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/s-J 



JOURNAL 



OF THB 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 



ov 



BSHOAXi. 



BDITBD BT 



THE SECRETARY. 



VOL. XIV. 

PART I,— JANUARY TO JUNE, 1845. 

Nos. 157 to 162. 

NEW SERIES. 




"Itvillfloorlih* ifnatturaliiU, chemists, antiquaries, philologers, and men of science, in diflferent 
parts of Asia will commit their obserrationa to writing, and send them to the Asiatic Society, 
in Calcutta ; it will languish if such communications shall belong intermitted ; and will die away 
if Uiey shall entirely cease."— Sib Wm. Jonxs. 



CALCUTTA: 
BISHOP'S COLLEGE PRESS. 



1845. 



• ♦ 



coittent«^ 



PART I. 



No. 157. 



Pag€, 



!•— Mr. Ivory's Tables of Mean Astronomical refractions, revised and augmented 
by Major J. T. Boileau, B.B. Superintendent Magnetic Observatory, 
dimia* •••• >••• •••• •••• •••• •••• A 

II.— Ab Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India; being the Storms 
in the Bay of Bengal and Southern Indian Ocean, from 26th November to 
2d December, 1843. By Henry Piddington; with a Chart. ...• 10 

llI.~ProceediDgs of the Asiatic Society for the month of January, 1845 i 

No. 158. 

L— Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, a History of Sindh. By Lieutenant 

Postans.— -^Conltntm;^.^ .••• •••• •.•• •••• •••• 75 

II.— V^d&nta-Sara, or Essence of the Y^d&nta, an introduction to the V^d&nta 
Philosophy, by Sad^nanda Parivrlyak&ch&rya, translated from the original 
Sanscrit By £. Roer, Librarian to the Asiatic Society of Bengal. ••.• 100 

III.— Note of the course of study pursued by Students in the Sanskrit College, 

Calcutta. By W. Seton Karr, Esq., B.C S •••• •*•• 135 

IV. — Memorandum on the Ancient bed of the River Soane and Site of Pali- 

bothra. By E. C. Ravenshaw. Esq., B.C.S., with a Coloured Map 137 

y. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of February, 1845. .... xvii 

VI. — Officers and Members of the Asiatic Society for 1845. • • • • .... xxxi 

VII. — List of Members. •••• .••• .... ***- .... zxxiii 

No. 159. 

I.— Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, a History of Sindh. By Lieutenant 

Postans. — (Concluded* J •• •• •. •• •• 155 

II.— Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known species of Birds. 

By Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. • • . • 173 

III.— Observations on the rate of Evaporation on the Open Sea ; with a descrip- 
tion of an Instrument used for indicating its amount. By T. W. Laidley, 
Esq. •» •• •• •• •» •• ••»• 213 



iv Contents. 



Page. 



lY.— On the AJpine Glacier, Iceberg, Diluvial and Wave Translation Theo- 
ries; with reference to the deposits of Southern India, its furrowed and 
striated Rocks, and Rock basins. By Captain Newbold, M.N.I., F.R.S, 
Assistant Commissioner Kurnool, Madras Territory. With a plate. •# 217 

y.~ Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of March, 1845. . • xzzi 



No. 160. 

I. — Description of Caprolagus, a new Genus of Leporine Mammalia. By Ed* 

Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. With two plates. •• 247 

II. — Report, by Lieut. E. J. T. Dalton, B.N.I., Junior Assistant, Commis- 
sioner of Assam, of his visit to the Hills in the neighbourhood of the 
Soobanshiri River. From the Political Secretariat of the Government of 
India. With a map. .. •• .. .. .. .. 250 

HI. — Notes, principally Geological, on the South Mahratta country—Falls of 
Gokauk* Classification of Rocks. By Captain Kewbold, F.R.S. &c., As- 
sistant Commissioner Kurnool. . • • • . • • • • • 268 

IV. — An Account of the early Ghilj&ees. By Major R. Leech, C.B., late 
Political Agent, Tor&n Ghilj&ees at K&l&t-i-Ghilj&ee. From the Political 
Secretariat of the Government of India* •• •* •• .. 306 



No. 161. 

I. <— Report, &c* from Captain G. B. Tremenheere, Executive Engineer, Tenas- 
serim Division, to the Officer in charge of the office of Superintending En- 
gineer, South Eastern Provinces ; with information concerning the price of 
Tin ore of Mergui, in reference to Extract from a Despatch from the Ho- 
norable Court of Directors, dated 25th October 1848, No. 20. Communi- 
cated by the Government of India. .. .. •• •• .. 329 

II. — A Supplementary Account of the Hazarahs. By Major R. Leech, C.B., 

Late Political Agent, Candahar. •• •• .. •• .. 333 

III.— Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar and the Neighbouring Districts. 
By Capt Thos. Hutton, of the Invalids, Mussoorie. With notes by Ed. 
Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. C Continued* J .. 340 

IV.— On the Course of the River Nerbudda. By Lieut-Colonel Ouseley, 
Agent G.G., S. W. Frontier. With a coloured Map of the River from 
Hoshungabad to Jubbulpoor. • • . . • . . . . . 354 

v.— A Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India; being the Storms of 
the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal, 9th to 14th November, 1844. By 
Henry Piddington. .• .. •• .. .. .. «, 357 

VI.— Some account of the Hill Tribes in the interior of the District of Chitta* 
gong, in a letter to the Secretary of the Asiatic Society. By the' Rev. M. 
Barbe, Missionary. .. .. •• .. •• .. .. 380 

VII.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for the month of May, 1845. .. xxxix 



Contents. 



No. 162. 



Pag«. 



1.— Notes on the Religion of the Sikhf, being t Notice of their Prayers, Holi- 
days, and Shrines. By Major R. Leech, C.B., Political Agent, N.W.P. 
From the Political Secretariat of the GoTemment of India. • • . • 393 

II.— Notes, principally Geological, across the Peninsula of Southern India, from 
Kistapatam, Lat* 14** 17' at the Embouchure of the Coileyroo River, on the 
Eastern Coast to Honawer, Lat. 14^ 16' on the Western Coast, comprising 
a visit to the Falls of Gairsuppa. By Captain Newbold, P.R.8., M.N.I. 
Assistant Commissioner Kurnool, Madras Territory. •• •• •• 396 

III.— On the Meris and Abors of Assam. By Lieut. J. T. E. Dalton, Assistant 
Commissioner, Assam. In a letter to Major Jenkins. Communicated by 
the Government of India. •• •• •• •• .. .. 426 

IV.— Notice of some Unpublished Coins of the Indo- Scythians. By Lieut. 

Alexander Cunningham, Engineers. •• .. .. .. •• 430 

v.— On Kunker formations, with Specimens. By Captain J. Abbott, B.A. •• 442 

VI.— An account of the Early Abdalees. By Major R. Leech, C.B. Late 

Political Agent, Candahar. •• .. .. •• .. .. 4J5 

VU.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for the month of June, 1845. Iv 

/ 



9Fn2»^x 



TO PART I. VOL. XIV. 



AstroDomical refractions, Mr. Ivory's 
Tables of mean-— revised and aug- 
mented. By Major J. T. Buileau, 1 

Ancient bed of the River Soane and 
Site of Palibothra— Memorandum 
on the. By £. C. Kavenshaw, Esq. 137 

Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, Diluvial 
and Wave Translation Theories; 
On the— with reference to the depo- 
sits of Southern India, its furrowed 
and striated Kocks, and Uock 
basins. By Captain Newbold, •.217 

Account of the early Ghiljaees. By 
Major R. Leech, 306 

Course of study pursued by Students 
in the Sanscrit College, Calcutta ; 
Note of the. By W. Seton Karr, 135 

Caprolagus, a new Genus of Leporine 
Mammalia; Description of. By 
£. Blyth, 247 

Candaharand the Neighbouring Dis- 
tricts ; Rough Notes on the Zoolo- 
Sr of. By Capt. Thos. Button, of 
e Invalids, Mussoorie. With 
notes by Ed. Blyth, . . . . 340 

Course of the River Nerbudda; On 
the. By Lieut. Col. Ouseley, .. 354 

Evaporation on the Open Sea; Ob- 
servations on the rate of— with a 
description of an Instrument used 
for indicating its amount. By T. 
W. Laidlay, Esq. 213 

Early Abdalees ; An account of the. 
By Major R. Leech, . • . . 445 

History of Sindh. Translation of the 
Toofut ul Kiram. By Lieutenant 
Postans, .. .. 75-155 

Hills in the neighbourhood of the 
Soobanshiri River; Report of his 
visit to the. By Lt. E. J. T. Dalton, 250 

Hazarahs, A supplementary Account 
of the. By Major R. Leech, .. 333 

Hill tribe in the interior of the Dis- 
trict of Chittagong ; Some account 
of the. By Rev. M. barbe, .. 380 



442 



lO 



Pags^» 

Kunker formations, with Specimens 
By Capt. J. Abbott, 

Law of Storms in India: An Eleventh 
Memoir on the. Being the Storms 
in the Bay of Bengal and Southern 
Indian Ocean, from 26th Novem- 
ber to 2nd December 1843. By 
Henry Piddington, .. •• 

Law of Storms in India; A Twelfth 
Memoir on the. Being the Storms 
of the Andaman Sea and Bay of 
Bengal, from 9th to i4th Novem- 
ber, 1844. By Henry Piddington, 357 

List of Members, xxxiit 

Meris and Abors of Assam ; On the. 
By Lieut. J. T. £. Dalton, .. 426 

Mergui Tin- ore ; Report, &c. from 
Captain G. B. Tremenheere, . • 329 

New or Little Known species of 
Birds ; Notices and Descriptions of 
various. By Ed. Blyth, .. .. 173 

Officers and Members of the Asiatic 
Society for 1845, xxxi 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society 
for 1845, . . i-xvii-xxxi-xxxix-lv 

Peninsula of Southern India, from 
Kistapatam ; Notes, principally 
Geological, across the. By Capt. 
Newbold, 39S 

Religion of the Sikhs, being a No- 
tice of their Prayers, Holidays, 
and Shiines ; Notes on the. By 
Major R. Leech, 393 

South Mahratta country— Falls of 
Gokauk— Classification of Rocks. 
Notes, principally Geological, on 
the. By Captain Newbold, 

Unpublished Coins of the Indo- 
Scythians ; Notice |^ some. By 
Lieut. Alex. Cunningham, 

Vedinta Sara, or Essence of the V^- 
danta, an introduction to the Ye- 
danta Philosophy by Sadlnanda 
Parivrltjak&charya, translated from 
the original Sanscrit. By E. Roer, 100 



268 



430 



INDEX TO NAMES OF CONTRIBUTORS 



TO FABT I. VOL. XIV. 



Page. 

Abbott, Capi. J. On Kunker forma- 
tions, with Specimens, • • .. 442 

BoiLBAU, Major J. T., Mr. Ivory's 
Tables of mean Astronomical re- 
fractions, revised and augmented, 1 

Bltth, Bd. Notices and Descrip- 
tions of various New or Little 
known species of Birds, •• •• 17S 

''—' Description of Caprola- 

sus, a new Genus of Leporine 
Mammalia, 247 

Barbb, Rev. M. Some account of 
the Uiil Tribes in the interrior of 
the District of Ghittagong, .. 380 

CoHMiNGBAif, Lieut. Alex. Notice 
of some Unpublished Coins of the 
Indo-Scythians, 430 

Dalton, Lieut. £. J. T. Report of 
his visit to the Hills in the neigh- 
boorhood of the Soobanshiri Ri- 
ver, 250 

On the 

Meris and Abors of Assam, .. 426 

Hdtton, Capt. ThoB. Rough Notes 
on the Zoology of Candahar and 
the Neighbouring Districts, of the 
Invalids, Mussoorie. With notes 
byEo. Blttu, 340 

Laidlbt, T. W. Esq. Observations 
on the rate of Evaporation on the 
Open Sea; with a description of an 
Instrument used for indicating its 
amount, 213 

Lbbch, Major. R. An Account of 
the early Ghilj&ees, .. ..306 

• A Supplementary 

Account of the Hasarahs, . . • . 333 
Notes on the Reli' 



gion of the Sikhs, beine a Notice 
of their Prayers, Holidays, and 

Shrines, 393 

— An account of the 

Early Abdalees, . . • • . . 445 



Page, 
Nbwbold, Capt. On the Alpine 
Glacier, Iceberg, Diluvial and 
Wave Translation Theories : with 
reference to the deposits of South- 
ern India, its furrowed and striated 
Rocks, and Rock basins, . . • . 217 

— — Notes, principally 

Geological, on the South Mahratta 
country^ Falls of Gokauk— Classi- 
fication of Rocks, 268 

Notes, principally 



Geological, across the Peninsula 
of Southern India, from Kistapa- 
tam, 398 

OusBLBT, Lieut* Colonel, On the 
Course of the River Nerbudda,.. 354 

Piddinoton, H. Eleventh Me- 
moir on the Law of Storms in 
India, being the Storms in the Bay 
of Bensal and Southern Indian 
Ocean, from 26th November to 2d 
December, 1843, 10 

. Twelfth 

Memoir on the Law of Storms in 
India; being the Storms of the 
Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal, 
9th to 14th November, 1844, .. 357 

PosTANs, Lieut. Translations of 
the Toofut ul Kiram, a History of 
Sindh,t. .. .. .. 75-155 

RoBB, E. V^d&nta-Sara, or Essence 
of the V^d&nta, an introduction to 
the Vid&nta Philosophy by Sad£- 
nanda, Parivr^ak&cn&rya, trans- 
lated from the original Sanscrit, • • 100 

Ravbnshaw, E. Cf. Esq., Memo- 
randum on the Ancient bed of the 
River Soane and Site of Palibothra, 137 

Sbton Karb, W. Esq. B.C.S. 
Note of the course of study pursu- 
ed by Students in the Sanscrit 
College, Calcutta, • • . . . . 135 

Tbbmbnhbbkb, Capt. G.B. Re- 
port, &c., 329 



JOURNAL 



OP THB 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 



Mr, Ivory's Tables of mean Astronomical refractions, revised and 
augmented by Major J. T. Boilbau B. £. Superintending Mag- 
netic Observatory Simla* 

The first of these Tables was published in the Philosophical Tran. 
sactions of the Royal Society for 1823, pp. 49 1> et seq: and a second 
paper and Table by the same author, appeared in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1838. The mean refractions for Zenith distances 
under 83^ correspond exactly in both the above Tables, but the re- 
fractions differ for Zenith distances between 83® and the horizon. 

In Table I. of the original (of 1838) the mean refractions are given 
for each degree only as far as Z. D. 70^ inclusive, and thence for 
every 10' to the horizon. In the accompanying Tables intermediate 
numbers have been obtained by interpolation to differences of the 
third and second order^ and they have been so arranged that the 
tabular refractions for that part of the Table of most practical utility 
shall vary only between one and two seconds. 

The numbers in the original Table for the last degree of Zenith 
distance^ however, were found to give such irregular differences that 
the whole of the intermediate numbers between the limits of 89^ and 
90® have been obtained by differences to the third order, from the 
mean refraction for 89^ i. e. 24' 26."8, and the horizontal refraction 
34' 32." And although the alterations which this arrangement has 

No. 157, No. 73, Nsw Sbribs. b 



n 



2 



Mr, Ivory's Tables of mean 



[No. 167. 



introduced are of no practical importance/ the following detail of the 
interpolations is inserted here as a guarantee for the course which has 
been adopted. 

TABLE L Interpolations between num' TABLE IL Interpolations between Ta- 
hers as m the Original Table of 1838. bular refractions for Z, D, SB** is Z. D.^^P 



Zen, 
dist. 



o 
89.00 

05 

10 

15 

20 

f5 

SO 

S5 

iO 

4d 

00 

55 

60.00 




24:16.80 

25 : 00.97 
» ... 
S5: 46.80 

26:29.46 
» ... 
27 : li.20 

28 : 00.86 

* ... 
«8: 49.50 

29:m!24 

* ... 
30:SS.S0 

SI : 28.12 

* ... 

32:t5.10 



SS: 26.30 
* ... 
S4: 82.00 



80 



••• 

• •• 

• •• 



87.40 



• •• 
••• 
••• 



95.30 



••• 



10S.70 



••• 

••• 



111.90 



••• 



K6.90 




The numbers to winch asterisks are affixed^ are those of the original 
Table. 

With a view to facilitate the computation of numbers still interme- 
diate between those in the present Table, Log. differences correspond, 
ing to one minute of altitude and to one second of refraction, have been 
given in separate columns. 

The Tables (II and III of 1838) containing the Log eo.efficient for 
Barometric pressure and for temperature, have been extended by con* 
tinuing the application of the tabular differences to the limits of prac- 
tical utility, and the co«efficients of the correction for altitudes under 
10^ have been taken from their respective columns in the original Ta- 
ble L and extended by interpolation as above. 

The following examples, will explain the use of the Tables. 

Let P* denote the height of the Barometer. 
„ T. „ the temperature, Fahrenheit. 
„ T. „ the Zenith distance of the object. 



Wi5.J Astronomical refractions. 3 

Then as far as 80" of Zenith distance the log mean refraction is 
equal to Log. P. From Table r. 

+ Log. T. From Tablr ii. 
+ Log. Z. From Tablb hi, 
and to the refraction so found, must be applied the following correc 
tions when the Zenith distance exceeds SO"* vizt. 

-~ T. (T. — 50".) 
— b. (30 in.— p.) 
The values of T. and b. will be found in Tjiblb iv. 
Example L The observed Zenith distance of Capella being 
80", 24', 09."4. 

The height of the Barometer 29.73 and the Temperature 47."75. 
Fahrenheit required the refraction ? 

Log. P. 29.73 Table, i 9.99607 

Log. T. 47.75 Table, 11 0.00214 

Log. Z. 88** : 20' : 00 Table, in 3.08087 

Propl. part for 04' : 09".4 = 04'. 157 840 



^ 



Nearest Tabular refraction, . . . . 20' : 04".68 8.08748 

Log. diff. 661 -?- 36 or Tab. diff. for 1".= + 18.37 
T. (T.— 50*>) (Table iv.)= — .92+— 2.«25= + 2 32 
b. (30 in. p.) (Table iv.)= —167 +,+.27— — 0.45 

Mean refraction, 20':24".92 

Example II. From the appendix to the Greenwich Transactions 

for 1836. 
To find the refraction for Zenith distance 83". 22', the Barometer 

reading being 29.63 and Thermometer 58". 1. 

Log. P. 29.63 Table, I. 9.99461 

Log- T. 58."1 Table, 11. 9 99239 

Log. Z. 83" 20' Table, in. 2.66759 

Propl. part for 02' , 190 

Nearest Tabular refraction, . . .. Ti 30".2 1 2S564 1 



4 Mr. Ivory's Table$ offMan^ Sfc, QNo. 157. 

Log. diff. 308. H- 94 or Tab. diff. for 1." =, + 03.28 
T. (T.— 50') Table iv,=, -.08 X, + 8. 1 =,—00.65 
b. (30 in. p.) „ — .14 X, + .37=, —00,05 

Mean refraction by the Ubles, • • f: 32/79 

Ditto ditto by P. Bessel's Tables, ap. ) «?' qi ''Ti 
pendix, Qr. Tr. 1836, . . • . f ' ' "^^^ '^ 

Refraction by Ivory's Tables, .. •• + 1"08 

When the altitude of the body is observed it is advisable to convert 

it into Zenith distance by subtraction from 90% the proportional parts 

of the Logs, being then additive. 

Example III, The altitude of the sun's lower limb was observed 

45": 15': 42''5, the Barometer standing at 23.33, and the Thermometer 

at 47*2 Fahrt. required the refraction. 

(90^ — 45^ 15.' 42".5) = 44^: 44': 17".5. = Z." 

Log. P. 23.33 Table i. 9.89079 

Log. T. 47^2 Table II 0.00266 

Log. Z. 44«:30' Table in 1.75855 

Prop, part for 14'.292 do. 357 

Nearest Tabular number, .. .. 0': 44."80 1.65557 



/' 



Log. diff. 43 -5- 96^ or Tab. diff, for 1"= + 0.45 

Mean refraction, 0' : 45."25 

The following' errata in the Original Table (PhiK Trans, for 1838) 
have been corrected. 

Mean Refraction for Z. D. 89"": 50' printed 32': 1 5". 10 should be 32':25". 1 
Log. diff. Z.D. 89^:00' and 89^• 10' .. .. 2316 .. .. 2306 

86^:40' and 86^:50' .. •. 1627 .. .. 1527 
85'':40' and 85^-50' .. .. 1312 .. .. 1808 
83*':00'and83*':10' .... 833 .• .. 933 

H.E.IC. Magnetic Observatory, Simla, December, 1842. 



(Tablb I.) Ivory's mean Attronomicai Re/ractiont. (Table II.) 61 



Pabrbmhbits Thbrmombtbr. 



a 



10 

n 

12 

13 

14 

15 

16 

17 

18 

19 

20 

21 

22 

23 

24 

25 

26 

27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 

34 

35 

36 

37 

38 

39 

40 

41 

42 

43 

44 

45 

46 

47 

48 

49 

50 

51 

52 

53 

54 

50 

56 

57 

58 

59 

60 

61 

62 

63 

64 

65 

66 

67 

98 

69 

70 



Log. 
arithm. 



0.03952 

0.03849 

0.03746 

0.03644 

0.03542 

0.03440 

0.03338 

0.03237 

0.03136 

0.03034 

0.02933 

0.02832 

0.02730 

04)2630 

0.02531 

0.02432 

0.02332 

0.02232 

O.U2ia3 

0.02034 

0.01935 

0.01837 

0.01738 

0.01640 

0.01541 

0.01444 

0.01346 

0.01248 

0.U1I51 

001063 

O.U0957 

0.00861 

0.00764 

0.00668 

0.00572 

0.00476 

0.00380 

0.00285 

0.00190 

O.O0094 

0.00000 

9.99906 

9.99611 

9.99717 

9.996*23 

9.99529 

9.99434 

9.99341 

9 99248 

9.99154 

9.99061 

9.98969 

9.98875 

998783 

9.98690 

9.98598 

9.9B506 

9.96414 

9.96323 

9.98231 

9.98140 



^1 



103 

103 

102 

102 

102 

102 

101 

101 

102 

101 

101 

101 

100 

100 

99 

100 

100 

99 

99 

99 

98 

99 

98 

99 

97 

98 

98 

97 

98 

96 

96 

97 

96 

96 

96 

96 

95 

95 

96 

94 

94 

95 

94 

94 

94 

95 

93 

93 

94 

93 

92 

94 

92 

93 

92 

92 

92 

91 

92 

91 



a 

o 
H 



70 

71 

72 

73 

74 

75 

76 

77 

78 

79 

80 

81 

82 

83 

84 

85 

86 

87 

88 

89 

90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

no 

111 
112 
113 
114 
115 
116 
117 
118 
119 
120 
121 
122 
123 
124 
125 
126 
127 
128 
129 
130 



Log. 
aritlmi* 



9.98240 
9.98049 
9.97958 
9.97867 
9.97777 
9.97686 
9.9759t> 
9.97509 
9.97416 
9.97326 
9.97237 
9.97148 
9 97058 
9.96969 
9.96880 
9.96791 
9 96703 
9.96615 
996527 
9.96440 
9.96352 
9.96265 
9.96177 
9.96089 
9.96002 
9.95914 
9-95827 
9.95740 
9-95953 
9.95567 
9.95480 
9.95394 
9 95307 
9.95220 
9.95135 
9.95U50 
9.94965 
9.94880 
9.94794 
9.94709 
9.94625 
9.94540 
9.94455 
9.94371 
9.94287 
9.94203 
9.94119 
9.94035 
9.93951 
9.93868 
9.93785 
9.93701 
9.93618 
9.93535 
9.93452 
9.93370 
9 93288 
9 93205 
9.93120 
9.93041 
9.92958 



IM tCr 



91 

91 

91 

90 

91 

90 

90 

90 

90 

8 

8 

90 

89 

89 

89 

88 

88 

88 

87 

88 

87 

88 

88 

87 

88 

87 

87 

87 

86 

87 

86 

87 

86 

86 

85 

85 

85 

86 

85 

84 

85 

85 

84 

84 

84 

84 

84 

84 

83 

83 

84 

83 

83 

83 

82 

82 

82 

82 

82 

83 



fiAROMBTBR. 



«1 
M 

*5 

X 

Ins. 

32.0 

31.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

31.0 

30.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

30.0 

29.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

29.0 

28.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

28.0 

27.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

27.0 

26.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

..3 

.2 

.1 

26.0 



Log. 
arithm. 



0.02803 
0.02667 
0.02531 
0.02394 
02257 
002119 
0.01981 
0.01842 
0.01703 
0.01564 
0.01424 
0.01284 
0.01143 
0.01002 
0.00860 
0.00718 
0.00575 
0.00432 
0.00289 
0.00145 
0.00000 
9.99855 
9.99709 
9.99563 
9.99417 
9.99270 
999123 
9.98975 
9.98826 
9.98677 
9.98628 
9.98378 
9.98227 
9.98076 
9.97924 
9.97772 
997620 
9.97467 
9.97313 
9.97159 
9 97004 
9.96848 
9.9:>692 
9.96536 
9.96379 
9.96221 
9.96063 
995904 
995745 
9.95585 
9.95424 
9.95263 
9.95101 
9.94939 
9.94776 
9.94612 
9.94448 
9.94283 
994118 
9.93952 
9.93785 



3.2 



36 
36 
37 
37 
38 
38 
39 
39 
39 
40 
40 
41 
41 
42 
42 
43 
43 
44 
44 
45 
45 
46 
46 
46 
47 
47 
ifi 
49 
49 
249 
50 
51 
51 
52 
52 
52 
53 
54 
54 
55 
56 
56 
56 
57 
58 
58 
59 
59 
60 
61 
61 
62 
62 
63 
63 
64 
64 
65 
66 
67 



,60 
'S 



Ins. 

26.0 

25.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

250 

24.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

24.0 

23.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

23.0 

22.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

22.0 

219 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

21.0 

20.9 

.8 

.7 

.6 

.5 

.4 

.3 

.2 

.1 

20.0 



Log. 
arithm* 



993785 

993618 

993450 

993281 

9 93112 

9 92942 

9.92771 

9.92600 

9.92428 

9 92255 

9.92082 

9.91908 

9.91733 

9.91558 

9.91381 

9.91204 

9.91037 

9.9U849 

9.90669 

9.90489 

990308 

9.90127 

9 89946 

9.89763 

9.89579 

9.89395 

9.89209 

9.89U-23 

9.88837 

9.88649 

9.88460 

9.88271 

9.88U81 

9.87890 

9.81699 

987506 

987313 

9 87118 

9 86923 

9 86727 

986530 

9.86332 

9.86134 

9.859.34 

9.85733 

9.85532 

9.85329 

9.85126 

984921 

9 84716 

9.84510 

9.84303 

9.84094 

9.83885 

9.83675 

9.83463 

9.83251 

9.83037 

982883 

9.82607 

9.82391 



<5j 



67 

68 

69 

69 

70 

71 

71 

72 

73 

78 

74 

75 

75 

76 

76 

77 

78 

80 

80 

81 

81 

81 

83 

84 

84 

86 

86 

86 

88 

89 

89 

90 

91 

91 

93 

93 

95 

96 

97 

97 

98 

98 

200 

201 

201 

203 

203 

205 

205 

206 

207 

209 

209 

310 

212 

212 

214 

214 

216 

216 



6 


Ivory's mean Astronomical Refractions, (Tabls III.) 


Alt. 


Zen* 
diet. 


Mean 

Kefrac- 

tion. 


Log. 
Z. 


Log. 


diff. for 


Alt. 


Zen. 
dist. 


Mean. 
Refrac- 


'^- 


Log 


• diff. for 


1' of 


l"of 


Toi 


, 1" of 


o / 


o / 




ZD. 


Refn. 


o / 


/ 


tion. 




ZD. 


Refn. 


/ tr 






/ // 






90.00 


00.00 


00.00.00 


0.0000 






46.00 


44,00 


00.56.35 


1.75100 






89 


01 


01.02 


0.0085 






45.30 


44.30 


57.85 


1.75855 


25 


756 


88 


02 


02.04 


0.3097 


50 


2953 


45 


45 


58.36 


1.76611 


25 


741 


87 


03 


03.06 


4860 


29 


1728 


44.30 


45.30 


59.39 


1.77367 


25 


734 


86 


04 


04.08 


0.6112 


21 


1227 


44 


46 


01.00.43 


1.78123 


25 


727 


85 


05 


05.11 


0.7086 


16 


955 


43.30 


46.80 


01.49 


1.78880 


25 


714 


84 


06 


00.06.14 


0.7882 


12 


773 


43 


47 


02.57 


1.79687 


25 


701 


83 


07 


07.17 


0.8557 


11 


656 


42.30 


47.80 


03.67 


1.80396 


25 


690 


82 


08 


08.21 


0.9144 


10 


570 


42 


48 


01.04.80 


1.81155 


25 


672 


81 


09 


09.25 


9663 


9 


500 


45 


48.15 


05.37 


1.81535 


25 


667 1 


80 


10 


10.30 


1.01 29 


8 


448 


30 


80 


05.94 


1.819)5 


25 


667 


79 


11 


11.35 


1.0553 


7 


404 


15 


45 


06.52 


1.82296 


25 


667 


78 


12 


00.12.42 


1.0941 


7 


366 


41.00 


49.00 


01.07.11 


1.82678 


25 


648 


77 


13 


13.49 


1.1300 


6 


356 


45 


15 


07.70 


1.82060 


25 


648 


76 


14 


14.56 


1.1634 


6 


309 


30 


30 


08.80 


183442 


25 


637 


75 


15 


15.66 


1.1947 


5 


287 


15 


45 


08.91 


1.83825 


26 


628 


74 


16 


16 75 


1.2241 


5 


267 


40.00 


50.00 


01.09.52 


1.84208 


26 


628 


73 


17 


17.86 


1.2519 


5 


250 


45 


15 


10.13 


1.84592 


26 


624 


72 


18 


00.18.98 


1.2784 




237 


30 


So 


10.75 


1.84976 


26 


624 


71 


19 


20.11 1.3036 




233 


15 


45 


11.38 


1.85861 


26 


611 


70 


20 


21.26 1.3277 




210 


39 0O;5L0O| 


01.12.02 


1.85747 


26 


604 


69 


21 


22.42 1.3507 




199 


45 


15 


12.66 


1.86134 


26 


604 


68 


22 


23.60; 1.3729 




188 


30 


30 


13.31 


1.86521 


26 


595 


67 


23 


24.80 1.3944 




179 


15 


45 


13.97 


1.86909 


26 


588 


66 


24 


0026.01 


1.4151 


3 


171 


38.00 


52.00 


01.14.64 


1.87298 


26 


581 


65 


25 


27.24 


1.4352 


3 


163 


45 


15 


15.31 


1.87688 


26 


581 


64 


26 


28.49 


1.4547 


3 


156 


30 


30 


15.99 


1.88079 


26 


575 


63 


27 


29.76 


1.4736 


3 


149 


15 


45 


16.68 


1.88461 


26 


568 


62 


28 


81.05 


1.4921 


3 


143 


37.00 


53.00 


01.17.38 


1.88863 


26 


561 


61.30 


28.30 


31.71 


1.5012 


3 


135 


45 


15 


18.08 


1.89256 


26 


561 


61 


29 


00.32.38 


1.5102 


8 


134 


SO 


30 


18.80 


1.89650 


26 


555 


60.30 


2930 


33.05 


1.5191 


3 


133 


15 


45 


19.51 


1.90044 


26 


547 


60 


30 


33.72 


1.5279 


3 


131 


36.00 


54.00 


01.20.24 


1.90440 


26 


542 


59.30 


30.30 


34.40 


1.5366 


8 


128 


45 


15 


20.98 


1.9U838 


27 


535 


59 


31 


35.09 


1.5452 


8 


125 


30 


SO 


21.73 


1.91.237 


27 


531 


58.30 


31.30 


35.79 


L5537 


3 


121 


15 


45' 


22.48 


1.91637 


27 


525 


58 


32 


00.36.49 i:5632 


3 


121 


35.00 


55.00 


01.23.25 


1.92038 


27 


520 


57.30 


32.30 


37-20 1.5706 


3 


118 


45 


15 


24.03 


1.92440 


27 


515 


57 


33 


87.93 1.5790 


3 


117 


30 


30 


24.81 


1.92843 


27 


517 


56.30 


33.30 


38.66, 1.5873 


3 


114 


15 


45 


25.60 


1.93247 


27 


511 


56 


34 


39.39 1.5955 


3 


112 


34.00 


56.00 


01.26.41 


1.93653 


27 


501 


55.80 


34 30 


00.40.14! 1.6036 


3 


108 


45 


15 


27.22 


1.94060 


27 


503 


55 


35 


40.89 1.6116 


3 


107 


30 


80 


28.04 


1.94469 


27 


499 


54.30 


35.30 


41.65 1.6196 


8 


105 


15 


45 


28.38 


1.94879 


27 


488 


54 


36 


42.42 1.6276 


3 


104 


33.00 


57.00 


01.29.78 


1.95291 


27 


485 


53.30 


36.30 


43.21 1.6356 


3 


100 


45 


15 


30.59 


1.95704 


28 


480 


53 


37 


44.10 1.6435 


3 


100 


30 


30 


31.46 


1.96129 


28 


477 


52-30 


37.30 


44.80 


1.4513 


3 


99 


15 


45 


32.84 


1.96536 


28 


474 


52 


38 


00.-15.61 


1.6591 


8 


96 


32.00 


58.00 


01.33.22 


1.96955 


' 28 


47 J 


51.30 


38.30 


46.43 


1.6668 


3 


95 


45 


15 


34.14 


1.97375 


28 


462 


51 


39 


47.27 


1.6746 


3 


98 


30 


80 


35.06 


1.97797 


28 


460 


50.30 


39.30 


48.12 1.6823 


3 


91 


15 


45 


85.99 


1. 9822 1 


28 


456 


50 


40 


48.99 1.6901 


3 


89 


31.00 


59.00 


01.36.93 


1 .98646 


28 


452 


49.30 


40.30 


49.87 1.6978 


8 


88 


45 


15 


37.89 


1.99073 


29 


445 


49 


41 


00.50.76" 1.7055 


8 


87 


30 


30 


38.86 


1.99502 


29 


442 


48.30 


41.30 


51.66' 1.7131 


8 


86 


15 


45 


.SO.a*) 


1.9y984 


29 


436 


48 


42 


52.471 1.7204 


8 


84 


30.00 


60.00 


01.40.85 


2.00368 


29 


434 


47.30 


42.30 


53.49 1.7283 


3 


83 


45 


15 


41.86 


2.00804 


29 


432 


47 


43 


54.43,1.7358 


3 


81 


30 


30 


42.89 


2.01242, 


29 


425 


46.30 


43.30 


55.381 1.7434 


8 


80 


15 


45 


48.94 


2 01682 


29 


419 


46 


44 


00.56.35 1.7510 


8 


78 


29.00 61.00 

i 


01,45.01 

1 


2.02124 

1 


29 


413 



(Tabls III.) Ivory', 


9 mean Astronomicai Refractions. 


7 


z-ll 


* 


Loga- 
rithm. 
Z. 


Log. diff. for 


Alt 
o ' 


Zen. 

diet. 

o ' 


pa 


Loga- 
rithm. 
Z. 


Loi{. 


diff. for 


^It d 

t 


Ut. 


I'of 
Z. D. 


1' of 
Refn. 


I'of 
ZD. 


1" of 
Refn. 


i if 








o // 






».00 6 


i.OO 


1.45.01 


2.02124 






20.00 


7O00 


^19.86 


X20185 






50 


10 


45.73 


2.02420 


30 


412 


55 


05 


39.87 


^20379 


89 


271 


40 


20 


46.45 


2.02717 


80 


411 


50 


10 


40.59 


2 20573 


89 


271 


90 


30 


47.19 


2.03015 


80 


404 


45 


15 


41.31 


2.20768 


39 


271 


«) 


40 


47.93 


2.03315 


30 


404 


40 


20 


42.04 


2.20963 


39 


271 


10 


50 


48.68 


2.03616 


80 


401 


35 


25 


42.78 


121159 


39 


266 


&00C 


>2.00 


1.49.44 


2.03918 


80 


398 


30 


80 


2.43 52 


2.21856 


89 


266 


50 


10 


50.20 


2.04221 


80 


398 


25 


35 


44.26 


2.21554 


40 


265 


40 


20 


50.97 


204526 


81 


896 


20 


40 


45.01 


^21752 


40 


265 


90 


90 


51.76 


2.04632 


81 


887 


15 


45 


45.77 


2.21951 


40 


262 


10 


40 


52.55 


2.05138 


31 


.387 


10 


50 


46.53 


2.22150 


40 


262 


10 


50 


58.35 


2.05446 


81 


885 


05 


55 


47.80 


2.22351 


40 


261 


17.00 ( 


S3.00 


1.54.17 


2.05755 


81 


877 


19.00 


71.00 


2.48 08 


2.22562 


40 


269 


SO 10 


54.99 


2.06065 


31 


377 


55 


05 


48.86 


2.22754 


40 


258 


40 20 


55 82 


2 46877 


81 


377 


50 


10 


49.65 


2.22956 


40 


256 


30 30 


36.6G 


2.U6690 


31 


374 


45 


15 


5a45 


2.23159 


41 


254 


%i 


40 


57.50 


2.07004 


31 


373 


40 


20 


51.25 


2.23863 


41 


254 


10 


50 


58.35 


2.07319 


82 


371 


85 


25 


52.06 


2.23568 


41 


263 


26.UO 


64-00 


1.59.22 


2.07635 


82 


363 


30 


80 


2.52.87 


2.23773 


41 


263 


50 


10 


2.00.10 


2.07954 


82 


363 


25 


35 


53.70 


2.23979 


41 


849 


4U 20| 


00.99 


2.08274 


82 


360 


20 


40 


54,53 


2.24186 


41 


249 


90 


30 


01.89 


2.08595 


32 


357 


15 


45 


55.87 


2.24394 


42 


248 


au 


40 


02.80 


2.08918 


32 


355 


10 


50 


66.21 


2.24603 


42 


248 


10 


50 


03.72 


2.09242 


32 


852 


05 


55 


57.06 


2 24812 


42 


246 


25.00 


65-00 


2.04.65 


2.09567 


33 


350 


18 00 


72.00 


2.57.92 


2.25022 


42 


244 


50 


10 


05.59 


2.09894 


83 


348 


55 


05 


58.79 


2.25233 


42 


243 


40 


20 


06.54 


2.10223 


33 


346 


50 


10 


59.66 


2,26446 


42 


243 


30 


30 
40 


07.51 


2.10553 


33 


340 


45 


15 


3.00.54 


2.25657 


42 


241 


20 


06.49 


2.10885 


83 


339 


40 


20 


01.43 


2.25870 


43 


239 


10 


50 


09.48 


2.11219 


S3 


337 


35 


25 


02.38 


2.26084 


43 


238 


24.00 


66.00 


2.10.48 


2.11556 


84 


336 


30 


30 


3.03.23 


2.26299 


43 


238 


50 


10 


11.50 


2.11892 


84 


330 


25 


35 


04.14 


2.26515 


43 


237 


40 


20 


12.53 


2.12230 


84 


328 


20 


40 


05.06 


2.26732 


43 


236 


30 


30 


1357 


2.12570 


34 


427 


15 


45 


05.99 


2.26950 


44 


234 


20 


40 


14.62 


212912 


84 


826 


10 


50 


06.93 


2.27168 


44 


233 


10 


50 


15.69 


2.13256 


84 


322 


06 


55 


07.87 


2.27388 


44 


233 


23.00 


eiJOO 


2.16.78 


2.13602 


35 


317 


17.00 


73.00 


3.08.83 


2.27608 


44 


2'i8 


50 


10 


17.88 


2.13950 


85 


816 


56 


05 


09.80 


2.27829 


44 


228 


4fl 


► 20 


18.99 


2.14300 


85 


315 


50 


10 


10.77 


2.28051 


44 


227 


3G 


) ^0 


20.12 


2.14652 


35 


312 


46 


15 


11.75 


2.28274 


45 


227 


20 40 


21.27 


2.15006 


35 


308 


40 


20 


12.74 


2.28498 


45 


225 


10 50 


22 43 


2.15362 


36 


307 


35 


25 


13.74 


2.28723 


45 


225 


22.00 68^ 


2.28.61 


2.15720 


36 


303 


30 


80 


3.14.75 


2.28948 


45 


22;s 


5( 


) 10 


24.81 


2.16080 


86 


300 


25 


35 


15.77 


2.29174 


46 


222 


1 4( 


) 20 


26.03 


216442 


36 


297 


20 


40 


16.60 


2.29402 


46 


221 


3( 


} 30 


27.26 


2.16806 


86 


296 


16 


45 


17.83 


2.29631 


46 


220 


2( 


) 40 


28.50 


2.17172 


37 


395 


10 50 


18.88 


2.29860 


46 


220 


11 


) 50 


29.76 


2.17540 


37 


292 


06 55 


19.94 


2.30091 


46 


218 


21.0( 


) 69.00 


2.3164 


217911 


37 


290 


16.00 


74.00 


3.21.01 


2.30323 


46 


217 


5S 


b 05 


81.69 


2,18097 


87 


287 


55 


05 


22 09 


2.30556 


47 


216 


5( 


5 10 


32.34 


2.18284 


87 


287 


,50 


10 


93.18 


2.30789 


47 


2U 


41 


i 15 


330C 


2.18471 


38 


884 


'45 


15 


24.28 


2.81023 


47 


213 


41 


D 20 


83.66 


2.18659 


88 


284 


40 


20 


25.39 


2.31259 


47 


213 


a 


b 25 


34..^^ 


2.18847 


88 


981 


35 


25 


26.52 


2.31496 


47 


212 


d 


SO 


2.S5.0(J 


1 2.19036 


88 


281 


80 


80 


3.27.65 


2.31734 


48 


210 


2 


5 35 


35.68 


; 2.19226 


88 


279 


25 


85 


28.79 


2.31973 


48 


20b 


2 


40 


> 36.36 


» 2.19416 


88 


279 


20 


40 


29.95 


2.32213 


48 


207 


1 


5 45 


37.05 


2.19607 


38 


277 


15 


45 


31.12 


2.32454 


48 


206 


1 


50 


» 87.75 


» 2.19794 


88 


275 


10 


50 


32 30 


2.32696 


48 


205 





5 5S 


> 88.45 


2.19992 


89 


275 


05 


55 


33.49 


2.33039 


49 


204 


20O 


70.0C 


» X39.16 


> 2.20185 


39 


272 


15.00 75.00 

1 


3.3470 


2.33184 


49 


203 



8 


Ivory's 


mean 


Astrvnomical Refractions, (Table III. 


) 




Zen. 
dist. 


Mean 
Refract 


Loga- 
rithm. 
Z. 


Log. 


diff. for 


Alt. 


Zen. 
dist 


Mean 
Refract. 


Loga- 

rithm. 

Z. 


Log 
I'oi 


diff. tori 


Alt. 


V of 


l"of 


' 1" of 






o / 


Z.D. 


Refa. 


o / 


o // 


ZD. 


Uefn. 




O 1 


1 II 








1 // 








15.00 


75.00 


334.70 


2 33104 






10.00 


80.00 


5.20.19 


2.50541 








55 


05 


35.92 


2.33430 


49 


202 


55 


05 


22.76 


2.50887 


69 


135 




50 


10 


37.15 


2.33677 


49 


201 


50 


10 


25.36 


2.51237 


70 


134 




45 


15 


38.39 


2.33925 


50 


200 


45 


16 


28.01 


2.51589 


70 


133 




40 


20 


39.65 


2.34174 


50 


197 


40 


20 


30.70 


2.51943 


71 


132 




35 


25 


40.93 


2.34424 


50 


197 


35 


25 


33.43 


2.52300 


71 


13. 




30 


30 


3.42.21 


2.34676 


50 


196 


30 


30 


5.36.20 


2.52660 


n 


131 




25 


35 


43.52 


2.34929 


51 


196 


25 


35 


39.02 


2.53020 


72 


128 1 


20 


40 


44.82 


2.35183 


51 


195 


20 


40 


41.88 


2.03387 


73 


128 




15 


45 


46.14 


2.85438 


51 


193 


15 


45 


44.19 


2.53755 


74 


127 




10 


50 


47.48 


2.35695 


51 


192 


10 


50 


47.74 


2.54125 


74 


125 




05 


55 


48.84 


2.35953 


52 


190 


05 


56 


50.74 


2.54498 


75 


124 




14-00 


7600 


3.50.21 


2.26212 


52 


129 


0900 


81.00 


553.79 


2.54874 


75 


123 




55 


05 


51.60 


2 36473 


52 


188 


55 


05 


56.89 


2.55253 


76 


122 




50 


10 


53 00 


2.36735 


52 


187 


60 


10 


600.04 


2.55635 


76 


121 




45 


15 


54.42 


2.36998 


53 


185 


45 


15 


03.24 


2.56019 


. 77 


12U 




40 


20 


55.85 


2.37263 


53 


185 


40 


20 


06.50 


2.56409 


78 


119 




35 


25 


57-30 


2 375ii9 


53 


183 


35 


25 


09.81 


266798 


78 


118 




30 


30 


3.58.76 


2.37796 


53 


183 


30 


30 


6.13.18 


2.57192 


79 


117 




25 


35 


4.00.24 


• 2.38064 


54 


181 


25 


35 


16.61 


2.57589 


79 


116 




20 


40 


01.74 


2.38334! 


54 


180 


20 


40 


20,09 


2.57989 


80 


115 




15 


45 


03.26 


2.38606 


54 


179 


15 


45 


23.64 


2.58393 


81 


114 




10 


50 


04.79 


2.38879 


55 


178 


10 


50 


27.26 


2-58800 


81 


112 




05 


55 


06.34 


2.39154 


55 


177 


05 


55 


30.94 


2-59210 


82 


111 




13.00 


77-00 


4.07.91 


2.39430 


55 


176 


08.00 


82.00 


6.34.68 


2.59624 


83 


111 




55 


05 


09.50 


2.39708 


56 


175 


55 


05 


38.49 


2.60041 


83 


109 




50 


10 


11.41 


2.39987 


56 


173 


50 


10 


42.37 


2.60462 


84 


109 




45 


15 


12.74 


2.40268 


56 


l72 


45 


16 


46.31 


9.60886 


85 


108 




40 


20 


14,39 


2.40550 


56 


171 


40 


20 


50.33 


2.61313 


85 


106 




35 


25 


16 06 


2.40834 


67 


J7i 


35 


25 


54.42 


2.61774 


86 


105 




30 


.30 


4.17.75 


2.41119 


57 


l69 


30 


30 


6 58.59 


2.62179 


87 


104 




25 


35 


19.46 


2.41406 


57 


l68 


25 


35 


7.02.85 


2.62618 


88 


103 




20 


40 


21.19 


2.41695 


58 


67 


20 


40 


07.19 


2.63062 


89 


102 




15 


45 


22.95 


2.41986 


68 


l65 


15 


45 


11.62 


2.63509 


89 


lOl 




10 


50 


24.72 


2.42278 


68 


j65 


10 


50 


16.13 


2.63961 


90 


lOO 




05 


55 


26.5! 


2.42572 


59 


l64 


05 


55 


20.73 


2.64417 


91 


99 




12.00 


7800, 


4.28.33 


2.42867 


59 


162 


07.00 83001 


7.25.42 


2.64877 


92 


98 




56 


05 


30,17 


2.43164 


59 


61 


65 


05 


30.21 


2,65341 


93 


97 




50 


10 


32.04 


2 43464 


60 


160 


50 


10 


35.09 


2.66809 


94 


96 




45 


15 


33.93 


2.43764 


60 


l59 


45 


15 


40.07 


2.66282 


95 


95 




40 


20 


35.84 


2.44066 


60 


l58 


40 


20 


45.15 


2.66759 


95 


94 




35 


25 


37.78 


2.44370 


61 


157 


35 


25 


50.34 


267241 


96 


93 




30 


30 


4.39.75 


2.44677 


61 


'56 


30 


30 


7.55.64 


2.67727 


97 


92 




25 


35 


41.74 


2.44985 


62 


155 


25 


35 


8.01.04 


2.68218 


93 


91 




20 


40 


43.76 


2.45295 


62 


l53 


20 


40 


06.55 


2.68713 


99 


90 




15 


45 


45.81 


2.45608 


63 


153 


15 


45 


12.19 


2.69213 


100 


89 




10 


50 


47.89 


2.45902 


63 


151 


10 


50 


17.95 


2.69718 


iOl 


88 




05 


55 


49.99 


2.46238 


63 


151 


05 


55 


23.84 


2.70229 


102 


87 




11.00 


79.00 


4 52.12 


2.46556 


64 


149 


06.00 


84.00 


8.29.86 


2.70746 


103 


86 




55 


05 


54.28 


2.46876 


64 


148 


55 


05 


36.02 


2.71267 


104 


85 

84 
83 


50 


10 


56 47 


2.47198 


64 


147 


50 


10 


42.31 


2.71793 


105 


45 


15 


58.69 


2.47552 


65 


146 


45 


15 


48,75 


2.72225 


106 


40 


20 


5.00.94 


2.47848 


65 


145 


40 


20 


55.33 


2,72862 


107 


81 




35 


25 


03.22 


2.48176 


66 


144 


35 


25 


9.02.04 


2.73405 


109 


81 




30 


30 


05.54 


2.48507 


66 


143 


30 


30 


08.96 


2.73954 


110 


79 




25 


35 


07.89 


2.48840 


67 


142 


25 


35 


16.03 


2.74509 


111 


79 




20 


40 


10.28 


2.49175 


67 


140 


20 


40 


23.25 


2.75070 


112 


78 




15 


45; 


12.70 


2.49513 


68 


140 


15 


45 


30.65 


2.75637 


113 


77 




10 


50 


15.66 


2.49853 


68 


138 


10 


50 


38.23 


2.76210 


115 


76 




05 


55 


17.66 


2.50196 


69 


137 


05 55 


46.00 


2.76970 


116 


75 




10.00 80.00 

1 


5.20.19 


2.50541 


69 


136 


05.30.85.00 


9,53.96 


2.77376 


117 


74 







vm*. 


(Table IV. 9 








L^ 


A\S. for 






|-ri>.ni 








Horn. 

BcfimcL 


tsfi: 






Z>n. 
dill. 






1 




I'of 


l"of 


Alt. 


T. 


diff.blr 


B. 


dlKfor 






z. 


Z.D 


aitn. 






l'Z.D. 


1'Z.D. 


J 


9.53 96 


2.77376 






10.00 


aaoo 


.03 










10.0ZI3 


2.77969 


]I9 


73 


09. OU 


81.00 


SH 




.04 






10.52 


2.7B5G9 


130 


73 


U8.0U 


8-i.ou 


.05 




.« 






19.11 


2.79176 


1-21 


71 


30 


S2.30 


.06 




.08 




1 


37.90 


2.79789 


123 


70 


07.00 


8S.00 


.07 


.001 


.10 






36.93 


2.8U409 


124 


69 


49 


83.15 


.06 




.11 


.001 




46.21 


2.81037 


136 




30 


30 


.09 




.12 






10.&5.75 


LSI 673 


127 


67 


15 


49 


.09 




.14 






11.05.55 


IS23I6 


128 


66 


06.00 


81.00 


.10 




.15 






16.60 


2.82967 


130 


65 


45 


15 






.16 


.002 




25.90 


2.83626 


132 


61 


30 


10 


J3 




.18 






36.31 


2.84393 


133 


63 


0.15 


15 


.13 




.30 






1U7.43 


-2.8496S 


136 


63 


05.00 


E U 


.IS 


.003 


.3-2 






58.66 


3.866a3 


1S7 


61 


50 





.17 




■34 


.003 




IZ 10-21 


28634i 


139 


60 


40 


!0 


.18 




.27 






22.10 


2.B7046 


140 


59 


30 


10 


.30 




.29 






34.S4 


2.87757 


142 


58 


SO 


M) 


.31 




.33 






46.94 


2.88176 


144 




30 


« 


.33 


.003 


.S4 






1X69 93 


2.89205 


146 


56 


04.00 


8 » 


.24 


.003 


.37 


JNM 




13.13.31 


2.89944 


I4S 


55 


90 





.-26 




.39 






27.11 


2.90693 


150 


54 


40 




.-29 




.43 






41-34 


2.91463 


152 


53 


30 




.31 




.47 






bi.99 


X93220 


154 


52 


30 





.34 




.61 


SXb 




14.11.13 


8.93999 


156 


51 


10 





.36 




.57 






26.76 


2-93790 


158 


51 


03-00 


8 


.39 


.004 


.62 






4X9U 


2.94991 


160 


50 


55 


6 


.41 




.67 


.008 




59.54 




162 


49 


50 





.43 




.71 






IS. 16.75 




165 


48 


45 


5 


.45 




.75 






34.55 




167 


47 


40 





.47 


.005 


.79 






S2.9S 


a97906 


169 


46 


35 


5 


.50 




.83 






16.11.95 


3 98764 


172 


45 


30 





.53 




.87 






31.64 


2.9963& 


174 


44 


39 


5 


.55 




.91 


.010 




52 03 


S.O0SI3 


i?7 


43 


30 





.58 




.96 






17.13.16 


S.UI1I7 


180 


43 


15 


5 


.61 






.013 




35.06 


3.02329 


182 


42 


10 





.63 


.006 


1.07 






67.77 


3.03254 


m 


41 


09 


5 


.66 




1.13 






ia21.33 


3.04192 


188 


40 


02 OU 


88.00 


.69 




1.19 






18.45,76 


3-05144 


190 


39 


55 


05 


.74 


.009 


1.-21 


J)I7 




19.11.07 


3.061 10 


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196 


37 


49 


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200 


36 




20 






1.50 




20.33.09 


3.09099 


203 


36 


39 


35 


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1.58 






21.02.60 


3.10ri7 


-206 


39 


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3.11170 


309 


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210j.2a 


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33 


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229 


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3.35046 


251 


25 


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10 



An Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in Jndia^ beings the 
Stroms in the Bay of Bengal and Southern Indian Ocean^Jrom 2Gih 
November to fid December^ 1843. By Henrt Piddington; tiHiA 
a Chart. 

In this memoir, for much of the material of which I am as usual 
indebted to the zealous exertions of Capt. Biden, Master Attendant of 
Madras, we have the advantage of tracing at the same time storms 
raging on the North and South sides of the Equator, of having a re- 
gister of the weather almost upon the Equator while the storms were 
blowing on both sides, and finally of tracing with abundant data in the 
dangerous " Storm track" (as I have called it in another publication,)* 
extending from 5° to 15' South and from Tff* to 90' £. a most severe hur- 
ricane, and this investigation has moreover developed a new feature in 
these storms, viz. that there are some which are comparatively ^a/^'on- 
ary ! having but an exceedingly slow progressive motion ; and should 
this be found by future research to prevail frequently, it will be of im- 
portance both in our theoretical and practical views of storms. It will 
be found in the postcript to the Memoir that after this was sent to the 
press I obtained from the Mauritius, the details of a storm there, in 
which a vessel, the Charles Heddle, was fully proving for us by what 
I may call a beautiful experiment, the truth of our researches here ! 

I have as usual first given the documents carefully abridged, then a 
Tabular view of them for each hemisphere, a summary of the grounds 
from which the positions of the centres of the storms on different days 
are developed, and finally a few remarks on the whole. 



Copy of Report kept at the Master Attendants Office MadraSyfram 

Captain Biobn. 

Barometer. 
8 A. M. 4 p. M. 10 p. M. 
30M Ifovemher 1843.-6 a. ii. North West wind, North 
current strong and high surf* 7 a. ii. North West 

wind, current very strong, high, and irregular surf, •• 30.012 29.925 29.997 
1^/ December 1843«— 6. a. ii. North West wind, North 
current, strong, high and irregular surf no boats or Cat* 
tamarans could cross the surf. Bain 29.964 29.877 29.953 

* Horn Book of Storms p. • 



1845.] Seventh Memoir oh the Law tf Stormi in India, 1 1 

Barometer. 
8 A. M. 4 p. M. 10 p. M. 
'id December ]843.~6 a« m. North West wind, North cur- 
rent, strong irregular and high snrf, cloudy, .. •• 29.944 29.861 29.916 
IMtto.— 6-30, p. M. North wind, North current, strong and 
very high surf, no boats or Cattamarans could cross the 
surf. Raining, •• .. ,. •• .. •. 
3(1 December 1843.~4-55, a. m. North East wind, North 

current and high surf; cloudy weather, 29.9d6 29.893 29.986 

DiUo^ — 3-15, p. M. South East wind, South current, high 

surf and rain,. • •• •• •• 

DUto. — 6 p. H. South East wind. South current and rain, 
4<A December 1843.— 5 a. m. East wind. South current, 

high and irregular surf ; driuling rain, 30.006 29.912 29.988 

DUto. — 10-30, A. M. East wind, South current strong, and 

moderate surf, •• •• •• • 

(Signed) Charlbs Bidkm. 



Abridged hog of the Ship Vxbnon, Captain J. Gimblbtt, from 
Madras to Calcutta, reduced to civil time. 

The Vernon left Madras roads, on the 30th November 1843, at 

7. p. M. and stood to the East, with a fresh monsoon from N.N.E. 
till midnight. 

let December^ — a. m. strong breeze N. N. E. till noon when Lat. 
12" 5' N., Long. Chro. SS*" 29', E., Bar. 29.68., Symp. 29.52:, 
p. M. fresh gales to midnight with the wind veeriDg at 9 p. m. 
to N. £. and at midnight to E.N.E. 

2d December, — a. m . heavy squalls ; at 2 wind shifted to E. S. E. 
with confosed sea and much lightnings Bar. 2964. 9 a. m. wind E. by 

8. moderating a little ; noon squally and heavy sea Lat. D. R. 11® 48' 
N. Long. D. R. 83'' 38'> Bar. 29.69., Symp. 29.54. Ther. 81'' 
p. M. strong gale Easterly, moderatiug to fine, at 7 p* h* when wind at 
£. N. £. 



Eleventh Mtmoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 157. 



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1845.] Eievenih Memoir an the Law qf Siorm» in India, 18 

Report of the Barque Niagara Capi. W. Champion, forwarded by 

Captain Bidbn. 
Friday Ui December 1843.— LaU 10^ N.» Long, 87<> E., ezpe. 
a hard gale from S. W. to £. S. E. with a tremendous high 
on ; lost sails and sustained other damage, strong gales from East- 
ward on Saturday the 2d. On approaching the coast, found the 
weather more moderate and a smoother sea ; during the above days 
it rained incessantly, and the Bar. fell to 29.10, Ther. 78*^0'. 



Abridged Log of the Ship Candahar, Capt W. Ridlbt, from the 
Mauritius bound to Calcutta ; reduced to civii time. 

26th Nov. 1842.-^Wind variable from N.N.E., N.b. E., and N. 
E. b. N., Course North 54'' W. 94', Lat account 8» 19' N., Long. 84<' 
W E., heavy squalls Bar. 29.80. 

27th November, — To noon cloudy, wind N. E., strong wind till 
midnight when N. E. b. £., Lat. noon 9^ 5' N., Long. 83^ 60', Sunset 
heavy squalls. Bar. not marked. 

28^ November, — Strong Monsoon N. E. b. E. 2 a. m. veering to 
Northward 11 a. m. Violent squall ; noon heavy weather, Lat. account 
9^ 15' N-, Long. E. 83° 45', heavy squalls and strong monsoon till 
midnight. Bar. 29.70. 

29ih November — Heavy breeze N. b. £. with squalls, noon every 
appearance of a storm, Lat. 9° 26' N., Long. 83'' 48' E. 4 p. m. rapidly 
increasing. At 6 wind North ; laid to, heavy squalls and rain, Bar. 

29.7. 
20th November. — Heavy gales, and tremendous squalls. Wind 

1 A. M . N. W. by N. Lat. 9° 40', North, Long. 83'' 57' E. 1 1 a. m. 
terrific squall of wind and rain. Bar. 29.50. p. m. heavy gale N. W. 
to midnight. 

1st Deeember.'^A. m. heavy gale N. W. with terrific squalls. At 

2 A. M. wind N. b. E. 8 a. m. N. W. b. W. Noon, to 3 p. m. very 
little wind, Lat. lO"* 32' North, Long. 84'' 3' E. At 3 p. m. wind 
Mfted to S. W., Bar. fell to 29.40., 5 p. m. shifted again to N. W., 
9 p. M. set fore-sail ; at 10 wind veered again to S. W., midnight, gale 
appearing steady, shook out close reefs, steering North. 



14 Eieventh Memoir on ike Law ef Statme m India. [No. 157. 

N. B« — From 11 a. m. to midnight steering North 41 per hour. At 
11 and 12^ 4^ per hour* 

2nd December* — 1 ▲. m. gale suddenly increased to a most violent 
storm S* W«, hove to under try-sails ; 4 a. m. South. 5 to 6 raging with 
increased fury. Bar. 39*40» 8 a. m. more moderate, bore up steer- 
ing North 6 miles. At 10 wind South. Noon Lat account ll*" ID' 
North, Long. 84'' 04' E., Bar. a. m . 29.60, 2 p. m, steering N. N. W. 
wind S.S.E. at 4 N. W. by N. wind S. E. 11 p. m. passed a ship, steer- 
ing to the S. W. midnight. Bar. 20.80. 

Zrd December.^A. m. Strong breeze S. E. day.light steady, noon 
Lat Obs. 12^ Sr, Long. 84" 7^ fine weather. 



Abridged Log of the Ship Fazzulbarry, Capt H. Handle y from 
Bombay bound io Calcuita, reduced to civil time. 

27th November. 1843. — At noon moderate breeze from E. S. £• but 
threatening looking weather to the Eastward. Lat. 5^ 38^ N., Long. 
Chr. 88^ 40', Bar. 29.72, and folliDg, Ther. 82<*. For the last two days, 
current 110 miles to the Westward. Remark by Capt Handley, at 
the beginniDg of this log. '' Observed many thick white clouds densely 
packed to the Eastward which I have always found to precede an 
Easterly gale." 

p. M . Strong breezes Easterly (and at 8 p. m . E. N. E.) dark eloudy 
weather and very threatening appearance to the Eastward with 
heavy N. E. sea on, increasing to a strong gale with daric threatening 
weather and heavy sea; Bar. 29.65. 

28/A November* — 6 a. m. Wind N. E. Noon strong gale with 
dark threatening weather to the N. E. making all preparation for a 
gala Lat. T"" 22' N., Long. Chro. 8810., Bar. 29.54, Ther. 81.0. p. m. 
Wind E. N. E. heavy gale with thick dark weather. Sh.dO p. m. saw 
the '* John Brightman/' steering to the Southward. Midnight gale 
increasing, Bar. 29.45. 

fi9th November. — a. m. gale blowing most furiously^ saw a ship 
running to the Southward. 10 wind N. E^ b. E. marked at noon N* E. 
Bar. 29.14^ Ther. 83^' No observation. Long. 87" 20'. ^. m. furious 
gale N.N. E. Bar. 29.40. At 11.30 ship in distress and Arab crew 



1845.] Eieventh Memoir on the Law of Siormt in India. 15 

alarmed. Wii^d at Nortbi bore up at midnlgbt ruDniiig 8. E. and at 
3 A. M . on 30th. S. S. £. 

20ih November. — Running to the 8» S. £• 6^ knou. 3 a. m. gale 
at the greatest fury " blowing so bard that it was scarcely posdble to 
hold cm;" at 8, a little more moderate; noon moderating Cut, but 
Barometer running low 29.40» Ther. 82^, Lat. indilferent Obs. 
T 22' N., Long. 87* 35' £., having since midnight made 74 
miles to the 8. 8. £. and South. 8 p. m. wind N. N. £., course 8. £• 
5' per hoar; winds marked as variable N. N. £• to 8. W. at 7 f« h. 
when (from 5 p. m. ship had only been going 1.4 knots) remarks are " va* 
riable dark cloudy weather and a high cross sea; easterly gale 
broken, but Barometer very low, 29.31. At 7 ?• m. ''a heavy Westerly 
sea rolling up and overpowering the Easterly sea" run from Noon to 
8 p. m. S. £• 32 miles : a brig in sight. At 8 p. m . dark gloomy 
weather with packed masses of clouds to the 8. W., vivid lightning. Ves- 
sel steering N. £. 23 miles, from 8 to midnight^ when a strong breeze 
from the S. W. and the S. Westerly sea very high, dark threatening 
weather, vessel running 8 knots to the N. £. 

lei Decefnber.^—A, m. Increasing gale ; at 4 a. m. violent and severe 
gale S. S. W. if possible worse than before. 7, tremendous 8. 8. W, 
gale. Bar. 29.30 to 9 a. m. when Bar. on the rise ; at 10 a. m. Bar. 
29. 45 gale moderating; at 11> 29.55 strong gales from 8outh; Lat. 
indifferent obs. 9^ 55' N. Long. 88^ 00' £., Bar. 29.65., Ther. 
82., p. If. Wind 8. 8, W., course N. £. 9^ knots, and run 107 miles ; to 
midnight strong gule ; 3 f« m. Bar. 29.75. 10 p. m. 29.80. Wind 
8oath, midnight moderating and sky clearing. 

2d December.— Midnight to noon N. £. 51^ miles N. £. b. N. 
494 miles. A. M. Wind 8. 8. £• 6 a. m. 8. £. 11 a. m. £. 8. £. At 
noon fine weather ; Lat. 1 1"* 17' N., Long. 89*' 45', Bar. 29.90, Ther. 
83*. 



Madras. The Colonbl Bubnby. 

The barque Colonel Burney,{rom Moulmein to Bombay passed by 
Galle on the 10th instant, under jury masts, having lost her main and 
mizen masts in a heavy gale on the Ist, in Lat. 6" 50' N., Long. 
Sb*" 20' E.— Record, Dec. 30. 



16 EUvenih Memoir an the Law of Sianm in India. [No. 157. 

Extract of a letter from Capt. Durham, of the Barque Col. Bubnby 
to hie onmers dated, 28th December, 1843* 

Mb88B8. ApCAB and Co. 

Dbar Sib8, — I beg to report the arrival of the Col. Barney here 
yesterday, after a passage of 33 days from Rangoon. I have lost main 
and mizen-masts by the deck during a heavy gale in Lat. 6^ N., 
Long. 85® £., the vessel was thrown on her beam-ends ; to save ship 
and cargo I cut away my masts, when she righted with 7 ^^set water 
in the hold. Your obedient servant, 

(Signed,) R. B. Durham. 



Report from Kattb, Ceylon^ forwarded by Capt. Bidbn. 

My Dbar Captain Bidbn. — You will no doubt have heard of the 
gale we have lately experienced down here ; and as it was evidently 
one of the rotatory description I send you an account of it, supposing 
that any information on this subject will be interesting. It appears to 
have travelled in a W. S* Westerly direction, the Southern portion of 
the circle passing over Kayts, Delft island and Paumbum: At Manar, 
although the weather had a wild appearance, it was not felt at all. I 
was myself at Paumbum at the time, where I noted the changes closely ; 
but at the other places, the variations may not be so correct : still they 
are sufficiently so to trace the track of the gale. To begin then with 
my windward station, Kayts. 

It commenced here from the N. W. about noon on the 1st; increas. 
ing in violence till 6 p. m. of the 2d, between which and midnight 
it blew with great fury, accompanied by a very heavy fiUl of rain. 
On the morning of the 3d it shifted to W. S. W. strong, and by noon 
moderated at South. 

At Delft island on the 1st the wind which had been moderate all 
day at N. W. freshened towards evening from the same quarter, and 
gradually veered round to between W. N. W. and W. by S ; at which by 
6 A M. on the 2d it was blowing a heavy gale. This continued all that 
day and night till 1 1.30 a. m. on the 3d when the wind suddenly 



1845.] EleomUk Memoir on the Law of Siomu in India. 17 

chipped round to S. by W. and moderated by daylight ; next 
morning the wind was from S. S. E. and eventually settled at S. E. 

At Panmbum. 

1st A. M. Wind fresh at N. W. 

p. M. More moderate at N. E. ; freshening during the night but fine* 

2d. A. M. 6 Moderate N. N. W. very ckmdy. 

10 Freshening and veering to the Westward ; Ther 72^ ; lower than it 
has ever been before during the last 4 years ; noon very fresh at N. W. 
with confused appearance, scud flying fast and low from Norths 3 p. m. 
fmh, W. by S. 

6. Ditto W. S. W. Scud still flying from North, but not so Cut ; 
heavy bank of ndn to N. E. but without any appearance of wind from 
that quarter. 

9. Increasing at W. S. W. Midnight, hard gales at W. S. W. with 
very heavy rain. 

* 3d. A. M. 6, Sky a perfect lead colour, gale and rain continuing from 
same quarter till 3 a.m. when it moderated and p.m. veered to S. S. W. 
aad South ; scud now flying to N. E. 

6. Strong breezes from S. W. to S. S. E. the wind not remain, 
ing flteiidy for two consecutive minutes, still thick and hazy with 
rain. 

4/ft A. M. Fresh South to S. S. E. and hazy. 

You will find it easy with these dates to trace the progress of the 
whirlwind from Kayts to Paumbum, and if it continue in the same 
eourse it must coast along the shore of Madura and part of Tinnevelly, 
going to sea again from the Malabar coast at a little to the North of 
CapeComorin ; leaving Colombo untouched ; a matter to be rejoiced at, 
ss the eraft there at this fine season would hardly have been prepared 
Inr a blow from any point South of West. 

My vessel had a very narrow escape, having parted and drifted to 
within 80 yards of a reef. She lost bowsprit, rudder and boats, had 
her stem stove in and was otherwise much injured ; but fortunately 
the wind coming round enabled her to get a start olDT and run round to 
leeward of the island where I picked her up a sad plight. We are 
repairing her now and I hope to be at sea again by the end of the 
week. 

(Signed) J. J. Franklin. 



18 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India* [No. 157. 

BarqueQAK^miLfrom Ceylon towards Madras^ reduced to Civil tifne* 

A long detailed extract of this vessel's log was kindly sent me by 
Capt. Biden, and it would have been highly interesting from her posi- 
tion between b^ and 13^ North Lat., had any Long, accompanied it, but 
unfortunately there was none. And we are thus reduced to the necessity 
of saying only that she had, 

On the 25M November Winds E. to N. W. in Lat. at Noon i? 

b& N. 

2Qth November.^W'mds Northerly in 5*^ 43' N., strong breezes and 
cloudy. 

27th November. — Bar. 28.80., (by Capt. Biden*s correction, 29.50.^) 
No observations, winds apparently N. E. to N. N. E. 

28th November.— Wind N. E. by E. to N. N. W. No observations, 
weather hazy and much rain. 

29th November.— li. W. to N. N. E. and again W. N, W. ; light# 
winds, cloudy and squally. 

30th November.— N.N. W. Westerly and S.S.W. winds. Lat. 
6« 57 North. 

Ist December. ^lAi. 9^ 51' N. winds Southerly increasing at 4 p. k. 
to a strong gale obliging the vessel to scud under a reefed fore-sail. 
, 2d. Decem^fr.— Moderating, Lat. 12'' 17' N. p. m. S. E. wind. 



Abridged Log of the Brig Bittbrn, Captain Q. Scott, from the 
Mauritius to Madras, forwarded by Capt. Bidbn.* 

28th November 1843 1 p.m. Wind W. S.W. fresh breeze and 

cloudy; 7> Bar. 29.50 ; at 10 p. m., hard squalls. 

29th November. — 11 wind S.W. first part strong breezes, middle 
and latter parts fresh gale, with squally weather and rain. 9 a. x. 
Bar. 29.35. Noon, fresh gale and cloudy, Lat. Obs. 5^ 33' N. 

1 p. M. wind S. W. fresh gale and squally; at 4 Bar. 29.24; at 3 
wind S. S. W.; at 5 South more moderate but threatening in appear- 
ance, made preparation for bad weather ; 10 wind S.S.E , 12 squally 
with small rain. 

* With this log also no Longitudes are given. 



1845.] Eleventh Memoir en the Law of Stornu in India. 19 

^fUh November. — At 3 a. m. wind East ; at 6, wind E. N. E. squally ; 
at 7 Bar. 29.34 ; noon, fresh gale and doady, Lat. Obs. 8^ 23' N. 

1 p M • wind £. N. E. fresh gale and cloudy, at 3 wind N. E .by E. 
at 5 Bar. 29.30, 8 Bar. 29.40. Hard squalls with small rain; II 
wind £ N. K. fresh gale throughout with frequent hard squalls and 
small rain ; under storm trysails. 

!«/ Decefnber. — 3 a. m. furled the fore topsail, 5 Bar. 29.30, 7 more 
moderate, 10 wind East, Bar. 29.24. Noon, fresh gale and cloudy, 
Ut. Obs. 9*^ 49' N. 

1 p. V. wind S. E. fresh gale with hard squalls, 5 wind South, 8 hard 
squalls with small rain, 6 Bar. 29.35, fresh gale throughout with fre- 
quent hard squalls and small rain. Midnight Bar. 29.49. 

2d December. — 2 a. m., wind S. S. E. very hard squalls with small 
rain, 4 Bar. 29.60, 5 more moderate, i 1 wind S. E., noon more mo- 
derate. Bar. 29.60. Lat. Obs. 11'' 21' N. after which fine weather. 



Report from the Barque Mary Imric, Captain Boyd, forwarded by 

Captain Bidbn. 
30/A November f 1843.— Blowing a strong breeze from N. N. E. 
all possible sail set, daylight the weather became very cloudy, heavy 
dark masses rising in the North and passing over with increasing 
velodty to the Southward. Noon, weather dismally dark, with a very 
suspicious appearance, sun obscured, Lat. by account 12^ 20' North, 
p. X., the sea rising and the breeze increasing fast, took fn ail small 
sails and sent down royal and top.gallant yards, and close reefed the top. 
sails, indeed at this time I would have been induced to lay the 
vessel to, the appearance of the weather was so bad ; as well as being 
mider the impression, that the farther you run into a storm the more 
likely yoa are to suffer from its effects* had the Barometer not kept 
well up; at daylight it stood at, •• 30 03 

At noon it rose to, • • . . 30 1 1 

2 p. M. down to, . . . • 29 83 
where it continued till midnight, at which time it blew a terrific gale 
with a heavy cross sea, wind steady atN. N. £. and scudding under 

* This is the old axiom. It depends of course on which side of a stoim circle the 
ship is, to be correct. A ship should certainly never run irUo a storm, but she may 
as certainly often run out of it»-^H, P. 



20 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 157* 

two close reefed top-fiiails ; I may here add that I never saw the m^ciiry 
fluctuate so much, although it never feil lower than 29. 60.* 

\st December. — From midnight till daylight, the gale continued ^th 
unabated force, with frequent hard squalls and heavy rain^ and a 
dreadful sea running, that washed away nearly all the bulwarks, 
and drowned nearly the whole of the live stock. The sea was un- 
commonly cross, and evidently produced from other causes, besides the 
gale we were then in^ and had we not taken the precaution to get every 
thing well secured on deck> as well as made secure aloft, the eonse* 
quences might have been serious ; towards noon the weather cleared 
away so far as to enable me to measure the sun's altitude, which placed 
us in lO"* 4' N. Long. 84"* V £. p. m. the gale continued 
with very unsettled weather, wind veering round to the Westward, 
Bar. 29.60; towards midnight weather tolerably clear overhead, 
but a dense wild looking haze all round the horizon, Bar. 29.25. 

2nd December, — The wind continued to veer to the Westward till 
2 A. H. when it fell nearly calm, the weather then looking dismal 
with continued flashes of vivid lightning and loud peals of thunder^ got 
all the canvas secured as fast as possible, which we had just time to 
do when the gale burst out from about S. S. W. Fortunately we were 
prepared for it, and had nothing set but a new small close reefed main* 
top sail, which we lay to under till noon. Bar. stationary at 
29.25. It is impossible for me to describe the sea that we had to contend 
with. It had been blowing a gale (and no ordinary one,) from N. N. E. 
round to S. S. W. for the last three days, and every way we looked a 
mountain of water appeared coming towards us. Shortly after noon 
the Bar. started up to 29.80, but the gale continued without any 
abatement till midnight. 

2rd December. — The gale began gradually to abate and the Sea to 
fall ; Barometer at daylight up to 29.90. 



Abridged Log of the Ship Ftzul Currbeh, Captain J. Ballantinb, 
from Calcutta towards the Mauritius, reduced to civU time. 

2Qth November, 1843 Noon, fine breeze N. and cloudy, Lat. 

T 50' N. Long. 83** 59' E., course South, 7 knots per hour. p. u. and 
to midnight squally. Wind steady at North and N. by £• . 

* These fluctuatioBS are highly iDteresting particularly when limits are given.«-H. P. 



1B45.3 Elevenih Memoir on the Law €f Storms in India. 21 

VJth November.— K. v. to 9; Wind aboat North ; 10 to Noon N.N. W. 
aqoAlly ; noon Lat 5"" IT N. Long. 83'' 36' £., 9 p. m. heavy squalls, 
nind and rain from N. N. W. to midnight. 

28^ November — a. m. to noon, fresh breeze, dec. tolerably elear ; 
wind varying N. N. W. to N. W. b N., 8.30 a. m. an English bark 
standing to the Northward and Eastward. Noon Lat 2" fl N. Long. 
83° 40|^ E- ; by 8 p.m. increasing to fresh gale W. b S. ; to midnight 
course South, 8 knots throughoat. 

29iA November.^A, m. fresh gale West increasing with heavy 
aqoalls to a strong gale and sea by noon, when Lat. 00° M' 8., Long. 
84° 30^' £., Current of about 24 miles to the Eastward, p. u. Gale 
continuing and increasing at times, to midnight, wind strong at West 
sod course South 7 cmd 8 per hour. 

30lA November.—^ a. m. more moderate, noon fresh gales. Wind 
steady at West throughoat. Lat. account 3° 50^ 8., Long. 85"" 2T 
E. Current of 21 to the Eastward, p. v. more moderate and clear, 
wind West ; and at 7 p* h. W. ^ S., midnight moderate and clear, a 
strong sea from the W. S. W. 

\^ December, — a. m. a little squally ; by 10 a. m. wind at N. N. W. 
light 3 knot breeze; noon fine, Lat. 5° 39' S. Long. 85'' 37i' E. Current 
and sea estimated by Captain Ballantine at 29' to the E. N. E. a 
strong sea from the W. S. W. p. m. winds N. N. W., and at 9 N. W. 
and fine to midnight. 

2dDecember — a. m. to noon, light N. N. E. winds with a heavy head 
sea. (Ship steering S. W. by S.) Lat. e^" 41' S. Long. 85<>00f £. no 
current, but the sea has retarded the ship's progress 10 miles. 



Mauritius Ship NBWs/r^m the Englishman. 
We are indebted to Captain Renaut of the Ship Active, for the 
following details respecting the hurricane which he experienced on the 
30th November. On the 24th November, the weather was very tem- 
pestuous, blowing from the S. W. and veering round to the N. W. 
then N. E. and finally settled at E. on the 30th, and blew a perfeet 
hurricane for 48 hours in Lat. 10° 23' S.and Long. 85° 1?' E. The gale 
abated on the 2nd December in Lat. 13° 58' S. and Long. 13° 31' E, 
The Ship sustained the loss of a few sails and a quarter boat ; but for- 
tunately none of the coolie passengers on board sustained any injury. 



22 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Snorms in India, [No. 157. 

The Bark Ward, Chapman^ from Bombay, reports haTinnezperienoed 
a hurricane in Lat. 12'' 30' S. and Long. 84° dCy £. commencing on 
the 30th November from S. W. and blowing right roond the compass. 
It abated however on the 3rd December, Lat. 14° S. and Long. 
79° 30' £ ; she lost a few sails. 



Abridged Log of the Barque Flowers op TJqie, Captain Annand, 
from Madras to the Mauritius, reduced to civil time. 

24th November, 1843. — The Log worked back from 25th, gives for 
this day, Lat 4° 5T, Long. 84'' 33' E. with light Southerly and S. S. 
W. airs and breezes, from noon to midnight. 

25M November, — a. m. heavy squalls and rain, wind S. and S. b 
W. to noon when strong gale about S. S. W. Lat. 5^* 36* S. Long. 85' 
27' £-9 Bar. 29.80, Ther. 81° high cross sea. p. m. to midnight strong 
gale S. W. by S. with squalls and rain ; preparing for bad weather* 
Midnight Bar. 29.68. 

26th November, — To Noon gale increasing from S. W. Lat. 6° 5' S* 
Long. 86° 21' £., Bar. 29.62, Ther. 81°. p. m. increasing and S. W. b. 
W. 6 p. M. hove to under bare poles. Heavy sea running, midnight 
the same. 

2Jth November,^^ a. m. weather a little clearer, noon heavy gales 
Lat. 6<' 20' S. Long. 88° 4' £., Bar. 29.57> Ther. 83^ Easterly current 
of 60' since noon of the 26th. p. m. wind W. N. W. At 10 N. W. to 
midnight. 

28/A November* — 4 a. m. wind hauling to the North, being N. N* W., 
at 2 A. M., when the ship bore up and ran 27' to the S. W. by S. when 
hove to again, having sprung the fore- topmast in rolling. Noon wind 
about N. N. W. Lat. Obs. 7° 41' S. Long, 88° 49' £., Bar. 29.63. Ther. 
84°. p. M. .wind North. Strong gales and heavy sea to midnight. 

29/A November. — a. m. apparently moderating, noon strong gales 
Lat. 8° 46' S., Long. 87° 40' £., Bar. 29.6?, Ther. 83°. 10 a. m. 
bore up and steered S. W. b S., p. m. strong gale N. N. E. Ship 
running to the S. W. b. S. to midnight. Bar. at 4 p. m. 29:66 and 
wind at 10 p. m. N. E., midnight strong gales and Bar. 29.69. 

30/A November. — At 8 a.m. wind N.E. bE.^ strong gale heavy 
squalls, turbulent sea, and Bar. falling, 9 a. m. hove to again, hav- 



'1846.] EUnenih Memoir an the Law €tf Siomu in India, 23 

ing since 10 a. m. on the SQtb, ran 158 miles to the S. W. b. S., 
noon heavy gale, Lat, 10'' 52^ S., Long. 86"* 24' E. Bar. 29.59. Ther. 
SS". p. M. wind N. £. Strong gales, heavy sqaalls and a dark doady 
appearance all round in the sky. 2 p. m Bar. 2958. At 10 p. m. 
Bar. 29.53. Gale very heavy; at midnight Bar. 29.49. 

\si December. — 2 a. m. wind E- N. E. 8 a. m. abating a little, 
10:30 bore op again to S. W. Noon strong gales Lat. 1 1" 2' S., 
Long. 86^ &., Bar. 29.50, Ther. 84^ p. m. Wind N. £. b£., 4 p. m. 
Bar. rising, midnight strong gales and heavy sqaalls, ship running to 
the S. W. 

2nd December.-^i a. m. to noon moderating; 10 a. m. Wind N. E. 
ship steering to S. W. Noon clearing away, Lat. 13** 20^ S. Long. 
83" 49^ East. Bar. 29.83, Ther. Se"*. p. m. fine E. N. E. breeze to 
midnight. 

^d December.-^Hoon fine, lat. 14° 22' S. Long. 81'' 15' £., Bar. 
29.87, Ther. 85^ 



Abridged Log of the Ship Jons Flsmino, Capt CLEnK,from Cakuifa 
bound to Mauritius, reduced to civil time. N, B. Some additions 
made/ram a letter of Capt. ChBBK's/ornHirded by Captain Biobn* 

21«r November 1843 — The weather, firom calm and cloudy with 
light airs on the 20th and 2l8t, is at 5 p. h. on the 2l8t marked as 
** heavy cloudy weather in the North West." 

22d November. — At 5 a. m. the wind became steady at W. S. 
W. At noon fine and cloudy, Lat. OO"* 30' North, Long. 82'' 29' £. 
p. M. to midnight wind about S. W. ship running to S. E. and S. b 
£• 7 and 8 knots* 

23d November.^A. m. squally ; at 8 a. m. wind West, 8 knot 
breeze, coarse South. Noon strong breeze and cloudy, Lat. 2° 15' S. 
Long. 88» 30' E. Ther. 82«, Bar. 29.72. p. m. wind W. b N. and 
at 5 W. S. W., midnight heavy cloudy weather. 

24M November, — a. m. increasing, noon under close reefs, strong 
gale W. S. W. and thick weather with rain, Lat. 4* 47', Long. 84*' 30' 
£. p. M* to midnight wind W. b 8. hard squalls, strong gale and 
heavy sea. Course to the S. and S. S. E. 5 knots. 



24 Eleventh Memoir am ike Law of Siormu in India. QNo. 157. 

25ih November. — a. m. modeimtiDf a little^ high head sea, noon 
Lat. 5"* 1' S., LoDg. SS*" 31' £., Bar. 29.70., Ther. 7^ p. m. wind 
W. 8. W. more moderate ; to midnight heavy head sea eontinnea. 

26ih November. — a. m. to noon wind W. S. W. At noon every 
appearance of a gale, Lat. 5® 58' S. Long. 86^ 24' £., p. m. wind 
marked S. W. b. W. blowing very hard ; Bar. fiUling to 29.50, lying 
to under storm staysails, head to the S., midnight blowing excessively 
hard. 

27/A November, —a. m. Sea increasing ; at noon Lat. 6® 26' S., Long. 
ST 10', Bar. 2950. Ther. 80% p. m. Bar. 29.40, heavy gale (appa- 
rently from N. W. or W. N. W.*) continues till midnight 

28^A November. — a. m. wind drawing to N. W. (ship coming up 
to W. S. W.) Noon more moderate, Lat. T f S. Long. 87* 24' E., 
Bar. 29.50, Ther. 80"*. p. m. wind marked N. N. W. gale continning ; 
very irregular sea. At 8 p. m. wind had veered to N. £., ship running 
S. W. b S. and S. W. 98 miles from 1 1 a. m. to midnight when strong 
gale. 

29/A November. — a. m. Increasing to a hurricane about N. E. ; 
noon Bar. 29.00, Ther. ^9^, Sympiesometer 28.9^ ship on her beam 
ends. Lat. 8^ 47') Long. 86^ 20'. p. m. Hurricane between North and 
East, head to N. N. W., Bar. broke ; oil disappeared in the Simp. 
At midnight ship buried in the sea and half swamped. 

30/A November. — a. m. Cut away the top masts which relieved her 
a little ; boats blown into the rigging and over the poop, at 4 blowing 
a hurricane still between North and East. 

\8t December. — To noon still blowing a heavy gale ; Sympiesometer 
28.4. at noon, oil having re-appeared ,* at 5 a. m. set a storm stay- 
sail, moderating to midnight. 

2d December — To noon moderating, wind not marked, Lat. obs. 
W 5' Long. 79"* 29' ; 7 p- m. wind marked N.E. At midnight fine. 

* Nothing 18 marked in the Log, but it is clear that the wind must have been to 
the Northward of West, at least since midnight, by the Lat. for lying to under 
storm staysail, with a gale from S. W. b W. the ship must have been making nor- 
thing at least from noon to nearly midnight, when if we suppose the gale to have 
drawn to the Northward of West she may in the 12 hours to noon of the 37th 
have drifted back and made the most part of the 41 miles of Lat. which appear 
on the log to noon of the 28th ; for it was only one hour before that time that she 
bore up. 



1845. ] EU»etUh Memoir on the Law of Siarms in India. 25 

Abridged Log cfthe Barque Elizabstb Ainblis, Capiain T. Ltb- 
TSRy/riMn Madrae to the Mauritius, reduced to Civil time* 

2Brd. November, 1843.-.Noon, Lat. Obt. 3* 5' 8. Loog. 84"* 8' Bar 
39.80. Ther. 82^. Daring the preceding 34h had mn 6 to 7 knoU 
to ibe 8. b. £. with windi varying from to 8. W. b. W., wind 
W. b. 8. to 8 A. M. when W. to boob, fresh breese and latterly 
tqualiy. 9, H . the wind W. to midnight* 

24M November. — Wind W. b. 8. to 8 a. m. and W. to noon, when 
Ut. S** icy S., Long. 84"* 25' £., Bar. 29.78. Ther. ^9'. f. m. fresh 
breeae and squally wind W. to midnight. 

25/A. November.— To 5 a. m. Wind 8. W. and to noon, 8. 8. W. 
and high swell from the Soothwaid, Lat. Obs. 5* 41' S. Long. 85"* 50" 
E. Bar. 29.78. Ther. 80^ p. m. fresh gale increasing from S. W. b. 8. 
and S. W., at 1 1 p. m. W. S. W. 

2Sth November. — a. m. fresh gale W. S. W. to noon, and high sea 
from the SoaUiward ; noon Lat ef" 2ff S. Long. 86" 53.' £. p. m. 
hard gales and heavy squalls W. S. W. hove to till midnight head 
N. N. W. when more moderate. 

27/A. November.^^MBde sail to the Southward, and to noon ran 
02 miles to the S. b. W. Winds 1 a. m. W. N. W.; 7 a m. W. b. N.; 
at 10, W. N. W. fresh gales and cloudy with drizaling rain and high 
sea ; noon Lat. Obs. 6"" 2J' S. Long, account 87<' 22' E. Bar. 29.60. 
Ther. 80*. 1 p. m. wind N. W., 6 p. m. N. N. W. 10 p. m. North ; 
midDight N. N. £. 

2Bth November. — 3 a. m. Hard gale from N. E. with heavy squalls ; 
4, hove to under close reefed main- top.sail, Bar. 29. 30 ; noon tremen- 
dous sea, Lat. acct. 8'' 21' 8. Long. 87'' 02' E. Bar. 29.5. Ther. 
80*. To 5 p. H. wind £. N. £.; 6 p. m. East. At 5 p. m. Main-top. 
sail blown to pieces and ship labouring greatly, set the reefed fore-sail 
and kept the ship before the wind. At 6 p. m. foresail blown out of 
the bolt ropes, broached to with head to the N. N. W. midnight, 
gale blowing with great violence^ and tremendous high sea. 

29/A Novetnber, — 5 a. m. A sudden lull and high confused sea. 7 a.m. 
cMnmenced blowing from the North; noon, heavy thick cloudy weather 
all rounds with a high confused sea, hard pbiTs and lulls at times^ Bar. 
29.00, Ther. 77''. At I p. m. wind S. £.; at 6, to 8, North ; at 9, N. N. 
W.; at 12, North, heavy puflk, and lulls with a high sea. Bar. 29.00. 

K 



26 Eleventh Memoir on the Laiw of Storms in India. [No. 1^7 



30M November.^Wm^ North to noon, at 2 a. m. Bar. 2&90. J\. I 
4, Bar. 28.80.; at day-light blowing very hard with tremendous gusec 
at times. Noon, Bar. 28.80, Ther. ^^ ; lying to with ship's head Co 
the West. p. m. commenced a perfect hurricane, ship on her beacm 
ends, and expecting masts to go at every moment, every thing ready 
to cut away. 4 p. m. Bar. 28.90.; 6 p. m. still blowing violently. 
7, wind North, the furled main-sail blown from the gaskets. 8« 
Bar. 28.90, wind N. N. E. Midnight, weather the same. Bar. 29.00. 
lying to, head West to W. N. W. 

\st December, — Daylight inclined to moderate, wind from N. N. £.« 
to noon Bar. 29.10, head N. W.; noon, heavy puffs and lulls witli 
thick cloudy weather, and much rain, Bar. 29.20. Ther. 78*. At 6 
p. M. Bar. 29.30. At 8 p.m. Bar. 29.35., midnight 29.45. p. m. wind 
N. E. 

2d December»^6 a. m. Bar. 29.50., noon 29.70. making sail ; Lat. 
12'' 34' S., Long. SI"" 55' E., pleasant breeze N. E.; 4 p. m. E. N. £ , 
9 p. M. N. £. 

3d December.^Noon, Lat. W. & S. Long. 80''. 53' £. Fine weather. 



Abridged Log of the Ship Edmonstonb, Capt, MacDougal, from 
Calcutta bound to Mauritius, reduced to Civil time^ 

25th November.^ Ai noon in Lat. O"* 15' S. Long. 82'' 30' £., p. m. 
Winds variable from the S. W. to S. S. E. ; to midnight, light breezes 
and cloudy. 

26/A November. ^^ieiAy light breeze to noon from S. 8. W., no ob. 
servation, Lat. account &* 42' S. Long, account 83'' 06' E. p. ii. to 
midnight, winds S. S. W. to South, brisk breeze. 

27/A November, — ^a. m. strong breeze about South, with hard squalls 
and turbulent sea. Lat. Obs. 6" 58' S. Long. 83'' 36' E., p. m. va. 
riable strong breezes from the Southward with hard squalls. Mid- 
night ** strong gale.'* 

28/A November. — a. m. strong gale and mountainous sea. Wind 
about S. S. W. Noon, Lat. Obs. &" 50' S. Long. 84" 04' E. p. m. wind 
S. W.; gale increasing to midnight. 

29/A November — 2 a. m. wind W. S. W. severe gale; 9. a. m. hove 
to under reefed try.sail, wind West, no observation; Lat. account 
7" 12' S. Long. 85" 02' E. p. m. " violent gale W. b. S," heavy cross sea. 



J 846.] Skventh Memoir on the Law of Siormt in India. 



27 



6 p. V. '' wind hauled to W. N. W. and moderated, Bar. rising ; 10 p. m. 
W. N. W. made sail and stood to the S. 8. E. 9' till midnight. 

30/A Nopember.-^S a. m. wind N. W. ; at 6, N. N. W. Daylight, 
gale increasingy and Bar. falling; to noon^ severe gale N. N. W. with 
fnrioiis gusts^ Lat. account 9^ 3' S. Long, account 85^ 4'. E. ; 9 p. m. wind 
N. N. W. severe gale and high cross sea ; at 8, wind N. b. E. to mid- 
night, when Bar. rising a little. 

\st December, — By 9 a. m. strong gales N. E., to noon Lat. by account 
W 15' S. Long, account 84'' 22' E. p. m. the same, wind N. E.to mid. 
oight ; carried away chain plates and hove to ; midnight more moderate. 

2d December. — a. m. moderating to noon ; wind N. E. to 9 a. m. 
and I^orth to noon, when Lat. 12'' 23' S. Long. 84'' SO' E. f. m. wind 
N. £., moderate breeze and heavy cross sea. 

3d December. — Noon, Lat. IS'' 51' S., heavy sea still continuing, 
wind £. N. E. and fine. 

Note. — Captain MacDougal informs me that during the storm, his 
Bar. was at 29.38 and the Symp. at 29^28' the lowest, the Ther. 
steady at ^^ throughout the gale. 

The Lat and Long, given, are partly from the chart, and partly 
from account worked either forward or backward to the near, 
est day of observation. Captain McDougal observes that having 220 
emigrant coolies on board, he was obliged, during the height of the 
storm, to steer various courses to obtain for them as much comfort and 
safety as the weather would allow of, so that he can only give me 
limits mihin which he thinks the vessel's position must have been. 

The log gives as nearly as can be ascertained, a current of 149 miles 
to the South and 1 16 miles to the West, but it is necessarily very 
imperfect, and the set of the storm wave and current on one day was 
doubtless counteracted, in some degree, by that on a different part of 
the storm circle on another. 



Abridged Log of the Barque Baboo, Captain Stv art, from Madras 

to Mauritius, reduced to Civil time. 

26th November, 1843.— At Noon, Lat. &" 17' S. Long, about 83'' 
40^ E., wind S. W. b. S., ship steering to the S. E. b. S. 4^ knots, squal- 
ly and rain. Spoke the Tartar 7 days from Ceylon. Midnight, wind 
8. S. W. 



28 Eleventh Memoir an Me Law cf Stomii in India. [No. 157. 

27M. November — a. m. to Noon strong breeze and cloudy ; no Obs. ; 
p. M. fresh gale S. S. W., 6 p. m. South, course E. S. £. Midnight 
heavy squalls and rain. 

28/A. Nov. — A. M. Heavy squalls and rain continuing, wind from 
8. to S. W., course S. E. to S. S. £. Noon Lat. T 8' S. Long. 85'' lo' 
£., heavy gales S. W. b. W. and sea. p. m. Wind W.. S. W. at 6 
and to midnight when strong gales and rain ; course marked as S. b. 
E. to S. b. W. In the Newspaper report Captain Stuart states this 
to be the day on which the wind became very tempestuous. 

29/A. Nov. — A. H. Strong gales continuing W. S. W. and at 6 a. m. 
this day, course S. S. W. Noon heavy gales throughout, p. m. increasing, 
wind marked N. W. Course S. W. and at midnight S. b. W, 

30/A. Nov- — Daylight heavy squalls and rain N. W. Course S. W., 7 
knots. Noon. Lat. 9° ^ S. Long. 85® 9' E. strong gale. p. m. wind 
N. W. Midnight heavy squalls and rain. 

Xst December. — Wind N. W. to noon; course S. W. b. S. and S. 
W. Lat. 11° 0' S. p. M. heavy gale N. N. W. Course, 74 knots to 
S. W. and at 6 p. m. to W. S. W. Heavy gale and rain ; midnight 
increasing. 

2d, December . — Wind and weather as before, course W. S. W. T^'i 
Noon, no observation, p. m. wind marked Easterly, course W. b. S. 
Heavy gale and squalls to midnight. 

M. December, — Wind Easterly, course W. b. S. 7^ knots. Noon, 
heavy gale, no observation, p. m. wind Easterly, course W. S. W. 
6 p. M. wind N. E. Hove to at 8 p. m. 

4dh. December, — Mizen top-mast went, lost main.yard and sprung 
mam.mast, ship labouring as if in broken water on a reef. No obser- 
vation, p. M. fresh gale and fine, wind E. N. £. lying to; midnight 
moderate and fine. 

5M. December,-^6 a. m. bore up to the W. by S. Wind Easterly, 
noon Lat. Obs. 18"* 6' S. Fine weather. 



Abridged Log of the Ship Sophia, Capt. Andrew, from Bombay 

towards the Mauritius, civil time. 

On the 22d November. — At noon the Sophia was in Lat. 4** 53'. 
S. Long. 79'' 54' E. standing till midnight to the S. S. E. with a mo- 
derate breeze from the S. Westward, squally weather. 



1845.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law ef Siamu in India. 29 

23d November. — Threatening dark weather and puffy, to noon, 
when Lat. 5*" 54! a Long. 80*" 80' B. p. m. to midnight, strong 
breese and cloudy ; ship standing to the E. S. £. and E., wind 8. 8. 
Westerly, throughout heavy head swell ; midnight more moderate. 

24M November. — At 4 : 30 a. m. a heavy squall and shift of wind 
from S. 8. £. to W. N. W. when a strong breeze and heavy head sea, 
ship aUnding to the S. E. ; noon Lat. account 0^ 30' S. Long. 81'' 20' 
£. p. M. wind S. W. b. S. ; midnight squally and calm. 

25/A November. — Throughout variable* squally and calm ; noon Lat. 
Obe. 5"" 50' S. Long SI** 49'. £. Midnight moderate and squally 
weather. 

26IA November. — Moderate S. S. W. breeze to noon, when Lat. 
Obs. 6** 24' S. Long. 82"* 53' £. 6 a. h. saw the bark Ward, 
Chapman, from Bombay ; 8 p. m. wind S. fresh breeze and cloudy, 
ship standing to the West and W. b. N. 

271A November. — Wind South to noon. Standing S. E. b. E. to 
8 A, M. when W. b. N. for 2 hours and again S. E. b. E., strong 
breezes and a heavy, S. E. swell ; noon Lat. Obs. ff* 36' S. Long, 
not given ; p. m. to midnight hard squalls. 

28ih November.-^W'md from S. b. £. to S. 8. W. of variable 
strength, and with thick weather, noon Lat. 6^ 23' S.Long. 81® 
34' £. p. H. increasing with a heavy head sea from the South, 
ward from 3 p. m. to midnight, wind S. W. and S. W. b. W. 

29lA November.^Wmd S. W. b. W. to S. S. W. to noon strong 
breeze and high head sea. Lat noon 6* 48' S. Long. 82® 00' E. 
r. M. increasing in puffs Westerly and W. N. W. ** very dirty ap. 
pearance all round the horizon." 

30M November. — Wind N. W. throughout, a. m. increasing to a 
gale with tremendous puffs at intervals ; daylight heavy gale ; noon hard 
gale, no observation ; p. m. heavy sea in all directions; ship lying to, 
up S. W. off S. S. W. 1 and 2 knots. 

\»t December. — a. m. heavy gales and a fearful sea running in 
all directions, lying to under a close reefed main-top-sail and fore. 
sail. 6 A. M. moderating a little. Wind marked N. W. throughout, 
no observation; p. m. still moderating. Midnight heavy sea running 
from the S. Westward; wind veering a little to the Northward 
apparently. 



30 Eleoentk Memoir on the Law of Siorms in India. [No. 157. 

2d December.— A. m. wind marked North, fresh breeze and cloady 
with cross sea ; noon Lat 9°56'S. and Long. 8 1 .48' E , wind and weather 
the same to midnight. 

Sd December, — Wfnd marked N. N. £. to midnight, and fine wea- 
ther ; noon Lat. 1 1"* ?' S. Long. 80^*49' £. 



Abridged Logo/ the Ship Futtlb Rozack, Captain Rundlb, from 

Calcutta to Mauritius, civil time. 

This very able, careful, and really scientific log, which reflects the highest credit 
on Captain Bundle, was kindly placed at my disposal by him, being his private one. 
Every nautical and scientific man will I am sure join with me in wishing we had many 
such observers afloat, and access to their observations. 1 need not say that with the 
necessary abridgment as to manoeuvres and private matters, I have as nearly as possible 
preserved Captain Bundle's expressions. — H P. 

On the 20th November, 1843 The Fattle Rozack^ at noqn was 

in Lat. 0* 39' N. Long, by 2. Chrs. 82* 30' E. and Bar. 29.93.* Ther, 78** 
Winds variable between W. S. W. and S. W. with light fine weather; 
at 8 p. H. a fresh breeze and squalls, sun-set very fiery, Bar. is 
high. At midnight squalls less frequent^ course S. a little Easterly. 

2\8t November. — 1 a. h. to i, strong breeze smart squalls and 
torrents of rain. Noon^ pleasant weather^ Lat. Obs. 1° 22' S. Long. 
83" 10' E. Bar. 6 a. m. 29.93. Ther. 79''; noon Bar. 29.93. Ther. 82% 
winds ,A. M. S. W. to W. N. W. and at times South, p. m. moderate 
breeze and passing squalls ; a long Southerly swell just perceptible, 
clouds A. M. spherical cumuli and nimbus, p. h. cumuli and dark 
nimbi; wind p. m. West and W. N. W. and N. W. in the squalls ; p. m. 
Bar. 5 p. m. 29.93. Ther. 80% at 1 1 p. m. Bar. 29.03. and Ther. 80^ At 
9 p. M. Capt. R. remarks, *' I observed those modifications of lightning 
more like the Aurora Borealis which I have seen in the North sea, 
or rather more like the Aurora Australis which I have seen off Van* 
Dieman's Land and New Zealand. I have never seen it in low 
Lats. but as a precursor of strong weather. It gradually lightens 
up the western horizon with a sudden dark red glare, and thus flickers 
about for a few seconds and gradually disappears. Bar. is still 
high. The stars too have a very sickly appearance, and a peculiar 

* As corrected by comparison with the Standard at Calcutta. --H. P. 



2845.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Stoftns in India, 31 

dancing motion. I thought at first my eyes deceived me, but my 
mates observed the same ; I suppose occasioned by some dense vapour." 

22d November, — a. m. wind marked S. S. W. to West; course from 
3 to 7 knots to the Southward. Squally, making preparations for 
bad weather. Noon, Lat. Obs. 3** iff S. Long. Chr. 83^ 22f £. Lunars 
83° W £. Current for the last 24 hours S. E. b. £. 20'. Clouds a. u. 
eamulo stratus with flying nimbus. Bar. 1 a. u. 29.93. Ther. 79^ ; 6 
A. M. 29^93^ and 78''; noon 29** 88' and 82^. 

p. M. Squally, winds West to W. b. N. 4 p. m. scud flying swiftly 
to the Southward, 8 p. m. observed many phosphoric flashes in the sea, 
tlie luminous space from one flash as large as the cutter ; running 6 and 
7Icnots to S. b. W. ; midnight fresh breeze. Bar. 9 p. m. 29.91, Ther. 
80°; at 10 p. m. the same clouds p. m. at intervals lofty cirrhi, then again 
obscured, a nimbus and light scud flying to the South above all. 

23(2 November. — a. m. to noon, winds West to S. W. 6 and 7 knots, 
breeze to noon, when Lat. 5"* 22' S. Long. 83'' 53' £., current 59' N. B. 
b. £. for the last 24h. Bar. a. m. 29.70. Ther. 76'' ; at 8 a. m. 29'' 50' and 
TT; at 10 p. M. 29.53 and 78''. Noon 29.46 and 80, clouds hemis. 
pherical cumuli interspersed with ponderous nimbi. 

Capt. R.— remarks. '' I find Bar. considerably fallen with an exceed. 
ing long swell from the Southward, and at 7 & high N. N. W. sea 
meeting the Southerly swell created an exceedingly turbulent sea. 
In the squalls the sea has a strange appearance, the two seas dashing 
their crests against each other shoot up to a surprising height and 
being caught by the West wind, it is driven in dense foam as high as 
our tops. TheNirhole horizon has the appearance of ponderous breakers. 

At 8, Bar. still falling; has there been a gale? Much electricity 
by the appearance of the clouds. Current 59 miles N. E. b. £. ^ £. 
this 24h. p. M. breeze decreasing to 1^ knots, winds West to South and 
at times calm. Clouds, strata and nimbi, making preparations for bad 
weather, appearances being auspicious, 11. 30 p. h. Lat. by Aldebaran 
5° 37' S., midnight squally, rain and calms, dark dismal appearances 
all round and increasing Southerly swell. 

24M November, — Dark and gloomy winds variable from S. £. to S. 
W., Noon, Lat. 5" 32' S., Long. 84^49' E., Bar. 5 am. 29. 57. Ther. 77^ 
At 9, 29. 63 and 78^ at nOon, 29. 64. and SO"*. Clouds, low strata and 
i^ioibus. Currents apparently 30 miles N. E. b. E. | £. for the last 24h. 



32 Eleventh Memoir on the Law cf Storms in India. [No. 157. 

p. M. A French aod English barque in company, the English we tup- 
posed the Baboo, Capt. R. remarks ** I do not like this gloomy weather ; 
with wind lulling and then coming on again with a warning noise * 
there either has been or will be bad weather. At 4 calm> at 5 serere 
squalls from S. S. W. tremendous high sea from the Southward, ship 
rolling dreadfully at intervals. Bar. at 4 p. m. 39.63 ; at 8 p. m. 20.^. 
clouds marked as very low, scudding stratus to the Southward. 

25th November, — a. m. wind South veering to S. W. ''and vioe 
versa/' strong gusts from S. to S. W. with a high cross sea, occasioned by 
a short Northerly sea meeting the long South swell. Noon, stroog^ 
gale at intervals, but decreases as the wind hauls to S. W. increasiog 
to Southward, ship under dose reefed main.top-sail and fore*sail Lat. 
B'' i^ S., Long. bS** 3' £., standing to the E. S. E, a current N. W. 7^ 
W. 27 miles in 24h. Bar. at 6 a. m. 29.64, Ther. 76° ; 9 a. m. 29.64 
and 78° , noon 29.68 and 80°. Clouds marked as low stratus, at times 
scudding to the South, at times stationary, then flying to the N. E. 

p. M. strong gales S.W.b.S. mostly from S. W. attended with 
violent squalls. The rain water exceedingly cold, the sea water very 
warm, much more so than usually. Two Barques still in sight a head 
5 p. M. mountainous sea from the Southward. Lofty scud above the 
lower strata of clouds flying quickly to ihe Souihward at 7> breaks ia 
the clouds, stars visible, but very dull. Bar. at 6 p. m. 29.62, Ther. 
77°* At 10, 29.61. and 77°- Midnight wind in severe gusU succeeded 
by lulls of a few minutes duration. Clouds, low stratus not per* 
haps at 100 yards height, flying before the wind, breaks at times in 
the clouds, stars visible, with lofty scud flying with ind5nceivable ra- 
pidity to the Southward. 

26th November. '^A, m. Laid to under close reefed main.top-sail. 
Wind S. to S. W. squalls with rain, exceeding turbulent sea, noon 
Lat. 6«*. 30' S. Long. BG", 23'. E., Bar. 6 a. m. 29. 62, Ther. 7«''; 
at noon 29.63, and 80®, clouds very low stratus with lofty scud above 
all flying to Southward, nimbus at intervals. Strong set to N. £. b 
£. 65 miles for the last 24th. p. x. fresh gale with furious squalls 

* This warning noise 1 have more than once adverted to as certainly heard also on 
shore; see Jour As. Soc. 7th memoir Vol. XI, p. 1000. but it might there be suppos- 
ed to arise from local causes. It is curious to find it remarked at sea by such an atten- 
tive observer. What can it be occasioned by ? See remarks in summary. 



1845.] ElevetUk Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 33 

aDd nin as cold as ice. Edging away to E. 8. E. and S. E. b. £. 
under two close reefed top-sails, wind S. W. and at intervals W. 8. 
W. and West. At 8, ropes and gear on deck brilliantly spangled by 
small lominous sparks from the sea which when examined appeared 
ta be fragments of Mednsce. Again visible to the W. 8. Westward 
the sullen red glare and flickering lightning ; midnight squally, sea 
presenting flashes of phosphoric light in all directions. Bar. at 9 p. m. 
29.63, Thar. 7B^> clouds low stratus and ponderous nimbi. 

^^(h November, '^•A. x. Increasing gale West, and at 2 N. W. to 
Noon; very high sea; at 1^ wind shifted from W. 8. W. to N. W. 
ereating a tremendous sea ; 10 a. m. struck by a heavy sea which laid 
theihipon her beam ends, lost main-top-mast ; scudded before the wind 
to the S. £. under barepoles. a, m. Bar. falling rapidly, noon Lat. by 
D. R. &" 38' 8., Long. 86^ 53' E., Bar. 5^ a. m. 29.63. and Ther. 
79". tt7h. Bar. 29.62 ; at 9h. 29.57; at lOh. 29.53; at lO^h. 2950; 
It lib. 29.47; at Hi 29.44; at noon, 29.43 and Ther. 80^ clouds 
throughout exceeding low stratus. 

p. M. Wind N. W. to 10 p. m. when North ; course 8. E. to 10, and 
then South ; 3 feet water in the hold and most of the crew sick ; vessel 
miking only 4 knots per hour before the wind and labouring exces- 
lively. At 6 Bar. rising very fast, and at midnight falling again with 
dark gloomy threatening weather all round. Bar. at 2 p.m. 29. 46, Ther. 
Sl^* ; at 4h. Bar. 29. 47 ; at 5h. 29. 56 ; at 6h. 29. 62 ; at 7h, 29. 63, and 
Ther. 79''; at 9h. 29. 61 ; at Q^h. 29. 58; at lO^h. 29. 62; at llh. 
29.50; at midnight 29.49. Ther. 77^* clouds, exceeding low stratus. 

28/A November.^Wind N. E. the whole 24h. a. m. increasing gale, 
wind veering euddenfy to N. E., in a furious squall, lost fore-top.mast, 
ship lying to in much distress, Bar. 29.47 at 1 a. m. Ther. 79" ; 
2 A. M. 29. 45 ; 5 A. h. 29.44 ; at 6h. 29.43. Ther. 80» ; at 1 Ih. 29.45 
• Ther. 81«, noon 29.49 and 82**. Lat. D. R. 7* 39' S. double Alt. 7* if 
U&g. 87** 17' E.^ clouds low stratus with ponderous nimbi. 

p. M. wind N. E. tremendous squalls blowing with inconceivable 
fury. The sea rising in huge pyramids yet having no velocity but 
rising and falling like a boiling cauldron. I have never seen the 
Uke before, I was in the height of the terrible hurricane of September 
1834, in the West Indies, I have been in a tyfoon in the China sea, 
in gales off Cape Horn, the Cape of Good Hope and New Holland, but 



34 Eletenih Memoir on the Law of Siorms in India, QNo. 157. 

never saw such a ooofiued and strange sea, I have seen much 
higher seas^ and I am sure wind heavier but then the sea was re* 
gular and the wind steadier.* 

10 p. M. dreadful squalls and a oonfused sea, both cutters wadied 
away and mieeni^topmast carried away, blowing still harder but Bar. 
rising; midnight tried to set the fore..sail and scud but it was blown to 
pieces clouds low stratus and nimbus; Bar* 2 p. m. 29.49. Ther. 
82'' ; at 5h. 29. 5 and SO^" ; at lOh. 29. 58 ; at 1 Ih 29. 54 ; at midnight 
29.56 and 79^ 

29/A Nopember.-^A. u, wind N, £• till noon> still blowing fearfully 
at times. Again tried to scud and ran S. by W^ 58 miles to noon^ 
Bar. steadily rising, 10 a. m. good sight for Chr, 2 a. m. Bar. 29.57 > At 
7h. 29.57. and Ther. 79''; at lOh. 2958. and80''; at noon 29 59. and 
8P. Lat. 9« 47' S. Long. 87** 18'. 

Noon blowing with inconceivable fury at times^ with the sea I 
think more agitated and ccmfused than ever ; rising up in monstrous 
heaps and falling down again without running in any direction. 
Noon laid to again. 

p. M. violent squalls and tremendous high sea, 3 feet water in the 
hold, wind N. £. to East. Midnight more moderate at times. Bar. 
2 p. M. 29.60, Ther. 82", and to midnight the same, but Ther. 79"" 
clouds during this 24h. are exceeding low stratus scndding in all dis« 
rections, upper strata to the Southward, lower to the west; at other 
times apparently to North and East. 

30M November. — a. m. gale abates a little, high sea^ ship lying to 
with tarpaulins in the mizen rigging, wind marked N. £. to East. 
Bar. 4 a. m. 29.60, Ther. 77^ Noon 29.61. Ther. 80% Lat. 10* 55' 
S. Obs 10"* 48^ S. by double altitudes Long. 86^' 46' E. Clouds low 
stratus. 

p. M. moderate gale at times but the sea does not go down ; at 4, 
heavy rain, wind N. E. throughout, midnight the same weather; 
heavy squalls of rain. Bar. 1 p. m. 29.61. Ther. 8r; at 6h. 2961. and 
78* ; midnight clouds low stratus with nimbi. 



il This is by far the clearest, most graphic and seamaii'like description of " the pyramidal sea" 
found at, or near, the centre of Indian Hurricanes and to which I have frequently alluded in 
former memoirs, which I hare yet met with. 



1845.] JSlevetUk Memoir an the Law of Siarms in India. 35 

lit. December — 'A. m. gale and tea moderating. Winds N. £• to 
noon when Lat. U^ W. 8. Long. 85M7' B. Bar. 6 a. m. 89.61. Ther. 
7T- Noon 29.63. Ther. 81* Clouds oirro^timtos and nimbi, p. m. 
iqoills of rain at intervals, wind N. fi. to midnight. 6 p. m* Bar. 
29.03, Ther. SO*" j midnight 39.64. and 78" ; clonds cirro-stratus and 
pooderons nimbi. 

%i December. — Moderate and passing squalls, sea much gone down, 
repsiriog damages. Winds tSast to noon when Lat. 12^ 80' Long. 
Luiiara Sfi"* 26" £. Chro. 85^ 84'. Bar. noon 99.67. 

Zd Deeembert — At noon quite fine. 



Abridged extract /rem the Log of the Barque WBhuvQvoti, forwarded 

bjf Captain Biobn, CivU time, 

dO/H November, 1843.^At noon in Lat. 13« 87' S., Long. 84* 7' E. 
Bar. 29.6a Ther. 82*. Wind marked B. S. £. Inereasiog to 2 p. m. 
when hove to, having prepared for bad weather. 

W December. — Wind marked East; gale increasing, noon Lat. 
19" 2y S., Long. 83* 47' E., Bar. 29. 58. at midnight and noon, Ther. 
88^> sea increasing. 

^ December, — Heavy gale N. E. 9 a. m. saw a Barque scudding 
under reefed fore-sail. Noon Lat. 18*5' S., Long. 88'' 27' E., more mo. 
<lerate, 6 a. m. Bar. 29.58. ; at 10, 29. 70., Noon 29.77- Sail made 
Kradoally. 

3(f December Noon, N. E. light breeze and rainy, Lat. 12*' 34' S., 

Long. 84* 34' E. Bar. 29.90. Ther. 71. 



^^aet from the Log Book of the Ship Trub Bmton, /rom lAmdon 

to Madras. — Capt. G. C. Oonsxtt. 

Friday let December 1848 p. m. Wind E. by 8. commenced with 

shard gale with occasional tremendous squalls with hail and rain. 
^f wind increasing to a hurricane nearly, with a tremendous heavy 
^ striking the ship severely, washing away the quarter galleries, 
above and below, and loosening the stern frame, causing the water 
to come in there rapidly and obliging us to keep a strong gang of 
bands in the lower after Cabins bailing continually, the lower deck 
^nipletely afloat fore and aft, ship's sides and water-ways leaking 



36 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. QVTo. 157. 

much, washed in and unshipped Larboard Cutter ; daylight, found one 
of the shrouds of the main rigging carried away and the wedges 
round both fore-mast and bowsprit worked right out; blowing heavily 
at East with tremendous squalls and rain. Ship lurching and rolling 
heavily and shipping much water over all. The lower deck complete- 
ly afloat, the water washing over the combings. No Observations. 

Bar. ranging from 29.50. to 29. 60., Simp, from 29.2 to 29. 10. 
throughout the gale the Ther. 83^. 

Saturday 2d December, 1844.— p. m. Wind £. by 8. Hard gale 
with heavy squalls, rain and hail and a tremendous sea on ; ship being 
struck very heavily about the stern frame and under the Larboard 
main channels, the quarter galleries completely gone, the quarter 
deck and waist ports stove and washed out, the sea rolling in on either 
side in a large body ; 8 ditto weather ; 10 The gale moderating and glass 
inclined to rise ; midnight less wind with a high sea on, ship labouring 
severely, the sea striking her heavily and taking in much water on 
deck and below. 

2d December — Daylight found the driver-boom tossing astern. 
8, wind still blowing strong with less sea; well 14 inches; throwing 
overboard 5 horses, that died from fatigue and want of air during 
the late bad weather ; noon moderate and fine. Lat. Obs. 12^ 58^ 
South. Long. 82'' SO'. East. 



I now, as in the former Memoirs, arrange the logs of the ships in 
tables to shew at one view the weather and winds prevailing over 
this great space of the ocean which, it will be observed, reaches on the 
1st and 2d November, over 24 degrees of Lat. including the equator, 
and during 5 days with severe storms blowing on both sides of it. 
This is alone a Meteorological curiosity of no small interest. 



Ekventh Memoir on tit Law of Slarmt in India. 



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Vessel running to the S. W. 
S. S. W. and S. b. W. position 
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Steering to the Eastward from 
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1845.] Elevenih Memoir on the Law of Storm* in Iniia. 45 



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^0 Eleven^ Memoir on the Law of Stormi in India, [[No. 167 . 

PART I. 

Summary. 

Southern Hemisphere. 

I have divided this summary into two parts to separate the storms 
of the Northern and that of the Southern Hemispheres from each 
other. If we review the tables^ and this will be usually found the 
best means of forming an approximate judgment, at a glance we 
shall find, that. 

On the 2ith of November — There is fine weather in the Northern 
Hemisphere with the Winifred in 15^® N. and we have no other 
Logs for that day in Northern Lat. nearer to the equator. In the 
Southern Hemisphere in Lat 4"* 47', S. a gale had so far begun with 
the John Fleming as to reduce her to close reefs, but her Bar. had 
not fallen below 29.72. : yet the thick weather, rain and heavy sea 
might be thought sufficient indication, that she was on the verge, 
at least, of the commencing storm, the centre of which must then have 
borne about S. S. £• to S. b. £. of her ; as in the Southern Hemis- 
phere we assume, — and this memoir will amply prove it, — that the re- 
volution of the rotatory storms is from the South (on the left hand) 
to the West, North and East. 

But we shall observe at the same time, that at Noon on the same 
day the Flowers of Ugie was, by her Log worked back from Noon of 
the 25th* within 12 or 15 miles of the John Fleming and yet she had 
but light airs, calms, and breezes from the South and S. S. W. from 
noon till midnight, when the weather began to be squally, increasing 
to a strong gale at Noon of 25 th, though even then her Bar. was 
at 29.80. 

We have then the Elizabeth Ainslie in 5*> 10' 8. and Long. 84<' 25' 
E. or within 3 miles of the Ugie (though their logs do not mention being 
in sight of each other) and there are thus possibly errors in the positions 

* The extract sent me begins on the 25th. Nautical time and though the Log 
is perfectly well and even carefully kept, it has the fault of adopting the - 
Coaster form of marking the run per Log erery two hours only ; which thus always 
renders it in some degree obscure for purposes of after reference and exact calcula- 
tion. 



J 



1845.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, 61 

of all the shipe sufficient to put them out of sight of each other.* This 
ship had also, up to noon, a fresh breeze and squally weather, and her 
Bar. at 29*78. the wind at West and W. b. S. and becoming more 
squally as she ran to the S. Eastward between noon and midnight. 
The Futtle Rozack was the next ship to the Southward, being in 5® 32' 
S. and 84** 49^ £. on this day. As will be seen by her log, which is 
well worth an attentive perusal, she had indications of suspicious wea- 
ther from the 21st in 1^ 22^ S. and these were increasing every day ; her 
weather on this day (the 24th) being dark and gloomy, with variable 
squalls and even calms at times, but with a tremendous high sea from 
the Soath, '' the wind" lulling and coming on again with a moaning 
noise/' her Bar. was yet at 29.64.t We have thus four ships, the John 
Fleming, Flowers of Ugie, Elizabeth Anslie, and Futtle Rozack, in a 
space comprised within 45 miles of Lat. and 25 of Long, so that allowing 
for slight errors of instruments and observations the whole were within 
less than a square degree of each other, and as we have seen they seem 
to have had just such variable etreams of wind and intervals of calms 
or light breezes, with even fine weather, as we might suppose a priori 
to exist on the outer verge of a storm, and which those who have fol. 
lowed the investigations of them, both here and through Col. Held, and 
Mr. Redfield's works have found in both Hemispheres. It is curious 
that none of the other ships remark on this day, though they do so on 
the 25th, upon the heavy sea, so carefully noticed in Captain Bundle's 
remarks ; I shall advert to this again. We may thus consider the gale 
of the John Fleming as perhaps a commencing stream of wind on the 
circumference of a vortex, for I must again reiterate here that while of 
eourse a storm must begin somewhere and somehow, we are profoundly 
ignorant, both of the how and the where it begins, whether at the centre 
or on the circumference, and what its effects at the circumference 
are both when beginning and after it is in progress, and can only 
therefore carefully register every fact which may tend to throw the 
fointest light upon the manner in which these tremendous phoenomena 

* This however may not be the case ; a Commander of one of the ships told me 
that there were " several of us close together when the gale commenced'' and he 
aeant m tight, for he remarked upon the want of preparation apparent in one or two 
r e ascls . 

t Nearly correct, for its slight error of *07 was ascertained here. 



62 Eleventh Memoir on the Law (tf Storms in India, QNo. 157. 

first develope themselves, or are felt, at the extreme verge of their 
peripheries or at their centres. 

We cannot therefore assign any centre for the storm on the 24th> for 
we have no evidence beyond the heavy swell just alluded to that it 
was fairly begun any where on that day ; though it should be borne 
in mind that it may have been also coming up from a distance, and 
that the incipient gale of the John Fleming was perhaps an extra^vor^ 
tteal stream thrown off from the main body of the storm,* and the 
heights of the Bars, of the John Fleming'and Ugie as late as noon of the 
25 th lends some countenance to the probability that the storm had 
formed and was really coming up. It is remarkable also that on this 
day the Fleming had the weather '' more moderate" than on the 24th^ 
while with the flowers of Ugie it was ^' a strong gale" at noon. 

On the 2Sth November.-^ At noon it will be seen that these four 
ships the Fleming, Ugie^ Ainslie^ and Futtle Rozack, were all within a 
square space of 45 miles on each side, or as before^ allowing for slight 
errors, all within a square degree, having made from 16 to 85 miles to 
the S. £. by Eastward. The Fleming was the northernmost ship, and 
in about B'* S., the other three nearly on the same parallel of 5.4Q. S. 
and from SS"* to 85° 40' East. The Fleming as above remarked has the 
weather moderating considerably on this day^ and this is a proof that 
her gale of the 24th, was as we supposed, in all probability, an extra- 
vortical stream thrown off from the gale into which the other three 
ships 40 miles to the South of her, were now fairly entered.t They 
had all four on this day the high Southerly sea, which may be said for 
the Ugie, Fleming, and Ainslie, to have begun from midnight, 24th 
25th, when the Ugie marks 2 points of lee- way and she begins her pre- 
parations for bad weather also from this time. Excluding the Fleming 
since she was not yet fairly in the storm and taking the three other 
ships just mentioned to have been within it, we find they had all the 

* The vignette titles to the Charts are purposely drawn to shew these kinds 
of irregularities either at the circumference or in the bodies of the storms. If con- 
sidered attentively the reader will see that the arrows may curve more inwards 
or outwards, or be in the exact circumference of every circle, from a hundred varying 
causes and forces. 

t Here we have an explanation of this treacherous moderating of the weather 
which I have often remarked upon, see ** Horn Book of Storms,'' p. 11, and which 
every seaman of experience in tropical seas knows. 



1845.] Ekvenih Memoir on the Law cf Siormi in India. 53 

wind at from between South to S. S. W. tnd S. W. those which had 
it steadiest and were farthest to the Eastward^ i* e. nearest to the centre, 
which are the Ainslie and Ugie, having it between South and S. S. W. 
10 that we may call it almost S. b. W. on the average, which would give 
the centre bearing at noon £. b S., from the centre of the triangle formed 
by them, at any distance we may suppose; but it is barely possible to 
usign thiSy as we know nothing of the general sizes of the Tortioes in 
the Southern hemisphere or of this one in particular. We may notice 
also that to this day the two ships Edmonstone and Sophia which 
weie^ though in about the same Lat three or four degrees to the West 
of the others, had nothing but variable light breezes, and fine weather* 
On the 26/ft N&vember, — We have still the same four ships near 
eadi other, though somewhat more dispersed ; two, the Futtle Rozack 
and Ainslie, being at 73 miles from each other and the other two 
aixmt midway between them, the whole four had severe gales and 
by noon, the Fleming was lying to under storm stay sails ; the Ugie 
under bare poles at 4 p. m. and the Ainslie also hove to at noon. 
These three ships had the wind between W. S. W.and S. W. The Fut. 
tie Rozack, the northernmost ship, having it about S. W. at noon, though 
ss she was running away to the S. E. b. £. she found it drawing more 
Westerly. Taking a spot in the middle of the acute rhomboid formed 
by their four positions,* which will only differ 35 miles at farthest 
from the two most distant from each other, and this in the line of 
the perpendicular, we shall find it to be in Lat. 6^ b' S. Long. 86'' 
^ £. and if we take it that here the average wind was really S. W. b. 
W. ^ W« we shall have the centre bearing from us S« E. b S. ^ S. and 
we may perhaps assume that the distance of it did not exceed from 
this spot 150 miles, which would place it as I have marked it in Lat. 
8"" 17' S., Long. 87^ 45' E. It was not much more than this distance, 
for the Sophia «and Edmonstone which were about 220 miles due 
West of these four ships, had still fine weather with a brisk S. S. W. 
and Southerly breeze at noon in this day and the Baboo, as nearly as we 

* This, when the positions of vessels do not afford cross bearings by the perpendi- 
culars from their tangents is far the safest and mast be the most correct method, par- 
ticalarly if we take into account how ill the exact positions can be ascertained in 
inch weather and with bow little exactitude the direction of the wind also is noted 
in most logs. 



54 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, [No. 157. 

can judge from her Lat. and Long, was in Long. SS"* 40' E. Lat. 6^ 17' 
Soath or about 180 miles also to the Westward, standing close hauled 
A\ knots to the S. £. b 8. with the wind at 8. W. b S. but with only 
squally and rainy weather, whereas had the storm been of much larger 
dimensions, that is if its centre was at any much greater distance from 
the mean point between the four ships already noted above, the Baboo 
must now have felt it more severely. Hence 150 miles is certainly 
the utmost semi-diameter we can allow to the storm on this day, sup- 
posing the circle to be fully formed. 

VI th November, — The positions, of the same four ships^ again form a 
triangular figure, of which the longest diameter from W.S. W. to 
E. N. E. is 7^ mW^s and the perpendicular about 20. Three of thenci 
indeed, the Fleming, Ainslie, and Futtle Rozack are so placed that 
their mean distance is but about 18 miles, and I take this spot, Lat. 
6"* 32' S. Long. 87'' 13' E. to be the average position of those three 
ships. Their winds as marked in the logs are ;. 

Elizabeth Ainslie about N. W. b W. 
Fleming about W. N. W. 
Futtle Rozack N. W. 
N. W. b. W. is thus about the mean of their winds and the Ugie we 
find had it W. N. W. Projecting these for the supposed bearing of the 
centre 8. W. b 8. and S. 8. W. it will give us two diverging lines, not 
an unfrequent case where ships are near each other, the weather severe, 
and the wind not probably '^ filled up," (if marked at all in the log) 
till a day or two afterwards.* To the Westward we have the Edmon. 
stone and Baboo with apparently etreams of winds from the South 
and 8. 8. W. and a sea from S. £. such as might be expected on the 
Western verge of a gale, and exactly analogous to those experienced by 
the Ainslie, Ugie, and other ships on the 25th when on its Northern 
verge ; and those ships Edmonstone, and Baboo, were also standing on 
the starboard tack to the E. S. E, so as to run towards it. The Sophia, 
a degree farther to the Westward, has the S. E. swell but less wind. 

* This is no exaggeration, as every one who knows what the severe and anzioos 
duties of the master and officers of a merchant ship, under the present economical 
systems of sailing them, become in bad weather will fully admit; and we must add 
here that most of our ships had Lascar crews and Coolies on board. I do not then 
it will be understood, make the remark in the text disparagingly, but as necessary 
to put the reader in full possession of the facts and the grounds of my judgment. 



]845.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, 55 

We miut therefore, as the gale had not yet reached the Baboo^ which 
ship is the nearest, and at about 150 miles from the Futtle Rozack, 
Ainslie, and Flemings conclude that it did not much exceed 100 miles 
in its semi-diameter, and taking this distance on each bearing line and 
then the mean point between the two> we obtain a spot in Lat. 7^ ^^ 8* 
Long. 86^ 5Qf E. for the approximate place of the centre of our storm 
for the 27th9 but we shall find on the 28th that this very nearly ap- 
proaches vhat must have been its true place as shewn by the veering 
of the winds, as the ships running and drifting to the S. S. E. aaUed 
cUme round the centre, which was slowly moving to the N. W. 

On the 28/A of November^ — We find on this day three of our ships 
the Fleming, Futtle Rozack, and Ainslie^ nearly on the same meridian, 
but with a difference of J5 miles in Lat. between the Fleming, the 
northernmost and the Ainslie the southernmost ship, all having run 
or drifted, as the wind veered with them, to between the S. S. East 
and S.b. Westward, and the hurricane having been stationary or pass- 
ed very slowly to the N. Westward, judging from its approximate 
track already laid down. Now if the circular theory be true, and if 
there was this progressive motion we ought to find that these ships have 
brought the winds from N. N. W. to North and N. East, according to 
their positions on various parts of the circle, having run or drifted, as 
before said, round the N. Eastern and Eastern, and one of them, the 
Ainslie, reached the S. Eastern quadrant of the storm circle. We have 
seeordingly at noon. 

IMore moderate and drawing to the 
N. W.* p. M. N. N. W. and as the 
ship was running to the S. W. at 8 
p. M. N. East. 

{Wind N. E. throughout, having veered 
from North with tremendous sea, her 
course neariy parallel to the track of 
the storm. 

-,,..,. J N. E. hard gale, tremendous sea. p. m. 

TheAtnslte ^ E N. E. 6 p. m. East. 

While the U^ie from 80 to 90 miles to the Eastward of these ships has 
the gale first from N.N.W. but by running to the S. W. b S. brings 
it to North : all this is, as will readily be comprehended in exact con- 

* I suppose it to be about N. W. b. N. 



56 Eleventh Memoir an the Law rf Storms in India* [No. 157. 

formity with oar law of storms for the Southern Hemisphere ; and to 

the Westward we have now moreover. 

I With wind from S. to S. W. and nt 
The Baboo. < noon S* W. h W. and at 6 p. m. 

( W. S. W. strong gale. 

( With strong gale and mountainous sea 

The Edmonstone ^ wind about S. S. W. veering to S. W. 

I after noon. 

which are also about the winds which ships entering the storm on its 
western quadrant should have. The Sophia is yet too far to the West- 
ward to feel much of the storm. Taking all these data we find that 
the nearest spot which will reconcile them, within either a lew miles 
of their position as given or calculated, or within a point or more of the 
direction of the wind/ is one in Lat J'' 18' S. and Se"" 45' E. where 
I have therefore placed the approximate centre of the storm for this 
day. 

On the 29th liovemher.'^The positions of the ships are now becoming, 
it should be recollected^ very uncertain from the continuance of the 
bad weather, and thus any estimation of the true place of the centre of 
the storm from their supposed places at noon, becomes more and more 
difficult. Nevertheless if we take a point near the calculated f»iaoe 

* I use here these words, intentionally, and as writing for unprofessional as well 
as professional men, and anxious that not only all onr data, but also all the cmdder" 
ationt which would influence the mind of a scientific seaman in conaideriog what 
weight he would give to these data, should be known to all. It occurs to me that 
I may usefully set down here, what considerations must be taken into account in 
considering log-book relations of storms. The seaman is acquainted with most of 
them, but some may be new even to him. The data are first the shot's place, secoad 
the direction of the wind, third the run or drift, fourth the sea, these are influenced 

by. 

1 Want of observations. 

2 Bad observations set down as good ones. 

5 Run or drift ill kept or badly estimated, few ships marking their lee-way for 

instance, and some being much more lee-wardly than others. 

4 Storm wave, 1 See 8th Memoir, Jour. As. Soc. Vol. XII. p. S97 for the ex^ 
Storm current, J planation of these terms. 

6 Wind carefully or carelessly noted 1 

7 Not noted at all till a day or two after the storm ? 

8 Veering of the wind set down at the wrong hours. 

9 Alterations of courses also set down wrong, or at wrong time, 

10 Inaccuracy of all data from errors of copyists or printers ; the. last^almost con- 
tinual in Newspaper accounts. 



1845.3 Eleventh Memoir an the Law of Siorms in India. 57 

of the Elisabeth Ainalie which ship muit have been cloee to the centre 
at iKM!D» fox she was in it at 5 p. k. on this day, we shall find, that it 
tfiees so fiir as to make the following ships have the winds by the 
chart and by their logs as follows : — 

Wind by Log. Wifui bjf the prqfeeiion. 

Elizabeth Ainslie, • • about North. • . Assomed correct. 

John Fleming, • . between N. and £. N. ^ £. 

Flowers of Ugie, . . about N. b £• N. ^ £. 

Fsttle Rosack. . . N. £ast. * . N. N. £. ^ E. 

Baboo, Westerly. .. W. by N. 

SdsiQaaftone, .. West West. 

Sophia, . . * . about W. S. W. S. W. by S. 
i^kh is near enough for these seven ships to allow us to assume it. 
It will then be for this day in Ut. ff 3B' S. Long. 85'' 00 E. 

On the 20tk November. -^Vfe find that a number of the ships 
whidi had drifted or run to the SoiUh and South Westward, were evi- 
dently on the Eastern and South Eastern and Southern quadrants 
•f the storm, having the winds from N. by E. to N. £. and East, 
while others were on the Northern, and the Sophia on the extreme 
North Western verge. The Edmonstone which ship had run down 
about a degree and a half to the Southward, (S. S. £. South and S. S. 
W.) had the wind ako veering as it should veer with a Hurricane 
dswly progressing to the Westward, while she was running partly 
roand the N. fiastefOj. and towards the Eastern quadrants of it ; and 
her Bar. also was Hailing from midnight of the 29th to 30th, as by bearing 
^, she run down again towards, and neared the centre. We find it again 
rising alsa when, having brought the centre of the Hurricane to bear 
W. b N. of her (wind N. b E.) towards midnight of the 1st Decem- 
ber, she again heaves to and allowed the storm to pass slowly away 
born her, while she drifted away from ii. The following will be 
found the directions of the wind as given in the ship's logs and those 
which the centre of the Hurricane, as assumed* for this day, and the 
positions of the ships give at Noon. 

* I IMS Om word " assumed" rather in contradistinction to *' shown" or " de- 
aonstnted" bocaose of the great uncertainty of many of the ships' positions, of 
which^some have now been three or four days without obserFatlons and keeping a 
▼ery indifferent note of the drift, sea, and even of courses, and winds. 

I 



58 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Starmi in India. [No. 167. 

Wind b^ the Log, Winds by their poet* 

Hone on the chart, 

Edmonstone N. N. W N. N. W. 

Flowers of Ugie, N. E N. E. 

Futtle Rozack N. £ N. £. 

Active/ about East E. N. £. 

Baboo, N. W N. b. W. 

WelliogtODi > • • • •••••• E. S. E. ••• E. ^ S. 

The Ainslie and John Fleming's positions are both atterly uncer- 
tain on this day, though both ships were doubtless from the violence 
and veerings of the wind with them^ close to the centre ; no sort of 
account indeed could well be kept in these ships as from stress of wea. 
ther, they were obliged to steer various courses so as to ease the vessel 
as much as possible, on account of their cooley passengers. The Ward 
from the inperfect newspaper account appears, though a degree or 
more to the North of the Wellington, to have had it at S. W. commenc- 
ing on this day, though her position is quite uneertain^t as the Lat and 
Long, given, as in the case of the Active, seem to have been intended 
to express the spot where they had the heaviest weather and not the 
ship's place. 

The log of the Sophia offers a considerable anomaly. By the posi- 
tion of our centre from which she is at 180 miles distance, which 
is much less than the distance of the Wellington, and about the 
distance of the Futtle Rozack and Ugie from it, she should have the 
wind at S. W. while she has it at North W. by her log ! I am unable 
at present to reconcile this. It may be an error in copying, or it may be 
that she met with another and a new storm thrown off in advance of 
the principal one, or finally she may have been carried much further to 
the Eastward than she supposed, and thus have been really on the N. 
Eastern quadrant as her wind would place her. I leave it therefore 
for the present. 

* This vessers place is also uncertain , for the Lat. and Long, given in the new§' 
paper appear to be that of the ahip when the atonn waa at its height, rather tbaa 
that of a given date. 

t The position is wholly wrong. The Ward spoke the Sophia on the tSth in 6| 
S. and therefore could not be on the 30th in iS. 30, So, both having Soutb«riy 
winds. She was probably on this day somewhere between the Sophia's «nd ^aboo'i 
tracks which would give her the S. Westerly gale mentioned. 



1845.] EUventk Memoir on tho Law of Storms in India. 59 

Om ike Ise Deeember.-^We hftve the Flowers of Ugie and Puttie 

Ronck close together with a heavy gale at N. E.^ and the Edmonstooe 

also^ which ship had ran to the Southward about 150 miles^ making but 

little westing, was now nearly on the same parallel, but 90 miles to 

the Westward of the two former ships, also with a N. Easterly gale; 

Tliis places all three ships on the S. E, quadrant of the storm circle ; 

iDd we have the Fleming with a hurricane between North and East 

" and the Ainslie with pufb and lulls from the N. E./' indicating that 

both were not far from the centre and also on the same quadrant. The 

Fleming appears to have run in company with the storm for some time, 

ind as the Ainslie was hove to, we see by her rising Bar. that it was» 

by her drift, rapidly passing from her. The track laid down for these 

two vessels it will be remembered is merely a line to Join the two 

points between the 29th November, and 2nd and 3rd December, their 

position being wholly uncertain between those dates. The Baboo and 

Sophia both mark winds at N. W. but the positions of both are very 

oncertain. Hence we may I think place the centre of the storm for 

this day about in Lat. 9"" 35' S. and Long. 83'' 42' E. and it will give 

the winds to the ships as follows : — 

Ugie and Futtle Rozack about, • . N. E. by E. 

Ainslie and Fleming's positions 1 ^ PnntwRrd 
wholly uncertain, f ^'•"wwa. 

Edmonstone, £. N. £. 

Wellington, East. 

which with the exception of the Edmonstone is not far from what 
they had. For the position of the Baboo, we have only her Lat. which 
however would undoubtedly place her on the N. £. quadrant and 
therefore give her a North Westerly wind. The Sophia (or her posi- 
tion) is an anomaly which I must leave as I find it. She has by the 
position given, and with our centre, the wind a little to Southward of 
West, but by her log as marked she had a heavy North Westerly gale, 
the may have again been farther to the Eastward than she supposed 
for she could have had no good observations for the preceding 8 days, 
ind this as before remarked would place her on the right quadrant of 
the cirde for a N. Westerly gale, I have however, marked a storm arrow 
dirongh her supposed position for this day. 
On the 2nd December. — We have the Futtle Rosack, Edmonstone, 



60 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, [No. 1 57. 

Ainslie, and Flenring, all not hr fimm the Mine parallel of Lat. 
but dispersed over four degrees of Long. The Fleming (poritios 
uncertain) being the Westernmost, and Futtle Rozack farthest to the B. 
We have the Ugie also about a degree to the Southward of them, aeod 
the weather is fair, or clearing up fut with a £ur Easterly breeze, for «1I 
these ships by noon on this day, as being on tlie S> E. quadrant of the 
storm, had run or drifted out of it ; and had no doubt now a pnrt of 
the usual trade wind. The Sophia is found on this day in about the 
Lat. of the centre of the Ist, and she has the wind at North, at noon, 
Jrom a heavy gale at N, W. on the preceding days, shewing evidently 
that her storm could not have been the same as the one we have been 
considering, t. e. that of the Futtle Rosack, Ugie and and other ships. 
She notes also, that at midnight between the Ist and 2nd there was a 
heavy sea coming up from S. W. which was in all probability the sea 
from the Ugie's storm, to judge by the positions of our circles. 



PART II. 



Storms in the Northern Hemisphere. 

25ih November.-^ln the Northern Hemisphere we have nothing 
extraordinary for this day, the Careoa off Ceylon having light airs 
and the Winifred in the middle of the bay in Lat. 13** a fresh monsoon 
with an average Bar. 

26th November The Winifred, Gandahar, and Fyzul Curreem, 

have winds and weather indicating a change, though there is nothing 
sufficiently pronounced to be called, as yet, the commencement of s 
storm, and the Bars, of both the Gandahar and Winifred are faif^. 

27/A November,--^We have three ships, the Winifred, Pyzulbarry 
and Fyzul Gurreem, each with signs of the approaching storm, which 
was afterwards so severe unth the Fyzulbarry, (and perhaps the Colo^ 
net Burney}) The Winifred in Lat T 4' N. and Long. 85<' 56' 
£. at noon is running rapidly to the South, the wind veering from E- 
N. E. at noon to North at 8 p. m., and N. N. W.at 4 a. m. with thick 
gloomy weather and violent squalls, ''giving little warning" says Gap- 
tain Webb ; an apt phrase to designate squalls thronm of from the 
periphery of a rotatory storm, if they were such. 



1945.] Sievim^ MtmM' on ths Lau> nf Storms in India. 61 

Tiie Fysul Carrran in Lat. 5« 1 V S., bat in Long. 83^ 86' E., or two 
d^iees farther to tbe Wactwmrd htt squally weather from N. N. W. 
ma the Fyznlbarry in Lat. 5"" 88' and in Sa"* 40' East, has it 
tbreateniog from the Eastward with a heavy N. E. sea, her Bar. falling, 
•ml F. M. the wind increasing to a gale from E. N. E. with a heavy 
lea. We may thus assume that with this ship, at midnighti a storm 
bd fiiirly began from N. E., at which we find it marked at 1 a. k. on 
te morning of the 28th ; at what distance we have no means of jndg- 
>iig. I have therefore for this day marked bat a single segment of a 
eirde through the Fysalbarry's position, from a centre 240 miles due S. 
E* of it, which 18 to be taken rather as an indication of the storm than 
•oy thing else. 

On the 28/A November.^We have the Winifred in 4'' 27' N. and 
Fjsnl Curreem in 2"* 06' N. the first with '' strong gales N. W. and 
N. N. W. and gloomy weather with her Bar. &)ling a little, and 
the latter with only a fresh breeze from al>oat N. W. The Fyiul. 
bairy had her N. Easterly storm continuing and veering to £. N. £. 
It is probable that as the Winifred and Fyiulbarry were only 220 
miles iapart on this day, the Winifred was just on the outskirts of the 
storm wiiich evidently lies betwixt them ; and as she was running to 
the Southward she soon got clear of it. The Fyzul'Curreem was 
wholly out of its influence and the Candahar has, as yet, but a strong 
monsoon gale. I have therefore placed the centre of the Fyzulbariry's 
lUnrm in Lat. &" 00' N. Long. 88^ 45' E. marking an arrow through 
the Winifred's position to shew its efibct upon her. 

29M November, — We have the Candahar with an evidently com- 
mendng gale at N. E. and the Fyzulbarry with a furious one at N. 
E. We have no otiier bearing or datum whereby to estimate the dis- 
tance of the centre of this storm which now bore about S. £. from the 
Fyzulbarry, but we find that it veered rapidly with her to N. N. E. 
tnd by 11 : 30 p. m. to North ; of course as the vessel ran and drifted 
round the N. W. quadrant. From the best estimate I can make, I 
should with every allowance place the centre, which bore at noon S. 
B. of this ship, in Ut. 6^ 52' N. Long. 87^ 48' E.* We have no 
Lat. of the Garena, and of the Bittern only a Lat. of this day ! 

* It was really in about 6® 00' N., Long. 88® OC East, by the Log of the John 
Brightman. See note at the end. 



1 



62 Elevenih Memoir on the Lawof Stornu in India. [No. 157» 

I have printed the ahridgment of these extracts, indeed, almost to 
shew what meagre and disappointing documents we sometimes obtain. *^ 
We cannot from such data affirm that the Fyzulbarry'sand Candahar'a 
storms were the same, and indeed the great size of this circle is entirely 
I think against the probability that they were» for it would be if com* 
pleted 600 miles in diameter, and we shall find on the dOth and 1st 
December that the storm eouid not have been the same, and we that 
obtain distinct evidence of three separate storms at the same tinne ; two 
in the Northern and one in the Southern Hemisphere* 

BOih November. — We have first the Fyzulbarry running to the 
S^ S. E. and S. £. and evidently towards the centre of the storm, 
which does not appear to have been an entirely calm one or at least 
the ship did not get into it. At 7 p* k- b^c had the Westerly sea, 
" rolling up and overpowering the Easterly one," and the S. W. and 
Southerly gale coming up. She had an observation, though indiffer- 
ent on this.day, so that we may take her position as within a little 
to be that of the centre of the storm, and projecting it would give to 
Candahar a N. Easterly gale at 250 miles distance from the centre ; 
and therefore a moderate, instead of a furious N. Westerly one which she 
had,) shewing that her storm as before remarked, was certainly a 
different one from that of the Fyzulbarry. I have then placed the 
centre of the Fyzulbarry's storm for this day in Lat. T 30^ N. Long. 8T 
SV. E. The Mary Imrie in 12''20' North, though we have not her longi- 
tude this day, was doubtless on the N. W. quadrant of the Candahar's 
storm, and at Madras the high surf and strong current to the North ward 
are indications of the approaching tempest there. The Vernon we find 
went to sea, on this day from Madras roads, with a fresh N. N. E. gale at 
7 p. M. The Bittern and Garena's logs give us no information for want 
of Long, but the Winifred's is interesting as showing that though the 

* And, as it has often scnick me, to remark on the absurd practice of keeping a 
log book without entering the Longitude. It is quite possible that a case might 
arise in which, at least ignorance of his position, if not of wilful destruction of bii 
vessel might be alledged, if not proved, in a court of law against the master of a 
▼esse! through this omission ; and his insurance thereby become vitiated in case of 
an accident. The private *' Chronometer book" of a Captain would barely be called 
a legitimate document when the book which should contain the vessel's place at noon 
is blank. 



1845.] JSieventh Memoir an the Law of Storm$ in India. 63 

centie of the Fysulbarry's storm and that of the shipi in the South* 
era Hemiephere were sixteen degrees of Lat. apart on this day, there 
was still aboat the equator considerable atmospheric disturbance, with 
bttTj streams of wind from the Westward, agreeing with what we 
sboald look for as the general effect of the Southern and Northern 
balves of the storms in each Hemisphere. The Winifred's Bar. aIso» 
and it was evidently most carefully observed, is yet about two tenths 
below the averages before and after the bad weather which she expe« 
perienced. At midnight of this day we have the Candahar with a 
bcavy gale at N. W. and the Mary Imrie with a terrific one at N. N. 
£. and taking the last ship to have made about a South course, we 
find by projection that on the 30th, at midnight the centre of what 
I shall now on this evidence call the Candahar's storm was in about 
Let. 10"* 45' N., Long. 65^ 0' East, the centre passing near the Cauda, 
bar about noon the following day ; the Mary Imrie scudding to the 
Southward on its Western side. 

\a December. ^^^e have first the Fyzulbarry, which ship had run 
with her Southerly gale 150 miles to the N. N. £. from noon 80th to 
soon of this day with the winds between S. S. W. and South, raising 
her Bar. as she increased her distance from the centre of the storm 
Irom 29.30, at 7 a. u. to 29.80 at 10 p. u. or half an inch in fifteen 
hours; and obtaining also moderate weather at midnight. I have before 
ihewn on the 29th and 30th November that this ship's storm must 
have been a separate one from that of the Candahar, and it will 
be presently seen that it clearly was so. The loose report of the 
Niagara informs us of nothing more than that she had a rotatory 
itorm aboui in Lat. 10^ Long. 2f]'* of which we may suppose the 
strength was about noon on this day, and that she was not for from the 
eentre of it ; drifting or running round the S. Eastern and North 
Eastern quadrants of it, if indeed the expressions used do not mean 
that she had a shift of wind ; she would then at all events, if not in the 
centre, be on the Eastern side of it ; so that taking the Fyzulbarry's and 
this to be the same storm we find that it may have travelled up to the 
H. b. Westward about 150 miles, or something less, in this 24 hours, 
ind to this the run of the Fyzulbarry 150 miles to theN. b. £. btit 
carrying always a Southerly wind, lends much probability. However 
the Niagara's position and times of the wind, &c are so loosely given 



64 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Stormy in India, [So, 157- 

that we can only nuurk this as an approximation. HcrnpidcluaigeoC 
wind, however, and her distance from the Candahar on this day^ whieh 
was nearly, or qaite, three degrees of Long, exclude the idea of its 
being the same storm, and I have placed its centre, approximately, dose 
to the Niagara in Lat. 9"" 55' N. Long. 86^ 55' E. 

We now come to the Candahar, Mary Imrie and Vernon on tliia 
day, and here we must first remark on the Candahar's poaition 
which must be I should think erroneously given,* for she was tying to 
with a tremendous heavy gale from North fVestward veering at one 
time to N. by E. and again to N. W. by W. and yet she has made near, 
ly a Northerly course ! This is of course impossible, unless we aaf^xMe 
her to have been carried as far to the West by the storm wave as she 
was drifted to the East by the wind and storm current, both of which 
tended to carry her to the Bast and E. S. E» and her position indeed 
on this day can but be an estimated one : I did not observe this at the 
time I made the extract, and there may be some clerical error of nay 
own. It is now too late to rectify it, and we must therefore allow that 
one way or the other there is an error between these two days. The 
Vernon's position was certainly correct but then she had only a " strong 
breeze" with her Barometer at 29.68^ and we cannot thus allow her to 
have been in the storm though close to the outskirts of it. The Mary 
Imrie was running free and had an observation, so that her position 
may be taken as nearly correct, but we have unfortunately the wind 
but loosely given as veering *^ to the Westward^ (from the N. N. £») 
after noon. We may guess it to have been about North or to the West- 
ward of it, at Noon which placing the Candahar, somewhat further to 
the Eastward, if we please, will give us a spot in about Lat 10^ 18' 
Long. 84® 2' E. as the approximate position of the centre of this storm 
on this day which was evidently passing the meridian of these ships 
and close to the Candahar, and this apparently on a track to the 
Southward of West. 

The difference of their positions indeed is but 28 miles, an error 
which might easily occur with the Candahar, having no observation. 
The repeated shifts of wind from N. W. to S. W. may be aooounted 
for very simply, by reflecting that when near to or in the central space, 
there are many causes such as irregular blasts, storm wave and cur- 

* Or that of the d»y preceding may be so ? 



1845.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Stornu in India. 65 

ieiity-*-the ship's own run or drift &c—- *to induce these irregularities; 
sad wef find that as the centre passed on and she fell into the 8. Eastern 
quadrant of the stornii she again experienced it blowing a hurricane 
from S. W. shewing that (as she had run a little to the North) she had 
been on the Southern side of the central space ; of whatever extent this 
was. It is indeed I think most probable that on this day she was not 
to the Northward but the Stmihward of tlie Mary Imrie's position. 
Both ships were probably very near to, though they did not see each 
other. The Vernon's position gives a radius of 1 10 miles, or a diame- 
ter of 220, for this storm for this day, and we are satisfied that it eould 
not be the Niagara's or Fyzulbarry's, the Niagara being evidently 
dose to die centre of hers. I shall remark on the 2nd» on the Madras 
sad Ceylon reports for this and the next day. 

On the 2nd December. — We find that the Mary Imrie on this day 
while running down say about 80 miles* to the South and South East- 
ward, before a terrific hurricane veering from the N.N.E. to the N. West, 
waid^ had her Bar. always falling, and was at 2 a. x.in another, and of 
eonfse a different centre from Uiat of the Gandahar^s storm of the day 
proeeding, for she was now perhaps 100 miles from that ship, This centre 
gave her another hurricane at S, S, W. and Capt. Boyd's description 
of the sea is exactly what we should suppose the eflbct of a second storm 
pitting over any part of the sea left by one just preceding it to be. I 
think it most probable that this second hurricane may have been the 
Niagara and Fyaulbarry's storm and have so marked it; supposing the 
Mary Imrie to have been in Lat 9<* 20' and Long. SS"" OO' and ihe 
oentie a littie to the Westward of her. 

The Candahar^ on this day had run to the North and N. W. round 
the Eastern and North Eastern quadrants of her storm, while the Ver. 
non, which ship had stood to the E. S. E. with the N. Easterly gale of 
the pieceding day, had a smart shift of wind of four points, as the 
eentre approached her, and a fall of 0.14 in her Bar. As the storm 
however passed to the South of her, and she was bound to the North, 
ward, she was soon out of its influence. We find also on this day that 
a Westerly and N. Westerly storm prevailed at the stations on the 
North end of Ceylon. To obviate confusion, I have preferred consi. 

* We must take this by guess having no log of the distance. 

K 



66 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storm* in India. [No. 157. 

deriDg the reports from Madras and Ceylon, for the 1st and 2d to- 
gether. 

First, in reference to the general effects of the storm on the Coast: 
we shall observe on inspecting the chart, that there are at least two 
storms on this day, the Mary Imrie, Niagara and Fyzulbarry'a being 
one, and the Candahar's another, travelling up on a N. Westerly 
course more or less curving, apparently to the Westward, as 
they approach each other,* and this bending by the way is a 
very, remarkable feature. The average distance of the centres of the 
two storms from the coast we may call about 3^ degrees. The Oai»- 
dahar^s storm we know to have been of very small extent (taking 
her position on this day as correct) as it is determined by the Vernon's 
which is certainly exact within the trifling distance arising from 
the defects of all observations in bad weather. The Mary Imrie's 
storm we have admitted to be the Niagara's on this day, and we shall 
find that this projected will bring the circumference of her storm 
to within two degrees of the North end of Ceylon, and that the joint 
effect of both vorticse would be to create a Northerly, and N, West- 
erly wind, stream, or gale if their influence extended so far ; and they 
ought moreover to create a Northerly and N. Easterly stream at 
Madras. Now we know that at Madras which is as far to the N. W. 
as Kay to and Paumbum are to the West, and W. S. W. of the centres 
of the 1st and 2d, there were also the indications of an approaching 
storm in the increasing surf and slight fall of the Bar.t as well as the 
North current, (see remarks on Capt. Biden's report,) and that the 
wind was from the North and North East on the 2d, and to 4 a. u. 
on the 3rd, changing afterwards to S. E. From the effects of the ranges 
of hills (and even mountains) between Madras and the north end of 
Ceylon, it is impossible to go farther than to indicate generally what 
the average effects of a storm would be, as every separate spur and 
range would produce necessarily some local effect. On the coast we 
have the effects of the storm current in the '^ North current," and we 
have finally within these three days : 

* The Colonel Bumey^s storm may have been a thiid for anything we know, and 
it may be to it, that the Logs of tbe Carena and Bittern relate. 

1 1 shoald consider this slight fall of the Bar. as some evidence in favor of the 
relation of the two storms and their bending to the Westward which I have sup- 
posed. 



1845.] JEleventh Memoir of the Law of Stoma in India, 67 

lit, 2d and 3rd Nov. — The Bar. first falling, then about stationary, 
tod lastly rising again to its former level as if it had just felt the 
storm, but no more. The indications at Ceylon on the 2d are clear. 
]y those of a storm passing over the South extremity of the Peninsula, 
and probably, if we had any reports from Tranquebar or between it, 
and point Calymere we shall find that there really was a shift there. 
aboQts, while the rapid veering at the station of Paumbum was taking 
place. It is possible that the tendency of the whole aerial impulse, 
like a storm or tide wave, was as usual, to force its way through the 
Panlgatcherry pass, as shewn in my eighth Memoir. 

I most not conclude this part of the summary without noticing the 
remarkable /lu;t of the Mary Imrie's Bar. remaining so high, though 
fiaetnating greatly, in the first storm ; and in the second falling to 29® 
25. It will be noticed and for the present I should suppose this is the 
cause cf this anomaly, that she was at the time her Bar. stood so high, 
in the N. West quadrant (having the wind at N. N. E.) of her first 
storm, and she had thus both the effect of the verge of the coming storm 
which sometimes and perhaps lilways, raises the Bar.* and also that of 
the monsoon from the N. Eastern part of the Bay. The Ariel's storm 
in my sixth Memoir, Vol. p. 686 of Journal is another instance in which 
tUs seems to have occurred with two storms coming up in different 
directions and both at a considerable angle to the monsoon. We find 
from the Vernon's log that it was blowing a fresh monsoon from the 
N.N.E. on this day. The oscillation I have frequently remarked 
apon, and if Gapt. Boyd had had a Sympiesometer on board, no 
doobt the warning would have been still more distinctly given. 



Extract from the Log of the Ship Emily, Captain Andbhson from 
Shields to Calcutta, reduced to Civil Time. 

The following log reached me after the chart was lithographed; 
it will be seeui by it that the Emily was skirting the Fyzulbarry's 
storm to the Eastward on the 27th and 28th, as the Winifred was to 
the Westward. From the heights of the Emily's Bar. we may infer 
that she had really no part of the vortex but rather a heavy monsoon 

* See Col. Reid quoting Mr. Redfield's explanation of this phcenomenon. Second 
^tionp,5l4to 519. 



68 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Siomu in India* [No. 157. 

settmg Id, though od the 27th she is near enough to the Fyzul- 
barry^s place to allow us to suppose that both were partaking of the 
strong Easterly stream of wind which prevailed thereabouts on that 
day. 

The Emily was on the 6th November 1843, at noon, in Lat. 3''.40 
N. Long. 91° .34' (to 54' by Lunars) East. Bar. 30.5 Ther. 85**, staod- 
ing to the N. N^ E. with variable N. N. W. to N. W, and N. Caster- 
ly breezes to midnight. 

27M November, — Increasing breeze N. E. b. E. to noon, when Lat. 
S" 28. Long. 9r 46' and 92^6'* Bar. 30.5 Ther. 83*'. p. m, strong breease 
East and sudden squalls. Ship standing 6 and ^ knots to the N. N. 
W. and N. -^ W. Midnight the same, and increasing with incessant 
rain. 

28/;4 November, — a. m. Thick cloudy weather, continued rain and 
heavy squalls. Wind 2 a. m. E. S. E. ; at 6 East. Noon Lat. Obs. T 
42' N., Long. 91° 38' E. Bar. 30.5 Ther. 81°. p. m. Increasing breeze 
and a high confused sea^ wind E. b. N. Midnight heavy squalls. 

Wth November, — a. ic. strong gales East with tremendous squalls 
and a continuance of heavy rain, 8 a. ic. wind N. E. b. E. Noon Lat. 
Obs. 10° 17' Long. 91° 3' t9l° 40' by 8 p. m. finer; out all reefe. 
Wind N. B. b. E. and N. E. 

20th November. — Increasing again from the N. E., noon Lat. 14*' 
13' N. Long. 89° 40' E. Bar. 70.00 Ther. 83^ p. m. hard gales East to 
N. E. with tremendous heavy squalls and a high confused sea. Mid- 
night, wind E. b. N. more moderate. 

let December,— jl, m. Variable weather with squalls, wind about E. 
N. E. Lat. 1 4° 13' N., Long. 89 °44' Bar. 30, 10. Ther. 83° p. m. squally 
and torrents of rain. Wind about E. N, E. 

2d Dec^mft^— -Moderate from N. E. Lat. 15° 35' N. Long. 89° 22' £. 



Concluding Remarks. 
One of the first peculiarities which strikes us in considering the 
storm in the Southern Hemisphere, is its almost stationary character, 

* The several Longs, apparently Lunar brought on by Chr. 
t 91^ SO' is probably meant here, giving a mean Long, of 9l^ S5' for the ship's 
place. 



1846.] Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Siorme in India. 69 

u eompared with the storms we have been aoautomed to consider. 



We find it moving only. 




Miles. 


From the 26th to the 27th Nov. 


60 


27 th 


„ 28th „ 


32 


28th 


„ 29th „ 


135 


29th 


„ 30th 


47 


30th 


,, let Dec. 


57 


Or in five days. 




331 


Giving an average of per Day, . • 


661 



Or per hour not more than 2f 

iod this also on a singularly curved track* This slow motion of the 
storms heie^ if future researches should show it to be usual, will be a 
new and carious fact, and will explain, not the frequency of their oc 
correnee hereabouts, but the frequency of thdr being met with in the 
track of the outward-bound ^ips and on the verge of the trade.t 

With respect to the track itself; we have, I think clearly established 
tkat it must first have moved up from the S. E. to the N. West- 
ward and then curved away to the S. W. The exact position of the ships, 
18 of coarse liable to great errors after three, four, or five days of bad 
weather or hurricane ; but still these errors are reducible to moderate 
limits, and when we have ships on both sides of the storm, or ships on 
one side and others at or close to the centres, we are very sure that our po- 
sitions for these points from day to day cannot be very hi wrong ; 
and certainly not far enough to invalidate our general conclusion as 
to the extent of the space passed over by the storm in these five days4 

There are some other matters worthy of note which I take here 



* The true track was in all probality a sharp curve passini^ near the different 
pointi. 

t Col. Reid remarks p. 241 . that the Albion's storm was apparently almost sta- 
tionary or forming. 

X See postcript for an extraordinary confirmation of the truth of our work, and of 
these remarks, which were written months before the intelligence there given reached 
lae. 



70 Eleventh Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. QNo. 157. 

in their natural order to direct the attention of future observers to 
them> and these are : 

Atmospheric signs indiccUing the approach of the storm. The most 
remarkable of these is the warning noise noticed by Captain 
Bundle p. 32, to which I have there appended a note refer- 
ring also to Journal Vol. XI. p. 1000 for another instance where it 
was carefully noted, and I have heard it also on other occasions ; though 
not noting it on the spot I will not refer more particularly to them. 
It is exactly that sort of noise which we hear, and read of, in old houses 
in England, and with which most of us are acquainted ; but we there 
attribute it to the noise of the wind in the chimneys, or amongst the 
trees, or, on board a ship to the rigging : yet here there can be no 
doubt of its being distinctly heard at sea as the *' roaring and screaming'* 
of the wind in a tyfoon or hurricane certainly is. My present theory 
to account for it is this. I suppose the storm to be really formed 
and to be *' roaring and screaming" at say 200 miles' distance, and 
that the noise, if not conveyed directly by the wind, may be so re. 
flectively from the clouds, as in the case of thunder claps. A noise 
is known on some parts of the coast of England by the name of *^ the 
calling of the sea" as occurring in fine weather and announcing a 
storm, and also in mountainous countries. All these may be con- 
nected, and seamen may reader great service to science and to them- 
selves by noting these curious phoenomenae. 

The sickly and dancing appearances of the stars, as noticed by 
Captain Bundle is also remarkable but more easily explained, as we 
may suppose the sickly (hazy) appearance to have arisen from the 
atmosphere being loaded with vapour half condensed, and the 
''dancing" to be occasioned by their appearing at times through 
spaces and intervals somewhat less loaded with vapour wreaths* 
If I am not mistaken the fixed light of a Light House has sometimes 
this dancing motion,, by the effect of small wreaths of vapour passing 
before it, as at the breaking up of a fog ? The vibrating appearance 
of distant objects seen through a telescope in the morning in tropi- 
cal climates and owing to the different rarefactions of strata of air is 
fiimiliar to us all. 

Phosphoric flashes in the fvater, are common enough in fine wea- 
ther, but are nevertheless well worth noting; we do not yet know 



J845.] £lleventh Memoir on the Law of Slortnt in India. Ti 

more common in particular parts of the ocean, or at particular sea- 
fioDs, or in particular weather than at others. 

The appearances of the clouds are of special interest, for there can 
[be no doubt that many indications can be drawn from them of great 
[talae^ both to the careful mariner and to the man of science. The 
lemark of Captain Handley p. 14, shows the storm was forming to 
the eastward of him, and those of Captain fiundle, both as to appear- 
iDce and motions are exceedingly interesting^ as showing that there 
hvere different currents prevailing above, probably from one part of the 
[itorm or vortex over-reaching another. 

The kind of lightning described by Captain Bundle, pis also worthy 
of great attention : should this be found always to precede these storms 
in particular latitudes it would be, in addition to other signs, of great 
ntyity* 

The tiaies of the Barometers and Sympiesometers of the various ships 

both as relates to the approach of the storm, and to the manner in 

which the instruments were affected every time the ships bore up, and, 

tempted no doubt by the&ir winds, ran down to the S. Westward and 

thus neared the centre, is of peculiar interest ; and it is highly worthy of 

remark that not one of them thought ^ running to the E. N. E. or 

eom N, E. while the wind and sea admitted of it, which was 

the true course to steer, as may be seen by the chart and storm card. 

Tbey would thus have raised their Barometers and should have then 

bsuled gradually to the Southward, and South-westward, and so 

have tailed round, and eventually out of it. In this point of view 

the logs of the Fleming, Ainslie, Futtle Bozack, and Flowers of Ugie 

ve remarkable, and most instructive lessons for us. These ships will 

almost indeed, to the eye of the studious seaman, appear to be 

manoeuvring for the purpose of proving the value, the truth, — and I 

will add the beauty, — of the Law of Storms. 

* I have found, while correctiD§r this page, in the press a single instance in which 
thii remarkable kind of lightning is described. It occurs in one of the replies 
^ a circular addressed at my suggestion by the Hon'ble the Court of Directors 
K> I. C. to their retired Officers, requesting information on storms in the Indian Ocean 
ind China seas, by Captain Jenkins, then commanding the H. C. Ship City of London : 
wiiosays, speaking of an approaching hurricane in March 1816, in Lat, 12^ to 18^ South 
LoDg. 78° to 76' East, for which, warned by his Bar., he was preparing. ** At 7, the 
appearance of the atmosphere altered, constant vivid lightning, resembling in the dis- 
tSRce the Northern Ughta with frequent hard gusts of wind," &c. We are not to 
nppose from its being so unfrequently noticed that it is therefore of unusual occur- 
fence; teamen are so accustomed to lightning that they rarely take the trouble to 
deicribe it. 



72 Eleventh Memoir on the Law cf Storms in India, [No. 157. 

In the Northern Hemisphere, 

We have principally to remark here on what we may call the 
'* generation of separate storms" at short distances from each other so 
analogous to what certainly occurred in the Calcutta storm of June 
J 842, though we might there suppose it to have been occasioned by 
the influences of the land, as hills, valleys, &c., but it would'now ap- 
pear that the state of the atmosphere which induces one rotatory 
storm often disposes, or gives rise to, others^ just as after certain states 
of summer weather in Europe, we hear of a succession of thunder 
storms all over a large tract of country. 

Thus we find that when the Fyzulbarry's storm (a true rotatory 
one) had travelled up from the S. Eastward two or three days^ 27th 
or 28th to the 30th, another storm appears to have commenced at four 
degrees' distance with the Candahar, which we trace accurately enough 
through two days as travelling to the W. S. W. and if our conclu- 
sions be correct as to the Niagara and Mary Imrie, that the Fjrzul- 
iMirry's storm when approaching this of the Candahar's, curved away 
to the W. b. S. This looks strange enough, but whatever are the 
causes of them^ the dust whirlwinds on the plains of India, of which 
I have seen as many as four or five at a time, certainly do influence 
(repel) and alter each others tracks. We do not know if these arise from 
the same cause, but it is the only analogous fact that I am acquaint- 
ed with,* and the scientific reader will judge from the data set down 
whether he thinks they are sufficient to entitle us to lay down the 
tracks which I have here given. There is I think no doubt of the 
storms being altogether separate ones. 

It is remarkable that all these forces and storms seem to have been 
blended so as to produce one about Palks' Passage^ evidently travelling 
to the Westward also, or rather generated like the other in advance 
of those raging in the bay, for we find that the Ceylon stoifns all be- 
gan on the 1st, when the nearest centre, that of the Candahar's storm 
was at least at three degrees of distance ; and it could net be part of 
this, for the Vernon's position limits it to the N. W. within a much 
more circumscribed circle, and I am therefore inclined to believe that 
at sea as on shore, independent vortexes arise like independent thunder 
storms. 

Postscript. 
In the preliminary notice to this Memoir, I announced that I had ob- 
teined from the Mauritius the detoil of what I may call a beautiful ezpe- 

* *' It is possible that one storm may deflect another says Col. Keid," p. 433, 2d(1 
Edition of his work. 



1845.3 JSleventh Memoir an the Law of Storms in India. JZ 

limenty in which a vcBsel called the Charles Heddle was fully proving 
for usthere, the truth of the researches we were making here. The 
following is the newspaper notice of it, written by myself, which will 
lolly explain enough of this remarkable, or rather wonderful, &ct and 
eoinddenoe of actual experiments with theory and with resurches 
going on at thousands of miles distant. 

" I have just received from Capt Royer> the Master Attendant at 
Mauritius, who, like every one else, was much staggered by the report 
of the Charles Heddle's circular sailings for so many days in a hurri- 
I ctne, a number of logs, and with them her's, which he has taken the 
trouble to copy himself that there might be no mistake about it^ and 
you will learn with pleasure that I have fortunately just completed 
a Memoir now printing, of which the evidence leaves no manner of 
doubt as to the possibility of a fast sailing ship, that could scud well, 
having really done what the Charles Heddle has; and it teaches us 
moreover, by two perfectly independent storms, at more than a year's 
distance of time, and in quite different parts of the Southern Indian 
Occean, that there are storms of great intensity, lasting for long periods 
(in both cases five whole days) and which have yet so slow a progres- 
sive notion that one might, comparatively speaking, almost term 
them stationary storms. If you like to print this, for it is advan* 
tsgeous now and then to draw attention to the subject, and to show 
how much yet remains to be learnt, particularly with respect to the 
storms of the Southern Hemisphere, here are some of the data as 
briefly as I can give them. 

First, from the accompanying chart (of this Memoir) you will see 
that between the 26th of Nov. and 1st Dec. 1843, and between lati- 
todes 5"" 30' and 1 T South and longitudes 83. to 89"* £^t, there was a 
hurricane raging for the whole five days, which, traced by the logs of 
many ships, appears only to have travelled in that time, from point to 
pdnt of its centre, about 255 miles, or allowing for the curves about 
a degree a day only. 

The Charles Heddle, by her log now before me, appears to have 
scudded from the 25th to the 28th February, 1845, for five whole days 
round and round in a Hurricane circle! during which time she ran 
upwards of thirteen hundred miles ; the wind made with her five 
complete revolutions, and from calculations derived from the dis- 
tances and shifts of wind and the positions of the vessel, to have been 
on an average about 50 miles from its centre ; which was slowly mov- 
ing on, like the one of which I send you the chart, to the southwest, 
ward, at not more than three miles an hour; and the direct distance 

L 



74 Eleventh Memoir on ike Law of Storms in India, \^i\ 

made by her> from point to point, was but 354 miles. Now» 
the Charies Heddle, any of our ships in this November stor 
scudded the whole time, they might undoubtedly have made 
such a set of circles as you see on my chart, and yet have made 
trifle of direct distance in the whole five days ; and in a word ^ 
so to a^y^prove by this Memoir that there is nothing at all of r<K 
in her account, and that she has been performing for us a very c 
and beautiful experiment ; as cleverly as if she had been sent i 
do it! The investigation of this and the other Mauritius s 
for which I have data, will, I doubt not, lead to other equally 
portant and curious facts in that dangerous quarter of which sdl 
as yet know so little, but the difficulties and trouble of obtainiaf 
books are positively incredible." 

The value of this experiment as a proof of the circular t| 
generally, if it requires any now, and of the truth of our researd 
need not dilate upon. In a future Memoir I trust to be able to I 
forward a great deal more in relation to the tracks and other pecal 
ties of the storms of the Southern Hemisphere. 

Note. — While the laat sheets of this Memoir were passine through the press, I o| 
ed by the kindness of Capt. J. Viall, the loff of the ship John Brightman, just arrived 
the Mauritius, and which ship it will l>e recollected was. seen by the Fysulbaa 
the 28th November, (page 14,) being bound to the Southward. This log, while it 4 
borates exactly the general direction of the track of the Fyxulbarrv*s storm, enah* 
to correct the place of the centre for the 29th, which being laid down from the 
a single ship, without observation, is necessarily subject to error, though here as 
quently before, the error does not amount to much, and all the relative da 
practical purposes on board either of the ships in the storm, would have been the 
as for the management of a ship, what is required to be known, is the bearing 
centre of the hurricane, and the track of the storm, provided there be ample sea 

From midnight ^th November.— The John Brightman had heavy squally w 
and winds from East to B. S. £., and N. N. E. She was at noon in Lat. 9^ 4 
Long.87o 44' £., Bar. at 29.63. (having been at 29.71. at noon 26th, since which 
she had run down South, and S. b. W., 188 miles.) p. m. wind E. b. S., and E. 
to midnight, when it was a strong gale with a tremendous cross sea, the vessel h» 
always run to the South and S. b. E. to midnight 56 miles. Bar. 29.58. 

28M Nov.— Wind and weatherthe same, 7 a. m. wind E. N. E., Noon strong gale I 
high sea, Lat. indifferent Obs. 7.48 N., Lone. 87° 48' E., p. m. wind E. N. £., B| 
and E. S. E. to midnight when Bar. 29.41. Snip's run from noon between S. S. E. ^ 
South 53^ miles. 

79th Nov. — Hard gales, squalls, and sea continuing as before from East, £. S.'l 
and £. b. N., Noon more moderate, but weather looking very suspicious, Lat. Aoi 
6O03' N., Long. 87<>58' East. Bar. 29.30. Ther. SS^. Ship^s course from midnij| 
to noon South to S. S. £., 51^ miles, p. m. wind veering from E. b. N. at noon, tol 
£• b. N., and N. W. to West, and by 4 p. m. to W. b. S., light variable winds id 
thick weather. At 2 p. m. breeze increasing, thick unsettled weather. Bar. 29.24* i 
4 p. M. fresh gales W. b. S. hove to. At 8 heavy gales and vivid lightning with i4 
and squalls. Bar. 29.28. Midnight Bar. 29.20. , 

30m Nov.-'k. M. to noon hove to. Bar. rising to 29.36. ; at noon Ther. 83°, wtt 
W. S. W. Lat. by indifft. Obs. and Acct. 5° 46^ N., Long. Acct.88° 31' East., p. I 
Wind S. W. and at 5 p. m. S. S. W., weather moderating. Midnight Bar. 29. 49. Wit 
South at 5 p. M., and S. S. E. by noon 1st December when Lat. 5° 19' N., Looi 
Chr,90oi6'E. Ther. 84°, Bar. 29.59. 



"*. 



9; 
C4 



/ 







/ 



JOURNAL 






OP THB 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Tratulation of the Toofut ul Kiram, a HUtory of Sindh, By 

Lieut. P08TAN8. 

Introduction. 

The following translatioD of the most saocinct, consistent, and continued 
history of Sindh, which I have yet met with, has been made under the 
idea that, intimately connected as we have become with that country, its 
history cannot be otherwise than highly interesting, and that there are 
many who may desire information on the subject. The author of the 
'' Toofut ul Kiram," has in his 3rd vol. collected materials from the best 
authorities; I have o%ly omitted legends and stories, which have been 
given elsewhere, (Bengal Asiatic Society's Journal,) as also the histories of 
holy Seers, Sheikhs, and Seyuds, they being alone interesting to the fol- 
lowers of the prophet ; for the rest I believe it to be nearly a literal ren- 
dering of the text into English, with a few explanatory notes. I regret, 
that want of time, and emergent public duty, will not allow me to do more 
at present. 

It will be seen that, with the exception of a very short period prior to 
•the Mahomedan conquest by Bin Cassim, in the first century of the Hejira, 
we have no account of the country under its Hindoo rulers ; and I regret 
to say, that all efforts to procure any information on the subject have 
Miherto proved unavailing. Had the Mahomedan historians sought for 
materials, they might doubtless have been found, and thus the hiatus 
between the expedition of Alexander, and that of the Khalif Waiid, might 
have been filled up, so as to throw some light upon a portion of the coun- 
No. 158, No. 74> Nbw Series. m 



76 Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

try, rendered memorable by the great conqueror's passage down the Indus. 
As it is, we have a blank of nearly eleven centuries ; and we only know, 
from the description herewith given of the extent of country tributary to 
the Sindh Rigahs or Bahis, that they were powerful princes, and that the 
kingdom of Sindh possessed in their time a degree of importance which 
declined after its subjugation by the Moslems, when it became dismem- 
bered, and fell a constant prey to succeeding conquerors. 

From the period of the Mahomedans entering Sindh to the accession of 
the present family of Talp^r chiefs, the chronological order of its various 
rulers may be thus briefly given, and the number of dynasties during a 
period of about 1200 years, affords a curious instance of eastern revolutions. 
From Bin Cassim downwards, Sindh has fallen to the arms of the great- 
est conquerors of the East 



Taken by the Khalif Walid. 



••• 



Beni Oomhae,.*. ... ... ... 

Falls to the Abbasides, 

Subdued by Mahomed of Ghuzni, 

Tribe of Sumrahs usurped the authority, ... 

Invaded by Jengiz Khan, 

Tributary to Delhi, 

18 Jams of the tribe of Sdmah, 

Conquered by Shah Beg Arghdn, «.. 
Divided between the Arghdns and Tirkhans, 
Conquered by Akhbar under the Khan Kha- 

nam, and ceases to be independent. 
Invasion of Nadir Shah, and annexation to 

A vfoia, ... •■. ••• ... ... 

Kalora Chiefs rule in Sindh, tributary to 

\y&lJUl| ... ... ... ... «a. 

Kaloras overthrown by the Talpdrs, 
Talptlrs cease to be tributary to Cabul, ... 

The downfall of the Kaloras during the time of Sir Afraz Khan (where 
the manuscript ends,) and the rise of the present Talptir family, have been 
so fully given elsewhere, that I do not annex the account to this transla- 

* To this list we may now add, ** Conquered by Sir C. Napier, and annexed to British 
India, by Lord Eilenborougb,— A. D. 1843."— Eds. 



H. 


93 


n 


133 


a 


416 


fi 


446 


tt 


610 


)t 


694 


ft 


752- 


it 


927 


ti 


950 


ft 


999 


ti 


1149 


ft 


1166 


A.D. 


1779 


f) 


1839« 



1845.] a Hutory of Sindh. 77 

tion*. Of the languages of the country the Sindet haa been described by 
Mr. Wathen, and an excellent grammar, written by that gentleman, publish- 
ed by Goyemmentf. The Persian language is used by the higher classes, 
tnd is that in which all the State correspondence and revenue accounts are 
kept ; most of the Hindoos of Upper Sindh speak it fluently, the result of 
their intercourse with the natives of Affghanistan. A slight knowledge 
of it will be found of very considerable service to individuals stationed in 
the country. 

As connected with this translation, I would beg to refer all those desir- 
ous of obtaining information on the inhabitants, cities (ancient and mo- 
dem), and divisions of the country of Sindh, to the admirable papers pub- 
lished in the Transactions of the Royal Geographical Society, and written 
by the late Capt. Jas. McMurdo, <* An account of the country of Sindh, with 
remarks on the state of society, manners, and customs of the people, &c." 

J. POSTANS, 

Shikarpore, 5th July^ 1841. Atsittant Political Agent. 



Siodh is one of the sixty-one divisions of the world, situated in the 
four first climates, belonging chiefly to the second, and is in the same 
region as the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; the river of Sindh 
rises in the mountains of Cashmere, another joins it from the moun- 
tains of Cabal, in Maltan it is met by the river SUnne, and there 
proceeds to the sea. Its water is very clear and cool : in the language 
of the country it is called Hichrand; all the rivers of Sindh flow towards 
the south, where they empty themselves into the sea, such as the waters 
of PUahy Ckinabf Sehae, Suttanpur and Bajawareah. The climate of 
Smdh is delightful, its morning and evening cool : the country to the 
north, hotter than that to the south ; its inhabitants intelligent, and 
of large stature. 

Let it not be concealed, that whilst the people of Sindh were formerly 
Authors of Sindh ignorant of the Persian and Arabic languages, no 
imtohes. account as a compilation existed of those countries ; 

bat in the year 613 H., AUi Bin Akmid, Bin Alii Bukur Kufi, an 
inhabitant of Ooch, wandered to this valley, and arrived at the cities of 
Baknr and Alor, where he saw the families of the great men and descen- 

* See Dr. and Sir A. Burnes, and Sir H. Pottinger. 

t A vocabulary by Capt. Eastwick, and a grammar and vocabulary of the Brahooi 

ud Beloochi languages, by Major Leech, have also been published in our Journal.— 

Eds. 

N 



78 . Translaiion of the Too/ui ul Kiram, CNo. 158. 

dants of tbe Arabs, and searched for accounts of the conquest of the 
Moslems in all its particulars ; he also became acquainted with Cazi- 
Ismaily Bin AUiy Bin Mamotned, Bin Moussa, Bin Jcthir, and saw 
in the possession of that great man a description in Arabic, written by 
his ancestors, of the conquest of Sindh : this he translated into Persian. 
After him, Meer Masoom Bukeri, and after him Meer Mahomed 

Jahir Massiani, in the times of Akbar and Jihan- 

The work known as gir, composed works, and also the '' Urffhim Na- 

which brings the^Ws- wcA," ** Jukhar Nameh,** and ** Byler Nameh" were 

tolbout ll°A.D.f 7m compiled. Subsequent to.these no clear account 

written by Meer Mig- existed (or no one was acquainted with affairs) up 

to my own time ; by abbreviating and selecting 
from various books, and by recording some new events, I trust it will 
be found acceptable to all men. 

Let it be understood, that according to what has been previously men- 
tioned, the province of Sindh was so called from '' Sindh'' (the brother 
of Hindb, the son of Hob) whose descendants from generation to genera* 
tion governed in that country, and tribes without number came forth 
and ruled, whose accounts are not recorded. From amongst these the 
tribe of Nubuja^ the men of Jah^ and the tribe of Momid ruled in their 
turn : of these there are no detailed accounts, so that they pass on to the 
last of the Rahis ; and after that they relate the histories of other classes. 
The dynasty of the Rahis had their capital at Alor*, and the 
Dynasty of the boundaries of their dominions and possessions were 
^ *^' to the eastward as far as Caahmir and JSXmuf^ 

westward to Mikran and the shore of the sea of Ofnan^ i, e, at the 
Boundaries of their port of Deijul, to the south to the confines of the 
empire. port of Surat, and to the north to Candahar, 

and Seistan, with the hills of Sulliman, Kirwan and Kaijkanan. 

1, Rahi Ditoahijy a distinguished prince ; his sway extended over the 
boundaries described, and was absolute. The princes of Hind were in 
treaties of friendship with him, and in all his territories the merchant • 
(Caravans) travelled in safety. 

* The ruins of Alor are still to be aeen about four miles from Roree ; opinions 
differ as to the river having at any period flowed in that direction, as stated in the 
** Tooputal Kisum." I cannot lep^m that there are any traces of Hindoo architectme 
to be found at Alor. 



m5.2 a Hisiory of Sindh. 79 

2. When he died, his son Sahiras was exalted to the crown, and in 
the steps of his father he for a long period enjoyed ease and prosperity : 
after his death, his son, 

3. Rahi Sahasi, succeeded happily to the high seat of empire and 
the throne of Dominion ; he conducted his affairs prosperously, and 
saceessfully followed out the institutions of his predecessors : after him, 
bis son, 

4. Rahi Sahiras the 2nd, took his place. The king (of) Nimraz 
brought a force against him; on learning this intelligence, he met 
him in the country of Kick and prepared for battle ; from morning until 
noon they were occupied in conflict, but by chance Sahiras was wound- 
ed by an arrow in the neck and died. The king Nimraz despoiled his 
eamp and returned. The army of Sahiraz agreed together, and placed 
his son Sahasi upon the throne. 

5. Bahi Sahasi the 2nd, excelled his ancestors in endowments and 
good qualities ; in a short period he consolidated and settled his domi- 
nions as far as their boundaries extended, and remained at his ease in 
his capital. He ordained for his subjects in lieu of tax, that they 
should fill up with earth (repair) six forts, viz. Oochf Matilah^ Siwari, 
Mudf Alar, and Seewistan. 

They say be had a porter named Ram, and a minister named fioid- 

Introdaction of the firah- himan : one day a brahmin named Chach, son 
mm Chach to the Rahi. ^^ g.j^j^j^^ distinguished amongst his class, 

eame to Ram, and they became acquainted ; the porter was well pleased 
with him, and took him to the minister, after some time, and when 
Chach was intimate with the minister, it so happened, that the latter 
became sick, and the Rahi's order arrived, to call the agents of the 
provinces together : now since he (the minister) saw that Chach was 
acute and intelligent, he sent him from himself to the Rahi, who 
was in the inner apartment of the palace. His wife Rani Sohindi 
wished to draw the veil, but the Rahi said what necessity can there 
be for a veil before brahmins ; and when the brahmin Chach entered, 
Sohui became delighted with his eloquence, and dictated his replies 
to him ; so in time, when the ability of the brahmin became apparent 
to the Rahi, he directed that in future the curtain should be dispen- 
sed with in his favor, and that the necessary affairs of State should be 
transacted in the inner department of the palace ; at this juncture the 



80 Translation of the Toojut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

Rani became enamoured of Chach to distraction ; bat notwithstandiog 
The Rani becomes ena- she sent messages, Choch would- not consent 
moure o oc . ^^ |^^^ views, until his aflPairs prospered, and 

he had laid all classes under obligations for his favours and wisdom. 
By the chance of fortune's favours the Rahi Sahasi was attacked 
with a mortal illness. The Bani called Chach, and said, ** The Rahi 
has no children or descendants, certainly his relations will be- 
come heirs to the country, and it will not remain with yoa 
and me; I will therefore devise some scheme, in order that the 
throne may be secured to you:" to this he agreed. The JRani 

Succession secured to sent messages in various directions to the in* 
CAacA by the Rani. ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ g^^^^, ^^^ become 

convalescent, but had not strength to conduct his own afiairs, (to 
rise up) ; *' some time has elapsed, and the affairs of the country were 
in confusion, now he has directed and given his signet to Chach, who 
is to sit in his place on the throne, and who will demand from yoo 
the particulars and accounts of the important business of the State, 
wherefore by all means let all of you be present :" all the rulers and 
great men, in obedience to the summons, presented themselves, and 
made their obeisance and .bowed the knee to Chach. A short time after 
the Rahi died ; the Rani's first care was to conceal his death, and hav- 
ing separately called those of the relations of Sahasi to the palace, who 
had claims (on the succession,) under the pretence of explaining the 
late Rahi's will, she imprisoned (chained) them ; then calling their 
poorer connections, she said — *' I have arrested these claimants to the 
throne on your account, each of you having his enemy here should 
precede the assembly and kill him, and having taken possession of his 
property and riches, let him become obedient to Chach; thus will he 
attain all his wishes." Thinking this the height of good fortune, these 
people did as they were directed : the period occupied by the rule of 
the five preceding Rajahs is 137 years, and then it descended to the 
Brahmins. 

' 1st, — Brahmin Chach Bin Silabij. When Chach after the manner 
Brahmln^Chach. ^ described became sole heir to the throne, as ad. 
vised by the Rani, he opened the doors of his treasury and bestowed 
largely upon high and low ; at length the Rani having accomplished her 
ends, called together the nobles, head brahmins and great men, &c 



1845.] a HisUny of Sindh. 81 

directed tbem to make h^r lawful (as a wife) with Chach, and they 
were married, (conoected in that linot) accordingly. 
The Rana Mihrut ChUoofi^ who was a relation of Sahasi, having 

The Rana of Chittore ^^^ ^^^ coUected and brought a counUesa 
gputes the throne with army by Stratagem, and wrote to Chach 

saying, '* What have brahmins to do with rule 
or government ; give me the authority, and you shall be reinstated in 
your former appointment." 

Chach went himself to the Rani and said, <* A powerful enemy 
has come forth — what do you advise ?" the Rani said, '* War is under- 
stood by men, (but) if you will change places and apparel with 
me, I will go forth and do battle with the ^emy ;" Chach was afflicted 
and distressed. The Rani, encouraging him, said, ** You have treasure, 
quickly propitiate the soldiers, so that you be victorious.'' Chach 
immediately acted on this advice, and bestowed much wealth (on his 
araiy)— «he thus was prepared. Bana Mihrut arrived in the neighbour- 

Rana of Chittore's j^^^ ^f ^^ ^l^^n ^he two armies met, Rana Mihrut 

amies near Alor. 

came forward, and said to Chach, ** We are alone concerned in this quar- 
rel, why should a multitude be needlessly destroyed ; advance and let us 
make trial of our strength :" to this Chach replied, *' I am a Brahmin, 
and cannot fight on horseback ; descend, and I will combat with 
joa.** Bona Mihrut alighted from his horse, and Chach directed his 
groom to bring his horse slowly after him. Rana Mihrut being off his 
gaard from this excuse of Chach^ left his horse behind : they met— CAocA 

sprang swiftly on his horse, and with' one blow killed 

Chach kills the ^r ° mu « , i. J J. 

Ruia and returns his adversary. The Ranas forces returned dis- 
Tictorious. pirited and discomfited, whilst the victorious Chach 

returned to Ahr. These affairs occurred about the first year of the 
Hijera. In short, after the victory over Rana Mihrut^ Chach took 
counsel with the minister Budhiman, and appointed his own brother 
Naib of Alor for the settlement of the dependencies thereof. One 
^ ^ named MuUah was sent to govern Sewistan, and 

GoTemors to coun- ^ ' 

tries appointed by Akham Lohana, governor of Brahmanabad. and 
CAacA. _ 

Basar Bin Kakah having subdued some of the holders 

of the forts in Sewistan (or Sibi,) as also some tribes of Sewis (the 

afiw'^^Ki^^nin^^^o ^P^^*^ ®^ ^^^^^ Country being Kaka Raj,) and Chadi 
y«&n. after having passed 40 years prosperously died, his 



82 Translation 0/ the Toojut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

brother Chundur Bin Siiabij was vice-regeDt of the empire. MuUahy 
Chundur Bin Si- ^^^ governor of Sewistan, went to the Rahi of Runniij, 
^^^'j' reporting Chach's death, and saying, ** His brother is 

now lieutenant of the empire, if yoa attempt it the possession of the 
country will be an easy afiair.'* The Rahi sent his brother named 
Basahis to Muttah ; and Chundur immediately on hearing this prepar- 
ed to oppose his enemy, and pursued Muttah and Basahis through 
various portions of his dominions up to the vicinity of Alor ; they tried 
various schemes, but at last failed. In short, he f Chundur J ruled pros- 
perously, until the 8th year, when he died. After him, his nephew, 

2nd.'^Dahir Bin Chach, adorned the throne ; his brother Dihir Sin 
Dahir, soQofChach, he sent fo Brahminabad as governor. One day he 
2nd Brkhmin. inquired of the astrologers as to his fate ; they told 

him there was no bad omen in it, ** but with whomsoever your sister 
marries he will succeed to Alor, and rule the country.'' Through fear of 
losing the country, Dahir contrived and married his own sister. His 
brother Dihir Sin was vexed at this intelligence, and prepared a force^ 
Dihir Sin, his bro- and in time arrived at Alor. but died from small-pox ; 

ther, rebels against "^ 

him : his death. Dahir caused him to be burnt, and proceeded to 
Brahmanabad, where he married his wife (brother's) the daughter of 
Akham Lohana, and remained there one year ; and having appointed 
the son of Dihir Sin, named Chach governor of Brahmanabad : he re- 
turned to Alor, where he repaired the fort, which had only been half 
completed by his father, and arranged that four months of the cold wea- 
ther should be passed in Brahmanabad, and four months of spring at Alor. 
In this way he occupied himself for eight years, and by degrees the afiairs 
of the State were settled satisfactorily. 

In short, having fixed the boundaries of his dominions to the east, 
he planted two cypress trees as a mark on the confines of Cashmere, 
and returned. 



Accounts of the Joining f assembling J of the Allafi Arabs. 

The learned in such matters relate, that during the time of the 
Khalifat of Abodal Malh Bin Mirwa^ when Hijjaj was governor of 
the Iraks, and his designs were directed towards Sindh and Hind, he 
sent a Seyud to Mikran, who killed Siffooi Bin Lam Himami ; Abdul-- 
lah Bin Abdul Bihenif and Mah Bin Mohawyah called together the 



18450 o Hiitory cf Sindh. 88 

Arabs of Beni Asamah, and represented, that '* the Siffooi, who was one 
of oar tribe and people, has been killed unjustly ; we must aisemble and 
revoige him." 

In short, they acted on this suggestion, and killed the Seyud and 
took possession of Mikram ; after some time they fled through fear to 
Kharfusan: Mujahameh Bin Seyud came to Kirman to conquer 
Kharassan^ and sent forward Abdyl Ruhman^ Bin Askahas. The 
AUifis laid wait for him, and killed him ; they fled to Sindh and came 

Th AUafi t 'be f ^^ ^^^^^ ^^0, thinking them well adapted for the 
Aiabs are taken into police and protection of his country, took them 

the service of Dahir. 

into his own service. The above mentioned AUqfig 
were in Sindh until the coming of Bin Cassim, and the conquest of 
that country, when having procured a promise of pardon, they joined 
Bia Cassim. At length the princes of Hind having learnt the abso- 
late dominion of Dahir, agreed together that previous to his attempting 

TheprincesofHind ^^^^ Conquest, they should take an army and 
jealous of Dahir's conquer his country, and according to the agree- 
ment of the Rahis, Rahi Ra Maly governor of 
^nuj collected a large force, and advanced upon Dahir and sur- 
roonded Alor ; Dahir was afflicted by his enemy, and asked advice of 
tbe minister Budhiman, who said, ** The Arabs are expert in battle, 
entrust the affair to them." Dahir came to Mahamed AUafi, and sought 

his friendship (assistance) ; the latter said, " Be satis- 

deftf*te^the^ o^^ wnor ^^^* bring not your forces, and direct that a deep 

of Kannuj by a strata- ditch be dug to the length of a fursakh ; cover it over 
gem. 

with grass, and leave it ; after that, do as I direct." 

When Dahir had thus done, Mahamed AUafiy with 500 Arabs and Sin- 
dees, picked men, made a night attack on the troops of Ran Mai: these 
being taken by surprise and awaking confused, fell on each other and 
destroyed themselves, and the illustrious Mahamed AUafi gave the 
signal for flight ; the enemy, when they learnt that so small a force had 
attack^ them, pursued and fell into the ditch ; now Dahir himself with 
his force came out and took 80,000 men prisoners, and 60 war ele- 
phants : according to the directions of Budhiman the minister, he set 
them all free. BudhimatCs wisdom was proved, and Dahir lavished 
his &vors on him, and according to his entreaty, directed his name to 
be struck on one side of the copper coins. 



84 Translation of the Too/ut ul Kir am, [No. 158. 

From this victory Dahir*s position became strengthened, but the 
surrounding provinces and states were dissatisfied, and nourished more 
rebellion and sedition. He conducted Ihe affairs of his country pros* 
porously for 25 years, when his punishment was the loss of his kingdom, 
as will be related with other circumstances. 



Account of the capture of the Slave Girls of Sirundip. 

They relate, that the country of Sirundip* is of the ruby islands ; from 
this had been sent some Abyssinian slaves with many valuable jewels 
and curiosities for the Khalif and Hijjaj, in the care of confidential 
servants in eight boats ; by chance these were driven by a storm to the 
port of Diwalf J in the sea of Oman ; robbers belonging to that place, of 
the tribe of Nikamrah, seized these people, and the representations of 
the agents of the king of Sirundip, that they were presents to the 

Reason of the first Mohamedan Khalif, had no effect. They said, ** If 
invasion of Sindh. y^^^ g^^^y jg ^^^^^ ^^ ^ ransom and procure re- 
lease." In that assemblage were certain women in the purity of Islam- 
ism, who had intended making the Haj, and seeing the capital of the 
Kalifs ; and Hijjaj, one of these, cried out thrice, " Oh Hijjaj ! hear 
our complaints." 

This intelligence was conveyed to Hijjaj ; when he heard that the 
women had complained thrice in his name, he replied, three times, ** 1 
attend," and prepared to remedy the affair. 



' Account of the death of BaziL 
When Hijjaj Bin Yusaf prepared to release the Moslem captives, he 

B 1 th fi t M • '6P^®s®n^®<^ ^o ^b® Khalif, and sent a messenger with 
homedan leader, sent threats to Dahir ; the Khalif was unconcerned in the 

against Sindh. 

matter, and Dahir said, " I am ignorant of the affair, 
these robbers do not acknowledge my authority, they may hav.e done 
80 or not ; but you must judge." On the receipt of this answer, Hijjaj 
again represented to the Khalif, and obtained the required permission. 

* Ceylon, thus proving a traffic between that place and Damascus, 
t Is called from the Diwala, a temple for which it was famed. See Capt. McMurdo, 
Transactions of Rl. Geog. Society. 



1845.] a Hisiory ofSindh. 85 

He appointed Abdul Allah SuUimah to Mikran, and ordered Bazil that 
when he arrived at Mikran, he should collect 3,000 men and ad- 
vance on Sindh. Bazil arrived at the Fort of NeiruUf and threatened 
DtwcU; Dahir having learnt this, sent his son Jaiiisih with a large force 
to Diwal ; from noon to night they contended. Bazil, after the utmost 
resutance, was killed, and many Moslems were captured. They say 

Battle at Diwal *^® govemor of the Fort of Nmrun^y who was named 
nd death of BasU. Samam^ became terrified, and said to himself, '* I 
guard the pass of the Arab forces into this country, they (the Sindees) 
have thus opened the road of revenge to the Arabs, it may not be that I 
should be crushed between the parties (hereafter) :^ accordingly he sent 
a confidential agent to Hijjaj and profibred bis obedience, and obtained 
pardon. Amur Bin AbduUdk said to Hij)aj^ <* Commit this momentous 
bosiness to me, and I will proceed to Sindh and Hind ;" but he was 
refased* Hijjaj said, '* I have consulted the astrologers, and they report 
that Sindh and Hind will fall to the hand of Mahomed Bin Cassim, In 

Q. ^ short, the period has now arrived for the settinir of 

Bm Cassim pre- ' r o 

ferred to the command the star of the unbelievers, and the ascendency 

oftheSindli Army. ^ , , - 

of the religion of the prophet in those countries ; 
this afikir is more important than former undertakings, and must be 
intrusted to Bin Cassim." It shall soon be related from first to 
last 
Here I proceed to relate the extraordinary birth connected with the 
g f Jauisih ^^^'^ ®^ Jaisisth, They nay the Rahi Dahir was 

•oa of Dahir. one day hunting, suddenly a tiger sprung from the 

jongle, Dahir stopped those who were running away, and himself pre- 
pared to attack the beast. His wife at this time had been pregnant ten 
months with Jaisisih, and being very fond of Dahir, and learning this 
she cried out and swooned ; at length Dahir killed the tiger and re- 
tamed unhurt, but he found his wife dead : seeing the child moving in 
her womb, he ordered her to be opened, and they brought out the 
child ; and this name, which signifies ** the hunter of tigers," was given 
to him, and indeed when be became of years he was renowned for his 
courage and intrepidity. 

* Neiremkote, site of the present capital Hyderabad ; this latter was founded by 

Gholam Shah Kallnah. 

O 



86 TransiaHan of the Too/ut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

Accounts of the arrangement and arrival of the Moslem army for the 

conquest of Sindh* 
Iq true histories it is related, that daring the Khalifat oiihe chief of the 
Arraiiffement and true believers, Umur Bin Khotah, (God's approval 

Srn'ajf/^^^^^^^ »>« ^"^ ^^^'"O '^'^^'^ ^'«"^ ^«« ^^ '^^^ appointed 

quest of Sindh. govemor of Bartfiy who having arrived at Oman, sent 

some vessels properly equipped xxn^et Mughirah Bin Abut Has to Diwal ; 
at that time the brother of Chach, named Samami Bin Salabi^', was 
govemor of the place ; he opposed the Mahomedans, and after a great 
deal of slaughter Mughirah Bin Abut Has was killed, with many others, 
also many prisoners were taken. Abu Mussa Ashghuri^ who ruled in 

Mikran, reported this circumstance to the Khalif, 

oi'^w^^r^iZ^i *^*^ ^"^^ ^ Wly wme remedy, but was prohibited 
to subdue Sindh and f^^ collecting troops ; again at the time of the Khal- 

lifat of the chief of the believers, Ashnuin Bin 
Hassan (may God's approval be towards him) Abdullah Bin Atnir^ 
Bin Rvbiahy became governor of Mikran, it was ordered that a confi- 
dential agent should be sent to Sindh, to spy into and discover the 
state of affairs. He sent Hakim Bin HuUiyah with directions to 
make himself well informed of every thing and report thereon ; the 
Hakim said, that the water was black, the fruits were sour and poison- 
ous, the ground stony, and the earth saline. The Khalif asked, what 
he thought of the inhabitants ; he replied, '* They were faithless." Thns 
the preparation of a force from that quarter (Mikram) was abandon- 
ed. Then in the Khalifat of the chief of the true believers, Alii, 
a force passed from Mikram, and victorious and successful arrived 
at the hill of Kag-Kaman, which is one of the boundaries of Sindh, 
20,000 hill men ot>posed theirs ; the Moslem army calling on the Most 
High, began the attack, the noise of the shouts terrified the enemy, 
who cried for quarter, whilst others fled. From that time on occa- 
sions of conflict, the Moslem noise of calling on the Most High is 
heard in those hills. The news of the death of the Khalif arrived, 
and any further advance was stopped. The force above mentioned 
returned to Mikram. When Mohawiyah obtained sovereignty, he 
Mohawiyah prepares appointed AbduUah Bin Sawad with 4,000 men 
a force for Sindh. for Sindh ; by chance they arrived at the hill of 

Kag-Kaman^ and were defeated by a large force of the unbelieversj 



1845.] a History of Sindh. 87 

and at length returned and arriTed at Mikram ; at that jancture, Zyad 
was governor of the Iraks on the part of Mohawiyah^ who wrote to^ 
him to send Rcuhid Bin Oomur to Sindh, and he took pOMOsiion of 
tbe hiU of Pageh, taking also the whole of the property found there. 

Thns he also possessed himself of Kag-Raman : he arrived at the 
hills of Mamzur and fiihung ; the liill men, to the number of 50,000, 
assembled, and took possession of the passes ; from morning to evening 
tliey fought desperately, Rcuhid was killed, and the Moslems defeated. 
The repairing of this affair was deputed to Rashid Bin Salim, he 
defeated the men of Kag-Kaman, and arrived in the territories of 
BrtAfha^ where he was killed. Then Munzir Bin HartU^ Bin Bashar^ 
became governor of these provinces. He fell sick at Purabi, and died : 
at this time also Mohawiyah died, and Minaan succeeded him ; in his 
time no one was deputed to his enterprise until the time of Abdul 
Malk; he gave the governorship of the Iraks to Hijjaj, who sent the 
Seynd to Mikram ; he, it so happened, was killed by the AlleiJU as has 
been before related, whereupon Hijjaj sent Mujjah to Kirman, to take 
revenge upon the AUafis of Sindh ; he died there in the distractions of 
these times. Abdul Malk the Khalif died, and Walid succeeded him, 
aending Mahomed Bin Haris to Mikram to settle the affairs of Hind 
and the Allafis ; he killed one of the Allafis, and in the space of five 
noDthg settled the country of Mikram satisfactorily, and took 
possession of various districts. After that the circumstances of the 
death of Bazil occurred as related, which increased the desire of revenge 
in Hijjaj, and it was settled to send Bin Cassim Suklfi, as will be 
related. 



SelaUon of the arrival of Bin Cassim in Sindh, and account of the 

victories tohieh he there achieved. 

After the circumstance of the death of Bazil Hijjaj Bin Yasaf it 
^as represented to the Khalif that in Sindh insolence had obtained such 
vcendency, and punishment was so loudly called for, that he must issue 
^ order for remedying these things, as also for the release of the 
Modem prisoners, and taking revenge for the rebellion of those unbe- 
"^^ 80 that the country might l>e conquered. The Khalif replied^ 
"The country is distant and unproductive, the ezpence of collecting 
'^es will be ruinous, and only accomplished by oppression ; it is better 



88 Tramlation of the Toofut ul Kiramj [No. 158- 

to abandon the project, and pass it by." Hijjaj continnallj repre- 
sented, that by the permission of the Most High, and the protection 
of the religion of the prophet, the infidels would soon be sabdued, and 
the prisoners of the faithfni who, for so long a period had been con- 
fined there, would be released, whilst the outlay for collecting an ttrmy 
should be paid over and doubled by those who were its causes. The 
Khalif being without option issued the order, and in the 92nd year of 

the Hijera, Mahamed Bin Cassim^ Bin Akib SuM^, 
iJo:^l)^L^^^^ cousin and son-in-law of Hum Ya^af, and 17 
juration of Sindh in ygars old, made exertions, and they collected and 

the 92nd year H. "^ ' » j '- 

sent with him 6,000 men from Sham and Irak* 
They arrived at Shiraz, where they made the necessary preparations, 
Hijjaj then sent five battering rams with the equipment for breaching 
forts, in boats, in the care of Mugheriah and Khizam^ with a select 
party. Thus they arrived at the port of Diwal, where they afterwards 
joined him (Bin Cassim). In short. Bin Cassim with all his previous 
and present forces, mustered 6,000 horse and 6»000 camels (of the 
class I^nown as '< BukbtiJ*' to carry his baggage, and set out for Mik« 
ran, and Mahamed Harun^ notwithstanding the infirmity of his health, 
accompanied him ; when they arrived at Mapilah, Harun by the decree 
of the Almighty died, and was buried there^ They relate, that at that 
time Jaisisih the son of Dahir, was in the fort of Neirun^ and wrote ta 
his father the intelligence of the arrival of Bin Cassim : he consulted 
the Allafis ; they said, " The cousin of Bijjaj is coming with a large 
army, do not oppose him." Bin Cassim subdued Arman Biiah» and 
proceeded towards Diwal ; in the mean time Mugheriah and Khizan with 
their party had arrived at Diwal, where they joined him. Bin Cassim 
„. ,^ . . , threw a ditch round Diwal and encamped ; he wrote 

Bm Cassim invests . 

l>iwal. intelligence of his arrival to Hijjaj, They say, that 

the news reached Hijjaj in seven days, for such was the swiftness of the 
messengers, that the intelligence of seven days' date, from and to, was 
daily received by each party. It is said, that in the fort of Diwal was a 
temple (place of idols) 40 guz in height, and in it a dome 40 guz high, 

. and on the top of the dome a silken flag with four 

The temple at Diwal ^ m. . ^^ , . ^ 

is considered as a uiis- ends. The mfidels in fear and dismay made no pre- 
S*the counuy^ **^^*°" paraCion to fight: after some days a brahmin came 

out from the fort and asked for safety ; he presented 



1845.] a Huiary of Sindh. 89 

himself to Bin Casiim^ and said, *' I learn from my books that this 
country will be conquered by the Moslems, and the time has arrived, 
and you are the man. I am come to shew you the way : those before 
our times have constructed this temple as a talisman; until it is broken 
your road will not be opened ; order some stratagem, so that the banner 
on the dome may be thrown down." Mahamed Bin Cassim bethought 
him how he should accomplish this ; the engineer with the Catapulta 
9aid, ** If you give me 10,000 dirhems I will agree by some means or 
another to bring down the banner and dome in three blows, if not I 
will have my hand cut off." Mahomed Bin Cassim having obtained 
Do f th te - permission from Hijjjd^^ ordered the Catapulta to be 
pie thrown down. ^g^^ hqcI by the help and power of the Almighty, 
in three blows the work was accomplished, when the army of Islam 
getting into ranks and order attacked the fort, and the infidels being 
confounded were powerless and begged for quarter, Mahamed Cassim 
directed, that none should he given, but to deliver up the place. The 
^ ^ « ^. 1 governor threw himself from the breastwork, and 

Capture of Diwal ° 

and massacre of ^ the fled| and the people of the fort being helpless 

infidels* 

opened the gates : for three days there was a mas- 
sacre ; they then brought out the Moslem prisoners^ and captured im- 
mense treasures and property ; they destroyed the temple of idols^ which 
was called Diwal after the place, and built a musjid. A man named 
KihUah, one of the infidels, was the keep^ of the Moslem prisoners ; 
when these were brought out it was discovered that he had exerted 
himself greatly in their behalf and was overjoyed at their release a» 
well as the victory of the army of Islam : Mahamed Cassim called 
him and pressed him to embrace the true faith, and he became a Moslem. 
After many honours an> favours^ he shared with Ahmed Bin Darah 
Nifdi the governorship of that place. At length, having satisfactorily 
arranged the affairs of that quarter, and placed his battering rams in boatSy 
he started them by the river Sakurah to Neirun, and he himself proceeded 

Bin caasim proceeds ^J ^*"^ ^ ^« ^^^ direction. They say that the 
to Neirun. gou Qf Dahivy Jaisisih^ was formerly at Neirun, but 

after hearing of the victory at Diwal^ Dahir called him to Brakamana' 
badf and Samani the former governor of Neirun, who had procured 
a certificate of pardon from Hijjaj^ as before mentioned in the account 
of the death of Bazil, was with Dahir. Now when Mahamed Cassim 



90 Translaiion of the Toofut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

after seven days arrived in the vicinity of Neiran, the defenders of 
the fort fastened the gates. The army of the Moslems were mach dis- 
tressed in the neighbourhood of Neiran for water, by reason of there 
being no inandations ; Mahamed Bin Cassim made applications to the 
Most High, and they were immediately succeeded by a supply of rain, 
and the springs and tanks of that part of the country overflowed like 
fountains ; still there was a deficiency of forage : by good fortune, Sa- 
mani arrived at Neirun, and sent his confidential agents with the cer- 
tificate of pardon to Bin Cassim, and said, ** I am 

The governor yields 

up the fort of Nei- the slave to be obedient, the reason of this omis- 
'^'^* sion is, that during my absence the people in 

the fort have closed tb6 gates ; I wish if you will pardon the fault 
and warrant my safety to come and kiss your feet/' Bin Cassim 
having paid due attention to those who had been sent, ordered ** That 
it was necessary to punish those who had guarded the gates, but since 
you have interceded, come have an interview, and open the gates." 
Samani having done so, took the keys with suitable presents, and 
made his obeisance; he was favored, and provided every thing that 
was required. At length the army of Islam entered the fort ; they 
destroyed the temples, and built musjids and minarets in their stead, 

Governor appointed. Mouzzins and Imams were appointed, and Shunbeh 
was made governor of the place. Taking Samani with him, Bin Cassim 
advanced ; when they had proceeded some distance from Neirun at the 
place called Mauj, Samani sent a letter to Bicharah, son of Chundur, 
governor of Sewistan, thus : " We are not the men to bear force ; this 
Arab army is all powerful; there is no use in opposing them; 

Governor of Sewis- ^^ *® necessary to look after the interests of yourself 
Un refuses to submit, qq^ people, come and proffer your obedience, the 
word of Bin Cassim is powerful, undoubtedly this is the best policy." 
Bicharah refused to accede to submission, but prepared for battle. 
Thence the Moslem troops having advanced, reached the fort of 
Sewistan ; one week was occupied in laying siege and attack ; until 
at length Bicharah becoming dispirited, fied and went to Budyah; 
Bin Kakahf Bin Kotah, who was governor of the castle of Sim 
Mahamed Cassim entered the fort of Sewistan*, and took posses- 

* Setcistan always means the modern Sehwan. 



1845.] a History of Sindh. 1 

sion ; be favoared such persons as were brought to him by Samami^ and 
Bin Cassim enten then started for Sim. The forces of Budyah and 
" * Buharah prepared for opposition. The infidels went 

to Kakah^ Budyah' s father, and requested permission to make a night 
attack. Kakah said, ** I know from the astrologers that the army of 
Idam will conquer this country* and that the time has now arrived ; 
do not entertain such ideas." They would not be restrained, but pre- 
pared for a night attack ; it so happened that they lost the road and 
dispersed into four parties, and although they wandered all night, they 
foond themselves in the morning near the gate of the fort of Sim. 
Being aflUcted they became penitent, and went to Kakah Chanah and 
stated their case. He said, '* Do not think me less valiant than yourselves^ 
bat I know for certain that there is no use in contending with these 
men." In short, Kakah went himself and proffered his obedience ; he 
was received with favour, and obtained safety for his followers. Maka* 
med Bin Cassim sent with him Abad al Mulk Bin Kies Aldaki^ and 
ordered them to bring all who would be obedient (to his sway,) and to 
panish all who resisted. The Almighty gave them daily victories over 

GamfreshYictoric, ^^"^ ^°^^®^*' ^""^ *' ^**^ ^**®** *^^« frustrated, fled 
tlie infidels proffer to the forts of Bultur Saluj and KandaiL when 

obedience. , ,. . * . »* m 

they solicited promises of safety and pardon, and, 

agreeing to pay tribute, departed to their own country : at this time an 

Hijjig sends order order arrived from Hijjaj, that Mahomed Bin Cassim 

to Bin Cassim to sub- , .. J/, 

due Dahir. should return to Nearun to prepare to cope with 

Bahiry and cross the river Mihran. 
It is related that the tribe of Chanah, which at that time was a large 

The tribe of Chanah *^^*°» Collected from various places, and sent a per- 
become obedient. son to bring intelligence (of the Moslems) ; he ar- 
rived when the forces of the Arabs were arranged behind. Bin Cassim 
^gaged in prayer, and in their devotions obeying the postures of the 
Hoollab, he reported to his tribe, that those who could by thousands 
be made to obey one man, it would be futile to oppose. Thus they 
determined to declare allegiance to the Moslems, and after sending 
citable presents they arrived when Bin Cassim was at table, who 
^ '* This tribe is fortunate," and they were ever after styled the tribe 
^^^ Chanah Mirzook^* or * fortunate;' they then proffered their obedi- 
ence and assistance of tribute, which was accepted, and they departed, 



n 



92 Translation of the Toofia ul Kirantt [No. 158. 

and it was decreed that the land on that side of the river in the 
possession of the tribe of Cfaanah, shonld be taxed at a tenth, the same 
as that at Neirunkdit where the people had voluntarily tendered their 
obedience. In short, pursuant to the orders of Hyjaj^ Bin Cassim 
returned, and having crossed the Mihrau, arrived at the fort of Rawnr 
. , „ and Jeyur, where he sent an order to the governor 

Governor of Rawur ^ ® 

and Jeyur joins Bin MOkih Bin Btsayok to come and proffer his obe-* 

dience. He replied, " If I do so I incur the displea^ 
sure of Dahir; in a certain place at uncertain time, I will come forward 
with a certain number of troops ; direct your men tp attack me, and I 
will appear to oppose them, and then allow myself to be taken 
prisoner.'* Thus did Mukih at that -place become obedient, and was 
taken into great favor : he shewed the road (to conquest.) 
They relate that the Rahi Dahir^ hearing of the power of the army 
^ , . XI of Islam, prepared with a large force to oppose the 

Dahir opposes the » r r o in- 

passage of the Mos- passage of the river. A party of the Moslems were 

lems on the Indus. ^ ,. ,. <«««,.« . « 

crossmg, Dahir himself killed one with an arrow. 

He left Jahamin Budah there, and himself retired ; Jahamin took such 

strong possession of the passage of the river, that it became difficult 

At this junction Chundram Balah, who was formerly governor, seized 

Rebellion at Sewis- ^^^^l^tan from a party of horsemen of the Moslems 

^°- who were left at that place. Mahamed Cassim 

on hearing this^ despatched Ussiib Bin Abdul Rahim with a thousand 

horse and 200 foot to Sewistan. Chundram prepared to oppose them, 

and was defeated : he wished to escape to the fort, but the fort gates 

had in the mean time been closed, and he being frustrated, fell into 

the hands of the Moslems and was killed, (sent to perdition.) The 

Moslems then surrounded and took the fort, whence they rejoined Bin 

SewisUn retaken, Cassim : Rahi Dahir sent his son Jaisisih to the fort 

and governor kiUed. ^^ g^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^j ^^^ ^^^ ^^ j^j^^^ . ^y^^^ 

50 days were thus passed^ and the Moslems began to suffer want, such 
The Moslems suf- horses as died of starvation were eaten. Dahir sent 

ferforwantof provi- ...•«. . * • ^l - 

sions. a messenger saymg, " The state of your army is thus 

reported : if you wish well to yourselves I shall not oppose, but will 
perform my service (become obedient,) and you had better return.'' 
Mahamtd Bin Cassim replied, << By the will of the Almighty, this 
country shall be a Mahomedan country, and until you come and proffer 



1845.] a History of Sindh. 03 

obedience and pay the tribnte of aeveral years, I will nerer abandon my 
ifltentions respecting you." (I will never take my hands from yoo.) They 
cay that B^jaj in hearing the news of the loss of the horses, des- 
patched 2,000 others with strict iojanctlons not to 

Hijjai sends rein- • , , , 

forcemenu and orders delay in the important afikirs of DoAtr, but to pass 
to Bin Cassim. ^^ ^^^^ quickly and settle them first On the re- 

ceipt of these injunctions, Mahamed Bin Camm having arrived at 
Jofaam, directed them to collect boats for the passage of the river, and 
to make a bridge. M^tki Bin Biiayah collected several boats, and 
Bridge of boau. filling them with sand and stones, and fastening 
them with wedges, made them firm one to the other. On this intel- 
ligence Dabir wrote to his son to arrest Muki by some means for 
his evincing such audacity. RaU the brother of Miiki was with 
ZkAtV, and having formerly been an enemy to his brother, said, 
''Eotrust this order to me, and I will go and bring my brother; I will 
moreover pledge myself to prevent the passage of the river.'' At this 
time, by the help of God, the army of Islam having prepared the boats 
began to cross, and with showers of arrows dispersed the Infidels 
viio dared to oppose them on the opposite shore. A large party 
arrived on the other side, and having cleared the shore of their 

The Moslems cross enemies, took up a position, until the rest of the 

it 

^"^*'' army should have passed safely. It is said, that 

ivift horsemen of the unbelievers, by travelling all night, conveyed the 
Bew8 to Dahir early the next morning : he was still asleep when they 
tnnooDced it ; the groom roused Dahir, who^ when he awoke from a 
tnnqail sleep, was so much annoyed that he struck the messenger on 
the face so heavily with his slipper, that he died immediately. In 
short, Dahir being astonished and dismayed, knew not what to do : 
when Mahamed Casnm had crossed the whole of his army, he pro- 
claimed to his troops-^** The river is in oar rear and the enemy in 

Bin Cassim exhoru ^°^* whoever is ready to yield his life, which act 
Ui troops. ^m \^ rewarded with eternal felicity in such a 

c^uue, let him remain and have the honor of conflict ; and any amongst 
yoa who, on second consideration, does not feel able to oppose the 
^«my, let him recollect that the road of flight is not open — he will 
iwaredly fall into the hands of the Infidels, or else be drowned in the 
fWer, and thus suffer disgrace, which is the worst of all evils in religious 

p 



94 Translation of the Toofui ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

or worldly matters ; bat still, let these now take leave, for brave men 
determiDe either to conqaer or die.'' Of the whole force only three 
persons, one under a pretence of an unprotected mother, another of a 
motherless daughter, and a third of want of means, left; the rest declared 
they were only anxious for battla 

At length Mahamed Bin Cassim perceiving the unanimity of his 
troops directed a march from that place, and from the fort of Bat 
arrived at Rawur ; he arrived at a place called Jeyur, Now between 
Rawur and Jeyur there was a bay, on passing which they came in 

First view of Da- ^^S^' ^^ Dahir's forces ; Mohazar Bin Sabit JStsi 
fair's forces. ^|^jj 2,000 and Mahamed Ziad Abdi with l,O00 

troops^ were directed to oppose them : they drove the enemy back. At 
this time, Dahir called Mahomed Harts AUafi and represented, '* For 
advice in such a day as this have I protected you ; now you most exert 
yourself and take charge of the advanced party.'* Mahomed HarU re- 
plied, ''Indeed I acknowledge that I ought to exert myself to the utmost, 
but there is the necessity of opposing Mahomedans, and to become 
The Allafi chief re. '^negade, sell my religion for gold, to have on me 
fuses to oppose the the blood of Mahomedans, and when I die to go to 

army of Bin Cassim. 

perdition ; spare me, I pray you, the performance of 
these tasks : any other duty I will perform with my life." Dahir was 
disconcerted, and remained silent. He sent Jaisisih with a large party of 
troops to oppose the enemy, but after the loss of the greater portion he 
was defeated and returned. The next day the brother of Muki was ap« 
pointed, but he secretly sent a message saying, ** Take me in battle as 
you have done my brother :" and they did so. Thus for ten days in this 
way the Infidel forces came out to battle, and, being defeated, returned. 
In the meantime the victorious Moslems besieged Dahir in his own 

g. ^ be s^^i^g^ol<^> ^^^ o^ ^^ ^^^^ ^y* ^bich was Thnrs^ 
Alor. day the 10th of the month Ramzan in the 93rd year 

of the Hejira, Dahir notwithstanding the prohibitions of the astrologers 
came out himself with a powerful force; he had 10,000 horse with 
armour, and 30,000 foot with many war elephants, (on one of which) 
Dahir gives batfle. Dahir was seated in a howdah with two beantiful 
girls handing him wine, and fanning him; They contended fiercely from 
morning until night, and the Moslems so plied their rockets and arrows 
that it could not be exceeded. 



1845] a History of Stndh. 95 

At first the army of Islam became confused ; Mahamed Bin Cassim 
beeame alarmed^ and offered ap prayers to the Most High, who favored 
bim, and gave him at length the victory. They relate, that Bin Dahir 
bad at all times daring the battle an iron mace in his hand, with 
wbich he cleft the head of every horseman against whom he launched 
it; bat at length on the approach of the Arabs, when he wished to leave 
tbe battle, the war elephants became frightened at the rockets of the 
Modem troops, and fell amongst their own soldiers, who were thus 
destroyed. A party of the Infidels demanded quarter, and said ** The 
army of Dahir is now confident and careless ; give us troops and we 

A part? of the Infi- ^^^^ ^^^^ them in the rear, and break their pride and 
dels desert. Btrei^th." In this way the ground was cleared and 

tbe enemy broken. 

By the power of the Almighty an arrow struck Dahir in the neck 

Death of Dahir. and killed him ; they drew his elephant to the rear, 
bat by chance tbe elephant stuck in the mud of the river, and they all 
tried to conceal the Ring's position. The army of the Infidels being de- 
feated, the Moslems so guarded all the approaches that a bird could not 
bave flown past. The Brahmins fell into the hands of Keiss^ and to 
preserve their own lives reported the death of Dahir. At this time 

Certai B h ' the two daughters of Dahir were Captured by the Mos- 
^rted the death of lem troops. Mahamed Bin Cassim fearing lest 

Dahir should escape, caused a proclamation to be 
usoed, that they should close to the rear to prevent the concealment of 
tbe enemy. Keiss hearing the proclamation called aloud on the Most High 
after the Mahomedan fashion, and the whole army taking it up, Bin 
Cagiim became aware of the death of Dahir. He came with some of his 
varriors to the edge of the mud, and on the testimony of the Brahmins 
Uxk the polluted body out ; he cut off the head and stuck it on a spear, 

The bod of Dahir ^^^^^^^g ^^ ^® ^^^ daughters for their confirmation 
discovered. (of his death> He then directed, that the army 

>b(Kild occupy itself all night in prayer and thanksgiving for the 
IHvioe favour, and in the morning of Friday he sent Dahir's head with 
bis two daughters to the gate of the Fort. The defenders of the gar - 
n>on declared it was false. Sadi the wife of Dahir, having from tbe top 
of tbe palace seen the head of her husband, became insensible, and ut- 
tering a loud cry, threw herself off (the palace:) in short, the people in t)ie 



96 Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

fort opened the gates, and the Moslem army entered, and having erected 

The Moslem amy * ^^^^^^ P'^^P*' ^° ^^ temple, performed the prayers 
enter Alor. of Friday. They then took possession of the riches 

and property of every kind, and constitated Keiss the keeper of these. 
In the beginning of the month Shawal after the settlement of all that 
territory, they sent the head of Dahir with his daughters, the prisoners, 
and the wealth with 40 horsemen accompanied by EeUs to the Khali* 

Dahir ruled for 33 fat capital. The period of the rule of Dahir was 38 
mi^;^^ ^^^ ^'**'" yeaw, and the whole time occupied by the dynasty 

of the Brahmins was 92 years. 

It is related, that after the death of Dahir the men of Samah from the 
neighbourhood of Thurri* having collected, came with tabonrs and 
clarions and proffered their allegiance, and began to dance: Maha- 
med Cassim asked who they were, and what they were doing. They 
replied, '* This is our custom, that when a Monarch is victorious, we 
thus testify our joy." They returned. And the BhatHas, Lohawu, Sa- 
hutahs, JundurSf Machees^ and Xter^W^, introduced by AlU Maha* 

Tribes who a ^"^^ ^*^ Abdul Rihman^ came to pay their respects, 

homage to Bin Cas- with head and feet bare. After their pardon had been 
Sim. 

pronounced, it was decreed that whenever any of the 

Mahomedans should come from the Capital of the Khalifs or go in that 

direction, these tribes should be their guides and be answerable for 

their safety. 

Then Mahamed Bin Cassim^ with the sanction of Hijjaj^ took to wife 

the sister of Dahir^ (whom the latter had married through fear of 

losing his country,) and proceeded to acquire other territories. At this 

Sons of Dahir re- ^^^^ *^ '^® commencement of the year 94, it was 
^®^* announced that the sons of Dahir had possessed 

themselves of the fort of " Sikundar^^' and had assumed indepen- 
dance. Mahamed Cassim proceeded in that direction, and endea- 
voured to reduce the fort ; after many engagements he took complete 
possession, destroyed the temples, and laid the foundation of Mus- 
jids, and directed certain punishments to be inflicted on the inha- 



* Thurr or Tkulli the little desert separating Sindh from Cutch. 

t These last are Jhutts, the cultivators of the soil and rearers of cattle in contra* 
distinction to the Beloochees who are foreigners ; they are doubtless the aboriginal 
Hindoos converted to Islamism. 



JM5.] a History of Sindh. 97 

bitanU. He also in the same way subdued Barhamanabad ; they 

tty that one day Mahamed CoMsim was sitting, when an assemblage 

The Brahmins repre- ®^ Brahmins, about 1,000 in number with their 

Mot their claims to heads and faces shaven, came into the camp. On 

follow their religious ^ 

cutons: the same enquiring their case, he learnt that they were 
* mourning for their chiefs as is their custom. Hay* 

iog called them, on the advice of Sadi the wife of HoAtr, he sent 
them all as formerly to be collectors in the districts. In their helpless- 
ness they represented that they were a class of idol worshippers, and 
belonged to idol temples: ** Now we have accepted obedience to yon, and 
acknowledge our amenability to tribute, yon must give us leave to 
erect our places of worship elsewhere, and to pray for the prosperity 
of the Khalif." Mahamed Cassim^ after having represented the case to 
B^j who reported it to the Khalif, gave the permission required, 
that they should act according to the usages of their ancient fiiith. 
He then ordered that, to distinguish them from other Hindoos, they 
iboidd carry in their hands a small vessel of grain as mendicants, and 
ghoold beg from door to door every morning. This custom still re- 
mains, and all the Brahmins carry the khulsal. 

It is related, that when Hijjaj heard of the conquest of the fort of 
^ihmdar and Barhamanabad, he wrote to Mahamed Cassim, '* Since 
by the blessing of the Almighty, Dahir and his country had been 
talLen, yoa must also talLC the Capital city ; and not rest satisfied with 
that, but turn to the east and proceed towards Hind, and by the blessing 
of the Mahomedan religion it will every where protect the Moslems. 
On this order, Mahamed Cassim set about the settlement of Alor, 

In the disorder of affairs, news arrived that a son of 

The sons of Dahir 

takepossessionof Alor, Dahir was Strong at AloTy having denied the death 
Dahirf"^ e ea o ^^ Dahir^ and reporting that he was only lost 

from his troops, and had gone towards Hindostan 
whence he would soon arrive with an army and talte revenge. So 
implicitly did he believe this, that whoever mentioned the killing of 
his father to him, was destroyed. Thus few alluded to the subject in 
his presence. He called to him his brothers Jaisisih and Wukiahy 
who in the tumult of affiiirs had been dispersed. Bin Cassim proceeded 
in that direction, and besieged the fort of Alor ; he sent Sadi the wife 
of Dahir to the gate of the fort, in order that she might explain the 



98 Translation o/(he Toqfut ul Kiram, [No. 158. 

death of Dahir. They called her a liar and stoDed her, saying ^* Yoo 
have become one of the eaters of cows." The siege was prosecuted, 
and the inhabitants of Alor soon began to suffer for want of food ; 
they meditated surrender, Fufi began to think that there was no chance 
of his succeeding, but a false hope prevented his withdrawing. They 
say, that there was a sorceress in that place; they requested her to 
give them intelligence of the death of Dahir. This woman, whose name 
weL9 Jokiu, asked for one night's delay, and after that she came into the 
presence of Fufi with two green branches of Jaw and Filful trees 
and said, ** I have searched every span of earth from Sirundipf and 
have brought this reply, that if DoMr were alive I should certainly 
have seen him ; do not entertain the idea, and do not heedlessly and 
unprofitably doom yourself to destruction." When Fufi knew for cer- 
tain from the sorceress, and became convinced of the death of Dahir, 
he left the fort at night and fled to his brothers whom he had called 
to him, but who had not yet arrived. In the morning the AUafis sent 
the intelligence by letter to Mahamed Cassim^ and called for a promise* 
Bin Cassim enters ®^P*''<ion for themselves ; they directed the holders of 
^^0'* the fort to open it, and Mahamed Cassim with his vic- 

torious army entered the city. He saw a large assemblage of the people 
prostrating themselves in the place of worship ; he asked what they were 
doing, he learnt that they were paying adoration to an idol, and entering 
the temple he saw a well-formed figure of a man on horseback : he drew his 
sword to strike him, but those who were near him cried out, ** It is an 
idol and not a living being." Making way for Mahamed Cassim he 
advanced to the Idol, and taking off one of his gauntlets he said to the 

Bi Cass'mr a h- ^P^c^^^^^^i " ^^ ^^ ^^® ^^^^ ^^ ^^® ^^^^ there is this 
88 the idolaters. one gauntlet ; ask him what he has done with the 

other." They replied, ** What should an Idol know of these things." Bin 

Cassim said, yours is a curious object of worship, who knows nothing 

even of himself. They were ashamed at this rebuke. In short, after 

the capture of Alor which was the capital of the country, the rest of the 

dependencies became tranquil, all the inhabitants were grateful to Bin 

Cassim^f and pursued their former avocations. He appointed Hurun 

* There is an apparent inconsistency in our author here, for he tells us that Alor 
was taken by Bin Cassim when Dahir was overthrown, and does not account for the 
Kajah's sons getting possession of it, and its being necessary to recapture it. Bin 



IMo.] a History of Sindh. 99 

Bin KeisSf Bin JRowah Assidi^ to the governorship of Alor, and the 

Various eoveraors ""'^ of Cazi he conferred on Mussa Bin Yakribf Bin 
ippointed. Tahi, Bin Nishban, Bin Ashman Sakufi, and he ap- 

pointed Widah Bin Ahmid al Nijdi to the command of Barhamanabad, 
and Nchah hin Daras to the fort of Ratour^ and the conntry of Korah 
he gave to Bazii Bin HUlazuwi, Then he turned towards Multan ; and 
in the course of the joumeyy at the fort of Bahiyah, Kuisur Bin 
Ckmdurf Bin TiiiabiJ a cousin of Dahir*s, who had been at enmity 
with Dahivt and was remaining at that place, came out and tendered 
his allegiance. After that, they conquered the fort of Sukkur, and 
Atta Bin Jamahi was .left there as Governor, and having seized 
MtiUan with its dependencies and fortified places, Khazimah Bin Abdul 
Mi^ Bin Jumim was left at Mahpur, and Daud Bin Mussarpur, Bin 
fVaUd Himmanif was appointed to MuUan, McLhamed Cassim then 

Maha ed G proceeded towards Dibalpur^ and he had at that 

eitcDdthiBcoDqaests. time nearly 50,000 horse and foot under his ban- 
Bers, independent of his former regular army ; in short, he conquered 
as far as the confines of Kunnqj and Ccuhmir^ and saw those two 
cypress trees which had been placed by Dahir. 

Everywhere he left trust-worthy agents and returned to Yassur* 
where it was decreed by fate that his life should terminate. 

( To be continued.) 

Gttsim had otherwise proved himself too ^ood a General not to have provided for the 
leearity of the Capital of the coantry when once in hia power to render its falling into 
tks hands of the enemy at all likely. 

* In the Chach Nameh " Hadapoor." 



100 



Fiddnia^Sara, or Essence of the Veddnfa, an introduction into the 
Feddnta Philosophy by Sttddnanda Parivrdjakdehdrya, trans^ 
lated from the original Sanscrit by E. Robr, Librarian to the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

FRBFACB* 

Of the Ved^nta-Sara two translations have already been published, 
one by Mr. Ward, (in his work View of the History, Literature and 
Mythology of the Hindoos) and the other in the German language, 
by the late Professor O. Frank. Ward's translation, which is evident- 
ly not taken from the Sanscrit, is very far from conveying a fair like- 
ness of the original to the reader, and I need only quote the opinion 
of Colebrooke with regard to it, to prove its entire failure as a correct 
rendering of the original*. 

The German for which we are indebted to O. Frank, was published 
together with the original text, in 1835 ; but, however creditable it is to 
the author, it is also inexact as a translation. Although a good Sanscrit 
scholar, and one of the first in Europe, who devoted his talents to that 
language, he had to struggle with the difficulty of ascertaining the real 
value of its technical terms, a difficulty which he had hardly the means 
of removing ; for in Professor Wilson's excellent Sanscrit Dictionary, 
only a few philosophical terms are explained, and without an expla- 
nation of such terms by pundits, or an extensive course of reading, the 

* Transactions of the Royal Asiatic Society Vol* II, p. 9. note. Mr.Ward has given, 
in the fourth volume of his View of the History, Literature and Mythology of the 
Hindoos (third edition,) a translation of the V^dfinta-Sara. I wish to speak as gently 
as I can of Mr. Ward's performance, but having collated this, I am bound to say, 
it is no version of the original text, and seems to have been made from an oral expo- 
sition through the medium of a different language, probably the Bengalese. This 
will be evident to the Oriental Scholar on the slightest comparison, for example the 
introduction, which does not correspond with the original in so much as a single word, 
the name of the author's preceptor alone excepted ; nor is there a word of the trans- 
lated introduction countenanced by any of the commentaries. At the commence- 
ment of the treatise too, where the requisite qualifications of a student are enumerat- 
ed, Mr* Ward makes his author say, that a person, possessing those qualifications, 
is an heir to the Veda ; there is no term in the text, nor in the commentaries, which 
could suggest the notion of heir, unless Mr. Ward has so translated adhicari, (a com- 
petent or qualified person) which in Bengalese signifies proprietor, or with the epithet 
uttara, uttara adhicari, heir or successor. It would be needless to pursue the com- 
parison further. The meaning of the original is certainly not to be gathered from 
such translations as this, and (as Mr. Ward terms them) of other principal works of 
the Hindoos, which he has presented to the public. 



I3i5.2 Vedanta^Sara, or Essence of ike Veddnia. 101 

exact metaphysical meaning of them muBt remain problematical. Be- 
sides O. Frank is the disciple of a particular philosophical school, that 
of Hegel» and has very often coloured the ideaa of the original so as to 
oorrespond with his own system. I hope, therefore, that I have not 
undertaken a useless task, in bringing before the public a third trans- 
lation, in which it has been my constant endeavor to render the original 
ts faithfully as possible* For the language of this translation, I have 
as a foreigner to solicit the indulgence of the reader ; and, independently 
of other considerations, it will be remembered, that Bnglish in itself 
presents difficulties, in rendering with exactitude the real force and 
meaning of Sanscrit philosophical terms. As regards, however, the 
laaguage of the preface, I am much indebted to the valuable assistance 
of Mr. H. Torrens, V* P. and Secretary to the Asiatic Society, and 
I take this opportunity of acknowledging my great obligations to him. 
In publishing this translation, it is my principal object to attract the 
attention of the public once more to a branch of Hindoo learning, 
which, successfully cultivated as it was by Colebrooke, has been of late 
almost entirely neglected. The researches of that eminent scholar, as 
ia other departments, were also with regard to the philosophy of the 
Hindoos, of the most comprehensive character. He not only gave a 
general sketch of the different systems of their philosophy, but also 
a critical introduction into this branch of Hindoo literature, almost 
entirely unknown before his day. As his labors then created extensive 
interest in Europe, it is much to be regretted, that these researches 
were afterwards but lamely followed up. The Germans indeed did as 
much as the want of material allowed them. I here allude to the 
researches of the two Scblegels (Fr. and A. W. von) W. V. Humboldt. 
Ritter. (in his History of Philosophy) O. Frank, Lassen and others, who 
published either original texts, or translations, or critical treatises. 
But however meritorious these labors were, most of them, as founded 
upon Ck>lebrooke's works, could not much enlarge our information on 
Hmdoo philosophy. For this object the publication of Sanscrit texts, 
or translations was necessary, which were looked for chiefly from India 
and England. Here, however, it appears, that the interest in Hindoo 
philosophy was only enforced by the name of Colebrooke, as with him 
almost all further investigation ceased; for, with the exception of 
Professor Wilson, who edited Colebrooke's translation of the Sankhya 

Q 



102 Feddnta.Sara, or Essence of the Veddnta. [No. \58. 

Karika, and translated the native commentaries on this work, no one 
has published any work of importance with regard to Hindoo philosophy. 
Without endeavoring here to enlarge on the causes of this neglect* I 
must not omit to touch on the principal one*-*the want of encourage- 
ment* with which philosophical researches are met in England. The 
study of philosophy is of its very nature adapted but to few ; but even 
they will be deterred from it, if that part of the public, to which they 
are to communicate the results of their enquiries, is totaUy indifferent 
to them. If philosophy generally be but in little repute in England, 
it is easy to conclude, what must be the neglect of the systems of the 
Hindoos in particular, which, it appears, are entirely superseded by the 
much more elaborate systems of Europe. The Hindoos, it is said, are 
acute enough in nominal distinctions, but their enquiries, originating 
from an absurd and gross superstition, recur only to this root, instead 
of explaining the phenomena of nature. Without entering into a full 
discussion of this subject, I may be allowed to observe^ that this view 
would at once destroy all historical study. On account of their histori- 
cal interest, we not only direct our attention to the works of Ghrecian 
art, but also to those of Egypt, Etruria, Persia, Peru and of other coun« 
tries, because they show us the characters of those nations in different 
states of civilization. If these possess a general interest, Hindoo philo- 
sophy is a monument, which must claim the attention of every enquiring 
mind, as it reveals to us the inmost character of the nation, closely in- 
terwoven as it is with all institutions of public and domestic life, with 
their literature, religion and their views of the means, by which their moral 
welfare might be advanced or retarded. But waiving this general inter- 
est, we must be aware of the connexion of Hindoo philosophy with the 
development of European science, by the new platonic philosophy, which 
evidently contains the principles and results of Hindoo philosophy, a 
connexion which can be only fully understood, when we know more oi 
the history of the Hindoo systems.* 

The V^d^nta-Sara is an abstract of the doctrines of the V^danta 
philosophy, and expounds more particularly those tenets which are 
ascribed by Colebrooke to the modem branch of this school. It com- 
prehends in a very condensed form the whole range of the topics, which 
are discussed more fully in the different works of this school. The ob- 
* Ritter's Geschichte der Philosophie. Vol. 4, p. **• 



1845.1 Fedanta-Sara, or Essence of the VSddnia. 



103 



scanty, which prevaUs in some passages, is rather owing to the concen- 
tration than to the indistinctness of the ideas. The principles of the 
system are clearly laid down, and though in a few passages there is a 
deviation from them, they are never lost sight of. Other philosophical 
systems are only touched upon, when it is the object to prove their 
principles to be entirely inconsistent with themselves and with each 
other. The demonstrations, though short, are perspicuous, and some* 
times even elegant. The illustrations are generally well selected and 
striking ; and, if we consider the work to be rather of a descriptive than 
of a argumentative character^ we must acknowledge, that it is a most 
ezcdlent introduction to the study of that philosophy. 

The following exposition is intended to place before the reader the 
chief metaphysical topics of this work and to compare the doctrines, 
explained in it, with those philosophical systems, Hindoo as well as 
European, with which it has an affinity in its principles. There exists 
according to it only one eternal and unchangeable being, who has the 
attributes of existence and consciousness. The manifold distinctions 
in what may be called, the material and intellectual worlds, are toge- 
ther with those worlds, mere uhaika, produced by unconsciousness,^ 
(which objective is something analogous with matter, and subjective 
a want of clear perception of the unreality of all material objects.) 
For example, if you reflect on the reality of the world, you find it has 
none, because it is changeable throughout ; all reality is centred in 
one being, who is beyond change, and concerning whom there is not 
even change or plurality of ideas, as it includes no distinctions in it- 
self. Thus of the supposed reality of the world, nothing remains ; 
naught exists but mere ciSoiXa, which, in contradistinction with the 
knowledge of Brahma (or of the infinite being without plurality,) may be 
called ignorance or unconsciousness. It is the principal work of philoso- 
phy to destroy this ignorance, or to unite our .finite being with the infinite 
Brahma, or in the words of the V^d^ta; to know ourselves as Brahma. It 

'* The words consciousness and anconsciousness do not express the full meaning 
of the corresponding Sanscrit words. Conscioasness means tbe knowledge of what 
passes in the mind, that is, a reflected knowledge, while* the Sanscrit term refers to 
knowledge in general. As Colebrooke, however, has used in his essay those words, 
I thought it better not to introduce another terminology, and have only to remind 
the reader, that consciousness and unconsciousness are here always to be understood 
in the more comprehensive sense. 



104 Veddnia-Sara, or Essence of the Vedania. [No. 153. 



is, however, impossible for any individual immediately to obtain this 
knowledge, as any idea, wluch we may conceive of Brahma, previoua to 
the performance of the conditions, conducive to that knowledge, mast be 
one of the various illusions, which are created by ignorance in our minds. 
The true knowledge can only be obtained by a systematic method, 
which is twofold, theoretical and practical. The theoretical method is 
the direction of there flective power upon Brahma, and it proceeds first 
synthetically from the infinite substance to the ccSoiXa <>' appearances, 
showing the various modes, in which Brahma is successively represented 
by unconsciousness ; and secondly analytically, from the manifold crea- 
tions of unconsciousness to the infinite substance, successively sho^wing* 
the unreality of them and returning to Bramha as the only source of 
reality. The practical method presents the means, by which our senses, 
passions, and thoughts are subdued; the mind is gradually detached 
horn worldly concerns, directed to the performance of good acts alone, 
and finally fixed upon the contemplation of Qod. 

It is remarkable, how in the principle itself the fallacy of the system 
is manifest. If Bramha be the only real being, all other things (materi- 
al or immaterial) are unreal, and this inference is expressly recognized, 
there should be not even the appearance of an existence oi them ; 
but it is also said, that those things must not be considered as nothing ; 
so that they have, to say so, a kind of imperfect existence, but still an 
existence, which cannot be derived from the infinite Bramha. In short, 
there is not one principle, but, against the express assertion of the V^- 
d&ita, iUH) principles, the infinite, undiangeable, omniscient being, and 
the finite, changeable and unconscious being. This is also evident from 
tiie consequences ; for the world or its appearance is not produced either 
by Bramha or by unconsciousness, but by their mutual causality ; for in 
Bramha only, when clouded by the mists of ignorance, is the spectacle 
of a world produced. According to this exposition of the theory, which 
must, I think, be allowed to be correct, Bramha would coinci^ with the 
notion, which occidental philosophers form of substance, and uncon- 
sciousness with that of attributes and modes. 

What is called unconsciousness, has, however, a twofold meaning ; 
according to one, it is delusive appearance, by which unreal things are 
represented as real ; according^ to the other, it is the origin of the 
actual world. We shall consider only this «econd meaning, which we 



1845.3 Vedania^Sara, or Essence of the Viddnta. 105 



esdeaTOur clearly to define. It is evident, that an adequate notion 
of that origin can only be obtained from its productions, as the nature 
of the cause is perceived by the nature of its effects, and this mode of 
Bileience vre may the more insist upon* as the inductive process is re- 
ooBineiided by the system as one of the means, whereby to arrive at true 
knowledge. Now the Vdddntista hold, that unconsciousness causes the 
enumation of five elements, ether (likisa,) air, fire, water and earth. 
Tliese elements, though subtile and imperceptible to the senses, have 
material qualities, and are therefore themselves special kinds of matter. 
To know their origin, we have then to divest them of their special 
qualities, by which we arrive at the notion of matter in general 
(separated firam all differences of space and time,) and we must therefore 
say, that unconsciousness and the general notion of matter are virtually 
the same, a necessary inference, however, but one which the V^d&n- 
tists took care to avoid, because the vague notion of unconsciousness 
suited admirably as a cloak to the radical error of their system. 

As it is here my object to place before the reader the most prominent 
eharacteriatics only of the system, I am not to enter into the various 
emanations from unconsciousness, but will at once state the opinion, 
which the V^tota forms as to the highest form of knowledge, to which 
the individual mind can aspire, and which in fact is a consequence, ne- 
cessarily derived from the first principles of the system. When we have 
perceived, that all the emanations of unconsciousness are unreal, when 
we are able to distinguish in the universal as well as in the individual 
soul, that which is real and eternal from the unreal and the transient, 
then is our noti(m of Bramha firmly and adequately established, in the 
knowledge, that the individual soul is the same with the eternal Bramha, 
as the differences, which at first sight seemed to exist between them, 
became gradually destro3red by the progress of reflection. But even 
thia adequate notion of Bramha, as an act of the mind, is included in 
die emanations of unconsciousness, and it is therefore an unavoidable 
inference, that this act also, when once arrived at, should be destroyed 
as one, though the purest and highest, of the emanations of unconscious- 
aess, when the individual soul, comprehending its reality, returns to 
Bramha, with whom it is identical. 

The philosophy of the V^d&nta, as explained in the V^dtota-Sara, 
differs undoubtedly from the more ancient expositions of this doctrine, 



106 Vedania-Sara, or Essence of the Viddnld. [No. 15& 

and I fully concur in Colebrooke's opinion, that the attempt to pro« 
claim the material world as mere illusion, had not originated with the 
founders of the V^ddnta. The centre on which all Hindoo philosophy 
depends, is the opposition between the phenomena of the mind and of 
the body, by which they were led even in early times, as it appears, 
to maintain the existence of two principles, soul and matter.* This is 
likewise observable in the V^dnta ; soul and matter, though produced 
from one and the same substance, are at first real productions, which 
have the same claim to existence, and only at a later period, when 
on comparison of both with the substantia absoluta their reality came 
to be questioned, the reality of matter was denied, and the expedient 
of an illusion was resorted to, in order to explain its existence-. 

The V^ddnta in general differs from the Sankhya ; the two systems 
assimilate tn their explanation of productions of the material world ; but 
while the Sankhya lays down the original independent existence of 
spirit and of matter, the V^d&nta derives both from one and the same 
substance, in which their differences are destroyed. The two schools 
of the V^^nta, the ancient and modern, agree as to this substantifii 
absoluta ; the material productions, however, derived from it, though 
created in the same successive order, are differently explained ; they 
are real productions accordifig to the ancient school, while the naodem 
one believes them to be a mere illusion, produced by unccmsciousness. 

Among the various systems of the Greeks, we can only find that of 
the Eleates, with which we may compare the principles of the V6dtota. 
We there perceive the same all comprehensive substance, which has the 
same attribute of eternal, unchangeable existence which is without 
differences, either with regard to itself or others, and the sole attribute 
of which is thought. We also find in the disputes of the Eleate Zeno 
with other Greek philosophers the same inclination to consider all 
material things as mere illusion. But I abstain from further comparison 
of the systems, as the V^ddnta treats of the subject matter synthe- 
tically as well as by analysis, whereas the Eleate school has confined 
itself wholly to the latter process. 

The -modern V^d&nta bears the closest affinity to the system of Spi- 

* Though it appears a matter of course, that all philosophers should commence 
from these principles, history shows the reverse. Thus, Greek philosophy was at 
its commencement entirely physicaK 



1845-3 Vedanta-Sara, or Essence of the Feddnia. 107 

noza« His Bramha is that infinite Bubatance with infinite attributes, 
beside which there is nought else existing, though he so far differs from 
the modem V^d&ntists as to assign to it two attributes, that of thought, 
and that of extension, which the V^d^tists of that school deny the 
existence of. 

They inaintain a perfect Ens or a real unity without any element of 
opposite qualities. Spinoza indeed asserts, that his Ens Cogitans is 
identical with the Ens Extensum, difference existing only in the percep- 
tion of the whole under the one or under the other attribute ; but on 
the other hand he also asserts* that each attribute must be understood 
of itself, that is to say, that it has no relation whatever to any other 
attribute.* Though the V^4nta philosophy in this instance is evidently 
more strict in the definition of the principle, it deviates from the origi- 
nal purity of its notion, when attempting to explain the phenomena of 
its world. 

Both systems present likewise a singular coincidence in the mode, 
by which they connect finite things with infinite substance. Spinoza 
declares it altogether impossible to derive finite things from infinite 
sabtance, because any finite substance is only finite, if determined by 
another substance of the same kind, that is, infinite substance is always 
co-existent with finite things.f The V^inta-S^ra maintains also, that 
the perception of Bramha as one whole or as many parts, depends merely 
on the accident of that perception ; if perceived as one, it would be one ; 
if perceived as many, it would be many; but in the latter case the unity 
of entity would be iq no sort destroyed or altered. Here likewise we 
find a plurality of material objects, not derived from the one whole (which 
has the attributes of infinity, eternity, &c.,) but co-existent in it, so 

* Though it shonld be hardly necessary to make quotations in such ^ general 
sketch as this, still it may be not found useless to confirm some of the above as- 
sertions. Per attributum intelligo id, quod intellectum de substantia percipit, tan- 
quam ejus essentian constituens* Spin. £th. I. Def* 4. Unnmquodque unius sub- 
stantise attributum per se concipi debet. £th. Prop. 10. Duae attributa, realiter 
distincta, per se concipiuntur, idest, unum sine ope alterius. £th. Def. S. 

t Quodcunque singulare sive quavis res, quae finita est et determinatam hsebet ez- 
istendam, non potest ezistere nee ad operandum determinari, nisi ad ezistendum et 
operandum determinetur ab alia causa, quae etiam finita est, et determinatam habet 
existentiam ; et rursus haec causan on potest etiam ezistere, neque ad operandum 
determioari, nisi ab alia, quae etiam finita est et determinetur ad ezistendum et ope- 
randum, et sic in infinitum. £th. !• Prop. S8* 



108 Feddnta.Sara, or Essence of the Veddnta. [No. 15a 

that both views are essentially the same: this way of reasonings 
however, must not be applied to the pure Bramha. Here then both 
systems differ, and if we must assign to the V^ddnta the meed of 
greater purity in its principle, we must expressly state, that in the 
development of the system Spinoza is as infinitely superior to the V^d^ta 
as the science of his time was to that of the Hindoos generally* 

It is easy also to find many points of resemblance between the 
modern V^^ta and the doctrines of Fichte* and Schdling ; as the 
world, being a production of Majra, or unconsciousness, and according 
to Fichte, being a phenomenon of the Ego in its different modes of 
considering itself, and Schelling's negation of the nothing by the abso- 
lute substance, his absolute Selbstbejahung, compared with the infinite 
Bramha, without whom nothing exists, are ideas closely related ; but 
we abstain from further comparisons and conclude this introduction 
with some remarks on Hindoo philosophy in general. 

We must acknowledge the ingenuity and originality of thought^ by 
which this system was brought forth. It is evidently not a primitive 
notion of the mind, such as might almost arbitrarily assign a general 
cause to certain phenomena, which provoke reflection. It is an elabo- 
rate system, in which the principle and the method are clearly defined^ 
and the inferences are fairly deduced, and compared with the original 
impulses, by which reflection was called forth. It is also evident, that 
such a doctrine, especially as it was considered as the last goal of . per- 
fection by all classes, must have had a powerful influence in the form- 
ation of individual character as well as on the civilisation of the people ; 
for to obtain its final object, purity of the moral character was indis- 
pensable. It is, to confess the truth, a philosophical system, elevated, 
far above the crude notions, connected with national superstitions, 
above the prejudices of caste, as well as above the formalities of ceremo- 
nial worship ; for the supreme substance is only known by a continued 

* Fichte, in assertiDg that the external ohjects are merely productions of the 
ego, appears to be most closely connected with the modem V^d&nta. This is, 
however, not the case. The V^dn&tists maintain the world to be appearance, be- 
cause it cannot be considered as real : Fichte, on the contrary, from its being a mere 
appearance in the Ego, argues its unreality. This Ego moreover, as the identity of 
subject and object, is very different from any doctrine in the V^d&nta, and the idea- 
listic principle, from .which it appears to proceed, is only pretended, as the pheno- 
mena of nature are in fact derived from a realistic basis. 



ia45.~i Feddnta^Sara, or Essence of the Vtdanta. 109 

and m^hodical direction of the reflective power of the mind upon it, 
and the Sankhya exprendy asserts, that the religious ceremonies 
and doctrines of the V6das are not sufficient] for final salvation.* It 
IS, however, not surprising, that similar effects were not produced by the 
philosophy of the Hindoos, as by that of the Greeks. In Greece no 
caste existed ; men of science rose from all classes of the people, and 
the work of the higher feusulties of the mind was not restricted to the 
priests. When therefore philosophers found the religious doctrines of 
their people inconsdstent with sound reason and morality, they did not 
hesitate to pronounce them as such, and to demonstrate their pernicious 
effects upon the moral and religious principles of the people.f In India, 
on the contrary, the cultivation of science was incumbent on the priests 
abne, and if the results of their enquiries were strongly opposed to the 
religious prejudices of the people, their whole position most forcibly 
recommended them to conceal what they considered truths, because 
destructive of those very prejudices, whence they derived their privileges 
and subsistence. Thus influenced on the one side by the power of truth 
to the revelation of their opinions, on the other by worldly advantages 
to their conceaLnent, they fdlowed a middle course, that is, they 
endeavored to reconcile the tenets of religion with their philosophical 
views, without deserting the consistency of their principles. By this 
proceeding must religion, of course have been degraded from its state 
of sublime agency, as advancing the best interests of mankind, to be- 
coming the base instrument of delusion on uncultivated minds, while 
^osophy lost its dignity and genuine character, being mixed up with 
a corrupt theology, and the distance between the learned and the 
people in general became the wider. It was only one of the conse* 
quences of such a position, that the common people by nature and law 
were unfit to enjoy the knowledge possessed by the privileged castes. 
Owing to the exclusiveness of science it is another consequence, that 
philosophy in India was more directed to theoretical contemplation 
than to practical purposes ; the Ghreeks as well as the modem European 

* ThiB is in fact also maintained by the V^d6nta, absorption into Brahma bein; 
the final end of an individual intelligence, and all efforts which are not directed to 
this end, retarding it in a more or less degree. 

f Seztns Empir. Adv. Math., where he speaks about Xenophanes, Itnd Clem* 
Alex. Chrom. V. Xenophanes ; but the principal passage, and perhaps the best, what 
bu been said on the pernicious results of polytheism, Plat. Repub. Lib. It. 

R 



1 10 Veddnia-Sara, or Essence of the V^ddnta. QMo. 158. 

nations, on the contrary, bestowed the same attention upon practical as 
on abstract questions ; for while, according to the one, it is a duty of 
mankind to remain in social connexion, a duty which should even be 
enforced, it is, according to the other, the highest privilege of the 
wise to separate himself from all sodal connexions, to endeavour at 
a total abdication of the impulses and motives for action, which the 
world or our ownselves can present, until the soul has arrived at that 
condition, in which it returns to the source of all truth and reality, and 
in which the individual becomes annihilated by absorption into the g^at 
origin of all things, who is all, and in whom all are included. 



Salutation to Ganesha. 

For the accomplishment of my desire I take refuge to the soul, in. 
finite in reality, in knowledge and in bliss,* the place of the uni. 
verse, which neither by word nor thought can be approached. 

Having worshipped my teacher Adwydnanda,f who by overcoming 
the notion of duality, is in truth so named, I shall expound the 
Essence of the Veddnta according to my understanding. 

The name of Veddnta applies to such arguments as are taken from 

Ved&nta. the Upanishadsj: to the Sharirikasutra8§ and other similar 
Shastras, which tend to the same end. 

As this work is an introduction to the V^d^nta, it need not ae. 

^^«8^y- paratedly explain the categories, by which the Ved^nta is 
^^^^' completed. There are four categories in the Ved^nta^ the 
qualified person, the object, the connection, and the final end. 



* This may also be translated, ** the infinite, eternal, omniscient, blissful soul," 
or '* the soul, which is the bliss of infinite being, and knowledge." 1 here observe, 
that the soul is not something different from those predicates, but the identity of 
reality, knowledge and bliss. 

t Adwy&nanda means who finds his felicity in non-duality* 

X Upanishad, the theological part of the Ved&nta, or argumentative part of the 
y^das* Wilson. The commentator, R&makrishna Tfrtha remarks, that it is the object 
of the Upanishads to explain the unity of the universal and the individual soul. 

§ The S&rfrika, Mlm&nsa, Brahme>stltra or S&rfra-siltra, above mentioned, is a 
collection of succinct aphorisms, attributed to B&darayana, who is the same with 
Vy&sa, or Vedavyfisa, also called Dwaip^yana or Crishna-dwaipiyana. Colebrooke 
Tr. R. A. Soc. Vol. II, p. 3. ' 



1845.3 Viddnta^Sara, or Essence of the F^ddnia. 1 1 1 

A qaalified person is he, who by the perusal, as it is prescribed, 

Qualified persom. of the Vedas and Vedtogas having first obtained 

'^hsi^lll^J the true sense of all the Vedas, who in this or a former 

life having renounced the objects of desire, and the works which are 

JMndden^ who by observing the daily ceremonies as well as those pre* 

scribed on certain occasions, the expiations and acts of internal worship, 

being liberated from all sin, and therefore thoroughly purified in his 

mind, and who having performed the four means, has become perfect 

in knowledge* 

Objects of desire, as for instance the Jydtishtomas*, are such as are 

Okfects qf desire. means of obtaining heaven and other desirable ob. 

4|i|4>|||f«| jects ; prohibited is what causes (the punishment 

Mdo/ aversion. of) hell and other undesirable objects, as for in. 

fsf^pgjfsf stance the killing of a Bramhan. Daily ceremonies 

DaUy ceremtmies. are for instance the Shandhydbandana\ which to 

fifcMfSr f omit is the cause of sin. Ceremonies on certain 

Ceremomes <m certain occasions are for instance the Jateshtya and others 

^ °"^' ^ for the birth of a son. Expiations are for instance 

•n^flTiqmn ijig Chandr^yanas,J which are causes of remov. 

^ . ^X'^f^ ^^ti '"O* ^^^ 0^ internal worship, for instance 

«ii«ii«^Tiii«i g^^lJ ^ originated from Shandilya, are actions 

rJ_^_^^f^ ®^ ^® mind, whose object is Bramha, united 

H^ltl^llH ^itjj Ihe iijj^e qualities. The principal fruit of 

the daily ceremonies is the purification of the mind, that of the acts 
of internal worship is the fixing of the mind upon Bramha. 

** It is bim, whom the Bramhans by the word of the Vedas and by 
religious austerities wish to comprehend,'* says the Sruti. 

'' By austerities sin is destroyed ; by knowledge, immortality obtain, 
ed," says the Sruti. 

* A particular sacrifice, at which sixteen officiating priests are required. Wilson's 
Sanscrit Diet. 

t Religions abstraction, meditation, repetition of Mantras, sipping of water, &c 
to be performed by the three first classes of Hindoos at particular and stated periods 
in the course of every day, especially at sunrise, sunset, and also, though not essen- 
tially, at noon. Wil. S. D. 

t A religious or expiatory observance regulated by the moon's age, diminishing 
the daily consumption of food every day by one mouthful, for the dark half of the 
Booii, and increastng it in like manner during the light half. Wil. S* D. 



112 VSddnta^Sara, or Essence of the Viddnia. [No. 158. 

The secondary fruit of the daily oeremoDies, of those enjoined on 

certain occasions^ and of the acts of internal worship, is the gaining of 

the world of the forefathers and of the celestials. 
" By works the first is obtained, by knowledge the latter^" says 

the Sruti. 
Means are : First, the distinction of the real from the unreal thing ; 
Means. Secondly, the disregard of the enjoyment of £ruits 

tf|V|«iir«4 (arising from works) as well in this as in a future life ; 

Thirdly, tranquillity of mind, self-restraint, &c. ; Fourthly, the desire 

of emancipation. 
The distinction of the real from the unreal thing, is to know, that 

^. ^ Bramha is the real thing, and beside him all is 

'^ ^1!I! unreal. Disregard of the enjoyment of the fruits, 

^^5 T^TwV* arising from works, in this as well as in a future 

fr^'^T^e^i'm^g^' 1^^^' " ^^^^^^^^ ^° ^^^^^^ *« enjoyment of 

things of this world, as for instance, of wreaths or 

Disregard of ensoy* 

ment in this as well as in sandel wood, &c which are transient, because they 

another world. a u v* • j v i_ n a 

must be obtamed by works, as well as to renounce 
the enjoyment of things of another world, as for instance, of the juice of 
immortality, &c., because they are also transient. 

Means of self-command are, a. tranquillity of mind, 6. self-restraint^ e. 
Means of self -command, resting, d. endurance, e, religious contemplation 

Tranquillity^ of mind. ^^^^ ^^^^ Tranquillity of mind is the refraining 

^^* of the mind from objects of the ear and the other 

senses, with the exception of such objects as refer to Bramha, (Bramha 

as united with the three qualities) self-restraint is the coercion of the 

Self-restraint, external senses from all objects, with the exception 

^TT: of such as refer to Bramha* Resting is to rest from 

Resting.^ all objects, when returning (into the mind) with 

"^^^In* exception of such as refer to Bramha, or to abandon, 

according to prescribed rules, all works that are enjoined. Endurance 

Endurance. is the sustaining of cold and warm, and of all those 

tif^QHifll sensations that have their contrary ones. 

Religious contemplation is to keep the mind fixed upon the hearing 

Religious contemplation. &c. of Bramha, and upon such objects by which 

^TT'HT* this is facilitated. Faith is belief in the words 



IM5,2 Viddnia-Saray or Essence of the Viddnia. 113 

of the spiritual guide and of the Ved^nta. Desire of emancipa- 
^<>*^ tion is the wish of liberation. He that is per- 

D^ emancipation ^«^^ ^" knowledge, having obtained this state of 
Jj^ ' WfW mindj is called a qualified person. 

'' Tranquil in mind and self-restrained/' says the Sruti, and it is also 
observed, '* To him who is tranquil in his mind, who has subdued 
his senses, whose sins are removed, who acts according to the precepts 
(of the Shastra) who abounds in virtues, who is a follower of the 
teacher and strives for emancipation, to such a one must always this 
(the Shastra) be given." 

II. Oljeety isii the V^d^nta,^ is the unity of the sentient soul and 

€}b9tcu of Bramha, the soul in its pure state, as to be 

T%^F7* proved from arguments of the Ved^nta. 

III. Canneeium, between that unity as object of knowledge, and 
Connection, the Upanishads which eitplain it, is the relation 
^•^nf: between the object of knowledge and that which 

makes it known. 

IV. Final end is the destruction of the ignorance which obtains 
Final end, with regard to the knowledge of that unity (of 

IfVt^pf the individual and universal soul) and the gaining 

of beatitude in accordance with his (Bramh^) being. 

*^ Who knows the soul, overcomes misery," says the Sruti, and 
further, 

" Who knows Bramha, becomes like Bramha." 

That qualified person, being burned by the fire of birth, death and 
other worldly misery, as a person whose head is burning, takes 
refuge in the sea, repairs with offerings in his hand to the teacher 
who knows the V^as, and puts his faith in Bramha, and becomes his 
(the teacher's) follower. 

*^ Holding (he) offerings in his hands, (repairs) to him who knows 
the VMas, and puts his faith in Bramha," says the Sruti. 

II. Object. That teacher with deepest love instructs him by means 
of the improper transferring and of the true abstraction.* 

" To him, when arrived, thus spoke the teacher," says the Sruti. 



* Adbykrdpa (the same with Ardpa, Adhy&sha, Bhrama^ is literaly *' placing 
upoD,'* and signifies error with regard to the infinite being. 



114 V^ddnia^Sara, or Essence of the V^ddnia. [No. 158. 

Improper trans/erring is the placing of an unreal thing upon 
Improper trantferring, the real thing, as the placing of (the notion of) 

^J^I^H* a snake upon a rope, which is not a snake. 

The real thing is the eternal, omniscient, blissful Bramha, without 

Real and unreal thing, duality. The unreal thing is all, that is in. 

^%W^^ animate without consciousness.* The thing 

« without consciousness is according to some Mrhat 

Thing without consci^ «^°no' ^^ explained by (the ideas of) exis- 
ousness. tence or non-existence, according to others, the 

something, composed of the three qualities,t which exists, and ob^ 
structs knowledge. 

I am ignorant, this and the like you perceive by reflection, and 

Unity andmuUipHcity " y«" ^°^^ ^*^^ P^^^' ^^ ^^« «^^^' ^° ^^'^'^ ^^ 

of the thing without own qualities are inherent," says the Sruti. This 

consciousness. ^ . , . . t . •■ 

(something) without consciousness by the ideas 
of generality and speciality is perceived as one thing and many 
things. For as by the application of (the idea) of generality to trees the 
word forest in the singular number is perceived, or by the same notion 

• Vide preface. 

*<IUI» Commonly translated, quality, but more adequately degree of mmteiial 
existence. Guna is likewise here in the text not a quality of the thing without 
consciousness, but the three Gunas are its actual being. A Guna, as being the 
source of all derived material existence, can consequently not be explained, but by 
its effects. Lassen renders these three modes of existence by — essentia, impetas, 
and caligo. Colebrooke, Miscellaneous Essays, Vol. I. p. €49, says, with regard to 
them : " The Sankhya, as other Indian systems of philosophy, is much engaged 
with the consideration of what is termed the three qualities, if indeed quality is 
the proper import of the term ; for the Scholiast of Capila understands it as mean- 
ing, not quality or accident, but substance, a modification, fettering the soal, 
conformably with another acceptation of Guna, signifying a cord* The first and 
highest is goodness, (sattwa.) It is alleviating, enlightening, attended with plea- 
sure and happiness ', and virtue predominates in it. In fire it is prevalent, where- 
fore flame ascends, and sparks fly upwards. In man, when it abounds, as it does in 
beings of a superior order, it is the cause of virtue. The second and middlemost 
is foulness or passion, Crajas or tejas.) It is active, urgent and variable, attended 
with evil and misery. In air it predominates, wherefore wind moves transversely. 
In living beings, it is the cause of vice. The third and lowest is darkness, (tamas). 
It is heavy and obstructive, attended with sorrow, dullness and illusion. In earth 
and water it predominates, M^herefore they fall or tend downwards. In living beings 
it is the cause of stolidity. These three qualities are not mere accidents of nature, 
but are of its essence, and enter into its composition. We speak of the qualities 
of nature, as we do of the trees of a forest," says the S&nchyas. 



1845.] V^ddfUa^Sara, or Essence of the Viddnia. 115 

many waters appear as a single thing, so by the application of the idea 
of generality to the unconscious things which are united with sentient 
souls and manifested by (the idea of) plurality^ they appear as one 
nngle thing. 

''Which is not produced, which is one" (ignorance^ Maya,) says the 
Sruti. 

In this uniyersality (of unconsciousness) by being the attribute of the 
perfect one, is the principal quality, viz. that of goodness, prevailing ; 
the soul in which this (aniversal unconsciousness) is inherent, and which 
has the attributes of omniscience, omnipotence, supreme government 
and other perfections, which is manifested by (the notions of) existence 
and non-existence, which is the ali.pervading cause of the world, is 

Supreme ruler, called the supreme ruler. His omniscience arises 

fIK^« from manifesting all that is without consciousness. 

** Who knows all, is omniscient/' says the Sruti. 

This universality (of unconsciousness) is the causal organism (of the 

Causal organism, bouI,) since it is the cause of the universe^ it is 

qn^^H^^ the cause of blessedness, since it involves all bliss 

and has the quality of covering like a case ; it is profound sleep, since 

it rests above all ; it is therefore said to be the place of destruction of 

the subtile and gross expanses. 

As by the application of (the idea of) speciality a forest is perceived 
as trees in the plural number, or water as many waters, so by the ap. 
plication of (the idea of) speciality the universal unconsciousness 
appears as many unconscious things. 

'* Bramha is by his May& manifold/' says the Sruti. 

In this instance by the application of universality and speciality arises 
Ihe name of universality and speciality, (of unconsciousness.) This speci- 
ality of unconsciousness, by its being an attribute of the single soul, has 
the principal quality of goodness in its impure state. The soul, in which 
this (special unconsciousness) is inherent, and which has therefore the 
attributes of ignorance, subjection and other imperfections, is called the 

J&idtwrfttoi /n*e%eitcc. individual intelligence ;• it has the attribute of 
'^[^l partial knowledge, since it manifests only one 

* I hare rendered the Sanscrit term : I||^; by individual intelligence. The 

adequate version would be : who knows only a little, which is, however, in fact the 
8am« with the idea of an individual intelligence. 



1 16 Vdddnta^Sara, or Essence of the V4ddnta. C^o. 158. 

uDcoD8ciou8 thiog ; it is not able to manifest many^ because it has the 
quality of indistinctness*. Since it (the special unconsciousness) is the 
cause of selft> and of other similar attributes, it is the causal organism 
(of the soul) as it includes all bliss, the case of blessedness^ as it rests 
above all, profound sleep, therefore the place of destruction of the sub- 
tile and coarse organisms. In that state the supreme ruler and the in- 
dividual intelligences enjoy by the subtle powers of unconsciousness, 
which are the manifestations of the soul, (perfect) blessedness. 

** The individual intelligence, which is the same with the soul, en- 
joys bliss/' says the Sruti. 

This is also confirmed by the fact, that one who awakes from 
sleep, makes the reflection,— Sleeping I was happy, I knew 
nothing. 

There is no distinction between both the universality and speciality, 
(of unconsciousness) as there is none between forest and the trees, and 
water as one thing, and water as many waters. There is no distinction 
likewise between both, the supreme ruler and the individual intelli- 
gences, in which that universality and speciality are inherent, as there 
is none between the sky, which covers the forest and the trees, 
and between the sky which is reflected by the ocean and by many 
waters. 

'' That Ruler of all," says the Sruti. 

As there is for both the forest and the trees, and the sky, which 
is attributed to them, as well as the water and the waters, and the 
sky, reflected by them, another not attributed sky, which is the loca- 
tion of them, so is for both, the unconsciousness and the soul, in which 
it (the unconsciousness) is inherent, another soul which is not inherent, 
and which is called the fourthj:. 

"They call him blessed, tranquil, without duality, the fourth," 
says the Sruti. 



* This indistinctness is produced, according to the Tfka, hy the state in which the 
single soul is placed, viz., in which the first quality, heing suppressed by the second 
and third qualities, cannot be clearly manifest. 

^ ^TYZTC^ Self, more properly what produces self, the notion of egoity, the 
faculty or piower to refer all perceptions and notions to a self, an ego. 
% This term of the fourth will afterwards be explained. 



J845.3 Viddnta^Saray or Essence of the V^ddnia. 1 17 

This fourth, the soul in its pure state*, if^ like a burning iron.ball, 
not distinguished from the unconsciousness and the soul, in which it 
is inherent, is the literal meaning of the great sentence, (viz., that 
art thou, which the teacher first addresses to his pupil) if distinguish, 
ed, it is the real meaning of the great sentence. 
The unconsciousness possesses two powers, the covering and the il- 
Covering power of un- iuslvef. The unconsciousuess, though finite, hides 
coDSGiousness. y^^ .^ covering power the infinite, incorporeal soul, 

by obstructing the mind of the observer, in the 
same way, as even a small cloud covers the orb of the sun, which ex. 
tends many miles, by obstructing the direction of the eye of the ob. 
server. 

Thus it is said, ^* As an ignorant man, the eye of whom is cover- 
ed by a cloud, thinks the sun to be covered by a cloud and without 
ndiance, so the self as soul, which is infinite knowledge, appears be- 
fore the eye of the ignorant as constrained in limits." 

When the soul is covered by this power, then arises the impression 
of dominion, possession, happiness, misery and of other notions, con. 
neeted with material things, as from a rope, which is not perceived to 
be a rope (which is covered by its own ignorance) the idea of a snake 
Illusive power. |g produced. — As the ignorance with regard to a 
'RW'nrni* rope, produces by its own power (the idea of) a 
snake and similar things upon a rope which is not perceived to be a 
rope (which is covered by its own ignorance) so shows the unconsci- 
oiisness (ignorance) by its own power all the expanses of the universe 
upon the soul, which is covered by ignorance. This power is called 
the illusive power. 

It is said, '* The illusive power of ignorance creates the world from 
the internal organisms of Bramhd's egg." 



* That is to say, considered in its absolute state, in which all differences and at- 
tributes are annihilated, and which can only be expressed by the notions of infinite 
existence and knowledge. 

t There is this difference between the two powers, the one is negative, there is 
an absence of truth, because it is concealed ; the second, however, is a creative 
power, it creates appearances, illusions which claim to be realities ; the term illu- 
nve does not fully express the Sanscrit word, but I did not find a more adequate 
one. 

s 



1 18 F^ddnta^Sara, or Essence of the V^ddnta. [No. 158. 

The soul, in which the ignorance with its two powers is inherent^ is 

by its own principality the instrumental caase* 

Oriffin of the world. ,^ ^ ♦. j i. ^l . . i.. * .. 

( MptTt ) «^o« ''y t**« principality of its qaality 
(ignorance) the material cause (^l||^|«|), as a spider by its o^vn 
principality is the instrumental cause, and by the principality of ita 
body the material cause of the web. From the soul, covered ^vith 
unconsciousness, as illusive power, (the second power) in which the 
darkness (the third quality) prevails, is produced the ether,t from 
the ether the wind, from the wind the fire, from the fire the ivater, 
from the water the earth. 

'' From this soul, in which unconsciousness is inherent, the ether 
is produced," says the Sruti. In the cause of them (the five elements,) 
darkness predominates on account of the prevalence of the inanimate 
in those elements ; in that state are the three qualities, (truth, action 
and darkness) produced in the ether and the other elements accord- 
ing to the quality of their causes. Those subtile elements are called 
atoms (n«^*iN) and uncombined elements. 

From them are produced the organisms and the gross elements. The 
subtile organisms are the seventeen organs, and the internal organisms. 
Those organs are the five intellectual senses, understanding and reason^ 
the five organs of acting and the five internal airs. The intel- 
lectual senses are the ear, the sense of touch (skin,) the eyes the 
tongue and the nose. They are separately, according to their 

order, produced from the united parts of the first 
Un^tanding. ^^^jj^y ^^ ^^ime elements. Understanding is called 

Rea^. ^^^ action of the mind, by which it asserts; reaeom 

9T7r* ^^^^ action of the mind, by which it doubts or de. 

^^^' ^^^®8 ' *^ ^^^^ (actions) are thinking (f^rf) ^^^ con- 
^^^ sciousness included; thinking is that action of the 

* There are three kinds of causes, 1. Samav&yik&rana, the same which is here 
called ^md|«f, which signifies ^e elements, of which any sabstance may be 
produced, therefore material cause ; 2. Asamav&yik&rana, the actual union of the 
componing parts ; 3. Nimitta K&rana, the instrument, by which an effect is pro* 
duced ; vide Bhasha Parich^da. 

t HU|oKm. is the first element, in which all others are comprehended ; Accord. 
ing ^ the Bhasha Parichlda it is everywhere, and has, with the exception of the 
sound, the same attributes with time. In want of a more appropriate term ether 
perhaps expresses best its meaning. 



1845.] V^ddnta-Sara, or Essence of the Vdddnta. 1 19 

Consciousness, mind, by which it examines ; oonsciousness, by which 
'^'^*«niV \x perceives its actions as its own actions. They 
are also produced by the united first qualities of those elements^ 
which is evident firom the fact, that they have the power to manifest 
The understanding together with the intellectual senses, forms the 
bMUgeni case qf the intelligent case of the soul ; this (case) on ac- 
'ouL count of its manifesting the impulses of dominion, 

possession and pride, is called the administering sentient soul, the posses- 
sor of this and another world. The reason together with the organs of 

, action form the mental case. Organs of action 

Mental case of the soiU. ^ 

are word, hand, foot, the organs of evacuation and 
generation. They are separately according to their order, produced by 
parts of the second quality. The tnUU airs are those of respiration, 
of inspiration, of circulation, the guttural air and the equalizing air, 
(of digestion.) The air of respiration {TfVS*) is going upwards 
through the nose, that of inspiration (^h|«!I«) going downwards to 
the lower extremity of the intestine, that of eireulation is diffused 
throughout the whole body. The guttural wind (^^PT*) moving 
upwards turns back again, and has its place in the throat. The equa- 
lizing air (^TPT •) passing through the middle of the body, equalizes 
the food, which is taken by eating or drinking; to equalize is to digest 
and to produce the different substances for assimilation or excretion* 
Others maintain five airs, different from those above mentioned, viz. of 
eructation, of winking, of digestion, of yawning and of nourishing. The 
air of eructation {nm) produces belching, that of winking (^RiTt*) 
effects the closing of the eyes, &c. that of digestion \^^V*) produces 
hunger, that of yawning (^^f^:) produces yawning, that of nourish. 

ing (^«19>^7;) makes the body stout. Others assert, that the latter 
five airs are included in the former classes. The five vital airs are 
produced by the united second qualities of the five elements, and 

FUai case. form together with the acting organs the vital case ; it 
is produced by parts of the second qualities, because it is living action. 

Among those cases the intelligent case, having the faculty of 
knowledge, is the ruling, the mental case, having the faculty of desire, 
is the causal, and the vitcU case, having the faculty of action, is the 
performer of works. The divisions of the cases are made according to 



120 VSddnkuSara, or Essence of the Vdddnta. CNo. 158. 

their fitness (for certain actions.) They are called, when united, the 
subtile organism of the soul. Here also becomes the whole subtile 
organism by being the object of One mind, universal organism like 
the forests and the sea, and by being the object of many minds, 
special organisms, like the trees and the waters. The soul, in which the 
--. ^^ universality is inherent, is called (Hiranyagarbha) 

Utranyagarbha, 

the cause of himself, the sentient (conscious) being, 
because all things are arranged in him, and because the powers of 
knowledge and of action are inherent in him. The universality o( 
this is the subtile organism (of the soul,) because it is subtler than 
the gross organism. The threefold case, having the desire of awaking, 
is dream, and therefore called the place of destruction of the gross 
organism.*— Taijasa the soul, in which the speciality of this threefold 
organism is inherent, is called the manifesting mind» The speciality 
of this is the subtile organism from its being subtler than the gross 
organism. This threefold case having the desire of awaking, is dream, 
and therefore called the place of destruction of the gross organism. 
Both Shtitrata and Taijasa perceive in that state the subtile objects by 
the subtile powers of the mind. 

'' Taijasa, the subtle possessor," says the Sruti. 

In that state there is no difference between Sh^thita and Taijasa, 
in which the universality and speciality are inherent, as there is 
none between the sky which covers the forest and the trees, or the 
sky which is reflected by the sea and many waters. Thus is the 
production of the subtile organism. 

The gross elements are composed of the subtle ones according to the 
Production of the gross combination of five. The combination of five is to 

elements, combination of divide each of the five elements into two parts, 

Jive* f 

M^^fff ^^^° equally to divide each of the five former oi 

the ten parts into four parts, to separate these four 

of the one half from their own parts, and to join them with the parts 

of the other elements. The combination of five is proved beyond doubt 

by the Sruti, in which a combination of three of the same kind occurs. 

Though the elements are equalized with each other (containing ft 

fourth part of their former halves) yet it is proper to call them by their 

own name, according to the greater proportion of one element (in that 

combination.) 



1^5.] Viddnta^Sara, cr Essence of the V^ddtUa. 121 

In that state sound is manifested in the ether, sound and feel, 
ing in the wind, sound, feeling and colour in the fire, these three 
with taste in the water^ and these four with smell in the earth. 

From these five elements, comhined in the said manner, were produc 
'cd the different Upper Ltfkas* (worlds) viz., Bhur-ltfka, Bhuvar-Mka, 
Swar.loka, Mahar-ltf ka, Janar.ldka, Tapar-ltfka and Satya-ldka, which 
are placed above the others, then the Nether-lokas,t viz., Atala, Bitala, 
Satala, Rasatala, Tal^tala, Mah^tala and Pat^!a> which are placed one 
beneath the other, farther Bramha's mundane egg, the gross orga- 
nisms in their fourfold division, contained in that egg, and food, water 
and other substances. 

Bodies (organic) are either produced from the womb, or from eggs, or 
from damp, or from germs. Those produced from the womb are 
bom alive, as men, animals, &c. ; from eggs come forth from an egg, as 
birds, serpents, &c. ; produced from the damp are worms, insects, dec. ; 
which are born from hot moisture, produced from germs are those 
which emerge from the earth, as creepers, trees, dec. 

Here also is the gross organism in its fourfold division, by being 
the object of one or many minds either a totality, like the forest or 
the ocean, or separated into a plurality of bodies, like the trees and 
waters. The soul in which this totality is inherent, is called Va- 
ishwanara, Vir^j, on account of its knowing itself as the totality of 
men, and of its governing the universe. This gross body is here 

* ^T7* (J^^^^ world, dWisioii of the uniTene in general, three diTisions are 
enmiierated, or heaven, hell and earth ; another classification enumerates seven, 
exdosive of the infernal regions, or BhurUhat the earth, Bhuvar-l<$ka, the space 
between the earth and the sun, the region of the Munis, Siddhis, &:c. Sver-ldka the 
heaven of Indra, between the sun and the polar-star. Mahar-ldka, the usual abode 
of Bhrigu and other saints, who are supposed to be co-ezistent with Brahma. Du- 
ring the conflagration of the lower worlds, the saints ascend to the next, or Jana- 
Idka, which is described as the abode of Bramha's sons, Sanaca, Sananda, Sanatana 
and Sanatacumara j above this is the fifth world, or the Tapar-ldka, where the dei- 
ties, called Vairagis reside ; the seventh world, Satya-ldka, or Bramha-ldka is the 
abode of Bramha, and translation to this world exempts beings from farther birth • 
the three-first world are destroyed at the end of each calpa or day of Bramha ; the 
three last at the end of his life, or 100 of his years ; the fourth Ldca is equally per- 
nnnent, but it is uninhabitable from heat at the time t'he three first are burning. 
Wils. Sansc. Diet. 

t Internal regions, in which various evil beings have their abodes. 



122 V^ddfUa^Sara, or Essence of the F^ddnta. [No. 158. 

the universal gross body of the soul, and because it is subject to change 
from nutriment, it is called the nutritious case of the soul ; it is called 
awake, because it is the place in which the gross organisms are en- 
joyed. 

The soul in which the speciality of this gross organism in its four- 
fold division is inherent, is called Bishfva, (which enters into all) 
because, not leaving the subtler body it enters into the gross body. 
The gross body of the soul as speciality, because it is subject to 
change from nutriment, is called the nutritious case of the soul, it is 
called awake, because it is the place in which the gross things are 
enjoyed. In that state perceive both Biswa and Baishanara (the 
universal soul and the single soul, in which the gross organism is in- 
herent) by their five intellectual organs, which are respectively ruled by 
the quarters of the world, the winds, the sun, Varuna (god of waters) 
and the Aswis (Gemini) sound, feeling, colour, taste and smell, by their 
organs of action, which are respectively ruled by the fire, Indra, 
Upendra, (form of Vishnu) Jama, (death) Praj^pati, (Bramha as crea^ 
tor) they possess the power of speech, taking, going, evacuating, 
generating, and by the internal four organs, understanding, reason, 
consciousness and thinking, which are respectively ruled by Chandn 
(moon) Chaturmukha, (the fourfaced, a form of Bramha) Chankara, (a 
form of Shiva) Achyuta, (Srikrishna) they possess the power of 
asserting, deciding, consciousness and thinking, that is to say, they 
possess all the objects of the gross organism. 

^^ In the state of awaking knows the soul the external objects," says 
the Sruti. 

In that state there is also no difference between Bishwa and Baishi- 
nara, in whom the universality and speciality of the gross or- 
ganism are inherent, as there is none between the sky, which is 
covered by the forest, and the trees, or between the sky, which is 
reflected by the sea, and by many waters. Thus is the production of 
the universe of the gross organism from the five elements, in the 
combination of five. The universality of the expanses of the gross, 
subtle and causal bodies is one great expanse, as the universality 
of inner forests becomes one great forest, or as the universality 
of inner oceans one great ocean. The soul, in which this is inherent, 
from Bishva and Baishanara to the Supreme Ruler is one soul, like 



1845.3 V^ddmaSara, or Essence of the V^ddtUa. 123 

the sky, covered by inner foresU, or like the sky, reflected by the 
inner oceans. The uninherent soul, when like a burning iron-ball, 
not separated from both> the great expanse and the soul, in which the 
former is inherent, is the literal meaning of the great sentence : all 
this is in truth Bramha ; when separated^ it is the real meaning. 
Thus iJB the improper transferring of an unreal thing upon the real 
thing generally explained. 
The various modes of placing this and this, or that and that. 
Various modes of ^P^" ^® all-pervading soul, will now be sped. 

iransferrinff, fled. 

A very common man, because the Sruti says, " The soul is born 
ss a son," because he loves his son as himself, and because, when his 
son is in good or bad circumstances, he thinks himself so, asserts, that 
isle eon is the soul. A Gh^rvitka*, because the Sruti says, '* This 
8oal is a body of blood and flesh,, because he leaves his own son in a 
boming house to save himself, and because he thinks, I am stout, I 
sm thin, asserts, that the gross body is the soul." Another Ch^rv^ka, 
because the Sruti says, '' The sentient souls, repairing to the Lord 
of creation, addressed him thus," because there is a want of bodily mo- 
tion, when there is a want of the intellectual organs, and because he 
thinks, I am blind, I am deaf, asserts, that the intellectual organs 
ire the soul. Another Chil^rv^ka, because the Sruti says, " The other 
internal soul is vital," because there is a want of action of the intel. 
leetual senses, when the vital airs are wanting, and because he thinks, 
I am hungry, I am thirsty, asserts, that the vital airs are the soul. 
Another Gh^rv^ka, because the Sruti says, '' The other internal soul 
is reason," because there is a want of the action of the vital airs, 
&c., when the mind sleeps, and because he thinks, I assent, I 
doubt, asserts, that the reason is the soul. A Bauddha,t because 

* Colebrooke, R. A. Tzana. vol. i. p. 59T, says of the sect of the Ch&rv&cas, that 
they restrict to perception only the means of proof and sources of knowledge, that 
besides the four elements, earth, water, fire and wind, they acknowledge no other 
principles, that the soul is not different from the body. 

t Col. Miscell. Essays, vol. i. p. 396. The Bauddhas or Saugatas are followers 
of Buddha or Sogata. No less than four sects have arisen among the followers of 
Boddha. Some maintain, that all is void. To those the designation of Mfedhy- 
uuca is asserted by several of the commentators of the V^d&nta. Other disciples 
of Buddha •••maintain the existence of conscious sense alone< These are called 



124 V^ddnUuSara, or Essence of the VMdnta. [^fo. 158. 

the Sruti say8> '^ Another internal soul is knowledge," becauae 
there is no action of the organs, when there is no ruler (first mover,) 
and because he thinks, I am enjoying, asserts, that the understand- 
ing is the soul. Pr^bhdkaras and logicians, because the Sruti says, 
** another internal soul is pleasure, because it is evident, that igno. 
ranee destroys the understanding, and because they think, we are ig- 
norant, we know, assert, that ignorance is the soul. 

The followers of Bhatta, because the Sruti says, ''The soul is 
knowledge as pleasure,'* because in deep sleep manifestation and 
also non-manifestation take place, and because they think, we do 
not know ourselves, assert, that the soul, in which unconsciousness is 
inherent, is the soul. 

Another Baudha, because the Sruti says, '^This (universe) was 
before (the creation) nothing," because in deep sleep there remains 
nothing, and because he who awakes, naturally thinks, I did not 
exist in deep sleep, asserts, that the soul is nothing. 

In all those assertions, commencing with the son and terminating 
with the nothing, (void) the soul is asserted to be what really is not the 
soul. As the apparent arguments from the Sruti, inference and obser- 
vation, which commence from the common assertion of the son, clear- 
ly show, that one argument from the Sruti, inference and 4>bser- 
vation is refuted by arguments of the same kind, it is evident, that 
the soul is not the son, &c. That the soul is not mind, not a first 
mover, that it is mere knowledge, mere existence, follows from the 
contradiction of a much more powerful Sruti, it follows from the rea- 
son, that all those inanimate principles from the son up to the void, 
by having their existence only through the manifestation of the soui^ 
are transient like all material beings, and also, that there is much greater 
authority in the thought of the wise : I am Bramha. It is therefore 
evident from the contradiction of these arguments from the Sruti^ 
inference and observation, that none of these principles is the souL 
Therefore the eternal, pure, omniscient, free, true, self-existent (or 

Jdg&cb&r&s. Others, again, affirm the actual existence of external objects no less 
than internal sensations. Some of them recognise the immediate perception of in- 
terior objects. Others contend for a mediate apprehension of them. Hence two 
branches of the sect of Buddha, one denominated Sautr&ntica, the other Vaibha- 
sbica. 






1 845.] V^ddnia^ Sara, or Essence of the Viddnta, 1 25 

whose nature is true) all pervading Ch^itanya, which manifests all 
those principles, is the supreme soul, this is the opinion of those 
that know the Veddnta. Thus the improper transferring. 

Abstraction (^TfVT^:) is called the action, by which the real thing 
is acknowledged as the only real thing, after the expanse of the un- 
real things which commence from the unconsciousness^ has been removed 
fipQin it, as a rope is acknowledged to be a mere rope, when the (notion 
of the) serpent has been removed from it In this manner has the 
place of fruition, viz., the gross body in its fourfold division, the 
substances which are fit to be enjoyed, as drinking, food, &c., in this 
manner the place of their support, the earth and the other fourteen 
worlds, in this manner firamhi's egg (the universe) all this has its 
existence alone in the gross elements in the combination of five, which 
are the cause of them. The elements in the combination of five together 
with the sound and other objects of the gross bodies, all this has its 
existence alone in the uncombined elements, which are the cause of 
them. The uncombined five elements together with the three quali- 
ties (truth, action and darkness ) all this has its existence alone in the 
soul, in which unconsciousness as its cause, is inherent, further, 
this unconsciousness and the soul, in which it is inherent and which 
has the predicates of supreme lord, dec , is merely the fourth Bramha, 
the uninherent soul, which is the place of support for them. 

The sentence, that* art thou,t becomes by means of both, the im- 
proper transferring and abstraction explained in its full meaning; 1, 
the universality of ignorance and what is connected with it ; 2, th% soul 
in which it is inherent and which has the predicates of omniscience, 
&c.; and 3, the uninherent soul, these three are, like a burning 
iron.ball, when perceived as one, the literal meaning of the term 
that: the uninherent soul, being the place of support, in which the 
properties of that (universality) are inherent, is the designable (real) 
meaning of the term, that. These three — 1 , the speciality of ignorance ; 
2, the soul, in which it inheres ; and which has the quality of igno. 
ranee and other imperfections, and 3, the soul in which this is not 
inherent, these three like a burning iron.ball> when perceived as 



* The universal soul. 

t Any indiTidual intelligence. 



126 F^ddnta^Sara, or Essence of the Fdddnia. iNo. 158. 

one, are the literal meaning of the term, thou ; the all-pervading bless. 
ed, fourth, supreme soul, being the place of support, in which the 
properties of that (speciality) are inherent, is the designabie (real) 
meaning of the term, ihau. 

III. Connexion. — The meaning of the great sentence will now be 
explained. The sentence : that art thou, explains the true signification 
of the infinite Bramha by the three categories of relation. The three 
isategories are : 1^ the relation of what is identical in these two terms ; 
2, the relation of what is distinguishable and distinguishing (subject 
and predicate) in the meaning of them ; 3, the relation of what is 
designabie and what is designing in the meaning of those terms, viz. 
the universal and the single soul ; for it is said, *' that the identifica. 
tion, the fixing of what is distinguishable and distinguishing, and the 
relation between what is designabie and designing explain the meaning 
of the terms of the single and universal soul." 

1. The category of identification; as in the sentence, that is this 
Devadatta, the term that, which refers to Devadatta, as being in a 
past time, and the term this, which refers to Devadatta, as being in 
the present time, (both terms) design the connexion in one and the 
same place ; thus also in the great sentence, '' that art thou," both 
terms, viz. the term of th€U, which means the soul, as having the attri- 
butes of invisibility, dec. and the term of thou, which means the soul, 
as having the attributes of visibility, drc, design the connexion in one 
and the same soul. 

2. The cateffoty of what is distinguishable and what is distinguish- 
ing (subject and predicate) ; as in the former sentence, (that is this 
Devadatta) the meaning of the term that, which refers to Devadatta, 
as being in a past time, and the term this, which refers to Devadatta, 
as being in the present time, both come into the relation of what is 
distinguishable and distinguishing by the annihilation of their mutual 
differences ; thus also in the great sentence both terms, viz. the term 
that, which means the soul, as having the attributes of invisibility, 
kc, and the term thou, which means the soul, as having the attributes 
of visibility, dec. come into the relation of what is distinguishable and 
distinguishing by annihilation of their mutual differences. 

3. The category of what is designabie and what is designing, as in 
the same sentence, (that is this Devadatta) the relation of the design. 



J845.] V^ddnta^Sara, or Euence of the Viddnta. 127 

able lAd the designing refers simply to DevadatU, in which there is 
no contradiction, after the contradictory terms of thaU and thi$ or 
their corresponding meanings, being in the past and in the present 
time, have been dispensed with ; thus also in the great sentence the 
relation of the designable and the designing, refers simply to the soab 
in which there is no contradiction, after the contradictory terms thai 
and thou, or their corresponding meanings, viz. having the attributes 
of invisibility and visibility, have been dispensed with. 

This eategory is called the partial designation. In the great sen- 
tence the meaning is not consistent/ as it is in the literal meaning of 
the sentence — the lotus is blue* In this case, as in the term blue, the 
quality of blue, and in the term lohu, the thing lotuff, exclude other 
qualities and things, as for instance white, and cloth ; and as the unity 
of the mutual connexion of predicate and subject, or the unity of the 
one, determined by the other, are in correspondence with each other, 
because there is no contradiction from another argument, (in this case) 
the meaning of the sentence is consistent ; but if you think that, in the 
great sentence, by excluding the mutual differences of the term /Aa/, 
which nieans the invisible Ch^itanya (squ1>) and of the term thou, 
which means the visible Ch&itanya, the meaning of the sentence does 
agree, viz. the connexion between predicate and subject, or of the unity 
of the one, determined by the other, we must maintain, that the mean- 
ing of the sentence is not consistent, because it involves the contra- 
diction of the invisibility, &c. Nor is here an omitting designation 
(ellipsis,) as in the sentence— on the Ganga lives the herdsman, con- 
sistent. As there is in this case a perfect contradiction in the meaning 
of the sentence, which expresses a connexion between the support, and 
what is to be supported, viz. the Ganga and the herdsman, the ellipsis 
is called for, because there is a propriety in the designation of the bank 
of the Ganga, by entirely dispensing with the meaning of the sentence. 
In the great sentence, however, as there is no contradiction in one part 
alone of the meaning which shows the unity of the invisible and 
visible Ch^itanya, the ellipsis cannot take place, because another 
ellipsis would be improper without also dispensing with the other 

* The aathor, after having discussed the three categories of relation, refutes 
three other forms of relation, which at the first glance may appear to express the 
■eaoug of the great sentence. 



128 Viddnia^Sara, or Essence of the Vdddnta. [No. 158. 

part. If you 8ay» as the term Ganga, by entirely rejecting its owa 
meaning, points to the term bank ; so also the terms that and thou 
by entirely rejecting their literal meaning, point to the terms, thou 
and that; why then should the ellipsis be inadmissible : then we most 
say, you are not right, because in the former sentence, if you did not 
mention the term of bank, its meaning was not known, which therefore 
required such an ellipsis ; but in the latter sentence, by mentioning 
the terms that and thou, their meanings are fully known, and conse- 
quently there is here no necessity of knowing the meaning of one 
word by another through the mentioned ellipsis. 

Nor is here the case of the not omitting designation admissible,* as in 
the sentence — red runs. The sentence, which speaks of the moving of a 
quality, is contradictory ; but here by not omitting it in the ellipsis 
of a horse, which is the place of this or other qualities, the contradic- 
tion is removed, and the not omitting designation is proper ; but in the 
great sentence, on account of the contradiction in the meaning, which 
points out the unity of the invisible and visible Gh^itanya, if you, not 
dispensing with the invisibility and visibility, refer through the said 
ellipsis to any other terms, the contradiction is not removed, and there- 
fore this ellipsis cannot take place. But if you say, that the terms that 
and thou, by rejecting the contradictory part of their own meanings, 
point to the terms that and thou, as united with the other part, and if 
you continue, why then do you not grant a partial ellipsis by another 
means ? We must say, that this is not proper, because it is impossible 
to grant an ellipsis for both, viz., for a part of its own meaning and for 
another term by a single term ; and also because the meaning of the 
terms being known, there is no necessity to know them by an 
ellipsis. 

As therefore the sentence, this is that D^vadatta, or its meaning on 
account of the contradiction in a part of its meaning, which refers to 
Devadatta, as being in the present and in the past time, by omitting 
the part which refers to the contradictory terms, being in the present 
and in the past time, the not contradictory part only, viz. Devadatta, 
remains ; so in the great sentence, that art thou, or the meaning of 
it, on account of the contradiction in a part of its meaning, which 

* Tbis term means, that a word retains its literal meaning, while at the same 
time it points to a term, which is not included in it. 



1845-3 V^ddntiuSara, or Essence of the Viddnta, 129 

refers to the invisible and visible Chaitanya, by omitting the part 
which refers to the contradictory terms, having the attributes of invi. 
ability and visibility, refers to the not contradictory part only, viz. 
ChfiUmya (soul.) 

The meaning of the great sentence, I am Bramha, which was 
received by internal perception, will now be given. 

When the teacher has thus, by means of the improper transferring and 
of the true abstraction, purified the two terms, thai and Mom, and the 
meaning of the infinite one has been explained by the great sentence, 
then is produced in the mind of the qualified person the act of the 
noderstanding, formed by the form of the infinite firamha, viz., I am 
the eternal, pure, omniscient, free, true, self-existent, ever blessed, in. 
finite Branha, without duality. This act (of the understanding,) 
together with the (adequate) likeness of the omniscient being, by making 
the all-pervading, undivided, unknown, supreme Bramha its object, 
destroys the ignorance with regard to him. 

Then as cloth is burned by the burning of the thread, which is 
the cause of it; so by the destruction of the ignorance, which is the 
cause of the whole creation, the act of the understanding, formed by 
the form of the infinite substance, is also destroyed, as included^n that 
ereation. As the shine of a lamp is absorbed by the overpowering 
nys of the sun ; so the soul, which is reflected by that act of the un- 
derstanding, and absorbed by the self-manifesting, all pervading, undi- 
vided, supreme Bramha, which it (the understanding) is unable to ma- 
nifest, (the soul) becomes, since the act of the understanding, which is a 
part of his qualities, is destroyed, the all-pervading, undivided Bramha, 
as the face only remains, when the looking-glass, in which it was re- 
flected, has been removed. If this is true, the contradictory statement 
of the two passages of the Sruti, viz., " by the mind it must be com- 
prehended," and " what is not perceived by the mind> is reconciled," 
because by granting, that the act of the understanding makes Bramha 
its object, the effect (the manifestation) must be at the same time 
prohibited. It is also said, to make (Bramha) object of manifestation, 
is prohibited by the authors of the Shastras* For the destruction of 
the ignorance respecting Bramha, that act of the understanding is 
required, and it is not proper that he who manifests himself, is 

manifested by another. 



130 Veddnia^Sara, or Essence of the V^dd$Ua. C^^o. 158* 

The partieulan of the act of the undentandiog, formed by the form 
of the inanimate substances, are as follow. For instance, in the per- 
ception of this thing, the act of the understanding, formed by the form 
of this thing, in making the (this) unknown thing its object, manifests 
even the inanimate matter, which is this thing, by the manifestation of 
the knowledge, which that act of the understanding has acquired, after 
the ignorance with regard to that thing has been removed, as the shine 
of a lamp in making any thing, concealed by darkness, its objeot, 
manifests by its own power (shine) the thing, after the darkness^ in 
which it was concealed, has been removed. 

IV. The four means. — ^The diligent application of the four acts, vise. 
hearing, attention, of contemplation and meditation, being required, 
until the perception of the soul, which has no other likeness but with 
itself, is obtained, they must be here described. 

1 . — Hearing means the fixing of the opinion of the Ved&ntas with 
regard to the being without duality, by the six modes of determination, 
which are, the commencement and the end, the practice, the exclu- 
sion of other arguments, the final end, the proper speaking, and the 
demonstration. 

a. The commencement and the end is the fixing of any sub- 
ject, to be explained in a chapter (of the Veddnta) in its com- 
mencement and end ; for instance, in the sixth chapter of the Chan*, 
dogya Upanishad, the definition of the being without duality, which 
is to be explained in that chapter, is in the commencement, one even 
without duality, and in the end, that Bramha, the . life of the whole 
universe. 

b. Practice is repeatedly to mention a subject in a chapter, in 
which it is to be explained ; as for instance, in the middle of that chap. 
ter (Chandtfgya) the nine times mentioning of the being without dua. 
lity by the great sentence, that art thou. 

c. The exclusion of other arguments is not to demonstrate a subjeet, 
to be explained in a chapter, by other proofs, as in that chapter the 
being without duality is not demonstrated by another proof. 

d. Final end is the fruit from the knowledge of Bramha, to be 
explained in a chapter, or from the practice of that knowledge, as 
it is mentioned in that chapter, '^ that the man who has a teacher, 
knows that he belongs to him, until he is liberated ; then he will 



18450 V4ddnta^Sara, or Esaenee ofihe V^ddnta. 181 

be saved." Thus the principal fruit from the knowledge of the infinite 
beiig is to gain that end. 

e. The proper speaking is the praising of any subject in a chapter, 
in which it is to be explained ; fbr instance, it is a praise of the being 
without duality in that chapter. *' O thou (disciple) you asked for 
such adTice, by which that which is never heard, is heard; that 
which is never thought, is thought ; and that which is never known, 
is known. 

/. Demonsiraiion is the prc^r mode of deduction for the attain- 
ment of complete understanding of the subject, to be explained in a 
diapter ; as for instuice, in that chapter, '* O thou handsome youth, 
ss all things, made of earth, are known by one clod of earth, the dif- 
ference consists in words only ; the real thing is earth, so the demon- 
stration in that chapter is the proper mode of deduction in the attain- 
ment of the complete understanding of the being without duality, 
that there is no difference but in words." 

^.'^Atteniion is the constant attending to the being without duality, 
by those demonstrations, which refer to it in the VM^nta. 

3. — Contemplation is the remaining of the same state of the under- 
standing, formed by the form of the being without duality, with 
regard to that being, which is not believed to exist in the transient 
ferm of a body. 

4. — Mediiation is twofold ; the one in the form of difference, the 
other without it. Meditation, which has the form of difference, is to 
place upon the being without duality the act of the mind, formed by 
the form of it (that being) without removing the difference between 
him who knows, the object of knowledge, and knowledge itself. 
As in the percepti<m of an earthen elephant, earth only is actually 
perceived ; so the being without duality is perceived even in the per. 
caption of duality. Thus it is said by philosophers, who maintain 
the being, which is like the eye, which is (the support of all) like the 
ether, which is supreme, which is at once manifest, which is not pro- 
daced, which is one (without difference in itself and from others) im- 
perishable, in which all differences are annihilated, which is omnipre- 
sent and without duality, even this being am I, who is for ever liber- 
ated. I am perfect in knowledge, pui'e, unchangeable; I am not fet- 

tered, I do not require salvation. 



132 y^ddnta^Sara, or Essence of the V^ddnta. LNo. 158. 

The meditation without difference is to place upon the being without 
duality the same^act of the understanding, formed by the form of it 
(that being) after having removed the diflferences between him who 
knows, the object of knowledge, and knowledge itself. As water alone 
appears by the disappearance of salt, which is formed by the form of 
water ; so appears the being without duality alone by the disappearance 
of the act of the mind> formed by the form of that being. Still it 
must not be thought, that there is no distinction between this state 
and sound sleep : for though in either the same absence of the act of the 
understanding does occur, yet, from the existence and not existence 
of that act in either state, the distinction between them is evident 
This meditation includes : refraining, religious refraining, sitting in a 
peculiar posture, suppression of breath, coercion, internal fixing and 
meditation* 

Refraining includes the following acts : refraining from injary, 
regard for truth, abstaining from stealing, obedience to the spiritoal 
teacher, and not accepting (gifts.) 

Religious refraining includes purification, contentment, devotion, 
reading (of the Vedas) and meditation on the Supreme Ruler. 

Sitting in a peculiar posture are the different modes of placing the 
members of the body in a prescribed form, as in the form of a lotus, dec. 

Suppression of the breath is the peculiar mode of expiration and 
inspiration, and of keeping the breath. 

Coercion is the refraining of the senses from their objects. 

Internal fixing is to fix without intermission the acts of the internal 
senses upon that being. 

Meditation, is here the first one, which has the difference in itself. 

There are four obstacles to the perfect meditation without differ- 
ence : viz. listlessness, absence of mind, passion, and propensity to 
pleasure. 

Listlessness is the sleep of the mind, (caused) by not attending to 
the being without duality. 

Absence of mind is attention to other things by not attending ^ 
the being without duality. 

Passion is inadvertence to the being without duality, not from li>^ 
lessness, or absence of mind, but from the act of the understanding! 
being fettered by the desire of love, or other passions. 



]845.] VSdanUt^Sara, or Eisenee iif the VSddfUa. 133 

lYopensity to pleasure is, to eojoy by the act of the mind, no 
being direeted to the being without duality, the pleasure, produced by 
the meditation, which has its difference in itself, or the enjoyment 
of pleasure, produced by that meditation at its commencement. 
When the understanding, free from those four obstacles and immov. 
tble like a lamp, protected from the wind, thus becomes the infinite 
Chsitimya alone, then the meditation is called that without dif* 
ferenoe. It is said, he will awaken the ondentanding, sunk in list, 
knness^he will concentrate it, when lost in absence of mind ; he will 
eslighten it, when blinded by passion; he will not move it, when 
steadied by austerities; he will not let it taste pleasure; by the 
coosideration (of universal things) it will be without fondness. As 
a lamp, protected from the wind, dec. dec. 

Definition of the living free. The living free is the Bramhanishta 
(devoted to Bramha) who, after the infinite, self-like Bramhais known, 
when the ignorance with regard to him is removed by the knowledge 
of the self.like, infinite, pure Bramha, is free from all worldly fet- 
ters, by the destruction of the ignorance and its creation, of the 
unrewarded works (those works which have not borne their fruit 
^ previously to the true knowledge) of doubt, (viz. whether there is a 
sool different from the body or not) and of other misapprehensions. 
''When he, the universal soul, has been perceived, then all the con. 
. seious acts of the understanding are extinguished, then all doubts 
are removed, and also his works are annihilated," says the Sruti. 

Though he in the time of awaking (the Bramhanishta) by his body, 
which is like a vessel of flesh, blood, dec., by his senses, which are like 
vesBels of blindness, bluntless and unfitness, and by his mind, which 
is the vessel for the sensations of hunger, thirst, grief and error, per- 
forms the works which are worked by the impulses of his former de- 
sires, and enjoys the fruits of his undertakings, which (the fruits) are 
00 obstacles to the true knowledge ; still he does not actually perform 
or enjoy them, since he has destroyed the whole creation of ignorance, 
as a person, who knows a thing, which he perceives to be an illusion 
of his senses, does not actually believe in its reality, .though he may per- 
ceive it. ''As one seeing does not see, or hearing does not hear," says 
the Smti. It is also said, who in a waking state is like a person &st 
Mleep, who does not perceive, though perceiving, duality, because he is 



134 VedafOa^Sara, or Essence of the VeddfUa, [No. 158. 

above duality, who« though acting, does not act, he knows the soul 
none else ; this is certain. As previously to the obtainment of this 
knowledge he followed the sensations of hunger and other appetites, so 
he (now) follows (only) the impulses to good works, or there is the 
same indifference to good and evil actions. It is said, " If he, who 
knows the i^ality of the being without duality, can act according to his 
desire, what differ^ice is then between a dog and him who knows the 
truth, as regards the taking of impure food. He knows the soul, who has 
purified the knowledge of Bramha (from ignorance) not another, must 
be the answer. Humility of mind, the cause of true knowledge, benevo. 
lence and other virtues will adorn him like ornaments (in that state.) It 
is said, he who has gained perfect knowledge of the soul, possesses bene, 
volence and othw virtues, without effort on his part; but not he 
(possesses them without effort) who is striving for the means of salva- 
tion. What else can I say? He, who for the maintenance of his 
body only suffers the happiness and misery, resulting from his works, 
which are done to accomplish his own desires and aversions, as well 
as those of others, and brings to light the impulses of his mind, 
will on the approach of death unite his life with the alLpervadisg, 
ever blessed, supreme Bramha ; and having thus destroyed the 
perception of ignorance and of its creation, he will exist as the 
supreme Bramha, who is perfect salvation, the fountain of all bliss, 
and free from the signs of every difference. His life is not taken to 
other places, but to him (Bramha) it is flowing. Free, he is made free ; 
thus says the Sruti. 



135 



NUe of He Course of Siudy ptirsued 6y StutUnU in iht Sanskrit 
Ceil^e, Cakuita. By W« 8bton Karr» Esq., B. C. S. 

The coune of study pursued by the students of the Sanskrit College 
18 at follows : they begin by studying Vyakaranam, or gnunmar, for 
tlie first three years. The grammar mostly used is one called the Mugda 
Bddka, written in Sanskrit, as those written in Bengali are despised 
hf the Natives. It is a peculiarly native idea, that until a thorough 
teqaatntanoe with the rules of grammar, as seen theoretically, is obtain, 
cd, nothing can be done towards acquiring the language by reading 
other books ; .no attempt is therefore made to combine the learning 
of the rules of grammar with the reading of the Hitopadesa or other 
boob of an easy style. When, however, they have acquired such a 
thorough knowledge of grammar as to be able to repeat whole pages of it 
\sj heart, they plunge at once into some of the hardest books of the Ian. 
gaage ; the next two years siicceeding the three spent on grammar are 
devoted to reading the following works : the Bhatti Kavya, or poem 
of Bhatti, a work made principally to aid the acquisition of grammar, 
every line being an illustration of some particular rule ; the Raghu 
Vann, the Kumara Sambhava, Naishadhai Sisupalabadha, Sacontala, 
Veai Sanghara, Murari, Bharovi, Prasanna Raghava, Ultara Rama 
Charitra, Raghava Pandavi, Vasavadatta. Several of the above works 
ire known by the name of *' Mahakavya, or great poems/' a title applied 
toonly six works ; those of the above which lay claim to it are the Raghu- 
vanoa, Kamara Sambhava, Sisupalabadha, and Naishadha. The next 
year is devoted to AlankarCy or rhetoric during which the following 
^orks are read : Sahitiva Darpanam, Kavyo Prakasha, and Chando 
Maogari,-^all these they learn off by heart. 

The next year is devoted to the Vedantas, or works of later 
^ters, illustrating the scope and objects of several passages in the 
Upanishads of the Vedas, relating to an abstract and speculative 
moDotheism. The works read are the Vedanta Sara, Panchdasti, and 
Sharirika-shutra. ^ 

The next year is devoted to Nyaya, or logic. Works read, Bhasha- 
laricheda (the division of language) and the Gautama-sutra. 

The next year is devoted to mathematics. Books, the Lilavati and 
Bijganita. 



136 l^aie on the Studies in the Sanscrit College. [No. 158. 

The next three years are devoted to Smriti, or law. The books read 
are Manu, the Mitakshara, Daibhaga, Dattika Mimansa^ Dattaka 
Chaodrika, Udraha-tattiva, Shuddhi-tattiva, Dayakrama, SangraHa, 
and Dhaiva-tattiva. The whole of these last, with the exception of 
Manu. are committed to memory ; besides this they are in the habit 
of learning by heart the greater part of a dictionary, called the Amara- 
kosha ^immortal treasure, J which contains the various synonyms of 
nouns current in the Sanskrit language, which, with regard to re. 
markable objects, as the sun, the ocean, Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva, a 
lotus, a serpent, &c. &c. are unusually numerous. 

No student can be received after fourteen years of age in the 
Sanskrit College, and the whole time of study spent there is twelve 
years I 

There are also a number of verses or slokas handed down tradi- 
tionally from father to son, generally expressive of some pithy sen- 
timent. It is pretty certain that they are not to be found in any 
book ; of these, five hundred were known by one individual. Many of the 
Pandits during the whole of the above course of study have never read 
the Hetopadesa, one of the most curious books in the language^ as 
being the only one written in prose ; all the immense ocean of San- 
skrit literature is in verse— «even an unprinted novel, containing the 
history of an heavenly Apsara, who loved a prince named Ghandrapiiri, 
is in verse : the love of the Apsara reminds us of that of Aurora to Titho- 
nus, or Venus to Anchises. The ponderous tomes of the Mahabharata 
are often totally neglected by the Pandits, although that poem is called 
the '^ fifth Veda" from its sacred character and great antiquity. This 
poem and that of the Ramayana, which Sir William Jones termed 
the two epic poems of the Hindus, are thus quite cast out of the circle 
of the Sanskrit College reading. 

As Sanskrit scholars in Europe might feel interest in the above abstract, 1 pub- 
lish it as communicated by a member of our Society, W. Seton Karr, £sq. C. S., 
who originally suggested to me the obtaining a statement of the sort for the 
Journal. « iTi 



137 



Memorandum on the Ancient bed of the River Soane and Site of Pa^ 
Ubotkra. By £. C. Ravbnshaw, Esq.^ B. C S., with a Coloured 

Map. 

One of the chief difficulties in identifying Patna as the site of Pa- 
talipootra, the capital of Chundragupta, has been the distance which 
at present exists between the river Soane and the city of Patna* 
Any satis&ctory evidence, therefore, which can be brought to esta- 
blish the fact that the confluence of the Soane and Ganges in former 
days took place in the vicinity of Patna, is of importance both in a 
feognphical and historical point of view. Major Rennell, in his 
" Memoir of a map of Hindoostan/' (page 50,) observes, that " Late en- 
qoiries made on the spot (about 1787 A. D.) have brought out this 
interesting discovery, that a very large city which anciently stood on, 
or very near, the site of Patna, was named Patelpoother (or Patalipu- 
tn secording to Sir W. Jones,) and that the river Soane, whose con. 
floence with the Ganges is now at Moneah (Muneer), 22* miles 
above Patna, once joined it under the walls of Patelpoother. This 
Bsme agrees so well with Palibothra, and the intelligence altogether 
fomishes such positive kind of proof, that my former conjecture 
respecting Conoge must fall to the ground." In page 53, he adds, 
that *' The ancient bed of the Soane is yet traceable on the south of 
PatDa, and seems to have led into the Ganges near Futwah." 

On accidentally meeting with the above passages in Major Rennell's 
work, at the time that the Professional Survey of the Patna district 
was going forward, I requested Lieutenant Maxwell of the Bengal 
Artillery (the officer in charge of the survey) to endeavour, if possible, 
to trace out the course of the old bed of the Soane, with a view either 
to verify or disprove the correctness of Major Rennell's information. 
Lieutenant Maxwell entered into the enquiry with his usual zeal, and 
with no other hints than what are contained in the above quotations, 
was successful in clearly tracing the old bed from a point on the Soane, 
near Sydabad (about 18 miles above Muneer) vift fiikrum, Nowbut- 
poor, Phooiwaree, Meeth^poor to B&kipoort, where it appears to have 

* It isnow only IS miles above the Golah, and 17 above the Western Gate of the 
old Fort of Patna. 

« 

f Called by European Kesidents, Bankipoor. 



138 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158. ^ 

joined the Ganges about 200 yards west from the Go]ah> and nearly 
opposite the point where the Gunduck falls into the Ganges from the 
north. I forwarded the sketch map, prepared by Lieutenant Alaxweil, 
to Mr. J. B. Elliott, late of the Civil service, the oldest European resi- 
dent at Patna, who informed me in reply, that some years ago he had 
been led, by the perusal of the Drama called ^ Mudra Rakshasha," 
to make similar enquiries from the natives of the place. The follow- 
ing is a translation of the result of his enquiries, which corresponds Z 
very remarkably with the scientific survey : *' Formerly the course 
of the Sone turned eastward from near Sydabad, whence it proceeded 
by Ghorhutta and Bikrum to Nowbutpoor, thence vift Moorgheea 
Chuch Mooradpoor, Danapoor, Ghosunda, Koorjee, and Khugwul to 
Phoolwaree. From the latter town it flowed past Khwajapoora, 
Sheikhpoora, and Dhukunpoora to Meethapoor ; whence in two 
streams ( Jurrah) it fell into the Ganges near Bftkipoor at the Takeea 
of Shah Rookun Phulwan. From Phoolwaree a small stream (SoCah) 
flowed to the eastward, and from opposite Meethapoor, proceeding 
in a south-easterly direction, it finally united with the Ganges near 
Futtooha, (Futwa). In the time of Mukhdoom Shah Shuruf Ooddeen 
Ahmud Yaheea Mun^ree, (from which a period of upwards of 470 
years reckoning tO the end of 1251 Hijiree has elapsed,) the OEiain 
stream of the Sone, taking its course west of the town of Muneer, 
united with the Ganges near that place, and the eastern course with 
the Sota became dry." 

Lieutenant Maxwell in his first survey was unable to find any 
trace of the river south of Patna, but the information contained in 
the above statement regarding the branching off of a Sota, or small 
stream, from Phoolwaree, enabled him to discover and to follow the 
bed of the stream to the south of the city by Khemee Chuck and 
Mirchee, and its exit into the Ganges through the arch of an old 
bridge, about 3^ miles above Futwa. 

The accompanying reduced map on a scale of four miles to the inch, 
prepared by Lieutenant Maxwell, will I hope be thought satiafiic- 
tory as being the first ever published, which clearly defines the ancient 
course of the Soane. After receiving this map I met with the follow- 
ing passage in Buchanan (page 11, volume I, Mr. Martin's edition,) 
which was written about twenty.three years after Rennell's remark 



Sh 



mp« 



1845.] the River Soane and SUe of Paliboihra. 1 39 

above quoted. '' The Son, according to the Bengal atlas, formerly join- 
ed the Ganges at Mftn^r, but a tongue of land has been formed project. 
ing east from the Shahabad district, so that Mftner is now three miles 
It least above the junction of the two rivers. The Son receives no 
bnnch during its course in these districts, but sends off some old 
channels that in different places are called by its name. The chief of 
these separates from the river 11 or 12 miles above Mftner, runs 
straight east to the thanah of Vikram, and then bends north until 
it passes Noubutpoor. Immediately beyond this it sends to the right 
a branch*, which, running through the whole breadth of the division 
of B&kipoor, joins the dry channel of the Ganges, and is called Mo. 
hauleya. The main channel of the Mftr.Sont, soon after the separation 
of the Mohauleya, divides into two branches, which re- unite before they 
M into the Ganges at Danapur j:. That to the west is called Deonar, 
that to the east Bhadaiya. It must, however, be observed that an 
old channel may be traced running from this Mftr.Son, and parallel to 
the Ganges, a great part of the way to Bftkipur, near the western 
atremity of the Patna city, and this may have been the old channel 
of theSSn; and Patna may, therefore, have been once at the junc 
to of this river with the Ganges." 

This account, though differing in some particulars from that of the 
inney, agrees generally as to the fact of the confluence of the two 
nVers having been at Bftkipoor near Patna ; and this &ct corroborated 
hyso many separate investigations made at different time8,by different 
individuals, may therefore be considered as fully established. The 
(Iteration in the course of the Soane is supposed to have taken place in 
^ time of Shah Shuruf Oodeen Ahmud Ehya Muneeree, 781 Hije- 
Ke, corresponding with 1379 A. D. The following extract§, from 
the Memoirs of the Emperor Baber, proves that in the time of that 
i&onareh the Soane flowed by Muneer in 1529 A. D., and so far cor- 
n)borates the tradition of its having changed its course about the end 
^ the fourteenth century. The '' Mudra Rakshasa'* shows that the 

* Bachanan aeema here to have been misinformed, and to have alluded to the 
otuich which separates at Fboolwaree, instead of at Noubatpoor. 
t ** Mftr," means dead or dry Soane. 
t Diaapoor. 
i ^ W, Erskine's Translation. 



140 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158. 

change had not taken place when that play was written in about the 
eleventh century. '' As they informed me that the Son was near at hand, 
we rode to see it. In the course taken by the river Son below this 
there are a number of trees, which they say lie in Muner. The tomb 
of Sheikh Yahea, the father of Sheikh Shuruf Muner, is there. As 
we had come so far, and come so near, I passed the Sdn*, and going two 
or three ko8 down the river surveyed Muner. Having walked through 
its gardens, I perambulated the Mausoleum, and coming to the banks 
of the Son bathed in that river." 

Having established the fact that the Soane, in some former age prior 
to 1529 A. n. united its waters with those of the Oanges in the vici- 
nity of Patna, it is now to be considered how this foct supports the 
opinion that the capital of Chundragupta was situated at the junction. 
Sir W. Jones, Major Rennell, Wilson, and Wilford, concur that tradi- 
tion assigns to this locality the ancient city of Pataliputra. Buchanan, 
(in page 26, Volume I. Mr. Martin's edition) has the following 
observation on this point : ** I have found in this district (Patna) no 
traditions concerning Chundragupta, nor his descendants the Bolipu- 
tras, although Palibothra, his capital, is by Major Rennell supposed to 
be the same with Pataliputra, or Patna. This city indeed is allowed 
by the pundits to be called Pataliputra, but Pataliputra has no great 
resemblance to Palibothra, nor can Patali be rationally considered ss 
a word of the same origin as Pali, said to be an ancient name of this 
country and of its people and language." 

The following extractt, (freely translated) from the Brihud Kntha 
(or Brihut Kutha,) a work supposed to have been written by Banich 
(Vararuchi) pundit in thetimeofVikrumaditya, king of Oojeen, about 
57 B. C. may not be uninteresting, as conveying a popular tradition 
through the medium of a fiction, which however it must be owned 
is more suited to the Arabian Nights than to the gravity of history. 

*' In Kashomunee, a brahmin named Bhoom Deo, had two sons, 
Kooshun and Bukshun, who married Soomut and Purmut, the 
two daughters of Surub Siah Mooni. Soomut becoming pregnant, the 
two husbands reflected that, as they had scarcely means of subsistence 

* He probably crossed near the present Ghat or Ferry at Koilwar. 
t N. B. I believe this is not literally an extract, but a Potee, or tale, founded on 
it by one Shunkur Duct, and called ** Patalipootur Pokyan*" 



J845. J the Riffer Soane and Site of Paiiboihra. 1 4 1 

saffident for four persons, they should be reduced to starvation on the 
appearance of a fifth. They accordingly agreed to set off secretly in 
the night in search of better fortunes, and leave their wives to take 
cue of themselves. The next morning the wives found that their 
husbands had deserted them, and wandered about the forest in search 
of them. It so happened, that Mahadeo and Parbuttee were making 
in excursion through the air, and the goddess seeing the distress of 
the two women at the loss of their husbands, entreated Mahadeo to 
comfort and relieve them. Mahadeo thereupon called to them, and 
told Soomat that the child, which would shortly be bom to her, would 
prove to be a source of wealth instead of poverty ; that whenever he 
twoke from his sleep 1000 deenars would be found in his sleeve. 
The celestial visitants then disappeared, and returned to their home 
It Kylas. Soon after the birth of the child, which was a boy, the 
loxious mother Soomut discovered, to her amazement, that whenever 
the boy awoke from his sleep 1000 deenars really appeared shining 
froBi under his elbows. She and her sister Purmut, therefore, speedily 
hemne rich and went to Casi, where they purchased a large house, 
ind became celebrated all over the country for their munificence and 
diarity. The boy, being called Pootur (or son) by his parents, was 
ifterwards styled Raja Pootur by the people of Casi, on account of 
hii wealth and magnificence. In the mean time Kooshun and 
Bnbhun, the two husbands, who were residing in Karnath (Camatic) 
heiring the fiune of his charities, proceeded to Casi, and applied to him 
IS mendicants for food and alms. The two ladies recognising their 
kit husbands, but not being recognised by them owing to the sump- 
tnonsness of their dress, placed before them an excellent repast, and 
inquired, who they were and whence they came? Upon which 
Kooshun detailed their history as above. Soomut then observed, that 
there was a remarkable coincidence in their histories, and proceeded to 
Burrate how they had been deserted by their husbands ; how Maha- 
deo had appeared to them ; and how her son had been endowed with 
the wonderful gift, which was the source of their wealth. The bus- 
Wnds then beginning to recognise the features of their wives, the latter 
threw themselves upon their necks and wept rejoicingly. 

"All went on happily for some time, when the husbands grew jea. 
l<Hii of the great attention which was paid to Raja Pootur, and con. 



142 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158. 

eeiving the story of the wealth.giving sleep to be a fiction, invented 
by their wives to conceal the real source of their wealth, they resolved 
to remove the youth from their path, thinking that by so doing they 
would obtain the entire control over the money, which was now 
squandered by him. On the pretence of its being necessary to the 
tompletion of his education and the benefit of his health that he 
should travel to Bindachul, they sent him, in spite of the remonstran- 
ces of their wives, under the charge of eight assassins with instructions 
to murder him on the road. Arriving in the depths of a gloomy forest, 
they prepared to execute their commission, but their hearts relentingi 
they informed Pootur of the real object of the journey, upon which he 
promised to reward them if they would allow him to sleep for sa 
hour. The assassins retired, and at the end of an hour he brought 
them 1000 deenars, and gave them a ring from his little finger to 
fthow to his father as a proof of their having murdered him. The assss^ 
sins returned to Casi, and showing the ring obtained their pro- 
mised reward from Kooshun and Bukshun ; but the two wives im* 
mediately on seeing the ring of Pootur conjectured his fate, and died 
on the spot. The wicked husbands were thus reduced again to the 
poverty from which they had been relieved. 

*' In the meantime the youth Pootur proceeded on his journey, and 
presently encountered two Rachases, named Bunkut and Sunkut, sons 
of Ghurbhaj. They told him, that their father had recently died and 
left them three wonderful things, which they found it difficult to divide 
between two, and they accordingly requested the advice of Pootur as to 
the best method of settling the dispute. The three things were— FirBt, 
a pair of wooden shoes, which had the virtue of transporting the wearer 
immediately to any place he might wish to go to. Seccmdly, a purse, 
out of which the possessor could draw jewels and precious stones of 
any kind he desired, ad libitum. Thirdly, a staff* which on being erect- 
ed in any chosen spot, a beautiful city would arise and endure forever. 

'* Pootur, in answer to the application of the Raehasea, proposed that 
they should decide the matter by a race, and that whoever first reached 
a distant point which he indicated, should retain possession of the three 
prizes. Agreeing to this, and depositing the stakea with Pootur, they 
set off at full speed. Immediately after their departure, Pootur heard 
a voice from Heaven, saying, ' Put on the wooden shoes, fix the po^ 



1845.] the River Scane and Site of Paliboihra. 143 

(0 jour girdle^ take the staff in your hand, and depart for Sioghal^deep, 
(Ceylon)/ Pootur acted aceordiogly, and was out of sight belbre the 
Rsdiases returned from their race. 

"On arriving at Singhal-deep, Pootur alighted on the edge of a tank 
where some women were washing clothes. On seeing so handsome a 
youth, they declared he must be Kamdeo (the God of Love) himself. 
On his informing them that his name was Pootur, they declared that 
August Mooni had prophesied, that Patlee the daughter of the king of 
SioghaUdeep, would marry a person of the name of Pootur, and that 
he must be destined ^ fulfil the prophecy. In the meantime Patlee 
hsd been prepared for his arrival by Narud, a Mooni, then residing 
at the palace, who told her that the person destined for her husband 
would come from Casi. 

''At night while Patlee was sleeping among her hand-maidens, Poo- 
tur, having put on the magics shoes, appeared at her bed-side, and 
iwakening told her that he was Pootur, who had come from Casi to 
diim his destined bride. She said, she was willing to attend him ; 
Ua must first get her jewels. He replied, that it was unnecessary, as 
lie had only to put his hand in his purse, and he could bring out what 
jewels he pleased ; in proof of which, he suited the action to the word, 
isd continued drawing forth jewels without end, set in the most beau- 
lifol forms. Upon this the lady said she was quite at his disposal; 
80 he took her by thehand^ and thus addressed the Spirit of the Shoe: 
'Go to a spot which is north of Gya, east of the Sonebhudur (Soane 
river), west of the river Poonpoon, and which has the Ganges on the 
north.' The Spirit of the Shoe accordingly ascended with them into 
the air, and transported them in the course of one hour to the present 
lite of Patna, where Pootur planted his staff, and a beautiful city 
arose from the ground ; which, in honor of his wife, he called Patlee. 
poora, or Pataleepooturpoora. 

"On the morning after the flight of Patlee, Narud informed the king 
of the event, and consoled him with the reflection that, as it had been 
predestined, there was no help for it NarUd subsequently paid the 
happy pair a visit at Patlee-pootra, and informed Pootur that as the two 
Kaehases were dead, he need be under no apprehension as to their 
esqoiry after the three Tulismans which he had walked off with. He 
ordered him to keep them for 100 years, and then to go to Kylas (the 



144 Memorandum an the Ancient bed of [No. 158. 

heaven of Mahadeo.) The Mooni departed after making five things: 

'' ist. A tank, called ' Sham Talao/ in which whoever bathed was 
certain to have children. 

*' 2nd. The Goor Tulao, by bathing in which the sick were cored. 

'*drd. The Moonsurwur Tulao^ by bathing in which a pregnant 
woman was sure to have a boy. 

'Mth. Ram Tulao, by bathing in which the poor become rich. 

*' 5th. Two ' Sidh Peets/ the existence of which secures to a city 
perpetual duration and prosperity. 

*' Patlee and Pootur lived very happily their 100 years, and then 
went to Kylas. They left behind them two sons, Koosum and Pattno, 
and one daughter Putnee, from whom the modem name of the city 
is said to be derived." 

Moonshee Kunhya Loll, who translated the above story intoOordoo 
from the Sunscrit, has attempted to id^tify the site of the four tanks. 
He maintains with considerable gravity, that the " Jeeuj Pokor'' 
near the Durgah of Shah Arzan, is the Sh^m Tulao^ and that women 
still bathe in it with the same object. An excavation in the moholls 
of Mogulpoora, called '' Nalbund ke Gurha/' he holds to be the Goor 
Tulao. A place called Sheikh Muttee in Ghuk Shekarpoor, he consi- 
ders to be the remains of the Munsurwur Tulao ; and the khye, or ditch 
of Begumpoor, he boldly affirms to be the Ram Tulao. He has not 
ventured, however, to discover any traces of the two '* Sidh Peets." 
In the Mudra Rakshasha, a Sanscrit Play supposed to have been 
written about the eleventh century, the principal scenes of which are 
laid at Patalipootra, the capital of Chundragupta, a passage oeciusi 
which evidently indicates the vicinity of the city to the river Soane. 
It will be found in Act IV. page 106, of H. H. Wilson's translation; 
Molaya Ketu, who is encamped at a distance of five days' march, thus 
issues his final orders for the advance of his army to besiege the city 
and dethrone Chundragupta:-* 

Then let us march. Oar mighty Elephants 
Shall drink the Sone*s dark waves, and echo back 
The roaring of its waters; spread through the groves 
That shade its bordering fields intenser gloom ; 
And faster than the undermining torrent, 
Hurl its high banks into the boiling stream \ 



\84S.] the River Soane and Siie ef Palibothra. 145 

Then rolling onwarda, like a line of douda, 
That girta in rain and thunder Vindya's Peaka, 
£nyiron with portentous atorm the City, 
And lay its proud Walla level with the ground. 

That Patalipootra was not only in the neighbourhood of the Soane 
bat also on the banks of the Ganges, is evident from the following 
soliloquy uttered by Chundragupta from the terrace of the Siigftnga 
Palace, at the festival of the autumnal fall moon, that is, in the height 
of the rainy season, when the river is full and rapid in its course. 

How beauteous are the skies at this soft season, 
'Midst fleecy clouds, like scattered ialea of sand 
Upon whose breast the white Heron hovers, flows 
In dark blue tides the many channelled stream ; 
And, like the pearly blossoms that unfold 
Their petals to the night, the stars expand. 
Below is Gunga by the Autumn led, 
Fondly impatient, to her Ocean Lord, 
Tossing her waves as with offended pride, 
And pining fretful at the lengthened way. 

In this Play the city of Ghundragupta is called by the personages 

of the Drama by several different names, viz. Pushpapoor, Kasumapoor, 

" The City of Flowers," and Patalipootra. The first cannot be identi. 

M with the name of any place in the neighbourhood. With respect 

to the second, it may be remarked that in the tradition above given 

iirom the Brihudkutha, the name of one of the sons of Patlee was 

Koostim, from which Koosumapoor may not unreasonably be supposed 

to have been derived. ** Koosdm" in Sunscrit means ^* Flowers/' and 

Koosumapoor, the City of Flowers. There are several names of similar 

import at present in the vicinity. Phoolwaree, the name of a town 

atuated on the bank of the old bed of the Soane, about six miles from 

Patoa, means '' a place of flowers/* and one of the muhuUas, or divi- 

nons of the present city of Patna, is denominated *' Goolzar Bagh," 

which in Persian has nearly the same meaning, and which may have 

been the Mohamedan translation for Koosumapoor. Indeed it is pos- 

lible, (though I cannot say it is very probable) that the different names 

given to the city in the Sunscrit Play, may have been the names of 



146 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158. 

the different mohallaa^ or divisions of the old Hindoo city, whi<& 
have been preserved^ under altered designations to the present day. 

The Grom Deota, or tutelary divinity, is now Putnee Devee, to 
whom a small temple is dedicated, and to whom worship is still offer- 
ed. Buchanan remarks, (p. 42, vol. I.) ^* The Goddess is said to have 
been placed in her present situation by Patali, daughter of Raja 
Sudarson, who bestowed the town now called Patna on his daughter^ 
and she cherished the city like a mother, on which account it was 
called Patali-putra> or the son of Patali." According to the Brihud* 
kutha, Putnee was the daughter of Patlee or Patali, but other tradi- 
tions preserved in the Skunda Pooran, derive the name of Patna from 
a Sunscrit word meaning '* a cloth," the goddess Parbuttee, the wife 
of Siva, having dropt her mantle on the spot during her flight to 
Kylas. In the '^ Pali Buddhistical annals" of Ceylon, translated by the 
Honorable G. Tumour, (p. 998 vol. vii. of Journal of Asiatic Soci- 
ety) Patali is mentioned as having been a mere village in the time of 
Buddho, (i. e. 541 B. C.) Biiddho is said to have rested here on his 
way to Benares from Rajgeer, the capital of the king of Magadha, 
whose ministers were then employed in building a citadel for the pur- 
pose of checking the inroads of the warlike tribe of Wajjions. Bud- 
dho predicted, that the village of Patali was destined to become a great 
city, and that it was destined to suffer under the calamity of fire^ of 
water, and of treachery. 

It is worthy of remark, that in the memoir of the Emperor Baber 
no mention whatever is made of the city of Patna. The residence of 
the Put'han rulers of this part of the country seems to have been at the 
fort or town of Behar. Patna, therefore, must have ceased to be a 
place of importance prior to the sixteenth century. It appears from the 
Girnar* inscription, and also from the life of Shokya, extracted from 
Tibetan authorities (p. 317, vol. XX. Asiatic Researches) that Asoka, 
the grandson of Chundragupta, continued to reside at Patalipootra, 
but after the extinction of the Maurya dynasty, the capital of the 
Gangaridse, and of the Prachya (Prasii), seems to have been trans- 
ferred to Ganoge, which under the Gupta dynasty became a city of 
great splendour and renown for many ages. This transfer of the seat 

* Asiatic Jouintil, Vol. vii. page 368. 



1845.] the River Soane and Site of Palibothra. 14? 

of Governmeiit was probably the cause of the desertion of Patalipootra. 
and of the oblivion of the name, except when awakened from time to 
time by the faint echo of tradition. 

The site of the capital of Chundragupta having been fixed by the 
evidence above adduced, the next step of the argument is to prove the 
identity of Chundragupta with Sandracottas the king of the Prasii, 
whose capital was designated Palibothra by Megasthenes, the ambas. 
aador of Seleucus Nicator, the immediate successor of Alexander the 
Great in the kingdom of Bactria. Atheneeus, Diodorus Siculus, Quintus 
Cartius, Plutarch^ and other historians, mention Sandracottas as the 
ooDtemporary of Alexander. Professor Wilson, in his Preface to the 
Mudra Rakshasa, observes that *' Athenteus, as first noticed by Wilford 
(A. R. vol. V. page 262,) and subsequently by Schlegel, writes the name 
Sandrakoptus, and its other form, although more common, is very 
pottibly a mere error of the transcriber." I may here remark, that the 
Greek alphabet having no letter which corresponds with " Ch," the 
Greek historians were obliged to substitute either the X or the <f» 
Thus Praehi (which signifies, according to Wilson, the people of the 
East) was converted by the Greeks into Prasii, and the river 
Chambal into Sumbu. Diodorus Siculus, on the other hand, changed 
Chsndromas, a synonyme of Chandra^ or Chundragupta, into ** Xan- 
dnmas." If on the principle above explained, the initial S be re- 
omverted into " Ch,"and the final " S," the usual Greek termination, 
be struck off, Sandrakoptas will become '* Ghandrakopta," which bears 
80 striking a resemblance to Chandragupta as to leave little or no 
doubt of their identity. Professor Wilson has also pointed out the close 
resemblance between the birth, parentage and history of Sandracottas 
as described by the Grecian historians, and the account given of 
Chondragupta in the Vishnooand Bhugwut Purftnas. The similarity 
of names, supported by the coincidence in the history of the individuals, 
tends to establish the identity of persons, and no reasonable doubt can 
therefore be entertained that the Sandracottas of the Greeks was die 
Chundragupta of the Poorans. 

This point conceded, (and it having been shown that Patalipootra 
was the capital of Chundragupta,) the identity of that city with Pa. 

* N. B; He is called by both names indifferently in the Mudra Rakshas(u 



148 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of Z^o. 158. 

libothra (stated by Megasthenes, who visited it, to be the capital of 
Sandracottas,) follows as a necessary consequence. 

Here the argument might be said to have terminated^ but it may 
not be uninteresting to advert to some other coincidences^ as well as 
to some discrepancies which have led many learned men to a differ- 
ent conclusion. 

Arrian (page 214, Rooke's Translation,) who derived his informa« 
tion from the Journal of Megasthenes, says — 

''The capital city of India is Palibothra, in the confines of the 
Prasii, near the confluence of the two great rivers Erannoboas and 
Ganges. Erranoboas is reckoned the third river throughout India, 
and is inferior to none but the Indus and Ganges, into the last of 
which it discharges its waters. Megasthenes assures us, that the 
length of this city is eighty furlongs, the breadth fifteen ; that it is 
surrounded with a ditch which takes up six acres* of ground, and is 
thirty cubits dctep ; that the walls are adorned with 570 towers and 
64 gates." 

The general resemblance in sound between Palibothra and Patali- 
pootra is obvious, and would be more striking if we consider that the 
conversion of the Greek letter into " th" is an anglicism, and that 
the French and other foreigners do not admit the pronunciation. 
The Greek word vaXifioOpa would therefore be rendered Palibothra, 
and the "b** and ''p" being convertible letters, we have Palipotra. 
But Buchanan has remarked that P&tali and Pali are by no means 
identical, the former having a distinct meaning. P&tali Devee 
signifies the " Thin Goddess," whereas Pali was the name of a king, 
a people and a language. Wilford (p, 36, vol. IX. Asiatic Researches) 
says, ** We are informed in the Bhagavata, that king Maha Nanda 
assumed the title of Bali and Maha Bali, consequently his oflspring 
who ruled after him for a long time were Baliputras: the kingdom of 
Mogadha was called the kingdom of Bali, P&li and Poli. The 
city in which the Bali, or Paliputras resided was of course denomi- 
nated from them ' Baliputra,' or ' Paliputra ;' and by the Greeks ' Pali- 
bothra,* and in the Pentingerion Tables, ^ Palipotra.'" In page 38, he 
adds, " According to Ptolemy, the country of the Baliputras extended 

• JS. B. Thisisamis-tranBlationfor 600 feet broad, to €vpo<y e^airXtBpoV- 



J845.] the River Soane and Siie of Palibolhra, 1 49 

from the Soane to beyond Moonhedabad as far as Rungftmutty." It 
leems evident, therefore, either that the Greeks confounded the name 
«f the City with that of the Dynasty, or that the discrepancy in the name 

y be ascribed to the error of copyists of the Greek MSS. at a time 
hen printing was unknown. Indeed the discrepancies in the spelling 

Oriental names at the present day are quite as great, without the 

cose afforded to the Greeks by successive copies of MSS. Moongeer 

invariably spelt in our maps and in public correspondence, Mon. 

yr ; Khanpoor or Khanpur, is spelt Cawnpoor ; Chandanugur, Chan- 
denu^ore; Singhalpetta, Chingleput ; and Mundirraj, Madras; Dihlee 
18 variously spelt Dilli, Dehly. The right pronunciation of Patna 
itself is P'ut'na; of Bankipore, B&kipoor ; and of Dinapoor, D&n&poor. 
The instances of such corruptions are innumerable, and will readily 
«eeor to all residents in India. 

In the above quotation from Arrian, Palibolhra is said to have been 
Btoated near the confluence of the Erranoboas and the Ganges. Sir 
W. Jones^ in his Tenth Discourse, has shown that Hirunyabfthoo, or 
^mnoboas, was a synonyme* of the Soane. Thus the argument for 
the identity of the cities of Patalipootra and Palibolhra is materially 
atiengthened. 

The chief objection which has been urged by Wilford, Colonel Frank- 
lio^aod others against the argument is, I believet, founded on the slate, 
ment of Pliny, that Palibolhra was situated 425 Roman miles below the 
oonfliience of the Jumna and Ganges, which taking the Roman mile 

* N. B. AH the principal rivers of India have a number of synonymes. The 
Omges has, I am told, 100, which are chanted in Sunscrit verse. 

A Pundit has just informed me, in reply to a question whether the Soane had any 
other name in Sunscrit, that it was called Hirunyab&boo in the " Amnr-kosh." I 
^ not know whether this is the work alluded to by Sir W. Jones as being €000 
yens old. The names of the Jumna, the Pundit told me, were Kalindi, Soorujtunia, 
Jnm&a, and Sumuuasoosa* 

t Since writing the above I have met with Colonel Franklin's work. His argument 
i> founded upon some coincidences in names which appear to be more plausible 
^ conclusive. 

lit. He quotes an extract from the Ootur Poorana, to show that the original name 
of a nnmll river, now called Chundun, which unites with the Ganges west of Bhau- 
plpoor, was '* Errun Bhowuh," or Forest-bam. He considers this to be the 
£iiQiioboas of the Greeks. This petty stream has scarcely a drop of water in it for 
ax months in the year, and in Arrowsmith's Map, on a scale of SO miles to an inch, 
it i« hardly distinguishable. To reconcile this fact with the description of Maga- 
thenes that *'the Errunoboas was the third of Indian rivers," Colonel Franklin 
^ construed the text to mean ** a river of the third magnitude.'* Then putting 

Y 



150 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158. 

at the usually recognised length of 1666 yards*> would give about 402 
English miles below Allahabadt, and 175 miles below Patna ; Bhaugul- 
poor is only 364 English miles below Allahabad, while Rajmahl is 
436 ; so that the proper site of Palibothra> according to this calculation, 
would be about half way between the two latter stations. Rennell, in 
his '' Memoir of the Map of Hindoostan," has shown, however, that the 
Roman mile and Greek stadia varied so much that it is impossible to 
say what was the real length of the Roman mile given in Pliny's 
Itinerary. The following are the distances as given by Pliny. 

Roman Miles. 

Taxila on the Indus to the Hydaspes, (Jelum,) •• .. 120 

From Hydaspes to the Hyphasis, (Beyah,) 390 

,y Hyphasis to Hysudrus, (Sutledge,) 168 

„ Hysudrus to Jomones> (Jumna,) ..168 

yy Jomones to Ganges, .. .. .. •• ..112 

„ Ganges to Rhodopa. .. •• 119 

,, Rhodopa to Calinipoxa, (a City,) . . 167 

Carried over, .. 1244 



the Indus, Ganges, and Burampootur in the first class ; the Soane, Nerbudda, &c. in 
the second j he places the Chundun in the third. The Greek text however is simply 

o §£ eppavvojSoac rpiroq fxiv av eiri riov. TvSwv 9rora)uci;/i. 

tnd. He next quotes extracts from the Voyu, Hari Vunsa, Markunda and Ootur 
Furanas, which go to show merely that Bali, the son of Bhooput, begat a son called 
Balipootra, who was Rajah of Aungdes* that his capital (ninety -six miles by thirty- 
six in extent) was Balini, which however was usually called Chumpapooree. Colo- 
nel Franklin says, (1 do not know on what authority^ that Chumpapooree is the 
Chumpanugar of the present day, a village four miles west of Bhaugulpbor ; but sap- 
posing this to be so, it does not follow that Chumpapooree was ever called Pali- 
bothra. It is probable, that this Bali (who in another part of the extract is said to 
have had three sons *' Aung, Bang and Culing," and all of whom were doubtless call- 
ed Balipootras, or sons of Bali) lived long antecedent to the time of Nanda the king of 
Magadha, who, according to Wilford, assumed the title of Bali, and from whom 
Chundragupta and his descendants derived the title of Balipootras. It is very pos- 
sible, that the original Bali may have dwelt at Balini, or Chumpapooree, in the vici- 
nity of Bhaugulpoor ; but this circumstance would afford no proof that the capital of 
Chundragupta was also situated on that spot. 

Zrd, Colonel Franklin states, (page 19) that in several Hindoo works Falibothre 
is mentioned as situated in the vicinity of hills ; but he has omitted to give a single 
passage containing a fact so very important to hia argument. It does not seem ne- 
cessary to discuss the minor points of Colonel Franklin's work. 

* Adams* Roman Antiquities. 

t By the Post-office Tables, it is, tt7 £• miles from Allahabad to Patna. 



18450 the River Soane and Site of Palibothra. 1 5 1 

Roman Miles. 

Brought forward, 1244 

To the oonflax of JomoDes and Ganges, 225 

To Palibothra, 425 

To the mouth of the Ganges, 638 



Total, .. 2532 



* N. B. — The total is not added up in Pliny. 

, These distances are said to have been measured along the high road, 
bat as they cannot be made to correspond with the distances by the 
{wesent high road from the Indus to the Ganges, it is evident either 
that some error as to the figures has crept into the MSS. or (which 
is by no means improbable) that the high road 2000 years ago took a 
very different course from the high road at present. Rennell, in order 
to ascertain the length of the Roman mile assumed by Pliny, mea. 
lured on the map along the line of the great road from the Hyphasis 
(Beyah) to the mouth of the Ganges, and finding this to be 1140 
G. miles while the Itinerary gave 2022 Roman miles, he concluded 
that the proportion of one of Pliny's miles to a Greek mile was as 
56 to 100 in horizontal distance, or 7-10th8. of an English mile in road 
(distance. Agreeable to this mode of computation, he found Patna to be 
only 345 of Pliny's miles below Allahabad instead of 425, as stated 
IB the Itinerary. This diflerence of 80 of Pliny's miles, or 44 
Greek miles, he did not consider of much importance, as owing 
to the great changes in the course of Indian rivers, it was by no means 
certain that in former times the confluence of the Jumna and Ganges 
took place at Allahabad as now. 

The mode of computation adopted by Rennell is not altogether free 
from objection. First, he has omitted to give the stages of the high 
road along which he measured the distance. Secondly, which mouth 
of the Ganges he assumed as the eastern limit. Thirdly, the precise 
point which he considered to be at the mouth of the Ganges. It is 
also to be considered that whatever point may have been assumed 
by Major Rennell as the mouth of the Gkinges, it is in the highest 
degree improbable that the same point was situated at the mouth of 
the Ganges 2000 years ago. The progress of the Deltas of all rivers, 
though slow, is sure: Herodotus (Euterpe, p. 4) says that, '' In the 



152 Memorandum on the Ancient bed of [No. 158* 

time of Menes (*2320 B. C.) the first kiDg, the whole of Egypt, except 
the province of Thebes was one extended marsh. No part of all that 
district which is now situate beyond the lake of Mseris was then to be 
seen^ the distance between which lake and the sea is a journey of 
seven days." In para. 13 he adds, '< In the reign of Mseris as 
soon as the river rose to eight cubits, all the lands above Memphis 
were overflowed ; since which a period of about 900 years has elaps- 
ed : but at present, (about 460 B. C.) unless the river rises to sixteen 
or at least fifteen cubits, its waters do not reach those lands." Daring 
the boring in Fort William with a view of making an Artesian well, a 
fossil bone was brought up from a depth of 350 feett below Calcutta, 
which evidently proves that that part of the Delta is (geologically speak- 
ing) a comparatively modem accumulation of alluvial deposits, and it 
is not impossible that Calcutta itself may at that period have been not 
for distant from the mouth, or one of the mouths, of the Ganges. Ac 
cording to the Mosaic account, or rather the ecclesiastical interprets, 
tion of it, the world is not yet 6000 years old. If therefore it has 
taken 6000 years to form the Valley and Delta of the Ganges, it may 
be assumed that it must have taken 2000 years to form a third of 
that deposit. The exact point at which the Ganges flowed into the 
ocean at the period of creation is a geological nut, which I would de- 
ferentially submit to be cracked by Dr. Buckland, or Mr. Lyell. 
Geology, however, has unfortunately proved that the Mosaic chrono- 
logy refers to the creation of man, and not to that of the globe. The 
age of the latter seems to correspond more nearly with the endless 
Yugs of the Vedas and Poordns, than with the more limited traditions 
of the Pentateuch and Talmud. 

Although Renneirs estimate of the Roman mile is open to the above 
criticism, we may fall back upon that of D'Anville, a geographer cele- 

* This date is taken from Wilkinson's Egypt. 

t See Vol. VI, page £36, Journal of Asiatic Society ; also vol. ii, page 6B0, 

The rise of the land according to the calculation of Herodotus, would be one foot 

and four inches, (1 f. 4 i.) in a century. In 1709 A. D. the favorable height of the 

Mile was 2S cubits, (being an increase of 7 cubits, or 10} feet), in about £l62 years, 

(1702 -|- 460) or 5 inches and 8-lOths in a century. Taking the mean between 

Q 

1 f. 4 i. and 5 inches -« viz. 1 1 inches as the average rate per century, and sup- 
posing the rise of the Ganges to have been at a similar rate, a period of 38,i8l 
years would be required to fill up the 850 feet of sand, and alluvial soil below Cal- 
cuttta ; but it is probable that the rise was much more rapid prior to the reign of 
Maeris, i. e. 3062 years ago, (900 -|- 1162) than subsequent to that date— at even 
« feet to the century however, it would require 17,550 years ! 



1845.3 ihe River Soane and Site nf Paliboihfa. 153 



brftted for an accuracy in details^ which was praised by Sir W. Jones, 

and which even Oibbon* said he was afraid to dispute. Rennell ob. 

serves in a note, '' O'Anville is of opinion that Pliny turned the Oreek 

8tadia» (of Megasthenes) into Roman miles at the rate of eight to a mile» 

and thus accounts for their shortness. D'Anville, who has gone deeply 

into the subject, thinks that it requires 1050 Itinerary stadia to make 

a degree of the great circle." Now a degree of the great circle being 

equal to 60 geographical, or 69 English miles, 425 of Pliny's miles, 

or 3400 Oreek stadia^ would be equivalent to 223 E. miles, which 

is only four miles less than the real distance from Allahabad to the 

Golah at Patna, as given in the Polymetrical Tables of the General 

Post Office. So that if the estimate of the Greek stadia given by the 

most accurate of geographers be adopted, the difficulty of reconciling the 

distance given by Pliny with the site of Patna is altogether removed. 

Beyond the evidence of history and tradition, however, little or 

nothing remains to indicate Patna to have been the site of an ancient city. 

It is probable that a great part of the original city has been swallow. 

ed up by the Ganges. In a map lately constructed by the Revenue 

Survey, and from decrees of the Civil Courts, it appears that the main 

stream of the Ganges even so late as the Permanent Settlement^ or 

1790 A. D. was several miles north of its present course. The river is 

gradually wearing away the southern bank^ and the modern city is 

likely to share the fate of the old. 

In point of extent the modem town, including the suburbs, does not 
&11 very far short of that of the ancient. Megasthenes states Palibothra 
to have been ten milest long, and about two broad, surrounded with a 
ditch^ and walls adorned with 570 towers and gates. The length of 
the present town from the Golah at Patna on the west to Jafir Khan's 
garden on the east, is about the same length ; but the breadth cannot 
exceed a mile. It is just possible that the *' Sotah," or bed of a small 
stream, exhibited in the map as running south of Patna from PhooU 
waree to near Futwa, may have been the ancient ditch of Palibothra^ 
S8 it does not appear to have been ever the main stream of the Soane. 
Of the gates and towers no traces remain. There are, however, some 
high artificial eminences composed of brick. work, called *^ Punj 
Poh&ree,'' or five hills, about a mile or two south of the town, which 
may be the ruins of bastions or towers. There are likewise some 

* Miscellaneoas Works. 

t Calculated on D'Anville's principle, it would be much less. 



154 Memorandum on ihe Ancient bed of the River SoaneSjcc- [No. 158. 

other singular elevations in different parts of the town or neighbour- 
hood, evidently composed of the ruins of buildings of considerable 
magnitude. One near the Durgah of Shah Arzan, another at Bikna 
Puh&ree> on which a large European house has been built, another 
near what is called the Dutchman's house> and a fourth at Chujjoo 
Bagh> on which the house I reside in is situated. It must be admitted, 
however, that tradition does not agree in assigning such an origin to 
these elevations. As the southern bank of the Ganges gradually gives 
way to the undermining power of the current, several old brick wells, 
long since closed and built over^ have been discovered, and in the 
rainy season many ancient Hindoo coins gold, silver, and copper are 
found. Gold ones of the .Gupta or Canoge series, and Boodhist coins 
of cast silver and copper are the most common- 
It is not, however^ a matter of surprize^ that the waves of time 
should have obliterated what those of the Ganges may have spared, 
in a country where the destructive power of vegetation is so great and 
rapid. 

In 2000 years how many cities, empires, and even religions, have 
passed away ! Of Babylon, Susa, Ecbatana, and Persepolis, cities 
cotemporary with Palibothra, scarce a stone remains to mark their 
site to the puzzled antiquary. *' Assyria, Greece, Rome^ Carthage, 
what are they."* 

The empires of Montezuma and the Incas have likewise risen, 
flourished^ and disappeared within that period. The religions of Zo- 
roaster, Osiris, Jupiter, and Odin, have been superseded by that of 
the Crescent or of the Cross. When cotemporary cities have perished, 
and cotemporary empires have decayed, there is little room for won- 
der that nothing should remain of the capital of Chundragupta save 
a few mouldering heaps. 

Tempus edax rerum ! tuque in vidiosa Vetust&s, 
Omnia destraitis ; vitiataque dentibus sevi, 
Paulatim, lent^, consumitis omnia morte. 



Omnivorous Time ! and tboa invidious Age, 
Consumest all things in thy wanton rage. 
Worn, day by day, by Time's remorseless teeth, 
Man and bis works at last must sink in death. 

£. C. R. 
* Childe Harold, Canto 4. 



JOURNAL 



OP THB 



ASIATIC SOCIETY 



Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram^ a History of Sindh. By, 

Lieut. PosTANS. 

, [Continued from page 99.] 



Account of the circumstances attending the death of Mahamed 

Bin Cassim. 

Thug, when the two daughters of Dahir» Purmul Deo and Surt^' 
Deo, who were on the howdah with him, arrived for the service of the 
Khalif, he saw that tbey were extremely beautifal, and appropriated 
them to himself; still, in order to dissipate their shyness and distress, 
he committed them to the care of the keepers of the Harem, and after 
a time called one to his bed. Now since the death of their father had 
sorely afflicted them, she said, '^ I am not for the Kbalif, for Maha- 
med Cassim took me to himself for three nights." The Khalif on hear- 
ing this was enraged, and at once wrote an order himself and despatched 
it, to the intent, that on seeing that order, he, Mahamed Cassim, should 
cause himself to be enclosed in a raw hide and sent to the presence 
of the Khalif. This order was received by Mahamed Bin Cassim 
at Yassur : safficient was it that the order was from the potentate, to 
which there is bat obedience ; he was sewed up in a raw hide and sent 
off: on the third day he died ; they put his body in a box and took it 
to the Khalif, who immediately called the two women and said, " See 
how absolute is my power." They laughed and said, '* In the accom- 
plishment of the wish of the Khalif there is no wavering; but in 
justice and wisdom there is neither foresight or discrimination, seeing 
the man, who treated us as if he were our father and brother, on our 

No. 159, No. 75, New Sbribs. 2 a 



156 Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, [No. 159. 

simple words, loQging as we do for revenge, without enquiry into the 
truth or falsehood, has been destroyed : our wish was retribution for oar 
father's death. Mahamed Ccusim moreover was deficient in wisdom ; he 
should according to the order have started on his journey, but have 
delivered himself from the hide after one day, and have arrived alive : 
we have undoubtedly told the truth in our evidence, and we resign 
our lives." The Khalif was ashamed, and ordered them to be tied to 
the foot of an elephant and dragged through the bazar and burnt. 



T/ie Khalif 8 of Bini Oomai and their Deputies. 

After the conquest of Sindh by Bin Cassim, according to what has 
Deputies of the Kha- been related, Harraf Bin Keiss Bin Bawah Assadi 
Jifs of Bini Oomai, remained in charge of Alor, and the individuals before 
mentioned were governors as appointed. After them the people of Hind 
became rebellious, and from the confines of Dibalpur to the sea, remain- 
ed in the hands of the Moslem deputies. After a time Abu Hifaz, Bin 
Kutibah^ Bin MussiUm arrived from Bijjaj^ and punished those who 
had not embraced the true faith : the (Hindoo) deputies being help- 
less, fled to Khorassan. About that time Jamin Bin Zeid also arrived 
from Hijjaj, and on the part of the Khalif Suliman Amin Bin Abdul' 
lah, openly obtained the government of Sindh ; and in the year 100 H. 
Oomur Bin Abdul Aziz^ Bin Umeer^ Bin Muslim came to conquer 
Hind. He took some of those countries, and made some of the tribes of 
Sindh Mahomedans ; but in the time of the Khalif Hashamy they se- 
ceded. StUitnan Bin Hashan^ as is related in the first vol., fled from 
the army of Mirwan and came to Sindh, where, intent on rebellion, he 
remained until Saffah obtained the Khalifat ; he then^ embraced the 
service of Saffah : also Abul Khitab arrived on the part of Mirwan. 

The period of the government of the deputies of the Khalifs of Bi^i 

Oomai extended from the year 93 until 133 H. All 
The authority of the this period from the commencement of the 93 H. 

Khalifs of Bini Oomai -i . i a* ik^ 

over Sindh extends to until the period mentioned, is 40 years. Since toe 
periodof 40 years?' * government of the deputies of the Khalifat of the 

house of Bini Oomai was as described, now it is neces- 
sary to relate the government of the deputies of Bini Abbas, Still there 
are a few circumstances connected with this period which mast be 
related, and which 1 shall compress as briefly as may be. 



18^5.] a History of Sindh. 1 57 

Let it DOt be concealed, that when the deputies of Bint Oamai took 
Smdh, some of the dependencies of the country were yet disobedient 
to the great authority (of the Khalifs.) In short, JDihi Rahi, descended 
from the RahiSt was in the city of Dihir a place of renown, and Bim* 
hul Jiahi was at Bhunbur, which city he had founded. 



Account of the Deputies of the Khalifs of Bini Abbas, 
When Setjffahy who was the first Khalif of Bini Ahbas^ came to the 
UmMie, in the year 133 H., he sent a force under Ddud Bin Alii, and 
the government of Sindh was taken from the deputies of Bini Oomai, 
After four years Abu Jaffir Mimsur Abbasiy ordered and prepared an 
army for Sindh and Hindoostan : in the time of Harun Reshid, Moussa 
the brother of Fazii came from Mecca to the governorship of Sindh, 
bat, giving away all he obtained, he was dismissed. Alii Bin Isa, Bin 
Haman came in his place ; at this time the fort of Tibm^ an impreg- 
nable fortification near Sahurah and the city of Bahar, and other 
places- in that vicinity, westerly from Sindh, were in the hands of 
Sheikh Abdul Tihrah, whose tomb with those of other holy men (mar- 
tyrs) are still places of pilgrimage to true believers, and on the top of 
tbe dome it is written, that he died in the year 171 H. The city of 
Bhunbur having been destroyed, they proceeded elsewhere. At length 
Abul Abbas arrived as governor of Sindh, and remained there a long 
period. In the time of Mammon, some further portions of Hind were 
added to the possessions of their deputies. After him, other individuals 
were appointed from Bagdad to the governorship of Sindh, until during 
the Khalifat of Abdul Kadir Billah al Abbasy when Abmed Assaky Bin 
Ahmukhtidar Allah, was appointed. In the middle of the month 

Ramzan 416 H., Sultan Mahmdd Ghazi arrived at 

416H., 1025A. D. _, , _ ^l . ^ .^ . , ^ . 

Mahmtid of Ghuzni Multan from Ghuzui, and havmg captured Ooch, 
Sindh, aSid teminates drove out the deputies of Abdul Kadir from the coun- 
t^^TAhU^ah^ *'y of Sindh. The period of the government of the de- 
283 yean. puties of the Khalifs of Bini Abbas, from the com- 

mencement before mentioned is altogether 283 years. 

The tribe of Sumrah had 200 years previously taken possession of 
oertain portions of Sindh, but as they had paid tax and tribute, and had 

Tribe of S m ah to be ^®®° obedient to the Moslem governors, no mention 
dwcribcd hereafter, has been made of them : but. after having related the 



158 Translation of the Toofut ul Kiram, [No. 159. 

dynasty of the deputies of Ghazni, and considered the emperors of 
Delhi, we will relate the rule of some of the above-mentioned tribe. 



List qf the Deputies of Ghuzni, and narrative of the Emperor of Delhi. 
As before mentioned, Abdul Rizak the minister of Sultan Mahmud 
Ghuzni deputies. Ghazi^ in the year 4 1 7 H. having taken Bukkur, arriv- 
ed at Sewistan and Tattah, and the governors of Bini Oomai and Bini 
Abbas had not remained there, except a small portion who had formed 
connections, and were encumbered with families : they were men of note, 
and received stipends from the government. 
From amongst these were 18 families, the heads of generations. 

Distinguished heads ®"®^y ' ^^® Sukufis, a family of Cazis originally of 
of families. Bakar and Alor, from the descendants of Mussa 

Bin Yahtib, Bin Tahi^ Bin Mahamed^ Bin Shiban^ Bin Ushman Su- 
hufi who, with the Cazi Ismail^ Bin Alii, Bin Mussa^ Bin Tahi 
were the first relators of the conquest of Sindh in Arabia, and their 
great grand-father Mussa Bin Yakub^ was confirmed by Bin Cassim as 
Cazi of Alor after the conquest of that fort : and the " Tamims** and 
*' Hal Mogheirahst^* (which term became slightly changed to Hal 
Tuhim and Ibn Soriaht) and the Abbasis and Sadihs^ Farukians and 
Ooshmamansy who up to this present time are to be found in all Sindh; 
and the Phonwarans descended from^^Tam and the tribe of Mungi^ 
a branch of the Tamins, the family of Jubiriah^ of whom Sheihh Tahi 
in the account of HuUani will be mentioned ; and the family of Bini 
Assadf of whom is Sheikh Mirtaht will be alluded to at Futtipur ; the 
family of Hal Hutbeh of whom is Cazi Bahran, he also will be referred 
to at Futtipur ; the family of Bentoabi Sufian^ of whom are some dur- 
veshes of Rahib; the family of the tribe oiBajur^ governor ne^xJehanker^ 
the descendants of Jaremah Jusari^ of whom is the tribe of Sapiah, 
who are the possessors of Sewistan ; and the Jhutts and Beloochees 
are originally from Harun Mihrani, and it will be more convenient 
to relate the genealogies of the Beloochees and Jhutts without delay. 



Origin of the Jhutts and Beloochees* 
Mahamed Bin Harun Mikrani^ who has been mentioned in the ac- 
count of the officers of Mikran, and who came with Mahamed Cassim 
at the time of the conquest of Sindh as far as Armanbihahf where he 



1M50 o, Hilary of Sindh. 159 

died and was buried, is the son of Mahomed Haban^ Bin Abdul Rahim^ 
Bin Hamzeh^ Bin Abdul Mathab. Once, when Meer Hamziih (may God 
approve him) went out to bant in a country far in the desert, he became 
alone there, and, according to the favour of the Most High who is always 
propitious to good and great men, a good genius or fairy appeared to 
keep him company; by the Divine will he embraced her, and she be- 
came hidden from his sight : afterwards she brought forth Abdul Rahim. 
In shorty Mahamed Bin Harun had fifty-two sons by seven wives. 
Thus, one: Isa, Mikran, HiJaZj ScUahy Bikram^ Rustum, and Jiildh 
from one mother named Hamira ; Zumaly Mazid^ Radah^ BuhkU^ 
Shahbab, Nizam, Julal^ Marid, from one mother named Bamiri ; Roe" 
dmy Mtusoj Nokit Noh, Mundah^ Raza^al-diny from Miriam ; JuUal 
from HiMshiai ; Adam^ Kumal, Ahmedy Humad, Hamud Said^ Masud^ 
from Musma, ; Mudi, Shir, Koh, Babund, Karhy Nowar al din, HuS' 
son, Hasein, SuiimaUy and Abrahim, from Faiimah ; Alim, AUi, Tir- 
huh, Buhpad, Teghzan, Mubariky TUrk, Taliah, Arbi, Shiraz, Taj- 
al-deen, Takht, Gulistan, and Biirk from Khwah. When, according to 
the order of Hijjaj as related, Mikran was cleared, that land with 
others was appointed into two shares, and one share was given to the 
descendants of JaUal al deen, and they came to Sowah and Kich,* and 
their descendants are to this day scattered in great numbers all over 
Sindh. The tribe of Lodah also called LuUan, have their origin thus. 
The illustrious SuHman sent familiar spirits in the shape of men to 
purchase slave girls at Riim. On their return, one of these had connec- 
tion with one of the women; Suliman gave her to him, and a boy was 
bom : afterwards his descendants mixed with the Arabs, and came to 
Sindh at the time of the conquest, or before. * 



Account of the origin of the tribe of Sumah. 
The narrative of these people, as is necessary, will be fully told 
in the course of this history. Sam, who is said to have been 
the son of Amur, the son of Sham Bin Abal Suhvb, and again the son 
of Umar Bin Akrameh Bin Alu Jahul, or the son of Akrameh Bin 
Abul Hisam, Bin Abbu Jihil: there are, however, various reports, of 
which the following is the most consistent. That they were de- 

* Kich Mikran. 



160 Translation of the Too/ut til Kiram, [No. 159. 

scended from Jamshid^ whence they took the title of " Jam,'* with 
which they were distinguished ; or else they were from Sam the son of 
Noh : he had four sons, the first Budha, (his descendants were Budht 
Sodahy Sittah, Ahkily Ootah^ Amiah^ Hazir, and in short there were 
sixteen sons generally known by the title of Rathur^) and the second 
Sankahf the third Hami, and the fourth Bhakirat This Bhakirat 
had a son called DusruL Now Dusrut had three wives, one named 
Kita^ the second Kuliah, and the third Simah: from Kila there 
were two sons, one named J?am, the other Lukhman ; from Kuliah one 
son Barat ; and from Simah one son Chutur Kim, To Sunkah the 
son of Sam there were also descendants, and also to Hami ; they 
were called Judur. Barat the son of Dusrut had descendants call- 
ed Purhur, Jansipar^ Gorifah, and Rahih Chatar Khan ; the son 
of Dasrat had descendants, called Charah, Lukhman; son of Das- 
rat had no children ; Ram had one son, who had a son called Taw- 
akitSf who had a son called Tatal^ who had a son called Nirkanat; his 
son was called Kin^ (the city of Kin'* is so called after him.) The son 
of Kin was entitled Samhat Rajah, Sambat Rajah had four children : 

1, Sam Bir Kirarah^ also called Sham; 2, Nihrat ; 3, Dakhan; 
and 4, Madah. In short, Sam the son of Sambat Rajah, had a son 
called Jadim, Jadim had four sons : first. Habit whose descendants are 
the Sumahs of Sindh ; the second Kajbit, whose descendants, are tfae 
Chughdah; the third Biihobuty his descendants are the tribe of Bhati; 
the fourth Chira Sumah, of his descendants is Rahi Diach^ the goiter- 
nor oiKumal^ a fort situated in the land of Soorteh: he became a martyr, 
and the tale of the love and devotion of his wife is well known. BabtC 
the son of Jadim, the son of Sam, the son of ^Sambat Rajah, had a son 
named Rubdari ; he had a son called Mijat, he had Nootyah, he had 
Udka, he had Vdheh, he had Lakyah, and he had Lakah. Lakah was a 
sovereign, and mauied into the Bhati tribe : he had four sons. Thus, 
first, Udhuh without children ; Udhuh, which was his place of abodes 
is called after him. Second, Mahir, who had four sons: 1, Sitah; 

2, Waditar Patheria ; 3, Wirhah, without children ; and 4, Sand, 
also without children. They say that the above-mentioned Lakah mar- 

* " Kin and Kashmir," as they are called in Sindh, on the southern confines of the 
Seikh territories ; they formerly belonged to Sindh, but now belong to Multan and 
the Seikh government. 



1M5.] a History of Sindh. 1 6 1 

ried again in his old age, and had four sons. Firat, Oamur ; second^ 
Jeyur^ (his descendants are Babrahs, Dukemehtf Kuiah ;) third, Phul 
Ltthah*, (the Philani are known as his descendants ;) fourth, Munayah, 
OomuT the son of Lakah had a son named Lakah ; he had a son named 
Sumah, who had two sons, one named Kakak, and the other Jikrah* 
Kakah became a ruler, (the place called Kakah is so called after him ;) 
he had two sons, one Palli and the other Raydin^ from the descen- 
dants of PalU. Musruk Sumak became a governor, and Raydin had nine 
80D8. Thus : first, SunuU^ the Samifahs are his descendants; second, No' 
lysr, all the Nauts are his descendants; third, Lakahf his descendants are 
Lanjar^ Mukdoom^ Sihar^ Lanjar, (God's mercy be on him) of whom 
mention will be made in the account of the Sheikhs, belongs to him ; 
fourth, il^roA, whose descendants BreDaodJ^ZahirNayaheindFalNayah; 
fifth, Nayah; sixth, Chamir; seventh, Munhayah; eighth, Koriah (the 
descendants of these three last tribes are the Mundrah;) ninth, Palli who 
vas a chief and had two sons, first Oodahf whose descendants are the Ba- 
riah Oodejah (also called Gordrah Puirahf) and second Saud^ who was 
the chief of the tribe. Saud the son of Palli had seven sons : first, Kakah^ 
whose descendants are the Kakefah Puirah ; second, Jarah, who had de- 
toeodants the Jahi^'ahs; third, Waderah; fourth *** ; fifth, Hingarak^ his 
descendants are Hodejah, Juksia, Wurha and Hingqfa; sixth, Diraht 
his descendants are Dirah Sumah in Cutch ; seventh, Jam ffoti, who 
htdfive sons; first, Halahf his descendants are known as the Halah; se- 
cond, Hingorah^ his descendants are Bumian^ Ruhuriah, Hingorak, and 
they founded the places thus mentioned ; third, Sahif his descendants 
are Sahir Sumah ; fourth, Chaiidriahf his descendants are well known as 
Nihirah ; fifth, Jam Hapur^ who had two sons ; first JRaqfah, second Jam 
Jiomir, who had a son Kirraha ; he had three sons : first, Samdh^ whose 
descendants are Raoma^ Lakayatsnd Jekrah; second, Sumrah, who had 
DO children ; third, Lakah Jan, who had one son ELalah, who had a son 
called Lekah ; after whose death he had another called Brekanah^ he took 
the name of his father. Lakah Bin Kahdhy the brother of Nahah, had 
tvelve sons : thus, first, Jam Jumur^ from whom are descendants the 
Svmahs^ the rulers of Sindh residents of Sanuir^ who will be mentioned 

* '* Laka Philani/' an heroic R^jpdt prince, well known in Cutch traditions; the 
Jhareejahs of Cutch date their origin from the Sumahs of Sind, (see Mrs. Foetans's 
'' Cutch/' or the traditions of " Laka PhUani." 



162 Translation of the Too/ut ul Kiram, [No. 159. 

in their proper places ; second, Oomur, who ruled ia Buhriah^ he had 
no children ; third, PMx^ whose descendants are Palli Sumah ; fourth, 
Kahahf his descendants are Sodiari Sumah; fifth, Hoteh^ his descen- 
dants are Sahih Sumah, HoUii Sumah, and Sehawutieh Sumah; sixth, 
Jeysur (or Jeyur,) whose descendants are the fieyah Parya ; seventh, 
Mangur, without children; eighth, Abrah, whose descendants are the tribe 
oiAhrejahs; ninth, HingorahKonur ; tenth, SuUan; eleventh^ Rayidam; 
twelfth, Lakah. In short, Hingorah fConur had three sons: first, Deynar; 
second, Minagah ; and third, Miradeyah* Deysur had five sons ; Kah, 
Halah, Rukun^ Hingorah^ and Jonah. Jonah the son of Lahah, above- 
mentioned, had five sons : first, Khoreah; second, Ti^iah; third, Abrah; 
fourth, Beioch; fifth, Babniah. The account of the descendants of Bab* 
niahf who ruled in Sindh, will be mentioned in the dynasty of iheSumahs. 
Let it not be concealed, that according to what has been related, 

the descendants of Sumah are to this day the prlo- 

Sumahs are the prin- 
cipal inhabitants of cipal natives of the countries of Sindh and Guzerat, 

(i?e. Cwtch.) "^®'*^ and Sindh was previously cultivated and inhabited 

by them. Besides this tribe, the Jhutts and Beloo* 

chees and the descendants of others as alluded to, were from the older 

time inhabitants of that country : others might also be enumerated in 

addition to these, but since it was not intended in this work to make 

other than an abbreviated account, and to adhere to a few events 

which are most interesting, if any one should require further partiea* 

lars let him look for them (elsewhere.) In short, after the deputies of 

Sultans of Delhi. Sultan MahmUd, those of Sultan Masudf Sultan 

Modud, then of Sultan Mahdud, then of Sultan Kuiidf Aldin^ then the 

deputies of Sultan Aram Shah, all of whom are mentioned in the l>t 

and 2nd vols, as connected with Sindh, came to that country, sod 

during the time of the Sultanut, it was divided into four portions $ 

Multan, Ooch, and the whole of Sindh fell to the government of \ 

Nasir Uldin Sibajah, and at that period seven Rajahs in Sindh from i 

Seven Rajahs pay ^^® P^*^®* ^^^^^ ^^^^ ^ mentioned, paid tribate 
tribute to Multan. to Multan. First, Rana Bhansur Satah Rathur, resid- 
ing at Zihrah, belonging to DirpUah; second, Rana Sami^ son oiDui^ 
Kirecheh of the tribe of Sumah, belonging to Turk in the territories 
of Rupah ; third, Jeysar, son of Hijah Machee Solanki, inhabiunt of 
Maunklan ; fourth, Wahtjahi son of Panm Chunm, belonging to Dir^^ 



1845] a Hiitorsf of SindA. 1 63 

Siwcy fifth ; ChunuHf son of Dehiuk, of the tribe of Chund, inhabitaDt 
of Bukkiii ; sixth, Z^oAi son of Durya^ inhabitant of Julan (viz. Hami 
Kot) ; seventh, Jiswad Dirhan Agrahy inhabitant of Min Tvhar^ be- 
looging to Bhanirwah, In short, when Lahore was taken by the 
depaties of TaZ'tU-din Yelduz, the prince Nasir-ul-din Kibq^'ih reiired 
to Moitan, and at the end of the year 623 H., Mulk Khan Khiizye and 

his - followers took possession of the town of Se- 

623 H. Malk Khan . o , r, . i . . . *t. 

KhiiiyeukesSewia- wistan. Sultan /inmti^ sent his minister iVtzam-«/- 

MtUky Mahamed Bin Assad^ to besiege Ooeh, and he 
bimself proceeded to Delhi. Nizam- ul- Mulk in the year 625 H., took 
Ooch by negotiation, and proceeded towards Bukkor; Nasir^vl-din 
fled and died, Sultan Shums^ul^Un became master of Sindh. ./Voor 
vl'din Mahamed in the year 630 H. was governor of Sindh ; and in 633 
Saltan liHmus died, and Masmd Shah was his heir. In the con* 
fiision of events, a Moghul army crossed the river of Sindh and besieged 
Ooch ; but, being defeated by Sultan Mussud, fled to Khorassan. Sultan 
Mumid sent Mulk JuUah'Ul-din in the place of Noor-ul-din as go« 
vmior of Sindh, and at this time Masir-ul-din Mahamed^ uncle of iSti/- 
tea Massudf became heir to the throne and crown, and in the year 640 

649 H. Sultan Mas- ^^^°K passed through Lahore, Multan, Ooch and 
»wi„g™. Sind to the whole of Sindh, he gave that country to Mulk 

MuIkSunjur. . ' d j 

Swyur and returned ; and in the beginning of the 
year 663, Sultan Ghias-ul-din succeeded to the throne of Delhi, and 

663 H Sultan Ghias- ^^® '^® government of Lahore, Multan and Sindh 

Bl-din succeeds to to his SOU ^ti^» Mahamed^ and after three years he 

the Delhi throne. ^ ^ 

returned to the service of his father at Delhii and 

retorned again after a year. In the year 683 H., SuUan Mahamed was 

killed by the troops of Jenghiz Khan^ and his son Key Kosun succeeded 

kim. Sultan Julal'ul'din KhUfy^ in the year 693 H. arrived at Lahore, 

uid gave Multan and Ooch in charge to his son Arkuli Khan, and 

NtunU Khan remained to govern Sindh. In short, in the year 695 *H., 

Sultan HuUaw'ul'din sent his brother Shah Khan to drive out 

AfhuH Khan ; but Nusrut Khan^ as formerly, with a force of 10,000 

retained possession of Multan, Ooch, Bukkur, Sewistan and Jattah. In 

the beginning of the year 697 H., there was a report of the march of a 

Vogbnl force from Seeistan to Sewistan, and it (Sewistan) was captured. 

^utrui Khan released himself. At the close of the rule of the Sultan 

2 B 



^ I 



164 Translation of the Too/ut 11/ Kiramy [No. 159* 

Hillaw'ul'din, Ghazi Mulh was sent with 10,000 Sowars to Dibalpar 
to drive out the Moghnls of Jenghix Khan. Multao, Ooch, and Sindh 
were made over to him as a jahgir, but in the revolution of events 
KosiiD Khan usurped the throne from his father. Ghazi Mulh taking 
the army of Multan, Ooch and Sindh, overthrew Kos^ Khan and took 
the throne, and he was styled Sultan Ghias^tU^din. At this time the 

The tribe of Sum- ™®" ®^ Sumrah came forth and took possession of 
rahukepoweMioDof Jattah. Snliwik Ohias-ul-din Bent Mulh Jt^'-ul-din la 

MuUan, Kwajeh Khatria to Bukkor, and Mulh Hale* 
shir to Sewistan. After a time when Mulk Kush'-hoo-Khan became re* 
bellious in Multan, Sultan Mahamed Shah, the son of Sultan Ghtas* 
id^din^ in the year 723 H., came to Multan and subdued him; then 
having placed confidential servants at Bukkur and Sewistan, he returned. 

751 n.JaghiOhul- In the year 751 H., Jaghi GhuUam having arrived 
lam invades Sindh. at Jattah from Gujrat, Each, and other placet^ 
pitched at Jahir on the edge of the river ; but being annoyed with fever, 
he marched from thence and came to Kandul^ where he recovered, and 
returned to Jattah ; from which he remained and surrounded Jattah on 
four sides, but he died of the same complaint as above-naentioned. 
Sultan Feiroz Shah then possessed the throne. Jaghi was at Jattah, 

The s h d ^^^ hearing of his death he attacked the men of 
JharUahs defeat Fei- Sumrah. the Jharitohs and Sumahs, and was defeated. 

roz Shah at Jattah. , , _ , . - « - # 

The Sultan in the beginning of the month of Safar ox 
the above year, marched from the neighbourhood of Jattah on the 
river Sankrah; he directed a fort to be built Ami Nasur remained 
there with 1000 horse ; he built a city called Nusurpur, and he ap- 
pointed ilf t^ Bihramy chief magistrate in those districts ; he built M' 
rjampare^ and Mulh AlHshir and Mulh JaJ Ka/uri were left at Sewis* 
tan as governors. He then proceeded to Bukkur. Mulh Kuhnahda^ 
and Mulh Ahadui Aziz were appointed Naib and Dewan, with a partf 
of trusty men as guardians of the fort; and Mulh Kuhu^ul^n had 
the title conferred on lum of Ihkias Jam^ and was made governor of all 
the country of Sindh. The Sultan then returned to Delhi. After this» 
in the year 773 H. having determined to take Nuggur Kot, he came (0 
773 H Sulun Fei- ^^^^^ » ^^^ Kheir-ul-din, the governorof Jattah^de- 
roi Shah comas again fended himself in the fort, surrounded by water, ani 

to Jattah. ' J 1^ 

the Sultan by reason of the want of grain and the 



1M5.] a Hisiary 0/ Sindh. 165 

•bandanee of musqaitoet^ retorned to Jattah. Jam Kkiir-ut'din being 
promiied pardoo, proferred his service ; he took with him all the su- 
meendara to Delhi, bat when they reached Sehwan it was discovered 
tlitt the Jam meditated escape ; he was chained and imprisoned. After 
a tune Jam Junur^ son of Jam Kkgir^ul'difh was invested with the 
governorship of Jattab, and in the year 790 H. Feiroz Shah died, and 

790 H Death of ^^^^^^ Jughtuk Shah succeeded him ; after him, Sol- 
FeiioiShah. tan Ahu Bvkur^ then Sultan Mahomed Shah^ then 

Saltan Sikundur Shah^ then Sultan Nanr'nl-din^ came to the throne 
of Delhi : be sent Saxang Khan to take possession of Dibalpnr, Multan 
and Sindh ; and in the year 800 H., Mirza Pir Maham^ Neeah, a noble 
ol TimurSf crossed the river of Sindh, and invested the fort of Ooch. 
Muik Allh who on the part of Sazang Khan was in that place, resisted 
for a month. Sazang Khan sent JaJ-ul^n Khan with 4000 men to as- 
Mt him ; he released Mirza Pir Mahomed^ and defeated Sazang Khan : 
be invested Multan^ and after six months Sazang Khan became obe* 
^Dt and delivered up Multan. At this time Sahib Karan in the year 
801 H. descended on Multan : from this period the Sultans of Delhi lost 

801 H Th ower of ^^°^^°^^ ^ Siudh over the governors in that country, 
tke Delhi sovereign* who themselves obtained power. 

m Sindh decline. 



The Tribe of Sumrah. 

Some of this tribe ruled in parts of Sindb, as has been mentioned, 

previous to this. Thus the whole time that their 

authority extended was 550 years ; and therefore, 

after the descendants of Jamim^ the last of the deputies of Bini AbbaSf 

leeiog their power, the narrators of history began to make mention 

of them; at that time, as will be mentioned, the government of ^indh 

psued to the Ghoris and Ghuxniris^ and this tribe of itself became 

powerful, as will be related* 

And now the origini of this tribe is not clearly traced ; but they 

^ . . . „ , were evidently old inhabitants of the country, and 

Origin of Sumrahs ** '' 

obMuiv. they are apparently connected with the descendants 

of <* SindhJ* In short, according to what has been previously related, 
wben in the year of 720 H. Ghazi Mulk collected the army of Sindh 



166 Translation of (he Too/ui ul Kiram, [No. 159. 

and Maltan, and took it to Delhi and subdued Khoirow Khan^ he soo- 
eeeded to the throne ; and Sultan Ghias-uLdin, Jughhik Shah was his 

How they acquir- ^^^^ ' ^^^^** ^® ^^ occupied with afiairs in thtt 
ed power. quarter, the men of S(imrah collected from the viei* 

nity of Jhuri and placed a man named Surmah in the governor's seat, 
and, having possessed the country, he espoused the daughter of a 
zumeendar named Saud^ who was of power and rank :. by her he had a 
son, named Bangur Khan. Sumrah died, Bangur succeeded him, and 
his son Dodah took possession of the country to Nusurpur ; he bad a 
son named Sungar, a minor, and the government of the country came 
to Jaree^ daughter of Dodah ; and when Sungur became of years he 
succeeded to the governorship, and proceeded towards Cutch and subdued 
the country to the river Manak. As he had no children, his wife Hei- 
mus' brother was appointed governor of the city of Toor and Thuiri. 
After a short time Dodah Sumrah^ who was governor in the fort of 
Dakahy collected his tribe from the surrounding country, and extirpa- 
ted the brother of Heimus, At this time Dodu and Phaiu, descendants 
of Dodah, came out with a large fprce, and gave him the chieftainship; 
he ruled for some time, and after him Kheira took possession of the 
country ; then Armil succeeded to it, but being an oppressor, the men 
of Sumah collected and killed him ; this was in the year 752 H. : but the 
beginning and end of this tribe as rulers is by others otherwise related. 
Thus in the Muniukhib al Juwarihh, when Sultan Ahdul Rashid, Bin 
Sultan Mahamed Ghazi, succeeded to the throne, his imbecility caused 
the inhabitants of Sindh to be rebellious, and in the year 445 H. the men 

of Sumrah collected near Thurri, and placed a per- 

445 H. The Sum- son named Sumrah in the governship. Sumrah pes- 

rafis placed Sumrah j . . i *. r i . j j u j ^- 

on the musnud. sessed his elevation for a long period, and had a son 

SumrahT ^^ ° Bangur by the daughter of a zumeendar named Sand, 

and died. Bangur Bin Sumrah ruled for 15 years; in 
the year 461 H. he died : after him Dodah Bin Bangur governed for 
24 years, and in the H. 485 he died. After him Sungar for 15 years ; 
after him HufifZ6 years ; after him Oomur 40 years; Dodah the se- 
cond 14 ye&rs; Phutto 33 years; Khey surah Dodah third 14 years; 
JaAt 24 years ; Chami 18 years; Bangur second 15 years; ffafifthe 
second 18 years; Dodah the fourth 25 years; Oomur the second 35 
years ; Bangur third 10 years : after him Hamir succeeded to the govern* 



1845.1 a HUtory of Sindh. 167 

The Somahs over- ment, bat being a tyrant, the tribe of SufiMth over- 
threw the ^nmroA^. threw him, which will be mentioned in the coarse 
of the hLitory of that tribe. Oomur Sumrah founded the fort of 
Omur Koii DUu Rahiy son of DUu Rahi before-mentioned^ governor 
nHDiluy was a tyrant and given to in&moos practices : to bis tyranny 
lad oppression is ascribed the destroction of Alor. 



Acomtnt of the destrudioH of the City of Alor. 
It was a custom of that unjust tyrant to take half the property of 

every merchant who arrived from Hind as duty 

tiSdf AlSf tSS^h *^* *"» ^^"^ ^® "^'^^ ^® ^*^®* ®^ **** inhabitants. 
^tyranny of DUu A wealthy and influential merchant who had the 

title of SeifuUMulk^ and a few other princes 
with him dresaed as merchants, but who were on pilgrimage to Mecca, 
bang ignorant of that villain's proceedings, entered his capital : the 
merchant had with him a beautiful woman named Budeh-al-Jumai ; 
at that time the river Mihran ran close to Alor. Hearing of the 
beaoty of Budeh^al-Jumal^ Dilu Rahi became anxious to possess her, 
and wished to arrest the merchant under the pretence of his intending 
to smuggle his goods. The unfortunate merchant for three days tried to 
perniade the tyrant, and vented his complaints mightily to the Most 
High; and as the supplications of the afflicted are accepted, he was 
ifiipired with a dream, that in the morning he should conceal himself, 
and talLing a party of stone-cutters famous as Firhad^ and having, 
bribed them well, during the following night cut a passage through 
the hills for the passage of the river, large enough for a boat, and on 
the other side erect a strong embankment. Although both these ap- 
peared impossible tasks, yet by the* help of the Almighty they were 
accomplished. The merchant with his boats passed safely by that road ; 
Ukd the river Mihran, quitting its former passage, took the course 
which it now takes. In the morning the people told Dilu Rahi, but all 
his efforts to repair the calamity were unavailing against the decree of 
&te. The ruin of Alor is dated to have commenced from that day. 
They say that Seiful-Mulk with his beloved Budeh-td-Jumal^ when they 
returned from the pilgrimage to the Kaabah, arrived and lived in the 
coQDtry between Derah Ghazi Khan and Sitpur and died. Budeh'uU 
Jtml had two sons, Jah and Chatah; until now her tomb with those of 
her two sons, are places of pilgrimage. 



168 Translation of the Toofui ul Kiram. {Jtlo. 159. 



Account of the decline of the City of Bhunbur^ generally knoum 

as Brahmanabad. 

They relate, that Dila Rahi after the min of the citj of Alor came to 

Legend of the de- ^^® ^•*'®' P^^^ ^ reside ; he had a brother Chotth 

dine of Brahmana- Oomrani : in his youth he had been blessed with 
bad. 

the true belief, so that leaving that city he had stu- 
died and learnt the Koran, and performed the duties enjoined by his 
religion sedulously. When he returned to the city, his relations pressed 
upon him the acceptance of the governorship, but he would not accept 
it : some one jokingly observed, ** This Turk has been to the Kaabab, 
and married the daughter of a certain Arab/' fiy chance in those his 
younger days he became anxious to perform the Haj ; and when he ar- 
rived there, he one day saw a woman in a shop occupied in repeating 
the Koran : he staid to listen. She asked him, why he staid ? He said, 
to hear the Koran. *' If you will teach me to read, I will be your slave.'* 
The woman said, '* My instructor is the daughter of a certain person ; if 
you will disguise yourself as a woman and come with me, I will take you 
to hen** In short, in this way he was taken there, and became occupied in 
reading and meditating on the Koran. It appears, that his instractreis 
was skilled in astrology : one day the woman came to her, and asked after 
the fortune of Choteh in disguise ; she said he would be a governor or 
chief. Choteh said, *' Since you know the fortune of others, can yoo tell 
any thing of your own T* The girl said, '* You are right ; I shall wed with 
some one who is an inhabitant of Sindh.'* They asked her, who it was? 
she said to Choteh, *' You are the man." In short, concealment was at 
an end ; the girl instructed him after this to go and change his garment^ 
and to demand her in marriage as she waa destined for him ; she then 
communicated the case to her parents, and was shortly afterwards mar- 
ried to Choteh. He after a time returned to his own country, and took 
his wife, whose name was Fatimah^ with him : when he arrived at the city 
of Dilu Rahiy that tyrant had made a practice of seizing newly-married 
women, and then releasing them. Choteh tried to dissuade him froo 
this, but he would not desist, until one day he heard the praises of 
Fatmah. Whilst Chot^ was from home, BUu Rahi came to see her. 
Choteh suspected his intentions ; coming quickly home, he took his wife 
and left the city, crying out, " This city through the wickedness of iU 



1845.3 



a Hiitory 6f Sindh. 



169 



governor will be swallowed up this night ; whoever wishes to escape 
firom destmctioD, has now the opportonitj of doing so." Some few be- 
lieved him. On the first night the city escaped, in consequence of the 
watchfulness of an old woman at her wheel ; on the second, from the 
working of an oil mill : at length, on the third night, the whole city with 
its inhabitants was swallowed up and destroyed, and one minaret, as an 
example and to record the fact, yet remains.* 



Account of the men of Sumrah taking possession of Cutch. 

This tribe inhabited the country of Cutoh, and the ruler of that 

province protected and encouraged them. After a 

*"»« fonTf*CutSl ^""^ '^** ^^ ^^^* " ^® ^^ '''^"S *^^ numerous, 
lageBd appertaining and we have lived safely under your shadow until we 

thereto. 

become troublesome : now give us a portion of waste 
land, so that we may cultivate it and pay tribute." The Rahi of Cutch 
with kindnesa gave them broad lands, and taxed them at 500 carts 
of gnss from their crops. The tribe continued to pay the tax, and in 
a diorfc time became acquainted with the manners and customs of the 
people and governors ; they then determined amongst themselves to 
acquire possession of the country. Now at the gate of the fort occupied 
by the governor of Cutch, a brahmin and astrologer was placed, and he 
penniited all to pass in after he had inquired their business. This tribe 
had collected their 600 carts of grass, but in the grass of each cart they 
placed two armed men, and one drove the cart into the city ; they say 
that when the carts came in, the brahmin said ** there is the smell of 
flesh in these carts :" the door* keepers rejected his suspicions, and saids 
'* What can there be in grass ?** But some of those present thrust their 
spears into the grass. They say, that those in the carts wiped the 
blood of their bodies fr<»n the points of the spears, so that they should 
not be discovered. So the door-keepers accusing the brahmin of false- 
hood, allowed the carts to pass in, and thus the men took possession of 
the city, and overthrew the Rahi of Cutch, and became Chiefs of the 
country ; until this time the descendants of the Sumrah are, in various 

* Brakmanabad must have been situated in the Lar, or delta division of Sindh ; its 
site is not fixed. 



170 Translation o/Hhe Toojui ui Kiram, [No. 159. 

ranksy the governors of Cutch.* In short, when in consequence of 
Diltt Rahi^s tyranny, the river Mihran flowed past Sewistan, and those 
lands which are now fertile became so ; then the land of the men of 
Sumrah becaoae nnproductivey and from inflicting brands and the op. 

Pall of the tribe Pf^*^^<>QB ^^ ^^® before-mentioned tribe, complaints 
of Sumrahs. were sent to the Sultan, Hiiaw-td-din at Delhi ; he 

sent his deputy and chief of his army StUar Kkan^ who coming upon the 
men of Sumrah, they sent their families in care of the tribe of Charwu, 
which tribe is highly respected by both parties, to Abrah Abranee Sum- 
ahi the governor of Cutch, and prepared to oppose the forces of the 
Sultan ; these latter came upon them like the storm on a vessel — there 
was a great battle. The son of Sumrah, who was the Chief of all the 
forces of that tribe, was killed ; the rest could not hold out in the city 
of Joor and fled to Cutch. The Sultan's troops pursued their wives and 
children to Cutch, and every night when they halted they threw a large 
ditch round the camp to prevent a night attack ; and these ditches 
are still to be seen, and very deep. When they reached Cutch, Abrah 
Sumah attacked the Sumrahs in conjunction with the Sultan's troops. 
In short, after the fall of the tribe of Sumrah the tribe of Sumah became 

Th s hs oil- ^^^ possessors of those countries, and the city of 
tain power. Mahamed Joor was destroyed by the troops of the 

Shah; and the city of Samwa was founded, and other new districts cul- 
tivated. The country of the city of Joor^ which is situated near the por- 
gunnah of Darah^ being through ill fortune abandoned, they founded 
another Jooreh as shall be mentioned. 



The Dynasty of the Jams of Sumah. 

The origin of this tribe is traced to Ahrumeh Bin Hassan, Bin Abi- 

List of the Jams Jihul as has been mentioned ; but according to what 

of Sumah. jj^g Yieevk related, at the time of the arrival of Maham* 

mS^\^''' ""^ ^^ ^'*" ^ ^»« CasHm, this tribe had embraced Islamism, 

and the account of it is given by Meer Massum in the 
" Chach Nameh.** Thus, the descendants of Ahrumeh about the year 
93 H. the whole of this tribe entered the Mahomedan faith, andcoUect- 
ed together from distant places in this country, and Ahrumeh at or nesx 

* The ruins of Ooomtee in Cutch are in the traditions of that country, the scene of 
the exploit of the Sumrahs* 



la^.] a Histofy of Sindh. 1 71 

that time was a governor, and he is' connected with Sam Bin Oamur^ 
Bm Hassan^ Bin Abi Lvkdb^ but I do doabt if this if correct 
They are also said to be descended from Jam'shid; hence their 

title of '* Jamt*' and this appears the most probable* 

Reason of their 

uking the utle of From Some great man it is related, that they are de- 
Sumakot SamaJL scendants of Sam Bin Noh, and thus they are styled 

Sumah. God knows. 
1. Jam Oonur Bin Babineh. When they were released from oppres- 

1. Jtm Oonar. ' aion of the tribe of Sumrahi the men of Sumah, who 
befine were cultivators of gardens, collected and styled him ** Jam ;" 
tbey constituted him chief and leader. It was thus in the year 762 H., 
asd in a short time this Jam obtained complete power ; Mulk Ruttun 
oferthrew the remainder of the Tfirks, who were governors in Sewis- 
Uo, and after three years and six months, he died. They relate also, 
lliftt Rahah Bin Tamachi his vakeel, brought Ferroz tLnd Alii Shah from 
Bokkar to Birkampur^ where they killed him ; and after three days the 
■en of Oonur killed Mulk Ferroz. 

2. Jam Junur Bin Babineh succeeded his brother ; he crossed over 
Jim Junur. from mhati^ and ravaged and pillaged the towns and 

▼illa^s ; he left Bukkur in charge of the TUrks ; after this he became 
powerful in Sindh, until Sultan HuHaw'ul'din sent his brother Alt/ Khan 
to Moltan and its dependencies ; Mulk Taj Kuffuri and Tatar Khan were 
*nt to Sindh to oppose Jam Junur ; previous to that Jam Junur had 
^M: his reign extended for 13 or 14 years. The Shah's army took Buk* 
kor, and looked towards Sehwan. After Jam Junur^ 

3> Jan Tamaehi Bin Jam Oonur succeeded to the seat of government ; 

I Jam Tamachi. the Sultan's army took him and his family prisoners 
to Delhi. The tribe of Sumah went to Thurri, and for 15 years, 4. Jam 
Bibkeh Bin Jam Oonur ruled over them, according to the ac- 
^<^t of Meer Maasum, 5. Jam Kheir-ul-din, son of Tamachi, after 
^ death of his father (according to the order of the Shah) came 
^ Delhi to Sindh, and took possession. Sultan Mahamed Shaht 
V'^ng Taghi Ghuttam as before mentioned, arrived in the vici- 
nity of Tattah and died, and Sultan Ferroz succeeded him. He 
vent to Delhi; Jam Kheir-uUdin pursued him to the territories 
^ ^ ; after some engagements returned, ruled his subjects justly, 
^ vn peace. After Kheir-ul^din, his son^ 6. Jam Babineh second> sue- 

2c 



172 TranslaHan of the Tocfui nl Kiram, ENo. 159. 

- , o , . , ceeded him ; Sal tan Ferroz Shah came over, but re- 

6. Jam Babmeh 

the second. turued, and coming again took him prisoner. After a 

Mme when he had experienced his services he conferred the government 
of Sindh upon him, and he ruled for 15 years and died : he founded the 
city of Samwi ; some say it was founded by Paiyeh Bin Oomury but this is 
7. Jam Tamachi wrong. 7. /ant Tamachi second, his brother, succeed* 

t e second. ^^^ ^^^ tmIqA peaceably for 13 years: then his sod, 

8.^am SuUah-ttl-din. 8. Jam Sullah-ul-din, who after settling his own cotin- 
try proceeded to Cutch, and returned victorious : after 11 years^ he died. 
In the praise of Sheikh Himar Jumali (may God'«$ mercy be towards 
him) it is written, that Jam Junur sent Jam Tamachi and his son Jam 
Sullah'Ul'din to Delhi, and they being released by the Sheikh above- 
mentioned from Hind returned to Sindh, and overthrew Junutf 
taking possession of the country ; first the fathe/, and then the son ruled: 
but this differs with the first account of Meer Mussum, But God knows. 
9. Jam Nizam-ul-din. In short, after Sullah-ul'din^ Jam Nizam-ul'^ 
succeeded to the government, and released his uncles. 



The Editors at first hesitated to publish this article, fearing that their 
readers might consider it almost a reprint, or an amplification of the 
former paper by the same author, *' On the early history of Scinde from 
the ' Chuch Namah/ &c.," as it in fact at first sight appears to be. Bat 
Jjieut. Postans himself in his introduction has^ they conceive, aligned 
the best reason why it should not, even at the risk of some repetition, re- 
main unpublished, namely, that ** the author of the Too/ut ul Kira» 
has collected his materials from the best authorities." And this is of 
more importance than it at first sight appears to be, for it implies that 
the author, who like our own early chroniclera was living in pait oi^ 
times of his own history, was like them also near enough to the epocns 
embraced in it to exercise his discretion in the choice of the matters to 
be chronicled ; and this doubtless founded on research amongst doca- 
ments^ and histories, and men now long passed away and numbered ^ 



J845.3 



a History of Sindh* 



173 



the d^cL Aad the known cuatomB of the Oriental writers of history, of 
pahhshing their works only after reading them to circles of the learned, 
would have furnished him with many facts, illustrations and conections, 
which oral tradition had brought down, and which the stores of written 
knowledge then undoijibtedly existing at all the courts of the Kalifat 
probably contained. 

Onr readers will thus, we hope, agree with them in their judgment that, 
assn historical reference, this translation is alike curious and useful, and 
tiiey could not have given it otherwise than by printing it entire. 

Eds. 



Notices and Descriptions of vaHons New or Litde Known species of 
BirdSf by Ed. Bltth, Curaior of the Asiatic Hocieiy's Museum* 

Nisa&us alboniger, nobisr A smaller species than either of those 
of India, measuring about twenty-one inches and a half in leogtb, 
wiog thirteen iuches, and tail nine and a half ; tarse three inches : 
occipital crest three inches and a quarter. Adult black above, with a 
pnrple gloss, the large alars embrowned and distantly banded with black ; 
tail black, with a broad light greyish- brown bar, occupying about its third 
quarter from the base ; the longer upper tail-coverts have each two 
crQss-lMQds of the same ; lower parts pure white, with black mesial 
line on throat, large intense black drops on the breast, and the belly, 
Teat, lower tail-coverts, tibial plumes, and short tarsal feathers, are 
tkrooghoat closely barred black and white : beak black ; and toes wax- 
yellow. A younger specimen has the drops fewer and smaller on 
tbe breast, an admixture of rufous about the head, several unmoult- 
edt brown feathers ampng the wing-coverts, and one unmoulted tail- 
feather has three narrowish dark bars, with two more at base closer 
and less de6ned« A remarkably handsome species, from Malacca. 

Of the four Indian species of this genus, N. aJhoniger approaches 
nearest to N, cirratus^ (Ray> Shaw,) v. Falco cristatellusy Tem. ; and 
I doubt whether either of these becomes wholly black with age, like 



174 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 159* 

the N. caligatus^ (? Raffles), v. F. niveus ( / ), Tem., v. nipalensiSf 
Hodgson*, &c. a change, too, which would seem to obtain in the 
Astur melanoleucos figured in Dr. A« Smith's * South African Zoology,' 
and which converts the ArchUnUeo lagopus into the Falco SancH 
Johannis of the earlier systematists. A South African species of Nisaetut 
exists in the *' Aquila coronata^ also figured by Dr. A. Smith, 
in which, if that naturalist be correct, the progressive change of 
colouring Is from light to dark ; but his alleged adult is so like the 
young of the Indian iV. caligatus in its first dress, that I suspect the 
changes will be found analogous in the two species. It may be fur- 
ther remarked that the Aguikt hellieosay (Daud.) A. Smith, v. Ptdeo 
armigevy Shaw, pertains to a very distinct and long- winged form, exem- 
plified also by the Indian Aq. Bonelliit v. Nisaeius grandis of Hodgson ; 
and in this group, which may be distinguished by the name JSutoltnae' 
tus, the adults only exhibit white under parts : whilst in another 
aquiline form which may bear the name of ButaetuSf exemplified by 
the Falco pennaiuSf 6m., v. Spizaetus milvoides of Jerdon, the 
reverse change of colouring obtains, as in the ordinary^ Nisaeti, In- 
deed, a further approximation to the latter group is shewn by an 
occasional distinct, though slight, enlargement and elongation of 
the central occipital feathers, in fine adult examples of Butaetus pen* 
natus. 

' With respect to Nisaetus cirratus, which is evidently the " Crestrf 
Indian Falcon" of Willoughby, I described two specimens in a note to 
Vol. XII. p. 306 ; and those I must now consider to be young or 
imperfectly mature : for the Society has since received a much finer 
adult from Capt. Robt. Shortrede, shot at Midnapore, having a pend- 
ent occipital crest consisting of twelve elongated feathers, the font 
longest measuring five inches and a half. In other respects, thtf 
species is not very strongly characterized apart from N. caiigo^ 
(apud nos,) but has the belly, flanks, and upper tail-coverts, niacb 
darker than usual in the corresponding state of plumage of that 
species, the head also being darker, and the throat more streaky; 
the dorsal feathers, however, are decidedly of a different form, being 

♦ Mr, Hodgson's crested variety of bi$ N, nipalmsis refers to N, cirramf •"**• 
called by him 2V. palUdus,^E, B* 



J845.3 or tiitte knmn spedei of Birds. 175 

much longer and narrower, instead of broad and rounded, a diffiBr- 
ence which is strongly marked on the lower interscapnlaries. Size 
the same. The splendid occipital crest is deep black, each feather 
tipped with white : upper parts empurpled hair-brown, the inter* 
seapolaries, scapnlaries and tertiaries, more or less black, and the 
secondaries having distant dark bands ; fore*neck and breast 
pore white, with a broad dark mesial streak to each feather ; the 
belly, yent, flanks, and lower tail-coTerts, dark brown ; and thighs 
the same, a little freckled with whitish : tarsal feathers whitish, 
mottled with brown: head and neck falvescent-brown, with mesial 
dsrk streaks ; the osaal three dark lines on the throat somewhat 
ill defined : tail as in iV, caUgalu$^ but less dashed with ashy. 

This species seems to be peculiar to the hill districts of India, inha- 
biting alike the sub-Himal^an region, and the hilly parts of Central 
sad Southern India. Mr. Elliot describes it to ''sit on the tops of the 
Ikighest trees, on the watch for hares, pea*fowl, and jungle-fowl, on which 
it swoops from its elevated perch. Solitary. Shot in the Rampoor 
jangle, inland from Nellore, at the foot of the Eastern Ghats." Mr. 
Jerdon and Lord Arthur Hay have since procured specimens from the 
same loc^ity. The crest-feathers of this bird are not only longer and 
more copious than in either of the other species, but are of a more lax 
texture, so that when elevated they curve and droop backward, instead 
of remaining up straight. N* ealigatia alone has invariably but a mere 
indication of this occipital crest, which is well developed in all the rest. 
The other Indian species of NUaitus are N*pulcher, J. A. S. xii, 305 ; 
and iVL Kienerii, (de Sparre), v. Spizaetus albogularis, J. A. S, xi, 466.* 
The following description was taken from what I conceive to have 
been an adult, male of the former, in fully mature plumage. Length of 
wing seventeen inches and a half, and of tail thirteen inches. - Old 
crest-feather measuring four inches and three-quarters, and new 'Ones 
growing, - which would apparently have been considerably longer. 
Plumage very Hawk- like : upper parts hair- brown, the exposed ter- 
minal portion of the feathers darker and purple* glossed ; wiog-co verts 
banded with white ; throat with the usual three «^us, and the under 
parts light brown, transversely rayed with whiter the colour darkening 
towards the white, and upon the tibial plumes. Received from Cherra* 

* The latter has since been received from Darjeeling. 



179 Notices and Descripiions o/vano$is new [No. i59« 

PooDJee ; and forwarded by the late lamented Dr. Griffith to the Mmen 
um of the Honorable Company. 

Of the SfdzaUus rufijtinctus^ HcClelland and Horsfield, Pr^e* 
ZooL Soe. 1839, p. 153, Mr. Strickland informs me» that "Dr. 
Horafield now classes this as a LimnuetuSi and it seems only to differ 
in having the lower half of the tarsus bare and scutate.. The beak has 
a lateral undulation. Wing ten inches and a quarter^ and tail ei^l 
inches. Fourth and fifth quills equal and longest. The breast is 
barred brown and white, the bars and their intervals being each about 
a quarter of an inch wide, and on the thighs about an eigbth of an 
inch wide. The feathers of the breast haye two brown bars on eacL 
Tail with four light and four darker ^brawn bars." As thia is one of 
the very few Indian Raptores still wanting to the Society's, museum, I 
shall also quote the original notice of it, as follows :.— <' Upper part of 
the body dark brown, with slight undulations of a deeper tint ; bresst 
and throat longitudinally striped with brown : belly and under surfiice 
of the wings white, transversely barred with brown : tarse feathwed 
to the lower third, each feather marked with fine transverse barsj 
the rest shielded : the beak short, much hooked, and sharp : claws and 
toes strong and formidable. 

*' It inhabits the banks of the Boorampooter and other rivers in 
Asf am, where it conceals itself in bushes and grass, along the verge of 
the water, seizing such fishes as approach the surface within its reach." 
This is also said to be the habit of the large naked-legged Owls which 
constitute the genus Ketupa* 

Another species wanting to the Society's museum, and also distin- 
guished by partially feathered tarse, may be described as 

Buieo aquilinus, Hodgson. Length (of apparently a young female) 
about twenty- six inches, of which the tail measures eleven and a half; 
wipg eighteen inches and a quarter ; beak to forehead (in a straight 
line,) one and a half, and two inches and one-eighth to gape ; tarss 
three and one-eighth, and plumed anteriorly for an inch and three- 
quarters. General colour hair-brown, the feathers edged with dull 
rufescent-brown» and their white bases shewing conspicuously about 
the nape ; ear-coverts and sides of the head white, more or less dark- 
shafted ; throat white, streaked with brown, the fore-neck coloured 
like the back, and the breast white for the greater portion of each 



M45.] or iHile kn&mn species of Birds. 177 

letilier ; the renmiaing termiDal portion mingled pale And dark brown, 
i)eing also dark-abafted ; abdominal region and flanka, with the tibial 
phunesy dark brown, slightly rafoaa-edged towards the breast, and the 
axillaries more vividly rufescent ; fore part of the ander sorfaoe of 
tile wing dusky-brown, the primaries freckled while beneath, eicept 
beyond their emargination where they become blackish ; tail mottled 
with nvEmeroas dark bars, alternate on the two shafts of each feather, 
ifpon an albescent ground. Bill dark, aa is apparently the cere: the 
toes appear to have been wax-yellow. 

This bird might be mi^aken, oo a cursory view, for a variety of B^ 
mneaeens^ J. A, S, lii, W8, were it net for itshaif-feathered tarsi ; and 
lie beak also is larger and more aqoHine, so that ^e name is felici- 
tensly bestowed. It is by no means a common species in Nepal, as I 
learned from Mr. Hodgson's people, and as might be inferred from the 
eiteumstance of Mr. Hodgson requiring the only specimen he had sent^ 
to take with him to England. Not improbably it may prove identical 
with the Pctlco osiaHotis of Latham, described as nearly simUar to the 
European Buzzard in the colour of its body and wings, the under parts 
•kite with stripes on <the breast, tail silver-grey, the outer feather 
marked by obscure bars ; bill bluish-black, and legs yelk>w and half 
fiaAeretL Length twenty-two inches. Inhabits China." From the 
eircumstanoe of its partially feathered tarse, it might be presumed 
that the present species would fall under the division Arekibuieo 
sf Brehm, but the general character t>f the bird is not that of the 
* Rough-legged Buzzard' of Northern regions. 

B. pys/nuBus, nohin. This is the smallest species of true Buzzard 
with which I am acquainted. Length eighteen inches, or perhaps 
iather more ; of wing thirteen inches, and tail eight inches : bill to 
forehead (including cere) fifteen-sixteenths of an inch in a atraiglit 
Kne, and an inch and a quarter from point of upper mandible to 
gape : tarse two inches, and feathered for nearly its upper third. Colour 
of the beak blackish, the cere and base of both mandibles appearing 
to have been yellow i legs and toes also yellowish, and talons black. 
General hue of the upper parts uniform hair- brown, the scapularies 
and coverts slightly tipped with rufous-white : nape white, tipped with 
brown, and sli^tly edged laterally with rufous, which colour incr^ses 
OB the sides of the neck and tinges tha icings, the greater feathers 



178 Notices and Deser^tions of various new [No. 1S9. 

of which have their outer webs UDiform brown, and the inner rofesoeot 
near the shaft and white towards the margin, being barred with the 
same brown as that colouring the outer web ; the coverts are slightly 
edged and more largely tipped with dull rufous : the longer upper 
tail-coverts are tipped with whitish; and the tail is nearly of ths 
same brown with the back, but rather paler and more greyish, its 
middle feathers having four broad, dusky bars, the ,last subterminal, 
sind a rudiment of a fifth which becomes gradu^ly more obscure 
to the outermost : over and beyond thjs «ey^ is loi copspicuous whit- 
ish streak: the under par^ are |,iri|fesq^i|t*wliitish, paleat on the 
throat and lower tail- coverts, wjiich ane. ^^qut niarkings, except* 
ing a slight dusky mesial line^along the throat 9^ the Inreast hat 
a broad mesial dusky streak to each feather, assuming on tbe belly and 
fianks more or less the appearance of transverse bands, which are unit^ 
ed along the shafts of the feathers leaving oval intevvals 4>f white, and 
the feathers being externally margined ^h pale fulvous : tibial4>lumes 
very pale bufi^, or with rufous central mari^ngs ; and fore part .of the' 
under surface of the wings similarly colourecj^^the quills albescent nn« 
derneath and obscurely barred, but dusky towaj(ds j^eir tips. Inhabits - 
the Tenasserim provinces, where pj^cured Jji^ the late Djt. Helljer. 

The other Indian species of true Buzzari^re— ^i?. caneseens, HodgsoD, 
upon the Himalaya, i^id spreading ^ene^ally over the Upper Provinces 
^-J?. lonpipes, Jerdon, found chiefly to the west, but alsq, in sou^faem 
India-^and B. ruftventer^ Jerdon, peculiaj^ (so far as known) to the 
south. Mr. G. R. Gray, in his catalogue of the Sqgtores ia^ the firi- 
tish Museum, evidently mistakes £, canescens for B. iongipes. , From 
the description in the Diet Class,, I suspect that the latter species is 
the Circus pectoralis, Yieillot, (placed, however* among the * Buses^, 
or Buzzards, not among the * Busards,* or Harriers,) in, which case it 
must rank as Buteo pectorcdis ; but Mr. Jerdon, judging from another 
description of the latter, is of opinion that it cannot be identified, with 
either of his species. ' ' 

The Circus teesa, Franklin, v. AsturhydeTy Sykes, assigned to Buteo 
by Gray and others, must now be referred to PoUornis of Kaup ; Bu' 
tastur, Hodgson, J, A* S. xii, 311, sinking to the rank of a synonym* 

Hamatomis, Vigors (nee Swainson); Spilornist G. R.' Gray. The 
distinctive characters of the species referred to this genus are at pf^ 



]M5.j 



or auk known species of Birds. 



179 



sent mach in need of determination. Firstly, there is the Bacha of 
Lendllant, or Paleo haehoy Lath., which is described to be of the sise 
of the Common Bozzard of Europe ; female larger : this does not oc- 
cur near the Cape, but was obtained fiir inland towards the tropic. 
Ifext, Faico hido^ Horsfield, from Java, subsequently considered as 
identical with the African species by Dr. Horsfield: Mr. Vigors, 
hcwever, in Proc. SSooi, See. 1881, p. 170, *' expressed his doubts 
whether the Pako backer Lath., and F. Indo^ Horsfield, were the same 
species, although they were generally supposed to be identical. He 
bad' not the opportunity of examining a sufficient- number of African 
speeimens to determine the point" Three specie^ however, were dis- 
tinguished by Mr. 'Vigors on that occasion, that of India being des- 
eribisd by the name BtBm. undmlaius : but this Indian bird had pre- 
nonsly been designated Paleo eheela by Latham and Gmelin, and the 
jouDg was termed P. aUndut by Cuvier ; it has also since been named 
Cireaeiiis nipaknsis by Mr. Hodgson, and the youDg Buteomelanotis 
bj Mr. Jerdon*. The distinctions of Mr* Vigors's three species ** con- 
list chiefly in size, the Htsm. hohspilus (from the Philippines) being 
one^third smaller than \£r. bcu^; while H. undulatus considerably 
exceeds the latter. The first is spotted all over the body, the second 
only on the abdoinen ; while the third is marked by spots on the wing- 
coverts, and by oeeUi bearing an undulated appearance on the abdo- 
men, the breast also being crossed by undulating /oscue." These 
last are chiefly seen in the females. 

In Mr. G. R» Gray's catalogue of the specimens of Raptorial birds 
in the British Museum, specimens from India and Java are referred 
to Spihmis bachaf and Others from Iddia to Sp. unduiata. I 
doiflit, however, altogether the existence of more than one species in 
hdia, of which I presume that the males have been referred by Mr. 
Gray torH. baefM^ and the females to H. unduUUus ; this latter name 
mdst indcied be superseded by eheela of Latham. But a specimen 
from Malacca agrees with the description I have lately received of Dr. 
Borsfield*s Javanese bird, and differs from every one of a very exten- 
ave series of the Indian bird now before me^-^lstly, in its inferior 



* Latham's *' Noble £agle" woal4 seem to be merely a foWeBcent specimen of 
tb« young of this bird, such as are by no means uncommon. 

2 D 



180 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 159. 

8ize, the wing measariag but fourteen inches, and tail nine and a half* ; 
2niily, in the abaence of the distinct white spots on the small wing- 
coverts, the extrega^ bend of the wing only b^ing thus marked* and dight 
trace9 of theoi alone shewing dsewhere ; and 3rdly^ there is some 
difference in the barring of the primaries underneath^ fhe third prima* 
ry, for instance, having its aubtermiaal pale band much narrower and 
ill defined, inetead of thia being broad and well defined. I should 
lik^ however, to emimine several Halayan spedmena before coming to 
It final deciaion ; although my jmpreaaion cefti^nly is that the Indian 
and Malayan apeciee are dittinct, and I ibaU proviaio&ally regard tbam 
as such, terming the former H. eheelot (Lath%)t and the latter H, hido (v. 
bacha ?) At all eventa, I feel coi^ent of their being only ooe apecies 
in India, and it ia probable that there if oae only in Weatern Malaria, 
but a third in the Philippines and Cbina^ 

Urrua (Hodgson, founded on Otu$ bengaimsis, Fnanklio, Gould,) 
umbrata, nobis. Length two feet or nearly so^ of dosed wing sixteen 
inches, and tail nine inches ; bill firom point to gape nearly two inches, 
and tarse scarcely more. General caat of colour deep freckled om- 
bre brown, unrelieved by fulvous i the outer acapulariea having the 
usual dull white oval spots on their exterior webs : wpga dashed with 
cinereous; tail crossed with three dark banda, and an indlstiQct 
fourth at base : aud the under parts pale, with a narrow dark brown 
mesial streak on each father; bill light yellow; a^^d taloqs pal0* 
Aigrettes blackish-brown. The feathera of the crown and nape are 
dingy grey at base> with their aorface portion freck|^i and a narrow 
meaial dusky line on each : those of .,t]|e p^k^ ^4^^ acapolaries have 
this central dark streak much brqp4ni This fine Owl ia common 
in Lower Bengal, was forwarded from Kepal by Mr. Hodgson, and 
has been obtained by Mr. Jerdo||.j jni the Indian Peninsula* It is 
clearly that alluded to by Latbaii^ ^hia description of U^iAJ ^^^^ 
mandot as represented in a drawing twenty inches h^ t.,f^ H is 
the Urrua coronmnda apud Hodgson, as noticed by hioi in J, A. S> 
vi. 373, having beeu.. forwarded by him under this naoie iQ ^® 
Society'a museum. 

* la the India-house specimen, from Java| Mr. Strickland informs me that U10 
wing measures fifteen inches and three-quarters, and the tail ten inches ; «4ich size 
corresponds with that of the very amallest Indian epecimens. 



1846.] or lUtle known species of Birds. 181 

** Le peiii Hibou de la edte de Coromaindd^ ai described bjr 8011- 
loeity mnd upon wbioh is founded fiM« ootomandA^ Lath., and Btr, 
wromMtdMotMf Fortter, does not appear to have been tinoe verified ; 
and the pobliahed drawing of an Owl^ referred to tbie, in Hardwicke'a 

* nioatrationa of Indian Zoology,' repreaents a species unknown both 
I0 Mr. Jerdon ailffmysell It is not improbably a large Scops : this 
bring a genus particolairly rich in Indian and Malayan species, some of 
which are aa yet n6t qoite" satisfactorily understood. Mr. Jefdon espe- 
ciaUy baa made^great effbf(fel6 elucidate them ; and the following is 
about our preaent stattf%f fnl bi ' mtft l b n res^ting the group. 

h Se, TfrfeseenSj (BoAfield), LinS^r. xiil. 140. This species has 
been determined with the afeistatKfe of Hugh £. Strickland^ Esq., who 
has kindly txamiaed the 6ng\M specimens of the birds des<^bed 
Jo Dr. Horifield's Javanese liftfand has favored me with more minnte 
lotioea of aonft of them, and- identifications of others with species pre« 
Tiottsiy'derfcrlbed. Elsewise/ks'Dr. Horsfield had given the entire 
kogth i& eight' inches only;l had some hesitation in agreeing with Mr. 
Jcrdon In referring a' Btalacca apecimen in the collection of Lord 
Arthur Hay,' to the presllot species ; but the difl^ulty is now removed 
by ay firDnid Mr. Strickland} and I Nhve the pleasure of giving the fol* 
lowing descrijltion front Lb^d A. Hay*s specimen. Length about 
eleren inches, of which the tairmealures four incBes and three-quar- 
ters ; wing six and thrse«quarters ; tarse an inch and a quarter. General 
edoor fem^nous-brown, much paler below ; the forehead, lower part 
of disif' attd aigretdis in part, conspicuously white, with a fSsw minute 
dark speckles^: upper parts marked with 'whitish spots along the 
shaft of each feather ; the lower variegated with dusky and whitish 
ineroas-sirkie.* primaries and tail with numerous broad dusky bars, 
amounting to about twelve in number on the latter : tarsal feathers 
not continued over the joint at the base of the toes. A strongly 
marked species, apparently peculiar to the Malay countries. 

* The next in point of size is 

2. Sc. ieUiay Hodgson^ As. Res. xix^ 176 : probably Sc. lemp^ 
apod Horsfield, from Assam, Prod ZooL Soc. 1839, p. 165. This 
is the largest of three closely allied species, the distinctions of which 
were first observed by Mr. Jerdon. Its wing measures from six inches 
to six and a half, apparently according to sex ; and the young have a 



182 Notices and Descripiiam 0/ various new [No. 159. 

more ferraginous shade of general colouring than the adalta. In a 
living specimen which I saw, the moat remarkable feature (for an Omk 
of this genns) was its very dark irides, appearing black : and Mr. Hodg- 
son, in his description of the species, remarks, ** Iris variable, yellov 
in the young, brown in the old birds". It inhabits the 8ub*Himalayan 
ranges, extending to those of Sylhet and Arracan, iind doubtless to 
all those of Assam. 

' 3. Sc. ietHoideSi Jerdon, MS. Differs from the last in its constant- 
ly smaller size, and more ashy colouring ; the short tarsal plumes 
appear to be always white, *with at most obscure traces of mottling. 
From the next it also differs in its predominant ashy tinge. Lengtii 
of wing five inches and a quarter to five and three-quarters. Peculiar 
to the Coromandel coast, and it would seem there generally common. 
' 4. Sc, kmpifi, (Horsfield) : Sirix noduia^ Reinwardt ; Scops Java' 
nicust Lesson. Specimens which (from Mr. StricklandV description of 
'Dr. Horsfield*8 Javanese bird,) I refer to this, from the vicinity of the 
Straits, are often deeply imbued with fermginous-brown throughout: 
some of these being evidently in nestling dress, from the flimsy texture 
of the feathers ; and the others are perhaps in second plumage. Others 
again, 'have merely a weak'shade of ferruginous-brown like the young of 
Se. iMta 7 and the mottling of the upper parts is coarser and more 
blotched. * The latter are perhaps distinct ; for while the former seem to 
be peculiar to the Malay t^ountries, these occur not only in Malasia,hat 
along the Malabar range, and in China. The Society possess, a spe- 
cimen from Macao. Future observation must determine whether the 
ferruginous-brown birds aire so '-spread ; and specimens should be soogbt 
for that might exhibit a transitional mouli 

5. Sc, suniOf Hodgson, As, Res.^xix. 174. This beautiful speciei 
appears to be generally diffused over the country, though, it wonld 
seem, rather sparingly. Mr. Jerdon has obtained specimens near Nel* 
lore, and I have twice met with it in Lower Bengal. A very handsome 
adult female, shot near Calcutta, has the whole upper parts uniform 
bright chesnut-ferruginous, with inconspicuous black shafts to the 
dorsal plumage, tending to become obsolete, and more distinct black 
shafts to the frontal feathers, the aigrettes, and the fore-part of 
the wings; exterior line of scapularies albescent, with conspicaoos 
black tips ; and there are smaller black tips to the plumelets ^^^ 



i845.] or note known speeus of Birds. 163 

oorapoae the disk : under parts deeply tioged with the hae of the 
back, bat ao admiztare of pure white on the belly and under tail-co- 
verts ; and the breast and sides of the belly have some tolerably broad 
bisek central streaks to the feathers, those of the latter being also va« 
negated with transverse pencillings : the unspread tail has its bands ob« 
solete ; and the bars on the outer webs of the primaries are indistinct. 
A male and female, apparently in second plumage, which I procured 
alive, have the ferruginous colour of the upper-parts somewhat deeper, 
though less bright, with the black, centres to the feathers much more 
developed, and these are copiously variegated with cross- pencillings 
everywhere but on the forehead, crown, and the aigrettes ; the under 
parts have also a much greater admixture of white, and the black 
streaks and pencillings are considerably more developed ; primaries 
and tail conspicuously banded. The colouring of the nestling plumage 
would, however, seem to approximate more to that of the adult (and this, 
accordingly, may be likewise the case in Se. kmpijt) : it is distinguished 
by the usual weak and unsubstantial texture of the clothing feathers, 
and by the narrower and more pointed form of the wing-primaries. 

6. S. pemuUOy Hodgson, mentioned in J. A. S. vi, 369, and re- 
cognised in Mr. G. R. Qray's list as distinct from the European 
Se. zoreoy to which it is nearly allied * : Sirix bakkamoenay (?) Pen., 
and indica (?), Gmelin, founded on a rude drawing of a Cingalese speci- 
men, no doubt inaccurate as regards the ''scarlet*' colour of the irides, 
the exceedingly small size given as that of nature (about four inches 
long), and alsa the excessively contrasted barring of the primaries ; 
likewise in the lay^r portion of the tajvi being represented as bare. 
The present species is snnJleip than any of the foregoing, its wing 
measuring from four inches and five-eighths to five and a quarter 
long ; and it so nearly resemUes Se. sunia in its general characters, 
thatvlHfDcmerly suspected it jfoiild prove but a grey variety of that 
bird : Its under-parts are marked very like those of Sc. suniOf and 
there is a certain admixture of ferruginous especially about the breast, 
and a decided tinge of the same chiefly upon the large alars and 
their coverts, and seen elsewhere more or less upon the upper parts, 

* A specimen of Sc. storca is there noted from China ; and this species has long been 
stated to occur in Northern Asia ; at least the Strix pukhella, Lin., of Russia and 
Siberia, has been currently identified with it. 



184 Notices and Descriptions of various new [No. 159* 

af partieularly about the aigrettes^ that is very apt to iDduce a bus* 
pidon of its identity with Sc. sunia. From the other grey species^ 
it is generally distiDgoished by the delicacy of its pencilliDgS) and by 
those of the crown soaroely^ if at all, differing from the markings of the 
back, instead of blending into a large blaclL mass: bat without a se* 
ries of the Sc. zorea for comparison^ it is quite nsekss to attempt 
giving a satisfactory minute description of this Indian bird, widch is 
an inhabitant alike of the Himalaya and Southern India* A Malacca 
specimen in Lord A. Hay's collection also approaches very nearly both 
to this little Indian Scops and to Sc. zorcUf of wlneb latter I had a 
specimen on loas when I took the following brief descriptton of his 
lordship's bird : '* Darker-coloured and more uoilormly pencilled (i & 
less variegated) above, than either Sc, zorca or Sc* pennata ; and the 
tail marked with four or five distantly placed, and well defined, fisi* 
rowish chesnut bands. Probably a distinct species.*' In the speci- 
mens of Sc* pennata before me, the tail-markings are comparatively 
ill defined, but consist of pale chesnut bands^ margined with dusky* 
and the intervening spaces dotted with the same. 

A Sc, gymnopodus, from India, is mentioned In Mr. Gray'a catalo- 
gue, but which does not appear to have been yet "described : and the 
same gentleman gives two new species irom the Philippine Islands, 8e* 
phiUppinensia and Sc» meffahUs. « 

The genus, ii^flfts is scarcely less developed in this part of the 
world. Inlindia, wehave 

1. Alh. cucuUndeSf (Vigors). Common in the Himalaya, in the 
hill radges of Assam, Sylliil,.iAvraean, and the Tenasserim provinesf, 
and extending eastward 4o "Chiisan : but unknown in the raises of 
peninsular India. 

2* Aik. i9roe?tst|( Burton) : Niietua tMgert Hodgson ; Strix passe- 
rina ( ? )» mentioned in Royle's list Himalaya. • 

3. Ath, radiatus, (Tickell) : Atk. erythropterust Gould; No^uapsr* 
lineaUZy Hodgson ; N. cucuUndes apud Jerdon, Catat, Himalaya, and 
the ranges of Central India. 

4. Aik» castanopterus, (? Horsfield) : Sinx spadicea^ (? Reinwardt). 
Malabar range, and the upland districts of Ceylon. This species differs 
from the last in its more rufous general colouring, especially on the 
whole wing, the basal portion of the primaries (except the three fir^) 



1845.3 or ItiOe known $peeies of Bird: 185 

betDg spotlfitt deep rafoua. A Cingaleie example, procared by 
H. R. H. Prince Waldemar of Pratiia, had the entire back and winga 
deep rafoaa-bay; while the pale bare on the head were only a little 
more rofeacent.thaii in Aih, radiaius. Atk. oaHanoptnrui^ from India 
aa well aa Java, ia mentioned in Mr. Gray'a liat of Britith Maaeom Rap* 
iMier / and it ia alao stated to oocor in the Tenaaaerim Provinces. 

5, Ath. SfmneraHy (Tern.) Non. vuU*, 

6. Aj^ bramot (Tern.) : Noeiua indiea^ Franitlin ; N, tarayentU^ 
Hodgson; Siriat perska, (9), Noun. Diet. ^HuL Nat , vii., 26.t Very 
common in Lowor Bengal^ and in India generally. 

A Nodua omibaHns ia mentioned by Mr. Hodgson, J. A. 8. ▼!•, 
369 ; and an AA. badia, Hodgson, in Mr. G. R. Gray's list of the 
Baptoriid birds in the British Moseam. These remain to be de« 
aeribed. 

Symium nivieoiitm^ Hodgson, n. j. This sp nearly resembles 
certain non-rofons speoimena which I have seen of the European S* 
ahieo, that I even suspected the identity of the Himalayan and the 
British bird% until a second specimen (presented to the Society by 
Mr. Jerdon) repeating tbe characters of tiie one whick Mr. Hodgson 
took with him to England, inclines me now to the opinion that they 
an distinct ; the present being also decidedly a larger. MrdiT The 
length of Mr. Hodgaon's specimen was about seventeen inches^ of wing 
eleven and a half, and tail seven and a quarter ; tarse two inches t and 
I took the following brief description of it ** Colour of the upper 
parts mingled brown and blackbh ; rather minutely mottled, produc- 
iag a dark brown omemble ; head and neck tawny or fulvou8*browo, 
with dark mottling at tips of feathers ; a streak above each eye, 
ascending from the facial disk, and the mesial part of the cnown, be* 
tveen these streaks, blackish* Under parts bright tawney-brown, 
mingled with dark brown and whitish : feathered tarsi and toes fulves- 

* ** IphabiU Iixdia. Lejigth eleven inches ; all the upper-parts of the body are 
reddish-brown, the head being adorned with small white spots, and the wing-coverts 
with large spots of the same : the quills and tail-feathers are like the back ; the space 
looiul the eyes is reddish-white, as well as the face and throat : all the under-parts 
ve white, transversely but distantly barred with brown : the down on the tarsi and 
toes is red : the beak and claws are y^Wo^**'— Stephens, 

\ Ath. brama is common about the foot of the mountains near the town of Erseroum* 
Proc Zool. Soc. 1839, p. 119. 



186 Notices and Descrtptiom of various new CNo. 159. 

centy with deeper tawney spots ; alaf s and tail banded, the latter with 
mottled light brown upon a dark ground.'' The second specimen (also 
Himalayan) has the wing twelve inches and a quarter long, and the 
tail seven and a half. It agrees generally with the foregoing descrip- 
tion, but has less of the fulvous tinge, and is, I think, more obviously 
distinct from S. alueo. The minute mottling of the plumage is diffi- 
cult to express in words : but the feathers of the under parts may be 
described as whitish, partially tinged with fulvescent, and having a 
dusky central streak, broader towards the tip of the feather, and three 
or four narrower transverse streaks of the same; and the like may 
be described as the basis of the markings of those above, modified so 
that the pale portion appears, more or less, as a series of pale spots on 
the two webs of each feather ;— the well developed transverse markings 
of the feathers constituting a good distinction of this bird from the Eu- 
ropean S. cUuco^ independently of its deficiency of rufous colQuring. The 
form is perfectly true to the generic type of 3. aktoo. 

Of the species of 8iinx, as now limited, three pertain to the FasM 
Indica. 

L Str. java$ucat 6m., de Wnrmb, apud Latham: Str. catU^ 
Tickell, «/. A, 8. u. 672 ; Sir. hngimembris, Jerdon. Bachanan fi* 
gured'H; but Latham is wrong in stating that the claw of its middle 
toe is not serrated ; and it has also four wdl defined blackish bars oo 
the tail. Found chiefly in peninsular India. Whether it be truly de 
Wurmb's Javanese species, I have no immediate means of ascer* 
taining*. 

2. Str,flammea^ Lin. : Str^javanica^ apud Horsfield ( ? ), Sykes^ and 
Jerdon. Very common, and differing in no respect from the British 
bird. 

3. Str, badiuy Horsfield. Mr. Hodgson obtained a single mutilated 
specimen of this bird in Nepal ; and the Society has been favored with 
a very fine one by Captain Abbott, shot in the island of Bamree, 
Arracan. About Malacca and Singapore, it would seem to be not an- 
common. 



* ** Honfield*8 Strix Javanica,** writes Mr. Strickland, " has the tarsi five-ei 
of aiiAkich longer than in a British Str, Jlammea. It comes near longtmewb'yf 
J etdohfhui is mottled grey shoveyimiesid of blotched with brown." Dr. A. Smith 
has figured a species from South Africaj idlied to true javanica (?'v* lonffimembrisjt 
by the name M, capensis. 



18450 



cr HiUe known species of Birds. 



187 



We will now leave the Rapiores, and commence the varied tribes of 
Perchers with a new Hornbill : 

Buceros carinatus, nobift. Length about thirty-two inches, of 
wing thirteen and a quarter, and tail a foot, its outermost feathers 
an inch shorter than the middle ones : bill to eye five Inches, the 
casque little elevated, at most about three-quarters of an inch, and the 
depth of bi&and casque together two inches and a quarter. Form of 
the casqae truly carinate, like the keel of a boat, rising with a curve 
from the forehead, extending for two-thirds of the length of the upper 
mandible, and its anterior portion sloped forward : a lateral ridge ex- 
terior to the nostrils causes these to open upwards. In one specimen 
befMe me» (which I suspeet is an old female,) the bill and' casque are 
trholly black ; but in another, with the latter somewhat less develop- 
ed, (iM^bably an adolescent male,) the bill is yellowish* white, except 
the basal two-thirds- of the lower mandible, and the extreme base of 
the appeiv continued along the tomiae for half Its length, and along 
the. upper portion *of the casque to near its extremity. In the former 
specimen, the medial portion of the belly, the vent, and the lower tail- 
cowetiMf are dark brgir^ish-albesbent ; while in the lattesMhis is con- 
fined to the vent iife^ lower tail-coverts : but there is no other differ- 
ence of plumage. The throat ii naked, as likeprise a large epaoe sur- 
nmoding the eyes. Occiput adorned with a large full crest of length- 
ened feathers, rounded at the tips; and measuring twp. inches and 
three-quarters long, or rather less in the black-billed specimen ^or old 
female ?). General colour black, \rith green and purple glosses, the 
edges of the secondaries and tertiariei, a^i^f the lengthened oecipi- 
tal feathers (more or less), whitish-browa--i«mch as in B. ffingalen^ 
tiif to which the present species is certainly allied : terminal four and 
a half to five inches of the tail deep black, the> rest brownish-ashy, 
darkest at base^ and paling to its junction with the black. In both 
speeimens the edges of the mandibles retain their original serration, 
more or less perfectly, which is seldom seen in adult Hombills. Pro- 
eared at Malacca by the Rev. F. W. Lindstedt, to whom the Society 
is indebted for a large and valuable collection of the mammalia and 
birds of that particularly rich, but little explored, locality. 

The B» comatusy Raffles, Lin, Tr, xiii, 339, would seem to be allied 
to the above in form of bill, but is eviden tly distinct. B. malayanus, 
Haffles, ibid, p. 292, would seem to approximate the adolescent B, 

2 E 



188 Notices and Descriptions of varioue new \_So. 159. 

bieoloTy EyioD, except that it has " a white stripe extending from be- 
hind each eye to the back of the neck, and so encircling the head." 
B, bicolor is probably the B. malaharicus apud Raffles, and B. al* 
biroitris apud Horsfield ; and with reference to my description of 
this species in «/. A. S. xii, 996, 1 may mention that the casque does 
project forward, and very prominently, in«old specimens. Of the other 
species noticed on the same occasion, I have been since informed that 
B. crisiattts, Vieillot (p. 988,) has been renamed B<: bucetnator by Mr. 
Gray ; B. pucoran (p. 990, as Swainson misled me in spelling it,) 
should have been written B. pusaran, it being rightly identified with 
the bird of Raffles ; B. malabaricus (p. 993,) must rank as B» pica, 
Scopoli ; and B. ginginianus (p. 996,) as B. birosttis, Scopoli, the 
names given by this author holding priority over those of Latham and 
Gmelin. Lastly, with respect to Raffles's assertion that the females of 
B. rhinoceros are rather smaller, and have the horn more recurved 
than in the male, it shews that that respected observer was anacquaint- 
ed with the perfectly matured male, which not only, is larger than 
the female, but has the tip of its casque reflected so as to point down, 
ward, wherj^ in the female (so far at I have ej^rved) it rarely, if 
ever, even points backward: the sexes in this.iipi^ies being readily 
distinguishable, like thpse of J9. cavatus^ B. pica, and other allied 
species, by the posterior surface of the horn, above the forehead, being 
black in the male,4nd coacolorous with the rest in the female ; besides 
which the viale Rhinoceros Hornbill has a black line dividing the bill 
and casque, and continued forward and upward upon the latter, paral- 
lel with its anterior margit|» < It may be remarked further, of the Rhino- 
ceros Hornbill, that this^^peeies seems to wear away the cutting edges 
of its mandibles more than any other ; so that when the tips meet, a 
wide hollow occurs along the medial portion of its bill. 

Genus Irrisor^ Lesson. In the ' Annals and Mi^azine of Natural 
History' for 1 843, pp. 238 et seq., is inserted a paper read by Ur. 
Strickland to the Zoological Section of the British Association Meet- 
ing of that year, wherein is argued the near affinity of this well mark- 
ed genus for the Hoopoes C Upupajy in opposition to the opinion of 
the Baron De la Fresnaye and others, who have contended that these 
two genera are, at most, but very distantly allied : and though Mr* 
Strickland has hazarded no decided opinion respecting the immediate 
affinities of the combined group formed of Irrisor and Upttjxh 



1845.;] w litHe knottn speeiea 0/ Birds. 180 

which groap he styles Vpupida^ and regards its two generic sections 
to be of the valae of sabfamilies, adding the remark, that the qaes* 
tion where the UpupidfB should be placed cannot, as he thinks, 
** be answered satisfactorily till more facts are collected respecting 
the food, habits, and anatomy of this group and of others with which 
it may be compared," I may here notice that while I quite agree 
with Mr. Strickland in approximating the two genera under con- 
sidentioD, I still retain my conviction expressed several years ago (vide 
Mag, Nat, Hist.^ n. «., 1838, p. 593), and formed upon anatomi* 
cal data, that the Hoopoes are nearly related to the Hornbills; 
and the hiatus between these two allied, but distinct, groups is con- 
riderably lessened by the interposition of Irrisar, which genus I 
suspect is subordinate to Bucerotidm rather than to UpupicUSf and 
ss a sab&mily of the former, I conceive it to be most naturally 
pboed. In the configuration of the sternal apparatus, the chief 
differences occur in the anatomy of the Hornbills and the Hoopoes^ 
the alimentary organs presenting a very close similitude ; and in the 
form of the sternum and its appurtenances, I will venture to hazard 
the oonjectore that pfpof will be afforded of the near affinity of Irrisor 
for Bmeeros. As i%.bodi Bveeroa and Vpupa, I observe that Irrisor 
has only ten tail-feathers, whereas the allied genera of JBdeyanidcBf 
fcc have twelve; and perhaps we should not be wrong in arrang- 
ing both IrrisarimsB and Upupina as subfamilies of BuceroHda. 

Hoopoes {Upupc^ Lin.) There are three distinct, although closely 
allied, species of this genus, as follow : 

1. 27. epopsy Lin. The common £urop^^ Hoopoe, which is nu- 
merous in Bengal, and in Upper India generally, but of rare occur- 
rence in the south of India. . Mr. Jerdon has obtained it in the Neil- 
gherries. Length of its wing six inches. 

2. U. senegalensis {? % Swainson, * Birds of W. Africa,' ii, 114, 
Nat lAbr. : U* minor^ apud Jerdon. This quite agrees with Mr. 
Swainson*s description of the Senegal Hoopoe, except that some spe- 
cimens have a trace of whitish on the hinder crest-feathers, where 
iodeed it chiefly appears in {7. epops. The wing varies from four 
inches and three-quarters to five and three-eighths in length ; but the 
bill is as much elongated as in the last. Common in most, if not all, 
parts of the peninsula of India. 

3. U. mifwr^ Shaw. Distinguished from both the preceding by 
having the primaries plain black, without the broad white band con- 



190 Notices and Deseripiiom of various new QNo. 150. 

staiit in the two others ; and also by having the white caadal bar 
placed much nearer the bate of the tail. The colour, too, espect- 
ally of the crest, is more niibus, and there i« ao intervening white or 
whitish between the rufoas portion of the ereat -feathers and their 
black tips. Length of the wing five inches and a quarter. It has 
only been met with in South Africa. 

Specimens of each are in the Society's Museum. 

Akech grandie, nobis, n. s. Resembles A. iqndtL and A. bmga' 
lensist but is distinguished by its much larger size. Length of wing 
three inches and three*quarters, of tail two inches, and of bill to fore- 
head two inches and one^ighth. From Darjeeling. It may be re- 
marked that several specimens of A. hengalensis occurred in the same 
collection with A. grandist which I mention with a view to refute the 
opinion entertained by some theorists, that the disparity of siae be- 
tween either of these species and A, iepida is due to tiie influence of 
climate and other local causes. 

Halcyon oapensis, (L.) Specimens of this bird (if absolutely the 
same,) from the vicinity of the Straits, di£fer from those of India in he* 
ing much more intensely.ooloured, both above a^d- below; the f»migi« 
nous of the under.parts, which is very deep m afiparently the male^ 
sufftising the nuchal collar and throat, which latter does not tend to be 
albescent, and there is a considerable bluiah-green gloes upon the 
brown cap^ never seen in Indian ape<amens, and remindii^ one of the 
cap of Todkamphus coUarig, (Soopolt and Swainson, v. chloroeephaiw 
of Gmelin.) In fact, there seems as good reason for dislioguisbiog 
these Indian and Malaya» -birds as specjies, as exists iu the instance f^ 
Cergk rudis of Africa, and C* foria, Strickland, of A«a ; and another 
example of a Majayan bi^d which greatly exceeds it» lodian refresen* 
tative in intensity of colouring, occurs in the common Jungle-coek ef 
the twO) regiona, alike referred to G^Uus hankivasj Tern. 

Coraeias f^niSf McClelland and Horsfield, Proe, ZooL Scte. Id3ft 
p. 164, The numerous specimens of Rollers from Assam, Arracap» 
and Teoaisierim, which I have aeen^, all pertain strictly to thie special ; 
having the upper parts greener than in C. indiea, the neck and bre98t 
devoid of the reddish-brown colour proper to the latter spedesi being 
purplish-dusky vsiried with bright purple on the fore-neck, and tbe 
entire under surface of the wing, except near the tipa of the primaries 
is deep purple : but I have obtained several specimens in the vidaity ^ 
Calcutta^ and Bome 4rom TipperaJn which present every gradation of pis* 



1845.1 or IM0 knonm species of Birds. 191 

OMge from ooe to the other of these species, and also one or two in the 
pore offinis plamage ; from which I infer that where fonnd together 
in the same locality, they not unfrequently interbreed, and tend to 
meige into a single blended race. It may be farther remarked that I 
hare never seen an example of trne C offinis with the broad terminal 
parple band to the tail, which distinguishes the adalt C, indica ; bat 
I have seen this imperfectly developed in the mixed race, which latter 
has also Qommonly the fore-part of the under surface of the wing in« 
termingled parple and verditer. On the western side of India, the C 
§iarrula waa obtained, together with C. indiea^ by Sir A. Barnes 
ia the Moultan ; and both this and Merops apieuier are common in 
Afghanistan. Whether the C indica and C. garrula likewise in* 
termix, remains to be ascertained.* 

Woodpeckers. Of the species of this group noticed in J, A, S. XII, 
998 ei seq^t I have now to remark, that P. (Gecinus) viridanus 
would seem to be the P. dimidiaius of the Diet, Class., though not of 
Hardwicke and Gray ; P. occipitalis^ Vigors, should be termed barbais^ 
Gray (if it be not offinis of Raffles), as there was previously a P. oceipi- 
Is/is, Valenciennes ;. P. nipalensiSf Gray, may, I think, be safely refer- 
red to P. ehhropatSf VieiUot, as I before suggestedf ; P. (Chrysoeo^ 
lapissj melanofyts, nobis (p. 1005» and XIII, 394,) v. P. Ellioih 
Jerdon, is decidedly the P. go^nsis, Gm., founded on the Pic vert de 
Goa of Danbenton; and P. fChr.J strietus of Horsfield, v. sultaneus^ 
Hodgson, V. strenuus, Gould (noticed in Proc. ZooL Soe. 1839, p. 165, 
and also in Dr. Boyle'a list of birds from the neighbourhood of Saharun- 
por«^ though nsver, I belierei described by this name), which has been 
eomoKmly refened to P.go^nsis, must retain the name strictust Horsf. : 
laady^ having obtained a Malacca specimen of Microeolaptes abnormis, 
Tem. (p. 1005), I am enabled to confirm my former suspicion of the 
near affinity of Sasia oehracea, Hodgson, which, though distinct as 
a species, ia most closely allied to M, abs^ermis. M. ochraceus is com- 
mon in the hill ranges of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan, being generally 
seen hopping from twig to twig of bushes or low branches of treea, 
though oecasionally climbing like an ordinary Woodpecker. 

* Two specimens just received from Gow>hatti ^Assam; were both pure C. cjfinit ; 
while tfarte others from the Deighbouring district of Kungpore were unmixed C. 
indica, 

t This bird makes a near approach in structure to P. (Dendrobates) immaculatus, 
Sw. (received from the Cape) : accordingly, it would appear that Dendrobates, is 
icarcely, if at all, separable ffom Qetinus* 



192 Notteei and DescHptians ofvariou$ new [No. 159. 

Picus ( GecinusJ malaccensis, Lath., foanded on ie Pic de Malacca 
of Sonnerat, may be described anew with advantage from specimens 
presented to the Society from Malacca. It is allied in size and form to 
P. chlaropus (v. nipalensis), and in plumage also to the species of Brc" 
chyhphuSt but differs very decidedly from the latter in the shape of 
its bill, which is larger and more that of a typical Gecinus than the 
DendrobateS'like beak of P. chlaropus : it has also the yellow nuchal 
crest less developed than in the latter, and resembling that of Bra* 
chylophus puniceus. General colour dingy green, brightest on the 
back, where more or less tinged with yellow, especially on the rump ; 
beneath inclining to dusky, barred with dull white on the flanks, hot 
the latter less predominating than in P. chhropus : wings crimson, 
with dusky primaries, and green tips to the longest tertiaries : tail 
black. The male has the whole top of the head, lengthened occipital 
feathers, and moustaches, crimson ; while the female has the coronal 
feathers green, tipped only with crimson, and merely the long occipi- 
tal feathers as in the male, below which those of the nape are yellow in 
both sexes. Bill dusky above, the lower mandible yellow ; and feet 
have apparently been green. Length ten inches, or nearly so ; of wing 
four and three-quarters to five inches ; and tail three and a half to 
three and three-quarters ; bill to forehead an inch and a quarter. From 
Malacca. 

Subg. GecinuluSt nobis. This is a third form of three- toed Wood- 
pecker (in addition to PicoideSf Lacep., of northern climates, and TigOt 
Kaup, V. ChrysanoiuSf Sw., of south-eastern Asia and its islands), most 
nearly allied to GecinuSf from which it differs in the shortness and la- 
teral compression of its beak, and the small size of the feet, which have 
besides no inner fourth toe. As a peculiar form of Woodpecker, it is 
very distinct, though represented only (so far as I am at present aware,) 
by 

P. (Gee.) Graniia* McClelland and Horsfield, P. Z, S. 1839, 
p. 165. Length nine inches and a half, or ten inches; of wing fi^^ 
inches ; and tail three and three-quarters : bill to frontal bone an inch 
and one-eighth ; and spread of foot an inch and three-quarters. Colour 
somewhat brownish red above, the secondaries and tertiaries having 
three light red bars, and the greenish-dusky primaries four or five 
yellowish ones : tail similarly banded ; breast and under parts dosky 

* Quaere, Orantii, or OranH f 



1M5.3 or little known $peeie$ of Birds. 193 

green ; head and neck light yellowish-green, paler and browner towards 
the beak, and the crown of the male only, dull crimson, fiill white, 
with some dusky at the base of both mandibles ; and feet apparently 
dark slaty. Hab. Darjeeling, and the mountain ranges of Assam. 

Of the subgenus Tigti^ Kaup, three allied species exist, which have 
never been yet properly distinguished. 

\,P.fTJ Shorei, Vigors, P. Z. 5. 1831, p. 175 ; Gould's * Century,' 
pi. XLIX. Distinguished by its superior size, the wing measuring six 
inches long ; by the crimson of the rump spreading over, or rather 
tinging, more usually the entire back (more or less); and by the 
elongated pale central streaks of the coronal and occipital feathers of 
tlie female, these streaks being continued nearly throughout the feather, 
and anteriorly often spreading over the whole feather, so that the fore- 
bead becomes almost plain light brown. In one female before me, 
there are also some intermixed crimson feathers on the occiput, which I 
have never seen in either of the other species : but whether these are of 
eomstant occurrence I do not know, and another female in the Soci- 
ety's museum is unfortunately deficient of feathers just at this part. Inha- 
bits the sub- Himalayan region, as well as the hill ranges of peninsular 
India ; but I have never seen it from the eastward of the Bay of Bengal. 

2. P. {T.) intermedius, nohx^. Exactly midway between the two 
others ; the whitish on the coronal feathers of the female forming very 
elongated spots, rather than central streaks ; and the back above the 
ramp not usually suffused with crimson. Wing five inches and a 
half to five and three-quarters long. Common in Nepal, Assam, 
Sylhet^ Tipperah, Arracan, and Tenasserim ; and the only kind which 
I have seen from those parts, Nepal excepted. 

3. P. (T,J tridactytay ( 8 w.) Strickland ; Ptc«« ^t^a, Horsfield. 
Wing but four inches and seven-eighths, to five inches and one- eighth, 
long : and the whitish spots on the head of the female very much 
contracted, tending indeed to become obsolete, and their form a 
lengthened oval, narrow and minute. The bill to gape in P. Shorei 
measures an inch and three-quarters, in P. intermedins one and a 
half, and in P. tridactyia one and a quarter ; in a young female of P. 
tridactyla before me, scarcely one and one-eighth. The specimens 
descrilied are from Malacca, and are of the only size that I have 
hitherto seen from the Malay countries. Dr. Horsfield, however, gives 
the length of his P. %a as eight inches and a half; whereas Raffles 



194 Notices and Deicripiions of various new [No. 159. 

assigns " above ten inches," and may therefore allude to P. interme" 
dius. From peninsular India, I have as yet only seen P, Shorei: 
but Mr. Jerdon remarks that ** the specimens shot below the Ghauts 
are considerably smaller than those obtained at a great elevation ; the 
latter attained the size of P. Shorei^ though not differing in colour 
from the smaller ones. The length varies from nine inches and a half 
to nearly twelve inches." 

Of the closely allied division Braekyptemus^ Strickland, there seemt 
to be a second species in southern India, additional to P. auTa$Um 
(v. bengalensiSy &c.) : 

P. (Br,) micropuSf nobis. Distinguished from P, aurantUu by 
its inferior size, the wing (of an adult male,) measuring but five 
inches, instead of five and a half, as in several adult specimens (male 
and female,) of P, auraniius ; bill to gape an inch and five-sixteenths, 
instead of one and five«eighths ; and extended foot one and seven- 
eighths, instead of two and one-eighth. There is a general neatneM 
and well defined character of the markings, as distinguished from 
those of P. aurantius, which arrests the eye at a glance : the fron* 
tal feathers, to a level with the anterior portion of the eye, are 
not tipped with crimson, as in the other ; the black of the nape is 
continued lower upon the shoulders, considerably contracting the 
golden orange of the back ; and the wings are duller aureous, con* 
trasting more with the brilliant dorsal hue: the white markings 
of the throat and fore-neck are also reduced to small rounded oval 
spots, those of the breast being larger but similarly oval, and of the 
under parts below, narrower than in P, auraniius. I found this speeies 
upon a single specimen forwarded by Mr« Jerdon, but feel no doubt 
of its distinctness, especially when I recall to mind the dose simili- 
tude of the three species of the preceding group ; from which divistoa 
the present one is only just separable. 

Mtcroptemus, nobis. By the same rule that Brachypternus is re- 
cognised apart from Tiga^ this must be separated from Meigiypies ; 
having the inner fourth toe and claw minute. The colouring is also 
peculiar. Type P. badius. Raffles, under which, again, two species 
have been hitherto confounded. 

1. P (MJ badius, Rafiles: P. brachyurus, Vieillot. Wing but four 
inches and one-eighth to four and a quarter long : head pale above, 
the throat dark ; the feathers of the latter dusky, with pale lateral 



1815.3 or liUie Miown speeiet of Birds. 195 

nai^ns ; black caudal bars comparatively broad. InhabiU the Malay 
coantries. 

2. P. {M*J phmoceps^ nobis. P, rufu§t Lath., apud Gray, nee 
Gmelin ; Rt^aus Indian Woadpedar^ Latham* Wing four inbhes and 
thrBe-qnaftdrB long, and the rest in proportion : head subfuscous above, 
the throat pale ; the feathers of the latter conoolorout with those of 
the body, or nearly so, having lighter lateral margins ; black caudal 
bars narrow. Inhabits India proper, extending eastward to Tipperah 
and Arracan. 

The type of Meifftyptes is P. trisiUj Raffles, v. pcecilophus. Tern- 
minck,* which together with an allied species, P. fM.J brttnneua, also 
from the fiialay conn tries, is referred to Htmieercus by Mr. Eyton. 

P. ( Sd\) jviguUms^ nobis, is a third species, of a shorter and thick- 
er form than the two above-menticmed, and in size, form, and colour- 
ing; much resembling P. (Hemieercus) canente^ Lesson, of which the 
female is P. eardahtSi Jetton : but it is readily distinguished by the 
v«7 difiereot form of the bill, by the bufiy-white colour of the nape, 
and by the rays or specks of the same hue upon its black throat. 
Length about seven inches and a half, of wibg four inches, and tail 
two and one*eighth ; bill to forehead seven-eighths. Colour black or 
brown-black, varied with* buffy-white, and an obscure dull crimson 
moostache in the male ; occipital feathers elongated and black : neck 
whitish, more or less deeply tinged with boSi and continued as a 
•treak along each side of the breast ia front of the wings ; rump also 
biifiy*white, a broad oblique stripe of the same upon the win^, and 
their nether surface and edge are of this hue, the large alars being 
broadly banded at base iiitemally, with slight narrow pale bars or se* 
riesof small spots on their outer surface ; forehead, throat, and some- 
times crown, more or less speckled or rayed with the same pale colour 
that variegates the reat of the plumage. Inhabits Arracan and the 
Tenasserim provinces (specimens from the latter territory having been 
erroneously referred to P, poBeUopkus, Tern., in X, 828). 

P. (H^icereus) c&ncreius, Tern. It is probable that there are two 
species confounded under this name. All that I have seen are from 
the vicinity of the Straits, and accord with Stephens's *' Sumatran va- 

* Thete wonld seem enumeratctd as distinct in Mr. Eyton's catalogue, Proc. Zool. 
Soct 1839, p. 106 ; but it is evidently a mistake of the printer. 

2f 



195 Notices and Descriptions of various new QNo. 159. 

riety" of P. concretus of Java. The adult male has the forehead and 
crown bright crimsoDy continued on a few of the uppermost and cen- 
tral of the long feathers of the occiput : in the young male, the fore- 
head and crown are chesnut-brown^ with a tinge of red on the medial 
long feathers of the occiput ; the pale yellowish buff portion of the 
plumage of the upper parts being also more developed : and the fe- 
male has the forehead, crown, and occiput, smoky-grey, like the sides 
of the head of the males.* 

P. (Dendrocopus) darjeUensis^ nobis. This Woodpecker is de- 
scribed in J, A, S. XL 165, as the adult of P. himcdayensisy Jardine 
and Selby; and true P. himalayensis is there given as the young: 
but the two are distinct, the present one having a larger bill, mea- 
suring an inch and three-eighths to forehead, in addition to its under 
parts being streaked with black ; its white wing-spot is also con- 
siderably smaller. Very common at Darjeeling, and in Nepal. Mr. 
Hodgson sent it by the hybrid name majoroides, which can scarcely 
be adopted. 

The other Indian Woodpeckers of this subgenus are as follow :-* 

2. Z. himalayensis^ Jardine and Selby, 111. Om,, Ist. series, pL 
CXVI. Found chiefly, I suspect, to the westward of Nepal. 

3. P. cathphariuSf Hodgson, nobis, /• A» S, XU, 1006. Nepal: 
common at Darjeeling. 

4. P. hyperythrus. Vigors, P. Z. 5. 1831, p. 23 ; Gould's * Century,' 
pi. L. Remarkable for the slender form of its bill. Himalaya. 

5. P. Maceiy Cuv. ; figured in Hardwicke's ///. Ind. ZooL : P. 
analis. Tern. ; P. tninor^ apud Raffles and Horsfield ; P. medius from 
India, apud Latham. Northern India generally, and Malay countries. 
The only species of the subgenus found in Lower Bengal, where ex- 
ceedingly common, as it also is in the vicinity of the Straits. It fre- 
quently occurs^ likewise, in collections from the Himalaya. 

6. P. brunnifronsy Gould's ^ Century,' pi. LII ; Vigors, P. Z. <$• 
1831, p. 176. : P. auricepSf Vigors, iHd, p. 44. Himalaya. 

7. P. mahraUensiSt Latham : P. aurocrisiatus, Tickell, J. A» S. 
II, 579 : figured in Gould's ' Century,' pi. LI., and also by Hardwicke 
and Gray. Hilly regions of India generally. 

^ P. validust Tern., is allied in form to Hemicercus, but cannot be arranged under 
it : and as another marked sub-genus, I may indicate the P. /tmebriSy Yalenciennes, 
V. modestus, Vigors. 



1845.3 or Utile known species of Birds. 107 

8. P. pygnuBus^ Vigors, P. Z, S. 1B30, p. 44. A description of 
this species, from a series comprising older and finer specimens than 
those from which the Latin diagnosis was drawn up, may here be offer* 
ed. Allied to the two next, but larger ; the wing measuring from three 
inches and a quarter to three and a half, and tail one and seven-eighths 
to two inches. Four middle tail-feathers wholly black, and the next 
white only on its exterior margin : this constituting a good distinction, 
as in all the following the whole of the tail-feathers are spotted with 
white. The male has a crimson occipital crescent, the lateral halves 
of which unite only in fine old specimens : in younger examples, this 
crimson is confined to a mere lateral tuft, as in the following ; and I have 
seen specimens in every degree intermediate. Forehead and crown 
ashy-brown, the crimson of the occiput surrounded with black exter- 
nally, forming a streak over each eye^ continued to meet and expand 
posteriorly. Another and brownish-black streak, more or less deve- 
k>ped, passes backward from below the eye ^ and between this and the 
last is a large triangular white patch on the sinciput. Upper parts 
black, with white cross-bands on the back, and the usual rows of white 
spots on the wings : outermost and penultimate tail-feathers barred on 
the outer web with white, and having a single white bar, and some- 
times two, crossing the feather towards its tip ; throat dull white ; the 
rest of the under parts brownish -white, with narrow dark central lines 
to the feathers. The hoary-grey colour upon the back mentioned in 
Mr. Vigors's descripti<m, must refer to that of the base of the feathers, 
as shewn in a specimen thin of plumage. Common in the Himalaya. 

9. P. canicapillus^ nobis. Differs from P. moluecensis in the much 
blacker hue of its upper parts, in the pale ash-colour, of the head, a 
little tinged with brown and bordered laterally with black, from amid 
which appears the slight crimson sincipital tuft of the male ; the size 
also is rather larger, the wing measuring three inches and one-eighth to 
three and a quarter, tail one and three-quarters, and bill to forehead 
fi?e*eighths : the under parts are whitish, purer on the throat, and the 
rest marked with central dusky-black lines. Common in Arracan. 

10. P. moluecensis^ Latham ; figured by Hardwicke and Gray. Distin- 
guished by its prevalent brownish or sooty-black colour, and its rufes- 
cent brown head and streak passing through the ear-coverts. Hab. 
Central and Southern India. 

10. P nanus, Vigors, P. Z S. 1830, p. 172. Has a larger bill 
than either of the three preceding species, measuring three-quarters of 



198 Notices and DeseripHons of various new CNo. 1S9. 

an inch to the forehead ; wing three inches and a qoarter. The bseast 
is marked witli dusky oval spoiSy passing inio streaks below ; 4he aspect 
of the under parts being much more spotted and less streaky than in 
the foregoing ; a very strongly marked white iiae commences above 
the eye (as in the last), and is continued along the eides of the ooei'» 
put to the nape ; and another broad white line from the angle of the 
mouth is continued to below the ear-coverts. This spedes is alluded 
to as a variety of P. moiuaeensie by M^r. Jerdon ; being thus met with 
in Southern India, as well as in the Himalaya.^ 

Of foreign Woodpeckers in the Society's museum, one of which I 
can find no description, may be designated 

P. (Oolaptes) hypoxanthusy nobis. Length above a foot, of wing 
five inches and three-quarters, and tail five inches ; bill to gape ooe 
and three-quarters, its form less curved than in P. auratus^ the lower 
mandible not being arched at all. Upper parts crimson, darker on 
the wings, and passing to yellowish olive«>green on the external wehs 
of the large alars, the secondaries and tertiaries with their coverts be- 
ing broadly margined with dark crimson externally, and the primaries 
having yellow shafts : tail black above, its outermost feathers freckled 
with brownish-yellow : a large and broad crimson moustache, and the 
apace between this and the crown, comprising the lores and ear-co- 
verts, greenish-yellow : throat black, the feathers edged with yellowisl^; 
those of the breast black margined with dark crimson, and leaving a 
pale central mark on each, inclining to be linear on those of the fore* 
neck, and gradually assuming the form of a transverse bar more down- 
ward : the rest of the under parts and inside of the wings bright green- 
ish-yellow, with some black bars anterior to the flanks. Bill black- 
ish ; and legs brown. Most probably from some part of South America* 

Before quitting the PieidtBy I may remark that the Himalayan 
Honeyguide (ludieator xantkanotus^ nobis, «/. A. S. XI, 166, and Xll» 
1010,) has a much shorter beak than in the various African species; 
with which it accords, however, in all other re8pect8.t 



* The whole of the above are in the Society's museum : and I have before remarkeci 
that P. Bllioti, Jerdon, which was referred by that naturalist to the present snb-genuSt 
is the true P. (ChrysocolaptesJ goensis, v, melanotus, nobis, passim. 

t To give some idea of the present state of the Society's museum, in the department 
of Oriiithology, it may be here mentioned that of the Linnsan genus Picus, there are 
now 121 mounted specimens, appertaining to 49 species ; and of these but 10 speci' 



Ifi45.3 or Kilie knonm specteg of Birds. 1 99 

€beKfM£ee. Of the leries of this fiunily grading from Dasyhpkus 
to Taccocua of Lesson, the ladian and Makjan species may be Urns 
classified. Rkinortha belongs to the particular groop, bat ranges 
apart ieam the gradaated saccession observable in the rest : and of this 
gemis, I htiwe to remai% that the supposed two species which have 
been hitherto currently admitted, are one and the same ; Rh. lueidt^ 
Vigors^ V. AfuuUenus rufeseens, Swainson, v. Phomieqphans mridiros^ 
iris, EytoB, referring to the yooog, and Cueuius dUoropluBui^ Raffles, 
V. An, nrfuif Swainson, to the adalt ; the latter being also described^ 
and the former figured as Bubutus Isidaria by M. Lesson in the zoology 
of M. Belaager*s Voyage. It will now rank as Rh. chloraphcBa^ 
(Baffles) ; and I have suggested that perhaps a second species exists in 
the Cucuhts meianogosHr of Vieillot, vide J, A. S. XL, 924. 

Dasyiaphus^ Sw. Species, Z>. Cumingi^ (Fraser,) and Z>« nperei' 
Uosui, (Cqv.,) vide J. A, 8. XI, 925. 

Pkisenioophaugj Vieillot.--«il. With the nareal apertures narrow, and 
placed near the edge of the bill. (Cuv.) 1, Ph. pyrrhocephalusy 
(Forst.,) vide J. A, 8. XI, 924 : (this species has the papillose naked 
red skin on the sides of the face very greatly developed ; its alleged 
Cingalese habitat needs verification, especially as it is likewise stated to 
inhabit Africa.) B. " Nostrils elongate, and situate at the base of a 
groove which extends nearly to the middle of the beak." (Horsfield.) 
2, Ph. meianognathui, Horsfield. C Nostrils elongate, basal, and 
oblique ; but no groove to the bill. 3, PA. sumatranui^ Raffles, 

D. Nostrils basal, with rounded aperture. 4, Ph. viridis, Lev. {Cuculus 
mehnognaihus apud Raffles, &c.): 5, Ph. Diardi, (Lesson ; Ph, 
iriitis apudos, J, A. S, XI, 928, and probably Ph. Craufurdii, Gray). 

E. IncerUB sedis. 6. Ph. (f) eahrhgnchuSi Tem., erroneously stated 
to be identical with Zaneiostomus javanieus. Three of the above 
are in the Society's museum, viz. Ph. viridis, Ph. sumairamtSf and 
Ph. Diardi; these being all common in the vicinity of the Straits. 
The first has a more tumid bill, and the second a proportionally 



mens (of 7 species) are foreign to India and the Malay countries* Of other Picida 
(eonsisting of the genera Yunx, Picumnus, Microcolaptes^ and Indicator^ the Bucco 
group being excluded), we have 10 mounted specimens, of? species. Every de- 
scribed (or at least every authenticated) Indian species of Woodpecker is now in the 
collection : but there are several yet wanting from the eastern islands. July 6, 1845. 



200 Notices and Descriptions of various new [JSo. 159 

longer bill, than in the others ; bat ail are closely allied, and have a 
large naked space sorrounding the eyes. 

ZanclosiomuSf Swainson. A, Bill green ; nostrils with rounded oval 
aperture; small bare and papillose skin surrounding the eyes; tail 
greatly elongated. 1, Z. truHs^ (Lesson ; Ph, longieaudaiuSf nobis^ 
J, A. 8. XI, 1095.)— B. Allied to last, with green bill ; nareal orifices 
oval and minute ; no expanded and papillose naked space surrounding 
the eyes. 2, Z. fnridirostris, Jerdon.— C Red bill, and nareal aperture 
linear ; no papillose skin on the face. 8, Z.javanicus, Horsfield, he., 
▼ide J, A, S. XL 1097 ;* Ptaya erytkrorhyneha, Lesson.— -D. A fourth 
section would seem to be constituted by Z, Jlavirostris, Swainson, 
' Birds of W. Africa,' Nat. Libr., Om., VIII, p. 183, and pL XIX. 
Should it be thought necessary to separate the two first, they should 
rank under Melias of Lesson. 

Taccocua, Lesson. This will comprehend the species confound- 
ed under the '* Sirkeer Cuckoo" of Latham. As compared with the 
preceding, they have a shorter and more compressed bill, approaching 
nearly in form to that of Ceniropus ; and they further approximate the 
latter genus in the more than subspinous character of their plumage, 
and in their ground habits, although their inner hind claw is short and 
curved. The following are now for the first time distinguished. 

]. T, injnscata, nobis; probably Coecyzus chrywgaster of Boyle's 
list of birds from the vicinity of Saharanpore. At least two species of 
this group are indicated in Liatham's description of his Sirkeer Cuckoo 
{Gen, Hist III, 267), the present being that first noticed by him, 
and being characterized by its larger size and infuscated colouring. 
** Length nineteen inches at least : * * * plumage on the upper parts 
dusky, with a tinge of purple."-— The specimen before me agrees with 
others which I have seen from the Himalaya, and measures nineteen 
inches in total length, the tail ten inches, its outermost feathers three 
inches and a half less ; wing six and a half; tarse an inch and five- 
eighths. Bill (as in the others) bright cherry-red at base, yellow at 
the tip, with a triangular black spot on each side of the upper mandi- 
ble : feet dusky -leaden, browner on the tarse. In all three species, 
the upper parts may be described as brown, washed with dusky-green, 
the feathers having shining black shafts ; but in the Himalayan bird, 
* This species has the somewhat firmer tail of a true Pkcenicophaus, 



1845.3 ^ ^^^ known species of Birds. 201 

aeaicely a trace of the brown is visible ; lower parts paler» slightly 
washed with ferruginous on the fore-neck and breast, the belly and 
lower portion of the tibial plumes deep ferruginous^ of a much darker 
thade than in the other species : tail with all but its middle pair of 
feathers broadly tipped with white, as in both the others. Peculiar, 
1 suspect, to the sub- Himalayan region. 

2. T. sirhee ; Centropus sirhee^ Hardwicke and Gray : C eueuUndes^ 
Smith and Pearson, /• A. S, X, 659. This is probably that, next 
mentioned by Latham as figured in a drawing \ and it is of course the 
Cawnpore species subsequently noticed by him as weighing <*four 
ooiices eight drachms." I believe it also to be that figured by Hard* 
wicke^ and referred to by Latham as weighing but ^* three ounces six 
drachms and a half ;" a difference from the preceding which might de- 
peod upon condition, and to a certain extent on sex, these birds being 
often extremely &t. Describing from Hardwicke's drawing, Latham 
gi?es the two middle tail*feathers as " eight inches in length," but 
from the published copy of the same drawing, I should say that they were 
nearly ten inches. A fine specimen before me (from Cawnpore) mea* 
lores seventeen inches in length, the tail nine and a half, its outermost 
feathers three and three-quarters less ; wing six inches ; and tarse an 
inch and a half. Upper parts much paler and more brown than in the 
preceding species, having scarcely a trace of the green \ below paler fer- 
rnginoos, more generally and uniformly diffused on the belly, flanks, and 
tibial plomes, and tinging much more deeply the fore-neck and breast. 
Mr. C. W. Smith describe9 the upper parts as being of a brownish satin 
colour, a term which does not convey a very definite idea in the ab- 
lence of a specimen, but which is nevertheless sufficiently recognisable 
when the bird is under examination : the hue is lighter and more rufe- 
seent than in the next species. Hab. Bengal. 

3. 7\ LesckenauUHf Lesson : Zanchstomus sirhee^ apud Jerdon. Dis- 
Uogushed by its inferior size, and generally more or less ashy fore- 
neek and breast, and whitish throat ; the ferruginous colour of the belly 
u scarcely so deep as in the last, and there appears always to be a 
marked distinction of hue between the breast and belly, although the 
foraier is more or less tinged with ferruginous ; whereas in the Bengal 
species there is no such marked distinction of hue, the fore-neck and 
breast being concolorous with the belly, or very nearly so, shading im^ 



202 Notices cmd Descriptions of vartow netc QNo. 159. 

perceptibly from one to the other* In the hue of its upper parts,, this 
species is intermediate to the two others, but approaches nearer to the 
Bengal one. Its entire head has often a distinct ashy cast, not seen 
in t^e others. Length fifteen or sixteen inches, the tail eight or nine 
inches, its outermost feather three inches and a half less ; wiog five and 
a half to six inches ; tarse an inch and five-eighths, but considerably lesi 
robust than that of T, infitseata. Inhabits the peninsula of Iadia%* 

Centrapus, lUiger. The variations of plumage exhibited by the 
birds of this genus are very remarkable, and appear oftentimes to be 
independent of age or sex. Having ascertained the identity of my C 
dimidiatus, J. A, S, XII, 945, with C. lepidus, Horsfield, but whieh 
species will bear the prior name of C Lathami^ (Shaw), I was subie- 
quently led to suspect that C. sinensis^ (Shaw), J. J. S. XII, 247, 
might prove to be analogously identical with C, phUippmsis \ notwith- 
standing the great difference of plumage in both cases ; and upon more 
minutely examining the Society's Chusan specimen of C situnmsi I 
found, on turning aside the feathers of the nape, some glossy steel- 
black ones just put forth, different in texture from the old plumagej* 
and exactly according with those of ordinary ^AxjlipMUppsnHs ; more- 
over, the two entirely correspond in size and proportion, and I feel 
now p^fectly satisfied of their being one and the same. 

In my description of C. philippensis, J, A. S« XL 1099, it was men- 
tioned that some of the young birds, in their first or nest dressy were 
throughout unbarred, being coloured much as in the ordinary adnlty 
except that the rufous is less bright and is deeply infuseated upon tile 
back, while most others of the same age are conspicuoosly bamd 
throughout, as in a young Cuckoo. In general, these moult into the 
usual adult dress, fiigured by Horsfidd as C. Imbuius ; but soae 
would appear to assume a peculiar second dress (in which state it is 
C sinensis)^ analogous to that of ordinary occurrence in C Lalthiom^ 
and which seems likewise to be analogous to the h^oHcus plumage of 
Cueulus canorus, more frequent in Cue. poUocephalus {v. kimaU^amii, 

* These three species of Taccocua appear more decidedly distinct, when seen toge- 
ther, than perhaps would foe inferred from the above descriptioiks : some might deem them 
local varieties merely of the same, in which case intermediate specimens shoaM occur 
in intermediate districts; but even then races so nearly allied might perhaps have in- 
termingled, like Cbracias wuUca and C. <vffinis ; but to me they certainly appear as 
distinct as Atcedo grandis, A, ispiday and d, bengalensii* 



]845.] or Utile knanm species of Birds. 203 

Vigors), in Cue. tenuirosiris, Gray, and its Malayan near ally, Cue, 
merulinus (v. fiavus). Raffles was aware of this variation of plumage in 
Cemr, L€Uhamiy which he identifies with Cuculus iolu, Auct, (a Mada- 
gascar species, or more probably variety of several alleged African spe- 
cies, all of about the same size, as CerUr.maurus^ C. rufus, and C sene* 
gaiensisy Anct.,) which it undoubtedly makes a near approach to in 
the instance of some specimens ; but he certainly reverses the order 
of pri^ression in the states of plumage, in his remarl&s upon the latter, 
cited in /• A» 8, XI, 1103. One young specimen, in undoubted 
nestling garb, I have described in XII, 945 (at the end of the foot- 
note) ; the second dress (probably more frequent in the female sex) 
in XI, 1003 ; and the fully mature plumage as C dimidiaius, toge- 
ther with the notice of the young : in a fine series now before me, from 
Bengal (vicinity of Calcutta), Cuttack, and Malasia, are some inter- 
mediate to what I have now specified as the second and third phases, 
bat which were not killed during moult, the feathers themselves ap- 
pearing as though they had been in process of changing colour ; but 
I think it more likely that they had been put forth thus intermediate : 
these have the rufous back more infuscated, a greater or less number 
of the shafts of the feathers yellowish.white, on a black or rufous 
ground, according to the part, and in one instance many intermixed 
psle and barred feathers on the under parts, the black bars on some 
of these being enlarged and more or less tending to blot the entire 
feather. The Polophilus Laihami of Shaw is decidedly a specimen 
in this imperfectly mature dress ; the thoroughly mature garb difier- 
ing only from that of C philippensis in the less deeply rufous hue of 
the mantle and wings, but the species being readily distinguishable by 
its much smaller size, and the shorter and deeper form of the bill. 

Analogous difierences present themselves in the Cenir, phasianus 
of Australia; and I doubt not in the alleged African species, of several 
of which I have suggested the identity, having no means of personally 
iavestigating the problem. In the Malayan islands, the Centr» me- 
lanopSf Par, Mus,, of Lesson's Traitd, vide J. A. 8. XII, 946, is pro- 
bably also to be referred to C, Lathami ; and C bicolor, ibid*, perhaps 
to the same, or to C. philippensis, A distinct species occurs in C. 
viridisy Scop., Iiath., (founded on the Coucau vert d^AnUgue of Son- 
nerat,) v. C affinis, Horsf., vide •/. ^. S. XIII, 391 ; and another in 

C. hengalensis, Lath., (founded on the Lark-keeled Cttckoo of Brown's 

2g 



204 Noiiees and DueripHam tf various new QNo. 159. 

Zoology,*) V. C pumiluSf Lesson, vide XII, 945; but with these two 
I am nnacquainted. 

Of the species of CuculuSy I have now nothing further to add, than 
that I feel satisfied of the identity of C fttstco/br, Hodgson, J. A, S. 
XII, 943, with the common C, fugax : of C micropterus^ a particu- 
larly fine male has the wing as much as eight inches and a quarter 
long, and the rest in proportion ; while of C. eanorus, an equally fine 
male has the wing fully nine inches long ; the general characters of the 
two birds, however, rendering them easy of distinction : of C SanneroHi 
(v. pravatuSy Horsf., v. rufovittattis, Drapiez), a specimen in nestling 
dress is altogether more coarsely barred than the adult, with pale rufes- 
cent upon a black ground above, the under parts white banded with 
dusky, and having the cross bars broader than in the mature plumage; 
bill but fifteen*sixteenths of an inch to gape^ but the general'resem- 
blance to the adult still suflicient to indicate the species at a glance, the 
half-feathered tarse helping to characterize it apart from C tenuirostrU 
and C. merulinus .* lastly, of Eudynamys^ besides the Australian CoSl, 
which was identified with that of India and the Malay countries by 
Messrs, Vigors and Horsfield, but which Mr. Swainson has separat- 
ed (on account of its considerably larger size,) as Eu» austraiis, the 
Cue. taitensis, Sparrman, of New Zealand and the South Sea Islands, 
is referred to this genus by Mr. G. R. Gray, (vide Appendix to Dr. 
Diefienbach's ' New Zealand,' Vol. II, 193). 

Caprtmulgida. Three allied species of this tribe appear to have 
been lately confounded under the name Caprimulgus maerums, Hors- 
field. These are— - 

1. C. aWanaiaiuSy Tickell, •/. A. S. II., 580: C. gangeticuSt 
nobis, mentioned in An. and Mag. Nat. Hist. 1843, p. 95; regarded 
as distinct from macrurus^ Horsfield, in J. A. iS. XII, 178 (dt^),— 
but referred to macrurus in XL, 586, an identification in which Dr. 
Horsfield coincided. The size, however, of C. macrurue of Java is 
considerably smaller ; and there is a closely allied species in Southern 
India, which, agreeing better in dimensions with the Javanese birdi 
I therefore presumed might be identical with the latter. Mr. Jerdoo, 
who has treated critically of the Indian species of this genus io the 



* On the same plate is figured a " Spotted Curucui" from Ceylon, which is evidently 
the Cuculus (Chrysoeoccyx) lucidus. 



18450 <^ fi^ known species of Birds. 205 

secoDd No. of hb * UlastratioD* of Indian Ornithologyi' provisionally 
assented to this suggestion ; but with proper distrust, ** in a genus 
where the plumage is so very similar/' remariied that the bird of 
Southern India might yet prove to be distinct, in which case he pro* 
posed for it the specific name airipennis: Mr. Strickland^ however, 
has informed me that he had lately received from Mr. Jerdon " a 
specimen of his small C. macrurus from the Neilgherries, which 
evidently ^eems to be the same as Horsfield's macrurus** ; yet it does 
not appear that the latter naturalist actually compared the two toge* 
ther, and the Society has now a distinct Malacca species which I 
feel very confident will prove to be the true macrurus of Hors* 
field, and I as little doubt that the species of Southern India is 
C. makraUensis of Sykes. That immediately under consideration 
is acknowledged by Mr. Strickland to be quite distinct, and this 
naturalist has suggested for it the felicitous name gagateus^ " from 
its rich agate-like markings :" of its identity, however, with the species 
named as above by Captain Tickell, I feel no doubt, although the 
statement of that observer that the sexes are alike, does not fully 
apply. It is a common bird in Lpwer Bengal during the cold season, 
and appears to be generally diffused throughout Northern India, 
bat it has not been met with in the southern part of the country, 
where it would seem to be replaced by the next. A fine male of 
0. albanoiatus measured thirteen inches long, by twenty*five in 
spread of wing ; the closed wing nine inches, and tail seven inches : 
a small female eleven and a half, by twenty-one inches ; wing eight 
and three«eighths, and tail six and five-eighths. The tarse (as in the 
others,) is anteriorly feathered nearly to the toes. This bird has the 
crown and tertiaries light cinerascent, minutely mottled, and marked 
with a atripe of black dashes along the middle of the crown : upper 
range of scapulartes black, more developed in the male, and bordered, 
more broadly externally, with rufesoent*white : lores and ear-coverts 
brown : wing-coverts black, mottled with rufous, and largely tipped 
with rufescent- white : a broad white patch in front of the neck, as 
in several allied species: there is a band of white on the primaries, 
contracted and rufescent in the female ; and the two outer tail-feathers 
are broadly tipped with white in the male, and much less broadly tip- 
ped with slightly mottled pale rufescent in the female. Altogether 
the females are much paler, and browner or less ashy, than the other 



206 Notices and DeseripHons of various new CNo. 159. 

sex. The riciorial bristles are conspicuously white at base, and black 
for the remainder of their length. 

2. C mahrattensiSt Sykes, Proe. ZooL Soc. 1832, p. 83 : C. mar 
crurus apud Jerdon, ///. Ind, Om. (vide his description of C. indicus). 
Very similar to the last, but much smaller ; a male now before me 
having the wing but six inches and a half in length, and tail four and 
three-quarters : in another the wing measured seven inches, and the tail 
five ; but Mr. Jerdon assigns " about seven inches and a half" aa the 
length of the wing, and *' five and a half to six inches," as that of the 
tail. He adds, that he considers it may perhaps be the C. tuiatieus^ 
var., of Latham. In the only specimen before me, there is a russet tinge 
about the nape, back, and breast, not seen in the preceding species. 
Formerly, I regarded what Mr. Jerdon pronounces to be a mere pale 
individual variety of the variable C indicus, as Sykes's mahraUensis; 
but looking more attentively to the description of the latter, the state- 
ment that the two outer tail-feathers are tipped with white^ cannot 
refer to any variety of C indums, wherein the four outer tail-fea- 
thers (or all but the middle pair,) have subterminal white tips, the ex- 
tremities being always dark. In other respects, I conceive that Sykes's 
description will apply sufficiently ta the generality of specimens ; par* 
ticularly as he states that it *' differs from C' moniicohis and C asiati' 
euSf in the prevalent greyness of the plumage, and in the absence of the 
subrufous collar on the nape." Hab. Southern India. 

3. C. macrurus, Horsfield, Lin. Trans. XIII, 142. To this I re- 
fer two Malacca males, and two Arracan females, in the Society's col- 
lection, which are intermediate in size to the two preceding, and are 
further distinguished by their much darker general colouring, and the 
males by having the primaries black to the end, instead of being mottled 
towards their tips. Wing seven inches and three-quarters in the 
males, and tail six inches : in the females^ the wing measures seven and 
a half, and tail five and three-quarters : the males have the crown and 
nape dark brownish-ashy, minutely mottled, with black dashes along the 
middle of the crown, as in the preceding species, and the scapulariea 
and wings are similarly marked with black, set off with bright rufons- 
white, the margins so coloured being narrower than in the others: 
breast and fore- part of the belly dark, and contrasting strongly with 
the light buffy tint of the hind-part of the belly, vent^ and lower tail" 
coverts, which last tend to be whitish in one specimen, barred with 



]845.]] or UiUe knonm species of Birds. 207 

black : the primaries UDderneath have no rufoaa bars whatever, or 
mottlings either at base or tip, and these are but imperfectly developed 
towards the base of the tail anderneath : bat the white spots on the 
middle of the primaries, and largely tipping the two oater tail-feathers, 
are the same as in the others. There is also the same conspienoos 
white mark in front of the neck, which is represented by pale buff in 
the female. The latter is altogether browner and less ashy, particular- 
ly on the head and neck ; but is still considerably darker than the 
males of the other species ; the contrast of the dark breast and pale belly 
and vent is much less decided ; the primaries are barred at base with 
rufous, and slightly so towards the tip, the white of the male being re- 
pfesented by a contracted rufous bar ; and the two outer tail-feathers 
are also much more narrowly tipped, with rufesoent instead of pure 
white. On comparison of these three species together, particularly 
with a good series of specimens, it is impossible not to regard them as 
distincty however nearly allied. 

The other Indian species are— 

4. C. asiatieus^ Lath. ; C. pecioralis, Cuv., Levaillant, Ois. d'J/r., pi. 
XLIX, apud Did. .Class. ; Bombay Goaisucher^ Latham. This small, 
comm<HVJind generally diffused species over the country, is allied in co- 
kmring to the three last, but has the tarse bare, and the sexes are alike in 
idmnage. 3Cr Jerdon is << still inclined to believe that the species 
figured by Hardwicke and Gray as asiaUcus, differs from the common 
kind. I obtained/' he adds, *< what answers to this very closely in 
the north of the Deocan. It differs from the common one in its larger 
size, more prevalent and lighter grey tint of the plumage, and in some 
other trifling points ; but I have now no specimens for comparison.'* 
Could this have been C. mahrattensis ? I certainly think there can be 
little doubt that Hardwicke's figure was taken from a Bengal specimen, 
and is meant to represent the common species. C. affinis, Horsfield, is 
a Javanese species allied to the present one, and this and macrurtis are 
the only kinds noticed in Dr. Horsfield's list of the birds of Java ; 
while, in Sumatra, Sir Stamford Raffles also speaks of but ** two va- 
rieties, one with much brighter and more marked colours than the 
other. They are very abundant in the neighbourhood of Bencoolen." 
Different species of Lyncomis^ as well as of Batrachostomus, are how- 
ever common in the vicinity of the Straits, and the former of these 
would have been classed by Raffles in Caprimulgus. 



208 Notices and Descriptions of various new QNo. 159. 

6« C, indieus, Lath., Jerdon : C. cinerasoens^ Vieillot. This hand- 
some species appears subject to considerable variation, in its dimension^ 
depth of colouring, greater or less development of the black on its 
upper-parts and inversely of the fulvescent* white upon the 8capnlaries» 
wing-coverts, &c., and also in the amount of the rufous barring 
upon the primaries, which I think is generally less developed in the 
smaller specimens of both sexes : its tarse is feathered ; and all the 
caudal feathers of the male, except the middle pair, have a white 
spot near the tip, which in the female is scarcely indicated, in ge- 
neral, these white spots have only a slight dark margin, tipping 
the feather ; but in one variety before me, with wings as much ss 
eight inches and a half long, the white on the tail-feathers is some- 
what contracted in quantity, and has a dark border fully half an 
inch in breadth, tipping each feather*. This species is, I think, 
commonest in the sub-Himalayan region, but it extends sparingly over 
India generally, and I have once known it to be shot in the neigh- 
bourhood of Calcutta. 

6. C. moniicoiuSy Franklin : Great Bombay Goatsuckery Latham. 
In this the male is distinguished by having its two outer tail-feathen 
on each side wholly white, to near the tip, whereas in the fenale these 
are barred throughout rufous and black. The female is also paler than 
the male ; and both sexes are, throughout, more uniformly, minutely 
mottled ashy, than in either of the other species, this plainness of colour- 
ing being relieved by the pale rufescent hue of the borders of tbe 
middle scapularies, by a white throat-band in the male, considerably 
less bright and contrasting in the female, and by the white on tbe 
primaries and tail of the former. With C. asistieus it accorde in har** 
ing the tarse naked, and a sort of collar surrounding the neck. I have 
twice obtained it near Calcutta, and it appears to be sparingly difiused 
throughout the country from the Himalaya southward ; Capt Abbott 
has also sent it from Arracan. 

* The specimen here adverted to is probably not Indian, but from the eastward ; 
and may prove to be of a distinct species : and one Neilgherry specimen forwarded by 
Mr. J«rdon has also much the appearance of being distinct ; in this, the ashy portion 
of the plumage is much more albescent than usual, contrasting strongly with the 
black, and there is scarcely a trace of rufous, except some broken bars of thiscolonrat 
the base of the primaries ; a row of whitish spots bordering the scapularies shew v<r7 
conspicuously ; the white spots on the tail-feathers are larger than usual ; and the 
wing measures but seven inches and a quarter long : it is a remarkably handsooie 
bird. 



1M5.3 or Uule knanm species of Birds. 209 

That very beaatiful bird, the Lyneomis csrvinieeps of Gould, extends 
so high as Arracan, where it is not very uncoBunon ; and the Society 
also possesses L. Temminckii from Singapore. Bombyeistama FuiUr^ 
fiMtt, Hay, J. A. S. X| 573, is identical with Batraehosiomus 
imriius, (V. and H.), Gould, which name it must bear; and with 
respect to the supposed Podargus (or rather Batraekostamus) javensis 
of Coorg, in southern India, noticed in XI, 798, Mr. Jerdon has since 
inftHTBied me that " it is not that species, but a smaller one, about eight 
or nine inches long ; of which," he remarks, ^* I have seen a Malacca 
specimen. It is, I think, distinguished in Lesson's < Manuel d^OmMo- 
logiey* which I do not possess. I can perfectly trust to the descrip* 
tions I received of it, and hope yet to obtain specimens." Most pro- 
bably it is the Podargus (now Batraehosiomus) sUUatus^ Gould, Proe. 
ZooL Sac, 1837» p* 43, which, together with Bat auritus and B.ja^ 
veusis (t. Podargus comuius^ Tem.), inhabits the Malay peninsula. 

Cypseiida. SwifU. To Mr. G. R. Gray is due the credit of first 
separating the Hirundo esculenta^ Lin., (the constructor of the cele- 
brated edible birds'-nests,) from the group of Swallows, and transfer- 
ring it, as a new and distinct generic type, CoUocaiioy to that of the 
Swifts : and I can now announce a second representative of this type 
ID the Hirundo unieolor of Jerdon, since regarded by him as a Cgpselus, 
upon which I altered the specific name to concolor (•/. A. S. XI, 886), as 
there was previously a Cypselus unieolor ; but it must now rank as Col^ 
iocalia unieolor, (Jerdon). From the true Swifu (Cypselus), the 
spedes of Collocalia dtfier in their considerably less robust general 
conformation, in their comparatively very slender tarsus and toes, 
and in having the hind- toe distinctly opposed to the three an- 
terior toes. Mr. Jerdon ^'only found this remarkable species in the 
Neilgherries, and about the edges of the hills. It fiise in large 
iocks, and with very great speed." The Society has also received it 
from Darjeeling. Is it, therefore, exclusively a mountain species, which 
constructs glutinous nests like the other, but in mountain caverns? 
Or does it resort* like its congener, to the caverns of clifis overhanging 
the sea-shore during the breeding season, in this case being perhaps 
the constructor of the edible nests which are found on the western coast 
of the peninsula of India, as, for instance, in the group of small islands 
about eight miles west of Vingorla (which is 276 miles from Bombay), 
commonly known as the Vingorla rocks, where about a hundred- 



210 Notices and Descriptions of various new O^o. 159. 

weight of these nests are prodaoed annually ? To myself, who» long ago, 
following the accounts of the edible nests being constructed by a true 
HirundOf found this a stumbling block to one of the distinctions 
which I drew between the Swallows and the Swifts, I confess it yielded 
some gratification to find my suspicions in this matter completely con- 
firmed ; for the nest of Cypselus apus of Europe is essentially similar 
to that of CoUocaUa escuienta, containing a large quantity of glutinoos 
matter, which there can be no doubt is secreted by the very large sali- 
vary glands of the bird* ; whereas in Hirundo vrhica^ the nests of which 
species might be thought to present a marked analogy, the fabric is con- 
structed of mud, or, as Vieillot remarks, worm-casts are selected for the 
purpose, and the birds may be commonly seen on the ground collect- 
ing material of the kind, many of them often resorting to the same wet 
place, — the Swifts, on the contrary, never descending to the ground 
at all. The two groups of Swallows and Swifts present a very 
remarkable instance of what is termed analogy^ or mere external 
and superficial resemblance, as opposed to affinity^ or intrinsic phy- 
siological proximity. Though externally resembling in their adaptive 
characters^ as a Cetal may be said to present a superficial resemblance 
to a fish, sufficient indeed to have occasioned the group to be still popu- 
larly classed with fishes, the difference between the Swifts and Swallows 
is analogous in kind, but inferior in degree, to that which necessitates 
the Whales and Porpoises to be removed altogether from among fishes : 
and the same intrinsical similarity in the essential structure, which com- 
pels us to arrange the Cetals in the class of mammalia, equally approxi- 
mates the Swifts to the Trochilida (or American Humming-birds), 
while the Swallow conformation is modelled on the ordinary passerine 
type, from which it deviates only in external modifications, having re- 
ference to mode of life. In the Swift, as in the Humming bird, the 
entire structure, alike as regards the rudimental anatomy and the ex- 
ternal characters, concurs to produce the maximum of volar power ; 
whereas n the Swallows there is no such general concurrence^ but the 
potency of flight seems entirely due to the development of the wings 
and tail, the sternal apparatus in no respect differing from that 

* Vide Mag* Nat. Hist. 1834, p. 463 et seq* The nests there described passed into my 
possession, which enables me to state that the gelatinous matter was in greater quan- 
tity than would appear from the account given by Mr. Salmon* The fact is, it con- 
stitutes the basis of a Swift's nest, by which is made to adhere the various light sub- 
stances gathered in the air by these birds, when such are blown about on a windy day. 



ISiS.] or UiUe kn&nm spedei of Birth. 2 1 1 

of a Sparrow, or a Robin, bat retaining the peculiar configuration ob* 
servable throughout the passerine type, in all its integrity. It would be 
out of place here to pass in review the principal details of conforma- 
tion of the groups to which the Swifts and Swallows respectively belong, 
and to shew how essentially they differ in the whole siceleton, in the ali- 
mentary organs, that of voice, &c. ; even to the structure of the feathers, 
and to the circumstance that the Swifts (like the TrockUida and Ca- 
prumdgtda^) have never more than ten redrieeSf while the Swallows 
have twelve, in common with the whole of the grand series of passe- 
rine birds, save one or two peculiar exceptions, of which the Drongo 
(or King-Crow) group is the most remarliable one. I shall conclude 
for the present by indicating the Indian species of Cyp9eUd€B. 

These fall under four generic heads. 

Aeanih^lis, Boie, v. CkaturOf Stephens : from which Pailene of Les- 
ion, containing the Indian species, is placed separately by Mr. Gray, 
for reasons with which I am unacquainted. Mr. Hodgson, also, says of 
the Himalayan species, that it is " certainly not a Chaiura as defined by 
Stephens. I have set it down in my note book," he adds, *' as the type 
of a new genus, called Hirundapus" (a bad hybrid name, which holds 
priority over Pailene). Mr. Swainson, however, had long previously fi- 
gored the same bird as a true Chatura, from which genus I cannot per- 
ceive in what it differs. 

1. Ac. gigatUea, (Tern.) Inhabits the Malay countries, extending 
northward to Arracan, where it is of rare occurrence ; it also occurs in 
the Neilgherries. Chin albescent, but not forming with the throat a large 
pore white patch, as in the next species ; and the spinous tail-feathers 
are much stouter, with their webs tapering, and not terminating ab- 
ruptly as in the other. 

2. Ae^ eaudacuta^* (Lath.j: Hirundo fusea^ Shaw; Chaiura ausiralis, 
Stephens ; Ch. macroptera^ Swainson ; Ch. nudipes, Hodgson, •/. A, S, 
V. 779; Cypselus feuconotus, Mag, de ZoqL 1840, Oie., pi. XX, and 
figured in the Souvenirs, &c. of M. Adolph^ Delessert, pt. II, pi. IX, 

* The Himalayan bird is certainly the macroptera of Swainson; and as this is 
given u a synonym of Latham's eaudaeuta by Mr. Strickland, {An. and Mag. N. H. 
184% p. 3S7,) on the authority of the drawing upon which Latham founded his 
<lcicription, now in the possession of the Earl of Derby, I of course bow to the decision 
of that naturalist; though Latham's statement that it has the ''forehead white, and 
thint Tery pale dusky," certainly applies better to Ac. gigantea of the Malay countries. 

2h 



212 Little known species of Birds. [No. 159. 

p. 25. Himalayan ; and said to be the same as the Aastralian species, 
though I qaestioQ if specimens have ever been actually compared. 
Cypseltts, Illiger. Ordinary Swifts. 

1. C. melhay (L.) : C alpinust Tern. Neilgherries, Travancore, &e.; 
also Southern Europe. 

2. C. pacifieua ( ? Lath.) : C. australis {f), Gould, Proc. ZooL Soe. 
1839, p. 146 ; vide J. A. S. xi, 886. Penang. 

3. C. leuconyXf nobis. Closely allied to the last, and deicribed 
from a Deccan specimen in /. A. S. zi, 886 : a Calcutta specimen 
(being the only one which I have yet heard of) flew into the window of 
a house in Garden Beachy and was obligingly presented to the Society 
by Willis Earle, Esq. It minutely agrees with my description of the 
other, except that the wing is a quarter of an inch longer. The 
marked difference in size of foot from the preceding species forbids 
their being considered of one kind.'*' 

4. C. affinis, Gray» Hardwicke's ///. Ind. Zool: C. mpa/«n«», Hodg- 
son, J. A. S* V. 780. India generally i very common about Calcutta. 

5. C. palmarum, Gray, ibid. India generally ; common. 
Collocaliay G. R. Gray. 

1. C. unieolorf (Jerdon) : Cypselus concolart nobis, J, A. S* xi, 886. 
Darjeeling ; Neilgherries. 

2. C. esculenta, (Lin.) Malay coasts : common in the Nicobtf 
islands ; and Captain Phayre informs me that *' it is to be had on the 
rocky islands off the southern part of the coast of Arracan :" it also 
(or possibly the preceding species, vide p. 210,) breeds along the Mala- 
bar coast, and so far northward as the Vingorla rocks. 

Macropteryx^ Swainson. 

M. hlecho, (Raffles): Cypselus Umgipennis, Tem. Central and 
Southern India, and Malay countries. 

Mr. Swainson gives, as a second species, the Sumatran Cypsehs com* 

tuSt Tern., which I have not seen; and as a third, C. myitaeeuh 

(Lesson,) who applies the name Pallestre to the genus. 

July I2th, 1845. E. B. 

^ There is a Cypselus viHatus, from China, figured in the 2nd series of i»dis» 
and Selby's ' Illustrations of Ornithology/ which I believe is allied to C. pacificft* i^) 
and C. liuconyx ; but it has the tail forked to the depth of an inch. 

(To be continued.) 



213 



Obtervai^ms on the rate of Evaporation on the Open Sea ; with a de- 
icripiian of an Instrument ueedfor indicating its amount, ^ By T. 
W. LaidIiBT, Esq. 
. It has often occurred to me, thai a simple and convenient inBtru. 
ment for ascertaining the actual amount of exhalation from a humid 
8iurfM», could not fail of being essentially serviceable to meteorologi- 
cal science, as well as to the arts. An instrument for this purpose 
was indeed contrived by the late Professor Leslie^ to which he gave 
the name Atmometer: but though very ingenious, and fulfilling 
tolerably well the intentions of the inventor, it fails in a very impor- 
tant qualification of scientific instruments, simplicity of construction 
and use ; and is consequently less frequently employed in observing 
the condition of the atmosphere in reference to dryness and humidity 
than is desirable. The instrument is thus described by its inventor • 
The Atmometer consists of a thin ball of porous earthenware, two or 
three inches in diameter, with a small neck, to which is firmly 
cemented a long and rather wide glass tube, bearing divisions, each of 
them corresponding to an internal annular section, equal to a film of 
liqaid that would cover the outer surliace of the ball to the thickness 
<tf the thousandth part of an inch. The divisions are marked by por- 
tions of quicksilver introduced, ascertained by a simple calculation, 
and they are numbered downwards to the extent of 100 to 200; to 
the top of the tube is fitted a brass cap, having a collar of leather, 
and which after the cavity has been filled with distilled water, is 
aerewed tight* The outside of the ball being now wiped dry, the in- 
strument is suspended out of doors, exposed to the free access of the 
air. In this state of action the humidity transudes through the 
porous substance just as fast as it evaporates from the external sur- 
&ee ; and this waste is measured by the corresponding descent of 
water in the stem. If the Atmometer had its ball perfectly screened 
from the agitation of the wind, its indications would be proportional 
to the dryness of the air at the lowered temperature of the humid 
inrface ; and the quantity of evaporation every hour as expressed in 
thousand parts of an inch, would when multiplied by 20 give the hy. 
grometric measure. The Atmometer is an instrument evidently of 
extensive application, and of great utility in practice. To ascertain 
with accuracy and readiness the quantity of evaporation from any 



214 Evaporation on the open Sea. LNo. 159. 

surface in a given time^ is an important acquisition^ not only in meteo- 
rology, but in agriculture and in the various arts and manu&ctures. 
The rate of exhalation from the sur&ce of the ground is scarcely of 
less consequence than the fall of rain, and a kno;(i?ledge of it might 
often direct the fBurmer advantageously in his operations. On the 
rapid dispersion of moisture depends the efficacy of drying houses, 
which are often constructed most unskilfully, or on very mistaken 
principles." 

The instrument which I have found to answer extremely well, 
consists of a glass tube the bore of which must be equable^ and may 
vary from one or two- tenths of an inch in diameter to a much larger size, 
according to the pleasure of the constructor. If the bore be not quite 
equable, its varying capacity must be ascertained and allowed for on 
the scale to which it is to be attadied. One end of this tube, after 
being ground quite flat and smooth, is to be closed with a porous sub. 
stance, which space permits the free transudation of water, but yet not 
so freely as to accumulate in drops or to fall. I find that common cedar 
wood possesses the requisite quality, and forms a plug which swells 
so as to become water*tight ; and by its porous structure permits the 
fluid to permeate as rapidly as the atmosphere removes it from the 
exposed surface. The tube thus prepared, and filled with distilled 
water^ is to be attached to a scale divided into fiftieths or hundredths 
of an inch, upon which as the evaporation proceeds and the column of 
fluid descends^ the daily amount of evaporation may be conveniently 
observed. No other precaution seems necessary in using this Atmometer 
than to supply it with very pure rain or distilled water ; for any saline 
matter it might contain would be deposited upon the evaporatiog 
surface^ and would interfere very materially with the result. To 
prevent error from this source, the entire tube should be very frequent* 
ly (sfty every time that it is filled^) washed in a quantity of clean 
water to remove accid^tal impurities ; and the cedar plug occasion- 
ally renewed. 

The following observations made with this instrument on board of the 
ship ^' Southampton," on her recent voyage from England to Calcutta, 
showing the rate of evaporation on the open sea in tropical latitudes, 
ihay not be altogether uninteresting to such as are curious in oceanic 
meteorology* The instrument was suspended in a shaded part of the 
vessel, exposed freely to the action of the wind. 



18tf.J 



Evaporaliati <m the mien Sea. 



316 



- 


Latitude. 


Longitude. 


Barometer. 


Thermome- 
ter. 


Evaporation 
in 










inches. 




O 1 


o t 




o 




October 3 


37 158 


40 31E 


29.00 


62 


0.40 


4 


37 13 


44 05 


30.13 


63 


0.38 


5 


37 19 


47 50 


30.10 


64 


051 


6 


37 09 


5151 


30.06 


66 


0.33 


7 


36 38 


56 14 


30.08 


56 


0.40 


8 


3558 


59 50 


30.12 


58 


0.45 


9 


35 39 


62 21 


30.16 


61 


0.40 


10 


34 46 


67 19 


30.14 


62 


0.40 


11 


33 24 


7147 


30.02 


63 


0.41 


12 


3151 


76 04 


29.94 


63 


0mS5 


13 


30 27 


79 05 


30.09 


66 


0.38 


14 


28 54 


,82 87 


30.16 


695 


0.87 


15 


*i6l4 


84 25 


30.18 


71 


0.39 


16 


24 25 


86 10 


30.19 


71.5 


0.60 


17 


23 02 


86 14 


30.24 


72 


0.62 


18 


2106 


86 18 


30.10 


73 


0.72 


19 


J825 


86 34 


30.11 


76 


0.68 


20 


16 39 


86 36 


30.10 


77.5 


0.70 


21 


14 42 


86 54 


30.11 


81 


0.70 


22 


1107 


86 54 


30.00 


82 


0.78 


23 


739 


86 34 


30.09 


84 


0.80 


24 


3 57 


87 10 


30.05 


84.5 


0.82 


25 


208 


87 19 


30.04 


83.5 


0.75 


26 


109N 


87 57 


29.97 


84 


0.86 


27 


4 19 


89 32 


30.00 


82.5 


0.98 


28 


6 41 


90 16 


30.00 


84 


1.00 


29 


7 58 


90 40 


30.00 


84.5 


1.U6 


30 


850 


90 52 


30.02 


81.5 


0.88 


31 


935 


90 40 


30.00 


84 


0.72 


November 1 


10 55 


9015 


30 00 


84 


0.93 


2 


1310 


89 56 


30.03 


81 


0.82 


3 


14 15 


90 00 


30.05 


86 


0.40 


4 


1520 


89 80 


30.05 


84 


0.70 


5 


17 25 


88 49 


30.00 


83 


0.67 


6 


1884 


88 24 


30.00 


83 


0.72 


7 


18 52 


88 45 


30.02 


83 


0.68 


8 


19 23 


88 53 


30.10 


83 


0.88 


9 


19 18 


89 37 


30.00 


82 


1.15 


10 


19 56 


89 43 


30.00 


82 


1.25 


11 


20 37 


89 00 


30.00 


81 


1.24 


12 


2054 


89 12 


29.95 


80 


1.32 


13 


Sandhe* 


aids. 


29.98 


80 


1.04 



The reader will perhaps be surprised at this high rate of evaponu 
tion on the open sea, differing as it does so widely from that deduced 
by M. Von Humboldt from his own observations with the hair hy. 
grometer. That accomplished observer gives the following results^ 
calculated from a formula of M. d' Aubuisson> which does not how. 
ever appear to meet all the circumstances of the case. 



216 



Evaporation on the open Sea. 



[No. 159. 



Latitude N. 


Thermometer, 
(Cent grade.) 


Hygrometer. 


Quantity of water 
evaporated per hoar 
in millimetres. 


o f 

3910 


14.5 


o 

82 


0.13 


3036 


20.0 


85.7 


0.14 


29 18 


20.0 


83.8 


0.16 


1853 


21.2 


81.5 


0.20 


16 19 


22.5 


88 


0.13 


12 34 


24.0 


89 


0.13 


10 46 


25.4 


90 


0.12 


11 1 


25.0 


92 


0.09 



** It follows from these researches/' says M. Von Humboldt, ** that 
if the quantity of vapour which the air commonly contains in our 
middle latitudes, amounts to about three-quarters of the quantity ne. 
cessary for its saturation, in the torrid zone this quantity is raised to 
nine- tenths. The exact ratio is from 0.78 to 0.88. It is this great 
humidity of the air under the tropics, which is the cause that the 
evaporation is less than we should have supposed it to be from the 
elevation of the temperature." 

These inferences seem scarcely compatible with the actual indica- 
tions of my instrument. But it must be observed, that besides being 
imperfect as a hygroscope, De Luc's instrument takes no cognizance of 
the important agency of the wind in promoting evaporation. So fu 
from diminishing, the exhalation from the surfoce of the sea would 
appear to augment very rapidly as we approach the torrid zone : my 
observations exhibiting a daily average of 0.398 in. from latitude 
2T 15' S. to latitude 24<> 25', and of 0.809 in. through the tropics. 



217 



Oft the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, Diluvial and Wave Translation Theo- 
ries; with reference to the deposits of Southern India, its furrowed 
and striated Rocks, and Rock basins. By Captain Nswbold, 
M. N. I., F.R.S. Assist. Commissioner Kurnool, Madras Territory, 
With a plate. 

The geological reader in looking over the published remarks of ob- 
senrers on the geology of Sonthem India, can hardly fail being struck 
with the almost utter absence of any notice of a boulder or drift 
formation, analogous to that which prevails to a great extent over the 
mrfaee of the northern parts of Europe^ and in the higher latitudes 
of the opposite hemisphere. Nor has any undoubted testimony been 
hitherto laid before the geological world as to the existence in Southern 
India of the polished surfaces of rocks, grooves, parallel strisB, perched 
blocks, truncated conical mounds, tumuli, and long ridges of gravel, 
which have been so conspicuously pointed to in Europe by Agassis 
and others, as unquestionable evidences of the overland march of gla- 
ders conveying boulders, gravel, sand, and loam to great distances. 

Gharpentier and Venetz were the first, I believe, to promulgate the 
theory — that ancient Alpine glaciers extended far beyond the pre- 
sent limits of glaciers from the Alps to the Jura, and were the means of 
eonveying the gigantic angular granite and crystalline blocks of the 
former chain, to the strange position they now occupy on the lime, 
stone slopes of the latter ridge, over the intervening valley, which is 
one of the deepest in the world and upwards of 50 miles in width. 
To account for the extension of glaciers across this valley to the Jura, 
now entirely destitute of glaciers, M. Gharpentier supposes the eleva- 
tion of the Alps to have been much greater than now : and it ap- 
pears certain that moraines, striee, and furrows, considered to be 
indubitable marks of glacial action, can be traced in the Alps to 
great heights above the present glaciers, and to great horizontal dis- 
tances beyond their lower limits. The Jura, which is only about 
one-third of the average height of the Alps, presents similar marks of 
gladal action to the Alps, although now entirely destitute of glaciers. 

It was subsequently objected, that the phenomena of erratic boul- 
ders extend over the northern and more temperate zones of Europe, 
Asia and America, in flat tracts, and consequently could not be ac 



218 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, [No. 159. 

counted for by so local a cause as the former greater elevation of the 
Alps. 

To explain these difficulties, M. Agassiz repudiates the former 
greater elevation theory; and supposes a former colder state of 
climate prevailing over the countries^ in which the phenomena of 
boulders are founds and which covered them, as is now the case in 
Greenland, with sheets of ice and glaciers. 

He supposes that most of the large longitudinal beds of unstratified 
gravel we see in the North and West of England, Scotland and Ire- 
land, to be the lateral morainesi and the conical truncated mounds 
and insulated tumuli to be the terminal moraines of ancient glaci«9, 
(left by their retreat^ and not pushed forward by them as supposed by 
Charpentier,) broken and washed by debddee occasioned by the thaw- 
ing of the ice, masses of which were thus drifted in diverging direc- 
tions, conveying the large insulated angular masses of rock called er- 
ratic blocks to the strange situations we now see them occupying. 

Circles of such angular blocks seen round the summits of conical 
peaks are supposed to be occasioned by the glaciers lodging on it and 
melting on it. They are usually called perched blocks. 

The rounded or bouldered blocks and gravel are supposed to have 
been produced by the trituration of the masses of ice and glaciers 
upon the subjacent surface, and the angular blocks which are found 
on the surface of the rounded materials, to have been left there by the 
melting of the ice. The interstratified deposits of mud, gravel and 
sand are considered to be a re-arrangement of the smaller materials of 
a moraine produced by the water resulting from the melting of a 
glacier. M. Agassiz observed polished surfaces, furrows, cavities, and 
strise in the rocks of England, dec. where the boulder formation ex- 
ists, similar to those in the Alps, and considers them also as proofs of 
the former existence of glaciers in those now temperate regions. 

The longitudinal furrows, &c. were observed by Seffstrom and others 
to have a general direction of N. W. and S. E. in the rocks of Lapland, 
Norway, and Sweden ; which, added to the circumstance of blocks of 
granite confessedly from the mountains of Scandinavia being found im- 
bedded in the boulder and drift of the eastern coast of England and 
Scotland, over Russia and Germany to the borders of Holland, and 
other reasons, induced many distinguished geologists to suppose the 



1846.] Diluvial and Wave Translaium Theories. 219 

boulder deposit to have been produced by a deluge, or great oceanic 
wave from the north. These parallel furrows were supposed to have 
been caused by the passage of grarel propelled by this great current, 
and hence called " diluvial schrammen." 

Botlingky however, has observed that some of these Scandinarine 
furrows have centres of dispersion (like those formed by modem gla* 
eien on the Alps,) ecmformable to the major axis or longitudinal di* 
netion of each valley. In the south of Sweden, he says, the striSB in- 
dine southerly ; but on the east of Lapland northerly to the Icy ocean ; 
he itates, the general direction of the striae on the summits of Scandi- 
mvia to be from N. W. to S. E. Those also in North America ob. 
served by Professor Hitchcock, have a similar direction. 

M. Agassis repudiates this diluvial theory as applicable to the 
drift and parallel furrows on the rocks of England and Scotland, 
which he states to diverge every where from the central chains of the 
country, following the course of the vallies; and that the distribution 
of the blocks and gravel follows similar directions, each district often 
having its peculiar debris traceable in many instances to its parent 
ndc at the head of the valley. Hence, he infers, the cause of the trans- 
port must be sought for in the centre of the mountain ranges, and 
not from a point without the district. The Scandinavian blocks in 
the drifi of England, he confesses, may have been transported on float, 
iogice. 

M. Agaasiz does not deny the power of water to produce the fur- 

rows, and polishing of rocks in sUii; but states he has not been able 

to find them on the borders of rivers, lakes, and on sea coasts; that 

the effects produced by water sure sinuous furrows proportioned to the 

hardness of rocks; not even, uniform, polished surfaces, such sm those 

piesented by rocks acted upon by glaciers having both loose gravel 

under them, and pebbles and pieces of rock firmly set in their lower 

surface like teeth in a file, and which are independent of the compo- 

sitionof the stone: Ibr, he states, wherever the moveable materials, 

which stfe pressed by the ice on rocks in sit(i, are hardest, there occur 

independent of the polish, striae more or less parallel in the general 

direction of the movement of the glaciers. Thus, in the neighbourhood 

of glaciers, are found those polished round bosses which Saussure dis* 

tlnguiahes by the name of ' roches matUannie.' The most striking Ilea. 

2i 



220 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg^ QNo. 159. 

tures in the distribution of Alpine glacial striae are thus diverging at 
the outlets of the vallies^ and their being oblique and never horizontal 
on the flanks, which they would be, were they due to the agency of 
water, or floating masses of ice. 

The cause of their obliquity M. Agassiz ascribes to the upward 
expansion of the ice by the freezing of the water infiltered into the 
crevices and pores of the glaciers, and the descending motion of the 
glacier itself which he considers produced by this expansion of the 
mass and its gravitation. 

From the resemblance in shape, and the interior arrangement of 
the beds of the so-called diluvium of England^ France and Germany, 
that of the moraines confessedly produced by existing Alpine glaciers ; 
from the presence on these rocks of furrows, &c. resembling those 
now produced at the bottom of moving glaciers ; their radiation from 
mountain centres of elevation and coincidence of direction with that 
of the vallies down which glaciers would descend ; their obliquity just 
described, and from the existence on the Jura limestone of basin and 
funnel-shaped cavities, and small indentations similar to those 
seen forming at the bottom of glaciers by small and temporary cas- 
cades descending through cracks and chasms in the ice, and from the 
association in those regions of these Alpine phenomena, which M. 
Agassiz contends are inexplicable on any theory of aqueous action apart 
from ice ; he infers, as already stated, that very large portions of the 
now temperate regions of the globe have for a long period been covered 
with ice and snow. 

A few shells of an arctic character, which have been found in the 
boulder deposits of Scotland and North America in addition to the above, 
constitute all the evidence we have of the period of intense cold, on 
which rests the Alpine glacial theory as applicable to the boulder de- 
posits ; and which M. Agassiz ingeniously imagines^ accounts for the 
extinction of the mammoths which flourished in the warm period 
immediately antecedent, and the appearance of their frozen remains in 
arctic glaciers. The frozen period was followed by the more temperate 
human epoch. 

The views of M. Agassiz on the origin of the boulder deposit have 
met with powerful support from Dr. Buekland, and partially from 
Mr. Lyell. 



1845] Diluvial and Wave Translation Theories. 221 

Mr. Murchison, the late diatingukhed President of the Geological 
Society, and M. Vernenil, reject the Alpine glacial theory, considering 
it as totally inapplicable to the boulder formation overspreading great 
part of Russia ; the large granitic and other crystalline blocks of which 
(previously alluded to) have attracted so much attention from the days 
of Pallas up to the present time. These blocks, which have all been 
evidently derived from the North, are shown to have been deposited 
under the sea, or in other words, on a sea bottom, since they cover 
marine shells of the post-pleiocene period. The smaller blocks of the 
detritus are in general carried to greater distances than the larger ; the 
distance being sometimes 1000 miles from the parent beds to the 
N. W. As in the English deposits, although a large proportion con- 
sisted of material brought from a distance, yet it contained a con. 
siderable portion of the detritus of the subjacent and adjacent rocks, 
the nature of which was often indicated from the colour of the 
superficial clay and sand. Mr. Murchison and M. Vernenil obser- 
ved no instance of any substance having been transported from 
5. to N. except by the modern action of streams, and by local causes 
dependent on the present configuration of the land. 

In room then of the Alpine glacial theory these authors substitute 
that of Icebergs. They believe that these great blocks have been transm 
ported on floating icebergs set adrift from ancient glaciers supposed 
to have existed in Lapland and the adjacent tracts; from the northern 
chains of which the blocks were originally dislodged and impelled 
southwards into the sea of that period, in which the post-pleiocene 
shells they are now seen to rest upon were accumulated. 

They did not observe any parallel strise or polishing of the surfaces 
of the rocks of Central Russia, but describe the most southerly of 
the scratches which came under their notice near Petrazowodsk on 
the Lake Onega. 

They consider these marks may have been caused by the ice-floes 
and detritus dislodged and set in motion by the elevation of the 
northern continental masses, grating upon the bottom of the sea ; since, 
if they were caused by the overland march of glaciers, the glaciers 
must have been propelled from lower to higher levels, which is 
against what they conceive to be an axiom, viz., that the advance 
of every modern glacier depends on the superior altitude of the 
ground behind it. 



222 On the Alpine Glacier^ Iceberg, [No. 159. 

Mr. Darwin's researches in the opposite hemisphere show, that 
the boulder formation, with all its European features, exists over ex. 
tensive regions of South America ; in the plains traversed by the Rio 
Santa Cruz (Lat. 50° S.) ; Tierra del Fuego,— including the Straits 
of Magellan and the Island of Chiloe (Lat. 48'' S., Long. 78*' W.) 
Mr. Darwin, in order to account for the interstratification of regular 
beds, the occasional appearance of stratification in the mass itself 
the juzta-position of rounded and angular fragments of various sizes and 
kinds of rock derived from distant mountains, and the frequent 
capping of gravel, follows Mr. Lyell in believing that floating ice 
charged with foreign matter has been the chief agent in its formation ; 
but^ he adds, it is difficult to understand how the first sediment was 
arranged in horizontal lamins; and coarse shingle in beds; tvAUe 
stratification is totally, and often suddenly, wanting in the dasdy 
neighbouring till, if it be supposed that the materials were mere. 
]y dropped from melting drift ice ; and he is disposed to think that 
the absence of stratification, as well as the curious contortions de- 
scribed in some of the stratified masses, are mainly due to the dis. 
turbing action of the icebergs when grounded. 

He believes also, that the total absence of organic remains in 
these deposiU may be accounted for by the ploughing up of the 
bottom by stranded icebergs, and the impossibility of any animal 
existing on a soft bed of mud or stones under such circumstances. In 
conformation of the disturbing action of icebergs, Mr. Darwin refers 
to Wrangel's remarks on their effects off the coast of Siberia. 

Professor Hitchcock, and more recently Mr. Lyell, have made us 
acquainted with the great extent of the boulder formation in North 
America accompanied by parallel stris, and rounded and polished sor. 
faces of the harder rocks in sitfi ; also vast longitudinal mounds 
and detached tumuli of detritus. The prevailing direction of the 
striee observed by the former, as before observed, assimilated to that of 
the furrows on the Scandinavian rocks, viz., from N. W. to S. £• 

The advocates of the iceberg theory consider these ridges and 
mounds of unstratified gravel (the moraines of the glacialist) to have been 
the wreck of icebergs fi^ighted with the detritus of circumpolar rocks, 
and stranded on the shores of seas, estuaries, or lakes ; or as having 
been deposited in deep water by floating icebergs melting as they 
approached warmer seas. The interstratified deposit, and occasional 



184o.]| Diluvial and Wave TranslaHon Theories. 223 

Bi^teantnce of stratification in the mass itself is supposed to be occa- 
aioned by a re-arrangement of these materials by subsequent aqueous 
eorrents, which are ako referred to as having given to the mass the 
configuration of longitudinal ree&, or truncated mounds. 

It is well known, that the present general course of existing ice- 
bergs is from the polar regions towards the equator. These icy masses^ 
as we glean from the writings of Scoresby and other navigators^ are 
seen drifting in the open seas — laden with beds of rock and stone, 
brought from polar regions, the weight of which has been conjectured 
at from 50>000 to 100,000 tons, which are deposited as they dissolve 
either on the bed of the ocean, on the coasts, or when they ground. 
The breadth of one of these icebergs was about 15 miles. 

A recent letter to Colonel Sabine from an Officer of the Antarctic ex- 
pedition, states^ that in Lat 70*^ immense cliffs of ice were met with, 
forming the sea borders of an enormous glacier, above which, at 
a great many miles distance, the top of the mountains were visible. 
The ice-cliff was constantly breaking and tumbling down, and the 
disjointed masses congregated and floated away towards the equator 
to 60^ S. Lat., where an enormous extent of iceberg was constantly 
to be found floating, and not fixed to any submarine ridge. Here they 
were constantly depositing by dissolution immense quantities of 
stones, earth, and other materials brought from the distant antarctic 
mountains. Still more recently, Mr. Hopkins the mathematician, 
8iq>ported by Professor Sedgwick, accounts for much of the drift on 
the flanks of the Cambrian chain without invoking the aid of glaciers 
or icebergs, by the hypothesis of the transporting forces of diverging 
waves of an ocean consequent to the elevation, or paroxysms of 
ekvaiion, by which the mountains were raised from its bed. Such 
waves he terms '' waves of transkUion," because they are found not 
to rise and fall like common waves, but wholly to rise, and maintain 
themselves above the level of the water. The powers of such waves 
have been reduced to laws by the experimental . researches of Mr. 
Scott Russell, which prove that a sudden elevation of a solid mass 
from beneath the water causes a corresponding elevation of the sur- 
fiice of the fluid, which infallibly produces a wave of translation of 
the first order. 

Arguing that this wave is propagated with a velocity which varies 
with the square root of the depth of the ocean, Mr. Russell determines 



224 On the Alpine Glacier^ Iceberg, QNo. 159. 

the velocity of wave transmission^ and that the old idea of the power 
of waves extending only a little way down in the sea is not true as 
touching waves of translation, — the motion and power of which is 
nearly as great at the bottom as at the top. 

He further demonstrates^ that the motion of this wave do^ not fluc- 
tuate, but is continuous and forward during the entire transit of its 
length ; hence a complete transposilion is the result of its movement : 
and the wave of translation, he says, may be regarded as a mechani- 
cal agent for the transmission of power as complete and perfect as the 
lever or inclined plane. 

Reasoning from such data, Mr. Hopkins states, that currents of 25 
and 30 miles an hour may be easily accounted for, if repetitions of 
elevations from 160 to 200 feet be granted ; and with motive powers 
producing a repetition of such waves he infers, from mathematical and 
mechanical arguments, that there would be no difficulty in transport- 
ing to great distances masses of rock of larger dimensions than any 
boulders in the north of England. 

Mr. Hopkins has also shown by mathematical analysis, that the 
overland march of glaciers over large and flat continents is a theory 
founded on mechanical error, and involves conclusions irreconcilable 
with the deductions of collateral branches of physical science. 

Such is a brief abstract, derived principally from the Geological So- 
ciety's Proceedings of the theories which divide the geological world 
at home regarding the boulder formation. General Briggs, perceiving 
that India was silent, while Europe, part of Asia, and America in both 
hemispheres, were contributing to the general stock of knowledge on 
this head, applied to some of the local authorities in the East to lend 
their aid in eliciting information, and among others to the Marqais of 
Tweeddale and General Fraser, to whom I have already transmitted 
some memoranda on the subject, at their request. 

On mature consideration, however, I am of opinion that the mode 
I have adopted, of publishing an abstract of the theories on the 
subject which agitate geologists, with a notice of the leading feature 
of the principal alluvial deposits of Southern India as far as hitherto 
known, followed by a short description of the characteristics of the 
true boulder formation, by which it may be recognized when found in 
Southern India, and a list of the chief points to which the observer's 
attention should be directed in gaining useful information on this bead, 



1845.] ZHluvial and Wave TransloHofi Theories. 225 

in langaage free, as far as possible, from scientific terms, will serve 
more effectually towards the carrying out General Briggs's views. 
Existence of erratic Blocks and Bouiders in Southern India, 

It was Brongniart, I believe, on the authority of M. de la Luc, who 
first spread among the Savans of Europe the idea that the rounded 
blocks of granite around and in the vicinity of Hydrabad in the plains 
of the Deccan were true erratic boulders; but after a close and ex- 
tended examination of them, and of the rocks for many miles around, 
I am convinced that these blocks are in sitd (in place,) or nearly so, 
since they invariably rest upon> or near a granite of the same petro- 
graphical character ; and that they owe their prevailing globular and 
rounded form to a process of spontaneous concentric exfoliation which 
I have endeavoured to explain in a paper published in the Journal 
of the Royal Asiatic Society for 1840. 

The granite and limestone blocks at Puttuncherroo near Hydrabad, 
around Bangalore, Bellary, and in the Carnatic, wherever examined 
closely, I have found to be of precisely similar origin. 

The formation in all these localities is one of granitic rocks, gneiss, 
and other contemporaneous crystalline schists, penetrated by dykes of 
basaltic greenstone, varying in structure from compact basalt to crys- 
talline and porphyritic greenstone. The disposition of the last rock 
to assume a globular or spheroidal shape in weathering is still more 
remarkable than in the granite, which is often seen in rhomboidal and 
eaboidal masses, the angles of which are first blunted, and then round- 
ed off by the exfoliation. 

The Hydrabad granite blocks are seen lying singly, in confusedly 
piled heaps, or resting as tors or logging stones on bare bosses of a 
similar granite ; and sometimes buried or half.buried in a soil formed 
by their own weathering. 

At LuDJabunda, in the Kumool district, I observed a single globular 
mass of granite about 18 feet in circumference, resting on a bare boss 
of the same rock, from. which apparently the slightest touch would 
send it rolling to a considerable distance in the plain, and of which 
the subjoined diagram may serve to convey some idea. CSee plate, 
Diagram, No, I, J 

The globular block A, is cemented to the boss beneath it B, by a 
paste a, arising from the decomposition of the granite itself, a felspathic 



226 On the Alpine Glacier, leeherg, [tJJo. 159. 

clay hardened by the oxidized iron of the miea and hornblende. 
Now the block A, might either roll on to a gneiss, or any other crystal, 
line schist at C, or become baried in the alluvion at D. It might be 
set in motion not only by a stroke of lightning or an earthquake^ 
but by process of its own weathering or that of the boss beneath it, or 
the washing away by the rain of the cement. The distance to which 
it might roll would be in proportion to the height and inclination of 
the boss on which it rests, the slope of the plane at its base^ and its 
own weight and roundness. 

In some cases the very rocks from which these globular masses 
originated, and on which they rested, have weathered £uter than the 
block itself, and have crumbled into the mounds of angular gra- 
velly detritus so common over the whole granitic area of Southern In- 
dia, known to native cultivators and well-diggers under the names of 
MhuTTum and Ghurruet in contradistinction to the nodular lime- 
stone gravel called Kunker. 

Amid this granitic gravel evidently formed in sitA, in some places 
near 80 feet deep, are occasionally found the hardest spheroidal nuclei 
of granitic and basaltic rocks. These blocks have longer resisted the 
decay which has worn down the rock of which they once formed veins 
or dykes. Such is also the case in the angular gravel arising from the 
weathering of gneiss and the other crystalline schists, in which gra- 
nitic and basaltic greenstone so extensively occur in the shape of 
dykes or veins. 

That this gravel has not travelled far is evident from the angular 
nature of its component fragments, and that it is not the transported 
angular gravel of a moraine, or iceberg, is evident fr(»n the feet 
of veins of quartz, extending into it from the less weathered portions of 
the subjacent granite, or crystalline schists from which it is derived. 
The vein A A, in the diagram is of quartz, which though crumbling 
like white sand under the pressure of the fingers, is still seen to pre- 
serve its relative place and proper direction in the gravelly detritiu 
above B, from the subjacent gneiss. (Seeplaief Diagram^ No, ILJ 

Ovoidal fragments of granite sometimes occur imbedded in gneiss 
at considerable distances from any surface granite, which when ex- 
posed by the decay of the imbedding rock, might in an apparently ex- 
clusive gneiss area be difficult otherwise to account for than as a trans- 



[846.] DiluffM tmd Warn TfmOmHon Thef>ries. 227 

portMi Meek ; b«w0f«r, wiierever we find gneks in Southern India, the 
gfuite n never fttr distant 

Dr* fienia is inclined to consider the blocks of granite seen scattered 
on the tableland of Mysore about Oolcondapatnam, from the confused 
Bitore of their arrangements and the circumstance of no hills of any 
Bsgnitnde being apparent, as erratic boulders ; but those which I 
asmined in this locality proved to be out-croppings of granitic veins or 
iyket in the gneiss which bases this plain, deserted by the softer and 
more easily weathered imbedding schist. Granite and greenstone are 
tbvndant in the surrounding country ; and even when not apparent^ 
its existence must always be suspected in the hypogene areas of 
Soathem India. It must also be borne in mind^ if ever granite blocks 
are found at great distances from the rock whence they were derived, 
that the surfiice of India, like that of other countries, has been sub- 
jected to waves of translation caused by elevation to the surfiice. 

Insulated bloeks, knobs, clusters of granite, like those in the gneits 
ttd granite plains of Hydrabad, Mysore and the Camatic, have never 
been obsMved on the snr&oe of the extensive diamond limestone and 
nsdstone patches of Guddapah, Kumool and the South Mahratta 
oMmtry :— and only one small fragment of the former rock on thegra. 
flitie and hypogene areas, at the base of the Neilgherries by Dr. Ben. 
tt, which alone cannot be pronounced with any certainty as a true 
boulder, or transported pebble, as it may have been dropped from the 
collection of a traveller. 

It will be proper to observe, that the Hindus like the ancient Bgyp. 
(ians, in the construction of their temples and statues, manifest a parti. 
>lity for granite and basalt ; blocks of which they will convey to great 
distances, if quarries should not happen to be at hand. I have seen 
a psgoda entirely built of granite amid the Moslem ruins of Bijapore, 
^bidi is situated on a plain of the overlying trap 16 or 17 miles from 
tlie nearest granite rocks. 

The Egyptians, who had the advantage of easy water carriage, 
^sported enormous blocks of granite from the quarries of Syene to 
Wer Egypt. In the desert, as in the jungles of India, are fre- 
^Hently seen fragments of this rock scattered on the sands-^the only 
Knudning vestiges of former structures, and many miles distant from 
^ parent rocks. 

2 K 



228 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, [No. 159. 

The tabular summito of the diamond sandstone and limestone in 
Southern India are often covered with rounded pebbles, which an ex- 
amination always proved to be those loosened out of the sandstone pad- 
ding stones in weathering. 

Diamond gravel. Beds of gravel, in which I have observed trans- 
ported pebbles which could not be accounted for by causes now in ae- 
tion^ occur in the valley of the Pennaur underlying a steep bed of 
teguTy and in other diamond tracts. The diamond is found often as a 
transported pebble in this gravel; and pits are sunk through the regur 
to it. It is stratified, and bears more resemblance to the gravelly beach 
of a lake in the size of its pebbles^ &c. than to the incongruous mass 
of a boulder bed. It rarely exceeds a couple of feet in thick- 
ness. 

River terraces, S^c. Along the courses of the great rivers of India, 
for instance that of the Bhima, are occasionally seen river terraces 
and beds of gravel beyond the highest present floods and inundations. 
Some of these may be owing to shifts in the course of the rivers them- 
selves^ but others indicate the passage of more extensive currents of 
water than at present. 

Captain AUardyce informs me, that the Moyar valley, a mile or 
more in breadth at the base of the Neilgherries, bears evident marks 
of having been once the channel of a river, now only visible in an 
insignificant stream, which even in the monsoon does not occupy one- 
hundredth part of its breadth. There are beds of sand and gravel 
in the cross valley of Baugapilly, through which a rivulet cuts its 
way, which could never have deposited this gravel on the summit 
of the Ghauts. Captain AUardyce writes me, that traces of a diluvial 
current exist on the summit of the Neilgherries, upwards <^ 6,0(K) feet 
above the ocean's level ; that the gravel and loam there are arranged 
in such a manner, as could only take place by deposit from water, 
the gravel being lowest, in a thin distinct and separate stratum, with 
the lighter loam covering it to the thickness of several feet. 

Lateritic gravel. Beds of a red ferruginous gravel, principally de- 
rived from the true laterite, for which they have been mistaken, exist 
on the table-lands, near the flanks of the Ghauts and in the maritime 
plains at their bases ; but none of them assimilate the character of the 
European boulder formation. Some of them are recent alluvia, bat 



mS^J Diluvial and Wave TraHilaiion Theories. 239 

othen are evidently derived from the denndation the laterite has 
been subjected to daring the elevation of the land. 

Sand bede of Baroche underlying the Regur, Beds of a yellowish 
brown micaceous sand, I am told by Professor Orlebar, underlie the 
regur near Baroche> extending inland as far as Ahmednugger, in 
whieh DO fossils have been found. 

The Black day of Coromandel The cities of Madras and Pondi. 
eherry, and other places on the Coromandel Coast, stand on an alluvi- 
om which overlies beds of bluish black clay, interstratified with layers 
of sand and reddish clay. The sur&ce black clay imbeds marine shells 
of existing spedes. 

These beds sometimes extend several miles inland. The bluish black 
clay appears analogous to the r^ur^ which will be described below. 
This accumulation of clays and sands it is probable extends with little 
intermission along the coast to the mouth of the Ganges^ where they 
will be interrupted probably by the fiuviatile deposits of this mighty 
river. The delta of the Ganges, as &r as we can gather from one 
boring experiment, consists at Calcutta of a series of dark clays and 
sands ; they rest at the depth of 350 to 485 feet on a gravel com- 
posed of rolled pebbles of granitic crystalline rocks, similar to those 
described by Captain Cautley at the base of the Himalayas. The 
uppermost strata contained portions of peat, kunker, and fragments of 
trees, and the lowest beds, beneath a layer of dark carbonaceous 
day under which were fragments of coal, fossilized portions of tur- 
ties, and the caudal vertebra supposed to be that of a Saurian. In 
the arenaceous beds above this, more than 200 feet from the sur- 
&ee, were found the lower half of a humerus, which Mr. Prinsep 
sapposed to be like that of a dog, and a fragment of the carapace 
of a turtle. From the granite and gneiss gravel it has been inferred 
by Dr. M'Clelland, that bold mountains of these rocks existed in close 
proximity to the present site of Calcutta. The superimposed carbo. 
naceous beds indicate a marshy surfoce clothed with vegetation, 
prior to which the currents which brought down the gravel, he thinks 
were arrested by the contemporaneous subsidence of the mountains 
and the lowering of the bed of the Ganges. 

The Regur deposit. In a paper read before the Royal Society, 

several years ago, I have already endeavoured to show that the re. 

markable loam called Regur, is not a fiuviatile deposit, as supposed by 



230 On the Jdpme Glackr, lcehev§y [No. 15a 

Vo^ysey, nor a modern ailuTiam washed from the -teap recks aathotigii ft 
by Christie, but a deposit from water in a state of repose, or nesEly ao* 

The principal objectiou lo these theories of Voyaey ttadChriatie are, 

\st. The great extent and geognostic position of the regur, eovev- 
ing both the tabular summits of hills, the bottoms of vallaes, vast 
almost treeless plains, with a sea-like. hocinoiitality of surluie, often: §mt 
removed from the least ii^nience of existiiig riy«rs an4 low floodsL Its 
occurring in broad detached patches often far above Ihe loskg, narrow 
lines of drainage. 

2nd. Its. underlying occasionally all present alluYial soils, those of 
the trap included, and filling up chinks and fissures ia the asafejsb- 
cent rocks. 

Zrd. Its overlying granitic, bypogene, santibtonc^ Mmestone^ sub4 
lateritic rocks indiscriminately, far distant from tr8f» csicks whieh it 
also overlies. 

4/A. All trap rocks in weathering, redden by peroxidation of ilie 
protoxide of iron they contain ; and usually form fifst a bfown, then 
a reddish-brown, or cc^ee-coloured mL 

5ik, The regur, at a distance from trap rocks, iadbecte no frmgr- 
ments of them, even of their hardest and most lasning ^ein stuff,, ssscls 
as quartz, jasper, heliotrope, agate, and calcedony. It often imibeds 
fragments of whatever rocks it may happen to onretlie, or whxdt aae 
washed into it. 

6ih* The remarkable homogeneous character and colour of the regar 
over large areas, when free from recent £nreign admixture, to* whicb it 
is subject^ as well as to re-arrangemen(r from present rains and Idiuu 
daticms. 

ti&. The different colour, generally shades of brown and red,, of the 
present fluvial deposits of Southern India, and their varying charac- 
ter over small spaces even. 

In common with some clays of the boulder deposit, the stratificattoa 
of the re^ur is rarely apparent, and always obscune* Boa this 
phenomenon I have observed in ^e mud of tanks over which the 
water has been deepest and stillest, and where the particles deposited 
were of a very fine and homogeneous character. In proportion as the 
nature of the mud deviated from these conditions, and became inter- 
mixed with silt and sand, the layers of deposition became mose aod 
more distinguishable. 



1845.] DUuvud and Warn TnamheUm Theories. 3S1 



Tins I ako remarked to be the case with tbe mod ef the Nile, par. 
UcoJarly ia the upper parts ef ita ooorsa through Egypt : but oa the 
Ddta where the slope of the bed is still less, aad the motioii of the 
stieaBa lasguid, the stratification is more obscure. 

Both in tbe mod of the Nile, and in that of the tanks ef India 
vhere nsBoal layers of deposition may be strongly marked, the 
hfff^n nf monthly, weekly er daily deposition are indiistinct or not 
to be traced ; hence the interior of the annual layer individually has 
an niffitmtified appearance. The same is obsenrable in the structure 
of seme individual beds of enormous thickness, as in the thick-bedded 
aandatones, in which, if the particles are of a homogeneous nature, 
siratififiation is hardly visible even on tlie fiu» of clifb 200 or 300 ftet 
high. 

it B posstfale that Jhe regwr^ which is often thirty feet thick, 
Irent its generally unstratified aspect and homogeneous diaracter-* 
imsiisiwing no interstratified layers of sand or pebbles, was the result of 
one period o£ deposition. In areas where stratification is said to/ be 
more distinct^ for instance in Baroche, the deposit has probably under. 
gPBie re^crangenient by subsequent currents. It is just such a de- 
penii as mig^ be expected to result from deep waters charged witk 
tib« debcia both mineral and vegetable of a submerged continent^ 
tlie eoaaer and heavier firagOMnts of which, as well as the silts and. 
amad, had been deposited or left behind by the slowly retardisi^. 
eorreni. At length, as the waters gradually gained their level, the 
turbid fluid, now charged with nothing but the very finest and light. 
eel paeticks, would move so slowly as to admit of their gradually 
flinkiag and being deposited on its bed. Above the first cataract and in 
Upper Egypt, where the current is more rapid, the deposit is usually 
of a eoarse,. and more silty nature than in Lower Egypt and on the 
I>elta, and not of so carbonaceous a nature. Many of the finest par. 
tides are never deposited at all by the Nile in Egypt, but are carried 
€Mit with ila waters, and discolour the Mediterranean upwards of ^^ 
■Hies ixQVEL its embouchure. The ses water firom its great ^>eoific 
gravity adds to the obstacles against depoution. The deposit of the 
Kile in some parts, as well as those of some tanks in India, not only 
resembles the regwr in external appearance and colour, but also in^ 
chemical character. All three contain a considerable portion of vegeta. 
ble matter. 



332 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, [^^o. 159. 

In colour^ extent, and position, the regur resembles the Tchornoi 
Zem covering the plains of Russia ; and in apparent want of stratifi. 
cation that fine yellowish-grey loam called Loess, which covers great 
part of the basin of the Rhine in beds sometimes 300 feet thick. 
The regur, however, contains no fossils except such present fresh- 
water and terrestrial shells as are washed into it. If we suppose the 
regur to be the deposit of annual inundations from ancient glaciers 
(which Mr. Lyell takes to be the origin of the Loess) charged with 
the impalpable mud of their moraines, we must examine the Ghauts 
and Vindhyasy or even the Himalayas below the influence of pre. 
sent glaciers, for the usual signs of glacial action. The soil now 
washed down from these mountains, I need hardly observe is reddish 
and sandy, very different from the deep black or bluish black regur : 
but this difficulty may be perhaps got over by supposing the vast forests 
which clothed them during the warm ante- glacial period to have 
perished with the mammoths they shaded, and to have been ground 
down by glacial action with the felspathic, silicious, calcareous, and 
ferruginous particles of the subjacent rocks. 

If we suppose it to be a deposit from former great inland lakes, in 
most cases we shall have to raise up rock barriers, not now in existence, 
to separate them from the sea and the adjacent lower lands, to sink 
them again; and, in fact, to change the entire physical configuration of 
the country. If it be considered a deposit .thrown down on a sea bottom 
from melted icebergs, we ought to see in it large angular fragments of 
distant rocks, which no observations as yet show to be the case. 

The non-fossiliferous character of the regur is common to the mud 
of the Nile, and may be regarded as indicative of the great trituration 
the debris composing it has undergone ; and probably that chemical 
and other causes have combined to prevent fossilization in this soft 
mud. 

Rock^bcuins. Rock-basins, the giant's caldrons of the Swedes, are 
seen occasionally on the summits of table-lands in Southern India, as 
for instance near the Kurnool frontier, with Baugapilly, and in other 
localities both in granitic and hypogenic rocks, and in the diamond sand, 
stone and limestone in situations above the present action of running 
water ; but when we see them in the fact of being excavated by water 
alone in the rocky beds of the principal rivers of India during these 
periodical rises and falls — conditions favourable to their production—- 



1845.] Diluvial and Wave TranslaHon Theories, 233 

there appears no necessity for introducing the action of glaciers to ac 
count for their presence, which I have explained in detail elsewhere.* 

Furrows and parallel Slriai. On and near the tops of the diamond 
limestone ranges of Pycut Puspulah, and Yairypilly — not far from the 
granite junction near Oooty, I have seen the surface of the rock tra- 
versed hy furrows, having a common direction of N. by E., resembling 
those attributed to the action of glaciers ; but in Europe even, where 
these marks are so numerous, the opinions regarding their origin have 
been latterly so conflicting, that their unsupported testimony ma^ be 
regarded as much in favour of the diluviaiist or of the advocate of the 
waves of translation, as of the glaeialist and icebergian. 

I have since had opportunities of carefully examining the grooves 
which cover the surfaces of the diamond limestone rocks near the 
eaves of Billa Soorgum, Kurnool frontier, and on the summits of the 
hills between Dhone and Yeldroog in the Bellary district* 

The limestone slabs in these localities dip slightly towards the east, 
and are in some places completely scored with furrows, which observe 
a parallelism over confined spaces. These furrows vary from the 
lize of a goose quill in diameter to two inches, and are often separated 
by scabrous sharp edged ridges. They are often traversed by others 
at oblique and right angles so close together that the dividing ridges 
are cut up into a number of pointed cones, or pyramids. 

It is quite evident from the sharpness of the edges and points of the 
ridges, that the grooves were not formed by the passage of gravel moved 
under the enormous weight of a glacier. The interior of the furrows 
has frequently to the eye a smooth apparently water.worn surface ; 
bat if the point of the finger be moved gently along the bottom, it will 
(tften be found to undulate. These undulations have been caused 
evidently by the wearing down of the lips which formerly separated 
the now continuous trough into a chain of oval or spheroidal cavities 
exactly resembling in miniature the chains of rock basins worn in the 
granite and gneiss of the Toombuddra. 

Like them the majority of these furrows are attributable to watery 
eronon. They occur usually on the lines of almost imperceptible 
fissures in the rock-like vallies of erosion thus. CSee Plate, No, III. J 

* Vide Proceedings of Geological Society, 184l-2« 



234 On the Alpine Glader, Iceber^y C^fo. 159. 

They not only traverse the upper horisontal tarface of the strata, 
but eonetimee oontiiiue over the ed^es down their Tertieal extremity 
or sides, which is attributable to the action of water slowly trickliDg 
over the edge^ and not propelled beyond the edge to a distance from 
the vertical side, as is the case in a cascade. 

The water, in many instances^ seems to have acted corrosiveiy as 
well as erosively on the substance of the limestone ; for in examin. 
ing some rain water, which had lodged in one of the eroded cavities^ 
I found it held a considerable quantity of lime in solution* Carbonic 
acid might have been supplied from atmospheric exposure or from the 
surrounding dense vegetation, which the rains refresh. The solvent 
power of water too in tropical climates is considerably enhanced, not 
only by the increased temperature of the water itself, but by expan- 
sive action of the sun's rays on the atoms composing the rock-bare 
surfaces, some of which I have found often heated to 130^ The solid 
layers of schist are free from such furrows, but have a scabrous water- 
worn appearance, as if the limestone had been washed away. 

Any pre-existing cavity in the surface of the rock forming a lodge- 
ment for the water, assists in the erosion of hollows. Strings of iron 
pyrites frequently drop out in weathering, leaving a chain of oval 
cavities, which the water soon works down into a continuous furrow. 
Others commence in the perforations of lithodomous molluscs, or those 
of existing snails which apparently by the chemical action of their 
juices take up the lime necessary for their house and food, and are 
found in numbers adhering to the surfaces and sides of the lime- 
stone. 

It is evident, however, that some of the furrows were scooped out 
prior to the last displacements of the rock strata, as they partake of 
the faults and dislocations ; and it is probable they were formed during 
the elevation of the land by sea water, as it is well known that sea 
water by the decomposition of its muriates and sulphates produees 
furrows and wrinkles on the surface of limestone, particularly near 
the water's edges, and subsequent rains have no doubt acted in extend- 
ing and modifying them. The entire absence or great comparative 
rarity of such furrows on the sur&ce of the associated sandstone, may 
be regarded as a further indication of the chemical action of the water 
in producing the furrows on the limestone. 



J845.] Diluvial and Wave TranslaHan Theories. 235 

In some places on the sides of the hills, the ends of the limestone 
beds protrude in steps ahout a foot high^ down which the rain water 
has evidently flowed in a series of miniature cascades, which have 
hollowed out on the slabs below little cavities, and depressions not 
unlike the lapiax of the Alps, marked by a a in the subjoined section, 
a] diagram, (PkUey Diagram^ No. I V.J 

Varidaied eurfacea. The surface of some slabs exposed to the air 
I observed to be perfectly variolated with circular, shallow cavities, 
caused by the dropping out of cubic crystals of iron pyrites. These 
crystals may i>e seen in every stage of decomposition, — first tarnishing, 
and losing their bright metallic lustre ; next passing into a bronze. 
coloured hue : they then become liver-coloured, and lastly pass into 
a loose rust-coloured dust* At this stage, the limestone becomes 
stained by the rust nearly in semi-circles, marked a a a a, on each 
side of the crystal marked 6, in the Diagram b, representing the de. 
composing crystal of pyrites. (Plate, Diagram, No. F.J 

In the next stage, the angles between a a a a, become discolour. 
ed, and the whole stain takes a circular form ; then the centre occu. 
{ned by the crystal drops out, and finally the whole circular space, 
occupied by the rust-coloured stain. 

Mark of ancient raine. Surfaces of rock variolated with such 
cavities must not be set down as having been indented by an " ante, 
diluvian shower," though marks exactly similar to those supposed to be 
the effects of ancient rains exist on slabs below the surface covered 
by other layers, the lower planes of which exhibit the casts of these 
impressions. 

Ripple marks. Ripple marks are seen in similar situations to the 
rain-drop impressions, but are much more frequent in the associated 
sandstone. 

Stri(B and Furrows on granite and gneiss. Striae and furrows on 
granite, gneiss, &c. in situations beyond the reach of present aqueous 
causes are rare, and, from their conforming to the hard and softer parts 
of the rock, cannot be set down- as marks of glacial action. These 
rocks, as before observed, are much subject to exfoliation by atmospheric 
exposure ; consequently ancient marks, if they did exist, are liable to 
early obliteration on the air.exposed surfaces of such rocks. 

2 L 



236 On Ae Alpine Glacier, Iceberg^ [No. 159 

Concluding observations. In reviewing all these deposits I can 
trace nothing analogous to the true boulder deposit, or to the action 
of glaciers, in the marks and furrows of the rocks jost described. 
There is nothing which cannot be explained by existing causes, or by 
the supposition of the action of water during the oscillations which, 
there can be no doubt, the face of India has undergone. 

The power of the wave of translation is written in large characters of 
denudation over its entire surface ; or they stand out in bold relief 
in the bare dykes and naked clustered masses of basaltic greenstone 
and granite, and also in the harder beds and veins, which we see every 
where abruptly projecting, like the trap of the Wrekin in Shropshire, 
from the softer abraded strata around. It is visible in some <^ 
the larger gravels, and in the isolated horizontal beds of sand* 
stone and laterite capping hills separated by denuded vallies and 
plains. 

To the gentler effects of the waters retiring as the land gradually 
emerged from beneath, aided by minor oscillations^ may be attributed 
the former wider channels of the rivers^the river terraces, the inland 
marine clays and sands on the coast of Coromandel^ indicating former 
estuaries, and coast lines and inlets^ now dry land ; beds of gravel 
and loam in the interior ; furrows and rock basins beyond the reach of 
existing aqueous causes, and ancient marl-bottomed lakes now desic- 
cated, the existence of which is now only indicated by fossil lacus- 
trine deposits, for instance, those of Nirmul. 

The agency of floating ice in conveying the granite blocks we see 
imbedded in the mud and gravel of the east coast of England, from the 
mountains of Scandinavia across the intervening seas, is now pretty 
generally admitted. 

One remarkable feature of the boulder formation still remains to be 
noticed, viz., its extreme rarity in warm latitudes^ and its great pre- 
valence in the cold and temperate regions of both hemispheres. In the 
northern hemisphere we behold it stretching from the icy regions of Scan- 
dinavia to about 55% and overspreading part of North America; and in 
the Southern world it has been traced, with precisely the same fea- 
tures as in Europe, in Chili and Patagonia, between 41^ South and 
Cape Horn. 



1845.] Diiuviai and Wave Translation Theories. 237 

This fact is considered by Mr. Lyeli to be in favour of the 
leebei^ theory, since the masses of drifting ice in approaching warmer 
ktitndes would melt from the warmth of the sea and the action of 
the son's rays on their sides and sur&ee, and discharge their rocky 
freight long before reaching the equator. 

The abeence of the boulder formation in Southern India would add 
weight to this supposition; but until it has been more thoroughly 
aearehed for, we must not jump to this conclusion* Its comparative 
rarity, however, from the evidence even at present before us, cannot 
be doubted. I have sought for this formation, and also the old Silurian 
beds in countries yet nearer the equator, in the Malay peninsula^ but 
in vain : — also on the southern and eastern coasts of the Mediternu 
sesD, the Red Sea, Egypt, the southern parts of Asia Minor, and the 
PeDinsula of Sinai ; but with similar success. 

To support both the glacial and iceberg theories a period of intense 
eold in regions where a temperate climate now prevails, is supposed, as 
before stated, to have existed at a period between the extinction of 
mammoths and the creation of man. This cold, it is natural to 
imagine, would influence more or less the climate of countries nearer 
the equator, and among the rest that of Southern India ; but as yet 
proofs of this decrease of temperature in the latter, either by the 
existence of the fossil fauna of more temperate or colder aones, the 
marks of ancient glaciers, or by other physical Dacts, are a desidera. 
torn. 

For recent marks of glacial action, the Himmalayas afford perhaps 
the best examples nearest the equator, and should be examined with 
care for ancient moraines, and other indications of a former greater 
extension of the iee and snow which now cover portions of the peaks 
and sides. If they be found, the next step will be to ascertain whether 
ittch extension of iee is aseribable to a former general decreased tempe. 
latore of the surface as it now exists, or from a former state of greater 
elevation of these mountains. It has lately been argued, from the 
eireamstance of fossil animals of warm climates having been found 
in tertiary Himmalayan deposits now above the line of snow, that 
the Himmalayas must have been elevated about 10,000 feet since 
the extinction of these races. It is, however^ possible that dnr- 



238 On ihe Alpine Glacier, Iceberg^ [No. 159. 

ing the warm climates of the tertiary period these animals may have 
existed at the heights at which they are now found, or even at greater 
elevations. The geologist will do wel]> while marking the scale of 
former glacial extent in these instructive regions, to note also the 
nearest approach, habitual or casual, to the snow line of the subtro- 
pical animals at its base. The monkey and tiger have been observed 
close to it, and the elephant at no very great distance — 31° N. lat. 4000 
feet above the sea. Tropical perennials are blended with a flora al- 
most alpine, and the palm and the pine are seen in juxta-position. 

The sub-Himmalayan gravel beds entombing the remains of the 
sivatherium, mastodon, elephant, rhinoceros, hippopotamus, dec., and 
the mastodon beds in the valley of the Nerbudda, are all stratified, 
and belong apparently to the tertiary period immediately antece- 
dent to the supposed cold epoch of the boulder formation. (Vide 
concluding page at the end of Desiderata.) 

India, stretching down from its vast icy barrier on the north to the 
verge of the equator, presents a wide field for physical observation ; a 
thousand-times-told fact, but one which should never be lost sight of. 
Its surface has been but partially examined, and many large tracts 
wholly unexplored by the geologist. A few years only have rolled on 
since the great mammifers in its deposits, just alluded to, were 
brought to light by the vigorous researches of Captains Cautley, Durand, 
Baker, and Doctors Falconer and Spilsbury ; and still more recently it 
has been proved by the splendid fossil discoveries of Messrs. Kaye and 
Cunliffe in the limestone beds of Pondicherry and Verdachellum, that 
Ihe cretaceous sea extended over the surfiice of at least part of Southern 
India. Major Franklin has referred the diamond sandstone and lime- 
stone to the Oolite and Lias, though at present they cannot be satisAu^ 
torily classed with these rocks until further fossil evidence be obtained. 

The scantiness of these beds — the utter absence of the new red sand- 
stone, magnesian limestone, and other aqueous deposits so abundant 
in northern zones, has been long subject of enquiry. The Silurian 
strata are also entirely wanting, and appear to thin out like Ihe boul- 
der formation as the equator is approached ; although the temperature 
of the Palaeozoic seas, if we may judge from the number of their corals, 
must have been like that of the carboniferous period, warm. I am 



1840.] Diluvial and Wave Translation Theories. 239 

not aware^ that the Silurian strata extend in Europe further south 
than the vicinity of Constantinople. 

Are we to infer that these enormously thick aqueous deposits, 
abounding in the remains of marine creatures of strange and un* 
known aspect, since the appearance of which whole generations of 
others equally strange have replaced them and been obliterated in 
torn from the face of creation, have existed on the granites and trap 
of India, but have since been swept off by waves of denudation: or 
must we suppose, that these old fossiliferous rocks never had existence 
in Southern India and tropical countries, from the peculiar chemical 
eonditions, or temperature of the seas which then covered them? 
Or, that the surface of these tropica] regions was above the water at the 
time these deposits were going on in the then warm coraUproduciog seas 
aroond the arctic zone ? 

It may be also advanced, that the hypogene or crystalline rocks, 
which prevail so much in Southern India, are nothing less than the 
metamori^ic fossiliferous strata of these periods. It must, however, 
be objected against this theory, that no fossil has ever been found in 
them, even at great distance from granite or apparent Plutonic action. 

It has already been inferred, from the rarity or absence of the 
boulder formation in Southern India and other tropical and subtropi. 
eal countries, that these regions enjoyed a warm climate during the frozen 
period which M. Agassiz assigns to now temperate climes during the 
boulder epoch. As there is no evidence of the climate of the former 
regions during the Silurian period, or of the then chemical condition of 
thier seas, it will be advisable, until better information be elicited, to 
refer the absence and the rarity of the older fossiliferous groups of 
Europe to the hypothesis of partial or entire elevation during such 
periods. Of denudation there is ample proof in subsequent periods, as 
before stated. We search in vain (the chalky spots near Pondicherry, 
Terdachellum, and a few other marine patches — isolated, yet significant 
monuments — excepted,) for remnants of these former fossiliferous cover- 
uigs. I have not been able to trace a pebble from their detritus in any 
of the conglomerates, breccias, or gravel beds which now exist on its 
sur&oe. If such beds ever did occupy the surface, their wreck for the 
most part must now lie in the bed of the ocean. 



240 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, [No. 159* 

If Southern India was above the ocean daring the depoBition of the 
Silnrian rocks, and other fossiliferous strata, of which no remains now 
exist on its surface, it must have subsequently undergone oscillations 
by which portions, or the entire mass, including the tract occupied by 
its grand physical feature, the Western Ghauts, were submerged, and 
again elevated to their present position with the laterite which, there 
is every reason to believe, belongs to the tertiary epoch. That at 
least a portion of Southern India must have been a sea-bed during 
ihe cretaceous period, has already been shown. 

Some of the points latterly touched upon in this pi^er involve, it 
will be perceived, the highest and most interesting problems in phy« 
sical geology, which cannot be solved until much more evidence be 
accumulated regarding the geology and former physical phases of 
tropical and sub-tropical zones- It has been ascertained beyond doubt, 
that the seas of ancient periods formerly covered a &r greater extent 
of what is now land in the northern hemisphere, and the contempo- 
raneous and much greater relative prevalence of land within or near tbe 
tropics is supposed, in order to account for the higher temperature 
which, it is evident, then prevailed in northern regions ; bat the pre- 
sent decrease of which is accounted for by Sir John Hersdiel on 
astronomical grounds, viz., that the mean amount of solar radia- 
tion is dependent on the eccentricity of the earth's orbit, that this 
eccentricity is, as has been for ages, actually on the decrease; and 
with it the annual average of solar heat radiated to the earth's 
surface. 

Desiderata on the Boulder formation. In the hope of eliciting 
information touching the occurrence of the boulder formation in 
India, (and how much might be obtained even from persons en- 
tirely ignorant of geology now crossing India in every direction,) I 
have drawn up a few plain directions by which the true boulder 
formation may be readily distinguished from the ordinary graveli 
and alluvia of the country ; and have added a list of the principal 
points on which information is required. 

Sir John Herschel has well observed, '' What benefits has not geo- 
logy reaped from the activity of industrious individuals who, setting 
aside all theoretical views, have been content to exercise the use- 



1345.] Diluvial and Wave Tramhuion Theories. 241 

fill and entertaiiiing occupation of collecting specimens from the coun- 
tries they visit." This observation applies particularly to India—* 
the geology of which is so little known — where, it is true, there are no 
professed geologists attached to our surveys; but where every indivi- 
doal has the means and ability of adding his mite to the general stock 
of knowledge, without any serious encroachment on his duties or his 
pleasures. *' £ven those who run may read" in the great open book 
of Nature; and if they read, there is no reason why they should not 
note, for the benefit of those who have not the opportunity of studying, 
the same pages.* 

Boulders and erratic Blocks. The term *' boulder" has been 
often misapplied to any loose rounded biock of rock lying on a 
plain, or elsewhere on rocks, or the soil of rocks, of which it ori. 
gioally formed part. This is not a " boulder" in the geological 
acceptation of the term, the block being in sUH; or not distant from 
the rocks of which it once formed part. A true boulder is a mass 
of rock^ the corners of which have been rounded,, from the size of 
a man's head to that of a field^.officer's tent or a small bungalow, 
found detached and at a distance from the parent rock of which 
it once formed part, and resting on rocks generally of a different nature, 
or imbedded in gravel, clay, or loam. 

Erratic blocks are fragments of rock, with sharp or little blunted 
comers^ found in similar situations as boulders, or what is termed not 
*' in siiHy* or transported from their native beds. Among the most 
remarkable erratic blocks in the world are the angular blocks of 
granite and gneiss, some as large as a Swiss cottage, which rest on 
the limestone rocks of the Jura. Now the nearest granite and 
gneiss rocks are those of the Alps, from which it is certain those 
blocks have been derived, although the great and deep valley 
of Switzerland, upwards of 60 miles broad, separates the two 
ranges. 



* While Captain Newbold was writing this forcible passage at Kunioo], Lieute- 
nant Sherwill was forwarding to the Society from Behar the splendid map and col- 
lection of specimens which we noted in our Proceedings of January 1845, and 
which the Society has most properly brought to the special notice of Government. It 
is impossible to give a better illustration of the truth of these remarks.*-£D8. 



242 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg^ QNo. 159. 

A block of mica schist, weighing upwards of eight tons, lies on the 
top of the Pentland hills, 1000 feet above the sea, 50 miles from the 
nearest mountains of mica schist. 

When loose, round, or angular masses of rock are seen on the sur- 
face, or imbedded in loam, clay or gravel, the nature of the rock and 
that of the subjacent and adjacent rocks should be compared. If 
they are similar, it will be difficult to prove the masses true boulders. 
If different, the bearing and distance ofthe nearest similar rocks should 
be ascertained, and the nature of the intervening ground described whe- 
ther intersected by valley, hill or stream, &c. In all cases, specimens 
about two inches square or more of the blocks, the adjacent and subja- 
cent rocks, and of those from which they are supposed to have been 
derived, should be broken off, and wrapped up in strong paper and 
carefully marked. 

If it be certain that they are 6otf/^^«, or erratic blocks, and not ''m 
siid!' their size and shape and number should be described, drawings 
made, the arrangement and longitudinal direction of the blocks, their 
bearings by compass, the height above the sea if possible, a description 
of the physical features of the locality and surrounding country. 
When circles of blocks are found round the tops of hills or other 
projecting points of the surface, care should be taken not to confound 
the old caim-like mounds, circular burial places, old sheepfolds, remains 
of forts, or other old enclosures scattered over India, for the circles 
called ** perched blocks.'* 

The old inhabitants and watchmen (Taliaries) of the nearest village, 
should be carefully questioned on such points. 

When erratic blocks can be traced to the parent rocks, it should be 
carefully noted whether they gradually increase in size as the rocks 
whence they were transported are approached. 

Gravels, Clays, and Sands of the Boulder formaiion. The 
boulder formations of England, (called *' Till" in Scotland,) of 
the north of Europe and America, and also that in the opposite he- 
misphere, are — 1st, characterized, principally, by their generally unstra- 
tified character ; 2nd, by imbedding both large and small, angular 
and rounded fragments of rocks of all ages in juxta-position, con- 
fusedly jumbled together without reference to the laws of gravitation 



1845.^ Diluvial and Wave Tramlatum Theories. 243 

or aqaeous deposition, which are often reversed in the boulder gravels 
and the heaviest fragments found uppermost ; drdly, the great rarity 
oi fosaiis. A few marine shells of an arctic character and the remains 
of a mammoth have been found in the till of Ayrshire; arctic marine 
shells in that of North America ; and I have observed marine shells 
of ree^it species in that of Cheshire. 

The boulder formation^ in short, consists of usually unstratifted 
accumulations of clay, loam, silt, sand or gravel, often 100 feet thick, 
imbedding sometimes great fragments of rock several yards in diame- 
ter, torn in many instances from rocks, hundreds of miles distant, 
separated by vailies, rivers, and even seas, as is the case in the drift 
on the east coast of England, which imbeds granite blocks from the 
mountains of Scandinavia. These deposits are sometimes capped by 
stratified layers of sand and gravel, and occasionally contain marks 
(tf stratification themselves. 

The observer having, by these marks, ascertained that he has a 
boulder deposit before him, should note its general shape, direction 
and dimensions. If it occurs in detached truncated mounds, or 
tumuli like the terminal moraine of a glacier ? or like lateral moraines, 
in longitudinal ridges with a double talus? the continuity and pa- 
lallelism at the same height which is supposed to distinguish the 
lateral moraine of a glacier, from the debris disposed along the bottoms 
of the valii^ by currents ? The thickness and extent of the gravel, 
sand, clay or loam composing the deposit, should also be noted ; the 
nature of the beds it rests upon, and also of those above it; of ail 
which spedmens should be sent, as well as of the curious pebbles, 
sands, days, &c. of the boulder deposit. It also should be noted whether 
the stratified portions of the boulder clays or gravels be bent up or 
o(mtorted> as if by lateral pressure ; and whether the subjacent beds 
have been conformably or similarly disturbed. 

The relative proportions of the pebbles of various sorts of rocks com- 
posing the gravel, their relative size, degree of attrition or roundness, 
should be ascertained ; and the different sites whence originally wash- 
ed, searched for in the vicinity. 

The gravel, clays, mud and loam should be examined for fossils; 
and the condition of the latter, whether broken, water* worn or 
entire, and in good preservation, noted. 

^ 2 M 



244 On the Alpine Glacier, Iceberg, ^No. 159. 

Furrows, striated and polished surfaces. The sides and surfaces 
of exposed planes, bosses, boulders, erratic blocks and masses of rock in 
sitii, should be examined for polishings, strisB, or furrows, more par- 
ticularly the surfaces of rocks which are protected by a covering of soil 
or turf, which it will be necessary to remove for this purpose. It must 
be noted whether the striae and furrows are parallel or otherwise ; 
whether oblique or horizontal, and their general direction. If in a 
valley, whether they run in the same direction as the valley, and di- 
verge from it at the outlet* 

Whether they run in right lines, with even, uniform polished sur* 
aces, or are shallower or deeper, varying according to the different 
degrees of hardness or softness of the different portions, and veins of 
the rock, and whether their course is at all sinuous. '' Slickensides" 
or the polished and striated surfaces of walls of 6ssured rocks and vaults 
caused by their friction in dislocation, must not be confounded with 
the marks of general or aqueous action. 

The observer should endeavour on the spot to ascertain the possibili- 
ty, or impossibility, by the supposition of present floods, rains, landslips, 
or other causes now in existence, of explaining these depositions, 
furrows, &c. ; and also of the circular, oval, and spoon-shaped cavities, 
with smooth sides in rocks, termed rock-basins, which are often united 
by shallow gutters. It should be ascertained whether they are or are 
not within the reach of the highest inundations, or temporary petty cas- 
cades caused by monsoon rains, the periodical risings and fallings of 
rivers ; whether empty or containing sand, or pebble ; the nature of the 
pebbles, the dimensions and shape of the cavities, and nature of the 
surrounding ground. 

Engineers, surveyors, and other servants of Government stationed 
in districts, will have time to note on all these desiderata as affecting 
their particular district ; but it will be sufficient for men who travel 
rapidly from station to station, or on the line of march, to bear 
in mind that the great points to ascertain are — whether the blocks 
and gravel they see are composed of the adjacent and subjacent 
rocks or not, their distance from their native beds; to send speci- 
mens of all : and to see that the blocks and marks on the rocks are 
above the influence of present water-courses, inundations^ and 
rains. 



IMS.] Diluvial and Wave Translation Theories. 245 

Since writing the above^ I have perused Captain Herbert's valuable 
report on the Himmalayas, so properly rescued from oblivion, and so 
handsomely presented to the subscribers to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society by Mr. Torrens, and find that the author notices deposits of un. 
stratified gravel and sand, including boulders some of three feet in dia- 
meter, occurring in these vallies ; and also along their base in a vast 
accumulation 192 miles long, nearly 10 broad, and sometimes up- 
wards of 150 feet thick, and which, from being inexplicable by the 
supposition of existing floods and streams, he calls diluvium. 

From his description, it seems to me probable, that some of these 
deposits and their attendant phenomena have been caused by the 
action of glaciers and debacles, the result of their melting. 

The whole of them, and the Tals or lakes upon them, are well 
worth separate and extended investigation ; and diligent search should 
be made on the rocks of the sides, surfaces, and outlets of the vallies, 
for the other supposed marks of glacial action just enumerated, and 
of which Captain Herbert has given us no information. 

Among other promising localities may be enumerated the great 
transverse Doons, or vomitories of drainage, through which flow the 
^ges, Sutlej and Jumna, the Ramgunga and the Gaggur,from their 
bases of glaciers ; the mouths and sides of the glens opening into 
tbem ; the vallies of the Burral and Dhaolee, and of the Pubbur 
Dear Massooleea. 

The immense bed of gravel and masses of rock called the Bhabur, 
which stretches along the base of the mountains, succeeded at its southern 
^ by the remarkable terrace called the Terrai, both cut transversely 
through by present river channels; and the level-surfaced gravel 
and sand deposits locally termed Khadirsy through which many of the 
streams run, may be particularly pointed out as subjects for detailed 
information. Some of the mountain. streams are engulfed, according 
to Captain Herbert, in the gravels of the Bhabur ; but probably re- 
appear in the line of springs visible at its junction with the step of the 
Terrai which, from its striking moistness compared with the dry 
ahsorbent surface of the Bhabur, is probably a bed of some impervious 
substance, such as clay.* 

* See Mr. Batten's valuable observations on the Terrai of Rohilcund and Kemaon, 
Journal, Vol. Xlll, p. 887. 



246 On the Alpine Glacier, Sfc. Theories. [No. 159. 

Outside of this so-called tract of dilavium^ Captain Herbert men. 
tions a red earthy marl, with patches of sand and a blue clay^ the 
relations of which with the unstratified gravels should be minutely 
described, and every search made in them for fossils. The black and 
blue clays may possibly bear some affinity to the rtgur in mineral 
composition. 

I have not been able to consult Professor Royle's admirable work 
on the Himmalaya, or Dr. M'Clelland's valuable geological observa- 
tions, in the remote part of India where I now write; bat <»nnot 
conclude this list of Desiderata without strongly recommending their 
perusal to the observer travelling through or located in the interesting 
districts of which they treat. 



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ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Deteription of Caprolaqus, a new Genus of Leporine Mammalia. 
By £. Bltth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, — With two 
piates. 

In the ^Bengal Sporting Magazine/ for August 1843, p. 131, Mr. 
Peanon has described an animal by the name Lepus hispidus, which 
I htre long been very desirous of examining, and have sought to pro- 
fiore by every opportunity that has offered ; and the Society has at 
length been favored with a fine specimen of it by our esteemed corres- 
pondent and contributor^ Major JenJLinS) Political Agent in Assam, 
to whose JLlnd exertions in procuring this and other desiderata for 
tbe Museum, our tlianJLS cannot be too often repeated. 

As I fully expected, this animal has proved to be not satisfactorily 
s^ssible into Lepus, as the limits of generic divisions are now cur- 
rently accepted ; but must be regarded as a third generic type of the 
^^portfia, Waterhouse ; or rather, it is a very strongly marJLcd modi- 
fication of the L^fus subtype, and not so distinct a form (equivalent 
^ Itepus,) as is that of Lagomys. In all \t^ more essential characters 
it is akin to Lepus, but exhibiting very considerable modification in 
^e various details of its structure. The head is large, the eyes small, 
^ whisJLers slight and inconspicuous ; the ears are comparatively very 
'^ ; tail the same ; limbs small, and much less unequal than in 
^9*''; &nd the claws are particularly strong, straight, and very sharp- 
Fointed« being obviously of important use in the creature*s economy : 
lutly, the fur is very remarkable for an animal of the Leporine group, 
^ account of its harshness, which is well expressed by the specific 
appellation At^ii^tw. 

No. 160. No. 76, Nbw Sbriks. 2 n 



L 



248 Description of Caprolagtu, {}^q. 160* 

The skull is macb more solid and strong than in any LepuSt with 
every modification that should contribute to increased strengtb^bat 
upon the same subtypical model of conformation ; dentition also simi- 
lar, but the grinders broader and more powerful, and the incisors and 
rodential tusks proportionally much larger : the palatal foramina are 
reduced so that the bony palate is as long as broad ; the ant-orbital 
foramina are nearly closed by obliquely transverse bony spiculae, cor- 
responding to the open bony network observable in Lqms ; the nasal 
bones are broad, with an evenly arched transverse section, and are 
less elongated backward than in the true Hares,— the maxillaries aod 
intermaxillaries corres{U>nding in their greater width and solidity; 
zygoma also fully twiee4is strong as in. Lepus ; the super-orbital pro- 
cesses continued forward uninterruptedly, the anterior emargioatioD 
seen in the Hares bei^g quite filled up with bone, while the posterior 
is also much less deep : the ensemble of these distinctions is, however, 
far better expressed by. the pencil than by the pen^ and the reader is 
accordingly referred to the accompanying figures of the skull of this 
animal, in different aspects of view. 

What little is known of its essential anatomy is, as might be expect- 
ed, identical, or nearly so, with that of typical Lepus, Mr. Pearson 
notices that *' the manunae are from six to ten ; coecum very large, ap- 
parently almost like a di^ond stomach: womb double.'' 

The length of the Society's specimen as mounted^ and as represent- 
ed in the annexed figurie, is, in a straight line from nose to tail-tiP) 
fifteen inches and a half ; ears posteriorly two inches ; tail with hair 
scarcely one and a half ; tarsus to end of claws three and three-quar- 
ters ; entire length of skull the same : fur of two kinds, that next the 
body short, delicately soft and downy, and of an ashy hue ; the longer 
and outer fur harsh and hispid^ and consisting partly of hairs anna- 
lated with black and yellowish* brown, and partly of longer black bairs, 
all the black having rather a bright gloss : lower parts paler or diogj 
whitish: toes somewhat yellowish-white: fur of the tail rufescent 
above and below, except near its base underneath, and not of the sswb 
harsh texture as the body fur. 

Mr. Pearson, in his original description of this species, remarks ^ 
follows : « From the notes of Mr. C. D. Russell, who sent the 8tuffe<i 



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JM5.] a new Oenus of Leporine Mammalia. 249 

skin from which the description has been drawn up, I learn that the 
animal was killed on the right bank of the river Teestab, close under 
the saal forest, and about six miles north of Jelpee Goree. In this 
place tbey are said to be very scarce, not above four having been seen 
bj Mr. Russeirs party during ten days, though game of all other 
kinds was met with in great plenty ; and the following year the same 
party killed only one. But towards the hills, as Mr. Russell was told 
by the natives of that part of the country, they may be met with in 
greater abundance. Of the habits of this animal little is known. Mr. 
RoMell states, that < its flesh is white, and eats very much the same as 
that of the Rabbit' ; and from the circumstance of his never having 
s<K»eeded in patting one up a second time, he is almost certain that 
it borrows. It is called by the natives of the country, where it was 
met with, by the same name that they give to the Hare.'' 

Mr. R. W. G. Frith, upon examining the Society's specimen, be< 
li«vea it to be the same animal as has been very often described to him 
by sportsmen, who have on several occasions been shooting in the ex* 
tensive 841 jungle in the district of Mymunsing, called the Muddapore 
jungle, on the western or right bank of the Burrampooter river ; but 
he never chanced to meet with it himself, though he long ago called 
my attention to the existence of such an aniinal in that part. 

It is included in Messrs. McClelland and Horsfield's list of the 
^lammalia of Assam, Proc. Zool. 8oc. 1839, p. 152, but with the 
statement that the ears are " very short, not projecting beyond the 
V which is either a mistake, or another species is alluded to ; 
though I believe the former to be the truth : Mr. McClelland remarking, 
" I am indebted to Lieut. Vetch of Assam for the skin of this animal, 
bat anfortunately the skull is wanting. According to Mr. Pearson, 
however, it is the same as the skull of the common Hare, It inhabits 
Assam, especially the northern parts of the valley along the Bootan 
fountains.'* The differences of the skull from that of any Lepus 
bave been already adverted to. 

I propose that it should bear the generic name CaprolagtUf and be 
Accordingly styled C kispidus, (Pearson,) nobis. 






250 

Report by Lieut. B. J. T. Dalton, Jumor Assistant Commissioner tfil 
Assam^ of his visit to the Hilis in the neighbourhood of the Soobanskuii^i 
River. From the Political Secretariat of the Gavemwieui of Iniku] 
With a map. ■ 

Pathalipam Moozah, January 6th, 1845.-*Rea€hed this yesterdtf 
evening from Luckimpore station, preparatory to setting out on a short 1 
excursion up the Soohanduri as far as I can go in canoes, and theoestj 
to the nearest Meri villages by land. My object being to pay Tear 
Hazaree a friendly visit, and to ascertain if it be practicable - to makes' 
more extended tour through the country of the Hill Meris and Aboni 
next cold season. 

This day will be consumed in making the neeessttry arrangements—' 
to-morrow I hope to start. ' 

January Ith.-^On the Soobanshiri. With quite a fleet of canoes, I 
started from the Pathalipam Ghaut at 11 a. ic., and considering t&e* 
difficulty of procuring boats and the number of people to be provided 
for, there was less trouble, confusion and delay than might have been 
anticipated. ' 

Including my own boat there are eleven canoes, thirty-two boatmen, 
and with servants, Tecklas, Katokees and Meri Bhoteas, a guard of 
five sepoys ; tiot less than seventy individuals, all packed as tight as her- 
rings in a barrel. The canoes are moved by gold-'^ashers who, from 
constant practice in their gold-washing expeditions, are masters of the 
art of managing boats in the diflicult rapids of this river. Indeed I 
am told that no other men could venture to work up in canoes to Sip- 
loo Ghaut, whence we are to proceed by land*. The canoes jure veiy 
small, and, except a light mat over my boat, no choppers allowed. 

Amongst these gold-washers are the Pawwas men, whose business 
it is to convey the Hill Meris and their families who annually visit the 
plains by this route from Siploo Ghaut to a Ghaut about six' miles 
above Pathalipam. These men, six in number, bein^ Inost expert of alli 
act as our steersmen. 

They use paddles of " Hingoree," short and stiff in com]^aiieon 
with the long elastic *' Bhola" paddles of the Suddiah and Debroo 
Thooms. They work the boat however exceedingly well ; and no doubt 
in the pattern and material of their paddles, they have adopted wh^t 
experience has taught them to be most serviceable for the rapids of tins 
river. In the shallows I see they chiefly work with the luggee poles* 



1845.3 Viiii to ihe HiUs near the Soobamkiri River. 351 

is a rapid, but a slight one, immediately above P^thalipam ; and 
this to the Hills the river is divided by wooded islands into nu- 
menms channels : two of these ialanda are partly oceapied by Ghuttiah 
Mens, and they are moreover a froitfnl source of quarrelling among the 
gold^waahers. On one of them, called " Indoor" Majali, they brought 
^to oor canoes, and commenced making preparations for halting theie. 
tl protested against this, as it was not 4 o'clock ; but they asserted very 
positively, that there was no ground on ahead fit for encamping on that 
we could possibly reach that night, and as I liked the appearance of the 
'fisoe, a fine shelving beach of sand and gravel, I gave my consent. 

They waited till my cook had arranged his temporary kitchen and 
the dinner was in course of preparation, and then their object of halting 
on this island was made manifest. A number of gold- washers from 
tlie Bor Dolonee Mouzah, on the left bank of the river, were washing a 
Uttk above the halting {dace. The Pathalipam gold- washers considered 
tbe ground theirs, and vrished me to serve the intruders with a summary 
ejectment. The left bank people as stoutiy asserted that they were on 
their own ground, and it was by no means an easy dispute to decide. 
It depended on which of the channels is the main channel of the river, 
bat the river takes to them all in turn about. 

Jamtary Stk^^ Started after all had breakfieusted at 8 a. m* The back 
nmges of the mountains are disappearing one after the other behind 
the upstart lower hills. The rapids numerous, but not difficult. 

The.^onaris have boat songs, or professional melodies of their own : 
when wading and hauling the canoes up the rapids they sing a sort of 
"eheerly boys," the chorus of which is " Yoho Ram," and which heard 
above the roar of the waters has a good effect. In hollowing out these 
canoes the carpenters make in them holes of about an inch square to 
ascertain tl^e tluckness as they proceed. These holes are afterwards 
plngged. In my boat being driven in from above they protruded below, 
and two of them were at the same moment unshipped as we bumped on 
the stone of a rapid. The boat commenced rapidly filling, but we got 
her on shore and the baggage all removed, before any serious damage 
was done. I mention this as a warning to others. One minute's delay 
and the boat would have sunk ; we were fortunately near shore, had 
sormounted the rapid, and the crews of the other boats all at hand in a 
moment to assist. 



253 FiiU to the HtUs near the Soobanshiri River. CNo. 100. 

Digression up the bed of a small stream called the Doolooni, to see 
the Raj Ghur. This Dooiooni was one of the gold streams ; but lut 
year its bed of shingle was covered with fine sand which the gold^wask- 
ers can make nothing of, and they have abandoned it. It forms slao 
one of the passes by which the Turbotiah Mens descend, the Dirjoo 
flowing through Sugal-doobey, which forms the other starting from near 
the same point in the hills. The Raj Ohur we found about a mile from 
its mouth. I have seen this Ohur at Goomeri, where it crosses the Booree 
river, and there it still bears the appearance of having been oonstmcted 
as a rampart against the inroads of the hill people; but here it has 
more tiie appearance of an old road. It is however a stupendous work, 
and great is the pity that it is too far north of our population to be 
used as a line of communication. Previous to the Moran or Mattock 
wars, the villages of Luckimpore are said to have extended up to this 
Raj Ghur, and there is every appearance even now of such having been 
at some period the case. At the mouth of the Doolooni the Sooban- 
shiri expands with a fine broad, deep and smooth basin, which it entetB 
by three channeb formed by two islands, where the stream again meets; 
above them it emerges from the hills, and here we halt for the night ; 
our encamping ground is in the dry bed of the Bergoga. 

Janmary 9th, Our last night's bivouac was not a comfortable one. A 
stiff breeze blowing down the bed of the Bergoga, was met by anotiier 
coming down the valley of the Soobanshiri, and they enjoyed themselTei 
together at our ezpence, blowing the sand into the people's dinners, sad 
the smoke into our eyes, and knocking the canoes iigainst the stones. Bat 
we are now foiriy amongst the hills, and truly the scenery is sublime. 
Beneath these hills, the great river wihds in graceful serpentines. The 
basis forming the diffis are rocky and precipitous to*a considerable 
height, along which foliage of various hues and a most vernal and vdvety 
appearance waves in the breeze. Hie stream is about 25Q yards m 
breadth, but of a depth (sounded several places on returning and foond 
between sixty and seventy feet in dq>th throughout this glen) unfotbom- 
able by any means we have at hand. There the rock of storms (the ^' 
tahkowa hill) stands boldly out from the mass on a bed of huge boolders 
screening the mouth of a deep, dark* narrow dell, the winding of which 1 
esqplored for a little way — a way, where the sun's rays never penetrate; 
sometimes huge Bon-trees springing from the rocks above stretch their 



1845.] ViM to the Hills near the Scobanshiri Rher. 253 

sioewy limbs oyer the deep waters, which reflect them ; and the fibres 
that descend from them» finding no earth below in which to fix them- 
fldres, swing in the breeze. 

As we advance the river becomes still narrower, but not less deep or 
amooth. Gockain Potana, a rock not less than 800 feet in height, rises 
perpendicnlsrly from the stream. The fanoe is almost smooth to the top 
which is dad with trees ; on the opposite side a similar diff, but not so 
la^i on the summit of the former a god killed a deer; and, walking 
(clever fellow) down the face of the smooth rock wi^h his q^uurry over 
the shoulder, he ascended with it the opposing cliff, vnde nomen^ From 
diove, th^ rock called the Pockain Potana. looks like a huge church- 
iteeple rising from, the stream. We stopped for sometime at a place 
caUed Pabo (ihai\t to collect cane to be used in towing the canoes up the 
n^ids on ahead. The Ghaut is so called from its having been some 
50 years ago the watering place of a tribe of Meris called Pabon. One of 
the young m^ of this t^be stole from her village a young virgin of 
Jema's tribe, then under the management of his father. Temees. For 
this offqnce the insulted Teiaeeans waged a war of extermination against 
the Pkbo tcibe. The villages of the latter were attacked by night when 
the inhabitants slept, and men> women and children were promiscuously 
sbng^teredor cairied away, and sold into hopeless captivity amongst the 
Ahois. The tribe, consisting of two large villages, were utterly extin- 
guished. Not far from this we halted for the night, on the right base of 
the river, at the mouth of a beautiful stream called the Gaien Panee, 
issuing fom a dark glen and dashing down the rocks into the well- 
boond diannd through which the Soobanshiri noisdessly flows. Notwith- 
stsnding the absence of large timber which appears to grow only near 
aod on the summits of these predpitous hills, the verdure of this val- 
ley is very beautiful: the rocks themselves are frequentiy covered with 
BOSS and ferns of the brightest emerald green ; whilst springing from the 
soil above them bamboos of a peculiarly light and feathery appearance^ 
the shafts not thicker than the most delicate trout rod, curve and waive 
in the dightest breeze. The pine-apple tree, the drooping leaves of 
which are found upwards of sixteen cubits in length ; the Toka palm, 
varieties of cane and the mountain plantain, are all characteristic of this 
scenery, and blend together in luxuriant mass. 



254 FM to Oe Htils near the Soobanshiri River. [No. 160. 

. 10/A. Barly this morning we emerged from this great glen, and 
found the first of the great rapids at its mouth. The canoes were safe- 
ly pulled up with the long cane ropes we had provided ; above this rapii 
the stream widens, the valley expands, and more distant mountains ap-^ 
pear in sight. Huge blocks of rock obstructing the river.in its descent 
render the navigation more and more difficult. We were obliged to 
lighten our boats, and for soq^e distance the baggage ^was all conveyed 
by land, whilst the canoes were dragged through fields of hissing fbaow 
or over rocks nearly dry ; after surmounting several such rapids we 
reached Siploo Mookh whence we are to proceed by land. 



Luckimpare, February \lthf 1845. 
February '2\st, 



^^ 



My dbab Major, — This being fk holiday, I shall devote it to giving 
you some further accouitt of my late excursion. 

I wrote you a few lines from Siploo Mookh, ^totalling briefly my prow 
ceedings up to the date of my letter. Qn the 15 th January all the 
headmen of Tema's tribe made their appeiD:9pce, tog^er witb the ladies 
of Tema's family, who came expressly tQ 'welcome me>»-his two vnves 
and daughter. I held an assembly, and particularly, explained to the 
chiefs that if they had, the smallest objecj^n to my proceeding fiirtber 
I was ready to return ; but they all assured me ^t such a proceeding 
would cause them great pain. They would4)e delighted t6 shew me 
all the lions of their country ; but only begged, that^as the snmll^pox was 
raging in the Pathalipam village, I would leave behind me all tfae^Patha- 
lipam men. This I readily consented to do, provided they proctiedme 
a sufficiency of Meri coolies. Affidrs having been so far amicably arranfed, 
a distribution of salt and rum concluded the conference ; and the^GMims 
in high good humour disported themselves before ilie, shewing their agiUQT' 
in racing over the rocks, and their prowess in throwing stones acEoss the 
river : mean time I gave the ladies who had come to greet me some gsj 
colored cotton cloths ; and here, alas, was cause for jealousy. The other 
Oaums would know why Tema^s family alone should be thus favored ; but 
I told them that when their wives and daughters came to greet me (^ 
Tema*s had done) and were neglected, they might take umhrage at my 



1845.3 ^^ *o ^ Bilk near the Soodanskiri Riter. 8S6 

pwtialtty, bill not now ; and with thit they appeared satiafied. Late at 
sight Tuna anid one of the Torbottiah GanmB again Tinted me. lliey 
■id a suffieieat number of cooliea would by morning be collected, but 
tiiey expelled to be paid for the trip; considering the friendly nature of 
my ?iait, and .the hofoion thns done them, they (the Gauma) were ashamed 
to sak me to pay »the people for conveying the baggage, butthey had 
no power to ^ve men without such pagfment being made ; and they 
tbfl^rfoie wished, if agreeable to mei to be allowed to defray the coolff 
upmote betwum tktnu . Of evorse I dedUned this offer, though I was 
sot a little pleased at its haying been made, evindn^as it did a genuine 
good feeling towards me* The rate was to be one seer of salt, or four 
VDitts, for tlM trip for eac^ cooly, which the Gaums assured me was 
what they 4pa3d.when, in bringing, as they yearly do, various commodities 
fion the plains,' they are necessitated to avail themselves of extra 
baods. Those who oaU themselves Gaums have no authority in their 
bilh, but that of the rich over the poor. Aftef the above noticed trait 
of Ifterality on Tema's part, att4<of the indepeifdenee of the Hill Mms in 
geaeial,il was not a little iBiMJied.nezt morning when the Meri coolies, 
male and innale, were recemng befotehand' their seer of sfdt, to ob* 
sent amoD^t the^applicants for a load and a douceur, Tema's second wife 
and his eldeat daughter, both fine young women ; bttt the latter much dis- 
figoted by amaU*^. The loada were light, not more than twenty seers ; 
hthojrl and girls, men and women, were all paid the same rate. Oon* 
adadng a]| these ammgements had to be made, and that the greater 
pait of the coolies had only arrived in the morning, I thought mysdf 
littky by getting off by 10)- ▲. M* For the first two miles we pro- 
ceeded along the left bank of the Siploo flowing from N. W„ then tum- 
iog north ascended a very steep hUl; sometimes almioat creeping tmder 
pnjjb so dense^ that nothing could be seen beyond what was a few 
yards to our right and left : the path was less difficult than I had been 
led to suppose it, but is sometimes zigzagged up or wound round preci«- 
pbea in an awkward manner for nervous people. Tema was my con- 
fitaat companion, always prepared to give me a friendly hand if neces- 
ttry. He seemed at first td be under great anxiety on my account ; but 
^ng me more active than h6 expected, he appeared more at ease. 

Of the various timber trees and underwood, you know I am incapable of 
giving any account ; the most remarkable of the former were Seea trees, a 

2o 



256 Visit to the HiOs near the Soobamhiri lUver. [No. 160. 

seed of which you returned me split open, Ae wood is hard, close-grained, 
and finely colored as the Nahore ; the Assamese call it the Seea Nahoie^ 
and the fruit contains a fX>ison with whieh the Meris kill fish. ,GiesJt 
varieties of hamboos and cane. The Meris thatch thek houses mik tlis 
leaves of a species of thelatter called Tor» tte pine^apple«tiee, nad Ae 
fern. ■ f . ' ^ .. 

We passed several squirrel traps of an ingenious and umple ooostne- 
tion. On an overhanging ;branch a seed (ohesnut) of which the eqak^ 
rels*are fond is {daoed, and bound to the branch by a d«iUe faaa^^^ 
cane ; the squirrel cannot get at the seed without ^putting Jiit hesf 
through a noose of tiie cane, and on his dOstingagisg the bait the stxme 
drops and tightens the noose round the squirrel'^ nedc: they eitf 
the flesh of this animal as a great delicacy.. As we aseciideil«this intf, 
the hill people frequently gave us lowlaaders a warning to be csrdiil 
not to loosen a stone from its bed. .This was* very . neeessary* people 
are apt to kick afVmy stones on a hill tiiat are.easily dislodged ; and had 
this been done on the present occasion, they* must have fallen on or 
bounded near those coming up the wisdiBg path below us. Having 
descended a valley in which there was water, we commenoed the asoe&t 
of another and lofder mountain called 'Ikepooka. Oa this hill tbeie 
are magnificent Nalok trees of enormous dimensions ; despeadi^g ^^ 
we came to a rocky stream called the ^iikB, up tim bed of ^iriud^evf 
path now lay, and this was to me the most difficult part of the roai 
The current was strong, and the rocks slippery as glass* U was diffi- 
cult for me to maintain my footing, and as I proceeded aloi^ stowly JSP^ 
cautiously, the Meri girls with their loads camenpandlanghingiypB^ 
me, bounding with astonishing actiidty and suretfpotedfltfiss from rode 
to rock. This stream takes its rise in the Moyur.mountain, oyer sAdA 
our path now lay ; and learning that m^ shayld not see water a^^ till 
eveiiing I halted for stragglers, and wb^ aU had come .up it wee too 
late to think of attempting to proceed further. Ccps^g the stream 
accordingly, we formed our bivouac for Jfche j^ghl. Tema endeavoured 
to persuade his people to assist in ctearing^jspace^or .me, a||d to cataad 
bring wood and materials for a temporary^hut ; they treated hie.ordei* 
with the utmost contempt : upon my applying to them in a more perBiia- 
sive strain, they bargained that I should shew them some fan^itl> my 
guns, and in this way I got them to do all I wanted. We started ^^^ 



J845.] Visa to the Hiiis near the Seobamhiri River. 267 

moniing st 8 a. h., and commeneed a toilsome ascent of the Moyiir 
momffin, tbe summit of vrhkh wv did not Macfa till 1 1 o'clock ; the 
Ifieeiit was very severe in manyflioesi the natural kdd^s afforded by the 
loots of iie trees alone -rendered if praetfteafale ; near the aunimit k was 
ki»piftii|HtdH>imd here\(rere^frtntiber trees and Seeas, wild mangoes, 
ekesmts aad'odts, the seeds of flil whieh I have sent fou; but unfor- 
, tmtaif the acorns were all dead. Frpm thertOp of%the Moyur no 
«ini^ WEus obtained ; deseending occasional openingar gave us glimpses of 
seirmountaiaa, te wi ^ifere now on the dortb side of the great range 
leo^firQm Lnckimpoi^, bvlrn» extended view ; the path less difficult, but 
OMBonally piveentiii^^ixlKC mere ledge over a precipice, and danger- 
M^ sfippei^^from deeajFedflllKres. We descended-*«bout one-third of 
^distftilDe WB^lAid ascended, andjifaen crossed oversevewl smalls hills, 
ti»iiorthem outworks of theuMoyur. •»ln one place a large tree had 
fiOai across a chikm deep and'darl4^aiidt;was used as a bridge. It was 
ippery as glass, and eveir the/Metis passed over very slowly and cauti- 

Kdy ; I did net like iM^udi»«but Tema gave me a hand; and I got safe 

• 

^onm We now came to MMs thaMiad been cleared for cultivatiott, and 
otfaer symiAotas of « near 'apfsieaeh to human habitatrons ; not that the 
^was betteiiftt continued^ust as- before, but here M3rttons had been 
gnmog, and Hiey^o not ittay fiar from their villages. Several times we 
P>M ^at appeared to be ft well cleared path, but I was told that they 
Uto'H^iefee epring bHws hftd been set to kill wild animals, and the 
<^6ttaiAe #a8 ^ade^o'Mflilii Human beings not to go that way. De- 
pettdiiig4Rich i:q>oh smh^^fetrafitgems for a supply of animal food, they 
bie vdlcms ingenldu^^lxfetbods of taking or killing wild beasts. A 
deer dip isibdnstructed Ify running a light palisading between two pre« 
cqtiteg or other obstaclSb, in the centre of which the trap is placed, 
ttal^n^ to offdr an e£t to the unwary animal, whose course has 
Nh obftructed by thi* palisading, and through it he attempts to 
'^i when the top composed of logs of wood bound together drops on 
^crashes him. Bina Meris village was now before us, and drawn up 
on the side of the road a deputation of the Sonrok Meris (the Bor Doionee 
Mens) awaited my approach. These S<Hiroks I had hitherto regarded 
^not near so well affected to us as the Temas and the Torbottiah 
^^, and I had been informed by Tema that they were very irate with 
^ for baving encouraged this excursion of mine. L was by no means 



258 Viiii io4ke UHh near the S^obatOkiH tUver. CNiH 100. 

anxiotts tonn^t'theitii'aiid fcad'^Aotih^ted Hfotfl to an iittertiew : butiieR 
they were, and I covdA not ^tecM^itlr-eo "pnttiillf t bdld laoe on Ite matter. 
I took a seat 'tiidefa tIdeSaid gaTerttamam andfenoe. ^ttat-Mmag 
^aiDfld my^ject fU'viiftdig^^lUllf, iM^thanl^ tl{«faii^ tinlP 
okffity fai oomulg to mlSet^e rVer^cuhRfliJKl fkiy snrpiiMpiDEfeM^ai WB$ 
objectionB being' fai8e#, Italy gave me Ik ikoft OrtBal i|l(f|iudiig in^ita* 
tifmvtp proeeeditb «4iPil(villagea too, saying as Lhad cofne a8'*a fioend to 
vkiK 'Dima, ir was tnOrftd^ that the hondraliltid^lsilieonfoxedoaaiai 
alone; they too were xnostf^itfidtai* to entertflritine^aidnroii^^^ 
ptoidide every thing neoeasttry. J^6^&xA^A^lia^hl9iSiiga^ 
lanocipal Qaum resides, was^'an ea83^''mMh #aBi*wli«r^' we ^tnttt 
They did allltlfeyWldd to indaoe me^tc^tghtoveM^igF SSl-i^fi(A^fB^oau 
•s cataHed.i ^>hadt>nly supi^^for^' tiiree^diyt,«^t|ffcy wonia ysmk 
every 'thing. At^littfr I said iMiF^ald hiiiil&proper lariae to go to^lhdr 
village without brinj^ng with»Ms4lome pteseiits toTbefttow on their 
Wives and daughter to cAuse'-lftM to r^^niaiber my visit. That of 
the fe^ things I had* brought"^ this ieseri^tSon, had « been disposed 
of, or were bespoke, and were I noUKto go-^mpty-haiided to wifrthem, 
they would all day that f had t^stowed man^ marks Irf bvor on 
*Tema'S people and to them had^givte ufS&t^. ^ I tBetefore oouldmot 
ttiaw go; but if all turned out %eli; and iShey-behaved tbsmaelves [ffo* 
porly on their next visit to die Ifdaimi, t£^stiould'>eteive a visitiiidB 
me at another season intended for them," as my {iresent vtmt Vas f^ 
Tem&. With this they appeared satisfied, atM 6xS!f fardler Begged tiist 
I would excuse the old'Oaum coming *fo milSf^e fn'^notHlA^Gaiiai'B 
village, v^iBh would be derogatory to his di^it^, and tS^vfTB^rasM^ 
to pay his respects at Siploo Mookh, or on the road downt^ lUii waB 
so ruled, and ^us quietly endbd the cfohfefenee with thOKferodioofl 
Sonroks. Bini Gkum's village which: we now entered, is situatM on 
one of the low hilb under the Moyur mountain; the himses ite 
long, and raised considerably on posts of deft timber, indiserimmately 
constructed on the top or side of tiie hill, but the level of the ftKff' 
ing is tolerably well preserved by varying the hdght of the sup- 
porting posts. It contains only toil dwelling houses; but as each 
house holds an entire £unily, induding brothers and their wives, ana 
married sons and their children, each may on an average contain aboat 
twenty individuals. The situation of the village is very beautiful. Th^ 



J845.3 Visit to the HiOs near the Soobanekin Riner. 3S9 

Unr hilb armmdy-^aone par^ cleared for the purpoaea of eoltiTatioii, 
flottft eoAsif flOt and now ciMPered vidi tfie etcaw of the erop last 
wptA-^aHpear iiir fine contiaat -with die dark tutta of tibe bftsr moim* 
t&tt of Meyur and* YeldiK «ad othem more diatantihal anmmiid it. 
The JBhehibaata, Bien» women aadchil^hNBik>:fiv from evinoing any aigiia 
ef lear;'ccoffdjad ahont 100 as- 1 paaaed through the vyhge. The road 
frOBB thia to Tema'a village, which ia ahout two nilea diatant and north* 
weiftt^bl thte viUa^t oontinttea over low hiUa, many of which have been 
deemd' and^ase Aow-fiHoWt'end after a.lime«wiU be again taken up. 
Betwilea thtf ^riUagaa bakfioadea are ^natmeted in different placea to 
Imp the Mfltena teoi fta ciltivstidn when neoeaaa^. We followed 
ihewindinga of s atta«a caBtodrthe Kutoe; and w«e led by it into a 
piel^litlie taU^ ooiepriaidgia letel apace of deared grotmd of some 
cMot, wetsreb b]^*%he VeraiBg river which wiarif round the hill on 
iriluclt'ireniaVlSilage''<B bnilt,>aflid. here we encamped ; Tnaa'si village 
viHua hail above ua to the*^. 'Ek« the river flowing from the N* W. 
Here were Mfembled to mcfetme, heiidea the notdblea of the three 
fiUagea of/^IteA's/or the^Fambottiah tribe* all the headmen of the 
TarbaititiMktimf^. JtSty* eM&ed to wonder much at my viait What 
eoeld ifr^'^pdmiA^ a»d'':torhe iir aoaae alarm; but this aoon wore off; 
Zbey deacribe flM^ coutltiy^aa much better Worth aeeiijg than thia. 
Iba vdlagea are Ittrger, mffru uiilhefiHia/and nearer to each otiier than 
-thoeetif thia^^ewal; the nearest a day's march from this, about twelve 
mSerin #'daMtitoli norfii by weft. The villages are aix in number, 
aiA vriMii hwl bfei^* other, on hiHa as Tema's and Bina^, and the 
hadieet abnilarly Hfebioned; 61^ oultiyation ia txp&e extensive, the 
ofoptf^VlWaild more* vdried. They have asso, dhan, and hali ; but 
the laffer is not planted out. They sow the seed as we sow peas. 
Thleiy/kept me "talking till, dinner time, and then all retired with 
^Tema, who had a grand feast, not less than eighty individuals were 
entertained by him ; all that came to see me were invited, and I am 
teld hia house was tcrammed : nor were we neglected, a fine fat kid 
and fowla and eggs, yams and sweet potatoes and Indian com were 
mij^plied. Tema asked me if I would drink mhud, the spirit they distil ; 
but thia I declined, or doubtless a large supply would have been sent. 

* The Torbolliahs. 



260 Viiit to the Hills near the Soobamhiri RHfer. [No. iW. 

Next morning I proceeded to die i4ilage, and found them all bufeily en- 
gaged in divination as to^wlMthermy iriait waa tobiisg Aemgioodor 
evil.' I was told fthat-the anapieea weke- favorable.* A ri^an aat apait 
from the rest-holding In teth'hittids Apvny ehieken; andinTdldiigalltlb 
spirits of the woods by ntfmer Th0se4eitito who dehghtediii'dto blDodU 
Myttons, and tfiose who tejoioed in the^slaiighteFof plgi^f tMse who 
were propitiated by the sacrffioe of fdwk, or those nHio were caot^ 
with a* vegetable offering, Idi ftr^xm%iicb«btanoitS' in^bked ; and eHm the 
Ch&ui is terminated, tii6iehidc:eA is cnt o^'add the aitsai^ezSmhll^i 
from which they a«giir godd oTeHl, * (Hbem flir ^dlis^f < ampiinQm" h mj 
knowledge has'flUed*HieiiV' tlejr IhMft pMSiAiiBiis!^ rfihere td*fUs 
practice {^dliildfertaW btPktpidlt!Aitt?fi<itni9y of vtorh, wtthoartast 
suiting it. I'^m^ilaitMflg/Sbdymu^^ 

en, and wH^if th&'iMrelimnjf w«s'cGnelflded/they*ten1!4blii^K|^lRpef 
ine to i^ttto'to AjiOOitb ^^aodlbee. I ddlf ed lA'fitoce' ftiie to 
give It where I iNit^bdttlltfTolrbc^diaiiE^tfrwisAed to pa^eiif respects 
in^egular fottai/cibiMirottfth^y'sailf, witt |Hi»'pllety tLd^siTla "f ema's vil- 
lage, ti'o^ev^irpfevknis to deiSbedili^ i*:|pild O^falli'rtrtfttlne^ visi^tff 
whiebhi^ made li^objeetiods. ^ThtrhoftiA il^Vdf^ fi^ tbtg;, raised oa 
timbei9/ ibvt^ perpenAcfilMHy and soke'.1i£%<tt9^"pia4s((8?'iif^rMcilf& 
laid a platf6fti of IftnlbcMTforiei ITdOd^; 4^h€l*l(A>f hiS gkble^eilds, and is 
pitched yer^ high ; the thatcfil)eil(| 98lnp6M^ ft tfi^eayes c^ a'«peefei 
of cane as bef(bre n&entioned. Under the gables a cfoss ctTopjtei^overs 
in an open^ tf&Tcoliy, oihe Ikf^each *^d< Ttii inteMr^dbnSBts of w 
long aparffaibnt«^8kfy4e1lt»^ Ity uzteen, froft ^?lRii*^jfasage *t t U?tfiM |f 
the entire lengtlP^ft petitioned bA^ -^^the large^artment dttflfthff 
centre no less than four fires were buhung bn hearthtf^iMtt lUP Od 
one side w%re ranged, witfiT some appeiQcluice of order, theZf^anns, 
pouches, travelling apparatus, &c. ; another portion ff the apiflrtmdit 
was decorated with trophies of the chase. In the centre between the 
fires frames of bamboos su^nded from the roof served %s taUes, 
on which various domestic utensils were deposited.*^! had hoped that tiie 
passage which was partitioned off from this apartment contained tiie 
dormitories of the family, but on examination it was found to be the 
mhud cellar. In it were ranged conical baskets lined with plantain 
leaves, in which the mhud is fermented, and received in vessels placed 
underneath : in the large apartment the whole family eat, drink and sleep- 



1845.] Fmt to the Hiii^ near Ae Soobamhiri River. 961 



Tcma and his wives in t^e npper end or fint fire» hia sons and daugh* 
tcEBiround tke neal:« ptfaffr m^mlien of thoiftiiuly round the third, and 
darea an^^t^P^^^^^^ round the fourth. .F^u^fnl^of beipg pillaged by 
Ae Abgsfi» they do not tentuaa to diiqilay. nawfa propertjL in theichonsea* 
Zhe greater^^rtian of it Jiei^bvci|d.in aome^Eemote spot Igiown only to 
Uie heads ofotto iuaily«, Bfsaidea .aillle» omamenta/ anna and wearing 
i^ipBieL itaonaiata of large diahemnd cooking, vaisela ol metal, and w^ 
arecaUedJlao fbnukt^mkt^ Httfe b«Ba withiVniiPtta devieea and inacripr 
tioBa, in whit Ifmcy jtmat be the ThihetaQreharacter i but I know ifenot. 
The Meria doiiQt:kBow< wlirre.they eome from ; a few are occaaioa(|a)ly 
otained iif hast^r^jnlih tiua Al^on, bvlr.the moat of them have ^been 
kaaded diMm i» jMiaJaoma.fiW^ lMOily*.oad they ure regarded aa the 
moat iridimbkpoi;^bi|.«p]l^ property. They ar^^oopaaioivdly uaed aa 
aoney, and Takaadri^ from fpvi^annia tft twelve rupees each, according 
to ahi^, aiae a^d ornament. Jlpqft with inacKiptiona inaide and out 
are moat h^hly prized. ., Xhoae vi^ol inaeriptiona are little valued. 
Theae beDs ^Bve common amongat jfchft.Duflaa. who can give ng better 
acoaqat aa^tOibbw th^ became pime^aed of them* I am told the Butiaa 
^ them, aiid it ao joa can pcrh^pa tell q^e aometbing of their origin. 
Hi^ Meria td| the aaine atoiy if ^ak^ where they get their fine blue 
beada, u #v4^t Ihey are|i^*looma ; j[ery ae^om* they aay, are they nq^ 
piaeurable in barter or exekttl|ge» though aome few are occaaionally 
procured from the Abora^ . 

It is n^ impoaaible that nmnbera of theae bella and beada thua 
kaaded down aalieir-leoma may have been brought with them from the 
country from whi<4i they ori^nally emigrated. Regar4ing their mi- 
grationa tiiey iiave no traditiona. . They believe, and they are not ain- 
gaKar iiy.the belief, that mjmy ordera and racea of n\en were created, 
whom |he Creator allotted to dwell where aoil and aituation were beat 
adapted^ the conatitution and habita he had given to each ; and thua 
that ^^,Me$i\a wefe created for, and have ever dwelt in these hilla. 
Their rdigioua ideaa are. very vague. They believe in a future atate, 
and have an indefinite, idea of a apirit who preaidea in the regiona of 
departed aoula, aa is ahewn in their mode of disposing of their dead. 
The body is interred fully clothed and equipped with arms, travelling 
pouch and cap, in a de^p grave, and surrounded by strong timbers to 
PKvent the earth from pressing on it. Nor do they omit to supply 



263 Visit to the BUUnear the Soobanehiri River. [No. 140. 

the departed for his long journey with food, cooking ntenailB, wad orna. 
ments of value* so that he^^nmy make a respectable appeaimnce in. lint 
other world. They 'attach grent importance to dieir dead being thai 
disposed of and buried neisur^the grKves of their .ancestors. If a man M 
any influence dies in the ^plaina his'bad3K.i8 immediately xsoftveyed. to 
the hills to be so* interred, should the disease of which he died not fas 
deemed contagious. 

Marriage, although its triolationjs considered the.direst of offisnoss, is 
with*them a mere matter of barter or eatckange. Yonag^ ladies are in 
the first instance valued aeoof^Uiig to thetiknealth and jreqieetability of 
their parents. The price is suc^ that few suitbra.asa aUe to make it up 
for several years after preliminaries hsviejieea arraiiged>*and they .pay it 
accordingly by instalmenta. Itconsbts, if thie'danacl )>e'of high ikiiiSf» 
of two or three My tt(ms» twenty or. thudtj? pigs»(fowh^ miiud, and eom^ 
times clothes. When the parenti^acft content, or the nkipaJiited amoant 
has been paid, they invite ^e suitor ^iritli hb fponily and friendato come 
for his bride,' and he is entertained. that day by the frthes of the lady. 
On his return with his wife all thft friends and relatiaiis accoippaBy 
him, and the bridegroom or his parents now in their turn have toieast 
them and his own fHends mto die bvgaB'^r.sevtad successive 
days. There is no fiorther ceremQuy. The pirties are nqw conadexed 
man and wife ; and woe be to hitn that seduces from her lord the nife 
so wedded. The adulterer is seized and securely bound» detained:nndflr 
most rigorous treatment for a day. or two. If he be powerful his 
friends come to his assistance, and make o£S»8 for his ransom, whiflb 
must be considerable to be accepted ; but the chances are, he ie left to hi* 
fate, and if such be the case he is put to death. The Woman who has 
committed the faux pas is less severdy dealt with. A little wholesome 
chastisement, and she is again admitted into the family circle. It must 
not be omitted that when a marriage is concluded, the bridega)om ex« 
pects to get fair value with his bride for his pigs, &c. that he has ex- 
pended on her. If personally, or in default of an adequate trousiettu 
she be found wanting in this respect, there is a dinner, an assemblage 
of the mutual friends, and the parents of the bride are made to disgorge 
should it be so det^mined ; or should they refuse, their daughter is treat- 
ed as a slavCi and not as a member of the family : notwithstanding thiSf 
a widow cannot leave her husband's family and heirs to contract a fresh 



iSiB.] FisU to the HUU near the Soobamhiri River. 263 

marriage nnlesB she can find the means of defraying all that was prigi- 
nafiy paid for her ; if she can do-^bis and famish a feast on the occasion* 
tiiere seems no objection touher making a second alliance. The costame 
oi the women ia peculiar.: a>Bhort petticoat extending from the loins 
to the knees is secured to a broad belt of leather which is omamlented 
mth brass bosses, bmdes this they wear round theif middles an infinite 
namber of rings made of filaments of bamboo embroidered with the 
fibzes4rf.axK>ther plant. , A bandiofsttsikr material, from which a bit of 
cloth is sni^ftended in front,iia bound tightly round the breast under the 
arms.' This iaJtheift tranraUing and working >d«ess; but ait other times 
tkey wrap tfaemaalTes in a hrgejfibth/doubled, brouglft over the shoul- 
ders, and {sinned in front iike a shawLv They wear ronnd theirnecks an 
eoocmous §^wiA^jsl beadiini^stly, of blue» like- turquoise, but also of 
agate^ conmUaJui and onyx» and^ass heada of all colora. They have 
Iffsceli^ of silvai or copper» and, anklets (tf.fiunl^,plaited cane or bam« 
boo. Their hair is a^lttBtQii with n0atnesji».' parted in ..the xentr%, and 
hanging dowaL.th(9ir»backs in^tifc^ pwr^idly |>)ait^ .taila^ In their ears 
4ey wear mc»^|pti»sttepnwBtfii|t><iiOf silver^ whic^ it ;woul(]Jbe difficult 
to describe^ a simple^ 4|^al ,scr<^; of this metal winding. 89akeUke 
round, the eiil^ded' lgjb%cpf the qgT} is not |y|^n|p)pn ampogst ^mar- 
ned girls^ but l^ear q||iami^t%',of^^e matiip^^are n^uch.more com- 
pka^ Jh^ genei^y havj^er^^i^eft cqpntenani^s, though few could 
be call^liap489me# The almond-shaped eye is oommoni but not uni- 
TCifeal ; mq^th%gen(KaUy wl^formecU and teilh» nptwithst^Q^u^g the free 
V.pf toJH^co, veiy.^fin^md ichite ; their coo^xiyn^httt tho^iatiyes of 
Iad]%,woi|ld call fai%but th|^Jb^M|p.rofy cheeks ^and.fuddy lips, which 
is a i||$nd|S[^ in^ovement.ion the AssamescApomplexion ; they are very 
stoutly JEoilt, generally short of stature, bu^to this there ar^ remarkable 
exceptions. The^nen have fine muscular figures ; many of them tall and 
with good features, but the countenances of some are repulsive. The 
variety of feature denotes an admixture of races, and no doubt many of 
them have Assamese blood in their veins, but usually there is the high 
cheek-bone and almond-shaped eye. lips rather thin, and face devoid of 
hair except a few over each extremity of the mouth forming an apology 
for a moustache. They gather the hair to the front, where it pro- 
trades out from the forehead in a large knob secured by a bodkin ; 

2p 



264 yisU to the UilU near the Soobanehiri River. [No. 100. 

round the head a band of small brass or copper knobs linked together 
as tightly bound. In their ears they as well as the women wear a 
variety of ornaments, but of a distinct kind. The lobe is distended so 
as to hold a knob an inch in diameter. It is gradually enlarged by 
the insertion of a roll of the leaf of the pineapple tree. The chiefs wear 
ornaments of silver, shaped like a wine*glass or egg- cup ; young men do 
not venture to attach so heavy a weight to the slight ligament, and 
insert a hollow plug of silver instead. The males also wear a pro&- 
sion of the blue beads before mentioned, and others, all very large. 
Their costume is simple enough— a band round their hips composed 
of rings of bamboos, the same as worn by the women but not so nmner- 
ous; an apron attached thereto before and behind, and a cloth wrap- 
ped round their body and pinned so as to resemble a shirt without 
sleeves ; a cap of cane or bamboo work with turned«up peak, which how- 
ever is worn behind, and over their shoulders as a cloak, which 
also serves as a pouch or knapsack, they throw a covering made of the 
black hairy fibres of a plant, which at- a little distance resembles a 
bear-skin. Their costume is not complete without placing on their heads 
and over their caps a piece cut oat of tiger or leopard-skin, the tail of 
which hanging down their backs has a droll appearance ! They are all 
very filthy in their persons, man^ of them appear never to have had their 
faces washed since their birth. As this was not their cultivatiDg 
season, and the crops had been reaped, it was chiefly from infqrmatioB 
that I could note any thing on the subject. Bach village has a certain 
extent of ground, comprising hills, sides of biUs and valleys, which,J^ey 
have been in the habit of cultivating from time immemorial ; but not moie 
than a fifth of this ground is under cultivation each season. They cnl- 
ti^nate each patch two successive years, and then suffer it to. be fal- 
low for four or five, taking up again the ground that has been longest 
fallow in lieu. They have a superstition, which deters them from break- 
ing up fresh grounds so long as their ** Gra" (fallow) is sufficient^a 
dread of offending the spirits of the woods and forest by unnecessaiiiy 
cutting down the trees. In Tema's village the chief crops are *' Bobesa" 
or bobsa dhan« the grain of which is large, pear-shaped ; and goom 
dhan, or maize. Many of the villages have aoosa and hali, resem- 
bling that which is grown by the Assamese; but the cultivated 



1845.] VisU to the Hiils near the Soobamhiri River. "IQo 

tracts appertaining to this village g^t too little sun for those crops. 
The bohsa and goom dhan are sown in the same ground and at the 
same time, and round the squares which contain these crops they plant 
yams and other edible roots ; they have not got the potato, but it would 
most likely grow well and be serviceable to them ; they sow red pepper, 
wliich succeeds admirably. Tobacco is generally grown in patches 
near the houses. The labour of cultivation and all labour faUs chiefly 
on the women. They have few of them other implements than their 
Idvf, which are used to clear, cut and dig with. The men consider it 
sufficient to occupy themselves in hunting and attending to their vari* 
oas snares and spring bows for wild animals, and when the season ar- 
mes for the trade, in collecting manjeet, which is performed by both 
sexes. 

The manjeet grows in steep declivities, interlaced and entangled with 
other shrubs, so that it is not easy speedily to collect a quantity, at 
least all that I found of it was little ; the leaf of the genuine kind is small, 
narrow and pointed, and slightly suffused with a tinge of the colouring 
matter. There is a bastard kind also found in great quantities, the 
kayes of which are very much larger and the plant altogether coarser 
in appearance ; it is called the female manjeet by the Meris, and though 
simiiar in growth with the other^ its flexible shoots contain scarcely any 
oolonring matter. Nevertheless, it is sometimes brought down mixed 
with the finer. The Meris assured me that this fraud was not theirs, 
but was practised upon them by the Abors. I recommended them for 
their own sake to bring down none but the best, and they promised that 
none other should leave their country. They collect and tie it up in bun- 
dles when fresh and flexible, then lay it on frames or hang it up to the eaves 
of their houses to dry ; when it becomes rather brittle, it is fit for ex- 
portation. The Mytton is the only species of homed cattle possessed 
hy the Mens. It is rather a clumsy looking animal in make ; but a 
group of Myttons grazing on the steep rocky declivities they seem 
to love, would be a noble study for Landseer ; some are milk-white, some 
nearly black, some black and white, and some red and white. To 
the Meris they are only useful as food. On festive occasions one 
is killed, and I should think the beef must be excellent ; they feed 
most delicately on young leaves, and keep in excellent condition. The 



266 



Fisii to the Hills near the Soohamhiri River, QNo. 161 



cows would, I have no doubt, give a large supply of milk ; but 
Meris l\ave not yet found this out. I asked tbem to procure s< 
for me, but received the usual answer, " Meris don't know how, 
our custom/' The females appear tame, and submit to be teth( 
the bulls rove their own masters, but do not wander far horn, 
tethered females, so are in a measure tethered too; just now 
all roam where they please, but when the crops are on the gi 
a mountain or so is fenced round by strong timbers from tree to 
and into this enclosure they are driven, and remain till the harrc 
stored. They have pigs and poultry in plenty, and a few goaf 
suppose there are no people on the faee of the earth, more utterly 
rant of every thing connected with the arts than are the Hill 
With the sole exception of the bands and other articles of bambo< 
and fibres above-mentioned, which the women are everlastingly 
every thing they use is imported ; were their communications 
with the plains, and indirectly by means of the intervening tribes»j 
the civilized countries on the other side of the great range cut off, 
of metal and of women's clothes would be lost to them. The Abo] 
forge themselves daws, but the Meris know not the art. Th& 
distant tribes manufacture coarse cotton cloths ; but though the 
are in constant communication with them, as well as with us,, 
have not the remotest idea of weaving. They cannot journey t\ 
three days from their village, without having to cross a considt 
river. If it be not fordable, a rough raft of Kakoo bamboos is 
constructed for the occasion ; but though constantly requiring 
and annually using tbem, they have never yet attempted to coi 
a canoe : this is the more strange, as the Abors of the Dabong 
considerable trade in canoes cut in the rough. I suppose that unl 
Meris discovered the fertile plains of Assam, which they were 
to visit by having killed birds in whose bellies they found rice, ani 
covered by proceeding in the direction of their flight, they 
mere savage hunters ; the skins of beasts their only clothing, 
flesh their chief, if not only food. 

Gould they be stimulated to a more industrious course of life, 
might considerably improve their commercial relations with us. 
great rivers that enter their country abound in gold grains ; the p] 



I 



1845.] Visk to the Hills near the Soobamhiri River. 267 

of washing is simple, and the Meris have had for two centuries constant 
opportunity of watching it in all its phases. 

The last process of separating the gold from the remainder of the 
sand or scoria, they might leave to the Assamese gold, washers ; but the 
rough washing with the doorunnee and bottle gourd might be performed 
by them, and a considerable quantity of gold introduced. The doonin- 
nee, or tray, is very simple and easily made, and the gourds are obtained 
from the Meris by the gold-washers. This would be a most lucrative 
trade for them. By a little attention to the manjeet also, which they 
are too lazy to give, its growth might I think be improved and its col- 
lections facilitated, simply by the removal of other plants that choke it. 
I have not much more to say ; but I may send you another chapter* if 
you are not tired of me and the Meris. But this letter has grown to such 
a length, I fear you will be inclined to throw it into the fire without 
reading it. 

I have no doubt that there are sundry errors in this account ; but I 
cannot stop to correct them, for I feel sure if I were to read over what I 
have written I should hesitate about sending it. I had not intended 
sending you the journal up the river, it was copied to send home with 
sketches ; but as you seem interested in the scenery of the Soobanshiri, 
I have ventured to add it. 

Yours very sincerely, 
(Signed) E. T. Dalton. 
(True Copy,) 

(Signed) F. Jenkins, 
Agent to the Oovernor General. 
(True Copies,) 

J. CVRRIE, 

Secretary to the Govt, of India. 

* Trade with us and with Abors ; position of villages ; rough estimate of population ; 
Abors, Accas, not yet touched on. All these however might be included in a public 
letter applying for leave to make a more extended excursion next year. 



268 



Notes, principally/ Geological^ on the South Mahratta country-^^Falh 
of Gokauk — Classification of Rocks. By Capt. I^ewbold, F.R.S. 
&c. Assistant Commissioner KurnooL 

The reader has already been iotroduced into the South Mahratta 
country at its. eastern angle near the confluence of the Kistnah 
and the Gutpurba.* We will now proceed westerly across it, follow- 
ing the right bank of the Gutpurba to the Falls of Gokauk on the 
Eastern slope of the Western Ghauts, leaving the Kolapore territory 
to the right. 

I crossed the Kistnah about two and a half miles below the Sungum, 
or confluence, and passed up the opposite bank towards the tongue of 
land formed by the junction of the rivers. The apex consists of 
silt, sand and clay, in regular layers, rising, as they recede, to the height 
of about sixteen feet above the surface of the water. 

A section of these layers was afforded in the sides of a deep cleft 
running down to the Gutpurba. They present a striking illustration 
of the formation of fissures in sedimentary rocks, simply by the mass 
contracting in consolidation, unaided by subterranean movement or 
displacement, which we are compelled to call in to our assistance in 
explaining the great faults and displacements, attended with scorings of 
the faces of the fissures, and the polishings termed ** slickensides,'' so 
common in the coal measures, and other old sedimentary rocks of 
Europe. Earthquakes, another cause of fissures, are unknown here. 

The fissures in these layers of silt and clay are usually vertical, and 
widest in the more consolidated layers ; their course is often zig-zag, 
like that of the celebrated gap in the sandstone rocks of Gundicotta 
through which flows the Fennaur ; or, like the fissures in the Begur 
deposit : during the hot months they frequently intersect each other. 

Horizontal seams, independent of the parallel laminae of deposition, 
have been formed, partially filled with a titaniferous iron sand, which 
owes its arrangement, and segregation in distinct layers partly to its 
greater relative specific gravity, and partly to the motion of the water. 
The truth of this is easily illustrated by the simple experiment 
of mixing intimately some common quartzose sand with a portion of the 

* See Journal, Vol, XIII. p. 1004. 



1846.] Notes an the South Mahratta Country, ^c. 269 

iron sand, and throwing them into a tambier a quarter full of 

water. 

- If the tumbler then be inclined to one side, and gently moved so as 

to cause the water to move backwards and forwards over the surface of 

the sandy the particles of quartz and iron gradually separate and become 

arranged in distinct layers. 

The upper beds of the section are of loose silt and sand, the lower 
layers are more consolidated, and towards the base of the cliff thin 
layers of an indurated liver-brown marl alternate ; both the silt and 
marl effervesce slightly with acids. At the bottom of the fissure 
raos a rain channel, which has washed the sides into salient and 
re-entering angles. In some places they have been excavated and 
undermined by it, and portions of the superincumbent layers have 
fellen in. In short, we see on this diminutive, yet true scale, all the 
striking features of precipice, ravine, pinnacle, and castellated form so 
remarkable in the sandstone and limestone formations. 
' Tabular cavities appear in many portions of the cliff which have 
neither been caused by snails, nor other boring conchifers. They have 
originated from the stems of long grasses, around which layer after 
layer of silt, &c. had been deposited until the stem decayed away, leaving 
an empty cavity modified by the action of the rain trickling down it 
into the substance of the rock. In many of these cavities the grasses 
are still seen. The iron sand is slightly magnetic, infusible per se 
before the blow-pipe ; and forming with difficulty a blackish slag ; it 
tinges borax of a brownish green. It has probably been derived from 
the neighbouring trap formation. 

- The Rivers Kistnah and Gutpurba, The Kistnah near the con- 
flaence is apparently about 500 yards broad, and the Gutpurba about 
100. The current of the former had a velocity of about two and a half 
feet per second, and the latter about two and three-quarter feet. 

The temperature of both rivers, one foot below the surface, was 
exactly the same, viz. 76^ 5\ Temperature of air in shade 76** ; in sun 
84** : month July, river swollen by the monsoon freshes. Mean tem- 
perature of the South Mahratta country at Darwar, according to Christie, 
is about 75®. As both rivers were nearly full, there was no opportunity 
of examining the size and nature of the pebbles in the bed. On the banks 
are scattered water-worn fragments of chert, quartz, granite, trap. 



270 Notes on the South Mahratta Countty, ^c. [No. 160. 

felspar rock, horablende schist, jasper, lateritic conglomerate, kanker, 
ferruginous clay, greyish blue and sand-coloured limestone, sandstone, 
and calcedony. None of the fragments that had been transported by the 
current were more than three or four inches in diameter. 

A tumbler-full of the turbid water deposited about l-20th of its 
bulk of a fine sandy brown sediment, which effervesced with acids ; 
very different, like those of the Bhima, Godavery, Tnmbuddra and 
Cauvery, from the regur^ which, as before mentioned, is supposed by 
some geologists to be a deposit of these rivers. The freshes of the 
Kistnah do not, according to the testimony of the oldest boatmen, 
ever overflow the banks more than half a mile ; and its inundations at 
Danoor, and other places where I have crossed it, rarely spread 
to a greater extent. These facts argue strongly against the theory 
of the fluviatile origin of the regur which is seen covering vast fiat 
plains like seas, which extend, I may say, hundreds of miles from the 
banks of these great rivers. With regard to Christie's theory of 
its being the detritus of trap rocks, I have before observed that 
the iron contained in them oxidizes, becomes ultimately reddish 
or coffee-coloured in weathering, and imparts its colour to the detritos; 
and that the alluvium we now see brought down by the Kistnab, 
Bhima, and Godavery, which rise in and flow over the great trap 
formation, is of a brown colour, very different from the bluish black 
of the purest regur. One of the richest and most extensive sheets of 
regur in Southern India, is that of the Ceded Districts, which is watered 
by the Tumbuddra, Pennaur, and Hogri rivers, the courses of which on 
no point touch the trap formation, passing over plutonic and bypogene 
rocks, sandstone and limestone. If the rich sheets o{ regur which cover 
the plains of Trichinopoly, Artoni, and Cuddapah had been derived 
from the great trap formation, one would naturally expect to find in it, 
or associated with it, grains or fragments of calcedony, agate, jasper, 
heliotrope, and other hard minerals so abundant in the overlying trap: 
but there is no instance on record of such fragments having been found 
in these regurs. 

The regur is seen too, far above the present drainage levels of the 
country. At Beder, as already observed, both Voysey and myself 
found it on cliffs nearly 200 feet above the general level of the sar- 
rounding country. 



1845.] Notes on the South Mahratta Country, Sfc. 271 

The boiliDg point of water at the SuDgam was 200.3. Temperature 
of air at the time of observation 80^. 

On the S. bank of the Gutpurba are aome low hills running £. S. E. 
The only one which was examined proved to be a breccia, overlying 
the light blue and buff limestone, composed of a dark red or liver 
brown clay, highly indurated, and passing into jasper imbedding an- 
gular fragments of the siliceous portions of the subjacent limestone, 
chert, quartz, &c The angular fragments of chert are often so small 
as to give this breccia the appearance of a porphyry, for which some por- 
tions of the rock might at first sight be mistaken, and a bed of really 
aqueous origin confounded with a plutonic rock — ^an error which has 
happened. 

Proceeding westerly from the limits of the hypogene schists, the 
imbedded fragments in this breccia become larger, and the conglome- 
rate character cannot be mistaken. It is evident, from the gradually 
mcreasing size of the pebbles, that the rock whence they were derived 
is neared as we advance west, and that the current which deposited 
these beds of sand and pebbles must have had an easterly direction. 

This inference proved correct; and the limestone was found in 
Mfil at a short distance west from the hills, on the S. bank of the 
Gntpurba, in broken*up and dislocated strata ; some of the lime- 
itone slabs had been furrowed as if by the action of pebbles passing 
along them in an east and west direction. Dark veins of chert projected 
every where from the water- worn blocks and slabs of this limestone, 
many of which are thickly encrusted with depositions of a ferru- 
ginous kanker which abounds. The limestone often abounds so much 
in silez, and is so indurated as to give fire with steel, and hardly effer- 
vesces with acids, save in a pulverized state. Marks of aqueous abrasion 
aod plutonic disturbance which preceded the formation of the breccia 
are very apparent in this locality. 

SUadonga kills. A plain almost covered with regur extends from 
these low hills of breccia to the Sitadonga range, which abutting on 
and confining the Gutpurba on the north, run down to Badami and 
Gojunderghur on the south. The hills at this point consist of sand- 
stone and conglomerates, the latter usually the lowest in position, both 
partially capped by a lateritic conglomerate which, in many places, has 

evidently been stripped off by denudation. The conglomerates are 

2q 



272 NoUs on the South MahraUa Country, ^c. QNo. 160. 

often of a highly ferruginous and jaspideous character, and imbedding 
fragments of chert, quartz, and shales from the limestone. 

As these hills are ascended, the sandstone gradually loses its coo- 
glomerate character, passing into almost all the varieties it is suscep* 
tible of, from yellow and reddish rock containing much argillaceous 
matter, to a loose gritty sandstone with red and yellow bands, which 
passes into a compact white sandstone, approaching quartz rock, con- 
taining specks of oxide of iron, or decayed felspar, in minute cavities. 

On the summit of the Pass was a fine whitish sandstone with reddish 
streaks, composed of grains of quartz held together by whitish decom- 
posed felspar. 

On many of the slabs the ripple mark is distinct, running nearly N. 
and S., which shows that the current must have had an easterly or 
westerly course in this locality. At the western base of the Pass the 
coloured argillaceous shales, into which the limestone usually passes 
near the line of junction with the superimposed limestone^ have bees 
invaded and cut by a dyke of basaltic greenstone, and converted into 
reddish, greenish, and brown coloured jasper and bluish white chert 
in alternating layers ; each line of which presents the original lines of 
deposition. Two other dykes, or ramifications, are crossed in the plain 
or valley extending from the base of the first Pass to another range 
probably a spur or outlier of the ridge just crossed, and though 
curvilinear, having a general direction nearly parallel with it. Green 
argillaceous schists, altered by the basaltic dykes, and in almoft 
vertical laminse, occupy the bottom of the intervening valley. The 
spur or outlying range is of a compact sandstone capping the schuCs 
and dipping at an angle of about 28<' towards the S. W. Near the 
summit of the range it contains a bed of very fine white and red day 
which is extensively excavated by the natives, who use the former as a 
whitewash and to paint the mark of caste on their foreheads. 

The Gutpurba finds its way easterly through a break just below 
this rock, and rushes through the ridge just passed, by a still narrower 
and more rugged gorge. 

Leaving the excavations, the traveller descends the sandstone spQ' 
into the extensive and fertile plain of Bagulcotta, based on limestone 
and its associated coloured shales and schists ; bounded on the east 
by the Sitadooga or Gujunderghur range ; and, as far as the eye can 



J845.] Nole$ on the South JUahratta Couniry, SfC 279 

reach, on the west by the ranges west of KoUadghur, and those of 
Gokank on the flank of the Western Ghauts. 

Plain of BagulcoUa, This plain continues westerly to within a 
few miles from KuUadghi, watered by the Gntpurba on the north, and 
bounded by a long, low, flat- topped range, evidently of sandstone ; to the 
£L the limestone, which bases it, has a general dip of about 25® towards 
the E. N. E. at Bagulcotta, and a direction nearly parallel to that of 
the sandstone ranges, vis. N. N. W. ; both dip and direction, however, 
vary occasionally, probably from flexures and disturbance by plutonic 
iatmnon. The limestone in the vicinity of Bagulcotta and KuUadghi 
is of various shades and textures ; sometimes as white and crystalline as 
marble^ and composed almost entirely of carbonate of lime ; at others 
niieeoos or magnesiao, or passing into whitish, green, blue, red and 
ehocolate<^M>kKired argillaceous shales. At Bagulcotta a pale buff 
coloured limestone occurs, portions of which might be applied to 
lithographic purposes; specimens of it I believe have been sent to 
Bombay for trial, but in consequence, probably, of not being selected 
properly, have been rejected as too hard, or for being veined. 

The site I hardly conceive has had a fair trial ; by the sending down 
a person pracHeallp qualified to select specimens, and by the quarrying 
a little deeper than has hitherto been done, I have little doubt that 
better samples of the stone might be got. Talicotta however, as men- 
tioned in a previous paper, is the most promising locality for lithogra- 
phic limestone. 

The purer white crystalline variety is broken up into small fragments, 
and burnt into lime. I observed in it the same green chloritic flakes 
which I afterwards found veining the marble in the quarries of Mount 
Psntelicus near Athens, and in the Cipolin Marbles. A pale salmon, 
or flesh-coloured subcrystalline variety, resembling Tiree marble^ 
occurs both near Bagulcotta and at SuUakairy, a village about three 
miles S. from KuUadghi. 

About three miles to the E. of KuUadghi a few low hiUs of a 
lateritic conglomerate rest on the limestone and associated shales, 
nmning paraUel with the sandstone ranges. The cementing substance 
is partly a calcareous, and partly a clayey paste of a yellowish or red- 
dish colour, imbedding nodules of laterite. The lower portions of this 
rock are more compact than the upper, and exhibit distinct lines of 



274 UeUi on the South MahroHa Couniry, ^c. [No. 160. 

stratification. The range on the left, or south, of the road from 
Bagulcotta to Kulladghi, consists of sandstone and conglomerate. The 
latter imbeds pebbles both rounded and angular from the harder and 
more siliceous portions of the subjacent shales and limestone, and also 
pebbles of an older sandstone, which I did not discover in sUu; 
these beds are not inclined so much as the limestones and shales 
on which they rest, but dip to the same point of the horiaon. 

Kulladghi. The nullahs in the vicinity of Kulladghi a£Pord good 
sections of the limestone and its associated shales which, from their 
highly inclined and bent strata, have evidently suffered much distur- 
bance from plutonic forces. The frequent alternations we see of 
those rocks, in a very confined area, induces the supposition of the 
beds having been folded back upon themselves, and thus produced 
the appearance of a double and reversed alternation,, the upper parts 
of the folded strata having been carried away by denudation, as is 
seen to be the case on the face of some of the magnificent precipices 
of the Alps. 

The shales are beautifully marked by white, blue, green, yellov, 
and red coloured bands; and seamed with arenaceous layers. The 
open seams of the rock are often encrusted with kunkerous infiltrations. 

Slate quarries of Katurki. On the Maningpur road near the 
village of Katurki, about one-half koss from Kulladghi, these slates 
split into rhomboidal forms by joints, and yield good hones ; at Solla- 
kairy tolerable roofing slates, slates and slate pencils are quarried. 
SuUakairy, as before stated, is about three miles from Kulladghi, on the 
Gujunderghur road-. 

The lower beds of the quarried rock at SuUakairy are of a massive 
blue slate interstratified with a softer lamellar variety, easily fissile, 
and divisible into leaves which are often not more than a line thick ; 
dendritic markings are frequently seen on the surfaces of the laminn* 

From the more massive beds are hewn large blocks for pillars 
of pagodas, Hindu idols, &c. Roofing slates are not much patronized 
by natives, who prefer tiles, thatch or mud, but considerable quantities 
have been here quarried and sent to the British cantonment of Bel- 
gaum and the Portuguese Indian metropolis, Goa. The prices at the 
quarries, I was informed on the spot, for slates of a foot square sod 
quarter or half an inch thick, are five rupees per hundred slates ; they 



1845.] Notes on the South Mahratia Country, ^c. 275 

may be procured however of much larger dimenrions, and of any 
degree of thinness. A capital writing slate and pencil were cat 
for me oat of the qaarries, shaped and polished all in a coaple of 
boars. 

A loose, friable, dark blue slate in the bed of the nullah near the 
quarries is sometimes pulverized and ground up with water and used 
as a blue wash for houses, he. 

Iron Mines of HircuiUaky. Iron ore is procured, according to 
native information, near the village of Hirasillaky, about two and a half 
koss from Kulladghi. The metal sells at from two to two and a half 
rupees the pukka maund of forty-eight seers. Land carriage by bandies 
or bullocks, and abundance of cheap fuel for smelting are readily pro- 
curable. 

From want of time and opportunity, my visit to the hone quarries 
of Katurki was by torch-light, when little was to be made out regard- 
ing the thickness or nature of the beds furnishing the Novaoulites. 

From Kulladghi to the Falls of Gokauh, Proceeding in a W, by 
N. direction near the right bank of the Gutpurba, towards the falls 
of Gokank, over extensive plains of regur with patches here and 
there rendered sterile by saline infiltration (the muriate and carbonate 
of soda,) the limestone and its associated shales are occasionally 
seen basing the plains intersected by dykes of basaltic greenstone^ 
of which four were counted between Lokapoor and Hulkoond, 
about twenty-three miles distant from Kulladghi ; to the intrusion of 
these dykes much of the alteration seen in the limestone is attri- 
butable. 

A little to the west of Hulkoond the great overlying trap of the 
Deccan is seen to extend over the surface of the schists, and may be 
traced nearly to the base of the sandstone difis to the south and west, 
covered by sandstone debris ; a few scattered sandstone outliers occur 
between Halkoond and Kulladghi. 

At Munnikerry, about twenty-six miles from Kulladghi, is a ridge of 
sandstone, approaching a quartz rock in compactness, intersected by 
a net work of brown, ferruginous veins. The sandstone is, in some 
situations, covered with a breccia composed principally of sand- 
stone and quartz in angular fragments cemented by a ferruginous clay. 



276 Noie9 &n the Souih Mahratta Cauniry, ^e. [No. 160. 

Close to a small pagoda, the sandstone at the S. W. flank of the ridge 
near the edge of the overlying tirap is penetrated with a vein of black 
manganese, associated with iron, about three inches broad. 

At Bugganala, about two and a half miles westerly from this sand- 
stcme ridge, the limestone and shales are again seen dipping M. 20' E. 
direction of strata E. 20^ S., layers and veins of a reddish jasper and 
chert intersect the limestone* a phenomenon that is usually seen 
where the limestone comes in contact with plutonic or hypogene 
rocks. 

Farther west, between Bettighirry and Ooperhutty, a bed of qnartzy 
talcose schist, approaching protogine, is crossed with layers of litho* 
marge* 

Nearer Ooperhutty, the overlying trap is again seen in low cliffs 
on the banks of a nullah, resting on a red amygdaloid, which contains 
layers of a fine red bole with a shining streak, and conchoidal fracture. 
It does not adhere to the tongue ; falls to pieces in water ; does not 
form a plastic day. 

The trap is associated with wacke, with green earth in nests, and 
a chocolate amygdaloid reticulated with strings of calc spar, and im« 
bedding oaloedony and zeolites. 

A loose sandstone, associated probably with the laterite, and newer 
than that which has just been described, rests in horizontal partial 
layers on the trap, of which it imbeds small fragments. 

On approaching the sandstone ranges of Colabanghy and Gokavk, 
the hypogene schists are seen rising to the surface at their base^ and tbe 
intervening limestone and its associated shales are wanting. Tbe biil 
of Punchmi to the S. W« of the town of Gokauk has a base of 
garnitiferous gneiss, hornblende and chloritic schists, capped with sand* 
stone in massive beds. These beds are interstratified with layers of 
conglomerate containing rounded and angular fragments of reddish 
quartz rock^ quartz, and a greenish and grey chert. These fragments 
in many instances appear to have been deposited so tranquilly as to 
have been arranged agreeably to the laws of gravitation, and occur 
most frequently at the seams of the thick sandstone beds. 

The hypogene rocks have a dip of about 60^ towards the E. by N., 
direction of beds S. 6^ £• The sandstone rests on it unconfonnaUyi 



I845.] Notes an ike South Mahratta Country, SfC. 277 

dipping bat slightly in the same direction. A dyke of bftfaltic green- 
stone, of about five feet broad, penetrates the hornblende schist in an 
easterly direction, bifarcates at about the middle of the ascent from 
the N. EL and is lost in the substance of the rock. 

F€Ms of Gokauk. The sabordinate ranges of Gokauk and Cota- 
bangfay now bef(H« ns, form the eastern flank of the Western Ghauts, 
and ran in a parallel direction, here about 8. by E.. At Gokauk the 
upper portions of this range present mural precipices with either well 
flat tabular summits, or running in narrow crested ridges. 

They are entered from the east by a picturesque gorge (cross 
▼alley), through which the Gutpurba hurries from its mountain sources 
iDto the elevated plains of the Deccan, near the town of Gokauk, 
which is about three and a half miles easterly from the falls. 

The road lay along the bottom and side of this defile on the right 
bank of the river, which was now (July) swollen by the monsoon 
freshes from the Western Ghauts. It varied in breadth from 90 to 800 
yardsy presenting a rapid muddy stream, brawling and rushing from 
the alternate confinement and opening out of its rocky channeL It 
is nnfordable generally during four months in the year at Gokauk, 
viz. from the middle of May to the middle of September, at the 
eessation of the mmisoon. The water at the dry season ford, a little 
below the town, is now 15 feet deep. The sources are said to be near 
Bunder or Gunder Ghur, a little N. of the Ramghaut Pass from the S. 
Conean to Belgaum. After a course of about 100 miles, watering the 
plains of Ruliadghi and Bagulcotta, it finds its way through the gaps in 
the Sitadonga hills just described, to the Kistnab, which it joins at the 
KudU Sunffum, 

After an hour's time spent in winding up this rugged defile, the falls, 
the roar of which we distinctly heard during the silence of night at 
the town of Gokauk, at a sudden angle of the road became partly visi- 
ble, presenting the magnificent spectacle of a mass of water containing 
upwards of 16,000 cubic feet precipitated from the tabular surface of 
the sandstone into a gorge forming the head of the defile, the bottom 
of which is about 178 feet below the lip of the cataract The Gut- 
purba a little above the fall is apparently about 250 yards across, but 
contracts to 80 as the brink of the chasm is approached ; consequently 
the density and velocity of the watery mass is much increased, and 



278 Notes on the South Mahratta Country, ^c. [Na 160. 

it harries down the shelving tables of rock with frightful rapidity to 
its fall. 

The fall over the face of the precipice seems slow and sullen from 
the velocity of the surface water of this rapid, and from the great 
denseness of the body; and it plunges heavily down with a deep 
thundering sound, which we heard during the previous night at our en- 
campment, three and a half miles farther down the river. 

This ponderous descent, and the heavy muddy colour of the water, 
conveys a feeling of weight through the eye to the senses, which is re- 
lieved by the lightness and airiness of thin clouds of white Tapour 
and amber-coloured spray which ascend from the basin at the bottom 
of the gorge in curling wreaths, curtaining the lower portions of the fall, 
and through which the basin was only seen at intervals when its sur- 
face was swept by the fitful gusts that swept up the glen. 

Rising above the cliffs that confine the falls, the watery particles 
vanish as they ascend ; but again condensing, descend in gentle showers* 
which is felt at a short distance round the head of the falls. 

Spray bows, varying in brightness^ distinctness and extent, accord- 
ing to the quantity of light refracted, and the modification of the 
▼apour, lent their prismatic tints to the ever-ascending wreaths ; the 
largest, (observed about 4 p. m.) formed an arch completely across 
the river, rose, and receding as the sun sank in the west^ gradually dis- 
appeared with it. Like the rainbow they are only produced on the sur- 
face of the cloud opposed to the sun's rays. The size and distance from 
each other of the drops composing the different portions of the spray 
cloud, evidently influenced the brilliancy of the refracted colours, the 
tints being brightest in those portions where the drops were of mediom 
size and density, and dullest where the watery particles were smallest 
and closest together. 

The velocity of the surface water of the rapid was about nine feet 
per second, and its depth ten feet. About two and a half miles farther up, 
the river near the village of Koonoor, beyond the rapid, is a ford in the 
dry season, and a safe ferry during the monsoon. A tumbler-fiill of the 
turbid water deposited l-60th of its bulk of a fine reddish clay, not cal- 
careous,-— a fact showing that the lime which exists in the sediment 
of this river at its confluence with the Kistnah, must have been derived 
from the intermediate plains. The pebbles brought down are chiefly 



1845.3 Notes on the SautFt Mahratta Country, SfC 279 

quartz, granitie, and from the hypogene schistf, with a few of cal« 
cedony ; the sands containing grains of magnetic iron. The boiling point 
of water at the plateau of sandstone from which the cataract falls, 
gives 2817 feet above the level of the sea. 

The mean temperature of the place, approximated by Boussin- 
ganlt's method, is 78**, which I should think rather too high, as the 
temperature of a spring close by was only 75^ Temperature of air in 
the shade at time 78^. 

The mean temperature of Darwar, which stands much lower, is cal- 
culated by Christie at 75^ 

The head of the fissure, which is elliptical in form, with mural sides 
of sandstone, has much the appearance of having been cut back, like 
Niagara, by the abrading action of the water, for the space of about 
100 yards. Large rocks, with angular unworn surfaces, evidently dislodg* 
ed from the rocks on the spot are seen in the bed, and on the sides of 
the river below the deep basin-receptacle of the fallen waters and on 
its margin. The great hardness and compact structure of the sand- 
stone above the falls offers great obstacles to their rapid recession. 

The cliffs, however, flanking the right side of the river below, are 
rent by nearly vertical fissures from summit to base, by one of which 
I descended to the bed. The direction of two of the largest was about 
E. S. E. They are crossed nearly at right angles by minor cracks 
which thus insulate portions of the rock. The bases of these totter- 
ing pinnacles are often undermined by the action of the water, and the 
mass tumbles headlong into the stream. 

The sandstone in its lower portions is interstratified with layers of 
shale, the softness of which facilitates this process of undermining. 
These shales are of a purplish-brown and yellowish-brown colour, 
with minute spangles of mica disseminated, and between the laminae 
contain incrustations of common alum (sulphate of alumina). The 
alom is earthy and impure, and sometimes has a mammiilated surface 
resembling the alum incrustations in the ferruginous shales cresting 
the copper mountain near Bellary. It is found in considerable quan- 
tity in a small cave near the foot of the falls. 

The ripple mark, so often seen on the sandstones of Europe, is 

observed in great distinctness on the tabular surfaces of the cliffs and 

ID the exposed layers of the subjacent beds, at least 100 feet below the 

2b 



280 NoUs an the South Mahratta Ccuntry, S^c, [No. 160. 

surface. Its longitudinal direction is various, but generally S. 25^ 
W., indicating the £. S. E. and W. N. W. direction of the current 
which caused them. The ripple marks on the sandstones of Cuddapafa 
and Kurnool have a general similar direction. 

At the bottom of the deep fissures in the sandstone cliffs already 
described, accumulations have formed of fallen fragments of rock, 
sticks and leaves, he. from above, intermingled with the dung and bones 
of bats, rats and wild pigeons, with a few sheep and goat bones. 
Some of the latter have the appearance of having been gnawed by 
hyenas, jackals, or other beasts of prey. Many however are evidently 
the remains of animals that have fallen from above, as the bones are 
fractured. 

The upper portions of these fissures have sometimes been choked by 
rock and rubbish from above. Their sides, though generally smooth, 
are marked with shallow polished grooves. 

I made two excavations through the floor of the principal fissure^ in 
the hope of meeting with organic remains, but in vain. After pene* 
t rating the surface layer of loose stones, and bats' dung, a fine red 
earth was met with, imbedding angular fragments of sandstone, and 
a few rounded pebbles of it and quartz. After digging for about four 
or ^ve feet through this, farther progress was prevented by great blocks 
of solid rock. 

The seeds of creepers and other plants vegetate on this soil, and 
shoot rapidly towards the surface, shading the fissures with their 
leaves. 

On the cliffs near the falls, on the right bank of the river, stands 
a small group of Hindu temples dedicated to Siva. The principal 
shrine is a massive and elaborately carved structure of sandstone^ 
elevated on a high, well built pediment above the reach of the ordinary 
floods. 

Seven years ago, three of the steps of the northern flight ascending 
this terrace were submerged by an extraordinary rise of the river. The 
Vimana of this temple contains the Phallitie emblem of Siva, the 
LingOt guarded by the sacred bull. Here we passed the heat of the 
day. On the opposite bank of the river rises a well wooded hilJ, 
about 100 feet above the brink of the rapid, on which stand a few 
ruins of other Hindu religious structures. 



1845.] NoUi on the South Mahratta Country, ^. 28 1 

The table-land to the S. of the falls is covered with low jangle of 
Mimosa, Eaphorbia, Cassia and Bunder, the Mend bundati with its lilac 
sweet pea-like blossom, the Carissa spinarum, Webera tetrandra an4 
other thorny shrubs. The Euphorbia antiqua and tortilis were in 
flower, (July). 

Tr€uU between Gohauk and Belgaum, along the Western slope of the 
GhauiB, From the falls of Gokauk by Padshahpoor to the cantom- 
ment of Belgaum, about 34^ miles, the route lies nearly S. W. across 
an elevated table-land sloping gently to the eastward, covered with 
alternating bands of red and black soil, generally well cultivated, and 
intersected from Padshahpoor, which is about 11^ miles from the 
falls, to Belgaum by curvilinear spurs and outlying hills, belonging 
to the Western Ghaut system, consisting of sandstone and sandstone 
conglomerates as at Gokauk, in nearly horizontal strata. The ruins 
of the fort at Padshahpoor stand on a low flat-topped hill of this sand- 
stone. This formation has been covered in two localities by the overly- 
ing trap. A little beyond the village of Kunnoor, about two miles from 
the falls, a narrow eauiee of trap is crossed, containing olivine and dark 
glassy crystals of felspar. 

About a mile to the N. E. of Belgaum, another sheet of trap is 
entered on, which extends to the sandstone ranges on the right. The 
sandstone is now finally lost sight of on the line of route, and the trap 
continues the surface rock to Belgaum, where it is covered by a 
thick bed of laterite, over which is in some places superimposed a 
layer of the more recent lateritic conglomerate. 

Sections of these rocks are afforded by the quarries near the old 
European Barracks, none of which have been excavated to the subjacent 
trap. It has however been dug down to in some of the deepest wells of 
the place. The laterite is used here as at Malacca, Goa, and pn the 
Malabar coast, as a building stone. 

The trap in the vicinity of Belgaum rises into hills with rounded 
summits, covered in general with a dark, spongy mould, which is boggy 
during the monsoon, the grassy and almost treeless surface of which 
affords a strong contrast to the jungle-covered hills of sandstone to th^ 
N. W. The trap hills are rarely flat- topped, or in horizontal ranges, 



28^ NoUs on the South MahraUa Country, Sfc. [No. 160. 

as seen in the more central parts of its area. The trap at the summit 
of these hills is usually dark, compact, and basaltic, but occasionally 
contains almond-shaped and spheroidal cavities filled with calce- 
dony and crystallized quartz, zeolites and green earth. Black crystals 
of augite are occasionally seen shooting through its structure, which 
decay sooner than the imbedding rock ; and, falling out in the state of 
powder, leave numberless cavities on the surface. The rock itself in 
weathering, resembles iron in rusting, and passes into reddish brown, 
or coffee-coloured earth, or clay. Cavities occasionally are seen filled 
with a black earth resembling black bole. 

S, E. boundary of the overlying trap at Bangwari, This trap 
passing into amygdaloid and wacke, and covered with patches of laterite, 
extends about fourteen and a half miles 8. E. from Belgaum, a little to 
the West of the village of Bangwari, though a few narrow slips are 
crossed a few miles farther East. The edge of the trap is seen reposing on 
the hypogene schists at the base of the trap hills close to the village, 
the ferruginous quartzites with veins of a diaphanous bluish quartz and 
hornblende schists, are here seen to basset out in nearly vertical strata. 
From the Southern limit of the overlying trap at Bangwari to the 
Malpurba, A few hundred yards to the W. of the village of Hoobly, 
sixteen and a quarter miles S. E. from Belgaum, there is a low hill cover- 
ed with alluvial soil, in which I found an angular block of quartz with a 
fibrous structure resembling that of silicified wood, but evidently not of 
organic origin. The exterior is brown and opaque ;— interior generally 
translucent with microscopic longitudinal cavities. Minute longitudinal 
fibres of talc are discoverable with the aid of a lens, having a parallel 
direction with those of the fibres of quartz, and I have little doubt 
that the rock owes its fibrous structure to the presence of talc. I have 
observed a similar structure in the qaartzite associated with the talcosa 
and acty noli tic schists of Mysore. 

Malpurba River, About three-quarters of a mile from Hoobly the 
Malpurba is crossed. It was swollen by the monsoon (July) and unf(Mr* 
dable, having about eighteen feet of water in the main channel. Rate 
of surface current, two and a half feet per second. Its breadth by a tri* 
gonometrical observation ninety-five yards. A tumbler-full of the water 



1845.] Note$ <m the South Mahraiia CoufUry^ Sfc. 283 

deposited a scanty sediment of fine red silt, aboat 1 -50th part of its balk. 
The temperature of the water afoot below the surface was 74°, of air in 
shade 72% of a well thirty feet deep 74° 5'. The temperature of rain 
water 73°. (The atmosphere had then been cooled to 70° and 74° by 
eighteen days of successive rain, with a pretty steady westerly wind). 
The banks of the river are of silt and sand, the left or Western bank 
is steep and high. 

From the Malpurba to Darwar. From the banks of the Malpurba 
to Darwar, a direct distance of twenty-three miles, the country is 
hilly and picturesque, particularly around the Marhatta forts and towns 
of Kittoor and Taigoor, which command a lovely landscape of hill and 
dale. The valleys are generally well watered, cultivated with dry 
and wet grain, and studded, parklike, with clumps of the Mango and 
Tamarind, while the sloping sides of the hills, verdant with the rain, 
afford a plentiful pasture to flocks of sheep and herds of cattle. The 
landscape around Darwar partakes of the same character, and was 
frequently brought to recollection during subsequent wanderings in 
Karamauia, the Troad, and other parts of Asia Minor. 

The soil covering the surface of this pleasing tract of country, is 
osually reddish, and the result of the decay and washing of the neigh* 
bearing rocks. A few belts of cotton soil appear here and there. The 
staple products of these soils are rice, yellow and white Juari, Bajra, 
Raggi, Teimgoni, Till, Tobacco, Saffron, and Maize ; Mimosa, Euphor- 
l»a. Cacti, Cassias, and Acacias constitute the majority of the wild 
vegetation. 

The schists forming the hills in the vicinity of Kittoor resemble^ 
petrologically, the jaspideous schists of Bellary and Sondur (described 
in Madras Journal for July 1838, pp. 147-49,) and consist commonly 
of chert and brown iron ore, or a ferruginous jaspideous clay in alter- 
nate layers ; sometimes in straight lines, sometimes in flexures con- 
torted, or bent at acute angles, and resembling those of ribbon jasper. 
This rock, like that of Sondur, is sometimes magnetic with polarity. 
It contains nests and cavities lined with blistery and stalactitic hema- 
tite, quartz crystals, and veins of smoky quartz^ In some places, 
like the Sondur rock, it puts on the appearance of a breccia consist* 
ing of a dark chocolate, or liver- brown paste, highly indurated, giving 
fire with steel, imbedding angular fragments of the striped ribbon jas- 



284 Noies an (he South Mahratta Country, ^e. [No. 160. 

per-like variety, aod appearipg, as Christie justly describes, as if the 
latter rock had been broken into a number of small angular fragments, 
which had been afterwards united by the consolidation of the brown 
variety. I have seen this singular phenomenon most beautifully ex* 
hibited in some specimens of a continental agate breccia in the coU 
lection of Mr. Robert Brown, the celebrated botanist, where angular 
fragments of beautiful jasper and agate are united together in highly 
transparent quartz. The pieces of agate and jasper must evidently 
hsve been once continuous, and re«united on the spot where they were 
fractured ; since, in most instances, the sides of the fractured portions 
are sharp and angular, and could be refitted into each other with per* 
feet exactness; some are only separated a tenth of an inch by the 
transparent medium in which they are set. The differently coloured 
bands identify the fractured portions as having once constituted one 
integral piece of jasper or agate. 

If the reader can imagine a flat piece of ribbon-jasper or agate laid 
down upon a table, and both broken, so that the fractured portions 
shall not be scattered widely from their neighbours, and a layer of mol- 
ten glass carefully poured over them, he may form an idea of the sp- 
pearance of these beautiful breccias. He must not expect, however, 
to see such regularity in rocks on the large scale. 

Towards Darwar the schists pass into ehloritic and argillaceoos 
slates and shales, of all shades of white, yellow, red, brown, and green ; 
interstratified with beds of quartz rock, and the jaspideous rock josi 
described, which generally forms crests and mural ridges on the sum- 
mits of the hills. The latter is often found in irregular masses, ob- 
scurely stratified ; but, in most cases, as remarked already, in regularly 
interstratified beds with the clay and ehloritic schists conformable 
both in dip and direction. 

The lustre of this rock is sometimes equal to that of pitchstone, and 
sometimes dull and earthy ; the fracture flat conchoidal, in the mors 
compact varieties ; splintery and slightly granular in the less compact 
The Kittoor and Darwar schists bear evident marks of the alternatioo 
produced by the intrusion of granite, and trap dikes seen occasional- 
ly at the bases of these hills ; and as in the Ceded Districts, and other 
localities on the hypogene area, of Southern India, affords striking iilas- 
trations of the correctness of McCulloch's remark on the formation 



1845.] Note$ on the South MahfaUa Country ^ Sfc. 285 

of jasper rock>* viz. " where strata of quartz rock» containiDg much 
felspar or clay occur in contact with granite, they pass into jasper 
if the clay abounds ; while in other places they are converted into 
chert if less of that earth is present ; or, if pure, are rendered perfectly 
crystalline/' 

With regard to the classification of jaspideous rocks associated with 
the metamorphic schists of S. India, it is clear they either belong to 
the jasper rocks, or silicious schists of McCuUoch, both of which^ 
however, I have reason to think, pass occasionally into each other. 
Both occur in strata among the metamorphic rocks ; jasper sometimes 
forming hills in Siberia and Norway, and it is seen in Scotland and the 
Appennines imbedded in micaceous and argillaceon§ schists. 

The difficulty that sometimes exists of distinguishing these two rocks 
has not escaped the notice of McCuUoch, who thus remarks: ** Jasper 
presents a few modifications of internal structure which require notice. 
It sometimes gives indications of a spheroidal concretionary dis* 
position, more or less perfect, and resembling that which, under cir^ 
eumustances of a simUar nature, occurs in chert and silicious schist. In 
the same way, it sometimes possesses a laminar structure, and in this 
also it api^oximates to the silicious schists. It is easy to see how 
from similarity of origin, connexion and composition, it may be thus 
a matter of doubt to which of those two rocks any given specimen 
or bed should be referred. The well known striped and spotted 
jaspers owe their appearance to the two structures above-mentioned, 
and occasionally the two are combined in the same specimen." 

There is however a perhaps somewhat empirical distinction drawn 
by some geologists between these two classes of rocks, founded upon 
the supposed less stratified character of jasper, its intrusion into 
other rocks in the state of veins, and its association with trap rocks, 
which I will avail myself of to place, pro^tempore, the jaspideous 
rocks of Southern India among the silicious schists ; from their, in ge* 
neral, decidedly stratified character, particularly those of the Southern 
Marhatta country, which pass into the associated schists, and preserve a 
conformable dip and direction. The petrographical characters of the 
Marhatta beds, varying according to the degree of induration, and 

* Classification of Rocks, pp. 546-47. 



286 Notes on the South Mahratta Country, 8fc. [No. 160. 

structure, on tbe whole less assimilate those of jasper than in Sondor 
and other places. The generality of its most jaspideons and lami- 
nar beds may be classed in McGuUoch's second division of silicious 
chert, viz. 

** F. Laminar, with alternate colours, and forming varieties of the 
striped jasper of mineralogists. The colours are commonly shades of 
red| brown, yellow and purplish black, and these kinds appear to be 
derived from the coloured shales. 

" G. Containing imbedded crystals of quartz, and of a porphyritic 
aspect." 

The physical aspect of the country to the W. and S. W. of Darwar 
is hilly. The elevations are generally, like those of the clay slate of 
the Cambrian group, rouud-backed, smooth, of no great altitude, and 
separated by well cultivated vallies, or narrow ravines. They are 
partially covered with a low shrubby vegetation principally of Mimosa, 
Cacti, and the Cassia auriculata. To the East stretches the great pkteaa 
of the S. Mahratta country and Ceded Districts, covered for the 
most part with a thick layer of regur^ and continuing, with but' few 
hilly interruptions, across the peninsula to the Eastern Ghauts. The 
soil in the immediate vicinity of Darwar is reddish and clayey, evident- 
ly the alluvium of the schistose hills, and disintegration of rocks in 
sitti* 

The rocks composing the hills are schists passing into slates and 
shales, (agreeably to Lyell's distinctions of these terms.) The general 
structure is perhaps more schistose and shaly than slaty. The stme- 
ture varies from massive, and obscurely slaty, to finely laminar ; and from 
compact and flinty, to soft and sectile. The laminae are nearly verti- 
cal, and generally run parallel with the prevailing line of elevation, viz. 
N. W. and S. E. Tbe stratification, if not identical with the lamina- 
tion, is obscure. It is well known, however, that the lines of fissility 
in slates are not necessarily those of stratification, the former being often 
caused by the arrangement of mica, chlorite or talc ; petrographlcally 
speaking, the rock passes from a green chloritic schist into all shades 
of white, yellow, red and brown, sometimes singularly arranged in 
stripes, in contorted and waving bands ; red and white being the pre- 
valent tints. Felspar, in a clayey slate of disintegration, is the preva- 
lent mineral blended with quartz, and tinged with iron. The white 



1845.J Nate9 on the South MahraUa Country, Sfc. 287 

varieties seldom contain silez sufficient to give them the character of 
Kaolin. The whole mass is sometimes relicalated by veins of a brow^ 
ferrttginous qaartz and impure iron ore, (often split in the centre, and 
the sides of the fissure lined with quartz crystals) having apparently 
DO decided direction. Iron pyrites are seen in the chloritic schists ; 
this rock, particularly in the vicinity of trap dykes, has a tendency to 
the prismatic and rhomboidai forms, in which the lamination, though 
generally obscure, is sometimes still distinctly traceable. A system of 
joints running nearly at right angles with those of lamination, often in* 
tersect the whole group of these schists. These jointed portions are not 
capable of that indefinite subdivision into similar solids by which Pro* 
fessor Sedgwick justly observes, the true cleavage planes may generally 
be distinguished from the joints. The difficulty in the schists of the 
S. Mahratta country is to discriminate between the planes of cleavage, 
and those of mechanical deposition, or chemical precipitation, for 
which there are three good tests, viz. the interstratification of another 
bed of rock, the coloured bands of successive deposition, and a pecu- 
liar, but slightly dimpled appearance on the surfaces of the planes 
ne?er seen on those of cleavage. From the occurrence of the latter 
on the planes of the laminae of the Darwar rocks, and from the iron and 
dip of the large interstratified beds of quartz and silicious schists, I 
am inclined to consider that the true lines of stratification run nearly 
parallel with that of elevation, viz. nearly N. W. and S. E., and that the 
laminae are those of deposition ; while the microscopic fissures by which 
the rock is cleft into rhomboidai and prismatic forms may be received 
as those of true cleavage. 

My friend Captain Allardyce, who has minutely examined the rocks 
about Darwar, writes me that the direction of the laminae and that of 
stratification keep very constant to one point of the compass, viz. N. W. 
by N. for a great distance, perhaps over an area of from fifty to one bun* 
dred miles. One may pick up a fragment of chlorite slate of a trian- 
gular, pyramidal 'outline, the external planes of which will be ferrugi- 
nous, while the interior is divided into minute laminae not ferruginous, 
and coincident with only one of the planes. On examination of the 
rock in sitCl, this minute lamination is found to be vertical, and invari- 
ably divided N« W. by N., conformable, in short, to the line of eleva^- 
tion. The chloritic schist N. of Darwar is of a bluish green tinge, 

2s 



288 NoiM on tiie South Mahratta Country, ^o. [No. 160. 

greasy to the touch ; and sometimes so massive in structure as to make 
an excellent building stone^ although it rarely loses its slaty fracture. 
Thin pieces, per se, before the blow- pipe, fuse partially on the edges 
into globules of a greenish-coloured enamel. 

It is often intersected by ferruginous quartz veins, or rather layers, 
that, penetrating the lateral joint seams, and the almost vertical layers 
of stratification, divide the rock into cuboldal masses. Veins of a 
reddish grey or white kunker, both friable and compact, occur. 

Country S. of Darwar to the Mysore and Canara Frontiers, From 
the hills of Darwar to the Mysore frontier near Bunwassi and Chun- 
dergooty, the face of the country presents a plain diversified with a 
few mammiform and smooth conoidal truncated hills, which do not 
rise to any considerable height. The soil is generally reddish and 
alluvial, crossed in an easterly direction by narrow belts of cotton 
soil. The formation is much the same as at Darwar. Dykes of 
greenstone and beds of kunker now become more frequent. A large 
deposit of the latter is crossed on the road between the old town of 
Hoobly and the German mission house, about fifteen miles S. £. from 
Darwar. The wells near are often brackish, and so deep as seventy feet. 
Both Hingari and Mungari crops are cultivated. Rice too is grown 
in some of the moist, shallow vallies and flats below the small tanks, 
which now become more numerous. 

Bunwassi and Mysore Frontier. Towards Bunwassi quartz rock 
prevails with greenstone dykes, having a general easterly direction 
often covered by beds of laterite and lateritic conglomerate imbedding 
fragments of quartz rock in a cellular brown ferruginous paste. This 
rock has been employed in the construction of the wall enclosing the 
quadrangle of the ancient temple and the old temple at Bunwassi. A 
little farther South rises from the schists the lofty rock of Chundergooty 
in Mysore, a mountain mass of granitoidal gneiss divided by vertical 
and almost horizontal fissures. 

From Bunwassi to Gudduk. From Bunwassi, £. N. Easterly to 
Savanoor, the chloritic and coloured schists and slate clays continoe. 
Near the latter place dykes of greenstone become more frequent, ac- 
companied by depositions of kunker, which is seen filling fissures in 
the schists, and overspreading their surface beneath the alluvial soil* 
The direction of the beds at Savanoor suffers a deflection after 



1845.] NoU$ on the South MahraUa Country, ^c. 289 

leaving Darwar of aboat 40^ being nearly dae N. and S., dipping at 
an angle of aboat 40® towards the East. Tiiey terminate on the N. 
£. between Savanoor and Gadduck, close to Lackmaisir. Here a spar 
from the principal N. and 8. line of elevation runs nearly E. and W. 
dipping towards the 8. ; several similar spurs are crossed between Bun- 
wassi and Lackmaisir ; the dykes of greenstone run in a similar direc- 
tion. The schists, in the vicinity of the dykes, are indurated, silicious, 
and often abound with iron. Crystals of liver and brass-coloured iron 
pyrites are scattered through its structure ; cotton soil alternates in these 
strips with the red clayey alluvial soil; it was first observed W. of 
Bankassur, near which the vegetation peculiar to the W. Ghauts ter- 
minates rather abruptly. 

At Lackmaisir, gnmss is seen on the bank of a nullah running near- 
ly E. and W. with a dip of 35® towards the S., and farther N. it rises 
into a low round backed ridge. Proceeding still more N. granite 
occurs in low bosses and detached blocks, and rises into a few clusters 
at the town of Kul Mulgoond. Near Hurti, on the S. flank of the 
Kuppntgode range, resting on the gneiss, is a hill of mammiform shape, 
having its surface covered with detached, angular, and rugged masses 
of a calcareous rock, which appear to have been subjected to the action 
of violent disruptive forces. It is very liable to be mistaken, from the 
colour, hardness and granular texture, for a variety of the massive 
chlorite schist we have just left behind ; and in some hard specimens it 
resembles diallage and serpentine. The mass of it however, on the 
application of a lens, clearly exhibits its true aggregate character : it is 
composed of minute angular fragments of a dark glistening quartz, and 
ciystals of a pale flesh-coloured felspar, cemented by a greenish, gra- 
nular subcrystalline paste, composed principally of carbonate of lime, 
and containing disseminated scales of mica. The application of dilute 
nitric acid to the rock excited but a feeble efiervescence ; but from the 
powder, the extraction of carbonic acid gas was abundantly evident* 
Like the chlorite slate, it imbeds cubical, brass, and liver-coloured iron 
pyrites. Before the blow pipe, per se^ it phosphoresces slightly, and 
exhibits, on thin edges, shining points of black enamel. The compact 
varieties of this rock are susceptible of a high polish, and are used for 
ornamental architecture. Some of the finely polished slabs in the 



290 Noie9 an ike Souih MahraUa Couniry, ^c. [No. 160. 

elaborately acolptured mosqae in the town Laokmaiair appear to be of 
this stone, retaining, like lapis lazuli, the pyrites which shine like so 
many spots of gold in its polished surface. In weathered surfaces of 
the rock these crystals are often seen projecting. It is not unlike 
some varieties of the celebrated calcareous breccia di verde of Egypt. 

From its massive character, and want of a proper section, I could 
not find whether it was interstratified with the gneiss, or rested uncon- 
formably upon it. Gold-dust is found in the Nalas of Hurti, of Soltoor, 
and of Chick Mulgoond. 

Beyond this singular hill runs a dyke of greenstone £• by S.,' which is 
crossed on the road, and also a range of chlorite and clay slate hills crest- 
ed with ferruginous silicious schist, having a similar direction. PassiDg 
this, the country slopes northerly to Gudduck where gneiss and felspar 
rocks continue. 

From Gudduck E. to ike Ceded Districts^ and N. to Gujunder Gkur. 
From Gudduck easterly to the Tumbuddra and the Ceded Districts, 
the formations consist of gneiss, hornblende slate and granite; and 
from Gudduck westerly to Darwar, first gneiss and hornblende slate; 
succeeded, about seventy or eighty miles E. of Darwar, by chlorite and 
coloured schists and shales. North of Gudduck the hypogene schists 
and granite extend to Gi\junder Ghur, where they are covered by the 
sandstone beds. 

Kuppfutgode Hilis, The Rupputgode range presents an example of 
one of the crop dislocations which traverse the table-land of the penin* 
sula in a direction from, E. by S. to E. S. E. often influencing the courses 
of the large rivers which, rising in the Western Ghauts, flow over the 
table-lands through gaps in the Eastern Ghauts to the fiay of Bengal 
It commences a little south of Gudduck, and proceeds in a curvilinear 
direction easterly, until a little W. of the village of Kuddumpore where 
it bifurcates; the principal branch taking a S. 26° E. direction to 
the Toombuddra, which flows through a wide gap, and is continued 
into the Ceded Districts by Harponhully. The northern branch 
pursues an easterly course towards Dummul, where it traverses s 
wide plain extending as far as the eye can reach to the N. E. The 
strata dip near Gudduck towards the N. at an angle of 35^ Those 
of the southern chain, below the bifurcation and change in the durectioD, 



1845.] Notes an the South MahraUa Country, ^c. 291 

dip £. 20* ]S. direction of strata S. 20'' £• The dip frequently rarieB 
with the flexures and contortions into which the hypogene schists hare 
been thrown. In one of the highest peaks it appeared qui qu& versal ; 
and near the temple to Kupput Iswara, whence the range derives its 
namOy I found the dip to the 8. W. 

An immense dyiie of basaltic greenstone emerges from the base 
of the strata near the point where the range suddenly bifurcates, 
accompanied, as usual, by large deposits of Kunher^ which fill most of 
the seams and fissures in it and the adjacent rock. Considerable 
tendency to silicification is observed ; the schists are profusely veined 
with quartz of different hues, white, pinkish, and diaphanous blue^ 
reddish, tmoky and black ; seams and large veins of basanite also 
occur. 

The Kupput hills are principally composed of hornblende and 
chloritic schists, gneiss and mica slate; large interstratified beds of 
silicions and ferruginous schists, as at Darwar, often forming thin 
ridges ; seams and thin beds of a crystalline white marble occur ; 
which, near their junction with the hornMende slate, are often coloured 
green. On the flanks of the range, at the base, gneiss invaded by gra« 
nite is seen, both quartzose and felspathic, containing rose-coloured 
quartz and felspar. Near Dummul the gneiss is often so much 
weathered as to resemble sandstone ; schorl and actynolite are usu- 
ally seen in the quartz veins, which intersect it The dip of the 
gneiss is nearly vertical at Dummul, in other situations it varies 
slmost to horizontal ; some of the hills are capped with laterite, re- 
sembling that of Sondoor. The beds of the Dhoni rivulet, which has 
its rise in these hills, contain gravel and sand, in which gold-dust is 
found associated with magnetic iron sand, menaccanite, iron ore, grains 
of platinum, grey carbonate of silver, grey carbonate of copper, &c. Man- 
ganese is also found in considerable quantities. Tippoo excavated pits 
for gun-flints, of which I have given a description elsewhere.* Potstone 
occurs with the talc schist in this vicinity, and is used by the natives in 
sculpture, for cooking vessels, and for giving a smooth surface. The oc- 
currence of gold, silver, copper, platinum, and manganese seems to have 
escaped the observation of Christie, Marshall, and other writers on the 

^ Madras Journal of Literature and Science for January 1840, p. 42. 



292 Notes on the South Mahratta Country y ^c. QNo. 160. 

S. Mahratta country ; and there doubtless exist many other minerals 
in its rocks now unknown, but which the researches of other and 
abler pioneers than myself, and with more leisure, will not fail to elicit. 

Geographical position and extent of the various Rocks of ike S. Mqk* 

ratta Country, 

Hypogene Rocks. Commencing on the South, we find the greater 
portion of our area occupied by hypogene schists and argillaceous shales 
and slates, reaching on the North from Gujunder Ghur from the edges 
of the limestone and sandstone tracts ; and at Bangwari, fifteen miles 
S. £. from Belgaum, basseting from beneath the overlying trap whence 
they extend by Darwar and Kittoor, forming the base of the Western 
Ghauts, and underlying the laterite of North Canara to the Sea on the 
West, stretching into Mysore on the South, and into the great plains 
of the Ceded Districts and Hydrabad on the East. 

Near the N, W. angle they are seen outcropping from the sand- 
stones near Gokauk as a salbande at the edges of the overlying trap 
formation along the N. bank bf the Kistnah, in narrow zones along the 
Western base of the Sitadonga hills. They are seen with granitic 
rocks on the summit of the Ramghaut, and below it hornblende schist 
occurs on the sea shore at Vingorla. 

Extent of the Limestone and Sandstotie Beds. 

The Limestone. The Southern boundary of the limestone and its 
associated shales has not been traced with accuracy, but we find it four 
or five miles S. of Kulladghi. 

On the North Eastern extremity it emerges from the overlying trap 
near Talicotta, is capped by sandstone at Mudibhal, but re*appears in 
the valley of the Kistnah at Chimlaghi. A little to the S. W. it is again 
overlain by the great mass of sandstone forming the Sitadonga hills^ 
but again is seen forming for the most part the base pf the great plains 
of Kulladghi and Bagulcotta, and stretching to the West to the sand- 
stone ranges of Gokauk and Padshapoor which bound it to the West^ 
while the northern edge is fringed irregularly along the banks of the 
Gutpurba by the overlying trap. 

Extent of the Sandstone, The sandstone and conglomerate ranges 
usually skirt the great limestone plains as the sand and gravel shores 



1845.] NoUs on the South Mahratia Country, SfC. 293 

environ the bed of some dried-up inland sea, and this appearance is 
heightened by the bold, flat-topped headlands and receding bays pre- 
sented by the sandstone ranges in their curvilinear oatline. This con- 
tinuity of these long horizontal ranges, which usually preserve an uni- 
formity of height, rarely exceeding 300 feet, has however been 
greatly violated by, apparently, denudatory aqueous causes ; and it is not 
ttttcommon to see outlying masses and short ranges of sandstone at 
considerable distances from the principal deposit, for instance the de- 
tached rocks of Noulgoond, Pedda and Chick Nargoond, (where it oc- 
cors in scarped masses cropping granite and the hypogene schists,) and 
the detached central range between KuUadghi and Gokauk. 

The Sitadonga hills form the eastern fringe to the district, and those 
of Gokaak the western, extending southerly from its northern limits 
on both sides of the limestone plain of Kulladghi and Bagulcotta to 
about the latitude of the Malpurba river. The subjacent limestone 
thins out, or is entirely wanting at the edges, where the sandstone is 
often seen resting immediately on the granite and hypogene schists. 
The eastern ridge of sandstone turns westerly near Gujunder 
Ghur. 

Extent of the Lateriie. Laterite is seen capping some of the sand- 
stone hills of the Sitadonga range, and a narrow belt along its eastern 
flank. It also occurs in the form of low hills and patches overlying 
the limestone in the plains of Bagulcotta and Kulladghi. 

In the Southern parts of the district it occurs in a few patches 
covering the hypogene schists of the Kupputgode range, and on the 
summits of the Ghaut ranges West of Belgaum and Darwar. 

Extent of Kunker, Kunker is pretty generally distributed ; there 
are beds near Badami and Hoobly, of some extent, covered by alluvium. 

Extent of the Regur. This remarkable soil, or deposit, for so I con- 
sider it, resembles much the Tchomoi Zem covering the steppes of 
Russia; it prevails almost exclusively in the plains East of Dar- 
war, and those of Kulladghi and Bagulcotta, except where interrupted 
by chains of hills, and covered by the alluvium washed from their sides, 
in beds from a few inches to thirty or forty feet deep. 

Extent €f Plutonic and Trappean Rocks, Plutonic rocks are rarely 
seen developed in any extent on the surface of the South Mahratta 
country, but their efiects are sufficiently apparent in the altered state 
of many of the lower rocks. 



294 Note$ on the South MahraUa Country^ ^c. [No. 160. 

Granite is seen in bosses and rocks near Lackmaisir, at Gujander 
Ghar and Noulgoond, underlying the sandstone at Malgoond, in the 
gneiss of the Knpputgode hills, at Gaddak and Dammul, and in the 
districts bordering on the Tumbaddra and East of Gojunder Ghar. 

The largest dykes of basdtic greenstone, which I observed, were at 
the West base of the Sitadonga hills, and in the Knpputgode range. 

Extent^ Sfc. of Overlying Trap, The southern margin of the great 
sheet of overlying trap, which overspreads almost the whole of Central 
and Western India and the Concan, runs across the northern part of 
the South Mahratta country, covering all rocks except the laterite, 
kunker, and regur, all which overlie it: entering from the Nizam's 
territories by Firozabad on the Bhima, it descends to the Ristnah near 
Churilaghi, near its confluence with the Gutpurba and follows with 
some irregularities the northern bank of the latter river by Kotabangy, 
a little to the N. of the falls of Gokauk to the W. Ghauts and the sea, 
which it reaches a little N. of Mai wan. 

The narrow zone of oliviniferous trap, crossed between the falls and 
Koonoor, possibly connects the outlier of this rock on which Beiganm 
stands with the main Coulee, 

North of the Kistnah the trap spreads over the Kolapoor, Sattarab, 
and Poonah countries ; to the N. £• it covers the plains of Byapoce and 
the Nizam's territories, stretching towards Gwalior. Where the trap 
terminates to the W. of Belg^m is not exactly ascertained, as the 
summits of the Ghants near the Pass down to Vingorla are composed 
of granite and the hypogene schists ; but the river Gutpurba, as has 
been observed already, brings down a few calcedonies to the falls of 
Gokauk. The amygdaloid noticed at Bangwari, and in the vicinity of 
Belgaum, appears to have escaped the observation of Christie, who 
states he has not seen this rock in siiti. 

Classification cf the Rocks of the South Mahratta Country, 

Christie, partly adopting the Wernerian system, has classed the rocks 
of the South Mahratta Country under five heads, viz.: 

Ist. Granite. 
2nd. Transition Rocks. 
3rd. Old Red Sandstone. 
4th. Secondary Trap. 
5th. Alluvial. 



J84J. j Notes on tie SouA MahraUa Couniry^ ifc. 295 

Under the head of Transition he has induded the gneiss and talo 
flchist of Dammol, Norgoond and Gainnippa. The chlorite and clay 
tlatefl^ eilieioas schists and qoartzite of Darwar, Kittore, and in short, 
the schiats of the whole of the central and soathem parts of the Darwar 
district, together with the limestone of Kulladghi and Bi^olcotta. 

Some clay slates associated with these limestones he has classed 
among the grauwacke gronp, and the sandstone with the old red sand* 
stone. 

Thin classification has been apparently grounded on mineral resem-» 
bUnce of the schists to the transition rocks of Werner* their in gene- 
ral highly inclined strata, and on the circomstance of the sandstone 
retting, in some localities, on the schists in unconformable, and almost 
horizontal stratification. These facts^ without the additional evidence 
of organic remains, and in the total absence of any associated stratum 
the age of which has been distinctly ascertained, would hardly be 
deemed by geologists of the present day, sufficiently conclusive to 
warrant the rocks of the S. Mahratta country being referred to the 
same epochs as the transition, grauwacke and old red sandstone rocks 
of Eorope^ as now defined. 

Wenier> in his improvement of the system of Lehman who divided 
rocks into three dassas, viz. : 

1st Primitive : comprising plutonio or granitic rocks, and the hypo- 
gene or metamorphio schists formed with the worid» and containing no 
fragments of other rocks ; 

2nd. Secondary : induding the aqueous and fossiliferous strata which 
resulted from the partial debris of the primitive rocks by a general 
revdntion ; 

3rd. Alluvial : comprehending the debris of local floods and of the 

Deloge of Noah-<« 

intercalated a 4th class between the ist and 2nd class, and under this 

hesd he placed a series of strata, which he thought formed a passage 

between Lehman's primitive and secondary rooks, hence called 

transition, assimilating on the one hand to the crystdline structure of 

miea, and clay date% and on the other, evinctag traces of a mecha- 

ikicd origin, and organic remains. Theae bade were chiefly of diay slate 

arenaceous rock, coralline and shelly limestone, and grauwacke, a grey 

aiigiUaceons sandstone, often schiatoee^ imbedding small fragments of 

quartz, flinty slate, or basantte, and day slate, cemented together 

'2 T 



296 Notes an the S^nUh Mdhratta Country ^ Sfc, [No. 160. 

by argillaceouB matter. Werner, in the confined space that fell andei: 
his observation, found both the primitiye and transition schists highly 
inclined, while the newer aqueous or secondary li^ds were horizontal ; 
hence his too hasty generalizations. It is now ascertained that seconda- 
ry strata and green tertiary beds are often foond in nearly vertical po« 
sition, and that some granites are newer than the lias and chalk ; on 
the other hand, gneiss is often seen in horizontal beds, and Mr. Marchison 
has lately discovered in Russia the older stratified rocks extending in 
horizontal unbroken masses for the distance of nearly one thoasand 
miles. The valae of mineral character unsupported by others, is of 
small value as a test of the relative ages of stratified rocks ; we see la- 
custrine strata of the Ek>cene period identical in all their mineral cha- 
racters with the secondary new-red sandstone and its associated marls, 
and certain arenaceous beds in the (cetaceous formations of the Alps^ 
and even in some tertiary deposits, which can hardly be petrologtcally 
distinguished from the rocks of the grauwacke group. 

Although it is quite possible that future discoveries may prove the 
sandstone to be equivalent to the old red, and many of the rocks^ 
classed as transition, really to belong to that period ? yet I consider it 
preferable, for the present, to arrange the rocks of the S. Mahratta 
country agreeably to the acknowledged geological evidence they 
themselves exhibit, in addition to that of a mineral character, viz : saper- 
position, imbedded fragments of older rocks, intrusion with or without 
alteration, conformable or non-conformable stratification, and this with 
little reference to European formations. The classification will there- 
fore, for the most part, be that of relative age. Not a single organic 
remain, I may observe, has hitherto been discovered in the most 
recent deposit in the S. Mahratta country to assist us to any conda 
sion, except recent terrestrial and fresh-water shells in the newer 
kunker. 

The stratified rocks will be classed in the ascending order, commen- 
cing with the hypogene, or lowest series. The plntonic and trappean 
irocks will succeed. 

Age of ffypogene Rocks. The hypogene schists are evidently the 
lowest in the group of normal rocks, and have suffered the greatest 
disturbance as already observed. The lowest member in this series 
is usually gneiss, and the highest either marble or clay slate : bat 
there are many exceptions to this remark. 



1845.] NoUi on the South MahraUa CamUry, ifc. 297 

Age efLimeHone. Christie has classed with the hypogene schists under 
tnnaitioD, the limestones of Knliadghi and Baguloolta ; bat from extensive 
observation of this rock, here and in other parts of India, I am inclined to 
think it, with its associated slates and shales, of more recent origin, prin- 
cipally from its resting on the gneiss, he in osually ancDnformable stra^ 
tification, often dipping but a few degrees over large tracts, and its 
more intimate association with the sandstone which caps it ; these rocks 
bong usually seen together. The limestone is inclined near Knliadghi 
at an angle of 2&^^ bat this disturbance is confined to areas of small ex- 
tent, speedily recovering its usual little inclined position. In some lo- 
calities, as near Ryelcherro and Juldroogum in the Ceded Districts, it 
it seen to alternate with the sandstone. Traces of coal have been dis- 
eorered in a limestone in the Hydrabad country, which appears identi- 
eal with the Kumool and Knliadghi limestones. 

Sandstone. The sandstone, though sometimes alternatijig, and 
often in conformable strata, with the limestone, is on the whole less 
disturbed, as just observed ; and generally appears in almost hinrisontai 
strata, particularly in the hills south of the Malpurba. On die north 
hank of this river the sandstone beds have suffered more disturbance^ 
and Christfe observed them dipping at an angle of 40^ to the N. W. 
at Chiek NUrgoond, resting on vertical hypogene schists, (talc slate). 
In the N. £• portion of the district the sandstone of the Sitadonga 
hills rests on vertical chlorite and silidous schists, with a dip towards 
the N. £. varying from &^ to 28"^. In the N. W. portion, near 
Gokauk, the stratification is obscure, the beds appearing as thick and 
nearly horizontal tabular masses. Where the strata are horizontal, the 
bills which they compose run in long, low, flat-topped, wall-like ridges 
tenninating like trap elevations rather abruptly, and their sides often 
presenting mural precipices. These ranges usually run in correspond- 
ing elevations, averaging about 200 feet from the surface of the plain. 
The maximum thickness of the deposit perhaps does not exceed 400 
feet 

From their being sometimes in unconformable stratification with the 
Umestone, and imbedding fragments of its cherts, it might be infer- 
red that an interval of plutonic disturbance took place between the 
periods of their deposition ; though we have not as yet sufikient evi- 
dence to refer them to two distinct geological epochs. Basanite, 



300 Notes on tJie South Mahraita Country, ^c. [No. IGO. 

weftthered nodules of the rocks from which it was derived. I have also 
seen laterite resting on limestone without a traceable particle of lime in 
its composition. This could not have been limestone weathered in sitd. 

The fact of one hill being capped with latyite, and its neighbour 
being left bare, is a circumstance also militating against another theory 
adopted by some Indian geologists, viz. that of its alluvial origin froin 
causes now existing. It is impossible to see the laterite capping in 
tabular strata, as at Beder, hills of trappean or hypogene rocks separat- 
ed by vallies, wide plains or elevations, in which nothing but the latter 
rocks are seen, without coming to the conclusion that the beds of 
laterite were once continuous over these spaces, and stripped oSbf 
waters of which nothing but the trace of denudation now remains. 
Natural sections often remind one forcibly of that striking instance of 
denudation of the red sandstone, on the N. W. coast of Ross*shire 
given by McCulloch in his Western Isles, Vol. IL p. 93, pL 31, fig. 4r 

The annexed diagram is a section taken on the W. coast, between 
Honawer and Sedashegur. 

The rarely fossiliferous character of this iron clay or ferruginous chij, 
as it has been call^, which has puzzled some geo]ogists,and inclined 
others to the theory of its volcanic origin, may be in some measure at- 
tributed to its highly ferriferous nature, often approaching that of an 
ore of iron. It is a fact, and, asLyell observes, (Geol. Vol. II. p. 102,) 
one not yet accounted for, that scarcely any fossil remains are preserved 
in stratified rocks in which this oxide of iron (derived from the disin* 
tegration of hornblende or mica) abounds ; and when we find fossils in 
the new or old red sandstone in England, it is in the grey and usually 
calcareous beds that they occur. 

I have often observed, particularly in the W. Ghauts, and on the Ka- 
labar and Concan coasts, wliere the rains fall heaviest, that the granitie, 
hypogene and trappean rocks containing most iron, weather into fer- 
ruginous and coloured clays that sometimes, lithologically speaking, 
resemble laterite, and these when that rock is near, cause the appearaaoe 
of their passing into it I have also observed beds of considerable mag- 
nitude of an impure oxide of iron in gneiss and hornblende, sometimes 
cellular and pisiform (and from which much of the iron in laterite has 
doubtless been derived) ; but when we look up from the microscopic view 
afibrded by these alowly weathering blocks of rock and beds of ore in siti^ 



»^ 





S€ciu>n skeu/cngr cUTiudcUi^n, of 



1845.] NoUs on the South Mahratia Country, ^c. 301 

and cast our eyes upon even the present extent of laterite over the sur* 
face of Soathern India, the thickness of its beds (at Beder 200 feet») its 
iat.topped ranges of hills, the great gaps effected in their continuity 
evidently by aqueous causes no longer in action, its often elevated 
petition above the drainage of the country, its imbedding layers of lig- 
nite from silicified wood, and occasionally water^worn pebbles of dis- 
tant rocks, we find we can no more attribute its origin to the weather- 
ing of rocks in sitA, or to their present transported detritus, than that 
of the old sandstones of Europe to the sandy disintegration now in 
progress of accumulating by rains around the bases of older sandstone, 
granite, and hypogene rocks, although a mineral resemblance exists as 
in the case of the true and pteudo-laterites. 

Having said thus much to warrant my placing laterite among the 
rocks of aqueous and mechanical origin, I shall proceed to notice it as 
it occurs in the South Mahratta country. It may be remarked, passim, 
that fossil shells have been scarcely ever found in the tertiary Rhe- 
niik brown coal beds, though in the vicinity of Bonn large blocks 
have been met with of a white opaque chert, containing numerous casts 
d fresh-water sheUs, which appear to belong to Planorbis rotundatus 
and Limnea longiscata.* The laterite capping the overlying trap of the 
South Mahratta country does not appear to have been invaded or 
altered by it like the brown coal beds. But similar blocks of chert con- 
taining fresh-water shells, viz. two species of Cypris, three of Unio, and 
many individuals referable to the genera Paludina, Physa and Limnea, 
and also Gyrogonites, have been discovered by Mr. Malcolmson and 
myself entangled in it. 

Near Kulladghi, where it reposes on the limestone, it exhibits 
undoubted signs of horizontal stratification. It is never seen altered 
by the granite or trap. West of Kulladghi, near Ooperhutty, beds of 
a gritty sandstone loosely agglutinated, resembling that into which 
the laterite passes near Bey poor on the Malabar Coast, rest in a 
similarly horizontal and unaltered position on the overlying trap; 
fragments of which occur in this superimposed sandstone. 

Kunketf Gravelf and Regur. That singular deposit, for so I con- 
nder the Begur, is superimposed on all the rocks that I have just de- 

* LyeU, ElemenU, Vol. II, pp. 281-^2. 



S02 Notes OH the South Mahratta Country^ Sfc. [No. 16a 

scribed. There is freqaently an interveping bed of gravel or of the older 
kunker, in which the remains of a mastodon have been discovered, 
near Hingoli, Nizam's country. I have not met with gravel beds in 
the South Mahratta country. The diamond is found in th^ gravel 
beds below the Regur in the Cuddapah district My ideas regarding the 
origin of those deposits have been elsewhere stated. 

Age of the Pluumio and Trappean Roehs> — Granite. From the ra- 
rity of sections, it is difficult to ascertain the relative age of the granite 
by the tests usually resorted to by gec^ogists in fixing the ages oi 
plutonic rock, viz. : 

Ist. Intrusion and alteration. 
2nd. Included fragments. 
3rd. Relative position. 
4th. Mineral character. 

Christie evidently views the granite of the South Mahratta codu- 
try as primitive, according to the Wemerian theory ; but states that 
there is a granite at Gairsnppa, in Canara, '* not so old as the commoB 
granite of India," which, from mineral character and association with 
the gneiss and other hypogene rocks, he classes with them, in the 
transition series of this school. But within the last half centary it 
has been ascertained that this granite, considered formerly as the 
oldest of rocks, sometimes belongs even to the tertiary period, and 
its presence at Gairsuppa, and in the southern portions of the Soath 
Mahratta country, intruding into, disturbing and altering as it does, 
these crystalline schists, plainly proves its posterior origin. 

But there is no proof adduced of any other granite of India being 
anterior to the granite of Cktirsuppa, and there is every reason to be- 
lieve that the granite of Gairsuppa and the Western Ghauts must rash 
among the oldest granites of India, until the age. of the rocks they have 
altered and intruded into be satisfactorily proved to be posterior 
to the other hypogene rocks that prevail so extensively over its 
surface. 

There is, moreover, a granite more modern than the common g^' 
nite of the Western Ghauts, Gairsuppa, and indeed of India, which i' 
seen to penetrate the latter in veins and dykes, a fact proving its pes* 
terior origin, — and which, although it has not hitherto been discovereci 



1845.] Notes on the South MahraUa Country^ Sfc. 303 

10 the state of dykeg in the sandstone and limestone, has converted the 
former into quartz rock, and the shales of the latter into jasper and 
• chert, indicating a posterior or contemporaneoos origin. 

The dietorfoance and metamorphic effects produced by the eruption 
of this granite do not appear to extend to any great distance from the 
foci of platonic disturbance. The sandstone ranges in the S. Mahratta 
country are usually little inclined, particularly in the ranges S. of the 
Malpurba, resting unconformably on the hypogene schists and granite, in 
highly inclined stratification ; but travelling a short distance north we 
fii|d them showing more signs of plutonic disturbance, and, according 
to Christie, the sandstone of Chick Nurgoond is aplifted at an angle of 
40^ resting on the vertical hypogene schists ; a fact indicating two eras 
of plutonic disturbance. 

It is a striking fact that no fragments of undoubted granite or gneiss 
have been noticed in the pebbles of these sandstone conglomerates, 
which consist chiefly of quartz, chert, jasper, basalt, flinty slate, and 
the bard portions of the chloritic and actynolitic schists, the two last 
rocks bearing a small per centage in relation to the rest, and those of 
quartz greatly predominating in the lower beds. The inference is, 
either that the attrition which converted the wreck of the pre-existing 
rocks into sand and gravel was so great, as to grind down their mass 
beyond the possibility of recognition, leaving nothing but fragments of 
their hardest nodules and veins, or that the oldest granite was still un- 
denuded, and with the gneiss at this era was as yet but partially uplift- 
ed and retained its natural subordinate position. 

It is certain however from the included pebbles of the flinty slate, 
jasper, actynolited and chloritic schists, that the plutonic action of 
granite had commenced prior to the origin of the sandstone, and had 
metamorphosed or crystallized the hypogene, or rather formed schists of 
the wreck of which the sandstone is formed. 

If this reasoning be admitted, it is obvious that at least two epochs 
of great plutonic activity have taken place. The first anterior to the 
formation of the limestone and sandstone, by which the hypogene schists 
were rendered crystalline and partially subverted. The second, pos- 
terior; and marked by another granitic eruption, which burst up 
through fissures in the old granite, altering the limestone and sand- 

2u 



304 Notes an ike South Mahratta Country, Sfc, [No. 160. 

•tone. From the latter occasionally resting on the former in less dis* 
torbed strata it may be inferred, that the limestone suffered some de- 
gree of dislocation before the sandstone was deposited. There is little 
doubt from the unaltered and highly inclined stratification of some of 
the beds resting on the granite, that it must have been protruded by 
this second upheaval in a solid form. Other highly inclined beds are 
altered, which indicates a heated but solid state of the intruding rocka 

The third movement or series of movements by which perhaps a great 
part of S. India was slowly and gently lifted up to its present elevation, 
raising beds of laterite in a horizontal position to the height of 7,000 
feet and upwards, appears to have taken place during the tertiaiy 
period. This great soulvement is perhaps rather attributable to vol- 
canic than plutonic action, since the granites of both eras appear to 
have been raised in a solid form, and no granite of India has yet been 
observed altering or intruding into tertiary rook. Possibly its pheno* 
mena were connected with those attending and following the grandest 
eruption of trap in the whole world, the overlying trap of Western and 
Central India, which evidently took place in the tertiary period. 

During these epochs, it is almost needless to say, that the surface 
must have undergone various oscillations at different periods, dariog 
which the aqueous strata were deposited, consolidated, and partially 
denuded, uplifted and submerged. 

Aff€ of Basaltic preenstone. Like the granite the basaltic greenstone 
is evidently of two eruptive epochs, as we see dykes of it crossed by 
more recent dykes. 

The greenstone of the first epoch is posterior to the older granite and 
hypogene rocks which it penetrates, and with which it has been op* 
lifted in a solid form ; partaking of all their dislocations and abrupt 
truncations. This older greenstone stops short of the sandstoDe; 
the conglomerates of the latter imbed pebbles of the greenstone. 

The newer basaltic greenstone penetrates, and alters the Hoae- 
stone and sandstone, but stops short of the laterite* Both rocks 
are distinguished mineralogically from the tertiary or overlying tr^P* 
by their rarely assuming an amygdaloidal character, and their freedom 
from agates, opals, calcedonies, zeolites, green earth, olivine, ^ ^ 
abundant in the latter. 



1845.] N^Um on tkt S<nUh MahraUa Country, ^e. 305 

A§^ ^the ov0tlying Trap. It overlies and penetrates the sandstone 
and newer basaltic greenstone, and from its altering and disturbing the 
fresh^water limestones of Nirmol, and its superior position to all the 
rocks of the 8. Mahratta country except the laterite, hunker, and re- 
gar, is referred to the tertiary epoch. It is strikingly mineralogically 
disttnguished from the older trap rocks, as just explained. 

The ord^ of superposition of the rocks of the 8* Mahratta country 
in desoeoding under appears to be as follows :-* 



Ist group. 



Begun 

Old kunker, 

Laterite, 

Lateritic sandstone, 
Overlying trap, 

Basaltic greenstone, I 

Granite, > 2nd group. 

Sandstone, J 

Basaltic greenstone, "^ 

Granite, > drd group. 

Hypogene schistSi J 



Comparison of these groups with classified European groups* There 
can be little doubt of the rocks of the Ist group belonging to the 
tertiary period, after what has been remarked regarding the age of the 
overlying trap on which they are superimposed. The remains of the 
Mastodon have been found, with other fossils pointing to the Pleiocene 
division of the tertiary epoch, in the gravel and kunker below the 
regur, near Hingoli, in the Nizam's territories. No fossils have been 
yet found in the regur ; but its position, extent, thickness, and the im«- 
possibility of accounting for it by causes now existing, warrant me 
perhaps in referring it to an epoch anterior to the post- Pleiocene or 
historic period. 

2nd Group. No sufficient data for fixing exactly the age of these 
rocks. The presence of coal and other mineral and fossil indijsatioas 
point to the Devonian or carboniferous groups. 

^d Group* The clue to the approximate age of these rocks will 
be found in properly fixing those of the seconds a point of great impor- 



306 NoUs on the South Mahratta Country, ^c, [No. IGO. 

tance in the geology of India, and to which I would fain call the atten- 
tion and endeavoars of all geological observers to fix, by searching for 
fossils, &c. If the rocks of the second group belong to the Devoaian 
series, the hypogene schists mast be either the rocks of the Silarian or 
Combrian series, as their unconformable stratification points out a 
greater age than the less disturbed and superimposed beds of lime- 
stone and sandstone. We need not even despair of finding fossils in 
gneiss, chlorite, and mica slates of India, since that illustrious geologist 
Elie de Beaumont displayed to the wondering eyes of the Savans of 
Europe the instructive fact of belemnites, (a fossil of the chalk period,) 
in chlorite schist. 



An Account of the early Ghiljdees. By Major R. Leech, C. B., late Po' 
litical Agent, Tordn Ghiljdees at Kdtdt-uGhiljdee. From the Political 
Secretariat of the Government of India, 

[The character of part of this paper is somewhat of a lighter order thaa 
usually appears in our pages : but our readers will at once understand the 
mptives which have led us most readily to avail ourselves of it, almost as 
written. The traditions of the Ghilzaees recorded by Major Leech, give a 
valuable insight into the manners and habits, the social condition and the 
ordinary train of thoughts, of a race of men very little known. The acute 
observation of the writer of the memoir has let no point escape him which 
may illustrate the real character of the curious tribe whom he describes ; 
and the student in ethnography will, we are convinced, be thankful for the 
exposition of social peculiarities thus afforded to him. — Eds.] 



The following account has been compiled from notes taken partly 
when Political Agent at Gandahar in 1839-40, and partly while in politi- 
cal superintendence of the expedition under Colonel Chambers against 
the Toran Qhiljaees in 1841, and while Political Agent at K^t-i- 
Ghilj^ee in 1841-42, (during the siege,) and partly from a written 



1815.1 jIn aceauni of the earfy Qikiffdeet. 307 

account drawn up at my request by MuDa Pairo Lodeen, who staid 
with me throughout the siege. 

The Ghiljaees, as will be shewn, are only Afghans by the mother's 
nde, being by the father'41 descended from the Sultans of Ghor. 

The word is properly Ghalzo'e : from ghal, thief; and zo'e, son — ^mean- 
ing the son of theft, the fruit of a clandestine amour. The Ghiljaees them- 
selves give this derivation of the word, although they would appear to 
be ashamed of it by turning Ghalzo'e into Ghiljaee. The Persians have 
out of compliment turned it for them into Ghilzye. 

On the 28th August 1841, while making a tour through the, till 
then« unvisited Ghiljaee tribes of the Arghandah valley, a Rokhee Mulla 
of some reputed sanctity and respect in the tribes, said they were all 
Ghiljaees, as the Persians pronounced the word Ghiljyes as the Afghans 
and themselves did, from being descended from Ghilj the son of king 
Bet. 

In my journal kept during the siege, I find the following memoran- 
dum, dated 22nd April 1842. 

" May not the word Ghilzye be derived from 9f^ Ghalech. (The 

Persian vowel mark zer having in Afghanee the pronunciation of a 
in hare) ; and Ghalech being often written for 9;^^ Kilech : and the 

tribe may have been called Ghalechees, or descendants of Ghalech. An 
acquaintance, a great grandson of Ashraf-khan, is named Ghalech- 
khan." 

A mistake has very generally been committed by supposing the ter- 
mination zye or zai to the names of Afghan tribes to be derived from 
the Persian word for to be bom. The word is a corruption of the 
Pushtoo zo'e a son, and a true Afghan of the sarah or country would 
tell you he was a Popalzo*e or Babakanzo'e as the case might be ; a Po- 
palite or Babakanite ; and he would not say he was a Popalzye or Ba- 
bakanzye, on pain of being abused as a spai zaman (comes filius) Par- 
seeban. 

It is related that the Caliph Abdul Malik, son of Marwan, despatched 
bis commander-in-chief Hujaj, son of Yoosaf, a Sakufee. by tribe, to 
subdue Ghoristan. It was then under two princes, Shah Jalaladeen 
and Shah Muazzadeen, sons of Sultan Bahram who had the country 
given him in grant by Alee, the cousin of Mahammad, on a visit he paid 



308 An account of the early Ghiljdees. [No. 100. 

the Hazrat at Medina. The great grandfather of Sultan Bahiam was 
Soosee, alias Mahammad Sam Ghoree, who first introduced IslamidBi 
into Hindustan. It was he that built the fort of Sealkot, ami that 
killed Raja Pathoora. 

The Sultans of Ghor were descended from Zohauk, aqplhew of Ibas, 
son of £sam« son of Sam, son of Noah» who eiqpeiled Jamsheed from 
Persia. 

Shah Husein, the son of Shah Muazzadeen, emigrated on the intasioil 
to the country of Shaikh Batanee» between Cabool and Candabir, by 
whom he was received into his family. Batanee had a daughter, with 
whom the tradition runs ; Shaikh Husein fonned a eonAfictio&, unknows 
to the parents, until their daughter's appearance betmjed her. 

The Ghiljaees still preserve tiiis time-honored cusitom, jttdgisg hom 
several cases that came under my ni^ce, the most juromineat of whifik 
occurred at Kalat-i-Ghilzye. A young unmarried lady of the aristocratic 
Shah Alam Khel branch of Rokhee Ghiljaee, was aafely delivered of a 
son and heir, the father of which, her intended* was no kss than a holy 
Sayad of Pishing, then absent in lo^a. It appears that th^ were en- 
gaged, and at liberty therefore to have their Namzat*baz0e; but as the 
Sayad had not paid up the whole of the marriage settlement by some 
100 rupees, the parents would not allow him to take her home. He 
therefore resorted to this Ghiljaee mode of che^)ening his bargain. 
I met him afterwards in India, but did not enquire whether his lady 
was yet with her parents or with his own. 

It is very probaUe that the A%hans, if tbey were really Israelites, 
should have been posted by their Cabtu Bukhtanasar on the confines of 
his dominions towards India. We find Sultan Shahabudeeft biingiai; 
down the Afghans from Ghor and posting them on the borders of Indiit 
and this system of colonizgng an unquiet border with convicts seems to 
have been much in vogue. Thus we find the tribe of Hazarahs fiar froa 
theu: present country, posted in the plains of the Punjab below Cash- 
meer. A colony of Persians was planted in Cabool, and one of Ghiljaees 
in Balkh. And between the Ghiljaees and Durances on the Gandabar 
road, we find ten solitary houses of Hazarahs. so called by the A^hans, 
at Asya Hazarah ; no doubt a larger colony was once posted there to 
keep the peace between those two rival tribes. 



1845.] An account of the early GhUj&cei. 809 

I find from my journal, that on the 28th September 1844, I sent 
for their chief men to gain information. They informed me they were 
originally Uzbecka from Turkiatan, and are by tribe Sadleehees. They 
have Uie water of the oanal called Bokanah. They fomiahed aix men 
and one officer to the Duraneea, and were enrolled among the Baneezais. 

Bnt to return to the lovers. On Shaikh Batanee and his wife diacoyer- 
iog the atate of their daughter's affections and person, they became most 
anxious to have the couple married; but fEunily pride was in the way, and 
they were anxious first to know concerning the 9yal or rank in society 
of their guest. He was therefore questioned, and gave himself out as a 
prince bom, and invited them to ascertain the fact by despatching some 
one to Ohor, his native country. This was done, and a confirmation of 
Husein'a affirmation attained in time, it is to be hoped, to allow the 
babe to enter without shame into the world. Husein is said also to 
have married the messenger's daughter, in consideration of his taking 
the trouble of going all the way to Ohor ; others say, that on his return 
he refused to confirm Husein's assertion imtil he had promised to marry 
his daughter also. This is probable, and according to the character of 
an Afghan Cossid, getting a promise made before imparting good 
news. 

The OhUjaees say, that Sultan Mahmood of Ohuznee first brought 
them down from the Koki-kase or Koki.roh, and they began to dig 
Karez, (Vide the Karez of the Sulemanees near Ohuznee). Malcolm (I 
think) says they were nearly exterminated by that monarch, as a punish- 
ment for a party of them having plundered his baggage, and that they 
only regained strength in the time of Timoor. 

The first person of note known to the present inhabitants was Sultan 
Malakhe, a Tokhee. 

It is probable that Mahammad the progenitor of the Mahammad-zye 
Tokhees, and Isaac the progenitor of the Isak-sye Hotakees were both 



* No<«.— We have to apologise for omittixia a brief, and apparently carefully com- 
piled liftt of ike genealogies of the Qhiliye families. It would be of interest were cir- 
cvmstances suck as to place any of our readers in immediate communication with this 
tribe; but, as it is, we may be perhaps excused omitting it«— Bos. 



310 An account of the early Ohiljdees. [No. 160. 

men of note in their day, from these tribes being considered the aristro. 
cratic ones. 

I saw a Rakam of Aurangzeb, dated the 9th of Jamadee'Lawal, 
1022 A. H., appointing MaUk Malakhe to the charge of the high road 
from Kalat to Karatoo, (the former is in the Tamak valley, and the latter, 
in the Arghandah,) to protect it from Hazarah robbers. Aurangzeb no 
doubt found Malakhe the most powerful of the Ghilzye chiefe at 
enmity with the Hazarahs ; as patronizing an officer of his own creation 
at court, he no doubt found very diflferent firom supporting a newly 
created chief over his tribe. 

The Hotakees I suppose from being removed from the high road were 
not required by Aurangzeb, and therefore remained unnoticed; that 
monarch's sole object being to secure his communication with Ohuznee, 
Cabool and Hindustan, and not coveting revenue from their Karazees, 
and almond orchards. 

The Hazarahs are sid to have been driven out of the Arghandah 
valley in four days.* Malakhe is said on this short campaign to have 
received valuable co-operation from the Khan-khel chief Mane, whose 
descendant I find from my journal visited me on the 13th August 1841. 

Khuram says he is the son of Taj Mahammad, the son of Avqhan, the 
son of Khajah, the son of Mane, the son of Taoos, the son of Daroo, the 
son of Habeeb, the son of Khan, the son of Parwat, the son of Barak by 
his wife Khatah, the son of Mahammad, the son of Yoonus, the son 
of Rahmand, the son of Tokh, the son of Baroo, the son of T6lad, liie 
son of Ghiljye. I have mentioned the descendants of Malakhe in a 
former part of this account. 

At the time that Malakhe was chief of the whole Toran tribe, (both 
Hotakees and Tokhees,) Jabbar it is sud was chief of the Ibrahim 
Ohiljyes. 

The Peer.khanah, or spiritual fatherhood of Malakhe were the So* 
deen (Ala-udeen properly) Sayads. 

Malakhe had a daughter, by name Nazo ; who was one day playing 
below Kalat-i-Ghiljye with girls of her own age, on the banks of the 

* This might have been effected by Aurangzeb's troops, had they known of the 
existence of the Passes discovered by me in 1841. That from Kalat«i-Ghilja«e t° 
Sarkh Sang (No. 1, Appendix,) and the other from Cha8mah-i-'Moosaka» viA Cheeno 
into Karatoo, (No. 3, Appendix.) 



J845.3 An acoouni of the earfy Ghiljdees. 311 

river Tamak, n^en a Fakeer, appearing to be from Hinduetan, approach- 
ed the party, and said, *' What good girl among you will give me a kifis ?" 
Some ran away, others hid their faces, and some abused him ; but Nazo, 
throwing back her veil, and approaching, said, " Oh Fakeer, a kiss of my 
fiioe is at your service." 

The Fakeer, to the surprise of all, instead of availing himself of the offer, 
stroked her head with a fatherly hand, and said, *' I have prayed to God 
to give you three or four children ; one of whom shall be a king, (Hajee 
Meer-khan, alias Meer Wais)." 

The fether of Meer Wais (a Sodeen is the informant,) was in the em- 
ploy of Malakhe, whose daughter Nazo falling in love with him, (true 
daughter of Ghalzo'e,) an elopement to the Ataghar hills, occupied by 
the Hotaks, was the result ; who, however, for fear of Malakhe's wrath, 
refused them refuge ; and they had to spend their honey.moon in the 
desert hills, living principally on game. 

Getting tired of this, Nazo proposed to her husband that they should 
go " Nanawat" (as supplicants) to her father, who was of a forgiving 
deposition. 

Having no other resource this plan was adopted, and with success. 
Malakhe received them kindly, as well as some Hotakees who accom- 
panied them. When giving them leave, Malakhe asked his daughter what 
the would have, a chadar or veil ; it being the Afghan custom that the 
first time a daughter visits her father after her marriage, he gives her a 
veil. She replied, " The Hotaks have no land (on the Tamak river), 
kindly give me a piece of land." 

Malakhe gave her a piece of land below the Tabaksar hill, opposite 
to Kalat, watered by and dependent on the Ajurghak canal ; and to the 
giroom who led the horse she rode, he gave the land dependent on the 
spring of the Jukhtaran hill close by. This Jillodar was a Kishyanee 
by tribe. Others say, that Nazo got ten days and nights water right 
on the canal, and her groom two. These shares are now (1841) 
distinct. 

Malakhe was killed in battle at Darwazye, between Inzargai ancl 
Sarkh Sang, and was buried at Ab-i-Yazee. 

The fether of Meer Wais is' called by the Hotaks Shah Alam. The 
Tokhees contradict them, and say they only were called Shah Alam- 
khels after their progenitor married a Shah Alam Tokhee's daughter. 

2x 



312 An account of the early OhHjaees. QNo. 160. 

This 18 absutd ; foir by the Tokhee'ft own Bh«wing. Bhah Alam wm 
the son of Alee Malakhe's brother, so that Naeo wft6 not a Slnh Alam* 
khel. 

Jabbar, the Ibfahim chief, waa killed at Yayaa in battle wiUi the 
Safeea, and buried on the road between Cabool and Jalalabad. The 
place where his tomb is situated is famous for cold, wolres, and thieves, 
on which account some Persian traveller has cursed the tomb. In the 
course of time, Nazo gave birth to Hajee Meer-khan, alias Meer Wais, 
the same who liberated his country from the Persian rule, and his 
countrymen from the tyranny of Shahnawaz-khan, the Georgian 
governor of Oandahar. 

The reasons for Meer Wais visiting Persia are found in Malcolm's 
Persia, and more in detail in the Chronicles of a Traveller. The Ghiljyei 
believe that while at Mecca he demanded a sign from heaven, that he 
should free his country from a foreign yoke« It was given him. On awak* 
ing, his sword was found lying bare at some distance from the scabbard 
in which he had secured it before going to sleep. 

It was Shahnawaz's penchant for wine and women, that lost the 
country for the Persians be it remembered, and he was a Faringee« 

Beyond the village of Chahil Dukhtaran on the road to Cfaahil Zceoa, 
there is a slippery rock called Ang-i*Sakhshak, down which the chikto 
of Candahar on Fridays and other holidays slide. This was one of the 
scenes of Shahnawaz's debaucheries. 

The place at which he met his well*.merited death was al Bels* 
i- Sultan Khudadad in Argasthan — he was following or despatching SOO 
horse across the Band-i-gil,'*^ on tiic road to Maroof, to collect reveane 
from the Kakers. He was not thought worthy to be killed by the head 
of a man ; so Murado, a Babee eunuch and jester, was ordered to kiU 
him in full durbar the day after. his seizure. The following Pashloe 
Badala is still extant : 

" Sh&hnawaza bujul b&za, 

Da Murado da las parotiya kuna w&za." 

* 1 find from a memorandum in my jou)rnai in Notremb^r 1639, that the load from Ctt* 
dahar to Deh-i- Ambar was occupied by Popaltais, and that I propoesd to make tb* td» 
k>wing arrangements for the protection of the road beyond Deh>i- Ambar, viz :— On th$ 
Candahar side of the Tagak Pass near some wells, a small fort to be built and eight 
honemen to be stationed ; on the other side of the Tagak Pass, at a place called Hw 



1845.] An aeeounti^ihe early OkUjdtei. 3 1 3 

Shahoftwas the bugoLbaz, (player with the knuckles of legs of mut. 
top. I. «• a light fellow of low habits.) 

By the hand of Mnrado (there) yoa lie exposed. 

Shah Ashraf was, the Ohi^aees say, killed by his cousin Shah Husen 
of Candahar, (i. e, by his orders,) on his arrival at Koh»i.Mundak. Some 
deny that Ashraf murdered Mahmood, belieying that he died mad. 

The wan of Mahmood, and his cousin and suoeeseor Ashraf in Persia, 
are detailed in the Chronicles of a Traveller, The following two anec« 
dotss are still told strangers visiting Candahar, connected with the 
invasions of Persia : one is, that many of the Ohiljaees who accompanied 
Mahmood on his expedition to Persia were mounted on bullocks, with 
tbeir ragged kosaks or felt cloaks on, and their sheep's skin of flour 
stmpped to their backs, and an old iron hatchet or a sword in a broken 
scsbbard their only arms, just as if they were going to the water-mill 
at the bottom of their native village to bring home flour. This will be 
easily believed by officers who have been in Afghanistan, and have seen 
alter an engagement bodies of men with nothing but sticks in their 
hands. When the city of Ispahan was taken, it is said that Shah Mahmood 
gave his followers leave to take possesnon of the house that each might 
«ater, with every thing in it, even the widow of its owner who £dl fight- 
ing, for his home. That one of the handsomest palaces of Ispahan thus 
ftU to the lot of such a " OhooUUBiyaban" as I have above described; 
vho entered it in his above full dress, leading his buUoek after him into 
a s|dendid saloon covered with rich carpets, at the end of which was 
isatsd the lady of the mansion surrounded by her damsels ; and back- 
wards and forwards over the carpets these two animals walked, the one 
locking for some thing to which he could tie his fellow. 

The hdy of the mansion ordered her handmaids to do all they 
oouM to fdease the visitor; to take his bullock into the stable, and 
divest him of his boots of sandals and tattered wooUen cloak, and take 
him to the bath* 

This they had some difficulty in doing, as he would not consent at 
first that his bullock, sandals or cloak should be taken out of his sight, 
they being his only ones ; and each article was surrendered after a little 

dikK, a fort and liz honemen ; on the Oandakar sida of the Gill Paw at a water-tnillt 
%fi>rt and eight hoisemen; on the other side of ditto, six horsemen; at Jaknaree and 
Skamai, a fort and eight horsemen. The whole under Abdul Lateef-kh^n, Barikzai, 
of Maroof. 



314 Anaecount of the early Ghiljdui. [No. 160. 

straggle, accompanied with Pashtoo abuse ; the handmaids setting his 
mind at ease in Persian, of which he did not understand a word, and by 
signs. He was finally taken to the bath, and never had the attendant 
barbers operated on such a subjeet before, the cracks in his huge feet 
and hands being like ravines of his native hills. After cleansing him as 
much as possible, and shaving his hedge hog.looking head of hair, he 
was attired in trousers and shirt of red twilled cotton, the richest under 
garments a man must wear, and other suitable parts of dress ; and con- 
ducted back into the saloon, where a rich entertainment was laid out, 
at which the lady of the mansion presided. 

The Afghan finding himself more at home^ determined to make 
the most of his good fortune, and act the part of the master of the 
house. 

Observing that the trousers of the lady were of gold stuff, while his 
were of common red, he insisted on an exchange ; and in them went he 
next morning, proud of his appearance, to Mahmood's darbar, where his 
appearance putting his illustrious tribesmen to shame, he got nothing 
but a sound beating. 

The second anecdote was told me on the scene of its occurrence, 
the Achakzai hills, on the 23rd May 1838, while ascending the Kojak 
Pass. An Achakzai who had accompanied Shah Mahmood on his 
expedition to Persia, had married a rich lady of Ispahan. In the midst 
of the rich repasts she provided for him, and the beautiful garden of a 
hundred fountains and thousand parterres that he found himself master 
of, he would sigh (between a grunt, a groan and a growl,) "Oh! 
for my country of the thousand-holed cakes, and alas ! for its Makhai 
gardens." 

The lady, fancying rightly that the country that could surpass the 
capital of Persia in its luxuries, must be heaven itself, determined to 
return with her new husband to Afghanistan. Whatever might have 
been her misgivings on the road, seeing that as they advanced the 
fertility of the country decreased, her despair was at its height on 
arriving at home — a khel or encampment of ghijdee, (black hair tent) 
in one of the wildest parts of the Achakzai hills. But her heart broke 
when she found that the thousand-holed bread was made of the vetch 
called gil, which becomes honey-combed in baking (food that her slaves 
would reject in Persia,} and that the Makhai gardens were nothing 



1945,"] An accaurU of th€ early GhHjdee$. 315 

but the stony hills covered with the thorn, known by that name in 
Pushtoo. 

It was sttch uncivilized acts as the above, no doubt, that made the Per. 
aans stigmatize the Afghans with the following : 

OughS,n i khar, Tobra ba sar; 
BS,kalee ba khar, Dingla ba zan : 

Which the Afghans retort in the clumsy " Tuguogue" of Parseeban, 

Da khira kurbin. 

Leaving the period of the GhUjye (not Afghan) wars in Persia to the 
above-mentioned authorities, I return to the seat of the tribes. 

On Hajee Meer-khan (who seems to have set the fashion of perform- 
ing the Haj to Mecca, as we find many Hajees among the chiefs both 
Afghans and Ghiljyes about his time,) gaining possession of Candahar, 
he called on the Tokhees to pay him revenue for their lands, and furnish 
him with recruits for his wars, as they had not assisted him in the late 
struggle • In reply, they asked how they could be expected to give up 
rights that they had acquired with so much trouble, and after so many 
battles. 

The chiefs of the Tokhees at this time were Shah Alam, the son of 
Alee, the brother of Malakhe, and the son of Shah Alam, Khushal* 
khan, and they would not acknowledge the supremacy of the Hotakees ; 
war therefore broke out between the tribes, and the Tokhees were 
obliged at last to quit the Tamak valley and take refuge, that is, to 
retire to the Arghandah.* Others formed into two Toraks or gatherings. 
The Shah Husen-khel, and other tribes about Ab.i.Tazee had their ga- 
thering at Yakhav, and the Peerak-khels and other tribes around them 
had their gathering at Omakai-kalat, at this time was held by the 
Tokhees under Hajee Edil, the son of Malakhe, to whom are attributed 
some supernatural powers. 

He had a son called Bayai, a very brave and daring man ; who built 
a small fort on the river Tamak, a little way from Kalat up the road ; 
and the Hotakees had a fort on the other side of the river at Jukh- 
taran, the Hotak gathering being at Choudai. 

* I found in 1841, that a threat to burn the crops they had left standing, and to fill 
in their karez (irrigation tunnelsj brought them back to the Tarnak, (month of July*) 



316 An account of the early Ghiijdeee, [No. 160i 

Although Bayai had 100 men in his fort, he always went out fdoae 
on his expeditions, which were directed against the opposite Hotak fort« 
It was his habit at dawn to attack the people of the fort as soon as tbey 
came out, and he sometimes brought three aud four heads, and no 
one dared to meet him hand to hand ; at last the drinking-water of the 
Hotaks became bitter, (i. e. they were hard prest) and they laid in am- 
bush for him one morning ; and, hamstringing his horse first, succeeded 
in kiUing him. On the death of Bayai, Kalat was taken possession of 
by the Hotaks, and now Mahammad-khan, alias Hajee Angoo, the son 
of Y&ya, and nephew of Meer Wais» became governor. 

About this time the report of Nadir Shah's marching on Candshir 
reached the country, and the Hotakeea assembled and came to the deci* 
sion that they had a new and powerful enemy in front, (Nadir Shah) 
and an ohi one in their rear (the Tokhees,) and that it was prudent to 
get rid of the enemy in the rear, and then meet the enemy in front ; there* 
fore they collected their whole tribe, besides procuring 4,000 horse from 
Candahar and from Puli Sangee, made a sudden attack on the Peerak- 
khel Tarakut Umakai, which might be said to be empty, as the obiefi 
Ashraf-khan and AUaiyar.khan, sons of Khushal, were absent on the 
Arghandah to collect troops. The whole Torak was massaered, women 
with child not being spared. On Ashraf-kban and Allaiyar»khan bearing 
of this disaster, they took the most solemn oath an Afghan can, Tiii 
Zam~talak, that they would not spend a night at home before they had 
revenged themselves on the Hotakees. Zan^talak is divorcement of a 
wife. 

Proceeding vii Mezan and Teereen, they joined Nadir Shah's camp at 
Cheenaran, and tendered their allegiance. That monarch appointed Allai- 
yar-khan his deputy at Ispahan, and was led by Ashraf-khan to Ganda^ 
bar, (Herat being taken after a siege,) which place it is said held out for 
fourteen months. The heroic defence of the buij or tower of Mulla AleSi 
a Ghiljye, after the fall of Candahar* deserves to be recorded. The rains 
of it are incredibly small in ei^tent. 

When Nadir was besieging Candahar, Abdul Ghafoor was governor 
of Kalat-i. Ghiljye ; he with Abdul Kasool, were sons of Hajee Angoo, bj 
a Peerak-khel Tokhee mother. Abdul Rusool had gone to Sarobai of 
the Kharotees, to collect the Ghiljyes of that neighbourhood to raise the 
siege of Candahar. Nadir heard of it, and made a Chapao on the levies at 



J845.] An aceauHi of ike early Gkiljdees. 817 

Sliibar» of whom lie made a great slaughter. Here Jan Tarakee came in ; 
Nadir then retamtd to Candahar, leaving 4,000 men to betiege Kalat ; 
when it fell, Jan Tarakee was left in command. 

Moosa-khan, father of Maddut-khan Isakzai Duranee. (tumamed 
DoDgee) conducted the Chapao on Shibar. The grare of Jan Tarakee 
k on the top of Kakt, over the spring close to that of the Fakeer. He 
hid such power over the tribe as to have left the proverb behind him of 

« Wak da Khadi dai da J&n Tarakee." 

"It rests with (or depends on) Ood;'' and Jan Tarakee, one of the 
present Tarakee chiefs, Arzhegee, (Ist July 1841,) is the son of Ala 
Verdee, the son of Suleman, the son of Jan, the son of Meer-khan, the 
ion of Kasam, the son of Doulat, the son of Madoo, the son of Peros, 
the son of Nassoo, the son of Mummye, the son of Ahmed, the son of 
Taiak. 

Nadir Shah conferred on Ashraf-khan the chiefship of all the Ghnr- 
ghashtees, and avenged him on the Hotaks by leading away captive 
1,500 of tfieir families to Hindustan, Turkistan and Persia. 

During the first part of the reign of Ahmed Shah, Ashraf-khan was 
governor of both Kalat and Ohuznee, and he accompanied the Shah on 
his first campaign to Hindustan. On his return Uie Duranee chiefr 
persuaded the Shah, that Ashraf-khui was far too powerful for a sub- 
ject. He with his son Haleem-khan were therefore invited to Candahar 
and thrown into prison, and their seals were made use of to entice Allai- 
yar firom Ispahan, the Shah proposmg to share hie conquests with him. 

AIliuyar»khan on his arrival was also thrown into prison, and nothing 
is known how these three met their fate ; the wall of their prison by 
some IB eaid to have fallen on them. 

Although the above bdongs to the history of Ahmed Shah, I men- 
tbn it, aa of course his historian would neglect to do so. 

I met in the Ohiljye country, which I had fiailed to do at Candahar, 
Iraoes of Zamroot Shah of Candahar, on the 28rd August 1841. At 
Dab-i-Pighai, not far from the shrine of Taroo Nika, on the brink of the 
hill, the temains of a small fort are pointed out. Here it is said that 
Zamroot Shah banished a mietress, by name Lolee, to employ herself in 
agriculture and gardening, and that in her ignorance she planted parch- 
ed wheat. A more bewatifttl view than from this position on a fine 



318 An account of the early Ghiljdees. [No. 160. 

day cannot be imagined. Near the above-mentioned shrine is a spring, 
which it is said cannot be fathomed. Its water is efficaciously used in 
cases of Sujah-Sulfa (black cough) in children, which either lasts two 
months or forty days, from which no child is exempt. 

I have mentioned before, that the Khaleels and Momands held the 
country before the Hazarahs. I remember one day on the Arghandah 
asking a Tokhee chief, what a stone and mud pillar on a neighbburiiig 
eminence was for ? It was built, said he, long before our time ; it is some 
boundary mark of the Khaleels and Momands. In my journal under 
date 22nd January 1842, I find the following memorandum : 

Shekh Mate-khaleel had (the Khalak people say) four sons and one 
daughter ; Shah>i-Mardan, Kalat, Garmam, Hasan, and a daughter Jukh- 
taran, who all on being buried sent forth springs of water from their 
respective graves of the same quality, which retains its temperature 
during winter, (it may then be seen running smoking down the hill.) 
The graves are all in the neighbourhood; — Jukhtaran, a small mound 
east of Kalat, just across the Tarnak Hasan-i-Mate, above the village of 
Khalak ; Garmam, (they deny the wordiieing Garmah) west of Kalat ; and 
Shah-i-Mardan, south of Kalat, a small flat-topped hill like the one over 
Khalak called Tabaksar. They say that Shah-i-Mardan outlived lus 
brothers and sister, and boasted that as they had made streams of wat^f, 
he on his death would make a river. On account of this vanity and 
presumption, the stream from his grave is the smallest of all, only sup- 
plying drinking water. 

In Dara's translation of NyamatuUah's history of the Afghans, Part 11, 
page 19, Chapter XX., Shekh Mati.khaleel is mentioned as chief of twelve 
Sarbanni clans. Hasan-i- Mate lived, we may suppose, in the time of 
Zeerak, the great grandson of Abdul, and in the time of Nahmand the 
great grandson of Ghiljye, and the fort of Kalat was of course never 
fortified before the spring on the top of the hill burst out ; and it may be 
assumed, that it was first fortified by some royal hand, as the surround, 
ing tribes would never have allowed one branch to occupy such a 
commanding position. 

I never succeeded in satisfactorily ascertaining whether Shah-i-Safa 
or Kalat was the oldest. The former is sidd to have got its name from 
some sick monarch, who then experienced " Shafa" (recovery) from bu 
disease. I have heard it called by some the capital of the country once 



1945.2 An aecauni of the early Ghiijdees. 8 1 9 

called Bakhtar ; aad hy otben, that of Zamoen-i-Khawar, who is said to 
have been a brother of Dawar» (Zaiaundawar). I hanre no doubt Au- 
rugzeb fortiied Kakt-i'Ohiljye ior Sultan Malakhe, and Shah-i-Safa 
for Sultan Khudakye, if he found them dilapidated. Sher«khan, we find 
from the account of die eariy Abdalees, brother of Sultan Khudakye, 
GOBiDanded at Shah-i-Safa on the part of the kiog of Delhi. 

I had almost forgot to mention, that the Moosa-khel Tokhees are 
divided into Buran<>khel8, Nazar»khek and Khwaidad>-khels ; and that 
the latter are divided into Shakee-khels and Mamee«>khelB. 

Although the account of the em-ly Crhilzyes ought to end here, I can- 
not for^o giyiDg an abatract translation of Mullfi Pairo's whole ac- 
count. 

Mahammad Ameen-ldian, the son of Ashruf* and Rahmatullah-khan 
the son of AUaiyar, on hearing of the fate of their fathers fled to the 
Sttleman-khel country to Zarmut and Kalawaz. ^zam-khan, the son 
of Ashnif, and some other children were led captive from Kalat to Za- 
meen-dawar. From this place effecting their escape, they fled to the 
Persian courts and from it received the countries of Khukees and Ner- 
mssher. AJhmed Shah conferred the chiefship of the Tokhees and Kalat 
Qu Soorkai-khan Babakarzai, who was shortly after murdered by the 
Mahammad- zai Takbees. 

Soorkai-khan had two sons, Sayud Rahmat-khan and liasbkaree- 
khan ; the former accompanied the Shah on his campaigns, and the lat- 
ter was stationed at Kalat. 

On the 2.6th August 1841, 1 saw a descendant of his, Kbaleel-khan, 
sou of Rahmat, son of Hajee Munsoor, son of Usman Ghane^, (call, 
ed Snrkai Sultan by Nadir, and Kboja-khan by Ahmed Shah), son 
of Joga, son of Meer Hazar, son of Taooz, son of Kasura, son of 
Utman, son of Suleman, son of Babakar, son of Shamal, son of Yoonus, 
sou of Rahmand, son of Tokh, son of Baroo, son of Tolad, son of 
Ghiljye. 

Sometime after the accession of Timoor Shab> Mahammad Ameer, 
khan was invited from the Suleman-khel by that monarch, and made 
chief of Kalat and of the Tokhees and Hazarahs ; and on Timoor Shah 
inarching from Gandahar to Cabool, Mahammad Ameen (Amo) Khan 
paid his respects with lOOSuleman-khel swars at Pali Sangee, and re- 
ceiTeda dress of honor, and other marks of the royal favor : at the same 

2r 



320 An account of the early Ghiljdus. [|No. 160. 

time NooruUa-khaD, son of Hajee Angoo^ was created chief of the Hota- 
kees, with the flattering title of Ikhlas Knlee-khan, and the revenue of 
the countries of Dera Ismail-khan, Daman, Banoo and Urgoon. He 
was on his death succeeded by his son, Abdu Raheem-khan. 

On Azad-khan declaring independence in Cashmeer, Amo-khan was 
at Herat, from which place the Shah sent for him and despatched him 
with Sardar Maddut-khan Durance at the head of a force to that pro- 
vince. In the battle that was fought with Azad-khan, Amo-khan was 
shot by some one of his own party at the back of the head^ the ball 
coming out at one of his eyes : his corps was brought to Kalat to be 
buried. He left three sons, Nealee Nyamut-khan, Futteh-khan and 
Meer Alam-khan. 

On the accession of Zaman Shah, Walee Mahammad-khan (with the 
title of Walee Nyamut-khan) succeeded his father, being very young, 
and Moladad-khan Moosa-khel was his naib, or deputy. 

On Shahabudeen-khan, the son of Ramatullah-khan, coming into 
notice, a feud broke out in the tribe of Tokhees. The rise of Shahabu- 
deen is thus accounted for. The Ameen-ul-mulk was by tribe a Babee, and 
having once in darbar spoken rather sharply to Walee Nyamut-khan, 
the latter foolishly allowed himself to retort with an old Pushtoo pro- 
verb. ^From that day Shahabudeen was taken by the hand, the Ameen- 
ul-mulk 8uppl3ring him from his own private funds. The tribe arrang- 
ed themselves in two parties, and Kalat was sometimes in the possession 
of one, and sometimes in that of the other. In one of the many 
skirmishes that took place, Moladad-khan, the Tokhee deputy was killed. 

On one occasion some horses of Shah Zaman's coming with a caravan 
from Cabool, were plundered by some Tokhee robbers of the clan of 
Koortah-khel. Immediately on hearing of it, Walee Nyamat-khan with a 
few of his Yassawals pursued them. The robbers took to the hills, and 
Walee Nyamat-khan was killed by them while storming them. Htf 
corpse was conveyed to Kalat, and buried with his father's. 

Fatteh-khan soon after avenged his brother's death, by decapitating 
several of the robbers, and making the rest take refuge in India ; he 
hung up the heads below Kalat. 

Shahabudeen-khan and Fatteh-khan were engaged in their quarrels 
until the war between the Ghilzyes and Durances broke out, which 
occurred in the following manner. 



1845,2 An aecouni of the earfy Okiljdees. 32 1 

Shah Mahmood from Gandahar had made one march beyond Kalat, 
and Shah Zaman from Cabool had arrived at Aghojan ; his chief Sardar 
Ahmed-khan Nooneye being with the advanced guard one stage ahead, 
(atTazu) his defection from which place to Mahmood Shah caused the 
overthrow of Zaman Shah's power. 

This pad^skah gardush, or revolution among the Doranees, occarring 
ia the heart of the Ohilzye country, suggested to that tribe the present 
u a favourable opportunity to declare their independence, and make an 
attempt to establish a Ohilzye kingdom. 

Abdu Raheem-khan Hotakee was declared king, and Shahabudeen 
his Vazeer ; his hearty co-operation being secured by the former giving 
him his daughter Sahab Jan, (with whom when in her father's house he 
had been in love,) the wife of the defeated Shah Zaman, and mother of 
the princes Nasar, Kaisar and Mansoor, with all her jewels, and hand- 
some carpets, and numerous cooking utensils. Shahabudeen-khan was 
left to stop communication on the high roads, and Abdu Raheem-khan 
went towards Cabool to raise the Suleman-khel. Troops were detached 
from Cabool, and the Ghilzyes were defeated; the Ibrahim Ghilzyes 
losing 5 or 6,000 men. Abdu Raheem-khan retired on Kalat ; and a 
Duranee force having marched from Candahar, the Ghilzyes left their 
strong position on the hill to meet them, (Fatteh-khan had already gone 
over to the Durances). The battle was fought between Jaldak and Umakai 
on the ridge called in Persian " Tappah.i.Surkh," and in Pushtoo " Sirah 
ffliah." The Ghilzyes were defeated ; die Tokhees losing 7 or 800 men. 
The Hotakees being chiefly horsemen, escaped comparatively unscathed. 
Winter put an end to further hostilities. This year 1802 a. d„ is still 
remembered by the Ghilzyes as the Sal-i.Katul, or year of massacre. 
The chiefs on the Ghiljye side were Abdu Raheem-khan Hotakee and 
Shahabudeen>khan Tokhee; those on the Duranee side were Abdul 
Majud-khan Barik-zai, Saidal-khan Alako-zai, Azam*khan Popal-zai, 
Shadee-khan Achak.zai, (Arzbegee) and Samandar-khan Bame-zai. 

In the ensuing spring Ahmed-khan Noorzye marched with a force 
from Cabool. On his arrival at Hulan Rabak, the Jalal-zai Tokhees under 
Mnlla Zafran, a grandson of Malakhi, opposed him ; but were defeated 
with a loss of 600 men. Ahmed- khan continued his march to Candahar, 
and brought out a large Duranee force with guns and shaheens. This 
time the Tokhees under Shahabudeen-khan and Fatteh.khan, kept to 



322 An aeeourU cfihe early Ghiijdees. [No. 160. 

the hill of Kalat, out of which rery strong position every attempt of the 
Doranees to dislodge them failed, with loss ci men. 

The Durances failing at Kalat, determined to carry away the Oh^^ 
families which had been left for security on the Arghandah ; and they 
boasted of this intention, calling to the Ghiljyes on tke faiU to ask 
Dara*khan if he had any message to send by them to his women and 
children. After the Duraniees had started for theArgha&dah, DanuUtaa 
taking his swars by a short road arrived at the Tarak or encampment, is 
time enough, during the night to throw up a sangttr or efitreikdmieat 
of loose stones. 

The Durance detachment arrived in the morning, and were thnct it- 
pulsed from the sangar ; but being disciplkied troops, they were nol 
easily to be defeated. At this time some of the occupants of the san- 
gar who were not fighting for their honor (wives,) lefit the sangar and 
fled. The Durances under cover of their laden ponies and muleSi made 
another attack^ which proved successful, and eight members of one fami" 
ly were cut down on the one carpet on which they were sitting. The 
Durances lost 100 men^ 

This was the last battld between the Duranees, Tokhees and Hota- 
kees. After this Abdu Raheem-khan and Shahabudeen-khan retired 
to the Mammye hiUs. Shahzadah Shuja-ul-Mulk had also taken re- 
fuge in the Kaker country, where he organized a powerful faction^ whidi 
Shahabudeen-khan aUd Fatteh-khan Babakar-zai joined, as did Shakar- 
ulla.khan, the son of Abdu Kaheem^khan Hotakee. On Sbuja-ul-Malk 
becoming Shah, Fatteh^khan and Shakarulla-khan attended on him; 
but Shahabudeen-khan never did as long as he lived, for whieh tbe 
Shah never forgave him ; and hearing of his having built a fort in Nawak, 
Gulistan-khau Aohak-zai, governor of Peshawar^ was despatched to 
destroy it ; Fatteh-khan Babakar-zai accompan3ring him. On enter, 
ing the district of Nawak, so secure was the Achak-zai chief that Sha- 
habudeen-khan would shut himself up in his fort, that he accepted 
Fatteh-khan's invitation to dinner at his place, Jameeyat, 

Shahabudeen-khan getting intelligence of this, sallied oat "vnth bis 
cavalry and fell upon the Durances as they were carelessly straggliog 
on to their stage, and routed the cavalry, killed the artillery men, burnt 
the gun carriagesi and spiked the guns, which remained there all tbe 
winter. Next spring Sohbat-khan Popal-zai, being detached from Cabool 



1845.'} An aeeauniiffihe early Ghiljdeei. 328 

wiUi a foroe» reeovered and mounted the guni, and made use of them for 
sereral days without effect against the fort walls, which remained entire 
until destroyed by British Sappers in the autumn of 1839. 

Shahabudeen-khan and Fatteh-khan for a long time were played 
off against each other by the tribe, and the enmity existing between 
them was considerably increased by Shahabudeen-khan's brother Meer 
Mahammad (whose praises as a bold soldier are still sung,) being killed 
by Fatteh-khan, in the district of Khakah. This enmity continued un« 
abated until the death of Fatteh-khan, and the two rival chiefs had ge- 
nerally two or three fights every season, (harvest.) On the death of 
Fatteh-khan, Shahabudeen*khan made the usual mourning visit to his 
son, (the present) Samad*khan, and this long-standing quarrel was then 
made up. 

Samad-khan married a daughter of his, giving a daughter in return to 
his grandson, Mansoor-khan. 

This brings the Toran Ghiljye history down to a tolerable modem pe« 
riod, and nothing remains to be noticed, but a few particulars regarding 
the forces furnished to the Durance kings by the Ghiljyes. 

The Andadees furnished 600 horse as did the Tarakees in the follow- 
ing proportion. 

Babadeen-khels 120, Sak-khds 120, Peroz-khels 60, Tsoil-khels 60, 
(hrbuz-khels 120, and Na-khels 120. 

The Hotakees furnished 500 as did the Shamal-zais, including the 
fiabekar.zais 500, and the Tokhees furnished 1,000. 

The Tokhees received 1,60,000 Tabrezee rupees (10 annas each) per 
annum thus : — 

1064 S wars at 100, 1,06,400 

Mausabdars, (officers,) . . • . . . . . 35,600 

Hakim, (chief,) •• .. .. .. 18,000 

1,60,000 



The distribution of the Tokhees, as follows : 

ABhoor-khan Bays, Meena Pairo saya, 

Riahyanees, . . . . • . 50 . . . . . . 66 

Bata-khel, • • . . 30 . . . • . . 36 

Jalal.zai, .. .. .. 180 .. .. .. 164 

Pero-zai, .. .. .. 144 .. •• .. 140 



324 



An account of the early Ghiljdeei. 



[No. 160. 







Aflboor-khan says, Meerza Pairo says, 


Ba80-khel» 






.. 33 .. 


.. 33 


Aiyoob-zai, • • 






.. 23 .. 


.. 23 


Meeran.zai, 






.. 104 .. 


.. 104 


Noor-khel« 






.. 81 .. 


.. 81 


Mahammad-zai, .. 






.. 330 .. 


.. 330 


Aka.zai« 


heiM 




,. 31 .. 
1,006 


.. 31 

998 


The distribution of t 


ahamo 


[lad-zais is as follows : 




Feerak-khel, 




16 


Shah Husen-khel, 


.. 16 


KaUoo-khel, 




17 


Umur-khel, 


5 


Isse-zai, . . 




18 


Seekak, . . 


18 


Fakeer.zai, 




15 


Hasan-khel, 


5 


Babree, . « 




7 


Adam-zai, 


? 


Barhan-khel« 




• 


Hotak-zai, 


.. 30 


Fato.zai, . . 




70 


Akrabe-zai, 


9 


Moosa-zai, 




50 


Moosa*khel, 


.. 16 


Karmoo-khel, 




12 


Saee.zai, . . 


3 


Buhlol.zai, 




9 


Bazik.zai, 


3 


Nato-zai, •• 




4 


Khan-khel, 


.. 18 


Peerwalee-khel, . . 




9 







The Jalal-zai horsemen were thus divided : 
Peroz-khel, .. -. 25 Nano-khel, 

Bahram-khel, . . • . 43 Siya-zai, . . 

Dawut-khel, .. .. 15 Bahlol-khel, 

Najo-khel,. . .. .« 9 

The Fero-zai horsemen were thus divided : 
Sayud-khel, .. .. 57 Irakee, 

Asho-zai,.. .. .. 24 Sure-zai, .. 



IS 
28 
44 



31 
29 



The Meeran-zais say that in the time of Sayud Kahmat-khan they 
furnished 133 men in the following proportion : 

Nuhradeen, . . • . 14 Sen-khel, 39 

Akhe-zai, 30 Moghal-zai, .. .. 28 

Uhwa-zai and Kute-zai, . . 22 



J845.3 



An account of the early GhUjdeeM, 



325 



The distribution of the Hotakees was as follows : 
Malee-zai, 

Khade-zai, . • . • 

Tadzak, . . . • . • 

fiarat-zai, . . . • • • 

Ramee-zax, . • • • 

Umar-zai, 

Toon-zai, . . . • • • 

xsoireey • • • • • • 

Saut-kh^, 
Eesaf-khel, 
l88ozai« 



Again the distribution of the Isak*zai Hotakee's 69 men is as follows : 
Kutte-zai, - . . . . 14 Hade-zai, . . . . . . 25 

Eudeen-zai, . . . . 7 Umar-zai,. . . . . . 7 

Kundle-zai, . . .. •• 14 Mandeen<khel, .. .. 2 



24 


Maroof-zai, 


11 


9 


Utman-khel, 


.. 12 


12 


Isak*zai, .. 


.. 70 


16 


Aka-zai, .. 


16 


70 


Baee-zai, . . 


.. 25 


12 


Baba-zai, . . 


6 


34 


Saghad-zai, 


.. 32 


7 


Alee-zai, . . 


6 


16 


Polad, . . 


3 


16 


Tahiree, .. 


.. 6 


1 







The Sursat, or provisions for the royal army in its march through the 
Gfailjye country was thus collected : 

Kakui-Ghiljye, 4.5 Hotaks, 0.5 Tokhees. 

Sar-i-Asp, Babakar-zais. 

Tazee, Mahammad-zais, Moosaka, Pero-zais and Jalal-zais. 

Nothing now remains but to note the locations of the different tribes. 

The Tokhees are to be found in the Arghandah valley, the Tarnak 
valley, the Khakak valley and in Nawak. 

The Hotakees are, generally speaking, found in Marghah, and in the 
Syorye, (shady side) and Peetao, (sunny side) of the Barcghar and 
Surkh.koh hills, and more particularly speaking, the Isak-zais are 
found in Marghak and Ataghar. 

The Malee-zais in Girdezangal and Gha Bolan. 

The Barat-zais in Roghanai. 

The Aka-zais in Kharnai and Dumandia. 

The Tun-zais in Syorye. 

The Umarzais at Mandav. 

The Sagharees (Saghadais) at Mandah. 

The Ramee-zais at Ataghar, and the Baee-zais at Sorah and Kingar. 



326 Am account of the earip GhUjdaes, [No. 160. 

The Surkh-koh is called in Poshtoo SSrah-ghar. 

The Babakar*zais are found at Swad-zai, Jungeer, Sar.i-As (asp,) 
Shah Mardan and Nawah. 

The Shamal^zais are found at Shibar, Halatagh^ Jetz and Mundan. 

Other information of a geographical and. minute statistical nature 
regarding the Toran Ghiljyes is in my possession, as are the original 
Daftars which could not be generally interesting. The following ^ae 
fact may be. 

The scarped hill and baxrctck walls Against which tiie Ghiljyes tm 
their heads, on the 21st May 1842, losing 400 killed, were their own 
handy work chiefly, (the gaoonison having merely finished them,) of ^ 
preceding autumn. 

It being impossible to procure labourers from Candahar, I had oc^ 
casion to call on the tribes to funush labourers in the lexact proportion 
they had formerly furnished soldiers to the Duranee kings, asd diey 
were mustered every morning by their respective chiefs, rod in hand. 
Being highly paid, (one rupee to every three,) they continued to wori 
long after the winter set in, sleeping in the plain below the hill in open 
graves I two feet deep for warmth. Her gracious Majesty's head cm the 
new Company's Rupees made a few demur taking them at &at ; but 
finding out their value they soon got over this prejudice against *' the 
image ;" and after spitting on the rupees and treading on them, took the 
" Buttars" as they called them home as lawful gain, without a self-ac- 
cusation, it is to be hoped, of their ^having encomraged idolatry. 

That money was little valued by the Afghans of the wilds (Sahra) 
before the British forces entered Afghanistan, the following will prove. 

On my way from Gabod to Candahar in the winter of 1837-38, I 
several times failed in .getting milk and butter, while my attendants 
who had travelled before in the country were plentifully supplied* I 
found the reason to be that I offered money, while they gave needles, 
and odds and ends of coarse Cabool chintz. 

On one occasion after marching all day, I lost my way and got 
benighted, and separated from my baggage. On arriving at one of these 
Ghiljaee.khels or wUd encampments, they allowed me to enter their 
tents, but nothing would induce them to kill a sheep for money, (they 
even refused to take a gold ducat,) insisting on having cloth ; and the 
sheep was finally purchased by one of my attendants giving an old Ca- 



1640.] 



An account of the early Ghiljaees. 



327 



bool choghak. On leaving Candahar for Quetta, I laid in a stock of 
needles, little looking-glasses, pewter rings and wooden combs ; and again 
on leaving Kalat-UNaseer for 8hikarpoor« I was obliged to lay in a stock 
of pieces of coarse native white cotton doth. For a whole piece I 
und to get a sheep ; and eggs, fowls, milk, batter, &c. were only purchas- 
thle by the yard of cloth. In the autumn of 1841, even in the Ghiljaee 
country, melons were sold for equal weight of wheat, and grapes for 
three times their weight in wheat. 

On the army first arriving at Candahar, the wild hill A%hans who 
got paid for the supplies they sold in Company's rupees, took them to 
the town shroffs, and paid one and two annas batta to get them changed 
for the " Kalamah-dar" or Candaharee rupee, thus giving eighteen 
annas for eleven or twelve ; not being able to count, they talked of having 
a " Idd-skin" of rupees. 

List of Places on a portion (upper) of the Arghandeh River. 



Left bank. 


Right bank. 


L^bank. 


Right bank. 




Arghasoo. 


Parsang, 






Takhoon. 




Mamachakh. 




Salem. 


Sangeesar, 




Meezan, 






Surkhakai. 




Shekhan. 


Tarkhuloon, 






M Dolanna. 




Chaghbad. 




(» Shadee. 


Barakee, 






<» Totee. 




Nangyan. 




•* Dohlah. 


Saigaz, 






Q Kondilan. 


Kailatoo, 






<5 Jadang. 


Jijgah, 


Narrai. 




ft Jakhtoo. 


Bargah, 


Sardarrah. 




Chalakoor. 


Girdai, 


Biland warkh. 




Maidan. 


Shukushta, 


Ulachee. 


Takhoonak, 




Badar, 


Shaigan. 




Surkhsang. 


Nalee, 


Thakr. 


Taj Mahammad, 




Kadalak, 


Sapitao. 


Walagai, 


• 

BO 


Pumbazar, 


Duberak. 




Molai. 13 


Tanghutai, 


Pezgul. 


Madat, 


S 


Karulghan, 


Chaghmagh. 




Bagh. d 




Oman, or 


Mossai, 



S 




Jirghanai. 


Gazah, 




Kaftalak. 




Beetab. 




Solan. 




Ghimbat. 


Khamai, 


Bareezar. 



2z 



328 An account of the early Ghiljaees, [No. 160. 

The Arghandah river rises in Malistan, then comes to Fort Alee Gk)a- 
har, then to the Fort of Bakar Sultan, called Sangi Mashak, west bank ; 
thence Targan« west bank ; thence Oazah, west bank ; thence Bal ha. 
sarr, west bank ; thence Mughaitoo, west bank, (near Kharnai.) 

The Attah Hazarahs (uppermost) join into the Kalandar Hazarahs 
(who are next below them on the river) at Kharnai. The boundary of 
the latter and the Peroz-khel Tokhees is at Avkol, the boundary of the 
latter and the BahloLkhel is at Fort Husen, the boundary of the latter 
and the Ferozais is at Aldai (Nulla Zardad,) the boundary of the latter 
and the Khan-khel is at Beetab. 

Route from Kalat-uGhilzyze to 

Dera IsmaiLkhan, Kalat-i-Ghiljaee, Urgakoo, Dab.i.Pishai, crossing 
the Pass ; Fort Konah in Marghah, Fort Maiyar in Halatagh, Wuch 
Marghah, (or Kaimkhelee,) Darwaze, beyond Jetz; Sargadee, Ismail- 
khan, Kanokee, Gul Wanah, Kurman-i-Sar, Ashewat, Kashkalwee, 
HandeerahKalan>i-Kakeree, Chukhah, Jyob, Shagee, Sarmaghah, pass- 
ing Gholaree Pass ; Neelye, Tormyumah (Gbmal,) Kats-speenkee, Man- 
jigarah in Daman, Kulachee, Gada-i-Oandipoora, Dera IsmaO-khan, 
Sakaree, Jetz, Yaiyak-beree, Shaheedan, Turwoh, Kasakuk, Dakha 
(deserts,) Taraghaz, Dochnah, Lakatijah, Goostoee, Se-nika, Tsa 
tsandai, Doo-mandee (Ghuznee road falls in here,) Kotkee, Kanzoor, 
Sarmaghah. 

The Nasarees (Daoot-khel) having bullocks, first move to Hindustan 
by the Gholaree or Zawah Pass ; then the other Nasarees, then the 
Kharotees, then the Myan-khels. 



JOURNAL 



OP THR 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. 



Report, ^e./rom Captain 6. B. Tbbmbnhbbbb, Executive Engineer, 
Tenasserim Division, to the Officer in charge of the office of Super^ 
intending Engineer, South Eastern Provinces ; teith information 
concerning the price of Tin ore of Mergui, in reference to Extract 
from a Despatch from the Honorable Court of Directors, dated 
25th October 1843^ No. 20. Communicated by the Government of 
India, 

Sir,— Agreeably to instructions conveyed in your letter, No. 3018, 
of the 7th of February last, I have the honor to subjoin such informa- 
tion as I have been able to obtain^ concerning the probable cost of the 
tin ore of Mergui. 

2. With the view of ascertaining its value in the home market, 
I transmitted, about the period of my first report on the tin of this 
province, a box of average samples of the ore, to a smelting establish* 
ment in Cornwall, (Messrs. Bolitho & Co.) having extensive connection 
with the tin mines of that country. In April 1843, Mr. Thomas 
Bolitho informed me, that — '^ The samples of once- washed ore pro* 
duces about 70 per cent, of tin, and the twice- washed yields nearly 
75 per cent. The metal is very good, being almost free from alloy ; 
^nie of the samples which have been sent to me from the Malayan 
peninsula contain titanium. 

'' The ore appears to separate from the matrix very easily, 

No. 161. No. 77, Nbw Sbbiks. 3 a 



330 Tin Ore of Mergui. [No. 161. 

'^ The consumption of tin throughout the world increases so slowly, 
and the supply at present being more than equal to the demand, there 
is little inducement to speculate in tin mines. 

" The produce of Cornwall is 6>000 tons per annum> and we cal- 
culate that the quantity produced at Java together with what is 
raised in the Malayan peninsula, will rather exceed the produce of 
Cornwall. The average price of tin in Cornwall has been about ^28. 
per cwt, but it is now as low as 56^., which is the present price of the 
best Straits tin, and tin mines are suffering greatly from the deprecia- 
tion in the value of their metal. 

** It may serve for your guidance to know^ that at this moment tin 
ore of the description of the sample twice* washed, would fetch in Eng- 
land about £ 46 per ton." 

3. The following calculations of the probable result of a shipment 
of tin ore, and of the metal, have been obligingly made for me by 
two mercantile gentlemen of Maul main. They are based on the 
lowest prices which, according to Mr. Bolitho, were obtainable in the 
market in April 1843, and show a probable profit on tin ore of ^s. Qd. 
per cwt. ; but a loss on the shipment of the metal of 12«. 4cf. per cwt« in 
one case, and 4#. 9d. per cwt. in the other. 

July 1843. Tin ore from Maulmain purchased at 45 rupees per 
hundred viss, equal to 365 lbs. 

45 Rs, per 7o viss = per cwt. 1 4 rupees, or 

Charges. 
Duty, 

Stout boxes and shipping charges in Maul- 
main, •• • 

Freight home £ 2 per ton, 

Insurance 2^ 7o on iQs 

Commission and London charges 5^ ^o * * 

Interest commission 5 7o on purchase. 



Sale price per Mr. Bolitho^ « . 

Leaves a profit per cwt. . . . • • • 7 ^ 









£. s. 


d. 








28 





£. 


8, 


d. 









3 












1 












2 












1 












2 


2 









1 


2 


10 


4 








38 


4 








46 






1845] Tin Ore of Mergui. 331 

Jaly 1843. Tin from Maulmain purchased at 77 rapees per hun- 
dred visa. 

£» 8, d. 
77 R<* per 7o ^^ = 33 Ra. 14 annas^ or 
per cwt. • . . . . . • • . 47 9 

Charges. <S. s. d* 

Daty> .. .., •• •• .. 10 

In Maolmain shipping, dec. per cwt. . . 6 

Insarance 2^ 7o or 6 7^ . . . . J 6 

London charges, viz. commission 2^ 7o ) -^ ( 
Warehouse and Dock dues 1^ 7^ other > ^ \ 3 3 
incidental expeoces 1^ 7o •• •• / '^ i 

Interest an Purchase. 

Six months @ 5 per cent 

Freight @ £ 3 per ton, 



Sale price per Mr. Bolitho, 



2 4 




3 20 


1 


68 


4 


b^ 






Leaves a loss of per cwt 12 4 

Another calculation of November 1844. 

R» A* Pm 

Usual cost of tin ih Maulmain^ Rs. 77-8 1 oo e n 

per 365 lbs , on Rs. .. .. ..f ^3 5 2 per cwt. 

Freight to England @ £ 1-10 per ton, 12 

Duty, @ 10* -. 5 

Shipping charges here and in London, • • 8 

Commission in London @ £ 2^ per cent. • • 13 



30 6 2 



£» s. d. 
Or, 60 9 

Assumed price in London^ • • • • 56 

Leaves a loss per cwt. of . . ..049 

4. The assumed rate for the ore at Maulmain, 45 rupees per 365 
lbs., would be I think subject to a reduction ; but that for the metal. 



332 Tin Ore of Mergui. [No. 161. 

is probably the lowest average. It will be observed also^ that the 
London price of 56«. per cwt. is taken at a period of great depression 
in the value of the article which had averaged *]28. per cwt. ; bat it 
would nevertheless appear, that to send it to England in the state of 
clean ore would be by far the safest investment* 

5. Many localities in the Mergui province in which the ore exists 
abundantly, have been already described and publicly made known; 
but little or no attention has been given to the subject by merchants 
of Maulmain. Their business consists principally in timber, piece 
goods and hardware, and they have no inclination to embark in 
mining speculations. A small shipment of ore, being part of about 2| 
tons collected by convicts and others at the Government expense, 
was made to England by Messrs. fiilton and Co. of Maulmain ; bat 
the quantity was so small, that no result has been made known by 
their home correspondent* At Malewan in the Pak.ehan river at 
the southern extremity of Tenasserim, between one and two hundred 
active Chinamen are engaged in collecting the ore in ^e streams 
described in my third report of 8th April 1843, Journal As. Soc. 
Vol. XII. p. 523. They have been very successful, but there is so lit- 
tle communication with that part of the coast that no accurate statement 
of the result of their annual labours can be obtained. They convert it 
into metal, which comes with Tacopah and other tin into the Maul- 
main market. 

6. Other localities equally productive and avdlable to the private 
speculator have been indicated in former reports, and more are becom- 
ing known. A specimen recently obtained by E. O'Riley, Esq. from 
Henzai, north of Tavoy, is forwarded. It is said to be plentiful there; 
but, without multiplying instances, sufficient evidence has been re- 
corded of the existence in the Tenasserim provinces of rich stores of 
the ore of this useful metal, and it has been also shown that there ib 
no obstacle to its profitable production. 

Mining or other operations of this nature supported by the Govern- 
ment, have generally proved unsuccessful in India ; but the time may 
perhaps arrive, when the attention of private capitalists may be turned 

in this direction. 

G. B. Trbmrnhbbbe, 

Ex. Engineer, Tenasserim Provinces* 



333 



A Supplementary Account of the Hazarahs. By Major R. Lkbch, C. B. 

Late Political Agent, Candahar, 
[Drawn up under circumstances of peculiar difficulty.] 

A fonner account of the tribes inhabiting the Hazarajat, was furnished 
to Lord Auckland's government^ and printed with the other papers of 
the late Mission to Cabool, (Captain Bumes's). 

I had hopes of procuring a written history of this tribe which I 
have reason to suppose exists, when I was obliged to quit Candahar 
with General Nott's force in August, 1842. It was, if I remember, said to 
be in the possession of the Chief of the Dai Kundee Hazarahs, whose 
son was at that time a hostage in Candahar. 

The Hazarahs claim brotherhood with Europeans, saying that both 
are descendants of Japheth, the son of Noah. 

The Hazarahs are called Moghuls by the Ghiljyes. 

I believe that the Hazarahs in former times were like the Afghans 
of a subsequent period, planted on the confines of India. 

They, I believe, held the high road from Cabool to Candahar and 
Herat up to comparatively speaking a recent period. 

Many of the names of villages in the immediate neighbourhood of 
Candahar prove a Hazarah founder ; and the tomb of one of their pro. 
genitors, Choupan, is on the high road between Candahar and Herat 
aear Greeskh : the place is now called Khah-i-Choupan. 

In a paper on the history of Kalat-i-Naseer, I mentioned my opinion 
that the Hazarahs extended as fu as Shawl Quetta, from the name 
Takatoo of the mountain bounding that valley towards Pishing and 
Candahar; and from Kuchlah (which means caves in the Hazarah 
<iialect), being the first stage from Quetta towards Candahar. 

The word '* Shev" both in tiie Hazarah and Brahavee dialects 
(Koodd-gal) means bdow, lower ; for we find the Shev Hassarrs or 
lower Hassarrs, distinguished from the fial Hassarrs or upper Hassarrs* 

There ia in the neighbourhood of Candahar the shrine of an Hazarah 
saint, who has the title of Hai-taz, (the rush rider). I have mislaid the 
detailed account of the miracle that got the saint this tide. 

The Hazarahs' simplicity is proverbial, and it is probable that they 
were cheated by the Afghans and Ghiljyes out of quite as much land as 
they were beaten off. 



334 Supplementary account of the Hazarahs* [No. 161. 

They hold fire-arms in greater esteem than their rivals, and do not, as 
they do, trust to the vaunted Toora (sword) entirely. They make ex. 
cellent powder, and are capital shots ; and, strange for a people inhahiting 
a hilly country, are good riders. 

They feel ashamed of their Tartar cast of countenance and want of 
beards ; and I invariably observed that the higher in rank a Hazarah 
chief was, the less he resembled his race. 

They call the Afghans, " Avghoons." Such is their aversion to the 
Tartar cast of countenance, that it is reported they ask no question of 
their wives for presenting them with children, the images of some of 
their Afghan handsome neighbours ; and the opportunities afforded a 
passing stranger, even, by some tribes are said to be most shameless.* 

As an instance of their want of polish, I instance the case of a Haza- 
rah chief who visited me in the end of 1841 at Kalat i-Ghiljye. This 
man resided at so small a distance from town (Candahar), that had he 
been inclined he might have visited it once a week at least. As his 
services were required for our garrison, I made him a present of a shawl, 
and sent him round the fort to see the buildings and the commencement 
of our fortification. On his return, after signs of great uneasiness in his 
chair and sundry whisperings with his confidential attendant standing 
behind him, he at last confessed that he had a request to make before 
taking leave, if 1 would not be offended. This was, that in his tour round 
the fort he had been struck with wonder at a large copper deg (caul- 
dron) used by the executive engineer to mix lime (the weather requir- 
ing warm water to be used), and that he hoped I would give it him in- 
stead (if I liked) of the shawl. It was of the common size used at 
cooks' shops at Candahar. 

The vessel was accordingly purchased for him, and presented after 
being scrubbed as well as time permitted ; and he left with it highly de- 
lighted, vowing he would make soup of a whole sheep in it and feast 
all the tribes. I never heard that the lime had any bad effect .on the 
soup eaters. I have no doubt that this deg will after a generation or 
two have wonderful tales told of it in connection with the Faringee9> 
who built Kalat in the autumn to destroy it in the spring. 

* The Afghans give their Dutch build in the following couplet: 

*' Pushti koonash naghara darad, 
Hazarah dumba darad." 



1845.] Stqfplemeniary account of the ffazarahs, 335 

I propose that this account should consist of the different memoranda 
found in my journal connected with the Hazarahs, according to the or- 
der of dates. 

Memorandum, 19th July 1839, Candahar. — To the north of the Arif- 
khanee fialoche of Kejran, (to the north of Teereen) are the Bahalee 
Hazaraha under Husenee-khan, and his nephew Mahmood-khan ; and to 
the north of the Babalee are the Chora Hazarahs ; 2000 families under 
AUee Husen-khan and Mahammad Husen. They are taxed one sheep 
each house. 

Mahmood and his uncle Husenee both live at Zarafshan. Mehdee- 
khan was the father of Mahmood. The Babalee Hazarahs are reckoned 
at 5000 houses, and they are said to be able to furnish 200 horse and 
300 foot. The Sardars of Candahar collected yearly about 2 or 3000 
aheep. The sister of Mahammad Husen-beg Dai.koondee is Mahmood- 
khan's wife, and Mahmood-khan's sister is the mother of Khairulla- 
beg Dai.koondee. Oizon, called the Cashmeer of Western Afghan- 
istan, was originaUy a government post. It is now enjoyed by Ma- 
hammad Takee Beg, a Dai-kundee Hazarah. It was through the 
Hazarahs that the revenue called Sang-o-baz (the goat and stone) 
became known. When a tribe is next to independent, it is said to 
pay a stone-and-goat revenue ; that is, the collectors of revenue are met 
with an old lean goat in one hand, and a stone in the other, as much as 
to say, if you do not put up with this shadow of tribute you shall have 
this (the stone) on your head. 

Memorandum, Chapa'khanna Karahagh, 2ith June 1841, and Ut Sep- 
tmber 1 842. — The four Dastaks of Omee are Tamakee Taltamoor, Doka, 
and Sagadee. These, with Aldye, Mahammad Khoja, and Meer Maham- 
mad, are sons of Hajee. Their chiefs are Husen-khan, Hasan- khan, 
and Mahammad Takee-khan, sons of Meer Alee«khan, son of Zakee- 
khan. The Mahammad Khoja Hazarahs are under Mahammad Husen. 
khan the son of Gulisthan-khan, the son of Abdul Masam-khan. These 
are the Hazarahs of Karabagh ; they are at enmity with the Tarakees, 
which was amply verified on the approach of General Nott's force to 
Karabagh in 1842. The Ghiljyes had forsaken their forts from fear of 
the force, and on coming up to Karabagh the Hazarahs were seen hur- 
rying across the plain on their beasts of burden with empty bags to sack 
their neighbours' forts. Some of the Hazarahs accompanied the force 



336 Supplementary account of the Hazarahs, [No. 161. 

one or two marches further, in hopes of getting the contents of the other 
Ohiljaee forts in advance. 

Memorandum, 2Sih June 1841. — ^There are four Dastake of Jagharee 
Hazarahs ; Garai'ee, Baghochury, Izdaree, and Attak. 

The three other Dastaks are Kalandars^ Pashahee and Sherdagh. The 
seven are called Mama. Sultan Bakar is by tribe an Attak ; his father 
was Augoobeg, son of Sufee Sultan : he has four sons, Sharhat-i-Alee, 
Jamshed, Bijan, and Ismail. 

The Arghandah river rises in Malisthan, then comes to Fort Alee 
Gouhar-khan, then to the Fort of Bakar Sultan, called Sang-i-Mashak, 
west bank ; thence Turgan, west bank ; thence Oazah, west bank ; thence 
Bal hassarr, west bank ; thence Kunghaitoo, west bank ; Shev hasarr, 
west bank ; thence the Tokhees to Siya Sang of the Khan-khels, east 
bank ; thence Mezan, east bank, to Dahlak« 

Memorandum, 18M August 1841.-'-Karez-i.Salai is a Supzee, among 
the Dai Ghoupan Hazarahs, his residence is Shaee : to the west he 
has Meerza Sultan Sohbat-khanee Hazarah of Karez and Chalakoor; 
to the east Unizghan Gundah Hazarahs ; to the north the Khojakais 
under Tamas-khan ; and to the south the Khan.khel Tokhees of Bagh. 

The Dai Choupans, in all 2,500 families, are divided into three dans. 
Wachak, under Murtuza-khan. 
Orasee, ditto, Murza Sultan. 
Baintan, ditto, Zardad Sultan. 

The Wachaks are divided into four. 

Paindah Mahammad, Bubash, Daoozai and Sheerah. 

The Orasee are divided into three : Isfandyar, Ghulam.i. Wakee, and 
Baitamoor. 

Baintan had five divisions : Wuttee Murghans, Sherak, Malik Maham. 
mad, and Mahammad Beg, of which are Suit Alee and Zardad 
Sultan. 

The Dai Choupans are originally from Greeshk ; the tomb of their 
progenitor is still in existence, (Khak-i-Choupan.) 

Sadelchee was the first chief of Kalat-i-Ghiljye. 

Paindah Mahammad, Daoozai, Sohbat-khanee, and Mahammad*iais 
of Shoee are all Akkahs. 

The river of the Paindah Mahammad is Seran, of Meerza Sultan 
Baghoochar, and of Zardad Sultan Sousah. 



1846.] Supplemehtarp account of the Hazarahs, 337 

Besides the revenue of the Dai Choupans (3,000 sheep, goats and 
lambs,) that of Chalakoa (a desirable place by all accounts to spend the 
winter, in preference to Kalat.i.Ghiljye) under Kongharee was 600 
sheep, goats and lambs, and 12 Kharwars (120 maunds) of grain. 

Memorandum, \5th October 1841 ; KaiaUL Ghiljye. The boundary 
between the Kalandar and Jaghuree Hazarahs is at Oloom of the Salai 
Kalandar Hazarahs ; the place is not on the river Arghandah, it is near, 
and almost the same as Ghurdoon.i-Nungoo. 

The boundary of the Kalandar Hazarahs and the Tokhees is at Av. 
khol on the Arghandah, which belongs to the Kalandar Hazarahs. 

The places of the Kalandars are Mughailoo, Gardoni Kotal, Oioom, 
Oardoon.i.Murgo, Doom-i-Sago, Surkh Kol Ablecto, Gardo, Bayh, and 
Moklai. The chiefs, their titles and residences are /llee Bakheh, son of 
Ghttlam Husen Khan, at Ableeto. 

The Kalandar revenue is payable at Ghuznee in hair carpets (palas) 
and sheep. 

Korghushtoo is a place of the Myanishees of the divisions Shekho 
and Ghulam. 

They may be 100 families ; they never regularly paid revenue to the 
Sardars of Candahar, but are assessable by the king. 

The Shekhos are ryots of Zardad, who takes one lamb from each 
house. 

Sheep won't live in their country, but goats will ; they die of rot in the 
livers immediately it reaches the gall. The cure is the gambelahs. 

Memorandum, 6th November 1841. — Kalat-i-Ghiljye ; the following is 
road to Mughaitoo Halan Rabat. Sebandee, Jijgah Gorgaran, Kasalghan 
on the Arghandah, Mughaitoo. 

From Gorgaran Mughaitoo bears west, Hingai east, Bakhtoo north, 
and Karatash south. 

The titles of the Hazarahs are Khan, Sultan, Ikhtyars, Wakee, Meh- 
tar and Turkhan. 

The Kalandars have to their west Ghulam-i. Wakee and Bubash Ha. 
zarahs, to the north Uruzghan under Zoulee and Suit Alee, to the east 
Attah, and to the south the Jalalzai Tokhees. 

The Hazarahs of Candahar are on excellent terms with the Parseewans, 

(1 have also heard them called Parsus) those at Candahar were origi- 

3b 



338 Supplementary account of the Hazarahs. [No. 161. 

nally brought from Persia by Shah Abbas the Great; they are of the 
divisions Ruzbyanee, Zanganah, Borbur and Siah Mansoor. 

During the early wars of the Hazarahs and Ghiljyes, the latter burnt 
the dead bodies of the former that came in their possession, and only 
discontinued the practice (disgraceful to both parties as men and Mosul- 
mans) on the former retaliating* The system of offering indignity to 
dead bodies is a favorite one with the Afghans.* 

The Hazarahs as well as Ghiljyes do not eat fish, although they agree 
it was made lawful food by their prophet. 

In going down the river Arghandah we were struck with the fine fish 
in that clean part of the stream, and desired to have some ; no one in 
the whole tribe could be found who knew how to catch them : at last a 
dyer who poached for his own use, (he was an inhabitant of Candafaar, 
not an Afghan) volunteered his services with small pea-like balls of 



* On th« very first day that I entered Afghanistan (the Khyber Pass in the autamn 
of 1837,) I observed that all the bodies of the Sikhs who had been killed near the Pass, 
(in the battle of Jamrood between Mahammad Akbar-khan and Huree Sing) had 
been heaped together. 

On the breast of the corpse of Goda-khan Momaod Afghan, they lit a fire ; he having 
been killed in our service. 

The grave of the first officer who was buried after the army reached Candahar (he 
was murdered) was being dug into, when the resurrectionists were disturbed by my 
gardener going to turn water off into the garden, and a repetition of the attempt was 
alone prevented by my making the owner of the field responsible for the preservation 
of the tomb. 

During the siege of Kalat-i-Ghiljye, the fire that had been kindled to consume the 
corpse of a Hindoo native officer was extinguished by the besiegers, and the bodies of 
the camp followers they had cut up were the next day hacked with their spades by the 
cultivators who came to the spot to turn water into their fields. 

The graves of those who were killed in 1839 at Ghuznee were in 1842 found defiled. 
It became at last necessary on the march to bury under cover of tents, and to use 
every ingenuity to conceal the spot which in many cases was of no avail, and no pre- 
ventative against exhumation. I have lately heard that all the graves at Candahar 
have been opened by Umar-khan, the son of Sardar Kobudil-khan, who intended to 
burn the mouldering bones with horse litter; but the MuUas obliged him to content 
himself with scattering them about the plain. 

Graves of Mohammadans in Afghanistan are opened for the sake of the shrouds, by 
a set who are thence called Cafan Kash, and great excitement was occasioned in the 
winter of 1837 in Cabool, by a young married woman of rank having opened a newly 
made grave. She had been persuaded that, if she succeeded in giving to her rival (hus- 
band's second wife) to eat halwah cooked on the breast of a corpse, she would become 
the sufed-bakht (white-fortuned) or favorite. Hog*s lard rubbed in the hair is considered 
a specific for estranging affection* 



1845.'} Suppltmeniary account of the Hazarahs. 339 

iaai mixed with gall and Marg.i.Mahee, (the fiah-bone nut) which he 
threw into the stream, the surface of which was soon covered with 
looting fishes in a state of intoxication, (not dead). Bringing them to 
land was good fun for the boys who had assembled. 

Observing in the crowd of spectators the village Mulla (who are gene- 
rally half-read) who evidently regarded us as cannibals, I enquired why 
they did not eat fish ; he replied, he could not tell me, but it was un. 
doubtedly lawful food. A good stock of fine large fish being now 
laid before us, I begged the Mulla to make them lawful eating ; this, he 
ought to have known, could be done by merely dashing the live ones 
thrice to the ground. He however looked disconcerted at my request, 
and hesitated. After a short time, during which we all kept our coun. 
tenances, he called for a knife and was about to cut their throats, when 
I suggested that the bellies were the proper places ; and he actually, 
after pronouncing his solemn " Bismillah AXL&h Akbar," went through 
this first part of the cook's duty : and, as he looked after us as we de- 
parted to breakfast, I have no doubt he said to himself, " These Faringees 
are after all not such a dirty feeding set of Kafars as they are said 
to be." 

The Hazarahs, notwithstanding the general enmity between the tribe 
and the Ghiljyes and Afghans, have their friends and allies among 
them ; three Maliks of the Alee-khel Ghiljyes have gone over to Sultan 
Bakar, the deadly enemy of their tribe, having quarrelled with their 
brother Malik : their names are Mato, Natho, and Shahabudeen. 

The Hazarahs have been driven out of part of their country by the 
Wardaks (from the stages of Haft Asya, Hyder.khel, Shashgou, &c.) 
These Wardaks are said to amount to 9,000. 

The Hooree Wardaks, who now occupy this part of the road from 
Ghuznee to Cabool, are divided into three clans ; Malee.khel, Badud 
(Bahadur) khel, and Hyder-khel. 

The Malee.khels are divided into Hasan-khel, Hasrah, Muradee.khel, 
and Shadee-khel. 

The Badud.khels into Pancbpaee Zeerak and Khaja Khidr, and the 
Hyder-khels into Tokur-khel and Eesa-khel. 

The Hoorees are reckoned at 2,000 snookes, or houses. 

In their hills there is a grass called Tabarghan that sheep feed on, 
which imparts a fine flavour to the ghee, milk, and its other preparations. 



340 Suppkmenlary account of the Hazarahs. [No. 161. 

There is also a red flower, called Sursan, which is hoiied, and liie 
strained water used as a cooling drink. 

The slaves in Afghanistan are chiefly Hazarahs, and the Afghans say 
it is as lawful to huy and sell them as negroes. 

N. B. — I have, I think, a good account of the Hazarahs dependent on 
Gabool in my " Vicovitch's Gabool/' a work which I hope some day 
to have time to translate. It is composed of accounts of the different 
districts of Gabool, drawn up at the request of that Russian agent, during 
his residence at Gabool in the latter end of 1837 and beginning of 1838. 



Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar and the Neighbouring 
Districts. By Capt. Thos. Hutton, of the Invalids, Mussoorie. 
With notes by Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Societ^s Museum- 

No. 1. Vesper tilionidcB. Two species of Bats are common at Gan- 
dahar, a large and a small kind ; the latter I preserved in spirits and 
have sent you, though I fear they are spoiled.^ This species is very 
common^ and may be seen from February till towards the end of 



1« They arrived in excellent condition, and may be thus characterized : 

Pipisirellus lepidus, Blyth. Length three inches and one-eighth to three and a quar- 
ter, of which the tail measures one and a half; alar expanse eight and a half to nine 
inches : fore-arm an inch and three-eighths, or a trifle less ; longest finger two inches 
and a quarter ; tibia half an inch ; foot and claws five-sixteenths of an inch. Ears 
smaller than usual among the Pipistrelles, measuring from lowermost anteal base 
half an inch, and their tips spreading to an inch asunder; tragus subovate, and curved 
as usual. Sides of the face very tumid. General colour a light yellowish-clay, pale 
sandy or isabella-brown ; underneath paler : the volar membrane light dusky, and the 
inter-digital at base towards the wrist, also the tip of the wing, and a broad border be- 
tween the leg and proximate finger, with the fingers themselves, of the same light hue 
as the fur of the body. 

Captain Hutton*s large species is not improbably the Noctuiinia noctula^ v. N. aUi- 
volanSy (White) Gray, common in Europe; for 1 doubt much the distinction of Mr. 
Hodgson's Vesp. labiata from the nodular and a very closely allied species, if not the 
same, has been described by Mons. F. Cuvier from Sumatra. 

The description of habitat resorted to by the third species is that of Rhinolopluts 
perniger, Hodgson, v. luctus (?), Temminck, further to the eastward. 

It may be remarked here that £lphinstone mentions Monkeys, as found only OQ 
the north-east parts of Afghanistan ; a statement whidh does not appear to have been 
since verified.^ Cur* As* Soc. 



1845.] Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 841 

Oetober, flitting about in crowds in the twilight honn of evening ; 
they shelter daring the day in holes of houses, walls, and rocks. 

The larger kind I have only seen occasionally on the wing, and 
sever poesessed a specimen. There is said to be another large kind 
foond in the limestone caverns which occur in the mountains, but I 
suspect it to be the same. 

No. 2. Feiis iigri$. Is said to occur in the jungles of Bhawulpore 
iloDg the banks of the Sutledge, but I saw no traces of it. In the 
lower parts of the country, towards Scindh, I do not think it occurs. 
It is not in Afghanistan.* 

No. 3. Felt* leo. Is said to occur in some parts of Afghanistan ; but 



2. According to Blphinstone, Tigen are to be met with in most of the woody parti 
of Afghanistan : and Mr. Vigne remarks that the Tiger is "said to be well known" upon 
the Safyd koh mountain. Sir John McNeill saw one killed in Persia, at the foot of the 
Elboorz mountains, near the Caspian ; and Morier states that it occurs in the vicinity 
of Tabreez, mentioning that he saw the skin of one that had been killed there a short 
time previously. Old Tournefort relates that the middle region, and even the borders 
of the snow limit, of Ararat, are inhabited by Tiger8(?). He says that he saw them 
within lOU yards of him, and that the young are caught in traps by the people round the 
mountain, to be exhibited in shows of wild beasts throughout Persia. At Grusia, at 
the foot of Caucasus, a large one is mentioned by Kotzebue, and supposed by him to 
have been driven by huoger from the plain of Baghdad. Mons. Menetries (1 think, for 
I have neglected to cite the authority in my note- book,) relates that—** During our stay 
at Lenkowa, I had the good fortune to obtain a Tiger that had been killed only fifteen 
vents off. It did not appear to differ from the Bengal Tiger, even in the skull. It 
appears, as I subsequently learned, that one at least is killed every year in the vicinity, 
having been pursued perhaps by hunters, till it sought refuge in the neighbouring forests 
of the Kour. It is not, I believe, found in Caucasus, the skins sent thence to Europe 
having probably been brought from Georgia, whence those of Leopards are also sent." Lt. 
Irwin states, that the Tiger is found as far as Tashkund, but in that temperate climate 
he falls much short of the Bengal Tiger in strength and ferocity. Burnes also speaks 
of "Tigers of a diminutive species," found in the valley of the Oxus; and Humboldt 
and Ehrenberg observed them so high as the latitude of Berlin : they are said to occur 
even on the banks of the Oby : and Du Halde speaks of them as common in Tartary and 
China. In Japan they are stated to be covered with a thick coat of long soft fur. In 
the Himalaya they reach to an elevation of 8,000 feet, but are rare as far north as 
Simla, and they are said to be smaller in the N. W. provinces than in Bengal. Dr. 
McClelland affirms that they are a great scourge to the inhabitants of Kemaon. Re- 
ferring, however, to the more western portion of the range of this animal, and even to 
the northern, it is necessary to be on guard against the frequent misapplication of the 
name 21r^er, which, in South Africa, for instance, invariably applies to the Leopard, 
uid in S. America to the Jaguar; in Van Dieman's Land even to the marsupial Thyla- 
Gin : and with respect to a remark above cited, referring to Leopard skins being brought 
from Georgia to the Caucasus, it may be noticed that Guldenstadt describes the Leopard 
to inhabit the rocky parts of Caucasus, chiefly to the south, about Tiflis ; being of rare 
occurrence to the northward.— Cur. As> Soc, 



342 Rough Notes on the S^hgy of Candahar, QNo. 161. 

I doubt it, as I never saw a skin nor any spoils of the animal, nor 
could I find any one who had seen it.^ 

No. 4. Felts leopardus. This animal is common in the mountain- 
ous parts of Afghanistan, and is destructive to flocks and cattle ; it 
seldom attacks man, though the Afghans have a great dread of it. 
The skins are prized as saddle-cloths, and are thrown over the saddle, 
with the tail fastened behind to that of the horse.^ 

No. 5. Felis chaus, (vel erythrotis, Hodgson). This is not an un- 
common species on the hills of Quettah and other partsof the country. 

N. B. — '^Seeah Gosh" is the name of a Lynx inPersia^t. e. *' Black 
Ears."* 

No. 6. Felis ? A spotted skin of a small Lynx, the only one 

I saw : it was brought in its present state from the Huzarrah hills.^ 

No. T. Felis catus. The domestic Cat of the Afghans is very similar 
to that of the hill people in the Himalayan districts, running into all 
sorts of varieties as to colour, as they do with us, although the most 
general is a dark grey with black spots and stripes.' 

No. 8. Canis • The domestic Dogs of the Afghans vary ac- 
cording to the climate. In the hilly tracts they are large and fierce; 

3. Elphinstone remarks, that the only part of Afghanistan where he had heard of the 
existence of Lions, was in the hilly country about Cabool, and there they are small 
and weak as compared with the African Lion. '* 1 even doubt," he adds, '* whether 
they are Lions." The Lion is well known to occur, however, both in Persia and io 
Western India ; and, according to Lieut. Irwin, some are found as far as Tashkund, 
in a northerly direction and an easterly. J, A* S, viii, 1007. — Cur, As. Soc. 

4. A Candahar specimen forwarded by Captain Button is of moderate dimensions, witJi 
rather long fur, very pale in colour, and the spots a good deal ringed, including those 
along the back line. — Cur. As* Soc. 

5. This is the Felis caracalt Schreber, of which the Society has lately received a 
specimen, killed at Jeypoor, from Captain Boys. It extends sparingly over the Upper 
Provinces, but appears not to occur in the peninsula of India : westward it inba' 
bits Syria, and the whole of Africa from Barbary to the Cape of Good Hope. 
F, chaus is common throughout India, from the Himalaya southward; and extends 
even to Arracan.— Cur. As. Soc. 

6. This seems to me to be the British Wild Cat f Felis syhestriSt Aldrovand, com- 
monly referred, but very doubtfully, to F* catus^ Lin. ; the former not occurring in 
Scandinavia). Its tail, however, would appear to taper, so far as can be^Judged froi& 
the open skin ; whereas the tail of the British Wild Cat does not taper. Judging fr<HB 
memory, of the figure published by Mons. F. Cuvier, I much suspect it to be his ^' 
torquata : but the colour and markings are quite those of F* sylvestris* — Cur. As. Soe. 

7. The domestic Cats of India are smaller than those of Europe, and are very com' 
monly of a grey colour without markings, except on the limbs, and some more or lest 
confluent black dorsal lines ; the feet and tail being also black, to a greater or less extent 
This is a style of colouring never seen in those of Europe (of unmixed breed) ; and the 



1845.] Bough Notes an the Zoology of Candahar, 343 

md approach somewhat in appearance to the degenerate breed of 
Bbotan dogs, such as is found in the lower hilU of the Cis-Hima. 
hya. Others are not very different from the common village dog of 
India, except perhaps that the bark is more decided in its tones, and 
the hair longer. These appear to be the mere effects of climate. 
There are likewise Turnspits and Qreyhounds : some of the latter 
are good and fleet, with smooth short hair ; others are large and cloth, 
ed with long silky hair* At Cabool, Pointers are said to occur ; but in 
the more southern parts I saw none.^ 

true tabby t so common in Europe, is never seen in India : I mean the tabby with black 
gronnd and broad pale streaks peculiarly disposed ; for the grey with black tiger-streaks is 
foood in both regions, only that the Indian are of a purer grey than the European. 
The long-haired Kashmir Cats, when dark, are often of the same unstriped grey with 
black dorsal streaks, feet, and tip of tail, as the Indian ; and, I think, I may add that 
the Indian are more generally partially or almost wholly white, than is the case in 
Europe. Wholly black Cats are certainly less common than in England. By the way, 
Elphinstone states that Cats of the long-haired variety, called Boraukt are exported in 
a great number from Afghanistan, but are not numerous in Persia, where they are 
seldom or never exported. — Cur* As. Soc. 

8 Lieut. Wood, in his * Journey to the source of the Oxus,' p. 396, mentions a breed 
of Dogs, at Kunduz, called Tazi^ ** which could not but have found favour in the eyes 
of an English sportsman: it is a breed which, for strength and symmetry, vie with our 
Greyhound, and in beauty surpass it." Also, he speaks of the ** Spaniel, from Kutch, 
and others of mixed breed, but possessing keen scent, and some of the qualities of our 
pointers." Lieut. Wood also informs us (p. 874), that *Uhe Wakhun Dogs differ much 
from those of India, and bear a general resemblance to the Scotch Colly. They have 
long ears, a bushy tail, and a frame somewhat slender, being better adapted for 
swiftness than strength. They are very fierce, make excellent watchers, and will 
fight dogs twice their own weight. Their prevailing colours are black or a reddish- 
brown ; the latter often mottled. The breed is from Chittrah, and so highly are their 
game qualities valued, that the Scinde Ameers have their packs improved by 
importations from this country." To my friend Mr. Vigne, we are indebted for a 
description of '* the Scinde hound, as it is usually termed, which," he remarks, ** is a 
nee peculiar to the country, and considerable care, I believe, is bestowed upon the 
breed. It is a large and fierce animal, smooth-haired and usually white, and with sharp 
ears : a cross between a thorough-bred mastiff and a greyhound, would much resemble 
it In general figure, but with a more savage expression, it is not unlike a large Eng- 
lish coach dog : an animal which, somehow or other, in the older books of Natural His- 
tory, has obtained the name of the Harrier of Bengal. Although not probable, yet it 
ii not actually impossible, that the original breed may have been brought home by the 
early European traders from the mouth of the Indus, and that the name may thus have 
originated in a not unlikely confusion of localities." * Travels in Kashmir,' &c. II. 
411. The same gentleman giv^s a description of the magnificent sheep dogs of Kashmir, 
(ibid, II. 149), which however would appear to be identical with the ordinary Tibe- 
tan mastiff. Of this race, many are annually brought to Calcutta; and with them I 
bave seen a dog very nearly resembling the Exquimaux dog, which is found likewise in 
BOTthem Siberia, where, for purposes of draught, it is fast superseding the Rein-deeT*~- 
Cur, As. Soc* 



344 Bough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 161. 

No. d. Cants aureus ?, var: I have no specimen. It is abundant 
along the coarse of the Helmund and Argandab rivers, at Girishk 
and Candahar^ as also in the Bolan Pass, and appears to be identical 
with the variety found in the Himalaya. It may perhaps be the 
" Ozygous indicus,'* of Mr. Hodgson. It is found in packs, and 
cries at night like those of the plains of India, and in this it seems to 
differ from the Himalayan variety, for although I have often seen 
many of the latter together at Simla, I never heard them cry. May 
not a dread of the Leopard keep them silent in the hills ?^ 

No. 10. Vulpes \Jlavescens, 6ray.|] The Fox of Afghanistan, or 
at least of the southern and western parts, is apparently the same as 
our Himalayan species, though somewhat less in size.^^ My specimens 
are all females, and the measurements are as follow, namely: — 
Length from nose to insertion of tail two feet ; tail seventeen inches, 
equalling three feet seven inches. Height at the shoulder fourteen 
inches. Another: — Length to insertion of tail two feet ; tail seventeen 
inches and a half, equalling three feet five inches and a half. Height 
nearly fifteen inches at the shoulder. Farther description I omit, as 
you can supply it from the specimen sent. The species is numerous in 
the valleys around Candahar, hiding in burrows and holes in the 
rocks. The skins are soft, and are made into reemchahs and posh- 
teens. The price is usually six annas a skin. Called '* Robur,'*^^ 

9. Wild Dogs, in addition to Wolves, Jackals, and Foxes, are stated by Elphin- 
stone to occur in Afghanistan. A Nepalese Jackal skin presented to the Society by 
Mr. Hodgson, appears to differ in no respect whatever from the Jackal of Lower 
Bengal*— Cur. As. Soc, 

10. Since writing the above, I have compared the specimens with the Hill Fox, and 
there appears to be a deficiency in the white tip to the tail in Afghan specimens ? T. H. 

11. In Afghanistan, according to the late Dr. Griffith, ** a large and a small species 
of Fox appear to exist The former, which is perhaps identical with the large Hima* 
layan Fox, 1 procured from Quetta and at Olipore, at which place it is not uncommon* 
The small kind seems to resemble the Fox of the plains of N. W. India." Capt Hut- 
ton's specimen is evidently of the small Afghan species, which is Fulpes/tavescens, 
Gray, An* and Mag* N, H. 1843, p. 118, and thus described :— *< Pale yellowish, back 
rather darker ; face, outer side of fore-legs, and base of tail, pale fulvous ; spot on side 
of face, just before the eyes, the chin, the front of fore-legs, a round spot on the upper 
part of hind-feet [or rather legs], and the tips of the hairs of the tail, blackish; end of 
tail white. Hab. Persia." The winter fur is long and soft, and is of two sorts ; a 
shorter and delicate under-fur, which on the back is darkish, passing to white on the 
sides and under parts, and pure white on the sides of the neck and shoulders in some» 
in others but partially so ; and longer straight hairs, black-tipped, and yellowish-white 
along the back, whiter on the sides : the breast and under parts, with the exterior of 
the limbs above the mid-joint, dusky : ears brown -black to near their base : face fni- 



1845.3 Rough Notes on the Zoology cf Candahar, 345 

No. 11. Fulpes bengaleneis. Is common in Cutchee, where, pre- 
yioos to the advance of our army from Shikarpore, I have coursed 
them with my friend Major Leech, late Political Agent at Candahar. 
It does not appear to pass the mountains into Afghanistan, or at least 
I neither saw nor heard of it. ** Loomree" of India.^* 

No. 12. Canis /t«j9tf«.— Wolves are common in the lower part of 
the Bhawulpore country, and likewise around Candahar. The dimen. 
sions of one from the lattier place are thus: — Length, over all, four feet 
eight inches; height at the shoulder two feet three inches. The female 
is still larger. It appears to be the common Wolf of India. A pair 
of these animals crossed my path one morning in Scindh : they were 
going along at a smart hand.gallop, the largest, or female, leading. 

" Bheyriah'' of India.^^ 

No. 13. Hyeena vulgaris. — This animal is common in Afghanistan. 
Length to insertion of tail three feet three inches and a half ; tail iif. 
teen inches, equalling four feet eight inches and a half. This was a 
female, and apparently not full grown. I had an opportunity of com- 
paring this spedmen with a male from Neemuch, which my friend 
Dr. Baddeley reared from a cub, and took with him to Candahar. 
There was no perceptible difference except in size, the Neemuch spe. 
eimen being the largest. Dr. Baddeley and one native servant were 



vescent, with dark patch before each eye : and the tail very bushy, a little fulves- 
ceot, and white-tipped. In summer dress, the long hairs have more or less disappear* 
ed ; and, in a male before me, the inner fur is considerably deeper-coloured than in 
CapL Button's female. A third specimen was received from Almorah, but the skin 
had doubtless been carried to the great Hurdwar fair. As a species, it is very distinct 
from the Himalayan Fox, and also from another, nearly allied to the latter, from Chi- 
nese Tartary, described in J, A. S. XI, 589.— Our. As. Soc. 

12. Mr. BUiot remarks of the Foxes of the Southern Mahratta country, that— «*' It is 
remarkable that though the brush is generally tipt with black, a white one is occa- 
sionally found, while in other parts of India, as in Cutch, the tip is always white." In 
Bengal it is invariably black. This animal is identified by Mr. Ogilby with the Canis 
coriae, Pallas, and certainly it agrees with the description of the latter, despite the 
great difference of habitat.— Qir. As, Soe, 

IS. I believe Mr. BUiot to be right in identifying the Indian Wolf, Canis pallipes 
of Sykes, with the true C. htpuSt which certainly runs into varieties in the wild state, 
aot only according to climate, but even in the same locality. Those of Chinese Tartary 
are very pale fulvescent, and are densely clad with matted wool during the winter: — 
absolutely Wolves in Sheep's clothing. Two specimens of the latter are in the So- 
ciety's collection.—- C^r. As* Soc, 

3c 



346 Rough Notes en the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 161. 

the only persons who coald approach the brute with impunity. It 
was chained like a dog. I believe it effected its escape during Dr. 
Baddeley's return to Quetta on his way to Bombay. " Laggerbagher" 
of India.<« 

No. 14. Herpestes grtseus 9 — Is this our Indian friend ? It is 
very common at Candahar, with precisely the habits of H. griseui. 
The Afghans occasionally tame them, as do the natives of this coun- 
try. It is called ** Mooeh-khoorma," by the' Afghans. ^' NgooV* of 
India.^ 

No. 15. Mustela {sarmatiea, Pallas.^ — This occurs plentifully at 
Quetta and Candahar, where it burrows in the ground, and produces 
three or four young at a birth. I had three pairs of these beautiful 
little creatures living in the same box, and although occasionally 
a little bickering occurred, yet on the whole they were arnica, 
ble enough. A few days before I left Candahar (February 1841), 
I killed and stuffed one of these animals, and the following morning, 
when a young friend of mine opened the cage for the purpose of tak- 
ing out another, we discovered that the two remaining pairs had 
waged war during the night with the odd one, whose mate we had 
stuffed, and had killed and partly devoured it. This is a curious &ct, 
for the three pairs had lived together nearly from their birth, without 
farther quarrelling than an occasional wrangle over their food ; yet 
no sooner was one pair broken, than the others set upon and killed the 
odd one. The Afghans call it '^ Gorkhtis/' or grave-digger, from an 
idea that it frequents burial grounds for the purpose of feeding on 
dead bodies. They even suppose that it lives entirely upon human 
bodies, and that it digs down into the graves where it banquets in 
undisturbed solitude. This notion^ as may readily be supposed^ is an 



14. According to Vigne, this animal is very rare, if found at all, in Kashmir. 
Very rarely, also, it occurs in the vicinity of Calcutta.^ CVcr. As, Soc* 

15. Mangusta pallipes, Blyth. This species is quite distinct from M. grisea of 
India generally, (including Scindh,) having much shorter fur, and approaching nearly 
to M. Edwardsii, v. auropunctata of Hodgson, if it be not a mere variety of the latter. 
It is most probably, however, distinct,v and may be known from M. BdwardsU by iU 
paler colour, its white throat, breast, and under-parts, which are but faintly tinged with 
the hue of the upper parts, and also by the light colour of its feet. In form and diioeo* 
sions, it appears altogether to resemble Hi, Bdwardtii,^Cur. As* Soc, 



1845.] Paugh Notes an the Zoology of Candahar. 347 

abBurdity^ the animal possessing in every respect the same propensities 
as its European congeners. Its food consists of birds^ rats, mice, 
lisards, beetles, and even snails, all of which it finds in abundance in 
the gardens around Candahar. The first I saw was brought to me 
by a gardener who had dug it out of a hole ; and a pair of these little 
savages was also found in another garden, where they had brought 
forth their young in a hole in the earth. The propensity to destroy 
life, and the thirst for blood, was soon manifested in those which I 
kept confined. 

One of these animals refused to feed during a day and a night, al- 
though his cage was plentifully supplied with raw meat and beetles; 
bat on introducing four Wagtails (Motacillce), he was instantly arous- 
ed by their fluttering, seizing and destroying them one after the other 
as quickly as possible^ and then retiring with them into an inner part 
of the cage, where he regaled himself on the blood of his victims, and 
indemnified himself for his long fast* 

He ate little of the flesh, however, but greedily licked up the drops 
of blood as they trickled from the wounds of his slaughtered prey. 
He also destroyed a couple of large Rats (Arvieoke) in a similar 
manner, showing great skill in seizing them so as to preclude all 
chance of their either injuring him or escaping from his fierce attack. 
When the rats were introduced into his cage, he was coiled up asleep 
in one comer of the inner part, but hearing them bustling about he 
was soon on the alert, and, cautiously advancing to the small round 
hole which formed the entrance to his sleeping apartment, took a sur. 
vey of his unsuspecting visitors. He then drew back as if to avoid 
observation, until one of the rats approaching his retreat, he suddenly 
darted upon him and pulled him, in spite of his squeaks and struggles, 
into his sanctum, where he soon despatched his victim. 

After a short pause, he again placed himself so as to obtain a view 
of the remaining rat, which shortly fared a similar fate to its compa- 
nion. With the latter, however, there was a severe struggle, and the 
ferret was obliged to leave his inner apartment ; yet although he rolled 
over and over in the scuffle, he never quitted his hold, and so dexte. 
roQsly had he seized his prey, that to bite or shake him off was equally 
impossible. He seized both rats precisely in the same place, namely. 



348 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 161. 

immediately behind the ear, which at ODce secared himself from in- 
jury and soon rendered his foe helpless. When the rat ceased to 
straggle, he bit him once or twice sharply through the back of the skull, 
and as the blood flowed from the wounds the ferret lapped it up with 
his tongue. There was never any attempt to suck the blood of his 
prey, as is commonly but erroneously asserted of his tribe, though he 
continued both with birds and beasts to lick up the warm stream as 
long as it flowed from the wounds he had inflicted. One would have 
thought that the slaughter and the blood of the three birds and two 
large rats would have satiated his ferocity for a time, but although he 
made no attempt to devour the prey he had slain, his appetite for blood 
and murder was still as keen as ever, and scarcely had he finished his 
second draught ere he sallied forth to slaughter two young rats which 
had been introduced along with the old ones. These, being as yet blind, 
he seissed by the nape of the neck, and having killed them with one 
bite, carried them also into his den, where he stored them up in a cor- 
ner with their murdered parents, and the remains of the wagtails. 
In the evening, after nightfall, when all was getting hushed and dark, 
he came forth, and then regaled himself on the store of provisions he 
had laid up. 

I was amused one day at the successful defence of a Shrike (Lawm 
lahtora). On introducing the bird into the box, it kept for some time 
twisting and turning itself about, and flitting its tail from side to side, 
watching the ferret with evident alarm. At last it flew so near that 
the ferret sprung at and caught it by the wing, and then lay with his 
fore-feet upon the bird, and began to peer sharply round to see that no 
intruder was near to interrupt his meal. As he turned his head back 
to begin the feast, the Shrike who had watched his movements, ma^ 
him so suddenly by the nose, that the ferret in astonishment and pain 
shook his head and jumped up, thus releasing the bird which I per- 
mitted to escape as a reward for his valour, and he flew away chatter- 
ing, as if laughing in his sleeve at the trick he had played his enemy* 

These animals are, strictly speaking, nocturnal, though not unfre- 
quently on the move during the day ; this however may probably ^ 
owing to bad success during the night in finding food, so that hunger 
may compel them sometimes to wander forth during the day time. Thcwe 



1846.] Eough Noies on the Zoology of Candahar. 349 

whieh I kept^ having plenty of food to eat, slept almost throughout 
the day, seldom venturing abroad until night£iJl> when they became 
very restless. They produce young about the end of March or be- 
ginning of April, when the winter has passed away and the warm wea- 
ther is setting in, bringing in its train numbers of quail and other 
small birds on which the animal preys* 

The Afghans assert that they are never seen during winter, and that 
although the summer is the season when they appear, they are never 
abundant. This latter assertion I can take upon myself to contradict, 
as they are far from scarce, for I have had during the summer 
months more than a dozen specimens brought to me. 

If true that they are only found in summer, it is probably because 
they remiun in a state of somnolency during the winter. The Af. 
ghans, however, are so little skilled in Natural History, and so addicted 
to lying, that it is a matter of much difficulty at any time to gather 
the truth from them. Some informed me that though the animal 
was not seen around Candahar during winter, yet that they were 
plentiful in the hills wherever there was good jungle cover, and that 
in summer they wandered down to the ptains. 

Now this assertion carries an error on the face of it, for an ani- 
mal delighting in cold climates would not resort to the warm plains 
in summer, nor would the inhabitant of a warm climate seek the hills 
in winter. As therefore they only appear in the plains and valleys 
during the summer^ the probability is (if they do not migrate to the 
south) that they remain dormant during the winter in holes and bur- 
rows. The latter is indeed the most probable, for to the southward 
the Candahar valley is bounded by the sandy desert which stretches 
away fh>m the Kojah Amram range of hills to beyond Herat, into 
Persia." 

These animals emit the same disagreeable fetid odour which charac- 
terises the genus. The body is long, slender^ and extremely supple ; 
the loins appearing, as in the feline tribe, to be so loosely articulated, that 
the hinder parts actually shake and totter whenever the animal puts itself 

16. The truth, I suspect, will prove to be that the Mustela aarmatica occurs at all 
seasons, like its various congeners. Among the true Carniwrat I know only of the 
genus Ursus which fairly hybernates.— Cur. As. Soc, 



350 Rough Notes on ike jHoology of Candahar. [No. 161. 

in motion. The tail is capable of being expanded into a good sized 
brash, and in this state forms an excellent defence for the back. 

I once pat a large snake into a box with one of these ferrets ; the 
snake at once withdrew to one corner and sought for a hole to escape 
by ; while the ferret arched its back, kept the head erect, and spread the 
tail out like a thick brush, which it turned over its back. In this 
manner he approached and retreated from the snake several times, 
watching its movements in some alarm. The ferret often tried to 
seize the snake by the back of the head, and as often received a bite 
in return, until the little beast became quite terrified. The snake 
was harmless, but too powerful for the ferret to attack success, 
fully. 

The markings of this beautiful species are as follow, namely^ 
through or across the face are three distinct and well defined bands ; 
the lowest one runs across embracing the eyes, and is of a brown co- 
lour ; above this is a second narrower band of a pure white ; and a 
third of black passes across the forehead, along the anterior base of 
the ears, descending to join the same colour on the throat. The 
chin and muzzle are white, the nose brown. The fore part of the throat, 
neck, breast^ fore and hind legs, are glossy black. The upper half of 
the ears is white, with long hairs like a fringe ; the crown and nape 
are also white with brown spots ; the hinder neck and all the upper 
parts of the back and sides, are yellowish- white with numerous brown 
or liver-colour^d spots of indeterminate shape. The tail is greyish- 
yellow for two-thirds from the base, and the remainder to the tip black. 
£ars ovate, or rounded and open ; eyes pale bluish or grey, by day. 
light. The head is broad, muzzle short, rounded and obtuse. Body 
long and remarkably slender, very supple, like the common ferret 
The cry it makes when irritated resembles that of the mungoose 
(Mangusta lpallipes]J. 

No. 16. Mustela 9 This is a skin which was given me by a 

Candahari, and came he said from the neighbourhood of Cabool. I 
suspect it to be the *' Dil-kuffub" of Burnes*s Bokhara.^' 



17. This is lost ; it was ** sooty black with a white crescent or gorget on the throat." 
T. H. 



1845.] Rough Notes on the SHoology of Candahar. 351 

No. 17- Luira [monticola, Hodgson, J. A. S. VIII, 320; appa. 
rently^^3- '^^^se animals are abundant in the larger rivers, such as the 
Helmund and Argandab. I could never obtain more than the dried 
skins, wfaieh are prepared for the Bokhara market, and sell for eight 
Candahar or six Company's Rupees each. They are made into 
dresses, and are so durable as to be handed down from father to son ! 
So at least runs the fable ! 

No. 18. Erinaceui collaris ? This species I found in the sandy 
tracts of Bhawulpore, but as I have only the description of it left, I 
am uncertain as to its identity with the above named species. 

The animal was clothed with stiff quills on the upper parts of the 
body ; these were white on the basal half and jet black on the up- 
per half: the face and under parts of the body were clothed with 
sooty-black hairs : ears large, ovate, and ashy-gray : snout long and 
projecting over the under jaw: eyes round, black, and of medium 
size : tail short and obtuse, nearly naked : chin white. 

Another, in all respects like the last, except that the quills on the 
sides have pale brown tips. This may be the effect of age or sex, as 
the specimen was a female. 

These were found in separate boles beneath a thorny bush called 
" Jhund," in the desert tracts of shifting sand between Sundah Ba« 
dairah and HasiJpoor, on the left bank of the Garra, where they are 
numerous. 

A third specimen seems to be distinct : all the under parts except 
the legs and tail are clothed with soft hair of a pure white, which passes 
also in a broad band across the forehead ; immediately below this is a 
band of blackish hue across the face, embracing the eyes ; and the 
rest of the face to the nose is greyish : nose naked : eyes round and 
black: ears large and ovate, ashy- grey: head rat-shaped: body and 
sides above armed with quills which are of a dirty white, or very pale 
shade of brown, for nearly two-thirds from the base ; then a dark brown 
band, and the tips pale brown. This colouring gives the animal a 
pale brown appearance. The legs and tail are sooty or blackish, as in 

18. L, monticola would seem to be the most common species of the Himalaya, and 
the Society has a specimen procured so low as near Moorshedabad, on the Hoogly. 
It is readily known by the comparative harshness of its fur.~ Cur. As, Soc* 



352 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, [No. 161. 

the foregoing : claws of moderate length, sharp and whitish. This 
specimen was smaller than the other two, and appeared to carry the 
back more arched than they did. It was found in the neighbour, 
hood of '* Shah Fareed/' on the left bank of the Oarrah. It is not 
unlike the European Hedgehog.^^ 

The habits of all three were the same. They are nocturnal, and 
during the day conceal themselves in holes or in the tufts of high 
jungle grass. Their food consists of insects^ chiefly of a small beetle 
which is abundant on the sandy tracts of Bhawulpore, and belongs to 
the genus Blaps. They also feed on lizards and snails. When 
touched, they have the habit of suddenly jerking up the back with 
some force, so as to prick the fingers or mouth of the assailant^ and at 
the same time emitting a blowing sound, not unlike the noise pro. 
duced when blowing upon a flame with a pair of bellows. When 
alarmed they have the power of rolling themselves up into a com. 
plete ball, concealing the head and limbs as does the European 
Hedgehog. On hearing any noise, it jerks the skin and quills of (he 
neck completely over its head, leaving only the tip of the nose free, 
which is turned quickly in every direction to ascertain the nature of 
the approaching danger. If a foe in reality come nigh it, the head is 
instantly doubled under the belly towards the tail, and the legs being 
withdrawn at the same time, it presents nothing but a prickly ball 
to its assailant, and which is in most cases a sufficient protection. 
In this state it remains for some time perfectly motionless, until all 
being quiet and the danger past, it ventures first slowly, and almost 
imperceptibly, to exsert the nose, the nostrils working quickly as if to 
ascertain that all is safe again. It then gradually uncoils until the 
eyes are left free, and if satisfied that its foe has passed on, it opens op 
and walks off with a quick but unsteady gait; or if again startled by 
the slightest noise near it, it is instantly entrenched within its thorny 
armour. They use the snout much in the same manner as the hog 
does, turning up the leaves and grasses in search of food, and shoving 
each other out of the way with it when angry. They make a grant- 
ing sort of noise when irritated. They are remarkably tenacious of 

19. The detcription of thU third specimen applies very well to other specimeDS, wiiic^ 
I have referred to E, eoUaris^ Gray .^C«r. As* Soc, 



1845.3 Rough NoUs on the Zoology of Candahar, 353 

life, bearing long abstinence with apparent ea8e,*-a provision of 
oatnre highly useful and essential in the desert tracts they inhabit. 
It is probable, too, that they remain during the cold season in a semi, 
torpid state, as the species which occurs in Afghanistan hybernates. 

M. B. — From the forehead proceeds a powerful muscle, passing 
round the body along the medial line at the junction of the quills 
and hair ; this enables the animal to protect itself in the following 
manner :— the head being bent downwards to the belly, and the legs 
tightly doubled under, the contraction of this muscle causes the edges 
of the skin, where the quills and hairs unite, (which is along the sides^) 
to be drawn together, by which means the limbs are shut in^ and en- 
closed as if in a purse with sliding strings. 

No. 19. Erinaeeug ^auriius, Pallas, (nee Oeoffroy), or a closely 
allied species^. This species is common from Quetta to Candahar. 
Length from tip of snout to base of tail about a foot ; tail an inch and 
a half. Ears very large and rounded, cinereous ; face, inside of ears 
and chin as far as the base of the ears, very pale cinereous, or nearly 
white ; from thence all the under parts are sooty or rusty-black ; head, 
limbs and under parts, clothed with soft hairs of a sooty black Qor 
faliginous-brown]] ; feet darkest ; tail black, obtuse and nearly naked ; 
toes five on all the feet ; claws whitish. Quills banded with dirty 
straw colour and black. This is the description of an adult male 
taken at Candahar. They feed on slugs, and helices with which the 
fields at Candahar are overstocked; they also prey on worms, insects, and 



20. The Siberian B. aurUus is described, in Pennant's Quadrupeds, to have the ** up- 
per Jaw long and slender ; with very large open ears, naked, brown round the edges, 
with soft whitish hairs within ; taU shorter than that of the European Hedgehog : 
upper part of the body covered with slender brown spines, encompassed at the base, and 
near the ends, with a ring of white : the belly and limbs clothed with a most elegant 
toft whUefur** The statements here italicized do not apply to the great-eared 
Afghan Hedgehog, the ears of which measure an inch and a quarter long posteriorly, 
and seven-eighths of an inch broad ; their colour white : the dorsal spines are a little 
grizzled at the surface, and radiate from the middle of the back, meeting those from 
the sides, which are disposed irregularly as in the British Hedgehog. 

The muzzle is rather short and broad : the dentition presenting three subequal 
pre^molars above, anterior to the scissor-tooth ; the first being largest, and the third 
Karcely inferior to the second, but having a basal inner lobe ; the small hindmost 
molar is also well developed, and is placed much less obliquely than in the European 
Hedgehog. Should it prove new, I propose that it be termed E, megalotis* 

3d 



354 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, [No. 161. 

lizards. They hide during the day in holes, and come oat in the 
evening to feed. They retire to hybemate in deep holes in the earth 
in the end of October or beginning of November, according to the sea- 
son, and remain in a semi- torpid condition till February, when they 

again appear.^^ 

(To be continued.) 



On the Course of the River Nerhudda, By Lieut, ^Colonel Ouselbt, Agent 
G, G, S. W, Frontier; with a coloured Map of the River from 
Hoshungabad to Jubbulpoor* 

The leading article of No. 151, of the Journal Asiatic Society for 
1844, is headed "Note on the Navigation of the Piver Nerbudda/' 
compiled from information afforded by a number of officers. The map 
that is given with it» is part of the one that accompanied my report, 
forwarded to Qovemment, (Lord Wm. Bentinck,) 13th June, 1834. 

I find that I have not a copy of that report, and have requested Capt. 
Spence, the Deputy Commissioner at Hoshungabad, to favor me with 
one ; but from private memoranda, I am enabled to state that the ex- 
pense would be too great to calculate on an uninterrupted navigation, 
or admit of such water carriage as would be safe, and profitable. The 
nature of the rocks, compact basalt, or granite, renders it almost impossi- 
ble to employ the agency of gunpowder to clear away the obstructions, 
it would be too slow a process for the extent to be undertaken. Again, 
supposing the whole distance cleared, including all the greater obstacles 
near Hindia, Mundhar, Dhardree, the Suhashurdhara Burkhery, He- 
runphal, &c. the elevation of the country at Hoshungabad being about 
14 or 150U feet above the sea, the rapidity and shallow body of the 
current would consequently be totally inadequate for boats of any size ; 
and would be followed by the continued cutting away of the earth, and 

21. Hedgehogs are found in the very hottest parts of peninsular India, and I have 
been assured, on good authority, of the existence of a species in the Bengal Soonder- 
buns. Four species from this country have been named already ; but 1 have great 
reason to suspect the existence of others, and recommend that all collectors should 
preserve as many species of these animals, as they may be able to obtain.— Ctir. As> 
Soc, 

* See Proceedings for February, 1845. 



1845.] On the Course <rfthe River Nerhudda, 865 

a renewal of obstractions. For the river is too large to be retained for 
any distance by banks or walls across it, so that if the inclination 
should here and there be moderate, as from Norsingpoor to Hoshunga- 
bad, Hoshungabad to Hindia, at Mandlaiser, &c., the descents would 
be still more precipitous at other places, between hills and rocks 
towering above one thousand feet on either side. 

The country where these obstacles present themselves is mountainous, 
so that canals could not be cut from any given point above, so as to lead 
back into the river to a navigable part below, for the descent to the sea 
is, as it were, in steps. The possibility of making the river navigable of 
course exists, but the expense would be such as to prevent any attempt 
being made by the Government ; nor do I think that the outlay could 
ever be made good. At Hoshungabad, the river is from 700 to 900 
yards (and even more) wide ; it often in the rains overflows its banks, 
which are at that place from 50 to 70 feet in height. What command 
could be hoped for, over such a body of water, running at the rate of 
six or seven miles an hour, only, increasing in size as it flows to the 
west, where the chief obstacles exist ; at Dhardree vast trees are preci- 
pitated into the depths below, often coming up shattered into many 
pieces. 

The native Surveyor in speaking of the rocks, said they were iron- ' 
stone, alluding merely to their hardness. He mentioned the kindness of 
the Bheels who attended his party along the river, in carrying some of 
die sepoys and others taken ill, procuring supplies and game, but seem- 
ed to think the river could not be rendered available for navigation. 
His map was written in Nagree on a large scale, and from that I reduc- 
ed it, and sent it in the rough, as I had not time from my other duties 
to do it more carefully. The chief coal discoveries were subsequently 
made in the tours of the Division that I undertook annually, and dis- 
closed mineral resources that are unbounded. 

The coal found at Bdnar, in my opinion, must be that used for rail- 
way communication ; it cokes, as the Welch coal does when piled in heaps 
of any length, about five or six feet in height, and nine or ten feet base, 
forming an angle, covering it with dust, and allowing it to bum slow- 
ly from end to end. The coal was tried on the Indus Steamer at Bom- 
bay, 100 maunds did what 183 of the best Glasgow coal was required 



356 On the Course of the River Nerbudda, [No. 161. 

to perforin, heating one of the boilers of the steam engine fifteen 
minutes sooner than the Scotch coal. 

The iron found at the same place has already been proved to be of 
the very best kind. The late Col. Presgrave constructed an iron sus- 
pension bridge of similar iron (found at Tendoo Khera on the north 
bank of the Nerbudda; at Saugor, which is at this present moment in 
as good order as the day it was made, 10 or 15 years ago. Having such 
coal, iron, and lime (whjich abounds), furnaces and founderies should 
be erected at B^nar, rails made, and the whole of the material supplied 
for the rail communication of India. 

The produce of the richest country in India, the Nerbudda valley* 
would then find its way into the market ; the wheats and white linseed 
now so much admired, and justly appreciated, would be attainable every 
where for seed, or consumption, and a country paying about 10 or 15 
lakhs of land revenue (I do not include more than the Nerbudda 
valley and Baitool) would give triple that amount without being felt. So 
long as the present inefficient mode of carrying away the produce of an 
extensive agricultural district remains in use, the value of the land 
must be low ; but on the abandonment of Bunjarra bullock-carriage and 
the adoption of rail lines, the prices of wheat, boot gram, linseed, &c., 
' would more than triple themselves. It often happens that wheat sells 
for from 90 to 1 10 seers (90 Sicca weight) for a rupee ; gram, 1 10 
to 1 20 seers ; linseed, 80 to 90 seers for one rupee ; all of which grains 
are of the most superior description, and unequalled in Inctia. Cotton, 
sugar, &C; are also produced, of the best description. 

The part of the map I have now the pleasure to send, completes the 
course of the River jfrom Jubulpoor to Hoshungabad ; I have added the 
coal and iron sites, and trust that the information may be acceptable. 

J. H. OlTSBLBT, 

Agent Govr. GenL S. W. F. 
2nd August, 1845. 



idk^nwrita 



367 



A TwsLFTH Mbmoib ON THB Law OF Stobmb IN Inoia ; beifi^ 
the Storms of the Andaman Sea and Bay of Bengal, 9th to \Ath 
November, 18*44. By Hbnbt Fiddinoton. 

The present memoir will scarcely needi at least for readers in India, 
any introduction ; for the intense interest excited by the wrecks, and 
wonderfully providential escape of the troops and crew, of the True 
Briton and Runnymede, must yet be fresh in their minds. For those 
however in other countries who may honour it with a perusal, I may 
say that on the 9th November 1844, the barque Dido was dismasted 
in a hurricane in the Andaman sea, into which also the transport ships 
Briton from New South Wales, and Runnymede from England, both 
bound to Calcutta, the two together having in European troops and crews 
nearly 700 souls on board, were then running ; and that being caught 
in it they were partially dismasted, and finally at about one in the 
morning of the 12th both ships were — wonderful to relate — thrown high 
and dry on the shore of the small or inner Andamans, the provisions of 
the one serving most opportunely for the support of the people of the 
other, and the whole being well able, by the troops, to defend themselves 
against the savages : They were taken off by assistance obtained from the 
British settlements on the Tenasserim Coast. I refer to the Summary 
at the conclusion for details, as to the highly instructive lesson in our 
sdenoe to be drawn from those storms ; which in brief words amount 
to this— that the lives of a whole European Regiment were perilled to 
the utmost possible extent, short of destruction, by the ships not heav. 
ing to for six hours I As far as loss of life can be weighed or counted, 
the loss of a European Regiment in India would be equal to the loss of 
an average, or a first.rate, battle ! 



Abridged Log of the Steamer Rotal Sovbbbion, Capt, Mabshajll, 

from Penang to Calcutta. 

On 9th Novetnber, 1844. — p.m. Light breeze SSE. and clear wea- 
ther. 8 p.m. abreast of Seyer Island, altered course to North. Midnight 
** fine steady breeze with drizzling rain." 

lOth November. — a.m. At 1 breeze increasing; at 2 heavy gale 
WNW. Ship hove to under balanced main-trysail. 4 a.m. gale in- 



358 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, QNo. 16 i. 

creasing, ship hove on her beam ends, stowed the trysail ; 10 sqaally 
with heavy rain ; 1 1 a.m. began to clear up. Noon, strong gale and 
clear weather. Distance run from noon 9th, 138 miles. At noon 
centre of St. Matthew's Island East i N., distant 20 miles, Lat Obs- 
9^50' N. 

PM. Stopped steaming for repairs; course having been always 
NN W. At 2.30 heavy gale NN W. ; by 8, wind SSW. hard gale and 
heavy squalls; all hands at the pumps. At midnight gale moderaU 
ing, and the wind shifting to the SE. made all sail to get off the lee 
shore, course NNW. 

1 Uh Novefnber,^^2 a.m. Squally with heavy rain. 4 a.m. clearing 
up, and fine breeze from the SE. noon Lat. Obs. IP 6' N. centre 
of Clara Island EbN. ^ N. distant 28 miles. Distance run from noon 
lOth to noon 11th, 58 miles. 



Abridged Log of the Dutch Barque Pattbl Hair. Capt, ■ 

from Batavia bound to Calcutta, reduced to civil time. 

yth November, 1844 — Lat noon &" 48' N., Long. 96'' 48^ £. p.m. 
to midnight, light and variable winds from the NNE. and NE. 

Sth November,^^AM» to noon^ the same; wind NNE. and with light 
squalls. Noon Lat. 10'' 3' N. Long. 95'' 56' £. p.m. wind NbE. 
squally. By 7 p-^« ship had stood 14^' to the EbN. and had then 
the wind NW. with squalls^ increasing to midnight, up to which time 
she stood 16' to the NNE. 

9th November. — To 8 a.m. wind marked NW. and squally, 9 
A.M. wind NNW. Noon increasing, preparing for bad weather. 
Lat. 10" 50' N. Long, d^" 25'. Barometer marked as y still standing 
at 29.6. P.M.* blowing fresh, increasing squalls and sea rising fast. 
Wind WNW. At 2 wind shifted to 8W., kept away under the 
main top-sail and ran to 6 p.m. about 32 miles." Sea rising fast At 
6 pm. wind SSW. increasing to a heavy gale, hove to. At midnight 
blowing furiously. 

lOM November. ^kM. Increasing, boats blown and washed away. 
Wind SE. and to noon the same ; *' wind coming round from East to 
* From thii time tke Log is in the fona of a narrative. 



1845.] Twe^ Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 359 

doe North. Barometer as before, p.m. wind increaslDgy Barometer 
beginning to fall at 1 o'clock." At 6 p.m. wind NNE. Barometer 
down to 28.5. At 9h. Barometer beginning to rise fast, a heavy squall, 
wind NW. At 9-30 gale beginning to moderate. Midnight, gale 
had moderated considerably. 

Uth Novemder.-^AM, Wind SW. coming gradually round to the 
Southward, squalls continuing, but on the whole moderating. At 1 1 
A.M. Barometer ** up to &ir again (about 30.00 in the usual Baro.- 
meters), as usual." Noon, sea going down, Lat. 13** 6' N. *' N. B. 
this gale went round from North to SW. 8E., East and North again 
twice."* P.M. wind SSE. run from midnight to noon being 27 miles 
North. 

On the two following days wind moderate from the SSE. 



Abridged Lop of the Schooner Clown. Capt. J. Talbetlt, from 
Penang towards Calcutta, reduced to civil time. 

Sth November, 1844. — 2 a.m. a heavy squall from the North, and 
at noon squally appearances with winds variable from the North. Noon 
Lat. account 9"* 5& N. Long. 96^ 26' £. f.m. winds N. Easterly and 
Northerly with a heavy rising sea. 

9th November.-r-Winda variable from the Northward and towards 
noon veering to the Westward. Noon *' fresh gales with a tremendous 
heavy sea," Lat. account lO"* 41' N. Long. 95"* 56' E. p.m. wind 
westerly, hauling to the South with heavy sea throughout. 10 p.m. 
hove to; when up West and off N W. Wind therefore about 8SW. 

10^ November.'-A.M. increasing gale. 9 a.m. wind marked SSW. 
Noon strong gales, no position given, p.m. Strong gales S Westerly 
to midnight, wjien more moderate.t 

11/A November, — a.m. Wind Southerly, daylight out all reefs and 
fine. Noon, no position given. Wind S. Easterly ; a 6.knot breeze. 
P.M. fine weather, wind S. Easterly 6 knots. 

\2th November. — Daylight saw Narcondam, bearing NbW. Noon 
Narcondam SWbS. 6 or 7 leagues. Winds SE. and ESE. 6 and 7 
knots throughout. 

* The paragraphs marked by commas, are literal extracts. 

t Vessel drifting to the N. Eastward, and storm moving to the Westward ? 



360 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 161. 

13th November. — Winds steady 8. Easterly throughout. Noon Lat. 
account 15® 27' N., Long. 92** 37' E. Noon and p.m. squally with a 
heavy eea, 6 to 8 knots. 

14M Abt?.— S. Easterly breeze of 7 and 8 knots throughout. Noon 
Lat. account 17'' 53' ,N., Long, gi"* 00' E. p.h. to midnight wind 
N. Easterly. 

15M Nov.--^\ A.M. Lat. by star Rigel 19" 12' Wind NNE. Noon 
Lat. 19" 33', Long. 89^ 45' E. 



Extract from the private Journal of Commander Vynbb, R. N, late 
of H. M. S. ^QiAVy pauenger in the Brig Dido of Cahuiia^ from 
the Straits of Malacca to the Sandheads. 

6th November, 1844. — a.m. Fine weather^ light winds from the 
Northward, p.m. towards midnight, fresh breezes and rainy. 

7/A November.'^ a.m. More moderate ; noon, light winds from the 
Northward and Eastward, sunset fresh breezes and hazy. 
^ 8th November. — 2 a.m. Squalls, with strong breezes and drizzling 
rain, which lasted throughout the day. 

9th November. — a.m. Light breezes from the NNE.> jit 4 squally 
dirty weather, barometer going down fast, commenced reducing sail ; 
at 8 wind increasing furled the courses, and close, reefed the top. sails, 
split the main top-sail in a squall, down royal yards ; 9 a heavy 
squall, put before the wind, and unbent main top-sail ; it was now 
blowing very hard, and a heavy turbulent sea running; at 9-20 the 
mainmast went close under the hounds, and fell forward in an ob- 
lique direction over the larboard bow, gale still increasing ; at 9-30 the 
fore- topmast went by the board, and fell over the larboard bow. The 
ship was now in so lumbered a state from the wreck, that it was dif- 
ficult to move without being hurt by some or other of the geer fetch- 
ing way. From 9 to 11 the hurricane was at its height, and blew 
the whole time with unceasing violence : at 1 1 it suddenly fell calm, 
and in about f of an hour the gale again commenced from SW. and 
W. and blew as hard as before. Lat. at noon 11" 6' N., Long. 96^ 12' 
E., at 1 P.M. the weather began to assume a better appearance ; but 
the sea was running immensely high. 



1845.] Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 361 

The wind at 3 p.m. began to veer to the Southward, and blew 
moderately. The Barometer did not fall below 29^ 30' during the 
hurricane. 

The wind from SB. continued until the 15th, when it ended in a 
Tery heavy gale, drawing round to SW. the violence of which lasted 
from 10 A.M. until 3-30 p.m. and here ended our disasters. 

Arthur Vtnbr. 



Abridged Log of the Brig Dioo, Capt, Saunders, from Penang to 

Calcutta^ civil time. 

The Dido left Penang on the 4th November, 1844, and had varia- 
ble, baffling, light winds from the North and between NE. and NW. 
80 that by the 7th, at 8 a.m. she had the great Seyer Island bear- 
ing ENE., distance 24 miles, which would place her at the time in Lat. 
8^ 30' N., Long. 97'' 23' E. 

On the Sth November, — The same winds and weather a.m. At 
noon, no observation ; p.m. light winds from NNE. to NW. with driz- 
zling rain. 

9M November.^Winds from NW., NNW., and at 8 a.m. North, 
with very dirty appearance. At 9, hard gales^ obliging her to run 
to the South, the wind not marked but, as by Commander Vyner's 
note, NE. At 10, carried away mainmast head, and by noon when 
Lat. by account is 11® 6' N., Long. 96® 12' E. nothing but foremast and 
bowsprit standing. Shortly afterwards the wind is marked South. 

lOth November, — a.m. hard gales South to SSE. noon gale still 
keeping up and drawing to the SE. p.m. wind SE. 8 p.m. E. 
terrific gales and increasing, ship labouring dangerously, losing boats 
ice. &c., and in distress. No position given at noon ; 10 p.m. gale de- 
creasing a little ; midnight wind SE. 

UM November — Gale moderating, wind SE. throughout, no obser- 
vation. Clearing the wreck. 

\2th November. — a.m. moderate SE. breezes, at noon Lat. 13® 39' 
N. wind marked S. Easterly throughout. 

\Sth November.'^Wmd marked SE. throughout, light breezes and 

fine. Noon Narcondam SbW. 30*, Lat. 14® 04'. 

3e 



^62 Twelfth Memoir on tite Law of Storms in India. [No. 161. 

14/A November, — Wind SE.> 5 and 6-knot breeze throughoat. 
Noon Lat. 15^ 07 ; p.m. squally and heavy rain. 

15/A November. — a.m. ivind SE. fresh breezes with heavy rain 
and cross confused sea. 8 a.m. to noon, wind marked South to SSW. 
and SW« 8 fresh gale and dirty weather. 1 to 8 p.m. wind marked 
West to NW. and West ; at 8 gale increasing ; hove to at 4 p.m.; 
8 P.M. wind failing light, and sea with it ; at midnight fine. 

\6th November. — Wind marked W. 4. a.m., when NW. weather 
marked fine ; noon Lat. 17° 50' N. from which to midnight 19M calms ; 
noon 19/A Lat. 18'' 58', Long. 89'' 50' E. 



Extract /rom the Log and Chart of the Ship Briton, Capt. Hall, 
from Sydney to Calcutta^ with Troops on board, reduced to dvU 
time. 

Capt. Hall having favoured me both with his log-book and chart, 
I note here the position laid down upon the chart, as presenting a 
summary view of her track into the storm^ and her drift in it accord- 
ing to Capt. Hall's estimate at the time. 

Lat. N. Long. E. 
8th November S'' 26' . . 96** 55' 



9th „ Noon, 

„ f, O p. M. 

lOth „ 

nth 



» 



9° 10' . . 96« 30' 

9M3' .. 96*12' 

IP 00' .. 95M2' 

IP 33' .. 94° 55' 



I2th „ Would have been in, 12* 04' . . 93° 56' 

On the 8th November.^The Briton was at noon in Lat. 8? 25' N. 
Long. 96"^ 55' E. or about abreast of the Seyer Islands, with very light 
baffling winds from the N* Eastward: and cloudy weather, which 
to midnight freshened gradually to a 4.knot breeze. Wind at 1 f.m. 
marked North, and for the rest of the Log, ** variable from SW. to 
NW. 

9th November. — 1 a.m. course is marked WbN. to noon> the wind 
being from the NbW. ; at 3-30, strong breezes. At noon, light and 
fine, Lat. Obs. 9° 10' N., Long* 96° 30' E. p.m. wind freshening fast 
from SW. and becoming SSW. at midnight, an 8-knot breese; 
run 83' NWbN. from noon. At 6 p.m. dark gloomy weather, 



1846.] Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, 363 

and Simpiesoroeter 29.30. At midnight strong gale and squally, mak- 
ing preparations for bad weather. 

10/A November.^4 a.m. Simpiesometer 29.20. To 6 a.m. ran 38' 
NWbN. when '' blowing terrifically with awful squalls/' hove to 
with head to the NNW. 9 a.m. gale still increasing, took in the 
main top-sail and lashed a tarpaulin in the mizen rigging; 9-30 a.m. 
top-masts blown over the side, and all the sails from the yards. 
Simpiesometer fell from 4 a.m. when at 29.20, to 28.10. At noon 
gale lulled off with showers of rain, and dark gloomy weather. Lat. 
by account IT V N., Long. 95"* 12^ E. Simpiesometer not rising. 
PM. ship lying to with head to the WN. Westward, the gale hav- 
ing again come on from the SW. at 0.30 p.m., and blowing with 
more violence than ever. 2 p.m. terrific hurricane, boats blown to 
pieces. In the log, wind marked *' variable from NE. to £SE.," 
at 1 1 p.m. head *' up North off N.W." Midnight hurricane still 
increasing. 

IIM November,'^ A.M. Head as before to noon, the same. wind from 
1-30 A.M. P.M. terrific hurricane. 2 p.m. saw a Barque about \ of 
a mile to the Eastward with only her lower main and mizen masU 
standing.* 

At 10 P.M. hurricane lulled off with an awful swell, and dark 
gloomy weather. Simpiesometer at 27.2. At 10-30 p.m. wind veered 
round to the NE. blowing with more violence than before, and start, 
ing the front of the poop. Throughout this sea log (from noon) ship is 
marked ''Heading from SE. to North," and ''Wind blowing all 
round the compass." 

Fearful of the poop being blown away altogether, took the chrono- 
meters, sextants, charts, dec. below. Midnight hurricane still blowing 
terrifically. 

I2M November Ih. 15m. a.m. struck, and at daylight the ship 

ivas found high and dry in a mangrove swamp; the Runny mede being 
close to them. Their Lat. was 12"" 2' N., Long. OS*" 12' 40" East. 
They were taken from the Islands by ships sent from Moulmein. 

After the ship was on shore the remainder of the gale was from 
ENE., at which point it fell to fine weather. Capt. Hall estimates the 
rise of the sea, (the storm wave) on the shore as at least thirty feet t 
He, farther, does not estimate the ship's apparent average, drift (such 

* This was the Runnymede' 



364 TwelftJi Memoir an the Law of Storms in India. [No. 161. 

as aeamen usually allow for in a gale) at more than four miles per 
hour, having once hove the log to ascertain it. 



Abstraels of the hog and Chart of the Ship Runnyhbdb, Captain 
DovTTY,/rom England to Calcutta, with Troops on board y reduc- 
ed to civil time. 

As vtrith the Briton's Log, I have thought it also hest here to set 
down the Latitudes and Longitudes from the chart at first. 

Lat. N. Long. E. 

Jth November 8** 36' . . 96» 6 1' 

Sth „ 9''32' .. 96*35' 

9ih „ 9** 52' .. 96*27' 

10th „ 11* 6' .. 96* 0' 

Friday, Hth November, -^UeKvy squalls with unsettled weather 
nearly through the whole 24 hours ; winds variable N£. and N. Wes- 
terly ; Lat^ noon 9* 32' N., 96* 35' E. At 7 a*m. more moderate, son 
obscure. 

^StUurday, 9th November. -^Winds variable, at 5-30 wind NNW. 
squally, in 2nd reefs of the toi)sails ; at 9-30 a.m. wind backing to the 
Westward, tacked to the Northward. Noon, sun obscure, Lat 9* 52' 
N., Long. 96* 27' £• wind WSW. strong breeze ; rainy and squally ; 
P.M. increasing, making preparations for bad weather. 

Sunday, lOM November. — Barometer falling, strong gale WSW. 
with heavy squalls; at 5 a.m. in courses and close- reefed the topsails. 
At 6 A.M. wind SW. blowing very heavily, in fore topsail and brought 
ship to the wind under close reefed main topsail and main trysail. 

Noon no observation, Lat. by account 11* 6' N., Long. 96* 0' E. 
Hurricane of wind. Bar. 29.00, and falling. At 1 p.m., ship under main 
trysail only. At 1.30 p.m. the fore and main top-gallant masta were 
blown away. Wind South blowing very severely, the main trysail 
blown to atoms, ship under bare poles, and laying beautifully to the 
wind> with helm amidships and perfectly tight. The hurricane accom- 
panied with a deluge of rain. At 4 p.m. wind SE. blowing terrifi- 
cally, hatches all fastened down, starboard quarter boat washed away. 
At 6-30 P.M. nearly calm, wind backing to the SW. Sea went down. 
Bar. 28.45, kept ship away NbE. and got the top sails re- secured, 
portions of them having blown adrift. At 8 p.m. Wind SW. hollow 



1840. J Twelfth Memoir ofi the Law of Storms in India. 365 

gusts; brought ship to wind on larboard tack. At 8-15 harricane as 
heavy as before. At 8-30 the larboard quarter boat was torn from 
the davits and blown across the poop, carrying away the binnacle, and 
crashing the hen-coops on its passage. At 9 r.ii . wind if possible in- 
creasing, the foremast broke into three pieces carrying away with it 
the jiboom, main and mizen top-masts, starboard cathead, and main 
yard, the main and mizen masts alone standing. At 10 p.m. the wind 
and rain so severe that the men could not hold on the poop, bail. 
iDg the water from between decks which is forced down the hatches, 
bat the ship is quite tight, and proving herself to be a fine sea boat. 
The pumps attended to, drawing out the water forced down hatches, 
mast coats, and top-sides forwards. 

Monday, llth Novefnber.^^UximcB.ne equally severe ; wind SE. 
Bar. 28.0; the gusts so terrific mixed with drift and rain, that no 
one could stand on deck ; advantage was therefore taken of the lulls to 
drain the ship out and clear the wreck. The starboard bower anchor 
banging only by the shank painter and the stock (iron) \yorking into 
the ship's side, the chain was unshackled and the anchor cut away. 
Noon Lat. account 1 T 6' N., Long. 95'' 20' £. No observations since 
the 7th. Bar. apparently rose a little. Hurricane equally severe in the 
gusts, the ship perfectly unmanageable from her crippled state, but 
riding like a sea bird over a confused sea running apparently from 
every point of the compass. A large Barque with loss of top- masts 
and main yard drifted ahead of us, and a Brig was seen to leeward 
totally dismasted. At 4 p.m. Bar. fell to 27*70, and Cummin's mine- 
ral Simpiesometer left the index tube. Hurricane blowing terrifically, 
the front of the poop to leeward, cabin door and sky-lights torn away, 
and expecting every moment the poop to be torn off her. The severity 
of the wind is beyond description, there is nothing to compare it to, for, 
unless present, no one could conceive the destructive ponser and tveight 
of wind crushing every thing before it as if it were a metallic body.* 
At 1 P.M. no abatement, every one, sailor and soldier, doing all in their 
power to keep the ship free of water, could not stand at the pumps ; the 
water being principally in the *tween decks it was bailed out by the 
soldiers as much as possible. 

Tuesday, I2th November.^-^Midnighi, hurricane equally severe, the 

* This 18 a very remarkable passage, which I have put in italics, as conveying an ex- 
cellent idea of what the force of these terrific hurricanes is. 



366 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, [[No. 16 L 

gufltfl most awful^ and rudder gone. At 1-30 a.m. felt the ship strike, 
and considered the destruction of our lives, as well as ship, sealed ; but 
it pleased Almighty God to decree otherwise, for although the ship fill- 
ed up to the lower beams with water, she was thrown so high on the 
reef that the water became smooth, and the bilge pieces keeping her 
upright, she lay comparatively quiet. Not knowing our position, the 
ship being bilged, and fearful of her beating over the reef into deep 
water let go the larboard bower anchor and found the water leaving 
her. All hands fell asleep. 

Day-breaky hurricane breaking, much rain, wind ESE. Bar. rising 
rapidly until it stood at 29.45 ; we then, thank God, saw the loom of 
the shore to leeward, the ship being nearly dry abaft ; on its clearing 
away we saw inside of us, up among the trees, a large barqae with 
troops on board ; one officer and twelve men were sent over the stern 
to communicate with her. At 7 A.M.the tide now rising, orders were 
given for the men to land at next low water, and if possible to get 
something cooked, as no fires could be kept in during the hurricane 
the crew and troops merely having biscuit and a glass of spirits dur- 
ing the time it lasted. 3-30 p.m. the tide having fallen sufficiently 
to wade on shore, ensign Dabernt returned on board, and stated the 
vessel in shore of us to be the " Briton,^* from Sydney, with three 
hundred and eleven men, thirty-four women, and fifty-one children, 
of H. M. 80th Regt. under the command of Major Bunbury, with a 
crew of thirty-six men, bound for Calcutta, and short of every thing. 

N. B — Captain Doutty informs me that the Thermometer at the 
lowest of the Barometer was at 84°, and that he considers the average 
drift of the vessel not to have exceeded three miles per hour. On shore 
nearly all the trees had fallen to the S. Westward, shewing that there 
the gale had been about NE. at its greatest height. 



Ships Blundbll and Afpolline. Between 9th and \8th 

November. 

The Blundell was between the parallels of 2^ and 12® North, and 
the meridians of 90"* 32' and 92<> East, with nothing but calms and 
light airs. 

Between the 9th and 19M.— The Appolline was in from Lat. 4? 48* 
to Lat. 15*" r with light winds and fine weather. On the 12th only 



J845.3 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 367 

in Lat. S"" 21' N. the Bar. fell from 29.2 to 29.00. Long, on that day 
not obtained. 



Abeiraei translated from Log of the French Ship La Pbtitb Nano7> 
Captain Dufoubo, from Bot/irdeaux to Calcutta, reduced to civil 

time* 

On the 10/A November, 1844.— La Petite Nane^ was in Lat. ff 2' 
N.; Long, by Chro. East of Paris 89'' 52' or of Greenwich 92« J2' Bar. 
F. 2800 or 29^5 English* Wind West, course NNE. 4' per hour; 
•light squalls and rain at times, p.m. fine^ a slight swell from the 
North ; at 9 p.m. wind SW. to SSW. to midnight. 

Wth November .-^A.M, cloudy, and a swell from NE. and to noon 
variable winds SSW. to West and fine; ship running 7 to 9 knots to the 
NbW. At noon a heavy squall Lat. 9'' 53' N., Long. P. 89° 49' 6» 
9^ 09' Bar. F. 27.10 or 28.29 £. p.m. to midnight run 77' to the 
NNWrd. ; winds West to SW. squally, and wind rising and falling 
(brise inhale et variable J at 6 sharp lightning with thunder; mid* 
night finer weather and atrong head sea. 

12/A November.^A.M, to noon run 66 miles to NbW. and NNW. 
Wind WSW. to SSW. heavy sea. 9 a,m» heavy squall ; noon Lat. 
12<' 254', Long. 88* 55' P. or 91'» 15' E. Gr., Bar. 27-8 P. or 29.64 E* 
wind SSW. p.m. cloudy, wind WNW. to WSW. to 8 p.m. and SW. 
to SSW. to midnight, p.m. ship's run 41' North a little Easterly ; at 
midnight finer weather, carrying a top. mast studding sail. 

\3th November.^A.M. to nodn run 102' to the NNW. Winds 
from WSW. to SSW. 9 am. heavy squalls and head sea ; noon Lat. 
account 14*» 25^' Long. 88^ 8i' P. 90'' 28^' G. Bar, 27-8 P. ; 29.63 E. 
P.M. Run 107i' North a little Westerly. Winds SSW. to SW. and 
at midnight South. 9 p.m. sharp lightning, high irregular sea. 

14/A November.^A,u. to noon, made 104^', North to NNW. up to 10 
A.M. when she broached to ; winds to 4 a.m. South to SW,, from 4 to 
8 SSW. to South ; 8 to 12 South, SSE. and a shift to SW. From 5 a.m. 
blowing heavily, preparing for bad weather. 10 a.m. Bar. 27.6. F. 
2941 E. ; at 4 past 10 wind shiftedf to SW. heavy gale and sea, ship 

* i give the French Longitudes and Bar. heights with the reductions, to avoid over- 
sights. The correction used is -|-2^ 20' to bring the Long, to the ine):idian of Green- 
wich, and for the proportional scales of the Bars. 1000 E. : 1066 Fr. 

t The word is sauU* which is our ** shifted." 



368 Tw$lfih Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [No. 161. 

broached to» (the rudder head it was found afterwards had split) and 
was laid on her beam-ends, mainsail main top-sail, boats, &c.^ blown 
or being swept away, the sea being up to the hatchways. At 10-45 
hurricane increasing, and vessel always on her beam-ends, cut away 
the mizen-mast. Bar. falling to 26.7 F. 28.46 E. At 11 am. cut 
away top.masts> when the ship righted a little ; Bar. having been 
at 10 A.M. 276 F. 29.41 E. ; at lOh. 40m. 27.00 F. 28.78 E.; and 
at lOh. 50m. 26.7 F. 2846 E. (a fall of nearly an inch in two hours! 
and this note is from Captain Dufourg's private memorandum), Lat. 
by account at noon was lb"* 47' N., Long. 88"* 12' P. W 32^ 6. At 3 
P.M. the wind shifted in a heavy gust with torrents of rain to the SE. 
with the same violence,* and being then to starboard, righted the vessel 
completely; but she did not lie over to port, which confirmed the 
opinion of the Captain and officers that the cargo had shifted. 

At half- past 3 the wind suddenly fell, but the Barometer always 
remaining at 26.7 F. (28.46 E.) a renewal of the storm was expected. 
At 5 P.M. the hurricane began again more violent than before, from the 
SW. and continued till 9 fm. the ship always heeling to starboard. 
From 9 p.m. it was moderating. 

Ibth November, — p.m. Weather moderating fast; at day-light saT- 
ing and clearing the wreck, Lat. noon by account 16^ 40' N. Long. P* 
88** 37' E., G. 90.57 E. ; Bar. 27-00 F. 28.78 E. p.m. moderating to 
light airs SW. and S. and heavy sea continuing. 

16/A Not'^md^r. —Daylight calm with a heavy sea, saving and clear- 
ing wreck. Noon Lat. Obs. 17^ 00' N., Long. Obs. 88* 49' E. P. 
Ol"* 09' E. Bar. 27.8 F. 29.63 E. to midnight calm. 

\^th November. — Calms which continued to 5 a.m. on the 19th 
November. Noon Lat. Obs. 17° e' N. Lon. Obs. 88** 58' F. 9P 18* G. 
P.M. Bar. 28.00 E. or 29.85 E. 

The ship made no water, and arrived safely at the Pilot station on 
the 25th. November. 



I now give a tabular view of the positions of the ships on different 
days beginning with the 9th, as on the 8th we may say that there wss 
no bad weather, the Clown having it only a little squally, all the others 
with light baffling winds and slight squalls from the North. 

* The ship having drifted to the N£. and the hurricane passed on to the WNWest- 
ward. 



ISiS."} Ttoelfth Memoir on the Law of Siormi in India. 



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372 Tweifih Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, [No. 161. 

Summary. 

I have already remarked that on the 8th of Novembei^ the weather 
was fine for all the ships, none of which were to the North of Lat. 10^, 
and we find on the 9th that the Dido was dismasted about the centre 
of the hurricane, at 11 a.m. on that day^ and by noon the calm centre 
had passed her, and she was again in a hurricane at SW. This vessel's 
position therefore, and we have it most accurately fixed, (having for- 
tunately in Commander Vyner, R. N. who was passenger on board of 
her, an independent observer, who would make every allowance in his 
notes for what might escape the Captain and officers,) gives us the place 
of the centre of the storm on that day as being a little to the N. West 
of her. The storm circle at this time must have been of extremely small 
extent, for it had but just reached the Clown, which vessel was 
only twenty miles distant from the Dido, which would make the circle 
less than 40 miles in diameter; but the Clown had the usual warning 
of a rapidly veering wind, and a tremendous heavy sea, and the tornado, 
for so we might almost call it for its size, was fortunately moving ra- 
pidly on, so that by her heaving to at night with the SSW. gale she 
fortunately escaped running into the worst part of the tempest. I have 
thus given the circle for this day a diameter of sixty miles only, which 
will just include the Clown, The hurricane for this day indeed re- 
markably resembles that of the Cashmere Merchant, described in my 
Second Memoir, Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. IX, p. 433, which also 
occurred near the Preparis, and some of those which (see Tenth Memoir, 
Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XIII, page 1 13,) also arise off the coast 
of Ceylon. For the centre of the storm circle on the 10th, we have 
the estimated position of the Briton, which ship after running up 121 
miles to the NWbN. the exact course upon which she should have 
OBASEBthe hurricane if she had meant to do so, found herself obliged, 
at 6 A.M. to heave to close to the centre, into which she had drifted 
at noon ; having sunk her Simpiesometer from 29.20 at 4 a.m. to 28.30 
at 6, her estimated position at noon being 11° 1' N. 95"* I2'E. and the 
lull occurring just at this time. The Runny mede, which vessel had also 
been tempted by the treacherous fair wind, and run up 80 miles to the 
NWbN. though with a falling Barometer, was about fifty miles to the 



1846.3 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 373 

Eastward of her> and had it also blowing a hurricane from about Souths 
judging from the log abstract, in which it is made to be SW. at 1. a.m. or 
after midnight up to Noon, and South at 2h. 3Qf p.m. The Dido whose 
exact position this day I could not obtain^ has a hurricane at S£. being 
in the NE. quadrant. The hurricane had thus no doubt extended on 
this day from a circle of 60 miles to one of 130, and apparently was 
still doing so, for the Faiiel Hair, farther to the Eastward than 
the Runnymede, seems to have ran up skirting the SE. quadrant of 
the storm and to have had the true storm wind at SW. when it 
" shifted at 2 p.m." to that point. The Royal Sovereign, close in with 
the land, appears to have also had a separate small storm veering 
with her in a few hours^ but not of any very great consequence^ or at 
all connected with the Briton's and Runnymede's ; though, as I 
shall subsequently shew^ it may probably have been so with the 
remarkable double veering of the Fattel Hair's winds. On the 
11th we have the above two ships always lying to and drift- 
iDg> as well as they could estimate in the hurricane, to the points 
marked on the charts^ which are about forty miles NNW. and 
SSE. of each other, but there is no doubt that the ships saw 
each other at 2 p.m. on this day ; the Runnymede also saw a brig, 
bat this was not the Dido, which vessel had her foremast standing, 
and was not at this time in the heart of the hurricane.* We shall 
also find that the two ships Briton and Runnymede struck just after 
midnight of the llth.l2th, (or between 1 and 2 in the morning 
of the 12th) so that they must have been now much farther to the 
Eastward than they supposed themselves. We have no fixed positions 
of any other ships also from which to guide us as to the extent of the 
hurricane circle on this day, and in short our only datum is that both 
ships having the wind to the Eastward, t. e. the Briton between NE. 
and ESE. and the Runnymede about SE., both must have finally 
drifted over to the Northern quadrants of the hurricane, though al- 
ways close to its centre. 

We must then therefore consider that (throwing away the odd hour 
or two after midnight of the llth.l2th) the hurricane travelled, and 
carried the ships with it from the place of our centre on the 10th, to 

* Probably one of th€ native coasting craft which run across the Bay to the ports of 
the Straits. 



374 Twelfth Memoir on tlie Law of Storms in India. [No. 161. 

near that at which the ships were wrecked on the inner Andamans as 
marked ; which is a distance of aboat 140 miles in 36 hoars> or from 
noon of 10th to midnight 11th- 12th, and we can only estimate this 
also on a direct line. Hence by noon of the 1 1 th then, or in 24 hours, 
it would then have travelled two-thirds of this distance^ at which 
point I have placed its centre for the lith, which the reader will 
observe is wholly irrespective of the supposed positions of the ships as 
marked on their charts. I have made a dotted line to shew what may 
have been their drift, if we have^ as I presume, approached the true 
place of the centre of the storm at noon on the 11th. 

The Pe(Ue Nancy, which on this day was opposite to the opening 
between the Little Andaman and Nicobars, appears, though at 150 
miles from the centre, as we have laid it down, to have felt some of 
the effects of the storm^for we observe that with a N£. sea and squally 
weather, her Barometer had fallen nearly an inch ! (0.96) in the 24 
hours from the 10th. And that she had the rising and falling wind 
which I have so often pointed out as indicating the approach or vicinity 
of a storm. 1 defer the consideration of the storm which dismasted her 
to its proper place in the order of time. Between 1 and 2 a.m. on the 
12th9 the Runnymede and Briton were both thrown high and dry 
on shore on the inner Andamans, by a gale between ENE. and East; 
and Captain Doutty of the Runnymede informs me that most of the 
trees had fallen to the S. Westward, showing clearly that the centre 
of the Hurricane had passed to the South of this spot. The storm 
wave I shall presently consider ; but return now to the Royal Sovereign 
on the opposite Coast. 

We find that within a short distance of the Islands fronting the coast, 

on the 10th November, the Royal Sovereign had at 2 a.m. a heavy 

gale at WNW. when the vessel was hove to, and at 4 a.m. she was 

on her beam ends. At 1 1 it began to clear up, and noon was but a 

^strong gale and clear weather. 

Now from 2 a m. to noon are 10 hours, and in this time a Steamer 
in such weather, when hove to, might drift at least fifteen or twenty 
miles to leeward, though keeping to with her steam; and the wind 
being to the Northward of West she might drift out of the edge of the 
storm circle, or as she seems afterwards to have steamed on to the NN W. 
have again ran into the vortex on its western side if it was one; 



1845.^ T^oe^ Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. 875 

so that the gale was renewed with her at NNW. veering, as she was 
close to the centre,* hy 8 p.m. to SSW. and moderating at midnight 
of this day, when she was aboot in Lat. ]0^ ^O' N. and at noon on the 
11th it was fine. 

We see, first, by the chart that on the 9th, the Sovereign was only 
abreast of the Seyers in 8^ 80' N., and on the 10th the whole of 
the ships, except the FaUel Hair, were at nearly two degrees distant 
from her; the Runnytnede, the nearest of them, being at 110 miles 
off, and both the Runnymede and the Briton close to the centre of 
l^> storms, with which therefore the Royal Sovereign's has no sort of 
connection ; for if it had, it mast have been a steady gale from WSW. 

It was then an independent (and perhaps an imperfectly formed) 
?ortex, and we have now to see whether it had any connection with 
the double veering of the Fattel Hair's storm. 

This vessel, we have seen, hove to at 6 p.m. on the 9th, being then 
about in Lat. 11'' 20' N., Long. 96^ 87' E.t with a gale at SSW., and 
this, by the way, proves that up to that time the centre of the principal, 
or great storm, had really travelled about West, as we formerly de- 
duced. The storm was also probably expanding at this time. 

The FaiUl Hairy gradually drifted up with the SSW. gale and sea, 
80 as at 1 A.M. or in 7 hours, when her drift might have been about 
twenty-five miles North, to have the wind SE. and at noon on the 
lOtb the wind was *' coming round from East to due North !" with her 
90 that, as she could not be now near the centre of the principal {Briton 
Dido and Runnymede's Hurricane,) she had been overtaken by 
another one, or another one had formed with her, for we can easily 
conceive how a S. Easterly gale may by the effect of a new vortex 
come round, as is here described. Her position on this day at 
noon is not given, but I take it to have been — as she must have drifted 
to the NW. West, and even WSW. with the winds given—about Lat. 
12" 03' N. Long. 96^ 19' E. and as she had the wind North or Nor- 
therly at noon, she was moreover now to the Westward of the centre 



* Or it may be that it was only just /ormin^, and interrupted on one side by the 
neighbouring land ? The log extract sent me is not very clearly detailed. 

t This is deduced from her Latitude and Longitude at Noon, and her ** keeping 
away (which 1 take to have been about NNB.) 32 miles," before she hove to. 



S76 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, [No. 161. 

of this new vortex, which seems I think to be evidently one thrown 
off from the great one, of which the centre as we have placed it for this 
day was now at ninety miles to the S W. of the FcUtel Hair, and we 
cannot be very far wrong in her position or in its place also. If she had 
had any part of the great storm^ she must have had a steady gale from 
the S. Eastward. 

This is an instance then of a smaller and less intense vortex follow- 
ing, or being thrown off from^ a Urge one, and it was certainly much 
smaller, for we find that with the wind North at Noon on the lOtb, 
the Fattel Hair had it at a little past midnight at SW. or it had veer. 
ed 12 points in, say, 18 hours, and was then moderating. I have 
thus marked it as a small circle, only to shew its independence of the 
main storm. I need not add that it had no connection with the 
Royal Sovereign's storms. 

We have no farther data for tracing this storm within the IslaDds, 
and we have now to consider if t/ could have been the storm which 
dismasted the Petite Nancy. 

I think decidedly not. We see that, presuming that it was travel- 
ling on from the 10th, and not breaking up of itself there, it must, 
to have reached the Petite Nancy, on the 1 1 th first, have run faster 
than the Fattel Hair, which it did, since it left her with the winds 
from SW. at midnight lOth-llth, to SSE. at noon of the 11th, and 
then have overtaken the Dido again with another storm, from NE. or 
N W. striking her with its Western quadrants. The Dido had her second 
storm only on the \5ih from the SE. and SW. so that she was skirting 
the Eastern edge of a storm already to the Westward of her. All 
this makes it probable that the Petite Nancy*s storm was rather, 
if not a separate storm also, the Briton and Runnymed^s, which 
must have been upon the Great Andaman, on the 12th, and pro- 
bably between that day, and the Nth, forced its way over the 
mountain chains of that island, and travelled up or re-formed itself 
in the Bay."" The winds which the Petite Nancy had on the 13th 
when she was at 90 miles only from the body of the Great An- 
daman, and but a little to the Northward of the wrecked ships, were 



^ For an example of a storm forcing its way over high land and re-forming ag>ini 
see Journal, Vol. XII. Eighth Memoir. 



1845.] Twelfth Memoir on ike Law ^ Storme in India. 877 

from the WSW. to SSW. and fine enough to allow her to carry a top. 
mast stadding sail at midnight, while, had any effect of the storm been 
felt by her at this time, it mast have been in Northerly or N. Westerly 
winds. On the 13th she had the winds from WSW. to 8SW. and 
finally at midnight Soath, with sharp lightning at 9 p.m. and irregu« 
Itr sea, with a falling barometer aboot this time, showing that she was 
now jost running into the vortex. 

Her hurricane appears to have been of small extent, or to have been 
moving rapidly to the WNW. for it lasted with her not more than 
from 5 AM. to about 10 p.ir., or 17 hours, during five of whieh, from 
5 to 10 A.M. when she broached to, she was running into, and with it, 
and we have no data for tracing it any farther. The circumstance 
of its being followed by so many days of dead calm is very remark- 
able, and has not hitherto occurred in any of the storms which we have 
traced in the Bay of Bengal. We must now go back to the Runny* 
mede and Briton to trace from their logs and positions so far as we can 
do so the effect of the storm wave. 

We find that on the 18th, when the ships, though then in the bur. 
ricane, had not been so long enough to make their positions very uncer- 
tain they were at 70 miles distance, and about East and West of each 
other. Taking the mean of this to be an average position, and the two 
ships as one, since they were both cast on shore at the same place, they 
will then be at this time,-*-noon of the 10th,^in Lat. 11^ 4! N. Long. 
95" 3^; and the spot on which they were wrecked bearing from 
them about WNW. 160 miles, which represents their drift made good, 
from noon of the 10th to about Ih. 30m. a.m. on the 12th, or in 374 
hours. 

Now Capt. Hall of the Briton estimates his drift at not more than 
four miles per hour, and Capt. Doutty of the Runnymede his at three 
miles. Their mean drift (as we have taken the mean positions) 
would then be 3^ miles per hour, whieh for the 37^ hours gives a 
distance of 130 miles, and leaves only 20 miles to be accounted for as 
the effect of the storm wave, which is therefore quite trifling. 

Its rise on the shore, which must have been immense to throw the 
ships so high, has already been noted. It would appear that all ships 
when blown over so far as to lay with their lee gunwales in the water 

3g 



f 




)|5 



378 Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India. [^No. .t 

drift much more rapidly to leeward than is sapposed, and seamed 
these extreme cases would do well to make large allowances, w] 
will at least place them on their guard.* 

The fact that in so narrow a sea as that between the Andamana i| 
the JVIergui Coasts which is only five degrees, or 300 miles across firl 
Islands to Islands, a true rotatory storm of such terrific violence « 
yet of such small extent may arise, is also new and most insti 
tive, and it is equally remarkable to find it making about the avertl 
track from £S£. to WNW. and travelling at about the average nk 
of the slow classes of our hurricanes in the Bay. It would ha« 
been of high interest to have ascertained if the storm was formed i| 
the China sea, and crossed over the Peninsula, which . is here onlf 
sixty miles broad, and so low that there is almost a water ooinmunica« 
tion,t or if any signs of its formation were noted on shore ; bat unfor«! 
tunately the British territory terminates at the mouth of the Pak« 
Chan river^ in Lat. lO'' CO' North, and the first European residents oa 
the coast are to be found only at Mergui, two and a half degrees to the 
North of that point. 

Conclusion. 

If we had endeavoured to invent the most instructive lesson wq. 
could have devised for shewing the truth and utility of the Law of 
Storms, we could scarcely have imagined one better calculated for that 
purpose than this. The reader has only first to satisfy himself that 
the two storm circles of the 9th and 10th must have been, nearly what 
they appear in the chart, and then to follow with his eye the tracks of 
the Petite Nancy y Runnymede and Briton, noticing what is said at 



* As to the average rate of motion and track of the storm, we have its centre weU 
marked at noon on the 9th, from which to midnij^htof the llth-12th are 48 houiv, and 
the distance from the centre of the 9th to the place of the wrecks, is about 184 miles - or 
not quite 4 miles per hour, on a course of, from point to point, N. IV West It however 
travelled from the 9th to the 10th not more than 60 miles, and thus did not make three 
miles per hour on that day. 

t It has been roughly surveyed by Capt Tremenheere, B.B. who found the greatest 
elevation to be about 450 feet; Journal Asiatic Society, Vol.'XlI, p. 530. 



1845.] Twelfth Memoir on the Law of Storms in India, 379 

pp. 363 and 364 of their falling Barometers and increasing bad weather, 
to be clearly satisfied that this was clearly a case in which the last two 
ships in a narrow sea, with a hurricane crossing their track, and in the 
face of every indication ran headlong into it ; being tempted no doubt 
by the fair Westerly and S. Westerly winds, heaving or broaching to 
only when they could run no longer. Both commanders, indeed, when I 
had, by means of the transparent horn cards in my little publication, 
'' The Horn Book of Storms,*' shewn them upon their own charts that 
they did so, fully agreed with me that had they better understood 
their position between the 9th and 10th they should not have run on as 
they did^ but have hove to. 

Now when we recollect what the value of the two wrecked ships 
with two-thirds of a European regiment on board mi^ht have been in 
India, had they been totally lost in time of war, — ^if there is any money 
value to be set on human life-~it is impossible I think to rate too 
highly the lesson it conveys, severe as it must have been to the 
sufferers. 

And finally when we bear in mind that this same predicament may 
yet occur to a whole fleet, either in the East or the West Indies,* or 
in any part of the world, and that a defeat from the elements may 
be as disastrous as one from the enemy, and by the failure of suc- 
cours^ involve even farther losses, I shall not I trust be thought over- 
earnest when I urge again on every man the intense importance of this 
science to Englishmen, above all other nations of the globe ; and this 
storm is also in another light an undoubted proof of it ; occurring as 
it has done in a sea where such hurricanes were before unknown ! 



• It did occur in the West Indies to the fleet under Admiral Rowley, and to that 
und«r the Spanish Admiral, Solano, in 1788. See Col. iieid't Work, 2nd Edition. 



380 



Some account of the Hill Tribes in the interior of the Distriei of 
Chitlagong^ in a letter to the Secretary oj the Asiatic Society. By 
the Rev. M. Barbb, Missionary, 

Mt dbak Sir,— >DariDg my late trip to Ghittagong I took advan- 
tage of the favoarable state of the weather to visit the Hill tribes of that 
district, as a few months before I was amoogst the Kookies I visited 
ID my last trip the Budzoo tribe. Having in my account of the Roo- 
kies described the banks of Chittagong river, I will not repeat here 
what has been mentioned before* I stopped one night at Raogaoia, 
which is about 25 miles from Chittagong ; and when there, I engsg* 
ed the services of my old guide ; this man had been of great use to me 
when I visited the Kookies. Having spent part of his life amongst 
the hill tribes, he is well acquainted with their habits ; and I think that 
a person who is not a Government officer accompanied by him, might 
go with security to any of their villages. This Burman is a sportsman 
by profession, and consequently he can give correct information res- 
pecting the different species of animals which are found on those hills ; 
but the characteristic custom of his nation being not to contradict 
persons whom they consider superior to them, when any question is 
put, the answer is not to be anticipated, because in every circumstance 
he will approve of it ; so the only way to get the truth is to let him 
answer by himself, deducting of course something on account of exag- 
gerations to which they are very much inclined. On the evening of 
my departure from Rangunia, I reached the east part of Sitacra hill, 
which is at two tides from Chittagong, and slept in a small village 
situated on the top of a hill, elevated from three to four hundred feet 
above the level of the river. The house in which I took up my abode 
belonged to an Arracanese who, having spent some years at Rangoon, 
spoke Burmese passably. The entrance to the house, which was ele- 
vated nine feet from the ground, was a spacious uncovered verandah ; the 
building had several rooms : the hill being very steep on one side, the 
house was raised about fifteen feet on that side, and supported only by 
bamboos of small size. The old man received me with great kindness. 
He had with him eight children, one only being married. He said he was 
very anxious to see all his boys established ; but as it was the cos- 
tom to expend about 100 rupees for a bride, his means did not alloir 



1846.] Hill Tribes in the Chitiagang Distriei. 381 

him to marry tbem. Seeing the respect paid to the venerable old 
man and to his consort, reminded me of the life of the patriarchs. 

On the morning we had a storm and heavy rain till 8 o'clock, so I 
could not begin the ascent of Sitacra hill before 10 o'clock ; at that 
time the thermometer was 82**. Ascending the bill I was scorched 
by the rays of the sun, bat the effect of the elevation was marked on 
the temperature ; when I reached the top of the hill it was past 1 1 
o*clock* I had the pleasure to enjoy a refreshing breeze ; and at 12 
o'clock, the thermometer was only 78^ Sitacra is one of the highest 
hills of the chain, which extends from the east to the north*east ; its eie- 
▼ation is from twelve to fifteen hundred feet above the level of the 
river, and it a£Ebrda the most magnificent sight I have ever witnessed. 
The view was extensive and charming — the sea to the S.W. ; to the 
W., Chittagong and Sitacoond \ to the N. W. the Ranee house, situated 
in a vast plain covered with water ; Chittagong river flowing in serpen- 
tine lines, and to the E. and N. £. a succession of peaks more or less 
elevated, clothed with vegetation, and appearing to draw closer to* 
gether as they disappeared. The horizon was an immense circle ; 
and although the scenery was diversified, a single place could not 
be 9e&k stripped of vegetation ; the most elevated spots were covered 
with shrubs, the hills have been crowned with Jarool and Toon trees, but 
they have been cut down by the different tribes, when they have 
cleared the ground ; all those places have been cultivated, with the ex- 
ception of the narrow valleys which lie between the ridges of the hills. 
The humidity occasioned by five or six months of rain produces a ve- 
getation full of vigour ; from the edge of the water to the top of the 
highest hill, the flourishing aspect of nature is a proof of the fertility 
of the land. Few of those hills are without springs. The air appears 
to be very good. 

People living on those hills appear to be healthy and strong. 
I saw some persons above 70 years old ; and I was told that there 
W2M a woman whose age was 100 years. Last year many persons 
died of cholera. This disease was unknown to them fifteen years ago. 
Fever is the general complaint. I admired the idea of the Kookies, 
who believe that the greatest happiness of man after his death, 
coDsists in being placed on the summit of the highest hill to enjoy 
the pleasure of seeing the beauties of nature* The existence of a 



^ 



382 Bill Tribes in ike CkUtagang District. [No. 161. 

Sapreme Being who is to give a spiritual reward being above their 
conception, how can they imagine a greater happiness than the view 
of the most beaatiful scenery ? 

Following the edge of the hill to the S« E., I passed through a 
village situated on the top of another hill, about 200 feet lower than 
Sitacra, whose inhabitants were Arracanese. I saw some Oolock and 
other monkeys on a high jungly jack tree, whose fruits are smaller 
than the common jack ; they are good to eat, but have an acid taste : 
this tree grows very large ; the wood is of a beautiful yellow color ; the 
Burmese use it in building their boats. 

When I reached the banks of the river it was four o'clock, the 
thermometer being at that time 88^ ; there I met several persons, who 
were waiting for me to get medicine : they begged of me to go to their 
village; but as it was too much out of my way, I declined their invi- 
tation* Some of them wished to accompany me ; but as I knew that 
they were busy in sowing their crops, I would not accept their offer. 
These Arracanese are very hospitable, kind, and disinterested ; I have 
been several times in their villages. They have accompanied me 
in my excursions, and I could never prevail on them to accept any re* 
ward for their trouble, nor for the different articles furnished during 
my stay amongst them. On the following morning I started from my 
boat, and crossed a plain for one hour in a southerly direction following 
a small path, and crossing several times a small stream and then as- 
cended a hill elevated from three to four hundred feet above the level 
of the river, following the edge of that hill in an easterly direction. I 
saw at the distance of tl|ree or four miles the Bunzoo houses, situated 
on top of another hill called the Diamond mine ; on another hill thirty 
or forty persons were busy in sowing paddy and cotton. It is the 
custom that all the people of the same village join in assisting one 
another for that purpose. When I reached the village it was past 
10 o'clock, and the sun at that time began to be very powerful ; the 
houses nearest to the creek were inhabited by Arracanese. The Bun- 
zoo dwellings were on the summit of the hill ; and hearing that no Bun- 
zoo was at home, I went to the house of an Arracanese whose wife was 
from Tippera ; she dressed like the Burmese women do^ spoke a little 
of that language, and her features so much resembled those of the Bur- 
mese, that I took her for one of that nation. She offered me some 



1845.] Hill Tribes in the ChiUagong District. 883 

fraity and a bottle of liqaor distilled from rice ; some time after, the 
house was filled with women and children : being the first Eu- 
ropean they had ever seen, their curiosity did not surprise me. In 
the evening the men came from their work, and the most respectable 
Bunzoo of the village asked me to take up my abode in his house. 
Hia dwelling beiog in a higher situation, I accepted with pleasure his 
c^er ; the house was elevated three or four feet from the ground, being 
twenty feet broad and eighty or ninety feet long, without any partition ; 
to one side was a small room which he offered me. At the entrance of 
the house the heads of hogs, deer, and other animals killed in his hunt- 
ing excarsions were kept ; a large fire-place was in the centre of the 
dwelling. Conical baskets, earthenware, and mats were all the furniture. 
The principal post of the house is considered by them sacred, and the 
head of the family is the only person who can touch it ; should any other 
person do the same he becomes the slave of the master of the house. 
This Banzoo was fifty-six years old, he stood five feet ten inches, and 
was well built ; his hair was long, and tied after the fashion of the Bur- 
mese ; he had projecting cheek bones, flat visage, scanty beard, and was 
of dark yellow complexion ; his dress was a piece of cloth, one foot 
broad, round his loins. His wife and daughters were of middle size, but 
very stout ; they had the Burmese dress, but the cloth was red and 
black ; their breast was covered with another piece of cloth of the 
same color, one cubit broad and four feet long. His family consisted of 
four boys and three girls ; he had two children from eight to ten years 
old, with black eyes, small lips, and displaying great intelligence. The 
other Bunzoos which I saw were not so taU as the men before men- 
tioned, and the average is, I believe, from five feet two inches, to 
six inches. The women are, generally speaking, much stouter than 
the men. This tribe appeared to be grave and silent ; this is remark- 
able in children, they shew no petulance, and partake of the character 
of their parents ; six or seven of them were with me a part of the even- 
ing, and to my great surprise they paid as much attention to the 
conversation, as if the subject had been adapted to their intelligence. 
I ^ was particularly struck with their civility, no one took a thing offer- 
ed to him without previously saluting by joining his hands towards 
the person who gave, and the same ceremony was repeated by the do- 
nor: men, women, and children do. the. same; when spirits is offered, 



384 HiU Tribes in the ChiUagong District. [No. 161. 

the women dip their finger in the liquor, and then salnte as before 

stated. 

The Banxoo food consists of rice, fruit, roots, vegetables, young leaves 
of trees, blochein, (which is prepared by the Mugs of RaDguoia of 
shrimps salted and pounded,) and deer, hogs, fowls and goats. The 
BuDzoos admit the existence of a Supreme Being whom they do not 
worship, the reason being that " they have never heard aboat him nor 
seen him ;" but it is not the same with the devil, whom they consider as 
the cause of all eviK— -to him they attribute their diseases, the failure of 
their crops, &o., and to gain his favour they offer him pigs, goats, 
fowlsi &c. ; they believe in a place of torment, but what are the 
offences that deserve such punishment they don't Isnow; they think 
that the greatest part of the dead come again into the world to 
animate other bodies, and persons who have been fortunate enough 
to secure the head of many wild animals are entitled to be re- 
warded in their future life: this is the reason for which they keep 
with the greatest care the heads of animals slain by them. The 
Kookies burn the dead, the Bonzoos do not They hollow a piece 
of wood, deposit the dead in it, and bury it in the summit of some 
hill, putting in the same grave the heads of animals killed by them, 
spears, cloth, and money belonging to the deceased. On the Tenasse- 
rim coast the Kareans burn the dead, and keep one of the bones 
of the head for one year, and after feasting for some days, they 
take it with all the articles belonging to the deceased, on a hill 
where all articles are deposited which belonged to persons of the 
same caste. The Bunzoos never marry to persons of another tribe, 
and a wedding never takes place without spending much money. The 
father and mother of the yotfbg man apply for the bride, which is 
never promised unless she give her consent ; should the young man be 
without parents the head of the village is to ask the bride's hand» the 
relations of the lady ask then a sum of money, from one hundred to 
one hundred and fifty rupees ; if the young man has that money he pays 
it immediately ; but if he has not, the bride's relations agree to receive 
it by instalments. The day of marriage being fixed, a feast is given to 
the relations and friends, and the young woman is taken by them to 
the house of the bridegroom, and without any further ceremony, the 
maid becomes wife. They have but one wife, and if she leaves her 



2846.] Hili Tribes m tke Chiiiagong Disiriet. 385 

lord's boose without a just cause, -her rdations are obliged to give back 
the moaey received, but should the httsband send her away he has no 
more claim. Should the Bunxoo, in his warlike excursions, capture 
any young women he generally sells them, but if he cannot he has 
them under his keeping without being conndered his wives ; their con- 
sorts are generally well treated, but they are far from paying them the 
same attention as the civilised people do. One of them asked me in 
the most serious manner if it was true, '^ that Europeans worshipped 
thetff wires.'* The chain of hills which separates Chittagong and the 
Tippera district from the Birman Empire is inhabited by a number of 
tribes diflbring little in appearance, but partly in habits and language ; 
but the features of tlKMe tribes, particularly the flatness of the occipital 
bone, resemble the Burmese so much that I am not far from believing 
they \uLre a common origin, and if the Buncoes are not so strongly built, 
and so weli made as the Burmese, it might be in consequence of their 
mode of living, which, as it has been observed l^ Cuvier, in few gene* 
rations wiil deteriorate the physical character of the highest races of man- 
kind. The Koekies appear to be the most numerous of all tribes $ to the 
N. fi. of Cblttagieng, not far frmn Coioian which is a branch of the Chit* 
tagong river is one of their kings, who rules over six or seven thousand 
houaes ; he has en his bill ponies^oows, Ike How Car be takes advantage 
of his authority, 1 have not been able to ascertain. The Bunsoo tribe 
i8 chiefly centered towards the S. £. ; having no annals of their own it 
is impossible to trace their origin, and to warrant an opinion on the 
flobjeet, requiies more information than 1 could get According to them, 
formerly they were more poweHul and numerous than they are now. 
The Rookies taking advantage of their number, subjected them to their 
yi4e. Their language appears very poor, they have no word to express 
the days of the week, but borrow them from the Burmese. Their dialect 
contains many Rookie and Burmese words. They compute their years 
as the Rookies do by the number of their crops. Persons who build tbeo* 
ries on the analogies of language, will find at the end of this letter a 
mall Toeabulary which will assist them. The Bonzoos distil from rice 
a fermented liquor, the drinking of which seems to afford them great 
luxury. They pour into a cup the spirit ; which goes round the com- 
fNiny, every person, not excepting the women and children, taking a 
draught, and they never separate till the liquor is finished ; but how fat 

3 H 



386 Sill Tribes in the ChiUagong Disirid. CNo. 161. 

drankenness prevails^ or if they are addicted to iDtoxication, is more 
than I can tell. The Arracanese who live on the hills pay from three 
to foar rupees of land-tax a year, but the Rookies and Bunzoo are rent- 
free ; and should they be compelled to pay, being a wandering tribe free 
as birds, they would immediately leave their residence, and retire to 
the interior of mountains where no person could molest them. They are 
certainly the most independent people that can be seen : a no- made life 
is for them the greatest happiness, and, as children of nature, their wants 
are few ; and these wants they can supply in any place. They venture on 
hunting excursions when their agricultural labors are finished ; spears and 
bows are their principal arms, and their dogs are always their faithM 
companions. Their exertions and agricultural labors are directed only 
to the growth of articles necessary for their subsistence, as paddy, yanu^ 
plantains, melons, tobacco, cotton, &c. They manufacture their own 
cloth, and exchange the cotton they do not require for salt, earthenware^ 
Ike. They plant a species of indigo growing about two feet high, the 
leaves which are large are employed to dye their clothes, which is done 
in the following way : — Taking a certain quantity of leaves, they put then 
in an earthenware vessel ; when the water boils they dip in it the thread, 
mixing with it an extract of an astringent bark ; they dry then the 
thread, and they repeat twice again* the same process. The jungle 
affords them roots of trees or shrubs to dye green, yellow, &c. : salt is 
the only thing which they procure with some difficulty, but the hills 
contain several springs of salt water ; two of those are found at Sitacoond, 
tfnd there is another one in a creek on the opposite side of Sitacra. 
The greatest part of salt used by people living on the banks of the river 
was manufactured formerly there, and the spring is so impregnated with 
salt that it gives in weight half the quantity of the salted water ; some 
of the tribes by burning trees procure an alkali, which supplies the use 
of salt. 

The Guayal, Bos frontalis, is found amongst the hills, particularly to 
the south of Sitacra : there are two ispecies, differing in size and little in 
color ; the large one is of dark brown, and the male is nearly as high a> 
a female elephant ; the small one is of a reddish brown, it is the Tenas- 
serim Bison, and the Arracanese call them by the same name as the 
Burmese do. Those Guayals are perfectly distinct from the Shio of the 
Rookies, which are smaller, have a projecting skin to their neck, and 



1845.] Hill Tribes in the ChiUagtmg Ditirici. 387 

differ also by the form and direction of the horns. Three species of 
wild dogs are found on those hills : the first species is known by the 
BurmeBe by the name Oobe^looe, and by the Bunzoos lzenia$ this dog 
has pendant ears, from five or six inches long, mazzle from eight to 
ten inches, straight bushy tail fifteen inches long, length of the body 
three feet six incbesi height from the ground two feet six inches ; they 
are seen going alone or in pairs, and they never feed on animals killed the 
day before. The second species is called Mungui ; they have the ears 
semi-pendant, going in packs from four to five ; their color is white bay 
or spotted. The third species is Tokooi^ they are small with straight 
ears, and go in packs from fifteen to twenty. The description of these 
dogs was given to me by my guide, and it was confirmed by the 
Bunzoos ; I have no doubt of its being correct 

Returning from the Bunzoo villages, instead of following the same 
road by which I went there, I followed the course of a small stream 
protected from the rays of the sun by bamboos and other trees ; another 
reason which made me choose this way was, that I had been informed 
that limestone was found in that creek ; till now rocks of that nature 
are unknown at Chittagong, lime used in the district is carried from 
Sylhet, and purchased at the rate of thirty-five to forty rupees the hun* 
dred maunds. 

It took me about three hours to get to Chittagong river ; both banks 
of the creek were bordered either by rocks or by hills of various heights, 
presenting steep sides covered in some places with shrubs, the spring 
was not considerable, the water was fresh and clear as crystal ; in some 
places the stream rolled gently down, and in others the water 
descended with impetuosity, forming basins of different dimensions 
according to the size of the defile : the place where the rock was men* 
tioned is about a mile from the large river, it is from thirty to twenty- 
fi7e feet high, and in a large cavity is deposited stalagmite, so I have 
very little doubt that the rock is a limestone; but as I expect a 
specimen of it, all doubts will be removed on the subject. At some 
distance from that rock was a bank of black clay, which the Burmese 

doctor recommends as a medicine to women who are in the family-way 

i 

to strengthen them. I took some with me, the clay was then very soft, 
, bat the next day it was as hard as a brick. 



388 



HiU Tribes in the ChUiagimg Disinet [No. 161. 



This it, my dear Sir, all the information I could get about the Bobzoo 
tribe ; had I remained longer amongst them, as I intended to do^ this 
people would have given me other details which are desideratum in 
this imperfect sketch of their manners and customs, but my guide hav- 
ing taken ill with fever, I thought it was useless to prolong my stay 
amongst them, being imperfectly acquainted with the corrupted Bur- 
mese language spoken in the district. 

y. Barbb. 

CaieuUa, \5ih Jufy, 1845. 



MnffHsh, 



Bunzoo, 



Kookies. 



God, 

Devil, 

Worship, 

Person, 

Man, 

Woman, 

Children, 

Son, 

Daughter, 

Maiden, 

Husband, 

Wife, 

Head, 

Forehead, 

Hair, 

Eyes, 

Nose, 

Ear, 

Lips, 

Teeth, 

Beard, 

Neck, 



Lookar, 


Ngion mse. 


Krec, 


Khasin. 


Mai-moo-roon, 


Maimeck* 


Mreiur, 


Meiaur. 


Mepa, 


Mepa. 


Loo-now, 


Noonoo. 


Now-pow, 




Mepanow, 




Kemenow, 




Loogua, 


Ar. 


Noo-pa, 




Kamadoon, 




Loo, 


Loo. 


Mare, 


t 


Ssom, 


Ssam. 


Mhe, 


Mut, 


Nhar, 


Naar. 


Na, 


Na. 


Mekka, 


Noor. 


Ah, 




jneKKamoor, 
Rhin, 


King. 



1845.] 



Hill Tribei in the Ckitlagong DiMtriet 



389 



BnsfUth. 


Bufufoo. 


Kookies. 


Breast, 


Atok, 


Fsan. 


Amii 


Keeb-an, 




Hand, 


Coot, 




Finger, 






Nail, 


Cootmetee, 


Coot. 


Belly. 


Madeer, 


Madil. 


Thigh, 


Racoot, 


Eil. 


I^» 


Pai-ma-rai. 




Foot, 


Pai, 


Phai. 


Earopean, 


Lhen, 


Mengeaco. 


BUDZOO^ 


Bom. 




Khookies, 


Panguai, 


Langet. 


Shiamda. 


Koosak, 




BarmaD, 


Ouksah, 




Arracanese, 


Mareim. 




Hoase^ 


Cur, 


Teug. 


Boof, 


Corchun, 




Thatch with grass, 


Phar, 




Bamboo, 


Rhooar, 


Kooe. 


Hatan, 


Kotoi, 




Posts, 


Jortoom, 




Door, 


Makott, 




Window, 


Wham kott, 




Dog, 


Woee, 


Hooee. 


Cow, 


Fswepai, 




Bufialo, 


Fseloi, 




Gnyal, 


Tsar, 




Ditto Kooka, 


Haesha, 


Shio. 


Rg. 


Wai. 


Wet 


Bird. 


Wha, 




Peacock, 


Oohdong, 




Snake, 


Marooi, 




Hill, 


Ramoor, 


Toung. 


Tree, 


Teiu, 


Thinn. 


Ditto leaves, 


Teiana, 


« 


Flower, 


Par, 


Paar. 



390 



BiU Tribes in the CkUtagang Distrust. [No. 161. 



Snglith. 


Bunzoo* 


Kookies, 


G^rase, 


Bair, 




Good, 


Hatsar, 




Bad, 


HatB-aloo, 




HeaveDy 


Van, 




Hell, 


Hatsoopatee, 




Black, 


Neekna, 




White, 


Pooahklan, 




Red, 


Pooahtsin, 




Green, 


Pooahrin, 




yeUow, 


Pooahapaal, 




Water, 


Tooe, 


Tooe. 


Paddy, 


Ta-am, 


Tsan. 


Rice, 


Tsaksai, 


Thathin. 


Ditto boiled, 


Boo, 


Boo. 


Oil, 


Rersee, 




Brandy, 


Arahoni, 




Sick, 


Hatchong, 




Fever, 


Damloo, 




Vomit, 


Mailoo, 




Evacuate, 


Sun-yate, 




Fool, 


Maremklob, 




Cool, 


• 

Atakdye, 




Knife (table,) 


Tsenzoon, 


Tsar. 


Fire, 


Men, 




Silver, 


Tongkha, 




Gold, 


Guoon, 


Gnoon. 


Copper, 


Dhar, 




Necklace, 


Maieee, 


Sbal. 


Bracelet, 


Arkhoil, 




Ilandkerchief, 


Beaar, 




Governor, 


Kophoo, 




Bengalee, 


Koar, 


Lowoon. 


Death, 


Meetec, 




River, 


Whaa, 


Boo. 


Firelock, 


Tflelei, 


Thali. 


Powder, 


Tseleitsec, 


Talaitse. 



1845.] 



Bill Tribes in the Chittagmg Disiriei. 



391 



BngHsh. 


Bunzoo, 


Kookies. 


Shot, 


Tseleimoo, 




Bottle, 


Pelan, 




Year, 


KooDDnee, 




Month, 


Tsakkar, 




Day. 


Neekar, 




Night, 


Zytye, 




One, 


Kakar, 


Keaka. 


Two^ 


Penakar, 


Panlka. 


Throe, 


Toomkar, 


Toomka 


Fonr, 


Leckar, 


Ta. 


Five, 


Raignakar, 


Nga. 


Six, 


Rhookar, 


Koo. 


Seven, 


Sreckar, 


Sree. 


Eight, 


Raikar, 


Rae. 


Nine, 


Rhooakar, 


Ko. 


Ten, 


Tswurkar, 


Sunka. 


Eleven, 


Tswinlakakar, 




Twelve, 


Tswinlanekar, 




Twenty, 


Roobookar, 




One hundred, 


Raizaaker, 


Rasa. 


One thousand, 


Tsankar, 


Sunka. 


Man's dress, 


Ram, 




Woman's dress, 


Kyer, 





J OURNAL 



or THB 



ASIATIC SOCIETY. . 



Notes on the Religion of the Sikhs, being a Notice of their Prayers, 
Holidays, and Shrines, By Major R. Leech, G.B., Political Agent, 
N, W. F. From the Political Secretariat of the Government of India, 

The works of " Guroo Sobha" and " Bichitar Natak" have been con- 
sulted, and extracts made. 

It will appear extraordinary that the Sikhs, who are forbid to worship 
at a Hindoo M^dar, should frequent Hindoo places of pilgrimage ; but 
such is the case. Sikh pilgrims to the Ganges at Hurdwar have for 
many years past been increasing, and nothing is more probable than the 
Sikhs gradually re-adopting many more Hindoo observances. 

Govind Singh prophesied that the Sikh's Derahs, or Shrines, would 
amount to 56,00,00,000. 

Prayers. 

The Sikh Japjee, composed by Guroo Nanak, answers to the Hindoo 
Gaitree repeated in the morning. 

The Sikh Japjee, composed by Guroo Govind Singh, answers to the 
Hindoo Bisan Sahansar, (a morning prayer). 

The Sikh Sukhmanee, composed by Guroo Nanak, answers to the 
Hindoo Geeta, (a morning prayer after ablution). 

The Sikh Rouras, composed by Guroos Nanak and Govind, answers 
to the Hindoo Sandhija Tarpan, (a sunset prayer). 

No. 162. No. 78, Nbw Seriks. 3 i 



394 Notes on the Religion of the SiMis. [No. 162. 

The sixteen Arthees* composed by Ouroo Nanak, are repeated the 
last thing before going to sleep, and it is the lock on the tongue ; the 
key being next morning's Japjee. 

The Sikh women repeat " Asd kee wfir/' (composed by Ouroo Na- 
nak,) by which they are absolved from again being bom in the likeness 
of woman. 

Holidays. 

The Daserah, the Suddee, 10th of the month Asoo, the commencement 
of the Hindoo military year, the opening of the season for the military 
operations. 

fiasakee, the spring festival on the Ist of Besak. 

The anniversary of Guroo Nanak's death on the Wuddee, 5tili of Asoo, 
(called Our-parb). 

The anniversary of Ouroo Govind Singh's departure on the Buddee, 
5th of Besak. 

The Dewalee ; a feast of lamps, the last day of the Buddee, half of the 
month Katick. 

Maghee ; the last day of the Buddee, half of the month Magh. 

Basant Paunchmee ; the Buddee, 5th of the month Magh. 

The Hola, (Holee) ; the last day of Phagan. 

Shrines^ 0/ the Ut Guroo, (NanahJ 

1. Nankane-a-Derah, the village of his maternal grandfather, where 
he played as a child, 30 kos from Lahore. 

2. Derah (par excellenoe,) on the river Ravee, his birth-place. (He ia 
said to have been bom ready dressed in green.) 

3. Sultanpoor, where he kept a shop for his brother-in-law. The 
weights used by him are worshipped. 

4. Nanak Malak, an impression of his hand on the leaves of a Pee- 
pul tree ; the leaves are brought away as relics, and the tree is worship- 
ped. There is now a flourishing village. 

5. Panjah Sahah ; the impression of his hand on a rock that he pre- 
vented falling on him at Hasan Abdal. 

Of the 2nd Padshah, (King) Angad. 
1. Khadoor Derah ; the place of his death, near Taran Tton. 



1843.] Notes on the Religion of the Sihhs. 395 

0/ the Zrd Gureo, (Amardae.) 
Gondwal Deimh ; a well of 101 steps to descend, on each of which the 
Japjee is repeated. He also dkd at this town. Theie are two Grunths 
at the spot whence he departed. 

Of the Ath Guroo, (RamdasO 

Sree Amritsar, (the Nectar tank) ; was brought into notice by him, 
though the Sikhs deny that it is modem. It was first called by him 
" Ramdas dee puree." There are five Teeruths. 

1. Amratsaijee ; in the centre of which is the Darbar Sahab's building. 
containing the Oninth in Ouroo Nanak's own hand- writing. It was 
built by Runjeet Sin^, or rather superbly repured. The steps of 
this building are looked upon as the Hurdwar ones. The rank Sikhs 
of the present day therefore do not go to the Ghmges Hurdwar, and 
even speak lightly of that sacred stream as the " bone-devouring." 

2. Koulsar, (the Lotus tank) ; people wash their feet here before pre- 
suming to bathe in the holy of holies. 

3. Babegsar ; round which the Nahangs reside, and bathe in it before 
going to the Amratsar. 

4. Mukatsar ; from batMng constantly in faith, in which exemption 
from further birth in the flesh is obtained. 

5. Ramsar; the tank in which Hindoos and others, not Sikhs, bathe 
before going into the water of Amratsar. 

On the brink of the tank opposite Darbar Sahab's Darsanee entrance 
is the Akal Bangah, and two jfaandahs or standards, (rather giant spears 
covered with gold, and having a khinkab cover.) 

The golak (collections 1 j- rupee from each convert,) of Ouroo Oovind 
Singh, is deposited in the Akal Bangah. Chiefs sometimes pay 1 j- hun- 
dred rupees on the Pahul being administered there to a child. 

The Deewalee festival is the season for performing pilgrimage to 
Amratsar. Pilgrims also assemble in Basakee, Dassera, Horee and 
Niaghee. These five festivals are called the five Dhams or Tihars. 

Of the 5th Guroo, (ArjanJ 

1 . Lahore ; his residence for many years. 

2. Derah-Kartarpoor. 

3. Taran and T&ran ; two shrines, five or six kos apart ; the latter 
being the place of his death. 



396 NoUs an ike Religion tyihe Sikhs. [No. 162. 

Lepers are cured by bathing in faith in the tank. A great number 
of lepers reside round the tank, and two or three are cured every year. 
If any one on going there fears to approach or touch these lepers, he 
becomes himself a leper. Many of them are rich, and trade ; no cus- 
toms or duties are levied on their goods. 

0/ the 6th Guroo, (Har GovindJ 
Sree Govindpura ; his Derah, the place of his death. 

0/ the 7th Guroo, (Har Roe.) 

1. Keertpur ; his Derah, the place of his death, and abo of his Mahal 
(wife). The tank in which he washed his feet is called, by the Sikhs, 
Charan Koulsar. 

2. Bangah, in the Singpooria state ; at Keertpur is the Derah of Baba 
Gurditta. 

Of the 8M Guroo, (Har KrisenJ 

1. Delhi ; the place of his death, (by small-pox.) 

0/ the 9th Guroo, (Tegh Bahadur J 

1. Dehra, at Anandpoor ; where his head was burnt on being brought 
by his Rangretas from Delhi. 

2. Saifabad, in the Pateala territory ; where the Raja has lately built a 

fort. 

3. At Delhi, called Bangala ; where he was killed. 

4. Ditto ; where his body was burnt. There is also at Delhi a shrine 
of Mata Sundaree, and another called Rakabganj. 

5. At Benares. 

0/the lOth Guroo, (Govind.J 

1 . Anandpoor ; where there are seven Jhandas and Dehras. 

1 . Guroo Tegh Bahadur. 

2. Kesgurh ; where he converted five Sikhs, or rather initiated them 
and made them initiate him, and let their hair (kes) grow. 

3. Mata Jeeto; the wife (Mahal) of Guroo Govind : she died here. 

4. Damdama ; the breathing-place, where he took breath and turned 
on his Musalman pursuers. 

5. Holgurh ; where he played the Holee. 



J 



iB45.] Naie$ on the Religum of ike Sikh$. 897 

-6. Agampura ; from a vision revelatioQ to Mata Jeeto there. 
7. Manjee Sahat ; the cot on which she sat to receive saluta* 
tion8« 

There is a melah or collection of pilgrims in the Holee. 

2. Dehra of Ouroo Oovind at Bangah. 

3. Jandpoor ; where he halted in his flight from Anandpoor. 

4. Macheewara; where his Musalman friends, Nubee and Ohunee 
Khans, saved his life, by disguising him. 

5. Naknour ; five kos from Ambalah, where he fled from Macheewara. 

6. Muktsar, in Malwah ; where he bathed and promised exemption 
from transmigraticm to all his followers who did the like in faith. 

7. Damdama ; where he again took breath, and blest the place as 
learning-inspiring, calling it his Benares, where the greatest dunces 
should become scholars. 

At the present day the best writers of the Ourmukhee character are 
at Damdama, which belongs to the Shaheed family. 

8. Kapal Mochan, near Belaspoor. This is a great place of Hindoo 
pilgrimage. 

9. Nanheree, near Ambalah. 

10. Pa'unte Sahat, across the Ganges. 
1 h Patna ; where he was bom. 

12. Abjal Nagar; where he died, (in the Deccan). There is a melah 
on the Buddee, 5th of Besak. 

There is a Derah of Jeet Sing and Jazar Singh at Chamkour, where 
these sons of Guroo Govind were killed by the Musalmans. 

The Derah of his two other sons, Fatteh Singh and Zorawar, is at 
Sarhind, where they were built alive into a wall by the Musalmans. 

Sarhind is called by the Sikhs, Fattehgurh ; from Fatteh Singh being 
killed there. They also call it Phit moonhe (spit in the face,) and some- 
times Ujar shahr, " the desolate city." 

The Derah of Mata Guzaree is near that of her Shahzada, grandsons ; 
she fell down dead at the sight of the living wall. There is a melah 
during the Holee. 

There is a shrine or Derah of Baba Sahat Singh, at Ambalah, who 
was a Bedee Sikh ; who is called by some the 1 1th Guroo, and is said 
to have caused the elevation of Ranjeet Singh by his blessing, and by 
giving him his sword : he died eleven or twelve years ago, from grief at 



398 Notes an ike Beiigum 4^ ike SikKs. [No. 162. 

the death of his son, Baba Tegh Singh, which took place at his len- 
deuce at Unnah. 

At Daoon, there is the shrine of Baba Jwahar Singh Sodee. 

At Oadgunga, there is the shrine of Uhadah Singh Sodee. 

At Oadwal is the shrine of Ouroo Ram Race, where he died. 

The offerings of these shrines are taken by the people who read the 
Orunth there, and offer prayers f<Hr the donors. 



Noiea, principally Geological, across the Peninsula of Southern In- 
dia from Kistapatam, Lot, 14^ 17' at the Embouchure of the 
Coileyroo River, on the Eastern Coast, to Honaroer, Lot. 14** 16' 
on the Western Coast, comprising a visit to the Falls o/Gairsuppa. 
By Captain Nbwbold> FM,S», M. N, /. Assistant Commissioner 
Kurnool, Madras Territory. 

Kistapatam. Kistapatam is the port of Nellore, from which it lies 
about 15 miles S. E. It is situated on the Goromandel Coast a short 
distance from the sea, and at little more than two miles North of the 
mouth of the Coileyroo or Condaleyroo nver, in vbout Lat. 14^ 17'. N. 
It stands at the edge of a low sandy flat which, though now dry and 
exposed, appears during the monsoon to be overflowed by the river 
freshes, and probably once formed a back-water or lagoon com- 
municating with the sea to theN. near Toolypaiiamy and with the em- 
bouchure of the river near uiotfaer Toolypaliam to the South. Sea salt 
is here manufactured. The physical aspect of the adjacent country is 
that of a flat, sandy, maritime plain, broken near the sea by an irregn* 
lar line, following the indentations of the Coast, of low dunes of fine 
sand, by which the travellers' bungalow on the S. bank of the riTcr 
IS surrounded. The sand a little N. of this abounds in granules oi 
magnetic iron, some of which appear to be titaniferous. The under- 
stratum of the sand observed here, and in some wells a few miles to 
the South of the river proved to be greenish or bluish Mack clay, or 
tertiary clay of Goromandel, with pelagic shells similar to that under- 
lying Madras, Pondicherry, and the alluvial plain of Masulipatam. 

Marine Sand Dunes* The sand dunes near the river had a S. W. 
direction, and rose about 50 feet above its bed. The ripple marks 



1845.] Geqloffieal NcU$ ^ SwiOwm India. 399 



earned by the currents of air on their sarfaoe resemble those caused 
by carrents of water, and the N. and S. direction of their major 
axis shows the Easterly and Westerly course of the late or existing 
prevalent winds. Their Eastern sides have a sloping direction ; fall, 
ing off rather abruptly to the West at about an angle of 45®, indica- 
ting that the wind which raised them blew/rmis the E. On the surface 
were scattered here and there shells and fragments of shells blown 
up from the beach. The footsteps of waders, and other aquatic birds 
could be occasionally tracked where the wind had not again covered 
them up with loose sand. 

These, fogether with the ripple marks, marine shells, and the 
elevation of these moving sands, form an interesting example of the 
manner in which strata of aqueous 8ub.marine origin may be imitat- 
ed by the simple action of the wind on loose sand. Consolidation, 
and a more distinct stratification alone are wanting to convert these 
heaps into a fossiliferous ridge. The sand is often bound together by 
the long interlaced roots of grasses, &c 

Calorific acHon of butCb rays on tur/ace of Sand Dunes. At 5 
P.M. sky clear, slight breeze just perceptible; the thermometer placed 
on the sand and freely exposed to the sun's rays indicated a heat of 
100^ 2f, Simply suspended in the air, about 12 feet above the surface 
of the sand, equally exposed to the sun's rays, it stood at 78^ 5'. 

Noeiumal Radiaiion from surface of Sand Dunes. The radiating 
powers of the sand dunes are considerable. At 3 a, m., night nearly 
calm, sky clear, the thermometer shaded from radiation, and placed 
on a table about four feet from the ground, stood at 67**. Placed on the 
grass and freely exposed bulb thinly covered with a little white wool, 
it fell to 65.5^ But on the sur&ce of the sand dunes it fell to 62^ 
The sand is fine and quartzy. 

As arial stillness is one of the conditions necessary to the full re- 
frigerating effects of radiation, it is likely that on the coast, which is 
hardly ever free from currents, however slight, resulting from the 
regular alternations of the land and sea breezes, the differences of 
temperature obtained by radiation will hardly ever be so great as the 
table-lands of India* The lulls between the land and sea breezes 
perhaps present the most eligible times for such experiments. 

The temperature of the water of the wells is not far from what may 
be the mean average temperature of the place, viz., from 80® 2^ to 81^ 



400 NoUt. priHcipaUy Geological, [No. 162. 

The bed of the river near Kistapatam ii apparently about 500 yardi 
broad, and sandy. A bar of sand obfltructt the month, against which 
the lurf beaU in white breakers. The Collector's bungalow stands oa 
the N. bank of the river. 

Hellore. Circumstances prevented my examining the tract between 
the sea at KistapaUm and Nellore ; but as far as could be judged from 
rapidly passing over iti it resembles in flatness (sloping gently aea. 
wards) the rest of the maritime plains of the CorMuandel Coast, and 
abounds with small tanks. At Nellore the usual granitic and hypo- 
gene rocks of this coast are covered by beds of laterile, whieh are seen 
in cliffs about 16 feet high fringing the Pennaur river. About three or 
four miles from Nellore, on the Northern bank of (he river, qnarries of 
the laterite occur at the village of Kohor, in a deposit of this rock about 
20 feet thick near the tank. Both at Nellore and the snrroanding 
villages, i( is extensively employed as a building stone, and in other 
repairs of the roads. Blocks, about one foot thick and two long, are sold 
at the rale of 12 for the rupee. Small springs are seen oozing out at 
(he bases of the laterite clifi^ on the S. bank of the river at Nellore. 
These clifls are divided by perpendicular and horizontal seams ; the 
rock composing them is less qnartzy than the Kohor laterite. Id the 
vertical fissures I observed fragments of earthenware broken by the 
natives in coming for water. These bits of pottery often become 
impacted in a lateritic alluvial cement, which must not be mistaken, 
as has been the case, for the true laterite, and hence its origin 
ascribed to the recent or historic period. Some of the oldest pagodas 
and structures in South India are built on this rock. Both the 
laterites of Nellore and Kohor consist of a rock resembling the 
Malabar laterite, but containing more angular fragments of quartz. 
The surface of the laterile is often covered by a modern lateritie 
debris, more or less consolidated, which most not, as said before, be 
confounded with the true laterite. 

As in the Beder laterile the water often passes from the snr&ce of 
these cli^ by the tubular cavities in its structure which are' enlarged, 
emptied of their clay and lithomarge, and modified by ita passage 
downwards, until slopped in port by the clayey barrier it has assisted 
to accumulate. The water here forma reservoirs, and in overfiowiog 
finds its way out by fissures in springs. The bed of the Pennaur near 
Nellore is sandy, and apparently about 800 yards broad. 



1846.^ across the Peninsula of Southern India. 401 

From NeUore by the North bank of the Pennaur to the base of the 

Eaetem Ghauts. 

Sungum. From NeUore by Kohor the laterite may be traced 
westerly to the vicinity of Dovoor, resting on the granitic and 
hjrpogene rocks about nineteen miles W.N.W. from NeUore. At the 
Sungum, or confluence of the Pennaur with the two smaU streams of 
the Bogheyroo and Berapeyroo, the first rocky elevation is seen since 
quitting the coast about twenty-nine miles distant^ and nearly mid. 
way between the sea and the Eastern Qhauts. It appears as a short 
range abutting on the Pennaur river, and running N. by E. to about 
the distance of two miles. It is composed, at the village of the Sun. 
gum/ of a massive quartz rock in indistinct stratification, cleft occasion, 
ally, like the laterite, by intersecting partings and vertical fissures 
which divide the rock into parallelograms. The planes of the former 
have a dip of about 5° towards the East : the vertical fissures run 
irregularly, but the greater part have a direction of N. by W. This 
quartzy rock passes from opaque and granular, to compact, translucent 
chert, of various shades of red, brown, green, and white. It contains 
disseminated scales of mica of a golden colour, which glitter like 
those in avanturine, and nests of brown iron ore. 

If the marly horizontal partings are really the planes of stratifi. 
cation, it may be inferred from its conformability that this quariz 
rock does not belong to the hypogene series which is seen in highly 
inclined beds near its base, penetrated by veins of granite (as seen at 
Pollium, a village between Dovoor and Sungum,) but that it is an 
altered outlier of the sandstone mural crests which are seen from this 
on the Western horizon capping the granite and hypogene schists of 
the Eastern Ohauts. 

A glimmering hornblende schist, and gneiss veined with granite, 
with a white mica replaced here and there by schorl, are found at the 
bases of the quartz hills of Sungum. 

A cluster of Hindu temples, the principal of which is dedicated to 
Iswara, as at the holy Sungums (or confluences) of the Kistnah, Bhima, 
&c., surrounded by a lofty wall, crowns a rugged mass of this rock 
that projects from the main ridge into the sandy bed of the river, 
which at this season of the year presents a dreary waste of sand, 

3k 



403 Notes, pfincipaify Geologiealf [No. 162. 

apparently marly^ a mile in width, through which a slender crys- 
tal stream of water threads its way towards the sea. In front 
of the temple gates stands a granite slab, bearing a Sassanam, or in- 
scription! in Nagri and Teliigoo, almost buried in drifted sand. The 
emblems of eternity, (or rather durability) — the sun and moou'^weie 
engraven on the comers above the inscription. The priests of the 
temple are brahmans of the Smartal sect, whose Suatni or bishop is the 
powerful Sencra Bharti. The remains of an old aqueduct are seen 
at a little distance from the Sungum. The village itself oontains 
about 400 houses, though it appears formerly to have been a place of 
greater wealth : a few cotton cloths lUre manufactured here. The staple 
articles of cultivation are rioe, baggi, or juari, and a little indigo. 

Temperature efihe Pennaut river* The temperature of the water 
in the Pennaur was 77*3^ of the springs 78-2'' at 4 f. m^ Tanpenu 
ture in open air at the time 82°. 

From the Pennaur to JumiHaperam and Copper diHrid ^ Gamjf^ 
penta. Leaving the Ndrth bank of the Pennaur at Sungum^ the rosd 
lay in a N. by W. direction to Jummawdram, or Jummaveram^ 
distant about ten miles from Sungum. The rocks here are still the 
hypogene schists, chiefly gametiferous hornblende schist, and gneiss, 
with large veins of whitish quartz, the fragments of which are scattered 
over the uncultivated surface of the plain. The soil is reddishi both 
sandy and clayey, and rests either on a substratum of kunker and 
detritus of rock, ot oh the reck itself^ Two out of the four welk at 
Jummaverani are saline^ 

The hypogene schists penetrated by tra|> and granite, extend tnm 
Jummaveram to Ganypenta or Gurumanipenta, a village aboit 
twenty-three miles N. N. W. froiki Jummaveram, about thirty-three 
miles North of the Pennaur about the same distance from the sea, and 
about twenty.eight miles froih the biBtse of the Eastern Ghauts. 

This village is sitiiated in the midst of the copper mining localities 
described in a paper published by the Royal Asiatic Society in their 
Journal. 

From Ganypenta to the E. Ghaufa. Proceeding from Gurumani- 
penta in a S. W. direction towards tShe entlnnoe of the Dorenal Psff 
over the Eastern Ghauts, the surface of the great plain hitherto travel- 
led over becomes more rugged and broken Up by reeky elevation^ 



1845.] across ike Pemmuia of Southern India, 403 

till at length the baae of the Ghauts is reaehed near Udtgherry. The 
hypogene schists, penetrated by granite and dykes of basaitte green^ 
atone and overlaid by patches of kunker, continue up to the base of 
the Ghauts. Mica schist is seen at Samulraygudda, about four and a 
half miles B. S. E. from the town of Udigherry, and also about sevea 
miles farther lo the S. W. at Timmapolliam with quartz rock, fie- 
▼itel of Ihe hypogene spurs in the plain are capped with this quartz 
rock, which is usually of a light reddish colour passing into greenish 
gt^Yt and white cherts. It is evidently altered sandstone. The hy. 
pogene schists are in great confusion at the base of the Ghauts* and in 
one place I observed the mica schist dipping at an angle of 41° to the 
W. i e. towards the great line of dislocation. In some places they are 
but little inclined ; in some vertical ; while in others they appear to 
have been reversed^ and folded back upon themselves^ the upper parta 
of the flexures having disappeared in weathering or by denudation* 
Hence they have the appearance of alternating in a reversed mrder to 
that in whidi they usually occur, viz., the gneiss lowermost in the se^ 
riee. This occurs in most other hypogene areas of South India, and 
care should be taken to ascertain in such disturbed regions the true 
order of superposition from the horizontal or less inclined beds in the 
neighbouring districts less disturbed, and where there is no likelihood 
ef inversion or folding back of the strata. These phenomena, though, 
written in plainly legible characters on the faces of the gigantic es. 
carpments of the Alps, must in Southern India generally be patiently, 
traced out, letter by letter, amid the jungle and debris which usu- 
ally obscure their features. 

Eastern GhauU. The Eastern Ghauts, in the vicinity of Udigher- 
ry, and the Docenal Pass, have an altitude, approximatively obtained 
by a rough trigonometrical measurement, of about 700 feet from the 
maritime plain at their base, which is from 60 to 70 miles broad, its 
surface roughened by spurs from ihe Ghauts, and a few occasional 
rocky clusters and detached hills. 

The Ghauts here have usually their esearpments^ or steepest acclivi- 
ties fadog towards the East. The lower portions of the hills, which 
sue eomposed of mica slate or gneiss^ have usually a much less abrupt 
and steep descent than the sandstone, which often caps them in mural 
clil& and hog.backed ridges. The line of junction of the two rocks 



404 Notes, principally Geological, [No. 162. 

18 thus often plainly visible in mountains many miles distant. The 
hypogene schists seldom attain a height of abore 400 feet ; the higher 
portions are sandstone. The sandstone, in the localities where I ex- 
amined it on the heights overlooking the Dorenal Pass, had much the 
appearance of qaartz rock passing into chert or hornstone, of various 
light shades of red, brown, green, blue, black and white. 

Pass of Dorenal, This break in the Easternmost chain of the 
Eastern Qhauts is about four miles in length, general direction W. by 
N., and iis evidently a transverse valley of fracture, passing nearly at right 
angles with the direction of the strata, and with that of the longitudi- 
nal vallies. The Northern side is abrupt and craggy, while the ab- 
rupt features of the Southern flank iare more rounded and softened 
down. Its bottom has ah irregular surfiioe, occupied by angular rocky 
debris, the wreck of strata once continuous, and is now partially oo- 
vered with both arboreous and shrubby vegetation. The ascent from the 
East, partaking of the general character of the Ghaut elevation, is steeper 
than the descent to the West; but it is every where passable for loaded 
carts, and is one of the best channels of commerce from the maritime 
plains of Nellore and Ongole to the more elevated districts of God- 
dapah, Bellary and Kurnool. The best isort of cart adapted for this 
hill transit is that with the narrow sharp wooden wheels girt with 
strong iron fellies, and having axles revolving with the wheel. I 
saw about fifty return carts, laden with empty indigo boxes, returning 
from the town of Nellore to the indigo factory at Bud wail in the 
Cuddapah district. Five hundred Lumbari bullocks, laden with salt* 
the manufacture of the coast, were jogging merrily on, to the music of 
their own bells, with this high- taxed necessary of life, into the interior. 

Falley of Budfvail. From the Pass of Dorenal the traveller de- 
scends by an easy slope into the longitudinal valley of Budwiail, which 
18 crossed in a W. N. W. direction to the Western and principal chaio 
of the £. Ghauts. This fine valley has an almost S. direction indio- 
ing slightly to the E., and extends from the Kistnah beyond Cumbum 
on the N. to Tripety on the S. with some interruption from occasional 
cross lines of elevation and fracture, passing a little East of Sidhout to 
the cross fracture forming the valley of the Pennaur ; whence its 
course niay be traced southerly by the channels of Cheyeyrooand 
Goonjna streams, by Chitwail, Godoor, Baulpilly and Gurcumbady. 



1845.3 across the Peninsula of Southern India, 403 

On the line of the cross valley of the Pennaur near Sidhout a con. 
siderable subeidenoe, or sinking down of the sarfsce* appears to have 
taken place ; as near this point we see both the Northern and Southern 
lines of drainage of the longitudinal vallies of the £. Ghauts^ viz. the 
Cheyeyroo, the Toomall and Sagglair, converge and empty themselves 
into the Pennaur, easterly through the cross fracture of Sidhout to 
the sea* The general breadth of the valley of Budwail North of the 
Pennaur, is about eleven miles. From Poormaumla on the N. to the 
Pennaur it is sub.divided into two vallies by a central range of hills> 
which passes by the town of Budwail; the lowest parts of these 
vallies are marked by the S. courses of the Toomall in that to the 
East, and by that of Sagglair in the valley to the W. 

In the valley of Budwail the Cuddapah limestone with its associ- 
ated argillaceous shales of different shades of red, chocolate, white^ 
yellow and green, are first seen, the latter predominating. The central 
range consists chiefly of sandstone based on these shales, which are 
often denuded, and appear in the vallies between ridges capped with 
insulated massive layers of sandstone and quartz rock several miles 
asunder. 

Westernmost ridge of the Eastern Ghauts, The Western, or principal 
ridge of the £. Qhauts is crossed by the Oothoomnagoo and Jungumraz- 
pilly Passes. The latter is perfectly practicable for bandies. Leaving 
my baggage to go round by the Pass, I ascended the Ghauts by a sheep 
track, to the lead mines of Jungumanipenta, and descended to those 
of Buswapoor on the Western flank of the Ghauts. These mines have 
been previously described in a paper published by the Royal Asiatic 
Society. SufiSce it here to observe, that the lower and modern eleva- 
tions of the Ghauts are composed of slates and shales associated 
with the limestone; the highest ridges and peaks are capped and 
crested with sandstone passing into quartz rock. The limestone 
abounds with chert and horns tone; its shales are usually reddish, 
chocolate, green, white and ochreous, and interstratified with arenace- 
ous, ferruginous, and calcareous bands passing in to. dark quartzose 
slates ; petrographically speaking these resemble those of our Devonian 
series, but no traces of fossils are observed in any of these rocks. 

Nundialempett. This village is situated about one and a quarter koss 
Westerly from the lead mines of Baswapur, and stands on the right bank 



406 No^, principally Geoiagicai, [^No. 162. 

of a stream that flows from the neighbouring Qhauts sontlied^y along 
their base into the Pennaur, called the Conda Nulla. On a ridge o?er. 
looking the tank stands the trigonometrical survey station of Mookan- 
doo. The soil is alhtrial and reddish, with calcareous matter inter- 
mixed^ resting usually on a thick substratum of kunker imbedding 
nodular brown iron ore and fragments of the subjacent and adjaeent 
rocks, viz. slaty argillaceous limestone and sandstone. The cultivation 
is solely of that description termed Moongari and garden. The aspect 
of the country at this western base of the Ohauts is at first andoiating 
and picturesque^ the undulations merging to the westward in the 
great r€^ur plains of Dhoor and Guddapah. The clamps and 
groves of shady tamarind trees, with which its surface is studded in 
the sub-ghaut plains, give it a park-like aspect. The ruins of a small 
fort, with the remains of a large cavalier in the centre, stand dose to 
the village, and are said to have been built by one of the Guddapah 
Nawabs. 

JummtUmud^oo, Crossing the great plain of Dhoor, which is based 
on the diamond limestone, and divided by the Koond river, which 
runs Southerly down its centre to the Pennaur at Camlapoor, the 
large village of Jummulmudgoo is reached. It stands on the left 
bank of the Pennaur a little to the East of the emergence of this river 
from the gorge of the Gundicotta hills, which form the Western lip 
to the Pennaur basin, girt in on the South by the Wontimetta and 
Poolvaimla ranges, and to the East by the Eastern Ghauts, through 
which it escapes to the sea by the transverse break of Sidhout. The 
approximate height of this basin above the sea towards its centre, as 
indicated by the boiling point, is HOO feet. 

The rock in the bed of the Pennaur and on which the village standi, 
is the blue variety of limestone above mentioned, often apjHPoacfaing 
French grey in lightness of colour ; it dips slightly towards the E. or 
N. of E. The village is rather noted for the brilliancy and perma^ 
nency of its dyes, which are fixed by washing and steeping the cotten 
printed cloths in a saline well, the water of which rises up from the 
limestone in the heart of the village* The surface of the waler was 
thirty, two and a half feet below that of the ground, owing to the dry 
season ; its temperature three feet below the surface 7^^, a lowness 
ascribabie to the constant evaporation caused on the surface and sides 



1845.3 across the Peninsula of Southern India. 407 

by the washing and the drying of cloths. Temperatare of air in the 
shade mt 5 p. m. 85^. The principal saline ingredient, if I may judge 
fiooi the incrustations in the fissures and seams from which the water 
springs, is muriate of soda. Many of the seams are occupied by a greyish 
friable earth consisting of disintegrated limestone mingled with this 
saline residue left after evaporation of the water. 

There is another brackish well in the town, but it does not answer 
the purpose of the native dyers so well as this. The water of the 
other well is perfectly sweet. One which I visited between the saline 
spring and the river, lies at the depth of twenty-three feet from the 
surfiice, with a temperature of 75'', six and a half feet below the surface. 
The time has now passed when the occurrence of common salt, the 
mineral chloride of sodium of chemists, in distant regions was held to 
be sufficient evidence of the existence there of the new red aaUdstone. 
It occurs in the oldest stratified rocks of America, in the coal meissureB 
of England, the lias of Switserland, and all over the hypogene and 
granitic area of South India. 

Jummulmudgoo contains about 3,000 inhabitants, the greater por- 
tion of whom are Kunbis speaking TeHnghi, a language which con. 
tinues from Nellore to about the vicinity of Gooty and Kulmool, 
where it meets the Canarese of the Western provinces, and near Beder 
on the N. W. with the Mahratta. I found that it m^td with the 
Tamol of Madras and the Southern provinces at Sriharicotta, a vii. 
hge about fifty miles North of Madras, near the o}d limits of the 
Andra-des, or Telinghi country, and the Dravidame-des. Jutnmul- 
mudgoo was formerly a place of some importance under the Anna* 
gandi or Bijanugger princes, and the Chctvmil rajahs. It subsequent, 
ly shared the same &te as tSke rest of their dominion^ South of the 
Tumbuddnu It is Uie burial place of Sidi Miyan, brother of Halim 
Khan, Nuwab of Cnddapah in Hyder's time. Fnnerai rites in 
memory of him were performed during my encampment here. The 
remains of the Dtwan^-khanak and palace of the Cuddapah rulers, 
and a small fhrt without a ditoh, still exist 

Pass of Gundicotta. Previous to describing the defile through 
whidi the Pennaur flows Easterly from the plain of Tarputri into that 
of Cuddapah, it will be right to mention ^at the ridge, through 



408 NoieSy prineipatfy Geologieai, [^No. 162. 

which this transverse fissure occurs, commences a few miles Soath of 
Kurnool, on the S. bank of the Tambuddra on the N; W., and rons 
Soatherly through Dhone, and the Eastern borders of Banganpilly 
and Gooty by Munimudgoo, whence the direction is S. Easterly by 
Owk, W. of Ollavaconda, Juggernatgooda, the Timnainpetta tank, 
and Jummulmudgoo, to the hamlet of CuUamulla, about thirteen miles 
S. E. from Jummulmudgoo, and about fifteen miles from the fissure 
of Oundiootta. 

The direct breadth of the range where intersected by the fissure is 
about five miles, and its extreme height apparently not more than 
600 feet ; the extreme height of the precipices on either side, ascertain, 
ed trigonometrically, is not more than 250 feet, and often not more 
than 80 feet. The general direction is E. by N., though in its course 
through the hills it describes two salient and two re-entering angles. 
The bottom of the fissure is flattish, and occupied completely by 
the sandy bed of the Pennaur. The breadth is usually firom 100 to 
300 paces. 

In Hamilton's account, taken from Heyne, Rennell, &c, the Pass 
of Gundicotta is described as a break or chasm in the mountains, 
which *' appears to have resulted from some violent concussion of na- 
ture, as it is very narrow, and the opposite sides almost perpendi- 
cular." Induced by this description to suppose that some interesting 
dislocation of the strata on a large scale had taken place, I examined 
narrowly the sides of the Pass. Entering it with the Pennaur from 
the West, from the wide sandy waste caused by the confluence of the 
Chittravutty river with the former stream, the sides of the opening 
present steep slopes of sandstones thinly covered with a sandy soil 
and scattered bushes, among which frolicked troops of gay monkies. 
About the middle of the Pass, under the walls of the fortress of 
Gundicotta, which crown the Southern cliflfs, the sides are precipitous 
masses of sandstone divided by fissures into vertical pinnacles, assi- 
milating ruins, and which are occasionally undermined by the 
force of the monsoon freshes and precipitated into the bed of the 
river. 

The sandstone strata forming the precipices on each side exhibit no 
marks of dislocation or violent disturbance. They dip at an angle 



1845.] across the Peninsula cf S&uihem India. 409 

rarely above 10'' towards the East and N. of E., and the undisturbed 
dip of the beds can be traced from one side to the other. 

No ledges supporting beds of rolled pebbles could be found on the 
faces of the cliflb, or other marks of the rocks having been worn by 
watery erosion down to the present channel. 

It is therefore reasonable to infer that this singular fissure has been 
mainly occasioned by contraction of the mass during consolidation^ and 
not by *' a violent convulsion of nature or erosion ;" although there is 
little doubt that its width has been since increased and shape modified 
by the washing of the river floods^ as is evident from the precipitated 
debris /rom the sides which occasionally strew the bed. Smaller pa- 
rallel fissures are observable in the difb on each side, one of which has 
formed the cave called by the native guides, *'Pan4i GawV* 

The bed of the river is filled with sand and fragments of sandstone, 
and occasionally of its associated blue limestone, to so great a depth as to 
lender an examination of the downward continuation of the fissure 
impracticable. 

The great depression of the bottom of the fissure is clearly shown 
by the sudden manner in which the waters of the Pennaur are de« 
fleeted into it from the -S. E. course they were pursuing along the 
Western flank of the hills, and by the confluence of the Chittravutty 
at this point. 

The river during the rains is said to rise to the height of seven or 
eight feet in the centre of the Pass. 

The rock composing the cliffs is for the most part of a faint reddish, 
compact sandstone approaching quartz rock, in tabular masses of great 
thickness, though sometimes interstratified with argillaceous seams 
like the sandstones of Gokauk on the Gutpurba, which are usually of 
a reddish white and huffy colour. 

The faces of the sandstone cliffs exhibit bands of a pale, green, red 
and white, which conform to the stratification. 

The cliffs sustain a rocky table-land, the surface of which is fre- 
quently covered with a crust of laterite varying from a few inches to 
several feet in thickness, and which is also deposited in the fissures 
and seams of the subjacent sandstone. 

The tabular sur&ce of the latter rock, where denuded of this late- 
Htic crust, is often divided into parallelograms by intersecting fissures 
and joints. 

3 L 



410 NoteM, principally Geohgical, [No. 162. 

In some places nodalar spheroidal concretions, about the size of a 
nutmeg, of quartz rock are seen imbedded in a mass of sandstone, 
around which the arenaceous particles of the rock are arranged in con- 
centric bands of different shades, like those in agates. This concentric 
segregative structure is particularly observable in the more ferruginous 
portions of the rock. 

Ripple marks are very common on the larger exposed surfaces of the 
sandstone strata. The table-land on the summit of the hills is a wild 
looking tract, covered with long grass and bush, which is burnt every 
year and produces good crops of turmeric. 

Fortress of Gundicotta- The cliffs on the South of the Pass, and 
near its middle, are ascended at the ruins and tombs of Allahabad by 
a steep zigzag path to the once celebrated fortress begun by the Hindu 
sovereigns of Bijanugger, greatly enlarged by Aurungzebe's and Knt- 
tub Shali's fietmous General, Mir Jumlah, and added to by Hyder and 
Tippoo. 

After the fall of Bijanugger in 1564, the fort was still retained by 
Nursing Raj, nephew of the slain Hindu monarch Ram Raj, from 
whom it was taken after a severe siege by Mahomed Kuli Kuttub 
Shah, king of Golconda, or rather by his General Mir Jumlah. It 
was subsequently annexed to the Patau government of Cuddapah by 
Neknam Khan, and afterwards given up to Hyder when he reduced 
this part of the Balaghat. It was ceded to the British by the treaty 
with the Nizam in 1800. The fortifications are extensive, and coo- 
tain a handsome Chuhar Minar, military magazine^ and mosque, a 
small town, and the ruins of a temple to Mahadeo ; to whose shrioe 
Ferishta tells us 100^000 Hindus of Bijanugger used to make an an- 
nual pilgrimage and offer gifts of great value. Besides the two patiis 
-by Allahabad are the other approaches to the fort, viz. one by an easy 
ascent from Jummulmudgoo on the East, and the other from Chitty- 
wanripilly by a steep and rugged ascent just practicable for horses. 

Figure^stone quarries of Reddadoor. Proceeding Westerly from the 
Pass of Gundicotta, I passed along the plain on the left bank of the Chit- 
travutty river to the hill pagoda of Reddadoor, nearly eight miles W. by 
S. from the base of the Gundicotta hills. Limestone, passing into argil- 
laceous shales and schists, constitutes the rock in the plain. The ridge 
of Reddadoor is about a mile in length, running in an £. by,S. direc- 
tion : it consists of argillaceous slates alternating with a finely Ismi- 



1846. ] acrosi the Peninsula of Southern India. 4 1 1 

nated fissile shale of various shades of brown, chocolate, red, and yel- 
low passing into a pure white. These rocks have a distinctly jointed 
structure : the joints are nearly vertical running in a S. W. direction. 
The planes of stratification are inclined at an angle of from 10** to 15'' 
dipping towards E. 10° N. ; they are easily distinguishable here from 
the smooth surfaces of cleavage by their dimpled and rippled super, 
ficies. The cleavage planes are also marked by dendritic delineations. 

This ridge has been penetrated by a large dyke of basaltic green, 
stone, running nearly £. and W., and branching in a N. and S. 
direction. It is seen outcropping along the whole extent of the S. W» 
base. At the N. E. base both branches disappear in the plain. The 
basalt is also seen bursting through the strata at the saddlcshaped 
depression on the summit of the ridge, where it has both a globular and 
prismatic structure/ the prisms pass into the globular form by the ex. 
foliation of their angles, and I have even observed small spheroidal 
nuclei in the exfoliated coats, which are in turn subjected to concen- 
tric exfoliation. The dyke, like all others in this formation, does not 
overspread or cap the rocks on its sides, but ends abruptly at the jrar. 
face. Towards the centre, like most volcanic dykes, it becomes crystal- 
line and porpbyritic, imbedding crystals of both whitish i^nd pale 
green felspar with a few of hypersthene and foliated hornblende. Aci- 
cular augite is seen glistening in the more compact and quickest cool- 
ed parts of the dyke, and occasionally cubes of iron pyrites. The ba* 
salt melts easily into a greyish black glass. 

The shale in contact, both in the plain and on the saddle of the 
ridge, is either hardened and rendered massive, compact or ferrugi. 
nous, or is broken up, by crystalline forces apparently, into a number 
of lamins^ often distinctly prismatic, and exhibiting dendritic marka 
on the planes into which they readily split. At the base of the hill 
the basalt and indurated shales assimilate so much at the junction 
line that it is difficult to distinguish them ; the shale has become dark 
and hornblendic, and the basalt has acquired something of the fissile 
structure of the shale. A similar phenomenon is observed in the me. 
tamorphism of the hypogene rocks of Southern India, where the granite 
near the point of contact acquires the structure of gneiss, and the gneiss 
becomes in turn more granular, massive or granitoidal. The pheno- 
mena presented by granite and basaltic greenstone at their contact 
with metamorphic or other stratified rocks are extremely interesting ; 



412 Noies^prindpaiiy Geahgioai, [No. 162. 

and 00 country in the worlds perhaps, affords better opportunities for 
their study than S. India* Some of the 'fissures of the dyke on the 
ridge of the hill are filled with cale spar, and many of the loose Uoeks 
encrusted with the same mineral and compact reddish konker. 
Thin seams of nephrite occasionally intervene between the basalt and 
its walls; and the limestone associated with the slates has in some 
instances been converted into chert after assimilating calcedony in tex- 
ture and colour. 

Where basaltic greenstone and granite^ or other plutdnic rocks have 
extended on a great scale, we generally find not only a great tendency 
to crystalline and mineral development, but a segregation of the ordi- 
nary components of the rocks of the heated area, of such magnitude as 
to be at once apparent in the physical aspect of the country in large 
beds and ridges of quartz, iron ore, or quartz strongly impregnated 
with iron, felspathic clays, &c. 

But to return. At the Southern base of the ridge the shales acquire 
a massive structure, and form a soft lilac tinted rock speckled with 
green, with a slightly soapy feel and easily sectile, which melts before 
the blow-pipe per se into a pearly glass. It is here quarried and carved 
into images, figures of deities, &c*, which are exported. 

I had a very neat representation of the Avatars of Vishnu, executed 
on a large slab of this material which, though I have given it the 
name of figure-stone, by no means resembles the agalmatoliteof China, 
used for similar purposes.* Much of the water rising through the 
fissures of the rock around the base of the ridge is impregnated with 
muriate of soda ; and further West to Ganlapaud the plain is inter, 
sccted with trap dykes penetrating the grey limestone and its asso- 
ciated shales, which are often greatly altered and silicified. The 
general direction of the strata observed was E. S, E. and S. E. and dip 
N. of E. Hence, the plain to the base of the Rayelcherroo hills is 
chiefly limestone and associated shales and schists covered with regur. 
South of Rayelcherroo the limestone becomes of a waxy texture, 
compact, of a conchoidal fracture, veined and dotted with delicate 
shades of green, yellow, red, and imbeds pyrites. It rises into inegu- 
lar hills and ridges, alternates with sandstone, and sandstone conglo- 
merate. The hills become still more confused and jumbled, as the 

* The Agalmatolite is wholly infusible. This is probably one of the many varieties 
of steatite<^£Ds. 



1845.3 acrosi the Peninsuia of Southern India, 4 1 3 

janctioii line with the granite is approached about six miles £. of 
Gooly, and the development of quartz is seen on the strange shaped 
peaks and mural ridges near the granite line. These hills, which form 
a most rugged and picturesque country, constitute the main and wes. 
ternmost ridge of which the Oundicotta range just passed is a spur 
running down into the great plains of Tarputtri and Dhoor, and termi* 
nating abruptly as we have seen at CuUamuUa, a few miles N. of the 
Travellers' bungalow at Chillumcoor. 

These westernmost ridges instead of following the S. E. direction 
of the Gundicotta spur at the point of bifurcation between Banganpilly, 
Owk, Munimudgoo, and PiapuUy, continue their nearly N. and S, 
course from the banks of the Tumbuddra near Kurnool by Gooty to the 
vicinity of Anantapore in the Bellary district, whence they turn Easterly 
to the S. of Cuddapah^ where they join the Eastern Ghauts; thus 
forming with the " impenetrable unsurveyed" spurs projecting westerly 
from the Eastern Ghauts along the S. bank of- the Tumbuddra, to the 
North, the most complete basin perhaps in Southern India, embracing 
the great Regur plains of Cuddapah and Kurnool, and the beds of the 
Pennaur and its tributaries the Khoond and Chittravati. The Pennaur, 
which rises near Nundidroog, flowing Southerly 'from these water- 
sheds of the elevated plateau of Mysore, is deflected suddenly by the 
great granitic outburst near Gooty from its farther course Northerly 
towards the Tumbuddra, which it would have certainly joined had not 
this rocky barrier compelled its stream to seek an Easterly course through 
the hilly edges and fertile plains of this sandstone. girt basin^ to the 
Bay of Bengal. This basin and its rocky mountainous fringe, which 
consists chiefly of the diamond sandstone and limestone, comprehend 
the richest diamond mines of the former kingdom of Golconda, iron 
in great abundance, and the richest and almost only mines of galena 
in Southern India. It is composed for the most part of sandstone con- 
glomerate, sandstone, arenaceous schists, limestone passing into silici- 
ous schists and into argillaceous schists, and shales of various shades, 
reddish brown, chocolate, and pale green prevailing. It was thought 
by Malcolmson, Heyne and others, that the formation consisted of the 
limestone underlying a sandstone and conglomerate imbeciding the 
diamond. So far this is the case, but I have discovered on the Eastern 
limits from Juggernath S. of Kurnool to Gooty, and at Mudelaity 



414 Notes^ principaliy Geological^ QNo. 162. 

near Banganpiily, that beds of sandstone and sandstone conglomerate, 
reposing immediately on granite, underlie the limestone ; and that the 
limestone mast have been consolidated prior to the deposition upon it 
of the upper sandstone and its conglomerates, since in the latter I have 
found imbedded pebbles from the subjacent limestone. The formation, 
then, consists of an upper and lower sandstone and conglomerates, and 
the intervening limestone and associated shales. 

Leaving this granite based chain, the great frontier plains of the 
Ceded Districts and Mysore are crossed to the hill fortresses of Rai- 
droog, and Chittiedroog, where we find magnificent outbursts of gra- 
nite and other plutonic rocks, rising abruptly and irregularly from 
the nearly vertical hypogene schists which have suffered every variety 
of flexure and disturbance. 

Chundergooty Droog, The granite, on which stands the Droog or 
hill fort of Chundergooty, rises into two lofty peaks, the steepest sides 
of which are nearly parallel to those of the Western Ghauts, sloping 
off towards the East and South. The joints in the lower ranges of 
laminar granite, or granitoidai gneiss, are divided by vertical fissures 
giving them much the appearance of vertical strata, as remarked by 
Christie in his paper on the Geology of the South Mahratta country. 
The Droog, it is said, was built in the time of the Pandion kings, and 
strengthened by Hyder. The village in the base consists of about fifty 
houses under a Kiliadar, with twenty men. Coffee is cultivated at 
Sindli, a village about a koss distance, and iron, obtained from mines 
at a short distance, is exported hence to the West coast. 

From Chundergooty to Siddapore, the road for the latter part lies over 
the undulating and hilly tracts on the slopes of the Western Ghauts, 
which gradually become more and more covered with wood. Granite, 
and the hypogene rocks, intersected by dykes of basaltic greenstone 
and overlaid occasionally by patches of laterite, are the only rocks 
observed. About three koss distance from Siddapore lies the ancient 
and decayed town of Bilghy, formerly the capital of the Santavi-raya 
Rajahs. Siddapore is now the Kusbah town of the talook. It contains 
between 200 and 300 houses, inhabited chiefly by Lingayats speaking 
Canarese, Concanis, Haiga Brahmins and Mussulmans. The staple 
articles of cultivation are rice, betel-nut, cardamoms, and black pep- 
per. The three last are exported chiefly to Mysore, the Ceded Dis- 



1845.3 across the Peninsula ijf Southern India, 415 

triet8> and other parts of the interior; and to the natire port f4 
Kompta on the Western coast, passing down the Gairsappa or Hos. 
salmacki Ghaut and the Hobs Ghaut, on bullocks. Iron is procured 
in the neighbouring hills. 

Ridge of the Western Ghauts. Between Siddapore and the Falls of 
Gairsappa, the highest edge of the Ghaut ridge is crossed ; the water* 
sheds of the table-lands to the Eastward, and of the mountain-streams 
that rush in the monsoon with great violence down their precipitous 
sides and across the narrow strip at their base into the Indian 
sea. 

The Warda was the last stream of any size observed flowing £as. 
terly. The Ghauts descend to the Westward from this anticlinal axis 
by short and steepish declivities and irregular terraces. The surface 
rock is principally a quartzy lateritic conglomerate, overlying the 
hypogene schist, principally hornblende schist, gneiss, mica, chioritic, 
talcoae, and actynolitic schists, which are occasionally seen basseting 
out. The more ferruginous of these schists disintegrate into a compact 
red clay, in which are seen veins of quartz continued from the subja- 
cent rocks, still maintaining their slope and direction. 

The soil is red and clayey, and in the rains greasy and slippery 
in the extreme, owing probably to the decayed talc and mica ; garnets 
abound in it. 

Physical aspect TV. Ohauts. As the Ghauts are approached from 
the plateau of Mysore, the flat plains begin to undulate, rising all 
the time to the Westward, and as the traveller progresses the undu- 
lations become shorter and more perceptible, till the highest ridge 
of the Pass is attained. The height of the rocks on either side of the 
path is generally concealed by forest. 

The nature of the vegetation that clothes the surface too suffers a 
manifest change, and becomes more profuse. In place of the clumps 
of mangoes and tamarind, which diversify the plains with their hedges 
and thickets of Aloe, Euphorbia, Cacti, Acacia, Cassia, Parkinsonia? 
we see graceful clumps of bamboo, the broad-leafed Bilami, Marsea 
Chinensis, the leaves and root of which are supposed to be specifics 
for snake-bites, a^d the Dudol yielding excellent timber. The 
Pulas (Butea Frondosa) with its brilliant orange-red flowers yield, 
ing a beautiful yellow dye known to the preparers of the coloured 



416 NaUSt principally Geological^ QNo. 162^ 

balls used in the festival of the Hooli^ and its broad thick leaves 
which serve the Hindu as plates and dishes, the laniel.leaved Oonii 
(Ixora parviflora) which furnishes torches for the traveller. The 
Mutti tree (Chuncoa Muttia) the ashes of which, particularly thebark, 
containing much potash, are used instead of chunam, by betel-chew- 
ers : the tree also affords good timber. Here and there a magnificent 
banyan throws down its hundred arms, and the sacred Peepal rears 
its verdant head; while further in the jungle grows the sandal, supply- 
ing the fragrant oil and wood for which this part of the Ghauts is h~ 
mous. The Sissoo (Dalbergia,) and Terminaliaalaia, excellent timber 
trees ; the hard and lofty teak itself, and the Hopea decandria, the 
wood of which is harder and more durable even than that of the teak; 
the sago and areca palms, the jack, and the cashew nut. The wild cin. 
namon (Cassia lignea) grows in great abundance near the Falls, and the 
underwood glowed with the beautiful blossoms of the scarlet Ixora, 
sacred to Siva and Krishnu, while the air was redolent with the fira- 
grance of the wild jasmine. 

The vegetation of the Ghauts strongly reminded me, in its regular 
and smooth bust-Iike outline, of that which clothes the lovely and ever 
verdant Malayan Islands to the water's edge, similar loranthaceous 
parasites festoon the loftier trees of the forest, and the jungles abound 
with Myrtaceee and Laurineee. The Ixoras and Eugenias are common 
to both, and the cultivated foresC clearings yield abundant supplies of 
black pepper, cardamoms, areca, coffee, plantains, &c 

Falls of Gairsuppa. Accompanied by my friend, Lieut. White, 
47th Regt., I arrived from Siddapore at the thatched bungalow of 
Korkunni, early in August, a little after midday. The bungalow 
stands in an open part of the forest, about one and a half mile from 
the Falls, the sound of which however did not yet reach us. Dripping 
with rain, our shoes full of blood from the jungle leeches that had fast- 
ened on our legs, and tolerably well fagged from a muddy march chiefly 
on foot over clayey and rocky ascents and descents, covered with 
dense thicket, we could not restrain our curiosity ; but leaving our 
servants to prepare breakfast, with a guide trotting in front, we has- 
tened towards the Falls along a narrow path winding through bush 
mixed with tall forest which clothes the banks of the Sarawati, tot 
such is the name of the river that performs this stupendous lover's-Ieap 



1845.3 across the Petiinsula of 'Southern India. 417 

from the chains of the giant Ghauts into the arms of bis oeean.rescued* 
Mistress — prolific Canara. 

As we threaded the tortaous path, the rushing sounds of the 
rapids became clearly distinguishable from the shriller whistling of 
the wind^ and the pattering of the rain among the leaves and branches 
of the trees. 

On a nearer approach this rushing sound was suddenly drowned 
by the deep thunder, evidently of the Fall itself, which appeared to 
proceed from a great depth beneath the ground on which we walked, 
and which now was fairly felt to vibrate from the weighty shock. The 
air too became palpably colder, a phenomenon doubtless caused by the 
evaporation from the clouds of spray which canopy the Falls and ad* 
jacent banks. 

Deceived by this sound, which still seemed afar off, into the ima- 
gination that the river was yet at a considerable distance, we unex- 
pectedly emerged from the thicket upon the rapid immediately above 
the brink of the Falls, when the cause of this deception became evident ; 
the din of the waters had been deadened by the peculiar shape, the 
immense depth, and confined dimensions of the chasm into which 
they were precipitated. Hence the ventrioloquism of the cataract. 

We now stood silent and astounded by the roar and rush :— amid 
the grey clouds of mist and spray the arrowy waters of the rapid 
were visible, divided into a multitude of currents by the rock masses 
against which they tumultuously dashed in their impetuous progress 
to the edge of the precipice. 

Here, as the eye and ear follow its course to the main Fall, the ra. 
pid literally dies a sudden death; its clamorous voice is abruptly si- 
lenced, and it bodily disappears, as if by magic, in the bowels of the 
earth, or into the region of moving mist which curtained the chasm 
from the place we were standing on. 

After indulging a short time in this magnificent spectacle— a gem 
set in lovely mountain and forest scenery — we scrambled over the 
muddy and slippery shelves of rock towards the edge of the principal 
Fall. The river was much swollen by the monsoon, but had been still 
foUer, as shown by the bruised and shattered forest trees which had 

* The Brahmins have a tradition, that the sub-ghautine maritime tracts of the 
Western Coast were raised from the ocean for their especial use. 

3 M 



418 NoteSf principally Geological, [No. 162. 

been uprooted, borne down, and thrown in confusion with other ve- 
getable debris on the rocks we had to cross. 

Crawling on hands and knees — an operation rendered eligible by the 
then slimy surface of the rock and the painful effects of a score of turn- 
bles — we contrived to reach the shelf of rock which completely projects 
over the margin of the chasm, and forms an admirable point of view. 
We lay down flat on the surface of this shelf, which slopes gently from 
the chasm, and drew ourselves up to its edge over which, as I stretch, 
ed my head, a sight burst on the view, which I shall never forget, and 
can never hope to describe. I have since looked down the fuming 
and sulphurous craters of Etna and Vesuvius, but have never expert- 
enced the sensations which overwhelmed me in the first downward 
gaze into this (Hibernice,) volcano of waters : — for so it looks. 

All thoughts of the picturesque, all pre-formed resolutions of sub- 
duing the exaggerated impressions likely to be produced on the iouu 
gination by such a scene, and reducing them by the sober checks of 
calculation of height, depth, velocity, bulk, dec. — at once vanished, and 
left the mind partaking in the tumultuous confusion and agitation 
going on. But it is the chaotic scene beneath that rivets with basi- 
lisk fascination the gaze of the spectator, and produces in some minds 
the dangerous impulse or desire of self- precipitation. 

This impulse originates possibly in a sympathy existing between 
the hufnan Mind and what is termed, perhaps inaccurately, " Inani- 
mate Nature," which in its calm and beauteous state exercises so great 
a tranquilizing effect on certain minds. 

Passive amid this activity, the spectator looks downwards into an 
apparently fathomless gulf of plunging waters,, spray, uproar, and 
mist ; first perhaps with a feeling of fear and giddiness, which rapidly 
vanishes, and the mind becomes not only reconciled to the ineesaancy 
and unvarying nature of these phenomena, but fascinated more or 
less by them. It was with great reluctance, and with an intense 
feeling of depression, that I withdrew my head drenched in spray 
from the brink of the precipice, to examine in detail other parts of the 
Falls. One might almost gaze for ever on this abyss in which a mighty 
mass of water appears eternally burying itself in a mist-shrouded 
grave. The clouds of spray which continually ascend heavenwards in 
slow and majestic wreaths, appear to typify the shade wy.ghoets of the 



i 845.] across the Peninsula of Southern India. 4 1 9 

entombed waters. The principal or Horse-shoe f*all is deeply located 
at the right bend of the ellipse formed by the entire chasm. Over it 
is precipitated the great bulk of the river, which fell over the edge 
with a smooth and graceful curve in one huge muddy mass, and de. 
seended in an unbroken sheet until lost to the eye in the volumes of 
spray below. 

The Rocket Fall is on the left of the Horscshoe^and^ though insig- 
nificant in volume, is a cascade of extreme beauty^ excelling those 
of Tivoli. This Fall after descending perpendicularly a great depth, 
encounters a projecting ledge of rock from which it glances with great 
velocity y^ whiteness, and brilliancy, forming in its descent the parabolic 
curve of a rocket, and sending off brilliant white jets resembling foil- 
ing stars and tailed meteors. 

The Roarer^ so named from its noise, is nearer the Horse-shoe than 
the Rocket, and larger in volume ; it descends in two streams upon a 
shelf of rocky down the highly inclined surface of which they rush 
with much noise and rapidity in one mingled mass of foam. In the 
dry weather no less than six or seven other Falls are distinguishable. 
I observed a number of small rills which^ after descending some dis^ 
tance, separated into threads: these, in descending, became gradually 
divided into drops and spray, and mingled with the ascending wreaths 
of mist, apparently never reaching the bottom of the cataract. 

In order to asoertain the height of the principal Fall, we let down a 
plummet attached to about 1000 feet of rope ; but it got entangled 
near the bottom of the precipice, and broke in our exertions to draw it 
up. Mr. T. Lnshington, of the Madras Civil Service, informs me, that 
he had successfully measured it in the dry season, and the result oT 
these measurements were as follow i^— 

Feet. 

From the top of the Falls to the surface of 1 nog 
the water in the basin below, . • j 

Depth of water in the basin, . . • • 300 

Total, •« .. 1188 feet. 
The sheet of water above the Falls was about 300 yards broad, (Mr. 
E). Mai thy, of the Civil Service, informs me it is sometimes nearly 600 
yards broad), and at least on average eight feet deep,* current about six 



420 NoU8, principally Geological^ [No. 162. 

or seven miles per hoar. In the dry season it is scarcely knee.deep, 
and can be forded immediately above the Falis^ with perfect safety, to 
the opposite bank, whence a path, partly hewn in the rock, leads to the 
basin and bed of the river below, impracticable or nearly so in the 
depth of the monsoon. There are many other cascades in Upper Canara 
seen glancing among the forest-dad heights of the Ghauts^ but which 
are approachable with difficulty during the monsoon, for instance, those 
near Yellapoor, and Honeycoom, about three koss from AllawuUy. 

To have a true estimate of the beauty of the Falls of Gairsuppa, 
they should be visited both during the monsoon, and when the water 
in the river is so low as to admit of their being viewed from below. 

The rocks immediately beneath must present one of the n|ost strik- 
ing illustrations in the world of the eroding action of falling water, as 
proved by the immense depth of the basin. To these must be added 
the abrading effects of precipitated masses of rock. At the time of my 
visit not less than 43,000 cubic feet of water, by rough calcolation, 
were falling per second into this vast rock basin. 

The precipice, over which the water falls, affords a fine section of 
the gneiss and its associated hypogene schists, which dip Easterly and 
Northerly away from the Falls at an angle of about 35^. The gneiss 
is composed of quartz and felspar, with both mica and hornblende, 
and alternates with micaceous, talcose, actynolitic, chloritic and horn- 
blende schists, imbedding (especially the latter) iron pyrites. These 
rocks are penetrated by veins of quarts and felspar, and also of a fine- 
grained granite composed of small grains of white felspar, quartz, and 
mica. Christie is of opinion, that this rock is not so old a granite as 
the ordinary granites of India, and that this is the only locality in 
India where he has met with primitive gneiss. No sound geological 
proof, however, is assigned for this opinion. All the granites of India 
are of posterior origin to the hypogene rocks, which they have invaded 
and altered. Regarding the age of the hypogene rocks themselves — 
always a most difficult problem to solve — we are still in the dark; 
nor does the fact of this granite being associated with the so-called 
" primitive gneiss," lead us to infer an origin more recent than the or- 
dinary granites of South India. 

The mass of hypogene rocks has evidently been worn back several 
hundred feet by the erosion and abrasion of the cataract ; the softer 



1845.] across the Peninsula af SouUisrn India. 421 

talcose and micaceous Bchists have suffered most. Mr. £• Maltby tells 
me, that an instance lately occurred of the manner in which the great 
Fall has receded. One of the crags composing the edge of the precipice 
gave way, and in its descent struck a projecting ledge of rock with so 
▼iolent a concussion as to carry away a large extent of the face of the 
precipice. The whole mass fell into the basin below with a noise that 
startled the country for some miles around. 

Rock basins are frequent in the bed of the river^ which is worn in 
the rocky and rugged with water. worn rocky masses. The Falls of 
Gairsuppa may be justly ranked amongst the most magnificent 
cataracts of the globe. While excelled in height by the Cerosoli 
and Evanson cascades in the Alps/ and the Falls of the Arve in 
SaToy^ the Gairsuppa cataract surpasses them in volume of water 
precipitated; and while much iDferior to Niagara in volume, it far 
excels these celebrated Falls of the New World in height. 

There are other picturesque falls and cascades in this part of the 
Ghauts : those most worth seeing are the cascades of Honeycoom, about 
three koss from Allawully, and those of Yellapoor. Farther North 
are the splendid Falls of the Yenna in the Mahabuleshwar hills, 600 
feet high ; and to the South those of the Cauvery, 300^ viz., the Gunga 
Cbakki 300 feet high, and the fiurra Chakki, or Southern Fall, about 
200 feet. Then come the Cascades of the Neilgherris, viz. those of Py. 
kari, Kaiteeor Kulhattee, and the Elk cataract. The Falls of Courtai- 
Inm in Tinnevelly are about 220 feet high, and the sacred cataract of 
Pupanassum among the Ghauts of Travancore 160 feet high, and 
lastly, of the Falls of Komari near Cape Comorin. The mass of water 
precipitated over these Falls in the monsoon, and the amount of erosion 
and minor details are still desiderata. Many other Cascades exist in 
the Western Ghauts, of which there are no published accounts at all. 
Those of Gokauk I have already attempted to describe. 

* The height of the Cerosoli Cascade is 2400 feet; that of Evanson, 1200 feet; and 
the Falls of the Arve, 1 100 feet. 

At Niagara a sheet of water, two miles across, is contracted to less than half its former 
breadth, and in the state of an impetuous rapid, running at the rate of seven or eight 
miles an hour, and about 25 feet in depth, is hurled over a projecting mass of horizon- 
tal limestone strata down a precipice 164 feet high, over which it falls in two great 
sheets into the basin below. 



422 NoUSi principally 'Geohgiealy QNo. 162. 

Western facade of the Ghaute. We now descended the Ghaats 
by the Hossulmakki Pass. Qneiu and its associated schists are seen as 
at Oairsuppa ; but the gneiss is not so abundant. 

These rocks