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JOURNAL 



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THE ASIATIC SOCIETY 



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BKMOAIi. 



BDITBO BT 

JAMES PRINSEP, F. R.S. 

ticmVTAmT ov nu Asiatic socibtt ot bbno^l ; hon. mbm. of tbb ab. iog. 

OF PAmil ; cob. mbm. of tbb zoological SOC. of LONDON, AND OF THB 
BOTAL SOOIBTIBS OF MABSBILLBB AND CABN ; OF THB ACADBMT 
OF NATUBAL 8CIBNCB8 OF PBILADBLPBIA ; OF TBB 
PBIL080PBICAL SOCIBTT OF OBNBVA ; OF 
TBB ALBANT INBTITUTB, &C. 



VOL. VI.—PART I. 



JANUARY TO JUNE, 



" It will flourish, if nstarsliits, clieniiiti, sntiqnsries, philologeri, snd men of 
science, in different psrts of AMta, will commit their obterrstione to writing, and 
send them to the Asiatic Society at Calcutta ; it will languish, if such communi- 
cations shall be long intermitted ; and will die away, if they ihall entirely cease." 

Sir Wm. Jonbb. 



€ttUutta i 

FBIMTXS AT THS BAPTIST MT88IOK PRB88, CIRCULAR BOAO. 
■OLD BT THB BDITOB, AT TBB MCllTT't OWIOB. 

1887. 



PREFACE. 



We have the pleasare of closing this sixth voldme of oar 
Journal with an unexpected announcement: — the last steam 
packet has brought out instructions from the Honorable Court 
of Directors to the Goyemment of India to ** subscribe in their 
name for forty copies of the Journal of the Asiatic Society 
from the commencement of its publication !^ We forbear to 
comment upon an act of liberality by which we shall personally 
be such a gainer, but which we hare neither directly nor indi- 
rectly solicited. We can easily imagine to whose friendly influ- 
ence we are indebted for it, and we hope he will accept our ac- 
knowledgments. Our principal difficulty will be how to meet 
the wishes of the court ; for of our early Yolumes not a Yolume is 
now to be procured ! We must seriously consider the expedi- 
ency of a reprint, for we have even heard it whispered that an 
American edition was in. contemplation, and snch a thing can- 
not be deemed impossible when we find the Philadelphiana 
undertaking to rival us of Calcutta in printing (and that with- 
out government support) a Cochinchinese dictionary* ! 

Of local support we have lost nothing by the measure we re- 
luctantly adopted at the beginning of the year, of raising the 
price of the journal from one to one and a half rupee per num- 
ber. Our list is fuller than ever, and our balance sheet of a 
much more promising aspect. 

* M. P. St. DtjpoNCEAU thus writes to M. Jac4)uet of Paris: '' J'ai 
msintenaat le plaisir de voas informer quels Soci^te philosophique Ameri. 
eaiiie Tient d'ordonner V impression k ses frais dex deux vocabulaires 
dena^ k Mr. Whitb par le R. de Morronb, ils vont etre public dans un 
volume des memoires de son comite d' histoire et de literature^ etant trop 
volumineux pour faire partie de ses Transactions philosophiques. 



vi 



Pre/act, 



PAYMENTS. 

Ri, Ai. P. 

To balance due 1st January, 1,904 2 II 
To printer's bills for 1836, pd.6,348 15 
To engravings and litho- 
graphs, .. .. .. 910 

To expence of circulation, 421 11 9 

To postage ditto, 48 3 



Bills for 1837 due say, 
Add former balance, 



7.933 8 

6,000 
2,488 10 6 



RECEIPTS. 

By collections this year, . . 
Bydistribntion to Mem- 1 
bersof tbe As. Society, J 
By shop sales. 
By sales in England, 
By balance due. 



R», Ai. P, 

3,455 2 8 

1,293 

280 13 6 

413 6 

2,488 10 6 

7,933 8 



Collections due by Asiatic 1 
Soc. and subs, in the > 7,139 7 
three Presidencies, J 



The deficiency, supposing all to be recoverable, is 1,849 18 1, 
o^ almost precisely what it was last year ; so that our present 
price exactly pays the expenses of publication. 

The bulk of the volume has gone increasing at the usual rate, 
and instead of eight hundred pages, we have now risen to eleven 
hundred, with sixty plates ; too much to be conveniently bound 
up in one volume. We have therefore provided separate title 
pages to enable those, who so prefer, to divide the annual volume 
into two parts with an index, common to both, at the conclusion 
of the second part. 

The prominent subject of public discussion (to imitate the 
order of preceding prefaces) as far as the Asiatic Society is 
concerned, has been the museum, — ^ihe memorial to the local 
government — now under reference to the Court of Directors,— 
suggesting that the Society^s collection of antiquities and natural 
history should form the nucleus of an extensive national esta- 
blishment, in the present day almost ^* an essential engine of 
education, instructive alike to the uninformed, who admires the 
wonders of nature through the eye alone, and to the refined 
student who seeks in these repositories what it would be quite 
out of his power to procure with his own means.^' It is to be 
hoped that this appeal to the court will not share the fate of 
the oriental publication memorial of 1885, which is still unac- 
knowledged ; but that we shall soon have an answer embracing 
the united objects of the Society^s solicitude, and enabling her 
to advance boldly in her schemes to secure for herself, and for 
the British name the glory of placing ^ India physical, moral, 
and historical,^ upon the records of literature. What could be 
adduced as a more convincing ^ argumentum^ {ad ignorantiam 
dare we say ?) than the fact that at this moment a French gen- 



Prefab. rii 

tleman of fortune well groQDded in Sanskrit and other oriental 
studies at Paris, is come to Calcutta, * about to retrace the steps 
of the French naturalists Dutaucel and Jacquemont in the 
interest of the antiquarian, as they travelled in that of the phy- 
sical sciences.** He contemplates exploring Gaur^ Faiiliputra^ 
Magadha^ MiihilayKisiyJyudhya^ Nipil^ JT^ntoon, the Panjib 
AffghanUt&fU Tibet ; then the Jain provinces, as they may be 
called, of Marwar and MUwi^ and 6nally the cave antiquities 
of Western India*. 

We wish M. Theroulde every success, we proffer him every 
aid ; yet we do so not without a blush that any thing should be 
left for a foreigner to explore ! India, however, is large enough 
for us all to run over without jostling, and we cannot allow that 
inactivity is at the present moment a reproach against our Socie- 
ty or our governors. We have expeditions in Cashmir^ Sinde^ Bho- 
tdUj AvOy Maulmain^ all well provided with scientific adjuncts, 
and contributing to our maps, bur cabinets, and our commerce. 
Our Societies were never more vigorous. The Agricultural of 
Calcutta is become exceedingly active. The Geographical of 
Bombay has opened the field with an interesting volume and a 
journal of proceedings ; and in science we have to boast of the 
brilliant progress of experiment and magnetic discovery due to 
one whom we should be happy at having enlisted among our 
own members. With his colleagues of the Medical College, 

* We cannefc omit to notice here another laudable demonstration of the 
greater honor that awaits literary merit at Paris than in London— making 
lull allowance for the proverbial truth that a prophet must seek honor out 
of his own country. We have just learnt that the French Government 
has ordered a gold medal to be struck for, and the decoration of the 
Legion of Honour to be bestowed on Mr. B. H. Honosoif, in return for the 
valuable donation of Sanskrit manuscripts presented by him to the Asiatic 
Society of Paris, — and in token of their appreciation of the great services 
he has rendered to oriental literature. Neither in this case is the reward 
blindly given, nor the present disregarded ; for we know that the Sanskrit 
scholars of Paris have already dipped profoundly into the contents of the 
Nipalese Buddhist volumes, and in a short time we may expect a full 
analysis of them. As a comment on this announcement we may add that 
similar donations more extensive and more valuable were long since pre- 
aented by the same party to the Royal Asiatic Society and to the College 
of Fort William, and that (with exception of the Tibetan portion so well 
amdysed by M« Csoxa) they remain as yet sealed books. 



▼iii Preface, 

Professor O^Shaughnbssy has drawn off to their own valuabU 
publication, the subjects of chemical and physical interest to 
which we should otherwise have felt ourselves blameable in not 
offering a conspicuous place. While far different occupations 
have prevented our passing in review the very promising disco* 
Teries in this novel and enticing science, to which their public 
exhibition has now familiarized the society of Calcutta, the 
sight of models of magnetic motors and explosive engines worked 
by gas and spark, both generated by galvanism alone, leads ns 
to suggest that mechanics and the arts should have been includ- 
ed among the proper objects of our projected national museum. 
An Adelaide gallery would do more to improve the native mind 
for invention than all the English printed works we would 
place before them. 

But we are as usual wandering from the legitimate objects of 
a preface. Our own attention has been principally taken up this 
last year with Inscriptions. Without the knowledge necessary 
to read and criticise them thoroughly, we have nevertheless 
made a fortunate acquisition in paleography which has served as 
the key to a large series of ancient writings hitherto concealed 
from our knowledge. We cannot consent to quit the pursuit 
until we shall have satiated our curiosity by a scrutiny of all 
these records— -records as Dr. Mill says, *' which are all but 
certainly established to belong to and to illustrate a most clas^ 
sical and important part of the history of this country.'" In 
our hasty and undigested mode of publication, we are doubtless 
open to continual corrections and change of views : as a talented 
and amusing satire on our present predilection for old stones 
and old coins, in the Meerut Magazine describes it, — * if not 
satisfied with one account our readers have only to wait for tho 
next journal to find it discarded and another adopted, as in the 
case of the Bactro-pehlevi alphabet.^ 

The learned M. E. Burnouf in a most interesting article in- 
serted in the Journal des Savans for June,* says, alluding to the 
Burmese inscription at Gaya published first in the journal, and 

* On the grand work of the Chinese Buddhist traveller Fob Koub Ki, 
lately published at the expense of the French Government^ through the 
labour of three successive editors MM. Remus at, Klaproth and Land. 
MU8B. Alas ! when shall we in India have an opportunity of seeing these 
works at any tolerable period after their publication?— Bd. 



Preface. \x 

afterwards more completely commented opon by Colonel Bur- 
net, — "^ il fant le dire k llionnenr des membres de la Soci^t^ 
Asiatiqne dn Bengale,le sele qui lesanime ponrTetade desanti- 
qnit^s de V Inde est si soutenu et si henrensement seconds par la 
plus belle position dans laqnelle une reunion de savants ne soit 
jamais trouY^e, qne les monuments et les textes quils mettent 
chaqne jonr enlumi^resesuccMent ayecunerapidit^que la critique 
pent k peine suivre.^ While they are taken up with an object 
once published, we are republishing or revising or adding more 
matured illustration to it. Some may call this system an in- 
convenient waste of space and tax on readers, who are entitled 
to have their repast served up in the most complete style at once, 
and should not be tantalized with fresh yet immature morceauz 
from month to month. We, however, think the plan adopted is 
most suitable to an ephemeral journal, which collects materials 
and builds up the best structure for immediate accommodation, 
although it may be soon destined to be knocked down again and 
replaced by a more polished and classical edifice i^-diruit cedifir 
cat ; mutat quadrata rotundisj — ^may still be said of our jour- 
nal, without imputing capricious motives to our habit of demoli- 
tion. We build not fanciful theories, btit rather collect good 
stones for others to fashion, and unless we advertize them from 
the first, with some hint of their applicability, how should archi- 
tects be invited to inspect and convert them to the ^^ benefit and 
pleasure of mankind?^ — hiiaaukh&ya manusanam^ — as the 
stone piUars at Delhi and Allahabad quaintly express the object 
of their erection. 

Connected with the subject of these remarks we would fain 
in this place give insertion (and we will do so hereafter) to a 
valuable series of criticisms on the matter of our last volume 
(M>ntained in M. Jac^uet^s correspondence. It is just what 
we most desire. With the aid of an index, such additional 
information and correction is as good as if incorporated with the 
text, to the reader who in future days wishes to ferret out all 
that has been done on a particular subject ; and we would have 
all our contributors and readers bear in mind that our journal, 
though it has long changed its title, does not pretend to have 
changed its original character of being a mere collection of 
'^ Gleanings.' 

Calcutta^ \8t January i 1888. 



n 

! 
i 



MEMBERS 



or TBS 

ASIATIC SOCIETY OP BENGAL, 1887, 

[To wbom tlM Jouniftl ifl forwarded At the Society's eott.] 



The Right Bononble Georige Lord Auckland, Ooveraor General, &c. &c. &c. 

The Honorable Sir Charles Theophilvt Mbtoalfx, Bt. K. C. B. 

The Honorable Sir Edward Rtan, Chief Jutice, Prendent, (S copiei.) 

The Right ReT. Lord Bishop of Calcutta. 

The Honorable Sir H. Fans, Commander-iD-Chief. 

The Honorable T. B. Macaulat. 

The Honorable Col. W. Morkibon, 

The Honorable Sir J. P. Grant, VUe- President. 

H. T. PniNBRP, Esq. Vtee* President . 

W. H. MACNAOHTBir, Esq. Viee^Pretideni, 



Adam, W. Calcutta. 

Aabary, Col. Sir Thos. C. B. Engineers. 

ATdall, J. Calcatto. 

Bacon, G. W. SehiraRpar. 
Bagnhaw, R. J. CalcntU. 
Baillie, N. B. E. Calcutta. 
Baiier, Lieat. W. E. Eng. Kuraal. 
Batemaa, Rer. J. Europe. 
BeU, J. CalcnUa. 
BenaoD, W. B. Bareilly. 
Bloadell, E. A. MorUbcIii. 
Briggs, Col. J. 
Brace, W. Calcutta, 
fiigaell, M. A. Calcutta. 
Barney, lieut. Col. R. Europt. 

■, H. Europe. 
Bushby, G. A. Europe. 
Bamm, Capt. A. Cashmlr. 

Carr, W. Europe. 
Cameron, C. H. Calcutta. 
Caulficld, Ueut. Col. J. Calcutta. 
Cautley, Cqpt. P. T. Seharanpur. 
CoBoUy, Lieut. E. B. Mhow. 
Colfia, J. R. hd. quarters, G. G. 

Col. J. England. 

Corbyn, F. Calcutta. 
Cunningham, Capt. A. Engineers. 
Cracroft, W. Calcutta. 
Caminy J. Calcutta. 

Dent, W. Arrah. 

Dobbs, A. Calcutta. 

Drununond, Dr. A. hd. quarters, G. G. 

Dnrand, Lieut. H. M. Eng. Kumai. 

Dwarkanath Tagore, Calcutta. 

Drummond, Capt. H. Kemaon. 

■ 

BgertoB, C. C. Calcutta. 
Ellis, Capt. E. S. Calcutta. 
Brans, Dr. Geo. Calcutta. 
Efenst, Major G. Mussoorcc. 



Ewer, W. Beharanjvr. 
Ewart, W. Kerr, CaicRtta, 

FUeoner, Dr. H. Cashmlr. 
Forbes, Capt. W. N. Eng. Catatta. 
Frith, R. J. Calcutta. 

Gordon, G. J. Agra. 
Grant, W. P. Calcutta. 

, J. P. Calcutta. 

Griffiths, Dr. W. Assam. 
Gerard, Capt. P. Subatoo. 

Hara, D. Calcutta. 
Hodgson, B. H. Calcutta. 
HUl, Geo. Calentta. 

Irrine, Major A. Eng. Calcutta. 

Jackson, A. R. Calcutta. 
Jenkins, Captain F. Assam. 

Kittot, M, Calcutta. 

Lloyd, Captain R. Caleatta. 
Loch, Geo. Sylhet. 
Low, Col. J. Lucknow. 

Macfarlan, D. Calcutta. 
Madeod, Captain, Moulmeln. 

, J. M. Calcutta. 
Macqueen, Rst. J. ditto. 
McCUntock, G. F. ditto. 
McClelland, Dr. J. ditto. 
Mansell, C. G. Agra. 
Martin, C. R. Hooghly. 
MiH, RcY. Dr. W. H. ISurope. 
May, J. S. Kishnaghur. 
Montriou, Lieut. C. Calcutta. 
MelYille, Hon'ble W. L. Moorshedabad. 
Mackenzie, W. Calcutta. 
Madeod, Col. D. Engrs. Calcutta. 
— — , D. F. Seeonee, (on leave.) 
MiBuk, M. M. Calcutta. 



zu 



Subscribers, 



Mill. J. M. 
Mnir, J. Sehinrnpnr. 
Mcpherson, Dr. G. 
Maddock, T. H. Caleutta. 
Macdonald, Dr. C. J. Bunda. 
Marshman, J. Serampore. 

Kewbold, Lteut. Madras. 
Nicolson, Dr. S. Calcutta. 
Nott, C. A. Cakntto. 

O'Sbanghnessy, W. B. Calcutta. 
Onacky, Major R. Hosuiigabad. 

Pearicn, J. T. Jnaaporc. 
Pemberton, Capt. R. B. Aisam. 
Prinsep, C. R. Calcutta. 
— — — , Q. A, Calcutta. 
— — -, J, Sec. As. Society. 
Phayre, Lieut. A. Kyook Phyoo. 
Prosnnnokoomar Tagore, Calcutta. 
Qabir Uddeen Shah, Sasseram. 

Radhacant Deb, Raja, Calcutta. 
Rameomul Sen, Natrre Sec. ditto. 
Rnssomoy Dntt, ditto. 
Ramanath Tagore, ditto. 
Ross, D. ditto. 
Ravenshaw, E. C. Patoa. 
Robinson, F. 
Rustomjec Cowasjee, Calcutta. 

Spier, Wm. Calcutta. 



Spilsbnry, Dr. G. G. Jabbalpore. 
Sanders, Capt. E. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Sage, Capt. W. Dinapore. 
Seppings, J. M. Calcutta. 
Stacy, Lieut. Col. L. R. Dacca. 
Stocqueler, J. H. Calcutta. 
Storm, W. ditto. 
Strong, F. P. ditto. 
Stewart, Dr. D. ditto. 
Suttchum Ghoehal, ditto. 
Swiney, Dr. J. England. 

Torrens, H. head quarters, G. G. 
Tahawur Jung, Newab, Caleatta. 
Taylor, Major T. M. ditto. 

' , Capt. T. J. ditto. 
Thomason, J. Agra. 
Trevelyan, C. E. Calcutta. 
Trotter, J. XShaaipur. 

■ , A. Patna. 
Tlckell, Lieut. S. Ramgurh. 
Tucker, C. Calcutta. 
Turnour, Hon'ble G. Ceylon. 

Yijaya Govind Sing, Ri^ Pomea^ 

Wade, Capt. C. M. Loodlanah. 
Wilcox, Capt. R. Lueknow. 
WalUch, Dr. N. CaleutU. 
White, Capt. S. M. ditto. 
Walters, H. ditto. 
Walker, R. ditto. 
Willis, Joseph, ditto. 



SUBSCRIBERS, 

[Who are not Members of the Asiatic Society.} 



The Honorable the Court of Directors, (by the Secretary to GoYerameat, General 
Department,) Fobtt copies. 



Abbott, Lieut. J. care of T. Ostell. 

Abercombie, Lieut. W. Eag. Calcutta. 

Agra Book Club, Agra. 

Anderson, G. M. Calcutta. 

— — — , Lieut. Engrs. Hazareebagh. 

Artillery Book Club, Dum Dum. 

Barlow, J. H. Cootai. 

Batten, J. H. Almorah. 

Barrow, H. Calcutta. 

Beckett, J. O. care of Lyall, Matheson 

and Co. 
Bedford, Capt. J. ditto. 
Bengal Club. 

Benares Book Club, Benares. 
Beresford, H. Purneah. 
Bird, R. M. Allahabad. 
Boileau, Lieut. A. H.E. Engineers. 
Book Club, Mth Regt. N. I. care of T. 

Ostell. 
Bonham, Capt. G. W. Dinapore. 
Boulderson, H. S. Futteyghur. 
— ». , S. M. care of Colvin and Co. 



Bridgmaa, J. H. Gorukhpore. 

Brown, Capt. W. Delhi. 

Brodie, Lieut. T. Assam. 

Broome, Lieut. A. Meerut. 

Butter, Dr. D. Sultanpore, Oude. 

Byrn, W. CalcutU. 

Burkingyonng, Lieut. Benares. 

Boston Baptist Mission Society, care of 

J. W. Roberts. 
Broadfoot, Lieut. A. Agra. 

Calcutta Periodical Book Society. 
Campbell, Dr. A. Nipal. 
, J. Cawnpore. 

— , Dr. A. Moulmein. 

Camagy, F. I. care of T. Ostell. 

Carte, Dr. W. £. Hansi. 

Cope, H. Meerut. 

Crawford, J. care of T. Ostell. 

Cunningham, Capt. J. D. Engineers 

Loodianah. 
Currie, F. Gorukhpore. 
Curators of the Calcutta Publk Library. 



Subscribers, 



xm 



Cartwriglkt, Bri^dier B. Agra. 
Conoy LoU Tagore, CalcntU. 

Davidson, Major, Engn. LodLnow. 
Debode, Capt. H. Calcatta. 
I>orio, J. A. ditto. 
I>oaglas, H. Pataa. 
Dnunmoad, Capt. J. G. Allahabad. 
l>Diilop, Lieut. Col. W. hd. qn. C. C. 
Dribergs, Rrr. care of T. OatcU. 
Duncan, Dr. D. Agra. 

, Lient. J. Meervt. 

Sdgeworth, M. P. Ambala. 
Editor Calcutta Courier. 
Elliot, J . B. Patna. 

, H. M. Allahabad. 

Enkine, D. Elambasar. 
Everest, Rev. R. Mussooree. 

Fagaa, Lieut. G. H. eare of Madeod, 

Fkgaa and Co. 
Pane, W. Allahabad. 
FergussoB, J. Calcutta. 

, W. T. Calcutta. 

Flacfc, C. C. Patua. 

Finnis, Captain J. Diaapore. 

FiUffcrald, Capt.',W. R. Engrs. CalcutU. 

Fordycef Lieut. J. Axemgurh. 

Forster, Lieut. Shekawati 

Fraser, H. Care of GiUaadera aad Co. 

— , A. Delhi. 

•, C. A. eare of Mackintjre and 



Co. 



-, C. Jabbalpore. 
-, Lieut. Neemudu 



Garden, Dr. A. Calcutta. 

Gordon, R. care of Rev. W. RobiniOB^ 

CaleutU. 
Gorton, W. Simlah. 
Grant, J. W. Calcutta. 
Gray, J. Calcutta. 
Greenlaw, C. B. Calcutta. 
Gubbins, C. Delhi. 
Goodeve, Professor, Calcatta. 
Gltsford, Lieut. J. Almorah. 
Goodhall, H. Bloulmeia. 

Hamilton, H. C. Bhagulpore. 

Harris, F. Calcutta. 

Hart, T. B. care of Colvin and Co. 

Harrington, Lt. J. care of T. Ostell. 

Hearsey, Major J. B. Sagur. 

Uomlray, J. Calcutta. 

HutduBson, Migor G. Engrs. Casipore. 

Button, lieut. T. Simlah. 

Uugel, Baron, care of Gillanders and Co. 

Heatley, S. Q. Calcutta. 

laglis, R. care of G. T. Brain, Calcutta. 

Joaes, J. T. care of J. W. Roberts, 

Calcutta. 
Johnson, W. B. Patna. 

Kali Kiaaeo, Maharaja, Calcutta. 
Kean, Dr. Arch. Moorshedabad. 



Kasipersand Ghose, Cateatta. 
Kasinath Bpse, ditto. 
Kaight, Dr. J. W. B^Bore. 

Laidly, J. W. Beerbhoom. 
Laag, J. W. Barrackpore. 
Lamb, Dr. Geo. Dacca. 
Lambert, W. Allahabad. 
Lindsay, Col. A. Agra. 
LIstOB, D. Goruckpore. 
Lloyd, M^or W. A. Titalia. 
Lowther, R. Allahabad. 

Macdowall, W. Rungpore. 
Macgregor, Dr. W. L. Ludianah. 
Manson, Captain J. Bittour. 
Marshall. Capt. G. T. Calcutta. 
Martin, Dr. J. R. Calcntto. 
Martin, Lt. R. Bagrs. Kyook Phyoo. 
Masters, W. Caleutto. 
MassoB, C. Cabul. 
Maekay, Rev. W. S. CalcutU. 
Mackinnon, Dr. C. care of Colvilla &Co. 
McCosh, Dr. J. Calcntto. 
Milner, Capt. E. T. care of R. C. Jen- 
kins and Co. 
Military Board Office. 
Moore, H. care of T. Ostoll. 
Montgomerie, Dr. W. Peaaag. 
Morley, C. Caleutto. 
Mosafferpore Book Club, Tlrhoot. 
MiUet, F. Calcutta. 
Military Library Sodety, Mhow. 
MohunloU Muiishi, Cashmlr. 
McPherson, Lieut. 6. Gumsoor. 
Maddea, Lieut. C. Nusseerabad. 
Mather, Rev. R. C. Benares. 

Nicolson, Capt. M» Jubbnlpore. 

Officers, 2 IstRegt. Kurnal. 

, I3tb Regt. N. I. Barrackpore. 

, 93nd Regt. N. I. Nusseerabad. 

Oglander, Lieut. Col. Ghasipore 
Ommaaey, Lieut. E. L. Haxareebagh. 
, M. C. Baitool. 

Pareutal Academic Institution, Cdcutta. 
Parker, H. M. Calcutta. 
Persidh Narain Sing, Benares. 
Playfair, Dr. Geo. Meerut. 
Poole, Col. C. Calcutta. 
Presgrave, Col. D. Cawnpore. 
Prowdl, N. H. E. Bignore. 
Portetts, C. Calcutta. 
, A. Calcutta. 
Povoleri, Col. L. Agra. 

R^kishtna MukaiJTa, Haxareebagh. 
Ranken, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Rattray, R. H. Calcutta. 
Rcnny, Lieut. T. Engrs. Sitapur. 
Ross, Capt. D. Gwaiior. 
Row, Dr. J. Barrackpore. 
Reid, Dr. A. Boolundshuhr. 
Roberts, Col. A. Agra. 

Sale, Ueut. T. H. Engrs. Sylhet. 



ZIV 



Subfcriheri, 



SatchweU, Caot. J. CawspoT*. 

Saunders, J. O. B. AUyghur. 

Seyestre, Robt. Calcutta. 

Siddons, Lieut. H. Ennt. Chittagong. 

Shaw, T. A.» Willis and Co. 

Sleeman, Capt. W. H. care of Pres* 

grave and Co. 
Sloane, W. care of Bruce, Shand & Co. 
Smith, Col. T. P. Banda. 
, Capt. E. J. Engrs. Allahabad. 

» S. and Co. Calcutta. 
Spiers, A. care of Colvin aad Co. 

, Col. A. Neemuch. 
Stainforth, T. care of T. Ostell. 
Sterenson, Dr. W. care of Fraser, Mo- 
Donald and Co. 
— — , Dr. W. Luckttow. 
Sewell, Capt. Calcutta. 
Sadyah Mission, Assam. 

Tandy, H. Agra. 



Thomas, B. T. Almora. 

Thomson, Capt. J. Bngrs. Calcutta. 

, Capt. O. Engrs. Delhi. 

Thoresby, CajpC. C. Jeypore. 
Thornton, J. Asimgurh. 
Tickell, Col. R. Engrs. Calcutta. 
Tremenhere, Lieut. O. fi. Sugrs. care of 

Bagshaw aad Co. 
Trotter, R. Kishnaghur. 
Turner, T. J. Futteyghur. 

Wells, F. O. Agra. 

Western, Lieut. J. R. Engrs. Chundowry. 

White, Rey. E. care of Tamer, Stopfora 

and Co. 
Wilkinson, L. Bhopal. 

, Captain T. Hazareebagh. 

Wise, J. P. Dacca. 

, Dr. T. A. care of T. Ostell. 

Woodburn, Dr. D. Sheerghattee. 
Wroughton, Capt. Muttra. 



Subscribers at Madras^ ^c. 



Baikie, Dr. Neelgherrles. 
Balfour, Lieut. Madras. 
Bannister, Dr. W. ditto, 
Braddock, Lieut. J. ditto. 

Caldewell, John, Tnreiidnim. 
CttUen, Col. W. ditto. 
Campbell Lleat. J. Slat Regt. N. I. Mad- 
ras. 

Ditmas, Lieut T. Combaeonum, 
DenriUe, Migor, Madraa. 

Fleming, H. S. Madras. 
Fraser, Col. J. S. ditto. 
Frith, Lieut. Col. Arty, ditto. 

Ganta, Rev. A. ditto. 



Gilchrist, Dr. W. Vlsianagram. 

Hyderabad Book Society. 
Harper, Rev. H. 

Madras Asiatic Society. 
Madras Club, Madras. 
Monteith, Lieut. Col. Engra. ditto. 
Mouat, Dr. J. Bangalore. 

Pharoah, J. O. B. Madraa. 

Robert, Digby, 36th Regt. N. I. ditto. 

Thomaon, J. care of Liae and Co. ditto. 
Taylor, T. I., H. C. Aatronomar, ditto. 

Underwood, Capt. G. A. Eagra. 



Subscribers at Bombay^ S;c. 



Awdry, Sir J. Bombay. 

Bombay Asiatic Society, ditto. 

Burns, Dr. A. Kaira. 

Chambers, R. C. Surat. 

Jervis, Capt. Thos. Ootacamuad. 

Fulljames, Capt. Goga. 

Borradaile, H. care of Ritchie, Stewart 

and Co. 
Heddle, Dr. F. Bombay. 
Hebbert, Lieut. G. W. Surat. 
Law, J. S. Belgaum. 
Malvery, J. J. Bombay. 
Moorhead, C. Mohabaleahur Hills. 



McLennan, Dr. J. Bombay. 

Noton, B. ditto. 

Pottinger, Col. BhooJ. 

Rngghonauth Hurry Chnn^i^^i Bombay, 

Shrecrostra Wassoodewjee, ditto. 

Smyttan, Dr. Geo. ditto, 

Shortreede, Lieut. R. Poona. 

Stewart, G. A. Bombay. 

Sutherland, Hon'ble J. ditto. 

Twemlow, Capt. G. Aurungabad. 

Wathen, W. H. Bombay. 

Wilson, RcY. J. ditto. 

Stevenson, Rev. Dr. ditto. 



unth which the Journal is interchanged, 

TVe PliilfMopliical Magmsiae of London and Edlalmrgh. 

Prof. Jameaon't Annals of PhUoiophy. 

Tlic AtheaBvm. 

Tke London Aaiatie Journal, W. H. Allen and Co. 

Jonmal Aaiafciqne do I^rit. 

Jovnal of the Academy of Natvral Scieneet of Philadelphia. 

The Chiaeae Repoeitory. 

Dr. Colea's Qnarterly Jonmal of the Madraa Anzlliary Asiatic Society. 

The Monthly Journal, edited by S. Smith and Co. 

TIm United Serriee Jonmal, edited by J. H. Stocqneler» Esq. 

The Calcutta Christian Observer. 

The Bombay Oriental Christian Spectator. 



Hm Asiatic Society subscribes for 19 copies of the Journal, of which 10 copies are 
Astribnted to the foUowiag Societies. 

TIm Boyal Society of London. The Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

The Antiquarian Society. The Zoological Society, ditto. 

The Royal Asiatic Society. The Geological Society, ditto. 

The Asiatic Society of Paris. The Americaa Literary Society. 

The Nataral Histcry Society of Mauritius. The Literary Society of Bataria. 



Presentation Copies by the Editor. 

sir J. W. Herschell, Cape of Good Hope. 

The Right Hon*bIe Sir R. W. Horton, GoTemor of Ceylon. 

C. Masson, Esq. Kabul. 

Tbe Sadlya Mission. 

C. Bromnlow, Esq. 

Dr. Harian» PhUadelphia. 

Kog. Bumouf, Esq. 

Bug. Jaoqnet, Esq. 

Tk» University of Bonn (Proff. Schlegel and Lassen.) 

The Baron Ton Hammer, Purgstall, Vienna. 

Y. Lair, Esq. Secretary to the Caen Society. 

Profeaaor H. H. Wilson, Librarian to the Hon'ble E. I. Company. 

The British Museum. The Academy of Bordeaux. 

The Royal Institution. The Medical and Physical Society, Cal. 

The Sodety of Arts. The Agri. and Horticultural Society, 
The Natural History Society of Genera. Calcutta. 



Subscribers in England. 

[No comet list of the English subscribers can be given, as their names arc not 
speciied in the Agent's accounts of distribution.] 

Sir Charles Grey. Miss Prinsep. 

G. Swinton, Esq. Prof. Macaire. 

Prof. J. P. Royle. Dr. Swiney. 

W. inison Sannders, Esq. Lieut. Burt, Eng. 



LIST OP PLATES. 



Plata I. (XXXI I. of vol. V.) BhiUrf Ui iMeription, to ftoa page 1 
II. AlphaboU of the Tai language, 10 

III. Specimen of the Khamti writing, 80 

IV. Specimen of the Ahom language, UHd. 

V. The Eria silkworm of Awara, Phalana eynthea, S3 

VI. The Moonga silkworm of ditto, Saturnia Assamensii, 39 

VII. Facsimiles of an inscription in the Asiatic Society's 

Moaeum, translated by Captain Marshall, 80 

VIII. Ocdpotof theSivatherinm, 159 

IX. Lower jaw of the same fossil animal, 159 

X. Inscription of Dipaldinna at Amarivati, 918 

XI. Another inscription from the same place, 999 

XII. Fossil shells of the C4dri range in Ciileft, 159 

XIII. Alphabet of the Amarivati character, 999 

XIV. XV. Indo-Sassanian Coins, 988 

XVI. Head of the Bos Gaums (?) or Gayal, 994 

XVII. Facsimile of Museum Inscription, No. 6, 980 

XVIII. Fossil bone brought up in the boring in Fort William ; 
head of the Bos Gai^rus (museum); and fossil quadrumanoos tooth,... 930 

XIX. Map of Captain Hannay's route, 945 

XX. Ceylon Coins, 998 

XXI. Diagram of moon's declination ; coluber mycterisans, and 

foanl bone from Fort boring, 304 

XXII. SindhSand Multani alphabeta, 359 

XXIII. Fossil Qaudrumana of the 8ew4liks, 360 

XXIV. Legends on Saurashtra coins, 389 

XXV. Principal Inscription at Sanchi, 454 

XXVI. Second Inscription from the same place, 458 

XXVII. Various snudler ditto in the Lit character, 4«0 

XXVIII. View of the Sanchi Monument, 459 

XXIX. Detailsof the Architecture of ditto, 459 

XXX. Fossil fore-leg of an elephant from Jabalpur, 488 

XX^I. Head of a fossil Batrachian, 540 

XXXII. Inscription in ffa/alTanaila, and Kaliojer inscription, 665 

XXXIII. Gumsar copper-plate Grant, 666 

XXXIV. ) (679 
XXXV. V Inscriptions from the Caves near Qaya, -{ 676 

XXXVl. ) i 67« 



xxvi List of Plata. 

XXXVII. Inscription on a fragment of rock at Singapar^ ....*_.... 680 

XXXVIII. The Testudo geometrica, 696 

XXXIX. Osteology of the Bibos, or Gauri 6au, ^ 748 

XL. Restoration of the il//dAatof pillar, 798 

XLI. Sar«'% inscription, 778 

XLII. IWAt Ut inscription, 796 

XLIII. Town of Oujein, and water.palace, 813 

XLIV. Facsimile of Moltai copper-plate Grant, 868 

XLV. Ditto of Epitaph on an Arabic tombstone, 873 

XLVl. Ditto of an Inscription from Cabul, 876 

XLVII. Sketch of the Khaiber Tope, 876 

XLVIII. Inscription in As. Soc. Museum, from Calinjer, 881 

XLIX. Map of Capt. McLeod's route to Zimmay, 989 

L. Diagrams of the Rekh6 Ganita, 948 

L. & LI. Burmese Bells, ...1068 

LI I. Map to illustrate geology of Seoni, Jabalpur, i 099 

LIII. Inscriptions from the Sainhadri caves, 1044 

LIV. Udayagiri Inscriptions, • 1080 

LV. Inscription No, 8 of the Allahabad pillar, 978 

LVI. Various fragments of ditto, 968 

LVII, Inscription on the Khandgiri rocks, 1090 



.V 



CONTENTS. 



No. 61.— JANUARY. Page 

I.— Restoration and Translation of the Inscription on the Bhit&ri Lit, tvith 
eritieal and historical remarks. By the Rcy. W. H. Mill, D. D., Principal 
of Bishop's College, Vice-President, &c. &c. . . . . . . 1 

II. — Alphaheta of the Tai langnnge. By the Rev. N. Brown, Missionary in 
Assam , •. •• ■• .. .. a. ».1# 

III. — Remarks on the Silkworms and Silks of Assam. By Mr. Thomas Hvgon, 
Suh-Asst. Nowgong, .... .. .. ..91 

iy.~On the indigenous Silkworms^of India. By T. W. Heifer, M. D. Mem. 
bcr of the Medical Faculties at the Universities in Prague and Pavia, Mem- 
ber of the Entom. Society in Paris, &c. ..38 
Y. — Concerning certain interesting Phenomena manifested in individuals bom 
blind, and in those having little or no recollection of that sense, on their 
being restored to dght at varlons periods of life. By F. H. Brett, Esq. 
Med. Sci vice, •• •• ..•. 47 

VI.^-Memorandum of the progress of sinking a Well in the bunds of Chandpur, 
near the foot of the Hills. By Mr. William Dawe, Conductor, Delhi 
Canal Department, • . . . . . 52 

Til. — ^The History of Labong from the Native Records consulted by Dr. D. 
Richardson, forming an Appendix to his journals published in the preced- 
ing volume, .. .. .. .. .... 65 

VIII.— Suggestions on the Sites of Saagala and the Altars of Alexander, being 
an extract ffbm Notes of a Journey from Lahore to Karychee, made in 
1830. By C. Masson, . . 57 

IX.— Chinese Account of India. Translated from the Wan.hSen-t*hung-kaou, 
or * Deep Researches into Ancient Monuments ;' by Ma-twanlin ; book 
338, foL 14, •* .. •* •. •* ■• oi 

X. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . • . . . . 77 

XI.— Meteorological Register, .. •• 80 

No. 62.— FEBRUARY. 

I.— Singular narrative of the Armenian king Arsaces nnd his contemporary 
Sapor, king of Persia; extracted from the Armenian chronicles. By 
Johannes Avdall, Esq. M. A. S. .. •. ..81 

II.— Translation of an Inscription on a stone in the Asiatic Society's Museum, 
marked *No. 2. By Captain G. T. Marshall, Examiner in the College of 
Fort William, .. .. .. .. «. •• 88 

III.— On the explanation of the Indo-Scythic legends of the Bactrlan Coins, 
through the medium of the Celtic. By Dr. J. Swiney, .. .. ..98 

IV.— On three new Genera or sub-Genera of long-legged Thrushes, with de- 
scriptions of their species. By. B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. ..101 

v.— Description of three new species of Woodpecker. By B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq. •• •• .. •• •• •• ^« 104 

VI.— Indication of a new Genus of Ineessorial Birds. By B. H. Hodgson, 
Esq. .. •■ •• ■• •• •• .•110 

VII.— Nest of the Bengal Vulture, (Vnltur Bengalensis ;) with observations on 
the power of scent ascribed to the Vulture tribe. By Lieut. J. H«tton, .. 119 



XTiii Contenti, 

Pa§* 
VIII.— Notes taken at the post-mortem examination of a Musk Deer. By A. 
Campbell, Esq., Nipal Residency, June M, 1834, .. ..118 

IX.— Some aeeonnt of the Wars between Bnrmah and China, together with the 
journals and routes of three different Embassies sent to Pekin by the king 
of Ays ; taken from Burmese doeuments. By Lieutenant-Colonel H. 
Burney, Resident in Ava, .. .. .. .. .. .. lai 

X.— Notice on Balantinm, a genus of the Pteropodous Mollusca ; with the cha- 
racters of a new species inhabiting the Southern Indian Ocean. By W. H. 
Benson, Esq. B. C. S. .. •• .. .. .. 15O 

XI. — Additional fragments of the SiTatherium, .. .. .. 1S9 

XII.— Note on the Hotspring of Lohand Khad. By Capt. C. M, Wade,. . . . 153 

XIII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 154 

XIV.— Meteorological Register, 160 

No. 93.— MARCH. 

I. — Remarks on M. Schlegel's objections to the restored editions of the Alif 

Leilah, or Arabian Nights' Entertainments. By Henry Torrcns, Esq. 

B. A. and of the Inner Temple, B. C. S. .. .. ..161 

II«— Journal of Captain C. M. Wade's voyage from Lodiana to Mithankotby 

the river Satlaj, on his Mission to Lah6r and Bah&walpur in 1839-33. By 

Lieut. F.Mackeson, 14th Regt. N. I. .. .. .. ..109 

III. — Facsimilesof Ancient Inscriptions, .. .. .. .. 218 

IV. — Note on a Specimen of the Bos Gaurus. By Dr. George Evans, Curator 

of the Medical College, . . . . . . . . . . 323 

v.— Memorandum on the Gaur and Gayal. By Assistant Surgeon J. T. Pearson, 

Cur. M us. Asiatic Society, .. .. .. .. 939 

VI. — On a new Genus of the Sylviad«, with description of three new Species. 

By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident in Nipal, .. .. .. 930 

VII. — Note on the occurrence of Fossil Bones in the Sewalik Range, eastward 

of Hardwar. By H. Falconer, M. D., Superintendent Botanical Garden, 

Sehiranpur, .. .. .. .. 933 

VIII.— Report progress of the Boring Experiment in Fort William. By Major 

T. M. Taylor, 5th Cav. .. .. .. .. .. 934 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. 338 

X.— Meteorological Register, .. .. ..945 

No. 64.— APRIL. 

I. <— Abstract of the Journal of a Route travelled by Capt. S. F. Hannay, of 

the 40th Regiment Native Infantry, from the Capital of Ava to the Amber 

Mines of the HiUong valley on the South-east frontier of Assam. By 

Capt. R. Boileau Pemberton, 44th Regt. N. I. .. 345 

II.— Facsimilesof Ancient Inscriptions. By Jas. Prinsep, Sec. 6ce. ,, 978 

III. — Specimens of Hindu Coins descended from the Parthian type, and of the 

Andent Coins of Ceylon. By James Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. .. .. 988 

IV.— On the Revolution of the Seasons, (continued from Vol. IV. p. 957.) 

By the Rev. R. Everest, . • . . . . 303 

v.— On the Climate of Darjiling, .. .. 308 

VI. — Note on the Genera Oxygyrus and BeUerophon. By W. H. Benson, Esq. 

B« \^» S. . •■ *. •. Slo 

VII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. •. ..317 

Vlil.— Meteorological Register, .. .. •• 394 



Contents. xiz 

No. 65.— MAY. Page 

I.— Jouraal of a liilt to the MUhmec hilU in AsMn. By Wm Griffith, M. D. 

Madras Medical Estahlishmeat, . • 395 

II. — Correeted Estimate of the risk of life to Civil Serrants of the Bengal Pre- 

sideney. By H. T. Priasep, Esq. See. to Govt. &e. .. 341 

III. — AOrammar of the Sindhi language, dedicated to the Right Honorable 

Sir Robert Grant, Governor of Bombay. By W. H. Wathea, Esq. . . 3i7 

IV. — On additional fossil species of the order Quadramaaa from the Sewilik 

Hills. By H. Falconer, M. D. and Captain P. T. Cautley, .. ..364 

V. — On some new Genera of Raptores, with remarks on the old genera. By 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. .. .. 341 

VI. — Obserrations of the Magnetic Dip and Intensity at Madraa. By T. G. 

Taylor, Esq. H. C. Astronomer, . . • . . . 374 

VII. — ^The Legends of the Sanrashtra group of Coins deciphered. By James 

Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. •■ •• •• .. .. 377 

VII. — On the Properties ascribed in Native medical works to the Acacia Ara* 

bica. By Lewis Da Costa, Esq. . . . . . . . . 399 

IX.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, • • • . • . 397 

X. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. 404 

No. 66.— JUNE. 
I. — Some account of the Wars between Burmah and China, together with the 
joamals and routes of three different Embassies seat to Pekin by the king 
of Ava : taken from Burmese documents* By Lieutenant-Colonel H, Bur- 
ney. Resident in Ava, • . . . . . 403 

II. — Note on the Facsimiles of Inscriptions from Stnchi near Bhilsa, takea for 
the Society by Captain Ed. Smith, Engineers ; and on the drawings of the 
Buddhist monument presented by Captain W. Murray, at the meeting of 
the 7th June. By James Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. .. .. 431 

III.— Notice of a Colossal Alto-Relievo, known by the name of Mata Koonr 
situated near Kussia Tannah, in Pergunnah Sidowa, Eastern Division of 
Gorakhpur District. By D. Liston, Esq. .. .. ..477 

lY.— Translation of one of the Granthas, or sacred books, of the Dadupanthi 
Sect. By Lieut. G. R. Siddons, 1st Light Cav., Second in command, 3rd 
Local Horse, Neemuch, .. .. .. 480 

v.- Notice of new Sites of Fossil deposits in the Nerbudda Valley. By Dr. G. 
G. Spilsbury. PI. XXX. .. .. .. ..487 

VI. — New species of Scolopacidc, Indian Snipes, .. .. .. 489 

VII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, •• .. .. 490 

VIII.— Meteorological Register, .. .. .. ..500 

No. 67.— JULY. 

I.— An Ezaminaiioa of the P&U Baddhistical Annals. By the Hon'ble George 
Turnonr, Esq. of the Ceylon Civil Service, .. .. ,. 6oi 

II. --On the *' Indian Boa," *« Python Tigris.*' By Lieut. T. Hutton, .. 638 

111.— Notice of a skull (fragment) of a gigantic fossil Batrachiaa. By Dr. T. 
Cantor, .. .. .. .. 533 

IV. — Some account of the Wars between Burmah and China, together with the 
journals and routes of three diflPerent Embassies sent to Pekin by the King 
of Ava : taken from Burmese documents. By Lieutcnailt-Colonel H. 
Bumey, Resident in Ava, . . , . 543 

V.-*On a new genus of the Plantigrades. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. .. 560 



Contents. 

Pagt 
VI. — InterpretfttioDof the most tncieat of the inscriptions on the pillar called 

the lat of Feroz Sh&h, near Delhi, and of the AUahahad, Radhia and Mat- 

tiah pillar, or I4t, inscriptions which ag^ee therewith. By James Prinsep, 

Sec. As. Soc. &c. •• .. .. •• 566 

Til. — Abstract of a Meteorological Register kept at the Cathmandu Residency 

for 1837. By A. Campbell, Esq. M. D. Nipal Residency, .. .. 610 

VIII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. ..612 

IX.^Miscellaneous : 

1. — Proportion of rain for different lunar periods at Kandy, Island of 
Ceylon, •• ■■ •• •• «. 618 

3. — Memorandam of the fall of the Barometer at Macao during the severe 
Hurricane, on the 5th and 6th August, 1835, .. .. •• 619 

3. — Award of medals by the Geological Society of LoDdon, . . .. ib. 

X. — Meteorological Register, . . . . >«^ . . 620 

No. 68.-AUGUST. 

I. — History of the Gurha Mundala Rajas. By Captain W. H. Sleeman, Com- 
missioner for the suppression of Thuggee in the Nerbudda provinces, •. 621 

II. — Account of the Ruins and Site of old Mandavi in Raepur, and legend of 
Vikramiditya's Son in Cutch. By Lieut. W. Postans, Bombay Engineers, 648 

III. — Catalogue of Geological Specimens from Kemaon presented to the Asia- 
tic Society. By Dr. J. McClelland, .. .. .. 653 

IV — Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, lithographed by James Prinsep, Sec. 

As. Soc. &c. •• .. *. .. 663 

V.^Note on the Primary language of the Buddhist writings. By B. H. Hodg- 
son, Esq. Resident in Nipal, .. .. .. .. 689 

VI.— Geometric Tortoises, *'Testudo Geometrica." By Lieut. T. Hutton, 37th 
Native I afantry, .. .. .. .. 689 

VII.— Barometrical elevations taken on a journey from Katmandhu to Go- 
sainsth&n, a place of pilgrimage in the mountains of Nipal, by Chhedi 
Lobar, a smith in the employ of Captain Robinson, late commanding the 
Escort of the Resident in Nipal, . . . . . . . . 696 

VIII. — Meteorological Register kept at Darjiling for the months of April, May, 
June, and July, 1837* By Dr. H. Chapman, .. .. .. 700 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, . . . . . . . . 704 

X.— Tribute of the Pandits to the Rev. Dr. Mill, .. .. ..710 

XI. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. ..712 

No. 69.— SEPTEMBER. 

I. — An examination of the Pali Buddhistical Annals, No. 3. By the Hon'ble 
George Tumour, Esq. Ceylon Civil Service, 713 

II. — Note on the Geography of Cochin China, by the Right Rev. Jean Louis, 
Bishop of Isauropolis, Vicar Apostolic of Cochin China, Hun. Mem. 

AS* 90C. .. .. .. .. .« a. a, 737 

III. — On the Bibos, Gauri Gau or Gaurik4 Gau of the Indian forests. By B. 

H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident in Nepal, .. .. .. ..743 

IV. — Extracts translated from the Granthas or sacred books of the Dadupanthf 
Sect. By Lieutenant G. R. Siddons, 1st Light Cavalry, Second in com- 
mand, 3rd Local Horse, Necmuch, .. .. ,. .. 750 

V. — History of the Rijas of Orissa, from the reign of R6ja Yudhistira, trans- 
lated from the Vans&vali. By the late Andrew Stirling, Esq. C. S. .. 756 



Contents, xxi 

Page 

Tl. — Some aecount of tbe valley of Kaahmir, Ghazni, aod K&bol ; iaa letter 
from 6. J. Vigae, Esq. dated Bunderpore, on the Wnler lake, Kashmir , 
June l9f ]837t *■ *■ ** ■■ 766 

YII. — Aecount of an Inscription fonnd by Mr. H. S. Bouldersoa, in the Neigh- 
bourhood of BareiUy. By James Prinsep, Sec. &c. . . . . 777 

Till. — Section of the strata passed through in an experimental boring at the 
town of Gogah, on the Gujerat peninsula, Oulph of Cambay. By Lieute- 
nant George FuUjames, • . . . 786 

IX. — Note OD the black and brown Floriken of Guserat. By Lieutenant 
George Fnl\james, . . . . . . • . . . . . 789 

X. — Further elucidation of the lit or Silasthambha inscriptlona from Tarlous 
sources. By James Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. . • • . • . . . 190 

XI. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .• •• .. .... 797 

XII. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. 804 

No. 70.-OCTOBEIL 

I. — ^Extracts from the Mohit, (the Ocean,) a Turkish work on Navigation in 
the Indian Seas. Translated and communicated by Joseph Von Hammer, 
Baron Pargstall, Aulic Counsellor, and Prof. Orient. Lang, at Vienna, 
Hon. Memb. As. Soc. &c. &e. .. .. .. . .. 805 

II. — Observations upon the past and present condition of Oujein or Ujjayani. 
By Lieutenant Edward Coaolly^ 6th Light Cavalry, .... 813 

III. — Account of the Tooth relic of Ceylon, supposed to be alluded to in the 
opening passage of the Feros lit idseriptioa. By the Hon'ble George Tur- 
nour, Esq. Ceylon Civil Service, .. .. .. .. .. 866 

IV. — Facsimiles of ancient inscriptions, lithographed by James Prinsep, Sec. 
As. Soc. &c. 6cc. •• •• •. ... .. 869 

v.— Meteorological Register kept at Darjfling for August, 1837. By Dr. H. 
Chapman, .. •• .. .. .. 888 

VI. — Abstract of Meteorological Register kept at the Catbmandu Residency for 
July and August, ] 637. By A. Campbell, Esq. Nipal Residency, .. ..889 

VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. .. .. 890 

VII I . — Meteorological Register, .... .... • . 900 

No. 71.— NOVEMBER. 

I.— Journal of a Trip to the Borenda Pass in J 836. By Lieut* Thomas Hut- 
ton, 37th Regiment, Native Infantry, .. .. 901 

II.~Discovery of the Rekhi Ganita, a translation of the Elements of Eudid 
into Sanskrit by Samrit Jagannitha, under the orders of Rija Siwii Jaya 
Sinha of Jaipur. By Lancelot Wilkinson, Esq. C. S. Resident at Bhopil, 938 

III.— Observations of the Tides at Chiitagong made in conformity with the 
Circular of the Asiatic Society. By Lieut. H. Siddons, Engineers, .. 949 

IV.— -Translation of a Servitude- Bond granted by a Cultivator over his Fami- 
ly, and of a Deed of Sale of two slaves. By D. Liston, Esq. Gorakhpur,. . 950 

v.— Note on the Malay Woodpecker. By Dr. William Bland, Surgeon of 
H.M. S. Wolf, .. .. .. .. .. 959 

VI. — Notes on the Musical Instruments and Agricultural aad other Instru- 
ments of the Nipalese. By A. Campbell, Esq. M. D. Surgeon attached 
to the Residency at Katmandhu, . . . . . . . . 663 

VII. — Note on the Facsimiles of the various Inscriptions on the ancient column 
at Allahabad, retaken by Captain Edward Smith, Engineers. By James 
Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. 6cc. &c. . . . . . . . . 963 



zzii Contents, 

Page 
VIII.— lDteq>retatioa of the Ahom extract published at Plate IV. of the 
January Dumber of the present volume. By Mijor F. Jenkinsi Commis- 
iiouer in Assam, .. .. .. .. .. .. 980 

IX.~ Proceedings of the A siatie Society, .. .. .. .. 984 

X. — Meteorological Register, .. .. .. •• .. .. 988 

No. 72.~D£CEMBER. 
I.— Abstract Journal of an Expedition to Kiang Hung on the Chinese Frontier 

starting from Moulmein on the I3th December, 1836. By Lieut. T. E. 

MacLeod, Assistant to the Commissioner of the Tenasserim Provinces, 

with a route map, . . . . . . • . . 989 

II.— Abstract Journal of an expedition from Monlmein to Ava through the 

Kareen country, between December 1836 and June 1837. By D. Richardson, 

Esq. Surgeon to the Commissioner of the Tenasserim Provinces, . . 1005 

III. — Comparison of Indo-Chinese Languages by the Rev. N. Brown, American 

Missionary stationed at Sadiya at the north-eastern extremity of Assam,. . 1033 
IV.— Specimens of Buddhist Inseriptions.wiUk symbols, from the west of India. 
By Colonel W. H. Sykes, Hon. Mem., As. Soc. .. .. .. 1038 

V. — Further notes on the inscriptions on the columns at Delhi, Allahabad, 

Betiah, &c. By the Hon'ble George Tumour, Esq. of the Ceylon Civil 

Service, .. .. .. .. .. .. 1049 

VI. — ^Account and drawing of two Burmese Bells now placed in a Hindu temple 

in Upper India. By Capt. R. Wroughton, Revenue Surveyor, Agra division, 1064 
VII.— Note on Inscription at Udayagiri and Khandgiri in Cuttack, in the l&t 

character. ByJas. Prinsep, Sec. As. Soe. 9te. .. .. .. 1073 

VIII. — Memorandum regarding spedmena from Seonf Chupara* PI. LVI. 

By D. W. McLeod, Esq. .. ., .. .. •• IC9I 

IX.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, .. •• •• .. 1092 

X.— Meteorological Register, .. ... •• .. .. 1100 



ERRATA. 

IN No. 29, (YOL. II.) OFTHS JOUKNAL. 

89i 96» for * the first •pecimeaci,' read * th« finest.' 

93, 299 read* So. iTLymnca (mlhi)~-limo8« ?' 

SS3, S» for* kner/ read * neck.' 

IN THE JOVANAL rOft 1836. 

733, 7 1 ^ from bottom, read ' granular matter, the foTilla, and bursts if the im- 
mersion is somewhat protracted.' 

819, 91 ( dele the proposed name Cyananthus, which is already appropriated in 
Df^WAL^icH's catalogue. 

899, 3, fn>m bottom, for * interesting,' read * intimate.' 

348, 6, afltr *■ to this' tiucrf ' day.' 

350, 44, fvr ' 9,3. Hnnda,' read * 9. Hnnda.' 

S77, 3, from below, /or • a,' read * an.' 

384, 9, from below, fw * general,* read * generic.' 

388, 93, eifUr written batrt semicolon. 

387, 4, from below, /or* ^-J4^•»'*«<^ * C9je^' 

399, 4, for * nnexpeeted,' reod * unsuspected 
891, 12, for ' Deaavigri,' read « DcTanigari.' 

460,35, /wTiJ_* rwd fJL* 

4«7, 19, for • Parthia,' rwd * Bactria.' 
4fie, 91, /or < the Sanchi,' read * at Sanchi.' 

The Towel mark e has been broken off nnder the press in a great manr passages 
of the S&nskrit readings of the Delhi iascriptioa in the July number, particularly in 
the word mk, 

581. 7, ofier * by,' xMtrt • the.' 
583, 5, of notes, /or ' nimitat,' read * nimita.' 
534, 12, ditto dele * m' qfter • esa.' 
585, 9, ditto /or * juni,' read * jani.' 

— 20, ditto /or ' partidplelar,' read * participular.' 

594, 25, ditto /or * adopting,' read * adapting.* 

595, 13, ditto/or * nacshatras,' read * naeshatric' 

603, 11, ditto /or • dhara,' read * 4dh&ra.' 

604, 4, ditto /or ' neat,' read * next.' 
608, 6, ditto /or * you,' read * thou.* 

19, ditto /or * Kahgur,* read * Kahgyur.' 

•76, 7, /or * this powerful,* read * his powerful.' 

— 3, from below,/or * ayantaliyam,' read * anantaliyam.' 
766, 29, for * 24« IS^,' read * 94 miles : 13j.' 

779, 9, and 5, for * is,* read * are.' 

791, 8, for * Chadaguttessa,' read * Chandaguttassa.' 

— 17, /^ * leaAes,' read * leayes.' 

794, 7, afler quarter, insert full point. 

— 3, from bottom, /or * Tcry,* read * Terb.' 

795, 30, for * papey,' read • paper.* 
last line, for * ^^ read « y^* 

«76, I, M « ^\jj| .^ ^^' read c VJJ[il|. ^^ ^^> and in the transla- 
tion, line 14,/or'' wad,' read * vald,' (or wala,) and/or* Monday,' 
read * Tuesday.' 

864, 7, for ' 1^1^/ read « fw^fr.' 

13, for * ^JT^TWOIJ," ««^ • ^iqiHiUj.' 
19» M • prilTfll,' read * f^n^TlPl.' 
•76, 3, for • ^;g/ read • ^/ 

13, /or * ^iMhVt^inV^T/ read « ^Tt*Tr^l|W.' 

977, 18, for * ^nnKwr,' ••««'^ • ^rtr^cwi.' 

942, [The extract from the Rekha Ganita differs very materially from the copy in 
the College here, and the following passage in page 944, after the word il^fif in 

line 7 is required to complete the explanation of the figpire : 

The reat arc additions to the preface which it is less necessary to correct.] 



J^i4.rji M4. Soc . y^^ y jTd^MXU. 



Inscri/iticn en the BHl TARi LATH in. Ikt, Gh^Ui^r cUslrUt. 






JOURNAL 



OF 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 61. — January, 1837. 



I. — Restoration and Translation of the Inscription on the Bhitdri Lai, 
with critical and historical remarks. By the Rev. W. H. Mill, 
D. D.p Principal of Bishop's College, Vice-President, SfC. SfC, 

The discoTery in the Ghasipur district, of a pillar with an inscrip- 
tion bearing the same royal names and genealogy as No. 2 on that 
of Allahabad, and continuing the series downward by three or foor 
generations from SAMUDmA-ouPTA, the principal subject of panegyric 
in both, might be expected to furnish valuable supplementary infor- 
mation on points which that mobument left in obscurity. What was 
the seat and extent of the empire of this Gupta dynasty, and what 
was the precise place which the acts and events there described bore 
in the general history of Northern India in the ages that followed 
the great eras of Vxcramauitta and SALpriCHANA, — are points on 
which we might hope to gain more light by a document of this length* 
than from any others which the progress of antiquarian discovery has 
yet produced. 

The actual information obtained from this inscription, though not 
altogether destitute' of new and interesting particulars relating to the 
state of India at the time of these kings, as I hope to shew in the few 
historical remarkft subjoined to the reading and translation, is yet far 
from affording the desired satisfisction on the principal points just men- 
tioned. Except the bare point of succession, and some adventures rather 
alluded to than related in verses of a somewhat obscure style of compo« 
ntion, the information of a directiy historical nature extends little 
beyond what is obtained from the numismatic researches so ably and 
indffatigably eondueted by our Secretary. Whether a more complete 



2 Restoration and Translation [Jan, 

transcript would nmcli increase our information from this source, 
may also be doubted. Lieutenant Cunningham, to whose zeal and 
activity the inquirers into Indian antiquities are so deeply indebted, 
states that he made the transcript of this Bhitiiri inscription under 
Tery serious disadvantages : but I am not disposed to attribute to 
any imperfections arising from this cause, the whole or even the 
greater part of the errors discoverable in the inscription as now exhi- 
bited. Some are certainly chargeable on the sculptor who formed 
the letters on the pillar, unfaithfully representing the remembered or 
written archetype before him : and these errors are of sufficient mag- 
nitude to induce the probable belief, that others occasioning more 
perplexity in the deciphering, may have arisen from the same source* 
From whatever source, however, they proceed, they are capable of 
being completely detected and amended in all the earlier part of the 
inscription : viz. the introduction, and the laudatory verses that follow ; 
but when the verse suddenly ceases or changes, and that in the midst 
of the stanza, as it does about the middle of the 14th fine on the 
pillar, — it is impossible to say how far errors of the same kind with 
those before found and corrected, (such as this sudden cessation itself 
seems to indicate) may have produced the general unintelligibility of 
the document until we come to its last line, the 19th. With the 
exception of those four lines and a half, the rest, notwithstanding the 
indistinctness of many of the letters (indicated by the frequent double 
readings and occasional lacunae in Lieutenant Cunningham's pencil 
copy), and the more serious difficulty arising from the positive errors 
above mentioned, may be interpreted with sufficient confidence. 

That I may not, howerer, seem to be gratuitouriy imputing error 
to an unknown artist more than twelve centuries dead, with a view to 
screen the want of skill or accuracy in his living transcribers and 
interpreters, — 1 am bound to make good the charge in question in 
detail, and in a manner that may bring conviction to the mind 
of every competent scholar. The substitution of l( for ^ in the 
word iim^^llit (cohibiti8''affectibuS'Viri) in the 6th line, is certainly 
the mistake of the graver, not of his copyist : as is also the equally 
evident substitution in the fcdlowing line of the trisyllable Tf^T^ 
prXthIm for its synonyme Y^ prithvi {the earth) ; where the latter 
word of two long syllables is indispensably required by the measure 
of the verse, indicated as it is by all the preceding and subsequent 
words in a manner not to be mistaken. These words in their 
written forms in the ancient character, are too unlike what are 
severally substituted for them to make this the possible error of a 
European copyist unacquainted with Sanscrit^ — while they are pre* 



t837.] of tkt Tnser^tian on the Bhitdri Ldi. Z 

tMj such mistakes as a Hindu superficially acquainted with that 
iangnage might most easily commit, if uninspected, in a work like 
this : the former arising from an ignorant confusion of two words of 
simikr sound, but wholly different etymology as well as meaning,— 
the latter from total inattention to the rules of metrical harmony. 
Now the existence of two such glaring errors 'of the sculptor, uncor- 
rected, renders it highly probable that we should impute to him 
a large proportion, if not the whole, of the seven following equally 
manifest errors, (which might in their own nature, the first especially, 
he as ea»ily committed by the European tracer of a facsimile.) 

1. We have in line 8, at the close of the first metrical stanza, one 
W instead of two in the words ir^H nanartta required to close the 
verse in the Mdnim measure 



with no room whatever in the facsimile for the missing letter. 

2. We have in the beginning of line 10, the syllables 1^7 with not 
the least space between them — though it is absolutely certain that a n 
OQght to be there, no other syllable making a word with the syllables 
?lWx preceding, viz. the word pranihita from the close oi the 9th 
line. 

3. Again in line 10, we have in the facsimile i^ where the measure 
cannot possibly admit more than the latter of these two syllables, 
viz. the long ^ in ^^^T. 

4. We have in line 12, the syllables irf^lfYrf^fvi without the least 
interval in the facsimile between the first and second of them, — 
though the first is the penultimate of a connected and well defined 
stanza, and the four following are as evidently the beginning of 
another : the verse thus requiring, as does the sense independently of 
the verse, the syllable "i to close the former stanza with the wjord 
ndiham, 

5. We have in line 13, the syllables ^: ftr in close juxta-posi- 
tion, not only contrary to the rules of sandhi, which in verse 
are carefully observed, but the former appearing from the preced- 
ing syllables to be the penultimate of a Mdnini line, while the latter 
appears equally from the following ones to be the third syllable 
of the next : so that there are absolutely required three syllables for 
which there is no space whatever in the facsimile ; viz. either Mlf^ 
which I have supplied, or something equivalent, to close one line of 
the stanza and begin the next. 

6. There is no adequate space for the seven syllables required to 
be supplied at the beginning of the 14th line on the pillar to com- 
B 2 



4 Restoration and Translation [Jah. 

mence the second line of the atanza there, thoagh the continuance 
of the same measnre is so clearly marked by what precedes and what 
immediately follows: and 

7. What is still more strange, that measure closes wHh the second 
fine of the stanza ; what follows being as irredocible to metre as to 
good sense. 

With these nine specimens of most evident error in as many 
lines of the inscription, the two last errors implying the skipping of 
several syllables at once, — and closed with the fact that there is no 
integral number of Mdnini stanzas of four lines, but 5^ only from 
their commencement in the 7th line of the pillar,— the grounds of 
conjectural emendation were too slight for its probable application, 
when the guide of metre was wanting. Accordingly from the 14th 
to the last line of the pillar, which supplied a stanza in the ordinary 
Anustubh measure, (a space constituting about one quarter of the 
inscription,) I have been content to groupe together those syllables 
which formed connected meanings, leaving the rest in which no such 
connexion appeared, uncopied: and abandoning, with respect to 
them, a task so much resembling that which the Chaldean kin^ 
imposed on his magicians, — that of supplying the dream as well as 
the interpretation. 

After this explanation, I proceed to exhibit the text, together with 
an English version of those three quarters of the inscription which are 
sufficiently intelligible, beginning with the seven lines of prose, that * 
declare the genealogy and the succession. 

Line of 
tbeLAU 



1. •iiti(««<i3iij|'^t i^0M^i*<Mrd<^4a 

^B^ ^^TIHItH^Ml^'Sl ^TPr^^g ^^^iliiHJIg^ : ITCH 

7. TO^emwir: irwriw: ^^ fij4lMd^ ^ 4iJ^ • rxrft] ^ 



1837.] 



8. 



9. 



10. 



11. 



12. 



13. 



14. 

15. 
16. 

17. 
18. 

19. 



•f the Imcr^ioH on the BkUdrf Ldi. 



xtw'Rf^inranrT f^iiiNr hot i 

V«I?^ f^ftR^: irftfft^ • il W3jr^t^ 

^•^srfiRni' iiT^rr^^nrcinft^ftra^qTfiTm - - 

t^c^ft wih^ • -- vrei wf^f ^J 

• ^4ir4^¥i^M ^cwwRj^af"^' HonStrorn - - - - 

TVanaHaticn. 
Of tbe liberator of the greeteet kingfs, incom|Mirable on the earth^^bj 
whom loads of foreat timber are collected for Uie holocauatic service of 
liTDBAy Vabuna and Yama bj the completion of sacrifices bearing the 
flavoar of the waters of all the four circumambient oceans^ — whose glory 
reaches to the firmament,— who on every side bestows liberally as the 



6 Restoration and Tranflation [Jan. 

golden-sided mountain (Meru), — by whom Meru himself might be borne 
aloft in the piercing talons of his mighty arm, — the great grandson of the 
great king Gupta,— grandson of the great king Ghatotkacha, — son of the 
great king, the sovereign of kings, Chandra-gupta, — maternal grandson 
of Lff^HAVi, — ^bom of the great goddess-like CuMA'RA-DB'vi, — the great 
king, the sovereign of kings, Samudra.oupta, — 

Of him, when the accepted son was pronounced to be the son of Ds'vi, 
daughter of Maha'daitya, the incomparable worshipper of the supreme 
Bbaoavat (Crishiva), the great king, the sovereign of kings, Cbandra. 
QUPTA, — then his son, before addicted to illiberality, and a man of great 
parsimony, was purified by the waters of destiny. Such was the excellent 
blessedness of the worshipper of the supreme Bhaoavat, the great king, 
the sovereign of kings, Cubia'ra-oupta, celebrated for his mildness of 
disposition, and of subdued passions united to accumulated fame, — a 
blessedness pervading even the forests and desert lands. 

Ferse, 

Having well surmounted the calamities that oppressed the earth, the 
chief and unique hero of the Gupta race, of face like a lotus, displays the 
glory of conquest : even he, by name Scanda-qupta of distinguished and 
spotless renown, — who in the spirit of his own dreadful deeds danced 
in the fierce dance, (SivA-like after his vengeance for Sita's death.) 

Possessed of a dear insight into the profound wisdom of the Tantras, 
with a spirit of unceasing silence (on their incommunicable mysteriee— 
and in accordance with their precept and discipline) mangling the flesh of 
the refractory in successive victories ;~he by whom their challenge to 
battle being accepted and answered, forms a splendid spectacle in every 
quarter of the earth, — is declared even by alien princes to be one whose 
mind could not be shaken by sudden and unexpected calamity. 

For afterwards by him to whom the keeping of his treasure was com- 
mitted, — the boundary which was given as a sacred deposit, and worthy 
to be extended to the extremities of the earth — was treacherously taken 
away, and the prosperity of the family removed from it,— (even by him 
the minister aforesaid) coveting the wealth of that family, having previ- 
ously professed much attachment in words, but destitute of the light (of 
truth), and followed by calamitous defection. 

Yet (having conquered) the land, his left foot was fixed there on a 
throne yet untrodden by mortals, and having obtained excellent room, 
and laid by his weapons, he reposed from war on his (inaccessible) moun- 
tain. His pure and noble exploits, the exploits of a man of unspotted 
fame, although long opposed by the kings of the excellent seven hills, are 
now sung even by them. 

In every region did men surround that young prince, when his father 
bad gone to heaven, as one who had attained most illustrious prosperity : 
whom his father's brother and the other chiefs did first (thus surround, 
hailing him) as their new sovereign, in the midst of the joy of conquest, 
with tears in their eyes. 



1837.] of Ike Inseripiiom on tie BhitdH Ldt. 7 

Mtf he who is like Cbiibna still obeying hie mother DsVakI, after 
his foes ere Tanquiahed^ he of golden reys^ with mercy protect this my 
design. 



Whatever prince in this place perpetually worships this sacred image, 
is considered by Rudba (Siva) himself as one wbose understanding is 
ennobled and rendered praise-worthy by this affectionate devotion^ even in 
the land of Arha (Indba) and the other celestials* 

Remarks on the above Inscription, 
The parentage of Samodra-oupta son of Chanora-gupta, which 
dosed the Allahabad inscription* forms in nearly the same words the 
beginning of the present; and his panegyric which pervaded the 
earlier monament» is the leading subject in the prose part of this. 
The first new fact is the desi^ation of his son and successor, 
Cbandra-gupta the second : whom it seemed most obvious on the 
first reading of the names* to identify with the expected son and 
heir of the 18th line of the pillar of Allahabad, the offspring of 
Samudra-ocpta and his principal queen the daughter of the proud 
princess Sanharic/. This identification, however, is removed by 
the terms of the inscription itself: this son does not succeed by right 
of primogeniture, but as peculiarly selected {parigrihita) on account 
of his eminent virtues from the rest of the family or families of the 
polygamist king, and is the oflspring not of Sanharica's daughter, 
but of the daughter of a prince named Mabadaitta. The son and 
successor of Chandra- GUPTA II. is Cumara-gupta, who is represented 
as having been a very unprincely character at the time of his father's 
adoption as heir to the throne ; but having been disciplined by some 
unnamed fortune, becomes on bis own accession to the throne, 
an emulator of the mild virtues and the Vaishnava devotion of his 
parent. The next king is Scanda-gupta, who may be most pro- 
bably supposed to be the son of his immediate predecessor Cumara- 
ouPTA : but on this point, the verse which here takes the place of 
the more narrative prose, is unfortunately silent. We only hear of 
his distinguished fame as a warrior : and that his piety, congenial 
with his acts, does not take the same turn with that of his two 
nearest predecessors, of devotion to Vishnu the Preserver, but attach- 
ed itself to the opposite system now so prevalent in tliia part of 
India, the deep, mysterious and sanguinary system of the Tantras. 
After the conquest and slaughter of many opposing kings, we hear 

* See p. 644 of voliimo V. 



t Hist&rioal Relfiark9 [Jam. 

of his eventual trivrnph over a more formidable enemy than all, a 
treacherous minister, who for a time succeeda in diepoaseaaing him 
of his kingdom. After vanquishing, however, the rival monarcha of 
the seven hills, - and resting peacefully on his laurels in his inaccea- 
aible mountain throne, (l^x^^^^^s which carry us away from the 
immediate vicinity of the Ganges, but whether towards the north or 
Central India we have no means of determining,) this worthy wor* 
shipper of Siva and DnaoA ascends to heaven: and his brother 
and the other chiefs, with mingled feelinga of grief and affectionate 
allegiance, proclaim his young child the heir to his fttther's crown 
and conquests. This youth is described as obedient to the queen 
dowager his mother, as was Crishna to his mother De^akv; but 
the part of the inscription that proceeds to speak of him is con- 
fused and unintelligible ; neither does he appear to be once named ; 
unless we conceive some letters of line 1 8 . to give his name thus : . 
Mabbsa-prita-gufta, (the Gupta attached to Siva, or beloved by Siva J) 
He is probably the MAHBNDaA-GUPTA whose name occurs in several 
of the newly discovered coins of this dynasty. 

The royal family of the Guptas, therefore, as adapted to the time 
of this inscription, stands as follows ; the Arabic numerals denoting 
sovereigns, or those to whom the prefix Makardja Adhirdja beionga^ 
tn the order of their succession. 

GuFTA, a Riija of the SoUr line. 



Ghatotka OH A, ditto ditto. | I;i^^,e dTi^ht 



;er was 



1. Chandra -GUPTA I. — ^T^Cuma^ra-dbti^ Maha^-daitta^ 

qaeen consort. whose daughter was 

i 
2. Samudra-gupta, ——ft Da'vi% 

one of the queens of 

Samddra-gupta. 

3. Cbandra-ocpta II, 



4. CUMA^RA-OUPTA, 

whose Ma probably was 



5. SeAMDA-OUPTA, 



6. A young prince (mahbndra-oupta ?) 
a minor at the date of this inscription. 



1637.] OH the HmHfHm if ike BkitdH Lit. 9 

• 

One remarkmUe ftict. learnt «olelf iron tldft isicriptioB* is the 
inwrelenee at the tiaw of the Gapta dynast j^ of die two oppoakp 
aectanan forms of later Hindtt worship : that of the esduive devor 
tees of ViSHHV oa the one hand, whose favorite anthovity is the 
celebrated poem (probably inserted among the Puinas by the com- 
paratively recent grammarian Vopkdst a) called the Srimad Bkdgavata : 
and thatof the wordbippersof Sita and his female enei|^es on liie other, 
whose text books ar« those singular componnds of Cabalistic mys« 
tery, licentiousness and bipod, the Agamas or Tantras. — ^The princes 
Chavdra-oupta and CuMA^»A-aurrA are expressly commemorated as 
belonging to the former class, and Scanda-oupta as an adherent of tha 
latter. And here I must recall an observation that I hazarded when 
Gommenting on the Attahabad inscription, (J. A. S. vol. iii.p. 268,) that 
the worship of the Saktis, with its existing mysteries and orgies, was 
most probably unknown in India at the date of that monument. The 
terms in which that species of devotion is spoken of about a century 
after, in the second* of the metrical stanzas in the present Bhitdri 
inscription, shews that the same system was even then dominant, and 
sufficiently powerful and seducing to enlist kings among its votaries. 
And while this (if I am correct in supposing the age of the Gupta 
dynasty to be somewhere between the 1st and 9th centuries of our 
era), may be among the earliest authentic notices of that mode of 
worshipping Bpaihava and C/li', — ^the mention of it at all furnishes 
an additional proof to my mind of the impossibilityt of referring these 
monuments to the earlier age of CHANnaA-auPTA Maurta, or that 
of Alsxandbr the Great, and the century immediately following. 

A far more plausible hypothesis is the identification of this Gupta 
dynasty, with that which is mentioned in the prophetico-historical 
part of the Vishnu-Purina, (Book iv. chap. 24,) as arising in this 
precise tract of country, contemporaneously with other dynasties in 
different parte of India, during the turbulent period that followed 
the extinction of the last race of Indian sovereigns that reigned in 
Magadha, and the irruption of Saca and other foreign tribes from 
the north-west. The dominion of the Guptas is there said to include 
the great city of Praydga on the confluence of the Ganges and Jumna, 
where their principal monument is now found, as well as the yet more 
sacred city of Mathurd on the latter river, and the less known names 
of PadmdvaH and Kdnti-puH, (probably near the site of our present 
Cawnpare ;) it is also described as extending down the Ganges to 

• See Note A. t See Note B. 

c 



10 Htiiorieal Rmairk$ [Jam. 

Magadka or Bekar, where one VisvA-gtHAXiKA (or Vista-sfhuufi, of 
the old race of Magadka soTereigns) had extirpated the existing race 
of Xattriyas, and set up other low caatee, together with Brihmana, ia 
their stead ; as 1 read in two MSS. copies* of the Vishnu-PoHina, the 
words of which are 

int M^H«<i «KTf%^4t ^m^rrfmbrr ^ranf inw inrnt 

" In the country ol Magadka, one named Visva-sphatika shall form 
and set up in the kingdom other castes, the Kaivarttas, Yadus, Pulin- 
das, and Bdihmans : and thus having abolished all the races of Xattri- 
yas, shall the nine Nagas, and in PadmdvaU, Kdniupuri, Matkurd, and 
on the Gauges from Praydga, shall the Magadkas and the Guptaa 
rule over the people belonging to Magadka." 

All these new sets of kings, with the Naiskadka$ in Calinga, &c. and 
the more barbarous races elsewhere, are represented in the Purina 
as ferocious, rapacious and tyrannical men, of little knowledge and no 
principle, whose rise and progress and fall are to be equally sudden 
and extraordinary, short-lived, and only nominal observers of religion. 
The people under their sway, and through the contact of foreign 
races, will gradually fall into that neglect of caste and other religious 
observances, that reference of all things to worldly riches and conse- 
quent impiety and unrighteousness, that will prepare the way for 
the tenth and last incarnation of Vishnu as Kalki' to restore all 
things. Thus, soon after the account of their Guptas, close the 
prophetic ^announcements of Parasara to Maitrbta of what was 
to befal the world after him, and with them the 4th Book of the 
Vishnu- Purina. 

. It is true, that according to the chronology of the Purina, as set 
down minutely in that chapter, we should have the commence- 

* Th« valnable Bngliah abstract and partial translation of this Pariioa (as of 
tba others) deposited in the Asiatic Society's Library by Professor H. H. Wix». 
SOK, — ^is silent on the latter point , the association of the Guptat with Magam 
dkoi, and their dominion in Behar: relatiog their possession of those four cities 
in the DoAb, PadmdvaU, Kdnti'-puri, Mathurdj and Praydga, as altogether nneon. 
nected -with the affairs of Magadka, and the extirpation of the Xattriyas from 
that conntry, with which they are distinctly blended in the Sanscrit passags 
as given above. 

For the further testimony of ths 8rimad'Bk4ga9ata, see Note C. 



m7.] an th€ InMcriptum ^f the BhkdH Ldt. 1 1 

ment of the reign of these Guptas posterior to Sandeacottas, and 
conseqventiy to Alsxanobr the Great, by (137 -I- 1 12 + 45 ^. 456 -f 
1399^ 300 4- 186 =) 2635 years, — and therefore as really fatore 
to OS as to the prophetic Muni and his hearer. Bat setting aside all 
other considerations, it is only the four first of the seven component 
periods of this snm that will appear to an attentive inspection of the 
Parana itself, to be entitled to the least attention : viz. the spaces as- 
signed respectively to the Maorya, the Sanga, the Kanva and Andhra 
dynasties of Uinda sovereigns in Magadka : of which the name of 
each individual king is set down, their several numbers 10, 10, 4 
and 30 agreeing perfectly with the durations assigned to each race*. 
Bat the fifth and sixth .periods of 1399 and 300 years have no sach 
catalogues of kings accompanying them, but only a statement that 
m the former there should rule in succession seven kings of the 
Abbhra caste, 10 Gardabhiras, 16 Saka or Scythian kings, 8 Yavana 
or Grecian, 1 4 Tushira, 1 3 Munda, and 1 1 Mauna kings : and in the 
latter period of three centuries, Paura and 1 1 other unnamed sove- 
reigns. This enumeration, strongly indicative of the disturbed and 
lemi-barbarous condition of affidrs, which caused the suspension of all 
the ancient records, — and in which synchronous djmasties might 
easily be mis-stated as successive ones, and the sum of years readily 
palmed on the Hindu reader, to enhance the antiquity of the classical 
and heroic ages of the country, — ^is succeeded, in the last period 
immediately preceding the rise of the Guptas, by something more 
resembling the records of earlier times. As this list, occupying 
the seventh period above mentioned of 186 years, has not yet been 
pabUshed, — (that of Hamilton in the corresponding period being 
somewhat different and much more confused,) 1 will here set it down 
from my MS. of the Vishnu-Purana. 



* These may all be leen, as they stand in this and other Pnrfcnas, in p. 100 
•f Hr. J. PaiNssp's Useful Tables. The accnracy of these lists is strongly con- 
imed by the collateral testimony of the Chinese travellers in India in the 5th 
century, whose relation is published in the London Asiatic Journal of July last* 
Their king of Kapihf Yub-oai, Beloved of the Moon^ whose ambassador sent 
presents to China A. D. 428, is (not Ckandra/nanda, as the learned translator 
•f that work suspected, but) Chandka-bri% the king immediately preceding 
PvLOMABCBis, the Ust of the Andhra dynasty at Magadha^^wYko was reigning 
at this precise time. This removes the hope entertained by Mr. J. Prinsip, 
(to whom I am indebted for the communication of this paper) and myself, that 
this might prove to be the CHAirnaA-oupTA of the inscription, and makes the 
litter posterior to him by probably three or four centuries. 
c 2 



11 Hisiorical Remarks [Jan. 

ViivBBTA-SACTi firom Kiltkila, who adopts the mamiert of 

the YaTanat, wbose aoB ia 



PURAKJATA, 

I 

Ra'K A-CH ANDB A , 

I 

Dbarma. 

VANOAmA, (WilB. VAm'ANOA.) 

Kritakandaka, (who hat 4 soni.) 
I 

' \ \ ' 

SUKHINANOI, NaNDITASAS, SuUHA, PrATIBA. 

who haa 13 sona. 
After whom came 4 Bahukaa or Bactrians, 3 Puspamitras, 13 Yadoo 
mitras, 7 Mekalas ; and in Kausala or Oude, 9 Naishadhas. 

Thus the account of this dynasty, which Hamilton calls the Bah- 
lic or Bactrian one, terminates in a confusion worse confounded than 
that from which it emerged. And this statement in the Vishnn- 
Pnrina is immediately followed by the passage above quoted respect- 
ing the Magadhas and Guptas. 

Allowing, however, the least possible duration to the confused 
periods that foUowed the subversion of the Andhra dynasty in the 
middle of the fifth century after Christ, it is scarcely possible to fix 
the subjects of our present inquiry, the Guptas, higher than the age 
of Chaelbmaonjb in Europe, if we suppose them identical with the 
Guptas of the Purina. 

NOTB A. 

The insertion among the praises of the 5th king Soanda-oupta, of 
the epithet " a mangier of the flesh of the refractory/' (mnnaMM-pala" 
sdtd,) and that in close juxta-position with the attributes of peculiar 
wisdom, and adherence to a mysterious system of Cabalistic theo- 
logy, — may appear surprising to persons who have either considered 
but slightly the genius and tendencies of idolatry, or are unacquaint- 
ed with this peculiar form of it. To shew how perfectly natural ia 
the Juxta-position in the present instance, I cannot give a more 
generally intelligible proof than in the picture drawn in the metaphy- 
sical drama Prabodha-chandra-udaya, of a votary of this same Tantric 
discipline, under the name of Sa-uma-siddh/nta, — ^i, e. says the 



1887.] 



on the Insenptum of the BkUdH Ldt. 



18 



commentetor, ^ proleMor of tke science of Siva Bbairava in eon- 
jaaction with Uma hia coilsort. — I will give the original Sanecrit and 
Ptacrit (the latter spoken by the Buddhist, being his own Pfif, — the 
former by the other two speakers) with a different version from that, 
of Dr. Tatloe, distingnishing prose and verse exactly as in the 
original : premising, that the ingeaiovn author does not intend to 
give any exaggeration or caricature, but simply to exhibit a model of 
an existing mode of belief and practice in his time : such as may be 
traced also, under certain modifications even now ; after centuries of 
Mahomedan and Christian rule have interfered with the free exercise 
of such homicidal worship. 

'WT Ji"W*m^*n«<ni^im5f*i 'ft mKMi \ 
^TOT I [^aitnf] wv trw Mi*i4imin ^n><i^v ^^iiti^n ^fih 



1 4 Hiitorical Remarkt [Jan. 

In Act III. 
T^ them, entw Soma-Siddbanta in the ffuUe qfa Kdp6iika (or num ^9kuU$), 

with a iword in hit hand, 
SowM'Sid. {walking aboui,) 

With goodly necklace deck*d of bonei of men. 
Haunting the tombs, from cups of human aknll 
Eating and qnaffing,^-eTer I behold 
With eyes that Meditation's saWe hath dear'd. 
The world of direrse jarring elements 
Composed, but still all one with the Supreme. 
Mnddhiit. This man professes the rule of a iUp&lika. I will ask him what it 
i«. — {Ooinff up to him.) O, ho 1 yon with the bone and skull necklace, what 
tar% yonr notions of happiness and salration ? 
89ma»8id. Wretch of a Buddhist 1 Well ; hear what is our religion. 

With flesh of men, with brain and fat well smear'd, 
We make our grim burnt-offering, — break our fast 
From cupa of holy Bridiman's skull, — and ever 
With gurgling drops of blood that plenteous stream 
From hard throats quickly cut, by us is worshipped 
With human offerings meet, our God, dread Bh air at A. 
Brdhnum Mendicant, {(ttopping hii eart.) Buddhist, Buddhist, what think you 

of this ? O horrible discipline ! 
Buddhi9t. Sacred Arhata I some awful sinner has surely deceived that man. 
Soma'Siddkanta (in a rage). Aha I — sinner that thon arty-^Tilest of heretict, 
with thy shaven erown, drest like the lowest outcasts, uncombed one, away 
with thee 1 Is not the blessed huaband of Bh atami the sole canse of th« 
creation, preservation, and destruction of the fourteen worlds, and his power 
establiiihed by the fullest demonstration of the V^dant ? Let us yet shew 
even yon the magnificence of this religion. 

I cidl at will the best of gods, great Haki, 
And Hara's self and Brahma,— I restrain 
With my sole voice the course of stars that wander 
In heaven's bright vault ; the earth with all ita load 
Of mountains, fields and cities, I at will 



1637.] an the Imeripiian of the Bhitdri Ldt, 1 5 

Badvoa oneo mom to water— md behold 
I drink it np. 
BmidkUt, AUa 1 poor K&pklika, this ii just what I aaid. Yoa have been de- 
ceived by aoioe juggler, ipreading out falae imagei before you. 
Somm'SiddJUmta, What, again, thon ainner 1 Dost thou dare to call the great 
M AinaTAttA a jnggler ? Thia thy malignity mna t not be fotgiTcn. Lo, therefore. 
With foaming flooda of gore that gnsh amain 
From throat well aevered with this sabre's edge» 
I make my sacrifice to him that calls 
I With beat of drum the hosts of creatures after him, 

Dread Sit a — and with these rich mddy streams 

Delight his consort well, Bhatani. 

(Draws hi$ sword*) 
[How the hand of the Tantrie sealot is arrested from smiting the unfortunate 
Buddhist, — ^how he then enters on a psychological defence of his opinions,— 
how he is then joined bj Sraddha^ (or Faith 1) in the character of a KapattnUf 
who by her blandishments leads both the Brfthman mendicant and the Buddhist, to 
deport themselTes like Tantrists, — and how they all then join Soma-Siddhamta 
in a meditative dance ; — all this and other wonders msy be found by the curious 
in the drama aboTO cited.] 

NOTB B. 

In once more expressing the opinion, that the Gupta dynasty of oar 
present monuments is posterior to the Christian era, I am by no means 
insensible to the new light that Mr.TuRNoua has thrown on the history 
of Sandracottus in the extracts he has given from a learned commen- 
tary on the Mahd'Wanso, pp. Ixxi — ^Ixxxii. of his very interesting pre- 
face to that great historical work. That some of my objections to 
the identity of the two Chandra- quptas are removed, or at least 
greatly weakened, I freely admit : there certainly appears ancient 
Buddhist authority (for such is apparently the Atta^kathd or Aetata- 
hatha of the Uttara-yihara priests alleged by the commentator) for 
making the Mauryas a branch of the Solar race ; utterly inadmissible 
as is the etymology assigned for that name in the Tlkd (p. Ixxvi.) as 
well as for the name of Sisunaga, ancestor of the Nandas, (pp. Ixxii. 
Ixxiii.) It is also very remarkable, in relation to this subject, that 
the latter prince is there represented as the son of a L199HAT1 Rija» 
that being apparently the name of a distinguished family in Magadha : 
L199HAYI being also the name, in the inscriptions of Allahabad and 
Bhitdri, of the father-in-law of our Chandra-gupta I. and maternal 
grand- father of Samudra-gupta. Nevertheless, there still appear 
to me insurmountable objections to identifying Samuora-gupta with 
ViNDU-SARA, the son and successor «f Chandra-gupta Maurta on 
the Magadha throne . while a still more evident impossibility is now 
added of identifying his son, the Vaiehnava Chandra-gufta II. of our 
present monument, with Asoca, son of Vindctsara, the zealous ad- 



1^ Higtmictd Rmuarkt, 4e. [l 

herent and propagator of Baddbkin, not only in hit own dominions 
of Magadha, but the north, east, and south, as far as CeyUm. It is 
needless to pursue the discrepancy of the genealogies further : the 
VtMnttva CuMAaA-ouPTA and the Saivya and Saktya worshipper, 
ScAMDA^ouPTA, have nothing in common with the Buddhist descen- 
dants and successors of Dharmasoca. Is it not also very possible 
that with a view to exalt the immediate ancestry of that most revered 
prince, the priests of the favored religion may have introduced this ac- 
count of the Moriya family, as an offspring of the Solar race, — so dis- 
crepant from that which other Indian accounts, as well as Greek and 
Roman, give of its origin ? That the Buddhist priests, notwithstanding 
their hostility to caste, are not insensible to considerations of this kind, 
is evident from the care with which, in the Mahd^wanso and elsewhere, 
they inculcate the undoubted royal descent of Gautama Buddha. 



NOTB C 

The passage above quoted from the Vishnu- Purina seems to have 
been somewhat differently read by the more modem author of the 
Srfmad'Bhdgavata, — who here as elsewhere, is apparently only trans- 
ferring into his own more polished and elaborate verse, the records 
found in the older Puranic legends. By him the term Gupta, instead 
of being a proper name, is made an epithet of the earth as ruled or 
protected (for so the scholiast Sridhara has explained it) by the 
VisvA-spHATiKA abovc mentioned, who is here called Visva-sphubji. 
The close agreement, as well as occasional discrepancy, of the two 
authorities, will be easily seen from the following extract (Bhdgavata^ 
Bookxii. chap. 1.) 



^Tuftr ♦f(<fl 



«' VisvA-sPHURJi, another Puranjata, (i. e. says the scholiast, the 
best of the descendants of Puranjata or Ripunjaya, who was king of 
Magadha^ B. C. 900.) shall create new barbarian castes, the Pulindaf, 
Yadus and Madras. This ill-minded warrior shall make the greatest part 
of his subjects to be un-brfihmanical, (or lower than sudras)— and hav- 
ing exterminated the Xattriyas, he shall, in the city of Padmdvafi^ 
(ind on the Ganges, as far as Prayaga, derive tribute from the pro* 
iected earth." 



Hie word* ^^ahnnni^M are explemed here by the tcholiast to de* 
•eribe the mtaation of the king's metropolis Padm6vaH, as being sitn- 
ated in the Ganges ahove Projfiga, or, as he words it, between AUakah^d 
and Hmridvdr. Bat this explanation is quite inapplicable to the same 
words as they etand in the Vishna-Portna, where they immediately 
Mlow the mention of Matkmrd, and where the mention of MagtMa 
ffAowing mdnces me to interpret the words " on the Ganges behm 
Fraydgu^' or between AUdkdbad and the sea. 



fl. — Alphahett •/ the Tai langmafe. By the Rev. N. BaowN, JIftf 

titmary in Aeeam. 

■ 

[We are indebted to Capt. F. Jbmkins, Political Agent in Aeeam^ 
for kindly engaging Mr. Brown to throw light upon the Akom and 
KhoMti alphabets, of which it may be remembered Capt. Jbnkins 
two years ago presented to the Society some manuscript volumes then 
undecipherable for the want of this indispensable key. The Ahom let- 
ters are stated to be copied from an old book in the author's possession. 
The brief notice of the language itself, (Mr. Brown writes to Capt. J.) 
was gathered from a pandit of the Jorhdth Bija, whom he employed 
as teacher for a few months. He did not seem to possess a very 
perfect knowledge of the Ahom language, and he stated that the 
same waa true of the Ahome in general, who for the most part have 
lost all knowledge of their original tongue. 

Captain Jinkinb thinks there can be little doubt that the Ahom 
rijas came into Aeeam from the eastward about the beginning of the 
thirteenth century ; and that the immediate cause of their emigra- 
tion is to be sought for in the breaking up of the Chinese empire by 
the Moguls, — for at the epoch whenCnuKAPHA had fixed himself in 
Aeeam» Kdblai Khan had just established himself in China, We may 
confidently hope that after a little longer residence at Sadiyd, Mr. 
Brown, who is rapidly extending his acquaintance with the different 
branches of the Shydn language will be induced to favor us with a 
sketch of the contents of the old Ahom chronicles, which, we are given 
to understand, certainly exist iu Aeeam, and of which thef volume 
transmitted by Capt. Jenkins mSy be a portion. 

Capt. Jbnkins alludes to a curious fact, communicated by Mr. 
Brown, which should be a further inducement to examine their books ; 
namely, that no trace of Buddhism is to be found in the religion of 
the AMme. This is a remarkable deviation from the circumstances 



}8 Alphabets of tke Tai angnagt. [JAir«. 

of the other Shydn ftimilies whose literatare is bat a direct trans- 
lation of Barmese Buddhism, as their alphabets, the Shyan, Khamtf, 
L&08, &c., are sqen to be mere modifications of the Barmese or ViXi 
alphabet. 

This fact would seem to arg^e that the emigration of the Akom9^ 
from their own country Siam, had taken place prior to the introduc- 
tion of the Buddhist religion ioto that country — ^but how can this be 
reconciled with the date of Chukapha ? — Ed.] 

The Language of the Ahome. 

The Ahom is a branch of the Tai lang^ge, which is spoken, with 
some variations, by the Khamtis, the Shjins, the L£os, and the Sia- 
mese, all of whom designate themselves by the general appellation of 
Tai. Among the Ahoms, or that portion of the Tai race inhabiting 
Aaedm, the language is nearly extinct, being cultivated only by the 
priests, as the ancieat language of their religion ; while their vernacu- 
lar and common dialect, as well as that of the people, is Asedmese, 
As the Ahoms once ruled over Assam, it is somewhat surprising that 
more traces of their language are not to be found in the present dialect 
of the Assamese, which contains very few words of Tai origid. 

As might naturally be expected, the Ahoms, from disuse of their 
original tongue, have lost many of its peculiar sounds. In conformity 
with the pronunciation of the Assamese, they g^ve to w the sound of b; 
andy, they pronounce as^ or xr. The sound of the French v, which is so 
common in the Tai, they change sometimes to d and somethnes to f . 
The intonations of their original tongue they have entirely lost ; one 
reason of this undoubtedly is, that these intonations were never express* 
ed by the Ahoms in writing. The same is at present the case with the 
Khamtis and Shyins, who have no characters expressive of their in- 
tonations, having, like the Ahoms, adopted the Burman alphabet^ 
which is inadequate to meet the wants of the Tai language in this re* 
spect. The Siamese characters, on the contrary, represent the tones 
with the greatest precision. 

It is, however, remarkable that the language of the Ahoms as 
pronounced by the priests, corresponds to the Siamese with much 
greater exactness in some respects, than any of the Shyin dialects 
spoken between Assam and Siam. 

1 . The sound of b, frequent in the Siamese and L4os, is converted 
into m by all the Shyans, while the Ahoms have preserved the 
regular b, 

2. The Siamese d is changed by the Shy£ns to /, and by the Kham- 
tis to n, but the Ahoms give it its correct pronunciation. 

3. The same is true of the letter r, which the Shyins change to h. 



" ^l/fAaleig of tk-e 7ZAJ La-n-f^u.ag^« 


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1837.] Alphabet* tf the Tai Umguapt. 19 

4. Where doable conflonants, as kl,pl, kr, &c. ocear at the com- 
mencemeiit of a word, as they frequently do in Siamese, the Shyins 
and Kharnds, as well aa the L£ot, soften the pronunciation by omit- 
ting the second consonant; but it is preserved by the Ahoms. I will 
illustrate each of these remarks by a few examples. 



Siame»e, 


JAot. 


8hy4Ln. 


Khamti. 


A'hom, 




1.B6 


hk 


mk 


mk 


b4 


a ihoulder. 


Bin 


biin 


mkn 


mkn 


bktt 


a Tillage. 


Bin 


bin 


min 


mia 


bin 


to fly. 


Bo 


bo 


•mo 


mo 


bo 


a well. 


?.Di 


df 


U 


Di 


di 


good. 


i>eog 


deng 


leng 


neng 


deng 


red. 


Doi 


doi 


loi 


Doi 


doi 


a mountain. 


Din 


dila 


Ua 


nAu 


dku 


a itar. 


' Dflan 


dUn 


IQn 


nftn 


dfin 


the moon. 


S.Rak 


rakorhak 


faak 


hak 


rak 


to Iota. 


Riii 


rii 


hki 


hki 


rki 


bad. 


Ron 


ron 


hon 


hon 


ron 


hot. 


R6 


r6 


h6 


h6 


rik 


to know. 


Rda 


rCk 


ha 


ha 


ra 


a boat. 


Rflan 


lika 


ban 


hftn 


r(in 


a home. 


4.PUi 


Pfc 


P^ 


P4 


p)k 


a ftih. 


Klai 


kal 


kai 


kai 


klai 


distant. 


KlUa 


M 


kQ 


kH 


km 


salt. 


PIAak 


p«k 


pttk 


pUk 


pl6k 


a husk. 



Fromi these circumstances we may conclude that the Siamese and 
Ahom dialects afford a more correct specimen of the original Tai lan- 
guage, than either the Lios, Khamtf, or Shyan ; for it is improbable, 
if the original forms had been simple and easy of enunciation, 
Uiat they would have been exchanged for others more difficult ; but it 
is perfectly natural that difficidt forms should be exchanged for others 
more sim^e. 

Espktnatian of the Table. 

It is probable that all the alphabets of the Tai, (if we except the 
Siamese,) were formed from the Barman. The column of Burman 
letters is merely added for the purpose of comparison. The Ahom, 
Khamtf, and Shyin alphabets each contain eighteen letters, but 
tiiis number is quite inadequate to express the various sounds of these 
languages. The L&os alphabet is more perfect : it contains fewer 
letters, however, than the Siamese. In the above table we obserre 
that the L&os alphabet contains, to some extent, two distinct charac- 
ters for each letter of the Ahom and Shyin ; one denoting the rising, 
and the other the fidling tone*. The rising-toned letters are set first 

* The second column of the L^os consonants embrace the second •rder or 

4he .softer sound of each class of the Indian alphabets, g gh gjjk ; d dh ; b bk^ 

&c. : the gh only is formed differently from the same letter of the Barman 

a^habet. We have inserted these letters ia th« Roman column on ths abojr# 

j> 2 



20 AfyhabelM of tie Tai Umputfe. [Jait. 

in the eolitmn ; those on the right hand hare the idling tone. Seve- 
ral of the falling-toned letters hare no corresponding character for 
fSke opposite intonation ; when it is required to express this» an A is 

written above the letter, which raises its tone; thus, CO a^* ^ «» 
(£> m, CO A &c. A sinular plan is adopted in the Siamese, where 

the high-toned h, is prefixed to other consonants for the purpose of 
raising their tone. 

The pronunciation of the foiurth letter in the table is not uniform r 
^e Siamese give it the sound of ch, the Lios nearly the same, while 
all the Shyins pronounce it as st. The next letter, chh, is confound^ 
ed by the Shy£ns with t. The character for ph is used, by the 
Ahoms and Shylns, to express both the aspirated p and the sound of 
/; the Khamtis for the most part confound these two sounds. The 
Ahoms use the same character for both d and ji ; and also for b and 
19 ; but the latter sound is changed to that of b, whenever it occurs- 
at the beginning of a word. 

In the table of vowels we also find the sounds represented more 
folly by the Lios than by the northern tribes ; though the Laos are 
still behind the Siamese in expressing the niceties of the language. 
The sounds resembling the French u imd eup or the German ft and d, are 
written alike by the Shyins, though they are perfectly distinguished 
in pronunciation ; as also the sowids of at and di; au and du ; eu and 
Iv. The sound aU, whichr is very common among the Shyins and 
Khamtis, does not occur in the Laos. Its place is supplied by «t\ 
The long 6 final of the Shydns is generally pronounced da or ua by 
the L&)8 and Siamese. The Shyin character given in the table is 
that used in the neighborhood of Ava ; it is the same, with very slight 
variations, as that used by the Shyans of Mdgtumg. 

Note. At the foot of the alphabetical scheme, lithographed from 
Mr. Brown's manuscript, we have inserted the Ahom legend of an 
Assamese rupee, said to be of CsAKaADWAjA Sink a,, who repulsed 
Aorangzbb's g^neral» and whose reign commenced in 16:21'^. The 
sculptured letters dififer considerably in form from the written ones„ 
and thexe is too much uncertainty for us to attempt applying the 
Soman character to it, without a native at hand to correct the reading. 

We have also given in the two following plates, facsimiles on a 
reduced scale of the commencement of the manuscript volumes in the 

grounds ; but the pronanciation nast of coarse, under the author's ezplaaa- 
tiOD, be restrictod to. the aouads of the first column k khg ch tkh g tihs p ph, 
dte. ; with the rising or fiilling intonations respectiTely.— Eo« 
* See page 118 of Cbronologicsl Appendix. 



jSjaeciiTteTL o^ tke X1nuTn.tv ckaLTacter. 

/rmn 4L nt€LnuscriP't #/ fO pages, in tke Jijia,ticJSoci^iy 4 library. 









jiu^aj^s. /•« . Vol vr pLw: . 

Sfiecim€7L p/ tke Ahem, or AsscLTTv, Cha^racier, 

/r9nt « mmn^u^crifit voluntm /kr^^mi^Ud io ikm Society if C^rFJmnJh/nj. 



'u^ne. 



© ir^\k» t^khi c^ffi ^fh» y^'v^ '^'^\^'^ xm/*^ 

yi^rf.' f^^i >5^«* V|/i- Iji:^^^-' 1iy|rf«: IjOr^M^ 

1^,-* >t;f[c/^ H^y.' tuj^^.' ur[/^ Vl-y^- '*^'-* 
e^v -?)? »vijf ^i? ^ife »gv i^i!^ t£^5 t^u^ i^iS"?: 



'«/t. A-«^n Aw> Aeun- 



r^Ljb rz/f ru^ rc/u reuj^ 



a. J • y /mm ^ w _ , «.. 



18S7.] Semarkt on the SilU of Anam, 21 

KhamtC ud AJiom characters, above alluded to as presented by 
Captain Jbnkins. The former commences with an invocation to 
Stiddka in the Fill language and Burmese character, but there are 
several grammatical errors committed by the Khamtf copyist — the lin# 
sboidd ran 

?COOOOO0aODOOC000 9S)C[CX>CO0O OOgOCOgf§030o63 

c^oxx^oog«go3 

Nsmotassa bbaf^vato arahato BammiitaBibuddhatta itfjayataftabba mangakm. 

Ytaise to the divine object of wonbip, the omnitcient Buddha; through 
whom may mil happiness conquer. 

We hope that Mr. Brown will enable vm to insert a translatioQ of 
the Ehamtf and Ahom texts in a future page.-— Ed. 

in. — Remarks on the SUk Worms and 8ilk$ of Aeeam. By Mr, Thoma» 

Httoon, 8ub. Aset. Nowganf. 

[Commanicated by Capt. F. Jbnkiks, Pol. Agent in Assam.] 

The following worms producing silk are found in Assam, The 
mulberry worm (large and small), the eria, the mooga, or moonga^ 
the konikuri, the deo mooga, and the KaumpoUonee, The five last 
are indigenous to the country, but there are no reasons to suppose that 
the first is likewise so. The mulberry is scarce, and none is found in 
the wild state. The time of the introduction could be, perhaps, ascer* 
tained in some of the Assamese booronjees or chronicles — (which I 
was unable to procure immediately to ascertain the point) ; some of 
them extending several centuries back — as the Assamese got reli* 
gious instructors from Bengal, it is very probable they also got fronk 
there the mulberry tree and worm. The use of the silk being con- 
ibed to the rija and grandees, and the rearing of the worm to one 
caste, are additional proofs that its introduction did not precede that 
of Hinduism — the Joogees (the caste alluded to) must eTidently have 
eome up with it ; the Assamese refuse to rear the silk worm, but not 
having this objection to the other worms would be one proof of tiie 
latter being indigenous, were it doubtful. 

Mulberry worm, — ^The management of these worms in Assam i» 
nearly similar to what it is in Bengal, They are reared within doors,, 
and require the same care and attention as are bestowed on thens 
there ; a separate hut is used, which is fitted with bamboo stages with 
a passage between them and the outer wall — these huts are built 
north and south with a single door on the east side ; this is generally 
the case, but by no means a fixed rule amongst the Assamese ; only 
one female of the family goes into the house, and previous to doing 



22 Retnarks on the Silks of Assam. [Jam. 

it alway washes her hands and feet. With the Assamese the idea 
prevails as in other parts, that the eye of the stranj^er is hurtful— 
their accoaut of this is, that the worms, fancying the stranger is criti- 
cising them, get sulky, ahstain from food and die. 

The large and small mulberry worms are reared in Assam. I will 
describe the rearing of those which produce only one bund a year^ 
(the larger,) they being more in use than the others in this district. 
It will be sufficient to shew how far the process assimilates to that 
followed in Bengal and other parts. The moths are made to deposit 
their eggs on pieces of cloth — these are packed up with the house* 
hold clothing ; when the time of hatching approaches (December), 
they are taken oat and exposed to the air ; when the worms are 
hatched they are fed the first three or four days on the tender leaves 
cut up, in new earthen pots ; then on a bamboo tray. After the first 
moulting they are removed to the mutchang (machdn) or stages. When 
they are about beginning to spin, they are put on bamboo trays fitted 
up with pieces of matting fixed perpendicularly at intervals of two 
inches : these in the first afternoon are exposed for half an hour to 
the side where the sun is shining, and afterwards hung up in the 
house. After leaving as many as are required for breeding, those that 
are to be wound ofi", after having been exposed to the sun for three 
or four days, are put over a slow fire in an earthen vase full of 
water. One person winds ofl* the sUk with an instrument made of 
three pieces of stick joined together thus, the perpendicular one is 
held at one end with the right hand, and the left directs 

the thread over the cross bars — taking care in doing this 

to make it rub against the fore- arm to twi&t it — whilst an- 

other person attends to the fire and the putting on new 

cocoons. When a sufficient quantity for a skein has thus 
accumulated it is take^i off the cross bars. 

There are hardly any plantations of mulberry in Assam, on such 
« scale as to be worth mentioning ; a few men of rank have small 
patches of it, sufficient to produce silk for their own use ; — ^the few 
ryuts that sell the sUk generally have not more than a seer to dis- 
pose of in the year, — the produce of a few plants round their huts 
or in the hedges of their fields. The leaves are not sold as in Bengal, 
and when a ryut's own supply fails, he obtains it from neighbors 
who have a few trees merely for the fruit. The worms are reared 
^7 joogees alone, people of an inferior caste : — those of the highest 
can cultivate the plant and do all the out-of-door work — ^but none 
but a joogee can, without degradation, attend to the worms or touch 
the silk whilst reeling. As the same prejudice does not exist in BsB' 



■Jt. mmi-f .M-mM. mf%^r •Vi^»<*v»' ww %rm mw9^ «<*«•««<' Kwrn^^^ mnr^y 



\V 




'/'<///& 



v>» 








/; Vifysu/Zs 








;^«t^ 



in/ 



6&8^^ 



U37.] RmarhM on tht Silki of Auam. ^9 

pU, it must have been kept up piuposely by the despotic rulen of 
the coantr J, after mulberry coltivators were introduced, to ensure the 
use of the silk being confined to themselveB and their courtiers — a 
Bcl&shness which may be observed in many of their rules and pro- 
hibitions : this alone would have been a bar to the extension of the 
cultivation of the mulberry in Assam, ^ere there not already greater 
facilities of obtaining silk from the mooga and eria worms. No 
mention is made of silk in the returns of the Hydra chowkey, I do 
not think half a maund of it altogether is exported in any shape — 
the price of it is eight or ten rupees a seer, but it is not readily procur- 
able. Mr. Scott, a few years ago, introduced from Rungpoor, reelera* 
reeU and plants of the morus alba, and established a factory at 
Darang, with a view to extend the culture of mulberry silk, and im- 
prove the reeling of the mooga. Several causes rendered the expe- 
riment abortive, the want of European superintendence and Mr. 
Scott's untimely death being the principal ones*. 

Eria silk, — The eria worm . and moth differ from the mulberry 
worm and moth in every respect, as will be better understood by the 
accompanying drawings and insects : like it, however, it goes through 
four different moultings, but its sickness in doing it lasts only 
twenty-four hours ; the last stage takes eight days, the others four. 
The duration of its life varies according to seasons : in summer it is 
shorter, and the produce both greater and better ; at this season, 
from its birth to the time it begins its cocoon, twenty to twenty- four 
days expire, in fifteen more the moth comes forth, the eggs are laid 
in three days, and in five they are hatched, making the total duration 
of a breed forty-three to forty-seven. days : in winter it is nearly two 
months ; the number of breeds in the year are reckoned at sevtti. 

This worm is, like the mulberry worm, reared entirely within doors : 
it is fed principally on the hera or palma-christi leaves, it eats the 
malberry leaf also but is said to prefer the former ; when the palma- 
christi leaves fail, they are also fed on those of several other trees 
known in this part of Assam by the following names : — ' 

1. Kossool. 

2. Hindoo- gass. 
d. Meekeerdal. 

*■ From tfaeopmians gi?eii by several merchants of Calcutta on samples of 
Anam mulberry silk, reeled on Italian reels from worms properly fed and at- 
tended to« I am led to beliere this province exceedingly favorable to the prodne- 
tioA of Tery superior silk. — The samples sent down would hsTe fetched the highest 
prices in the Calcutta market, and they were got up under the unfavorable cir* 
esrastaaoes of a rude experiment.— F. Jbnxins. 



P 



24 Remarkt ontke SUk§ of Aurnm, [Jam. 

4. Okonnee. 

5. Gomarree. 

6. Litta Palcoree. 

7. BorzoDolly. 

The wormB thrive best and produce most when entirely fed on the 
palma-christi — it is the only plant which is cultivated purposely for 
it, there is hardly one r3rut who has not a small patch of it near his 
house or on the hedges of his fields — it requires little or no culture 
— ^the ground is turned up a little with the hoe and the seeds thrown 
in without ploughing ; whilst the plant is young it is weeded once or 
twice, but it is afterwards left to itself. The plant is renewed every 
three years. On the leaves of Nos. 1 and 2, worms can be reared 
entirely, hut they do not thrive well upon it, many die even after hav- 
ing begun the cocoons, and the few of these that are got are small 
and yield but little. These and the others are only used in the fourth or 
fifth stage when they are considered to answer quite as well as the 
palma*christi leaves. The kossool (No. 1) alone can be given alternate- 
ly with the palma-christi. The whole of these trees are found in the 
forests, but not cultivated. 

To breed from, the Assamese select cocoons from those which 
have been begun in the largest number on the same day — ^generally 
the second or third day after cocoons have begun to be formed— those 
that contain males being distinguished by a more pointed end. These 
cocoons are put in a closed basket and hung up in the house out of 
reach of rats and insects. When the moths come forth they are allow- 
ed to move about in the basket for twenty-four hours ; after which the 
females, (known only by the larger body) are tied to long reeds or canes^ 
twenty or twenty-five to each, and these are hung up in the house. 
The eggs that have been laid the first three days amounting to about 
two hundred are alone kept, they are tied in a piece of doth and sus- 
pended to the roof until a few begin to hatch — these eggs are white, and 
the size of turnip seed ; when a few of the worms are hatched, the 
cloths are put on small bamboo platters hung up in the house, in which 
they are fed with tender leaves ; after the second moulting they are^ 
removed to bunches of leaves suspended above the ground, under 
them upon the ground a mat is laid to receive them when they fall ; 
when they have ceased feeding they are thrown into baskets full of 
dry leaves, amongst, which they form their cocoons, two or three 
being often found joined together. 

The caterpjBftr is at first about a quarter of an inch in length, and ap- 
pears nearly bfflw ; as it increases in size it becomes of an orange color, 
with six black spots on each of the twelve rings which form its body. 



1137.] Remarki on the Silh of Auwm, 95 

The brad, claws and holders are black ; after the second moulting 
die J diange to an orange color, that of the body gradaally becomes 
fighter, in some approaching to white, in others to green, and the 
black spots gradaally become the color of the body ; after the fourth 
and last moulting the color is a dirty white or a dark g^een : the white 
caterpillars inyariably spin red silk, the g^een ones white. On attaining 
its fall sise the wprm is about three and half inches long : unlike the 
moogu caterpillar, its colors are uniform and duU, the breathing holes 
are marked by a black mark — ^the moles have become the color of the 
body, they have increased to long fleshy points, without the sharp 
prickles the Mooga worm has ; the body has a few short hairs, hardly 
peroeptible. 

In foor days the cocoons are complete ; after the selection for tha 
next breed is made, they are exposed to the sun for two or three days 
to destroy the vitality of the chrysalis. The hill tribes settled in the 
plains are very fond of eating the chrysalis — ^they perforate the cocoons 
die diird day to get them, they do the same with the mooga and sell 
few cocoons imperforated. 

The cocoons are put over a slow fire in a solution of potash, when 
the silk comes easily oiF : they are taken out and the water slightly 
pressed out : they are then taken one by one, loosened at one end and 
the cocoon put over the thumb of the left hand, with the right they 
draw it out nearly the ^ckness of twine, reducing any inequality by 
rubbing it between the index and thumb ; in this way new cocoons 
are joined on. The thread is allowed to accumulate in heaps of a quarter 
of a seer : it is afterwards exposed to the sun or near the fire to 
dry ; it is then made into skeins with two sticks tied at one end and 
opening like a pair of compasses : it is then ready to be wove unless 
it has to be dyed. 

The dyes used are lac, munjeet and indigo, and the process of dy- 
ing ia as follows. 

Red Dye, — The lac after having been exposed to the sun to rei^der 
it brittle, is ground and sieved as fine as possible : it is steeped twelve 
hours in water, after which the thread is thrown in with the leaves of 
a tree, called by the Assamese Litakoo — (Pierardia eapida ? F. J.) 
When it has absorbed most of this mixture, it is taken out, put over 
two cross sticks, and shaken a short time to detach the threads well 
from each other : it is dried in the sun and the same process again 
gone through twice. When it is wished to increase the brightness of 
the color, it is again dyed with munjeet : the latter is^jed in the sun 
and ground in the same way, it is steeped for forty-flpit hours ; the 
threads are put in and boiled in the same way, but with the leaves of a 



26 Remarks on the Silks of Autfm. [J^itf* 

difierent tree (the Koh) : the thread is dried in the bud, and is ready for 
use. Nearly the same process is gone through for the blae : instead 
of the common indigo, they sometimes use the Roam, which plant is, 
I believe, Ruellia caUosa — also the leaves of a very large tree found 
in the forests, called by them Ooriam, The thread ia wove as cotton. 
The different prices of the cloths and their use will be found in an 
annexed table -, their clothes are mostly used for house consumption, a 
few are bartered with the Bhotias and other hill tribes. Large quan* 
tities were formerly exported to Lassa by merchants, known in De* 
rung as the " Kampa Bhotias," — ^the quantity they used to take away» 
was very considerable, but in the latter years of the AeeoM rija's rule, 
from the disorganized state of the country, the number of merchants 
gradually decreased ; three years ago only two came after a long in- 
terval, one of them died, and I believe the trade has not again been 
revived : those two merchants complained that they could no more 
procure the cloths suited to their markets. No exports of it are men- 
tioned in the returns of the Hydra-chowkey. The quantity the country 
is capable of exporting under an improved management would be very 
large, for it forms at present the dress of the poorer classes at all 
seasons, and is used by the highest for winter wear. 

I have been unable yet to ascertain the quantity of this silk obtain- 
able from one acre of land, no man can tell me the extent of his plan- 
tation, or even the quantity of £ria thread he got in a year beyond 
this, that he had enough for the use of his family ; every ryut has a 
few plants round his house or farming hedges — ^which would at most 
amount to the twentieth part of an acre ; so that for this to afford 
dothing for a family the produce must be very large indeed. 

Mooga Silk, — ^Although the mooga moth can be reared in houses, it 
is fed and thrives best in th^ open air and on the trees. The trees 
which afford it food are known in Assam by the following names : — 

1. Addakoory. 

2. Champa, {Michelia.) 

3. Soom. 

4. Kontooloa. 

5. Digluttee, (Tetranthera iiglottica. Ham.) 

6. Fattee shoonda, {Laurus obtusi/olia, " Roxb.") 

7. Sonhalloo, {Tetranthera macrophyUa, " Roxb.") 

SUk from No. 1 . Addakoory, — ^The Addakoory, the worms fed on' 
which produce the Mazankoory mooga, is a middle-sized tree, used for 
rearing worms only when under four years. It sprouts up where 
forests have been cleared up for the cultivation of rice or cotton. The 
worms that are put on the tree on the first year of their appearance 






1S87.] Eemarh on the SMs tf Jiswm. 27 

above the g^nnd produce the best silk. Hie second year the crops are 
inferior in qaaltty and quantity, and tbe third it is litUe if at all 
superior to the common mooga. The Matankoory silk is nearly white, 
and its value fifty per cent, above that of the common fiftwn-colored. 

The tending of the worms on this tree is much more laborious than 
on any of the others : young trees only being used» they have to be 
constantly removed to fresh ones : the smoothness of the bark also 
renders it necessary to help them in moving from branch to branch. 
This tree is more abnndant in Upper than in Lomer Attam — ^last yiear 
it was for the first time found to exist in the forests of the Montmg, 
on the eastern boundary of this district : the Upper Assamese who are 
settled throughout this district (they form one-fourth or one-fifth of 
our popnlation here), have never met with it in any other place. 

No. 2. Champa. — The Champa is found, as the Addakoory, where 
forests have been cleared : the silk of the worms fed on it is called 

Champa pooiia mooga," It is held in the seme estimation as the 

Maaankoofj " I do not know whether it is also used when young — 
the tree is not met with in Lower Aeeam. 

No. 3. Soom, — The Soom is found principally in the forests of the 
plains and in the village, where the plantations of this tree are very ex- 
tensive. It attains a large size and yields three crops of leaves in the 
year : the silk produced by it is of a light fawn color, andj estimated 
iiext to the Mazankoory : the plantations are most abundant in the 
eastern half of this district. 

No, 4. Kontooha, — ^This is a large tre^ found both in the hills and 
the plains— ^so a few in the villages : the leaves are too hard for 
young worms : they are reared on the preceding (No. 8), till the 
third moulting, and then put on this tree ; by which process the silk 
obtained is stronger than that from worms reared entirely on the 
6oom. 

No, 5. Digiuitee, — ^A tree of a small size not much used on tha^ 
•ocount : the silk equal to that obtained from No. 3. 

No. 6. Paitee Mhoonda, — Middle-sized tree, found principally in 
forests — ^few to be met with in the villages <A Lower Aeeam — ^used 
when the leaves of No. 8 are done. 

No. 7. Sonhailoo. — ^The Sonhalloo is found in the forests of the hills 
and plains, where it attains a -^ry large size : it is also found in the 
villages, where in six years it attains its full growth (thirty feet) ; it is 
▼ery abundant in the western portion of this district. Rara, Jumna, 
Mookh, Jgntea, and the Talley of Dharmpoor — at the latter place, 
where the hiU tribes of Mikire and Kachdris clear dense forests for 
the cultivation of rice and cotton, numbers of the plants spring u|i 
s 2 



9§ . Remarks am the Silka a/Aaaam, [Jm* 

Bpontaneoaaly. After three or four years when the land getting 
poorer requires more tillage and the use of the plough, these tribea 
who only use the kar, or hoe, remove to new forests aud leave behind 
them plantations of these trees, which they have used during the 
short period they have remained. To them, the ryuts of the more settled 
parts resort in the spring to rear up worms : the silk of the Son* 
halloo-fed worm is considered inferior to the preceding — more I be- 
lieve from its darker color than any other cause. 

There are generally five breeds of maoga worms in the year, they 
are named after the months at which they generally occur. 

1 . Jaraoa, in January and February. 

2. Jeytaaa, in May and June. 
8. Akaraoa, in June and July. 

4. Bhodia, in August and September. 

5. Kkotia, in October and November. 

The first and last are the best crops as to quality and quantity. Noe. 
3 and 4 yield so little and so inferior a silk, that they may be said to 
be merely for the purpose of continuing the breed. Were the Assa- 
mese acquainted with the process of retarding the hatching of the 
eggs as is practised in China, in regard to the mulberry silk- worm, 
they would, I think, find it more advantageous to have only three or 
four crops. 

The same rule is followed in the selection of cocoons to breed from 
as in the Eria, They are put in a closed basket suspended from the 
roof : the moths as they come forth having room to move about, after 
a day the females (known only by their larger body) are taken out 
and tied to small wisps of thatching grass, taken always from over the 
hearth — ^its darkened color being thought more acceptable to the 
moth. If out of a batch there should be but few males, the wisps with 
the females tied to them are exposed outside at night : the males 
thrown away in the neighbourhood find their way to them : these 
wisps are hung on a string tied across the house to keep them from 
the lizards and rats. The eggs laid during the first three days (about 
S50) are the only ones thought worth the keeping : those laid on the 
two or three subsequent days are said to produce weak worms. The 
wisps are taken out morning and evening, and exposed to the side 
where the sun is shining : ten days after the laying ai the eggs, a few 
of them are hatched : the wisps are then hung up to the tree, the 
young worms finding their way to the leaves— care must be taken 
that the ants have been destroyed, their bite proving fatal to the 
worm in its early stages. To effect this they rub the trunk of the 
tree with molasses and tie to it fish and dead toads. When large 



1887.] Remarkt on tk§ Silki of A$9am. 19 

nnmben ba^e been altncted to one place tbey destroy them with fire ; 
this they do seyeral times previously to the worms heing pat on ; the 
ground under the trees must he kept clear of jangle to make it easy 
to find the worms that fall down — young trees are preferable until 
the second moulting. 

To preyent the worms coming to the ground, fresb plantain leaves 
are tied round the trunk, over the slippery surface of which they can* 
not crawl. They are removed to fresh trees on hamhoo platters tied 
to long poles. 

fiats, owls, rats, are very destructive at night : in the day the 
worms require to be constantly watched — crows and other hirds being 
so fond of them, that they lie in wait in the neighhouring trees. 
An <Ad lady's doze over her morning " canee" (opium), however short, 
is sure to be fatal to several worms — the goolaU whicb is always at 
hand often punishes the thief, hut the mischief is done. 

Numbers are destroyed in the more advanced stages by the sting 
of wasps — and by the ichneumon insect which deposits its eggs in their 
body. These are hatched when the cocoon is half formed : they per- 
forate it at the side and the chrysalis is found dead : the worms which 
have thus been stung are known by black marks on their body. Were 
tbe people more careful in their management, this would be of little 
consequence : by making these worms spin apart, the cocoon being 
formed before the chrysalis is killed, the silk could be saved. 

The worms thrive best in dry weather : but a very hot sunny day 
proves fatal to many at the time of moulting. At these periods rain is 
very favorable, thunder storms do not injure them as they do the 
mulberry worm ; continual heavy-rains, (which are rarer in Assam than 
in Bengal) are hurtful by throwing them down — showers, however 
heavy, cause no gpreat damage, they taking shelter under the leaves 
with perfect safety. The worms during their moultings remain on 
the branches, but when about beginning to spin they come down the 
trunk, the plantain leaves preventing their going further down they 
are collected in baskets, which are afterwards put under bunches of 
dry leaves suspended from the roof— they crawl up into these and 
form their cocoons — as widi the Eria several are often joined together. 
The silk of these they spin instead of winding : above the plantain 
leaf a roll of grass is tied for those that come down during the night 
to begin spinning in — after four days the selection of cocoons for the 
next breed is made and the rest wound off. 

Hie total duration of a breed varies from sixty to seventy days. 
The period is thus divided — ^four moultings, with one day's illness 
attending each, • 30 



90 Remarki on the Silkg of Antm. [Jam. 

FVotn fourth moalting to beginning of oocoon, : 10 

In the cocoon, 20 

As a mothi 6 

Hatching of the eggs, ' 10 

66 

On being hatched the worm is about a quarter of an inch long, it 
appears composed of alternate black and yellow rings ; as it increases 
in size the former are distinguished, as six black moles, in reg^ar 
lines on each of the twelve rings which form its body. The colors 
gradually alter as it progresses, that of the body becoming lighter, 
the moles sky-blue, then red with a bright gold-colored ring round 
each. When full gp'own the worm is aboTc four inches long; ita 
colors are most brilliant and varied in shades: the body appears 
transparent and is of a very light yellow or dark green color, with a 
thrown and a yellow streak at the sides ; in the latter the breathing 
holes are distinguished by a black speck : the moles are red and have 
eaoV^t sharp prickles and a few black hairs : the head and claws are 
of a light brown, the holders green and covered, with short black 
hair; the last pair have a black ring on the outside. On being tapped 
with the finger the body renders a hollow sound ; by the sound it 
is ascertained whether they have come down fur vrant of leaves on the 
tree, or from their having ceased feeding. 

The chrysalis not being soon killed by exposure to the sun, when 
they have many cocoons they put them on stagas, cover them up 
with leaves and burn grass under them ; the cocoons are then boiled 
for about an hour in a solution of the potash made from the dried 
stalks of rice, they are then taken out and laid on cloth folded ove^ 
to kaep them warm; from this they are taken as required and throWh 
in hot water (not over the fire) after the fioss has been removed, with 
the hand. The instrument used for winding off the silk is the coarsest 
imaginable : a thick bamboo about three feet long is split in two, and 
the pieces driven equally in ^ the ground two feet apart : oyer the 
interior proje<$tion of one of the knots is laid a stick* to which' is fizedi 
a little oil one side, a round piece of platik about one foot in diaiii«ter 
r-the rotary motion is given by jerking this axle, on which the thread 
rolls itself: in front of the vessel holding the cocoons a stick is 
fyj^i horizontally for the thread to travel upon. Two persons are 
employed — one attending the CQCOfnui.the other jerks the axle with 
the right hand/and '^ith the same hand directs the thread up the left 
forearm, so that it is twisted in opiiliQ^diMh ajfii^ towards the hand ; 
die left h$ind directs the thread over the.aad«« . FifUaen cocoons is tha 



T&Sldmdtt 



1 837.] Bemarki ob ik€ Siiki q/ Autm. 8 1 



unaUeftt nmnber they can wind off in one thread, twenty the nwmber 
generally ; even the laat is often broken from the eoanenese of the 
iDstmment uaed, although the fibre is much stouter than that df the 
mulberry silk. When nearly a quarter of a seer has accumulated on 
the axle, it is dried in the sun and made into skeins of one or two 
rupees weight. This is done with a small bamboo frame set in 
fliotioQ by the common spinning machine of the country : if it has to 
be dyed the same process is f<rilowed as with the EritL. The cloths 
ssoaliy made of mooga and their use will be found in the annexed 
table : besides those* I have seen it used as the warp with cotton, 
and the cloth so made is a little lighter color than nankin and much 
•tnmger ; but this is seldom done, from the trouble of qiinning the 
eotton fine enough. Cotton twist adapted to that purpose would, I 
think, meet a ready market. 

The exact quantity of silk which an acre of mooga trees can produce 
eouM not be ascertained without a trial. Fifty thousand cocoons per 
sere*, which makes upwards of twelve seers, are considered by the 
Assamese a good yearly return. Sixty rupees the value of twelve seers 
nnst be a very profitable one, for there is little labor or expense to the 
ryut in making or keeping up a plantation : whilst the trees are young, 
the ground is available for cultivation besides rearing worms ; sugar- 
cane, rice, pulse, &c. are cultivated with benefit rather than injury to the 
young trees. The tax is fourteen annas the acre in this district. The 
great value of the mooga b, that it enables the weaker members of a 
fuuly to contribute as much as the most robust to the welfare of the 
whole. Besides attending to the worms most of them weave, spin or 
make baekets, while watching them. 

From causes which I have been unable to,ascertain, and of which 
the natives are ignorant, the mooga some years failed so complete- 
ly in particular districts that none was left to continue the breed. 
There being very few weekly hauU or markets to resort to, to procure 
oocoona for breeding from the more fortunate people of other districts, 
a failure <^ this kind in one place is sensibly felt for two or three 
years alter in the production. The time of the ryot, who has at most 
half or a quarter of an acre of mooga trees, is too valuable to allow of 
his being absent for a month and more, going from village to village* 
and house to house to find out the people who have cocoons for sale. 
This last season in our Jtrmiia-fiiliAA {Caehar) pergunnah the mooga 

* An AsssncM Poorah of land it a little mora than an English atatate aort,. 
tad sach lands hitherto have not been taxed, or at a very low rate, if cnltlTateA 
with other crops besides the moo^a. 



811 Remarkt on the SiVa of Aamn. [Jan» 

was a complete ftulnre ; there are no worms on the trees now, from 
inahility to procure cocoons, although there was a very abundant crop 
in two pergunnahs at the opposite end of the district. 

The mooga plantations are principally round the ryuts' houses, and 
are included in house-lands. By this year's measurement of the 
Barree lands in the three divisions of the Nmogong zillah where the 
kmd tax obtains, the quantity in actual occupation (exclusive of those 
which being unclaimed have reverted to the state) amounts to 5S50 
acres : the proportion of mooga plantations is upwards of one-fourth or 
1387 acres. In the five other divisions of the same zillah, which are 
three times the area, and have more than double the population, but 
of which we have no accurate measurements, I will only venture 
to estimate the quantity of mooga plantations at half that of the other 
three or about 600 acres, but on this low calcutation there would be a 
total of 2000 acres for Nowgong. Estimating the plantations of the 
Derung and Kamrdp zillahs at only 1500 acres each, there would be 
a total of 5000 acres of those plantations in Lower Assam, exclusive 
of what the forests contain of them : this quantity is capable of pro- 
ducing in one year 1500 maunds. In Upper Assam I understand tiie 
plantations are more extensive than ours. 

4. Kontkdri Mooga. — ^This worm feeds on many trees besides the 
" mooga trees ;" it is found oftener on the bair, (Zizypkus jujubaj 
and the seemul, (Boilibax heptapkgllumj but not in great quantities. 
The worms, moths and cocoons are considerably larger thanany of the 
others ; indeed the cocoon is the size of a fowl's egg. Several Assa- 
mese told me they had vainly attempted to domesticate them ; the 
eggs have been hatched, but after observing the worms for a few days 
on the trees they have at once disappeared. They attributed this to 
its being a " dewang*' or spirit ; the real cause may probably be its 
being fond of changing its food, and gifted with greater locomotive 
powers than the generality of the silk- worms. I have been told by 
some Bengalees that it is found in Bengal in the wild state on the 
" bair" as in Assam, and called " Gootee-poka ;" it is there reeled 
off like the mulberry silk and much valued for fishing lines, but not 
wove, probably from its scarcity. The fibre is stronger than that of 
the mooga and of a lighter color. 

5. Deo Mooga, — ^I accidentally became acquainted with this worm, 
which is very little known to the natives and entirely in the wild state. 
Three years ago being employed in Jumna-mukh (VacharJ, I had 
occasion to take some bearing^, for which purpose I had a white doth 
put up on a large " Bur" tree, (Ficus Indica ;) the year after, being 
near the same spot, the ryuts came and told me that two months after 



16370 Rnm-ksamike8ilk9^A$9m. 

I left (A:^nk), they ohatrred tkat tka trae had Icwt afl iU foliage, they 
Weat to it and fovad in the rarroanding graae and dry loaves, a large 
■umber of small cocoons ; these they span like the erU oat of corio- 
eity and used it with the latter. They took no farther notice of sao« 
eeediDg breeds, finding the thing of little present use. I lost a few 
cocoons which I procured at the time, bat have lately seen both the 
worm and the cocoon, the former is qaite different from any other ; it 
is more active, its length is ander 2| inches, the body very slender 
in pn^portioa to its length, the color reddish and glased. I ooald 
not observe them more partioolarly, as they were brottght to me 
one evening at dosk : I pat them in a box, with the intention of exa- 
mining tkem the next morning, bat they disappeared daring the night, 
althongh it was open very little to admit the air. The moth is very 
much like that of the molberry, so is the cocoon also in appearance* 
color and sise ; I have questioned many of the natives aboat this 
worm, bat n<me had ever seen it before— their opinion of it is that it is 
n " dewang" (spirit) brooght there by the prismater compass and the 
white flay--this made them call it deo mooga. 

The kammpoltonee, a caterpiller very common in A$9am (and else- 
where perhaps), may also be mentioned as one of the varieties of the 
species, although it forms but a very imperfect cocoon : it feeds on 
most leaves. I have had no opportunity yet of observing it myself; 
bat aA told by the natives that it goes through similar stages to the 
others ; the worm is about two inches long, of a brown color and 
covered vrith hair, the moth of the same color as the mowfa moth 
but only half the sixe ; the cocoon has this peculiarity, that it is quite 
transparent, so. that the chrysalis can be seen inside ; at one end of it 
a small opening is left — ^the cocoon is of a yellow color— 4t can be 
■pan like the eria cocoon, but the Assamese do not use it, on aoeount 
ef its silk causing a severe itching in wearing. 

I have questioned several Bengalees settled in Auam and who have 
been at Midnapur, regarding the identity of the mooga and tmsmr y 
they say that the worm is the same, but that at the latter place they 
are fed on a diferent tree : the point could be better aso^tained by a 
comparison with the drawings and preserved worms which accompany 
these remarks. The Burmese envoys who have just left Assam told me 
that tiie meo^ was unknown in their country previous to the conquest 
of Amam ; but that it had since been introduced by the Assamese who 
were carried off and setUed in the Burmese territory : the CMcharis also 
admit that it is not many years since it was introduced into CMchar, 
(soodi of the biUs.) In Cooch Behar both it and the eria are almost 
■nkneWD to this day ; the prevailing opinion amongst the natives of 

F 



34 Remarks on the SUki of Atmim. [IhUi, 

thefle parts is, that both species (mooga and erim) are indigenoiis to 
Upper Assam and were introdaced from thence. It has always appeared 
to me that the production of these silks is greater as one adrances to 
the east — ^it is to this day procurable more abundantly in Upper 
Assam than any where else, especially in the district of Lukh^ar oa 
the north bank of the Burkampootar, 

Little eria is exported, but the 'mooya forms one of the principal 
exports of Assam ; the ayerage of the quantity passed at Gawalpara 
during the two last years that duties were levied, was two hundred and 
filty«seven maunds, valued at fifty-six thousand and fifty-four rupees : it 
leaves the country principally in the shape of thread. Most of it 
going to Berkampoor, it is probable that the cloths made from it pasa 
under the name of tussur ; the latter as far as I recollect, appears to 
have less gloss. The Hydra chowkey returns comprise only the 
products exported by water. The total quantity that leaves the prow 
vince may, I think, be estimated at upwards of three hundred maunds, 
for mooga forms also a portion of the traffic with SUket (across thte 
hills) the Cassyas, BkoHas, and other hill tribes. The Assamese gene- 
rally keeping more for their own use than they sell, the total quantity 
produced in the province may be reckoned at six or seven hundred 
maands. It has been in great demand in Bengal, for within the last 
few year8« although the production has been greater from the more 
settled state of the country, the price has risen 20 per cent. When I 
first arrived in this district, it could be obtained without difficulty from 
the r3rut8 at three and a half to four rupees the seer ; now it is difficult 
to procure it at five rupees. The competition is so great, that the 
traders pay for it in advance, not as with other products, to get it at 
a lower rate, but merely to secure their getting it. This competition 
b also owing to the greater number of small traders who resort to the 
province since the abolition of chowkeys — ^which may have caased a rise 
on the price of the product in Assam without a corresponding increase 
in the exports* 

No gradual improvement can be traced in the mode of rearing the 
several worms or winding their silk — it is now what it was a centuiy 
ago, there being no European speculators in Assam, nor it being pro- 
bable that when any venture so far they would readily risk the capi- 
tal in quite a new branch of industry. This important product of the 
country is likely to remain for years unimproved, unless the subject 
should again be taken up by Grovemment. The smaU factory set up 
by the late Mr. Scott, to which I have before alluded, was kept up 
too short a time to have had any perceptible effect. Mr. Scott's 
declining health and numerous duties never allowed him to give it « 



1837.] Meauarks am the SOki of Atmtm. M 

Moment'B penonal atteiition> nor coold liu aaaistmt do it, liaving then 
the snme work to do which now employs eereral oflScers ; the factory 
was therefore left entirely under the direction of nativet. These, to 
add to their own importance, rather increased, than aUeviated the 
fears that the Aasamese, (who had labored nnder so many.restrictiohs,) 
■atnrally entertained of imitating or using any thing pertaining or 
appropriated to the " Bija ;" such a presumption in the good old times 
might have cost a man his ears or his nose. The residence of 
European (dicers in difierent parts of the country having undeceived 
the people as to those restrictions, there would be now great facilities 
in introducing improvements — although the ryuts individually have 
Bot the means of getting reeling machines, however simple and cheap, 
they would, as with sugar-mills, dub together to obtain them, were 
it only shewn to them that there was any advantage, in the use of 
them. Mooga thread is every day increasing in value ; I have marked 
its rise from three rupees eight annas, to five rupees in the short space 
of three years ; in Gawdpara it sells at six rupees eight annas or seven 
rupees ; in Dacca and Moor$keiabad at eight rupees. This is, I believe, 
not more than thirty per cent, below mulberry silk in Calcuita ; the 
primitive process of the Assamese which I have described will, perhaps, 
shew a possibility of this difference being made up by superior man* 
agement. The mooga silk could be used in colored fabrics, being easUy 
dyed. In its natural fawn color it stands washing much better than 
silk, keeping gloss and color to the last ; the natives bleach it with a 
solution of the potash made from plantain trees, this they ako use in 
washing their cloths, both cotton and silk : soap was unknown previous 
to the British occupation of the country. 

Another object of great interest, which might become of great 
importance to this province, iu, to ascertain the possibility of rendering 
the eria marketable in some shape or other ; the way of prepuring it 
(already described,) is such that the doth made of it when new looks 
as rough as " taut" (or gunny) ; it is only by repeated washings that it 
attaina a softness of feel and gloss which approach that of silk. It is 
highly improbable that amongst the natives, repeated trials should not 
have been made of reeling instead of spinning these cocoons, but 
from their failing it would be wrong to lay it down as an impossibi- 
lity : they have merdy tried it as other cocoons and given it up when 
they found that the fibre '^did not come," as one of them told me. 
I had it tried before me with a few cocoons, but with the greatest 
care the fibre could not be drawn off beyond a few yards without 
breaking, the cause of this appeared to me to be a greater adhesive- 
ness in the fibre than with other cocoons, it .was drawn off with diffi- 
F 9 



If Jtmimrh an tie SUk^ cfA$mmk [Jaiv 



•olty mod witk a orackliiig noUe-^antil it breuglit MTsnl byart witk 
H, from which it eoald not be detached withoat breakhif » aomc thi&|^ 
may perhaps be hereafter found to reduce that adheaiTeneas. It ia, I 
think, unlikely that the wwrn should spin in m differait ivny from all 
others, allowing this to be the ease, great improveuenta eould be 
made in the spinning, by, no doubt, the introduction of the proceaa i» 
practice in £urope to spin perforated cocoons, from its cheapness it 
would perhaps be advantageously used with wod-— especiany in stoek- 
ings, it would add softness and gloss without taking from the warm^» 
the cocoons costing only one rupee, the thread two rupees per aeer. 

Although I have been unable to form an estimate of the land taken 
up on the eohxTation of the '* hera" or p&lma-christi, every rough on« 
could be made of the total quantity of eria s9k produced by referring^ 
to the population ; it being the daily wear of the poor, and besides, 
being used by every class in winter. The population is reckoned at 
455,000*, therefore estimating the yearly consumption of each indi* 
vidual at the lowest, the total quantity produced would be upwards of 
1000 maunds, most of this could be exported if it acquired the least 
additional value by better management, and be replaced by other 
manufactures and by an increase in the growth of cotton. The pro^ 
duet would keep pace with any increase of demand, for there is hardly 
a house in the country where these worms are not reared. 

Being acquainted only with central Assam and this district in par- 
ticular. Upper Assam, the Moamariya country, the Bhotan tenitoriea 
in the plains are left out of these remarks and estimatest. Although 
the population assimilates, in many respects they may differ in their 
different processes. I have used as few local terms as I could except 
with regard to the tree and plants whose botanical name I have not 
been able to ascertain. 

P. S. In the within Mr. Huoon has said nothing of another silk 
worm which was lately discovered on a pipul tree (T. reHgwsa) — and of 
tiie moth of which a drawing accompanies with three or four cocoons, 
a chrysalis and two moths. This looks vexy like the mulberry moth^ 
bat I am not able to say whether it is or not. The s3k lo<te very fine 

^ By the statistical report of 1835, — Kamroop districtr 280,00(^ 

Dorung ditto, 95,000 

Nowgong 4itto, 80,000 

t The population of fjpp^r A$9sm is estimated at, 220,000 

50,000 



270,000 
Toolaittm'a eouatry, J jnlia, i 

Bhclsa temtorj IB ths plains, | ao estimate is erer mads. 



1U7.] 



Rematkf on the SMitfAmm, 



S7 



utA it flHty be ccmBidered a earioBity even if it be the proAiee of m 
mvlbeny worm, for the quettioii aiiees <m whet wea the worn fed ? — 9 
on the F. reHpasa, it is, I bdieTe, a discovery, that the silk worm 
wosld iieed on the leaf of any tree but the nralberry ; if the worm is 
diatmet from the Bombyjt mm it is a still greater cariosity. 

Mr. Ho«oN has been unable to determine whether the worm now 
slhided to, is the same as the deo mooga mentioned within : he is in- 
eHned to Ihinklnot from the color of the cocoons and the slight obser- 
Tsdons be was able to make on the latter ; bnt from both feeding on 
the leasee of two trees so nearly allied, I should suppose it likely that 
tiie worma were identical. It would be a discovery of some import* 
aiiee to find worms affording any tolerable silk that fed on these 
ipecies of I^cns which are so abundant here.— -F. Jinkins. 

Ugi of the Cloths made in Assam of Mooga and Eria Silks. 



Coat of 
Weaviftfl Total. 



Names of 
Cloth. 



Mooga. 



INtto, 

llekliky . . . . 

GsnrBlia, . . 



JooDta Bor 
Cappor, .. 



Bor Cappor, 



MekUfl,. 
Gmnka, 



Size in 
Cabita. 



7byl§ 
1« M * 

IS „ li 

8 „ I 



W „ 9| 



16 byS 



5 „ 9 
10 „ If 



Wdglkt. 



Seer. Chk 





J 












6 


4 
8 

a 



8 



8 

4 



Price of 
Thread, 



R. A. P. 



1 14 
6 
I 4 

a 8 

10 










a 



3 



19 
10 

8 



R* A* P. 



3 

8 

a 

4 

1 



a 



8 



a 
a o 
a 



R. A.P 



a 1 
5 a 

1 6 

a la 
a 



Remarlci. 



} Dhotiet. 
Petticoats. 



OScarfa. 



a 6 

3 8 



14 

1 2 
10 



Wora as tarbaat or 
round the waist. 

Made of the flosa and 
worn in winter. 

Worn in winter and 
naed aa ablankett al« 
ao made into coats. 

}Used only by the 
poorer dass. 



Memarandmn upon the specimens of SUk, and Silkworm from Assmn, 

hy W. PaiNBBP, Esq. 

The mcoga or tuseur cocoons, are very fine, particularly those fed 
from the s€iom and the sohaloo trees which are superior to the pro- 
duce of the jangles about Bankoora, 

Hie thread from these worms, is quite equal to that which is used 
in the beat China tussur cloths. 

The specimens of cloth wove from these threads, are not equal, 
howerer, eith^ to the Bengal tussur cloth, nor to the China doth of the 
same description. 

l\e eria cocoon, thread, and cloth are all new to us : I have never 
aeen them in Bengal, except now and then a few pieces of the cloth 



88 On tke UHgtnws Siikworms o/ItuUa. £Jak. 

imported from Rvngpwr; it appears to be more cottony than the toanir* 
and to make a web warmer and aofter than the tasanr cloth, bnt it ia 
not 80 Btronjf. 

The cocoons called Jummpottonee are unknown to us in Bengal, and 
appear to be of small yalue both as to quantity and texture : moreover 
I imagine it would be very difficult to reel them into thread. 

The dec mooga cocoons are very small but are fine and soft, and 
when fresh would yield, I doubt not, a very delicate white thread : they 
are smaller than our d^see (country) cocoon. 

The specimen of country worm silk is very fair, and if dressed 
would be quite equal to our Patna thread, from which korahs and 
other silk piece goods are made. 

The specimen of iron reel (or station method) is very good, indeed, 
equal to our best native filature letter A : the thread is even, soft, sound 
and remarkably strong, so that it may be weU ranked with our best 
second quality from the filatures of Bengal. 



IV. — On the indigenous Silkworms of India. By T. W. Hilfbr, 
Jf . 2>. Member of ike Medical Faculties at the Universities in Prague 
and Pavia, Member of the Entom, Society in Paris, See. 

[Read at the Meeting of the 4th December.] 

Silk was in all times an article of the greatest importance throughout 
the ancient world. 

China gained its celebrity in the classical time of the ancients, as 
the mother-country of that mysterious texture, which it manufactured 
from time immemorial, with a high degree of perfection, and called 
»e or ser ; whence all India and its eastern unknown boundaries 
derived the name Serira. 

It made the satraps of the western world, the rulers of Rome and 
the emperors of Byzant, envious of its possession, and the home 
brought golden fleece of the fabulous Argonautes, was perhaps 
nothing else than the precious web of the Bombykia, 

The emperor Justin i anus got an insight into the secret by two 
adventurous Persian monks, who brought the eggs of the Chinese 
silkworm in a hollow bamboo cane, safe over the icy chains of the 
Himalaya, the barren plains of Bokhara, and the ruggy mountains 
of Persia, to the distant eastern capital. He considered it a point of 
great importance to reserve to himself the monopoly of such a pre- 
dous article, though master of the riches of his vast empire. 



1M7.] iOji tke mUgewmi 8ilkwarm$ of India. 99 

Hie Siciliana in the time of Roois the first, became a wealthy 
people by its introduction into Palenmo — the Venetians were enabled 
by the trade of silk chiefly, to build their immortal maritime bulwark, 
and in our days the introduction and manufacture of silkworms is 
a source of unlimited riches to the countries of Ewape, where it is 
coltirated on a large scale. 

To elucidate this it may be observed, that France alone exported 
in the year 1820, wrought silk to the value of more than 123 millions 
of francs. 

The importation of raw and worked silk into England, amounted to 
4,547,812 pounds in the year 1828, of which about 1,500,000 pounds 
were brought from Bengal, 3,047,000 pounds were, therefore, brought 
from foreign countries, chiefly Italy and T\irkey, 

The northern parts of Europe and chiefly England are less suited 
for its cultiTation on account of climate. 

Great Britain, France and Germany, finding by experience, that the 
demand is constantly greater than the supply, resorted to diflerent 
substitutes. 

IMflferent substances presenting analogies to that beautiful filament 
were examined. The spider's web was tried in France, first by Mr. 
Bon : but Mr. Reaumur found that the war-like propensities of the 
Aracknida hindered their being reared in great numbers, and this 
enterprize has been in our days entirely abandoned. 

Men resorted to the Mollueca and found that the maritime puma 
gives a filament like silk, having the power to produce a viscid matter 
which it spins round the body. A beautiful and very durable silk 
was produced from it, the Byssus of the ancients, but it was always 
dearer than the common silk of the Bombgx mart, and though to 
this day caps, gloves and stockings are woven from it in Calabria in 
SicUg (I saw myself a considerable manufacture of it in Palermo), 
it will probably remain for ever a matter of curiosity rather than an 
article of general use. 

In Germany endeavours have been made in the time of Rqbsbt, and 
recently in Styria, to make silk from the cocoons of the Satumia pyri, 
a moth which is common in Austria and in the subalpine parts of 
the Tyro/ Knd Switserland : but hitherto the experiments have been too 
few ; more particularly, as I heard, on account of the delicate cater- 
pillar, which dies if not fed with the greatest promptitude with the 
under leaves of diflerent kinds of pear trees. 

A discovery, therefore, which promises to prove not so abortive as 
those now quoted, must be of the greatest importance. 

The vast provinces of India are rivalled in variety, preciousness 



40 Oh thfi indigemm SiOwwrm o^ India. [Jak« 



and perfection of their productions, only bj those of the 
empire. Now in the hands of an enlightened benevolent government, 
they will probably surpass it in a short time, when its natural resources* 
daily more conspicuous, shall be discovered, examined, and brought 
in to general use. 

As in China, so in India, silk has been produced since time imme- 
morial : not the silk of the later introduced mulberry caterpillar, but 
the silk from various indigenous cocoons, which are found only and 
exclusively here. 

The first notice of these, but only in a cursory way, has been given 
by the father of Indian botany. Dr. Roxburgh, in the Transactions 
of the Linncan Society, vol. vii. 

He there mentioned only two species, the PkalenaCAUaeusJ (Saiarma) 
fophia and Pkalena cynihia. Since that time no further attention has 
been paid to this subject except that Dr. Bvohanan, in his description 
of the district of Dinajpur, says, that another silkworm is reared on 
the castor oil plant for the domestic use of the natives. 

From the moment of my arrival in India, I had paid an unremitted 
sealous attention to the productions of Botany and Zoology, and had 
been so happy to idehtify in the course of two months, two other species 
of the genus Satumia which yield silk, one from Siikei the other 
from Bankoara, Just at this time Mr. James Prinsbp received from 
Captain Jenkins in Assam^ a memoir by Mr. Huoon on the stlk« 
worms of that newly acquired, remarkable province, establishing six 
different kinds of silkworm : the cocoons of four of which are now 
transformed into silk by the inhabitants of As$am, and to my great 
joy and surprise, I found that three of them are different from the 
well known Bombys mori, and from the two other indigenous which 
are worked in Bengal. 

These recent discoveries merit particular attention. India has thns 
the internal means of providing the whole of Ewape with a material 
which would rival cotton and woollen cloth, and would be preferred 
in many cases to both, if brought within the reach of ever/ one by a 
lower price : and an unlimited resource of riches and revenue might 
be opened under proper management. 

May it be now permitted to me to go through the numerous di£[er« 
ent species of India which actually produce silk of whioh seven kinds 
have never been mentioned before. 

1. Bombyx mori, the mulberry silkworm, which has been probably 
introduced as the mulberry seems to be an aodimated plants is too 
well known to deserve a particular mentimi. 

2. The wDd silkworm of the Central provinces* being described 



1^7.3 0» the h^gemnu SUkworwu of India. 

« a motli not larger than the Bcmhifs mori, I could not yet procare 
cpecimeas of it : probably there are several species of Bmnbyr confused, 
as the silk, wbi<$h somctinies comes in trade, varies considerably. 

9. The Joree silkworm, Bombyx reUgioBie, miki. — I am sorify to 
say that the specimens of this interesting moth have been destroyed 
on their way from Assam to Calcutta, so that I am obliged to make 
a superficial description from the accompanying drawing* (PI. VI.) 
excluding a diagnostical analysis. 

Gemw, Bomhyx. 

Length about 1} of an inch. 

Antemue, pectinated. 

Head, small, covered. 

JSyet , very large, brownish black. 

Pa^, vnknown. 

Tkorax, snbqaadrate, covered with thick brownish grey hair, with a 
black band separating the abdomen from the thorax. 

Abdomen, represented as having eight segments ? 

Legst unknown. 

Wmgs, upper wings very short (in 9 imperfect triangular, with 
the acnte angle outward. The interior side emarginated. Of a light 
grey color which darkens towards the extremity. 

An interrupted whitish band on the lower margin with a large 
whitish apedc towards the ends. 

Lower wings uniformly brown. 

The cocoon of this silkworm shows tiie finest filament, and hat 
very much silky lustre. It is exceedingly smooth to the touch and 
very different from the cocoon of the mulberry tree. 

This discovery of Capt. Jbnkins is very interesting, as it yields a 
alk if not superior yet certainly equal to that of Bamkyr mori. 

It lives upon the pipul tree, (Fieus reiigiosa,) Its general intro- 
duction would be very easy, as the pipul tree grows abundantly over 
all India. 

Specimens of cocoons sent a second time by Captain Jbnkins, con- 
vince me that the Jaree and Dso-maoga are the same species. 

4. Satamia SUketiea, mihi. (Longitudo poUices novem, sive lineas 
108 alarum superiomm expansarum.) 

Diagnoais. Pectioicornis, alis superioribns apice recurvata falcatis, 
inferioribus oblongis. Alis superioribus maculis duabus fenestralibuii, 
intem& triangulari magn& alterft ezternft multd minori oblong&, in- 
ferioribus macul& eAdem unA versus corpus triangulari magnft. Colore 
«inamomeia lineis variegater albidis in medio ad marginem externai^a 
4avis. 



49 Ob tke Miffen^ta Silkworm of Inim. [Jar • 

Eggs, larvm, and chrysalit, vnknown. 
Imago, Description. 

Head, projecting with a crest of yeUow hairs. 

Ey€9t middle-sized, light brown. 

Awtmuue, pectinated, abont five lines broad, yellow. 

Paipip four, not covering the inner ▼ermilar, brownish eoLwed. 

Moutk, hidden, without proboscis. 

Thora^t obovate, clothed in a vdvet-like purplish fine hair of the 
same color as the wings. 

Abdomen, very short, clothed with much finer and lighter hair than 
the thorax. 

Lege, hairy, yellow, eqnal. 

Tarei, moderately incurved. 

Winge, horizontal expanded, with strong ramifications of the central 
muscles and tendons.-— tS^fyimor pair of a cinnamon color. The end 
much curved, the upper margin with a beautiful velvet-like grey belt^ 
Fan edges very much concave, the exterior extremity of a beautiful 
rose color. The inferior margin darker yellow, with an undulating 
narrow thread-like black line, losing itself towards the exterior ex- 
tremity. In the centre is the eire, peculiar to all satumiae, with micace- 
ous transparency, triangular, with the sharp angle towards the body, 
another small oblong transparent point behind it» both with a dark 
brownish margin round it. Inferior or second pair, in point of distribu- 
tion of colors the same ; in form, much more convex, oblong. The hair 
very thick and long towards the body, and more particularly towards 
the point of insertion. The black line is not undulated, but follows 
the shape of the wing, and has at each side of the projecting tendona 
two black oblong spots, circumscribed with.light yellow. 

Habitat in the Cassia mountains in Silket and Dacca, where ita 
large cocoons are spun to silk. A particidar descriptiim of the pro* 
cess is wanted. 

5. A still larger SatunUa, one of the greatest moths in existence* 
measuring ten inches from the end of one wing to the other, observed 
by J. W. Gbant, Esq. in CMrra Punjee, seen in the possession of 
the late Dr. Jakbs Clark. I have not yet seen the animal. 

6. Saiumia Paphia, Linn. Syst. Nat. 3» p. 809, 4. PkaUtm 
MgUita, Drubt, vol. ii. t. 5» f. 1, Mar. Roxb. Tirana. Lmn. Soc. vol. 

vii. p. 88. 

The Jkueeh SiiiBworm. 

It is the most common in use of the native silkworms. The dotk 
too commonly worn by Europeans also in this country, comes from 
this species; J. W. Grant, Esq. had the kindness to procure me^ ia 



1887.] Ou the mUfmums 8iihMrm$ of Tndia. 48 

the mcmth of September, more tlian 3000 cocoons, which I permitted 
to slip out, and had ample opportanity of stndjing them. 

MicHABL Atkinson, Esq. from JMMfypur says, that this species 
eannot be domesticated, because the moths take flight, before the 
females are fecnndated. This is against my experience : I kept them 
voder a mnsqnito curtain to prevent their evasion, there they were 
impregnated readily by the males, and deposited every where many 
thousand eggs, and the young caterpillars issued the tenth day. 
Therefore the fear entertained of the difficulty in this respect seems 
to be easily overcome. 

Hitherto has this silkworm never been reared, but millions of 
eoeoons are annually collected in the jungles and brought to the 
silk factories near Calcutta^ for instance DhaniakkdU ; but the principal 
place of their manufacture is at Bkageipur, In other parts as at 
JmifypMr the people gather them from the trees and transplant 
them on the Assem tree, (TerminaUa al«/«, Roxb.) which growing 
near the houses enables them easily to watdi the caterpillars, which 
are eagerly searched out and devoured in the day time by crows, and 
at night by bats, &c. 

The natives distinguish two varieties, the bnghy and the jaroo, bat 
they are the same species. 

They feed most commonly in the wild stote on the bair tree, 
(ZixfphmB jujmhaj but like also and indeed prefer the TWwtfuilM ohtm 
and Bwmbaat hepU^kj/Unm. 

This is the same moth which is also found sometimes in Aumm and 
which Mr. Huoon calls KoiUkmi mooffa. 

Though it was known in Evrope by the publications of Dr. Rox« 
BunoH and Dr. Bvohanan, that the Tuntk and Arriniff silkworms 
are ezistiag and indigenous, yet, strange enough, it was hitherto 
unknown, (at least with us on the continent,) that for some years past» 
their silk was only in small quantity exported to Engkmdi this 
silk having been considered as an inferior quality to that produced 
by BomJbya mori. The question of the possibility of acclimation of 
these larvc in other congenial climates has ex ipso never been raised* 

7. Another Saiumia distinct from all others (aiis inferioribus in 
candaw* desinentibus) ; it resembles some species which I saw brought 
from Seva, ? Java, 

I could only procure the wings of this remarkable insect. 

The moth comes from the neighborhood of Comercalfy. 

8* SatunUa Aisamensk, (rnihi.)*— Long. alar. sup. extensamm 80 
-—65 linear, 
o 3 



44 On ike indiffenouB Siikwarmt of India. [Jait* 

Dktgn. Fectinicorois, alia superioribiu apioe acatts siibfaleatis, in 
inferioribuB subtriangularibna macalis dnabua Babcurcnlaribns non 
diaphaniB luteis. Color lateritis — Gluteus, nebulia apanis obacorb lineia 
semicircnlaribai verava corpus duabua albia faMak albidft bmnneft 
versus marginem inferiorem. 

£^g8, larva, and chrysalis, not seen living, bat recognizable in the 
accompanying drawing. (See Moonga moth, Plate VI.) 

Headt not projecting, with a tuft of reddish yellow hair. 

Eye9, ordinary dark-brown. 

Antenna, pectinated in % , broader than usual in Satumie. 
. Palpi, four, covering the mouth which is invisible. 

Thorax, square, half oblong, clothed near the head in a silverish grey 
color, forming a continuity of that in the upper margin of the superior 
wings, the behind part of the color of the wings. 

Abdomen, more than two-thirds of the breadth of both winga in their 
natural position, likewise of the color of the wings. 

Legs, slender, hairy, yellow, short. 

TarH, slight and incurved. 

Winge, horizontally expanded, with a strong tendon directing the 
membrane of the upper wings in their upper margin. 

Both pairs of a dark yellow somewhat reddish color. The end in 
the male much curved, the upper margin half from the .body, of a 
•liver grey color. The exterior extremity scarcely differently marked ; 
a brown slightly undulated band, accompanied on both sides by a white 
line, extends across the wings more than two- thirds bek>w their 
insertion on the thorax. Several brown nubeculse are to be observed 
between the divisions of each tendon. Two semilunar white lines are 
to be observed on the upper wings, and are absolutely on the lower 
ones towards the abdomen ; the interior larger, inwards carved ; the 
other shorter, outward bound. The two specks on the wings, peculiar 
to Satumia, are almost semicircular, but not micaceous, diaphanous ; 
but likewise clothed with yellow squamse of a darker line (more in $ ) 
with a brown margin on the inner side. Through this distinguishing 
peculiarity this insect seems to make a transit to a next genus, though 
the drawing of the larva represents completely a BOtumia caterpillar. 

The cocoon of a yellow brown color differs in appearance from all 
the others. 

We are indebted for the discovery of this very interesting insect 
to Captain Jbnkins and Mr. Huoon. Its particulars are exten^vely 
described in Mr. Huoon's memorandum. This species has never 
been mentioned before, though the fabrication of silk from it seems to 
be very common amongst the Assamese. 



18S7.] On the hdigemms Silkworm of India. 4fi 

9. PkaUaui C^hAa. Dkubt. 2, t. 6. f. 2. Cram. 4, t. 39, f. 4. 

RoxB. Linn. Trans, vol. yii. p. 42. Buchanan, 
Desc. Dinijpur, p. 214. 

(Buchanan quotes it as PhuUtna Penelope unde ?) 

The Arrmdy Arria, or Eria silkworm (Pi. Y .) is reared over a great 
part of Hindustan, but more extensively in the districts of Dindjpur and 
Rangpmr, in houses, in. a domesticated state* and feeds chiefly on the 
leaves of Ricimue commnmis. 

The silk of this species has hitherto never been wound off, but 
people were obliged to spin it like cotton. 

" It gives ' a cloth of seemingly loose coarse texture, but of lucre* 
diUe durability ; the life of one person being seldom sufficient to 
wear out a garment made of it, so that the same piece descends fro^l 
mother to daoghter." — {Atkineon'e letter to Rosburgh.) 

It is so productive as to give sometimes 12 broods of spun silk in the 
course of the year. The worm grows rapidly, and offers no difficulty 
whatever for an extensive speculation. 

On account of the double profit which would be derived from the 
same area of land cultivating it with castor-oil plant, which produces 
oil and feeds the worm, an extensive cultivation of this species would 
be highly recommendable ; and if also the cloth is of the coarsest 
nature, it is, on the other hand, very valuable on account of its durabi- 
lity. May it not be particularly well adapted to mix it in certain 
textures with cotton ? 

It is likewise an inhabitant of Auam, and Mr. Huoon's observations 
about this species form an interesting paragraph in his memorandum. 

10. Satumia (?) iri/enestrata, mihi. — Longitudo lineas 24 — 28. 
DioffmosU. 2 obscure castaneo brunnei versus finem albido adspersft, 
Itneft transversali albidi, alls superioribus ad marginem extemam 
fenestria tribus transparentibus lineA diagonali versus corpus currentibus. 

f Intens line& brunne& transversal! transversa super alas currente, 
alse superiores margine extemo fuscescentes. 

Egge, whitish-yellow ; indented 1 line on the longer circumference. 

Larva, unknown. 

Chrgealis, unknown, (damaged.) 

Cocoon, yellow, in a network, transparent, so that the cocoon in the 
inside is to be seen, of a remarkable silky lustre. 

Imago. 9 of an uniform brown color ; towards the end of the wings 
the like with white flower powdered. An obsolete whitish line runs 
transversely. The most remarkable in this insect are three glass eyes 
on the upper wings, beginning from the tendon of the insertion lower 
than the middle of the wing, and running one behind the other inwards 



46 On the miigewnu Silkwarmt of India, [Jav. 

towards the extremity of the body. The first looks like two, which 
run together, the second is the smallest. 

^ of a uniform yellow color, only the outward margin of the 
wings is brownish, and a transversal line tnms over the wings. The 
glass eyes are wanted, one of the three is a vestige, instead of the 
two others are two brown spots to be observed. 

In those specimens which I saw were gradual transitions from dark 
brown to light yellow in different individuals to be observed, but 
always were the females much darker. 

This is likewise a valuable discovery of Captain Jbnkins in Assam, 
where it lives on the soon tree, but seems to be not much used. 

11. Hbnrt Cbbiohton, Esq. of Malda, mentions another silk- 
worm :— 

" There is a cocoon produced wild upon the mango tree, which 
the people of Malda gatiier and mix with Arrindy cocoons in spinning.'* 
This species seems to have remained hitherto unobserved. 

There is no doubt, that in India exist some more insects, which 
furnish this precious material. The repeated and so often frustrated 
endeavours of ingenious men in Europe would certainly find in India 
an ample and highly remunerating field in this branch of speculation. 

It would be very interesting to collect all moths which form cocoons, 
amounting, to juclg^ by analogy, probably to upward of 150 species, 
to watch their natural economy, and to send specimens of each cocoon 
to Europe, to be there attentively examined. 

Many have made the objection that the silk of the Indian species 
is much inferior. 

This is yet an undedded question. Tlie mulberry silkworm dege- 
nerates if not properly attended to. What has been doAe to raise the 
indigenous species from the state of their natural inferiority ? Very 
much depends upon the cultivation of the worms in houses ; 2, the 
method of feeding them, selecting that vegetable substance, not which 
gratifies the best their taste, but which contributes to form a finer 
cocooD ; and 3, from the first chemical operations employed before 
the working of the rough material. But even if the raw material 
would not be capable of a higher degree of cultivation, the demand 
for it would, notwithstanding, never cease in Europe, All silk pro- 
duced in Hindustan has hitherto found a ready and profitable mariset 
in Calcutta, and the demand is always greater than the supply. 
And that really the roughest stuff of the Arrindy silkworm is appre- 
ciated in England, may I be permitted to conclude the present article 
with the following fact. 



lSd7.] PhenomefM en reitorinff »igM U the blind. 47 

Mr. JoBN Glass, the Sturgeon of Baglipurt aent, in the beginning 
of this centuiy, some uf the Arrindy silk home, and he wrote : 

" I understand that some manafactorers to whom it was shown seem- 
ed to think that we had been deceiving them by car accounts of the 
shawls being made from the wool of a goat, and that this silk if sent 
home would be made into shawls equal to any manufactured in- 
India." 

This will be sufficient to show the importance of this article, and 
that it merits highly the attention of the paternal Government of 
India, and of all patriotic institutions, particularly of the Asiatic 
Society in Caleuitd^ which has done hitherto so much for the promo- 
tion of science and knowledge, and consequently for the welfare of 
all nations. 



V. — Concerning certain interesting Phenomena manifested in individuals 
bom blind, and in those having little or no recollection of that sense, 
on their being restored to sight at various periods of life, Bg 
F. H. Brett, Esq. Med, Serv, 

When the profound and discerning Mr. Locks in his Essay on the 
Human Understanding asserted that ideas were not innate, he meant, 
no doubt, that so far as the mind's intercourse, in its present condition, 

I 

with all objects submitted to it was concerned, its noble fieiculties were 
destined to be educated only by its legitimate objects of excitation 
through the medium of the senses appointed for that purpose. His 
eccentric comparisons of the mind to a dark room, a blank sheet of 
paper, &c., meant in reality nothing further. 

It occasionally happens that in the course of very extensive prac- 
tice we have opportunities of illustrating this, in cases of restoration 
to sig^ht of persons bom blind, and also in cases of individuals who 
have known and distinguished colors ; and " then (as Mr. Locks 
expresses it) cataracts shut the windows," and if restored to sight many 
years afterwards, they are in iH*ecisely the same situation as though 
they had never seen before, having not the slightest recollection or 
idea of colors any more than the individuals bom blind. All is to be 
acquired " de novo." 

I will particularize the following from amongst several which have 
occurred to me, as they may probably appear interesting to the Society 
when divested of all purely professional or surgical detail, which have 
already indeed been communicated to the profession. 

No. 1 • — The following is illustrative of the fact of all ideas of objects 
and colors having to be acquired, as well as a verification of the problem 



4B On restoration of sight to persons horn blind. [Jam. 

contained in the 8th Section of the 2nd Book of Mr. Locks in hia 
chapter on Perception. " Suppose a man bom blind, and now adult, 
and taught by the touch to distinguish between a cube and a sphere 
of the same metal, and suppose the cube and the sphere placed on a 
table, and the blind man be made to see ; (quaere : whether by hia 
sight before be touched them he could now distinguish and tell which 
is the globe and which the cube ?) to which the acute and judicious 
proposer answered — No." 

A pandit, 18 years of age, native of Saugor, was bom blind ; his 
mother states that she had kept him in a dark room until the 10th 
day of her confinement, when on taking him to the door and expos« 
ing his eyes to the light, she discovered the pearly appearance of the 
pupils peculiar to cataract, and that he has always been blind. He 
is intelligent and cheerful, and has been in the habit of finding his 
way about Saugor and the adjoining country for many years, fre- 
quently singing, of which he is very fond. He had little or no incli« 
nation to undergo the operation, — at least not sufficient to overcome 
the fear which he entertained. He could perceive the light, and had 
acquired the habit of rotating the head constantly in progression in 
a regular and curious manner to the right and left, with a view, I 
imagine, of admitting the light to the retina obliquely between the 
circumference of the cataract and the under edge of his iris. It was 
a long time before his relations could persuade him to submit to an 
operation. He had requested to be taken to me some months previ- 
ous ; was gratified at being told that he might be made to see like other 
people ; but the slight inconvenience attending the introduction of a ^ 
few drops of the solution of belladonna into the lids, and my holding 
the lids to try how they should be supported, annoyed him — and he 
said he wotdd much sooner go home and eat his dinner. " What do 
I want with being restored to sight ?" His mother likewise expressed 
her disbelief as to a person bom blind being made to see. The prin« 
dpal pandit of the muhallah at length overruled the objections. The 
operation was performed on the 28th of August. He complained of 
but little pain, and indeed there was scarcely any inflammation what- 
ever produced by the operation. He immediately became conscious 
of a considerable increase of light. 

The eye-balls, as in all cases of congenital cataract, moved about 
without any control, which, together with a very prominent brow and 
much spasmodic action of the lids, offered some obstacles. So little 
irritation had occurred, that I operated on the 30th August on the left 
eye, which resembled the former operation in every particular. No 
inflammation followed, but the right eye had become inflamed, in 



l^S7.] On restoration of tight to persons horn blind, 49 

consequence of which his eyes remained bandaged for several days, 
and it became necessary to bleed him. He expressed himself as 
sensible of a remarkable change having taken place : the light was 
most distressing to him, and continued so for some time. On the 
eighth day the absorption had proceeded very satisfactorily : several 
substances of varions colors were presented to him. He could not 
recognize any of them, until he had made himself acquainted with 
them by the sense of touch. He brought them very close to his 
eyes, moving his head in his accustomed peculiar manner. What- 
ever he attempted to reach, he always missed his aim. He ex- 
pressed himself as highly gratified, and confident that he would see 
and know every thing, but did not Hke too much interrogation. On 
the 1 2th day he came to me again. The eye-balls were no longer 
rolled in their former vacant manner. He had acquired the power 
of directing the left eye, which had been most instructed, on objects ; 
the right eye, from inflammation, having remained bandaged. A lady 
shewed him her shawl : he said it was red, which was correct ; but did 
not know what it was, until examined by the hand. The platform in 
front of the house was recognized as green, and his mother said he 
had been examining many things at home. The absorption of the 
cataract has proceeded, leaving two-thirds of the pupil of the left eye 
quite clear ; some inflammation still in the right. He said he was 
no longer afraid of me, and that he would submit to any thing I 
recommended. On the 1 6th of September he walked from the town 
to see roe, ax^companied by his mother. He had gained much infor- 
mation during his absence. The pupil of the left eye had become 
almost entirely clear. He said he had seen a great number of trees 
on the road, the lake, and a buggy passing by. He had made himself 
acquainted with several things. What is this ? — ^A lota. This ? — A 
pawn leaf. Which answers were correct. A small hooka was shewn 
him : he touched it, and was told what it was ; several things were 
then presented to him and the hooka was again brought. He observ- 
ed, ^ I cannot tell ; you have submitted so many things to me, that 
I am confused, and forget their names." He felt it and then exclaim- 
ed, it is the same hooka. Presently it was shewn him a third time ; 
he recognized it after having carefully viewed it from top to bottom 
without touching. He observed a book, remarking that it was 
red ; but he knew not that it was a book until told so. It was 
presented to him a few minutes afterwards, and he recognized 
both the color and the book. He said he was extremely happy and 
gratified with all he saw. He followed me with his eyes as I moved 
•boat the room, and pointed out the diflerent positions I took. He 



^0 On restoration of sight to persons bom blinds [JAm 

recognized distinctly the features of his mother's face. She hid it 
under her chadder ; he laughed, and observed that she had done so, 
and turned his face away. He said, " I can see every thing ; all I waot 
more, is time to learn what they all are ; and when I can walk about 
the town, I shall be quite satisfied." He could not ascertain whether 
any thing was round or square, smooth or rough. He tlistinguished 
the following : some partridges, the cage and the cup containing the 
water. The color of their plumage he correctly stated ; also th« 
windows, the fields, the sky, a child in arms, &c. On the 7th he 
again came to see me. He pointed out every feature in his mother's 
lace, her hair, the color of her dress, the different distances and posi- 
tions which she purposely took, and when changing places witk 
another woman, selected her out. He stated that if I would bring 
the red book I shewed him yesterday, he would recognize 'it. I 
accordingly brought him a red morocco box much resembling the 
book, but smaller ; he said it was the book I At this period his 
knowledge of the shapes of bodies and their sizes was very imperfect, 
especially the latter. He directed his hand straight to whatever things 
were now presented before him. The last time I saw him, a small 
ivory looking-glass, a paper-cutter, and a cut jelly-glass, were placed 
on the ground ; they were shifted and changed, and he distinguished 
each respectively. He was much amused and laughed heartily. I 
gave him the looking-glass, in which he noticed his face, and said it 
was like other people's, achchka. 

It will appear, therefore, that his judgment of distances, colors, 
notions, and positions, was very considerable. That of size and form 
was to be acquired more tardily. 

From this period I quitted Saugor, and have heard nothing farther 
of him. 

No. 2. — ^The next is a similar instance of an individual who had 
never seen before, — a Brahman boy of 10 years of age, residing at the 
Kherie Pass, near the Dehra vaUey. 

A few days after the first operation when the bandages were re- 
moved, the principal circumstance worthy of note was the confusion 
and embarrassment of the mind, arising from new and unaccustomed 
itnpressions and the dazzling infiuence of light. 

On the seventh day he had acquired some voluntary power over 
the ball of the eye, being able to steady it somewhat, and tx it on any 
object he wished to discern, but only for a few moments. He had 
after repeated practice acquired a knowledge of most colors, but it was 
not until the twenty-sixth day from the first operation that he could 
be said to have a tolerable acquaintance with the visible world. Dor- 



1S37.] On reftor^ium cf9igki toptnoMi horn blind. dl 

ing this period, when the ahsenoe of pain and inflammation permitted* 
(for it was neoesiary for him to undergo several operations,) the ban- 
dages were removed before and after sunset, and his attention was 
directed to men sometimes standing, sometimes moying ; also to the 
tent, skj, trees and dieir foliage, animals of different kinds, the 
eolors and figures and motions of which he was able in time to dis« 
cera. 

There was no correspondence, however, for a long while between 
the sigkt and touch, neither did he for several days direct his eyes 
Btndgfat to objects so as to examine them minutely. At night he 
would contemplate the stars, and the flame of a candle, and the fea- 
tares of my face, &c. DelMlity, the necessary result of the treatment, 
&C. in a delicate frame, was one cause of the slowness of progress. As 
he gsined strengdi by an improved diet, his vision greatly improved. 

He was observed to take up various objects and notice them ; latterly 
I was in the habit of calling him into my tent when at breakfast. He 
noticed the cups and saucers and their patterns ; chintz on the canvas; 
and he observed attentively a hooka, describing the bell (cut glass) as 
bright; noticed the snake, and mouth-piece (silver), and saw dis- 
tinctly the smoke ascending. 

On the 20th of December he walked several yards without assist- 
ance. A lady gave him a colored chintz cap, with which he was 
much pleaeed, and he distinguished on it the colors of green and 
red, and the white ground. As his new sense could scarcely be said 
to have been exercised more than fourteen days, further observations 
eoold not be made as to his judgment of distances, positions, forms, 
sad motions. 

No. 8. — A similar result, as fieu: as phenomena, occurred in a boy of 1 2 
years of age, though his acquirements were more rapid, from his natural 
mental intelligence being superior to the former cases : the cause 
of his blindness was disease after birth from the small- pox. Tlie nature 
of the operation being the formation of an artificial pupil at the outer 
comer of the eye, it is unnecessary to repeat the details which are so 
similar to the preceding, and though he had seen for some weeks of 
his early existence, of course he had to acquire all ' de novo.' 

No. 4. — ^There are others who have been restored to sight who 
had lost it at a more advanced period of life — say five or six years of 
age and upwards, and when restored exhibit peculiar phenomena 
more or less int^esting in proportion to the degree of remembrance 
they may possess of their former vision. And this was particularly 
remarkable in a young man of 25 years of age, the brother of the 
hof mentioned in case No. 2, who had become blind when only 5 years 
B 2 



92 Stciion 0/ the Strata [Jjn» 

old ; afid which is remarkably interesting in a physiological point of 
yiew, as shewing the power of the retina to preserve its susceptibility 
to light for twenty years, though not the only case recorded. There 
was certainly in this case a great approximation to the phenomena 
manifested in congenital blindness, bat there was not that marked 
, ignorance in recognising objects ,at first sight, nor that palpable 
want of correspondence between the touch and sight, but both existed 
to some extent. It was also curious that he should become blind 
after five years of the same disease with which his brother was bom 
blind. 

I recollect restoring a man, aged 35 years, who had been blind for 
a period of twelve years from the venereal disease, causing closure of 
the pupils. This man, after an operation for artificial pupil, recognis- 
ed, of course, every thing perfectly the moment he was permitted to 
look about him, and still enjoys a very tolerable share of vision at 
Cawnpore. 



VI. — Memorandum of the progress of sinking a Well in the bunds of 
Chandpur, near the foot of the Hills, By Mr. William Dawb, Con- 
ductor, Delhi Canal Department, 

In sinking wells through the soils, without and within the lower 
range of hills, I have seen repeated failures owing to the usual mode 
adopted in digging for the water, (i. e. with perpendicular sides ;) and 
as I was only about 400 yards from a branch of the Jumna, the level 
of its water about 14 feet below the surface of the top of the pro* 
posed well, I calculated upon finding water at 20 feet deep at the 
utmost. I therefore commenced digging 42 feet diameter, contracting 
as I sunk, and this admitted of leaving a couple of winding steps to 
bring up the contents by basket loads, in preference to being drawn 
up with a drag- rope, (which method could not well be adopted, the top 
excavation being so wide.) At the depth of 24 feet I was appre- 
hensive that the work would have been a failure, owing to the vast 
accumulation of heavy boulders, from 4 to 10 maunds weight, which 
I had no purchase to get up. This obstacle was got over by the 
simple method of expending one for every step of the winding road- 
way, always taking the precaution of letting the boulders sufficiently 
into the bank to prevent the possibility of their falling down on the 
work-people below. By this method down as deep as 37 feet the 
boulders were expended as we came on tliem, and as the soil there 
had a more favorable appearance for working, and there was a proba- 
bility of soon getting water, and the space had become so contracted* 



1637.] at Chandpur, on the Delhi Canal 53 

I was obliged to coiDmence sinking perpendicular, which was carried 
on till we at length found water at 72 feet deep. The boulders 
found in the latter part of the work were only few, but they were of 
the largest size, and those were got rid off by excavating recesses 
in the sides and depositing them therein. The above excavation down 
to 72 feet was completed for 1 20 sicca rupees. 

Part of the cylinder having been built, it was sunk in June, where 
I found the water had sunk 7 feet 6 inches lower. We sunk further 
14 fe«t, when we got to a bed of clear pebbles, and bedded the well 
ring on small boulders, with 6 feet 6 inches water ; and as the driest 
season has arrived, we may expect always to have a plentiful supply 
of good water from a total depth of 86 feet below the surface. 



MaMOaANDUM OP THB SOIL IN THB CHANDPUa WXLL. 

Feet 1 . Clayey soil. 
2 to 7. Light soil, consisting of clay and sand, the proportion of 

sand increasing with the depth. 
A vein of sand. 

Sand with slight mixture of day. 
Fine sand. 
River sand. 
Coarse river sand. 

Ditto ditto, with gravel and small boulders. 
Large gravel and boulders. 
Ditto ditto, some of the boulders very large. 
Ditto ditto, large boulders, with a mixture of day. 
Ditto ditto, vrith a layer of immense boulders. 
Ditto ditto, and small boulders through which a spring 

of water has passed, shewn by the stones being without 

a partide of sand mixed with them. 
Large gravd with large boulders. 
A vein of old spring, as above. 
Gravel with small boulders. 

A vein of river sand with a mixture of small stones. 
Gravd with large boulders. 
Large gravel with small boulders. 
A vein of old spring — small boulders. 
Gravel with large boulders. 
Vein of river sand, slightly mixed with gravel. 
Gravel with small boulders. 
A vein of fine river sand. 
Gravel with no boulders. 





8. 


9to 


11. 


12 to 


14. 


15. 




16. 




17. 




18. 




19 to 


25. 


26 to 


27. 


28 to 


30. 


31 to 


32. 


33 to 36. 


37. 




38. 




39. 




40 to 41. 


42 to 46. 


47 to 48. 


49 to 


54. 


55 to 


56. 


57 to 


64. 


65 to 


66. 


67 to 


69. 



54 Section of a Well at Chandpur. [Jah. 

70 to 72. Vein of fine river sand — (water found here). 
73 to 76. Fine aand, with a mixture of dean gravel. 
77 to 79. Gravel with a mixture of yellow sand. 
80 to 83. Clear fine river sand. 

84 to 86. A bed of clean pebbles, and the well ring bedded on 

small boulders. 
N. B. The water sank while the cylinder was bdng built to 79-6. 



Nate hy Lieutenatt "W. £. BakbRi JSngiaeera, Aatisttmt SuperinientUmi 

of Canais. 

The situation of this well is close to the southern base of the outer 
range of hills, where they fall away into the valley of the Jumna, a 
branch of which now occupied a9 the bed of the Delhi canal, passes 
within a short distance of it. The strata, of which the section is 
thus exhibited, are evidently the deposits of a stream, having, for the 
greater part of the time, at least as strong a fall and as rapid a cur- 
rent as the Jumna at the same spot now has — and they are precisely 
what might now be forming in the Jumna, were that river raising its 
bed— even the strata of small rounded stones, in which Mr. Dawb 
has attributed the removal of sand and smaller gravel to the action 
of formerly existing springs, have their representatives in the numer- 
ous shingle banks of the Jumna, 

The most striking circumstance, however, illustrated by Mr. Da wb's 
observations, is the impermeability of these river deposits to the 
water of the neighboring channel, the stream of which is never dry. 
This circumstance was even more strongly exemplified in the same 
vicinity — at the village of RoyanwaUa — where, within the inclosure oi 
the canal chowkey, and not 60 yards dbtant from the water's edgt, it 
was desired to sink a well to supply clear water to such of the esta- 
blishment as remained there during the raiuy season, when the 
river water is turbid and unwholesome. The shaft was of small dia- 
meter, as water was confidently expected at but little below the level 
of that in the canal : no trace of it, however, was met with to the 
depth of 60 feet — when, from the smallness of the shaft, it became 
dangerous to proceed further ; the attempt was therefore abandoned 
and the shaft filled up again. The strata pierced through on this occa- 
sion consisted of large and small boulders, gravel and sand materials, 
of which we find it impossible to form a dry bond, even where the 
difference of level is only 2 or 3 feet — while here, the excavation must 
have gone at least 50 feet below the canal l^vel. 

In apparent contradiction to this, is a well known fact, connected 
with the rivers flowing through the northern parts of Rokilkkmul into 



1837.] Tki HiUQry of Labong, 6A 

the Ganges. I mean the disappearance from the sorCace, near where 
they leave the outer range of hills, and then again emerging at the 
distance of 10 or 12 miles lower down; thus shewing the complete 
permeability of the gravel beds through which they mast be supposed 
to trickle — and that this is in some measure the case in the JWsum 
also, is rendered probable by a circnmstance which came under our 
observation in the great drought of 1833-34. 

In order to supply the excessive demand for water for irrigation^ it 
became necessary to throw a gravel bund right across the /asiaa— 
just below the head of the canal ; and at this very period, as appears 
from a record kept in the Executive Engineer's Office at j4gra, a slight 
diminution only of the waters of the Juwum at that place waa 
observable. 



VII. — 7^ History of Lahong from the Native Records consulted by 
Dr, D. RicHAansoN, forming an Appendix to his journals published 
M the preceding volume*. 

The annals of Labong reach back to the same remote and fabulous 
period as those of the neighboring nations. In the year 1118, (A. 
D. 674,) after Gaudamab had obtained nib-ban, or eternal rest, two 
holy men, WATaoo-DAT-WAf and Tuka-oanda, (having first buried a 
shell with the spiral turned the reverse way,) by prayers and holiness 
raised from out the earth the walls, gates, and ramparts, and sunk the 
fosse of Labong, They marked the site of the pagoda, and during 
two years employed themselves in calling together the people from 
the surrounding forests and small villages. In 1 1 20 they raised to 
the throne Rama or Zamma-dat-w«, daughter of the king of Chanda^ 
pur (or, Wintian, the capital of Sttroarata-tg-ne), and widow of a 
prince of Cambodia. She had twin sons, Mahanta-tatba. The elder 
succeeded her in Labong, received the common title of '* SsN-Bna 
Shksn," or Lord of the White EHephant, for having caught one of that 
color. AiNDAWAnAiA, the younger, built and reigned in Lagon, In 
Labong (the Magadharrame of which is Hari-bouno Zatattnb) from 
Ram A-DAT-WB to AouTZA-wooN-THA, who built the pagoda ("ossein 
dstgdj there reigned 35 kings, and from Aoutza-woom-tha to Bbnta- 
rasoBA 19 ; in all 54 kings reigned in Labong. Bbnta-mbn-tba, 
called in Ava History Dolana Bbnta-tso-mbn-tba, the son of 
Bbkta-tbooba, succeeded him, and reigned ten years in Labong, 

* We have already qnoted from thii document in manuicript ; lee Appendix 
General Tablet, page 135* — Ed. 



56 The History of Labong. [Jak. 

three in Kim-yea, five in WeH'-eonffkan. In 651* he crossed the 
Thaluen river, and married a daughter of Thootha Thoma, king of 
Pegu, with whom he received in dower fomr hundred Taliens or Peguers 
and their wives, the town Yain Salea and its dependencies, and returned 
to his country ; and on Thursday the full moon of Kasong, (May,) 
656, at midnight, founded Zama'pada'pur'tkere'nagara'nawara'nua* 
/ant, or Zimmay, measuring from east to west five hundred talsfi 
from north to south four hundred and fifty tals ; huilt his palace of 
Zayaboungme ; reigned thirty- seven years ; in 623 died, aged eighty, 
and was succeeded hy his son Noathxn-Pootchoo, who in 695 was 
succeeded hy his son Tbo-tcbomta-tuno ; and he in the same year hy 
his son Na-tchoon-tarcuno ; and he in 

698 hy his son Noa-thbnpoo ; and he was succeeded in 

707 hy his son Tso-kanpxw ; he in 

709 hy his son Tso-boa-tou ; and he in 

731 hy his son Goon a ; and he in 

739 hy his son-in-law Gnathbnuima ; and he in 

742 hy his son Thambi ; and in 

782 his son Tso-Bbnta succeeded ; and in 

817 his son Tso-nbat succeeded ; and in 

825 his son Bbnya Tsotrbb, called also 7^«r«-/A«-da*fiui/»JaiiA»«ji0d^* 
ka-wa'te^ya-za ; in 

865 his son Tso-mtnbab succeeded; and in 

899 his son Bbnta Tsat ; in 

904 his son Tso-mtnx ; in 

906 his daughterZALA-PABA, called also rAere-/Aiidama-maAa-c(ffy-i0e. 

920 Srn-bue-mta-bhebn, king of Pegue, took the town, hut allowed 
the queen to enjoy the revenues with the royal title till her death, 
when he gave the town and revenue to his son Narata-tso, the 
myO'tsa, (literally, town-eater : the person who enjoys the revenue 
of a town amongst the Burmese is so called). Sarawadi, in the 

* To account for the discrepance in the datea of Labong and Zimmay, it is to 
be stated thnt the comiiMn era has been twice altered ; once 624 years after the 
death of Gaudamah, by There Mounodari, king of There t Kit-taba, 
who dropped 622 years, and commenced from 2. The second alteration was 
made by Thrnoabbt, king of Pagan^ in the seventeenth year of his reign, 562 
years from the reign of Therb Mounodari, who dropped 560 years, and again 
commenced with 2. Labong was founded 1118 years after the death of 
Gaudahah ; and Zimmay 656 years after the alteration of Then oabbt, or 
1838 years of the death of Gauoamah ; giving a period of 720 years to 54 
kings, and average of thirteen years and some odd months and days to each 
reign. (See Chron. Appendix, page 84. — Ed.) 

t The tals, is seven cubits. 



m7.] On tke tite of ike Altara of Alexander. 57 

year 990, after the death of Svn-bub-mta Sbibn, the chief of 
Moimg^nam, rebelled in Zimmay and shook off the Pegaan authority ; 
and in 992, Tha*oan-dama-taza, the grandson of Sbn-bus-mta- 
tHBBN retook it. 1125, Tso-oumg recovered its independence, which 
it enjoyed only a short time, when it was taken by Sbn-bub-shbbn, 
king of Ava, son of the great Alompba. 1)36, Bbnta-sa-ban. 
and Kawbbla, the eldest brother of the present Chow-tchee-weet of 
Labomg, who was Myo-tsa of Logon, rose against TflA-DAN-MsNDBcr, 
called by the Shans Bogoung-hue, (a white-headed chief.) The Go^ 
Temor of Zimmag under Sbn-bub-shbbn again prevailed and trans- 
ferred their allegiance to Bankok, to which they have continued sub« 
ject CTer since. Kawbbla had six brothers, three others of whom 
haye received from the king of Bankok the title of " Chow-tcha- 
Weet," or '* Lord of Life," one of the many titles he himself enjoys, 
and the other three have been Chows Moungs of the other towns. 
The present Chow-tcha-Weet, who is now seventy-two years of 
age, is the youngest and last of the^ seven brothers. He has five 
children by his first chief wife, viz. the wife of Chow Houa of La- 
hoMg ; the wife of a chief who is at Bankok ; Chow Raia Boot, the 
eldest son ; another daughter who is deranged, but quiet and inoffen- 
nve. Chow Houa of Labong will probably succeed to the zatabo* 
lenoe» He is certainly, from his intelligence and habits of application 
to business, incomparably best fitted to do so. But it is the opinion 
of the northern Tsoboas that the Chow Houa of Zimmag, who is even 
now little inclined to submit to the old Tsoboa's authority, will not 
quietly acquiesce, and that at the death of the present Tsoboa there 
will be some bloodshed in the country. 



VIIL — Suggestions on the Sites of Sangala and the Altars of Alexander $ 
being an extract from Notes of a Journey from Lahore to Karichee, 
wutde in 1830. Bg C. Masson. 

" At length after a long march we arrived at Hurreepah, having 
passed the whole road through close jungle. East of it was an 
abundance of luxuriant grass, where, with many others, I went to 
allow my nag to graze. On rejoining the party, I found it encamped 
in front of the village and an old ruinous castle attached to it. Behind 
OS was a large circular mound or eminence, and to the west was an 
irregular rocky height crowned with remains of buildings, shewing 
fragments of walls, with niches in them. This elevation was undoubt- 
edly a natural object ; the former, being of simple earth, was probably 
artificial. On going to examine the remains we found two immense 



1 



58 On the Mite of Stmgala [J ah. 

circiilar stones with large perforations, wliich we were told were 
once worn round the ancles by a celebrated fakeer, who resided here, 
and who among other proofs of mortification and sanctity, .accustom- 
ed himself to eat earth and other strange substances. Between our en- 
campment and this natural height was a small space of jungle, in which 
are a few pipal trees in the last stage of existence. The old lort, ao 
erection of other days, is buiJt with burnt bricks ; its walls and towers 
are. very high, and its extent considerable^ but time has made evident 
ravages in its defences : its bulwarks have in many places tumbled 
down, and it is no longer occupied. Surrounding the north-east angle 
of the fort, is a small swamp. We were cautioned by the inhabitaats* 
that we should be much annoyed by a species of gnat, called mmf^ak, 
which swarm by night in these jungles during the rainy months, but 
which we had not hitherto seen. To avoid these, we decamped towarda 
evening, and fixed ourselves on the summit of the circular artificial 
mound before mentioned. 

It was impossible to look upon the prospect of the iwt and swamp 
before us, and beneath our feet, apon the ground on which we stood, 
without feeling the conviction that we were beholding the fort and 
lake of Sangaia, and that we stood on the eminence protected by the 
triple lines of chariots, and defended by the Kath^n, belore they al- 
lowed themselves to be shut up in their fortress. 

The evidence of AaniAN is very minute as to this place, and he fur- 
nishes excellent data which cannot be mistaken in their application* 
While Albxandkb was proceeding to occupy the kingdom, abandon- 
ed by its monarch the second Porus. he received intelligence that the 
Kathsei, the most warlike of the Indian nations in those parts, ia 
confederacy with others, probably the Malli and Oxydracse, had col- 
lected their forces, and resolved to oppose his progress, if toward 
them directed. As the occupation of an undefended country present- 
ed no field for achievement or glory, he dispatched Hbphkstiom to 
effect its settlement, and marched direct against the Kathaei. At the 
period of receiving tidings of the hostile attitude of these Indians, 
ALXXANnmn had crossed the Acesines, and was marching towards 
Lahore, if we credit the inference that this city represents the capital 
of the fugitive Poaus. He diverged to the south, and having crossed 
the Hydraotes or Ravi, on the first day arrived at Pimprama (pos- 
sibly Pind Brahma, Brahma's or the Brahman's village) at which he 
halted the second, and on the third reached Sangaia, which Arriam 
describes as a city with a fort built of brick, at one extremity of which 
was a lake, not containing much water. He farther informs us that 
Albxandbr found the Kathasi djrawn up on the summit of an eminenQ^ 



1 837.] tmd ike Alton i^f Al^sNmder. A9 

opposite their fort, which was not very high or diffiealt of ftecess ; this 
thej had fortified with a triple /ow of chariots and' waggons, placing 
their tents in the middle. Albxandbb snccessivetj stormed the 
barriers of wheeled carriages, and the Kathsei sought refuge within 
the walls of their fortress. Around this he then drew an intrench- 
ment, except at the point where the lake interveaed, the bank of which 
he secored by lines of waggons he had captured, and there stationed 
a strong division of troops under Ptolsmt to intercept the flight of 
the garrison, which he naturally concluded, when driven to eztremi* 
ty, would attempt to escape that way — ^the depth of water, in what 
Abrian calls a lake (or it may be bis translator) being, as he himself 
assures us, inconsiderable. Albzandbr having completed his line of 
eircomvallation and other precautionary measures, advanced his 
engines to the assault of the walls. The terrified garrison, as antici- 
pated, by night attempted to pass the lake ; their prog^ss was inter- 
cepted, and they were driven back with immense slaughter. The 
operations of the siege continuing, the towers of the fort were over- 
thrown by mines, and it was finally carried by assault. 

In the present Hurrtepah we are able to recognize every feature 
which Abbian so distinctly points out — the fort built of brick, the lake, 
or rather swamp of water, and the eminence or mound opposite the 
fort — this last is wonderfully convenient for the mode of defence 
the Kathsei adopted, from the gentle slope of its sides. Moreover, 
a trench still exists between the mound and the fort and parallel there- 
to, which may plausibly enough be ascribed to the line of circumval- 
lation raised by the Macedonian engineers. 

With respect to the present fort, however ancient it may be, it is 
not of course the identical one that was besieged by Alszandbb, 
and which Abbian informs us was razed to the ground — ^but in all 
probability it occupies the precise site, and may be built with the 
materials of the one sacrificed to Grecian resentment. 

It is necessary to state with regard to Hurreepak, that native tra- 
dition assigns to the spot the commencement of a large city, which 
extended as far as Chickee Wutnee, twelve coss southward — the 
period of its existence so remote, that it is not known whether the 
Hindu or Mnhammedan religion was then professed — and that it was 
destroyed by an immediate visitation of Divine anger, excited by the 
crimes of the sovereign, who appropriated to himself the wives of his 
snbjeets. The eminence, so often noted, is qpvered with fragments 
<rf bricks and earthen- ware, as is the entire neighborhood of the 
place. Accident prevented me from observing if any remains of 
tatldings were discernible in the next march we made to Ckkhet 
1 3 



€0 On the site of Sanffala, SfC. [Jait. 

Wutnee, as we traTelled by night — ^but I conclnde not, as nearly the 
whole road led through marshes. 

The identification of Arman's Stmgala would not be merely carious 
as a point of illustrative geography, but of importance as directing 
us to the spot where Albzanubr's operations ceased on the banks 
of the Hyphasis, and affording a better clue than we were hitherto 
acquainted with for the detection of the site of the famous altars 
erected by the illustrious Greek as lasting monuments of his progress 
and victories. Various have been the inferences drawn as to the 
position of thef e celebrated structures — ^but I hesitate not to suggest 
that they were erected on the banks of the modern Gharra, composed 
of the united streams of the Beyah and Svtlej, and at that point or 
nearly where a direct line drawn from Harreepah would meet the 
river, — that is, (if there be faith in modern maps,) in that portion 
of it which divides the Sikh and Bbawelpur territories. Arriam 
describes Sangala as two marches from the Hyphasis, and Hurreepah 
is distant from the Gharra eighteen or twenty coss (27 or 30 miles). 
It is impossible not to admire the correctness of Arrian in his rela* 
tion of Albxandbr's progress in the Panjdb, and I feel confident, 
that had I been fortunate to have had him for a companion when a 
wanderer in that country, the vestiges of his altars, if any remain, 
might have been detected. Pliny and, I believe, Strabo, have placed 
them on the eastern \>ank of the Uyphasis : this, if correct, will not 
affect general circumstances of locality. 

The anoient name Sangfola appears a composition of sang and 
killah*, or literally, the stone fort, and figuratively applied to any strong 
fort, owing to position, construction or otherwise, without reference 
to the materials of which it may be built. The modern name denotes 
in Hind(, the green town, and would seem to refer to the luxuriant 
pastures to be found east of it. 

The learned WiLFORO.has accused Arrian of confounding Saii^a/ki 
with Salgeda, which he says still exists near Calanore, and agreeing mi- 
nutely with the historian's description. Sangala he describes as situate 
in a forest, and sixty miles west by north of Lahore, Hurreepah is also 
situate in a forest, or intense jungle of small trees and bushes, but 
is south-west of Lahore, and at a somewhat greater distance than sixty 
miles. Tlie fortress of Sangala, so particularly described by Arrian, 
roust clearly by deduction have been south of Lahore, and, as it was 
only two marches from the Hyphasis, could never have been the 
Sangala of Wilford to the north* west of Lahore. 

* This derivation from Persian and Arabic is, we fear, hardly admissible. — Ed. 



1637.] Chinne Aeamnt of India, 61 

This site deserves farther atteation, as we find that Samgala was, 
■absequent to its destruction by Albxandes, re-edified under the 
name of Euikifdemia, in honor of the father of the reviver — but who 
this reviyer of Sangala may have been, whether Dbmbtbius, Mbnan* 
OBB, or Appollodotus, has not been determined by the few who 
have bestowed attention on this obscure but highly interesting por« 
tion of ancient history. 



IX. — Ckhusse Aeeaunt of India, TranAtMfrom the WdnJaenU'hungJkaou, 
or *' Deep Retearehee into Ancient Monuments ;" by Mtutwan^iin ; book 
SS8,/bi, U. 

[The great interest which now prevails retpecliag t)ie middle ai^e of Indian 
history, penuadea n* to transfer to our pages the following article from the 
LondoQ Asiatic JoarnaL for Jaly, Angost, 1836. The author or translator's 
name is not given. — Ed.] 

T2en»choo (or India) was known in the time of the latter Hans; the 
country was then called the kingdom of Shin.4oo*, 

Note of the Chineee Editor. 

rChang-keen, when first sent (B C. 196) into Ta.hea (or Bactriana), 
saw stems of bamboos^ as in the Shoo country (modern province of Sze- 
chuen). He inquired how they obtained these bamboos; some men of 
Ta-hea replied : ** Our merchants procure them in the marketu of the 
kingdom of Shin.too, which is T§en.choo. Some csll this kingdom' Mo. 
kea-tot; others name it Po-Io.mun (country of the hrahmaiis); it is 
situated to the south of the Tsung.ling:^ (or Blue Mountnins), distant 
some thousands of /e to the south-east of the Yu^.che§ (Massageta, or 
Indo-Scythians). 

This country is about 30,000 square le \\ in extent ; it is divided inter. 
nally into five Indies; the first is termed Middle or Central India; the 
second Eastern India; the third Southern India; the fourth Western 
India ; and the fifth Northern India. Each of these divisions of the terri- 
tory contains several thousands of le; and fortified cities, surrounded with 
walls, and towns of the second order, are placed a few hundred /e apart. 

Southern India is bounded by the Great Sea (the Gulf of Bengal); 
Northern India is situated opposite to the Snowy MountainsH ; on the 

* In Sanscrit f^sv, Simdhitf Hindustan. f |pnf Magadha. 

«j 
X A chain of mountains to the north of Cashmere, which separates Eastern Tur- 
kestan, or Little Biicharia, from Great Bucharia. 

I M. Ra'MDSA.T has given a translation of Ma-twan-Un's account of the YuS'Che 
in his Nouv. Milanga Asiai, t. i. p. 990. 

II According to Dr. Ksllt (Orient. MeiroL^ p. 64), 900 le are eqnal to one degree 
of the meridian == 69' 166 English miles ; whence 30,000 le will give about 10,379 
English miles. 

5 Seui'Skan, an exact translation of the Sancrit f^fiTTii^ HimAlajfa, * abode 

of snow,' or rather fHnfr?9^1lf^ Him&lat/girif * mountain whereon the snow rests.* 

This division of India must include the modern Cashmere, the description of which, 
by Hasu'DI, the Arabian historian, coincides in a striking rannner utith that of the 
Chinese author : '*The kingdom of Cashmere,'* he says, "which forms part of 
India, is surrounded with very high mountains ; it contains a prodigious number of 
towns and ▼illages ; it can be entered only by a single pass, whieb is closed by 4 
sate.*' 



62 Ckmese Acamnt of India. [Jam. 

four tides, there are monnUiiDB doping to the eouth, uid a valley which 
crosses them forms the gate (or entrance) of the kingdom. Eastern India 
is bounded on the east by the Great Sea, as well as by Foonan (Pt^gu) and 
Lin.e (Siam), which are separated only by a little sea. Western India 
adjoins Ke-pin (Cophenes) and Pousse (Persia)*; Central India is 
situated in the middle of the four other divisions of India. 

All these kingdoms had kings in the time of the Han dynasty. There 
is besides the kingdom of Yuen-too, which is distant from Chang^anf 
9,800 ie ; it is 2,800 le from the residence of the Governor-general of the 
Chinese provinces in Central Asia^. To the south it adjoins the Blue 
Mountains ; to the north its frontiers are contiguous to those of the 
Woo-sun. 

Y&n.sze-koo has stated that Yuen-teo is no other than Shin-too ; and 
8hin-too is Teen-choo; there is no difference but in the pronunciation 
more or less strong.] 

From the kingdom called Kaou.foo§ of the Yul-che, going to the west 
and south, as far as the Western Sea (the Indian Ocean) ; to the east^ as 
far as Pan-ke; all these countries form the territory of Shin-too. .It has 
a number of fortified towns ; in about a hundred, commandants reside. 
There are also different kingdoms ; ten of them have kings. There is, 
however, little difference between them, and the whole hare the collective 
denomination of Shin-too. 

NoU qf the Ckinen Editmr. 

[The nurrative of Foo-nan states': '' The kingdom of She-wei (ELapila) 
belongs to that of Kea-sfaeU in India, which some call the kingdom of 
Pho-Io.nae, and others the kingdom of Sze (or) She^pho-lo-na-sze." 

Choo.fH-wei, in his Fnh^kwd^ke (Memoir on the kingdoms of Fuh, or 
Buddha), states that the kingdom of Pho.lo^nae (or Benares) is situated 
1,480 k south of the kingdom of Kea-wei-lo-wei (or Kapila). In the ac 
count of the kingdom o£ Ching.le by She.f&, it is said: "Few oxen are 
killed in this kingdom ; the sheep of the country are black ; their horns, 
which are slender and apart, may be four feet long ; one is killed about 
every ten days, but if any of these sheep happen to die of disease^ the 
inhabitants use the blood of bullocks. These animals live a long time ; 

* See for an accoaat of these oooatries by Ma-twan-Ua, the traaslation by M. 
Rb'mdsat, Nouv. Mil. Asiat. t. i. pp. 205 and 2i8. 

f Capital of the Haas, situated in Shea-te ; now Se-gan-foo. 

X This position of the kingdom of Yaea-too affords reason to think that it may 
be the ssme as that of Shia-too. It is only ia the traascriptloa of the Sanscrit 
word SindhAf the name of the Indus and of the eountries bathed by that river, that 
there is a slight difference. The proximity of the Woo-saa^ however, suggests that 
Yuen -too most comprehend the country in which modern Badakshan is situated. 

$ The following account of this kingdom is gi^en by Ma-twan-lin elsewhere 
(b. 338, f. 37) : ** The kingdom of Kaon-fbo was known in the time of the Haas. 
It is situated to the south-east of the great Yus-che (Massagetse). It is likewise 
a considerable state. Their manners resemble those of the iahaoitants of India, 
and they are gentle and humane. They carry on mach commerce. India, Cophenes, 
and the country of the Ass, are three kingdoms which are conquered by force and 
Uut bjf tMairaets." The latter expressions are borrowed from the TaoU'tth^kUg of 
Laou-tsze. 

II VTlft ^dH or Kashi * splendid,' epithet of the sacred city of Benares, called 
l|^lf^ Varanati or n^ t| |^ Vararndti. The latter denominatioa is represented 
as closely as is permitted by the moaosy liable language of the Chiaese (which waats 
the articulation raj by PhO'lo-nae : the Sanscrit ^ v having so often the sound of 
^ 6, that they are not distinguished ft-om each other in BenglQl writing : 8xe (or) 
She-phO'to-na-ixe is also a faitlful transcript of irt^^CWT^ ^'^ Y&nmdH^ * the 
holy> the fortunate Benares.' 



1 S37.] CUmm Acemmi of India. 63 

&• people of thia eonninr likewito are rery long.lived. Their kinipe 
eonmoiily reign a hundred yean, and the bullocks live as long as the 
aen. Tkia kingdom is a dependency of India."] 

The royal residence OTerlooks the rirer H&ng or Oing (Ganges)* which 
eone call Kea.plh-le. Here is situated the mountain Ling-tseaou ; callrd 
in the language of the Hoo.yu country, Ke.too.keo : it is a gri^en rock, 
the head (or summit) of which resembles that of the bird t$euou, 

NoU qf the Chinese Editor. 
[Choo-A-wei says^ in his FiAJewdJce, that this mountain is situated to 
the aouth of Mo.kee.tet, which is also a kingdom dependent on India.'] 

At the period^ when all theie kingdoms belonged to the Yu^^^he, the 
latter put their kings to death and substituted military chiefk. They en. 
joioed all their people to practise the doctrine of Fuh^too (Buddha) ; not 
to kill living creatures ; to abstain from wine ; and to conform entirely to 
the manners and customs of the inhabitants of the country, which is low 
and damp, and the temperature very hot. This kingdom is traversed by 
large rivers ; the people fight upon elephants ; they are of a feeble con. 
stitution compared with the Yu&.che. 

The emperor Woo-tOj of the Hans (B. C. Ii9 to 87), sent an expedition 
of about ten persons, by the west and south, in search of Shin-too. All 
information having been refused to the persons composing this expedition, 
they oould not reach the country). Under Ho-te (A. D. S9 to 106), seve- 
ral ambaasadors from that country came to offer tribute||. The western 

e la Soatcrlt hyt ^«"yd ; this river, fa tacred wrltlags, bears also the aaau ef 
Vf^V JCopiVa, and more commoaly f^pj i m i i| Kapiladhdri, 
f null Magadh€, the sontbern portion of the modera Bahar. 

X This important epoch in the history of India may be fixed with precision by 
asrans of Cbioese Mttoriane ; and it is not one of the least ad^antageii derivable 
from the study of the writers of this nation. Ma-twan-lin, in hit aceount of the 
Great Yat-cbe, or Indo-Scythians (booic 336, fol. 3), itates that the Chioeiieaene- 
ral Chang^kCen was sent as an ambassador to the Ya<f-che, by the emperor Woo-te 
(B. C. 196). and that, about 100 yean after, a prince of this nation, who possessed 
one of the five governments of the eonntry of the Dahs, subjected the Getes in Co- 
phenes, and that TSea-choo, or India, was again subjugated by the Yas-che. This 
other eoaqnest of India by the Scythiaas must be placed, therefore, about the year 
B. C. 36. Ma*twan«Un adds, that these \ni che, having become rich and powerful 
<by these conquests), remained in this state till the time of the latter Hans, who 
a^^ to reign A. D. fitt. It results from hence that the Scythians (or YoS-che) 
arast have beea masters of Western ladia from about B. C. 96 till A. D. 993, that is« 
for a space of S48 yssrs. The first invasion of India by the Yus-che, or Scythians, 
must have taken piaee before the reign of Vioramiditya, whose celebrated era, which 
begins fifty -six years before ours, originated from the complete defeat of the Scy« 
thian armies by this Indian prince ; an event which deserved to be thus immorta- 
liaod. See IndioH Algebra, by Mr. CoLBBaoOKB, (Preface, p. 43,) and Lassen, De 
Pemt9p9temid Indkd Commenietio, p. 66. The first of these learned IndiaaisU, 
from whom we sre sure of deriving information, whenever we are eagaged in the 
invsstigatioa of a great philological, ^entific, and philosophical question respeetine 
India, cites aa ancient seholiast on Vatiha Mihira, who thus explsins the woid 
"sekrn" employed by this astronomer to denote the Sam vat era: ** epoch when the 
harbariaa kings named Seka (the Saew) were defeated by YicaAHA'oiTTA." 

I This same emperor gaiaed some trifling particulars respecting Shin«too, or 
la^a, by his general Chang-kCen, whom he had sent to the Yos-che, which are 
preserved by the historian Sze-ma-tseen, in his Sze-ke (book 133, fols. 6 and 7), 
where it is stnted that Shin-too is situated to the east of Ta-hea, the capital of 
which was the eity of Laa«she. 

At this period, China was still considered as the paramount state of all the 
half-eivillaed aations inhabiting Central Asia. It is aot, therefore, surprising, that 
the chiafr of Ind|a subject to the YuS-che, or Scythians, should have thought of 
seading ambassadors to China, in search of means of delivering their country from 



64 Chinese jtee&uui of India, [JAif. 

countries (sobjected to the Cfainese) then revolted, and tepAnited from 
the empire. 

In the second of the years F'liuAe of Hwan-te (A. D. 159) stranger* 
often came by the way of Jih.nan {' south of the sun ;' Tonquin and 
Cochin.China), to offerpresents. 

A tradition of thiii time relates that the emperor Ming.te (A. D. 58 to 
76), having dreamed that he saw a man of gold, very large, whose head 
and neck slione with prodigious brightness, interrogated his ministers on 
the subject. One of them told him that, in the western region Cte-fftng), 
wan a spirit (Min), whose name was Fiih ; that his statue was six feet high, 
and his color that of gold. The emperor, upon this, despatched amba^. 
sadors to India to learn the laws and doctrine of Fuh, and to bring to 
China his portrait painted, as well as some of his statues. The king of 
Tsoo (a petty feudatory kingdom of China), named Ying, was the first 
who believed in this false doctrine (of Fuh) ; hence it was that other per. 
sons in the Middle Empire adopted it. 

Thereupon, Hwan.te (A. D. 147 to 167) imbibed a great partiality for 
the ihin (spirits or genii) ; he sacrificed repeatedly to FCLn-too and to 
Laou-tBse. The people of China gradually adopted (this new religion) : 
its followers augmented greatly. 

In the time of the How and Tsin dynasties (A. D. 992 to 280), no new 
relation took place between India and China; it was not till the period of 
the Woo dynasty, that the king of Foo.nan, named Fan-cban, sent one of 
his relations^ named 8oo-wIh, as ambassador to India. On quitting Foo- 
nan, the embassy returned by the mouth of the Taou-keaou.le*, continu. 
ing its route by sea in the great bay (or gulf of Martaban), in a north, 
westerly direction ; it then entered the bay (of Bengal), which they cross- 
ed, and coasted the frontiers of several kingdoms. In about a year it was 
able to reach the mouth of the river of India, and ascended the river 
7,000 ie, when it arrived at its destination. The king of India, astonished 
at the sight of the strangers, exclaimed: ''the sea-coast is very far off; 
how could these men get here ?" He commanded that the ambassador 
should be shown the interior of the kingdom, and with this view he ap. 
pointed as guides to attend him, two strangers of the same race as the 
Chineset, and he supplied Soo-wih (the ambassador) with provisions for 
his journey, and presents for Fan-ch&n, king of Foo-nan, consisting of 
Scythian horses, and four pieces of valuable woollen stuffs^. 

During this time, the Woo dynasty § despatched an officer of the second 
rank, named Kang.tae, as ambassador to Foo.nan, where he saw foreign 
guides of the same nation as the Chinese. To all the questions he put to 
them, concerning the manners and customs of the people of India, they 
answered him as follows: " The doctrine of Fiih is that which is in vogue 
in this kingdom. The population is very numerous ; the soil rich and 

barbarians, by the aid of the ChiDese armies, which covld oblige their revolted 
subjects to return to their duty. Thus we may easily ezplaia facts apparentlj so 
improbable. 

* The Irrawaddy, in the Burman empire. 

t Literally : '* in consequence, as attendants or suides (he had given to him) two 
men, foreigners, of the same species as the Suog.** By Sung-Jin,^ * men of Sung,' 
Ma-twan-lin designates the Chinese, who were so called in his time ; he wrote 
under the Sung dynasty, in the latter part of the thirteenth century. The seas* 



which lup chin has received is that which it bears in the phraseology of the Le^ke, 
xittd by the dictionary of Kaog-he, in explaining this character. 

$ One of the three dyoafities which reigned simultaneously over three divisions of 
the Chinese empire : it subsisted from A. D. 323 to 380. 



1S37.] CAmese Acc&tmt of India. 65 

fertile. The king who rules here has the title of Maou-lnn* ; the luburbt 
of the fortified city in which he resided are watered by rivulets, which 
flow oil ail sides, and fill the deep ditches surrounding the city. Below it 
flows the great river (the Ganges). All the palaces are covered with 
sculptured inscriptions, and other ornaments in relief. A winding street 
forms a market, a le in length. The dwelling-houses hare several storiest. 
Bells and drums are their instruments of music, and the dress of the peo. 
pie is adorned with fragrant flowers. They travel by land and by water; 
their eoromercial transactions are considerable, in jewels and other valua. 
ble articles of luxury, and every thing which the heart can desire is pro- 
curable here. On every side, to the right and to the left, you behold only 
agreeable and seductive object:* ; the hoiiseR are overshadowed by foliage, 
and cooled by the motion of waters of all kinds. There are sixteen great 
kingdoms which are remote from India; some didtant 2,000/0/ others 
3,000. All these kingdoms honor and respect India, which they regard as 
placed between heaven and earth." 

The fifth of the years yuenJkea of W&n.te, of the Sungs (A. D. 498), 
the king of the kingdom of Kea«pih-le (Kapila) in India, named Yue-gae 
('beloved of the moon*t), sent an ambassador to him to present him with 
letters of submis^sion (penouj, and to offer diamonds, valuable rings, 
bracelets, as well as other ornaments of worked gold, and two parrots, one 
red and the other white. 

The second of the years toe-she of Ming-te (A. D. 466), an ambassador 
came to ofl^er tribute.' This ambassador had the rank of iieutenant-gene« 
ral of the army. 

Note of the Chinese Editor^ 

[[The eighteenth of the years yuenJcen (A. D. 411), the king of the king- 
dom of Suo-mo-le sent an ambassador to offer the products of liis country. 
The second of the years Jieaou-kHn, of the emperor Heaou-woo (A. D. 455^ 
the king of the kingdom of Kin.to.le§ sent a superior officer to offer gold 
coin and precious vases. On the first of the years yuerutoei, of Fei.te 
(A. D. 473), the kingdom of Pho-le (?) sent an ambassador to offer tribute. 
Ail these kingdoms practised the doctrine of Fuh.] 

In the beginning of the years tierukSen of the dynasty Leang (A. D. 
502), the king of India, named Keu-to, sent his great officer, named 
Choo.lo.ta, to present letters of submission, and to offer vases of crystal^ 
perfumes of all sorts, precious talismans, and other articles of this kind. 

This kingdom (India) is traversed by great rivers||. The spring or 

* This title must be the Chinese transcription of iff i^in Mah6rana ; there can 

be DO doubt in respect to the first syllable, maha (in composition) * great ;* bat the 
Sanscrit word represented by lun (or run, ran) is less certain. At all events, this 
must be a king of India whose reign corresponded with this date, between A. D. 223 
and 980. 

-f This is the case at Benares, where many of the houses have seven or eight 
stcwies ; and the numerous temples and public edifices are covered with sculptures 
and bas« reliefs. 

X In Sanscrit, ChandrakdntOf * well beloved of the moon,^ a name also given to 

a precious stone ; or rather it would be Chandrananda, * joy or delight of the moon/ 

dted in the fifth table of the Ayeen Akberi, in the history of Cashmere. [Dr. Mill 

-suggests that this monarch is Chandrasri. Seep. lOOof Genealogical Appendix. 

-Id] 

i Tne Oandari of Herodotus and Strabo ? In Snuscrit 9C^4rC Q^n^hari, or IIT^^ 

Oamdhara, 

n " Kw6 tin ta keang,^^ literally, ' the kingdom overlooks great rivers.' 



66 CAtfMM AccamU of India. [Jak. 

source^ Sin.ta<m*> iasues from mount Kw&n-lunt ; its waters then divide 
into five streams, and form what are termed the affluents of the Gangee 
Cming G&ng shwuyj. Their waters are sweet and beautiful, and at the 
bottom of their bed they deposit a real salt, the color of which is as white 
as that of the essence of the water {shwuy UingJ. 

In the time of Seuen-wqp, of the dynasty of the latter Wei (A. D. 500 
to 516), South India sent an ambassador to offer as presents some horses 
of a fine breed. This ambassador stated that the Icingdom produced lions, 
leopards^ panthers, camels, rhinoceroses, and elephants ; that there was 
a species of pearl there, called ho^Ue, similar to talc fyuiumooj, the co. 
lor of which was yellowish red Ctse, ' reddish blue') ; if it is divided, it 
disperses like the wings of the cricket ; if it is heaped up, ou the other 
hand, it becomes compact, like threads of silk strongly woven. There 
were diamonds resembling amethysts ftte-MfuyingJ. When purified a 
hundred times in the fire, without melting, this diamond is used to cut 
jasper (yu stoned There Mere also tortoise-shell fta$^meij, gold CkinJ, 
copper (tungjy iron (t^ffj, lead (yuen)^ tin C^eihJ, fine muslins embroi- 
dered with gold and silver^ ; there are also a variety of odoriferous plants, 
v&hJein, sugar-canes, and all kinds of products; honey-bread (or solid 
honey §), pepper, ginger, and black salt. 

On the west, India carries on a considerable commerce by sea with Ta- 
tsin (the Roman empire), the An-se (or As», 8yrianH) ; some of the In. 
dians come as far as Foo-nan and Keaou-che (T<>nquin), to traffic in coral 
necklaces and pearls of inferior quality (or which only resemble pearls ~ 
sanJcan). These merchants are accustomed to dispense with books of 
accounts (in their commercial transactions). Teeth (elephants' or rhino, 
ceros' ?) anti shells form their articles of exchanjp^e. They have men very 
skilful in magical arts||. The greatest mark of respect which a wife can 
show towards her husband is to kiss his feet and embrace his knees : thid 
is the most energetic and persuasive demonstration of the interior senti- 
ments. In their houses, they have young girls who dance and sing with 
much skilllT. Their king and his ministers {tuu^hin, ministers about the 
aovereign) have a vast number of silk dresses and fine woollen fabrica. 

* These curious details, the extctitude of which may exdte surprise, prove that 
the Chinese historians were better informed than might he. expected of faets and 
dreumstances concerning Central and Western Asia. We are indebted to Mr. 
CoLEBaooKB for the means of ascertaining the accuracy of the Chinese writer, la 
Ikct, the Chinese vrords Sin-taou are but the transcription of the Sanscrit word 
^^Tff SU6t the name of one of the sources of the Ganges. In a memoir on the 

sources of this river, this illustrious and profound Indian scholar cites the following 
passage from the astronomer Bha'skaha Acha'sta: *'The holy stream which 
escapes from the foot of Vishnu, descends from the abode of Vishnu on Mount 
Meru (the Kwan-lun), whence it divides into four currents, and passing through the 
air, it reaches the lakes on the summit of the mountains which sustain them. Under the 
name of SitAt this river joins the Bhadriswa ; as the Alakanamd^^ it enters Bharata. 
varsha (Hindustan) ; as the Ckaekshu, it proceeds to Ketumala, and as the Bhadrm, 
it goes to the Kuru of the north/* -^Siddhinta- Sir 6mani ; Bkavma^Koihay 37 and 38. 

t Mount Meru. " I'he Hindus say that the Ganges falls from heaven upon its 
summit, and thence descends in four currents ; the southern braneh is the Ganges 
of India ; the northern branch, which flows into Turkey, is the BbadrasiraA ; the 
eastern branch is the SitA, and the western is the Chakshu, or Oxus.'*— Wilson, 
Sanscrit Diet., 9nd edit., Art. Meru, The name Meru is the Mcoot of the Greeks. 

t These are, no doubt, the fine brocades, embroidered with gold and silver, for 
whieh Benares is still so celebrated, which continue to constitute an extensive arti. 
de of commerce throughout India, and which European industry, however suoeese* 
fill its efforts to imitate the products of the East, has not yet been able to rivaL 

§ 8h9h*meihf * stone-honey.* 

f These are, no doubt, the nautch- girls. 



1837.] Cktnesf Jeeotmi oflnSa. 67 



Bp drdwet lift hair on tlie top of his head* (like the Chinese women), 
and the rest of the hair he cuts, to make it short. Married men also cat 
their hair, and pierce their ears, to han^ valuable rings in them. The 
Ifeneral practice is to walk on foot. The color of their dress is mostly 
white. The Indians are timid in battle ; their weapons are the bow and 
arrows, and shield ; they have also (like the Chinese) flying or winged 
Udderst* ; and, according as the ground will permit, they follow the rules 
of the wooden oxen and rolling horsesX. They have a written character 
and a literature, and they are well versed in astronomy or the science of 
the heavens, in that of numbers, and in astrology. All the men study the 
instructive books denominated SiShthan, written on the leaves of the tree 
peiUo, intended to preserve a record of thing8$. 

Yang.te, of the Qny dynasty (A. D. 605 to 616), wishing to know the 
western countries (Se*yu), sent Pei-too to endeavour to determine the 
boundaries of the kingdoms of Se-fan (ancient Tibet). This envoy tra- 
versed many countries, but did not penetrate to India, believing that the 
emperor had some animosity against the king of this country, whose 
family was of the race of Ke-le-he, or Cha.le|| : at this period there 
were no troubles, no revolts in his kingdom. 

The grain sowed in the marshy soiU ripens four times a yearV. The 
barley, which grows the highest, exceeds the height of a camel. The 
women wear ornaments of gold and silver on their head, and necklaces of 
pearls. The dead are burnt, and the ashes of their bodies are collected 
and deposited in a place set apart ; or they throw tliem into a waste spot, 
and sometimes cast them into a river : in this manner, funeral ceremonies 
with cakes of flesh of birds, wild animals, fish and tortoises, are dispensed 
with. 

Those who excite revolts and foment rebellions are punished with 
death ; slight crimes are expiated by money. A person who has no filial 
duty (or fails in duty towards his parents), suffers mutilation of hands^ 
feet, nose, ears, and is exiled beyond the frontiers. There is a written 
character and a literature (in this country) ; the study of astronomical 
seieneea has made great progress there ; there are astronomical books in 

* To form the ^(^ jaid. See tbe laws of MrMV, book 11. v. 319, ice. 

t Pe-te; this is a scaling-ladder, of whicii a representation may be seen in the 
Iri MtUimre CkvaoU, figs. 48 and 49. 

X M^h-meaoUf and lew^ma. These are machines of war, of which we know not 
the form. 

§ The following is the Chinese text of this important passage :— 

The two ChineM characters (9nd and 3rd of 3nd \i^t)sah'than are a transcription of the 
Sanscrit wor^ f^lTTWr Siddhdnta, which signifies ' established truth,' ' demonstrable 

eottdasion,' and which forms the titles of many scientific books, as the Sdrua-Sid' 
dkAnim, a celebrated treatise on astronomy ; the Brahma SiddhAnta ; the Siddhdnta 
Kmtmmdif &c. The leaves of trees, pet'-to, (7, 8, of line 3) are the olas, on which most 

of the Sanscrit M3S. are written, especially those in Telinga characters which come 

from Southern India. Pn-/e may be tbe transcription of if^Tf pitOf * yellow,* or 

iff^f^ pffoJka, the Sanscrit name of the aloe, the leaves of which are well adapted 

to the purpose indicated by the Chinese author, especially for writing traced with a 
style. 
H That is, the royal and military caste of Kshatriyas ; IfpnrirrlTr J^'hatMya jdti. 

% Taou, * grain that is planted amongst water ; the paddy of the southern re- 
gions.'— Aforruon's Diet. 

X 2 



68 Chmese Account of India, [Jaw. 

the Fan (or Saoscrit) language ; leaves of the peuto are used to preserve 
a record of things*. 

There is a spot m this kingdom, where are said to be, and where are 
pointed out, ancient vestiges of the foot of Fuh (or Buddha); in their 
creed, the followers of this religion affirm that these vestiges of Buddha 
really exist. They relate that, by carefully reciting certain prayers, they 
may acquire the shape of dragons, and rise into the clouds. 

In the years tnoo tih, of the Tan^r dynasty (A. D. 618 to 697), there were 
great troubles in the kingdom. The king, She-lo.ye-tot. made war and 
fought battles such as had never been seen before. The elephants were not 
unsaddled in their rspid marches ; the soldiers quitted not their shields, 
because this king had formed the project of uniting the four Indias under 
his rule. All the provinces which faced the north submitted to him. 

At this same period of the Tang dynasty, a zealous follower of Fuh-too 
(Buddha), surnamed Heuen-chwang, arrived in this kingdom (of India). 
8he-lo-ye-to caused him to enter his presence, and said to him : " Your 
country has produced holy (great) men. The king of Tsin{, who has 
routed the armies of his enemies, ought to be well satisfied ; he may ba 
compared to me ; tell me what sort of man he is ?" Heuen.chwang re- 
plied by vaunting the exploits of Tae.tsung, who had put down revolt 
and reduced the four nations of barbarians to submission to him. The 
Indian prince, full of fire and energy, was highly satisfied with this recital, 
and observed : '' I will send (aa embassy) to the court of the emperor of 
the Bast.' 

In fact, in the 1 5th of the years ching kwan (A, D. 642), ambassadors 
from the king of the country called Mo.kea-to (Magadha) came to offer 
books to the emperor (Tae.t8ung), who directed that an officer of cavalry 
of inferior rank, named Leang.hwae*king, should go at a prescribed time 
to assure the (king of India) of the peace and harmony which subsisted 
between them. She-lo-ye-to, surprised, inquired of the men of the king, 
dom (Indians), saying: *' From the time of antiquity to the present day, 
have ambassadors from Mo.ho.chin.tan§ come into our kingdom ?" They 
all replied : '* None have hitherto come ; what is termed the kingdom of 
the Middle, is Mo-ho-chin-tan." Whereupon, the king, going to meet the 
ambassador, bent his knee in token of obedience and respect {md^pae) to 
receive the letter fchaotuihooj of the emperor of China, which he placed 
on the top of his head. Ambassadors (from the king of Magadha) came 
again, and directly, to the court. An imperial order directed an assistant 

* Tills is a repetition of what has been before said ; but, as the object of Ma- 
twan-lin was to combine all the ancient documents and all the authorities known 
to him, which could tend to establish a fact, we only see in this a fresh proof of 
the exactness of the various Chinese accouuts. Some of the Sanscrit astronomical 
treatises were translated into Chinese under the Tang dynasty. 

t This proper name might be intended to represent the Sanscrit ^B^^f^cf SH' 

rahita. It remains to be seen whether a king of this name reigned in India at this 
period. [May it not rather be assimilated to the Siladitya who reigned in Sauraah- 
tra in the 6th century ? See M. J acqvbt's remarks in the last volume. —Ed.] 

X Tsin is the name of the dynasty which reigned over China from B.C. 349 to 309, 
during which the Chinese power caused it to be known for the first time in Central 
and Western Asia, its conquests being extended to the Caspian Sea and Bengal, in 
the reign of Tsin-sfae-hwang-te, the celebrated Burner of the Books. The name of 
this dynasty has formed that of CAtna, in Sanscrit ^^ China, which occurs in 
the Laws of Mbnu, book x. si. 44, and therefore at a date anterior to the third ecu- 
tury before our era, which may be easily explained in referring the name of Chitta 
to the period of the foundation of the kingdom of Tsin in the western province of 
Shen-se, about B. C. 1000. 

$ In Sanscrit, Mahd-China, * great China;* in the modern dialects of India, 
Mahd-Chin'TSian, * the country of great China,' 



1837.] Ckinne jteeamt of India. 69 

• 

of the department of wut, nained Le^ to take eognisanee of the letter of 
fabmiauon (brought hj the Indian ambaaeadors), and to make a report 
open it. The ministers reconducted the ambassadors without the city, 
and it was ordered that in the capital perfume should be burnt as they 
vent along. 

8he-lo.ye»to, surrounded by his roinisteni, received, with his face turn, 
ed to the east, the imperial document Cehaou^oeJ ; he again sent a pre. 
sent of pearls of fire (ho^choo), yUhJein plants, and tlie tree poo^te*, 

TheSSnd year, of the same period (i. e. A: D.648), the emperor of China 
sent a superior officer, named Wang.heuen.tse, as ambassador into this 
kingdom (of Magadha), in order that the principles of humanity and juk. 
tice, which had been diffused in that country, sliould have a protector and 
representative there. But before his arrival, She-Icy e-to was dead ; the 
people of the kingdom had revolted, and the minister (of the deceased 
Ling), named Na-foo.te..o.lo.na.8hun, had taken his place. He sent troops 
to oppose the entry of Ueuen-tse (the Chinese ambassador) ; under these 
circumstances, the latter took with him some tens of cavalry, and attack. 
ed the troops (of the usurper), but could not vanquish them, and his iittle 
force was exterminated ; and the result was, that the tribute received 
(by the Chinese ambasuidors) in the different kingdoms (he had visited) 
was taken. Heuen.tse retired alone, with all expedition, to the western 
frontiers of Too-fan (Tibet) ; and he ordered fkeaou^chaouj the neigh. 
boring kingdoms to furnish him with troopst. Too-fan sent him 1,000 
armed men ; Nee-po-lo^ furnished 7,0C0 cavalry. Heuen-tse, after or- 
ganising his force, advanced to give battle as far as the city of Too-poo. 
houlo§, which he took by assault in three days. He caused 3,000 persons 
to be beheaded, and 10,000 were drowned in the river. O-lo-njushun 
escaped into the kingdom of Wei. He there rallied his dispersed troops 
and returned to the charge. The (Chinese) general made him prisoner, 
with 1,000 men, whom he beheaded. The remainder of the people retired 
with the king's wives to the banks of the river Kan-to-wei||. Thehuma. 
nity of the Chinese general {sze^jin^) attacked them, and created a great 
disorder amongst this population. He likewise captured the concubines 
and children of the king, as well as other prisoners, men and women, to 
the number of 12,000, besides animals of all kinds, amounting to 80,000. 

* The words poo-te are probably the transcription of the name of a tree in Sans- 
critf perhaps the vata, a sacred tree employed in religious ceremonies, and of which 
mentioD is often made in Sanscrit poetry. What confirms this conjecture is the 
following passage in Kang-he's dictionary, under the character poo : **poo.fe is the 
name of a tree which grows in the kingdom of Mo-kea-to (Magadha)." The same 
dictionary adds, that in the books of Fnh, it is said, '* Poo-te-sa-to (Bodhisattva) 
signifies the essence of what is manifest, declared ; by abbreviation, we sny * Poo* 



I t* 



The term Bodhisaitva, in Sanscrit, signifies literally, ' trnth of intelligence :' 
it is the name given to certain Buddhist patriarchs, who have raised themselves to 
the state of diyine sanctification. 

'f This aathorltatiTe demand, if it be not introduced here, as the facts, indeed, 
show, to gratify Chinese yanity, would denote that, at this period, Tibet was alrea- 
dy dependent apon the Chinese empire as well as several other neighbouring king- 
doms. 

t NepAla, or Nepal: see the account given by Ma.twan>lin (book 335, fol. 14), 
in the translation by M. Rs^musat, Nouv. Mil. Asiat, t. i. p. 193. 

f Too (the first charaeter) may be read efta, or t$a. If it be rend cha, the pro- 
nanciation of the epoch in question, Cka-poO'ko^lo would be an exact transcriptioa 
of Champaran^ a city placed by Abul-Fazil in Bahar, the ancient kingdom of Maga- 
dha, and probably the same as ChaprOf on the Ganges, higher up than Patna ; for 
Chopra is but a. variation of Champaran, as the latter is lilcewiseof Champaranugora, 

I This is uo doubt the GodAveri, which falU into the Gulf of Bengal, to the east- 
ward of Masolipatam. 

t The humanity is, at the least, a singular expression to be used in these circnm- 
staaees ; yet the test admits of no other sense. 



70 Chinese AeeowU of In^. [Jak. 

He rahjeeted 580 eiti«i and towns, and hiR power grew 00 formidable, that 
the kinfT of the kingdom of eastern India, named She.keaou.mo*, sent 
him 30,000 oxen and hor^efi to feed and mount hia army, as well as bows, 
sabres, precious collars, and cords of silk. The kingdom of Kea-md-loof 
furnished different articles, with a chart of the country {, amongst which 
was a portrait of Laou-tsze. 

Heuen.tse took with him OJo.na.shun, to present him to the emperor 
(as a vanquished enemy). There had been an imperial order, which pre- 
scribed that the ancestors should be informed hereof, in the temple dedi- 
cated to them ; and Heuen.tse was elevated, at the court, above the ma- 
gistrates (ta^fiio) of all ranks. 

In bis travels, the Chinese ambassador had encountered a doctor named 
Na-lo-urh.po.8o-mei§, who told him that he was 200 years old, and pos- 
sessed the recipe of immortality. The emperor|| (having learned tbia 
intelligence) immediately qtiitted the hall of audience, in order to de- 
spatch an envoy in search of the philosophical stone (ian). He directed 
the president of the ministry of war to furnish the envoy with all the ne. 
cessary instructions and provisions to enable him to prosecute his journey. 
This envoy traversed " the world" on horseback, to collect supernatural 
drugs, as well as the most rare and extraordinary stones. He travelled 
over all the kingdoms of the Po-lo-mun (BrahmansV in the country culled 
the Waters of Pan-cha-falf, which (waters) come rrom the midst of exX^ 
careous rocks fM!A.Ac0i0, 'stone-mortar,' or 'rock'), where are elephants 
and men of stone to guard them. The waters are of seven different spe- 
cies; one is hot, another very cold (or frozen, ling). Plants and wood 
may be consumed in it ; gold and steel ma}* be fused in it ; and a person 
who dips his hand into it will have it entirely burnt off. This water is 
poured into vases by means of skulls of camels, which turn round. There 
is also a tree there, called iBOoJLaeJIo, the leaves of which are like varnish 
or blacking. It grows upon the top of scarped and desert mountains. 
Enormous serpents guard it ; and those who wander in the neighborhood 
cannot approach it. A person who wishes to gather the leaves employs 
different arrows to strike the branches of the tree ; the leaves then fi^. 
h multitude of birds also take the leaves into their beaks, and carry them 
a great way : it is necessary, in like manner, to direct arrows against them, 
to obtain these leaves. There are other curiosities in this country of the 
same kind. 

* Sri>kumAra? 

\ This kingpdora must be that of Kl(inA-Hipa, mentioned in the Sanscrit ioserlp* 
tion on the column of Allahabad, aud Tvhich formed the western part of the kingdom 
of Assam, oa the f ran tiers of Tibet. The syllable k6, is well represented by ibec, as 
ma is by mo^ and r4 by loo ; the last syllable pa is not transcribed. It is worthy of 
remark, that it is a general law of transcription from Sanscrit into Chinese, that 
the short a should be represented in the latter by 0. 

X This curious circumstance is a ground for thinking (for it is not a mere eonjae- 
ture), that there existed, and perhaps still exist, in India, native geographical charts 
and works on geography ; but all these articles must have undergone the fate of 
the royal archives, where they were carefully preserved and concealed from the eager 
eyes of European conquerors. 

% The ilrst two words of this transcription represent faithfUly the Sanserit word 
if^ nora, ' man,* which enters into the composition of many proper names ; but 

the Sanscrit valae of the other four syllables is more difficult to determine, 
li Tae-tsung, who reigned from A. D. 626 to 6i9. 
\ This is a very exact transcription of the Persian word i^l^X) Panjdb, the 

* five waters,* or 'fite rivers* (in Sanscrit PaacAanoada), which is the desiirnatioa 
given to a large ami fertile province of India. The last syllable /a, in the Chinesa 
toanscription, represents the more faithfully the syllable dh^ inasmuch as the conso- 
nants composing it are two labials very often taken one for the other. 



1 837.] Ckbuie Aeanmt of India. 7 1 

TWe drug (of innKMirtiility) could not he Ibiind or rerifitd hy this envor, 
vlie, being* recalled, could not proceed farther, and returned and died at 
Chang'..gan (the capital). • 

In the time of Kaou.tsnng (A. D. 650 to 684), a Loo-kea-ye-to*, of the 
country of Woo-chaf, in eastern India, cnme likewise to offer homage at 
the court of the emperor, givinf^ himself out as a posnes^or of the recipe 
of immortality, and as being able to transform himself into lieutenant 
general of armies. 

In the third of the rears kien^/ungX (A. D. 667), the Five Indies (or 
five kingdoms of India) sent ambassadom to the court of tlie emperor. In 
the years ktte-^yuen (A. I>. 713 to 74S), an nmliassador from Central India 
prooeeded three t-mes as far wfi the extremity of southern India, and came 
only onc«s to offer iiirdM ui five colors that could talk§. He applied for 
aid against the Ta.8he|| (or Arabs) and the Too-fan (or Tibetans), offer, 
ing to take the command of the auxiliary troops. The Emperor Heuen. 
t»ttng (who reigned fn»m A. D. 713 to 756) conferred upon him the rank 
of geoeral-in-chief. The Indian amb^issadors said to him : " the Fan (or 
Tibetan) barbarians are captivated only by clothes and equipments. £m. 
peror I I must have a long, silk, embroidered robe, a leathern belt decora. 
ted with gold, and a bag in the shape of a fish." All these articles were 
ordered by the emperor. 

Northern India also sent an embassy to the court of the emperor. 

At the close of the years kan.ywn (about A. D. 756), the bank of the 
river {Ha-iung, the Ganges ?) gave way and disappeared. 

The third of the years kwanff^shun, of the modern Chows (A. D. 953) 
a SS.munY (priest of Buddha), of western India, with several priests of 
his religion, representing sixteen different tribes or nations (of India), 
bnMiglit tribute, amongst which were some horses of the country. 

The third of the years kan^ilh, of the Sung dynasty (A. D. 966), a Bud. 
dhist priest of Tsang..chow, named Taou-yuen, who had returned from 
the western countries (Se.yu), had brought from thence a portion of 



• That is, a i^^i^fnf^ LdkdpmNku, or follower of the atheistical systeai of 

philosophy foandcd by ChirwilEa, entitled LdkAjfoim (see Mr. CoLBBaooxa's Essays 
on the Philoso|»hy of the Hindos). The suffix As, which forms eoUective names ia 
Sanscrit, Is represented in Chinese by the character ehe, which serves in like manner 
to form adjectives and collective names in Chinese. 

f A kingdom situated near the mouths of the Ganges. 

X There is aa error here in the text ; the years Mea-yiiay were only two, 666 
8ad667. 

I These were of eourse parrots. 

B Ta-sAe, ' great eaters,' (rather t6zit Arabian, J. P.) is the name by which the 
Chinese designate the Arabs. This carious passage throws great light on this 
obscure period of Indian history, and eonirms a fact hitherto 'seareely noticed, 
bat which has been asserted by two Arabian authors, kiMhtut and ABOLrxoik, 
namely, the iavasion of India by the Arabs at the begianiag of the eighth een- 
tary. *' Mabombd bbnCassim,*' says the former, in his history of the Sarrasins, 
** took India; he obtained possession of the oountries a^joiniag the Siad (Indus), 
gave battle to Darau, who was kiag of them, vanquished him, n»ade him prisoner, 
and put him to death.*' The other, in his Mnsnlman Annals* traaslated by Rbiskb, 
says : *' M ahombd bbm Oassim overrun India as coaqneror.*' Bat the following 
is a passage, curious in another respect, concerning the same fact ; it is taken from 
the History of the Empire of the Khalifi, translated from Tabari ( lurlcish edition), 
for a knowledge of which we are ia<lebted'to M. Rbinano : ** This same year, 67 
(A. D. 709) was gloriously terminated by the defeat of 900,000 barbarians, who had 
catered Uie eoua&y of the Musnlmans, commanded by Bbobaboon, nephew of the 
essperor of ChJaa. The Mnsnbaans coafessed that they owed this important victo- 
ry to the ncotsetioa of God." 

f This Indian title is more frequently written Sha^mtm (with different characters) | 
it is a dose traaseriptiea of ths Sanscrit J^oaidaa, (rather» SramaM. J. P.) 



72 Chinese AeeouHt of India. [Jan. 

■ 

the body of Ffih*, vasee of crystal, and Sanscrit writings on leaves of 
Pei-to, to the number of forty, which he presented to the emperor. 
Taou-yuen returned to the western countries -(of Asia) in the years 
Uetufuh (A. D. 943 to 944) ; be was twelve years on his travels, wander, 
ing in the Five Zin-too for six years. The Five Zin-too (divisions of 
India) are the sart.e as Teen-choot (India). He brought back an abun. 
dance of books, to understand the use of which he exerted all his eifortsu 
The emperor Tae.tsoo (who reigned from A. D. 950 to 953) summoned 
him into his presence, for the purpose of interrogating him respecting 
the manners and customs of the nations amongst whom he had travelled ; 
the height of the mountains, and extent of the rivers. He answered all 
the questions one by one. For four years, a priest of Buddha, ho dedi- 
cated all his cares to one hundred and fifty-seven persons. On his re. 
turn to the palace, he said he had been desirous of returning into the 
iiestern countries in search of the books of F&h (or Buddha) ; that be 
had found some of tliem where he had travelled, in the provinces of Kan- 
sha. Se.J«oo, and others ; that these provinces (oftow) produced tortoises, 
herbs, and woods, in great abundance, the export of which yielded the 
revenue of the kingdom. Moreover, he passed beyond the kingdom of 
Poo-loo.sha nnd of Ke:i.Bhe-me|. Orders were everywhere given that 
gulden should be provided him on his route. 

After the yeuris hne^-jmou ( iibout A. D. 969), a Buddhist priest of In. 
dia brought some Sanscrit books (or Indian presents§), and envoys 
continued to bring them from thence. During the winter of the.eigfatli 
year, the son of the king of Eastern India, named Jang-kee-kwang.lo (?) 
dime to court to bring tribute. The king of the kingdom of the Law in 
India II happening to die, his eldest son succeeded him ; all the other 
sons of the deceased king quitted th^ir royal abode, and became priests 
of Buddha, and returned no more to reside in their native kingdom. 
One of the sons of this Indian king, named Man-choo.she-le^, came 
into the kingdom of the Middle (China) as a Buddhist priest. The 
Emperor Tae-tsoo ordered that he should be provided with an apart, 
ment in the palace of his ministers of state, that he should be well treat- 
ed whilst he remained in the capital, and that he should have as much 
money as he required. The body of Buddhist priests conceived a jealousy 
against him ; and being unable to repel the false accusations, of which 
he was the object, he requested permission to return to his native king, 
dom, which was granted by the emperor, who published a proclamation 
on the subject. Man-choo-she-ie, at first, was much alarmed at their 
intrigues; but when all the Buddhist , priests knew the meaning of the 

• 

• 7Vft-^sA-sftay-2«-y<A • the characters thay-le are the transcription of the Sans- 
crit word nftK 'S*^*'»''«t * body,' or VtCtf^ST Shdririn, * corporeal.' Dr. Morri- 
son, in his Dictionary (Vol. I. Part i. p. 530)," states on an authority unknown to us, 
but apparently to be relied on : ** Skay-le-ta, a Pagoda, raised over certain relics or 
nearly ashes of Bnddha ; these, it is said, are contained in a gold box ; if, on being 
opened, they exhibit a dingy appearance, It is deemed a bad omen ; if a red ap* 
nearance, a good omen." 

t Another transcription of the Sanscrit f^TSI SindhUf the river Indus, wheaca 

the European and Arabic name of India. ^ ,, . ,. v ,. 

""" ^ .... *« 1- J 4n,_.v ^'^^ Ma-twau-lin, book 



Mat fol 15, and M. Rk'musat's translation, Now, Milanges Aaiat, t. 1. p. 196. 

L Che-fan-lae, * PrescnU from Che-fan.' It is not said in the text what was 
the nature of the articles brought ; but it is fair to presume, that they were Bad- 
dhist books in Sanscrit, which were subsequently translated into Chinese. 

II Tien-choo'che-f^'hcd, * the kindom of the Law of India ;' apparently the king- 
dom of the Law of Bnddha, i. c. Magadha. 

^ In Sanscrit ^JS^ Manjwri, a term which denotes a Buddhist saint. 



1 837.] Ckmei0 Aewunt of India. 73 



imperial proclanuition, they were disconcerted in their projects. The 
Buddhist priest prolonged his stay for a few months, and then departed. 
fle said that it was his intention to embark on the southern sea (perhaps 
at Canton), in a merchant vessel, to return to his own country. It is not 
known where he eventually went. 

On the 7th of the years tae^fingMng~kwd {* the kingdom in great peace 
and prosperity*), equivalent to A. D. 983, a Buddhist priest of £-chow, 
■amed Kwang.yuen, returned from India ; he brought from thence a let. 
ter from the king, MooL-se-nang*, to the emperor (of China). The em. 
peror ordered that an Indian Buddhist priest should translate the letter, 
and acquaint him with the contents of it. The letter was to this effect ; 
*' 1 have lately learned, that in the kingdom of Che^na, there existed a 
king, rooet illustrious, most holy, most enlightened ; whose majesty and 
person subsist in themselves and by themselves. 1 blush every moment 
at my unfortunate position, which hinders me from visiting your court, 
in order to pay my respects to you in person. Remote as 1 am, I can 
only cherish, with hope, a regard for Che^naf ; whether you are standing 
or sitting, in motion or at rest, (i. e. in all circumstances of life,) I invoke 
ten thousand felicities on your holy person}." 

Kwang-yuen also brought certain rare drugs, diamonds, talismans, amu*. 
lets, to obtain good fortune, and secure the bearer against danger, as well as 
holy images of She-kea§, vestments without sleeves, called AreeuMa, some, 
times worn by the priests of Buddha in the exercise of their functions, 
and various articles used by the hand in eating, which he desired to be hum. 
bly offered to the august emperor of China, '' wishing him all kinds of 
happiness ; a long life ; that he might always be guided in the ' right 
way ;' and that all his wishes might be fulfilled : in the middle of the 
ocean of life aud of death, most of those who cross it are engulphed||.'' 
Kwang-yuen then presented to the emneror, in person, a portion (or 
reliques) of the body of Shckea. He lilcewise translated and explain. 
ed the entire contents of the letter, brought by a Buddhist priest, 
from the same kiiigilom (India) ; the expressions and sentiments are the 
same as in that of Moo.se.nang. The bearer of this document learned 
that it was from the kingdom of Woo.teen.nang (or Woo-chin.nang) ; 
that this kingdom belonged to Yin.too, of the north ; that in twelve days, 
from the west, you arrive at the kingdom of Khan-tclo (Candahar) ; 
twenty days further to the west, you reach the kingflom of Nung.go.loi. 
ho.lo ; ten days further to the west, you come to the kingdom of Lao.po; 
twelve days more to the west, is the kingdom of Go-je<-nAng ; and further 
to the west, that of Po.sze (Persia) ; after reaching the western sea 
(the Persian gulph), from northern Yin-too, in 120 days' journey, you 
arrive at the Central Yin-too ; from thence to the westward, at the dis. 

* In Sanscrit, Afaftd-StnAa, * Great Lion/ an epithet often given to Indiaa kingt 
sr, perhaps, rather the traDscriptiou of Mad fiu-Hin ha, the name of a king of Ren- 
gid, mentioned in the Ayeen Akberi, We shall make here but one observation re- 
specting the law of transcription of foreign names in Chinese, for the benefit of 
tbOftS who have not studied the language; namely, that the Chinese nasal tenni- 
aation atig has the same value as the anuswara in Sanscrit, or the labial if m at the 

end of words. It is, therefore, equivalent to the Sanscrit accusative : a termination 
which has become general in the dialect of the south of India. 

•f The first of the two characters which express this name (and which is an ac- 
curate representation of the Sanscrit '^\9( China) is differently written in tWo 

places ; both are pronounced Che. 

X This letter has been cited by Dr. Mobjlsion, in his Vieio of China, but from a 
different author ; from Ma-wan-lin. « 

i ShAkya-muni, patronymic name of Buddha. 

H This, we believe, to be the exact sense of this Buddhist phraseology. 



74 Chineie Account rf India, [Jam* 

taooe of three Mnp*, is the kingdom of HoJo^wei ; still farther to the 
west, in twelve days' journey, you reaoh the kingdom of Kea-lo-na-keu^ 
je (Karana?) and in twelve days' journey more to the west, 70a oomO 
to the kingdom of MoJouwei (Malwa ; in Sanscrit Mdiava) ; further to 
the west, twenty days' journey, is the kingdom of Woo-jan-ne f Oujeia 
or, Sanscrit Ujjayanf). In another twenty-five days' journey still to the 
west, you visit the kingdom of Lo-lo ; and forty days' journey further to 
the west, the kingdom of Soo.lo.to (Surat); in eleven days' journey further 
to the west, you get to the Western sea. This makes in the whole a six 
moons' journey from Central Yin-too. When at Southern Yin.too, in 
ninety days' journey to the west, you arrive at the kingdom of Kung 
kea-na ; and in one day further to the west, you come to the sea. From 
Southern Yin.too, in six months' journey to the south, you reach the 
South Sea (the sea of China). This was what was related by the Indiaa 
envoy. 

The eighth year (983), a priest of Buddha, master of the lawf, came 
from India, bringing books. In traversing part of the island of Suma. 
traj, he met with the Buddhist priests Me.mo-lo, CheUe-yoo-poo-to ; he 
charged them (as superior priests?) with a letter, which he wished to 
transmit to the kingdom of the Middle, with a great number of trans, 
lated books. The emperor caused them to come to court to gratify hui 
curiosity. The master of the law of Buddha (/d) again met with some 
mendicant Buddhists, wearing vestments without sleeves, and valuable 
head-dresses in the form of serpents§. He returned with them on their 
journey to India. A letter of recommendation (peaou) was given him, to 
enable him to traverse the kingdom of Tibet, with letters of credence, 
delivered by the emperor, to present to the king of the kingdom of San. 
fuh-tsi or Sumatra. From this remote country he proceeded to the so^ 
vereign (eAoo) of the kingdom of Go.koo.lo, and that of the kingdom of 
8ze.ma.kl^m6ng-ko.lan (the Mongul empire ?). He recommended Tan. 
lo to the king of the Western Heaven ||, and his son formed the desiga 
of sending him, by his means, works on the spirits and geniL 

In the years yungJte (984 to 988), a Buddhist priest of Wei-chow, 
named Tsoo-hwan, returning from the western countries of Asia {Se»$u), 
with another Buddhist priest from a distant country, named Mih-tan-lo, 
where he had been presented to the king of Northern Yin-too, seated 
on a throne of diamonds, and named Nallan-to, brought some books. 
There was besides a Brahman priest, named Yung.she (' eternal age'), 
and a Persian infidel {gae^taou), named 0-le-yan, who came together 
to the capital. Yung.iSie said that his native country was called Le. It 
was ascertained that the family name of the king of this kingdom was 
Ya-Io-woo-te ; that his first name was 0>jTh-ne.fo ,* that he wore a yellow 
dress, and had on his head a cap of gold, adorned with seven precious 
gems. When he goes out, he mounts an elephant ; he is preceded hj 
courier, with musicHl instruments on their shoulders ; the crowd rush 
into the temple of Fuh, where he distributes gifts to the poor, and sue 

* The European Chinese dictionaries do not give the value of this itinerary mea- 
sure, la the Dictionary of Kang-he, it is stated to be a measure of distance, but no 
equivalent is stated. 

t Sang-fd ; in Sanscrit, Sangha and Dharma (the priest, or religious meetiog), 
and the law. 

t San-fik'tsu 

§ ** Valuable head-dresses (or caps), in the form of serpents," are, doubtless, 
the shawls which the modern Muhanunadans, as well as the Hindus, wrap round 
their heads. * 

II Tsan'tan-lo-Me-HeH'toang, 



1 637.] Ckmue Account of InHrn. 9S 



eoar to thoM who need it. Hit concubine was named Mo-ho.ne ; she 
wore a red dress, adorned with ffold filai^ree work. She goes out but 
once a year, and distributes gifts freely. People flock to attend the king 
and his concubine, and raise shouts of joy as they pass. There are four 
ministers to administer all the affairs of the kingdom, who are irremova- 
ble. The ^we kinds of grain and the six kinds of edible fruit, are the 
same as the Chinese. They use copper money for purposes of commerce. 
They have a literature and books, which are long and are rolled up as in 
China, except that the leaves are not pierced and attached one to another. 

From their kingdom, six months' journey to the East, you arrive at 
the kingdom of the TH..she (Arab) ; in two mooos more, you get to Se. 
chow (the Western Isle) ; in three moons more, you arrive at Hea-chow 
(the Isle of Summer). O-le y^n savs, that the king of his native coun- 
try was entitled hVuy'&i (Black-dress) ; that his family name was Chang, 
and his first name Le^moo ; that he wore silk dresses, embroidered and 
painted in different colors ; that he wore each only two or three days, 
resaming them once. The kingdom has nine ministers, irremovable, who 
direet state affairs. Commerce is carried on by barter, no money being 
used. 

From this kingdom, six months' journey to the East, you arrive at the 
country of the Brahmans*. 

The second of the years the^aou (996), some Buddhist priests from In. 
dia, who arrived in ships as far as the mouth of the river (cAs-^/in), bring- 
ing to the emperor a brass bell and a copper bell, a statue of Fuht, and 
some Fan (Indian) books, written upon leaves of the peuto tree, the 
language of which is not understood. 

The third and ninth of the year Urn Mng M085 to 1031), seme Bud- 
dhist priests of Western Yiii-too, lovers of wisaom, knowledge, sincerity, 
and other virtues of this kind^, brought Fan books § as presents, revered 
as canonical. The emperor gave to each a piece of yellow stuff, to wrap 
roand the body, in the form of a band. 

The second moon of the fifth year some Sang^fH, io the number of five, 
denominated ' fortunate' and ' happy,' and by other epithets of the same 
nature, brought presents of Fan books. The emperor gave them pieces 
of yellow stuff to make trailing robes for them. 

The third of the years king^yew (1036), nine Buddhist priests, called 
' the virtuous,' ' the exalted/ &c., brought as tribute, Fan books and 
bones of Fuh, with teeth, copper, and statues of Poo.sa (Boddhisatwas) : 
the emperor gave them caps and bands. 

[To be continued,"] 

* Here ends the flnt narrative of the Tuen'Meen-luy-han. 

f This trafle in images of Buddha eontianes to the present day* as maybe proved 
bj the well-known eirenmstanee of the large stone statue seised on its way down 
the river from Patneit at the breaktag out of the Bormess war, and restored from 
the asusenm, wherein it was deposited, only three years ago. It would be curious 
to aaeertain whether any Buddhist images in Ckinn bear the N^arl Inscription ye 
ihttrma JJiu, &c.» like those dug up at Tagomng in Ava, — Ep. 
These are translations of Sanscrit Buddha epithets. 
Fm^eAoo^king, * classics! Indian books.' 



I 



L 2 



76 Proeeedingt of the Anaiic Soekty. [Jam. 

X. — Proceedings of the Aeiatic Society. 

Weineeday Evening, the let February, 1837. 

The Rev. Dr. Mill, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Mr. J. CuRNiNy Captain F. Jbnkins, Mr. Gborob HriiL, and Mr. Rioa- 
ARD Walker, Captain Edward Sanders, Bibus Ra'mna'th rAooRS and 
pRASANNAKUMAR Tagorb, proposed at the last meeting, were ballotted 
for, and duly elected Members of the Asiatic Society. 

Mr. J. Mill, and Mr. W. Craoboft, were proposed by Mr. J. Prinsbp^ 
seconded by Dr. Mill. 

Mr. P. A« Lair, proposed at the last meeting, was, upon the favorable 
report of the Committee of Papers, elected an Honorary Member of the 
Society. 

The following letter from Sir Alexander Johnston, Chairman of th« 
Committee of Correspondence, Royal Asiatic Society, was read. 

Royal A$iaiic Society, Grafton Street, Bond Street, Jmme, 1836. 
Mt Lords and Gbntlembn, 

The vast extent, fertility, and populoosness of our Indian possewiont, are 
known, in a general waj, to all the world. A glance, indeed, at the map willihew 
that tbeir extremes of latitude may, without exaggeration, be indicated by tho 
distance from Gibraltar to the farthest point of Scotland ; and that the measura 
of tbeir extent, from west to east, will be nearly found in a line drawn from the 
Bay of Biscay to the Black Sea. Lying between the 5th and 81st degree of north 
latitude, with almost every conceivable variety of position and exposure, they 
present a range of soil and climate greatly exceeding that which is to be found 
within the bounds of Europe. They embrace, in truth, the utmost limits of 
vegetable life, from the burning heat of the desert to the point of perpetual 
congelation : presenting, in one quarter, the loftiest mountains in the world ; and, 
in another, vast alluvial plains, intersected by the natural channels of many 
noble rivers, with a corresponding vsriety of productions belonging both to 
tropical and northern regions. Not less than eighty millions of people arc sub- 
ject to the dominion of England : already they produce (though with imperfect 
skill; most of the articles which form the great staples of the import trade of 
this country, as materials of its manufacture, or as the objects of comfort and 
luxury to the great body of its inhabitants, of which cotton, silk, indigo, sugar, 
coffee, and tobacco, may be meutioned as pre-eminent ; and they offer an assur- 
ed prospect of an almost boundless market for the produce of English manufaco 
turing skill, if the capabilities of their country be drawn forth, and tbeir indus- 
try be duly instructed, directed, and fostered. 

But though these general truths be readily acknowledged, their practical 
application is very imperfectly understood. Few men in England really know 
what India does or can produce, with sufficient precision, at least, to jostily 
commercial speculation. Few in India know what England requires ; and none 
of the lights of modem science having been applied to the agriculture of the 
former country, its productive powers have, as yet, been very imperfectly dcve. 
loped. 

Believing that the interests of both countries may be very importantly pro- 
moted by an interchange of knowledge, and especially by communicating to 
India the information and stimulus which are alone wanting to the full deve- 
lopment of its vast resources, it has been resolved by the Royal Asiatic Society^ 
to constitute a distinct Section, for the following, and other similar purposes s 
provided the necessary funds can be raised for giving adequate effect to the 
design. 

1st. The examination of the natural and agricultural prod«cts of India, 
available for the purposes of commerce and art. 



1837.] Prae0eimg9 •f tke Asiatic SociHy. 97 

2ndl7. Inquiry into th* eiuBet of the general inferiority of the staple articlea 
of Indian commerce. 

Srdly. The iatrodaction of new articles and processes from analogons climates 
in other parts of the world. 

The Committee of Correspondence of the Royal Asiatic Society beg leave to 
bring the circnmstanoe to your notice ; tmstiog, confidently, on your sealons 
•npport of a measnre, calculated to promote objects aiilie interesting to the 
patriot and the philanthropist. 

Of the means of support, the most acceptable would, of coarse, be such an 
aeoesaion of new members, European or Asiatic, as would at ooce provide tlie 
necessary funds, and as would afford the requisite contribution of knowledge and 
experience in the various branches of inquiry to which the labors of the Soc* 
tion are to be directed. But the Society will be most happy to receive ths 
tender of the aid (whether in knowledge or funds) of affiliated So«ietied, pursu- 
ing the same beneficial objects, or any other co-operation or assistauce which 
yon may have the goodness to offer. 

For the fuller explanation of the scheme in question, the Committee direct 
me to transmit to yon the accompanying printed papers ; and I shall be happy 
to afford you any farther information in my power, in regard to it, that yuu 
may require. 

I have the honor to be. 
My Lords and Ge otlemen, 
Your most obedient humble servant, 

AlIXANDIE JOBWBTOir, 

Chairman ^fthe Committee qf Comepondewe, R. A. S. 
Jb the Pretident, Vice- Preeidente and Memdere oftheAHaiie Society ofBenfol. 

JRetoived, that a portion of the papers be made over to the Agricultural 
Society^ and that general circulation be given to the Royal Asiatic Socie- 
ty's profipectus. 

A letter from Mr. Alexander Vattemore^ addressed to the Governor 
General of India, was read, proposing to negociate a general system of 
exchangee of duplicates between the various libraries and museums of the 
world. 

Huoived, that copies of the library catalogue now printing be furnished 
to Mr. Vattemobb, in furtherance of his laudable design. 

The following protest from members of the Society residing in the 
interior was communicated by Colonel J. Colyiic. 

ZHetentient, 

It sppears to us that in a society constituted as the Asiatic Society of Ben- 
gal is, the existence of a fund vested in Government Securities is absolutely 
necessary for the permanence of the foundation. 

We consider that such funds are intended to be reserved for cases of extreme 
emergency, and that the interest only of eueh /unds should be carried to the 
current expenses of the Society. 

We also consider that any infringement of a law upon which the Society's 
existence may be said to depend, is injurious not only to the Society itself as a 
body, but to the interests of the members individually ; and may be drawn in 
as a precedent for further encroachments, lesding to the ultimate dissolution 
of the Society. 

For these reasons, we dissent from the resolution passed at the meeting of 
the Society of the 4th May, 1836, continuing the services of a Curator at two 
hundred rupees per mensem ; the account current shewing a deficiency of 
rupees 571-0*1, and the payment of the Curator's salary being proposed to be 
made out of the vested funds of Mr. Bauca. Further, in adverting to the 
Secretary's remsrk, <* that M. Boucmbz, the assistant and working Curator, 
would be competent to set up all new specimens and preserve the present col- 



78 Proceedings of the AsUiHe Society. [Jan. 

lection/' we tee no neoeisityr under the preeent difficulties of the Soeietj, of 
reudning the higher appointment. 

Northern Doab, 1 

Utk Dee, 1836 ; / P, p. Cautlvt, Ce^t. Arty. 

H. Palconbk, M. D. 

W. M. Dun AND, lAeut. Sngra. 

W. E. Baser, Lieut. Engre. 
mnd, Calcutta, l Albzandbe Colvin. 

26tkJaH, 1837. J John Colvin, lAeut.-Coi. Engre. 

After diflcuBsion it was agreed that the protest oould not affect the 
resolution paesed by the Society in May, 1836, but that it would very 
properly become matter of consideration at the expiration of the annual 
term for which the museum grant was then confirmed. 

The Secretary read correspondence with Mr. Lanb respecting the pub- 
lication of his Anglo. Burmese Dictionary under the Society's auspices. 
He had written to Colonel Burnky for the manuscript, which would 
immediately be put in hand. 

A statistical paper having been communicated by Mr. H. Waltbbs, 
that gentleman was requested to join the Committee lately appointed for 
that object, to which he assented. 

lAhrary. 

The following books were presented. 

Bulletin de la Society de Geographie, tome 5 — hy the Oeoyraphieal Society qf 
Parte. 

Journal Asiatique for April, May, and June, 1836 — by the Aeiatie Soei^ of 
Parte, 

Shams-ul hindisah, a mathematieal work, compiled by the Nawib Sbumsool 
OoMBA at Hyderabad'—preeented by the author through Mr. C. Trench, 

An Australian Grammar, comprehending the principle! and natural rnlea of 
the language as spoken by the Aborigines, by L. B. Theblkbld — by the author 
through Mr. Cracroft. 

A collection of examples on the Integral Calculus, by Mr. H. Shoht, Queen's 
College, Cambridge — presented by Mr. H. Homeman. 

A dissertation on the soil and agriculture of Penang, by Major Jambs Low 
"•^by the author. 

The first No. of the Medical and Physical Society's Journal — by the Society. 

The following books were received from the booksellers : 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, England, Vol. 6th. 
— — , Greece, Vol. 3rd. 

Analecta Arabica, Part I. 

Institutiones Juris Mohammedan! circa Helium contra eos qui ab Islamo*suBt 
alieni, by Ebn. Frid. Car. Rosbnmullbr, Leipsig, 1825. 

Y King, Antiquissimus Sinarum Liber ex Latinft Interpretatione 9. Ktgi9 
aliorumque, &c. ; by Professor Julius M6hl. 

Bagbavat Gita, translated into German, by C. R. G. Pbipbr, Leipeig, 1834« 

Taberistanensis, id est Abu Dschaferi Mohammed Ben Dscherir Ettaberl An* 
nales Regum Atque LegatorumDei ; by J. G. L. Rosbmoartbn, Vol. lat, Ber* 
lin, 1831. 

Physical. 

The fossil bones from the Perim island, presented by Lieut. Gborqb 

FuLLJAMEs, Bombay Engineers, were laid on the table for inspection. 

This very valuable acquisition comprises many jaws of the mastodon in fine 
preseiTation — also jaws or teeth of the hippopotamus, elephant, rhinoceros, a 
larger animal assimilating thereto (lophiodon ?), mastodon, sow, anthracothe- 
rium(?) deer, ox,&c., the femur of an elephant as large as that from theNerbudda, 



1837.] Proeee£tiffM 6/ the Asiatic Sikdety. 79 

and miicb exceeding in size, u was remarked by Colonel Coltiii, any tbat had 
been found in the Sewilik range, manj* Tertebrs and unidentified bones and 
boms, tortoise frag ments, and a peculiarly perfect saurian head. The special 
thflmks of the Society were voted to Lientenant Fuixjambi for hii magnificent 
donation. 

p^e shall take an early opportunity of lithographing some of the most curious 
of these specimens. — Ed.J 

lieutenant Fvlljambs mentions that he is now employed in sinking a bore 
at Goyo, about five miles from Perim. It has been already carried to 250 feet :-^ 
the last 150 through an immense bed of blue clay, containing pyrites and 
•bells, resembling the muscle : — the deepest bed of sandstone waa thirty Iseti 
but it differed essentially from the bone stratum of Perim, 

A Bkeleton of the common bog ('tui iero/a,J was presented by Dr. A. 
R. Jaoiuon, mounted in the mueeum. 

Mr. WiLUAH Craoboft presented to the Society a large variety of 
objects of Natural History, collected by himself during his residence in 
New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land ; accompanied with an illus- 
tntiTO notice. 

This collection contained three Tolnmes of a hortus siccus of the chief indi- 
genous plants of these colonies — a rich series of ornithology and concho- 
togy — and specimens of the fossil shells, fossil wood, and minerals of which the 
islands present so many fertile deposits ; ores of lead, copper, and iron, haTO 
been discovered, but are not yet worked, and coal is plentiful. 

[The author's notes will be inserted hereafter .^i-Eo.] 

Dr. G. Evans exhibited to the meeting a very large skull of an animal 
generally considered to be the Bison of Indian forests, which he recog- 
nised as the Gaur CBo$ gaunu), and distinguished from the skull so 
named in the museum. 

[The note, outline, and arguments pro and con shall have early insertion.] 

It was moved by Sir Benjamin Malkin, seconded by Colonel Colvxn, 
and carried unanimously^ 

Tbat^ with reference to the rapid increase of the museum, particularly 
in the department of fossil geology^ and to the limited funds at the 
Society's disposal, the subscription of individual members shall be in- 
vited for the preparation of cabinets and other improvements connected 
with this highly importont branch of the Society's researches, and that the 
Secretary do circulate a notice to this effect to members of the Society. 

[The sum subscribed by members present is inserted on the cover notice, to 
which the attention of members is invited. — Ed.] 

The following notice, dated Sihor, 17th January, was recorded in hopes 

of elidting further observations of the same phenomenon. 

At Berne, Lat. 23* 38 ^ Long. 77® 30^ on January 1 1th, at 6h 00m, a meteor 
appeared near /9 Andromedte, and not far from the Zenith \ it went down to the 
westward, occupying 2 or 3 seconds in its flight, and inclining a little to the left ; 
at about 30* of altitude it burst into a globe of light little inferior to the sun in 
size and brightoess ; and then disappeared, leaving behind a long train of smolco 
which continued visible for many minutes, like a thin cloud enlightened by the 
sun's rays ; at about 6h dnl a faint rumbling sound was heard like the distant 
discharge of artillery. The appearance was nearly the same at Sihor^ though 
distant 36 miles S. S. W. 

Should this meteor have been noticed at Mhwo or AJmir, the place over which 
it burst may be determined, and probably a meteoric stone diacovered,-»W. S. J. 



XI. — Mtttonlogieat Rtfuter. 



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JOURNAL 



or 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



^ 



No. 62.'^February, 1837. 



I.— Stii^«2ir mirrffltoe of ih9 Armeman king Amacbs ami ktM auUem^ 
' porary Sapob, king of Per»iM ; wtraeted from tk9 Armeman chronic 
tlet, Bf JoHAMNM Atdall» Esq. M. A. 8. 

Absacbs the second* son of Tiran, wielded the sceptre of royalty 
in Armenia in the middle of the fourth century. He was contempo* 
rary with the Persian king Sapor, sumamed the long-lived, with 
whom he closed a treaty of aUiance, offensive and defensive. Both 
were descendants of the Arsacidab, and thus stood related to each 
other by the ties of consanguinity. Distrustful of the sincerity of 
tiie friendship of Arsacbs, Sapor took the precaution of securing it 
by the obligation of a solemn oath. He feared a formidable enemy 
in the person of the emperor of Greece, and it was his policy to devise 
every means in his power to alienate from him the good-will of the 
king of Armenia. In vain Arsacbs assured him of his continued at- 
tachment. Sapor sent for the Armenian priests of the church of 
Cteaiphon, the head of whom was called Mari. Arsacbs was induced 
to flfwear by the Gospel in their presence, to keep inviolate the profes- 
sion of his alliance and friendship to the king of Persia. 

Arsacbs was a valiant, but fickle king. His bravery could only be 
equalled by the degree of perfidy he displayed in his intercourse with 
the people over whom he ruled, and with his avowed allies. Cruelty 
and treachery were the principal characteristics by which his acts 
were distinguished. For a while he continued firm in the observance 



§2 Narrative of tie Armenian kin^ [Fc9. 

of his friendship towards Sapok, of which he afforded him a proof hy 
co-operating with him in an expedition against the emperor of Greece^ 
But, hy the intrigues of one of his coortiers called Anoovk, the good 
feeling and affection that existed between the two potentates, were 
changed into the deadliest enmitj and hatred* AasAcxs waged war 
with Sapor for thirty years, and fortune invariably crowned his 
operations with success. He owed many of his conquests to the 
skill, experience and intrepidity of the Armenian general Vasak, 
who, though of a diminutive size, on all occasions inspired the Ar» 
menian troops with courage, and created terror and dismay iat the 
Persian ranks. 

Flushed with success, and being naturally cruel, he ordered the 
principal Armenian satraps to be butchered in cold blood, and their 
estates and property confiscated. These and similar atrocities made 
him unpopular with his army, and estranged the hearts of the Arme- 
nian people from their monarch. Wearied by repeated hostilities, 
and harrassed by continued carnage. Sapor addressed friendly letters 
to Arsacbs, inviting him to go to Pereia, and expressing his readi« 
Bess to conclude peace with him. Arsacbs, however reluctant to 
desist from the continuance of vrar, was induced to aeoept his offer, 
and, in signifying his acquiescence, sent him suitable presents. Bat, 
Sapor far from wishing to renew his friendship, endeavoured to 
deooy Arsacbs and to annihilate the kingdom of Armenia. Faustur 
of Byxantium^ who wrote a history of Armenia extending to the dose 
of the fourth century, narrates a singularly romantic story about the 
irisit of Arsacbs to the Persian king, and his subsequent adventures 
in Persia. The work of this historian was first published in Can- 
etantincple in the year 1730, and latterly by the Mechitharistic 
Society of Venice in 1832. I shall here give a translation of the 
narrative. 

" Then Sapor, king of Persia, sent another deputation to Arsacbs, 
king of Armenia, expressing a desire to efiect a reconciliation. ' If/ 
said he, ' we are willing to be hereafter on terms of peace with each 
other, this wish can only be realised by a visit to me on your part. 
I shall be to you as a father, and you as a son to me. Should yon, 
however, be unwilling to accept of my proposal, then I mast con* 
dude that you are still inimically disposed towards me.' Arbacrr 
was apprehensive of visiting the king of Persia, without demanding 
the. obligation of a solemn oath from him. Hereupon,, Sapor ordered 
R little salt to be brought to him, and according to the practice pre- 
Talent in Persia, sealed it with a ring bearing the impress of a wild 
hoar, and sent it to Arsacbs. He also intimated, that in case the 



1€37.3 >frsan», ani S«por tie khp tf Perna. S8 

Idng of i^rmmsa disbelieved his oath by refusing to accede to hit 
wishes, then that refusal wonld be considered as a signal for the 
oommencement of hostilities. 

"By the intreaties of the Armenian people, Arsacks was induced 
to acquiesce, and nolens volens resolved to pay a visit to Sapor. Ac* 
oompanied by his faithful general Vasak. he proceeded to Persia, and 
was conducted into the royal palace. Sapor no sooner saw them* 
tiian he ordered them to be placed under guards and treated as pri« 
toners. He spoke to the Armenian king with contempt, and looked 
upon him as a slave. Arsacbs expressed his regret for the past, 
and fitood as a guilty man before him« who directed him to be kept 
mder the strictest surveillance. 

" Then Sapor sent for astrologers and magicians, and communi- 
eated with them about his royal prisoner. * I have/ said he, * on 
several occasions manifested affection towards Arsacss, king of 
Jrmeiua, but he has returned my kindness with ingratitude and con- 
tempt. I have entered into a treaty of peace with him, which he 
swore to keep inviolate by that sacred volume of the Christian reli« 
gion, which they call the Gospel. He violated that oath. I had 
contemplated to be uniformly kind and friendly to him, but he abused 
the confidence of my friendship. I ordered the Armenian priests of 
Ctesiphon to be summoned to my presence, from a supposition that 
they had deceitfully administered an oath to Arsacks, and afterwards 
instigated him to a violation of that oath. I considered them guilty 
of a heinous crime, but was assured by the high priest called 
Mari, of their having performed the task of adjuration in a just and 
becoming manner. It was also mentioned, that if the Armenian 
king acted contrary to that solemn obligation, the Gospel, by which 
he had sworn, would drag him to my feet. I could not, however, 
persuade myself to believe what Mari and his colleagues asserted. 
I ordered seventy of them to be slaughtered in one pit, and put their 
followers to the sword. The Gospel, by which Arsacbs had sworn, 
and which is the fundamental rule of the Christian religion, I desired 
to be tied with chains and kept in* my treasury. But, now I call to 
recollection the assertion of Mari, who intreated me to spare their 
Hves, and assured me that the very Gospel would bring the perjurer 
to my feet. The prediction of that priest has been ^lly verified. It 
is now upwards of thirty years that Arsaces unceasingly waged war 
with the Persians, and on all occasions proved victorious. Now, he has 
mrrendered himself to us of his own accord ! Could I assure myself 
of his friendship and allegiance in future, I should allow him to depart 
in peace to Armenia, loaded with honors and valuable presents.' 
M 2 



f 

84 Narratioe rf ike Armenum hmg [Fa»; 

*' The astrologers and magricians required time for the eonsido^tios 
of the question proposed to them hj SAPoa. On the following day 
they assembled at the royal palace and said, ' Sinoe the Armenian 
king AasACBS has come to you of his own accord, we desire to know 
how he speaks to yon, how he behaves in your presence, and what 
does he think of himself?' Sxpoa replied, ' He considers himself as 
one of my servants, and lies prostrate in the dust at my feet.' The 
astrologers and magicians advised him how to act. ' Do what* wo 
say,' replied they : ' keep AasAcns and his general here in confine- 
ment, and send messengers to Armenia, with instructions to bring 
from that country two loads of earth and a large pitcher of water. 
Get the half of the floor of the royal pavilion strewed with the earth 
of Armenia, and holding the Armenian king by the hand, walk over 
that part of the ground covered with the earth of Pereia, and confer 
with him on a subject. After which, tread with him over the earth 
brought from Armenia, and put him some questions. Thus you will 
be enabled to ascertain from his address and replies whether he will 
continue firm in his allegiance and friendship to you, after your 
aUowing him to depart to Armenia. Should he, however, assume an 
overbearing attitude while treading on the Armenian earth, then be 
assured of the renewal of his hatred and enmity towards you, and of 
the commencement of fresh hostilities immediately after his return to 
his native soil.' 

'* The king of Persia adopted the suggestions of the astrologers 
and magicians. He despatched messengers to Armenia with drome* 
daries, for the purpose of bringing a quantity of earth and water 
from that country, and trying therewith the proposed experiment. 
In course of a few days the orders of Sapor were put into execution. 
He then ordered the half of the floor of his royal pavilion to be 
strewed with the earth, and sprinkled with the water brought from 
Armenia, and the other half to be covered with the earth of Persia, 
He desired Arsacks, king of Armenia, to be brought before him apart 
from other individuals, and began to walk with him hand in hand. 
While going to and fro over the Persian earth, Sapor asks, ' why did 
you become my enemy, Arsacbs, king of Armenia ? I have looked 
upon you as my son, and contemplated to form an alliance with you 
by effecting a marriage between you and my daughter, and thus to 
take you into my adoption. But you have armed yourself against 
me, and of your own free will treated roe as a foe, by waging war 
with the Persians for upwards of thirty years.' 

«* AasACES replied, ' I have transgressed the law of friendship, and 
must confess my fault. It was I that routed your enemies^ and put 



1 M7.] Artmen, and Sapor ti$ king of Pania. td 

them to fli|^t» in the hope ct being honored by yon with rewards^ 
Bat those, who had plotted my ruin, endeavoured to estrange my 
heart from yon, and to create diesenaiont between nt. The oath, 
adminiatered to me by Maei, has condnctcd me to your preaencoi 
and here I stand before yon ! I am your servant, professing submis* 
iion to you. Treat me as you choose, or kill me. I am a guilty man, 
and your despicable aUve.' 

" Safor the king holding him by the hand, received his justt- 
ftcation, and conducted him to that part of the ground covered with 
the Armenian earth. No sooner had they began to walk there, than 
AasACKS changed the tone of his voice, and had recourse to vehement 
and insolent language. ' Thou wicked slave,' said Aesacbs, ' stand 
aloof from me I Thou hast usurped the throne of thy lords and 
masters ! I must punish you for the wrongs yon have done to my 
ancestors, and the death of the king Aktuvan* must be revenged on 
you ! Thou bast robbed me of my crown and country, but these 
must be restored to me, and your audacity shall not be allowed to 
remain unpunished !' 

" The king of Persia hearing this, began to walk again with 
AasAcns on the Persian earth. The Armenian king then renewed 
the profession of his submission, expressed his regret for what he had 
said, and, on his knees, retracted all his expressions. But when he 
was conducted again to the Armenian earth, he became more insolent 
than before ; and on his returning to the Persian earth, he repented 
of his temerity. From morning to evening many similar experiments 
were tried by Sapor, the result whereof appeared only to be a mani« 
iestation of alternate feelings of insolence and repentance in the con- 
duct of Arsacxs. 

" Evening came on, and the hour fixed for supper approached. It 
was usual with the king of Persia to entertain Arsacbb on a sofa, 
placed next to his own throne. But on the present occasion the 
customary rule was not adhered to. Precedence was given to tha 
other royal guests residing within the court of Persia, Arsacbs was 
allowed to occupy the last seat, on the Armenian earth. He pre- 
served silence for a while, burning with indignation and a desire of 
revenge. At last he stood on his legs and addressed Sapor thus : 
' The throne on which thou sittest belongs to me. Abandon that 
seat instantly. My nation have a just claim to it. Should you, 
however, persist in your injustice, you may be sure of meeting with 

• Arts VAN wai a king otPertia, whom Ann A shir the Sasaniao put to death, 
and uavrped Ms throne. — Vide WhUton's Leiin trsnslaiion (/ ik€ hiiiory qf 
Mesm Kkarmsasis, Book n. Chop. hu. 



Narrative of the Armenian king [Fbb* 

a merited retribution from my hands immediately after my retmm 
to Armenia* 

** Hereupon, Sapob ordered AasAcas to be put in chains* and 
driven to the castle of oblivion in Khujietan. Here he directed him 
to be kept in strict and perpetual confinement until his death. On 
the following day he summoned to his presence Vasax Mamiconian» 
the famous Armenian general, and heaped on him torrents of abuse. 
He took advantage of his diminutive size, and addressed him in a 
eontemptnous manner. * Thou little fox/ said he, ' remember thatit 
was you that devastated our country for the last thirty years, by 
putting innumerable Persians to the sword ! I will make you 
die the death of a fox!' To which Vasak replied, ' However 
diminutive I may appear in your eye, 1 am sure you have not 
as yet had a personal experience of my mighty arms. I have 
hitherto acted as a lion, though now you call me by the contemptible 
appellation of a fox ! But, while I was Vasak, I was like a giant. 
I fixed my right foot on one miountain, and my left on another. The 
right mountain was levelled to the ground by the pressure of my 
right foot, and the left mountain sunk under the weight of my left/ 
8APoa desired to know who were personified by these two mountains, 
that were represented to tremble under the power of the Armenian 
general. ' One of these mountains,' replied Vasak, ' signifies the 
king -of Persia, and the other the emperor of Greece, As long as 
we were not forsaken by the Almighty i held both the potentates in 
awe and subjection. While we obeyed the laws of the Gospel and 
followed the paternal advice of our spiritual head, Nibrsbs the Great*, 
we knew how to dictate and counsel you. But God has withheld 
from us the favor of his protection, and we are plunged into the pit 
with open eyes. I am now in your hands. Treat me as you choose.' 
Hereupon the king of Persia ordered the Armenian general Vasak 
to be cruelly butchered, his skin to be flayed and filled with hay, and 
carried to the castle of oblivion, where the king Arsacbs was im- 
prisoned." 

Here ends this singularly romantic narrative of Faustus. The 
castle of oblivion, it must be remembered, was a place o^ solitary 
confinement in Khujistan^ intended for prisoners of rank and distinc- 

• \pkyi» ^(r^nf-u NiBRSKfr tke Great was one of the pontiffs of Am^nui, and 
great-grandson of St. Grrgort the lUaminator. He built upwards of two 
thonsaod convents, monasteries and hospitals in Armenia^ and was consequently 
called by the appellation of the C.t'^^tArehiteet. He was poisoned by Pap, 
the son and successor of Arsacks, and was buried in the Tillage of Tkiim, 



1837.] Amieei, and Sap&r the kmg of Persia, 87 

tion. The wretched inmates of this dreary habitation were by the 
law of the land considered politically dead. Even the bare mention 
of their names was strictly prohibited^ under the pain of a similarly 
rigorous imprisonment. Sapob owed a debt of gratitade to the 
fidthfdl steward of Aesacxs, called Dirastamatn, who had once saved 
die life of the former from imminent danger in the din and confu- 
sion of a battle. " I am willing." said the Persian king, " to make 
you a recompense for your disinterested services to me. Yon are. 
therefore, at liberty to ask any reward you choose, and your request 
shall be readily granted/' Dirastamatn expressed his burning desire 
once to see his royal master. " I have no other wish," said he, " save 
diat of being permitted to visit Arsacss, and to spend a day of mer- 
riment with him, released from his chains." Sapor was unwilling 
to yield to the wishes of his benefactor, but in consideration of his 
strong claim on his generosity, allowed him to proceed to the castle 
of oblivion, under the escort of a trusty g^ard, and bearing with him. 
a royal mandate sealed vrith the signet of the court of Persia. 

DiBASTAMATN, oo his anival in the castle of oblivion, burst into 
tears and fell at the feet of Arsacbs. He untied the chains of his 
royal master, washed his head, cleaned and anointed his body with 
odoriferous oil, invested him with costly robes, seated him on a 
throne, placed before him rare delicacies, and standing near him on 
his legs, acted the part of a cup-bearer. Affected by an immoderate 
use of wine, the king of Armenia gave vent to his inward grief, and 
began to groan from the pangs of his heart, by contrasting his former 
grandeur and happiness with his present servitude and misery. The 
knife, placed on the cloth, he thrust into his breast, and thus ended 
his miserable life in despair. Dirastamatn seeing this, dislodged 
the fiatal weapon from the breast of Arsacbs, and therewith put an 
end to his own existence. 

This narrative of the condemnation and subsequent banishment of 
Absacbb, by the machinations of magicians and astrologers, is fully 
noticed by Procopius, in the fifth chapter of the first book of his 
hbtory relative to the Persian war, probably borrowed from the 
historical work of Faustus, extant in the Armenian language. But 
Photius, the celebrated Greek Patriarch, who wrote an abridgment 
of the history of Procopius, considered this story as a mere piece 
of romance or fable, and as such it will be viewed by the learned of 
the present age. 



88 Transiaiion of an Inser^tiont No, S, [Fbb. 



II. — Translation of an Inscription on a stone in the Asiatic Society's 
Museum, marked No, 2. By Captain G. T. Marshall, Examiner in 
the College of Fort William. 

[In pursuance of our intentioii of making known all the inscriptions and 
ancient records within our reach, along with facsimiles of the characters in 
which thej are written, we now proceed with our review of the unedited blocks 
in the Society's possession. Captain Marj^hall has kindly undertaken tna 
task of translation in this case, and, as the letters are in perfect presenratioa 
and in the well-formed type of the Qaur alphabet, we hare thought it unnecessary 
to insert more than a specimen of the beginning of the inscription, the M\ aiio 
of the original, in Plate YII. The allusion to the Gaur dynasty affords a claa 
to the date of the document, and on the obscnre, half. defaced line at the termi« 
nation of the 24th line, we think the words 4w?r ^^ are clearly visible, re- 
ferring doubtless to the same Gaurian epoch which has been rem^.rLed in so 
many other similar monuments, and therefore placing the document in the 10th 
or 1 1th century. We cannot discorer hj whom the stone wat presented to thu 
Society. On the back of it are half cut Hindu images.— Ed.] 

This inscription is without date ; but the form of the letters and 
the names of persons mentioped will probabl;^ render the fixing of its 
age an easy matter to those dbnversant with such subjects. It was 
composed by a pandit named Sri' Vachaspati, in praise of a 
brdhman of rank and learning, styled fiHATTA Sslx^ Bhata-dbta 
and his family — and it would appear that the slab on which it is 
engraved, must have been affixed to some temple of which Bhava* 
DBVA was the founder. The individuals of this family, whose names 
are given, are, 1. Savarna Muni, the root of the gotra or line. — 2. 
Bhava«dbva lst» a descendant of the above, whose elder and younger 
brothers were Mah/«dbva and Attarasa. — 3. Rath/noa, son of the 
above, who had seven younger brothers. — 4. Attamqa, son of the 
above. — 5. Budha, son of the above, surnamed Sphukita.«-6. Aoi- 
DBVA, son of the above. — 7. Gtovarohana, son of the above, whose 
mother's name was Dbvaki'. — 8. Bhava-dbva 2nd, son of the above, 
surnamed Bala-yalabhi'-brujanoa, whose mother's name was 
Sangoka, and who was minister to Raja Harivarmma-dbva and his 
son. The inscription possesses considerable interest in a literary 
point of view. It is written in verses of various metres, from the 
Anushtup of eight syllables in each /idia or half line, to the Sragdhard 
of 21 syllables. The style is ambitious, and abounds in those mytho- 
logical allusions and double meanings in which the Hindu poets so 
much delight. The execution proves the author to have been no 
ordinary composer. 



•^ur/i . Jis.Soc. 



ybi.yz.Tiy 




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^ 






'SI 



•A 



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1«S7.] 



M /Ar A9uaie Society $ Muwemm. 



89 




Ihuucr^t of the iHtcription in the modern Deva^ndgari character. 

4 Bunr^^ wiwnri 4M4|^^* wwinnrws^inrwiftf^ 

7 ^ Wm*i iri^MK^HT 




r - jn_ 

o^iwr^Si^^ ^ftv Ttv 'tnrr ftfii t 



>4^i^iii i[^ ▼^^STO Tprar* I 



N 



90 



ThMteri^l oftht IfiMenj/dom. N^. % 



{Fmm. 




10 ^ ^y<t^<W^OHHWtlfim s:^t| 

12 4l<iH^i} ^ ^rwv ^ TnfHRTprt fnfhnrr ^^iw^^ 

13 w^ ^'Vi^ilMm ii^fft iRRrt yrtt 

^ w Tfir ^B[w inin«KirT^ 

^TC^nff (\.M<«nT *IWU*W1«R trfW | 

'^nuiHT^ir^ Oi^niwfcini t^f^Rnjro ^fjJyi 
16 4«H^w.nhiir^4< Hf^K ^nmc mif ^ ^4Pn i ^ irtl: 



\ 



IU7.2 



in the AiktHc a€ekif'$ M\ 



9\ 




fNf 1^ ^ftftr wwt 
iM "iw ^8^ WTinrwfl^^^T Tftr 'fw 'rrr^ %w I 

N 3 





9S TrmiMeripi of lie Intcr^^Hm, No. 2, \TmM. 

[Hire- 1 

nnm iri W^^iRi Praw wwa <«i*i^uq^ii!ii*i^m^w^ 
tk^ w^rafH ficftici ^r^iJ iMb ^^ I 

^i^TOTTTCTn ^nl:^ ftii^* ^^^ li'H^ii' ^ui? i(i()4^^^ 




1M7.] in ike A$kiie 8oeiei9'9 MM0emm. 99 




'^l^W ^r^^^5r 14j(^^ W^HIT^ t|l|^()|l| <ii j«|^ I 



34 nnIVRq wr^Twrfiifwirnncn^i wg^ttw^iw i 

Drmulatum. 

Om ! Salutation to (Krishna) the adorable son of Vasu-dsta ! 

Ver§e 1. May HAai (Vishnu), who, desiring to embrace (Sara- 
swATi') with his body stamped with the impress of the leavest* of 
the jar-like bosom of the warmly embraced Kam4l/ (Lakshmi^, was 
bantered thus, '' Perish not this fresh garland of flowers/' by the 
goddess of speech (Saraswati') — ^prosper you ! — 2. O goddess of 
speech ! since thon hast been daily worshipped from my childhood, 
let it now yield fruit — be propitious ! I am speaking the excellent 
words of the praises of the family of Bhatta Bhaya-dbya. Take 
thy station on the tip of my tongue ! — 3. The learned br£hmans who 
were bom in the exalted and continuous line of Sayarna Mqni» a 
hundred Yillages, lands held by royal grants, became their abode* 
Among these truly Siddkala alone, the famed, the chief of villages, 
the decoration of the beauty of Rdrhdt, is the ornament of the 
regions of Atyd-varttat, (the holy land.)-^4. Here this family^ hath 
happily spi^ad, with excellent sprouts, honored, with firmly compacted 

roots, whose glory is promoted by brihmansf , arrived at the extre- 

« 

* From hence to the end of the 24th line there are evident tracei of letters, 
hat they are lUegihle. (See opening remark : the misting sentence coniisti of 
notUng mora than the moath (illegible) sad the year, ** Sawn^i 32*' diitinctly 

visible.— Sa.) 

t A"»^'«g to the aadeat Hindu cvttom of the females adorning the face and 
penon with colored pigments, inch as laffron, iandal» &c. 

X That part of Bengal which liei on the west of the QangM. 

I literaUy, the conntry where holy men are constantly produced ; bounded, 
according to Mamv, by the eastern and western seas, and by the mountains 
Himdlaya and Vindhya, (Maku, C. U. v. 22nd.) 

II The word ^ also meana ** the bamboo/* and the poet throughout this verse 
uses such double-meaning epithets as may be made applicable to both senses. 

1 1n applying this epithet to the bamboo, the word fflT literally, *' twice-bom" 
would be rendered *' birds"— first born in the egg, and secondly produced from it. 



94 Drtmilaiionqfmi Tn9er^im»N9.i, [Fn. 

unties of tbe braoehea (of the Tedis) loudly recitiag (thooe scrip- 

tnres), not knotty, not crooked, upright, handsome — ^proportioned^ 
exalted above all. — 5. Bhaya-obya appeared, the jewel of the crest 
of that line, a giver of tribute* like the sun, the producer €i science 
and mystic formula, like Bhava (Shiva.)— 6. He was bom between 
two brothers, an older and a younger (named) Maha-dbva and Atta- 
BASA ; just as Vishnu is between Brahma and Siva. — 7. Ue obtain- 
ed from the king of Gaura a grant embracing the choice land of the 
territory set apart at Sri Hastini {HarHfU^purC), Moreover, he saw 
his eight sons, Rath^nga, &c. like the eight forms of MAHHSHAf 
(Siva). — 8. From Rathanga sprung Attanoa, like the moon from 
the ocean of milk, the delighter of men, the abode of the undivided 
god of love. His son Budha, the lustre of whose wisdom was 
resplendent, was as famed in every quarter by the name of Sphubita, 
as the planet Saumya (Budha or Mercury).-— 9, From him arose 
Sri' A^di-dbya, the sole seed of the prosperity of his family, the 
principal root of the great tree of unfeigned manliness, like the god 
A^di-mu'btti (Vishnu), wishing "with a mortal form to adorn this 
earth. — 10. Who was minister during the stability of the fortune of 
the kingdom of the rija of Banga^ the pure, the great counsellor, 
the great minister, the profitable, the disposer of peace and war.— 
1 1. He (A'oi-dbva) begat a^son, Govabohana, conceived in the womb 
of DBYAKI^ equal to (preserve) the stability of the world, wedded to 
Sabaswati^ wonderful in the worlds. — 12. Who advancing in fields 
of battle, and in the assemblies of the possessors of divine truth, both 
his territories and the art of speaking, by the deeds of his arm and 
the cunning of his eloquence, made his name justly applicable to his 
character in two senses of Uie word}.-— 13. He took to wife Sangok^ 
the venerable, the virtuous daughter of a brahman of the race of 
Vandya Ghat(§, the jewel of women. — 14; In her, announcing his 

• The word here rendered << tribute** looks mott like f^TVft in the original ; 
but that reading makei no eeaie. It it here traaelsted u if It were ^mWI ffsr 
iV^m (^ end ^ being interehangeeble), which word mennlng also a " imy of 
light,*' the resemblaDce to the tun may, by a play on the word* bo OitaiiUihod. 
It appeared, on firit obeertation, not unlike ^VIV ; bnt oa ooniUeiing the 
metre, thii reading prOTed inadmissible. The measure of this verso is the 
AryA of 30 instants in the first line and 87 in the seoond. 

t The eight forms of Mabbsha, ris. water, fire, the institnter of asnerlAoo, 
the moon, the sun, the ether, the earth and air, are enumerated in the latro- 
ductory benediction of the Drama of Sakvmtala. 

t GoTardhana means '* inoreaser of land or territory,*' and '* promoter of 

speech or eloquence." VT ** the earth, speech," and ^^M " iacieating." 
{ Name of a family of RIdhiya br4hmans« 



1637.] m the AikHe Sodtiy'f Mumm. 95 



own biitii by a Tision, was eonceiTed^ by this Kashyapa of the earth, 
the god Habi, ia the form of Saf Bbava-dbya, on whose hands 
are beheld marked two lotuses, withia whose breast the ktautubkA 
(the jewd of Kbisbma) is, from outward appearanoes, known to be 
deposited. — 15. By whom, placing Laksrmi' in his right shoulder, 
the earth in the force of his counsel, Sauaswati' in the tip of his 
tongue, the bird Nigfintaka (Gamda) in the body of his enemies, 
and the discus in the soles of his feet ; these his symbols were, for 
the sake of coneeahog that dlTine and primeTsl body, perverted.-— 
16. A^^**^ by the force of whose (Bhata-obta's) counsel, that 
conqueror in virtue Habi Vabiima*dbta long exercised dominion. 
In the reign of his son also, Lakshmi', like a firm KalpalatI (a tree 
of heaven, bestowing all desires) followed the path of his (Bhava- 
hbva's) policy. — 17. Of whom the worthy, the high-minded, the 
possessor of Kamal^, the pardoning, the sea of virtues, the undis- 
turbed in mind, and ocean-souled — the qualities, such as recti- 
tude, greatness, kindness, purity, depth, firmness, and determination, 
almost transcending the bounds of speech, greatly delight (the 
world)."— 18. Who is proclaimed to be Parameskwar (the Supreme 
Lord) on earth, by the following assembly of the ShaktU (energies 
of the Deitj), viz. his fame (a form of) the great Gaubi' — his arm 
graceful as a climbing plant, and terrific with the quivering sword 
(a form ci) Chandi^, delighting in war and smeared with the blood 
of enemies in the field of battle— his person (a form of) the great 
IaAKBBmi' — andlastly, that naturally graceful eloquence. — 19. Before 
whoee most powerful brihminical splendor the faint solar luminary 
enacts the part of a young fire-fly. Before the high aspiring body 
of whose fiame the snowy mountain (the Himalaya) is truly as high 
as one's knee.— 30. This personage, a specimen of those who know 
the unity of Bbabma, a creator of wonders in already existing science, 
an evident disoexner of the profound virtues of the words of philoeo- 
pheiB, a sage, another jar-born saint (Aoamta Mvni) to the sea* 
of Buddhism, skilfnl at annihilating the opinions of heretics and 
cavillers, displaya the qualities of Sabyajna (the omniscientf) upon 
evdi.— 21 . Who, seeing across the ocean of spiritual knowledge, 
mystical learning, and the science of computation ; being a producer 
of all wonders in worldly sciences ; and being himself the inventor 
and promulgator of a new system of Astrology, has evidently become 
another VABA^BAt. — 22. He, by composing a proper and excelleiit 

* Alluding to the legend of Aoastta MuNrs gwallowing the ocesa ia a fit 
of uiger. Agastta is said to haTe been born in a water-jar. 

t Also a title of the deified saints of the Buddhists. 

X Yaba'ba Mibiba, a great astronomer, sad one of the ains learned mea 
stjled WWm «< the niae geias." 



96 IhuuhUioH of an InscrifftioH, No. 2, [Fen. 

work, rendered blind (useless) in the paths of the science of law, the 
old expositions ; and also, by making clear with his commentary the 
▼erses of the Munis on that subject, entirely removed eyery doubt 
regarding lawful actions. — 23.* By whom truly that aid in spiritual 
knowledge, in which a thousand arguments Kke the rays of the sun 
endure not darkness, was composed according to the rules prescribed 
by the learned. What need of many words ! this sage is unrivalled 
in the following branches of knowledge ; viz. the Sdma^veda to its 
utmost extent, all the arts of poets, sacred science, the Aywr-veda 
(science of medicine), the Astra-vedet (science of arms), &c. — 24. By 
whom, indeed, is his name BALA-vALABHi'-BHUjANOAf not honored ? 
—it is with extasy heard, described, and proclaimed even by M(mdmg9d 
(sacred science) herself. — 25. Who (BnAVA-nnvA), bringing to life 
a whole world by means of his mystical incantations, which resemble 
the morning dang of instruments breaking the night of unconscious- 
ness caused by the bite of a fanged and rabid serpent, has become 
an unequalled MaiTTONjATA (conqueror of Death, a name of Siva), 
in sporting with poison, another Nila-kantha, (blue-throatt, another 
epithet of Siva.) — 26. By whom was formed in Rarha, in the arid 
boundaries of land bordering a village situated on a wild road, a 
reservoir of water which fills the water-jars, the desires and the 
minds of travellers sunk in fatigue ; and of which the beds of lotuses 
are abandoned by the bees fascinated by the reflected shadows of the 
lotus-like faces of beauteous damsels who have bathed on its banks.^ 

27. By him this stone (image of) the adorable Nab/tana (Vishnu), 
by which the face of the earth is adorned, was fixed like a bridge for 
crossing the ocean of material existence. Which, being the daric* 
blue frontal mark of the moon-like face of the eastern quarter, is to 
the earth (as it were) a lotus used sportively for an ear-ring, the 
Parifdia § tree of this world, the bestower of completion of designs. — 

28. By him was erected this splendid temple, whose glory is exalted 
in emulatien of the mountain of (Siva), the destroyer of Tr^mra^ 
and which like Haei (Vishnu), is distinguished by the mark called 

* This verse is in the Sragdhari metre of 21 syllables in each pida or half line. 

t The meaning of this surname is not apparent : it is compounded of three 
words, m^ ** jox&igt ignorant,*' &c. WVlft ** the frame of a thatch, a turret ;" 
also I believe the name of a city and a dynasty, and Wl* ** a snake, an adul- 
terer." 

X Siva ia said to have swallowed the poison produced among other things, 
at the churning of the ocean ; the only effect it produced on the god waa a blue 
mark on his throat, whence this epithet. This verse celebrates Bhava-dbva's 
ezoelleat knowledge of antidotes. 

i The name of a celestial tree which granta all desires. 



1 887.] im tk0 AiUuie Society s Jf kmmii. S7 

Sri Vmtmi^, tnd by the trembling diseiis. Which (temple) haying 
overcome Va^ayamta^ (the palace of iNonA,) wa^et oat a flag in the 
aky. Beholding the beauty of which temple, Gibibra (Siva) no 
longer desires Kauasa. — 29. He (Bh ata-okya), placed in that house 
of ViSHim, in the innermost sanctuaries, the images of Nasatana, 
Anawta, and NaisiNOHA, as the vedae in the mouths of BaABMi. — 
30. Ue gave to this (temple, an) offering to HariI a hundred dam- 
aels, with eyes like those of a young deer, who are mistaken for 
celestial dancers sojourning on the earth, who with a glance restore 
to life Kama, although he was burnt up by UoaA-naiK, (&ery*eye, i. e. 
SiTA,) who are the prison-houses of the impassioned, the abode of 
melody, dalliance, and beauty united. — 31. He truly made in front 
of the temple a pool, which is a market of purity alone, the water of 
which is pure and sparkling as an emerald, which, displaying under 
the form of a reflection in the water, the exact scene of Vishnu's 
deceiving the Hydra}, appears most splendid. — 32. He on all sides 
of the temple formed an excellent garden, the quintessence of the 
earth, the vessel into which the delight of all eyes distils, the place 
of repose of Ananqa (the god of Love) wearied with the conquest of 
the three worlds. — 33. This eulogium was composed by his dear 
friend, the learned Saf Vachasfati, the chief of Brahmans. Let 
this golden zone, like a beautiful form of fame, remain on the loins 
of this pure edifice until the destruction of the world ! 

[in the year 32.] 

Thia eulogium is upon Bhatta Sri' Bbaya-dbva, surnamed 

B^I.A-TAI.ABHl'-BH UJANOA. 

• A peculiar mark on the breast of Vishnu, said to be a carl of hair twiitiog 
to the right. 

t The compound word ^ft4JH^ here tranilated " an offering to Hari," has 
given much trouble ; and the lenie at laat adopted doea not appear very latli- 
iutory. The word li^ ia not found in Dietionariea : it is subitituted by a 
anuassatieal rulft, for H^f ** andentanding;*' but only when coqiponnded with 
a negatire, or with "^^ %, H^ or "^Wf. The meaning here giren is thns 
arrived at, the word ^ is given in Wilson as meaning ** an offering," and is 
deriTed from the root ^"W^by adding the affix ^V^j it has therefore been snpposed 
that this word fl^nf may be formed by affixing ^Qif^to the same root, with the 
same meaning. 

I Referring to the story of Kmshna's conquering the one hasdred and tea- 
headed serpent K41iya in the rirer TigmuHd near Vri$uUMMut» 



98 On the Celtic interpretatwn [Fb0. 

III. — On the explanation of the Indo^Scftkic legends of the Bactruut 
Coini, through the medium of the Celtic. By Dr. J. Swinbt, 

[ In a letter to the Editor.] 
Aware how much the Journal has forwarded the successful pursmt 
of Indian antiquities, I might have chosen to address its Editor solely 
on that account. I deem him, however, to have further claim to 
precedence in having heen the first to decipher the ancient character, 
so recently brought to light hy the discovery of what have been 
styled Bactrian coins, for want, perhaps, of a better name. I shall 
proceed then to offer you a few observations upou two or three of 
these coins, the legends of which have as yet been unexplained-^ 
premising, that in a path so untrodden, every new aid, from whatever 
source it may proceed, (providing it have antiquity on its side,) most 
be welcomed in the pursuit. ^ 

It is with this view, if I mistake not, that you have sought ta 
adapt the Zend to the Sanscrit of the present day — and that the 
Parisian Secretary has chosen for his guide the ancient Syriac, to 
which, in all probability, he had recourse, from the frequent occur* 
rence of the word Malka*, both on coins and inscriptions. The key I 
propose is the Celtic — a name given to a language now only known 
by its remains, preserved to us by various hordes of men settled in 
Europe, it is true, but for whom the learned of every age have daimed 
an eastern descent and high antiquity. What advantages the Celtic 
may possess over the Zend and the Syriac innnravellmg Bactrian terms* 
remains to be proved : it will be admitted, however, by the exaraplet 
I am about to give, that something more than a verbal coincidence 
of terms has been ascertained. The first coin I shall notice, and 
which indeed was used as the touchstone of the system, (after read- 
ing that the word " Pisergird" was as good Welch as it was Persian,) 
is that of Colonel St act, given in your November number : — on this 
is seen the usual device of the god Lunus, with the Greek lettere 
aOH, instead of mad : it was immediately discovered that the Welch 
dictionary gave Lloer, the moon ; which led to a reference to the 
great '/* Vocabulaire Celtique of M. Bullet/ '^ which gave Loer 
Lune ; and on consulting what the author says on the value of letters 
in Celtic, the following notice was found : — " R plac^ ou omise indif- 
feremment ^ la fin du mot — ezemple : Dwr ss Dw so eau/' All thii 
proving satisfactory, another legend was tried by the same test- 
namely, the *' OAAO" upon coins of the naked running figure, so com- 
mon among the Bactrian series. Here the Celtique renders Oad and 
oedt — Age, temps, adding setas, Latin ; giving every reason to believe 

* On the cootrsry, M. Jacqubt reads the word for king, not Wkelka^ bal 
mirwi, ths sqiuTalent in Sjriso, wt believe, for ** dominaa."'-S0. 



l«87.] . 9f the Indo^Scythk Coin Ugendg. 99 

Ikftt the fi^re is no other than Kronos, Hitherto, if I mistalce not. 
this device has been identified with Hercules in his character of " The 
Ban" running his course ; and thus we find in Anthon's edition of 
LBHPaiBKa's Classical Dictionary, Art. Hercules, Bactrian and Par- 
tkinn coins expressly mentioned having figures of the Phoenician 
Hercules*: the word " fugiens" of ViaeiL's description of the god 
8aiumu9, might have, however, suggested him as the personage meant 
in his character of KYonos ; and, indeed, the former is to be met with 
in some illustrations of the god, much in the same nude and running 
attitude as that in which he is seen upon the coins. ViaoiL say»-* 
** Primus ab stbereo veoit Satarnui Olympo, 
Arma JoTis fagiena et regaia ezal ademptia.*' 

On looking over the Vocabulary given in the Zendavesta, " Ved* 
aa" is given as Fehlevi for terns — this seems the same (perhaps in the 
genitive case) as " oed" of the Celtic Vocabulaire. 

Another remark may be considered to be called for on this coin. 
M . BuBMouv, as noticed already in the Journal, alludes lo the pecu* 
liarity of the Zend words ending with " O" final ; and thus it may be 
observed that the OAD of the book becomes OADO on the coin, as 
NAN of the book becomes NANO of the coin. 

Again, the legend that runs through whole series of these old coins 
Is RAO NANO RAO, accompanied, I believe, in some instances, with 
a Greek translation on the opposite side of the coin of BACIAEfiC baci- 
AxOHt* '^^^^ 1^^ no doubt of the meaning of the phrase, being equiva- 
lent to Malkam Malka of another series — still the word NANA was 
not made out very satisfactorily ; whereas the Celtique Vocabulary 
has *' Ml. mm article du genitif;" thus word for word — king of kings. 
With regard to Rao, there is no difficulty — "Ro^ard" being given as 
'* supreme souverain" precisely in the same sense as " ant* is found 
on the coins — ex. gr. " ard-okro," '* sol supremusj." 

• The remari in Lbhpribrb doubtleaa alladea to the reTerae of the coina of 
EuTBYDBMOs. Thoae of HaaMAua and aome other of the new Damea would 
equally bear out the expreasion, without including the OAAO reverae, which cer- 
tMnlj haa aa much analogy to Buddha or Woden, aa OKPO haa to Arkm, &c. — Eo. 

t The tide rao ia aubatituted for batileut, and rao nano rao for basiieuM butiUdm, 
en preciselj aioailar coioa, but we do not know of any iostance in which they 
occar togrther.— £d. 

X The explanation of nimo, aa a genitive affix before rao, ia perhapa the moat 
plauaible of theae Celtic elucidations — but the Vocabulaire duea not call nan 
thepariieU of the genitive, but the article of that caae ; and we find in '* PaiTCH« 
Aan'a Celtic nations*' in the declension of an bard, a poet, the nominatife plural, 
mmbairdf genitive, na mbhard ; dative, o na bardaibk, &c. So that, in the 
Erae dialect at leaat, na ia the general article in the plural, as ia am in th 
aingalar. Bee obaerTStions on thia word in Vol. III. p. 448.— En. 



100 Celtic interpretatitm of Inio^Seifthie Cwub. [Fk9. 

The wfitp of the coms, according to my book» thould be kadu-dao, 
signifying Sauveur, De/enteur, which accords well with "Pn*!*!. 

The M«r«^ seem* to read rarao — that is, tres grand, from " ra-^ 
grand," duplicated, and therefore perhaps the ^owel is repeated 
Til^a*!; or " ra, grand." and " re, pour le superlatif;" thiu« '• bnu 
dev^ ;" " rebras, fort el^v^." Vide Celt. Vocab. 

Another coincidence and to conclude. A coin of Lysias has on 
the Greek side ANlKHTOI^literally, " not-Yanquished." On the op* 
posite side of the coin is the native legend which 70a have rendered 
" apatUo," for which the Vocabnlaire givea— " ap, sans"—" miela» 
combat, confusion." 

The instances of " ap'* being used for " sans," or for the Greek 
" a privatif ' in the Celtic, are numerous, and the Zendavesta gives the 
following three instances : " apo» — apoean — (ap — sans ; 09 — ^petite)— 
qui est sans enfans ;" " apetiare — sans mal ;*' '* apotkar — quine parte 
pas, {ap — sans ; padkar — paroles.") Vide Pehlevi Vocab. 

All this may appear to us very new, shut out as we are from access 
to numerous glosses to be found mouldering on the shelves of every 
national library in Europe ; but we shall cease to be surprised when 
we read that the author professes to have drawn his material from 
such sources as " les restes del'ancien Indien, de I'ancien Persan, &c. 

It remains, however, to be regretted that the vocabulary is not 
easier of being consulted by the reader, and still more that no refer- ' 
ences are given to individual passages ; for in one place, at least, he 
cites a ^ord as belonging to the Baetrian language. 

NoTR. — ^We have with pleasure inserted Dr. Swinbt's Celtic il- 
lustrations, although we hardly think it was necessary to go so fact 
north for an explanation of our Indo-Scythic legends, when the San- 
scrit, in most cases at least, furnishes as close an agreement : and the 
connection of the Celtic with the latter has been traced by philologists 
with as much plausibility, as the more obvious derivation from the 
same source of the Greek, Latin, Teutonic and other £kiropean funda- 
mental languages. Had Dr. Swinbt fallen upon the following passage 
in Griffith's Animal Kingdom, order Ruminantia, page 411, which 
has by chance just met our eye, he might have found in it a wonderful 
support of his theory : — *' The cow is repeatedly a mystical type of the 
earth in the systems of ancient Greece, or a form of Bhavani with 
the Hindus, and still more marked in the lunar arkite worship of the 
Celtic nation." The coincidence here with the reverses on the inferior 
Kadphises type of coins which bear the taurine fig^e surmounted by 
tiie word OKPO, is suiiiciently striking : yet we cannot imagine in it 
more than an accidental similarity of words — so far, indeed, not fortuity 



m7.] Ou tkree nm G^nmi or tHb^GmnrM (^ Thm9ie$. 101 

ova that tHe Celtic worship of the celestial bodies may be traced ia 
a general way to the ancieat Mythos of Central Asia, whence the peo« 
pk themselves may have originally em»nated, but from which they 
had been disconnected for ages anterior to the time of Julius Cmmawl, 
aad li fcMTtiori long before our Indo*Scythio coins were struck. 

The legend of Col. Stact's last coin, aoh, has given rise to a variety 
of conjectures : — ^the possessor supposes it a date, — but the only way 
in which it could be thus read, as Capt. Cunningham points out, is 
by supposing a to stand for \wcafia9ros, as on the Egyptian coins. 
A OH onno 78. For ourselves we still maintain that, as tlie obverse 
legend is evidently a mere jumble of the title baciaeac baciaexin, 
there can be no hesitation in pronouncing aoh a similar jumble of 
HAioC, rather than of any other of the known reverses, which, it will be 
remembered, do not appear until the Greek titles of the king give way 
to the indigenous appellation RAO. On receiving the Journal de$ 
Smfiou, we searched through M. Raoul Db Rochbttb's papers on the 
Hamghberjfer and Ventura collections with avidity, to see how he would 
read these curious legends, and were at first mortified by finding that he 
dismissed them as " letters apparently resembling Greek" — ^then, as 
fit topics for " Indiani»tes — ^being out of the department of his own 
studies." In the number, for 3iai 1 836, however, we are happy to find 
that our own readings of Okro, nanaia, mao, &c. are confirmed by the 
learned German Professor of GaHingen, M. K. Ott. Mullbs ; to whom 
M. R. Db Rochbttb awards the merit of reading a gold coin of 
Kanerke$ in the French cabinet which he had left untouched ; — " la 
revers, apaOKPO semble ne pouvoir s'expliquer, comme I'a propose 
aussi tres ing^nieusement M. K. Ott. Mullbb, que par le mot Sanscrit 
OKPO combing avec une seconde racine Sanskrite." — En. 

IV. — On three new Genera orsub^Genera of long-legged Tkrueheg, wUk 
deeeriptione of their epedes. By B. U. HonasoN, Eiq, 

Mbbulida, Cratbbopodinji ; Aipunemia ? Teeia, nobis ; r«t-M9 of 
the Nipalese. 

Bill shorter than the head, straight, and with the nares* perfectly 
Cincline. Wings very feeble, and quite round. Tail nearly obsolete. 

Rictus and capistrum smooth. Tarsi very high, slender, and quite 
smooth. Toes and nails meruline, slender , and compressed. 

1st Species. Cyaniventer; blue- bellied, nobis. Above, medial 
grass green: below, slaty blue : bill, horn color: legs, fleshy grey: 
irii*, brown ; 3f inches long by 5^ wide : weight ^ of an oz. : sexes alike, 

* In Aipunemia the coTering of the narei ii corneous : in TVtta, it is pure 
membrane. In the former, again, the tarial scales art apparent ; whilst iii> 
Ttjui there ia no trace of them. 



102 On three new Genera or eub* Genera of nrushee. [Fsb. 

2nd Species. Flaviventer; yellow-bellied, nobis. Above, grass 
green : below, fall yellow : mask covering the face and ears, bright 
chestnut : bill, du$ky above, fleshy below : legs, fleshy white : iris 
brown : size of the last : sexes alike. 

Srd Species. Albiventer, nobis. Abo re, olive brown, dotted with 
baff ;. below, white, each plume being largely marked in the centre 
with dusky-brown: bill, dusky horn with a fleshy base: legs, brown : 
iris, brown : 4^ inches by 7^. and ^ oz. in weight : tarsi rather lower 
and stouter, and bill rather stouter than in the preceding species, 
which are the typical ones. 

4th Species. Rufiventer, nobis. Above, olive brown, as in the 
last, but less dotted : below, rufous picked out with dusky, as in Al- 
biventer : legs, fleshy brown : bill dusky horn : iris, brown : size of 
the last, from which this species differs only (but permanently) by 
the ruddy ground color of the inferior surface. 

Remark, Tiiese little birds have a very strong muscular stomach, 
and feed on hard grass seeds and hard minute insects. They pro- 
cure their food entirely on the ground, and live in woods exclusively. 
They are almost equally common in the central and lower hilly 
regions : in the northern I have not found them. 

CaATsaopoDiNA. Genus Larvivord, nobis. 

Bill equal to head, subcylindric, straight and slender; at base 
rather broader than high, and gradually narrowed ; ridge consider- 
ably keeled : upper mandible rather longer than the lower, and 
vaguely inclined and notched. 

Rictal and nuchal hairs small and feeble. Wings, tail, and nares 
as in Turdus, but the two former somewhat less developed. 

Tarsi elevate, slender, nearly smooth : toes, all of them, compress- 
ed ; lateral fores and hind sub -equal ; exterior fore connected to 
the first joint. Nails, moderately arched and rather acute. 

1st Species. L. Cyana ; blue Larvivora, nobis. Above, full blue : 
below, bright rusty, paler and albescent towards the vent and under 
tail-coverts : thighs, blue with white cross bars : cheeks, black : su- 
perciliary line, white : bill, dusky horn : legs, fleshy g^ey : iris» 
brown : 6 inches long by 9^ wide, and 1^ oz. in weight: sexes alike. 

2nd Species. L. Brunnea ,- brown Larvivora, nobis. Above, brown : 
cheeks and sides, rusty: below, white: bill, dusky horn : legs, fleshy 
grey -, iri?, brown : sexes alike : size of the last. 

Remark. These birds difier conspicuously from Testa (Swain80N*s 
Aipunemia ?) by stronger wings and tail, by their less cylindric and 
less entire bill, and by their open meruline nares. They have much 
of the aspect of the Sylviadts, but are essentially terrestrial. Do they 
not constitute the oriental type of the American DrymophU^ ? and do 



18S7.] On thrtt new Genera or enh-Genera of Tkruehee. IDS 

they not serve, in a remarkable manner, to connect the Merulina and 
the Crateropodmit ? 

They are common to all the three regions of Nipdl, and never qnit 
the woods. They perch freely, but are usually on the gronnd. Their 
stomachs are feebler than in Tesia, and they do not take seeds or 
gravel. From the nnmber of insect nests and larvae found in their 
stomachs, I have called the genus Larvivora, 

Cratbaopooinji. Paludicola, nobis. Sytmya of the Nipaleae. 
Habitat central and lower regions. 

Character : — Bill scarcely longer than the head, stout, hard, entire, 
much higher than broad, 8ub>arcnated throughout, with both tips in« 
dined downwards and obtuse. Tomiae, beyond the nares, deeply 
locked, trenchant and scarpt internally. 

Nares, meruline, but nearly or wholly hid by setaceous plumulr. 
Kctus, smooth. Frontal and chin plumes rather rigid. Wing^, feeble, 
rounded and bowed ; primaries and tertiaries equal ; fifth and sixth 
quills longest and sub-equal ; the three first conspicuously gradated. 
Tail short, square, and bowed, not feeble. Tarsi very elevate, slender, 
nearly or quite smooth. Toes compressed and meruline ; outer fore 
connected beyond the joint, hind sub-equal to inner fore, considerably 
less than the central fore, not depressed. Nails straightened and 
blunt ; hind largest. Knees nude, tibiae plumose. 

Remark. These birds never quit the forests, and usually adhere to 
those parts of them which abound in thick low brush- wood. They 
seldom perch save at night, and then only on low bushes.- They feed 
principally in swamps and rills, upon the hard insects proper 
to such sites. Berries and seeds they seldom or never touch: 
and the sand occasionally met with in their stomachs is proba- 
bly taken unintentionally. Their tongue and intestines resemble 
those of the Tlirushes proper, with onjy a considerable increase 
in the length of the intestinal canal, which is sometimes 30 inches 
long. They fly so ill and are so stupid that I have seen them taken 
by a single man. They are much allied in manners and in structure 
to the Myotherine Pitta, but they appear to me, upon the whole, 
to belong to the CrateropocU/ue*, though I apprehend that the details 
of that sub-family call for much further investigation on the part of 
its able institutor, who, I am persuaded, will discover that Cinchsoma 
and Pomatorhimts constitute large and independent groups or genera, 
distinguished by marked peculiarities both of habits and of structure. 
Species new. Paludicola Nipalensis, nobis. 
Body, wings and tail, superiorly dark obscure green, shaded with 

* Riohakoson's North American birdi, page 156. At page 488, Mr. Swaiw- 
seir is dispased to maks CVac/oMma and Pomatorhimus lab- genera of Craterejnu / 



104 DeicriptUm of three mew epeeiee of Woot^her. [Fn. 

rafout brown : quills and tail feathers more saturate : wing coverts 
with large buff drops at the end of each plume : remiges and reetrices* 
internally dusky : the 4 or 5 first quills of the wings paled at their 
bases on the inner web : lining of wings» mixed buff and dusky : fore* 
head, face, neck, and body, below, brownish rusty, picked out on the 
under tail-coverts with blackish, and deepened on the thighs and 
sides into fulvous brown : nape and dorsal neck, dull azure or ver* 
diter blue : chin frequently hoary : behind each ear a triangular black 
spot, united anteally by a gular band qf the same hue :. iris, brown : 
bill, dusky above, fleshy towards the commissure and inferior base : 
legs, ruddy flesh color : nails, horny white : size 9 to 10 inches by 
15, and 5 to 6 oz. in weight. 

N. B. Sexes essentially alike, but the female paler; her gular 
band broken or interrupted ; and her wing coverts frequently un« 
spotted. The males, too, want these spots, except when they are 
in full plumage : the bright brownish rusty hue of their forehead 
cheeks, and body below, fades to a fulvous or dull fawn color in 
winter : and the tail coverts are then immaculate. The lower belly 
and vent are paler than the breast, and frequently albescent. 

V, — Description of three new species of Woodpecker, 
By B. H. Hodgson, Esq, 

Humboldt asserts and Swainson repeats that there are no such 
forests, or native tenants of the forest, as those of the New World. 
But he who has tracked the wild elephant and bison through the 
colo^sal avenues of the Saul (Shorea Robusta), or the Ghdral and 
Jhdral*, through those of the Deoddr (Vinus DeodaraJ of India, may 
perhaps be permilted to doubt this. If the forests of America are 
' lofty and interminable,' so are those of the sub -Himalayan moun* 
tains, from the skirts of the Gangetic plain to the very edge of the 
perennial snows. The zoological treasures of India may be leas 
celebrated than those of America — carent quia vaie sacro — ^but it is by 
no means probable that they are less worthy of celebration. Swain* 
son's observation, above referred to, has reference more especially to 
the Woodpecker tribe ; in respect to which he avers that the pre-emi- 
nently typical species are exclusively American. But this is a mis- 
take : the sub-Himfilayan forests afford several such species, one of 
which rather exceeds, than falls short of, the famous ivory bill (Picnt 
principalis) of America. My collection of Nipalese Woodpeckers 
already embraces 1 6 species, which exhibit every known modification 
of form. I propose at present to describe the most powerful and the 

* Copra Quadrimammiif nobii, snd sntelope Gorol.^-HAEDWICKX. 



1697.] DtMer^iian tif three mew epeciee of Woodpecker. 105 

HwUest of these, as weH as one intermediate species ; beginning' mth, 
the largest and ending with the least. 

PiciANik Genus Picue Aueiomm, sab-genns Picue, Swainsom. 
Speeies new. Picue Smliameme, Royal Indian Woodpecker, nobis. 

This noble bird, faciie princeps among the oriental Woodpeckers, 
and second to none in the world in size, strength, and typical attributes, 
is 15 inches long by 23 wide, with a weight of from 8 to 9 ounces. 

Form. Biil 2^ inches long, a third longer than the head ; at base 
higher than broad ; the ridges sharp and straight ; the sides strongly 
angnlated ; the tip perfectly wedged : extremely powerful and hard 
throoghout : g^eat lateral angle of the maxilla, extending centrslly 
from the base three-fourths to the tip, where it is taken up by two 
smaller angles proceeding ascendantty to the cuneate point, and 
serving as ribs to fortify it* : lower mandible with the sides subangu* 
iated after the manner of the upper ; its point similarly wedged, but 
with only one terminal rib instead of two. Nares, elliptic, lateral, 
closed superiorly by the ledge of the great lateral angle of the bill ; 
▼agnely membraned. and more or less free from the nuchal tuft of 
plumes : orbits, nude : head, large and broad with a pointed crest : 
neck, slender and uncrested : tarsi longer than the anteal, shorter 
than the posteal, outer toe : the latter toe conspicuously the long- 
est : the grasp extremely oblique, with the two hinder toes direct- 
ed laterally outwards, and capable of being brought to the front. 
Talons very falcate, acute, and anipilated beneath near the tips: 
wings, medial, reaching nearly to the centre of the tail : 5th quill 
longest : 4th and 6th sub-equal to it: 1st, three inches, and 2nd, one 
inch less the 5th : primaries plus the tertiaries, one inch. Tail, ex- 
tremely strong, moderately wedged : the six central feathers with the 
shafts bent inwards, and the webs very spinous ; the laterals similar 
but less strong ; the tips of the whole bifurcate. 

Color. Top of the head and lower back, carmine : upper back 
and wings, externally golden yellow : band from the eyes round the 
forehead, ruddy brown : neck, from the eyes, laterally, black ; an- 
teally and posteally, white, with five black gular stripes on the anteal 
aspect : breast black with large central drops of white, more or less 
brunescent : rest of the body below, and lining of the wings, white, 
transversely barred with black: rectrices and their upper coverts, pure 

* In no other speciei have I noticed more than one inb- terminal lateral 
angle ; nor it there any other, with the power thii poaeeisef , of directing the 
whole of the toea to the front. The better to ahew the pre-eminence of this 
apedes, I will add to mj paper the description of another belonging to the same 
amb-genns. See Pprrhotu in the sequel. 
P 



106 Deieriptum of three new epecies of Woodpecker, [Fit. 

black : wings internally, and the primaries wholly, blackish, with 
Z, 4, or 5 ovoid white spots, ranged barwise across the inner webs of 
all the feathers : — Female, the same ; save that her cap is black, with a 
white drop on each plame: bill and legs slaty, with a gpreenish or yel- 
lowish smear : nails dusky : iris, carmine in the male, orange-red in 
the female : orbitar skin, green in both : 1 5 inches long by 23 wide, 
and 8 to 9 oz, in weight. 

N. B. The young at first resemble the female, and the males do not 
assume their perfect plumage till the second or third year. Black is 
the prevalent under'Coior of the species, and may be seen, unmixed, 
beneath the carmine crest of the males, and mixed with white, dis- 
posed barwise, beneath the carmine of their lower backs. This spe- 
cies breeds once a year, in May. It moults also but once, between 
June and October, both inclusive. There is another Nipalese species 
scarcely distinguishable from this by colors, and which has been 
confounded with it by those who venture to describe from one or two 
dried specimens. The two species differ, however, toto coelo in all 
typical and characteristic respects. 

Sub-genus Drtotom us. Species new : FUtvigukt, yellow throat, 
nobis. 

Form, Bill If inch, a fourth longer than the head ; at base aa 
broad as high, and soft in the lower mandible ; the ridges scarcely 
straight or acute ; and the tips very imperfectly wedged : great 
lateral angles of the maxilla, short and raised to the level of the cul- 
men, giving the latter towards the base of the biU a character of 
flatness and breadth observable in no other sub-genus : nares shaped 
as in the preceding, but unprotected above by a corneous ledge, and 
usually quite hid by the nuchal tuft : orbits, nude : head, less broad 
and not crested : neck fuller, shorter, and, with the nape, crested 
posteally : tarsus rather longer than the anteal outer toe, which is 
distinctly larger than the posteal one : the grasp almost direct ; and 
the two posterior toes wholly incapable of being brought to the front, 
or even of acting laterally : talons powerful as in the last and similarly 
angulated beneath : wings and tail with the general characters of the 
last ; only rather more elongated and the latter feebler : 5th quill 
longest: Ist, 3f, and 2nd, 1^ inches less the 5th : primaries plus ter- 
tiaries If to 1^ inch : tail much pointed and conspicuously wedged. 

Color, Above brilliant parrot-green, duller on the top of the head, 
and merged in brown on the forehead : back of the neck, glossy 
silken yellow : chin and throat, pale greenish yellow : neck, to the 
front and sides, black green, picked out with pure white, which co- 



1837.] Deteriftum of tkree mw 9peeie$ of Woodpecker. 107 

lor oocupies the bases of the plumes : body below» slaty grey with 
a green smear : wings internally, and the primaries wholly, igneous 
cinnamon, with five or six blackish cross bars occupying both webs of 
the primaries, but the inner webs only of the secondaries and terti- 
aries : tips of the primaries, black brown : rectrices, pure black : lin- 
ing of the wings, whitish with black bars — the ground color tinged 
with the proximate lines : the bill, white with a plumbeous base : 
feet, plumbeous or slaty blue : orbitar skin, green : sexes alike : im- 
mature birds hare the chin and throat brown like the forehead : 14 
inches long by 21 wide, and € to 7 ounces in weight. 

YUNXINJB*. 

Genus or sub-genus new. Vivia, nobis. Wee-wee of the Nipalese. 

Generic character : — 

Bill shorter than the head, straight, conical and acuminated : tip 
of the upper mandible, sub- wedged— of the lower, pointed. 

Nares rounded, and hid by the nuchal tufts. Wings to middle of 
tail; 1st quill and sub-bastard, 2nd long, 5 th longest; all entire : 
primaries longer than tertiaries, ^ inch. 

Tail medial, soft, 12t, the six centrals, even: the six laterals, 
extremely gradated : tongue and feet picine ; the anterior and pos- 
terior outer toes equal to each other and to the tarsus. 

Species new. V. Nipalensis ; Nipalese Vwia^ nobis. 

Form, has been accurately described in the generic character. 

Color, Above, greenish yellow, darker and duller on the head, 
dorsal neck, and ears : below, white, tinged with yellow, and ocellat- 
ed from the chin to the breast— cross-barred thence to the tail, with 
black : two white lines down each side the head and neck, from the 
bill to the shoulders, enclosing the eyes and ears between them : 
frontal zone, pale and yellow : rectrices, the two central, black on one 
web, white on the other ; the four next wholly black ; the rest paled on 
the outer webs and tips : wings, dusky brown internally, and void of 
bars ; towards the base paled : males with a chesnut forehead, dotted 
with black : females with a saturate green forehead, conoolorous with 
the upper surface of the head and neck : sexes of same size : 4 inches 
long by 7^ wide* and ^ an ounce in weight. 

Remarke, These singular little birds are clearly distinguishable 
from the genus Yunx (AuciorumJ by their Picine tongue and by the 

* With the general reader no apology will be necessary for describing the 
loUoirfaig little bird as a Woedpeeker. The YmnMituB sub-family can hardly 
beast a generally-admitted independence. 

t AU the 12 are ranged in regular series, without any sign of the anomaloas 
die potitioB noticeable in the extreme laterals of all the Pieianm, 

p 2 



108 DeicriptUm of three new epedes of Woodpecker. [Fbb. 

structure of their wings, which also assimilates them with several of 
the smaller species of Woodpeckers. Whetlter they ought to be 
ranged under the genus Picummue of Txmminck, I have no means of 
ascertaining. I leave my proposed new genus or sub- genus to the 
discretion of the skilful, who have access to the libraries and museums 
of Europe. 

PiCIANiB*. 

Sub-genus PicuM, Swainson. Species new. Pyrrhotie; crimson- 
eared, nobis. 

Form, Bill two inches long, a third longer than the head : ex- 
tremely powerful and htird throughout : at base higher than broad : 
the ridges sharp and straight : the sides strongly angulated : the tips 
perfectly wedged : great lateral angle of the maxilla extending cen- 
trally three-fourths to the tip, where it is taken up by a single cnneat- 
ing angle : lower mandible not angulated like the upper in its body, 
but similarly so towfCrds its cuneate point : nares and head as in <$«/- 
taneue, but the latter not crested : neck neither elongated nor slender ; 
void of crest : tarsi sub-equal to the anteal outer toe, which is rather 
larger than, or equal to, the posteal one : g^asp rather oblique, the 
posteal toes being directed obliquely outwards, but incapable of rever- 
sion to the front : talons powerful, but only sub-angulated beneath : 
wings medial, reaching to middle of tail, gradated and formed, as in 
Sulianeus : tail rather short, very moderately wedged ; in structure 
similar to that of Sultaneus : orbits nude. 

Color and size. Wings, lower back, and tail, dark cinnamoneous 
or chesnut red, transversely banded with black throughout ; head, 
neck, and upper back, brown, merged more or less in dark vinous 
red ; the forehead and chin paler, and greyish : the breast and body 
below, black brown, with narrow chesnut bars on the thigh and tail- 
coverts : behind each ear a brilliant crimson spot : bill, bright yel- 
low : orbitar skin, dusky green : iris, brown : legs, dark slaty, smeared 
with green or yellow: nails, dusky horn: sexes alike: 12 inches 
long by 18 wide ; and 5 to 6 oz. in weight. 

Remark. Though I have ranged this bird under Swainson's sub- 
genus Picus, the curious reader will observe that it does not wholly 
answer the definition of the group. It belongs, in fact, by its bill to 
Ptcut— 'by its feet to Chryioptihu : and, strictly speaking, stands 
midway between the two sub-genera. The two exterior toes are, 
as nearly as may be, equal ; but the bill is neither depressed nOr are 
the great lateral angles of the maxilla unequal. My principal motive 

* Set the note oa Suitanem for the came of this addendam. 



1837.] Detcripium of three new tpeciet of Woodpecker. 109 

in adding it to this paper is (as already stated) to afford an object of 
cmnparison with the kingly species which is first described under the 
oriental imperial style of Sultanem, 

And, now that I have exceeded the limits originally proposed, I 
may as well add the description of another species forming a complete 
link between the three and foar-toed Piciatut, 

Genns Malacolophcs ? 

Snb-genns ? 

Species new. Melanochryeoe ; golden and black Woodpecker, nobis. 

Form. Bill 1^ inches long, scarcely one-fifth longer than the 
head, at base as high as broad, neither compressed nor depressed ; 
ridge arcuated and acute, but not carinated ; great lateral angles ob* 
solete ; tips faintly ctmeated. 

Nares, elliptic, void of corneous ledge above, more or less denuded 
of plumes. Wings medial, to middle of tail : Ist quill, sub-bastard ; 
2nd, long ; 4, 5, and 6, sub-equal, and longest. Tail, medial, equally 
gradated throughout, straight, rather feeble ; tips of all its feathers 
pointed, or evanescently forked : tarsi, longer than the anteal outer 
toe. which is conspicuously larger than the posteal : the inner, small 
but perfect, and furnished with a perfect nail : grasp not oblique : 
orbits nude : head with a full soft crest, more or less pointed at the 
occiput : neck simple*. 

Color and size. Chin, throat, abdominal aspect Of the neck and 
the breast, black : neck, posteally, black i lores, cheeks and lateral 
aspect of neck, white : ears, black, in a broad stripe from the eyes : 
upper back and wings, golden yellow : shoulders, dusky : lower back, 
tail-coverts above, and tail, black : wings internally, the same : body 
below, white : cap, in the males, bright sanguine ; in the females, 
black, with white streaks : bill, slaty black : iris, brown : orbitar 
skin, dusky green: legs, clearish green : talons, dusky : 1 1| to 12 inches 
by 18: 4^ ounces. 

Remarka. This species in size, colors and characters, bears much 
resemblance to the Picue Shorii of Gould's work, in which, however, 
the fourth digit is nailless and obsolete, the rump, crimson, and the 
neck and belly, as in our Sultaneus. 

I have other species serving to unite the 3 and 4-toed Wood* 
peckers by an insensible gradation. These species are closely con- 
nected with the well known Picue Viridis and Picus Canus of Europe. 

* The tips of the lesser quills offer no pecaliarity of stracture, either io this 
tr tli« preceding ipecies. 



no Indication of a new Genu$ of lnie9soruil Birds, [Fbb. 

VI. — Indication of a new Genus of Insessorial Birds. 

By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

CONIROSTRVB. LAMPROTORNINil ? DrNTIROSTRBS, CftATBROPpDINil ? 

Leiotrichanjs? 

Genus Cu'tia,, nobis. 

In the suite of specimens of Nipalese birds forwarded by me, three 
years ago, to the Zoological Society of London, were three or four of 
the subject of the present article. 

They were marked in the imperfect list obligingly returned to me, 
as a " new form nearly allied to Pastor" But, if Pastor Roseus be 
the type of that genus, I confess I cannot perceive much resemblance 
to our bird : and, if a strong arched compressed bill, united with 
gradated wings and very strong feet, be the marks of the CrateropO' 
dints, to that sub-family. I conceive our bird should be referred, un- 
less the sub-scansorial and quasi- Parian character of its feet do not 
rather affine it with the Leiotrichana. And, certainly, its wings, tail, 
and feet have no small resemblance to those of Pteruthius, though its 
bill be totally different and formed very much upon the Timalian model. 

The true station of our bird can only be determined by a more 
accurate knowledge of its habits and economy, than I now possess, 
applied to better and fuller information than I have any means of 
here acquiring, respecting the general affinities and analogies of the 
Insessores. 

What adds to my difficulty in attempting to class the bird accord- 
ing to the Stumine relations suggested to me, is, that the so called 
Pastor Trallii (very abundant in Nipal) is, in my judgment, a typical 
Oriole^ whilst the Lamprotornis Spilopterus (also common here) is not 
easily referable to Tkmmimck's genus Lamprotornis, and belongs, I 
shrewdly suspect, to the Brachypodina of Swainson. Without further 
preface I shall now attempt to characterise our bird as the type of a 
new genus, but with the necessary prolixity resulting from hesitation 
as to its family and sub-family. 

CuTiA, nobis. 

Khatya (quasi pedatusj of the Nipalese. 

Bill, equal to the head, or less, at base as high as broad, arched 
and compressed throughout, strong, obtuse, and nearly or quite entire. 
Culmen considerably carinated between the nares, but not much 
produced among the soft and simple frontal plumes. 

Tomise, erect, rather obtuse, and near to the palate. Nares, rather 
forward, implumose, large, the aperture broad-lunate, lateral, shaded 
above by a largish nude sub-arched scale. Gape, moderate and nearly 



1 837.] IntUcatian •/ a new Gmws of Intewtinial Birds, 111 

•iDOOth. Flamage, soft, simple and diBComposed. Wing^ and tail, 
Bbort and firm. 5th alar quill nsaally longest ; two first strongly, 
two next trivially, and both sub-eqaally, gradated up to the 5th. Tail, 
quadrate, firm, with very long coverts. Tarsi, sub-elevate, very strong, 
and nearly smooth. Anteal toes basally nect, the outer as far as the 
joint ; lateral fores sub- equal ; central not elongated ; hind very 
large, sub-depressed, and exceeding either of the lateral fores. Nails 
eompressed, large, strong, falcate and acute. Tongue, simple, sub- 
cartilaginous, with bifid tip. Type, Cdtia NipuUnn$, nobis. Nos. 
254-5 of the specimens and drawings apud Zoological Society of 
London. In order to illustrate the affinities of our bird, I proceed to 
compare it with Pastor Roseus and with Lamprotomis Spilopterut. 

In Pastor Roseus, as in all the typical Pastors in my possession, the 
bill is longer than the bead, straight, conico-cylindric, and softish 
towards the base. Its base is angulated, and the plumes of its head 
carried forwards to the anteal end of the nares, afe pointed, glossed 
and elongated. The ample and pointed wings have the tst quill 
mdUmentary, the 2nd long, and sub-equal to the 3rd, which is always 
the longest. The tarsi are con.Mderably lengthened and heavily scaled. 
The toes have the laterals equal ; the hind rather less, and the central 
fore considerably elongated. The outer fore toe has a basal con- 
nexion ; the inner none. The nails, though large and by no means 
blunt, are neither curved nor acuminated in any special or significant 
degree. In Lamprotomis Spilopterus the wing^ are precisely similar 
to those of Pastor Roseus. The bill of Lamprotomis — ^whichis scarcely 
longer than the head, uniformly sub- arched and not angulated — so far 
ag^rees with that of our Cdtia. But its base is depressed, whilst for- 
wards it has only a slight compression and sub-cylindric outline. It 
is, besides, sharply pointed, saliently notched, and its trenchant fine 
tomias are deeply interlocked. 

Carry these peculiarities a little further and you have the bill of 
Ckloropsis, the birds of which genus further agree with Lamprotomis 
Spilopterus almost entirely in the nature of their food, and the struc- 
ture of their tongues and stomachs. 

On the other hand, the harder, blunter, more solid and compressed 
bill of Cdtia, united as it is with a simple tongue, a subtriturating 
stomach, and a diet consisting of hard seeds and hard insects, would 
affine our bird to Pomatorhinus and its allies, but for the scansorial 
feet. In Lamprotomis Spilopterus the nares are still round and short, 
though there be somewhat more approach to a nude, membranous 
tect than in Pastor Roseus. In Lamprotomis, the lower tarsi, rather 
than the structure of the feet, seem to indicate less terrestrial habits 



1 1 2 Nest of the Bengal Vulture. [Fm. 

than those of Cuiia : for, in the former, the anteal digits are freer, 
and the lateral ones shorter in proportion to the central and to the 
hind one, than in the latter ; whilst the nails have rather less than 
more of the Parian attributes. Lastly, the pointed and burnished 
feathers on the head of Lamprotamis Spilopterus are wholly wanting 
in our bird. In Spilopterus they seem to intimate relationship with 
the Stares, Nor is the intimation unrequired by those who claim 
such fellowship for this bird, in as much as its habits and essential 
structure savour more contrast than similitude with the Sturmiddt. 

As for our CUtia, amidst all its anomalies (so to speak, with refer* 
ence to one's own ignorance) of structure, there is certainly some* 
thing Stumine in its aspect ; and by certain peculiarities of its feet 
and wings, as well as by its variegated plumage, it bears some resem* 
blance to Sturmella, a genus " leading directly to the true Starlings," 

Species new. C Nipaknsis, nobis ; Nipalese Cutia, nobis. Habitat, 
central and northern regions; adheres to the forests, feeding on hard 
insects and on seeds. Gregarious and arboreal. 

Color and size. Male, above, brilliant rusty yellow, with jet-black 
remiges and rectrices. Cap, and a large apert central portion of the 
wings slaty ; the former confined all round, by a black band pro- 
ceeding through the eyes from the nares. Below, from chin to legs, 
pure white ; from legs inclusively to taiUcoverts, flavescent : the 
flanks broadly cross-barred with black : a spot of the same hue at the 
base of the maxilla : most at the alar quills and the lateral tail fea- 
thers, tipped with white : lining of wings, and wings internally and 
basally, albescent : bill, above blackish, below plumbeous : legs orange 
yellow : iris, brown : 7 to 7^ inches long by 10^ to 1 1 wide: bill it : 
tarsus lA : central toe {i, hind {%. The female is a trifle less in 
size. . Her mantle is variegated by longitudinal black drops : and her 
cheek band is brown instead of black, especially on the ears. 



VII. — Nest of the Bengal Vulture, (Vultur Bengalensis ;J with ohser* 
servations on the power of scent ascribed to the Vulture tribe. Bg 
Lieutenant 3. Hutton. 

On the dth December, 1833, I found four vultures' nests in a large 
barkat tree, near the village of Futtehgurh, on the road from Nee^ 
much to Mhow. These nests were of great thickness, and were con- 
structed of small branches and twigs, mixed with dead leaves ; three 
of them contained each one egg, of a large size, and quite white. The 
fourth nest was occupied by a solitary young one, just hatched, and 



1837.] l^t of the Bengal Fn/tert. 1 1 3 

tbmky cbd, or rather sprinkled over with a short down <^ an ashy 
odIot. Near this tree were two others* on each of which were three 
or four similar nests, but as they were difficult (tf access, I did not 
Mcertain their contents. 

Deeming the little one too yoang to take from the nest, I ordered 
my serrant, who had climbed the tree, to leave it there, intending to 
tske it, if not flown, on my retnm from Mheef, whither I was then 
proceeding. On the 21st of the same month I returned to the spot, 
and finding the bird still in the nest, made a prize of it and bore it 
away to my tent. The old vultures offered not the slightest resistance, 
but sat stupidly watching the robbery we were committing. 

On oflering the young vulture raw meat, it fed greedily, and g^ve 
woti reason to belieye that it would be no difficult task to rear it, sinoa 
it proTcd willing enough to feed. 

I was moA astonished to see the little progress it bad made in 
growth and pluniage, since I discovered it, a period of thirteen days, 
in which time most of the smaller birds would have been nearly ready 
to leaTC the nest ; whilst my gluttonous friend had not even the 
smallest symptom of a feather. The whole bird was clothed with a 
light cinereous down, except on the neck, where it was partly bare« 
being in patches. The lore and round the eyes naked and livid ; 
the eyes small and irides dark ; eere and beak» black ; legs and feel 
leadoi bhick ; claws black. It had -no power to stand on its legs. 
owing to the great weight of the body. 

After feeding, or when hungry, it emitted a fractious peevish cry, 
like a sleepy child. 

I placed it in a basket with some straw to keep it wanuj and thus 
took it to Neemueh. 

When about three weeks old, the pale cinereous down with which 
it had at first been clothed, gave place to a down of a much darker 
coknr, the head alone retaining its first clothing. At a month old, or 
rather thirty* three days from the time I first discovered it, the prime 
and secondary quills, greater wing coverts, scapulars, tail feathers, and 
a few feathers on the upper part of the back near the neck, made their 
appearance, but their growth was extremely slow, being very little ad* 
vanced four or five days after. The bird was still unable to stand, for, 
although his strength had increased, the weight and increase of bulk of 
the body still rendered his legs of no use. Once or twice on placing 
him on the ground, he swallowed several large stones, about the size 
of a sparrow's egg, and these I found voided three days afterwards in 
the basket which served him for a nest. In a week's time the prime 

Q 



1 14 Nett of the Benpal Future. {Tmw. 

quills -grew to an inch and ft half long. The size of thebodj increftsed 
rapidly, and the bird supported itself on the knee joints, bat could 
not yet stand at forty days old. 

Its appetite became now no easy matter to satisfy, a pound of 
flesh, at a meal being thought nothing of. At six weeks old the 
rxxff round the neck was dearly discernible, and the quills of the wings- 
were about three inches long. The top and hind part of the head 
began also to lose the soft thick down. which had hitherto clothed it» 
and presented a naked bluish skin. 

On the 20th January it stood upright for the first time, being 
about forty-three or forty-four days old. 

At two months old, the back, shoulders, wings, lower part of the 
neck above, rump and tail were clothed with dark brown feathers, 
approaching to black ; the thighs were still only clothed with down, 
as also the sides and belly. The ruff was thickly formed and com- 
posed of very narrow brown feathers ; the breast partly clothed with 
narrow pendant feathers of a lighter brown and with the shaft whitish. 
Head closely covered with a fine soft woolly down of an ashy 
whiteness, which had again sprung up. Crop covered with pale 
brownish down. Legs greyish lead color. 

It was now so tame, as to become a perfect nuisance ; for no sooner 
did it see any person, than it ran towards them screaming and flap- 
ping its long wings', with the head bent low, and neck drawn in to- 
wards the body, often pecking at the feet of the person thus inter- 
cepted. Many were the thumps and kicks the luckless bird received 
from the servants, who most cordially detested him, as their bare 
feet were often assailed and cut with the sharp blows of his curved 
beak. Still, through good and evil, he remained with us, roosting at 
night sometimes on the top of my bungalow, and at other times 
wandering to some of the neighbors. Oftsn did I wish that he would 
take unto himself the wings of the morn and flee away ; for he never 
entered the house without making it so offensive as to be scarcely 
bearable. Yet, having brought the evil upon mjrself, I was bound 
to bear it with patience, and at length when I almost began to despair 
of ever getting rid of him, he deserted his usual haunts on the 10th 
May, being then five months old, and, I am happy to say, I saw him 
no more. 

I once shot a pair of adult birds, male and female, which were 
sitting with many others of the same kind, seemingly half gorged, 
over the carcass of a dead cow ; — ^the ball passed through the head 
of the female, into the neck of the male, and thus afforded me a good 
opportunity of examining them together. 



1937.] Nmt of He Bengal Vnliure. 1 16 

The plvmmge of the male is dark hrown above, deepest on the 
wings and tail ; under parts of a lighter shade of brown, the shaft and 
middle of each feather being dashed with a dirty white* or buff co- 
lored streak; — ^head and neck of a dirty livid color, and destitnte 
of feathers, bat scattered over with short hairs ; at the bottom of the 
aedc a raff of long, narrow and pointed feathers ; the crop covered 
over with shmt brown feathers, and slightly overhanging the breast. 
Bill strong and black at the end, but paler at the base ; nostrils 
lateral ; irides dark hazel ; legs thick and blackish ; claws black and 
strong and not much hooked. 
Length 2 feet 7} inches ; breadth 7 feet 5| inches. 
The female in length was 3 feet 1 inch, and in breadth 7 feet 7| 
iacbes ; — ^the plumage above is much lighter, being of a buff or pale 
fewn-colored brown ; under parts of a dirty white ; irides dark hazel ; 
bill strong and dark at the end, but of a greenish livid color at the 
liase ; — the daws are longer and more hooked than in the male. 
The native name is Giddh, 

This is the Bengal Vulture (Vuitur Bengalensu) of authors ;— it 
is gregarious to the full extent of the word, not only flying and feed- 
ing in flocks, but also building its nests in company. 

The male bird above described, rather exceeds ths size given by 
Latham and Colonel Stkxs. 

In Louoon's Magazine of Natural History is a long dispute 
between Mr. Watsrton, the author of " Wanderings in South Ame- 
rica," and AuDOBON, the American Ornithologist, respecting the re- 
markable powers of smell so long ascribed to the Vulture tribe. 
The latter gentleman, backed by several friends, maintains that sight 
alone conducts the Vulture to his prey, and he relates a number <^ 
experiments which he tried in America relative to this subject. Mr. 
Watbrton, on the other hand, ridicules these experiments, and brings 
forward much to invalidate them, and in favor of the old notion. It 
had perhaps, however, been better if these gentlemen had borne in 
mind the saying " medio tutissimus ibis," and allowed due weight to 
both these senses combined. 

The view which either party takes of the subject, will be gathered 
best from Mr. Watbrton's own words, which 1 transcribe from the 
89th No. of the Magazine : — 

" The American philosophers have signed a solemn certificate that 
they feel assured that the two species of vultures which inhabit the 
United States, are guided to their food altogether through their sense 
of sight and not that of smell :— »!, (Watbrton) on the contrary, say 

Q 2 



116 Neit of the BtngaT VtOlure. [Fn. 

that all vnltares can find their food tkrongli t)ie medimn of their olftic- 
toiy nerves, though it be imperceptible to the eye." 

This is said with reference to an article in No. 38 of the same 
Magazine, signed by sereral scientific men in America, stating it to 
be their opinion, ** that they (the vultures) devour fresh as well at 
putrid food of any kind, and that they are guided to their food alto- 
gether through their sense of sight and not that of smell.** 

On this subject it appears to me that the parties, like the dispu- 
tants in the fable of the Chamelion, " both are ri^ht and both are 
wrong," as I think may be shewn from the arguments on either side, 
and also from an experiment 1 made myself at Neemuch. Mr. Watbr- 
TON affirms that the vultures of the United States never feed on 
other than putrid carcasses, while his opponents declare that they feed 
alike on fresh and putrid substances. 

Our Indian Vultures decidedly feed as readily on a recently de- 
ceased animal, as on a putrifying one, and I have repeatedly seen 
flocks of the Bengal vultures at Neemuch squabbling over the carcass 
of a camel or an ox, which had not been dead more than a few hours, 
'and which was .as yet perfectly fresh. 

Sight alone in these cases guided them to their prey. The 3roang 
bird above described was always fed with fresh raw meat. 

This does not, however, by any means prove that the vulture is 
deficient in the powers of smelling carrion. The effluvium from 
any decomposing body, being, as Mr. Watbrton observes, lighter 
than common air, naturally rises on high, and a flock of vultures 
soaring above, and coming in contact with a tainted current, receive 
warning that a banquet awaits them on earth, causing them to search 
about in every direction for the desired object, in the same manner 
as a dog would do. 

It often happens that an animal dies in some thick covert where 
the vultures cannot discover it, until the vapour arising from the de- 
composing body warns them that food is near, and excites them to a 
closer search. Thus, having caught the tainted current of air, the 
bird wheels round and round in decreasing circles as the scent grows 
stronger, until at length it alights on eome tall tree near the spot, 
or perhaps on the ground, casting its piercing glances on all sides, in 
the hope of discovering the savoury morsel, which, if perceived, is 
instantly attacked " tooth and nail." 

It may very possibly happen, however, that the vulture after hav- 
ing followed the attractive odour to the regions of earth, may yet be 
Unable to discover the object from which it proceeds, and after having 
in vain endeavoured to bless his longing sight, and still more longing 



]t89.] Mff 0/ the Bmifal Vulture. 1 1 7 

■fip e tite witk tke rich md tmfeidiguf morsel, be compelled rdnotantly 
to quit the perfoned spot. 

Thus the facoltieB of sight and scent ere both neceseery to enable 
the ▼vhure to disoover its prey, — someliines singly, as when it is 
fresh,— eometiflftes oombiaed, as when it is decayed and hidden. 

Thos 1 shoald prononnce the power of scent in these birds, although 
strongly developed, to be in aid of sight, and it may be deemed a 
secondary and auxiliary means of discovering food. 

The following experiment I tried at Neemuch, A recently killed 
dog mem encased in a coarse canvas bag, and hong up in a large bat' 
kat tree, so that no bird soaring above could possibly see it. On the 
morning after, I went to reconnoitre, and saw a number of vultures 
sitting on the upper branches of the tree, and on some of the neigh- 
boring ones, of which there might be about a dozen. These birds 
were not, however, attracted to the spot by any effluvium from the 
dog, as it was still quite fresh, — ^ut ^ey had resorted there to roost 
the evening before, and had not as yet aroused themselves from their 
lethal^. 

On the fourth day I again repaired to the spot and found about 
twenty vultures sitting on the tr€e, all of them being on that side, 
difectly over the body of the dog, which had now become very offen- 
sive ; — ^there were also several vultures soaring aloft in wide circles 
above the tree, one of them every now and then descending and 
alighting. Not one bird was to be seen on any of the neighboring 
trees, — ^noron any part of the chosen tree, excepting that immedi- 
ately over the carcass. That these birds were not roosting, is proved 
firom the hour of the day being eleven ; — and besides on the morning 
that I saw them at roost, they were scattered over the whole top of 
the tree, which is an enormous harkat or banyan tree, — as well as on 
some of the adjoining ones, while on this forenoon they were confined 
to the tree, and also the one portion of the tree in which the putrid 
carcass of the dog was concealed. 

I therefore conjecture that the smell of the decomposing body had 
mounted on high, and the vultures wheeling above had come in con- 
tact with the savoury vapour, soaring round in wide circles in hope 
of espying the object from which the scent that told of prey pro- 
ceeded. 

Seeing nothing below, but still smelling the putrid carcass, they 
had gradually narrowed their flight, until they alighted on the iden- 
tical tree in which lay the hidden banquet. Thus I conclude that the 
powers of scent in these birds has been ascribed to them, in truth, and 
that it is this faculty which gives them notice of the prey awaiting 
them and induces them to search with keen and eager glances over 



1 1 8 Anatomical Noteg [Fta. 

the earth, until the eye rests on the precise spot. It is therefore their 
acute faculty of scent, combined with their keenness of vision, which 
directs the vulture tribe to their prey. 

Thus I think I have shewn that the three points in dispute, re- 
specting the vultures of the United States are not applicable either to 
the Indian or Bengal vultures*, both of which are gregarious, both 
feed on fresh as well as putrid substances, and both discover their 
prey by the combined faculties of scent and sight. 



VIII. — Notes taken at the poet^mortem esamination of a Muek Deer. 
By A. Campbbll, Esq,, Nipdl Residency, June 24, 1834. 

[Addressed to J. T. Pbabsok, Esq., Cnrator, Asiatic Soci«ty«] 

I have the pleasure to send you, for the museum of the Asiatic 

Society, a very perfect skin (head and feet included) of the Thibetan 

Musk Deer, as well as of the fVah of the Bhotiahs, Ailurus JFW* 

gens of the zoologists, and hope they may reach you in the same 

perfect state they are now in. The musk has been a fall grown male, 

and a large one too. The natives of Nipdi make a marked distinction 

between the Trans-Himalayan animal, and the Cacharya one, or that 

which inhabits the country along the foot of the snows on this side of 

the great snowy mountains ; ranking the musk of the former much 

higher than that of the latter variety. The specimen now sent is of the 

Trans- Himalayan animal. The nptes appended are of the Cis-Himdlayam 

one. Through the kindness of Mr. Hodgson, I have had opportunities 

of examining specimens of both animals, but without observing any 

important difference between them. The musk pod of the Thibetan 

animal is covered with short close hair, while that of the Cachar one 

is clothed with very long hair, and hangs more loosely from the 

belly. I believe the musk of both, when unadulterated, to be much 

alike, and that the superficial value attached to the Thibetan animals* 

produce, arises from the circumstance of its being less frequently 

impregnated with foreign subatances, for the purpose of increasing 

its weight and bulk, than the Cachar article. The pods, as they are 

found in the market, whether Thibetan or Cacharya, vary a good deal 

in appearance, and hence the general division of them above noted 

is subdivided: the thinner skinned ones being called Kdghax{» or 

papery, the thicker skinned ones Ganauta. 

* Indian Vulture, Vnltur Indieui, — Bengal Vulture, VuUur Bemffalentit. 
Of the habits of the Pondicherry Vulture {V. Pontieeriwui) I know little. 
They are generally seen singly or in pairs, — never I believe in flocks. (?) Do ikeg 
in the East, hold the place and habito of the king of the Vultures of the West? 



1837.] 00 tk€ Muik Bnr of Nipah 119 

Yoa win Teadily obflerre that the anatomical notes are Tery inoom« 
plete, and that they have been copied " m the rough'* as made at the 
dissection ; but tbeir accnracy, and the interesting nature of the 
animal they appertain to, may nevertheless render them acceptable 
to the corioQS in such matters. 



A mosk deer {Caehary^ male, mature. — Length from vent to 
occipat 2 feet 2^ inches: occiput to snoat 7 inches: tail a mere 
rudiment, 1} inch long, terminating in a tuft of hair like a shaving 
brush. The anus surrounded by a ring of soft hairs, the skin under 
which is perforated by innumerable small pores secreting an abomi- 
nably offensive stuff; pressure brings out the stuff liquid, like 
melted honey. Scrotum round, and naked ; space between it and 
anus naked, also for a small space towards the groins. Penis 3^ 
inches long, terminating in the musk bag, which is in this animal 
globular, a litde flattened on the surface towards the ground — 1 j 
indi in diameter either way, and thickly covered with long hairs ; 
it ia pendent from the belly, not like the Bhotiah musk deer examined 
last year, in which it was bound up to the abdominal parietes. At 
the centre of the musk bag is a circular hole, large enough to admit 
a lead pencil; its edges are naked and moist. At the posterior 
margin of this hole is the orifice of the penis. The penis is, in fact, 
terminated by the musk bag, which might be called correctly the 
preputial bag. The bag is composed of two distinct membranes, 
apparently unconnected with one another, except at the margin of 
the drcnlar external hole. The external membrane is vascular and 
strong, the internal one is silvery, shining, and not vascular : it 
resembles the retina of the eye, as it is seen on dissecting the eye 
from without. The inner membrane which forms the cavity of the 
bag is lined internally with a few scattered hairs. The musk is soft, 
of a reddish brown color, and granular : its appearance and con- 
sistence is precisely that of moist ginger-bread. Around the margin 
of the hole of the bag is a circle of small glandular-looking bodies, 
more numerous towards the side of the penis, (the posterior margin.) 
The flesh of the animal ia dark red, and not of musky smell. Bladder 
very large, 6 inches long, 2^ broad. The liver flat, one lobe only, 
with a cleft in ite margin at the attachment of the central ligament. 
Length of liver from left to right ^ inches, from anterior to inferior 
aspect ^ inches thick : at iU extreme right one inch, at its extreme 
left half an inch. Gall-bladder oval-shaped, pendulous from right half 
of liver, three inches long, 2^ in diameter. The gall duct penetrates 
the intestine 2^ inches from the pylorus of last or fourth stomach. 
Spleen thin, four inches long, 2| broad. Kidneys nnilobed, not sul- 



120 Anaiomeal Notes, tr« [FSB. 

eated on tkeir 8iir£ace» 1^ inch Ion?, one incli broad. Sto m achs foar^ 
in all reapects ruminant. The large bag, or firat stomach, mean 
length 8 inches » breadth 6 inches. Entire length of intestines 40 
feet. From the pylorus to csecum 28 feet, from csficam to vent 12 
feet. One csecura 13 inches long« and 2 inches in diameter. Th« 
small intestines, which are round and fhread-like, as well as the larger 
ones, are vtrj thin coated ; average diameter of large ones near the 
rectum 2 inches. Right lung the larger, three-lobed; left loag 
three^lobed also, a small centre lobe of which lies below the apex of 
the heart. Heart 3 inches long, 2 in diameter. 

AMtker Mu8k Deer, May 28, 1835. 

No branches from the arch of the aorta. The asceoding aorta one 
inch from tlie arch, gives off, first, a common trunk, immediately 
divided into the left subclavian and left vertebral — seosnd, 2^ inchca 
higher : it (the aorta) divides into two branches ; viz. the right 
cephalic, and the common trunk of the right sabclavian and right 
vertebral. 

The OS hyoides is formed of a small centre body and two boms, 
each of the two pieces having a posteriorly directed process far inaer* 
tion into the head of the thyroid cartilage. The comua are articulated 
with a. small process of the temporal bpne bdow the meatus aadito* 
rius. The larynx one inch long. The tradtea to the first brancfa 
^vea off, (which is on the right side) eight inches long : one inch 
further on it divides at once into four branches, the first branch goes 
to the highest of the four lobes of the right lung. The cartikginoos 
rings of the trachea incomplete behind. 

Dunensions of the " Wah" of the Bkatiake. 

Ailurus^ Fulgens, or male, mature. 

From snout to tip of tail, 37^ inches. 

From the sole of fore foot to superior crest of scapula, 9^ ins. 

From foramen magnum to snout, taken with callipers, 5^ inches. 

Length of tail 6 inches. 

From first cervical vertebra, to first vertebra of the tail, 16f inches. 

Greatest circumference of head round the angle of the jaw, 10 ins. 

Length of humerus, 5 inches. 

Length of fore*arra, 4^ Lnches. 

From wrist to tip of middle finger, 2) inches. 

Length of femur, 4} inches. 

Length of tibia, and fibula, 5| inches. 

From heel to tip of middle toe, 4| inches. 

Girth round lower part of thorax, 12 inches. 

From anterior edge of the orbit to tip of snout« 1 ^ indies. 

From external opening of the ear to the tip of the nose, 3f ins. 



1837.] Sam aeeamU ^ike Wars between Burmah and China. 121 

DC. — Some account of the Wars between Burmah and China, together 
with thejoymals and routes of three different Embassies sent to Pekin 
ly the King of Ava ; taken from Burmese documents. By Lieutenant- 
Colonel H. Bubnst, Resident in Ava. 

The chronicles oi the kings of Prome, Pagan, and Ava, which are. 
oompriaed in 38 volomes, and brought down to the' year 1823, contain 
aooovnti of several disputes and wars between those sovereigns and 
the emperors of China. Tagawsg, the original seat of empire on the 
Srdsoadi,'iB said to have been destroyed by the Tartars and Chinese 
before the birth of Christ. In the reign of Pbtu'-z6-di', the third 
kiag of Pagassy who reigned between A. D. 166 and 241, the Chinese 
are said to have invaded his kingdom with an immense army, over 
which that king obtained a great victory at a place called Kd-^thdm-bi ; 
Imt neither tibe date nor the cause of this war is given. The 42nd 
king of Pagan, ANdaA-Ts/ M«mo:-z6, who reigned between A. D. 
1017 and 1059, invaded CJImo, — in what year is not mentioned, — ^for 
the purpoift of obtaining possession of one of Gaitoama's teeth ; 
which is said, however, to have refused to quit China. This king 
had a meeting with the emperor of China, and the two sovereignis 
lived together for three months, but at what place is not mentioned. 
Daring AN6iiA-TBA*z6's residence in China^ the emperor daily sup- 
plied him with food dressed in various gold and silver vessels, which, 
on the departure of the king, he is said to have delivered to the 
emperor of China's religions teacher, with directions to dress food 
in them daily, and make offerings of it to Gaudam a's tooth. This 
proceeding induced many succeeding emperors of China to demand 
the presentation of the same kind of vessels from the kings of Pagan 
and Ava, as tokens of their tributary subjection to China. In the 
year 1281, during the reign of NAaA*THI•HA•PADs^ the 52nd king 
of Pagan, the emperor of China sent a mission to demand such gold 
and silver vessels as tribute ; but the king having put to death the 
whole of the mission, a powerful Chinese army invaded the kingdom 
of Pagan, took the capital in 1284, and followed the king, who had 
led to Bassein, as far as a place on the Erdwadi below Promt called 
Tarotq^md, or Chinese point, which is still to be seen. The Chinese 
army was then obliged to retire in consequence of a want of supplies ; 
but in the year 1300, Kt6-zua, the son of the above-mentioned king 
of Pagan, having been treacherously delivered by his queen into the 
hands of three noblemen, brothers, who resided at Myen^sain, a town 
lying to the southward of Ava, and who forced the king to become 
a priest and assumed the sovereignty themselvesi another Chinese 



132 Some uceaunt of tie W^mtm betwem Burwmk tmd Ckkm, [Fav. 

anay came down and invested Myen-gaim, for the purpose of assisting 
and re-establishing the king Krd-zu/. The rebel nobles applied for 
advice to a priest, who recommended them, apparently as a taunt, 
to consult tumblers and rope-dancers. Some of that profession were* 
however, sent for, and they, whilst exhibiting their feats before the 
three nobles, repeated as customary words of no meaning, a sentence 
like the following : '* There can be no dispute when no matter for 
dispute remains." The nobles seized upon these words, and apply- 
ing them to their own case, observed. If king Krd-zuiC is kiUed, the 
royal line, which the Chinese have come to restore, will be extinct. 
Accordingly, they cut off the king's head and showed it to the 
Chinese, who then proposed to retire, if the nobles would send soiaa 
presents to their emperor. ^The nobles agreed, but upon condition 
that the Chinese army should first dig a canal; and the Chinese 
generals, to shew the immense numbers of their army, dug in one 
day, between sunrise and sunset, a canal 4900 cubits long, 14 bioad 
and 14 deep, which canal near Myen-zain is still in existence*'. The 
Burmese chronicles further state, that the little pieces of skin, which 
the spades and other instruments the Chinese used virhen digging 
this canal had peeled off their hands and feet, being aiterwarda 
collected, were found to measure ten baskets full, well pressed down ! 
In the reign of king Kt6-zua, the nine 6han towns on the frontieni 
of China, Maing»m6, Ho-thd, La-tha, &c. are said to have been sepa* 
rated from the empire of Pagan. 

In the year 1412, during the reign of MnNt-oAUNO, the first king 
of Ava, the Sham chief of ITIeM-iif, whose father had been defeated 
and killed that year when marching with a force to attack Ava^ invit* 
ed the Chinese to come and aid him against the Burmese, whilst 
they were besieging the city of Tfnem-nC. The king of Avt^a son, who- 
commanded the Burmese army, hearing of the approach of the 
Chinese, advanced and lay in wait for tbem in a wood, from which, 
as soon as the Chinese came up, the Burmese sallied forth and 
attacked them, and destroyed nearly the whole of their army. In 
the following year, during the same king of Ava'a reign, and whilst 
almost the whole of the Burmese army were absent engaged in a 
war with the Talains in lower Pegu, another Chinese army entered 
the kingdom of Ava, and actually invested the capital, demanding 
the liberation of the families of two Shan chiefs, the lords or gover« 
nors of Maun'toun and Md-kag. These chiefs having committed 
some aggression near Mgeiu, a town in the king of Ava's dominions* 

* It ii called Tkeng-dui'myaunff, and eommunieates with the Z6 river, and is 
used (qv the irrigatioa of paddj landa. 



V' 



1M70 Some momU o/tke Wkr9 betwem Burmah and CUna. 121 

« BocBieie anoy iiad gone and attacked and defeated them. They 
had escaped into CMm, hat their familiea had heen captured and 
hrov^ht to Ava, The king of Avm refneed to surrender the familiea 
of tiie chiefs, and the Chinese genera], after besieging ^va for a 
month, fi>nnd his army so much distressed from want of provisions, 
that he was indueed to send in to the king a proposition, to have the 
diapate between the two nations decided by single combat between 
two horsemen, one to be selected on either side. The king agreed, 
and selected as his champion a Talain prisoner named Tha-mbin- 
PABAM . -The combat took place outside of Ava in view of the Chinese 
army and of the inhabitants of Ava who lined its walls. The Talain 
killed the Chinese, and, decapitating him, carried the head to the king. 
The Chinese army then raised the siege, and retreated into Chinat 
withoot the famHies of the Shan chiefs. 

In the year 1442, daring the reign of BHoaBN-NABAPADi, also 

called Du-PA-TouN-nAT-AKA, king of Ava, the Chinese again sent a 

mission to demand vessels of gold and silver, which they declared 

An6ba-t'h/-z6, king of Pagam, had presented as tribute. On the 

king refusing, the Chinese again invaded the kingdom in the year 

1443, and now demanded, that Tnd-NOAN-BUA', the Shwi chief of 

Mo-gatmg, should be surrendered to them. This person, together with 

an extensive kingdom belonging to him, had been conquered by the 

Burmese in 1442, and the Chinese, who styled him the chief of 

Maing:'m6, apparently from the circumstance of a territory of that 

name on the Slme-li river having been comprised within his domini« 

one, are stated to have been at war with him for several years, when 

the Burmese conquered him. The king of Ava advanced with a 

strong force above Ava to oppose the Chinese, and drove them back 

to M6:-w^n*, The Chinese again invaded Ava in the year 1445, and 

the king again proceeded up the Erdwadi to oppose them with a 

large force ; but before the two armies met, some of the Burmese 

officers persuaded their king, that as the Chinese would never desist 

invading his dominions until Th<S-noan-bua was surrendered to them, 

it would be better to comply with their wishes. The king then 

returned to Ava with his army, and on the Chinese following and 

investing the city, he agreed to surrender THd-NOAN-BUiC, but upon 

condition that the Chinese army should first go and bring under 

subjection Ya^nH-theiuf, a town lying to the southward of Ava, which 

was then in a state of rebellion. The Chinese consented, and after 

taking Ya-nii'theng and delivering it over to a Burmese force which 

had accompanied them, they returned to Ava, when Tntf-NaAN-BUA 

* Chiaese, Lan^'ttkmm* 
B 2 



1S4 Some account of the Ware Mween Burmak and CUna, [Fs9« 

killed himself by poiion. The king, however, sent his body to the 
Chinese, who are said, after emboweUlng it and potting a spit throngh 
it and roasting it dry, to have taken it with them to China. 

In the same king of Ava'e reign, in the year 1449, the Chinese 
made an nnsnccessfttl attempt to take possession of Mo:'ganng and 
Md^'^nhyin, which were at that time considered as porttons of the 
Burmese Empire, and the king is said to have made a very handsome 
present in silver to the then Tsd:-BWAH of M(f:'gaang named Th6- 
KTEiN-Bu/, and his younger brother Th6-pout»bi7/, for defeating 
the Chinese invading army. 

In the year 1477, in the reign of Mara-Thi'-ha-thu'-ta, king of 
Ava, a Talain champion who had lately received the title of Tham bin* 
PABAN, ofered, if his master the king of Pegu would entrust him with 
40,000 men and a favorite elephant, to march beybnd Atm to Khan-ti 
on the frontiers of China, and there set up an iron post as the boun- 
dary of the Talain empire. The king of Pegu acquiesced, and Tra« 
MBiN-PARAN succecdcd tu reaching Khan-ti and marking the bonn- 
dary ; but on his return towards Pegu, he was attacked near Ya-nitm 
theng by a Burmese force, defeated and taken prisoner to Ava. The 
emperor of China, as soon as he heard of Tha-mbin-paran's pro- 
ceeding, sent a force to remove the boundary mark, and the Chinese 
general, after effecting this object, sent a mission to the king of 
Ava, to demand gold and silver cooking vessels as before. The king 
refused, but agreed, on a proposition again made by the Chinese, 
that the right of China to those tributary tokens should be decided 
by a single combat between two horsemen, one to be selected by 
either nation. The king accordingly selected as his champion the 
Talwn prisoner, Tha-mbin-paran, who defeated the Chinese cham- 
pion, and the Chinese army again retreated to China. A strong 
suspicion as to the veracity of the Burmese historian wDl be excited, 
when it is known that not only this dispute also between China and 
Ava was decided by single combat, but the name and description of 
the Burmese champion were the same on this occasion as in that 
before related, in the annals of the king MaNr-OAUNothe first. 

In the year 1562, TsHBN-BTu'-MTif-TBN, (lord of many white ele- 
phants,) the great king of Pegu, after conquering Ava, M6:-gaung, Zen^ 
may, Thein-ni, &c. sent a large army to the frontiers of China, and 
took possession of the nine Shan towns (Kd-Shan-pgi or Kd-pyUdaung), 
Maing-md*, Teiguen, HS-thd, Ld-thd, M6-nd, Tsan-dd, M6:^wun, 

• The SbAM, who use the Burmese character, write Mumg, but proaounet 
the combiDation M4mg, which is their term for a town and proTiuoe. Tha 
Burmese, hence, derive the words which they apply to 8haa towns, jtf th, 
Heing^ and Mo, 



}aS70 Smtit aeeomU rf the WatM Uhoem Biarmak mid CIUm. 125 

Kmia^:»wutk; and Mumg.-'Ljfim or JlfoM^.'-Lyl, all of which, with the 
eic^lioB of KMn^^mak, are now, and ^iparently were at that time, 
under the dominion of China* The chief of Md:^meit, then aabject to 
Pe^p had complained, that the inhabitants of those nine Shan towns 
had committed some aggression on his territory, and the emperor of 
Cftnw, it is said, declined to assist those towns when attacked by the 
king of Pegu'$ army, because they had been once subject to the kings 
of PmgatL, The Pegu army, after conquering the country, built monas« 
teriea and pagodas, and established the Buddhist religion there in its 
purity. 

In the year 1 601 , Ntauno MBN>nAnA'B, king of Ava^ after re-build- 
ing the city, and re-establishing the kiogdom of Ava, which the 
Pegnera had destroyed, proceeded with a large force against the 
Ts6>biiah of Ba^md*, who had taken advantage of the downfal of the 
extensive Pegu empire left by Tsbbn-btu'-mta-tsn, and set himself 
up as an independent chief. On the approach of the king, the chief 
of Bu»wi6 called Tb6-tsbin, fled to Ywum, and the king after taking 
Bm^wiAt advanced beyond Mmng^Tein^ and sent his son, the heir 
apparent, close to Yumm with a message to the Chinese governor, 
threatening to attack him if he refused to surrender the fugitive 
chief. The governor made a reference to the emperor of China^ who 
directed the chief to be surrendered, observing, that he was a subject 
of AvOt and that if the Chinese protected him their territory would 
be disquieted. The chief of Ba-md was killed in an attempt to make 
his escape, but his corpse with his wife and children was sent to the 
prince of Av0 by the governor of FwiaN, and taken to the king, who 
appointed another Ts6:-bu&h of Ba^md, and returned to Ava, Some 
Burmese historians state, that the fugitive chief of Ba^tud took poison 
and killed himself; but the account above given is taken from the 
edition of the Royal Chronicles, revised under the orden of the present 
king of Atm. 

In the year 1658, during the reign of MBNO:-TK'-TANnA-MBiT, also 
called NoA-DAT-DATAKA, king of Ava, Youn-i*hi^ (Dcr Haldb's Yono- 
lib), who had been set up as emperor in the southern provinces of 
Ckbut, having been attacked by the Tartars from the north, came 
down to Jlfo:-My6i (Chinese TkeHg-ye-ckaw), and sent a message to 
the Ts6:-buah of JBa-m^, saying that he would reside at Ba*m6 and 
present 100 vis9\ of gold to the king of Ava, The T86:-bu£h replied, 

* The Bormeie write this name jBaa««i4, althongh they pronoaaea it Ba-w4. 
Ma ia the Sianieie and JTitia Shan l«ngasses, sad If 4a in most of the other 
Shna ditlaets, meant n viUsge. Some of the Shans call this place Ifoa-m^, and 
others Kmi-mM. 

t ▲ eiti is a Burmese weight equal to aboat 3| English pouads. 



186 8cme Mcommi of the War9 letioein Sm'mdk mUL Ckma. [Fib. 

that be clare not forward aoch a mesaagv to Ava, and Yoirii*irHi' tl^a 
offered to become a aabject of the king of Ava. The Tb6>biiali mwie 
a reference to Atm, and the king ordered him to allow Yoon-lbi' 
and his followers to come in» upon condition that they refinquiahed 
their arms, and to forward them to Ava. Youn-lhi' then came in 
with upwards of aixty of his nobles, inolading the gOTenior of Mamg" 
T$16i or Yuaanf and (KK) horsemen, and the whole were forwarded to 
Ava» and a spot of ground in the opposite town of Tsagain w»b allot-* 
ied to them. The Bormese chronicles^ however, create an impres- 
sion, that YouN-LHi' desired to carve oat a new kingdom for himself 
in Burmak, — and state, that before coming into Ba-md, he ordered a 
large army which was -still under his orders, to march after him 
towards Ava by two different routes, one portion by Mif:^m€ii, and 
the other by Theiu'Ht and M6*n^. Shortly after Yovn-lhi' reached 
Ava, accounts were received that a large force belonging to him was 
attacking the Burmese territory near M6:»meit, and when qoeatioD^d 
by the Burmese, Youn-lhi^ said, that his generals were not aware 
of his having become a subject of the king of Ava, but that he would 
write a letter, by showing which the Chinese generals would desist. 
The king of Ava, however, preferred marching a force against ^e 
Chinese, who defeated it, as also a second force, and then came down 
and attacked the city of Ava, Some of the exterior fortifications 
were carried, and the Chinese penetrated to the southward, set fire 
to the monasteries and houses, and desolated a large tract of country 
in that direction. They then returned to the assaolt of the city, but 
were repulsed with much loss ; and a heavy fire being kept up 
against them from the guns on the walls, which were served by a 
foreigner named Mi-tbari^ Katan (Mr. Cotton ?) and a party of 
native Christians, a shot killed a man of rank among the Chinese, 
who then retreated from b^ore Ava, and proceeded towards M6>ni 
and joined the other portion of Youn-lbi^s army, which had been 
ordered to march down by 7*AeJji-Af and Md^n^, The king then 
repaired the fortifications of Ava, and summoned to his assistance his 
two brothers, the chiefs of Taang-ngu and Frame. The Chinese army 
when united again advanced from M6^n^, and succeeded, notwith- 
standing many attempts made by the Burmese to stop and check 

* In the account of the journey of certain Chinese from Siam to China by 
land, g^Ten in the 1st vol. of Du Halde, it is stated, that when the Tartars 
made themieWes mUstert of China, '* a ^[tuX number of Chinese fagitiTes from 
the province of Ynnan dispossessed their neighbours of their land, and settled 
there themsdves, and the inhabitants of Kamarttt (a Shan town on the fron- 
tisrs of China) were forced to abandon their city." 



1M70 Smu Mwmmi §fiki Wkn h^hoem Bmnmh tmd Ckkm. 137 

them, io sgun inveituig Avm^ whkii diey besieged for eevenl monthe. 
The faroiliea and propeitj of many of the Bumiete troops being oat* 
side of the city, were seiied by the Chinese and maltreated or 
deBtro3red; and this dronmstance, joined to a great scarcity of pro* 
wions, created much sorrow and suffering among the besieged. The 
troopa had aeiUier rice nor money to pnrchase it, and on applying 
to the king, he observed that they had reoetved their grants of paddy 
land lor their services, and that he had no rice to give them ; at the 
same time he stationed some of his women at the palace-gate with- 
noe for sale. The commanders of the troops at last complained 
agwnat the king to lus yonnger brother, the prince of Prime, who, 
in the month of May 1661, entered the palace, seised the king and 
his family, and assomed the sovereignty with the title of " Meng-yi^ 
gif6*gmmgJ' The dethroned king and his fomily were, shortly after, 
seat to tiie Kkgnt'^imen river and drowned, and hence he is also 
styled in history Ye-gyd^meng, or the king thrown into the water. 
As aoon as MaMe-ra^-OTd-OAUNO took the reins of government, the 
affiun of the Bnrmese began to prosper. He succeeded in several 
saeceasive attacks on the Chinese besieging force in different direc- 
tioDS. and at last, as the Chinese suffered severely from these attacks 
and from an epidemic disease, they, one night in the month of 
November, 1661, evacuated their entrenchments before Ava and fled, 
leaving most of their baggage and property. 

Shorty after, the king of Ava was advised not to allow YouN-tBi' 
and all his Chinese followers to reside together at Tiogaim, but to 
make the latter take the oath of allegiance and then disperse them in 
different parts of the country. The king ordered all the Chinese, 
with the exception of YouM-uii'aad the governor of Ymkm, to be 
swoni ; but when the Bnrmese officers summoned >the Chinese to 
attend at the pagoda where the oath was to be administered, they 
refused to come unless the governor of ytmoii accompanied them. 
He was accordingly invited also, and on coming to the pagoda and 
seeing many Burmese troops in attendance, he imagined that it was 
their intention to put the Chinese to death. He and several of the 
Chinese suddenly saatohed the swords out of the hands of some of 
the aokhers and attacked them, killing many of the Burmese ; who, 
however, at last mounted the enclosure walls of the pagoda, and 
fired down upon the Chinese, until many of them were killed and the 
remainder submitted* Bat as soon as the king of Avm heard of this 
affair, he ordered the whole of the Chinese^ with the exception of 
YovK-LBi', to be put to deatii. 

In the month of Oeoembsr. 1661, the Tartars marched down a force 



128 S9m§ aee9mU of tk0 Wan heiween B9rwuA mti Ckmti. [Fn« 



of 20,000 men» under Ain*tri^-wb2«o, the gOTemor of Fmmm, 
took post at Awg-jteng^iai^, and Bent a rnksion to the king of Jvm^ 
demanding Youn-lhi^ and threatening, on rcfual, to attMk Aua. 
The king sommoned a conncil of his officers, and obeerring that in 
the reign of king Du-p4-t5un-dataka, Ta6-N04N*BUA had been 
snrrendered to the Chinese, and in the reign of king Noa«-dat-data« 
KA they had been made to snrrender the Ts6:-bu&h of Ba^md to ihm 
Burmese, gave it as his opinion, that these two precedents wonid 
justify his now delivering Youn-lhi' to the Tartars. One of the 
Burmese officers expressed his entire concurrence in his Majesty's 
opinion ; adding, that the Tartars were very powerful, and that the 
Burmese troops and inhabitants were suffering much from their war 
with the Chinese. Youn-lhi' with his sons and grandsons were accord* 
ingly, on the 15th January, 1662, forwarded to the Tartar camp, and 
delivered over to the Tartar general. He, however, sent another 
mission to demand the person of the Chinese governor of FtMon, but 
the king of Ava having replied, that he had executed that governor 
for ingratitude and treachery, the Tartar camp broke up on the 22nd 
January and returned to China. The mutual surrender of fugitives 
of every description is now an established principle in the relations 
between the two kingdoms, and the Chmese are said to enclose care- 
fully in a large cage and forward to Ava, any Burmese fugitives 
required by the king of Ava. 

For a full century after Youn-lhi* was surrendered, the Chinese 
and Burmese appear to have continued in peace, but at last, in the 
year 1765, in the reign of Tshsn-btu'-tbn*, king of Ava, the second 
son of Alom-pra, another war broke out between the two nationa; 
and as this war is the last which has occurred between them, and is 
often referred to by the Burmese with pride and exultation, and as ita 
details are recorded with some minuteness, and are really calculated 
to give European nations a more favorable opinion of Burmese courage 
and military skill, I shall endeavour to make a free translation of the 
account of it, which is contained in the 29th and dOth volumes of the 
Chronicles of the kings of Ava. 

The causes of that war are said to have been these : a Chinese 
named L6li^ came to Ba-md and JToM^-letfn, with 8 or 400 oxen 
laden with silk and other merchandise, and applied to the Ba-md 
authorities for permission to constmct a bridge to the north of the 
village of Ndnbd, in order to enable him to cross the Tdpemg river. 
The Ba^md officers observed, that they must submit the implication to 
the ministers at Ava ; and L6li^ considering this answer as equiveknl 
* Lord of ths white olophssti and SvMas*s Shsm-buaa. 



1837.1 8mm M u m mi §fty Wmn hfimen Btw* mii Ckkm. I 

Id a refonl. iru im pe rtin ent and disretpeetfnl. The Ba»wt6 oAoen 
•oapecthig from LAlc^s manner, langaag^e, and appearance, that he 
was not a common merchant* bnt some Chinese officer of rank, seised 
and aent him to Avm with a report of his oondact. He was confined 
at Ava m the amal manner ; bat after a fall inquiry and examina- 
tion, nothing of political importance transpiring, he was sent back to 
Ba-tR^, with orders that he should be allowed to trade as usual, and 
that if he really wished to construct a bridge, which however appear- 
ed to the ministers to be only an idle boast on his part, he should be 
permitted to do so wherever he pleased. On his return to Ba-mi, he 
declared that some of his goods which had been detained there when 
he was sent to Ava, were missing or destroyed, and insisted upon 
compensation. The Ba'md officers replied, that when he proceeded to 
Ava he took only five or six of his men, leaving all the rest in charge 
of his goods, and tliat if there really was any deficiency, he must look 
for it among his own people, and not among the Rarmese. L6li' 
left Ba-wUi much dissatisfied, and on his arrival at Md'mt,in, he com- 
plained to the Chinese governor there, that Chinese traders were ill 
treated by the Ba^md officers, who had also sought pretences for accusing 
him and destroying his merchandise. — He then went to Maing-TsHi, 
and preferred the same complaint to the Tssduntti, or governor general, 
there. The Tsountu observed, that he would wait a little and see if 
any thing else occurred, to prove the truth of L6li'8 statement, that 
Chinese were ill used in the Burmese dominions, and not permitted 
to trade according to established custom. About the same time, an 
affiray took place between some Burmese and a Chinese caravan of 
upwards of 2000 ponies with one LdTA^ai^ as their chief, which had 
come to KytAng^iHUi and put up to the north of that town at the great 
bazar of Kat-ikwdk. The Burmese had bought some goods on credit, 
and reftued payment when demanded by the Chinese. In this affray 
a Chinese was killed, and the Ts6:bu£h being absent at Ava at the 
time, LdTA^ai' applied to the subordinate Burmese oflkers for justice, 
according to Chinese custom. These officers decided, that the man 
who had committed the murder should, agreeably to Burmese custom, 
pay the price of a life, — ^namely, 300 ticals. LdTiCai' refused money, 
and insisted upon the man being delivered over to the Chinese ; but 
the Burmese officers replied that such was not their law, and then 
proposed that the man who had committed the murder should be 
put to death. UbrfMftLi* declared that this would not satisfy them, and 
returned to CAtaa with some of the principal traders, and complained 
to the Tsdoatii of Ymtmn*. That officer being urged, at the same time, 

* Withia the last six jMrt two oases of aecidental homicide occnrred at AvMf 

s 



180 Some ^teeetmt ofth$ Wtan heiwee» Bmmak mut CSUia. [Fas. 



by the ez-T86:biiJh't of Ba-md, Tkeumi, Ky9(m§*tiiMm 8&d other subjects 
of Ava, who had taken refuge in Ckma, to invade the Burmese domip 
nions, made such a report of the aboyementioDed circumstances to the 
emperor of Ckma, as to induce his majesty to order an army to mardi 
and take possession of Kya^^toAn, The Tsduntd put up a writing' 
on the bank of the 7a7^ river containing these words : '* Deliver a man 
to us in the room of our man who was killed, or we will attack you;" 
and shortly after, a Chinese army under a general named Yi^m-T4^- 
l6 TB^ consisting of 50,000 foot and 10,000 horse, advanced and in« 
vested K^aing-ia^n. The TB6:bu£h of Kyidmg'tvAm at the same tims 
revolted and joined the Chinese. 

. On TsHBN-BTU^-TKN, the king of Ava, hearing of this invasion, he 
dispatched, on the 28th of December, 1765, eleven divisions of troopa. 
consisting of 20,000 foot, 200 war elephants, and 2,000 horse, under 
general Lsr- wb'*wbno-d6-mhu' Nb-iit6-tsi'-thv^, to relieve Kyaitif^ 
toUH. The Burmese general, on approaching that place, contrived to 
send in some men in disg^se, and arrange a combined attack on the 
Chinese besieging force. Their cavalry, ^hich was numerous, was 
charged by the Burmese with elephants, and the Chinese being 
defeated, retired to the bank of the Tdld river, where they took poat 
behind some mud-works which they threw up. The Burmese general 
again attacked them and drove them to the bank of the M^^kkatmf 
or great Cambodia river, where the Chinese army again took post; 
but they were attacked here also, their general Yi^m-ta-lA-tb' killed, 
and their army driven back to Ckina with much loss, and in great 
disorder. The Burmese trmy then returned to Ava, where they 
arrived on the 8th April, 1766. Thi^n-wi'-buah and D6-bata, the 
TB6:bd[hs of Kyaing^toun and Lu'ta^tshajf-nhft^paMd sent excnsee» 
stating that they had been forced to join the Chinese ; but the kii|g 
of Ava disbelieved them. 

In January, 1767, intelligence was received by the king of Ava 
that another Chinese army, consisting of 250,000 foot and 25,000 
horse, had entered the Burmese dominions, and that on their arrival 
on or near Shyd-mue-loi^n mountain, to the westward of the M^^lduamg 

of B Bvrmesa killing a Chinaman ; and on both ooeaaions, the Cbaneie residents 
snoeessfnUy need their ioflvence with the Burmese prince, Mbn-tha-oti'h, to 
hsTe the Bonnete executed. Nothing would satiify the Chinese but the death 
of the indiTiduals who had ilain their countrymen. 

* The Let-wi-weng-dS-mhii is the officer in command of the northern en- 
trance to the palace. The words mean literally, '* left»hand royal eatraaoe 
chief," and the <ld, or royal, is often omitted. Thisis Stmss's XsdM^mM^ and 
*' the got eraor of the north gats'* of some of our officers. 



1S37.] Sane mcemmS •/ tU Wmn Utwem BmnmA tmi Ckma. 131 

rmr« a piit of the army, consisting of 150,000 foot and 15,000 
lM>ne, tDuder general Yi^n-tsu'-ta-tsno, was detached by the route of 
Nwmf^hU near MS^wdm against Bosi^. His Majesty had before, 
antieipatiag the return of the Chinese, ordered Kmrng'toMM to be 
feeinforoed and filled with provisions, so as to enable it to hold out 
under its governor Bala-mkn-dsn, and now directed that two armies 
should fHToeeed from Avti^ one by water up the Erdwadi to Ba^md 
under the LaT*wB^-wB3io«ifBU% and the other by the land route to 
the westward of that river, under the Wdn-gyih Maha-tsi^-thu% 
who should be jmned by all the force he might find at Mihgaung^ 
M6^bgem and other towns in that neighbourhood, and then march 
by the T9amdd {SdiUa*) route, and attack the Chinese. On the 30th 
January, 1 7^, the Wdn*gy(h marched with 22 divisions, consisting 
of SOjOOO foot, 2,000 horse, and 200 war elephants ; and on the 4th 
February, the water force, under the LaT-ws^«WBNe-]>6-MHn^ con- 
eistiBg of 11 divisions," 15,000 men, and with 300 boats carrying 
guns and jiujals, proceeded up the Erdwadi towards Ba-md. 

Fkom Sh^d'wme'lollH mountain another portion of the Chinese 
army, oonsisting of 10,000 horse and 100,000 foot, under general 
TgsmcKT^-i^-rB' BMrr^ff^ by the Tsandd route against M^'gaung. A 
body of 5,000 horse and 50,000 foot also took post on Thinzd-nuay- 
km mouBtain, whilst the force under general Yi^n-tsu^-ta-tsno, 
when it reached Bm-md, stM^aded itself along the bank of th^ river 
at the spot whore the mart is held. 

Tlie governor of Kaung-toUn, not having sufficient force to go out 
and attack the Chinese, employed himself in repairing the old and 
constructing new defences, &c. about that town. The Chinese, leav- 
ing 3,000 horse and 30,000 foot with three generals to defend their 
stockade at Bu-md, advanced with 70,000 foot and 7,000 horse under 
general Tsu'-Ti-ruNo himself, and invested KaMng-toHn, which they 
aaeaulted with scaling ladders, axes, choppers, hooks and ropes ; but 
the garrison, as previously arranged, met .the assailants, not only 
with a heavy fiie of cannon and musketry, but with large boilers of 
hot dammer and molten lead, and long pieces of heavy timber, which 
they let fall iq^on them. The Chinese were driven back with great 
loss, declaring that the besieged were not men, but natB\ or inferior 
celestial beings. The Chinese then stockaded themselves around 
Kamig^tot^M at a distance of more than 140 cubits. 

The LaT-wB-WEMO-MHC', or Burmese general, commanding the 

* The BarmeM pnmomiGe 7V«»to at TtandH. 

f Tke Burmese mo/ it the tame at the Hindu Dnah, and mott of the Bar- 
Mi^ are taken from the Hlnda-Mythology. 
s 2 



1 83 Same aeeomii of the Ware between Bwrmah and Ckma. [Fkb. 

water force from Ava, on arriving at the month of the Nat^mfei^niS 
ahove the town of Shuegit, stopped to allow all hit boats to come 
np, and determined, in the meantime, to throw into KoMng-teitkt m 
supply of ammunition. He selected three officers who Tolunteered 
to perform this service with three fast-puUing boats. The Chinese 
had only three boats, which they had constructed on their arrival at 
Ba^md. The Burmese volunteers succeeded at daybreak one morn- 
ing to pass through the Chinese besieging force stationed to the 
westward of Kaung-ioiLn, and entered that town with the supply of 
ammunition, as well as with presents of dresses and money, whicli 
the king of Ava had sent to the governor. On the same night the 
Chinese force made another unsuccessful attack. The governor 
arranged with the Burmese volunteers a plan of operations, — namely, 
that the water force from Ava should first go and attack the Chinese 
posted at Ba-^mdt and then fall on the rear of the force besieging 
Kaung'toHn, from which the governor should at the same time make 
a sortie. The volunteers again at day-break passed through the 
Chinese force stationed to the north-west of the town, and rejoined 
the water force. The general of that force, entirely approving of the 
governor of Kaung^tonn'e plan of operations, now moved his fleet ai 
boats close along the western bank of the Erawadi to Ba-md^ and 
then, landing his soldiers under a heavy fire from his boats, he 
stormed and carried all the Chinese stockades. The Chinese general 
before KauT^g^toitn, Tsd'-t4-tsno, dispatched upwards of 1,000 horse 
in support of Ba-md, but the Burmese general placed 2.000 troops 
to prevent the Chinese crossing the Len-ban^gya river, and Tsu'-TiC- 
TKNG recalled them. 

The Burmese general then selected three bold and trusty men to 
pass through the Chinese force before Kaung'toAn at night, and 
report to the governor the fall of Ba-md, and the intention of the 
Burmese general to attack on a certain day the besieging force. On 
the appointed day, the Burmese general, leaving one diviuon of his 
force at Ba-md, marched with the remaining nine divisions, and 
attacked the Chinese before Kaung'tonn, and at the same time the 
garrison of Kaung-ionti sallied out. The Chinese, although greatly 
superior in numbers, were much disheartened at the loss of their 
stockades at Ba-m6, and ufter three days' fighting, the whole of the 
Chinese works before Kaung-toan also were taken. Ten of their 
generals and more than 1 0,000 men were killed, and the Chinese, 
after setting fire to the boats which they had been building, closed 
round their g'^nerol Tsu'-ta-tbng, and, taking him up, fled to their 
force on Thin-zd'nuay'lein mountain. The Burmese followed the 



1887.] 8m»e tieeamU tf ty War§ hHw09n BurmA mid Chhm. 139 



r, and. driving then ont of their stockades on that monntain, 
pursued them as far as Md:wdn, taking a great quantity of arms, 
prisoners and horses. 

The land force of 22 divisions, which marched from Ava under the 
IV^n-gyih Maha-tsi'-thu', having arrived at Mihgaung, after «i»pair- 
iog the defences of that town, and leaving a soflKcient garrison in it, 
proceeded to meet the Chinese army, which was advancing by the 
Am/a* route. On crossing the Kat'kyo-wamg'md, the W^n-gyfh 
heard that the Chinese army were near LM mountain, and, aent a 
amall party in advance to reconnoitre. This party before it came to 
Liz6 fell in with a party of 1 ,000 horse, which the Chinese general 
TsBnNG-TA-L6-Ta had also sent in advance, for the same purpose of 
reconnoitring, and the Burmese, drawing the Chinese into a narrow 
pass between two mountains, where their horse could not form line, 
attacked and defeated them. Judging, however, from this reconnoi- 
tring party only consisting of 1 ,000 horse, that the Chinese, army 
must be of great force, the Burmese party stopped on the bank of 
the Ndn-nyen-f river, and sent some scouts on in advance. These 
TBtnrned with the intielligence, that, on ascending the top of a moun- 
tain and climbing some trees, they had seen the Chinese army, which 
amounted to about 20,000 horse, and 100,000 foot. The Wun-gyfh 
then appointed six divisions of his army to proceed with celerity by 
the right, and six by the left, round each side of the LM mountain, 
whilst with the remaining ten divisions, he advanced by the centre 
route slowly, and occasionally firing cannon. The Chinese general 
hearing of the approach of the Burmese, left one-third of his army 
to take care of his stockades in L(z6, and with the remainder advanced 
to meet the Burmese, and took poet on the eastern bank of the NdU" 
ngen river. The Burmese force under the Wiin-gyfh c*ame up and 
joined the reconnoitring party on the western bank of the same river, 
whilst the tight and left wings, which had reached Lfjrd by marching 
round the rear of the Chinese main army, suddenly attacked and 
carried the stockades there. The Chinese in those stockades believ- 
ing that the principal portion of their own force was in front of them, 
were completely taken by surprise, and fled and joined their army 
under general TsHBNa-TA-L6-TB'. These wings of the Burmese army 
then fell in with another Chinese force, ^hich was coming from 
China witii a convoy of provisions to their army, and took possession 

* The distance between M0-guung-9ind Samia if said to be only five or lix 
days* journey, 
t For the Shan word Ndm^ water and small riTcr, the Barmese always write 



1S4 Same Mceomi of the Wkr9 betwaen Burwuik tmi Ckmm. [Fu. 

of the whole of the hones, mules and provisions. The Bannsse 
genemls reported their successes to their commander in chief, the 
Wdn gyih, by a swift horseman, and proposed that their force shonld 
now fall on the rear of the Chinese army stationed on the east bank 
of the Ndn-nyen, whilst the Wlin-g3rfh attacked it in front. The 
Wan-gyfh sent the messenger back approving of the plan of attack* 
and fixing the day on which it should take place. On the appointed 
day, the .two wings of the Burmese army fell on the rear of the 
Chinese on two different points, whibt the Wdn-gyfli crossed the 
Nan-nyen and attacked them in front with the main army. The 
Chinese generals seeing their army placed between two fires, retreat- 
ed and took post at a spot beyond the Lis6 mountain ; but the Wan- 
gyfh here again attacked them, and completely routed their army, 
100,000 men of which fled to Samtd and there threw up new works. 
The Wun-gyi'n halted his army at Maingcld, in order to recruit it. 

The ^dn-gy(h having been taken unwell, the king of Ava recalled 
him, and appointed the Lst-wb'-wkno-d6-mhu% who was in com* 
mand of the Ba^mS water force, to go and relieve the Wftn-gyfh^ 
and with orders to attack and destroy the Chinese army, and then 
take possession of the eight Shan towns, Hdthd, Ldtka, Mtfrna^ TWiidd, 
Main^nnd, Tsi-guen, Kamg-wi&h, and M6nodn. The Lbt-wb'*wsmo« 
i>6-MHo' proceeded with his ten divisions from Ba-md and joined the 
WiSn-gyfh's army at MaingM, and soon after advanced and attacked 
the Chinese force at Santa under general Tbhbno«T4-l6-tb', which 
had been suffering much from want of provisions, the inhabitants of 
the eight Shan towns having refused to comply with the Chinese 
general's requisitions, declaring that they were subjects of the kinf^ 
of Ava, and afraid to assist the Chinese. The Chinese were forced 
to retreat, and the Burmese pursued them as far as Faaoii, taking a 
multitude of prisoner;, horses, arms, &c. The Lbt-wb'-wbng-iihO'^ 
after taking possession of the eight Shan towns, which had hereto- 
fore thrown off their allegiance to Ava, joined another Burmese 
general, the Wt&n-gyih Maha Thi'-ha-thu'ba, who had been sent 
with an army by the route of LH'ta^Ukay-nhiUpanA, The two gene- 
rals attacked another Chinese force of upwards of 50,000 men, which 
was posted on a high mountain to the north-east of TheitMi, and one- 
third only of these Chinese escaped into their own country. The 
Lbt-wb'.wbng-d6-mhu' and the Wun-gyih Mah^ Thi'-ha-tbu'ba 
having completed his Majesty's service, then returned, with the 
prisoners, guns, &c. which they had taken, to Ava, where they 
arrived on the 21st May, 1767. 

In the month of November, 1767, another Chinese army, consist- 



1M70 Sam aeami 0/ th$ Wmrt Mmm BiohmA wU Ckma. 185 



mg of 60,000 horse and 600,000 foot, under the emperor of Ckmm'9 
Bon-in-law, Mrufo-Kjiou'N-TS^, and his brother Tsu'-ta-l6*tr^ enter- 
ed the Burmese dominions by the T%iitmi roate, accompanied by the 
ex-T86:biUUi of that place, No4-auno-duom ; 100,000 men were sent 
at the same time against Ba-m^ by the TUngd'imay'iein roate. On 
this Chinese army attacking Tkeumi, the governor and other officers 
evacnated the place with most of the inhabitants, llie Chinese 
general, Mtbno-Kbov'n-tb^ then advanced with 30,000 horse and 
300,000 foot by the Th^bd road, whilst the other general, Tsu'-Ti-i^- 
TB', having placed a garrison with the ex-T86:buih in Tkemm, con« 
■tmcted to the south-west of that town, some extensive stockades, 
in which he took post with 20,000 horse and 200,000 foot, and 
made arrangements for forwarding supplies of provisions to that 
portion of their army which was in advance. When a report of this 
intelligence was received at Ava from the Ts6:bulh of Tkibd, the king 
appointed SO divisions, consisting of 30 war elephants, 3,000 horse 
and 30,000 foot, under the command of the Wdn«gyih Maba Tsi^thh', 
to go and meet the Chinese army advancing by IMmU and Tk{b6. 
This army marched from Ava on the 24th December, 1767. Two 
days after, another army of 20 divisions, 200 war elephants, 2,000 
horse, and 20,000 men, under the W6n-gyih Mah^ Thi'ha-thu'ba, 
marched by Skue^gd-yaM*, up Nyamg'hetH'gyih and Pd-gyd, towards 
the rear of the advancing Chinese army, in order, after intercepting 
their communications with Tktmni and cutting off their supplies, to 
attack the Chinese in the rear. Four days after a third army, con- 
sisting of 200 war elephants, 2,000 horse and 1,000 men, was detach- 
ed under the command of the Lbt-wb^wsno-d6-mhu', with orders 
to advance by the Mdmeit road, and attack the rear of a Chinese 
force which was advancing by that roadf. 

On the Wdn-gyih MahjC Tbf-thu^ arriving at Bm-gify beyond 
Tk(b6lp he sent forward seven divisions of his army which fell in 
with the Chinese and were driven back. The Wdn-gyih then advanced 
with his whole army, and made an attack on the outposts of the 
Chinese force, which were posted on €hut§ mountain to the westward 
of Th£bd, for the purpose of drawing the enemy out ; but the Chinese 

* A pagoda at PaUii a Tillagt on ths Mpei'mgay, nx or sevea miles to tht S. 
E. of ilmi. 

t This is the campaign of which Stmis hai gives tome account in p. 69, &c. 
ef the ratrodnetion to his embatiy. 

X Stmbi's PMag€€ and Ckibo. 

I Stmbi's 04ngf't<niM§'iMm^ if a hill or moaatain in Banaess, sad Otut 
aountaia ii near Thibd^ and not Bamd, 



l36 8wn0 aefotM/ of the Ware between Burmdk and Ckma, [Fm. 

g^eral aftsailing the Wt&n-g^(h with an immenBe Buperiority of force, 
the Bormese were defeated with loss, and driven hack in gpreat dis- 
order. Three regiments were taken prisoners, heing unahle to extri- 
cate themselves from the midst of the Chinese army, which they had 
penetrated in a charge. The Wdn-gyfh collected his troops and 
retired, thinking only of defending himself. The Chinese general 
pursued the Burmese with increased confidence, until the advance of 
his army reached Bout-thek-kay-byen. The Wtin-gyih sent notice to 
Ava, thut every attempt which the Burmese had made to stop the 
Chinese had failed ; that they had penetrated as far as Bout^thek-kay- 
hyen ; and that he had taken post at LoUngi'byen'gy(h, When this 
intelligence reached Ava on the 9ih March, 1768, the i^ole of the 
ministers and officers were much alarmed, and advised his Majesty 
to fortify the city, and make preparations for receiving the Chinese, 
who were but two or three days' journey distant. The king abused 
his officers, and declared that if the Chinese came, he and the four 
princes, his brothers, alone would meet and destroy them. 

The Wiin-gyfh Mah/Thi'-ha-thu'ra, who was ordered to proceed 
with his force to the rear of the Chinese army and cut off their sup- 
plies, sent a strong detachment in advance under the Tsitkd-gyih'*'. 
Tbin-ota^:mbn:oauno, to reconnoitre. This officer reported, that 
the Chinese were advancing in great force, and that he would stockade 
himself and oppose them. The Wt&n-gyfh fearing to divide his force* 
ordered the Tsit-k^-gylh to fall back, but the latter, being of opinion 
that his retreating from the immediate vicinity of the enemy would 
encourage them, and make them believe that tlfe Burmese force wat 
inconsiderable, urged the W^n-gyih to advance, and threw up a 
stockade with large bamboos. The Chinese «ame up at night and 
repeatedly attacked this stockade, but without success. As soon as 
the Wdn-gyfh learnt the Tsit-k^-gyfh's determination to make a 
stand, he pushed on with the rest of his force, which accelerated ita 
pace on hearing the sound of cannon and musketry, and the moment 
it reached the Tsit-k6-gyih's stockade, attacked the Chinese ^th 
great impetuosity. The Chinese were defeated and forced to retire, 
and after the Burmese army had recruited a little, the Wdn-gyih 
followed the enemy, and attacked and drove them out of Ld»ski or 
Ld'Shyd, where they had stockaded themselves ; and again out of 
Kyu Shy6, until they took shelter in I%einn{, The Wdu-gyih followed 
and took post on the, bank of the Ndit-beng or Nan-peng river to the 
south-east of Theinni, sending three divisions of his army under 
TBiNrQTA'zMSNioAUMO to the west of the Salueen river at the Kuem' 

* Lisuteaant-Gcneral in war. 



1887.] Sowe account of the Wars between Burmah and China. 137 

kHtM'-ddzgji ford, with orders to stop and cut off a convoy of provi- 
tioQB which was coming to the Chinese. This service was success- 
fully performed, and the Chinese general T8u'-ta'-l6-tb^ and other 
officera finding their own supplies intercepted, were unahle to spare 
any for their army which was in advance under Mtbng-koun-tx' 
The Chinese near Theinni were soon in great distress from a scarcity 
of provisions, and too uneasy to come out and attack the Burmese. 
Hearing a report also, that Tbimota^mbnigaung was coming to 
attack them with 1 ,000 mnsth elephants, the whole Chinese camp were 
watching the clouds*. At this time, the Letw6-weng-mhti, who 
had marched by the M6:meit road, arrived with his ten divisions, 
and joined the Wiin-gyih Maha' Tbi'ha-thd'ra before TheinnU 
Hie Let-w^-wen^-mhu proposed to the Wun-gy£h to let him march 
on at once with 30 divisions, and fall on the rear of the Chinese 
advanced force near Thih6 ; but the Wdn-gyih was of opinion, that 
the Chinese near Theinn( should first be disposed of, and believing 
that the town of Theinni, in which Shans and Chinese were inter- 
mingled, could be more easily carried than the Chinese works outside 
«nder their general Tsu'-ta'-l6-tb', the Wdn-gyfh stormed Theinni 
with three divisions of 10,000 men each, and captured it with the 
whole of the Chinese magazines. The ez-T8d:bu£h, several Chinese 
officers of rank, and as many of the garrison as could escape, fled 
Into the Chinese entrenchments beyond the town, but nearly 2 or 
8,000 Shans and Chinese were killed. 

The Wiin-gyih Maha^ Thi^ha-thi/ra then made arrangements for 
depriving the Chinese camp of their supply of water, and posted 
divisions of his army in a line along the Ndn-beng river, from the 
south of Theinni from Kyaak Konn on that river to the east of the 
town/ covering at the same time the Ndn^tu river, and planting troops 
at every road or passage leading down to the points at which the 
Chinese used to come and take water. The Chinese army soon began 
to experience great distress, no provisions being able to reach them 
from the rear, as well as being in want of water: and when the 
Wdn-gyih ascertained this fact through some prisoners who had 
come over to the Burmese in search of water, he attacked the Chinese 
entrenchments at three points with more than 30 divisions and 
captured them. The emperor of China's brother, T8u'-ta-l6-tb^ 
finding the army unmanageable, cut his throat with hid own sword 
and died. The Chinese fled pursued by the Burmese, who took a 
great many prisoners, together with arms, elephants and horses, and 

* TVift in the Burmese language means clond, and akjfd, or in compoaitioa 
lyi, mesas between. This is Stm as's Tengia Boo, 
T 



138 Some account of the War$ between Burmah and China. [Fbi. 

killed more than they could number. The Chinese generals Yav'k-an, 
Khe^-wa« Pan-thb, Yi'n-tboun-yb', Yi'n-ta-ti', and Kvbn-l6-tb' 
were also taken prisoners with their chargers. 

The Wdn-gyfh Maba Thi^ha-thu^ra then, leaving a strong garri- 
son in TheinfU, advanced against the Chinese army under Mtbno* 
KOUN-YB^ The other Wdn-gyfh, Maha Tsi'-thu^ who had posted 
himself on Lonngd'hyen-gyih, learning by the return of the messen- 
ger whom he had sent to Ava, that his majesty was highly displeas- 
ed with him, determined to make another attack on the Chinese, and« 
marching round the rear of Thoanizay, attacked them with three 
divisions on both flanks and centre, but owing to the great force of 
the enemy, the Burmese were repulsed, and succeeded only in killing 
10 or 20,000 men. The W\iin-gy(h rallied his troops, and after 
recruiting them a little, arranged another attack. He sent 4,000 
men secretly at night to the rear of the Chinese army round their 
right and left flanks, with orders to be concealed during the night« 
and at day-break to fall upon the right and left wings of the enemy ; 
whilst the Wdn-gyfli, on hearing the sound of their attack, would 
advance with the rest of the army in three divisions, and, attack the 
Chinese in front. This attack succeeded completely ; and the weapons 
of the Burmese were so smeared with the blood of the Chinese, that 
they could not hold them. The Chinese had before suffered greatly 
from want of provisions, and their general, now believing that the 
Burmese from Theinn{ had arrived in his rear, deemed it prudent to 
fall back with th^ whole of his 30 divisions of 10,000 men each. 
The Wdn-gyih continued to attack the retreating enemy, and the 
whole of the woods and hills were covered with the dead bodies of 
the Chinese. The Chinese general MTBNo-KocN-rB% collecting 
as many of his men as he. could, retired by Taung-bain, avoiding the 
road to Theinni, and on arriving at Maing:yolln and MaiHg:y^, 
took post on the top of a hill. The Wdn-gyfh Maha Tsi^-thu' in 
the pursuit of the Chinese met the other Wdn>gyfli Maha Thi'ha* 
thu'ra advancing with his force, at Naung-bd to the westward of 
Ld'Shyo, The two armies united and marched towards the Chinese 
general at Maing:yoitn and Maing:yin, but as soon as he heard of 
their approach, he fled into China, The two Wdn-gylh's finding the 
Chinese had retired, and that the king's service was completed, 
returned with all their prisoners, arms, &c. to Ava, where they aniv<- 
ed on the 1 7th March, 1 768. 

The Chinese force of upwards of 100,000 men which had marched 
against Ba-md by the Thinzd-nuay-kin road, repeatedly attacked that 
place, which was so skilfully defended by Bola Mbn:]>bn« that tkej 



1637.] Smne aeemmt of ike Wart h^wem Surmak and Chtna. 139 

eosld not carry it, and after losing a great many men, and suffering 
much from scarcity of provisions, they heard of the flight of the 
large Chinese army under the king's brother and son-in-law, and 
immediately raised the siege of Ba*m6, and fled to China. 

For more than twelve months there was a cessation of hostilities 
between the two countries, owing apparently to a communication 
sent from Ava to China by eight Chinese prisoners, who were released 
for that purpose. But about the end of 1 769, intelligence was receiv- 
ed from Ba-md, that another Chinese army of 50,000 horse and 500,000 
foot was marching against the Burmese dominions under three 
generals, THu'-KODN-Ta#, Akoun-tb', and Yuon-koun-tb'. On 
the 2l8t October, the king of Ava sent a force of 100 war elephants, 
1,900 cavalry and 12,000 foot under the Amyaok-wiin''', Na Mto':- 
tbi'ha-thu', to M^:§^aung, by the route to the westward of the 
ErdwatK. Three days after, another force amounting to 52,000 men 
under the Wil!in-gyih Mah/ Tnt'EA-THu^aA proceeded by water to 
Ba^md : and in another three days, two more divisions proceeded with 
the cavalry and elephants under the Md:meit Tsdcbuih and Ky6« 
deii:y&£, by the road to the eastward of the ErdwatU. 

The three Chinese generals, on reaching Y6y{ mountain to the 
north of the Lizd, detached 10,000 horse and 100,000 foot under 
the Kyen-ngan officer, Tshkng-ta'-ti^n, to advance by the Mo.- 
gamng road, and cutting timber and planks in the most con- 
venient spots, brought them to the bank of the Erdwadi, and left 
the general Ld-TA-Ts' with 10,000 carpenters and sawyers, to con- 
struct large boatsf* The main army then marched on towards Ba- 
sid, and after throwing up very extensive stockades at Shue^nyaung^ 
beng, twelve miles to the east of Kaung-taan, and leaving 100,000 
foot and 10,000 horse to defend them under Yuon-koun-tb'', the 
rest of the army, amounting to 30,000 horse and 300,000 foot, under 
the other two principal generals and ten cheers of high rank, advanced 
and invested Kaung^taitn towards the land side. 600 boats also, as 
soon as they were built in the upper part of the Er6wad(, were brought 
down and placed with 50,000 men under Yi-ta-yi'n, the governor 
of Thd'hyeng, so as to invest Kaung-ioan on the river face. Kaung* 
tfdtn was repeatedly attacked by the Chinese by land and water, but 
its governor, Bula Mbn:dkn, defended it so bravely and skilfully, 
tiiat the Chinese were obliged at last to confine their operations to 

• Chief of artillery ; Stiies's Amton-met, 

t This sUtement is opposed to Mr. GuTZLAFr's opinion, derived from the 
Chinese accounts of this war, that some nayigahle river from China falls into 
tbe Er^wadi, and that the Chinese army brought boats with them by that means* 
T 2 



HO Same tteemmt of the Wan betwem Surmah md Ckkut. [F■l^ 

keeping up an incessant fire against the place, from the positioiua 
occupied by their kuid and water force. 

As soon as the Wiin-gyih Ma ha Thi'ba-thd'ea, who was adraa* 
cing with the water force from Ava, heard that the Chinese were 
closdy besieging JlTotM^-Zoidi, he ordered Tsa'n-lba-oti'^h, Dhamma- 
TA, BiMuC Uh and Shub-daung-noat with four war-boats and all 
the boats which had joined him from the different towns on his route 
from Ava, to proceed with expedition before the rest of the army, 
and endeavour to throw into Kaang-toan a supply of ammunition and 
provisions. These four officers attacked the Chinese boats in frottt 
of Kaumg-tfHtu, and after defeating and driving them off, and captur- 
ing many, succeeded in relieving Kaung-toAn, Tsa^m-lha-oti'h then 
stockaded himself with 5,000 men in the rear of the Chinese besieg- 
ing force, on a spot to the south of KauMg^to^, and north of the 
month of the Tsin-gan or Tsin^khan river, whilst Dhammata and 
BiNiA Uh with their boats, and the Chinese boats which they had 
captured, took post near the island of KyuH^dd on the side of the 
Erawadi, opposite to that on which Kaung^toAn stands. The Chineae 
water force returned to its former position in front of Kaimg^ioib^, 
and 40 or 50,000 Chinese made an attack on TsA'N-LBA-eri^H'e 
stockade, but being unable to carry it took post round it. 

The Wtin-gyfh being joined at Tagaung and Mali by the elephants 
and cavalry which had marched from Ava by the eastern route, 
detached 100 war elephants, 1,000 horse and 10,000 men under the 
Let*w^-weng-mh(i with orders to proceed to Md^-meit, and after 
putting that place in a state of defence, to watch the state of af&drs 
and seize any opportunity which might ofier for attacking the Chinese 
army. The "Wtin-gyih himself then advanced with his boats, and on 
arriving near Kaung'io^n, took post near the island opposite that 
place, towards the western bank of the ErdwaiC, He then ordered 
1,500 horse and 15,000 foot, under the Shye-weng-mh^'*' andTein- 
gy4:roen:ganng, to cross over and land on the eastern side of the ^rtf- 
wadit and, marching round the rear of MogH on the north bank of 
the Len'-ban^gga, to attack any convoy of supplies and provisions 
which might be coming to the enemy from China, and afterwards fall 
on the rear of the Chinese army. 

The force which marched from Ava to M(i:gaung under the Amyaok- 
wdn, after placing Md:gttung in a state of defence, advanced to meet 
the Chinese army corojng in that direction. Learning from his scouts 

*■ *' Commandiog tbe eaBtern entrance into the palace," to which honorable 
poit thii officer, who had lo much dittingaithed himaelf in the prtoediBf 
eampaignt, appears to have been devated. 



1S87.1 Some Mcom/ of ikn Wwn beiweem BunmJk md CkinM. 141 



tluit the Chinese force (^^0,000 horse and 100,000 foot under general 
TsHBMe*TA-L6-TB', which had heen detached towards M(i:gaumg, had 
halted on the east bank of the Srdwadi, new Naung-td'id island, 
abore K^-hfo^uHum^md, in order to construct a bridge over the 
river, which is narrow there, the Amyauk-wtin rapidly advanced with 
his whole force and took post near Peng^tkdk, an island lying near 
the west bank, and above and below it along the river, whence he 
prevented the Chinese from building their bridge or crossing the 
Brdwai^, 

The Shye-weng-dd-mhd, having crossed the Erawad{ river with 
his 15,000 men, and landed at the landing-place of the Ba-m6 mart, 
marched round the north of the Len^bam^gya stream and cut off the 
supplies of the Chinese, capturing every convoy of men, horses and 
mules which was approaching by the MaimgUem road, and then 
turned round to attack the rear of the Chinese army ; whilst the 
Let-w6*weng-mhd, who had been detached to Md.ineit, having put 
that town in a state of defence and placed in it a strong garrison 
with its Te6:buih, was advancing towards Kaumg^tailM with his ten 
divisions. The Chinese generals, Thu'-koum-yb' and Akoun*tb', 
hearing that the Shye-weng-mhti and Let-w^-weng-mhd were ad- 
vancing in two directions from the rear to attack them, sent out a 
force of 5,000 horse and 50,000 foot under Y6-ta-ti'm, the governor 
of Lky^yfmt to meet the Let-w^-weng-mh(i, and another force of 
the same strength under Kd-TA-ri'N, to meet the Shye«weng-mhd. 

As the Let-w^*weng-mhu was advancing from Md:meit and had 
crossed to the northward of the Tstn-khtm river, he fell in with 
5,000 Chinese horse which were preceding the Chinese general 
Yd-TA-TiV, and immediately attacked them with 100 elephants and 
2,000 musqneteers and broke them. He then sent against the right 
and left flanks of the Chinese force 500 Cassay and 500 Burmese 
horse, whilst he himself penetrated into the very centre of the Chinese 
force with the rest of his ten divisions. The Chinese were complete- 
ly defeated and driven back with g^eat loss, and the Let-w^-weng- 
mh6 halted his force, and took post on the north bank of the TViis- 
kkoM river. 

The Shye-weng-mhd also fell in with the Chinese force sent 
against him at a spot beyond the Nan-ma^hui river, to the eastward 
of the great Chinese stockade at Skue^nfmmg'beng, and, dividing his 
force into three portions of five divisions each, received the Chinese 
attack. The Chinese horse advanced with g^eat impetuosity, but 
being received by the fire of 3,000 musqueteers from the Burmese 
right and left wings, they were driven back with the loss of 5 or 



142 Same accmmt of the Wars between Burmah and Chima, [Fib. 

600 men. The whole Burmese force then Avanced and attacked tiie 
Chinese, and forced them to fall back to their great stockade at 
Shue-nyaung-beng with a heavy loss. This stockade being as large 
and extensive as a city, the Shye«weng-mhu halted and took post 
on the east side of the Ndn-^ma^bm^ river. 

On the Let-w^-weng-mhu then sending out a party of 100 horse 
to open a communication with the Shye-weng-mhn, the latter I'eport- 
ed that all the supplies of the enemy had been intercepted, and 
their communication with the rear cut off, and proposed that the 
two Burmese forces should make a combined attack on the great 
Chinese stockades at Shue^nyaung'beng, as, after capturing them, the 
Chinese army before Kaunff'toHn would be enclosed like fish in a net. 
The Let-w^-weng-mhu on receiving this proposition, summoned 
all his officers, and after praising it to them, advanced with the whole 
of his ten divisions and joined the Shye-weng-mhii's force before 
the great Chinese stockades at 8hue»nyaung*beng. A plan of attack 
being then arranged, the Chinese stockades were stormed at four 
points, to the east by sis regiments under the Shye-weng-mhii, to 
the south by six regiments under Men:ngay-bala, to the west by 
seven regiments under the Let-w6-weng«mhu, and to the north by 
six regiments under the Lain-b6*. Some of the Burmese entered 
by ladders, whilst others entered by the openings which were made 
by elephants employed to butt against and throw down the gates and 
timbers. Although the Chinese with their general and the whole 
of their officers received the Burmese on the top of their works, and 
maintained a heavy fire, the Burmese, urged on by their generals, 
the Shye-weng-mhii and Let-w^-weng-mhu, succeeded in enter- 
ing the works, when the whole of the Chinese rushed out of the 
western face, and joined the army which was before Kaung-toHn 
under their generals Tho'-ko(jn-yb' and Akountx'. The Burmese 
generals having captured the Chinese entrenchments at Shue-nyaung^ 
beng, with an immense quantity of gUDS, jinjals, muskets and 
ammunition, and horses and mules, placed a garrison of 5,000 men 
in charge of these stockades. The Let-w^-weng-mhii with ten 
divisions then proceeded and took post at Naung^byit on the north 
bank of the Tstn^khtm river, four miles to the south-east of Kaung- 
toAH ; whilst the Shye-weng-mhii with ten regiments took post on 
the bank of the Len-ban-gga river, opposite to M6:yd village, and 
eight miles distant from Kaung-toun. 

The Wun-gyih then sent eight divisions of his fleet under the 
Mxk*kha»ra'-b6 and, seven other officers to attack the Chinese boats 
* Officer of Ltum, a town and district near Rangoon* 



1 837.] Some accamU of tie Wars hetwen Bmrmdk and Ckma. 143 

which were blockadiBg Kmmg^toan, This attack sueceeded ; but the 
Burmese having returned to the Wiin-gyih with the boata and gtina 
they had captured, the Chinese fleet rallied and resumed the block- 
ade. The eight divisions of the Burmese fleet, as soon as they had 
refitted and repaired, again attacked the Chinese fleet, and after a 
severe engagement, forced the crews to jump on shore, and leave all 
their boats, guns, &c. of which the Burmese took possession. The 
W6n-gyih's army then opened a communication with the garrison 
of Koiumg-tiHtn, and tiie Wun-gyih sent 10 regiments under Mbnitb'- 
zBTA-OTd to cross the Erdwadi below Kaung-to^l* to the eastward, 
and post themselves along the Tsin^kkan river to the south-east of 
that town, so as to communicate with Nmrng-hyit, where the Let- 
w6>weng-mhd was stockaded. The W6n-gfyih also sent ten reg^« 
ments under Mbn:tb'-tannaung to cross the Erawadi above Kattng- 
toon, and to place themselves along the Len-^han-gya river to the 
north' of that town, so as to communicate with Moyii, where the 
Shye-weng>mhu was posted. The Wdn-gyfh also, in order to 
induce the Chinese to believe that strong reinforcements were daily 
joining him, made large parties of men, elephants and horses cross 
over every day from the west to the east bank of the Erdwadi, and 
at night brought them all secretly back again to the west. 

The Chinese generals Thu'-koun-tb' and Akoun-tb^ then sum« 
moned all their officers, and after describing the defeats which both 
their land and water forces had so repeatedly sustained, and the 
severe suflerings which their army was experiencing from the want 
of every kind of supplies, which the Burmese had intercepted^ and 
observing that even if they succeeded in an attempt to force the 
Burmese armies around them, the Chinese troops would be unable 
to go far, owing to the scarcity of provisions, the Chinese generals 
proposed to depute a mission to the Burmese camp* in order to open 
a negotiation fot peace, and for a passage for their army to China* 
Hub proposition being unanimously approved of, the Cliinese generals 
addressed the following letter to the Burmese commander-in-chief :— 

" The generals Thu^-koun-tbs Akoun-tb*, and Yuon«xoun-tb^ 
to the (Burmese) general. When we three* who were appointed to 
march to Ava by three difierent routes, were about to commence 
our march in the year 1129* (1767«8,)the (Burmese) general sent 
eight Chinese with a letter, stating that all sentient beings desired 
rest. We therefore delayed our march a year. Even now, we 
should be happy only to see our dispute settled, which it will not 
be for years, if we go on fighting. We are not come, because we 
want the Burmese dominions. If the sun-desoended king (of Ava) 



144 Some account of the Warn between Burmak and CMna. [Fbb. 

sends presents, as was the former custom, in the 16th year of the 
emperor of China's reign, we shall send presents in return. Oar 
master the emperor's orders are: 'Fight, if they fight; or make 
peace, if they make peace/ We three generals, desirous of settling 
this ditpate, have come with a moderate force only. In our Chinese 
country we are not accustomed to say more than one word, and are 
used to speak with truth and sincerity only. The present war has 
arisen from the circumstance of the Ts6:huihs of T^euiM, Bd-mS, 
MO^'yaung, and Kyaing:yoiin having come and invited us. ^ We will 
deliver up the T86:hui|^s, subjects of the sun-descended king, who 
are now in China, Let them be restored to their former towns and 
situations. And after the (Burmese) general has delivered up to us 
all the Chinese officers and soldiers who are in his hands, let him 
submit to the sun-descended king and great lord of righteousness, 
and we will also submit to our master, the emperor and lord of 
righteousness, that the two great countries may continue on the 
same terms as they always were before ; that all sentient beings may 
be at rest ; that there may be no war ; and that the gold and silver 
road may be opened." 

The Kue-chow-b6'*' coming to the advance of the Burmese army 
with the foregoing letter on the 3rd December, 1769, the Wdn-gyflt 
sent out some officers with a Chinese interpreter to meet the bearer 
of the letter. One of the Burmese officers, hearing that the object 
of the letter was to open a negotiation for peace, told the Kue-chow« 
b6, that in order to establish an important precedent, such negotia- 
tion ought to take place on the boundary line between Ava and China. 
The Kue-chow-b6 replied, " Very true, but only say where the boan- 
dary is." The Burmese asked, if Buddhist pagodas were not built in 
the towns of Hd^thd, Ld-thd, M6nd, Teandd, Kaing:Mdh, Khawtt, and 
Khan^nyen ? Tlie Kue-chow-b6 said that they were built, and that 
they> are still in existence. The Burmese rejoined, the Chinese do 
not build or worship Buddhist pagodas, but the Burmese do ; such 
buildings are erected throughout the king of Ava's dominions, and 
their existence inHd^thd, Ld'tha, and the other towns, is a convincing 
proof of those places belonging to the king of Ava. The Chinese 
army ought therefore first' to retreat beyond those towns, to the 
boundary of the Chinese empire at M6:myin and Kyeng-thi, {Kyang-ei P) 
The Kue-cliow-bd then asked, if there is not such a place as Ta-rosp- 
m6 (Chinese point) in the king of Ava' a dominions ; and on being 

* That if, " The officer of Kui-ehow city ;*' bat this name U geaertllf writtoa 
in Burmese history, Kue»t9U€^i6» 



1 837.] Same aecoant of the Wars ketween Burmak tmd Ckma. 1 45 

answered that there is, below the city of Prome, — ^he asked, if the 
Burmese history and ancient records do not mention, that in a former 
king of Pagan's time, a Chinese army invaded the country and 
marched along the Erdwadi as far as that place, which was thence 
called Taroup-md , — and on again being answered in the affirmative, 
he observed, an army under the son, brother, and son-in-law of 
Tshsn-bto'-mta:tbn, king of Pegu^ only came as far as those towns 
of Hd'thd, Ld'tkd, &c. during the reign of that king, and built tho^e 
pagodas ; — but if you refer to the spot only to which an army may 
have happened to reach, the Burmese army ought, on the same prin- 
ciple, to retreat as far as Taroup'm6*, The letter from the Chinese 
generals was then taken in to the Wl^n-gyih, who, after reading a 
translation of it which was made, sent word that all his officers had 
not yet joined him, and that the Kue-chow-b6 must come again in 
four or five days. 

The Wiln-gyih summoned thirty of his principal officers and con« 
suited with them as to the answer which should be made to the 
letter from the Chinese generals. They all recommended that no 
terms should be given ; — but the Wiin-g^ih observed, that wlienever 
the Chinese had heretofore erred and attacked Ava, the Burmese 
kings restrained their feelings and granted them peace, recollecting 
the long friendship which had existed between the two countries ; — 
that even if the Chinese force then before them were entirely destroy- 
ed, the empire of China would still possess abundance of troops and 
population; — ^that if the Burmese refused to grant terms to the 
Chinese, when asked by them, and cut them to pieces, such a pro- 
ceeding would be recollected for many successive generations with 
feelings of animosity and desire of revenge on their part, and the 
inhabitants of both countries would continue deprived of peace and 
quiet. For these reasons, the Wtin-g^ih gave it as his opinion, that 
terms ought to be granted to the Chinese, — and declared, that if .the 
king of Ava disapproved of the measure, he would take the whole 
responsibility of it upon himself* The other officers acquiesced, aud 
the Wun-gyih then addressed a long reply to the Chinese generals, 
recapitulating the causes and events of the war, and concluding with 
an inquiry, whether the Chinese generals desired to settle the dispute 
by arms or by negotiation. The Chinese generals Thd'-koun-tb' 
and Akoun-tb', (the latter here stated to be the emperor of China's 
son,) next sent a long letter addressed to the king of Ava, closing 

* The grouDd on which the Burmese claimed Hd-ikd, Ld'thA, &c. ii precisely 
the tame as that oa which the Burmese of the present day founded their right 
to Kuio Tslley, Manipur, and even to Ckitiagong and Dacca. 

V 



146 Some account of the Wars between Burmah and China, [Feb. 

with a request, that officers of rank and intelligence on each side, 
should meet and settle all points of difference; and with this condi- 
tion, that the Chinese army should not retire until after the Burmese 
army was. withdrawn ; for, as the Chinese generals said, if we retreat 
first, we are afraid the Burmese army may follow and attack us, as 
was done at Theinni, This letter was brought to the outposts of the 
Burmese camp by the Kue-chow-b6 and the interpreter Noa-mtat" 
•touoN-AUNO, on the 10th December, 1769. The Burmese officers 
who came out and met him, at first refused to take the letter, observ- 
ing that the business must be discussed with them ; that the king of 
Ava ought not to he addressed; and that, in fact, they dare not 
forward any such letter to him. The Kue-chow-b6 assured the 
Burmese, that the person who had written the letter from the 
Chinese generals had made a mistake through ignorance, and that 
the letter was intended for the Burmese generals and officers. The 
Kue-chow-b6 further proposed, that if the Burmese really desired to 
make peace, they should permit the Chinese army to retire freely to 
a suitable situation, at which the negotiation might be concluded ; 
and displayed great anxiety for peace as soon as possible. The 
Burmese officers sent him back with a promise only to report all he 
had said to their general. 

The Kue-chow-b6 returned to the Burmese camp on the 12th of 
December, when the Wun-gyih delivered to him a letter for the 
Chinese generals, expressing his willingness to negotiate a peace. 
The moment the Chinese generals understood the contents, they sent 
the Kue-chow-b6 back to the Wun-gyih, to beg of him to fix the 
day on which certain officers of the two armies should meet and 
discuss the matter. The Wdn-gyih appointed the following day. 

On the 13th December, 1769, fourteen Burmese and thirteen 
Chinese officers of rank met in a large shed, which was erected for 
the purpose at the south-east angle of the town of Kaung-toiin. On 
the part of the Chinese the Kue-chow-b6 was the principal speaker, 
and on that of the Burmese, the W<in-dauk Nb-mt6-maha-tuura. 
The Burmese demanded, that the Tsdrbuahs of Theinni, Ba-md, and 
Md.gaung should be immediately made over to them. The Chinese 
said, that these Tsdibuahs were not in their camp, and affiirmed with 
an oath, that they should be forwarded to Theinnt and surrendered 
to the Burmese there, within six months from that date. The follow- 
ing treaty was then written on white paper with ink, and a copy 
delivered by the Chinese to the Burmese : — 

" Wednesday, 13th December. 1769, in the temporary building to 
the south-east of the town of Kaung-toHn. His Excellency the general 



1S37.] Seme aceatmt of the Wars between Btirmah and China. 147 

of the lord who rules over a multitude of umbrella- wea'ring chiefs 
in the great western kingdom, the sun-desceuded king of Ava, and 
piaster of the golden palace, having appointed, [here follow the names 
and titles of the 14 Burmese officer?,] and the generals of the 
master of the golden palace of China, who rules over a multitude of 
umbrella- wearing chiefs in the great eastern kingdom, having appoint- 
ed, [here follow the names and titles of the 13 Chinese officers,] 
they assembled in the large building, erected in a proper manner 
with seven roofs to the south-east of the town of Kaung-toHn, on the 
13th December, 1769, to negotiate peace and friendship between the 
two great countries, and that the gold and silver road should be 
established agicceably to former custom. The troops of the sun- 
descended king and master of the golden palace of Ava, and those 
of the master of the golden palace of China, were drawn up in front 
of each other when this negotiation took plape ; and after its conclu- 
sioa, each party made presents to the other, agreeably to former 
custom, and retired. All men, the subjects of the sun-descended 
king and master of the golden palace of Ava, who may be in any 
part of the dominions of the master of the golden palace of China, 
shall be treated according to former custom. Peace and friendship 
being established between the two great countries, they shall become 
one, like two pieces of gold united into one ; and suitably to the 
establishment of the gold and silver road, as well as agreeably to 
former custom, the princes and officers of each country shall move 
their reapective sovereigns to transmit and exchange affectionate 
letters on gold, once every ten years." 

The Burmese negotiators, after receiving the above treaty, applied 
to the Chinese to make over to them such boats as the Chinese still 
appear to have had near Kaung-toHn, The Chinese promised to 
deliver the same after they had been employed in bringing up their 
stores to Ba-md ; but the boats were burnt on the same day by the 
Chinese generals, and some difference of opinion afterwards took 
place about them. Presents being exchanged between the Chinese 
and Burmese generals, and some sent by the Chinese to the king of 
Ava, the Chinese army began their march towards China on Monday, 
the 1 8th December, • followed at a distance of a jinjal shot by the 
Burmese divisions under the Let-w^-weng-mhd and Shye-weng- 
mhii, until the Chinese reached the boundary of their country, when 
the Burmese returned to Ba-md and Kaung-toHn. At the same time, 
the Chinese commanders-in-chief having sent the* necessary orders 
to that portion of their army which had marched towards Mcgaung, 
that force also retired into China, 

V 2 



14S Same aeeaunt of the Wwrt between Burmak and Ckma. [Fbb« 

The ChfneM armies having snfiered long from want of proTisiona, 
those men only who were able-hodied sncceeded in reaching China, 
and the forests and mountains ^ere filled with countleas numhera 
who died on the ronte from starvation. 

When the officer, whom the W6n*gyih sent with a report of the 
peace which had heen concluded with the Chinese, and with a large 
quantity of silks and satins that had been received from the Chinese 
generals as presents for his majesty, arrived at Jiva, the king dis- 
approved of the conduct of the general and officers, for allowing the 
Chinese army to escape ; refused to accept the presents, and ordered 
that the wives of the general and other chief officers should be placed 
with the Chinese presents on their heads, in front of the western 
gateway of the palace ; and notwithstanding that the wife of the 
general- in-chief was a sister of the principal queen, she and the wives 
of the other officers were exhibited for three days at the appointed 
place, with the bundles of Chinese silks and satins on their heads. 

The Wiin-g^th and other officers hearing how highly the king was 
displeased, were afraid to return to Ava immediately, and determined 
to go first and attack Manipur, the Ts6:bu£b of which, they heard, 
had been < fortifying himself again. In January, 1770, therefore, the 
Burmese army crossed to the westward of the ErdwaCi at Kavng-toHn, 
and marched to Manipur, and although the Ts6:bu£h of that place made 
arrangements for checking the progress of the invaders at every defile 
and narrow pass, the Burmese army succeeded in penetrating to the 
capital, when the Tsd:buih fled with his family and as many of his 
adherents as he could, and concealed themselves in jungles and high 
hills. The Burmese army seized the whole of the population and 
property they found in the coantry, with the'prineess of Maeyen, 
Tuonkdf and princes Hb'm6 and Tsanda-to'-kat, and brought them^ 
to Ava^ where they arrived on the *2drd of March, 1770. 

The king, still displeased at the Chinese army having been allowed 
to escape into China, refused to see the Wdn-gyfh and other officers 
of the Burmese army, and ordered them to be removed out of his 
kingdom into some other territory. They were conveyed to the 
eastern side of the Myit-ngay, which joins the Erdwadi near the north- 
east angle of the city of Ava ; and two other Wdn-gyfhs were also 
ordered by the king to be taken to the same place, for having pre- 
sumed to speak to his majesty in favor of the general and other 
officers. About a month after, the king forgave the whole of them, 
and allowed them to return to Ava, 

The Chinese generals, Tbu'-kou'n-te' and Akovn-ts', returned 
and reported to the emperor of China, that having made peace with 



1637.] Some tieetnmt of ike Ware between Bummk and Ckina. 149 

the Bunnese at Kowtg-toHn apon these conditions ; nunely. that the 
Tid:bv41is of Tkehmi, Ba-m6 and Md.'gaung, subjects of the king of 
Avo, should be surrendered at Tkeinni ; that all the Chinese officers 
and soldiers taken prisoners by the Burmese in the years 1765, 1766, 
1767, and 1769, should he given up; and that ambassadors should 
be sent hy both sovereigns once in ten years, the armies of both 
nations had retired; and that two officers, the Kue-chow.b6 and 
Kti'n:mbn:ti'tu'ha, had much distinguished themselves. The empe- 
ror of China was greatly pleased and desired to promote those officers ; 
but two of the imperial kinsmen, Ha-ta-ti^n and Tbhi'n«ta.ti'n, 
with two Tartar nobles, the governors of AtH-kyain and Maing:thin, 
submitted that they should first be allowed to go down to Mdnnyin 
and see how far the statements of the Kue-chow-b6 were founded in 
truth. These four individuals accordingly came down to M6:myin 
and sent a letter to the Burmese governor of Kaung'tonn, in charge 
of a subordinate officer and upwards of fifty men ; but the governor 
finding from a translation of the letter, that its contents were very 
unfriendly* seized and confined the whole of the Chinese mission. A 
report of the Burmese governor's proceeding was immediately for- 
warded to the emperor of China at Pekin, who ordered the Kue-chow- 
b6 to g^ down himself and see how the matter could be settled. 

The Kne-chow-b6 came down to Md.'wdn with upwards of 1,000 
soldiers, and sent a very civil letter to the governor of Kaung-to^n, 
requesting him to release the Chinese party he had confined, and to 
send back with them the letter which had been addressed to him by 
the governors of Atik^hfoin and MaingiMn, by order of Ha-ta-ti'n 
and TsBi^N-Ti-Ti'N. The governor of Kaimg^toAn immediately 
complied with this request ; and on the Kue«chow-b<S perusing the 
letter, which had been sent to Kaung^toiin, and finding its contents 
to be not only uncivil, but warlike and threatening, he forwarded it 
to Pekin, The emperor was exceedingly angry, and ordered Ha-ti^- 
ti'n and Tshin-ta-ti'n, with the two Tartar nobles who had written 
the letter, to be sent up to Pekin in irons. H/-ta-ti'n died on the 
road, but on the arrival of the other three individuals at Pekin, the 
emperor ordered them to be executed. In the same year, in October, 
1770, the caravans of Chinese merchants came down as before to 
Bcum^, Kamng-toAn^ and other places in the Burmese dominions. 

\\ \^ [To be continued.] 



\ 



150 Noiiee on Balantium. [Fbb. 

X. — Notice on Balantium, a genus of the Pteropodoua Mollusca ; with 
the characters of a new species inhabiting the Southern Indian Ocean. 
BgVf.H, Bbnson, Esq. B. C. S. 

In Vol. iv. J. A. S., page 176, I ennmeratpd the genera of Ptero- 
poda met with in my voyage from England, and noticed, under No. 
11 , a new perforate genus allied to Cleodora, which I marked as very 
rare, in consequence of tlie specimen which fell to my net having 
been the only one seen during the passage. 

On looking over the plates of Lamarckian genera of Testacea given 
in the old series of the London Quarterly Journal of Science, Vol. XV. 
I met wiith a figure. No. 107, Plate VII. , which bore a very near re- 
semblance to the shell from which I intended to draw the characters of 
a new genus ; and on reference to the letter-press, page 220, I found 
a note which had theretofore escaped my notice, containing the 
characters of the genus Balantium, which the anonymous translator 
proposed to establish in order to receive a shell taken by Mr. Cranch, 
in Captain Tuckbt's expedition to the Congo, and preserved with 
another shell, apparently of the same genus, in the British Museum. 
The writer assigned the shell provisionally to the family of HgaUoana^ 
merely from the strong analogy which the substance of the shell bore 
to that of Hyalaa, until an opportunity should occur of obtaining 
more accurate information regarding a species so interesting. That 
opportunity has partly occurred to me, and I am enabled, by the 
discovery of a second allied species, to confirm, from an inspection of 
the animal, the correctness of the writer's conjecture regarding the 
location of the genua in the order Pteropoda. The following is the • 
description of Balantium recurvum, as given in Brande's Journal. 

•' Shell transparent, very thin and fragile, hyaline, corneous, hasti- 
form ; apex recurved ; open at both ends ; superior aperture dilated, 
sharp-edged ; inferior round, very minute ; sides acute; superior disk 
undulated; inferior rounded; numerous transverse grooves on both 
sides." 

The new species differs from the description in having no re- 
curved termination to the shell, or at least the bend is so incon- 
spicuous, as to be of no value as a character ; the terminal aperture 
is also larger in proportion, being, in my specimen, nearly 0.05 of an 
inch in diameter. It has on one face three radiating longitudinal 
ribs, (one central and broadest, and two lateral.) The lateral margins 
are more regular than in B. recurvum, are destitute of the grooves 
which cross the shell transversely, and are provided with a groove 
running the whole length of their truncated edge, whence it happens 



1 837 .] Notice on Balanthtm. 1 5 1 

that they are hicarinate, instead of presenting a single edge or keel. 
The other face has only one hroad central elevation, which expands 
gradually, and in proportion to the increase in width of the shell, 
towards the superior aperture. My shell is shorter in proportion 
than B. recurvum, 1 propose to describe it as 

Balantium Bicarinatum. 

Testa compress^ sub^triangulari hastiformi, faciebus utrisque trans- 
verse sulcatis, superiori triradiati, radiis convexis, approximatis ad 
marginem superiorem provectum undulas tres forraantibus ; facte 
inferiore medio convexfi, abbreviate ; marginibus lateralibns Isevibus 
nnisnlcatis, sub-bicarinatis. 

Long. 0.65, Lat. 0.5 poll. 

Habitat in Oceano Indico Anstrali, non procul ah insulis Amster- 
dam et Sancti Pauli dictis. 

1 took the shell on the night of the 28th November, 1 834. in S. 
lat. 36^ Z(f, and £. long. 75^ 30^, in company with Janthina exigua 
and another small flat spired species, Cleodora, Hyalaa, a small Cepka* 
lopode of the genus Cranchia, an independent floating Amitifera, and 
a crnstaceons marine Centipede, With the exception of a protrusion 
of a small portion of the Molluscum at the apex, the animal was very 
similar to that of Cleodora, but having been crowded with too many 
spedmens iu spirits of insufficient strength, it decayed, and was no 
longer recognizable, when I had an opportunity of substituting a 
stronger preservative liquor. 

I observe that Ds Fbrussac, in his enumeration of the species of 
Pteropoda, contained in No. 262 of the Bulletin dee Sciences, has refer* 
red B. recurvum to the genus Cleodora, as C Balantium, As the only 
habitat given by him is Congo, it is evident that he was possessed of 
no information in addition to that contained in the Journal of Science, 
and that he had arbitrarily assumed the specimen to be defective in 
the apex. The discovery of another species with a similarly perfo« 
rated extremity, and a like flattened form, should cause us to hesitate 
before blotting out the genus indicated by the writer in the Journal 
of the Royal Institution. Nothing but the discovery of an imperfo- 
rate specimen shotfld now permit its annexation to Cleodora, between 
which and HyaLta it appeurs to supply a void. The parts of Pelagian 
shells which are most subject to injury are the delicate edges of the 
apertures, not the imperforate apices, which even in the tender spinous 
terminations of the Cresides and Cleodora, are always met with in a 
perfect state. Cuvieria forms no exception to the rule, as, in that 
genus, the spinous termination is cut off by a diaphragm, and the 
derelict portion, therefore, follows the ordinary rule observable in 



152 Additional fragmentM of the Shatherium, [Fsb. 

truncated shells. The termiail volate of Carinuria is also liable to 
decadence, but no perforation is visible in the injured part. 

I think that the preceding observations wiU tend to uphold the 
claim of Balantium to rank as one of the prominent types of form, 
which, for convenience' sake, are termed genera, and' that it is de- 
sirable that the anonymous iustitutor of it should claim his proper- 
ty, in order that we may know to whom we should rightly attribute 
its first indication. 

The other species noticed in the Journal of Science, as preserved in 
the British Museum, would appear, from the figure referred to in Par- 
kinson's Introduction, to be a Cleodora which we met in a tract of the 
Indian Ocean contained between the parallels of 30^ south and 3* 
north, and the meridians 86^ and 92*^ east ; but Parkinson's figure 
does no justice to the form of that truly elegant and delicate shell. 



Xi. — Additional fragmente of the Sivatherium. 

Before Colonel Colvin's departure for Europe, we requested permis- 
sion to take a cast of the beautifully preserved lower jaw of the Sivathe* 
rinan which he exhibited at the Government House scientific party in 
January last. In further token of his zeal for science, and of his ever- 
readiness to oblige, he has, even in the hurry of embarkation, favored us 
with the accompanying lithographic drawings of the same jaw, and of 
the larger fragment of the occiput also on its way to adorn some ca- 
binet of fossil osteology in his native land. This fragment is the more 
valuable on account of its being perfect in the parts deficient in Dr. 
Falconkr's specimen published in the Asiatic Researches, vol. xix.* 
We subjoin the Colonel's note explanatory of the drawings, (Plates 
VIII. IX.) 



" I herewith send you two plates of the Sivatheriwn, one of the por- 
tion of the head 1 was fortunate in having brought in from the lower 
hills below and west of Ndhan just before I left Ddddpur, It arrived 
encumbered with a good deal of hard sandstone matrix, most of which 
1 had cleared away. This specimen is valuable, though it has no 
teeth, from having the occiput very entire, and from its proving the 
accuracy of Dr. FaiaCONsr's assumption, founded on examination of 
the original head, that the animal had four horns with bony cores, as 
this has the ofiTset of one of the back branched horns very clearly 
marked ; suitable to which I may mention that Captain Cautlbt 
has found in his collection a large flat horn. In this Plate, fig* 1 
* S«e Joumsl Asiatic Society, vol. v. January. 



SIVATHERIUM 



Sck ^i':./!..!""'-^-!"- 



r 



1637.] Noie on the Hotspring of Lohand Khad. 153 

represents a front view of my fragment ; fig, 2, a side view of the 
same, -showing the setting on of the new horn, and the rise of the 
front one over the eye ; fig. 3 is a view of the occiput : — the whole 
appear partly distorted from oocarrence of a thift. For the left lower 
jaw of the Sivatkerimm, delineated in the 2nd Plate, I am indebted to 
Condactor W. Dawb, of the Canal Department, for whom it was 
brought in, inclosed in a mass of eimilar sandstone, from near the 
soorces of the Sombe river, north of Diiif^ur and east of Ndhan^ 
shortly before I came away. It is a very perfect and beautiful speci- 
men, with its molars, four in number, almost quite entire, and is the 
specimen which you have moulded. 

Fig. I is of the outside of the left lower jaw. 

F%g. 2, ditto crown of the teeth, in which I have endeavoured to 
be accurate in drawing the fiezures of the enamel. 

Fig, 3 is of the inside of the same jaw. 

In fig. I I have hardly had the jaw perpendicular when drawing it, 
ss it does not sufficiently express the great height of the inner rang^ 
of the molars over their outer edge, which a cross section would have 
better shown ; but as the specimen is gone on board, I cannot now 
make it." 



XII. — Note on the Hotspring of Lohand Khad. By Copt. C. M. Waos, 

Near the village of Bhasra and the source of the Lohand Khad, (a 
rivulet, which flows into the Satlaj from below the ridge on which 
the fort of Chambd is situated,) there is a mineral spring, the water 
of which has a strong saline taste, and is said to be very efficacious 
in cases of goitre, dropsy, and rheumatism. Many people are in the 
habit of resorting to.it fi'om the neighbouring country annually in 
the months df May and June, December and January, to drink its 
water, both for the cure of these complaints, and to benefit by the 
salutary effect it is supposed generally to have on the constitution. 
A course of seven days is considered sufficient to affect the patient 
with its peculiar qualities. It is drank early in the morning and at 
meals, and has a slightly aperient quality. While drinking the water 
it is necessary, in the opinion of the natives, to observe a strict regi- 
men, eating nothing but dry wheaten cakes kneaded with the water of 
the spring, and occasionally a few grains of black pepper. When the 
actual course of drinking is over, abstinence from salt in any form is 
enjoined for the seven following days. During the hot months it is 
visited chiefly by those who are affected by goitres. In the cold 
months it is found to be beneficial in scrofulous complaints, as well 
z 



154 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Fkb/ 

as dropsy and rheumatiBm. When taken for rheumatic affections the 
body is said at first to swell and to subside after the water has been 
drunk the regulated time. Persons of wealth, and those who are not 
able to proceed to the spring, send for the water from a distance at the 
proper season, in order to go through a course of it. There are no 
habitations near the spring of a permanent description. Those who 
resort to it, generally amounting to two or three hundred at a time, 
erect temporary sheds for themselves while they remain. The soil is 
argillaceous, of a reddish blue tint. Though situated near the source 
of. the Lohand Khad, there appears to be no connection between the 
spring and that rivulet, excepting in the rainy season, when the inun* 
dation is stated to impair the efficacy of the water, and neutralise its 
saline taste. The dimensions of the spring are about three feet broad 
and five deep. It is immediately on the frontier of the Khalur and Han* 
dtUr territories. Lohand Khad forms the boundary between these two 
States, and flows into the Satlaj near Kiralpdr in the valley of Mak' 
howal above the town of Ropur, No sacred character seems to be 
attached to the spring any more than the reverence with which the 
Hindus are accustomed to regard these phenomena of nature in all 
situations. It does not appear to be frequented by any pilgrims, who 
are led to it from religious motives alone. The Khalur r£ja attempted 
some years ago to levy a tax on those who come to drink the water, 
but was diverted from his purpose by the advice of Captain Murray, 
to whose authority he was subject, for his possessions on the left 
bank of the Satlaj. 

[The analysis of this and numerous other speciraena of water will 
be given hereafter. — J. P.} 

XIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 
Wednesday Evening, the let March, 1837. 

W. H. Macnaghtbn, Esq., Vice-President, in the chair. 

Messrs. J. M. Mill and W. Cracroft, proposed at the last meeting, 
were ballotted for, and duly elected Members of the Society. 

H. ToRRENB^ Esq. was proposed by Mr. H. T. Prinsbp, seconded by 
Mr. Maonaqhten. 

Col. Hbzeta, proposed by Major Taylor^ second by the Secretary. 

Mr. W. Storm, proposed by Mr. Bbll, seconded by Dr. WALLten. 

The Secretary proposed the fiishop of Cochin-China as an Honorary 
Member, seconded by Mr. W. H. Maonaohten ; — referred to the Com- 
mittee of Papers. 

Read a letter from Captain H. Harkitess, Secretary to the Royal 
Asiatic Society, acknowledging the reeeipt of oriental works published 
by the Sooiety. 

Read a letter from H, T. Pbinsep, Esq. Secretary to the Government 
of India, General Department, communicating the f<mowing extract from 
a Letter, No. i 5, of 1836, from the Honorable the Court of Directors, dated 
the Uth September^ 1836. 



4S37.] Proceeding$ of the Asiatic Society. 155 

Para. 4. We learn from the Jommal of the Atiatie Society that you hare 
ffvoentlf transferred the Earopeao portion of the Books of the Library of the 
College of Fort William to a Public Library in Calcutta, and the Oriental 
Works to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. We obserre that this measure is made 
dependent upon onr sanction, but as we are not aware of the reasons which 
recommended snrh a distribution, we refrain at present from issuing any direc- 
tions upon the subject. With regard to the manuscripts, howe? er, it is probable 
that the collection comprises many copies of several of the works or dnpltcates 
of those previonsly in the possession of the Asiatic Society ; and we direct that 
in all such cases two copies be forwarded to ns without awaiting the receipt of 
onr decision upon the arrangement which you have made for the distribution of 
the contents of the College Library. We, at the same time, desire that you cause 
to be prepared and forwarded to ns by the first opportunity, a list of the seTcral 
works, both European and Oriental, which are included in the arrangement now 
referred to. 

Ordered,— that a li^t be prepared of the works included in the Conrt'a 
requisition, and that the manuscripts in question be separated for trans- 
mission home through the Government. 

The Secretary noted the sale of 9,000 'Rupees Company's Paper with 
which the Printer'ti bill had been discharged. 

Read a letter from Monsieur S. L. Laportb, Secretary to the Linnsan 
tSociety at Bordenus, proposing a mutual correspondence and interchange 
of objects of natural history, which M. Laportb also offers to individual 
members from his own rich collection of Zoology. 

Read a letter from Professor Othm. Frank of Munich^ acknowledging 
the receipt of Oriental works published by the Society, and suggesting a 
list of some of the principal Sanscrit works which it would be desirable 
to undertake, on the completion of those now in hand. 

Mr. £. V. Irwin presented on the part of the author^ a duplicate of 
the Chronological hypothesis signed Vbbitas^ which was received ffom 
Fan Dieman's Land some months ago. 

Library. 

Dr. Wallich presented a continuation of the Meteorological Register 
kept at the Mauritiue, by M. Julbs Dbsjardins. 

Mr. D. O. DvAs Sombre presented a iinelv illuminated copy of the 
Gulist^n, supposed to have been copied for the emperor Auranokbb at 
Btjipdtr, and lately belonging to the Begum Sombrb's library. 

Read a letter from J. Bbi«i., Esq., Secretary to the Agricultural and 
Horticultural Society of Calcutta^ forwarding for presentation a*copy of 
the 3rd vol. of its Transactions. 

Mr. JoBANNBs AvDALL presented a map of Armenia, published at 
Feniee, in 1778. 

Notice Historiqne sur Crarlbs Telfair, Esq. late President of the Society 
of Natural Histoire of Mauritius, by M. Julibn Dbsjardins, Secretary to the 
Soavij—preeented by the author. 

Narrative of the wreck of the Lady Munro on the isle of Anuttrdam in 1835, 
^by Dr, M*CoMh. 
The following books were received from the booksellers : 

Bnckland's Bridgwater Treatise, Geology and Mineralogy, Vols. I. and II. 
Lardner*s Cabinet Cyclopedia : Foreign Statesman, Vol. 3rd. 

The following works translated and published by Mr. Lbwis Da Costa^ 
were presented on his part by Mr. Gborob Hill. 

4 vols. 4 to. Elements of General History, in HindiistaDf. 

1 vol. ditto, The Book of Common Prayer, in Persian. 

1 ditto, ditto, ditto, ditto, ditto, in Hinddstani. 

1 ditto, 8to. ditto, ditto, ditto, ditto. 

1 ditto, ditto, ditto. Abstract, ditto, ditto. 

1 ditto, 4to. The Penal Code, in Persian. 

1 ditto, ditto, Regulations of Distress, Replevin and Sale, &e. of Lands, do. 



166 Proceedingt of the Aiiaiie Sodeff, [Fsb. 

Mr. Dtas Sohbrb presented to the Society, through Dr. Buruni, the 
sword of her late Highness Begum Somb&b, which she had worn from the 
year 1778 to the day of her death, and which was always kept by her bed- 
side. 

A collection of models of the human hand and foot in plaister of Paris, 
was presented on the part of Mr. C. W. Sjuith. 

Dr. WisB, Principal of HdghlS College, intimated that he was desi. 
Fous of forming a museum in connection with the Hdghlf .College, and 
would be happy to receive any duplicates which the Society might be 
able to spare. 

The following memorandum and proposition were submitted by Capu. 
tain CmfNiNOHAH :^- 

" Hafing been engaged daring the ptit month in arranging the coins in the 
Cabinet of the Asiatic Society, I beg to sabnnit to the Members of the Society 
the following obserTations upon their collection. 

1. The collection of coins belonging to the Asiatic Society is so exceedingly 
meagre in every series of coins that would be of use to the historian and to the 
antiquary, and, at the same time, the individual specimens are so very poor in 
point of preservation, that the whole number of coins, which have been many 
years in collection, is scarcely deserving of the name of a Cabinet. To prove 
the meagreness of the collection, I need bat to subjoia a list of the coins now 
in the Cabinet of the Society, in whidi the only really ralaable specimen is a 
gold coin of Mahbndra Gupta. 

LUi of th$ Coiiu m th€ Soeiify^M Cabinet, wiih tkeir wtlui, 

€b.'t !?#• 

1 Gold coin of Mahbndba Gupta 30 

52 Dekkany gold boons ; some small, others minutely small, 6(^ 

7 Modern gold coins, chiefly Nip&lese, 25 

42 Indo-Scythic coins, including some radely execated base gold 

coins,.. 50 

26 Grecian, Arsakian and Sassanidan, 50 

30 Mdsalmiin and Nipklese silver coins, 30 

227 Mdsalmin pice, all exceedingly common, except a Mahmad, .. 11 
281 Dekkany pice — mostly modern and wanting inscriptions — nearly 

worthless, 5 

115 small silver coins— punch marks and Variiha series, .all bad 25 

156 Chinese and Japanese, 5 

25 Continental silver coins, 35 

221 Roman ooins» 120 

446 

2. It is a fact, which most be known to most of the Members, that the Socie- 
ty's coUectiou has not been incrased during the last two or even three years by 
the addition of a single coin ; or, in other words, that since private individaals 
have commenced the collection of coins, there have been few, if any, pre- 
sented to the Society's Museum: most persons finding more pleasure in 
obliging a friend, by presenting to him any coins that they may pick up, than 
in displaying their public zeal by making a donation of them to the Society. I 
therefore beg to propose, — 

As the Society's Cabinet has not been increased daring the last three yearn 
by the donation of a single coin, and, as from the number of private individaals 
now collecting coins, there is but little likelihood of any donations being made 
for the future, — 

That the Society do either increase their collection of coins by purchasing 
such as may offer from time to time, in order that their Cabinet, at present 
nearly valueless, may be useful to the Antiquary in the elucidation of deubtfai 
points in history,— 



1637.] ProceeHngt of the Atiatie Society. 1 57 

Or, that the Society do lell their preseat incomplete collection to the hif hett 
bidder, and apply the proceeda either to furnishiog the Museam with subjecta 
more ^nerally interesting or with furniture indispeniably neceasary.'* 

The general opinion of the Meeting: was adverse to the sale of the 
Society's Cabinet, its preservation being no source of expense ; and 
it was to be hoped opportunities might occur of rendering it more 
important and rich. 

Mr. Bell submitted the following communication on the subject of 
the statistical inquiries suggested by the Royal Asiatic Society. The 
author was thanked by the Chairman for his offer to draw up a series of 
papers on staple products of India, and his note was ordered to be made 
over to the Statistical Committee. 

To Jambs PaihSBP, Efq. 

Stereiary, AMiatie Soeietp. 
Sia, 

I have read with much satiafaction a pamphlet presented at the lait Meeting 
of this Society, containing a highly interesting paper drwwn up by the Right 
Honorable Holt Mackenzie, and John Forbes Royls, Esq, " having for its 
object the formation of a Committee of Agriculture and Trade in relation to 
the East.** 

Conceiving, with advertence to the circular, which accompanied this pam- 
phlet, from the Right Honorable Sir Alexander Johnston, Chairman of the 
Committee of Correspondence of the Royal Asiatic Society, that any informa- 
tion derived from authentic sources, however incomplete, will be acceptable, I 
feel desirous to become a humble laborer in a field in which 1 have, from my 
arriTal in India (16 years) felt peculiar interest ; by submitting to the Society, 
for transmission to the Committee of Correspondence in EngUnd, If approved 
and deemed worthy, the results of information I have endeavoured faithfully to 
collect OQ the varions productions of India. 

It may be deemed presumption in me to propose to myself this task, in the 
face of so serious an imputation as is borne on the circular in question ; vis. 
" Few in India Icuow what Eagland requires ; and none of the lights of modern 
science having been applied to the agriculture of the former country (India), its 
productive powers have, as yet, been very imperfectly developed.*' 

However undeniable this position is, 1 h($pe it may be conceded that there are 
those in India who are equally ready to impart the little information they do 
poaaess on the subject which is to engage the attention of the Committee of 
Correspondence, as the members of that Committee can possibly be to collect and 
arrange it. 

Impreaaed with the importance of, and great advantage likely to be derived 
from, a share of public attention being paid to Statistics in this country, I en* 
deavoured to draw notice to the project of forming a Society, by a communica- 
tion which appeared in the India Gazetfe of the 15tb or 16th of August, 1834, ■ 
under the signature of ** A Friend to Improvement ;" and I now rejoice that, 
although 1 failed in attracting attention to the scheme, the matter has been 
recently taken up by an able Committee of this Society, for the purpose of 
collecting and condensing statistical information generally. 

I mention this circumstance only that I may not be thought to write for 
writing's sake, or to offer suggestions and make promises that are frequently 
made on the impulse of the moment when any new scheme is adopted, without 
due deliberation, or without thoroughly understanding the nature of the obliga- 
tion. I have studied the subject long, and the longer my reflections are bronght 
to bear on Indian Statistics, so much the greater is my desire to be of the least 
service in endeavoring to develope the resources of this country. And the only 
excuse I can venture to offer for having been so long a silent and useless observer, 
is the fact experience has taught me, that to publieh information of utility at 
one's own expense in India, is a serious and losing affair ; while, to throw away 
information, or give it to those who do not appreciate it, is an equally unprofit- 
able task. 

A depository has now been opened for the reception of all nseful communica* 
tions by the formation of two Committees almost simultaneously, for the same 
purpose, and these at a distance of some 13,000 miles from each other, — a coin* 



158 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [Fbb. 

cidenee which onsrht to cooTince the most sceptical of the demtnd for informa- 
tion, by no means scarce, but which, for the reasons I hare stated, has been 
kept bnck by some, scattered to the winds by others, or carefully locked up in 
GoTernment offices ; and now in the year 1837, when any question in political 
economy is agitated, there is not in aU India a book of general reference. What 
Is the consequence ? A question that in England would be settled in a month, 
requires ia India at least a year to collect data on which to frame a report. 

Now, the least advantHi^e that may be expected from the labors of these 
Committees, will be a ready reference to all matters relating to political econo- 
my. and a sure guide to future legislation. Instead of groping in the dark, and 
seeking information from numerous and doubtful sources, it would be found 
carefully collected and condensed from the best authorities at one and the same 
point. 

So srrand a design could not be compassed by any one indi? idual, even were 
his whole time and attention devoted to its accomplishment, and life ten times 
its present span. But in the hands of a Committee there is no reason to appre- 
hend failure, and 1 think, that as soon as the objects of the Committee are 
sufficiently explained and made known, there are many who will willingly and 
sealously contribute all they can to the general fund. 

Without taking up more of the Society's time, (and I beg pardon for this 
intrusion,) I may merely add that I shall be glad to undertake a series of essays 
on the principal productions of India. For example, I would begin with ** Cot- 
ton,** which, as Mr. Holt Mackenzie justly observes, *' had become almost a 
necessary of life to a large proportion of our manufacturers ; and it was fear- 
ful to think how much we depended for it on a single source of supply.*' 

Without meaning to question the accuracy of this argument, I think I could, 
without much difficulty, shew, that the English manufacturer is not so en- 
tirely dependent on a single source, as it is generally supposed ; for these 
deductions were drawn from what India hat produced — not from what India 
can and may produce. 

2. 1 would endeavour to point out the obstacles that have existed to improving 
an article now of such vast commercial importance ; and how these obstacles 
can be best removed. 

3. What the capabilities of this country are, supposing political events com- 
pelled the British manufacturer to depend for supplies of cotton on India alone. 

4. The average prices of Indian cotton in the English market for the last 
twenty years, contrasted with those of American and other foreign grown cotton. 

5. That India is capable, under ordinary care and encouragement, of main- 
taining a successful competition in the British market with any foreign country. 

6. The probable quantity of land in India formerly occupied by cotton, 
which has been thrown out of cultivation, by the great influx of British Twist, 
and the extent to which this cultivation may be brought back by introducing a 
superior staple and improved mode of culture. 

These remarks would be founded on sound calculations deduced from tabular 
statements, as well as actual experiment, and not on theoretical argumentation. 

Cotion, as I have said, would be the subject of my first essay — which would 
be followed by a similar statistical view of our Indian Silk trade. Suffor wonid 
thirdly engage my attention, and so on until the list of staples had been com- 
pleted. 

From these I should descend into the hitherto less explored, though not less 
interesting regions of agriculture, and try to discover whether there are not 
many productions now left entirely to nature, that could not, with a little atten- 
tion, be rescued from unmerited oblivion, and brought to form a valuable addi- 
tion to the Materia Medica, and to the present list of exportable products. 

I have the honor to be, &c., 

Calcutta, 23rd February, 1837. Jobn Bell. 

Physical, 

A very large stuffed specimen of the Ornithorynchus paradoxus was 
presented by Mr. £. V. Irwin. 

A letter from Lieutenant N. Vioary, dated Sydney, ^8th October^ 
1836, announced his having dispatched, under care' of Captain Davidson, 
of the Lady KennauHty, a box containing a series of the fossil shells of 
New South Wales, 



J^urn.As jSoc. Val VITIM. 

Totsil Shells ^/ Z'A^ CU^ri /,,7l, en CuUA,. 







1837.] Procteding3 of the AtuUic Society, 159 

Captain Edward H. Harris, Commodore on the Surnt utatinn, pre. 
aented a box of foesil bones from the Perim islnnd in the Gulf nf O^mbtiyj 
which he had procured after much difficulty express^jr for the Society. 

Among these are sereral very perfect bones — iin a)lisaior*8 head liiffering 
from that sent by Ueutenant Fulljambb — a buffiilo's liom — u very lar;;e ver- 
tebra— a well preserved mastodon's tooth in iron-sand congloineraie^and 
mimeroas other fragments. 

Captain A. Bornbs' series of the geoloi^y end foasil conehology of the 
Cbari range in Cuteh, arrived since laat meeting, was laid on the table. 

** These specimens'* (Captain BuaNKS writes) " are duplicates of what 1 for- 
warded to the Geological Society of London about six months a^o. ProfesAor 
Ltbll had 'cursorily looked over them, and a friend writes of some others 
which had been sent from the same spot : * Mr. Loxsdalb is decidedly of opinion 
that the fossils are much more different specifically from European secondary 
fossils, than those received from Cuteh a few years ago.'" 

The principal Tarieties of these shells, are sketched in the accompanying plati^, 
(ix.) bat it is impossible, from the imperfection of must of them in essential 
parts, to name them with accuracy. 

From the Chart hills, fig. 4, a Urge buccinum (?) 8 inches long;— ammonites 
of several species (I, 2,) enclosed in wacken balls, ~ sometimes mineralized with 
a fine red ochre ; belemnites, 3, occurring with and inclosed in bivalves 11, 12* 
14 ; — ostrea, two Tarieties, 9 and 10. From Wagnt^ east of Bhooj^ the same 
shelly conglomerate, containing a variety of bivalves, 11, 15 and 16 ; pecten 16 
and 17 (area?) with large ammonites, &c. From Lis^put, the principal sitells 
are nummnlitea 5, 6, 7, — some curiously curved la a saddle form i — and small 
egg-shaped radiata, 9, pentacrinites ? 

The geological matrix of the Chart and Wapte specimens is a yellow ochre- 
ous limestone similar to the lithographic stone from Jesulmir : one specimen 
has much the appearance of oolite. Also crystallized sulphate of lime, vesicu-' 
lar basalt with zeolites and green earth, septarium iron clay, iron sand, and 
fossil wood. 

From Hyderabad ; gypsum cryst. compact sandstone and lias (?). 

Wara Veehia ; granular granite, passing into sandstone basalt— decom- 
posed felspar. 

Balmer, south of Jemimir ; sienite lithomargic conglomerate, white 
porcelain clay, red ochre balls. 

Liseput ; light clayey limestone — and porous basalt. 

Paecham island ; sandstone and coarse pebbly conglomerate, yellow lime- 
stone and gypsum, as before. 

Naitra ; a basaltic grit. 

TVem/oier, six miles N. W. of Bhooj : iron pyrites. 

Toftmra : porons red iron clay. 

Angier ; hillocks of wacken pebbly conglomerate, same as from Mtyjuii 
and close-grained basalt from a cone 200 feet high. 

Dhamiyo ; iron veins in sand, worked as an ore ; fossil trunk of a tree 
found in the soU. 

Mhuri lithomarge, yellow clay, iron oonglomerats. 

Badra / continuation of the yellow limestone, with pectens sad cy the- 
ria?— (16). 

Jtradar ; low hillocks of a porous light grey volcanic tuffa. 
The volcanic field of this province deserves a minute examination — and it is 
much to be regretted that Captain Buavas did not favor the Society with sec- 
tions and napa of the country to elucidate his specimens. This enterprising 
officer is again employed on a mission to 8ind€t whence we shall doubtless soon 
hear of fresh researches and discoveries. 

Dr. Pbar0ON read a memorandum on the j^aur and gayai, in justification 
of the name given to the specimen of the former in the Society's museum. 
[This note and Mr. Etav's, read at the last meeting, will be published in 
our next.— E0.3 



XIV, — Meteorological Rtgitter. 




JOURNAL 



or 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 63.— MarcA, 1837. 



I. — Remarkt on M. Schlbobl's ohjeetums to the restored editions of 
the Alif Leilah, or Arahian Nights' Entertainments. By Hbnkt 
ToRBBNS, Esq, B. A. and of the Inner Temple, B. C. S, 

At the time of the purchase of the Macan MS. by Mr. Brown* 
IAW» several of the most distingaished Arabic scholars in this part 
of India registered in this journal their opinion of its value. The 
style of the language was declared to be singularly pure, the narra- 
tiTe spirited and graphic, and the coUection of stories enriched with • 
many tales either perfectly new to European readers, or else given.. 
in a form very different from that under which they have been hither- 
to known, garbled and abridged by the carelessness of translators, 
or by imperfection of the MSS. whence they were translated. Since 
the publication of the opinions above alluded to, a letter addressed 
by Mons. Dm Schlboil to Mons. le Baron Db Sact, upon the subject 
of the thousand and one nights, has excited some attention in Calcutta, 
with reference especially to the supposed excellence of the Macan 
MS. Mons. Db Schlbgbl has asserted of these celebrated tales 
generally, that many, if not most of them, are plagiarized from a 
Sanscrit original, and that others are " intercalated" stories, taking 
their rise in ndther India nor Arabia. Hence he concludes that the 
greater the number of tales, the more frequent the plagiaries and 
intercalations ; and such being the ease, " we may be assured," he 
wys, ** that the most voluminous edition of the thousand and one 
nights will be the worst." Without stopping to weigh the soundness 
of this line of argument, based on a petitio principii, and inducing a 
most inooBclanve conclusion, it is worth while (the attack being so 
sweeping) to assume the validity of this reasoning, and prove the 

T 



] 62 RemarkM on the Alxf LeiUk. [M ARea, 

streng^ of Mons. D& Schlbobl'b position by examining the instances 
with irhich he supports it. If his conclusion be a true one* then the 
Macan MS. must be the worst instead of the best form of the 
thousand and one nights hitherto discovered, for it is " the most 
voluminous :" the first five nights in this MS. for instance, contain 
the matter of the first seventeen nights of Gallamd's edition, and an 
additional tale, entirely new, besides. In deference to so celebrated 
a literatist as Mons. Schlbgbl, it is proper to consider what he 
advances attentively, and, keeping strictly to the letter of his argu- 
ments, to refute them, if possible, by their own assertions. It will not 
be perhaps difficult to show that the critic's reasons for the adoption 
of the above opinion are remarkable rather for ingenuity than sound- 
liess, or to prove by demonstration that the new tales of a " most 
voluminous" edition may bear not only the stamp of originality, 
but also strong internal evidence that they are indigenous to Arabia. 
Mons. DsScBLXOBL supposes that the tales of the thousand and 
one nights could never have been popular with Mussulmans, owing 
to the multitude of supernatural beings of different kinds crowded 
into them, there being, he says, " scarcely another step hence to the 
doctrine of polytheism." In expressing this opinion, Mons. Da S. 
has entirely forgotten the extreme superstition of the followers 
of the Prophet with respect to the existence of jinns, (both believers 
and accursed,) ghols, ufreets, and many other classes of imaginary 
beings, each distinguished by some peculiarity of character and 
habits. These are introduced in multitudes in the tales in accordance 
with the ordinary Arab superstitions which obtain most credit with 
the most bigoted Mussulmans. ' They are introduced with most 
liberality in some of the tales abounding especially in the expressions 
of religious feeling, and the believing spirits invariably make use of 
the ordinary devotional phrases so constantly in the mouth of an 
Arab. They are introduced not on the digmu vindiee nodus principle 
as what Mons. Da S. calls " semi-deities ;" they teko part in the action 
of the story, and from their stupidity are the butts of the superior 
intelligence of men. So far from showing marks of transmutation 
to an Arab shape from a heathen original, they appear to be them* 
selves the surest proofs of the Arabian extraction of the stories they 
figure in. Mon|. Da S.'s determination to prove the Indian origin of 
many of the tales has led him to the singular supposition that a 
people whose manners they faithfully depict, and whose superstitions 
they embody, that a people whose very language bears testimony to 
their pasrion for fiction, (the same word being employed in Arabic 



1837.] Remarkt an the AUf LMak. 1 63 

to express eomaenmtum and the relation o/etories) would neglect bdcIi 
tales even though mdigenons to their fatherland becaase the excess 
of supernatural agency in them savoured of " polytheism !" 

With reference, howeTer, to the objection by Mons. Da 8. on the 
point of plagiarised tales, and his attempt to prove the plagiary by 
anachronisms^ an expresMon in the story of the fisherman and the 
jinn in the Macan MS. may be cited, not inopportunely, as giving 
some index to the date at which it was originally composed. The 
jinn is described as having been shut in a jar for " one thousand and 
eight hundred year$" from the time of Solomon, the son of David. 
Now this tale with one of Mons. Ds S.'s '* aemudeities'* in it, whom 
he supposes importations into Arabia from an idolatrous source, and 
abominations in the eyes of orthodox Mussulmans, was by the above 
account composed during the third century of the Uejira, at the very 
height of Mussulman orthodoxy. 

Arguing on the supposition of the transmutation of most of the 
tales from heathen originals, Mons. Ds S. proceeds to point out how 
the Koran tnight have been introduced instead of the Vedas, and the 
name of Hasoun ul Rashbxd made to supersede that of Vicraha** 
DiTTA ; and with reference to the introduction of that Khalif s name, 
he cites the expression in the commencement of the thousand and 
one nights, " the chronicles of the Sassanians" as constituting a 
palpable anachronism. Now the expression quoted does not exist 
in the Macan MS. : the words are a king among kings descended from 
the dynaetg ofSassan ; and the mention of Islamism among descendants 
from Sassanian princes does not appear to be in any way anachro- 
nous. Ag^in, Mons. Dx S. has ingeniously discovered in the four 
colors of the fish, (vide the tale of the fisherman) who in their 
natural shape were a population of Christians, Jews, Mussulmans, 
and Idolaters, a t3rpe of the four castes of the Hindoos ; for, says he, 
" the metamorphosis in the original was brought about by a jeu de 
mots ; vama in the Sanscrit signifying colour as well as caste.** This 
will hardly hold good when we look to the Arabic wherein special 
mention is made of the different religions of the men transmuted into 
fish of different colors. Now the Hindus have, it is true, four prin- 
cipal castes, but their religion is a common one. Another instance 
on which much stress is laid by Mons. Ds S. of the internal evidence 
of an Indian extraction offered by the tales is cited from the tale of 
the king and the physician. The position is this. 1. The king is 
poisoned by a MS. 2. Some Indian MS. are saturated with a solu- 
tion of orpiment to protect them from insects. 3. No other MSS. are 
Y 2 



184 Remarks on the AUf Leihk. [Mahcv, 

to saturated. 4. This was, therefore, an Indian MS. thus prepared. 
6. This was, therefore, an Indian king. 6. This was, therefore, an 
Indian story. The answer to this somewhat illogical sorties is — I . 
That an Indian king taming over an Indian MS. would not, as did 
the king in the story, have exposed himself to the chance of being 
poisoned. 2. That the supposition of the MS. being an ordinary 
Indian MS. would utterly take away the moral of the tale. 3. That 
(as the tale tells us) the supposed MS. was no MS. at all, for " the king 
turned over six leaves, and looked upon them, and found nothing 
written ttpon them,*' which induces a further search into the book, 
and a more certain death in consequence. But perhaps a literal 
translation of the latter part of the story from the Arabic of the 
Macan MS. will best show the futility of Mons. Da S.'s argument, 
the moral of the tale being the retribution inflicted by the victim on 
the oppressor by means of the knowledge he is in the commencement 
said to possess of " all modes of healing, and of hurting.'* 
Ejrtraet/rom the Story of the Phyeidnn and the King, 

''And after this the executioner stepped forward, and rolled his eyes 
fiercely, and drew his sword, and said^ * Give the word ;' and the physi- 
eian wept, and sud to the king, ' Spare me, spare me, for the love of 
*6od^ and kill me not, or God will kill thee^' and commenced extempora. 
neously reciting, 

< If I !!▼« no man I^ profit ; if I perisli curso for me 
All the good, when I'm no more, with every curse of infiuiiy. 
I was kindly ; others cruel ; they were prosperous ; I lost all ; 
And benevolence hath made me master of a ruined hali*.' 

Then said the physician to the king, ' This is the return I meet from yon; 
you return me the reward of the crocodile.' Then said the king, ' And 
what is the tale of the crocodile?' The physician replied, ' It is not possi- 
ble for me to tell it, and I in this state ; and as God is with you, spare 
me as God will spare you.' So then the physician wept with exceeding 
weeping, and certain of the king's private attendants arose, and said^ * Oh! 
king, grant us the life of this physician, for we have not seen him odd- 
mit one fault towards you, and we have not seen him save as healing joa 
from your disease, which baffled all physicians and men of science.' Then 
s^d the king to them, ' You know not the cause of my putting to death 
this physician and this it is, that if I spare him« surely I myself am doomed 



1 837.] Remarki an the Alt/ Leilah. 1 65 



to deatli without a doubt^ for by healing me of the diseaie which I had 
by something held in the hand, surely it is possible he may slay me with 
something given me to smell ; hence I fear lest he kill me, and take a 
bribe for doing it ; since he is a spy, and has come hither for no end but 
to compass my death; so there is no help for it, — die he must, and after 
that I shall be assured of my own life.' Then said the physician, ' Spare 
me, spare me, for the love of Ood^ and kill me not, or God will kill you/ 
Now when the physician. Oh ufreet, knew for certain that the king would 
pot him to death without a doubt, he said to him, ' Oh king, if there is 
no help for it, but that I must die, then grant me a space that I may go 
down to my house, and appoint my people and my kindred where they 
may bury me, and that 1 may relieve my soul from its obligations, and 
distribute my books of medicine. And I have a book, rarest of the rare ; 
I offer it to you as an oiFering ; keep it as treasure in your treasury.' 
Then said the king to the physician, ' What is in this book ?' He replied, 
' Things countless beyond the power of computation ; and as a small por. 
tion of the secrets that are in it, if you directly after you cut off my head 
opes three leaves of it, and read three lines of the page on your left hand, 
then the head will speak with you, and give you answers to every ques- 
tion which you ask it.' So the king wondered with exceeding wonder and 
shrugged with satisfiietion and said, ' Oh physician, what I directly I cut 
off your head will you speak to me?' He answered, ' Even so^ O king.' 
So replied the king, ' This is a strange matter,' and forthwith sent him 
away closely surrounded by a guard ; and the physician went down to his 
house, and performed all his obligations on that day, and on the next day 
he went up to the king's hall of audience ; and the umeers and ministers 
and chamberlains and deputies in office and the supporters of the state 
went up also, the whole of them, and the presence chamber was as a flow- 
er bed of the garden : and lo ! the physician came up into the presence 
chamber and stood before the king surrounded by guards, and with him 
he had an old volume, and a bottle for holding antimony, and in it a powder : 
and he sat down and said, ' Give me a charger,' and they gave him a 
charger ; and he poured the powder upon it, and spread it out, and said, 
* Oh king, take this book and open it not until you have cut off my head, 
and immediately you have cut it off, place it on this charger, and order its 
being thrown upon that powder, and directly you have done that, the blood 
will stop flowing ; then open the book/ So the king gave orders for the 
cutting off the physician's head and took the book; and the executioner 
arose, and struck the physician's neck with the sword, and placed the head 
in the middle of the charger, and threw it upon the powder, then the blood 
stopped flowing, and the physician Dooban opened his eyes, and said, 
' Open the book, O king ;' so the king opened the book, and found the 
leaves stuck tc^ether, so he put his finger to his mouth, and moistened it 
with his tongue and opened the first leaf, and the second, and the third, 
and each leaf did not open but with much trouble ; so the king turned over 
six leaves and looked upon them, and found nothing written upon them. 



, 1 66 Remarks on the Alif Leiiak, [Mabch, 

Then taid the king, ' O physiciany there is nothing written upon theee;' 
and the physician replied, ' Turn over more still;' so he turned over three 
more, and there had but a short space elapsed before the drugs penetrated 
his system at one time and on the instant, for the book was poisoned, and 
forthwith the king began to be convulsed, and cried out, and said, ' The 
poison has penetrated me,' and the head of the physician Dooban began 
to repeat extemporaneously, 

* They itsued savage mandate! , but not long 
SnnriTfd they in their cmelty, for lo 1 
'Twas but a little, and the mandate was not. 
Had they done jnstiee, justice were done them — 
But they did ill, and evil was their portion ; 
And fortune turned against them, strongly armed 
With acts of woe and trouble. Tbos they pasted hence, 
And the mute eloqnenee of their condition 
Repeated to them, ** This is your reward.^ 
Blame not the retribution I" ' 

(8o goes the tale) ; so when the physician's head finished its speech, the 
king fell down on the instant a dead corpse." 



The above extract will give some idea of the literal style of a tale 
so popular under Gallano's paraphrase, but expressed in the Macan 
MS. (as V7ill be observed on comparison) much more in detail, and 
more graphically. 

There remains now but to allude to Mons. Db Schlbobl's remaio- 
ing assertion, that the more voluminous the edition of the thousand 
and one nights the worse will it be. The best reply to this will be 
the citation of a new tale forming part of the recital of the fourth 
night in the Macan MS. It offers a fair occasion for the formation 
of a judgment on Mons. Db S.'s sweeping assertion, for it has never 
been found save in this voluminous edition, and is now translated of 
course for the first time. 

The Story of the King Sundabad. 

'' It is said that there was a king among the kings of Fars, who was fond 
of sport, and of exercise, and of hunting, and of trapping game, and he had 
always a certain hawk near him, which he let not be separated from him 
by night nor by day ; and all night long he had it sitting on his hand, and 
whenever he rose up to hunt he took the bird with him. And he made 
for it a cup of gold hung round its neck, to give it to drink out of. Now 
it fell out as the king was sitting, behold the chief falconer began to say, 
' Oh ! king of the age, these are the days for going forth to hunt.' Then 
the king ordered that they should set forth, and took the hawk on his 
hand ; and they journeyed till they arrived at an open plain, and they 



1 887 Rftmarh on M« Attf Leilah. 1 67 

jftmek oul th€ eirde for the battu, and forthwith a doe antelope camo 
within the eirde. Then nid the king, ' Oyer whose head the antelope 
diall leap and get away, that nan will I kill/ Then they narrowed the 
drele of the hattn ahout it, and, hehold, the antelope came before the 
king*! fltaUon and stood firm on its hind legs, and gathered in its fore feet 
to its breast, as if about to kiss the earth before the king; so the king 
bowed his head in acknowledgment to the antelope; then it bounded 
orer his head, and took the way of the desert. Now it happened that 
the king saw his attendants winking and pointing at him, so he said, * Ho ! 
Tuaeer, what are my attendants saying ?' The vuseer replied, ' They 
say you proclaimed that over the head of whomsoever the antelope should 
leap, that man shall be put to death.' Then said the king, ' By the life 
of my head, surely I will follow her up till I reach her ;' so the king set 
forth in pursuit of the antelope, and gave not over following her till she 
readied a hill among the mountains. Then the antelope made as she 
would cross a ravine, so the king east off his hawk at her ; and the bird 
drove ita talons into her eyes, to blind and bewilder her, and the king 
threw his mace at her and struck her so as to roll her over. Then he die. 
mounted, and cut her throat and flayed her, and hung the carcass to the 
pummel of his saddle. Now it was the time for the mid.day sleep, and 
the plain was parched and dry, nor was water to be met with in it ; and 
the king was thirsty, and his horse also ; so he went about searching for 
water, and he saw a tree dropping water, as it were darified butter. 
Now the king wore gloves of the hide of a beast of prey, and he took the 
enp from the hawk's neck, and filled it with that water, and set down the 
water before the bird, and lo ! the hawk struck the cup with its talons, 
and overturned it. So the king took the cup a second Ume, ssid caught 
the drops of water as they were foiling until he filled it, for he thought 
the hawk was thirsty ; so he set the cup before it, but she strudc it with 
her talons and upset it. Then the king was annoyed with the hawk, and 
got up a third time, and filled the cup, and put it before his horse, but the 
hawk overturned it with its wings ; then said the king, ' The Lord take 
you, you unluckiest of birds! you keep me from drinking, and keep 
yoursdf from drinking, and keep the horse from drinking !" So he struck 
the hawk with his sword, and cut oif its wing, but the hawk began lifting 
op its head, and saying by signs, * Look at what is beneath the tree.' 
Ilien the king lifted up his eyes, and saw below the tree a young snake, 
a poisonous one, and this which was dropping from the tree was its poison. 
Then the king repented him of having cut oif the hawk's wing, and arose 
and mounted his horse and went, taking with him the antelope's carcass 
until he arrived at his tent within the hour, and he gave the antelope to 
the cook, and said to him, ' Take, and make this ready.' So the king 
sst down in his chair, and the hawk on his hand, and the bird struggled 
gaspingly, and died. Then the king cried out, wailing and lamenting for 
having dain the hawk, and it was the cause of saving him from death ! 
And this is what occurred in the story of the king Sundabad." 



1 68 Remarks cm the AH/ Leihh. [March, 

The above short tale is yaloable as answering more than one of 
Mons. Dm S.'s arguments. It contains instances of the same power 
of description and habit of dose observation which form the princi- 
pal charm of the known tales. Any one who has been in the custom 
of watching the antelope, or observing the natural motions of the 
hawk, will recognise the action of the one and the other faithfullj 
described in the attitudes common to them when scared or excited. 
The mention too of hawking the antelope proves the story to be purely 
Arabian : no other nation but the Arab using the hawk against large 
animals. The Persian hawks the hare, but only the Arab flies his 
bird at the antelope. Thus then, so far from the additions to the " most 
voluminous" edition being the cause of its deterioration, as unnatu- 
rally adapted from foreign sources to Arab manners, the very first 
of those additions is found to be a spirited tale describing graphically 
and naturally the progress of passion, (excited originally by a trifle, 
and ending in the blind commission of an act of ingratitude) and 
giving indisputable evidence of an Arab origin. 

The judgment of those infinitely better qualified than myself to 
pronounce on the merits of the Macan MS. is, it is submitted, 
fully supported by the result of this brief inquiry. The translation 
having been made literally from the Arabic, this will account for a 
singularity of expression which may be displeasing to most readers. 
In undertaking to introduce the new tales to the English reader, 1 
would be glad to avail myself of opinions upon the expediency of 
holding to this style of translation, or adopting one more consonant 
with European idioms. 

[NoTB.— Ab far at we may be allowed to be capable of judging on locb a 
point, we think onr correspondent's style of expression is particularly felicitous 
and suitable to the work, of which we are happy to see this public acknowledg- 
ment of bis hsTing undertaken the translation. 

We had rather that the stories should retain the terseness, (he simplicity, the 
▼ery turns of expression as well as of idea so peculiar to the language as to the 
literature of Arabia, than that they should be dressed up in the naccmgeaial dis« 
guise of modem idiom however elegant. There is at the same time nothing, ia 
the style adopted, repugnant to our ears, already familiar from childhood with the 
oriental phraseology of the translated scriptures : — but, on the contrary, the 
total foreignness and antiquity of the incidents and reflections, and the admixture 
of the supernatural, now discarded from our own works of fiction, seem to acquire 
support and harmony from a corresponding style of diction. We need only refor 
the reader to the parallel passages quoted in the Mkmte on the Macan MS. by 
Dr. Mill (toI. V. page 598) to prore the great superiority of tone and keeping, 
as an artist would say, in the strict dry nervous copy of the original, as con- 
trasted with the smoothened, mannerised, and totally Frenchified^ thoii^ iaisaBf 
reqpects pletsijkg, picture of M. TaBBirrm.-*ED.] 



1887.] Survey of ike SMlaj river. 169 

II. — Journal of Captain C. M. ^ adb'b voyage from Lodiana to Mithan* 
hot by ike river Sailaj, on his Mission to Lah6r and Bakdwulpur in 
1832-83. By Lieut. F. Mackbson. \4th Regt. N. /. 

On the 8th December^ after some days spent in constructing 
temporary locks on the nala» and here and there widening and deep- 
ening its channel, the boats arrived at iu mouth and entered the 
river Satlaj aboat a mile above the village of Waliipura. 

Out fleet consisted of eight boats, three built by Captain Waob at 
Lodiana for the accommodation of the mission, after the model of 
those used on the river Ravi ; one of a similar construction, the property 
of Lodiana merchants, also built at Lodiana ; two common Satlaj ferry 
boats, belonging to Lodiatta baniahs ; and two small boats with oars, 
for the convenience of communicating with the shore and taking the 
bearings of the reaches of the river. 

The Ravi boats are flat-bottomed, and nearly square fore and aft, 
with the prow and stem slightly raised : tliose built at Lodiana varied 
in length from fifty to fifty- five feet, and in breadth from eleven to 
twelve feet, having a depth of two and a half to two and three quar- 
ters feet. They drew, when not laden, from ten to fifteen inches water, 
and going down the itream in the actual state of the river were capa- 
ble of carrying from two hundred and fifty to three hundred maunds. 

The ferry boats in use in this part of the Satlaj are not much better 
than rafts, from which they differ little in appearance. They are very 
broad at the stern, and terminate in a point at the prow, which is carried 
up high into the air. Although calculated for no other purpose, they are 
weU adapted to the transport of hackeries and cattle across the river ; 
the side planks being low, laden hackeries are easily lifted over them 
into the boats ; or the ground at the gh&t is raised to a level with 
them, and the time lost in embarkation and disembarkation is com- 
paratively trifling. Accidents to cattle can seldom occur, as they are 
able to step into the boats without difficulty, and no space being 
lost in cross beams or partitions, a great number cun be accommodated 
at a time. 

WalUpura is a small village, containing from thirty to forty mud 
hovels: it belongs to Sirdar Fatteh Singh Alawalla. We remained 
there on the 9th in expectation of the arrival of a party of Maha-raja 
Ranji T Singh's irregular horse, which was tu escort the boats along 
the left bank of the river. 

The breadth of the river at this point, where not intersected by 
sand banks, measured two hundred and fifty yards. The deep channel 



170 Journal of a vmftige from [Mamch, 

under the left banks gave from fourteen to fifteen feet water, which 
decreased to seven and six feet within twenty yards of the shore, 
beyond which it was extremely shallow. 

From Ropur, where the Satlaj enters the plains to where it is joined 
by the Lodiaua nala, it may be said to have ran a coarse of near fifty 
miles. At Ropur its bed consists of large smooth pebbles mixed with 
a slimy mad ; after leaving that place it runs over a loose sandy soil 
through a flat country, and daring this part of its course the present 
left bank is generally low. There is a high bank passing close under 
Chamkaur, Baiolpvr, Mdchiwdra hum, and Lodiana, which points out 
the old channel. This is now pretty nearly the course of the small 
nala^ which rises in the marshy ground between Ropur and Chamkaur^ 
and enters the Satlaj a little above Wallipura. The slip of land between 
it and the present channel of the Satlaj varies in breadth from eight 
to two miles and less : it ir low and much intersected with naloM^ 
most of which are without water during the greater part of the year ; 
but their beds and banks retain a degree of moisture when the rest 
of the country is parched and dried up, and afford an abundant 
supply of grass of a good quality within a convenient distance from 
the cantonment of the troops. 

The right bank from Ropur downwards is generally high and the 
face of the country elevated, sloping gradually from the hills, which 
recede northwards, towards the river, near which it is much broken 
and cut up by ravines. On both sides the country is tolerably open and 
free from heavy jungle, but on the right sparingly cultivated. Water 
is found much nearer the surface on the left than on the right bank, 
and cultivation is more uniform. There is a tract of grass jungle on 
both sides of the river near Chamkaur : it forms excellent pasture for 
buffaloes which are numerous and particularly large. Wild hogs are 
sometimes found in this vicinity : they come from the hills on the 
opposite side, and swim the river at night to feed on the sugar-cane. 

The tamarisk jungle is seen in small quantities near the river at 
Talore, and even higher up, but never grows to any considerable 
height, and is thin and straggling : the soil left by the overflowing of 
the river in which it chiefly grows, does not appear to have acquired 
that richness which it is said to possess at a greater distance from the 
river's source. 

Daring the cold weather when at its lowest, the Satlaj is fordable 
in many places between Ropur and Lodiana, and even to its junction 
with the B^aa ; but it can no where be forded in a direct line ; it is 
necessary to follow the shoals or sand banks, which make the passage 



1637. J LoHanm ttf Mithtankot by ike SttlaJ river. 1 7 \ 

circttitoctt and tedious ; and owing to the namerous qoickaands^ it must 
•IwajB be considered an afiair of danger for bodies of troops to 
attempt. As the sands are constantly shifting, the fords also are 
liable to change. 

I am not aware of the exact nnmber of boats between Repw and 
LoHana. The principal ghftts or ferries are those opposite to Rahon, 
M6cluw4ara and Fabor ,• the two first lie in the route from Ja^adri on 
the Jumna to Amritsir, and a considerable traffic passes by them. 
There may be sixteen boats at Rdham and eight at Mdckiwdra, The 
ghit at Fabor has upwards of fourteen, and is also much frequented/ 
lying in the direct route from Ambala through LotUana to AmrU$ir 
or Lah6r. There is also a gh4t at Kirana, which may have eight 
boats, and another near Ropur which has four. Besides the boats at 
the gh&ts there are a few scattered here and there at the different 
Tillages on the banks of the river belonging to the zemindars, and 
used by them for the convenience of crossing to and fro, and trans^ 
porting grain and firewood. 

On the morning of the 10th we left Wallipura, The river was 
swollen and muddy from rain, which had fallen higher up during the 
two previous days, and which somewhat increased the rapidity of 
the current. As near as I could judge from the rate at which people 
were walking on the bank, it must have averaged near three miles in 
the hour. Our boats kept chiefly in the shallow water for the con* 
venience of using the pole to push them along ; they are furnished 
with oars, but the Setlvj and Ravi boatmen seem to be unaccustomed 
to their nse ; and the oars are so very clumsy and unwieldy, that they 
would require at least four persons to each to serve them with effect. 
Leaving WMipwra the deep channel runs under the left bank for 
upwards of a mile, when the river separates into three branches ; the 
main one, which we followed, running under the right bank to Dhd^ 
ikara» near which the three branches again unite and form an unin- 
terrupted channel 400 yards broad. On our left we passed the ghftt 
of Tmlmamdit where there were ten boats similar to those already 
described. Judging from the number of people we saw crossing, it 
must be a considerable thoroughfare ; a small traffic passes by this 
route from Jhqjraan and the Mulk Rohie to Doab bist Jalimdar, 

After passing Talwandi the deep channel again crosses over to the 
left bank, and on approaching near to Bhundri, makes a long sweep 
in towai'ds the left, running close under that village. 

The country on our left to-day was low and uncultivated, subject 
to inundation^ and consisted chiefly of pasture land ; that on out 
z 2 



172 Journal of a Wf age from [March, 

right appeared high. There were fields of stabble and patches eoTer- 
ed with the cotton plant. We passed one inlet from the river on 
the right, and a y^K jangle extending a short distance on the bank, 
but low and thin. We stopped at Bhundri, estimated distance from 
WalHpura four kos. This Tillage, like the rest which we passed to- 
day, is hardly deserving of remark : it contains a small paka mosque. 
Hrhich is in much danger of being destroyed by the river. The 
dwelling houses, of which there may be 100, are all of mud, either 
thatched or with kacha terraced roofs. Tt has two baniaka' shops. 
The inhabitants are chiefly Mussalman zemindars. Bhundri and 
KhAnpur, Wazir ke Gaur, villages in the neighbourhood, are inha- 
bited by a caste of Putial Rajputs, who claim descent from R£jas 
Hosp/l and jAOPi^L. Their ancestors were converted to Islamism 
some five centmies ago by Hazrat Shah Katal Chisbti, one of 
the descendants of Hazrat Shrikh Farid, the famous saint of Pdk 
Patan. His relics are deposited somewhere between the villages of 
Talwdrd and Sheikh Chishti under the shade of a g^ove of bMul trees : 
there is his khdngdh or shrinei which the surrounding inhabitants visit 
in great crowds on certain days of the year to pay htm the honors 
due to a saint. 

The Patiils retain many of their Hindu customs, especiaUy the 
ceremonials at births and marriages, in which the Brahmin priest often 
assists and claims the usual fees. 

They intermarry only among themselves, it being thought a disgrace 
to give their daughters in marriage to a person of difierent caste or 
descent. 

The Jats, Gnjars, Hamis, Arriins, who chiefiy compose the pea- 
santry of the country from above Lodiana down to Firogpur, all claim 
descent more or less remote from a Rajput stock. They are generally 
ill-looking, tall and thin, but with large bones and sinewy limbs. 
The usual dress of the better sort is a blue-colored dh^ii, tied some- 
what differently from the common mode, reaching down nearly to 
the ankles, and seeming to embarrass their motions in walking. With 
this they wear a larg^ cotton ehaider or sheet, which is either flung 
in double folds over the shoulder and across the breast, or used to 
cover the whole body ; it is exchanged for a blanket in the cold 
weather. The turban is of cotton, either plain or dyed blue, and tied 
sometimes Sikh fashion in a high lopf, and sometimea in loose folds, 
leaving great part of the head uncovered. The coarse cotton doth 
which forms their ordinary wear is a home manufacture. The poorer 
among them are little troubled with clothing of any deacriptioD. 



1 S3 7 Lodiana to Mithtmkot by the Satlaj river, ] 73 

Their women share in the labour of the field, and perform all the 
menial and laboriooa office* about the honse. They fetch water from 
tl»e welle, prepare the cakes of cow-doog (opla) for fuel, and cleanse 
and plaister their mud hovels and eJMdtras, while the husbands are 
ftCBoking their pipes, or employed in making rope of the mdnjh grass 
and repairing their implements of husbandry. Disputes among them 
are referred to a jmuicA or council of theChaudries (elders of the village), 
or to arbitrators chosen by the parties. The men are addicted to the 
use of bhang : are turbulent, quarrelsome, revengeful, and careless of 
tlie shedding of blood. Their prevailing vice is petty thieving. 
Female infanticide is practised, but is not very common among 
these tribes. 

After the decline of the Dekli empire, the whole tract of country 
from Ropur down to Mamdoi on the left bank of the SailaJ, fell a 
prey to Rai Abuad Munj, one of the numerous adventurers who 
rose to a temporary consequence in titose days. When Ranji't Singh 
crossed the SatlaJ in 1808, and took Jagraw, the portion of this 
extensive territory which still remained in the possession of Rai 
Abmad's family was subjected to that conqueror, and Jagrdon and 
its dependencies were bestowed by him in jag hir on Sirdar Fattib 
SiNOH Alawalla, under whose rule they still continue. His terri- 
tory joins that of the Jhind rija near Lodiana^ and reaches with few 
interruptions to within a short distance of Firozpur. It is ill culti- 
▼ated and almost destitute of wood, which is no where nsed for fuel 
by the villagers. Jagrdon, the Ddr^^ul amal, is about 10 miles inland 
from Bkandri. 

On the 1 1th we left Bbundri. For two miles beyond this place 
the left bank of the river is excessively high ; the deep channel runs 
rapidly under it, undermining large fragments of the soil, which con- 
tinued falling as we passed, and raised large waves on the river. 
After passing the villages of Khdt and Gurnan, the deep channel 
crosses over to the right bank, leaving the villages of Talwdra and 
Sheikh Chuhti far away to the left* at the extremity of a wide tract of 
sand. Further on» at the same distance from us» we passed Bhamdl 
and Sdlampur, when the river again doubled round a point, and the 
deep channel brought us under the village of Sidhaan on the left 
bank. 

To-day the river was devious and winding in its course, much 
intersected with sand-banks, which from a distance appeared to stretch 
quite across the channel and threaten a serious obstacle to further 
progress. The shoals were numerous, appearing to cross each other 



174 Journal of a voifoge frtm [Maecb* 

in all directions ; insotnach, that it reqaired great care and attention 
to steer clear of them. None but an experienced eye could distin- 
guish from a long distance what the boatmen call ^'kacha** from' 
** paka-jal** A villager who accompanied us from Bkimdri pointed 
to a number of temporary huts on the left bank near that place, the 
inhabitants of which had, in his memory, removed no less than three 
times from one bank to the other, in consequence of the river 
changing its course and undermining its banks. Abounding as it 
does with shoals and sand-banks, and running over a loose soil 
through a flat country, this frequent change in its channel is the less 
surprising : it generally occurs after the rains, when its waters are 
swollen and impregnated with earthy particles. The prevalence for 
a length of time of a particular wind occasions the choaking up of 
the old channel, which the waters leave on subsiding, to pursue a 
new direction. 

The country to-day differed little in its features from that we had 
passed the day before. At thia season there are no crops standing, 
and, save in the vicinity of villages where a few garden vegetables 
give an appearance of verdure, the whole has an unvaried arid aspect. 
Trees are only seen near the villages, and those generally of the 
common b&, with here and there a pipaL The jhdn is met with 
only in small patches, low and straggling. There was a great improve- 
ment observable in the soil of the banks of the river, espeoiaUy that 
of the right bank, which exhibited strata of a rich red day with 
mould of a darker color beneath. During the first part of our 
course after leaving Bhundri, the current was rapid, running under 
the high bank at the rate of four miles an hour ; as we approached 
the end of our journey it became sluggish, scarcely averaging a mile 
and a half. We had a depth in some places of eighteen and twenty 
feet, and in others not more than four : in the deepest part this occur- 
red where there were many channels, and we might not have been 
in the deepest, although we always chose those which in appearance 
promised to have the greatest body of water. 

In passing Sidhuan I observed immense flocks of wild geese feed* 
ing on the sand-banks, and close to them an alligator, the first I have 
seen on the river, though they are said to have been found as high 
up as Ropur, and small ones are sometimes caught in the naia near 
Lodiana, Perhaps the coldness of the weather may account for my 
not having hitherto seen them in greater numbers. There appear to 
be few wild ducks or teal. The jal kawd, which we call the black 
diver^ is common. 



1 8S7.] Lodiana to MithwAct hy the Sath^' river. 1 75 

We came to about a mile beyond Sidkuam ; estimated distance from 
Bkundri eight kos. 

There is a ghit at Sidhuan. It is in the road to Ropur, in the 
Dfiob bUi Jalmdar, and has ten btfata, bat the trafiic by this ronte is 
inconsiderable. The duties are levied by the officers of Mahi-raja 
KAM^fx SiNOH and Sirdar Fattvh Singh Ala walla, on either side 
respectively. The village of Sidhuan is large, but has no bazar ; 
contains from two hundred to two hundred and fifty mud and paka 
dwelling houses ; with three baniahs' shops or hattis which supplied 
our people with food. 

On the 12th we left Sidhuan. The channel continued under the 
left bank for upwards of two miles, when it passed the village of 
Shafipura, and, crossing over to the right with considerable winding-, 
brought us in the fourth reach nearly opposite to Tihara ; there divid- 
ing into two branches, the smaller one ran directly under that town, 
while the larger struck off to the right towards Kannian and Bhaggian, 

Tihara is the site of extensive ruins, which shew that it was once a 
place of some consequence; native authorities mention its being 
inhabited so long ago as the time of tlie Persian Sbcandsr Shah's 
expedition. The ruins now standing are of more modern date. It 
has suffered great damages from the inroads of the river. The pre- 
sent dweUing houses of the i Dhabi tants are of mud, and mingle dis- 
•greeably with the half dilapidated but substantial brick walls of its 
former buildings. In the time of the Dehli emperors, it was attached 
to the Suba of Lahdr. It was taken from the descendants of Rai 
Ahmad Munj (after they had been driven from Mamdot by the Pathia 
family of Kosdr) by Ranji t Sinqh, andg^veaby him in ^a^^'r to 
Fattbh Sinoh Alawalla. The soil in the vicinity is good, and 
there are a number of fine paka wells, but little cultivation. The 
zemindars are Arrdins, more commonly called Mollies, to the eastward ; 
a class who seldom engage in cultivation on a large scale. 

About six miles beyond Tihara is the village of Tariwdla, opposite 
to which the right branch of the river again divides, the main stream 
making an immense circuit to the north-west, and leaving an island 
of three or four miles in breadth between it and the left channel 
which ran under Tihara. Night overtook us before we arrived at the 
junction of the three branches, and we were obliged to stop opposite 
to a village on the right bank called RanU-ke. We were separated 
from onr land party, and Rami^ke could furnish no provision for our 
boatmen and camp-followers. From Sidhuan to Ram^^ke fourteen 
kos. 



176 Jommal of a voyuge/rom [Maecb, 

On the following morning, die 13th, we continued our journey, 
having previously sent on one of the boats at an early hour to pur- 
chase provisions. At Talwandi we came up with our advanced party ; 
they had been able, with much difficulty, to procure a rupee's worth 
of drad from that village. There is a ferry, but I saw only one boat* 
After leaving Talwandi the river makes a very sudden turn to the 
right, round a point which we had much difficulty in weathering ; and 
when this was accomplished, our boats drifted to the opposite shore 
and grounded on the sand-banks. A mile or more beyond this the 
three branches unite, and from the point of their junction to the ghit 
of Midne and Rerd the river runs in a straight uninterrupted channel, 
confined by moderately high banks, and presenting in front, as £ur as 
the eye could reach, an unbroken surface of water. It is here a fine 
stream passing by Punidn where the river is again broken by shoals 
and sand-banks. The next reach brought us near Faitekpur, from 
whence, leaving Jhdnidn on the left, the deep channel croaaes over to 
the right bank, and in the next sweep to the left under Makdrdj^wdla. 
The banks to-day were studded with villages at a dii^tance of a 
kos, more or less, from the river. Those in the district of Dharam" 
kot belong to Mahi-rjja Ranji^t Singh, who has a small detachment 
of cavalry there and a fort ; those in the FatUhgarh district are held 
by Shbr Singh Bandbich, a thanadar under the Maha-rija, and 
the rest by Sirdar Fattbh Singh Alawalla. In some the authority 
is divided, half the village belonging to the khaUa and half to the 
jdghirddr. They are all small and thinly inhabited. 

We stopped at Makdrdj^wdla ; estimated distance from Ram^-ke ten 
kos by the river. 

This village is in the Fattekgark district, now held by Shbr Singh 
BuNDEicH as thanadar. The lands are AAa7»a (or rent-free). Faitek* 
gark and the neighbouring country formerly belonged to Taba Singh 
Ghaiba of Kang on the other side. Like most of the Sikh Sirdars* 
this person rose from an obscure origin to sudden, but, in his case, tem- 
porary power. He was originally a common shepherd, and acquired the 
name of" Gkaiba" (or wonderful) in his boyhood, from the circum- 
stance of his having constructed a rude bridge of rope over the river 
Wek, which falls into the Satlaj below Andriaa, and across which he 
was in the habit of driving his sheep to graze on the opposite bank 
where the pasture was of a better quality. He joined the camp of the 
Lakdr chief, who was just then entering on his career of conquest, 
as a needy soldier, and after serving a campaign returned laden with 
spoil which he disposed of in collecting a few followers. With these 



1837.] Lodiama t0 MkkMnkot hy ike StalaJ river. 177 

he oommenoed a system of depredaticma on the coontry. Many needy 
adTentnren flocked to him* till by degrees be found himself at the 
head of a formidable band ; he then raised the standard of indepen* 
dence, proclaimed himself a Sirdar or chief, and commenced adding 
to his small patrimony by preying upon the weaker of his neighbors. 
Village after Tillage submitted to his ru^, till, by fraud and force, he 
became maeter of a large tract of country on both sides of the river. 
He had scarcely time, however, to enjoy his good fortune, when the 
«ztent of his territory attracted the notice of the Lahdr chief, who did 
not long want a pretext to dispossess him. The whole of his ill 
acquired possessions fell into the hands of the Mahi-raja, by whom 
Fattehgark was confirmed in jdghir to Hari Sinqh« the same person 
who had held it under Tavla Singh Ghaiba. At a subsequent period 
HAmai Singh became disaffected toward the Lahdr chief, and in 1 825- 
26 was one among the Sirdars who openly threw off their allegiance 
to him, and, in virtue of their possessions on the left bank of the 
Satiqf, claimed the protection of the British Government, whom they 
wished to acknowledge as lord paramount. The others were Sirdar 
Fattbh Singh Alawalla, Sirdar Chbt Singh of Kot Kapara, and 
QuTUB-u^-DiN Kha'n Kasama, the Path^n chief, whose family are 
now in possession of Mamdot, It was not thought expedient to comply 
with their wishes, and they were directed to return to their allegiance 
to the Khalsa Ji. Sirdar Haai Singh dying soon after, the territory 
of Fattehgark was taken possession of by the Lakdr chief, and has since 
continued to be kkdlsa land. 

On the 14th we left Makdraj-wdla. The river pursues a very 
winding course from this place till it passes between Mundkidla on 
the right and Wdla Kali Raon on the left hand ; from thence it runs 
in a straight direction past Asappura Tibbi and PiptU on the right* 
and Malka Jungk Lulu-wdla and Tibbi Kusain^^wdla on the left. 
These villages are all small and insignificant, averaging from thirty to 
sixty mud hovels. 

The current to-day was so sluggish and the wind so foul, that where 
the deep channel ran under high banks we had recourse to the track- 
ing rope. There was too great a depth of water to admit of using 
the bamboo, and where the banks were unfavorable to tracking we 
had recourse to the oar. The boatmen only used one at a time» and 
that alone required the services of more than half the crew ; the rest 
were occupied at the stem oar (which is used for a rudder) in coun* 
teracting the efforts of the rowers. We made but little way by these 
2 A 



178 Jimmal of a voyage from [Mabcs, 

means, and the boatmen seemed Tery glad to abandon the oar for the 
rope "where the banks admitted of tracking. 

After passing the village of Pipal we came in sight of the right 
bank of the Btdk or Beds, stretching across the horizon from N. £. to 
S. W. It is very high, and has a commanding appearance contrasted 
with the flat country which it overlooks. Before arriving at the 
janction of the Beds and Satlaj we passed a small river on our rights 
near the village of Andrisa, This was the Wenh : it measured in 
breadth at the mouth forty yards, but was much narrower a little 
higher up, "and had a depth of 1 2 feet. The Wenh rises in the hills 
which recede northwards from Beldspur at a place called Ghar Skam' 
kar, and in its coarse through the Dodb Bist Jalindar, passes between 
Phagwdra and Jalindar ; from thence southward to Dmkni hd Sarm, 
and south-west to Nakodir. From Nakodir its direction is west to 
near Sultdtymr, when it turns to the south and enters the Sathf 
below Andrisa. The length of its course may be roughly stated at 
sixty kos ; its bed is never quite dry, but it has very little water 
during the months of January, February, and the early part of Mareh. 

The Beds joins the Satlaj about two kos below Andrisa, It has 
by no means so large a body of water at the janction as the latter 
river, but its current is stronger and water clearer. The high bank 
which was visible from Pipal,is more than a mile from the present chan- 
nel. After meeting, the two rivers are split into numerous channels, 
divided by shoals and sand-banks. The Satlaj throws off one large 
and a number of smaller branches to the left, but its main channel 
continues its course under the right bank past the gh&t of Hari-ke, 
carrying with it the water of the Beds, The large branch to the left 
runs under a high bank past the village of Bhidan-wdla. The ghftt 
at Hari-ke is near three miles below the present junction of the two 
rivers. The village itself and chhdoni are on the top of the high bank 
at a distance of a mile and a half across the sand from the gh&t. 
Ranjit SiNOH has always a party of horse from one to two hundred 
strong stationed at this place. From the 14th to the 28th December 
the boats were detained at BhidaH'wdla in expectation of the arrival 
of the mission from Lahdr. Daring this time I had ample opportu- 
nity of judging of the extent of traffic passing by this ghdt. Thirty- 
two boats with three men to each were unceasingly employed from 
room to night in transporting loaded hackeries and beasts of burthen 
of every description across the rivers. I observed little difference on 
one day from another — it was a scene of constant activity and 
bustle. 



1637.] LoHmiM to Miikm^kot ly tU Stttl^ rher. 1 79 

. Tlie patmge of tht gjlAt generally ooeopted from fifteen to twenty 
minutes. 

Nearly the whole of the trade of Affghdmtidn, Kashmir and the 
Ptmjdh wiA HimAuidn, and by Bombay and Cakaita with Europe, 
paseea by this gh4t. Independent of the foreign trade, it is a great 
commercial thoroughfare for the interchange of the productions of 
the coontrieB more immediately on tJie banks of the river SatU^. 
The Mmlk R6hi from the neighborhood of Farid kotk, Rofwr kotk, 
ftc. sends by this route the immense quantities of grain which it 
supplies to Lahdr and Amritsir, Lighter articles, the bd/ta and fine 
cloth for pagris^ manufactured in the Doab BUt Jalindar at Rdkom, 
Pkmgwdra and Haokiarpar^ which are in greater demand in the upper 
part of Hmdaotan, pass also by this route. 

, I was unable to ascertain the average amount of daily collections 
at the gh&t, from the circumstance that the duty of great part of the 
merchandize which passes is not levied till its arrival at Amritsir^ 
and merely pays for a rawdna in crossing the river. It is the same 
with merchandize coming from Amriiiir, which is taxed before leav* 
in^ that place ; this refers to the right bank of the river. 

The following list, obtained from the gh4t munsh(, shews the rate 
of collection on the left bank. 

For s camel loaded with graiDt 5 

For ditto ditto with salt, 5 

For ditto ditto with fviuf fAtfitor, 7 6 

For ditto ditto with thakartari and first kind of kirana, 3 

For ditto ditto with cloth, 411 

For a large tdri gM^ loaded with any description of articles, ex- 
cept grain, 1 15 e 

For a gM load of grain to merohanti, 1 5 9 

For ditto to brahmans, to faqirt and bkai», 13 

For ditto to a maund of coarse kiratui^ 1 9 

For ditto to a maund of puihrnina^ 4 1 

For ditto to a maund of opium and indigo, 2 

For ditto to a donkey load of grain, 1 3 

For ditto to a bullock or pony load of grain, 1 9 

For ditto to a ^tfri load of salt, 1 13 

At Jdni-giU, 12 miles below Hari^ke, the united streams of the 

BedM and ScUlaj are called the Gkara, but known to the natives by 

the name Nai. Between Hari-ke and Firozpur are the gh&ts of Hdmad^ 

wdla and Talle^wdla : the former has twelve, and the latter ten boats. 

Part of the trade of the Panjdb with Hindiustda, and a small portion of 

that from Khorasdn and Affgkdnistdn which enters the Panjdb at Dera 

Itmael Khdn, crosses the Satlqf at these gh&ts. The roads by which the 

2 A 2 



180 Jimnkd of u vofi'age frmn [March. 

trade passes from them and from Hari^ke are much infested bj rob* 
bers. In the immediate vicinity are the Dogrf and Jat zemindars who 
are notorioas for their thieving propensities. From Hari-ke, and 
lower down the river, to Lah6r and Amritsir, the Akalis ; and from 
Firottpur and Hari^ke to Ambalah, the country of the Sodhie Sahebs 
has to be passed. The merchants engaged in this trade contract with 
the owners of the camels and gdris for the safe conduct of their goods 
to their place of destination, and these latter make their own arrange- 
ments with the disorderly tribes whose territory they have to pass 
through ; the escort, one of their number, is generally sufficient to 
ensure safety. 

Below Hari'ke on the left bank of the river a tract of heavy grass 
jungle extends for several miles — it is here and there interspersed 
with the jhau ; and there are numerous inlets and creeks from the 
river which insulate great portions of it. The islands thus formed 
are covered with the thickest jungles ; those of the jhau, which is 
strong and elastic, are almost impervious to horsemen, while those 
• covered with grass rising to the height of twelve and fourteen feet, 
are cut into deep ravines and contain large pitfalls. Tigers are 
found in these jungles. I went out in pursuit of them with Sirdars 
Ratan Singh, Ghirja Rba, and a large number of his followers 
mounted on horseback. The Sirdar gave strict orders to his men 
not to use their matchlocks, and I anticipated the novel gratification 
of seeing a tiger attacked and kiUed sword in hand. The traces of 
them were innumerable. Every nala we crossed presented fresh foot 
marks ; and though not so fortunate as to encounter any, we must 
have been following close upon them the whole day. The ground ia 
unfavorable to the sport both for horsemen and elephants, owing to 
the number of daldah and quick- sands. 

On the 3rd of January at Firozpur, The fort which is distant 
about three miles from the river was built by Sultin Fbkoz III. 
nephew to the emperor Ghias-u'-din CI'iiQhlak), and who reigned 
from A. D. 1351 to 1387. It is an irregular building, of no strength, 
and having little means of defence. .The interior is filled up with 
soil to half the height of the outer walls, and crowded with paltry 
brick houses and mud hovels separated only by alleys about six feet 
wide. The present possessor of the fort and adjacent territory is 
Rani Lacbman Kadr, widow of Dhana Sinob. 

NoBAHU Singh, the brother of Gujar Singh, one of the joint 
Sikh rulers of Lahdr, was the first among the Sikhs who conquered 
and held this territory. From him it descended to his son Guk 



1 837 .] Lodiana to Mitkankot hy the Satlaj river. 1 8 1 

Bakbbh Simoh. who added to it large posBessiona on both sides of 
the river. On the death of Gob Bakhsh Sinob, his four sons divid- 
ed the territory between them, and the fort and adjacent lands fell to 
the share of Dhana Singh before mentioned. Dhana Singh dying 
withont male issue, his three surviving brothers put in their claim to 
the estate* but the widow Lacbman Kaur referred her cause to the 
Political Agent at Ambdla, and it was ultimately decided in her favor 
by a reference to the Shister law. 

The Kaggwr river, from which Firoz Sh^b III. dug a canal to the 
Kerak, is said to have emptied itself into the SiUlaj near Firozpur. 
We found no trace of it. If the Kaggor be understood to be the 
same river with the Gaggar which ran between Ambdla and Sarhind, 
and afterwards received another river from Shahabad and the Saras*- 
watt from Thanesar, there must be some mistake in supposing that it 
ever joined the Satlaj near Firozpur. The old course of the Gaggar 
is well known ; after reaching the Bhainir frontier it weAt by the 
name of 86tre, and its direction throagh the desert to near Dilawen, 
where it was lost in the sands, may be traced by the forts of Sural- 
garh,] Chehdrgarh, Pkulra 1st, Phulra 2nd, Mojhgarh, Marrath, Ruk^ 
haapur, which were built on its banks. This channel has long ago 
been filled up with sand, and it is only here and there at long inter- 
vals that any traces of it remain. 

From the Srd to the 12th of January we were detained at Firozpur, 
surve3riug the boundary of the Sirdarni's little territory. We found 
it very ill defined and disputed on every side. Of the country we 
saw, not more than one-thirtieth part was under cultivation ; the rest 
was either entirely barren or covered with a low straggling brush- 
wood of no value. There was a large tract of karil Sindjhand jungle, 
and I also heard of a forest of sisu at some distance, but did not visit 
the spot to ascertain the fact. 

In the jhand and karil jungles, which I traversed in following the 
Firozpur boundaries, I observed several sites of towns and villages, 
and a great number of fine paka wells, now half filled with rubbish 
and fallen to decay, but which sufficiently prove that the country 
was formerly thickly inhabited. It has sufiered much from the 
misrule which has long prevailed. The petty states by which it is 
surrounded are so promiscuously interwoven in their limits that it 
would be difficult to point to one among them which is not at vari- 
ance with all the rest as to its boundaries. To this circumstance 
must be mainly attributed the immense quantity of waste land which 
meets the eye in every direction ; . for no sooner does one party 



1 82 Jourmd of a vayagijrom [Ma rgh, 

attempt to reclaim a portion from the desert, than the reet interfere 
to dispute their right to the soil. As we receded southward from 
the river, the sand assumed that undulating appearance which is 
described as characteristic of the skirts of the Indian desert, small 
mounds occurring at intervals, the soil of which was hard and covered 
with thorn and brushwood. The wells at a distance from the river 
were of considerable depth ; but the territory, as was once the case^ 
might be made independent of them and fertilized at very little 
expense. The dry bed of a nala called the SuM traverses it in 
various directions, and it would only require a canal a mile in length 
to let into it the waters of the Satlaj near Tihdra. 

The zemindars are Jats and Dogres (also a caste of converted 
Hindus) ; they are chiefly engaged in pastoral pursuits, rearing large 
herds of buffaloes, on the sale of the ghee and milk of which they depend 
for subsistence. It is probable they have been driven to this life by 
the unsettled state of the country, which precludes in a great measure 
all agricultural employment ; it does not appear that they are from 
remote time a pastoral people. The country, as I before observed, 
bears marks of having been much more generally cultivated at an 
earlier period ; and though the present race have become addicted to 
predatory habits, arising from the circumstances of their situation 
under petty authorities at variance with each other, it would not be 
difficult, und^r a better ordered government, to give them a taste for 
more peaceful and industrious occupations. At present they are 
miserably low in the scale of civilization, and the feuds existing 
among them, which are fomented rather than suppressed by their 
rulers, are not unfrequently the cause of bloodshed. The faith they 
profess is the Muhammedan, but they are grossly ignorant on the 
subject of their religion, and do not pay much attention to the out- 
ward forms of it. The KoHin is little consulted. The elders of the 
village decide most of their differences, and the parties not abiding 
by their decision are left to seek their own redress. 

In the detection of theft and other offences, the practice of chewing 
rice and immersing the head under water, and other equally inftiUible 
tests, are commonly resorted to. Every species of torture is put in 
practice by the authorities to obtain forced confessions. 

There is little difference observable in the appearance of the 
peasantry here from the same class in the vicinity of LodiatM ; but 
beyond Firotpur the Dogre caste are distingpiished by a greater swar- 
thiness of complexion and harsher features. They are also more 
dirty in their dress and persons, and many among them go bare 



1637.] LodUma to Mithankot by the SatlaJ river. 188 

headed. The Hindu merchants, from the command which they have 
of money, exercise a preponderating inflnence in the internal manage- 
ment of the Firozpur domain. The ryuts, from their extreme poverty, 
are forced to mortgage their crops to provide themselves with seed 
and the necessary implements of hashandry. Money is advanced at 
an enormous rate of interest, the lowest in the most favorable seasons 
being ha]f an anna per month for every rupee ; but the necessities 
of the people are such, they are no^ frequently obliged to pay l-^ 
anna per month, and compound interest is charged after three months. 
The cattle and even the ploughs (which resemble those used to the 
eastward), are the property of merchants. It requires three pairs of bul- 
locks to work a well during twelve hours of the day. and the quantity 
of ground cultivated is fifty kacha bigahs. The poor from the neigh- 
boring territories bordering on the desert resort to the banks of the 
river to cultivate the autumnal crops and earn a bare subsistence, 
but their attachment to the desert in preference to the dimate near 
the river prevents their settling. 

On the afternoon of the 11th we took leave of the Sirdami and 
started next morning for Mamdoi. A mile beyond Firoqmr the river 
dirides into two branches, the deep channel continuing under the left 
bank running separate for more than a mile ; they again unite, and 
soon after splitting again unite at a short distance above the ghAt of 
Bare-ke, Bare-ke is in the direct road from Firogpur through Kasur 
to Lahdr, from which it is distant thirty kos. It is the nearest point 
of approach of the Satlaj to that city. There are only four boats at 
the ghftt, which is not a very considerable thoroughfare. 

The boats here are quite different from those higher up on the 
Satltiy. They are flat-bottomed, but have high sides, and both ends 
are pointed ; they measure about thirty feet in length by ten in breadth, 
with a depth of two and a half to three feet, and are very strongly 
built : the waste is partitioned by heavy beams running across, which 
give strength to the sides. The poop and forecastle are planked. 
Altogether there is an appearance of lightness and hardiness about 
them which makes them as much surpass the Rav{ boats as those do 
the craft in use higher up the Satlaj. The mode of propelling them 
is somewhat the same as sculHng. An immense oar is lashed to the 
stem, the arm of which usually consists of two, or three joined pieces 
of wood, and is curved in such a manner that the end or handle 
stretches horizontally over the poop, where one, two, or three persons 
are placed to work it to and fro. It serves both to propel and direct 
the boat in its progress. 



] 84 Journal of a voyage from [Makch, 

Near the Tillage of Kilcha, vhere a small nala enters the Saik^ 
from the south, we were met by the headman of the Path&n chief of 
Mamdot. He was attended by a small party of Path£n horsemen 
armed with bows and arrows for the chace. They were all equipped 
and well mounted, and distinguished by a soldierly bearing. They 
escorted us along the bank, occasionally flying a hawk or discharging 
an arrow at the black partridge, which their progress through the 
jhau and cultivation disturbed horn their hiding places. 

The soil on the left bank was a rich loam, the deposit of the river ; 
when dry it is mach split into fissures, and riding over it rendered 
exceedingly disagreeable, if not dangerous, and where moist it is 
barely capable of supporting the weight of a horseman. 

Between the villages of KandUke on the left and Chawdla on the 
right bank, we passed another gh&t, where there were four boats of 
the kind last described. The country partially cultivated on both 
sides, and the river broad and uninterrupted in its channel. After 
passing Futtuhodla we saw no villages near the banks for a distance 
of five kos, the jhau jungle in most places obstructing the view. 
The river again intersected with sand-banks and banks low. 

We halted below Mamdot; estimated distance from Ftroxpur 11^ 
kos. 

The fort is distant two miles from the present channel of the river. 
(In the rainy season the river runs within half a mile of its walls.) 
It is a square with a round tower at each corner and one in the centre 
of each face. To the east and west are gateways. The outward 
walls are of .burnt bricks fifty feet high, and ten thick, of paka and 
kacha. The interior space is fiUed up with the soil from the outward 
moat, and rises to half the height of the walls : the whole is crowded 
with houses, separated only by narrow alleys barely two yards in 
'^idth. The towers command an extensive view of the surrounding 
flat country. 

The present possessors of the fort and adjoining territory are a 
Pathin family, formerly masters of Kasur and other large possessions 
on the opposite side of the river. The old fort, on the side of which 
the present one was raised, is said to have been built in the time of 
MuBAMMXD Sbah III. the son of the Ghia8*o^oin Tughlak Shah. 
In the reign of Akbar and his successors it was attached to the 
sirkar of Debdlpur in the Sdbah of Multdn. After the decline of 
the Delhi empire it was destroyed by the Dogre zemindars to prevent 
its being used as a stronghold by the marauding Seiks ; but soon 
after, when the Lahdr province and the greater part of the Bawoni 



IS37.] LodiaM to MUhmkot hy the Satlaj river, 185 

of Sarkmd fell into the possession of these adventurers, Sob«a Sinoh 
KuAHSKA, one of the three joint rulers of Lahdr, oyerran the coantrjr 
and bestowed it in jdgUr on one of his followers, Kavu'r Sinoh 
TaoGA. This person repaired the fort and held andisputed possession 
for a long period ; he extended his territory as far as the Bahdwa/pur 
and Kkai frontier, bat owing to some measures highly offensive to 
his Massalman subjects the Dogres, they rose against him and he 
was compelled to flee for assistance to Sobha Sinoh. Sobha Singh 
sent a force with him and reinstated him. The Dogres again rebelled 
and called in Rai AniiBn Munjh to their aid ; but it not being in his 
power to assist them at that time, tliey were obliged to effect a 
reconciliation with Kapd'r Singh, who continued in possession. At 
a subsequent period Rai AhmkdMunjh expelled Kapu^k Singh from 
the country and established himself at Mamdoi. He razed to the 
ground the remains of the old fort, and built the present one on its 
site : it remained the seat of authority under him for upwards of nine 
years. At his death he was succeeded by his son Rai Ilias, on whose 
death shortly after without issue, the Dogre zemindars, fearing a 
return of their old enemies the Sikhs, sent a deputation to wait on 
Nizam- a'- DIN Khan, and Qdtub-c'-oin Khan, the Pathan chiefs of 
Kaaur, and to invite them to come and take possession of the fort. 
Accordingly the retainers of Rai Ilias's family were expelled, and 
QoTUB-u'-DiN Khan and his family formally reinstated as their rulers. 
NiZAM-u'-DiN Khan andQoTUB-u'-niN Kban had been troublesome 
enemies to Mah&-rf]a Ranjit Sinoh, during the time they held posses* 
sion of Kantr, ^d had resisted by every means in their power, and by 
inciting others to resist, the ambitious designs of that chief. He made 
repeated attacks upon their forts, in all of which he was repulsed ; at 
length, finding force unavailing, he had recourse to other measures, and 
by bribes and artifices succeeded in sowing dissension in the family of 
NiZAii-u'-oiN Khan, and instilling treachery into the minds of his 
kinsmen and followers, two of whom basely murdered their chief in 
his sleep at Kasur, His brother Qutub-u'-din, who was absent at 
the time* returned and surrounded the fort, but failed to secure the 
traitors. Suspecting all alike, he withdrew his confidence from his 
own kinsmen and committed the custody of his forts to a family of 
Syeds. He then entered into negotiations with the ruler of Lahdr, 
in the course of which Saif-u'-din Shah, one of the Syeds above- 
mentioned, was won over by the Mah4-rija and betrayed the trust 
reposed in him by Qutub-u'-din. The Syeds under his orders deli* 
Tered up to the Mahii-raja's officers all the forts in their custody. 

2 B 



1 86 Jowrml of a voyage from [M abc v. 

The widow of Niz^m-u'-mn was leagued with the MaUi-r£ja against 
QoTUB-u'-oiN, who, unable to stand his ground, came to the resokidoii 
to abandon Kmsut and his possessions north of the Sailaj, and soon 
after retired to Mamdot. There he remained in undisputed possession 
till the Mahi-rija crossed the river in 1808*9, when, seeing that 
resistance was useless, he wisely conciliated his enemy by a voluntary 
submission. The Mah4-rija confirmed him in the possession of Mam* 
dot on the usual condition of military service, and he continued to 
furnish a quota of two hundred horse for the service of the state. 

QuTUB-u'-DiM Khan died about a year ag^ at Lak6r ; he had always 
been anxious to throw off his allegiance to the Mahi-riga and be taken 
nnder the protection of the British Government. In 1826 he openly 
sought the protection of Captain Mureat, Political Agent at Ambdla, 
but on that occasion was, after some correspondence, directed to return 
to his allegiance to the Lahdr Bija. 

The present possessor of the jdghir is Jamal-u'-din Kh4n, the son 
of QoTUB-u'-DiN Khan. He was not at Mamdoi when the Mission 
passed, but his younger brother, a fine lad of about fourteen years of 
age, paid us a visit, which we returned. The interior economy of 
their establishment showed a thorough disregard of the conveniences 
of life. Men and horses were indiscriminately huddled together in 
the different court-yards inside the fort, and of the' two the horses 
were perhaps the better lodged. 

Hawking and hunting the deer seem to be the great occupation 
mkd business of their lives. At our interview witJi the young chief* 
the subject of merchandize on the river happened to be introduced, 
and some questions were asked as to the relative price of grain at 
Mamdoi and lower down the river, at which the whole assembly 
stared with unfeigned astonishment, and referred us for an answer to 
our questions to some baniahs who were sitting at one comer of the 
house tops when our interview took place. 

The Mamdoi territory extends upwards of thirty kos along the 
banks of the river, and varies in breadth from fifteen to seven miles. 
It has been much improved since it came into the possession of the 
present family both in its productions and population. 

From Lodiana to Maimdot there is little difference of soil and 
produce. The ground near the river becomes harder and richer. 
As you leave Loduma and approach Firospur the light sand dis* 
iqppears. In the autumn are sown gikun, nakhad^ chola, kangatd, 
mwy, barrerOf maooan and jo-ckana, which are reaped in the spring, 
or during ▲pril and May. The garden vegetables of that aeaion 



mr.] Loditma to Miihtmhot hf the 8M^ river. 187 

•re Half htm, hire, ekmhd «fy, iarkukrU, tarhuze, karbuMe, kkurfm ekak9. 
Tobfteeo is mbo giowa m vmM qnantiticfl. In the epring uid ee 
late as June are sown mm ekaktar or sugar-cane, mdki, jdar, md^. 
mimg, moth, kanjad or tU, bajra, pmohgdr ; and the yegetables are 
tnnupe* carrots, spinach, sohd, gmtdana or le^, ganddloti kd $dg, 
hmrmm kd odg, onions. If rain fells plentifully in January, they have 
en intermediate harrest of coarse rice and other small grains* whiob 
is reaped in June. Above the Mamiot territory the ground requires 
mnch manure to render it productive, but below it commences what 
is called the Sorab country, where die overflowings of the river leave 
a rich deposit, which requires but one tnm of the plough to yield a 
plentiful harvest, and where wells are little used for purposes of agri* 
culture. Gram is not g^wn in any quantity below Mamdot, and the 
sugar-cane totally disappears. 

On the 14th we started from Mamdot. The banks of the river in 
some places higher than we have hitherto anywhere observed them* 
The land it here irrigated by means of kdhre^i or water-coarses ; pits 
are dug close on the banks of the river, and water let into them by 
channels dug throu|ph the banks and raised from them by the Persiaa 
wheel. 

We passed a few temporary hamlets near the river, but villages 
were at a distance, and distinguiahable only by the clump of trees by 
which they were surrounded. Opposite the village of BdM^he was a 
ghftt with two boats. 

Hie jhmi jungle on both sides of the river high and thick, but 
parched up. At sun-set we came to on the right bank near the 
vifiage of Kagge^ke, where was a remarkably fine pipal tree. Estimated 
distance from Mamdot 11| kos. Our land party halted at Mohan^ko 
on the left bank, about three kos from the river, as it is said to be a 
larger place than Mamdot. 

On the 15th we arrived at Bagge-ke, estimated distance by the 
river 10 kos. Villages at a distance from the banks, which were for 
the most part covered with jhau jungle and the koHa reed. Now and 
then a small patch of cultivation intervened. 

The channel much intersected by sand-banks : winding in the river 
ineonsideraUe. We passed one gh&t, at which tiiere were two boats. 

On the 1 6th at Ladhu'ke, estimated distance by the river 7^ koa. 
At the village of Johad^ko, the only one close on the banks* there 
were two boats and a number of the temporary wells or kdhreg before 
described. I observed one v^iere the water was conveyed over a 
sand«bank aftroes the bed of the river for the distance of half a ttuHe, 
2 B 3 



f 8A Journal of a voyage from [Makch^ 

and was then raised by a well and Persian wheel to a htg^her bank, 
over which another channel conducted the water to the permanent 
banks of the river. Here the same apparatus raised the water to a 
level with the country to be irrigated. 

The river increasing in breadth and more winding than yesterday ; 
the banks occasionally twelve and fourteen feet high, and covered to 
the water's edge by heavy jhdu and grass jungle, which are likely to 
prove embarrassing to boats tracking up the river. 

On the 17th we arrived at Jagveri, estimated distance 15^ kos. 
About four kos beyond Ladku-'ke we passed the boundary of the 
Mamdot territory opposite to Kallandir-ke, and, a kos further on, en- 
tered that of Nawab Daba wal Khan, opposite Rana-watta. Between 
these places there is a dense forest of the jkau which rises to the 
height of twenty and more feet, and is almost impenetrable. The 
Zemindars of these parts find it a secure refuge from the oppressive 
demands of their rulers. The little cultivation they engage in depends 
much on the course of the river. They have no settled habitations^ 
but wherever the banks of the river a£brd facility for digging their 
temporary wells, they erect their hamlets of grass and kana reed» and 
commence cultivating. A slight change in the course of the river 
often obliges them to remove to a more favorable spot, and it rarely 
happens that the same people cultivate the same fields for three 
aeasouB together. 

We passed the ruins of a village, JVatter Shah, on the right bank, 
where there was a gh&t with two boats. Opposite the village of 
Atmui'ke we w^re met by the officer in charge of the Khin's frontier 
district, Ulla Bachata, the nephew of the Khan's Vizier, a sufficient- 
ly mean-looking personage, and who, iu dress and manner, led us to 
draw no very favorable conclusions as to the style of the Bahdwalpur 
court. He was attended by a handful of ill-mounted and dirty-look- 
ing horsemen, whose sombre and uncombed appearance formed a 
striking contrast to the gayer equipments of our Pathan friends. 

Winding in tlie river considerable. In a few places where confined 
by high banks, we had an uninterrupted deep channel averaging seven 
hundred yards in breadth. 

At Jagver4 we found Nawib Ghulam Qadir Kqan, the mehm4a- 
d&r sent on the part of Bah a wal Khan to attend us to Bahdwalpur, 
and who had been waiting our arrival at this barren spot for the last 
three months. On the morning of the 18th he paid us a visit, and 
we were introduced to a corpulent, good-humoured, 6ajuaA*looking 
person, whose manners, i£ not highly polished, were frank and 



] 837.] Loduma to Miikankot hy thB Sailaj river. 1 69 

vnaffected. He was richly dressed in cloth of khimkdb, with a hand* 
some hMg{ for a tarban, and wore a superb shawl for a kamarband ; 
bat the whole was in bad taste, and his attendants were as wretched- 
ly shabby and mean as he was fine. The Nawib spoke a very intel- 
ligible Uindustini, but the language of his followers was quite foreign 
to us. It differs from Hindustani, not so much perhaps radically as 
in the termination of the words, and the peculiar tone and manner in 
which it is spoken, which is drawling and nasal, much more disagree- 
able to the ear than the Panjibi of the bawUttg Sikhs. We were 
better pleased with the boatmen of the Bakdwalpur boats than with 
any one we saw in this train of our new acquaiutanoea. Their manners 
contrasted favorably with the rude specimens we brought with us 
from Lodiana. They have much the appearance of a sea-fturing people 
— much of the alacrity and briskness which we admire in our own 
aaUors. 

The Bahdwaljmr boats are strongly built, but clumsy. In shape 
they are square fore and aft ; the poop and forecastle are planked, and 
the former raised very high, so that the person steering is able to 
look over the chappared apartment which is in midship. The rudder 
is of curious and unhandy buildi but has great power. The largest 
of the boats there measured eighty feet in length and about three 
feet in depth. They are all furnished 'With a square sail and masts 
which strike ; and have two oars of immense size, the' largest requir* 
ing six and seven hands to ply each of them. 

On the 1 9th at Bwnga Jawdn^ke, estimated distance 7f> kos. On 
starting from Assap-wala we were greeted with the novel and pleasing 
sound of a sailor's cheer from the crews of the Bahdwalpur boats. 
£ach boat's crew, as their boat left its moorings and dipped oars into 
the water, gave out a long pealing sound, which was responded toby 
all the rest in succession. The cry, as near as I could distinguish 
the words, was " Bham, Baha al Hat,** {Baha al Hat is the name of 
a patron saint of the boatmen of this country and on the Indus.) 
The boatmen stand to their oars, and every muscle of the body is 
brought into play in the motions which they go through. When the 
oars are dipped deep into the water, the outside men are frequently 
suspended from the handles which they drag down by their weight 
till the opposite ends or shafts are disengaged from the water. I 
should say there is more exercise with less fatigue in this than in our 
method of rowing. The rowers keep good time. 

We had to contend against a strong wind, which prevented our 
much progreaa to-day. We passed only two or three villages 



on the rigkt bank. We left the district of Am^wdia (whick begins 
from Rtma-watta) and entered that of GmrjioHM or Faitekgarh aboni 
four koe before we arrived at Bunga Jaw4m*ke, 

The country from Bana-wtUia to Gurjiana waa formerly taken poa* 
•ession of by Laina Sinqb» one of the joint mlerB of Lahdr, Mah4« 
rija Ram JIT Singh subsequently took it from Chbt Singh, the son 
of Lain A Sinoh. It was afterwards held by Bhai Lal Singh, and 
taken from him by Qutob-u'-din Khan, who annexed it to the Man* 
iQt territory. Aboiit three years ago, Bahawul Khan, called httri 
Bahawul Khan, in distinction to tiie present KUin, conquered it from 
QuTUB-u'-DiN Khan, since which time it has remained annexed to 
the Bakdnmlfw territory. 

The country increasing in wildness and the jungles thicker the 
farther we proceed. 

On the 20th to Chhue, estimated distance seven kos. The villages 
at a distance from the river. On the right bank heavy jungle nearly 
the whole way. We came down a noble sheet of water to-day, where 
the river ran without a curve for some miles between moderately higli 
banks. 

On the 21 St to Baehutn-wdlaj estimated distance eight kos. We 
passed a few temporary hamlets on the river side, but theyAaa jungle 
prevailed with little interruption on both banks throughout the jour- 
ney. The banks high and the channel less intersected by sand-banks 
than usual. We left the district of Gurjtama, and entered that of 
liuMofergn^wdlm, about two kos before we arrived off BoehiaM^wdlu* 

A few bricks of an enormous size were picked up at a village on 
the vray down, (^Aonfm-Atf.) They had been taken from some ruins 
laid open by the river about three months previously. The ruins 
were described by the villagers as the remains of the wall and turret 
of a fort sunk more than six feet below the presait surfiBMse of the 
surrounding country. They said that the marks remained in the 
banks where the bricks had been washed away, that by digging other 
parts of the ruin would be found more perfect. It waa determined 
to visit the place on our return from Bahdwa^r, The bricks were 
marked with three curved lines in the shape of a horse-shoe, and from 
that circumstance referred by the Hindus of our party to the period 
of the Treta Yug, 

On the following day, the 22nd, we crossed the river and went to 
Pdkpaian, distant about eight miles from our boats and about five from 
the nearest point of the river. It is approached from a perfeotl j level 
and open plain of four miles in extent, and* seen from that diatanoi^ 



It370 Lodummio MUkmik9t fy ike SiUlaJ river. 1 §1 

has die mppeftraEnee of m citsdel perched on the inavut of % lofty 
cmmence. It it built on the tkae or site of the mncient fort of Aj» 
wmdm or Jjodm^ and ia a place of great sanctity, haying been the 
residence for a nnmber of years of the celebrated Mussalman saint 
Shekh Fakw-u'-din, to which cireomstanee it owes its present name 
of Pdkpaiam, or the ferry of parity. Under its former name of 
Ajwadm it is celebrated as the spot near which the S^tl^ has been so 
often passed by Mossahnan conquerors in their invasions of Himdu* 
9idm. In A. D. 997 JjwuHn was taken and plundered by Snlt&a N/sca* 
u'-niN Sabactaoi'm ; but aoeoanta vary as to whether he crossed the 
8^tU^ in that expedition : in some he is stated to have extended lis 
ravages as far as Bkainir, the capital of the BkmtH country. In A. 0« 
1001, Saltan Mahambo Ghazitatt, the renowned son and sncoessor 
of Sabactaoi'm, forded the Satlaj in the vicinity of Ajwa/im and 
plundered BkatnAr, In his sabsequent numerous invasions of HmAh 
»tdm he followed this route more than once. 

In A. O. 1079 Saltin Ibb/bim crossed the Sailqf 9t thn point in 
his second Indian expedition. After the Ghaznian dynasty, Snltin 
MAHAvan Ghobp, called Shah/b-u'-din, passed by this route and by 
Bkain& when he took Att (or Hansi) in his battles with r£ja Pithauba. 
In A. D. 1897-8 the conqueror Amib Timoub in his invasion of Hin» 
iMtam, after laying in ruins DiMpur and Ajwadin, proceeded across 
the river with part of his forces and destroyed Bkatndrp whither the 
inhabitants of the two former towns had fled for protection. 

Close under the town to the north is the dry bed of a river which 
they call the Dandi, propably the Dond mentioned by Major Rbn* 
RBLL. Four kos more to the north is another dry bed of a river 
which they call the Sohay ; and beyond this about ten kos from Pdk* 
pattm is the old bed of the Bed9, which, separating from the Suilqf 
below Hari'ke, formerly ran close under Kotur and did not again 
join that river till within twenty miles of Nek. In the time of Akbabi 
the Dodh BUt Jalindar extended to HatMdpmr Dor Bekli, fifteen has 
above Nek. 

To the south of Pdkpattm in coming from our boats we crossed 
a nala which had a very high bank ; its bed was in some places dry» 
in others it had one and half feet of water. I inquired of the villagers 
if they had any particular name for it, but they said not ; neither did 
they know any thing about the Hwrari Namojf or Qoud mentioned by 
Major Rbnnbll. The gpround between this nala and the Satlq; was 
low» covered with thick jungle of the tamarisk and patches of fine- 
looking wheat. Il is »e danhl; overflowed ia the rainy season, when 



192 Journal of a voyage from [March* 

the breadth of the river from the bank of this ntda to the opposite 
high bank roust be more than four miles. 

We remained at Pdkpatan till the 26th, making arrangements for 
reducing to order the predatory tribes of that neighborhood. 

On the 23rd we visited the shrine of Hazrat Shekh Farcd Shakar- 
OANjr* in the town of Pdkpatan. We had to ascend more than forty 
feet to the top of the mound on which the town is built. The ground 
sounded hollow to our horses' hoofs as we threaded through numerous 
narrow streets and alleys, many of which were lined with miserable 
objects of charity, among whom here and there might be seen females 
enveloped in the burkhd, pretended descendants of the Prophet, who 
importuned for alms with a perseverance which we found it difficult 
to resist. After descending again by a flight of steps to a level with 
the surrounding country, we were conducted into a small square paved 
court surrounded by the lofty brick walls of the adjacent houses. In 
the centre of this stood the maqbard, i, plain insignificant building, 
having one small apartment, in which was the grave of the saint 
covered with faded drapery. There were two doors to this apartment, 
one to the north and one to the east. That to the east, called the 
" door of Paradise," is never opened but on the fifth day of the 
sacred Moharam, when numbers of pilgrims, both Hindus and Mus- 
Salmans, come to visit the shrine, and all who pass through this door- 
way are considered saved from the fines of perdition. The door-way 
is about two feet wide, and cannot be passed without stooping, and the 
apartment itself is not capable of containing thirty people crowded 
together : yet such is the care which the saint takes of his votaries 
on these occasions, that no accident or loss of life has ever been known 
to occur. A superlative heaven is allotted to those who are first to 
enter the tomb on the day mentioned. The rush for precedence may, 
therefore, be better imagined than described. The crowd of pilgrims 
is said to be immense, and as they egress from the sacred door- way, 
after having rubbed their foreheads on the foot of the saint's grave, 
the air resounds with their shouts of Farid ! Farid ! Several relics 
were shewn to us, among which the most curious was, a round flat 
piece of wood of the size and shape of an Indian's bread or chapati. 
In the long fasts which the saint imposed on himself, he is said to 
have solaced his hunger by gnawing this hard substance. 

There is a couplet very common throughout the Panjdb which has 
reference to this story. 

The ancestors of Shekh Farid-u'-din first came to Mult&n in the 

« See tome aceount of the tame saiat by Munahi Mohum La'i. in the last 
volume. — Eo. 



1 837.] Lodiana to Mithankoi by the SatlaJ river. 193 

train of Brhram Shah, of the Ghaznavi family, and continued to fill 
situations of trust and emolument in that province, until it foil into 
the hands of Sult£n Maramed Gaukik, (Shaha'b-u'-din.) When 
Hazrat Jala'l-o'-din, the father of Shekh Farid, fled to Chdwe 
Mtishaikh, a village on the banks of the Satlaj, where he lived the life 
of a hermit, practised great austerities and became celebrated for his 
great sanctity. At this place Hazrat Shekh Parid-u'-din was born; 
he was sent for his education to Multdn, and afterwards spent many 
years in travel. At Multan he became celebrated as a Sdheb Kardmat^ 
or worker of miracles, and many ridiculous stories are told of his 
performances. Among others it is related that whenever he felt 
hungry he would throw into his mouth a handful of dust or pebbles 
whicii immediately became sugnr. He practised similar metamor- 
phoses on the goods of other people, and turned so many things into 
sugar that he was universally known, and is so to this day, by the 
affix to his name of Shakar-ganj, Hazrat Shekh Farid-u'-din 
Sbakarganj and his posterity were chiefly instrumental in con- 
verting to IslUmism the numerous diflferent tribes of Jats and Gujur 
or Gickers, descendants of the Rajput shepherds, who so often fought 
bravely against the invading armies of the north. The descendants 
of Babi Shekh Fared are supposed to have inherited from him the 
power of performing miracles, and several of them became celebrated 
throughout Hindustdn for (heir sanctity. At Agra, Sikru, and Dehli 
their shrines witness to the respect in which their memory is held by 
the Mussalman population. Akbar Shab owed to the prayers, we 
are told, of one of the family (Shekh Nur-u*-din, or Nibr-u'-d^n) the 
birth of his son Jeh/ngir. In the early attempt of the Sikhs to lay 
waste the country between Multdn and Lahdr, one of the descendants 
of Shekh Farid-u'-pin at Pdkpatan placed himself at the head of a 
number of converts, Jat peasantry, and kept his ground so well against 
these marauders that they thought it advisable to come to an amicable 
arrangement with him ; and, in a treaty which he concluded with one 
of their chiefs, he was allowed to enjoy in independence the revenues 
of Pdkpatan and several villages attached to it. At a later period, 
when the Sikhs became united under one chief, the Shekh-zadas were 
despoiled of their possessions. The Maha-rija now allows them one 
thousand rupees a year for their maintenance, derived from the town 
duties of Pdkpatan ; besides which, they have a fourth share in four 
small villages in the neighborhood. 

On the 27th to Toba Sdddt, in the district of Mvsd-firan-wdla, esti- 
mated distance nine kos. 
2 o 



194 Jcnmal of a voyage from [March, 

On the 28th to AkH-ke, in the diBtrict of Cdstm-ke^ estimated dig* 
tance nine kos. 

On the 29th to Dola, where we entered the district of Jheddo, es- 
timated distance seven kos. 

On the 30th we passed through the districts of Jheddo and Shah 
Farid, and entered the Hdsilpur district about two miles before we 
came to our halting place at noon, estimated distance nine kos. 

On the 31 St we halted at noon. 

On the Ist of February at Palra, estimated distance 8^ kos. The 
faco of the country varies little in appearance, being day after day the 
same succession of tamarisk jungle, the deep green of which is nowhere 
^nd there relieved by a shrub resembling the willow in leaf and color, 
which the natives call jhat, and from the. rout of which the miswaks 
or tooth- cleaners are commonly made. From Rdna-waiti near the 
Mamdot and Bahdvoalpur frontier the signs of cultivation gradually 
disappear ; and near Fdkpatan the country becomes extremely wild ; we 
lose all trace of habitations near the river, save, par hazard, a few 
temporary grass hamlets. After entering the Hdsilpur district an 
improvement is perceptible. We again see the Persian wheel at 
work, and the banks of the river occasionally lined with a wonder- 
gazing populace. The canals and water-courses increase in number 
as we progress onwards. Those we have hitherto seen vary in breadth 
at their mouths from ten to twenty yards, and are at present dry, being 
much above the level of the river, but from early in May to the end 
of September they serve to irrigate the country to the distance in 
some instances of thirty miles from its banks. Smaller branches are 
cut in every direction from the main canals, so that the whole country 
is covered with them, and travelling in that season rendered disagree* 
able and difficult. 

During our journey of the last two or three days we have been 
pleasingly reminded of having entered a Mussalman country by the 
strict attention every where paid to the time of prayer. In the open 
fields, where a minute before the air has resounded with the voice of 
labour, every thing is suddenly hushed, — the shrieking Persian wheel 
is at rest, the cattle are freed from the yoke, and the peasants may be 
seen ranged together in small parties on their mats of the palm tree, 
going through their forms of devotion with an air of the greatest 
decorum. The sight j-truck us from its frequent occurrence. 

Of the tribes wb.ich inhabit along the banks of the river from FhvZ" 
pur to Bahiiwalpur, those in the neighborhood of Pdkpatan and below 
that place, are said to be the most wild and disorderly and the moat 



183 7. J Lodiana to Mithankot by the SatlaJ river. 195 

addicted to predatory habit?. The Dogre and Dogre Badela are 
chiefly confined to the Mamdot territory and higher up. At Loaduke, 
below Mamdot they are succeeded by the JVattu Karral Chishti aud 
other branches of the Jat tribes, descendants of the Rajpiit shepherds, 
who formerlv inhabited the country on the Rati between Multdn and 
Lak6r. These people still lead a wandering pastoral life, seldom 
building anything but temporary sheds, and may fairly challenge the 
name applied to them of " khdnd baddsh." They are a race inured to 
every hardship, ill fed and worse clothed, but capable of enduring 
great fatigue under every privation. They are much celebrated for 
the length and rapidity of theif journeys on foot in their nightly 
excursions to carry off cattle from neighboring territories. Nothing 
in their appearance would indicate their possessing a superior share 
of physical strength or activity ; they are tall spare men, generally 
ill made, and without any great shew of bone or muscle. If their 
hardiness of constitution is any where perceptible, it is in their harsh 
swarthy features, which though not pleasing are manly. 

These tribes, even in the best days of the Mogul empire, were 
never brought into any proper subjection or made to feel the influence 
of a well-ordered government. They continued embroiled in feuda 
among themselves, in the settlement of which the arms of autho- 
rity seldom interposed. A system of edlahang, or retaliation, than 
which nothing can be conceived more productive of crime and gene- 
ra) disorder, has prevailed among them from time immemorial. This 
s3rstem authorizes the redressing an injury not only on the person 
or property of the injurer, but on any of his relations, friends or neigh- 
bors whom chance may throw into the power of the injured party; con- 
sequently a few disorderly persons have it in their power to involve the 
whole country in their quarreb. The original cause of their feud is 
generally a dispute as to the right of pasture, or a few buffaloes may 
have strayed from the herds of one village to those of another. This 
leads to reprisals, in which blood is sometimes shed, and blood calls 
for blood long after the « original cause of dispute has ceased to be 
remembered. If this was the state of affairs when the country on 
both sides of the river was under one authoVity, we may judge of what 
it must be now that the river separates two hostile powers. 

The system of siilahang which was before confined to villages near 
each other, now extends along the whole line of the opposite banks of 
the river. Instead of a few buflaloes stealthily abstracted during the 
night by ten or twelves herdsmen, villages are now openly attacked 
and plundered at noon-day by gangs of from one hundred to two 
2 c 2 



196 Journal of a voyage from [Marc^^ 

hundred desperate freebooters acting under acknowledged Sir-kurde, 
(leaders.) The river affords them an easy means of escape, and, owing 
to the existing relations of one of the powers with our Government, 
prevents their being pursued by the authorities of the opposite side. 
This security from punishment would of itself be sufficient encourage- 
ment to their predatory habits, but they are moreover instigated and 
abetted by the petty district officers of their own governments^ 
who share in the spoils without incurring any of the danger of their 
enterprises. 

Female infanticide prevails generally among these tribes. Mothers 
appear to huve little affection for their ofispring and little respect for 
tbeir marriage tie, if one may judge by the frequency with which it is 
violated. A wife leaving the protection of her husband and abscond- 
ing with another man, is frequently claimed and restored by the inter- 
vention of the authorities after an absence of nine or ten years, and 
any children she may have borne to her paramour in her absence, are 
equally divided between him and her lawful husband. 

On the 2nd February at Tufiere, estimated distance 1 1 1 kos. The 
banks of the river low, and the river perceptibly diminished in breadth. 
We passed a town on the right bank hidden in a deep and extensive 
grove of palm trees ; the cupola of a mosque peeping through the 
foliage, and a few solitary palms standing far apart, thrown out from 
an horizon lighted by a brilliant sunset, reminded us forcibly of 
Bengal scenery. 

The country on the left to-day was more open, the river excessively 
winding. 

On the 3rd to Durpur near Khairpur, estimated distance 10^ kos. 
The country on the right was well cultivated and apparently rich* 
dotted with clumps of the beautiful palm tree, and the banks of the 
river abounding in temporary wells and water courses ; — that on the 
k'ft was low and barren and covered with a very thin jungle of the 
tamarisk, the river extremely winding in its course. 

Early in the day we were met by Sarfara'z Khan, and at a later hour 
by Mir Muhammed Qaim and MuHAMMan Daim, native gentlemen of 
the Khan's household and relations of the Khin's Vizier. One of these 
gentlemen, although holding the responsible appointment of Mir 
Btikhshi, is said to be quite uneducated and ignorant of his letters ; 
but we found him more polished in his manners than the generality 
of those we had met. 

About half way on our journey we passed the road to Mailsiant > 
town on the right bank, the former capital of Baha'wal Khan's teiri- 



1 837.] Lodiana to Mitkankot hy the Satk^' river. 197 

tory on that side. It once boasted a very strong fort, but from th« 
time this territory was first threatened by the Siekhs it became the 
policy of the Bahdwalpur government to destroy all their forts and 
garhis, aud this among the rest was razed to the ground. 

As we approached Khairpur we came in sight of the Rohi (or desert) » 
and were for some time quite at a loss to conjecture what object it 
was which skirted the horizon for many miles. The sand-hills rise 
abruptly from the plain which intervene between the desert and the 
river, and from a distance the intervals between them are not percep« 
tible. Seen from our boats, they formed a distinct and wtll defined out- 
line resembling an unbroken chain of low hills. The Rohi runs in the 
shape of a promontory directly up to the town of Khairpur, which is 
about a mile distant from the present channel of the river : in the 
rainy season the town only intervenes between the sand of the desert 
and the waters of the Satlaj, When we visited it, we ascended from 
one of the streets directly on a steep hill of sand and found ourselves 
fairly in the desert surrounded by sand-hills and the debris of houses, 
walls and huts more than half buried under them. The desert 
encroaches on the town every year, and many of the present inhabi- 
tants remember the time when Khairpur was distant at least two 
miles from the nearest point of it. The houses are chiefly of unburnt 
bricks, and the round domes of the mosque are also built of the same 
material. It is said to be very durable, but the secret of its durability 
lies more in the paucity of rain which falls in this country. The town 
has a tolerable bazar, and contains 400 shops of all descriptions ; it 
was formerly a place of considerable traffic, but has fallen off since the 
time of the great BaraVal Kuan. Small kafilan occasionally arrive 
here from Hdusi and Hissdr across tlie desert, and the tobacco grown 
in this vicinity and in the Hdsilpur district is exported by this route 
in large quantities to Delhi, where it is not unfrequently sold K%MuUdn 
tobacco. 

The only pakd building in the town is a large mosque now in 
ruins : it is ornamented with painted tiles to represent enamel, but too 
little remains to give any idea of the effect of this style of ornament 
when in perfect preservation. In the neighborhood are the ruins of 
several mud forts, formerly the seat of Ddudputra chiefs of the Keharani 
branch of the tribe, who arrived in this country sometime before the 
Piijani branch, of which the present Kh£n is the head. They were 
engaged in constant feuds with the 2nd Bahawal Khan, and made 
several attempts to subvert his power, but were unsuccessful, and at 
last forfeited their o#n possessions in the struggle. The only surviving 



1 dS Journal of a voyage from [M akcr, 

member of this family is now a fugitive at the court of the Bikdnir 
raja. 

The morning of the 4th being a halt, we made a short excursion 
into the desert with the intention of looking for floricans and antelopes : 
the former, as well as the leek and bustard, are very numerous where 
the desert approaches near to the river ; but they are much more fre- 
quently put up in the stunted tamarisk bushes which crown the sand 
bills within the skirts of the desert, than in the tamarisk coppices 
nearer the river. After crossing the first ridge of sand-hills, the 
highest of which might measure sixty feet, we came in sight of a 
level plain of hard soil extremely bare, ^with only here and there a 
small mound of shifting sand, and extending for several miles till the 
eye was arrested by what appeared to be a ridge similar to the one 
on which we stood. One could have fancied that this tract had 
recently been usurped from the river by the desert. We learned from 
the people with us that the whole of it is usually cultivated after a 
favorable rainy season, when it produces plentiful crops of the smaller 
kind of grain on which the inhabitants of this country chiefly subsist. 
Owing to the unusual drought of the last five years, it had remained 
a waste. The ridge on which wc stood was the site of what had 
been an extensive town now buried many feet under the sand ; — the 
soil between the sand hillocks was covered with particles of burnt 
brick, and I was able to trace the ruins of houses for upwards of a 
mile along the ridge. These have, no doubt, arrested the sand in its 
progress when it is carried in volumes by the south-west monsoon 
towards the river, and may account for the high and very abrupt 
appearance of the skirts of the desert at this point. 

After a short walk in the sand, rendered disagreeable by a dread- 
fully scorching sun, we returned towards our boats. The Diudputraa 
who accompanied us as guides were highly amused at our style of 
sporting, which they termed jarida- tor, and only becoming a shikari by 
profession. We were little less amused at their strange jargon and 
at the readiness of their sporting equipments. Their weapon is the 
rifle with the curved stock common throughout Affghdnistdn and the 
countries west of the Indus, The length of the barrel varies, but ii 
never much longer than that of our musket. They have a great con- 
tempt for our use of small shot and for small game, which they only 
pnrsue with the hawk. The flesh of the hog-deer and antelope is 
esteemed a great dainty. In pursuit of the latter a Diudputran wiH 
take his provisions for three days, mount his camel, and sally forth 
in the hottest season ; when, to use their own'expression, " to face the 



1837.] Lodiaua to Mithankot hy the SatlaJ river. 199 

desert is to face death." In these excursions he sometimes remains 
out as loDg^ as five days, irandering about after the tracks of the deer, 
until his supply of water is exhaus^ted ; when, if he has not been suc- 
cessful, he makes for the nearest pool and takes his chance of the 
deer coming to drink. These pools are not of frequent occurrence in 
the desert, and none but a person acquainted with every stump bush 
and hillock, and every feature of the ground, could attempt to go in 
search of them. That many of the shikaris have thii^ intimate know- 
ledge of the desert, is proverbial : — ** they know it better than the 
scholar his book, or the Hafiz his Koran ;" and their knowledge is 
the more astonishing when we consider the narrow and minute obser- 
vation which it implies. So much do the sand-hills resemble each 
other, that a common observer might be removed to fifty different 
stations in the course of the day and fancy every one the same. 

The prohibitions to shooting game which are strictly enforced in 
the Nawab's preserves and jungles near the river, do not apply to the 
desert, where the shikdris are at liberty to roam at large ; and the 
knowledge they acquire of its localities is highly prized by their chief. 
They are sometimes lost, but casualties of this kind are attributed to 
a stroke of the sun, or to exhaustion from want of water, or to the 
bite of a reptile called the flying- snake, (said to be numerous,) rather 
than to their losing their way. The stars assist to guide them when, 
as is often the case, they travel by night. 

One of our guides proved himself a good marksman by taking off 
the head of a carrion kite with a ball from his rifle at fifty yards ; he 
brought the bird up to us and observed that " that was the manner 
in which his master would serve the k&fir Sikhs, if we would allow 
him to cross the river." The Kh&n, it would appear, finds it politic 
to impress his subjects with the idea, that nothing but a fear of the 
displeasure of the British Government has hitherto prevented his 
taking steps to recover his lust dominions ; — while they on their part 
assure their chief, that but for this fear they would conquer the coun- 
try to-morrow, and not leave a light burning from the ladas to Lahor. 

The familiar manner in which our guides spoke of the former pos- 
sessors of the old forts and gardens about Khairpur as we passed 
through, struck me as highly characteristic of the primitive state of 
society of the people. Their greatest chiefs they designated by their 
simple surnames. In speaking of the Kh4u, they called him simple 
Babawal Khan or Khan, never adding any affix of respect. Every 
garden or fort we passed had its anecdote of the feuds that had 
existed between the Keharani and Pirjani branches of the Uibe. Much 



200 Journal of a voyage from [March, 

was said aboat the " bahdduri" of the fallen chiefs, the devoted cou- 
rage of their adherents, and the time which a few resolute men had 
kept the second Bahawal Khan and his whole army at bay. The 
knowledge possessed by our guides of these a£fairs seemed to be inti- 
mate ; and could I have understood clearly all that they said, I might 
during oar walk have learnt the whole history of the tribe. On their 
first settlement in the country, the Diudputras, to add consequence 
to their name, as well as to increase their power, are said not to have 
been very scrupulous how they swelled their numbers, and people of 
all descriptions were admitted into their tribe. 

The opinion I formed of the lower orders from what I saw to-day 
was not very favorable. One cannot be long in their society without 
being struck with the absence of that urbanity which is so universal 
among all orders in Hindustdn, With each other they appear to be 
on easy terms, using little ceremony. With strangers they are either 
rough and betray a suspicion and distrust in their manner, or their 
courteousness is awkward and descends to servility. One of our 
guides, whose garments would hardly have gained him admittance 
into any gentleman's gateway, gave me to understand that he was no 
common person, but one who lived in the Khan's presence. I should 
not have believed him but for an anecdote which I heard of one of 
the former chiefs soon after my return to camp, and which whs to 
the effect " that the first Bahawal KhJls would have given a severe 
bastinado to any person who had dared to come to his darbdr in 
new or dean clothes." The person who related this anecdote to roe, 
lamented the degeneracy of the present ruler, " who has brought 
himself," said he, " to look upon clean clothes without aversion, and, 
what is worse, allows his prime minister to ride in a bmli or a bullock 
carriage, for which last innovation he will one day be sorely visited." 

We remained at Darpur on the 5th. This place is pleasantly situ- 
ated at about half a mile from the present channel of the river. A 
fine piece of grass turf sprinkled with dwarfish palm extends from it 
down to the banks of the river. The fort of Darpur is still in good 
preservation, but has not been occupied since the family was dispos- 
sessed by the second Bahawal Khan. It is uf mud hxx&pakd bricks, 
in form a square, with turrets at the angles ; the outer walls enclose 
an aria of nine hundred square yard.s. Near the fort are the lines of 
one of the Kh£n's disciplined battalions, stationed here under the com- 
mand of a half-caste Portuguese ; their uniform was a blue coat with 
scarlet facings, flaming scarlet shakos, with brass ornaments. They 
were drawn out to receive us on the day of our arrival Evening had 



16370 Loduma to Mitfumkot by the S(Ulaj river. Ml 

elosed in before we arrived, and they burnt bine lights, the effect of 
which with their salute was good, but so much cannot be said for the 
stunning noise of their barbarous drums and fifes which accompanied 
it. The battalion mustered about three hundred firelocks ; besides 
these, there were two small pieces of artillery with a few gulancUb 
dressed in red pagHs, brown vests, and blue cossack paijdmoB. They 
were very cleanly in appearance, and I was told that the whole of the 
Khin's trsigps had been newly clothed in anticipation of the arrival of 
the mission. * 

On the 6th to G^thNmr Muhammad; estimated distanoe by the river 
S^ kos. The Khairpur district extended for two-thirds of the way, 
when we entered that of Goth Nur Muhammad. In consequence of the 
unusual drought of the last four years, and the floods from the river 
having inclined to the right bank, the ^iBtnctat4rom''Khairpttr to the 
eastern frontier now barely pay the expenses of collecting the revenue. 

Throughout this extensive tract of country, embracing a length of 
more than one hundred kos, there are only three officers in authority 
for the collection of revenue and the preservation of order. One is at 
Khairpur, one at Goth Qdim Rdie, twelves miles beyond, and the 
other moves alternately from Gurjidnu to Miibdrakpur, but resides 
chiefly at the latter place. In harvest time, mutsaddU or muharirs 
are dispatched from Ahmodpur to collect the revenue in these parts* 
but they never remain long. So little authority does the Naw£b 
possess over the districts east of MUbdrahpur, that he may be said to 
levy rather an occasional tribute from them than any fixed revenue. 
The property of the zemindirs consists chiefly of cattle, and is conse- 
quently moveable ; and as the Nawib finds it more troublesome than 
advantageous to be continually sending large forces to overawe them, 
they frequently escape two or more seasons successively without 
paying any thing to his treasury, either by crossing to the opposite 
side of the river, or concealing themselves and their cattle for a time 
in the large tracts of jangle which ey&ty where abound. Once in two 
or three years a force is sent, when, if the zemind£rs refose to come 
in and pay their rents, their houses and the little land they cultivate 
are laid waste, and all their cattle that can be found seized and car* 
ried off. They are at liberty to release them on paying what is called 
the " /rtjim"' or tax for pa8turag[e, and the arrears of their tribii^te in 
kind. The amount of this varies with the means which the govern- 
ment officers have of enforcing, or the rjfaia of resisting the demand. 
A tax is also levied from them, commonly designated and known 
among them as the *' theft licence," with a view, perhaps, of eradicat- 

2 D 



202 Jowrtud of a votfOffefivm [March, 

ing their propensity to thieving, but which most probably encourages 
the habit. As it is a tax openly paid by the principal Rith or J4t 
semincUirs to the Nawib, free-booting is in a measure countenanced 
and rendered honorable by it. The present NawA, I am told, has 
never hitherto visited the country to the east of MMrakptar, from a 
dislike to trust himself among these tribes. 

The river diminishing in breadth and the banks low ; country more 
open on both sides, but still presenting large tracts of heavy jhtrn 
jungle. 

We lost sight of the Desert soon after leaving Darpwr. The scenery 
near Go^A Nw Muhammad is rather pleasing from the number of palm 
trees in its neighborhood ; here also are ruined forts and a few ruins 
of paha bricked houses, the former residence of chiefs of other 
branches of the Ddudputra tribe. 

On the 7th to Dera Bakd, near which the district of Goth Nur 
Muhammad terminates. The villages are more substantial, and the coun- 
try more open and better cultivated as we proceed. The pec^le also 
appear to be less rude, and not so scantily clothed as we found Ihem 
in the frontier district. The revenues are collected regularly and with 
little trouble. 

On the 8th to Bakarpur, the ghit opposite to BahdwaJpur ; estimated 
distance by the river 4| kos. The river narrowed extremely during 
the two last days' journey. The banks have become very low and the 
current sluggish, running about 1^ miles in the hour. The country is 
well cultivated on both banks of the river, the people are more engag- 
ed in agricultural pursuits, and herds of cattle are less numerous than 
they were above Khairpur, 

]Prom the 8th to the 25th of February the Mission remained at 
Sahdwalpur, employed in negotiation with the Nawib. The town of 
Bahdwalpur, the most populous in the IQian's dominions, is situated 
about two miles south-east of the present channel of the river ; during 
the floods a branch of the river runs close under its walls and the 
intervening space« at present a moist sand covered vrith low strag- 
gling jhoM, is then one sheet of water. At the present season only 
the beaten tracks to the ghftt are passable on horseback and the rest 
is quagmire. The walls of the town enclose a number of gardens, 
and from the river the only signs of buildings we could descry through 
the trees were the minarets of the large mosque. The approach to 
the town from the river is by a number of narrow lanes separating 
gardens, in which the bed-mushk, the apple and orange tree, the 
mulberry, and rose bushes are seen in great profusion. A bridge of 



1 837.] Le^tMU to MithatJkot hf the SailaJ river. 209 

one arck built of burnt bricks conducts over an insi^ficiuit moat to 
the MultdM gate by which we entered the city. On the day of our 
visit to the Nawib, the tops of the houses in the streets were crowded 
with spectators^ who observed a profound silence as we passed : this 
was so remarkaUe that I cannot but think particular orders must 
have been given on the subject, as the same circumstances attracted 
the notice of the Honorable M. Elphinstonb and his party on their 
passage through Bahdwaljpur in their Mission to Cdhtd. We passed 
through a long narrow street which forms the principal bazar, and it 
appeared w^ inhabited ; the other parts of the town betray a deoreas- 
an§^ population. Many houses are empty and in ruins, it now con- 
tains 2,025 shops of all descriptions. The number of its inhabitants 
may be estimated at 20,000. The second Bahawal Kni^N always 
-^ent some months of the year at this place, but since his death it 
has been quite deserted by the court, and other causes have not been 
wanting to account for its diminished importance. • Before the Naw4b 
relinquished his territory on the opposite side of the river, the greatest 
portion of his revenue, which he receives in kind, was collected here, 
•as also the indigo and rice for exportation. This is no longer the case, 
and the trade of Affghdnistdn with Central India, to which it chiefly 
owed its flourishing condition, has both fallen off in quantity, and no 
longer pursues so exclusively as formerly the route by Bahdwalpur, 
The decreasing income of the present Nawab and his father has 
compelled them to levy arbitrary contribntions from the merchants, 
who have deserted the place in consequence. The Amritsar, ShikdT' 
pmr and Mdrwar mercantile houses have still their agents here, but 
comparatively little business is transacted between them. A'ga Rafpi, 
a Jew, who had formerly a house at Deri Ghdz{ Kkdn, and is connect- 
ed with the Jews of Bokkdra and Kaub Ckand Shikdrpwi, are the 
most wealthy merchants at the place. Bahdwalpur still maintains its 
celebrity for the manufacture of silk cloth or lung^ and gulbadanf, 
which latter are of a superior texture, and more lasting than those of 
Amrittar or Benares, The quantity exported is not very great, and 
chiefly to Smdh. Rifle barrels are also made of very superior work* 
manship both at Khairpur, Bahdwalpur and Khdnpur, but the hand* 
somest are made only to order, and to be sent in presents to Sindh, 
Lakdr and other places. 

The inhabitants of Bahdwalpur and of the few other towns in the 

Bahdwalpmr territory, are chiefly Hindus, and these in appearance the 

very outcasts of their race, dirty, squalid and miserable. Though 

they are tolerated in the practice of their religion, and have a high 

2 D 2 



204 JcwrAot of a voyage from [March, 

priest or gusdin who enjoys some consideration with the Nawib» they 
are looked down upon by their Mussalman fellow subjects with the 
utmost contempt, and subjected to every kind of oppression. Some 
few of them enjoy offices of trust near the Nawab and the other great 
men of his court, but this they owe to the indolence and ignorance 
of their masters, which quite unfits them for the tiresome details of 
business. 

On the 25th we again started in our boats from the Bindra-wdUi 
gh&t at Bahdwalpur to proceed to the junction of the five rivers of 
the Panjdb with the Indus at MUhankot. 

We arrived sometime after nightfall at Nakur-wdli; estimated 
distance from Bahdwalpur 1 1 ^ kos. The banks of the river were 
exceedingly low almost throughout our journey, and the river still 
diminishing in size, not measuring more in some places than 150 
yards across. The current not averaging 1^ miles an hour. There 
were numerous sand-banks, and the river, saving that it is deeper, k 
more insignificant in appearance here than at any part of its course 
from Ropur downwards. The numerous canals which are cut from 
below Khairpur might account for this, but very fe^ of them are fed 
from the river in the cold weather. 

The country on both sides of the river was tolerably open, and 
cultivation more general, with fewer tracts of the jhau jungle. The 
inhabitants on both sides of the river are chiefly of Jat origin, mixed 
with a few Diudputras and Baloches ; they are not generally addicted 
to predatory habits, but the dismemberment of the Kh£n's dominions 
has involved them in the general disorder which now prevails. 

On the 26th to Makahatpur ; estimated distance by the river 3 
kos. At about two miles from iVaA«r-i0<i/( we came to a heavy 
jhau jungle on the left bank, one of the Nawab's preserves or hunt- 
ing seats, where he had proposed that we should take our leave of 
him. We joined him towards the afternoon, and after witnessing the 
slaughter of a few hog-deer returned to our boats, with the promise 
to hunt with him again on the following day. 

On the 27th we passed the day in hunting vnth the Nawab. The 
following is a description of his mode of following that pastime. 

The jungles in which the game is preserved, are divided and tra- 
versed in their whole extent by strong hedges made of twisted boughs 
of the jhau running at acute or at right angles with each other in 
the form of a funnel, into which the game is driven. The hedges are 
not made to join at the apex of the triangles, but a space is there 
left open and cleared of jungle in which the ambuscades are formed. 



1837.] Lodkum to MUhankot hy the Satlaj river, 906 

These ambuscades resemble in their relative positioos an inverted 
fimnel, the month of which joins that into which the game is driven. 
The Nawib occupies the first place in front of the opening ; at a 
short distance behind him, branching oat to right and left, are two 
more ambuscades not far apart ; behind these are others farther apart, 
and so on with the rest, which are so arranged that the sportsmen 
fire clear of each other. The ambuscades are formed of small hedges 
of the jkau high enough to conceal a person when seated on the 
ground: in the very high jungles platforms of eight and ten feet 
high are used for the same purpose. 

When the tract of jungle is circular, it is first surrounded by a very 
high fence of the jhmu, between which and the jungle a space is left 
for a road ; then from the circumference fences are drawn towards 
the centre like the radii of a circle ; the centre is freed from jungle 
and left open for the formation of the ambuscades. A number of 
dogs of all sizes and breeds, and from three to four hundred eatodrs, 
according to the extent of line they have to cover, are then sent into 
the jungles from the outside, and close their ranks as they approach 
the narrow end of the enclosed space, hooting and shouting to drive 
the game before them. The Naw£b and his courtiers meanwhile 
lounge at their ease in their ambuscades. Conversation is carried on, 
at first freely, but as the beaters draw near, in whispers Only. A 
crackling of the jungle or a waving of the grass is sufficient to put 
every one on the alert — the hand is instinctively directed towards 
the trigger, hnd you are prepared for tiger, deer, hog, or any thing 
that may make its appearance. The eye is strained to bursting to 
catch the moment of the beast's leaving the jungle, when, whatever he 
is, he will assuredly give a spring on finding himself in the open space. 
At last he bursts cover, and the object of your fond anticipations 
proves to be nothing more than a jackal ; but before you have time 
to recover from your vexation at having your nerves unstrung by so 
unworthy a beast, and before you have time to brace them again, the 
jungle again crackles, the boughs break — ^you catch a glimpse of some- 
thing bounding through the grass, and out springs a fine buck deer 
with his head low and haunches hard pressed by the hounds. He 
either stops for an instant amazed, or he has passed you before you 
can raise your gun to your shoulder : in either case you miss. At the 
report of your gun he stamps the ground in disdain and bounds on 
to fall a prey to some cooler sportsman among the twenty or thirty 
who send their balls whizzing after him. The Naw£b has as many 
as eight or nme rifles loaded and placed before him, and he uses them 



206 Journal of a voyage from [Makch, 

8o quickly and efficaciously, that unless the game comes very thickly, 
it is a bad day's sport for those who are permitted only to shoot after 
him. Dinner is always cooked at his hunting seat and sent out into 
the jungle for him, and served at noon. Several of his mtudhibs 
(courtiers) partake of the meal with him, and inferior fare is distri- 
buted to the whole of his attendants. Even down to the saises and 
grass-cutters no man is allowed to remain hun^^ry. After dinner all 
indulge in a siesta, and then to the sport again. Where the jungle 
is very extensive and not well enclosed, and the efforts of the horse- 
men are baffled by the game doubling round them, it is not unusual 
on a windy day to set fire to it. This is a sight to be witnessed. 
The sport is very exciting while it lasts, but the pauses during the 
time spent by the beaters in driving the game towards the ambus- 
cades are tedious. The Nawib and his minister frequently occupy 
these intervals in reading the Kordn, 

The Nawab's hunting seats are mere temporary hamlets, the sides 
of which are formed of the kana reed, and the roofs thatched over 
with grass. A large enclosure is set apart for the Nawib himself, 
which is surrounded with a strong and high fence of the jhau, making 
it quite private. This enclosure varies from two to three hundred 
yards square ; at different angles of it are a place for his dqftar" 
khdnd or secretaries, a place for his cook-room, and a place for his 
huntsmen or shikaris. He has sometimes an under-room attached to 
his own bungalow in the rear. In front of the bungalow is a rude 
chahutra, raised from the ground about two feet, on mud pillars, and 
covered with an awning or canopy of cloth under which he holds his 
darbdr and receives the reports of shikaris, who are sent out in all 
directions to bring tidings of game. In front of the chahmtrd his 
horses are picketed. His minister and two or three others of the 
most consideration about him have separate hamlets prepared for 
them, but the rest of his followers rough it in the open air. Canvas 
tents are very little used even by the wealthier classes. 

On the 28th we arrived opposite to Mirpur ; estimated distance by 
the river 10 kos. As we approached the end of our day's journey the 
river became broader. There were still fewer tracts of jungle to-day, 
and the country rich and well cultivated, with many substantial-look- 
ing villages on either side. 

March the 1st. We arrived at Makhanbeld, the gh&t opposite to 
the town of Uch ; estimated distance by the river 16 kos. 

The river increased to-day to a fine broad stream ; it was joined by 
an inlet from the Chin4b river soon after we left Mirpur, and for the 



1837.3 LotKana to MUhankot hy the JSiUiaj river. 207 

last twelre miles, before its junction with the Ckmdb, it ran in a toler- 
ably atraight course, forming a fine body of water. There was one 
considerable winding near Shima Buehri. The Chindb joins the 
Gkdra a little above Makkanbtld, and these streams rnn together for 
a considerable distance without appearing to mix their waters. The 
fine marked by the opposite color of the two streams is very distinct. 
The red-colored water of the CMnAh and Ravi is prized by the people 
here much above that of the Gkdra. The NawHb when residing at 
Akmat^mr or DUdwar sends to this ghAt for a weekly supply for his 
household, which is conveyed on hackeries in large brass vessels. 

The breadth of the Panjnad at Makhanbeld in the present season 
is perhaps under 90O yards, but during the rains it is sometimes six 
miles across from Uch to the opposite side. 

The country on the left continued well cultivated and open. On 
the right we had the dry bed of Beak and several creeks of the Chindb^ 
forming islands covered with heavy jhau jungle and apparently pas« 
ture land. Numerous herds of bufReiloes were grazing near the bank. 

In the afternoon we went to visit Uch, from which we were distant 
about three miles ; the road was through a good deal of jhau jungle 
and over the beds of inlets of the river which scarcely supported our 
horses. The Uch Bokhdrian is situated on the banks of the river, 
and was formerly the seat of a Hindu principality, which extended to 
near Muiidn. The town itself was then called Walhaur. Towards 
the latter end of the reign of IsaA^Hi'M 1st of the Gaznavi dynasty 
in 1105, a number of wandering Musalm4n devotees took up their 
abode there, and were tolerated by the ruling prince, Rija Sham 
Shad, from the apparently harmless austerity of their lives. Among 
the number of these devotees was Shekh Svxd Jalal, who was gifted 
with the power of performing miracles, by which many were convin- 
ced of the truth of his doctrines. 

R£ja Sham Shad was one of the first of his converts, and giving 
up all worldly afifairs, he made over his territorial possessions to the 
Pir for the support of his followers. One or two others also deserve 
to be mentioned, as they gave their name to the towns now compre- 
hended under the general name of Uch Bokhdrian. Among these was 
a chief of the tribe of zemindirs called Ldlds, who inhabited the coun- 
try in the neighborhood. On the conversion of their chief the Ldlds 
followed his example, and on bis death built a sepulchre to his 
memory, round which they formed habitations ; hence the Uch of 
Ldlds, the Uch of the Moghuls, and the Uch of the Jumals, were also 
named by the Pir after two of his favorite disciples, who died of the 
austerities which they practised, and were buried theree 



208 Journal of a voyage from [Makcb. 

We visited tbe tomb of the Fir Shekh Stbd Jalal Bokha'ei'. 
The interior of the building was curious ; the roof was supported by 
more than thirty arches resting on four colonades of wooden carved 
pillars ; there were a great many graves and some relics from distant 
countries. Amongst these were the preserved spinal bones of several 
saw-fish. The pilgrims who g^ to Mecca from Affghanistdn and the 
Derajat by passing down the Indue, frequently come thus far out of 
their way from Mithankot to visit the shrine of Shekh Stbd Ja* 
la'l, and implore his intercession for the safety of their journey. A 
descendant of this Fir is still living at Uch, but the lands formerly 
belonging to the family which enabled them to live in a style of 
splendour and comparative refinement among a barbarous people, have 
long since been usurped, first by the nizims of Multdn, and since 
then by the Daudputra chiefiB. They have now barely sufficient for 
their support ; their influence over the common people is, notwith- 
standing, very considerable, and they are generally respected. 

From XJch Bhokhdrian we proceeded to the Uch of the Gilanis, which 
appears to have been formerly joined to it, but is now distant about 
half a mile ; on our way we passed through large topes of date trees. 
Hazrat Shekh Muhaiiiiad Ghos Jila'mi', round whose shrine this 
town was built, and after whom it was named, was descended from 
Hazrat Shekh Abdui. Qadir Jila'mi^ Baghdadi', and came to Uck 
about the year A. D. 1394. The Diudputras have continued to be 
his muride and the muride of his successors from the time of their 
first leaving Shikdrpur. 

This Fir's family had considerable assignments of lands in the 
vicinity of Uch before the arrival in the country of the Dfodputras, 
and up to the time of the 2nd BahaVal Khan their territory and 
wealth had continued increasing, and Makdum Gang Buksb, who was 
then the Fir "M urshid, was second only in influence to the Kh&n, and 
kept in his pay a considerable standing force ; he built a fort at 
Uch and surrounded the town with a wall. His son, also named Mak- 
dum Gang Baksh, headed a revolt of the Diudputra tribes against the 
second Baha'wal Kha'n in 1799, and releasing Bab/wal Khan's 
son, Mubarak Kha'n, from confinement, set him in opposition to his 
father. The Khan besieged him in the town of Uch, destroyed the 
fort, and laid the town in ruins, and obliged the Fir with his son to 
flee to the territory of the Arairs of Sindh, The lands belonging to 
the Fir's family were on that occasion forfeited to the state, and have 
never been restored. A few years since a grandson of this Fir returned 
from the Sindh country to take up his abode at Uch, and six or eight 
weUs have been allowed by the present Kh&n for his subsistence. 



1837.] Lodiana to Mithanhot by the Sathj river. 209 

On the 2nd March to opposite Ndrwdld ; estimated distance 10 kos. 
We came to on the right hank of the river ahoat three miles helow 
Siipur, and went in the afternoon to see that town. It is surrounded 
by an extensive grove of palm trees, and is celebrated for its dates 
and mangoes, which it produces in great abundance. The site is very 
elevated, and its name indicates its having formerly been a Hindu 
town. The old buildings are all of burnt brick and lofty, the streets 
dreadfully narrow and filthy, the country round it is pretty, but must 
be very unhealthy during the hot months, when it is entirely over* 
flowed, leaving no means of communication saving by boats. It was 
formerly thickly inhabited, but now the half of the houses are in 
ruins, and it may have about 200 shops of all descriptions. The 
inhabitants of the town are chiefly Hindus, — ^those of the country, 
round. Jits and Beloches. Cattle are numerous, and the zemindars, 
both Jats and Beloches, predatory in their habits. Sitpur is said to 
have been formerly on the right bank of the main stream of the InduM 
which fell into the Panjnad immediately above it : it is now about 10 
miles on the left side of the main stream, but during the hot weather 
the whole intervening space is one sheet of water. It is recorded that 
qasidt, messengers with letters, were formerly in the habit of leaving 
Multdn or Derd Ghdzi Khdn in the morning, mounted on an inflated 
oxhide, and reaching Sitpur and Ouch by the rivers Chindh and Indu$ 
at noon. This mode of conveying letters is still sometimes adopted 
between Derd Ghdzi Kkdn and Shikdrpur, and during the height of 
the floods is very expeditions. 

On the 3rd to Chdvdn ; estimated distance 1 2 kos. The country on 
both sides appeared very rich, but without any great variety of fuliage. 
On the 4th we arrived at Mithanhot on the right bank of the 
Indus; estimated distance 10 kos. The rapidity of the current increas- 
ed very much as we approached the junction of the two rivers. The 
Panjnad all the way from Ouch is a beautiful stream, and; with the 
exception of one or two windings, rans straight to the south-west. 
On the 7th of March the Mission left Mithanhot to return by a new 
route through the Panjdb to Lodiana, The boats were left under my 
charge to prepare for their return voyage up the river, with the 
exception of those belonging to the Lodiana merchants, which con- 
tinued their voyage to Shikdrpur, 



2 B 



) JtMnuil of a voyofff /rem [M 

/VoM LoJima to Bahdvalpw by th* riven Satlaj tnd Ghara. 

ViOtanlheltfthmk. 



r Mai Rdpii Sikw. 
D. tor Dkwrmkiit. 



Lo^na to Mitkaakot ly Satlaj river. 



N. B.-K. S. B. far Kimk eiogh Badnlep. K. K. S., (or Khaww Kartk SlBRb, 
■.8. S. fbrUiaScochetSiiiBb. A. for Akhaliu. F. tn FiroipBr. K.S.W.KAni 
Binck'i wUon. F.D.K.fMratehDUJthu'(ji«ir. 



Jotmul itf» wi/agtfrotn 



N.B.-K.B. (land! for Killn Biiniif.&li. A. for Ai»(irlli, M.-ka fbrUkhm-ka. 
D. V. for IMral Umal. K. for Kn^nr. A. D. K., for Atari DbandUa-ke. F. ft» 
Fatuhglui. Q. ba Owioiiani. U. W. Mnaifnn wUA. 



1SS7.1 LoSdM to Mkhmhat iy Satlof r. 



If. B.— C. fOT Cbloan. M-kc tor Hsnir-ka. L. W. H. for Lakh* WMtO-kc 
RiTrli. L-ke for Lnkhc-ke. P. P. for Pkk Pattnn. K. K. for Kol Knnirt. 
K. K-keforKot Kitbdic-ke. M. for M6i«ro« waW. Q-kc for QOIm-ke. B. T-ke 
for Rafaiwalgkrh llbbl-kc QUU. B-ke for Baddmra-ke. S. F. for Sbabnr Farid. U. 
fill UiiUpur. 




Jtunul of a vofi^tfrvM 




































































rn»fWlot>Ml. 



tm, ..ditto. 

Mixed, ditta. 

JTuflcrl, IdiUo. 



.. ditto. 

.. ditto. 
. ditto. 



W&iti Movl. 

wig!'. '.'.'.'. 

Qnmu wmlnr, 
Gotb Bah A 
d4r, 

Kill AhBl. 
MitU d 
Ooth, ... 

MoiiJ 

Goth Ali Til 

Khia 

BhuBdi 

DetaPattmi 

Galh Ndi 
)lah»mtd, 

VUlagtt 



J ditto, . 

{ ditto, . 

i ditta, . 

I ditto, . 

.ditto, . 

. «tto, 
. ditto, . 
4 ditto, . 



I Dlndpa- 

I Bcloeh, 
I Modpo- 

I 



iBalaah, 
t Diudpo- 



ditto. 
ditto. 



. (at BtdbiD«ra. I. S 



for Imiia Sb&h. O. N. H. foe Ooth NOi 



1«37.] 



LoSaaa to Mitiankot by 8athg rioer. 



I 


NaHci of 


h 




, 


?2 


i 
NaiDH of i 


i 




Vil]K«. 




CaaU. 




it 


VUlapa. = 


— Caate. 




ll 




h 


^ 


1 


I 


II 


; 




KUirpnr, .. 


i 


j Mixed 
tribes 




Sth 


Dera Backs, 
Dcra G61 di, 


i Beloeh, 

1 ditto, . . 


D. B. 








aadJit 


Halliia 




tJll|;aDi, .... 


1 ditto, .. 


ditto. 




Chela Wi 










Mir Oiatm 








hon 




i ditto, ..'ditto. 




Shih 1 


I Saivar 


ditto. 




Sntabpai, . . 


1 


ditto, ..'ditto. 




Majal 1 


iM.JM,. 


ditto. 




B^hidor. .. 




Wi«e,.. 


K. 


s 


Kaara I 


1 Kaara. 


ditto- 




Wkili MlrA 










Ahaaia, .... 


1 Ahuai, 


ditto. 




« 




Hohar, 


litto. 


• 


Oldpora, .. 


1 JOTM... 


ditto. 




Shth Abi 










Rattaal,.... 


I Diadpo- 






Z4lim 




Uira 








t™, ". 


ditto. 








Jit, - 


ditt-i. 




B&karpu,.. i 


1 Cha^aar 


a 




Dtn LaUc 














d 


li 


Beloch, 


ditto. 




VUUvf « "^ TifU 6oia. 




Wfatl HMt 














Bdoeh 


i 


ditto, .. 


into. 




Moit 






Doit Maha 










Deli 


Kobora. 




■lad-ke, .. 


1 


Oindpo. 


ditto. 




Wigb. 


.,„. 




Hate Vailr 










G«] M al 


ditto. 




■clock, .. 


i 


} Belocb. 


ditto. . 




Babid 


ditto. 




Mon AHa 










Snkar 


Alto. 




yfc- 




{ditto, .. 


ditto. 




Kfir, 


ditto. 








Phal. 


ditto. 




F>IU^iia(A<J^(Aaai. 




JaD), in 
A burl 


ditto, 
ditto. 


Ttk 


Ooth Skih 




Madpq-l 




Kotli 






Hafaantd, 




tra, .. G.N.M. 




All, 


ditto. 




GothRAMam 










Wea, .. 


ditto.. 




Shan, .... 




ditto, .. 


ditto. 




Qtilia 






Do. tbrihlm 












ditu. 




KUa, .... 




Jltto. .. 


ditto. 




Moie 




5 


WbU Jlodli, 




Khad. 






tabA, 




M 






dua, .. 


ditto. 






Kehoia. 


•s 


rhnlam 

Shabar Bad- 


i> 


Jhulan, 


"•» 




Abaaa 
Haaili 


ditto, 
ditto. 




da 




1. 


ditto. 




Niern 


ditto. 




Lil Sahara, 


* 


, 


ditto. 




Dodii 

Wi.ll 


ditto. 




Pbnl 






ditto. 




locb- 


S. 




MoiUAIl... 






ditto. 




Ibok 1 


ditto. 




Mom Rani, 






dilta. 




Stikri, 






Lali Wist). 






ditto. 






ditto. 




HadAlla fir, 




.o- 






Gue] 








tra, . iditto. 




oila, 


ditto. 




IndvM. 


Villvfto-lh,l,if.b«nk. 


reb.eoth B^i.. 


1 1 1 






Btiliklwali, 1 


*dl«<., .. 


L. 


Utfa 


Kliia-kc,.. 


i\ J,B.l<.eh, 


a. 


\ 


KaebHaTEtt... 


ditto, .. 


iitto. 




Goth Mill la 


1 


ni-dpo. 






Bbnchar, .. i 


4 ditto. .. 


S. U. 




Ohaaut, .. 




traUa- 


itto. 


- 


Goth.Gbaani 


Diudpo- 
trapir- 






Jawar-ili, 


. i 


JitCban 


L. 




Khir, ... I 
Roolana 


&■ 


itto. 




Kbanawili. 


i i 


ditto*, .. 


ditto. 






1 Jit, .. 


litto. 



N.B.-K. for KniKhpiir. D. B. for Dera Baekn. N. for Neziaoinh. B. tbi BaU> 
vaifur. S. for Slrditwali. L. (or Lallapnr. S. M. for Sliah Hutie. 
2 F 2 



Jamui iif uvvftft from [Miica, 



LodiatM to Mitlumkol Sjr Satli^ river. 



2 1 8 Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, [Mabcv, 

III. — Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions ; continued from page 97. 

In tbe library of the Asiatic Society are ten inanascript yolumes of 
druwings of sculpture, images, architecture and inscriptions, forming 
part of the celebrated collection of the late Colonel Mackbnzib. The 
greater portion of these are as yet unknown and undescribed. None of 
the series, as far as we can ascertain, have been published, nor are 
we nware of any attempt having been made to decypher the inscrip- 
tions. It is greatly to be wished that the whole of these interesting 
documents could be digested in some convenient arrangement and 
made accessible to the learned world, especially now that the inven- 
tion of lithography offers a cheap and expeditious means of effecting 
such an object. We were in hopes of combining their publication in 
the form of a volume or two of plates, with the digest of the Mac- 
KENZiB manuscripts, which, at the recommendation of the Society, the 
Government has lately entrusted to the Rev. W. Taylor at Madras, 
the author of " Oriental Historical manuscripts." As a specimen of the 
contents of these curious volumes. Captain Cunntnohaii has kindly 
favored me with the two lithographs numbered as Plates X. and XL 
He has selected the two longest inscriptions from the volume. No. 18, 
entitled " Antiquities at Afnardvati/* a town in the Berdr province, 
situated on the Kistna river to the west of Ndgpur, 

The volume in question contains a multitude of very beautiful draw- 
ings of the elaborate sculpture for which the ruins at that place are 
so remarkable. One of the slabs of stone, depicted among the rest, 
now forms a principal ornament of the Society's museum, and the 
execution of the lively scene it represents has been frequently and 
deservedly admired. The majority of the sculptures of Amardvati 
seem to belong to a magnificent dekgopa or Buddhist shrine ; but there 
is an admixture towards the end of the volume of objects of the linga 
worship. An accurate map of the town is prefixed, whence it appears 
that the ruined dekgopa whence the relics are taken was on a mound 
of 150 feet diameter, now converted into a tank. It is called DipaU 
dinna, (translated by Colonel Mackenzie " the mound of lights,") 
which so resembles the name of a similar place of Buddhist celebrity 
in Ceylon (Dambadinna)th2Lt we imagined, on seeing the inscription from 
the east side of the gateway (PI. X.), some mistake must have been 
committed ; for on comparing the characters with Plate XXVIII. of 
theJourn. As. Soc. vol. v. p. 554, their perfect identity with the Cey- 
lonese type of old N^gari was manifest : indeed the three initial let- 
ters appear to form the same word *' mujikk" . . . and the same combU 



;MK//tX 



FACSIMILC or 



^'^ • AiulBAWUTTt. 



•r OlPA4-I>'WNA AT 



AMRAWUTT 




A.C^nniykef^ ^*^ 



1637.] FaenmUei of AwietU Inscriptions. 219 

nation there recognized as " Mahdrdja" .... drew Captain Cunnino- 
ham's attention while copying the penultimate line of the present 
inscription. No doabt the whole of this class of cave and chaitya in- 
fcriptions are intimately connected, and refer to the same age ; and 
however illegible now, they will ultimately yield to the persevering 
progress of antiquarian research. 

The second inscription* occupying the two sides of Plate XI. is 
altogether of a different class, although the book states it to have 
been procured from the same town, Amardvatt. In Wilson's catalogue 
of the Mackbnzib MSS. vol. ii. page xxvii. we find notice of a " report 
of the progress of Anand Rdo (one of the Colonel's travelling collec- 
tors) on his journey in the Dharanikota, Amardvati, and Bender dis- 
tricts in the Telugu country for the year 1817." This would, doubt- 
less, afford all the requisite information respecting the discovery and 
position of the fragment, were the report in our possession ; but it 
seems to have been sent to England with the bulk of the manuscripts, 
and thence probably it has found its way to Madras, Should this bo 
the case we shall not appeal in vain to the Editor of the Madras 
Literary Journal to supply us with any extract that may throw light 
on the subject. 

The stone is noted down as 5 feet long by 1 7 inches in width. 
It is in very good preservation, as far as it goes, but the loss of the 
left half of the summit, and the fracture at the lowermost line, render 
it doubtful how much of the text may have preceded or followed that 
which remains. 

The character has much resemblance to that of some of the cave 
inscriptions at Mahdbalipur and other places to the westward ; the 
essential portion of each letter also assimilates very closely to the 
alphabets of the Ckattisgarh and iSeonnnscriptions, and this has served 
as the key by which I have effected the transcription of the whole. 

It is worthy of remark, that in this alphabet, which we may aptly 
denominate the Andhra character from its locality, may be traced the 
gradual transition from the more simple Devan£gari of Northern India, 
(No. 2 of Allahabad, Gaya and Guserat) to the complicated or florid 
writing of the Southern Peninsula. On comparing it with the Hala 
Canara, or ancient Camatic, the letters n, t, y, r, /, kh, th, dh, hh, which 
may be regarded in some degree as test letters, because they have un- 
dergone more variation than others in the modern writing of different 
provinces, are nearly identical. There is also an incipient loop in the 
lower line of many of the letters which becomes afterwards more 
developed in the west and south. The Telinga or Telugu character 



220 Facsimiles of Ancient iMcr^tions. [Marcb» 

is one step further removed, but it springs directly from the Hala 
Canara, and retains many of the Andkra letters still unchanged, par- 
ticularly the dk and th. In the accompanying plate (xii.) we have 
thought it worth while to exhibit these resemblances, and point out 
the peculiarities noted, that no means may be neglected of facilitating 
the examination of other inscriptions that may link on 'naturally at 
either end of this fragment of the chain of our Indian palaeography. 

After having made the transcript according to the assumed value 
of each letter, it was revised and corrected in all doubtful points by 
reading it over with Ma'dhoaa't* pandit, the aged librarian of the 
Sanskrit college, who, from having been with Colonel Mackbnzib, is 
better versed in the varieties of the N£gar( alphabets than any pandit 
in Calcutta. Where the context did not make sense, the letters were 
carefully analyzed and all possible variations of each letter suggested, 
until the true or most probable reading was apprehended. Although 
some few doubtful passages remained, and many orthographical errors 
were detected, the context was sufficiently intelligible, and satis- 
factory. In some few instances (as in lines 6, 8, and 1 7) the distin- 
guishing stroke or dot of the letter n has been omitted either by the 
sculptor or by the transcriber. The omission can be supplied without 
hesitation, as no other letter occurs at all similar in form. The cross 
of the k in lines 7 and 8 is also wanting. 

For the translation we are indebted to the Rev. Mr. Yatbs, whose 
critical knowledge of the Sanskrit enables him to give it the correct 
grammatical construction which might evade an oral interpreter de- 
pending upon a vernacular explanation by the pandits. 

Transcript of the Amardvati Inscription. 

1 . . t mix ^ratf?5 '^^vm ^ . . 

* It was MA^DHoaA'T who sided Captain Teotkb in tbe Allahuhad inscrip- 
tion, J. A. S. vol. ii. 



18S7.] FactAmhi of AndefU In$cr%ptUmi. ^fil 

^ #t ^?nw tft^^fwiHrT^woTCHp fir (w) 
** 4i^(MiM wfrrfr wif^npr MR^ifenPfi,... 

*• e'er) HT ff^^^b^* WWT ^ITWRTf^J ^ . . . . 

..•.. Wf,.. t%^ 

The few alterations found necessary by Mr. Yatbs will be best 
finderstood from the insertion of his reading at length : we may however 
here notice one or two peculiarities or faults of orthography remark- 
ed by the pandits. The r of ipi in line 8 is written thus, if^in :— 
the word 91|X* friend, in line 14, is written Surhhad with a double A» 
and the r superposed : — ^The aimawttra is often replaced by the IT at 
length : the H is a compound letter formed by sufiixing w to w ; and 
the ^ is in like manner formed by the union of the V and the w* as 
is observable in other old alphabets, proving that these anomalies to 
the otherwise beautiful and perfect arrangement of the Sanskrit alpha- 
bet, are of comparatively modern introduction. 

The purport of the inscription refers, in all probability, to the 

foundation and endowment of some Buddhistic institution by the 

monarch of the day. His name cannot be extracted from the passage^ 

extant. It is evident, therefore, that history will gain noting by the 

2 o 



332 Facaimihi of Ancient Inscr^Hang. [Marcit,. 

document ; — ^nor can any of the loose chronicles of the Hindu dy- 
nasties of Telinga or the Camatic be expected to throw much light upon 
the period when AmardvaU was subject to their hated opponents^ the 
followers of the Buddhist creed. 

Modified TVanscript by the Rev. W. Yatbs. 

^wnr "wpvi ^nn^: i^tw^i^dnr: ^<t^i#19: f^^ ^nrt i 

Tfif THirfS^v^ ^ iw "j^^rii^Tni: ifitrnw Phwhrt vwrnrv 
#w fcwii i3wiwiwr:€ w^T «iif^ wmx I 

(Two words omitted here as belonging to something before). 
By the virtuous man who relieves the guest and the brah- 



man, and who is kind to parents, the fear of necessary food ought 
not to be entertained. He who experiences disappointment near a 
Idng feasting wiUi even the mild opposers of virtue, ought not to 
abide there, nor ought he to abide where injustice is practised. We 
ought to give to all. Food ought to be given to the laborers who 
are virtuous. Three-fold gain should be given to the speaker of truth. 
Place is not to be given to the disputer of Buddhism. Two-fold gain 
should be given to the teacher of religion. To the good king tribute 
must be paid monthly with flowers and perfumes, and on the full 
moon in the month Vaishakha he ought in particular to be presented 
with the jar. My virtue and that of my ancestors is for the salvation 



MfLnnxi. 




COPY or AN INSCRIPTION 
rfu>M AM RA VAT I 

Cot MACKENZIE'S MS5 



2im. 




^^Swimhism 







6 



o o O 

tSTTlIJffXl 



^u%^6 







jyaoq. 



^#Jf&™ 



d 






lO 



aj c waj|i*20«Dc» ju^ §dP)^yi)j % 



11 




12 



IS 



^^i?*^^?^! 



WW^' 








X* 



M 



6ap}25jffl)5j8^C«jtij| 



IS I 



^^^ff[^ 




^m 




w 






^W^l 




vt 



wms^^'H'^^'^f^' 



18 



19 







l>a#wpiiy^4Mrfy^2i w Mw<i i aw' 



ComJbart'son of ike ^marai^atv ck 



Y^iFT.p/. xnr. 









<58 S« 






% 
"S 

ck 



\3 






i 

m 

u 

m 



Eo 
t 



a or* 



t 



h 





i 

Ik n 



ft 



^ 



^ aj 9) ai> 

Q 6 e;s 2;S 

5 ^ ;^ ^ 

2j a 6 ;5 



^ 



^ 



ft. 



;• 






::• 



§ 



5 



M/'M otAtf til/^Aaie/s 



i 
i 












*^ V»» -4 8 • M S 



J cJJ cU dl olS oOo 



1 



3 I ^ 

f ^ ft 6 s^ 

A. lis ^ lt> %» 

A>» ^ S fe 1^ ^ix 



if 









^ 



4^ 




no 



su vtt mm riAi 



. ^ ;i| ;t| w e 

^ 'Y" 'V* a 3 U 

^ f n ^-1 










<« 

K 






5* 



o 

o 



1 837.] N^te on a SpecimeH of tie Bos Gauruo. 829 

of murdererfl of husbands, innrderen of Others, and murderers of 
friends, and of tliose who have committed ^eat sins againat the gods 
«nd brihmans* The kings that do not regard this kingdom preserv- 
ing religion of Buddba, shall by it be cat off with all their family and 
perish in a flaming fire. May this very exoellent religion of the people 
resembling a tree, remain in heaven for ever, and may people in all 
directions through its remaining, be happy as long as the sea oonti* 
nnes to be agitated by marine monsters 



IV. — Note on a Specimen of the Bos Gaurtu. By Dr. Gsorgb Evans, 

Curator of*the Medical College. 

[We are indebted to Lteat. G. Abbott, 15th N. I. for the faithfol litho^praphic 

representstioB of this skull in PI. XVI. — Ed.] 

As I have reason to believe that very little is known of the Gawr 
(Bos GaurusJ, or the animal generally considered by our Indian 
sportsmen as the Bison of the Indian forests and jungles, and think* 
ing it might prove interesting, I have sent for the inspection of the 
Members of the Asiatic Society, who may be present at the next 
ensuing meeting, an exceedingly fine cranium of one of these very 
rare animals, which has recently been presented to me by a gentle- 
man residing in the Sambhalpur district. 

For want of good and select specimens of heads of the genus Bos, 
I am unable to offer any valuable remarks drawn from comparative 
observation of the osteological structure, so as to determine with ana- 
tomical precision whether it actually belongs to the fiisontine or Tau- 
rine group of the genus. I am, however, inclined to assign it to the 
latter, or otherwise to consider it as an intermediate species connect- 
ing the two divisions with each other ; and what would seem to favor 
this intermedial arrangement, is its differing from both in some very 
essential points, and again corresponding with each in many of its 
generic relations. 

In the present specimen, which is that of an old male, the forehead 
is deeply concave, broader than high, (taking the middle of the 
orbits as the base,)- having a strong scabrous arched crista at the 
summit of the head, where it joins the parietal bone, to which it is 
firmly accreted : from this and the lateral parts of the frontal bone, a 
little above the declension of the orbits, proceed strong, thick-set and 
gently recurvent horns, the points turning towards the face. The 
orbits are remarkable for their lateral projection from the body of the 
2 o 2 



224 Ndte an a SptchieH of tiie Bos Gaum§, [Maecb, 

ds frontis, in which respect the animal bears a marked resemblance 
to the Cervine race, as also by the pointed form of the nose, both 
which tend to give a peculiar character and wedge-like form to the 
head and face< There is also a deviation in the sudden termination of 
the full labial bones in their progress to the bssa nasi, which I do not 
bbserve in the heads of any of such of the domestic species as I have 
had an opportunity of examining *; or aven in those of the several 
buffaloes in my possession, their attachment being exclusively con- 
fined to the superior maxillary bones, without having any connection 
with those of the nose, which latter are large, broad and well arched, 
affording a very extensive chamber for the free passage of air, and also 
for the full expansion of the oi-gah of smell. Prom this conformation 
I make no doubt that the animal is capable of enduring long-continued 
exertion : is possessed of exquisite scent, and that the intonations 
of the voice are thereby rendered deep, hollow and sonorous. In short 
the whole formation of the head of this colossal bull appears to corre*. 
spond with that of the fossil Urns found in different parts of Europe, 
and it unquestionably displays a vast extent of power to defend and 
assault, combined with great personal courage and precision in attack i 
and I have no doubt that he must often prove a most formidable 
antagonist to the tiger, the wild bufialo, and other tenants of his 
geographical range* 

In looking over the different crania in the Society's museum, I find 
an imperfect skull (merely horns and forehead) marked "Gaur," which 
agrees with my specimen only in the shape of the horns, but the 
forehead is rounded as in the buffsdo, and not cristated as in my 
specimen, which I look upon to be the true Gaur (Bos Gaurus) con- 
fined to the more sequestered and elevated tracts of Central India ; 
and the above mentioned, that of the Gayal (B. Gavteus), wanting the 
occipital ridge, and dispersed more about the mountainous districts of 
the eastern provinces, unless indeed it prove to be the female of the 
one here described : but the propriety of classing even this and the 
Ydk (Bos PoephagusJ with the Bisons, may be questioned if external 
similitude has alone led to the arrangement. The only true standard for 
settling their mutual affinities and establishing their right to be include 
ed under the one or the other of the artificial divisions, which the dif- 
ference observable in animals of the same genus, constituting vane- 
ties, has compelled naturalists to resort to, would be a strict inquiry 
into their individual osteological peculiarities, placing those under 
the Bisontine group, which, corresponding pretty generally in their 
external characters with each other, have, like the American fiison 



J 



1687.1 



Memorandum <m ike Gaur and GaifaL 



225 



(B. AmericaMnu), the type of the existing 9pecie»» fifteen pairs of ribs — 
those with fourteen pairs, the intermediate link» to which the two 
above varieties and the Ydk would most probably belong — and those 
with only thirteen pairs should be considered as the true Taurine 
which would include all our domestic kine. 

Measurement of the Gaur's head (B. GaurueJ compared with the up* 

country bullock and the wild huffaloe. 



Length of the bead from the tip of the nose to 
the summit of the erista 

Breadth of the oceipital ridge between the roots 
of the horns 

■ across the forehead at the greatest projec- 
tion of the orbits* 

— — — at the narrowest part of the forehead, . . 

Depth of the occipital plane, from the great 
foramen to the top of the crista, 

— » of the superior maxilla from its junction 
with the nose of the alTColar edge of the molar 
tooth, 

Breadth of the nasal fossa, 

Height of do. from the palatine bone, 

Length of the horn at its greatest cuiTature, .... 

Circnmferenoe at its base, 



Gaur. 



Ft. In. 

1 11.3 

lO.ft 

10.0 
8.5 

9.0 



5.7 
S.7 
3.5 
0.3 
4.2 



Up-connt. 
Bullock. 



Ft. 
2 



In. 

0.0 

7.5 

8.2 
6.4 

4.3 



6.5 

a.7 

3.0 

10.7 

7.J 



Wild male 
BttiFttloe. 



Ft. 



In. 

0.0 

5.0 

10.5 

8.a 

6.0 



7.0 

3.5 

3.3 

? 

? 



V. — Memorandum on the Gaur and Gayal. By Aseisiant Surgeon J. T. 

Pbarson, Cur, Mus, Asiatic Society, 

At the last meeting of the Society a paper was read, purporting to 
be a notice on the head of the Gaur, by Mr. Evans. In that paper the 
author stated that he went into the Museum of the Society and found 
a specimen, consisting of the horns and part of the skull of a bovine 
animal, marked " Bos Gaur" but which in reality belonged to the 
Gayal, another large animal of the same group, a native of the forests 
of Ckittagong. It may be in the recollection of some of the members 
here present, that, as the specimen in the Museum was labelled by 
myself. I felt called upon to give my reasons for thinking it part of 
the Gaur, and not of the Gayal ; whilst that exhibited by Mr. Evans 
was perhaps the head of the latter animal, or a specimen of the other 
sex of the former. I have since been able to consult several authors 
on the same subject, and of collecting some information which I par- 
pose to lay before you. 

The first account of the Gaur I have met with is in the Memoirs of the 
Museum of Natural History by M. Gboppbot Saint Hilairb ; being 
a translation of a notice by Major Rouohsbdob, sent by that gentle- 



226 Memorandum an ike Crour and GayaL [March, 

roan to M. Evob'nb Dbsbassatni^, son of the Governor of the French 
possesBiona in India, and by htm to M. Gbofprot Saint Hilairb. 
In this paper the only passage that bears upon the point in question, 
the form of the forehead, is the following, which I have retranslated, 
but which you will also shortly hear in the original : — " Its head has 
almost all the characters of that of our domestic bull, but the frontal 
bone appears more projecting and more elevated." 

The next account is a more satisfactory one, contained in a paper 
by Dr. Thomas Stewart Traill in the llth volume of the Edin- 
burgh Philosophical Journal; drawn up from a MS. journal of the 
same hunting-party mentioned in that furnished by Major Rovoh- 
SEDOB to M. Gboffrot Saint Hilairb, which took place at Myn Pat 
in Sergujah ; and from the personal explanations of Captain Rogers, 
who was of that party, and who is stated to have paid considerable 
attention to the quadrupeds of India. You recollect the remarkable 
concavity of the forehead of Mr. Evans's specimen, and will be able to 
satisfy yourselves if that concavity accords with the projecting fron- 
tal bone spoken of above, and with the following description by Dr. 
Traill. He says — ** The form of the Gaur is not so lengthened as 
that of the Urna, Its back is strongly arched, so as to form a pretty 
uniform curve, from the nose to the origin of the tail, when the ani- 
mal btands still. This appearance is partly owing to the curved form 
of the nose and forehead, and still more to a remarkable ridge, of no 
great thickness, which rises six or seven inches above the general 
line of the back, from the last of the cervical, to beyond the middle of 
the dorsal vertebrae, from which it is gradually lost in the outline of 
the back." Now it is evident the above language could not be ap- 
plied to an animal with a concave forehead, like that in Mr. Evans's 
specimen ; where the concavity instead of being but little below the 
rest of the bone, as it is in the domestic cow, made, as you saw, a 
deep fossa, forming a very remarkable feature ; and which could not 
belong to an animal whose form exhibited along the back " a pretty 
uniform curve from the nose to the origin of the tail," and which 
" appearance is partly owing to the curved form of the nose and 
forehead :" for a concave forehead, like that in Mr. Evans's specimen, 
would break the uniformity of the curve, instead of help to form it. 

Again, Dr. Traill apparently in the very phrase, translated by 
M. Gboffrot Saint Hilairb, says : — " The character of the head 
differs little from that of the domestic bull, excepting that the outline 
of the face is more curved, the os frontis more solid and projecting." 
This, DO doubt, was also the case in the Society's specimen of the face« 



1837.] Memorandum on ike Gaur and Gayah 227 

as it is of the forehead. But in Mr. Eyans^s specimen, so far from tlie 
face being more curved and the forehead more projecting, the face is 
quite straight and the forehead deeply concave. "We may, therefore* 
safely conclade, that Dr. Traill's Gamr and Mr. Evans's wore a very 
different appearance. 

But the specimen in the Mnseum was marked as objected to by 
Mr. Evans, on the authority of a paper, and figure of the horns and 
part of the skull, published by Major-General Habdwickb, in the 3rd 
volume of the Zoological JoumaL Greneral Hardwickk states, that, 
" as no drawing of the animal has yet been given to the public, to 
my knowledge, I am induced to offer to the Zoological Journal, for 
publication, a fignre taken from a pair of horns of the Gaur killed, I 
believe, by the same hunting party described by Captain Rodgbrs^ 
and presented to me by the principal member of the party, the late 
Major RouoBSBDOB." This proves the source from whence General 
Habdwickb obtained his specimen to be beyond dispute. And as he 
is a first authority upon Indian Zoology, and had Dr. Traill's paper 
before him, it is not likely he would have omitted any errors in the 
description of the forehead and horns, had there been such to notice. 
So far, therefore, the chain of evidence is complete. M. Gboffrot 
Saint Hilairb described the Crour from a MS. by Major Rouoh« 
sbdgb ; Dr. Traill did the same from a MS. supplied by an ofilicer 
of the same party, (perhaps a copy of the same paper,) and from the 
remarks of Captain Rooorrs who had paid much attention to Indian 
quadrupeds; and Major-General Hardwickb publishes a drawing 
of the very head and horns, which were described in the above-men- 
tioned manuscript, as those of the specimen killed in their party. 
This leaves no possibiliiy oi a doubt as to Greneral Hardwickb's spe- 
cimen having been the CUiur ; and his drawing in the Zoological Jour* 
nal which I have the pleasure now of exhibiting, looks as if taken from 
this very identical specimen in your museum*. For both the specimen 
and the drawing shew the same rotundity of forehead, the same gentle 
convexity on the top of the head, between the horns, (and not a bold 
elevated crest or ridge, as in Mr. Evans's specimen,) and the same pro- 
portionate size and curvature of horns. And I am sure on making the 
comparison you will think me fully borne out in concluding that the 
specimen I have marked, and General Habdwickb has described, were 
both, or neither, b^onging to the Gaur* But if you think we are 
mistaken, you must also hold the conjecture of Mr. Evans, that this 
animal, which I have shewn to be identical with General Hard- 
* See the copy of Hardwickb's sketch in PI. XVII.— Ed. 



228 MemorandwH on the Gaur and Gayal. [Marcs, 

wicKs's, 18 not the Crowt^ be of more value than the positive assertion 
of Major Rouohsbdob who killed his specimen in its native woods, 
and sent its spoils to that eminent zoologist*. 

It next remains to determine what species it is to which the skull 
exhibited by Mr. Evans belongs ; — a matter far more difficult than 
to prove the label correct upon the other. It is possible that it be- 
longed to the Gaur, but to a specimen of a different sex from that in 
the ratt$»eum, and that described in the Zoological Journal ; that the 
differences, however strongly marked, may be merely sexual. But, 
as Mr. Evans has stated, there is another animal of this country, 
called the Gayal, the BosfrontalU of naturalists, with some of whose 
chHracters it seems to agree. 

The Gayal was mentioned so early as the year 1790 in an account 
of the mountaineers of Tiprah, published that year in the Researches 
of this Society, and there called the cattle of the mountains. There 
are two sorts, a tame and wild variety ; the former of which was 
then an essential article among that people at their feasts, whether of 
a warlike, civil or religious nature. But Mr. Colbbrookb, who 
published a description of it in the 8th volume of the Researches, 
appears to think it had been noticed by Knox in his historical rela« 
tion of Ceylon ; and imperfectly described by Captain Turnxr in hia 
journey through Btitdn. Mr. Colbbrookb's paper is compiled from 
accounts of the Gayal drawn up by Drs. Roxburgh and Buchanan, 
and Messrs. Elliott, Macrab, Bird and Dice. The only mention 
made in this paper of the forehead of the Gayal is by Dr. Buchanan, 
as follows : — " The head at the upper part is very broad and flat, 
and is contracted suddenly towards the nose, which is naked like 
that of the common cow. From the upper angles of the forehead 

* There is also another account of the Gaur by Major Hamilton Smith, 
but apparently that gentleman never saw the animal, and has compiled hia re- 
marks from the foregoing descriptions. He thinks it possible that '* Pliny's 
Ethiopian bull with blue eyes might refer to this species ;" (Plin. 1. 8. «. 21 ;) 
whose description is thus given by Dr. Philbmon Hollavp, in kit translation 
of the works of that author, a book almost as great a cariosity as the animals 
be describes :— " But the most fell and cruell of all others of that country be 
the wild buls of the forrest, greater than our common field buls, most swift, of 
colour brended, their eyes grey or blewish'* (colore fuluos oculis etruUit) ; " their 
hair growing contrary ; their mouth wide and reaching to the ears : their homes 
likewise hardly moveable ; their hide aa hard as a flint, checking the dent of any 
weapon whatsoever, and cannot be pierced: all other wild beasts they chasa 
and hunt, themselves cannot be taken bat in pit&lls ; ia this their wildness and 
rage they dyjsnd never become tame.*' 



1837.] MMormUkm m tJU Qmr and Gmfoi. S99 

proceed two thick, short, horizontal processofl of hone, which are 
cohered with hair. On theae are placed the horns, which are smooth, 
ahorter than the head, and lie nearly in the plane of the forehead. 
They diverge outwardly, and tarn ap with a gentle conre. At the 
hase they are very thick, and are slightly compressed, the flat sides 
being toward the front and the tail. The edge next the ear is rather 
the thinnest, so that a transverse section would be somewhat orate. 
Toward their tips the horns are rounded, and end in a sharp point," 
Here the flatness and breadth of the forehead, and the sadden con- 
traction towards the nose, correspond pretty exactly with those pec«- 
liarities in Mr. Evans's specimen; but nothing can be made of 
the description of the horns, &c. ; the whole having evidently been 
taken from the tame variety of this " cattle of the mountains." And 
there is no part of any animal which undergoes greater changes by 
domestication than the horns of the RumimtaUia. 

In the seventh volume of the Linnaean Transactions there is also a 
description of the Gayal by Mr. Atlmsr Bourkb Lambbrt, accom- 
panied by a plate, but which also was taken from the domestic variety. 

The last account published of the Gti^al is in the afore-mentioned 
paper in i\ke Zoological Journal by General Hakowioki. It is accom- 
panied by a plate of the head and horns of the Aooool Gayalg or True 
Gogol. General Harowickb says — " Of the Gagal (Boo Goyicuo^ of 
CoLBBaooKi, eighth volume of the Asiatic Researches, there appears 
to be more than one species. The provinoes of Ckiitogong and 
Bglhei produce the wild, or as the natives term it, the Atseel Gogol, 
and the domesticated one. The former is considered an untameable 
animal, extremely fierce, and not to be taken alive. It rarely quits 
the mountainous tract of the S. E. fnmtier, and never mixes with 
the Gobbak, or village Gogol of the plains. I succeeded in obtaining 
the skin, with the head of the Aooeel Gogol, which is deposited in the 
museum of the HonoraUe the East Indian Company, in Leadenhall 
Street, and from which the drawing was taken, which accompanies 
that of the horns of the Gour." 

On refering to the above-mentioned drawing you will perceive the 
same general appearance of face as the specimen of Mr. EvANa 
exhibited ; the same flatness of forehead, which in the skuU is probably 
a concave surface ; the same marked lidge between the horns ; and 
the same projection of the orbits, and sudden contraction of £aee 
towards the nose, to which he drew your attention in his paper. 

Having thna laid before you all the authorities I have been able to 
colled* 1 think you will consider that I have proved my position* 
2 H 



230 Or a nma Gemur of the Sylmaist, [Iff abch, 

that, the horns and frontal hone in your moseam are those of the 
Gayr, I have also shewn that some of the characters of the Aneel 
Gaytd are possessed hy Mr. Evans's specimen. Bat I feel that with 
the limited knowledge we still possess, it would be impossible in me 
to assert, or even to form a conjecture, that it really belonged to that 
animal. 

In conclusion I must observe, that it bnt little redounds to the 
honor of Indian sportsmen, or I fear also of this Society, that we 
have not specimens both of the skins and skeletons mounted in our 
museum, to enable us to determine to which species a specimen 
belongs, of two of the largest ruminating animals known ; natives of 
a country of which we have had interrupted possession for more than 
fifty years. 

VI.<- On a new Genui of the SylviatUt, with deecriptUm of three turn 
Speciee, By B. H. Hodgson, Esq,, Resident in N^L 

Stlviada } Genus new. Yuhina, nobis. Yuhin of the Nipalese* 
Bill equal to the head, slender, acute, depressed as far as nares ; 
gradually compressed beyond : maxilla, cut out to centre by nasal 
Ibssas, convex beyond, subarcuated, and gently inclined at tip, with 
two or three sharp teeth on either side : mandibula, straight, entire^ 
equal to maxilla* pointed. Tomiss of both, trenchant, scarpt and 
lockt throughout : nares large, the aperture lunated and lineated by 
a nude incumbent soft membrane. Tongue sub-equal to bill, carti- 
laginous, deeply-forked and the prongs filamentous and convolved. 
Wings medial, round-acuminate, firm, 1st quill small* 5th usually 
longest. Tail short, firm, square. Tarsi stout, finely scaled, longer 
than any toe. Toes short, exterior connected to the joint, interior 
basally ; laterals and hind sub-equal ; last very stout and depressed. 
Nails, falcate, strong, suddenly pointed ; anteriors sub-equal ; hind 
much the largest. Head crested. Rictus slightly bristled, not wide. 
Habitat central and northern regions : food, viscid strong berries, 
and small scaly insects, such as harbour among foliage. It is the 
opinion of Mr. Vioobs that these singular little birds serve to con<- 
nect the Syhfiada with the Certhiada. In the structure of the biU 
and tongue, and even of the feet and wings, they remind me of the 
genus 8ibia (nobis), and of others of the PhUedmaem thrushes of 
CnviBB— a group, the contents of which have been referred at random 
to the TenMroBirdl Mel^hagidte, and (in part at least) to the long- 
legged division of the thrushes* These are high matters of dasaift* 



18970 tJU Yuim 0/ tk€ N^0k9e. 331 



cation which may perchance he settled with an approach to accuracy 
eome fifty years hence, -provided our investigations meanwhile be 
carried into the general stmcture and prevalent habits of species— > 
and be not confined, as now, to closet dissertations on dried skins. 

The genns I now propose, as well as its location, are both provi- 
sional — my knowledge of the stracture and habits of the species 
being confessedly incomplete; and the directions of the books within 
my reach being bettercalculated to misguide than to guide. 

These little birds, so far as I have yet ascertained, adhere exclu- 
sively to the wild uplands ; prefer the lower and more umbrageous 
to the higher and barer trees ; and seem* to procure no portion of 
their food from the ground. They are usually found in small flocks ; 
and have a monotonous feeble monosyllabic' note. They eat viscid 
Strong berries and fruits, and many kinds of insects, chiefly of the 
scaled sort. Their intestines are about the length of their body 
(from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail)» famished with grain- 
like CKca, near the lower end, and of nearly uniform diameter. Their 
stomach has the muscular coat of very moderate sub-equal thickness : 
and the lining neither very tough nor much grooved. Three species 
are known to me, in all of which the sexes resemble each other. I 
now proceed to a summary description of them, premising that the 
two first are typical, the last much less so. 

Species 1st. Yuhina gnhris ; spotted-throated Yukin, nobis. 

Above, with the tertiaries and tail feathers, obscure olive brown : 
cap, darker and purer brown : ears, chin, throat and breast, obscure 
rufous wood brown ; the chin and throat spotted with blackish, and 
hounded laterally by a longitudinal stripe of the same hue : rest of body 
below, bright orange rusty : primaries and secondaries black, the former 
with a narrow edging of hoary, and the latter with a broad one of 
orange : lining of the wings and inner margin of quills towards their 
bases, albescent : tail dusky internally : legs deep orange : bill fleshy 
brown, with dusky culmen : iris brown : head with a full soft mobile 
and sub-recurved crest : size 6^ by 8f inches, and f oz., bill ii inch, 
tarsus |}, central toe -f^, hind toe ,V. 

Species 2nd. YuhiM occipitalis. Rusty-naped YuMn, nobis. 

Above, with the whole tertiaries and outer webs of the larger 
remiges and of all the rectrices, dull obscure olive brown : top of the 
head and back of neck dull slaty with hoM^r stryies : the nape, bright 
rusty: ears, chin, abdominal neck and the breast, vinous bufi': a 
blackish stripe or moustache behind the gape : belly, rump and un- 
dertail coverts, deep rusty .* remiges and rectricea* internally -dusky 
2 H 2 



IM On a mm Gmim9 0f ik$ SyUnad^, [Mabc«» 

innar bMal aiargiiis of the qnillB pale buff: lintag of the wings» 
^hite : legs, orange : bill fleahy red : iris brown : head with a fiiA 
soft crest, as in the preceding : size 6^ by 7| inches, and \ os. in 
weight : bill it of inch: tarsus \\t central toe y't, hind /i • 

Species 3rd. Yuhina? fiameoUU, Yellow-necked Ynhmf nobis. 
Above, obscure brown, with a slaty tinge : cap pure rich brown : 
cheeks and nape paler : back of the neck, msty yellow, continued in 
a collar round the sides and front of the neck and thence spread over 
the lower surface of the body and diluted often to white : chin and 
throat, white : moustache dark brown : remiges and rectrices, inter- 
nally, dusky : the primaries edged externally with white on the outer 
webs ; and all paled internally on the inner, as in both the preceding 
species : lining of wings, white : sides of body, shaded with brown- 
ish s legs yellowish fleshy grey : bill fleshy brown : iris brown ; 
head crested as in both the preceding species : bill shorter, less acu- 
minated, and furnished with only one salient process on each side the 
tip of the upper mandible of the bill. Size 5^ by 7^ inches, and less 
than ^ an oz. in weight. 

The following is a detail of the dimensions of a fine male specimen 
of the Ynhma Gularis ; and which may serve to indicate the pro- 
portions of all the three species. 

Inches. 

w 

Tip bill to tip tail, ,.^m-^>.^^..^^^^.,^„^.,^»«,....»^...>.>«..,„- 6^ 

— ^ basal height of,MM»«i«.«»-..M«M«»«.«.«.«.«M»i»«»<i.«M»«-«»«>M...»«..M»« 0-^ 

— — ditto breadth of, «m»m«.«.«.«m««.«,..«— »-'«mm...«m»~«m»«.«»»«mmm» 0^% 
Tail , qI 

Expanse of wings, .^^.^.^^»,^^^^^^^,^^^^^^^^.> ^ .^^^^ 8| 
Central toe, w>.«»*. *...■»#..»».»«» .»*.«■ -«» ...<*..■. «■«...■■«» 0|% 

^knU "^^^j — ^-.^^— ^ — ^ P , p |. | ■ ■ ,, rr iirju j t 0*0 

Weight, ios. 

Smendata in pr§ctdin§ omithohgieai ptq^n-*. 
Vol. v. pH;e 777, IndicatioM of a new genas of Pajlconida $ tu. A&mi. 
Generic character. For ' * acropodia wholiy reticulate,* ' read * * acropodia whol* 
ly scatellate." 

On three new Genera of the Long-legged Thnufaes. 

Qenerie character of Xtfrvmora. For " traeA«l hrktles," read '* nareal brfstlea.'* 
Vol. VI. p. 102, 1. 26. Description of a new form of Meraline Btrdt ; tIs. SiHrn^ 
Generic character. For *« tiacAs/ bristlei,*' read '* naretU briattss.^' 



1 88 7.] Diteoverf o/ Fo$$il Bonew, Boat of Hariwwr. 98S 

VII. — Nai0 M ike occwrrmiee of Foml Bmnes in ike SewaMk Ratige^ 
eMtwmrd af Harimar. By H. Faloomis, Af . D., BvperwUndtiU 
Botamcal Garden, Seharanpur, 

[See Proccedingt Ai. Soc. 5di April.] 

The Sewalik fossils have hitherto been found chiefljF on the tract 
between the Jumna and Suilef, and more sparingly in the clay marl 
between the Jumna and Ganges, There is no apparent reason why 
they should not be found in abundance in the protraction of the 
range which stretches eastward of the Ganges behind Rohilkkand and 
Oude, But it is of some interest to ascertain the fact in unexplored 
parts of the range, where they do exist, and where they do not. The 
fossils mentioned in the following list have been collected near 
Hardwar and in the low hills eastward of the Ganges, which skirt 
the province of Kemaon. The list contains nothing new: but it 
proves the occurrence of fossils where they had not been found be- 
fore, and increases the probability of finding them still further to 
the eastward : 

Mastodon Elephantoides — molars. 

Rhinoceros — molars . 

Hippopotamus Sivalensis — molars and tusks. 

Hog — fragments of jaws with teeth. 

Horse — molars. 

Ox — ^teeth and other bones. 

Deer of several sizes — jaws, teeth, astragali, horns, &c. 

Crocodiles — Garial, 1 several fragments of jaws, teeth, and buckler 
Magar, J plates. 

Tortoises — Emys, 1 

Triomg*, > numerous fragments* 
Testudo^ J 

Coprolites, 

This list comprises a large part of the species found westward of 
the Junma, The specimens are generally broken up into small pieces, 
greatly more so than in the Nahan tract. The largest fossil procured 
has been the plastron of a testudo 1 7 inches long. The bones are 
found in three states of fossilization, exactly resembling those from 
the westward of the Jumma ; vis. 

let. The " soft" fossil; the animal matter removed, but the 
earthy constituents of the bones unaltered, and slowly soluble in 
dilated muriatic acid : occurring in beds of clay, and the cavities of 
the bones filled with the matrix. The epecimens of this variety are 
very few. 



234 Report Progreu of the Boring [Maecb, 

2nd. The " hard" fossil, with a silicioas or calcareous impreg- 
nation : the animal matter and earthy constitnents entirely renioved : 
occarring in sandstone matrix. 

Srd. The " black" fossi], like the last, but impregnated with hy- 
drate of iron : occarring in sandstone, or in a calcareo-argiUace- 
ons matrix. 

No shells have yet been brought in. 



Vin. — Report Progress of the Boring Experiment in Fort William, 

By Major T. M. Tatlor, 5M Cau. 

[Read at the Meeting Aiiatic Societji 5th April.] 

The immediate superintendence of the boring experiment having, 
in consequence of my removal from Fort William, passed into other 
hands, I think it necessary to acquaint the Society with the progress 
that has been made since I had the honor to submit to them a note on 
the subject in June last. (See Proceedings As. Soc. vol. V. p. 874.) 

At that time a depth of 1 75 feet had been attained by the borer, 
which then worked in a coarse sharp sand mixed with pieces of 
quartz «nd felspar, and from the little progress made, it was supposed 
a bed of gravel or shingle had been reached. This supposition, how- 
ever, proved erroneous ; for after some delay the work advanced, 
until, the borer having gained 178^ feet, and the tubes being forced 
down to 1 80^ feet, they were observed soon after to have sunk by 
their own weight, and thenceforward up to the present time they 
have continued so to sink, maintaining a depth generally a few feet 
in advance of the auger. 

It is remarkable that, although it was frequently tried, it was sel- 
dom found practicable to force the tubes down more than an inch or 
two at a time ; yet, shortly after the removal of the pressure, amount- 
ing* possibly, to twenty tons, they would sometimes descend six inches 
or even a foot by their own gravity. 

With a trifling variation in the color and fineness of the sand the 
stratum remained the same, until clay was found at 198|> feet, but 
this stratum was not more than five feet in thickness ; five feet of 
sand then occurred, and after it another layer of clay. At 212 feet 
a bed of sand was entered, which has been penetrated to a depth of 
131 feet, without reaching its termination. 

Long ere this the work would have been carried to the utmost 
depth for which tubing of the diameter in use hap been provided, 
had it not been for two accidents, each of which was of so serious a 



1837.] Expennmi in Fort WUliam. 235 

character as threatened to put a final stop to the work. The first 
was occasioned by the separation of a part of the borer containing a 
valve, when at the bottom of the well ; and the second by the anger 
becoming jammed with a brazen plumb which had been lost in the 
bore sometime before, in such a way that the application of no force 
that the rods could sustain sufiiced to move the implement in any 
direction. The force that was applied may be conceived when it is 
stated that it was sufficient to raise the whole line of tubing bodily 
in the bore. 

Keeping the tubes in position, the rods, by the application of a 
screw, were at length forcibly torn from the anger a little below the 
screw which joined them ; after which, as in the former case, the valve 
worm auger was broken off by the jumper, and the instrument brought 
up by the catching in the socket. 

The success in overcoming these disasters roust be mainly attri- 
buted to the zeal and perseverance of the sappers employed on the 
work : in the latter, however, they were guided by the able instruc- 
tions of Captain J. Thomson, who suggested the measures to be 
adopted, and supplied from his own stores some of the machinery 
to carry them into effect"^. 

When my superintendence ceased, (10th March,) the tubes had 
simk to the depth of 343 feet, and the borer penetrated to 336 feet. 
The sand still continued to rise in the manner described in my former 
paper. It varies occasionally in color and substance, and latterly 
some pieces of felspar and lumps of indurated clay or sand have been 
picked out of the sand brought up. Specimens accompany this paper. 

The supply of English tubing of the requisite character is very 
nearly exhausted, but an attempt will be made to cast some in Cal^ 
cntta : if it fails, the experiment must necessarily be suspended until 
an indent that has been sent home be answered. 

Note l>y the Secretary. 

As a postscript to the above Report, I have now to announce a 
most curious and unexpected discovery, communicated to me this 
very morning by Colonel Maclbod, the Engineer officer, who has 
succeeded to the charge of the experiment hitherto so successfully 
conducted by Major Tatlor. 

On a former occasion the Society was shewn metallic iron reduced 
from ore extracted from a depth of 150 feet, and sharp angular 

* To guard «t far as possible against breaking the rods bj the force applied 
to extract them, Capt. T. connected his screw with the rod-head, through the 
intervention of a rod of somewhat smaller section which would consequently 
gifs way before anj injury coald happen to the borer.— Bd« 



236 Report Progrest qf Bwring [Mabcs, 

quartz and felspar from 1 75 feet ; — ^but here is something which will 
excite much more surprise — ^a fossil bonb brought up by the auger 
from a depth of ZbQfeet below the eurface of Calcutta ! 

When it is considered how many million chances there were against 
an auger only a few inches in diameter, impinging upon the precise 
spot where a bone lay in the understratum,— the risk, too, of such a 
fragile object being ground to atoms by the tool, or pushed aside, 
and missed, — it may be regarded as the most extraordinary good for- 
tune that the relic should not only have been met with but brought 
up entangled in the valve of the scoop without the slightest injury ! 
The bone is the fractured lower half of a humerus of some small ani- 
mal like a dog : it resembles the drawing of the corresponding bone 
of the hyena in Cuvibr, but it is impossible precisely to identify it 
for want of skeletons for comparison. 

The interior is filled with the micaceous sand in which it was im- 
bedded, and scales of the same adhere to the exterior surface, as is 
shewn in the accompanying sketch, (see Plate XVIII.) The bone 
is not thoroughly fossilized, for when heated by the blow-pipe 
it becomes slightly charred and emits a perceptible odour : — ^but the 
animal matter left is exceedingly small, and the whole loss on heat* 
ing a portion to a white heat was only 7 per cent., the greater part 
being moisture from the hydrate of iron with which it is impreg- 
nated. The greater part of the phosphate of lime remains with a 
proportion of carbonate : the specific gravity is 2.63, just the same 
as that of a fine specimen of polished ferruginous odontoUte from 
the Himalaya : it requires the heat of an oxygen blow-pipe to fuse 
1^ fragment per se on platina foil. 

Of the relative age of this deposit, compared with that of the Se^ 
walik and Nerbudda fossils, it is impossible to form any exact con- 
clusions, but it is worth while to recapitulate briefly the conditiona 
under which each are found. 

The continuous stratum of lower sand in which our bone was buried at 
a depth of a hundred and fifty feet, may be regarded as the gradual 
deposit at the mouth of a primeval river : the excess of mica contained 
in it would seem to indicate its derivation from a gneiss or schistose 
source, such, indeed, as the present Himalayan or Vindgan range 
might still furnish. It was evidently anterior to the general and ex- 
tensive alluvial deposits of the yellow kankarg clay which entirely 
cover, or rather form, the Gangetic plain, and which the auger in Fort 
William had passed through before it attained the depth of 100 feet. 
Now the fossil bones of the Jamna were also found under the kamkar 
days of the Dodb, 150 feet below the surface, so that in this respect 



R*$U Bene jit'T, tA^ Sm«d .3tv ft^b i»lo.^tA^. 



Yt^inPlXYM. 



'=^ 



^■"u«* Ha. 



1887. J Sspermmt tn Fmrt WiXam. 237 

the situation of the two is similar enough. The calcareous infiltra- 
tion which has consolidated the sand and gravel of the Sewalik and 
Nmrbudda matrix has heen wanting here, and perhaps from its greater 
distance from the hills alone, the sand here is in a much more com- 
minnted state : — geologically speaking, however, the whole of the 
fossils may helong to the same period of allavial deposit — or, ui 
other words, to an indefinitely distant epoch ,of the present system of 
quiescent operations in land and flood, whose gradual action has sub- 
sequently accumulated the superjaccDt beds of clay, abounding in 
minote fresh-water shells, extending for thousands of square miles 
— and again over them towards the delta of the Gam$fe9, other more 
recent and extensive beds of blue clays, colored with vegetable debris 
and containing imbedded peat and wood, by which they are identi- 
fied with the existing soil of the Snnderbam forests. The mind is 
lost in contemplating the immense periods which such a deposit 
would demand at Uie hardly visible rate of present accumulation :•« 
yet there are other causes of wonder in the several beds of coarse 
granitic angular gpravel and nodular or pea iron ore which have been 
traversed by the auger before reaching the fluviatile sand beneath. 
These may indicate the volcanic upheavement and subsequently gra- 
dual decay of granitic and ferruginous hills, pending the progressive 
deposit of the alluvium, concerning which, however, we can know 
nothing certain, and need not therefore lose ourselves in conjectures. 
In like manner it might be advanced that the whole of the clayey strata 
were deposited in fresh water as the saliferous sand and sandstone of 
Upper India has been in salt water — and that the animals whose ^ 
exuvie are now brought to light at so many points, were the inhabi- 
tants of the borders of a prodigious bason. In the upper beds of blue 
clay penetrated in digging tanks and canals, bones have occasionally 
been met with (see the note on those found at Dumdum in Vol. II., 
page 649), but unfortunately none have been preserved. The occur- 
rence of the remains of quadrupeds at one or two distant points of the 
series is sufficient to establish the conclusion that their existence has 
been -coeval with the whole deposit ; while the sharp unworn angles 
of the fort bone prove that the animal to which it belonged had lived 
and died in the immediate neighborhood. 

In the aecompanying sketch I have attempted to delineate of full 
size. Colonel Maclsod's fossil bone, which may be designated without 
hesitation one of the most precious rarities ever deposited in the 
Museum of the Asiatic Society. 

J. P. 
2 1 



' IX.-*rProeeeiftii^« of the Asiatic Society » 



The Ron'ble 8ir ^Edward Rtait, President, in the ehair. 

Mr. HnifAT ToBaBKi, Colonel Josnm va HnBTA, and Mr. Stokv 
were unanimoasly elected Members. 

.The Right Rererend Jean Louis, Bishop of Isauropoiit and Vicar 
Apostolic of CoMn^China, was, on the fsTorahle report of the Committee 
of Papers, unanimously elected an fienorary Member. 

Colonel D. Maolbod, Chief Engineer, and Captain S. F. Haivnat, were 
proposed by Captain Pembbbtok, seconded, the former by Major Tatlob, 
the latter by the Secretary. 

Mr. M. A. BranBU* waa propeaed by the Rev. Dr. Miu^ leoonded by 
Mr. DoBBS. 

Dr. W* Griffith propofied bv the Secret)iry, seconded by Mr. W, Sfbul 

An estimate for the repair of the Society's premises was submitted, but 
it waa resolved to postpone such repairs as were not urgent until next 
year. 

An estimate for the repair of Sir W. Jones's monument was submitted 
by Messrs. Llbwbltn and Co. amonnting to Rs. 191 : also deferred. 

lAbrary. 

The Secretary reported that, in obedience to the instructions of Govern, 
ment, he bad selected and packed, for transmission to the Honorable Court 
of Directors, the duplicates of the Sanskrit, Arabic^ and Persiaa manii- 
scripts, transferred from the College Library. 

The following books were presented. 

A grammar of the Sindhi laaguage— 6y the Muikor,H. Waihemt fit^., Ck^f 5ecre« 
targf U tht JiMi6iy OowrasMal. 

Dispatehei of the Marquia Wbllsslbt, 9 toIs.— preaai/e<f 6y GoMmmea/ through 
the See. Qewr^l Department, 

A deacriptive and ilhutrated catalogue of the Aoatomical Maieum of the Royal 
College of Surgeons in Loadon — hy the ColUge, 

PraaideatU addresa to the Geological Society, 18J6, (copica for diftribotion)— £y 
C. Xy«M. E»q, 

Scientilic Memoirs neleetcd from the Foreign Jonmala, a new periodical, Vol. I. 
Part l.^hv Mieherd Taiflor, Btq. the EMtor, 

The Madraa As. Soc. Quarterly Joaraal, JaaoAry, leaT—bjf the Soeiety. 

The Indian Medical Joarual, and SeientUe Review -.fry Dr. Corbgm. 

Meteorological Hegistera to Mareh — by the Surveyor Oeneral. 

Muieum of AfUiquitiei. 

The Honorable F. Smobb presented two pieces of sculpture brought 
from the Qoand country on the Nerbudda. One, an erect image of ilM* 
dha, surmounted by an arch of oeleatial attendants ; the other, an image 
of riiknu in the form of a snake intertwined with Lakthmi as Ndgakanya, 

Major CoTEifTRT deliTored, on the part of Colonel Staot, an accurate 
east of a curious piece of ancient sculpture discoTered by this indefatiga. 
ble antiquarian iu the neighborhood of Mainpdri, and oonjectiured bjr 
kim to be of a mixed Oreciaii and Buddhist style. 

'* I ha?e the pleasare to submit a drawing on a scale of one-eighth, of a Sculptoro 
on -white mnrble, wl.lch I found at the yillage of Prom or Pinno, about 13 koa W. 
61 Mabapitri. It wa$i lying on the grouad, where I conclude from the mound, the 
original temple had stood. Finding so much of Grecian style ia the ornanhcntal 
parts, 1 resolved to purchase it, if possible ; but after several months, having failed 
in roy endeavours to induce the people to part with it, I aent a kaUuti to take a cast, 
la hia hurry to finish bis work and return to his fantty, be took o§ the cowositioo 



18M.] Pr9C99ihig9 •/ tk9 AMtie Socirfy. i39 

hehnt It was ^Itt dry, and eoftuqutntty bant ike caat. lata thla, ea Its ai14val« 
I cast oae with day* prepared by a aatiTa potttr i iad tba nktiuh is taken fraai 
that, by my native draftsmaa ; with this difference— that the eaclosed sketch thews 
the sevlptare as oa the aarblet with the borders ia a stndght line. I shall have the 
ideasnre af offering the clay east to the aeeepta«ce of the Society. It is already pack- 
ed, aad ahall be forwarded ay the firat opportuaity. The drawiag I beg may be re* 
tnraed. Thia Baddo>Greclaa senlptare will, 1 thiak, be acknowledged as one more 
leat la sttpport of the opinion urged in the ooadudiag part of the sixth paper of your 
ScptsBiber nnmher, 1836.*^ 

fWe hope to p r esen t a dnrwiag of the east shertiy.— Eb.] 

With reference to year hopes of findiag other spedaens of the " SUcaas Senlp- 
tare" at Muttrtit I fear they will end ia disappoiatmeot, for I haye most minutely 
examined every hole and comer. Indo-Scytbic coins are faaad censtaatlf aad ia 
great numbers. I propose sending you a statement of those most eommoa ia India 
to eontrast with that of Mr. Masbon at Culml ia the 67th anmber, page 547, 1836. 

A notice and drawing! of a oolo«al aUo*.relieTO« called Meia kunr^ 
near Kdsia Thdna, m the eastern diTiaiea of the O&rakhfmr district, were 
forwarded by Mr. D. Liston. 

Received by the Herefordshire from Bombay, a seriea of Awsladilee of 
Hie inecriptions at Oimar, fOMmagary) very beautifully oopied under 
Mr. Watbbn's snperintendenoe from the original faoaimilee lately taken 
by the Rev. Dr. Wujaoif, PreaMent Bombay As. Soc lor transmimion to 
M. Jaoqust of Paris. 

These most valuable copies, occupying eight folios of 6 aad • feet la leagth, 
comprise inscriptions in the three or four distinet eharaetwt now familiar to us. 
They are mostly in a good state of areservation, aad one la tiw No. 9 Idth eharaeter 
seems capable of being deeyphered without much diOealty. The Rev. Dr. Mua 
was requested to uadertake the examinatioa of this Important docameat. 

Mr. Wathin writes, that he has lately visited the oaves of Kmilkri in S4ilseit€f and 
haa had the inscriptioas takea down by an experieaced hand :— they seem to be in 
the character of the ** Prescott" coins (of Sawasktra aad CfuUh}, The caves are a 
collections of Buddhist temples, and there has been a large c(ty on the mountain 
above. There are also the remains of a pillar similar to those of Anmrmdkap^rm ia 
djflon, and a aumber of tanks cut in the solid rock, erhich are evidence of a large 
population besides the priests of the temple. " I explored the moantaia until I 
came to oae cave la wlileh a dekfope had been built of large Mne stones, and the 
remains of the ekhaira wliich touched the top of the cave are still visible. Some one, 
however, has beea digging down into it, aad I fear the relies have been carried off. 
I however iatead to have it re-examined." 

Literarff Communioatiens, 

The Rer. Mr. Tatm submitted a eritioal notice of the Sanskrit poem, 
entitled the NaUhadha of Sri Harsh a, of which the first volume was 
lately published by the Society with the tika of Prcw Crakd Paddit. 

Captain Ouselbt, Sec. College Fort William, submitted^ thiomgh the 
Secretary, a letter from Lieut..Col. Franorun, M. R. A. S., regarding a 
proposal made by him to the Oriental Translation Committee of the Royal 
Asiatic Society, for the translation of some works from the ancient clas- 
sics, and some of the best English authors into the langoages of the £ast. 

[Much of the Colonel's proposal has been already aeoomplished ia this country : 
•->we have even now before ms a bold prospectus for a versioa of Uie Iliad in Ben- 
aill by GrcececAaader, with a aample of the first book rendered line for line from 
Pope. We have Gay^s Fables — Rasselas—and the Percy Anecdotes. Maps, too, 
and works of Scieace, as Maroet*s Natural Philosophy, Hutton, and Euclid, — not 
to omit the PSrsian edition of Marcus Antoninus by the Baron Von HAMMBa. Any 
additions to this rising oriental library which England can furnish will of course be 
acceptable, and it is gratifying. to see the influenoe of a ooatemporary of Sir Wit.* 
LlAM Jottsa directed to so useful a pn^eet.— £i>.] 



Ectraot of a letter from Major Dixon, Political Agent in Mhairwdr^ 
was read^ stating that in oompliaaoo with the Society s wish he had '^^ 
2 I 3 



940 



ProeeedMngM of thu jtiiatie Soeieif^ [March, 



Col. AhrwB, made inquiries rdatiTe to the supposed existenee of an exten. 
si<7e Buddhist libranr at Juahnir. 

The bnly work of which they could learn wti entitled *< Bmtddk wuii Join mutg 
§ratiUhat** of which the Rija would willingly allow a copy to be made If desired. 
Although nothing either very ancient or of historical talue could be ezpeeted aader 
such a title, the Society deemed It on all accounts desirable to secure a copy of this 
manuscript, and accepted Major Dixon's and Col. ALVas' obliging olfer. 

The GoYernraent, through Mr. W^. H. Maonaghtbic, 8ee. Pol. Dept. 
presented a copf of a Journal of Captain O. M. Wadb's expedition down 
the SathJ, drawn up bj Lieutenant F. MacicBsoif. 

[This paper is printed in the present number.] 

Also, the Journal of a visit to the Mi$hmi Hills in Upper A$9am, by 
Dr. W, Griffith. 

Captain PsMBBBTOir presented his abstract of the journal of a routa 
travelled bv Captain S. F. Hannat from Ana to the amlMr mines of the 
H^kon valley on the south frontier of Auam, with a protracted m^ of 
the route. 

Mr. C. B. Gbbbnlaw presented, on the part of the author, a memoir 
on the inhabitants of the Maldkoe islands, by Lieutenant Yoimo, I. N. of 
the ship Benare9, lately employed on the survey of these islands. 

Pkwieai and Museum Natural History. 

The collection of fossil sheik from Harper's Hill and Stsniy Creek in 
iVfis South Wafee, forwarded by Lieutenant Vioabt, had arrived. 

[Lieutenant Vioabt's note shall be published when sketches of these shells, and 
the connected groups from Fsa Piemam*s Lamd, presented by Mr. W. CaAcaorr, 
san be lithographed.! 

A mounted ■pecimen of the alow.paoed Lemur, (Lorie OracUie^J pre. 
sented by Mr. Bbll. 

A specimen of the laf p^ Paradise Bird, (Paradieea Majw^) presented 
by Nnwiib Tuhawur Juno. , 

A stuffed specimen of the common Pelican, (Teteeanue Onoerotulu9,J 
presented by Dr. F. P. Stbobo. 

A specimen of the head, vertebrss and caudal fin of a large species of 
hammer.headed Shark, rZffgeena — -^ YJ presented by Robbbt Rosb, Esq. 

This specimen is 9| feet in length. It was found ashore la a bay at BirMU in 
the district of Midndpnrt and the rest of its body eaten. 

Two bottles of insects from Assam, presented by Captain Jbnkins. 

Two skins of the Yak, CBos Grunniens,) presented by C. Habdiko, 
Esq., who also sent for inspection a specimen of the skin or the Hill Fox, 
(Vuipes Montana.) 

Mr. J. T. pBABBON exhibited two living specimens of the young of the 
Fe»9 KutdM. 

Extract of a letter from Lieut Colin Maokbiczib {MaJaoca) was read, 
appriaiiig the Secretary of his having at last succeeded in obtaining a 
tapir for the Society. 

It was a fine young femsle, and had been taken with great difficulty alive .* it would 
be sent up by the first opportunity with every precaution ; the ezpence, Including 
freight, would perhaps amount to 390 rupees. 

Dr. H. Falookeb transmitted a memoir on some additional fossil speciet 
of the order Quadrumana, discovered in the SewaHk hills. 

[We shall gi^e insertion to this- interesting paper In our next J 

Also a notice of the occurrence of fossil bones eastward or Hardwdr 
(HarUMra,) 

[Printed In the present number.] 

Dr. H. FAI.00NBB gives the following account of a very extraordinary 
elastic sandstone: — 



''I huTe lately had sent to me to look at by Captain McNaobtsk, of 

beyoadi 



JTsmdl, a spedmea of rock which has surprised me bsyoad sseasore. It is a slab 



1 837.] Proceedings of ihe Atiutic Society. 24 1 

of uadfttoiM 14 inches long by 6| wide and 3 inches thtek, and looks like a loiir 
brick. It eiBctly in appearance resembles tbe building sandstone used at Afra. li 
UjUxihU and elastic m ntry direetitm If If yon plMS |t flat on a tabla, and press 
tbe band on one end and raise the other, yon can bend it to a eertain eitent, and 
see tbe undnlations moving along to the nzed end. If you seise it by both ends, 
one In eaeh hand, and make an action as if yon intended breaking it, you can see 
and feel It bend like a piece of whale-bone, bat of coarse in an infinitely smaller 
degree, and the undnlations are obsenred propagated from end to end. If yon top 
it ou the side with the finger as you would a moivaA; of water, it yields pretty much 
In the same fashion, propagates an undulation and instantly reeoTers ito form. If 
vou press it at the sides it gete narrower, and if you pull at tbe ends it elongat(4 1 1 
but always recovers Its original form. Is there any aeeount ou record of so extra- 
ordinary a sandstone? Should there not, I may send you some notes about it. It 
Is not kaown where the specimen came from.'* H. F. 

The fottik dispatched by Dr. Spilsburt had been brought down by the 
Honorable Bir. Sbobb, but had been sent in the first instance to Dr. Row 
at Barraekpmr. 

Dr. Spilssuet notices that tbe beautiful meteor remarked at Bersia, (see Proe. 
February,) was also seen at Baiimlt at Hothanffdbdd and Jabalpur. 

A letter from Mr. W, Dawm announced the dispatch of a fresh seler. 
tion of fossils (including a lower jaw of the SivatheriumJ for the Society'^ 
Mnseum in three chests, which left Karndl 10th March. 

Read a letter from Lieutenant T. Hotton, proposing exchanges of fresh, 
water shells with the Societf, for mutual benefit of cabinets. 

The Curator explained that he had already effected the objeet desired. 

A continuation of the Rer, R. Evbebst's notes on the Revolutions of 
the Seasone was received. 

This part of the author's researches is accompanied by diagrams of the prices of 
grain in Afferent years, whence an estimate is derived of the amount of rain. 

A note on the genera Owygyrue and BeUerophon was received from Mr. 
W, H. Bbnson. 

The following Meteorological notes were communicated by Major 
Davidsok, Engrs. from Ladmau, They seem to confirm the theory lately 
started of the prevalence of these asteroids in the opposite parte of the 
earth's orbit traversed in November and May. 

I. On board the ship NorihumberloMd, Captain Pops, proceeding from England to 
India in 1834, a pale ster was Tlsible for at least five days*, daring sunshine. It 
was first discovered by Captain H. Timmikos, of the Bengid Horse Artillery, and 
was seen by ail the crew and passengers of the ship. (Lat. long, unknown.) 

9. At Anirffark in April or May, 1893, I was lying awake on my bed at about 19 
or I o*clo(^, when I was stertled by a brilliant light adTaacing from the east end of 
a long narrow Teranda. I waited a few seconds, expecting to see some of my fami- 
ly or serrante bearing a candle, when (I presume as the meteor passed over my 
bungalow) , I looked out in the compound, and observed the individual $hadow$ of a 
foil Jimun tree, cast yerticallT on the ground — a circumstance I had never seen in 
tb^ krighie$t ttmtkine. Not a breath of air, nor an audible sound. Conversing with 
Col. RiCHAEDS, commandant, I found that he had seen the glare, and that subse- 
quently it had been reported to him that an immense number of stones had fallen 
from the sky, about twenty miles to the west of the fortress, in a forest» inhabited 
by BMIt. No inquiries were ever made. 

8. 'While the Sappers and Miners were marching from Catsapur on BAor/par, 
(about November, 1894,) at 4 in the morning a meteor was seen by the oflBcers of 
the Engineers rtfia^ in the North : it ascended from the horison to an elevation of 
about 66*, aad remauud there in an obscure group of fixed stars for upwards of 98 
asinutes. On ite first reaching the cluster, ite light was very disHnet, but it gradu- 
ally aselted away, until the eye could only detect its situation by the Increased 
brightaess of the spot, on making a sweep over that part of the heavens. 

4. At Auirgarh fortress, during the rainy season, I often observed an Inseet 
formed like the common centipede, (Scolopeadra electrica ?) which at night used to 
leave a glowing fiery trace of ite progress ; and on one occasion, I had the curiosity 
to rub my fingers on the track, which was unctuous, and on smelling them fbund ths 
strong aad almost suffocating stench of burning phosphorus. C. J. C. D. 

* This nay have been the planet Venus ?— Eo. 



S42 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [March, 

Major TxTLom submitted a Report (which was read) of the progress 
of the ezperimental Boring in Fort William up to the period of his resign- 
ing charge in consequence of his change of appointment. 

[Printed in the present No. pa^ 934.] 

The Secretary stated that he had to bring to the notice of the 
Society a most unexpected sequel to Major TATiiOn's operations. Almost 
the first withdrawal of the auger by Colonel D. Maclbod, Engrs., who sac 
oeeded in charge of the experiment, brought up a relic well calculated 
to reward the skill and labor of all his pr^ecessors — a fossil bonb from 
a depOi of S50 feet below tha surface of CaieuUa! which Col. M. presented 
for deposit in the Society's Museum. 

[See separate note appended to the report.] 

Dr. B. Burt, 4th Regt. N. I., forwarded for the inspection of the 
Society, specimens of silk cloth dyed from the leares of the teak tree, 
one yellow, the other oliye. The following information on the subject of 
Dr. BcRT 8 discovery of this cheap and durable dye is extracted from his 
letter to the Secretary, dated Berhampur, 4th March :— 

** These properties of the leaves of the teak tree I accidentally discovered about 
ilve years ago, when I porchased the Honorable Company's teak pleatation at 
BauLeohf since out down ; bat I had not an opportunity till lately of trying the effects 
of various mordants on it, when Mr. Laidlat, an expert practical chemist, was 
kind enough to assist me with his ezperienoe in the art of dyeing. 

*' The lenves at all seasons of the year contain the dye, bat daH.ng the rains and cold 
weather, when their vegetation is most yigoroas, they contain a greater quantity of 
it. They also retain it when dried for any length of time, so as to admit of its being 
exported to Europe, and I am sanguine enough in thinking it will become, when 
known there, a yaluable article of trade with the mother-country. 

*' The ezperimenta have a|i yet been tried with silk doth alone, and with two mor- 
dants only, alum and acetate of iron, and the result is very satisfactory, the colors 
produced being permanent, and can be extraeted from the leaf either by boiling or 
steeping in cold water. I have as yet uasueoeflaAaiT tried to obtain the dye in ito 
pure state : its quantity, however, in the leaves and stalks of the leaves, at compared 
with other vegeUble dyes, U very considerable. , ^ , ^, -, * *-.^ 

'• The piece of yellow silk sent was steeped in a saturated solution of alum for twelve 
hours afterwards washed and dried, and then steeped in a cold decoction of the leaves 
for about three hours. The decoction was prepared fkom the green leaves and boil- 
ed for three hours, but the coloring matter may be extraeted in much less tiane. 
The olive colors were obtained from the same piece of silk in its yellow state, steeped 
in acetate of iron for two or three hours. These colors may be varied, by more or 
less steeping in the dye liquor, from the most delicate straw odor to the brightest 
vellow and olive green. Twelve of the leaves dried weighed three ounces and were 
boiled for an hour in two and a half quarts of water, one and a half quarts of liquor 
fit for dyeing was obtained on straining it, sufficient to dye several yards of cloth of 
the brightest yellow. From this some idea may be formed of the quantity of oolorlng 

" ** Another property this dye contains superior to similar dyes used in &is country, is 
that its color dbes not run or mix with other colont when printed on th* same clothe 

<* I intend making a few experiments with it onootton, and may hereafter com- 
municate the result.** 

A subsequent letter adds the following information : — 

** Since forwarding the communication regarding the dye of thetesk tree leaf, the 
following results of several experiments made with It deserve notice. 

** The dye exists in the substance of the leaf, not In its stalks, as I at one tims 
supposed. Alcohol extracU both the dye and the green coloring matter of the leaf. 
Water hot or cold, extracU the dye alone. Soda, potash, the muriate of tin, and aa 
astringent flower used by the natives in dying, called dkyepMa, decompose thU dys. 
LiQuor ammonia changes the yellow imparted to cloth to a snuff brown. Soap mixed 
with the decoction heightens the yellow color, but impairs the natural brillianey of 
the silk The acetate of iron produces from a dark slate color to every shade of 
neea and oUve, according to its strength and time of steeping. Boiling the leaves 
for an hour or two destroys the color ; this I am inclined to think arises from soas 
of the leaves being carbonized by the heat of the vessel.— The most simple and eaay 
wav of estracting the dye is as follows. Take two gallons of water to one pound of 
the dry leaves ; bring it slowly to the boiling point in a copper or earthen vessel ; allow 



1837.] Proceet^npM of the AtuOk Society. 248 



it to eool, and tben strain. About l| saUonB «f ttquor wlU b* obtalud, a aaAaleBt 
quantity to dye a full piece of tUk hiui&ercbiefs 7 yardi by I yard. The deooetioa 
tbni iircpared ii of a diark brows color, baa a pecakar imeU not onlUce that of aenaa 
leavea. If kept for lis or eight hours it fermouts, bocomos lighter In color, but stiU 
retains the yeUow dye which It imparts to silk after dz or eight days, perhaps mack 
loager, but the color is scarcely so brilliant as when the decortion is fresh. 

** The acetate of alumina is a stronger mordant for this dye than the saturated 
solution of alum, and is therefore preferable In printing. When the doth has been 
prepared with the mordants for dyeing and put into the deooetion, the liquor ought 
to be heated to about 16<f , aa at this temperature the process soes on more rapidly 
than when cold. From 90 minutes to half an hour's steeping will be sufficient 
to impart to the doth the brightest yellow. Boiling the cloth in the liquor injures 
the color.*' 

It was resoWed that th^ apacimeoi should be submitted to those who 
are best aoquiiiDted wUh dyes in Calcutta^ and eventually sent to the 
London Society of AHs. 

The discovery of a new site of coal in Upper Aeeam was announced in 
a letter from Lieut. H. BieeB> dated Pachora hills, 28th February. 

** Knowing .the interest yon take in all matters connected with science, &c., I beg 
to acquaint you that Dr. Griffitb and myself, whilst ezploriug the banks of the 
Namnip river, about nine miles £. S. E. from its junction with the Bcre Dikbtft in 
the Singpho country, have been fortunate enough to discover a most valuHble seam 
of coal in the bank of the river ; the upper seam was about 3 feel in depth, the 
centre one 9 feet, and a lower one of 3. We followed the seam up a small water- 
coarse to the south, which it crossed at an angle of 45*, and must huTe reached the 
surface a very short distance beyond, but we could not exactly determine this point. 
The general direction was from W. 9 N. to E. 5 S. the dip being towards' the sooth. 

" we loaded a small boat with this coal and sent it down to our camp for trial, 
when it was found to be an extremely good coal, 'borning with a strong flame and 
heat, and very lasting, but from the smell, containing a great quantity of sulphure« 
ous matter. It does not burn entirely away, but makes a large portion of dnder, 
and is, 1 should say, a very Tsluable descripUon of coal. 

** I have preserved some of the pieces which I dugout from the lower part of the 
centre seam, which 1 will take an early opportunity of forwarding to you on my re- 
turn. Migor Whitb also discovered severad wdls of Petroleum ckiee to our camp oa 
the Hamr&p river, which emit condderable quantities of that oil, but which have 
hitherto been unknown to Europeans, and apparently almost unused by the neigh- 
boring Singphos. I have got several spedmens of rocks and earth from these wdlSf 
which I shsll also be happy to send you, should you require them. 

" Iron would also have been found, but the weather daring our stay was so bad aa 
to prevent our making further or more distant research. 

'* This coal, though distant, might easily be made available for purposes of steaming 
on the BurAompa/ra, as small canoes carrying from i to lO maunds, could take 
down the coal at all seasons to the Bore Diking, where it oonld be reshipped, and 
sent down that river to Jorhatk, or up Karam and Noa IHhing to Sodiga, We 
are now at the fbot of the pass to the Barman territories waiting for the mission, 
which if said to be coming to settle some boundary questions, but though we liavo 
been here since the 25th, no tidings have been received of them, and at this sea- 
son ; we shall, from the constant rain, be lucky to escape back to Sadiyn, about 12 
marches, without sickness.'* 

The Namr6p coal is of various quality, from a genuine lignite of vroody fibre pass- 
ing Into true coal aa it dosceoda. Two spedmens gave the following composition. 

Fibrous Lignite. Compact CoaL 

Volatile matter, iadading water, 4S.9 39.9 , 

Carbon or coak , 47 . 7 flft* I 

Ash, red ochreous, 8.4 grey earthy S.0 

no 100 

Spedfic gravity, 1.312 1.244 

J. P. 

In forwarding Lieut. Bieon's specimenf. Captain JfBNKurs notices the 
disoorery of another site of coal in the Dyung, a naddl of Central Kaehar, 
a new locality calculated to prove highly valuable from its accessibility. 
The specimen represents a jet coal of fine rich glossy texture^ spec. grav. 
1.890. With it are associated iron saQd and pyrites. 



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JOURNAL 



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THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



JVo. 6A.-'April, 1837- 



l.'^Ahitraet of the Journal of a Route travelled by Capt, S. F. H annat, 
of the 40th Regiment Native Infantry, from the Capital of Ava to the 
Amber Minee of the Hilkong valley on the South-eaet frontier of 
Aeeam. By Capt. R. Boilbau Pbmbxrton, 44th Regt, N, /. 

[With a Route Map of the couiitry north of AvmJ} 

From the termination of the Biirmese war to the present period 
the spirit of inquiry has never slept, and the most strennoos exertions 
have been made by the officers employed on the eastern frontier to 
extend our geographical knowledge to countries scarcely known but 
by name, and to acquire some accurate information regarding the 
manners, costoms, and languages of the various races of men by 
whom they are inhabited. 

The researches of Captains Bsofoed, Wiircox, and NauvrifcLB, and 
of Lieut. BuRLTON in Assam, dispelled the mist which had previously 
rested on the whole of the eastern portion of that magnificent valley ; 
and the general direction and aspect of its mountain barriers, the 
courses and relative size of its rivers, the habits of the innumerable 
tribes who dwell on the rugged summits of its mountains, or on the 
alluvial plains at their base, were then first made the subject of de- 
scription, founded, not on the vague reports of half- civilized savages, 
but on the personal investigations of men, whose scientific attainments 
enabled them to fix with precision the geographical site of every 
locality they visited. The journey of Wilcox and Borlton to the 
sources of the Irawadi river had proved the absence of communis 
cation between it and the great Tsanpo of Thibet, but they were 
unable to prosecute their examination further east ; and though their 
researches had extended to a point not more than twenty miles dis* 



246 Captain Hannay't Rwte [April, 

tant from the meridian on which the lahon of the Jesuit Mission- 
aries in Yunan had been abr aptly terminated, the intervening space, 
and great yallay of the IrawadC still remained closed against them, 
and every attempt to enter either, from Atsam or ManipUr, was 
defested by the jealous vigilance of the Burmese authorities. 

It is generally known that the course of the lower portion of the 
Irawadi river, or that part extending from RangHn to Ava, had been 
delineated by Lieut. Wood of the Engineers, who accompanied Cap- 
tain Stmss on his embassy to that Court ; and that the features of 
the surrounding country, the size of the towns, its natural produc- 
tions and population, had at the same time been investigated by the 
accurate Buchanan. Charts of this portion of the river, extending 
to Monchabu, the' capital of the great Alompra, had at a far earlier 
period been constructed, but the surveys were avowedly made in a 
manner not calculated to inspire much confidence in their accuracv ; 
and the attention of Europe was first extensively drawn to this field 
of inquiry by the publication of Stmss, whose exaggerated views of 
the civilization, power and resources of the Burmese empire were 
generally adopted, while the more accurate estimates of his successor 
Coxa were treated with comparative disregard. 

In the very infancy of our intercourse with the Burman empire, 
and when the most persevering attempts were made to obtain settle- 
ments at various points of the coast, the more remote stations on the 
upper portion of the Irawadi river were not forgotten ; and Bamd 
or Bamo was even then known as the emporium of a trade between 
the Burmese and Chinese, in which our aspiring merchants were 
most anxious to share. It is asserted that, at the commencement of 
the 17th century, factories were established in that neighborhood, 
but the permission to remain was shortly afterwards withdrawn, and 
the information which it is supposed was then obtained of the sur- 
rounding country has never been rescued from oblivion : — this is the 
less to be regretted as the loss has been fully compensated by the 
results of recent research ; and the journey of Captain Han n at, of 
the 40th Regiment Native Infantry, from Ava up the Irawadi river, 
to the frontier towns of Bamo and Mogaung, has at length rendered 
this hitherto inaccessible region almost as well known to us as the 
more southern districts, through which this noble river directs its 
course. Many geographical points of extreme interest have been 
determined by the personal observation and inquiries of this roerito- 
pous officer. Bamo has for the first time become accurately known 
from the same source — much valuable information has been gained 



IM7.] frtm Ava to the Frontier of Assam. 245^ 

respecting the trade carried on between Ava and China in this remote 
eoraer of the Barman empire — ^the habits and localities of some of the 
principal tribes occupying the monntainons tracts bordering on wes- 
tern Tanan have been snccessfallj investigated — the position of the 
very remarkable valley of Hdkong has been determined — the Pyen- 
dwen or amber mines have for the first time been examined by the 
eye of European intelligence — ^the latitudes of the principal towns be- 
tween Ava and Mdngkhong have been ascertained by astronomical 
observation with a degree of accuracy sufficient for every purpose of 
practical utility, and they may now be regarded as established points, 
from whence inquiry can radiate in every direction with a confidence 
which the most zealous and enlightened investigators have been hi- 
therto unable to feel in prosecuting their researches, from the want 
of a few previously well-determined positions at which to commence 
or terminate their inquiries. 

To an act of aggression on the part of a Singpho tributary of Ava 
against a chieftain of the same clan residing under our protection, 
are we indebted for the opportunity of acquiring the information now 
gained, and the feud of two insignificant borderers may prove the 
immediate cause of a more intimate communication than had ever 
previoQsly existed between our recently acquired possessions in Assam 
and the northern provinces of the Barman empire. 

The BIsa and Dapha Gaums are the heads of two dans of Sing- 
phos, occupying the northern and southern faces of the chain of 
mountains, which forms a lofty barrier between Ava and Assam. The 
former chieftain, on our conquest of the latter country, tendered his 
submission and was admitted within the pale of that feudatory depen- 
dence which many other tribes of the same clan had been equally 
anxious to enter ;^— he was uniformly treated by the local authorities 
with great consideration, and was located at the northern foot of the 
Patkoi pass leading from Assam to the Hdkong valley. Between this 
chieftain and the Dupha Gaum a feud had existed long previous to 
our assumption of the sovereignty of the country ; and the latter, at 
the close of the year 1835, headed a party, which crossing the 
mountains from the Burmese province of Hukong, entered B(sa, the 
residence of the chief of that clan, and after ravaging and plundering 
the village, sealed their atrocity with the indiscriminate murder of' 
all the inhabitants that fell into their hands. The circumstances were 
made known to the British Resident at the Court of Ava ; inquiry 
was demanded, and security required against the recurrence of simi- 
lar acta of aggression. A deputation from the capital was ordered 
2 K 2 



ft4S Capiam Hmmttjf's RmU€ [AraiSy 

to the Barmeae frontier for tbe purpose of iiMtitating the neoessary 
investigstioii, and Colonel Burmbt, the enlightened representative of 
BritiBh interests at that court, failed not to avail himself of the op* 
portunity thus unexpectedly afforded* of attaching an officer to the 
mission ; and Captain Hanmat, who then commanded his escort, wae 
selected for the duty. 

The party, consisting of the newly appointed Burmah goTemor 
of Magmnmg, of Captain Hannat and several Burmese officers of 
inferior rank, with a military escort, left Ava on tbe 22nd of 
November, 1835, in a fleet of 34 boats of various sices, for a part 
of the country which had been uniformly closed against strangerg 
with the most jealous vigilance. " No foreigners," says Captain 
H ANN AT, " except the Chinese, are allowed to navigate the Iramadi 
above the chokf of TMtmpaynago, situated about seventy miles above 
Ava ; and no native of the country even is permitted to proceed 
above that post, excepting under a special license from the Govern- 
ment. The trade to the north of Ava is entirely in the hands of the 
Chinese, and the individuals of that nation residing at Ava have 
always been vigilant in trying to prevent any interference with their 
monopoly." 

The mission was detained the two following days near the former 
capital of Amarapvra, to complete the quota of troops by which it was 
to be accompanied, and whose discipline* when they did join, was 
very soon found to be on a par with their honesty. 

** They work their own boats," says Captain Hamnat, '* some of 
which are covered in, and others are quite open. Their musquets 
(if they deserve the name) are ranged here and there throughout the 
boat, and are never cleared either from rust or dust, and wet or dry 
they are left without any covering. Each man carries a canvass bag, 
which is a receptacle for all sorts of things, including a few bamb6 
cartridges. He wears a black Sh£n jacket and a head dress or 
gtmng^himng of red cotton handkerdiief, and thus equipped he is a 
complete Burmah militia man. They appear on further acquaintance 
to be better humoured than I at first thought them, but they are sad 
plunderers, and I pity the owners of the fields of pumkins or beans 
they come across. I have remarked that whatever a Burmsn boat- 
man eats in addition to his rice, is generally stolen." 

Except at Kugyih, where there are said to be several Christian 
villages, of which, however, no satisfactory information could be 
obtained, the progress of the mission was unmarked by any circum- 
stance of interest, until its arrival at Yedim^ where they entered the 



18S7.] fffm AvM to ike Fnmii^r ofA$9am. 249 

€nt hfrnA-imem^ or rocky defile, tbroogh which the river direcU its 
ooune. Lower down, th^ extreme breedth of the stream had varied 
from one to two and a half miles» bat here its width was contracted 
to less than a qnarter of a mile, with a porportionate increase in the 
depth and velocity of the coxrent. Daring the rainy season of the 
year, boats shoot ihrongh these narrow passes with terrific velocity, 
and the nnmerons eddies cansed by the projecting rocks, add greatly 
to the danger of the passage. In this part of their coarse, the 
mission frequently met large rafts of bambds descending from the 
Bkieli river, and npon them, small baskets of pickled tea, brought 
from the hills to the south-east of that river. This tea was said to 
be manofiictnred by a race called Paiong Paon, who are under 
Mameit, At TringU, Captain Hannat saw three native Chinese 
from nemfyichd or Mowtyen, and several others in the service of 
the noblemen of the court, had accompanied the expedition from Ava 
with the view of proceeding to the Kyauk Ttein, or Serpentine mines 
near the sources of the ITrii river, west of the Irmoadi. On the 
30th of November the party left the village of Yedan Fva, where a 
perceptible change t^ces place in the character of the country and 
river. " The latter," says Captain Hannat, " from covering an ex- 
tent of miles is sometimes confined within a limit of 150 yards, with- 
out rapids or -torrents, as I had expected, but almost as still as 
a lake. In some places its depth is very great being upwards of 10 
fathoms. It winds through beautiful jungle, in which the pipat, 
simal trees, and bambas, are conspicuous, and it hat, generally 
speaking, a ' rocky bed and banks, which last rise to a considerable 
height, and composed of sandstone, which varies from dark to a 
white and yellow color." At the next stage, or Thikadaphya, 
Captain Hannat mentions a very remarkable instance of the tameness 
of the fish, which are not allowed to be killed, and are found 
from about a mile below the village to an equal distance above. 

" If rice is thrown into the water from the boat, a dozen fish, some 
of them as much as three and foar feet long, come to the surface, and 
not only eat the rice, but open their mouths for you to put it in, and 
they will allow you to. pat them on the head, which I and some of 
my followers actually did. Some of these fish are apparently of the 
same epecies as those called in India f^urd and ri^fa; indeed the 
Hindus who are with me called them by these names. The breadth of 
head is remarkable, and the mouth very large ; they have no teeth, — 
at least so the people told me, whom I saw feeling their mouths." 
Thii spectacle, strange as it must have appeared, was hardly more so 



ft50 Captain HanMnf*$ Route [AmB, 

than the adventure tit- the following morning, when Captain HANNAf 
*'wa8 awoke by the boatmen ealling to the fish to participate in 
their meal." 

On the Ut of December the expedition arrived lit Tsampaytrngo, 
which has been before mentioned as the limit, beyond which, even na» 
tives of the country are not permitted to proceed without an express 
order from the Government. The custom-house or thana is on the 
right bank of the river, and Maid my{i which is close to it, con* 
tains about 800 houses with many very handsome gilded temples. 

The Myothagyi or deputy governor of the town, is also the cus- 
tom officer, and a tax of 1 5 ticals per boat is levied on the Chinese 
coming from Bamo. Old Tsampaynago myo is situated at the mouth 
of a small river which flows from Mog&ut and Kyatpen, and falls into 
the Irawaui immediately opposite the modern chokf of that name. 
The sites oiMogout and Kyatpen, where some of the finest rubies of the 
kingdom are obtained, were pointed out to Captain Hai^nat as lying 
in a direction N. 80^ £. of TBompaynago, and about 30 or 40 
miles distant, immediately behind a very conspicuous peak called 
Shueil Toung, which he estimated at 3,000 feet high. The Madara 
river, as well as that of Tsampaynago, flows from the same mine- 
ral district which must greatly facilitate communication with it. The 
inha!}itants of the country were unwilling or afraid to communicate any 
information regarding these secluded spots, and their exact locality is 
still a subject of conjecture. The mines are described as in a very 
swampy situation, and surrounded at a trifling distance by lofty hills. 
The three places at which the gems are principally sought, are 
Mogout, Kyatpen and Loungthd, and the principal miners are Kathays or 
Manipt^ris, with a few Chinese and Shans. The other most celebrat- 
ed spot is Mameit, the site of which Bitghanan found some diflSiculty 
in determining, but which Captain Han n at learnt was not more 
than two or three days' journey, or between 20 or 90 miles north 
of Mogout and Kyatpen, While at this place Captain Hannat says, 
•' they heard the people who were cutting bambds in the hills, roll- 
ing bundles of them down the face of the steep. Having made a road 
by felling the trees, the woodmen allow bundles of 150 and 200 bam- 
b^is to find their way to the bottom, which they do with a noise that 
is heard at the distance of eight miles. They are then floated down 
the small river into the Iraw^di, but this operation can only be 
eiTected during the rains." The party now began to feel the cold' 
excessively, and its severity was greatly heightened by a strong 
northerly wind, which seldom subsided until the afternoon; and was 
particularly keen in the narrow passes or kyouk-dwens. 



1837.] frwn Av9 to the Frontier of Assam. 951 

Tagoung Mfi, which wm reached on the 5th of December, is aa 
pbject of peculiar interest, as it is said to have been built by a king 
from Western India, whose descendants afterwards founded the king- 
doms of Prome, Pagan and Ava, Captain Hannat found the walls of 
the old fort dwindled away to a mere mound, and hardly discernible 
from the jungle with which they wece covered ; but adds, " that enough 
is still seen to convince one that such a place did formerly exist. 
The fort has evidently been parallel with the river, and is on the left 
bank which is high and composed of sandstone. About half a mile 
inland, the remains of the inner walls run north and south, with an 
opening or gap to the east, in which there is an appearance of a con* 
siderable ditch, which I was told is filled with water in the height 
of the rains. The whole has more the appearance of an old brick 
fort, than any thing I have seen in Burmah, and I should say it had 
been built by a people different from the present race of Burmans." 

About a mile to the south of Tagoung are the extensive ruins of 
Pagan, which stretch as far as the eye can reach, and here Captain 
Hanmat discovered impressions of Hindu Buddhist images, stamped 
upon a peculiar kind of brick composition (terra cutta), and with iiw 
scriptions which he imagined to be written in some variety of the 
Deva-nigri character. The Burmese on the spot were unable to 
explain their nature or origin, and the learning of an aged priest 
proved equally incompetent to the task of deciphering them : — they 
were subsequently, however* submitted to some Burman antiquarians 
at the capital, by the Resident, whose paper on the subject and a 
drawing of the images appeared in the 51st No. of the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society. . 

At Skwezi-goung, a large pagoda among the ruins of Tagoung^ 
Captain Hannav obtained an extensive view of the subjacent coun« 
try» and more accurate information of the site of the celebrated mines 
of Momeit than had been practicable at an earlier period of his voy- 
age. From these accounts it appears that the locality which is said 
to produce the finest rubies in the kingdom, is about forty-five or 
fifty miles east of Tagoung Myd, from whence it can be reached by a 
foot traveller in three or four days, and by a laden bullock in ten. 
A drove of these animals was just about to leave Tagoung for Momeit 
on Captain Hamnat's arrival, and from the owners he learnt " that 
after selling their ngapee (potted fish) at Momeit, Mogoui and Kya/« 
pen, they proceeded to the country of the Palougs, which bounds 
the district of Momeit on the east, and purchase tea, both pickled 
and formed into balls, a part of which is brought to Aoa" Tiie fish. 



252 Captain Hamia^'* Rma§ [Aprnti* 

wbich apparently forms the staple of the trade, is said to be of a 
remarkably fine description, and is dried in a manner peculiar to 
Tagoung. 

On the left bank of the river, between Henga-mgo and Tagouagt 
the teak tree first begins to appear, and at Kyundoung on the opposite 
side, it is said, that timber is found sufficiently large to form a boat 
from a single tree ; it grows principally on the western face of the 
hills, at whose eastern base Kyundoung stands. A delay of two days 
at this village enabled Captain Hannat to ascend to the summit of 
the first range of hills, by the road which leads across them to the 
valley of the Mu river : he found it a well- beaten track and great 
thoroughfare, by which the inhabitants of the country as far west as 
Waniha Myu, are accustomed to convey their supplies of fish, salt 
and oil from Kyundoung, a place apparently of some trade ; the bazar 
contained 50 shops which were large and supplied with British piece 
goods, nncleaned cotton, silk, and cotton Burman dresses, coarse 
white cloth and other articles of country manufacture. " Besides 
these/' adds Captain Hannat, " I saw three Chinese shops, where 
spirits and pork were sold. The streets were crowded with people 
from the interior, who had come to make purchases, and amongst 
them were several Kadus, a race of people of a dififerent origin from 
the Burmahs, and scattered over the tract of country between this 
and Mogaung, They are most numerous in the districts of Manli 
and Mankat situated on the Meza river* which comes from the north 
and west, and runs between the Kyundoung range and that called 
the Thegyain range, still seven or eight miles north of our present 
position. Rice, being the staple of the country, is an article of barter, 
and is sent in considerable quantities to Ava, Cotton, brought from 
the interior, is also an article of barter, and a good deal of it is sent 
to Bamo, but a part of it is made into cloth on the spot, as I saw 
several looms at work. Yellow and red cotton handkerchiefs of 
British manufacture sell here for two ticals a piece, which is about 
100 per cent, beyond the price lit Ava," 

To this point of their progress, no diminution in the volume of the 
Irawadi was perceptible, and the channels proved sufficiently deep 
for the passage of large boats, from which we may infer that all the 
principal feeders or affluents, which pour their tributary streams into 
the Irawad{ were still further north, and had not yet been reached. 
The first of any importance noticed is, the Shoe H khyoung on the 
left bank, the northern branch of which flows from the Chinese fron* 
* A imali stream not mors than fifty yards broad, with bat little water. 



1 837.] frtm Ava to the Frontier of Assam. 253 

tier town of Santa-fH, called by the BurmabB Mola Santa, and a 
aonthem branch from Momeit, the site of the celebrated ruby mines 
already noticed : the confluence of these streams is represented as 
occurring at the village of Laha about 40 miles from the Irawadi, 
Neither branch can be of any magnitude, for Captain Hannat remarks 
that at the point of junction with the Irawadi, the breadth of the 
Sk»4H is not more than 300 yards, and that it contained but little 
water, — a satisfactory proof that, this stream can have no connexion 
with the I^anpo of Thibet, 

At Yehomk yua, a day's journey above the Shu^ khyoung, two boats 
passed the party with Chinese in them from Bamo, " They work 
their boats which are of the Burman round- shaped flat-bottomed de« 
■cription, and seem to be of a tolerable size, as there must have been 
at least twenty men in each. These boats are particularly well 
adapted for the navigation of the Irawadi, as they do not draw more 
than 18 inches of water." 

On the 13th of December the party reached Katha, a town of some 
extent on the right bank of the river, containing about 400 houses, 
and a population whose numbers appear to be annually increased by 
large parties who come from the interior, and take up a temporary 
abode on the right bank of the river, and on the numerous islands 
and shoals in its bed, for the purpose of fishing and traffic : at the 
close of the season they return to their respective homes in time for the 
resumption of agricultural labour, and a traveller ignorant of this no- 
made custom, which appears to be very general in the upper part of 
the IrawatU, would form an exaggerated estimate of the population of 
the towns and villages in which they are thus, temporarily congregate 
•d. " The bazar of Katha was well supplied with good native vege- 
tables of various sorts, fresh and salt fish, pork sold by Chinamen, dried 
cocoanuts, sugar-cane, and rice from the coarsest to the best quality, 
the latter selling at 15 ticals a hundred baskets." Captain Hannat 
also saw a small quantity of stick lac in the bazar, but it was dear, and 
of a description very inferior, to that which is procurable at Rangiin, 
and is brought from the Shin territory east of Ava. Even at this 
remote spot there was a ' tolerable display' of British piece goods, 
but not nearly to the extent noticed at Kyundoung, Captain Hahnax 
mentions a Kyoung or monastery recently erected by the Myothagi 
of Katha, as one of the most remarkable objects of the plape. " It 
is a large woodeh building covered with beautiful carved work, and 
situated near the river. The grounds surrounding it are extensive, 
and very tastefully laid out with fruit trees and flowery shrubs, 
2 L 



254 Captain Haamay't Routt [Araii., 

amongst which I saw the Chinese rose in great plenty." The river 
is here confined by lofty banks not more than two fjirlohgs apart, but 
the stream is very deep, and the spot appears to be a particularly 
favorable one for obtaining a good section of the river, the velocity 
of which at Wegyih, a village above Katha, Captain H anna t estimat- 
-ed at one mile and a half an hour, with an average depth of 18 feet. 
This would give a discharge of about 52,272 cubic feet per second, 
while that of the Ganges at the same season may be aasuined on 
Renn ell's authority at 80,000 feet per second, giving for both a 
proportion of 1 to 1.53. No satisfactory comparison can, however, 
be yet instituted between these magnificent rivers, for up to the pre- 
sent moment we are without a single section of the Irawadi, which 
could be safely assumed as the basis of a calculation sufficiently accu- 
rate for such a purpose. 

At Kyouk-gyih, which the party reached on the 1 7th, they had 
fairly entered the remarkable curve in the Irawadi which had been 
previously represented in all our sketches of the river, and served, in 
the absence of more accurate information, as a point of reference, 
generally well known to the Burmahs and Shins. Here there is 
a ledge of rocks, over which the stream passes with so great a degree 
of rapidity, as to render it very difficult of navigation during the rains. 
The rocks are serpentine and the sand collected amongst them appear- 
ed to be a mixture of small garnets and iron sand. The right bank 
of the river, for two miles below Kgouk-gyih, is composed of email 
round stones and sand, and Captain Hannat was told that the natives 
wash the soil for gold. 

No circumstance throughout this voyage afforded a more gratifying 
proof of the friendly feeling generally of the Burmese authorities, than 
the attentions which Captain Hannat received at every place at which 
they halted. Houses were erected for his accommodation at the various 
stages of the route, differing in no respect from those intended for the 
Myiiwdn of Mogoung ; presents of fruit, rice, and vegetables were 
daily made to himself and followers, and the supposed tedium of his 
evenings was relieved by a band of singers and dancers, who are found 
at almost every town and village in the Burman empire. At Kyauk* 
gyih, these attentions were shewn to a very remarkable degree by the 
Woon of Munyen, " whose civility," says Captain Hannat, " was the 
subject of conversation with every one in the fleet. 

** Every individual has received sufficient rice ancTfish for two days' 
supply, and my boat was filled by him witli all sorts of provisions, 
enough certunly to last myself and my followers for a week." The 



1 83 7 .] fTom Ava to the Frontier of Assam . 255 

hoQse of this liberal Woon, Captain Hannat describes " as a very 
neat and comfortable dwelling, with a remarkably clean compound, in 
which there is a garden laid oat with a great deal of taste, and, besides 
many articles of costly Barman hoasehold farnitare, he has a namber 
of very fine muskets and other arms." The party had now approach- 
ed within a comparatively short distance of Bamo, and the vicinity of 
this celebrated mart was shewn, in more numerous villages than had 
been seen for several preceding days. From Shuegt't Myd to Balet, 
a distance of three miles, the houses appeared to eitend in an unin- 
terrupted line, and Kywdn do, the name of a celebrated island in the 
river, covered with 100 pagodas, is most conveniently situated be- 
tween these towns, the inhabitants of which hold their principal festi- 
vals upon it, at particular seasons of the year. 

Near this spot, is the entrance to the second kyouk-dwen, the 
scenery bf which appears to be very magnificent, and is thus describ- 
ed by Captain Hannat. "The river passes directly through the 
hills, which rise perpendicularly on both sides to the height of 400 
feet ; they are rocky, and of irregular and singular forms, having at 
the same time a sufficient number of trees on them to render the 
scenery very striking. One part of the range, on the right bank> 
rises as perpendicularly as a wall to the height of 500 feet, forming a 
grand andterrific precipice. This kyouk'dvm extends for four miles, 
and the hills which form it, are throughout of a rocky nature. The 
upper part of them appeared to be sandstone, resting on a base bf 
blue-colored limestone, mixed with veins of beautiful white marble ; 
and at one spot I saw large masses of compact and foliated primitive 
limestone, along with calcareous spar in large pieces." 

Koung'toun, which the mission reached on the 20th, is said to con- 
tain about 200 houses, and is noted for the defence made by its Bur- 
mese garrison, against a large invading force of Chinese during the 
last war between these two nations. A ditch surrounds the town, and 
the remains of a brick redoubt, loop-holed for arrows or musquetry are 
still perceptible encircling a pagoda. " This is now all that is to be 
seen," adds Captain Hannat, "of the old fortification, but the town 
is still surrounded by a double palisade of bambus with sharp stakes 
placed between them." These defences are intended for the protec- 
tion of the inhabitants against the Kakhyens, a tribe occupying the 
hills to the east, who frequently come down in small bodies for the 
purpose of carrying off cattle. Captain Hannat saw a great number 
of this tribe at Koungtoun, where they barter their rice and cotton 
for salt and gnapee, (potted fish) and describes them, with few 
2 L 2 



256 Captain Hannay's Route [April, 

exceptioDB, as perfect savages in their appearance ; their cast of coun« 
t^nance forms a singular exception to the general rule, for it is not at 
all Tartar in its shape, hut they have, on the contrary, " long faces 
and straight noses, with a very disagreeable expression about the eyes, 
which was rendered still more so by their lanky black hair being 
brought over the forehead so as entirely to cover it, and then cut 
straight across on a line with the eyebrows. These people, though 
surrounded by Shins, Burmese and Chinese, are so totally different 
from either, that it is difficult to imagine from whence they have had 
their origin." 

On the 20th of December the fleet moored at a village about five 
miles below Bamo, which being a town of great importance, and the 
residence of an officer inferior in rank to the Mogoung Woon, some 
previous arrangements were necessary to enable the latter to land with 
the ecl&t due to his rank. On reaching the town late on the following 
day, they found the left bank on which it stands so precipitous, that 
they were compelled to cross to the opposite side of the river, and a 
feeling of jealousy having arisen between the two Woons of Mog<ntng 
and Bamo, the former resumed his journey on the 22nd, which com* 
pelled Captain Hannat to defer the inquiries he was so anxious to 
make until his return in April, when he found the people far more 
communicative than they had ventured to be in the presence of 
the Mogoung Woon. The information obtained on both occasions will 
be more advantageously shewn in a connected form than in the de- 
tached portions in which it necessarily appears in his journal, and 
Captain Hannay's first remark solves a difficulty, which, like the 
Adria of ancient history, has proved a stumbling block to modern in- 
vestigation. In the course of inquiry into the sites of the principal 
towns on the Irawadi river, that of Bamo naturally held a very pro- 
minent place, and some of the native Shans, who were questioned on 
the subject affirmed that it was on the bank of the Irawadi river, 
while others, whose opportunities of acquiring information had been 
equally good, positively denied this statement, and fixed its position 
on the left bank of a small stream which flows into the Irawadi, about 
a mile above the present town. Captain Hannat reconciles the 
conflicting statements, briefly but satisfactorily, in the following 
remark : — 

** I find that this is a modem town erected on the banks of the 
Irawadi, for the convenience of water carriage between it and Ava, 
The old Sh£n town of Manmo, or Bamo, is situated two days journey 
up the Tapan river, which falls into the Irawadi about a mile above 



1 83 7 .] frtm Ava to the Frontier of Assam. 25 7 

the new town of Bamo or ZeO'theet'Xeit, or new mart landing- 
place." 

" This modem town/' sajt Captain Hannat, " is ettaated on high 
unequal ground, and the bank towards the river is from 40 to 50 feet 
in height, and composed of clay. With the exception of Ava and 
Rangun it is the largest place I have seen in Burmah, and, not except- 
ing these places* I certainly think it the most interesting. The novel- 
ty of so large a fleet as ours passing up (and no doubt, having heard 
that a European oflGLcer was of the party) had attracted a great crowd 
of people to the river side, and on landing, I felt as if I were almost in 
a civilized land again, when I found myself amongst fair coraplexion- 
ed people, wearing jackets and trowsers, after being accustomed to the 
harsh features and party-colored dress of the Burmans. The people 
I saw were Chinese from the province of Yunan, and Shins from the 
Sh&n provinces subject to China. Bamo is said to contain 1500 houses, 
but including several villages which join it, I should say it contained 
2000 at least, 200 of which are inhabited by Chinese. Besides the 
permanent population of Bamo, there are always a great number of 
strangers there, Chinese, Shins, and Kakhyens, who either come to 
make purchases or to be hired as workmen. There are also a great 
number of Assamese both in the town and in the villages immediately 
connected with it, amongst whom are several members of the Tapan or 
Assam Rija's family. Bamo is the jaghire of the Tapan Rija's sister, 
who is one of the ladies of the king of Ava. 

" The inhabitants of this district live in large comfortable houses, 
which are thatched with gprass, and walls made of reeds. They are 
generally railed in, and all the villages have bambu palisades sur- 
rounding them. The Palongs of the Chinese frontier are, I am told, 
remarkably industrious. They are good dyers, carpenters and black- 
smiths, and all the dhas or swords used in this part of the country 
are made by them." " 1 received," adds Captain Hannat, " great 
attention from the Mydwijn of Bamo, and also from the head Chinese 
there ; they sent me tea, sugar, dried fruits, and vegetables, for 
which I, of course, made a suitable return. The annual caravan 
from China had not arrived, and the supply of Chinese articles in the 
shops was very small." 

The people of Bamo were so strongly impressed with the idea 
that Captain Hannat's only object was to find a road by which Bri- 
tish troops might penetrate to China, that he found it extremely dif- 
ficult to obtain any information from them regarding the routes into 
that country. The Chinese themselves, however, proved more com- 



^258 Captain Hamuty's Route [ArRiL» 

mnnicatiTe, and from tbem he learnt the existence of several passes 
from Bamo into Yunan ; bat as one of these presents far greater faci- 
lities of transit than the others, it is generally adopted for commercial 
intercourse, and the mode of carrying it on is thus described. ** At 
the distance of two miles* above Bamo the mouth of the Taping or Ta» 
pan river is situated. This river has a direction N. 70 E. for about 
two days* journey, when it cuts through the Kakhyen range, and 
under these hills, old Bamo, or Manmo, is situated. To the latter 
place the Chinese take their merchandise from modern Bamo by 
water, and then proceed overland to the chokC or ken of LoaiUmg near 
Minoan, which they reach in three days, and from thence to Momnyen 
or Tengyechew in the province of Yunan, at which place they arrive in 
eight or nine days. The road from Bamo to Loailong is through the 
hills, which are inhabited by Kakhyens and Palongs, after which it 
passes through the country of the Sh£ns, called by the Burmans, 
Kapyi'doung, The road is described as being very good, and quite a 
thoroughfare. The Tapan Khyoung is not navigable for large boats, 
in consequence of which the Chinese use two canoes tied together, 
with a platform over them, for the transport of their merchandise to 
Manmo or old Bamo, and for the remainder of the journey it is carried 
on ponies or mules." 

This description of the size of the Tapan Kkyoung, which is also 
called by the Shins Numtaping, completely sets at i est the keenly 
agitated question of its identity with the Tsanpo of Thibet, and the 
theory of Klaproth, (who, on the authority of Chinese writers, caUs it 
the Pinglankhyoung, and maintains it to be the prolongation of the 
Tsanpo) is shewn to have no better foundation than his unauthorized 
change in the position assigned to the latter river, in that part of its 
course which passes through Thibet. Captain Hannat describes the 
Taping as not more than 150 yards broad, and with only sufficient 
water to float a small boat. The Singphos afiirm that it is a branch 
of the ShueW Khyoung (the Lungshu^ kiang of the Chinese) from 
which it separates above Momein, but the accuracy of this report ap- 
pears highly questionable. 

The principal article of trade, which is cotton, is entirely in the 
hands of the Chinese, who arrive at Bamo in the months of Decem- 
ber and January. The greater part of their imports is taken to Ava, 
as neither the natives of Mogaung nor Bamo could afford to purchase 
them. '* What they dispose of here," says Captain Hannat, '" are 
copper pots, carpets and warm jackets." These articles are also 
* la another place it ii meDtioned ai only one mile above Bamo. 



1 837.] frtm Ava to the Fnmtier of Assam. 259 

taken all over the Barman territories, as far west as the Khyendwem^ 
There are several cotton godowna here, belonging to the Chinese* and 
there are constantly residing in the town 500 of these people, which, 
with the nameroos arrivals from different parts of the country, gives 
the place a very business-like appearance, and there is of course a 
good bazar." There is a very neat temple built by the Chinese of 
Bamo, which Captain Hannat visited, and was most politely received 
by the officiating priest. " On entering his house," says Captain 
Hannat. " he rose to meet me, saluted me in the English fashion, 
asked me to sit down, and ordered his people to bring me tea ; after 
which he sent a person with me to shew me the curiosities of the 
temple. Most of the. figures were carved on wood, and different from 
what I have generally seen in Chinese temples ; one of them repre- 
sented the Nursinga of the Hindus. The Chinese of Bamo, although 
different from the maritime Chinese, in language and features, have 
still the same idea of neatness and comfort, and their manners and 
mode of living appear to be much the same.'* 

" Their temple and all the houses, which are not temporary, are 
substantially built of bricks stained blue ; the streets are paved with 
the same material, and the grounds of the temple are surrounded by 
a neat brick wall covered with tiles." " Besides the trade carried on 
at Bamo by the Chinese^ the Shins, Palongs, and Singphos under 
China, are great purchasers of salt, gnapee, dried fish, and rice, but 
particularly salt, which is in constant demand ; and to procure it, 
numbers of the above named people come to Bamo, Sambaungya and 
Kountoumg, The salt which sells here for twenty ticals of silver for 
100 vis, or 28 rupees for 150 seers, is brought principally from Shein" 
tnaga above Ava, and from Manbd, which is situated two marches 
west of KtUha. The Shins here are distinguished by their fair com* 
plexions and broad good-tempered faces. They wear turbans and trow« 
sers of light blue cotton cloth ; they greatly resemble the Chinese, 
and from living so near that nation, many of them speak the Yunan» 
Chinese language. They inhabit the country to the east of Bamo, 
and their principal towns are Hotha, hatha, Santa, Sanla, Moongsge, 
Moong^woon, Moong-man, Moong-la, and Moong^tye, The people are 
generally designated Shin Taroup or Chinese Shins." 

" Although the Palongs speak the Shin, their own native Ian* 
goage is a distinct one. Tfaa men, though small in stature, are athle- 
tic and remarkably wdl made. Flat noses and grey eyes are very 
common amongtft them. They wear their hair tied in a knot on the 
right side of the head, and dress in a turban, jacket, and trowsers, of 



1260 Captain Hannay's Route [April, 

dark blue cloth. They are a hill people, and live in the tract of 
country situated between Burmah and China, but those to the east of 
Bamo pay no revenue to either country, and are governed by their 
own Tsobuas. The Singpho traders I saw at Bamo were very differ- 
ent from those under Burmah, and according to their proximity to 
either Sb£ns or Chinese, they assimilate to one or other in dress and 
language." 

'* The whole of these people," says Captain Hannat, " pay for 
every thing they require in silver ; and were it not for the restrictions 
in Burmah on the exportation of silver, I think an intelligent British 
merchant would find it very profitable to settle at Bamo ; as, besides 
the easy intercourse with China, it is surrounded by numerous and 
industrious tribes, who would, no doubt, soon acquire a taste for Bri« 
tish .manufactures, which are at present quite unknown to them." 
The revenue of the district b estimated by Captain Hannat at three 
lakhs of rupees per annum ; and he adds, " If appearance of comfort 
may be taken as a proof of its prosperity, the inhabitants of Batno 
shew it in their dress and houses. 1 have seen more gold and silver 
ornaments worn here than in any town in Burmah" 

On leaving Bamo, the appearance of the country became much 
more hilly, and great precautions were taken to guard against sur« 
prise by the Kakhyens, who inhabited the different ranges in the 
vicinity of the river. 

At Hakan the escort was reinforced by 150 soldiers from Bamo, and 
a number of families who were proceeding up the river, joined the 
fleet to enjoy the protection afforded by so large a convoy. The 
Shins who composed the quota from Bamo were a remarkably fine 
set of men from the banks of the Tapan Khyoung, and formed a 
striking contrast, in dress and appearance, to the miserable escort 
which had accompanied the party from Ava. 

At the village of Thaphan-heng they entered the third Kyouk-dwen 
from which a very beautiful view is obtsined of the fertile valley of 
Bamo, bounded oil the east by the Kakhyen hills, which are cultivated 
to their summits. Serpentine and limestone were the principal rocks 
found in this defile, as well as the preceding one ; and as the river 
was here in some places not more than 80 yards broad, with a depth 
of 30 feet, and its rise is in the rains 50 feet above the present level, 
the rush of waters must at that season be terrific; The natives, indeed, 
declared, that the roar at that time was so great, as to prevent them 
ft'om hearing each other speak, and that the defile could only then be 
traversed on rafts : now, however, it coursed gently along with an 
almost imperceptible motion. 



1837.] from Ata to tke Froniitr of Assam. Ml 

At Thahy^eng^yua they fouBd a new race of people called Phwons* 
who described themselves as having originally come from a country 
to the north-east, called Motoung Maoiong, the precise sitaation of 
which could not be ascertained. Their native language, which they 
apeak only in intercourse with each other, differs altogether from the 
6h£n and Burmese, but they have no written character. There appear 
to be two tribes of this race, distinguished by the Burmahs aa the 
great and small : — the former are found only at Tshenbo and in the 
vicinity of the third Kyouk^dwen^ while the inferior tribe is scattered 
all over the country : the only difference apparently between them 
consists in some trifling varieties in the dialects they speak. Their 
extensive cultivation proved their agricultural industry, and four 
Chinese Shins were constantly employed in manufacturing their im- 
plements of husbandrf. Their houses were of a construction totally 
different from any that had been previously seen, and consisted of a 
long thatched roof rounded at the ends and reaching almost to the 
ground. Inside of this and at the height of eight or ten feet from 
the ground, the different apartments are formed, the walls of which 
are made of mat. 

'* From the outward appearance of these houses," says Captain 
UiiNNiiT, " it would be difficult to imagine that they were habitations* 
but inside they are very comfortable, and from the great thickness 
and peculiar form of the roof, the inmates cannot be much affected 
either by heat or cold." The same description of house is built by the 
Shins occupying the valley of Kuho, and it is probable that the 
Phwons have adopted this style of building from some tribe of that 
widely scattered nation. 

On the 26th the fleet reached a part of the IrawadU which is consi- 
dered the most dangerous point in its navigation. It is called PuskUp 
and the stream is there confined to a breadth of 30 yards, but 
with no less than nine fothoms of depth in the centre. The rocks 
bore every appearance of fierce and irregular volcanic action, varying 
in color " from brown, yellow, red and green, to a jet black which, 
ahone like a looking glass." The strata also presented a scene of 
great confusion, some being vertical, some horizontal, and others 
twisted ; *' the whole having exactly the appearance of having been 
poured out from a furnace." 

The navigation of the Irawadi river up to this point had been un- 
marked by difficulties of any magnitude, and, with the exception of the 
passes through the Kyouk-dwens, the channel appears to have afforded, 
•ven at that season of the year, an abundant supply of water for the 

2 M 



263 Captain Hannmf*$ Route [A^eil, 

largest class of boats, which ply between Ava and Bamo : above the 
Tillage of Namhet, however, they first met a succession of rapids ex- 
tending for a mile and a half, which were even then considered danger- 
ous ; and Captain Hannat remarks, that he had seldom seen in the 
worst season, and worst part of the Ganges, a stronger current, or more 
turbulent water than at the rapids of Shu^gj^ain-man, a short distance 
above the village of Namhet, 

On the arrival of the fleet at Tahenbo, which is about 10 miles below 
the mouth of the Mogaung river, the boats by which the party had 
been conveyed from Ava were exchanged for others of a smaller 
description, better adapted for the navigation of so small and tortuous 
a river as that oi Mogaung, The one prepared for Captain Hannat's 
accommodation was of the kind called by the Burmese " loang :*' it 
was paddled by 25 men, and formed of a single tree, with the addition 
of a plank 10 inches broad, all round the upper part of it* 

Before quitting Tshenbo, Captain Hannat had a visit from the head 
priest, whose curiosity to obtain some knowledge of European customs 
and habits could only be satisfied by the display of the contents of 
his trunks, and the sight of his watch, sextant, and thermometer ; all 
of which he was permitted to examine by Captain Hannat, who 
regrets that he had not brought some missionary tracts with him from 
Ava " to give this inquisitive priest some idea of the Christian religion/' 
Tshenbo, on the authority of this priest, is said to have been formerly 
a principal city of the Phwon tribe, who were dispossessed of it, about 
sixty years ago, by the Burroahs. 

On the last day of December the mission reached the mouth of the 
Mogaung river, which Captain Hannat ascertained by observation to 
be in latitude 24« 56" 53". Here they were to quit the Irawad{, which, 
says Captain Hannat " is still a fine river flowing in a reach from the 
eastward half a mile broad, at the rate of two miles an hour, and with 
a depth varying from three fathoms in the centre to two at the edge." 

The Mogaung river on which the town of the same name i? situated, is 
not more than 100 yards wide, and the navigation is impeded by a suc- 
cession of rapids over which the stream rushes with considerable velocity. 
The smallest boat in the fleet was an hour and a half getting over the 
first of these obstacles, and the Shan boatmen, who are thoroughly ac- 
quainted with the character of the river, " pull their boats close to the 
rocky points, and then, using all their strength, shoot across to the op- 
posite side before the force of the stream had time to throw them on the 
rocks." The Burmah boatmen adopted the apparently easier method 
of pulling their boats up along the edge of the stream, but this proved 



1^37.] fnm Ava to the Frontier of Assam. 268 

both difficult and daagerooB, one boat being upaet and a man drowned. 
The banks of the river were covered with a dense and impervious jun- 
gle, which extended nearly the whole way to Mogmmg^ and no village 
•erved to beguile the wearisome monotony of this portion of the jour- 
ney, until they reached Akouktoung, a small hamlet on the right bank 
inhabited by Phwons and Shins. Here they met a chief of the L<^- 
iae Singphos, who had taken up his residence in this village with a 
few followers, in consequence of a feud with some neighbouring tribes 
in his own country to the north. Between Akotdi-yda and Tapoh (the 
next village seen) the bed of the river is filled with rocks and rapids, 
which render the navigation exceedingly dangerous, the stream shoot- 
ing over them with such velocity as frequently to rise above the bow 
of the boat, which, in case of unskilful management, would be instant- 
ly upset. The way in which, the Phwons and Sh£ns overcome these 
difficulties, formed a striking contrast to the conduct of the Burmah 
and Kathay boatmen. The former working together with life and 
spirit, still paid the strictest attention to the orders given by the head 
boatman ; while the latter " who think," says Captain Hannat, " that 
nothing can be done without noise, obey no one, as they all talk at 
once, and use the most abusive language to each other/' He thinks 
the Phwons and Shins greatly superior to the Burmahs or Kathays, — 
meaning by the latter those Manipuris resident in Ava, who are Bur- 
mans in every thing but origin. 

After passing the last rapids at Tapoh the river expands in breadth 
to 200 yards ; the stream fiows with a gentle current, and " the bed is 
composed of round stones which are mostly quartz. Amongst them, 
however there are found massive pieces of pure crystal stone, partak- 
ing of the nature of talc, and also pieces of indurated clay of different 
colors. The banks are alluvial on the surface, but towards the base 
and near the edge of the river the soil becomes gravelly, and in some 
places has a stratum of beautiful bright yellow-colored clay inter- 
secting it." 

On the 5th of January the party disembarked from their boats, and 
as the Myo-wdn was to be installed in his new government, the land- 
ing was effected with considerable state. " Arrangements," says 
Captain Hannat, " had been made for our reception, and on first 
landing we entered a temporary house where some religious ceremony 
was performed, part of which was the Myo-wdn supplicating the 
spirits of three brothers who are buried here, and who founded the 
Sh£n provinces of Khanti, Assam, and Mogaung, to preserve him from 
all evil. After which ceremony he dressed himself in his robe of state, 
2 M 2 



S64 Cy^tmn Hanmy'i RouU lAnit, 

«nd he and I proeeeded hand in hand through a street of Barman 
soldiers, who were posted from the landing place to the Myo-wdn's 
house, a distance df nearly a mile : we were preceded hy the Myo-w6n's 
people carrying spears, g^lt chattas, &c. and at intervals during oof 
walk, a man in a very tolerable voice, chaanted our praises, and the 
cause of our coming to Mogmmp. Several women also joined the 
procession, carrying offerings of flowers and giving us their good 
wishes." 

The Myo-wfin appears to have lost no time in availing himself of the 
advantages of his situation, for on the very day after landing, he 
commenced a system of unsparing taxation, to enable him to pay for 
his appointment. A rapid succession of governors within a very fevr 
years, all influenced by the satee principle, had already reduced the 
inhabitants of Mogmtng to a state closely bordering on extreme pover- 
ty, and the distress occasioned by the exactions now practised was 
bitterly complained of by the wretched victims of such heartless 
extortion. The ShUn inhabitants of the town were employed by the 
Burmese officers to enforce this excessive payment of tribute from 
the Smgphos and Kakhyens of the surrounding hills, which had led 
to much ill-will on the part of the latter, by whom they are stigma^ 
tised " as the dogs of the Burmans." 

•• The town of Mogaung," says Captain Hannat, " is situated at 
the junction of the Namyeen or Namyang, and the Mogaung or Mmi* 
kang rivers, and extends about a mile from east to west along the 
bank of the last named river, the west end of the town being bounded 
by the Namyeen kkycmng, which comes from the district of Mtmyeen 
in a direction S. 43 W. The town of Mogamng, strictly speaking, is 
confined within what is now only the remains of a timber stockade. 
Outside of this, however, there are several houses, and within a 
short distance a few small villages are scattered about, but even 
including all these, there are not more than 300 houses. Those with- 
in the stockade are inhabited by Shins, and those outside by Bur- 
mans, Phwons, Assamese and a few Chinese. The latter to the 
number of 60 reside here, and are under the authority of a Thoogyee 
of their own nation ;— they derive a profit from their countrymen 
who come annually in considerable numbers to purchase serpentine. 
Amongst them I saw both blacksmiths and carpenters, and, for the 
first time since leaving Gangetic India, I saw the operation perform- 
ed of shoeing horses. The Sh£ns, inside the stockade, reside in 
large houses, such as 1 formerly described having seen amongst the 
Phwons ;— the Bormans and others live in the same description of 



1887.] frcm AvB to the FroMi^ of Atsam. fiM 

hovae* as are to be seen in every part of Burmah proper , but all bear 
signs of great poverty ; and if it were not for the Chinese, whose 
quarter of the town looks business-like and comfortable, I should say 
that MogoMwg is decidedly the poorest* looking town I have seen 
since leaving Ava, There is no regular bazar, all supplies being 
brought from a distance, and the market people are, with few ex-* 
eeptions, Kakhyens and Assamese from the neighbouring villages." 

The arrival at so remote a spot of a European officer was soon 
bruited abroad, and Captain Han nay's time was fully occupied in 
answering innumerable questions put to him by a crowd of visitors, 
who examined his sextant with great care, under the firm conviction 
that, by looking through it, he was enabled to perceive what was go- 
ing on in disUint countries ; — nor would they believe that the card of 
his compass was not floating on water , until, to satisfy them, he had 
taken it to pieces. The paucity of inhabitants and poverty of the 
town plainly indicated the absence of extensive trade, and Captain 
H ANN AT learnt, that, including the profits derived from the sale of 
serpentine, the revenues of the town and neighbouring villages did 
not amount to more than 30,000 rupees per annum, and the Burmah 
authorities can only enforce the payment of tribute from the Shans 
of KhaiUi, and the Singphos of Payendwen, by the presence of an 
armed fortse* In their last attempt on the latter, a Bufmah force of 
1000 men was detached from Mogaung, oi whom 900 were destroyed ; 
and for ten years they had been held in salutary dread by the Bur- 
mah governors of the frontier. During his stay at Mogaung, Cap- 
tain Hannat obtained specimens of the green stone, called by the 
Burmah's kgouk-toein, and by the Chinese yueesh*, and which he 
supposes to be nephrite. "The Chinese," he says, "choose pieces 
which, although shewing a rough and dingy-colored exterior, have a 
considerable interior lustre, and very often contain spots and veins of 
a beautiful bright apple-green. These are carefully cut out, and 
made into ring stones, and other ornaments, which are worn as 
charms. The large masses are manufactured by them into bracelets, 
rings, and drinking cups, the latter being much in use amongst them, 
from the idea that the stone possesses medicinal virtues. All the 

* Monsieur Absl Rs'musat, in the lecond part of hit history of Khofan, is 
•kid by KLAPaoTH (Mem. Rel. k V Asi^, tome 2, p. 299) to have entered into 
A very learned disqnifition proving the identity of the gu or guetih of the 
Chinese with the Jatper of the ancients. — R. B. P. 

The y« is a silicions mineral, colored with less intensity but passing into 
heliotrope. It is therefore |7ra«e rather than^'acfe or nephrite. — £o. 



266 Captain Hannay^ Route {April, 

yueesh taken away by the Chinese is brought from a spot five marcbea 
to the north-weat of Mogaung, but it is found in several other parts 
of the country, although of an inferior quality. Serpentine and lime- 
stone are the prevailing formations of the base of the highest ranges 
of hilla throughout this part of the country. Steatite is also abun- 
dant in the bed of the Irawadi below the valley of Khanti." 

One very important object of Captain Hannat's mission was to 
cross the Patkoi mountains into /4ssam, and on his arrival at Mogaung 
he waited some days in considerable anxiety for the Kakhyen porters, 
who were to convey his baggage and supplies during the remaining 
portion of the journey : — ^he soon found, however, that the authority 
of the Burmans when unenforced by the presence of a large military 
detachment, was held in the most sovereign contempt by these hardy 
mountaineers, and after many fruitless attempts to induce the Mogaung 
woun to allow him to proceed with even a small party, he was con- 
strained to limit his further researches to the Hukong valley and amber 
mines. Repeated remonstrances were necessary to induce the gover- 
nor to proceed even so far, and it was not until the 1 9th of the month 
that an advanced guard crossed the river, and fired a feu dejoie, after 
performing the ceremony of sacrificing a baffaloe to the Nhatgyee 
(or spirits of the three brother Tsaubuas of Mogaung), without which 
no expedition ever marches from the town. Even then, the dogged 
obstinacy of the governor induced him to delay his departure, and it 
was not until Captain Hannat threatened that he would instantly 
return to Ava if there were any longer delay, that the wily diploma- 
tist coul4 be induced to move. 

On the 22nd they crossed the river, and the camp was formed on 
the northern bank, in strict accordance with Burmese custom. Cap- 
tain Hannat's tent (a common sepoy's pal) was the admiration of 
every one but its owner, who now for the first time marched with an 
undisciplined rabble. " The soldiers' huts," says Capt. Hannat, 
" are composed of branches of trees and grass, and if they wish to 
be particular, they cover them with a piece of cloth, which is gene- 
rally some old article of dress. The Myo-wun's station is in the cen- 
tre of the camp, and in front of him are his own immediate followers, 
whose huts are formed into a street marked by a double line of spears. 
At the head of this street the flags are placed, and also the two small 
cannons (one-pounders), which are sent with the force, I believe, for 
the purpose of firing three rounds morning and evening, to frighten 
the neighbouring Kakhyens, and which ceremony, I suspect, will be 
gone through with as much gravity, as if it would have the desired 



1887.] from Ava to the Frontier of Assam, ^ 267 

effect. My position is in front and a little to the left of the Myo- 
wtin, and we are comjiiletely surrounded by the soldiers, whose huts 
are in distinct lines, the men of each district keeping together/* 

On the 22nd they at length set out, and the style of march was as 
little in accordance with the military experience of our traveller, as 
the previous encampment. " The men, to the number of 800, march 
in single file, and each man occupies a space of six feet, being oblig- 
ed to carry a bangy containing his provisions, cooking pots, &c. 
besides his musket^ which is tied to the bangy stick. This is the 
most common mode of marching, but some of them carry their pro- 
visions in baskets, which they strap across their forehead and shoul- 
ders» leaving their hands free to carry their muskets ; but as to using 
them it is out of the questipn, and I should say the whole party are 
quite at the mercy of any tribe who choose to make a sudden attack 
upon them." On reaching the encamping ground, however, these 
men gave proof how well they were adapted to this mode of travelling, 
for in an hour after their arrival, every individual had constructed a 
comfortable hut for himself, and was busily engaged cooking the 
rice, which, with the addition of a few leaves plucked from certain 
shrubs in the jungle, forms the diet of the Burman soldier on the line 
of march. 

The tract of country through which the party passed on the first 
two days was hilly, and abounded in a variety of fine forest trees ; 
but on approaching Numpoung, the second encampment, the country 
became more open, and the pathway led through a forest of very 
fine teak trees. The principal rivers all flowed from the Shu^doung^ 
gyi range of hills on the east of their route, and are at this season 
of the year mere mountain torrents, with so little water in them, that 
the path frequently passes over their rocky beds. The whole route 
from Mogaung to the Hukong valley, may be described generally 
as passing between defiles, bounded by the inferior spurs of the 
SkaSdonng^gyi range on the east, and numerous irregular hilts on 
the west; these defiles form the natural channels of numerous 
streams, which, flowing from the heights above, and struggling 
amidst masses and boulders of detached rock, make their way even- 
tually to the larger stream of the Numkong, which unites with the 
Namgen at Mogaung. The only traces of inhabitants perceptible in 
the greater part of this route were a few cleared spots on the hills in 
the vicinity of some scattered Kakhyen villages, and a few fishing 
stakes in the mountain streams. Near the mouth of the Amusing 
Khgaung the party met with a few Kakhyen huts, which appeal* to 



969 Capfam ffamlay's Rmiie [Apeii>» 

have been constructed by that tribe, daring their fishing exenrsions ; 
end at Tsadozout, an island in the bed of the Mo^aumg river, on 
which the force encamped on the 28th of January, they passed the 
sites of two Kakhyen villages, and found the ground completely 
strewed with graves for a considerable distance, the probable result 
of some endemic disease which induced the survivors to desert the 
spot. The finest lemon and citron trees. Captain Hannat had ever 
seen, were found here, and the tea plant was also very plentiful — the 
leaf is large, and resembles that sold in Ava as pickled tea ; the soil 
in which it grew most luxuriantly is described as of a " reddish-co* 
lored clay." Thus far, a considerable portion of the route had passed 
either directly over the bed of the Mogaung river or along its banks ; 
but at Tsadozout, they crossed it for the last time, uid at this spot it 
is described as a mere hill stream with a " bed composed of rolled 
pieces of sienite and serpentine, with scales of mica in it." The 
navigation of the river even for small canoes ceases below this spot, 
and those which had accompanied the party with supplies were left, 
from inability, to convey them further. 

About four miles north of Tzadozout ** the road ascends about 100 
feet, and passes over a hilly tract, which seems to run across from 
the hills on the east to those on the west, and is called by the natives 
Tzambd toting, (the Mount SamU of the maps.) This transverse ridge 
evidently forms the southern limit of the Hukong valley, and streams 
flow from it both to the north and south ; the fomer making their 
way to the Khgendwzn, and the latter to the Mogaung river. 

" TsambU'toung," says Captain Hannat, " is covered with noble 
trees, many of which, I think, are sil, and are of immense height aniL 
circumference. The tea- plant is also plentiful, besides a great variety 
of shrubs which are quite new to me« The rays of the sua seem 
never to penetrate to the soil of TzanUfd-toung ; it may therefore be 
easily imagined how damp and disagreeable it is, more particulariy 
as there is a peculiar and ofiensive smell from a poisonous plant 
which grows in great abundance in this jungle, and the natives tell 
me that cattle die almost immediately after eating it." 

On the 30th the party descended from the encampment on the 
northern face of this ridge, to the Singpho village of Walobhdm, and 
finally encamped on the left bank of the Edikhgoung, about three 
furlongs distant from Meinkhoon or Mungkhdm, the capital of the 
Hukong valley, " where," says Captun Hannat, " our journey 
must end for the present ; as, besides having no provisions, the men 
•composing the force are so completely worn out with fatigue, that I 



1 83 7 from Ava to the Frontier of Assam. 2 69 

•m certain they could not proceed further without a halt of some 
^ays." This interval Captain Hannat assiduously employed in col- 
lecting information regarding the valley, which had from a very 
early period been an object of great geographical interest, as the site 
of the Payendmen or amber miner, and at no very remote era proba- 
bly formed the bed of an alpine lake, which, like that of the Mampur 
▼alley, has been subsequently raised to its present level by long con- 
tinned alluvial deposits, and detritus, from the hills which encircle it 
«n every side. The tendency of every such deposition is to raise the 
level of the water, and facilitate its drainage, until it becomes so 
ahaUow, that evaporation suffices to .complete the process, and render 
the soil a fit abode for future races of men. The numerous and ex- 
tensive lakes in the mountainous regions of Thibet and Tartary are 
doubtless undergoing a similar change, and no great stretch of ima- 
gination is necessary to anticipate the period when they will become 
the sites of extensive towns and villages, ainl present a striking con- 
trast to the rugged magnificence and solitary grandeur of the snowy 
regions which snr round them. 

*' The valley of H&kong or Payendwen" says Captain Hannat, 
** is an extensive plain, bounded on all sides by hills ; its extent from 
east to north-west being at least 50 miles, and varying in breadth 
from 45 to 15 miles, the broadest part being to the eaat. The hills 
bounding the valley to the east are a continuation of the Shuidomng" 
gyi range, which is high, commences at Mogaung, and seems to run 
in a direction of N. 15 E." The principal river of the valley is the 
Numtunaee or Khyendwen, which flows from the Shu^doung-gy^ range, 
and after receiving the contributions of numerous small streams quits 
the valley at its north-western corner, and again enters the defiles of 
the hills, beyond which its course is no longer perceptible. On the 
western side of the valley there are but few villages, and these thinly 
inhabited, the capital itself containing not more than thirty houses ; 
but the north and eastern sides are said to be very populous, the houses- 
in those quarters being estimated at not less than- 3000, nearly all of 
which are situated on the banks of the Towang and Debee rivers. All 
the low hills stretching from the western foot of the 8hu4domng range 
were under cultivation, and the population is said to extend across to 
the banks of the IrawadC, in numbers sufficient to enable the Singphos 
when necessary to assemble a force of nine or ten thousand men. 

" With the exception," says Captain Hannat, " of the village of 
Mieinkhwon, which has a ShUn population, the whole of the inhabi- 
tants of the valley are Singphos and their Assamese slaves. Of the 
2 N 



270 Capiidm Hamuttf$ RwU [ApBit» 

fonner, the larger proportion is composed of the Mrip and Titan 
tribes, with^ a few of the Laphaf dan, who are still regarded at 
strangers by £he more ancient colonists, and can hardly be viewed 
but with hostile feelings, as this tribe have frequently ravaged 
Meinkkwon within the last six years, and were guilty of the «till 
greater atrocity of burning a priest alive in his kyoung or monastery. 

Formerly, the population was entirely Sh4n, and previous to the 
invasion of As$am by the Burmese, the town of Meinkhwon contained 
1500 houses, and was governed by the chief of Mogmmg, From 
that period, the exactions of the Burmese officers have led to exten- 
sive emigration, and to avoid the oppression to which they were 
hourly exposed, the Shins have sought an asylum in the remote glens 
and valleys on the banks of the Khytndwen, and the Singphos among 
the recesses of the mountains at the eastern extremity of the valley. 
This state of affairs has led to general anarchy, and feuds are con- 
stantly arising between the different tribes, which the quarrel of the 
Beesa and Dupha Gaums has greatly contributed to exasperate. No 
circumstance is more likely to check these fends, and reclaim the 
scattered population of the valley, than the establishment of a profit- 
able commercial intercourse with the more equitably governed valley 
of AsMom* with which communication is now becoming more intimate 
than at any previous period. 

Of the mineral productions of the Hdkong valley, enumerated by 
Captain Hannat, the principal are salt, gold, and amber : the former, 
he informs us, is procured " both on the north and south sides of the 
valley, and the waters of the Namtwonkok and Ed( rivers are quite 
brackish from the numerous salt springs in their beds. — Gold is found 
in most of the rivers, both in grains and in pieces the size of a large 
pea. The rivers which produce it in greatest quantity and of the 
best quality are the Kapd&p and the NamkwHn : the sand of the 
former is not worked for this mineral, I am told, but large pits are 
dug on its banks, where the gold is found, as above mentioned. 
Besides the amber, which is found in the Payen-toung, or amber 
mine hills, there is another place on the east side of the valley called 
Kotdk-hk&m, where it exists in great quantities, but I am informed 
that the spot is considered sacred by the Singphos, who will not 
allow the amber to be taken away, although it is of an inferior descrip- 
tion." Specimens of coal, were also found by Captain Hannat in 
the beds of the NmnbhyC and Edi rivers ; and he learnt from the 
natives that, in the Ntmttarong, a great quantity of fossil wood was 
procurable. 



2 8370 fi^^ ^^ '0 '^ Fnmtkr of Assam, 271 

In its relation to Assam and CMmt, the trade of the Hdkong valley 
naturally attracted a share of Captain Hannat's attention, and from 
his account it appears that " the only traffic of any oonseqaence carried 
on in this valley is with the amber, which the Singphos sell to a few 
Chinese, Chinese»Shins, and Chinese Singphos, who find their way 
here annually. The price of the common or mixed amber is 2^ ticals 
a vis or four rupees per one and a half seer : but the best kind and what 
is fit for ornaments, is expensive, varying ia price according to its 
color and transparency*/' 

" The Chinese sometimes pay in silver for the amber, but they also 
bring with them warm jackets, carpets, straw hats, copper pots, and 
opium, which they give in exchange for it. They also barter their 
merchandize for ivory and gold dust, but only in small quantities. 
A few individuals from the Burman territories likewise come here, 
with cloths of their own manafacture, and also a small quantity of 
British piece goods for sale. But as they are obliged on their way 
hither to pass through the country of the most uncivilized of the 
Kakhyen tribes, they seldom venture to come. The greatest part 
therefore of British and Burman manufactures which are used in this 
valley, are brought from Mogaung by Singpho merchants. But I 
understand that within the last few years, several of them have gone 
to Assam^iih gold dust, ivory, and a little silver, for which they receive 
in return muskets, cloths, spirits, and opium. The following is a list 
of British piece g^ods now selling at Meinkhwon — common book- muslin 
used as head dresses, 14 rupees a piece ; coarse broad cloth worn as 
shawls, 2^ yards long, 18 rupees each; good cotton handkerchiefs, 4 
rupees a pair ; and coarse ones, 2| rupees a pair. These are the prices 
of goods bought at Ava, but what similar articles from Assam may cost, 
I cannot ascertain. The broad cloth, however, that I have seen from the 
latter place is of a very superior quality. The merchants who come to 
this valley from the Burman territories are natives of Yo, and the man 
who is now selling goods here has frequently visited Calcutta, The 
dress worn by the Singphos of this valley is similar to that of the Sh£as 
and Burmans of Mogaung, but they frequently wear jackets of « red 
camlet, or different velvets which they ornament with buttons, and 
those who can afford it wear a broad-cloth shawl. The arms in com- 
mon use amongst them are the dhd (or short sword) and spear. The 
women wear neat jackets of dark coarse cotton cloth, and their tha- 
mities or petticoats are full and fastened round the waist with a band» 
being altogether a much more modest dress than tha^ worn by the 
* Specimens in matrice are deposited in the Society*! Museam, — Bo. 
2 N 2 



273 CMptam Hamafs R<mie [Afeii, 

Burman women. Those who are married, wear their hair tied on the 
crown of the head like the men, hut the younger ones wear theira 
tied close to the back of the neck, and fastened with silver pins — ^both 
married and single wear white muslin turbans. The ornaments ge- 
nerally worn by them are amber ear-rings, silver bracelets, and neck- 
laces of beads, a good deal resembling coral, but of a yeUowish colore 
and these are so much prized by them that they sell here for their 
weight in gold." 

During his stay at Hdkong, Captain Hanmat was visited by many 
Singphos from the borders of China, from whom he learnt that the 
Sginmaekha river rises in the mountains bounding the plain of Khanti 
to the north, and is inclosed on the east by the Goukmg'tigong moun- 
tains, which they consider the boundary between Burmah and Chma, 
This river is, on the same authority, pronounced not to be navigable 
even for canoes, and the most satisfactory confirmation is afforded of 
the accounts of Captain Wilcox'*'. Several smaller streams fall into 
the Sginmaekha from the Shuidoung^gyi hills on the west, and the 
name of Sitting is given to the tract of country through which they 
flow. In this district gold is very plentiful, and it is found, says Cap- 
tain Han NAT, " over the whole tract of mountainous country, above the 
Sginmaekha, The Chinese visit this locality for the purpose of 
procuring the gold, and give in exchange for it, warm clothing, car- 
pets and opium." 

Of the several routes by which communication is kept up between 
the inhabitants of Hukong and the countries around, the principal 
appear to be, one leading across the Skuddoung*gy{ range to the 
eastern Singphos ; a second, called the Lye-gnep-hMm road, winds 
round the base of the mountain of that name, and leads in sixteen 
days to Munglang, the capital of the Khanti country, which was 
visited by Captain Wilcox. 

The most important one, however, with reference to trade, lies 
in a south-east direction from the Httkong valley, from which the 
district of KakyO'Wainmo is not more than eight days' march distant. - 
By this route the Chinese frequently travel, and it affords a very 
satisfactory proof that intercourse may be held direct with China, 
without the necessity of following the circuitous route by Mogaung, 

* Although Captain Wilcox (As. Ret. vol. zvii. p. 463), relying on the as- 
counts giTon by Singphos of this riTCr, appears to hare formed rather an ezsg. 
gerated estimate of U$ Me, his conjectures ai to the position of i/« eourcei are 
fully Terified by the statements made to Captain Uamnat.— B. B. P. 



1837.] from Ava to tie Frontier of Assam. 273 

Among the several ncea of people inhabiting the valleys through 
which the principal riverB flow» the Khantis or Khumptis hold a very 
conapicuons rank : they are represented as a fine, brave, and hardy 
race of nen, and are held in great apprehension by the Burmahs. who» 
about three years ago» attempted to raise revenue amongst them : the 
force detached on this duty, however, met with such determined 
resistance, that it was compelled to return, and no subsequent attempt 
has been made on their independence. They are in constant commu- 
nication with the Khundngs, a wild tribe inhabiting the mountains 
to the north and east, from whom they procure silver and iron. " The 
former is found in a mine, said to be situated on the northern side of 
the mountains, to the north-east of Khanti," All the information 
Captain Hanmat could obtain led him to suppose that this mine was 
worked by people subject to China, and from the description given, he 
thinks they are Lamas, or people of Thibet. The part of the Chinese 
territories north-east of Khanti is known at Huhong by the name of 
Mdngfan*, and the Khantis have no communication with it but through 
the Khundngs. 

From Meingkhwan, Captain Hannat obtained a view of the hill, 
near which lie the sources of the U*ru river, one of the principal aAu* 
ents of the Ningthi or Khyendwen : it bore south 35^ west from 
Meingkhwan, and was about 25 miles distant. It is in the vicinity of 
this spot that the most celebrated mines of serpentine are situated* 
and their position is thus described by Captain Hannat. 

" A line drawn from Mogaung in a direction of N. 55 W. and another 
from Meingkhwan N. 25 W. will give the position of the serpentine 
mine district. The Chinese frequently proceed to the mines by water 
for two days' journey up the Mogaung river, to a yillage called Kam* 
mein, at which place a small stream called Engdau^khgoung, falls into 
the Mogaung river. From thence a road leads along the Engdau* 
khgoung to a lake several miles in circumference called Engdau^gyt, 
and to the north of this lake eight or nine miles distant are the ser- 
pentine mines. The tract of country in which the serpentine is found 
extending 18 or 20 miles." There is, however, another more direct 

* In the second Tolame of Dir Haldb's <* China," p. 385, the P^re Regis 
thus describes the tribe by which thii tract of country is inhabited, and its geo-* 
graphical site : 

'* The most powerfnl among the Tartar Lamas are those called by the Chinese 
Moongfan, who possess a wide territory in Tibet, north of lA Kyanff-M-fU, 
between the riTors Kineka-kyang and Vu-lyangho* This country was ceded to 
tiiem by Usamobbt (whom the Manchews made king of JPtnum) to engage them 
in hia iaUrest/'^R. B. P. 



274 Obtain Hannah's Route [AFKit» 

route from Kam-mien which runs in a north-westerly direction. The 
whole trdct of country is hilly, an4 several hot and salt springs are 
reported to exist near the Engdau^g^i lake, which is said to cover what 
was once the site of a large Bhia town called Thinumtye. The natives 
affirm that it was destroyed hy an earthquake, and from the description 
given of a hill in the vicinity, the catastrophe may have been produc* 
ed by the immediate agency of volcanic action. 

On the 2Ut of March, Captain Hannat visited the amber mines, 
and his description is the first that has ever been given of the locality 
from whence the Burmans obtain this mineral. 

*' We set out at 8 o'clock," he says, "in the morning, and re- 
turned at 2 p. M. To the foot of the hills the direction is about 
south 25 west, and the distance three miles, the last mile being 
through a thick grass jungle, after which there is an ascent of one 
hundred feet, where there is a sort of temple, at which the natives, on 
visiting the mines, make offerings to the ngats or spirits. About a 
hundred yards from this place, the marks of pits, where amber had been 
formerly dug for, are visible, but this side of the hill is now deserted, 
and we proceeded three miles further on to the place where the people 
are now employed in digging, and where the amber is most plentiful. 
The last three miles of our road led through a dense small tree jungle, 
and the pits and holes were so numerous that it was with difficulty 
we got on. The whole tract is a successsion of small hillocks, the 
highest of which rise abruptly to the height of fifty feet, and amongst 
various shrubs which cover these hillocks the tea plant is very plen« 
tiful. The soil throughout is a reddish and yellow colored clay, 
and the earth in those pits, which had been for sometime exposed to 
the air, had a smell of coal tar ; whilst in those which had been recently 
opened, the soil had a fine aromatic smell. The pits vary from six 
to fifteen feet in depth, being, generally speaking, three feet square, 
and the soil is so stiff that it does not require propping up." 

" I have no doubt," Captain Hannat adds, " that my being 
accompanied by several, Burmese officers, caused the people to secrete 
all the good amber they had found. For although they were at work 
in ten pits, I did not see a piece of amber worth having. The people 
employed in digging were a few Singphos from the borders of China 
and of this valley. On making inquiry regarding the cause of the 
alleged scarcity of amber, I was told that, want of people to dig for 
it was the principal cause ; but I should think the inefficiency of the 
tools they use was the most plausible reason : — ^their only implements 
being a bambd sharpened at one end, and a small wooden shovel." 



1837.] from Ava to tike Fyamtier o/A9$am. 275 

" The most faTorable spots for digging are on such spaces on the 
sides of the small hillocks as are free from jangle, and I am told that 
the deeper the pits are dag, the finer the amber ; and that that kind 
ivhich is of a bright pale yellow, is only got at the depth of forty feet 
nnder ground." 

A few days sabseqnent to this examination of the amber mines. 
Captain Hannat visited the Numtunaee or Khyendwen, which flows 
through the valley about five miles north of Meingkhwon in this part 
of its coarse ; and at this season of the year the stream, as might 
have been anticipated, is small, bat in the rains Captain Hannat 
estimates that its breadth mnst be 300 yards from bank to bank, and it 
is navigable thronghont the year for large canoes. An island in the 
centre of the bed was covered with the skeletons of larg^ fish, which 
had been destroyed by the poisonous quality of the fallen leaves of 
overhanging trees z-^the natives eat the fish so killed with impunity. 

After waiting several days at Meingkhwon, in anticipation of the 
return of some messengers who had been sent into Aseam, and saf« 
fering extreme inconvenience from the difficulty of procuring adequate 
supplies for the force, the Myo-wtin beg^n seriously to think of 
returning to Mogaung, All expectation of prosecuting the journey into 
Aseam had been relinquii^hed, and the Dupha Gaum having volunta- 
rily come into the camp, was received by the Burman governor with 
a civility and distinction, extorted by his apprehension of the numer- 
ons Singphos ready to support their redoubtable chieftain, whose 
influence is said to extend to the frontiers of China. On the first of 
April the ceremony was performed of swearing in the different Tso- 
buas (tributary chiefs) to keep the peace, which is thus described by 
Captain Hannat. 

" The ceremony commenced by kilUng a buflaloe, which was effected 
with several strokes of a mallet, and the flesh of the animal was cut 
up to be cooked for the occasion. Each Tsobna then presented his 
sword and spear to the spirits of the three brother Tsobuas of Mo' 
gaung, who are supposed to accompany the governor of the above 
named place, and to inhabit three small huts which are erected on 
the edge of the camp. Offerings of rice, meat, &c. were made to these 
ngate or spirits, and on this being done, each person concerned in taking 
the oath received a small portion of rice in his hand ; and in a kneel- 
ing posture, with his hands clasped above his head, heard the oaths 
read both in the Sh£n and Burmese languages. After this, the paper 
on which the oaths were written was burned to ashes, and mixed with 
water, when a cup full of the mixture was given to each of the Tsobuas 



276 Captmu Htmnay's RmUe [Apeil, 

to drink, who. before doing bo, repeated an assurance that they would 
keep the oath, and the ceremony was concluded by the chiefs all sitting 
down together and eating out of the same dish." The chieftains to 
whom this oath of forbearance was administered were the Thogyee of 
Meingkhwon, a Shan — the Dupha Gaum, a Tesan Singpho— the Pan* 
wah Tsobua. a Laphaee Singpho — the Sitdngyen Gaum, and Weng- 
keng-moang. Mirip Singphos — and Tare-poung-noong, a Tesan Sing* 
pho, — all of whom, by this act. virtually acknowledged the supre- 
macy of the Burman authorities, and their own subjection to the king- 
dom of Ava, 

The new governor having succeeded by threats and the practioe of 
every art of extortion, in raising as large a sum as it was possible to 
collect from the inhabitants of the valley and surrounding hills, an- 
nounced his intention of returning to Mogaung ; and on the 5th of 
April no intelligence having been received from Amam, Captain 
H ANN AT left Meingk&ufon on his return to Ava, with a very favorable 
impression of the Singphos he had seen, who appear to possess great 
c^>abilities of imjirovement, and whose worst qualities are represented 
as the natural result of the oppressive system of government under 
which they live. One of their chieftains in conversation with Cap* 
tain Han NAT furnished a clue to the estimation in which they held 
the paramount authorities around them by the following remark. 
" The British." he said, " are honourable, and so are the Chinese. 
Among the Burmans you might possibly find one in a hundred, who, 
if well paid, would do justice to those under him. The Shans of 
Mogaung,*' he added " are the dogs of the Burmans, and the Assamese 
are worse than either, being the most dangerous back-biting race in 



existence." 



On the 12th of April, Captain Hannat reached 3f«^aiM^, and some 
boats arriving shortly afterwards from the serpentine mines, he 
availed himself of so favorable an opportunity of acquiring some 
additional information regarding that interesting locality. He found 
the boats laden with masses of the stone so large, as to require three 
men to lift them. The owners of the boats were respectable Chinese 
Musalm&ns, who were extremely civil, and readily answered all the 
questions put to them by Captain Hannat, who learnt *' that, al- 
though the greater number of Chinese come by the route of jSimAi 
and Tali, still they are only the poorer classes who do so : the weal- 
thier people come by Bamo, which is both the safest and the best 
route. The total number of Chinese and Chinese Shins who have 
this year visited the mines is 480.'' 



1837.] ftcm Ava to the Frontier of As9am, 277 

" I have made every inqairy/' adds Captain Hannat, ** regarding 
the daties levied on these people, both on tlieir arrival here and on 
their purchasing the serpentine, and I am inclined to think that there 
is not much regularity in the taxes, a g^eat deal depending on the 
value of the presents made to the head-man. Formerly, the Chinese 
vrere not allowed to go to the mines, bat I understand the following is 
now the 83rstem carried on in this business. 

" At particular seasons of the year, there are about 1000 men em* 
ployed in digging for serpentine : they are Burmahs, Shiins, Chinese- 
Shans, and Singphos. These people each pay a quarter of a tical a 
month, for being allowed to dig at the mines, and the produce of their 
labour is considered their own. 

"The Chinese who come for the serpentine, on their arrival at 
Mogaung, each pay a tax of from l-|-to 2^ ticals of silver, for permis- 
sion to proceed to the mines, and H ticals a month during their 
stay there. Another duty is levied on the boats or ponies employed 
in carrying away the Serpentine, but this tax varies according to 
circumstances ; and on the return of the Chinese to Mogaung, the ser- 
pentine is appraised and a tax of 10 per cent, taken on its value. The 
last duty levied is a quarter of a tical from every individual, on his 
arrival at the village of Tt^o, and there the Chinese deliver up all 
the certificates they have had, granting them permission to proceed 
to the mines." 

On the 9th of April, no intelligence having been received of the 
messengers sent into Assam, Captain Han n at determined to return 
to Ava, and, embarking on a small boat, he reached Bamo in eight 
days, and arrived at Ava on the Ut of .May. The time occupied in 
returning from Meingkhwon to Ava was only eighteen days, while 
the journey to that frontier post was not completed in less than forty- 
six of actual travelling, — ^a very striking proof of the extreme difficulty 
of estimating the distance between remote points, by the number of 
days occupied in passing from one to the other, unless the circum- 
stances under which the journey was made are particularly described* 
That portion of the route between Meingkhwon and Beesa in Assam, 
which Captain Hannat was prevented visiting, will probably in a 
short time be as well known as the territory he has already so suc- 
cessfully explored, and the researches in which he is now engaged, 
extending from Beesa in Assam to Meingkhwon in the Hdkong valley* 
will complete the examination of a line of country not surpassed in 
interest by any, which our existing relations with the empire of 
Ava have afforded us an opportunity of visiting. His labours have 
2 o 



278 FacnmUes of Ancient Interiptions. [Apkii*, 

filled the Toid neceasanly left in the researches of Wilcox, Boelton, 
and Bbdpord, and have greatly contributed to dispd the doubt and 
uncertainty, which they had not the opportunity of removing. 
While the officers of the Bengal Presidency have been thus success* 
fiiUy engaged in geographical inquiries on the north of Ava^ the 
south and western districts have been explored with equal zeal and 
intelligence by those of the Madras Presidency ; and the spirit of 
honorable competition, which has already stimulated the researches 
of Drs. Richardson and Batfihld, and Lieutenant Maclbod, with 
such marked advantage, bids fair, in a comparatively short time, to 
render the whole empire of Ava better known than the most san- 
guine could have ventured to anticipate. Did the results of such 
joumies and investigations tend only to an increase of our geogra- 
phical knowledge, they would even then be most valuable : but to 
suppose that the consequences of this intercourse between intelligence 
and ignorance are so limited, is to take a most inadequate view of the 
subject : the confidence inspired by the visits and conduct of a bingle 
individual*, has already opened a communication between Yunan and 
Manlmein, and the caravans of China have commenced their annual 
visits to the British settlements on the coast : the journey of Captain 
Hannat will in all probability lead to a similar result between 
Aisam and the northern districts of Yuwm ; and the time may not be 
very distant, when British merchants located at Bamo, will, by their 
superior energy and resources, extend its now restricted trade to sur- 
rounding countries, and pave the way for ameliorating the condition 
and enlightening the ignorance of their numerous inhabitants. 



U.'-^Factimiles of Ancient Inscriptions, By Jab. Pbinsxp, See, 3fC. 

[Continued from page 223.] 

The subject selected for this month's iUustration is a slab of dark 
stone, marked No. 6 in tlie Society's museum. Nothing is there re- 
corded of its origin; but the character in which it is cut, (as may be 
seen by the lithographed specimen in PL XVII.) is the same as that 
published in February (PI. VII.) from a similar stone of a somewhat 
smaller size ; and which publication has led, in rather a singular 
manner, to the discovery of the source whence both were derived. 

Lieut. KiTTOB, as I have before mentioned, was lately requested on 
the part of the Society to re-examine the inscription on the Khanigiri 

* Dr. Richa EPSON of Madras.^R. B. P. 



1837.1 Factimles of Ancient Imcriptions. 279 

rock, poblisfaed in Stiklinq's memoir on Cuttack (As, Res. XV.) In 
doing this, he came most unexpectedly upon a number of highly cnri* 
0U8 ancient temples and inscriptions, of which he hastened to make 
drawings and facsimiles. He found himself impeded and foiled by 
the br£hmans of the spot, who even went so far as to abstract one of 
the copies which had cost him the most labour. Upon seeking the 
cause of so unusual a want of courtesy, the priests told him how 
their images and relics had been carried off by former antiquaries* 
and pointed out whence the commemorative slab had been actually 
cut out from the temples of Ananda Bdtu deva at Bhubameswar by a 
late Colonel Sahib, The dimensions of the slab and the subject 
of invocation tallied so exactly with the inscription translated by 
Captain Marshall, that Lieut. Kittob wrote to me on the subject, 
and on referring to the list of donations at the end of the ele- 
venth volume of Researches, I find General Stbwabt set down as 
the donor of " two slabs with inscriptions from Bhubaneswar in 
Orwa," 

There was nothing in the first of the two whence we could guess its 
locality ; the person noted as the founder of the temple being a pri- 
vate individual, named Bhatta Sri' Bhava-dbva ; but in the slab, now 
confidently conjectured to be its companion, we have a r£ja's name 
and ancestry which ought to afford a better due. 

This king appears in the 15th verse as Anitanka Bhima, the 
brother of " an excellent man" who had come to the throne through 
marriage with Subama', the daughter of Ahirama, whose parentage 
is nameless, and recorded only as " the ornament of their race." 

On referring to Stirling's catalogue of the princes of Orissa*, 
we find this very person, under the name of Ananga Bhim Dbo, 
ascending the Gajapati throne, out of the direct line, in 1174 A. D. 
He was one of the most illustrious princes of the Gangavatua line, 
the FiBoz of his day, for the number and variety of the public works 
he erected. " Having unfortunately incurred the guilt of killing a 
br£hman, motives of superstition prompted him to construct nume- 
rous temples as an expiation for his offence ;" and probably this of 
Bhubaneswara was one of them. The date of r&ja Ananga Bhima also 
agrees closely with what was assumed from the style of the alphabet, 
and the "Samvat 32" of the Basu-deva slab. It will hence become 
a question, whether these figures are, in all cases, to be referred to a 
Cuttack era, or whether the same Deva-N£gari alphabet was in use 

• See Utefid Tablet, page 113 ; or A«. Res. XV. 269. 
2 2 



280 Facsimiles of Jncient Ifueripiiona. [Apaii, 

from Shekavatf* to Benares, Dimjpur, and Orissa, in the 12th century, 
while each prince had then an era of his own. 

The writer, Udatana, whose poetic style is more than nsnidly 
florid and inflated, is, I am told by the pandits, an author of u work 
on log^c entitled the ft^Hlvf*!! kusamdnjali, which is in much repute 
in the schools. We have a copy in the Society's library. 

I am once more indebted to the Reverend Mr. Yatss for under- 
taking^ the translation of this very lengthy document. It was 
previously transcribed without difiiculty by the Society's pandit.- 
The only letter which was remarked as unusual in form, is the T 
of y[fif, at the end of the fourth line of the lithograph. It bears a 
strong resemblance to the corresponding letter of the Amar6.vatx and 
more southern alphabets. 

I cannot conclude these preliminary remarks without animadverting 
upon the ruthless spoliation which is often carried on by soidisant 
antiquaries, to the direct perversion of the true object of research — 
the preservation of ancient monumeots, and their employment to 
elucidate the history of the country. The facts told by these two 
Bhubaneswara stones were utterly unintelligible, until accident pointed' 
out whence they had come — and the local history of the temples was 
or would have been equally lost in another generation. It is to be 
hoped therefore that the Asiatic Society will hasten to restore them 
to their former positions. Such an act will contribute tenfold to the 
tme objects of our institution by the confidence it will inspire in the 
minds of the people who now watch our explorers with jealousy, and 
withhold valuable information, lest it should only yield to fresh acts of 
plunder and demolitionf. 

TroMScript in modem Deva-l^agaH. 

* See the ffarska inacription, in nearly the same character, Vol. IV. 361. 

i* Since writing the above, 1 am happy to perceiTC that^ the Society has de- 
termined on the immediate restitutioa of the two slabs through Lieat. Kittoi 
who hsi been requested to explain that their removal was the act of an indi- 
vidual, and would never h^ve had their sanction, unless they had been assured 
that the objects were going to decay, or held in no estimation where they 
were. 



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1837.] 



FacnmUe* of Ancient Inscriptions. 



181 



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282 



Facsimiles of Ancient Inscriptions. 



[April, 



^rw^^nrr ictwwt ^wt ^nijjiwit i«iiifH(X ^<ii^i^- 

5?3riw ^^ifr^r^ <i^*<i^fl <**^i^T ^itiw^tMi^^j^iT! 
^^Pftl:K<Bm^i.^*iir<4 i ir»mnr ti^j ftrot fnrar ^i^ 

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1837.] Facnmiles of Ancient Inscriptions. :283 

•^ *^ ^ •^^ -^ •>, 

^% ^_^ - - - _^%-. ^^_ ^ ^k-- ♦.g^ ^k-^^ ^ 

ti^H<p4<i ^r^^ ftcirrnf inw^' ft^'R't^ ftw I ^^ i 




284 Faesimilet of Ancient Inseriptioni, [Apait» 














• •V 







m^RT ^mn^Hut^ ^rft^^fftr^l ^w^i^i^ra^ 



irjntvT^T:ftwcr ^H^^rim^ref i Muiv 



•s 5^ 






I6S7.1 F9c$umhi of Ancient In9€r^ticni. 285 

Tramkiii&n by the Heo* Wu. Tatbs. 

1. Salutation to Shiva. The row of skulla (on Ka'li') are dancing over 
Shiva*, being made alive by the atream of nectar flowing from the bright 
flame of the eye in his shining forehead. Seeing this, the moon thinking 
one Riha had become many, took refage in the fortress of Chingd amidst 
the wood of Shiva's thick hair: may that moon preserve you. 

9. ''Who is this that from the pride of the eye in his forehead 
subdues all the world?" May that Gautama, the chief of sages, who in 
thus addressing Shiva with detraction, transferred the brightness of his 
eye into his own foot, live for ever. 

S. The prince of his family was the ornament of the world which is 
the birth.p]ace of all, revered by the learned, the seat of virtue, and glori- 
ous as the mountain that churned the mighty ocean. He was glorious : 
the whole earth was overspread with the creeper of his fame, and he w&s 
the eradicator of the white lily of his enemies' glory, which was withered 
by his powerful rays. 

4. He was the ornament of all his race ; by him the boisterous host of 
all opposers was defeated. Hence he outshone the moon, and laid the 
beautiful spreading creeper of his jasmine-like fame prostrate in the 
dust. He was the first and chief of all. 

5. From this source of virtue sprung Ahirama, worthy of praise, the 
possessor of ethical skill, who by his unbounded glory was like the moun- 
tain on which the full moon rises. When he exerted himself in the virtue 
of liberality, the triumphant banners of his pure and shining honor were 
resplendent before the palaces of the three worlds. 

6. From Ahirama were born two individuals^ a son and a daughter, 
like the moon and Lakshmi' from the sea, and they were fitly named 
SwAPNEswARA and Surama'. The one, as an ornament of the world, was 
the possessor of all virtues ;.and the other, as the deeiroyer of the disease 
poverty, was like the goddess of wealth. 

7. He became the glory of his race, and, like SnrvA, distinguished by 
endless good qualities. His lotus-like feet rested on a footstool enlight- 
ened by gems in the crowns of prostrate kings. 

8. When the disk of the glorious sun was shining on the sea of dust 
excited by the hoofs of his galloping steeds, and setting to opposing kings, 
then fortune accompanied with companions from all sides, and adorned 
with the pearls of elephants slain, met him in the midst of the field of 
battle according to appointment. 

9. " Ho ! ye young and aged, shall famine ever come to you ? am I 
prepared to offer sacrifice only for the gratification of the eaters of flesh ?" 
Hearing these his words, the evil spirits around filled all their granaries 
with the flesh of enemies slain in battle. 

* Shiva is here supposed to be prostrate and Ka'li' standing on bis breast 
He has three eyes,, one in his forehead with the crescent of the moon. 
2 P 



2B6 Faaimile$ 6/ Ancient In$eriptum9. [Ann» 

10. From him who reoembled Indra, was born a generoui son pnnoow 
ed of an arm strong enough to sustain the weight of universal government. 
This glorious monarch, Sri' Rajaraja, then governed the world. 

11. The servants of Indra were all confused, one laying hold on the 
tail and another on the proboscis, were dragging on shore his elephant, 
which, while sporting in the water, had fallen into the mud that had been 
collected in the heavenly river from the abundant dust raised by the hooft 
of the spirited steeds of this king. 

12. If so many enemies had not indeed been constantly killed in battle 
by this king having an arm like Vishnu, then, in this iron age, in which 
wickedness so much abounds, how could Brahma' have formed so many 
gods*? 

13. Subama'^ which is another word for the goddess Raaia' or LAxsRiri, 
and who was also called Antahpura-svndari', was the glory of all jewels. 
She, assimilating quickly with the excellent man whom she married, gave 
away mountains of gold, and became renowned, and the sole envy of 
kings. 

14. This distinguished king, after enjoying for a long period all the 
pleasures of the KalLyuga or iron age, and becoming old, anointed to the 
kingly office, his younger brother Aniyanka-Bhi'ma, at whose feet other 
kings bowed. 

15. This ANiTANKA-BniMA was a renowned monarch, a famous emper- 
or, the supreme ruler over opposing kings, who yet did not seize upon their 
wives. This moon of men, with strength like Indra's, having obtained 
the sea-girt circle of the earth, soon made it like the circular discus held 
in his hand. 

16. Ob, An ANT At, what say you > The great weight sustained by the 
tortoise you know is insignificant, but the weight sustained by the glory 
of the king of the three Kalingas I know not. Hear this! When this 
king delights to go forth to victory, half the earth rises to heaven in the 
form of dust excited by the strokes of the hoofs of his fleet steeds. 

17. Fortune herself springing from the sea of contest, holding in her 
hand a sword bright as the king of serpents, and desiring the love of many, 
like the faithless woman produced by the mountain Mandara, remains 
constantly with this renowned king: the proof of which is furnished in 
this, that the moon of his fame is still always shining^. 

18. Like the famous Swapneswara, he went forth to complete the 
conquest of the world, and was himself alone greater than the oowplele 
armies of the kings descended from Ganga' with all their bright weapons. 

* It is supposed that those who die in battle are saved : in these words, the 
doctrine of Apotheosis, as believed by the Greeks and Romans, is distinctly avowed. 

t Ananta is the serpent on whose head the earth is supposed to rest : he sup- 
ports the tortoise that bears the earth. 

X The moon and Lakthmi or fortune are supposed to have been produced by the 
gods at the churning of the oceaoi and to have a cbmmon origin and end. 



I8S7.3 Paesimiles of Ancient Intcriptions. 287 

He was the divine treasury of justice, and formed a new oeean by the 
blood flowing from the foes plain hy his bright arms. 

19. He was the lord of iMkthmi* j the opposer of J9a/{ ; the beloved 
friend of the herdsmen ; the never.failing one in all his nndertakings ; the 
VUhwakiena by whom the deluged world was raised ; and the real Fulu 
wambhara by his virtuous deeds in life. 

50. The earth, the mother of all creatures^ was nourished by the 
streams of his benevotenee, and enriched with abandaiice ef oom and 
wealth. 

51. If his fame is bright as the necklace-Hke riyer 3fandMn(, whertt 
united with the breast of the Kaildta and /ftrndfaya mountains, then where 
is Shita, ascending to the top of the Chandnuihikhara mountain, if he 
does not remove the stains from that moon, whose smiling face is bright 
with light as the white jasmine or froth of the ocean ? 

92. This other great mountain KaUdta, abounding with pure nectar, 
was made a palace by Sbiva's expending the wealth of this iNDRi.like 
king, whose feet were rendered glorious by the rainbow, or reflection of 
the rays from the gems on the heads of the obedient Snrs and Asurs. 

83. Sumeru, with the residence of the gods, was injured by the hooib 
of this king's horses, also the eastern mountains, and the western peakf 
were touched by VaraniX : so the venerable Shiva, seeking after firesii 
places, and having no settled temple, at last gained, with the king of 
Lanka, this unparalleled mountainous habitation. 

84. By this victorious one inclosures were formed so high as to ol^. 
struct by their elevation the movements of the clouds. And here virtue 
by Shiva's interposition, for fear of the aggression of the sea of wicked, 
ness, took refuge. 

85. The women, the glance of whose eyes was alUsubduing as a manm 
ira, and the motion of whose feet made the three worlds motionless ; and 
whose lamp or light was formed by their bracelets and jewels when they 
began to dance— these deer-eyed ones were given by this king to Shiva. 

86. By him a garden was made like Indra's, shining bright with the 
farina from the full-blown flowers, and constantly watered by the distilla^ 
tion of the juice of flowers, as by the sportive engine of Ka'madeva}. 

87. The star-like marks on the heads of the elephants that are furious 
in the spring, are nothing more than the dice spots of the sly Ka'maobva 
set in cryi«tal. There the white is made triumphant by the humming 
bees covered with farina from the scattered flowers, which are the pearls 
of the necklace of the wood. 

* This and the following are metaphors : the meaniog Is, that he was like the 
persoDt meutioaed. 

t Varani means the western horizoBi aad also spiritvoas liqiiory by the touch of 
which a person or thing is deflled. 

X Cu^id. 

S p 2 



298 SpeciateMt of Indo^Sutsaiuan Comf. [ApuIi, 

08. By ibifl kind kiag an immense pond was cut near his iKiHU-like 
palace. It was in size like the sea; ita water was dearer than the aatom. 
nal $kj, more pnrifjring than the wnters of the Gan^, more deep than 
the heart of the profound casuist, more cold than the rays of the moon, 
jmd more delicious to the taste than nectar. 

29. By this victorious one an open temple was built, and it was the 
delight of the eyes ; the moon-light of the white lily, the mind ; the i^en- 
did workshop of the celestial artist ViSHWAKAEifA, the beautiful fort of 
those afraid of being seized by heat, and the way of him who covets fame. 

SO. Houses with water were on every road, tanka in every city, lamps 
full and splendid in every temple, sheds for reading the Vedaa, &c. in 
every direction, the ornaments of the br Aman eities. Sacrifices too and 
bridges were osaapicuous in all directions. 

31. By him was given with pleasure to the preserving brihmans, lor 
residence, a city of Biubma^ one nearly equal of Vbishasfati, and one of 
Shiva, and one of the venerable Visbnv. There the serpent wickedness 
was withered by the crackling smoke, the sign of sscrifiees commenced. 

38. The famous Sanahbaka, the most venerable of brihmans, remained 
near this palace. This chief of teachers was in appearance like Vissnu, 
and diifiBred nothing from him. 

S3. The poet Udatana, by the lung's command, wrote this (eulogy) 
which resembles a fine woman, always charming in the motions of her 
handsome feet, with harmonious sounds in her tluroat, adorned with ema. 
ments, and coming with pleasure to my resting place. 

34. As long as the moon aad its rays, the earth and its suf^rter, the 
lotos and LakthnU, Gangd, and the supporter of ffimdhjfa, the sea and its 
waves, words aqd their meaning, abide together in the world, so hmg the 
palace and fiunW of this king will ever shine through the three worlds. 

S5. SAeBAiixMkA^DHABALA, tho sott of Dhatala«dbiva, wroto this ei* 
eellent inscriptiott en a slab in jeweLlike letters over the door of this 
IviMtA-like king. 

36. The best artist engrmved these well arranged words, which resem. 
hie pearisy on a stone-slab* 



III.— -&iectme» of Himiu Coin* descended from ike Parthian type, and 
of the Ancient Coine of Ceifhn, By Jambs Prinsxp, Sec. As, Soe. 

Among the coins extracted from the Manihyala tope were two that 
excited more than ordinary curiosity from their having marginal in« 
Bcriptions in Sanscrit characters around a device in all other respects 
of the Sassanian type. The inscription (which will be found in Plate 
XXI. of vol. III. also p. 439) baffled all attempts to decypher it. 
The repetition of the word Sii left little doubt of ita language beings 



Ind^ - Sa^sanian Cain* 









1 837.] Specimens of JniO'Saesmuan Coine. 289 

Sanscrit, but neither with the aid of modern nor ancient alphabets 
conld the sentence be made out. The inaividual letters seemed to be 

Shortly afterwards, among the coins procured for me by Kxua'mat 
Ali, another instance of the mixture of legends was discovered (Vol. 
III. Fl. XXV. p. 439) ; and here the name was clearly ^ift^^V iSrf 
Vaeudeva, either denoting the god Kbishna, or the Indian monarch 
of that name alluded to in the Persian histories. Mr. Massom's last 
memoir containing one or two coins of the same class, led to a fresh 
scrutiny of our respective cabinets, whence with Capt. Cunningham's 
aid I have now assembled a tolerable group of Indo-Sassanian speci- 
mens, for inspection at least, though it will be difficult to say much 
about them. 

The distinctive characters of the Sassanian or Parthian coins are, 
the fire-altar reverse, the peculiar head-dress of the king with flowing 
fillets, — sometimes the latter attached to the shoulders, — and a legend 
in the Pehlevi character. There is, however, as Mr. Masson has 
pointed out in a memoir published in this Journal"^, a marked 
difference between our coins, (called by Tod " of a Parthian dynasty 
unknown to history,") and the genuine series of Persia proper. 

Sassanian coins, of the type common to Persia, are never found at 
Beghram, according to Mabson, although they are brought for sale in 
abundance to the basar of Cdbul, Two exceptions, however, are 
noted, — one, an extensive series of small copper coins having a 
crowned head on the obverse, with a name in the same character as 
that on fig> 3, greatly resembling the corrupted Greek of the dete- 
riorated Nanorao group — the commonest inscription can be exactly 
represented by the English type posopo* One of this group, sup- 
posed by Mr. Masson to bear the Bamidn name, was depicted in his 
note on the antiquities of that place in Vol. V. On the reverse of 
all these is the fire-altar without supporters, " demonstrating, at least," 
as Mr. Masson writes, "that they were adorers of MUhra; while 
from the numbers in which these coins occur at Beghram, it may be 
further inferred that they were current there, and that the sovereigns 
they commemorate ruled there: although the difficulty then presents 
itself to determine at what period to introduce their sway, with the 
mass of Greek and Indo-Scythic coins before us. The coins them- 
selves, however numerous, may be reduced into three series with 
reference to the nature of the head-dress. The first class bearing a 
helmet, the second a crown with a ball above it, and the third a 
• Note on the Bdmim satiqvicies, vol. Y. p. 711. 



290 Bpecimem of Tndo^Sassanian Coin9. [Apiiit» 

tripartite crown surmounted by an arch of jewels." AH these head- 
dresses, it must be remarked, are met with in the regular Sassaniaos 
of Persia, and it may therefore be possible that they were but a 
provincial coinage of the same dynasty. It was under this impres- 
sion that I omitted to engrave the figures of these coins, reserving them 
for a Sassanian series, — although some of them would have served 
remarkably well as the precursors or prototypes of the copper coins 
about to be described in Plate XV. 

' The second exception noted by our countryman at Cdhui is the 
Indo-Sassanian group, figs. 3. 5 and 6, of Plate XIV. " The strongly 
mifrked Indian features of the busts, and their plentiful occurrence at 
Beghram, especially of their copper money, prove these princes to 
have ruled here. The heads are remarkable for the Bulls' (or buffidoes') 
skulls around them. — some having four or five of these ornaments, 
but in general one only surmounts the cap. The legend is in a peculiar 
and unknown type. The reverse is distinguished by the wheel over 
the heads of the altar defenders." A great many of the type No. 5 
were extracted from the principal tope of Hiddah near JelaldUd. 
(See Vol. V. p. 28.) 

Mr. Masson (J. A. S. Vol. V. 711) refers them to the Kidtdan 
dynasty of Persian historians, to whom he would also attribute the 
Bamidn antiquities. He cannot of course here allude to the early 
branch, which includes Ctrus, Cambtsbs and Darius Htstapbs, for 
it is verye vident that the coins before us cannot equal, much less 
surpass, in antiquity the celebrated darie archers of Spartan notoriety. 
He must rather speak of their far descendants, to whom the present 
independent chiefs of Seistan still proudly trace their origin. This 
race under the name of Tajik claims proprietary right to the soil, 
though encroached upon by the Afghins on all sides, and at BamioM they 
are found inhabiting the very caves and temples constructed by their 
infidel progenitors. 

As to the probable date of these coins then, little more can be conjec- 
tured than that they were contemporaneous with the Sassanian dynasty 
in Persia, viz. between the third and sixth centuries. Their frequent 
discovery in the Panjdb topes, accompanied with the Indo-Scythics 
having Greek legends, should give them a claim to the earlier period ; 
but as far as the fire-worship is concerned, we learn from Price's 
Muhammadan history, that " as late as the reign of Masau'p, son of 
Sult£n Mahmu'u of GMzni (A. D. 1034). a race, supposed to be the 
remnant of the ancient Persian stock, submitted to his arms/' who had 
doubtless maintained their national faith to that time unchanged. 



1837.] SptcimeiU of IndO'Suaamau Coin$. S91 

The intimate relation between the worshippers of Mithka and 
the followers of the Vedof, is established by the affinity of the 
language in which the books of Zoroastbr are recorded, with the 
Sanskrit. The learned restorer of this ancient text indeed cites some 
reasons for giving priority to the Zend as a language, and he 
finds many occasions of interpreting the verbal obscurities of the 
Vedas from analogies in the latter. I cannot refrain in this place 
from noticing, in allusion to Mr. Masson's location of the Kaianians, 
a passage in M. Bobnodv's most elaborate Commentaire sur le Yacna, 
just received from Paris, bearing upon this point, and leading to 
the unexpected conclusion that the Kaianians of Persia and the iSitr- 
yavansaa of India, are the same, or have a common origin. The 
word kai prefered to so many names (as Kaiumars, Kaikobad, Kai- 
kaous, Kaikhosrn, &c.) having the same signification as the Sanskrit 
kavi, 'wf^, *' the Sun." Against such a hypothesis, however, M. 
BuRNouF confesses that the Oujeraii translator of the Yu^na, Ns&io- 
8INGHA, renders the word v^ kai, simply by the Sanscrit equivalent 
for " king." I give the passage at length, as of first importance in 
a discussion on a mixed Indo-Sassanian coinage. 

" Je n'ai pu, jusq'a present, determiner si les Kaianiens ou les rois 
dont le nom est prec^d^ de k^ (en Zend kavi) sont les rois toleil ou des 
rois descendant du soleil; en d'autres termes, si le titre de soUil a ^t6 joint 
au nom de chacun de ces rois, uniqnement pour indiquer la splendure 
de leur puissance, ou bien si le chef de cette dynastie a pa8s6 pour de- 
scendre du soleil, et s'il a laiss^ ce titre ^ ses successeurs, comme cela 
a eu lieu dans 1' Inde pour les Suryavan^a, Je ne veux pas ajouter une 
hypoth^se ^tymologique aux traditions fabuleuses dont les Parses ont 
X£k€\€ Thistoire de ces rois ; mais il serait interessant de retrouver la 
forme Zende du nom du premier des Kaianiens, de Kobdd ^^, nom 
dans lequel on decouvrirait peut-^tre le mot kavi (nom. kavd et kava), 
soleil. Si Kobdd pouvait signifier " le soleil" ou " fils du soleil/' la 
question que nous posions tout k Theure serait resolue, et les autres 
Kaianiens n'auraient re^u le titre de kavi (ki) que parce que la tradition 
les regardait comme issus d'un fils du soleil. Je remarquerai encore^ 
sans attacher tontefois beaucoup d' importance k ce rapprochement, 
qu'on trouve dans Thistoire heroique de Tlnde plusieurs rois du nom 
de kavi, et notamment un fils de Pritavrata, roi d' Antarv^di, Hamil* 
TON dans 1' index de ses Genealogies of the Hindus cit^ quatre person- 
nages de ce nom, sans parler de deux autres rois, dans le nom 
desquels figure ce m^me titre de kavi*. Enfin M. Rosbn a cit6 nn 

* Oen. Hindus, pago 77, on troave dam le Rik et dans le Yadjoarv^a, un roi 
nomm^ Cavoiha, (Colbbrookx, As. Res. VIII. 399 ;) et ce qui peat fsire penser 



299 Specmmu of IndO'Sussanum Caim. [Apbil, 

Teri extrmit d'an hjmne da Rigv^a, dans leqnel les mots vipfm 
kmnm, Toisins da compost. i^/i«tfiM, doivent peut-^tre se traduire 
plutdt par komiimm regem qae par agricoUarum vatem** — [CoMmm- 
tairt tmr U Yafna, ckt^re I. p. 455.] 

I now proceed to particularize the coins inserted in my plate. 

Indo^SassanioH Coins, Plate XIV. 

Fig, I, a silver coin iu my cabinet of an nntque type: — Ohvene 
the prince on horse*back, head disproportionate in dimensions. On 
the horse's neck is a flower vase*, which is probably supported by the 
man's left arm ; on the margin are some indistinct Pehlevi characters 
and on the field a monogram » resembling the N£gar( letter «r. The 
device on the reverse is nearly obliterated. 

Fig. 3, a copper coin, also unique : it escaped my detection among 
a number of old Bokhara Miisalm£n coins, or it should have appeared 
along with the bull and horseman or R£jpdt series of December, 1 835. 
It seems to link this curious outline group with the full-faced Sassa* 
nians of Vasudsva, &c. ; for on the border of the obverse are Pehlevi 
letters. The features of the supposed face are barely admissible as 
such even on the lowest estimate of native art. The horse on the 
reverse is more palpable, but it seems more like a toghreh or flourish 
of Persian letters, than ever. It is also reversed in position, and has 
no Nigari legend. 

The coins of this genus, although we have found them connected 
with Delhi sovereigns and Malwa r&jas at one end of the series, 
evidently reach at the other to the brahmanical rulers of the PanjAb, 
and probably CdhuL They are procured much more abundantly 
at the latter place (and on the site of Tajtila according to M. Court) 
than in any part of India. Some of them exhibit on their reverse 
the style of Arabic now known to belong to the Ghasnavi Saltans, 
while others agree rather with the Ghori type, and contain known 
names of that dynasty. 

Fig. 3, a silver coin in my cabinet, K. A. Several of the same 
nature are depicted by Masson as noticed above. The execution is 
very bold and the preservation equally good. A doable blow has, 
however, confused the impression on the reverse. 

The head-dress or helmet is surmounted by the head of a buf* 
falo, in imitation perhaps of MxNANDBa's elephant trophy. The 
two wings common on the Sassanian cap are still preserved. The 

a quelque monarquo Baeirien, c*e9t que oe Kaoaeka est p^e de TurOt doat Is 
Dom rappelle le Touran. Mais je ne croia pas, pour cela, qao Kavaeha pnisit 
^tre identifi^ avec le mot Zend et Sanscrit kavi, 

* Perhaps the Kdmacumbha or yase of abuadance, of Tod. Ann. Rqf. /. 603. 



1637.] Specmeiu of Indo^Siu^aman Coins. . &dS 

prince irears a profusion of peark and handsome earrings. In 
front of his face is a legend in an unknown character, which can, how- 
ever, he almost exactly represented hy N£gari numerals, thus; 
^ )« • ^ 00 ^. None of the pure Pehlevi is to he seen on either face, 
hut on the shoulder in the corner is something like a Nagarl n, which 
is prohahly an m, not a hh. The fire-altar of the reverse is remarkahla 
from the tvro wheels or chakras over the officiating priests. We shall 
see more of these again as we descend. 

Fig. 4. is a silver coin in Dr. Swinbt's possession : it is of inferior 
workmanship, the features beginning to he cut in outline. A dimi- 
nutive figure (female) in front of the face holds a flower or comnco. 
pia : — just above can he discerned two small Sanskrit letters ^^ prati 
or fratd . . . which suffice to ally the coin with our present group. 

The two succeeding figures are from Masson's drawings, some of 
which have already appeared in lithography. Fig. 5 represents rather 
a numerous class of the same type as fig. 3. The letter of the legend 
is sometimes omitted, and the oo becomes a cp ; but without examining 
the coins themselves, it would be unsafe to argue on such differences. 
No. 4 represents a variation of the monogram, it may be an old 
form of IC 

Fig. 6, is an interesting coin» similar to my Vasudeva, and the Mani^ 
kyala coins in some respects/^but hardly so far advanced towards Hin- 
duism, inasmudi as the fire-altar is retained, and the full marginid 
legend on both sides is in the unknown character, while the N^gari 
occupies only a secondary place on the field. This name, too, ia, as it 
stands in Masson's drawing, wholly uncertain, with exception of the 
initial Sri Va.. . It may be 'JlW^^^^. . W. 

We now arrive at a class of coins of considerable interest as well 
to the history of India, as to the science of numismatics ; for the gra- 
dual manner in which the nature of their device has been developed 
is as much a matter of curiosity, as the unexpected conclusion to which 
they lead respecting the immediate prevalence of the same Sassanian 
(or ignicolist) rule in Upper India, while the foregoing coins only 
prove the mixture of Hinduism with the religion of Bactria. 

Colonel ToD has repeated an observation of Dr. CLAaxa, the 
traveller, that "by a proper attention to the vestiges of ancient 
superstition, we are sometimes enabled to refer a whole people to their 
original ancestors, with as much, if not more certainty, than by 
observations made upon their language, because the superstition 
is engrafted upon the stock, but the language is liable to change.'' 
In some respects the converse of this proposition would be better 
2 a 



Baited to the citcmnetancet of India* wher^ we have long had irre- 
fragable proof of the alternate predominance of the Buddhist and 
Br&hmanical faith among people using the same language ; and now 
we are obtaining e^pially strong testimony of the engrafting of the 
fire-worship npon the same local stock. The extensive spread of this 
worship in the north-west is supported by the traditionary origin of 
the Agnicmia or fire* worshipping races, whence were derived some of 
the principal families of the R£|p6ts. — Indeed, some have imagined 
the whole of the Sttrna^vansif^ or sun -descended, to have been of 
Mithraic origin, and the Indu-vaiuis to have been essentially Bud- 
dhists*. Numismatology will gradually tlirow light upon all these 
speculations, but at present all we can attempt to elucidate is the 
important fact of another large series of Hindu coins, (namely, that 
bearing the legend ^ W^rf^W^m Srimad ddi vardha,) having directly 
emanated from a Sassanian source. I say another, because the Sauratk" 
tra coins, and the Ckauko'dukas their descendants, have been already 
proved to possess the Sassanian fire*altar for their reverse. The sects 
of the Surya-panthis, and the Mars who are known at fire-worshippefs 
at Benares, have not perhaps received the attention they merit from 
the antiquarian ; — but even now the solar worship has a predomi- 
nance in the Hindu pantheon of most of the Mdrwdr principalities. 
Colonel Too thus describes the observances sacred to this luminary 
at UdapUpur (the city of the rising sun) : — " The sun has here univer- 
sal precedence; his portal (Staja-pol) is the chief entrance to the city; 
his name gives dignity to the chief apartment or hall (Surya-makalJ of 
the palace $ and from the balcony of the sun (Surfa'pekra) the 
descendant of Rama shews himself in the dark monsoon as the sun's 
representative. A huge painted sun of gypsum in high relief with 
gilded rays, adorns the hall of audience, and in front of it is the throne. 
As already mentioned, the sacred standard bears his image, as does 
thnt Scythic part of the regalia called the chanfj/i, a disc of black felt 
or ostrich feathers, with a plate of gold to represent the sun in its 
Centre, borne upon a pole. The royal parasol is termed ^imia, in 
allusion to its shape like a ray (eamaf) of the orb." Many other 
quotations from the same author might be adduced in proof of the 
strong Mithraic tinge of Hinduism in modem Rdjjmtdna : and, in fact, 
the Muhammadan historians tell us that the fire-worship in Gujerai 
was only finally uprooted in the time of Ala-ct'din's incursions into 
the Dskhan. 

* Annals of RftjasthiD, I. 63. See also preceding remarks. 
' t Can this have any cosaection with the title horems of oar coins ? 



J S37.] 8pecmgn$ of IndO'SasunUan Cwu. 295 

Fifteen years ago Colonel Caul? ibld sent me two coins dug up at 
Kotu, where he was then Resident, which were engraved in PI. III. of 
the Asiatic Researches, XVII. as fig. 65. It seemed then perfectly 
hopeless to attempt a guess at their nature — ^but now we can pro- 
nounce precisely the meaning of every rude mark they contain — ^the 
fire- altar and its attendant priests, and the bust of the prince on tiie 
obverse. Colonel Stacy's collection has furnished the chief links of 
this investigation, but it is to Captain CasTMiNOHAM's examination of it 
and careful analysis of the numerous small silver VardJuu of our several 
cabinets that we are indebted for the knowledge of the balusters, 
parallelograms and dots being all resolvable into the same fire-altar 
and its attendants. Indeed so long ago as January 1836, he wrote 
me from Benares his conjectures that this series was descended from 
the Parthian coins. 

From the selection he had assorted to trace out and illustrate this 
curious fact, I have been obliged to restrict myself to such as niy 
plate would contain ; giving the preference to those that exhibit well 
defined letters on some part of the field. 

Fig. 7, silver. Col. Stact. Obverse, the Sassanian head in its de- 
l^enerated state, or cut in Qutline : the hair is represented by a mere 
ball, the ear by a curve, &c. ; the two stiffened muslin lappets rise 
from each shoulder as in figs. 3 and 5, and would be utterly unintel- 
ligible but for the light thus afforded. Above the head is the Sanskrit 
^ (resembling the Gaur or BeitgdU form) and in front of the mouth 
the letter n which is most probably a w or bh. On the reverse 
of this coin the fire-altar is very discernible* and it ia instructiye 
to study the configuration of the two suppoj'ters, the fiame, aod the 
altar itself, so ajs to be able to follow out the subsequent bar- 
barizatiou they were doomed to undergo. Thus in fig. 8 (Col. 
Stact) they lose a little more : — in 9 (ditto) the two breast dots .aod 
the .curve of the arm separating them from the body are barely 
traceable. In Col. Stacy's copper coins 11 aod 12, the engraver has 
collocated the various dots and lines without any regard to their intent 
or symmetry. Then in 13, 14, which are precisely similar to the 
class engraved in figs. 17, 19, 20, H. L. vol. IV., the fire altar is 
transformed into a kind of spear-head, or the central shaft taken out and 
.supplanted by the old Njigari letter Jir m ; but the side figures, where 
the die permits of it, cfm still be readily made out. These general 
remarks will say^ the necesiiity of describing the reverse of each coin 
in detail. There are equally grotesque varieties in the contour of the 
face on the obveroe, whi^h none but an experienced eye could trace : 
2 Qi 2 



296 Specimens of IndO'SoMonkm Come. [Ami, 

for instance, in figs. 1], 13, and 14, where the eye, nose, lips and 
chin resolve themseWes into elementary dot», veiy like those on the 
Saurashtra coins. 

Fig. 9 has the letters ^j^W or ^9tV^ Sri Ladka . « 

Fig. 10, a small copper coin belonging to Dr. Swinbt, is in a far 
superior style, with the exception perhaps of an unaccountable sub- 
stitution of the ekakra for the head of the attendant at the altar ! 
Can thus it denote the Sun himself ? There are letters in front of the 
face ^^n^ • . . . SH Dat ... or some such name. 

In figs. 11 and 12 (which latter gives the lower portion of the sams 
die), there are more letters than usual : — enclosed in a circle on the 
cap or crown the letter ^ sr then in front of the nose the usual <Qt, and 
below it the ^ or A of the same alphabet. 

In the lower series (13, 14,) the shoulders and hand are generally 
replaced by letters. On some the context seems to make ^ftf^nr . . Sri 
Vigra (ha) ; on others ^ %r .. Sri Yo, and ^f^ . . Sri Pi. . , None are 
eomplete enough to give us a cognate name. 

Having conducted this line of Indo-Sassanians down to its amalga- 
mation in the Vardha series of my former plate, we may recede, once 
more, back to the period when the Indian artists could execute a less 
imperfect copy of the Grecian or Sassanian portrait-die. 

Figs, 15, 16 of this plate, and 6 of the ensuing one, are types of a 
distinct group of copper coins, plentiful in the Swinet and Stact 
cabinets. The appendage to the shoulder decides the Sassanian 
origin, and the wheel on the reverse seems to be borrowed from 
the emblem above the fire-altar. I incline to think it the solar efiigy, 
rather than the symbol of a Chakravaritit or ruler of universal domi- 
nion. It is probable that this common emblem is still preserved 
in the sun of the Ujjain and Jndore coins of the present day. There is 
the appearance of a letter in front of the face, but ill defined. On the 
opposite side, however, the two large letters under the wheel are most 
distinctly Th^, tora, the meaning of which remains a mystery. They 
are not in the same alphabet as that of the preceding coins, but of the 
more ancient Idth character which accords so far with the comparative 
superiority of the engraving. 

Plate XV. 

Figs. 1, 2, 3, from Colonel Stacy's drawings, and 4, 5, from Dr. 
Swinst's coins, are closely aUied to the series just described : the 
Indian bull only being brought on the reverse, generally with the re- 
tention of the chakra under his feet or on his haunches. The name 
. in front of the rija's face in figs. 3 and 4 contains several reeogniza- 



1887.] Specimem of IndO'Sassdnian Coin9, 297 

ble letters ; on fig. 5 they are still more distinct, 4t 7%^ V it may 
possibly be intended for ^ irfTTT^rr Sri Mahdrdjd, leaving us still 
in the dark for a name. 

On the reverse of fig. 4, under the bull» are the letters fkwm 7^ 
vijayavag:. . a form that virill be found more developed in another 
branch of this curious series below. 

In the next variety, figs. 7 and 8, of virhich Dr. Swinbt boasts the 
largest supply, the Sassanian head is no longer retained, but the 
chakra remains coupled virith a kind of cross which may be read as 
the syllable ku of the old alphabet. The bull of the reverse is now 
accompanied by an attendant exactly in the fashion of the inferior 
KadpMses or OKPO group of the Mithraie coins. 

In the succeeding variety, figs. 9, and 10 (Swinbt), the chakra 
gives place to the trident (of Shiva }) and the bull takes an attitude 
of repose ^ la Nandi. The letters wt^^^9W V{d{ aagu or V^d'ksagu are 
bounded by the marginal dots, and must therefore be complete, how- 
ever unintelligible. Were there room for a final V we might con- 
jecturally read ACWH Vii^tagupta, " cherished by foreigners ;" 
which would tally with the notion of a Parthian interloper. 

In fig. 1 1 (which I also engraved in the Kadphises plate of vol. 
III.) the trident has the letters V tri, as if for trisuia. 

In figs. 12 and 13 the symbol is more like the original fire-altar : — 
to the former are adjoined the letters '^^, or perhaps "^f Rudra, a 
name of Shiva. 

In figs. 14, 15, (Stact,) and 16, (Swinbt,) the standing figure has 
quitted the bull to take the chief post on the obverse — ^the marginal 
inscription of 14 commences with ?jai and the last letter is ^. 

In figs. 17, 18, (SwiNBY,) the bull is again replaced by the chakra, 
with two Sanskrit letters WIT or ^|ir — sense unknown. 

And now we advance or perhaps it would be more correct to say 
retrograde to a much more satisfactory group, forming as it were a 
link between these Indo-Sassanians, and what have been called the 
Buddhist coins. 

The specimens of this series, christened the " cock and bull" by Co- 
lonel Stact, and first made known by him, were deficient in preserva- 
tion ; but Mr. Tbbobab of Juanpiir has since been fortunate enough to 
procure a considerable quantity of various sizes with the epigraph 
beautifully distinct. They were found in company with copper coins 
of the Gupta series, which are in the same style both as to the letters 
and their horizontal situation in what is called the exergue of western 
Bumismatics. As pointed out by Mr. Tbbobab, there are three varia- 



298 Speemens of Cf^Um Cwia. [April, 

tiona in the reading. On 20 and the cdn below it ; M<lifl<<iH 
Satya mitasa. On the fine coins figs. 21, 22; ^^(imfj Say a mt^apt. 
And on Nos. 1 9, 23, 24 and 25 ; fr^nrftniW Vijaya mitasa. The varia- 
ble portion of these, satya, soya, and vijaya, are evidently epithets, the 
perfect, the true, the victorious, — but the name to which Uxey are ap- 
plied, mitasa, whether of a person or thing, is unfortunately only open to 
conjecture. From the analogy of the okro bull, and the evident descent 
that has been traced in these plates to a Mithraic origin, I feel atrongiy 
inclined to read the word Uc^^f ^' mitratya, of the true, the victorious 
sun," the Mithras. — Mitra has also the signification " ally," if it be 
preferred to confine the title to a mundane ruler. 

If the possessive termination be not made out, the terminal s may 
possibly be used in place of the visarga. 

In 6gure 22, the trilingual symbol brings us directly to the extensive 
and oldest of our Hindu series. Of these we hav^, thanks to Mr. Tax- 
GEAa and Col. Statt, enough to fill another plate or two, but they 
must be kept distinct ; while to close the present plate more coiisia* 
tently, I have inserted in figs. 26, 27, two small silver coins found by 
Capt. BuaNxs at old Mandivi or Raipur in Cutck, having Sassanian 
head8« and reverses respectively corresponding to figs. 7 and 12. 

The little copper piece 28, from the same place, has the N^gari 
letters ^ ^ifUl Sri Bhima j the last letter uncertain. 

To balance these I have selected three copper coins of Dr. Swikbt's 
store, on account of their having the chakra or the bull for obverse. 
On No. 31 we can read the titles ^^ . . . . ifXncTM SH . . . Mahdrqfa ; 
the name as usual provokingly obscure ! Dr. S. rea4a it ymutpati. 

Plate XX' Ceyhu Coins. 

After wading through the doubtful maze of obscurity exemplified by 
the foregoing coins,. where we have almost in vain sought a feeble 
landmark to guide us even as to the race or the oountry whence 
they sprung, it is quite a relief to fall upon a series of coins possess- 
ed of their true and legitimate value as unequivocal evidence of tl^e 
truth of history. 

The peculiar coins of ancient Ceylon have b^en long known to 
.collectors : they have been frequeintly described and depicted in books, 
and the characters they bear identified as Deva^Nigari, but little nior^. 
Marsokn apd Wilson, as will be seen below, were quite a^t fault in 
regard to them, and so might we all have remained had not tba 
Hon'Ue Mr. G. Turn our published his ^itome of the Ceylon Jiiwlx^ 
from the Buddhist Chronicle^. Upon my publishing in voL IV* a 
sketch of the coin which ranks first in the present plate, and auggeat- 



Vc/.PIPi.XX. 



Ceylon Ct'/n*. 




UfLS 



€Ni 




1 8a7.] SpmmiHi of Ce^Um Com$. 299 

ing the reading Sri MofitrayaMaUat I remarked that, although princea 
of this family name were oommon in Nepal, I could find none in the 
Ceyhn list to correspond. This ohservation elicited the following 
note from Mr. Turnour, which in justice to his sagacious and correct 
prediction ought to have heen published long ago. 

*' NMe on Uindu Coin, fig. 22, of PI. L. vol. IV. — ^In your valuable 
paper in the Dec. Journal, on Hindu Coins, you say that the name of 
Malla does not appear in my Catalogue. He is doubtless identical 
with Sahaosa Malhwa in my epitome published in the Almanac of 
1833. In the translation No. 6 of the inscription published iu 1834« 
yon will also find him called Sahaoa Malla. That inscription contains, 
a date, which led to an important correction in my chronological table 
explained at page 176. He commenced his reign in A. D. 1200. 
His being a member of the Kalinga royal family — his boastful visits 
to India : — and Dombodinia (which you have called D(paldinna) be«- 
coming the capital in about 80 years after his reign, where the for- 
mer similar coins were found ; — all tend to shew that the coin in 
question may be safely given to him. You will observe also by the 
inscription that his title was Sirri Sangaba Kalinga Wijaya bahu, 
snmamed 8dha$a Malla, 

Kandg, \7th March, 1836. Gborqb Tuhnour." 

There was no other Malla in the list, and therefore the assignment 
was probable, but I laid little stress on it from the total variance of 
the rest of the name. In August, 1836, Captain Oro, of Candy, sent 
me impressions of the coins he had met with, and pointed out that 
the first letter of the third line was not formed like ?r but open like i(. 
To pursue the train of small causes leading to an important result, 
when lithographing the DelM inscription of the 10th century in vol. 
V. page 726, the very first letter 19 struck me as resembling in the 
squareness of its form, {l^ ^^® Ceylonese letter I had before mistaken 
for '^. The enigma was thus in a moment solved, and every subse- 
quent reading, (for coins of this prince are exceedingly common com- 
pared with others,) has confirmed the reading ^fh^mi^^^H Sr( mat 
Sdkaaa Malla, in accordance with Mr. TuRNOtra's conjecture. In 
some few specimens the t of mat is either omitted through ignorance, 
or worn away ; but in general it is quite distinct. Marsdbn's read- 
ing was vniT ^iVt VM Maya daya malla. 

The ice once broken, it became comparatively easy to find owners 
for all the other specimens either published in former notices, or ex- 
isting unpublished in cabinets on the island. 

Capt. Ord, not content with sending me drawings of those in his 



900 Spedwimu of Ceyhn ComB. [A»ut.» 



possession, kindly transmitted the coins themselves* allowing me to 
retain the duplicates. Mr. Tormour also generonaly presented me 
some, coins lately dag up in the ruins of the old city of MonioUee by 
Mr. GiFFORD, Assistant Surveyor General. So that, including the 
gold coin sent me six years ago by Sir W. Horton himself, and the 
coins in the Society's Cabinets from Dipaldmna (which are of the same 
class precisely), I am now in a condition to issue a full plate of this 
type, preserving a degree of chronological order in their arrangement. 

The device on all these coins is the same ; a rude standing figure or 
r£ja on the obverse, holding a flower in the left hand, and an instrument 
of warfare in the right. The skirts of the dress are rudely depicted 
on either side of the body, and the fold of the dhoti falls between 
his legs, which being taken for a tail, has led some to call him Hanu- 
MAN, but I think without reason : there are 5 dots and a flower to the 
right. On the reverse the same figure is more rudely depicted in a 
sitting attitude. The mode of expressing the face is altogether 
unique in the history of perverted art. 

Fig, 1, the gold coin sent me by Sir W. Horton, has the inscrip- 
tion ^ li^nv^ SH Lank^swara on the side of the seated r£ja. 

This name 1 presume to be the minister Lokaiowara of Mr. Titr- 
nour's table, who usurped the throne during the Sholean subjection 
in the eleventh century, (A. D. 1060 ;) but he is not included among 
the regular sovereigns, and the coin may therefore belong to another 
usui'per of the same name who drove out the queen LiiiAvati' in A. D. 
1215, and reigned for k year. The Ceylon ministers seem partial to 
the name : one is called Lankan ath. 

Fig, 2, a copper coin, copied from Marsdrn, but found also in 
Mr. Lizar*s drawings, though I have not seen the actual coin. The 
name is "^ fT^Tif WT9 Sri Vijaya bdhu, (Marsubn makes the last 
word ^\ gada, erroneously.) 

There are several princes in the list of this name : the first and 
most celebrated was proclaimed in his infancy in the interregnum 
above alluded to, A. D. 1071, and reigned for fifty years. He expel- 
led the Sholians from the island and re-established the Buddhist supre- 
macy. 

Fig. 3, a copper coin, given to me by Capt. Ord. One is engraved 
in the Researches, and is doubtingly interpreted Sri Rdma ndtk by 
Mr. Wilson. From many examples, however, it is clearly ^ i|< ; nl<^ ly 
Sr( Pardkrama bdhu. The first of this name was crowned at PoUonna- 
rowe, A. D. 1153, and sustained for 33 years the most martial enter- 
priziug and glorious reign in Singhalese history. 



1887.] Spemmms <^ (Uj^ Coku. 90\ 

Fig. 4. Amoag the coins dag up at Mant^Efe were teveral small onaa 
of tlie aane prinoe. Sri Purdkrama hdku fiila the field of the reverse. 

Fig. 5. This coin» one of the new acqaisitions, has the name 4\ ^TVr 
.^Ivr^^ Sri Raju LUdmitip another celebrated person in Singhalese 
historj. She was the widow of the PAm/KaAM a just named ; married 
KiBffi, the minister of one of his successors, not of the ro^ral line, who 
was put aside, and the kingdom goTemed in her name from A. D. 
1202 until she was deposed by Sahasa Mall a. She was twice after- 
wards restored. 

Fig. 6, of Srimmt Sakata Maila, has already been described. The 
date assigned to this prinoe in the table is 1205 A. I>. or 1748 
A. B. ; a date confirmed by a rock inscription at PoUonttrowe, trans- 
lated and pid>lished in the Ceylon Almanac for 1834, page 190. He 
Jigain was deposed by his minister Nikanoa, and was sacceeded 
in 1213 by 

Fig. 1, ^ i|Wll|l%<^ Sr{ Dhartna Asoka ieva, a prince of a very 
imposing Baddhietie name, who was placed on the throne at the age 
of three months, bat of whom nothing further is said. The portrait 
would lead us to suppose him of mature age. 

Fig, 8. We here pass over a period of turbulence and continual inva- 
•ions from Ckoia, P^andia and Kulinga, and arrive at a coin of ^nnii iw 
^ilV Sri Bkawdneka bdku, who seized the throne on his brother's as- 
.^aaainataon by a minister in A. D. 1803. In his reign the Pandian 
general, Abita CHAKBAVAaTn' took Yapahu, the capital, and carried^ 
off the Dalada reUc so much prized by the Buddhists of Ceylon, 

Fig. 9. We now come to a name of less certainty than the fore- 
going, and possibly not belonging to the island, for it is one of a 
large qaantity of coins found by Col. Macksnzib at Dipaldinna or 
Amm^dwOi, on the continent of India, — a name so similar to the Damba^ 
jdinia, where many of the Ceylon coins were discovered, that, seeing the 
coins were identical, I supposed at first the places must be so likewise; 
-Tbe appeimoat letter is oat off. The next two below are decidedly 
H, and under the arm we find 41 and iCT* The most legitimate con- 
text would be ^ (V) W<r«IT Sri Gaja Rdjd, (A. D. 1127,) but the H 
is hardly allowable. 

There are many smaU coins (10 and 11) frxmi the same place, 

reading like it the same indefinite title TTIT r^, to which no better 
place can be assigned. 

jF^^. 12. Here again is a common variety of the Dipaldinna series, 
which was thought utterly hopelc^j until Mr. Tuhnour iavored me 
with drawings of Mr. Lizar's collection. Two of these (figs. 18 and 
14) exhibit a new type of reverse, the Indian bull Nandi, which may 

2 B 



302 SpecUnens of CeyUm Oniu. (^Jtg^ii, 

possibly betoken a temporary change in the national religion. The 
legend beneath I immediately recognized as identical with the flourish 
on fignre 1 2, taming the latter sideways to read it. What it may be, 
is a more difficult question. The first letter bears a striking analogy 
to the Towel e of the Southern alphabets — ^but if so, by what alphabet 
is the remainder to be interpreted ? for it may be equivocally read H^tya, 
benya, cK^tya, and perhaps Chanda or Nanda. The last alone is the 
name of a great conqueror in the Cholian and other Southern annals, 
but it would be wrong to build upon so vague an assumption. It is, 
at any rate, probable that the bull device is a subsequent introduction, 
because we find it continued into the Hala C*aiutra coins below. 

Fig, 15, of the Society's cabinet, a thick well preserved coin, has 
a device one step less recognizable as a human figure on the obverse, 
but the bull very neatly executed on the reverse, and in front of him 
the Nigari letters ^ vi, as if of Vira hdhu, 1398 ? 

Figs, 20, 21. In these the upright figure has quite disappeared, or 
is dwindled to a mere sceptre : leaving space around for the insertion 
of a legend in the old Canarese character, of which an alphabet was 
given in my last number. It is, unluckily, not complete, but the O9* 
nara letters . . da cha.. . ray a are very distinct. 

But before touching such modern specimens, I should perhaps 
have noticed a few other genuine old coins ; some, as fig. 16, having 
a bull and two fish ; others, as fig. 24, having a singha and four dots. 
They were all dug up at MotUollee with the rest. 

These symbolical coins without names agree in every respect with 
the numerous class of Buddhist coins found in India, and fellows to 
them may be pointed out among the Amar&vaH coins, as figs. 17, 19, 
of the bull kind, the reverse plain or uncertain ; one much resem- 
bling a ship ; and fig. 25, a prettily executed brass coin of a horse. 

One fragment, fig. 1 8, of the sitting bull, from MonioUee, has the 
letters ^iV^ . . 7^ in the N£gar£ character on the reverse. 

The two very small coins, 22, 23, retain some of the Ceylon sym- 
bols — the anchor-shaped weapon (of Hanuman ?) in particular; but 
to show how cautious we must be in receiving as equally old, all the 
coins found buried together in the same locality, I have given as the 
finale to this plate, one of the MontoUee specimens, fig. 26, which, 
however mystified by the ignorance of the die-engraver, I cannot 
interpret otherwise than as an old Dutch paisa, stamped on both sides 
^ St. or one-eighth of a stiver ! A Seringapatam paisa with xx. cash 
(written invertedly, hsacxx.) has often puzzled amateur collectors in 
the same manner. 



1M7.] Oh the Revolution of the Seaeone, 303 

rV. — On the Revolution of the Seasons, (^continued from Vol. IV. 

p. 257.) Bjf the Rev, R. Evkhbst. 

A correspondence between certain atmospheric phenomena/ and 
certain positions of the moon, similar to what we have attempted to 
trace in the preceding papers, has been observed before in various 
ways, by others, and, in a degree, in all ages. Bat the objection may 
be fairly urged to such attempts, that, if we examine the supposed 
correspondence doaer, no regular succession of phenomena can be 
made out. No state of the atmosphere can be expected to return of 
a certainty upon the recurrence of the assumed cause : nor, in such 
cases, can any probable circumstance be assigned, which might be 
supposed to have counteracted its operation. We may remark, how- 
ever, upon this, that no two cases are precisely similar ; one of the 
principal conditions of the problem, viz. the heating surface of the 
earth, never remaining the same, owing to the changes continually 
brought about in it, both by natural agents, and by the hand of man. 
Nor can the effect of this last be deemed unimportant, if we consider 
the many common processes, such as the felling of forests, ploughing, 
reaping, and irrigating, which are going on, at all times, more or less, 
over large tracts of country ? Let us suppose it possible that a local 
irregularity of some kind might interrupt the operation of the cause-* 
say (for instance) to such a degree, that the shower, which should 
have fallen with us. fell 5, or 50, or 500 miles distant from us ; then, 
if, instead of the results of a single rain-guage or a single barometer* 
we could measure the amount of effect produced over an extensive 
surface of the earth, we might the more reasonably hope to obtain 
some approximation towards a regular succession of phenomena, in 
proportion as we were thus enabled to obviate the effects of disturb- 
ing causes. It occurred from this, that, in a country where the har- 
vest depended almost entirely upon the quantity of rain that fell, the 
prices of grain in past years (the averages being taken as extensively 
as possible) might indicate, though imperfectly, a regular succession 
of the seasons, as far as drought and moisture were concerned ; pro- 
vided, of course, that such a regular succession had actually taken 
place. 

This idea may appear so strange to many, especially to those who 
are not acquainted with the interior of India, that it may be as well to 
give it a little farther consideration. 

It must be familiar to every one that parts of the ancient world, 
such as £gypt and Judea, were subject at different times to famines 
2 R 2 



304 OmtU nm^fMtm rftU Semntf. lAvm, 

coDBeqnent upon drought. These are not uncommon at the pre* 
aent day in low latitudes. In Australia, for instance, 'frightful 
droughts occur in cycles of 9 or 10 years/— (see WeHmUuter Review, 
No. 45, July 1835, p. 933, and again p. 334 ;) and that such always 
have occurred in In<fia, the Instory of the country abundantly riiewi. 
Perhaps the most remarkable one upon record is that which took place 
in Bengal in tiieyear 1770. (See Mill's History for the particulars 
of this.) Now we have in the Ist vol. of the Gltafthu;^, a list of the 
prices of difierent kinds of grain at CMn^fah in Bengal, from which 
we find thafi, in that year, rice was so dear that only 3 seers of it were 
•old for I rupee, if we examine this list further, we shall see that 
from the year 1 733, the years of scarcity, or minimum quantity, and 
tiie intervals between them, were as follow : — 

Years, 1733.. . . 1753. . . 1770. . . . 1788.. . . 1807. 

Intervals, \9 18 18 19. 

if we add to the upper line, 1836, we have altogether 5 intervals 
of between 18 and 19 years for the recurrence of scarcities in Beugal. 
From 1733 to 1896 Is 98 years, which divided by 5 gives 18) yeara. 
There are some, but faint, traces of scarcities intermediate to these. 
We must remember that 18t years is very nearly the duration of the 
Lunar Cycle. 

Having proceeded thus far, we next ascertained by inquiry the 
dates of the principal scarcities that had occurred in the upper pro** 
vinces within the memory of man. They are — 

1 783-3—1 793-3—1 803-3-1 813-1 3—1 8 1 9-30—1 83^—1833-3. 

It win be obsetved that the recurrences here are nearly twice aa 
fi^quent as in the former case. 

The year 1839 being the year of minimum declination, the years' 
corresponding to it in the previous cycles will be 1811 and 1793; 
and 1830 being the year of maximum declination, the years corre- 
sponding to it in the previous cyles will be 1803 and 1783. Thus we 
have a scarcity in each year of maxmium declination, besides another 
on, or close upon, the year of minimum declination, and in the case 
of 1839 a double one, viz. 1836 and 1833. We shall revert to this 
presently. 

On obtaining one or two lists of the prices of com, it was found, as 
might be expected, that these were the years when the least quantity 
was sold for a given sum ; and that, intervening, about midway, were 
years of extraordinary plenty, when the greatest abundance every 
where prevailed. So that it appeared as if the prices would fbrm a 
curve of which the maxima and minima recurred at fixed intervals of 



ya.rCa.6^eTtt •/ /-(* Mooii't Jlc--//na.lian .-n^ a/tAt /Orice t/ Grain.. 




1837.] 0» tke Mmmiutiom of tht Setuani. d05 

nearly 9 jtars. 8tiH» on coiiBtderiiig the many cauaea, bath, xntnral aa 
wall aa produced by hnmaa meana, wlxich moat operate in determin* 
ittf the price of com, we oeald not bdieve it jHrobable that the indica* 
tioQ of one» or e^en of a few liets, were to ba depended npon. To 
obviate, therefore, local irregalaritiea of arery kind, it was thought 
aeoaaiary to procore liata of pricea from aa many pkcea aa poaaible,—- 
liata apecifying in detail the prioea of four of the principal Tarietiea of 
com grown in the neighbourhood (two of the anrnmer, and two of the 
Winter eropa), and, aa in the CkmiMrak list in the Glemung^, the nam* 
her of aeera sold for one rapee waa to be mantioned in each case* 
Liata of tlua eort were obtained from tweniy^iwo of the principal 
towna wiihin 200 milea on each aide of Delhi, LoHatui, and Hanai ; 
BmreiUy and A^% being the extremes. They all agree very nearly in the 
jMrindpal maxima and minima, and, aa they were furnished by differ- 
ent peraone who had no eommonication with each other, their joint 
reaalt cannot well be ascribed to the errora of copyists, or, indeed, to 
incorreetneaa of any kind. The average of all these was taken (four 
kinda of com at eedi place) for each year ; the mean price for the 
season being thus settled by 88 items. 

The series thus obtained we shall call oar north-weat line* Three 
lists (four kinds of com in each) were obtained from Bengal, and the 
average of them taken for the Bengal line. Two lists (also four kinda 
of com) were obtained from the aeighbonrhood of Benaree, and the 
average of them taken for the Bemaree line. The average, then, of the 
three lines thoa formed waa taken for a general line. 

To connect the variations in this general line with the declination of 
the moon, we mast have recourse to the supposition that the varia^ 
tion is for a series of years direct with the declination, and then for a 
series, inverse with it, — a snj^osition for which no reaaon can be 
aasigned, but which wiU appear the less improbable, if we recollect a 
circumstance stated in a previous paper, viz. that the variations of 
the barometer, either in excess or defect of the mean, increased with 
the increase of declination. 

This connection, or aaaumed connection, may be most readily ahewn 
thua. Let as first trace upon paper the progress of the moon in de« 
dination in difierent years in this manner. Draw a number of verti- 
cal linea at equal intervals (Plate XXII.) to repreaent the years in snc« 
cession from 1810 to 1885 (both induaive). Take out of the Nautical 
Almanack the higheat declination to be found in the month of July in 
each year, and mark that height upon tke vertical line corre^onding 
to the year at any fixed rate, (as 0, J inch) for eaoh degree that it ia above 



306 On the Revolution of the Seaemu. [A»KtL» 

IS"". When yon have marked all the faeighte, jom iJiem, and you have 
the upper, or continuous line, fig. 1 . The lower or dotted line in 
fig. 1 , where it separates from the upper, — ^is formed from it, by sub- 
ititutiDg for the increments, eqaal decrements, so as to be exactly the 
inverse of it. Where this lower lane again changes to a continuoos 
one, it runs parallel (or varies directly) with the upper one, and 
again, where it changes to a dotted one, becomes the inverse of it. 
It is this lower line, partly direct, partly inverse with the upper, that 
appears to be the type of the variation of the seasons. As a proof of 
this, we subjoin below (fig. 2) the general average line of variation 
iti the prices of com during the same period. This line was thus 
formed. The three principal lines, the north- west, the Benares, and 
the Bengal, were first formed from the average of the dififerent lists. 
When the maximum and minimum number in each line within 
the last 85 years (since 1750), were noted, and the difference 
between them reckoned as the whole amount of variation. This 
amount was divided into 1000 parts, and, for the actual number 
in each line, the proportionate parts of the variation were sab- 
stituted. The average was then taken of the 3 lines, and this is 
the line expressed in fig. 2, which is there traced upon the paper at 
the rate of '020 parts of variation for i^^^th of an inch. The lowest line 
(fig. 3) is the general average, simply taken, of the principal lines, 
without any previous division of the variation into centesimal parts. 
A fourth, or southern line, was in this case included in the average, 
having been formed from prices at Jubulpoor (two kinds of com), at 
Bhopaul (three kinds of com), at Indore (two kinds of com). But as the 
country in that direction was during part of the time the seat of war, 
and has been generally subject to unsettled government, and more- 
over the returns are not numerous, no great dependance can be placed 
upon it. In fact, the indications given by the north-west series are 
much more to be relied on than those of the others, owing to the 
more extensive induction. 

In the last paper on this subject we. noticed that there were certain 
years in which, about the solstices, the perigee of the moon fell on 
the same day with her maximum declination, either north or south, 
and that these were commonly extreme years, both of drought and 
moisture. These years are marked thus in the Chart N.* and S.* 
according as the declination is north or south, and it would appear 
on referring to the figures that these are usually the extreme years 
both of plenty and scarcity. They appear also to be the periods at 
which the variation changes from direct to inverse. 



1837.] On the RevohUioH of ike Seasons. . 307 

The maxima and minima by the Calcutta rain-guage since 1820, are 
1823 1826 1832 1835. 

+ — — + 

These results do not differ from those afforded by the average of 
com prices (figs. 2 and 3), more than the prices obtained from any one 
place differ from the general average. The results of registers kept 
in other plaoes do not show so good an agreement ; but the three prin- 
cipal ones we can refer to are those of Macao, Madras and Bombay ; all 
places on the sea-coast, where rain seems to fall more irregularly than 
elsewhere. If it be asked, why, with the anomalies that still exist in 
the lines (figs. 2, and 3), we have presumed the upper line (fig. 1 ) to 
be the type of them, we answer that that line was formed after seeing 
the three or four lists of com prices that first came to hand, and 
that every successive list received helped to approximate them more 
closely ; the inference, therefore, is only fair, that still further lists 
obtained would diminish the irregularities at present existing, though 
we could not hope to obtain an exact parallelism, unless we were 
previously enabled to apply corrections for the many other causes 
that must affect the piices of com. If we refer to the line (fig. 1) 
which we have assumed as the type of the variation, we shall per- 
ceive that on each side of the year 1829 a small inverse, or dotted 
piece exists : on looking back over the lists of prices, some of w hich 
extend as far back as 1700, I do not think that this small inverse 
piece is interpolated or intercalated, if I may 80 call it, oftener than 
every third cycle. With this exception, the variation appears to be 
direct for about 9 years, and then inverse for the same period. Thus 
from 1815 backwards, the variations are 9 years directly to 1806 — 
9 years inversely to 1797 — 9 years directly to 1788, and 9 years in- 
versely to 1779. Then from 1779 a variation is. inserted similar to 
that between 1836 and 1823, up to 1767 or 1766 ; and again backward 
from that, periodical curves of 9 years in duration appear to occur as 
before. On this I shall crave permission to speak more hereafter, 
when, by the obtaining further lists of prices from different places, I 
may be enabled to correct those which I at present possess. For 
this reason I have refrained from carrying the present investigation 
further back than 1 806. I beg at the same time to return my grate- 
fill thanks to those who have already assisted me with lists of prices. 
On looking over the lists it appeared that in those from particular quar- 
ters the maxima and minima occurred a year or two too soon, in other 
places a year or two too late for the supposition. To elucidate this, 
the lines, figs. 4, 5, 6, and 7, were drawn. Of these, fig. 5 is the type, 



808 Om ik» Cakmtt of JkHffamjf. [Arm., 



being the same m the lower Ime, fig. 1. Fig* 4» or Aie Btagtd line, 
appears to have its maxima and minima, generally spealring, somewhat 
earlier than the fictitious line : — ^fig. 6» or the north-west line, has them 
somewhat too late, and i&g. 7, or tlie sonthem line, still later. A fset 
somewhat analogoos to this is oheenred.in Europe where the vari^ 
tions of the barometer are said to take place on tiie shore of the 
Atlantic a day and a half earlier than at 8t. Peterakofk; but in 
neither case is the difference regolar. However, all the informatioa 
of every kind that I can gvtiier on the subject woold lead to the 
belief that the changes generally do take place earlier townrds the 
northern and eastern parts of the country, later towards the soutii-' 
em and western. I am speaking, of course, of Northern India, having 
as yet no lists from the south of the N^rhMa. 

I have not endeavoured to connect the appearances observed with '^ 
the position of the moon, unaware of the difficulties which attoid 
such a supposition, but because I was at a loss to find one which 
vrould account for the phenomena better. As to the appearances 
themselves, the variations in the price of com and their recmrrenoes, 
they of course will rest upon better or worse evidence in proportion 
as the molttpUcatlon of lists from difierent parts of the country con- 
firm, or not, the indications they afford. From the nature of the sub- 
ject, much accuracy in the condusions cannot be h(^>ed for : neverthe- 
less by perseverance some troths may be elicited, which may serve to 
direct philosophical research, and perhaps to give us some insight 
into what is likely to happen for the foture, in the absence of all 
better information. 



y.—On the Climate of Darjilmg. 

We make an exception to our general nde of not inserting meteoro- 
logical registers except in abstract, in favor of the following six 
months' diary kept by Doctor Chavman at the new station of Darji- 
ling in the Sikkim portion of the Sub-Himdlayan range, because it is 
very important that every information should be made public in regard 
to the climate of a place selected, or at least proposed, as a sanatarium 
for the recruiting of exhausted Bengfli constitutions, more accessible 
than the far western hills of Simla and Ma$tiri, or the eastern station 
of Chirra Punji, 

Before Doctor Chapman started on his official deputation to Dar- 
jiling, his instruments were carefully compared with the standards 
registered in this Journal. He was particularly requested to attend to 
the wet-bulb depression, as compared with the dew point ; and to the 



1^7.] On tke Climate of Dmjdimf. S09 

boiling point of water, «s compared with the barometric indications. 
Ab his thermometer for the latter object was only divided to 2*. 
we have since despatched a new one of greater sensibility, whence we 
hope soon to obtain valuable data for the correction of the usual 
tables for the measurement of heights by the thermometer. The dew 
points noted are carious, sometimes higher than the wet bulb or 
evapoi ation point. Can this arise from an error in the Danibll's hygro- 
meter ? We have always found a little iced water added drop by 
drop to a little common water in a highly polished gilded silver cup« 
the most trust-worthy mode of taking the dew point. It can be de- 
pended on to the tenth of a degree. 

Upon the strength of our observations in the December Journal we 
may, with confidence, calculate the altitude of Titalya, and DarjUing 
from the three months' observations of October, December, and Janu- 
ary*. Thus applying the constant correction of — .004 to Dr. 

Chapman's Bar. A« we have 

AUitHd^ 

Corrected heights of the Barometer at 81 A. m. Calcutta, Titalpa. deduead* 

mean temperature of air 76^ 29.894 29.626 ft. 255.7 

At4ip. M, ditto, 84.5 , 29.815 29.514 293.5 

Average altitude of TUalya, ft. 275.d 

For DarjUing the data are more numerous : 

Altitude. 

Calcutta, DarjUing, calculated. 

Barom, Temp. 

Dec. 1836, obs. 9 a. m. a0.098 68.0 

Ditto, 5 p. u. 29.9&9 75. 

Jan. 18;i7, obs. 9 a. m. 3U.073 68. 

Ditto, 5 p. M. 29.970 75. 

Mean altitude by 120 obs. of the Barometer, ft. 6957.5 

The altitude of DarjUing hill by two observations of Capt. HsRBsaT, 

published with his report in the Gleanings of Science, is 7218 feet, or 

250 feet higher than Dr. Chapman's house. The altitude deducible 

from the thermoroetric indication of boiling water is only 6648.5 : 

but little confidence is to be placed in the latter without a very 

accurate instrument. It is to be remarked also, that the barometric 

measure will shew a much closer agreement when not corrected by 

the multiplier for the assumed mean temperature of the stratum of 

air between the two stations. Unconnected they stand thus: 6595.8, 

6578.4, 6624.6, and 6619.2; the maximum discrepancy from the 

mean 6604.5 being only 26 feet. A numerous series of barometrical 

results from similar tables will enable us to form a more correct appre- 

eiation of the influence of variations of temperature on the formula. 

N. B. The barometric heights ubove stated have been all reduced to 32*. 

* We have since received the registers for February and March, 'which we in- 
sert, deferring observations till the series is completed. 

2s 



Barom. 


Temp. 


feet. 


23.367 


44.6 


6925.1 


23.298 


47.6 


6973.1 


23.322 


42.1 


6942.2 


23.247 


43.4 


6989.9 



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316 Note on thi O^gyrmi imd BfUeropkon. [April, 

Vl.^-^Note on the Genera O^gyrui and Belkrojphon, By W. H. 

Bbnson, Esq. B. C. S. 

When I described the Pelagian genua Osygyrua in the 4th volome 
of the Journal, from specimens taken on the surface of the Indian and 
Southern Atlantic oceans, it did not occur to me to search for cognate 
genera in any other order than that in which the characters of the 
animal showed its place to he ; still less did I expect to find any fossil 
shell allied to it ; but recent consideration of the recorded characters 
of the fossil genus Bellerophon of Montpobt, which was placed by that 
author among the Polythalamout Cephalopodes, and was subsequently 
removed by Dbfrancb, on account of the absence of septa, to the 
neighbourhood of Argonauta among the Monothalamaus OctopodOt 
suggests the opinion that this shell is improperly associated with the 
Cephalopoda, and that its real station is among the Nucleobramckous 
Gasteropoda, with Atlanta and Oxygyrus, to the latter of which genera 
it appears to be intimately related. 

The manner in which the umbilicated species of Bellerophon are 
convoluted, the acute keel which is observable in some species, and 
the sinus which indeots that keel within the aperture, are characters 
which denote the affinity of the two genera ; while the prolongation 
of the lips on either side beyond the umbilicus, and the shelly texture 
of Bellerophon, contrasted with the absence of any prolongation of 
the lips, the subcorneouB nature of the habitation of O^gyrua, and 
the sudden truncation of its partial keel, form sufficiently prominent 
characters to distinguish them as generic groups. 

That no recent species of Bellerophon has hitherto been discovered, 
may be possibly owing to the Pelagian habiteT of the genus, and the 
paucity of observers of the interesting Oceanic Testaeea, Without 
specimens I am unable to decide on a point on which Rang and 
Dbfrancx are at issue ; the former stating, in his Manuel, that the 
shell of Bellerophon is thin ; whereas, in the first volume of the 
Zoological Journal, Dbprancb contrasts the great thickness of that 
shell with the thinness of that o(' Argonauta, Even supposing the 
latter statement to be correct, weight will not be considered likely to 
interfere with the Pelagian habits conjecturally attributed to the 
genus, it being now well ascertained that the ponderous Nautilus 
PompUius ascends to the surface of the ocean with as little difficulty 
as the lightest of the naked Cephalopoda, 

P. S. — In ^ol. 4, p. 175, there is a misprint in regard to the loca- 
lity of Qxygyrus. 29* 30' S. lat. should be 39** 30' S. lat. The 



1837.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 817 

erro&eous locality is poBsessed of a temperate climate, whereas the real 
one is occasionally subject to the invasion of fields of ice, and therefore 
more strongly contrasted with the observed habitats in the vicinity 
of the line, and in the Bay of Bengal, 



VII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society^ 

Wednesday Evening ^ 3rd May^ 1837. 

The Hon'ble 8ir Edward Rtak, President, in the chair. 

Colonel D. Maolbod, Engrs. M. A. Biokbll, Esq. Capt. S. F. Hannat^ 
and Dr. W. Griffith, were elected Members of the Society. 

Dr. J. SwiNisv and Lieut. M. Kittob, 6th N. I. were proposed by the 
Secretary, seconded by Capt. Cunningham. 

Professor O'Shacohmbsby, proposed by Dr. Corbtn, seconded by Sir 
£. Rtan. 

G. W, Baoon^ Esq. C. S. proposed by Dr. Falconer, seconded by Mr. 
Magnaohtbn. 

Francis Robinson, Esq. C. S. Fuitehgurh, proposed by Captain 
Forbes, seconded by Mr. Macnaohtek. 

The Bishop of Cochin-China returned thanks for his election. 

Read extract of a letter from Major Troter, the Society's Agent at 
Paris, proposing that honorary membership should be conferred on Baron 
ScHUiUNo of Cronsiadt, the Mongolian and Tibetan scholar. 

[Referred to the Committee of Papers.] 

Major Trotbr mentions that M. Guisot, Miniiter of Public lostmction, is aboat 
to sanction a yearly grant of about 3,000 francs, for procuring copies of Sanskrit 
manuscripts from Calcutta. The study of the Oriental languages is increasing fast 
on the Continent, and a fresh supply of our publications indented for on London has 
been immediately disposed of. Capt. Troykr's French translation of the R&ja 
Taraugini would not issue from the press under a year, on account of the difficulties 
of printing the Sanskrit text. 

Read a letter from the Secretary to Government, General Department, 
directing the packages of Oriental books to be sent to the Export Ware- 
house-keeper, and passing the bill for their package, Rs. 17. 

The Secretary reported the death of Beradur, the pensioned furash of 
the Museum, who had been on the establishment since Sir Williah 
Jones's time. He was with his wife burnt to death in one of the late 
dreadful conflagrations. 

The account current of the Society with Messrs. Morris, Prbvost and 
Co. shewed a balance of ^75 18 1 in favor, after paying the arrears due 
to the Oriental Translation Fund. 

A letter from N, Carlisle, Sec. Antiquarian Society, dated November, 
1836, acknowledged the receipt of the Journal for 1835. 
3x 



3 1 8 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [Apui*, 

Library. 

The following books were presented. 

Two copies of the Address by Earl Stanbopb to the Medico-BoUuical 
flodety, January 18S6, received from that Society through the Govern. 
ment» 

Voyage autour da Monde : the Experimental Voyage of the French cor. 
▼ette i^avOTfYe in 1830-39, by Capt. Laplace,— ftrerented by M. Fobtuni^^ 
Etdocz, Med, Qficer and NaturaiiH of the Frigate La Banite, 

The Quarterly Journal of the Calcutta Medical and Physical Society, 
Nos. I and 11.^ preiiented by the Editore, Profuwre Gaodeoe and (fShau^ 
neetty. 

From the Booksellers; Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, Literary Men, 1. 

Meteorological Journal for March^ — by the Surveyor General, 

Antiquitiee, 

Read the following letter from Lieut Markham Ktttoe, 6th N, I. 
dated Snd April, announcing that in compliance with the Society's desire 
he had visited Khandgii {, in order to re-examine the inscription published 
by the late Mr. Stirling. 

'* Apreeably to the request contained in your letter of the 90th ultimo, of which I 
have the honor to Acknowledge the receipt, 1 proceeded on Monday last to Boraaer- 
«iir and KhaAdgiri^ and examined the inscription given by Stirling in vol. XV. page 
3J3 of the Asiatic ReEearcbes. I found that only part of the inscription iagivea, 
and that, too, appears faulty. I was unable to attempt a facsimile, not being proWd« 
cd with scaffolding or ladders, which lire indispensably necessary for that purpose. 
I shall therefore again visit JTAanif^rtrf in the course of a few days, when I hope to b« 
enabled to furnish a detailed account of the place and ot the remarkably eorioaa 
csTcs and sculpture existing there. 

'* The inscription is iminediately over a tolerably large cave on the southern face of 
the hill ; unfortunately a great part of it is obliterated : 1 am, however, in bopes of 
making out a number of the apparently lost letters by a method I adopt of casting 
different degrees of shade on the surfuce, and which I have found to assist greatly 
in deciphering those of which there is the least shadow remaining. 

" I did not rest with observing this cave, as 1 saw no rearon why others more ex- 
tensive should not possess like inscriptions ; in this conjecture I was not altogether 
mistaken : for 1 fonnd almost all, large or small, to have more or less writing, aoms 
only having one word of six or eight letters (probably the names of the ori^natort 
of these hermitages), others, sentences. I dis^covered no less than 14, of l3of wliieh I 
enclose copies : of these, four are apparently Sanskrit, one (a name) in a new ^a« 
raeter, and the rest in the column character. 

** I have farther great pleasure in announcing the discovery of the most Tolumiaoiia 
inscription in the column character I have ever heard of : it was shown to me by the 
same ascetic who had assisted me before. 

'* It is on a low rocky hill under a high and isolated one, a mile to the west of ths 
Pocree road, and near Piplee at the N. W. corner of the famous tank named Kontla-" 
gung: it is called * Aswcatuma.* There is neither road nor path to this extraordinary 
piece of antiquity. After climbing the rock through thorns and thicket, I came of a 
sudden on a small terrace open on three sides with a perpendicular scarp on the 4th 
or west, from the face of which projects the front half of an elephant of elegant work* 
manship, four feet high : the whole is cut out of the solid rock. On the northern fsce 
beneath the terrace, the rock i« chiselled smooth for a space of near 1 4 feet by 10 feet, 
and an inscription neatly cut covers the whole space. It is divided apparently into 
four paragraphs, two of about 35 lines each, a third of about 90, and a fourth of 9| 
lines, encircled by a deep cut frame or line, evidently to distinguish it from the other 
inscription. I took a facsimile of it, as well as of 19 lines of the centre paragraph i 
this took me a whole day to perform. I shall copy the remainder on my retnni 
thither before going to Khandgirif as I consider it of far more importance than the 
one there, a very small part of it being obliterated. A number of new letters occur, 
and variations of tiiose already known. I am preparing a list of all, which I shall lay 
before the Society together with all the faciiiniles when finished." 



1 837 i] Proceedings of the Asiatic Societjf* 819 

tieat. KiTTOB had met with obstructions in bis inquiries from a mittnut of tb« 
resident brilimanv, which he found to orig^inate in their temples having bern robbed 
some yean ago of slabs containing inscriptlonsi by some oiBeer ; and he strongly 
urged. the Justice of restoring any such tliat might hate come into the Society's 
possession. One he sn^pected, fiom its dimensions, was the identical one publish- 
•d In the Journal for February. 

The Secretary stated that on examination he found this to be the case, as a second 
inscription of precisely the same character, now nnder publication, eontained the nama 
of the Rkjaof Orissa^ who founded Bhubaneiwar temple. The Meeting resolved una- 
■ifflously, that the slabs should be restored, and that Lieutenant Kittob had thdr 
warmest thanks for the suggestion. 

Read n letter from Lieutenant Salb, Engineers^ dated AUtuhahad^ in 
April, forwarding a facsimile taken on cloth and paper of an inscription 
at KaUnjer, situated at the entrance of a temple of Mahadeva, 

The greater part of this inscription being obliterated, it will be impossible to make 
any profitable use of the facsimile, but it has been so far useful as to enable us to 
ascertain that another large slab in the Museum in the same peculiar character, 
must be the one stated to have been brought from the same fort and presented by 
Oaneral Stewart. 

** The Inscription,'* Lientenant Sale writes, " is cut on black marble ; portions 
of it are effaced by former dumsy attempts to talce copies, which have destroyed the 
letters. The date appears to be only about 700 years back, and the text contains 
the name of a certain riija by name Pakma^lix. The resident br&hmans give a 
curious tradition of the origin of the palace and fortill cations of JTo/tn/^r, attributing 
them to the virtues of a mineral spring which cured a rija in the Suijfa yuga from a 
loathsome cutaneous disorder.*' 

The Secretary exhibited Mr. Vinobnt Treobar's splendid collection 
of the Gupta gold coins, which had been intrusted to him for the purpose 
by the proprietor, whose leal in this line of research had been attended 
with remarkable success. 

The box contained 40 gold coins of the series — principally of Ch akdea, Sam vdra, 
KuMAKA, Skanoa anoMAHBNDRA GuPTAS : slso the new VieramAdUga type, and 
the celebrated AnBOxao coin. 

Lieutenant Kittob had just added a new name to the same list from a coin in the 
possession of an officer at Pooree, It bears the title BAladUya, and a name not yet 
wsil deelphended, Naba, perhaps intended for Nabatana Oupta. 

Phjftieal, 
The following observations on the declination and inclination of the 
magnetic needle made at Diamond Harbour, were obligingly communicated 
lo the Society by the chief hydrc^apher of the French corvette Im Jh* 
nite. Captain Vaillant, during her sojourn here. 

The instruments used were of extreme delicacy, with a contrivance for changing the 
agate of suspension which is found to be worn away by the platina point on which 
It revolves. The poles of the magnets are changed at every observation so as to 
remove all index error. 

It will be seen that gradual change has taken place since the obncrvations of M. 
Blossvillk and Colonel Hodgson, published in the As. Res. Vol. XVIII. On 
referring also to experiments made at Benarei some years ago. the same fact is con- 
ftrmed. The following table embraces an abstract of the whole of the observations. 

DeclinatioHf or Magnetic variation, 

• » 

1813, Mean of Maj. HoDOflON*s obs. In N. West. Provinces,. ... o 41 East. 

183 1 , March, observations at Beaaret , by J. Prinsbp, ,, 53 do, 

1822, April, ditto, ditto, 1 J do. 

1835, March, ditto, ditto, I 27 do. 

1827, November, at Calcutta^ by Captain Fabrx, 3 38 54 do. 

by Surveyor General, 3 38 36 do. 

1828, February, ditto, by ditto, 3 41 16 do. 

1838, June, ditto, by ditto, 3 24 10 do. 

I837» 14th April, at Diamcmd Juarbour, La Bonite, 4 needles, .. s 37 East. 

2t3 



890 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. [Aprnf t, 

IneKnalionf or dip. 

18«7, November, at Calcutta, by M. Blossvillb 36 33 38 N. 

1833, February, ditto, byJ. P&insbf, 36 42 ? N. 

1837 » April, at Diamond Harbour, mean of foar observatioiiB, by 

direct and indirect methods*, with two iDatruments, 36 39. 4 N. 

The Secretary noticed that the bill drawn from Malacca on account of 
the Tapir, had been presented and accepted for Rs. 226 12— but the animal 
had not yet made his appearance. 

M. Chevausr, mineralogist of the corvette Lfi Banite, requested tlM 
Society's acceptance of a series of Geologfical specimens from Corsiau 

Lieutenant Kittor presented specimens of the rocks in Cuttaek : — also 
a snake {Coiuber mycterizant f) in spirits ; thus described by the donor: — 

** The snake was killed by a aipAbi in the hilly country west of Cuttaek, It occar- 
red to me that I had read of a similar reptile, and on referring to the Journal of the 
A. S. for April, 1836, page 317, I found the description (given there by Lieut. Caut- 
lkt) of one found near the Sewalik hills ; mine, however, differs very matefially in 
some points, thongh It answers nearer to the description giren of the *' snouted Miake" 
In his note extracted from the Encyclopedia Britaanicay as will be seen ou oompariug 
tiie following detail :— > 

yy. tn. 

Extreme length of the reptile, 4 11 | 

Circumference of the thidcest part of body, 3} 

Ditto of the neck, i 

Breadth of the widest part of the head, 0) 

length of ditto, , 1 j 

Projection of the upper jaw or snout, d ~ 

Length from snout to the Tent, 3 3 

Ditto vent to end of the tail, 1 9 

Abdominal plates or scales, 285 

Subcaudal to extremity of tail, 380 

Ths eye yellow, oval shape, with black horizontal pupil. Color, upper half grass* 
green, under half pea- green : has a white line on cither side 1 .1 6th of an inch wide for 
whole length, except towards the extremity of the tail, which is very sharp pointed. 
The lower jaws when the month is closed are even or nearly so with the upper, but 
when open, expand to near double the width. It has double rows of teeth in both the 
upper and lower jaws, and several in the upper, much larger than the rest, having 
the appearance of fangs. Its motion is described as that of rapid bounds, moving sJso 
swiftly on the leaves and branches of trees : the present specimen, however, was killed 
in the sandy bed of the MaMnaddi, near a bush, while in the act of catching a biid. 
See Plate XXIII.'' 

Lieut. KiTTOB in another note mentions the discovery of extensive 
coal beds in Ungool and Hindoee, near the KurMooa and Bytumee rivers. 

The existence of the mineral at these places had before been made known 
to the Europeans, and specimens had been produced. Lieut. Kittob was anxi- 
ous to visit and survey the locality, that he might report in further detail, as, if 
conveniently situated for water carriage down the MahAnaddi, the ooal might bt 
made available for steamers touching at Poorte, The coal and iron mines are 
together. 

Letter from Professor Roylb inclosing Prospectus of the London 
Caoutchouc Company, and inviting the Society's attention to this new 
commercial product, which might be cultivated to any extent on the SUket 
frontier and in lower Aetam. 

The present supply, from Para chiefly, is many thousand tons less than the demand 
for home consumption. The mode of gathering the juice for export followed at Para 
is approved of, but the Company or Patentees recommend in lieu of the clay baUs, 
that wooden cylinders about the size of a quart bottle should be used. First dipped 
into clay water, they are immersed in the crude juice and hung up to dry ; tJie <up- 
ping is thus repeated until a layer of Caoutchouc \ an inch thick covers the cylindsr 

• The iudirect method is by taking the dip out of the meriditm, and rcdudng it 
thereto by a simple calculation ; the agreement Is very close. 



1 837.] Proceedings of the Anatie Society. ^21 

aboat 6 indiM hlglf-tliia eop (sbaped like a tnmbler) U ihea drawn off and tht 
cylinder used again. 

The preference given to the solid dean rubber it doubtleu consequent on the dis- 
eovery of a very cheap solvent of Caoutchouc in the volatile eoal-oll, which is collect- 
ed Id large quantities at the gas-works. When rectified it resembles in lightness 
and extreme volatility the distilled mineral naphtha, with which it is probably 
identical. The Caoutchouc dissolved in this menstruum, and spread in a eoat be- 
tween two folds of silk or cloth, regains its solid and elastic form without injury. 
Might not the naphtha springs of Attam be thus turned to account to introduce the 
manufacture at once there, with the durable silks of the valley as a basis? Professor 
RoTLK remarks, that all the trees on which the silk-worm feeds are found to oontain 
the Caoutchouc principle, which is supposed to be essential to the production of the 
cocoon. 

The splendid fbnilt from Dr. Spilbbubt of Jabalpiir, had arrived and 
were exhibited. 

They consisted of the humerus and cubitus of an elephant, upwards of 15 feet in 
height ; also a portion of the pelvis of the same animal ; a very perfect elephant's head, 
ferruginized, of a smaller size, and the head and horns of a buffalo of large sise. 
Dr. SpiLBBuar pointed out no less than five new sites of fossils in the Nerlmddd 
valley, two of them due to the zealous search of Mi^or Oubilbt. His note along 
with sketches of the fossils shall appear in our next. 

A paper on anew genera of Rapiorei, one on a new species of Scolopaeidm, 
and one on a new genas of the Plantigradee with a drawing, were received 
from B. H. Hodobok, Esq. 

A second foeail bone was exhibited and presented by Major Tatlob, 
brought up from the Fort boring at a depth of 362 feet below the surface* 

A drawing of this fragment is given in Plate XXII. : it appears to be a fragment 
of the tCHiellum or shell of a turtle — much resembling some of the fragments found 
ao plentifully among the Jamiui, the Siwdlik and the Ava fossils. It is mineralized 
just to the same extent as the bone exhibited at last meeting ; sp. gr. 2*6, loss by 
heating red 10 per cent. A recent fragment found at the Sandheads by Dr. Camtob, 
which had lost all its inflammable animal matter, had a sp. gr. 1*66. 

The following specimens of natural history were presented. 

A collection of shells^ and two snakes preserved in spirits ; by Mr, 

Fbll, Indian Navy. 

A collection of shells, by Lieutenant Montbiou, I. N. 

A specimen of Squilla Mantis, by Lieutenant Montbiou, I. N. 

A s{iecimen of the Indian Sucking-fish {Edteneie Indica), and a footus of 
a species of ovi-viviparous shark preserved in spirits, by the Hon'ble Colo- 
nel MoBisoN^ in the name of Mr. W. £win^ Branch Pilot. 

To the foetus of the shark the yolk bag is still attached by the funis. Colonel 
MOBISON states that a shark was caught at the Sandheads on the 8th of January 
last, which when opened was found to contain 17 young ones all marked and spotted 
like the present specimen, which was one of them, although the mother was of the 
bluish grey and white color, common to most species of the genus. The Indian 
Sucking-fish (Eefieneis Indica) was found attached to her body. 

Mr. J. T. PsARfliic exhibited to the Meeting specimens of the larvss 

pupa and imago of the Lamia Rubtu, Fab. and a log of the horse-radish 

tree, from which he extracted them. 

Mr. Pbabson states, that bavins observed a tree at Hawrak nearly dead from 
the ravages of insects, he purchased it, and on examination found it pierced in all 
directions with holes from f to | of an inch in diameter, perfectly round, and more 
or less filled vrith a substance resembling coarse saw-dust. These holes were mads 
by the large, long, square-shaped apodal larvK of the Lamia Rubnu ; and on the tree 
being kept about two months, the perfect insects began to appear, which led to an 
examination of the interior, and the discovery of many specimens in the image state, 
and that of the pupa exhibited to the Society. Mr. Pbabson mentioned, that, as 
appears by the last part published of the Transactions of the Entomologiad Society, 
Capt. W. Saunobbs, who paid much attention to Indian Entomology, had never 
tea able to meet with the pupa of Lamia Rnbmt ; therefors It maybe new to sdenot. 



38S Proceeihg$ rf tie AMtatk Society. [Atkli. 

Th« cbaBf^ from tK« htira to the pupa ia this tpedct appears to toke plaiee alMilt 
lialf way between the bark a&d centre of the tree ; and on cJiangiag from the papa 
to the imago fttate, the perfect insect works its way oat* by eaong with its strong 
mandibles a circular hole, about the same size as that made bY the larrm in tha 
interior of the tree. The general direction of the passages made by the larvm is 
perpendicular ; while that of the cadt of the imago is hociioatal— the shortest way 
in fact to the air. 

The second experimental year of the CuratorBhip having expired. Dr. 
Pbarson read the lubjoined report on the operations of the Miueom for 
the paat year. 

Report an the Museum of the Asiatic Society, hy the Curator, ^'May 1637. 

At the coodnsion of the term of my charge of the Museum last year I stated the 
improvements that had been made ; and how much it was to be desired that It should 
not be allowed to fall back into the state in which I fbund it twelve months before* 
I am now again called upon to report progress, and to request your attention to 
form some arrangement by which the evils I then deprecated may be averted, and aa 
improved method adopted, if you with to alter that which has been followed for tha 
past two years. 

The present state of your Museum maybe mentioned in a few words. The arrange- 
mente of last year have been followed out, by improving the appearance of the 
apartmente and by matting the floors ; while by fttt ventUstlon the dampness, firom 
which so much inconvenience was formerly experienced, has altogether disappeared. 
No enemy now remains indeed but the dust, which does much mischief by settling 
upon the specimens, and giving a dingy appearance to them ; as well as by frequent 
leaning being required, and the inevitable injury to which they are in consequence 
exposed. 

Improvements have also been made in the cabinets. They have been all glazed 
aad made ready for the reception of specimens, save oae, whieh is nearly completed. 
The subscription now on foot for this part of the Museum will render it all that can 
be wished. 

A great number of specimens have been presented during the year ; but owing to 
the InsuiBcient mcHns taken by their presenters to preserve them, only a portioa 
could be made available to the purposes of the science. I may here state that, pre- 
parations, whether of skins or of insects, which have not been preserved by arsenical 
soap, or by some preparation of arsenic, are not proof against the attacks of insecta 
in this country ; even the so much vaunted solntlon of corrosive sublimate in splrita 
of wine is, as I have found after a fair trial, to be almost useless. But of the speci- 
mens presented, there have been mounted two hundred and thirty birds, ten of which 
are of large slie ; twenty -eight mammalia, and sixteen reptiles ; eight skeletons 
have been prepared and articulated in the Museum ; viz. those of the Orang-outang, 
the cow, the ass, hog, adjutant, two terrapins and a turtle. These are complete, with 
the exception of the flrst ; and those who know by experience the labour of preparing 
and afterwards of joining together, or articulating as It is technically termed, tha 
bones of a skeleton especially in this country, will be able to appreciate the labours of 
Mr. BovcBBz, to whom the praise of executing the manual part of them belongs. The 
bones of the Orang-outang were presented J>y Mr. Fkith, but the hands and feet 
having been unfortunately lost, they were restored in wood from those of the Smaatraa 
gigantic ape in the Museum. 

Besides the articulated skeletons there have been presented twenty-two other 
osteological specimens ; consisting of the skulls of mammalia and birds, the jaw of 
a whale and the legs of the Emeu, 

The other specimens consist of a few reptiles and flshet, and t conslderabla aim* 
ber of insecta and shells. 



1837.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 3^3 

IndepeodeBt of the aboTe, Mr. HoBGtON of Nipal Mttt a series of upwards of 
eighty well preserved skins of birds, with the intention of their beings placed in the 
If Qseum, as the originals from which some of the plates of his forthcoming great 
woiic haTC been taken ; but drenmstances having rendered it desirable to send 
tihem for the examination of a nataralist of eminence in England, they were, on his 
promising speedily to replace them, ddiTcred over, by directions from the Secretaryi 
for transmission there. 

With regard to the ftnaneial arrangements, the Secretary did not think himself 
empowered to advance for contingencies any sum beyond that voted by the Society. 
But that sum being nearly absorbed by the salaries of Mr. Bouchez and his 
nephew, who is employed to assist him, I have paid the remainder of the charges 
myself; and in this manner expended Co.'s Rs. 138 Id 6, more than I have received. 

A few words may be expected from me as to the future management of the 
Museum. Much has been urged against expending the funds of the Society for this 
purpose ; and a strong protest on the same side, signed by five Members, has also 
been given in. So far as my own feelings are in question, I shall be happy to yield 
to this or any other view of the subject taken by the majority. Although I do not 
agree with those who think money ill expended, which is expended upon an object 
that contributes to further the pursuits of any considerable portion of the Society. 
And my respect for the protest would not have been less had it been signed by the 
older Members of the Society, instead of by those who had been elected only two 
or three months before the proceedings took place, against which they thought 
proper to protest ; who mistook the mere lodgment of money in public securities 
Ibr a vested fund; and who had not, I believe, anyone of them, ever seen the Museum 
psevious to, or since the new arrangements were made I Under these circumstances I 
am not inclined to allow much weight to the protest, nor to sacrifice our Museum in 
•ocordance with the views of the protestors. It is true, a substitute for a Curator 
has been proposed in a committee, each member of which should undertake a par- 
ticular department ; and as a body assisting with their advice, and superintending 
the operations of the Curator, such a committee would be of great service ; but as an 
executive engpLne, a committee is always worse than useless, and I anticipate nothing 
but failure in the scheme. If your Curator is not a paid and re sponsible officer, you 
will, in effect, have no Curator at all ; and if you have no Curator, you will have no 
Museum ; while I am sure a Museum is, in the present direction of men's minds to- 
wards natural history, essential to the well-being, If not even to the existence of the 
Society. If our own funds cannot support our Museum as it should be supported* 
we ought to apply to the Goverment to assist us ; when, judging from the liberal 
views of science taken by the present Governor General, and the anxiety he has 
evinced to encourage that of natural history in particular ; coupled with the fact 
that the Court of Directors have ever been the patrons of zoological pursuits ; there 
is Uttie fear of our making the application in vain. I think the advantages of adopt- 
ing this plan would be great and manifold ; our Museum would be placed on a 
vigorous and permanent footing ; and be the means of enhancing the prosperity of 
our institntion, and of conferring no light benefit upon the public : while we should 
soon be able to wipe off the reproach so repeatedly and justiy thrown upon the name 
of Englishmen in the East,— of leaving to distant nations the task and the honor of 
gleaning in our own field the treasures of natural history, which we ourselves art 

Indifferent and too ignorant to reap. 

J. T. PsABSOir. 

Resolved, that the Report be referred to the Committee of Papers for 

the purpoee of drafting such arrangement as the Society's funds may 

permit for the maintenance of the Museum of natural history on the most 

•Adent footing. 



Vm.~Mtitet>nlopaa Register.- 



JOURNAL 



ov 



THE ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



No. 65.— May, 1837. 



I. — Jowmal of a vuit to the MUhmee kiils im Assam. By Wm. Grif- 
fith, M. D. Madras Medical Establishment. 

(In a letter to Captain P. JiKKlNti Political Agent, N. E. Frontier ; oommanlo 
cated by GoTerament to the Asiatic Society, the 9th April, 1937.] 

In pursaance of my intention of visiting the Miskmee hills, as soon 
as the season was sufficiently advanced, I left this station on the 15th 
October, and proceeded np the Brahmaputra, or Lohit, to the month 
of the Karam Pdnee, which we reached on the third day. I thence 
ascetided this river, which is a mere mountain stream, for a similar 
period, at the expiration of which I had reached its extreme navi- 
gable point at that season of the year, even for the small boats which 
i employed. At ChonpHra the rapids of the Brahmc^utra commence, 
and thence they increase rapidly in frequency and violence ; so much 
so, that the river is only navig^able for small boats one day's journey 
above the mouth of the Karam, No villages exist on the great river, 
the extreme banks of which are clothed with heavy tree jungle. It 
is much subdivided by islets formed of accumulations of sand and 
boulders : these islets being either scantily covered by coarse species 
of sugar, or tree jungle, or g^ss and tree jungle. The Karam is a 
considerable stream, consisting of a succession of rapids ; its banks 
are clothed with very heavy tree jungle, among which the simul*, 
ddalf, and a species of alder occupy conspicuous places. On the 
second day of its ascent we reached the Kamptee village Palampan, 
situated about a mile inland in a southerly direction ; it is small and 
^ no consequence, although the R£ja is of high rank. 

* Bombax heptapkyllum. t Steiculia ep. 

2 a 



326 Journal of a visit to [Mat» 

At thit village ray attention was first directed to a very valuable na- 
tive dye, the room of the Assamese ; with this dye all the deep blue 
cloths so much used by the Kamptees and Singphos are prepared. What 
is more curious, it belongs to a family (Acanthacea), the constituents of 
which are generally devoid of all valuable properties — it is a species of 
Ruellia, and is a plant highly worthy of attention. Leaving the boats, 
I proceeded up the Karam, the general direction of which is about 
£. S. £., and after a tedious march of ^ve hours over small boulders, 
reached the first Mishmee village on the route. This village is called 
Jingsha, deriving its name, as appears to be always the case, from the 
Cam : it is about six miles from the foot of the hills — it is small, the 
number of houses not exceeding ten, and possesses apparently very 
few khets. The Gam is a man of inferior note. After a halt of two 
days to enable my people to bring up the provisions, &c., I left for 
Brahma-kund, which, from Captain Wilcox's description, I imagined 
to be the usual route to the interior. Brahma-ktind lies to the £. N. 
£. of Jingsha, from which place it is distant by the path, which is very 
circuitous, about twelve miles. The route at first follows another bed 
of the Karam to the S. W., thence ascending the Dai Pdnee to the 
eastward, thence diverging to the north through a heavy tree jungle, 
and after traversing this for about an hoar ending at the ku$id, to 
which place the descent is steep, but short. Of this celebrated place 
much has been said, but no description at all answers to it, as it 
exists now. The scenery is bold, the hills on either side of the river 
being very steep but of no great height, and the kdnd, or reservoir 
itself is totally lost in the contemplation of the immensely deep bed 
of the river and the gigantic rocks visible in every direction. Thf 
extreme width of the bed of the river is certainly upwards of one 
hundred yards, but of this only th^ left half is occupied by the stream. 
The kufid is contemptible, and unless the attention were especially di» 
reeled to it, would quite escape observation. The Deo Pdnee ia a 
paltry attempt at a waterfall. The course of the river is alow and 
sufficiently tranquil, but to the eastward there is a violent rapid 
ending about sixty yards from the kund itself. This reservoir owes 
its existence to the projection of two rocks into the Lokit ; at this 
season it contains but little water. The fuqeer's rock is a huge mass 
perforated near its summit ; its extreme apex is accessible, but wiUi 
difficulty ; it does not represent Gothic spires, this appearance, so far 
as I know, being limited to shell-limestone. At this romantic spot 
I staid three days, paying particular attention to the vegetation pf the 
place, which presents some curious features, of which the moei 



18S7.] the MtMkmee hitls in Anam. S27 

remarkftble is the existence of a ipccies of maple and one of me : the 
former being an inhabitant of Ni]fal. the latter of conBiderable eleya« 
tiona on the Khasiya ranges. I was met here by Tapan Gam, the 
chief of the kUnd, who claims all the offerings invariably made to the 
deity by every native visitor of whatever rank or religion he may be« 

After examining the adjoining hills, over which the route pursued 
by lieutenant Wilcox lay, I was convinced of the impracticability of 
proceeding, at least with the usual description of Assamese coolies, 
I was therefore compelled to retrace my steps to Jingsha, having pre- 
viously arranged with Tapan Gam for guides to shew me the usual 
route. At Jirngsha I was delayed for several days in bringing up rice, 
which had been kindly forwarded from Sadiyd by Lieutenant Millar, 
and without which I knew it would be impossible to visit the interior. 
From Jingska I proceeded up the Karmn in an easterly direction, 
diverging thence up the KusBing Pdnee in a N. £. direction, thence 
skirting the foot of the hills, through remarkably lieavy bamboo 
jungle. After a long march we descended a low hill to the Lai Fdnee, but 
at a higher point than any previously visited. The following day I 
commenced the ascent, passing during the day a small Mishmee village 
without a name, and halting on the slope of a hill in heavy tree jungle. 
Commencing our march early next morning, we ascended and descend- 
ed several considerable hills, and at noon reached Deeling, the DUling. 
of Captain Wilcox. This is a small village consisting of a few 
houses, scattered in various directions, and opposite to it on the great 
mountain Thumaihaya is another called Yeu : there is about this place 
a good deal of cultivation. It was here that I came upon the route 
previously followed by Captain Wilcox. This I followed as far as 
Ghaloom's : it is correctly described in that officer's memoir on Assam 
and the neighbouring countries. Our halts were as follows : — on the 
third day the bed of the Lohit ; on the fourth at the mouth of the Lung ; 
on the fifth at Ghaloom's, whose village has been removed to the 
banks of the LoMt, and at a distance of about one hour's march in 
advance from the old site. From Ghaloom's I proceeded to Kuobua'b, 
whose village is on the north bank of the Lohit, I crossed the river, 
which is here about forty yards wide, and as usual deep and tolerably 
rapid, on a bamboo raft, no one but the Mishmees venturing by the 
suspension canes, which are here stretched over a space of about 
eighty yards, and at a formidable height from the stream. From 
Khosha's I proceeded to Phimsong'b, whose village is at a much 
higher elevation than any of the others: but PRiMSONe was unfertile 
tetely absent. This was the extreme point to which I was enabled 
2 u 2 



828 Jtmmal of a visit to [Mat, 

to proceed, and after waiting three days for the arrival of the chief. 
I returned to Khosha's, where I met with Prim»ono, who had josl 
retamed from a visit to Trusono, a chief whose viUage is hr in 

the interior. 

I had thus hecome acquainted with all the influential chiefs near our 
frontier, and by all I was received in a friendly and hospitable manner. 
In accordance with my original intentions, my attention was in the 
first place directed towards ascertaining whether the tea exists in this 
direction or not, and, as I have already informed you, I have every 
reason to think that the plant is unknown on these hills. From what 
I have seen of the tea on the plains, I am disposed to believe that the 
comparative want of soil, due to the great inclination of all the 
eminences, is an insuperable objection to its existence. 

As^I before observed to you, during my stay at Jmgsha my curiosity 
had been excited by reports of an incursion of a considerable force of 
Lamas into the Mishmee country. It hence became, having once 
established a footing in the country, a matter of paramount import- 
ance to proceed farther into the interior, and, if possible* to effect a 
junction with these highly interesting people ; but all my attempU to 
gain this point proved completely futile; no bribes, no promises 
would induce any of the chiefs to give me guides, even to the first 
Mishmee village belonging to the Meyhoo tribe. I was hence com- 
pelled to content myself for the present, with obtaining as much 
information as possible relative to the above report, and I at length 
succeeded in gaining the following certainly rather meagre account. 

The quarrel, as usual, originated about a marriage settlement between 
two chiefs of the Meyhoo and Taeen tribes : it soon ended in both parties 
coming to blows. The Meyhoo chief, Roolino, to enable him at once 
to overpower his enemies, and to strike at once at the root of their 
power, called in the assistance of the Lamas. From this country a 
force of seventy men armed with matchlocks made an invasion, and»aa 
yras to be expected, the Taeen Mishmees were beaten at every point and 
loat ibout twenty men. The aflfiair seem to have comie to a close about 
September last, when the Lamas returned to their own country. 
Where it occurred I could gain no precise information, but it must 
have been several days' journey in advance of the villages I visited. 

It was owing to the unsettled state of the country, resulting from 
this feud, that I could gain no guides from the Digaroos, without whose 
assistance in this most diflScult country, I need scarcely say, that all 
attempts to advance would have been made in vain. These people 
yery pbusibly said, if we give you guides, who is to protect u^ 



1 83 7 .] tie Miakmee hilU iu Auam. 82t 

lirom the vengeaiiceof the Meyhoos when you are gone, and who is to 
infture ob from a second invasion of the Lamas ? Another thing to he 
considered is the influence even then exercised over the Mishmees 
near our boundaries by the Singphos connected with the Dupha Gam ; 
but from the renewal of the intercourse with our frontier station, 
there is every reason for believing that this influence is ere this nearly 
destroyed. 

I was, after various attempts, reluctantly obliged to giye up the 
affair, although I am by no means certain that, had I known of the de- 
lay that would take place before I met Captain Hannat, a longer so- 
journ in the hills would not have been attended with success. I returned 
by the same route, halting at Deeling to enable me to ascend the great 
mountain ThoMihaya^ on the top of which I passed one night, and the 
ascent of which in every respect amply repaid me for all difficulties 
incurred. On my return I visited Tapam Gam's* village, where I met 
several Singphos, who were engaged in the late troubles on the side 
of the Dupha, and which is reported to be the favorite haunts of 
a fismous Sing^ho dacoit, Chd'n Yu'no ; thence I returned to Jimgsha^ 

Naiure of the camUry. The country traversed during the above 
journey consisted of a series of ascents and descents, as must always 
evidently be the case where the route follows the course of a consi- 
derable river ; for difficulty it cannot well be surpassed, this again 
depending on the proximity of the route to the Lohit. The only 
comparatively easy portion is that betweeli Dai Pdnee and the place 
where we descended to the bed of the large river. The hills are 
invariably characterised by excessive steepness, and as the greater 
portion of the route winds round these eminences at some height 
above their bases, the marching is excessively fatiguing and difficult, 
to say nothing of its danger. In very many places a false step would 
be attended with fatal consequences ; in one place in particular, 
upwards of an hour was consumed in traversing a sheer precipice at a 
height of at least one hundred feet above the foaming bed of the Lohit; 
the only support being derived from the roots and stumps oi trees 
and shrubs, and the angular nature of the face of the rock, which is, 
1 believe, grey carbonate of lime; 

Paths. The paths are of the very worst imaginable description, 
always excessively narrow and overgrown by jungles in all directions* 
In very steep places the descent is assisted by hanging canes, which 
aflbrd good support. No attempt is ever made at clearing them of 

• This chief b not worthy of any encomasement. He would feel this the move, owing 
to the praiimity of his rillsffe to onr boaiidsry and its easiaess oCaccess. 



any obstniotioD : indeed the omtltes teem to tkink lluit the more diffi- 
enlt the paths the better, a great :t aecuritj being thns obtained from 
foieign invasion. Better paths do exist, and there is cme in particolar 
on the north of the LoAil, which is that commonly used by the 
Mishmeea when carrying cattle back from the plains to their homes* 
Bq^ it was my fortune to be shown the very worst, although i 
escaped the cliff above alluded to by following on my return another 
but very pircuitoos route. Up to Ghalooh's old site the hills are nearly 
entirely clothed with dense tree jungle, the points of some being 
eovered with a coarse grass ; thence every step towards the eaatwaid 
is accompanied by a most material improvement, the hills presenting 
a very pleasing and varied surface, and being only clothed with tree 
jungle towards their bases. The extreme summits of the loftiest are 
naked and rugged. 

Rivers 0ni Torrents, The torrents which are passed between the fool 
of the hills and Ghaloom's are the Tunoo (Dissd of Wilcox), which 
separates Thmmatkaya from Deeling, the Lmng and the O. Of these the 
Lmig is the only one not fordable ; tht Mishmees cross it by suspension 
canes. I preferred constructing a rude bridge, which, as the torrent 
is divided by huge boulders, was neither a difficult nor m very tedious 
afiBtir. The Tid^ding, which is of considerable sise, is on the right 
bank of the river. The rills are frequent, especially towards the foot of 
the hills. I saw only one waterfall of any magnitude near the Tmswoo / 
the body of water is not great, but the height of the fall is certainly one 
hundred feet. The Lokii itself beyond the Lung is of no great size, 
the average breadth of the stream at that season being from forty to 
fifty yards. At Ghaloom's its depth did not appear to exceed thirty 
feet, it is a curious fact, its temperature is lower than that of any of its 
tributaries. Although I have not seen the Dihong, judging from the 
comparatively small size of the Lohit, the probability is much in favor 
of the former carrying off the waters of the Tsan'poo. — Pumsono in- 
deed informed me that the LokU above the Gkaioom Pd^e ifikaiowm 
Thee of Wilcox) is an insignificant mountain stream. 

Altitude of Mountains, Of the height of the various ridges sur- 
mounted I can give no idea : the only thermonteter I had was 
unfortunately broken before my arrival at the kdnd. The high- 
est I visited was Lamplang't&aga s the next in height Tku$natkeqfU : 
on both these snow occasionally collects daring the cold months. The 
western face of the latter is completely bare towards its summit, tho 
eastern being covered with tree jungle. Of the former, the upper 
third is con^pl^tely v<alkfid : and two efforts to complete ita asoeAt W«re 
fruitless. 



1837.} the MUkme MIU m Auam. 88r 

G§ologf. Of the geology of these hills I am unfortanately ineompe* 
tent to judge ; nor was I ever enabled to make a satisfactory collection* 
owing to the impossibility of procuring additional carriage. 

Zoohffif, The subjects presented by the animal kingdom are cer«- 
tainly not extensive either in number of species or of individuals. I 
observed no wild quadrupeds except monkeys and an occasional 
squirrel; no tigers exist, but bears are represented as tolerably 
numerous. The number of birds which 1 succeeded in procuring^ 
^rely amounted to species. 

Bottmy. Of the botany it is not my intention here to give ai^ 
fxtended account. It is sufficient to state that it appears to have- 
similar features with other portions of the Sub-Hiwutlajf^n ranges* 
I did not reach the region of fir trees, but I could plainly distinguish 
by the telescope the existence of very extensive forests on the loftier 
ranges to the eastward. The families that have the most numerous 
representatives are CompotiUt, Urtieea, Bakaminem, Cyathaniia/semg 
AcmUhace^, Gruminea and Filiees, The most interesting, chiefly from 
the indicating elevation, or from their being usually associated with 
climates similar to that of norfhem Europe, are RamMCuiacem, tndud* 
ing that valuable drug the Mishmee^Teeta, and the celebrated poison 
Bee, Fmnareacea, ViolaeUe, Camelliacete, HamameliduB, including the 
Bueklandia and SedgwickU, Geniianea, Vaeciniaeem, Campanulacemt 
Tkymalea, Jugkmdea, Cupuliferm. The most unique plants is a new 
genus of Raffieeeaeea, like its gigantic neighbour of the Malayan 
Archipelago, a paraeiie, on the root of a species of vine. 

The natives of this portion of the range are divided into two tribes* 
Taeen or Digaroo and Meyhoo, these last tracing their descent from 
the IHbemg Mishmees who are always known by the term crop-haired. 
The Meyhoo, however, like the Taeens, preserve their hair, wearing 
it generally tied in a knot on the crown of their head. The appear- 
ance of both tribes is the same, but the language of the M.fyhoos is 
very distinct. They are perhaps the more powerful of the two ;' but 
their most influential chiefs reside at a considerable distance from the 
lower ranges. The only Meyhoos I met with are those at Deeling^ 
Yeu, a small village opposite Deeling but at a much higher elevation^ 
and Tapan. I need scarcely add that it was owin§^ to the opposltioQ 
of this tribe that Captain Wilcox failed in reaching Lama, T\kp 
DigarooB are ruled by three influential chiefs, who are brothers* 
Dkisono, Khosha, and Ghaloom : of these, DaisoNo is the eldest and 
the most powerful, but he resides far in the interior. PaiMSOMO is 
from a distant stock ; and as the three brothers mentioned above are 



8S3 Jtmnmt of a vuii i6 [Mit, 

all pftBsed ihe prime of life, there is but little doubt that he will soon 
become by far the most influential chief of his tribe. Both tribes 
appear to intermarry. The Mishmees are a small, active, hardy race» 
with the Tartar cast of features ; they are excessively dirty, and have 
not the reputation of being honest, although, so far as I know, they are 
belied in Ais respect. Like other hill pet>ple, they are famous for the 
muscular development of their legs : — ^in this last point the women 
have generally the inferiority. They have no written language ; — 
their clothing is inferior ; it is, however, made .of cotton, and is of 
their own manufacture ; — that of the men consists of a mere jacket 
and an apology for a dhoU, — that of the women is more copious, and 
at any rate quite decent : they are very fond of ornaments, especially 
beads, the quantities of which they wear is very often quite astonishing. 
They appear to me certainly superior to the Al>or8, of whom, however, 
I have seen but few. Both sexes drink liquor, but they did not seem 
to me to be so addicted to it as is generally the case with hill tribes :-^ 
their usual drink is a fermented liquor made from rice called fnonth : 
this, however, is far inferior to that of the Singphos, which is really 
a pleasant drink. 

Beliffum. Of their religion I could get no satisfactory information :— 
^very thing is ascribed to supernatural agency. Their invocations to 
their deity are frequent, and seem generally to be made with the view 
of filling their own stomachs with animal food. They live in a very 
promiscuous manner, one hundred being occasionally accommodated in 
a single house. Their laws appear to be simple, — all grave crimes 
being judged by an assembly of Gams, who are on such occasions 
summoned from considerable distances. All crimes, including murder, 
are punished by fines ; but if the amount is not forthcoming, the 
ofiFender is cut up by the company assembled. But the crime of 
adultery, provided it be committed against the consent of the husband^ 
is punished by death ; and this severity may perhaps be necessary if 
we take into account the way in which they live. 

The men always go armed with knives. Lama swords, or Singpho 
dhaos and lances ; and most of them carry cross-bows — the arrows for 
these are short, made of bamboo, and on all serious occasiona are 
invariably poisoned with bee. When on fighting expeditions, they use 
shields, made of leather, which are covered towards the centre with 
the quills of the porcupine. Their lances are made use only for 
thrusting : the shafts are made either from the wood of the lawn 
fCuryota ureatj or that of another species of palma juce — they are 
tipped with an iron spike, and are of g^eat use in the ascent of hills. 



1637.] the Mishmte MUb in A$i9m. Mt 

The lance heads are of their own manufacture and of very soft iron. 

They have latterly become acquainted with fire-arms, and the chieli 

baTC mostly each a firelock of Lama construction. 

Their implements of husbandry are very few and rude. They have 

no metal utensils of their own manufacture* — all their cookings being 

carried on in square capacious stone vessels, which answer their 

purpose very well. The population is certainly scanty, and may bt 

estimated as follows : — 

Jingsha, 50 

Tapan, 80 

Deeling and Yea, 80 

Ghalooms, 80 

Khatha, 100 

PKmaonf , 70 

, 460 

This must be considered as a rough estimate, and probably is con- 
siderably exaggerated. 

The number of villages among which the above population is 
distributed is seven, but it must be remembered that there are two 
other villages, namely, Meerisao and Rulings, close to the Khashas. 
By far the greater number of villages appear to be located near the 
banks of the Lohit ; I saw only one situated on the Leeng ; while on the 
summits of Thumathaya, the villages Jingsha, Tapan, Deeling and Yeu 
consist of several houses, none, however, exceeding ten in number ; 
and Ghaloom's, Kbasha's and Primsono's consist each of a single 
house. The houses in the former case resemble a good deal those of 
the Singphos, and are of variable size ; in the latter case the house is 
of enormous length, this depending on the rank of the possessor, and 
capable of accommodating from eighty to one hundred and sixty 
persons, — all are built on machauns, constructed almost entirely with 
bamboo, divided into compartments and thatched with the leaf of a 
marontaceous plant (arrow-root family) likewise found in Assam ; this 
being again covered, at least in some instances, with the leaves of a 
species of ratan. The leaf of the former answers its purpose admir- 
ably both as to neatness and durability, and forms an excellent protec- 
tion against the rain. Khasha's house is certainly one hundred and 
sixty feet in length ; it ia divided into twenty apartments, all of which 
open into a passage : generally it would appear on the right side of 
the house as one enters, along which the skulls and jawbones of the 
various cattle killed during the possessor's life time are arranged. In- 
each apartment there is a square fire-place, consisting merely of earth, 
2 X 



884 Journal of d vUii (6 C^ATi 

mbottt which the bamboos are cat away. As no exit for the smoke is 
mllowed, the air of the interior is dense and oppressiTe, and often 
exceedingly painful to the eyes. 

Domestic animais. Their liTe-stock consist chiefly of hogs, mathooiUt 
a nobl^ animal intermediate between the bull and buffalo, and fowls. 
Of these the hogs are the most common — ^they are easily procurable ; 
bat they are not at all disposed to part with the fowls, which they aay 
is the favorite food of the deity. I was hence frequently reduced to 
eat pork, which seemed to me, no doubt, on account of its vile 
feeding, very unwholesome. On my arrival at each village a hog was 
killed as a matter of coarse, of which a portion was presented to me, 
and a portion to my people. In one case only a young mathoon was 
killed ; in all these cases, the flesh is immediately cut up and devoored 
as soon as possible. Their cooking is very rude, chiefly consisting of 
minces. Chowrie-tailed cows are only to be met with farther in the 
interior. 

Their dogs are of the ordinary pariah kind. Cats are uncommon. 

Among the skulls ranged in their houses, those of several other 
kinds of cattle occur, including the cows of the plains, and the bafllit* 
lo ; the remainder are procured entirely from Lama. 

Cultivation. Their cultivation is scanty, apparently not sufficient to 
supply even their wants, and carried on in a very rude way. The 
most favorable places are of course selected, either on the slopes of 
the hills or on the occasionally more level patches, and joining the 
Lohit. The soil in almost all cases consists of a thin superstratum of 
vegetable mould. Some of the villages are in possesslion of a good sort 
of hill rice, but the chief cultivation is of bobasd*, goomdanf or Indian 
corn, khoneel and two or three still inferior grains. The villages 
situated at low elevations produce excellent yams and aloos of seve* 
ral kinds. They are unacquainted with wheat, barley, &c. ; nor 
have they even taken the trouble to obtain potatoes. The capability 
of the country up to the point to which I searched, is not great, but 
thence the landscape is at once sufficient to convince one that the 
improvement is rapid as one proceeds to the eastward. 

Of kanee a small quantity is cultivated, chiefly however for sale to 
the Singphos, although many of the natives are great opium eaters. 
They cultivate a sufficient quantity of cotton for the manufacture of 
their own clothing, but it seems to be of inferior quality. Tobacco in 
in great request, still it does not seem to be regularly cultivated. 
Both sexes, > oung and old, are determined smokers ; their pipes am 

* Elsntine cancans. t T«a woys. t Davses sp* 



i 897 J the Mhhmie kilk m A9$um. 835 

chicrfly of Singpbo manafacture ; the poor classes contenting them- 
selves with those made from bamboo. 

Granariei, I should have mentioned that the produce of their fields 
is kept in small granaries, at some distance from their houses : and it 
is a regulation calculated to prevent quarrels, that each wife, (for they 
tolerate polygamy.) has her distinct granary. Their bridges have 
been well described by Captain Wilcox; — the passage of that at 
Graloom's which is full seventy yards in length, occupying from two 
to two and half minutes. The articles in the greatest request among 
them are salt, woollen clothing, printed cottons, and glass beads of 
various colors. Of the existence of salt, within their own boundaries 
they are unaware : generally they have none. Occasionally they pro* 
cure Luma rock-salt, which is (in bulk) of a reddish color, from being 
mixed up with a red earthy substance somewhat aromatic. For these 
they exchange cloths of their own making, and their three staple 
articles, miihrnee^ieeta, bee, and geiiheoon, which are, in fact, at present 
the only valuable known products of the country. 

With Lama they carry on an annual trade, which apparently takes 
place on the borders of either country. In this case miahmee^teeta, 
is the staple article of the Misiimees, and for it they obtain dhao9 or 
straight long swords of excellent metal and often of great length ; 
copper pots of strong, but rough make, flints and steel, or rather steel 
alone, which are really very neat and good ; warm woollen caps, 
coarse loose parti- colored woollen cloths, huge glass beads, generally 
white or blue, various kind of cattle, iii which Lama is represented as 
abounding, and salts. I cannot say whether the Lamas furnish flints 
with the steel implements for striking light ; the stone geaerally used 
for this purpose by the Mishmees is the nodular production from 
Thumat/iayat — and this, although rather frangible, answers its purpose 
very well ; with the Singphos they barter elephant's teeth, these animals 
being found in the lower ranges, for slaves, dhaws, and buffaloes. 

With the Khamtees they appear to have little trade, although there 
is a route to the proper country of this people along the Ghaloom Pdnee, 
or Ghaloom Thee of Wilcox's chart; this route is, from the great 
height of the hills to be crossed, only available during the hot 
months. 

With the inhabitants of the plains they carry on an annual trade, 
which is now renewed after an interruption of two years, exchanging 
cloths. Lama swords, spears, mishmees teeta, bee, which is in very 
great request, and gertheana much esteemed by the natives for its 
peculiar and rather pleasant smell, for money (to which they begin to 
2x2 



886 Journal of a vM to [Mat, 

attach greot vahie), cloths, salt and beads : when a sufficient sam of 
money is procnred, they lay it oat in buffaloes and the country cattle. 

PoUiieal relations. With reference to their political relations tiiey 
were all^-«t least all those near our frontier— active supporters of 
the Dupha Gam, to whom they rendered very effectual assistance in 
the erection of stockades, although they declined fighting. Formerly 
the Riga of Attam exercised almost exclusive control over them^ 
entirely, as it appears, from making their most influential chiefs trifling 
annual presents of one or two bufliBdoes. With our government tiieir 
intercourse has, as I before mentioned, been entirely interrupted during 
the last two years ; at present, however, they appear inclined to pay all 
proper respect to the Assamese authorities. From the active assist- 
ance they rendered Dupha Gam, and in the second instance to put 
an impediment in the way of the trade of slaves, it is obviously of 
importance to keep them in this friendly state, and this would be best 
done by adopting the plan followed during the times of the RILjas of 
this portion of AsMom ; and with this view I would beg to direct your 
attention to Ghaloom, Khosha, and PaiMSONo: of these three, 
Kbobha is perhaps possessed of the greatest influence, but he is 
getting old and inactive. The same may be said of Ghaloom, his 
younger brother. The most active, ambitious, and enterprising man 
is certainly Primsono, who is still young ; and as he evidently looks up 
to the possession of the chief authority among the Gams, any favor 
shewn to him would render him a steady friend. He is the only chief 
I saw who is in the habit of visiting Lama. It was from materials 
given by him that Captain Wilcox drew up that portion of his map 
which has reference to the course of the Lohit, and it is through him 
alone that we may look forward to becoming acquainted with the 
country of the Lamas. He is, in fact, far superior to all the rest in 
talents and information, and, as a proof of his activity, he has just 
returned from the Hookum territory, where he saw Captain Hannay, 
and whither he had no doubt followed the Dupha Gam. So long 
indeed as the Mishmees are in relation with the Singphos, so long will 
there be a ready way in which to dispose of slaves by the Singphos, 
a people on whom no dependence is to be placed. At the period of 
my visit to Kbasha, I saw a slave who had been actually sold by 
Singphos residing within our territory, within the last six months. 
With the Dibong Mishmees they are, and always have been, engaged 
in a war of extermination. Of this tribe, both Mooghoos and Digaroos 
entertain the greatest fear : their inroads have caused the latter tribes 
to forsake their haunts on the Digaroo mountuns« and I am told that 



1837,] the Mishme9 hills in Attam, 337 

at thiB time none are to be found to the westward of the Tid-ding, 
With the Lamas, as I have before observed, they are at present at 
mptore ; and protection might be promised them against the inroads 
of either people, such protection being chiefly limited to the loan of 
old muskets and ammanition. It is chiefly owing to their proximity 
to the Lamas, that the country of the Mishmees, as being the most 
feasible route thither in this direction, is worthy of attention. It is 
obvious from all accounts that the Lamas are a very superior race, and 
that they greatly resemble the Chinese. It would hence be highly 
desirable to open a trade between Upper Assam and Lama, and to this 
I really see no insurmountable objection. The great object to be first 
attained is personal communication with these people, and I have every 
reason to believe that through the influence and aid of Primsono, who 
is well acquainted with them, that 1 hhould be able to accomplish this. 
On this subject, however, I have already addressed you oflicially. — 
PaiMsoNO, in the event of the non-consent of the other chiefs, has 
promised to take the responsibility on himself, and as the route he has 
promised to take me leads across the termination of the Himdlayas, and 
ends in some distance from the southern extremity of the valley, in 
which the inhabitants of this portion of Lama reside, he could neces** 
sarily act independently of them ; almost all the Meyhoo chiefs, from 
whom the chief opposition is to be apprehended, being located along 
the Lohit to the westward of the junction of the Ghaloom Panes', 
Having once gained access to the valley, a return could be effected 
along the banks of the Lohit, so as to materially increase our know« 
ledge of that river. From my knowledge of the Mishmees I am 
confident that the slightest care would ensure me from any attempts 
at treachery. Open hostilities they would never attempt, and as there 
would be no crossing of any considerable river, no attempts could be 
made, as they, the Meyhoos, appear to have intended in Captain 
Wilcox's instance, on the party when subdivided. The hasty retreat 
of this officer has been attended with unfortunate results in increasing 
the fear which the Digaroos entertain for the Meyhoos. 

With reference to my making the attempt, I can only say that sixty 
.maunds of rice are already lodged within the hills, and my orders are 
only necessary to cause its transportation to the villages of Khosha, 
Gbaloom, and Pai msong. Thus one great obstacle i^n aU hill expedi- 
tions is already removed. Primsong has engaged to provide roe with 
men for the transports of my carriage and the necessary presents ; 
thus I shall run but little risk from detention owing to the sickness or 
laziness of coolies. In short, the only thing likely to interrupt my 



889 Journal of a visit to [Mat. 

progress will be eickness ; but having once reached PaiMtoNo's, safety 
would be perhaps insured. I speak here in allusion to the season* the 
route being, from the great height of the mountains to be crossed, only 
practicable during the rains. I shall close this portion of my letter 
with a few remarks on the Lamas, for which I am indebted to 
PamsoNO. He describes them as resembling the Chinese, whose 
peculiar manner of wearing their hair thev adopt ; the country is very 
populous, the houses well built, and the people are well supplied with 
grain, the staple one being rice. They are of a large stature, well 
clothed, wearing Chinese trousers and shoes, navigating their rivers 
by means of bonte, and using horses, of which they possess three 
varieties, as beasts of burthen. They possess in addition, no less than 
•even kinds of cattle. They distil ardent spirits, and their manufactures, 
which are numerous, are said to be very superior. 

On my • anival at Jingaha, I determined on crossing the country 
towards Beeaa, having heard that tea existed in this direction. 
Leaving Jingsha, I proceeded up the Koran to the east, thence diverg- 
ing to the south along the now nearly dry bed of the Kampiee, During 
the march I passed one small Singpho village, and in the evening 
arrived at Onaot the largest Sin^'pho village I ever saw. On the 
following day I left for Saitoon, and after a march of three hours halted 
beyond Suttoon close to the head of the Tenga Pdnee. From this, ou 
the following day, I proceeded crossing the Tenga Pdnee,. the course of 
which I followed for some distance, thence diverging to the S. W. 
towards the Minaboom range through excessively heavy bamboo 
jungle. On reaching the Muttock Pdnee I ascended its dry bed for 
some distance until we reached the hills. This nmge, along which I 
proceeded some distance, is entirely sandstone, and in no part exceeds 
five hundred feet in height; thence descended and arrived at the 
Meerep Pdnee, in the bed of which we halted. The next day carried 
me after a long march to Beesa, the course first laying down the Meerep 
Pdnee, thence to the westward and through a very low and uninterest- 
ing and nearly uninhabited country. We emerged from the jungle about 
a mile and a half above Beesa, to which place our course lay along the 
nearly dry bed of the formerly larger now small Diking, This river, 
which up to last year drained a great portion of the Singpho country 
on this side of the Patkaye range, is now nearly dry, its waters having 
taken a new course into the Kamroop, and thence into the Booret 
Diking. It is now only navigable for small boats as far as the 
Degaloo Goham's village, which is but a short distance from its 
mouth. 



18d7.] the Mishmee hills in Asiam. 839 

The valley oecnpied by the Khakoo Singphos, which I had thus 
crossed, is bounded to the N. E. by the Mishmee mountains, and to the 
8. W. by the Mimboom range ; it is of a triangular form, and not of 
any great extent : it is drained by the Tenga Pdnee, The v^htAe valley 
is comparatively high, and may be considered as a low tab)e land : it it 
incomparably the finest part of our territory inhabited by Singphos. 
that I have yet seen : between Itusa and Laitora, I passed, ulthonirh it 
was a short march, five large villages ; and whatever the case may be 
with the other portions of our Singpho territory, this valley is verf 
populous and highly fluurishing. Luttora is a village of no great size : 
formerly Luttora Gam was the chief of the whole valley, but his 
followers, since the affair of the Dnpha Gam, have divided them- 
selves between Itusa and Ittanshantan Grams who are friendly to our 
Government. 

From Itusa Gam I met great attention ; from Luttora Gam, until 
lately an avowed enemy to our Government, I received a visit, being 
the first he ever paid to any ofiicer. He made the usual professions of 
submission ; but on my telling him that he should send in his submis* 
sion to the ofllicers at Sadiyd, he replied very quietly, that he must 
first communicate with the Dupha Gam. (Latterly I understand that 
he has sent his submission in to the Political Agent.) He was attended 
with a considerable number of men armed with lances and dhaos. He 
is a large, ruffianly-looking man, nearly blind, and for a Singpho very 
dirty. He was attended with an adherent of the Dupha Gam, who had 
just returned from Hookum. This man descanted on the general satis- 
faction given to the chiefs about Hookum by the presents of Captain 
Hannat, and he said that all the chiefs had agreed to bury the re- 
membrance of all former feuds in oblivion. 

The chief cultivation of the valley is that of ahoo dhan, the fields of 
which are numerous and extensive. 

The manners of the Khalchoos are the same as those of the other 
Singphos; they are represented, however, as excelling these in treachery 
and cruelty. I met with no .opposition on the journey, although I v^as 
attended by only sixteen Donaniers ; and although, as I have since as- 
certained, ray adoption of this route caused great offence to the chiefs* 
one of whom sent a letter of remonstrance to the officers at Sadiyd, 
They have a gpreat number of Assamese slaves, and there is but little 
doubt that the practice of slave-selling still exists among them. In fact 
a Donanier from Chykwas was actually obliged to place himself under 
my protection. None of the villages are stockaded. Luttora is on a 
strong site, being built on a steep eminence nearly surrounded by two 



840 Journal of a w$U to the Miskmee hUU in Atsam. [Mat, 

small streams ; and as the ascent is steep, although not great, it is 
difficult of access, and might be well defended. 

I gained bo clue to the actual existence of the tea, although the 
yellow soil was not unfrequent towards the head of the Tenga Pdane, 
The Minaboom range, as I have above observed, is of no considerable 
height ; it is covered witb tree jungle, among which occurs a apeciea 
of dammai, amagnolea, and one or two species of oak. 

On arriving at Beeaa I heard that Mr. B&ucb was at Fmgree^ and 
as that gentleman had previously expressed a wish that I should gire 
my opinion on his mode of tea culture, 1 immediately determined 
on proceeding thither : with this view I left for Rt^oo, which I reached 
in two ordinary marches. There visited the tea, and then left for 
Rapoodoo, Here also I visited the tea, which is abundant, appearing 
to me the best of that produced in the Singpho territory ; — the soil is 
precisely the same, in all its external characters, as that of the other 
tea localities. * 

The tea plant being certainly adapted to some degree of ahade, the 
free exposure to the sun seems wrong in principle, evidently producing 
a degree of coarseness in the leaves, totally incompatible, I presume, 
with the production of fine flavored teas. 

From this place I proceeded through heavy jungle, uninhabited 
except by elephants, for two days, literally cutting my way where the 
tracks of the elephants were not available owing to their direction. 
Our course being determined by that of the Dibora, on the evening 
of the second day we arrived at Choakree Ting in the Muttock country, 
and halted on the Rolea Pdnee. The third day, after a very long 
march of nearly twenty miles, carried me close to Ranga gurrah. On 
reaching this I found that Major Whitb was expected daily, but that 
Mr. BaucB had already returned to Sadiyd. 

I had the pleasure of accompanying Major Wbitb three days after 
my arrival to Tingree, from which place we returned direct to 
Sadiyd, the march occupying three days. 

The greater part of Muttock which I had thus an opportunity of 
seeing may be characterised as capable of producing tea, the soil 
being in almost every instance of that yellow color, hitherto found to 
be so characteristic of the tea localities. To this the only exceptions 
exist in the swampy ravines, which are occasionally of great extent. 
The better portions consist of rather high plains, covered with tall 
coarse grasses, and intersected here and there with narrow strips of 
jungle. It may be considered as a comparatively open country ; — ^the 
villages are numerous, and the people satisfied. Altogether Muttock 



1887.] Ssttmate of Life in the CivU Service. 84 1 

may he considered as a well-governed flourishing district. Bat on 
tbic point f need not detain yon, as the nature of the district is suffi- 
ciently well known. 

The Tillages passed between Beesa and Muttock are few ; the first is 
a small temporary village occupied by Nagas, about ten miles from 
Beesa, The next is Dkompoan, a large Singpho village, half way 
between the Naga village, and Rtqtoo, Rusoo; and, lastly, Rupddoo, 
Btftween this and Choakrt Ting no villages occur. 



IL-^Correeied Estimate of the risk of life to Civil Servants of the 
Bengal Presidency. By H.T. PaiNaap, Esq, See. to Qovt. See. 

In the number of this Journal for July, 1832, some Tables were 
published showing the risk of life amongst Civil Servants on the 
Bengal JPstablishment, and in a short article the priuciples were 
explained upon which the tables had been framed. The method 
adopted in that article for computing the risks of life in the Civil 
Service of the Bengal Presidency has met the entire approbation of the 
most able actuaries in England, and the tables have not only been 
adopted as affording the best estimate forthcoming of the chances of 
life amongst persons in good circumstances in the climate of India, but 
attempts have likewise been made to apply the same method of compu- 
tation toother services. Amongst others. Mr. Curnin has, we under- 
stand, successfully computed tables framed on the same principles for 
the Military Services of all the three Presidencies of India, from the 
year 1 765 to the present date, — a work of immense labour, the results 
of which we have seen in abstract, and lament that the publication of 
them has been so long delayed. As our Civil Service tables have 
thus acquired an importance, as well from the use made of them by 
insurance offices, as from the application of the principle to the 
construction of other tables, we have deemed it necessary, now that 
another lustrum of five years has passed since they were framed, to 
republish them, completed to the close of 1 836, and to draw attention 
a second time to the method adopted in their construction. "We will not 
conceal that a principal motive with us for taking this trouble is that 
yre have discovered some errors in the Tables of 1832, and therefore 
lire anxious to supercede it for practical use by supplying one 
more accurate. We are glad also to avail ourselves of the opportunity 
to point the attention of public officers and persons of intelligence at 
other Presidencies to the expediency of keeping registers and framing 
similar tables for the different services with which they may be con< 
2 r 



S4a 



Estimate of Life in the Civil Service* 



[Mat^ 



nected. In a very valuable paper drawn ap by Mr. Griffith Dayibs 
for the Bombay Civil Fund, a form of register is g^ven, which, if duly 
kept, will afford the means of constructing accurate tables for any 
purposes framed precisely upon our principle, and this table may be 
adopted for a regiment or for any number of persons circumstanced 
alike — that is, when in a condition to yield a fair average of casualties, 
just as well as for a service constituted like the Civil Services of the 
different Presidencies. The only thing to be attended to is, that in 
like manner as a separate page in the service registers ought to be 
set apart for the nominations of Civil Servants for each year, because, 
forf acility of computation, we assume them to be of persons of the 
same average age, so a separate page must be assigned to persons of 
the same age when the register is formed for the purpose of obtain- 
ing the risks of life amongst persons promiscuously selected, and not 
of uniform or nearly corresponding ages. 

As it is of importance that this should be well understood, and 
because we wish to inculcate the expediency of framing tables of tha 
same kind not only for his Majesty's and for the Native regiments, 
but likewise for the natives of cities and towns in different parts of 
India, we shall devote a few words to a little further explanation of tha 
registers we recommend to be kept. The following is the form into 
which any number of names upon which it is desired to obtain life 
results of any kind may be entered, taking care only, as before pointed 
out, that those entered in the same page are always of the same aga 
at the time of first registry. 



Page u. 

Age 23, 1 at year. 3nd. 3rd. 4th. 5th. 6th. 



7th. Sth. 9th. 10th. &o. 



A. 
B. 
C. 
D. 



Page 16. 
Age 95. 

IL. . • 

P. 

G. 



1 


1 


I 


I 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 ' 


I 


) 


1 


1 


i died. 




4 


4 


31 


3 


1 


I 


i died. 




] 


1 


I 


1 


J 


1 


1 


I 


1 


1 


1 


1 


4 


4 


3§ 


3 



] 
1 

1 mar. 



i died. 
1 



2§ 



if 
1 

I 



2* 



1 

1 



\ 



1 one 
son. 



1 



1 
I 



1 
1 



9 



Now if one hundred names of soldiers were entered in the first 

column as having come into the country at the age of 23, though 

every one of them came, perhaps in a different year, still the register 

for as many years as it may extend in respect to these persons, 

* Diicharged. t Returned to England. 



I'BS^.] Ssttmate of Life in the Civtt Service. iiS 

giving in each the fact of the individual having ontlived that year or 
not. or any other circumstance or event, must afford the means of 
computing the different accidents of life for every age that may he 
•reached hy the persons so registered, and the results of one page may 
be combined with those of any other by adding the sum at the bottom 
of the page to the proper column with reference to age of such other 
page, and by taking out of the whole the number of deaths or of mar- 
riages or of the births of children, male or female, or of any other ac- 
cident of life that may be recorded in the column to compare with the 
•am of the lives of the age in both pages or of as many pages as may 
be brought into the computation. 

We presume that every insurance office keeps registers framed upon 
this principle, but we wish to see them extended to the Army and 
likewise to some thousands of natives in towns and in the interior, 
with a view to obtaining the materials for computing the risks and 
accidents of life amongst these classes at different ages^ in respect to 
which we are at present without any materials for framing a table or 
estimate of any kind. 

The tables given in Captain Hbndbrson'b article upon the subject 
of the value of life in India, published in the last volume of the 
Researches of the Asiatic Society, though framed with great labour, 
are defective in this point*. They afford general averages of the value 
of life amongst certain classes, but not of the value of life at each year 
of age, which is a most essential circumstance ; and for insurance offices 
or for institutions which deal in annuities, the risks with reference to 
age are the main and most important, if not the only, matter for 
consideration. 

It is to be observed that it will not be possible to frame registers 
retrospectively for any class of persons, unless from peculiar circum- 
stances a given number of names with the age of each individual can 
be entered for any specific past date, and these can be followed out 
in all their circumstances to the date of the formation of the regis- 
ters. This is the principle upon which the previous and present 
tables have been framed for the Bengal Civil Service, and upon which 
similar tables have been made for the Army. The nominations of 
each' year to the different services being fixed and known, and the 

* Capt. D«Haviland*s tablei for the Madrai army are an exception to tbii 
remark, as they are framed by years of serrice on our principle, but the results of 
the first years of the series give ratios of deaths for those years which cast a 
doubt on the accuracy of the whole table. Mr. OoaDON's army table is of too 
old a date to be nsefnl. 
2 T 2 



846 



E$tmate of Life in tke Civil Service. 



[Mat, 



Amended Table for shewing the rishs of life in the Bengal Civil Service, 
ftrunded on the actual casualties upon the nominations made to thai 
S'^ vice from 1790 to 1836, the first year being computed from the 
Ist January, after the year of nomination. 



• 






Age 


1 


20 


2 


il 


3 


22 


4 


2) 


6 


2* 


6 


•-5 


7 


26 


8 


27 


9 


28 


10 


29 


JJ 


30 


19 


.11 


13 


32 


14 


33 


16 


84 


16 


35 


17 


36 


18 


37 


19 


38 


90 


39 


21 


40 


29 


41 


23 


42 


24 


43 


28 


44 


26 


45 


27 


46 


28 


47 


29 


48 


30 


49 


SI 


60 


82 


51 


S3 


52 


34 


53 


35 


54 


36 


65 


37 


56 


38 


57 


39 


58 


40 


59 


41 


60 


42 


61 


43 


6*2 


44 


63 


45 


64 



Number of Senrants. 



4525 



8454i i 



2469} 



1879 



1214} 



660} 



299 ' 



109 • 



26 



975 

933i 

906§ 

874* 
835| 

7901 

754 

694} 

638 

677§ 

645 

519$ 

489 

468 

448 

424 

403 

376§ 

S5l 
324 



i 



293 

270 

239 

216 

196 

167$ 

J 48 

129 

114$ 

10)$. 
884 
67$ 

38 



32$ 

24 
19 
17$ 
16 



9 
5 
b 
3 

3 




19 

22 

18 

J9 

12 

10 

17 

17 

90 

8 

6 

14 

8 

6 

8 

6 

9 

11 

10 

8 

11 

10 

10 

6 

7 

7 

7 

3 

4 

3 

4 

1 

3 

6 

9 




I 





I 



90 



79 



>►« 



>*^ 



I 



21 



L 



Pcrccntsgc 
rate of 
deaths in 
10,000. 



199 



208 



166 



934 



354 



363 



486 



Retiremeats 
actual. 



2 

S 
7 
6 
7 
7 
4 
3 
4 
3 
2 
I 
9 
6 
9 
6 
9 
7 
9 
7 
9 
6 
6 
9 
10 
9 
8 
8 
1 
6 
9 
5 
6 
1 




1 
6 

1 
1 




2 







1 
i 



91 



.13 



.24 



33 



31 



.20 



* 8 



1837.3 ^ Grammar of the Si»d&< langudfe. 347 

III. — A Grammar of the Sindh( language, dedicated to the Right Honor* 
able Sir Robert Grant, Governor of Bombay. By W. U. Watbbn, 
Esq. 

m 

It has been often paradoxically asserted, that those who have the 
most to do, contrive also to have the most leisure. The maxim will 
adroit of as easy illustration in India as elsewhere, and may be support- 
ed by the highest examples, if it be conceded that the office of Secretary, 
or Minister, to an Indian Government requires a full allotment of time, 
an ample share of mental and mechanical exertion ; for the Secre« 
tariat of either Presidency may be regarded as the fountain head of 
authorship on all Indian subjects, literary, political or historical. We 
need not recapitulate digests of law, Hindu and Musulm4n ; narratives 
of campaigns ; schemes of fiscal administration, which may naturally 
enough emanate from such sources ; but in pure literature, editorship 
of oriental publications, and translations therefrom, our Secretaries 
have ever occupied the foremost rank. 

The present production of the Chief Secretary at Bombay is only a 
fresh instance of the talent and industry which in India is sure to 
win the reward of high appointment ; but it is deserving of more than 
usual encomium, being a work of sheer labour and troublesome 
compilation, unsweetened with the associations of the annalist 
depicting events on which the fate of empires rested ; — unenlivened 
by the ingenuities of antiquarian speculation or the romance of 
mythologic fiction. His has been a dry labour of utility, not of love, 
" to facilitate the intercourse of Europeans with the inhabitants of 
Sindh and the adventurous merchants of Shikdrpur and Multdn." It 
is a sequel to the famous Indus-navigation treaty ; — one better calcu- 
lated to effect a mutual understanding than the diplomatist's negocia- 
tion with its uncompromising tariff ! That it serves as a faithful 
interpreter, we have at this moment the best testimony to offer in 
a letter from an officer now travelling on the Indue, who says, " The 
SindhI grammar does not contain a mistake, and I have never found 
myself at a loss, with a knowledge of its contents." It may seem 
extraordinary that such a work should have been wholly compiled at 
a distance from, and by one who has, we believe, never visited, the 
country ; but this is explained by the constant resort of the Sindhis to 
Bombay, where for the last 20 or 30 years at least 10,000 persons, tho 
greater part of the population of Tatta, have become domiciled, speak- 
ing and writing their own tongue. 

The Sindhi language is spoken " through the whole province of 
Sindh, and is said to be understood as far north as the terntories of 



S48 A Grammor of tie 8iMi Umfwag^. C^at, 

Baba'wal Khan, the Derdjdt, imd MtUtdm ; it prevails westward ia 
Cutch-Gandma, Shdl, MoMtdng and PiaUn ; eastward in Cutck it is 
spoken with some slight ▼ariations in formation and accent." 

May we not yenture to extend these boandaries, if not ol the predse 
idions. at least of the connected dialects of the SimUU language?— > 
Ha?^ 9ot the words Smdk( and Hmdt a common origin, the permuta^ 
tion of the k and s being nothing more in fact than the same difibrenos 
of dialect which is preserved to this in the twin names of the river* 
Smie S4id In4u9 ? This at least is one of the most plausible theories 
of the origin of the name of India, and it is supported by innumerable 
examples of Zend and Persian words, in which the aspirate has taken 
the place of the Sanscrit sibilant. 

The commercial celebrity of the Hindus in all ages attachea with 
undiminished force to the Stadi and Mdrwdr merchant of the present 
day. They have their branch kotkiM not only throughout Upper India, 
but in Calcutta, Bombay, and wherever commerce is active. Tkeiis 
may be said to be the very language and archetype of hoondee circu- 
lation-— the monopoly of banking business throughout the country. 
''The adventurous nations of Shikdrpw and Mditdn are spread in 
colonies throughout the whole of the extensive provinces of Central 
Asia, and form the chief medium for commercial transactions in those 
eountries. They are to be found in Ruioia, at Aotrakhtm, through 
Baluchuidm and Seistdn, as well as at Hirdi, and Bokhara .- they pos« 
sess political influence occasionally with the chiefs of those countries, 
fh)m their command of capital, and their frequently taking farms of 
the revenues. Travellers starting from Shikdrjmr or Mdltan (add 
BomhMy, Calcutta, or Bemareo) might from them obtun bills of exchange 
on Rania, Persia, Khordedm, and Centrsl Asia." 

The neighbouring province of Gujerai is equally celebrated for its 
early commercial enterprize. We learn from Hamilton, that the 
numerous tribes of banyae, named banyans by the English, are indi« 
genous to this part of India, whence they have travelled to aU parts 
of the continent, and formed settlements, " where their descendants 
continue to speak and write the Gujerdti tongue, which may be pro« 
nounced the grand mercantile language of Indian marts*." 

For the foreign commerce of India the mouths of the Indme pro* 
bably held long precedence to Gujerat, Camhay, and Boroack, the 
Barugaea of AaaiAN, which, more distant from Arabia and the Peraian 
Gulph, would require a more advanced knowledge and boldness of 
navigation. Indeed it is a curious fact, that Pdtala, the seaport on 

* Hamilton's Hindoitan, I. 612. 



1837.} A Grammar of the SindU language, 349 

the IndoB, 8till famous in Albzandbr'b time, should no longer be 
mentioned by the author of the Periplus, in whose time Minagara 
(Mahd Nagar F) had become the capital of the country. 

Pdtala, in further support of our argument that Sindh was one 
focus of Indian civilization and colonization, is accounted by the 
Hindus the seat of government of the very founder of the Solar races, 
the fiajpdts of modem India ; Mr. C^ouk Koaos extracts the foN 
lowing particulars regarding it from the Tibetan authorities. 

" Potala or Potdlaka (Tib. ^ "0^9^ gru-hdsin, or vulgo kru-dsin, 
boat- receiver, a haven or port) is the name of an ancient city at the 
mouth of the Indus river, the residence of Ixwaku and his descen- 
dants of the Suryavama, Four young princes (who afterwards were 
Buniamed Sha^'kta) being banished from that city by their father, 
took refuge in Kosala on the banks of the Bhagirathi river (in the 
modem province of Rohilkhand) and built the city of Capilavasiu. 
The residence of the Dalai L^ma at Lassa (built about the middle of 
the 12th century) is likewise called Potala, zj'T)'<^, because Chbn- 
RBZiK (vaj^X^^^^^'V)^^® patron of the Tibetians, the spiritual son 
of Amitabha, is said to have resided at Potala in ancient India, and 
to have visited Tibet from that place*." 

The Sindbian origin of the Rajptit tribes derives no inconsiderable 
support from the evidence of the gp'ammar and vocabulary before 
UB. Here we find the mass of the language (excluding of course the 
Persian infusion) merely a little different in spelling and inflexion from 
the Brijbkdkd or pure Hindi of Vp^er India ; while there is a strong ar- 
gument that the Sindh{ is the elder of the two, in the more regular and 
elaborate inflexions of its cases and tenses ; and particularly in the 
complete conjugation of the auxiliary verbs huwan and thiyan^ to be, 
of which, in the Hindi, we find but a single tense of the latterf, and a 
few tenses and a present and past participle of the former, extant. 
Although we cannot attempt to enter upon a critical examination of 
the grammar, which would indeed require a knowlege of Sanskrit, and 
perhaps Zend in addition to the vernacular, we feel it impossible to 
resist inserting these two verbs, as well for the important part they 
enact in modern dialects, as for the philological interest of these almost 
universal auxiliaries, particularly in regard to the pronominal affixes, 
elsewhere become nearly obsolete. The infinitives, like the Persian 
axid Sanskrit, terminate in an. 

* CiOMA^s MSS. Seethe Observations of M. BnaNOvr in the preceding num- 
ber, page 291 . 

t Or rather, none at all in the Hindi : for tkd tki thi belong to the Hindu- 
tthdni or Urdu, 
2 z 



S60 



A Grammar of the Sindhi langua^. 



CMat, 



Cot^ugaJtion of ihi Sindhi auxiUtny verbi, to b6. 
lafinithre. Ho-wan (Sanakrit toot ^0 T^hh-yan (S. VKU or ^lf% •) 



Indicative. 
iBt Present. 



S. 1. Awn 41iiyan 

2. Tun &hln 

3. Uh &he 

P. 1. Attn 4hfyun 

2. Ain ihivo 

3. Hui 4hm 

2nd Present. S. 1. Huwin>t,ho 

2. Huen-t,ho 

3. Hoe-t,ho 
P. 1. Ho,ttn-th4 

2. Ho,o-th& 

3. Ho»wan-th4 

lit Imperfect. S. 1. m. Hos fern. 

8. Ho,en 
3. Ho 
P. 1. Hua son 

2. Hua 

3. Hua 



lam* 



Caret 



I am being. 



T^hSyftn t,ho (fsm. M) 
T,hiyen t,ho 
T.hiye t,ho 



T.hiyun thi 
T.hSyo thi 
T,Uyan th4 

Hula m. T,he thiyos 

Hoefe TM t,htyen 

Hui T,he t^hiyo 

Huyunsun T,het,hlya sun T,he tlilyatuit 

Huyun T.he t^hiya T.he thiya 

Huyun T,he t,lilya T,he thlyun 



f. T.he t,hi6 
T,he tyhiett 
T,het,hi4 



2nd Imperfect. 
Perfect. 



1. Hundo-hoe, &c. HundShuis T,Mndo hos, &c. T,hindi husi 



(UK Plural HttBd&> 
Caret. 



* (mas(N plur. Thind&) 



Preterperfect. 



Cartlt. 



Pluperfect. 



Caret. 



S. 1. Thiyos 

2. Thiyen 

3. Thivo 

P. 1. Thlya sun 

2. Thiya 

3. Thiya 

8. 1. Thiyo ihiyin 

2. 4hen 

3. 4he 

P. 1. Thiyi ihiyun 

2. 4hiyo 

3. 4hin 

S. I. T.hiyo hos 

2. hoen 

3. ho 

P. I. Thiyi hasun 



Thiis 

Thien 

Thii 

Thii sun 

Thfya 

Thiyun 

Thii, &c. 



2. 
3. 



-hui 
-hui 



Futuie. 


S. 1. Hundos 

2. Hundeh 

3. Hundo 

P. 1. Hnndisun 
2,3. Hundi 


Subjunctive. 
Present. 


3w Hundi 
S. 1. Huin I may be 

2. Hoen 

3. Hoe 
P. 1. Ho,un 

2^ Ho,o 
3. Hon 


Perfect. 


by adding Je, if, 
to the indicative. 


Future. 


I may, orvrillbe. 


Imperative. 


S. 2. Ho-tun 
P. 2. Howo-ain 


Participle present. Hundar, being, 
past, 
perfect. having been. 



T,hindos 
T,hinden 
Tyhindo 
T,hinda sun 
T»hinda 

T'hinda. 
. m. Thindotiundos 

den 

do 

Thmda hunda sun 

■' hundi 
hundi 

S. 1. Thiyo hundos 
2. 



Thf • huls 

huen 

hui 

Thf yun hasun 
Thjyi hui 
Thiyun huyun 
Thindia 
Thinden 
Thindi 
Thmdi sun 
Thindiyun 



S. 1. TMyan 

2. Thiyeu 

3. TMye 

S. 2. Thi-tun 
P. 2. Thiyo-ain 



den&c. 

P. 1. TUyun 

2. Thiyo 

3. Thiyaa 



T,hindar 

Thiyal 

Thi, Thai, Thi kare 

Thaikare 



18370 ^ Gramnutr of the SindU language. 351 

In a similar manner is conjugated Wanjan (H. j£ni) to go, used as 
the aoziliary of the passive of other verbs : wendo, going — tooyo (H. 
gayi) gone : wanf'iun, go thou. 

The personal pronouns owan, tiin, and their plurals asin, tawin, ap- 
proach nearly to the Sanskrit aham, twam ; asmdn, yusmdm (obj.) : but 
for the third personal pronouns, as in Hindi, the demonstratives he 
and iUi (H. gih and vmh) are employed, in lieu of the Sanskrit seh, sd, 
tai ; in bkdka, sing. %T, HT ; plur. ft, fvPT. In the declensions of nouns 
we miss the ka-ke-M to which Timur's soldiery professed such an abhor- 
rence, but it is merely softened into jo 'f^-ji-jd. Of these, however, we 
find traces in the Hindi pronominal inflexions mii/A/, tvjH^, which seem 
to be identical with mun-jo and to-jo of the Sindhi. This affix may be 
the adjectival or possessive ^ ya of the Sanskrit : and analogies of both 
might be pointed out in Greek, as in the nearly synonimous fiwtKt-ia 
iind fiaaiXt-Ko. Oae example of declension will suffice : — 

MAra, a man. 
Singular, Plural, 

Nom. Ace. Voc. Mtn, a man, oh man. M&ra, men, oh meo. 

Geo. MAraa-jo-ji-j^-ji. Mdrsana-jo, &c. 

Dat. M&rsa-khe. MArsana-khe. 

Abl. MAna-khon. M4rsana-khon. 

When the nominative ends in the vowel o the plural is in d : the 
feminine takes un in the pural, as zdl a woman, gdlun. 

We do not quarrel with the author for romanixing his grammar, as it 
is principally intended for European students ; but we are inclined to 
cavil at the employment of the Persian alphabet in conjunction with the 
Roman rather than the N&gar(, which would certainly conform with 
more facility to the palatials, dentals, and aspirates of the Indian 
family : "^fl^ f^^ ^ expresses more elegantly as well as more 
precisely, Buchhri billi khon (from a bad cat) than ^ a^ ^JU {^f4^* 

It is a curious circumstance that most of the masculine "substantives 
and adjectives terminate in 6 ; a peculiarity also remarked in the Zend 
langpiage, and strikingly exemplified on all the legends of our Bactrian 
and Indo-Scythic coins, whether in the Greek or in the Pehlevi charac- 
ter. The extensive vocabulary attached to the grammar may there- 
fore perhaps prove of use in dec3rphering these ancient relics ; though 
more might be expected from a scrutiny of the language of the 
Boi-disant descendants of the Kaidnian in the KoMstdn. We recom- 
mend M. Masson to collect vocabularies from these people and from 
the SiiLhposhee. 

One of the most singular anomalies of the Sindhi language, is the 
arrangement of its alphabet, which diflers totally from the perfect 
classification followed throughout the peninsula. The author makes 
2 z 2 



352 A Grammar of the Sindki language. [Mat, 

no remarks on the subject farther than that " with, one or two excep- 
tions the letters are merely represented by ciphers, combinations of 
numbers, and fractional parts : for example 1 1 1 (fths) for « ; 8 (4) for 
ck ; &c. &o. !" 

Having on a former occasion noticed the singular application of the 
Arabic numerals to the alphabet of the Afiij«{tt;e islands, we werestrudL 
with the apparent similarity of the process here pointed out at the 
opposite extremity of India ; but a closer examination removed moat 
of the analogy by shewing that the Sindki BXkd MUltdudeUen, although 
strikingly similar in form to the common numerals, were all dedactble 
from the elements of the ordinary Deva-Nagar( symbols, and that they 
are, in fact, but one step removed from the Marwdri and Mehajani of 
our mercantile class. This we have endeavoured to shew in the ac- 
companying lithographic table (XXir.) (being always happy to add to 
our jcatalogue of Indian alphabets !). The Marwdri (which does not 
differ essentially from the Bendrasf) we have added on the authority of 
gomiishtas residing in Calcutta ; but it must be remembered that these 
written characters are peculiar to the mercantile class, and that the 
learned of Mdrwdr and Sindh, as of other places, use the Deva-Ni[gari 
forms. As to the arrangement of their alphabet given by our author on 
the authority of merchants, it seems to be nothing more nor less than 
a couple of memoria-techmea lines contrived to comprehend the whole 
of the letters combined with their most usual vowel sounds ; so that in 
ordinary writing the merchants may dispense with the application of 
the matras or vowel-marks. The inconvenience of this omission is not 
much felt in the limited scope of mercantile correspondence, and in 
the drafting of hoondees, where the same sentences are constantly 
repeated. Indeed the first memorial line of the Sindhi and MCltdmi 
alphabets, 

pronounced, Puja saidmati hawen ghani Bkai Tek Chand, (with vowels) 
generally forms the opening (mutato nomine) of every mehijan's epis- 
tle, as may be seen in the example given by our author*. It may be 
translated " Prayer (or I pray) that health may be abundant to brother 
T^k Chand." The continuation is as follows : 

pronounced, chha ha ra ndth tde rh gajan khatri pha dkadf. 

* The meaning of the specimen of hoondee endorsement litho(puphed at the foot of 
the plate u " one half (bemg) rupees twenty-five, double fifty, to be paid in foU." 

t We have ventured to alter one or two of the letters conjecturally, which in the 
lithographed plate copied from the grammar, are repeated, while those ws have substi- 



4irji. ^S-S^c^ 



rw** r* 











jFri ola,ia, ManXr^ JuiAawm. Him »nmJti JtA^^o jritiitLM 
^t foutkt^ ^€i€^Ayu UcAare cAAuiAath jAa.J^etng> 



3KfizBn*ifti?t"S«ifj! >n\^ aft ^^ 



A J s t 



-Tn 



^ A ic/ ^A 



Tt' 



M 



4 J^ cA J 



e^^/U^/^5'yyxl9 0(vJ<^•a^^i.6^ 






e M 



g J H, dcA tr ^ ^ td. 



/i^yj/ -97%, t A u/ fA. ti iA o ^ ^ cA d 

n /A 7* C flM g' J "^ ^^ ^ yA^ ^ ** 



^^' / r 



Pujol sti Iattlo^o Aore^i ^Aar^ ZAaI 't'^K cAanoC 



1837.] A Grammar of the Sindhi langtrnge, 359 

This second line has probably a meaning also, but not a single 
word of it can be foand in the vocabulary ; nor can the natives be 
persuaded to divulge it, whether from superstitious prejudice or from 
Ignorance ; it may be merely a nonsense verse embodying the rest of 
the letters. Chabrana'th Rai sounds like a name or title. 

The Mdrwdri alphabet contains two poetical lines almost as unin- 
telligible as those of Simdh, As written by our informant a gomishta 
in one of the banking houses, and lithographed in Plate XXIl. with the 
vowel marks, they abound in errors, nor could we obtain from him any 
inkling of their meaning. By dint of persevering inquiry, and aided 
by the Hindi and the Sanskrit dictionaries, we have restored what 
seems to be the right reading of the text as follows : 

^ mm "WWV W^TW WiW ^Tf ^W wi 

^•^ "^ w(w ¥^T ^s^rft www •■w 

or in Roman characters, (differing from the version in the Plate,) 

Sri ddtd dkanho $abkdw, bdla moh khaga gkatang, 
A'i fiuha, jar dhayo ; Uchari, duUtanjhapatig. 

which, translated as literally as the idiom will allow, is 
" Charity (1) of riches is the natural fruit ; to me boy, oh god, (2) may it be so. 
Reading attained, ignorance is dispelled (3) ; by good enunciation (4), wisdom (6) 

instantly (6), (is attained).** 

(1.) ^vt^TTTT masculine, a charitable man. WW^T to wealth, WWTW 
is natural. (2.) VC» the sun, a deity, (Wilson's Diet.) might lead 
to the supposition that the couplet was invented while the people were 
sun- worshippers ! Wif' ^Aa^an^, may it happen. (3) vi|T from VTWT 
to break down, destroy. (4) ^W^ for TSWHC pronunciation, utterance. 
(5) WWW a corruption from "WITW intelligence, wisdom. (6) WIW 
synonymous with iiTr jhtg^, instantaneously. 

At the bottom of the same plate we have inserted the SindM al- 
phabet as written by their gomishtas in Calcutta ; because some 
of the letters vary from the Bombay form ; and both differ some- 
what from a genuine Sindhi alphabet procured by Lieut. Lebch at 
Mithydni on the Indus, which we did not receive in time to insert in 
the plate. The principal variations are in the aspirated letters hh, 
gh, ph, and h; j Kud y are expressed by the same character, which is 
formed as number 2 of the Mdltdni alphabet. The letter 7 is also 
expressed by 7 which accounts for its absence in the memorial line. 

Our author notices the curious custom of affixing certain numbers, 
tk8|l or 74^ ; and \ll or 1^ to the commencement of all hoondees and 
written documents, as not yet satisfactorily explained. Our readers 

tuted are there omitted. We have been guided in doing so by the analogy of the formes 
of the letters to the Nigari elements. 



954 Diseavery of three new epeeies [Mat* 

will remember the rather whimsical definition of the first of the two 
symbols by Col. Tod, from a traditionary record of the 74^ maonds of 
sindre taken from the necks of the slaughtered R£jp6ts at Asaaa's 
sack of Chitor*. But, to say nothing of the far too modern date of 
introdaction thus argued, and of its inapplicability to countries beyond 
the desert ; a more general and simple origin may be traced for it in 
the mysterious invocation ^r Om, prefixed by the orthodox to all docu- 
ments. In the inscriptions published in Plates VII. and XVII. this 
word is written X^\\ which difiPers little from the esil above. The 
triune symbol is often represented by \ alone, which with the proso- 
dial mark |1 would be read ss " one and a half." 

But we are devoting too much space to a subject of minor import- 
ance : nor is the alphabet new ; for we find the type (at least of the 
Multdni alphabet), have been long since cut and used at iheSerampore 
press. We cannot conclude without making kndwn a promise of a 
valuable addition to Mr. Watbkn's labours by Lieut. Lbbcb, in the 
shape of a Balochy, and Barahui vocabulary. We shall soon thus have 
at our command all the cognate dialects of India to place in the hands 
of some future giant philologist who may undertake to unravel the 
tangled skein, and shew which are the primitive tongues of the abori- 
gines of our hills and plains, and whence and when came the infusions 
of foreign vocables which now predominate in Indian speech. 

J. P. 



IV. — On additional f 088x1 epecies of the order Quads on ana /rom the 
SewdHk HiiU. By H. FALCONaa, Eeq. M. D., and Captain P. T. 
Cautlkt. 

In the November number of the Journal, vol. 5, p. 739, Messrs. 
Bakku and Duband have announced, in the discovery of a quadra- 
roanous animal, one of the most interesting results that has followed on 
the researches into the fossil remains of the SewdHk HiiU, The specimen 
which they have figured and described comprises the right half of the 
upper jaw, with the series of molars complete ; and they infer that it 
belonged to a very large species. In the course of last rains we 



* " Marked on the banker's letter in lUiJBSthAn : it is the strongest of seals, for ' ths 
sin of the slaughter of Chitor^ is thereby iayoked on all who violate a letter under the 
safeguard of this mysterious number."— Tmi'i Rdjaithdn, 1. 329. 



]Bd7.] fiff 099x1 Quadrumana in the Sewdl{k9. 355 

detected in our collection an a9tragalu9, ^hich we referred to a 
qaftdruinanoas animal. The specimen is an entire bone, free from any 
matrix and in a fine state of preservation from haying been partly mine* 
ralized with hydrate of iron. It corresponds exactly in size with the 
a9tragalu9 of the Semnopithecu9 Entellu9 or Langoor, and the details of 
form are so much alike in both, that measurement by the callipers was 
required to ascertain the points of difference. We have forwarded 
the specimen with a notice to the Geological Society of London, after 
keeping it some months in reserve, having been diffident about resting 
the first announcement of fossil Quadrumana on any thing less 
decisive than the cranium or teeth. 

This a9tragalu9 in conjunction with Messrs. Bakbr and Dcrand's 
specimen, satisfied us of the existence of at least two distinct fossil 
Quadrumana in the SewdUk Hilh. We have lately become possessed 
of several fragments, more or less perfect, belonging to the lower jaws 
of two species, both smaller than Messrs. Bakrb and Durand'b 
fossil. These we shall now proceed to notice. 

The principal specimen is represented in fig. I . It consists of both 
sides of the lower jaw ; a great portion of the right half is entire with 
the whole series of molars ; the left half is broken off to the rear of the 
antepenultimate molar. The two middle incisors are present, and 
also the left canine broken across at its upper third. The right canine 
and the lateral incisors had dropt out leaving but the alveoli. The 
molars of the left side are destroyed down to the level of the jaw. 
The right ramus is wanting in more than half its width, together with 
the articulating and coronoid processes, and a portion of the margin 
at the angle of the jaw is gone. The specimen is a black fossil, and 
strongly ferruginous ; the specific gravity about 2.70. It was encased 
lA a matrix of hard sandstone, part of which is still left adhering 
to it. 

The jaw had belonged to an extremely old animal. The last molar 
is worn down so as to have lost every trace of its points, and the three 
teeth in advance of it have been reduced to hollowed-out discs, 
encircled by the external plate of enamel. The muscular hollow on the 
ramus for the insertion of the temporal muscle is very marked, being 
.^5 inches deep upon a width of .55. 

The dimensions contrasted with those of the Langoor or SemnopU 
ihecu9 Entelhu and the common Indian monkey or Pithecu9 Rhe9U9, 
are as follow ; — 



956 



Diicooery of three new ipecUe 



[MAt, 



Dimensiovt of the lower Jaw. 




1. Eztrene length from the anterior nargin 
of the name to the middle iaciiorB, 

2. Extreme length of jaw ; (calculated in 
the fossil,) 

3. Height of jaw, under the 2nd molar mea- 
sured to the margin of the aheoU, 

4. Ditto at the rear molars, 

5. Depth of symphisis, 

6. Space occupied by the molars, 

7. Interral between the 1st molars, 

8. Antero posterior diameter of the canine,. . 

9. Width of jaw behind the chin under the 
2nd molar, 



inches. 

3.6 

5.3 

1.35 
1.2 
1.9 
2.3 

.9 

.5 

1.15 



^ 


i 





^ 


ii 


P$ 


MM S 

0.0 


g 


%1 


S d 


8« 


-5 S 


« 


£ 


inches. 


inches. 


2.85 


2-5 


4. 


3.6 


1.05 


.85 


1.1 


.95 


1.4 


1.1 


1.9 


1.5 


.75 


.65 


.4 


.3 


1.05 


.95 



^ ^ s 

oMm 

OS • 



4 3.2 
4 3.02 



4 

4 
4 
4 

4 
4 



3.1 

3.6 

3. 

3.3 

3.2 

3.2 



4 3.7 



As in all other tribes of animals in which the species are very nu- 
ineroas. and closely allied in organization, it is next to impossible to 
distinguish an individual species in the QModnmuma from a solitary 
bone. In the fossil, too, the effects of age have worn off those marks 
in the teeth, by which an approximation to the subgenus might be 
made. It very closely resembles the SemMpithecui EntelluM in form* 
and comparative dimensions generally. The differences observable 
are slight. The symphisis is proportionally a little deeper than in 
Entellus, and the height of the body of the jaw somewhat greater. 
The chin, however, is considerably more compressed laterally under 
the second molar than in the Entellus, and the first molar more elong- 
ated and salient. So much of the canine as remains, has exactly the 
same form as in the Entellue, and its proportional size is fully as great. 
As shown by the dimensions, the jaw is much larger than in the full 
grown Entellus : in the former the length would have been about 5.3 
inches, while in the latter it is exactly 4 inches. The fossil was a 
species of smaller size than the animal to which the specimen described 
by Messrs. Bakxr and Durand belonged, but less so than it extceedi 
the Entellus. 

Our limited means for comparison, restricted to two living species* 
besides the imperfection of the fossil, and the few characters which it 
supplies, do not admit of affirming whether it belongs to an existing or 
extinct species ; but the analogy of the ascertained number of extinct 
species among the SewdKk fossil mammalia, makes it more probable 
that this monkey is an extinct one than otherwise. There is no doubt 



18870 



of/999ii QmdrtmmM in tke StwdUki. 



857 



about its diftrtng ipecifically from the two Indian ipeciet with which 
we have compared it. 

The next specimen is shown in fig. 5. It is a fragment of the 
body of the right side of the lower jaw ccMitaining the four rear 
molars. The teeth are beautifolly perfect. It had belonged to an 
adult although not an aged animal, the last molar baring the points a 
little worn, while the anterior teeth are considerably so. The dimen- 
sions, taken along with age, at once prove that it belonged to a difR$r- 
ent and smaller species than the fossil first noticed. 

The dimensions are as follow : — 



DimeDsioas of the lower Jaw. 



4ta 



1. Length of space occapied by the four rear 
ttolart, 

2. Height of jaw at tlie third molar, 





fossil 
ipe- 


i 




• ^ 9 


-B S 
Is 




^00 o 


2 ^ 


J} 


iJ 


CO 


inches. 


inches. 


inches. 


1.48 


1.7 


1.48 


.95 




1.1 






8-- 

Is 



1.25 
.9 



The length of jaw, therefore, estimated from the space occupied by 
the teeth, would be 4 inches, while in the larger fossil it is 5.3 inches ; 
a differenee much too great to be dependent merely on Tarieties of one 
species. Besides we have another fragment, also belonging to the 
right side of the lower jaw, and confaining the last molar which agrees 
exactly in ^ize with the eorre^ponding tooth in the figured specimen. 
This goes to prove the size to have been constant. The fossil, 
although correspondiug precisely in the space occupied by the four 
rear molars with the Entellus, has less height of jaw. There is fur* 
ther a difiFerence in the teeth. In the Entellus the heel of the rear 
molar is a sitnple flattened oblique surfaced tubercle, rather sharp at 
the inside. In the fossil, the heel in both fragments is bifid at the 
inside. The same structure is observable in the heel of the rear molar 
of the common Indian monkey P. rhesus. It is therefore probable that 
the fossil was a Pilhecus also. It was considerably larger, however, 
than the common monkey, and the jaw is more flattened, deeper, and 
its lower edge much sharper than in the latter. This difference in 
aiae and form indicates the species to have been different. 

It would appear, therefore, that there are three known species of 
fossil Qutubrwnttna from the Sewdlik hills : the first a very large 
speciefi discovered by Messrs. Bakbr and Durand ; the second a large 
also, bat smaller than the first, and considerably larger than 
3 A 



398 Dkeevety of ttree mem Mp€eie$ [Mat, 

the EnteUuM} the third, of the size of the EnUUui, and prohahly a 
PUhecu$ ; and farther that two of the three at least, and most proha- 
hly the third also, belonged to the types of the existing monkeys of 
the old Continent, in having bat five molars, and not to the Si^jams 
of America. 

There are at present upwards of 150 described species of existing 
Quadrumana ; and as the three fossil ones all belonged to the larger 
sized monkeys, it is probable that there are several more Semd&k 
species to be discovered. We have some specimens of detached teeth, 
of large size, which we conjnctore to be qnadmmsnoas ; bat their 
detached state make this conjecture extremely doubtful. 

Besides the interest attaching to the first discovery in the fossil 
state of animals so nearly approaching man in their organization, as 
the Quadrumana, the fact is more especially interesting in the SewdUk 
species, from the fossils with which they are associated. The same 
beds or different beds of the same formation, from which the (Jwi- 
drumana came, have yielded species of the camel and antelope, and the 
Anoplotherium posterogettium, (nob.) : the first two belonging to genera 
which are now coexistent with man, and the last to a genus charac* 
teristic of the oldest tertiary beds in Europe. The facts yielded by 
the Reptilian orders are still more interesting. Two of the foasil 
crocodiles of the SewdUks are identical, without even ranging into 
varieties, with the CroeodiluM biporcatu9 and Leptorynekus Gangeticm 
which now inhabit in countless numbers, the rivers of India ; while the 
Teitudinata are represented by the Megalochely$ Shtdensis (nob.), a 
tortoise of enormous dimensions which holds in its order the same 
rank that the Iguanodon and Megalosauttu do among the Saurums, 
This huge reptile (the Megaiochelys) — certainly the most remarkable of 
all the animals which the SewdUks have yielded — ^from its size carries 
the imagination back to the »ra of gigantic Saurians. We have leg 
bones derived from it, with corresponding fragments of the shell* 
larger than the bones in the Fndian unicorned Rhinoceros ! 

There is, therefore, in the Sewdl(k fossils, a mixture in the same 
formation of the types of all ages, from the existing up to that of the 
chalk ; and all coexistent with Quadntmana, 

P. S. Since the above remarks were put together, we have been 
led to analyse the character presented by a specimen in our collection 
which wehad conjectured to be quadrumanous. The examination proves 
it to be so incontestibly. The specimen is represented in figs. A, B, 
and C. of PI. XVIII. It is the extra- alveolar portion of the left canine 
of the upper jaw of a very large species. The identification rests upon 
two vertical facets of wear, one on the anterior surface, the other on the 



1887 J 9ffoi$U QiMdrMMm m the SewdKki. 859 

inner and posterior side, and the proof is this. The anterior facet b 
has been caused by the habitual abrasion of the upper canine against 
the rear surface of the lower one, which overlaps it, when the 
jaws are closed or in action. This facet would prove nothing by itself, 
as it is common to all aged animals in the camivora and other tribes 
in which the upper and lower canines have their surfaces in contact. 
The second facet c rnvt/ have been caused by the wear of the inner 
and rear surface of the canine against the outer surface of the first molar 
of the lower jaw. But to admit of such contact, this molar must have 
been contiguous with the lower canine, without any blank space inter- 
vening' ; for if there was not this contiguity the upper canine could 
not touch tU^ lower first molar, and consequently not wear against it. 
Now, this continuity of the series of molars and canines without a 
diasteme or blank interval, is only found, throughout the whole ani- 
mal kingdom*, in man, the Qitadrumana, and the Anoplotherium, The 
fossil canine must therefore have belonged to one of these. It were 
seedless to point out its diflference from the human canine, which does 
not riae above the level of the molars. In all the species of Anoplothe^ 
rttfoi described by Cuvier, the canines, while in a contiguous series with 
the molars, do not project higher than these, being rudimentary as 
in man. Of the Sewdltk species, Anophtherivm po$terogeniutn, (nob.) 
we have not yet seen the canines ; but it is very improbable, and per- 
haps impossible, that the fossil could belong to it. For if this species 
bad a salient canine, it must have been separated from the molars by 
an interval as in the other Paehyiermata ; otherwise the jaws would get 
locked by the canines and molars, and the lateral motion required by 
the structure of the teeth, and its herbivorous habit, would be im- 
practicable ; and if there was this interval, the upper canine could not 
have the posterior facet of wear. The fossil canine must therefore, 
have belonged to a qnadrumanous animal. This inference is farther 
borne out by the detrition of the fossil exactly corresponding with 
that of the canines of old monkeys. 
The diniiensions are : — 

Length of the fragment of canine, 1.75 inches. 

Antero-potterior diameter at the baae, .8 

TVaDBTcne ditto, • • . • • • .7 

Width of the anterior facet of wear, .6 

The two diameters are greater than those of the canine of the Stftna- 
ira Orang-otang described by Dr. Clark a ABSLf as having been 71* 

* Cuvier Ossemena foaall, tome 3, p. 15. 
t Aiiatic Researches, toL 15, p. 498. 
8 a3 



960 Discwery offosdl Quadmmmka im th§ SewHiks. {it At, 

feet high. The Cynocephali have large and stoat camnefi. more ao 
coroparativelv than the other Q^adrwnana, But to what acction of the 
trihe our fossil belonged, we have not a conjecture to offer. We may 
remark, however, that the tooth is not channelled on three sides at the 
base, as in the Eniellus. Does the fossil belong to the same species, as 
the jaw discovered by Messrs. BASkR and Durand. or to a larger one f 
NoTK. We have eketched Dr, Falconbr's highly curious fossil tooth 
in position with the lower jaw of the Sumatran Orang-otang from 
the Society's Museum, in figure C of P). XVIII. There is a third 
facet of wear at the lower extremity d which, on reference, we find 
Dr. Falconbr attributes like c to attrition against the first molar, 
being observable, he says, in many aged animals. The worn surfaces « 
and d are uniformly polished, and have evidently originated from 
attrition against a tooth ; but with regard to the principal facet b, we 
confess we have a degree of scepticism, which can only be removed by 
a certainty that the fossil had been seen extracted from the matrix. 
In the first place, the great extent of the worn surface and its perfect 
flatness could hardly be caused by attrition against the lower canine 
which should produce a curvature measured by the length of the jaw aa 
radius. In the next place, the enamel of the tooth is less worn than 
the interior and softer part of the fossil : and thirdly, on examination 
with a magnifier, numerous scratches are visible iu divers directions : 
all these indicating that the facet may have been produced on tke 
fossil, by grinding it on a file, or some hard flat surface. On shewing 
the fossil to Madhusudana, the medical pandit of the Hindu College, 
he at once pronounced that the tooth had been ground down to be used 
in medicine, being a sovereign specific in the native pharmac<^eia* 
This circumstance need not necessarily affect the question, for it is 
probable that the native druggist would commence his rubbing on the 
natural plane, if any presented itself to hie choice : but Dr. FALcoNaa 
and Capt. Cautlet, to whom we have returned the fossil with a coio-» 
munication of our doubts, assure us in reply that the fossil tooth was 
brought in along with a large collection, so that there is every 
improbability of its having been in possession of a native druggiaU 
At any rate it is not on the front wear that they so much rest their 
argument of its origin, as on the posterior abrasion which could on- 
ly happen in the jaw of a quadrumanous animal. In fact they have 
recent quadi*umana shewing precisely similar wear on a small scale, 
and no other head will do so. We find only one exception in the 
Society's museum, viz. the tapir, whose right upper incisor (or non- 
salient canine) falling between the two lower ones is worn nearly in 
the fashion of the fossU : but it is less elongated. — £o. 



'^a/.jM rossic 

SEWALIK HILLS 



"^n. njoaii. 





T.T, OvjJ^y M. 



lSd7.3 ^ '^*^ **^*^ Genera ofRaptores. S61 

v.— 'On 9ome new Genera of Raptores, with remarks on the old genera. 

By B, H. Hodgson, Esq, 

I have the honor toguhmit, herewith, some original and amended 
generic characters of new forms of Raptores which have been described 
particularly in various numbers of your Journal. Those who are best 
acquainted with the present state of classification in regard to the 
Falconida and Strigidee will, I apprehend, be most ready to make 
allowance for any possible imperfections cleaving to these characters. 

Family Falconiojv. Sub-family Aqitilimji. Genus Niaa^ttis, nob. 

Bill short*, at base as high as broad, distinguished by compressioa 
without feebleness, strongly festooned. Nares large, vertical, elliptic, 
angulated, and wholly lateral in exposure. Wings short, firm ; 5th 
quill longest. Tail long, firm, and square. Tarsi elevate, but not 
feeble, wholly feathered. 

Digits elongated, nervpus; the inner fore and the hind highly 
developed. 

Acropodia reticulate with three or four scales next each talon. 
Talons immense, very unequal, strong and acute. Head usually 
crested. 

Types, N. Pulcher, No. 680 ; N. Nipaleneis, No. 9 ; N. Pallidue 
No. 8 ; N, Grandia, No. 7, nobis. 

Habits, Preys on jungle fowl, partridges, h^res : watches from a 
lofty perch, usually pouncing on its game when near it; sometimes 
pursues with energy on the wing ; flight direct ; does not seize on the 
wing. Habitat, saul forest, Tarai, and lesser hills. Not migratory ; 
size rather large. Connects the most typical hawks with the most 
typical eagles. Digits and talons pre-eminently raptorial. 

FALCONiNiS. Genus Ba$a, nob. 

Bill as in lerasc, but somewhat longer and more compressed before 
the cere. Upper mandible with two long sharp teeth on either side, 
close to each other and to the book, and directed forwards. Lower 
mandible with three or four smaller teeth correspondent to the above. 
Orbits and lores thickly and softly plumed. Nares transverse, rimi- 
form, with the cere behind them membranous and free. Legs and 
feet short and thick. Tarsi half plumed, coarsely reticulate, longer 
than any digit. Toes cleft and depressed : the laterals subequal ; the 
inner longer than the outer ; the hind large. Acropodia wholly 

* Short with reference to the sub'/amily : and so of all the generic terms sub- 
ieqnently eiapleyed } for instaQce, ears small and simplci in reference to scopii, 
as a genoa of the euk^tifpieal ffrQvp of Stri^ida, 



36S On fmn# new Genera of Rt^toree, [Mat, 

scaled. Talons smb-eqnal, acute, wings long, broad-webbed, sub-equal 
to the tail ; 3rd quill longest ; notch of the inner web remoter than 
in Falco or in lerax. Head crested. 

Type, Bazn Syame^, nob. No. 657. HnbUet, lower region of hills : 
size small ; make robust : habits insectivorous. 

Affinities various with Cymndu, Harpagme, Teres and Pemief, Not 
known to Indian falconers. Station in Viooa's arrangement, at tha 
head of the Falconin^e, between Harpague and lerex. 

STaiGiDA, Aberrant group. Sw. 

IXsc and conch evanescent : ears simple. Sub-family of the eagla 
oVls, or A&oglaucina, nob. 

Egrets conspicuous : gn^eat size and strength. Sub-diurnal questing. 
A very strong elongated bill. Eminently raptorial feet, and ample 
gradated wings, equal or nearly so to the medial square tail. 

Genus Huhda, nob. 

Bill equal to the head, basally straightened beyond the cere, 
suddenly hooked, very strong, festooned, with trenchant scarpt tomise. 

Nares ovoid, transverse, partially exposed. Wings sub-equal to the 
tail : 4th and 5th quills sub-equal and longest. Tarsi short, immense- 
ly stout, thickly plumed. Toes very strong, hirsutely plumose, par- 
tially denuded and scaled ; the exterior antagonising but not versa- 
tile. Talons immense, acute, very unequal ; the inner fore conspi- 
cuously largest ; and hind equal to the outer fore. 

Type, Huhiia Nipelensis, nob. No. 64}. Habitat, all three regions 
of the hills. Habits subdiurnal and mammalivorous* 

Genus CultnmguU, nob. 

Bill equal to head, straightened as far as the cere, gradually curved 
beyond it, moderately compressed, strong. Nares elliptic, partially 
exposed. Wings unpectenated, equal to the tail ; 4th quill longest. 
Tarsi sub-elevate, strong, compressed, partially or i^bolly nude* 
reticulate. Toes long, nervous, compressed, reticulate, with three or 
four scales next each talon ; the anterior digits sub-equal ; the hind 
large. Soles of the feet aculeated. Talons sub-equal, compressed, 
strong, cultrated belowf . 

* Syama, in Sanskrit, means black -blue. 

t I should rather siy, affinities with Harpagw and /«rAr. Analogies with 
Cymindia and P«nii«. Our bird is, unquestionably, a Falconine type— which 
Cymindit and Pemu are not. 

X N. B. The numbers refer to the series of specimens and drawings in 

London. 

( Unde nomen genericum : the strong and nearly equal talons are sloped 
from a round back or cuUnen to an inferior edge, which is as sharp as a knifs* and 



1837.] On game new Genera ofRapteree, S68 

Types, C. FUmpee et C. Nigripes, nob. Not. 55 and 56. HMM, 
the lower region of the hills. Habits diurnal and pisciyorous. Size 
large. 

Remarks. In my judgment, HuMa is the equivalent of Aquila, and 
Cuhnmguis of Pandion, among the diurnal Raptoree, which are, no 
doubt, represented by the nocturnal Raptores in nature, though not 
yet in our systems. Those systems wholly want a Strigine sub-family 
answering to the Aquiline. 

The section, therefore, standing at the head of my two genera must 
be understood as resting on no better authority than my own. It is 
probable that the evanescent character of the disc and conch with the 
absence of the operculum, belong to the hawk and falcon owls as well 
as to eagle owls ; and that the contradistinctive marks of the latter 
must be sought, in their great size, their prolonged but strong bill, 
their formidable legs, feet and talons, their ample gradated wings, and 
their medial and even tails. All these marks, not less than the former 
ones, characterise our Huhua and Cultrunguis : whereas our Ninox, 
which is small, and has its bill, wings and tail formed on the 
Falconine model, is yet equally distingushed with Huhda and Cut* 
trtmgmis, by evanescent disc and conch, and perfectly simple small 
ears. Hence my impression of the very great prevalence of the latter 
-characters, which seem to extend over all the aberrant sub-families of 
the Strigida, accompanied by egrets in the eagle owls, but not so in 
the hawk and falcon owls — ^witness Noctua and Ninojt, The presence 
or absence of egrets cannot be taken as sl primary mark of the aberrant 
group ; for to it Huhda and Cultrunguis unquestionably belong, and 
both these types are eg^^etted. Whether the egrets even constitute a 
secondary or sub-family mark of this group, may be doubted : but, at 
present, this would seem to be the case, and in conformity with this 
notion I have inserted egrets as one of the sub-family marks. There 
is no luiting accuracy with precision in generic characters, so long 
as we want family and sub-family characters. How then to charac- 
terise our Ninox ? — a falconine type in its own circle of the Strigidit, 
and as expressly equivalent to the lesser insectivorous falcons, as 
Cultrunguis is to Pandion, When recently defining Ninox I begun 
with, ' biU, disc, conch and feet, as in Noctua,* considering that genus 
-—which is so remarkable in the family for its firm plumage and short 
wings as well as for the absence of those pre-eminently Strigine 

ii emiiisBtly calculated, with the aid of the apiDOus aole of the foot, to clutch 
the bodiea of fish. No analogy can be more bestttifol than that of CfuUrunguis 
fte 



364 On »omenew Gtn^ra ^fHafivru. [Mat* 

characters, the great d»c and opercnlated ears — as a conspicaoas 
type. Yet liardlj three months elapsed when I received from England 
a systematic woik from which Noctua is wholly expunged! NoctuM, 
however, will, 1 think, retain its place, characterised in the aberrant 
group of the owls by short wings and firm plumage, and eading 
throagh Sumim to our A^taox, which I believe to be the least Strigine 
bird on record. Let us now attempt to define it, as a genns belong- 
ing to the aberrant group of the StrigitUe, characterised as before. 

Genus Nimas, nob. 

Bill short, arched from the base. Nares round, anteal, apert, 
tumid. General contour with the character of the plumage, extremely 
Falconine. Wings long, firm, unpectenated, sub-equal to the tail; 
8rd quill longest; 1st and 2nd very moderately gradated. Tail long» 
£rw, even. Tarsi plumose, rather short. Toes medial, depressed, 
bordered, rigidly hirsute ; laterals equal, hind compressed. Head 
smooth, small, and only Strigine in the size and position of the eye. 

Type, Ninos Nipulensis, nob. No. 657 

Habitat, central and lower hills. Habits, iubdinmal and iuseciivor- 

ous. 

Mr. Swain SON nppears to have laid undue stress on the egreta of 
the owls, which seem to me but little more influential than the 
analogous crests of the FalconicUe, and more especially of the Aquiluuc. 
Disc and conch evanescent, and ears simple, are the marks of the 
aberrant group, taken as a whole. Egrets, added to great size, ample 
gradated wings, and a medial even tail, with powerful legs and feet 
and talons, seem to me the subordinate signs of the Aetoglmtcuut or 
aquiline iub-family of that group. Of the Falcoglaucinte or sub-^family 
typifying the Falconing, the first glimpse appears to be afforded by our 
I^inojt, which has quite the proportions and aspect of many of the 
lesser insectivorous Falcons. Long and firm wings and taU — the 
latter even ; and the former but slightly gradated ; and both, in a 
word, adapted, for strong flight — would seem to be necessary characters 
of this sub -family, and they are, at all events, characters eminently 
conspicuous in our Ninojt, Between the wings of Ninos and those of 
Struf or Otus there is just the same sort of difference as exists betweto 
the wings of Falco and those of Buteo, or of Milvus — I mean aa to 
suitableness for vigorous flight, and expressly without special reference 
to the technical form of the wing. 

The following comparative measurements of Baza, a small insecti- 
vorous Falcon, and of Ninox, a small insectivorous Falconine owl, can 
scarcely fail to excite interest. The measures are given . in English 
feet and inches. 



••• 



••• 
• •• 



Bora. 


JVtMk. 


10* 


10* 


OOj 


ooi 


oj 


oj 


OOJI 


oof 


oii 


It 


6 


« 


li 


1* 


1* 


If, 


0{J 


0}t 


leM,'} 


0{| 


0', 


0) 


oo.». 


OOJI 


0.', 


OO", 


OCA 


OOIJ 


0.% 


0,', 


««* 


84* 


»^ 


o»4 


0,% 


oov. 


oo^\ 


oo,\ 



1 837.] On wme new Qtnerm of Raptore$, 8(|$ 

Total lengthy 

Lengib of bill, itraight, to gspo, 

Basal height of bill, extroma. 

Basal width of bill, oztFeme, 

Head Btraight, from giqpe to ocdput. 

Length of tail, ••• ••• ••• •• 

Tarsus, from inner salient angle aboTO, to the sole. 

Length of central digit, from extreme base to supe- ^ 
rior insertion of the talon, ... ... .../ 

Length of exterior digit, 

Length of interior digit. 

Length of hind digit, 

Straight length of central talon, 

Ditto ditto exterior ditto, 

Ditto ditto interior ditto, 

Ditto ditto hind ditto, 

Expanse of wingn, 

Length of a dosed wing. 

Longer diameter of opening ef ear, 

Diaineter of the eye, 

Weight of the birds, ... ... ... ... 7^ oz. 7^08. 

To render thia singular parallelisin complete, I may add, that both 
birds are mature males of their respective species ; that the females are 
scarcely larger and not at all different in aspect ; that both are emi* 
nently conspicuous for the intessorial character of their feet, the digits 
of which are cleft to their origins, the soles quite flat and somewhat 
bordered; the anterior laterals of equal strength and «»e, and the 
central of the same thickness, and of very moderate excess of length. 
Wings and tail could not, in a Strigine bird, be more Faloonine than 
those of NtiUMP ,• and hence these organs are almost precisely similar, 
both in form and proportion, to the same organs in Baza^ which, 
though a Falconine bird, deviates widely from the restricted or generic 
type*. Upon the whole, the only material differences of these birds 
are the inferior strength of the thumb with its talon, and the superior 
size of the eye, in Ninox — ^both differences eminently interesting, in as 
much as none are more universally and distinctly referable to the 
respective habits and exigencies of the two families of the nocturnal 
and diurnal Raptoree. 

* Peregrimtif leeUmdieui, &c. I exclude 7^'mitific«/it#, &o.| under the separate 
sab-generie title of Faicuia, 
3 B 



Ms On 9ime new Oenem ^ Strata. [Mat, 

Mr. SwAiKftON, in treating of the FalconitUt and Strigiim, haa aeen 
perpetual reaaon to deplore the errors of systematic works. 

In truth, it is hardly too much to say that the majority of recorded 
species are no species at all ; and the majority of recorded genen 
insufficient or inaccurate. 

The old species, described by color only, and when classifieation 
was in its infancy, cannot now be really appreciated except by personal 
examination. Nor can any words of condemnation be too strong for 
the moderh practice of inserting these species, without such examina- 
tion, under the strict subdivisions elaborated by recent science. 

Such insertion must be made haphazard, and nothing is more 
common than to find one species registered in half a dozen genera, 
none of which suit it, or, if so, only by accident ! For systematic 
writers now to rely on dried skins, is sufficiently objectionable : but 
their reliance on the old book descriptions is perfectly monstrous. 

Mr. SwAiNsoN-— c/oriffli et venerakUe nomen — has acknowledged with 
unusual explicitnesa that the examination of /re$h subjeets is, very 
generally, an indispensable condition of accuracy, and that, for all 
the higher purposes of science, an acquaintance with habits, as well 
as with structure, is required. "Will it, then, be credited that, with 
almost all our recorded species calling for revision, and with our 
classification labouring, in vain, to advance per rudcm indigestamque 
molem specierum, there is no sense on the part of Zoological associa- 
tions at home of the necessity of any thing more than the coUectioa 
of dried skins ? 

Such, however, is the fact ; upon which I forbear, at present, from 
any comments, returning gladly to Mr. Swainson — ^whom any one 
would be proud to assist, if able ; and, as I have some little practical 
experience of raptorial birds, and of the value of the generic charac- 
ters assigned to them in books, I shall indicate what I conceive to 
be the diagnostics of some received genera. 

Aquilinji. Genus Pandion, 

Bill and head compressed. Gape narrow. Bill moderate, extremely 
rounded on the ridge, highly festooned ; tomiae scarpt and very 
trenchant. Brow not salient. Lores and cere almost nude. Narea 
rimiform, subtransverse, with the cere behind them membranous 
and free. Legs and feet spiculated, strong, compressed, node, and 
reticulate. Toes nervous, cleft ; the outer versatile with oblique grasp ; 
the hind, very mobile. Talons highly falcated, nearly equal, compress- 
ed, rounded below. Wings exceedingly long, surpassing the tail ; 3rd 
quill longest. Instances, P. Vulgaris, P. Indkns, nob. No* 715, 



I8t7.] t^ MflK nem (Smtra of R^frtt. d67 

Hauabtus. Sttb-genuA of PmuMtm ? 

Contradistiiigiushed by. a long bill, much more compretsed on tba 
ridge ; by shorter, rounder wings, never eurpaaaing and teldom equal- 
ing the tail, and which have the 4th and 5th qoills aab-eqoal andlong^ 
est ; by wide, transTerse nares of irregular form ; by scaled tarsi and 
toes, in which moreover the spinous acnlcation of PoMdion is less de- 
Teloped, and tiie exterior and hind toes are less mobile ; and, lastly, 
by talons less compressed and less rounded bdow^-sometimes squar- 
ed* 

Types. Hdmtui Ickikyttlui Hors/ieidii, Pbtmbens et AUnpea, iu>b. 
Nos. 10 and 8. 

The bill of HaiuBiui is always longer and sharper on the culmen 
than in PomHon ; but in some species, its cutting edge is as highly 
festooned as in PoadSeii ; in others, it is as level as in Aquila : in some 
again the wings are considerably shorter than the tail ; in others, 
equal to it. 

Instances of the former peculiarities, lehthf^tut ei PhtmbeuB ; of the 
latter, AUnpes, Haliatus is further distinguished from PtnuUim by a 
nude salient brow: but both genera are alike remarkable for the 
compression of the bill and head, as compared with Aqmila, and also 
lor the smallness of the gape. 

The very long unfestooned bill of Aibipn is accompanied by a wider 
gApe, by wings equal to the -tail, by great size, and by talons per/wilf 
squared below. 

If lehikffeiuB, then, be the type of ^aiibe/tf#— and no doubt it is— - 
4hen AUijpm is a separate t3rpe bearing the same relation to Aquila, as 
lekikyatus to Pandton, and connecting Aquila, through Haliatus, with 
Pandion. This type I have provisionally named Cuncuma, from its 
native name. It is a fisher, but not exclusively so ; and is remarkable, 
like the bird of Wiuhington, for its theftuous propensities*. 

Pandum is the king of fishers, and a more beautiful instance of tho 
adaptation of structure to habits than this genus exhibits, is not to be 
found in the whole circle of ornithology. The rimifonn nares may be 

* I make no allnsion to birds whi