- 
pola." simba waakaenda achigogoma kocha mudji. na'vipinda zi- 
nthede lakar^a lupiza rhwese. lakasiya lushoma. simba wakaviya 
nawo mudji kani zinthede alichaiudepi. lona lakati kuna simba, 

30 "naviya nowapinda madjimgalamu angu akaza akarga lupiza. ngo- 
kuti 2ona sai ita sailunsha andisivi kualambisa." lakatatidja simba 
ndawo zinshi djaivonesa kuti madjim^alamu mazinshi akashamba 
nyala paidjo. simba wakar^a lupiza rhwakasiwa. zinthede lakaita 
Lri nshiku djese djovaigalayo. kwati novaviya kanyi simba ingawa- 

35 kaonda. 

shulo wakabmmsha simba kuti waionda ngenyi. ena wakaronzera 
shulo sakaita zinthede. murhwendo rhwe chitatu zinthede lakada 
shulo kuti alipelekedje kwambiyalo. shulo wakatenda kuenda nalo. 
zinthede lakapangilila shulo kudali ngo zolakapangila simba. shulo 

40 wakatenda zakaleva zinthede, ena aizivi kupikidja nalo. novavona 
mumsinda zinthede lichiti, ''madombidombi ngoangu," shulo waka- 
leva zinthede lichito lapedja kuleva izi. zinthede lakalega kurga 
msinda, shulo wakadjir^a. novaguma pakum^a shulo wakatanga 
kuleva zinthede lichito lapedja kuleva 2olaida kuleva. lona alizivi 

45 kuim^a kum^a. shulo wakaim^a. novapedo no muzi zinthede laka- 
tatidja shulo mutombo. shulo wakati, "eya, ndinozoza kocha mu- 
tombo nom^andi mdtuma." lakabvunsha shulo kuti alidi lona kuti 
ena alilunshe. shulo wakati azolilunshipi. nova/amba mukuvo md- 
doko shulo wakati kuna zinthede, walasha mupasha wake, waka- 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 155 

50 vgilila side koulonda. ena wakavgilila kocha mudji wo mundapolapola. 
wakaucha akaukanda muchivanga chake. wakaviya vona vakaenda 
kumuzi. novaguma wakapuwa lupiza, zinthede nolapedja kushamba 
nyala lakatukudja munwe walo mulupiza likati, "shulo, muzukulu, 
ndap^a! endocha mudji wo mundapolapola." shulo wakangwinisa 

55 nyala yake muchivanga chake, akatola mudji wo mundapolapola 

akalipa vona zinthede. zinthede lakalamgidja lupiza lichiti, simba 

ngainga muzukulu kwaye. shulo azivi kuleva chilo kani wakar^a 

lupiza. vakaviya kanyi zinthede lakashola shulo sikulu. 

zinthede ne laviya kanyi lakasunga chuma choko'lovola ndicho 

60 mukadji walo. lona lakada kuti livgilidjile shulo sakaita kwolili. 
ng^ nshiku yolaida kuenda ndiyo ne chuma lakaenda koba vana 
va shulo likavakanda muchivanga. lakapelekedjwa nge chikodji, go- 
vola, ne shulo kuti vaite vubaba v|:alo. zinthede lakapa shulo ku- 
thwala chivanga chainga ne vana vake. novs^amba mushango muuluk 

65 shulo wakazwa sezwi ichilila, wakaitevela. naguma poyainga waka- 
vona muti wainga no nyuchi. wakabula vuchi; achivur^a wakazwa 
mazwi achiti, "baba ndipevo, baba ndipevo." shulo wakalingalinga. 
achiti pamge ishili djailila kudalo, kani azivi kuvona shili. nargaze 
wakazwa mazwi achikumbila wakanasa kupulukila, kazwa kuti mazw- 

70 aibva muchivanga, ndLeo akachisunyungula, akavona vana vake novai 
lim^o, akavabudisa akavapa vuchi. wakavavakila dumba kuti vaga- 
lepo kumphela naviya kurhwendo rhwake. wakashamula mulomo 
we chivanga pamukoko we nyuchi, (djona) djakangwinam^o. nocha- 
zala wakachisunga chivanga ngo mdboshwe kudali ngo kiisunga 

75 kochakaitwa ngt zinthede. shulo wakaviya kwakasiya zinthede no 

vam^e, akavapa vuchi v|:ainga nav|:o. zinthede lakati kuna shulo, 

"shulo, nasa kubatisisa chivangecho." lakaza kochilingila chona 

chainga chakasungwa ngo masungilo alo, ndLso alizivi kuleva chilo. 

kwati novaguma kwambiya va zinthede, lona nelachungamidjwa 

80 ngo kuti, " m^akavanga vazinthede? " lakadavila nge chigonthi likati, 
"nda uwe, kunyadja mungwali nkhwo kutolela vana vake." — "hedjo 
vachikodji." chikodji chikati, '*hedjo hadjo, bikanyi sadja, vusavi 
tinav|:o." — "tambanyi va shulo." shulo akati, "tinotamba hedu, 
takabva kanyi tichina zano, zano takazolipuwa mugwansha ndi sezwi." 

85 — "djokulalama vagovola," govola likati, "tinolalama hedu, sainga 
2okala, makole ano tingaedjana." vanthu vakashamiswa ng^ sigonthi 
saitwa nge zinthede no vubaba v^alo. vakabikirhwa sadja lichina 
vusavi. nolaziswa, chikadji chichida kuvulaya govola kuti chimuite 
vusavi, kani chikodji nochambulukila govola, govola lakachilova nge 

90 ndonga likachivulaya chona chikaitwa vusavi. novapedja kur^a 
vokumadjimbiya ve zinthede vakavungava munyumba kuti vaze 
koashila chuma. zinthede lakabvunsha shulo kuti abude mumba, 
shulo wakabuda. ena achibuda wakachochotola djiso lake kuna 

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156 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

govola kuti Umutevele, na-buda govola lakamutevela. zinthede la- 
95 kada kuti govola ligale, kani lalotti linoviya linenda kunsha. vese 
vokuvumbiya vakavungana. misuvo yakakonywa ngokuti zinthede 
alichaidepi kuti shulo avone vana vake vachiitwa chuma chokulovola 
ndicho. shulo wakatanga kusunga misuvo yese ngo kunsha. zinthede 
lakaifgnvinisa mukono walo muchivanga kani alizivi kubudisa chilo 
100 ngokuti nyuchi djaililuma. vanthu vaigalila kuvona chuma. laka- 
ngwinisaie nyala yalo nyuchi djaililumase sikulu. lakachilasha chi- 
vanga pasi, nyuchi djakabuda djikaluma vanthu vese vainga mu- 
nyumba. vanthu vakaedja kubuda kani misuvo yese yainga yaka- 
sungwa ngo kunsha. vanthu vakatanga kulilova zinthede sikulu. 
105 novapganya misuvo zinthede lakabuda likatiza ne Una mphonshe 
zinshi. shulo na govola vakaenda kanyi. shulo wakapinda ngo 
paikasiya vana vake akavatola akaenda navo kanyi kwake. zinthede 
alizivi kuzoendaie kwambiya walo. lakamutama mukadji wolaida 


It happened, it happened. Baboon went to a neighboring place to 
seek for | a girl there (to be his wife). When he was accepted, he 
went to see the girl to whom | he had proposed. 

On his second journey he took along Wild-Cat to accompany him. 
(5) Cat was the sister's son of Baboon. He was dull. When they 
were on their journey, | Baboon said to Wild-Cat, "You know that 
we go to my mother-in-law. | I want you to behave well. When I | 
send you to get a thing, do not refuse. I know that you, being | my 
sister's son, are meek." Cat agreed to everything Baboon said. (10) 
Baboon also said to Cat, ''When we see wild fruits, I | shall say, 'The 
ripe ones are mine.' You then say, 'Half-ripe ones | are mine.'" 
Baboon was tall. Therefore he saw everything | in front of them. 
When he saw a fruit-bearing tree (species ?) the fruits of which were 
ripe, I he said, "The ripe ones are mine;" and Cat said, "The half-ripe 
ones (15) are mine." When they arrived at the fruit-tree, Baboon ate 
the ripe fruit, | Cat ate the half-ripe ones. When they saw water. 
Baboon said, | "The clear is mine;" and Cat said, "The muddy is 
mine." | Baboon b^^an todrink ; when he finished drinking, he made the 
water muddy before Cat | could drink. Cat drank the muddy water. 
When they were near the kraal of (20) Baboon's mother-in-law, he 
said to Cat, "Do you see this tree? | It is medicine which is called 
cooling. When I am burnt | by food, and I say to you, ' Cat, sister's 
son, go and dig the root of the | "cooling-tree," ' come here and dig this." 
Cat agreed to this. | When they arrived at the mother-in-law's house, 
ground beans were cooked for them. When the ground beans were 

> See Carl Meinhof, Afrikanische Mftrchen. p. 87 (Matumbi. East Africa); more dis- 
tantly related, p. 146 (Kuanyama, Portuguese West Africa). 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 157 

brought, and Baboon (25) finished washing his hands, he thrust his 
finger into the ground beans, and said, | "Cat, sister's son, I am burnt. 
Run and dig the root of the 'cooling-tree.'" | Cat ran and went to 
dig the root. When he was gone, | Baboon ate all of the ground beans. 
Cat came back | with the root, but Baboon did not eat it. He said 
to Cat, (30) "When you were gone, my sisters-in-law came and ate 
the ground beans. | Because what they did was shameful, I did not 
stop them." He showed Cat | many places, and told him that many 
of his sisters-in-law washed | their hands at these places. Cat ate the 
ground beans that were left over. Baboon did this | every day while 
they were there. When they came home. Cat was (35) thin. 

Hare asked Cat why he was thin, and he told | Hare what Baboon 
had done. The third trip Baboon wanted | Hare to accompany him 
to his mother-in-law. Hare agreed to go with him. | Baboon in- 
structed Hare, and told him in the same way as he had told Cat. 
Hare (40) agreed to what Baboon told him. He did not argue with 
him. When they saw | a fruit-tree, while Baboon was saying, "The 
ripe ones are mine," Hare | said, before Baboon had finished, (the 
same) that he said. Baboon did not eat | the fruit. Hare ate it. 
When they arrived at the water. Hare began | to say, before Baboon 
had finished saying, what he wanted to say. He did not (45) drink 
the water. Hare was drinking. When they were near the kraal. 
Baboon | showed the medicine to Hare. Hare said, "Yes, I shall 
come to dig | the root when you send me." (Baboon) told Hare that 
he did not want him | to disgrace him. Hare said he would not dis- 
grace him. When they had gone a | little distance. Hare said to 
Baboon that he had lost his arrow. (50) He went back to look for it. 
Then he went back to dig the root of the "cooling-tree." | He took 
it and put it into his bag. He came back, and they went | to the kraal. 
When they arrived, they were given ground beans; (and) when 
Baboon had washed | his hands, he put his finger into the ground 
beans, and said, "Hare, sister's son, | I am burnt. Go and dig the 
root of the cooling-tree." Hare put (55) his hand into his bag, and 
took out the root of the cooling-tree | and gave it to Baboon. Baboon 
did not accept it. Cat | was his sister's son. Hare did not say 
anything, but he ate | the ground beans. They went home, and 
Baboon rebuked Hare much. 

When Baboon arrived home, he gathered things to pay for (60) his 
wife. He wanted to take revenge for what Hare had done to him. | 
It was on the day he wanted to go with the things that he went to 
steal the children | of Hare, and he put them into a bag. He was 
accompanied by Hawk, | Dove, and Hare, who were his spokesmen 
[fatherhood]. Baboon gave to Hare | the bag to carry in which were 
his children. When they had walked a little ways, (65) Hare heard 

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158 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

a honey-bird (species ?) singing* and followed it. When he reached a 
place I where he saw a tree on which were bees, he took oflF the honey. 
When he was eating the honey, he heard | a voice saying, " Father, 
give me some." Hare looked around. | He thought that perhaps 
birds were singing this, but he did not see any birds. When he was 
eating again, | he heard voices; and when he listened carefully, he 
heard that the voices (70) came from the bag, therefore he untied the 
bag, and he saw his children inside; | he took them out, gave them 
honey. He built a shed, that they | might stay in it until he came 
back from his journey. He opened the mouth | of the bag at the 
beehive (of the bees), and they entered into it. When | it was full, 
he tied up the bag left-handed, in the same way as (75) it had been 
done by Baboon. Hare arrived at the place where he had left Baboon 
and I the others, and gave them honey which he had. Baboon said 
to Hare, | "Hare, carry that bag carefully." He came to examine 
it, I and it was tied in the way he had tied it. Therefore he did not 
say anything. 

When they arrived at Baboon's mother-in-law's, he was greeted 
(80) by saying, "Are you strong. Sir Baboon?" ^ and he replied with a 
proverb, saying, | "Thanks.* The way to serve rightly the wise one 
is by taking his child." — "How are | you. Sir Hawk?" Hawk said, 
"How is it? We have cooked sadja and | meat." — "Greetings, Sir 
Hare!" Hare said, "We are well, | we came from home without any 
particular purpose. Purpose was given to us on the way by the 
honey-bird." (85) — "Of life. Sir Dove."» Dove said, "We are 
living. How is life? It was thus | of old. Nowadays we can try 
onfe another." The people were astonished much by what | was said 
by Baboon and his spokesmen. Sadja was cooked for them without | 
meat. When it was brought. Hawk wanted to kill Dove to make 
him I meat (for the sadja); but when Hawk wanted to pounce on 
Dove, Dove struck him with (90) a stick and killed him, and he was 
made meat. After they had finished eating, | the people of Baboon's 
mother-in-law gathered in the house and came | to receive the presents. 
Baboon told Hare to go out of the house, | and Hare went out. As 
he was going out, he winked his eyes | to Dove to follow him. When 
Hare had gone out, Dove followed him. Baboon (95) wanted him to 
remain, but Dove said that he would come back after going outside. 
All I his mother-in-law's people were assembled. The doors were 
shut because Baboon | did not want Hare (to see) that his children 
were made things by which payment was made. | Hare began to tie 
up all the doors from the outside. Baboon | put his hand into his 

> That ia. "Are you weU?" 

* Nda live, the answer to greeting. 

» Form of greeting. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 159 

bag, but he did not bring out anything (100) because the bees stung 
him. The people were waiting to see the presents. | Again he put 
his hands in, and the bees stung him very much. He threw down 
the I bag, the bees came out and stung all the people in the | house. 
The people tried to go out, but all the doors were tied | from the 
outside. The people began to beat Baboon very much. (105) When 
they broke the doors, Baboon went out and ran away, having many 
wounds. I Hare and Dove went home. Hare passed by | where he 
had left his children. He took them and went with them to his home. 
Baboon | did not go back to his mother-in-law. He failed to get the 
wife whom he had wanted | to marry. 


ngt nshiku imge shulo wakati kune zinthede, "chekulu ngatende 
koba manduwi kumlbevula. ndinoziva musevula una manduwi 
akanaka." zinthede likati, "eya, chakwe ndinotAa imb^a ngokuti 
ndakazwa kuti kwounoda kuti tende kuna imb^a djakapangama." 

5 shulo wakati, '' atizovoneki ngo vanthu." shulo na zinthede vakaenda 
koba manduwi. kwakati novaguma kumiisevula wakaleva shulo 
vakatanga kudupula matepo e manduwi. novadupula matepo mazi- 
nshi vakaenda pamum/uli wo muti, vakatanga kuchenga manduwi. 
shulo na-guta watanga kutamba no zinthede akati, "tetegulu ndo- 

10 tamba no mtllomo wenyukani? " zinthede likati, "ndozorhgangenyi ? " 
— "ndotamba ne nyala djenyu?" — "ndozokavangenyi?" — "ndo- 
tamba no nsheve djenyu?" zinthede likati, "ndozwangenyi?*' — 
''ndotamba no mgishe wenyu?" zinthede likati, "eya." shulo 
wakacha Undo, wakakohomela hoko, wasunga bote pahoko, waka- 

15 sungila m^se^ we zinthede nge bote lakasungila pahoko. na-pela 
kusuifga mgise we zinthede wakaup/uchila mulindo. napedja kuita 
id wakaenda pachulu akamima echiti, ^'chekulu, vanoba manduwi, 
chekulu, vanoba manduwi.'' zinthede lakati, "shulo, sinyi zo unoi- 
talo?" shulo wakanangila kumima. vanthu ne imb|:a vakaza vachi- 

20 gogoma. shulo wakatiza. zinthede lakaedja kutiza kani lakakoner- 
hwa ngokuti mgise walo wainga wakasungwa. lakaedja nge simba 
gulu lakagula mgise walo lakatiza vanthu nembga vachito vakaguma. 
lona alizivi kukanganwa jsaita shulo kwalo. 


One day Hare said to Baboon, "Sir,* let us go | and steal peanuts 
from a garden! I know a peanut-garden in which there are good 
peanuts." | Baboon said, "Yes, but I am afraid of dogs, because | I 
hear that where you want us to go, there are dogs. They are apt to 

1 Or m^ishe. 

* Chekulu, also used as term for mother's brother; ordinarily tetegulu. 

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bite." (5) Hare said, "We are not going to be seen by the people." 
Hare and Baboon went | to steal peanuts. It happened that, when 
they arrived at the peanut-garden mentioned by Hare, | he began to 
pull out the vines of the peanuts. When they had pulled many 
peanut-vines, | they went into the shade of a tree and they b^an to 
eat the peanuts. | When Hare had eaten enough, he wanted to play 
with Baboon. He said, "Mother's brother, shall I (10) play with 
your mouth?" Baboon said, "How am I going to eat?" | — "Shall 
I play with your hand?" — "How am I going to pick?" — "Shall I | 
play with your ears?" Baboon said, "With what shall I hear?" — | 
"Shall I play with your tail?" Baboon said, "Yes." Hare | dug a 
hole, and he drove into the ground a stake and tied a rope to the 
stake, and (15) tied Baboon's tail to the rope which he tied to the 
stake. When he had finished | tying Baboon's tail, he put back the 
soil into the hole. When he had finished doing this, | he went to a 
white ant-hill and called out, "Mother's brother is stealing peanuts! | 
Mother's brother is stealing peanuts!" Baboon said, "Hare, what 
are you doing?" | Hare persisted and shouted, and the people and 
the dogs came (20) running, and Hare ran away. Baboon tried to 
run away, but could not | because his tail was tied. He tried with 
great force, | and broke his tail before the people and the dogs arrived. | 
Baboon ran away, but he did not foi^get what Hare had done to him. 


nge gole lakatama ndilo kuna n\fula kwakava ne chikava chikulu. 

makandwa ese o kumgSL akaoma. kumga neyatamika munyika mgese. 

mambo we rikala, mphontholo, wakakoka nyama djese kuza kubanshe 

lake, kuti djizoveleketa nthango yo kucha sime. nodjavungana 
5 mphuka mambo mphontholo, wakadjibpunsha kuti, " maifgwana izanyi 

mgese kocha mgimbo. mphuka inolega kuza, aizomgi kum|[a yo 

mumangwana /umi mphuka djakavungana pandawo yakasanwa 

ndi mambo no manganakana ake, kuti sime lichiwepo. mphuka 
10 djailicha sime ngo kutamba. djaitamba imge nge imge. djakadula 

lumbo kuti djiimbe djichitamba. ur^ ndir^o lumbo rgodjakadula. 

chinyanshensheleka nshe ^ 
kuputu, kuputu, bukuta mphuli 
tinolukanda kuna vabongo. 

15 djakamba lumbor^, djichitamba djikaita Undo gulu, kani kum^a 
aizivi kubva, ngokuti ngo kutamba kwadjo djaivangisa musanga. 
makani djakavangilila kutamba. nguva ya shulo neyaguma, shulo 
azivi kuwanika. mambo wakatuma mutume komudana.' mambo 

^ Repeated four times. 

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TcUes and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. i6i 

nabminsha shulo kuti, "watama ngenyi kuza kocha sime?" shulo 

20 wakadavila, "andidi kucha sime ngokuti inini ndinom^a maveto." 
mambo wakamulekela. 

mphuka nedjalemba kutamba djakagurhwa musana, ngokuti kum^ 
aizivi kubva. hamba yakati, "ndilegelenyivo ndiche sime." nyama 
djese djakaseka hamba, djichiti, "u»ga zoitenyi iwewe?" kamba 

25 likati, "jsanyisa isisu msuka meso, asingazoitwi ndiwe." hamba 
wakavangilila kuti atenderhwe kucha sime. no djamutendela, waka- 
ngwina mulindo, aks^ukunyula musanga, wakachindirhwa nge nyama. 
mphuka djese djakalingila zsStws, ndi hamba. hamba nangalangala 
mulindo, wakabovola kum^a, sime likazala nge kum^a. mphuka 

30 djakadakala ngo kuvone kum^a. 

zuva nelovila nyati wakati, kuna mambo, ''sime ngalilindwe, 
ngokuti shulo walamba kuti besa kucha sime, makani na*zwa kuti 
tabovola kum^ a, unoza kochela kum^a musime ledu. wakal^^ kucha 
ngokuti achaidepi kubata basa, maveto a'leva kuti anoam^a, ainga 

35 mamanomano kuti alegerhwe." mambo ne mphuka djese djakati, 

"unoleva sokadi nyati. tinomuziva shulo munthu wakangwala sikulu." 

bongo wakati, "ndakulinda inini vusiku uv^ vgo kutanga." shulo 

nazwa kuti kum^a ya bovorhwa, wakaenda kobula vuchi akuvudila 

mubazi akatola mapazi ake akaenda kusime kochela kumga. na*guma 

40 pasime wakati, " haye, haye." bongo akati " ndiyani? " shulo akati ; 
"ndini inini, ndina chigona, chamunam5a kam|:e, kuviya ndisunge." 
bongo akati, "watinyi?" — "ndini inini, ndina chigona, chamu- 
namsa kam|:e, kuviya ndisunge." bongo akati, "sedelayi." shulo 
wakasedela akananuisa bongo vuchi. bongo no-lavila vuchi, wakati 

45 kuna shulo, "ndipese." shulo wakati, "kuti watenda kusungwa, 
ndinokupajse." bongo wakati, "eya, ndisungeyi." shulo wakamu- 
sunga, kani azivi kumupa vuchi. shulo wakangwina musime. waka- 
chela kum^a. napedja kuchela kum^a, wakaivundula akaenda kanyi 
kwake. mumangwana /umi bongo wakawanika nakasungwa, kani 

50 azivi kuleva kuti wakamusunga ndiyani. 

kamba wakati, "ndinozolinda sime nyamasi." nalavila zuva, shulo 
wakaza akati, "haye, haye," kudali nge jsa'kaleva ngo muvusiku 
m|:a kalinda bongo, kamba wakadavila kudali nge sakaita bongo, 
shulo namunamsisa vuchi wakamusunga kamba, wakachela kumga, 

55 na-zadja mapazi ake wakaivundula. djese mphuka djalinda sime, 
djakasungwa ndi shulo, kani adjichailevepi kuti shulo wakadjisungisa 
kudini no kuti shulo wainga ne chilo chaidjipa. 

hamba wakati unolinda sime ngo uvgo vusiku. nyama djakasungwa 
ndi shulo, djakamuseka kudali nge sedjakaita djichicha sime. zuva 

60 nelavila hamba wakaenda mukumga. shulo naguma wakati, "haye 
haye." azivi kuzwa munthu wakadavila, ndiso wakati, "ndava laila 
vona, ndaiziva kuti avangazo pikidjani neni." wakaenda musime 

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1 62 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

kochela kum|[a. nepedja kuzadja tnapazi ake wakaimndula kumga 
kudali ffgo musambo wake, noambuka, nelasala gumbo limge mukum^, 

65 hamba wakabata gumbo la shulo. shulo wakatetezela hamba, makani 
hamba azivi kuveleketa. kunsha nokwaedja shulo wakawanika pa- 
sime wakaendeswa kuna mambo. nyama djakadakala sikulu ngo 
kubatwa kwa shulo, makani shulo wainga mungwali, ndbo wakati 
kuna vamambo, "ndinoda kutamba ngoma yangu uchito watonga 

70 ndava yangu/' mambo wakatendela shulo kuti atambe ngoma yake. 
shulo wakamba lumbo rhwake, wakabtoinsha mphuka djaiva pabanshe 
kuti djimumbile achitamba urgu ngo lumbo rhwake: — 

nandi, shulo, kupembela unoviyalini? mangwana, 
kuti, shulo, kupembela unoviyalini? mangwana, 
75 iwe shulo wapembela unoviyalini? mangwana. 

nandiwe, shulo, kupembela unoviyalini? mangwana* 
kud, shulo, wapembela unoviyalini? mangwani. 

nodjavona shulo achitamba, mphuka djakanyaukirhwa djakata- 

mbavo djikaita bukuta gulu, shulo wakatiza. mambo ne mphuka 

80 djaiti shulo ulipo unatamba navo. nyama adjizivi kuvonana n%^ 

bukuta, djimge djaibayana. bukuta nelanganuka, mphuka djaka- 

p5anga shulo, kani shulo azivi kuwanika. magumo. 


One year which was lacking in rain there was a great drought. | 
All the lakes (of water) were dried up. Water was not to be found 
in the whole country. | The chief of the animals. Lion, called all the 
animals together to come to his court | to talk over the matter of 
digging a well. When the animals were assembled, (5) Chief Lion 
told them, saying, "To-morrow | all shall come to dig a well. If an 
animal should not come, he will not drink the water of | the well." 

On the following day many animals assembled at the place which 
was selected, | according to the order of the chief and his advisers, 
where the well was to be dug. The animals (10) were to dig the well 
by dancing. They were to dance one by one. They composed | a 
song which they were to sing and to dance to. This song which they 
composed was, — | 

Trotting, trotting, nshe [four times). 
Stamping, stamping, dust rises, 
We give this to Hyena.* 

(15) They sang this song dancing, and making a large hole; but 

* See Jacottet, The Treasury of Ba-Suto Lore, i : 3a. where also comparative notes are 
given; also Natalie Curtis. Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York, 1920). 
p. 45 (Vandau); tune of song {Ibid.), p. 122. 

* That is, the next dancer was to be Hyena. The animals were thus called one by one. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 163 

the water | did not come out, because by dancing they made the hole 
hard. But | they persisted in dancing. When the turn of Hare came, 
Hare was not | found. The chief sent a messenger to call Hare. The 
chief asked | Hare why he did not come to dig the well. Hare an- 
swered, (20) " I do not want to dig the well, because I drink dew." 
The chief | let him go. 

When the animals were tired dancing, they were discouraged 
because the water | did not come. Turtle said, "Let me try to dig 
the well ! " All the animals | laughed at what Turtle said. *' What can 
you do?" Leopard said, (25) "We red-eyes are baffled. It would 
never be done by you." Turtle | persisted that he be allowed to dig 
the well. He | entered the hole, and burrowed in the sand which was 
packed hard by the beasts. | All the animab looked at what was 
being done by Turtle. When Turtle disappeared | in the hole, he dug 
through to the water, and the well was full of water. The animals 
(30) were glad because they saw the water. 

When the sun was setting, Buffalo said to the chief, "The well 
should be watched, | because Hare refused to help dig the well; but 
when he hears that | we struck water, he will come to drink water in 
our well. He refused to dig | because he did not want to work; he 
mentioned that he drank dew; it was (35) an excuse, so that he 
might not be troubled." The chief and all the animals said, | "What 
you say is true, Buffalo. We know Hare is very wise." 

Hyena said, '' I shall watch this night to begin." When Hare | heard 
that water had been dug out, he went to get honey, which he put | into 
his calabash, and he took his calabash and went to the well to fetch 
water. When he arrived (40) at the well, he said, "Haye, haye!" 
Hyena said, "What is it?" Hare said, | "I myself taste once what is 
in the calabash. It is done again when I tie." | Hyena said, "What 
did ypu say?" — "I myself | taste once what is in the calabash. It 
is done again when I tie." Hyena said, "Come here!" Hare | came 
near, and gave a taste of honey to Hyena. Hyena tasted the honey, 
and said (45) to Hare, "Give me more." Hare said, "If you are 
willing to be tied, | I shall give you more." Hyena said, "Yes, tie 
me." Hare tied him, | but he did not give him the honey. Hare 
entered the well. | He dipped out water. When he had finished 
getting water, he disturbed it and went to his house. | The next 
morning Hyena was found tied, but (50) he did not tell who had 
tied him. 

Leopard said, "I shall watch the well this night." When the sun 
set, Hare | came and said "Haye, haye!" as he had said the night 
before | when Hyena was watching. Leopard answered in the same 
way as Hyena had done. | Hare let him taste the honey. He tied 
Leopard, dipped out water, (55) and filled his calabash. He disturbed 

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164 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

the water. AU the animals that watched the well | were tied by 
Hare; but they did not tell that Hare had tied them, | and that Hare 
had the thing which he gave them. 

Turtle said he would watch the well that night. The animals tied 
by Hare laughed at him in | the same way as (at the time) when they 
were digging the well. When the sun (60) set, Turtle went into the 
water. Hare arrived, and said, "Haye, | haye!" He did not hear 
a person answer; therefore he said, ''Serves them right, | I knew they 
would tire of trying to get me." He went into the well | to draw 
water. When he finished filling his calabash, he disturbed the water, | 
as was his custom. When he came out of the water, his one leg 
remained in the water; (65) Turtle had taken hold of the leg of Hare. 
Hare begged Turtle, but | Turtle did not speak. When day broke, 
Hare was found at the | well. He was taken to the chief. The 
animals were very glad because | Hare was captured. But Hare was 
wise; therefore he said | to the chief, **I want to dance my dance 
before you judge (70) my case." The chief allowed Hare to dance his 
dance. | Hare sang his song, and asked the animals who were in 
court I to sing for him while he danced to this song: — 

" Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming back? 

— To-morrow. 

Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming back? 

— To-morrow. 

(75) You, Hare, if you go away, when are you coming back? — To-morrow. 
Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming back?-* 

To-day, Hare, are you going about aimlessly? When are you coming 

back? — To-morrow." 

When the animals saw Hare danicng, they had a desire to dance also, | 
and they made much dust, and Hare ran away. The chief of the 
animals (80) thought that Hare was there dancing with them. The 
animals did not see one another | on account of the dust, and stabbed 
one another. When the dust settled, the animals looked for | Hare, 
but Hare was not to be found. The end. 


shulo wakati kune hamba, "ngatende koba malungu, ndinoziva 
kuna malungu makulu, atizovoneki ngo vanthu ngokuti vanom|:a 
dolo." hamba yakati, "tapo." shulo ne hamba vakatola «ivanga 
zavo kuti vazoise malungu. novaguma kumamunda vakacha ma- 
lungu, novapedja kucha shulo wakati, ''ngativese mulilo tikoche 
malungu. tir^e." vakavesa mulilo, vakakocha malungu. naibt^a 
shulo wakati kune hamba, "ngatikande malungu mujrivanga sedu." 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 165 

novapedja kuita in shulo wakati kune hamba, "iwe enda ngeino, ini 
ndende ngeno, tichidana vanthu kuti, shulo ne hamba vanoba ma- 

10 lungu." hamba wakati, "eya, ngaite izo.** shulo wakaleva kune 
hamba, kuti, "ukavona vanthu vachiza viyai utole chivanga chako, 
utize." shulo wakaenda ngo kumboshwa achimima kuti, ''shulo ne 
hamba vanoba malungu/' hamba azivi kuenda, wakangwina muchi- 
vanga cha shulo. shulo nazwa vanthu vachiza wakati, "hamba w6, 

15 tizai, vanthu voza kuno." shulo wakaviya achigogoma akatola 
chivanga chake. ena achaizivepi kuti hamba waiva muchivanga 
chake. shulo wakagogoma achiti, "hamba wabatwa nge vanthu." 
kwati sbulo nalemha kugogoma wakati, "ndakugala pamun\/uli 
pomuti ndirge' malungu." wakangwinisa mukono wake muchivanga 

20 wakabatabata malungu achip5anga lungu lakakula; nachaliwana 
wakudulula chivanga. hamba wakabuda muchivanga akati, "shulo, 
iwewe waiti wakangwala, kani auzivi. inini ndapedja kurga malungu 
ainga muchivanga mgako, iwewe uchindithwala." shulo wakaisiya 
hamba akaenda kanyi kwake. 


Hare said to Turtle, " Let us go and steal sweet-potatoes ! I know | 
where there are large sweet-potatoes. We are not going to be seen 
by the people, because they are drinking | beer." Turtle said, "Let 
us!" Hare and Turtle took their bags | to put into them sweet- 
potatoes. When they arrived, they began to dig sweet- (5) potatoes. 
After they had dug, Hare said, "Let us make a fire, so that we may 
roast I the sweet-potatoes! Let us eat!" They made a fire, and they 
roasted sweet-potatoes. When the | sweet-potatoes were done. Hare 
said to Turtle, " Let us put the sweet-potatoes in our bags ! " | When 
they finished doing so. Hare said to Turtle, "You go this way, I | 
shall go the other way, shouting to the people that Hare and Turtle 
are stealing (10) sweet-potatoes." Turtle said, "Yes, let us do so!" 
Hare said to | Turtle, "When you see people coming, come back, 
take your bag, and | run away." Hare went to the left side, shouting, 
"Hare and | Turtle are stealing sweet-potatoes!" Turtle did not go, 
but went into | Hare's bag. When Hare heard the people coming, 
he said, "Turtle, (15) run away! The people are coming here!" Hare 
came back nmning. He took | his bag. He did not know that 
Turtle was in his bag. | Hare ran, saying, "Turtle is caught by the 
people." I When Hare was tired running, he said, "I will sit down 
in the shade | of a tree and eat sweet-potatoes." He put his hand 
into his bag (20) and felt for sweet-potatoes. He looked for a large 
sweet-potato there, but he did not find it. He emptied | the bag. 

^ Natalie Curtis, Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York, 1920), p. 43 

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1 66 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Turtle was in the bag, and said, "Hare, | you thought you were wise, 
but you are not. I ate the sweet-potatoes | in your bag while you were 
carrying me." Hare left | Turtle and went to his house. 


{Version a.) 

shulo na mpAemb^ vainga vasham|[ali. nge nshiku mpAembge 
wakati kuna shulo, "kudali nendichina minyanga ndingatodjana 
newe inini. iwewe nouna minyawga ungatodjana neni." nge imge 
nshiku vachitamba shulo wakati kuna mpAemb^, ''ndino iziva nshila 

5 yo kubsula ndiyo minyanga. iwewe ungazobsula minyanga yako inini 
ndingazoishonga yona nge djimge nshiku." mpkemhge ngokuti waida 
kuti vushamgali vgavo vuvangisise wakada kuti minyanga yake 
ib^Burhwe. ndiso wakati kuna shulo, " ndi noda kuti undidjidjise ku- 
bsutwa kwe minyanga." shulo wakati kuna mpAemb^, "ngatende 

10 kop5anga huni." nevaviya ne huni shulo wakatola mbende akaizadja 
nge kum^. akaigadja pachoto akati kuna mpAemb^, "kuti iwewe, 
nge djim^ nshiku, uzobmle minyanga yako ndiyisimile, inini, ndizo- 
hzule nsheve djangu nge djimge nshiku, udjisimile, no kuti tovavili 
tiwane ili simba lo kubsula nsheve ne minyanga yedu, sinodikana 

15 kuti tingwine mumbende ili pachoto mum^e nge mum^, kuti nsheve 
ne minyanga yedu ip/ave, izonasa kubmlika." mpAemb^ wakatenda 
sakaleva shulo. shulo wakati kuna mpAemb^, ''inini ndinotanga ku- 
ngwinamumbendengokutindinozivasotinoita." shulo achitowangwina 
mumbende yainga pachoto wakabtoinsha mpAemb^ kuti, ena nagugu- 

20 dja pamtifiniko mpAemb^ ngazouduhumule. shulo wangwina mumbe- 
ndempAemb^wakadumaidja mbende ngomufiniko. muliloauchaivepi 
muzinshi. shulo wakagala muvokulu achito wagugudja pamiifiniko. 
kum^ neyopisa shulo wakagugudja pamiifiniko mpAemb^ wakaudu- 
humula. shulo akabud^ mumbende. mpAemb^ wakangwina mu- 

25 mbende. shulo wakaidumaidja ngo mufiniko. napedja kuidumaidja 
wakakokela huni pachoto. mpAemb^ wakangwina mumbende 
kumfa noyongayopisa. azivi kugalam^ mukuvo mukulu kumfa 
noyopisa sikulu noyoda kuvila. na*zwa kupisa kwe kumfa waka- 
gugudja pamiifiniko kani shulo wakati kwali, "auto, wagala 

30 mukuvo mukulu unoti ndiwo minyanga yako ip/ave. aulangalili kani 
kuti inini ndagalamfo mumbende mukuvo mukulu? nsheve djangu 
adjidi mukuvo mukulu kudjip/avisa djona. minyanga yako inoda 
mukuvo mukulu kuip/avisa." mpAemb^ wakapulutana sakaleva 
shulo, wakalegela shulo kuti adumaidje mbende. shulo wakakanda 

35 buwe pamiifiniko. mpAemb^ nagugudja. shulo azivi kuduhumula 
mbende. kumfa inga3^vila. mpAemb^ wakagugudja pamiifiniko 
nge simba kani shulo waiti, "nguva yako aito yaguma." noyavila 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 167 

kumga mphemhge wakalta simba kuti abuMge, kani muiiniko wainga 
una buwe; ndiso ena wakafilamgo mumbende. naibva mphemhge 
40 shulo wakatola minyanga yake akaiita nyele padjidja achid, 

ndatamba na mphemhge 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
mpAemb^e waibva 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
45 ndatola minyanga, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
minyanga ya mpAembge, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
ndaita nyele, 
50 nyalala telele kuteku, 

djondo lidjali, 

nyalala telele kuteku. 

shulo waimba lumborgu achilidja nyele yo minyanga ya mphemhge 
shami^ali wake. 

{Version b.) 

shulo na mpAembge vaiva shamgali. vushamgali vgavo vgainga 

vgakavanga nkulu, vakagondisana kuti, "tafa wgativigane." vaka- 

tendelana muzilo ^ese 2K)vaita. 

»ge imge nshiku vaiveleketa «go kungatodjani kwavo, kudali nge 

5 minyanga ya mpftembge ne nsheve dja shulo. mphemhge wakati kwa 

shulo, "kudali notakatodjana vanthu vangazoti tili vabalirhwana." 

mphemhge wainga shamgali wo^okadi, ^sese i^ilondzela shulo ^saiva 

sokadi, kani shulo wakatanga kutonthola, ngokuti waiemula chimo 

ne minyanga ya mpAembge. mphemhge waimunyisa shulo mitambo 

10 yese yo vaitamba kudali ngo kugogoma no kubzalana. shulo wakati 

kuna shamgali wake, "ndailangalila chilo chingatiita kuti titodjane 

sikulu. andizivi kukulondzela kuti madjitetegulu angu aiva ne 

minyanga kale, ona akada kuva ne nsheve djakaleba, ndLso akabmta 

minyanga ayo. kuti no ndakupa mutombo iwewe unozova ne simba 

15 lo kixhzuta, minyanga yako, uisimile nge nshiku yo unoda." 

mp&emb|:e waida kudakalisa sham|:ali wake, wakati, "Leo ^ingaita 
sakanaka." shulo wakati, "ngatende kop5anga huni." novaviya 
ne huni vakatola mbende hulu kakuizadja nge kumga kakuigadja 
pamulilo wo vakavesa. shulo wakati kuna mphemhge, "simba lo 
20 kub^mla minyanga lili mukum|[a neyodjiya, ngokuti inini ndinoziva 
mutombo ndakutanga kungwina mumbende. ndldumaidjei muiinipo, 
no ndagugudja pamuiiniko uzo uduhumula." shulo wakangwina 
mumbende yaiva pachoto. kumga noyadjiya wakagugudja pamu- 
finiko, mphemhge wakaiduhumula mbende. shulo nabudga mphe- 
25 mhge wakangwina mumbende, shulo wakaidumaidja a kadila buwe 
panyezulu po mtifiniko akanasa kukokela huni pamulilo. mphemhge 

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1 68 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

nazwa kupisa kwe kum^ wakagugudja pa tntifiniko kani shulo azivi 
kuuduhumula. ndiio mphemhge wakabikwa, naibva shulo wakabula 
mbende akabiuta minyanga ya mphemhge akaiita nyele. akachilidja 
30 lumbo. 

ndatamba na mpAemb^e 
nyalala telele kuteku, 
mphemhge waibva 
nyalala telele kuteku, 
35 ndatola minyanga, 

nyalala telele kuteku, 
minyanga ya mpAemb^, 
nyalala telele kuteku, 
ndaita nyele, 
40 nyalala telele kuteku, 

djondo lidjali, 
nyalala telele kuteku. 


{Version a.) 

Hare and Duiker were friends^ One day Duiker | said to Hare, 
"If I had no horns, I should be like you. | If you had no ears, you 
would be like me.'* One | day while they were plajdng. Hare said to 
Duiker, " I know a way (5) of pulling off the horns. You will be able 
to pull off your horns, and 1 1 shall borrow them some day." Because 
Duiker wanted | their friendship to be strengthened, he wanted his 
horns | to be pulled. Therefore he said to Hare, " I want you to teach 
me the | pulling of the horns." Hare said to Duiker, "Let us go 
(10) and look for fire-wood ! " Wh«i they came back with the fire-wood, 
Hare took a pot and filled it | with water. He put it on the hearth. 
He said to Duiker, "You | some day may be able to pull off your 
horns, so that I can put them on; | and some day I shall pull off my 
ears, and you put them on. So that both of us | may obtain this 
power of pulling off our ears and horns, it is necessary (15) that we 
go into this pot on the fire one by one, that our ears | and horns may 
become pliable, so that they can be pulled." Duiker agreed | to 
what Hare said. Hare said to Duiker, "I shall begin | to go into the 
pot, because I know how to do it." Hare went | into the pot wfaidi 
was on the fire. He tokl Duiker that when he knocked (20) on the 
lid. Duiker should take it off. When Hare had entered the pot, | 
Duiker covered the pot with the lid. There was not much fire, j 
Hare staid a long time in the water before he knocked on the lid. | 
\\*hen the water was hot, Hare knocked on the lid, and Duiker 
uncovered it. | Hare came out oi the pot. Duiker went into the pot. 

< Compare E. J»cottet. The Tttmamj of Bft-Snto Lore, i : X3-i4* i^ 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 169 

(25) Hare covered it with the lid. After he had covered it, | he piled 
fire-wood on the hearth. When Duiker had gone into the pot, | the 
water was getting hot. He did not stay in very long before the water 
became very hot, | and it was about to boil. When he felt the heat of 
the water, | he knocked on the lid; but Hare said to him, "You have 
not staid (30) very long (to be time not enough) for your horns to be 
soft. Don't you remember, | I staid in the pot a long time? My 
ears | do not need much time to make them soft. Your horns need | 
a long time to make them soft." Duiker listened to what Hare said. | 
He let Hare cover the pot. Hare put (35) a stone on the lid. Duiker 
knocked, (but) Har^ did not uncover | the pot. The water was 
boiling. Duiker knocked on the lid | with strength; but Hare said 
to him, "Your time has not come yet." When the water was boiling, | 
Duiker used (made) great power to come out; but the lid had | a 
stone (on it), therefore he died in the pot. When Duiker was cooked, 
(40) Hare took his horns and made whistles, singing, — 

'* I played with Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
Duiker is cooked. 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
(45) I took his horns, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
The horns of Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
I made a whistle, 
(50) Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Which I am playing, 

Be quiet telele kuteku." 

Hare was singing this song and playing on the whistle made from 
the horns of Duiker, | his friend. 

{Version b.) 

Hare and Duiker were friends. Their friendship was | very strong. 
They pledged each other, "When we die, we will bury each other." 
They | agreed in all things they did. 

One day they were talking about their not being alike in regard to 
the (5) horns of Duiker and the ears of Hare. Duiker said to | Hare, 
"If we were alike, people would say we were brothers." | Duiker 
was a true friend; all he told Hare was | true; but the friendship of 
Hare began to be cold, because he envied the head | and horns of 
Duiker. Duiker beat Hare in all games (10) they were playing, such 
as running and touching each other. Hare said | to his friend, " I was 
thinking of something that would make us quite alike. | I never did 
tell you that my great-grandfathers had | horns long ago. They 


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170 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wanted to have long ears, therefore they plucked out | their horns. 
When I give you medicine, you will have the power (15) to pull out 
your horns and wear them, any day you like." 

Duiker wanted to please his friend. He said, "This is | good." 
Hare said, " Let us go to look for fire-wood ! " When they came back | 
with the fire-wood, they took a large pot, filled it with water, and 
put it I on the fire. Hare said to Duiker, "The power to (20) pull out 
your horns is in the water when it gets warm; because I am the one 
who knows | the medicine, I shall begin and go into the pot. Cover 
me with the lid; and when I knock on the lid, lift it." Hare went 
into I the pot which was on the fire. When the water was lukewarm, 
he knocks] on the lid. | Duiker uncovered the pot. When Hare 
came out, (25) Duiker went into the pot; Hare covered it, and put a 
stone I on top of the lid, and carefully put fire-wood on the fire. When 
Duiker | felt the heat of the water, he knocked on the lid; but Hare 
did not I uncover it, therefore Duiker was cooked; when he was done. 
Hare took the pot | up from the fire, and pulled oflF the horns and 
made whistles, and played and (30) sang, — 

" I played with Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Duiker is cooked, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
(35) I took his horns, 

Be quiet telele kuteku. 
The horns of Duiker, 

Be quiet telele kuteku, 
I made a whisde, 
(40) Be quiet telele kuteku. 
Which I am playing, 

Be quiet telele kuteku." 


{Version a.) 

nge imge nshiku mphontholo yakavona shulo ikati, "ehe, ndiwe, 
iwewe wakavulaya vana vangu!" shulo wakati, "andinipi." mpho- 
ntholo yakati, "unoti wakangwala iwewe. ndinokuziva ndiwe 
wakavavulaya. ndaiti wainga wakanaka, kani uli bandu. ndaka- 

5 kugonda no vana vangu, iwewe wakapinduka kuita bandu. imapo, 
ndikutatidje! " mphontholo yakatanga kuza kuna shulo, shulo waka- 
tiza, mphontholo yakamugogomela. shulo nalemba, wakapinimidja 
kuti wavangilila kugogoma mphontholo inozomilbata. achilangalila 
vA wakavona buwe lakacheama, wakaenda pasi palo akali batilila. 

10 mphontholo yakatevela shulo pasi pe buwe. shulo wakati, "mpho- 

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TcUes and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 171 

ntholo, tetegulu, batilanyi buwe, linozotiwila." mphontholo yaka- 
kanganwa kuti yaida kuvulaya shulo, yakalangalila kuti yalegela 
kilbata buwe yona ne shulo vanozowirhwa ndilo, yakabatilila buwe. 
shulo wakalegela buwe akabva pas! palo achiti kune mphontholo, 
15 "batisisanyi buwelo, linozo muwila." mphontholo yakagalapo pasi 
pe buwe nshiku zinshi. ney^a nge nshala no kulemba yakalegela 
buwe, kani buwe alizivi kuwa. mphontholo yakabpa pasi pe buwe 
ichisongeya shulo. ichiti, "pondi nozovonana na shulo apazomeli 

{Version 6.) 

mambo mphontholo wakazwa kiltokota kwa shulo kudjo nyama 
djese. shulo waiziv|[a ndidjo djese mphuka kuti wainga mungwali 
sikulu, ftgokuti waiziva misambo yese. wakanyisa mphuka djese 
kuita misambo mizinshi wainga ne v^lu, ftgokuti kudali nawanika 

5 mumfumfu waiziva mazano mazinshi okubva ndiwo mumfumfu. 

kwati vana vatatu va mambo mphontholo nevabarhwa, mambo 
wakada kuti shulo avadjidjise mazano ese a-moziva. shulo wakadana 
nd imambo mphontholo.* na-guma wakabtoinshwa ndi mambo mpho- 
ntholo, kuti unoda kuti shulo adjidjise vana vake misambo yese 

ID yaanoziva. yanoziva shulo wakatenda kuita mudjidjisi wo vana va 
mambo. mambo wakati kuna shulo, 'Swewe ne vana vatatu vangu 
munozogala munyumba yakasoserhwa, apana munthu unozotenderhwa 
kungwina munyumba. neni no mukadji wangu atizongwinipi mu- 
nyumba. tinokutumila nyama no kur^a kunodika ndiwe ne vana." 

15 shulo no vana vatatu va mambo vakagala munyumba yakaleva 
mambo. ena wakavadjidjisa vona ng<t zuva lo kutanga kuita misambo 
ne mitambo, kudali, ngokulova kata, kubisalana no kumphuka 
mitanda. zuva nelavila mambo mphontholo no mukadji wake vakaza 
kunyumba kuti vabminshe kutamba kwe vana vavo, shulo wakati 

20 kuna mambo mphontholo, '' vana vatamba sakanaka nyamasi mitambo 

shulo ne vana novorga kurga. «na waivapa maphondo. vana 
novakumbila shulo kuti vanoda nyama shulo wakati kovali, "ndinomu- 
vapa maphondo ftgokuti ndinoda kuti meno enyu avaftge, kuti m^ar^a 

as nyama yakap/ava meno enyu aftgavaftgipi." mumaftgwana fumi 
shulo wakadjidjisa vadjidji vake kutamba mitambo no kuita misambo. 
zuva nelavila mphontholo no mukadji wake vakaza kobminsha kugala 
ko vana vavo. shulo wakavavonesa vana mumge ftge mum^e. 
wakatakula vana pavachansha achiti, "vonanyiili zinthikinyalliftgi- 

30 lanyi ili zinthikinya!*' mambo no mukadji wake wakadakadjiswa 
isikulu ftgokuti shulo wakakolodja vana vavo vushoni. nshiku djese 
shulo waitamba no vana, vona vakaftga voziva mitambo mizinshi. 
vadjibali vavo wakaza nshiku djese kovavona no kozwa kuti vaidjidja 
wani. J 

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172 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

35 shulo wakaziva kuti kudali wadjidjisa vana ve mphontholo misambo 
yese, nyama djese adjingawani kup/ala no kudakala, ngokuti mpho- 
ntholo djinozodjitambudja. naye shulo no vukama v|[ake vanozova 
mungozi. ndiso wakalangalila zano lokuvulaya ndilo vana ve mpho- 
ntholo vachito valuka. 

40 mum^e mutambo wovaita wainga wo kumphuka mulilo. shulo 
wakaphinga mgana mum^e ngo muti achimphuka, mgana wakawila 
pa mulilo, akap5a akafa. zuva nelavila mphontholo wakaza kovona 
vana vake, shulo wakatakula vana pavgalo achiti, "lingilanyi ill 
zinthikinya." wakatakula m|[ana mumge kavili. ngt nshiku yaka- 

45 tevela shulo wakaphingase mumg^ mgana naye wakawiUc pamulilo 

akap5a aka/a. zuva nelavila mphontholo naza, shulo wakatakula 

katatu m|[ana wakasala. shulo wakaphinga mgana we chitatu naye 


shulo namulayo mgana we chitatu wakalangalila zano laimubudisa 

50 mungozi yaingamgo. ena wakapganya musuvo wo lusosa, akasoso- 
nyula lusosa, akajrikwenga, akap/anyangula vuboya v^ake. waita Lri 
kuti anase kubtoinsha mphontholo kuti manthede avulaya vana vake. 
zuva nelavila mambo mphontholo wakaza kovona vana vake, kani 
wakavona shulo nali kunsha kwe lusosa, nakagumbatana achilila. 

55 mphontholo wakapinimidja achiti pamge vana vake vamukwenga 
shulo ngokuti ingavokula, kani mphontholo nabtoinsha shulo kuti 
waililangenyi, shulo wakasumula ndava yo kufa ko vana, no kuti 
manthede akaza akavavulaya. ona akadoda kumulaya naye ngokuti 
wakavikila vana. mphontholo wakavona musuvo wakapganywa no 

60 vana vake vakavulawa, ndLso wakachenezwa sikulu, azivi kubvansha 
mibtoinsho mizinshi. ena ne hama djake vakaenda kolonda manthede. 
mphontholo ne hama djake vakaawana manthede nakavata. 
vakavulaya manthede mazinshi. mashoma akatiza. mumangwana 
/umi ao manthede, akatiza akaza kobvunsha mphontholo kuti waka- 

65 vulailenyi hama djao maulonyi. mphontholo azivi kuda ktkpulutana 
gakaleva manthede, kani nevasovela ndava mphontholo no manthede 
akatendelana kuti vaende kun3amiba kwainga ne vana, mphontholo 
vati vakavulawa ng<t manthede. novaguma panyumba ^akavoneswa 
kuti apana zinthede lakaza panyumbapo n%<^ nshiku yakavulawa 

70 ndiyo vana. mphontholo watenda kuti manthede azivi kuvulaya 
vana vake. makani wakalangalila kuti, shulo ndiyena wakavavu- 
laya akusukumidjila ndava kuna manthede. wakabvunsha manthede 
kuti unopaluka sikulu ngokuti wavulaya hama djao djichingazivi 
kuita chilo kwali. 

75 mphontholo wakatevela shulo kanyi kwake, namuvana wakamu- 
songeya achiti, "ndiwe, iwewe wakavulaya vana vangu ukati kwendili, 
vakavulawa ng'^ mathende!" wakagogomela. shulo na-lemba kugo- 
goma wakavona buwe lakacheama wakaenda pasi palo akalibata, 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 173 

mphontholo naguma, shulo wakati kwali, ''chekulu, batililanyi buwe, 

80 linotiwila." mphontholo wakakanganwa kuti waida kuvulaya shulo, 
wakabatilila buwe ngokuti waiziva kuti buwe no lawa laiwila ena ne 
shulo. pam^e shulo waipona ngokuti ena mudoko. mphontholo 
nabata buwe. shulo wakalilegela akabva pasi palo, achiti kuna 
mphontholo, "batilisa buwelo kuti walegela linozokuwila iwewe." 

85 mphontholo wakagala pasi pe buwe mazuva mazinshi achingazivi 
kurga chilo no kuvata hope, kwati nalemba na/a nge nshala ne hope 
wakalegela buwe akawa pasi. ena waitAa kuti buwe laizomuwila 
kani alizivi kuwa. mphontholo wakadkweva pasi pe buwe akaenda 
kanyi kwake. 

90 mphontholo na-va ne simba wakaenda kanyi kwa shulo kuti amu- 
vulaye. waiti shulo achaizivepi kuti wakabva pasi po buwe, ndijso 
waiti unowana shulo nakavanairhwa. wakaenda kanyi kwa shulo 
mumangwana matete, ngokuti waiti shulo wainga wakavata, kani 
shulo wakaziva nshiku yakabva ndiyo mphontholo pasi po buwe, 

95 kutanga ng<& nshiku ya-kamusiya ndiyo mphontholo pasi pe buwe, 
shulo wakaenda kolingila nshiku djese kuti azive kuti mphontholo 
wainga pasi palo. mphontholo naguma kanyi kwa shulo wakanyangila 
achenda ku musuvo, akagugudja musuvo nge simba; kani shulo 
achangemgopi mumba, wainga kunsha achikota mashana pachulu, 

100 wakavona mphontholo ichiza. mphontholo navona shulo pachulu, 
wakatanga kumugogomela, shulo wakatiza akatevela gwansha li- 
chainga ne mavushwa mazinshi. mphontholo ingayoda kumubata, 
shulo naguma pandawo yainga no magulu mazinshi, wakangwina 
mulimge. mphontholo ngokuti waigogoma sikulu wakapindilidja 

105 pamagulu. navgilila wakalingila pamilomo yao, kani yese yainga ne 
soka dja shulo djaivonesa kuti wakangwina mgadjo m^ese achigogoma| 
mphontholo wakashamiswa ngokuti shulo achaingepi nthambo, azivi 
kuvona kuti shulo wakangwinisa kudini mimilomo yese ngenguvayo 
yakamuvona achingwina gulu ngokuti achaizivepi gulu lakangwina 

110 shulo, mphontholo wakatanga kup/uchila magulu ese ngo milsanga. 
na-guma pagulu gulu, wakavona kuti lainga ne chi/emelo chikulu 
chainga nthambo mumavushwa, wakaenda kolingila pamulomo wacho, 
akavona soka dja shulo, akaziva kuti shulo wakabudga ndicho. 
mphontholo azivi kulasha nguva, wakatevela lusoka rhwa shulo, 

115 akagogoma zikulu ngokuti waiziva kuti shulo inga wa nthambo. 
lusoka rhwa shulo rh wakaenda pachitulu, mphontholo naguma po 
wakanasa kuchipota kuti avone kuti shulo azivi kuenda kuimge ndawo. 
natama kuvona lusoka rhwa shulo luchibva pachitulu wakatanga 
kuvganda mavushwa nokuchindila malindo aivona, kani azivi kuwana 

120 shulo. shulo wakangwina mugulu limge lainga ne chi/emelo chainga 
ngo mumavushwa, ngo kunshila kova kabva ndiyo. shulo wakabudga 
ndicho icho chi/emelo akoenda kanyi kwake. nali pachulu, chakaleba 

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174 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

wakavona mphontholo achitevela lusoka rhwake, a-chiv^anda ma- 
vushwa o pachitulu no kup/uchila malindo, waimuseka. 

125 zuva nelavila, mphontholo nalemba, na/a nge nshala, na*tama 
kuwana shulo, wakaenda kanyi kwake. achenda kanyi wakalangalila 
achiti, pam^ shulo azivi kuenda pachitulu. 

mazuva mazinshi akapinda mphontholo na shulo vachinga zivi 
kusongana. n%t^ im^e nshiku shulo wakadobatwa ndi mphontholo, 

130 ffgokuti wakamuvona achikota mashana. shulo na*vona mphontholo, 
wakaima pamtitanda wainga mumavushwa kuti anase kuvamukulu 
kani wakamugomela no kuti waiita zimanomano mphontholo achado- 
muziva kuti wairhwala. mphontholo wakamubvunsha kuti wainga 
ndiyani ena. shulo wakati wainga shulo mavuvu, muzukulu wa shulo 

135 no kuti wainga unorhwala nkulu, no kuti uv^ vutenda vf akamugumila 
ngo medji waka/a. mphontholo wakabtoinsha kuti ena wakavona 
shulo tet^^ulu wake kani. shulo mavuvu wakati, eya, wakamuvona 
zulo achenda iyo*, mphontholo wakatevela shulo, kwakatatidja shulo 
mavuvu. mphontholo na-pinda shulo wakaseka ngokuti wakamu- 

140 khanganidja. 

nge^ imge nshiku mphontholo wakasongana na shulo achenda kanyi 
kwa shulo, wakamugogomela, shulo wakatizila kugandwa. na-gimia 
pagandwa wakatanga kugula ngo painga pachina kumfa, kani painga 
no matope, napakati wakaima. mphontholo navona kuti shulo 

145 waima waiti kani wakabatwa nge muchuvda, ndiso mphontholo 
wakatanga kumumphukila, kani azivi kumugumila shulo ngokuti 
mphontholo achimphuka. shulo wakatanga kugogoma. mphontholo 
wakawila mumatope akanasa kuzamirhwamgo. shulo wakabva mu* 
matope akaima pamutunthu akalingila mphontholo achigusa muma* 

150 tope, akamuseka nkulu, achiti, ''kudali, iwewe, wavangilila kundigo* 
gomela unozotambudjika, ngokuti ndinozokulaila iwewe." wakamu- 
siya mphontholo nakazamirhwa mumatope. mumangwana /umi 
mphontholo wakavoneka nge hama djake nakazamirhwa, djona 
djakamubesa kumukweva kumdtunthu. 

155 mphontholo wakanaswa kucheneswa nkulu ndi shulo. wakamu- 
songeya sikulu, naye shulo inga walemba kutambudjwa ndi mphon- 
tholo, ndiso wakatola mitanda yainga ne mabako, akanasa kuiladjika 
ngo kutevelelana. mutanda wo kumphili wainga mulomo mudoko. 
mphontholo na-vona shulo wakamugogomela nge simba gulu. shulo 

160 waiziva kuti kudali na-chagogomesa mphontholo waizomubata, ndiso 
wakangwina mubako lokutanga, naye mphontholo wakangwinavo. 
shulo wakangwina m|[elechipiH naevo mphontholo wakamutevela. 
mphontholo waigogoma jsikulu shulo ingawoda kubatwa. wakangwina 
mubako doko, mphontholo naye wakangwina nge simba gukulu, kani 

165 azivi kubud^mgo, wakazimanika. shulo wakaza kovona mphontholo 
akati, ''iwewe, auzobvi um^o mubako." magumo o lungano. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 175 


{Version a.) 

One day Lion saw Hare, and said, "Yes, you | are the one who 
killed my children." Hare said, "I am not the one." | Lion said, 
"You think you are wise. I know you | are the one. I thought you 
were good, but you are murderous. I (5) trusted you with my chil- 
dren; you turned out to be murderous. Wait, | I will show you."* 
Lion b^;an to (come) run after Hare; Hare | ran away; Lion ran 
after him. When Hare began to be tired, he thought | that, if he 
kept on running. Lion would catch him. When Hare thought thus, | 
he saw a leaning stone. He went under it and held it up. (10) Lion 
followed Hare under the stone. Hare said, "Lion, grandfather, hold 
the stone! It will fall on us." Lion | forgot that he wanted to kill 
Hare, but thought that, if he should | let go his hold of the stone, he 
and Hare would be crushed by it, and held the stone. | Hare let go 
of the stone and ran away, saying to Lion, (15) "Hold the stone 
firmly, that it may not fall on you!" Lion ^taid under | the stone 
for many days. When he felt hungry and tired, he let go of | the 
stone, but the stone did not fall. Lion came out from under the stone | 
and threatened Hare. He said, "Where I see Hare, no | grass will 
grow." * 

{Version b.) 

Chief Lion heard the reputation of Hare among all the animals. | 
Hare was known to all the animals as very wise, | because he knew all 
kinds of tricks. He outdid all the animals | in many tricks; he 
had wisdom; for, when he was found in danger, (5) he knew 
many plans by which he could come out of danger. 

Thus the three children of Chief Lion (who were born), — the chief | 
wanted that Hare should teach them all the plans he knew. Hare 
was called | by Chief Lion. When he arrived, he was told by Chief | 
Lion that he wanted Hare to teach all the tricks (10) known to him. 
Hare agreed to become the teacher of the children of the | chief. 
The chief said to Hare, "You and my three children | shall stay in a 
house which is fenced in, and no person is allowed | to go into the 
house. Even I and my wife are not allowed | in the house. We 
shall send meat and food needed by you and the children." 

(15) Hare and the three children of the chief lived in the house 
mentioned by | the chief. Hare taught them the first day to play 

1 See Leo Frobenius, VolksmHrchen der Kabylen, 3:7; Leonhard Schultze. Aus 
Namaland und Kalahari (Hottentot), p. 466; E. Jacottet. The Treasury of Ba-Suto 
Lore. I : 40. where other comparative notes are given. 

s See Leonhard Schultze. Aus Namaland und Kalahari, p. 486; E. Jacottet, I, c, 1 : 441 
comparative notes. JAFL 30 : 237; Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 184. No. 47; 35 : 43. No. 47). 

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1 76 Journal of A merican Folk-Lore, 

tricks I and games; such as playing kaia^ to touch one another, and 
jumping I poles. When the sun set, Chief Lion and his wife came | 
to the house to ask about the well-being of their children; and Hare 
said (20) to Lion, "The children played well to-day the games | which 
I taught them." 

Hare and the children were eating food. He gave the children the 
bones. When the children | asked Hare for meat, Hare said to them, 
"I give you | the bones because I want your teeth to be strong; if 
you should eat (25) soft meat, your teeth would not be strong." 
The next morning | Hare taught his pupils to play games and to do 
tricks. I When the sun set. Lion and his wife came to ask about the 
well-being | of their children. Hare showed the children one by one. | 
He lifted the childred on a platform, saying, ** See! (30) this one is very 
fat." The chief and his wife were well pleased | because Hare treated 
their children nicely. Every day | Hare played with the children, 
and they came to know many games. | Their parents came every 
day to see them and to hear that they were learning | nicely. 

(35) Hare knew that, if he taught the children of Lion all his tricks, | 
all the animals would not find happiness and comfort, because the 
Lions I would trouble them. Hare and his relatives would be in 
danger. | Therefore he thought out a plan (oQ how he could kill the 
children of Lion | before they were grown up. 

(40) One game they played was jumping over the fire. Hare | 
tripped one of the children with a stick while he was jumping, and 
the child fell | into the fire and burned and died. When the sun set, 
Lion came to see | his children; and Hare lifted the children on the 
platform, saying, "Look! this one | is fat." He lifted one child twice. 
On the following day (45) Hare tripped another child, who also fell 
into the fire | and died. When the sun set and Lion arrived, Hare 
lifted I the one remaining child three times. Then Hare tripped the 
third child, and | he died. 

Hare thought of a plan to get out of (50) the danger in which he 
was. He broke the gate of the enclosure and untied | the enclosure. 
He scratched himself and ruffled his hair. He did these things | in 
order to tell Lion that baboons had killed his children. | When the 
sun set, Chief Lion arrived to see his children; but | he saw Hare 
outside of the fence with folded arms, crying. (55) Lion thought 
and said that perhaps his children had scratched | Hare because they 
were growing; but when Lion asked Hare why | he was crying. Hare 
told his story of the death of the children, and that | baboons had 
come and killed the children. They wanted to kill him because | he 
was protecting the children. Lion saw the broken gate and (60) that 
his children were killed; therefore he was made very angry; he did 
not ask | many questions. He and his friends wait to follow the 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 177 

baboons. | Lion and his friends found the baboons sleeping. | They 
killed many baboons, and a few escaped. In the morning | these 
baboons who had escaped arrived to ask Lion why (65) he had killed 
their friends the night before. Lion did not want to listen to | what 
the baboons said; but when they had talked over the affair, Lion 
and the baboons | agreed to go to the house where Lion's children 
had been, who, Lion | said, had been killed by the baboons. When 
they arrived at the house, he was shown | that no baboon had come 
into the house in which had been killed (70) the children. Lion 
thought and saw that the baboons had not killed | his children. How- 
ever, Hare was he who had killed them, | and shifted the responsibility 
to the baboons. He told the baboons | that he was very sorry because 
he had killed their friends without their | having done anything to him. 

(75) Lion followed Hare to his house; and when he found him, 
he I threatened him, and said, "You killed my children, and you said 
to me that | they had been killed by the baboons." He ran after 
him. When Hare was tired | running, he saw a leaning rock, and he 
went under it. He held it up; and | when Lion arrived. Hare said to 
him there, "Sir, hold the rock, (80) it will fall on us!" Lion forgot 
that he wanted to kill Hare, | and held the rock, because he knew 
that, if the rock fell, it would fall on him and | Hare. Perhaps Hare 
might have escaped because he was small. Lion | held the rock. 
Hare let it go, and came out from under it, and said to | Lion, "Hold 
on to that rock! If you let go, it will fall on you." (85) Lion re- 
mained under the rock many days without | food and sleep. 
When he was tired, and dying of hunger and sleep, | he let go of the 
rock. He was afraid the rock would fall on him, | but the rock did 
not fall. Lion dragged himself from under the rock, and went | to 
his home. 

(90) When Lion had strength (again), he went to the house of Hare | 
to kill him. He thought Hare did not know when he had come away 
from the stone, therefore | he thought he would find Hare unawares. 
He went to the house of Hare | in the morning, because he thought 
Hare was asleep; but | Hare knew the day when Lion had come from 
under the stone, (95) because, from the day on which he left Lion 
under the stone, Hare had gone to watch every day to know that 
Lion I was still under it. When Lion arrived at the house of Hare, 
he stole up to it | and went to the door. He knocked at the door 
with force, but Hare | was not in the house; he was outside sitting 
basking on an ant-hill, (100) and saw Lion coming. When Lion saw 
Hare on the ant-hill, | he began to run after him; and Hare ran away, 
and followed a path | which had not much grass. Lion was about to 
reach him | when Hare arrived at a place which had many holes. 
He entered | one. When Lion arrived at the place, he passed (105) by 

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1 78 Journal of A tnerican Folk-Lore. 

the hole, because he was runnmg fast. He returned to look at the 
mouths (of the holes); but all of these had | footprints of Hare, which 
showed that Hare had entered into all of them running. | Lion was 
puzzled because Hare was not far. He could not | see how Hare had 
entered all the mouths during that time | when he saw him entering 
the hole; because he did not know which hole was entered (no) by 
Hare, Lion began to cover all the holes with sand. | When he arrived 
at a large hole, he saw that it had a large opening | a distance away 
in the grass. He went to look at the mouth, | and saw in it the tracks 
of Hare, and he knew that Hare had come out from it. | Lion did 
not waste time; he followed the tracks of Hare, (115) running fast, 
because he knew that Hare was far away. | The tracks of Hare 
went to a hummock of grass. When Lion arrived at | the hummock, 
he carefully went around it to see that Hare did not go to another 
place. I When he failed to see the tracks of Hare coming from the 
hunmiock, he b^:an | to beat down the grass and to cover the holes 
which he saw; but he did not find (120) Hare. Hare had entered a 
hole with another opening | in the grass on the way from which he 
had come. Hare came out | by a side-hole, and went to his house. 
When he was on a long ant-hill, | he saw Lion following his tracks, 
brushing down the grass | of the hummock and covering the holes. 
He laughed at him. 

(125) When the sun set, when Lion was tired and dead of hunger, 
when he failed | to find Hare, he went to his home. As he was going 
home, he thought | perhaps Hare had not gone to the hummock. 

Many days passed before Lion and Hare | met each other. One 
day Hare was almost caught by Lion, (130) because he saw Hare 
basking in the sunshine. When Hare saw Lion, | he sat on a log, so 
that he seemed to be large. The log was in the grass. He was 
groaning much. He pretended | to be sick. Lion asked him who | he 
was. Hare said he was Hare Mavuvu, the grandson of Hare, (135) 
that he was very sick, and that this sickness had come to him | the 
past month. Lion asked him whether he had seen | Hare, his grand- 
father. Hare Mavuvu said yes, he had seen him | the day before, 
going that way. Lion followed the Hare in the direction Hare | 
Mavuvu had pointed out. When Lion had gone, Hare laughed 
because he had (140) fooled him. 

One day Lion and Hare met while Hare was going to the house | of 
Hare; Lion ran after him, and Hare ran away towards a lake. When 
he arrived | at the lake, Hare b^^an to go across where there was no 
water, but where it was | muddy. When he was in the middle, he 
staid there. Lion saw Hare (145) standing there, and thought that 
he was caught by a vine; therefore Lion | jumped at him, but did not 
reach Hare because, | when Lion jumped. Hare began to walk away. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 179 

Lion I fell into the mud and sank deep into it. Hare went out of | 
the mud and sat on dry land. He watched Lion struggling in the 
mud; (150) he laughed at him much, saying, "If you persist running 
after me, | you will be in trouble, because I shall serve you right." | 
He left Lion sunk in the mud. In the morning | Lion was seen by his 
friends sunk (in the mud). They | helped to pull him out of the mud. 
(155) Lion was made really angry at Hare. He | threatened him 
much, and Hare also was tired of being troubled by Lion; | therefore 
he took a log which was hollow, and laid it down carefully. | The log 
had a large opening at one end, and the other mouth was small. | 
When Lion saw Hare, he ran after him with great power. Hare 
(160) knew that if he did not run fast. Lion would catch him ; therefore | 
he entered the first hole, and Lion also entered. | Hare entered the 
second hole, and Lion followed him. | Lion was running fast, and 
Hare was almost about to be caught. He entered | the small hole, 
and Lion also entered it with great force, but (165) he could not come 
out. He wedged himself in. Hare came to see Lion, | and said, 
"You will not come out of the hole." That is the end of the story. 


nge lim^e zuva shulo wakaenda kanyi kwa djongwe. na-guma 
wakabnmsha mukadji wa djongwe kuti, "djongwe waendapi." ena 
wakati, "djongwe uli mubelele kani miisolo ne gumbo limge lake 
saenda kom^a dolo." mukutanga shulo azivi kutenda ^akalevga ngo 

5 mukadji wa djongwe. na-vona djongwe nali mubelele na-kaima nge 
gumbo lim^e achina mtisolo, wakashamiswa sikulu. shulo wakaenda 
kanyi kwake achilangalila sakaitwa ndi djof^;we. na*guma kanyi 
wakasumulila mukadji wake sakaita djongwe. mumangwana /umi 
shulo wakazwa djongwe achilila. wakaenda kanyi kwake. djongwe 

10 wakatanga kusumulila shulo zsL-kaita no vanthu va*kamga navo dolo. 
shulo na-mubninsha kuti, "wakatumisa kudini miisolo ne gumbo, 
kuti zende kom^a dolo? " djongwe wakati, '* inini ndakacheka mtisolo 
ne gumbo langu. iwewe unolangalila kuti wakandivona ne ndakaima 
nge gumbo lim^e ndichina mtisolo. ndakacheka gumbo no mtisolo 

15 wangu iBikaenda kom^a dolo. nesapedja sakaviya kwendili." shulo 
ngokuti achaidepi kupindwa ndi djongwe naviya kanyi, wakubvunsha 
mukadji wake kuti, "mangwana ndinoda iwewe utole chipanga ucheke 
mtisolo ne gumbo lim^e langu, ngokuti ndinoda kuti zende kom^a 
dolo, kudali nge sakaita djongwe." mukadji wake wati, "unozofa," 

20 kani wakavangilila kuti aiite^ ^alevalo. ndLso kunsha nokwaedja 
mukadji wake wakacheka mtisolo ne gumbo lake, kani azizWi kwenda 
komga dolo. shulo natama kumuka mukadji wake wakaenda 
kobninsha djongwe kuti mulume wake azivi kumuka. djongwe 
lakati, "ndaiti shulo mungwali, kani mupsele." 

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i8o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


One day Hare was walking to the house of Rooster. When he 
arrived, | he asked the wife of Rooster, "Where is Rooster?" She | 
said, " Rooster is in the house, but his head and one leg | went to drink 
beer." At first Hare did not believe what was said by (5) the wife of 
Rooster. When he saw Rooster in the house standing on | one 1^ 
without head, he was very much astonished. Hare went | to his 
home thinking about what was done by the Rooster. When he arrived 
at home, | he told his wife what the Rooster was doing. The following 
day I the Hare heard Rooster crowing. He went to Rooster's house, 
and Rooster (10) began to tell Hare what he had done and how the 
people had been drinking beer. | When Hare asked him, "How do 
you send your head and your 1^ | to go and drink beer?" Rooster 
said, " I cut off my head | and my 1^. You remember that you saw 
me standing | on one leg, and I was without head. I had cut off my 
1^ and my head, (15) and they had gone to drink beer." The Hare^ | 
because he was unwilling to be surpassed by Roosto*, when he came 
home, said | to his wife, "To-morrow I want you to take a knife and 
cut off I my head and one 1^, because I want them to go and drink | 
beer, the same as Rooster did." His wife said, "You will die," (^) 
but he insisted that she should do what he had told her. Therefore, 
when day broke, | his wife cut off his head and his 1^, but they did 
not go I and drink. Wlien the Hare failed to rise, his wife went | and 
told the Rooster that her husband did not arise. Rooster | said. 
" I thought Hare was wise, but he was a focd." 


figo im^ nshiku nshou yakasoiiga na ne hamha. hamba yakati 
kuna nshou, "m^akavanga chekulu, muchaitawani?" nshou yaka- 
davila kud yonayaitamba. hamba wakaibvunsha kuti yaiendefH. 
nshou >*akati >-ai/iamb2L^Eunba hayo kuti ivooe n>'ika. nshou yakati 

5 kuna hamba no>'apedja kuilingila, "iwewe muzukulu ulimu/upi 
sikulu." hamba ikati, "ndiyani ulimu/iipi? amuzivi kuti inini 
ndingamudalika?" nshou ikati, "kudalika iyani?" — "kudalika 
im^im^," hamba yakaipiivgula ikadie, "viyanyi masgwana ndinoio- 
muvonesa kuti ndifigamudalika." nshou noyapinda hamba yakadana 

10 hamba im^ ikati koili, "]^;atiche malindi ma\'ili, koaod nshou 
iK>\-aza mattgwana inini ndinozoiigwina mulindi lim^ iwewe uxo- 
jigwine m^lim^ lindi. kunozod nshou noj'aima pakad po mafindi 
inini ndinozod, 'koili chdnilu, vansbou, ndomudalika,* iwewe wocfaizo- 

« Se« Oto I>riaF>«n:tf . Die Suidawe vAhhinr^Vnyn dn HuBbwsiBdhe Fiilrfi'iWmti. 
tGts.34 : x<^J^< Hucburs- :9*C': M. Hcepe. Janndt-Tcitc vHamiwrs- 19I9^< PP- ii9^ 223; 
Kat&Iie CurtK Sooss and Taks fron the Dark Coouaeat (Nev York. 1910). pk 4S 
CX'mBdasO; Abkocui Nesrocs iJAFL 30 : 190. *j6, 137; 3J : 401; 54 : 7). 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. i8i 

buda mulindo, uzoti, 'ndadalika/ inini ndizofigwina mulindo langu. 

15 iwewe wochizotivo, 'ndodalika.' inini ndizoita sowaitalo." nshou 
yakaguma kudali ngo kutendelana kwayo ne hamba. noyaguma 
hamba yakati, "tetegulu, imgimgi mgakandipikidja zulo kuti andi- 
ngamudaliki. ndinoda kumuvonesa kuti inini ndingamudalika; 
imanyi apa." nshou yakasekiswa nge sakaleva hamba. hamba 

20 yakati, "inini ndadalika." noyapedja kuleva kudalo im^e hamba 
yakati, "ndadalika." yona ikatise, "ndodalika." imge yakabuda 
mulindo 'kati "ndadalika." hamba yakati kuna nshou, "chekulu, 
ndamunyisa ini ngokuti ndamudalika kavili." nshou yakashama 
sikulu ngokuti azivi kuvona kuti hamba yakaidalikisa wani. 


One day Elephant met Turtle. Turtle said | to Elephant, "Are 
you well, grandfather? How do you do?" Elephant | replied that 
he was well. Turtle asked him where he was going. | Elephant said 
he was just walking about to see the country. Elephant said (5) to 
Turtle, when he finished looking about, "Grandson, you are very 
short." I Turtle said, "Who is short? Don't you know that I can 
jump over | you?" Elephant said, "Jump over whom?" — "Jump 
over I you," replied Turtle; and he added, "Come to-morrow, and 
ril I show you that I can jump." When Elephant was gone. Turtle 
called (10) another turtle. He said to him, "Let us dig two holes. 
In this way, when Elephant | arrives to-morrow, I go into one hole, 
you go into | the other hole. When Elephant stands between the 
two holes, I I shall say, 'Grandfather, Sir Elephant, I jump over you.' 
Then you | will come out of the hole. You will say, *I have jumped.' 
I shall go into my hole. (15) You will also say, * I am going to jump,' 
and I shall do what you have done." Elephant | arrived, as it was 
agreed between him and Turtle. | When he arrived, Turtle said, 
"Grandfather, you made a bet yesterday that I | could not jump 
over you. I want to show you that I can jump over you. | You 
stand here." Elephant was made to laugh at what Turtle said. 
Turtle (20) said, " I am going to jump." When he had finished saying 
that, the other turtle | said, "I have jumped." He also said, "I am 
going to jump," and the other one came out | of the hole, and said, 
"I have jumped." Turtle said to Elephant, "Sir, | I have won over 
you, because I have jumped over you twice." Elephant wondered I 
very much, because he did not see how Turtle jumped over him. 

1 See Carl Meinhof, Afrikanische MSU-chen. p. 93 (Konde, near Lake Nyassa); also 
references in note (Ibid., p. 325). See also comparative notes in Oskar D&hnhardt, 
Natursagen. 4 : 46-96; American Negroes (JAFL 30 : 174. ai4, aas; 3a : 394; MAFLS 
13 : loa, note i). 

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1 82 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


mambo we nyama nada kupa mphuka djese mgishe, wakatuma 
mutume kodjikoka kuti djize kwali djipuwe mgishe. mphuka djese 
djakaenda kwa mambo koashila mgishe, kani nshou aizivi kuenda. 
yakatuma muvge kuti uviye ne mgishe wayo. muvge nowaguma kwa 

5 mambo wakasana mgishe mukulu wawo. nowopinda wakalangalila 
kuti nshou waubrunsha kuti nga'utolele mgishe. wakatola m^she 
mtidoko akaviya nawo akaupa nshou. ngokuti nshou aizivi kuenda 
ko2itolela mgishe yoga, mutume wayo wakaviya ne m^she mtidoko 
uchi ngazivi kutodjana ne chimo chayo. 

10 Hence the proverb, nshou yakatama m^ishe ngo kutumila. 


The chief of the animals wanted to give tails to all the beasts. 
He sent | a messenger to tell them that they would all be given tails. 
All the animals | went to the chief to receive tails; but the elephant 
did not go, | he sent the jackal to bring his tail. When the jackal 
arrived at (5) the chief's place, he selected a large tail for himself. 
When he had what he desired, he remembered | that the elephant had 
asked him to bring him a tail. He took a | little tail, and took it back 
home and gave it to the elephant. Because the elephant did not go | 
to get his tail, and his messenger only brought back his little tail, | it is 
now of this size. 

(10) Hence the proverb, the elephant lacks a tail because he sent 
for it. 


ngo vum^ vusiku bongo lakaguma pagandwa likavona chilo 
chaimunikila mukum^, lakapinimidja kuti chilo icho chaimunikilalo 
mugandwa iphondo le nyama. lakanasa kulingilisa kuti livone polili 
phondo. lak^funduluka kuti linase kumphukila mukum^a lonyula 

5 phondo. lakamphukila mukum^ kani, alizivi kunyula phondo. 
lakaambuka, likaima pamphilipili pe gandwa, likalingila mukumga 
likavonaise m^ji uchimunikila mugandwa, likamphukilaiBe muga- 
ndwa, kani alizivi kunyula phondo. bongo lakamphukila mugandwa 
likamphela lammdula kumga, kumga neyadola, lakavonajse m^ji 

10 mukumga. lakaedjerhwa pagandwa lichiedja kunyula mgedji wo 
lakavona mugandwa, lichiti iphondo. ngo uvgo vusiku bongo alizivi 
kuwana chilo chokurga ngokuti lakatambisa nguva yalo ngo kuda 
kunyula m^ji wo laiti iphondo gulu le nyama. 


One night Hyena arrived at a lake and saw a thing | which was 
shining in the water; he thought that the thing which was shining | 

1 See JAFL 3a : 394. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 183 

in the pond was a bone of game. He looked carefully, so that he 
saw where | the bone was. He went back in order to jump well 
into the water to take out (5) the bone. He jumped into the water, 
but did not take out the bone. | He came out of the water, and 
stood at the edge of the lake and looked into the water; | again he 
saw the moon shining in the lake; he jumped again into the lake, | 
but he could not take out the bone. Hyena jumped into the lake | 
until the water was muddy. When the water was clear again, he 
saw again the moon (10) in the water. Day broke upon him at the 
lake while he was trying to take out the moon which | he saw in the 
lake, and which he thought was a bone. That night Hyena could 
not I find anything to eat, because he wasted his time in the effort | to 
take out the moon, which he thought was a big bone of game. 


kwakati malule na-pedja kuita nyika ne vanthu wakatuma rhwaivi 
kuti rgurondzele vanthu kuti munthu wa/a ngamuke. rhwaivi 
rhwakaenda ne masoko ku vanthu. malule wakatuma sosomodji 
mumasule mga rhwain akati, " sosomodji, enda worondzera vanthu 

5 kuti, wa/a ngalove." sosomodji lakaenda lichigogoma, likaguma kune 
vanthu rhwaivi rguchito rhwaguma. sosomodji lakati ku vanthu, 
"malule wati, 'munthu wa/a ngaalove.'" vanthu vakati, "eya." 
rhwaivi norhwaguma ku vanthu rhwakavarondzera masoko akabva 
kwa malule aiti, "wa/a ngamuke.*' makani vanthu vakati, " malule 

10 watuma sosomodji kutirondzera kuti W£^a ngalove. tinotenda masoko 
aza ne sosomodji.'' ndiso vanthu kuti va/a vanolova ngokuti vona 
vakatenda masoko akaza ne sosomodji. 


It happened, when the Creator had finished making the world and 
the people, he sent Chameleon | to tell the people that when a person 
dies he will come to life. Chameleon | went with the message to the 
people. The Creator sent the Lizard | after Chameleon, saying, 
"Lizard, go and tell the people (5) that when one dies, he will stay 
away." Lizard went running; he arrived among | the people before 
Chameleon arrived. Lizard said to the people, | "The Creator said, 
'When man dies, he will stay away.'" The people said, "Yes," | 
When Chameleon arrived among the people, he told them his message 
which came | from the Creator, and which said, "Whoever dies shall 
wake up." However, the people said, "The Creator (10) has sent 

1 See Carl Meinhof. Afrikanische MSb-chen, p. 65 (Kamba, British East Africa); also 
notes, p. 334; E. Jacottet, The Treasury of Ba-Suto Lore, i : 46; Natalie Curtis, Songs 
and Tales from the Dark Continent, p. 76 (Zulu). 

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1 84 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Lizard to say that people who die stay away. We have accepted the 
message | which came with Lizard." Therefore people who die stay 
away, because they | accepted the message which was brought by 


nshunshu ishili ina chimo cho munthu. inogala mum/ula. yona 
ina simba lo kupa munthu bsoka no vubeze. kuti noyada kupa 
munthu vubeze, inomutola yoenda naye kanyi kwayo mukum^a. 
munthu naguma kanyi kwayo unopawa matope ne hove mbishi kuti 
5 arge. inomupa Ln kuti imutike. kudali munthu una chichunge 
unotenda kurga i;aanopuwa ndiyo. napedjwa kutikwa unopuwa 
bsoka no vubeze, unopalurhwa ndiyo. inomupa mutundu ne zembe 
no mitombo nstzo sese saanonyinda nyamsolo. 

vanthu vanogala ne nshunshu vakaita inga isisu. avana mapapilo, 

10 vanoveleketa lulimi r|[otinozwa. vanolidja no kutamba ngoma djo 

manthiki kudali ngeso tinoita isisu. vanthu vakatorhwa ndiyo 

nshunshu kutinovaviya vanoti nshunshu ima muzi ne nyumba inga 


vazinshi vanthu vanoti vakavona ngome dje nshunshu ne dja- 
1 5 kanikwa pachitulu no pamagomokomo. vamge vanoti vakazwa ngoma 
djichilidjwa vachizwase no mazwi o vanthu achiimba manthiki. 

kuti nshunshu noyada kutola munthu inomusa bepo gulu. ili bepo 
linomuthwala lomuendesa kuna nshunshu. no kudali nshunshu 
inogala mum/ula, munthu wo inotola abilipi noyamfitola. 
20 neyapedja kumupa munthu vunanga, inomuendesa kanyi kwake 
kuti aende ku vanthu vake kotata. 

mubvumo nowawa m^oyo wawo auvoneki ngokuti unotorhwa nge 
nshunshu. inoutola kuti iuite mutumbo. 

nshunshu ina simba lokundondomedja ngalava no vanthu vayo. 
25 pamge inotola ngalava ka kusiya vanthu mum/iila. 

mphazinshi vanthu vanoti vakavona ngalava zinshi dje nshunshu 
dji chi/amela mukum^. vanthu novaphedo padjo djinongalangala, 


Nshunshu is a bird which has the form of a human being. He lives 
in the water. He | has the power to give man a supernatural helper 
and the power of healing. When he wishes to give | to a man the 
power of healing, he takes him and goes with him to his house in the 
water. | When the man arrives in his house, he is given mud and 
raw fish to (5) eat. He gives these to him in order to try him. If 
the man has courage, | he is ready to eat what is given by him. When 
the trial is complete, he is given | a supernatural helper and the power 
of healing; he is initiated (literally, "torn to pieces") by him. He 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 185 

gives him the medicine-receptacle, the divinatory bones | and medi- 
cines, and everything that the medicine-man needs. 

The people who live with the nshunshu act as we do. They have 
no wings. (10) They speak a language which we understand. They 
play instruments, and dance with songs of the | manthiki, just as we 
do. The people who have been taken by the | nshunshu say, when 
they come back, that the nshunshu has a village and houses, just as | 
we have. 

Many people say they have seen the drums of the nshunshu where 
(15) the water is close to the sun, on an island or on the bank of a 
river. Others say they have heard the drums | when they were 
played, and they also have heard voices of people singing the manthiki. 

When the nshunshu wants to take a human being, he causes a 
heavy gale to arise. This gale | makes them go towards the nshunshu. 
Although the nshunshu | lives in the water, the person whom he takes 
does not get wet when he is taken to him. 

(20) After he finishes giving the power of healing to a man, he lets 
him go to his home, | that he go to his people to practise. 

When a palm falls, the heart (centre bud) is invisible, because it is 
taken by the | nshunshu. He takes it in order to make medicine out 
of it. 

The nshunshu has power to sink canoes and their people. (25) 
Sometimes he takes the canoes, and leaves the people in the water. 

There are many people who say that they saw many boats of the 
nshunshu | floating on the water. When people come near them, 
they (the boats) disappear. 


vanalume vavili vaka/uma munyumba imge. m^knalume waka- 
/uma thethadji mfidoko wainga wakanaka idkulu. vese vo kuvambiya 
vake vaimuda ngokuti wainga wakap/ava. vadjimgalamu vake 
vaivungana kwali kuti vazwe ngano djaiita. m^analume waka/uma 

5 thethadji mukulu wakava ne thima, ngokuti achaidikepi ngo vo 
kuvambiya, kudali ngo mulovozi wake. 

kwakati mabonole naibva, ava vadjimulovozi vailinda munda wo 
mabonole, ngokuti nguluve djairga mabonole no vusiku. 

mulovozi wainga ne thima wainga ne vuta ne mipasha. ngo vusiku 

10 v^ailinda mulovozi wake, wakamushonga vuta ne mipasha kuti alinde 
nguluve. pakati povusiku nguluve djakaza korga mabonole. (mu- 
lume we thethadji mtidoko) wak^/iila nguluve ngo mupasha, waka- 
shongwa ndi nyevanshi wake, nguluve yakatiza no mtipasha. mu- 
mangwana /umi, wakaenda kolingila paka/ulila nguluve, kani a-zivi 

15 kuwana mupmsha. wakatevela mukhondo we nguluve mugwasha 
mphela na*guma mukati mge gwasha mga kachinda. wakav^^ivilila 

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1 86 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

akabrunsha mulovozi wake, kuti mupasha wa-ks^/iila ndi wona ffguluve 
wakapinda ne nguluve. mulovozi wake wakati, vuta ne mipasha 
yaiva yo vutaka» ndLso, waida mupasha wake, wakapuwa mipasha 

20 mizinshi kuti ilipe mupasha wake wakalashwa ngo mulovozi wake, 
kani azivi kutenda, wakavangilila kuti unoda mupasha wake wo 

mulovozi wakalasha mupasha wakaenda mugwasha koutevda. 
vadjLsele vavo vakati, ngatende mipasha ya-da kulipa ndiyo uwo 

25 mupasha walashika, makani mune wo mupasha azivi kutenda kutola 
mipasha yo milipo. azivi kupulutana vatesala no vambiya vake. 

mulovozi wakalasha mupasha, wakalonda mukhondo we nguluve 
yaka/ula, mphela na*guma pamuzi we chikalav^, akachibvunshat kuti 
waitevela nguluve ya-k^ula no vusiku, yakatiza no mupasha. waka- 

30 chisumulila kuti mune wo mtipasha, azivi kdtenda kulipirhwa mupasha 
wake chikalav^a chakalumila nyoka. chona chainga mune we 
nguluve yaka/ula, ndLso chakamuvonesa mudala lainga ne mipasha 
mizinshi, yakaviya ne nguluve djai/urhwa nge vanthu. wakasana 
mupasha wake, wakatenda chikalavga sikulu ngo vunyasha v^facho. 

35 no-pinda, chikalav^a chakamupa mupila no miitombo. chakamii- 
djidjisa kutambga komupila no kurgiwa komtitombo, kuti azodjidjise 
vam^e kutamba mupila. uwu mupila waichakwa ngo mulomo, au- 
chaimidjwepi. kudali munthu wauAmidja, napuwa mutombo wai- 
zoulucha. munthu achikazivi kurga mutombo a*ngauluchipi. 

40 na-viya no mupasha, wakamupa mulovozi (wake) mupasha wake, 
mumadeko wakadjidjisa vadjim^amu vake kuchaka mupila, kudali 
ngesa-kadjidjiswa n^ chikalavga. vanthu vazinshi vakaza kovona 
kutamba kupsa komupila. mulovozi we thima, navona kuti vese 
vanthu vaishamiswa ngo kdchakwa ko mupila, wakati kuna mukadji 

45 wake no vadjimgalamu, kuti vanthu vese ve kanyi kwake no vana 
vadoko, vanoziva kuchaka mupila kudalo. kuti avonese kuti uniza 
kuchaka mupila. wakaenda kochaka mupila. mupila nowakhandir- 
hwa kwali wakaumidja, kani azivi kuulucha, ndLso mune. mulovozi, 
mune wo mupila wakada mupila wake, wakada kulipa nge im^ 

50 mipila, kani mune wawo wakalamba, achiti waida mupila wake, 
ndava yakashamisa vanthu, ngokuti kudali mupila upuwe mune wawo 
unowanika ngo kumutumbula munthu wakaumidja. 

vanthu novachaiziva kuti wanoitawani. wakabmmsha mulovozi 
wake kuti, "asizivi kunaka kuva ne thima; ngokuti kudali ndavangilila 

55 kuda mupila wangu. iwewe unotumburhwa. unozo/a ngo kuchunga 


Two men married into one family. The man who | married the 
younger sister was very meek. All his mother-in-law's people | loved 
him because he was good. All his brothers-in-law and sisters-in-law | 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 187 

assembled around him to listen to the stories he told. The man 
who married (5) the elder sister was envious because he was not loved 
by I his mother-in-law's people as was the man who had married his 
wife's sister. 

When the com was ripe, these men who had married sisters watched 
the corn-garden, | because the wild pigs were eating the com at night. 

The one man of the two who had married sisters, and who was 
jealous, had a bow and arrows. On the night (10) when the other 
man who had married the younger sister was watching, he loaned 
him his bow and arrows to watch | against the wild pigs. At midnight 
the wild pigs came to eat the com. | (The husband of the younger 
sister) shot a wild pig with the bow | which his elder brother (that is, 
the man who had married the elder sister) had loaned him. The 
wild pig ran away with the arrow. | The next morning he went to 
look where he had shot the wild pig, but he did not (15) find the arrow. 
He followed the tracks of the wild pig into the woods | until he reached 
the middle of the woods, where there was a thicket. Then he returned, | 
and told the man who had married the. elder sister that the arrow 
with which he shot the wild pig | went away with the wild pig. The 
man who had married the elder sister said that the bow and arrows | 
were his heritage, and therefore he wanted his arrow. He was given 
many arrows (20) to pay for the arrow which was lost by the man who 
had married the younger sister, | but he did not accept them. He 
insisted that he wanted his arrow | which he had inherited. 

The man who had married the younger sister, and who had lost the 
arrow, went into the woods to look for it. | Their wives' brothers 
said he should accept the arrows with which he wanted to pay for 
(25) the arrow which was lost, but the owner of the arrow did not 
agree to take | the arrows in payment. He did not listen to his 
father-in-law and his mother-in-law. 

The man who had married the younger sister, and who had lost 
the arrow, followed the tracks of the wild pig | which he had shot, and 
arrived at the kraal of an old woman, whom he told that | he was 
following a wild pig which he had shot during the night, and which 
had run away with the arrow. (30) He told that the owner of the 
arrow did not agree to be paid for his arrow. | The old woman took 
pity on him. She was the owner of | the pig he had shot: therefore 
she showed him the inside of the bam, in which were many arrows | 
which had come back with the pigs which were shot by people. He 
selected | his arrow. He thanked the old woman very much for 
her kindness. 

(35) As he was leaving, the old woman gave him a rubber ball and 
medicine. She taught | him how the ball-game was played and the 
way the medicine was eaten, that he might teach | the others to play 

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1 88 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

ball. This ball was played with the mouth; | it was not swallowed. 
When a person swallowed it and he took medicine, | he spit it out. 
If the person did not eat the medicine, he could not spit it out. 

(40) When he came back with the arrow, he gave it to the man 
who had married his wife's elder sister. | In the afternoon he taught 
his brothers-in-law to play ball in the way | he was taught by the old 
woman. Many people came to watch | the new way to play ball. 
The jealous husband of the elder sister, when he saw that | the people 
were surprised on account of the way of playing ball, said to his Mdfe 
(45) and his brothers-in-law that all the people of his home, even 
small children, | knew how to play ball in that way; and to show 
them, I he went to play ball. So he went to play ball. When the 
ball was thrown at him, ] he swallowed it, but he could not spit it out: 
therefore the owner, his wife's sister's husband, the owner | of the 
ball, wanted his ball. He wanted to pay with other balls; (50) but 
its owner refused, saying he wanted his own ball. The case | puzzled 
the people, because, if his ball were given to the owner, it would 
have to be I by cutting open the man who had swallowed it. 

The people were puzzled what to do. He told the one who had 
married the elder sister, | "It is not good to be jealous, because, if I 
should insist (55) on wanting my ball, you would have to be cut 
open. You will die if you continue to be | cruel." 


vanalume vavili vainga oakavaldlana pedo. mumge wakap/uya 
mbudji. m^analume achaiva ne mbudji wainga ne thima. nge 
nshuku imge mbudji yo muvakirhwana wake yakaenda mumunda 
m^ake mgo mabonole, yikar^ mikutu mitatu. mune we munda 

5 naivona mbudji, wakaitola akaenda nayo kumunowayo achiti, '* mbudji 
yako yar^a mikutu mitatu yo mabonele angu, nduBo ndinoda kutola 
mabonele angu ali mundani mgayo." iyi mbudji yainga yo mabsoka, 
yaiva no mavala akachena akaiita mbudji yakanaka. mune we 
mbudji wakati, "ndinokulipila mabonole ar^wa nge mbudji yangu. 

10 enda, wo tama mikutu mitanthatu mumunda mgangu." mune we 
mabonole wakati, "andidi mabonole ako, ndinoda angu ali mundani 
m^e mbudji yako." mune we mbudji wakatetezela muvakirhwana 
wake kuti aende koruna mabonole mumunda m^ake alipe ndiwo, kani 
muvakirhwana wake azivi kutenda. m^analume, waiva ne thima 

15 ngokuti achaivepi ne mbudji, waiti wawana chivambo chokuti muva- 
kirhwana wake avulaye mbudji yake ndicho. mune we mbudji 
wakati, ''eya, ndinovulaya mbudji yangu, utole mabonole ako ali 
mundani m^ayo." mbudji yakavalawa wakatola mabonole ake. 
kwati nge imge nshiku mganalume waiva ne mbudji wakanika 

20 vulungu vgake. m^ana wo munthu wo mabonole wakaenda painga 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 189 

no vulungu, akatola mphumba yo vulungu akaimidja. mune wo 
vulungu wakati, "mgana wako wamidja vulungu v^angu, ndinoda 
vulungu vgangu vuli mundani mgo m^ana wako." baba wo mgana 
wakati, "ndinokulipila." mune wo vulungu wakalamba. wakaenda 

25 kwamambOv mambo wakati, "eya, iwewe, waiva ne thima nge 
mbudji yake yakarga mabonole ako. auzivi kupulutana zakalevga 
ngo muvakirhwana wako. mupe vulungu v^ake vuli mundani m^o 
m^ana wako." mune wo vulungu navona mai wo mgana, achiputa- 
puta achilila, wakamulumila nyoka, akati, kuna muvakirhwana wake, 

30 "ndinokulegela, kani, iwewe, uchava^e ne thima, ngokuti lona alizivi 
kunaka. thima linozokutamisa hama. 


Two men had built (houses) as neighbors near together. One of 
them owned | a goat. The man who had no goat was jealous. | One 
day the goat of his neighbor went into his garden | of com. He ate 
three corncobs. When the owner of the garden (5) saw the goat, he 
took it and went with it to its owner, and said, "Your goat | has 
eaten three of my corncobs: therefore I want to take | my com which 
is in the stomach of the goat." This goat was b«oka, | and had 
white spots, which makes a goat nice-looking. The owner of | the 
goat said, " I will pay you for the com eaten by my goat. (10) Go 
and cut six corncobs in my garden." The owner of | the corn said, 
'' I do not want your com. I want my com which is in the stomach | 
of your goat." The owner of the goat pleaded with his neighbor, j 
asking him to go and cut com in his garden and to pay himself with 
it, but I his neighbor did not agree. This man, who was jealous (15) 
because he did not own a goat, found a reason why his neighbor | 
should kill his goat. The owner of the goat t said, ''Yes, I | will kill 
my goat, so that you may take your com which is | in its stomach." 
The goat was killed, and he took his com. 

So one day the man who had the goat dried (20) his beads in the 
sun. The child of the man who had the com went near | the beads, 
and he took one (grain) of the beads and swallowed it. The owner 
of I the beads said, "Your child swallowed my bead; I want | my 
bead that is in the stomach of your child." The father of the child | 
said, "I will pay you." The owner of the beads refused. He went 
(25) to the chief. The chief said, "Yes, you were jealous of | his 
goat, which ate your com. You did not listen to what was said | by 
your neighbor. You must give him his bead, which is in the stomach 
of I your child." When the owner of the bead saw the mother of the 
child suffering | and crying, he felt pity, and said to his neighbor, 
(30) " I will let you go; but you must not be jealous, because it is not | 
good. Jealousy will deprive you of friends." 

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190 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


kuiyi nyika yedu, ngo kwanshikazi kuna mulambo mukulu uno- 
danwa ngo kuti naile. nge nguva imge kwakaguma mumulambo 
ngwena hulu. yona yakaenda kundawo djese, yakavulaya mabruta 
ne nombe no vahavisi vadjo; no va/ambi yailuma. kut&a ko vanthu 

5 kwakava kukulu sikulu. akuchaivepi no munthu wainga ne simba 
lokuvulaya ngwena. mambo we nyika no manganakana vakasangana 
no vanthu vazinshi kuti vasovela ndava ye ngwena, kuti kuivulaya 
ngwena. novavungana kubanshe lukovo rhwakaguma. rhwakakwila 
pamutanda rhwakaveleketa rhwakati, "matombo no manganakana, 

lo munondivona imgimgi, ndaza komuli, ndili mudoko irikulu, andinga 
mubesipi nge simba, muiyi ndango yenyu ne ngwena; kani ndinga- 
mubesa ngoku mupangiia, kuti muchazotambudjikaJBe. kungwala 
kunonyisa chichunge chikulu chenyu. ^sakanaka kuti muchida ku- 
nyisa mukolole mukulu, itanyi iso, achito wakula achina simba. mu- 

15 noiseka ngwena ichili doko ichito yava ne simba, kani kuti neyakula 
munoitiza muchiit&a sikulu. ngwena djino ndinyenya sikulu ngokuti 
ndinoti djichito djabud^ mumanda ndinodjirga. ndingadjir^a no 
kudali djili makuma shanu nge nshiku imge. imgim^ munodjil^;ela 
ngwena mphela djakula m^iozoda kudjivulaya. djuvulaenyi djito 

20 djakula." 


In this country of ours there is in the north a large river | called by 
the name "Naile." At one time there arrived in the river | a large 
crocodile. It went everjnyhere, and killed sheep | and cattle and their 
herdsmen; it bit even travellers. The fear of the people (5) was 
very great. There was no person who had power | to kill the crocodile. 
The chief of the country, and the nobility, assembled | with many 
people to talk over the matter of the crocodile, to say what they 
could do to kill | the crocodile. When they arrived at the court, the 
fox arrived. He climbed | on a log and spoke, and said, " King and 
Noblemen, (10) you see me; I came to you; I am very small; I 
cannot | help with strength in this your matter with the crocodile, 
but I can | help by advice, that you may not be in trouble again. 
Wisdom I surpasses your great bravery. It is wise, if you want | to 
overcome your great enemy, to do so before he grows up and before 
he has strength. (15) You laugh at the crocodile when it is small 
and before it has strength; but when it is grown up, | you run away 
and you are much afraid. Crocodiles do not like me much, on account 
of I what I do before they come out of the eggs. I eat them. I can 
eat I even fifty in one day. You leave | the crocodiles until they are 
grown up. Then you want to kill them. Kill them before (20) they 
grow up. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 191 


sakaita sakalta. — kwalva ne mganalume wainga ne vakadji vatatu. 
waida mukadji mum^ nkulu. vamge vakadji vake vakava ne 

nge imge nshiku mganalume wakabata hanga akaviya nayo akapa 

5 vachide vake kuti aibike. pakati po vusiku mumge mukadji wainga 
no vusanshe sikulu wakaenda kunyumba ya chide, akaba hanga. 
mumangwana /umi chide a*zivi kuwana hanga, wakabvunsha mulu- 
mgake. mulume wakacheneswa sikulu akabvunsha vakadji vese vake 
kud unovabidjisa gona kuti awane waba hanga. gona laivabidjisa^ 

10 lainga lokuambuka mulambo ngo ku/amba palusinga rhwaitandikwa 

zuva lichito laguma lo kubila gona mukadji wakaba hanga waka- 
pangila mgana-ke mddoko we kadji, kuti, "nonda/a pano, iwewe tola 
mulanda wako wende kwa thethadji wako mgali. ena unbzokukolodja. 

15 zuva lokubila gona ne laguma vakadji vo mganalume no vanthu 

* vakavungana pamulambo. lusinga norhwapela kutandikwa pamu- 

lambo. vakadji mumge nge mum^e vakatanga ki^famba palusinga 

kuti vaambuke mulambo. kwaiti mukadji wakaba, hanga na pakati 

po mulambo lusinga rhwaida vuka, ena waiwila mumulambo. va- 

20 chano vakatanga ku/amba palusinga vachemba lumbo urga: 

lusinga lusinga, 

kuti ndilini 

25 ndakabe ganga* 

ganga la chide, 

lusinga davuka, 
30 dyandyali 

ndiwile m^a budji 



35 ena ngokuti a*zivi kuba hanga wakaambuka mulambo achifamba 

mukadji we chipili yakava nguva yake yo kufamba lusinga. wa- 
kamba lumbo rhwakambiwa mge vachano. na pakati po mulambo 
lusinga rhwakadadjuka akawila mumulambo aka/ilamgo, ngokuti 
40 ndiyena wakaba hanga. 

mgana wo mukadji na*vona kuti make va/a wakalonga 2ilo zake 
akatola mulanda wake akaenda kwathethadji wake mgali. vachito 

> Literally* **to wet the gourd;" i.e., to make a trial with a gourd containing medicines. 

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192 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

vaguma kumuzi kwathethadji wake ena no mulanda vakazolola 
pagandwa vakashamba. novapedja kushamba vachisimila nguvo avo, 

45 mulanda wakati kuna tenshi wake, ''ngati tenganisane nguvo djedu 
ndivone kuti nguvo djen3ru djinondinakila kani." novapedja kusi- 
mila mulanda wakati, "nguvo djen3ru djinondinakila, no djangu 
djinomunakilavo im^mgi. mgochithwalanyi mutani. ndinozomule- 
gela kuti musimile nguvo djen3ru tichito taguma kwathethadji wenyu. 

50 inini ndinozotola muthwalo.*' 

novatenganisa va k^^amba mulanda nakava musale no musale 
nakava mulanda. nonavona muzi mu^ale wakati kuna mulanda, 
"wochindipa nguvo djangu ngokuti tapedo wo muzi wa thethadji 
wangu." mulanda wakati, "ndino mupagalegale." ena wakavangila 

55 ki^amba. mu^ale wakavangila kuda nguvo djake makani mulanda 
azivi kumupa. 

na -vaguma kwathethadji wake, ena wakaashila mulanda achiti ndi 
thethadji wake, no kudali thethadji wakati ena ndiye wainga hama 
yake. mgaU azivi kupulutana sa-kaleva ngokuti mulanda waiti, 

60 "ena unonyepa. inini ndini thethadji wako.'' ngokuti m^li achai- 
zivepi hama yake wakatola mulanda achiti ithethadji wake, thethadji 
wo sokadi wakaendeswa kunyumba yo valanda. 

yaiva nguva yokulinda shili. ndLso thethadji wakaitwa mulanda 
wakapuwa basa lo kulinda shili kumunda wo mupunga. achilinda 

65 shili kumamunda waimba lumbo urga achilila. 

mai vaileva 

linde, linde, 
ku/a Icwangu pane 

linde, linde 
70 enda kumukulu 

linde, linde, 
mukulu ndi yani? 

linde, linde, 
mukulu ndi m^ali 
75 linde, linde, 

m^ali wandilasha 

linde, linde, 
ngo kuda mulanda 

linde, linde. 

80 achimbalo bvuli la mai wake lakaza kwali lichiti, "mgali walasha 
hama yake kudali, achitola mulanda achiti ihama yake." bvuli la 
mai ¥^ke laimushambidja lichimupa nguvo djakanaka djo kusimila. 
naviya kanyi mulanda waiti musale namuvona achiza nakasimila 
nguvo djakanaka wakava ne thima wakabvunsha mgali achiti, "the- 

85 thadji mgali, mulanda unoviya kumamunda nakasimila nguvo 
djakanigala. ngati djitole." ena wakadjitola nguvo. 

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Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 193 

mazuva ese a-kaenda kolinda shili bvuli la mai wake laiza kwali 
lichishova mgali nge sakaita kuhama yake. zuva nelavila waiviya 
nakasimila nguvo djakanaka im^a nakani wadjitolerhwa. 

90 xmge nshiku mulume wa mgali wakada kuziva munthu waipa mu- 
landa nguvo. wakaenda kovandila kumamunda. wakazwa mulanda 
achimba. achimbalo wakazwa izwi le bvuli lichivele keta lichid, 
"mgali kudali kuna hama yake." wakavona bvuli lichipa nguvo 

95 napedja kuvona 'm wakaviya kanyi achigogoma akasumilila 
mukadji wake mgali achid, "takalasha thethadji wako ngo kuda 
mulanda. inini ndavona bvuli la mai wako lichineleketa na thethadji 
wako." ndiso mgali wakacha Undo mubelele akaadja bonde palo 
akagadjika kur^ akadana mulanda waid ndi thethadji wake, ena 

100 na-gala pasi wakawila mulindo ak^^ilam^. mgali wakatola thethadji 


It happened, it happened. — There was a man who had three wives. | 
He loved one wife very much. His other wives were | jealous. 

One day the man caught a guinea-fowl. He brought it home, and 
gave it (5) to his beloved one to cook it. At midnight one of the 
wives who were | very jealous went to the house of the beloved one 
and stole the guinea-fowl. | The next day the beloved one did not 
find the guinea-fowl, and told her husband. | Her husband became 
very angry, and told all his wives | that he would bring them to trial 
to find out who stole the guinea-fowl. The trial was crossing (10) 
a river by walking over a rope which was suspended across | the river. 
The day before the trial was to come off, the wife who had stolen the 
guinea-fowl | instructed her little daughter, "When I am dead here, 
take I your slave and go to your elder sister Mgali. She will take care 
of you." 

(15) When the day of the trial came, the wives of the man, and the 
people, I gathered at the river. After the rope had been put over the 
river, | the wives one by one began to walk on the rope | to cross the 
river. It would be, when the wife who stole the guinea-fowl came | 
to the middle of the river, the rope would break, and she would fall 
into the river. (20) The first wife began to walk on the rope, singing 
this song: — 

" Rope, rope, 
If I am the one, 
(25) Who stole the treasure, 
Dyandyali, — 
The treasure of the beloved one, 

Dyandyali, — C^ A 

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194 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

rope! break! 
(30) Dyandyali, 

1 fall into the river Budje, 


There I thaU die, 


(35) Since she had not stolen the guinea-fowl, she crossed the river 
walldng I on the rope. 

Then it was the turn of the second wife to walk on the rope. | She 
sang the song as it was sung by the first wife. When she arrived 
in the middle of the river, | the rope broke; and she fell into the 
river and died in it, because (40) she was the one who had stolen 
the guinea-fowl.* 

When the child of the wife saw that her mother was dead, she 
packed up her belongings, | took her slave, and ¥rent to her sister 
Mgali. Before | they arrived at the house of her sister, she and her 
servant took a rest | on the shore of a lake, and they washed them- 
selves. After they had washed themselves, while they were putting 
on their clothing, (45) the slave said to her mistress, "Let us exchange 
our dresses | and see how your dress suits me!" After they had | 
dressed, the slave said, "Your dress suits me, and my | dress also 
suits you. Now you carry the basket. I will let you have | the 
clothes you were wearing before we arrive at your sister's (house). 
(50) Then I shall take the basket." 

When they had exchanged their dresses, they walked along, the 
slave being the mistress, and the mistress | being the slave. When 
they saw the kraal, the mistress said to the slave, | "Give me my dress, 
because we are near my sister's home." | The slave said, "I will 
give it to you by and by." She continued (55) to walk. The mistress 
urged her to return her dress, but the slave | did not give it to her. 

When they arrived at her sister's (house), she received the slave, 
thinking that she was | her sister, although her sister said that she 
was her sister. | Mgali did not listen to what she said, because the 
slave said, (60) "She lies! I myself am your sister." Because Mgali 
did not know | her sister, she took the slave, thinking she was her 
sister. The real sister | was sent to the house oi the servants. 

It was the time for watching the birds (so that they should not eat 
the fruits of the garden) : therefore the sister who was made a slave | 
was given the work of watching the birds in the garden of rice. While 
she was watching (65) the birds in the garden, she would sing this 
song, and she would cry: — 

> E. Jacottet. The Treasury of Ba-Suto Lore, i : i8o; Natalie Curtis. Songs and Tales 
from the Dark Continent (New York, 1930), p. 49 (Vandau); tune of songs (Jbid.), 

pp. I24-I36, 

Digitized by 


Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 195 

" Mother said, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
When I die, my daughter dear. 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
(70) Go to your sister, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
To your elder sister. 

Oh, watch ! oh, watch ! 
Your elder sister M^li, 
(75) Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
M^ali that spurns me, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch! 
And loves the slave, 

Oh, watch! oh, watch!" 

(80) While she was singing, the soul of her mother came to her, 
saying, ''Mfali forsakes | her sister in this way, taking the slave and 
thinking she is her sister." The soul of | her mother washed her, 
and gave her beautiful clothing to put on. | When she came home, 
the slave who said that she was the mistress, when she saw her coming 
dressed in | beautiful clothing, became jealous, and told Mgali, saying, 
(85) "Sister Mgali, the slave is coming from the garden dressed in 
beautiful clothing. | Let us take it!" She took away the clothing. 

Every day she went to watch the birds, the soul of her mother came 
to her, and | blamed Mgali for what she was doing to her sister. At 
sunset she came back | clothed in beautiful new dresses, but they 
were taken away from her. 

(90) One day the husband of Mgali wanted to know the person 
who gave | the slave the dresses. He went and hid in the garden. 
He heard the slave | singing. As she was singing, he heard the voice 
of the soul speaking, and saying, | "Mgali should do thus to her 
sister." He saw the soul giving a dress | to the slave. 

(95) After he had seen all this, he returned home running, and told 
his I wife Mgali, saying, "You spumed your sister and loved | the 
slave. I myself saw the soul of your mother speaking with your 
sister." | Therefore Mgali dug a hole in the house and spread a 
mat over it | and placed food on it. She called the slave who had 
said she was her sister. When she (icx)) sat down, she fell into the 
hole and died there. Then Mgali took her sister. 

18. LUi^GANO. 

sakaita, 2akaita. — ^kwaiva na mambo waiwga mutenthe. uwu mam- 
bo wainga ne mganawekadji wakanyala i?ikulu. madumbi omunthala- 
vunda no nthambo, vana ve madjimbavge, vakazwa kunyala ko 
munyakwava kuchitokotiswa nthambo no munthalavunda. vese 
vaida ku/uma munyakwava. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

196 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

makavila akaza Aiumge nge mum; e kobiFunshila munyakwava. ese 
ainasa kusichwanya ngokud aipinimidja kuti nyakwava navona ttguvo 
djaisimila unotenda ki^umga ngo mum^e wayo. makani ese madumbi 
akalamb^ nge baba wa nyakwava. madumbi achaimuvonepi nya- 

10 kwava, ngokud wainga mungome. kwaiti madumbi na-za kobcni- 
nshila, mambo na-lamba, no oenda kanyi, nyakwava waialingila nali 
pajanela^ nye zuIu kwe ngome, kuti avonwe ndiwo. 

madumbi ese naedja kubrunshila nalambga, mambo wakati, "mu- 
dumbi unochipuwo chakanaka sikulu ndiyena unozq/uma nyakwava. 

15 ese makavila akalonga kuti aende kunyika djili ntiiambo kotenga silo 
lakanaka nkulu. 

kwaiva no mudjimbav^ waiva ne vanavelume vatatu. vona 
vakaenda kunyika djili ntiiambo kotiienga silo sakanaka. 
ava vadjinyenyi ne vanukuna vakaenda koshambadja ngo mumaba- 

20 Hldnya kunyika djilin tiiambo sikulu. vese vo vatatu vainga ne 
mabalildnya avo. vak^/iamba mazuva ne m^ji mizinsh ivachito 
vagumila nyika. vakazoguma pachitulu chikulu chainga no vanthu. 
vakavona vanthu vainga vachete vanalumene vanakadjivai/amba pa 
mutunthu. kwati hama nthatu nedjaambuka pamutunthu. djakapala- 

25 djana. 

mum^ wakavona m^analume wainga muchete mukulu achiluka 
chisenga akamubirunsha kuti, '' unozoitenyi ndicho chisenga ichi chaka- 
dali kuleba?" muchenshebcni wakatanga kundzela mulumb^ane basa 
lo chisenga achiti, ''ichi chisenga china simba lo kundigumisa kimyi 

30 kakuli ntiiambo likulu nge nshiku im^." mulumb^ana wakachitenga 
chisenga. mum^ wakaenda kuchikalav^a chaiita magona akuchi- 
bvunsha kuti, " unozoitenyi ndiwo aya magona? " chikalav^ chakati, 
''nge magona aya kuti munthu n^^a, ndingamumusa ngoku munamsisa 
mi^uta e gona." mulumbfane wakatenga gona. mulumbfane we 

35 chitatu wakaguma pamuzi wo m^analume, m^ti we supeyo.^ akumu- 
bvunsha kuti, "unozoitenyi nge idji supeyo?" mgiti we supeyo 
wakamuvonesa nyika djili nthambo nge supeyo. 

novapedja kutenga vakaenda kmnabalikinya avo, vakatanga kuta- 
tidjana zovakatenga. vachilingila musupeyo vakavona vanthu va- 

40 zinshi vakavungana kungome ya mambo. vakanasa kulingilisa, 
vakavona nyakwava nali mumavelo m^yaya wake, vakavonaze 
kuti nyakwava wairhwala, no kuti madjibeze ai'mupa mutombo. 
novalingilase musupeyo vakavona nyakwava na/a, na mambo achi- 
edjelela vushoni mutembe wa nyakwava kuti wende koigwa. mu- 

45 lumbfane waioa ne gona wakati, "kudali ndagimia kanyi vachito 
vamuviya nyakwava ndingamumusa nge gona laiq^u." wainga ne 
chisenga wakati, "ch'senga changu chinotigumisa kanyi nyamasi.'* 

> PDrtofoew derhratioB. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 197 

idji haina nthatu djakasiya mabaliklnya adjo djikapakila pachisenga. 
chisenga chakapetenyuka. chikavagumisa kanyi kwavo nge nguva 

50 doko, vakaenda kungome ya mambo mutembe wa nyakwava ingawoda 
kovigwa. idji hama nthatu djakangwina mungome djikaenda mu- 
kwalatu^ m^owa iva no mutembe. mulumbgane wainga ne gona 
wakagwadama pambeli po mutembe akatanga ku/unyungula gona 
lake, mambo navo vese vainga munyumba vakashama sikulu ng^ 

55 saida kuitwa ng^ idjo hama nthatu. napedja ku/un3ruttgula gona 
wakabsuta munongola akaunamrisa nyakwava achiti, "nyakwava, 
mukayi." nyakwava wakamuka. vanthu vakashamiswa nge zaka- 
itwa ngo mulumb^ane. mambo wakati kumulumb^ane wakamusa 
m^ana wake, "iwewe, wochi/uma m^na wangu." makani hama 

60 nthatu nodjapedja kusumula nthafigo yavo, mambo azivi kuziva kuti 
ndiya ni wo vatatu unozo/uma nyakwava, ngokuti vese vaita basa 
gulu kumusa nyakwava. supeyo yakavavonesa ku/a kwa nyakwava, 
i^okuti chisenga chakavazisa kanyi nge nguva doko, gona lakamusa 
nyakwava. nthango yakakhahamadja mambo ne banshe lake, hama 

65 nthatu djakatendelana kuti nyevanshi wadjo nga/ume nkyakwava. 
mambo wakapa hama mbili mitunthu yo kutonga kuti avonese 
kutenda kwake nge sovakaita kwali. 


It happened, it happened. — There was a chief who was a rich man. 
This chief | had a daughter who was very pretty. The young men 
of the neighborhood | and those from far away, the sons of the noble- 
men, heard of the beauty of the | princess being praised far and near 
by. All (5) wanted to marry the princess. 

The suitors came one by one to woo the princess. All | were nicely 
dressed up, because they thought that, if the princess saw the dresses | 
that they had on, she would be willing to be married to one of them. 
But all the youths | were refused by the father of the princess. The 
youths did not see (10) the princess, because she was in the castle. 
When the youths came to ask | for her, the chief refused them. When 
they went back home, the princess looked at them from | the window 
high up on the castle, so that she could be seen by them. 

All the youths tried to woo her, and were refused. The chief said, | 
"The young man who has a very good gift, he will marry the prin- 
cess." (15) All the suitors prepared to go to distant countries to buy 
very | nice presents. 

There was a nobleman who had three sons. They | went to a far 
country to buy nice things. 

These [older] brothers [and younger brothers] went in boats to 
(20) trade in very distant countries. Each of the three had | a boat. 

» Portuguese derivation. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

198 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

They sailed many days and months before | they reached the country. 
They arrived at a large island on which there were people. | They 
saw the people who were there, very old men and women, who walked 
about on | the land. Then the three brothers went ashore. On the 
land they (25) parted. 

One saw a man who was very old weaving | a braid of palm-leaves; 
and he asked him, "What are you going to do with that braid?" | 
The old man began to tell the man about | his work, and said, "This 
braid has the power to make one arrive (30) in a country which is 
very far, in one day." The man bought | the braid of palm-leaves. 
Another one went and met an old person who made calabashes. 
He I inquired, "What are you going to do with these calabashes?" 
The old person said, | "With this calabash, if a person is dead, I 
awaken him by drawing on a stick through his mouth | the fat of the 
calabash." The young man bought the calabash. The third young 
(35) man arrived at the kraal of a man, a maker of looking-glasses. 
He I questioned him, "What are you going to do with this looking- 
glass?" The maker of looking-glasses | made him see a distant land 
by means of the mirror. 

When they finished their trade, they went on board their boat, 
and they began to | show one another what they had bought. When 
they looked into the mirror, they saw many people (40) gathered in 
the castle of the chief. They looked carefully, | and saw the princess 
lying in the lap of her nurse. They also saw that the princess was 
sick. The doctors were giving medicine to the princess. | When 
they looked again into the mirror, they saw the princess was dead. 
The chief | was making ready to have the princess buried. Her 
corpse was being arranged carefully, for it was going to be buried. 
(45) The young man who had the calabash said, " If I can arrive at 
home before | they bury the princess, I can awaken her with my 
calabash." The one who had | the braid of palm-leaves said, "My 
braid of palm-leaves makes us arrive at home to-day." | Then the three 
brothers left their boat. They got on the braid of palm-leaves. | 
The braid unrolled, and made tiiem reach their home in a little while. 
(50) They went to the castle of the chief. The corpse of the princess 
was about | to be buried. Then the three brothers went into the 
castle. They went into | the room in which was the corpse of the 
princess. The young man who had the calabash | kneeled before the 
corpse and began to open his calabash. | The chief and all those who 
were in the room wondered very much at (55) what was going to be 
done by the three brothers. When he finished opening the calabash, | 
he pulled out a stick and passed it over the mouth of the princess, 
and said, "Princess, | wake up!" The princess awoke. The people 
wondered on account of | what was done by the young men. The 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 199 

chief said to the young man who raised | his daughter, "You shall 
marry my child." When the three brothers (60) finished telling their 
story, the chief did not know who | of the three should marry the 
princess, because all did great work | in awakening the princess. The 
mirror made them see the death of the princess, | the mat carried them 
home in a short time, and the calabash awakened | the princess. 
Therefore the matter puzzled the chief and his court. The three 
brothers (65) agreed among themselves that the oldest should marry 
the princess. | The chief gave the two other brothers countries to 
rule to show | his gratitude for what they had done for him. 


sakaita zakaita,. — kwaiva no mambo wakagala mugole. ena wainga 
no mgana wokadji wakangala sikulu. uwu munyakwava wainga ne 
yaya no mamge mapuntha aitamba nawo. mapuntha no munya- 
kwava ainga akangala sikulu. ese ainga n5urhwa. nshiku djese 

5 munyakwava no yaya wake no mam^e mapuntha vaizapasi vachibra 
mugole ko'shamba mugandwa lainga lakanaka. ili gandwa lainga 
pedo ne gwasha. munyakwava ne vasikane vake vaedeluka no 
kwenda mugole ngo mitengela yovaiva vayo. kwaiti vasikane vo 
mugole novaza kolumgila mugandwa madumbi o munyika akavanona 

10 akada kuvabvunshila. kani vasikane novavona vanthu vachiza ku- 
gandwa, vaiambuka mukumga vakatola mitengela yavo vakambuluka 
vachenda mugole. madumbi mazinshi o munyika vana vo madji- 
mambo no madjinganakana akada kufuma munyakwava. ona 
akaedja kutola mutengela wake, mamge madumbi akatola mutengela 

15 wo munyakwava. kwaiti mudumbi natola mutengela wo buntha 
alichaizendepi no vamge vasikane mugole, kani laizotevela mudumbi 
lichimba lichilidja nthuzwa yalo. kuti miidumbi nalingila sule 
mutengela waizombuluka uchenda kumusikane. ena miisikane wai- 
zombuluka achenda mugole. ndLso ao makavila aiutola mitengela 

20 aiiti nazwa musikane achimba achilidja nthuzwa ailingila sule mu- 
tengela yaienda kuna vamune wayo. 

vana vo madjimbavge no vo manganakana novakonerhwa kubata 
mapuntha o mugole, mudumbi mumge m|[ana wo mulombo wakati, 
ena unoenda kuti aedje kutola mutengela wo musikane wo mugole. 

25 aya madumbi akakonerhwa kutola mutengela akamuseka 2ikulu, kani 
ena wakavangilila kuti unoenda koedja kutola mutengela wo musikane. 
wakavindala mugwasha, mapunthu o mugole na'guma na'pedja 
kungwina mukumga, inulumbgane wakatola mutengela wo munyak- 
wava. mapuntha na*vona achitola mutengela ona akabva mukumga 

30 akatola mitengela yawo akambuluka. munyakwava wakasala, wa- 
katanga ku'idja nthuzwa yake achimba 

Digitized by 


200 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

sam-dumbiwewe, ndekande; wochizwa nthunra yanguyowe, ndekande. 

sam-dumbiwewe, ndekande. 
35 nyalala. 

tongo UngUewe, ndekande. 

sam'dumbiwewe, ndekande; m^anawe ndoda kupindawe, ndekande* 
40 sam-dumbiwewe, ndekande. m^nawe wochilingilawe, ndekande. 

sam-dumbiwewe, ndekande. 

ndoda kwendawe, ndekande. 
45 nyalala. 

kani mulumbfane a*zivi kulingila sule. na/amba mukuvo mukulu 

nyakwava wakabirunsha mulumb^ane achiti, imai iwewe wakundifuma. 

mulumbgane newakaima. munyakwava wakati kwati, iwewe unoenda 

neni kanyi kwangu mugole. musagole no mulumbfane vakaenda 

50 mugole. 


It happened, it happened. — There was a chief who lived in heaven. 
He had | a child, a very beautiful girl. This princess had as | attend- 
ants a nurse and other girls, with whom she played. The girls who 
were with the | princess were very beautiful. All were supremely 
beautiful. Every day (5) the princess and her nurse and the other 
girls came down from | the sky to bathe in a lake which was nice. 
This lake was | near a forest. The princess and her girls came down 
and I went up to the sky by means of plumes which they had. When 
the Sky girls | came to bathe in the lake, and the young men of earth 
saw them, (10) they wanted to court them; but when these girls saw 
men coming to | the lake, they came out of the water, took their 
plumes, and flew away, | going up to the sky. Many youths, the 
sons of I chiefs and noblemen, wanted to marry the princess. They | 
tried to take her plume. Some of the youths would take the plume 
(15) of the princess. When a youth took the plume of the girl, | she 
could not go with the other girls to the sky; but she would follow the 
youth, I singing and playing her reed rattle. If the youth looked 
back, I the plume would fly away and go to the girl; and she, the girl, | 
would fly away, going to the sky. Therefore these young men would 
take the plume, (20) and, when they heard the girl singing and playing 
her reed rattle, would look back, | and the plume would go to its owner. 

When the sons of royalty and of nobility had failed to take | the 

» See Natalie Curtis. Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York [1920]). 
pp. SI-S3; tune of song, pp. 127-128. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 201 

Sky girls, a youth, the son of a poor man, said | he would go and try 
to take the plume of the Sky girl. (25) Those youths who had failed 
to take the plume laughed heartily at him; but | he persisted, (saying) 
that he would go and try to take the plume of the girl. | He hid 
himself in the forest. The Sky girls arrived; and, after | they had 
gone into the water, this youth took the plume of the princess. | When 
the girls saw that he had taken the plume, they came out of the water. 
(30) They took their plumes and flew away. The princess remained. | 
She began to play her reed rattle, singing, — 

"O dear young man! ndekande; do listen to my rattle, ndekande!" 

"O dear young man! ndekande!" 
(35) "Keep still!" 

"Just look! ndekande!" 

"Keep still!" 
"O dear young man! ndekande; O child! I want to go, ndekande!" 
"Keep still!" 
(40) "O dear young man! ndekande; O child! look now! ndekande!" 
"O dear young man! ndekande!" 
"I want to go, ndekande!" 
(45) ' "Keep still!" 

However, the youth did not look back. When he had walked a 
long way, | the princess asked the youth (to marry her), saying, 
"Wait, you shall marry me." | The youth stopped, and the princess 
said as follows: "You shall go | with me to my home in the sky." 
The Sky person and the young man went to | (50) the sky. 


(Dialect of Gaza Land,) 

nge zuva rim^e thika richirga nyama rakadzip^a nge godo. na- 
rashongana ne zinyamiitanda rakati, "zinyamiitanda, ndinozokupa 
musharo mukuru, kudai ungapotedza soro rako miimukuro wangu, 
uduse godo randidzipa." zinyamdtanda rakapotedza soro raro mii- 
mukuro we thika. rikadusa godo. zinyamdtanda norapedza ktldusa 
godo, rakati kuna thika, ''wochindipa musharo wangu wowandigon- 
disa." thika rakati, "unoda musharo wakadini. asizivi kiibtriira 
^enda kuitira here? sokupodedza soro rako mukanwa m^e thika, 

1 "Keep still 1" Is a chorus sung by the people. In the three long lines the chorus 
sings, "Keep still I" with the words "Do listen I" "O child I" The singer may go on 
extemporizing additional long lines, such as "M^nawe, zuva lovilawe [O child 1 the sun 
is setting];" "M^nawe ndasiva ndogawe (O child I I am left alone];*' etc The word 
"ndekande" is not translatable. 

^^ Digitized by LrrOOgle 

202 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

rikabuda risa remadzwa. iwewe nasa kundibonga, ngokuti ndini 
10 ndakuitire nyasha dzisikabviri dzokureka soro rako kdpotera miikanwa 
mgangu. apana chiro chinopinda miikanwa m^e thika chinobuda." 


{Coast Dialect.) 

nge zuva limge bongo lichir^a nyama lakakham^a nge phondo. 

nolusongana ne zinyamiitanda lakati, ''zinyamiitanda ndinozokupa 

musalo mukulu, kudali ungangwinisa miisolo wako miimukulo wangu, 

ubmse phondo landikhama." zinyamiitandu lakangwinisa mtisolo 

5 walo mdmukulo we bongo, likabisa phondo. zinyamiitanda nola- 
pedja kiibisa phondo lakati kuna bongo, "wochirdipa mushalo wangu 
wowandigondisa.'' bongo lakati, ''unoda mushalo wakadini. azizivi 
ktinaka zenda kuitila ? jsokungwinisa mtisolo wako mukanwa m^ 
bongo ukabudga ucha lemadjwa. iwewe nasa kundidenda, ngokuti 

10 ndini ndakuidile nyasha djichingabtdli djokulega mtisolo wako kti- 
ngwina mdkanwa mgangu. apana chilo chinopinda miikanwa m^e 
bongo chinobudya." 


One day Hyena was choked by a bone. | When he met Crane, he 
said, "Crane, I will give you | a great reward if you can put your 
head into my throat | and take out the bone which chokes me." 
Crane put his head (5) into the throat of Hyena and pulled out the 
bone. When Crane had finished pulling out | the bone, he said to 
Hyena, "Now give me my reward that you promised me." | Hyena 
said, "How much of a reward do you want? Is it not enough | what 
I have done for you, to put your head into the mouth of Hyena | and 
come out without being hurt? You had better thank me, because I 
am the one (10) who did a kindness to you beyond expectation while 
allowing your head to enter my mouth. | Nothing that enters the 
mouth of a hyena comes out again." 


1. Simba lo ngwena lili mum/ula. 

(The strength of the crocodile is in the water.) 

2. Meno e imbga alumani. 

(The teeth of the dogs do not bite one another.) 

3. Zitiyo kuenda mumphala kuvona ndi mai. 

(Chicks that go into the chicken-house see their mother.) 

4. Mgana walilila nyele yo lu/uta. 

(The child cried for a reed flute [that means, do not make an 
effort to get what has no value].) 

^ The lines correspond to the Gaza Land version. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Tales and Proverbs of the Vandau of Portuguese S. Africa. 203 

5. Vulombo, vulombo havgo desa lo kumga alikokotwi. 

(Misery, misery, indeed! A calabash of water which is licked 
clean ! [that means, Even if I am poor, I do not propose to be 
exploited. If I did, I should be like a calabash that has been 
licked clean].) 

6. FundsL mutako ngeine nyama. 

(By walking back, game is obtained [that means, it is often worth 
while to go back in order to get things which you own rather 
than to seek something new at a distance].) 

7. Ya/ila Malopanyi kunamunyu. 

(He died in Malopanyi, where there is salt [that is, the game died 
where there is salt available for cooking the venison, — success 
under the most favorable circumstances].) 

8. Chipanga achizivi vatendji. 

(The knife does not know its owner [that is, it cuts every one, 
even its owner].) 

9. Ngalipole wakap5a ndilo. 

(Let it cool off, he has burnt himself.) 

10. Wakalasha djindja ngokuda ganga. 

(He has denied his tribe on account of gain.) 

11. Zambuko lehanga ndi lim^e chasala sule chachikwali. 

(When guinea-hens fly up, a chikwali [a small bird flying slowly] 
remains behind.) 

12. Lembe le hove lakavodjwa nge hove im^e. 
(A pile of fish can be spoiled by a single fish.) 

13. Kuwila mumapiti chemapete. 

(G)ckroaches fall into the mush [that means, one cockroach after 
another falls into mush without learning by the fate of the 
preceding ones].) 

14. Kanyi akuna chilima. 

(In the home is no darkness [that is, one is always happy at 

15. Djila le mphepo ntho kukevelana. 

(The bed-cover of the wind [cold] is by [from] pulling apart [that 
means, if you are under one cover, and each pulls the narrow 
cover to himself, both will get cold].) 

16. Milo aina/embo. 

(The nose has the power of smell [that means, man has sense in 
order to understand what is going on].) 

17. Mota aizivi vugalo. 

(The boil does not know its place [that is, misfortune comes to 
both rich and poor].) 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

204 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

i8. Kutambisa munyu ngo kulunga djer^e. 

(He threw away the salt with which frogs are seasoned.) 

19. Nshou ailemerhwi ngo mulembe wayo, 

(The elephant does not feel the weight of his trunk [that is, the 
rich do not feel their wealth as a burden].) 

20. Kmdluma mgishe che makone. 

(To bite one's tail like the makone [a fish] [that is, to act against 
one's own words].) 

21. i\rgalava hulu yaka^la padima. 

(Even a large ship may be wrecked in darkness [that is, small 
things may spoil great plans].) 

22. Vulombo avusekwi. 
(Poverty is not laughed at.) 

23.* (Isisu) kakulilila muhana che hamba. 

([We] weeping inside [in the chest] like the tortoise [that is, we 
weep without being able to offer resistance to an enemy].) 
24.* Hove djinotevela mulambo wadjo. 

(Fish follow their river [that means, people will support their 
own family or tribe].) 
25.* Andichalambi kununa pachoto ngo pondali. 

(I do not refuse to yield fat when I am on the hearth [fire] [that 
means, I yield to pressure].) 
26.* Andinyiswi nge chilo chichina mulomo. 

(I am not defeated by a thing that has no mouth [that is, man 
must persevere, for the future does not speak].) 
27.* Mulilo wo mbava aukotwi. 

(By the fire of a thief not to be warmed [that is, if you associate 
with bad people, you may be taken as one of them].) 
28.* Manthede a*noi^engana pakurga, napam/um/u anobesana. 

(Baboons quarrel over food, [but] in danger help one another.) 
29. Kiisukuta mbeleko m^ana achito abarhwa. 

(To tan the carrying-blanket of a child before it is bom [that is, 
borrowing trouble].) 

* Revised from Natalie Curtis, Songs and Tales from the Dark Continent (New York, . 
G. Schirmer), p. 14. 

Digitized by 


Thirty-Third Annual Meeting of the Society. 205 


The thirty-third annual meeting of the American Folk-Lore Society 
was held on Wednesday, Dec. 28, 1921, at the Brooklyn Institute 
Museum, Brooklyn, N.Y., in affiliation with the American Anthro- 
pological Association and the Maya Society. 

A meeting of the Council was held at nine in the morning. There 
were present Messrs. Farabee, Dixon, Boas, Swanton, Nelson, Hrd- 
liSka, Kidder, and Peabody. 

The regular meeting of the Society was held at two in the afternoon. 
The reports of the Secretary, Editor, and Treasurer were presented 
as follows: — 

secretary's report. 

The membership of the Society is as follows: — 

1920 192 I 

HonotBry members 6 7 

Life members 13 12 

Amiital members 388 393 

Subscribing libraries 188 179 

Total 595 59i 

Four members have died during the year, — Charles P. Bowditch, 
Mrs, J. T. Duncan, Mgr. Lionel Lindsay, Miss Sarah Yerxa. 

Charles Peabody, Secretary. 
The report of the Secretary was accepted. 

treasurer's report, 192 1. 



Membenhip I1317.13 

Membership, Canadian Branches 379.00 

Contribution from Canada for French number 1300.00 

Charles Peabody, contribution 388.00 

Houghton, Mifflin Co., sale of plates 10.10 

Interest 16.30 

Total receipts I3110.43 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

2o6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Total receipts brought forward I3 110.42 

New Era Co., manufacture of Journal: 

April-June, 1920 I 458.9S 

July-Sept.. 1920 832.65 

Ck:t.-Dec., 1930 669.10 

Index, vol. for 1919 218.S6 

Reprints 83.6S 

Rebates to branches 76.45 

Miss Andrews, work on Journal (13 months) 325.00- 

Postage, Editor 14.25 

Postage, annual meeting 3.25 

Postage, Boston Branch 3.00 

Cosmos Press, printing 13.19 

Express 7>7i 

Exchange, Canada 169.50 

Total expenses 2875.62 

Balance I234.80 

Balance paid to Publication Fund from money borrowed . . . 234.80 

Balance on hand. General Fund * looo.oo 



Balance from 1920 I 256.37 

Dr. Parsons. Philippine Memoir 1000.00 

Contributions to fund 75*oo 

G. E. Stechert, sale of Memoirs: 

Vol. Ill 3.50 

Vol. X 24.50 

Newell-Moore Fund, income 85.00 

Refund from General Fund 234.80 

Total I1679.17 

Miss Andrews, work on Memoir: 

Vol. XII I 127.60 

Vol. XV 66.47 

G. Beaverson, music blocks for Memoir, Vol. XV 308.25 

Express on Memoir, Vol. XV 1.39 

Total 503.71 

Balance t I1175.46 

Alfred M. Tozzbr, Treasurer. 
The report of the Treasurer was accepted. 

* The General Fund still owes the Publication Fund I384.85 borrowed in 1920. 

t Practically this entire sum is now due for Memoir, Vol. XV. ^h^. OOqIp 

Thirty- Third Annual Meeting of the Society. 207 


Owing to exceptionally unfavorable conditions, the publication of 
the Journal of American Folk-Lore has lagged inordinately behind 
during the present year. Early in the year the October-December 
number for 1920 was brought out. Immediately after that a printer's 
strike occurred in the New Era Printing Company, and it has been 
utterly impossible to have any work done during the rest of the year. 
Notwithstanding constantly repeated demands, no proof was forth- 
coming until December. The first and second numbers of the present 
year are now in type, — the first number entirely in pages, — so that 
there is some hope that publication may be resumed. 

The question arises, since there is no sign of improvement in the 
conditions of the Lancaster printing-office, whether a change in printer 
should not be considered. The lower price which formerly prevailed 
in Lancaster no longer exists. The Editor suggests that a commit- 
tee consisting of the Treasurer, Secretary, and Editor be appointed to 
consider the question of printing. 

Volume 12 of the Memoirs of the Society, "Filipino Popular Tales," 
by Dean S. Pansier, was completed during the year. 

It seems necessary that the Society, during the next year or two, 
should restrict itself as much as possible in the publication of its Journal, 
unless special support can be secured. The financial condition, as it 
appears from the Treasurer's report, is so unfavorable, that the 
publication of a journal of more than five hundred pages is no longer 

The Editor wishes to express his thanks to his associates. Dr. Elsie 
Clews Parsons, Professor George Lyman Kittredge, Professor Aurelio 
M. Espinosa, and Mr. C.-Marius Barbeau. 

Professor Aurelio M. Espinosa has reported in the Journal on the 
general results of his collecting- trip to Spain, which was made possible 
by the active interest of our former President, Dr. Elsie Clews Parsons. 
The discussion of his material is progressing; and we may hope to 
obtain, as a result of this enterprise, material that will enable us to 
carry forward the much-needed comparative study between American 
and Peninsular Spanish folk-lore. 

Franz Boas, Editor. 

The report of the Editor was accepted. 

Officers for the year 1922 were elected as follows: — 
President, F. G. Speck. 
First Vice-President, E. C. Hills. 
Second Vice-President, J. Walter Fewkes. 
Councillors: for three years, Phillips Barry, A. M. Espinosa, 
C.-M. Barbeau; for two years, J. R. Swanton, E. K. Putnam, Stith 

Digitized by 


2o8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Thompson; for one year, R. B. Dixon, E. Sapir, A. L. Kroeber; past 
Presidents, P. E. Goddard, R. H. Lowie, Elsie Clews Parsons; Presi- 
dents of local branches, C. Peabody, C. T. Carruth, Miss Mary A. 
Owen, Reed Smith, W. H. Thomas, John M. Stone, J. H. Cox. 

Editor of Journal, Franz Boas. 

Associate Editors, George Lyman Kittredge, A. M. Espinosa, 
C.-Marius Barbeau, Elsie Clews Parsons.^ 

Permanent Secretary, Charles Peabody. 

Treasurer, Alfred M. Tozzer. 

The following papers were read: — 
"The Scalp-Dance at Zuni in 192 1," by Elsie Clews Parsons. 
"The Vision in Plains Culture," by Ruth Benedict. 
** New Phases in the Study of Primitive Music," by Helen H. Roberts. 
"The Ritual Bull-Fight and its Connection with the Growing of 

Irrigated Rice," by C. W. Bishop. 
"The Deer-Hunt in the Southwest," by Esther Schiff. 
"The Shaker Religion of Puget Sound," by T. T. Waterman. 
"Complexity of Rhythm in Primitive Decorative art," by Gladys 


Charles Peabody, Secretary. 

Digitized by 


TwxAS.^PresideHf, W. H. Thomas, College SUtion, Tex.; First Vice-Prisident^ Mrs. E. OweD, 
Rio Grande City; Second Vice- President^ Victor J. Smith, Alpin^, Tex.; Secntary- Treasurer^ J. Frank 
Dobie, University of Texas, Aostin, Tex.; Councillors, Clyde Chew Glascock (Rice Institute, 
Houst<m,Tex.), Gates Thomas (San Marcos, Tex.), Miss Julia Estill (Fredericksburg, Tex.}. 

Virginia. — President, John M. Stone, Mount Fair, Va.; Vice-President, Miss Martha M. Davis, 
Harrisonburg, Va.; Secretary- Treasurer, Walter A. Montgomery, Richmond College, Richmond, Va.; 
Archivist, C. Alphonso Smith, U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

Wist yitLGluiA.— President and General Editor, John Harrington Cox, West Virginia University, 
Morgantown, W.Va.; Vice-President, Robert Allen Armstrong, West Virginia University, Morgan- 
town, W.Va.; Secretary- Treasurer, Walter Barnes, Fairmont Normal School, Fairmont, W.Va. 

Msxico. — President, Manuel Gamio, Inspector-General of Monuments, Mexico City, Mez. 

Canada. — President, E. Sapir, Victoria Museum, Ottawa; Secretary, C.-M, Barbeau, Victoria 
Museum, Ottawa; Treasurer, Gustave Lanctot, Dominion Archives, Ottawa; Editor, J. F. Kenney, 
Dominion Archives, Ottawa. 

■•t«r«d a« ■•cond-ekM matter. July 6, igxx, at the Poat Office at Laacaat«r, Pa., under the Act e( llarck %, ilyf . 

For back volumes apply to G. £• Stechert ft Co., who can supply 
most of the volumes at $4.00 per vclume. 

Claims for non-delivery of current numbers of the Journal should be 
sent to G. £. Stechert & Co. 

G. E. STECHERT & CO.. Agents j ^^wJork^^ 

OTTO HARRASSOWITZ, Leipzig, QinutsritASSS, 14. 
DAVID NUTT, London, 57, 59, Long Acre. 


Digitized by 


Publications of the 
American Folk-Lore Society. 


Vol. L Hsu Chatelain, Folk-Tales of Angola. Fifty Tales with IQ-mbundu 
text, literal English Translation, Introduction, and Notes. 1894. 
»i + 315 P- (With two maps.) $3.50 net 

II. ALCfis FoKTiBR, Louisiana Folk-Tales. In French Dialect and English 
Translation. 1895. xi + 122 p. $3.50 net. 

IIL Charles L. Edwards, Bahama Songs and Stories. With Music, 
Introduction, Appendix, and Notes. Six Illnstrations. 1895. xiii 
+ iiip. $3.50. 

IV. Fanny D. Bbrgbn, Current Superstitions. Cdlected from the Oral 
Tradition of English-Speaking Folk. With Notes, and an Intro- 
duction by William Wells Newell. 1896. vi + 161 p. $3.50 

V. Washington Matthews, Nava^ Lq;ends. With Introduction, 
Notes, Illustrations, Texts, Interlinear Translations, and Melodies. 
1897. viii + 299 p. Out of print. 

VI. Jambs Tbit, Traditions of the Thompson River Indians of British 
Columbia. With Introduction by Franz Boas, and Notes. 1898. 
X + 137 P- $3-50. 
VII. Fanny D. Bbrgbn, Animal and Plant Lore. Collected from the Oral 
Tradition of English-Speaking Folk. Witii Introduction by J. Y. 
Bbrgbn. 1899. 180 p. (Second Part to Vol. IV., with common 
Index.) $3»50* 
VIII. George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. With Intro- 
duction, Notes, and Illustrations. 1904. xxvi + 366 p. $6. 

IX. M. R. Cole, Los Pastores. A Mexican Miracle Play. Translation, 
Introduction, and Notes. With Illustrations and Music. 1907. 
xxxiv -K234 p. $4. 

X. Eleanor Hague, Spanish-American Folk-Songs. 1917. iiip. $3.50. 

XI. James A. Tsrr, Marian K. Gould, Livingston Farrand, Hbrbbrt 
J. Spinden, Folk-Tales of Salishan and Sahaptin Tribes. Edited 
by Franz Boas. 191 7. x+2oip. $3.50. 

XII. Filipino Popular Tales. Collected and edited^ with Comparative 
Notes, by Dean S. Fansler. 1921. xix+473 P- ^5 i^t. 

XIII. Elsie Clews Parsons, The Folk-Tales of Androe Island, Bahamas. 

1918. XX +170 p. to.50. 

XIV. Mbrcib L. Taylor, Index to Volumes I-XXV (1888-1912) of the 

Journal of American Folk-Lore. William Wblls Newell Me- 
morial Volume. In pr^paroHon. 

XV. Elsie Clews Parsons, Folk-Lore from the Cape Verde Islands. 

In press. 

XVI. Elsib Clews Parsons, Folk-Tales of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 

In press. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Vol. 35. 

r-SEPilLiViiifc.K, 1922. 

No. 137. 










liLLt I ALE^ Gcnrge Miwab 20*j 

Two Folk-Tales FROM NTfA5 ALAND A ^ Irving Halhwell 2X6 

^t'ART Notes on S!>ni-TftAt^pi\G in ScirrnFRN 

Nfi^EKiA . h^ W. G. Makofm 21^^ 

Ngoao Spirituals from the Far Soitih . • 4. £. Perkins 22^ 


( E. C, Parsons j 

Notes and Queries . , 32a 

Reviews . 332 




G, B. STECHERT & CO., NEW YORK, AoEH^Bi'^'^^^^^^S^^ 





Boas), issued by the American Folk-Lore Society, is designed for the collec- 
tion and publication of the folk-lore and mythology of the American Continent, 
The subscription price is four dollars per annum. ^ 

The American Folk- Lore Society was organized January 4, 1888. The Society 
holds annual meetings, at which reports are received and papers read. The yearly 
membership fee is four dollars. Members are entitled to receive The Journal of 
American Folk-Lore. Subscribers to the Journal, or other persons interested in 
the objects of the Society, are eligible to membenship, and are requested to address 
the Permanent Secretary to that end. 

Authors alone are responsible for the contents of their papers. 

Officers of the American Folk-Lore Society (1 922)* 

FresiiUnt. — F. G. Speck, UniTersity of FeDosylvania, Philadelphia, Pa. 

First Vice-President. — E. C. Hills, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

Second Vice-President, — J. Walter Fewkei, Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C. 

Councillors. — For three years: Phillips Barry, 83 Brattle St., Cambridge, Mass., A. M. Espinosa, 
Leland Stanford, jr., University, Palo Alto, Cal.; C.-M. Barbeau, Victoria Museum, Ottawa, Can. 
For two years: J. K. Swanton, 5526 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, D.C.; E. K. Putnam, Davenport, 
lo.; Stith Thompson, University of Maine, Orono, Me. For one year: R. B. Dixon, Peabody 
Museum, Cambridge, Mass.; E. Sapir, Victoria Museum, Ottawa, Can.; A. L. Kroeber, Affiliated 
Colleges, San Francisco, Cal. Past Presidents: Pliny Earle Goddard, American Museum of Natural 
History, New York; Robert H. Lowie, University of California, Berkeley, Cal.; Elsie Clews Parsons, 
New York. Presidents of Local Branches: C. Peabody, C. T. Carruth, Miss M. A. Owen, Reed 
Smith, W. H. Tbomas, John M. Stone, J. H. Cox. 

Editor of Journal. — Franz Boas, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

Associate Editors. — George Lyman Kittredge, Aurelio M. Espinosa, C.-Marius Barbeau, Elsie 
Clews Parsons. 

Permanent Secretary. — Charles Peabody, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 

Treasurer. —Alfred M. 1 ozzer. Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. 

Officers of Local and State Branches and Societies* 

Boston. — President, Charles Peabody; First Vice-President^ F. H. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass.; 
Second Vice-President^ H. D. Heathfield, Boston, Mass.; Secretary, Miss M. Fish, 9 Prescott St., 
Brookline, Mass. ; Treasurer, Samuel B. Dean, 2 B Newbury St., Boston. 

Qkyc&K\TiG^.—Presuient, C. T. Carruth, Cambridge; Vice-President^ Mrs. E. F. Williams, 
8 Lowell St., Cambridge; Treasurer, Carleton E. Noyes, 30 Francis Ave., Cambridge ; Secretary^ 
Miss Penelope Noyes, Cambridge. 

Kkstvchy.-^ Vice- Presidents, Mrs. Fannie C. Duncan, Miss Josephine McGill; Sicretary, Miss 
Myra Sanders ; Treasurer, John F. Smith, Berea College, Berea, If y. 

MissoVKi.— President, Miss Mary A. Owen, 9th and Jules Sts., St. Joseph, Mo.; Vice-Presidents, 
Mrs. Edward Schaaf (2606 South Grand Ave., St. Louis, Mo. ), Mrs. Eva W. Case (2822 Troost St., 
Kansas City, Mo.), J. W. Rankin (311 Thilley Ave., Columbia, Mo.); Secretary, Archer Taylor, 
Washington University, St. Louis, Mo.; Treasurer, C. H. Williams, University of Missouri, Co- 
lumbia, Mo.; Directors, A. E. Bostwick (Public Library, St. Louis, Mo.), Mrs. W. B. Ver Steeg 
(St. Louis, Mo.), Leah R. Yoffie (Soldan High School, St. Louis, Mo.). 

North Carolina. — President, William Johnston Andrews; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. William N. 
Reynolds, Mrs. S. Westray Battle, Miss Maude Minish; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank C. Brown, 
301 Faculty Ave., Durham, N.C. 

North Dakota. — Secretary, George F. Will, Bismarck, N.D. 

South Carolina. ^Pre^ii^ni, Reed Smith, 1628 Pendleton St., Columbia, S.C.; Vice-President, 
Henry C. Davis, 2532 Divine St., Columbia, S.C; Secretary and Treasurer, F. W. Cappelnuma, 
Law Range, Columbia, S.C. 

T^NHMSSKK.—Secretafy, Henry M. Wiltse, Chattanooga, Tenn, 


Digitized by VjOO^ IC 


' >^P 11 1923 J 



Vol. 35.— JULY-SEPTEMBER, 1922.— No. 137. 



I A nga bo na, xndt ve kdid, ve' ke wulu afan afan. ane a nga yene 
tit 6 tele a wua je nga. ane tit 6 nga wu. tite te € mbe jde' na, 
mvin.' eyoile te mdt a nga jd na, me tame ^ ba tite jam. eyofi a 
nga mane tune tit 6kdp, ane tite j6 £ nga kdld si a ke mbi afan. ane 

5 mdt a nga loone tite na, a mvin, te ke, £yoil w' aye ke afane den, ke * 
betit b' aye jd wo na, 6 ne te €k6p amu j6? Ire, w' aye dane wd'd 
deon. ma fe £yon m' aye kui ja ke bdt b' aye jd me na, j£ 6 bili 6kOp? 
£yon m' aye kate be na, £kdp mvin, ke me ke,^ m' aye wO'O deone ya 
kate bdt fo6. ajd di e ne te yian. ane mvin 6 nga bulan a zu bOmbd 

10 si. ane mdt a nga mane ba tit a ke je ja. ane mdte te a nga ke 
kui ja d£ a loone binga h€ a kape be tit ^, ve £mien a nji di je amu 
a nga yene je angdndd. nal£ mdt a ne ngule ya jan 6yo£L a bo a mate 
besine hi ve beta bulan vdm be n£. 


(i) It did happen thus, Man left, [and] ^ went [to] walk [in the] 

forest (forest). Then he did see | [an] animal (it) standing and fired 

(it) [his] gim. And then [the] animal (it did) died. Animal (that it 

was) had the name (thus) | Mvin. Then Man (he) did say thus, I 

first cut up [my] animal (mine). When | he had finished skinning 

» Sec this Journal, 25: 106-124; 27: 266-288; 32: 428-437. 

* Vtf is an untranslatable particle when used as in narratives of this kind. 

* Mvin is the antelope Cephalophus calypygus, 

^ Tame is an auxiliary verb meaning "do first.*' As used here, it expresses adverbial 

* Ke, as used here, has about the significance of our exclamation "hml" 

* J[tf me ^ is equivalent to" hml Itoo/'or"hml lalso.** 

^ Words in parentheses are literal translations of words not required in reading the 
English translation. Words in brackets are added in order to make the sentence 

14 209 

Digitized by 


210 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

[the] animal* then [the] animal (his it) did get up [from the] 
ground and went running [into the] forest. And so || (5) Man (he) 
did call [the] animal thus, O Mvin, not go, when you will go [into the] 
forest to-day | [the] animals (they) will say [to] you thus, You have 
no hide why (for)? You will (surpass to hear | shame) [be ashamed]. 
I too when I shall reach [my] village [the] people (they) will say [to] 
me thus, Why (you have) [have you this] hide? | I shall tell them thus, 
[It is the] hide [of] Mvin, I too, I shall (hear shame) [be ashamed] to | 
tell [the] people [the] news. (Matter this it) [This you must] not do. 
And so Mvin (it) did return and come [to] lie || (10) [on the] ground. 
And so Man (he) did finish cutting up [the] animal and (went) [took] 
it [to the] village. Then Man (that he) did go | [and] reach[ed] [his] 
village (his) and call[ed] [his] wives (his) and divided [among] them 
[all the] meat (all), but himself he not ate [of] it because | he did (see) 
[look upon] it [as something] horrible. Thus one (he has power) 
[may] (to) perish when he (does he) runs away | [from] (haters) [his 
enemies] (his), but again returns [to the] place [where] they are. 


I A nga bo na. ze ve ke a jeile ^ betit. ane a nga viane ' yen £kafi. 
ane a nga jd na, m' aye zu kpw£ ^kaile jame ji akiti. ane nji ke 6 
nga ke a wulu. ane nye ke a nga yene fe ve £kaiie te. ane a nga jd 
na, m ' aye zu kpw£ 6ka£Le jame ji akiti. ane wo'o ke a nga ke afan 

5 ve yene fe ^kafie te. ane bese be nga ke tOban. ane' ze a nga tate 
sili wo*o ba nji na, mi ate ^ zu bo j6 va? ba f e be nga sili nye na, wo 
ate zu bo j6 va? ane ze a nga jd na, m' ate zu kpw6 6kafie ji. wo'o 
na, ma fe m' ate zu kpw£ ^kaiie ji. ane nji ke a nga jd na, ma fe m' ate 
zu kpw£ ^kaile ji. ane bese be nga jO na, a nto ve bia bese bi jibi * 
10 kpw^. eyone te be nga j6 na, za a yeme bete y6p? nji na, ma 
m'ayeme bete y6p. ane nji a nga bete y6p a tyi'i 6kan a mes6fi. a 
maneya bo nal6 ve sili na, za a zu ka £kan? wo'o na, ma. ane be 
nga sili na, za a yem fial* £kan? ze na, ma m'ayem. ane wo'o a 

> Jen means literally "to search for," but is often used in the sense of "to hunt." 

* Viane, vane, or wia'a • an auxiliary verb, meaning "to do the unexpected instead 
of the expected," and cannot readily be translated to make good reading in English. 

* Ane is used to introduce sentences in narrative, much as the unlettered in our own 
country use the word "and" to introduce sentences: Ane « "and so, then, as, like, since." 

* Ate is an auxiliary verb, and is the sign of the near past; anything which has transpired 
during the present day or the previous night; as, "mi ate 90 6yofie v6?" ("when did you 
arrive [to-day or during the previous night]? ") Nga is an auxiliary verb, used with remote 
past; i.e., any action which has taken place before or previous to last night. 

* Jibi a "endure or bear," but is frequently used as auxiliary verb in the sense oC 
"to do unwillingly." 

* Oil-palm nuts grow in large bunches, between "thorny" protuberances or spines* 
which severely lacerate the hands of the inexperienced; so the bunches of nuts are generally 
hacked to pieces by the natives. During the hacking-process, most of the ripe nuts fall 
out of their sheaths. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Bulu Tales. 211 

nga tate ke f£ a jd be na, me tame ke tyi'i dka£. eyon a mbe f£ a 
15 nga jd £mien na, aka'a nsd'an m'ate yene ze a sdk6'6 6kan! nge a 
866 me nal6 ye me nyini? ane a nga tup a ke f6. eyofi be yangeya 
wo'o 6be nt6 ze na, bi ja6ya yange wo'o. a!^ nji, tame ke tyi'i bia 
aka£. ane nji a nga ke f6. ane a nga wulu a nga jd 6mien na, aka'a 
mbo'ane m'ate yene ze a bo! nge a bo me nal6, ye me nyine? ane 
20 nye fe a nga tup, ve li'i ze a tele. 

(i) It did happen thus. Leopard did go and hunted animals. 
Then he did see [a] bunch | [of ripe oil-palm nuts]. And so he did say 
thus, I shall come [and] cut down [my] bunch (my this) to-morrow. 
Then Gorilla also (he) | did go and walked. And he also (he) did 
see also only [the] bunch (that). And so he did say | thus, I shall 
come [and] cut down [my] bunch (my this) to-morrow. Also Chim- 
panzee (also he) did go [into the] forest || (5) [and] saw also [the] 
bunch (that). And so [they] all (they) did g» [and] met. So Leopard 
(he) did first | ask Chimpanzee and Gorilla thus, You did come [to] 
do what here? They too (they) did ask him thus, You | did come 
[to] do what here? So Leopard (he) did say thus, I did come [to] 
cut down [this] bunch (this). Chimpanzee | [said] thus, I too (I) dkl 
come [to] cut down [this] bunch (this). And so Gorilla too (he) did 
say thus, I too (I) did | come [to] cut down [this] bunch (this). Then 
all (they) did say thus, (There is only [then let us] we) [Then let us] 
all (we suffer) || (10) cut [it] down. Then they did say thus. Who (he) 
knows [how to] climb up? Gorilla thus, 1 1 (I) know [how to] climb up. 
And so Gorilla (he) did climb up and cut [the] bunch with [his] teeth. 
He I finished do[ing] thus [and] asked thus. Who (he) comes [to] tie 
[in a bundle] [the] palm-nuts? Chimpanzee thus [said], L Then 
they I did ask thus. Who (he) knows [how to] pick out [the] palm-nuts? 
Leopard [said] thus, I (I) know [how]. And so Chimpanzee (he) | 
did first go [to the] forest and said [to] them thus, I go [to] cut leaves 
[in which to wrap the palm-nuts after they have been separated from 
the bunch]. When he was [in the] forest he || (15) did say [to] himself 
thus. What a clawing I did see Leopard [when] he clawed [the] bunch! 
If he I claws me like that [shall] I (live) [escape]? And so he did 
(pierce) [run away], and went [into the] forest. When they did wait | 
[for] Chimpanzee [a] little while Leopard [said] thus. We are tired 
wait[ing] for Chimpanzee. Oh! Gorilla, go cut [for] us | leaves. So 
Gorilla (he) did go [into the] forest. As he (did walk) [was walking] 
he did say [to] himself thus. What | a doing I did see [that] Leopard 
(he) did! If he [should] do me thus, I shall live? And so || (20) he 
too (he) did run away leaving Leopard (he) standing [there]. 

^ A can frequently be best translated^ by our "say;" as, "Say, Bill, where are jrou 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

212 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


I A nga bo na. mdt ve lu'u binga betan. binga bete be mbe md6 
na, ngon dsimesan. a dbi'i^ zen a 6sofi metok' adtdkan a 6wd- 
meld, nde nnd wop a nga jd be na, dubane me bibdbold.* m'ye ke 
mvan/ ane a nga dafi 6s66 : 6 mbe anen. ane a nga yen ando'o : e to 

5 nwuman abui. ane a nga bete ydp a kpw6 ando*o ydp. ane a nga 
bo ve ko a ku si ve wu. ane a nga bo ve mane nyuilelan. eyofi be 
nga to nlam binga hi be nji yem jam nnd wop a nga bo. ane dsi- 
mesan a nga simesan nnd wop. nde a nga loen dbi'i zen, nye a nga 
yene zen nndm anga ke. ane be nga ke zene wd6 ve yen dsd^ nnd wop 

10 a nga da£i. dsofi metok' a nga dafie be: be kui kmdi'i yat. wofLa 
be nga kui ando'o si a yen nndm a nto ve afufus afufus. ane be nga 
loen dtdkan, nnye ve ttkan nndm. eydne te be nga loen dwdmeld. 
nnye ve wdmeld nndm. ane be nga ke ja a vak amu be nga yen 
mva6. eyon nndm a nga ye nyi nda wua bese ve sufi nye. dsimesan 

15 na, a ne 6fiwom amu me. nga simesan nye. dbi 'i zen na, a ne 6iiwom 
amu me nga bi zen. dson metok na, a ne ^fiwom amu me nga sofi 
dsd^* dtdkan na, a ve 6iiwom amu me nga to*e nye. dwdmeld na» 
a ne ^fiwom amu me nga wdmeld nye. nde be nga ke be betyi'i mejd. 
nye na, ke! mie bese, a ne nnd wonan bese. 


(i) It did happen thus. Man married (five) women. [Those] 
women (those, they) were (names) [named] | thus. Remembering and 
Finding-Path and Sounding-Fords and Picking-Things-Up and Brings 
to-Life. I And so [their] husband (their he) did say [to] them thus, (Put 
to) soak [for] me cassava. I shall go | hunting. Then he did cross 
[the] river: it was large. And he did see [a] wild mango tree: it 
was II (5) bearing much [fruit]. And so he did climb up and threw 
down wild mangoes [from] above. And so he did | (do) slip (and) 
[he] fell down (and) died. And so he did (do) finish crumbling to 
pieces. As they | did remain [in] town [his] wives (his, they) [did] 
not know (thing) [what their] husband (their, he) did do. And so 
Remembering | (she) did remember [their] husband (their). So she 
did call Finding-Path she (she) did | (see) [find the] path [their] 

> JW - "to catch, to take." literaUy. 

s Sou miiok • to sound the depth of a stream at a ford or crosshig-place. The one 
who does this advances with a stick or pole with which the depth of water is ascertained 
at each step before the step is taken. Atok (plural mttok) is a pond or wide place in a 

* Bib&bold (singular ibSbolS) - the long sticks of cooked cassava, the "staff of life'* 
of West African coast, commonly called "kank** by Europeans. Before a journey is 
undertaken, enough of these "sticks" are cooked to last for the journey. 

* Mvan * to go hunting or fishing out in the forest by camping there for some time. 
Rude shelters, called hibem, are built out in the forest when people go nwan. 

Digitized by 


Btdu Tales. 213 

husband (he) did go. And so they did go [that] path there, [to] see 
[the] river [their] husband (their) || (10) (he) did cross. Sounding- 
Fords (she) did cross them: they reached [the] bank (beyond) [on the 
other side]. Then | they did reach wild mango tree under and saw 
[that their] husband (he) was very small pieces. And so they did | 
call Pick-Things-Up. She picked up [the pieces of her] husband. 
Then they did call Bring-to-Life. | She brought back to life [her] 
husbemd. And so they did go [to the] village and rejoice[d] because 
they (did see | good) [felt glad]. When Husband (he) was about to 
enter [the] hut [of] one of (them) [his wives] all quarrelled over him. 
Remembering || (15) [said] thus, He is mine because I did remember 
(that of) him. Finding-Path [said] thus, He is mine | because I did 
find [the] path. Sounding-Fords [said] thus, He is mine because I 
did sound | [the] river. Picking-Things-Up [said] thus, He is mine 
because I did pick [him] up (him). Bring-to-Life [said] thus, | He is 
mine because I did bring [him] to life (him). And so they did go to 
(cutters) {the settlers of] disputes. | He [said] thus, Hm! you all, he 
is husband yours all. 


I A nga bo na, ze a nga kombd yen aban amu a nga yi wd6 n3re 

ane a nga wulu afan ve te ke yen aban. ane a nga yen zum a bet 
616 ydp a yene fe abo abad wd6. ane a nga sili zum na, za a ne abo 
di? zumu ^ na, abo abaiie le. i e na, tame ' zu me ne va. ane zu- 
5 mu a nga sise si. ane ze a nga nyone jdm be kalan ajd a jd zumu na, 
kalan na, £yon w'aye yen aban a bd si va te ve'ele kate nye na, ze a 
zu val6, amu m'aye wd6 nye. ane ze a nga kdld. ane abafL a nga 
zu a ke Oyo. ane zumu a nga yene ze a za'a dbe dyap a jd nye na, 
wulu'u avd !' wulu'u av6! ane abafi a nga kdld si^ a ke mbil a kui 
10 dsd^. ze ve wd'd ab6 ane a nga yene abafi momo. mds mfe 6yofi 
abafi a nga bd dyo wd6, zumu a nga beta yene ze a za'ak. ane a nga 
jdabafie na, wulu'u avd! wulu'u avd! ze a zu bi wo. eyofie ze a 
nga kui 616 ane' a nga ko6 abafi a tubeya.^ azu lale ze, zumu a nga 
bo fe nal6. ane ze a nga ya'a a ke jefi dbam a jd nye na, d tame * 

1 In Bulu folk-tales, animals often have an extra letter or two affixed to the regular 
name or word tor that animal; as, for example, ktdu iorku^ "tortoise;" tumu for turn; 

' Untranslatable here. 

* The words, "wulu'u avdl wulu*u avdl" when properly intoned and spoken, sound 
very much like the call of the green forest pigeon or dove. 

« Km si • "depart" or "leave ground or earth," literally. 

* Tubeya • past form of the verb tup, which Uterally means "to pierce or bore." 
When used in the sense of " to run away," it still conveys this idea of forcing a way through 
the jungle when running to escape. 

Digitized by 


214 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

15 w06 ma anon ese wo aye yen. ajO te dbam w'abi anon ese a so mdse 
te a zu kui mdse wu amu zumu a nga kpwe'eie ze a du'u nye. 


(i) It did happen thus, Leopard (he) did wish [to] see Otter 
because he did wish [to] kill him. | And so he did walk [into the] 
forest but [did] not go [to] see Otter. Then he did see Pigeon (he) 
upon I [a] tree (up) and he saw also [the] track [of] Otter there. And 
so he did ask Pigeon thus, (Who he has) [Whose] track | [is] this? 
Pigeon [said] thus, [That is the] track [of] Otter (that). Leopard 
[said] thus, Come [where] I am here. And so Pigeon || (5) (he) did 
come down. Then Leopard (he) did take [the] thing (they swear 
palaver) [upon which they take an oath at a palaver] and said, Pigeon 
(thus), I swear thus when you (shall) see Otter (he) lying down here 
not try [to] tell him thus. Leopard (he) | comes there, because I shall 
kill him. And so Leopard (he) did leave. Then Otter (he) did | come 
and (go) [went to] sleep. And then Pigeon (he) did see Leopard (he) 
come rather far [away] and told him thus, | Walk quickly ! walk quickly ! 
And so Otter (he) did arise and (go) ran and reached || (10) [the] 
river. Leopard (hear badness) felt bad when he did see Otter (not 
any) [gone]. [Another] day (another) when | Otter (he) did lie asleep 
at that place, Pigeon (he) did again see Leopard (he was) coming. 
And so he did | say [to] Otter thus. Walk quickly! walk quickly! 
Leopard (he) comes to catch you. When Leopard (he) | did reach 
[the] tree he did find Otter (he) [had] run away. (Coming) [When 
he came] (three) [a third time] (Leopard) Pigeon (he) did | do again 
thus. Then Leopard (he) did become angry and (go) look[ed] for 
Hawk and said [to] him thus, You || (15) kill (for) me [all the] birds 
(all) you will see. Because of this Hawk (he) catches [all the] birds 
(all coming) [beginning with that] day (that) | (coming reaching) [to 
this] day (this) because Pigeon (he) did torment Leopard and deceived 


I A nga bo na, mv6'6m ba be aydme bidm bise bi aldan f6 * be nga 
ke tabe £16 jia. bise na, jdm e se ngul * ya kui va amu bia bese bi ne 
ayok. m66 £zin mdt a nga Idt vdm ate. ane a nga yen wd6 i\€ £te. 
nye nya, me ke bd'd' wd6. ane a nga ke nyon nduan ja, ba be bdte 

5 befe. ane mdt ate a nga bet 616 ydp. eyon a nga ke kui beb6 vdm 
wd6 6 nga to, ane^ biom bise bi aldan bi nga 16pe nye. mvd'dm fe 

1 Things which live in the forest and which stins. 
< Ngyl signifies Uterally "strength" or "power." 

* B6*6 • literally "to chop out of a hollow tree," whether honey or edible grubs, etc* 
The word is bdk. It changes to h6*6, when followed by another word, for euphony. 

* Ane is untranslatable as used here. 

Digitized by 


Bulu Tales. 215 

£ nga zu Idpe nye. ane a nga ku si, te fe ngule ya bd'd wd6. ve 
mvfi'dm 6 nga kob6 melu mese* ve na, ma! ma!* eyoii bi6m bise 
bi aldan bi nga w6'6 aj6 te,' be nga j6 na, bi a* ye fe tabe va. wdna 

10 bi nga kdld. mvd'dm ve li'i 6tam. mds mfe mdt mfe a nga beta ke 
I6te v6m ate, a yene w66.* nye fe a nga bulan ja a nyon nduan a 
loene bdte befe. nde be nga ke kdban nduan. mdte wua a nga bet 
&& ydp vdm wd6 6 nga to. ane a nga dub * nduan abdn. mvd'dm 
fok € nga zu a ya ve 6 nji bo nye jam; amu bidm bi aldan bi maneya 

15 kdld. aso mds ate azukui den, bdt b'abd'd wd6. 


(i) It did happen thus, Honey-Bees and they [all] small things that 
sting [into the] forest (they) did | go [to] live [in one] tree (one). All 
[said] thus, [No] thing (it not) can (to) reach here because we all (we) 
are | fierce. [One] day (one,) Man (he) did pass [that] place (that). 
And so he did see [that] honey-tree (that). | He [said] thus, I [will] 
go chop out [the] honey. And so he did go [to] get fire [from the] 
village, he [and other] people (other). || (5) Then [that] man (that, 
he) did climb [up the] tree (up). When he did (go) reach near [the] 
place [where the] | honey (it did stay) [was], [all the] things (all) 
which sting (they) did sting him. [The] Bees too | (they) did come 
[and] sting him. And so he did fall down, [he was] not again able to 
chop out honey. But | [the] Bees (they) did talk continually thus 
only, I! I! When [all the] things (all) | which sting (they) did hear 
[them] saying that, they did say thus. We [shall] not (again) [longer] 
remain here. Then || (10) they did leave. [The] Bees [were] left 
alone. [Another] day [another] man (another, he) did again go | pass 
[that] place (that), and saw [the] honey-tree. He also (he) did return 
[to the] village and get fire and | called [the] [other] people (other). 
And so they did go [to] light [a] fire. [One] man (one, he) did climb | 
[up the] tree (up) [to the] place [where the] honey (it did remain) 
[was]. Then he (did) put (in) [the] fire [into the] hollow of the tree. 
[Other] bees | (others, they) did come and became angry; but they 
[did] not do [to] him [any] thing, because things (they) [that] sting(ing) 
(they finished || (15) to go) [had gone] away. (Banning) [From that] 
day (that) until to-day, people (they) cut out from trees honey. 

1 Mdu mese • literally "aU the nights/' but is used only in the sense of "daily," 
"every day," or "continually." 

s "Mai Mai" The m is, in narrating the tale, drawn out in imitation of the hum of 
the bees. Ma • the personal pronoun "I," used emphatically. It is "me" unless so 
used. The infexence is, of course, that the other insects were offended at the bees, whose 
humming they interpreted as meaning, "We have driven away the man." 

» Ajd - literally "a sajdng, word, or an affair" ("palaver"). 

* A, spoken with rising inflection, signifies negation. 

* W6i is used both for "honey" and a " bee " or " honey-tree." 

* Dup, the p becoming 6, forming the word dnb, means literally "to soak in water. 

•oak. or wet : " hence ' ' to soak the hollow of the bee-tree with fire, to kill the bee« " r^r^nic> 

DigitizedbyV^OOy LC 

2i6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 



In February, 1920, the following Yao texts were recorded from the 
dictation of Dr. Daniel Malekebu, an educated Bantu, who was then 
living in Philadelphia. Native to the region of Blantyre, south of 
Lake Nyasa, Dr. Malekebu has since returned to his people as a 
medical missionary. He speaks English fluently, and the free trans- 
lations of the tales are based upon the word-for-word rendering which 
he gave. No claim to further accuracy can be made, however; and 
the writer is unqualified to offer any detailed linguistic analysb. 
The phonetics of the texts have to some d^jee been corroborated by 
notes made on this dialect by Dr. F. G. Speck, through whom I made 
the acquaintance of Dr. Malekebu, and at whose suggestion the 
attempt was made to salvage this bit of African folk-lore. 

The phonetic orthog^phy has the following values: — 


a as in father, 

e like a in fate. 

i as in pique, 

o as in note. 

u like 00 in boot. 


b, p, d, t, g, k, m, n, 8 . . . . approximately as in English. 

II palatal nasal, like ng in Englbh ring. 

1 as in English, except before the vowel 

u, when palatalization seems to take 

to, dj surd and sonant prepalatal affricatives, 

like ch in English church, and j in 

w, y semi-vowels. 


Kweleko wakuli wandu wawili, menagowo lialidji akalulu ni akwi- 
tete. Lualine wasosile kudja kutciwambo kusuma lyguo. Nipo 
powayitce kutciwamboko ni wosepe wasumile lyguo, nambo akwitete 
wasumile nguo djambone, nambo akalulu wasumile vguo djakusakala; 
nipo akalulu walidji wai/gakondwa. Powadjawulaga kumai^gwano 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Two Folk-Tales from Nyasaland. 217 

akalulu wambuledje akwitete ligoiygo i/guo djakusalala. Wandjigele 
ni kumdjotca pamoto. Nambo miasi wakwiwadjasitce pamasamba 
ni djapai7gwitce tddjuni. Nipo akalulu powagonile tddjuni tcitca- 
djimbile nyibo, "wawuledje akwitete ligoirgo lyguo djakusalala akwi- 
tete." Nipo akaluluwawadjikamwile tcidjunitd ni kutdulaga. 
Nambo miasi djakwiyadjasitce ni kupaijgania tddjuni. Nambo 
akalulu powadjesile wadjilekugona soni tddjunitce tcadjile kwimba 
nyibo djakwe, "niwawuledje akwitete ligoi;go lyguo djakusalala akwi- 
tete." Powayitce kumusi wandu watite, " akwitete alikwapi? " Nipo 
akalulu watite, " awile." Nambo tddjunitce tcadjimbile nyibo djakwi, 
''niwawumledje akwitete ligoi;go i/guo djakusalala akwitete." Nipo 
wandu wamkamwile akalulu ni kumbulaga. 


(Once) there were two people. Their names were Mr. Rabbit and 
Mr. Grasshopper. One day they wanted to buy cloth at Quilemane; 
and after they arrived at Quilemane, they both bought cloth. Mr. 
Grasshopper purchased a very beautiful piece of doth ; but Mr. Rabbit 
bought a piece of cloth (that was) less beautiful, and Mr. Rabbit was 
unhappy. On their way home Mr. Rabbit killed Mr. Grasshopper 
because of Mr. Grasshopper's beautiful doth. He took him and 
burned him (the grasshopper) in the fire, but (it happened that) his 
blood was spilled on to a leaf and was transformed into a bird. When 
Mr. Rabbit went to sleep, this bird started to sing a song (over and 
over again): ''He has Idlled Mr. Grasshopper beoiuse of Mr. Grass- 
hopper's beautiful doth." (Now,) Mr. Rabbit was able to catch 
this bird, and he killed it; but its blood was spilled, and was (again) 
traJisformed into a bird. When Mr. Rabbit had walked another day's 
journey, he went to sleep again, and (then) the bird went to singing 
its song (over and over again): "He has killed Mr. Grasshopper 
because of Mr. Grasshopper's beautiful cloth." When Mr. Rabbit 
arrived at the village, the people asked, "Where is Mr. Grasshopper?" 
And Mr. Rabbit replied, "He is dead." But the bird once again 
sang its refrain: "He has killed Mr. Grasshopper because of Mr. 
Grasshopper's beautiful doth," and the people caught Mr. Rabbit 
and killed him. 


Lualine mwa Africa liakuli lisimba liadjile kwilambo. Ni liyasimene 
mbalapi, nipo lisimbali lidja kamwile mbalapisi, nipo djinebalapi 
djatite, "ndawidjine naga lisimba liitd kwende tuitce makoi;golo getu 
pampepe nipo tumanyane." Nambo lisimba liyaitce kusosa kui7ka- 
mula balapi lisimba lipilaitce balapisi siyatandite kumenyana. Nam- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

2i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

bo lisimba ijganaliulaga. Balapidjine djatite, ''naga lisimba liitce 
kwende tuitce mitwe djetu pampepe kaiyga lisimba tiliitce tutuminyane 
lisiinbali." Lyaitce nipo mbalapisi djawitdle mitwe pompepe, nipo 
wamanyane ni waliuledje lisimbali. 


One day in Africa there was a lion which went to the plains. And 
he found a zebra, and this lion he caught this zebra. And the other 
zebras they said, "When the lion comes the next time, let us place our 
feet together and kick." (So,) when the lion came waiting again to 
catch the zebras, they (got together and) b^an to kick. But they 
did not succeed in killing the lion. One of the zebras then said, 
"When the lion comes, let us put our heads together! We shall 
(then) kick the lion when he comes." He (the lion) came; and (this 
time) the zebras placed their heads together, and they kicked and 
they killed the lion. 


Digitized by 


Short Notes on Sout-Trapping in Southern Nigeria. 219 




Thb object of the present communication ^ is to record certain 
observations concerning the trapping of a man's ukpdH, or bush-soul 
as it is more commonly called, in the Efik area, southern Nigeria, 
West Africa. The whole question of the religious beliefs of the natives 
of certain tribes in southern Nigeria appears to be a complex one, 
more especially with r^ard to their ideas concerning the functions of 
the soul.* In the present paper I propose to refer only to that entity 
which has been called the ''bush-soul." 

According to Miss Kingsley,* the Efik believe that every person is 
endowed with four distinct souls,' one of which is external and dwells 
in wild-beast form. This external soul may only exist in any wild 
animal, but never in one domesticated or in a plant.^ 

In order that a man may know the nature of his bush-soul, he 
invokes the aid of a wizard, who, according to the amount of payment 
given, will designate any animal he thinks may be desired. Thereafter 
the connection between the man and the animal is both close and 
intimate. For example, a leopard was captured in Old Town, Calabar, 
on the i8th of October, 1915, and an old man appeared before the 
authorities and claimed that the animal was the possessor of his 
bush-soul. He begged that it might be released, but permission was 
refused. He then asked that he might be allowed to measure it with 
a length of rope, and as a final request asked that he might be allowed 
to strike it with his fist before it was shot. All these requests were 
recognized as subterfuges, in order to allow the animal to escape when 
the door of the cage was opened. 

> The information contained in these notes was collected at Calabar in 1918. For 
permission to consult his notes I have to thank the Rev. J. K. MacGregor of that town. 

* J. G. Prazer. The Golden Bough. Balder the Beautiful, 2 (1913) : 204-206; (Miss) 
M. Kingsley. Travels in West Africa (1897). 459-461; J. Parkinson. "Notes on the 
Efik Belief in Bush-soul" (Man. 6 [1906I : No. 80); A. E. Crawley. The Idea of the 
Soul, 1909. 

t Ankermann does not consider that the Efik have four souls. He says, "Ich halte 
diese Teilung flir irrtflmlich und verweise demgegenOber auf die sitierte Bemerkung 
Nassaus flber die versdiiedenen Erscheinungsformen der Seele; die erste. dritte und vierte 
Seele Miss Kingsleys shid jedenfalls eine und dasselbe/'^^Totenkult und Seelenglaube 
bei Afrikanischen V6lkem" (Zeitschr. fOr Ethnol.. 1918 : 1x2). 

« J. G. Prazer. op, cU„ 205. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

220 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Concerning the Efik belief in the external soul, Goldie ^ says that 
the '*ukpong is the native word we have taken to translate our word 
'soul.' It primarily signifies the shadow of a person. It also signifies 
that which dwells within a man, on which his life depends, but which 
may detach itself from the body, and, visiting places here and there, 
again return to its abode in the man. Besides all this, the word is 
used to designate an animal possessed of an ukpong, so connected with 
a person's ukpong, so they mutually act upon each other. When the 
leopard or crocodile, or whatever animal may be a man's ukpong^ 
gets sick or dies, the like thing happens to him. Many individuals, 
it is believed, have the power of changing into the animals which are 
their ukpong." 

To trap a man's soul, the wizard (abiaididfl) learns from all possible 
sources what are his proposed victim's chief desires. This is done 
generally by an enemy, who conveys the informatidn to the wizard. 
The two then go to a secluded spot in the forest. A cock is held up 
by the wizard, and the soul is called to come for the thing which is 
most desired. Sometimes this is the name of a favored girl, some 
particular food, or material wealth. The wizard then holds up a 
wooden dish (aqua) ; and if the soul has not come and lodged in it, 
use must be made of some other favored desire. When the wizard 
considers that the ukpdH is in the dish, it is speared. 

As a man has an animal as well as a human ukpdHt it is the former 
which is trapped and speared. If the ukpdH of a leopard is sought, 
parts of the body of this animal would be used to trap it. Sometimes 
the ukpdfi is not killed outright, but only wounded. In such a case 
the man whose ukpdfi has been trapped will become seriously ill. 
If the ukpdfi is killed, then the human ukpdfi will sever its connection 
with the man's body and go straight to the home of the dead (pbio 
ekpo). There is thus a real and sympathetic relationship between the 
animal and its ukpdfi. It is the latter which is captured by the wizard, 
the animal itself remaining in the forest. It is believed that only a 
wizard can see the ukpdfi, and it is not every wizard who has the 
ability to trap it. 

When the ukpdfi has been injured, the man affected immediately 
makes inquiries, and consults a rival wizard, who, by means of "medi- 
cine," endeavors to find out who has trapped the ukpdfi. In one way 
or another, in which money may be spent freely, the identity of the 
trapper is ascertained. In many cases a family feud results after a 
man's ukpdfi has been injured. If the guilty person is found, he is 
forced to undergo the mbiam test, and be judged by the tribal au- 
thorities. If all the facts are not brought to light, the wizard is 
compelled to reveal the whole affair. 

1 H. Goldie, Calabar and its Miasion (Edinburgh and London, 1901), 51-53. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Short Notes on Soul-Trapping in Southern Nigeria. 221 

It is possible for a man to have more than one animal ukpdfi; 
but this is not common, except in the case of chiefs. Bush-souls may 
also be inherited. 

An ukpdfi may be purchased, but in no case may a man have more 
than one inherited and one purchased ukpdfi. To purchase an ukpdfi 
the wizard is approached, and informed of the man's desire, and on 
the payment of a heavy sum of money this desire is generally gratified. 
It may be used to make a man strong or rich, or to harm a rival or 
enemy. For example, the owner of a large flock of sheep or goats is 
envied by a neighbor, who purchases a leopard ukpdfi, which will 
result in the real animal destroying them. In this way the power of 
the purchased ukpdfi may be stronger than that of the inherited one, 
because it can be chosen for a definite purpose. If a man enjoys 
good or indifferent health, if he is poor or rich, it is all the result of 
his having a corresponding ukpdfi. The inherited ukpdfi may die; 
and in this case the man will weaken, but not die. If the purchased 
ukpdfi dies, then the man will weaken and die. 

The animal ukpdfi is transferable. If a man has a bush-cat (ikiko) 
ukpdfi, and it is trapped, "medicine" is made in order that the trapper 
may become forgetful. If the actual animal dies, then its ukpdfi may 
be transferred to some other animal. I was unable to find out what 
are the beliefs concerning the duality of the ukpdfi in animals. 

Frazer ^ says that when a man dies, then the animal which contains 
his external soul "becomes insensible and quite unconscious of the 
approach of danger. Thus a hunter can capture or kill him with ease." 

It is believed that everything, both animate and inanimate, is 
endowed with an ukpdfi. Thus, when a chief died in the Efik area, 
he was buried with his women slaves and personal belongings, the 
ukpdfi of all these being believed necessary to the comfort of the 
chief's ghost in the home of the dead {obio ekpo). Included among 
the slaves was the woman {akani ukpohori) who tended the late 
chief's boxes and kept the key of his money-box. Her right hand was 
bored, and the keys thrust through the opening; the woman who 
tended the lights had a native lamp attached to her right hand in a 
like manner. In addition to slaves, all the late chief's personal 
belongings were buried with his body, in order that their ukpdfi might 
accompany his ghost to the home of the dead. 

The explanation of the Efik belief in the bush-soul is somewhat 
difficult to understand. Frazer ^ considers that here we seem to have 
something like the personal totem "on its way to become hereditary, 
and so grow into the totem of a clan." 

Ankennann considers that the evidence at present is insufficient, 

* J. G. Frazer, op. cU., 205-206. " Ibid,, 222 (note). 

Digitized by 


222 Journal of American Folk- Lore. 

but that there appear to be traces of sex totemism. Further, if, as 
Frazer^ thmks from information supplied by Mr. Henshaw, a man 
may only marry a woman with the same sort of bush-soul, then we 
have an example of totemic endogamy. 
Bristol, EMCHJOfD. 

> J. G. Prazer, op, cii„ ao5. ". . .A man may only many a woman who has the same 
•ort of bush-aoul as himself; for example, if his bush-soul is a leopard, his wife must also 
have a leopard for her bush-souL Further, we learn . . . that a person's bush-soul need 
not be that either of his father or of his mother. For example, a diild with a hippopotamus 
for his bush-soul may be bom into a family, all the members of which have wild pigs 
for their bush-souls; this happens when the diild is a reincarnation of a man whose external 
soul was a hippopotamus." 

Digitized by 


Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 223 



The N^;ro spirituals of slavery times were composed in the fields, 
in the kitchen, at the loom, in the cabin at night, and were inspired 
by some sad or awe-inspiring event. The death of a beloved one, 
even one of the master's family, the hardness of a master or his cruelty, 
the selling of friends or relatives, and heart-rending separations, a 
camp-meeting, a great revival, the sadness and loneliness of old age, 
unusual phenomena such as the bursting of a comet, — any of these 
might be sources of inspiration. 

N^;ro folk-song making still goes on. The "Titanic" sank on 
Sunday, April 14, 1912. The following Sunday I saw on a train a 
blind preacher selling a ballad he had composed on the disaster. The 
tide was "Didn't that ship go down?" I remember one stanza: — 

"God Almighty talked like a natural man, 
Spoke so the people could understand." 

To-day spirituals divide themselves roughly into regular service 
songs, class or covenant meeting songs, and prayer-meeting songs. 
The service songs are usually sung to slow time, and are soft and 
melodious. By "service" I mean the preaching-service. The audi- 
ence must be led up to a point of fervor and sympathy for the sermon. 
The songs reveal struggles passed through during the last week or 
month by the members. The earnest and touching "amens," the 
moans and frequent interruptions from voices in the midst of the 
song, expressing faith, telling of triumphs over troubles and of ordeals 
passed through, go down to the fundamentals of N^;ro religious life. 

"What trials have we seen, 
What conflicts have we passed, 
Fightings without and fears within, 
Since we assembled last?" 

This stanza is a quotation, not from a spiritual, but from a hymn that 
is much loved by N^;ro church congr^ations; for the N^;ro, with a 
few changes in time and tone, and an adaptation of various other 
parts of hymns to suit his taste, has slightly turned many of the 
standard church-hymns into modified spirituals. 

A growing sentiment for standard and classical music, both in 
church and social life, is tending to push the spirituals into the back- 
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224 Journal of American Folk- Lore. 

ground. They must go, in fact. Many, many years will pass by, of 
course, before they will be forgotten and have fallen into complete 
disuse by the rural church, and in the church of the masses in the 
cities even; nevertheless they are passing away. They are almost 
entirely discarded to-day by the 61ite church of the race. They have 
no striking meaning for the spirit ai^d life of the forward and intelligent 
groups of Negroes of to-day. 

{A fragment^ 
This time another year 
I may be gone in some lonesome graveyard, 
O Lord! how long? 


{A fragment.) 

When the moon go down in a purple stream, 

Purple stream, 
And the sun refuse to shine, 
And every star shall disappear, 
King Jesus will be mine. 

{A fragment.) 
Dark clouds is er risin', 
Thunder-balls er burstin'; 
King Jesus come er ridin' 'long 
Wid er rainbo' 'cross his shoulders. 

4. don't care wher' yer bury my body. 

Don't care wher' yer bury my body, 
Don't care wher' yer bury my body, 
Don't care wher' yer bury my body; 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine. 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine. 

Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden. 
Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden. 
Bury mer body 'n de east of de garden; 
Oh, mer little soul gwi' rise and shine! 
Oh, mer litde soul gwi' rise and shine! 


I wish that heaven was mine, 
I wish that heaven would be mine, 
I wish that heaven was mine; 
Oh, save me, Lord, save me! 

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Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 225 

I called to my brother, 
My brother hearkened to me, 
The las' word I heard him say 
Was, "Save me, Lord, save me !" 

I wish that heaven was mine, etc. 


Dead and gone, dead and gone, 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My dear mother died a-shoutin', 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor brother died a-shoudn', 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor sister died a-shoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone* 

My poor father died a-shoutin'. 
All the friend I have's dead and gone. 

My poor Elder died a-shoutin', 

All the friend I have's dead and gone. 


In the mornin' when I rise, 
In the mornin' when I rise, 
In the mornin' when I rise, 
Give me Jesus. 


Give me Jesus, give me Jesus; 
You may have all this world. 
Give me Jesus. 

Ef it's 'fore day when I rise, 
Ef it's 'fore day when I rise, 
Ef it's 'fore day when I rise. 
Give me Jesus. 

^ A very popular class-meeting song. 


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226 Journal of American Folk- Lore. 

Ef it's midnight when I rise, 
Ef it's midnight when I rise, 
Ef it's midnight when I rise, 
Give me Jesus. 



Where shall I be when the first trumpet sounds, 
Where I be when it sounds so loud, 
It sounds so loud till it wake up the dead; 
Oh, where shall I be when it sounds? 

Moses, Moses, he did live till he got old, 
Where shaU I be? 

He was buried in the mountain, so I'm told, 
Where shaU I be? 

Joshua was the son of Nun, 
Where shall I be? 

Prayed for the Lord to stop the sun. 
Where shaU I be? 

(" In thote dayi came John the Baptist, preaching in the wQdeniesB oC Judaa, and 
Mijiiig, Repent ye: for the kingdom of heaven is at hand." — ^Matt. ili. z, a.) 

And halleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 

I heard Rachel cry» 
Heard Rachel cry» 
Heard Rachel cry. 

What Rachel cryin' erbout? 
What's Rachel cryin' erbout? 
What's Rachel cryin' erbout? 

She's cryin' erbout her child. 
She's cryin' erbout her child, 
She's cryin' erbout her child. 

What's the matter with her child? 
What's the matter with her child? 
What's the matter with her child? 

Oh, the king's goin' slay her child, 
The king's goin' slay her child, 
The king's goin' slay her child. 

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Negjro Spirituals from (he Far South. 227 

Oh, the Lord's goin' save her child, 
Now, the Lord's goin' save her child, 
Now, the Lord's goin' save her child. 

Oh, halleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 
Halleluyer, good Lord! 

10. THE OLD ark's BR MOVIN'. 

Oh, the old Ark's er-movin', movin', inovin\ 
The old Ark's er-movin', movin' erlong. 

Heaven's so high, heaven's so high. 
None can enter but the sanctified. 

When I git to heaven, be able to tell. 
Two archangels goin' tone one bell. 

When I git to heaven, ain't I goin' to shout« 
Nobody dare can take me out. 

II. 'member dtin' day. 

(" But they that wait upon the L<»ti shall renew their strength; they shall mount 
np with wings as eagles; they shall run, and not be weary; and they shall walk, and 
not faint."-— ISAUB zL 31.) 

Go, Mary, go! Run, Martha, run! 
Go tell de Lord I am on my way. 

Got my ligion in de hard time, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Got my 'ligion in de hard time; 
'Member dyin' day. 


Don't care what you call me, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Don't care what you call me, 
'Member dyin' day. 


Call me a slothful member, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Call me a slothful member; 
'Member dyin' day. 


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Call me a long-tongue liar, 
Jesus gi' me de eagle's wings; 
Call me a long-tongue liar» 
'Member dyin* day. 


("Let not your heart be trouUed. neither let it be sfirsid. ... I go unto the 
Father: for my Father it si'eater than L" — St. John xiv. 27, 38.) 

Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go, 
To ease a my troubled mind? 

Go to God 

To ease my troublM mind, 

Go to God 

To ease a my trouUM mind. 

Where shall I go, 
Where shall I go. 
Where shall I go. 
To ease a my troubled mind? 

In the valley 

To ease my troublM mind, 

In the valley 

To ease a my troubled mind. 

« Where shall I go, etc. 

On my knees, etc. 

(" The Lord God called unto Adam, and said unto him. Where art thou? " — Gbn. 

Lord called Adam, 
Adam refused to answer; 
De secon' time he called him, 
Hesaid, "Lord, hereami!" 

Little chil'un, you'd better b'lieve; 
U'm mos' don' worryin' wid de crosses; 
Little chil'un, you'd better b'lieve, 
Try ter git home to heb'n by am by. 

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Mer knee-bones is er-achin*, 
Mer body's rackin' wid de pain, 
I b'lieve ter mer soul U'm er chile of God, 
And heb'n is er my aim.^ 

14. master's in db fibld.* 

Sister, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field; 
Sbter, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field. 

Pray independen', pray bold, 
Master's in de field; 
Pray independen', pray bold. 
Master's in de field. 

Brother, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field; 
Brother, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field. 

Walk independen', walk bold, 
Master's in de field; 
Walk independen', walk bold, 
Master's in de field. 

Elder, carry de news on. 
Master's in de field; 
Elder, carry de news on, 
Master's in de field. 

Shout independen', shout bold, 
Master's in de field; 
Shout independen', shout bold. 
Master's in de field. 


Sister Mary was walkin' in de garden, 

Waterin' de wiltered plants; 

She put on de wings of Noah's dove. 

With a great long trail behind, 

A great long trail behind her. 

And a great long trail behind. 

1 This vene would more logically come firat. ' A very old spiritual. 

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230 Journal of American Folk- Lore. 

Fall on mer knees and pray-a-a, 
Fall on mer knees and pray. 
Fall on mer knees and pray-a-a, 
Fall on mer knees and pray. 

i6. I'm Gom' UP home. 

C'AU the days of my appointed time will I wait, till my diange come."— Job xtw, 14.) 

Oh, wait till my change comes! 
I'm goin' up home. 
Oh, wait till my change comes! 
I'm goin' up home on de cloud. 

Moses, Moses, he did live till he got old; 
Died in de mountain, so I'm told. 

H for Hannah, how happy was she. 
Walking on de pillars of Galilee! 

Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John, 
Tell me where my Saviour's gone. 

Pluck one block out uv Satan's wall, 
Heard stumble, and I saw him fall. 

17. that's another witness for mt lord. 

Read in Genesis, you understand, 
Methus'lah was de oldest man. 
Lived nine hundred and sixty-nine. 
Died and went to heaven in due time. 

Methus'lah was a witness for my Lord, 
Methus'lah was a witness for my Lord. 

You read about Sampson from his birth, 
Strongest man that lived on de earth; 
'Way back yonder in ancient times. 
He slayed three thousand of de Philistines. 

Sampson he went wandering about. 

For his strength hadn't been found out; 

His wife dropped down upon her knees, 

Said, "Sampson, tell me where your strength lies, please/' 

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Ncffro Spirituals from the Far South. 231 

Delila talked so good and fair; 
He told her his strength lie in his hair; 
"Shave my head just as clean as your hands, 
And my strengthen be like a nachual man's." 

Wasn't that a witness for my Lord? 
Wasn't that a witness for my Lord? 

Isaiah, mounted on de wheel o' time, 
Spoke to God Ermighty way down de line: 
Said, ''O Lord! to me reveal 
How can this vile race be healed?" 

God said, ''Tell de sons of men 
Unto them'll be bom a king. 
Them that believe upon his way, 
They shall rest in de latter day." 

Isaiah was a witness for my Lord, 
Isaiah was a witness for my Lord* 

There was a man amongst de Pharisees 
Named Nicodemus, and he didn't believe; 
He went to the Master in de night. 
And told him to take him out er human sight. 

"You are de Christ, I'm sure it's true, 
For none do de miracles dat you do; 
But how can a man now old in sin 
Turn back still and be bom again?" 

Christ said, " Man, if you want to be wise. 
You'd better repent and be baptized; 
Believe on me, de Sbn of Man, 
Then you will be born'd again." 

An' you'll be a witness. 

18. I*li ROLUN't I'li ROLUN', through AN UNFRIENDLY WORLD. 

O sister! won't you help me? 

O sister! won't you help me to pray? 

O sbter! won't you help me, 

Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

I'm er-roUin', I'm er-rollin', 
I'm er-rollin', through an unfriendly world; 
I'm er-rollin', I'm er-rollin'. 
Through an unfriendly world. 

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O brother! won't you help me? 
O brother! won't you help me to pray? 
O brother! won't you help me. 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

O preacher! won't you help me? 
O preacher! won't you help me to pray? 
O preacher! won't you help me, 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

O mourner! won't you help me? 
O mourner! won't you help me ta pray? 
O mourner! won't you help me. 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 

O Christian! won't you help me?. 
O Christian! won't you help me to pray? 
O Christian! won't you help me, 
Won't you help me in the service of the Lord? 


Wasn't that er tryin' time with the sinner? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the sinner? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the sinner? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

What you goin' to do when the world's on fire? 
What you goin' to do when the world's on fire? 
What you goin' to do when the world's on fire? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Don't you see that fire er-boilin'? 
Don't you see that fire er-boilin'? 
Don't you see that fire er-boilin'? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Don't you hear them sinners howlin'? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Wasn't that er tryin' time with the convert? 
Oh, what er tryin' time! 

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Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 233 

20. don' TER GRIEVB after MB. 

("And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. . . . And he 
dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of It readied to heaven: 
and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it/' — GsN. zxvilL lo-za.) 

Oh, when U'm dead and buried. 

Don't yer grieve after me; 

When U'm dead and buried, 

Oh, I don' wan' yer to grieve after me! 

We're dimbin' Jacob's ladder, 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
We're climbin' Jacob's ladder, 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
We're climbin' Jacob's ladder, 
Don't yer grieve after me; 
Oh, I don' want yer grieve after me! 

Every round gits higher and higher, 

Don' yer grieve after me; 

Every round gits higher and higher, 

I see my Jesus comin', don't yer grieve after me, etc. 


All er my sins are taken erway. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
All er my sins are taken erway, 
Oh, glory to His name! 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 

Sister Mary wore three links of chain, 
Sister Mary wore three links of chain, 
Sister Mary wore three links of chain. 
Every link had Jesus' name. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 


If I had er died when I was young, 
I had er died when I was young. 
If I had er died when I was young, 
I wouldn't have had this race to run. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 


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234 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The tallest tree in Paradise, 

The tallest tree in Paradise, 

The tallest tree in Paradise, 

The Christians call it the tree of life. 

All er my sins are taken erway, 

Taken erway. 


As I went down in the valley to pray. 
As I went down in the valley to pray, 
I went down in the valley to pray, 
I went down in the valley to pray. 
My soul got happy and I staid all day. 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 


If I had wings like Noah's dove. 
If I had wings like Noah's dove. 
If I had wings like Noah's dove, 
I'd fly away to the world above, 
All er my sins are taken erway. 
Taken erway. 



Good-momin', good-momin'! 
Jine de momin' band! 
Good-momin', good-mornin'! 
Good-momin', good-momin'! 
Jine de momin' band! 

Oh, run erlong, mourner, and git your crown! 
Jine de momin' band 1 . 
By your Father's side set down, 
Jine de momin' band! 

Look up yonder what I see, 
Jine de momin' band! 
A band of angels after me, 
Jine de momin' band! 

Shout, my sister, fer you are free, 
Jine de momin' band ! 
Fer God's done bought your liberty, 
Jine de momin' band! 


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Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 235 


There's cr litde wheel er-rollin' in my heart, 
There's er little wheel er-rollin' in my heart. 
There's a little wheel er-rollin' in my heart, 
An' surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

I'm er-prayin' fer my brother in my heart, 
I'm er-prayin' fer my brother in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my brother in my heart. 
An' surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

I'm prayin' fer my sister in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my sister in my heart, 
I'm prayin' fer my sister in my heart. 
An' surely my Jesus mus' be true. 

24. i'h er pore little orphan chile in de world. 

I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl', 
Chile in de worl', 
I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl', 
I'm er pore little orphan chile in de worl'; 
Good Lord! I cannot stay here by myself. 

My mother an' father both are dead, 

Both are dead, etc. 

De train done whistled, and de cars are gone, 
Cars are gone, etc. 

My brothers an' sisters all are gone. 

All are gone, etc. 

I got my ticket fer de train, 

Fer de train, etc. 

25. there's love-feast in heaven to-day. 
Han, oh, hail! HaU, oh, hail! 
Hail, oh, hail! 
There's love-feast in the heaven to-day. 

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God Ermighty spoke to Brother Jonafi one day, 
Love-feast in the heaven to-day; 
He told Brother Jonah to go his way, 
Love-feast in the heaven to-day. 

I looked towards the Northen pole. 
Love-feast in heaven to-day; 
I saw dark clouds and fire roll, 
Love-feast in heaven to-day. 

Oh, look up yonder what I see, 
Love-feast in heaven to-day; 
A band of angels after me, 
Love-feast in heaven to-day. 

26. don' git weary. 
Christians, don't git weary. 
Christians, don't git weary, 
Christians, don't git weary, 
For the work is 'most done. 

I have a brother over yonder, 
I have a brother over yonder, 
I have a brother over yonder, 
For the work is 'most done. 

Brother, don't git weary. 
Brother, don't git weary. 
Brother, don't git weary. 
For the work is 'most done. 

Big camp-meetin' over yonder, 
Big camp-meetin' over yonder. 
Big camp-meetin' over yonder, 
For the work is 'most done. 

Elder, don't git weary, 
Elder, don't git weary, 
Elder, don't git weary, 
For the work is 'most done. 

I have a mother over yonder, 
I have a mother over yonder, 
I have a mother over yonder. 
For the work is 'most done. 

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27. BY an' by I SHALL SEE JESUS. 
{A Fragment,) 
By an' by I shall see Jesus, 
By an' by I shall see Jesus, 
By an' by I shall see Jesus, 
In that land over there. 


{A Fragment.) 

Arise, O mourner! I been down and tried. 

Arise, O mourner! I been down and tried. 

I done been up, and I done been down, 

Been down and tried, 

I done been upon de groun', 

I been down and died. 

Arise, O mourner! etc. 


This melody embodies in words and music the elemental fervor and 
emotion characteristic of the Negro. The notes are inimitably soft 
and soothing, with moderate time. The refrain may be simg in solo 
or unison. It is one of the old and now exceedingly popular N^;ro 
songs, and is most frequently asked for by white auditors who visit 
Negro schools, colleges, and public entertainments with progranunes 
of a literary and religious nature. 

Swing low, sweet chariot, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
Swing low, sweet chariot, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 

I looked over Jordan, an' what did I see, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
A band of angels comin' after me, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 

If you get there before I do, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 
Jes' tell my friends I'm comin' too, 
Comin' for to carry me home! 

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I'm sometimes up, an' sometimes down, 
Comin' for to carry me home; 
But still my soul feels heavenward bound, 
Comin' for to carry me home. 


("For an aiigel> went down at a certain ■eason into the pooU and troubled the water: 
whosoever then fint after the troubling of the water stepped in was made whole of what- 
soever disease he had." — St. JOBNY. 4.) 

Come down, angel, and trouble the water. 
Come down, angel, and trouble the water. 
Come down, angel, and trouble the water, 
O rock er my soul! 

Before I'd lay in hell one day, 

O rock er my soul! 

r sing an' pray my soul erway, 

rocker my soul! 


1 love to shout, I love to sing, 

rock er my soul! 

1 love to praise my heavenly King, 
O rocker my soul! 

Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 
Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 
Rock er my soul in the bosom of Abraham, 

rocker my soul! 

1 think I hear the sinner say, 
O rocker my soul! 

My Saviour taught me how to pray, 
O rocker my soul! 


Jesus told me once before, 

O rocker my soul! 

To ''go in peace an' sin no more," 

rocker my soul! 


1 Not "angels," as it is often rendered, but "angel." 

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Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 239 

I hope to meet my brother there, 
O rock er my soul! 
That used to join me here in prayer, 
O rocker my soul! 


ObservaHons and Comment. — I do not think the early rendition of 
this old and popular spiritual by the early Fisk Jubilee Singers was 
strictly true, either to words or music. This would be expected, as 
the original would be exceedingly difficult to put to music There are, 
in fact, no keys and chords that could fully comprehend many of 
these melodies. The only true and exact rendition would have to be 
made by the use of the graphophone. Different sections of the South 
have different renditions, of course, as most of the spirituals have, 
varying but slightly usually in both words and music The above 
rendition or wording differs from the Fisk Singers* rendition, and I 
believe it more true to the original song. It is provincial to Mississippi, 
Louisiana, and western Alabama. 

Goin' stand on the walls of Zion 
An' view that ship come sailin', 

Goin' stand on the walls of Zion, , * 

To see it give erway. 

Brothers, ain't you mighty glad 
Goin' to leave this sinful army? 
Brothers, ain't you mighty glad 
To see it give erway? 

Sisters, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 

Mourners, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 

Christians, ain't you mighty glad, etc. 


The words and music are by Rev. Charles P. Jones, noted Evangelist 
and song-writer, of Christ Church, Jackson, Miss. Here may be 
seen an evolution in Negro spirituals, the irresistible influence of 
higher contact with the white man, and the effect of education and 

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240 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

changing social and religious conditions of the N^;ro. Dr. Jones is 
one of the most eloquent and unique characters in the N^;ro pulpit 
to-day; and he has filled some of the most distinguished white pulpits, 
both North and South. His religious fervor, implicit faith in a 
literal interpretation of the Scriptures, education and natural ability, 
have given him a national reputation, 

("Fof whatsoever a man soweth* that shall he alto reap."— Gal. vL 7.) 

Reap what we sow! Oh, solemn thought, 
With what an awful meaning fraught! 
Yet surely we to judgment go 
To reap just what in life we sow. 

Yes, reap just what we sow; 
Let's mind, then, what we do; 
Tis God's decree for you and me 
To reap just what we sow. 

Reap what we sow! Oh, when and where 
Shall this reward so sure appear? 
Beginning in God's church forgiv'n. 
Twill end in either hell or heav'n. 

Reap what we sow! No wealth or power 
Can help us in that judgment hour. 
Except the wealth of faith alone: 
We're sure to reap what we have sown. 

Reap what we sow! O God of grace! 
Pardon us ere we meet Thy face! 
Grant us full cleansing from all sin. 
The Spirit place our hearts within. 

Reap what we sow! Oh, grant that we 
Sow to the Spirit constantly. 
That when we shall to judgment go 
We'll reap just what in life we sow. 

33. it's MB, o lord! standin' in de need of prater. 

(" Let my prayer come before thee: incline thine ear unto my cry.*' — Ps. haxviii. s.) 

It's me, it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer; 
It's me, it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer. ^ t 

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Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 241 

It's not my brother, 
But it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer; 
It's not my brother. 
But it's me, O Lord! 
Standin' in de need of prayer. 

It's not my sister, etc 

It's not my elder, etc. 

It's not my mother, etc. 

The reader will notice the constant recurrence of "mother," 
"brother," "sister," and "elder." This is common in the Negro 
spirituals. The word "Brother," "Sister," may refer to a fellow- 
member in the church, or a brother or sister by blood. "Elder" is 
the title usually applied to the minister in the humbler type of churches 
and the less educated group. "Mother," the word dear to all peoples, 
is not less dear to the lowly or the proud of colored race. 


("And I heard the number of them which were sealed: and there were seated an 
hundred and forty and four thousand." — ^Rbv. vii. 4.) 

John saw the Holy Number, 
'Way in de middle of de air; 
John saw de Holy Number, 
'Way in de middle of de air. 

I got er little book, 
Gwi' read it through, 
'Way in de middle o' de air; 
I got Jesus well as you, 
'Way in de middle of de air. 

Come over, then, 
John saw de Holy Number, etc. 

Some er des mornin's bright and fair, 

'Way in de middle o' de air, 

Gwi' hitch on my wings 

And try de air, 

'Way in de middle of de air. 

^^ (CAorii^.) ^.g .^^^ ^^ Google 

242 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

If yer wan' er dream dem heabenly dreams, 
'Way in de middle of de air, 
Jes' lay your head on Jordan's stream, 
'Way in de middle of air. 


("O ye dry bones, hear the word of the Lord. . . . Behold. I will cause breath to enter 
into 3rou, and ye shall live: . . . and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and behold a 
shaking, and the bones came together, bone to his bone." — Bsbxibl xzzviL 4-7.) 

Most of the spirituals are founded on some striking Bible incident 
or character, the sequence of which incident or life gives comfort to 
the "traveler from earth to glory." 

O little child'un! 
O litUe child'un! 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

Some go ter meetin' fer to sing an' shout. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin; 
'Fore six months dey's all turned out, 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

Talk erbout me, but 'taint my fault. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin; 
Me God Ermighty gwine er walk an' talk. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

If you 'spect ter git heab'n when you dies, 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin, 
Better stop your tongue frum tellin' lies, 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

Got my breastplate, sword, and shiel'. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin, 
Gwine boldly marchin' through de fiel'. 
Dry bones gwine er rise ergin. 

Digitized by 


Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 243 

36. thbrb's er wheel in db mtodlb de wheel. 

("The appearance of the wheels and their work was like unto the colour of a beryl: 
and they four had one likeness: and their appearance and their work was as It were a 
wheel in the middle of a wheeL" — Exbkiel i. z6.) 

There's er wheel in de middle of de wheel, 
*Zekiel saw de wheel; 
There's er wheel in de middle of de wheel, 
'Zekiel saw de wheel. 

Well, de little wheel represent Jesus Christ, 
'Zekiel saw de wheel; 
And de big wheel represent God Himself, 
'Zekiel saw de wheel. 



("And he said unto him, Arise, go thy way: thy faith hath made thee whole." — 
LuKBxvii 19.) 

This is a very popular class-meeting song with the Methodists. 
The tone of the song is slow, rhythmic, and mellow, soothing and 
comforting to the pilgrim who has resolved to be courageous and hopeful 
under his struggles toward "Heaven an' immortal glory," 

All I want, 
All I want. 
All I want. 
Is a little more faith in Jesus. 

Oh, run 'long, mourner, and git your crown, 
A little more faith in Jesus; 
By your Father's side set down, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 

My father says it is the best, 
A little more faith in Jesus, 
To live and die a Methodest, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 

I love my brother,* yes, I do, 
A little more faith in Jesus; 
I hope my brother loves me too, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 
^ " Brother " is here used as a member of the church of the same faith and order. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

244 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

I love the Lord, he heard me cry, 
A little more faith in Jesus; 
And I'm gwi' trust him till I die, 
A little more faith in Jesus. 

38. Gom' 'er rock trouble over. 
Goin' er rock trouble over, 
I believe, 

Rock trouble over, 
I believe; 

Goin' er rock trouble over, 
I believe that Sabbath has no end. 

I wouldn't be a sinner, 

Tell you de reason why, 

'Fraid de good Lord might call me. 

And I wouldn't be ready to die. 

I think I got religion, 
I believe. 
Think I got religion, etc. 

Lord, I want to be like Jesus 
In er my heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be like Jesus, 
In er my heart. 

In my heart! In my heart! 
Lord, I want to be like Jesus 
In er my heart. 

Lord, I don' 'ant to be like Judas 
In my heart, in er my heart. 
Lord, I don' 'ant to be like Judas 
In er my heart. 


Lord, I want to be more holy 
In my heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be more holy 
In er my heart. 


Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 245 

Lord, I want to be a Christian, 
In er ny heart, in er my heart; 
Lord, I want to be a Christian 
In er my heart. 



This is perhaps one of the oldest of the most popular of the Negro 
spirituals. Of its exact origin, locality, and authorship, no one knows 
definitely. It was very probably composed in some of the far South- 
em States, — not unlikely Lousiana, South Carolina, Georgia, or 
Mississippi, possibly Virginia. The origin of this song is said by 
some to have been on the Red River in Louisiana. This is possible, 
but it is difficult to establish exact date and place of the origin of the 
oldest of these melodies. The swing, rhythm, soothing mdody, the 
heart-searching pathos of its sentiment and tone, were bom of a patient 
and suffering soul, — one whose joy here was founded upon a hope of 
relief from suffering here and an entering into joy on die other side. 
It was also likely composed in cotton, rice, or cane fields. It combines 
with the swing of the body in using the hoe. The "steal away" likely 
meant stealing off down in the woods or into a valley to pray. Prayer, 
on the part of the slave, often meant dissatisfaction with his lot as a 
slave; but the meaning of the words was often hidden by sharp tums 
from the facts in mind. Slaves were not infrequently punished for 
pra3dng. It was thought in some way, possibly, to have the power of 
bringing the condenmation of God upon the system of slavery. But 
singing was necessary for the dull, heavy, monotonous life of the slave. 
This melody has been simg all over the English-speaking world and in 
other tongues* 


Steal away, steal away. 

Steal away home to Jesus! 

Steal away, steal away home! 

I ain't got long to stay here. 

My Lord calls me. 
He calls me by the thunder. 
The trumpet sounds in er my soul: 
I ain't got long to stay here. 

Greenjtrees er-bendin', 
Pore sinners stan' er-tremblin'. 
The trumpet soun's in er my soul: 
I ain't got long to stay here. 

Digitized by 


246 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Tombstones er-bursdn', 
Pore sinners stan' er-tremblin', 
The trumpet soun's in er my soul: 
I ain't got long to stay here. 

Save me, save me, my Lord! 
Save me, save from sinking down! 

If I had er died when I was young, 
Save me from sinking down! 
I wouldn't have had this risk to run, 
Save me from sinking down! 

Ever since my Lord has set free, 
Save me from sinking down! 
This old world has been a hell to me, 
Save me from sinldn' down! 

Sometimes I hang my head and cry. 
Save me from sinkin' down! 
But I'm goin' serve God till I die, 
Save me from sinkin' down! 

42. good-night! the lord's £R-cohin\ 
Good-night! the Lord's er-comin'. 
Good-night! the Lord's er-comin'. 
Good-night! the Lord's er-comin', 
And the Lord's er-comin' down. 

I hang my harp upon the willow-tree, 
It sounded over in Jubilee. 

God showed Noah the rainbow sign, — 
No water, but fire, next time. 

There is a fire in the east, fire the west. 
There's fire amongst us Methodests. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 247 


You may talk erbout me 

Jes' as much as you please, 

But me an* God Ermighty gwi' walk an' talk. 

Oh, mos' don' talkin' erbout me by an' by, 
'Mos' done talkin' erbout me by an' by. 

Oh, dat liar run, and dat liar shout, 
But my good Lord will fin' him. 


Rough, rocky road 

'Mos' don' travellin'; 

Rough, rocky road 

'Mos' don' travellin'; 

Rough, rocky road 

'Mos' don' travellin'; 

Boun' to carry my soul to my Jesus, 

Boun' to carry my soul to my Lord. 

Mourners on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Sisters on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Elders on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 

Backsliders on the road 
'Mos' don' travellin', etc. 


The crown the good Lord give me 
Shine like a mornin' star. 
The crown the good Lord give me 
Shine like a mornin' star. 

Brother, you want more faith, 
More faith, more faith, 
Brother, you want more faith, 
Shine like a mornin' star. 
> A very old spiritual. 

Digitized by 


248 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The robe the good Lord give me. 
Shine like a mornin' star, 
That robe the good Lord give me, 
Shine like a mornin' star. 

Sister, you want more faith, 
More faith, more faith. 
Sister, you want more faith, 
Shine like a mornin* star. 


This is one of the most thrilling of the later jubilee songs. It is 
much used for taking up collections in diurches. It invariably sug- 
gests patting of feet, swaying of the body, and rhythmic bodily 
motions, the audience often rising to great heights of emotion and 

Every time I feel the spirit 
Movin' in my heart, 
I will pray. 

or Pharaoh thought he had me fast, 

But the sea dried up an' let me pass. 


You ask me why I sing so bol'. 
It's the love of Jesus in my soul. 

Jordan's River, so chilly and cold. 
Chills the body, but not the soul. 

1 want to go to heaven. 
And I want to go right; 
I want to go to heaven 
All dressed in white. 



Another late and exceedingly popular melody. The long, droll, 
and recurring rhythm, the prolongs peculiar in much of the N^:ro 
folk-songs, are touchingly beautiful. It is a song of triumph, joy^ 
and implicit faith in the promise of the Lord. 

Oh, I know the Lord, 
I know the Lord, 
I know the Lord 
Has laid His hands on me. 

Digitized by 


Negro Spirituals from the Far South. 249 

I never felt such love before, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me, 
Saying, "Go in peace and sin no more," 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 

He took me from the miry clay, 
I know the Lord has laid Hb hands on me, 
And told me to walk the narrow way, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 

Some seek the Lord, but don't seek right, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me, 
They sin all day and pray all night, 
I know the Lord has laid His hands on me. 


(Very plaintive and touching.) 

Sing a ho that I had the wings of a dove. 
Sing a ho that I had the wings of a dove. 
Sing a ho that I had the wings of a dove, 
I'd fly erway and be at rest. 

A. B. Prrkims, 

apxz MnjkN St., 

Nbw Orlbans, La. 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 




Talbs . 


, 252 

1. Incriminating the Other 

Fellow 252 

2. Playing Godfather. . . . 253 

3. Playing Godfather: Tell- 

Tale Grease 255 

4. Tell-Tale Grease .... 256 

5. Tar Baby: Mock Plea . . 256 

6. Tar Baby: The Lord dines 258 

7. Playing Godfather: Tar 

Baby: Mock Plea ... 259 

8. Take My Place 260 

9. False Message: Take My 

Place 261 

10. In the Bag 262 

11. Watcher Tricked: Fox flies 262 

12. Lion brooks no Rival . . 264 

13. The Ugliest Animal . . . 264 

14. Picking a Quarrel .... 264 

15. Buzzard makes Terrapin 

his Riding-Horse . . . 265 

16. Why Frog lives in the 

Water 266 

17. Little Pig and Wolf ... 267 

18. Dog and Dog-Head . • . 269 

19. Keeping Pace 270 

20. Relay Race 271 

21. "I once had a Brother" . 272 

22. Trouble 272 

23. The Escape 273 

24. The Password 274 

25. In the Bee-Tree 274 

26. Playing Dead Twice in the 

Road 275 

27. Cartload of Fish . . • • 276 

28. Rabbit seeks Meat . . . 277 


29. Above Ground and Below 

Ground 277 

30. Dancing out Sand .... 278 

31. Fatal Imitation 278 

32. In Liquor 279 

33. Why Dogs chase Cats . . 279 

34. Nobody but You and Me. 279 

35. Who dat says "Who dat 

says 'Who dat?"'. . . 280 

36. Magic Flight 280 

37. Flower of Dew 281 

38. The Little Girl and Her 

Snake 281 

39. The Test 282 

40. Soul or Sole 282 

41. Mate to the Devil. ... 282 

42. Woman-Cat 283 

43. Broom-Charm • 284 

44. Out of Her Skin 285 

45. The Six Witches .... 286 

46. Can't set Still 287 

47. The Old Woman, Her 

Daughters, and the Kid 287 

48. Haunted House 288 

49. Haunted House 289 

50. The Dismembered Ghost. 290 

51. Buried Treasure 290 

52. Haunted Bridge 291 

53. The Single Ball 291 

54. What darkens the Hole . 292 

55. The Slave turns 292 

56. Sweet-Potatoes 292 

57. Master's Hog 293 

58. What did You say? ... 293 

59. Master's Fowls 293 

60. Saving Hog 294 

61. Going to Heaven .... 294 

62. The Lord and Langton. . 295 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 



63. Hunting on Sunday . . . 295 

64. The Frightened Guest . . 296 

65. Dividing the Souls. . . . 296 

66. Not too Lame 297 

67. Skeleton 299 

68. First Out 299 

69. Rabbit-Meat 300 

70. Brick on Her Head ... 300 

71. Choosing a Wife .... 300 

72. Hot Hands . ^ 300 

73. Chair on His Head ... 301 

74. The Deer-Stalker .... 301 

75. Clock runs Down .... 302 

76. Moon Cheese: Irishmen 

at the Well 302 

77. Bricks and Mortar . . . 302 

78. Englishman and Irishman 302 

79. Watermelon 303 

80. Mare's Egg 303 

81. Mother of All the Ticks . 303 

82. Three Ends 303 

83. String Beans 304 

84. You, Naither 304 

85. Understand 304 

86. Lumber Business .... 304 

87. Yah and Yea 304 

88. Judgment Day 305 

89. Cobble, Cobble, Cobble! . 305 

90. Silver Dollar 305 

91. Toad-Frog 305 


92. Green Irishmen 305 

93. Trunk 306 

94. Why Shingle? 306 

95. Three More Fools: Mr. 

Hard-Times 306 

96. Pamelance 307 

97. Who fills the Penitentiaries 308 

98. Punishment after Death . 308 

99. Beating Dead Dog . . . 308 
100. Where's Mr. McGinnis? . 308 
loi. The Lord's Family . . . 308 

102. Horse and Cart 309 

103. Who struck Patrick?. • . 309 

104. Missing Word 309 

105. Com in the Ear 309 

106. Which Way does the Road 

go? 309 

107. Spreeing 310 

108. Curly Tail and Straight 

Tail 310 

109. To Torment already. . . 310 
no. Officers Only 311 

111. Rank 311 

112. No Extra Expense . . . .311 

113. In the Camp Reading- 

Room 311 

114. Length of Service • ... 311 

Riddles (1920) 312 

Riddles (1894) 326 


Two decades or more ago Miss A. M. Bacon conducted a folk-lore 
society in Hampton Institute. Some of the material recorded was 
published in "The Southern Workman." Through the kindness of 
Miss Herron of the Institute the unpublished material was given to 
me to edit, and appears in the following collection. The most notable 
part of Miss Bacon's collection is, I think, the so-called "Irishman 
Stories." These noodle-tales have a wid^pread distribution in the 
South; and Miss Bacon was the first recoider, as far as I know, to 
recognize the place of the tales in the hospitable folk-lore of Negroes.^ 
How hospitable Negro folk-lore is to new-comers is also evidenced in 
the following collection by the war-time tales or anecdotes of W. D. 
Elam of Virginia, and still more strikingly in Tale No. 68, in which 
appear Mutt and Jeff, most recent of folklorish or quasi-folklorish 

» See "Iriflhman Stories" (Southern Worionan. 38 ti899] ' i9a-iQ4). wjOOqIc 

252 Journal of Atnerican Folk-Lore. 

A few noodle-tales and others I recorded from the Institute students 
in 1920. As Hampton Institute students are drawn from many parts 
of the country, these tales, as well as the tales recorded by Miss Bacon, 
are of varied provenience, — from Louisiana, Alabama, Florida, the 
Carolinas, etc. From North Carolina is contributed the English tale 
of " Dividing the Souls," told very much as I heard it told a few years 
ago near Greensborough. No. 28, " Rabbit seeks Meat," has a partic- 
ular distribution in the Sea Islands and Georgia; and it is inferable, 
from the reference to Georgia at the conclusion of the tale, that the 
narrator was from Georgia. No. 18, " Dog and Dog-Head," has a like 
distribution ; and from the name of the narrator. La Patten, it is prob- 
able that he came from the Sea Islands, once the home of French 

During my visit to Hampton I also collected tales from three schools, 
— from Whittier School, which is under the administration of Hampton 
Institute, and which draws its pupils largely from the two nearest 
towns, Phoebus and Hampton ; from the Public or Union Street School 
of Hampton ; and from the Orphan Home maintained by Mr. and Mrs. 
Weaver. With the exception of a few tales contributed by inmates of 
the Orphan's Home, these tales from the school-children may be con- 
sidered part of the county folk-lore. 

The tales collected in 1920 are given with the name and home of 
informant or writer. The tales taken from the Institute records are 
in some cases undated, and in some cases unlocalized. 

Riddles I to 123 were recorded from the school-children in 1920; 
riddles 124 to 137 were recorded by Miss Bacon in 1894 (124-135 
from J. W. Bedenbaugh, a student from Bradley, N.C.; and 136-137 
from Maun of Georgia). 

E. C. P. 



{Version a.) 

Once upon a time Brer Rabbit and Brer Wolf went to steal a cow 
from a man. They caught the cow and killed it, and took off the hide. 
Then Brer Rabbit told Brer Wolf that "whoever owns this cow is 
coming, and the way you must do b to get into the hide and wrap up." 
So when the man came. Brer Rabbit said, "The way to do to find out 
who stole the cow is to put the hide on the fire." Brer Wolf cried, " It's 
not me, it's Brer Rabbit!" Brer Rabbit replies, "Knock him in the 
mouth! He is a grand rascal! He'll spoil a gentleman's credit!" 

/ 1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 253 

{Version 6.*) 

There was once a man, an' he had an overseer an' a head man. An' 
when the overseer was supposed to be watchin', he would go out to 
see his girl and leave the head man to watch. An' every momin' one 
sheep was missing, until one day the man said, ** Every day one of the 
sheep are gone." So that night, instid the overseer goin' to see the 
girl, he watched and seed what the head man did; an' when the head 
man picked up the sheep, the overseer said, "Ha, ha! You're the one 
that been taking away die sheep! Now you take that sheep and carry 
it to the man." The head man reached down after the sheep, and 
picked it up and let it fall, and said, " I can't carry it. I betchyer you 
can't pick that sheep up." And while the overseer was pickin' the 
sheep up, the head man reached and got his gun, and said, "Now you 
kyarry that sheep to the man." An' he made him kyarry the sheep to 
the man, an' said, "Here's the man that was takin* away your sheep." 
So that's the way that the man lost his job. 


(Version a.*) 

There was oncet a boy, an' he was called to name the baby. First 
he named it Topped-Off. The second time he was called he named it 
Half-Gone. The third time he was called he named it All-Gone. The 
fourth time he said it was Peanut-Butter. 

(Version b.*) 

Once upon a time B'o' Rabbit and B'o' Fox lived together. They 
used to put their dinner to cooking before they went to work in the 
morning, so that it would be done when they reached home in the 
evening. All went on very well until one day they decided to have 
black pease for dinner. Now, B'o' Rabbit was very fond of black pease 
and he was very greedy, so he begun to think of a plan to eat all the 
pease by himself. At last he thought of a scheme. When he had been 
working a while, B'o' Fox was startled by hearing B'o' Rabbit cry out, 
"Who's that calling me?" B'o' Fox said, "What's matter, B'o' Rabbit?" 
B'o' Rabbit replied, "Some one's calling me, so I am gwine see what 
dey wants, be back in a minute." When he came back, B'o' Fox said, 
"Who was it? " — " My aunt sent for me to come and name her baby." 

1 Infonnant. Gladys Bright of Hampton. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 33 : 366- 
367). Benga (Natsau, 85-95), Bushman (Honey, 34)^ Comparative, MAFLS 13 : 70 
(note i). 

* Informant, Marian Gee of Phoebus. Compare South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 5-10, 
Nos. 3, 3; JAFL 34 : 2-4), North Carolina (JAFL 30 : 192-193, 315-316), Pennsylvania 
(JAFL 30 : 315-316). Comparative, MAFLS 13 : i, 3 (note i). 

• Written by Minnetta in X903. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

254 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

—"Well, what did yer name it?"— "Just-Begun."— "What a funny 
name!" said B'o' Fox, but B'o' Rabbit said nothing. B'o' Rabbit 
worked about ten minutes, then hollered out, " I wish you all would 
stop calling me." — "What's matter now, B'o* Rabbit?" asked BV 
Fox. "Somebody is a-calUng me agin, and I am dead tired of it too, 
but I guess ril have to go and see what dey wants." This time he 
staid a little longer than the first time. When he came back, B'o' Fox 
said, "Who was it calling you this time?" B'o* Rabbit said, "My 
cousin just come home from the North; and dem folks at home dey 
done tdl her that I was fust-rate at naming babies, so nothing could 
do but she must call me to name hem." — "Well, what did yer name 
it? " — " Half-Gone," replied B V Rabbit. Well, B'o* Rabbit worked 
for half an hour, then hollered out, "I declare, I won't go a step. No, 
indeed! not if I knows myself." B'o' Fox said, "What an airth de 
matter wid you, B'o' Rabbit? " — "Somebody is calling me agin, but I 
ain't a-gwine." — "You had better go and see what dey wants," said 
B'o* Fox. "Well, long as you think I ought to go, I guess I have to go," 
said B'o' Rabbit. At the end of an hour B'o* Rabbit returned in high 
spirits, greeting B'o' Fox with, "Another baby to name." — "WeU, 
I never, sence I been bom I Another baby to name ! Well, what did you 
name it?" — "All-Gone," replied B'o' Rabbit. "That's a mighty 
queer name," said B'o' Fox; but B'o' Rabbit held his peace, and 
worked on in silence for the remainder of the day. When they reached 
home that evening, they were surprised to find the pease all gone, and 
they had to go to bed supperless. 

{Version c}) 

One day Bro' 'Possum gathered a large kittle of pease and put them 
in a kittle to cook. In the mean time he ask' Sister Weasel to come 
over and help him work in the garden and have dinner with him. Sister 
Weasel came; and, as she couldn't leave her three little babies home, 
she brought them along, too. 

Bro' 'Possum had told Sister Weasel abou' the pease he had on cook- 
ing; and the whole time she was working, she was thinking of how she 
could get into the house to eat them befo' Bro' 'Possum did. At last 
the thought came to her mind that she would tell Bro' 'Possum to let 
her go into the house to name one of her babies. When she thought 
the pease were done, she said, " Bro' 'Possum, got to go in de house to 
name one ob my babies. Won't be gone long." — "All right, Sis' 
Weasel! Don't stay long!" 

Sister Weasel went into the house, and found the pease nice and 
done. So she ate the top oflf and ran back to work. "What did you 
name your baby. Sister Weasel?" asked Bro' 'Possum. "Top-Oflf," 

» Written by Gladys Stewart of Phoebus. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 255 

answered Sister Weasel, working all the time. In a few minutes Sister 
Weasel felt hungry again ; and she said to Bro' 'Possum, " Bro' 'Possum, 
I got go in and name my second baby." — "All right, Sister Weasel! 
but don't stay long!" said Bro' 'Possum. 

Sister Weasel went in this time and ate half of the pease. This time, 
when she came out, Bro' 'Possum asked, "Well, Sister Weasel, what 
did you name this one?" — " Half-Gone," said Sister Weasel, and away 
she went chopping in the garden. Pretty soon she felt hungry again; 
for, once she had tasted those pease, she couldn't stop until she had 
eaten them. So she said, " Bro' 'Possum, let me go in now and name 
my last baby, and I won't bother you any more." Bro' 'Possum gave 
his consent. This time Sister Weasel cleaned the kettle, and came 
running out agin. "What did you name this baby. Sister Weasel?" 
asked Bro' 'Possum. "All-Gone," said Sister Weasel, and went hard 
at her work. Pretty soon Bro' 'Possum noticed that Sister Weasel was 
getting sluggish on the job, and he thought that she was hungry. So 
he said, "Come, Sister Weasel, let's eat the kittle of pease, and we will 
feel more like working." — "All right! " said Sister Weasel. When 
Bro' 'Possum went into the house and found that the pease had gone, 
he became very angry, and told Sister Weasel that she had eaten all 
his pease. "Now, Bro' 'Possum, I haven't eaten your pease," said 
Sister Weasel. "You have eaten my pease, Sister Weasel, and I am 
going to eat you for my dinner." When Sister Weasel heard this, she 
became frightened, for well she knew that Bro' 'Possum would eat her 
up with little trouble. But what was she to do? B^o' 'Possum's 
gSLvdeji, which he loved dearly, was a long ways from the house, but 
one with a keen eye could see all over the garden. Sister Weasel knew 
that Bro' 'Possum could not do this, on account of his poor sight. So 
she said, "O Bro' 'Possum! just look how the Wren children are steal- 
ing your crop!" At this Bro' 'Possum forgot all about his pease, an' 
ran down to his garden. In the mean time Sister Weasel grabbed her 
babies and ran as fast as she could to the woods and hid. After she got 
herself hidden, she laughed to herself of how she had fooled Bro' 


Once the bear and the rabbit had some butter. There was a good 
deal of it. They were out working together in the field. After a little 
while the rabbit looked up toward the house, and said, "Buh Bear, I 
hear some people calling me up to the house." The bear said, " Go and 
see who they are." Buh Rabbit went to the house and ate some of the 
butter. Then he came back and worked for a little time. After a 
while he said, "Buh Bear, I hear those people calling me again," and 
he went to the house a second time. This he did three or four times, 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

256 Journal of American Folh-Lore. 

unto he had eaten all the butter. After a time Boh Bear said, "It is 
time to stc^ work and go to the house and get something to eat.'* 
When they got to the house, the bear found that the butter was all 
gone. Then he said, "Buh Rabbit, you ate that butter irfien you 
came to the house. Le's build a fire and lie down before it! and the 
one that ate the butter it will run out of his mouth." Sotheylaydown 
before the fire and went to sleep. Soon Buh Rabbit awoke, and found 
that the butter had run out of his mouth on to a piece of hajk under 
his head. He slipped the baiic under the bear's head, where the bear 
found it irfien he awoke. 


Two men went to buy some cheese. They put it out in field. One 
said he wanted some water. He went bade ami ate the cheese. They 
went to sleep. The one itho wakes up with grease on his face will be 
the one who took the cheese. 

The greedy one wakes up, and grease is on his face; but he takes and 
rubs it on the face of the other. 

5. TAE baby: mock Pf.BA, 

{Version a?) 

Once Broder Rabbit and Broder Fox decided to be friends. So they 
were to go out at night to steal from Broder 'Possum, but it seemed 
dat Broder Rabbit would try and play off on Broder Fox. Well, they 
went on ; Broder Rabbit pretended to be Broder 'Possum's best friend. 
Well, Broder 'Possum said to Broder Rabbit one day, "Look here, 
Broder Rabbit! does you know dat somebody is stealing all my milk 
and com?" Broder Rabbit he laughed, and said, "Well, Broder 
'Possum, that's too bad! Us ought to catch that person, and what 
we do for him will be a plenty." Broder 'Possum thought Broder 
Rabbit was de man, so he fixed for him. So one night Broder 'Possum 
set up a tar man near his corn-crib. Up comes Broder Fox and Rabbit 
with their sacks. Broder Fox he spy the man, he stops; but Mr. 
Rabbit he walks on ; and when he saw the man, he was frightened very 
much, but he took courage and went on. He walked up to the tar man, 

1 Infonnant, Marian Gee of Phcebus. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 2*4; 
MAFLS 16 : 8-14. NO0. 3-6), Bahamas (MAFLS 13 : 1-2). 

* Written by Charles B. Flagg of Montgomery. Ahu, in 1899. For "Tar Baby" com- 
pare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 4; MAFLS 16 : 35-39, Nos. 13-15); Porto Rko (JAFL 
34: 164-165); comparative, Folk-Lore, 30 : 337-334. For "Mock Plea" compare South 
Carolina GAFL 33 : 394; 34 : 5; MAFLS 16 : 13-14 (Nos. 6, 7], 36-39 [Nos. 14. 15D; 
Florida GAFL 30 : 335); Mpongwe (Nassau, 33-33); Bushman (Honey, 77-78, 83-83); 
Hottentot (Schultxe, 477); PhUippines (Cole, 177-178; MAFLS I3 : 336 ff.); BikudCJAFL 
6: 49); Cherokee (BAE 19 : 373-373, 378-379); comparative, MAFLS X3 : X5 (note 4)* 
Dfthnhardt, 4 : 43-45- 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 257 

and railed out, "Oh, yes! I cotch you here at Broder 'Possum's crib. 
You de fellow been stealing com." The man didn't speak. Then 
Broder Rabbit walked up to strike him. He slapped the man, and 
his hand stuck. ** Let my hand go ! I got anoder one here." He then 
pound away with the other hand, and that stuck. "You better let 
go my hands! I got two foots here." Then he poimd away again, and 
his foot stuck. He kicked again, and his other, foot stuck. "You 
better let my foots go! I got a head here, I'll butt you." Then he 
gave a hard butt, and there he was hard and fast for Broder 'Possum 
the next morning. 

Well, the next morning Broder 'Possum came down and found 
Broder Rabbit stuck fast to the tar man. "O Broder Rabbit! I 
thought I would catch you. You are the one who has been steaUng 
from me." — "Oh, no, Broder 'Possum! I was just watching to see 
if I could catch anybody for you, and, come to behold, I cotched this 
man. I walked up and spoke, and he wouldn't speak, so I struck him; 
and every time I struck him, my hands and feet would stick, so I kept 
him until this morning for you." — "Well, that's all right, Broder 
Rabbit. I put this man here just to catch you. So now I am going 
to punish you." — "Lord! Broder 'Possum, what is you gwine to do 
to me?" — "I am going to throw you in the river." — "Oh, please 
throw me in right now, Broder 'Possum! I likes dat very much." — 
"No, I won't throw you there, I'll put you in the fire." — "Oh, I 
don't care! I want to go in the fire, I am cold. Please put me in now, 
Broder 'Possum! " — "No, I won't do that, I'll tie you and throw you 
in the brier-patch." — "O Broder 'Possum! please don't throw me in 
the patch, those briers will stick me to death." — "Well, I am going 
to throw you in, anyway." Then he bound Broder Rabbit and threw 
him into the patch, but the rabbit was just where he wanted to be. 
After he was loosed, he laughed at Broder 'Possum, and went on his 
way with Broder Fox. "Well," said Broder Fox, "I guess, when you 
gwine steal again, you will be a little more shy." 

{Version &.*) 

A man once had a nice spring, but sometimes it was muddy. Some 
one told him that it was a rabbit that did it, and to put a tar baby 
down there and it would scare him away. He did so; and when the 
rabbit saw it, she hailed, "Who are you? " She said, " If you don't tell 
me your name, I will slap your head oflf." So saying, she tried it, and 
her hand was stuck. She cried, "You had better turn me loose, I 
have another hand," and she let him have it. That one was stuck. 
She kept on this way until hands, feet, tail, and head were stuck in 
the tar. Now what? The man came, and was satisfied with his scheme. 

» Written in 1899. 

Digitized by 


258 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

So he said to her, " I have 3rou, Miss, and 111 fix 3rou. I will fling you 
in this spring and drown you." — " Please put me in there!" said she. 
" No," said he, "I won't put you in there, because you want to go in 
there." There was a pile of bushes on fire, and he said, "I am going 
to fling you in that fire." She said, " AU right! I like fire." — " No, 
no. Miss! I shaVt please you so much." So he found a cluster of briers, 
and said that he had a great mind to fling her in there. She cried and 
yelled, b^ged him not to put her in such a place. He thought he had 
found the right place to punish her. So he let her go; and when she 
landed there, she cried out to him, "This is my home; my mammy 
and daddy were bom in here." 

{Version c>) 

Mrs. Hare had a fine lot of ducks, and every now and then she would 
miss one or two of them. Mrs. Hare became troubled about her ducks ; 
and she tried very hard to catch the thief, but was unable to do so. 
After a while she thought of a way to catch the thief. She moved the 
ducks, and put in their place a big pot of tar. That night Mr. Fox 
came, as he had done before, and stuck his paw down after a duck, 
but something held his paw; and he said in a loud voice, "Turn me 
loose, turn me loose! I say, you better turn me loose! I have another 
one bade here, and I'll let you have it presently." At last he threw his 
other paw i(ito the tar, and that was held fast. He did not give up 
the fight, and continued to fight until all of his paws were made fast. 
Then he said, "Look here! You better turn me loose! I got a great 
big club back here; and if you don't turn me loose, I'll let you have it, 
sure." (Unfinished.) 

6. TAR baby: the lord dines.' 

Once there was a farmer who owned a cabbage-patch. Every morn- 
ing Mr. Rabbit would go an' eat the farmer's cabbage. One morning 
the farmer made a tar baby and put it out there beside the cabbage- 
patch. The next morning, when Mr. Rabbit came down to the cab- 
bage-patch, he didn't know what to make of the tar baby. So he 
said, "Good-morning!" but the tar baby didn't say a word. So Mr. 
Rabbit said, "Good-morning! If you don't speak to me this time, I 
will hit you." So Mr. Rabbit said, "Good-morning! " The tar baby 
didn't say a word. Mr. Rabbit hit him with his paw, and it stuck fast 
in the tar. Mr. Rabbit said, "Turn me aloose ! " And then Mr. Rabbit 
kicked the tar baby, and his feet stuck fast in the tar. The next morn- 
ing, when the farmer came down to the cabbage-patch, the farmer 
said, "I have you now! " So he carried Mr. Rabbit home and threw 
him in the rye-field. Mr. Rabbit ran home. 

> Written by J. H. Thomas in 1899. ' Written by Martha James. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 259 

Not long after that Mr. Rabbit put out signs that the Lord was com- 
ing. So one day the Lord came to see the farmer. The Lord sat down 
and had a nice dinner. After the dinner was over, the Lord went out 
doors and pulled off his clothes, and said, " I told you I was going to 
eat at your house some day." 

T> PLAYING godfather: tar babt: mock plea. 

A fox once hired a rabbit to help him work on his farm, and the fox's 
wife had to cook for them. They b^;an work early in the morning, 
while Mrs. Fox was cooking pease, of which the rabbit was very fond. 
He would work to get to the end of the row before Mr. Fox, and answer' 
as if some one had called him. Mr. Fox would say, "Who is that?" 
The rabbit would say, "Your wife called me, I don't know what she 
wants." Mr. Fox would say, "Go see what she wants." The rabbit 
would go to the house and say, "Mrs. Fox, Mr. Fox says give me a 
plate of pease, please." — "All right! " said Mrs. Fox, "tell him there 
are only two more left." When Mr. Rabbit b^;an work, he would 
run to the end of the row and back, and answer again. Mr. Fox would 
say, "Who is that?" The rabbit would say, "Your wife called me 
again. I don't know what she wants." — "Go and see what she wants," 
said the fox. Then Mr. Rabbit would go, and say to Mrs. Fox, "Mr. 
Fox says give me another plate of pease." — "Please tell him there's 
only one more left." Mr. Rabbit ate the pease and went back the 
third time. At noon Mr. Fox said, "Come, Mr. Rabbit! we'll go and 
get our dinner." The rabbit said, "Oh, no, Mr. Fox! I don't care for 
any dinner." — "I don't want anybody to work for me without eat- 
ing," said Mr. Fox. Mr. Rabbit went, but would not keep up with 
Mr. Fox. Mrs. Fox met Mr. Fox in the yard, and asked where he was 
going, and also told him there was no dinner because he had sent 
Mr. Rabbit to eat all the pease. 

Mr. Fox said, "Never mind, never mind! I'll catch you. Go in the 
dairy and bring me that butter." The rabbit went in and stuck his 
front paw in the butter, but it stuck fast. He said, "Never mind, 
never mind! I have another paw here." He stuck it in, and it stuck 
fast. "Never mind, never mind! I still have another one here." He 
stuck that one in, and it stuck fast. "Never mind, never mind! got 
one more here," and that stuck fast. "Never mind, never mind! I 
got a mouth here." He put his mouth in, and it stuck fast. 

Then Mr. Fox came upon him, and said, "Now I have you! I am 
going to kill you; I am going to throw you in a pile of briers." The 
rabbit said, " Please don't throw me in the briers! You may bum me, 
you may roast me, but please don't throw me in the briers! You will 
tear my face and eyes to pieces." Then Mr. Fox took him, and threw 

1 Written by NeUie Virginia Hudgins. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

26o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

him in the briers. The rabbit laughed, "Ha, ha, ha! you threw me 
to my home in bamboo-briers. I was bred and bom in a brier-patch." 


{Yerston a.* ) 

Oncet upon a time a man had a daughter, an' he had a very large 
cabbage-patch. He used to leave his daughter home while he go to 
work. An' every day when he went to work, the rabbit would come 
and steal his cabbage. One day he staid home. He caught the rabbit 
and put him in a bag, and hung him up a tree to starve. The rabbit 
heard a fox comin'. He tol' the fox to come up there and untie the 
bag, and, if he'd get into the bag, he'd hear the singin' in the clouds. 
The fox got in the bag. The rabbit tied him up in there, and left the 
fox hollerin', "Me no hear no singin' in the clouds!" As the rabbit 
was runnin' across the cabbage-patch, the man saw him, and threw 
the hatchet at him and cut his tail off. An' rabbits haven't had any 
tails since. 

{Version h}) 

Bear plants potatoes and beans, which are stolen. Bear says, "Who's 
dat been medlin' in my field and been eatin' my peas and taters? Oh, 
well! I'll get him yet! I knows what I's gwine to do. I'll set for dat 
ar gent'man, and I's sure to git him." . . . Rabbit visits Bear, and tells 
him that Fox is the thief. Bear sets a snare, which Rabbit himself is 
caught in. Fox comes up, and Rabbit begins to sing, and says, "O 
Mr. Fox! I see all kinds of beautiful things, now I am swingin' in this 
pleasant swing. O Mr. Fox! I see a beautiful city ober yonder." — 
" Bro' Rabbit, may I swing some and see somet'in' too? " — " Not yet, 
Bro' Fox; you can swing some by and by." — "Oh, let me swing some 
now, Bro' Rabbit! " — "All right, Bro' Fox! you may swing. Now, 
Bro' Fox, you come here and git me out ob dis swing, and let me put 
you in, so you can see some ob de beautiful t'ings I's been seein'." 
After Fox is in the snare. Rabbit says, "Bro' Fox, when you are in, let 
me know, so I can push you and make you swing high." — "All right, 
Bro' Rabbit! I's all right. Now push me!. .. I see no heaben and dty 
dat you told me 'bout." Bear comes up. Rabbit says, "Mr. Bear, 
Mr. Bear, I told you dat Fox been eatin' your taters and peas. Now 
you see for yourself." — "Well, sir, Mr. Fox, what's you doin' in dis 
trap? " — " Mr. Rabbit got me in here. He was in here firs'." — "I 
don't believe it. I care for no 'scuse. Guess I's 'bout as well kill yer 

1 Informant, Lillian Courtney of Hampton. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 14^ 
1S\ MAFLS 16 : 37-38, No. 23; 41-43. Nos. 28, 29), Alabama (JAFL 32 : 400-401). 
Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 170-172). Liberia (JAFL 32 : 414-415). Comparative, MAFLS 
X3 : 82 (notes 2, 6); JAFL 30 : 229. 

• Abstract from tale written by W. T. White in 1903. 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 261 

(Version c.^) 

One day Brer Rabbit stole some cabbage from Brer Wolf. Brer 
Wolf caught Brer Rabbit and put him into a hollow log, and put a 
block of wood into each end to prevent Brer Rabbit from getting out. 
He said that he was going to starve Brer Rabbit to death. After Brer 
Rabbit had been in there a half a day, Brer Wolf passed by and hailed 
him. "Hello, Brer Rabbit! "said he. Brer Rabbit answered, "Hello!" 
The next day Brer Wolf passed again. Brer Rabbit spoke so low that 
he could scarcely be heard. Brer Wolf said to himself, "He is 'most 
dead." About noon Brer Wolf came back again, and hailed, but 
received no answer. Brer Wolf got an axe and pounded upon the log, 
but he got no answer. He then called and called, but no answer. So 
he said, "Brer Rabbit is dead." Brer Wolf took the block out of the 
end of the log, laughed to himself, and walked away. After he was 
gone. Brer Rabbit laughed, too. He came out of the log greatly tickled 
at Brer Wolf's foolishness. In a few days he met Brer Wolf. Brer 
Wolf said, " Hello, Brer Rabbit! I thought you were dead." Then he 
caught Brer Rabbit again, and decided to box him up and throw him 
into the river. Brer Wolf called Brer Bear, Brer Elephant, and Brer 
Fox to see the fun. After Brer Rabbit was put into the box, it was 
found that there were no nails to nail the cover down with. So they 
put the cover on, and all went away after nails. 

As soon as they were gone. Brer Rabbit came out. He found a 
stone, and put it in the box and fitted the cover on, just as before. 
When Brer Wolf came back without looking into the box, he and his 
friends b^an to nail down the cover of the box. 

When they were ready, they said good-by to Brer Rabbit, but he 
would not speak. They laughed, and said he was mad. Then they 
flung the box into the river, and it sank. 

In two or three days Brer Rabbit came back with cheese and butter 
and milk and gold and silver. He gave them all some, and thanked 
them for throwing him into the river. He told them that he had had 
a good time. Then Brer Wolf asked them to put him into a box and 
throw him into the river. They did it, but have not seen him since. 

9. FALSE message: TAKE KT PLACE.* 

Once a rabbit went up to a man's house and told his little daughter 
that her father said let him go into the garden, but turn him out a 
long time before dinner. At noontime the little girl's father came 

1 Isfomiant, E. E. Edwards. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

* Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Comx>are South Carolina GAFL 34 : 14-16; MAFLS 16: 
40-43, NO0. 37-39), Georgia GAFL 33 : 403). Comparative, MAFLS X3 : 83 (notes 3, 
6); also Jicarilla Apache (PaAM 8 : 333), Wichita (Dorsey, Pub. Carnegie Institution 
I1909I. 54). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

262 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

home and went into the garden. He saw that something had been 
eating his peas, so he asked the little girl who had been eating his peas. 
The little girl told him about the rabbit. The father told the little 
girl that the next time the rabbit came, she should keep him there 
until he returned. The little girl did as she was bidden. When the 
man came home and foimd the rabbit, he caught him, and tied him 
with a rope. The rabbit got a great many little strings and put them 
on a sitdc, so as to make a little fiddle. Late in the afternoon an 
opossum came along, and saw the rabbit tied and playing on the fiddle. 
Brer Opossum said, " Brer Rabbit, what is you doing tied dere? " The 
rabbit said, "Don't you see my fiddle? I am going to play for dese 
people, and dey gib* me five dollars a hour. Don't you wish you were 
in my place? " The opossiun said, " Brer Rabbit, if you let me take 
your place, I will show you where you can get any kind of food you 
want, and I will give you half the money." At first the rabbit refused, 
so as to make the opossum think that he meant what he said; but 
finally he let the opossum imde him and take his place. Night came, 
but the opossiun foimd nobody to play the fiddle for. After a time a 
man came in with a kettle of hot water and poured over him. That 
was all the pay he got. At last the opossum was unloosed and went 
away sadder and wiser. 

10. IN THE BAG.^ 

Once upon a time there lived a fox whom the people called a chicken- 
thief. On^ morning early he took a bag and went to the village to get 
a chicken. After getting the chicken, he went to a farmer's house, 
where he asked if he might leave his bag. Before leaving, he told the 
woman not to open the bag, then he trotted to the village. As soon as 
the fox was out of sight, she opened the bag, and out flew the chicken. 
The farmer's wife put a stone in the bag, and fixed it like the fox had 
it« The fox came back, thanked her, and ran home. He got the water 
ready, and then went to put his chicken in. Time he opened the bag, 
the stone rolled in and scalded the fox to death. 


Where there was a turkey-buzzard fly. Once there was a fox and a 
buzzard who were good friends. They used to go hunting together. 
One day they took their guns and went a-hunting. They came to a 
tree where there was a holler in the tree. 01' fox decided there was 
somethin' up the holler, a rabbit or somethin'. So he got some dry 
wood and made a fire in the holler, and smoked it. He smoked and 
smoked it, and nothin' came down. But he was sure there was some- 

1 Written by Marian Gee of Phoebus. Compare South Carolina GAFL 34 : ai). 
> Informant, Josephine Johnson of Windsor, Va. For bibliography of "Watcher 
Tricked" see JAFL 30 : 178 (not-^ i). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County , Va. 263 

thin' up there. So he tol' the turkey-buzzard to stay and watch the 
holler, and see that nothin' came down, while he went back home to 
get an axe to cut the tree down. The buzzard promised that he'd do 
so. The fox went home to get an axe, and the buzzard set down by 
the tree to watch the holler. While the fox had been talldn' to the 
buzzard, the rabbit had been thinldn' of some way to come down the 
holler. So after de fox left, Rabbit said to de buzzard, " Mr. Buzzard, 
they tell me you have silver eyes and a gold bill." An' the buzzard 
said, "Well, so I have." The rabbit said, "Look up yonder an' let 
me see them! " An' the buzzard was very glad to show his gold bill 
and silver eyes. So he poked his head in the holler and looked up at 
the rabbit. The rabbit raked up a handful of trash and threw in his 
eyes. The buzzard went off to get some water to wash his eyes; and 
while he was gone, the rabbit came down. The buzzard came back 
and sat down by de holler and waited for the fox. Fox came and cut 
down the tree, and didn' see the rabbit run or anything. So he ask, 
"Mr. Buzzard, where is dat rabbit? " And de buzzard said, "He was 
up dere de las' time I see him." So de fox decided to split de holler 
open. He split it, and still didn' see any rabbit ; an' he ask again, " Mr. 
Buzzard, where is de rabbit? " Buzzard said, " He was up dere de las' 
time I saw him." Den de fox got angry wid de buzzard, and ran at 
him with his axe to Idll him. And de buzzard ran and ran so fast, dat 
he split his dress wide open, and he took de two sides of his dress 
and commence to fly, used dem for wings. So you see de buzzard's 
been flyin' ever since. 

Buzzard was angry wid de fox, and wanted to get even with him: 
so one day he came flyin' over de fox, sin^', — 

"Way down yonder, whey I come f'om, 
Dey t'row away meat, 
Dey t'row away bread. 
Everyt'ing good dey t'row away." 

And de fox say, "What's that, Mr. Buzzard? Sing dat again." And 
de buzzard sang it: — 

"Way down yonder, whey I come f'om, 
Dey t'row away meat, 
Dey t'row away bread. 
Everyt'ing good dey t'row away." 

Fox asked de buzzard, " Mr. Buzzard, could you take me down there? " 
Buzzard say, "Yes, jump up on my back." Fox got on de buzzard 
back. Buzzard went flyin' 'round. He went way up in de air. When 
he'd gotten high enough to kill the fox, he turned from one side to the 
other. Every time he turned, de fox would run to de oder side, and 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

264 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

de buzzard saw he couldn' turn him off in dat way. So he turned over 
upside down, and Fox fell to de ground and was killed.^ 


Lion was supposed to be the head of all the beast in that place. He 
got so lazy ev'ry day, he had an animal come in ev'ry day so he could 
eat it. Ev'y day animal went in. So finally it came the rabbit's turn 
to go in. He was one of the wisest animals of that time. He was 
supposed to be there at twelve o'clock. He came hoppin' along the 
road, stoppin' everywhere, lookin' at everything, until it threw him off 
time. Wonders, whey he goin', what could he do to keep the lion from 
gettin' so angry with him. So finally he came across a well. The 
thought came to him as he looked into the well, he saw his shader, he 
had a scheme to fool the lion. He had been told by the other animals 
that any way he could get rid of the lion, they would pay him, give 
him praise of being the wisest animal of the forest. He entered the 
lion's room pretendin' he had been runnin', doin' all he coiild to get 
there on time. The lion asked him why he was so late. The rabbit 
began to tell him the story why he was so late. So he tol' the lion, 
if he didn' believe what he had tol' him, to follow him, and he 
would show him. So the lion went with the rabbit to the well. The 
rabbit tol' the lion to get up on the curb of the well and look down into 
the well, and he would see what had delayed him. So he did. When 
he looked into the water, he saw another face, not knowing that it was 
himself. He frowned, he grit his teeth, and the other lion did the same 
thing. The lion on top, thinking that he was master of all the beasts 
of the forest, jumped into the well, and that was the last of the lion. 
And the rabbit got the praise of being the wisest beast of the forest. 


There was a gathering, a bunch of animals. The bear was the head 
of this gang. They had a feast. The bear got thirsty; and he said, 
"The ugliest animal in the house could get me some water." The 
animals looked at one another. Finally they looked 'round and saw 
a monkey. The monkey say, "You all need not look at me, because 
I'm not the ugliest animal in the house." 


Onct there was two foxes. They were always friends. They never 
say an unkind word to each other. So one day Fox say, " Let us have 

1 L. Frobenius. VolksmSLrchen der Kabylen, 3 : 6. 

> Infonnant, William Franklin of Montgomery County, Alabama. 

s Informant, Clarence Thomas of Atlantic City. N.J. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 265 

a quarrel! " So the other one say, "All right! " The other fox say, 
"How was we to start the fuss? " The firs' fox say, "That was easy 
to start." So the first fox got two stones; and he say, "These are my 
stones." The second fox say, "All right! Then you shall have them." 
The first fox say, "You can't do like that; you mus' say something 
back. You never start a quarrel." The first fox say, "This whole 
fores' belong to me." The second fox say, " How come I to be in here? " 
An' he said, "I can easy get out." The firs' fox said, "No, you won't 
get out. We have always been friends, an' anything I have will always 
be yours, and anything you have will always be mine." So they gave 
up the silly game, and never tried it again. 


{Version a.* ) 

Once there was a buzzard and a terrapin who went to see the king's 
daughter. The buzzard said to the terrapin, "Where are you going? " 
The terrapin asked him what that was to him. The buzzard he said, 
"I just asked you." Then he said he was going to see the king's 
daughter. The buzzard asked the terrapin to just let him ride on his 
back, and he would go with him. The terrapin let him ride as far as 
the fence, then told him that when he came to the gate he must get 
down. The buzzard said, "All right!" but when they came to the 
gate, he said, "Just carry me as far as the door, and I will get down." 
But when they got to the door, the buzzard popped his spur into the 
terrapin, and rode into the house on the terrapin's back. Then the 
girl said she would have the buzzard, because he was so smart. 

{Version 6.*) 

The rabbit and the fox were going to see a girl, and the fox was 
getting the best of the rabbit. So B'o Rabbit, when he went to see 
the girl, would talk against B'o Fox to her. When the fox came, the 
girl would tell him what the rabbit had said. The fox got mad and 
went to see the rabbit, and asked what he was talking about him for. 
The rabbit denied it, and said, "If I could see that girl, I would face 
her in that story, and I would go over there now if I wasn't sick." The 
fox was so anxious to have the rabbit and the girl together, he said, 
"Get on my back, and I will carry you over there." The rabbit had 
told the girl that his papa had the fox for his riding-horse the last 
twelve months, and he expect to have him the next twelve. The rabbit 
made out he was so sick until he couldn't go; but the fox told him to 
get on his back and go, anyway. Then the rabbit decided to go, but 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 6; MAFLS i6 : 53- 
55» N08. 3S-40). Comparative, MAFLS 13 : 30 (note z). 
> Informant. Ananias Tyson. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

266 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

said he could not ride without a bridle, saddle, switch, and spur. The 
fox said, "Get them, and we will go, for some one is telling a story." 
They went on until they got near the girl's house, and the fox told the 
rabbit to get down ; but the rabbit made out he was so sick, and asked 
the fox to carry him to the comer of the house. When they got there, 
the rabbit gave the fox a cut with the switch and a kick with the spur, 
and made him jump up on the girl's steps, and said, "Look here, girl! 
what I told you? Didn't I say I had Brother Fox for my riding-horse? " 
The fox wanted to fight, and jumped out and pulled off the bridle and 
saddle ; but the rabbit ran off. Wien the fox met the rabbit, he wanted 
to kill him; but the rabbit said to the fox, "I am not the rabbit did 
you that way. He had little eyes, but I got big eyes." 

{Version c.^ ) 

The bear and rabbit agreed to go to a party one night, and the bear 
called at the rabbit's house. The rabbit said that she was sick and 
could not go. The bear urged her to go, for the girls would be so disap- 
pointed if they did not go. The bear had to argue considerable to get 
her to consent, and then on condition that the bear carry her part of the 
way, for she could not walk. The bear said that he would. So she 
dressed, put on her spurs, took her reins and whip in her hand. Says 
the bear, " What are you going to do with these? " — "I want the girls 
to think I rode horse-back." The bear thought no more about it, but 
started off. After getting near the house, the bear asked the rabbit to 
get down off his bade, he did not want the ladies to see her sitting upon 
his back. She said that she was so sick, that, if she had to walk, it would 
kill her. So the bear pitied her and carried her to the yard, and 
ordered her to get down or he would break her neck. Meanwhile, 
during the ride, she had slipped the lines about the bear's neck: so 
she drew them tight, drove the spurs into his side, and gave him a 
crack over the head with the whip. She made him trot around the 
house a few times, calling the ladies out to see the sight. Finally she 
dismounted, tied the bear to the post, and walked in the dance-hall 
and said, "Ladies, I told you all that Mr. Bear was my riding-horse." 


Once there was a frog and a terrapin who were going to see the same 
girl. The girl said that she would have the one that could sing the 
most beautiful song. Then the frog began to sing, "Cluck u-lu-lu, 
cluck u-lu-lu!" The terrapin was frightened because the frog sang 
such a beautiful song, and he tried to sing too; but he could only say, 
"Jerusalem, Jerusalem!" The girl said that the frog's song was the 

^ Written in 1899. * Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 267 

best. Then the terrapin said, "Come, let us go down to the creek and 
get a drink! and we will try again." The frog agreed, and they started 
for the creek. The frog got there first, and sat down on the banlc to 
wait; and while he waited, he b^:an to sing. Soon the terrapin came 
up softly behind the frog and pushed him into the water, and spoiled 
his song. Then the girl said she would have the terrapin. The frog 
grieved so, that he never came out on the land to live any more. 


(Version a.^) 

Once there lived a little pig in a very close little room. A wolf would 
come by every day and try to fool the little pig out, so he could eat him. 
One morning the wolf called, but the pig did not answer him. The 
wolf was very sure the little pig was in there: so he said, "I know 
where a plenty of grapes. You better come and go with me." When 
the wolf was gone, the little pig put out for the grape-vine. By that 
time the wolf came to the pig's home and called him again. He did 
not receive any answer. Then he put out to the grape-tree too. When 
the pig saw the wolf, he hid in some moss on the tree. The wolf saw 
the pig before he got there; and when he got there, he called the pig, 
but he did not get any answer. By that time the wolf started to climb 
the tree. When he got to the little pig, the little pig ran out and jumped 
and ran away, and got home before the wolf caught him. By the time 
the little pig jumped in his door and shut it, the wolf had his head in 
the door, and it caught his head. He said to the pig, "Let me go! I 
will not hurt you." The pig opened the do' a little, and the wolf jumped 
in. The pig caught him by the leg, but he was afeard: so he said, 
"Yonder come de dogs." — "Let me in! Let me in! Hide me in the 
box ! The dogs will catch me ! " said the wolf. The pig did so, but he 
got angry and began to put holes in the box. "What are you doing? " 
said the wolf. " Putting holes so you can get air," said the pig. "Oh, 
indeed ! " said the wolf. When the pig got the holes in the box, he put 
on some water. When it was very hot, he said, " Don't you want some 
cool water poured on yo' to mek yo' feel good? " — "Yes," said the 
wolf. So the pig po'ed hot water on him and killed him. 

(Version 6.*) 

A long time ago Brer Wolf and Brer Rabbit were good friends, but 
for some reason or other they became deadly enemies. Brer Wolf 
decided to do Brer Rabbit harm. Brer Rabbit staid in his house most 
of the time, so Brer Wolf couldn't get at him. Wolf, however, thought 

^ Informant, Joe Seawright. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina 
GAFL 34 : 17-18), North Carolina (JAFL 30 : 175-176). 
« Written by W. P. Narcom in 1903. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

268 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

of a way to get him out by stratagem. He knew that Brer Rabbit 
liked fruit: so he went to Brer Rabbit's door one night, and told him 
he knew where some fine large apples grew, and asked him if he would 
like to go and get some. Brer Rabbit very politely accepted the invi- 
tation, and agreed to go for the apples next morning at five o'clock. 
Brer Wolf trotted off home to dream of the sweet revenge he was going 
to have on Brer Rabbit, but Brer Rabbit was on to his tricks. Promptly 
at three o'clock he went after his apples, and was back quite a while 
before five o'clock. As the clocks struck five. Brer Wolf tapped on the 
door. "Are you ready to go for dem apples, Brer Rabbit? " says 'e. 
Brer Rabbit says, " La', Brer Wolf, my watch said five o'clock long 'go, 
and I thought you wasn't comin', so Ise done been." Brer Wolf was 
so mad he couldn't stand still; but he did not give up his hope for 
revenge, so he told Brer Rabbit 'bout some peaches which were farther 
away from Brer Rabbit's house than the apples. Brer Rabbit gladly 
consented to go, this time at four o'clock; but when Brer Wolf came 
after him next morning, he had been fooled again, and Brer Rabbit 
was inside enjoying his peaches. This time Brer Wolf was so mad dat 
his har turned gray, but he wouldn't give up. He decided to send Brer 
Rabbit on a fool's errand : so he told him about some fine pears. They 
grew on a distant hill very far away. There wa'n't no pears dere at all. 
Brer Wolf jest want to get Brer Rabbit out of his house one more time. 
They agreed to go at three o'clock this time. Brer Rabbit started out 
ahead of time, as usual; but Brer Wolf, who had caught on to him, 
started out early too. He first caught sight of Brer Rabbit sittin' on 
de hill resting, den he kinder laughed up his sleeve when he thought 
how tired he must be from walking so far, an' how mad he must be for 
bein' fooled. After waiting a while, so's to catch his wind, he started 
out as if to speak to Brer Rabbit. 

Brer Rabbit knew there was trouble in the wind: so, as soon as he 
saw Brer Wolf comin', he made a break for home. Right down de hill 
he went, and Brer Wolf started right behind him. It was a race for 
life; and Brer Rabbit did his level best, while old Brer Wolf was equal 
to the occasion. 

They ran through cornfields, through woods and across fields, 'til 
they got in sight of Brer Rabbit's house. The sight of the house gave 
Brer Rabbit new courage and strength; so that he made a final break, 
and got in the house and locked the door just as Brer Wolf rushed 
'ginst it. 

Brer Wolf tried all of his force to open the door; and as he failed, 
he decided to come down the chinmey. Brer Rabbit had no intention 
of letting any one come down the chinmey after him: so he just set 
a big kettle of boiling water right under the chimney; and when Brer 
Wolf dropped down, he went smack into the kettle. Den Brer Rabbit 
slapped on de cover, and he had Brer Wolf just where he waiited him. 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County^ Va. 269 

Brer Wolf make all kinds of whining entreaties for Brer Rabbit to 
let him out, but it wasn't no better for him. Brer Rabbit made a fine 
stew of Brer Wolf, and eat apple-sauce and peaches along with him. 
After this he went after fruit whenever he got ready, without fear of 
being caught by Brer Wolf. 


The rabbit and the frog were partners, and they were living on the 
same plantation. They had raised some rice, and were going to London 
with it: so they sacked it up and got ready to start. The rabbit could 
travel faster than the frog, so he would stop once in a while to wait for 
the frog. "Ber Frog, can' you come no faster den dat?" said Ber 
Rabbit. " You des' go on, Ber Rabbit, I be dar," said the frog. " Yes, 
I know you will when you eat up all dar rice," said Ber Rabbit. The 
rabbit thought that the frog was eating the rice because the frog panted 
under his throat, and the rabbit thought he was chewing. "Well," 
said the rabbit, "I ax yer eat some mine, too," said the rabbit. "You 
shall not eat all your rice and be fat, and me be poor." So the rabbit 
began to eat, and ate till he ate all his rice mostiy. They both wanted 
to buy a hound, so they could catch a deer. When they go to London, 
the frog had enough to buy him a hound, but the rabbit had just enough 
to buy him a dog's head. On the way back home the frog's dog jumped 
a deer and caught it. The frog could not keep up with the dog, but 
the rabbit he kept up and did the hallowing. When the dog caught the 
deer, B'o' Rabbit ran the frog's dog away, and put his dog-head there. 

When the frog got there, Ber Rabbit said, "Ber Frog, I thought 
your dog was some 'count, but dar dar dog-head of mine he can fly. 
Des' look how he stick to dar deer! Your old dog scared to go dar. 
Hold him dog-head! Don' let him go!" — "Now, Ber Frog, you go 
over dar whar you see dar fire at and get some fire, and I will give you 
half." They saw the moon rising, and they thought it was a fire. Ber 
Frog went hopping just as fast as he could. Soon as he thought he 
was far enough so that the rabbit could not see him, he hopped behind 
a large tree and soon came back. "Ber Rabbit, dat man would not 
let me hab no fire." Den Ber Rabbit look in de wes* and saw a star. 
"Well, yonder is a man; go ober dar." 

Away Ber Frog went, but soon came back again. " Ber Rabbit, 
dat man say you come. I walk too slow." Away Ber Rabbit went, 
leaving Ber Frog to watch till he come. Ber Rabbit soon came again. 
"Ber Frog, dar man lib too far dat a way." — "Well, Ber Rabbit, 
des' go right over dar to dat man, he don' live very far. You can go 
dar." — "Ber Frog, you oughter go, for somebody mout take dat 

1 Iiifonnant, La Patten. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 1-5). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

270 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

deer away from you." — "No, dey won't, neider! Um a man, — a 
good man, too," said Ber Frog. So Ber Rabbit went again. 

While Ber Rabbit was gone, Ber Frog hid the deer so Ber Rabbit 
could not see him. Then he went jumping up and scream an' holler, 
an' call, "Ber Rabbit, Ber Rabbit!" Ber Rabbit came running. "Wha' 
de matter? Wha' de matter? " — "A grade [great] big red-eyed man 
don' come an' took dar deer 'way from me." — "Look a yere, Ber 
Frog, yo' don' say his eyes was red? " — "Yes, his eyes was red," Ber 
Frog he say. "Well, I don' keer," say Ber Rabbit. "Any ol' fool 
ought know a old dead dog-head can catch no deer. Yo' ol' dog caught 
him. I des' make fool out you." — "Ber Rabbit, I knowed dat you 
was lying. I don' carried dat deer home. I knowed my dog caught 
dat deer. I ain' gwine gib you a bit, neider. Now you go 'long to your 
house. I go to mine." And away they both went. 


{Version a.^ ) 

Once there was a rabbit and a snail who were courting the same girl. 
The girl finally said she would marry the one that could win in a race 
and reach her house soonest. Brer Snail lived in a little house just in 
front of Brer Rabbit's house. Early one morning Brer Rabbit came 
along, and said, "Hello, Brer Snail! Are you ready?" — "Not yet. 
Brer Rabbit," said Brer Snail. I must eat my breakfast first, and then 
I must fasten up my house." But he only wanted to keep Brer Rabbit 
until he could get on his tail. At last he told Brer Rabbit he was ready, 
and Brer Rabbit started off on a run. The distance they had to go was 
five miles. At the end of the first mile Brer Rabbit called out, "Hello, 
Brer Snail! " expecting Brer Snail to answer far away; but Brer Snail 
answered close at his heels. Then Brer Rabbit ran all the faster. At 
the end of the next mile he called again. Brer Snail answered in a low 
voice, as though he were far behind. Brer Rabbit called him at the 
end of each mile, and each time Brer Snail made his voice fainter. At 
the end of the five miles Brer Rabbit called for the last time. Brer 
Snail's voice was so low that it could scarcely be heard. So Brer Rabbit 
thought he would take a walk, and come back in time to go into the 
house before Brer Snail got there; but, as he turned. Brer Snail jumped 
off his tail, and went into the house and jumped into the girl's lap. By 
and by Brer Rabbit came in. He sat down by the side of the girl. But 
the first voice he heard was Brer Snail's, saying, "Hello, Brer Rabbit! 
Ise here, you see!" 

1 Informant, Henry Rhetta. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare Bahamas (JAFlr 
30 : 229) » South Carolhia (Christenaen* 58-61). North Carolina (JAFL 30 : 189). Penn- 
sylvania (JAFL 30 : 209). Chickasaw (JAFL 26 : 292). See also Dfthnhardt. Natur- 
sagen, 4 : 72 el seq» 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from EUzabeth City County, Va. 271 

{Version b.^) 

A terrapin and fox had a dispute about a girl as to which should 
marry her. Bro' Fox told Bro' Terrapin that the one who got to the 
girl's house and sit down by her side first should be the one to marry 
her. Bro' Terrapin agreed to this, and they both started oflF for the 
goal. In the mean time Bro' Terrapin grabbed hold of Bro' Fox's tail; 
and when Bro' Fox reached the girl's house and was sitting down by 
her side, Bro' Terrapin advised him not to intrude on his good nature: 
consequently Bro' Terrapin won the girl. 

{Version c.*) 

Once upon a time a buzzard met a wren. " Mr. Wren, dahs one thin' 
I Idn do that you can't,"said Mr.Buzzard. "What is it, Mr. Buzzard?" 
said the wren. " I kin fly so high, you Idn scarcely tell me from de 
cloud." — "All right, Mr. Buzzard! S'pose we hab a race! " So the 
buzzard and the wren started. When the buzzard spread his wings, 
the wren lightly sat in the hollow of his back and went on up with him. 
" Wha' air ye, Mr. Wren? " said the buzzard when he had gone a little 
distance. "Ise right heah, Mr. Buzzard." Higher and higher went 
Mr. Buzzard. " I yi, Mr. Wren !" — " I yi, Mr. Buzzard, Ise right heah 
above ye, go a li'l' higher, Mr. Buzzard." — "No," said Mr. Buzzard, 
"we'll go down to the earth." ... — "Well, Mr. Wren, you're alius 
above me. Why is't you neber fly higher den de fence ef you kin fly so 
high? " — "Well, you see, Mr. Buzzard, ef I tell you dat, you will be 
jus' as wise I be." 


Once on a time there was a prize put up on a race between the rabbit 
and the turtle. It was said that the one who won should have a beauti- 
ful young girl for his wife. The turtle, knowing that the rabbit could 
make better speed than he could, went around the day before the race 
and got all his friends to help him. He was careful to get turtles about 
his own size, so that they could easily be mistaken for himself. The 
turtle posted them at different places along the road, and told them to 
be ready. When the rabbit came along at each point where there was 
a turtle, the turtle would cry out, "Hello, Brer Rabbit!" Then the 
rabbit would run all the faster. When Brer Rabbit reached the end 
of his journey, there was a turtle to cry out, " Hello, Brer Rabbit! You 
see I have won the race." 

» Written by W. N. Brown in 1899. 

• Written by Lucy C. Barrow of Phoebus. 

* Informant, Cornelius Carr. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Comi>are Bulu (JAFL 
29 : 277), Benga (Nassau, 95-^8), Philippines (Cole, 89; MAFLS 12 : 428-429), Chero- 
kee (BAE Z9 : 270-271), Jicarilla Apache (PaAM 8 : 237), South Carolina (JAFL 32 : 
394; MAFLS 16 : 79, No. 70), Florida (JAFL 30 : 225-226). Comparative, MAFLS 
13 : Z02 (note i). JAFL 32 : 390 (note 9), MAFLS z6 : 79 (note z). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

272 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


One day Brer Fox was hungry. As he wandered about the wood, he 
saw a squirrel upon the branch of a tall tree. "Hello, Brer Squirrel! " 
he said. "Hello, Brer Fox!" replied the squirrel. Then said Brer 
Fox, "I once had a brother who could jump from limb to limb." — 
"So can I," replied Brer Squirrel. "Let me see you!" said the fox. 
So Brer Squirrel jumped from limb to limb. "Brer Squirrel, I have a 
brother that can jump from tree to tree." — "I can, too." So Brer 
Squirrel jumped from tree to tree. " Brer Squirrel, I had a brother who 
could jump from the top of a tall tree right into my arms." — "I can, 
too," said Brer Squirrel, and he did. Brer Fox ate him up. 

Brer Rabbit was lying in his bed near by, and saw all that was done. 
" Brer Fox," said he, "you are a mighty smart man, but I had a brother 
who could do something you cannot do." — "What was it?" said 
Brer Fox. "My brother could let anybody tie a large rock around his 
neck, and jump off this bridge into the water, and swim out." — "So 
can I," said the fox. Then Brer Rabbit fixed the rock and the string, 
and Brer Fox jumped, but he has not been heard of since. 


(Version a.*) 

The turkey and the rabbit were once going through an old field, and 
the rabbit asked the turkey what made his eyes so red. Brer Turkey 
told him it was trouble. Then Brer Rabbit asked him what trouble 
was. Brer Turkey said, " Come with me into the field, and I will show 
you trouble." Brer Turkey made believe he was after water, but he 
was only setting the field a-fire in different places. By and by Brer 
Rabbit heard the fire begin to roar. " Brer Turkey! Brer Turkey! " he 
cried, "how are you going to get out of this field? " Brer Turkey said 
he was going to fly out. "Take me with you. Brer Turkey! " said the 
rabbit. But Brer Turkey said he could hardly get himself out. Brer 
Rabbit ran through the fire, and that is how he lost his tail. The fire 
caught it and burned it off. And Brer Rabbit has never had a tail 

(Version 6.») 

One day Brer Rabbit was complaining, in the presence of Brer Fox, 
of the many troubles he saw every day. Brer Fox said to Brer Rabbit, 
"Brer Rabbit, you are all the time talking about trouble! trouble!! 
trouble!!! I certainly would like to see trouble one time." — "Well," 
said Brer Rabbit, "I'll tell you where to go; and if you do just like I 

^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Published in Southern Workman, a8 : 113. 

> Informant, Ella Anderson. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 59-60, No. 48). 

> Written by J. H. Thomas in 1899. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 273 

tell you, you will be able to see it." — "All right!" said Brer Fox, 
" I'll be there, sure." — "You go away down the road and lie down in 
that hay-field and go to sleep; and when trouble comes by, I will call 
you." — "All right, Brer Rabbit! I'll be there." Brer Fox went and 
laid down in the centre of the hay-field and went to sleep; and as soon 
as he had gone to sleep. Brer Rabbit made a large ring around Brer 
Fox. When the ring was about five feet high. Brer Rabbit set the hay 
on fire, and then cried out, " Brer Fox! O Brer Fox, Brer Fox! " About 
this time Brer Fox awoke, and, finding himself surrounded with the 
flames, he soon thought that he saw trouble, and cried out, "Trouble! 
Trouble! Trouble!" 


{Version a.* ) 

Once a girl was picking peas in a pea-patch, and a rabbit came along. 
Brer Rabbit went to eating peas. He found them so good, that he 
kept eating and singing, too. 

"Picking peas, 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over there." 

By this time the girl stopped and listened to the rabbit. As soon as he 
had finished his song, she said, "Sing that song again," and the rabbit 
sang again. 

"Picking peas. 

Land on my knees. 

Heard old woman call 

Right over you." 

While he was singing, she caught him and carried him to the house, and 
told her father and mother to listen to Brer Rabbit sing. The mother 
said, "Put him on the floor." Then Brer Rabbit sang, — 

"Picking peas. 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over you." 

When he had finished, they said, "Sing that song again." Brer Rabbit 
say, " Put me on the bed, and I will." So the little girl put him on the 
bed, and he sang the same song again. Then the father and mother 
said, "Sing that song again." Brer Rabbit say, " Put me in the window, 
and I will." So they put him in the window; and he sang, — 

> Infonnant, Sarah Demmings. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare Cherokee 
(BAE 19 2 274. 279). Comparative. MAFLS 13 : I3S-I37. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

274 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

'Ticking peas, picking peas, 
Land on my knees. 
Heard old woman call 
Right over you." 

And with that he jumped out of the window and ran away into the 
woods, and they never saw Brer Rabbit again. 


Once a 'possum and a wolf planned to go to a king's palace. The 
wolf went to the house to eat some rice. When he got to the rice-house, 
he said to the door, "Glue up! " and the door got tighter and tighter, 
but did not open. Finally the king caught him. Then the wolf b^^ged 
him to let him go, and he would never come there again as long as he 
Uved. So the king let him go. 

Then the wolf went back home; and when he got there, he foimd 
the 'possum. "Hello, fellow!" he said. "Where you been?" The 
'possum said he had been to his girl's house. 

Then the wolf told him he had been to the king's house, and that 
he had had some rice to eat. The 'possum wanted to know where it 
was. Then the wolf told him about the door, and that when he got to 
it, he must say, "Buckle loo! " and the door would open. Then the 
'possum went into the house and did as the wolf said, and the door 
flew open. Then he ate all the rice he wanted, and, as he came out, 
said to the door, "Glue up, glue up! " and the door got tighter and 
tighter. Before the 'possum could get out of the house, the king came, 
and said, "Who is this in my house? " The 'possum said, "It is me. 
King." And he asked the king to let him out, but the king burnt him up. 


Brer Buzzard was going to kill Brer Rabbit. One day Brer Buzzard 
met Brer Rabbit in the road. Brer Rabbit had two jugs of syrup. 
Brer Buzzard said, " If you don't give me one of those jugs, I will kill 
you." He gave one of them to Brer Buzzard. Then Brer Buzzard 
said, " You will have to give me both jugs." Brer Rabbit did so. " Now 
I have both jugs," said Brer Buzzard, "and I am going to kill you, 
anyhow." Brer Rabbit said, "Brer Buzzard, please let me off, and 
I will carry you to a bee-tree." Brer Buzzard said, "All right! " They 
went on ; and when they got to the tree. Brer Rabbit went up first and 
ate honey until he saw the bees and came down. Then Brer Buzzard 
went up. He was so greedy, that the bees stung him on the head. It 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 13; MAFLS z6 : 
36-37, N08. aa, 33). Comparative, Folklore, 29 : 2o6-ai8. 

> Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (MAFLS x6 : 35-36, No. 21), 
Alabcuna (JAFL 32 : 400). 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 275 

swelled in the hoUIow so that he could not get it out. Then Brer Buz- 
zard said to Brer Rabbit, "Run for the doctor, and ask him what I 
shall do!" Brer Rabbit ran around the tree, and said, "Two good 
wrings and one good snatch.'* But that wouldn't do. Brer Rabbit 
ran around the tree again, and said, "Take the hatchet and chop it 
out." Brer Buzzard said, "Come on, and get it out for me! " Brer 
Rabbit went up there and chopped around, and then cut his head off. 
Then Brer Rabbit got a piece of mud and put it on his neck, and said, 
"Now flutter, now flutter, if you can!" 


{Version a.^) 

Once a rabbit and wolf went out one day to catch some fish. The 
wolf caught all the fish, and the rabbit didn't catch any. So the rabbit 
said to himself, " I am going home to my wife." Then he said to the 
wolf, " Brer Wolf, you have caught all the fish, and I have not caught 
any; and to-morrow morning your wife will be eating fish, and mine 
will be qu'rrling." — "I don't care," said Brer Wolf. " Please give me 
some fish for my wife! " — " I'll not. Brer Rabbit." Then Brer Rabbit 
said to himself, " Never mind ! I will go and lie in the road where Brer 
Wolf has got to come along." Brer Rabbit went and laid in the middle 
of the road. The wolf came along with his basket of fish. The old 
rabbit pretended to be dead. Brer Wolf kicked him over, and said, 
"Ha! here is an old dead rabbit," and passed on. The rabbit went 
under the hill and got in the road again, and lay in the road as if he 
was dead. The old wolf came on and kicked him over, and said, "Ha! 
here is another dead rabbit," and passed on. Brer Rabbit went around 
him and got into the road again. When Brer Wolf came along to this 
dead rabbit, he set his basket of fish down, and went back to get the 
first rabbit; and then the rabbit got his basket of fish. 

{Version, b}) 

A rabbit once said to a fox, "Let us go fishing!" — "All right!" 
said the fox. The fox took the basket and went in the boat; while the 
rabbit sat upon the hill and played the violin, which she said would make 
the fish bite. When she saw that the fox had his basket full of fish, 
she ran down the path some distance, feigning to be dead. When the 
fox came along and saw her, he wondered, but passed on. After the 
fox had passed some way, the rabbit jumped up and ran through 
the bushes, heading the fox, and lay down in the road as before. And 
the rabbit did this way the third time; and when the fox found the 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : ii-ia). Com- 
parative, Folklore, 28 : 408-414. 
> Written in 1899. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

276 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

third dead rabbit, he said that he would go back and count them. He 
put his fish down by this last dead rabbit, and went back to coimt; but 
when he returned, he had foimd no dead rabbits and his fish were gone; 
for, when he turned his back, the rabbit got up and took the basket of 
fish away. 

{Version c}) 

Near St. Louis there lived a bear who loved to go a-fishing. Once he 
fished all day in the Mississippi River. A cunning little hare thought 
of a trick to play Bear to rob him of his nice string of fish. He ran 
around in front of the bear, and lay down across his path as if he was 
dead. The bear kicked him, and, seeing he was stiff, jumped over him. 
The hare got up and I'an around the bear, and lay down across his path 
again. " There lays another old dead hare," said the bear. The hare 
jumped up and ran aroimd a third time, and lay down across the bear's 
path. "What a nice meal I should have if I had those two which are 
left behind! " said the bear. He laid down his fish and went back to get 
them. He could not find them; and when he hurried back to get his 
fish, there was no trace of them, nor of the hare which he had left with 
the fish. 

{Version d?) 

Once a fox heard a rabbit had outwitted a wolf. He decided not to 
be friends to her any more. But Mis' Rabbit came and b^ged his 
pardon, and it was granted. Mr. Fox offered to go hunting with Mis* 
Rabbit; but the rabbit was lazy and played off sick, and staid at Mr. 
Fox*s house till he was vary near ready to come back. Then she ran 
way down the road, and curied up and played off dead. Brer Fox 
came 'long and looked at her; but he thought probably she bad been 
dead too long, so he passed on. As soon as Br^ Fox was out of sight. 
Mis' Rabbit jumped up and ran through the fidd and got ahead of 
him, and laid down again to fake Mr. Fox. This time he looked at her 
and he looked into his bag. His bag was large enough to aconunodate 
(»ie or two more, so he put Mis' Rabbit in, and put his bag in the grass, 
and went back to get the other rabbit. B^ore he was around the 
comer Mis' Rabbit jumped up and ran home with Mr. Fox's game. 
So Mr. Fox found no game when he returned. 

But one day Mis' Rabbit was walking along, and she asked Mr. Fax 
what he killed. He said he killed a lot of game, but he had teamed 
a headf ul of har' sense. She laughed and went on. 


A boy had some fish; and he saw a fox, and he thought be was dead, 
and he put him wpoa the fish. An' he wasn' dead; and when the bgjr 

* Abstncl {rom tmle written Iqr W. O. Oaytoo in 1903. 
« Written by Bassette in 1903, 

* Inforaant. Vemn Tomer of Hare VaDey. Va. Oxnpnre cmapniati fe. JAFI«3» :3fts 
(«» 1). .bo Sotth CknJn. (MAFLS rt : 35^^ No. .5). ^.g,.^^, by^^OOglC 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 277 

was puUin' his cart along, the fox took his fish and ate um. An' when 
the boy got home, he didn' have any fish. 


The king's daughter was rich, and she wanted some alligator-meat 
to eat. The rabbit took his harp and went to the creek, and began to 
sing on his harp. The alligator came out to join in a dance; but the 
rabbit struck after him with a large club, so he went back. The rabbit 
went and killed a squirrel, and dressed himself in the squirrel's skin. 
He went back to the pond and began playing again. The alligator 
came out and played. The rabbit walked around playing until he got 
a chance to kill the alligator. He killed him, and carried him to his wife. 

Then the rabbit's wife said that she wanted some panther-meat. The 
rabbit went to the woods and built a fire and blew a horn; and when 
the panther came, he told him that he would let him eat him if he would 
come through his fire. "I will," said the panther; but the panther 
did not know about the rabbit's tar baby in the middle of the fire. It 
caught him, and he died. The rabbit took him to his wife. 

When the rabbit and his wife were nearly ready to go to their new 
place, his wife asked for some elephant-meat. She did not think that 
he could get elephant's meat ; but he said, " I can get any kind of meat." 
He met the elephant, and said, "I heard that you could carry a stack 
of hay, a can of oil, a box of matches, and me on the top." — "I can," 
said the elephant. "Why, do you want to try it? " — "Yes." — " I 
don't believe you can," said the rabbit. They got the hay on the ele- 
phant's back, and the rabbit got upon the hay and took the pil and 
matches. As the elephant walked on, the rabbit put his oil on the hay. 
He thought the oil would sting the elephant; but before the elephant 
could speak, he said, "Hay stings people backs, don't it, brother Ele- 
phant? " — "Yes," said the elephant, "but I don't mind that." When 
they got nearly to the place where the rabbit would have to get down, 
the rabbit lighted a match and stuck it to the hay. Then he got down, 
and said, "What is that on your back? " After the elephant died, he 
tbok some of the meat to his wife. Soon after this the rabbit and his 
wife moved to their new place in Georgia. 


Once a rabbit and a fox undertook to work a farm together. They 
made an agreement that the rabbit was to have all that grew above 

1 Informant. Boyd Rhetta. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 14-19. No. 8). Georgia and comparative (JAFL 32 : 404, 4x6-417). 

s Informant, Loneva Willoughby. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare North 
Carolina (JAFL 30 : 175; 32 : 39i)* South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 109-111, No. xxa). 
Bilood (JAFL 6 : 48). Comparative, fiolte u. PoUvka. 3 : 355* 

Digitized by 


278 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

the ground, and the fox all that grew below the ground. The first 
year they planted peas. When the peas were ripe, the rabbit had them 
all. Buh Fox was angry at this, and said the rabbit cheated him. Buh 
Rabbit said, " Don't let's quo'rl ! I wfll tell you how to settle this fuss. 
Next year you shall have all that grows above the ground, and I will 
have what grows below." So it was agreed. The next year they 
planted potatoes; and again they had trouble, for Buh Rabbit got all 
the crop. He kept on that way until he starved the fox to death. Then 
he had all the crop, and all the land too. Buh Rabbit sure is sharp. 


Once the rabbit and the fox went courting a king's daughter. The 
king said he would give her to the one who would dance sand out of 
the rock. The fox danced and danced, but could not dance any sand 
out of the rock. At last the rabbit had his turn. Before he began, he 
tied a bag of sand with a little hole in the bottom in. each of his 
trouser's l^:s. Then he danced, and the sand flew. He said, "O Buh 
Fox! just look, just look! " The fox knew that his chance was lost. 
The rabbit won the king's daughter. 


One day Brer Rabbit was very hungry, and he did not feel like 
working, so he thought he would get a meal in some foul way. He 
saw a fisherman coming along the road one day with his tray of fish on 
his head, plying his trade. So he immediately jumped into his hole 
and stuck his foot out, so as to trip up the fisherman. Not noticing 
where he was walking, the fisherman came along and stumped his foot 
against Brer Rabbit's, upsetting his whole tray of fish. Brer Rabbit 
then ran out and got a full supply of fish, and then ran back in. Before 
long Brer Wolf came along past Brer Rabbit's house, and smelled the 
fish that Brer Rabbit was cooking. He called in to Brer Rabbit, 
"Where did you get all dem fish, Brer Rabbit? " — "From the fisher- 
man." — "Well, gimmie some, den!" — "No, but I'll tell you how 
to get 'em. You go home and stick your big toe up out of de ground ; 
and when de fisherman comes along, he will stump his foot against 
yours, and throw away all his fish ; then you run out, get as much as 
you want. " — "All right ! " sajrs Brer Wolf. Brer Wolf went home and 
did this, but this time the fisherman was very particular where he 
walked; and when he came by Brer Wolf, he recognized the toe, and 
with the big stick he had he beat poor Brer Wolf's toe until it was well 

< Recorded by A. M. Bacon. * Written by Samuel D. HoUoway in 1903. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County , Va. 279 

32. IN LIQUOR.* 

Brer Rat fell into a barrel of whiskey one day, and couldn't get out: 
so he cries to Brer Cat, and says, " Brer Cat, if you take me out of this 
barrel, and when I dry, I'll let you eat me." — "All right!" says 
Brer Cat. So Brer Cat took Brer Rat out of the barrel of whiskey and 
put him in the sun so that he would dry quickly. Meantime Brer Rat 
was looking for some hole that he might run into. Finally he saw one, 
and with a jump he hid himself. Then Brer Cat says, **Oh, no! that's 
not fair. Brer Rat." — "What's not fair? " — "You said, if I took you 
out of that barrel of whiskey, you would let me eat you when you dry." 
— "A man's liable to say anything when he's in liquor." 


Once upon a time a dawg married a cat; an' every evenin' when the 
dawg came home, the cat was sick, and he never get any supper. One 
day the dawg decided to stay 'round the comer of the house and watch 
his wife. The cat went to playin' with the kitten. When she saw the 
dawg comin', she ran and put a marble into her mouth, an' said she 
had the toothache. An' the dawg started to chasin' her. Dawgs been 
chasin' cats ever since. 


{Version a.*) 

Once an old man, an' his name was Uncle Mose; and some one tol' 
him that if he could stay in this haunted house, he would give him all 
the meat he could eat. So he went to this house, and he started a fire 
on the hearth, and he put on his frjdng-pan with the meat in it. A 
little animal came in the chimney and turned the frying-pan over, and 
said, "There's nobody but you and me here to-night. Uncle Mose." 
And he set his frying-pan up again, and he turned the frying-pan over 
again, and said, "There's nobody but you and me here to-night. Uncle 
Mose;" and Uncle Mose said, "Yes, an' I ain't a-gwine to be here 

{Version b.*) 

There was once a haunted house; and the man said to John, "If 
you stay in this house, I'll give you two bushels of gold." So that 
night, while John was in there layin' back to get a good smoke, a cat as 
big as a man came, and said, "John, ain't nobody here but me an' you." 
John said, "Hoi' on! 'tain' nobody gwine be here but you pretty soon." 

> Written by Samuel D. Holloway. 

s Informant. Lillian Courtney of Hampton. 

* Informant, Thomaa L. Man of Phoebus. Compare Hamilton, Va. (Southern Work- 
man, a8 : 449). South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 21). Comparative, JAPL 3a : 367 (note i). 

* Informant, Gladys Bright of Hampton. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

28o Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

He ran so fast 'til he came to a rabbit; said, "Rabbit, don't you 
know you ought not to get in a skyared man's path? " He ran so fast 
'til he outran the rabbit. He came to a man. The man said, ** I didn' 
know you could run so." John said, "You haven't seen anything yet; 
jus' wait a minute." 

An' John came to the man's house that offered him the two bushels 
of gold. The man said, "John, I thought you was goin' to stay in the 
house." — " No, I ain't goin' to stay in that house, either." And then 
he tol' him about the kyat and the rabbit and the man. 

{Version c.^) 

Mr. Scott offered Uncle Tom a cartload of watermelons if he would 
stay in a haunted house one night. Uncle Tom went into the house 
and looked all through it. He didn't see anything. Then he sit down 
an' went to sleep. After a while a pair of boots came down. Then a 
barrel came down. Then a broom came down. An' it woke Uncle 
Tom. Then the ghost came down. The ghost said, "It ain't nobody 
here but you and me."* Uncle Tom said, "I ain't gwine to be here 
long." Then Uncle Tom b^^an to run. He got tired, and sit down on 
a stone. When he looked around, he saw the ghost an' all the things 
sittin' down 'longside of him. The ghost said, "Ha! You ain't got 
rid of me yet! " Then Uncle Tom began to run again. He ran all the 
way to the farmer's house. Tol' the farmer he could have his ol' water- 
melons, if he wanted to, he wasn' gwine to stay in that okl haunted 
house for nobody. 


Oncet there was a man. He said he wasn't afraid to stay in the 
house where any one died. And some man tol' him if he'd stay in 
there, he'd give him two thousand dollars. And he was sittin' there 
smokin' his pipe, an' some one came there and said, " Whodat? " And 
this man said, " Who dat says * Who dat ? ' " The other man says, "Who 
dat says * Who dat says " Who dat? " ' " An' the man took up his hat 
and flew. 


Was a little girl named Katie; and an old woman lived in a house by 
herself, and everybody believed she was a witch. As Katie was passin' 
by, the old woman opened the door and told her to come in, and the 

1 Informant. Lucy Morris of Phoebus. 

s When the story was retold, it ran, "There's plenty of us here to-ni|^t." 

» Informant, Vema Turner of Hare Valley, Virginia. 

* Informant, Thelma Cannady of Hampton. She heard the story from her grand- 
mother, who lives at Newport News. Compare Bahamas (MAFLS 13 : 50-60, with 
bibliographical notes) ; also South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : Si'S^. No. 36). ZufU (JAPL 35 •* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 281 

little girl went in and saw a beautiful room with lots of pretty pictures; 
and the old woman said she would give her some apples to eat. And 
after she finished eating the apples, the old woman told her to stay 
with her all the time. An' then Katie remembered that her mother 
sent her on an errand to get something for supper. She told the ol* 
woman that she would stay, but she had to get something for her 
mother for supper, else she wouldn' have anything. An' she told her 
she could have anything she wanted; and she took a wand and hit 
the table, an' in Katie's mother's house there came lots of good things, 
and she was wonderin' where they came from. And Katie 'greed to 
stay with her for a week. An' at the end of the week she had a dream. 
She dreamed that a elf came and told her that the witch was goin' to 
kill her. The next night she dreamed the same thing. The elf left 
her a comb and a handkerchief, and told her to drop them when the 
witch came after her. She jumped out the window in the middle of 
the night; and as she was almos' nearin' home, she looked behind and 
saw the witch comin' after her. So she dropped her comb, an' a fores' 
grew up ; and it took the witch a long time to get through. Then, after 
she got through, Katie dropped her handkerchief, and a river came. An' 
the witch had to cross the river. As she was almos' home, she came to 
a woods where a wood-cutter was cuttin' down some trees. The wood- 
cutter saw the witch, so he cut off her haid. He took Katie home. 
And her mother told her that came of children that disobeyed. 


Once there was an old woman who staid in the wood. She was a 
witch. A man and his young wife were out in the woods. The old 
witch saw the young woman, and she changed her to a nightingale. 
The man wept a great while, and he began to seek some way to get 
his wife. He was out walking, and he found a crimson flower with dew 
in the middle. He pulled the flower and went to the witch's house, 
and went to the cage of his wife; and she came out, and they went 


Once upon a time there was a little girl name' Little Annie Johnsen. 
Her father's name was Charles Johnsen. Her mother's name was 
Carrie Johnsen. This Little Annie lived in the woods. Every morning 
when she ate her breakfast, she always leave something in her plate. 
It was a milk-snake that lived in her back yard, and every morning she 
would carry food to this snake. Her mother and father wonder why 
she would go down to the back yard so much. Her mother followed 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. See Bolte a. Polfvka, a : 69. 

> Written by Bemice Pressey. Compare North Carolina (JAFL 30 : 185). Alabama 
(JAFL 3a : 373). Comparative. Bolte u. PoUvka. 2 : 459* 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

282 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

her one morning, and she found her down the back yard feeding the 
snake. This little girl was eight years old. This snake was very kind 
to her. 

39. THE TEST.* 

During slavery-time Marse George owned a good number of pigs. 
So Uncle Dick and sev'el other slaves made up a plot to kill some of 
these. So the night for the slaughter came, and they succeeded in 
killing three. As they were takin' them home, they met Marse George 
younges* boy; but he didn* make out what dey have, but wondered 
what were dey doin* out dat late. So nex' day 'bout ten o'clock Marse 
George called Uncle Zeke and tol' him to roun' up his hawgs. So it 
was found dat four was missin'. So Marse Geoi^ sent for Broder 
John, and tol' him to call all his niggers up. An' he did as he was tol'. 
Marse George said, "Some of you been stealin' ma hawgs." He then 
asked his wife's opinion 'bout de matter. So she suggested that a rope 
would be tied between two magnolia-trees, and the one that didn' 
jump it stole the hawgs.* So de day appointed came, an' Marse 
George's dawg led it. So it finally came Marse George's horsier and 
he missed de rope. So he was given hundred lashes and put back on 
de farm. 


Once upon a time there lived a girl. She wanted to know any kind 
of dance, and sing any kind of song. One day while she was alone, a 
man stood before her. He said, "You are always thinking about 
dancing and singing." He said, "If you want to, I will make you so 
as long as you want to. You must give your soul to my master when 
your time is up." — "I should like to be with him for twenty-eight 
years," she said. The time rolled by quickly. When her time was up, 
she heard a loud noise, saying, "I am coming! I am coming! I am 
coming after you! According to your word, I am coming after you!" 
The master had come after her soul. She did not want to give him her 
real soul. She took up an old shoe-sole and threw it at him. The ugly, 
man-like thing did not know the difference, and he was contented. 


Once there was a woman who could do anything she wished to do. 
If she didn't like some one, she would speak to him, and in that way 
hurt him ; and if one of her friends should get cross with another person 

1 Informant, Armstead V. M. Jones of Scotland. La. 

< This appears to be a variant of the test of jumping the fire. See. comparative. 
JAFL 3a : 394 (note 3) and MAFLS z6 : 14 (No. 7). It seems to be a variant of the wide- 
spread South African story of the test by walking the rope (see JAFL 35 : 193). 

* Written by WlUiam Herbert. 

« Informant. Betty Wiley. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 283 

that she didn't like» she would throw something on the ground and 
make something that belonged to that person fall dead. In that way 
she threw a dipper of water on the ground for spite to a man, and made 
one of his fine horses fall dead in the street. This woman was said 
to be a mate to the Devil, and he could give her power to hurt any one 
that she didn't like or got cross with. She had power to kill if she would 
only speak when she was angry. There were a great many rooms to 
her house; and in one of the rooms up in the fourth story ^Kas a dark 
room, always with a blue candle in there burning, and an old man said 
to be the Devil. This man staid in there always, and never came out. 
The way he was seen was by a very small window. He at length opened 
it, and an old woman was going by, when she saw him. This story is 
what she told. 


{Version a.*) 

Long, long ago there lived an old miller. His family was very small. 
There was no one but him and his wife alone. This old man was not 
very rich, and had to work very hard to save what he had. His mill 
was the greater part of his property. He ran it day and night, or the 
larger part of the night. His wife was anoldwitch,and would cometothe 
mill every night while this old man was there. She came in the form of 
a cat. The old man would stop his mill after everybody was gone with 
their meal. He would spend the other part of the night reading. This 
cat would come every night and get in his lap. Sometimes the cat 
would not let him read, she would make so much noise. The old man 
was very tired of her. One day he Was telling one of his friends about 
the cat, how it acted. This friend called himself very wise. So he said 
that it was the miller's wife. This friend told him how he could prove 
that it was his wife. The miller was told to cut oflF one of the cat's 
paws ; and if it was his wife, it would be her finger. The miller laughed 
at his friend, but he did as he was told. The cat came in that night as 
usual, and sat in the miller's lap. The miller began playing with her; 
and while he was playing, he slipped out his knife and cut off one of 
her paws. The cat left the mill as quick as she could. The miller put 
the paw in his pocket, and it turned into a finger. The miller went 
home the next morning, and found his wife in bed claiming she was 

{Version b}) 

Once upon a time there was a man whose wife was a witch, and he 
owned a gris'-mill. He employed a man to keep the mill. Every night 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : 9-10; MAFLS 16 : 
34-^5, No. xa; JAFL 30 : 196). 
s Written in 1899* 

Digitized by 


284 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

this keeper would light his candle and read his Bible. After a few 
nights a cat would come in and get upon the table and put out the 
light. Finally the old mill-keeper became enraged, and cut the cat's 
left paw off. The cat hurried out on three legs. As soon as the man 
cut off the paw, it became a hand, upon which was a beautiful ring. 
On it was the name of his employer's wife. The next momibg the old 
keeper went to the house and asked to see the lady, without explaining 
his business. The landlord objected, of course, as the lady was ill in 
bed. Then the man drew from hb pocket this hand, and told the full 
story. The husband looked at the ring and knew it. Then he carried 
the man into his chamber, and told her that this man wanted to see 
her. The man wanted to shake her hand. She refused. Then he 
took from his pocket this hand and ring. Her husband was there, and 
she knew he would not want her any more. So she got up out of the 
bed and began to plan for her departure. 

She ordered a boy to go to the store and bring her two tin plates, 
but not to put his tongue to them; if so, he would break her craft. 
The boy got the plates and did not fail to put his tongue to them. The 
witch took the plates, placed them to her side, and became a bird. 
She took her flight; and, after getting a few rods in the air, the plates 
fell off, leaving her without wings: hence she fell to the ground and 
smashed into bits. These bits became moles, and burrowed in the 


{Version a.* ) 
Once an old colored man was harassed several nights by what he 
said was an old witch riding him, so he planned to catch her. She 
came every night in the form of a yellow cat. This night, as the old 
man lay down before the open fire-arch, which had in it a big hot fire, 
he saw this same yellow cat come in the door and take her seat right 
before the big fire in front of him. He immediately got up, and took 
his broom and put it across the door; and then he went back, stirred 
the fire up, put on several more logs, and made it as hot as possible. 
The yellow cat, which was the old witch, could not move out of her 
place, but simply turned from one side to the other. She could not 
move as long as the broom lay across the door. After the old man had 
burned almost all the fur and skin off the cat, he removed the broom 
and told her to go. No sooner was the broom removed than the cat 
flew. The old man said that he knew who she was: so the next day 
he went to this neighbor's house to see how she was; and before he 
got there, the woman's husband met him, and asked why he burned 
his wife so badly last night. He said that she was in bed, with the skin 
burnt off of her. 

1 Written by Nannie Williams in 1899. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 285 

If it 18 a white cat, it is a white woman ; a yellow cat, a yellow woman ; 
and a black cat, a black woman; and if you put the broom across the 
door when the cats come in, they cannot leave until the broom is 
removed, so it is said. 


{Version a}) 

Once there was a woman that could turn into a witch. When the 
husband would go to bed, she would slip out, and go off into the woods 
and turn into a bear. Once she went off and turned into a bear, and 
a man shot her in the shoulder. When she went home, her husband 
asked her what had happened. She said that she got hurt through an 
accident. The next time she turned into a panther, and wandered off 
in a very thick woods and ran the women and children. One night she 
was off, and a man saw her and shot her in the hip. While she was 
gone, the husband missed her and got up. He saw her skin lying by 
the fire. He got some red pepper and put it inside of the skin. Then 
he locked the door to keep her from coming into the house that night. 
When she came back, she slipped through the keyhole and went to get 
into her skin. Every time she went to get in, the pepper would bum 
her. She would say, "Skinny, skinny, don't you know me?" Then 
she would try again : it would bum her still. She would say, "Skinny, 
skinny, don't you know me? " The husband woke up. She got into 
it, but could not stay. Then she was tarred, and burnt to death. 

{Version b}) 

Once it was said that an old lady had a very bad enemy near her. 
She got mad. She tried in all ways to do her harm, and she could not. 
At last she decided to witch her, and so she did. The old woman at 
night slipped out of her sldn and went to do her conjure-work. While 
she was gone out to conjure the woman, her husband went up there. 
No one was there. He went back home, looked in the comer of his 
chimney, and there lay a bundle. He took hold of it. While looking 
at it, it was a person's skin. Then he went into the house looking at 
the skin, and it was the old lady's sldn. He then went to work boiling 
some red pepper. Then he mbbed the skin all over and put it back. 
By and by the old woman came back and tried to get back into her 
skin ; but it bumt her so, she had to jump out again. Again and again 
she tried; but each time it bumt her so, she could not get into it. 
Finally she said, "There is a bad witch working on me. I must go 
home and get a doctor." 

1 Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : lo-ii; MAFLS 16 : 
63-64, No. 53). Comparative. JAFL 27 : 247; 32 : 363 (note i). 
* Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

286 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Once upon a time there was a house which was scarcely noticed, 
that stood just outside of a very famous little village. In this house 
lived an old lady and her five daughters. The house looked terribly 
bad outside; but if any one had gone inade of it, they would have 
found it very different from the outade. The old lady and her five 
daughters were witdies, and it is said that they got all they wanted 
from the village stores. One afternoon two travellers happened by 
this house just about sunset, and asked if they might stay all night. 
The old lady toM them they could if they would be satisfied with the 
place she would give them, as she was not a rich person. The men 
told her it was all right, just so they were not out of doors. She asked 
them to come and sit down, she would have them something to eat in 
a few minutes. So she did. And the two men ate, and then went to 
bed very soon, for they were very tired from walking so hard. One of 
them went to sleep very soon after he got into bed; but the other one 
would not go to sleep, because he thought the old lady and her daugh- 
ters were up to something. Just as soon as the old lady and the family 
thought the men were asleep, they reached up the chinmey and (each) 
got an old greasy horn* a juice and put to thdr mouths, then said a few 
words' and was gone. The man that was not asleep grew very much 
frightened for a while, but soon got over it. As soon as he got over his 
fright, he got up and put on his clothes, and looked for the horns that 
the old lady and the five daughters used. He succeeded in finding the 
horns up the chinmey. And as soon as he got them, he put one of 
them in his mouth and said a few words, and out he went. When he 
stopped, he was in a man's store in the village, where he found, to his 
surprise, the old lady and her daughters. He did not know how he 
got in the store: so he went up to the old lady and b^^an to talk with 
her, but she gave him no answer. The old lady looked at her daughters, 
and said a few words which the man could not understand; and out 
they went, and left the man alone in the store. The man said as near 
as he could the same things that the old lady said, but could not get out. 
He would rise up as far as the ceiling of the store and strike his head, 
but could not get out. When day came, the poor man was so afraid, 
that he did not know what to do. The derk of the store came down 
very soon and unlocked the door. " I have been missing things out 
of my store for a long time," replied the derk, thinking that the man 
had hidden himself in the store before he dosed it the night before. 
"Oh, no!" replied the man. "If you will allow me a chance, I will 

1 Written in 1903 by W. a BorrelL Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare North 
Carolhia (JAFL 33 : 392). 
s Variant: Gourd. 
• VarianL' "Flute. I'm gone.'* The other witdies respond. 'Tm after you." 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore front Elizabeth City County, Va. 287 

tell you just how I happened to be here." So he told the clerk all 
about it, and also took the derk to the old lady's house, where his 
partner was. When the clerk entered the old lady's house, he saw 
several things that he knew he had in his store and had missed them. 
So he went back to the village, and sent the sheriff after the old lady 
and her daughters, and let the man go free. When the old lady and 
her daughters were brought to trial, they were guarded by (?) ; and 
when they got ready to pass the sentence on them, they began to sing 
a little song, which every one wanted to hear. They sang for about 
fifteen minutes; and as they sang, they began to move directly up- 
wards until they got so far up in the air that a person could hardly 
see them, and then disappeared. Those that were guards began to 
quarrel with each other because one did not shoot and the other did 
not shoot. So they got mad, and b^^an shooting each other.* 

46. can't set still.* 

There was once an old woman who was very anxious to get to church 
to tell her experience, as most of the Baptist people are; but this old 
woman was the last one to get to church, and every one was through 
telling their experience, so she was called upon as soon as she got in 
church. She got up twisting and turning, and then began, "Well, 
sbters and brothers, Ise had a mighty hard time to-day. I went to 
chum my milk, and the pig routed it over. I went to set my hen, and 
she flew up and broke my eggs. I got my old horse and started to 
church, he stuck a fence-rail in his side, and I had to walk, and I'm so 
full of sea-ticks I can't set still." 


Once there was a widow living in a house with two daughters, and 
she had a kid and kidkins. Gloves were very much in fashion then; 
and the girls used to keep asking their mother if they might not kill 
the kid, so as to have some gloves made out of the skin. But the 
mother said no, she had only that one kid, and could not spare her. 
At last the girls made a plot to have the kid, anjrway. One night they 
asked their mother if they might bake some cakes. The mother let 
them do so. They baked and baked. At last the mother came to the 
fire to see if they had not nearly finished. They pushed her into the 

1 Variant: The wHch puts something in the mouth of the man on the gallows, and 
on his head one of the black caps she and the other witches used in their flight. The man 
repeats the password after her; and they vanish to sight, leaving only a little smoke. 
Back in her house the old witch gave the young man his clothes, and said, "This is a lesson 
for you. Alwa3rs mind your own business, and not old peoples'." (Burrell.) — Compare 
Maryland (JAFL 30 : 209-210). 

* Written by Araminta in 1899. 

* Informant, Ida Woode. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

288 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

fire, and she was burned tx> death. Then they killed the kid and 
skinned it, and got ready to make the gloves. That night, after they 
were in bed, the mother came back, and said, "Daughter, daughter!" 
The daughters were too frightened to answer; but the kid answered, 
and said, " Baa, baa, little mother! " The next morning the giris took 
the ashes of their mother and carried them off into the woods. The 
next night the mother came back and b^^an to call at the gate, but she 
did not hear any answer. She came to the door and called, but still 
heard no answer. Then she pushed the door open, and went into the 
house and called and called, but did not get any answer. At last 
she jumped into the bed and tore the girls in pieces. 


There was a travelling preacher who was looking for a place to stay 
just for one night. He went to a very rich family and ask them, if 
they had a room, would they let him stay until morning. They told 
him that they did not have a room there, but there was an old house 
that sat over there in the field, it was very haunty, and "If you can 
stay, you are welcome to it, for several men have been there, but did 
not come out again." The preacher went over there to the old house, 
opened the door, and went upstairs, made himself a good fire in the 
fireplace, and sat there reading his Bible until twelve o'clock. He 
heard the dishes and pans rattling, and the chairs moving about, and 
some one scuffling around the floor. He said to himself, "I did not 
know that there were another family in here." He did not pay any 
attention to that, he went on reading his Bible. After a while he heard 
some one coming scuffling up the stairs. They said to him, "Mr. 
White said come down and have supper." — "Tell him that I am not 
at all hungry, I have just been to supper." The second time he sent 
a cat. It scratched on the door and said, "Mr. White says please 
come down and have supper." — "Tell him that I do not care for any- 
thing, I have just been to supper." The third time he said, "Mr. 
White says, if you don't come down, you wish you had." The preacher 
b^;an to feel frighten', and said, " I will be down there in a minute." 
The preacher went down there to supper. There was a table all set 
with pretty dishes and plenty to eat. All the chairs around the table 
were filled with people except one, and that was for the preacher. 
When he sat down, they ask him if he would bless the table. He said, 
"Yes, I will." This is the blessing that he said: "Good Lord, make 
us thankful for what we are about to receive, for Christ sake. Amen." 
When he raised his head up, everybody was gone, and he was left there 
in the dark. He had to feel his way back up to his room. This was 
the only man ever lived there that did not get killed or ran away before 

* Written by Elsie Jcdinson. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 289 

morning. The next morning the preacher left the house, and thanked 
the people for letting him stay there- 


Once upon a time was a family of people who were different from all 
the people around them. They had very nice stock around them, a 
large orchard, all kinds of poultry, and a beautiful flower-yard. When 
one of the family died, they that remained buried the one that was 
dead. When all of them died but one, he became very lonely and died 
very soon. There was not any one to bury him, so he lay on his bed 
and decayed. After his death the house was said to be haimted, and 
no one could go inside of it. The next year after the last one of this 
family died, the fruit-trees bore a tremendous quantity of fruit, but 
no one came to get it. 

When people rode along the road which was near the house, they 
were often tempted to take some of the fruit that hung over the road; 
but when they put their hands to get the fruit, some one would speak 
to them and frighten them, so that they would forget the fruit. One 
day an old man who was a thief came by the house, and saw all the 
fruit and the poultry, and a large number of eggs lying under the 
flowers. He asked the people around why they did not get some of 
those things that were wasting there. The people answered by telling 
him if he could get any of them, he might have them. "Very well," 
replied the old man, " I will have some of those things before I sleep 
to-night." So he laid his coat that had his arms down just a little 
ways from the house, and stopped there imtil night came. As soon 
as it was a little dark, the man arose and went inside of the orchard, 
and tied eight hens which were up a large apple-tree to roost. When 
he had tied the eight, he discovered a light somewhere, he did not know 
where. He looked down on the ground, and there were two large dogs 
with lamps on their heads, which were giving him a good light. When 
he saw this, he became so frightened that he turned the hens loose and 
fell backwards out of the tree. The dogs jumped after him just as 
soon as he got to the ground. The man jumped up and began to run 
as fast as he could, with the dogs right behind him. His home was 
about four miles, and he ran every step of it. When he got to his house, 
he fell in the door speechless, and lay speechless for a long time. When 
he came to his senses, he told his wife and family about what had 
happened to him. After that there was not a man in the community 
that was any more honest than he was. He had been a rogue all of 
his life up to this time. After this happened he always worked for 
what he got. 

> Informant, Duncan. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 


Digitized by 


290 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Once there was a very rich family of people, and they all died. 
Everybody was afraid to go there. Finally some one put up a sign- 
board which said, "Any one who will go to this house and stay over 
night can have the house and all that is in it." 

A poor boy came along and read it. " I will go," said he, and he 
went at sunset. He found all that he wanted, and went to work to 
cook his supper. Just as he was ready to eat it, he heard a voice from 
the top of the chinmey. He looked up, and saw a leg. The leg said, 
"I am going to drop." — "I don't care," said the boy, "jes' since you 
don' drop in my soup." The leg jumped down on a chair. Another 
leg came, and said, "I am going to drop." — "I don' keer," said the 
boy, " jes' since you don' drop in my soup." One after another all the 
members of a man came down in the same way. The little boy said, 
"Will you have some supper? Will you have some supper?" They 
gave him no answer. "Oh," said the little boy, "I save my supper, 
and my manners too." He ate his supper and made up his bed. " Will 
you have some bedroom? Will you have some bedroom? " said the 
little boy. No answer. "I save my bedroom, and my manners too," 
said the little boy; and he went to bed. Soon after he went to bed, 
the legs pulled him under the house and showed him a chest of money. 
The little boy grew rich, and married. 


It is said once a very rich man died, and his store was haunted ; and 
his brother wanted some one to stay there at night, but everybody 
was afraid. Then he said that he would give fifty dollars to any man to 
stay there one night. A doctor said that he would stay there that 
night; and he went in and dosed the door, and took his newspaper to 
read. Now everybody was quiet, and he was reading away, he heard 
something walking on the doorsteps. Then he raised up his head, 
and the door flew open and in came a cow with no head ; and he jumped 
up and ran out the other door. When the owner of the store heard 
this, he said, " I will give five hundred dollars to any one that will stay 
here the next night." Then a preacher said, "I will stay;" and the 
preacher went in and closed the door, and took his Bible to read. He 
said to himself, "I will go uspstairs," and away he went. When all 
the town was still, he heard something coming in; he read on, then 
he heard it coming upstairs; read on, it came to him; then he looked 
up and saw four men without a head,* with a coffin. Brought it to 

^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare Pennsylvania QAFL 30 : 217), Zuili QAFL 
35 : 88). Cape Verde Islands (MAFLS 15 [pt. i] : 135* a4X [note i]). 

t Informant, Jonas McPherson. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare North Caro- 
lina (JAFL 30 : 195). South Carolina (JAFL 32 : 368). 

• See JAFL 32 :39s. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 291 

him, sat it down, and started toward him. The preacher left, and told 
the news; and when the owner heard this, he said, "I will give five 
thousand dollars to any one that will stay here one night." Then a 
poor man said, "I will stay." He went in and closed the door, and 
in a few minutes he heard something coming in at the door. He was 
very much afraid; but he said, **I will not run, but I will ask it what 
it wants here." At this moment the door flew open, and in came a 
man without head and arms. The poor man said, "What do you want 
here? " Then he said, "That is what I have been coming here for, for 
some one to ask me that. Sir, my money is down under the hill; and 
if you come with me, I will show it to you, and you may have two 
thousand dollars of it, and I want you to divide the rest with my 
brothers." And he did so. 


There is a bridge near my home known as the "Haunted Bridge." 
During the Civil War the Northern army came through this country, 
doing a great deal of damage. A man by the name of Mr. Cheek, who 
lived within fifty yards of my home, heard that this army was approach- 
ing. He made ready to escape on his horse. He started off in haste. 
He came to this ditch. He was in a hurry to cross. The crossing was 
called " Ford." The bridge has been built there since then. He made 
his horse run into the ditch, and both himself and the horse were killed. 
It is said by a good many people, at night when they cross the bridge, 
he can be seen at any time on his black horse, on a dark stormy night 
especially. There was a man who lived near Mr. Cheek's house whom 
Mr. Cheek did not like. I heard this man say that Mr. Cheek comes 
to his house every night and knocks. The man says he knows it is 
Mr. Cheek. Sometim^ he gets up and opens his door, and once or 
twice he saw him in the form of a cow. 


There was once a slave and his mahster. The slave could tell any 
kind of a tale for his mahster, so his mahster used to take him around 
with him to visit his friends. On one occasion the mahster told the 
following tale, and asked Jake, his slave, to verify it and also tell jus* 
how it was done. "Yesterday Jake and I were out on East Mountain, 
huntin', and we saw a deer on West Mountain. And I aimed, and shot 
the deer through his right hind-heel and his right ear with one shot. — 
Didn't I do it, Jake? " — "Yes, sah, mahster! you certainly did it." — 
"Well, all right, Jake! You jus' tell this gentleman how I did it." 

t Informant, Roea Ruce. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

s Informant. Payton Brown of Pulaski County, Virginia. Compare North Carolina, 
Georgia, Bahamas (JAFL30 : 191); Georgia (JAFL32 : 370) ; South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 
117, No. 12a). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

292 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Jake scratched his head and thought a moment, and said, "Oh, yes! 
mahster, you mean the deer dat was scratchin' his head? De deer had 
his right foot up, scratch his right ear, when mahster shot, and the 
bullet went through his right heel and his ear." It was a very plausible 
story; but Jake turned to his mahster, and said, "Look here, mahster! 
please get dem shots a little closer together nex' time." 


Two N^:ro boys went out bear-hunting. They knew where there 
was an old bear with a cub. So they went; and the mother-bear was 
out from her hole, intending to get the baby-bears. And Jake staid 
on the outside to watch for the old bear, and Ike went in to get the 
baby-bear. While Ike was in, the baby-bears b^:in to cry; and the 
mother-bear, not being very far away, hurried to see what was the 
trouble. She came so swiftly, that Jake didn't have time to call to 
Ike; but jus' as the mother-bear went into the hole, Jake seized her 
by the tail. Ike was within, and the light had been shut off; and Ike 
hollered, "Hey! What darken de hole?" An' Jake repUed, "If dis 
tail-hol' slips, you'll see what darkens de hole." 


Once upon a time there was a king who had a daughter. Her name 
was Mabel. One night Mabel was invited to a big dance. The slave 
who worked for her father was to carry her to dis dance. Before they 
could get there they had to cross a little river. The slave pulled his 
shoes off and took her on his back. After while they arrived at dis 
house where the dance was. When she got in dis house, she did not 
notice him. When she got ready to go, the slave carried her to the 
river. He had to pull off his shoes, as before. When he got half way 
the river, the slave dropped her in the water, and said, "Ben Jones' 
horse ti'ed." 


Once upon a time there was a little slave who always said that he 
didn't like sweet-potatoes. Every night he would go to his master's 
potato-hill and steal his potatoes. Then he would go back to his little 
house and sit around the fire, and say, — 

"Sweet-'tatoes, yer nice, 

Are blows an' bites. 

I eats a peck every night." 

1 Infonnant, Pajrton Brown of Pulaski County. Virginia. Compare Georgia (JAFL 
3a : 371), South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : iz8. No. 124). 
« Written by Adeline Wyche. 
s Written by Helen Bailey. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 293 

The next time that he went to the hill, his master watched him. After 
he had gotten into the house and cooked the potatoes, his master 
opened the door and went in. " I thought you said that you didn't 
like potatoes/' said the master. He carried him down to the place 
where he whipped his slaves at, and whipped him. 

"Yes, master, blows an* bites. 

I eats a peck every night. 

Sweet-potos, sweet-potoes. 

Yes, master, I ain't gwoin' eat no mo' dem 'tatoes." 

57. biaster's hog.* 

Once there was an old man who, every time his master killed a hog, 
would kill one too. One day he killed a very large hog, and was trying 
to carry it upstairs. The old man kept saying, " Push, old lady, push ! " 
The old woman would say, " Pull, old man, pull ! " She looked, and saw 
their master coming, and she turned the hog loose. The old man saw 
his master coming, and he began to pull, and call out, "Push, old lady, 
push! It's the heavies' hog I eber kill; but push, old lady, push!" 
But old massa came up and caught the hog, and pulled imtil the old 
man turned it loose. Old massa went and got a switch, and began 
with the son first. The old man would say, "Stand to it, my son! 
stand to it!" He drew blood; but the old man say, "Stand to it, my 
son! Neberfail. Stand to it!" 

58. WHAT Dm YOU SAY?* 

Long ages ago, when our fore-parents were slaves, every rainy day 
they would have pease to eat. One day when the master brought the 
pease to his slaves, one of them said, "Um ti'ed a pease. We's got 
pease fur dinner, and we's got pease fur suppers." His master heard 
what he said. He came right away, and asked him what did he say. 
" Not'in', master," said he; "I just say, 'More rain, more grass grows.' " 

59. biaster's fowls.* 

Master b^^an to miss his fowls: so one night he walked down the 
field towards Aunt Dinna's house, and he saw a big fire with a pot 
over it. Now Aunt Dinna b^^an to sing, — 

''Massa, ain't you glad your old game-hen 

Been on the roos' so long? 

But Ah got 'em in the pot at las'." 

Aunt Dinna sang over this tune three or four times while taking the 
feathers from the old hen. So the master began to sing, — 

^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 34 : aa). 
> Written by Helen Bailey. Compare South Carolina (MAFLS z6 : 54). 
* Written by Thome. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

294 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Aunt Dinna, ain't you glad my old game-hen 

Been on the roos' so long? 

You got 'em in the pot at las'. 

But, Aunt Dinna, ain't you sorry 

You got my old game-hen in the pot, 

For Massa gwine to cut your back at last." 

60. SAVING bog} 

In this community, every time any one killed a hawg, it was neces- 
sary to give some of it to the neighbors. So Sis Garret husband killed 
a hawg; and Sis Garret said, "Garret, you ain't gwine give away all 
dis hawg. Us gwine to save it fur us chillun." Soon after dey had 
killed de hawg, and cut it up and salted it down, Sis Jenkins came 
to see Sis Garret. When Sis Garret saw Sis Jenkins comin', she 
exclaimed, "Oh, my Lord! Garret, yonder comes Sis Jenkins. Push 
de meat under de baid." He get out de house. Now, Sis Jenkins 
came in, and said, "Good-momin', Sis Garret! I been hear you kill 
hawg." Sis Garret say, "Yes, I been kill; but he been a small one, 
and Garret an' de chillun done eat um all up." An' Sis Jenkins 
answered, " Yere! " An' den de two women b^^un to talk about first 
one thing and then the other. While they sat talking. Sis Garret's 
large gray kyat came in and ran under the bed. Suddenly the kyat 
came back out, dragging a large piece of fresh pork. Sis Jenkins 
exclaimed, "Sis Garret! What's datde kyat been have?" Sis Garret 
jumped up and stretched her apron in front of de kyat with the meat; 
and she shouted, "Oh, my Gawd ! Skyat! Skyat ! " 


Once there was an old slave who prayed to the Lord that he would 
take him home, soul and body. At last, one day when his master was 
gone off, he told his wife that next day he would bid the world good-by, 
for the Lord had made known to him that he was going to take him up, 
soul and body. So next day he went out to a tree where he often went, 
and prayed, "O Godie! take me to the place where people don't have 
to work! Master give five hundred lashes every night and morning." 
His master was out in the bushes, and heard everything that was said. 
So he went to town and bought a line and windlass. He took the line 
and climbed to the top of the tree. By and by the old slave came back, 
and prayed, "O Lord! take me to heaven, where massa can't beat me 
anymore! Send me a line from heaven!" He looked up, and there was 
the line. He took hold of the rope and put it around his neck. He 
said, "Lord, Ise ready to go." Now his master began to draw him up. 
The slave said, "Wait, Lord ! Let me down again ! " He let him down. 

> Informant, Julian Bagley of Duval County. Florida. 
* Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 295 

He then said, "God, I ready! Let me go again! " and he started up 
again. Then he said, " O Lord ! let me down again, and get some moss 
hay and put it on my neck! " He put the hay on his neck. Then he 
said, " I go now, I know. Farewell, everything! " He left the ground. 
He did very well till he got up about nine hundred feet, then he got 
to whirling around. He said, "O Lord! let me back!" but his master 
did not let him back. He said, "O God! don't you hear me? Let me 
back! " His master then got so ticklish until he turned the windlass 
loose, and down he fell. When he reached the ground, he had no breath 
left. He lay there like a dead man for a long time. When he came to 
his right sense, he got up and ran home. When he got home, he said, 
"Alice, I want you tell me what you praying to God for. You just 
as well pray to the Devil: for God made known to me that He was 
going to take me where He is ; and when He got me way up. He let me 
fall back to the ground. I ain't gwine pray no mo', an' I don' want to 
see you pray no more. You is just losing your time, and you might get 
more sleep. I don' want see you at such a thing again." 


Once there was an old man named Langton; and whenever he 
prayed, he would say, "O Lord! please come and take poor Langton 
home out of his suffering! " Every night he did that, people began to 
notice it: so some mischievous boys said that they would try his faith. 
One night they came to the old man's door, and waited until the old 
man began to pray. When he got to his old saying, one of them knocked 
on the door, — bam, bam, bam! The old man stopped praying and 
listened, and no one said anything. After a while he began again ; and 
soon he said, "O Lord! please come and take poor Langton home out 
of his sufferings! " One of the boys knocked on the door, — blip, blip, 
blip! The old man stopped again, and asked, "Who is that?" One 
of them replied, "The Lord has come to take poor Langton home out 
of his sufferings." The man jumped off his Imees and blew the light 
out, then with a very excited voice exclaimed, "Langton has been 
dead and gone a fortnight! " 


Once there was a man who would go hunting every night, — Monday 
night, Tuesday night, Wednesday night, Thursday night, Friday 
night, Saturday night, Sunday night. And doing this, the preacher 
begged him to cease hunting so much. He would hunt Sunday nights. 

1 Written by Pratt in 1899. Compare South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 57-58, No. 46). 
Virginia (JAFL 3a : 361-362. and bibliographical note). 

* Informant, Allen Ewing of Butler County, Alabama. Compare North Carolina 
UAFL 30 : 184). 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

296 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

But he didn't heed. One Sunday he went out with the dawgs. He 
treed a 'possum. All at once something up in the tree began naming 
the days of the week: "Monday night, Tuesday night, Wednesday 
night . . . poor 'possums can't get no rest." Came down out of the tree, 
ketch the dawgs, beat them. The man ran away home, said that was 
a cure for hunting Sunday nights. 


Once upon a time a master had a boy working for him. One Simday 
his master went to church and told him to cook a duck. The boy 
cooked the duck, and said, "I will taste the wing;" then he said, "I 
will taste the other wing;" and then he ate all the duck. Then it was 
too late to cook another duck. His master brought the {Mieacher to 
take dinner. The master was sharpening his knife. The boy said, 
"He is sharpening his knife to kill you." The preacher began to run. 
The boy said to his master, "There he goes with the duck!" The 
master began to run after the preacher. 


This story my grandmother told me 'bout slavery-time. 

There was an old man on the plantation. He was lame, he had a 
cork leg, and he insisted he couldn't get along without a cane to help 
him walk. He had two grandsons at that time who were very eager to 
hunt nuts in the woods. One afternoon in the fall these two boys went 
hunting walnuts. On the way back, for fear that some of the other 
children would take their nuts, they stopped by the cemetery to hide 
them. So they went in and hid the walnuts behind a tombstone, 
intending to leave them there until night, and then come and get them. 
To be sure that nobody had bothered them, they brought two out, — 
two walnuts, — and put them outside of the gate. That night after 
supper they sneaked outside the cabin to the cemetery to divide their 
walnuts. They sat down in the cemetery and began dividing them 
in this way: "Two for me, and two for you; two for me, and two for 
you." About that time one of the slaves passed the cemetery. It 
was about midnight. He heard these boys talking. So he ran very 
fast to the cabin, 'cause it frightened him hearing these boys in the 
cemetery, and told Uncle Remus that Satan and the Lord were in the 
cemetery dividing the souls, sajdng, "Two for me, and two for you." 

> Written by William H. Harris. Compare comparative. MAFLS 13 : 77; also South 
Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 140, No. I59)- 

s Informant. Genna Carter of Greensborough. N.C. Compare North Carolina 
GAFL 30 : 177), CharlotteviUe, Va. QAFL 30 : 2x5). In the Negro musical comedy Lisa, 
played this season in New York, the gravesrard scene of this well-known BngU^Negro 
tale is introduced, the ghostly voice saying. "You take the tall one, and 1*11 take the short 
one." in this dramatic version the two grave-robbers being tall and short. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 297 

Uncle Remus doubted this statement, and they both went to investi- 
gate. They stopped just at the gate to listen; and they heard these 
boys saying, "Two for me, and two for you; two for me, and two for 
you." 'Bout that time Uncle Remus said, "Lord, I believe dey is." 
The boys had just about finished dividing the walnuts, and, remember- 
ing the two outside the gate they left, one said, "Two for me, two for 
you, and those two outside the gate you can have either one of them 
you want." Uncle Remus, not sure which one would get him, Satan 
or the Lord, dropped his stick which he used for thirty years, and ran 
back to the cabin. 


(Version a.^) 

A rich planter fell from his horse in a fox-hunt, and was lamed for 
life. He was carried about in a litter by four slaves. When his wife 
was about to die, she made him promise to bury with her all her jewels. 
The planter was carried every day to the grave, and every night would 
send a servant to see that the grave was undisturbed. One night the 
servant returned in haste to report that some one was robbing the 
grave. The litter-bearers had gone to a cake-walk on the next planta- 
tion, so the planter made his servant carry him on his back. . . . The 
slaves reasoned, "We belongs to marster, an' de chickens dey belongs 
to marster." And so they felt free to take what they wanted. Two 
slaves planned to steal a sheep and to bury it for safe-keeping in the 
graveyard. One went to the pasture to get the sheep; the other, to 
the graveyard to dig the hole. When the planter came on the back of 
the servant, the man digging thought it was his partner with the sheep. 
" Is he fat? " he asked. The servant was frightened by the voice from 
the grave, and said, "Fat er lean, take him! " and dumped his master 
into the hole, and ran back to the house. He was the fastest runner on 
the plantation; but when he reached the house, he found his master 
there already, with the bed-clothes over his head. 

(Version b.^) 

McAllister's plantation adjoined Joe Jenkin's, and their slaves 
were neighbors. 

Joe's coachman was a big strapping fellow, with swarthy skin, 
kinky hair, pearl teeth gracefully set in a bright-red gum that was very 
prominent whenever he parted his weighty lips to speak or grin. Sam 
was very fond of McAllister's house-maid. Lily Bell prided herself 
as the belle of all the plantations, far and near. She was a mulatto of 
medium height and size, beautifully shaped, with bright rosy cheeks, 

> Written by I. C. Diamond in 1899. His venion has been abbreviated. Compare 
North Carolina (JAFL 30 : 184). Alabama (JAFL 3a : 398). 

> Written by John A. Jentons in 1903. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

298 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

dark eyes that sparkled under heavy eydids, and her head was covered 
with thick, black, gloeey hair. 

Sam was alwa)r8 in the height of gk>ry when he was en route to "ma 
Bell's house;" but once when he got there, her channing features 
and musical vdce had not the usual pleasant effect oa him. Lily Bell 
got uneasy as she stared at Sam from head to foot. 

"Why, what's the mattah wid ma Sam, humph? Who's been atter 
you, dem hans or dem hants? Oh, talk, Sam! Don't you hear yo' 
honey talldn' to you?" All this time Sam stood with head bait. After 
a while he broke silence: "Wal, you see, Lily Bell, I is so glad you 
t'ink so much ob Sam; but to-night you came near not habin' any 
Sam, 'cause de hants like ter skeered me to deaf." — "Why, Sam! " — 
"Yes, indeed, honey! 'tis er fact! As I wus comin' ober here ter-night 
by de cemetary, I saw two white hants standin' up straight, and one 
on de ground." — " Whar did yer see dem, Sam? " — "By de grave- 
yard." — "O Sam! I know you are 'fraid to go back to-night." Just 
at this instant Lily Bell's brother spoke. "I ain't erf raid of hants; 
and ef I could walk, I would go home wid you, Sam." This boy was 
deformed. He had almost reached his first score, and he had never 
walked. Sam was much comforted by Tom's remarks, and he felt 
ashamed of himself for being afraid, if poor afflicted Tom was not 
afraid of hants. The graveyard which Sam had often passed at night 
was about two miles from the cabin where Lily staid. He thought that 
was quite a ways to carry a man, but finally he accepted the proposi- 
tion. "Will you do it, Tom, sure enough? " — " Yes, Sam, ef you tote 
me, I will." — "Den, all right, Tom! Ef Lily will excuse me, I will 
be goin' right now, 'case I am in a big hurry." 

The objects Sam saw at the graveyard were not hants: they were 
men. Two men had been in the act of stealing McAllister's sheep and 
coming to the graveyard to dress them. This is what Sam saw. After 
taking leave of Lily Bell for the night, he started home with Tom on 
his back. He dared not look up, but walked with his head downward. 
Just as they reached the graveyard, one of the rogues who was waiting 
for his partner to come with a sheep, through mistake took Sam for his 
partner. So he rushed to Sam, and, rubbing his hand on Tom, he said, 
" Is he fat, John? " Just then Sam dropped Tom, sajdng, "Take him, 
fat er lean! I don't want him." Sam started back to Lily's home as 
fast as he could run. Poor Tom was so frightened, he knew not what 
to do. Although he had never walked, that night he beat Sam running, 
and got back home before Sam did. On investigation the next morning, 
it was found out just what had been taking place at the graveyard. 
The slaves of both plantations were never after that afraid of haunts, 
and Tom continued to walk. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County , Va. 299 


There were once some men who oflfered one hundred dollars to the 
man who would bring them the skeleton of a dead person. That night, 
before the man got to the cave, one of the men who offered the money 
went and got in there and hid himself. The man came along and went 
into the cave to get his skeleton. The man in the cave said, "So, so! 
dat's my head." The man tried three time; but each time he was 
frightened by the man hid in the cave, who kept saying, "Dat my 
head, dat my head." Finally he grabbed the skull and ran away. The 
man ran till he came to the house; then he said, "Here, take your 
skull! The Devil is on behind." 


{Version a?) 

Once Mutt and Jeff got together, thinking what they wanted to do. 
"Say, Jeff! I know where I can get me some meat. Let's go round 
yonder and see that house to-night! There's a cow round there I want 
to get." They got there that night 'bout twelve o'clock. Mutt tol' 
Jeff, ** Take this axe. I wantcher ter hit the first thing that come out 
in the head." So Mutt went in, and lef ' Jeff on the outside. Cow had 
a young calf. Mutt didn' know it. Cows are very bad when they have 
young calves. Mutt went under the house (in olden time people used 
to keep the cow under the house) to get the cow. The cow run him. out 
first. So Jeff struck him on the head and knocked him to de groun'. 
When he became conscious, he asked Jeff, "What didcher hit me for? 
What didcher mean?" Jeff said, "Nofin (nothing), only to do what 
you tol' me to do." 

{Version b}) 

Story about two Dutchmen. They went out one night to ketch 
some sheep. They knew where it was a pas'ure, and to this pas'ure 
there was only one gate. Dutch people they don't seem to remember 
as well as we do, and one of the men told Sam to go 'roun' in the pas'ure 
and drive the sheep to him. An' Sam went in at this gate, and this 
other man was called Pat. Pat staid at the gate; and when Pat sent 
Sam in, he said, if anything came at the gate, he was goin' to kill it. 
Sam went in the pas'ure and roamed all aroun', but he couldn' fin' 
any sheep. After he had hunted all round in the pas'ure, he had for- 
gotten what Pat had told him, and, not thinking, came back to the 
same place that he went in. Pat not knowin' any better, when Sam 

^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon. 

* Informant, Fted Davenport of Newbury, S.C. Compare South Carolina (JAFL 
34 : 8). 

* Informant, Augustine O. Green of Amelia County, Virginia. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

300 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

came up through the gate, Pat took him for a sheep. Pat was standin* 
outside the gate with a large club; and, when Sam came out, P^t 
struck him with the club and knocked him out. At the same time 
Pat thought that Sam had a sheep; but when he came to find out, he 
had knocked Pat in the head. Pat said to himself, "This will end up 
my tryin' to get other people's sheep." 


Once a old man caught a rabbit, and was telling his friends how 
good rabbit-meat was. He said, " It is good fried, it is good stewed, 
it is good baked, it is good any way you can cook it." ' While he was 
bragging about it, the rabbit jumped out of his hand and went in full 
speed across the field, while the old man watched him. After a while 
the old fellow hallowed out, "Go ahead ! you are not any good. You 
are dry meat, anyhow, and I never did like you." 


Once there was a little girl name' May, and she went to her grand- 
mother's to stay for a while. She had a pretty little pink dress, and 
it was gettin' too small for her. Her grandmother told her she couldn't 
wear it next summer, because it was too small. And she tol' her to put 
a brick on her head, so she wouldn' grow more. And when she went 
back to her mother, her mother asked her why was she so small. She 
tol' her she had been wearing a brick on her head. 


It was once a boy. Had been out to seek his wife. So he met three 
daughters, and he loved them all, but he didn't know which one to 
take. So his mother told him to invite them all to his house and give 
them each some cheese. The first one ate the cheese with the skin and 
all. The second cut the skin off, and took half the cheese with it. The 
last one did not cut too much nor too little. So that was the one he 
chose for his wife. 

72. HOT HANDS.* 

Once upon a time there was an old doctor who used to rob graves so 
as to experiment on the bodies. So he happened to know of an old 
Irishman who died with a peculiar disease; and one night when people 
were busy and everything seemed favorable, he took his team and went 

» Written by E. T. SuUy in 1899. 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 175. 

* Informant, Verna Turner of Hare Valley, Virginia. 
4 Informant, Mary Jett of Phoebtit. 

* Written by W. Young in 1899* 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 301 

to the graveyard, got the body, and put it in his wagon. A young man 
who wanted to have some fun climbed in behind the wagon, and got 
under the seat with the coffin. The doctor stopped at almost every 
saloon and got something to drink, so as to steady his nerves. Very 
soon he was quite drunk. He also found a partner to ride with him. 
Every now and then he would feel to see if the corpse was all right. 
This fellow who was under the seat touched the doctor's hand every 
now and then. By and by the doctor mentioned it to his partner, and 
said, "Say, Mike! this fellow's hand is hot." The fellow who was 
under the seat said, ''Yes, if you had been in hell as long as I have, 
your hands would be hot too." 


Two Arishmen. One of them had been in America quite a while, 
and he knew about the deer. He took this new Arishman out with 
him, gave him a gun. He put him on a stand. He tol' him, he says, 
"The first thing you see comin* by here makin' high jumps," he says, 
"shoot him." Tol* him, "After you shoot him and sure you kill him, 
blow your horn." So pretty soon, while he was on the stand, a frawg 
runnin' out of the way of a snake came by, jumpin' as high as he could 
to get out of the way of the snake. This Arishman saw him, put up 
his gim and shot him, — shot him and blew his horn, blew his horn, 
blew his horn. The other feller didn't come for quite a while, seen 
the deer hadn' gotten there that quick. While he was there waitin' 
for the other Arishman to come, a real deer came runnin' by. He saw 
him, big thing, with a set of horns on his head. He ran out the way. 
So pretty soon afterwards the other Arishman came, said, "Did you 
get him, Pat? " — "Yes, by Jesus ! I got him." Took him down there 
and showed him the frawg, said, "This isn't any deer, Pat. Did you 
see any deer comin' down here? " No, he hadn' seen any deer; said, 
" I saw somethin' comin' through here with a chair on his head, but 
I didn' see no deer." 


Up in the mountains of Virginia, in the days of slavery, a white man 
took one of his slaves with him deer-hunting. He told Jim (the Negro 
slave) to stand at the foot of the mountain while he went up with the 
hoimds to chase the deer down, and when the deer came past to shoot it. 
Not long after Master ascended the mountain, the deer came past; 
but Jim was so very much astonished at the speed of the deer, he forgot 
to shoot. The hounds and Master followed dose behind the deer; the 

1 Informant, Wesley D. Elam of Sussex County, Virginia. Compare Florida OAFL 
30 : 223); also Southern Workman, a8 (1899) : 194. 

> Written by R. C. Lewis of Manassas, Va., in 1899. See Southern Workman, 28: 199. 
Compare Florida QAFL 30 : 223), Georgia (JAFL 32 : 370-37i). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

302 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Master exclaiming, "Did he pass yer, Jim? " — "Yea, Sir Massey, he 
just done pass." — "Well, why didn't you shoot him? " — " T wom't 
no use, Massey, 'cause, de way he was gwine when he passed here, he 
will butt his brains out 'gin a tree." 


Oncet they had a clock, and it had been runnin' a long time. So 
the clock stopped runnin', and they didn't know what was the matter. 
So one was named Mike; and he said to Ike to take the clock apart 
and see what was the matter. He found a bug inside. He said it 
couldn' run because the engineer was dead. 

76. MOON chebsb: irishmen at the well.' 

Once upon a time two Irishmen came to a well as they were travdling 
through the country one night. One of them happened to look down 
into a well, and saw the moon, which he took to be a cake of cheese. 
Calling the other, he said, "Faith, Pat, and, ma Jesus, here is a cake 
of cheese! How are we going to get it? " The other said, " Pat, you 
catch hold of the top of the well, and I will go down and catch hold of 
your feet; then we shall be able to reach the cheese." So these two 
went down, one hanging to the other's feet. The one at the top said, 
" Faith, Pat, and, ma Jesus, hold on, Pat ! Let me spit on my hand and 
catch a fresh grip! " So he let go his hold to catch a fresh grip, and 
they both went tumbling down into the well. I do not know whether 
they got the cheese or not; the person that told the story to me said 
he left about that time. 

77. bricks and mortar.* 

A feller asked an Arishman why did he put mortar between the 
bricks. An' the Arishman said, "To hold the bricks together." The 
feller said, "The mortar keeps the bricks apart." 


There was once two huntsmen, — an Englishman and an Irishman. 
One day they went hunting. Their success were two turkeys, — a 
real turkey and a turkey-buzzard. When the hunt was over, of course 
the Englishman thought he was the smartest man. He suggested how 
the game ought to be divided. He said, " Pat, I killed both the real 

I Informant. Loulte Man of Phcsbiis. 

s Written by E. M. Evans in 1899. See Soothera Workman. aS : 193. Compare 
Florida (JAFL 30 : aaa-aaa). South Carolina (MAFLS 16 : 117. No. laa). Eng:land 
and comparative; Clonston. 46-47. 49-53; Dihnhardt, 4 : 230. 

t Informant, Williams. 

« Written by Frances. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 303 

turkey and the buzzard; but you may take the turkey-buzzard, and 
I the turkey; or I'll take the turkey, and you the buzzard." — "Say 
that agam," said Pat to Joe ; and he said it again the same way. "You 
haven't said turkey to me the first nor the last, now I'll take the real 
turkey," said Pat to Joe, and leave the smart Englishman very sor- 


Once there were two Irishmen, and they bought a watermelon. So 
they sat down in a corner of a fence to eat it. On looking up, they saw 
two colored men peeping over the fence at them. One of them said, 
"Pat, let us eat the watermelon and give the poor niggers the guts! ** 
So they ate the rind, and gave the poor niggers the melon. 

80. biarb's egg.' 

Once an Englishman sold an Irishman a goose-^g, and told him it 
was a mare-^g, and, if he would carry it home and put it under a 
setting hen, he would have a young colt in about three weeks' time. 
So away went the Irishman with his egg, and in getting over a fence 
he let his egg fall. When the egg fell, up jumped a rabbit. The Irish- 
man did not know it was a rabbit, but thought it was a colt that had 
come out of the egg; and away he went running and whistling after his 
colt until the rabbit was out of sight. 

81. mother op all the ticks.* 

It was an Arishman, walking up a road, came upon a gold watch. 
He stopped and looked at it, and heard it tickin\ So he decided that 
mus' be the mother of all the ticks. He had trouble with the ticks. 
So he took his foot and stamped it all to pieces. Pretty soon he met a 
man looking for his watch. He asked him had he seen a watch in the 
road down there. He 'plied no, he hadn't seen no watch. So he kep' 
after him. So he said, no, he'd seen a big tick down there, must habe 
been the mother of all the ticks. So he stamped down on the tick. 
That's all he had seen. He took the feller back there, and of course 
he found his watch. 

82. three ends.^ 

Once there was a sea-captain who thought he would have some fun 
with one of his witty Irish sailors. The captain said to him, "Pat, 

^ Written by Lelia Gilbert in 1899. See Southern Workman, a8 : 193-194. 

' Written by £. T. Sully in 1899. See Southern Workman, 28 : 192-193. Compara- 
tive, Clouston, 37-38. 

s Informant. Wesley D. Elam of Sussex County, Virginia. Compare South Carolina 
(MAFLS 16 : 65). See also Southern Workman, 28 (1899) : Z93* 

* Written by W. Young in 1899. 

Digitized by 


304 Journal ef American Fdk-Lore. 

here is a piece of rope. If you find three ends to it, you can many the 
best-looking of my daughters, and she is very beautiful." Pat took 
the TOp^ and studied and studied and studied for several days. He 
never even ate his meals, and the captain had a hard time trying to 
get him to work. At last Pat went to the captain and said that he had 
found three ends to the rope, and called the captain to the ship's side. 
He showed the captain both ends of the rope, and then threw it over- 
board, and said, " Faith, and there's the other end ! " 


An Irish girl was told to have string beans for dinner. She asked 
her mistress for a needle. Her mistress asked what did she want it for. 
She answered, "And, in faith, how can I string the beans without a 


There were once two Irish families living near each other; and as 
it is the custom of nearly every one to wash on Monday, one of these 
old Irish women thought that she would wash too. So she went to her 
neighbor, and said, "Faith, en is you gwine to use your wash-boaid 
this morning? " The reply was, " No, and you naither." 


Two Irishmen, Bill and Mike, were once working on a building. 
Bill was on the wall, laying brick; Mike was just below, mixing mortar. 
Just before throwing down some worthless brick. Bill hollowed to Mike 
to stand from under. Mike stepped to one side, but not far enough 
for Bill to see whether he had moved or not. Bill shouted again, " Do 
you understand? " — "No," said Mike, thinking that he meant if he 
stood under the wall. "You'd better understand, or you'll get hurt." 
Mike stepped beneath the pendulum. Just then the brick fell, and 
Mike was severely wounded. 


Once an Irishman in this country sent to Ireland for his brother. 
He informed him of his extensive trade in the lumber business, and 
urged him to come at once. His brother spent most of his money to 
come to America. When he landed, he asked an officer to direct him 
to a certain street. On turning the comer of the street he was looking 
for, he saw his brother standing in front of a store peddling his lumber 
trade, selling matches. 

» Written by Lutie Jarvis in 1899. * Written by Araminta in 1899. 

• Written by Kendrick in 1899. * Written by Lee GiU in 1899. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 305 

87. YAH AND YEA.^ 

Once upon a time an Irish boy and a Dutch boy were fussing over 
a piece of tough beef. The fuss got so great that they decided to each 
take an end in his mouth and pull for the prize. So they got an extra 
party to count three for a signal to b^;in pulling. As is known, when 
a Dutchman says "yes," he opens his mouth with "yah," and the 
Irishman says "yes" as "yea" through his teeth. When the extra 
party asked if they were ready, the Dutchman said, "Yah," and the 
Irishman held his teeth with "yea" on the stake, and therefore won. 


Uncle Sam and Pat were out hunting one night, when, about twelve 
o'clock, there came up a terrible storm. It grew worse, and there 
came a crack of lightning. Pat got up in the tree; but Uncle Sam 
thought the day of judgment was surely coming, and he knelt down 
and began to pray. He wanted Pat to pray, too; but Pat didn't 
believe in the day of judgment, and wouldn't. Then there came 
another crack of lightning, which made Pat drop out of the tree; and 
he fell down on his knees, too, and began to pray, "O Lord! if judg- 
ment day is coming, save my soul, if I've got one! " 


One day an Irishman was walking along by the farmyard; and 
when he came along, the old turkey called out, " Cobble, cobble, cobble, 
cobble, cobble!" But the Irishman didn't like it, and called back, 
" I'm no cobbler, but a good workman by trade." 


An Irishman came to this country, and, just after he landed, a 
friend took him over the town. He saw a silver dollar lying in the 
street, and was going to pick it up; but his friend told him not to do 
that, for he would find plenty of them lying about round the comer. 
So he believed it and went on; but when they got around the comer, 
his friend left him and went back to pick up the dollar, and the poor 
Irishman found no more. 

91. TOAD-FROG.* 

An Irishman was going along the road, and he met a colored man. 
The colored man asked him had he ever seen a snake. "Faith, I saw 
one just now coming along the road," said the Irishman; "but it was 
hopping so fast, and it didn't have any tail." It was only a toad-frog 
he had seen. 

» Written by W. H. Young in 1899. 

« Informant, W. T. Anderson. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 1899. 
s Informant. R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 1899- Possibly this tak 
was suggested by the tale of " Playing Dead Twice in the Road " (Folk-Lore. 28 : 408). j 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

3o6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

92. GRBEN ntlSHMBN.^ 

It is said that some one went down to Hades once, and there he saw 
the Devil, and the Devil showed him all around. He saw all kinds of 
people there in the fires, — the Germans and English and Japanese 
and N^:roe8, — but no Irishmen. So he asked the Devil how it was 
that he had no Irishmen; and the Devil said, "Oh, we have some 
here! " and he took him round to a place where the heat could strike, 
but there was no fire burning. When asked why they were not in 
with the others, the Devil said, "We are just drying them here; they 
are too green to bum now." 

93. TRUNK.* 

An Irishman was passing a Jew store; and the Jew said, "Walk in, 
sir, and let me sell you a trunk! " — "Faith," said the Irishman, "and 
what am I gqing to do with a trunk? " — "Why, put your clothes in 
it," the Jew said. "And will you have me go naked, then? " said Pat. 


An Irishman was asked why he did not shingle his house. And he 
replied that when it rained, it was too wet to do so; and when it was 
dry, the house did not need it. 


(Version a.) 

An Irishman who had not been in this country very long, fell in 
love with an American girl; but the girl's father objected to her 
marrying him, because he was such a fool. He told the Irishman that 
if he would go off and find another such big fool, he might marry his 
daughter. So he went off looking for a fool; and he found a man who 
had moss all over the top of his house, and had put his cow up on the 
top of the house to eat off the moss. Then he found another man who 
didn't know how to get into a pair of trousers: so he hung them up in 
a tree, and climbed up and jumped down into them.^ 

Another man brought some money that he had saved up for a long 
time to his wife, and said, " Put this money away for hard times; and 
when Mr. Hard-Times comes, you give that money to him, and not 

1 Informant, R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 1899. 

s Informant. W. T. Anderson. Recorded by A. M. Baom in 1899. 

s Informant, R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon. See Southern Workman. 
aS : 230-232. Compare Bahamas (MAFLS 13 : 93-94)* Comparative: Clouston, 191- 
204; Bolte u. PoUvka, LIX. 

« This is a long story, not alwa3^ told of an Irishman. Another incident in Mr. Hard- 
Times's story is where the man comes to a house where the moon is shining in brightly, 
and the whole £amily is scrubbing the house to get off the moonshine. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from EUzabeth City County ^ Va. 307 

to any one else." But some one out of doors who wanted to get the 
money heard their conversation; and when the husband had gone, 
he knocked on the door. The woman went to the door, and said, 
"Good-morning! Who are you? " The man said, " I am John Hard^ 
Times.'' She said, "Oh, you must be the man my husband meant 
for me to give the money to! " and the man said yes, he was. So she 
went and got the money Which she had put away very carefully, and 
gave it to him, and he went off. When her husband returned and heard 
what she had done, he was much disturbed, of course, and said to her, 
"All right! Pull the door behind you, and come and find the man." 
And he started off; and she takes the door off the hinges and drags 
it behind her, and he looks back and sees her. Well, finally they find 
Mr. Hard-Times and get the money back; and finally, I believe, he 
kills her, she is so stupid. 

So the young man finds out all these fook; and, as it turns out, the 
old man is the biggest fool of all, and the young fellow marries his 

{Version b: Three More Fools.) 

An Irishman lived in an old house; and there was considerable moss 
on the roof of the house, and he wanted his cow to eat the moss, so he 
tied a rope round her head and began to pull her up. Some one who 
was passing called out to him, "Why, don't do that! You'll kill the 
cow! What are you doing that for? " The Irishman said he wanted 
her to eat the moss. "Well, why don't you pull it off and throw it 
down to her? " the man said; and the Irishman said he hadn't thought 
of that. 


'Bout a boy named Pamelance. His mother sent him to his aunty's, 
an' she gave him some butter; an' he put the butter up in his hat, 
an' it melted all down over his face. And when he got home, his mother 
said, "Lord-dee mussy, Pamelance! What dat you got dere, boy?" 
He said, "Butter, mammy." — "Don'tcher know dat's not de way 
to carry butter? You ought to take it and put it in a leaf, and take 
it to the water an' cool it an' cool it an' cool it." So the next day he 
went to his aunty's, she gave him a little puppy; and he took it to the 
water and cooled it and cooled it and cooled it 'til it died; an' then he 
brought it home. His mother said, "Lord-dee mussys, Pamelance! 
What dat you got dere, boy? " — "Dawg, mammy." — "Don'tcher 
know dat's not de way ter carry a dawg? You oughter take it and tie 
a little string around it, and let the dawg walk home." So the next 
day he went to his aunty's, she gave him a loaf of bread. An' he took 
it and tied a string around it, and pulled it home. And when he got 

1 iBfonnant, Vema Turner of Hare Valley, Virginia. Compare Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 
z 56) . Comparatiye, Clouston, z 33~z 36. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

3o8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

home, his mother said, ''Lord-dee mussy, Pamelance! What dat you 
got dere, boy? " So the next day he went there, his aimty gave him a 
cake. An' he took the cake and mashed it all up in his hand, and 
brought it home; and his mother asked him what did he have. He 
tor her he had some cake. She tol' him that wasn' the way to carry 
cake, said she wasn' goin' to send him to his aunty's any mo'. 


Once an Irishman was making a grand speech, and crying out, 
"Who puts up all the fine buildings? — The Irish. And who puts up 
the court-houses? — The Irish. And who builds the State penitentia- 
ries? — The Irish. And who fills them? — The Irish, begobs! " 


Once an Irishman was going along through a desperate piece of 
woods, when along came a panther. He struck it and killed it, but 
continued to beat it, and was pounding it to jelly when another man 
came along and asked what he was doing that for. "Don't you see 
it's dead? " — "Yes," said Pat, " but I want to show him that there's 
punishment after death." 


A dog attacked an Irishman; and he took a stick and beat him to 
death, and kept on beating. Some one asked him why he did that 
when the dog was dead. "Faith, he may be dead," he said, "but he 
doesn't know it." 

100. Where's mr. mcginnis?* 

They say that the Irish laborers never work so faithfully as when 
the train is coming, because often the railroad-inspectors are on the 
train, and they notice if they leave off work too soon. Once a working- 
man was killed by working too long when the train was coming; and 
the foreman said to an Irishman there, "Go and tell Mrs. McGinnis 
that her husband was killed by the train." Pat started off quickly; 
but the foreman called him back, and said, "Tell it to her gently." 
Pat hurried to the house, and said to the woman, "O Mrs. McGinnis! 
Where's Mr. McGinnis?" — "Down on the railroad working/' said 
Mrs. McGinnis. "You're a liar," said Pat, "he's dead." 

lOI. THE lord's family.^ 

An Irishman went to a Quaker's meeting one night, and sat there* 
and no one said anything. At last one got up, and said, "I feel like 

> Informant. R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 1899. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 309 

I was married," and sat down again. After a while some one else got 
up, and said, "Who you feel like you was married to? " and sat down. 
By and by the first one got up, and said, "I feel like I was married 
into the Lord's family." Then the Irishman got up, and said, "I'm 
afraid you will never see your father-in-law." 


An Irishman used to go to town and get drunk; and sometimes, 
when in that condition, he couldn't find his horse. Once when he did 
this, some boys took his horse and left a cart in its place. When the 
Irishman came along, he didn't know what to think of it. And he 
said, "If this is me, I've lost a horse; and if it isn't me, I've found 
a cart." 


Two men got fighting. They were about the same size; and an 
Irishman came up, and asked in a loud voice, "Who struck Bill 
Patrick?" No one answered; and he asked again, "Who struck Bill 
Patrick?" A great big man stepped up; and the Irishman said 
quickly, "Faith, you gave him a hell of a licking." 

104. MISSING ^ORD.^ 

Two Irishmen got into a prize-fight; and when one wanted to give 
up, he was to say a certain word. Well, they fought and fought and 
fought and fought; and they both wanted to stop, but couldn't think 
of the word. Finally one thought of it; and the other said, " Bejabers, 
I'm glad you thought of it, for I've been trying to for a long time, and 


An old man had been driving a pair of mules; and he gave them to 
an Irishman, and told him at twelve o'clock to give the mules "twelve 
(y)ears of com in the (y)ear." At noon he went out, and saw the 
man shelling up a little of the com at a time, and trying to pour it into 
the mule's ears. He called out, "How's this? I told you to give it to 
them in the ears?" The Irishman said, "Well, I'm trying to give it 
to them in the ears, but they won't take it." 


Some one asked an Irishman, "Which way does this road go? " — 
** Faith, I've been living here twenty years, and it's never gone 

^ Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 1899. 

Digitized by 


310 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

anywhere yet." Another person asked him how his potatoes turned 
out. "Faith, they didn't turn out at all, I had to dig them out." 
When some one who wanted a drink asked if he had any spirits 
about his house, he said, "You dumb fool! do you think my house is 

107. SPRBBING.^ 

Two Irishmen went into the great dty of Richmond soon after 
coming to this country, and concluded they would go on a spree: so 
they bought a cigarette and divided it in halves, and got five cents' 
worth of peanuts. One said, "Pat, if our wives could know how we 
was spreeing, wouldn't they wape? " 


Two men, one an Irishman, testing their strength, got into a pen 
of hogs. The one who should throw out the most hogs was to win the 
bet, and both were blindfolded. Whenever the other man threw out 
a hog, the Irishman would pretend he threw one out too. At last 
there was only one little pig left with a straight tail; and the Irishman 
threw it out, and said, " Every pig that I threw out, I gave his tail a 
curl." And so there was only the one little straight-tailed pig that the 
other man could claim. 


Said a white sergeant and a white corporal and himself died and 
went to heaven. Said, of course, the sergeant was in front, and the 
corporal behind, and he in the rear of all. Sergeant went up to 
St. Peter's gate, and St. Peter asked him what was he doing there. Said 
he came to heaven. St. Peter asked him, "What have you done to be 
permitted to the Kingdom of Heaven? " Said he'd been over the top 
sev'el times and killed sev'el Germans. So St. Peter told him, said, 
" I'm sorry, but you ain't done enough to be admitted to the Kingdom 
of Heaven." So he sent him to Torment. So up went the corporal. 
He asked the corporal what he'd done to deserve the right to the King- 
dom of Heaven. He told him he had captured a machine-gun, won 
a croix de guerre and a distingubhed service-cross. So he told him he 
was sorry, but he couldn't be permitted on that. This time the colored 
feller walked up; and he said, "I walked up and told St. Peter the 
truth. Asked me what I'd done to be admitted. I tol' him I'd been 
down there at Brest for the last eighteen months in a stevedore r^- 

1 Informant, R. R. Moton. Recorded by A. M. Bacon in 2899. 
• Informant, Wesley D. Elam of Sussex County, Virginia. 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 311 

ment. He tol' me, "Come on up, John! You been to Torment 


Soldier said that in France he went to a caf6, ordered a drink. By 
the time the waitress had brought him a drink, in walked a M.P. 
[Military Police], and told him this place was for officers only. So 
he went down the street to another caf6 and ordered another drink; 
and in walked another M.P., who told him it was for officers only. He 
stopped; he said to himself that he 'fraid that the next time there'll 
be a war, it'll be for officers only. 


'Bout a colored private doing guard-duty. When he firs' went to 
camp, sergeant had entire charge of him, knew nothing about any 
other officers. Considered sergeant highest man in the army. One 
night sergeant said, "Have you seen the colonel anywhere 'round 
here to-night? " — " No, I haven' seen any colonel." He was gone for 
few minutes, came back again. "Have you seen the colonel 'round 
here?" — "No, I haven' seen any colonel." Little later an officer 
came up to him. He hollered to him. " Is that the way you salute 
an officer? I'm the colonel of this post." He brought his gun do¥m to 
present. Said, "You the colonel of this post? You better go to that 
guard-house and see the sergeant. He's been looking for you all night. 
He'll give you the devil when he sees you." 


Some feller got some one to read his letter and answer. Came to 
commandant, asked for a stamp; said, "Give me a red one, last time 
I sent a brown one." Commandant said, "If you want a red one» 
must pay extra." — "Give me a brown one, then, 'cause I don't want 
to go to no extra expense for that gal." 


Feller in camp, couldn't read or write. He passed through the 
reading-room, and he was holdin' a letter upside down. The secretary 
asked him, "Can't you read writin'? " — "Can't read readin' first." 


Pat and Mike were in the army. They were asked how long they 
was in it. Said, there as long as they couldn' get out. 

^ Informant. Wesley D. Ehun of Sussex County, Virginia. 

Digitized by 


312 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

RIDDLES (1920). 

1. Whitey sent Whitey to drive Whitey out of Whitey. — Ans. A 
white man sent a white dog to drive a white rabbit out of a ixdiite 

{Variant.) White driving white out of a white cotton-field. — 
Ans. A. dog driving sheep out of a cotton-field. 

2. Goes up white and comes down yellow. — Ans. Egg.* 

3. Goes all around the house in the day-time, and sits up in the 
comer at night. — Ans. A broom.* 

{Variants.) (i) What work all day long, an' stay in the comer 
at night; (2) All round the house, and never come in. — Ans. A 

4. Can mn, but can't walk. — Ans. A train. 

5. Can holler, but can't talk. — Ans. A train. 

6. Deep as a cup, 
Round as an apple, ^ 
All the king's horses * 
Can't pull it up. 

Ans. h well.* 

7. If he comes, I no come. If he no come, I come. — Ans. A farmer 
planting com. If the crows come, it will min his crop, then the com 
will not come; but if the crows don't come, his crop will come. 

8. Up and down, up and down, 
Never touches the sky nor ground. 

Ans. Pump-handle. 

9. Black within. 
Red within. 

Four comers all round about. 

Ans* Chimney.^ 

Four sides. 
Black inside, 
Red inside. 

» Compare JAFL 32 : 375 (No. 3). 388 (No. i). 439 (No. 4); 34 : 34 (No. 66). 87 (No. 
53); MAFLS z6 : 152 (No. a). 

« Compare JAFL 34 : 34 (No. 64); MAFLS 16 : 165 (No. 75). 

• Compare JAFL 30 : 204 (No. 35); 33 : 390 (No. 33); 34 : 3© (No. 39). 
4 Variant: Biscuit. 

• Variant: Little King's hones. 

• Compare JAFL 30 : 301 (No. i); 3a : 3*9 (No. 16); 34 : 37 (No. 13 ); MAFLS x6 : 156 
(No. 38). 

» Compare JAFL 30 : 306 (No. 52); 34 : 29 (No. 39). 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 313 

10. A houseful, 
A yardful, 

Can't ketch a spoonful.^ 

Ans, Smoke.' 

11. AhiUful, 
A bowlful. 

An' can't ketch a bowlful. 

Ans. Mist. 

12. All round the bouse an' make but one track. — Ans. Wheel- 

13* Walkin' over the water, 

And never touching the water. 

Ans. A lady walking on the bridge, 
with a tub of water on her 
Above water 
'Low water. 

Ans. Woman with a pail of water 
on her head walkin' over a 

14. In the water. 
Out of the water. 
Never touch the water. 

. fEgg in the shell. 

* I Nail in bottom of ship. 

15. In the water, 

On top the water, 

Out the water, 

But does not touch the water. 

Ans. Egg inside of a duck. 

16. As I was going over London Bridge, 
I met a London scholar; 

He tipped his hat an' drew his cane. 
And in this riddle I call his name. 

Ans. Andrew.* 

1 Variants: (z) SUU I can't get a bowlful; (a) Yet you can't get a thimbleful. 

* Compare JAFL 30 : aoz (No. 3); 34 : 36 (No. 8); MAFLS 16 : 153 (No. 6). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 9); 33 : 3S)0 (No. 34); 34 : ^9 (No. 30). 

* This riddle is printed in a collection of Conundrums, Riddles and Pussies published 
in Philadelphia in 1904. Several riddles given in this collection were recited by the 
school-diildren, most of which I have not included. Riddle No. 13, whether drawn from 
this collection or not, has an established circulation. Compare JAFL 30 : 306 (No. 49) ; 
34 : 31 (No. 47). 

* Given in Conundrums. Riddles and Puxzles. (Compare JAFL 34 : 37 (No. 87), 

Digitized by 


314 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

A man walking over London Bridge, 
An' drew off hU hat. 

Ans. His name Andrew. 

17* Two legs sit on three legs; 

In come four legs, 
Grabs up one leg; 
Up got two legs, 
An' made four legs 
Bring that one leg back. 

Ans. Man sitting on a chair. 
Dog came in, ham lay down; 
dog got it, made bring back.^ 
Two legs sittin' on three legs, 
With one leg in his lap; 
Up come four legs. 
Snatch one leg; 

Two legs threw three legs at four legs 
To make four legs bring one leg back. 

Ans. Man sitting on three-legged 
stool, with ham in his lap, 

18. Little red house 

With white fence all round it, 
Door keep opening and shutting. 

Ans. Tongue and teeth. 

19. Something that has a white ivory fence. — Ans. Teeth. 

20. Went out on two legs 

An' come back on four legs. 

Ans. A man on two legs came 
back sitting in a chair. 

21. There's a being that first goes on four, next on two, next on 
three. What is it? — Ans. Man. 

22. Go out in the fields in the day-time, and come and sit up on the 
table at night.— iln^. Milk.« 

23. Hamsie Dumphy sat on a wall, 
Hamsie Dumphy had a great fall. 
All the king's horses 

An' all the king*s men 

Can't put Hamsie Dumphy together again. 

Ans. Egg.' 
^ Compare JAFL 34 : 34 (No. 6a); MAFLS z6 : 163 (No. 6z). 
> Compare JAFL 34 : 31 (No. 41)- 
* Compare JAFL 30 : 306 (No. 51); 34 : 35 (No. 4); MAFLS z6 : 165 (No. 74)- 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 315 

24. Eyes that can't see, 
Tongue that can't talk, 

An' soul that cannot be saved. 

Ans, Shoe.* 

25. Little Paddy Rew, 
King of the Jew, 
Pull off his socks, 
Put on his shoes. 

Spell that in four letters. 

Ans. That.* 

26. What has an eye, 
But cannot see? 

Ans. Needle. 

27. What has a head, 
But has no hair? 

Ans. Pin. 

28. What has teeth, 
But cannot eat? 

A /Saw.' 

29. What has hands 
An' has no fingers? 

Ans. Clock. 

30. What has legs. 
But cannot walk? 


31. What has a face. 
But cannot see? * 

Ans. Clock. 

32. What has a mouth, 
But cannot eat? 

Ans. Doll. 

33. What has a trunk. 
But needs no key? 

. f Elephant. 

^ Compere JAFL 30 : 303 (No. 31); 34 : 3^ (No. 50). 

• Compare MAFLS z6 : 173 (No. 162). 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 33 (No. $2). 

* Compere JAFL 30 : 304 (No. 34); 34 : 3^ (No. 51)* 

• Variani: But has no mouth (compare JAFL 30 : 304, No. 34). 

Digitized by 


3i6 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

34. What goes through the wood 
An' never touches a limb? 

Ans. Voice.* 

35. Old woman had so many children, she didn' know what to do. — 
Ans. That was hen. She had so many chickens, she couldn' sit on 

36. If you feed it, it will live; 

If you give it water, it will die. 

Ans. Fi«.« 

37. What goes 'round 

An' makes a thousand tracks? 

Ans. A broom. 

38. Eleven pears was hangin' high. 
Eleven mans go riding by. 
Each take a pear. 

Ans. Eleven man had the 
name of Eleven.* 
Seven pears hanging on a tree. 
Seven men came passin' by, 
Each man took a pear. 
And left six hangin' there. 

Ans. All seven men took pear. 

39. Take one hawg-foot bone and lay it at the door, an' it'll be all 
men's door. — Ans. Court-house door.* 

40. Hickamor hackamor. 

On the king's kitchen door, 
All the king's horses 
And all the king's men 
Can't pull Hickamor, Hackamor, 
Off the king's kitchen door. 
Ans. Sun.* 

41. The longer you cut it. 
The longer it grows. 

Ans. Ditch.* 

> Compare MAFLS 16 : 156 (No. 37)* 

> Compare JAFL 34 : 36 (No. 79)* 

• Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 13); 33 : 375 (No. 4); 34 : 33 (No. 55); S6 (No. 39)- 

• Compare JAFL 34 : 30 (No. 36). Recorded at Hampton (Soathera Workmaiu 
March. 1894) as, "There are bones enough in a hog's foot to lay at every man's door In 
the country.— ilfif. The court-house is every man's door in the country.'* 

» Compare JAFL 34 : 39 (No. a6); MAFLS z6 : z6z (No. S^h 

• Compare JAFL 3a : 389 (No. 13). 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 317 

42. Little Miss Nannicoat 
Had a long petticoat. 
The longer she stands, 
The shorter she grows. 

Ans. Candle.^ 

43. Between the earth, 
Between the sky, 
Not on a tree. 
Now, I've told you, 
Now, you tell me. 

Ans. Knot on the tree.* 

44. Dead in the middle, 
'Live at each end. 

Ans, Horse, plough, and a man.* 

45. What kind of a husband would you advise a young woman to 
get? — Ans. A single man, and leave the married man alone.^ 

46* As I was goin' to my Whilly Whicka Whackum, 

I met Bum Backum. 
I called Jim Whackum 
To run Bum Backum 
Out of my Whilly Whicka Whackum. 

Ans. As I was going through my garden, 
I met a rabbit, and I called to my 
dog to run him out.* 

47. What is that that the President has seen and the Lord has never 
seen? — Ans. A man to equal himself.* 

^ Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 19). 375 (No. 5); 32 : 440 (No. 30); 34 : 34 (No. z); 
no (Na 2); MAFLS z6 : 169 (No. zzz). 

« Compare JAFL 30 : 205 (No. 40); 34 : 33 (No. 58). 

» Compare JAFL 30 : aoi (No. 6); 32 : 388 (No. 4); 34 : 36 (No. 77); MAFLS 16 : 155 
(No. 17); also (kOla (Harvard African Studies, 3 : 198. No. 3)* 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 37 (No. 90). 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 34 (No. 67); MAFLS 16 : 152 (No. 3). Recorded at Hampton 
(Southern Workman, March, 1894) as,— 

"As I went across my Whirly-Whicka-Whackum. 

I met Tom Tackum 

And called Bom Backum 

To driye Tom Tackum 

Out oC my Whirly-Whicka-Whackum. 

Ans. Whiriy-Whicka-Whackum is a field. Tom 
Tackum is a horse. Bom Backum is a dog." 
Possibly "Master of all Masters*' (Jacobs, English Fairy Tales) is the source of this 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 207 (No. 56). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

3i8 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

48. As I was in my chamber, 
I heard something fall. 

I sent my maid to pick it up, 
But she couldn't pick it up at all. 

Ans. Snuff. 

49. The cat, the goose, and the bee, 
The world is ruled by these three. 
Who are they? What is it? 

Ans. Parchment, pen, and wax. 

50. Round as a rainbow, 
Teef (teeth) like a cat, 
Think of many things 
Before you think of that. 

Ans. Brier.* 

51* Mouth like a barn-door. 

Ears like a kyat. 
Guess all night, 
And can't guess that. 

Ans. Owl." 

52. He wears a hat 

Stuck on his neck 

Because he has no head. 

And many times his hat comes off 

When we are sick in bed. 

Ans. A bottle of medicine. 

53* As I was going 'cross London Bridge, 

I met Sis Sally Ann. 
She was drunk, and I was sober. 
So I kicked her over. 

Ans. A bottle of whiskey.* 

(i) As I was goin' up London Bridge, 
I met my sister Nancy. 
I cut off her head and drank her blood. 
And left her body standin'. 

Ans. Bottle of wine.* 

* Compere JAFL 30 : 204 (No. 33); 34 : 35 (No. 74). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 304 (No. 33). 

» Compare JAFL 30 : 377 (No. 30); 33 : 375 (No. 6); 34 : 34 (No. 3); MAFLS x6 : 159- 
160 (No. 46). 

* Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman, March, ZS94) as, — 

"As I was going along one day, 

I met my sister Ann. 

I wrung her neck and sucked her blood. 

And let her body stan'." 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 319 

(2) As I was going 'cross London Bridge, 
I met old Sally Gray. 
I sucked her blood an' ate her meat, 
An' threw her skin away. 

Ans. Watermelon.* 

54* This is a joke I was fooled by: 

Which must I say. 
The yolk of a egg is white, 
Or the yolk of a egg are white? 

Ans. I'm not to say either, because 
the yolk of an egg is yellow. 
55 Long stick, 

Black feller. 
Pull his cock. 
And hear him beller. 

Ans, Gun.* 

56. What goes to a spring and never drinks? — Ans. Path.* 

57* Mention a thing has two heads. 

Two feet, one each side, four the other. 
And one tail? 

Ans, Lady on horseback. 

58. A riddle, a riddle, as I suppose, 

A hundred eyes, and never a nose. 

Ans. Sifter.* 
59- Two lookers. 

Two crookers, 
Four standers. 
One switch about. 

Ans. Cow.* 

60. A thousand eyes. 
But yet can't see. 

Ans. A cinder-sifter.* 

61. What runs all the way from San Francisco to New York without 
moving? — Ans. Railroad-track. 

^ Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman, March, 1894) as, — 
"As I was walking in the field, 
I met old Father Gray. 
I ate his meat and drank his blood. 
And threw his hide away." 

* Compare JAFL 30 : aoa (No. 18); 34 : 36 (No. 80). 

* Compare JAFL 3a : 389 (No. 7); 34 : ^6 (No. 9, variani a). 

* Compere JAFL 34 : a8 (No. az). 

» Compare JAFL 30 : aox (No. 7); (MAFLS 16 : 154 (No. 15). 

* Compere JAFL 34 : aS (No. ax). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

320 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

62. Why is a hen on a fence like a penny? — Ans. Because the head 
on one side, and the tail on the other. 

63. I made a three-legged stool, and how many sit on it? — Ans. 
One man named More Yet.* 

64. What goes all down street and comes back home, and sits in the 
comer and waits for a bone? — Ans. Shoes.* 

65. What's the difference between a mountain and a hill ? — Ans. 
No difference, a hill is a young mountain. 

66. Two men heard of a job, 

And both of them wanted a job; 
And they got to fighting. 
And kill each other, 
And who will get the job? 

Ans, Undertaker. 

67. Round as a apple. 
Busy as a bee, 
Pretties' litde thing 
I ever did see. 

Ans. Watch.' 

68. Why is a roomful of married women similar to an empty room? 
— Ans. Because there's not a single one in there. 

69. Why do sailors wear their trousers large at the bottom? — 'Ans. 
Because they're made that way. 

70. A Indian man first time in town see a white man riding. A 
white man is lazy: he walks while he is sitting down. — Ans. White 
man was riding a bicycle. 

71. What makes the clock look 'shamed? — Ans. Because he got 
his hands over his face. 

72. A man rode, but yet he walked. — Ans. A man ridin' across 
the bridge, and had dog named But Yet.^ 

73. Why is an egg and a colt so much alike? — Ans. Because both 
of 'em have to be broke. 

74. Why is a policeman and a rainbow so much alike? — Ans. 
Because he never turns up until after the storm. 

75. What's that? 

I haven't got it. 

I would not have it. 

If I had it, 

I wouldn' take the world for it. 

Ans. Bald head.* 

* Compare JAFL 32 : 37s (No. 5). 

* Compare JAFL 33 : 389 (No. 9); 34 : 31 (No. 40). 

» Compare JAFL 30 : 201 (No. 2); 32 : 389 (No. 17); 34 : 28 (No. 17). 
< Compare JAFL 30 : 202 (No. 17); 34 : 25 (No. 6). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 204 (No. 34); 32 : 389 (No. 14)* 

Digitized by 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 321 

76. **Now, see here I 

Timothy Tit Con's wife is dead, poor thing! " 

>yhich is proper, 

I is crazy or I am crazy? 

Ans. The one that'll answer say "I am crazy." 

Which is the properest, 
I am a fool, or I is a fool? 

Ans. You are a fool. 

77. Once in a man, 
Twice in a moment, 

What is not once in a thousand years? 

Ans. Letter M.» 

78. As I was goin' up heeple steeple, 
I met some Christian people; 

Some were nickle, and some were nackle, 
And some were the color of brown terbacker. 

Ans. Partridge.* 

79. If two pigs oome to five dollars, what will a hawg come to? — 
Ans. Com. 

80. Where is the first place you hit a nail? — Ans. On the head. 

81. Why does the sun rise in the east? — Ans. Because yeast will 
rise anjrthing. 

82. What is two things flapping and one going in and out? — i4iw. 
A hawg with his ears flapping and his nose going in and out. 

83. What kin is a child to his father when he's not his son?' — Ans. 
His daughter. 

84. How many cow's tails will it take to reach the sky? — Ans. 
One, if it was long enough.* 

85. Why is a dirty boy like flannel? — Ans. Because it shrinks 
when it's washed.* 

86. Man who made it didn' use it. 

The man who bought it didn' want it. 
The man who used it didn' know it. 

Ans. Coffin.* 
> Compare JAFL 34 : S3 (No. 3). 

s Compare JAFL 30 : 202 (No. zo); 33 : 390 (No. 20); MAFLS z6 : 163 (No. 625. 
Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman, March, 1894) as, — 
"As I went down by Heeple Steeple, 
There I met a heap of people; 
Some were nick, and some were nacky. 
Some were color of brown terbacky. 

Ans. Bees." 
» Compare JAFL 34 : 84 (No. 11). 

* Giyen in Conundrums, Riddles and Puzsles. 

* Compare MAFLS 16 : 173 (No. z6o). 


Digitized by 


322 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

87. Goes to the well three times a day, and nev^ drinks. — Ans. 

88. Up to the house an* never come in. — Ans. Path.^ 
{Variant.) What is it that goes all aromid the house and never 

comes in? — Ans. Path. 

89. Buffy fluffy on the land, 

Two pink pillars on which to stand. 

Ans. A hen with pink feet. 

90. Go all around the house and put a white sheet in the window. — 
Ans. Snow. 

91. Two ducks in front of two ducks. 
Two ducks behind two ducks. 
Two ducks between two ducks, 
How many ducks? 

Ans. Four.* 

92. What is the di£ference between a school-boy and a postage- 
stamp? — Ans. One you stick with a lick, one 3^u lick with a stick. 

93. Nib nib noddy, 

Two [ylears and one body. 

Ans. Barrel.* 

94. Brass button. 
Blue coat. 

Can't catch a billy-goat. 

Ans. Policeman. 

95. On the hill sits a green house, 

In the green house sits a white house, 
In the white house sits a red house. 
In the red house sits a black house. 
Ans. Watermelon.* 
(i) On the hill there's a green house, 

In that green house there's a white house. 

In that white house there's a red house, 

In that red house are a lot of little black and white men. 

Ans, Watermelon. 
(2) A lot of little black children 
Live in a red house. 

Ans. Watermelon.* 
1 Compare JAFL 30 : 202 (No. 12); 32 : 390 (No. 25); 34 : 26 (No. 9); MAPLS x6 : 155 
(No. 23). 

s Compare JAFL 34 : 84 (No. 20), xxo (No. 6); MAFLS z6 : (No. 15). 

* Recorded at Hampton (Southern Workman, March, 1894) as,^ 

"Bulgy and knotty. 
Two heads and one body." 
« Compare Cape Verde Islands (MAFLS 15 [pt. 2] : 2x5-2x6. No. x). 

• Compare JAFL 32 : 388 (No. 2). 

Digitized by ^ 


Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 323 

96. Green rind. 

Red meat, 
Full of syrup, 
Hard to beat. 

Ans. Watermelon. 

97 . On the hill there's a house, 
In that house there's a closet. 
In that closet hang^ a coat, 
In that coat is a pocket, and 

In that pocket there's an Indian head. 

Ans. A penny. 

98 . Green within green, 

Seven doors within the seam. 

Arts. Green house with green 
graves around it, and 
seven doors. 

99. Red outside, 

White inside. 

Arts. Apple.* 

100. What is the difference between a sailor and the letter d ? — 
Ans. They both follow the c. 

10 1 . Black as a coal. 
Slick as a mole. 
Red along tail, 
And busted hole. 

Arts. Frying-pan.* 

102. Long legs, 
Short thighs. 
Bald head. 
And no eyes. 

Ans. Tongs.* 

103. Higher than the house. 
Higher than the tree. 

Oh, what can this little thing be? 

A /Sky. 


104. Whitey went upstairs, 
Whitey came downstairs, 
Whitey left whitey upstairs. 

Ans, A hen went upstairs, 
and laid a egg (aigg).* 
> Compare MAPLS z6 : z66. > Compare JAFL 34 : a8 (No. 19). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 201 (No. 4); 34 : 28 (No. 23). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 276 (No. 9); 34 : 29 (No. 27); MAFLS 16 : 159 (No. 4a). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 204 (No. 29); 3^ : 388 (No. z); 34 : 35 (No. 5). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

324 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

105. Ippie ippie upstairs, 
Ippie ippie downstairs, 
If you don't watch out, 
Ippie ippie'll bite yer. 

Ans. Wasp.* 

106. 01' Mother Twichet 
Had but one eye 
An' a long tail; 
Dat she let fly. 
An' ev'y time 

She went thro' a gap, 
I bite off her tail. 
She lef in the crack. 

Ans. Nee<lle.< 

107. Black we are, but much admired; 
Men seek for us until they're tired; 
We tire the horses, but comfort man. 
Tell me this riddle if you can. 

Ans. Coal.* 

108. As I went through the garden gap, 
Who could I meet but Dick Redcap, 

A stick in his hand, and a stone in his throat. 
Tell me this riddle, I'll give you a goat.^ 

Ans. Cherry.* 

109. Flower of Virginia, 
Fruit of Sp>ain, 

Met together in a shower of rain. 

Put in a bag, 

Tie it up with a string. 

Tell me this riddle, I'll give you a pin. 

Ans. Plum pudding.* 

no. As I was going somewhere, 

I saw a ship come sailin'. 
It was loaded with people. 
As I drew near, 
I didn't see a single person. 

Ans, They were all married. 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 206 (No. 50); 3a : 389 (No. 11); 34 : a? (No. la). 

> Givenina^schooI-reader.WorkandPlay with Language, by Robbint and Row. Com- 
pare JAFL 34 : zio (No. 3)* 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 85 (No. 2a). 

« This riddle was told to me several times, and the "groat** of the original was always 
rendered "goat." 

* Learned from a book. Compare JAFL 34 : S5 (No. a4). 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Folk-Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 325 

111. As I was goin' up London Bridge, 
I met three living people, 

They were neither men, women or children. 

Ans, Was a man, a woman, and a child .^ 

112. Big at the bottom, 
Little at the top. 

In the middle go flippity flop. 

Ans. Chum.* 

113. Thirty white horses 'pon a red hill. 
Now they tramp, now they champ, 
Now they stand still. 

Ans, Teeth and gums.* 

1 14. What is that all young misses look for and don't wish to find? — 
Ans. Hole in stocking. 

115. Why is a black hen greater than a white hen? — Ans. Because 
a black hen can lay a white egg, and a white hen can't lay a black egg. 

116. There was a man of Adam's race 
Had a certain dwelling-place, 
Not in heaven, not in hell. 

Not on earth where human dwell. 

Ans. Jonah in the whale's belly. ^ 

117. When does a dawg wear the mos' clothes, — in winter, or sum- 
mer? — Ans. In summer, because he wears a coat, and pants. 

118. Why does a hen cross a road? — Ans. To get on the other side. 

119. Black an' white an' red all over. — Ans. Newspaper.* 

120. I had a little sister 
They call Peep Peep; 
She wades the water 
Deep, deep, deep; 

She climbs the mountain 
High, high, high. 
Poor little thing 
Has but one eye. 

Ans. Star.* 

121. Oncet a man had a goose, a fox, and a bag of corn to carry across 
the river in a boat. He couldn' leave the fox with the goose, because 
the fox would eat the goose. He couldn' leave the goose with the com, 

1 Compare JAFL 34 : S5 (No. 33). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : 20a (No. x6); 32 : 390 (No. ax); 34 : 34 (No. 63); MAFLS z6 t 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 2$ (No. 3* variant i). 

* Compare JAFL 34 : 83 (No. 8). 

* C^ompare JAFL 30 : aoi (No. 8); 34 : 3X (No. 44)f 88 (No. 67). 

* Compare JAFL 30 : ao6 (No. 53). 

Digitized by 


326 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

because the goose would eat the corn. He could only cany one at a 
time. How did he take them over? — Ans. He carried over the goose 
and left the goose over, and came back and got the com and carried the 
goose back. He carried the fox over and went back and got the goose.^ 

122. A man had twenty sick sheep (sounds like twenty-six). One 
died. How many did he have left? — Ans. Nineteen* (but the guesser 
will most alwa3rs say twenty-five). 

RIDDLES (1894). 

123. White told White to take White and run White out of White.' 

124. Two big biscuits, one cup of coffee, 
Gwine to Augusta black and dirty. 

Ans. Locomotive. 

125. "Fry me some eggs, fry me some eggs! " — 
"Got no lard, got no lard! *' — 

"Tallow will do, tallow will do." — 

"Cloddy land, cloddy land." — 

"Plough it deep, plough it deep!" — 

"Muddy de water, muddy de water!" 

Ans. A pond full of green frogs 
talking to themselves. 
When the sixth frog says 
"Muddy de water," he see 
his enemy, they all dis- 

126. As I was walking out one day, 
I saw a wonderful thing. 
Twas not in the earth, 
Twas not in the sky, 

Twas (k)not in a tree. 

Where could this wonderful thing be? 

Ans. In a tree.* 

127. Green Morocco built a ship. 
An' he built it for his daughter. 
An' I've told her name three times. 

An' I'm ashamed to tell three times over. 

Ans. Her name was Ann. 

128. Travels round the fields all day, 

Comes home at night and sits under the bed. 

Ans. The farmer's shoes.* 
» Compare JAFL 3a : 375 (No. i); MAFLS 16 : 161 (No. 56). 
« Compare JAFL 34 : 36 (No. 85). 84 (No. 18); MAFLS 16 : 175 (No. 187). 
» See No. x. 

* See No. 43. 

• See No. 3. 

Digitized by 


Folk'Lore from Elizabeth City County, Va. 327 

129. Clink, clank, under the bank. 
Ten against four. 

Ans. The cow being milked. 

130. As I was going across London Bridge, 
I heard an old man give a squall. 

His head was bald, his bill was — (?),* 
Such an old man never was bom. 

Ans. An owl. 

131. Black on black, and black on brown, 
Three legs up, and six legs down. 

Ans. A black man on a brown horse, with a 
black pot upside down on his head.* 

132. Up chip cherry, down chip cherry, 
Many man in jerry 

Can climb chip cherry. 

Ans, The sun.' 

133. Hitty titty in the house, 
Hitty titty out of doors. 

Nary man can catch hitty titty. 

Ans. Smoke. 

134. Nine cows had ten calves, and nary one had two. — Ans. One 
cow's name was Nary One. 

135. I love love, love can't love me; 

I feel love, but love can't feel me. 

Ans. A man who committed a crime had to get up 
a riddle that no one could tell, if he would 
save his life. He killed his dog, whose name 
was Love, and put a piece of him in his 
pocket; then, with his hand in his pocket 
touching the piece of the dog, he gave out 
this riddle. No one could guess it. His life 
was saved.* 

136. If he come, he no come. 
If he no come, he come. 

Ans. Planted corn. If the crow come, 
com no come.* 

1 The mlatiiig word is probably "horn." Compare JAFL 30 : ao6 (No. 4S). 
> Compare JAFL 30 : 205 (No. 36). 

* Very popular in the Sea Islands, South Carolina (MAFLS z6 : 153-153, No. 5). 
< Compare JAFL 30 : 203 (No. 23); 32 : 389 (No. 18); MAFLS x6 : X57 (No. 37). 

• See No. 7. 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Three Jamaican Folk-Stories. — The following Anansi stories and 
the songs which go with them were collected incidentally by the writer in 
Jamaica during the winter of 1920-21, while making a study of Jamaican 
folk-song as part of the Vassar College study of Jamaican folk-lore, which 
is conducted by Miss Martha W. Beckwith, They were accidentally 
omitted from the larger collection to be published as Memoir XVII of the 
American Folk-Lore Society. 

I. King's Daughters an' Anansi. — Once de king had t'ree daughter; an' 
him said, if any one know de name ob his daughter, he will gib dem one to 
marry to. Anansi heah. One day de tVee daughter were passing, an' dey 
saw a tree wid some cherries; an' den Anansi said, if dey wanted a cherry, 
he would pull dem; an' de lady tell him to go an' pull dey; an' when he 
pull dem, he t'row dem. When he was comin' down, he t'row himself off 
a tree, an' de king's daughter begun to cry; an' one said, "Po' me William 
Daniel!" an' de odder said, ''Po' me Coming, po' me walk lak a turn be 
shem shem!" So one day de king were looking out, an' him heah Anansi 
coming playing, "Me Corny mek me get me William Daniel." An' Anansi 
marry to him. 

When Anansi fall down off a tree, him form die, but he didn' dead at all, 
an' de king daughter get a carriage an' tek him home. 

[The tune that Anansi was playing is given below. It was obtained 
from Winifred Leach of Brown's Town.] 


1 /3 J. jm;. /;■ ji i A ij I, If i _^ 

An' ma Corn • j mek ma gat m> Wil - liun Dan • iel him 



•'-ri i 


wftik lak a tarn-be shtm, ihem,hfan walk lak a tam-be ihtm, sham. 

[This story is of European derivation, and is also given by Jekyll ("Ja- 
maican Song and Story," No. II), as "Yung-Kyum-Pyung;" but the story 
is not quite the same, and the songs are very different.] 

2. Anansi an' Tumble-Tud. — Once Anansi an' Tumble-Tud went to 
Kingston. De two ob dem brought a barrel each ob cheese. When dey 
were coming back, Anansi an* Tumble-Tud ate up one barrel; an' when he 
ketch part ob de way, Tumble-Tud tol' Anansi to eat his; but Anansi toF 
him to roll it home, an' he will gib him some ob his. But when dey come 
home, Anansi kep' his barrel. Dey call de barrel " tii^l^l/^ by LjOOQ IC 

Notes and Queries. 


[The song which is sung is what Anansi sang to his barrel on the way 
home, when he was struggling with it, before he inveigled Tumble-Tud into 
doing the work. It was obtained from the same source as No. i.] 

J = 96. 

|>lJJi^iJ.Ji^ , J!Ji/ | l f. S J' 1^ ^^ 


BoU, ms tun-lMl, roU, me Back-y Tim - bal, lol • low ms, ms Beek-y 

»T^^nrp^M J'J i J' J' J ; ^ 

Tim - bal, lol - low mo 'long road, mo Bock-y Tim - bol lol - low mo, 

^ j' J - II 

> I a 


U i J' ^ XJ 

Bon, moTim-bal roll, mo Bock • y Tim - bol, Id - low mo. 

3. Bra Yebel. — H'Anansi walk him groun', an' him plant it, an' him 
plant plantain, an' he had two plantain, bear two bunches, an' ebry day 
him gwine a' him groun' an' da watch dose plantain. Had groun' nex' to a 
fiel' belong to Bra Yebel, an' Bra Yebel hab two daughter, an' Bra H'Anansi 
ben want de two daughter to co't, an' he ax Bra Yebel fe gib him daughter 
fe marry to. Bra Yebel tell him, "No." Well, Bra H'Anansi bex wid 
Bra Yebel. One day Bra H'Anansi went bahk to de fiel' an' cut off half 
ob de plantain an' went away wid it; an' de nex' day Bra H'Anansi go 
bahk a de fiel', miss de plantain, an' say Bra Yebel tief it. But him didn' 
call out Bra Yebel name yet. 

[Calling out the name means actually to accuse a person of guilt. Evi- 
dently, however, Anansi soon decided to make up a song in which he could 
hint about what Bra Yebel was supposed to have done: for this is the song 
he sang, which I obtained from Alfred Williams of Maroon Town, — ] 




IrflTuf Lf t7rr , .fff 

iL^ ] SlL^^^LJm 

Bni To • bol, ok, mo mm. oh, 


Bn To-bol, 


f f m f ty- 1 1 r ff i 4 r t 




I, oh, Bra To - M, oh, 

'A\V I II 

r i iir-i^ t m 

fin- g | f I I 

ndn, ok, Bni To - bol, ah, mo pUo - tain ah. 

Nsw York. 

Helen H. Roberts. 

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330 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Tar Baby." — In the "Scientific Monthly" of September, 1922, 
Dr. W. Norman Brown of the Johns Hopkins University makes an argument 
for the African origin of "Tar Baby" as against the Jacobs theory of 
origin in India. In Dr. Brown's brief the strongest point is the lack of 
versions of "Tar Baby" in the folk-lore of peoples otherwise borrowing 
from India, and yet the point is in itself inconclusive: tales do not have to 
travel, however well established the folk-lore highway may be. 

However, until we get other versions, European or Arabic, of "Tar 
Baby," to add to the Portuguese Negro versions from the Cape Verde 
Islands, in which "Tar Baby" appears in conjunction with the "Master 
Thief" cycle, I fully agree with Dr. Brown that the hypothesis I advanced 
in "Folklore," that "Tar Baby" may have travelled in that cycle from 
Asia, is tenuous. 

"Tar Baby" is undoubtedly, as Dr. Brown points out, more popular or 
widespread to-day in Negro cultures than in other cultures; but that is 
far from proving that the tale was not carried from outside into Africa. 
Tales, like customs or other cultural expressions, may very well start, or, 
better say, take a distinctive form, in one place, and accrue greatly in vogue 
or in color in another place. In fact, such process is highly characteristic 
of cultural change. 

It is in just such change in tales that folk-lorists are coming to be more 
and more interested, as well as in the areas of tale-distribution, rather than 
in the "origins" of tales. Of what tale can it be known that it is not 
borrowed? Now, in studying distribution and change, it is important, we 
know, to distinguish very clearly between the pattern of the tale and its 
dress or setting. In his discussion of "Tar Baby," Dr, Brown has in several 
particulars failed to do this. Whether the personage of a tale is animal or 
human, is immaterial to the pattern, or whether or not the tale is used to 
point a moral; and in "Tar Baby" the nature of the trap is immaterial, 
— "Tar Baby" is a misleading title, — or even the escape from the predica- 
ment, or, in last analysis, basing the incident as a whole on a theft. The 
pattern of "Tar Baby" is what Dr. Brown properly calls "the stick-fast 
motif," — how different parts of the person in succession are caught and 
held. This being so, I fail to see how Dr. Brown can eliminate the version 
from India which he cites, that of the Samyutta Nik&ya, as the earliest 
recorded version of the same tale of which we have so many lately-recorded 
versions in Africa and in America. 

A close parallel to the India version was found by Professor Aurelio 
M. Espinosa on his recent expedition to Spain; and to be added to the 
bibliography of the tale, as given by Dr. Brown and in "Folklore" 
(30 : 227-234), are the following references: Porto Rico (JAFL 34 : 164- 
165); Pueblo Indians (Taos), Parsons in MS.; and, recently noted by 
Dr. Boas, Guiana Indians (T. Koch-GrQnberg, Vom Roroima zum Ori- 
noco, 2 [i9i6]:47); Africa, F. Bachmann, "Nyiha Mfirchen" (Zt. f. 
Kolonial-Sprachen, 6 : 84-86); C. Mitterrutzner, "Die Sprache der Bari 
in Zentral-Afrika," 10-15 (1867); "Afrikanische Mftrchen," 95, 312, 325, 
335 Qena, 192 1). 

E.C. P. 

Digitized by 


Notes and Queries. 331 

Fkom "Spisitual" to Vaudbville. — In the Negro musical comedy 
"Shuffle Along," which had a long run in New York City in 1922, one 
song was so notably in music and verbal form of the familiar type of "spir- 
itual," that I made inquiry about its history, and, through the kindness of 
Mrs. Grace Nafl Johnson, was given by one of the Four Harmony Kings 
who sang the song a note on how the song was learned by the quartette, 
and the fdlowing wording: — 

I. Ain't it a afaame to tteal on Sunday. 
Ain't it a shame to tteal on Sunday, 
Ain't it a shame to steal on Sunday, 

Ain't it a shame. 
Ain't it a shame to steal on Sonday, 
When you got lidondayt Ttiesday, Wednesday, 
Thursday, Friday, Saturday too. 

Ain't it a shame? 

a. Ain't it a shame to drink hootch on Sunday, etc 

3. Ain't it a shame to shimmy on Sunday, etc 

4. Ain't it a shame to gamble on Sunday, etc 

The quartette first heard the song at a Negro meeting in St. Louis by 
" Jubilee singers." " We learned it only to use in our jubilee work, but we 
used it one night as an encore in ' Shuffle Along,' and it was at once a big 
hit. It is the biggest number we use now. We had several offers from 
publishers who wanted to put the song into a jubilee catalogue; but before 
this could be done, J. S. B. and W. H., hearing us sing the song, slipped 
and had it published. But they added a whole lot to it, which has spoiled 
it, and is not the way we sing it at all. Now the Black Swan Record Com- 
pany have put it out, with us singing it. ... It is a wonderful song, that 
not only expresses the religious feeling of older days, but fits into this day 
and time." — A bit of acculturation, indeed! 

E. C. P. 

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332 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


The Black Border. By Ambrose E. Gonzalbs. Columbia* S.C., 1922. 

Thb stories of this "Black Border," which is the coast and islands of 
South Carolina and Georgia, are stories, not by the folk, but about them, 
and are not entirely interesting to the folk-lorist, unless the literary setting 
which is determined by the white Southern point of view is taken itself as 
folk-lore. The attitude of the writer towards the Negro dialect that he 
has recorded, it is to be said, with considerable care, can hardly be taken in 
any other way. For example, after drawing attention to certain vowel- 
sounds, he telb us that "in no other tongue, perhaps, can so much be 
expressed with so little strain upon brain or lips or glottis as by the Gullah's 
laconic use of these grunting jungle-sounds," — for the student of phonetics, 
a rather diverting reference to the subtle sounds and tones of the languages 
of Africa. 

In a primer by two students of African phonetics — Daniel Jones of the 
University of London, and Solomon Tshekisho Plaatje of Kimberley — 
occurs this maxim: " Don't imagine that a difficult language can be turned 
into an easy one if you only clothe it in an inaccurate but familiar-looking 
orthography." May not this apply to the writing of dialect as well as of 
mother-tongue — to "Gullah" as well, say, as to Sechuana? It requires 
special training to write languages according to a rigid phonetic system; 
and, when so written, they are a sealed book to the general reader. In 
this country it has become a tradition to write Negro dialect according to 
an orthography which is neither phonetic nor conventional, but a mixture 
of the two stirred by the whim of the writer. As the task of writing dialect 
phonetically, with the Queen's English involved, is not to be undertaken 
single-handedly, would it not be well to agree to keep as closely to conven- 
tional orthography as possible, expressing the elisions, which bulk large in 
Negro dialect, by apostrophes, and changing letters only when actually 
there is a difference in pronunciation? To take instances from the Gullah 
glossary given as an appendix in "The Black Border," why not write 
"dange'ous" instead of "dainjus," "chil*" instead of "chile," or, "bery 
well den" instead of "berrywellden"? and why write "cundemn" for 
"condemn," "fast'n" for "fasten," "i'on" for "iron," "gonnil" for "gun- 
wale," "pawpus" for "porpoise," "'nuf" for "*nough"? Is this proneness 
to out-dialect dialect associated in any way, one wonders, with such prac- 
tices as referring to Negroes as "darkies" or of classifying by indirection 
through using the term "educated Negro" where, in equivalent circum- 
stance, the term "educated white" would not be used? Such verbal habits 
will have to receive attention from the psychologists when the psychologists 
undertake a serious study of the feeling of cultural superiority. 

But, besides orthographic oddities and cultural self-assertiveness, there 
have strayed into Mr. Gonzales' Gullah glossary bits of interesting Negro- 
lore. Small frogs are called "fry-bakin frogs" from their call, "Fry-bacon, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Reviews. 333 

tea-table! fry-bacon, tea-table!" "grin' salt" (grinding salt) is said of a 
circling hawk or vulture; "sweet-mout' talk" is that of a philanderer; 
"long mout*" describes the surly or contemptuous pushing-out of the lips 
of an angry or discontented person; "long talk ketch run'way nigguh" 
means that talk by the roadside caused runaway slaves to be caught by 
the "patrol;" "plat-eye" is the name of an apparition common to the 
Georgetown section of the coast; and so on. 

E. C. P. 
Nkw York. 

Digitized by 


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Tzx.KS,^PresideHt, W. IL Thomas, College Station, Tex.; First Vice-President, Mrs. E. Owen, 
Rio Grande City; Second Vice-President^ Victor J. Smith, Alpine, Tex.; Secretary- Trea surer ^ ]. Frank 
Dobie, University of Texas, Austin, Tex.; Councillors, Clyde Chew Glascock (Rice Institute, 
Houston, Tex.), Gates Thomas (San Marcos, Tex.), Miss Julia Estill (Fredericksburg, Tex.). 

Virginia. — President, John M. Stone, Mount Fair, Va.; Vice-President, Miss Martha M. DaTii, 
Harrisonburg, Va,; Secretary- TVeasurer, Walter A. Montgomery, Richmond College, Richmond, Va.; 
Archivist, C. Alphonso Smithy U. S. Naval Academy, Annapolis, Md. 

West Virginia. — President and General Editor, John Harrington Cox, West Virginia University, 
Morgantown, W.Va.; Vice-President, Robert Allen Armstrong, West Virginia University, Morgan- 
town, W.Va. ; Secretary- Treasurer, Walter Barnes, Fairmont Normal School, Fairmont, W.Va. 

Mexico. — President, Manuel Gamio, Inspector-General of Monuments, Mexico City, Mex, 

Canada. — Presidetit, E. Sapir, Victoria Museum, Ottawa; Secretary, C.-M. Barbeau, Victoria 
Museum, Ottawa; Treasurer, Gustave Lanctot, Dominion Archives, Ottawa; Editor, J. F. Kenney, 
Dominion Archives, Ottawa. 

Battr*d as ••cond^daM .matttr, July 6, 19x1. at tb« Pott Office at Lancaster. Pa., under the Act of March j. ilyf . 


Notes and QuERiES.—Three Jamaican Folk-Stories. Helen H. Roberts.—* 'Tar Baby." 
£. C. P.— From "Spiritual" to Vaudeville. E. C. P, 

Reviews.— Gonzales* The Black Border. E. C. P. 

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VII. Fanny D. Bergen, Animal and Plant Lore. Collected from the Oral 
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Vin. George A. Dorsey, Traditions of the Skidi Pawnee. With Intro- 
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IX. M. R. Cole, Los Pastores. A Mexican Miracle Play* Translation, 
Introduction, and Notes. With Illustrations and Music. 1907. 
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X. Eleanor Hague, Spanish-American Folk-Songs. 1917. 11 1 p. $3.50. 

XL James A. Teit, Marian K. Gould, Livingston Farrand, HBRBSmT 
J. Spinden, Folk-Tales of Salishan and Sahaptin Tribes. Edited 
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XII. Filipino Popular Tales.- Collected and edited, with Comparative 
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XIII. Elsie Clews Parsons, The Folk-Tales of Andros Island, Bahamas. 

1918. XX + 170 p. J53.50. 

XIV. Mercie L. Taylor, Index to Volumes I-XXV (1888-191^) of the 

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XV. Elsie Clews Parsons, Folk-Lore from the Cape Verde Islands. 

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XVI. Elsie Clews Parsons, Folk-Talcs of the Sea Islands, South Carolina. 

In press. Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Vol. 35. OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1922/ ' N . 



£Dir£D BY 


Ass§ciatt Editors, 





r. Traditional Texts and Tunes | ^^^^ ^ ^^^^ | 335 

2. Index to Volume 35 433 


• G. E. STECHERT & CO., NEW YORK, Aow^Tp^zedbyGoOglc 


,.^ ^T^t^NAV OF AMERICAN FqLK-LORE (Quarterly: Editor, Franz 

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Authors alone are responsible for the cont;ents of their paperjB. 

Officers of the American Folk-Lore Society ( 1 922)# 

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Firs/ Vice-President, — E. C. Hills, University of California, Berkeley, Cal. 

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Editor of Journal, — Franz Boas, Columbia University, New York, N.Y. 

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Permanent Secretary, — Charles Peabody, Peabody Museum, Cambridge, Mass. 

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Officers of Local and State Branches and Societies* 

Boston. — President^ Charles Peabody ; First Vice-President^ F. H. Putnam, Cambridge, Mass. ; 
Second Vice-President, H. D. Heathfield, Boston, Mass.; Secretary, Miss M. Fish, 9 Prescott St., 
Brookline, Mass. ; Treasurer, Samuel B. Dean, 2 B Newbury St., Boston. 

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8 Lowell St., Cambridge; Treasurer, Carleton E. Noyes, 30 Francis Ave., Cambridge ; Secretary, 
Miu Penelope Noyes, Cambridge. 

Kkhtvcky,^ Vice-Presidents, Mrs, Fannie C.Duncan, Miss Josephine McGill; Secretary, Miss 
Myra Sanders ; Treasurer, John F. Smith, Berea College, Berea, Ky. 

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Mrs. Edward Schaaf (2606 South Grand Ave., St. Louis, Mo. ), Mrs. Eva W. Case (2822 Troost St., 
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North CMiOU^k,— President, William Johnston Andrews; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. William N. 
Reynolds, Mrs. S. Westray Battle, Miss Maude Minish; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank C. Brown, 
301 Faculty Ave., Durham, N.C. 

North J^KKOTK.-^Secretary, George F. Will, Bismarck, N.D. 

South Carolina.— Prwiicw/, Reed Smith, 1628 Pendleton St, Colombia, S.C; Vict-Presidmt, 
Hanry C. Davis, 2532 Divine St., Columbia, S.C; Secretary and Treasurer, F. W. Cappdmano, 
Law Range, Colombia, S.C. 

TlNNissii.— .5><:r//ary, Henry M. Wiltse, Chattanooga, Tcnn. 


Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



Vol. 3S,— OCTOBER-DECEMBER, 1922,— No. 138. 



The present collection is a continuation of the one in this Journal, 
xxix [1916], 155-197, entitled "Some Songs Traditional in the United 
States." That paper will be cited here as Part I, with the page refer- 
ence added. As in the earlier paper, the material will be arranged in 
the following divisions: I. Older ballads (those in Child); II. Modem 
ballads (excluding homiletic ballads and play-party songs); III. 
Homiletic ballads; IV, Play-party songs. The texts under I are 
numbered as in Child. Under each of the other divincms the arrange- 
ment is alphabetical by titles. A generally accepted title is used when 
practicable. It is not the intention to print a text which is virtually 
a duplicate of one already in print and generally accessible. 

If any ballad treated here is mentioned in one of the four following 
lists, the fact is indicated, unless reference is made instead to a pub- 
lished version of that collector. 


Phillips Barry [check-list], no date [approximately 1907]. Privately printed. 
(A New England collection; 84 ballads described.) 

H. M. Belden, Song-ballads . . • known in Missouri, 2d ed., 1910. Pri- 
vately printed. (145 titles.) 

Louise Pound, Folk-Song of Nebraska and the Central West, A Syllabus. 
Nebraska Academy of Sciences, 1915. (More than 500 titles; 16 
"Pioneer and Western Songs" given in full.) 

Hubert G. Shearin and Josiah H. Combs, A Syllabus of Kentucky Folk- 
Songs. Transylvania University, Lexington, Ky., 191 1. (About 
350 titles.) 

In addition to the volimies of this Journal, cited as JAFL, the follow- 

* The present collection has been put in fonn by the undersigned; but Miss Eddy has 
contributed so much to it, that it seems only fair to. name her as joint author. Almost 
all of the airs here printed have come from her. I have no knowledge of music Miss 
Eddy is trying to collect all the folk-songs surviving in tradition in the State of Ohio, 
beth the words and the airs. She will welcome assistance. The address PerrysviUe, C, 
will always reach her. — A. H. Tolbian. ^ 

33 335 Digitized by L^OOgle 

336 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

ing collections have been examined for texts and parallels. These are 
usually referred to by title only. Books printed before 1898 are not 
dted for texts of ballads contained in Child's great collection, com- 
pleted in that year. References which seem to contradict this prin- 
ciple are given for the tunes. Some of the books named were not be- 
fore me when this paper was first written in 1917. References in 
Kittredge, ''Ballads and Songs" (JAFL xxx, 283-369), are usually 
not repeated here. 

^i. Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs of the Peasantry of England, James 

Henry Dixon (in vol. xvii of the publications of the Percy Society). 

2. Ancient Scots Ballads, with the traditional airs . . . George Eyre-Todd. 

London, n.d. [1894 ?]. 

— 3. Ballads and Songs of Lancashire, ed. by John Harland, edition of 1875. 

London, Routledge. (Contains few folk-songs.) 
Q4. Cowboy Songs, John A. Lomax. New York, 1910. (An enlarged edi- 
tion came out later.) 
-^ 5. Early Ballads . . . also Ballads and Songs of the Peasantry of England, 
Robert Bell. London, 1877. (Reprints much of Dixon's collection, 
No. I above.) 

6. English County Songs, Lucy E. Broadwood and J. A. Fuller Maitland. 

London, 1893. 

7. English Folk-Songs, Wm. Alexander Barrett. London, n.d., Novello. 

8. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, Olive Dame 

Campbell and Cecil J. Sharp, with introduction, notes, and bibliog- 
raphy. Putnam, 19 17. (Especially valuable.) 

9. English Minstrelsie, S. Baring-Gould. 8 vols., Edinburgh [1895-97]. 

(Not many folk-songs included.) 

10. English Traditional Songs and Carols . . . with accompaniments, Lucy 

E. Broadwood. London, 1908, Boosey. 

11. The Folk-Lore of Herefordshire, Ella Mary Leather. London, 1912. 

12. Folk-Songs from Dorset, H. E. D. Hammond. London, 1908, Novello. 

13. Folk-Songs from the Eastern Counties, R. Vaughan Williams. London, 

1908, Novello. 

14. Folk-Songs from Hampshire, George B. Gardiner. London, 1909, 


15. Folk-Songs from Somerset, Cecil J. Sharp and Charles L. Marson, five 

series. London, first edition, 1904-09. 

16. Folk-Songs from Sussex, W. Percy Merrick. London [1912], Novello. 

17. Folk-Songs of the Kentucky Mountains, Josephine McGill. New York 

and London, 1917, Boosey. 

18. A Garland of Country Song, S. Baring-Gould and H. Fleetwood Shep- 

pard. London, 1895, Methuen. 

19. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 6 vols, and Part I of Vol. vii. London, 

1899-1922. (In progress.) 

20. Lonesome Tunes: Folk Songs from the Kentucky Mountains, Vol. I, 

Loraine Wyman and Howard Brockway. New York, 1916, H. W, 
Gray Co. 

Digitized by VjOOQIC • 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 337 

21. The Minstrelsy of England, Alfred Moffat and Frank Kidson. London, 

1901. (Not many folk-songs are included.) 
a2. Modem Street Ballads, John Ash ton. London, 1888, Chatto. 

23. Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs, [Miss] M. H. Mason. London, 

new ed., 1908. 

24. One Hundred English Folksongs, Cecil J. Sharp. Boston, 1916, Ditson. 

25. The Popular Songs of Scotland, with . . . melodies, George F. Graham. 

London, new ed., 1884. 
"26. The Quest of the Ballad, by W. Roy Mackenzie. Princeton University 
Press, 1919. (Nova Scotian material. Referred to as "Mackenzie," 
with page-numbers.) 
Real Sailor-Songs, John Ashton. London, 1891. 
-28. The Roxburghe Ballads, Wm. Chappell and J. W. Ebsworth. 8 vols. 

London and Hertford, Printed for the Ballad Society, 1871-99. 
-29. The Roxburghe Ballads, Charles Hindley, Esq. 2 vols. London, 1873, 
1874, Reeves and Turner. 

30. Scots Minstrelsie, John Greig. 6 vols. Edinburgh, vol. ii dated 1893. 

31. The Shirbum Ballads, 1585-1616, Andrew Clark. Oxford, 1907. 

32. Songs and Ballads of Northern England, John Stokoe and Samuel Reay. 

London [1892], Scott. 

33. The Songs of Scotland, J. Pittman and Colin Brown. London, n.d., 


34. Songs of the West, S. Baring-Gould and others. London, 5th ed. with 

additions [1913I, Methuen. 

35. Traditional Tunes . . . with Words, Frank Kidson. Oxford, 1891- 
<J36. Vagabond Songs and Ballads of Scotland, Widi Many Old . . . Melodies, 

Robert Ford. Paisley, new ed., 1904, Gardner. 

In this list Nos. i, 3, 5, 22, 26, 27, 28, 29, 31, print no tunes; Nos. 
4, 36, print some airs; the other collections give both words and music. 
For a valuable list of books on the subject of traditional music, see 
"Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 61-65; iii, 144 f., 244 f., 319 f.; 
iv, 82, 142; v, 252. Nos. 4, 8, 17, 20, in the above list, contain texts 
and airs found in the United States. No. 26 is Nova Scotian material. 

Some ballads taken up in Part I, and not elsewhere mentioned in 
this article, have interesting variants in "English Folk Songs from 
the Southern Appalachians." I dte Part I by page and title, and 
the texts of Mrs. Campbell and Mr. Sharp by numbers. Part I, 
p. 158, "The Twa Brothers" (Child, No. 49), = No. 11 in C. and S. 
(4 texts, 5 airs); p. 159, "Lord Thomas and Fair Annet" (Child, 73), 
«= No. 16 in C. and S. (2 texts, 11 airs);^ p. 171, "Dog and Gun," 
« No. 52 in C. and S.; p. 190, "The Unlucky Young Man," — com- 
pare No. 115 in.C. and S.* 

The compilers of this collection are most grateful to Professor Kit- 

> See also Mackenzie, pp. 97-99* 

* ^ee also "Posey Boy/' Sturgis and Hughes, Songs from the Hills of Vermont 
(New York [I9I9D. PP. 7-9.J 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

338 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

tredge for advice and assistance. His additions and annotations 
are indicated by brackets. 
The material here presented was first put together in 1917.^ 


(numbbrbd as in child). 


Fart I, 156; JAFL XXX, 286; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 11 ; 

English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 2 (4 texts, 5 airs); 

Mackenzie, pp. 93-95. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, ii, 283 (3 airs) ; 

Songs of Northern England, 130; English County Songs, 164. 

Obtained through Miss Eddy, from Mrs. Betty Mace, Perrsyville, O, 

LiMe Golden. 

1. Come listen, come listen, young people all, 

A story unto you I will tell, 
Of a false-hearted knight and lltde Golden, 

And the truth unto you I will tell, tell, tell, 
And the truth unto you I will tell. 

2. He went unto her father's house 

About nine o'clock at night; 
Up bespeaks the parrot. 

And unto the Golden did say, 
"What is the matter with my little Golden, 

That you are up before day, day, day. 
That you are up before day? " 

3. "Hold your tongue, my pretty parrot. 

No tales on me do tell. 
And your cage shall be lined with the yellow glittering gold, 

And hung on yon wiUow tree, tree, tree. 
And hung on yon willow tree." 

4. They took of her father's yellow glittering gold, 

Likewise of her mother's fees, 
And the two best horses in her father's stable 

Wherein stand thirty and three, three, three. 
Wherein stand thirty and three. 

5. She jumped on the bonny, bonny brown. 

And he on the dapplin' gray; 
They rode till they came to the sea-beating shore, 

Long, long before it was day, day, day. 
Long, long before it was day. 

1 Professor Louise Pound of the University of Nebraska has brought out an esoeUent 
anthology of American folk-poetry, American Ballads and Songs (Scribner's, zgaa), with 
an introduction, notes, and an index. For many of the ballads here given good texts 
may be found there. By a regrettable oversight, references to that book have not been 

Inserted in reading the proof of the present collection, except in a few casQS. qqq I p 

igi ize y g 

TradUional Texts and Tunes. 339 

6« "Take off, take off that fine sOk gown, 
And lie it on yonder stone; 
For it is too fine and over-costly 

To rot in a watery tomb, tomb, tomb. 
To rot in a watery tomb." 

7. "O turn your head around about. 

And gaze at the leaves on yon tree; 
Ain't it a pity such a rebel as you 

A naked woman should see, see, see, 
A naked woman should see? " 

8. He turned his head around about, 

To gaze at the leaves on yon tree; 
So manfully she picked him up. 

And plunged him into the sea, sea, sea. 
And plunged him into the sea. 

Saying, " Six king's daughters you have drownded here, 

And the seventh has drownded thee, thee, thee. 
And the seventh has drownded thee." 

10. She jumped on her bonny, bonny brown, 

And led home the dapplin' gray, 
She rode till she came to her father's stable. 

One long hour before it was day, day, day. 
One long hour before it was day. 

11. Then up bespeaks her father, 

And unto the parrot did say, 
"What's the matter with my pretty Polly, 

That you're plattering so long before day, day, day, 
That you're plattering so long before day? " 

12. "Two strange (or wild) cats came to my cage door. 

And said they would murder me. 
And I was calling to little Golden, 

To drive these cats off away, 'way, 'way, 
To drive these cats off away." 


Part 1, 157; JAFL xxx, 289-290; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 18; 
Andent Scots Ballads, 48; Scots Minstrelsie, iv, 128; Songs of Scotland, 136; 
The Songs of England, ed. J. L. Hatton, London, Boosey, n.d., iii; Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, v, 1 17-120, 122 f., 244-248; English Folk Songs 
from the Southern Appalachians, No. 6 (5 texts and airs); Shearin, Modern 
Language Review, xiv (1919)* 211-214. f ^^^^1^ 

Digitized by V^OOy LC 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

The following air comes from Miss Emma Schrader, University of 
Chicago, ''as I remember having heard my mother sing it, in Che- 
banse, III. It probably came from England with my grandparents, 
who came to America in 1845." 

|i f,'iij_N i j n \ i j ^. i j HiJ— tu-j^ 


'^h, where ha you been, Lord Ran • dal, my sen? And where 


jj j'Jij j'jij nv- ya^^ jji^^ 


hayottbeen, S2y handsome ink ■uf— "I ha been to the giM-iMi, Mother, 

,j I , ,, | J f r F4=^ 


'/j M' l i J'^'i^ -^^'N /Jij N-iJ a 

make my bed soon, For I'm sick at the heart, And I fain wadliedown." 


:J> f \ i J I f f iJ f f 




For references to American texts see JAFL xxx, 294-297. Add English 
Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 12 (2 texts, 5 airs); Mac- 
kenzie, pp. 1 1 2-1 18. 

Miss Eddy sends a fragmentary text of "Lord Bateman," gotten 
in Ohio. 

See Part I, 160; JAFL xxx, 302-304; English Folk Songs from the South- 
cm Appalachians, No. 17 (4 texts, 7 airs); Mackenzie, pp. 124-126. 

This text and air came to Miss Eddy through Miss Jane Goon from 
Mrs. Liza B. Bowman, Akron, O. 

n/ i j rrr J'l^' ^'J J J J I J J ^ 

I. Sweet Wil-liam a-rose one mer-ry May morning, And dressed himself in 

1 r J'J'i; .r.r r^^ij j j jg 

blue, Say-ing, "Come tell on - to me the long, long bveThafsbe- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 341 

^ /■^'■;'jjU..;.^'J' | ^.J'j^ 

tween La - dy Margaret and you.'* Say-!ng, "Come tell on - to me the 

P J J j'j'u i'n^j i ji^' i 

long, long love That's between La - dy Margaret and you.' 

2. "I know no harm of her," he said, 
"And I hope that she knows none of me, 

But to-morrow morning by eight of the clock 
Lady Margaret my bride shall see." 

3. Lady Margaret was standing in her own hall door, 
A-combing back her hair, 

When who did she spy but Sweet William and his bride, 
As they to the church drew near. 

4. She throwed down her ivory comb. 
And with silk she tied her hair, 

And this pretty, fair maiden went out of the room, 
And never was seen back there. 

5. The day was far spent and the night was coming on» 
When most of the men was at work; 

Sweet William he said he was troubled in his head 
By a dream that he dreampt that night. 

He dreamed his room was full of wild swine, 
And his bride's bed swimming in blood. 

The night was far spent, and the day coming on, 
When most of the men was asleep, 

When Lady Margaret's ghost appeared, 
And stood at his bed's feet. 

"How do you like your bed," says she, 

"And how do you like your sheet? 
And how do you like your newly-married bride. 

That lies in your arms and sleeps? " 

"Very well do I like my bed," said he, 

"And also I like my sheet. 
But the best of all is that fair lady in white 

That stands at my bed's feet." 

Digitized by 


342 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

10. Her face was as white as the driven snow, 

Clad in that yonder cloud, 
And day-cold was her lily-white hand, 
That held her lily-white shroud. 

11. Then he called on his merry maidens all, 

By one, by two, by three, 
And the last of all on his new married bride. 
Lady Margaret she might go and see. 

12* Oh, b she in her high bower-ee, 
Or is she in her hall. 
Or is she in her gay coaches, 
Among her merry maidens all? 

13* No, she is not in her high bower-ee. 
Nor she is not in her hall, 
But she is in her new coffin, 
Laid out against the wall. 

14. " Take down, take down, those sheets,*' said he, 

"Made out of the silk so fine, 
And let me kiss them day-cold lips, 
For so oft they have kissed mine." 

15. " Take down, take down, those sheets," said he, 

"Made out of the linen so fine. 
To-day they are over Lady Margaret's corpse. 
And to-morrow they will be over mine." 

16. Lady Margaret she died as if to-day. 

Sweet William he died on the morrow; 
Lady Margaret she died of pure, pure love, 
Sweet \^lliam he died of sorrow. 

17. Lady Margaret was buried under a cherry-tree top, 

Sweet William was buried under a willow. 
And they both grew high, and they both grew together, 
And they tied in a true-lovers' knot. 


Part I, 160. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 
18; Folk-Songs of the Kentucky Mountains, 9-13. Journal of the Folk- 
Song Sodety, vi, 31-33- 

Miss Eddy sends an excellent text that comes from Pennsylvania. 
She gets the following air from the singing of Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


O. " It resembles the tune to ' Lord Lovel ' in Sharp's ' One Hundred 
English Folksongs/ No. 26, and sounds very well with his accompani- 

; J ; jj m ] >j J'lf f f 

"Where are yoa go-ing, Lord Lov-er?"she said, "Oh, where are yon 

^\n [ I " r g r t i c; N J 

go-ing?"8aid she. 'Tm go-ing a -way, hdr Nan-qr Bell, Strange 

[J f h\^\ J J hifi hn]. j gl 

countries for to see, see, see, Strange countries for to see." 


In Part I, 160, two references are wrong. They should read: Journal of 
the Folk-Song Society, i, 265-267; JAFL xx, 256. Add: JAFL xxx, 317; 
English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 21 (6 texts, 10 
airs) ; a Nova Scotian text is in Mackenzie, pp. 100-102. Scots Minstrelsie, 
i, 92; Ancient Scots Ballads, 188; The Popular Songs of Soodand, 80; The 
Songs of Scotland, 152; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 7; Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, ii, 80 (2 airs). 

Since Part I was in print. Miss Eddy has obtained two more texts 
from Ohio, one from Kentucky, and the following tunes. The first air 
is from the singing of Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, O.; the second, 
from the singing of Mrs. Brannan, Lily, Ky. "This is the way she 
sang most of the stanzas." 

j l J J'J'^|J'j-jj.|j;/-f'|J ;J 

In Sto-ryTownwherel did live. There was a fair maid dwell -Ing, A 

') ^-^M'ljj 



young man on his death bed lay, Forthelore of Bar-bara £1 - len. 

If a J. Hi J. nn] rif!c/J'f c i g 


c r c i UJJ' i j JJif f fm^m 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

93. LAMKIN. 
Part I, 162-164; JAFL xxx, 318; English Folk Songs from the Southern 
Appalachians, No. 23. 

Miss Eddy sends Miss Goon's air for '' False Lambkin/' printed in 

\>.T: \ un j i , J J i j J :;i|.i 


False Lambkinwat a ma -ion As good as er • er laid stone. 


^flf J' J TTTj J. J' | J J J 1 ^ 1 

He built Lord Ar-nold's cas - tie And the Lord paid him none. 

Part I, 164-166; JAFL xxx, 322; Folk Songs from the Southern Appala- 
chians, No. 26. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, v, 253-256; English 
County Songs, 86; Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs, 46. 

The Jew's Daughter. 
Obtained by Miss Eddy from the singing of Mrs. Charles \A^8e, 
Perrysville, O. 


u, 1 1 ^'\ 






I. It rains, it mists, it rains, it mists, It sprinlcles all o • ver tlie 

ff f! rt i'\i iJ~n^ 



And all of the boys in our town Went out to 

'^F — ^ — '~rt w • • — * # •^^ — y — ' Jp •■• % 

toss thefa- ball, ball, baU, Went out to tou their ball 

2. At first they tossed it a litde too high. 

And then a litde too low. 
Over in the Jew's garden flew one of the balls, 
Where no one dared to go. 

3. Out came the Jew's daughter all dressed in silk, 

Crying, "Come in, little boy. 
Come in, come in, my pretty little boy I 
You shall have your ball again." 

4. "No, I won't come in, no, I sha'n't come in. 

Unless my playmates do. 
For of ttimes have I heard it said 
Whoever went in should never come out again." 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 345 

5. At first she showed him a ripe yellow apple, 

And then a gay» gold ring, 
And next a cherry as red as blood, 
To entice the little boy in. 

6. She took him by his lily-white hand, 

And drew him across the hall; 
Down in the dark cellar she went with him. 
Where no one could him amid [call]. 

7. And there she laid him upon a table 

Beside a great bow-knife, 
And called for a basin all lined with gold 
To catch his heart-blood in. 

8. "Lay my Bible at my head. 

My prayer-book at my feet, 
And when my playmates call for me. 
Pray, tell them I'm asleep. 

9. "Lay my prayer-book at my feet. 

My Bible at my head. 
And when my parents call for me. 
Pray, tell them that Tm dead." 


The Blaeberry Courtship. 

"The Blaeberry Courtship," or "The Blaeberries," which seems to 
be founded on the traditional ballad of ''Lizie Lindsay," has not, I 
think, been hitherto found in the United States; but Mackenzie 
prints a text from Nova Scotia ("The Quest of the Ballad," pp. 230- 

See Ancient Scots Ballads, 248; The Popular Songs of Scotland, 264; 
Scots Minstrelsie, ii, 216; The Songs of Scotland, 118; Handbook of the 
Songs of Scotland, ed. by William Mitchison, 1851, 17; Songs of the North, 
ed. by Macleod, Boulton, and Lawson (1885), ^ (with air); Stokoe, Songs 
of Northern England, 62-63. [Also: Ford, Vagabond Songs, ii, 77-82, 
and Auld Scots Ballants, 121-125; Whitelaw, The Book of Scottish Ballads, 
1845, 276-^78; Gavin Greig, xliii; The Goldfinch [chapbook], J. Marshall, 
Newcastle, 12-16; broadsides printed by George Walker, Jr. [Durham] and 
Stephenson [Gateshead], and a Glasgow chapbook ["The Blaeberry Court- 
ship:" Harvard College 25276.43. 23, No. i], "printed for the Booksellers."] 

Obtained through Professor Edith Foster Flint of the University of 
Chicago, and Mrs. M. P. Starr of Chicago, from Mrs. Annie McAllister, 
Winnetka, 111., an aged Scotchwoman, who learned the words from 
her mother. 

Digitized by 


346 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

1. In the Highlands of Scotland there dwelb a young man; 
He's well educated^ as we understand; 

2. He's awa' to the Lowlands to ask for a bride, 
And he's rolled himself up in a bra tartan j^d. 

3. It's ''Will you come wi' me," said he, ''bonnie lassie; 
Oh, will you come wi' me those Highlands to see? " 

4. **V11 no leave those Lowlands nor brown corn-fields, 
Not for all the blay-berries your wild mountain yields." 

5. Down comes her father, a gray-haired old man: 
''Could you not get a mistress in all your own land? 

6. "But small entertainment's for our Lowland dames. 

For to promise them blay-berries on your wild heathery plains." 

7* Down comes her mother, her daughter to advise. 
Saying, "If thou go with him, thou wilt not be wise. 

8. "He's a real rakish fellow, and as bare as the era'; 

He's a king to the Katherines [worms] ^ for a' that we kna'." 

9. She's awa' now, poor thing, she's awa'; 
She's awa' to a place her two eyes ne'er saw. 

10. "Don't you remember, school-fellows were we? 

I was slighted by all the house, darlin', but thee. 

11. "These lands and fine livings were all gie'd to me; 
And I wooed you, my darling, to share them with thee. 

12. "You're welcome from . • . , you're twice welcome home. 
And welcome as mistress to Bailywell Toun." 

Milka' coos [cows], lassies, and come away home. 
Put on your hat, farmer, for that is too low, 
For a peacock to bow to a crow. 


For American texts see JAFL xxx, 325-327. Add English Folk Songs 
from the Southern Appalachians, No. 29 (5 texts, 11 airs). 

English texts: Songs of the West, No. 76 (a shortened text; see Intro- 
duction); Real Sailor Songs 74, 2d text. 

^ This gloes is in Mrs. Starr's MS. 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


The House Carpenter. 

American texts of "The House Carpenter" are not uncommon. 
Usually they do not vary greatly from the de Marsan broadside (New 
York City, about i860), reprinted in Henry de Marsan 's "New Comic 
and Sentimental Singers' Journal " (i, 626 [No. 83]), and by Barry QAFL 
3cviii, 207). 

Miss Eddy sends three variants and three airs. In one of her texts 
the wife jumps overboard. I print the airs. The first is from the 
singing of Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, O. The second air was obtained 
from Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, O. The third was taken down 
by Professor Eschman, Denison Coll^;e, Granville, O., from the 
singing of Professor Lily Bell Sefton. 

'•Well met, well met, my own true love. Well met, well met, "said 

' ^- ^ I I I f t Mr cj-J 

he. 'Tve just re - turned from the talt, salt sea. And its 

> J J' J' J J I.). J i r f r CM 

all for the love of thee, I've just re - turned from the 

**Well met, well met, my own true love, Well met, well met, "said 





V V 

he. 'Tve just re - turned from the salt, salt sea. And it's 



J. -^ ir L;T^^ 

all for the love of thee, I've just re - turned from the 


J' n J I .] J I I 


: *-^ 

salt, salt sea. And it's all for the love of thee." 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


^t^jj l j- J' J 4 l i ni J'. Jl^ J' 


Tve just come from the salt, salt sea. And 'twas all on ac- 



J^U ' i ^' 


count of thee, For I've just had an of • f er of a 

i J J i J 

king'sdaagh-ter fair, And she fain would have mar - ried me. 

i J j-ij. .'jij : J j i i J J j 

"Well, if yoa've had an of - fer of a king's daagh-ter fair, I 

l^ ^ i f JN. j/ij jj;;^ 

think you're mach to blame, For I've late - ly been mar-ried to a 

i J J i i J' I J' n^J j^ ^ 

house car-pen-ter, And I think he's a nice young man.' 

In Aeolian Mods, 


Part I, 166; JAFL xxx, 328; English Folk Songs from the Southern Ap- 
palachians, No. 32 (2 texts, 3 airs). Ancient Scots Ballads, 116; Ancient 
Poems, Ballads, and Songs, 212-214. 

Miss Eddy sends in a coherent but incomplete text from Ohio. 
I" Twas on Christmas day" may be found also in " The Nightingale " 
(London, Tegg), pp. 144-145] 


(bxcluding homilbtic ballads and play-pakty songs). 

Belden, No. 33; Pound, 14. This b derived from the favorite ballad 
"The Children in the Wood," printed in Percy's Reliques, iii, 169 flf. 
(Wheatley's edition) ; also in Child's English and Scottish Ballads (1857- 
58), iii, 128 £F.; in Davidson's Universal Melodist, ii, 184 (with tune); and 
elsewhere.^ A semi-comical version is given in Modem Street Ballads, 124* 

From Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo. 

^ [See Charles Kent, The Land of the "Babes in the Wood,*' London (1910)!. , 

Digitized by ^OOQ IC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 349 

1. Oh, don't you remember, a long time ago, 

Two poor little children whose names I don't know. 

Were stolen away, one fine summer day, 

And lost in the woods? So I've heard people say. 

2. And when it came night, oh, sad was their plight! 
The moon did not shine, and the stars gave no light. 
They cried and they cried, and they bitterly sighed; 
Poor babes in the wood! They lay down and died. 

3. And when they were dead, the robins so red 
Brought strawberry-leaves, and over them spread; 
And sang them a song the whole night long. 
Poor babes in the wood ! Poor babes in the wood ! 

[This children's song was printed in 1818 at Newburyport, Mass., 
in a tiny volume called "A Song Book for Little Children," pp. 7-9 
(Harvard Coll^;e Library, 25276.43.82). Miss McGill has found it 
in Kentucky ("Folk Songs of the Kentucky Mountains" [1917], pp. 
103-106 [with tune]). It is regularly included in collections of nursery 
rhymes: Halliwell, 5th and 6th eds., No. 52, p. 35; Mrs. Valentine, 
"Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles," Camden Edition, No. 53, 
PP- 36-37; Louey Chisholm, "Nursery Rhymes," p. 68; "The Old 
Nursery Rhymes, or The Merrie Heart," 5th ed., pp. 66-67; Andrew 
Lang, "The Nursery Rhyme Book" (1897), p. 56; Miss Mason, 
"Nursery Rhymes and Country Songs," p. 22 (with tune); Baring- 
Gould, "A Book of Nursery Songs and Rhymes," No. 27, p. 40 (4 

The long ballad of "The Children in the Wood" was often printed 
in this country as a broadside in the eighteenth and the early nine- 
teenth century. Harvard College has an eighteenth-century copy 
"Sold at the Heart & Crown in Comhill," Boston (Child Broadsides), 
and another of about 1800 or earlier without imprint; also two broad- 
sides printed in Boston by Nathaniel Coverly the younger, — one of 
about 181 1 ("Nathaniel Coverly, jun. Theatre Alley"), the other 
somewhat later, ca. 1818-28 ("N. Coverly, 16 Milk St."). A New- 
buryport (Mass.) broadside in the same library dates from early in 
the nineteenth century, and has a tantalizing imprint: "Sold by the 
Thousand, Groce, Hundred, Dozen, or Single, at the Bookstore and 
Printing-office of W. and J. Oilman, Middle-street, Newburjrport: 
Where may be had, wholesale or retail, a variety of Ancient and 
Modem Popular Songs and Ballads. — Price 3 cts." The Boston 
Public Library has an eighteenth-century American broadside of this 
piece (without imprint: H9oa.309). The ballad is included in a 
song-book entitled "The Warbler," published at Augusta, Me., in 

Digitized by 


3 50 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

1805, pp. 177 ff. (Brown University). In 1796 "The Massachusetts 
Magazine/' viii, 444-445, reprinted, without indication of source, 
part of a favorable critique on the piece from "The Westminster 
Magazine" of January, 1774. Among the many English broadsides 
containing the ballad, one is particularly noteworthy: it is a huge 
twopenny sheet published by Catnach and illustrated with eight 
delightful cuts (Harvard College Library). There is a quasi-comic 
version, "It's a woful tale I'm about to relate" (broadside, Bebbing- 
ton, Manchester, No. 406: Harvard Coll^;e).] 

Part I, 167. Sec JAFL xxx, 348-349. 

" King Arthur " (English County Songs, 20 resemble this, so does 
" The Three Sons " (One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 80). Both 
of these versions confirm Professor Kittredge's view that the text in 
Part I is complete; but Mrs. Fanny H. Ferris, Wheaton, 111., says that 
in her youth she used to sing an additional stanza. 

[In fact, two stanzas were appended to the song in one sophisticated 
version: — 

Now if these three roguish chaps, 
Who flourished under the king. 
Had lived to see as much as me, 
They'd surely have learned to sing. 

Then the miller could sing to his love. 

And the weaver comfort his wife, 
And the little tailor make ballads for 

To keep these three rogues right. 

Thus the song appears in "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 12" (New 
York, cop. 1864), p. 39, and "The ' We Won't Go Home till Morning!' 
Songster" (New York, DeWitt, cop. 1869), p. 19. The latter has 
also the following prose introduction: ** Spoken: In good old colony 
times, when our forefathers were under the king, there were three 
roguish chaps, who fell into mishaps, just because they couldn't sing. 
The Publisher would advise all boys to learn to sing, and then they 
will be found in the company of young ladies enjoying a musical feast; 
this, will keep them from falling into mishaps." The same (with the 
same prose preface) is in "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Senti- 
mental Singers' Journal," i, 293 (No. 41). The regular version occurs 

1 [This yerBion is adopted by Granville Bantock, One Hundred Songs of England 
(Boston, cop. 19x4). No. 3a, pp, 53-54. See also Percy C. Buck, The Oxford Song Book, 
Z916, pp. zio-iii (from the Scottish Students' Song Book); The VauxhaU Comic Song 
Book, ed. by J. W. Sharp, First Series, p. 187. Hardy's Under the Greenwood Tree, 
Part IV, chap. 2, contains a fragment consisting of the first line ("ICing Arthur had three 
sons") and the whole of the last stanza.] 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 351 

in "The Stonewall Song Book," nth ed. (Richmond, Va., 1865), 
p. 34, and, with some variations, in "Frank Brewer's Black Diamond 
Songster and Ebony Jester" (New York, Dick & Fitzgerald, cop. 
1863), p. 42.^ In the latter the song begins, — 

Old Daddy Hopkins had three sons, 

As big rogues as ever did swing; 
And he kicked them all three out of doors, 

Because they could not sing. 

A curious parody, " In Good Republican Times," turns the ditty to 
political uses. It is found in "The Wide- Awake Vocalist; or. Rail 
Splitters' Song Book. Words and Music for the Republican Cam- 
paign of i860" (New York, cop. i860), pp. 46-47. It begins, — 

In good Republican times. 

When foes were turning their coats. 
Some roguish chaps did bait their traps 

To catch the people's votes. 

The song about three rogues beginning "When Arthur first in court 
b^;an" QAFL xxx, 349) was inserted by George Colman the Younger 
in his comedy "The Battle of Hexham; or. The Days of Old," first 
performed at the Haymarket on Aug. 11, 1789. He labels it "Old 
Glee, and Old Words" (act iii, London, 1808, p. 21). It may be 
found also in "The Busy Bee, or Vocal Repository" (London [179- ]), 
i, 30-31; "The Royal Minstrel" (London, 1844), pp. 32-33; and Mrs. 
Valentine's "Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles," No. 3, pp. 2-3. 
In this country I find it in "The Singers' Magazine and Universal 
Vocalist" (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 1835), i, 275; in "Henry 
de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 754, 
No. 99 ("King Arthur"), and also, as a separate piece of music, 
"When Arthur first in court b^an, A Cheerful Glee for Three Voices 
Composed by Dr. Callcott, Arranged with an Accompaniment for the 
Piano Forte," Philadelphia, John F. Nimns (Harvard College Li- 


Belden, Herrig's Archiv, cxx, 66 (one of ten ballads there printed on the 
theme of "The Returned Lover"); JAFL xxvi, 362 (Pound), a text and 
full references; Barry's No. 30 resembles this; Shearin's version, 24, seems 
not to have a happy close. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, i, 19; iii, 287- 
289; cf. vi, 272, and vii, 112; Traditional Tunes, 88 ("the air resembles 
that below"). 

1 [This Bongster la reprinted in The Universal Book of Songa and Singer's Companion 
(New York, Dick & Fitsgerald, cop, 1864)]. 

^ Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Miss Eddy got a text and this air from the singing of Mrs. Marg^uiet 
Davis, Penysville, O. 

[^W' J'l J'jij. jA.J- J'IJ'- ."/■ >J ..^ 

As I walked oat (»)e mom-ing All in the month of May, Down 

V I j'j. rfrr; mt f t^ rm 

by yon flow - ery gar - den I hap-pened for to stray, I 

> J. y^.> t i' p-^.-J'i;. ji J. / J 

o - ver-heard a fair maid In sor - row doth complain, *'A11 

i'l J' J'. K'1 ^\i J' J- -^La 

on the banks of Clan -die I'm told he doth re - main.' 

[To the references in JAFL xxvi, 362, may be added Gavin Greig, 
"Folk Song of the North-East," xlviii; an English slip of the first half 
of the last century (no imprint: Harvard College); and, for America, 
''The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. Huestis, cop. 1846), pp. 
44-45; "Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic Songster" (New York, 
Cozans), pp. 44-45; "The Arkansas Traveller's Songster" (New York, 
cop. 1864), p. 56; "The Wandering Refugee Songster" (New York, 
cop. 1869), p. 34; "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental 
Singers' Journal," i, 40 (No. 5); "The Vocalist's Favorite Songster" 
(New York, cop. 1885), p. 185; "Delaney's Irish Song Book, No. i," 
p. 8; " Wehman's Irish Song Book No. i " (cop. 1887), p. 10; " Wehman 
Bros.' Pocket-Size Irish Song Book No. 2" (New York, cop. 1909), 
p. 12; broadsides published by Johnson (Philadelphia), A. W. Auner 
(Philadelphia), De Marsan (New York, List 2, No. 36, formerly J. 
Andrews), and Wehman (New York, No. 414). There is an American 
copy of Irish provenience in the Child MSS., i, 39 (Harvard Coll^:e 
Library). Dr. B. L. Jones has found the song in Michigan. Mac- 
kenzie (pp. 175-176) reports a version from Nova Scotia. 

"The Banks of Claudy" was taken up by the Negro Minstrels in 
the fifties of the last century and turned to comic uses. The following 
version appears in the "Words of the Songs sung by the Campbell 
Minstrels (organized 1849), . . . Mr. Fox, Proprietor," St. James's 
Hall (London, J. Mallett, Printer), p. 15. 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 353 


Written and sung by Mr. C. H. Fox. 

'Twas on a summer's morning, all in the month of May, 

Down by a flow'ry gardjuen where Betsy she did stray, 

I over-hear'd a damsuel in sorrow to complain 

All for the loss of her true luwyer who plow'd the raging main. 

Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! Oh! 
Oh! OH! 

I step't up to this damsuel, I put her in surprise, 
I knew she did not know me, I bein' in a singular disguise; 
Says I, my charming creturer, my gay young heart's delight, 
How far have you to trawiel this dark and dreary night? 


The way, kind Sir, to Plugsocket if you please to show. 
So pity a fair distracted maid, for there I have to go. 
In search of a faithless-hearted young man, Takemush is his name, 
All on the banks of Plugsocket I'm told he does remain. 


If Takemush he was here to-night he'd keep me from all harm, 
But he's on the field of battuel with his gallient uniform; 
As he's on the field of battuel, his foes he will destroy. 
Like a roaring king of worruiers he fought the wars of Troy. 


The same parody, without the fourth stanza, is printed in "Charley 
Fox's Sable Songster" (New York, F. A. Brady, cop. 1859), pp. 9-10. 
It has a few Darkey touches (such as "oberheard" for "overheard") 
and the following chorus: — 

With my oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! oh! 
He was my darling:^ 
He was the boy with the auburn hair; 
His name was Mackavoy. 

The hero's name is Sakmush, not Takemush, and the banks are those 
of Plucksocket. See also a de Marsaa broadside (New York), List 8, 
No. 45, originally published (it seems) by J. Andrews in 1858 (3 
stanzas and chorus) ; "Songs of the Florences" (New York, cop. i860), 
p. 35 (4 stanzas and chorus); "American Dime Song Book No. 2" 
(Plidladelphia, Fisher & Brother, cop. i860), pp. 11-12 (4 stanzas and 
chorus). In 1896 "Delaney's Song Book No. 13" gave the same 

» [The word "boy" is acddentaUy omitted.] , ^^^T^ 

Digitized by VjOOQIc 

354 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

four stanzas and chorus, but with amusing local adaptations : the heroine 
is journeying "to Mauniyunk" (Manayunk, Pa.)» her lover's name is 
"Snicklefritz," the banks are those of the "Schullikill," it is "Johnny 
Kdzer" who would keep her from all harm, and "Like a roaring boy 
from Darbia he fought in Germantown" (p. 22).] 

I find no previous American text. Barry, No. 50. English County 
Songd, 116; English Folk-Songs, No. 45; Traditional Tunes, 53, 173; Jour- 
nal of the Folk-Song Society, i, 232 (air only) ; Vagabond Songs and Ballads 
of Scotland, 78 (with air). 

Miss Eddy reports that "The Banks of Sweet Dundee" in W. 
Christie's "Traditional Ballad Airs" (Edinburgh, 1876, i, 258) has 
substantially the story of "The Banks of Claudy." 

Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Jane Vanscoyoc, Perrysville, O. 
The opening stanza seems to have come in from the song "Jack Mun- 
ro." In the complete English ballad, Mary kills her imde too, and 
gets all his money. 

1. There was a wealthy merchant, 

In London he did dwell. 
And he had a lovely daughter, 
And the truth to you Til tell. 

2. Her parents died and left her 

A large amount in gold. 
She then lived with her unde. 
Who was the cause of all her woe. 

3. Her unde had a plow boy 

Young Mary loved quite well. 
And in her unde's garden 
Their tales of love they would tell. 

4. Her unde overheard them, 

He bargained with a squire 
Their plans to overthrow. 

"We will banish young Willie 
From the banks of sweet Dundee." 

6. So early on one morning 

He knocked at this maiden's door, 

And unto her did say: 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 355 

7. "Arise, arise, young Mary, 

And a lady you may be, 
For the squire is a- waiting 

On the banks of sweet Dundee." 

8. "What care I for your squire, 

Or lords and dukes likewise? 
For young Willie's eyes appear to me 
Like diamonds in the skies." 

9. As young Mary was a-walking 

Down in her uncle's grove. 
She met this wealthy squire 
Who wants to make love to her. 


And he put his arms around her, 
And tried to throw her down. 

II. "Stand off, stand off," cried Mary, 
"For dauntless I will be." 
She the trigger drew, and the squire slew. 
On the banks of sweet Dundee. 

[There are two songs which go by the name of "The Banks of Sweet 
Dundee." The original song, to which Professor Tolman's text 
belongs and his references apply, and which is also known as "Un- 
daunted Mary," is common in English broadsides. It runs to ten 
stanzas. See Harvard, broadsides as follows: 25242.17, vi, 149, and 
ix, 79 (Bebbington, Manchester, No. 83); vii, 117 (Catnach); xi, 15 
(Such); Pitts; George Walker, Durham, No. 6. The Walker broad- 
side has an additional stanza, which appears also in Ford (as dted 
above) and in the text collected by Greig in Scotland, "Folk-Song of 
the North-East," bcvi. For America see "De Witt's Forget-Me-Not 
Songster," p. 94; "We Parted by the River Side Songster" (New 
York, cop. 1869), p. 44; "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Senti- 
mental Singers' Journal," i, 37 (No. 5); "Irish Come-All-Ye's," p. 68; 
"Delaney's Scotch Song Book No. i" (New York), p. 3; "Wehman's 
Irish Song Book No. i" (New York, cop. 1887), p. 117; "Wehman 
Bros. Pocket-Size Irish Song Book No. 2" (New York, cop. 1909), 
pp. 6-7; Wehman broadside No. 274; Andrews broadside. List 6, 
No. 81. An imperfect copy was taken down in 1910 by Mr. F. C. 
Walker in St. John, New Brunswick. Mackenzie (pp. 47-48) prints 
a Nova Scotian version. 

The other song is a sequel or "answer." This is the piece published 
by Christie (i, 258-259) as "The Banks of Sweet Dundee." It re- 
counts the heroic deeds of Mary's lover, who has been pressed into the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

navy, and tells of their happy reunion. Harvard G>ll^;e has it in 
broadsides issued by John Ross (Newcastle, No. 19: 25242.17, iv, 
184) and J. O. Bebbington (Mandiester, No. 320: 25242.17, x, 68), 
and Greig gives a text (** Folk-Song of the North-East," xxx). A some- 
what different ''answer," telling the same story, is in broadsides issued 
by Ryle & Co. (25242.17, vii, 238) and C. Paul. I have no record of 
the printing of either "answer" in America.] 


I give this title to two songs which have a similar situation. Since 
this article was written, Professor Kittredge has discussed "the liter- 
ary relations of this piece," also "the curious varieties in which it 
occurs and its mixture with other songs." See texts of "The Drowsy 
Sleeper" and comments QAFL xxx, 338-343); also "The Silver 
Dagger" QAFL xxx, 361-363).^ 

No. I. 
This is the form called by Professor Kittredge "The Drowsy Sleep- 
er." The lover is at the girl's window. She will not "ask" her father 
(waken her father), because he has with him a weapon (dagger) with 
which to kill her lover. She remains faithful. The conclusion does 
not suggest suicide. 

American texts: JAFL xxix, 200; xxx, 338-341, 3 texts (Kittredge); Bel- 
den, Herrig's Archiv, cxix, 430 f ., 3 texts; English Folk Songs from the South- 
ern Appalachians, No. 47, Texts A and B, with airs. Shearin, 23; Pound, i^. 

English texts: Folk-Songs from Sussex, 12; Journal of the Folk-Song 
Society, i, 269; One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 47 (10 stanzas); Folk 
Songs from Somerset, No. 99. Compare Journal of the Folk-Song Society, 
iii, 78 ff . 

Miss Eddy gets the following fragment from the singing of Mr. 
Henry Maurer, Perrysville, O. 

1 ^, (1 jtjt i l i^^^^gii^K ^ ^ ^ ^ 

1. Go a- way from my win -dew, You'll wa - ken my fa-theftWhuKAiN) 

2. No, I'll not go nor I'll court no oth • er. Nor 

i p ^ P' 

notes of 

love he 
gen - tlier 











er, Or whis - 



- tlier in 

my ear. 

er, And res - 



your trac 

love's care. 

court some oth 
from your moth 

^ [A version of this piece ("The Shining Dagger*'), with tune, is given by Sturgts and 

Hughes, Songs from the Hills of Vermont (Boston [1819D. PP-^^^|(glbyi^jOOQlC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 357 

No. 2. 

The situation is the same at first as in No. i, but the lover and 
maid commit suicide with the same "silver dagger." Professor Kit- 
tredge points out that this form is a mixture of "The Drowsy Sleeper" 
("The Bedroom Window") and "The Silver Dagger." 

American texts: JAFL xxx, 341-343, texts IV and V (Kittredge); Eng- 
lish Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 47 (text and air). 
Barry, No. 30; Pound, 18. 

Miss Eddy sends an excellent text. The lover kills himself with 
' ' the silvery weapon . ' ' 


It is interesting to find an American version of this well-known 
broadside ballad. 

Ancient Poems, Ballads, and Songs, 60 (64 stanzas) ; Child reprinted this 
text in liis earlier collection (1857, iv, 161); Percy's text in the Reliques 
has emendations (ii, 171 » Wheatley's ed.); Hindley, Roxburghe Ballads, i, 
48; Chappell, Roxburghe Ballads, i, 38. The traditional text in the Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, i, 202, resembles mine. 

Part I of "The Blind Beggar of Bednall Green" or "Tom Strowd," 
a play written in 1600, has come down to us (reprinted in Bullen's 
edition of Day and in Bang's "Materialien"). The former existence 
of the lost Parts II and III, recorded in Henslowe's Diary as written 
in 1601, shows that the theme was popular. Not much of Part I is 
derived from the ballad ; but at the close of the play another character 
proposes to the blind beggar (a wronged nobleman who has assumed 
this disguise) that the beggar and he "drop angels" on a wager, and 
the beggar wins. 

.The text recited to Miss Eddy was learned nearly sixty years ago. 

[The version was certainly learned from print. It is almost word 
for word the same as that perinted in "The Forget Me Not Songster" 
(New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 129-130; "Home Sentimental 
Songster" (New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 323-324.] 


An English t6ct is in "Traditional Tunes" (Kidson, loi). 

Johnny Qemmy) is about to go "aboard a bold privateer," but will 
return to his Polly. 

[Miss Eddy's Ohio version, learned nearly sixty years ago, is almost 
identical, word for word, with that in the broadside printed by J. 
Andrews, List i, No. 50 (New York); but Andrews has one more 
stanza, at the end: — 

Digitized by 


358 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

"Oh, my dearest Polly, your friends do me dislike, 

Besides you have two brothers who'd quickly take my life. 

Come change your ring with me, my dear, come change your ring with me. 

And that shall be our token, when I am on the sea." 

The song was very popular on the American stage in the fifties and 
sixties of the last century.^ It may be foimd in "The Ethiopian 
Serenader's Own Book" (New York, Philip J. Cozans), pp. 23-24; 
"The American Dime Song Book" (Philadelphia, cop. i860), pp. 20- 
21;* "American Dime Song Book No. 2" (Philadelphia, cop. i860), 
pp. 48-49; "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. i " (New York, cop. i860), 
p. 53; "Mr. and Mrs. Barney Williams' Irish Boy and Yankee Gal 
Songster" (Philadelphia, i860), p. 32 ("sung by Mrs. Barney ^^1- 
liams"); "Songs of the Florences" (New York, cop. i860), p. 27 ("as 
sung throughout the United States by Mrs. W. J. Florence, with 
hand-organ accompaniment, in her inimitable character of Frau Von- 
spitenislidicks, in the Protean Farce of 'Mischievous Annie' ") ; " Chris- 
ty's New Songster and Black Joker" (New York, cop. 1863), p. 55 
("Der Bold Privateer," in German dialect, "as sung by W. A. Christy, 
in the character of the 'Organ Girl ' "). 

The circulation of the song in American broadsides is curiously 
attested by "Tony Pastor's Combination Song or A Bunch of Penny 
Ballads" (sheet music, Boston, cop. 1863; Harvard College Library). 
This begins, — 

As you walk through the town, on a fine summer day. 
The subject of my song you have met on your way. 
On railings and on fences, wherever you may go, 
You will see the Penny Ballads stuck up in a row. 

And "The Bold Privateer" is mentioned among these penny ballads.' 
Harvard College has two (and doubtless more) English broadsides 
that contain "The Bold Privateer:" 25242.17, vii, 178 (Catnach); 
ix, 179 (Bebbington, Manchester, No. 185).] 


An American text in JAFL xiv, 140, from which I take the title. 

The song begins, — 

"Bonaparte he's awa' from his wars and his fighting; 
He's gone to the place that he takes no delight in." 

1 [A different song, but suggested by this, is "The Bold Privateer. Sung by Rollin 
Howard, in Howard at Home," for which see Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Senti- 
snental Singers* Journal, i. 285 (No. 40).) 

• ["Music published by Firth, Pond & Co.. 547 Broadway. New York."l 

* ['*The Goot Lager Bier*' (de Marsan broadside, List zi. No. 33) is to be sung to the 
tune of "The Bold Privateer.**! 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


Belden, No. 36. The Journal of the Folk-Song Society (ii, 88-90) prints 
a traditional text and two airs, also the broadside texts of Catnach (5 stan- 
zas) and Such (6 stanzas).^ 

Miss Eddy sends an incomplete Ohio text. 

[This song occurs in "The American Songster," edited and published 
by John Kenedy (Baltimore, 1836), pp. 247-248; also in the editions 
published by Nafis & Cornish (New York, no date) and Cornish, 
Lamport & Co. (New York, 1851, same pages); "Marsh's Selection, 
or. Singing for the Million" (New York, Richard Marsh, 1854), iii, 
129 fr.; "The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. Huestis, 1846), pp. 
80-81 (Brown University); "The Forget Me Not Songster" (Nafis 
& Cornish), pp. 205-206; the same (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher), 
pp. 118-119; "Elton's Songs and Melodies for the Multitude" (New 
York, T. W. Strong), p. 51; "Wehman's Irish Song Book No. i" 
(New York, cop. 1887), p. 113; "Delaney's Song Book No. 14" (New 
York [1897]), p. 22; broadside, de Marsan (New York), List 14, 
No. 10.] 


Part I, 168. Professor H. M. Belden has made a full and valuable study 
of this ballad, entitled "Boccaccio, Hans Sachs, and The Bramble Briar'* 
(Publications of the Modem Language Association, xxxiii [191 8], 327-395). 
English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 38 (i text, 4 airs); 
cf. Mackenzie, 153-154. One Hundred English Folksongs, No. 2; Journal 
of the Folk-Song Society, i, 160; v, 123 flP. 

Miss Eddy gets this air from Miss Jane Goon, Perrysville, O. 

wr fi jsj-J34j.j'7^ i,Jir r : i J>^ 


In Port'ly Town there lived a mer- chant Who had two sons and a 

■^w^j— j- 







dangh-ter fair, 


a pren-tice bound from 

i- ^yn J.^if^z^e^^ivj^uOi::^ 

far in - tend - cr, WhojtoigWthc vic-torica all o - vcr the main. 


Pound, 40. Miss Eddy's form, written down by a relative in 1856, cor- 
responds closely to the text in Lomax, Cowboy Songs, 34. I print only the 
last two stanzas, which improve upon the words there given. 

' [Harvard College has these two broadsides (a5242.i7» vii, 184; xii, 30); also one by 
J. O. BebbingtOD (25242.17, ix, iz6.] 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

6. ''But, comrade, there is one I fain 

Once more would look upon, 
She lives upon the sloping hill 

That overlooks the lawn, 
The lawn where I shall nevermore, 

In springtime's pleasant hours, 
Go forth with her in merry mood, 

To gather wood and flowers.* 

7. "Tell her, when death was on my brow, 

And life receding fast, 
Her voice, her form, her parting words. 

Were with me to the last, 
On Buena Vista's bloody field, 

Tell her I dying lay, 
And that I knew she thought of me 

Some thousand miles away." 

[This poem was written very soon after the battle which it com- 
memorates (fought on Feb. 22 and 23, 1847), for it is printed in Albert 
G. Emerick's "Songs for the People," i, 112-116 (Philadelphia, 1848^ 
cop. 1847). Emerick remarks: "We have cut the foregoing verses 
from a newspaper, and set them to music . . . The talented author. 
Colonel Henry Petriken, is wholly unknown to us personally" (p. 116). 
Miss Eddy's text agrees word for word with Emerick's in the two 
stanzas given above.] 

THE butcher's BOY. 

Part I, 169-170. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. loi ; compare also the close of No. 106. Cf . One Hundred English Folk- 
songs, No. 94; cf. Journal of the Folk-Song Society, v, 1 81-189; cf. The Folk- 
Lore of Herefordshire, 205-206. 

Miss Eddy gets a text superior to that in Part I and the first air 
below from Mrs. M. M. Moores, and the second air from Miss Helen 
Chapel, both of Perrysville, O. 




i. ; J' j'U. i^ 

In Jcr- sey City, where I did dwell, A butcher's boy I loved so 

^'^1'' N'l l l. iJJ Ij , Jji l jJI 


well; He courted me my heart a -way, And liow with me he will not stay. 

' Lomax has "wild-wood flowers.' 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 



fe^. j' l j. j-fTTj. i'i ."i^- ; ^ 

h. ;JJ1J. j'jjaJT^.jJj. J'J'^pi 

[To the reference? for "The Butcher Boy*' given in JAFL xxix, 169- 
170, may be added "The Genevieve de Brabant Songster" (New 
York, cop. 1869), p. 18; "Delehanty & Hengler's Song and Dance 
Book" (New York, cop. 1874), p. 135; "Henry deMarsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 16 (No. 3); "Delaney's 
Song Book No. 18" (New York [1898]), p. 24; "Wehman Bros.' Good 
Old-Time Songs No. 3" (New York, cop. 1914), p. 72. In all, the 
text is almost identical, letter for letter, with that in the de Marsan 
broadside, and the same is true of Miss Eddy's copy. See also the 
Nova Scotia version in Mackenzie, pp. 9-10. A slip recently ac- 
quired by the Harvard College Library (no imprint) carries the date 
of the piece back to the eighteenth century ("The Cruel Father, or, 
Deceived Maid"). The broadside song "Sheffield Park" (Catnach; 
Jstckson & Son, late Russell, Birmingham) resembles "The Butcher 


Lomax, " Cowboy Songs," has the following songs that concern gold- 
mining in California: p. 9, "The Days of Forty-Nine;" p. 15, "Joe 
Bowers;" p. 25, "The Miner's Song." See also, later, "The Dying 

These words and the air come through Miss Eddy from Mrs. M. M. 
Moores, Perrysville, O. 

S^ny J' ^'.jmuljulijU-^ ^ 

I. When formed our band, We are all well manned To jour-ney a - far to the 

|»i|; J. J. jMJ Wl ^ ^ 


prom - ised land. The gold - en ore 

is rich in store On the 


1^ f> t 

banks of the Sac • ra • men • to shore. Then Ho, boys, hoi To 

> [Part of this song has been used as a chanty. See "The Banks of the Sacramento" 
in Bullen and Arnold's Songs of Sea Labour (cop. 1914), p. si. The tune Is different.] 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

; J f r N---i'l-" J -I' ■!• EB 


i - for - nU ga There's plen • ty of gold in the 

J- J' J ji 

^•iJ' J' J II 

world, I'm told. On the banks of the Sac - ra - men • to shore. 

2. As oft we roam o'er the dark sea's foam, 
We'll not forget kind friends at home. 
But memory kind still brings to mind 
The love of friends we left behind. 


3. We'll expect our share of the coarsest fare. 
And sometimes sleep in the open air, 

On the cold damp ground we'll all sleep round [sound], 
Except when the wolves go howling round. 

4. As we explore to the distant shore. 
Filling our pockets with the shining ore, 
How it will sound as the shout goes round. 
Filling our pockets with a dozen of pounds. 


5. The gold is there almost anywhere, 
We dig it out rich with an iron bar. 
But where it is thick, with spade or pick 
We take out chunks as big as a brick. 



Pound, 18; Shearin, 11. Miss Eddy sends an Ohio text. 

Lovely Caroline is courted by a hired man. 

6. Enticed by young Henry, 

She put on her other gown, 
And away went young Caroline 
Of Edinburgh town. 

Later Caroline is deserted. 

II. She gave three shrieks for Henry, 
And plunged her body down. 
And away went young Caroline 
Of Edinburgh town. 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 363 

[American printed copies occur in "The Forget Me Not Songster" 
(New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 175-177; also in the edition pub- 
lished by Turner & Fisher, Philadelphia, pp. 130-132; "The American 
Songster" (Philadelphia, W. A. Leary & Co., 1850), pp. 44-48; and 
in the reprint by Richard Marsh, New York, entitlai "The Star 
Song Book," pp. 44-48; "Marsh's Selection, or. Singing for the Mil- 
lion" (New York, 1854), iii, 44-48; "Home Sentimental Songster" 
(New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 319-321; "Henry deMarsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 519 (No. 69); "Elton's 
Songs and Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), 
pp. 311-312; "Delaney's Scotch Song Book No. i," p. 2; broadside, 
J. Andrews, New York, List 3, No. 69 (Brown University). Dr. 
B. L. Jones has found the song in oral circulation in Michigan. 

The following songs in the Andrews-de Marsan series of broadsides 
are to be sung to the tune of "Caroline of Edinburgh Town:" "Loss 
of the Arctic" (List i. No. 79), "The Fate of a False Lover" (List 3, 
No. 25), "The Lily of the West" (List 3, No. 70), " Execution of James 
Kelly " (List 8, No. 23). 

For English copies see the Harvard broadsides: Pitts, 25242.17, 
iv, no Qohn Gilbert, Newcastle-on-Tyne, No. 5); v, 152 (Catnach); 
X, 132 (J. Bebbington, Manchester, No. 389); xiii, 53 (Such, No. 359; 
also among the Child Broadsides); John Harkness, Preston, No. 212. 
See also a chapbook, "The Ballad Singers' Budget" (Newcastle, W. & 
T. Fordyce), pp. 6-7. The New York Public Library has the piece in 
a broadside by Swindells, Manchester. There is a Dublin broadside 
(P. Bereton) ; and the song occurs in Irish chapbooks, — " Caroline of 
Edinburgh Town" (Waterford, W. Kelly, ca. 1828: 25276.3.5, iii. No. 
93), "Oh, Erin! my Country" (same printer: 25276.3.5, ii, No. 59). 

Another broadside ballad recounts the well-deserved " Fate of Young 
Henry in Answer to 'Caroline of Edinburgh Town ' " (Pitts). He is 
twice shipwrecked, and the second disaster ends with his drowning. 
The piece closes thus : — 

So Henry is dead and gone, and none his fate do mourn, 

Some did rejoice with heart and voice to think he'd ne'er return, 

So a warning take for your sweethearts' sake, you young men all around, 

Think of Henry and Caroline of Edinboro* Town. 

This answer occurs also in "The Ballad Singers' Budget" (cited above), 
pp. &-9.] 


Part I, 171. Miss Eddy gets this air from Mrs. M. M. Moores, 
Penysville, O. 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

<f«;' ju r ; ;u ^ j j i j ^^ 

I will tell yoo of a fel - low, Of a fel - low I have 

J' l j r J' ;u J i j i j J 



seen, Who is nei - ther white nor yel - low, But is al - to - geth-er 

green. And his name it is - n't charming. For it's on - ly Com 


i.";j'IJ r ;; l j J jjij J ^..Hp i 


Bill: And he wish • es me to wed him. But I hard - ly thmk I will 

["Hardly think I will" in " Rodey Maguire's Comic Variety Song- 
ster" (New York, cop. 1864), pp. 33-34 ("as sung by Rodey Ma- 
guire"), and "The Maiden's Resolution" in " Spaulding's Bell Ringers' 
Songster," pp. 16-17 ("as sung by Emma Bailey"), are versions of 
this piece. "I Hardly Think I Can" (mentioned in JAFL xxx, 171, 
note i) may be found also in "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and 
Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 187 (No. 28).] 


I take this title from Miss Poimd QAFL xxvi, 359). She com- 
ment*", "The model for this piece was evidently the 'I am dying, Egypt, 
dying,' of William Haines Lytle's well-known poem, 'Antony to 
Cleopatra.'" Miss Eddy obtained a text in nine stanzas, and the 
first air below, from Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, O. A much 
longer text of fifteen stanzas and the second air came to her from Mr. 
Charles B. Galbreath, State Librarian, Columbus, O. It was learned 
from his father, who lived in Columbiana Coimty, Ohio. In this 
variant the dying man expects to be buried at sea. 


'<ji' l j.j4'j l 4'j'.t J'/' l ^- J J^ 


Lay up near- er, brother, near-er, For my limbs are growing cold, 


^ J'.J J' ju. J-^^ 


g 9 

And thy pres-ence seemeth dear - er When thy arms aioond me fold. 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 

Slowly and wUh feding. (6) 





^ . .^ 

Lay up near - er, broth- er, near - er, For my limbs are grow-ing 

^^w^ — r— ¥— • — 5: — r 

cold. And thy pres • ence seemeth dear - er When thy arms a-rotmdme 

;i;fj ; ; 



fold. I am dy • ing,broth-er, dy • ing. Soon yoo'U miss me in your 


li ^'^V i ; ; l j I I 

ij J' J' l j i J' J 

berth. For my form will soon be ly - ing 'Neath the o-cean'sbri-ny surt 

["The Dying Californian or The Brother's Request — Ballad — 
Poetry from the New England Diadem ^ — Music by A. L. Lee" was 
published in Boston by Ditson in or about 1855 (the date of the copy- 
right), and it is still in Ditson 's list. The words circulated widely 
in song-books and broadsides. See broadsides of J. Andrews (List i, 
No. 26, New York),* Horace Partridge (No. 277, Boston), and Weh- 
man (No. 540, New York); "Johnson's New Comic Songs No. 2" 
(2d ed., San Francisco, 1863, cop. 1859, first issued i860), pp. 35-36; 
^*The American Song Book" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother, cop. 
1859), pp. 56-58; "The American Dime Song Book" (Philadelphia, 
Fisher & Brother, cop. i860), pp. 56-58; "Beadle's Dime Song Book 
No. I " (cop. i860), p. 51 ; "The Shilling Song Book" (Boston, Ditson, 
cop. i860), p. 64; " Irwin P. Beadle & Co.'sTen Cent Song Book for the 
Million" (New York, cop. 1863), p. 57; "Geo. Munro's Ten Cent Song 
Book for the Million" (New York, cop. 1863), p. 57; "The Love and 
Sentimental Songster" (New York, cop. 1862), pp. 45-46 (reprinted 
as Part II of "The Nightingale Songster" [New York, cop. 1863] and 
also as Part III of "The Encyclopaedia of Popular Songs" [New York, 
cop. 1864]); "The American Song Book No. 2 for the People" (New 
York, cop. 1866), pp. 48-49; "We Parted by the River Side Songster" 
(New York, cop. 1869), p. 35; "Henry de Marsan's New Comic and 
Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 125 (No. 20); "Delaney's Song Book 
No. 7" (New York [1894]), P- 23; "Wehman Bros.' Good Old-Time 
Songs, No. i" (New York, cop. 1910), pp. 107-108.] 

^ [I can find no other trace of any magazine or annual called The New England Diadem.] 
s (The tune of "Our Flfer-Boy" (de Marsan broadside. List 16. No. 69) is indicated 
as "Air: James Bird; or Dying Californian."] 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 


Part I, 173-177; a text and full information in JAFL xxvi, 364-366; Eng- 
lish Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 112. "John Grumlie " 
is in Kennedy's Handbook of Scottish Song, London, 1866, 22 f.; Scots 
Minstrelsie, ii, 160; Songs of Scotland, 130. 

The first air came to Miss Eddy from Mr. Henry Maurer, the 
second air from Miss Lucille Wilson, both of Perrysville, O. 


^)'*u ^U J^- ^^' ^^' >'U J^- ^^^ ^' ^ 

Old Grum-ble he did say one day, And swore it should be tme, true; That 


^ ;. J J^djt j^ ;. / J A ^ 

he would do the work in the house, And she should follow the piMigh, plngh, That 

J', ii'. J4 i-. ilj\ > J. Ju J ^ 

he would do the work in the hoiue, And she should follow the flM|l, jkti^ 


^j }n-iiiLjLL.iv n j. i j^ 

There was an old man who had a mind. As you will plain- ly see; He 

^•'^'M : I J J^'J }}U J J %j.i 

' thought he could do more work in a day Than his wife could do in three. 
THE fisherman's BOY. 

From Miss Eddy. Written by her father in an album with "Ashta- 
bula, O., 1852," on the cover. 

1. Down in the lowlands a poor boy did wander, 

Down in the lowlands a poor boy roamed. 
By his friends he was deserted, he looked so dejected, 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home: 

2. "Oh, where is my cot, oh, where is my father, 

Alas they are gone, and has caused me to roam; 
My mother died on the pillow, my father sank in the billow," 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home. 

3. "Bitter was the night, and loud roared the thunder, 

The lightning did flash, and our ship was overthrown, 
I clasped my master round O, I gained my native ground O, 
Lost my father in the deep, far, far away from home. j 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 367 

4. "I waited on the beach, right 'round me roared the water, 

I waited on the beach, but alas, no father came. 
It's now I'm forced to range, exposed to every danger," 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home. 

5. A lady when she heard him, she opened her window. 

And in the kindest manner desired him to come in; 
Tears fell from her eyes as she heard his mournful cries. 
Cries the poor little fisherman so far away from home. 

6. She begged of her father to find him some employment, 

She begged of her father no more to let him roam; 
Her father said, "Don't grieve me, this boy shall never leave me. 
Poor boy, I will relieve thee, so far away from home." 

7. Many years he labored to serve his noble master, 

Many years he labored, till he a man became; 
It's now I'll tell each stranger the hardship and the danger 
Of a poor little fisherman's boy far, far away from home. 

[This song occurs as "The Poor Fisherman's Boy," or "The Fisher- 
man's Boy," in the following Harvard broadsides: Pitts; Hill, Lam- 
beth; 25242.17, iv, 36 (W. R. Walker, Newcastle-upon-Tyne); v, 151 
(Catnach); xi, 4 (Such, No. 4); and also in a chapbook, "The Ballad 
Singers' Budget" (W. & T. Fordyce, Newcastle), pp. 9-10 ("The 
Fisherman's Boy: " 25276.43.5). For American texts see " Marsh's 
Selection, or, Singing for the Million" (New York, Richard Marsh, 
1854), "» 197-198; " Elton's Songs and Melodies for the Multitude" 
(New York, T. W. Strong), p. 94.] 

THE fisherman's GIRL. 

From Miss Eddy. Written by her father in an album with ''Ashta- 
bula, Ohio, 1852," on the cover. 

1. It was down in the country a poor girl was weeping. 

It was down in the country poor Mary Ann did mourn. 
She belongs to this nation, "I've lost each dear relation," 

Cries a poor little fisherman's girl, 

"My friends are dead and gone." 

2. " Oh once I'd enjoyment, my friends they reared me tender, 
I passed with my brother each happy night and mom. 

But death has made a slaughter, poor father's in the water," 
Cried a poor little fisherman's girl, 
"My friends are dead and gone." 

Digitized by 


368 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. " So fast falls the snow, I cannot find a shelter, 
So fast falls the snow, I must hasten to the thorn. 

For my covering is the bushes, my bed it is the rushes," 
Cried the poor little fisherman's girl, 
"My friends are dead and gone." 

4. It happened as she passed by a very noble cottage, 
A gentleman he heard her, his heart for her did burn, 

Crying, "Come in, poor lonely creature," he viewed each drooping feature 
Of a poor little fisherman's girl, 
Whose friends are dead and gone. 

5. He took her to the fire, and when he'd warmed and fed her 
The tears began to fall, he fell on her breast forlorn. 
Crying, "Live with me forever, we part again, no, never. 

You are my dearest sister. 
Our friends are dead and gone." 

6. So now she's got a home, she's living with her brother. 
Now she's got a home, and the needy ne'er does scorn; 
For God was her protector, likewise her kind conductor, 

The poor little fisherman's girl, 
When her friends were dead and gone. 

[This song is found in Harvard broadsides: John Ross, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne; 25242.17, iii, 185 (Todd), and v, 189 (Rial & Co.). The 
Todd broadside has ridiculous corruptions, but the Rial text is almost 
exactly that of Professor Tolman. Both broadsides, however, have 
(as stanza 2) the following additional stanza (I follow Rial) : — 

" Oh, who has a soft heart to give me some shelter; 

For the winds do blow, and dreadful is the storm 

I have no father nor mother, but I've a tender brother," 

Cried a poor little Fisherman's girl, "my friends are dead and gone." 

For American texts see "Marsh's Selection, or, Singing for the Mil- 
lion*' (New York, Richard Marsh, 1854), ii, 210-21 1; "Elton's Songs 
and Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), p. 160; 
"Home Sentimental Songster" (New York, T. W. Strong), pp. 53- 
54. Of these, the second (Elton) lacks the stanza just quoted; the 
other two have it.] 


The lover of Flora kills his rival. In Shearin's text, 16, Flora is also 
the "girl from Mexico," and the lover is in prison at the dose. 

"Songs of the West," No. 58, gives two airs. The editor arbitrarily 
cuts off the story at the end of my stanza 6. In the full English story, 
common in broadsides, the murderer escapes the gallows. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


Sung to Miss Eddy by Mr. Henry Maurer, Perrysville, O. (10 


l^J'J.Tj. ;ji j, | -_^, ^^^ j,^P 

When first I came to Lou - is- ville Some pleasiire there to find, A 

t ;. e g'l! J ■ ^-U'- f t. rxX' 


dam - sel there from Lex - ing - ton Was pleas • ing to my mind. Her 
m - by lips, her ro - sy cheeks, Like ar - rows pierced my breast The 

J /. J j> j. 


jijr? I- J' u 

name she bore was Flo - ra, the U - ly of the West 

[For American texts ("The Lily of the West") see "The Dime 
Songster No. 3*' (Indianapolis, C. O. Perrine, cop. 1859), p. 8; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Song Book No. 5" (New York, cop. i860), p. 48; "Uncle 
Sam's Army Songster" (Indianapolis, C. O. Perrine, cop. 1862), p. 20; 
"Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," 
i, 187 (No. 28) ; broadside, J. Andrews H. C. L. (also de Marsan, Brown 
University), New York, List 3, No. 70 ("Air. — Caroline of Edinburgh 
Town").* In all of these the girl is from Michigan, and her name 
is Mary. There are six double stanzas, the last being, — 

Since then I've gain'd my liberty. Til rove the country through, 
ri\ travel the dty over, to find my loved one true; 
Although she stole my liberty, and deprived me of my rest, 
Still I love my Mary, the Lily of the West. 

English broadside texts (" Flora, the Lily of the West") occur among 
the Harvard broadsides as follows: Taylor, 14 Waterloo Road; 25242. 
17, i, 122 (Spencer, Bradford); ii, 180 (no imprint); iii, 65 (Forth, 
Poddington) ; iv, 54 Qohn Gilbert, Newcastle-on-Tyne) ; v, 61 (no 
imprint, but apparently J. Cadman, Manchester, No. 139); v, 201 
(Catnach); xi, 35 (Such, No. 35). The Harvard Library has also an 
Irish broadside. In all these the hero is released because of "a flaw 
in the indictment." They agree to a hair, each having seven stanzas, 
except Catnach and the Irish copy (six).] 

1 (Compare "Minnesota, the Lily of the West/' in The Fifth Avenue Songster 
(Beadle's Dime Song Book Series, No. 22, cop. x868), pp. 28-29.] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

370 Journal of American Fotk-Lare. 


Obtained by Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo., from Mr. Frank 
Covell, at the time assistant keeper, Split Rock Light, Minn., and 
Ixooi Mr. Ole Fonsted, Beaver Bay, Minn. Mr. Covell learned his 
songs in the neighborhood of Fremont, Mich. In (me reference Mr. 
Cooper gave Mr. Covell's residence as Beaver Bay, Minn. 

I. My name is Edward Hallahan,^ 

As you shall understand; 
I belong in the county of Waterford, 

In Erin's happy land. 
When I was young and in my prime. 

Kind fortune on me smiled; 
My parents reared me tenderly, 

I being their only child. 

a. My father bound me to a trade 

In Waterford's own town; 
He bound me to a cooper there 

By the name of William Brown. 
I served my master faithfully 

For eighteen months or more; 
When I sailed on board the "Ocean Queen," 

Bound for Bermuda's shore. 

3. When we arrived at Bermuda's shore, 

I met with Captain Moore, 
The commander of "The Flying Cloud" 

Belonging to Trimore; 
So kindly he requested me 

Along with him to go 
To the burning coast of Africa, 

Where the sugar-cane doth grow. 

4. We all agreed excepting five, 

And these we had to land, 
Two of them being Boston men, 

And two from Newfoundland; 
The other was an Irishman 

Belonging to Trimore. 
Oh, I wish to God I had joined those men, 

And staid with them on shore! 

5. "The Flying Cloud" was as fine a boat 

As ever sailed the seas, 
As ever hoisted a maintopsail 
Before a lively breeze; 
X [Marfctnrie reports this ballad from Nova Scotia, and prinU eight stanaa (pp. 151- 
X53)* His text begins. "My name is Robert AnderK»."] 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 371 

I have ofttimes seen our galliaat ship. 

At the wind lay abaft her wheel, 
With the royal and akyaail set aloft, 

Sail nineteen by the reel. 

6. Oh, "The Flying Cloud" was a Spanish boat. 

Of five hundred tons or more; 
She would outsail any other ship 

I ever saw before. 
Her sails were like the drifting snow, 

On them there was no stain; 
And eighteen brass nine-pounder guns 

She carried abaft her main. 

7. We sailed away without delay. 

Till we came to the African shore; 
And eighteen hundred of those poor slaves 

From their native isle [?] sailed o'er; 
For we marched them all along our decks, 

And stored them down below; 
Scarce eighteen inches to a man 

Was all they had to ga 

8. The very next day we sailed away 

With our cargo of slaves. 
Twould have been much better for those poor souls 

Had they been in their graves; 
For the plague and the fever came on board, 

Swept half of them away. 
We dragged the dead upon the decks, 

And threw them in the sea. 

9. We sailed away without delay, 

Till we came to the Cuban shore; 
We sold them to a planter there. 

To be slaves forevermore; 
The rice and coffee fields to hoe 

Beneath the burning sun, 
To lead a long and wretched life, 

Till their career was run. 

10. And when our money was all gone. 

We put to sea again. 
Then Captain Moore he came on deck. 

And said to us his men, 
'There's goLd and silver to be had. 

If with me you will remain; 
We will hdst aloft a pirate's flag. 

And we'll scour the raging main." ^ t 

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Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

11. We robbed and plundered many a ship 

Down on the Spanish Main; 
And many*s the widow and orphan child 

In sorrow must remain; 
For we made them to walk our gang-plank. 

And gave them a watery grave; 
For the saying of our master was, 

"A dead man tells no tales." 

12. At length to Newgate we were brought, 

Bound down in iron chain, 
For robbing and plundering merchant ships 

Down on the Spanish Main. 
It was drinking and bad company 

That made this wretch of me. 
Now let young men a warning take, 

And a curse to piracy! 


American text: JAFL xii, 251. Barry, No. 71; Belden, No. 104; Pound, 

English texts: Songs of the West, No. 51; Traditional Tunes, 78-81. 

Young Rogers will not marry Katie unless he is also given the 
gray mare. Later she ridicules him for "courting my father's gray 

Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, Perrysville, O. 

llj.i^ ;■ !■ J' !■ ^'1/ / ji x^M 


Young Ro- gen the mil- ler went coort-ing of late, A farmer's fair 

/ J' J' i th-^ J : J n 

daugh-ter called beau - d • fol Kate. She had for her por-tion fine 


1 ^) J' X j^T TT J'J J'j' J'^'i; ;^p 

jew-eU, fine rings, Be- sides to her no-tion full fif - ty fine things. 

[Harvard broadsides: 25242.17, ii, 152 ("Roger the Miller and the 
Grey Mare," Harkness, Preston, No. 564); iv, 179 ("Young Roger 
and the Grey Mare," Forth, Pocklington, No. 144); xii, 3 ("Grey 
Mare," Such, No. 156; also among the Child Broadsides). See Greig, 
Ixvii (i stanza). The New York Public Librtuy has the piece in a 
broadside issued by Swindells, Manchester ("Roger the Miller"). 
A text from Michigan (from Ireland) was sent to Child in 1881, and 
is in the Child MSS., xxiii, 76, la (846).] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 373 


American texts: JAFL xxv, 7; xxviii, 156; Belden, Herrig's "Archiv," 
cxx, 68-69; ''English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians," No. 48; 
Mackenzie, 189-195 (2 texts). See Shearin, p. 14. 

[For British copies in oral circulation, see Christie, i, 250-251 
("Young Johnnie's been a Cruising"); Greig, cxv ("The Brisk Young 
Sailor Lad"); "Songs of the West," No. 91 ("The Green Bed," re- 
written 0; "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," i, 48; iii, 281-282; 
V. 68 ("The Green Bed"). There is a Scottish copy, taken down in 
1876-77, in the Murison MS., fols. 35-37 (Harvard College). The 
song is common in broadsides: Harvard College, 25242.17, ii, 46 
("Jack Tar, or The Green Bed Empty," George Walker, Jun., Durham, 
No. 91); vii, 10 ("Liverpool Landlady"); x, 155 ("Jack Tar; or, The 
Green Bed Empty," Bebbington, Manchester, No. 413). See also 
Ashton, "Real Sailor-Songs," 47 (2 texts).] 

For "The Saucy Sailor," a common English song with a similar 
situation, see " English Folk-Songs," No. 32 ; " Folk Songs from Somer- 
set," No. 92; "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," iv, 342-345 (9 airs) ; 
"One Hundred English Folksongs," No. 45; "Songs of the West," 
No. 21. 

["Saucy Sailor Boy" in broadsides: Harvard College, 25242.17, vii, 
113 (Ryle & Co.); x, 96 (Bebbington, No. 350); xii, 105 (Such, No. 
260); Such, No. 164 (also among the Child Broadsides). Somewhat 
similar is "Tarry Sailor" (25242.17, v. 63).] 

Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Jane Vanscoyoc, Perrysville, O. 

1. Young Johnny's been to sea, 

And young Johnny's been on shore; 
Young Johnny's been to Ireland, 
Where he has been before. 

2. Saying, *T\\ go and see young Polly 

Before my voyage [I] take;" 
He called upon her mother. 
And unto her did say: 

3. "Bring forth your daughter Polly, 

And set her on my knee; 
And we will drown melancholy; 
And when I return again, married we will be." 

4. And when he returned again, 

As he had promised before,' 
He called to see young Polly.' 
Her mother met him at the door, 

» [Reprinted In a sumptuously illustrated volume. The Golden Vanity and The Green 
Bed . . . Vnth Pictures by Pamela Colman Smith (New York, 1899).) 
< I have transpoeed these lines. 

Digitized by 


374 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

5. Saying, "What luck, what luck, young Johnny? ' 

"On sea, oh, I lost my ship 
And cargo on the raging main. 

6. "Where it your daughter Polly? 

Go bring " 

7. "Oh, my daughter Poll/s absentt 

And has been all the week. 
So now for your lodging, 
Young Johnny, you may seek." 

8. By this time John pulled out 

Two handfuls of gold; 
The sight of the money 
Made the old woman new;*« 

9. Saying, "You're welcome home on shore. 

I'll go bring my daughter Polly, 
And we'll drown melancholy. 
And married you shall be." 

10. "Before I lie within your door, 
I'd lie within the street; 

II. "I'd go to yonder tavern, 

And make the tavern hurl; 
A bottle of good brandy, 
And on my knee a girl." 


Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, Perrysville, O. The text 
is inferior to that in JAFL xx, 267. 

i jltj i ; l j> : J- ;ij ^^^ ^ 

Come now, my friends, come lend at • ten • tkm To these few 

i ji J. J' J' J- J' l j. J J / i j. j ^^ 

lines Vm a- bout to write, It Is as true as ever was 

irf i j^JiJJ J' l ^' ^ !■ t\X_J I' 

writ • ten Concern- ing a youth and ear - ly bride. , 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

TradUianal Texts and Tunes. 



Fuller text in Lomax, " Cowboy Songs/' 172. 
Through Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, from Mr. Frank Covell. See under 
"The Flying Qoud." 

I. 'Twas in the town of Arcady 
In the county of Le Peer, 
There stood a litde 8hing^e-mill, 
Had run about one year. 

a. Twat there this young man lost his life, 
Caused many to weep and wail, 
Twas there this young man lost his life, 
And his name was Harry Bale. 

3. Harry was a sawyer, 

Head sawyer in a mill, 
He'd followed it successfully 
Three years, three months, until 

4. Death had called for him to go, 

And leave this world of care. 
We know not when 'twill be our time 
Poor Harry's fate to share. 


Miss Eddy sends a text, six stanzas. This air is from Mr. Charles 
B. Galbreatli, Columbus, O., learned from his father. 

'"'•iN' i u n\hj ^'jia_i ^ 

Let me go to my home that is fir 


U tiv.i nujj n i ^^ji 

west. To the scenes of my youth that I 


jAij n\u ii'\i u r Mfr h \ 

best. Where the tall ce«dan arc, and the bright waters 

'^J.J NVJ n\fii ^l^^jAlJ I 

flow. Where my par • ents will greet me, white man, let me ga 

[The regular title of this song is "The Indian Hunter." By this 

name it occurs in "The Singer's Magazine and Universal Vocalist" 

(Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 1835), i, 138-139; "The Bijou Min- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

376 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

8trel" (Philadelphia, Turner & Fisher, 1840), p. 148; "Hadaway's 
Select Songster" (Philadelphia, 1840), pp. 198-199; "The Popular 
National Songster" (Philadelphia, John B. Perry, 1845), p. 277; 
"The Southern Warbler" (Charleston, S.C., 1845), pp. 32-33 ("Air. — 
Meeting of the Waters"); "The Vu-ginia Warbler" (Richmond, 1845), 
pp. 32-33; "The Singer's Gem" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother), pp. 
141-142; "The Popular Forget-Me-Not Songster" (Miscellaneous 
Songs, p. 128); "Home Sentimental Songster" (New York, T. W. 
Strong), pp. 240-241; "The National Songster" (New York, Richard 
Marsh: a reprint of "The Popular National Songster"), p. 227; 
"The Rose-Bud Songster" (Richard Marsh), p. 227; "Marsh's Selec- 
tion, or. Singing for the Million" (New York, 1854), i, 227; ii, 227; 
"Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic Songster" (New York, Philip J. 
Cozans), p. 120; "The Jenny Lind Forget-Me-Not Songster" (New 
York, Richard Marsh), p. 280; "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 3" 
(cop. i860), p. 30; "Beadle's Dime Songs of the Olden Time" (cop. 
1863), p. 29; "We parted by the River Side Songster" (New York, 
DeWitt, cop. 1869), p. 61; J. Andrews, broadside. List 3, No. 63; 
"Henry de Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," 
i, III (No. 18); "The New York i Ct. Ballad Sheet" (Lieder). i, 96 
(No. 12); "Franklin Square Song Collection, No. 7" (New York, 
1891), p. 50 (with tune). Sometimes the song is entitled "The Indian's 
Prayer," — "The Indian's Prayer. Music composed by I. B. Wood- 
bury" (Boston, E. H. Wade, cop. 1846: Harvard Coll^ ; "The Home 
Melodist" (Boston, Ditson, cop. 1859), p. 5 (only 4 stanzas);* "The 
Shilling Song Book" (Boston, cop. i860), p. 57 (only 4 stanzas) ; "The 
Arkansas Traveller's Songster" (New York, cop. 1864), pp. 42-43 (4 

"The Indian Hunter" is also the title of Eliza Cook's celebrated 
poem banning "Oh, why does the white-man follow my path?"* 
It has often been printed in America: see "The Granite Songster" 
(Boston, 1847), pp. 11-12; Edward I. White, "The Boston Melodeon," 
ii (cop. 1852), 3; "Dempster's Original Ballad Soirees. Third Series" 
(Boston, 1854), p. 6 ("The Indian's Complaint"); "Elton's Songs and 
Melodies for the Multitude" (New York, T. W. Strong), p. 71 ; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Song Book No. 4" (cop. i860), p. 50; "The People's Free 
and Easy Songster" (New York, William H. Murphy), p. 147; "Sam 
Slick Yankee Songster" (New York, cop. 1867), p. 72. Broadsides: 
J. Andrews, New York, List 4, No. 19 (Brown University) ; J. Wrigley^ 
New York, No. 384; A. W. Auner, Philadelphia. The poem was set 
to music by Henry Russell.'] 

> Wth I. B. Woodbury's music. 

* [Melaia and Other Poems (authorized American edition). New York, 1844, pp. 343- 

< ["The Indian Hunter . . . Written by Elixa Cook. The music composed . « . by 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 



A young girl disguises herself as a sailor to serve with her lover. 
When he is badly wounded, she carries him to a doctor. Later she 
discloses herself, and they are married. A reconciliation with the 
girl's father concludes the fullest form of the story. — Barry, No. 33; 
Belden, No. 14; Shearin 9 ("Jackaro"). 

American texts: JAFL xii, 249; xx, 269-273 ("Jackaro"); see xxv, 9; 
Cowboy Songs, 204; English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. 55 (3 texts, 4 airs); Lonesome Tunes, i, 38; a shortened form from Nova 
Scotia is in Mackenzie, 135-137. 

In the following broadside ballads a lady disguises herself in order 
to serve with (be near) a sailor (soldier) lover or husband : — 

Roxburghe Ballads, ed. by Ebsworth, vii, 727-733, 737-739; viii, 146- 
148; viii, part ii, p. cxxxviii.* Compare also "The Merchant's Daughter of 
Bristow," in Child, edition of 1857-58; iv, 328, and in Roxburghe Ballads, 
ed. by Ebsworth, ii, 86 ff. 

Miss Eddy sends an incomplete text of six stanzas, and a full one 
of thirty-three stanzas. 

[For America see also "The American Sailor's Songster" (New 
York, Cozans), pp. 172-174; "The Washington Songster" (New York, 
Turner & Fisher), pp. 172-174; "Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic 
Songster" (New York, Cozans), pp. 21--23; Shearin, "Sewanee Re- 
view," July, 191 1. For England, see "The Siren" (Newcastle, J. 
Marshall), pp. 5-7; broadside. Walker, Durham, No. 108 (Harvard 
College); cf. "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 227-228. Greig, 
xlv, has the piece.] 

The first air was sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrys- 
ville, O.; the second, by Mrs. Virginia Summer, Canton, O. 
No paui$i, (a) 

J J' J' 


' J I / J' ; 

J ;■ ; 

There was a wealth -y mer- chant. In Eng-land he did dwell, 

^, i' J' I t-jL^^^ J ;. I ; p 

- w ^ w w ^ 

And he had a love - ly daa^h - ter. The truth to you I'll 

i tj J' j^j ■' i i j i j J j'^ II 

tell, An-te i - 1 An-te-an-te- 1- an-te-u 
Henry RuaseU, Boston, C. H. Keith, 67 and 69 Court St." (1848-51]. Also "The Indian 
Hunter, A Song Written by Eliza Cook, the Music Composed ... by Henry Russell. 
N. Y., Jas. L. Hewitt & Co." (Both in Harvard CoUege Library.) This song was on the 
programme of the "Grand Farewell (and positively the last) Concert of the Hutchinson 
FamUy " at Manchester, England, June I3r 1846. p. pi Digitized by LjOOQIc 


Journal of American Folh-Lore. 

IjfA'n' l i' , f rJlf f pl^-^'J-l'l^ ^' ^ 

Then was aweakh-y mer-chaiil, In Lon-donba diddwaU^And be 

>V|, f ; J' l J J J' / i J'J' t 1- 

tell, Andibg 

had an OQ - ly dangfa-ter, And the tradi to yoa FU tell, 

tra u la La la la le de la, Tra te la la lay. And ling 

tra UUUla Ulede 

U la lay. 


Recorded by Shearin, lo, as "Jack Wilson;" ^ Pound, 34; Macken- 
JEie» p. 143. Recited to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Mary Boney, Perrysvillet 
O. Learned by her almost 60 years ago. 

I. I am a boatman by my trade, 
Jack Williams is my name, 
And by a false deluded girl 
Was brought to guilt and shame. 

2. In Catherine Street I did resort, 

When people did me know; 
I fell in love with a pretty girl. 
Which proved my overthrow. 

3. I took to robbing night and day 

To maintain her fine and gay, 
And all I got I valued not. 
But gave to her straightway. 

4. And next to Newgate I was brought. 

And bound down to irons strong. 
With rattling chains around my legs, 
And long to see them on. 

5. I wrote a letter to my love. 

And some comfort to find. 
Instead of a friend to me, 
She i»x>ved to me unkind. 
ICompait Shearin, Sewanee Reriew, July, X9rx«l 

Digitized by 


TradUianal Texts and Tunes. 379 

6. And in a scornful manner said, 

"I hate thievish company; 
As you make your bed, young man, 
Down on it you must lie." 

7. In these lonesome cells I lie, 

It's no more than I deserve; 
It makes my very blood run cold 
To think how I've been served. 

8. If I ever regain my sweet liberty^ 

A solemn vow I make, 
To shun all evil company 
For that false woman's sake. 

9. With trials o'er, and sentence passed, 

Hung I was to be. 
Which grieved my parents to the heart. 
To think of my misery. 

10. But the heavens proved kind to me, 
As you shall plainly see; 
I broke the chains to scale the walls. 
And gained my sweet liberty. 

[The Harvard Coll^;e Library has broadsides of "Jack Williams" 
printed by Pitts, Such (No. 25), and J. O. Bebbington (Manchester, 
No. 364). 

For American texts see "The Pearl Songster" (New York, C. P. 
Huestis, 1846), pp. 156-157; "The American Songster" (Philadel- 
phia, W. A. Lesuy & Co., 1850), pp. 74-76 (reprinted by Richard 
Marsh, New York, as "Star Song Book"); "Marsh's Selection, or, 
Singing for the Million" (New York, 1854), vol. 3, pp. 74-76; "New 
American Song Book and Letter Writer" (Louisville), pp. 109-110; 
"The Forget Me Not Songster" (New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 
112-113; "The Washington Songster" (New York, Turner & Fisher), 
pp. 167-168; "The American Sailor's Songster" (New York, Philip 
J. Cozans), pp. 167-168; "The Popular Forget-Me-Not Songster" 
(Popular Songs, pp. lo^iio); "Uncle Sam's Naval and Patriotic 
Songster" (New York, Cozans), pp. 54-55.] 


Barry, No. 65; Belden, No. 51. 

Miss Eddy sends two texts of this interesting American ballad. 
These agree well in language; but the one sung by Henry Maurer, 
Perrysville, O., is incomplete. Mr. Maurer's air is given below. 

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Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Mr. Charles B. Galbreath, Ohio State Librarian, has thoroughly in- 
vestigated the history of this song, and has published the results of 
his inquiry. Miss Eddy sends the following references: — 

"The Battle of Lake Erie in Ballad and History," by C. B. Gal- 
breath, Ohio Archaeological and Historical Publications, xx (191 1), 
415-456; see especially pp. 417-423. For the author of the song 
see "Memoir of Charles Miner," by Charles F. Richardson and 
Elizabeth Miner Richardson, Wilkesbarre, 1916. The very letter 
spoken of in the song is printed in part on p. 72 of this memoir.^ See 
also "The Ballad of James Bird," by C. B. Galbreath, Ohio Archaeologi- 
cal and Historical Quarterly, January, 1917, xxvi, 52-57. 

The letter of James Bird to his parents was dated Nov. 9, 1814. 
Mr. Charles Miner (1780-1865), the author of the ballad, printed it 
in his own paper, "The Gleaner," Wilkesbarre, Penn., late in 1814. 
The ballad gives the facts of Bird's career accurately and with con- 
siderable fulness. Has this country produced any historical ballad 
that has passed into tradition, which is more interesting than this? 

The text here printed was copied from a manuscript owned by Mrs. 
Letitia Coe, Perrysville, O., written by her sister Mary Tannehill 
about 1855. It reproduces the original poem of Mr. Miner with sub- 
stantial accuracy, stanza for stanza. Some of the changes from the 
words of the author seem to me improvements. The following lines 
of the original have been noticeably departed from in this variant: — 

12, 2. Here will Bird his cutlass ply. 

18, 4. But for him would heave a sigh? 

19, I. Lo! he fought so brave at Erie, 

< f.>ij' J' ^ j'if-c r J'U' J' J;^ 

I. Sons of free-dom, lis - ten to me, And ye daughters too, give ear; 



JHH i ^H- 


I. ■;. * 

You a sad 'and mournful story As e'er was told you soon shall hear. 

2. Hull, you know, his troops surrendered, 
And defenseless left the West; 
Then our forces quick assembled 
The invaders to resist. 

3. Among the troops that marched to Erie 
Were the Kingston volunteers. 
Captain Thomas then commanded. 
To protect our west frontiers. 
1 [Reprinted from Proceedings and Collections of the Wyoming Historical and Geologi- 
cal Society, xiv, 55 flf, (Wilkes-Barre, xpiS)-* ace espedaUy pp. XX7-126.I 

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Traditional Texts and Tunes. 381 

4. Tender were the scenes of parting, 

Mothers wrung their hands and cried, 
Maidens wept their love in secret, 
Fathers strove their tears to hide. 

5. There was one among that number 

Tall and graceful in his mien, 
Firm his step, his look undaunted, 
Scarce a nobler youth was seen. 

6. One sweet kiss he snatched from Mary, 

Craved his mother's prayers once more, 
Pressed his father's hand and left him. 
For Lake Erie's distant shore. 

7. Mary tried to say, "Farewell, James," 

Waved her hands, but nothing spoke. 
"Farewell, Bird, may heaven protect you," 
From the rest a parting broke. 

8. Soon he came where noble Perry 

Had assembled all his fleet; 
There the gallant Bird enlisted, 
Hoping soon the foe to meet. 

9. Where is Bird? The battle rages; 

Is he in the strife, or no? 
Now the cannons roar tremendous. 
Dare he nobly meet the foe? 

10. Ah, behold him, see him. Perry I 

On the selfsame ship they fight; 
Though his messmates fall around him, 
Nothing can his soul afifright. 

11. But behold, a ball has struck him, 

See the crimson current flow. 
"Leave the deck!" exclaimed brave Perry; 
"No," said Bird, "I wiU not go. 

12. "Here on deck I'll take my station. 

Ne'er will Bird his colors fly, 
I'll stand by you, gallant captain, 
Till we conquer or we die." 

13. So he fought, though faint and bleeding, 

Till our stars and stripes arose. 
Victory having crowned our effort, 
AU triumphant o'er our foes. 

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382 Journal cf American Folk-Lore. 

14. And did Bird receive a pension? 

Was he to his friends restored? 
No, nor ever to his bosom 
Cksped the maid his heart adored. 

15. But there came most dismal tidings 

From Lake Erie's distant shore* 
Better if poor Bird had perished 
Midst the cannons' awful roar. 

i6. "Dearest parents/' said the letter, 
"This will bring sad news to you; 
Do not mourn your first beloved, 
Though this brings his last adieu. 

17. "I must suffer for deserting 

From the brig Niagara; 
Read this letter, brother, sbter, 
Tis the last you'll have from me." 

18. Sad and gloomy was the morning 

Bird was ordered out to die; 
Where's the heart not dead to pity 
But from him we'll heave a sigh? 

19. Though he fought so brave at Erie, 

Nobly bled, and nobly dared, 
Let his courage plead for mercy. 
Let his precious life be spared. 

20. See him march and bear his fetters. 

Harsh they clang upon the ear; 
Yet his step is firm and manly. 
For his breast ne'er harbored fear. 

21. See him kneel upon his coffin; 

Sure his death can do no good; 
Spare him! Hark, O God, they've shot him! 
See! his bosom streams with blood. 

22. Farewell Bird, farewell forever! 

Friends and home you'll see no more; 
For your mangled corpse lies buried 
On Lake Erie's distant shore. 

["James Bird" has been many times printed, — in a Philadelphia 
chapbook of about 1820 ("Sold by R. Swift:" Harvard CoU^ie Li- 
brary, 2527643.81), for instance, and in the following collections. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 383 

amongst others: William McCarty's "Songs, Odes, and other Poems, 
on National Subjects" (Philadelphia, 1842), Part II, pp. 254-256 
(" Mournful Tragedy of James Bird. Tune — The Tempest ") ; Forget 
Me Not Songster" (New York, Nafis & Cornish), pp. 97-99; "The Bo- 
quet Melodist" (New York, Wm. H. Murphy), pp. 225-227; "Bea- 
dle's Dime Songs of the Olden Time" (New York, 1863), pp. 10 ff.; 
"Delaney's Song Book No. 16" (New York [1897]), p. 25. See also 
"The Boston Transcript," Dec. 4, 1909. Dr. B. L. Jones has found 
the song in Michigan. 

"The Tempest," to which the piece was sung,* is the well-known 
"Cease, rude Boreas, blustering railer," by George Alexander Stevens,* 
familiar to our fathers and grandfathers not only as a song,' but as 
the tune of an elaborate country-dance.] 


Sung to Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper by Mr. Frank Covell. See under 
"The Flying Cloud." 

1. Come all you tender Christians, 

I pray that you draw near; 
'Tis of the terrible accident 
I mean to have you hear, 

2. 'Tis of a young and comely youth, 

James Whalen he was called. 
Was drownded from Le Claron's raft. 
All on the upper falls. 

1 [The tune of "Our Fifer-Boy" (de Marsan broadside. List i6, No. 69) is indicated 
as, "Air: James Bird; or Dying Calif omian. "] 

« [The Choice Spirit's Chaplet, edited by G. A. Stevens (London, I77i)t PP. 198-200. 
Cf. "The Marine Medley." In Songs, Comic, and SatyricaU by G. A. Stevens, 1773, pp. 
30-34 (3d ed., 1783, pp. 30-34; Philadelphia ed., 1778, Songs, Comic, Satyrical, and Senti- 
mental, pp. 30-34). See also The Busy Bee (London [17- ]), ii, 113-116; The Muses 
Delight (Liverpool, i7S4)t p. 391; The Convivial Songster (London [17- D. PP. 320- 
333 (with tune); The Vocal Magazine or Compleat British Songster (London, 1781), 
p. 345; The Musical Miscellany (Perth, 1786), pp. 109-111 (with tune); Calliope or The 
Musical Miscellany (London, 1788), pp. 30-33 (with tune); Ritson, English Songs, 1783, 
ii, X37-X39 (3d ed., by Park, i8i3t ii> 144-146); Chappell, A Collection of National English 
Airs, 1840, i, 35-36, ii, 5 (with tune); The Social Vocalist, ed. by Charles Sloman (London, 
X843), pp. 530-533; Fairbum's Everlasting Songster, pp. 48-49; Helen K. Johnson, Our 
Familiar Songs, pp. 130-133 (with tune); Christopher Stone, Sea Songs and Ballads, 
pp. 18-30.] 

• [Under the title of "The Tempest" or "The Storm." See. for example. The Boston 
Musical Miscellany, 181 1, pp. 143-145 (with tune); The American National Song Book 
(Boston, cop. 1843), pp. 36-37 (incomplete, with tune); The Southern Warbler (Charles- 
ton, 1845), pp. 58-60; The Songster's Museum (Albany, 1833), pp. 5-7; The Universal 
Songster (New York, 1839), pp. xi-13; The American Minstrel (Philadelphia, 1834), P- 44; 
Kenedy's American Songster (Baltimore, 1836), pp. 157-160; The Nonpareil (Baltimore, 
1836). pp. 5-7; Home Sentimental Songster (New York, T. W. Strong), pp. X43-I45-] j 
25 Digitized by VjOOQIC 

384 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

3. The water being in its raging courset 

The river booming high, 
When the foreman unto Whalen says: 
"The jam you'll have to try. 

4. "You're young and noble active; 

Though death is lurking near, 
You are the man to lend a hand 
The waters for to clear." 

5. Then up spoke young Whalen 

Unto his comrades bold : 
"Come on; altho' 'tis dangerous, 
We'll do as we are told. 

6. "We'll obey our orders bravely, 

As noble men should do." 
And as he spoke, the jam it broke, 
And let young Whalen through. 

7. There were three of them in danger. 

But two of them were saved. 
But noble-hearted Whalen, 
He met a watery grave. 

8. One tender cry for mercy, 

"O God, look down on me! " 
And his soul was gone from earthly bourne. 
Gone to Eternity. 

9. For no human form could live upon 

That foaming watery main; 

Altho' he struggled hard for life. 

His struggles were in vain. 

10. The foaming waters tore and tossed 

The logs from shore to shore, 
And here and there his body lies 
A-tumbling o'er and o'er. 

11. Come all you jolly river boys. 

And listen to Jimmie's fate. 
Be cautious and take warning 
Before it is too late. 

12. For death is lurking near you. 

Still seeking to destroy 
The pride of many a mother's heart, 
And many a father's joy. 

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Traditional Texts and Tunes. 



Part I, 178. English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, 
No. 45, corresponds to "The Old Woman of Slapsadam/' Part 1, 179. 
Miss Eddy sends a text of "Johnnie Sands." 

["Johnny Sands Comic Ballad Composed by John Sinclair" was 
published by Ditson at Boston (cop. 1842). Sinclair is thus made 
responsible for the tune, not the words. Evidence of the popularity 
of this song may be seep from its inclusion in the following song-books, 
in addition to those cited in Part I: "The Dime Songster No. 3" 
(Indianapolis, C. O. Perrine, cop. 1859), p. 17; "Beadle's Dime Song 
Book No. 6" (New York, cop. i860), p. 10; "American Dime Song 
Book No. 2" (Philadelphia, Fisher & Brother, cop. i860), pp. 33-34; 
"Billy Birch's Ethiopian Melodist" (New York, cop. 1862), pp. 26- 
27; "The Lotta Firefly Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), p. 24; 
"The Annie Hindle Songster" (New York, cop. 1869), pp. 21-22; 
"I Really Think She Did Songster" (New York, Hilton & Syme), 
p. 8 ("as sung by Charles E. Harris"); "Henry deMarsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," Vol. I, No. 4, p. 31; Frank 
B. Ogilvie, "Two Hundred Old-Time Songs" (New York, cop. 1896), 
No. 124, pp. 114-115 (with tune credited to "Sinclair"). It may 
also be found in "The Book of Modem Songs," ed. by J. E. Carpen- 
ter (London, 1858), pp. 31-32; and "British Minstrelsie" (Edinburgh 
[1899], Part IV, pp. 22-24 (with "J. Sinclair's" music).] 


English Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 62 (2 
texts and airs). This song has some resemblance to No. 112 in Child, 
"The Baffled Knight." Sung to Miss Eddy by Mrs. Betty Mace, 
Perrysville, O, 

U^ftllJ' l iJ Jtt I. I 'l M J I J ^ 

Cnm* i *^* y* young and fool - ish lads, Come lia 
^™*' <do ri id- die. Sing do ri aye, Sing do 








to my sto - nr; V\\ tell yoa how I fixed a 

id- die o dan . dy, I'U jteli, etc., 

rl ir^B- 

fool Mias Ka • tie Mor • ey. 9n( Mor • ey. 


Digitized by ^ 

386 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

2. I tdd her that my stster Sue 

Was in yon lofty tower, 
And wanted her to come that way 
And spend one happy hour. 

3. But when I got her to the spot, 

Saying, ''Nothing is the matter, 
But you must die or else comply, 
There is no time to flatter." 

4. She squeezed my hand and seemed quite pleased, 

Saying, "There b no fear, sir. 
But father he is coming this way. 
And he will see us here, sir. 

5. "If you'll but go and climb that tree. 

Till he does pass this way, sir, 
Then we will gather grapes and plums. 
And we will sport and play, sir." 

6. I went straightway and dumb the tree, 

Not being the least offended. 
My true-love came and stood beneath. 
To see how I ascended. 

7. But when she got me to the top. 

She looked up with a smile, sir, 
Saying, "You may gather your grapes and plums» 
And ril run quickly home, sir." 

8. I straightway did descend the tree, 

A-coming with a bound, sir; 
My true-love got quite out of sight 
Before I reached the ground, sir. 

9. But when my thoughts I did relent. 

To see what Td intended, 
I straightway made a wife of her. 
Then all my troubles were ended. 

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Traditional Texts and Tunes. 387 

["Katy Moiy" in fifteen stanzas, the last two quite free in their 
nature, occurs in an American broadside of about 1830 (no imprint) : 
"Katy Mory, and Poll and Mistress" (Harvard College). Stanza 
8 of Tolman's text is not in the broadside ; stanzas 2, 4, 9, 1 1, 12, 14, 15, 
of the broadside, are not in Tolman.] 


Sung to Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo.,' by Mr. M. Peak, Hurts- 
ville, lo. 

1. O'er swamps and alligators 

I'm on my weary way; 
O'er railroad ties and crossings 

My weary feet did stray; 
Until at close of evening, 

Some higher ground I gained. 
'Twas there I met with a Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

2. "Good-eve to you, kind maiden! 

My money does me no good. 
If it were not for the alligators, 

I'd stay out in the wood." 
"Oh, welcome, welcome, stranger! 

Altho' our house is plain. 
We never turn a stranger out 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain." 

3. She took me to her father's house; 

She treated me quite well. 
Her hair in flowing ringlets 

About her shoulders fell. 
I tried to paint her beauty. 

But I found it was in vain; 
So beautiful was the Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

4. I asked her if she would marry me; 

She said that could never be; 
She said she had a lover. 

And he was far at sea. 
She said she had a lover. 

And true she would remain. 
Till he came back to her again 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 

5. Adieu, adieu, fair maiden! 

I never shall see you more. 
I'll ne'er forget your kindness, 
In the cottage by the shore. 

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Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

At home in social circles 

Our flaming bowls we'll drain, 
And drink to the health of the Creole girl 

On the Lakes of Pontchartrain. 


Part I, 182. Mrs. M. M. Moores, Perrysville, 0.» corrects stanzas 
4 and 6 as there given, making them read, — 

Their brother grew afflicted 
And rudely thrown abed. 

6. The Jews came to the sisters. 
Put Lazreth in the tomb, 

The following is Miss Goon's air: — 

■I J JU-J-i'J-U- fi Jif r I 

There was a Ih-tle fsm-iiy Who lived inBeth-a - ny, Two 

■' i J II j» J 1^ 

^ J i j. r 

sis - ten and a brodi - er G)m-posed this fun • i • ly; With 

r r i r r » f i r^ f r r \r ^ 

prayer and with ting - ing. Like an - gels in the sky, 


.x^u i*i \ i' n J 1 1 . II 

mom - ing and at even - ing. They raised their voi - ces high. 


Part I, 184; JAFL xxx, 334-335; Sturgis and Hughes, Songs from the 
Hills of Vermont (Boston [1919]), 22-25 (with tune). 

The text of Professor Kittredge (JAFL xxvi, 176) differs decidedly 
from others; it ends with the young lover dying in "New Bedlam." 
Like the text in Part I, but shorter, is that in JAFL xxviii, 147. " Eng- 
lish Folk Songs from the Southern Appalachians, No. 57 " (2 texts, 5 
airs). An air, with less than a stanza of the words, is in "Journal of 
the Folk-Song Society," ii, 81. 

Miss Eddy obtained a text and air from Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, 
O. The air follows. 

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Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


Once I coort-ed t lair beau -ty bride, I coiixt-ed her by day, 

^f J ji/jj-jj. ji J' J' m J a 

And I coort-ed her by night, I coort-ed her for love. And her 

j j'j j. j'H'j'^ j' j j'j'ij j/j I I 

love I did ob-tain. Therefore I have no rea - son at all to complain. 

lumbermen's songs. 
The songs of the lumbermen, known as "lumber- jacks" or "shanty 
boys," make an interesting group. This collection has the following 
song-ballads of this class: "Harry Bale," "James Whalen," "The 
Mossback Son and the Shanty Boy," "The Shanty Boy's Alphabet." 
The following have already appeared in this Journal: "The Big Eau 
Clair" (xxii, 259), "Shanty Teamsters' Marseillaise" (xxvi, 187), 
"Silver Jack" (xxviii, 9). Lomax, "Cowboy Songs," has "Harry 
Bale" (p. 172, a much fuller text than here), "Foreman Monroe" 
(p. 174), "The Shanty Boy" (p. 252). 


Part I, 185. Miss Eddy sends a text of 32 lines and 2 airs, the 
latter from Mrs. M. M. Moores and Miss Helen Chapel, Perrysville, O. 

[Additional American references are: "Beadle's Dime Song Book 
No. 2" (cop. i860), p. 28; "The Thomas M. Hengler New Sensation 
Songster" (New York), p. 41; "Wehman's Song Book No. 3" (New 
York, cop. 1891), p. 17; "Franklin Square Song Collection, No. 7 
(New York, 1891), p. 98; Sturgis and Hughes, "Songs from the Hills 
of Vermont" (Boston [1919]), pp. 36-39 (with tune). "Henry de 
Marsan's New Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, 7 (No. i) ; 
"Delaney's Song Book No. 2" (New York [1893]), p. 8; "Wehman 
Bros.' Pocket-Size Irish Song-Book No. 3" (cop. 1909), p. 49; broad- 
side of J. H. Johnson, Philadelphia.] 


^jU^j:JilJ' ^-1^ n^ ^ 

One night when the night It blew cold, Blew bit • ter a-cross the wild 

^ i^i j? ^J ^ ^ ^ J" 


Young Ma - ry she came with 

her child, Wan -d* ring 

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Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

homt to lieronce fa-tiitf's door, Cry • ing, "Fa • dicr, oh, pray let me 

i r ^' I J ;jj J /Ij. i j'^ 

inl Takt pi*ty oo me, I im«plorel Ob, the child at my 

'i J' ; J'U- J ^' U'/'jj ' j'j -ij. m 

bn-otn will die From the wind that blew 'cron the wild moor I' 


I ■— » 

111 J^ jlJ J /' J' i J' l ^' ^ 

l| I ' I ' J i i J 

J I J J J 

I rf i r .1 P l ' ' iji I J I '^'i^ 

Newell, Games and Songs of American Children (2d ed., 1903, New York), 
No. 41; Modern Language Notes, xxviii (November, 1913), 215 f. Belden, 
No. 100; Shearin, 20 (Shearin's summary ends, " But his wife assumes di- 
rection at his death"); Dixon, 204 ("Ancient Poems," etc.); Bell, 414 
("Early Ballads," etc.); Songs of Northern England, 58; Songs of the 
West, No. 12 (the miller asks each son "what toll " he will take); Ballads 
and Songs of Lancashire has a dialect version, " The Lancashire Miller." 

Miss Eddy obtains the words, except the final stanza, from Mrs. 
M. M. Moores; the final stanza and the air, from Mrs. Moores' brother, 
Mr. Henry Maurer; both of Perrysville, O. 

[This is a somewhat disordered version of the famous broadside 
ballad "The Miller's Advice to his Three Sons, On taking of Toll:" 
Roxburghe collection, iii, 681 (white letter, early eighteenth century, 
Ebsworth, "Roxburghe Ballads," vol. viii, part ii, pp. 611-612) 

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Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


Douce, iv, 44. Harvard College has two copies of a similar eighteenth- 
century broadside, one of which belonged to Percy. Greig, xli, gives 
the piece. 

Four stanzas from American tradition are quoted by Ceclia Thaxter, 
"Among the Isles of Shoals" (Boston, 1901), p. 81; cf. Miss Harper, 
"Modem Language Notes," xxviii, 215-216 (November, 1913). Dr. 
Alma Blount has sent in a text from the State of New York. F. C. 
Brown, p. 10, reports the piece from North Carolina; B. L. Jones, 
from Michigan. Newell prints a good text under the title of "The 
Miller of Gosport" ("Games and Songs of American Children," 1884, 
pp. 103-104).] 



J' J' J- ■^ i r- E fsiff- J'J. J' 

I. The mil - ler called up - on his eld - eat aon, "O mm ! my race ia 

i jf#>;. J , r I ir n r- p i c P ^^ 

al - moft nm, And if to thee the mill I give, Pray, 

^>tM-J'J'.jy. ji;^,^ .lj j i ^Jjng j 

tell to me what all yon' 11 have, With a foil loll lol - li doll day." 

2. "Why, father, you know my name it is Ralph, 
Out of every bushel I'll steal one half, 
Out of every bushel that I do grind, 
For that's the best living that I can find. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

3. "O son, O son! if this you do, 
You will not do as I have done. 
To you the mill I cannot give, 
For by those means no man can live. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

4. He called upon his second son: 
"O son! my race is almost run; 
And if to you the mill I give. 
Pray, tell to me what all you'll have. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

5. "Why, father, you know my name it is Dick, 
Out of every bushel I will steal one peck, 
Out of every bushel that I do grind, 
For that's the best thing that I can find. 
With a foil, loll, lolli doll day." 

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392 Journal of American Folk-Lore, 

6. He called upon his youngest son: 
"O son! my race is almost run; 
And if to thee the mill I give, 
Pray, tell to me what all you'll have. 
With a foil, loU, lolli doll day." 

7. "Why, father, you know I'm your darling boy. 
In stealing com is all my joy. 

I'll steal all the com, and swear to the sack, 
And whip the mill-boy when he comes back. 
With a foU, loll. loUi doU day." 

8. "O son, O son! if this you do, 
'Tis you will do as I have done. 
The mill is thine," the old man cried. 

And shut his d old eyes and died. 

With a foil, loU, lolU doll day. 

9. But now he is dead and in his grave, 
The greedy worms his body do crave; 
But where he is gone I cannot tell. 
But I rather suppose it is down to hell. 
With a foil, loll, loUi doU day. 

JAFL xxvi, 134 f. (with references) ; English Folk Songs from the Southern 
Appalachians, No. 119; Barry, No. 76; Pound, p. 76. Journal of the Folk- 
Song Society, ii, 226 (with references). Compare the Folk-Lore of Here- 
fordshire, 209 f . 

Miss Eddy gets the following words from Mrs. L. A. Lind, Can* 
ton, O. 

(Version a,) 

1. Mr. Frog went a-courting, he did ride, e-hal 
Mr. Frog went a-courting, he did ride, 

A sword and pistol by his side, e-ha! 

2. He rode up to Miss Mousie's door, e-ha! 

He gave three raps and a very loud roar, e-ha! 

3. He sat down and he took her on his knee, e-ha! 
Said he, "Miss Mousie, will you marry me, e-ha? '* 

4. Says she, "I cannot answer that, e-ha! 
Till I see my Uncle Rat, e-ha! " 

5. "Uncle Rat's in London town, e-ha! 

And I don't know when he'll come down, e-ha!*^ 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


6. Uncle Rat came riding home, e*ha! 

"And who's been here since I've been gone, e-ha? " 

7. "A very wealthy gentleman, e-ha! 
Who says he'll marry if he can, e-ha! " 

8. Uncle Rat he grinned and smiled, e-ha! 
To think his niece should be a bride, e-ha! 

9. "Who shall the wedding guests be, e-ha? " 
"A little busy bug and a bumble-bee, e-ha! " 

10. "And where shall the wedding supper be, e-ha? " 
"Down in the valley in a hollow tree, e-ha! " 

11. "What shall the wedding supper be, e-ha? " 
"A slice of bread and a cup of tea, e-hal " 

12. The first came in was Major Dick, e-ha! 
He ate so much it made him sick, e-ha ! 

13. The next came in was the bumble-bee, he ho! 
He tuned his fiddle in his knee, e-ha! 

14. The next came in was the old dun cow, e-ha! 
She wanted to dance, but didn't know how. 

15. The next came in was Colonel Bed-Bug, hi ho! 
He had whiskey in a jug, e-ha! 

16. The old song-book lies on the shelf, hi ho! 
If you want any more, sing it yourself. 

{Version b.) 
Sent by Miss Eddy. Sung by Miss Lucille Wilson, Perrysville, 
O. Learned from the singing of her father. His home was in western 

Rather livdy. 


J- J' J J N J 



I ' ■*j j i ^ 

/. Mis - ter Frog went a - court - ing, he did ride, A - ha, a - 





I I I 

ha ! Mis - ter frog went a • court - ing, he did ride, A 

> I I J j |i J 





sword and pii • td by his side, 


a - ha! 

Digitized by 


394 Journal qf American Fdk-Lore. 

2. He rode till he came to the little Mouse's house. 
And he chased little Mouse afl 'round the house. 

3. He took little Mouse upon his knee. 

And said, "Little Mouse, will you many me? " 

4. "I can't consent to a thing like that 
Until I see my Unde Rat." 

5. Old Uncle Rat came riding home, 

"And who's been here since I've been gone? " 

6. "A very nice young man indeed. 

Who smokes and puffs and chews the weed." 

7. "And where shall the wedding supper be? " 
"Down in the meadow by the big oak-tree." 

8. "And what shall we have for the wedding supper? " 
"Three green peas fried in butter." 

9. The mouse went swimming in the lake. 

And there she was caught by a big black snake. 

10. The frog went a-swimming in the brook. 
And there he was caught by a big fish-hook. 

[The oldest record of "The Frog and the Mouse" is the mention 
of "The frog cam to the myl dur" in "The Complaint of Scotland" 
(1549, ed. Murray), p. 64, if, indeed, that song was really a version 
of our ditty.* On Nov. 21, 1580, a "ballad" entitled "A moste 
Strange Weddinge of the ffrogge and the mowse" was entered to 
Edward White in the Stationers' Register (Collier, ii, 132; Arber, 
a, 382).* 

The oldest extant version, "The Marriage of the Frogge and the 
Mouse," is printed in [Ravenscroft's] "Melismata," 161 1 (with tune): 
reprinted in "Selections from the Works of Thomas Ravenscroft" 
(Roxburghe Club [i82f. Part II], p. 16, with tune); and by Rimbault, 
"Notes and Queries," ist series, iii, 51; Rimbault, "A Little Book 
of Ballads and Songs," 1851, pp. 87-88; Chappell, "Popular Music 
of the Olden Time" (1855), i, 88 (with tune); Bullen, "Lyrics from 

1 [In commenting on the aongi dted in The Complaint, Pinkerton remarks: "I am 
told that No. 17 ('The frog cam to the myl dur') used lately to be sung on the stage in 
Edinburgh, and contains a mock courtship between a frog and a mousey of some satirrlcal 
merit" (Select Scottish Ballads, 1783, ii, p. zcdi); but this is not very satisfactory evi- 
dence for identification.] 

* [Duly noted by Warton in 1781 (History of English Poetry, iii, 445).] 

Digitized by 


Traditional Texts and Tunes. 395 

the Song-Books of the Elizabethan Age/' 1887, pp. 60-61 ; Deanner 
and Shaw, "Song Time," p. 19 (with tune); Walter Crane, "The 
Baby's Opera," pp. 24-25 (slightly altered and with the "Rowley" 
burden); Vincent Jackson, "English Melodies," 1910, p. 32 (in part, 
with tune). From the "Melismata" comes, obviously, the text from 
a "MS. dated 1630" printed by Robert Chambers, "Popular Ryhmes 
of Scotland" (new edition [1870]), pp. 56-57. 

There is a group of Scottish texts from oral tradition — at least 
five in number — which are closely related to the song in " Melismata," 
but are associated with one another by special features: (i) Robert 
Pitcairn's Ballad MSS.,* ii (1817-22), 115-116 (Harvard College 
MS. copy, 25241.27), printed in Maidment, "Scottish Ballads and 
Songs," 1859, pp. 153-156; (2) the same, ii, 119-121 (Harvard College 
MS. copy, as above), printed in Maidment, pp. 157-158; (3) [Charles 
Kirkpatrick Sharpe] "A Ballad Book" (privately printed, 30 copies 
[1823]; new ed., by David Laing, 1880), No. 30, pp. 86-88; reprinted 
from C. K. Sharpe by Rimbault, "A Little Book of Ballads and 
Songs," 1851, pp. 89-91; by Aytoun, "The Ballads of Scotland," 
1858, ii, 94-95 (2d ed., 1859, ii, 97-98); by Robert Chambers, "Popu- 
lar Rhymes of Scotland," new ed. [1870], pp. 55-56; by Bullen, " Lyrics 
from the Song-Books of the Elizabethan Age," 1887, pp. 186-187; 
and by Edith Emerson Forbes, "Favourites of a Nursery" (Boston, 
1917)1* PP- 158-159; (3) Kinloch MSS. (1827 and after) ,* Harvard 
College Library, iii, 11-15; (4) Macmath MS.,* pp. 21-23 (Harvard 
College MS. copy, fols. 16-17; also in Child MSS., i, 159-163); (5) 
fragment, with time, "Journal of the Folk-Song Society," ii, 226. 
All of these except No. 4 have a "Cuddy alone" burden (with some 
variation) which is akin to the "Kitty alone" burden in Ritson (see 
below); the burden of No. 4 has some resemblance to that in "Melis- 
mata. " 

An English traditional version, related to the song in "Melismata," 
is printed in [Ritson 's] " Gammer Gurton's Garland," 1810, pp. 1-2;* 
thence (but without the reference) by Halliwell, "The Nursery Rhymes 
of England" (Percy Society, 1842), No. 93, pp. 70-72 (2d ed.. No. 118, 
pp. 87-89; 5th and 6th eds.. No. 173, pp. 110-112); and from Halli- 
well in Mrs. Valentine, "Nursery Rhymes, Tales, and Jingles" (Cam- 
den ed.. No. 197), pp. 119-121. This Ritson text is not quite com- 
plete, as one may see by comparing it with "Melismata," on the one 
hand, and, on the other, with the texts (belonging to this same tradi- 

1 [See Maonath, The Bibliography of Scottish Ballads in Manuscript (Edinburgh 
Bibliographical Society), p. 8; Child, v. 398.I 

* [Erroneously credited to Percy's Reliques.] 

* (See Macmath, l.c„ p. 9; Child. ▼, 398.] 
^ See Macmath* p. xi; Child, ▼. 399.] 

* [Compare Ritsoo, Scottish Songs, 1794, i, p. xli.] 

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396 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

tional version) furnished by Rimbault, ''A Collection of Old Nursery 
Rhymes/' pp. 26-27 (with tune), and Miss Mason, "Nursery Rhymes 
and Country Songs," pp. 8-9 (with two times, and burdens different 
from each other). A still longer text, belonging, to all appearances, 
to this group, is that suppressed (but for one stanza and the burden) 
by Baring-Gould and Sheppard (who print a tune), "A Garland of 
Country Song," No. 13, pp. 30-31. Here belong also the fragmentary 
text (from an Irish nurse) in Mrs. Leather, "The Folk-Lore of Here- 
fordshire," if9i2, p. 210,* and a two-stanza fragment (with the "Kitty 
alone" burden) from Missouri in Belden's MS. collection; as well as 
(apparently) a copy written down for me in 1894 by Hon. Nathaniel 
Gordon of Exeter, N.H. Mr. Gordon could recollect but six stanzas, 
corre^x>nding to stanzas 1-5 of the Ritson-Halliwell version; his 
fourth stanza is wanting in that text, but is an int^jal part of the 
song, being a good representative of a stanza in "Melismata." I 
subjoin his fourth stanza, with the burden or chorus: — 

Said he, "Madam Mouse, are you within?" 

Rigdum boUo-meUy kitno 
"Oh, yes! kind sir, I sit and spin." 

Rigdum boUo-meUy kitno 

Kimo karro diUo darro 

Strim stratn potiier-riddle 
Luther banner rigdum 
Rigdum boUo-tneUy kitno.* 

At about the same time I obtained one stanza from Miss Frances 
Perry of Exeter, N.H., with a variant of the same burden. Another 
copy with the same burden is printed by Sturgis and Hughes, "Songs 
from the Hills of Vermont" (Boston [1919]), pp. 18-20 (with music). 
Belden has a good but condensed copy with this burden, and a frag- 
ment of one stanza with a distorted form of it. This "kimo" burden 
is that of Mrs. Leather's fragmentary Herefordshire version (p. 209), 
and has been reported in "Notes and Queries," ist series, ii, 188, and 

> (Mn. Leather's first version (p, 209) is a corrupt fragment of four stanzas.] 
' [Mr. Gordon had also heard the song with a different burden: — 
There was a frog lived in the well. 
Perry merry dictum o-^omlnee 
And a mouse liv'd in the milL 

Perry merry dictum o-domUue. 
Turn er kaUaroons, er paUerroons 
Er perry merry temperroims, 
Er perry merry dictmm o-domlnee. 
For this burden In another song, see Child, i, 414 (note); Folk-Lore Journal* ill, 272; 
JAFL jDdx, 157. See. also Jacobs. English Fairy Tales (1890), pp. 73, 234.) 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 397 

in Folk-Lore, xviii, 449.* It is quite different from the "Ktty alone" 
burden in Ritson and Baring-Gould (or the ** Cuddy alone" of Scottish 
texts). Rimbault's burden is different from both, and Miss Mason's 
burden is still another. A form or development of the "kimo" bur- 
den appears in the Negro minstrel song to be mentioned presently. 
An Irish version in "Notes and Queries," ist series, ii, 75, has 
several old features which connect it closely with the text in "Melis- 
mata," but varies from that text by introducing a number of wedding 
guests, — the bee (with a fiddle), the snail (with bagpipes), the pig, 
the hen, and the duck. Here belongs a shorter text in "Journal of 
the Irish Folk-Song Society," iv, 22 (with tune). A similar elabora- 
tion occurs in several American copies: see Perrow's Mississippi text 
QAFL xxvi, 134-135); Wyman and Brockway, "Lonesome Times," 
i, 25-29;* an unprinted variant collected by Miss Wyman in Letcher 
County, Kentucky ;• Campbell and Sharp, "English Folk Songs from ^ 
the Southern Appalachians," No. 119; a fragment printed in the 
"Boston Transcript," Feb. 4, 191 1, Part ii, p. 8; a New York copy 
in the same newspaper, Feb. 18, 191 1; five texts (some of them frag- 
ments) in Belden's MS. collection; Professor Tolman's first text 
(above), and five unprinted copies in my possession, from Massachu- 
setts, Pennsylvania, and the South (MSS., iii, 126-127, 129-130, 133; 
iv, 72; V, 185-186). Three of these last make a special sub-group by 
virtue of their conclusion: — 

The frog he swam to the lake. 

And there was swallowed by a big black snake. 

The big black snake he swam to land, 
And there was caught by a nigger man. 

The nigger man he went to France, 
And that's the end of my romance.^ 

With this general group (though lacking the elaboration in guests) 
belong a nine-stanza text in the "Boston Transcript," Jan. 28, 191 1, 
Part ii, p. 8, and two unprinted copies in my possession (MSS., iii, 125; 
vii, 171), one of them from North Carolina. A tendency to elabora- 
tion (fox, etc.) may also be seen in the Scottish copies. 

About 1809 a form of the traditional English version was so modified 
by omissions and the insertion of modem features as to fit it to the 
comic stage of the time (the frog, for instance, takes "his opera hat" 

* [See also Jacobs, English Fairy Tales (1890), pp. 73, 234. A curious variation of 
this burden may be seen in the comic song "Polly, Won't Vou Try Me. O?" as "sung by 
Mrs, Florenoe at Drury Lane;" broadside, Ryle & Co. (Harvard College).] 

* (The burden is practically the same as in Mr. Gordon's first vtr^oa (above).] 

* [Ounpare also the Kentucky "Bed-Time Song" (Wyman and Brockway, U 22-24),] 

* [There are varieties in detail here, of course, among the three.] 

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398 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

along when he goes a-courting), and was sung in this 'shape ("The 
Frog in the Cock'd Hat" or "The Love-sick Frog") by the famous 
comedian Liston, to "an original air by C. E. H.» Esq." (Charles 
Edward Horn).' Liston's song b^ns, — 

A frog he would a-wooing go, 

Whether his mother would let him or no, — 

and has the burden "Heigho! says Rowley/' etc. It may be found 
in "Fairbum's Catamaran Songster, or Theatrical Galamathias" for 
1809 (London), pp. 31-32;* a Pitts broadside, "The Frog in the 
Cock'd Hat" (Harvard College); "The Vocal Ubrary," No. 1758, 
p. 648; "The Yankee Songster's Pocket Companion" (Gardiner, Me., 
1824), pp. 77-79; "Davidson's Universal Melodist" (London, 1847), 
i, 166-167 (with tune); Helen K. Johnson, "Our Familiar Songs" 
(New York, i88i). p. 434 (with tune); Baring-Gouki, "A Book of 
Nurtery Songs and Rhymes," No. 17, pp. 27-30; and, with omissions 
and slight changes (probably from secondary tiaditioo), in [W. A« 
^•heeler) " Mother Goose's Mekxlies " (New Ywk. 1877), pp, 7-19, and 
Robert Ford, "Chiklren's Rhymes," 1903, pp. 1 18-120 (from Ford, 
in Louey Chishohn, "Nursery Rhymes,'* pp, 3^-34). The Liston 
song, oddly crossed with older traditioii, occurs in Aksander Laing 
of Brechin's MS. (Har\-ard College Librar>0,» No. 8, pp. 9-1 1 (Scot- 

That particular form of the traditioQal ditty wfakfa oaderlay Lis- 
ton's rifacim$emi0 is tolerably wdl represented, it aippeus, by tbe ver- 
sion (^from Yorkshii^) in Rimbault. "A Little Book of Balbds aad 
Soi^s^" pp. 03"^. and by that of ca. 1790, of wfakfa a tu^intai is 
fi\Tft in "Note* and Queries,** ist series, H, no* ^cf. ii. 45-4^-* 
It must ha\^ didered but sHghth* from the tccts in Ritsaa*s ^'Gaflnner 
Gortons GjirUnd^* ^and HalUw^P and in Rimbnnlt^s ^ColectiaK of 
Okl Nurwr>* Rh>nnes«" pp. 26-^7: but tbe burdens m the cases ciaed 
show much v;uriet\\ onK' the Ritson41aIfiweD co|iy faavin^ ""Kirrr 
akme'* * v<^^^'~^)»( ^^ ^he "Cuddy jiiooe" found in sost of the : 

» : r^F>v«»t^C.ic^4lfeMU4cT^ltHUtteMMK»tkr]>Ki;.i 

« A ^tiMTif ^«mK^ 9«c4tt9i^ * « r^ 

♦ • ^^ - Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes, 399 

D'Urfey's stupid and indecent burlesque, ''A Ditty on a high Amour 
at St. James's" (beginning "Great Lord Frog to Lady Mouse"), 
may be found with a tune in "Pills to Purge Melancholy" (1714), 
V, 298-300, and in "The Merry Musician or A Cure for the Spleen" 
(1716), pp. 17-18; without music, in "The Hive" (1732), iv, 135-137. 

A burlesque utilizing the "kimo" burden was once very popular 
on the N^^ minstrel stage in two <orms, known respectively as 
"Keemo Kimo" and "Kitty Kimo." For "Keemo Kimo" (3 stanzas) 
see " Keemo Kimo, Geo. Christy and Wood's Cdebrated Banjo Song 
As Sung by P. H. Keenan. Arranged by A. Sedgwick. Published 
and Sold by Geo. Christy & Wood's Minstrels, 444 Broadway, 
N. Y." (cop. 1854 by H. Wood); "George Christy and Wood's 
Melodies" (cop. 1854), pp. 7-8 (a song-book afterwards included in 
"Christy's and White's Ethiopian Melodies," Philadelphia, Peter- 
son); "The Christy's Minstrels' Song Book" (London, Boosey), vol. 
ii, part ii, pp. 56-57 (with tune); "Beadle's Dime Melodist" (New 
York, cop. i860), pp. 26-27 (with tune); "Howe's Comic Songster" 
(Boston, Elias Howe), pp. 94-95 (with a fourth stanza). For "Kitty 
Kimo" (4 stanzas) see de Marsan broadside. List 3, No. 12 ("com- 
posed and arranged by Charles White"); "Henry de Marsan's New 
Comic and Sentimental Singers' Journal," i, p. 138, No. 22 ("Com- 
posed and arranged by Charles White, and sung by Old Dan Em- 
mit"); Wehman broadside. No. 651; broadside, "Wholesale Depot, 
27 Green Street" (Harvard College); "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 
3" (cop. i860), p. 64; "Gus Williams' Old Fashioned G. A. R. Camp 
Fire Songster," p. 14; "Wehman Bros.' Good Old-Time Songs No. i " 
(New York, cop. 1890), p. 86. Each of these two forms has one stanza 
about the frog; the rest is riotous and delightful nonsense. The 
burden is a development of the "kimo" form (see above), and appears 
also in Campbell and Sharp's No. 120, p. 319. Quite a different song 
entitled "Keemo Kimo" (likewise obviously American) is found in an 
English broadside issued by Bebbington of Manchester (No. 367: 
Harvard College Library, 25242.17, x, iii). It gets its burden from 
the minstrel song, but has cut quite loose from "Frog and Mouse."] 


This modern American lumbermen's song resembles a mediaeval 
"debate." An interesting parallel is the English debate "The Hus- 
bandman and the Servingman," — "Ancient Poems, Ballads, and 
Songs,"' etc., 42;* "English County Songs," 144; "Folk Songs from 

* ["God speed the Plough, and bless the Corn-mow. A Dialogue between the Hus- 
band-man and the Serving-man" is Roid>urghe. ii, i88; Pepys, iv, 272; Euing, 127; Craw- 
ford, 84s, 846. See Collier, A Book of Roxburghe Ballads, 1847, pp. 312-316; Roxburgfae 
Ballads, ed. Ebsworth, vi, 520, 523-525; Crawford Catalogue, 1890, pp. 301-302; Davies 
Gilbert, Some Ancient Carols, 2d ed., 1823, pp. 7>^5*] 

^ Digitized byL^OOQlC 

400 Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Somerset/' No. 71. The Servingman confesses himself beaten. 

A similar debate between "the Serving-man and the Husband-man " 
(also called the ''Plough-man") is in "Roxburghe Ballads," Chappdl, 
i, 300; in the edition of Hindley, i, 385. 

Shearin lists, p. 21, "Kaintucky Boys ... A dibat between a 
^^rginia lad and the Kentucky maiden whom he comes to woo. She 
scorns lands and money, and lauds the superior manliness of the 
Kentucky lads." A variant in Shearin praises the boys of Owsley 
County, Kentucky. 

Two texts have come to me that agree very closely, — one through 
Miss Helen Dye from Mr. Willard Dye, Cadillac, Mich.; the other 
from Mr. Hoyt E. Cooper, Manilla, lo. 

[This dibat has a curious resemblance to the famous mediaeval Latin 
poem "De Phyllide et Flora," in which two damsels discuss the com- 
parative merits of a knight and a clerk as lover: Wright, "The Latin 
Poems conmionly attributed to Walter Mapes," pp. 258-267, 353- 
371; Schmeller, "Carmina Burana," 1847, pp. 155-165 (3d ed., 1894, 
pp. 155-165); Haur^au, "Notices et Extraits," xxxii (pt. i), 259-269; 
cf. Laistner, "Golias," pp. 70-96.] 

1. One evening as I was walking out, 

Just as tne sun went down, 
I walked along quite carelessly 

Till I came to Trenton town. 
There I heard two maids conversing, 

As slowly I passed by; 
One said she loved her moss-back son. 

While the other, her shanty boy. 

2. The one that loved her moss-back son, 

These words I heard her say: 
"The reason why I love him, 

For at home with me he'll stay; 
He'll stay at home all winter. 

To the woods he will not go; 
And when the spring comes on again. 

His lands he'U plough and sow." 

3. "All for to plough and sow your land," 

The other girl did say; 
"If crops should prove a failure, 

Your debts you could not pay. 
If crops should prove a failure, 

Grain-markets would be low. 
The sheriff ofttimes sells you out 

To pay the debts you owe." 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 401 

4. "Off with the sheriff selling us out! 

That does not me alarm; 
For what's the use of being in debt 

When you're on a good farm? 
From off your farm you'll earn your bread, 

Without working in storm and rain; 
While your shanty boy works hard each day 

His family to maintain." 

5. "Oh, how I love my shanty boy, 

Who goes out in the fall! 
For he's both stout and able, 

And fit to stand the squall. 
With pleasure I'll embrace him, 

In the spring when he comes down; 
His money with me he'll spend quite free. 

While your moss-back son has none." 

6. "Oh, how you praise your shanty boy, 

Who goes out in the fall! 
He's called up before day-break. 

For to stand the storm and squall; 
While happy and contented, 

My boy with me he'll stay. 
And tell to me sweet tales of love. 

Till the storm has passed away." 

7. "I cannot bear that silly trash 

Those moss-back sons do say. 
The most of them they are so green 

The cows would eat for hay. 
How easy it is to mark them, 

Whene'er they come to town! 
You'll see the boot-blacks gather round 

And say, 'Moss, how are you down? ' " 

8. "Now, what I've said of your shanty boy, 

I hope you'll pardon me; 
And from that ignorant moss-back son 

I will try and get free. 
The very next chance that I do have, 

^th some shanty boy I'll go, 
And leave that ignorant moss-back son 

His buckwheat for to sow." 

MY grandma's advice. 

Grandma advises against marriage. The speaker is more afraid 
of dying an old maid. Five stanzas. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

4oa Journal of American Folk-Lore. 

Pound 6a. Sung to Miat Eddy by Mr. Henry Maurer, Perrys- 
ville, O. 

[For American copies see "The Home Melodist" (Boston, cop. 
1839), p. 44 (with music); "Beadle's Dime Song Book No. 2" (cop. 
i860), p. 15 ("Music published by H. Waters, 333 Broadway, N. Y."); 
"The Shilling Song Book** (Bostcm, cop. i860), p. 93; "Father Kemp's 
Okl Folks Concert Music** (Boston, cop. 1874), P- 8?; deMarsan 
broadside (New York), List 7. No. 59* "My Grandma's Advice" 
still keeps its place in the Oliver Ditaoa Company's catalogue, and 
may be had at any time (words and music). The soog is a variatioa 
on "The Old Maid** ("When I Uv*d with my Grandam on yoo Ettle 
green**): "The Lover*s Harmony," No. 17. p* I34 (Pitts [1840DJ 


[Skoele Armm.] 
Ste Jo«ur«al of the Fotk-Soag Society, n. 253-954. £, 26-31; Em^jkk F«& 
Soags fro« the Southcra Appalachiaas, No. 93 (''Patiaaa's BSTU 

Mr. Maxwell* Canton. O., wrote this dowm for Mis Eddj 

I. U 1 vaa ap oa yoader kO. 
There Td att aad cry wr fil. 
Tin every tear voold tani a waSL 
C^Hb^ awl a boo ssluria osl 

Shi»?&. shimie. shocSe mrew 
Shoc&e a»-ca-ca-<a Sal? 
1:** wSfii I aw eie Saly by 
Cxbt^ie .1^ a Sn ssluria oo. 

2. Sidl 3TV csuck £3d adl aty resL 
Aa^i Ifkewise mL ny ^t^o9^ v!feeeL 
Tj Si-v inr Icve a jwcri and ; 

r^ «M< a .-QrtnjK 3t «riaace. 
:: «««r ^ cuam 3«dc duel 
C^a&bir jmi a Wa saiics. iWi 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 403 

1. My true-love has gone to France, 
Seeking his fortune for to advance, 

And if he ever returns, it will be but a chance, 
Suck-a-gill to a wanyan slonyan. 

Shule, shule, shul-a-make-a-rule, 
And a shula in a gr&ss, and a shula cooka you. 
And a gr&ss in a won, oh dill, oh-la-done, 
Suck-a-gill in a wanyan slonyan. 

2. My old daddy was very cross, 

He neither allowed me a cow nor a boss, 
Be it for the better, or for the wuss, 
Suck-a-gill t6 a wanyan slonyan. 


3. My old mother was a very fine man. 
She used to ride the Darby ram; 
He sent her whizzin' down the hill. 

And if she ain't got up, she lays there still. 


(Version c.) 
Obtained through Miss Eddy from Mrs. L. A. Lind, Canton, O. 

1. My daddy was so very cross 

He gave me neither cow nor horse; 
He's none the better, I'm none the worse. 
Comapalala boosi Laurie. 


Shoo li, shoo li, shoo li roo, 
Shoo li, sack a rack, a salobabo cue. 
While I sigh for Salobabo lee, 
Comapalala boosi Laurie. 

2. I'll dye my dress, I'll dye it red. 

All over the world I'll buy my bread. 
So that my parents will think me dead. 
Comapalala boosi Laurie. 

3. I wish I were on yonder hill, 
'Tis there I'd sit and cry my fill, 
And every tear would turn a mill. 

Comapalala boosi Laurie. 

Digitized by 



Journal of American Folk-Lore. 
{Versum d.) 

I. My old diMt-dy*! gone to Frsnce, There to por-chaaei 

Te-ry fine diance; If I thooldiigh for Sal-ly Bob*o*iBk,CQine 

1 ^1 J'^-l'J; iU Ml. . 1 1 Iff ijj I 

bib-a-fil -a-boo-a lo - ra; Shu - li - ihn • fi. ihn-E - loo^ 

Shu • E-ga-ca*ra-ca)bib-a 
Zach-a - ri - ah ( 

fil . fi . cue, II I dmUiigh lor 

Sal-lr Bob 

Kl -la-boo • aa 

2. I dye my dress, 1*11 dye it red. 

And o'er this world IH beg my bread. 
So my parents think me dead. 
Come bib-a-lil-la-boo-sa-k>-ra, etc 

[Version a is dose to the ohiiiikmi versioo of "Shuk Arooo.** See 
Manas O'Conor, "Old-Time Songs and Ballads of Iidand" (cop. 
1901), p. no (also published as "Irish Come-all-ye's"); "Ddaney's 
Irish Song Book No. 2," p. 5; "Wehman Bros.' Podcet-Siie Iri^ 
Song Book No. 3" (cop. 1909), p. 95; Redfem Mason, "The Song 
Lore of Ireland" (New Yori^ 1910), p. 267; Alfred Moffat, "The 
Minstrdsy of Ireland," 4th ed., pp. 104-105; Joyce, "Old Iri^ Folk 
Music and Songs," 1909, No. 425, pp. 236-237; "Journal of the Iri^ 
F(dk Song Society," October, 1912, xii, 27 (a peculiar version); "Songs 
of our Land" (Boston, Dcmahoe [185- ]), pp. 57-58 ("Shuik Agra,** 
with additional stanzas). A text "adapted by the editor," Alfred B. 
Graves, may be found in "The Irish Song Book," pp. 6-7; in "Soty 
Irish Songs," edited by William A. Fisher (Boston, cop. 1915). pp. 
154-157; and in Boulton and Somerwell's "Songs of the Four Natioos" 
(Lond<^> 1893). No. 40, pp. 210-214 (with an Irish translation fay 
Dr. Douglas Hyde, "Sinbhan a Graidh"). 

The wdl-known Yale song entitled "Shocd" is a cooaic rif mci m i m i m 
of "Shuk Aroon." See Charles S. Elliot, "Songs of Yak" (New 
Haven, 1870), pp. 50-51; C. Wiston Stevens, "CoDege Song Book" 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Traditional Texts and Tunes. 


(Boston, cop. i860), pp. 40-43; Henry R. Waite, "Carmina CoUigen- 
sia" (Boston, cop. i860), p. 44; the same, "Student Life in Song" 
(Boston, cop. 1879), pp. 119-121; "Camp Songs" (Boston, Ditson, 
cop. 1861, p. 41).] 

NO, sir! 

Pound, 43; Wolford (see bibliography under Division IV), 73. See 
"O, No, John!" in "Folk Songs from Somerset," No. 94, and in "One 
Himdred English Folksongs," No. 68 (this air should be compared 
with the second one printed below). Compare the fragment in 
"Journal of the Folk-Song Society," iv, 298. Miss Eddy sends two 
variants. The first air was learned by her as a girl; the second she 
gets from the singing of Mrs. Daniel Ross, Shreve, O. 


a-^^ c MJ' / J Jir p^^ 

My £a - ther was a wealth - y mer- chant, Where he is I 

f^r e i c n ^^ 

do not know, Be -fore he died he made me prom-ise 

J /' J' p M l '" ^ -11 ^ 

Al - ways to an - swer the young man No. No, No, 

J / p M 1^' 7:=F¥i 


No, rir, No, Al • wayi to an • twer the yoanK man Na 


a/. >ip' (! ^ JH^- / p \ r^ 


Tell me one tlung,tell me tra - ly. Tell me why yon tcom me 

so; Tell me why, when asked a question. Yon will always answer 

so; Tell me why,when asked a question, 
Chobub. pt 

l;>J^i J^i^-' l/'^-' j^j! ^ Ijt'/'-H^nM 


No,sir, No,sir, No,8ir, No,sir, No,sir, No.sir, 

No, sir, No. No sir, No, sir, No, sir, No, sir, No, sir. No. 

Digitized by ^OOQIC 

4o6 Journal of Atnerican Folk-Lore. 

["No, Sir!" (almost word for word like No. i) occurs in "Gons of 
Minstrel Song" (cop. 1882 by W. F. Shaw), p. 23 ("Words and Music 
Arr. by A. M. Wakefield"); "Popular Songs and Ballads" (cop. 
1882 by W. F. Shaw), p. [62] (with the sa