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JAMES P R I N 8 E P, F. R. 


" It wfl] flanriih, if natnnBit*, elumlit*, 
•dnicc, ID dilTerept parti of Jiia, wiUeommftt 
tlmn to the Aaltlc Society at CalentU ; It wiU I 
be laii( intnrButtml ; ud will die ■*■}, if thcj xuu suuisi] »•»> 

Sir Wm. Jomb*. 

€altutta I 


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The Journal has now saryiyediU fourth year of existence, or 
inclnding the Gleaning$ in Science j its seventh ; yet so far from 
feeling its vigour abated, or finding its contributors grown lan- 
guid, or its supporters &lliDg off, the past year has produced a 
volume overflowing with original matter, even to the exclusion of 
extracts from the publications of Europe— a volume exceeding 
by fifty pages of text any that has preceded it, and embracing 
nearly double the usual number of plates. 

The List of Subscribers in India remains in numbers much the 
same as before; but the demand for the work in England increases 
daily, and much of the new matter it contains is greedily trans- 
ferred to the pages of European literary and scientific periodi-* 
cals of wide and established circulation. The Editor says thus 
much by way of information to his numerous correspondents 
throughout India, who have not the opportunity of perusing the 
home journals, and who lose sight of their own labours the 
moment they have entrusted them to his pages* 

The pecuniary aspect of the concern, up to the end of 1885, 
would not appear very encouraging to a apeculatet^ but it is 
satisfactory as far as regards the object of maintaining a recipient 
for literary and scientific researches in India, at the smallest tax 
upon its supporters, and yet without any ostentation of per* 
sonal sacrifice. The collections up to the present day have beea 

in an SiccaRupees, 16996 11 8 

There remain due by Subscribers in Bengal, 1815 5 
and by the Asiatic Society, for copies furnished to 

ite Members, in 1895, ^. lOSO 

Also, due by Subscribers at Bombay, Madras, 
and Ceylon, 1086 6 

Making the total income of four years, Rupees, S0868 6 8 

m-" vnfAt^* 

Tbe "prmtii^gf^apQnp^ 


rt '*.»■• 

- , . .&ca886r«iy4«ii. .i98W>< 0,/).^ ,:.....' j 

freight, postage, and other contingencies, •;;.^94lt§iBfll iilr 

'JlokiA^*keit0t»lMp^Qidit««e,ei^ ^o,{^l 

'Awkhmi% itpcto4h«i6MlcrAiiMft4tMP^^ 

o^^ndfogB^tiwihidUKtdtktfeSml^'ibO jiftx{9^ll^(^ 99»K|t§}Mj 

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tiettutfamfthatjiefl anfriorioilarfjflstaHtolifj^Olll^ 
IadiBi^>JU]^|3iMil>]LUs^1kibLiiieim]feiA^ tfo^AnA 

teer k^ifi|iiA^'i;i4r{M|^ktrfidQHioii^!jto}Ah^ 
actodiitsiA|hi'niiUan^Iadt}^iJidb£Alai^^ S^ifili^^i^ift^t^M^ 
of the new currency. a£kfasfittilMfSiMi0ritf«^<lift^M^4$i^^ 
haff^^ki<piiy[diUBBri]^mp9ihiii»ih«^ ^j/ltgb 

fradtibtiidextem«f!i^d[>kte^dh!Utfa(fi^ i^Hi ,97(0891'lo 

andkiqafeHatefeftd^atwihadiit ;iotibo««r/irt^%|^M^<}|M9)if|)r^ft^o 

bj6«t jnf9fesiiondi]i|Bif<>dU<^i99%^l^ ^fil4^^^^^^*^^ ' 


PFin, i iook^Mnidli«'> timA ihe^Mu^mchkhmi^U^ ^ W4 : 1 #ii»p^r#t . •; 

^3\kmcalcnktad[and>^ibfiip^0foil>e; ^pfid i hy.y ^Jh^^'^S'^i^ r ^ 
scribfiiT^^^^''^ <^bnBB«|^I(te%( Wiiiiim |Mrtd7/^iiv@i«^i r 

eo'tMpmdsiimkr^^dma ikbAkeifiiof tfafo ^l»s||«|i««[iv«(i[<^^i JpHimlv J 

it 'iMahl{<tfttiflCureiibfiit^ieiiiainse^»A# bftlA JUHi^MXr-pifoK^iQ^' r* 
motfefiwoxBUAiin^^itOiMlibMfas^ ; 

to withdraw on account of the d&k charge exceeding the price 
(and it iiay brpWsumetf 1h \M¥'iye% Wvalue) <>f t!te work 

r* • 

Some modification of the exi^lli^f$Mo'^o9^m^^Kge^iUif.i^ 
eoafidentlybe ekpAsied, ^pAncb maj^ave oomtributors jfl|i6ciai<( 
ly from the heavj'taroii^hetraBlilliiaifioti^f Manuscripts*. 

'^ ffit'-'be "asked, what has been the most prominent object of 
interest discnssed in t%^ presinl; yi^hao^y . the 3niEf«{ar adiibt 
naturally point' to^ th^^F^ooeediags-Jol tlie.Aeiatic Society, in 
rega^ t^ltlie pubKcatl o n of the Oriental Works which had been 
suspended by ail iPtOm <>f vtN 4ttpreBta 3«rramment, sAstajtiie 
Tth ftar^b/'f 8dlk- - • ■ '-'' i'-*'*- ' .<'^ i^auo hm^ f':\u'.j„: , .-^i 

' WiJniu t'Tentnring to impugn in any degree tl^e wisdom or 

dimwu IbB cuuutenance of Government from the learned na- 
tive ^M^^i%^^Mttt^^ fiaid>fMlitfi]iiaiE|794^«Bq|r ^cofideindk- 
tibn fttttihAa0ifoi]ke«fr««Ilt«siitel^tiir6, ar&a}»4seqaao%cahlatih^ 
mt^^Me ¥i T^¥9fk^fyf&iiilt «l^4$i]Bdiabb#HhbiA«ia|igfl6bai^V o 
in stepping forward to rescue the half-printed y4riU0BVofi9aii8eBi^o 

l6ln6lt^«to«^t^Ml|8%rff Mwbot.^ Bieft:rBi{tbeiiiiu»^r.t 

ioMto ^tiy<h#f9t>nUl^tiawP]iid^edrhaer^<kcthe^ 
d«l(^ftliiiMi4»f'ittn9^^ic<«&kiditioaoi4ifii^ to>t 

ttail '^iQNhftc&of^ftteiMS wlikfel^Qkibi^nal^tblidirid^a^ 

^ete MMfli 6(mM^i Wb.'mlmuiaasi la^ijtM ntdd^rnrpbAngon fi 
of state resohe, that i#aMii£tef:^lXaiBicbx^3b«!S9edzwbiddiJbei} 
toi ^^ki|idiifafpMb&i^«v imt^l<0aiy- ^ '4Aa({^€faaiai[i GOtattJtfisticfii 
of?life'A!ilM'!liidiAlf OoTHnub^nt^ Jiii^«diiob«haiiitaniterx)f fam 
EtoMvfl^ flakPtfPJari^giifa^ WNAssaril^iibreigiiifaftlie^einitadrtf 

fiien. The unbiassed spectator beholds, at M»^*f^siiedi^'iiahr: 
QolhAsaia^ iiee«tin]g^ti»Ifpf dAg^lidOii^gffw 
ani^tttikiBjfiiteMdBb>^'e^blIihffag«ill*^ ^. 

fieiliMr 'tfM^^illMkttMiiri tnld^lwt -J aso^y I 

ke bcAMdi iPtkH^^rittgf^M Ob w4^r^> jialf tnbskited'arqkalf -^ 

wiitlfiMM^ftieiKlMBtttllteaifi^ ^he^neooisqgBmciniiaiui a*|>^i4D9f n 
pofiMdi^ #Pifd^1#^-^^nMlliq^i^^ 

«.^ «B?j«e^ ?S?5^Nb» .??^i«ft f ,^'''*? '^*i^ '"w ^"?!»?: t . .. ) 

• •• 


heretofore were held out as temptations to the stird j of tiiA 
dasBical languages by Europeans — and leaving the completion 
of the Mah&bhirat to the charity of private subscription, along 
with the statistical information collected by Bitchavan ; ifae 
geographical and geological, by Moorcroft, Votskt, and Hrr- 
BERT ! When he sees all this, and a contribution of IdOO rupees 
refused for the printing of a Cochin Chinese Dictionary, tendered 
by a Catholic Bishop, in the distressed state of his Mission, 
even without demanding any remuneration for the labour of 
compilation, can he divest himself of the idea that the pre- 
sence or the absence of a 8ir Wm. Jokes, a Wilkins^ a Cols- 
BROOKE and a Wilsov have inflttenced these opposite re- 
solutions ? The learned world will at any rate rcjjoiee that 
. our Hindnst&ni, Bengali, Marhatti, Tibetan, and Sansorit Dic- 
tionaries have passed into permanent existence anterior to the 
epoch of interdiction ; and that while the Asiatic Society sup- 
plies, however feebly, the patronage lost elsewhere, India need 
not be wholly dependent upon France and Oermany for its edi- 
tions of the Sanscrit classics, and for the development of the 
ancient history and philology of the nations under British rule. 

This is the gloomy side of the annual picture ; but let it not 
be imagined, that there is no sunshine ; nor that we seek to 
shade it. 

The government has liberally rewarded and patronised She 
labours of Mr. MasIon, and of Mohan La'l, — ^it has deputed a 
scientific mission under charge of Dr. Wai^ligh, into the tea 
districts of Assam ; it has in 8ke manner deputed Mr. Adam, 
to follow the steps of Dr. Buchanan, in ooileetii]^ statistieal 
information principally id connection with the education of the 
people ; it has employed its engineer officers in a grand sectional 
survey of a line from Rajmahal to Ciltwa, with the view to 
examine its fitness for a canal to join the Hugh and Oaaipes : 
and it still supports on a magnificent scale the grand Tr%ono* 
metrical Survey of India. The ;|oumal has net indeed beeu 
favoured with any report of the progress of these great works^ 
but it is known that the canal survey is new finished >-*«nd 
that Major Everest has completed the measurement of a second 
base near Seharanpur. Other official reports, such as surveys 
of Socotra, of the Maldives, Mr. Oordon^s excursions in Chin& 


thediieovery of iii«criptioos in Arabia, have been oblig- 
WBf^j eMUimiucated by the Bengal and Bombay Governments. 

The tiata of individual discoveries, physical and antiquarian, 
vogreaaed without iotermissioD : most interesting inscrip- 
mad eoias have been brought to light, and illustrated. 
-Faasil animals, of new and extraordinary species, have folloM^ed 
(hadiwoTary of Qoviidrian genera, themselves but recently made 
kftown, in the Sivalik range : the history of the Malayan states, 
aeeaoatsof various sects, of ancient ruins, of Buddhist cosmogony, 
m^d of Tibetan works, are among the subjects of the present 
volume ; and it is but fair to state, that materials for a new 
fohme of the Quarto Researches have been collecting, and 
ftinli^g, at tiie saase timo with the contents of the Society'^s 

Contrtbntioas in Mete<Krology this year have seemingly been 
wantnsg: they haive however been recdved regularly from vari- 
««8 qmurtent, and, now that the year is completed, will be made 
ose of IB a eoadensed form. 

Critkafln of Bcieatific Works published in India has indeed 
been negleeted, and that during a period when the press has 
been anaaBally prolific. This department of labour, as far as 
refaids the bringing to public notice new works, has been am- 
ply fulfilled by the daily press ; and beyond this it would be 
hiaikf aaife ^ extend the province of criticism in this country, 
tha EMLitor cannot conceal his own fallibility under the 
of an anonymous review. 

Want of space and want of leisure must, in the last place, 
be pleaded as an excuse for the absence of retrospective ana- 
lyaes of the progiess of the Sciences in Europe. The Editor 
hopes to obtain the aid of friends whose attention will be particu- 
lariy «^agod in pursuing these branches of knowledge in the 
eMuag yostr ; bat aU official functionaries in India are so fully 
oeeapied, that it is hftcd to expect from them work of superero- 
gati4Mi« It ia anme consolation, that the Indian reader being 
Unsetf aomewiiat i« the s^Obe predicament, will not have 
tine to discover the blemishes and blanks of our amateur 

> «. • 

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[To whom the Journal is forwarded at the Society's cost.] 

The Bimorable Sir C. T. Mbtcalfv, Bart. Governor Qeoeralof India, Patron A. 8, 
His Ezeelleney Sir R. Fans, Commander-in-Chief. 

His Excellency the Right Honorahle Sir R. W. Hoeton, GoTCraor of Ceylon, 
H. Bb. a.. S* aOH- Jdcm. 
The Honorable Sir E. Rtan, Knt. (9 copies.) 
The Right Rev. the Lord Bishop of CaleatU. 
The Honorable Col. W. MoaiaoN. 
The Honorable T. B. Macaulat. 
The Honorable Sir Benjamin Malkin. 
The Honorable Sir J. P. Okamt. 

Adam, Rer. W. 
Anbory, Col. Sir Thos. 
AvdaU, J. Esq. 

Bagshaw, R. J. Esq. 

Baker, Lieat.W. E. Engineers. 

Baillie, N. B. E. Esq. 

Beattie, J. Esq. 

Bateman, Rev. J« 

Bell, John, Esq. 

Bfaindell, A. E. Esq. 

Briggs, Col. J., Madras. 

Bnrke, W. A. Esq. 

Buney, Lient.-CQl. R. 

R- Esq. 

Boshby, O. A. Esq. 
Benson, W. H. Esq. 
Binay, C. Esq. 

Cantley, Capt. P. T. • 

Carr, W. Esq. 

ColTin, J. R. Esq. 

Corbyn, F. Esq. 

Csoma de Kdriis, A. Horn, Mem, 

Dobbs, A. Esq. 
lyOyly, Sir Charles, Bart. 
Dorand, Lient. H. M . Engineers. 
Dwaricaaath Tagore, Baboo. 

Egerton, C. C. Esq. 
Ellis, Capt. E. S. 
Evans, I>r. Geo. 
Everest, Rev. R. 
■ Major Q. 

Ewer, W. Esq. 

Faleoner, Dr. H. 
Foley, Capt. W. 
Forbes, Capt. W. N. 

Gerard, Capt. A. 
Grant, W. Ssq. 
J. P. Esq. 

Hare, D. Esq. 
Hodgsoa, B. H. Esq. 

Kyd, J. Esq. 

lAngstaF, J. Esq. 
Loch, O. Esq. 

Low, Lieut. -Col. J. 

Macfarlan, D. Esq. 

Macleod, Cant. 

Madeod, J. M. Esq. 

Macnaghten, W. H. Esq. Vice iVct. 

Macqneen, Rev. J. 

May, J. S. Esq. 

Melville, Honorable W. L. 

Mill, Rev. W. H. Viet Frei, 

Mackenzie, W. Esq. 

Montrion, Lieut. C. 

Nott, Chas. Angnstos, Esq. 

Pearson, Dr. J. 
Pemberton, Capt. R. B. 
Prinsep, C. R. Esq. 

H. T. Esq. 

-«^— — James, See, A. S, 
Phayre, Lieut. 

Radhacannt Deb, Baboo. 
Rameomnl Sen, Baboo. 
Richy, Mons. L. A. 
Russomoy Dutt, Baboo. 
Ross, D. Esq. 

Sage, Capt. W. 
Seppings, J. M. Esq. 
Strong, F. P. Esq. 
Stopford, J. P. Esq. 
^tooqueler, J. H. Esq. 

Thomason, J. Esq. 
Trevelyan, C. E. Esq. 
Taylor, Cut. T. G. 

T. J. Esq. 

Turton, T. £. M. Esq. 

Wade, Capt. C. M. 

Wilcox, Capt. J. R. 

Wilson, Professor H. H., Oxford. 

WaUich, N. Esq. 

White, Capt. S. M. 

Auoeiate Members, (Subscribers.) 

Brownlow, C. Esq. 
Piddington, H. Esq. 
Dean, E. Delhi Canal Dep. 
Stephenson, J. Esq. 


i;Who MC not Mcmliert of the Asifcttc Sodety, 19350 

Tli# iUAiwbJe the Court of Director., (bytlic S*cr«twf U» GOvefament. Genml 
J)«pwtBi«at/) ,oi!*« c0pr. ; - 

4vJu-,A«Awi TJeut^ W^'Sittrri^BMAwtii. Check, I>r. G. K. Baocoorali. 
V^^^^r\ul^k^^^ Coignard..E. Emj/uugbeepbrt. ,^ 

f'^^^k'^^i^^Sf^: 8SI3(e^a";f:^cTie.anae«a,o^^^^ 

Barrett. M; J^^- ^^^«^ ^.^^ . Cracroft, W. Eaq. ^ . ., , , 

S?rd R M Esq^^^^ ' ChunarBookaub,cpeoCT.O^tell, Eaq. 

Blake. Capt.Bl, cart f)fAr8mhh/iEiq. ^^WW^a. .1 .. i,)|.j,.;.t , h. A 

Calctrtttf. '• ' '" ^ .^ Cartwnght,.CajpUAgrap ,. ; . . .^ 

_-. , ♦ r*. A ff Hm <>attnitUi. ' Davidson, Capt J. E. Lnoknow. 

^ InitorWth*! * etteSf Mr.T. Oftttll. Drummoad, Capt, J J5, Allahabad. 

§2n?d«:Si!^^ «^^^^ ^-loP' Lieut.^01. V.^Calcutta. 

^^^ S M.l).<I,M^abi^^^ ' Edgewor»..M';ii;U^;i:mha)a. 

S^'iw^'l?; M > Cal<»tta. . Editor, Calctitta Couripr. 

Bramky, f'- »«. #. ^»^»- Chinese Repository. 

i^ 1'«« r ^D <SSi*ta. Emkine, D, Ewi.l:iamba»ar 

2'^r^^S?'*kJStt^ p Li^t 5. H. Neemuch. 

Brodie, Lieut. T. Asiiiin. _ Forater, Bf. W. Esq. FarrakhaoM. 

-- a . Will ■ i Aa JDl»C|» i/itwu. 

^"'r* — '. — , C. A. E^q. Mynporec. 

Calcutta Periodical Book Sodety. ^^ ..„ nr A rRl^utta 

Campbell. Dr. D.^«pur.. g:^^'.' ^Ipt* P^ WUo. 

: ■ PVm cHi'pore. Gordon. R.Ksq. Cirfeutta. 

:i^I' nr A M^ItaStt, ^ Gortoa, W. Esq. Benares. 

^;;;;nir!w.*E."^" Gowm.. E. p. Calcutt.. 



Gnh«m, J. Esq. Caleatta. 
Grut, J. W. Esq. Ditto. 

, Dr. J. Ditto. 

Qrmf, B. E^q. Caleatta. 
Gnmlaw, C. B. Esq. Ditto. 
Gabbiaa, C. Esq. Delhi. 

HaaOtoa, H . C Eaq, Monghyr . 
Hatdiag, Ben. Esq. Cklcatta. 
Harris, F. Esq. Ditto. 
Hart, Dr. T. B. Dinapur. 
Hasted, G. Ei»q. Benares. 

Horse, Sagmr. 
Homfiray, JUEsq. _ca^ of Messrs. Jessop 

and Co. Calcunal.' 
Howrali Doc^ Comftiat, Ditto. 
fioicbiascKn* MiyoT u. Enm, Cakfttttli. 
Hatton, Lieut. T. Ncemnch. ' 
Hyderabad Book i^odety, Hyderabad. 
Hon, Capt. Delht. 
HcaUf » S. G. Es^. Catcutta. ' > • ' 

laclEa, R. Esq. CalcntteV 

Irvine, M.f if}f A..Eb|;^. C. &. Gideatta. 

KnH Kiiaro. If&lNiiM^'Bahadvr, €al. 
Kean.^KTiMi. MWKh<id^bad. 
KossiperaandGhose, Baboo, Oa1ett4ftd. 
Kittoe, Lient. BamckpOT'e. ' 
Koyse^y^ M^op a W. Calcutta. 

Laidly. S^.'^.JSS^/ ' ' 
Laiag, J. W. Ei^SStelal^ ' 

Lamb, Dr. Geo. Daqfta. 




Unbs, T. Eflo. AllabL — 
Lovthcr, R.'Ssq. Lu6kd6w. 
liBMsdea, Cftpt. J. Pyitteyi^biif. 

Maedoaald. Uent. It Sagtkr. ' 
Maedowall, *vr. Esq. ^an^pdre. j 

MacGregor, Dr. W. L. lioodianah. * 
Hadeod, Col. D. Engrs. Moorshedabad. 
Kaason, Capt. J. Bmour.- < 

Martia, Lieut. R. £ogtB. 9beerg:faolty/ 
Masters, W. Esq. dftfcntta. ' ' ^ 

MUaer, Capt. E. T. Me^rs. R. GiUbil- 

Military 6<jwd, CaJ&tta, ^' 

Morris, G. J. Ksd. gft^oa. ' ■ ■•'^ 

Moaat, Li. Sir J.Ar^BfL Bagprs, Caleatta. 
Mailer, A. Bsq. Cfflcutt^ - 

Marray, Capt. Hr RvNoacoUy. 
Moai'erpore Book CWb, Tirboot. ' • 
MiUet, F. Ksq. Csilcntta. 
Military Library Society, Mhow. - 
Madwd, D- K. »4; Steobce. 

Mussooree Book Club. 
Marshall, Capt. G. T. Calcutta. 
Martin, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Mohun Lai Mnnsbi. 
McCosh, Dr. J. Assam. 
Moore. H. Esq. care of T. Ostell, Esq. 
McClelland, Dr. J. Messrs. Cantor and 

Napier, Lieut. J. Engrs. Seharunpore. 
Nioolson, Capt. M. Jubbulpore. 

, S. Esq. Calcutta. 

Officert, 73rd N. I. fiarrackpore. 

— ■ , 12th Regt. K. I.''A1Ta1iiift>ad; 

■ , 32nd Re|t. K."I. NiwsMrabad. 
•Omaiaaey, ^uU/^B*-^Xa En^s.. Agra. 

. M. C. i^Mk Baitool. 

Oglander, Lieut. Col. Meen^ , 

Parental A$. lastitutioa, Cajpi^tta. 

Parker, H. M. Esq. t>itto. 

Persidh Karain ding,. Qal|fo,TBtnaretr 

Pig^, T. Esq. Calcutta. ., 

Play fair, Or^G«p. Meerut. , 

Plumb, J. B. Efl<D CalcuUa. i 

Pbofea^Goi a PiUo, 

Presgrave, Col. D. Ditto. 

Proprietor of thf 'Eog^shmaq Pj;«sft, Qo. 

Rajkrishna Mukarjy, For^ ^^li^m. 
Ran ken, Dr. J. Calcutta. 
Rattriay^ B. H« E^* Calcutta. 
Renny, Lieut. T. Engrs. Cavuporc. 
Robsrtaob^ TcC> Efq. j^a^jittfi. 
Ross, Capt. Di Gwalior., ,, 
Rdw« Dr.. J. Barrackpqre^. 
Richards, Benj. Esq. Monghyr. 
R^dv D&JK. ;|feo|9LQ4s^vJkr« 

-Salt, CiedAi:?Bv)^« DeUi|, 
Samlera,fOap^ ^. Engrs^ Calcutta. 
Sandy3/f<.iBa%^.Patiif. :* 
Satchwell, Capt. X. Agra. ., 

Saunders, ii>«0. Bk Ssq<, AUygbur. 
ScTcstre, Robt. £sq^ CalouttH.' 
SiddonVf laeaA, ^ . £agrs. Chittagong. 

, G., i* E4q-' Calcutta, 

Shaw, T. A. Esqiqarif of Meurs. Bruce 

and Co. GftlMtta. , 
Sleeman, Capt. W«'H. JaVbulpore. 
Sloane, W. ^sq^jTirhoot. 
Smith, Col. T. P^JDiAapur. 

* p B. aMl Co. Calcutta. 

, Capt. E. J. Engrs. Allahabad. 
Smonlt, W«'flt Esq. Calcutta, 
Smyth, Capt. W. H. Engrs. DiUo. 
Speed, D. W. H^£sq. Ditto. 
Spiers, A^ M/tq*. oar<^ of Messrs. Oolvin 

fl ^ flshift y, Ov/ G»vG^/abbulpore,i 
Stacy, Major L. R. Allyghur. 
Stainforth, F. Esq. Gomckpore. 
StcTcnaoiif ]&r, Wi. Luci^ow* 
Stokes, Dr. J. ,Hm|»eerpore, 
Swiney, Dr. J. Calcnita. 
Sylhet Book CUib, SyUiet^ 
Syttasharan Ghoahal, Calcutta. 



StevensoD, Dr. W. Malaoea. 
Spiers, Col. A. Ajmere. 
Stewart, J. N. Esq. Messrs. Miiller 
Richie and Co. 

Thomas, E. T. Esq. Almorah. 
Thompson, Capt. 6- Engrs. Uazaribaglt. 
— -, Capt. J. EngTS. Calcutta. 
Thoresby, Capt. C. I>elhi. 
Thdrnton, J. Esq. Azimgbur. 
Tickell, Cof. R. Bftf|;rs. Bari«ekpore. 
TretrttM, V. Eeq, JfnuH>or«. 
Trade Assodatioa Rooms, Calcutta. 
Trail, G. W. Esq. Kemaon. 
Tremenhere, Lievt. Q. B. Engn. Delhi. 
Turner, T. J.>£8q..CaMriiiiore. 

Yicary, lieut. N. Berhampore. 

Udny, C. G. Esq. Caleodta. 

Walters, H. Esq. Cape. 
Wamer/Ctpt, jlM. Banleah. 
Waugh, tiieut. A.H. Engrs.DehraDoon. 
WeUs, F. O. Esq. Allahabad. 
Western, Lieut. J. R. Engrs. Delhi. 
White, Rev. E. Cawnpore. 
Wilkinson, W. Esq. Pooree. 

, L. Esq. Assistant Resident, 

BhopaL ' ' • ' -. 

Wi«e, Dr. T. A. cmre o/ T« Ostell, Esq^ 

, J. P. Eso. Dacca. 

Woohum, DrD. sherghatty. ' 
Wodlaston, M. W. BM}. Galrafcta. - 
WilUnaoit, Capt. T. Uawriha^h, 

Subscribers at Bombay^ cj-c. 

The Qombey Asiatic Societr.. Dr. J. Mclfennan, Bombay. 

Editor, Bombay Literary Gat, ^CapL R. Mignan, Ditto. 

Burn, A. Esq. Assfst. Stirgeon, Akldeott;. '' Rnggbona>i^ Hurry' ChuBd|f«e. 

BtT rues, Lieut. A. Kvtch, - Dr. Goo. SttyttoB^ OittOi* * 

K. C. ChambeT«, Esq. Surat- Lt. R. Shortreefle, Poonat 

Capt. lUoa. Jemvist.EngiDem^BQn^b^* Rcy. J. Stcrenaon,^ Ditto. 

J. S. Law, Esq. Surat. * T • "^ • ^ ^' !Shrcmestfa Whs^oodewjee, Chief 

Dr. J. McNeil, with the Persian Em* oretary^s Ofllce, Bemba^. 

bassy, vii Bombay. Jiom'ble Jv«8ufel«irl|Md, Ditto* ... 

J4 J. Malverj^ J^sq. Bombay, ^ , ,^ G^IlSl^a G. Tw^aw* Arungabad. 

C Moorhead, Esq. Mahabaleshur Hills. ' "V^. walhen, Esq. Qpmb&y. 


■» .< * I 


* •* J. . 

Subscribers uti Mwkr^^ 

Dr. Baikie, Neelg^efriM. 
Lieut. J. Braddock, Madras. 

- A I 

Lieut. Balfour. 
R. Cole, Esq.* - ' 
Col. W. Cullen. 
Li^t. T. Ditmas. 
H. S. Fleming, Esq. 
J. M. Heath, Esq. 
Madras Club« 

Col. J.-S. J^rnsor* 
W. Gilchrist, l&sq^ 

U. ' '. 

Lieut. S. MacpbeHon. 

Dr. J. G. MaledlmMd. • 

J.,C, M^r^is, Efq... , ^ 

Hon»ble W, Oliver. 

J. B. Pharoah, iSstf.* ' ''*' 

T. G. Taylbr, ^<'H. C. AatNUoiieri f : 

Dc.'J> Mooat, B«Qf«lor«..- 

' «' 


Lieut. ^. ^. Burl, ^gineers. 'WuBaidadersrBtq* 

Sir Charles Grey. Q.^winton, Esq. 

if J. Esq. 

J. F. Royle, Esq. 


Subscribers in Ceylon. 

The Hon'ble O. Tumour* The Kaady Library. 

The Hon'ble Granville. 

Peri^ittd wwks with which ihAJmwAal is interchanged, 

Pvof. Jauiejian*s£dlAbQeg)h JiKunMkDfiS^encQ. .. !• i. • 
Chincjte i(ep(i«jltory, . . • t . 
Asiatic Jouroal of London. !.■..■ 

Moii^ly JournAl, edited by S. Smith and Co. Oalcatta. 
■tJiiitea Service Journal, ditto by J. H. BtOoq«^er, 4£aq. 
LitoraryJonrnalrOf the Madras As. Son, . 

Calcutta Chvifctian Observer. • • - .a 

The Journal is circalated to all teteoM l§o<^ies entitled to Moeive a eopy of the 
A^tic Society's Researches. 

I » 


No.. S J .—JANUARY. 

I.^4^al7tl8^ of a TibeteB Medical Work. By M. Altzander CMM»a de KdrCs, . i; 

II:--4oikninf of a Tto Qirpni^ the Island of Rambree, Mth'a Gtfolc/gieal 
Sketeh of^.4)ic Coantfyy and Brief Account of tba CoBtoms, Sif, pf its 
InMMtaoU. .Br Ue^ Wnu Foley, ,«;..« ,.,..,.'/., aoi 

III.—DescrlpiMr' W ihe (to eaHoA) 'Mountain Tront of iUnMO'a. Bf Dr. J* 
M'CleDand, Assistant Surgeon, SOth Regt. N. I 39, 

rv.— Discovery of the Gennine Tea Plant in Upper Assam, 4^ 

v.— Ahatract of Meteorological Observations at Nasirabad. By Lieot.-Col. 
Thomas OUrer, 1^ .V. /^/A. ....f.. .' « 

Yl.— Longltiide''df jtrAsifabad^t^nnar'transiU and by Obsenratloos of Moon 
CoUnintl^ Sterf, % Xdculjl-tCQl. ^oma^ Oj^lTer, 52 

YII.— ProccedingiT tif •thooAaialiG S^ietyi 53 

VIII.— Mi8oeUafiiJfi[tii ^^ " ' ' l ^ 

>5P.i«ra»wfitf^».9l?.>^ aiif<pre»<^^»> tlie ^tR^ of rain at different 

elcTatioDS»«'.-<»tt. ,*^:<:# t* * » •v^ *«».•*«•., 59 

9. All lOMliiWil 8M*MMurlc('4n'«ht Bhy 63 

3. Sas^V;if at|R^^^ arahmaptttra River 63 

IX.— Meteorolopoiifc^slei*,*. "';.':... i 64 

No. 38.— FEBRUARY. 

I.— Some Account of a Sect' of Hindu Bchldsaatfes in Western India, calling ^;^ 
themselves Ramsan$fiL ^t friends of God. By Capt. G. E< WeiHoacott, 
Asst. to the Gov. Gisni A«ei»^ N. /E. Frontier, ': ! V\ . .*.* «5 

II.— Journal of a Xaat, through. th( I^And of Rambree, with a Geological 
Sketch of the Countf]^. and dtidra<^unt of the Customs, &c. of its Inha- 
bitanto. By Lieui^-i^m^ F<>ley.. WCth a map, Plate IV :..... 83 

ni I iMniiMWMfdit»i tf't3 S FnH?^°y to the TeaHiUs which produce the descrip- 
tion of Tea kiKi«aMa^CMDunMco.unaer the designation of Ankoy Tea. By 
G. J. Gordon, Esq. • . . • ** 

rV.— Observations on an Article in Lotd«n's„H«««»i»« <^^»*«'»1 History, on 
thesobjectof the Albathiss. By LMht. Thomas Hutton, 97t% iUgt. N. I. )o« 

v.— Roof of the New Iron ^oundcry at Rasipur near Calcutto, Ill 

VI. — ^Miscellaneous. 

1.— Desiderata and Recommendations of the British Association for the 

Promotion of Science,. ...»»..•*....'.•.•••.••-••-*•'•• • •• •" 

«.— Manilla Indigo, (so chllcd,)^. •*» 

YU.— Meteorological Register ^^^ 

No. 39.— MARCH. 
I.— keiWil^W «i- 'VlsH to 4B*) fMt» of tonrotfa, onee the capital of the Mi- 

thila province. By B. H. HodggOrf^lMi!.- Bertitnt in-NiHl» IM 

II.— Further particulars of the Sarun and Tirhut LAths, and account of two 
Buddha Inscriptions found, tl» o«> lat Ba^hra,, in Tijfhut, the other at 

Simith, near Benares. -'Bf J»*ws»^W«hset, Sou; As. Soc die 13* 

III.— Excursions to the Ruins and Site of an Andent City near Bakhra, IS 
. coo wnih mt: 99ltnm :MnA:f^ , "^fl^^fW Singhea. (Extracted from the 
JoumalofMr. J. Stephenson,) • •••.••....►.,. 128. 

IV.^Rqmrt on the Island of Soeotm. By ^nt. J. R. Wdlsted, Indian 

Navjr, Assistant Sarreyor, ; 138 

T.— Note on an Inseription on the Mandara hfll near Bhafelfnir, (forming a 

potteftpt to Article III. of the present number,) 166 

▼l»— Eztraets from a Jonmal kept during a Voyage from England to Galevtta, 

in 1891. By Lieut. T. Button, 37th N. I W7 

VII.— Account of Oxygyrus; a new Genus of Pelagian SfaeUi allied to the 
Genus Atlanta of Lesuemr, with a Note on some other Pelagian Shelli 
lately taken on board the Ship Malcolm. By W. H. Benson, Esq. Bengal 

Civil Service, 173 

VIII.— Proceedings of the Asiatie Society, 177 

IX.— Meteorological Register, I8i 

No. 40.— APRIL. 
I. — Description of Ancient Temples and Ruins at Cb^rdw&r in Assam, fly Cap- 
^ tain G. £. Westmacotti Assistant, Governor General* s Agent, N. £. 

Frontier, . s^ , i«| 

^, — Remarks on an Insoription in the Rai^a and Tibetan (U'chh^n) Charac- 
ters, taken from a Temple on the Confines of the Valley of Nepal. By 

B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident, .« 1^ 

III. — Jouraal of a Tour through the Island of Rambree, (Rimri ; Sana. 

RamavAti,) on the Arracan Coast. By Lieut. William Foley, . « . , * 199 

IV.— On the amount of Rain-fall at Calcutta, as affected by the Declinaiioa of 

the Moon. By the Rev. R. Everest, 99| 

V. — Further Note on the Inscription from S&rn&th, printed in the last No. of 

this Journal. By B. H. Hodgaon, Esq %ih 

VI, — Description of two new .«pecies of Carinaria, lately discovered in the Indian 

Oeean. By W. H. Bensoo, Esq. Bengal Civil Service, ^ . . . 2lg 

VII. — On a new species of Snake discovered in the Doab, ....** 917 

VI II. — Notice of an Extcaordinary Fish. By U. ^ddington, Esq* 218 

IX.— Rules for Calcalating the Lengths of the Drop-bars of Suspension Bridges^ 
the Length and Deflection of the Chain rise of the Roadway, &c. By Cap- 
tain J. Thomson, Engineers, 299 

X.— Table shewing the Weight or Pressure which a cylindrical wvoi|ght-iron 
Bolt will sustain when supported at the ends, and bonded in the middle of 

its Length. By Captain J. Thomson, Engineers, 999 

XI.— A Table of the Scantlings of Beams of Teak or Saul Wood, to sustain a 
Terrace Roof not exceeding seven inches in thickness ; tlie deflection not 
to exceed one-fortieth of an inch for each foot of length. By the same, .... 997 
XII.— On the Temperature of Deep Wells to the west of the Jamna. By the 

Rev. R. Everest, 299 

XIII.— Abstracts of a Meteorological Register kept at *> Cainevillc,*' Mus- 

sooree (Masitri.) By S. M. Boulderson, Esq 330 

XIV.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 339 

^V.— Meteorological Register, . 240 

No. 41. —MAY. 
I.— Sketch of the four Meningkibowe States, in the interior of the Malayan 

Peninsula. By Uent. J. T. Newbold, 23rd Regt. MMlraa Native Infantry, 941 
Il.^^Coraparison of the Heights of the Bnrnaeter, with the dlctaaoe of the 

Moon from the Celestial Equator. By the Rev. R. S«er«st, 952 

in.— <:k>ttimatlon Error of AstronomioBi laatmaiMta. % J. O. Xaylor, Eaq. 

H« C. Astronomer, Madras, •••• 9M 

tV.^OR tk0 Stnte of tt» Jwm AlkiTfuK, u wwyliiwl im tte lUiAt oaA 
Shods lately rmoTwl from tbe bed of the River ; and of the titet of tiio 
Fooril Bnee diiooTefed tliente. By SeijeMt EdoMwd 0e«i, i0l 

v.— Note oa the Gold Waebini; of tlM Q(mKi BHw. By JU««t. CMti^f, 
Beo^Aft. »f 

n.-^Natiee of the NiiMdete Spirit Still. By A. CMApbdl» Beq. If. D. 
attached to the Nifol Retideaey. BM 

VlI.^Nate oa oo inacription found near the Kesaiiah Mouod, in llrhat By 

J. B. Elliott, Eaq. (PI. XVU. fiff. 6.), • S86 

Tin.— Piroeeedi^gB of the Asiatic Soeiety, « t87 

IX-Metaonlogleal Register, 9M 

No, 4«..^JUNK. 
t.— Ob the Goformaeiit and History of Naoing in the Malay Peainsala. By 

lint. J. T. Nevbold, 93rd Regt. Madras Nat. Inf S9Y 

n.— Hescriptioa of Heavandoo Pholu, the Northern Atoll of tVke Maldsre 

Maada. By Uent. T. Powel, I. N. Assistant Surveyor. Plate XVIII. J19 
tn.— FiartnaiUnn of a Musuay Head, supposed to be brought from Egypt 

by Lieut. ArehboM. By Dr. George Eraos, Mf 

ir^—MeaaonaduM on the Foetus of the Squslns Maxiaaus. By Dr. J. T. 

Ptoanau, OanHor, SU 

▼.^teMifes flf tte Observations made on the Tides at Madras, from the Slst 

Ka7, to Ike nUSk Detober, 1891, by means of a Tide-gauge fixed near the 

aorth-eteaai^ of Hm Fbrt, 396 

YI.— Farther Notes aad Dmiriags of Baetrian and Indo-Seythie Coins. By 

James Prlnsep, See., &c 397 

▼n.—Proeeedings of the Asiatic Society, 348 


1. Pfopesal to paMtth, by Subscription, an Illustrated Work oa the 
Zoology of Nipid, 3M 

9. Propoaed Meteorological Combination la Southern Africa, ............ 958 

3. Stattsdea and Geology of Kemaon, 359 

nc.— Meteorological Register, 360 

No. 43.— JULY. 
1.— Kofice of the Temple called Seo Byjnanth, (Siva Vaidyaa4tha) discovered 
by Sergeant E. Dean, on the 3rd December, 1834, on the Hill of Un- 

eh4pahar, la the SheMwati Territory, ..381 

II'— HMtitution and Translation of the Inscription found in the Ruins of 
the Hountun-Temple of Shek&wati. By W. H. Mill, D. D. Principal 

of Bisbop*s College, Vice-President, &c. &e. •• 3^ 

in.— Notice of Pagan, the Andent Capital of the Burmese Empire. By 

Ueut..Col. H. Bumey, H.C's Resident at Ava, 400 

IV — Register of the fall of Rain, in inches, at Dacca, fh>m 1887 to 1834. By 

Dr. G. W. Lamb, 408 

v.— Register of the Thermometer at Ambdla, fbr 1834. By M. P. Edgeworth, 

Esq.C. S «. 

VI.— Prooeedinga of the A^atic Sodetyr • • 407 


!•— Ahandonod Oriastal Worka, 410 

9.— Bamea'andConoUy's Trwveta, 411 

8.— Ceyloneae Histttryr *• • ^* 

4.— Vateabla TOwlaa W«rfca» ••»«•••••. <«u 



6.— BotanyefthcNUgirUaftdSmitlienilftdiAi* 4ii 

6«— Foree of the UDieorn Ftoh, .;%..«.; ... 4k^ 

YIII.^Meteorologictl BcgUter, «.. 413 

No. 44.— ACGUST. 

I.*«Geological Sketch of the Ncflgherries. (NU-giri.) By Dr. P. M. 9ef za») 

Surgeon to the Honorable the Governor of.Madraa, ..•••.•«....«, .^d;. . 4l]>r 

II.— Notes of a Toor through FalestiAe, . . . . ,. ^ ,.,,^ .. .438 

III.— Characters of three New Species of Indian Fresh-^water Biirahas.. By 

Isaac Lea} with Notes, by W.H.Bcnson» Esq. ^ 4^ 

ly^^Description of the Bearded Vulture of the HimhUya. Hy B, H. Hpdgs^n^ 

Esq. Resident iuNipU .«•.«,,. ...m««« .»...,.•..« i5f 

y.-*-Red-biUed Erolia. By the same, ..... ^ ,.,...,..«, ...•». • . 458 

yi.-*Hinto fer the Preservation of. Object* ^ Natural Histoir.. By ^r X. 

Pearfonj Ej^. >.«......^ *». ....^o ...,. «.«« .,•<••• 469 

YII*— Proceedings of the Asiatic.Society, .....«,,,, 4.... , :^»... .. 473 

VIIIf^MeteocologlM Regi«kwr, «...,... ^»v^'..»,.i«. *......,. 4 ..•«.... «7^ 

' No. 45.--SlSPrBMBEit'. 

t.— Account of the Inscriptions upon two sets of Copper Plates, found in the . 
Western part of GiyerHt. By W. H. Wathen, Esq. Persian Secretary to 

the Bombay Government, V '...'. ,/, 477 

II.— Synopsis 'of the Tltkr and Ghor&l Antelopes. By^B. '&.' Hod^on/Esq'. 

Resident in Nlpd :.....;.'•..■ ..V...:... 487 

Ill.^-On the Wild Goat and Wild' Sheep of tlhn&layn, with Remarkit on the 

genera Capra and Ovis. By B. H. Uod^n, t?sq. Resldettt in'Nipal|. . .' 490 
IV.-^On the Fossil ]9ones of the JTutena B9^er. By Edmund I>ean, Serjeant, 

Sappers and Miners, '...'......'..'. 495 

Y.— Note on the preceding. ' By James 'PHnsep, Secretary,' &c bob 

Vl.-^On the Fossil Elk of the Him&laya. By Lieut. Wl E. Baker, Engineers, 600 
YII.— NoteOn the'Vegefohle Tmpressioi^ In Agates.* BfyUfi^. 1. Stephenaon, 80^ 

YIH.-^Chemlcal Analytfds. By James Ptfn^e)^, 'Secretary, &c. 509 

IX.—Horary Meteorolbg^ictl Observatfon* ttkaae st CUeatth <6fk thrSlst— Had 

September. By James Prinsep, Secretary, &c. .'..;;. I . Ai ^ . 514 

X.-^Pr(iceedittg9 of the AftHt^t Society,..........: :................ ftio 

XIa*'^BiftrttCts xTOlfn SCK ntlfl dX/ tfrr eftpoude uce, • ••• ,....%... 517 

1 . — Prof. WsiwsLL on Semimenstnial Tidal Inequality, t5. 

-l.<^-6rf J. llkRiftctftt:t otr cdrr^ctton'dr Astron<ym!cd Initruments, 518 

" s.-^Lt. Jacob on the correction of the Index Error, ,.', 519 

4.— Dr. MeLBftLAMB on the Fossil Shelli of CUfta Pun){, . . ; 630 

5.— Mr. Stbvbnson OB lflie(Pea SMlaetltB of Tibet, «5. 

e.^^<<Ibaer«attoBS/Of HMley^s Comet Bt^er Madrat Observatory^ 5tl 

XII.-T.Iilustrations of NipUese Zoology,. »...v td. 

Xill.^^^mwfiianimBBEBtrtfltg. > - - t • • -,. . 

K««diliBeBheof thelfoottcli thBWeafcher.. vBy F. Mavtet, 525 

a.-^On the Composition cf <ike RaBgeont'FelrelehBii with BcBiaricB on the 
Com^sitiOB "Of Peteokum and Naphtha in ganerBl. By William Gre- 

l^ry, M. D. F. R. S. E 527 

. .' 9;*^Bxtkracte from ftoBoedingr of Eoologieal Society of London.— 1834,. . . . 528 

vvj 4.--^Mlnerals of the TrappcBnRoekS' of' Bombay,.. ..*. < : 530 

XIV^Mmfeleorologleal Registcr^^v; .;^ .^. ^. ■, • 532 


U*»Report on some lascriptioiis found at Hammam, on the Southern Coaat 

of Arabia, 1835. B7 Messrs. T. G, Huttoo, Asst. Surgeon, and Ueut. 

J. Smith, of the Palinums Surveying Vessel, , 533 

II.— Account of Sfingie Ujong, one of the States in the interior of Malaeca. 

9f Suftign T. J. Newbold, 9Srd Regt. Madras Light Infantry, 839 * 

ni.— Journal of an attempted Aseent of the river Min, to visit the Tea Pian- ' 

tations of the Fnhkin Province of China. By G. J. Gordon, Bsq. 

Secretary TttL Committee, S^$ 

IT.— Selected Specimeua of the Sub-Himilayan Fossils in the DddUpur Ool!ee«> 

tioa. By Lieut. W. £. Baker, Engineers, , 566 

T.— list of Specimens from Bilwar. Collected by Lieut, Yieavy, In De- 
cember, 1834, 871 

VI.— Note on Thyladnus Cynocephalus. Eztraeted firom the Osteologieal 

Sectioa of the Catalogue of the Museum of the Asiatic Sodety. By J. T.' 

Pearson, Esq '. 579 

Til.— Analysis of Copper Ore from Nellore ; withnotioe of the Ooppei' lUnes- " 

at Ajmir and Singhina. By James Priptep» Secretary, 8tc .... 574 

Yin.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society , 58( 

IX.— Meteorological Register * > ^ ' .....,.'.. 680 

-^ No. 47.-NOVEMBER. , . . , ^^ 

I.-Notfs taken by C^^Mk^ C. M. Wade» PttUtkal Agent,al, I^^iiaa, in I839»'^ 
^,. relative to the Territory and Governnient of Isklrdoh, from iBfiNanatloB 

Qiv^ by Qhar<gh.A^, aa ageni ckimted to bim in that ymir by Ahmad 

rn* Shih, thoG^ipa,arru^ev.o<that09\iatry, ^••»-of,.M'» 689 

II.— Jj^araal of ^?:our Uuroi^h Geor^ fersim a^ Mesopotamia. : By Capt. 

^t. R. Mignan, Bombay European Regt. F. L. S. and M..R» A« S« 609 

rlU.— On the coanec()pa of Tfripus aneieptJHUAdH. coins irith,iha <9recian or 

> M^T^^T^l^ Mrifs.^ Of James Prins^jSeci«tacy» te..^ ..«».,,«>., 891 

-IV — Ajapijt:yijJon of Ii)9aRods»pro|»psed|9compeniatofiw the^nin pccjujpned 
0. by the tension of thf striaga upo|^ I^o Fortes* t^re>| ^ piewnt warping^ 

j^ to, reydi^tMo^ more durable and better, fdi^^^ pQ. keep lo^ig^ in. tune. 

»•;> Bj.Col. D. Presgrave, ..,p.„*«4.^.^..... •.^. 843 

. v.— Notice of two beds of Coal discovered. By Captain J. B. Ouaeley, P. A. 
• to the Commissioner at Hoshangabad, ;iie«f Ba^Oarahvairarln the Valley • 

oftheNarbada,Pl. LlII ,,..,...., ,.,.*.,..,^<... 848 

^ YI.— Speci|l(C, O»teiiprion of a new species of €|^n[Uf^ by 3. U, Hpdgsoa, Esq. 849 

YIL— Proceedings of the Asiatie Soeie^^ , <^. ,..•.•.*, • , .^ , • 800 

YIII.— Meteorological Register, ^,.*..«^^ ...... ,«.... 859 

No. 48*«-*>DECBMB£R* 
I.— Memoir tm CWarae Tartary and Khotea. By W. H. Wathea, Baq. Psnian 

Secretary to the Bombay Government, .... ...^,. •. i.,. «..•.•...«•...... •< 853 

II.— Some Aooount of the HiU Tribes of the Piney Billa fa the Madura DIstriet. 

Extraetedfrom the MS. Journal of the laite Mi^ Wafi« Madras European 

Regissant, eommuulcated by Capt. T. J. Taylor, 884 

in.*^Notiea of Aadent Hindu Coins » «oatiauad firom page 840. By James 

Priasep, Secretary, 8ec. i . . • 888 

IT.— Gaologieal Obaervatloaa made in. a journey from Musaooree (Masiui) to 

Guagotree (Gaagautri). By tha Rar. R. Everest, 890 

. T.^Note on the Foaail Camel of the Snb«Ilimidayas. By Lieut. W. S. Baker* 

Eagiaeers, 894 



yi.~>ExaiDiiiatioii of a Mineral Exudation l^om Ghazni. Bj H. Piddington, 

Esq 696 

Yll.^Corrected Character of the Gonna Cnvieria of Rang, and notice of a 

second species inhabiting the Tropical Indian Ocean* By ^. H. Benson, 

Esq. B.C. S. !...... 698 

Vlli.— Synopsis of the Vespertilionide of Nipal. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 

-ReiUeatatKatnanda, :.. «.... 1... 69» 

IX.— Note on the Red-biUed Sirolia. By the sapne, 701 

X.— Description of the little Musteline animsl, deaominjit^ KiiHiis^ Nynl in 

the Catalogue of the Kepilese Mammalia. By B, H. Ho^son, Esq. 

Resident at Katmandu, 1 , . .^ 702 

XI.~ Further Discovery of Coal Beds in Assam'. By Captain 1^. Xenkins, .... 704 
XII.— Synopsis of Fossil Genera and Species froni the upper deposits of the 

tertiary strata of the Sivilik Bins, in the coUeetfon of tho authors. By 

Capt. P. T. CanJ^i^pt. Do&b:€anai» and H. Fideoner, M. D. Supt. 

Botanical Garden, Seharanpnr. Northern Doihf Kot. 15th, 18S6, i, 706 

XIII.— Note on the Asurhiu* of the R^mahal. Hills. By Capt. H. Tanner, ... 707 
XIY.— Extract from a Meteorological Journal kept ^ Sandy* Island of Ceyioft. 

By Captain Ord, R. E ^ \ '.,, 709 

XV.— Postscript to the Account of the Wild Goat of Nipitl, printed in the ^i^ 

tember No. of the Journal, page 490. By B. H. Hodgson, ^sq. , • 710 

XVI — ^Analysis of Raw Silk. By Mr. J. W. Laidlay, ...; 1. i6. 

XVII.— Extracts from CorresponHetfce. - - - 

l.^Notaregai«Un|r«iieBMiMWon4«i«at. -By E>r.Sp!ls^ufy, :..'..; ;.' 7i2 

S.— Note on the Simith Building. By tHe BMM Hugt^ . .' t6. 

3.--Note on the occurrence of the Bhauddha FomuUc, ...... ;, 713 

y^ 4.— Extract fxof»^ JovmaJlof a RcsidancS) anddrntegMvand-Jounic^afin 

the Proyince of Behar, in the ycajrs 4831 and i834^ 3i,Mr» J. Ste^osM, t6. 

6.— Range of the Barometer and Thermometer at Port.Louia in the Maaiy 
ritius in 1898, by Lislet Geoifroy, Cor, Roy. As^ Sec. of the French 4n* 
stitute, for the 2nd Vol. Roy. As. Soc triin^. .,,......,. 1,,,^. «v.'» • • • • ^-r 715 

XVIII.^Meteorologi«al Register, \\ ....,...«.....^.. 7i6 


Pag« 102, line T.for * (720 dolUrs)/ read • (720=1 dollar).* 
m. 24,/or « I2i» read * 6 fe«t.' 
124, 14,/or « K,' rw^ * »,'/or • if,' rwrf * ¥,'/•»• < W,» *'•«' < ^,' 

— 15, >^ • •'irt^Tf^t* read * ^T^rfa^^ ' ft«»a*<«i. 

173, Uae 26, dele ' American.' 

174, %,fffr* OfuK.' read * O^vs.' 

— 10,/or.*jieriferi«,* read * periphBBrm/ . ■ - 
176, 2*i,/<m slacerte/ read * anoarttt.' 

24»r ^^1 ^^ ' 1^«Blaobfiiiche»' riad * NucM^branches.* ' ' 
'T' 3<l,/ir^bya'UQV'>Aa({<hyaHne.* 
222, 33, ^r « alKtittiotfi* reefd <' ttetics.' 

»s, 2o,/r»»'*'>Air* J/ '. : '** 

ft. no. ft. no. 

«^4, 3, W5ir'$ X ii + 9-860^ x2 .; !' . ':.;" , •[.. 

226, 10^,/^''i,' r«i<;,V .... 

— 19,/or * decreased,* read * encr^aaed.' 
227,iBt]i€tab]f,,M»cQUia«^y(fee(kl«tiL0f bfftriiig,/or< 13*14* rMtf< 13*9.* 

/or * U:l«' read ' i2*9/ . 
/or • 12- ft» rii«l • 12-1/ 
.-i-v]iBe'12 fkii» tko teMoai,/or * deptb,' read * diameter/ 
2^ t28,liiiet6,/o*«^'ifbeatii8,* rAuT' ofbeams.* 
2«7' • 25,./bf-*M'appine,* refld*d»appuiV 
27*, * ' - ^.yfc^ ' of,* rwi ' by the currant.* 
'' 271, 3<h/or ^ in conaonailiee,* read * inconsonant.* 
^•» ' <i/<^ * irregular,* read * is pretty regular.' 

362, 14, /or * Wurrum,' read ' Nurrum coss,' ^nartn ioe,) 

— 7, /or from bottom, /or * Binining,* read * Biniig mandir,' (temple 

of Ganea.) 

363, 14,/or * at Midug' rfo^i ' at mid-day.' 

— 16, and 17, /or ' been seen from thence and Sandra, two Tillages 

or towns in the said territory,' read * been seen from Thinie 
and Bandr^, two Tillages or towns in the JAt territory.* 

364, 16, /or * jogies,' read * jognies.* 

365, 9,/or ' Delhi town pillar,* read * Delhi iron pilUr.' 

366, 43, /or ' PL xxix.* read * PL xxi.* 

369, last line,/or t voL i. pp. 82, 86,* read * toLU. pp. 82, 86.* 

370, Ist line of inscription, /or ' ^inN^' read * 9f:r(W2J.' 
379, line 26, /or * quantity,' read * quality.* ^ 

399, 22, for « 130 miles S. W.* read ' 100 miles South.* 

" la the sMODd Tolume of the Jouaic al, pige 7B» the name of Bllont it writtao EUon, in gi v. 
lagthttiiteof tnp rocks peoetTated by tubular cslcedoniM. As the rocks at BUoie araof a T«ry 
dUfennC foratttioB, it is d«sitabla that this error should be conwtad. BUore Is mw Golconda.* 


Page 400, line 37, 38, /or r^W^^ T¥^^ «ren -tel ^ee,' read 'Maba Yaza- 

wea dau-gyee.* 

— 40, 41, /or * Thore KhelUOn/ read * Thare Khettara.' 
4^1, 31,>^r ' Ng^youog gfAA rmd * N^ai toanr 8F«4i* ' 

- — .33,/or • at.the4«Wtof,'^aM:^*t tMfftr4.^.t^>e.!, 
4.02,. . 3,/«r • Nga jfoaog CTao,V*««4 '>?te^- W^«gifiF»»-' 
.— .. .6, /or * Tsalen wot thaken jiii^gi'r^ ^J'galen wot thakan 

— 7, /or ' Kan ehye jrouog,* rw<f * K.a.Q sb^ 'C>4!^** 
—T ^^/^'* * '^^*'* bethen,' r/?a^ * Thaa batbf iC' ^ . . 

— 10, for * Nga ^oung gyan,* read * Nga ;^ung fyan.* j^, 

— 14, /or * ^ga yduDg^gyaa,' rearf'' Nga zouoff gyan.' 
-" ; — - • li;,/or*'TBiaen Wbflhaken,^reaJ**t8ak^^ 

— IS, /or ' Nga young gyaJJ^Veaif* Nga iouiig gyain,' * 

— 21, /or * Nga young gjan,*^ read, SNga zoung gvan » 

— 30,/or '^Tonatha,^ rea<i * Yowatha.* 

403, !2o, Y/,/or ' Nga young gyan,' read *^Nga zoting gyan.' 

— - 2y;;7^r^M&lriliinim«tr,'"f Mtf ♦ ^all^ iilouhtain.* ' 

^04, 1 , «ffd^;>»r^-T at uup maiu ,* rwttf^TaFdu^ maii,*and in the note 
f ar* S ymcBB TaHW&^fttW ^if** Sym<^8»< *ftrrod^tr'"mion/ 
•^ Mi «»^o^»»T6wl(|g^gV ¥#fl(»»ilVfi^^ • 

— - 30|'Wfope * eaUed,*4i«^*4».7--^< ■41-. -.^ = «t.' , 

'<*^- 36,/«rJ> Watted^'fMHfrimAito^ L^ ^ ^ / / 

" -^ ^Oi^for.^ hin§i/mmaU^.rmli&Lm.ngtSwMdRi*.'k^Jbr* Anauratba 

xikQ»* ;vM ^iMMUvtiiit stUk^ :.--.■-:■■ •■ »' .' ' r '^ 

413, ,ii>l|J|fte»/(rV.N..«'t#)wtf .•.«.*! / /./. !1W/./ -y - 

*29, 5, /or /. Coloj?h9nitc,V rf«|i? VQ9l9pJjy)j^ ^.,,^ 

432» ^ 25,/orJerra^/. r««i^ * fWfitia.\^^ j,, ^^.^ . . ; .y. / , 
505, 22,/or ^ Ecligac/ re«rf' Bessy Jg^ffl-^jfj to j, :.: . . 

.. .- .,. . .*>^ ^ — ' r • v,!ul> ^iilj lo tlif'iiyi "'.'-' ■' 

Errata in the 3rd Volunf. ^ 

Page 178, line 24, Tor * Pokien, Kyanti, ax^jlXja^M-nau/ rfi^ * Pokien* Kyaa-si. 

ancTTCyang-nan'.* r -4 j 

— ' 76iJtiir* Lu-ngan^cfaa, read ^Xulpi^n-cba.' 

— • ft^i*r*Paclcha,»r«rf^P!iri!l-eliV** '■ - * 

179, -f^ry^'^tt^rr-rwd^n^^M'''''^'^'-' 

180, <h:/^-^Ky»n^iil*^»"f^*-*«^"^inan/* 

181, .JL4,/4jr*s«tf^iVM»*«»'«oa>'>0: t 

182, ^ 4, froi9^Jk|Qtt^|iijy/ar,* li^^«Tr liWiijet,' >wf ' 2000 .feet.' 

183, Erase the section. -. , a ■ ;» • ^rf % i 

1 84, , 8, from the bqttou, /g^ f gS** ;J0.M .ifMtf * «»• to 30«.' 

185, 8,/or • 29'»30y re«}.;^2«e,tp.^^^^^^^ 

— reference at the blottoqi^^ the page, /or * TransACtionp,' &c. 
Iread * Asiatic Researches,* Vol. XVI, 

IW, " 20,/or*29*30V r««l*29«tp30V ' 

— 25,/dr« 12 lo'l,4fi0,*r^'» '2000 feet.' 



f' *» C .1 

PUfce I. M»«Atatn Ttomi of KeniMin, to fooo «.««.«..«.«^..«« page 40 
II. Aamnteft plant> and Nipal GftmettU,^^^^* •*«...«^^ — ^«. 48 

III. BifdiUDt iaaeription from PlroviiMSe Welleslef, ^^ 66 

IV. Map of ROTJiri id>od^ «>«>,>»<>.»«>.>#> >«,#.^^<»#,«>^.>«.^.«»—.>«>«>«>4i>.» 94 
V. . BurmeM prayers lithographed, • — .,^^»^..,»^...;^>.>.,«^^ 99 

VI. Roof of Kiisipur Foundery,..^^*....^ .. — .....^^^ ..^.^ 119 

VII. Uth't of Radhia and Bakri, ^ . ;^ ISl 

VII I. Facsimile of inscription on Radhia Lith^.^.^.. ..«. •...«.«. 194 

IX Image of Buddha and Stfrnith inscription, ^»,^^^^^»,^ 134 

X. Site of ruins at Chard wafj^ in Assam, .*».,.»«^«^«»..«..^..«« 193 

XI. Ranja inscription on a Chaitya, near Kathman4u, ^.^^.^ 1 98 

XII. Impressions of Malacca seals,«,««..^..«..«^«*.^^...<.»«^«^«,«. 241 

XII I. Geological^ flections of the Jumna Hanks, «>>tv..^^» — ^«,^ 962 

Xy I* ^f^^9f' D»ckf|.i|[% JjM9^)M« » ■■ - lypff^ t - ■ ■<,, „> ■■ s,.,^^ 968 

XVli. Gold wa8hi|ifiJiiNahaik'iiver.MA|«l itm. Kfii^ 984 

XIX. Inscriptions on BaoltiMa eei— ^^^uij<> h •< nii«. wtr > 348 

XX^rJprXX'Vii^BKtriaaboftiB^ of Om. V«DMra% coIlMio^^ 

XXVI. Map of Uneh^paUf , «wirtrt)i<st!iA>v^. , ,^, ^.. . 

XXyil. XXVIII. XXIX. TAnides ^trdittoj and lurelik««lbi^4* 366 

XXX. Facsimile of Shekhilvati inscription, >;»,m ;,;>,, „>..■,, .,:\., 361 

A A AX. M,ap Ot we g^ J r r —■ -f --rr-» f i i. i i I 'm i urriTr rj ni in jj jj 413 

XXXII. Fossils of the Jumna river, ,^^,»^^^^^^^^.^„^^^„^„^,^^^ 606 
XXXIII. Relics from ISehat, ViAar RflliArAupMr^-^, ,, ^^^^^^^^ ^^ - ^^ 

MSfV: '35CX1^. Andentfifindu coins, Behat, '-.^rr-^L^e96 

XXXVI. XXXVII. Hindu ooins, Rajput series^ ]^^^„^„ ^. „^ 675 

XXXVIII. Connection of Indo-Scjrthic irith CanDuJ coin;, ».>„.„■, 630 

• XXXIX. Hindu coins, Canouj series, ■i n i i iwi»> » *»wii»i>». M <wiii*i ■»«■»«» w n... 636 

XL. Facsimile of Gi\|erati inscriptipn>.>* .>..., ..^ii.'^ 

JLLiim Alpnauet oi Oatto, «*■>» " ■'«■»« ■■■■^f** " '*»■»— ■» M <*i«i>»*»«w«w.»«»»»<*iwi» J 

— Transcript of ditto in aKMienix<cliarsctar, >..,,.,. ,..^>,^,.. 486 

XLil.^tXLIII. Bty^plc inscriptions ihMn Arabia, ^...^^.....^ 536 

XLIV. Fossil Elk of- the sub-Himilayas, :...■■;.. 506 

XLV. to XL^n):Tofl«il8 of the'suh-HimtiayaSjhysBna,^. '^ 568 

XLIX. Hindu coins, Saur^htra series, <..^ — .^.^«.^^„ .^.J.,^ 684 

Ev- Mlto, TOCond Canouj series, .>^^^^ — ^.,^^^.,..^, .„...,» . 668 

jjA. aowio*ocy«oic coins, —»».«>>» «»»■». «■ tip— ti»w »»»>—.»*>■»«»». fi»».«» W H O w.»»^i»«pwo o28 

Lll. Compensation rods for Pianos^* ■»»■>#.«> » m«..>>«>«> .>», „ «. 644 

LIII . Coal beds of the Nerbada valley, .,.^.>„M.,„.,.>i^^„,„-,..m,..>,., 648 




No. 37. — January, 1836. 

I.— ilmi/ym of a Tibetan Medical Work. By M. Albz andbr Csoma 

DB K0RO8. 

Thb principal work on medicine in Tibet, is that entitled the " rGffud 
hZkT' (ft^«Xf(^ the tract in four parts). It is attributed to Sha'kta, 

thoagh not introduced into the Kah-gywr or Stan-gyur collections. 

When in Tibet I requested the Lama* my instructor in the language 
of the country, to give me an account of its contents, which he did in 
an abridged compilation divided* like the original, into fbur parts. The 
present translation of the Lama's manuscript may be interesting to 
those who are curious on the subject of Tibetan literature, and the 
state of medical practice in that remote part of the world. Tiie ma- 
terials of the original are as usual all derived from Sanskrit works, which 
have not however hitherto been made known in an English dress. 

The following is the account given in the work itself of the manner 
in which this Treatise of Medicine found its way to Tibet. 

In the time of Khki-srono Dbbutsan (in the 8th or 9th century 
of the Christian era) a Tibetan interpreter Bairotsana (or Vairo- 
chana) having trauslated it in Cashmir, with the assistance of a phy- 
ncian-pandit (a*7^*9(^*^S]Q-Dav£ ml^on-gah) presented it to the 
above mentioned Tibetan king. At that time it was received by 
" ^rv-THoo" a learned physician, and by several others, and after- 
wards it devolved successively to others till ^tu-thoq, (the 13th in 
descent, from the first) styled the New ^uthoo, to disting^sh him 
from the former physician of the same name, who is called ' the 
ancient.' This physician much improved and propagated it ; and at 
that time, it is stated, nine men became learned in medicine. 

The Lama, who wrote me this extract, enumerated several works 
on in^dicine» current in Tibet, qi which the most celebrated is a 

2 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. [Jaw. 

commentary on the present work, entitled " Baidiirya «non-po" (the 
lapis lazuli) written hy " Sangs-rgyas rgya mts'ho" ^^♦i^f^iy 

$^*S*^^ a regent at Lassa about the end of the 17th century. 

The Lama states that there are about forty books or works written 
in Tibet, on medicine, besides the five volumes in the Stan-gyur collec- 
tion, and the scattered occasional instructions on medicaments in the 
Kah- gyur. 

The chief medical school in Tibet is at Chik-phuri ^^C)i^*i{*X) 
a roonasterv at or near Lassa. There are also two others, in middle 
Tibet, of some repute, called Ch£ng-Zur (gt;'3X), 

First Fart. 
This is entitled jf'H§'S^> rtsa-vahi-rgyut the root or basis of the 

(medical) tract. It is divided into six chapters. 

Firgi Chapt^. 
In this is described howCHOMDANDAS (Shakta) transforming himself into the 
shape of a chief physician, in a forest of medical plants, delivered his instrnctions, 
in a superb palace, in the presence of gods, sages (or Ruhis), and a large train 
both of heretic and orthodox hearers. 

Second Chapter. 
He (Shaky a) addressed his audience thus : — " Assembled friends 1 be it known 
to you, that eyery human creature who wishes to remain in health; and 
every man who desires to cure any disease, and to prolong life, must be in- 
structed in the doctrine of medicine. Likewise, be that wishes for moral virtuet 
wealth, or happiness, and desires to be delivered from the miseries of sickness; as 
also, he that wishes to be honoured or respected by others, must be instructed 

in the art of healing.** Then one of the hermits or Rishis (QC;'^C;-Drang-Srong) 
expressing his desire of promoting the well-being of others, requested his advice 
as to the manner in which he might become instructed in the doctrine of me- 
dicine. Then the teacher (Shaky a) said: (or commanded)*' He must be in- 
structed in the four parts of the medical science, which are the 

X'XJQ'1'5,, ; 'R^y^O: ; ^fS^^^tSi^^^ ; and g'^Q'|S 

root or theory, explication, instruction, and lastly manual operation ; fiurther, 
he must be instructed in the eight branches of healing ; via. 1, the curing of the 
whole body ; 2, of particular diseases, incident to children ; 3, to women ; 4, 
the curing of diseases caused by evil spirits ; 5, of wounds made by a knife* 
spear, &c. ; 6, of all sorts of venomous or poisonous infections ; 7, of the infir- 
mities of old age ; and 8, the increasing of virility in men. Theaa are tba 
principal divisions of the whole medical treatise. 

The number of chapters in the four parts of this medical tract, amount tn 

In the explanatory part, there are 11 places or sections, and 31 chapters ; in 
the instructive part on cures or remedies for each specified disease, there are 
15 circumstances and 92 chapters ; — ^the last part has four divisions and 27 

1 835.] Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. 3 

Third Chapter. 
The theory of the human constitution is illustrated by a similitude taken from the 
Indiaa fig-tree (i^^'g'C;aj'^ \ Thus, there arc three roots or trunks ; thence 
arise nine stems ; thence spread 47 boughs or branches ; thence 224 leaves ; two 
blossoms, and three fruits. The explication of the simile as appUed to the states 
of the body. The single root or basis of diseases ; the stems, branches, and leaves 
srising thence, taken or considered in a healthy and in a diseased state. Distinc- 
tions with respect to wind ; ditto, with respect to bile ; as also to phlegm ; their re- 
spective offices, operations or influences. 

There are seven supporU of the body on which life depeads ; the chyle, 
Uood, flesh, fat, bone, marrow, and semen. Description of the three sorts of 
excretions or sordes of the body ; ordure, urine, and sweat. 

The three generative causes of disease are : lust or ardent desire ; passion or 
anger ; dulness or ignorance. By the first is caused wind ; by the 2nd, bile ; by 
the last, phlegm. The accessory causes of disease are four: 1, season with re- 
spect to oold and heat ; 2, any evil spirit ; 3, wrong use of food ; and 4, ill conduct 
of life. 

The parts of the body, commonly subject to diseases, are six : the skin, the 
flesh, the Teins, the tx>nes, the viscera, and the bowels. 

The proper places of the threi; humours are : that of the phlegm in the upper 
pBTt of the body, as the proper place of dulness, in the brain or skull ; that of the 
bile, in the middle part of the body, which is appropriate to anger ; and the wind 
rendes in the lower part of the trunk, in the waist and loins, as in its proper 

There are 15 ways or channels through which disease spreads itself. The channels 
of the motion of wind are, the bones, the ear, skin, heart, artery, and the guts« 
The blood, sweat, the eye, the liver, the bowels, are the ways or yehicles of bile* 
The chyle, flesh and fat, marrow and semen, ordure and urine, the nose and 
the tongue, the lungs, the spleen, and the kidneys, the stomach, and the bladder, 
are the Tehicles for the conveyance of the phlegmatic humour. 

With respect to the three humours, this farther distinction is made : vrind is 
predominant in the diseases of old people ; bile, in those of adolescents or youths ; 
and phlegm, in children. 

With respect to place (or part of the body); wind occurs in the cold parts of the 
body ; bile in the dry and hot parts ; phlegm abides in the moist and unctuous 

The sereral seasons, in which the diseases caused by any of these three humours 
prevail, are thus stated : diseases, caused by wind, arise commonly during the 
soDuner season, before the dawn, and about mid-day. Those caused by bile, in 
Biituma, About mid-day and mid-night. Phlegm prevails during the spring sea- 
son, and in the morning and evening. 
There are specified nme sorts of diseases, in which there is no hope of recovery. 
On the 12 causes by which any of the diseases caused by any of the three hu- 
Boars, is changed into another, as wind into bile and phlegm, &c. 

All diseases are classed under two heads : heat and cold. Those, in which wind 
and phlegm prevail, being of natural water, belong to cold, filood and bile, 
being of natural fire, belong to heat. The diseases caused by the worms and the 
wrum, belong both to cold and heat. 
B 2 

4 Anafysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. [Jaw. 

Fourth Chapter. On the symptoms of diseases. On examining the fongae and 
urine. On feeling the palse. On asking (orally) after the circnmstances, how 
the disease first arose, and its progress, — ^what pain is felt, what sort of food ha« 
been useful or noxious ? 

Especially with respect to the tongue : If the tongue is red, dry, and rough, it 
is the sign of prevailing wind ; if covered with a yellowish white thick substance. 
It is the sign of bile ; if covered with a dim, white, soft, and moist substance, it 
is the sign of phlegm. 

With respect to the urine : If the urine of the patient is blue, clear like spring- 
water, and has much spume or froth, it ie the symptom of wind ; if yellowish red 
and thick, steaming or vapouring greatly, and diffusing a smell, it is the sign of 
bile ; if white, with little smell, and steam or vapour, it is the sign of phlegm. 

With respect to the pulse : When the physician feels the pulse, if beating 
greatly upwards it somewhat stops, (if irregular) it is the sign of wind ; a quick 
full beating is the sign of bile ; a sunk, low, and soft beating is the sign of phlegm. 

The physician^s 29 questions to the patient about his food, exercise, and the 
pains or relief felt after having taken such and such a food, made such and such 
an exertion, &c. are here detailed. 

F^th Chapter. On the means of curing diseases. 

1. With respect to food : 

The several sorts of flesh, grain, vegetables, and liquids employed successfully 
in curing diseases caused by wind. Specification of the several sorts of animal 
and vegetable food, and of soup and liquids or potions, by which bile is cured. 
Ditto of those that are good against phlegmatical diseases. 

2. With respect to one's conduct of life or exercise. 

It is good against wind to remain in warmth, and to have a companion with whom 
one. can best agree. Against bile : to remain in a cool and still place, or undis- 
turbed. Against phlegm : to cease from exertion or business, and to remain ia 

3. With respect to medicaments to be used against these three humours. 
Those against wind are of three different tastes : sweet, sour, and saline ; and 

with respect to their efficacy, unctuous, heavy, and soft. 

Those used against bile are, sweet, bitter, and nauseous bitter: — their efficacy ; 
coolness, thinness, and dulness, or bluntness. 

Those used against phlegm are, hot, sour, and acrid : — their efficacy : sharp- 
ness, roughness, and lightness* 

Mixtures of medicaments with respect to their tastes ; for assuaging pains, and 
for carrying off diseases, or for purging. 

1. Assuaging medicaments : 

Against windy diseases : soup, and medical butter (a kind of sirup). 
Against bile : liquid medicine and powder. 
Against phlegm : pills and powdered medicine (aromatics ?)_ 
The several kinds of soup are : of bones, flesh, butter, molasses ; of wine, &e. 
There are specified five kinds of sirup, according to the different principal in- 
gredients, their several applications and effects. 

2. Depuratory or purging medicaments. 

In windy diseases : a gentle depuratory medicament. 
In bilious diseases : a purging physic. 
In phlegmatic diseases : emetics. 

1835.] Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. 5 

With respect to the first there are specified three sorts of depuratory medica- 
■lents, the purging medicaments are of four kinds, the emetics are of two sorts* 
With respect to physical (or chirnrgical) operation, against wind : the smear- 
ing of the body with butter, &c. and cauterising in the Hor (or Turkish) manner. 
Against bile : phlebotomy, and cold water (or bathing in ditto). Against phlegm : 
warm applications, and cauterising. 

Specifications of the seyeral kinds of cures against wind, bile, and phlegm« 
They amount to 98 (compared to so many leaves). If the physician is skilfal and 
diligent in his application, and the patient obedient and respectful, so will the 
Utter soon be delivered from disease. 

Sixth Chapter, Recapitulation of the three last chapters. According to the 
former metaphor or allegory of the Indian fig-tree, there are three roots (or 
tranks) : 1, the root, place, or ground of the disease ; 2, that of the symptoms, 
and 3, that of the manner of curing. 

There arise from the first trunk (or root) two stems : that of the unchanged 
state of the body, and that of the changed or diseased state of the body. 

From the 2Qd trunk (or root) there arise three stems, namely : those of looking 
on, feeling, and asking (or of inspection of the tongue and urine ; of the feeling 
of the pulse ; and of asking after the circnmstances of the disease). 

On the 3rd trunk there arise four stems : those of the food ; of the manner of 
lif ing or conduct of life ; of the medicaments used ; and of the operations per- 
formed. Therefore, from the three trunks (or roots) their arise nine stems. 
Hie number of the boughs or branches : 

Those branching from the stem of the unchanged body are : disease, the seven 
sopports of the body« and the feces. 

On the stem denoting the changed or diseased state of the body, there are the 
following 9 boughs : cause of disease, accessory causes, beginning or injured parts, 
place, way, time of arising (or of the fit), fruit or consequence, causes of transition 
from one into another disease ; the reduction of all diseases to heat and cold. 

On the stem denoting the symptoms of diseases, there arise the following eight 
boughs : 2 of inspecting the tongue and urine. Of feeling the pulse, there are 3 : 
wind.pnlse, bile-pulse, and phlegm-pulse. And in asking after the circumstances 
of the disease, there are 3. Altogether eight. 

On the stem denoting the manner of curing, there arise the following boughs 
or branches : 3 of food or meat ; 3 of drink or potion ; 3 of the manner of Uving 
or of the conduct of life ; 6 of physic with respect to taste and efficacy ; 6 of the 
assuaging mixtures, with respect to taste and efficacy ; 3 of depuratory physic. 
There are also 3 boughs of medical (or chirurgical) operations. Thus in all 
there are 47 boughs or branches. 

The number of leaves (or of leafy branches) issuing from the 47 boughs : 
1st. On the top of the unchanged stem, the enumeration of 25 diseases. 
2nd. On the top of the stem denoting the changed or diseased state of the 
body, 63 symptoms or tokens of indisposition. 

3rd. On the top of the stem of inspection (or examination of the tongue and 
urine), 6 branches or leaves of inspection. 

4th. On the topof the stem of feeling, three sorts of pulse (or three manners of 

beating of the pulse). 
5th. On the top of the stem of asking the patient about the circumstances of 

the disease, 29 questions. 

6 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. [Jan. 

6th. On the top of the stem denoting the food (diet, meat, and drink or potion) 
of the patient, there are the enumeration of such, as : 14 in reepect to wind ; 12 to 
hile ; and 9 to phlegm. 

7th. On the top of the stem of the conduct of life, 6. 

8th, On the top of the stem of physic nine tastes and nine efficacies are enume- 
rated, together 18 ; 3 kinds of soup or broth ; 5 kinds of medical hutter or sirup ^ 
4 kinds of potions ; 4 kinds of powders ; 2 kinds of pills ; 5 kinds of powdered 
aromatics ; 9 sorts of depuratory application. Total, =50 kinds of physic. 

9th. On the top of physical (or chirurgical) operations, 7 leafy branches. 

A summary exhibition of the above specified leaves : 

1. On the trunk denoting the place and ground of diseases, there are 188 leaves. 

2. On that denoting the symptoms, 36. 

3. On that denoting the manner of curing, there are 98 leayes. Altogether 
making 224. 

There are two blossoms : health and a long life. 

There are three fruits : moral perfection (or good moraU), wealth, and hap- 
These are the contents of the six chapters of the first part of this medical tract. 

Sbcond Part. 
There are four things to be treated of in the doctrine of caring or 
healing : 1, What is to be cured or healed ? 2, With what is it to be 
cured ? 3, In what manner is it to be cured ? 4, By whom is it to be 

cured ? 

Ut Chapter.'^'With respect to the first question, What is to be cured ? the 
answer is : the disease in the human body. 2, By what means : By diet or 
regular food, exercise, medicament, and by chimrgical operation. 3, In what 
manner is it to be cured ? — so that the patient recovering from bis sickness, may 
remain long alive. To this place belongs the examination of the symptoms, the 
rules of curing, and the manner in which the cure is performed. The contents of 
this part of the treatise are reduced to four roots, and to 11 branches or minor 

2nd Chapter. — Cure is ordained for the well-being of the body. The origin or 
generation of the body. Cause, and accessory causes thereof. Tokens or signs 
of birth. 

The cause of ths generation of the body is stated to be : the father's seed, the 
mother's blood, and the arising of consciousness. If the first be predominant, 
there will be born a son ; if the second, a daughter ; if both are equal, then a her- 
maphrodite. Should it happen that the blood be formed into two masses, then 
twins will be born. 

Out of the semen are formed : the bone, the brain, and the skeleton of the 
body. Out of the mother's blood are generated the flesh, blood, heart, with the 
other four vital parts, (lungs, liver, spleen, kidneys,) and the six vessels or veins. 
From the soul or vital principle arises consciousness through the several organs. 

After the body has been thus conceived, the cause of its increase is in the two 
▼eins on the right and left sides of the womb, in the small vessel containing the 
mother's blood for menstruation, and in the chyle formed from the mother's 
food, which luecessively descending into the womb, concurs to the coagulatioa 

1835.] Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work, 7 

or uBioB of the semen, blood, and the Tital principle, and to their Inereaie, in 
tbe tame manner, as water is conreyed, by certain canals, from a watering pond, 
to a field, for the production of corn. 

The body, by the agitation of the (inward) air, being changed during 38 weeks, 
goes on continnaliy increasing, for nine months. 

Tbe continual increase of the foetus, or embryo, is thus : In the 1st week, it 
Is like a mixture of milk and blood. In the 2nd week, growing somewhat thick, 
it is of a ropy or tenacious nature. In the 3rd week, it becomes like curds. 
In the 4th week, from the form, which the embryo takes, is conjectured whether 
it will be a son, daughter, or hermaphrodite. In the 1st month, the mother 
suffers both in her body and mind several disagreeable sensations. 

In the 2nd month, in the 5th week, the navel of the body is first formed. In 
the 6th week, the vital vein (or artery), depending on the navel. In the 7th 
week, the forms of both eyes appear. In the 8th week, in consequence of the 
forms of the eyes tbe form of the head arises. In the 9th week, the shape of 
the upper and lower parts of the trunk or body is formed. 

In the 3rd month, in the 10th week, the forms of the two arms and sides (or 
hips) appear. In the 1 1th week, the forms of the holes of the nine organs become 
perceptible. In the 12th week, the five vital parts (heart, lungs, liver, spleen, 
veins,) are formed. In the 13th week, those of the nx vessels. 

In the 4th month, iu the 14th week, the marrows in the arms and thighs are 
formed. In the 15th week, the wrists of the hands and the legs of the feet are 
perceptible. In the I6th week; the 10 fingers and the 10 toes become visible. 
In the 17th week, the veins or nerves, connecting the outer and inner parts, are 

In the 5th month, in the 18th week, tbe flesh and fat are formed. In the 19th 
week, the tendons or sinews and the fibres are formed. In the 20th week, the 
bone and the marrow of the feet are formed. In the 2l8t week, the body is 
covered with a skin. 

In the 6th month, in the 22nd week, the nine holes of the organs are opened^ 
la the 23rd week, the hair on the head and on the body, and the nails com- 
mence to grow. In the 24th week, the viscera and vessels become entirely 
fbished ; and then pleasure and pain is felt. In the 25th week, the circulation 
or motion of air or wind commences. In the 26th week, the memory of the 
mind b^ns to be clear. 

In the 7th month, the 27th to the 30th week, the whole body comes to entire 
perfection, or is completely formed. 

In the 8th month, from 31st to 35th week, the whole body, both within or 
without, greatly inereases. 

In the 9th month, in the 36th week, there arises a disagreeable sensation ia 
the womb. In the 37th week, there arises a nauseous sensation. In the 38th 
week, the head turning to the entrance of the womb, the birth takes place. 
Bnt, though the months are completed, yet, on account of the mother's men- 
struation, and of vrind, birth may for some time be delayed. 

Farther it is stated, that if the right side (of the pregnant woman) is high, 
and the body light, there will be born a son ; if the left side is high, and the 
body heavy, then a daughter $ if they both are in an equal state, an hermaphro- 
dite. And if the middle or both the sides are high, then twins will be born. 

The tokens and circumstances of approaching birth are then described. 

^ Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. [Jan. 


(This may be seen at large, in the Kah-gynr, in the work entitled ^iS|Q*^ 

9f C^^I^QS'R ** d,6ah-T0 m,nal hjug'* Nanda entering into the womb.) 

3rd Chapter, — The several members of the body are likened to certain things, 
32 in number. 

The manner of the existence of the body, under four distinct heads : 1. The 
quantity (in measure or weight) of the several constituent parts of the body, and 
the manner of existence of those parts on which the body depends. 2. Tho 
state of the veins and nerves. 3. On the nature of diseases, the enemies of the 
body. 4. The holes or openings for the circulation of the air, &c. 

With respect to the Ist : 

1. The quantity of the wind or air (in the body) is equal to one fall bladder : 
tbat of the bile to the quantity of ordure once discharged ; that of the phlegm-^ 
to one* 8 three two-handfuls (the two hands three times full) ; that of the bfood 
and ordure to seven ditto ; that of the urine and serum to four ditto ; that of the 
grease and fat to two ditto ; that of the chyle and the semen to one handful ; that 
of the brain to a single handful ; that of the fle8hz=:500 hand-fuls ; (one handful 
being as much as can be enclosed once in a single hand.) Women have an 
excess of 20 more on account of tbeir thighs and breasts. 

There are 23 sorts of bones ; in the back -bone, 26 are distinguished. There 
are 24 ribs ; 32 teeth ; 360 pieces of bones. There are 12 large joints of 
limbs ; — small joints, 250. There are 16 tendons or sinews, and 900 nerves or 
fibres; 11,000 hairs on the head; 11 millions of pores of the hair on the 
body. Tliere are five vital parts (or viscera) (as the heart, lungs, liver, spleen, 
and the reins or kidneys) ; six vessels, and nine openings or holes. — In Jambu^ 
dwlpa the measure of a man's height is one fathom or four cubits — deformed 
bodies have only 3i cubits, meMured by their own. 

W^ith respect to the 2nd section, showing the state of the veins. There are fonr 
kinds of veins or nerves : 1, that of conception ; 2, of sensation; 3, of connexion, 
and 4, that of vitality. 

The 1st : From the navel there arise or spread three veins or nerves, one of 
them ascends to the brain, and is acted on by the dull part of it, generating the 
phlegm in the upper part of the body. Another nerve (or vein) entering into the 
middle, forms the vital nerve, and depends for its existence on the vital nerve of 
passion and blood ; that part of it, which causes bile, resides in the middle. 
The third nerve (or vein) descends to the privy parts, and generates desire 
both in the male and female. That part of it, which produces wind, resides in 
the lower extremity. 

The 2nd : There are four kinds of the nerves of existence or sensation. 

For rousing (or exciting) the organs, in their proper place, there is in the 
brain a principal nerve, surrounded with 500 other smaller ones. Another nerve 
for making clear the organ of recollection or memory, resides in the heart, 
surrounded with 500 other smaller ones. 

That nerve, which causes the increase and renovation of the aggregate of the 
body, resides in the navel, surrounded with 500 other smaller ones. 

That nerve, which causes the increase of children, and descendants, resides in 
the privy member, together with 500 other smaller ones — and comprehends or 
encompasses the whole body. 

The 3rd : The nerve of connexion consists of two kinds, white and black. 
There are 24 large veins (or nerves), which, Uke as so many branches ascending 

1S85.J Analysis of a Tibet Qn Medical Work. 9 

fiie piindiMil stem of the tital principle, lerre for increasing the flesh and the 
hlood. There are eight large hidden veins or nerres for making the conneuoa 
of the diseases of the Tiseera and Teasels. 

There are 16 conspicuons reins connecting the ontward limbs, and 77 others 
■preading from them, called S)li^x.* jf bleeding veins (that may occasionally be 
opened to let ont blood). 

There are 112 hnrtful or pestilential veins (or nerves) ; of a mixed nature, 
tiicre are 189 others. Thence originate 120 in the enter, inner, and middle 
parts, that spread into 360 smaller ones. Thence smaller ones encompass the 
body as with a net- work. 

There are 19 strong working nerves, which, like roots, descend from the brain, 
the oeean of nerves ; from among them there are 13 that are hidden, and connect 
the intestines — six others, connecting the outward parts, are visible ; from them 
spread 16 small tendons or sinews. 

There are three .vital nerves (or veins) in a man. The one encompasses both 
the head and the body ; the second, associating with respiration, moves ac- 
cordingly ; the third is the principal, and connecting the veins or canals, for 
&e eircnlatio& of air and blood, is occupied with generating or increasing the body, 
sod being the vital nerve, is ealled, by way of eminence, the artery or the principal 
vital nerve. 

With respect to the third point: 

Diseases of consequence happen in the flesh, fat, bone, tendons, nerve, intes- 
tines, and veins. 

Such 4fiseases are counted in the flesh, 45 ; in the fat, 8 ; in the bone, 32 *, in 
tiie tendona or sinews, 14 ; in the intestines, 13; in the veins, 190. On the 
head, there are 62 ; on the neck, 33 ; in the trunk of the body, 95 ; in the four 
hanging members (two hands, two feet), 112. Thus important diseases are 
reckoned 302, of which 96 are said to be very dangerous, which cannot be cured 
by any expenoe or skUl. There are 49 that are dangerous in a middle degree, 
but which may be cured by learned physicians. The rest may be 
others also; rince they are of no great consequence, though they a}so be 
reckoned among diseases of magnitude. 

With respect to the fourth point x 

Of the several orifices or passages for the conveyance of air, blood, drink, and 
Ibod, both vrithin and without, are enumerated 13 in males and 16 in females. 

Through inconvenient food and exercise, these passages being hurt, there 
a distemper of the body, by the humours being either too much increased, 
I, or hindered ; or by taking wrong direction, confusion is produced. When the 
are dean, and free from any hurt, then the body is in a healthy state. 

5/il Cktg^er, — Characteristic description of the body. There is a two-fold 
^vision : 1, Those parts which are subject to injury (the body). 2, Those things 
by which they are injured (bad humours or diseases). First, of those that are 
subject to injury. These are thus distinguished : the supports, (or those parts 
which keep the body together), seven in number ; as, the chyle, blood, flesh, fat, 
hone, marrow, and semen. Excrements, as ordure, urine, and sweat ; also the dirt 
of the teeth, and under the naUs, and the impurity issuing from other openings 
or passages. 

Istly. The office of the seven supports of the body, and of the three excre- 
MCftts, is thus described: 

10 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. : [Jau. 

The meat and drink, after being digested in the stomach, are changed into 
chyle and faeces. These torn into ordure and urine, that is, for the nutrition of 
'the body, by increasing the blood. The blood preserving the moisture or humidi- 
ty of the body, keeps up life, and increases the flesh. The flesh covering and 
cleansing the body, both within and without, produces the fat. This makes 
the whole body unctuous, and causes the Increase of the bone. This supports 
the body and increases the marrow. This improves the essential sap of the 
body, and produces the semen virile. This conduces to the well-being of the 
'whole body, and to the production of a new one. 

The service, rendered by the fueces, is : the ordure serves for the support of the 
bowels, guts, &o. By urine, morbid humours are carried off ; and it serves 
^Iso for a support of the thinner fsces, and carries off the putrid thick sedi- 

The office of sweat is to soften the skin, and to change the obstructed pores of 
the hair of the body. 

Fire-warmth ^'S^ ia the common gentle warmth, or heat, of the wh(^ 
body. The warmth of the stomach is the principal cause of the digestion of meet 
and drink of every kind. If this warmth is in good state, the digestion of meet 
and drink is easy ; no diseases then arise, the lustre of the face, the chyle, the 
supports of the body and life, then increase. Therefore, the warmth of the 
stomach must be kept up, (or if lost, must be restored,) with every endeavour. 

The manner in which meat and drink are changed. Whatever is eaten or 
drunk, is carried into the belly or stomach, by the vital air or wind ; afterwards^ 
by the aid of phlegm, it comes into fermentation of a sweet taste, and increases 
the quantity of phlegm. Afterwards, being digested by the aid of bile, taking a 
hot and sour taste, it produces bile. Afterwards, by the aid of the air or wind 
that conveys an equal heat to the whole body, the dregs or faeces being separated, 
and taking a bitter taste, it generates thin wind. The faeces being changed into 
thick (or solid) and thin (or fluid) parts, become ordure and urine. 

The chyle, after having passed by nine veins from the stomach into the liver 
it becomes or changes into blood ; afterwards, successively, it is transformed into 
flesh, and the seven supports of the body. 

2ndly. The hurtful things or bad humours. These are three: wind, bile, 
and phlegm, each with a five-fold division. 

1. Of Wind. The life-keeping wind or air resides in the upper part of the 
head ; that which operates upwards, has its place in the breast ; that which pervades 
or encompasses all, resides in the heart ; that which communicates or conveje 
an equal heat to the body, has its seat in the stomach ; that which cleanses 
downwards, abides in the lower part of the trunk. 

2. Of Bile. The digesting bile resides in the stomach, between the digested 
and indigested part; that which forms the chyle, resides in the liver; that which 
prepares or increases, in the heart; that which assists the sight (or causes to see), 
in the eye ; that which gives a clear colour, resides in the skin. 

3. Of Phlegm. The supporting phlegm resides in the breast ; the msstioatory,' 
in the indigested part ; the tasting, on the tongue ; the refreshing (or that makes 
contented), in the head; the conjunctive or uniting, resides in every juncture 
(or joint). 

The characteristic signs of the above-specified humours — that of wind ; rough- ' 
ness, lightness, cold, smallness, hardness, and mobility. 

1835.] Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work, 11 

Tliat of btte ; nnctaooaiiess, sharpness, lightness, fonlness, depuratory mois- 

' That of phle^ : QDctnonsness, coolness, heaviness, and dulness, softness, or 
{^tlenna, steadiness, adhesion, passionateness. 

Stk Chapter. — On the works or action of the body. These are the body, 
the speech, and the mind. Virtue, vice, and undetermined cases. The five 
organs occupy their own place. The body is divided into basis (ground or 
support), age, nature (or constitution), division of diseases. The basis has a 
triple division. Age also has the same number ; that of nature or native dis- 
position, has seven. With respect to disease, the distinctions are : indisposition 
and absence of morbid state. 

7th Chapter, — On the tokens of destruction (or approaching death) of the 
body: I. Tokens of a far distant death* 2. Ditto of a near one. 3. Uncertain, 
and 4, Certain tokens of death. Distant tokens are : any envoy (of death), dream, 
and change (by age), &c. ; the near tokens are distinguished into near and very 
near. Uncertain tokens ; as, when after recovering from a sickness, one may 
Uve yet many years. Certain tokens, as, when the disease is incurable. 

A physieiaB should be well acquainted with the tokens of death ; that he may 
know whether the patient be curable or incurable, and to perform his medical 
lenrioe accordingly. 

Sth Chapter. — On the increasing and decreasing state of sickness. Here ii 
treated of the causes and accessory causes of the disease ; the manner of its 
origin ; the diieaaed part ; the character and distinctions of the importance of 

First. The causes are proximate, and remote. 

9th Cht^ter. — ^There are three accessory causes that depend on the primary' 
cause : the originating and spreading, the gathering together and arising ; and 
the taking away of the disease. 

lOM Ch^ter. — On the manner in which any disease takes place in the 

Wth Chapter. ^^On the character of diseases ; as, an increasing, diminishing, 
and a perplexed, disease. The causes of which are to be sought in the too great 
or too small quantity of the three humours, of the seven supports of the body, 
and of the fieces. 

\lth Chapter. — Division of diseases ; with respect to the cause, the indiridual, 
and the kind of disease. With respect to the cause : this is attributed to the 
vicioQs three humours of this life ; to the consequence of immoral actions in for- 
mer generations or lives, and to a mixture of both. With respect to the indiri- 
dnals : they are, man, woman, child, old persons ; and men of every description. 
Ihe several diseases peculiar to each are enumerated. The number of the kinds 
of the common diseases is stated to be 404, which are dirided or distinguished out 
ef several respects. As with respect to the vicious humours, principal humour, 
place or injured part, and the kind of disease, 42 belong to wind, 26 to bile, 33 to 
phlegm. Thus with respect to the humours, 101 dirisions are made, and so on ; 
with respect to the other points also, many distinctions or classifications are 
enumerated, each amounting to 101. 

IZth Chapter, — With respect to the conduct. What course of life is to be 
taken, (to be free from disease :) 1. continually, 2, at certain periods, and 3, 
occaaonally, or as drcomstances may require. The two first are treated in the 
c 2 • 

1 2 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. [Jam • 

ntzt two cHapten : 1, oontinaally to be done are : worldly affaira and religiovs 
exercises or occupations ; first, the leaving off every immoral action committed 
by the body, speech, aad the mind ; and the doing of such things as are agree* 
able to these, in every circumstance of life: as in eating, walking, sitting, moont* 
ing a horse, sleeping, &c. 

2, Religious occupations are the exercise of moral virtues, and the desiatiiic 
from the ten immoral actions. 

\4ih Chapter, — On the periodical conduct of life, according to the different 
seasons, (as the first and last part of winter, the spring, the hot season, summer, 
and autumn ;) with respect to diet, exercise, medicine, and chirurgical operations. 

15M Chapter. — On the circumstantial conduct of life, with respect to several 
cases, teaching that, one should not obstruct hunger and thirst (or abstain frona 
meat and drink) ; not hinder yawning or gaping, sneezing, breathing, coughing, 
(or ejecting phlegm,) spitting, sleeping, nor any of the natural dischargee, 
since the obstruction or hindrance of them may give rise to any disease, of 
which several cases or examples are enumerated. 

16/A Chapter. — The manner of using meat and drink : 1. The several kinds 
of food, and the manner of using them. 2. Several kinds of food that do not 
agree, and therefore may not be used together. 3. Temperature to be observed. 

For food are used, {p*ain (or corn), flesh, butter, vegetables or greens, and 
dressed victuals. There are two kinds of grain: 1, growing in ears, and 2, in 
pods (as pulse). Flesh or animal food of eight kinds or sorts. Several kinds oC 
unctuous or oily substances ; as, butter, oil expressed from grains, kernels, fruits^ 
beiTies, and trees or shrubs ; grease, fat, marrow, &c. To vegetable or green. 
things belong potherbs, &c. To dressed victuals or meals belong boiled rioe* 
soup, &c. Drinkable things are milk, water, wine, &c. 

17 th Chftpter. — Enumeration of several kinds of food that it were dangeronn 
to take together ; as, fish and milk, &c. 

ISth Chapter. — On the proper measure of food to be taken, or on temperance 
in meat and drink. 

I9th Chapter. — On pharmacy, or the preparing of medicaments for healing 
any disease. Taste of medicament, efficacy, digestive quality, mode of com* 
posing, &G. appropriate to any specified disease. 

20M Chapter. — On materia medica, the efficacy of every simple medicament* 
The materials for medicaments are : precious and natural stones, earths, woods, 
vegetables, and those obtained from animals. In the text, and in another quoted 
work, 915 articles are enumerated, and stated of each to what disease it may be 
applied especially, as a remedy. 

2Ut Chapter. — Specification of the classes of medicaments ; their preparation 
and application to specified diseases. 

22nd Chapter. — On the five sorts of (chirurgical) instruments, employed in 
trying or sounding any disease, in cutting, &c. 

2'6rd Chapter. — ^That one may remain in health and ease, rules are prescribed 
to be observed. 

24/ A Chapter. — Discrimination of the humours as the cause of any inward or 
outward disease. 

25 M Chapter. — ^When the former are insufficient, it is taught, to seek it in the 
vicious inclination of the mind. 

26th Chapter.— -'Vo exhibit medical help, when the disease may be healed ; 
and to give it up, when it cannot be cured. 

18S5.3 AnalyM of a Tibetan Medkal Work. IS 

27IA Okt^ier, — Ob the manQer of caring diseases. How ? bj whom ? with 
what ? The measiure or length of time of cnring. 

28/A Ck^er^ — ^Detailed description of the curing of diseases. 

29ik Gl^icr.^-Common and peculiar mode of caring diseases. 

30M CJU^Ur. — ^Howto care wind, bile, phlegm, is separately exposed or taught. 

Zl9t Ck^er, — The requisite qoalities in a physician, that he should ba well 
ieqnainted with the theory and practice of medicine ; and be an impartial, up* 
right, good-hearted man. 

Thibd Part. 

Coa/omu^ a full explanation of DUeasei, 

lier 1. Eahortntion to the teacher (Sha'kya) to deUrer a treatise (&^) 
er oral inatraction on the manner of curing diseases. 

2. The curing of diseases arising from wind (or windy humours). Tbero 
are ire distimctions : 1, causes; 2, accessory cause and effect; 3, division; 4, 
•fBpfeOBsa ; 5, manner of curing (diseases arising from wind). 

3. In the euiing of diseases arising from (or caused by) bile, there are the 
feitowing ^alinetions : 1, cause ; 2, accessory cause and effect ; 3, division ; 4^ 
tymptoaan; 5, manner of curing; 6, and stopping or hindering its pro- 

4. la the curing of diseases caused by phlegm (or phlegmatical humours), are 
f—sMrrfd : eauae, accessory cause and effect, diyision, symptoms, and manner 
af cuing. 

5. In the curing of diseases caused by the gathering together of the three 
h— iO uiB (wind, biie, phlegm,) and of blood, there are the following distlDCtions 
or eonaidermtions : cause, incident or accessory cause and effect, place, time, kind 
•r genus, symptoms, manner or mode of curing, and the stopping of it for the 

6. In the euring of indigestion, the root (or primary cause) of inward diseases, 
are the following distinctions or sections : cause, incident or accessory 
cause and effect, manner of its arising, division, symptoms, remedy or mode of 

7. In fte caring of a swelling (or a hard conglomeration or excrescence), there 
is treated of: cause, incident, division, place, manner of arising, symptom, mod<i 
af cnring it* 

8. The caring of white swellings, a kind of dropsy. Here are considered : 
csusc, incident, division, symptom, mode of curing. 

9. In the curing of another kind of dropsy (^X^'S^A^^ there are the same dis- 

tinctiona as before. 

10. The curing of dropsy is taught, by exposing the cause and incident, division, 
■anner of ariaing, symptom, mode of curing, stopping or cessation. 

11. lathe curing of phthisis or consumption of the lungs, i|*'R^^^*i^'Hr 
^*8S*V) there are the following distinctions : cause, and accessory cause or 
affect, division, symptom, mode of curing. And thus there are six chapters on 
caring inward diseases. 

12. Ia ouiag feveriih diseases (where heat prevails) in general, there are the 

14 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work, [Jan. 

following dutinctions : cause and incident, natore, name, symptom, mode of 

13, 14. Farther explanations on the causes of the heat and cold, in fever. 

15. In the curing of a fever, in its beginning, or where heat has not yet taken 
the upper hand, there are enumerated the following distinctions : cause and 
incident, nature, name, division, symptom, mode of curing. 
' 16. In an increased or burning fever, the same distinctions are as before, except 
a trifling division. 

17 to 20. On curing several kinds of feveri such as are : the sly, hidden, inveter- 
ate, and the mixed ones. 

21. The curing of inflsmmation of any hurt or wounded part of the body, with 
several distinctions ; and that of inward and outward hurt : the inwards are, the 
viscera and the vessels ; the outward parts are, the flesh, bone, marrow, tendon, 
and fibre. 

22. The curing of heat or fever (arising from the contest between wind, bile, and' 
phlegm), in which the mental faculties are troubled, with several distinctions to 
be considered ; and so there are 11 chapters on caring fever (heat and inflam- 
mation). ' 

23. On curing epidemic maladies or infectious diseases, with several distinc- 
tions and divisions; as, 1^0}*^^ a kind of pestilence of Nepil. 

24. On curing the smalUpox: cause and effect, definition of small-pox, distinc- 
tion, symptom, mode of curing ; distinction into white and black variole, each 
having three species. 

25. The curing of infectious diseases aifecting the bowels (colic), with several 
distinctions ; purging the viscera and the lower vessels, affecting with greater or 
less vehemence ; and so there are eight kinds of diseases affecting the bowels. 

26. The curing of swellings in the throat (or of ulcers and inflammations), and 
infective diseases, as the cholera, ^^*^'^^* V^*^ ; the first has 4, the second 
11, subdivisions, or minor distinctions. 

27. With respect to catarrh, are considered : cause and incident, kind, symptom, 

mode of curing. And so are five chapters on infectious diseases, JL^<V* ^S». 
to which belongs the cholera morbus also, l^^'g^^Qfl T ^'<9^- 

28. In curing the upper part of the body, the head occupies the first place. 
Here are considered : cause, circumstantial accident, distinction, symptom, mode 
•f curing. There are eight distinctions, as wind, &c. 

29. In curing the diseases of the eyes, are considered : cause, incident, 
division, symptom, mode of curing, with 33 distinctions of opthalmic diseases. 

30. Diseases of the ear; cause and incident, or accessory cause and effect, 
division or distinction, symptom, mode of curing. Distinction into disease of 
the ear, and deafness ; that has six, this four, kinds. 

31. Diseases of the nose: cause and incident, division, symptom, mode of 
curing ; there are five divisions or distinctions. 

32. In the curing of the diseases of the mouth, there are to be considered : 
cause and incidents, division, symptom, mode of curing. There is a six-fold 
division ; as, the lip, the gum, &c. There are several distinctions of diseases, as 
six of the teeth ; five of the tongue ; six of the palate, and seven of the throat. 

33. In curing the diseases of goitre or swelling in the fore-part of the neck, are 
considered : cause and incident (or accessory causes), distinction, symptom, cure 

1835.] Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work. 15 

or remedy. There are eight sorts of goitret as those arising from wind, bile, &c« 
Thus six chapters are on curing diseases in the upper part of the body. 

Now foUows the curing of diseases affecting the riscera, and the entrails or 

34. In curing the diseases of the heart, there is treated of: cause and incident, 
dirisioD, symptom, and remedy. There are seven distinction of diseases in the 

heart; as the throbbing or palpitation of the heart ^^*Q^A/'> &c. 5cc. 

35. In curing the diseases of the lungs are considered : cause, divisioUf 
symptom, remedy. Tliere are eight distinctions of diseases. 

36. In curing the diseases of the liver, are treated of : cause, division, symptom » 
remedy. There are 18 distinctions of diseases. 

37. In curing the diseases of the spleen or milt, four things come into con* 
sideration. There are five kinds of diseases, as inflammation, he, 

38. In curing the diseases of the reins or kidneys, there are four considerations, 
with seven kinds of diseases ; as wind in the reins, &c. 

39. In curing the diseases of the stomach, or the pit of the stomach, there aro 
likewise four things to be previously considered. And first, 18 kinds of diseasea« 
as heat, cold, &c. and again five kinds, as wind, &c. 

40. In curing the diseases of the intestines or bowels are considered four 
things, aa cause, &c. with the distinction of five kinds of diseases. 

41. In the curing of the gut of the entrails or bowels, are considered: symptom 
ind remedy, with five distinctions of diseases ; as cold, puffing up, &c. Thus eight 

chaptera are on curing the diseases of the riscera and vessels S^'^S* 
Diseases of the privy parts. 

42. 43. In these two chapters for male and female cases are considered: 
eaose, Ste. four, with nine and five distinctions of disease respectively. 

This class of disorders is called ffl^/c;'^^ (secret disease). 
The curing of little diseases (^ X ' ^^ ) . 

44. In the curing of hoarseness, or difficulty of using t^e Toice, are 
eoBsidered: cause, incident, &c. four, with seven distinctions of diseases i 
•• wind, Ac. 

45. In curing aversion ft'om food, or restoring the loss of appetite (^'A|* 
Q4N*^) there are considered : cause, &c. four ; with four distinctions of that 

. 46. In curing the distemper of continual thirst, are considered : cause and 
incident, &o. four, with five kinds of that distemper ; as wind, bile, &c. 
47. In the curing of the hiccup, the disease of yezing (convulsion of the 

•tomach ^'R^S^'^^)* ^^ considered: cause and accident, &c. four, with 
tiwe distinctions of that distemper ; as from meat or food, &c. 
, 48. The curing of the difficulty of breathing: cause, &c. four ; with five minor 
49. The curing of a sudden cholic, (l||C%*3'^^, a distemper of the bowels,) 

are considered : cause and accident, &c. four ; with three principal, and eleven, 
minor, kinds of that distemper ; besides some others that are enumerated, as heat 
and cold ; worms and phlegm, &c. 

' 50. The curing of diseases arising from worms (in the belly or bowels :) 
and insects, are considered : cause and accidents, &c. four, with two distinctions 
inward and outward worms or Insects ; as belly worms, lice, and nits. 

16 Analyns o/^ Tibetan Medical Work. [Jak. 

51. In curing votniting, are coniidered : canae and acddenta, ftc. four, with 
four diatinctions of that diatemper, aa wind, &c. 

52. In curing purging diaeaaes (or dyaentery), are conaidered: caoae, &c. 
four, with four diatinctiona of that distemper, &c. 

53. The curing of obatruction of atools, or of eTacuation, four thinga to be con- 
sidered, and fire kinda of that distemper are enumerated. 

54. In curing dyaury (or difficulty of making urine), is treated of the cauao 
and accidents, &c. four, with aeveral diatinctiona of the kinda of that diatemper* 

55. In curing the frequent diacharge of urine ; cauae, &c. four, with the thre« 
kinds of that distemper, ariaing from phlegm, bile, and wind ; phlegm haa agam 
10 diatinctiona. 

56. In curing the disease called the *' Indian heat," (Tery dangerooa to 
Tibetana, by causing exceaaive heat and frequent eyacuatiooa, of which many die 
who Tiait India,) are conaidered : cauae, &c. four, with four diatinct diviaiona of 
that distemper. 

57. In curing the swelling or enlargement of the feet, are conaidered : cauae, 
&c. four, with four distincdona of that diseaae. 

58. In curing the gout Q^*9 are conaidered : cauae, &c. four, with six 
diatinctiona of that painful diatemper. 

59. In the curing of diseases arising from the aerum or watery parta of the 
blood (S*^X yellow water, bad or corrupt humoura), are conaidered ; the man- 
ner of its origin, ita diriaion, aymptom, mode of curing, with aeTcral diatinctiona. 

60. The curing of the disease called ** the white vein," jf *^^Xwtth acTeral 
divisiona and distinctions. 

61. The curing of cutaneoua diaeaaes. Of theae there are seyeral dlTtslona and 

62. The curing of miscellaneous diaeaaes of the smaller kind : such as con- 
traction or ainking of the sinews ; dyaentery ; Tomiting ; any hurt oauaed by 
fire ; hurt or wound made with a needle ; or when a needle or the Iron-poiAt 
of an arrow happen to be awallowed ; choaking or aulfocation; oa tiae 
stopping of any thing in the throat, as, a beard of com, bone, i&sh-prickle ; the 
entering or swallowing in of a apider or acorpion ; intoxication ; atiffaesa of the 
neck ; ill amell of the body ; hurt of the handa and feet caoaed by cold and anow* 
the creeping of any inaect into the ear ; the awelliag of the teat of a womao 
The curing of all auch diaeaaea ia called the cure of small diaeaaes. Thiu there 
are 1 9 chaptera on minute diaeaaea. 

The healing of wounds, aorea, orulcera. 

63. The curing of nlcera (Q^AT) here ere eoBaideied > cause, &c. fbnr, with 
aeveral diatinctiona. 

64. The curing of the hemorrhoida (pilea or eaeroda in the ftmdament. 
1^^'Q^^): cause, &c. four, with aix diatinctiona. 

^ 65. The curing of St. Anthony'a fire, (any swelling full of heat and redness, 
«f*^t;qf^ : cauae, &c. four, with aeveral diatinctions, and the places (or parts) 
where generally they occur. 

66. The curing of the Surya diaeaae (s^'^Q'*^) affecting the longs, U^er» 
&c. ita beginning, &c. four, with aome diatinctiona. 

67. The curing of cancerous or Yindent bad soies or oloers : cense, fte. fonr» 
with eight distinctions. 

1835.] AnalytU of a Ttbetan Medical Work. 17 

68. Th€ euriag of the iwelling of the testiclOi (^q'O a)^\ : cause, fte. ftmr, 
vith six distiiictioiit. "^ 

69. Tlie caring of ft diioMe in the foot and thigh, called KAngbAm, (<|l;*Q'^IV 
or enlaigittg and cormptkin of the feet, drc. a painfol disease in the bones, accom- 
panied with inflammation, and bine colonr of the slcin : cause, &c. four, with 
sereral distinctions. 

70. The curing of the ulceration in the perineum : cause, &c. four, with sosst 

71. The curing of diseases incident to infant children, with the description of 
several superstitious customs or practices which are performed at the birth of a 
child, as examination of the time at which it was born, whether it is lucky or ua> 
iucVr ; imparting of the benediction ; the cutting of the umbilical cord ; tiM 
making it live long ; the making it suck, the time, &c. &c. 

72. The enumeration of seyeral diseases common to infants and children t 
cause, &c four, and the mode of curing them. 

73. The curing of diseases caused by any (supposed) eril spirit, 12 kinds of 
such dtseaaes; symptoms, and remedy. 

Thus three chapters are devoted to the diseases of infant children. 
Then follow, on curing the diseases of the female sex. These distempers are 
this distinguished : general, peculiar, and Tulgar, or common. 

74. On curing the diseases of tiie female sex, in genera], are considered : 
csBse, &c. four, with two distinctions, originating in the blood and wind. 

75. The curing of the particular diseases of women : cause, &c. four, with 
SMUiy distinctions ; as with respect to the several humours, of which they arise. 

76. The curing of the common or vulgar diseases of women, with the circum- 
stances of child-birth. 

On curing diseases caused by evil spirits. 

77. The curing of diseases caused by a ghost (or evil spirit), of which there 
are 18 kinds enumerated, from among the Suras and Asuras. Here are considered : 
esnse and incident, division, symptom, and remedy. 

78. The curing of insanity or madness : cause, &c. four, with seven distinc- 
tions, as it is caused by wind, bile, &c. 

79. The enring of a kind of insanity called *' forgetfulness" (lunacy ?) enume- 
tation of its several kinds, the symptoms, and the remedies. 

80. The curing of palsieal diseases, and the telling of the periodical time of 
their ocenrrence, the symptoms, and the remedies for preventing their recourse. 

81 . On the curing of diseases, in which the body is infested with cancerous ulcers, 
is eaten away and dissolved: considered cause, &c. nine, with 18 distinctions re- 
meeting its different kinds, and the places (or parts) which are generally affected. 

The above five chapters are on such diseases as are supposed to be caused by 
die inflnenee of some malignant demon. 

82. On the curing or healing, in general, of wounds, made by any kind of weapon 
or KM>L Here into consideration come ; 1, cause ; 2, accessory cause or incident; 
3, nature (of wonnd) ; 4, definition or description (of the wound) ; 5, its name ; 6, 
piaoe ; 7, division ; 8, symptom, mode of curing or remedy, excision or cutting 
out, dcatristng. 

83- The curing of wounds on the head, here are considered : the manner of 
its being, eiaminafion of theiiyurod part, manner of curing, recovering, or beinc 

overpowered. (Q|1*1^^) 

18 Analysis of a Tibetan Medical Work, [Jan. 

84. The curing of wounds on theneck or throat, where the bone, Tein, or nenre, 
and the tendon or sinew come into consideration. 

85. The caring of wounds on the upper and lower parts of the thumb of the 
body ; manner or that of being ; symptom, remedy, heaUng. 

86. The caring of wounds on tke hanging membets (arms and legs), the 
knowing the importance or consequence of, &c. symptoms in general, mode of 
caring, or restoration. 

Thus four chapters were on caring wounds ; henceforth the curing of poison, or 
the remedies against poisoning. 

87. The curing of injuries caused by artificial or prepared poison. Here are 
considered : the kind of poison, entrance or infection ; quality, the manner of ita 
apreading or preyalence ; remedies employed, final oessaition or remains. 

88. The curing of simple poison, and of poison in the flesh. With respect to 
the first : cause, symptom, remedy ; in the second case, two points more come in 

89. The caring of real or material poison. Two cases : 1, spreading ; and 2, 

not spreading. (|'H'S^'^*§'^) 
These three chapters were on caring injuries caused by poison. 

90. On curing the weakness of old age, or procuring strength to weak, old 
men. Emoluments, place, recourse to, remedy. 

91. 92, On the means of increasing the power or rigour in men. 

Here ends the summary extract of the 92 chapters, on the instruction of cur- 
ing diseases. 

Fourth Part. 

FTAtcA contains the explanation of the practical part of Medicine, 

Chapter 1. The examination of the pulse, wherein 13 cases are enumerated 
<kn the character of the distemper. 

2. The inspection of urine, wherein, as it is said, the vicious state of the 
whole body may be seen, as in a mirror. 

Thus two chapters are on examining the pulse and urine. 
Afterwards, when the character and name of the disease has been found out, 
what sorts of medicaments are to be administered, is exposed. 

3. First liquid medicines, of which there are 54 for curing inward heat, and 
23 for assuaging cold fits or ague. Together there are 77 sorts of liquid medicine. 
When by these there is no remedy, further is an 

4. Enumeration of powdered medicine, or medicaments in powder, of whick 
the mixture is stated to amount to 96, for assuaging the heat of any distemper ; 
and 69 against cold fits. Both together=165. When they afford no relief, there 
is taught of another remedy, 

5. Physic or medicaments in pills, of which the different kinds of mixture 
amount to 22. 

6. The several kinds of sirup, (a kind of mixture} are described or taught, of 
which 15 are for assuaging heat, and five against cold fits. Both together=20. 

For procuring strength to the body, and for drawing out an inveterate diseaae, 

7. Is taught of a mixture, called medicinal butter (K^'^HX) consiatiog of 

18S5.] Aiaa^sU of a metan Medical Work. 1 9 

■everal iafrednntg, of which there are 14 sorts for curing heat, and nine for tak* 
log away eoUl fits. Both together = 23. 

8. 13 kinds of mixture of cai ci ned powder, for curing an agne caused hy a too 
much abtrndmoe of phlegm. 

9. 17 kinds of mixture or syrup, especially for the purpose of assuaging heat. 

10. 19 species of mixture of medicinal wine (or spirituous beverage), are enu- 
Berated, for curing diseases, in which wind preyails. 

11. A mixture, as a remedy against any iuTefterate malady whatever, prepared 
Off predoua stones, for curing the diseases of princes, and of opulent men. 
One against heat, and 11 against cold ; eight against both ; together3c:20. 

Since men, in general, cannot have precious stones required for such a mixture 
for curing diseases, in the 

12. k taught of such vegetables or plants that are procurable by all, of which 
the several mixtures amount to 28 for curing heat ; and 14 for assuaging cold fit. 

Thus taking together all assuaging remedies from the liquid to the vegetable 
■edidoes, there are 418. So much of the assuaging remedies. When they are 
insofficient, in the 

13. Is taught of purging or deparatory medicines in general. 

14. Of purging medicines operating downwards, for carrying away corrupt 
Ueod, bfle, and the relics of other diseases. Tliere are three kinds of such 
pargiag (or depuratory,) medicines, operating : gently, moderately, and strongly { 
of which all there are 82 species. 

15. For carrying upwards or ejecting the remains of such diseases, as belong 
to the phlegmatical kind : here vomits tire prescribed, of which there are eight of 
the stronger, and eight of the gentle kind, both=16. 

16. A composition of medicine, for cleansing or purging the nose, five of the 
gentle, and two of the strong kind. 

17. Elixirs or extracted juices, for drawing downwards the dlMsses in the en- 
trails or intestines and guts. 

18. The same continued and specied. 

19. EGxirs or mixtures for cleansing the veins, (or deparatory elixirs for do.) 
Thus seven chapters are on deparatory medicines. 

If by the above means there is no sufficient relief, in another sutra is taught of 
other soft and hard remedies. 

20. How to let blood in such distempers, when heat prevails. There are 
eoonted 77 veins, of which any may be opened for letting out blood. 

21. The application of a caustic for curing diseases, when cold, or cold fits 

22. The use of a venomous mixture. 

23. On the use of medical bath, for diseased members. 

24. On adhibiting medicinal unguents. 

25. On medicines operating downwards. 

26. The conclusion. Though there be many ways (1,200) of examining the 
heat and cold prevailing In any disease, they all may be reduced to the fol- 
lowing : to look on the tongue and urine, to feel the pulse, and to ask (after the 
eircumstances of the beginning and progress of the disease in question.) 

Thus the remedies adhibited against diseases, though they be counted many 
(1,200) yet they may be reduced to the following four classes : medicament, ma- 
nual operation, diet, and exercise. Medicament is either assuaging or deparatory; 
D 2 

20 Geological and Statutieal AeeamU of the [ Jah. 

the miBiial operttion, U either gentle er ro«(h; food ieeitteriifeliilor BOzio«e; 
the exerdie is either violent or geatle. 

Again : though there be numbered 360 practical modes of curing diseases, they 
may be reduced to these three *. examination of the patient (or of the symptoms 
of the disease). Rules for curing such and sudi disease. And the manner in 
which the remedy is applied. 

There is taught also of preservatives for a physician, to keep himself sstfe from 
any malignant infection from a patient. 

27. Recommendation of this treatise to the care of the audience, by the tencher, 
(Shakta.) Classification and moral application of the above enumerated 404 

The volume concludes with an account of the mode in which this treatise on 
medicine (consisting of four parts) readied Tibet, which is briefly incorporated in 
the introductory remarks. 

II. — Journal of a Tour through the Island of Rambree, with a Geologi- 
cal Sketch of the Country, and Brief Account of the Customs, S^c. of 
its Inhabitants. By Lieut, Wm. Folet. 

[Read at the Meeting of the 2nd Oct. 1834.] 
The Islaod of Rambree, or Yamawaddi* as it is termed by the Bur- 
mas, is not without those features common to the whole of Arracan. 
The same high land, covered with a thick and impenetrable jungle, 
every where presents itself to the view of one approaching the coast ; 
and the eye strives in vain to discover a diversity of feature in somtf 
cleared spot, which would indicate the existence of a cultivation only 
to he found in the interior of the island. It was with the view of 
throwing some light upon the geology of Rambree that I prepared this 
Journal for transmission to the Asiatic Society ; a consciousness of my 
present superficial information on many points connected with the 
geology of the island would have induced me to reserve this commu- 
nication for a more favourable opportunity, was I not apprehensive 
that such a season would never arrive, and that the little leisure I 
now have at my disposal must of necessity be devoted to duties of a 

* In the year 1148, Mugh series, two years subsequent to the conquest of the 
country by the Burmas, Arracan was divided into four distinct proTince8,each sub- 
ject to a separate jurisdiction. Tliey were termed thus, 1. Dwynawaddi (Ar- 
racan Proper). 2. Yamawaddi (Rambree Island). 3. Mtgawaddi (Cheduba). 
4. Doraufoddi (Sandoway). The proper name for Cheduba is Ma^eng, The 
word Cheduba must have been introduced by the Bengalis, I fancy, for it is un- 
known to the Mughs. The same may be said of Akyab, which should be called 


[/{dmdea/i, MegkAvati and IHfdrdvati, in Sanscrit. See translation of an In* 
scriptiott in voL iU. page 209> 213.— En.] 

1835.] Island ofRamhree on the Arracan C6a»t, 21 

inrofesBioiid nature. To a brief geological description of the island » I 
liave added Buch other matter connected with the condition, and man- 
ners of the inhabitants as appeared deserving of mention, either from 
its novelty, or the value it may possess in the scale of utility. 

With respect to the g^olog^ of Rambree, I fear there will be found 
little that is new or interesting ; the rocks that have been hitherto observ- 
ed are chiefly of the newest kind, or owe their origin to volcanic agency : 
these with the alhivial and dilnvial deposits will be found to cover 
the greater part of the island. Several mountainous ranges occur in 
Rambree, and their general direction appears to be from N. N. W. to 
S. S. £. The elevation of these above the plain is not very great, 
varying from 500 to 1500 feet for the principal extent, and not ex- 
ceeding 3000 feet at the highest point. Other smaller hills are seen to 
branch off from the larger ranges, forming those basin-like cavities 
that adbrd space for the rice cultivation. 

Commencing with Khyouk Phyoo*, situated on the N. W. point of 
the Island of Rambree^ I shall proceed from thence along the western^ 
coast, parsing in gradation to such other places as I may have visited, 
or have become familiar to me from the report of others. 

The military station of Khyouk Pkyoo^ which takes its name from a 
village distant three miles from the cantonment, stands upon the 
verge of a low sandy plain, which extending from the south towards 
the sea and harbour is bounded on the S. W. by a low sandstone 
range, and on the E. by a small creek, which separates it from the 
rich alluvial ground that lies at the base of the Nagadong and Oonky* 
oiag hills. Upon the surface of this plain there exists a vegetable 
mould not exceeding four inches in depth, and this is succeeded by a bed 
of sand and shingle ; the sand in some instances assuming a g^ey or 
greenish appearance, and the shingle in every respect similar to that 
found upon the beach. At the village of Townyeen, in front of the 
parade, a chalybeate spring is supposed to exist from the presence of 
carbonate of iron ; — the sand in this place has a ferruginous aspect, 
but the space occupied by it is very limited, the ochre appearing at 
the surface, and invariably succeeded by the grey sand above alluded to. 

As has been already observed, a sandstone range extends itself on 
the S. W. side of the cantonment. There are in fact two ranges run- 
ning parallel to each other, the interval being taken up with patches 
of rice coltivarion ; and both are oonnected with the reefs extending 
under the sea to the N. W. and marked off by the Reef Btioy, 
Taking a direction to the S. E. they are terminated abruptly on the 
margin of the creek which bounds the station of Khyouk Phyoo on 

* Khyouk Phyoo, White Stones, (Shingle.) 

22 Geologicdl and Btatktiedt Accotmi of the (Jak. 

that quarter. The stracture of both is alike throughout ; the sandstone 
occurring in large disintegrated masses, rounded by the weather* and 
loosely embedded in the argillaceous soil that forms the surface of 
these hills. Here and there some appearance of stratification is ob- 
served ; the sandstone dipping to the S. W. at an angle of 75 or 80®. 
This order of stratification is most perceptible on the sea beach •'where 
the ranges in question are united with the reefs. The sandstone is 
here of a grey colour, of a somewhat laminar structure, and in some 
places so much decomposed by the action of the water as to approach 
the nature of an alaminous schist. Progressing with the range, it 
assumes a brown or yellow colour, is of a fine texture, and occasion- 
ally interspersed with minute scales of mica. The surface of these 
hills being composed of a stratum of clay, the ground at their base is 
continually receiving a deposit of the same nature, affording oppor- 
tunities for cultivation, and forming a striking contrast with the soil 
in the immediate vicinity of the cantonment. This alluvial deposit 
sometimes attains to the consistence of a yeUow clay, sufficiently plas* 
tic for the fabrication of bricks and earthen vessels, fieyond this 
sandstone range, and bordering upon the village of Khyouk Phyoo, 
the ground is still of that low diluvial nature which indicates the 
transition it has undergone ; in some places, intersected by narrow 
creeks accessible to the tide, and every where covered with a thick 
jungle of mangroves and marine plants. At the village of Khyouk 
Phyoo there occurs an isolated hill, composed entirely of a soft grey sand- 
stone, which had once formed part of some continued range, and was 
subsequently torn asunder by the sea on its retiring from the island ; 
it is one of the many instances that may be observed in Ramhree of the 
denudating efiects of the waters of the ocean at a period that they 
were subject to some violent commotion, produced probably by the 
sudden rise of mountains from beneath. 

January 12th, 1884. — ^Leaving Khyouk Phyoo at an early hour, and 
proceeding along the beach with the Saddle and Knot Islands on the 
right, my route lay towards the villages of Membraan and Kyou^ 
prath ; loose blocks of standstone, rounded by the sea, and apparent- 
ly forming part of an under-stratam, extending to the Saddle and 
Knot Islands, cross the beach in several places for the first few miles 
of the road. The sandstone is of a grey colour, soft, gritty, and 
frequently intersected with veins of calc-spar ; I observed crystals of 
iron pvrites on the surface of some of these stones, and red spots 
on others, perhaps the result of aqueous deposition. The sandstones 
in Arracan appear to contain much iron, in different stages of oxida- 

1835.] iMland of Rambree an the Arraean Coast. 23 

Still following the 8ea-shore» at the base of a long eandatone 
range, whose utmost elevation above the plain cannot exceed 
300 feet, I passed the village of Metnhraan, the locality of some 
old Petroleum wells, which I am told no longer afford a sufficient 
sapplj of oil to induce the working of them. From Membrann 
to Kyouprath, the road lay along a beautiful beach, covered with a 
fine yellow sand and shingle. I observed the priuts of tigers' feet 
in several places on the route, and in this place they were particularly 
numerous. From the circuits the animals had made on the beach, 
they would seem to have been sporting with each other by the moon- 
light ; a thing not unusual with the male and female of the Feline 
species doring the season of love. The ground on the left was higher 
and more open than it had hitherto been on the road, and covered with 
a fine green sward. Beyond me was the village of Kycuprath, pret- 
tily situated on an eminence over the sea-shore, and at no great dis- 
tance in its rear, the range of sandstone hills, between which and the 
village I observed a few acres of paddy ground. The hills were in 
some few places cleared of the forest and underwood, and presented 
small patches of open ground devoted to the cultivation of cotton. 
It was near 10 o'clock when I reached Kycmpraih, and as my elephants 
were tired, and it was getting warm, I was not unwilling to make a 
halt at the place for the remainder of the day. After selecting a spot 
for the elephants, my next care was to seek quarters for myself ; and 
for this purpose, I requested the villagers, who had already assembled 
to have a near view of the Inglee*, to direct me to the house of the 
Rowtgony, or head-inan of the village. After my request had been 
several times repeated, before it was understood, I at length found my- 
self seated in his house. The Rcvagony was at work in the field, but 
his wife, a cheerful-looking woman, was present, and very kindly gave 
me a mat to lie down upon, some fire for my cheroot, and a fowl 
for my cufry, on the assurance that full payment should be made for 
every thing received. I feU asleep upon the mat, and did not rise 
until the sun was nearly down, when I took a stroll upon the beach, 
and bathed in the sea. A few blocks of sandstone, and a conglome- 
rate, consisting of a paste of sandstone, with enclosed nodules of a 
calcareous earth, lay upon the beach ; some of these rocks had a sco- 
riaceous appearance, were encrusted with crystals of iron pyrites, and 
bore evident marks of igneous origin. Returning to the village, 1 sat 
down on the green, to witness a wrestling match between two young 
Mughs. This is a game that they are very fond of, and I have never 
seen better wrestlers among any race of people. The vigorous frame 
* Inglee, Engluhmen, general term for an Ewropton, 

24 Geological and Siatisiical Account of the [Jaic 

of tbe combatants promised a treat of no ordinary kind, and I was not 
disappointed ; it was truly astonishing to witness the dexterity of the 
parties in their endeavours to throw each other. The struggle was 
long and violent, ere it was terminated by the fall of either party ; it 
was impossible, however, that both should be declared conquerors, 
one poor fellow was throwu, and fairly held down at the mercy of the 
victor. One of my Mahouts, a great stout man, and a native of Chit- 
tagong, was present, and had the impudence to speak lightly of the 
science. He was immediately challenged by a young Mugh, who was 
far his inferior in size, as well as age. They wrestled, aud the Mahout 
was thrown, once — twice — and three times, to his very great confusion, 
and the chagrin of his caste. Boxing, wrestling, and the KeeUhne, 
are among the favourite amusements of the Mughs. The latter game 
is not unlike our " battledore and shuttlecock," with this difference, 
that the ball, which is hollow, and made of cane, is impelled into the 
air by the foot, instead of by the hand. Haifa dozen young men form 
a circle, and it is the aim of each individual, towards whom the ball 
falls, to keep it up in the air as long as he can ; not uuly the foot but 
the knee is brought into action, much dexterity is displayed, and he 
that keeps the ball up longest is entitled to the greatest credit. la 
addition to the games of more genera) occurrence, the Mughs, like the 
rest of their neighbours, have their own peculiar festivals, and modes 
of celebrating them. The principal of these are — 

1. Sangrain-Kyadeh*. — ^This occurs in the month of Tagoo-la^ 
(April,) at the commencement of the new year, and during this sea- 
son, the games of Reh-loundee, and L^h-prinedee are held. The for- 
mer very much resembles what is observed in our own country on New- 
year's-day. The women throw water over the men, who generally 
return the compliment ; no distinction is paid to rank. Tlie water 
is thrown indiscriminately, and with an unsparing hand, upon high 
and low, and all seem determined to enjoy a season that permits of 
such unlimited freedom. Th^ Lih-prinedee is the boat-race, which is 
held at the same time : a number of boats assemble in a broad creek, 
and start for a certain place, each striving to outstrip the other. The 
boats are impelled with oars, and those that are light and well man- 
ned, have a surprising speed upon the water. The shouts of the 
rowers, the strains of wild music, and the gay appearance of the boats 

* The whole of these festivali owe their source to some fabuloui narrative, pre- 
served in the lacred writings or other books, and religiously believed by an igno- 
rant and superstitious people. I regret that I am, from my very imperfect ac- 
quaintance with the language of this country, debarred an opportunity of tran- 
scribing any part of these. 

1835.J Island of Rambree on the Arracan Coast. 25 

decked out at the stem with branches of plantain trees and garlands 
of flowers, give a most pleasing and striking effect to the scene. Re- 
tamed to the place from whence they started, a donation in money, 
or a piece of silk, is generally presented to the winner hy the master 
of the ceremonies. Nantches and entertainments succeed the boat- 
race, and the festivities are closed with offerings to the priests and the 
BoMioo*, who is on this occasion carefully washed and adorned. 

2. OobhO'Ckounde* — ^This festival is held in the months Wajho, 
(July,) Waffotng,{Ajagiut,) Tantha^leng, (September,) and Sadyne-Kyot, 
(October.) The people fast for a few days in each month, and pro- 
c^ing to the Kioumsf, dressed in their smartest attire, prostrate 
themselves before the Phraa}, and make suitable offerings to the priests. 

3. Wmgbank-pde occurs in the month Sadyne-Kyol, (October.)—* 
By way of celebrating this festival, a labyrinth is constructed by 
means of bamboo fences, so placed, as to make the path very narrow 
and intricate from the nnmerous turns it takes. People of both sezesi 
and of all ages, flock to this place in the evening, dressed in their 
niarteflt clothes; old as well as young thread the labjrrinth, enjoying 
the fun that is occasioned by their several mistakes in endeavoaring to 
get out of it. A temple is erected in the centre of the labyrinth, and 
within it are four images of the Buddha saint, to which the passengers 
severally make obeisance* placing small lamps upon different parts of 
the building for the purpose of illumination. The evening of each day 
generally doses with a display of fire- works, and the Boutks^y, a lu- 
dicrous dramatic representation, very much resembling the PnM of 
India. In addition to the above, a ceremony, termed the Pudd^sah, is 
performed during the month of Sadyne-Kyoi, This consists in the 
constmctioQ of a frame-work, intended to represent a tree, which is 
carried about upon the shoulders of the people, and upon it are hung 
such bequests as ai^ made by individuals, in the shape of cloth, silks, 
dishes, &c. the wh»e of which are intended for the use of the inmates 
of the Kumms. Much is collected in this manner, it being considered 
highly meritorious to make even the smallest gift on this occasion. 
T^ procession is generally accompanied by dancers and musicians, 
whose services are wholly gratuitous ; for whatever they may individu- 
ally collect, is, in like manner, devoted to the necessities of the Kiowm. 

4. The Buttah-bdeh is held in the month of Taboo-dwar, (Februaiy,) 
when the cold weather is supposed to have ended. A small tree is 
placed upon a car that had been constructed for the purpose, and to 
each end of this vehicle ropes are attached. The people assemble at 
the place from all quarters, and two parties (generally selected from 

• Image of Qaataaia. t Monasteries. t Gautama. 

26 Geological and StiUistical Account of tie 13 Alt ^ 

the inhabitants of two neighboaring villages) are formed for a trial of 
strength : one party pulling against the other. The successful party 
is allowed to draw the car away to their own village, where it is finally 
consumed . 

Several other wrestling matches were made, until it became too 
dark to prolong the game. I now returned to the village, and entering^ 
my host's house, found a supper waiting my arrival. It was laughable 
to observe the curiosity of the villagers to see an Inglee at the feeding 
hour. Men, women, and children mounted the michaun, to the very 
great hazard of its coming down. There was in the appearance of my 
visitors nothing of that fear and abject submission so characteristic of 
the natives of India. The women, as well as the men, stood gazing 
upon me, and all joined in the laugh excited by the European mode of 
handmg the food to my mouth, to them so incomprehensible and ri- 
diculous. The children were not afraid to approach, and I was not so 
uncivil as to refase them a share of the viands they apparently covet« 
cd. It was received with pleasure, and ofiered in return to their pa- 
rents. A mother had a very pretty infant at her breast, and I waa 
surprised to see her give it a piece of bread that had been previously 
chewed. I found on inquiry that a child is fed with a mouthM of boil, 
ed rice, reduced to a state of mucilage, on the second day of its birth. 
This it is said conduces to its vigour, and hastens the period for its 
final separation from the breast. 

January 13th. — ^The sun had not risen before I was seated on my 
elephant, and setting out on my journey to Ladong, Leaving JKyotr- 
pratK and proceeding towards Kaeng, the route at first lay along the 
sea-beach, and afterwards over a rugged piece of ground, covered 
with blocks of sandstone and a conglomerate, which appear to have 
been borne down from the superincumbent hills, by the violence of the 
waters on their escape to the ocean. These rocks very much impeded 
my progress, rendering the motions of the elephant rough and te- 
dious to an uncomfortable degree. At the further extremity of the 
plain, and bordering upon the sea-shore, the remains of a few mud 
volcanoes may be seen. They have the appearance of extensive 
mounds, covered with green sward, and (as is invariably the case with 
all the mud volcanoes in Arracan) have a few Jhow trees growing 
upon their sides. Proceeding to the spot for the purpose of examina- 
tion, I could perceive no further evidences of present activity than what 
was indicated by the existence of a spring of muddy water on the sum- 
mit of each volcano ; the water rising in bubbles, if at all disturbed, 
owing to the quantity of carbonic acid gas it contained. The mud 
was of a grey colour, and impregnated with much calcareous matter. 

tSftS.] l9kmd of Ramhree on the Arraam Coast. 27 

'EmerpMtg from the plain, the traveller may either proceed to Kaeng 
tiiroagh the interior, yrk Maen^grah and Moreng^ or take the direction 
ef die sea-beach. In either case, the features of the country are 
vmch alike ; sandstone is still the prevailing rock, and in some in- 
stanoes, when the apper stratum of clay has been washed away, it 
amimes the substance of an entire hill. 

Leaving Maen^grak by a narrow path, almost concealed from 
ynew by the heavy jungle protruding on each side, I observed a 
bird that answers in description to the Buceros Homrai of Nipal. 
Indeed, it so closely resembles a drawing of the Buceros publish* 
ed in Part 1. Vol. xviii. Asiatic Researches, that I cannot for a mo* 
meat doubt its identity with that bird, I shot one of the many 
that were hopping about the branches, making a disagreeahle 
aoise; their flight was heavy and awkward, owing apparently 
to the shortness of their wings : opening the stomach, I found 
it filled with berries resembling those of the Peepul ^nd Burgh' hut 
trees ; this would seem still further to establish the opinion advanced 
by Mr. Hodgson, that the Buceros Homrai was not a carnivorous 
kird. Fojsaisag through the large village of Moreng, the road to Kaeng 
hf over an extensive plain, covered with clumps of trees, the most 
eoQipicuoas among which were the Girjan, TiUah, and wild PeepuL 
Large flocks of the mountain minah were passing over-head, giving 
the ciear chearful chirrup peculiar to these charming hirds ; and I ob* 
served a q^ies of jay that was new to me. It was of an inferior size 
to the common Indian jay (Neel-kaufit), and of a different colour ; but 
frooi its shape, flight, and general appearance, there was no mistaking 
its genus. The plumage of the head, back, and wings was of a pea- 
green colour ; the under part of the belly and tail, of a lighter green, 
and the legs and bill, yeUow. Kaeng is prettily situated upon high 
grsaad* not far removed from the sea, and at the mouth of a creek, 
wiiich separates it from the district of Ladong, surrounded by exten- 
sive plains, clear of low jungle, and diversified with rice-fields, gardens 
and plots of indigo sowings. This village is superior to any one that 
I have seen on the island, both with respect to situation, and the gene- 
ral appearance of neatness and comfort that prevails throughout the 
plaoe. Approaching Kaeng by the sea shore (in preference to the 
route above described), the remains of several mud volcanoes may be 
seen upon the hills to the left. The undulating appearance of these 
mounds, covered throughout with a beautiful green sward, and studded 
with a few Jhow trees, has a striking and agreeable effect amidst so 
BBdi jungle and similarity of aspect otherwise common to these hills. 

38 Geological and Statistical Account of the \ZhM. 

At the foot of the Tolcano, adjoining the sea-beach, I perceived several 
boolders of a rock» resembling clink'Stone ; it was very hard and ao- 
noroas when struck with the hammer, of a sea-green colour, and inter- 
sected with veins of calc-spar ; it was not improbable that it had beea 
at one time ejected from these volcanoes in a state of igpaeoas fusioOp 
along with other substances. 

Ci-ossing the Kaejug creek, I entered a district of Ladong ; extensive 
plains devoted to the cultivation of rice, and only separated from 
each other by the narrow strips of Girpm trees and underwood* 
mark the fertility of this part of Ramhreci the soil is so exceed- 
ingly fruitful that the principal exportations of rice from the island 
are derived from Xaefon^. There are many Petroleum weUs in this 
district, some of which yield a very fair supply of oil. The whole 
of the wells known to exist in the islands of Rambree and Cheduba 
are ^rmed by Government, and sold annually to the highest bidder ; 
I conceive it would be (in the end) hx more advantageous to 
Government was the sale to take place every three years, instead of 
annually : was more labour bestowed upon these wells, the produce 
would be greater ; but the present system deters a purchaser from 
devoting his labour to the production of an article that may become 
the property of a more successful candidate, before he shall have receiv- 
ed any return for the capital he had already invested in them. The 
wells were sold this year for 120 rupees. I am told that six only of 
the Ladony wells are worked. One well is said to yield as much as 
three quart bottles of oil (or 2^ seers) per diem, and allowing that the 
remaining five are nearly as productive, the quantity of oil collected 
during a season (from the 1st November to the Ist June), would 
amount to as much as 70 mounds. 

The oil is sold in Ladong at the rate of one-half tillia per rupee. 
The weight of a tillia varies from nine to sixteen seers. The Ladomg 
tilUa of oil is said to be as much as can be contained in 18 bottles or 
13^ seers. The oil is much used, especially for burning ; it bums 
long, and gives a fine cle^r flame ; it has, however, a very disagreeaUe 
smell, and is so highly in|[ammable, that it must be used with caution. 

The oil produced on the Island of Cheduba is not so abundant or so 
pure as that of Rambree. One of the Petroleum wells in Ladong is 
said to exist on the site of a dormant mud volcano — a circumstance not 
at aU improbable, when it is considered, that the gases and imflamma* 
ble substances forming the constituent parts of either, are, as far as 
has been hitherto discovered, essentiaUy alike. The soil thrown up 
from these wells is highly bituminous, and in some instances abounds 
with very beautiful crystals of iron pyrites. 

1 83S.] iMland of Rambree on tke Arroctm Coni. 29 

I had made up my mind to put up at the tkenna of Ladong, lo 
took tiie nearest direction to it. Tne path lay at the foot of a 
nage of sandBtone hills, to the left of the pUins ; on the summit 
of this range stood a temple dedicated to Gautama, and in front of 
it the long pole usually erected near such places of worship. The 
character of the rock was such as had heen hitherto observed, 
with this exception, that a few rolled pieces of chert and sialadiieM 
were viuhle in a few places, strewed upon the surface. I was 
fortunate enough to shoot a very beautiful species of green pigeon 
in these hills : it was as large as the wood-pigeon of Europe, and had a 
superb plumage ; the colour of the head, back, and tail were of a 
▼ery dark-green, while the wings and belly presented a bright azure 

I had not proceeded far cm my way towards the /Aoiuia. when 
ny attention was roused by the sound of music and the report of 
fire-arms. Entering upon the plain. I perceived a multitude of 
people apparently met on some extraordinary occasion. I drew near, 
and learned that they had assembled to perform the funeral rite of a 
Fhaomgree , who had lately died. These high priests of Buddha deno- 
minated Pkoen^ree$^ are common in Arracan» and much revered by the 
kity ; they are never known to interfere in the domestic affairs of the 
people, or exercise that spiritual dominion so generally usurped by 
the ambitious priesthood of other countries. Confining themselves en- 
tirely to the exercise of their religious duties, they are seldom seen 
beyond the precincts ctf the KiauM; unless it be to make their morning 
rounds through the neighbouring vUlages, accompanied by the boys, to 
whose keeping are committed the voluntary contributions of the inha- 
bitaats. It is worthy of remark that these daily excursions are made 
not so much for the purpose of obtaining supplies for the inmates of 
the monastery, as to gratify the wishes of the villagers, who are desir- 
ous of enjoying this opportunity of testifying their respect and attach- 
ment for the ministers of their religion. The discipline of the PhooM' 
gne9 is extremely rigid, and not unlike that preserved in the monastic 
sects of Europe. To a life of celibacy is added the injunction of not 
holding any communion whatever with the female sex; and so strictly 
is this precept adhered to. that a Phoongree will neither converse 
with a female, or receive from her hands the offering she may wish to 
piesent to him. The dress of the Phoongree is confined to an orange- 
cdionred mantie. which extends from the shoulders to some litUe dis- 
tance below the knee ; his head is closely shaved, and always uncover- 
ed. He sleeps in the Kioum, upon a mat, with no other covering than 
that afibrded by his manUe ; and his diet is of the simplest kind, one 

80 Geological and Siatistioai Account of the [JaK. 

meal a day being considered Bofficient for bis subBistence. The food 
iB cooked by some of the scholars of the Kioum, or by the newly ini- 
tiated of the sect ; and those Phoongree$ who are desirous of maintain- 
ing a character for peculiar abstinence, will not eren express a desire 
to satisfy the claims of hunger, however pressing they may be ; waitini^ 
patiently until such time as food may be presented to them by some 
inmate of the ITtofifii .* with these are many other obserrances, all en- 
joining an uninterrupted course of humiliation and abstinence. 

Some of these monasteries are very large, and contain a great many 
monks, as well as the boys whose education they superintend. They 
are erected by the villagers, and supply such accommodation as is re- 
quired. In a remote part of the interior of the Kioum is an image of 
Gantama. Before this image the Phoongrees prostrate themselves 
twice a day, and never leave the building without making an obeisance, 
and intimating their intention to ihzRoutoo : a similar duty is performed 
on their return. This image is composed of more or less costly mate- 
rials, according to circumstances. In some Kioums I have seen the 
Phraa entirely covered with gold or silver leaf; in others agdn, it is of 
wood or stone, with little or no ornament whatever. Flowers, rice, and 
parched grain are the offerings generally made at the sbrine of Gou^ 
tama, either by officiating priests, or any of the laity, as a religious ob- 
servance, and for the attainment of some particular object of desire. 

The assumption of the monastic garb is voluntary ; the person who 
expresses a wish to beeome a Phoongree is admitted into the convent 
(without regard to country, or the religion he may formerly have 
professed), provided he stipulates his readiness to conform to the 
Buddhist observances in matters of fiedth and discipline, and there 
exists no impediment (such as his having a fieunily to support, or his not 
having obtained the permission of his parents, &c.), to his abandon- 
ment of earthly pursuits ; sickness, deformity, and a bad character 
are also sufficient causes for rejection. Should none of these obstacles 
present themselves, the candidate is admitted into the Kioum, and attired 
in the prescribed dress, enters upon the duties of a Phoongree, If, as 
is generally the case, his age shall not have exceeded 15 years, he is 
appointed to the performance of the menial duties, and gradually initi- 
ated in the peculiar tenets of the sect, until he shall have arrived at the 
age of 20 years, the time appointed for confirmation. 

It is not uncommon for a Phoongree to devote only a certun period 
of his life to the duties of the convent, returning to the world so soon as 
that term of religious abstinence shall have expired. These Phoongrees 
are generally young men, who are desirous of assuming the monastic 
garb, either from a religious feeling, or for the purpose of performing' 

18S5.] lihni of Ramhree on the Arraeon Coast. 31 

some ezpiatoiy senrioe^ and are enabled to do so through the assistance 
of some persons who deem it an act of piety to defray the expences 
conecqoent to their ordination. 

In towns and hirge Tillages the education of the children* (the 
male part of them), is chiefly entmsted to the Phoongreeg, and it is a 
part of their daily and uninterrupted occupation. No distinction is 
made between the children of the rich and the poor : both are treated 
alike and receive a similar education ; no remuneration whatever being 
made to thesegood monks for their trouble, save the daily provision 
that is voluntarily supplied by the native community for their subsis-i 
tence. Children under nine pears of age are not admissible into the 
Eiowm, being of too tender an age to undergo the discipliue and 
duties imposed upon them out of school hours^ such as fetching wood 
and water, cleaning the rice, and attending the priests in their daily 
rounds, for it is the duty of the boys to carry the baskets containing 
the contributions of food. Such children as are parentless, or of poor 
parents, and even those who reside at some distance from the Kioum^ 
arc fed as well as lodged by the priests. The other boys are allowed 
a certain, time to go home to their meals, but they are obliged to 
sleep in the convent, for what they have read during the day is repeat- 
ed in the evening or at day-break on the following morning. 

There is another source of education equally peculiar to the Mnghs ; 
such as are not engaged in any pursuit or employment requiring all 
their time, devote a portion of it to the education of children, entirely 
gratis; less labour being expected hom the children than is im- 
posed upon them in the Kumms^ Children under nine years of age 
and of both sexes are admissable to such schools, the rules, as before 
observed, being less strict than those enforced at the monasteries ; it is 
therefne not uncommon to meet with children of a very tender age at 
such sdux^. 

I know nothing so gratifying to a stranger as a visit to the larger 
KummM in the evening of a line day. To observe boys of all ages 
rushing from the scene of their daily labours to the tank or other 
place of enjoyment,, with that cheerful demeanour which marks the 
school-boy in our own country when released from his task and join- 
ing hii fellows on the play-ground. At this time a group of monks may 
be seen standing on the elevated Michmun at the threshold of the 
KUmm^ enjoying the evening air, or quietly watching the conduct ^of 

* I am indebted to mj friend Captain Williams for much information on this 
■nbiect, as veil as on other matters connected with this singular people. The 
peat popvlaiily he enjoys with the Mnghs, has given him farourable opportunities 
for pcosecnting his inquiries into their customs, ^cc. 

S2 Geological and Statistical AceowU of tha [Jah, 

the little orchms just escaped from their controul. To the eye of the 
most carefal observer, their countenances bespeak a tranquillity of 
mmd unknown to such whose passions are yetunsnbdued. There is in the 
appearance of these priests an equal absence of puritanical zeal or 
overweening confidence ; their features are as placid as the sky above 
them, and even with those whose religious duties are of the graver 
cast, a smile of benevolence may be seen to break through the shades 
of sorrow and self-degradation. Often have I, in passing, addressed 
these monks, and have invariably received a courteous reply. On 
some occasions I have found a welcome in the Kkmm when shelter 
was denied me elsewhere ; and with that welcome the more substan* 
tial evidences of good- will in the shape of a repast prepared for myself 
and followers. I never left the Kioum in prosecution of my journey 
without feeling grateful to those good monks, who had so charitably 
received the UfkUe stranger iifto their mansion. 

The Bh* Kuni (nuns), are equally common with the priests. They 
either reside in a convent of nuns, or live separately in some house 
constructed near a Koo (temple), superintending the offerings, and 
leaning a life of religious abstinence. The greater part of the Bhi 
JTnat, have retained their virginity from early youth ; others agaia 
have retired from the scene of earthly cares at a more advanced age ; 
in some instances, after marriage, but only when that marriage has not 
been productive of children. The dress of the BM knni is similar 
to that of the Phoongrees, and their discipline in every other respect 
alike. Both are equaUy revered by the laity, and supplied with t^ 
little food necessary for their subsistence. 

Respected by the people when living, it is not surprising that the 
Nigh-ban* of a Pkoongree should be marked by circumstances expres- 
sive of the sanctity of his character, and the attachment of his flock. 
The nature of the preparations made to do honour to his remains will 
depend much upon the means of the population residing in the neigh- 
bourhood of the Kioum, If these should be ample, the funeral obse- 
quies will be performed on a scale of magnificence seldom surpassed 
in their most expensive shews ; but if otherwise, the ceremonies will 
of necessity be got over in a hurried and economical style. The 
following will however be found to be the general practice with regard 
to the obsequies of a deceased Pkoongree, and such mode of perform- 
ing them was adopted in the present instance. 

When emancipated from the world, the body is opened and em- 
balmed ; after which it lies for many weeks exposed to public view. 
The body is then confined in a coffin richly embellished with gold and 

* Nirodn, death ; properly emancipation^ 

1835.] IsUnut ofRamhre on the Arracmt Coast. 89 

mkwer leaf, and this is placed upon a lofty ear that had been construct** 
ed for the purpose. The inhabitants of the neighbouring villages flock' 
to tiw spot, and ropes having been fixed to the fore and hinder parts 
of the car, a contention arises among the villagers for the remains of 
^ Phoamgree. One party palls against the other, and those that are 
sccces a fnl claim the honor of finishing the ceremonies. This is done 
by a grand display of fireworks, the greater part of which are skilfully 
directed at the car, which is at length set on fire and the body is con« 
famed*. 8hoidd the deceaM Phoomgree have maintained a character 
lor peealiar sanctity, a part of his remains is not unfrequently pre* 
served from the flames and retained as valuable relics. The influence 
of superstition has attached much value to such remains, and in ad- 
dition to the worth they may be supposed to possess from the religious 
disractar of the departed priest, they are held by the more ignorant to be 
a common ingredient in those charms that are in use with the wizard. 
The Mu^is hold the practice of burning the dead to be more ho* 
loaiable tiian that of committing the body to the earth or the sea, pro- 
baUy from its being attended with greater expense and publicity. 
Panerais are, however, conducted in either way, according to the means 
ef the relations, or other drcumstanoes ftivouring the adoption of one 
psiticular practice. The spot on which a funeral pile had been 
raised is not mifrequendy marked by a cenotaph, a garden, a dump 
ef trees, or such other monument of aflfection as the condition 
of the parties will enable them to place over the ashes of a departed 
relative. In some cases, the funeral rites are followed with donations 
of food and clothing to the priests, and a further evidence of piety is 
evinced in the adoption of some young man who shall express his readi- 
ness to embrace the profession of a Phoongroe, 

Jmmmy 14. — I had slept at the thannah on the night of the Idth, 
and was up at an earty hour on the following morning with the inten- 
tion of moving on to Oogah. The distance from Khyouk Phyoo to 
JTyoi^pmifil is at least sixteen miles ; from that to Ladong is said to be 
as much as twenty ; so that i had travelled 36 mOes in the two days. 
OogtA was dbtant 12 miles from Ladong, and as the route lay over a 
level country I was not detained very long upon the road. The villa* 
ges in Ladong are remarkably large, and have a cheerful, comfortable 
appearance. The whole face of the district, with the exception of the 
narrow belts of Girjun trees and underwood before mentioned, is un- 
der cultivation ; and but for the costume and features of the inhabitants 
as well as the peculiar construction of the houses, I could have fancied 

* See a full aceonnt of ihe same ceremony by the late Her. Dr. Casey, As. 
Rm. xii. 389.^Ei>. 

84 Geological and Statistical Account of the [Jaw. 

myself ia Bengal. The general appearanoe of the Mngh, mdncea the 
anppoaition that his conditioa is not only infinitely saperior to that of 
the poorer classes in many parts of India, but that he is comparatively 
happy and eontented with his lot. His clothing, though coarse and of 
natiTc mannfsctnre, is ample for the climate* and his vigorous frame 
of body bespeaks a sufficiency of nourishment. As his wants are few 
and easily supplied* there is no call for that unremitting labour which 
secures to the poor of other countries their scanty sustenance. The 
earnings of one day of toil generally provide for the exigencies of two 
successive days of ease ; and to such as are» from a more indolent ha- 
bit, less willing to cultivate the soil or perform the duties of an hire- 
ling, the forest and the sea present an inexhaustible supply of food. 
It is to this abundance of the necessaries of life in scnne one shape or 
another that we may ascribe the existence of that apathetic indiffer- 
enoe to the future, characteristio of the Mugh population, and until 
some wHficM wanU are produced by a taste for luxories hither- 
to unknown, we shall look in vain for that display of activity and 
toil peculiar to a more civilised^ but less happy and probably less vir- 
tuous, race of people. It is not however too much to affirm, that such a 
change is already perceptible among those who are most in contact 
with Europeans and the natives of India. 

In the towns of Khymik Phyoo and Rambrtt^ we may observe thia 
indication of the growing taste for articles of foreign manufiMture, in 
the small investments of cutlery, glass* wtire, muslins, and broad-doth 
exposed for sale in the shops along with the produce of the country. 
The people have ahready become smarter in their dresses* and wefe a 
little more attention paid to their pattern of piece goods, I have no 
doubt but the sale of these would be £ar greater than it is at present. 
Long habituated to a state of being little remote from that enjoyed by 
the brutes of the forest, the present generation are prepared to value 
those little luxuries denied to them during the reign of Burmah des- 
potism, and will not be slow in securing the possession of them if 
placed within their reach. It is amusing, though melandioly, to hear 
these poor people relate the state of things in former days, in as far as 
regards the importation of foreign produce, and the prohibitions that 
debarred them the privilege of wearing the muslin turban or angah, 
even were they sufficiently wealthy to purchase the materials for one. 
As any exportation of the staple produce of the soil was seldom or ever 
permitted, few returns were made in the shape of Europe or Indian 
goods. They did, on some occasions, find their way into the country by 
the Godooks that returned from Calcutta and Chittagong« laden with 
such articles of Europe or Indian manufacture, as the owners were 
enabled to obtain in exchange for the gold leaf, deer horns, bees* wax. 

1836.] iBland of Rambree on tie Armam Coa$U 35 

and «arth oil, the produce of Ava and Amean. Tlie demands of the 
Bnrmah Kmeng*, and 1^ nnmeroas exactions, with the expenses of a 
long and dangerons voyage, were, however, thrown with such severe 
but necessary weight upon the original prices of the several commodi- 
ties imported, that none but the rulers of the land would venture to 
erinee a disposition to become possessed of them. 

Property has now become comparatively secure ; a stimulus has 
been given to industry by the freedom allowed to the exportation of 
prodttoe ; with an increase of prodaction there will be an augmenta- 
tion of capital, and the agriculturist may look forward to the attain- 
ment of those arttdes of comfort and luxury hitherto denied to him. 
8t9l this change for the better will, of necessity, be very gradual. It 
is as it were a newly discovered land, and as each it will require the 
united eibrts of capital and labour (joined with skill), to bring its re- 
sonreee into plM^. As is weH known, the staple produce of the soil is 
riee. Great quantitiea of this grain are annually exported to Madras 
nd Penaag : the returns being generally made in kind, and consisting 
chiefly of Madras cloths and Europe muslins, which are either sold 
ia Arraean or retained for importation into Ava. I am not aware 
tkat any odier arUcle of agricnhural produce is exported from Ram- 
hree. Both cotton and indigo are, however, grown upon the island^ 
the former on the mountain side after it had been cleared of the jun- 
gle; tobacco is also produced in the ravines and clefts of the hills> 
oubse qnent to the aocamulatfton of alluvial aoii d^wsited therein by 
means of a dam so constructed, as to oppose its escape with the torrent. 
But neidier of these are produced in saoh abundanee as to permit of 
a large ezportalion ; the quantity grown being little more than sufli- 
eient for eonsomption in the prorinoe. A want of capiU^, and perhaps 
a want of confidence in the Government, prohibiting agricultural spe- 
eaktion, Uie production is generally confined to what may be deemed 
scflieieot for domestic purposes, or be grown with the sure prospect 
of ultlmafte reward. 

The morning was bitterly odd, and I was glad to dismount from the 
elephant and walk. Snipe were very numerous on a piece of marshy 
gramd, through which the road lay, and further on, 1 observed two 
deer of the same qMcies as the Ridwti deer of Nipal ; I could not 
gm St better description of this animal than referring my readers to 
^ aooout given of it by Mr. Hodoson along with the drawing, both 
of iriiioh appear in Part 9, vol. xviiL Asiatic Researches. I had before 
seen one that had been caught in a net, and brought unto me. The 

* CoUeeton of cmtoms. The duty leried was usuillj si much ss ten per cent 
aad not anirequentljr psld in kind. 
w 2 

36 Geological and Statistical Account of tAe [J ak. 

Mughs call the animal Ghi, and say, that they are veiy abandant upon 
the island, residing in the recesses of the forest. The two deer above- 
mentioned were seen at the skirts of the jungle, and were evidently 
retaming to their haunts after a night's ramble through the plains. 

There was nothing peculiar in the geological features of the country 
between Ladong and Oogah. The soil was, as usual, composed of a 
rich day, mixed with a small proportion of sand, and sandstone the 
prevailing rock. The dip of the stratum, wherever a stratification 
could be observed, being still to the S. S. W. and S. W. parallel to the 
bearing of the hills. 

Leaving the stubble fields of Ladong, I came once more upon the 
beach, and could see the village of Oogah beyond me, very prettily 
situated on a bight of the sea. It was surrounded with tamarind and 
mango trees, and was on the whole a neat and comfortable looking 
village. The prospect from Oogah was remarkably fine ; beyond it, 
on the land side, lay Jeeka, the highest mountain in the island, and 
immediately opposite to it, separated only by a small channel of the 
sea, was the island of Chtduha, with its blue hills and undulating 
plains. A Godoo was at anchor between the islands, and from the 
reports of the crew who were on shore for water, it appeared that she 
had come last from CMttagong, and was bound to Bastem, laden with 
betel-nuts and sundries. The Soogree* of the village had come out 
to escort me to his house, a snug looking building surrounded with a 
strong bamboo fence. In front of the house, and under the tamarind 
trees, a nice michaun had been constructed for the accommodation of 
travellers, and upon this I lay down and slept until a room with a mat, 
&c., should be got ready in the 8oogree*s house for my reception at 
night. I should have been very well pleased to have slept out in the 
open air upon the michaun, but for the remonstrances of my host, who 
pointed out the danger of doing so in a place so much- infested with 
tigers. It was perhaps as well that I did not sleep outside, for a tiger 
came into the village daring the night, and so much alarmed one of 
the elephants that he broke loose. The old Soogree appeared to be in 
very good circumstances ; he had a large house, abundance of poultry 
and cattle, and in addition to these evidences of prosperity, he had 
two wives. Polygamy is common enough in Arracan. There appears 
to be no limitation ; a man may keep as many wives as he can afford 
to maintain. The consent of the first wife should, however, be obtain- 
ed previous to the conclusion of a second contract. It is seldom that 
a refusal is g^ven, and equally seldom that attention is paid to it. 
Retaining the privileges of a mistress, and probably aware of her 
* The head man of the eircle ; ke ooUeoti the revenue. 

1835.] Island o/Ramhree an tkeArracan Coast, 37 

inability to eDforce a ooinpliance with the reBtriction she wishes to im- 
pose, the elder wife nsaally signifies her readiness to receive into the 
fsmily a second helpmate for her husband. This new alliance is sel- 
dom resorted to before the first wife shall have ceased to retain the 
charms of her youth, and have become incapable of performing the 
several domestic duties incumbent upon her. 

The system of betrothing children to each other at a very early age, 
so common with natives of India, does not obtain with the Arracanese. 
Instances will occur when their marriage has been the result of a pre- 
concerted arrangement on the part of the parents so soon as the 
femsle shall have attained the age of maturity (15 years), and not 
preceded by mutual attachment of the parties united. The young 
people are not, however, unfrequently, permitted to form their own 
choice, and where no great disparity of age exists, the consent of the 
parents is generally obtained. As there is no seclusion of the females 
there can be no want of opportunity for the display of those Uttle atten- 
tions, which in the eyes of the female sex distinguish a lover from a 
mere observer. The lifting of a pitcher from the well or tank to his mis- 
tress's head, or the present of a bouquet of early flowers to adorn her 
hair, are bat few of the many ways by which the passion of her lover 
is exemplified. Should such attention be pleasing to the fair one, she wiU 
probably intimate as much by the gift of a neatly made bundle of cheroots 
manufactured by her own hand. The attachment between the parties 
being known to their parents and their consent obtained, the astrologer 
(Hoartt'dyeJ^ia consulted : the day» month and year of their children's 
birth is made known to him, and if the result of his calculations are 
favourable to the union, every thing is arranged for its completion. In 
the first place, a present of a fine silk dress ; some gold and silver oma- 
meuts, with a little tea mixed up with spices, are sent to the young lady 
by her lover, who will perhaps follow in the evening of the same day 
preceded by the young unmarried men of the village : these advancing 
before him as he approaches the house of his intended bride, extend to 
the right and left, and oppose his further progress until he has satis* 
fied them with as many rupees as he can afford to lose. He now draws 
near to the threshold of his mistress's house. She, on her part, is at* 
tended by the young maidens of the village, and these oppose his 
entrance to the dwelling until he has paid a fine similar to that imposed 
upon him by his male companions. The lover now enters the house ; 
and seated at his mistress's side, flowers and water are scattered over 
both by the hands of the oldest and most respectable person present. 

This done, they both sit down to a meal prepared by the parents of 
the girl, receiving the food from each other's hands. The meal ended. 

38 Geohgicai tmd SttUisti&d Acammt of Rambree. [Jaw. 

the hands of the bride and bridegroom are laid upon each other, (the 
hand of the bridegroom nppermoat,) and washed by the same perwm 
who bad sprinkled the water and flowers over the parties. The father 
of the bridegp'oom then takes a ring from off his son's hand, and 
places it upon the third finger of the bride's left hand. The marriage 
ceremony being now completed, a nantoh and entertainment is held at 
the bride's house. The bridegroom retires with the bride, and remains 
seven days in her parent's house, preparatory to his taking her to his 
own home. This will be fonnd to be the general practice of the peo- 
ple on the occasion of their nuptials, but it is not uncommon for a man 
to take to himself a wife withoat going through any part whatever of 
the ceremony above described, nor is there any discredit attached to the 
parties so united. T^e woman is viewed in the light of a wife, and 
treated, in every respect, in the same manner as if ahe had been united 
to the man in the manner I have detailed. A pnnHtnte was a being 
unknown to the Mmghs before the country had fallen into the hands of 
die British. Among the blessings attending the change of rule and 
marking the progress of ewUizatum in Arracan, is the iAtrodoction of 
a g^radual increase of that unhappy ciass of people, and with it the 
miseries that are consequent to an unrestrained and promiscuous inter- 
course. To the honour of the Mugh women I must declare, that in- 
stances of prostitution on their part are still of rare occurrence ; the 
reputation for this vice is still more generally attached to their m«r# 
civiUxed neighbours the Bengalees. 

So much liberty being allowed to the sexes in early youth, it may be 
supposed that an anlieensed iBteroonne will, in many instances, be 
found to exist between them previous to their union. It would be 
unreasonable to affirm that a passion which is so often known to break 
through the bounds imposed by religkin and morality upon a peopte 
who claim for t^mselves a superior degree of civili£atiDn« should not 
in this country be known to exist in an equally unbridled state, and pro- 
duce the evils consequent to an unrestrained intercourse and the shame 
of an avowal. Instances of abortion or bastardy are not, however, of 
frequent occurrence, the good sense of the parents, to whom the 
attachment in its several stages is generally known, preventing by a 
timely union of the parties, the evil which must originate from an 
intercourse unsanctioned by custom and authority. 

When it is considered how easily a divorce is obtained, and how 
seldom sought for, we may naturally condnde that marriage iseonducive 
to the happiness of the people. Separaticm may be effected (privately) 
by a deed drawn out by husband and wife, and witnessed by two or 
more respectable neighbours; or both parties may appear before the 

1835.] MowUam Trout of Kemaon. 30 

>'WOon or magistrate, and a separation is instantaneously effected 
on their complianoe with the rules laid down for observance in such 
eifles. If the wife objects to remain any longer with her husband, and 
he shall be found to have repeatedly ill treated her, she is at liberty to 
depart, receiving from him the whole of her property, as well as the 
children (both male and female), that may have been bom to her. 
The children are, in matnrer years, allowed to reside with either parent 
as choice directs. If, on the contrary, the wife shall be found to have 
behaved ill, she pays a certain sum of money (generally about 25 or 
30 rupees), to her husband, who also retains possession of the 
male diildren ; the wife receiving no part whatever of the property* 
In cases where no criminality is attached to either party, and both 
desire to be separated, a fair division of property is made, each receiv- 
ing what he or she may have possessed before marriage, with an equal 
liuure of the produce of their united labours ; the husband retaining the 
boys, and the wife the girls. The case being investigated and decided 
upon, a paiDM is broken into two pieces, one of which is given to each 
as the emblem of separation. This done, the divorce has been effected,, 
and they are both at liberty to contract any new alliance. 

[7b k0 cmU^MMtf.] 

III. — De$cr^io»^qf the (so caUed) Mountain TrotU of Kemtum, Bj^ 
Dr, J. M'Clblland, Assistant Surgeon, 30th Regt, N. /. 

From among the treasures of natural history of Kemaon that have 
not hitherto been indicated, the following notice of a new species of 
ish, which afibrds a plentiful artide of food to those who reside in tha 
vicinity of small rocky streams, may not be uninteresting. From the 
appeazaaoe of this species, it has commonly been conaidered by £uro-> 
peans to whom it ia familiar as a common mountain trout ; a closer ex* 
aminatioa however, soon detects the mistake, and except that it belonga 
to the ckusB of abdominal fishes and inhabits fredi- water streams, there 
is no nataral connexion between this fish and the species to which it 
was supposed to belong. The following are its distinguishing char 

Body compressed ; mouth situated uadar the head, lunate, retrac- 
tile, toothless. Dorsal fin consisting of eight rays. Two ventral fins 
situated on the centre of the abdomen, caudal fin bifid. 

The colour of the back is bluish-black, diminishing in intensity oi^ 
the sides, which are each marked as usual with a lateral line, and the 
beHy is pale bluiah-white. The scales are so small as to be scarcely 
perceptible, and there is a slight golden lustre or iridescence about the 
head ; the length is from three inches to nine. 

40 Mmmtain Trout of KemaoH. [JaM. 

The habits of this fish are bo peculiar as to deserve to be mentioned* 
It deriyes its food from the green slime or moss that collects on the 
surface of rocks under water, and which is removed with considerable 
difficulty with the finger ; but so well has nature provided the creature 
with the means of procuring its peculiar sustenance, that the object is 
fulfilled with ease and apparent enjoyment. When feeding on the 
upper surface of a stone, the animal glides forward with sufficient force, 
and at the same time depresses the under lip, with which it scrapes 
the slime off the rock as it passes over it, leaving a streak behind like 
the scratch of a stick. If the food is to be derived from the side of a 
rock, the creature accommodates itself accordingly ; and if from the 
nnder surface of a projecting ledge, it throws itself on its back and 
darts forward with the most wonderful agility. 

From observing these peculiarities of character it became necessary 
to examine the anatomical structure of the mouth and digestive or- 
gans of the animal, and the following is the result. 

The under jaw or rather the under lip (for it cannot be said to have 
any jaws, and in this respect it resembles the sturgeon and loricaria), 
is composed of three small bones, the two outer are articulated at their 
bases to the inferior angles of the ossa malarum or cheek bones, (a 
fig. 3. PI. I.)and the centre one is in like manner attached to the sternum 
(6), these bones (1, 2, 3,) have hinge joints by which the lip may be 
depressed at its free extremity, and they are attached laterally to each 
other by strong ligaments. 

On the inner side of the bones of the lip is situated a strong mos- 
cular mass (a fig. 4,) whose fibres originate on the inner side of the 
sternum, and are inserted into the upper extremities of the bones and 
ligaments of the lip, while that part of the organ which is used for 
collecting food in the manner above described, is at once protected and 
adapted to the performance of its sing^ar function by a thick carti- 
laginous covering. Whether we contemplate the peculiar figure of 
the ossa malarum, the sternum, or of the muscles, nothing can be more 
simple or complete than the means resorted to by Providence in adapting 
the lip of this creature to the peculiar office it is destined to perform. 

From the unyielding nature of the abutments to which the lip it 
attached in order to enable it to resist the pressure it is exposed to, 
as well as from the peculiar nature of the joint, it is incapable of any 
other action than that of being depressed ; but owing to its great 
strength and necessary thickness, this motion alone would not be 
enough to open the mouth sufficiently for the admission of food> and 
this brings us to another contrivance still more curious. 

There is a small bone (c fig. 3.) loosely attached to what may be 
named the nasal process of the frontal bone, by a hinge joint which 

1S35.] Motmtmm Trout of Kamaon. 41 

enables it to swing freely backwards and forwards, and to the lower 
end of this there is fixed a eartilaginoas rim which forma the anterior 
boondary of the month {d), and by the muscular structure of the 
moat and palate the anterior boundary of the mouth is drawn forward 
or retracted at pleasure. It is probable from the consideration of these 
parts that they do not serve merely for opening the mouth, but also 
assist in collecting or sucking food into it, by means of the vacuum 
consequent on the enlargement of its cavity, the opercula being com- 
pressed on the apertura branchialis. 

From the soft pulpy nature of the food mastication would be use- 
less, accordingly there are no teeth : the tongue is short and cartilagi* 
Bons. The last remarkable circumstance in the anatomy of this fish 
which I shall mention is, the great length of the intestinal canal. It 
being eight times that of the body, the stomach alone extending the 
whole length of the abdominal cavity. These circumstances indicate 
either the innutritions nature of the food, or the strong digestive powers 
that are requisite : the latter would appear to be the case from the 
moBcular strength of the stomach, which is displayed to the ^ ^ 
naked eye by the numerous white bands of longitudinal ^ g. 
fibres which may be observed passing thus in a zigzag form ^^ ^ 
from one extremity to the other. 

Tlie whole length of the canal was loaded in the specimen examined 
with the peculiar slimy food already mentioned. 

During the warm season these fish are seen sporting and feeding at 
all hours, but in winter they spend their time chiefly nnder rocks and 
stones, where they probably deposit their spawn, only coming out to 
feed as the sun ascends in the meridian, and again retiring in the 
afternoon ; or on being frightened, they rush into their hiding places, 
from which they can easily be taken with the hand, and in this way 
the native fisherman in a few minutes secures as many of them as he 
wishes. Conceiving them to be trout every attempt has been made to 
catch them in the usual way with fly and bait, and though every device 
has been resorted to, instances of success are so rare that they may 
be almost referred to chance. A less refined but more successful 
method of fishing (as I have been assured by an intelligent friend 
who has seen it) b practised in the vicinity of Lohooghat by the black- 
smiths daring periods of relaxation from their more legitimate calling : 
these persons, aware of the disposition of the fish to spend certain 
seasons onder stones, pursue the beds of the rivers, striking such loose 
stones with their sledge-hammers as they may suspect to conceal fish, 
which they thus kill by concussion. 

4& Discovery of the Genuine [Jan. 

IV. — Discovery of the Genuine Tea Plant in Upper Assam. 

[The following official correspondence of the Tea Cominittee haibeen obliging- 
ly handed to ub for publication. We hasten to present it to our readers in its 
original shape rather than attempt to make an abstract of its contents, because 
the curiosity of the public is much raised, and they will naturally wish to follow 
the whole train of the discovery, and give the credit thereof where it is due. — Ed.] 

Letter from the Committee of Tea Culture /o W. H. Macnaghtbk, Esq. 

Secretary to the Government of India, in the Revenue Department, 

We request that you will have the goodness to submit to the Right 
Honorable the Governor General of India in Council the enclosed copies 
of the reports, which we have received from Captain Jknkins, dated 
the 7th and 1 9th May, and from Lieut. Charlton, dated the 17th May; 
also a subsequent communication from Lieut. Charlton, dated the 
5th of last month, together with the samples of the fruit and leaves of 
the tea plant of Upper Assam, which accompanied it, and some speci* 
mens of the leaves previously received. 

2. It is with feelings of the highest possible satisfaction that we 
are enabled to announce to his Lordship in Council, that the tea shrub 
is beyond all doubt indigenous in Upper Assam, being found there 
through an extent of country of one mouth*s march within the Honor- 
able Company's territories, from Sadiya and Beesa, to the Chinese fron- 
tier province of Yunnan, where the shrub is cultivated for the sake of 
its leaf. We have no hesitation in declaring this discovery, which is due 
to the indefatigable researches of Capt. Jenkins and Lieut. Charlton, 
to be by far the most important and valuable that has ever been made 
in matters connected with the agricultural or commercial resources of 
this empire. We are perfectly confident that the tea plant which has 
been brought to light, will be found capable, under proper manage- 
ment, of being cultivated with complete success for commercial purpo- 
ses, and that consequently the object of our labors may be before long 
fiilly realised. 

3. It is proper to observe, that we were not altogether unprepared 
for this highly interesting event. We were acquainted with the fact 
that so far back as 1826, the late ingenious Mr. David Scott, sent 
down from Munipore specimens of the leaves of a shrub, which he 
insisted upon was a real tea ; and it will be seen from the enclosed 
reports from the agent to the Grovernor General on the north-eastern 
frontier and his assistant, that a similar assertion was strongly urged 
in regard to the existence of the tea in Upper Assam. Still we felt 
ourselves bound to suspend our decision on the subject until we should 
be in possession of the fruit of the reputed shrub, the only test which 
onght to guide us. We knew that several species of Camellia were 
natives of the mountains of Hindustan, and that two of these were 

1835.] Tea PlmU m Upper Assam. 48 

indigenoiiB in our north-eastera frontier provinces ; and taking into 
consideration the close affinity between the two genera, we were dis- 
posed to expect, that the alleged tea would prove nothing else but 
tome sort of Camellia. We have at length obtained the fruit of the 
Sadiya plant from Lieat. Charlton, and we are now enabled to state 
with certainty, that not only is it a genuine tea, but that no doubt can 
be entertained of its being the identical tea of China, which is the 
exdoaive source of all the varieties and shades of the tea of commerce. 
With the view of exhibiting the peculiarities in the structure of the 
frait, on which depends entirely the difference between the Tea and 
Camellia, we have desired our officiating secretary to annex to this 
letter a sketch of the fruit of both, with explanatorv remarks. 

4. We beg leave most respectfully to submit the preceding facts 
to the particular consideration of Government, and earnestly to recom- 
msnd, that in the first instance, and as early as may be practicable, 
oae or more scientific gentlemen properly quahfied for the investiga* 
tioo may be deputed into Upper Assam for the purpose of collecting 
OB the spot the greatest variety procurable of botanical, geological and 
other details, which, as preliminary information, are absolutely neoes- 
aary before ulterior measures can be successfully taken with regard to 
the cultivation of the tea shrub of that country. We also beg to ex* 
press our opinion, that it would be highly desirable to adopt forth- 
with the plan suggested in Lieut. Charlton's last letter, of the 5th 
of November, of establishing a communication with Yunnam by means 
of a land-road, at least as far as Hookam, since, independent of all 
other advantages, it would materially facilitate the operations of the 
scientific deputation, which we have recommended should be sent to 
Upper Assam with as little delay as possible. 

5. We anticipate that the execution of the recommendations we 
have made, need not be attended with any considerable expense ; but 
it appears to us, with reference to the very great importance of the 
occasion, that the only consideration which should have weight is, that 
the money which may be required should be faithfully and economically 
applied to the purposes for which it may be granted. 

We have, &c. 
Cakuiia, Dec. 24, 1834. Signed by the Committee of Tea Culture. 

From Captain F. Jbnkin8, Agent to the Governor General on the N, E. 

Frontier, to G. J. Gordon, Esq. Secretary of the Committee of Tea 

Culture, dated Gwoahatty, 7th May, 1834. 

I regret the delay that has occurred in acknowledging your circular, 
dated the 3rd March, to my address : it has been occasioned by un- 
avoidable circumstances which I have further to regret will prevent 

44 Discwery of the Genuine [Jah» 

my replying to your oommunication to the length I ooald wiah or the 
subject deserveB. 

2. My little acquaintance with A&Bam will not admit of my replying^ 
to all your questions, but from general information and my own obaer- 
vation, I am so fully impressed with the belief of the fitness of the 
mountainous region which divides Cach£r from Assam for the growth of 
tea, that I beg to attempt to call the attention of the Committee to that 
region in the most forcible manner I can, with a view to its examina- 
tion by a competent individual. 

3. The mountainous tract I allude to, commences from the east of 
the country of the Jynteah Raja, and continues always increasing in 
elevation until it reaches to the eastern end of the valley of Assam, and 
is so far under the controul of British authority, immediately between 
Cachar and Assam completely so, and farther on more or less directly 
or indirectly. The part entirely under us ranges from 6 to 8000 feet 
greatest heights, and farther east the mountains attain a height of 
10,000 feet, and the valleys and beds of streams are from 2500 to 4000 
feet above the sea. From the end of the valley of Assam this ceasea 
to be merely a west and east range, its direct continuation passes into 
China into the tea countries of Sechuen and Yunnan : the northern 
bend in the latitude of Sadiya meets a branch of the snowy mountains, 
and the southern divides off into the two mountainous ranges, which 
border the Irrawady on either side, from its sources to the sea. 

4. £very part of this mountainous country that I have visited, presents 
nearly a uniform geological structure, being almost entirely composed 
of clay- slate, and every where nearly of the same appearance, very much 
broken and disintegrated, so much so as to be seldom visible in mass, 
and being covered with a deep coat of soil and luxuriant vegetation 
even on the greatest heights. 

5. Camellias are found in every part of this hill country, and within 
our jurisdiction in the Singpho district of Beesa, a coarse variety of the 
tea plant is, as I am informed, undoubtedly indigenous. A plant was 
given to me at Sadiya, which I have reason to suppose, was a genniue 
tea tree, and I intended to have brought it to Calcutta for examination, 
but I received it in a sickly state, and from the prevalence of great heat 
I was unable to succeed in taking it to the presidency. I shall endea- 
vour to procure another plant or two for the satisfaction of the Com- 
mittee. However, having no doubt myself of the fact of the tea shrub 
being found wild in the eastern parts of Assam, I would beg to re- 
commend the expediency of some well-qualified person being at once 
«ent up for the identification of the plant beyond any objection, for 
the examination of the soil in which it grows as reported, and an in* 
spection of the tract of mountains between Cachar and Assam. 

1835.] Tea Pkmt f» Upper Assam, 45 

6. If thift recommendation were acted upon, the person deputed 
shoold be in Cachar by the l2»t of November* and proceed immediately 
to ascend the moan tains in communication with the officer in civil 
charge, Ci^tain Fi«hs&, who would previously have made arrangements 
for his being provided with porters* &c. He should pursue nearly the 
tract followed by me on the same journey, and on arrival at Bishonath 
ihoold proceed by water to Sadiya, and thence go np to Beesa at the 
foot of the mountains dividing Assam from Ava. 

7. As the individual thus deputed would of coarse be a competent 
botanist, and perhaps geologist, I contemplate much indirect acquisi- 
tion to science from the trip thus sketched out, it being almost entirely 
untrodden ground to any scientific observer, and of course it is to be 
expected that much benefit, in an economical point of view, might re« 
salt to the state from the researches and suggestions of one who could 
bring to knowledge the unlimited productions of the vegetable and 
Biinend kingdoms in the regions in question. 

8. In case you should not have forwarded a copy of your circular to 

Captain Fishb», I shall do so, and request him to make a report to you 

upon the subject of it with reference to Cachar* 

* ^^ 

Extract of a private letter from Captain F. Jenkins to G. J. 

Gordon, Esq. dated the Idth May, 1834, with enclosures. 
Since I wrote you officially, I have had the enclosed note from Lieut. 
Charlton of the Assam Light Infantry, regarding tea, and I have 
been presented with the enclosed luminous map* of the tea districts in 
Upper Assam by a Phokun who accompanied Lieut. BvRNRTria an ex- 
pedition to the top of the Patkoye range of hills, dividing the waters of 
the Burhamputra from those of the Kuenduen. On this range of hills 
the trees grow in great abundance, and are described to reach the size 
of small forest trees or very large shrubs. You will see how he says the 
leaves are treated, which though it seems rather an odd mode of ma- 
nufacture, he and others persist in saying is the way in which the 
Singphos manage the tea. I never had an opportunity of trying it, 
but those who had said it was palatable enough, and the leaves thus 
prepared keep for ever. 

Q^ of a letter from Lieut. Charlton to Captain Jcnkins, dated on the 
Burhamputra, the 17 th May, 1834, enclosed in the preceding. 
With regard to the circular from the Tea Committee which you 
showed meat Gowmhatty, I have much pleasure in communicating the 
little I know of the tea plant of Assam. I was informed about three 
years ago of its being found growing wild in the vicinity of Beesa at 

* This map being of the most crade description is omitted here. It did not 
accompany the Committee*! Report to Governmeat. 

46 Discovery of the Genuine [Jak. 

the foot of a low range of hills and in the subjacent plains, from 
whence I obtained three or four young trees, which I gave to Dr. John 
Tttlbr in Calcutta, with a view of their being planted in the Grovemment 
Botanical Garden. I have since understood thej decayed soon after. 
The soil where they grow was described to be alluvial like most parts 
of Assam, and the trees rising to the height of twelve or fourteen feet 
knore, either at the foot or a small distance up the hills, but never on 
the summit ; from which I infer a sheltered situation to be most favor- 
able. The aspect was generally southerly or south-east. I am sorry 
I cannot give you a minute description of the plant, not having it now 
before me ; but so much I recollect, the leaves were about two inches in 
length and one in breadth, alternate, elliptic-oblong and serrate. The 
flower white, very like that of the wild white rose, but much smaller. 
The seed I have not seen ; it was described to be contained in a red, 
round, three-lobed capsule, the lobes detached or bursting along the 
upper sides, with a single seed in each . From what I have seen of the 
tea plant in difierent parts of the world, and lately in New Holland, 
propagated by seeds brought direct from China, I have little doubt but 
that that found near fieesa is a species of tea ; and though it may be 
spurious or even a Camellia, as Dr. Wallich suggests, its growing 
ibere indigenous and in great abundance affords good grounds for sup- 
posing that the introduction of the Chinese plant into Upper Assam 
would be attended with success. I have not had an opportunity of mak- 
ing any experiment on the leaves ; they are described as small in their 
green state, but acquire the fragrance and flavour of Chinese tea when 
dried. The Singphos and Kamtees are in the habit of drinking an in- 
fusion of the leaves which I have lately understood they prepare by cut- 
ting them into small pieces, taking out the stalks and fibres, boiling 
and then squeezing them into a ball which they dry in the sun and re- 
tain for use. I have written to Sadiya for a specimen of the tea pre- 
pared in this manner, and for plants and seeds ; I will send you some 
if I am able to procure them, and write to you on this subject more 
fully by and bye. 

Copy of a private letter from Lieut. Charlton to Captain 3 ei^kisb, dated 

at Sadiya, the 8th November, 1 834. 
I have now the pleasure of sending you some seeds and leaves of 
the tea tree of Assam, and am sorry that the unsettled state I have 
been in for the last three months has prevented my sending them so 
soon as I intended. The leaves you could have had before, but I was 
anxious to make them into something like tea, the best test that the 
tree is not a Camellia, as Dr. Wallich imagines. It appears coarse, 
owing to the leaves being large and much too old, which could not at 

1835.] Tea PUmt in Upper Assam. 47 

the time be obviated. By tbe end of the cold weather, when the yoang 
leaves are on the trees, I hope to send you as good black tea as we 
generally receive from China. I will make experiments in the interim 
in the art of preparing green. 

The tree I now find is indigenous to this place as well as Beesa, and 
grows wild every here and there* all the way from this, about a month's 
journey, to the Chinese province Yunnan, where I am told it is exten- 
sively caltivated. One or two people from that province have assured 
me, that the tea tree grown there exactly resembles the species that we 
have here ; so I think there can be no longer any doubt of its being 
homd'fide tea. What a pity there is no means of communication between 
Sadiya and Yunnan. A good land-road made only as far as Hookam, 
and there are no natural obstacles of any consequence to prevent it, 
would afford an outlet for British merchandize into the very heart of 

Q^ of a note from CaptatM F. Jbkkinb to Dr, Wallich, on the back 
of the above, dated (at Gowahatty) 22nd November, 1834. 
I have only time to send this and to say, I have sent a jar of tea- 
leaves and a box of tea seeds to go by to-day's dAk, I hope you will 
see from the seeds that there is no doubt ours is genuine tea. 

Memarandmn explanatory of the sketches which accompany the report of 

the Committee of Tea Culture. 
There is no danger of mistaking any plant for the tea except the 
Camellia. Both are very closely allied to each other in general appear- 
ance, in the form of their leaves and the structure of the flowers. It 
is by the character of the fruit alone that they can be satisfactorily dis- 
tinguished for practical purposes ; in that respect the two genera differ 

very widely. 

In both tbe fruit consists of a roundish, more or less triangular, dry 
capsule, of three distinct cells, each cell containing one solitary seed or 
nut. At the period of maturity the dehiscence or bursting takes place 
vertically, by menns of three fissures, extending from the top of the 
capsule towards its base. So far their capsules are precisely alike ; the 
following are the points of difference. 

In the tea, the capsule is more or less deeply divided into three 
globular lobes, sometimes appearing as if it consisted of three round 
capsules united into one. The general outline is therefore always 
decidedly triangular, with extremely obtuse corners. The bursting 
proceeds along the middle of the lobes or angles, when a large seed is 
discovered through each aperture enclosed on all sides within its proper 
cen, which ccU is in fact formed by the corresponding lobe of the fruit. 

48 Discovery of the Tett Pkmt im Aseam, [J ah. 

By this process six valves are, properly speaking, formed, (and not 
three, as they are generally counted,) each lohe splitting into two 
hemispherical valves. The partitions alternate with the lobes, and are 
formed by the sides of two adjoining cells being, as it were, glued to- 
gether, and extending to the axis of the capsule, from which they at 
length completely detach themselves, when it disappears altogether. 
The seeds or nuts are almost globular. 

In Camellia the capsule is very obscnrely triangular without any 
tendency to become deeply three-lobed. It bursts along the middle of 
each side (consequently alternately with the comers) into three very 
distinct valves, each of which bdongs to two adjoining cells, because 
the three partitions originate lengthwise from the middle of the re- 
spective valves, and are therefore opposite or contrary to these, con* 
verging from thence to the triangular axis, from which they gradually 
separate, leaving it finaUy unconnected and free. The seeds are of an 
oval oblong shape, smaller than those of the tea. 

The preceding remarks are made with reference chiefly to the 
j^ssam Tea and the Nipal Camellia ; and purposely without technical 
precision, the object being simply to convey a general idea of the 
structure of the two sorts of fruit. But they admit of being applied 
with safety to all other instances of comparison between the genera in 

References to the Figures in Plate III. 

A The Assam tea. Figs. 1, 2, 3, ripe capsules scarcely enlarged ; 
at 1, seen from below, deeply three- lobed ; 2, the common form, com- 
mencing to burst ; 3, the same completely burst open, and discovering 
the seeds ; 4, the same, the seeds being removed, and one of these re« 
presented separately ; of the natural size ; 5, the lower half of a ripe 
capsule divided by an horizontal section and the seeds removed, exhi- 
biting the places of dehiscence along the angles or lobes, and the par- 
titions alternating with these and separating from the axis ; a little en- 
larged ; 6, outline of a full-grown leaf, of the natural dimensions. 

B The Nipal Camellia (C. kissij. Fig. 7, ripe and entire capsule 
slightly enlarged ; 8 and 9, the same after burstmg, the free axis being 
seen in the last figure ; 10, a horizontal section as in the tea, much en- 
largect, representing the places of bursting, which alternate with the 
angles of the fruit, the partitions which are opposite to the angles of the 
fruit, and the valves, separating from the free axis; 11, a detached 
seed, natural size ; 12, outline of a full grown leaf. 

(Signed), N. Wallich, M. D. 

Off. Sec. to the Com. of Tea Cult. 

H. C. Bot. Garden, Dec. 24, 1834. 


Meteorohficai Observations ai Nasirahdd, 


[In ti&e foregoing eorretpondenee, aUnsion if made to a prior knowledge of 
the te^plant of Aaaam. The following extract from Captain Wilcox's Memoir 
of a Snryey of Asaam, published in the Asiatic Researches XVII. p. 448, proves 
ttat ofteer to hmve been aware of its existence in the hills east of Sadiya : — he 
writes from Manch^, a Khamti village, Utitnde 27* 29^ 16'', longitade 97* 29^.— 
" according to promise, a specimen of the tea tree was brought to me from one 
of the neighbouring low hills ; it was a full grown one, tiiat is about five feet 
high ; the leaves were coarse and large, and not numerous." Mr. Scott and 
Captain DAViDaoK had also frequently seen it, and the latter oi&cer says, that 
Uadc ten is now brought to Gonlpara from the Bhotan hills. In 1828, Capts. 
GuANT and PsMniuTON sent specimens of what the nadves asserted to be the 
tea plant to Mr. Secretary Swinton, from Minipur, but for want of the fruit, 
its genuine nature was not identified. These travellers made tea from its leaves, 
tod found it approach very nearly in flavour to ordinary black tea. — Ed.] 

V. — Abstract of Meteorological Observations at Nasirabdd. Bf JJeut,' 

Col. Thomas Oliyxr. 

Tabui I. — 

Barometar reduetd to 33». Temperature of the Sagtend Jtr, and rendfJRf 

elewUUm abope Cokutia. 

Tear and 

at 4 P.M. 

Temp, of 


Tear and 

at 4 P.M. 

Temp, of 



Dec 1839* . . 

Jan. J833, . . 


















Dee. 1833, .. 
Jan. 1834, .. 


27 '980 











Aog. ........ 














'^»' 1 





It is remarfcnble that the elevations for the nine months, since December, 1833, are 
all with one exception so much in excess to those for the same months of the former 
year : I am at n loss to account for this ; the average height of my Barometer for 
the nine months in question being only -036 lower Uian the average for the same 

■oaths of the preceding year. 

TAntn II.— Jf«aa Temperature of each Month, with the JHffereneet from the Meem 

qf the Year. 


January, . 
Mardi,. • . 
April, ... 


August, .. 

October, .. 


Meteorological Ohservations at Nastrabdd, 

[J AH* 

Tabls llU^Temperahart i(f the Air, and Deprmim (D) ftfWei Tktrmim/dUr. 

Year uid Month. 

December, 1839, 
January, 1833, . . 








September, . . , 




January, 18S4,.. 


March, ........ 






September, ... 

Sun-rise. 1 


. M. 

4 P. 















































































97* I 
















































































































a . 








• . 

.. 1 



Table IV.— Z)«to PmM (SJ, Comparatwe Teiifjoa (T), and Oraim qfAqueoui Vapour 

im a eubUfoot qf Air (GJ. 

Year and 

Dec. 1832, . . 
Jan. 1833, . . 


March, . . . . 



June, .... . 



Sept. ..••.. 



Means, .. 



I 43-7 


'309 * 



Year and 

Dec. 1833, . 
Jan. 1834, . 


March, ... 








3*92 Means, 









9- IS 



















The means for the last year are probably but little affected by the want of observa. 
tlons in November, since the hygrometric state of the air for that month appears to 
differ not very much from the mean of the year. 

[The formula whence the dew-points in the above table are taken will be found 
in the first Volume of the JouKH al, p. 508^ and in the Glbaminob in Scikncb^ i« 
193.— £p.] * . 


Meiearolopeal Observatiom at Nasfrabdd. 


Mean RttiiU$ ^ffomr Ytar^ Observatknu. 

Barometer Temperature. | 



at 32* 1 

of Air. 

Temperature. 1 




4 F. M. 


4 P. M. 































Mardi, .. 




— 4.4 






AprU, .... 


^.0)0 95.5 

-f 5.6 








— 137 101.8 

+ 14.7 






Jane, .... 










Jaly, .... 




+ 9.6 






Aagwt, .. 




+ 5.7 








— 099 


+ 6.1 






October,. . 




+ 3.3 


























Mcaas, .. 








The flseaa temperature (day and night) from these four year's obeenrations is 
76*; bnt as Nasfiabid is elcTated aboTc the level of the sea nearly 1500 feet, 
the air is or ought to be cooler on that aeconnt by about 5**5, so that the tem- 
perature at the sea level would be 81*5, which is that assigned to the equator by 

If we calculate the mean temperature for the latitude (2(^ 18^) by the fbrmulm 
which hare been found in most cases to agree well with observation, we shall 
have, , 

ByMATEa's, T (= 84*— 62» sin* L) » = 73-8 

BBEW8Tsn*a,.... T (= 81«-5 cos. L) =73*1 

DAUBui8aoN*8,.. T (=s 27^ COS.* L in centesimal degrees*) .... = 71*0 

AnuNaoM's, T (» 97**08 cos'l L— lO^-SS) = 71.9 

Mean = 72.5 

which is 9* less than the obserrations give when reduced to the sea level. But 
it must be observed with regard to the locality of NasirahM that it stands on 
an arid rock on wMch scarcely apy vegetation exists unless during the rainy 
sesson : this will no doubt account for a part of the difference. Mr. Atkinson 
in his elaborate paper on Astronomical and other Befractions, (vide Memoirs of 
the Boyal Astronomical Society, 2nd volume,) considers that 4* may be deducted 
from the observed temperatures of " large extended plains t** allowing this, we 
have still 5* unaccounted for. However, on calculating by the same formulm, 
the mean temperatures of several places in this country where observations have 
been made and recorded in this Journal, I find similar differences, part of which 
may very probably be owing to errors in the instruments used, as it is well known 
how great a difference exists in the thermometers manufactured for exportation 
to this country, no two of which are hardly ever found to agree in their indica- 
tions, some dyferiag several degrees from others. In the subjoined table, the 
latitiides and elevations of some of the placea are given by rough eatimation, not 
haTing at hand the means of ascertaining them accurately, but any probable 
errors in these estimations cannot affect the results materially. The difference of 
temperature due to elevation has been calculated by Mr. Atkinson's Formula, 

Bc^utred dill • in degrees = 



-, h being the elevation in fbet. 

• Or, In Fahrenheit's Scale. . . T=s80^6— 48»*6 sin » L. 

B 2 


Longitude of Nas&abdd hf Lunar Trunmii. 


Comparison qf Observed Mem Temperatures toUh those deduced from the FonmOm of 
Matbr, BRBWST«m, Daubdissoh, and AixiKtow. 

1 Differ * lObd. Mn. \Meaa IDifferenee be- 
ence ITemp. re-\Temp. Itweentheeal- 
dne toldaeed toiby tbelcolated & ob« 
Eleva- 'the seaj For* Igcryed Mean 




Fattigurh, . . . • 
Nasirabdd,.. .. 


Calcutta, . « . • 
Laodour, . . « • 

— — 1 



















level. IiuqIr. | Temperature. 





YI^ Longitude of Nasxrahad hg Lunar Transits and hg Ohservationa 

of Moon Cubninating Stars.— Bg Lieut.-CoL Thomas Outxr. 

By Lunar Transits. 



Febmary 16th, 1831, 

Ditto 22nd, 

March 21st, 

Ditto 22nd, 

September 14 th,. .. . 

Ditto 15th, 

November 12th,. . . . 

Ditto 13th, 

February 8th, 1832, 

Ditto 10th 

March 9th, 

Ditto 10th, 

Ditto 12th, 

April 8th 

May 7th, 

Ditto 9th, 

June 6th, 

Ditto 7th, 

October Ist, 

November 1st, .... 

Ditto 29th, 

March Ist, 1833, 

Ditto 28th, 

Ditto 30th, 

Ditto 3l8t, 

April 28th, 

Ditto 29th, 

Ditto 30th, 

Kvember 17th,.. 
Ditto 19th 

• • . • a . 



. . . . . • 

• « 


Longitude by Lunar Transits^ 

M. S. 

58 44 

59 10 
53 57 
59 12 
58 52 

58 47 

59 21 
59 05 

58 41 

59 07 
59 12 
59 00 
59 00 
59 07 
59 29 
58 SO 
58 59 
58 49 

58 50 

59 09 

58 52 

59 09 
59 05 
59 05 
59 04 

58 57 

59 16 
59 18 
59 00 
68 42 

Sums of Se- 
































H. M. 8. 

4 58 44 

. • • • 5/ 

• . •• 5/ 

.. • • 61 

• • • . d9 
. . ■ . O/ 

. . 60 

• • • • ol 

• . • • 09 

.. .. 60 

. • • > 61 
• • 61 

• • • . 61 

• • . • 63 
• . • • 62 

• • • • 62 

a • 
■ . 

« a 

4 59 02 


Proeeeding$ of the AHatic Societf. 


By Moon Cvlminatort. 



Jan. 16th, • 

Jan. 18th, • 

Jan. 19th, . 

Feb. 18tb, . 

March 15th, 
March 17th, 

March Idtfa, 

March 20th, 
April, 18th,.. 

April 19th, . . 

May 17th, .. 

May 18th, 


fi Rscinm, • • 
{ Ceti, .... 

■ • . . . 

ft Ccti, .... 


/ Tanri,.. ,. 
i Tanri,.... 
H IjCin. a * . • 

. . . . 

a Tanri, .... 
CI Tanri, • • . . 



fi Gem 


p Gem. • • . • 
8 Cancri,. , • . 
I Cancri,.. .. 

Interrala in 
Sidereal Time. 

M. S. 

—43 48-47 

+ 4 16*09 

-27 3016 

+20 33-68 

-f 5 42-92 

—25 10-92 

+20 10-62 

—40 40-58 

—51 30-34 

—28 13-52 

+24 59-84 

—36 19-96 

—51 30-38 

+34 56-68 

+ 14 08*40 

^47 17-70 

+14 41-18 

—45 24-46 

+28 27-10 

a Leonia, .. —31 1612 

H42 33-64 

+28 07-98 

4. 16 50-40 


a Leonis, .. 


0" • .. .. 

p Leonia,. . . . 


y Virg 


r Virg 



1 55*32 

4.39 41-06 

+ 7 17-52 

—33 35- 14 

—48 37*70 

422 0$-22 

^ 7 00-62 

—33 53-12 

—47 52-56 

H. M. 8. 
4 58 56 







Snms of se- 
conds mul- 
tipUed by 
the No. of 
stara ob 







H. M. S. 
4 58 56 








Longitude by Moon Cnlminators, » 4 59 02 

The exact agreement of the two is of course a mere chance ; I think it right 
howerer to mention that 1 have inserted the whole of my obsenrations, and not 
a selection from them. 

yiL-^Proceedingf of the Asiatic Society. 
Wedneeday Evening, the I44h January 1836. 
The ReTerend W. H. Mnx, D. D. Vice-President, in the Chair. 
After reading the Proceedings of the last Meeting, the Meeting passed 
te the BaUot for the Office-bearers of the ensuing year, when the Lord 
Bishop, the Rev. Dr. Mill, ffir J. P. Grant, and Mr. W. H. MaoNAOHxnN 
were elected Viee-Presidenis ; and the Members composing the Committee 
of Papers last year were unanimously re-elected. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 


The Honorable Mn J. B. Maoavlat^ the Honorable Colonel W. Moiu 
r, and Mr. Williak Carr^ proposed at the last Meeting, were dolf 
elected Members of the Society. 
The Secretary read an Annnal Report on the state of the Society. 
For the whole of the past year, the Society had been deprived of the presence 
of its President, who had been driven to the Cape through ill health. The seats 
of two Vice-Presidents had also become vacant, one by Sir J. Frank's departnxc 
to Europe, the other, by Sir C. T. Mbtcalfs*8 appointment to the Government 
of Agra. The Obituary List of the past year contained only the venerable name 
of Dr. Caret, upon whose death, in June last, a tribute of regret and esteem had 
been recorded on the Society's proceedings. The fate of another cherished Mem* 
tier, Mr. J. Caldbr, remained an object of great anxiety, nothing having been 
heard of him since he sailed from India for the New Colony at St. George's Sound 
in October, 1833. The only faint hope of his safety rested in the report of 
some natives at Swan River, that a wreck had occurred to the northward ; and it 
was satisfactory at least to know, that a vessel had been immediately despatched 
to ascertain the fact. The result has not yet transpired. 

Of Members who had tend^ed their resignation for various causes, the follow- 
ing names were mentioned : Messrs. G. Monbt, M. T. Clbmishaw, M. Laru- 
LtTTA, M. Manuk, and R^a Kalirrishna. 

The new Members elected, including those of the present Meeting, amounted 
in number to fifteen, vis. Messrs. W. Martin, R. Spikrs, A. Bbattir, J. S. 
Stopford, W. Macrbnzib, F. Rbnauld, Dr. A. Hamilton, Lieut. W. 
FoLBT, Lieut. McLbod, Lieut.-Col. Low, Sir J. P. Grant, Mr. W. Grant, 
Honorable T. B. Macaulay, Honorable Colonel Morrison, and Mr. W. Carr. 
The following distinguished individuals had been associated as Honorary Mem- 
hers: The Mbkhara Mbno of Ava, Mr. Csoma db KArAs, Professors Hrrrrk, 
Klavrotb, Rosbn, and Bocrland, Sir Jorn Hbrbchbl, and Col. Syrrs. 

The Ezpences of the year had been very Hioderale, leaviag a ooaslderable 
balance in the Treasurers' hands. 


To paid for Copies of the 
Journal Asiatic Society, 
furnished to Members in 
1833 928 

To Establishment and con- 
tingent ezpences from Ist 
Nov. 1833 to 31st Oct. 
1834, 2880 

To balance of cash in hand, 3101 

10 4 

Sa. Rs. 6910 4 

By balance of last year, . • 20 8 
By Subscriptions collected, 5472 6 
By Interest on Company's 
Paper, 17,500, at 5 per 
cent 1417 


1 11 

Sa. Rs. 6910 4 

Outstanding Quarterly Bills due, but not yet collected, Rs. 2817. 

The Publications of the past year had been limited to the Index of the 18 
volumes of Quarto Researches, now nearly completed, and the Monthly Journal. 
The printing of M. Csoma db Kdads's Tibetan Grammar was terminated, which 
would allow a new volume of Researches immediately to be put in hand. The Go* 
vernment had been pleased to express its approbation of the manner in which 
the Tibetan Dictionary and Grammar have been pused through the press, and 

1635.] Proctedingi of the AsitUic Society. 55 

bad requested that die AtUtio Soeiety wonld nndertake to diitribnte copies of the 
work to the piiadpal karned Societiet and UaWeriities of Earope aad 
ladia. la compUaieatiBg the Author upoa the eucoettfal performaaoe of his 
task, and ordering payment of printiuf ezpences, aadarrean of salary, the Gorer- 
aor General was farther pleased to direct the sam of money remitted to M. Cso- 
M4 by Prince EsTsaHAxr aad other Hungarian Noblemen in 1832, which was 
aafortuaately lost by the failure of the house of Alexanoir aad Co. to be »• 
stored out of the public purse, an act of liberality which will doubtless beappreci* 
ated in Vienna. 

Hie Papers submitted to the Society, during the past year, had embraced the 
dinoveries of Bactriao Antiquities by General Vsntdka, M. Court, Dr. Mar- 
TiK, Mr. Masson, Dr. Gkrard, Syed Kbra'mkt Ali, and Mohun Lal. The 
notice of Tarious Hindu loscriptions, and particularly the Traaslation of one of 
the Allahabad Inscription, by Captain Troth and Dr. Mill : — the diseorery 
of a submerged towUf replete with antiquities, by Captaia Cautlrt $ and ma* 
ay other subjects of considerable interest. In physical research, the progrese 
of diacorery had been unprecedently rapid, and the gigantic fossil bones ezhu- 
fliated from the lower range of hills, by Dr. Falconrr and Captain Cavtlbt, 
had eren enrpaased the noble specimens presented by Dr. Spilsbdrt. It was 
now rendered most probable that a belt of fossil deposit existed throughout the 
whole line of secondary hiUs skirting the great Himilayan ridge from Cashmir to 
Ava. It had been penetrated in a few plaeea— at Sewalik, Kooch Behar, and on 
the Irawadi ; but for maay years, it might be anticipated that other spots yet unex- 
plored would continue to furnish abundant stores for the inrestigation of the geo- 
logist and the speculation of the cosmogonist. 


Read a letter from Monsiear Lau, Secretary of the Society of Agrl. 
caltuie and Commerce at Caen, forwarding copies of the various publioa. 
tioDsof that Society for the past two years. 

Read a letter from Monsiear Dutrouillb^ Secretary of the Royal Aca. 
demy at Bordeaaz, forwarding copies of its proceedings, Sec for the yean 
18SS and 33^ and proposing an exchange of publications. 

Read a letter from Profeseor J. J. Marcel, acknowledging his election 
as an Honorary member, and presenting his recent publications : 

Histoire de I'Egypte depuis la conqa^e des Arabes jusqu'4 celle des 


Contes Arabes du Shekh el Mohdy, Nos. 10, 11, 19^ 13. 

The following Books were also presented : 

Joomal of a Tour through the Panjab, Afghanistan, &c in company with 
Lieok BuRMB) and Dr. Gerard, by Munshi Mohan La'l, a native of 
JMta^^ the mUhar. 

Papers reUtive to the Mahratta War in 1 833-4, by Mr. Q. T. LuehmifUm. 

Hitopadesi, with a Hindee translation, made by a Pundit of the Raja of 
Bhartpor— &sf dttto. 

Prithlvi Raja Basa, a Hindee Poem, by Chand,— &y ditto. 

Jonmal Asiatique, No. 77, August, 1834— *y the Asiatic Society of Paris. 

Meteorological Register, Nov. and Dec. 1834— 2y the Surveyor OeneraJ. 

A lithographed map of the Indus and the neighbouring countries, from the 

56 Proceedings of the Amtte Society. [Jan. 

The GoTernment mapt-^ M. /. B, TuHn, Ariiit mid PublUker. 
The Indian Jooraal of Medical Science, No. 13— ^jr Ae EdUon. 
The following books were received from the Booksellers. 
Marsden's Numismata Orientalla, 9nd voL 
Lardner's Cabinet CydopedU— Sismondi's Roman Empire^ vol. Ist. 

For the Mtueum. 
A series of Skulls, consisting of 1 Tiger, 5 Antelopes, 3 Chikaras (Rein, 
deer), 1 Hyena, 3 Wolves, and 9 Pariah Dogs ; also Models of the 
Native Plough, of the Cotton and Spinning Wheel, and that of the Mill for 
grinding Mustard Seed — also models of Carts, &c used in the Bhartpur 
Territory, and 8 Mew^te Spears, presented by Mr. G. T. Lushikoton. 

Read a letter from Major SuTHnujiMO, forwarding the Ancient Inscrip- 
tion presented by Captain J. Low, on the 3rd December. 

[A reduced facsimile of this Inscription is given in Plate III.] 
An image o£ Buddha, mutilated in the upper part, was presented by Mn 
Jamss Stbthbhsok. 

A paper was read deacribmg the locality and manner of its discovery at Bnkra^ 

near the piUar known as Bhim Sen's lAth in Tirh6t. Round the base of the 

Image was a Sanscrit inscription : the sculpture is in good taste and well finished. 

Further relics and coins dug up at Behat, near Seh&ranpur, were received 

from Captain Cautlet. 

A letter was read from Captain E. £. Wbbtmaoott, 37tlk N. I. Assistant, 
Governor General's Agent at Assam, forwarding a description of the town 
of Shihpuri in the Udayapur district, and also -an account of the Ramsan^ 
his, a sect of Hindu Schismatics in Western India. 

A collection of the various formations of tufaceous kankar from the 
bed of the river Jamna, inclosing shells, wood, and bones, was received 
from Serjeant Dban, and a further assortment of the fossil bones diaoo. 
vered therein. 

A letter from Dr. Spilsbvrt begged the Society would accept of the 
fossil bones formerly transmitted for its inspection by him. 

The following extract from a letter from Major Colvik, Engineers, was 

** Yon have been informed of the successful results of the researches whieh 
have lately been carried on in the lower hills in this vicinity for fossil remains, 
and the subject has been taken up with sudi spirit and desire to attain iafomuu 
tion, that in all probability Taluabie use may be made of the fiusilitlea for stndywg 
the subject so immediately in the vicinity of the deposit ; but it has atreek 
me much good might result from the means of pursuing the inquiry being more 
extended, by the Society's Museum being prorided with specimens of the foesil 
remains of these hills, and as I am neither a geologist nor have the leianre 
to make myself one, I have obriously no motive for collecting a eabiiket 
myself. I propose therefore excavating and collecting for the Museum of the 
Asiatic Society, who will I hope accept of what the party I have set to work 
noay find ; they have commenced under an intelligent man, who has learned to 



Copi/ of an, hiScrifHufTv o>iv a Stent' /band mar tht nuns of a. Baddhi/t 
Temph' in/Proi^mctWe&sUjf, Malayan ytrv^ 

i> h'oiUtt. offkfrt/ 

1 835. "^ Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 5 7 

recognue ft fossil Mt sight, and to be carefnl in their extraction from the rock 
when so situated : but so many have been foimd fallen down from their original 
position, that many wiU likely be so now, and the wonder is that they have 
not been before recognised and brought to notice through the natives in the 
neighbourhood, who it would now appear have occasionally picked them up. The 
space I hxwe selected for the operations of my party is the portion of the hills 
embraced between the embouchures of three mountain torrents, which united 
form the Sombe river, lying about half .way between the Jamna and Nahan, to 
the right and left of which are the hills from which the specimens already col- 
lected have been brought. I may therefore expect to be successful, and though I 
have not seen the ootlets of these three heads of the Sombe, I may presume the 
sections in the range of hills to be both deep and extecsive from the floods which 
pus down there in the rains. I intend when 1 have an opportunity to visit them, 
and in the mean time have taken measures to have the localities of the specimens 
attached to each as brought out. I expect to be able to despatch the first resulu 
of my search from Delhi before three months are over. These fossils appear to me 
to correspond with those found by Dr. Spilsbuky, described in the Journal for 
August. One lower end of a thigh bone is little less in breadth than that drawn in 
the plate, and an end of a corresponding bone of the fore-leg appears to me of 
equally gigantic dimensions. I believe you have not yet actually seen any thing 
from these hills, and inclose you a tooth I hammered out of the rock at the Kalo- 
wala Past, wrapped in Upland Georgia cotton.*' 

The best thanks of the Society were voted for Colonel Colvin's obliging 

With reference to the same subject, the following extract from a priTate letter, 
(reoeiTed subsequently to the Meeting,) from Dr. H. Falconkk will be read with 
interest : it is dated Mussooree, 3rd January, 1835. 

" Tou have heard from Capt. Cautlbt and Lieut. Bakek about the late fossil 
disooTeries up here : I have come in for a lion*s share of them. In one of my tours 
1 had to return by Nahun, and having heard of the tooth presented by the Raja, in 
October, to Lieut. Baker, I made inquiry and had a fragment of a tooth pre- 
sented to me also. I got a hint of where they came from, and on going to the 
ground, T reaped a splendid harvest. Conceive only my good fortune : within six 
hours, I got upwards of 300 specimens of fossil bones ! This was on the 20th 
November, a couple of days after Lieuts. Baker and Durand had got their first 
qieeimens through their native collectors. 

" Capt. Cautlkt has since got about 40 specimens : my collection amounts to 
■early 400 : and it is exceedingly rich and varied. There are more species than 
Messrs. Crawpord and Wallich got from the Irawaddi. Here are some of the 
results fr^marapid examination of Capt. Cautlet's collection, (not including the 
Kalowala fossils noticed in all his late letters in your Journal,) and my own. 

Mmatodtm BlepkaiUoidea, A most perfect cheek tooth, left side of lower 
jaw, 134 inches long I indicating an animal of immense size. Por- 
tions of the iTory tusks of do., ribs, and huge fragments of bones of 
the extremities. H. F.'s collection. 

Mattodon Latideiu ? cheek tooth doubtful from being water worn. Cautley's. 

IK/popo/afRtM. Fragment of the lower jaw with teeth. H. F.'s collection. 

JUmoceros/ doubtfnl. Cautley's and H. F.*s collections. 

58 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [Jan. 

J^fh t doubtfiil from wmter^weariBif ; 

RKmifMii^. A beautiAil entire half of lower jaw of a large deer, H. F/i. 
Crocodile, Vertebm of immense aixe, teeth, and other bonei. H. F.'a coUeetioo* 
CheUmiem. Two species of Emys, one of TVionyz. 

VertebrK of fonr distinct mammalia, which the want of means of identifyin|f 
satisfactorily preTcnts me from venturing a Tagne opinion of. A great namber 
of other bones besides, whidi will admit, many of them, of being determined. 
There are some traces of new forms of structure : among others a tusk of a Fa- 
chydermatous animal, about | of an inch In thickness, longitudinally channeled 
like the tusks of the Hippopotamus, and cunred, with its apex worn down to an 
oblique disk ; but baring a reniform, transverse section, channeled with a deep 
fossa along its concave curve. This is but the commencement of the discoveries* 
and among the Pachydermata, I expect many additional results: either in Anoplo- 
thera ? Lophiodons and Anthracothera, or analogous forms in their place : and 
most assuredly Tapirs at least. In fact, in Capt CAtrTLST's collection (the Kal- 
lowala one from the clay marie) of which he has given you so much of the details* 
there is a small tooth, which I imagine belongs to an extinct Pachydermatous 
animal, aUied to Antbracotherium. His seal is beyond all praise. The moment he 
got the scent, from some bones I found in the Limli pass, he was off to the field 
in the Kallowalla Pass, and ever since it has been but a continuous search with 
him. He has lately turned out a beautiful and most perfsct molar tooth of the 
upper jaw, right side, of a species of the genus Equus, which now puts hin 
Inference of the existence of Solipeda in the deposit, at first deduced fh>m an 
incisor tooth, beyond all doubt. It has the roundish solitary lateral pit of the 
inner ride completely surrounded by a ridge of enamel : whereas in existing 
species, the pit is open internally, and the ridge of enamel which enetrcles it, ia 
continuous with the other flexures of enamel of the tooth. It therefore, perhaps 
belongs to a new extinct species. The Lithological details of the SewAlik for- 
mation are equally interesting with the fossil ones, and when worked out, will 
read as instructive a lesson regarding the Geomorphic operations, at the foot of 
the Himalayas, during centuries of ages past, as the fossil remains do, regard- 
ing the former tenants of the tract. By the bye, the fossils I have mentioned 
Mastodon Elephantoides, &c. establish an identity of formation between the upper 
beds of the Irawaddi depouts and the upper deposits included between the 
Sew&lik and the Him&laya range. Several of them are the same as those 
found by C&awford and Wallich ; and it appears, that all along the foot of 
the Himklaya, from the Panj^b, down to the Irawaddi, there is a nearly con- 
tinuous series of tertiary formations, more or less upheaved at different points 
along the line; but in all their great features, they appear chiefly developed ia 
the Jamna Gangetie portion, where they are upheaved to upwards of 1500 feet 
above the plains. 

In a late excursion to Jamnautri I collected materials for a section ttfua 
the snowy range on to tiie plains, Uke Dr. Roylb*8, but perhaps more copious. 
1 have found the trap rocks extensively distributed and far in the interior.' 
The whole tract on this ride the snow is primitive ; and the line of the 
snowy peaks is primitive also. I am convinced that they are not like the high 
mountains of the Andes, porphyries and other trappean masses burst through 
the surrounding formations ; but primitive schists upheaved to a higher IstoI 

183o.] MiscellaneouB. 59 

than the rarroiinding hllb. You have heard much of the scenery, but I wish 
yon had seen some of it, for no pencil has yet done justice to it. To mention 
one : conceive yourself on the top of the Choor menntain, nearly 13,000 feet 
aboTe the level of the aea, a lofty ridge half way between the snowy range 
and the plains, high above every thing aronnd. Imagine a glance to the nortii, 
or front, with an nnintermpted stretch of npwarda of 90* 1 of snowy mountains, 
without a break, clear, white, and daixling, starting up against a back-ground of 
deep-bine aky, so rich and intense, as you have never seen : conceive an ocean 
of mountain waves, running on from your feet to the snow, you looking down 
upon and overtopping all. Turn round to the rear or south, and you have aa« 
ether sea of hills, with the plains of Hindoostui beyond, stretching ftv off into 
the distance, and traversed by here and there a streak of silver, marking the 
raiaiatnre course of the mighty Jumna. Look to right and left, and yon have a 
view of mountains, bounded only by the limits of vision : the huge masses of 
haddled granite about you forming a fine offset to the whole. I imagine that aa 
a panoramic mountain view, that of the Choor is not to be exceeded in any 
country, and it is but a sample of the rest. Thit only want is in lake scenery, 
and of this there is nothing worthy of the name." 

VIII. — Miscellaneous. 

1 .— Jk3»faM<teN ^ tk€ di^fiertnctf m tht qwmHip qf Bam el d^^tmi efeveflMs* 

It had invariably been remarked by meteorologists that a rain-gauge, placed at 
an elevation, collected less rain than one situated on the surface of the ground 
yet DO satisfactory reason could be assigned for such a discrepancy. The British 
Association for the Advancement of Science determining to place the facts of the 
phenomenon on such a footing as to be afterwards capable of tolerably strict 
analysis, engaged Messrs. W. G«at and J. Phillips, to conduct a year's ezperi* 
meats on the top of the Cathedral at York, and the result was made the subject of 
a report by the latter to the meeting at Cambridge in 1833, which sets the matter 
at rest in a most satisfactory manner. 

The site of the experiments was well selected, York being in the centre of a 
very extensive valley, and the Minster tower, elevated 200 feet from the ground, 
looks down upon an area of 1000 square miles, with no object of natuie or art 
rising to within 100 feet of its summit. 

One gauge of the simplest constraetion was attached to a pole, elevated nine 
feet above the battlements, 242 feet above the river ;— another was r^stered on 
the roof of the museum, 72i feet ;~and a third on the ground In the museum 
garden, at 29 feet above the river. 

The gauges were 10 inches square, and could be easily read off to the 1000th 
of an inch fall. 

The report gives a tabular view of the whole rain of Uie year, but it will be tuf. 
ieieot here to notice the totals of the 12 months, which were la follows : 




Miniter. Museum. Ground. 

Total lUin-fiiU in the year, 15-910 20-461 24-401 

or deducting a snow storm in Feb. 15*715 20*182 23*785 

Mr. Phillips arranges the numerical results of the experiments, in relation to 
mean temperature, and the season of the year, so as to deduce the ratios of quan- 
tity at the several stations, in the following table : 


Whole year, 

7 coldest months 

Oct. — April, .. 
7 warmest months 

April— October, 
5 coldest months 

Nov. — March, 
5 warmest months, 
"Winter quarter, . . 
Spring quarter, . . 
Summer quarter, 
Autumn quarter,.. 

Inches on 







On mu- 

Of Rain, 










15.666 * 71-2 























The first remark which occurs on the inspection of this table is that the ratio 
of diminution of rain for altitude of position is nearly constant. Mr. Phillips 
shews that it is represented by a simple formula, depending on the square root of 
the height with one variable co-efficient; or m >/ A =; the diminution of rain at the 
given height. 

Thus for the whole year (m being made = 2*29) 

for the Minster, m ^^ A = ^ 212-8 X 2*29 c= 66-5, by observation 66-1, to 100. 

for the Museum, w ^ * =: 4/ 43-« X 2-29 = 84-9, by observation 85-3, to 100. 

In like manner for the seven coldest months, (m ss 2*88,) the ratios are found 

by calculation, 58 81 100 

by observation, 58*6 80*5 100 

and for the seven warmest months, (m = 1*97,) the sama qnantitiefl are fbimd 

by calculation, 71*3 87*0 100 

by observation, 71*2 87-1 100 

and so on, for the five-monthly periods of averages. For the shorter periods, the 
accordance is of course less striking, but it obtains even in single months, and the 
same formula is found to apply to Dr. Hbbbrdbn' 8 experiments on Westminster 
Abbey, with a due variation in the co-efficient m. Whence it is concluded that 
the relation to height is constsnt. 

But it is evident that the vslues of the variable co-efficient were very differ- 
ent ; that its maxima snd minima, were, perhaps, not quite in the same periods of 
the year at Westminster as at York, and that the range of variation in its value 
is much less. From M. Akago's determination of the relative quantities of raia 
falling on the observatory at Paris, and in the court below, the relative mean 
value of tn, at Paris = 1*24 ; while at Westminster, it is 4*23 ; and at York, 2*29. 
These discrepancies are discouraging, and will probably deprire the most exact 
local determinatiou of a general application. However, on account of the 

1835.] Miscellaneous. 61 

markible TepBlwity of the progreii of monthly tempereture at York, and some 
obvioos relations between the quantity of rain collected, and the mean tempera* 
tore of the period, some inferences unaToidably suggested themselTcs. 

Fint. The diminution at the upper stations is greatest in the cold, and least 
in the warm seasons, and therefore the co*efficient is in some way uwersefy depend- 
ent on the temperature. Mr. Phillips found the relation Tery nearly represent- 

ed by the formula 2m=a^<>fa ^ where a = the ascertained value of m 

for the whole year, i the mean temperature of ditto, and if that of the particular 


SeeomUf. The relation between the Talues of m and the dryness of the air ii 

imverse, whether expressed by the difference between the mean temperature and 

the dew point, or, as that is seldom known, by the meen ranffs of daily tempera- 

tve, which had been determined for York from a long series of observations by 

Mr. F. Cholmelet, to be as follows : 

January range, .. 8-0 May, 19*7 September, 16''0 

Febmary— , lO'l June, 20*1 October, ll«8 

March— y 13*1 July, 19*6 November, 9*0 

April*-, 16*2 August, 17*7 December, 7*7 

General mean daily range, 14*08 

Kow if M be tsken inversely as the mean range of temperature, r, or m » a 


»the accordance between the calculated and observed values of the co-ef- 

ficient is very close : 

(a s 3-29.) value of m. value of m. 

for the 7 coldest months, by ealeulation, 2*96 by observation, 2*88 

7 wannest months,— ——— 1*86 — — . j.97 

ft eoldest months, — — — — 8*36 > 3'06 

5 wannest months, ■ 1*73 " 1'73 

and so on throughout. The concluding remarks of Mr. Phillip's explain the 
hypothesis he has framed for the explanation of the phenomenon which led to 
the experiments, and to us it appears most clear and conclusive. 

" So remarkable and continued an accordance between the co-efficients fixed 
by observation and those derived by two methods from a very simple view of the 
condition of the air as to heat and moisture, appears to me decisive of the ques- 
tion as to the general cause of the variation qf the quantity qf diminution qf 
rain at any one height above the ground. It has already been shown how strictly 
the observations warrant the conclusion that the ratio of diminution at deferent 
heights is constant through the whole year. It is therefore rather as a matter of 
▼ery probable inference than a plausible speculation that I offer the hypothesis, 
that the whole difference in the quantity of rain, at different heights above the sur- 
foeeof the neighbouring ground, is caused by the continual augmentation of each 
drop of rain from the commencement to the end of its descent, as it traverses 
snoeesaively the humid strata of air at a temperature so much lower than that of 
the surrounding medium as to cause the deposition of moisture upon its sur- 
foce. This hypothesis takes account of the length of descent, because In passing 
throo^ more air more moisture would be gathered ; it agrees with the foct that 
the aoi^entation for given lengths of descent is greatest in the most humid sea- 
of the year ; it accounts to us for the greater absolute sise of rain-drops in 

62 Miscellaneous. [Jam. 

the hottest months and near the grovnd, as compared with those in the winter 
and on mountains ; finally, it is almost an inoTitable consequence from what is 
kcown of the gradation of temperatnre in the atmosphere, that some efeot of 
this kind must necessarily take place. The very common obserration of the 
cooling of the air at the instant of the fall of rain, the fact of small hail or snow 
whiteiiing the mountains, while the very same precipitations fall as cold rain Ia 
the valleys where the dew point may be many degrees above freesing is enoogh 
to prove this. A converse proof of the dependence of the quantity of rain at 
different heights on the state of the air at those heights, is found in the rarer 
occurrence of a shower falling from a cloud, but dissolving into the air vritluiiift 
reaching the ground. Lastlyi I cannot forbear remarking, that this hypothesis 
of angmentation of size of the elementary drops agrees with the result that the 
increase of quantity of rain for equal lengths of descent is greatest near tho 
ground : for whether the augmentation of each drop be in proportioa to its anr- 
face or its bulk, the consequence must be an tncreaftnir rs/e of angmeatatioB of 
its quantity as it approaches the ground. 

'' The direct mathematical solution of this problem, now that the lawB of cool- 
ing and of the distribution of temperature have undergone soch rq[ieated scrutiny, 
may perhaps be attempted with success ; but for the purpose of *»ii«*ii>«Hi>j the 
effects of periodical or local modifying causes, it is desiraMe that obaervationa on 
the same plan should be instituted at many and distant places,— >both along the 
coasts and in the interior, — in the humid atmosphere of Cornwall and in the 
drier air of the mid-land counties. Always, at least three stations should be 
chosen, as open as possible, one of them very near to tlie ground : their relative 
heights, the mean temperatures, the mean ranges of temperature, and the meaa 
dew point for each moath should be ascertained* It would be useful to measure 
the sise of the rain-drops, and, if possible, their ovm temperature. The height 
of clouds according to the plan of Mr. Dalton, in his Meteorologieal Rswrnye, 
and the direction and force of wind should be noted, and distinctions made be« 
tween snow, hail, and run. Some of these data I have not yet found the means 
of procnring, partly in consequnce of the great labour and time required, and 
partly from the difficulty of well arranging the experiments themselves. But since 
it is now ascertained that the general results follow some settled laws, and that 
the effects may be very well appreciated at moderate heights, I hope not only to 
procure these, but also several other data towards the completion of the theory 
of this curious subject, the patient investigation of which cannot fhil to give vi 
new and penetrating views into the constitution of the atmosphere.'* 

It will be a curious subject of investigation to determine the applicaUlity of 
the law of altitude and moisture to this country, and to fix the Talue of m. ThiB 
latter may, in some measure, be done from the long series of observations pub- 
lished in the Surveyor General's Meteorological Register : but for the lew of 
h^iglit, we shsll require a higher station, and we invite any sealous meteorologist 
who may have leisure to fix his pluviameter on the top of the OcBmLONY monit- 
ttent ; a chuprassee may easily be taught to observe it daily throughout the ratas. 

"2, An vntuual Sea-Montter in ike Bay. 
[Extract of a Letter from lieut. W. Folbt, 25th Nov. 1834.] 
On my voyage to Madras (in May last), I saw a most extraordinary ftsh, end 
which had never before been seen by any teainan on board, although some of the 

18^5 ."^ MisceUanetms, 63 

ud erew hftd been employed in tbe tfhalc fishery. It wu of the rize of 
I wiiale, bat dileriiig from that udaiAl in shape ; spotted like a leopard, tn a 
very beantiffal manner : it came dose vnder the stern of the ship, daring a calm, 
sad we had a magnificent opportnnity for viewing it : it had a very large dorsal 
fin, which it moved abont with great rapidity when made angry in coaseqaenoe 
of the large stones that we threw down upon it rashly ; for it possessed 
ssfident atrengUi to have broken the mdder and stove in the stern of the 
ihip. Sereral large fish (seemingly Dog-fish), about a cnbit in length and 
apwaids, were gamboUng abont the monster, entering its mouth at 
plaasare and retnming to the water again. The following will giro yon 
soBie idea of its shape. The mouth very large, dorsal fin black or dark- 
brown, tail also ; body coTcred with brown spots like a leopard, bead lizard- 
shaped. Blay it not be the PUnMounUf or a species of that fish known to have 
eststed formerly in the waters of the ocean ? Having given yon this statement, 
it is proper that I should give yon the names of those who were also eye-witnesses 
of the existence of this extraordinary animal. Hiey are as follows : 

1. Captain TiNoan, at that time commanding the ship " GssAfnert Mer- 
tiaU,** now eommanding the ** Comptiitor,*' 

2. Mr. SicnxxiK, Mr. Pikb, and Mr. Landbrs, officers of the vessel. 

The above gentlemen will oorroborate my statement : Captain Ti noatb and Mr. 
Skslub were old sailors, and had never before seen the fish, or one resembling it. 
Here were also aeveral Bnropean seamen on board, not one of whom had erer 
sscn it before. 

[All we can vent r e to say on this authenticated account is, that tbe monster 
deseribedfa not a PleHoiouruM as Lieutenant Folkv suggests; as that reptile haa 
BO " doml fin.'* What it may be, we must leare others more competent to de- 
cide, but the nnnsnal nature of the notice should by no means prevent the inser* 
tien of a deacriptton supported by such unequivocal evidence. — Ed.] 

3. Suipenmam qf the Stirvey <^ the Brahmuqmira River, 

For the last four yeara, an aeenrate trigonometrical survey of the Brahmaputra 

has keen in progress, to connect the map of this river from CroalpAra, where it 

tcrminnted in Captain Wilcox's Survey of tbe Assam Valley, (see tbe 138th 

sheet of the ** lodian Atlas,*' or the lithographed map in the 17th volume of 

Bfsrarchoi.) vrith the surveys of the Ganges, the Snnderbans, and finally with the 

gmnd meridional arc. Captsin Wilcox and Lieutenant Ommannbt, Engineera, 

i^fmiplfftfii the measurement of the Jenai, which now forms the main stream of the 

fiiahm^mtra» ftom Jumilpv to its oonfiuenoe with the Ganges at Jifirgaig, 

sad tbe Inttmr olBeer had in 18d0 ainoe been engaged in tracing the line of 

the fiver ftom goalp4ra round the difficult country at the root of the K4sia 

■raatninn, to within 30 miles of Dacca, when a sudden order of Government 

lately directs the whole work to be suspended, and in fact, all that haa been 

done, to be rendered comparatively useless for want of the connecting Unk 

which it would not have taken three months to complete t Geographers at home 

viO be at a Iom, as we ourselves are, to account for a measure apparently so im« 

peUtie, nsid we cannot help thinking, that a word of expUnation to the proper 

ssihoritiea would still be in time to remedy the mistake. 

Meteorological Regitter. 



iiiinii'iiiims.i ■ 



TiKuajlH "? ^:''- 5". 'i';^".'^'^'! •!".=' 

'»p S-"S2555S5bS5SS25--- -^B- -^SS ■"■S~ rf - 1 ■ e 1. 




jh Ji'H aS'^ss: 





a a 3"e Bases sBa .xa ai'gs" g"a 2' j 6s ! e 

;^i'is^5t£5| g?'^ 


± — L|. :: — 1 — ^ I " J H S 




No. Sa.-^February, 1835. 

I.- Same Account of a Sect of Hindu Schismatics in Western India, 
calling themselves Rdmsan^ht, or Friends of God, By Capt. G. £. 
WxsTMACOTT, Asst. to the Gov, Gen's Agent, N, E, Frontier. 

Of Tfls Mahant or Rblioiovs Supbriors of thb Ordbb. 

Ramcharan, the founder of the R&ouan^hiSi was a RJ^mivat Byra- 
^, horn A. D. 1719*, at Sorahchasen, a village in the principality of 
Jypar. The precise period, nor the causes, which led him to ahjure 
the religion of his fathers, do not appear : hut he steadily denounced 
idol -worship, and suffered on this account great persecution from the 
Brahmans. On quitting the place of his nativity in 1750, he wan- 
dered over the country, and eventually repaired to Bhilwira, in the 
Udipnr territory, where after a residence of two years, Bhim Singh, 
prince of that state, and father of the present RIna, was urged hy the 
priests to harass him to a degree which compelled him to abandon the 

The then chief of Shahpura, who also bore the name of Bhfm 
Singh, compassionating his misfortunes, offered the wanderer an 
asylum at bis court, and prepared a suitable escort to attend him : the 
sage, while he availed himself of the courtesy, humbly excused himself 
from accepting the elephants and equipage sent for his conveyance* 
and arrived at Shahpura on foot, in the year 1767 ; but he does not 
seem to have settled there permanently until two years later, from 
which time, it may be proper to date the institution of the sect. Rim-* 
charan expired in the month of April, 1798, in the seventy-ninth 
year of bis age, and his corpse was reduced to ashes in the great 
temple at Sh£hpura« 

• A. Samvat 1776. 

66 Some Account of the Rdmsanhhis, a Sect of [Fbb. 

Sadlia Rim, Governor of Bhflw&ra, a Bania of the Deopara tribe, 
was one of IUiincharan'8 bitterest enemiefi : he on one occasion dis- 
patched a Singi* to Sh&bpura to put the schismatic to death ; but 
the latter, who probably got information of his purpose, bent hia 
head low as the man entered, and told him to perform the service on 
which he was deputed, but to remember that as the Almighty alone 
bestowed life, man could not destroy it, without the Divine permission. 
The hired assassin trembled at what he took for preternatural foresight 
in his intended victim, fell at his feet, and asked forgiveness. 

lUimcharan composed 36,250 Sabd or hymns, each containing from 
five to eleven verses : thirty-two letters go to each aslok, which give the 
above total. He was succeeded in the spiritual directorship by R£m- 
jan, one of his twelve ChMa or disciples. This person was bom at the 
village of Sirsin, embraced the new doctrine in 1768, and died at 
Shihpura in 1809, after a reign of 12 years,. 2 months and 6 days. 
He composed 1 8,000 Sabd. 

The third hierarch, Dulba Him, became a Ramsan^hi, A. D. 1776. 
and died in 1824 : he wrote ten thousand Sabd, and about four thou- 
sand sakf , or epic poems, in praise of men eminent for virtue not only 
of his own faith, but among Hindus, Muhammedans, and others. 

Chatra Dis was converted at the early age of twelve years, ascend- 
ed the thronet in 1824. and died in 1831. He is said to have written 
1000 Sabd, but would not permit their being committed to paper. 

Niriyan Das, the fourth in descent from R£mcharan, now fills the 
chair of spiritual director. 

On the demise of a Mahant, an assembly of the priests and laitj 
is convened at Shihpnra to elect a successor, who is chosen with re* 
ferenoe alone to his wisdom and virtues. He is installed on the 
thirteenth day after the office falls vacant, on which occasion the By* 
tigia entertain the entire Hindii population of the town with a ban* 
quet of sweetmeats at the temple within the city- walls, known by the 
name of Rammeri}. 

The only difference between the garb of the Mahant and that of the 
priests consists in the quality of the cloth, which is made of cotton of 

* Singi. A particular cast of Hindus, so called in R&jw&ra from their con* 
ducting a number of tiieir own, and of the Mahesrt and Sumogl tribes of Banias. 
to noted places of pilgrinLage, free of all expence. The word is evidently a oor* 
ruption from Sangi a companion. 

t Gaddi is the term invariably applied to the cushion of the superior and 
Mah4rkj (mighty prince), the only title by which he is addressed and spoken of by 
the Rimsan^hls. They approach him with profound obeisance, rererentlj 
touch hia foot, and lay their foreheads to the marble on which he is seated. 

X Merl signiaeB an upper-roomed house in tiie language of lUywibra. 

1835.] Hmdu Scki$m&iic$ in Wettem India. 67 

ntlier a finer texture than theirs : their diet is the same, and contbts 
of dry cakes of coarse wheat floor without any kind of seasoning. 
The superior resides at Shihpura, the chief place of their religion, but 
occasionally leaves it for a period of one or two mondis, wandering 
OTer the country to mortify his body and aoeustom it to endure fa- 


The Rimsan^hfs believe in the unity and omnipotence of God, whom 
they regard as the Author of creation, preservation, and destruction ; 
nor so far as I could learn, do they hold his nature and attributes to 
differ materially from the doctrine professed by ourselves. They call 
the Supreme fieing. Rim ; he is the source of all good, and the avert- 
er of evil, and as none can fathom his decrees, resignation to them is 
implicitly enjoiued. Man is pronounced incapable of any exertion of 
himself : whatever comes to pass is accomplished through the Divine 
Agency ; and as God alone is the bestower of rewards and punish-^ 
ments, the EimsauMiis are instructed to be constant in his worship, in 
the morning, at noon and night, and always to ask his blessing before 
going to meals. The soul is believed to be an emanation from the 
Divine spirit, which takes flight to heaven on the dissolution of the 
human frame ; and they inculcate, if a person commit sin, who has en« 
joyed the advantages of education and is versed in the scriptures, no 
future act however exemplary can procure his remission from punish- 
ment, but in the case of an illiterate man, l^at he may by study, devo- 
tion and repentance obtain absolution of his crimes. 

The formation and worship of idols is expressly prohibited. The 
lUmsan^his pass the Hindd gods unnoticed, and no sort of images 
or symlx^ of idolatry are admitted into their temples. When I 
pointedly asked Nar£yan Dis his opinion of idol- worship, he replied in 
verse : — ' As to lave the body in the ocean is equivalent to bathing in all 
the rivers of earth, since they flow into the gpreat deep ; and to irrigate 
the roots of a tree is sufficient without further waste to nourish and 
bring forth its leaves, its flowers, and its fruits ; so to worship the 
omnipotent God, does away the necessity of addressing all inferior 

Hie Mahant said it was a mistake to suppose the doctrine of the 
sect was new — H had in fact existed in the world from a rery remote 
period, though shorn of its purity by admixture with debasing super- 
stitions and fBlae tenets, engrafted upon it from time to time by the 
ignorant and designing. Men were bom in every age who held 
floond principles of belief, but persecution compelled them to recant 
their opinions, or to take refuge in the wiUs. It was retervod for 
K 2 

-68 Same Account of the RdmfmHikU, a Sect of [Fbb. 

JUmcharan to fnme a code from the most approred writings of Hin- 
du law-givers : to avoid giving a shock to the prejudices of the peo- 
ple he desired to convert, he wisely took the Shistras for his guide, 
culling that which was good, and rejecting all that h.e deemed mia« 
chievous — and he called those who adopted his opinions Rimsan^hi, 
friends or servants of God. 

The Mahant readily engaged to furnish me with a complete collec- 
tion of their sacred writings ; but as there was but one copy in the 
temple, I succeeded in bringing away with me only a few selections, 
of which I subjoin a translation. The head of each page is inscribed 
with the holy name of Rim, used by the society as an initial title of 
respect, corresponding with the Alif (Allah) of the Mnsalmans. and 
Sri of the Hindds, and signifying, that an author solicits the blessing 
of God on commencing a work, and invokes success on the undertak- 

The Mahant wrote the first Sabd in an elegant hand, the rest 
were transcribed by the priests in a corresponding style of beauty, 
and red ink*marks are introduced in the commencement and end of 
each couplet. The religious works of the Ramsan^his are written 
in the Deva Niigari character, and chiefly in the Hindi lauguagv* 
with an admixture of Rajwara provincialisms — but there are also a 
great many Sanskrit and some Panjabi verses, and Arabic and Per« 
sian words likewise find a place. 

0/ the Prieets. 

Priests are called either Byrigi or Si^dh, and are divided into 
three classes, the two last of which, denominated Bedehl and Moha- 
nf, I shall notice presently. They are enjoined to study the holy 
writings, and to disclaim all merit in their works : to observe celibacy, 
chastity, humility, abstinence, and contentment : to put a restraint 
upon the tongue : to sleep little : to accustom the body to hardships 
and fatigue : and to exercise charity, liberality, and mercy. Anger, 
brawls, avarice, selfishness, usury, gaming, lying, theft, lust, hypo« 
crisy, and all kinds of luxuries are strongly denounced. 

Priests are commanded never to look at their face in a glass, nor 
to use snuff, perfumes, or ornaments, as such things savour of vanity. 
To go bare-footed, and on no account to ride on any kind of convey- 
ance : never to destroy any thing animate, nor to live in solitude, nor 
to ask or receive money. Dancing, music, and other frivolous amuse- 
ments are forbidden, and to taste of tobacco, opium, and all intoxicat- 
ing drugs and spirits. 

They are not permitted to prepare medicines, but do not object to 
receive th^n in time of sickness at the hand of a stranger. 

1835.] Hmdk Schimaiies im Wniem India. SB 

It may be right to mention in this place, that many of the reasons 
given for the institution of particular rites were received from the 
chief of the Ri[msan^his, to whom I made three visits : he nsnally 
delivered himself in Sanskrit verse, which he afterwards explained in 
the local dialect, for the instmction of his hearers. 

It was a maxim of Biuncharan that woman and gold in the present 
viciona state of society were the principal sources of mischief in the 
world, he therefore enacted a strict ordinance for priests to shun both 
of them. The founder, a married man without a ^unily, set the ex- 
ample of putting away his wife ; and this sacrifice, with the desertion 
of one's children, are essential to obtain admission to the order : but the 
families of these Byrigis are, I believe, in all cases comfortably pro- 
vided for. So strictly is the rule of continence enforced, that a priest 
ii only permitted to converse with females on matters connected with 
religion ; the smallest approach to levity would involve the dismissal 
of the culprit. Dulha lUm, the third Hierarch, was affianced at the 
time he became a Rimsan^hi, and of course broke troth and cast 
away the kangna or thread bound round a bridegroom's wrist ; hence 
his name Dulha or the Bridegroom. A Turan*, representing a bunch 
of flowers in stone, is suspended under the porchway of his shrine at 
6fa4hpura, in commemoration of the circumstance. 

Gold is supposed to beget avarice, and to accept of it destroys the 
integrity of all previous acts of piety and virtue. I combatted its 
interdiction on the plea that the misuse, as of every thing else, was 
to be guarded against, but that it was capable of working much good 
— and inquired if women were thought so ill of, why the sect admitted 
female converts. " The touch of gold," said Nir£yan Das, " is a lure to 
sin, and marriage is prohibited to ecclesiastics (not to tbe laity), 
because the cares of a fBunily would interfere materially with their 
holv meditations. The heart should be fixed on one alone (God), he 
who places his affections on any thing mortal, ceases to be a Bvragi. 
It is related, in example of the little value set on lucre by the Rim. 
san^his. that a man presented Dulha Bim on some occasion with a 
philosopher's stone, which the sage received in silence and cast into a 
wen. The author of the gift, indignant at the contempt shown to his 
offering, preferred a complaint to the R4ja of Shihpura, who asked 
the superior the motive of his conduct. The man having acknowledg- 
ed he bestowed away the stone, the Mahant inquired how he could 

• It is Qsnal among IUjp6ts of all ranks, at the time of a wedding, for the 
fiUhcr of the bride to suspend a bnnch of flowers made of silk or wood, called 
tnraii, at his porchway, which the bridegroom strikes with the handle of a 
whip or stick before he eaters to bear away the bride. 

70 Santi Accatrnt of the Rdmstm^ktB, a Sect of £¥^»« 

in reMon oomplaia of the Iosb of what did not bdong to him.— *' Your 
motive," said Dulha Bim, *' in presenting^ the stone was to tempt me 
to evil ; but I covet not gold, nor is the transmutation of metals fitting 
employment for a mendicant : take ye twenty rupees and begone/' 

A Byrigf , convicted of receiving money, is branded on the forehead 
with a metal coin, heated for the purpose, and ejected from the com- 
munity. Yet this interdiction, however strict, must be regarded as 
nominal, since lay followers receive money for the use of the order — 
and two Banias of the sect residing in Shihpura are appointed ex- 
pressly to receive remittances, lend out money, and carry on trade on 
account of the holy fraternity. 

A woman may become a priestesft, as in the instance of Sardp, a 
devoted adherent of R&mcharan, by abandoning her husband and ofF- 
spring, and by conforming strictly to chastity and other statutes. Fe- 
males are forbidden' under pain of chastisement and excommunicatioat 
to approach places of worship after dusk, as they form theresidenoe of 
the priesthood : it is considered prudent to guard them from tempta- 
tion, although they are supposed to have acquired absolute controul 
over the pasnons and all unlawful desires, before they are admitted to 
the sect. The sexes sit apart in the temples, and never sing together. 

In regard of the injunction to sleep little, and to follow habits of 
industry, they say there is enough of sleep in the grave, life is evan- 
escent, and of too much value to be passed in repose ; and by wasting 
the precious h6urs in slumber, man degrades himself to an equality 
with the bmte. Their aliment is poor, and taken sparingly, because 
abstinence induces watchfvdness, while a surfeit of food and sleep 
make the soul heavy. PHests reside away from the habitations of 
man, as the turmoil of cities would interrupt their meditations ; bat 
they are at the same time commanded to live together, to correct the 
foibles and relieve the gloom of each other. " A solitary lamp," added 
the chief, " however brilliant, casteth a shadow beneath it— place ano- 
ther lamp in the apartment, and the darkness of both b dissipated.*' 

The priest changes his name on admission to the order, to denote he 
enters on a new state of life, and the hair of his face and head (with ex- 
ception to a small tuft on the crown) is shaved close ; there are several 
barbers on the establishment, whose business it is to perform thia 
office ; they are wealthy, and receive occasionally valuable presents, I 
heard of a Charan, who, in a fit of liberality, presented five hundred 
rupees to one of them. The only covering worn by the S£dh is a 
cotton doth, of coarse texture, seven feet and a half long, with a small 
piece for a waistband, and another for a peroolater, water being always 
strained before it is used for culinary or other purposes, to goanl 

1835.3 ^^^ SchitmMtics in Western Inik. 71 

•gUBst the destruction of aninialcolse. The sheet is coloured with 
Gir6, a kind of red^ochre, emblematical of humility ; they add a second 
in die winter season, and sometimes a thirds when if warmth be not 
obtained, they throw off all clothing, to mortify feeling, disdaining, as 
they express it, to be overcome by the wintry elements. This sheet is 
brought over the head, and forms its only covering ; but woollen cloth 
of similar dimensions is sometimes substituted for cotton in the cold 
months. They all go bare-footed, and never ride on any description of 
animal or wheeled conveyance. 

A perpendicular mark of white day, called Siri, imprinted on the 
forehead, is a distinguishing symbol a( the sect, denoting belief in the 
unity of God, and they have a rosary of small beads used in prayer 
about their necks. Metal utensils are proscribed. The Sidh drink 
froux wooden goblets, and eat off stone, china, and earthen-ware ; the 
hMer, it is well known, are forbidden to orthodox Hindus. They ab« 
itain from aniasal food, and what is singular, considering the extraor* 
dinsry anxiety shewn to provide for the safety of insects, partake of 
nothing nnsubdued by fire, fruits and vegetables not excepted. They 
have no objecticm to touch the element, but refrain from preparing 
tiidr own food: thus it should seem, however fearful themselves, to 
incur the deadly sin of robbing a creature of life, they do not view the 
act in others with the same antipathy. Even the most loathsome 
vermin are held sacred ; whenever a R£msan^h( kindles a light, he 
covers it with a shade, and lamps are excluded from the temples from 
an apprehension they may lure insects to destruction « Influenced by a 
similar feeling, the priests look on the ground before they walk, and 
never move out of doors, except on very urgent business, during four 
months of the year, or from the middle of Asarh''' to the middle of Kar« 
tik Hie insect population being most active in the wet months, they 
Hear to crush them under foot in passing through the rank vegetation, 
and should they be on a journey, bait without reference to situation, 
tin the season is over. 

The total- number of S&dh, so far as I could ascertain from inquiry 
in various quarters, does not exceed eight hundred. No census has 
ever been taken : they are dispersed over the country frequently at a 
great distance from Shahpura, and never attend the festival of Ph(il 
Bol together, so it is obviously impossible to arrive at a correct esti- 
mate. The number at ShiibpUTu constantly varies, and about a hun- 
dred are sometimes met with in the temple at one time ; the visitors 
who come to make their respects to the superior, to consult him and 
receive his blessing, usually remain for three days, and give place to 

* July, Auguiti September, and October. 

78 Some Aoetnmt of the Ram$an!^kC$, a Seei of IFmb. 

The priests may be considered wealthy, their few wants considered^ 
and the laity sabscribe liberally to their support. Two of them visit 
the town of Shiihpura daily, to collect ready .dressed Tictaals from lay 
members of the community and Hindus of the better class, who con- 
tribute readily to fill their wallets. They do not accept food from 
other sects, and the custom is observed, it should seem, as an act of 
humility, certainly not from an avaricious motive. The fraternity 
make their evening repast off these offerings, and purchase materials 
for a simple breakfast, the only other meal, out of their own coffers* 
Bimcharan had twelve pupils or disciples, called Chdla, whom he 
selected from the priesthood, filling up vacancies as they occurred, from 
the most virtuous of the elders, and this custom is continued by bis 
successors. They are called the " Baruh Thumbe ke Sadh," or disciples 
of the twelve pillars. The middle hall of the temple where the Mabant 
sits, and prayers are read, being supported by that number of columns, 
three on a side, beneath which the disciples range themselves. The 
openings between the columns are hung with cotton cloths, dyed with 
Gird, let down at night to exclude the air, and here the priests take 
their repose ; the pavement of the hall is elevated above the outer 
terrace, and is the only part of the structure laid with mats, and dry 
grass is spread upon the terrace in the winter, the only time of year 
such a luxury is permitted, to serve as a cushion to the laity and visit- 
ers who are not admitted inside. 

The twelve do not reside permanently at Shihpura, but four or five 
are always found there at one time. One of them denominated Kot« 
wal acts as steward of the grain and medicines deposited in the temple* 
and distributes a daily allowance of food to the inmates ; nothing can 
be taken from the store without the Mahant's order ; it is also the 
duty of the Kotwal to summon the priests to midnight prayer. 

Another of the body called Kaprad£r — keeper of the wardrobe — ^haa 
charge of various kinds of clothes presented by the laity and strangers 
for the use of the brotherhood : these include coarse cottons, blankets* 
and other woollens, but no coloured or rich stufis are accepted. The 
cloths supply the Sadh with raiment, and when cast off, are bestowed 
in charity ; and some of the brotherhood are constantly employed pre- 
paring dresses for the poor. The same individual keeps the vessels of 
the refectory. 

A third fills the office of censor, and maintains strict watch over the 
manners and moral conduct of the fraternity. A fourth teaches the 
priesthood to read, and a fifth instructs them in writing. 

Another is appointed to teach reading and writing to men of all 
persuasions who apply to him, while a seventh, usually selected for hia 

1835.] Hmdu Schismatics in Western India. 78 

age and saturDine temper, inBtructs females in the same acquirep 


The remaining five, with three disciples chosen indifferently from 
among those mentioned ahove, form a council of eight, appointed hy 
the Mahant, to investigate into offences and infringements of the rules 
of the order. The elder ecclesiastics have usually several disciples^ 
who are byragis, and in event of the absence of a member filling an 
office in the establishment at Sbahpura, a trust-worthy follower officir 
ates as his deputy. 

0/ the Priests called Bedehi and Mdhant 

Bedehi, compounded of two words he, without, and deh, body, im- 
plies that the persons so denominated are dead to all corporeal feeling, 
and accordingly they go stark naked. 

The Mohani, as the term indicates, feign insensibility and uncon- 
sciousness of all that passes around them. Priests who have not suf- 
ficient command over their tongues become " Mohan(," not for life, 
hut a period of years ; and when they have brought their hasty tempers 
into complete subjection, they resume the use of speech. They repeat 
" Ram, Bam," the watch-word of the sect, in acknowledgment of a 
salutation, and permit themselves to converse and answer questions on 
subjects strictly confined to their religion. With exception to the 
particulars noted, the Bedehi aud Mohanf differ in no respect from the 
other priests. 

The hungry, be their creed what it may, are never sent away empty 
from the temple, and the ragged are provided with suitable raiment. 
Daring Chyt, Bysakh, and Jeth, or from the middle of March to the 
middle of June, the hottest period of th^ year, the raahant stations a 
brahman*, with water-carriers at a distance of two miles from Shah* 
pura, on the difierent roads leading to the city, to minister to the 
wants of th^ thirsty traveller. And all the cattle of the town receive 
a certain allowance of fodder and water during the above season from 
the same bountiful source. 

It will be seen, that the doctrine of the Ramsan^his inculcates the 
mortification of the passions, with entire abstraction from the world, 
and the renunciation of all its pleasures and enjoyments. The two 
sins held in most abhorrence are incontinence and avarice, and are 
never forgiven. The dress of the priesthood is kept scrupulously 
neat and cleau, and changed, I believe, ev^ery day, or second day, and 

* It if barely necenary to mention, that a brahnan is chosen, because Hindus 
of inferior caste, and I might include foreigners, are gratified to accept the beverage 
from his hand, it bile they might hesitate to take it from a man of lo^ (nbe« 

74 Some Account of the Rdmean^kts, a Sect of [Fbb. 

tbeir modest qaaker-like demeanoar, as they respond ** 'Rim, Rim" to 
the salutation of the traveller, prepossesses him strongly in their favour. 

Of the Laity. 
The laity» known by the general name of girbist, are at liberty at 
any time to enter the hierarchy, and the office of mahant is open to 
.them. They are particularly enjoined to speak the truth ; to be con- 
stant in their affections, and just and honest in their dealings. I omit- 
ted to inquire, if females are forbidden to become SatI, but ratiier 
think they are not, as two of the wives of the late Riji of Shihpura, 
who was a Rimsan^l, burnt in 1825. It might be that the force 
of ancient custom was in this case too strong to be overcome, and the 
noble often indulge licenses which would not be countenanced in the 

The girhist celebrate their weddings with none of the pomp and 
r^oicing usual with the brahmanical Hindus, but conduct the ceremo- 
.nial in a quiet unobtrusive manner. Like the byrigis, they (are for- 
bidden to mourn for the dead, as an act answering no purpose, since 
death is the doom of all, and also because it implies a want of resigna- 
tion to the divine will. They burn their dead, and chaunt Sabd over 
a corpse. 

Neither priests nor laymen observe TQa, Dashahra, Dew£l£, Holf, 
nor any other Hindu festival, that I am aware of ; they keep a strict 
fast from sun-set until sun-rise, nor even when sick, are they per- 
mitted to take any nourishment, but medicine during those hours. 

The laity at Shihpura are in number about two hundred, of which 
perhaps a hundred and twenty are of the male sex, and they are inter- 
dicted turning Bedehi and Mohanf, as attention to the rules of those 
orders are incompatible with the discharge of temporal duties. 

The R&msan^his are composed of all castes of Hindus, and although 
no members of other sects have been converted, nor so far as I 
could learn, have any applied for admission to the order, the tenets are 
characterised by so much of liberality that I see nothing to oppose it. 
Both Christians and Muhammadans are freely admitted to their places 
of worship ; all that is required of them, being to remove their, shoes : 
but in the matter of diet, the force of prejudice and ancient custom are 
so strong among the sectaries, that I doubt if they would allow apos- 
tates of any other faith to eat with them. 

Converts can be admitted to the society by the superior alone in 
the temple at Shahpura, and they are conducted for this purpose by 
the priests from diAerent parts of India. *The superior makes the 
novice over on his arrival to the twelve S£dh of the pillars, who are 

1835.] Htndu SehismaUci in Western InHa. 75 

directed to examine him on the sonndness of his belief, and to make 
him thoroughly conyeraant with the tenets on which their religion is 
foanded. Should their report be favourable, the name of the convert 
is changed, supposing he enter the hierarchy, but not otherwise, and 
he is received into the order, after undergoing a novitiate of forty days. 

Some brabmans have enrolled themselves, but converts have been 
made principally from the mahter£* and agarval tribes of baneas. 
There are no certain accounts of the number of lUmsan^his dispers* 
ed over Western India ; they abound chiefly in Rajwira and Gujarit, 
are met with in the neighbourhood of most large cities and towns, such 
as Bombay, Surat, Hydrabad, Pnnah, and Ahmedabad, and there are 
some at Benares. 

When we consider the strict rules by which the ecclesiastics are 
bounds and the hardshipa by which they are expected to subdue the 
body^ it is not surprising their number should augment but slowly ; but 
the superior assured me, they had much increased of late years through 
the quiet which Western India enjoys under British protection. 


Worship is performed three times a day, but the laity, busied in 
their worldly avocations, do not all go at one hoar, though once seated, 
they remain in the temple till the service is over. The book of pray- 
er is always read aloud by a layman, who makes a pause at the end of 
every second or third verse, to enable the mahant, and in other taber- 
nacles, a priest of superior acumen, to expound and comment on the 
texts in the dialect of the country. Not more than six or seven Sabd 
are read in a day, and continued concordant to order, until the whole 
have been explained to the congregation ; thus two years are frequent- 
ly occupied in going through the sacred writings. 

The S&dh rise at midnight, and continue at their devotions until the 
first watch of the morning (8 a. m.), when the laity attend for a cou- 
ple of hours, and the service concludes with a couple of Sabd or songs 
of praise chaunted by females. Mid- day prayer commences at one or 
two p. If., and lasts for several hours ; and evening service, at which 
only men are present, begins at dusk, and terminates in an hour, during 
which time, two arthf or hymns, are sung. As observed in another 
]4ace, men and women never sing together, and they sit apart in the 
temples ; and when the priests are alone, they pass hours together in 
ailent abstraction, and at other times, count their beads, repeating at 
intervals the holy name of lUm. 

* Mah^ri from MahfeiTar, a nsme of Mshiid^va : both tribes worship the 
god under difereat snergios. 

h 2 

76 Some Accotmt of the AdmsanHis, a Sect of [Fbb. 

Festival ofPMlDoL 

Annually in the month Phtigtin*. a festival called Fhdl-dol, is ob- 
served at Shilhpura, attended by as many of the priests and laity as 
are within reasonable distance : the Sidh rarely allow two seasons to 
pass in succession without attending. The five or six last days in 
Ph£lgdn are, strictly speaking, the festival, but people begin to assem- 
ble upwards of a month earlier from distant parts of India. 

The name of the festival, signifying " Flowers swinging" is bori'owed 
I understand from one of the eighteen Purans called Srfmath Bhag- 
avat, which contains an account of Krishna, and is intended mor6 par- 
ticulariy for the instruction of his followers. A festiviQ is annually 
observed in Bengal, and probably in other parts of Hindustan, by the 
worshippers of the god on the full moon of Chyt or Bysakh, when 
he is encircled with wreaths of €ower8, placed in a sort of cradle, 
and swung by his votaries. I obtained no satis^ctory reason ^hy the 
Bimsan^his^ who do not observe the rite alluded to, should give 
the name of Ph61-dol to their great annual meeting. 

Two or three S&dh reside in erery village of eonsideration, and 
from eight to twelve, and upwards, in each city and large town, accord- 
ing to its populousness : they are always relieved at the Phtil-dol, 
a regulation framed by Dulha Ram, the third - mahant, to prevent 
theiir forming friendships and improper connections with liie inhabi- 
tants : on no account are they permitted to remun for two successive 
years at one place. 

£^ch of the princes of Udipur, Jodhpur, jypur, Kotah, Bdndi and 
of some of the smaller Rajput states, although orthodox Hindus, 
io evince their respect for the Ramsan^his, send from eight to twelve 
hundred rupees to Sh^hpnra on the anniversary of Ph(d-dol, to furnish 
forth % day's entertainment of sweetmeats to the sect. 

Besides the Ram-dw£ra or temple outside Shiihpura, there is an- 
other religious edifice within the city wall, called Ram-mer£, which 
has an establishment of five brahman cooks, five females to g^nd 
meal, and a similar number Of water-carriers for the service of the 
brotherhood. Hither the high priest resorts wi^ a few of the most 
pious of the S&dh, on the last day of each month, t» keep a solemn vigfl 
during the night, in commemoration of the death of Ram charan. Prat- 
ers are ofiiered up, and the holy writings expounded, and respectable 
people of all persuasions are admitted to the building. The priests 
distribute sweetmeats and food c<^tected in the town to the congreg»« 
tion, reserving their own share till mornings 

* February, Mareb; 

1835.] Hindu SchimaticB in Western India; 77 


When any member of the community infringes a rule, he is brought 
to Shahpora, at the festival of PhtU-dol, by someone of the byragts, 
who» as already mentioned, are dispersed over the country to watch 
the conduct of the sect. He is not permitted to eat with the brother- 
hood, nor to enter the holy edifice ; but seated at a little distance off 
under a certain tamarind tree, where his food is sent to him on a platter 
of db£k* leaves. The offence with which he is charged is investigated 
by the eooacil of eight, who make a report on it to the high priest. 
If found guilty, the culprit is deprived of his rosary, a barber of thef 
establishment shaves the top-knot off his head, and he is ejected from 
the community. What is stated above applies to grievous offences. 
Slight mfringemeots of order are investigated at all seasons ; and 
sometimes when the culprit happens to be a long distance off, the 
priest stationed at the place takes a deposition 6f the case, and trans* 
nits it to the mabant, when if considered fit, he exoomnHlnicates the 
culprit, without ordering him to Shibpura. It will be seen, the 
saperior and council are a check upon each other, and they must coin- 
cide in o^nton before a sentence can be carried into effect. 

BeOffious Edifices. 

Templefl of the Rimsan^his are known under the name of R^^^ 
dwara, or the gate of God. Among other places in Rajwara, where 
they are met with» may be enumerated Jypur, Jodphur, Mertha, 
Nagor, Udypnr, Chittor, Bhflwira, Tonk, Bdndi, and Kotah. The 
one at Sh&hpura is by a great deal the handsomest, and distinguish- 
ed for the richness and magnificence of its architecture : it is built 
of Twik quarried at Kati, a distance of twenty-four miles, and coated 
with brilliant white cbunam, formed of the same stone, reduced 
to powder and mixed with milk and other ingredients, which adapt it 
to receive a high polish. The entrance porch laoes the east, and i9 
veryk>fty« with an arched bakony above* and like other parts of the build- 
ings, neatly carved. From the centre of the pile, a handsome pavilion* 
with open arches, rise's far above the other towers ; and in a vault be- 
neath, the corpse of the founder of the sect was reduced to ashes. 
Between the vault and pavilion, there is an equilateral apartment, sup- 
ported on twelve pillars, connected by scolloped arches : this was the 
favonrite abode of RiMCHARAN, and here the mahant daily takes his 
seat, to expound the doctrines of the faitb, and the congregation assem- 
ble cm the terrace without, for morning and evening prayer. 

On the south face of the temple, but ^uite separate from it, stands ar 
range of seven domes, to which you ascend by steps, six of them ^• 

* Butea frondosa* 

78 Some Aeeaunt of the Rdmsanthie, a Sect of [Fbb. 

^ose on twelve pOlan, and correspond exactly in their proportions : 
three are built over the ashes of the Spiritual Fathers, who succeeded 
the founder, and the others cover a similar number of venerated priests 
of the community. The central or seventh dome has only five columns, 
and is much smaller than the rest ; it marks the spot where the re* 
mains of a female named Saru'p, a pious disciple of Ramcharan, were 
burnt ; and the domes, with those of the temple, are painted inside and 
out in ornaments of vivid colours. The Bim-dw&ra was built at dif- 
ferent periods, when funds were available, and is said to have cost 
about eighty thousand rupees : it is kept remarkably clean, and pre* 
sents a unique and handsome appearance, essentially differing in design 
from all Hindu edifices I have seen. On a level with the vault are 
apartments for the priests and members of the sect, who resort to 
Shihpnra at the festival of Phiil-dol, and here are also the stores of 
linen and blankets belonging to the fraternity. 

Behind the R4m-dw&ra repose the ashes of the ancient Rijas of 
Bhihpura, each in a distinct shrine. Bhi'm Singh, grandsire of the 
reigning chief, was the patron of R/mcbaban, and was the first of his 
family who embraced the new doctrines. The late Baji died at 
Udypur in 1825, but his turban was transmitted to Sh£hpura, and with 
it two of his wives performed Satl. 

•SeUettd JVmulatUmi from the S€li^um$ Wriim§9 qftke BimtmMi. 

1. — The ntne of Ra'ma is the ml wed, fai which all things are oosCaiaed : 
Imt he i« the lonrce of the three quUtiei (of goo^nett, pMsiooi and darkness); of 
the fourteen regions (of Hindu eosmogony) ; of the twenty-four (incarnations) ; 
the three hundred and thirty millions (of Hindu deities) ; and the three (principal 
Gods» ris. Bbahma, Yishnv, and M Anns was a), who should be adored, and 
who not ? Ra^mcharan says, the whole uniTerse sprung from that only seed, as 
leaves shoot forth and fall off in abundance from the same tree. 

2. — ^The person who adores the all-penrading Ra'ua, and turns Ms back upon 
the other gods; who visits his gum widi bare feet, and stretches forth his 
liberal hand ; who has renounced the world, neither uses harsh language nor 
jokes, and seeks not any pleasure ; who giving up all considerations on profit and 
loss» resigns himself to the will of HAnif ; who is not addicted to gaming^, steal* 
ing, avarice, lying, and hypocrisy ; who does not taste bhangt* tobacco, opium, 

* I have to acknowledge my obligations to B&bu Ka'si Puasha'd Ghos 
of CalcuttSi for his courtesy in assisting me with a translation of these papers i he 
purposely rendered it as literal as possible, and 1 am not sure if it would not 
have been better had I left it in that form. 

t A name of Yishmu, but employed here and elsewhere along with Ra'ma, to ex- 
press God in an abstracted sense ; the frequent mention of these two as objects of 
worship, is owing to the doctrine of the Ri^msanihis being mixed up with the tenetSy 
and these yerses being selections from the books, of other Hindu sects. 

t An intoxicating potion, prepared from the hemp plant (Gaaabis Sativa). 

1835.] Hindu Sehismatici in We$tem India. 79 

ftkhaz and wine ; -who drinks water after itraining it, and looki before be wallur 
it the true lUmsanibi who bath attained bis pnrpoae. 

3. — Ra'ma is tbe sea of bappiness and destroyer of misery— abandon bim not, 
O Ra^mchaean, bat be constant in bis worsbip. 

Sonff in the PdnJ&bi language. 

The Ikqfr who is enamoured of tbe beanty of tbe All-Mercifol is drowsy tbrongb. 
o«t tbe eight prabars*, because be is fiiUy intozieated with his hiTO. He (or his 
spirit) has come from an inaccessible region, and entered the corporeal frame, and 
i^r baring witnessed all tbe troubles of tbe world will return to that region. 
As long as He (or tbe soul) occupies tbe serai (t. e. mansion of tbe body), be 
giTCs its proper rent (t. e. discbarges tbe duties of humanity) and abandoning 
his desires, resigns himself to tbe will of his deity. He wanders about at ease, 
forms no attachments, see)cs only his beloved (God), and bestows a portion (of 
bread or any other thing) upon all who need it. He points out tbe path to 
heaven, rescues others from perdition, conforms to the duties of this world with 
his faith, and is influenced by no private motive. Ra'mchaban says, that few 
iadiriduals have followed tbe example of such a faqir, who gives no thought to 
the world, but is content with bis present condition. 

2nd Song m the Panjdbi language. 

The feqfr whose heart is llrm (in God) is above all amfrsf; for be is a true 
firt* Knowing that the body is a heU, be places not his affections on tbe world, 
and keeps aloof from it by frequently meditating on the Alif of Allah. Re- 
straining his heart from going astray, he has laid it at the feet of tbe Almighty, 
and remembers bim at dawn, in the morning, at noon-time, and evening. He 
absolves himself in the water of faith, and tells tbe beads of fatwa$. His cave 
is in the aky (I. e. abstraetion of mind), where he sits in contemplation. Ra^m- 
CBABAV saysy that people do not understand the secret motive of such a faqir, 
which is to obtain the indescribable Beingjl in bis body, whom he always serves. 

4. — ^Tbe darvdah is always happy who is free from desire. Either remain at 
one place, or roam about in tbe four quarters (of the earth) : roam about in the 
four quarters, and labour for the salvation of your soul. Be awake or asleep, 
hat entertain no selfish motive. Let your hair grow as long as was that of 
Bahaka and others, or shave your head bare : for he who is free from desire is 
always happy. Practise benevolence, and make your heart as pure and soft as 
wax, and look down upon yonr feet. Be patient, speak the truth, and dance 
witfaoat a mistake (t. e. discharge your duties properly). Haring once placed 
the hand of your spiritual guide upon your head, never be so shameless as to 
■adresa yourself (i. e. refrain from all intercourse with women). He has subdued 
his mind and heart, and taken his seat in perseverance. Ra'mchakan says, this 
11 the height of devotion, as a person who attains it has cooled (subdued) bis Pir 
(senses), and never covets tbe society of women. He is not given to intoxica- 
tion, love, or adultery, but is always engaged in contemplation, and from leading 
a soUtary life, his mind is free from all affection. 

* An eighth part of the twenty-four hoars, 
f A chief or grandee. 
X A saint, or api ritual father. 
§ Divine knowledge. 

S The human soul is believed to be a portion of the Supreme spirit, and eon- 
eeqnently worshipped as such. 

80 Somfi Account of the RdmMOM^kk, a Sect of [FkBi 

5.-^If haying fed yourself tl^rovgh the chmritj of mankind yon sleep at 
with outstretched limhs, and fail to offer worship to HAnf , the pnniahments of 
Yama* will uot he mitigated : do not take th j meals without adoring the lord sup- 
porter Ra'ica, hut abandoning thy habits of idleness, worship him day and night. 
Abandon thy habits of idlenepSt and walk not without the fear of Grod. If yon 
neglect to foUow (this advice), you are a hypocrite, and shall be doomed to pass 
through the eighty-four (transmigrations). As a powerful cradilor collects faia 
dues from his weak debtors by severe beating, so shall you be punished if yo« 
take your food without adoring Ra'ma. 

6. — The ignorant person who commits a sin becomes free from it l|y the ao- 
quisitioB of knowledge, but the man of knowledge, who is guilty of vioe, is like a 
newly varnished pot, from which the dust (fhould any fall upon it) never goes off, 
pe is like a newly varnished pot from which the dust never goes off, or like a blue 
stain (upon linen). A sin committed at a holy place of pilgrimage is like a wak« 
ing dream. As the stupid man who mistakes his way in the day*time can never 
discover the true path at night, so the person who possessed of knowledge per- 
petrates a sin can never emancipate himself from it. 

7.**He is a real faqir . who makes the stone his bed, whose tent is the sky, 
whose arms are his pillows, and who eats his food from earthen vessels : he in 
the master of the foi^r quarters, and is not regarded as low. The prince and tke 
peasant fall prostrate at his feet, and he subsists by begging. 

8.-* Yon must die one day, whether you live in the ci^ or the wildernessi'* 
Some (t. e. the wicked) are taken bound in chains, while others (i. e. thp good) 
are summoned (by death). They are sent for who have renounced the worldi 
who have none to weep (for them), and who have alwnys taken the name * Ra'ma.* 
Ra'mohajlan saysi the good abandon their homes, because they know that they 
must one day perish, whether they inhabit the city or the wilds. 

We should mourn over the corpses of the dead, if weeping could restore them 
to life. If doctors could save mankind, then none of the wealthy would die, but 
It is not in the power of any to escape death. Enquire of this from place to place, 
and weigh it thoroughly in your mind. Life and death were created by the Lord, 
who can do whatsoever he willeth. ' We should mourn over th^ corpses of the 
dead, if they could be restored to lift by weeping. You blame Ra'ma, and cry : — 
** Oh RA'MA,what haveyoudone, who will supportmyfamily,and who will superin- 
tend my household works ? What have you done. Oh Ra'ma ? you have as it were 
lunk the vessel in the middle of the stream." You know not bow long you may 
live, and Ramchauan declares without this knowledge you fall off from HAai', 
because you blame Ra'm a, and exclaim, * Oh Ra'ma, what have yon done ?* 

X9. — ^You may have followers, eloquence, and fame, without using any exertion 
to obtain them ; you cannot therefore fathom the will of Ra'ma. I look not for 
means ; every thing comes to pass of its own accord. The will of HAni is power- 
ful, who can revert it? Whatever happens is accomplished by Ra'ma; for I fMD 
incapable of performing any thing, it is the very height of folly. 

» The Indian Pluto, and king of Fatal or hell, 
t Meaning the souls of those persons. 

X The figures correspond with the number nf paragraphs in the MS. lebe- 

1835.] HmAi Sckimaiiei m Wettem India. 81 

l.**-Mfta clad in •ceiited garments walki forth with conceited strides, but while 
tU in bis outward appearance is fair» his inside is corrupt. He views his features 
in the f Um, and is puled up with pride ; but is ignorant, that his body will suffer 
diseolation at last, and that not efcn the fair skin (which now) covers the filtiii- 
nesa within him, will remain. 

2. — ^Woman and the objects (met with in this world) persuade the heart to 
IwteaUi al enjoyneniSy and often level the most exalted mind ; such is their 
nature, therefore abandon them, Oh Ra'mobaaan I You can obtain nothing, Oh 
Ea'mchakaic, in this world without money, but to an ascetic money is nothing. 
To an aseetie money is as worthless as a kowri shell ; it destroys devotion, 
knowledge, and asoetism ; it ruins devotion, knowledge, and ascetism ; for it 
iacrssaes the appetttes and eats up (t. e. destroys) the integrity of those three 
Realities. Like achavan*, it absorbs every virtue ; wherefore an ascetic sets bo 
lalua upon money. 

3.^-The body is the shrine of which the all.perfeot Ra'ma is the god ; the 
aajdety (to see him) is the artif, and to remember him is true devotion. No 
worship is better than the constant remembraaoe of him, and no offering is mere 
proper than resignation. Leave your heart's individuality (or pride), and God 
will Itstea to your adoration. He is qoite content, Oh Ra'mcha kan, who has 
laderstood this secret truth, that the body is the shrine of which the all-perfect 
Ra'ha Is the god. Destroying your works (t. e. abandoning the merit of them 
herc aftei ), enjoy the sweets of bui^ility, oontentment, charity, and peace. Speak 
the truth, curb your inclination and your tongue, repeat the name (Ra'm a) Inward- 
ly, and acquire divine knowledge. Give up your desires, sit down contented, 
retire to the woods, and immerse yourself in the pleasant ocean (of contempla- 
tion). The &qir who has drunk of the love (of God) constantly meditates 
•n him, his aspirations and respirations are not In vain ; fbr whether awake or 
asleep, he never forgets his God. He Is mereiftil, subdues his anger, and neither 
indulges in avarice or delusion t he worships nene but Ra'ma, and cares 
not if the remaining three hundred and thirty millions of gods are displeased 
with him. 

4. — ^The ascetic is always awake, and meditates himself, and makes others 
meditate (on God). Whenever slumber comes upon him, he sings a hymn 
^whenever he lights a lamp, he thinks of the safety of animals, and covers it 
either with abhra or cloth ; by this means, the followers (of this doctrine) never 
incur gwilt, but attain virtue. ChItait says, that many have obtained salvation 
by avoiding desire, and disclaiming all merit in their works. 

5.—- What will you achieve in lying, oh KabIr ?— lying will bring on sleep while 
death is near the pillow, like the bridegroom at the turan. What will you 
achieve in sleeping, oh KabIb ? — ^awake and meditate upon Mariinf ti for you must 
sleep one day with your long legs outstretched. What wlU you aeoomplish In 
sleeping, oh KabIb ; strive to keep yourself awake, for this life is as valuable as 
a diamond or ruby, and should be given up to (meditation on) the Lord. What 

• The oersmony of sipping water before eating. 

t The eerenony of tunuikg a light about the face of an idoL 

X A name of 

82 Geologieal and Statistical Account rf the [Fbb. 

will yov aceompliflh in lying, oh KabI a ? Arise and sorrow for no^ng — ^how enn 
he whose abode is in the grave {i, «. who reflects on the evanescence of tfaia life) 
—(how can he) sleep in quiet ? 

6.— By adoring Ra^m a, the state of Brahm is attained ; this baa been fully 
proved by his votaries. Let, therefore, all the Rtosan^hSs meet tofether, and 
raise a halleli^ah to Ra^a. 

7 — Should the devotee go forth in the autumn, and trampling upon the niuner* 
ous animals which are bom at that season, occasion tiieir death, he forfeits lu^ 
innocence, inasmuch as he destroys the feelings of his heart, and thereby coannita 
sin at every instant. Tvi.8i says, this is not devotion cither in mind, deed, or 
speech, but the devotee who is careful to remain quietly at home observes the 
rules of virtue. 

(These verses are dated Tuesday, the 6th day of Chait, in the Sampot 
year 1855 (a. d. 1798), the year of Ramcharan's decease.) 

II. — Journal of a Tour through the Island of Rambree, with a GeologU 
col Sketch of the Country, and Brief Account of the Customs, Sgc. of 
Us Inhabitants, By Lieut. Wm. Folrt. With a map, Plate it. 
^ (Continued from page 39.) 

January \5th, — It had been my intention to cross over Jeeku, and 
proceed from thence towards the town of Ramhree, through the 
Northern Hong*. My host of Oogah, and the guides he had famiahed 
me with, were, however, so fearful of accident, and unwilling that I 
should incur any risk by passing over this wild and aknost inaccessible 
part of the island, that I abandoned the design, and consented to be 
taken along the sea-shore to the south *west of the monntain, with 
the view of putting up at Singhmnn^the, a village in the Southern Homg. 
I afterwards discovered that had the day been any other than what it 
was, (Wednesday,) I might have succeeded in inducing the gpoidea to 
take me over Mount JeeAa. The Mughs pay a superstitious deference to 
what are termed the fortunate and unlucky days for any undertaking. 
Wednesday (Boduh^hoo), happened to be among thelatter number. Pya^ 
tho (January) , is held to be a very unfavourable season for building ahouae, 
and marriages are never celebrated in the monthsf Wdjho, Wagoung^ 
Todelin and Tsadinkyot. I left Oogah by the sea-beach, and passing a few 
sandstone rocks, with an island resembling the knot in appearance and 
structure, found myself at the foot of Jeeka. Ito elevation above the 
sea is probably as much as 3000 feet ; the very abrupt manner in which 
it rises above the range with which it b connected, gives it, at a dia» 

* Hong is one of the circles in the island ; there are two Bongs, (North and 
t July, August, September and October. 

ISS5.] Island of Ramhrte on the Arracon Cooit. 83 

tanoe, the aspect of an isolated hill. A dense forest, with little variety 
€i shade, oovers the moontain from top to bottom. The ground on the 
summit is said to be level and clear, but it remains uncultivated, as no 
Mmgh will fix his habitation in a spot which not only abounds with 
wild beasts*, but is, in his opinion, the abode of fairies, and evil spirits, 
equally destructive with the former. I observed the prints of elephants' 
and tigers' feet in several places on the road, and from the diminutive 
tm of some of the prints, it was evident that these animals had been 
aecompanied by their yonng^. The guides remarked that a herd of ele- 
phants may frequently be seen during the evening feeding upon the long 
grass and underwood at the foot of the mountain. By their account, 
the elephants were particularly troublesome in the months of October 
and November, (when the rice crops are becoming ripe,) at which time 
they descend into the plains and do a great deal of mischief, i^lthough 
elephants are continuaUy shot in the Sandoway district for their teeth, no 
sttempt has yet been made to catch or destroy the elephants on Mount 
Jteka and its neighbourhood, from the absurd opinion entertained by 
the inhabitants, that they are not only invulnerable, but are endowed 
with such superior sagacity as to render all endeavours to ensnare 
dum futile. 

I had hoped to find in Jeeka some departure from what had hitherto 
been tiie prevailing character of the formations on this side of the island. 
The ahnosL impervious nature of the jungle at the base of the mottn^* 
tain, and the great danger that I should have incurred in endeavouring 
to ascend the lull on a quarter hitherto undisturbed by man, obliged 
me to ccmfine my observations to the ground over which my path lay, 
and there I could find no one geological feature distinct from what I 
had alreadj met with. A brown ferruginous sandstone regularly 
stratified, with an inelination to the south-west, was the only rock visi- 
ble on "the 8nr£soe ; whether the sandstone appears on the summit of 
the mountain, or is succeeded by some other rock, I was unaUe to 
ascertain ; but so anxious am I to satisfy myself on this point, and to view 
ike Fairy Load above, that I shall take an early opportunity of renew- 
ing my visit to Jeeka. At a little distance beyond the mountain, and 
at the foot of a small range bounded by the sea, stratification of the 
sandstone is beautifully distinct. The several layers rise from under 
each other for a considerable extent ; exhibiting a similarity of appear- 
ance with the sandstone that covers the lignite coal of Phaorimgood, an 
island to the east of Comhermere Bay. 

* Among these, are the ekpksMt, the Hyer, and the bison •■ I have in my poi- 
•eesion a horn of the last mentioned animal, which measares li feet in cireaB>- 
ference. I only wait for an opportunity to present it to the Society. 
If 2 

84 Geological and StatUtical Account of the [Fbb. 

Taming to the eastward over a few small bills intersected by ravines 
and covered wirh jangle, the road leads to Rambreengkeh*, Kyout^nemo 
and Singhunnethe, I observed some very beautiful creepers as I passed 
over these hills. The leaves, which were very small and delicate, were 
of a pink colour, and at a distance had the appearance of clusters of 
lilac blossoms. Of the animal tribe I saw nothing deserving of notice, 
save a solitary CrAi and a flying squirrel ; (termed Dfhen by the MttgksJ) 
It is a very handsome creatare, and larger than the squirrel of Europe. 
The head, back, and tail are covered with a rich coat of dark-brown 
far; the under part of the chin, neck, belly and legs being of a bright 
yellow colour. The skin about the sides and forelegs is loose, and 
capable of being so much extended, that in making its prodigious 
spring from tree to tree it appears rather to fly than leap. It is said 
to be very destructive to gardens ; if taken young it may be rendered 
perfectly tame. 

Entering upon the plain, the village of Rambreenghek, with its sur- 
rounding hills covered with gardens of plantain trees, meets the tra- 
veller's view. A few well built Kioums are seen resting upon the side 
of the^e hills, which are, in some instances, crowned with glittering 
temples built over the ashes of the departed priests. The village 
is large and remarkably neat. The soil in its vicinity, a rich yellow 
clay, taken up with plots of indigo, tobacco, and pepper plants. Bricks 
manufactured from this clay, and reserved for the erection of temples, 
were piled up in several places outside the village. Beyond Ramhreen' 
gheh, and to the right of my path, lay the large village of Kgouk'nemoft 
almost concealed from view by the forest of plantain trees with which 
it is surrounded. Kyouk-nemo 19 accessible to the sea by a large credc, 
and was at one time much infested with dacoits ; through the exertions 
of the magistrate at Rambree the reign of terror is now at an end, and 
the village is apparently in a thriving condition. Approaching the 
creek, which is at some little distance from Kyouk-nemOt I was fortu* 
nate in Gnding two Godoohs with their small boats at anchor ; otherwise 
as there is no ferry at this place, I must have gone round much out of 
my way ; the merchants kindly consented to take me and my foUowers 
over for a small consideration, and the mahouts prepared to swim 
their elephants across. The shore on the opposite side consisted of a 
deep clay, which made the progress of the elephants after landing a 
matter of considerable difliculty. So heavy was the soil, that I waa 
unable to make my way through it unassisted by the boatmen, who in 

* Little Rambree: it resembles not a little the town of Rambree, and thence its 
f Red ttonee. I saw none of them in my path. 

1835.] Islimd of Ramtree on the Arracam Coa$t. S5 

their tarn depended for aapport upon the young mangroves and other 
nftrine plants that grew upon it. After some little exertion both 
elei^ants and men succeeded in reaching the Terra firma of a stubble 
fidd. I here met the Saogree of the district, who had in some way 
been apprized of my arrival, and came out for the purpose of conduct- 
mg me to the village of Singhumiethe. It was at no g^eat distance 
^rom the creek, so that I was soon there, and in possession of the 
house that had been allotted for my accommodation. SvUghunnethe, as 
was the case with all the villages that I had seen on the southern side 
of the bland, is surrounded with plantain trees, which not only afford 
a wholesome and fftvounte article of food, but are in constant request 
for the production of a solution of potash* used in the preparation of 
dyes, more especially in those derived from indigo. Tbe mode in 
which the potash is obtained from the plantain trees is similar to that 
followed in other parts of the world in its extraction from the differ- 
ent vegetable substances that produce it, with this exception, that it 
is held in solution by the water, which is not suffered to evaporate. 
The stem and branches of the plantain tree are divested of tbe outer 
rind, and then broken up into small pieces, which are laid upon the fire 
and slowly consumed ; the ashes are lixiviated with water which is 
strained off, and reserved for mixture with the dyes. In front of the 
Soogree's house, and in the centre of the village, a nice tank had been 
dug ; the only one I had hitherto met with, tanks being seldom seen 
except in the neighbourhood of large towns. The houses were neat 
and built with more attention to comfort and order than is general in 
the villages of Ran^ree, I remarked a hideous representation of the 
human countenance drawn with lime upon several of the door-posts. 
I was told, it is put up to deter the demon of sickness from entering 
the dwelling. Much sickness had been experienced of late, and this 
was one of the many absurd customs resorted to, with the view of 
ridding the neighbourhood of its presence. I further learned that 
when any one of a family has been a long time sick, and recovery ap> 
pears doubtiul, the inmates of the house assemble and make a tremen- 
dous noise with drums and gongs, at the same time beating the roof 
and walls with sticks to expel the evil spirit who is supposed to have 
taken possession of the dwelling. One door alone is left open for 
his escape, all the others being closed. While this is going on a Phoon- 

* Dnribg the time that Government held the monopoly of salt in Arracan, the 
plantain trees frequently afforded to the poor a substitute for the common sea 
salt. So strictly were the Government rights protected, that a poor woman waa 
actoally prosecuted in one of the courts for collecting a little sea salt off a rock 
OB which it had been deposited on the evaporation of the water left by the tide I 

86 Geohgical and Statistical AecoufU of the [Fbv. 

gree stands upon the road, opposite to the hoase, reading a portion of 
the Khubbo'Wah, a book that is held in particular veneration. A far- 
ther ceremony is sometimes observed by the invalid as an additional 
Security for a complete restoration to health ; but it is only performed 
by those who feel themselves, as it is termed^ possessed, and called tp 
the exercise of the duty required of them, as a propitiatory sacrifice 
to the malignant spirit from whose ill will their sickness is supposed 
to originate. • This ceremony, which is called Ndth-Kad^, very much 
reminds me of the antics played by the dancing Dervises of old. A 
brass dish, or ai^y piece of metal highly burnished, is put up in a frame, 
and in front of this are laid offerings of fruit, flowers, and sweetmeata- 
When every thing has been properly arranged, the invalid commencea 
dancing, throwing the body into the most ludicrous attitudes ; and 
pretending to see the object of worship reflected upon the. plate of 
metal makes still greater exertions, until the limbs are overpowered 
and the dancer sinks exhausted upon the ground. Should the sick 
person be so weak as to render such assistance necessary, he, .(or she,) 
is supported by a friend placed on each side during the whole of the 
ceremony. It is by no means improbable that this violent exertion haa 
on many occasions proved highly beneficial, realizing the most sanguine 
expectations of the people. In cases of ague or rheumatism, where a 
profuse perspiration, and a more general circulation of the blood 
throughout the human frame is required, there is perhaps no other 
mode of treatment more likely to produce the desired effect ; and could 
some proper substitute be found for a piece of metal, the Ndth-Kad^ 
might be introduced with advantage into our own hospitals. 

Superstition, the companion of ignorance, is a part and parcel of 
this benighted land. Was I to credit all that is said of ghosts and 
goblins, it would appear wonderful how this pour people contrived to 
pass through life unscathed. Every tree or rock that has any singu- 
larity of appearance is said to be the nightly residence of some hob« 
goblin or departed spirit. Yet with all this absurdity, some of the 
opinions held by the Mughs with regard to a future state of existence 
are by no means unfavourable to the cultivation of virtuous habits. 
It is their belief that there are many worlds, and that the earth has 
been subject to the several and repeated actions of fire and water. (A 
fact that will not perhaps be disputed by some of the most celebrated 
geologists of the present day.) The soul, they affirm, may pass through 
many stages of existence, either in this or another world ; the nature of 
each change depending upon its moral condition. For instance, a persou 
of virtuous habits may aspire to a state of being far more elevated 
than that before enjoyed : if on the contrary, he shall have been of W 

IMS,} hland of Ramhree on the Arracan Coast. 87 

Ticioas disposition, his future state will be that of an evil spirit, or 
some grovelling and pemicioas animal, snch as a hog, toad, serpent, 
&c. A gentleman residing at Ramhree has made me acquainted with 
a singular instance of the firm belief entertained by the Hughs in the 
transmigration of souls. A young woman who lives at Ramhree, in 
-very good circumstances, declares that she is the mother of a man 
mmch aider thtm herself; this she accounts for by saying, that he was 
bom to her during a former life. She has a scar under the left ear 
produced, as she affirms, by a cut from her husband's dhao. She further 
states that she died of grief, in consequence of the partiality shewn by 
that cruel husband for his elder wife. This story is not only credited 
by the neighbours, but its truth is assented to by the individual whom 
die calls her son. The idea was probably produced, in the first in- 
stance, by the circumstance of her having been born with that curious 
mai^ under the ear, and afterwards confirmed by a dream or some 
other cause favouring the publicity of a tale that owes its popularity 
to a belief in the transmigration of souls, 

Jamutry 16/A. — As the morning was very cold, I did not leave 
Singhmnethe before the sun had well risen, and the fog that hovered 
round the mountams had been somewhat dispelled. The route at 
first lay over patches of rice-stubble, and then took a direction across 
several small ranges of hills, the most elevated of which was covered 
with a red iron clay similar to that on the *' red hill" near the town of 
Ramhree. From the summit of this hill, I enjoyed a fine prospect of 
the channel that divides the eastern side of the island from the district of 
Sandoway. The hills of Lamoo and Kalynedong rose on the opposite 
shore, and the distant mountains of Yoomadong were faintly visible 
amidst the clouds that surrounded them. Descending this range I 
approached the village of Saain-kyong, celebrated for its lime. The 
limestone is found at the foot of a high hill to the left of the road. 
This was the first limestone that I had seen on Rambree Island ; and 
it is so concealed by the jungle, that had I not been previously made 
awsre of its existence and inquired for its site, I should have proceed- 
ed on my journey unconscious that such a rock was in my neighbour* 
hood. From its appearance and more particularly from the rocks with 
which it is associated, 1 am inclined to class it with the " upper fresh' 
water Umestone'* found in tertiary formations ; it is of a greyish white- 
colour; of a fine compact texture, but very brittle. It occurs in 
several detached masses of a globular or columnar form, and although 
I made every possible search along the ravines in its neighbourhood^ 
I could diecover nothing that would indicate the slightest approach to a 
stratification ; nor has this species of limestone been discovered in 

88 Geological and Statistical Account of tie [Fi 

any Other part of the island. There were no appearance of the foaail 
remains Bometimes found in this rock« such as fresh-water shells. &c. 
The limestone is split into several larg^e fragments by means of fire ; 
these are again broken into smaller pieces, and the whole conveyed ia 
baskets to the lime- kilns constructed on the banks of the Saayre-kfong 
creek, which at full tide has sufficient depth of water to admit of th6 
approach of large boats. The whole of the lime used in lUambree 
Island, either for architectural purposes, or for the preparation of the 
edible chunam. is obtained from this rock. I was told that the lime, if 
taken in large quantities, was sold on the spot for 8| maunds per rupee, 
and that there were generally from 100 to 200 maunds collected. 
Crossing the creek at low water, I observed a few boulders of lias clay 
and calc spar imbedded in its banks. Proceeding from thence by a 
Aeat A'ioum and grove of mangoe trees, I arrived at Seppo'towt^, a 
village situated at the foot of a high hill covered with forest trees, and 
diversified with a few spots of ground cleared for the cultivation of 
the plantain tree. The tall Girjuns, with their white trunks diverted 
of branches, were eminently conspicuous amidst their more graceful but 
probably less serviceable neighbours. The Girjuji yielda the oil that 
bears its name, an^ is used for combustion as well as for admixture 
with paints, varnishes, &c. (See Jour. As. Soc. II. 93.) 

These trees are very abundant upon the island, and are farmed by 
Government. The mode of extracting the oil would appear to be as 
follows : a deep notch is cut in the trunk of the tree by means of a 
dhao or other instrument, and to this ^^ is applied until the wood 
becomes heated, and oil is seen to exude upon the surface. In the 
course of three or four days perhaps as much as a seer or a seer and a 
half of oil is collected within the cavity, and the tree will continue to 
afford a certain quantity of oil for five months or more, the coUections 
being generally made every fifth day. When the oil has ceased to 
flow the tree is again cut in the same place, so that the whole of the 
wood which had been consumed or scorched id removed ; fire is onoe 
more applied, and the oil collected as before. The notch has after re* 
peated cuttings become so deep as would render any further attack 
upon the trunk, in this particular spot, destructive to the tree ; ia 
which case the dhao is laid upon another part of the trunk, and the 
same process observed as before mentioned. The tree is said to yield 
oil at all seasons of the year, precautions being taken during the raina 
to exclude the water. A large Girjun tree has been known to pro- 
duce oil for 12 successive years, and as others are constantly supply* 
ing the place of those destroyed, there is no falhng off in the amount 
of the several years' collections. The oil is sold in Rambree at the 

1835.] IsUmd of Rmniree on the Arrttom Coa$t. 8f 

sale of two or tkrae auiaQcIs per rnpee, and the greater part of it bought 
for exportation. 

Oataide tiie village and facing the road was the large and comfort- 
able dwelling of the Soogree o( Seppo-temng, 

He wins an elder roan, of respectable appearance, and bore a good 
character in his district ; inriting me to pass the night under hid roof, 
he set aboat making arrangements for my reception, and appeared 
de»irooa of contribnting as much as possible to my comfort. I leam« 
ed from his followers who were sitting aronnd me in an attitude of 
cardeea and indolent attention, that the Soogree was a native of Ava, 
and had oome to the province when very young. He had since that 
time enjoyed several situations of emolument, and was a man of much 
eonaeqnenee under the Bormah Government. The change of rale had 
prodoced a change in his circumstances, and the net amount of per- 
centage* he now realized during the year will not perhaps exceed 400 
rapees, probably not one*tenth of what he w«a neeustomed to receive 
daring the period of Burmah sovereignty in Arracan. £very thing 
around me but too plainly betrayed the existence of this decline of 
fortone. The stockade that surrounded his compound was gradually 
giving way under the pressure of age ; no new posts supplied the 
places of those that had fallen in, and his shrubbery and garden forci« 
Uy reminded me of that which is said to have once belonged to the 
'* M^m ^ Mt$98." The Soogree, said one of his dependents, cannot 
BOW afford to maintain that eharaoter for hospitality which once be-* 
longed to him ; he cannot even provide for his most faithful followers* 
much leas give bread to the stranger ; he still continues to do so, how* 
ever, as far as hia means will permit, and there are none who approach 
his door without receiving a welcome to his board. I respected the 
Mittig that induced the expression of these sentiments, and thought 
more lavooraUy of my host in consequence thereof. 

At the time that Ramkree Island was subject to the Burmah rule, 
the Soogrem were invariably natives of the province ; appointed and 
removed at pleasure by the Bmrmah M^owoon or other local authority* 
The Sooagongs in like manner owed their nomination or dismissal to 
the Soogree. There appears to have been no regular maintenance 
authorized fbr the support of these functionaries, and consequently no 
fimit to their exactions and misappropriation of the public funds. The 
Soogreee were not only entrusted with the collection of the revenue* 
(derived from demands made at pleasure on those able to comply with 
them, and whieh might therefore be viewed in the light of a property 

* A Soogree rscsiYSS 15 per ceat. on tbe collections, and a Kooagong four per 

M Geological and Statistical Account of (he [^M- 

tax,) but were in some instances permitted to pass decisions in civil 
suits and also in cases of petty theft and larceny : at a time when cor* 
mption was so openly allowed and practised, it may be easily sappoeed 
that n.ach gain was derived from this permission, and that little reli- 
ance could be placed upon the justice of the decisions, or statements 
made by these Soofrees respecting the gross amount of revenue deri* 
ved from their several districts. One-fifth of the supposed produce 
was generally retained for the services of those delegated by authority 
to convey the royal mandates to the M^omoou, and the remainder wa» 
devoured by that officer, tlie Mroosoogree, and others of the local Go- 
Ttmment. The Soogrees and RooAgongs of districts having preciaelf 
secured to themselves such a share of the spoil as they could safely 
maintain without incurring the displeasure of the Meyowoom^ tke 
proceeds of other sources of revenue, especially that derived from the 
customs, (and which during the Burmah rule was in some inatanoea 
considerable,) were remitted to the capital as the provision for the 
Prince Royal, to whose safe and auspicioBs keeping the Island of Ram^ 
bree had been consigned. 

In the evening I took a walk towards the Kioum, and on my arrivid 
there found the Phoongrcew on the point of setting out to a small 
village in the neighbourhood, with the view of performing the rites 
of sepulture over a young woman and her child. The former had died 
pregnant, and as H invariably the custom in such cases, the child had 
been removed from the womb, that it might be buried separately fpom its 
mother. It is further* deemed necessary that a river or creek should 
intervene between the graves of the* parent and child ; a precaution that 
was observed in the present instance. Desirous of witnessing a cere* 
mony that was new to me, I asked leave to accompany the PhoongreeM : 
a permission that was readily granted. As we drew near to the house 
of the deceased, the corpse of the young woman, borne upon a litter 
adorned with gold and silver leaf, was brought upon the pathway, and 
preceded by the Phoongrees, was taken to the gpround appointed fur its 
home* Immediately behind the bier clothed in their white dresses and 
with shaven crowns, were a group of Mcg-tkee-lag^f ; and next to 

* It is ordered by Gautama that the womb of every woman djiag pregnant 
■hall be opened, the child removed and buried apart from its mother ; (a river 
or creek intervening between the graves.) Otherwise the mother will be bom 
■gain for ten Bnccessive times, and be tnbject to the same misfortune. 

f The Mdff'thee^laying ai*e an inferior order of nuns wearing white dresses 
and living in convents of their own. Their discipline is less severe than tiuMk 
imposed npont he JBAtM^nt, and their knowledge of the doctrines of the Buddhist 
faith less extensive. 

1835.] Mand qf lUnnhree on the Arraean Coast. 9t 

these followed the relatives of the deceaeed. A poor woman whom I 
learned was mother to the deceased continued to utter the most bitter 
lamentadons the whole of the way, and did not cease from so doing 
until the corpse had been borne to the spot prepared for its final recep- 
tion. Wheuithe litter had been placed by the side of the grave, pieces 
of doth, with rice and plantains, were laid out as an offering to the 
Pkraa ; a leathern carpet was spread upon the ground, and on this the 
senior Pkoongree seated himself, assuming a look of deep meditation, 
and partially concealing his face from public view by means of the 
jfMowmg* that he bore in his hand. This done the M^'thee-laying 
and relatives of the deceased kneeled upon the ground in two rows 
(the former kneeling outside), and all made obeisaace to the Pkoongree. 
Rice was put into their hands, and each individual pronounced the fol- 
k»wiag wwds in an audible and suppliant tone, receiving from the 
Fkoongree replies to the several prayers that were put up. 

(Congregation kneeling.) Ogddhzahf ! Ogddhzah I I once, twice« 
and three times entreat for thy name's sake, and lor the sake of thy 
holy ministers, that thou wilt forgive me those sins that I have corn- 
mited in this life ; and I also pray that in the future migrations of my 
soul I may be the first of human beings who shall meet with Eye^yee^ 
wmd'deaAt (mya MaitriyaJ, and finally attain to NMhtm^ with him. 

* Ttttowmg^ a kind of fan, borne only bj the Pkwmgrsu* 

t Obftaa, Holy Being. 

X It is the belief of these worshippers of Gautama that the age of man was far 
greater formerly than it is at present ; it is now said to he 6*0 years or more, It 
will gradually become Itos, until 10 years will be the average term of existence. 
This will be foHowed by an mereose, so that 1000 yean ahall be the period of ez- 
istenea allotted to man. When this has occurred, all the images of Oautmmm^ 
and all his sacred writings will be miracnlonsly collected and consumed at the 
BkidtMtig tree. (The branches of this tree are said to be of gold, and the leaves 
to resemble emeralds. It is celebrated as the place where Gautama first became 
a Pkraa, or religious teacher. To ascertain the site of this tree, as well as the 
locality of kingdoms and cities known at present by other names, was not one of 
Ike least important olqecti of tlie Burmah mission sent into Hindustan some 
years ago vnder charge of the miffmooon Thwwi»d4ng'9a-§a^09.) 

The deatrttction of the images and writings of Gautama will be succeeded by 
tke natlTity of the Pkraa Bye^yie-mud-deak; and all good men then residing upon 
earth will become his disciples. Occurrences similar to those above described as 
coaseqnent to the Niykbam of Gautama will mark the departure of JBye-yee'mttd' 
deak from the world. Mmak Pkraa will then appear, and he will dedara hit 

§ Nidbkaitj m miki htimif properly. If a man, or woman, is eminently virtu. 
ems in this lifSe, he or she, may hope to attain to a Nibikan, i. e, not to be boim 
JigaiBi hat to become as air, smoke, &c. without vense^ substanccy or shape, 
V 2 

92 Geotogioal and SitUiBtioal Accotmt tf iht [Feb. 

(Phoongree.) Yon have once, twice and three times entreated of 
me in prayer, and you may hope that your ftins will be forgiven to 
you ; and that you will hereafter meet with Bye-yee^mmd^deah, and 
attain to a Nihbkan, 

C. Ogadhzah I Ogadkiah ! onoe» twice, and three times I vow that 
I will not commit those five mortal sins which are spoken of in the 
holy writings^ and which I am forbidden to commit. 

P. You have declared that you will not this day commit those uns. 
Is that which you have said true ? 

C. I will do according to that which I have said. 

P. Do you believe in the Phraa Gautama ? do you beKeve in bis 
holy writings, and do you acknowledge his ministers ? 

C. All these do I believe and acknowledge. 

P. If you do believe in these*, take not the life of any living being 
this day ; neither steal ; neither commit adultery ; neither bear false 
witness ; and do not make use of intoxicating liquors. 

C. All these sins will I carefully avoid. 

Gah^ Pkram\ ! Accept of these ofierings, I pray thee, and pardon 
the sins that I have committed in this life ; pardon also the sins of the 
deceased for whom these offerings are also presented ; and grant that 
during this life, or in the future migrationB of my soul I may not suffer 
harm from the five enemies^ of mankind. If I shall be bom again as 
mail, let me, I pray thee, be placed in a condition far superior to that 
enjoyed by my fellow creatures ; if as a spirit, let me be as Suh^gyak 
(Sagyd or IndraJ, in the world of spirits. 

Accept of these offerings, I pray thee ; they are made not for my 
good alone, but for the future benefit of my parents and relatives, as 
well as for my spiritual teachers and the rulers of the land. They are 
made also for those who suffer torment in Nguh-yeh§ ; for the spirit 
in the world above and for all living beings. I call Muth-sBon-dy^fl 
to witness that these offerings are made not for my individual good 
alone, but for the benefit of all that have the breath of life. 

(Water is here poured upon the gronnd throv^h one of the pieces 
of doth that had been presented to the Phraa, The water percolates 
through the earth, and is supposed to reach the abode of Mutk^oon^ 

* These are the five mortal sina. 

t Lordl Master I &c. 

X The five enemiei of mankind are, 1, lire ; 2, Water $ S, The Rnkni of ths 
Land ; 4, Robbers ; 5, Wild Beasta. 

§ Hell, (q. Purgatory ?) 

H Mmth'Soon-dySk (Vatundar^) w die '' Recording Amgel" who resides in tks 
earth ; bears, and marks down every thing that ia said* 

Marnuse^ Text qf the Prayers, translaUd^Uipagt S4 

W03 ojioocp itCD^uPpor>9c5j^c^a3oaO"02a^^a?(o^ ^^gfP^" 

oxpfCooS^o5'cy2iua|o9(^^«99^omH99y€^(o^ u 

c(apooyDODC(^)OOoocotnooc>9C2LOOoa oooocwugojcoogo^o^ 

n oo 

cx)coooaocDO%)cx>DG9€^9)AOo:)ooo^a5a>c9oacwooc^ » 

<23^^l^^^^^©gooC^ooo€Oi9«3t5txioa«inr)^ o«b 

o^«ocooo«oaqor70ow^r9^o2»9c^o^&o9V5>a|^^ J) 


(J^^OGOjSo) org COTOOT (o^^ 

(Td^w ego :Ma^(o^.ooo(c^ « ^coicoeoo^^M^noD 

«- >' 

IS35.] Island of Rmnbree on the Arraean Coa»t. 99 

difA, who has been invoked to bear witneu to the sincerity of the 
aboTe dedaratioD.) 

This done, all arose from the gronnd ; the corpse was taken oat of 
the litter and deposited in the grave. I observed that pawn and 
spices had been placed in the month of the deceased, for the purpose 
as I was informed of rendering the odour of the body, consequent to 
decomposition, less offensive to the bystanders. At the sight of the 
corpse, the poor woman commenced her lamentations afresh, and aa 
my curiosity was satisfied, I returned to the Soogrw's habitation, 
leaving the Phoongrees to perform over the grave of the child (on the 
opposite bank), a service in every respect similar to that I have just 

Jamutry 1 7M. — The Mught can form no other idea of the distance in* 
tervening between one place and another beyond what is derived from 
the time taken in going over it. In a country like this, abounding 
with impediments of every description, any other species of measure- 
ment was out of the question, so substituting my elephant for a Pet" 
ambulator, and making every allowance for the several obstructions met 
with, I conceive the distance between Oogah and Singhimnethe to be 
as much as 16 miles ; from that to Seppo-towng 12 miles; and as many 
more from thence to Rambrte, 

Bidding adieu to the good old Soogree, I set out at day*break on my 
journey to the capital of the island. The Saagnekyoag creek, after 
vnnding through the vale to the right, suddenly takes a turn into the 
interior, crossing the road within a very short distance of Seppo-tawng. As 
the tide was at the flood the elephants were unloaded and swam across ; 
a boat having been placed at the disposal of myself and followers. Pro- 
ceeding onwards the route was but a repetition of what had been met 
with on the preceding day. Patches of paddy ground, succeeded by 
long mountainous ranges with the same abrupt ascent and inclination, 
were the never failing features of the country passed over between 
Singhmmethe and Rambree. The soil on the hiUs was generally a red 
clay, containing nodules of chert, and felspar combined with talc. 
Had I possessed even a common acquaintance with botany, I mig^t 
have derived much pleasure in the examination of the various vegetable 
tribes that surrounded me. Unfortunately I was a stranger to the grea. 
ter nnmber, recognizing only those of most frequent occurrence, such as 
the Gnjun, TiUah, Jhmral, wild Peepui, and a host of Mimoaas. There 
were also some very pretty creepers, and a vine which corresponds in 
description with that given me of the black p^pper-plant*. After tha 
• The black pepper-plant is found on the hills in the Sandoway district. 

94 Geologicai and Statistical Account of Rambree, [Fbb. 

first two or three ranges had been overcome, we approached the vil- 
lage of Leppang, the site of an old stockade, and scene of an encoun- 
ter between the Burmah chief N4myO'9ooyah^, and the Ramoo Rajah 
Keemhrang, in which the latter was shamefullv defeated. From thence 
it is but a short distance to Tseembeeyah and K^hsree, the latter pret- 
tily situated on the plain, and surrounded with clumps of trees. 
Among the inhabitants of K^hsree are a class of people engaged in 
the oil manufacture, and who shall receive further notice hereafter. 
The oil is prepared chiefly from the TM, and the mills are in every 
Inspect similar to those used in Bengal. Beyond K^haree is Kogam^ 
doumg\ with the two guardian temples on its summit : and to the 
right of that, the " Red HillX* of Rambree, almost destitute of ver- 
dure, and answering in appearance to that predicated by its name. 
Tiger traps of a novel construction were very numerous in the ghats 
leading to the town. Rambree has on several occasions been much 
infested with tigers ; they have been known to come into the towa 
shortly after dark, and entering the houses, carry off the inhabitants. 
Cattle and poultry are even now continually taken away, and it is con- 
sidered very dangerous to sleep outside upon the ndcluntn. To faci- 
litate the description of one of these traps, I have endeavoured to re- 
present by a drawing the several parts of which it is constructed. 

A, is a long§ pole possessing great strength and elasticity, which is 
bent and held down by B, a peg connected with C, a good thick cane 
rope. The peg B, is fixed with great care between the bars D, and E, ; 
the bar D, having been previously fastened to the two posts F, F, which 
are driven into the ground. That part of the platform marked G, is 
brought into contact with the bar E, and the peg B. H, is a 
noose laid upon the platform, and I, a heavy wooden cylinder ao 
nicely attached to the cane rope that the least jirk causes it to fall. 
The platform is laid upon the path frequented by the tiger, (generally 
a gap in a fence, or a ravine,) and carefully concealed with grass and 
leaves. The animal treads upon it and it gives way, disturbing the bar 
E, and peg B, on which the pole springs up to its natural position, 
bringing the wooden cylinder with • such violence upon the arm of 
the tiger, (already caught in the noose,) that it is generally broken by 
the concussion. This cylinder covers that part of the leg that has 
been entangled in the noose, and is of great use in preventing the 

* Afterwards Meyo^wotm at Ranibrte, 

^ Called ** St, George't HiW* by the troopa quartered at Rmnbree daring the 
war. Tbe temples were built by the Burmah Meyowoon Yeh'jutta'gong, 
X Already noticed in vol. 2nd (1833), Journal Asiatic Society. 
4 A large branch of a tree sometimes serves as welL 


1835.] Memorandum of an Bscursion to the Tea Hills. 95 

animal from gnawiog the rope. The beast han^ suspended in the air 
at the mercy of the viUagera, who dispatch him by means of clubs or 
bamboos hardened in the fire, and pointed at the end so as to resem- 
ble pikes. 

Arrived at the highest point of the ascent over Koyandowng, the 
large and pretty town of Rambree, surrounded with hills and divided 
by a creek that is seen in the distance meandering towards the sea, 
^>pear8 spread out to view io the vale below. 

(To be contijiaed.) 

III. — Memorandum of an Excursion to the Tea Hills which produce the 

description of Tea known in Commerce under the designation of Ankog 

Tea, By G. J. Gordon, Esq. 

[Commanicatcd by Dr. N. Wallich, Sec. Con. Tea Culture.] 

Having been disappointed in my expectations of being enabled to 
visit the Bohea hills, I was particularly anxious to have an oppor- 
tunity of personally inspecting the tea plantations in the black-tea 
district of the next greatest celebrity, in order to satisfy myself 
regarding several points relative to the cultivation on which the 
information afforded by different individuals was imperfect or discor- 

Mr. GUTZI.AFF accordingly took considerable pains to ascertain, for 
me, from the persons who visited the ship, the most eligible place for 
landing with the view of visiting the Ankoy hills ; and Hwuy Taoubay 
was at length fixed upon as the most safe and convenient, both 
from its being out of the way of observation of any high Chinese 
functionaries who might be desirous of thwarting our project, and 
from its being equally near the tea-bills, as any other part of the 
coast, at which we could land. As laid down in the map of the 
Jesuits, there is a small river which falls into the head of this bay, by 
which we were told we should be able to proceed a gx>od part of our 
way into the interior. We should of course have preferred proceed- 
ing by the Ankoy river» which is represented in the same map tm 
having its source to the west of Ng^u-ki-hyen and falling into the 
river which washes Sneu-chee-foia, were it not for the apprehension 
of being impeded or altogether intercepted by the public functionaries 
of that city. In order to make ourselves as independent as possible of 
assbtance from the people, we resolved to dispense with every article 
of equipment which was not necessary for health and safety. The 
weather had for some days been comparatively cold, the thermometer 
fsUiog to 55* at sunrise and not getting higher than 66* during the 

96 ^ Menufrandum of em EtcurmoM to ike Tea HUh, [F 

day, 80 that warm clothing not orAy became agreeable, bat could not 
be dispensed with during the nights ; arms for our defence againat 
violence from any quarter, formed likewise a part of oar equipments, 
and, trusting to money, and Mr. Gutzlaff's intimate knowledge of 
the language and of the people for the rest, we l^t the ship on the 
morning of Monday, 1 0th November, proceeding in the ship's long 
boat towards the head of the bay, where the town of Hwuy Taoa is 

The party in the boat consisted of Mr. Gutzlaff. Mr. Rtosr» 
(second officer of the " Colonel Young,") Mr. Nicholson, late quarter- 
master of the " Water Witch," whom I had engaged for the projected 
Woo-re journey, and myself, one native servant and eight lascara. 
The wind being unfavourable* we made rather slow progress by row- 
ing, but taking for our guidance the masts of some of the junka 
which we observed lying behind a point of land, we pulled to get 
under it, in order to avoid the strength of the ebb tide, which was 
now setting against us. In attempting to round the point, however, 
we grounded, and soon found that it was impossible to get into the 
river on that side, on account of sand-banks which were merely 
covered at high water, and that it was necessary to make a consider- 
able circuit seaward to be able to enter. This we accomplished, but 
not till 1 A. M. At this time a light breeze fortunately springing up, 
we got on very well for some time, but were again obliged to anchor, 
at \ past 2, from want of water. As the tide rose we gradoally 
advanced towards the town of Hwuy Taou, till we came to one of 
those bridges, of which there are several along the coast, that extend 
over wide sand -flats that are formed at the mouths of the rivers. These 
bridges are constructed of stone piers with slabs of stone laid from 
pier to pier, some extending over a space of 25 feet and upwards, and 
others being from 15 to 20 feet space. As the length of this bridge 
cannot be less than three quarters of a mile, the whole ia very striking 
as a work of great labour, if not exhibiting either much skill or beauty. 
We were informed by some boat people that we should not find water 
to carry us beyond the bridge, but observing some tall masta on the 
other side, we resolved on making the experiment and pushing on aa 
far as we could. It was almost dark when we passed under ^e 
bridge, and we had not proceeded far when we were again agroimd* 
This, however, we attributed to our unacquaintance with the channel, 
and as the tide floated us off, we continued advancing, notwithstand- 
ing the warning of a friendly voice from the bridge that entreated ua 
to return to the town, promising us comfortable quarters, and a 
guide, &c. Being rather distrustful of the motives for this advice. 

1835.] Memomndmn of an Excursum to the Tea HUU. 97 

however, we proceeded for eome time longer, bat at length foand it 
impossible to proceed fiurther, the ebb having at the same time com- 
nenoed. We therefore spread an awning, and prepared to make onr- 
sdree as comfortable as possible for the night. The day had 
been the warmest we had experienced for a month past, bnt the 
Bight was very cold, and onr boats, as may be imagined, far from 
eommodtoas for so many people. At day-light we found that there 
was not six inches of water in any part of the channel, and from the 
boat we stepped at once upon dry sand. The survey from the bank 
showed ns plainly that it would be impossible to proceed any farther 
by water. We accordingly prepared to march on foot, taking with ua 
three laacars who might relieve each other in carrying our cloak-bag 
of blankets and great coats, as well as some cold meat. We ordered 
the people to prepare a meal as fast as possible, intending to make 
along stretch at first starting, and Mr. Nicholson was directed to 
remain in charge of the boat with five lascars, to move her down under 
the bridge on the return of the flood, and there to wait our retufn for 
fear or five days. Crowds of people now began to crowd round the 
boat, mored by mere curiosity. Mr. Gutzlatp induced some of them to 
get ducks and fowls for the use of the boat's crew, and strange to say 
prevailed on one man to become onr guide, and on two others to 
ondertake to carry our baggage, as soon as we should be a little fiBu*- 
ther off from the town and out of the way of observation. 

After a little, an old gentleman made his appearance on a chair who 
proved to be the head man of the town : he inquired whence we came 
and whither we were going, which we freely told him. With these 
answers he seemed perfectly satisfied, probably from finding then\ 
eorrespond with what he had been already told by some of the people 
with whom we had communicated on the subject in seeking informa- 
tion and assistance. He measured our boat with his arms, but oflered 
ns no obstruction nor even remonstrance. We observed him, however, 
alter he had interrogated us, sending off two or three messengers in 
dMIerent directions, which made us the more anxious to be off. It 
wm however past 9 o'clock before Mr. Rtdbr had completed his 
arrangements far the boat's crew, and the sun was already powerful. 
We were soon joined by our guide and the coolies, and our cavalcade 
wtodhig along the foot paths, which are the only roads to be met 
with, made an imposing appearance. Mr. Gutzlapf and the guide 
led the way, followed by a lascar with a boarding pike ; next came the 
baggage, attended by a lascar similarly armed. I followed with pistols* 
and attended by a lascar armed with a cutlass, and Mr. Rtobr carrying 
a fowling piece and pistols brought up the rear. Skirting the town of 

98 JHemarandtim of an ExcurBifm to the Tea HUU, [Fbb. 

Hwuj Taon, we proceeded in a N. N« £* diiBclion at a moderate pace 
for an hoar and a half, when we stopped at i^ temple, and refreshed 
ourselves with tea. Nothings could be more kind or more civil than 
the manners of the poeple towards us hitherto, and if we could have 
procured conveyance here so as to have escaped walking in the heat 
of the day loaded as we were with heavy woollen clothes, we should 
have had nothing farther to desire ; as it was, my feet began already 
to feel uncomfortable from swelling, and after another hour's marching* 
I was obliged to propose a ha]t till the cool of the evening. Fortu- 
natdy we found, however, that chairs were proqurableat the place, and 
we accordingly engaged them at half dollar each. These were formed ia 
the slightest manner, and carried on bambu polea, having a cross bar at 
the extremities, which rested on the back of the bearer's neck, apparent- 
ly a most insecure as well as inconvenient position ; but, as the pc^es 
were a( the same time grasped by the h&nds, the danger of a false st^ 
was lessened. We had not advanced above a mile and e half before the 
bearers declared they must eat, and to enable them to do so, they 
must get more money. With this impudent demand we thought it 
best to comply, giving them an additional real each. After an hour's 
further progress we were set down at a town near the foot of the 
first pass which we had to cross. There the bearers damottronsLy 
insisted on an additional payment before they wo\dd carry us any 
further. This we resisted, and by Mr. Gutzlaff *s eloquent^ gained 
the whole of the villagers who crowded round us, to join in exclaim- 
ing agaiust the attempted extortion. Seeing this the rogues sub- 
mitted and ag^n took us up. Mr. G. mentioned that while we were 
passing through another village, the people of which begged the 
bearers to set us down that they might have a look at us, they 
demanded 100 cash as the condition of compliance* llie country 
throogh which we passed swarmed with iuhabitants, and exhibited 
the highest degree of cultivation, though it was only in a few spots 
that we saw any soil* which would be deemed in Bengal tolerahly 
good ; rice, the sweet potatoes, and sugar-cane were the principal articles 
of culture. We had now to ascend a barren and rugged moiifttain, 
which seemed destined by nature to set the hand of man at defiance ; 
yet, even here there was not a spot where a vegetable would take 
root, that was not occupied by at least a dwarf pine, planted for the 
purpose of yielding fire -wood, and a kind of turpentine; and wherever 
a nook presented an opportunity of gaining a few square yards of level 
ground by terracing, no labour seems to have beep spared to redeem 
such spots for the purpose of rice cultivation. In asceoding the pass 
we soon came to places where it was difficult for our bearers to find a 

1895.] Memoranimm of an E^eitrsioM to the na HaU. 99 

footing^, and where they had eonsequently to pick out their ttept aa thejr 
adranoed. To asaist themaelvea they gare the chair a ■winging motioA 
with which they kept time in raiaing their feet. 
• Thia waa far from agreeable* and the first irapreuion felt was that 
•t was done merely to annoy, but we very soon saw that the object 
waa diflerent. The higheat point of the paoa 1 should conjectare to be 
about 1200 feet above the plain, and the descent on the north side 
ta be nearly equal to the ascent from the south, say 1000 feet. At half- 
past four we arrived at a rather romantic valley, which was to be our 
halting place for the day. We proposed to the bearers to carry ua on 
another stage next day. but for this they had the impudeooe to aak 
five dla. per chair. This of oourse we would not liaten to for a mo^ 
nent. and were afterwarda happy that we got rid of such rascala, aa 
good bearers and on modemte terms were procurable at the plaoe. 
Hie name of this Tillage is Lung-tze-kio. It seema once to hain 
been a place of greater importance than now, exhibiting marka of 
dilapidatRm and decay. Bven the foot-path over tlie pass must 
have been at one time an object of attention, as- we found in 
several places the remains of a sort of pavement, and of bridgea 
which we^e now nearly destroyed. The inn at which we stop- 
ped afibrded as f(iw and mean accommodations as could well he 
imagined, but we were able to get some fowls deticiously grUlad, oa 
which, with the aid of sweet potatoes, and of the salt beef whidi we 
brought with us, we made a most hearty repast. Among the people 
who came to see ua at the inn was a very respectable looking young 
man, a student, who vron Mr. Gotzlafv's heart by aaking him for 
instraction in religion. Unfortunately the whole contents of a box of 
regions tracts, and otiier books had been distributed in the morning, 
and Mr. G. waa unable to supply htm with any. The requeat waa no 
dottbt prompted by the report c^ the people who had accompanied 
as, and who had themselves partaken of Mr. G.'a liberality befora 
they yolanteered. This young man strongly recommended to us to 
dter our course, magnifjring the distance of Twa-Bo to which we were 
bound to 1 00 li or 80 miles, and telling us that at the dtatanoe of 40 /i 
or 12 miles to the S. W. we should find tea plantations of a very supe- 
rior description. The exaggeration of the distance led me to suspect the 
aocnracy of the information in other respecta, and I had heard enough 
of contra^etory evidence already, not to be awnyedby it in the present 

Nov. 12lA. — Got into our chairs at a quarter past six a.m. and 
proceeded along a narrow rugged dell to a town called Koe-Bo. Several 
nice looking hamlets were seen on the way. The people were engaged 

o 2 

100 Memorandum of an Excursion to the Tea Hilk. [Fab. 

ia reaping the rice, which teemed heavy and weU filled in the ear. In se- 
veral places I ohservedthat they had taken the pains to tie clumps of rice 
stalk together for motnal support. Sugar-cane is bound in the same 
way, and for additional security the outside canes are mutually sup- 
ported by diagonal leaves, which serve at the same time to form them 
into a kind of fence. The leaves are not tied up round the stalks 
as in Bengal ; the cane is slender, white, hard, and by no means 
juicy or rich ; yet, bating the black fungus powder, which is very pre- 
valent, their surface is healthy, and close growing in a remarkable 
degree. We arrived at Koe-Bo at eight o'dock, and finding we could get 
water conveyance for part of the way on which we were proceeding, 
we engaged a boat for that purpose. After a hearty breakfast we em- 
barked at 10 A. M. amidst. crowds of people who covered the banks of 
the river at the gh£t. On inquiry we found that the river on which 
we were proceeding in a W. N. W. course, was the same which 
we passed at Gan*Ke-Lfuyu, and flowed to Suen*ehee-foo. The boat 
was large, but light, and being fiat-bottomed drew very little water. 
The stream was so shallow that it was only by tracing the deepest 
part of the channel from side to side of its bed that we were able to 
advance at all. This was done by poling; ia several places the stream 
was deepened by throwing up little banks of sand so as to confine its 
course within a channel merely wide enough for the boats to pass 
through. I estimate the width from bank to bank at 200 yards, and 
should judge from the height at which sugar is cultivated above the 
level of the present surface, that the greatest depth in the rainy 
season does not exceed 10 feet. Being entirely fed by mountain torrenta 
its rise must be often very sudden, but I did not observe any traces of de- 
vastation in its course. Its name, Ghan-ke or " peaceful stream," is pro- 
bably derived from this circumstance ; the valley on each side seemed 
well cultivated, the banks being principally occupied by sugar-cane. 
At every village the people poured as usual to see us out, vying with 
each other in marks of civility and kindness. The day, however, be- 
coming very hot, we took shelter from the sun under the roof of the 
boat, to .the disappointment of many who waded through the water to 
gratify themselves with a sight of the strangers. Coming at last to a 
high bank close to a populous town, they actually ofiTered the boatman 
400 cash if he would bring us to ; and on his refusal, the boys began 
pelting the boat with clods and stones. On this Mr. Gvtslaff went 
on deck to remonstrate, and Mr. Rtdbr to intimidate with his gun. 
Betwixt both the efifect was instantaneous, and the seniors of the crowd 
apologised for the rude manner in which the boys had attempted to 
enforce the gratification of their curiosity. We had been in vain all 

1835.] Memorandum of an Excursion to the Tea Hills, 101 

yesterday and to-day looking out for a glimpse of tea plantations on 
some of the ragged and black looking hills close in view, though at 
almost every place where we halted we were assured that such were to 
be found bard by. At three p. m. we reached a town near the foot of 
the pass by which we were to reach Taou^ee, the place of our destina- 
tion. There we proposed selling our gold, which for the sake of light 
Bess I bad brought with me in preference to silver, not doubting that I 
should find little difficulty in exchanging it at its proper relative value 
whenever required. In this, however, we had been disappointed at our 
hat abode, and we were therefore much vexed at learning from our 
conductors tbat the inhabitants of Aou-ee were of such a character 
that the less we had to do with them and the shorter our stay amongst 
them the better. Some proof of this we had ns we were stepping on 
shore, being for the first time rudely questioned as to our destination 
a&d object, and why we had come armed; our reply to tbe latter query 
being, that we had armed ourselves with the resolution of resisting vio» 
leuce should it be offered by robbers or others, we were allowed to pass 
qvietly on« The hill we had now to ascend was more rugged, and in 
some places more abrupt, than that over which we were first carried ; 
and though we had set out at tliree o'clock, the sun had set longbefbrewe 
came to the end of our journey. The moon was unfortunately obscur- 
ed by cloods, so that nothing could be more unpleasant than tbe un- 
fortunate hitw our toes were constantly making against stones, and the 
equally unfortunate misse$ where an unexpected step downwards made 
us with a sudden jerk throw our weight on one leg. At length we 
reached a village at the further end of the pass, the inhabitants 
of which were so kind as to light us on the remainder of our way, by 
burning bundles of grass, to the eminent danger of setting fire to their 
lice fields now ripe for the sickle. Arrived as Taou-ee we were hos- 
pitably received by the family of our guide, and soon surrounded by 
wondering visitors. 

Mr. GoTZLAVF speedily selected one or two of the most intel- 
ligent of them, and obtained from them ready answers to a variety of 
questions regarding the cultivation of the plant. They informed him* 
that tbe seed now used for propagating the plant was all produced on' 
the spot, though the original stock of this part of the country was 
brought from Wae^eehan, that it ripened in the 10th or 11th month, and 
was immediately put into the ground where it was intended to grow, 
several being put together into one hole, as the greater part was always 
abortive. That the sprouts appeared in the 3rd month after the seeds 
wate put into the ground, that the hole into which the seeds were thrown 
are from three to four inches deep, and that as the plants grow the earth 

102 Memorandum of an BxearHon to' the Tea HUk, [Fsb. 

18 gathered ap a little round their root ; that leaves are taken from the 
plants when they are three years old. and that there are from most plants 
four plttckings in the year. No manure is used, nor is goodness of 
soil considered of consequence, neither are the plants irrigated. Each 
shruh may yield about a Tael of dry tea annually (about the 1 2th of a 
pound). A Mow of ground may contain three or four hundred plants. 
The land tax is 300 cash (720 dols.) per Mow. The cultivation and ga- 
thering of the leaves being performed by families without the assistance 
of hired labourers, no rate of wages can be specified; but as the cur* 
ing of the leaf is an art that requires some skill, persons are employed 
for that particular purpose, who are paid at the rate of 1 dl. per pecdl 
oi fresh leaf, equal to five dollars per pecul of dry tea. The fire-plaoa 
used is only temporary, and all the utensils as well as fuel arefurnish* 
ed by the owner of the tea. They stated that the leaves are heated 
and rolled seven or eight times. The green leaf yields one-fifth of ita 
weight of dry tea. The best tea fetches on the spot 23 dls. per pecul, 
(133^ Ms») and the principal part of the produce is consumed within 
the provmoe, or exported in baskets to Forrausa. That the prevailing 
winds are north-westeriy. The easterly winds are the only winds 
injurious to the plants. Hoar frost is common during the winter months* 
and snow falls occasionally, but does not lie long nor to a greater depth 
than three or four inches* The plant is never injured by excessive cold* 
and thrives from 10 to 20 years. It is-sometimes destroyed by a worm 
that eats up tlie pith and oon verts both stem and branches into tubes* 
and by a gray lichen whieh principally attacks very old plants. The 
period of growth is limited to six or seven years ; when the plant has at<* 
tained its greatest size. The spotB where the tea is planted are scattered 
over great part of the country, but there are no hills appropriated en- 
tirely to its culture. No ground in fact is formed into a tea plantation 
that is fit for any other species of cultivation, except perhaps that of 
the dwarf pine already alluded to, or the Oamellia Obeifora. Mr. 
GuTZLAVF understood them to say that the plant blossoms twice a 
year, in the eighth moon or September, and again in winter, but that 
the latter flowering is abortive. In this I apprehend thene was 
some misapprehension, as seed of full size, though not ripe, were 
proffered to me in considerable quantities eariy in September, and none 
were found on the plants which we saw. I suspect that the people 
meant to say that the seeds take eight months to ripen, which accords 
with other accounts. We wished much to have spent the foUowing 
day (the 1 3th) in prosecuting our inquiries and observations at Tawaad 
and its neighbourhood, but this was rendered impraetible by the state 
of our finances. We had plenty of gold, but no one ooold be found who 

1835.] MemarMM^m of an Mofcursion to the Tsa Hills* 103 

would purchase it with silver at any price. We therefore resolved on 
makiog^ the nioet of our time by an early excursion in the morning 
previous to setting out on our return. 

We accordingly got up at day-break, and proceeded to visit the spot 
were the plants were cultivated. We were much struck with the variety 
of the appearance of the plants ; some of the shrubs scarcely rose to 
the height of a cubit above the ground^ and those were so very 
b«shy that a hand could not be thrust between the branches. They 
were also very thickly covered with leaves, bat these were very small, 
scarcely above i inch in length. In the same bed were other plant3 
iritb stems four feet in height, far less branchy and with leaves 1^ to 
8 inches in length. The produce of great and small was said to be 
eqaal. The dietaoce from centre to centre of the plants was about 4^ 
feet« and the plants seemed to average about twofeet in diameter. Though 
the ground was not terraced, it was formed into beds that were partly 
levelled. These were perfectly well dressed as in garden cultivation, 
and ea<^ little plantation was surrounded by a low stone fence, and 
a trench. There was no shade, but the places selected for the culti* 
vation were generally in the bottoms of hills, where there was a good 
deal of shelter on two sides» and the dk)pe comparatively easy. I should 
recJJEon the site of the highest plantations we visited to be about 709 
feet aboye the plain, but those we saw at that height and even less 
appeared more thriving, probably from having somewhat better soil, 
though the best is little more than mere sand. I have taken sped* 
mens from three or four gardens. Contrary to what we had been 
told the preceding night, I found that each garden had its little nnrseiy 
where the plants were growing to the height of four or five inches, as 
closely act as they could stand ; from which I conceive that the 
tea plant requires absolutely a free soil, $iot wet and not da^ey^ bi^t 
of a texture that will retain moisture ; and the best site is one not so 
low as that at which water is apt to spring from the sides of a hiU* 
nor 80 high as to. be exposed to the violence of stormy weather. 
There is no use in attempting to cultivate the pknt on an easterly 
exposure, thoogh it is sufficiently hardy to bear almost any degree of 
dry cold. 

By half-past 10 a. m. we set out on our return, in chairs which we 
were fortunate enough to procure at this village, and reached the 
banks of the river at Aou*ee a little before one o'clock. In the first 
part of our way we passed by some more tea plantations on very 
storile ground. One in a very bleak situation, with nothing but 
coarse red sand by way of soil, seemed to be abandoned. Our recep- 
tiim at Aon*ee was much more civil than it had been the preceding 

104 Memorandum of an Excursion to the Tea Hills, [Fsb. 


day ; the people suggested that we should remain there till a boat 
oooldbe procoped. The day, however, being tolerably cool, we crossed 
the river, and proceeded on foot along its banks to Kre-bo, where we 
arrived about fonr p. m. On the road a man who had seen as endca- 
vooring to sell our gold the day before, told ns he believed he could 
find us a purchaser. Mr. Gvitzlafv accordin^y accompanied him to 
the house of a fantfer, whd after havifag agreed to give 18 doBars for 
dO dollar's worth of gold, suddenly ehanged his mtnd, and said he 
would only give weight for weight. At Koe-Bb, however, we were 
more suoeessfnl, pk-oeuring 1^ dollars for the same 30 dollar's Wortb 
of gold. On the road the villages ponred forth thtir population as we 
moved along. At one place they were 'actnafly overheard by Mr. 
O^iRLAVP thanking our guides for havhig conducted us by that road, 
and propMing to raise a subscription to reward them. At Kre-bo 
we learned thirt some petty oflleefs ' had' been thquh-ing after us, 
whfch frightened our guides,- and made us de^fou^ to hasten our return. 
Having procured chairs we pushed on aecofdin^y to Koe ee, our first 
reethug plaoe, where we arrived about sev^n r. «., and halted for the 
nfght. Nexttnorning, the 14Hi,Weinteh'(^($urchtfirs before day-break, 
bat after goingalittle way the bearei^ 1^ us downtowaitfor day. light, 
and we took the opportuility of going' to look at a Chinese play which 
was in the Course of performance hard by. There were only two actors 
but sevend singers, whose music to our barbarian ^ars was far from 
enchanting. Grossing the pass we met great numbers -of people carry- 
ing salt in baskets httng in bangies, as in Bengal, a few- with bas- 
kets fall of the smaH muscle reared on the mud -flats near the place 
of our landing. Aftef getting into the plain we took a more direct 
road for Taou than that by which we had left it. The people forsook 
their work on the fields, and emptied their numerous villages to gaze 
at us. As the morning was cold I wore a pair of dark worsted gloves, 
which I found excited a good deal of speculation. The general opinion 
was, that I was a hairy animal, and that under my clothes my skin was 
covered with the same sort of far as my hands. In China gloves are 
never worn. At length one more sceptical than the rest resolved to exa- 
mine the ;>aM7, and his doubt being thus further strengthened, he request* 
ed me to turn up the sleeve of my coat. I did so, at the same time 
pulling ofl^ a glove to the admiration of the multitude, who immediate- 
ly set ap a shout of laughter at those who had pronounced the stran- 
gers of a race half man and half baboons. We met some officers in 
chairs attended by soldiers, but they ofi^ered us no interruption, not 
even communicating with us. Our bearers, however, easily prevailed 
on theirs to exchange burthens, each party being thus enabled to direct 

1835.] MemoramAm of M E^teursion to the Ttu HiUs. 105 

tkeir ooarae to their re^ective homes. We ftrrii^d at Hwttj Taoa hefore 
Dooa, and immediatelj embarked for the thips, which we reached at 
three p. M. We learned from Mr. NioaoLSON that after oor departiure» 
ukd while the boat was still agroand, a number of Mandarinecame down. 
and carried off almost everj thing that was on board, but the whole 
was returned after the boat was floated down below the bridge. Aa 
wa had no ezplanadon of the matter, we concluded that this proceed* 
log might haTe been intended for the protection of the property 
from plunder by the people of the town. We found that one of 
the seed contraotora had de^iatched a quantity of Bohea seeds, 
arrived during our absence, with a letter atating expectation of 
being able to send a further supply and to procure cultivators, who 
would join the ship in the 1 1th or 1 2th month. On the same eveuf 
ing I embarked on the Fairy, and reached Lintin on Monday the 17 th 
November, with my tea seeds, just one week after our landing at 
Hwuy Taon to explore the Hwuy tea hills. I have been more minute 
in my details of this little expedition, than may at firat sight appear 
needful* with the view of showing the precise degree and kind of 
danger and difficulty attending such attempts. Our expectation was* at 
leaving the ship, that we should reach the head of the bay by nine or 
10 o'clock A. M. and attaiu a considerably distanc^e from Hwuy Taou 
tile aame day» and thus have a cbauce of passing without attracting 
the notice of any of the Wanfoo or Govemmeut oQicers. Had we waited 
to ask their permission it would of course have been refused, and we 
should have been directed in the most anthoritative manner to ratum 
to the ship. We were not a little alarmed when aground in the 
morning, lest the old gentleman who measured our boat should have 
deemed it his duty to intercept our progress ; but we took care to go on 
with preparations for ou^ march, as if nothing of the kind was appre- 
hended. It is this sort of coi;id\iGt alone that will sucoeed in China* 
Any sign of hesitation is fatdl. Had we ahown any marks of alarm* 
every one would have kept aloof for fear of being implicated in the 
danger which we seemed to dread ; on the other hand, a confident 
bearing, and the testimony borne by the manner in which we were 
armed, that we would not passively allow ourselves to be plundered by 
authority, inspired the like confidence in all those with whom we had 
to do ; for the rest of the narrative shows that from the people left to 
theroeelTea we experienced nothing but marks of the utmost kindness 
and good nature, except indeed^ where money was to be got : — there 
die Chinese, like the people of other countries, were ready enough to 
take advantage of the ignorance of strangers, though with such a fluent 
command of the language as Mr. Gutzlafv possessed he was able to 

savto tn from vrach fle^cittgln that wbj. I need flcarceff add, tbtc M 
good can resalt fh>tii an attefnpt to penetrate Into the intemr of CUim 
hy a party of foreigners, unless some one of them has at least a nvode* 
rate frcUity in expressing himself in conversatioa vith the people. 

tory, on the subject of the Albatross, By Lieut. Tbohw IItmoir« 

37M Regt. N. I. 

At page 147 of the S2ad Numher of Loodoa'ft Magaoae of Na- 
taral History, a oontnbator observes : 

** CoLfeafiws ttooiewher* in Ms wM asd uagkiA *Ri«««f the A jtfetot MMumt/ 
girys XiT Ike AIMiHm» ^tbom Iw iBtMdaoM Si ■ bM 

** At length did cross an AlbatrotSr 
- Thoroiigh dM fog it ctme f 
As if it hftd beea a Christian soal,. 
We hailM it in God's nsne. 
" It ate the food iC ne'er bsdesl^ 
And round and romd it flew i 
The ice did split with a thonder^fttr 
The helmsman steer'd ns thrai^^h^ 

** And a gsod somth^wind sprang «p bshtiid^- 
The Albatross ^Rd^llmr^ 
And every day for food er plsy, 
Came to the warinsiv* hoUo.'^ 

• • • f 

^ Had i^ Aibstross bees m MS-fuD, feha abovs aigbt h«vis bssa tefc, as ««il 
/fs fancy/* 
. %^ whkh another irriter adds« at page 372 of the 84th Ntmher. 

** Andnol IsM so, it may be resiarked, if it be prasmned, that CoLsanya ae. 
tnally speafta «f t^ AlbaSroM itsstf^ fliis bird Is ona of the baridtt, or gnS 
tribe ; and as ear correspondent Mr. Main has in person remsrked to as, ^ every 
^vayages rssmd she^Capa «f 6oo# Baps nay hwo obseritad it ta foHow and fly 
ffdnildilM'pasriagfaisslllraiaaiy toida^^ H« aided, < this ki^hifdseeaiatcr 
subsist o»aBy saimsi sMlSir sriikll flaati a»4be watstv In ^thefr IbHowteg of 
sMpi IheyaM easily esagtat by a Strang haak baited with a bit of perlr'ar beef .— 
Their ba^ ^Vpisri smaeiated, being sbimII in proportion to tiie sits of their plti. 
ttsge ; as the wings, when extended, measnre 9 or 10 feet from tip to tip. They 
appear to be very stnpid birds, perhaps from being broken-hearted, firom the pan- 
dty of food they meet with 800 miles ttfxm the nearest land/ 

** Dr. Aavorr, as qnotedby Mr. Ea;qiina, remarks, ' Hgw pofrarfal most be thv 
wing maseles af Mrds which assSsia thasMMlTes in the sky for maay hoarst Hi* 
gr^t Albatross* with wings axteaded 14 feet, or moffe* is seen in the stonay a^^ 
tudes of the sonthern ooean^ aceonyanjring ships for whole days* wltfaoat 
resting on the waves.' " 

"Mr. Main, whom apprehension of exceeding the truth always leads toa| 
within boands, gives abovs die spread of the wings at 9 or 10 feet } Pr. Aknot^ 

1895.] IMfcmtffoiiv m ih M^Hrvm. ^107 

It tffmn liy Mr. RBinr||B*a qnotetloii, at * 14 ISMt or looro ;' «|iiU tbt ^Moimen 
in the Zoological Soclaty*! Mnaeam in Bratoa $traet« aod we ha?e fle«a tbif f pe- 
ciqieii, ia let down in Uie Society's catalogae, where a picture oC it ia §^yen at tho 
foIlowiBg dimensionB : — ' Length from dp of bill to extremity of tail 3 feet 4 inches, 
ezpa]i8io& of wings, 9 t^et,* The mean of these three statements of the spread of 
^ wings of the Albatross is 10 feet 10 inches *: and although trnt, without doubt, 
ii the pTOTerb ' medio tntiasimas ibis,' we eare lesa about the preeise dimea- 
•ioM, thiUk Co show that :th« expaMion is on all hauda admitted to be graa^ 
thta great e^Epaunoii of wMig8» and th^ woaderful proTisioii im the physiology of 
birds, by which they are enabled to eharge and fill erery bone in their body witb 
rarified air, to promote and secnre as by a series of balloons their bno3raney ; and 
together wlllh the eompatrat^re smallaess, and therefore Kghtness of the body, of 
the Albatross, in part prepare ns to give eredsMe to • snppeiitlon eutertiined by 
aesM, teAtUa Ufd4cepa while oa the wte^, ijid the greet ^mamffook eny 
Isnd at which it la fiwi«f e^y atiA- IsimcdA tfce «Uwe of day Iwther i%m9n i\m 

'*This power of sleeping in the air has beeuaUnded te by TwPUAt Moons in his 
beaatifnl Eastern poem of f^aUa Bookh^. when descn^g a rocky mountain 
beetling awfully o*er the sea of Oman, he sayet .... 

' While on its peak^ that braced Che sky, ' 
A min*d temple toweled ^ high, 
That oft the sleeping Albatross, ' 
Strnek the wild r«lts with her wingr, 
AndDnsk h^'el9*d«Mclbed slnmbetiAg. 
Started, to find man's dwelling Khere, • 
In her own silent Mdi-'Of aw^'* 

"The Albatross is donbtless spoken of lH the'foTlbwiiDlg fkets, told ns by a sal- 
liritfenA^iMW- dMrt andfone: 'At^ btito^ MHt, •omeHmes uKghte on die 
yards of Teseels passing the coast of the Cape of Good Hope, and no sootier is It 
ttpou the yerdfl,-' -than it is asleep^ anl whHo sleeptngy is jrery easily captured. 
Wheaa uf^ou the dcel^ tt.oannot soar into the^ air} en aeQ0UHfet4if the length of' its 
wings* It ^akeal^ loud and diaagrtoeaM note when jnototed* It ie called < thh 
Bophy^hf teorew4^-.-.T 

" The- team 3o^r4e»*jaRa havtf siMe.heeft teld,iCon«»otay.ap|ilied-hy«ri)en 
$oa^^loasr^iii9edihitil#of ♦trhiti^h eo^n elliieugll i»the thoive caae of Hm 
AlhatKemiJlie.^ffn -irould eeevlo^eKpNe* iti ineantioue Or boobf^UkB bahAt.of 
foiafj^to^ee^ ^Mn reach ofioieleatetiofi; a: haUt irhioh thoee who scout th* 
idea of the Hb^'i ilacyiiig in thc^ air wiU th» dcspe raUnm iB>Qfita uecea;. 

I am informed by si geufleman at this station, who came out on the '* Wit* 
l^airlte,** 6iat ik Albatross was shot on the 23rd Msrch, in lat. 26' '57^ south, 
9' itest; which was wholly white, with the e'xception of a few feathers 
with palcJbh>wn onlfhe wings. ' It measured 12 fleet from tip to tip of the 
trtogps: On the 8th April, ^to more were shot in lat: 37* Id' south, long. 14* 
W eaet. The flesh was good, and not at all fishy to the taste. It wu dry and 


108 Observations on the Albatrose. [Fsb. 

As there are several points in this paper on which the writer e^ma 
to be misinformed, and which are rather far-fetched, I hare ventured to 
draw a few strictures on it, and to add an extract from a Journal whidi 
I kept during a voyage from England to Calcutta. 

First then, speaking of Albatrosses, the writer says, " They ap» 
pear to be stupid birds, perhaps from being broken-hearted from the 
paucity of food t SfC. 8^c** 

The body of the Albatross, when cleared from the plamagie, is cer- 
tainly very small, and appears out of proportion to the gfreat «iz« of 
the bird in length and breadth ; but, at the same time, though small ia 
size, the two birds which I dissected were extremely plump mid'flediy, 
bearing no signs of a paucity of food, of which there is an abtmdkince, 
for who that has rounded the Cape hasTtot seentheslioalsof flyingtiah 
which ever and anon rise from the water ^s the ship dtsHiHrbfi thetn in 
her course. Fish, MoUasca, aud Medusae foitn the food of the Alba- 

• • • 


Why then should he break his heart at the thoughts of staira- 
tion!! ■-.... 

Again, " The great Albatross, with tnings extended 4rc. U ^aid to 
accompany ships for whole days without ever resting on the wwe^.** 

Here I would remark, that his not having been seen to settle,^ is no 
proof that he did not do so, during these' whole days, to eay notiiing 
of the intervening nights — inasmuch as'; it h Very linlikdy that he 
was watched for whole days incessantly by any person; and those wtio 
have been to sea, and have paid attention to these birds, must 
acknowledge that they do not merely " fly round the ship,** but extend 
their flight far away over the boundless deep, attd are lost to sight, 
ever and anon returning to the ship in their restless search for food. 

Besides, the Albatross does not feed on the wing, but as far as my 
experience carries me, invariably settles irti the water before taking 
his prey ; — therefore It follows that for ^' w^Te daye*'^ he does not 
feed. No wonder his heart is brokcjn, and his body emaeiated. 
But surely the writer could never suppose that the almighty and 
merciful Creator, who has so fully provided for the wants of all his 
creatures, would neglect to supply the wandering Albatross* and 
doom it to pine away in misery and a state of half* starvation ! 

Next comes a supposition, that the bird sleeps on tbe wing, and 
that the great distance from land at which it is seen at close of day is 
thought to favour the supposition ; in- support of which, a pretty quo- 
tation fromMooKA is brought in, to prove, that " castles built in air,'* 
are as likely to break the rest of the wandering Albatross, as<tf loan, 
his lord and master ! 

1835.] Obiervations on the Albatro9s, 109 

Now the Albatross being a sea bird, and famished with webbed 
feet — ^what hinders it from sleeping on the waves like other water- 

Is not motion the efiect of will ? And does not sleep seal up our 
eyes in forgetfolness ? How then can the Albatross continue its 
flight, when the will to move its pinions, and direct its course, is lost 
in sleep ? The quotation proves the absurdity of the supposition by 
blowing that the bird is " running his bead against a wall !" What 
the wandering Albatross may do near land I cannot say, but at sea 
I never saw one rise so high even as the yards of the ship, although 
tike Sooty Albatross (Diomedea fuliginosa) very frequently did. 

With regard to the bird or birds which sailors call a " Booby*/* I 
can say little^ as I never had the good fortune to see one captured ; 
but oertaiafyfrom its^ flight and appearance at a distance, I should 
pvonoUBce it. to be a goU or petrel, but decidedly not an Albatross; 
here, however, I speak at random, and shall be happy to receive cor- 
rection if neceaaary, Be ^t what it may, I cannot understand what 
" desperate necessity** there is for the bird's sleeping on board of ship, 
when it hflff a ilae> smooth. sea to rest ob> and a pair of good broad 
webbed feet, and a thick impenetrable plumage, made for the very 
purpose <3i enabling it to rest on the waters ; we know that all water- 
fowl resort to the land occasionally, and the Booby, being some 
handredft of miles at sea, may choose to rest on the only solid foot- 
ing it can find» in order to break the dull monotony of a daily seat 
oa salt-water ! 

Bat jokii^ apart, may I not ask^ on what did the Booby rest, be* 
fore ships had made the passage round the Cape ? unless they could 
sleep 011 the water, their necessities must have been much more dis- 
perate than in the. present day ! 

To the trivial iMtmea applied by sailors aiid casual observers, to these 
birds, I attach ao vatee wha^ver« as I have seen the folly of trusting 
to siiiA names; for instance, one of the Albatrosses which I caught 
on my latft voy^tge to India, waa termed by the officers of the ship, 
'' a MoUymowk^" ami thisj laughed at the idea of its being an Albatross, 
merely because in siae and. plum^e it did not agree with the bird 
which they vrereaccBstpmedr to term an Albatross, Nevertheless, it is 
atme Albatross! Another bird^ the Sooty Albatross, was named 

* Oa 2nd May, "a Booby" was cangfbt aslcpp on tke riggjisg of the '< WU* 
Ktm FktMie." It had tiie plumage wholly ^r9im, and not white, as stated ia 
Loudoa* Oa betag seised, it disgorged '* five flying fiph," all of good aiie. Does 
not ibis prove that there i§ no tcorct/y qf/ood / 

6ailor», like landamen, who form opinions of the operations of 
nature, from mere casual and superficial observation, idthont conde- 
scending to look into eanses and effeets, iniffit of course veiy often 
fspme to erroneous and ridioalous ccmclasians* . Witness. the ^foUawing 
anecdote which ocponred to pae^ 

' The boatswain told one of the pa3S6ngers that th^ stormy Pfitrels, or 
Mather Gary's Chickens, make im> n9f^.butliu$r two white ^eggsop^ 
the watier, and tbeii tak^ them Hnder their wjuags to hatch, them.i 
during this time the male hif d sopplies the ffiyiale. with food I 

This lable. is» I believe, current iinong the lower clsse of seapiea. 

On telliDg this story » haW(e^W»' the fihief ^c^ur langhed very 
heartily<;and.'Ca$tiQn^:met:aol 1^ repeivn c^s gcispel. e^ery " yarn tha 
bi)atswaiii cbofe^ to spin ;" but Iqi i ah a "v^ry les^r jmii^nte^, kf txM 
me w inUhi ft <llPry i^hifCh^japijtsar^ t^ me« litUy, as ,i|»iM^.YsJ;(Qn^ as t\^ 
other : - He aisR- thwit in inqmn^ of;. the iglandy! tA t^ sogt^wi^rd* md 
abqut.Ghpe Hofn, ithere iaia^bird e^l^ tj^, ''V^g f^ii^guin," which 
hadajmMsiL ifimfn ii§ ksf^'mt^ wbiob it.pDts it» ^gK^,(fort|f« p«i^. 
guin only lays one,) as soon as laid & in thil^Pftn<A^, t)^<ggi^kept for 
2H bourse dttrii^ which«:l9niitffMfQf9eift^^|L%^i£^,.b^ at the 
eii^ration, of tbali timn^/lhie Joiide bird*; who;i^.«i^>.fTir7^«4 with a 
•ipilar poHiph* iii«((ttma from has 6»hi^: ^l^WsioAfti^lidreUeyjes th». 
female by receiving. thfr> i^g.tnto hiscueitodyipr t^f 9^ $24hQur^ 
They takcf a very.loag .tiAie to shift ihw^r^^ ii^HftiPPfihiWfif)^ to tha 
other, and. altbongh tM^^ ^n^ SQvernt, s||iQci9»;of, Pen^g^in^.a? rtho«e 
islands none of them are famished witb« <" patent e^^eAr/' .save h<V^ 
majesty the King Penguin of the Swithem Isto/!! , 

He added* that the, bird may be Uidnoed .ta drop :tibe fgg, iJthoii^ 
relnctantiy, by running a stick between its legs !! 

Having ofiered these remsrk^ I diall prooeed ininj i^eart^ j^ give 
fen an extract from my Journal^ kept on the yoyagSk in which I ^ted 
doiwn every eircnmstanee .conn^scted vfiih Natiire} Histi^ryK iwd whkk 
being'wrifiten not-firom mwakOTfi but fron^fimls 't^tkis moineiit oociurr 
hng. may perhi^M be oonsidened Wiorthy^f pemsel. 

^8inee writiog the above^ I have had im oppottnnlty lof. peruMag 
Gsifvitb's Translation of Cuv(be« and ftnd» that^e Bi»ob|t «a etatcA t» 
be the *' Feleoanua Sak;" the pluiKic^e: is thns d^sevibed t ^< AsUy i^d 
venCt idl white, when young, ett brown l" tiiiis iaira&er n nssagiw 
descriptiQiift but nevertheless preves^ that the Booby is nol^aa AUw- 
Iross^ as. aopposed by the writer in. Icondon's l^at Hist. 

M^.] Jecgmit^tk€N€mlU^m1[69ipmr. HI 

y. — Xqrf-rf the Ne^ Iron Foundery tit Kdsipwr nmr Calcutta. 

We bave requested Biijor H vtctfiKsoN of tbe Bngineera, the tireKi* 
teet of ^his-degtiiit stmctwe, to ftcfcm u» with drawrog* of iti vmiout 
debiild, that we may make knowo, as for as the circulation of our joor* 
nal permits, hia very BuoceMifhl oombintftioQ of the east-'tron tnisa 
with a wrooght-iron tie t& rodfb of large spaa hi Hiis eoimtiy. We 
sfe «o IHtle aecuiCMft^d 'to #ee atff thiag else in lAdia bat the heavy 
flat roof with ita msssy' timber^ gfVwaifiig anider an inonlihate load of 
terraee-work heaped ap m68t dissf^kantag^onsly in the e«ntre to alloir 
a dope for the wattir to run otf, whil<; the Invisible white ant is eeeop* 
fng oat tbe Midity of the timber^ ahd tbe dry rot is corroding the 
eadb that support the wlVolo' Ml tbe wall,— ^thot the eye resHfr witb 
qnfte a pleastrmble sensiftlofi oa the viewof a light, airy ffofiie-Work 
Hke that bdbus as, composed of fnalteriala inde«tnidtible, wherein tha 
stnttnsaiidpres2liineifHreco«mterpetoed, the load ltg^ned,the iiahility 
to craek abd leMt les^^n^; aiid the repiiii* of chFtty parv r^ntteMd easf 
and entirely independent kif ' tkL^ rest. 

The progress of itnpf6v^taifcnt ian^torioasly alowifr fai GoverHmeat 
operatSona than in prtvafee #orke. Wliea east*iMm beams weve fiMt* 
brought to ladiaoa pr^ld speculation, and<kem oibred «o 6oirera«' 
ment by a mercanfne''hbiise'in this tewn, they wure rejected. The 
roof of a laT^e pritate goidk^wn'waa soon afbercoMtrnctad with them, 
tttd'theireffitecy ttiuB proved; thfisi immediately a i^*aotioa tdok plaee, ' 
tad ahirge qtahtiftywasfaidfeneod' fbf by Got o f ai a w t. The Hon'bkr 
Conrt sent them out, and "fiiey have remained antil now totally un- 
employed, althongh' mnnerouB pabiic bandings hate been erected 
since they arrived. 

' It was, w« Ibi^w, a 8ttbje6t of lengtheaed debate What' eoit of roof 
shoold be ^en lo tbe fohtad^. A tttnber truisedfoof hadbeetf' 
sanctioned at IfKOOO nfpees, <ind we mayr perhaps, nthef attribntcr 
the sabMitiitioii of the pfeieMt <>ne to the nwmetM redaocion of the 
pecuniary estimate, dbrtm'terany ai^lual Cdoviction of its iaperiorlty k^ 
dihar reapaats, 1m the beams being draady provided, the whole cost 
ef the pvesent roof, eMlasWe of them, has been only rupees 1 1 ,000* 
* Tbe' New Fooadcry, or rather the toom in wUcb Hie cannon ai« 
taraed and bored, ia a spacious haH, of 1^ feet bng by 50^ feet olear 
span hi breadth, and 40r feet in height from the door to the vertexofthe 
roof ; entirely opCtt' fi^om end toand, lighted by a range of upper windows, 
and anrrounded by a suite of apartments of half elevation. The steam 
aaa^inery of the several borers and lathes, is arranged along one side 
af this room, in a compact and exceedingly neat manner. It is impossible 

1 12 Account 0/ the Roof of tht Kdiijmr founder^. IFn. 

to attempt its description ; those who are fond of mechanical inventions, 
will be amply gratified by an inspection of the whole, especially by the 
ingen ions contrivance* for adjusting the angle of the slide rests and 
cutters, for ^he exterior bevil of the gun : — the circular revolving tools . 
for turning the trunnions : — *the crane carriage for the guns, &c. 

The self-acting principle by which the exterior of the gun is turned » 
while the interior is bored, so as to save one half of the time, while it 
ensures perfect concentricity of the outer and inner circles, is, we be- 
lieve, an invention of Major Hutchinson's, who took the opportunity 
when on furlough, of visiting some of the principal founderies in 
Europe, and studied to adopt every improvement suggested by their 

The whole apparatus is driven by a small engine of 10 horsepower, 
which also works a circular, and a reciprocating, saw, and a loam>mill 
for the casting moulds of the foundery. 

The superficial area of the hall is 8462 square feet ; to form an idea 
of this magnitude, it may be mentioned that the noble edifice of the 
new Town Hall in Birmingham, is said to contain a larger space than 
any room in Europe, and will accommodate between three and four 
thousand persons sitting, or ten thousand standing ; that room is 140 
feet long, by 65 feet broad, making a superficial area of 9100 feet, 
which is only 638 feet more than the Kasipur apartment. 

The roof consists of 10 trusses, Plate VI. Fig. 1, each composed of. 
a pair of cast-iron beams pitched at an elevation of 12^ feet in tha 
vertex, and tied together at foot by a horizontal chain supported in the 
centre- by a vertical rod suspended from the angle. The truss-frainen 
are 15 feet 4.6 inches apart : they support light cross-beams and rafters 
of wood, upon which the planking of the roof is nailed. The weight 
of one truss with its entire load and chain, is equal to about five and 
half tons, difi^used over the two iron beams. 

The chain is three inches deep .by one inch thick, =s 3 inehes in 
section, consequently the applicable force of tension of the chain ia 
8x9 ^ 27 tons, and the ultimate strength of it 3x 27 «8l tons. 
The above. weight of five and half tons difiused over the two beams. 
«= 2^ tons* on each beam, g^ves according to the sine of the angle d 
elevation, a tension on the chains of about five and half tons, or only 
one-fifth the stretching weight, or one -fifteenth of the ultimate strength 
of the chains. 

The iron beams and chains were all proved before they were put 
up, by suspending for several days without effecting the slightest ^- 
parent alteration, a weight of six tons from the vertex, producing m 
trial tension of about 12 tons, which is more than twice the actual 

wj-A., v,i.n'.fi.u 



* ' 

^ i 



1 ; 

J ' 










* 1 









< . 



« ' 



i , 


t ' 

1 8^.] Aecmmt of ike Roof of the Kd$^ finmdefy. 1 1 3 

Each extremity of the tie-rods Is bolted to a kind of shoe, (repr^- 
Befited in figs. 5 and 6,) resting npon a stone slab on the wall, into 
which the lower end on the iron beam abuts. (Fig. 1.) 

Fig. 2» is a plan of the roof, shewing the disposition of the frame, 
planking and copper sheathing. In the section. Fig. 3, the longi- 
tadioal rod is seen which steadies all the ties from lateral shake. 

Fig. 7, (a) shews on a larger scale the tnode in which the longitu- 
dinal tie-rods (d) are nnited by a bolt, (Fig. 8.) having two right-hand 
screws, passing through the central coupling plates of the chains, and 
the eye of the suspension vertex rod. This rod being firmly attached 
by two bolts (b) through the beams at the vertex, any derangement 
whatever of the roof, either vertically or horizontally, is effectually 
prevented. At each end of the roof the longitudinal rods pass 
through the walls* to which they are firmly fixed. 

Fig. 9, shews the horizontal overlaps of the copper sheathibg, 
which are cemented with white lead, and Fig. 10, the mode in which 
the copper passes over the wooden battens fixed on the planks, to 
which only the copper is fastened by copper rivets ; a copper cap or 
ridge-tile lies over the whole length « to prevent the insinuation of 
water at the fold : it answers this purpose so efieetually, that the 
roof was everywhere found perfectly water-tight, during the late heavy 
season oi rain, the first it had experienced. 

The Kasfpnr roof was set up withoat the assistance of any sca^ld* 
ing from below. An experimental truss of timber supported on 
chains, having been previously made to shew the advantageous ap- 
plication of iron chains instead of tie-beams of timber to roofs of 
so large a span^ it was converted into a platform, moveable npoK 
wheels along the top of the walls, upon which by means of a crane 
fixed at one end of the frame, the iron beams and every thing else Was 
easily and expeditiously raised and fixed ; the beams, &c. for the op* 
posite side of the roof being passed upon wheels across the platform. 
The whcJe frame- work was put up in 20 days. 

Before closing our short aocoont of the K^sipur roof, we must notice 
a curious optical deception, for which we are somewhat at a loss for a 
correct explanation. On entering the room and looking up at the 
roof, it strikes every beholder that the roof has somewhat sunk, and the 
horixontal tie-rod is about five or six inches lower in the centre than 
near the walls. So firmly impressed were we of this being the 
case, that standing at one end of the room, and holding two flat brass 
rulers, overlapping one another before the eye, we could readily mea- 
sure the apparent angle of the tie-rod by raising the ends of the rulers 
so as to coincide with the two halves of tie-rods. On mounting the 

1 14 Jceama of the Roof of the Kasifur Fouudery. [FsB. 

roof and looking in at the upper window of either end, the same effect 
waa still yisible, though in a diminished degree, and we were not 
convinced that it was a deception, until Major Hutchinson at our re- 
quest caused an actual measurement to be made by a perpendicular 
wooden batten from an accurately adjusted level on the stone floor. It 
was then proved that there did not exist a difference of level even to 
the amount of a tenth of an inch. Whence arises the illusion ? Is it 
that the eye, judging of directions by comparison with other objects, 
and having the numerous lines of the pent roof inclined in opposite 
directions to each half of the horizontal rods, is thus perplexed in its 
estimate ? the ruler experiment is opposed to such an explanation. It 
may» perhaps, be owing to the effect of light from the upper windows, 
which frequently gives a curved appearance to wooden beams from the 
decrease of illumination from side to centre. If the phenomenon re- 
semble the effect of the eyes in a portrait always looking the same 
whencesoever viewed, or the curves formed by spokes of a wheel pass-* 
ing a railing, as has been suggested, the effect should admit of a rigid 
explanation, and we may hope to obtain it from some one of oar readers 
who may have time to investigate this singular deception. 

Non. — The mode of ealculatiikg the strain upon the iron rods in the above 
account is familiar to engineers, hut it may be acceptable to others (for in In- 
dia every man is his own architect), to be furnished with a correct table of the 
strength of timbers and iron : the following extract therefore from Mr. Barlow's 
report on the subject to the British Association in 1833, may be acceptable. He 
prefaces it by a precis of the various opinions and theories hitherto formed to ex- 
plain the strain and process of fracture, and strongly recommends Trkdoold's 
Treatises on Iron and on Carpentry. There is now no longer any disagree- 
ment on the leading principles connected with the strength ai materials, excepting 
such as arise from the imperfect nature of the materials themaelvea, which fur- 
nish different results even in the hand of the same experimenter. 

Formuia rtUUing to thi ultimate Strength qf M^terhU in eatee ^f Trenevem 

Let /, ft, df denote the length, breadth and depth in inches in any beam, w 

the experimental breaking weight in poandst thea will ^^ ^ S be a con- 
stant quantity for the same material, and for the same manner of appljiag the 
struning force ; but this constant is different in different modes of application. 
Or, making S constant in all cases for the same material, the above expreasioa 
must be prefixed by a co-effictent, according to the mode of fixing and straining. 

1. When the beam is fixed at one end, and loaded at Hie other, 

2. When fixed the same, but uniformly loaded, 

2 4<P — ®- 

1 835.] Aeemmt tf the Roof of th* Kdaifwr Fomitry. 


8. 'When rapportod at both endi, and loaded in die middle, 

1 Iw _ 

4 ^ hd^ ^^' 

4. Smpported the same, and nniformly loaded, 

I Iw « 

— — X -^— = S. 
8 ft<P 

5. Fixed 9t both ends, and loaded in the middle, 

6 ^ ftd« 

6. Fixed the lame, but vniformly loaded, 

1 Iw 


= S. 

= S. 

12 ^ bd* 

7. Supported at the ends, and loaded at a point not in the middle, n m bdng 
the difiaion of the beam at the point of application, 


n m 



Some anthora atate the co-efficienta for cases 5 and 6 as | and i\ bat both 
theory and practice have shown these numbers to be erroneous. 

By means of these formulse, and the yalue of S, given in the following tab|e, 
the strength of any given beam, or the beam requisite to bear a given load, may 
be computed. This oolnmn, however, it must be remembered, gives the ultimate 
strength, and not more than one-third of this ought to be depended upon for 
any permanent construction. 

Pormul€B relating to the de/Uetion of beams in easee qf Tranneree Stream. 

Retaining the same notation, but representing the constant by £, and the 
deflection in inches by d, we shall have. 

C«e 1. 





1 '^ 

ben =*• 





'*«' =K. 



Case 4. 







= E. 


6. 12 

bd^i X E. 

Hence again, from the column marked £ in the following table, the defleetion 
a given load will produce in any case may be computed ; or, the deflection being 
filed, the dimensions of the beam may be found. Some authors, instead of this 


oie of dasticity, deduoe it immediately from the formula 


r- =E. 

sabstituting for w the height in inches of a column of the material, having the 
lection of the beam for its base, which is equal to the weight to, and this is then 
denominated the modulus of elasticity. It is useful in showing the relation 
between the weight and elasticity of different materials, and is accordingly intro- 
dnced into most of the printed tablBS. 

The above formuUe embrace all those cases most commonly employed in prac- 
tioe. There are, of coarse, other strains connected with this inquiry, as in the 
case of torsion in the axles and shafts of wheels, mills, &c. the tension of bars 
Q 2 




in raipemioa MdgMf and thoie trisiiig from intenitl prMture In oyHnders, •• ia 
guM, water-pipes, hydraulic presses, &c. bat these fall rather under the head of 
the resolution of forces than that of direct strength. It may just be observed, 
that the equation due to the latter strain is 

t{e^m) s fiR. 
where / is the thickness of metal in inches, c the cohesive power in pounds of a 
square inch rod of the given materials, f» the pressure on a square inch of the 
fluid in pounds, and R the interior radius of the cylinder in inchet* Onr oolnmsi 
marked C will apply to this caae, but here again not more than one-third the 
tabular value can be depended upon in practice. 

TabU qf the Mean Strength and Elasticity qf variaut MaieriaU, from the moet 

accurate e^gerimemie. 

Namee qf Materials, 


Ash, English, 

Beeoh, ditto, ^ ..... . 

Birch, ditto, ........ 

Deal, Christina, 

Elm, English, 

Rr, Riga, 

Larch, Scotch, 

Oak, variable, {(l^^"* 

Poon, E. Indian, . . . 

Pine, pitch 

Satin wood, B 

Saul, E. Indies, B. . 
Sisoo, ditto, B. ^. .. . 

Teak, ditto 

Ditto, ditto, B 

GO & 

C Mean 
of cohesi- 
on on an 
inch sec- 
tion, lbs. 


S. s 

4 bd 

Constants for 

B. = 






. . • • 





{from . . 
to ... 

Malleable iron, 

Iron wire, 

Cast iron, 








Constants for 




[Those marked B are extracted from Captain Baksb's list in the 8th voluBe 
of the Asiatic Researohesy whidi contalM a very full and valnable Ibt of Um 
strength of Indian woods. — Bd.] 

VI . — MiscellaneoMM. 

1. — Desiderata and Reeommendatians qfthe British Association f^r the 

qf Science, 

In addition to the list of desiderata promulgated by the Association, on its 
first meeting, which we re-publiehed in the flrst volume of thia Jonrnsl, pofo 
308, the '* Third Report,*' for 183:^, coutains several new anggestions and inqni- 
ries, whence we hasten to extract suqh items aa it may come within the povrer of 
Indian scientific men to elucidate. 

In matters of scientific announcement, we are glad to perceive, that tiie Bng- 
Uah Government has undertaken the expense of reducing the obeervntiona of 
B&ADLET, Maskkline, and Pond, on the son, moon, and planeta, atthesnggestioai 

1 885 .] MifeeUantous. 1 1 7 

of tlie AnodatioB. Alaoi thtt Colonel Sykbb hti been requested to prepare for 
pablicatioQ hia Talnable lUtistical returns relative to the four coUeetorates of the 
Deccan, subject to the Bombay Govemment ; while Professor Jonbs is to " e«. 
immmr to obtam ptrminum to examine the statistical records understood to exist 
in great number in the archives of the India HousOi and to prepare an account of 
the nature and extent of them.'' Thus there may be some chance of the Reports 
of Dr. Buchanan seeing the light through this unexpected channel, although 
the Govemment of India has itself declined permitting the continuance of their 
publication on the nearly gratuitous terms proposed and acted on by Captain 
Hbububt for the I>inajp6r volume* ! 



1. Experimental data for the theory of refraction. 

What is the law of the decrease of temperature, or of density, in ascending ? 

How does this vary at different times ? 

Gan any means be contrived for indicating practically at diffierent times the 

modulus of variation ? 
Does the refractive power of air depend simply on ite denftty, without regard 

to ito temperature ? 
Is it well esteblished that the effects of moisture are almost insensible ? 
Can any rule be given for estimating the effect of the difference of refraction 

in different aximuths, according to the form of the ground ? 
When the atmospheric dispersion is considerable, what part of the spectrum 

is it bMt that astronomers should agree to obscorve ? 

2. That the Committee in India be requested to institote such observations as 
may throw light on the horary oscillations of the barometer near the equator. 

3. That the Committee in India be requested to institute a series of observa- 
tions of the thermometer during every hour of the day and night. 

4. That the decrease of temperature at increasing hcighte in the atmosphere 
should be investigated by continued observatiOBS at steted hours and known 
heights. The hours of H a. m . and 8i P. m., as giving nearly the mean tempera- 
ture of the year, are suggested for the purpose. 

5. That persons travelling on mountains, or ascending in balloons, should ob- 
serve the stete of the thermometer, and of the dew-point hygrometer, below, 
in, and above the clouds, and determine how the different kinds of clouda differ in 
these respecto. 

6. That the temperature of springs should be observed at different heights above 
the mean level of the sea, and at different depths below the snrface of the earth, 
and compared with the mean temperature of the air and the ground. Deteched 
observatiOBS on this subject will be nsefol, but a continued and regular series of 
resnlte for each locality will be more valuable. 

7. That series of compatative experimente should be made on the temperature 
of the dew point, and the indications of the wet-bulb hygrometer, and that the 
theory of this instrument should be further investigated. 

8. Observations on the horary oscillations of the barometer, at consideraUe 
heighto above the sea. This more particnUrly applies to places near the equator. 

9. Observations on the phenomenn of wind at two stetions, at considerably 
Misrent etevations. The direction of the wind should be noted in de^rtu^ begin- 
ning from the south, and proceeding by the west. 

le. That observations should be made in various places with the dipping- 
BeedOe, In order to reduce the horiaontel to the true magnetic intensity. 

11. A reguUr series of observatiottfr eondncted in this country on the diurnal 
variation of the needle. 


12. That measurements should be made, and the necessary data procured, to 
determine the question of the permanence or change of the relative level of sea 
and land on the coaste of Great Britain and Ireland, (or other parte of the 
world.) The measuremente to be so executed as to furnish the means of reference 
in futare times, not only as to the relative leveU of the land and sea, but also as 
to waate or extension of the land. 

* See Pte£Rce to the second volume of the Jouraal Asiatic Society. 

118 MiscellaneouM. [F: 

13. That tSie history of ancient yeg^tatioa should be farther examined, bj 
prosecuting tie researdies into the anatomy of fossil wood, which hare been 
exemplified in Mr. With am' s recent volume. 

14. That the quantity of mod and silt contained in the water of the -principal 
rivers should be ascertained, distingaishin^^ as far as may be possible, the com- 
paratiTc quantity of sediment firom the water at diflerent depths, in different parts 
of the current, and at different distances from the mouth of the river ; distinguish- 
ing also any differences in the quality of the sediment, and estimating it at differ- 
ent periods of the year ; with a view of explaining the hollowing of valleys, and 
the formation of strata at the months of rivers. 

15. That the experiments of the late Mr. 6asoo»t Watt, on the AisioB 
and slow cooling of large masses of stony substances, should be repeated and 
extended by those who, from proximity to large farnaees, have an opportunity 
of trying such experiments on a large scale ; and that trial should be made of 
the effect of long-continued high temperatore on rooks containing petrifactions, 
in defacing or modifying the traces of oiganic stmetare, and of the effect of the 
continued action of steam or of water at a high temperature, in dissolving or 
altering minerals of difficult solatiou. 

16. ThHt the dimensions of the bones of extinct animals should be exprened 
numerically in tables, so as to show the exact relations of their dimensions to 
those of animals now living ; and also to show what combinations of dimeniioiis 
in the same animal no longer exist. 

17. That the following geological queries be proposed; 

1. Are any instances of contorted rocks interposed between strata not 

contorted ? 

2. Is there any instance of secondary rocks being altered in texture or 
quality by contact with gneiss or primary sUtes ? 

3. Is the occurrence of cannel coal generally connected with faults or 
dislocations of the strata ? 

4. What is the nature of the pebbles in the new red sandstone conglo- 
merate in different districts : do they ever consist of granite gneiss, mica- 
slate, chert, millstone, grit, or any other sandstone which can be traced to the 

coal series ? 

18. The attention of residcnte in our remote foreign dqiendeneies is invited 
to the two great questions of comparative geology and paleontology. 1. Is 
there or is there not such a general uniformity of type in the series of rock- 
formations in distant ccuntries, that we must conceive them to have resulted 
from general causes of almost universal prevalence at the same geological Km ? 
2. Are the organic remains of the same geological period speeifically similar la 
very remote districts, and especially under climates actually different ; or are 
they grouped together within narrower boundaries, and under restrictions sa to 
geographical habitats analogous to those which prevail in the actual system of 

19 An examination of the geological structure of the countries oonstitiiting 
the great basin of the Indus, where, if in any part of India, it is supposed a 
complete series of secondary strata may be expected. 

The Committee recommended to the consideration of Zoologista the following 

subjects of inquiry : , * .v • • 

20. The use of horns in the class mammalia ; the reason of their presence m 
the females of some, and their absence in those of other species ; the conn^ioa 
between their development and sexnal periods ; the reason of their being deci- 
duous in some tribes, and persistent in others. . ^ 

21. The use of the lachrymal sinus in certain families of the ruminantia. 

22. The conditions which regnUte the geographical distribution of mam- 

™23. The changes of colour of hair, feathers, and other external parte of ani- 
mals ; how these changes are effected in parte usuaUy considered by anatomisU 

as extra- vascular. , , . j. i. « j 

24 The nature and use of the secretions of certain glands immediately under 
the skin, above the eyes, and over the nostrih!, in certain species of the gralla- 
torcs and natatores ; the nature and use of the secretion of the uropygial gland. 

1 835.] UUcellaiMM». 1 1 9 

25. How lon^ and in what manner can the impregnated era of fishes be pre« 
served, for transportation, without prereating riTification when the spawn is 
returned to water. 

26. Further obeerratiottS on the proposed metamorphosis of decapod cms* 
tacea, with reference to the yiews of Thompsou and Rathkb. 

27. Further observations on the situation of the sexual organs in male spi« 
ders, and on thdr supposed connexion with the palpi. 

28. The use of the antennSB in insects. Are they organs of hearing, of smell, 
or of a peculiar sensation ? 

29. The function of the femoral pores in Usards, and the degree of import- 
ance due to them, as offering characters for classiftoation. 

30. An accurate account of the manner in which the woody fibre of plants is 

31. An investigation of the comparative anatomy of flowerless plants, with a 
view to discover in them the analogy and origin of their organic structure. 

32. The cause of the various colours of plants. 

33. The nature of the faecal excretions of cultivated plants, and of common 
weeds ; the degree in which those excretions are poisonous to the plants that 
yield them or to others ; the most ready means of deoomposing such excretions by 
manarea or other means. 

JUei. (See Journal Asiatic Society, voL II. page 151.) 
FalUng stars. M.*s mode of observing and recording the charac- 
teristic circumstances of these meteors is recommended to notice. ** I take my 
station out of doorsi in a situation which commands a good view of the sky, with 
a mi^ of the heavens spi«ad out before me. When a falliog star appears, 
I mark on the map the point of its oonunenoement, the Hoe of its 
eourse amoag the nearest stars, and the point where it vanished. Thia is done by 
an arrow-line. A number of reference is added, which connects it with a book- 
regbter of the exaot time, magnitode, duration, and other circumstances. Contem- 
porsneooa obs er v a tions at diatant stations are much desired. 

2. — Manilla Indigo, {to called.) 

There has lately appeared in the Calcutta market an article purporting to be 
Indigo from Manilla. The packages containing it are to all appearance Chinese, 
being covered with mate and tied round with split ratans like tea-boxes. A 
sample of this having been sent me in August last, for comparison of quality 
with other Indigo, I caused a portion to be incinerated, and found the ash highly 
fermgtnoos, and weighing 52 per cent, of the whole, — 18 being the greatest per- 
eeatage I had ever found, and that only in refuse Indigo. The specific gravity was 
1-rO. Some of the ash dissolved in muriatic acid afforded a copious precipitate 
to Mur. Barytes, and to Prussiateof Potash. I therefore imagined that the Indigo 
had been precipitated from the vat with a ferruginous alum, and proceeded no fur- 
tiier with its examination. 

Having been however recently favoured with another sample from Mr. C. K. 
RoniBON, under a suspicion that the substance was not Indigo but Prussian Blue, 
I submitted a portion to tests which at once proved the truth of this supposition. 
By digestion in cnustic alkali, hydrocyanic acid may be taken up while the oxyde of 
iron remains behind ; on acidifying the solution and adding to it a drop or two of 
sulphate of iron, the Prussian Blue ia again formed. The readiest test, however, 
is to place a small portion of the suspected matter on a hot coal or iron. If it 
be indigo, a fine purple smoke instantly rises, and it Ukes fire. The Prussiate 
gives off water, and at last burns feebly. It is also much heavier than indigo, but 
its colour, in the cake, is a fine clear blue, rather of a coppery streak. 

It is reported that the article in question was manufactured in America, and 
shipped to France, where Indigo was selling at 14 francs. Being unsaleable, it 
was re-shipped to America, whence it found its way to Canton, where it under- 
went some change, and was brought to Calcutta, and remains to spread alarm 
among our manufacturers of Indigo, at the prospect of a fair competition in the 
blue market they have so long monopolized. — Ed. 

Mtttorologicttl RtgUter. 

Jeitr ^* S»c 


The fiadAia PUUr. 

in, ^Uia. Stiruii, 

Thi Bakhm PiUar 

in TirktU. 

The MauTtd and Deh^opt «/ Kesariak. in 

^narnt punfntl lasts jrsm the 

7 3^(3 5 f j 




No. 39— March, 1835. 

L— ^lieoiM/ 0fa Visit to the Ruins of Simroun, once the rupital of the 
,t Mi$kila province, £y B.H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident in Nipal, 
^ [In a '^tter to the Editor.] 

^ ^ .f ' TRU8T that the <fra,wings aad inscriptions lately sent you from. 

t'-Jlildtti; .Mathiab, Ittdhiah, and K^sariah, will serve to draw attention » 
tomssiiklSa t^oatiiis of Hindu science and power still extant in this 
^firection — the Mithila, or Maithila Dtea of the Sistras, and North 
Bihir of the Moghuls. But it is not merely on the British side of the 
boundary that these astonishing traces of ancient civilization exist ; 
for, in the NipaleseTaraa, also within a few miles of the hills, where 
now (or reeently) the tiger, ^ild boar, and w^ld buffido usurp the soil, 
tnd a deadly malaria infects the atmosphere for three -fourths of the 
year, similar vestiges are to be found. The Nipalese Tarai is synominous 
smongst Europeans with pestilential jungle. It was in the halls of 
Janakpur, however, that the youthful "Riuk sought a bride : it was 
from the battlements of Simroun that the last of the D^va dynasty 
defied so long the imperial arms of Toolak Shah ! 
• But tiie mins of Jandcpur and of Simroun still exist in the Nipalese 
Idw-hmds : and he who would form a just idea of what the Hindus of 
Mithila achieved prior to the advent of the Moslems must bend his 
pilgnni steps fit>m the columns of lUdhiah and of Mathiab, in the 
Bf^tiriijfeerRlbries, to the last but still astonishing vestiges of the cities 
J^iOUXA and Nantupa, in those of Nipal. 
Nipalese Tarai it might justly be -said, until very lately/ 

^ A goodly place it was in days of yore, 
But aomethfaig ails it now : the place is cvried.' 
Five oeatliries of ineessa&t struggle between Moslem bigotry and 
Uiiido r^aliation had indeed stricken this border land with the 

123 Description of the Ruins of Simroun. [Mabch, 

double curse of waste and peatilence. Nature, as it were, in very 
scorn of the vile passions of man, having turned the matchless 
luxuriance of the soil and climate into the means of debarring his fa« 
ture access ! Such was the Nipalese Tara'i until 1816. But since that 
period the peace and alliance existing between the two efficient Go- 
vernments of the hills and the plains have given security to the bor- 
derers, and man is now fast resuming his ancient tenure of this fertile 
region. Still, however, there is little temptation or opportunity for Eu- 
ropeans to enter it ; and as chance recently conducted me past the ruins 
of Simroun, I purpose to give you a hasty sketch of what I saw and 
beard ; because these ruins are evidently disjecta mentbra of the same 
magnificent body to which the mausoleum of K^sriah, and the solitary 
columns of Mathiah, of R&dhiah, and of Bakhra belong. About 15 
miles from the base of the hills, and at a nearly e^ual distance from 
the Bagmatty, south of the former, and west of the latter, stand the 
remains of Simronn, in the Nipalese district of Rotahat, and opposite 
to the Champ£run division of the British zillah of S4run. 

The boundary of N^pal and of our territories confines the ruins to 
the south, and the Jamuni Nadi to the west. On the immediate 
east lies the village of Kachorwa, and on the north, that of Bhag« 
wlnpur, both belonging to N^pal. Here, in the midst of a dense jun« 
gle, 12 miles probably in circuit, rife with malaria* and abounding in 
tigers, wild boar, and spotted axis, are secluded these wonderful traces 
of the olden time. The country around is well cultivated now, both 
on our and the Nipalese side, but no one presumes to disturb the 
slumber of the genius of Simroun ; superstition broods over the taint- 
ed atmosphere ; and the vengeance of K6\i ia announced to the rash 
peasant who would dare to ply an axe, or urge $> plough, within her 
appropriately desolate domain. It was only with difficulty that .my 
elephants could make their way through the j]ingle; and when I had 
reached a central position, and ascended an elevation of some 25 feet« 
composed of the debris of the palace^ nothing b^t a wilderi^eas met my 
eye. Yet it is barely 500 years since Simroun was ^ paUcai forti* 
fied city, the pride and the defence of Mithila ! After the war with 
Nipal, Lieutenant Boilsau, I think, surveyed these ruins, and drew up 
a plan of them. What is become of it, T know not ; and regret that 
vy own opportunity of research was limited to one hasty visit, la 
this, however, I traced the northern wall, in all its extent: measured 
the dimenaiona of the great P6kfa or reservoir caUed Isr£ ; and clam- 
bered to the top of what were once the citadel and the Riini4)4s or 
Mahal Sarai. On my return I had much conversation with an intdli- 
gent Brahman of Bhagwanpur, who toid me that in April and May, 

1885.] An ancient City in the Ntpaleee TkrH. 123 

when the jungle is at its barest state, the form and extent of the city 
may be distinctly traced. From his comnrahications, and from my 
own observations p I gather that the form of the city is a parallelogram, 
smtoonded by an outer and an inner wall, the former of unbamt, the 
latter of bnrnt, brick— "the one having a compass of seven cos, and the 
other, of about £ve cos. 

On the eastern side, six or seven wet ditches may still be traced, 
oatside the pakka wall, and three or four on the western side. The 
hri reservoir or tank is still perfect. It is 333 paces along each 
greater, and 210 along each shorter, face ; and its containing walls or 
sides eonmst of the finest burnt bricks, each of which is a cubit square, 
and nearly a nrnund in weight. 50 to 60 yard^ of causeway, con- 
structed of similar bricks or tiles, are yet entire in the neighbour- 
hood of the palace ; and vestiges of the same causeway, traceable at 
other points, indicate that all the streets of the city were of this careful 
and expenave structure. The remains of the palace, of the citadel, and 
of the temple of the tutelary goddess, exhibit finely carved stone 
basements, with superstructures of the same beautifully moulded and 
polished bricks for which the temples and palaces of the valley of N^- 
pal are so justly celebrated. I measured some of the basement stones, 
and found them each 5 feet long by 1| broad and deep : and yet these 
blocks must have been brought from a distance of 25 miles at least, and 
00fr the lesser rang^ of hills; for, till you come to the second or 
moontaxnous and rocky range, no such material is to be had. 

Some twenty idols, extricated fron the ruins by the pious labour of 
a Gosain, are made of stone, and are superior in sculpture to modem 
specimens of the art. Many of them are much mutilated ; and of 
those which are perfect, I had only time to observe that they bore 
the ordinary attributes of Pur&nic Brahmanism. Not a single in- 
scription has yet been discovered : but wherefore speak of discovery 
where there has been no search ? I noticed four or five pakka wells 
nnmd, and^flnh ha^ng abreast* work about three feet above the ground, 
similar precisely to the wells of this valley. 

What r have called the citadel is styled on the spot the KotwdU 
03bitf«rff, and my palace is the Rdni-bds. The latter has a very cen- 
tral position. The Kotwfli Choutara is in the northern quarter ; and 
the great tank, called Ink Fokri, is about f of a mile from the north- 
east corner of the city waH. As already mentioned, the last is still 
complete : the two former exist only as tumuli, some 20 to 25 feet 
high ; and more or less coated with earth and trees. 
' Hindu tradition, eked out by a couple of Sanscrit slokas, copy of 
whtdh 1 aubjoin, asserta that Kmroun was founded by Nantupa Db'va,' 

E 2 

124 Additional information 4*espeetinff the SdruM [Marcs, 

A. D. 1097 ; that sitf of the dynasty reigned there with great splen- 
dour ; and that the sixtn, by name Hari Sine a Db'ta, was compelled to 
abandon his capital and kingdom, and take refuge in the hills A. D. 
1322. The Moslem annals give 1323 for the date of the destruction 
of Simroun by.ToGLAK Shah. Of the accuracy of the latter date 
there can be no doubt ; nor is the difference between the Musalmin 
and Hindu chronology of the least moment. But, unless Nantufa 
had more than five successors, we cannot place the foundation of Sim- 
roun higher than about 1200 A. D. That is dearly too recent ; and, 
in fact, no part of the tradition can be trusted but that vouched by the 
memorial verses, which only give the date of destruction. 

Memorial V€r$et qf the founding and deeertion qf Simroun* 

The following is a literal translation of these memorial verses : 
' The wealth accumulated by Rajds Rama, Nala, Pururava, and 
Alarka, was preserved in a tank (that of Isri), and guarded by a 
serpent. Nantupa De'va destroyed the serpent ; appropriated the 
wealth ; and built (Simroun) Garh with it. (His descendant) Hari 
SiNHA, compelled by cruel fate, abandoned his beautiful city, and went 
to the hills in the year of the Saka 1245.' 

The kingdom of the D^va dynasty in the plains expired with the 
destruction or desertion of Simroun. It extended from the Kosi to 
the Ganduk, and from the Ganges to the hills of N^pal : at least, such 
were its limits in the days of its greatest splendour, when consequently 
it embraced all the several localities ^m which I have recently for- 
warded to you such signal memorials of Hindu power and science. 

II.— Further particulars of the Sdrun and TirhutLdths, and Account of two 
Buddha Inscriptions found, the one at Bakhra, in Tirhuf, the other ai 
Sdmdth, near Benares. By James Prinsep, Sec. As. Soc. ^c. 

[Read at the Meeting of the 11th March.] 
The following note, from Mr. Hodgson, (alluded to in the preced- 
ing article,) accompanied the drawings of Buddhist monuments, which 
had been promised to the Society in his letter, read at the meeting 
of the 28th May, 1834. 

1 1, Nanyupa. 2, Gawoa. 3, Nara Siitha. 4, Ra'ma Sinha. 5, Saxti 
SiNHA, 6, Hari Simha, all with the cognomen JD^. 

biscriptum, cfv ehe^PeUarat KacUdh/UL tiw Sartm. district 
>6 X ^ 6 vi % t 

J' 1 tA t > A Co X 5^ L <! C >1)HA >l K 1 0- H-f b'X^M >^X 1^1^ 

k^XH^i'H^lxli>()vJLUVlo^i*>yyH^^^xO• if Li- 
ft jT^x ^"^ a cvi.^x6x<r ^i,(x 


X YX I > ?!• 



)^cx>liahi5XCJvo u /xii!+fcj;oAx'btic>;i-(>bxrc J* 1 avi- 

6if 5 uh^ ^pA> A-^^ rx x r r i< 4 

4M ^ & r^ H. 6X)I 1 t \fJ^tL AfiT 

fx£»fXAAM>^ </b J * 1»V C' » Al^;f I"b -H^ j|lXJii+H5®HrrA4^»ifWai?JXHjLfciA>i>^ 

Lb *<IX ±64J,U X ^ X , ^. ^ ^.,u ^ V 

Cjx- d >W OX <i5iWxJl;dd ^A ib^ 


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'ir?X^ A* O^t A ft 6 J- i-1 a 



A.\s bi^^;^X/ ^ <S<i//^i^fe r/ AJ-^^-'-'l^'O^x/taj'l.lJA 

vya/lint-Q and thoSf^ wtuUirvg Uttit«>j»nu44itvervcan/ are, 
uuerUiy wiOt^ a. cant a . 

1835.] and TirkiU PUiars, and other Buddhist Manwnents. 125 

** I bare at last the pleasure to send yon my drawings of the Bakhra eolnmn, 
and tiie Ridhia column, with their inicriptions, and a third of the Kesriah mound, 
surmoanted with its hemispherical temple or Debgope. I trust you will animad- 
vert seyerely upon the barbarous custom of cutting cyphers and names upon these 
ancient monuments — ^if there were any inscription on the Bakhra column, it must 
in this way have been scribbled over and destroyed." 

At one of the very earliest meetings of the Asiatic Society, held on 
the 29th January, 1784, I find by the records, that Mr. Law present- 
ed " A Short Account of Two PiUars to the North of Patna." The 
paper does not seem to have been printed, nor has it been preserved 
among our archives ; we may therefore conclude, that it was of a merely 
diraory nature : nor oould we be certain to which of the three pillars, 
now again brought to our notice by Mr. Hodgson, the remark applied, 
were it not that the Bakhra pillar of Tirhut, and the Ridhia or Arah- 
t£j pillar of S£run bear too palpable evidence of the visit of Euro- 
peans, in the names engraved over the surface of the stone. In the 
former we find the names of C. H. Barlow, 1780, General Baisco 
and others in 1799 ; — in the other at the foot of the original inscrip- 
tion is inscribed the name of Reuben Burrow, 1 792. This practice 
of scribbling over and disfiguring ancient monuments is as barbarous 
as the vain-glory of Jbhanoir, evinced in the zone of Persian cut 
over the Allahabad inscription ; but fortunately in the case of the Bakhra 
column, it seems to have been harmless : for there are no traces of an 
ancient inscription upon it, at least on the parts of the shaft above ground. 
Such N%ari characters as appear in Mr. Hodqson's facsimile are all 
modem, and record merely the names and dates of native visitors as 
gothic as their European precursors. 

It is quite unnecessary, therefore, to give an engraving of the Bakhra 
transcript famished by Mr. Hodgson. The view made by his native 
artist (see PI. VIL) is very faithful, and entirely accords with two already 
is my possession, one hy Mr. R. H. Rattray, the other by Mr. J. 
Stsphbnson*, whose accurate description of the monument, and of the 
marks of an ancient city in the neighhourhood, as well as his discovery 
of a Buddhist image there, form the subject of a very interesting note, 
already submitted to the Society, and to which I shall presently allude. 

Passing then to the R£dhia or Sirun Lkth, which is evidently the 
one alluded to by Mr. Stirling, (and not the Bakhra column, as Mr. 
Hodgson supposed, for the latter bears no inscription,) it is satis- 
factory to discover that this pillar is in very good preservation, 
ahhongh it has lost its capital and surmounting Sinha or lion ; for 

* Dr. Mill has also favored we with a sight of two paintings of the same 
eohnnn made bj a native artist for Mr. J. R. Elpbinstonk in 1814. 

126 Inscripticfn on th» Rddhia Colnmn. [March/ 

it bean a long inacnption in the Allahabad character. No. I , which» 
upon a careful comparison with the f^atea of the 7th volunie of Re* 
eearches, is also identical with that of FIroz'h hkth : bo that we are 
now in possession of four copies of the same inscription, three of 
then) perfect, viz. the Delhi, the Mattiah, and the present one, and 
that of Allahabad mutilated. The dimensions of the Ridhia L^tb, are 
thus given by Mr. Hodgson's artist : (see PI. VII.) 

ft. in. 

Height from the groand to the top of the shaft, » 39 

Circumference at the base, U 2 

Ditto, at the summit, 8 

Its locality is described in the Persian memorandum as in the village 
of Purma, Ui^y near Arahrqf, f^^J^^ ziU&h SAnui. I find m Autow- 
sMiTit's map, a place called Purownah, )>etween Gorafchpur and Bet- 
tiah, which may probably be the spot indicated ; for Mr. Hodgson 
himself states it to be at R&dhia, near Arahraj-Mah£deva, in the dis- 
trict of M&jhuah, in the zemindary of Bettiah, (Jocr. Vol. UI. p. 4S3.) 

Mattiah, the site of the third pillar, is, by the map, a good way far- 
ther to the north. 

In my notice on the ktter pillar I meiitibned that it wanted the la^t 
^ven lines of the Delhi version.' The same omission occnrs in 
the present copy; which corresponds also in some other respects 
with its neighbour, such as in having double letters, or letters super- 
posed where tbey are single on Fi/aoz's Lath : — in having the JiaUr 
moon letter in lien of the triangle ; in the, frequent omisaioa of the 
iiiitial letter ^» aad the addition of the final inflection t (See Vol. III. 
p. 486). The suggested order of the reading, on Pi^eos's Lith, namely 
North, West, South, East, is also confirmed. 

Being now in a condition to correct the few errors of the Delhi 
version, by collation with two other, and in many .parts with three, 
authentic texts* I propose immediately to iithc^graph a reviaed copy 
of it, to aasist in the elucidation of liitt vary ourioiis aaoniiment of an* . 
tiquity ; while, in the meantime, I now aimex a facaimiie of the Sinm 
version, (PI. VIII.) with interlineary notes of its chief vslriations from 
the standard text, to be consulted in any (^ase of disputed reading. 

With regard to the architecture of these columns, it has been point- 
ed out to me» that Lieut. Hurt's drawing of the. Allahabad columfi did 
not render justice to the crnaaientxil work on its capital, whk^ kaa a 
decidedly Greek appearance. That officer pimea also in error (as- waa 
suspected by Mr. Hobosok) in supposing the mutilated figure on the 
snmmit to have been a hulL I have been favored with tiie following 
note on the subject from Lient. Kittob, whoae arefaitectiiral taste and 

1835.] Farther parUculars t^ the AUahahad Column. 127 

peculnur study of the ornaments of Hindu and Mahanunedan buildings 
in such parts of India as he has visited, will* we may hope, hereafter 
oootribute to our better acquaintance with the detail of oriental 
architecture of various epochs. 

.'* On pemnng No. 27 of thfi Asiatic Society's Journal, for March, 1834, I ob« 
•enred a long treatise on the Allahabad colnmn, which hsa been lying partly buried 
since 1804, when wantonly taken down by that enemy to Hindustani architec- 
ture, Colonel Ktd, at which time the capital of it (of which I am about to treat) 
was destroyed. 

" I obtained my infbrmation from a very old inhabitant, a Musalman cUssie, 
who had seen the obelisk erect, opposite the inner gate-way of the Jumni Dor- 
wix£ ; he informed me, that a figure of a lion was on the capital before it was 

. *' I aoa flovry to s^, thai f ram absorption of damp and saltpetre, the ottler erust 
fa fiwii caking off, earrying the iascriptionA with it ; thoogh, at the fiat of the 
comi^andant of the garrison, a workiagparty of a couple of hundred sipahis could 
he sent and the colnmn placed on stone trucks, or on logs of wood cut for the pur- 
pose, and thereby be saved from further destruction. 

" My attention was first drawn towards this monument of antiquity by the un- 
c<mnnon ornament on the periphery of the mutilated capital, of which I enclose a 
rongh though correct sketch, (fig. 4, Plate IX.) and upon examination, I found that 
Lt. Bear's bnll was once a figwn ofalioacouohant) the daws in each paw being very 
plain ; and the square ahape in which the chest is cut between the forelegs, led ma 
to a supposition that there had been a like figure to the colossal representation of 
the lion and elephant on the bridge at Jaunpur, and which was found in the ruins 
of the fort there, during the repairs of the bridge by Capt. McPhbrson, who 
placed it on a pedestal — {W acceptable t will at a ^ture period send a drawing aud 
desoriptlofl of it*.) I am the moM convinced of the correctness of my conclusion, 
siyce the peraid^ of Oetoher'a number ol A. S. Joonml,^ in wUch a dnNring and 
dsscrqfition of the BlattiAh Utth is given, on which precisely the same figure occurs, 
the elephant excepted. 

" The ornaments on the periphery of the block will be found to resemble those 
comdion in the dmarecta of Grecian cornices ; the astragal or beading of it is also 
of common occurrence in Grecian and Roman architecture. 

** On eowparing Lient. BiraT*a copy of the ehioractfer No. 1, 1 observed several 
errora in tiie shape of the lettarsr, and in their actual number ; this however has be- 
covM «f no moment sinee your discovery, that the three inscriptions of the Delhi, 
Prjrag,. and Mattiah pillars are each other's facsimiles. 

'* However, there is one omission, I consider, of great importance; — that of the 
iaterlineation of nearly the whole character No. 1, with one more modem, like un- 
to 1^0. % and which may probably be a translation into Sanscrit of the former ; 
itn cut «r rather dotted in a very rough knanner, and in some places the letters join 
i^lo those of No. I, to whioh I attribute tlie arrore in the copy of that character. 

*' I shall hcrrconclndeby ramarkoig, thai the number of HneaeSaoedby Jbhan- 
ciR's pedigraa are seven, by correct measurement ; whereas three are the number 
mentioned : this may probably be a misprint." 

• We shall esteem tUs a fisvor. Ther^ was however no elephant on the Al* 
lahahsd oolama.— Ed, 

128 Account of the Ruins in the Neighbourhood of Bukhra. [Mabcs, 

The most important fact in the above note, namely, that of the ancient 
ioecription No. 1 , being interlined mtk a mora modern ehsaeftar, wmm 
not adverted to by Lievtenant Bort, in hia account of the pStf . I 
acoof^ingly requested our asaociate, Mr. Waltui £wbb» of Attn^abad, 
to re-examine the pillar, and hia re^, reoeired a ftw days aiaoa, aqv, 
•■^^Troe enough, the unknown cfaaraoler is intediaedtraieA 8mmkni, ^Aieh 
la the least distitnet, and appears to be the older of the two.'* It ta 
posaible they may prove to be ocmtemporaaeiias, and there ivifl be 
•B end of the mystery which has hitherto hung over. this writing. 
Mr. Ewns haa wsdertaken to make a copy «#» the interiiiMatiOi^ aul 
to oetttfte the other printed inscriptions with the onginal. 

I may here mention, ^at Major Co&vm of the Kngineira faangMn 
m^'iMdte of two more Litfaa in upper Indiar one at Mtasar, nod nno- 
1li«r at PatihAM near JMM. The in-iner. thnogti in a duemfoi eeo- 
dition, km contains a few charaetere : of both we may hope to obCaift 
Ivirther partimd&rs in a short time. 

I now return to the Bakhm oolamn, for thn pofpoae pf imnadlntf 
Ing Mr. Staranirfloif'a' deseri^ion of tlM dia eofe rf of an image of 
SndAa in its neighboavfa^KMl. ' Tbe Kmukk momd, ot wiM 
Mr. Honoson \u» lAtfo fstvored ns with a drawing (Fl. VII. fig. B;) 
IS slta«ted aboat M miles to the noith of BaUira, in sight of ibo 
river Cfandttk. 

III.— RfcurHMi to the Ruiko ond Site of on Anei&nt Ckf near BdUrv, 
19 cos north of Patno, and site north from Binghea. (Extracted from 
the Journal of Mr. J. Stbprbnson.) 

[Read to the Asiatic Society on the 14th January, 1835. * 

Near to this village are the remains of a mound of solid hrick-work, 
about 40 feet higb, and about the sane diameter ait the haae : on the 
top are two Musahnan tempos and the tomb of a saipst, whose name 
I was told is Mtr-Abdulla, dead about 250 years ago* On the side 
of the mound fronting the south, a large Burr tree rears its lofi^ )iniadi- 
jM to a great height, and supported by about 30 trunks* forming n ooo| 
fileasant shade to the Musahnan devotees* A little totbt northnva 
tiie rains of a large fort of an oUong shiipo» one side of whieh ta&M 
1000 yards in length. It is surrounded by a ditch, at thtaseuacm filled 
with water fend jungle grass. Its ekivatian above tlie oDmmon- level 
of the country is from 6 to 8 feet, and it appeara to have been endirsly 
Vttilt of brick— « circumstance of which the native Hindus have taken 


1 835.] DeBcrijjftum of the Sakkra colunm. 1 29 

•iTHitage to build a temple on the Mmth end of the rnins. whidi 
appere aboi^ half finished. The monod and fort are no doabt eoe* 
^ vkk each other, and of oonsideraUe nntiqnity, for no traditioi^ 
nitta^ that can be depended upon coDceming their origin. 

At 9^» armed at a Teararfcabie piUar, and he^e of bridt mbbMu 
TWs eapeib monnaient ia the only renaiae of former grmadenr» that 
has escaped the ravages of time, owing to the solidity of ita strootafa. 
The smooth pohahed shaft is an immense sdid block of a smatt grain- 
ed, jreddish ooloored sandalone. surmounted by a singular and bean* 
tiful sculptured capital, on n^iieh rests a square tabular block* saHKurt- 
iag n wdl aodiptured Hon in a sitting posture* ol tha saoM aMierial. 
Jhm pilkr seems to have no pedestal, thcmgh from the soft and aU»> 
vial nature of the ground, on which it itands, it is reaaonabk to sup* 
pose, that it must have sunk and buried itself deep in tha soil*. If a 
pert of the earth was removed by d^^ging roand tha pvesent base, ita 
psdaatdL mi^ be diseovered» and its real height aaeurately dalermin- 
ad. It ia also prohaUe» that if it ever had a pedestal, an inseriptioa 
Irig^kafonod, whiah would throw light on Ha preaeot obscure hia* 
tory : I have no doubt but it ia anteiinr to the mounds of brick rub- 
Wah by which it ia surrounded, and which extends for the space of 
several square mOes in all directions. The numerous magnifioent 
(though dd) tanks, amounting to about 50 in number, large and small, 
strengthen the general opinion that this place is the site of a large 
dty, at a remote period inhabited by a numerous and civilised weal« 
tky people. I found the dimenuons of this pillar to be as follows : 

UtifSk ai wkrnik, .16 fost 

Aom tlM top of tbe shaft to the top of the lion's hMi4, .'.6 do. 

Tbtslhoght i 32 do. 

Cbeunfereaee of shift, four fbet from the gumnd,. . . • • lU do* 

8neh are the preset dimensions, but I have no doubt but half ita 
hrfglit is at present buried in the ground. 

The aealptmfe ie better than the Egyptian, and tha general «ppMu> 

anoe strikitag and geod. On the shaft are cut the namea of a number 

of luropealM who had from time to time viAed the spot. Tha 

aafive jMune for the piBars is Bh^ SM ka Lait^a^ Ldik, mr CMdt 

filHiAy, Bniw StNB's walking stick: The following traditioQ ia 

pievalent amongst the natives of Baisor and BtMru. I bad it told me 

by sevenA, v^hout deviation. 

** Tw^ th^iJMd yeste ago Mfed BMm Bink $kt^§rmi. ThopOlir vasassdby 
haa as a wdkhir stieki by which he fippwrtsd himself whea oarryiag a iHgs tree 

« a(r. llAtTftAT informs me that aa excaration wu earn auida t^ lis hese, 
hat ao inicr^OB was disooversd.— En. 


ISO Account of the Bakkra coZ«Mf», aml« [Maboh, 

on his shoulder m a 6Aiiii^,'Udeii with two hilli. The bhaagi howonv bfroh* 
with the weight near to the spot where the pillar itands, aikd two hills or mowidB 
were there left by Bkim Sink, and remain to the present day« and are to be 
■een, one near the pillar, the other at a distance of a few hundred yards. 

'' Many years after this happened, the spirit of the place appeared to a Bengali 
in a dream, and informed him that there was immense treasure bnried under 
the pillar in copper handU or yessels bonnd with chains. The spirit re- 
quested him to take a journey or pi^rimage to tha spot and possess it. The 
Bengdli travelled to the place, and found the pillar a few feet abp^e the ground^ 
in the middle of a large jangle, inhabited by wUd beasts of every description. 
However, notwithstanding the danger, he began to clear away the jungle, and dig 
for the treasure. At a great depth, he came to a well or small tank, on the sur- 
face of which floated a large silver chohi (or seat), and through a hole in the 
middle, the pillar descends down into the water to an unknown depth. By tin 
side of the well are stationed two twAmt ()Mgt black bees), tlie siM of a nMua*« 
fist, to protect the plaoe and treasure. The Bengali entered tiiis vanetuary, dis- 
appeared, and was never heard of more. The pillar after this affair rose to the 
height of two t&di trees, and has since been sinking at the rate of an inch an- 
nually. Many years after the Bengali's disappearance, an English gentleman came 
to the place and dag down to discover the base of the pillar, but when he came to 
the silver Chohi he was attacked by two stpdnu, one of wldeh stung and killed 
him on the spot : since that time, no one dare venture to dig below tiie pfflatt 
which has subsequently remaised uumolestied.'* 

It is ea&y to reconcile aome parts, of this tradidoQ with naiurtd cans* 
ee. For instance* thajt the place has at no distant period be^ a 
jungle, inhabited by wild beasta, ia very probable ; for eeveral that have 
been known to avoid the habitations of man are aow foand on the 
qMt, nnwilling to quit their ancient haunts. On the elevated part of 
a heap of brick mbbiah a porcupine has now its den : four .holes lead t9 
its tenement, which is situated at a great depth b^ow* The qnantitgr 
of earth and brick xabbidh this animal had throwq to .the snr&ee 
night strengthen the idea that the den had been made by a lai^er anU 
mal, had it not been frequently seen by the na^vea who live close lo 
the spot, one of whom endeavoured to capture the atiimalt* but his fbr- 
midable armour proved too sharp for the man s hands «tnd arms, and 
he escaped into his den with the loss of a few quills^ which I purchased * 
of the hardy hunter for a few pice. 

A few yards to the north of the pillar stands a mound or tnmoluA 
of solid brick*work, of- a conical shape, similar to the one* abate de- 
scribed, near Bassar : the top is surmounted by a large pipal tree, to idl 
appearance many centuries old. The outward parts of this moatMl 
are dilapidated by time. The bricks it has been built with are a foot 
square, and have been well burnt ; mud has been used' in place of 
xportar. On the north side an excavation has been made to the very 
centre, by a doctor (as I was informed), resident at Mozafferpur^ 30 

1M50 rf ike Imaf$o/ BmUka dktwired near it. 131 

yean ngo^ whose name I eodd not aacevtain* Hie doctor, however, 
(fteeording to a-natfTe't aceoant, who aasiated in the work,) found no 
treasore, hut only a welt of great depth, sitnated immediately under 
^e centre, which I could not find nny vestige of, although I made a 
search for it. At present a Hindu Faqir has availed himself of 
the doctor's kihours hy converting the extremity of the excavation into 
ft plafie of worahtp, making a few tm^es of olay, and fixing them to 
Aa aides of the cavity. 

One of th'e^e images, coloured hkck, attracted my notice from its 
Angular grotesque appearance : on closer inspection, I discovered 
that the lower part was of stone, finely sculptured, and altogether 
difoent j&om the i^per which I found to he made of clay. I sue- 
aeeded m parcfassing the deity from the Faqir for two rupees, and 
aftar wmMmg, picking, and separating the oatward covering of clay, 
in an adjoining tank, a fragment of beautlf\al ancient sculpture was 
hrooght to lig^ht. On further inquiry, the Faqir's artfulness was 
detected by a person present, who recognized the fragment to have 
been loond by the semindar of the place when digging among the 
miiw fof brieks lo biiiM lus present /M^ia boiise« a few hundred yards 
distant. This fragment of scalptnre r e pr e sents the lower part of a 
flgnre of Bvddba, dfting cross-legged, according tx» the custom of the 
last, witb the anM restiiig acrMs the apper pajt ci the thigh. On 
Ike s4la» of ^o feet (which are turned up), and on the palm of the left 
handr ia Tepresented the lotus fiower*. The back of thifr fragment is 
beaHtfidiy sca^tmred^ withtwo lions standing in an erect position, np* 
Oh tM defihants. On each side of the base is cut a lion half con* 
climit with a small female figure hi the centre. The stone is the same 
as Ihat of <he pillar, viz. a red fine grained sandstone^ very hard. On 
the lowest part of the fragment is an inscription in Sanscrit, which 
the ftn^ts of this pait of the country cannot as yet decypher. 

I have' no doubt bttt this ftvigment is coeval with the pillar, if not 
eonnected with its history. 

Kote 6n the above hy /, P. 

The mutilated image thus fortuitously rescued by Mr.'SrisPHBNaoir^ 
and by him presented to the Asiatic Society, is represented in Plate IX. 
The inscription around the pedestal, whidi had baffled the pandits of 
Tiihnt, excited considerable eoriosity on its exhibition to the Society, 
from the circumstance of none of the ancient Buddhist images in our 
araseum, whether from Benares or from the Bh&gelpur hlllB, possessing 
auoh a eharacteristic. 

• The emblem ahrsyt bomS by a Chakravarttt, or oDiTertal sorereigQ, sad 
ft f scHori by Baadbiu-fBa. 

IBS ■ Ncie-onike InscriptimwthePedetial [MhWCUi 

. A singular coincidence shortly- tfytr aenred very materially to in* 
crease the interest thus raised regarding this short aadotiberwise 
trivial inscription. 

. It may not be generally known to the members of the Society* that 
some of my Benares friends. Captain THonnssT, Secretary of the San- 
sorit College, Major Grant, andlieut. Aj.BXiufDx& CiminKORAif» 
of the Engineers, stimulated by the success of General VxKTC7iuk'& opera- 
tions in the Panjib, have nndertaken at joint expence with myself to 
9pcn carefolly the large 9uddhist. monument at 86xu&tk\ so frequently 
aUnded to in the Asiatic Besearebes. wherein it is oonjectmred from 
the evidence of some ancient inscriptions on copper, dug np near the 
Bpot> to have beea'Creoted by the sons of Bhupfla, a Eij/k of Gaur, ia 

the eleventh eenturyt* 

Lieut. .CnNKiN<iftAMi< who i» still zealonaly occupied in this inteneaft* 
ii^ work, at saeh moments as his official dolies will permit, has him- 
self promised me a full aoeeunt of his operationa, when the wk<de shall 
be completed j but he haa permtted me to aalicipate him in mention* 
ingthesul^jectlamiiow about^^o^introdgce, jihotddl i^r^ 
nish a full explanation; which the sequel will prove to be the case. 

At the depth then of ten feet and a half from the summft of the 
stone building, he extracted a slab of stone 28^ inches long, 13 inches 
broad,by 4|- thick, bearing an inscription in an ancient form of Devan£- 
gari, of which, after referring in vain to the Pandits of the degenerate 
K£si, he sent me an exact facsimile by dak. 

The stone was found lying with its head to the south- wegt> amQng 
the bricks and mud. It is of a pinkish hue, and all the letters are ia 
excellent preservation. 

Lieut. Cunningham remarked the similarity of some of the forma, 
to the Sanscrit of the Manikyala coins, Plate XXI. figs. I0» II; and to 
some letters of the Allahabad inscription, No. 2. in the second volume. 

The facsimile, (represented on a smaller scale in fig. 2 of Plate 
IX,) reached me, as I havebefore stated, while the Tirhut image was under 
examination, and it immediately struck me from one or two prominent 
letters, as well as from the general appearance of the whole, that the 

• It must not be supposed, tliat in this enterprize, the feeliaas of the natiTes 
In any way offended. The Hindns are quite unconcerned about the tope, and 
the two sects of Jains in Benares, who are' now at variance with each other, had 
joined in requesting me to open the building at their ezpencer that it miglit 
be ascertained 16 whioh party (Digambati ar Swataaabarl) the enoleeedlBi^e miglit 
belong. My depaiisre from Benares alone prereated my satisf^iBg tiinr cariofity 
in 1830. 

t See As. Res. vol. iz. pp. 74, 203 ; z. 130. 

l88iS.} efthe Budiktt Image fr&m Tirhai. 183 

two invcripdoiis were sabstaiitially the wme. although the characters 
of the two ditfered aa much from one another as the Nigarf from the 
Bengali alphabet. Upon shewing them to Gotimd Ram Shastri, Mn 
Wilson'b intelligent Ptodit and comparing the letters with the Tibetan 
and Gya forma of the Sansmt alphabet, the identity of the two was 
confirmed* and sevend words made out, among them the titles " 7\t* 
ihigata and Maha SrmmMa/* both of an important Banddha accepta* 
tion ; bot Uie context was devoid of meaning. The Pandit's meritorioos 
eflbrtftwere communicated to omrleamed Vice-President, Br. Mill, who» 
leeognizing at once the form of the ancient dk, a semiluoate letter, which 
Ind been taicen for mv, was enabled to complete and give the trae meaning 
of the inscription, with the exception of the initial word, which (in con* 
sequence of the stroke at the commencement) waa read iv«r hie, in the 
Siffv6k version, aiidi;w, in the other sentenea, instead of i> qui, in both. 
This mistake led to the reading of the word V^t prabhttvo in the atn- 
gnlar, in lieu of HWVT ki ttf# ptnral, and eonnecting with it the word 
ii?S as part of the oouapOQiid instead of tfHT Beparately> thus : ' 

the interpretation of which was thus given by Dr. Mill : 
'" " This is the generative source of the cause of meritorious du- 
ties. For the cause of these hath Tathaoata [or Buddha] declared. 
Bat as to what is the opposing principle of these, that likewise doth 
the Maha Sram ana [the great ascetic], declare.*' 

The Tirhut inscription was' found to differ only from the other in 
the substitution of two ;entirely synonymous words, the transposition 
of two others, and the omission of the particle hi ** for," united to 
avadat in the second line. The translation of the passage was precisely 
the same. Introducing the corrections subsequently made, (as it is 
unnecessary to repeat the reading in its imperfect state) the text of the 
Tirhut image will stand thus in the modern Devan£gar£ character : 

We shall come to the corrected translation presently. 

It waa remarked that the latter part of the passage being in the 
present tense, as compared to avudat and uvdcha in the former part« 
seemed to imply a continuation of the aentence ; or, at any rate, left 
soBwthii^g ineoneliiaive and onsatisfiaetory in the translation. 

TkB eorannajbaBbe, hoycever , of two scalptnted inscriptions foond «i 
distant places in terma of the same import* though varying in phrase 

1 34 Origind of the Swmdth and Tirkut [Marcv, 

and in form of letter so xnntki as to ]NroTe that one was by no means a 
mere copy of the other, saggestod -to* my mind, that they must 
assaredly contain some yiery common text from the Bauddha scriptures, 
and I accordingly hastened to enqaire of my friend Mr. Csom ▲ na 
KdaoB, whether he had met with any similar passage, in his extensile 
examination of the Tibetan yolumes. 

-' He did not at first recognize it, but pronxiised to bear it in mind ; and 
sure enough, in the course of a few days, Mr. Csoma brought me the 
pleasing intelligence that he had discovered the very sentence, agreeing 
word for word with the S£rnath version, in three volumes of the Kah* 
gyur collection ^ being in Tibetan cliaradten, according to their mode 
of writing Sanscrit, and without translation. Moreover on referring 
to the corresponding Sanscrit originala, in the Lintsha and in the 
modem Devanfig;arf copies of the same* work (forming part of the trea- 
sures of Bauddha literature** made known to the world by our associate 
Mr. B. H. KoDdsofi) no less than fifteen examples were brought to 
light, of the verbatim introduction of the same text. 
. In all these instances it was found< to occur as a kind of peroration, 
or concluding paragraph at the end of a volume. Thus, it is introdu- 
ced at the terjxun^tion of the firat, seeondi and thind khnmda ttf lihe 
Prajna Paramita, (Tib. Sher-ehinJ each containing 25.000 s/oibot ; and 
again, at the^ad of the 5th khand^, • which is an epitome of the aatu 
wkoirlkd, or 100,000 slokas, contained in the four preceding sections'^. 
In the Tibetan version the sentence is somettmes the word 
X^^<V bib-^, a contraction fcr. X^^f*^ Wtr«-#Wr, •• blessing, gloryf." 
and sometimes by its Sanscrit e^ivakot in Tibetan characters 
*f«;«l^, fMngnlam. 

Something however wks still wanting to remove the ambiguity 
of the abbreviated sentence, and this Mr* (2aoiiiLi aeate and assiduous 
rese^fch-' soon enabled him to supply ; for in the s|e^ Do class of the 
Kah-gyur, vol. i^ or 9, leaf 5 10, he was so fortunate as to meet wiA the 
"same passage connected with another Sanscrit sloka, in the Tibetan 
character, and followed immediately by a faithful ttanslation into the 
latter language. 

As the development of the passage has thus acquired importance, 
Mr. Csoma has obligingly transcribed the whole from the Tibetan vo- 
Inme, first in Sanscrit, and below in Tibetan, with a Utecal veraieii ia 
Ike Roflsan character. 

• See Mr. Wilson's eeeoaat of the Kah-gyup. GLaANnroa, wol, iSL ptfa 
t43» sad JouawAL, rol. k 
t See Cboma's TibeUa Grammar, pa^ 24. 

Imagt of BuddAa, 

«^y (n At tie^Aiti!**^' 0f du BaJckrci LdtJt. in Ttrhai 
with *n iiucrtfiCum en. tJiAfitdestal 

Intc-tfiUnn cyi a, St^tf cxtrtuUd Jrwm tJu Sdmdik Tap*, near Benares. 

huerlJtUtn t*i. « rack aj the Mandant HiU- neai- B^a^e^ur 

(HummMit/ a 

Am: Xd^. 

'?' I^Y 



. » • • — * » » 

' ' »• 

» • • • 

■^ ■ • 

1S35.] Imcrifiumifmd in ike Bauddha Scr^iures. 135 

Smuerii nnkm m Tibetam eharmeten* 

Y^ dharmi h^ta prabhav£, h^tun t^shaA Tathagat6 hyavadat, 
T^h£d[ cha yo nirodha, hvvm ySAi Mab4 Shramanaa. 
Sarva papasyikarant (? am), kushalasyopasapradam, 
Sva chittam paridamanum, ^tad Baddh^nushisaDam. 

Chhos mams tham« chad rgyu las byung, 
D€ rgya de-5zbin ^sbegs^pas ^sung, 
J2gya-la Agog-pa gang yin-pa, 
J7di akad ^aDg«va ifge-<byong chb^ : 
JSdigpa cbi yang mi bya st^ ; 
Dg^-va phun sum Ubogs-par Bpyad ; 
Rang-gi semani yopga-Bu ^dol ; 
SaDgB-rgyaa tetan-pa ildi yin*no. 

Here then was the solution of tbe enigma. Tbe sentence thus fre- 
quently repeated was the preamble to the quaint compendium of the 
Buddhist doctrines, which was so universally known to the professors 
of this £uth that it was no more necessary to repeat it on all occasions 
than it would be to insert the ghria patri at the end of each psalm in 
our own ritual. The sense was now seen to run on from the present 
tense of the second part of the sentence to the maxims which follow- 
ed : and the whole passage was thus literally and intelligibly rendered 
from the Tibetan by Mr. Csoma dk Koaos. 

" Whatever moral (or human) actions arise from some cause, 
The cause of them has been declared by Tathaqata : 
What is the check to these actions, 

* In the last two lines of this yenion M. Csoma proposes to read ^ ;q* x* t^ 
^itttrtnum, iy«s ^ mm^^&dam^ and u ^* ^ if ^^ puridamatutm, which 

accord hetter with the tense of the Tihetan Tersion. The marks for t and am 
^ are nearly similar, and are often misprinted in the Tibetan books : so also 
the solqoiaed r ^ Is often confooaded with the vowel mark d q. 

U6 OHfmal qf the Sdrnaii u»d TkrkU CHmcii^ 

Is thus set forth by the great SaAMAMiijB. 

* No vice is to be eommitted ; 

Every Tirtae ratnt be pertetly pimcHsed : 

The mind must be brought under entire M^ectioD ; 

This is the coimnandineiit of Bvddb a/ " ' . 

Tt is unfortunate that the Sanscrit • text of the nond maxim 
has not been any -where found in the LanM copy of iMe Fh^ni A- 
rimita. Its authenticity rests, therefore, solely on the Hbetaii veiiion, 
in wbicl^ there is apparently some error ; for the sentence, as it stands^ 
is not pure Sanscrit, and certainly wiU not bear the interpretatioa 
which Mr. Csoma has givea- literally hook the vemacular translation 
of Tibet. Dr. has favored poe with ^om^ valuable; obserratapna on 
the passage, which, with his permission, I hiere AAsert. Mr. UopoaoN 
will doubtless be able to* confinh the true readtog by cD«solting the 

Sanscrit original of the ^t|Q'tt3^*Q^'t^Q^«*^Ql^ dPah-var 
Agrovahi tiiig6 Adsin (Sans, ihirongama stmddlv^^Xh^ befqical extasy), 
which may atill exist in aom« of the n)onaiM:eries of N^pal. 

<< ThektersslCnKdUeowrf of tbspsissscli>tl>« B«d4U8tsacre4 booksliroaa wh»h 
the Siraitoh insoriptian k Hdcea, by M. Cs^ma ^aXda&s, rsDioyes«4l4«tibt«a«a 
the jresdiog of the first word which I anfortaoAtel/ took for the demautruiw^ 
proBOttA wr4, whereas it. is lite rfhtitt % to which the if^ in the next line 
refers. It.foUowa tiM^t the aext ^crd ^f[f sheald be resd t^^siffy Aom 
the compoaad ^ JMW lt which is of course- plwsL M. Csoma's venioa is 

here perfectly sgreeaUe to the Sanscrit; and my trSodittoa of tiie former half 
of this lentenoe retpiirea to be eorrectcd'byUs. 

I am by iM> meaaa equally well eatiafied with the otket sentence qfaoted by M* 
CsoiffA as fbllowini; the former in 9ome of the places where it occnra in the Bud- 
dhist acripturea : the Safiscrlt text of which is certainly corrupted In the copies he 
citea, and, except in the last line, exhibita no aentence coiVeaponding \A fdrm to hia 
Latin or Eogliah version. I have alao very considerable doubt of the accuracy 
of the opinion, that tbla second atansa ia the clue to the SUj^posed enSg^'-iftthe 
first, or necessary in any respect to complete its meaning. That it is even the 
object of reference in the former stanza, appears to me doubtful. The occurrence 
of the former passage, — not only in the two several inscriptions of BenureB and 
Tirhut, by itselft-^hnt at the end of chapters in the places you pointed •ut'to me 
from M. Csoma' 8 Lantsli MSS«, seem to indicate that it has fkcon^iele measi^ig 
in itoelf I and the ^ '' thus** oi; ** alike" of the fourth Une may as. well he 

understood with reference to the preceding clause, as to any aenteuce following. 
The metrical structure of the two passages confirms me in the idea of their indepen- 
dency : the latter being in the ordinary Antistup measure, with about the same, 
degree of license as we find that measure in the FurAnas : whereaa tha fohner, 
though approximating in places to the measure of eight syllables, is us remote 
from the rules of Valmiki's sloka as are the hymns of the Vedaa : and it ia equaliyi 
irreducible to the laws of the A*fya or any more modern poetical measure. 

In the translation of the latter passage, I would advert particularly to the Une 
which M. Csoma has translated, * Every virtue most be practised.' I do not aee how 

1835.] InBcripihuki found in the Bauddha Scripiwres. 1 37 

l Ou i —it tWwBnrfwadpJtOli »6TWM»i»waipy. IVftMt word, ihitai^Hy«, 
meaiM * of felicity/ or else, ' of skill and cleTerneBs :' while the other 
word, which, coalescing with haalawya, makes up the whole line, is certainly not 
Sanscrit in its present state ; forth^e is not, and eannot be, any such compound as 
^-q^K^. By making the tww last kilers ^^x i. «. nyodlnr instead of prmdamt 

(which howvTer mbhk dear fas the Tibetsn ehamter), wd raadmg the last 
word of the irst fine ircir i**<=^*<^o^ <VCfir« I oVtii« the Meaning^ 
rf l»^hg jhrtbwwaftum pit ■oi»^doit^] aarin^ g rA»4il<giiwnil t^/<tfci».* 
. JL^ ii^fti,:mp^mi «f fcuwy p ^ th qiigh mnch less lurd amoog hrahm^iqnl Uindiui 
^-|9 pf^Hfee4,9Rt in, the ^diia-«rlA«-«ar^ of ^maea-Sinha, who was. himself a 
tii^idhtst, in the following Une, {itMa, lib. iii. c. 4, a. 23, L 206,) which may 
fhrnish ns with an approximation in ultimste meaning, thongh not in the itmcture 
oFttc^teatence, to the TEbetan ekplanatloti giren by M. Cboma. 

'^^ Kbcottpf&hment, happiness, holineis : iti these three meanings t^ the ^entei^ 
rtte HirtlhwfcnmeBlyniidertieod.*» ' . ' 

^iAcfdtf^4la(lMtbrtliffl».|ihreeffMMb^* thvlof jn(iirM»iirMnD4kl9»«ttdlMiit 
^e. yor^ sy im ^f jfirt is^ j^^t^y lAu5^ th^ ^ud^sl* nse of the term jpoUts onf^ 
*e may render the ^ecojud line in question, 

' ' '•* The adyancementi or hfgh attainment, of jWitity;** * ' ' 

Tb« third Uiie t^ttf Che fmifssimi of tfa^ Mrtovdni df e» the If tgfUh Wo#A 
dM^' ftt^^ 'ksk* i^ gotfd'SilbMrltf' its. ^ Hie s(ibji^$|itlmi of tnie% cm viind,* 
tff t ^^ft<kW > tlikleMr, vetbMng iMsodtitiiM *«« 4Unis4' >the i eUkr moid' 
f^'jMffihiiMaiii t^ pttridknumiyam, Hi, '0^e*s mind #n«rtl)i sArreqprted;* 
if ffiJ rifft^H^^ir . ^ tl^^ ^« choice lies ^iMlTly between lh«e bfO renfiiigs, 
ofWiitdl' dATH^tt^lieir eeenis ^e best, = nnd most accoMant ^th M led Uin, ai wi^r* 
aai ait h il h s i«lat4if Aiinstnp dwa s wre^ .) .^ .' 1. 1 :•> 

'.i«nl9«|»n llten^ rwimp ef b«tl^ the stansM «Bc«)rdij9g l^my soti^A p( .^emt 
dropping however the proposed eme||4Mion of ^i9C% foT^Vipcf^ .^ the &rs^ 
tins ortfaffdsrtter^ old adofptinirae raadmg imnC^ Mprfponad by If. CfeoaiA* 

♦«>_ ^^ ^ *• 'Eonim oue quoa obitaculum «r<i 


Ckuism sonun SfC-PROPBCTU^ttlt 
(Bud<lhM| wi<tfin cktelaimTit. 
9b^ w S^r 1^^' -- ' -^' :Eorum que quoa obitaculum «r<Mf, 

I "''I Piopia'>UMiQsctte*Mii9«Ksa», ' 

j '• ■ ' ' ' " HiM «tt BtTDDlH A^MIplhai* 

l>r/!SiduLi.'B conjectural emendation o^tiie 2nd line or the second of 
titiAt stii'OxUV'liaB been sinc^ unexpectedly confirmed by the Singhalese 

f Tli< vmrd, WKnW9IPa4i Jls tMhni<)4^ f ndnra,^ood of the superior 9.rdf jr ^f the Bud« 

of which, when It had become extinct in Ceylon, ha^fre- 

OMyAMht^f^ihipp^ , 

q^Btttfy^Wsif mvol^eet of-ssHflltnde io tiie^' mote refigloua- of the Candtan mcmardia, 


dcr, xhk 

*'?.' • ' • * I* . ; . ' ,j 1 • > . I ••!»» ' 

}'38 Report an the Island of Soeotra, [MAkca* 

Chrittian coiiTert from Buddhism, Ratna-Pala: who repeats both 

passages in the Pfii or Prjcrit form from memory— describiog ther 

former especially as universally current among the disciples of Buddha. - 

His reading, however, gives upasampadd (Sanscrit v9Mlj^<i: prefect ds) 

in the plural. And in the former passage, that of the inscription, ho 

omits the particle Ai, and instead of the yeih avadat or uvdcha, he reads 

the synouymoas dha. His Pali reading, which will be immediately 

recognized by scholars as good Magadha Pricrit, is as follows : 
'* Ye ihommd hetuppabhavd, Tetdn hetun iathfiyato 
A* ha fesan eha yo nirodha : Evan vddi mahd aamana, 
StUfba pdpasMa akaratHtn : Kugolagsa upasanpadd : 
Sa chittaparidamanaH : Btan BuddhanusdManan, 

but Ratna Pala says that the latter couplet is not necemarily oon- 
nected with the former. On the contrary another series of rerscs ge- 
nerally follows it in the daily service of the Buddhist temples of Ceylon. 
The compendium of the precepts of Buodha certainly occurs in nu- 
merous infttances without the previous couplet. Thus it is inserted in 
the Tibetan version of the saint's letter to RatnavalI, given as one 
of the examples in Mr. Csoma's new Grammar, which will also be 
found among the extracts published in the third volume of this Joce- 
NAL, page &l ; and there would have been no reason to suspect that 
it was implied in the inconclusive sentence eng^vedon the Tirhut and 
S4rnath tablets, had not the actual test been found by our learned 
Hungarian guest, to whose laborious and willing investigation of the 
volumes which are sealed to all but himself, we are mainly indebted 
for this probable if not conclusive solution of the enigma. 
ii ' i '" '* '' ■-■ --- ■ — ■ 

fV. -^Report on the Island of Socotra, By Lieut. J. R. Wsllstkd* 

Indian Navy, Assistant Surveyor, 
The foUowing Report has been compiled from a daily journal, contain. 
fng copious notiees of all that came under my observation^urinfr a deputation 
f»f two months on the klendof Soeotca, ander orders of LieuU HAiNssyOom. 
mending the Pali nurussurveying Brig ; but asUie admission ofminute details, 
fllustratWe of either the condition and obaraoter of the inhabitants^ or the 
productions, topography, &e.of the Island can scarcelf. be deemed neceaaary 
in an effioal paper, similar to that which by myiAstr«tcUonai»i:ef|Mred of me 
in this instance, I haveoonsidered it n e ceo o e r y to eondensetbe whole into as 
brief a space as kae appearod consiateni with • the objects therein .specified, 
notifying at the same time, that I have preserved the original notes, in the 
event of Government requiring either more detailed or extended ij^emuu 
' lion on the various pointa to whieh- my attention has been directed. 

By sepafating the varioaa eubjeets eoDteined in this f»aper into sections 
ander diffnent heada, I trust the Right Honorable the Governor in Coud^ 
dl will be enabled, without wading tknough any extraneous ma^r, to aeek 
at eace the species of information whieh he anay require* 

1 835 .] Report on the Ishtnd of Socutm. 1 OS 

' The lilond of Sbootra aippemn io haire been known it an earlf jieriocl 

to tho andeni geogrmphers. Ptolbht notices it under the appeUatiou of 

Dm Caredis Ins: and Arbian specifies, that the inhabitants of it were su1)« 

jeeted to the authority of the kiags of the Incense Country ; but from this 

period it appears to have sttracteil little attention, and may almost l>e con* 

sidered as lost to Geography, until the risit of Marco Polo in the 13th 

century, who does not however make any particular mention of its inhabi. 

tants or resource?. Vasgo da Gaha, in his memorable voyage from Lisbon to 

Calicut in 1 197, passed Socotra without seeing it ; but seven years after. 

ward«i, it was made known to European navij^Htors by Fernandez Pbbeira ; 

and ALBVQUERguE, at a somewhat later period^ took possession of it. At the 

Ctfmmencement of the i7th.century, when the increasing spirit of commerce 

aad enterpme led several of our squadrons to enter the ports in the Red 

Sea, Socotra was frequently visited for shelter or refreshment; and in con. 

8iM|uence of a general belief during the year 1798, that Buonaparte, who 

MB* then in E^ypt, contemplated a junction of his forces with those of 

Htdbr ALf in India, Commodore Blanket, with a squadron from the Cape 

of Good Hope, was dispatched to take pos^^ession of it*. But notwithstand. 

iag these eeveml visits, our aoooants connected with its inhabitants, ap^ 

pearance and produce, have been vague and eontradidory. By one traveller^ 

Captain Davi«tocn, a notice of whose travels is in my possession, it is oh. 

served, tbict ** its chief produce is aloes, though the annual amount does 

not exceed a ton-^neattle may be bou^t but exceodingly small, according 

to the dry rooky barteanets of the island — wood at 12 pence a mau's 

bvfden, every particular is. a very dear peony worth." By another, it is 

dcsKribed as a populous fruitful island ; that the inhabitauts trade to Goa 

with its produce, viz. fine aloes^ frankincense, ambergris, dragon's blood, 

rice, dates, and coral. 

Inconsistent as these statements appear, there is reason to believe both 
may have described with fidelity that which at the period of their vidt 
was presented before them, independent of the evidence which exists as 
to the former fertility of the island, it is neoeHary to consider, that those 
parts which would be eacpoaed to the view of the paasiag travi^r are mosU 
ly naked limestone, parts of wUch are indeed covered with a soimty spiriak- 
Img of soil, but thatef a ^ality so hard and bad, that it meroty npiuisbes 
a feel^e gnsm, which dries np almosi as wooa as the rain oeates^ whiob may 
have caused it to spring «9rth. Upon our first anrival at Tamorida, ia the 
early pait of /anvary, some recent showers had clothed the hill with a 
fively ^erdufe to the very bate of the gnnite qpires, and the whole looked 
fresh and beautiful'; a month alUrvavds all was parched and barren. 

More than one vessel at difieroRt periods had been dispatched to ax. 
ttnirie the nattire of Its havbowniandaaehofages ; but owing to some cause 
which I cathwt ««pUM, our iafomiatlOB on these points ooald in no h^^er 
deg]^ be depttided <^a Our ignofaaoe on these flabieete strikes us the mora 

• iTiese and the otherscanty ttotlcssftmndia tWs'paper.arsesteaotadfrom boeka 
ttmy possessioa oa bottd; otlie»lai»nntloawlUof conrmbe/oandia worksta 
which I have it not iA my povsr at pvsssat to refec 


140 Rfptri m the IMmi •f Soc9tfm^ [MjRca , 

iUtdUfwhoriretiBiiiidertiMpoiitidaQf 8M0lni,ilt Iflag iitmHf in ^9 
Mutottf tlM trade ii«n Indian by the wsf«ftlM Bad 8m: tlMieBftraiicei^ 
which, it Buiybenidto«oiniiitiidon4heoiiehMid, aai date t* the track 
of oar ships h? the way of tha Ca^ oa the athar~-a paaitlDQ, the advaiu 
tagaa of which under aat anterpriaiiig papulatioii and anlig^tanad goram. 
mant, eoiild searoely hove fkiied at aome period ta hmra farooght it iflta 
great cammeKial notioe and prasparityt In periods of antiqaityy Saaotra 
served as a station for me rchsn ts ; aiid it may ha obaarvad^ that these 
advantages were not. arer^Iaoked by a marittme iiation likrtha Psatti. 
guese. The ports whM raraam in the Tictnity ef Taasaiidft atiU attAt the 
importanee which thiy attaohad to its pasaessioni. hat sinee the dadine af 
their power^at theeandosisD of the stxteanth aantary^'Saeatrahas eoati* 
sued to he disregarded hy Buiopean nations; 

' At the coBMncneemeBt of thia year, variava eauasa combined to render the 
establishment of a ateam oomnuuiioatian batareen India and Europe an ob» 
}eat of general interest, and diaeoasion ; and the attention of Govenunena 
liaeame particdarlydireotad towards this island, along the ahores of whidi 
it-waa aniiicipated, that' soma welLalidtered harbours tt%habe discaverady 
which wOnM aerve bt allaeaaona as a depdt iatr. ooda« Ih order to idetannine 
this point) Gaptafa» Dawal hi tiie Pdhnurtia BnrTaying- Srig waa diraotod 
to preoeed at onaa ta the-ialand, and ia aaoaaata a muMte trigonosnetrieal 
aotveyefits exterior, whaiLaliia attentieii at the aame time was- celled ta 
^' obtahiing the fisUast Ittfonnation nsgardbig^ba gaiiatnuaeflfc, popalatieB« 
proditeei fertility and- qaality of soilv aa well aa the religion^ en8tomsy<man» 
liers, and waakh of Its ahhabitaiitB.V While Captain Hiumm^shoqkL oacopy 
biaiBalf with the former of these dotieSy eoniahig his dieervaliaii to the 
aea coast and its vidaityv I waa directed to.pfaoeed iawarda the interiof 
in osderthat 1 might, from personal obstivratioBi report on the VMona 
abbjects on which Ctovammant waa deairpns<of poesessuag infermBtion^ 

Proridliig myself with oamdii, and agaide, I first jounMyad by4ha iaaati* 
or towards Colesseah, examining the greater part of the weatera pertkas 
of thvidend After condadftng my labaenrations in this neighbonrlisod,^d 
ewBawinioBting with the^Up^ I tetemad to Taamrida.r A ohiaf^ in .the 
mean timaiiiamed U amms fimr TjuaT^aarirad at Oalesseafa^ vko after knvtlKg 
most paaltiTa dkeotioas, prohibitingaar farther»|wagiMss, again left ibr the 
eoatfamot; We were in eensequanee doseljr dsnined ta the town for .a §mr 
days, but I at length gotdearandeamplatadmy aurvey of the weatora and. 
The map Will best exhibit the natare and extant of theee jom«eya, and I 
shaH not enter hito any detail of them here> or mslce any other lamarhn 
than that the Arabs were unceasing in their attempts ta thiaw obsMshai 
iff the Way of my eompletian of it. 

The island ef Soootra ia Of the aiiape of an acute triangle^ having for 
ks ^rertez, a ibt promontory towards the east caMed Ras Maaftser th» 
OMst line on the other side runs in a 8, W. direction, and k nearly straif^ $ 
the geneml direction of the northern fiice is formed by a suacessioiii 
df small bays; the have is also indented by a deep bay. Its length ia 71^ 
miles, and breadth at the broadest part 81^ miles. The whole i&land may 

1635.] Report on the hlani of Soeoira. 141 

bt flW MM effft d us a |iil6 ef mouBteim of nearlj eqmd betgfit^ wfaM are alnMt 
•nnramidtsd by a l<»w phdn, ^xteodiag from thm base to the margin of the 
aea : thia ia of an irregular aridtb, -wymgftom 4 to ladles, excepting tbat 
between Raa Kattanj and Has filiab, where the moimtaian riae vp pcrpen. 
^Keolatiy from the aea, and it there diaappeara altogether* Throngiwat the 
fvheleesteBt of thia belt, witbtbe esoeptionef thoaeparta whioh are watered 
bf tiie moofltaln atreama in their pi e gma towaHa the aea» and aeaitf 
apMCu heitiiaftei' apedftad, the aoOia hard, and of abed qnafity, aaMldoeanet^ 
in Ita pnaent atate, appear Maeeptible of ovdtiTalkHi. The aottthetn aide, 
•hough eoiiahleMibly km ftrtHo than the northeni^ aftirday nevertheleaav <• 
the rmaUr «f ftaa Maasae many of ita preduetioaa ; bat to the weatward, it 
jaaaerid aadbarren aa the went parts of Arabia. There the foroe of the B. 
W. wind has blown the aand np from the aea shore, where it ia ao ilne aa to 
be aanriy impalpable, and foroaed it intos eontinnonarangeof eand hilki 
wMck eHtend paralWto the hoaeh Ibr aefend mllee ] from benee it spreada 
saarthe plhin, and ia ewen iii aome plaeea deposited in vaat qnantittea, at a 
di s ttn cerf three adbsfnulft'tlie eea, atthebaaeof ihemeiiiltaiaBi whiah 
HkfTO ibm »baniar that alone eoidd peeveat it front c h w m w h e l ming the 
Mtnnlahiloftbewbeleishuid^n the nortfarerff side. Thia holt isaloi^, and 
iaooveiad with adirariish bnsh about aix feat in height, tiie foliage of whidh 
ia retained thraugboat the year, and gives to the apaee, wlwn it is gnyw% an 
of being clothed with rerdtira Soehis the appearanoe of the 
; but the high lands eodlibitm great vanety «f aeaand snrfaee. As 
ngenesid remailr; H majr however be bbsdrved, tiut oetbtegdn the N. Bt 
■M»MMMiit praaenfer a s tro n ge r eontradi than the Western and esatOEn pacta 
eftheishnid^whiietiw former is d e ^t nte <rf verdare, has but scanty paa» 
tnnge;. and fan {wWk ihe exeeptfDD of afew places near the aea) no other 
water than that wtihth' is mtained in nataral reservoirs i the latter or eaatenk 
portion i»ftd hff nmnerone streams; its ^rileys nourish Inxutiant grass; lierda 
of eaetlft nre numerous^ nfid the scenery In aome plaeea little Inferior to ttat 
of our own oenRtiy«; ' 

BvKk we moat now, as the most eeotral and lefty, eaaluine the graHite 
Mdge of mountains in the violnitv of Tamarida ; steep v^eys intetaeot 
chahi, divl^Hng It into narrow ridges^ i#hieh extend in a nor^easlerly 
noutliuweaterly'^ivection. Of these the lower pa^ is composed -of a 
ted alvminomr pdrphyry^ and the upper of a coarsegrained grey granite 
wirteh p i totto de e aeveral of ita apires to the height^ aa was ascertained 
by n trigmiomeltrical ndmeasnrement, of five thouaand foot ; the aummit 
of tiMM is eonsequenliy seldom free flrom douds ; but when the weather 
is dear, tlieir appearance is brohen and picturesque. The lower part of 
tbiadbain Is covered with the same dwarfish tree whidi is found on the 
plaina : higher up there is a great variety of trees and aromatic pianta ; but 
the granite spires merefy nourish a light-colored moss, and are deetitute ai 
▼mUttie. Connected with tiie granite range, and extending from it totiie 
& W. there is a lower ridge, averaging in height about 1500 fbet, eonw 
pond af a ctaipaet eream^cdored fimaatene. From this the hills diverge 

J42 R^p&rt on the I$UmA of Soeotra, [March, 

in short ran^ towifrds the aouthem shore : their outline 4s oioslljr Miootlt 
and rounded, excepting on the side nearest to the nea, where it in general 
presents a steep walL The whole of the western and the greater part of 
the eafitem portion of the island is comiHwed of hills similar in their ap^ 
pearance, elevation, and structure to this range. 

As the whole Island of 8.*ootra may be considered as one mass of pri* 
witiye rock, we cannot expect to find it distinguished by any temarloible fer^ 
tility of soil. I yet find it so variedi that it is difflcalt to speak of it in any 
general terms. The summit and sides of the greater part of the mountains^ 
composing the eastern portion of the inland, present in astne phices the 
emooth surface of the reck entirely denuded of soil ; in others the- rain has 
worn the surface into hollows, and other Irregalarities^ in which th«Te ia 
lodged a shallow deposit of light earth, fttrni whence a few shrubs apring 
fiytih. On the sea face of the lttil4> on the northern side of the island^ and 
amidst the siiie^ and devoted regions in the vicinity «f the granite peak^ 
we find a dark rich Tegetable 'mouldy which teams with the most Inxu. 
riant vegetation. In the ttlainrnbout Tamarida^ sotae portions nenr 
Cidhiop, and several beautiful valleys and plains which I crosxed on my 
return from Has Mamse, the soil consists of n reddish •ooleved earthy which 
nouri^es at certain season^ an aliundant supply of grass, -and appears well 
adapted it»r the cultivation of grain, fruits^ or vegetaibles. ia those vallnys 
through whkh the streams flow, there are now only eoctensive grov^ of 
date trees ; but the ejustence of a broad border nf beoutiiul tuif, oodaaional 
envlosures of Dekhan, and (though but rarely) a plantation of indigo of 
cotton y indicate no want of richnees or fertility of the soiL 


Though this island is situated bat a siMrt distance irom the eon* 
tinents «f Arabia and Africa,- and is in fisct on the same pandlel with 
their most pardied and framing plains, yet from both monsoons blowing 
over a vast expanse of water, it enjoys a climate remarkably temperate and 
cool : a register of the thermometer which I kept during-our stay, from the 
19th of January te the lith -March, exhibits the mean daily temparatnre 
at 70^^ while several springs at but a slight elevation from the aea, into 
which the thermometer was inmiersedy indicated tiie mean annual tenii* 
perature at 73'. On the bills it is of course found' to he mnfhcooler. Until 
^rithin a few da3rs previous to our qnitting the iiilandy the monsoon Uew 
very fresh, and even at times swept through the valleyBwith Ji vinlenee 1 
have rarely seen equalled. The sky was usually overcast witlboloiais».MUl 
while other parts of Asia and Africa, under the same parallel, had yet floms 
months to elapse before their tenmaaition of the dry seasons, fleeatm«ato 
joyed frequent and copious rains •; fbr these she ispriaeipally indehled nt 
this season to her granite mountains : their lofty peaks ob0tnaot.tiM doudn 
which strike against their aides : either depositing their aqneenn partisiea 
near their summit^ or precipitating ihem in plentiful abowiai8«n the 
ronnding country. It is these also which oontitb«ite to noittiflh ti» 
nm» mountain streams whii^ intersect several partt of tho ialand^ fietenA 

1635.} Repori on the hhnd of Soeotrn. 143 

9f these are of a widtib and dtfpth that in Arabia would ahnoat entitle them 
te the appellatien of rivem. They all originate near the ^anitermottiu 
tains, and relHog with a oonfliderahle descent down the roeky ravines, they 
generally unite eererai with eaeh ether near their eztremityj and after. 
wanLs wind their way more slowly throvgh the vidleye into the eea. Those 
on the western par% of the island have m rapid deseent, and are in the N. 
£w monsoon dried ap> at hut a short distance from their souive, while 
these en the eastern side continue throughout the year to d^harge their 
walM» iaio the oceaiL 

1 eoiihi learn bnt Kttle ooneeming the influenoe of the 8. W. monsoon 
here ftom the natives. They describe the rain as beir^ frequent and 
heavy, snd the showers in Jaly and August neariy incessant. No bugga. 
lews at this season -touch at their island, nor do aay of their own boats 
TsnfcuM;to sea. The. trees/ wherever the wind has reached them in their 
inclined and hesM position^ bear good evidence to its power* Thunder^ 
stems aoa finsqusnt at the setting in of the OMttsoon, and accidents from 
the lighSnin^ ave described to he of fi^equent oeeurrence. 

AoMttg 4he few natural prodaetiona which are found en this island, that 

which faoUs the first rank is the^ ahM> " Ab$ lynoaM, and Aioe Soefirina^*' 

called in the hmgnage of 4he island Tayof, and by the Arabs Subal, for 

thifr plant has been heU fiunena from the earliest periods and it is eon* 

sequently toe well known to need aay deseriptaon. They are usually 

found on the sides and summits of the limestone mountains, at an eleva* 

tion of from £00 to 1000 feet from the level ef the pkuns. The plant 

appears to thrive only in parched andbasreiv j4aces. Its leaves are pluck. 

e4 at any period^ and after-being placed in-a skin, the Juice is suffered to 

exude fiposa them. In this state they arobroughb in. to Tamarida and 

Colesseah, and there disposed of for dates* Frsm- hence. H is mostly ship^ 

pcd off to Muscat, wheve its price -varies very considerably. In 16S3, the best 

•old ibr one rupee the Beng^ sefle (seer ?), whileef • that* which was more in*. 

difcrent, five seilss might be precored for the dollar. The Sooetrina aloetv 

when porc^ are the finest in the. world, but owing to theesreless manner in 

which they am gathered aadpacked, they contracb many impuiities^ and 

their vakie is propedtiooably. deteriorated. Formerly every part of th^ 

Wand pmdneing the^aloe waa Iwmed out to different individuals, and the 

»rheln produce', at a fixed valuation was monopolized by the Sultaa, who 

timn iceidedea the island;. The bdnadiries, which oensisted of loos# 

easn* —lis,, and had been carried with imntensei labonr overhiU and dalc^ 

•taUreasaitt nnder the present unsettAed government ; the descendants of 

dfae^nmast to whoai. ih^ were allotted have either withdvaHin their claip^ 

mrwKm fiwfgetten. At present a*y enn collects it who eboeses to take the. trwi- 

.hle^ and aatnigraiJaJs levied en aooSttnt of the Sultan^ as they lodge but 

JittJ^lamnJbousea.and merely collect itwhenithe arrival of a ship or 

A fp s l eKi eteatean den i s s Ml . The quantity piodaoed has been erroneously 

iPBffeisd^A^he ^aaeb less than it is in reality ; but oaths westeuxside of 

t44 Repdh tm tkt htani of Socotra. [M^kCfl* 

iSie isl»id tli€ htXk fimt ia ettcnl «f w^evsl mtAfts are aoir tt> tvi^ljr «taft^ 
4«d wftb It, tiMt it la nut likelf wren at airf^turi perifld^faaftiie whole' 
of dmt whidi might be, will he eelleeted. The qnadlitf feporte^ wfthitf^ 
the last few yeara haa varied very muidi ; hi HSS it aaMninted to SS'akSm/ 
or about two torn. Next hi hnpoitanee to the aloe'eomea the DragonV 
Mood tree, iV gyjc a rya i Draeo, the gnm'fhMi whM, fi^m^vit BHuenil/ ia- 
alao collected hy the Bedoeitaa at aU a e aaon a. Aa Ais gam iafaaowtitir' hi» 
prodttoed hy aereral treea, and the afpeciea eft which it ia ibund in Sioeetm^ 
may not therefore be knoim ia Btirope, Tahall give a «hart tfeoMit of fk' 
£nee the aloe it ia mraally met with ev the timeitoiie hiHa,' rarely kt^ a leaif ^ 
elevfttfoo than 000, and-amnetimea ae mech aifiOOO, foet^aftMrretlM lev^^eP 
the sea ; bet it la never AraUd on the plaiBs. ' ThetrankiatMailyalibiM^ 
f9 indheritt diftiaeter, wad ita he^^ vhrlea ftam ro'fe l9«Ye«t ; iSd^ 
hranchea are niimerotia, het Aort andlMcilly interwdveh ^^IW emth iiOibf.^ 
The leavea are ef 'Aeeriaeeooa a tructo re, and 'aboet liKftfebea in tenfjthj^ 
thef are of a awoMLiaie Ibnn, pofetei*at'the extTMiity, tAii'aonfie^fMt fUt^' 
tended at -flie bib^, #here they are ic e a i k ^aftd aontenlMie i^eaemble thoa^bf • 
the pine-apple. Ill thhi partlhey are^ otfMeclM- wHh^Ihe^ bifMbh bf Che 
tree, and rMfMhig* IMnU^anf ioMMte tMmiber, ^^'^kMme- k tetJIke 
ahape. ThWe^togeMMh^ f^rin Hie* l^ifief ^paiVef thettee','«iid by the vafiely 
in their iffii^te'iM dliAriberlt6i<< fe;?^ flkHMfeappehmAi^ ' 

We weretf6t'tt i l tfBiilly JU h teh ^^iftfobttfii^ ^fv6bMtt of the floWeror^' 
fruit, bikt'«bt»l!^l6M deMMMf M^b8«lddagi%to'«he^fliCela8a of Lhmaof/ 
and tbthbhWiitaft order lAfttvMtfn^ "<' .* ^-. . 

Tie geu^ ^ihdea gfN>i il i ialWtt i l ^#ifatf it^^ikntvpfrnt" 

nmxA, onXaiiiy oeeaaien, to WMs aA kuimim frir thh6 piirpoae: Two tiiide ' 
were }AiHht to me; «f wlJich't<M& #hk«i hrHtf % datfk eri^aR>A>t)afili^ tsalled 
'^ MeaeHe,'' is eMeeihed 'l^beatV M piM M Mntfeal it from 6 lb ^'rupeeb 
the aelle. Dragen'a.ldeod4»'ealledhy the'Afilba Bum JDMeii, koA EdUl^ by 
the BocotriMta. I waa frit)aentlyaaaared,HMit tot 'tnore than utenth^'ef the 
qeaiMity which might be preeercd; winreinBr coUeoted by the Bedoahi^ httt 
ihiB,^ila withthe-adoee; eppebra tobe owlkigtotherehetegnie regalardemand. 

Ftem « tree, called in th'e laiigdi|^ e€ the* ialioid, Amlkra, they proeurba ' 
Hl^ht-e^oietf gem, MiA- ia eHghtiy o4orlfbrabe, 'but iaimidi* inferior te ' 
t&at MdMOlfban, bbtHih^en the A'rabiail coeaLiefceteheaiuiddeaaviplleAa ^ 
w€^takeeef the otfrer vafietieedTtaveaovKhii iaiaod, bot^aa'tti^^eiMt- 
appear •va&aUefor'bMldiflg, or anytiaeM ptopoae^and aretMrely remailc. 
able for being hidlgeiieva to tMeMahd, I have not conaideBed it MeeaM^f "" 
iO*awell%hiapape# with any remaake <m theaii. A taige eelleetiatt ef plaMi- ' 
wea oiae nmde, - andthe Botanist en thegiiHite peak* would Jf»t iheei*^ 
wMi»rich harveat. Oh the aammit of theae tnoamaina the Bedeaito caJtoi "*' 
a grey;4Mloredtneae; called Shmnak, e4ifeh irvied by the Arab toialba W*i 
dyeihefr faceauf a yellow color. It adherea ihrnily to the gMiite ap ii rew^ ' 
the'whole aerlboe of #hich is covered with-it * they thtia recei«* A orihieh% - 
whM la not^ehr #i^/but which laMI hoirever far reihoeed Ihettlk-^ito 
agttenlMIe ie^iimeei tihoHy^ «iibiaoerv'ett the iaiaikl lal tocrtwii, the naiy > 

IS35.} Report ^ the I$bmeL^/ S&eoM* lH 

gttift wiaA Im eaftiratod on any pwiof th« i^Rod Iv tiftDed cZ«jleldn; 
thM pref«md to anj. •ther, becMua it rvqairea lew atteodanoe^ 
«id if wstaredy wiU prodnee a crop at any eeaaon: provided there ia 
water in itm vmrnly, th^f do *Bot appear to be at all solidtoua aa to the 
foalitjr of the soil^ or the spots they a^ect to serve, aa fielda. They mer&. 
If reniove the loose stoaes, and with them build op a well^ to prevent the 
lanadii of the cattle ; the aoil ia then, some what loosened with a pointed 
itiok^ (for they have no articles of husbandry,) and after being divided by 
low narrow emhaokmenta into small squares, the seed is thrown on them 
mtuh in the aaine way as it ia in England. In the absence of rai|i these- 
syi^res are filled with water twice a day, until the grain haa nevly attain-. 
ed its full gvowtb, when once is considered sufficient.. It is now tied in 
the aipper part into portMtns about the size of sheaves^ iA^wWch state it is 
allovfd 'to remaia iiatil it is ripened and is cut down,. When milk la 
throdaBr, and .they cva obtain dateB> dekhan is Tarely- partaken 9f ; but 
whenthe .pu^y Qi MKP^is l^xit soaaty, it forma the jchief article o^ their 
fio4 It ad4ft.iio^ a;]iititle to the value which they place on this grain^ that 
they age^ w^etj.fto i fc^P: it iminjuBsd for a loiag. period. No dekhan is 
gn>vn4Hi the ifjfH^end 9f tl^e islAffdj but.on the.eii9t the endosores in some 
of tha infioTB ar^^jr^ei^^'HUineMmfr Jt is hovev^ to their date groves, next 
to their. 4Qeki{,:th9tr*tifc|9 Illli^itjPQta look for their principal means of sup- 
' port. . With Jhe ^aw ep tiog ^.a email one at Colesseahy and another on the 
west aida^ of ttlOignud^jMolcj, these are also oonfined to the eastern por. 
tkm of the island. Here the borders of the numerous streams which in. 
te^aect itjiialiim^ ^P)^eajwith,^m; tfaafoliege is somewhat more scanty 
tha^ thalcf th^iM^flf .^/U^ia^'hot- I observe no other peculiarity in the 
tBBg,^|iijgiflpndf|^f>d at'^the latter end of Decemberi and others aa 
lirtajia Ae ea«ly:Mripf .< I^rch : they must therefore secure to themselves^ 
aasgjlj^qf jri^Mbl4>l>Mk for two- months. Those which are eultivated; 
apefqpit'^^ g9in||a.peaka.pcodnce the first crop* There are however^ 
ssaifi §seveflF.op. ti^ sandy ]>elt at the southern side of this island, which I. 
I hfHra hoon -isfyf^^efe^ #esarad bear two crops during the year ; the one ia 

Hiy, 9fi99( ik9iffrfJS^\9>^d aQother hn October, after the 8. W. monsoon ; 
tha finaftwfoailJioJd i|^ mv^ eetlmation. From the other groves^ though 
aJaqptf^Mfli^J^edloctAd^ yet, it is not suffideat for theeonimraptionof 
tha inhsMipit^ and fi^ooMderable supply is aaaoally drawn from Muscat. 
.4>>iMljVyt':»ftp»:ygil^s. whieb uny have contained water, or through, 
^v^lk^lKiltm.iliay^ibev^pasiMdy ther^ ari» an ^atonishiJig nuipber of Nibet 
tivvr^iAe^lllllJMto^ waUJIpDe.wi»iB.ii:^ ; the fruit le about t|ia 

sj^aafea nl»BUjl* '</<othfrr afleannntr flavouriandie produced at .all eeaaona. 
Thaw B ado iiiwH 4>!»ll^ jfc.iw4.fif»§fr.braisi»ig the berry between two stones 
avMUtiafiM^iPpaMj t^hey viU^wj^jy^ aiittle ghee, end>4offppc th^ whole .- 
with awrhriel^u; Their, »aw»laaia<ej|ct|Bdingly fond lof the youngtraqdiea 
ef^fhia.Vafl^^H^'^m.ka bark 4he. Bedouins extract a tan for their j^ides* • 
Tha tsmjiriad WMMiMf^ ^^uontli amoitg tha hills ; as .v^all aa the- wild £g j 
frt^Lthiilftili^A&ll^'f^QfmiM the patiyes deeoct a. 09olii|g;:«wl :refseshiog. 

146 Report on the Island of Socotta. [MAticfi« 

drink,' afad tbe timbrageous foliage of the latter affords to tlie Bedouina a 

most grateful shade during the heat of the day. The Bedouins abo eat the 

inner bark of a tree so called, which is found growing near the sea shose. 

In the vicinity of Tamarida, some melons, beans, and a little tobacco^ sufiELci^ 

ent for theconsumption of the inhabitants, are cultivated; on the granite hiila 

Bome few orange trees, a species of wild grape, and a kind of wild pear (?) are 

also found, but no other fruits or vegetables of any description is produced 

or known. I have already noticed the fertility of the soil in some parts of 

the island, and the extraordinary advantages it possesses in its numerous 

Streams : both are utterly disregarded by the natives. The whole of the land 

in the vicinity of the granite peaks is in the highest degree susceptible of 

cultivation. Grain, fruits, or vegetables to any extent might be reared in the 

plain near Tamarida, and amongt the rich valleys in the direction of Has 

Mamse. The face of the hills on the northern side might be terraced and 

cultivated in the same manner, as is customary in Yemen and Palestinor In 

a word, was it not for the prevailing ignorance and sloth which exists amoog 

its inhabitants, Socotra in a few seasons might be rendered as celebrated for 

the extent and variety of its productions as it is now remarkable for its 

total want of them. 

Natural History. 
The only animals we saw in Socotra were camels, asses, oxen, sheep, 
goats, and civet cats. The camels were as large as those of Syria, and were 
more remarkable for strength than for speed. As they are continually 
ascending and descending the mountains by bad passes, they become nearly 
as sure-footed as mules; but being constantly fed on succulent herbs, they do 
not, if this food is taken from them, display the same endurance of thirst aa 
those of Arabia; when confined to the parched shrubs which grow on the 
low land, they require to be watered daily. Camels areprincipally used either 
by the traders while seeking ghee among the mountains; or by the inhabi. 
tants, for the purpose of bringing dates or fire- wood from the interior ; the 
whole number on the Island does not exceed two hundrejl. For those I 
took with me t paid six dollars the month; the price for which they aresold 
is usually from 20 to SO dollars. Cows are very numerous in the vicinity 
of Tamarida, on the granite range of mountains, and in many of the eastern 
parts of the island. They are usually of the same color as that which 
distinguishes the Aldemey breed in England, though their size does not far 
exceed the Welch breed. The hump which marks those of India and Ara- 
bia is not observed here. They find an abundance of pasture, are sleek and 
fat, and their flesh of a most superior quality. The natives prize them for 
the sake of their milk, with which they make the ghee, that is in so much 
estimation on the coasts of Arabia and Africa. They are not therefore 
solicitous to part with them, and the price they demand compared with that 
for which they are purchased on the Arabian coast, is proportionally high ; 
10 dollars was the sum we paid for those we procured. ITieir flesh was pro* 
nounced equal to our finest English oxen. Should Socotra, as is contemplated, 
become a station for our steamers, an agent would be enabled with little 

1 835 J.. Report ^n the hUnd ^f Smcotrcn - i47 

trouble to supply as many of these as might be required. The oumbejr «n 
the island at present exeeds 1600. 

V ast flocks of sheep and goats are found in every part of the island, 
the latter are indeed so numerous, that the owners never trouble themselves 
with counting them; the sheep have not the enormous tail w]uch disfigures 
those of Arabia and Egypt; they are usually small, and lean, with remarka- 
bly slender legs, and their flesh is not well tasted. The Bedouins wash them 
everj' two or three months, to prevent them from getting the rot; their 
wool is manufactured into the thick cloaks which are so well known in 
Arabia and Persia. There are several varieties of goat on the island, 
and a milch-goat, of which nearly equal care is taken with the sheep : ano- 
ther kind, of a reddish color, with long shaggy hair, which is permitted to 
rove about the island, and which appears common property ; a third is the 
.wild goat, which is only found in the loneliest glens, or on the summit qf 
the loftiest hiUs; their flesh is much prized by the Bedouins. When the sbepr' 
herds are desirous of catching them, they seek about for their haunts until 
they discover the track by >vhich they pass up and down the mountains; 
across this they spread a net. One of their number then ascends to the sunw 
mit of the mountain by another route, and makes his appearance before the 
animal^ who no sooner discovers him than he darts down the path and 
becomes entangled in the net, where he is quickly secured by those who are 
stationed there for that purpose. Amidst the hills over Tamarida and 0|l 
the plain contiguous to it, there are a great number of asses which were 
described to me as di^ering in some respects from the domestic ass, but 
after repeated opportunities of observing them I find there is no reason in 
such a distinction. It is more than probable that the introduction of 
camels superseded the necessity of employing them as beasts of burden, and 
they were therefore permitted by their masters to stray where they pleas* 
ed. They now wander about in troops of ten and a dozen, and evince little 
fear until they are approached too close^ when they dart off with much 
speed. Although they were not applied by the natives t^ any usefulpurpose 
they would no doubt be found, should occasion hereafter require it, of much 
utility. The only wild animal that is known among the hills is the civet 
cat, of which it is needless to give any description. This animal is very 
abundant and was frequently brought to me for ,sale, but I have not been 
able to learn that the natives take any trouble to collect much of its per- 
fume. Hyenas, jackals, monkeys, and other animals whicl} are common 
to the hills on the shores of either continent, are unknown here ; we do not 
even find the antelope, which is the more singular as it abounds on most 
of the other islands of the Arabian coast. The dog is also unknown, and 
one we had on board was frequently mistaken for a swine. I saw but one 
snake during the whole of the time I was on the island, and the head of 
that was too much bruised for me to ascertain if it was poisonous, though 
the natives assured me it was so. From them I also learnt, that after the 
rains a great many made their appearance, and some marvellous stories 
were told me respecting their size and fierceness ; how true these may be, X 
u 2 

1 48 Report on the Muttd of Soc&tm. [Mabcb» 

t know mot, tet oo the l^tr Uad Ihey^ havte an aaUfBUbing nundierel fiooift- 
•DB. oeatqMdei^ and mlur^ and veaomom dMwription of spiflera^ oalled ( ^ ) 
. the bite«f which creates alaniiiiiginflammaitioa^aiidevenwithyoangdkildrea, 
it k said, aometinMs proves fataL In some placea H was a chaneaif a a^ne 
waaremoTied but thai foa w^old find <»e*or more of these inaectei. Lo- 
-casta have rarely been seen in Seeotra, and those which werSv am said to 
have been few, and wers most probably stiag^len. Ants are namenaiaj 
and the inle of one kind ta searoely ksapainfol than the stin^^ of a- wAsp ; 
.■ear the dekhan enolosares, field mioe are often observadi and on the kiUs 
, the? are much tmabfod with rats and other venniit. The chamaleon ia n 
nativeof this island. TheOndy birdsl saw werecraaeii, flsminfaes^'W^ 
daekfl^ a speeies of wateiufowl^ wood pigeons (very numerous); the awattaw^ 
the lapwing, owis> bats, and fiavr vaneties of the raltim : the last ase parw 
ttoalarly servioeahle in deansing'the earth of carcasses nnd fikk* Thena 
is also a amall bird^ with a red boak asid dark p«^e plumage, callaAin tha 
Sotsolrmn language M^tbaaredi whkii utters a ahriU and. kind ccyv not siAi 
iik« that whieb nuight be prodneed by an effsrt ef- the' human veieei .Cte. 
•evariaa are said to hawe been aeen^on the islaady hot I >aaithar.aaiw jbdI! 
could learn any thing of them; 

Qompnmmt» / • 
it has already been nottoed, that the gova«nenio£>thH Island of Soeo^ 
tra, from a -very early period!, wno'dopendentenf^thakin^ of thoioffeiMMt 
country; and the* early Portugaesenkvigkitors'feiiSdtheBs^ontliek iirat an*. 
rival, -still in: <tiie uasyaturhed pa adc ssion'Of then sinchsit pattrisseby ; bul^ 
after A1bo«uiir%ihb had oon^esdd nad oveernh thai island, hetveitted ita 
ger er i mi eifct m thehandaof some of his.aScers^ whOf :wlth.a-aemaaMt'<fcf 
his troops/ was left behind- to vetain it.* The Portogueae appear to»liaKa. 
held possessmnisnoltii the:decKne of their powev'inl'odiav when they 'iatt^r^) 
■mrried witk ita inhabitants; gradually lost .their faacendaney, »nd'>8oooltea^. 
after this- short iatercoption^ again. Msamed its solitary d^Mndenee^ wider 
itaanrient raastera^ • From this pedod, them isToasoiLtofaeliO^e, that>n- 
hrother or aoniift«ear relatiim of the fiultan.of Kisbeen, on thai • Arabian' 
Geaat, resided' permaaeatly on the: island as its govenaoiviUAtil withinitho 
last eeotory, when it has, bees. m«Bty adiveeted . to ssi' animal visit fttemr 
Kisbeeik The- retenue ia then ooUeotfxt and any. oomplaints. whlohirequM 
the iaterlcrsnoe of the Sultan, are bveughtibafove hiai».: When: these ob- 
jects are aeeompliahed) he a^pain takes bis ^depantMre. > During ouir stay . at 
Kiabeen and on the iafamd, we made *namawmsf io ^u krtes to aseertam wjho - 
at present eserciaed this power, but thiaU peoved no easy, matter todis* 
cover. The old Saltan is blind, and incapable of managfng.tllO'affiirs of 
his government, and all has gone to oonfoaion. Various claimants appeared, 
but AaouLiiAM was pointed out aa thoinAuenitialindAYftdiial; froat kiln thene. 
fore we procured letters specifying the nature of o^m* vtsit, and re^aicii^ - 
froHk the islanders ev«ry assistanee whioh we might atandin need o£l LAtile 
attention was however paid to this letter, and during our stay aawtfier ■ 
chiefs Hawbd Bin Tjoiir arrived, and ui^er thethuent of burning th^lowh^ 

1^5.] Report on ike Islund of SoeatrM. 1 49 

he sucMecM at Cokneah in pr<NHiriiig uh&ai Hdy doUan irorth ef ghee, 
witk tfUcb^ afW lendiag an 4ireetioQa to Tamarida» fctarhiddiiig wkt bakig 
fiirtildiad witii either aacaelfl or gtud«i, he again sailed for Kisbeen, and 
epeoty boaated of what he had dene. Duringthe preient year^ no ether 
membar mi the iMmSHy ia expected on the ialand> and as the sum coUeeted 
ara a wi Hyy at other > seasoof^ rardy exceeds in value 900 deliars, the aatfae- 
fitf of the anksn may be eonsidef ad aa more nomiaiil tiian real. 

Abdvs&ah in his TJaits has bean iknewn to infliot chastitement with his 
^am Jiatid on the>£edotiini^ who have negleoted to bring him the full quaa^ 
4ity flfighee, te ivikicb he has cotMidered himself entiliedy and even to im. 
liraonrtlnBi ftrafeas days j hot 1 could not learn that he poaseased saffi. 
metAjmwetft^ inflict puntshment of any kind on the A^rabs^ the greater 
naifihar e£ whom are^ iadeed exempted fseos ooBtributing to any part of 
his iire veiMuC It^ ia finmrttiiose iTha ^oUeet the ghee at Tamavidi^ Gelesseah 
aikd iCedihop. that h^ ptfowresithe • grader part of the only iapticle which 
fa».ntn0 draars from the: island. The aktention of Aak>u&]bAJi during his vi. 
iHa ^ppeara aoialy dlnated towtods thi6 obycety and thoagh coniplaintB from 
ftMHnevaiiaga'ave. OesasiMially bronght < before hias, yet the iflstanses are 
rare^ and his decisions are not much cared for* 

At Taraarida, an old Arab^ who^ was lormerly a sipahi in India in the 

ssmbe^ef BIji Rdn, hy vivtae of his -age* and Jong residence iii the toan, 

paiHa0^4OmB iaflnenee; Aaother at Colssseah naased BAiiSM^ is alsoquali^ 

fied by tbe^tbrnuvna srhii the title of Shekb^ m brder mahily it would 

appbsr/tlMt' liAntight seoare presenta 6fm th^'vessela visiting the port^ 

tett nothing) is Imata certain -titan that they da not > possess ^thivaghout the 

iiklalidha'oonstitirted anthorityy either civil ar^mllitaky^ or of aayidescriptTaui 

whateeavar^ i-^e*withstanding the aingolar anomaly of aO great aimimber 

o^pMplrveBiiithgtegBt&esiwithoot'any nhiefa w law; offeaaea againat thtf 

geed ardee. ef saei^- iqnrear infiiiite1y> lesa. freqnent thui smidj* more 

dviUaed 'Btttknis t> >theft; tamrder^ and-^heB heinous ommes are abnost* an« 

laiewii. 'Nb^etrengei^iiistanee aim be>giveni df the absenoe'Of ■ the finrmer 

than th^ faeb of my watideting fiov two months on the-Mand^ uFithoothaivu 

ingidnvlnig thatperied' wnssed the niest tidfting:aaticiej Same intelligent 

Anhs/who 'had resided *tlieiie aause fifteen yearn, aaiufed me that the>only 

djflturifawiuhesi known 'vfme' ooaaawial «qn8rrels among the Bedouins, respecti 

iag" their >piiat!tt«ie gisoaAda; arid' these were aa usnal settled either by the 

iitdivtdaala fighting* the matt^v- out with sticks, or by the interfiererce ef 

theor MteMit^'- It is nadoaht tbiasecority' of person and property, which' 

haehpetigWirem tlie shares otf the continent on either eide ao many set*. 


> Thd inlisUtants ef this island may be divided into two distinct classes, 
theae w|m> iidMbittheiiMiuntains and high lands on the western extremity 
of>tlie Island, and whieh there is every reason to believe fare* Its aborigines, ' 
and MiSOT who reside in Tamarida, Colesseah, and Codhaop, as wellassere* 
rattrihea- who occupy the eastern portkm of the isiand : the hHtteIr are a 

150 Report on the Islani^ of Socotra. [^Iarco, 

mongrel race, the descendants of Arabs^ African slaves^ Portuguese,, 
and several other nations. Of the former I shall now give as full a 
description as the limits to which I have considered it necessary to confine 
this paper will admit. It is however necessary for me to premise, that 
though from personal observations I have been enabled to elicit every 
necessary degree of information connected with the present physical habits 
and domestic manners of this isolated race, yet there were some interest* 
ing points connected with their former condition, religion, and usages on 
which I was anxious to obtain some knowledge. This however from the 
jealous and suspicious character of those with whom I was obliged to con- 
verse, I found to be almost impracticable ; they either declined answering 
the questions altogether, or they only furnished replies which were calcu. 
lated to mislead. Some of tliis reserve melted away before we left, but my 
inquiries did not tend to elucidate facts of any importance. In the sub. 
sequent s)<etch I shall however have occasion again to touch on this subject. 
On Vie Bedouins. The Arabs who visit Socotra, in consequence of their 
pastoral habits and wandering mode of life, have bestowed on this class 
the appellation of Bedouin, to which race, though they widely differ in some 
points, there is yet in others a striking resemblance. The principles of 
their political constitution are like theirs exceedingly simple : all are 
divided into families or tribes, each occupying a determined domain on the 
island, and each having a representative head, who formerly exercised 
what might be termed a patriarclial authority over them. In general, the 
office is hereditary, though it is sometimes filled by persons who have been 
selected for the superiority of their abilities. It was to this individual 
that the Sultan formerly, when he resided on the island, looked for the 
collection of his tribute, and to the Sultan he was also in some measure 
answerable for the good order of the six tribes ; but at present his authority 
appears to be merely that of an influential individual, before whom complaints 
are taken for arbitration, but who possesses no power to punish a delinquent : 
an individual may also carry his complaint before the Sultan, or his deputy, 
or he may, which is the usual practice, retaliate on the injureror any member 
of his family ; but these affairs are not carried to the sanguinary lengths 
they are in Arabia, where the murder of one individual is revenged upon 
the person of his assassins or their relations. I made numerous inquiries, 
but 1 could not ascertain that any of their quarrels terminated in blood, 
shed : certainly this may be owing in some measure to their having neither 
fire-arms nor weapons of any other description than sticks and stones ; but 
these peaceable habits are forcibly illustrated by the fact of so many tribes 
occupying territories so intermingled with each other, where the variable 
nature of the pa8turage,and^the scarcity of water, compel them from different 
quarters to meet on the same spot, without reference to the actual owners ; 
and yet that skirmishing among them should be of such rare occurrence. 

Phymcal Character, Persons, Diet, c^c. S^c. 
The men are usually tall : their limbs appear strong and muscular, and 
remarkably well formed; the facial angle is as straight as that of Europeans; 

16d5 J Report on the Island of Socotrd. 161 

the nose is slightly aquiline; the eyes lively and expressive; the teeth good^ 
and the mouth veil formed : their hair is worn long^ and curls naturally, bui 
without the slightest approach to the woolly texture or appearance of that 
of the Negro; they wear generally a beard and whiskers, but no mustachios: 
their complexion varies a good deal ; some are as fair as the inhabitants of 
Surat, while others are as dark as the Hindus on the banks of the Ganges. 
They walk with an erect gait over the wor^t ground, and will bound over 
the hills like antelopes. From constantly climbing the rocks and mountainsi 
they have contracted a habit of turning in their toes, which gives them 
over th^ plains a slight degree of awkwardness in their walk ; not withstands 
lag this slijght defect, the regularity of their features^ the fairness of their 
eomplexion (for those which are very dark comprehend but a small portion 
of their number), and the models of symmetry, which are occasionally pre* 
•ented to the eye, render them a remarkable looking race, far distinct and 
removed from any of those varieties of the human race which I have seen 
on the shores of the continent on either side. 

Their dress consists of a piece of cloth wrapped round their waist, an^ 
the end thrown over the shoulder. No ornaments are worn : in their girdle is 
placed a knife ; but as they have no weapons,they carry in their hands a largd 
stick. In their various modes of dressing their hair they display a little fop. 
pery: some frizzle it out like the Arabs on the coast of Bgypt; others 
allow it to curl naturally ; while the generality permit it to grow to a consi. 
derable lengthy and plait it into tresses, which are confined to the head by 
a long braided cord, made from their own hair. Their skins are clear and 
shining, and remarkably free from eruptions or cutaneous disorders. Many 
are however scarred from the application of hot irons for the removal of 
local complaints — a mode of cure they are quite as fond of practising as 
their neighbours the Arabs of the peninsula. 

Of the Femaleg. The same remarks which I have given to the person and 
features of the men may be applied with little alteration to those of the 
femafes: there is the same symmetry of form, the same regularity of features, 
and the same liveliness of expression ; but their complexion does not vary 
in an equal degree : few are darker than the fairest of the men, and some^ 
especially when young, were remarkably pretty : the legs of some of those 
advanced in age were of an astonishing thickness ; but this defect is more 
observable among those who reside near the low-lands, and it but seldom 
oocors among the high-land females. Their dress consists of a coarse 
Cameline, secured round their waist by a leather girdle, and a kind of wrap- 
per of coarse Dungree cloth, which is thrown over their shoulders : around 
their necks they wear a necklace made of red coral, colored glass, amber, 
&C. with sometimes a string of dollar^ In each ear they wear three and 
■ometimes four large ear.rings made of silver and about three inches in dia. 
meter; two of these are worn in the upper, and one in the lower, part of 
the ear. They go unveiled, and whenever we approached their houses, 
they conversed with us. 

159 Heport w tie Islani of Socotr^ [MaaciI^ 

Of thefr kabiiaiUnw. In « moist dimste like Socotni^ it w«ild be 
Impossible for several months to live in tents ; and as the variatioa 4>f the 
seasons compels the Bedouins to diift with their flocks in search of pas- 
turage, it may be considered as a bountiful provision that they are . 
in the numerous natural caverns with which the limestone hills abound* 
provided with habitations ready fashioned to their hands. A Bedouin 
merely selects one of these, which from its sixe and situation is best caLcu^^ 
lated for his purpose ; he then by means of loose stone walls portions olf . 
different apartments for himself and family^ while the remainder is left to 
afford shelter to hi9 flock. Singular spots are occasionally chosen for these 
places of abode : 1 have seen them on the face of a nearly vertical hill, at . 
the height of 800 feet from the plain. In the valleys, and on the mai^ii^ ,. 
they have another description of dwelling place : the rocks there whenever 
limestone occurs is equally cavernous with the hills : a cave is selected ; the^ 
widen if necessary the entrance, so as to allow it to open into an enclosure i 
the upper part is then covered over with rafters^ on which turf and some , 
earth is placed, so that it becomes difficult at a short distance to distinguish 
it from the surrounding country : a wall constructed of loose stones encloses 
a circular space about 30 yards in diameter, which serves at night as a fold 
for their sheep and goats. I visited the interior of several of these: the 
only furniture they contained was a stone for grinding corn, some skin&oa 
which they sleepi other skins for holding water or milk, some earthen 
cooking pots, and a few Camelines hanging on lines taken across the roof* 
In one of these tied by the four corners and subtended from a peg by a, 
string, you will frequently see a child sleeping. It alsoseryee aa^ cradle, 
which they swing to and fro when they n^ish to compose it to slfvep. In 
ho^weather, when the ground is parched with heat, these caveiqe are of ^ 
clammy coldness ; the Bedouins are by no means particular in keeping them 
olean^ and they usually swarm with fleas and other vermin. A few d^y% 
after my flrst arrival, I had occasion to ascend a mountain on the southern 
side of the island, seeking for plants ; and other pursuits h«ul detained me . 
nntil it was too late to descend. I therefore took up my quarters witk a 
Bedouin s family in one of these caverns. It was formed by the overhangs 
Ing of an enormous rock, which left a sheltered space of 50 yards in length 
and 1 in breadth. In the interior the surface of the limestone exhibited 
rounded masses, with cellular cavities in and between them ; but I could 
not discover any stalactitic traces. These were the flrsft Bedouins we had 
met with, and none of the party had seen Europeans before. Our coming 
unexpectedly on them, therefore, created with tfaefemales some little alarm; 
but a few words of explanation from our guide soon quieted them : a few 
needles to the females and some tobacco to the men set the iif hole party 
in good humour. Milk, dates, and whatever their cave afforded was readilf 
placed before us, and they cheerfully assented to our request of pfrrtng 
the night there. At our suggestion, some grass was collected for ua tOisl^^. 
on, but this unfortunately proved an inducement for the 4(Pet9 end eh^p, 
which were lodged in the same part of the cavern with aeTeiiBal memberf .a|[ 

MW.}" Report on the Island of Socotra, 153 

tiUi tenflf to TiBit and run over u8 repentedly daring the nigbt^ 80 that we 
•dtained but little rest. 

Tkm men pass their time in tending their flocks, in collecting dragon's 
Mbflfl, or aloes, and in occwuonal visits to the town, when the two latter 
witii their ghi are exchanged for dates, dhona, the jawari of India, and dothet. 
Accustomed to traverse these mountains from childhood, they perform on 
these'tfOcasionB Journeys of 3'3 or 40 miles, climbing almost perpendicular 
prati jplOies^ and eroesing deep ravines, without occasionally experiencing any 
fathrue or inconvenience. The principal employment of the females abroad 
isidflb^llooklng after their flocks ; ?t home they make ghi, curd, and spin 
woolj which they afterwards weave into Camelines, and attend to their other 
dtftfoi. They have a curious method of cleansing the wool : they place It 
Ink ^Sfkp ob the floor, over which they hold a bow, and snap the string 
a^Uiibl^ it, iiiitll the whole of the dust has flown off. Their method of 
wmi'PHtffii also very simple, but a description of it here would occupy too 
wMk upnOB, As it is very difficult to procure steel of any description on 
t hftli iii l d; Ih'rf'Mdouins have recourse to a metliod of obtaining combustion, 
wfiifi is practised by several savage nations. They procure two pieces of 
wood; tlie one lia^ lYebel (if procurable), and the other a short flat lathy 
from n'WSti^tfttindL The former is about 19 inches in length, and is 
intkiMtinio a hollow, which is formed for that purpose in the latter. 

ne stick is then twirled briskly between the two palms, until the dust 
wlitdi is worn oat by the fHction, and which escapes down the side by a 
nU giwtis eut near one side of the hollow, ignites. The dust Is then 
jlkfbeA on ^M tbp of a palm.branch, and a flame is soon produced. They 
iurtre a motllod of obtaining a whiff of tobacco equally curioas and simple. 
Tlfey dip off a branch of the Luhah tree of the required length and 
tkiekneBS fbr the tube, the extremity of this is then cut much in the same 
way SB We do a qalll before we split it : this part serves as a bowl, in which 
iM tobaeeo is placed, while a small wooden plug, having a hole in its 
eeAtre, at oAcb prevents it firom ascending the tube, and at the same time 
permfis tlte siiiioke to be inhaled. 

S;e. The Bedouins subsist principally on milk, and the g^ain and 
whidi they receive in exchange for their ghi IVhenever occasion 
eafls for it, or* a visitor arrives, they kill a goat or sheep ; their mode of 
eoMng is very simple : they separate the meat from the bones, cut it into 
■mdt pieces^ and boil the wHofe In an earthen pot ; they use no dishes, and 
tW dMad isplaeed' on a smaK mat, round which they seat themselves in 
asfii^. ' Caiitrary to the Tisdal practice of the Musalmans, these islanders 
a l w a ys ' ^.u t iMr tnest- witli knives, which are procured from the whalers 
^mi ^ibef Tosseb that tondf at the idand. 

TM' noral character \ff the Bedouins stands high. The absence of any 
dHmes among them has already been noticed, and in general they 

her ooriMered as a lively generons race ; but the most distinguishing 
tnift «f iSieir charaeter is their hospitality, which is practised alike by all, 

iM'Mtf Bmitod'by the means of the individual who is called on to 

154 Report on the Island of Socotra. [Maiic^, 

exeroiee it. Nor is tiiis^ as witJi the Soootrian Arabs, eonfiaed io those of 
their own faith ; and while with the latter we were uoOeasing^ly tired with 
silly questions relating either to our religion or our views on the iabad, 
the Bedouins gave themselves no concern either about one or the otiier. A 
watch excited much mirth among them, and it was long before they would 
cease to believe it was a living animal ; but unaccustomed as tbey were to 
the sight of fire-arms, what excited their utmost astonishment was a pair of 
pistols with detonating caps. £ver cheerful^ they vere alurays ready to 
enter into oonvorsation^or to be pleased with what was Bhownthem* I saw 
no instrument of music during my stay on the island^ but they appesjr pas. 
sionately found of song, and on one occasion, at a wedding, I obeeryed 
them danoing« A party stood round in a circle, and while one of their munhor 
continued to sing, two or three others, without any pretence to a regulHr 
*^P» by a sueeessien of jumps or bounds, endeavoured lio keep something 
like time to it. 

The Bedoiitne have a great variety in their modes of sahrtaltioif^ tM» 
friends meeting will Iciss eai]h other on.theroheek or.sbolilder»aLc-or eigUt 
times, then chake hands, kiss them, and aflei^arda^' exchange a doaen sen- 
tences of compliments ; they have also tbesame singidar andifideljsato m^Mie 
of salutation which is observed at Kisbeen, when they, pl^ee Ihieir. noses 
together, and accompany the action by drawing up their breath audiUy 
through the nostrils at the same time. Male and female relations salate 
each other in public in this manner. Those of diAirent sexes, who are 
merely known to each other, kiss each other's shoulder or hand, except wiA 
the principal individual of the tribe. When the females fiill in with*him, tibey- 
salute his knees, and he returns it on their forehead* The old men salute 
diildr^ in the same manner. With the use of the compass the BedoniiH 
were totally unacquainted^ and they had no terms in the SocotrianlangiMige 
to express the cardinal points. The superiority of the Arabian namerals fisr 
extended calculationsDver their own, has induced them to entirely diseon- 
tinue the use of the latter, and in all transactions among themselves, aa weM 
as with the Arabs, the Arabian alone are now uised ; it was therefore net 
without some difficulty that I was enabled to collect the Soootrian nu- 
merals, they are as ^lows: 

1 Tand 5 Hamish • Scab 

8 Terean 6 Heitah 10 Uriiari 

S Thedder 7 Heibah 11 U^arit and 

4 Urubah 8 Tomanl 12 UshaHteivMi 

and so on to SO, which is two tens, or usharum, and usharin tand 81 ; 
thirty, which is thedder usharf, urubah or three-tens; forty, which is 
usharl, or four tens, and so on to one hundred, which is meyen or meian, 
which is like the Arabic mit or meat. 

But by this decimal mode of calculation they could advance no further 
than ten hundred. I have frequently sought without success for something 
to express a thousand : this gives no very high opinion of their mental 
capacity, and it evinces, unless they have sadly retrograded, a strong proof 

tB33.] Report on the Island of Socotra, 155 

•fflwir nefrer having iriAde afty considerable advances in civilization* Du- 
rintr my stay among these hig^b islanders, T saw few cases of siclcness; three 
•rfmrenffererBfrani cancer, and as many from elephantiasis, were brought 
to me for medical assistance, and hard painful swelling of the abdomen^ 
Irottgllt on by irregularity in their diet, was also frequent; but this was in 
BO way surprising. A Bedonfn will lire on nothing but milk, and a little 
l>ekhan, for several days, and then feast most exorbitantly on a sheep, the 
iefifa of whidi is but half-boiled. Some bad sores were* also shown me, oooa- 
rfooed by punctnres from the thorns of the Nibek. But in general diseases 
•« of very rare occurrence, and the Bedouins may be considered a hardy, 
faeatehy race. In the most solitary and lonely ravines and valleys I have 
ooea^nally met with idiots^ who are permitted to stray aboat by them. 
Food is given them when they approach any habitation, but they 
sabsist either on the wild herbs, which they gather on the moun. 
tain% or on the wild goats, which they knock over with stones near Has 
Mamt I WW one of these men going about perfectly naked. I came on 
ym nBOKpectedly, but be fled with much celerity the instant he mw me. 

L arngm ge. I am not sufficiently versed in oriental literature to ascer- 
tain vIm* affinity the Socotrian language may bear either to the Arabic 
•r any 0<ber language. I have therefore subjoined a copious vocabulary of 
wwdtf in general use aaaong the Bedouins, by which I trust the scholar may 
lie iMa ta profceed 'm an inquiry that can scarcely fail to lead to most inter, 
erting results. I may notice in passing that the mountaineers from the 
Arabian eoaafc aie enabled to liiake themselves well understood by the 
liiglilandeTB «f Boebfara ; but the Arabs from Muscat, or from any of the 
fltber tnvnS) are i^ite unable to do so. The Socotrian language is spoken 
•ven among tbamseives by aU those who have permanently settled on the 
and ibe Arabic is only used by the merchants while transacting 
with the traders who arrive in buggalows. 

At a period as late as when the Portuguese first visited Socotra, they 
fiKoid in it books inscribed in the Chaldean character. I had anticipated 
proeanag some manuscripts or books which might have served to throw 
liglit on the history of the island ; but in ftnswer to repeated applications 
whidi I liave made to different individuals for them, I have always been 
tiial^ seme which they acknowledge to have possessed wei:e left 
in their houses when they fled to the hills ; and that the Wahabfs, 
dttfing tbeir visit, destroyed or carded them off. The latter is the most 
probaUe, as these sectaries in their various eruptions are known to have 
naaifested a strong desire to possess themselves of historical works*. The 
only reetige which I have been enabled to trace of any other character 
Ihan the Arabic now in nse, being adopted by the inhabitants of the islands, 
are some singular and interesting inscriptions, which I discovered on the 
flea shore -alKmt a mile in a direction from Ras Mami. 

They are inscribed in the horizontal face of a sheet of limestone rock^ 
which is on a level with the plain, and is about 300 paces in circumference j 
* Tide BuaKHAapT*s Travels in Arabia, Vol. i. p. 393. , 


156 Report o» ike Isiand of Soeotr^i [Nf asm j 

those puts which' h^ thair MDOOihiUM are beet a^ted for 4hie |itirpose 

are oovered with iasoriplioiiB and figures. I anbjoiB a sketeh of a few«f 

th« most legible, which for the sake of greater accuracy I oopied a eeoonA 

tiine» The resemblance in the character to some I copied near Wedi^ 

in Arabia, which are supposed to be £thiopie, is so striking, that^ I am 

tempted'to believe they owe tfieir origin to the same p^ple^ Should .this 

qn fiirtlier examination prove the case, some intecestiog inquiriee v^ssld 

suggest themselves Independent of these inscriptions, there are iaunmiae 

number of rude representations of the feet of men^ camels, sheepy oigab^ 

asses, and^cows ; some of the human leet were a» small aa these of- an im* 

fbnt, while others are treble their natural siKe ; they are all pbced in paira, 

bat with no general direction. The feet of th^ aounaU are cut eo aaia 

represent a soft rock, yielding, to tbe weight of their impresaieot^. These 

occur sometimes in line, in others they are tbickly crowded tegeith4r«>aod 

amidat the latter is usually found the characters. The cress O9mn^>off 

freiinently, aa weU as a figure with a snake's head. I pwised s«i^eral.ho«is 

in exanuning and sketching l9ie most legiUe of tiie diarvoten ;. Jrat ^vMft 

numbers are obliterated. 1 waaat fifat tempted to i^saribeAhese insori^ 

tions to the work of the shepherds in their ieisttve. hours ; but they 

immeroua, and must withal from the nature of tbe rock haiMi beeoraaeeulU 

^d with so much labor, that I cannot on reflection lofer- them: to tiiat ena. 

•gin. The onity of deago, exhibited in the oonstaofe recun enoe of tfce 

same apparently unintelligible symbol, would rather, induce ua to suppeee 

that a plaoe of worship or pilgrimage mu^t have formerly exieted in l£a 

■vicinity. At pMsent there are hnlf a doasn amall ruineiiia baildingi ta thft 

aottthward^ send the remaina of a wall running ahmg tathe .marthwiad, 

near it ; but nothing more to verify such a auppeeiliiea. 

In a hill near T«OMNrtda» I disoovered several cavae^ which caiiti«iihit« 
man Aelatons. A wall eight ioet in length had been built mft pamlM to» 
awl at a distence of aboait seven feet from* the side* so as to atiow » eufiifii. 
ant apace for the bodies to be laid at full length ; they appear to have bevi 
deposited in layers, though at diffsrent periods. Setweea aitd above each 
skeleton, there was a space of about two feet, which waa filled vp. with 
: anrth until the whole mass reached the upper part of the^cafie. AnMa^ the 
aauntains in the interior, I was assuredi that these nceur ire^uentlf , and 
there ia reason to believe, the Bedouins depoeiAed their deadinthon^aatil 
ablate period ; but aa they enterMned great draad of n^ writing them down^ 
as they termed it, they were never she vn 1y> me. I entered and disoevca«d 
these by et^lth. Upon conversing w4th the Bedeoias, af^wards^ on this 
Bulu^> ^^^7 admitted the fact of their serving as oemetries to their anoes- 
■ tovs> but. denied they, had been used since theprofwigatioaof the Muaahnan 
religion* At present they observe the aame inode o? inteuneat aa the 
Arabs of T^marida. 

.Of many other peculiar customs, a few only are now retaiaed, of whieh 
the most singular is that they do not circumcise their, male thUdreii ufeu 
til they are past the age of puberty, while with other Af ubianmedao8» it ia 

l«3i.} Repopt:pn the. hlund of SoeoirM. 157 

at • vety Murly age. - On tiie 6Mtent part of tlie iaiandc, amidst 
Ike fBoantaiiM^ I waa ahomt a rude- atona Gfaatr, in wlucb it was ewstomaiy 
lir tiM B t da wn ft to aeat their youtba («rlio were aoma^mes broagkt fffoai a 
leaf 4i8tnMe>wkpia the operation waapexiamied* They have preserved 
tka renManbnanoe of a aiogithn^ trial kf ordaal^ which was formerly practised 
an ao Individoal -fappoaed -to have bean gwky of any faeinooa crime ; he waB 
haond handa'aml feet on the aommit of some eminence^ and.there 
to fOBsaio'te' thrae di^^ If rain fall during* that period on or 
asar hiai^-^e waaxcaoaideeed guilty, and punisiied by being stoned to death ; 
hat if the weatiiar on thoaontrary oantinaed serene,* he was aoquilted. 

At iaal aig^ it may appear singular^ that while, aa wiU be shown by the 
aahae^etit eaetiony tha piipulation af the osaU n u portkm of the tsknd 
ihsnid b»l!Mind aomiaed and varied, that of the weatem ahauld have oon- 
tiHaad-'inni^ and'shoukl'atiA pnaiattha*aBme.gene»alGhacaatara8tic8,bat 
the lawas cB-anDanlnatioD atVialBMat ael£«ivideat. The Bedoainriatdee ao 
awap la ta-gtve tbelr^ diagUtaraito: tha ; native vr^absi, asd even to visitors 
»lw :aiay paaahat'a'sdioltitiBa»Qii'th»mlan& The wivea«f the latter live 
^^illi4eirh(aaband»^ :whil»of/ the 4itfip»kiiLby ithos»of the former, the boys 
najnaatty follafeR thwavJdoiiiati'iof'the fttheiv and*<faKely> if enar- tium to 
p«tautta-4if 4faeif ' awtaNuii'pfoganlteni 3 wh^ the famalea are 
■at t» tfaa'BedOttilia'(jfe thaugh the 'Akabs^have naobjectiona^o 
take a fiadaoinwife^'^hay woold ^et hold theuadvas disgraced wtare thay 
taaaury thair da a gh teiato one'of that ipoa), hat to one of their awn^dbms. 
This aeaaunta for tho gwat dispropoition ^which nmy be obaarved on the 
betwaan the tealeeaad thefsmaiaft ladepandeally of this, aa 
want ^ifwaiar^ which is^frit on« the wvatecn part of the iriaad 
daring the greater part efi the year, and ite general sterility, oilbr bo little 
iad a a a i n a n t to the natiive Avaba to^veaida there, timfwiththe exception of 
''^^^tf^ OB the sea coast, i» which iheytakevp their qoartevt foe the 
af ftihing, i did not in the evMinieof »y jootneyii^ in that part 
half a dOBsn faaiilies. Bat of fhoae which are comprehended oinder 
»of Bed o a in, there are a fefw distinct tribes, of whkh it iaaeceamry 
intien idioald bemade. 

worthy of attantionor remark are of a small tribe, of about 
IM nen, csOed Bahl Rahom, in the vidnity of Ras Mand. Their Ibie. 
firthctaatfe - eaid to hava been Jews, and the features of their desoendanta 
HiU vBtain n strong resemblanee to those of that race. The 8arlj the 
fliqrfll, the I>ermf, and the 2irghi deaeended from the Portugaeae, under Ike 
gBnecal appellatiott af Oambar or Gambar, occupy the granite meuntaina ; 
they ararioh inileaksof sheap andoxen, and though the resemUance to 
the JBuropean cast of coontenhnee may still be traced, and even in some 
mstancea they hate preaerved Hiei^' <R*ig^al names, yet there are uMierof 
those qrmptoma of physical degradation which are observed in theraccof 
tiie Portogwase at ptesent in IndiSL On the contrary, some of the finest 
l^gafoa and the moat intelligent of t3ie natives I saw on the island were of 
thia daas. Though readily reeognized by the other tribes, their descent 

158 Report on ike Island of Soeotira, [MxltcH, 

•ppeart in no way to here been utgoir mp « reproaoh a|;ain^ tWdm. It wm 
told me that a few faMilies amidst the mountains eontiiltted to aperic their 
ewn language, but I was never suffieiently forttinate te fall in with any of 
them. 8ome of the hills on the north side of the islaad atill rafcain the 
appellations which were bestowed on them by this nattoa. 
, As I have reserved the name of Bedouin, bestowed on the menntaim 
tribes, without regard to the general application of the term, it wUi he as 
well to retain the name of Arab, with whidi the remainder with no higher 
elaim have invested themselves. 

Under this designation ave included those who oooupy Tamarida, ihm 
villages of Cadhdp aad Caleseah, and the gr ea t er part of the- eastern 
portion 4>f the islaAd ; they may all be classed as foreigners, or tiie oflbpring 
of foreigners) who iiave settled here. The greater iManber are Anhs, whe 
beiYig left by boats pssswig between Zaaaehar amd the ArabiaB contioeilt^ to 
dispose of (Cargoes, take unto theraselvos a wile, and renaia peraMnetttlyit 

The pthers are Indiaes, 8iimaxilies« Nubians, slaves^ jbe. who ant attracted 
here kitm various motives ; all are earef4Al in preserviii^ the reeetleetion of 
their origioal oountry, and for this porpose they sul^oiii its name ta their 
own. Thus our guide was ei^led $ulimaa Musoaty, 'Or Sulifnaii fkom M«»« 
eat* Though so mined, a «ba% the Soootrian Arabs wear the samedrea^ 
and have adopted thesame lai^nage aad ouitooM; their eokmr^ iSsattties^ anil 
figure, aa may be antioipated from their di/ferent origiai are so variedj theft 
i^ is iflopossible to speak of them in any generai terms. We have hi ftMlb everf 
gra^e,. Arom the flattened nose, the thiok lipa^and the wooUy hi|irof the 
Negro^ to the e<puilly welUknown eharacteristics oi the Aeeb. Their drees 
ooAslsts of a loose- single shirt* desoeoding below the knee^ whioh is ooafiaed 
to their waist by a leathern girdle, in which is plaeed all the anas they can 
muster. The lower classes wear nothing but a pteoe of striped linen iouad 
their waist, with another, when they are exposed to the sua, thrown over 
thm shoulders ; ior rainy or cool weather, they all wear a thick wooUen coat, 
eudleieBtly large to completely envelope them. The dress of the females 
consists simply of a long shirt of Indian cloth,, over which is worn a loose 
wrapper, which after being taken round their person, the end is brought 
up over the neok, in order to serve them as a veil when they are desirous 
of eancealing their inces.. 

. The on^ employment in which the Soootrian Arabs esgage thesnselves 
ote, either in tending their date groves, or flocks ; in collecting ghi, or in 
the trade between Muscat and Zanzebar. Their date groves give them but 
little trouble ; for directly the owner can scrape together a few dollars, he 
purchases a slave to attend them, and if his master's wealth increases, he 
adds tothe number both of his trees and his slaves. Traders proceed among 
the mountains on camels, taking with them various articles which they 
oxchange with the Bedouins for their ghL The quantity collected is very 

The Arabs who engage in the trade to Zanzebar and Muscat with this arti. 
fie reoeive in exchange for it grain and slaves. Contrary to the general prac. 

i6iS.J Report on tke Island of Soeotra. liSd 

tice of the Sast^ ifae flocoirim Arabs treat their •laves with nniefa hartlmew ; 
they aare hard trerked) and iadifferently elothed and fed. As these pursuits 
Ban only' be engaged in doring the fair er N. E. monsoon, it fuUevs that a 
csosidenble postaon of their time is passed without emplojrment of anjr 
kind. To ob%'iatetfae tedium of tiiis period, I eannot learn that they have 
lesmnee to games of ehaace, or smiisements of any description ; the time 
appeara spent in visHing* each other» drinking coffee, smoking, and sleeping. 
Uk place of taking up their abode in caves, in the same way that the Bedou. 
ins do, the Arabs who reside outside the town live in huts, which are 
sMatly of a circular form ; the waUs are oonstmcted of loose stones, and 
BBS eemented with a mertar of which mud is the principal ingredient ; they 
arr-wely more than four feet in height, and they commonly enclose a 
spaee-ibofn 19 to 14- iMt in diameter. On the top of these, and proJecCingr 
nearlf a foot onm their sides, a conical roof, constmeted of the hranehes 
of the dale-iree,'i8 sometimes raised, the apex of which at the point where 
the ends of the hraaebes unite together, is chunamed, in order te prevent 
the raise fiwn getting through. In others, though the walls are of the same 
height, thef first piaoe rafters across in a horisontal direction, cover them 
mah date bmnohes, and 4hen cement them over with lime, mixed with earth, 
tmd sonfetifliics with turf: the goats may freqttently be observed grsaing on 
thegMfeB^wittg^entof the latter. In several of these which I visited, 
H^n^rhioh it waS'im|MMilbleto stand upright, which were swarming with 
teas, attd'which in sise, it will be remembered, are scaroely larger than an 
B%liBh pig-iitye, two or three families, each eonefsting of fear er fiveiadi. 
vidtelSj were resldhfig under the same roof, it is not therefbre a matter 
ef' any surprise that fever sometimes sweeps off a whole hamlet. Were 
the materials of which these wretched and miserable buildings are raised 
scarce, and to be procured with difficulty, we might pardon or excuse 
tiw little attention to oomfbrt, accommodation, or heaMi which thelki 
cenetruotion esdiihits ; but when they are abundant, and when they have 
better med^ in the town before them, it furnishes a strong proof of IdieiF 
iioth and Indolence, and warrants with many other proofs which may be 
addaeed, that they hdve ^tie incKnatSon or capacity for improvement. 

Notwithstanding- Socotra's numerous inhabitants, Tamarida is the onif 
collection of houses which may entitle it to the appellation of a town. Cad* 
hup and Calesseah are but small villages, and the Arab! on the western 
portion occupy numerous small hamlets, consisting of from six to a doaei» 
houses. Concerning the two viUages of Cadhup and Calesseah, all that is 
necessary to be known of them will be found in Captain Hainiss' deirarlp. 
tion of the exterior of the island. 

Timarida. I have been unable to ascertain at what period Tamarida was 
erected ; but both from its name and the appearance of the houses, I am 
inclined to think it must have been anterior to the first visit of the Por- 
tuguese, and most probably founded by those who followed them. The 
natives date its existence from a much earlier period, but little reliance can 
be placed on their testimony. The nesrest range of mountains in the 

1 W X^mtI on He Itbmd 0f S^cotim. [M4»6tf ; 

▼iataity of TatouMft ufipNmdiM IIm Maiatho tbApeof an wtk; <M» ^kM. 
ohiwd oi whiok. Mid awirly e^oidiiteiit from tlia potnlt wImn ite «tttie. 
malies reach Iha haaeb, k titiuitad Um tawa. It eon ria l i m piaatat af 
alMmi 150 alrafgliiig kaasaa^ wludi are wteoai i e a t td wUh eaab oliMr, aaiA 
are aarroandad with dale ireas: afthSaaaifaarnatatilirdianoylnitaMtad, 
the aihen renMin ia the niaa wriaaaa itata aa thaf wave left hy tha 
Wahabb ia 180K Though •m^.^he hauaea am wall aaMtiuauJ, af Um* 
aiui aaral, aaoieotad 6¥ar» aad f rwtt thfo baii^ kept wldl0.waiiiad» thay ha^ 
a aaat appaaranoe. They araaanaUytwoalorieainhaightyOf aafaaaefMm, 
and with a tower lo ma oonwr» through which the etaiv^aaaa ia aaaiity 
buUt ; the windows faea the N. &» aad they are ckaed like thoee^a tha 
hottsee of Arabia^ with wooden ahtttlarB» eal with a variety <af oniamaiitay 
through the iaateratiees of wfaleh the air aad light ia adantlad. Thaappea 
rooms are appropriated to tha usa of the harau ; ia the lower, seated on a 
piatfonn, of whioh there are two, one en either aide tha door» with a paa 
between them, tha Araba receiTa their Tiaitany and traoaet aU barii 
Attached to eaoh house there is a email garden,* in whiah iagiowa a aailai* 
ency of beans and atelans liar tha oae of tha Inhihilanta 'eneiiis»iH*M of' 
tobacco may aisa be seen amoag tha haoaea. Tha nnsber af inhajrftanta 
at the period of our vittt did ootaineed a huMhM: aaaaral waraabaani at* 
Zanzebar ; but fifty added, on thai accoant to 4hair nusher, gi«sa tha Ml 
number of those who at any period vesida heia. The Araba ilook down 
from the hills on the arrival of a ahip» and may induoe tha visitor to eatU 
mate their number higher than I have done. There are but tiro ahopa ih 
T^marida, and the articlea egpo ead lar sale aragndn, dates^ and dalbee; 
every individual, therefore, «n the ttiivai of a boat suppUea himself with 
whatever he re%ttirea» 

In commercial transactiona among theaoelvea, money iarar^y If avar 
need .certain quantities of gU, 4m. aseaobatitated. DaUarsarademanded 
from strangers who visit their part, and ftam my party rapeas were taken 
when they were assured of their value ; bat there ia no email e^n of anr 
description on the island. 

The dollars are made into eaiuriagB for theur women. Amber and ambergris, 
both of which are brought from Abdal Curm, were formerly aobstituted for 
money ; but the practice for some teaaoii haabeen diaoeiitlBned. Amber ia 
occasionally found abng the southern diore of this isUnd, bnt is not of fre- 
quent occurrence. The plain eneloeed by the range of mountains afready 
spoken of, which surrounds Tamarida, is watered by three mountain atrai^m 

flowing fast close to the houses, whiah are with the others at no period of the 
year wholly dried up. A lineof dategroveaonaithersidaof eadiof theaa 
extends from the base of the hills to the sea shore, ahe» they iliread out inta 
largegroves. The ground through which these pass is composed of a fow 
atopmg hills, and rounded hillocks, intenected by plaina and amaU ravines - 
th«e are destitute of trees or bushes, but the graaa which is nourished thei^ 
•fiords good pasturage to sheep and goats. Thesoil insomifof thevsllava 
•od plams « of a reddiduooloured earth,«nd appear. eapedaUy in the vioU^ 

I^J IUp0tl.m ike Idandif Soeotra: iSt 

flf<J^.4»t«0IPni Tfkh and ftfftUe ; iv otbera, it is of « liglit dAf^r, irflM 
wiU^pUb^taMH^ andlookAof a p#orer^I«alit]k' With thv«KoeptionV)f lh« 
p^ Ii0ii!» a Imr Bieloiis, pome tobacoo^-aMl a few •ndosarei of dekhan, no 
part miikm plamia imlti vl a d ; and 'tibie tnrreller wiio nay herMifter visit 
9ooQ$n^m tbe peiio^bd^aMi Febniafy and June, may ftom this dreanu 
Miod tfi .4teB f t ujA a d and almost ssndy appearance ibrm a different 
mm» tifwpwctlag ita fertility.> Bnt the least promising parts of 
thjpiplldiv vh«r«altivated for a singfle seaaen^ essentially alter their charae. 
teCfAr. thu he tto r, and ethew» an war first aravid in Januarfj innre a moi* 
In^nwt TCfetatbtt. I thercfofe rq>eat«f the part particaiarly^ iHiat I have 
ea^i'flMniieiitd -^t mrn a Xfy hefom, that not only ndght grain or vegetables 
be adtmftai here tea large eoEtent, bat that the nature of (he dimate and 
thaapil v«lhld alan«enriah the greater number of oar tropical fruits. 

ji .... - OfthM I n ka bi tan U tn^enettiA, 

|]haiwHliriliiiipg 4ha: hesithiawwis of the Bedouhis, the Arabs appears 
nmfcani lirtrlj lasnii ind iJinip^rnnn fiivers are said to prevail among them. 
AteflOw Bsina tii^gnures in the town of Tamarida ai^ (Hghtf oUy numerous ; 
«BriiiM9 li»tfiify saU^if Tamarida, that it eoAtains tt^ble the number of 
hewca thflfr iti^eaaoifaibitants, and <if totehfl more than ten times the 
niaiil«Br.«l.bali»illdBded» lit' other -^paslsof the ishmd, where the vestige 
efHiQDMr hahitatsaiMi eeold be traeed, thope also might he seen the same 
prt|Wrtiinn>of gaaraa. Xba Anbe fomMily'paad great attention to the state 
«f iMr tfmimAMiiktKAmaa^ one "wm placed at- the heiU/another at tte 
leqii |i9Ml:»4hM'i* lbs centre. On the fornwri^f'these was Inscribed the 
nsuB^I^^ bot gfetbn d o e o a c ed ; bat th« Miasaniis dtfi^ ih<^ visits fh>tai 
thfir.ilEWtii ^^'waien to any kind «f deeoratioh over the remainB of the 
dead^ broke and destroyed the whole of these, which camennder their' notice 
dBfii^tlMtf.stoy> . 

Mj i tt eB t io n ia . i^Hrticuiarly directed towards obtaining information 
mgfft»^.tkm iorm of rdigion. At present every individual on 
th^Mhi9d..ifl^ m fFoiemeB himself .to be, a Mussalman. The Bedouins, 
as in Arabia^ hold the doctrines but loosely: many neglect the fast 
af ti^^-JKpiwi>a<n» isv.aie acquainted with their morning and evening 
pr^fiminmiiaie.fev rarely tronble themselves with repeating them. 
Ci|fn||{|4wo« {.Jhaire^already noticed, is not practised until a late period, 
anjLJli -ijoaw ft9»ilie% 1 have reason to believe, it is omitted altogether. 

'Pf^Sooq^jfi^ Ajcaba>:«ii th»contrary,are sealous professors of the Mu. 
ai^{D|n. .fu^i^.«lMll0Vlgi^"ithe sane time, they are utterly ignorant of its 
■Kg^ .gf iw Wtfrt ^doyliin^ andrJike all t^oee nations who possess but a slight 
^B^^lf^ f^M» tlM0SI», they ace bigotted and intolerant to an insufferable 
deigi^.^ tTf^wyy iny ptajr a4 Socotra, individuals of the party occasionally 
hO^i^fi^ ^p^ tjf^ ]|aigrf»r which they expressed on these occasions at the idea 
of i^ biBjfXBni ng nfcpmary to bnry a Cliristian on the island, convinced me 
tiu^if it was ev^rdone* they would perform their threat 6f disinterring 
the epraaa, with every Indignity, and throwing it into the sea. The Miu 
haa^l^fjf/ffft^hom the Coas^ of Antbia^ a noble nee of Bedouins, who occa- 

1 62 Report on the Island of Socotra, [March, 

sionally reside for a few months on the island, ridicule them unmercifully 
for this spirit of intolerance, and have assured us, even in the presence of 
the zealots, that the Socotrian Arahs were poor wretches, who had nothing 
to plead in defence of it save the lowest state of ignorance^ and their mon- 
grel descent. After the receipt of Hameo Bin Tary's letter, prohibitingour 
farther progress through the interior of the island, I was confined by the 
Socotrian Arabs for several days in the town, and it was principally through 
the influence which the Mahara Bedouins exercised on that occasion that 
I was again enabled to set forward on my journey. The behaviour of the 
former on this occasion exhibited a mixture of irresolution, timidity, and 
avarice which I have never seen equalled ; they wavered between dread of 
the Shekh if they permitted us togo^ and their fear of missing what they 
might gain by hiring out their camels if they prevented us. Exorbitant 
demands were at first made ; and when they found that I would not listen 
to these, they continued to hold councils for three days^ during which pe- 
riodj whenever I had commenced and packed up all in readiness for start, 
ing, permission was given and cancelled more than half a dozen times. 

It is observed by Mawb' Brvjx in his " Universal Geography," that the 
population of this island might furnish a subject of lengthened discussion. 
He notices on the authority of Philostoroes, Eorisse, and Umpaulah^ that a 
colony, sent here by Aubxander the Great, remained for a long period ; 
and during the time of PhiiiOstorgss, an ecclesiastical historian, who wrote a 
history of the church on the Arian principles at the conclusion of the fourth 
century, that they spoke the Syriac language. Various other authorities are 
cited by the same author, to prove the existence of a race of Christians with 
which the island was peopled until as late a period as 1593, when the Nes- 
torians and Jacobites had each a bishop residing on it ; and even when Sir 
Thomas Rob visited it in 1614^ he observes, that 'Hhe Bedoignes,"as he styles 
them, '^ were of the Nestorian persuasion." In the absence of books or manu. 
ficript of any description, for I believe no notice connected with the habits 
er religious character of the islanders has since this period been handed 
to Europeans, it might prove a hazardous task to venture, on the mere 
traditions of the islanders, any obser\'ation on the causes or events which 
have led to the total abolition of the Christian, and the universal establish- 
ment of the Mohammedan, creed. Information on these points may possibly 
be gleaned from authors to which I have not at present any means of 
gaining access; but I cannot, however, dismiss the subject without observing, 
that as the channel of the Indian trade, at the early period to which the 
above-mentioned authors refer, was by the way of Socotra, and the ports at 
the entrance of the Red Sea, it can excite but a small portion of surprise 
to find proselytes of these persuasions residing on a spot so far removed 
from where the principles on which these were founded were avowed and 
practised. It is observed by Sale, in his preliminary discourse, that the 
persecutions and disorders which happened " in the eastern church, soon 
after the beginning of the third century, obliged great numbers of Christians 

1 835 .] Report on the Island of Socotra. 1 63 

to aeek for shelter in that country (Arabia) of liberty, who being of most 
part of the Jacobite community, that sect generally prevailed among the 
Arabs ;" and, although it does not appear that the southern parts of the 
peninsula were subjected to the ecclesiastical rule of either the Nestorian 
or Jacobite bishops, yet from the causes I have before mentioned, it is not 
likely they would have overlooked a spot like Socotra, where there is every 
reason to believe they could have indulged unmolested in the open profes. 
sion of their faith. With respect to the disappearance of these primitive 
Christians, as well as those which were left on the island by the Portuguese, 
the causes appear almost self-evident. It would produce an anomaly in hu. 
man nature, almost as striking as that which is afforded by the history of 
the Jews, if surrounded as they were by natives universally professing the 
Mussaihnan religion, receiving no fresh influx from those of their own per- 
suasion, and left an isolated and neglected race, if they alone had refrain- 
ed from embracingthe new doctrines; and although occasional skirmishing, 
consequent to a difference of opinion, may have occurred between the dif. 
ferent sects, yet that this was accomplished by a gradual and silent change, 
and not by any violent or exterminating measures, appears equally evident 
by the ample fact of their descendants existing as a distinct race to the 
present day. Evidence to the fact of numerous colonies of different countries 
or persuasions formerly existing on the island may be found in the present 
arrangeniient and distribution of its inhabitants into distinct tribes, many 
of wliich are still recognized as of foreign origin. 

Time has not produced a greater change in the government or condition 
of this island than it has in its ecclesiastical masters. In place of an arch- 
bishop ^d two bishops, we have now but a single priest, who combines in 
Bis own person the various offices of Mullah, Muezzen, and school-master. 
A angle Cddi solemnizes the whole of the marriages which take place 
throughout the island, and I have on more than one occasion met Bedouins 
seeking bim for a license, when he has been absent among the hills culti- 
vating bis date groves. 

Two small and insignificant mosques at Tamarida, the one called Mir 
Advance, and the other Abder Rahan, and one yet smaller at Calesseah^ 
are now the only places of worship for the reception of the faithful. 

It would form a curious subject of enquiry to ascertain what form of 
' religion tlie establishment of the Christian faith displaced. A ruinous build- 
ing was shown me on the spot, marked out in the map, which was said to 
have been an ancient place of worship ; but it was in too dilapidated a 
state to enable me to ascertain the truth of the tradition, nor have I been 
able to discover others that would serve to throw any light on the subject 
The population of this island, as stated by some travellers at a thounad 
•onls, is evidently mudi under-rated, but from their wandering modeof life, 
and other causes, it became difficult from any section of the island to form a 
correct inference of the population of the whole. The method I adopted 
was, at the conclusion of each day, to note the number of individuals I had 
seen^ and these I find amount to upwards of two thousand, though I am 
T 2 

164 Report on the tdinnd of Socotm. [Marcr, 

confident it does not •eomprefcend more than balf their number, for in 
veral places they concealed themselyes whenever we approached, andl 
though, as Will be seen by the Ttiap, mj rambles led me to many parts of 
the island, yet there were necessarily many hills and remote valleys I coul4 
not inspect. I am further strengthened in this belief by summing np th6 
number of the tribes, and I therefore fix the amount of the peculation at 
4,000. Twt) intelligent Arabs, who have resided on the island upwards of 
10 years, and have journeyed to many parts of it, tell me they consider 
this far befow the actual number ; but with Arabs an aUowance should al. 
ways be made for numerical exaggeration. 

Comparing this calculation with the whole surface of the island, wliic^ 
amounts to about a thousand square miles, it gives four individuals to each, 
which when we reflect on the ^reat proportion of barerock, which the sur- 
fwe of the island exhibits, appears very considerable. 

Although I have made diligent search and constant inquiries, I have 
been unable (with the exception of those which ii>dlcate the stay of the 
Portuguese) to discover any ancient vestiges or monuments that would 
prove this i^and to have been peopled by a race further advanced in civi* 
lization than the present, although I think there is reason to believe the 
population must have been more numerous, and that the island was conse. 
quently better cultivated. It is impossible to ascertain at what period 
their numbers were thinned ; but that they have not been exempted from 
contagious fever, or some ether desolating scourge, appears evident from 
the existence of such a multitude of graves in every part of the island, maixy 
of which appear to have been constructed at the same period ; but tSiat this 
period was somewhat remote, is equally evident, not only by the total disap- 
pearance of all traces of such improvement, on the face of the country, b«t 
by the present condition of the inhabitants. It must not be referred to the 
period immediately preceding the vint of the Wahabis, as has been suggested 
in some late discussions connected with the island ; for those fierce sectaries 
confined their eutragesy and the extent of their devastation, toTamaridaand 
its vicinity, and they did not attempt to pursue the inhabitants ^o fled 
from the town to the mountains at the first intimation of their approadw 

(The length of the foregoing Report prevents our giving iasertiou to the equally 
interesting remarks . of Capt. S. B. Hainss on tJb« sane Island. This Officer 
was charged with the examination of the coasts and the circumstaBcas of the 
various harbours, which though more interesting to nautical men, and d i« w u i^ 
in a most complete form, would not perhaps interest the genieral reader so mmcb 
as the riew of the interior of the island. There are but t2 boati on the isksod, 
capable of carrying about 80 gallons of water in fine weather. They are sewn 
together )Rith thongs of hide, or a kind of coir rope made from the young leaf of the 
date tree. Tamarida Bay on the Bor£h of the island is the principal port during 
the S. W. monsoon, but Has Konrina Ist. 12* 38' 35^ : long. 53^ 55^50'', affords 
a better shelter, and is also serviceable in the opposite monsoon. 

In the N. E. monsoon GoUonseer Bay is the best anchorage : — the town eon- 
tains about 130 inhabitants, and 16 fishing boats. There are unfortunately no 
ports where vessels could ride in safety frbm all winds, and opposite sides ^ the 
island must be resorted to with the •change of season. 

We subjoin a vocabulary of the Socotrian language drawn up by Captain Baiwbs 
from a Town Arab— it is confessedly imperfect, and contains a large admixture of 
Arabic. — £o.] 


Report on the Island ef Socotra. 


A few wordi of the Socotrian Language. 



Rheelio Rhain, 

Rheebo Mali, 

Rbecko Lftbrer, 







































Tall, toag. 
Salt water. 
Street or fresb water- 
Water to drink. 
To eat. 
A hou«e. 
A taaakei. 
Day, fiae. 
Ni^t, flae. 
Tbe mooa. 
The stars. 
The ftua. 
C«ome here. 
Go away. 
Sit dowa. 
Make haate. 
To sleep. 

Boy or male iafaat. 
Large timber. 
Small timbar. 
A month. 
A year. 

Oae thooaaad years. 
A fishing line. 
A hook. 
Souadiag lead» 

A chain for anchor. 
A yard. 
A sail. 
A lantern. 
A flag. 

A hiU or aiouttlaia. 
A stone. 

At a great distance. 
At hand, close. 
A tree, forest, 9x. 
Cora or wbeat. 

Bread oc eakea. 
Ck>me here. 
Go away. 
Go to market or ba- 


Bairah Tahr, Go to-day. 

K«aeteh Teedailhr, Come to-morrow. 
Decaby Good. 

Daak, Bad. 

Taabw, Well-dressed* 

Correetf propar, 
















Tltetrinsb, • 


















SIbaytaay • < 












Gee Reeho, 

Rheeho hareben, 
















Plenty, numeroos* 

Few, scarce. 


Daughtery or female 

Old womaa. 
Old man. 
The head. 
The hair. 
The eye-bmwa. 
The eyes. 
The forehead. 
The lips. 
Tbe teeth. 
The throat. 
Tbe sboaldeia. 
The back. 
The stomaeh. 
Tbe ana. 
The finsrers. 
Tbe naHs. 
The feet. 

Milk, sweet. 
Fowls. I 


Ctoats or sheep. 

Cows orballocta* 

A dog. 

CiTet cat. 






Alight of a candte, 

lamps, &c. 

Plenty of water. 
Scarcity of water. 
A well. 
A knife. 
A peneil. 
An inkstand. 
To write. 
A book. 
Skin or hide. 
A cup. 
A turban. 
A shirt. 
A sash or eammer* 

A box or cbcsti 
A chair. 

166 Ancient Inscription on a rock south of Bhagdpur. [March, 


A plate or dfiib. 


A fan or pankalu 


A cannon. 




Stop, gently. 


To give. 


Take bold. 


Go away. 


Come here. 




Plenty of any thing. 


Make haate. 


To be on good terms. 


To bebave properly. 


To converse- 

Aber or Urr, 

Take bold. 


To ascend. 


To descend. 


Sit down. 


To read. 


To mind. 


To spoil. 


To spread any mat 



To atrike a bMqgalii. 


To beat. 

Eokghnh, . 

Do not strike. 


To break. 


Do not break. 


Make no agreement. 


Do not give. 


Remove or take i^ 



To take any thing 



Do not take away. 


To bring. . 


Do not bring. 


Good or well. 


Not good, bad. 




I have not eaten. 


Come very close. 


Go away to a cUa« 



A man. 






The sua. 


A roof or top, awn- 

ing, &c. 


Dressed well. or io 

good clothes. 


Close to. 


At a distance off. 


What have you got ? 


True or truth. 


Untrue, a falsehood. 


Tkike bold. 


Do not take hold. 


Do not sit down. 

Tebtooah, , 


To sleep. 


To wash. 


To look. 

An Tahteher, 

Do not look. 




Come near. 

Toade Sirhoe, 

Go away. 

Habra Rbeebo, 

Bring some water. 

Rheeho Daroahaai, Saltwater. 

Ustugah, , 

To buy. 
To sell. 




V. — Note on an Inscription on the Mandara hill near Bhagelpur, (form^ 
ing a postscript to Article III. of the present number. J 

On considering the form of the SIrn&th characters, it struck me 
that they resembled considerably those of an inscription engraven on 
the rocks above the Talao called Poaphar, on the Mandara hill, of 
which a reduced engraving is published in the second part of Colonel 
W. Franklin's Inquiry concerning the Site of Ancient Palibothra. 
The mountain is situated to the south of Bhigalpur : it is covered with 
mutilated images, fragments of stone and ruins ; and although it now 
exhibits images belonging to the Brahminical mythology or passing as 
such in the present day, it may owe the abject condition of many of its 
temples to their having been Bauddha structures, destroyed during the 
well known persecution of this religion. Colonel Franklin gives no 
conjecture as to the purport of the inscription, of which he merely says : 
" Descending from the summit to Sankar-kund, we proceeded to vieir 
some figures cut in the rock on the north-west of the hill : their ap* 
pearance was singular." 

1835.] :Note$ on Natural History, 8fC. 167 

I have hitrodttced a drawing* of this inseription, as fig. 3 of Plate IX. 
aa from the size and good preservation of the original sculpture it fur- 
nishes some well-formed specimens of the written character of the 
period. A moment's inspection of this insoriptton shewed me my 
favorite land^marks, the title of a g^eat sovereign, ntakdrdja adhi rdjk 
tr{. Most of the letters forming this expression agreed closely with the 
Allahabad forms : — the 8r( only differed materially, and corresponded 
rather to the type found on several of our ancient Hindu coins, especially 
the remarkable descendant of the Indo-Scythic series discovered io the 
cylinder at Manikyila (Plate XXI. ^g, 9, of Vol. III. Journ. As. 

The restoration of the whole sentence, as far as I have been able to 
convert it into Devanigari with the assistance of Govinda Ra'ha, is a$ 
follows s 

" The mighty and venerable, the great king of kings, Sri Kulya* 
Bear ANA Dbva,^ the mountain of mercy." 

The letters of the name, however, are very doubtful : — the first seema 
more like an ^ ; the dental n iT cannot follow the lingual r ^ and the 
letters read aa ieva are uncertain. Neither is such a name known 
among the sovereigns of Magadha or Mithila. I only introduce the 
inscription into my plate to invite attention to it, as every autheatio 
name of Hindu sovereigns is of importance to history. 

VI. — Extracts from a Journal kept during a Voyage from England to 
Calcutta, in 1831. By Lieut. T. Hutton, 37M N. I. 

On the 19th August in latitude ir54' north, longitude 25*24' 
west. Thermometer at noon 88° ; with hot, calm weather, the first 
albatross was seen. Flying-fish, albicores, porpoises, bonitos, whales 
and medusae were seen in abundance daily. 

On. the 14th September, in latitude 25«5' south, longitude 30*38' 
west. Thetm. 70|* ; wind variable, we saw the first Cape pigeon. 

This bird, called also the pintado bird, is known to ornithologists as 
the Cape petrel, (procellaria capensis.) They are about the size of, 
or perhaps rather larger than a teal (anas crecca), and look very beau- 
tiful when sitting on the water ; but their flight, although strong, is 
rather heavy and ungraceful. They are prettily spotted over with black 
and white, on the back, rump, and wings ; head and neck black ; under 
parts pure white, legs and feet black; beak shining black. Length 
15^ inches, breadth with wings expanded 2-6 feet. 

'jW Katei M NUti^ral HiiioTf [March*. 

. • Tkty are remarkaUy fat «nd plump , thickly clothed urilh feathers, 
under which i» a cloae beaottfully eoft down isi a dark greyi^-browA 

The Gape petrels i^ipear to be stupid unwary hirds, easily cauerht 
by throwing a line oat astern, aad aBowiug them to entangle their 
wings in crossing and reennsitig the wake of the ship ; or; perhaps 
this may be attributed less to stupidity than to.their great greediness, 
making them more intent on securing any laorsel thrown orerboard* 
than on avoiding tiie snares which are laid fbr them. 

They are also taken with small hooks, and even crooked pins, bait- 
ed with a little piece of fat, which they greedily swaHoW, fighting and 
screaming over the savoury morsel, until a sudden' jetk of the line, 
hooks some unfortunate gourmand, and proves even to the poor petrel 
the truth of the saying, ** there is death in the pot !" ' 

Wlici^ jiiroi^htoa board diey both bite and scratch very sharply, and 
often successfully defend themselves by squirting over the assailant 
an oily liquid of a deep orange colour, smelling so rank and offensive* 
as to render the cloithes so bespattered scarcely bearable for many days 
afterwards, and it is indeed very difficult to get rid of it from the hands 
even after repeated ablutions. Along with this nauseous fluid, many * 
of them restored the pieces of pork with which we had so treacherously 
snpj^ed them. 


The natural food of these birds consists most probably of motiuscoua 
animals and medusae, particularly those which shine with a phosphoric 
light in the night time» a»d which light, if the petrels are nocturnal 
birds, as Professor Rbnnib says they are*, may be the means of goid- 
ing them to their prey ; I am, however, rather inclined to doubt their 
being nocturnal, for reasons which will presently appear. 

In examining the substance disgorged by some of these birds, I 
found a number of the interior cartilaginous membranes of the " vi- 
lella scaphidia," qauntities of which had been seen a few days before, 
of a beautiful blue colour, floating on the suHaee of the glassy sea. 

Their numbers varied considerably on difierent days, sometimes 
following us in large flocks, and coming close to the ship's stern, 
while at other times there were only two or three to be seen. 

I was much astonished at the coolness with which they would sii 
on the swelling waves and even allow the spray to dash right over 
them without rising, and seemingly with perfect indifference, conti- 
nuing their squabbles for the baited hook, and diving very prettily 
should the object sink before they could pick it up. They alight upon 

• " ArobitcctttTC of Birds/' p. 30. 

tlmatft ftverj. thing Hwt Imvcs the iUp» and this gWMmMyattracAt ths 
Attentkm of the albatrowMy whkh keep at m greater diatanee. 

I am much puzzled ta accoant for the total ditappearaDce of these 
Inrdi daring the night, and not* only of th^e, bvt the albatroates, 
itomy petrda and bloe petreb alao» for althoagh thejr had continued 
aboat aa in niunbera all day. yet no aooner did the aon toudi the 
borizoa, than all diaqppeaied aa if hy magic* 

The ^lestion it, where da they go ? 

PetrtU are said to be fmeiwnuil; bat aaeh cannot be the caae with 
the Cagie petKd» atormy petrel, or bine petrel, for we had them sport- 
ing in imr wahe the whole day. and at night they diei^peared, to rest 
I aheold sn^KMC* 

Bat nAere do they rest ? 

If on the waves, is it not etrange that we never feand them sleeping 
in the calm, clear moonlight nights, aa we held steadily on ooreooree? 
Vet never did we see one After eanset* 

'. To snppiMe that they ooold wing their way to some of the rocky 
i«lands scattered throogh those aonthem latitmlea woald be absurd, 
for often we had iloefcs of theee birds aroand us, when the nearest 
land moat have been from 15 to 20 degrees distant, and although 
their powers of. flight most be great indeed to «ialde them to keep on 
the wing with little intermission during the whole day, even when 
" blowing; great guns," yet. as they did not leave us until sunset, 
with what fiearful rapidity they would reqoire to fly, when 10 or 1200 
miles at sea. in order ta reaoh their restaag-plaoes before the shades 
of mght shoold overtake them 1 

Kgeons have been, proved to fly at the rate of 60 miles an hour, 
but the petrels would require to perform a flight of d or 400 miles in 
the same time ! I 

Hint they are aef noctumai is clearly proved by their continuing 
with the vessel M day. and as it is evident they cannot exist without 
repoae. we may fairly conclude that they mt at fu^ht, and again this 
rest milst be taken on load or water^ 

That they cannot rest on land, is plain, from what I have already 
stated. There remains then nothing but the water for them, and we 
may conclude I think, with safety that the reason of our not seeing 
them at nighty is because they are able to descry the tall white- 
robed masts of the vessel at a safficient distance to enable them to 
make • dean retreat before we came upon the spot which they had 
oceapted. and this is the more probable, as they would, like other water- 
Ibwl when sleeping in any number, have a watchful sentinel to warn 
them of the approach of dangers to which they must be constantly ex- 

posed froth tfhe nionstert df the d«et».' I hfite ^epe«lbdly inqoved'Of 
seafttiiiig tn^D, wliet!\er they had sieen tk^fe birdiP at iiigtat« bat none 
tould recollect a titigle instttnce. One person mentioned hiving 
canght a stormy petrel on a small hook, which had been twwiiig 
astern all' night, and therefore he eondnded tbut the bird was nobtar^ 
nal. Bot this is ho proof at all, sitic^ he did not know the hour 
when the bait was taken, and it is therefore more than probable that 
it occurred at early dawn, when th^ee tittle skimineH of the sea ireve 
as usual on the wing in their restless search for food. 
' Qaere^As the albatrosses and petrelk rAvMt bft tdany daira atlsea, 
without being near land, whence'do they fed'^tar tv di^idit, triilMs 
it be that of the briny ocean ? or, Will their food, topp08iiig''k to ton- 
sist of moTltisca and raedusse; supply them wilii wSkdJisis^mciMmf]>j 
^ On Ae S8th October, theife birds d^Mfrtied ^s^ tfod wie wir tbetti nlK> 
^ore tltn^ the tioyage; h&ving followed d»'fi^Gto'the i4th<SeptMli^r 
in latitude south !25^5' and longito^ we«t &0<>M'' deWflito la^ilde 
8aoth'41^38'; and longitude east 3^8^ ahd upagali^toiatttude south 
n\^6V und longitude easft 80^': A period bf (me nioiMK and r4 
days, ..•-■■ ......... 

Although we saw the albatrosa on the )9t6 August, %e wiere ti^t 
fortunate enough to procure one until the 3^h September, tn latitMle 
SS^SS* south, lon^tude 3V west ; thermdHieter 54^ weather cold. 

This bird #iuf shot by & passenger, ^nd aliliDtigh in hn rei^MiM 
agreeing with the genenc des(5r]ptl6tf, and a true albatross, wiaaby 
Ae officers of the ship t^med a •' mollimfawk/' 

The plumage beneath is pure white, as also the rutiipy heiid and iiapt ; 
thi-ough the eye is- a dartc bhrlsh-'blalek stripe ; badr and sides 4»f the 
neok, as also the back and tait feathers; daty^^browb' r wings the sicme 
but darker. Beak dark cinereous or grey4Bh^blaok, lihd the 1^ aiiid 
feet yellowi^ flesh^eolour. Length 3 feet, breadth T ftet. fiidea 
yellow. . . • 

On the 21^ October, in latittide S?*!^' ibtrtth, longttdd^ <9^ east, 
thermometer 63°, with a de^ cahd, we saw several lifbatNteeB appacr- 
ently of diflferent sptecites. ' ^^ ' * 

One of th^se bird# eluhe following istp th^ %ake dfibe sMp;«ao 
closely and with his eyes so intent on the'water,lhat at'^rfttf ttiaaght 
he was coming oil board, bat ^hen' he saw me standlnjg oH the poop, 
he turned suddenly across the wake ; at the same tisne I jei-ked up 
the line with *whi6h I was 'fishing for them> and luckily strnok hiia oa 
the irKng, which throwing him off his balance, obliged Mm to-«BdUe 
eta the water from whenee he might have maide'hie etfoape wfith eitfte, 
had he not in a fit of rage, and spite at being struck irith.the fii 


'tokBtd rcjand to Mie Ilia itmooeat imenns of .l^i^ dUyscoflafitar^ ; Vy ^ 

sdomg^ faowQV^r^ be cooteived to entangle ^U wi«g, and, to jnj. great 

yif I' Bocoeedfd in.hAiitwg bim o|i deck, aa^>ottedai^ unharmed i^ 

'.. Bebdonga alaoiotbe gebun difimedea. or all>atro8a» . bat wJl^etW 

*!a yoang bird* or a distinct ^p^ciea from. tbe. large whitecbodied l^ir^. 

nuiosdl^'kiio^ini to wIovb by that naiPie, I cannot positively determinis, 
w»^ have jsTer opportunity of coQiparing th^n ; but ixojfk tbe 
description of boitb,. J Mm inaliAed to. think them distinct, v , 

. h ■} 7be lM90adih irow tift. to tip of . the ezpand/ed ,wing» is ^« l^t ; and 

jta kngtib &on/ ^^si beak to iSnd of taii, . 8 ft . .5^ in^ 
j./The vholeof tb$ nmto'.parts aie pnre if^ite^ i^; are tba. ru^p.and 
npt>erijb«tt4»Tefti»;^ the firings, aiid baek>an4^ feail.fea^eirs^are.of i^.^^ry- 
4iark'4betiHit4»r0wfii ;vili0,h«ad.an4 baqk ppirt. of the neck ave i^hite, 

*lifaaid)r}<rloid^ with a.tinge o^bluish asbi^ whiGhjgrf^ua|ly.jgr9w» dark- 
er As»'Jlt.)oin*.ati<i'U^d8f^th th/e dark colour on, the bac^- 
.'Xho Jogs .4110^bbiisb^vJD^. Tba.beak is vfiry j.bfaoti* 

4a])y..]aariEi^ron,'thQ r%« of the uppor vMMxil^bU «a;tb. |i Ui^q of ol^iir 
bright yellow, which is well set off by the reat of the beak being of a 

: jc(t bteek, expef t tJbv kooki. wh wh ia roi^ flesh^fotoiju-edy^^d . i^ . a eonti- 

- Matwn of the yeUaw Uske^ 

At the baao^ofthe.lowfur miMidihle ia-a 91119II .q|r]unple,.M|;etchtngon 

>oaoh:Side from tiie edge to thebottom of the bill in a i^%xfoy9 lioe of deep 
or|/age:|gtt9W« "^he. ^e has % narrow jtri^ of bl^i^h^black running 
through it, and blendii^g fvitli th# pluinAg!a:Oathe'back qf tfa^ .huad and 
«fffk^ iliideabaaia* / 

V *' QQE:-M»«UAiiig the gt»aid ol, thi^ Aufd, jSfB f«uad the ^es of a fish, 

.,.wlii<^i;tO:JadgQ iroin^eiC.Bi^eu j^ been, irom a. pound and a 

rk»V|9ltiK»f|!Oiipc|';w0tght.. . 

<j) OothjoCrtheaeaiic^OUn^nsiiad a hcantifiillf «i^ whiN down, v^y 
dose, beneath their feathers. 
*.n^lKQic«ef«t,|^..Qap0p%e<K)8 alighteiiupon aAything^ the albatross 

-i«f«l^iiflt(^R(P«r^^o4 i)b aud^aweepiatg over* the \ratera with out- 
stretched wbg, threw himself into the midst of thecn with a hoarse 

ii^Beream^ and obliged, theni to abaudon the prey to him. 
'^,Ot^ i|rst^.i|lightvQ^ on the water* the. albatross holds hia . wings half- 
^l^e^.high ^yi^r his b^ck* an4. if he finds any thing to devour* slowly 
U^ tllpfi i9i;en.Ma sid^ ; bat if be is ;dii^ppointed in obtaining prey , 
,hft:.tiuxHiraiioriR|urj^ \m beadaadnc^k, and, onpe more expanding his 
kme^TW^iH^i^u^ wit)» three or fsi«r sptashii^ steps on the wave» and 
ikm^iMuftlllPadflally i^^ thaahr, skisos along with iaorecUble strength 


•-■> e 

173 Noes m Nutural Hktmj, $fc [Mabch, 

Notking: can be more majestic tlifui l^e longf, sweepm^ IMgfat c£ fiiis 
bird* as he skima dofldiy over tiw fisoe of tiw deep, almost wi&oat 
iBovingbifl wings, which are kept at fall streloh, until he* suddenly 
throws himself far aboTe the waves, and then with a loog-vweep dasdiea 
down again, and skims away as before for TBtnj yards wsthbnt any 
apparent motion of the wiog, save now and then a shght bending near 
the tip as he avoids the foaming crest of a ware. They always alight 
on the water before taking their prey, holding the bead ttnd neek "very 
erect when swimming, and looking both bold and gracefal. 

The so0ty albatross (Diomedea foliginoea), called by the offieem of 
the ship^ a " Pwroo^" is both more nameroub and more familiar than 
^e other kinds^ attd flies ralher differendy, not sweeping soleng' sOid 
ateadily over the surface of thie deep as the larger aibatrosseSrajad'rittiti^ 
far above the yards, impudenlly skirting due sides ^f tbe^shlp?, aifd 
looking ,d9(wn upon the daeka'C s they flap their, wn^ f refuenCly in 
flying* "vvhick the larger birds do wot. If the 'weather k ealtn/how«i 
ever, and the wind very light, iSieytil'flap their witigi^ oftfeher, so that 
the above description is more applicable to windy weather. 

The sooty albatross or Quaker bird, was first seen on the 26th 
September, latitude 33^30' south, longitude 3*^5' west, thermometer 5^ 
weather cold wind variable j and left us on the 26th October in latitude 
83«34' S. bngitude 77^16' E- thermometer 59^**. Thick hazy w^. 
ther ;* wind S. S. E. 

The other albatrosses continned to be seen until the 29th October, 
hi latJtnde 29*^37' S. lorigftode 82»28' %. thermometer 69'». Fine wea- 
ther; wind easterly. 

In GwFFrTfl's translation of Ccvibr, the petrels are stated to '•drop 
upon their prey with eadteme promptitude, and carry it off with their 
bill, as with a harpoon ; but they have not the habit of diving to at- 
tain it. TTiey are in feet never seen to submerge, and when the 
animal they are watching is somewhat below the surface, they sink a 
portion of their body in the water to seize ft." 

This IB not correct, as the petrels, or at least the Cape petrd, as 1 
have already stated, can dive very prettily, and I frequently saw them 
do so, after the pieces of pork which we threw overboard to them. 
They certainly alight very quickly upon their prey, but not with the 
sudden and headlong rush of the rapacious tribes, as the word '*drop'* 
would lead one to expect. It must however be remembered'that I speak 
only of the Cape petrels, which also devoured their prey before rising 
from the water : other species may perhaps act differently.' 

* Perhaps Colbridob may have attaded to thU biid, in log " ikwHrmt Mariasr " 

1SS6 J ^ Note w (hjgyrus, tmd 0thmr PeUtgtan thelli. Hi 

1 am happy to iind tbat mj desmption of the nannen and flight of 
tiie idhatreoa agrees so nearly with that of the author jntt menlioaed. 
He says, howerer, that tfak bird constantly dips its head below the 9iir« 
laee of the water, during its ttght, in search of food. 

This I nerer saw, althongh I have sometimes watched them for the 
greater part of the day. Lihe the Cape petrel they always settled 
before they seised their prey, and nerer rose until they had devoured it. 

As trvLtii is the grand desideratom in all scientific researches, I do 

not think it necessary to ofier any apology for having set forth my 

hBOVudf 8 in opposition to those of more experienced men, because I have 

Kta^ted ao more than what actually passed under my own observation : 

whereas the autbots above mentioned have written in a great mesaors 

toKm hetureay» and consequently may have been nbliged to take on 

Csredlt a -great deal of nnaullKnticBtad matter. 

. [Wb MipettlMk w« Gflsadt AW room Tor tAevt^ HirrfoN'i daily Jdttrnsl, kept 
daiEi^ hit voxsge. 4s lodis* We prMume hewstar tAut <bs priaai{tel fiun ia^ 
mtand hiitojcy. observfid by biin have besa nUvdsd to sbaTe«''-*fiD<] 


VU.'^Aectmnt of Oxygyrus ; a new Genus of Pelagian Shells aUted to 
tAe Genus Atlanta of Lbsuscr, with a Note on some other Pelagian 

' Shells lately taken on board the Ship Malcolm. J3y W. H. BaNsoN, 
Esq, Bengal Civil Service. 

The foUowixig characters of a new Pelagian shall, taken on the 
liorface of the Southern Atlantic and Indian Oceans, may prove inter* 
esting to naturalists, inasmuch as hitherto only one genus of the 
fbmily, viz. Atlanta, has been discovered ; and of the remaining fami- 
ly of the order, a single genus, bearing a shell, is known, that ^ 
Carinaria, of which scarce and beautiful groi^e we took, in the Indian 
Ocean, two new species, which I hope shortly to describe and illus- 
trate. The shell of the genus Atlanta was first made known by 
Lax AMON, in a paper sent to France during the progress of La Par- 
aousa'a voyage. Overlooking the absence of septa, he called it " Coma 
d' Ammon vivante." The only specimens he met with were dead, 
and were taken from the stomachs of Bonetas, which he supposed to 
have brought them up from great depths, little dreaming that bun* 
dreds of living specimens were nightly within his reach on the surface 
of the Ocean. Lately thegenushas been re- discovered by the Amerioaa 
freueh naturalists, the animal has been referred to its proper place in 
the 83ratem, and a scientific name has been conferred upon it by M, 
1 now come to my description of the allied genus, which 

174 Aceouni «/ Osff^ytus^ a mw ^Sigpcitt [NUaca. 

bo» tftft most obviotis dtrting^ishmg cfaaradber, the rtipiditycf' 
:voltttio]i» I hav6 named Ospyffymt. From ot'««TelQz,. and r<ifOM inonrTak 

Class — GaHerdpodOi CuvntL. 

Order-'^-Nueieabrmiohit Bl^likyillb. ' 

Fam. Ailantidm, Eano. 
. . QemiB, OofffTta, auhk 

Ghar. Gen. Tbsta 8ubcartila§imo9a^ di»coidett^ oUo CMOohta, 'duo* 
km i(Uaibu8 siwuUbus, uiroque latw9 pr^fwidh wmbiii^Kt^ f cmfrMCt^kim 
^glfrioriiua.mitecedewtes farh amfde0tentikm9 g Mtrfhtdu uUim9 Uct^m 
4»euiiBaimk c&rmaio ) curimtabm-BMBque mi dimidSmm peri/M^ ^iHod, 
iUtc dennent^i extrtmitateanffuhtd ; 9perturd i)9ftdifrrm%\ «teti cariMHi 

. Opitr<Mlum\.oeardiJhrfMt $medui dB f n as«m \ sab cmtAlio tfktikm. 
.lAKilCAir 'jjrt'ro/ev e^pjUe probo$ddiJmini^ textalmiU dltoimf^bNfMm 

termaudi /• .dlwaoAcd? peOM/ormibm, int^r Jtew <r ffm&iA Mt^ 
ai^.; fide mid mdttimd^ dptd,'>folkioedif iobitf^ ddtdfid pi^ttiUdi loho 
mdjfore.veMils attremitmmk diUtt$a$Oj;vjfttho adkU^^fedl^^'tmiMre 
oldotiff6*ofad^' mmnbi'4mane§\, temde^imi, muHfim diM^aH^v fuMfyi^, 
operculum facie inferiore gerente ; operculo cott^eo,' 
' .•SbeH vtfiboartilii^iMi&s; quickly epH^tttej tlie first 'whdrk b^ing 
lieaklf envdloped'tifthoie' 'Stt^deedum*, difeoid^ Bydkbetrk^, deeply 
unkbiiieabMb Jott eaedr aidcf ^ last whori breadlj aikd lAiariifly Iteded' frtiiii 
the edge of the mouth to about half thf^einrantfet'etfore r'kedi^afefgtilllr 
at its poatedovitenkljlurtioa^-i^rttfe'aiiii^^ heait-^hdpad/n^ entire, 
bsiag enoi>tiac&»d Of otk^bythe pneedi'a^ wliorl i pMCreoie adyite; \AAk 
a:BanQVr dit at sinua on the fttnil tdg»» nmnjttg iilto iImi keel; *wlHii6k 
is tibere double. ' • - •••' ^ -^ 

-rvOpereoUoa heart-diapedV depresaedv imd channeled #itk ameJdtdd 

• • 

^nrak Head probofeisidifoinn, ' with tmy riiwt eyiii^dlMl 
tentacula, having a large prominent eye on' the )igtleH«^ i)feM of ^eMk. 
Moalh tenunHil. BrandUce peottnifomir lyin^ eibllqiiety'lMstweeti' the 
Imrand liie male organ*, ^oot* Miacepteawritfimer, iiktitt|^'4wb 
Jobtt^ the larger widening toward Ih^^extt^eoiiiy, and having af' Mtei^ 
-aucker;-libe smalWr lengthened anterioriy, extmrately thin, ^'jagged, 
and bearing the ofereuhim on its under surface.* Operciihini, horny < 
t /Hie anttealmoch reaemhles that of Atiattiif, but dtfilM'In'fSie Mm 
<^ the greater iobe» the poaitiiMiof- the sanker^ and the Ibllaeediia 
a]»peBdage to the operculated loha of the leiol^' w^ioh is tmwia e d bf 
ve^s h^.vipg the appearance, of tendi^()9» which adinij^a£-thajoai9tn.c» 
tion of the organ. The proboecidiform head is morairtedkdi 

.W33J} of P^htftah SMIb, taken on « voynjw to India, ^76 

tlie oesti^ and baib, md kbfoaderthaiitbBtof jll/afl/n ; the tentaieul* 
are nuiob' asiaDflr in proy w tion» and tfaeceittte df the 8])ire is oebti* 
pied by the dark brawn mai(^ of tha liver t whereas in Atlanta this 
part appears to be fiUed'with a senes of forma resembling ova. 

The shell differs principally in having whorls closely convolate, and 
partly enveloping the preceding opea ; while in Atlanta, the whorls are 
looaely loUed*, and tin keel (whick stops short at half the circwdfer- 
Mie>iB* (heyiffjftmi) nuss om between the whorls, and connects them 
jlogeftberi*' In AiiaMa the farm of like monfh, which is entire^ is eiHp^ 
.ttfAli^witkatt-^Kercalaaa of the same shape. In Ogfgfrms the opef^- 
ftttHmkia^eordiforBi, ooinre8|)onding to the form of the apeiture, and in 
the only species yet discovered the shell is cartilaginoas» while in 
Atlanta it.ia\Mttaoeo«ii. Thi» eartitaginoas shell almnkv in drfing, 
fitttacidaclgF the "Inat wkorl, the centre ones- appearing to be^of firmer 
eons^sMloe^-. In ^4^c«iea described; tke ahettts tunkid, hereia widely 
4ifBBiiag.ftoa^ tiie fery compressed' and flattened form of AtUnta^ 

Having -skeined the animisda oi both sheila while Awe,- nnder the 
leiM«-l4»n?apeek* ^otiidelitly regarding their affinity, which i had 
noted i«a.*gprobaU^ before I bed an opportunity of examming the 
animal of the new genua. 

lAkeAMantOt 'the ^imal movea by. sudden atarts,. ^nicidy agitating 
teaariiwktirj t It occ^aionnlly adkerod to*the bbttom' 06 the wessds in 
«iik:l|>it>wiA. pkus^f by ita a«dker» whiak then waa>flatoeBttd out to 
OieiwrfiPK^tQ wbiekil adherad; 

, JK^ ilrat <i9et with the ahell tn- tbe * Sontbern Atkatie frdm 8. SLat. 
Ir6l! to^^* aCK atid bfstween W. Long. 29*" 9(y and Sft"* aO". in "die 
gi9«tkeTB in^btn Ocean, we agva met wHh it in 2&' ac B. Lot, and 
32* £. Long., and it continued to occur at intervals up the Bay of 
•Bfngf^Miril^^-'I^atil?^ and E. Long. 87^. It baa' thanfiirea'yery 
extensive range of sea and climate, and I am surprised that the French 
n«tiii:i4MB/^bP have of late «wet>t the seas with so much zeol and 
«^e9efla> k#¥e mH-jSM^ wiltb it. . . 

rfrThev m^^ eonies. up- to the sUrfiMe,, with the Pteropodoui moOn^eU 
lapd-ilPfrlHireKAfc ekortly after auuaeti and may than betaken wiiai 
f A^tiOW^iictt^ 'Witk this apparatus I waa extremely sncceaafuU dnrkig 
.^.^9f^ .^^^t^^-if^fo^ England, in proonr&ig Pelagian sbeUs, atf the 
foUo^fiHg toatalogoe wiU shew* My example being followed by two 
.iHher pi^VentfetK yt6 <Jftairi84 but few objecU on our route to escape 
.Wt>.J waa also enabted* wiA a thfowing-netk to oepture such la#ge 
.^riltiiP-Trfim ^Mb^ foosM tber poop» and which would have otftierwise 
../«:i9oTiriii<Nt7^ym hetif ta MuttMi nearly tke tftma^relatioB that OrMites 

176 Account of PeJagioM Shells. {Mamcu, 

passed at too great a distance from the ▼easel to have fidlen into the 
line of the tow-nets. 


I. Janthina, 6 i^cies. 

8. Litiopa (Rang.), 2 species. \ ~ 

3, 4. Two new genera, which I have not jet snffidently exaffluned. 

5. Carifiaria, 2 new species. 

6<. Atlanta (LasuBua), 2 species. 

7. OsygyruB, mihi, 1 species. 


8. Lmacina. A single new reversed species, being the second 
discovered of the genus, hitherto confined to Arctic regions. I took 
an unique specimen in Lat. 40* S. Long. 33* E. 

9. ffyaUea, 9 species. 

10. Cleodora, 3 species. 

II. A new perforate genus allied to Cleodora (^*anfftaiiMi>. 

12. Creeis, (Rang, Mannd des MoUusqnes, page 115,) 3 species. 

12. Cuvieria^ (Rang.) 2 species. Our capture of two perfect spe- 
cimens of this shell will enable me to correct the character given hj 
Rang* from imperfect specimens. Out of the number caught by us we 
took only two perfect specimens, one of which I unfortunately broke, 
its excessive fragility reducing it to the state in which Rang has da* 
scrTbed it. 


H* Argonauta, 1 new species. 

15. Spirula Peromi, 


16. AnaH^era, 2 species. 

lacertiB 8edi$, 

17. Campiflomme (mihi). A new genus, which I am unable to as- 
sign to any known class or order, from the three specimens taken by 
Lieut. McNair being defective of the animal. I can only conjectoce thn X 
it may belong to the Firolida, and that it is probably related to Cori- 

It only remains to give the specific charaeter of Ozygyma. 
0. m/a/iw. Testa tamida, oMjraetibus trmsnort^ ttM^srim ^tri&kt^ 
Hs ; suiuris profiimd^ exeavatis. 

Shell tumid, whoris transversely and closely striate ; sutorea deep^ 
ly out. 

CakmUa, Feb. 2lst, 1835. 

i 835 .] Asiatic Society. 1 77 

VIII. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening the Uth Marehy 1835. 

The Rev. W. H. Mux, D. D. Vice-President, in the chair. 

jr n ^< i n T. M. Ta vceB; pMpMBd ct the laat meetinf, wm diil^ elected 
a Bember of the Society. 

The Chevalier General Ventura and M. A. €oi»r, inroposed aa honor, 
•ry membera at the last meeting, were unammoualj elected. 

The Honorable Georgb Tvksovb, of theX'eylon civil service, was pro- 
fit aa mn {lonorsry member, by Dr. Mils,, seconded by Mr, J. Pjoksep, 
ttfll'referred to the committee of papers. 

^e Secretary- annoonced that two vacancies had been caused in the 
earamittee of papers by the^eportareof Captain Trover and Dr. Tytlbb, 
for Europe; upon which a ballot was held, and Mr. H. T. Prinscp and 
Cq^n Pembbrtok, were elected by the majority of votes. 

Read a UfUm iflmu €./ fL Robison, Esq. intimating, with reluctance, 
that,htf BQPfl qpnfpeli^ to withdraw from the Society. 

lU^ A Jettfir £nom Dr. J, T. Pbarson, atatisg that In coneqneaoe <)£ 
U« lesidiqg ^ aiu^ a djistance from tha museiuii of the Soeitty, he oonld 
not any longer perfom the duties of Curator, ^lod- th^wplefe MutdeiMgi 
his resignation of the situation, and proposing that a person be sent fw 
IB that capacity from England. 

Snehftd^ tUjit the thanks of the Society be presented to Dr. Pbarsok 
for hia peat services, and that the subject of ' his present recommendation 
be reliBrred to the oommittee of papers. 

Read a letter from Mr. C. Trbbeck, tm tife sflbject of his brothei*'s 
aid Mr. Moobgboft's manuscripts. The Secretary alse had received 
a letter from Mr. W. Fraser of 0elhi, offering to place such papers as 
were still with him in the hands of the Society, on. conttition of their being 
published for the sole benefit of the authorVifimily. 

Referred to the committee of papers. . . 

idV letter from Monsieur. £. Bi/ri^oitf,, Secretary, to the Asiatic 
j'ot Paiif^ acknowledging his election as an honorary member, and 
Dotidhf^r^* ^n^Ptof'the 17tU'v()iume of the Asiatic Researches and ist 
Taldhie>6f%e9terieii3 of the i^^atic Society. 


Read a lett«l^ f«(|Oi Captain H. HARKr'Biis, Secretary to the Royal Asia:! 
tic iikMtf,4erwacding.tiie Srd part^f the 3rd voinme of the Society's 
Transactions, also the first part of the New Quarterly Journal 

BlM^B ]^fttor<lrom li« T. Pkinsbp, Eeq. Secretary to the Qoveramentof 
ImtasL, General Department, forwarding on behalf of the Right Honorable 
the Governor of Bengal, a copy of the 1 st volume of Colonel BsAuroT's Nau. 
ticBl aad Hydraulic experiments, with numerous Scientific miscellanies. 

Bead a letter from Baron Silvrbtsb ob Saoy, presenting his recent 
peWkatiena aa fbllowa : 

178 Askih Society. [March, 

De L'AsiE, ou Considerationtt Rdigiensef » PlulosophiqneSi et Litterairei, sur 

L*AaiE» 4 ▼ol«. 
Extrait Du Sefer Tahkemo&i. 

Notice ear La Vie et lea Ouvrages De M. ChampoI'I'IOM Lb Jkunb. 
Dlscoura proDODC^ k la Stance Generale de La Socie;^ Asiatiq^ue du 29 Avril, 


Alfiyifa ou La quintessence de la Grammaire Arabe, ouvrage de Djbma'l-ed* 

Di^N Mohammed. 

The following books were presented on the part of the Ro)'al College 
gf Surgeons of London, with a letter from Sir Anthony Carusle. 

Catalogue of tlie Library of tbe College of Surgeons. 

Descriptive and illustrated catalogue of the physiological series of comparative 
anatomy contained in the museum, vol. 1st. 

Catalogue of the Hunterian collection in the museum, in 5 parts. 

Memoir on the Pearly Nautilus, with illustrations of its external form and 
internal structure, drawn up by Richard Owen, M, R. College of Surgeons. 

Alleged discovery of theuseof the Spleen and Thyroid gland,bySir A.CA&LrsLB. 

The following works wire also presented. 

Report of the third meeting of the British Association for the advcncciment of 
science — by the Association. 

' Madras JoufAal of Litetatvre and 'Selenbe, Nos. 5 and <^-~^ tke Madm LUe^ 
rary Society. 
■ The Indian Journal of Medical Seieinee, Nos. 14 and Ih — by the BdU^tn, 

Journal Asiatiqu«, No. 7B, Septemher, 1934 — by fhr Asiatic SoeUfty of P^gHi, 

Ciceroiiik Op^ra Omtoia, printed in Chd year 159(}-^ ZH% J. Ty^ler^ 

A valuable Aldine edition of Herdd^tus, printed in ).51>d — by lMti6, 

The following trorks, published by the Ori«tital Traaedatioti Fond, wens 
received -from the London Committee. 

Tohfut-ul-Majahideen, an Arabic history, translated by Lieut. - M. J. Row- 


An essay on the Architecture of the Hindus, with 48 platea, by Ra'ii Ra'^b, 
native judge, Bangalore. 

TVavela of Macafius, part 5, translated by C I*. BfiLPoaR. 

Travels of fivliya fiffendi, in Europe, Asia and Africa^ in the 17th oontuiy, 
translated from the Turkish — ^by &. J. V^k Uammhs. • 

Description of the Burmese Empire from tihe MS« of father SA?fo«BMA3io, 
transhited by W. Tawdy, D. D. 

Alfiya, an Arabic Grammar, by the Baron Silvk8TK£ vb Sacy. 

Fifth general report of the proceedings of the Oriental Translatijon Fund, 1834. 

The following books were received from the booksellers. 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopedia, Middle Ages, Vol. 4th. 

British Admirals, Vol. 3rd. 

Illustrations of Indian Zoology, Parts 15, 16, 17, and 18, (two in one.) 

Illustrations of the Botany, and Natural History of the Himalayan Mountains, 
&c. Part 4th. By F. J. Rovlb, Esq. F. L. S. and G. S., M. R^ A. S. 

The Secretary reported the completion of the Inde^ of the first eigfa. 
teen volumes of the Asiatic Researches, and submitted a Bill from tKe 
Military Orphan Press, for Rupees 1210, being the expence incurred in its 
publication, which was ordered to be discliarged, and thanks were roted. 

1835.] Asiatic Society. 179 

MuxBum and PhyHosL 

The Secretary announced that he had been requested by Lieut-Golohel 
SY7RNET to beg the Society's acceptance of the collection of fossil bones 
from AvH, exhibited at the meeting of the 6th August^ 1834. 

The best thanks of the Society were voted for this splendid and costly 

A note was read from Mr. J. H. Stocqiteler, presenting for the Museum 
a spearj knife, and mallet, used by the nations of King George's Sound. 

These very prlinitiTe implemenU are made by cementiag sliarp splinters of 
flint upon the aide or end of a stick with a kind of tough pitch. The mallet, 
formed of two rounded stones attached in the same manner, is used for indenting 
the gum tree, up which the aborigines climb in search of the opossum, and also 
lor killing the animal: — ^the pointed end of the knife for skinning him. 

Three specimens of the navicella teaselkita (Lamarck)^ found adhering to 
piles in the Hugli river. Fort Williamj were presented by W, H. Ben- 
^N, Esq. 

Read, extracts of a letter from Lieut. Wm, Folet^ dated 6th January, 
forwarding fsome specimens of Sulphuret of Antimony^ occurring in ywi 
quantities in a hill near Moulmein. 

JSxtractA of vaxious letters fjcom Ct^ptain Cavtubv and Dr. Fai^^oiver, 
describing the progress of their explorations in the Siwalik hiUs. 

The rkimioaroay hitherto a destderatum in their fossil oabiiMt, had at length 
been' necoi^ised by seven veritable molar teeth. The Maseiun at Sefaaeanpar is 
now so ri«bly stored xWitii tub)ectfl, that it will be better to await <a fuU account 
of it from the^ meritorious foaader» of it thsJOEiBelres, than to publish the detached 
BOliceft ifQ have hitherto ventured to glean from their private oorrf spoadence : 
but we could not refrain from announcing to the wQrl4 the j:apid progress made 
9$ the onset, ia this remote theati'e of discovery. . 

Some vegetable stalactitic kankar and fossil shells of the Gawelgiri hills 
were yr«aented with notes by Dr. Maux>lm8on of Madras. 

Antiquities and Papers Communicated. 

A letter from Dr. O. B, Rahkin, dated Riewara 7th February, 1835, 
wWToad, forwarding a facaamile of an inscription from the ruins of a Hin. 
da temple on the hill of Harsh in Shekawati, about 40 miles north of Sam. 
bhur, and seven of ^ght sonth of Seekur. 

A letter from Lieut. Nbwbold, communicating a Memoir on the History 
and Government of Naning. 

Also a sketch of the four Menang Cabowe States in the interior of the 
Malayan Peninsula, by the same author. 

The following valuable papers and documents were submitted and pre- 
sented by Lieut-Colonel H. Burney, resident in Ava. 

A chronological account of the kings of Siam, obtained from the right- 
ful heir to the Siamese throne, now residing as a druggist at Ava. 

Translation of an epitome, of the kings of Prome, Pagan, ^nd Ava, 
drawn.up by order of the king of Ava for Colonel Burnby. 

Translation of the official registers of the. population of the Burmese 
Knipire made in 1783, and revised under the present king in 1886. 

The vhok population of Burnui proper from thes^ docamentoi oMhitiye «#tliB 
** wild Iribea,*' only amouots to 1,831,467 souU. 

Translation with critical explanation of the proclamation made «v«vy 
month in the city of Ava, as noticed by Cuawfvrd, eajoining the inh»bi- 
•tanta to observe certain moral precepts. 

Colonel BuRNKY having kindly undertaken to look over these papert, a^d 
.prepare them for the press, they were re-delivered into his charge for the present. 

A description of the ruins of an extensive ancient town called Pora in 
Assam, was communicated by Captain Wissthaoott, Assistant to the 
Political Agent on the N. E, Frontier. 

[This will be published in our next.] , 

The following particulars of some singular ancient monuments in the 
neighbourhood of Hyderabad, were communicated in a letter to the Seor»> 
tary from Dr. S. G. Mawjolmson of Madras. 

/' Your remarks on the liquid from the Manikyila .tope induoe me to 
think, that a notice of the singular tombs near Hyderabad may he inter- 
.estiiig. There is an account of them in a volume published by the Madras 
.Society some years ago from the pen of Captaiijk Youvo. They differ in 
appearance very much from those figured by Mr. Babxn&ton» And aUo 
from some in Mysore, mentioned in Colonel Wejuoh^ hook ; but are exceed- 
ingly like the smaller, and ruder Druids' circles, and in some no square 
cofiio or *' kiot" is found, their place being supplied by the small stones 
and soil, which contains much clay, and some iron and lime, and beoemeB 
naturally very bard when pressed together. In none did any mortar seem 
to be used. Captain Young found bones and even skulls. I was not eo 
fortunate, although very anxious for a skull, being in hopes of ascertainiiig 
tbat they had been monuments of the same people, whose remaiiw am 
found in some parts of Russia. Some of the graves had been opened be- 
fore, and 1 believe that in these skulls had been found. In those I open- 
ed there were many of the earthen vessels of very different shapes, and 
the more perfect ones contained a peculiar soft almost unctuous looking 
earthy in thin layers -of a white and dark-gray color. In some places 
t^ere seemed to be a white powder like ashes interposed between t&e 
du.<dcy layers." 

The c<mtents of two of the jars were sent up as fiisl extrttcted ; hntlh^ 
seemed to contain little or no animal matter : — ^the earth fnm it^ etnu 
tificatlon in their horizontal lamieao had evidently been deposited by 
^Hdual iniiltration during a long course iji rainy aeaeons, niilil it htA 
completely filled the vessels. Dr. M.'s sketches of the ]an are engmved 
at the foot of Plate VII. " No. 1 was found inserted into oile of the lon^ 
jars, and probably answered as a cover. The mouths of it and of No. 6 had 
a more graceful curve, and in this respect had a diatant resemhiMoe to 
some ancient vases." 

Adverting to Mr. Hodoson's opinion that Buddhism had preserved an 
identity of character in all times and places^ Dr. MAiaoumOf writea : 

" In May, 1828, I passed through a town called Bandock, ISmUesfrom 
Chaiidi, on the road to N^pur, and finding many Hindn ruins wdl 
^oul^tured on the sandstone of the district, I spent the day in examinhig 

1835 J7 A»kai€ SocMfy-. 181 

4li6m« Ta tlie greater number I eoald give mattes, but one imifnifiosiit hmd, 
much injured, struck me as having the composed sleep-like a{i{>earaiieeof the 
Buddhist sculptures. This induced me to make some inquiries, and I soon 
beard that in a hill two miles off there was a cavern, and on reachini^ It 
I found an excavation consisting of three )>arts, the principal of whieh 
penetrated 90 paces into the n>ck, but was narrow in proportion to its 
length. In a small apartment at its extremity was a sitting Bauddha 
figure, sfac'feet high. The passage was arched with several recesses on 
each side, and near the entrance, the two other portions of the temple 
extended 10 paces into the rock, like tlie arms of a cross, and were in 
every respect similar. A rude outline of Buddha could be traced on the 
rock, where it was smootlied away on each side of the mouth of the cavern. 
Hiere was a figure of Durga inside the temple, and one at the door, on 
separate pieces of stone^ and of modern appearance. The small head 
which first attracted my attention was found amongst the ruhbish of a 
ruined temple', which some Jain Banians in the town were engaged in 
removing in search of their images, and amongst these I found several of the 
naked figures, (four or five feet hi^h,) with curly hair, and difTering amongst 
themselves, usually found in Jain temples, and also representations of 
Buddha in the sitting posture, with the hands laid over each other, the 
]^alms uppermost, the hair curly, the forehead wide, with little figures 
kneeling before him, and others fanning him ; amongst them was a figure 
of Durga. TTie Jains have also a modern temple there." 

Adverting also to the same subject. Dr. R. Tytler mentioned to the 
meeting, that he had remarked while in Scotland, the close resemblance of 
^ thetittle steeple at Brechin" to a Buddhist monument. The same remark 
lias frequently been made of the Round Towers of Ireland. He had written 
a note on the subject in the Freemason's Review, for October^ 1834, which 
he presented. 

" Ute little steeple of Brechin cODsists of a beautiful slender cylinder or hol- 
If^wpfHar, about 80 feet high, with 60 rows of smooth stones, cemented by mortar, 
flM is turmounted with a cone of masonry of a subsequent period of architecture. 
Ob tftia wMtern froat are scnlptured figures of an elephant, having the feet of a 
Hon, and a hone : each i 1 inches long and 8 broad. The combiaatimi of the 
ciephaot and Ikia is obaervable <m the tempke of Java, and ia ttkany statues of 


A «0tefroni B. HL Hodoson, Bsq. Resident at N^l, forwarded draw, 
kkgft-af the Utht or columns at Bakra in Tirhut, at Avahvf^ m Sarao^ and 
'ef the raonnd at Kesriah, in the former district ; with extatfacMmUm of 
Ifatf kiieiibed ebaFackefs on the two pillars. 

laemHttmnt A. CrMiriifaHAM, En^tneers^ forwanled tho fhcsimifo oi an 
xMerififtion> on a Btone slab extmctod by him from the Bu Adhtat momimeat 
at Sam^th near Benares. 

A Mie by the SecreCary on the same auhjeot, and on tiM inso/ibed 
pedeetel of theBanddlia imagt^ pteaented at the kat meetings was read. 

£Sae tke focvgpias^ mpBa of the present number J 

Upon the dote of the r^gjaXtte business of the erening^ Pr. R. T¥r&ttt 
exhibited to the meeUiig aevend ioterestins expe«imeiitoiA£leolnMtui^ 

162 Asiniic SndHff. [Ma&oh, 

netimiy condiutiDgp wiUi the ^xperimenhtm ontoU ef Dr. FAWukSoxt, by vhich 
the identity of the galvanic and magnetic 'fluid% te eonsldered to be 
finally establidied. The magnetic spark was produced oentinnmily by 
Saxton's rotating apparatus^ of which a description will be found in the 
Arcana of Science for 1834. 

Wednesday Ewning, the 1st Apt^il, 1835. 

The Honorable Sir Bdward Ryan^ Presidetity in tli« ohair. 

The floaorable Guorob TuRfroua, of the Ceylon Civil Sertice, pre^o^ 
M an Honorary Member at the last Meeting, was unanimously elected. - ' 

Captain- M. 6.' WaiTfBy Sun. Asst. Commiseary, A ivttkan, proposed by 
Mr. W. H. MACNAGHTEy, seconded by the Honorable Colouel MorrisO!^. 

Professor Lea and Dr. UARi^AiVyof Phiiadelphia, Wer^ propped as 
Honertxry Members by Mr. J. PftnvsRP^ seconded by Mr. MAO^AOn-re^. * 

Read a note from JohV Lackbrstben, Esq. enclosing a letlier'ft'dmttte 
Right Reveremd Jeapt Lovm, Bishop of Isauropolis, and VIcaf -Apostolic of 
Cochinchina, Camboge, and Ciampa. 

The Retereiidgeutlditian'sleM^r, infV^iidif stke^, i!i«t be had in ?)i^ possession 
a manuBcripi Dictionairy, Codhincbiuese and Latt&f origfiiicDy pi«pared moMB 
than 40 years ago by hia predecsfsor, lifOUBfeigc^uf Pt«)i*Af x, Blriiop of AdtAk, 
and revised and muck bosmented by himself duiing 14 yeaia' Msidtocfein-tbe 
country. . He ha4 bUo . nearly completed a ae^iul rohiBBB- of < tike same •mateiials 
r^fersed, or Latiu- Cochin chiaese, and Ue had prepared a grammar of the aame 
Jangiutge ia Latin, adopting for all three works the Romaa alphabeti in lieu lof the 
, complex hieroglypluc characters of the eoaatry, which sostewhat rsseml^e thOf^e 
of China, but have different powers. 

These three Tolumes he tendered to the Asiatic Society, requesting ^- 
tormed of its intentions in regard to their publication, if it were possible to 
print them at Penang, where the Bishop and a few of his Cochinchinesecon> 
irertB have sought refuge from the severe persecutions to which the Mission has 
been sulifected by the present king (who owes his seat on the throne to this very 
mission), he wotild there undertake- the retision of the proofs : or if it should be 
necessary, he would proceed to Calcutta for the purpose of saperiatindihg the 
pabfication andtir the auspices of the Society. In the latter ease, hemttstlook 
•to the Soeiety for peconiaiy aid, as ail had been lost to the mission, through tbe 
cmsl treatmeiit it- had lately endured. 

MesoltMid, that this important oemmunieBtion be snbnuHled to tble Ooou 
mittee of Papers^ who will make the requisite imfQiFies' regatdli^ -the 
work, and report on the expediency, and on the mettns, of efiecH&g its 

Mr. C. E. Trevelyan, presented, on the part of the author, a copy of the 
Jdme Bah^urJchdni, an epitome (4to, 600 pp.) of £utopean sciences 
in the Persian language, compiled by KhaNt Bahadur, son of Raja Mitba 
JIta of Patna, including treatises on astronomy, optics, and mathematics, 
and copious tables of logarithms for natural numbers, sin^ tang^ntSi* &c. 
Also, a small octavo volume on Perspective fllnuul MandzartUJyiA U^e 
Persian language, by the same author. 

1835.}' Asketk Society. 183 

Mr. H. PuuMKOTOif presented a copy of the TrAnmctioiis of the Geo- 
logioel Society of PenasylYania, for August, 1834. 

Msfteorolegieal Reghten, for Jan. aod Feb. 1835— hy tte Surreyor 


From the Book-sellers. 

Laeomee^s Cabinet Cyclopedia, Swainson'b Natural History. 

Museum and Aniiquitm, 
Read a letter frasft Mr. W« Dawes, of tho Delhi Canal Etkablibhment, 
lanKardiog at the request of Lieut. Kittob, a drawing of an imsgie found 
about 10 years ago near the Herrod Ghat, on the vettern branoh of the 
^amBay-and oCeriAg, if desired, to send the image itself to the museum. 
Ru^mUf that the offer be accepted with thanks. 

A JDOtiee by B. H. Hodgson, E^s of an inscription in Tibetan and 
Lantsa (correctly Rang a) 4shai'a4{ters, oa a temple on the ooAiiaes of Tibet, 
iros submittedk 

[ThU wiU be priated in the next aitmber of the JoamalJ i 

The President brought to the notiqe of the Sooiety Dr. Fbajwok's sug- 
jpestian '.regarding tjie Cumtorahip. He had convened with tha Baron 
Hwm^ (wlu» Hf.H9' present alike Meeting) on the; subject of procuring a 
.«isntpetiHit peraon ftant Europe^ and was assured that a salary of 150 or 
flOfihropeea per mensev wenkl be ample. The funds were in a state to war- 
vsot the meaavre* He therefore proposed, and it was resiolved^ that a Spe- 
cial Committee, eonsieting of the Honorable Col. Morrison, Mr. W. H. 
'Macnaohtkn, Dr. Pbarsov, with the President and Secretary, be formed 
for the purpose of carrying the measure into effect, limiting the vote of 
salary to *200 rupees, and empowering the Committee to arrange other 
Inciidental expences with reference to the present means of the Society. 

Read 1^ letter from Serjeant Dean, dated Delhi, the 30th March, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of the remittance of Rupee? 100, on Account of the 
expences incurred by him in transmitting fossil bones and other specimens, 
and announcing further contributions from himself and friends* 

A letter from lieut. N,. Vicary, forwarding a small boK of fossil banes 
liDOBi Julalpur^ on the banks of the Botwa riv^er; also some fossils of the 
Alligator, from between Chunar and MLrzipar on the Ganges; and a 
speoinien of Mmestoae from Landour, with impressions or «roaions by water 
stmilaj^ to .those aUuded to by Dr. McCi«»[ii.and. 

Soiae of the bones, from the Betwa, the metacarpos and femur of on oi, were 
lined with beantifdl crystaU of dog-tooth spar, which was also remarked liaiag the 
carities of the kankar conglomerate formiag the matrix in which they were im- 

Mr. Bbnson, who was acquainted with this fossil site, stated his opinioa that 
they .were .of modem fossilisation, being found abundantly in the bed of the 
Betwa river. 


MK tt.'B. Aensoit exhibited to the members present^ the coUectioivof 
* rih^lla mAddliy htm on his recent return to Indian . comprising ^u^|y jmw 
genera and species. 

[Notices of this collection will be giTcn in the Journal.] 

Meltorological Regitle^. 

J I il}ssil£'eii~E&2'lii^^SR^§s3'5i^l^ 





szsss^'tsssss.MRn.saiMsissaiSS-.&ils J 




No. AO.^ April, 1835. 

I. — DegcripHoH cf Ancient Tempie$ and Ruins at Chdrdwdr in Assam. 
By Captain G. £. Wbstuacott, Assistant, Governor General's Agent, 
N. E. Frontier. 

TowARos the close of November last* I bad occasion to proceed on 
public duty into Ch£rdw4r, a email district in the northern division of 
Central Assam, being on the north bank of the river Brahmaputra 
between Lat. 26« 32' and 26^ o\\ and Long. dS^' 19' and 92* 55'. It 
has ita name h'om conducting to four paseea of Bhutan, and is bound- 
ed on the north by bilk of various altitude, situate «t the base of the 
Himalaya, and inhabited by three wild tribes oE mountaineers, called 
Dt^hUts, Akhds, andKupah Ckowaks* ; the Brahmaputra^ confines it on 
&e south ; to the East it has the Bhairavi river, which divides it 
from Nondw£r, and to the west the river Rhotas, which separates it 
from the small district of Chdte&h. 

I think it necessary to state thus much in the way of introduction, 
to point out the precise locality of the ruins I am about to describe, as 
it is doubtful if many of my readers are aware of the geographical 
.position of a district placed in so remote a comer of our possessions. 

In the south-east angle of Chirdw&r, a chain of granite hills, rising 
from two hundred to five hundred feet above sea level, and clothed 
with grass and forest trees, sweeps outwards in a crescent form from 

* Kopah Chowah is a corruption from kup&s-ekor or cotton stealer, a name 
to which the people are weU entikleil from their predatory habits ; but the 
Chirdwirians stand in much awe of these robbers, and shrink from bestowing 
tn them so UDConrteous an appellative. They come of the same stook widi the 
Akh4a«^ from whom they differ in few respects, and are said to have divided into a 
sepante ehm dK>at sixty years since in the reign of Lachmi* StMea king of 

180 DtwriptUm of Anoitnt Temple$ and [ArBit.» 

the Bhairavi to the Brahmaputra. The inhabitants assert, tiiiese hills 
were originally called Agnighar or Agnigarh, the place or fort of fire* 
from their constantly sending forth fiam«s» or, as others afBrm, from 
a r£ji named Bank having made a fort on the spot of fire : they add* 
that Krishna mounted on his gartira (a creature half-bird half-man,- 
corresponding with the eagle of the Grecian Jupiter,) brought hither a 
supply of water and quenched the fires, and that in commemoratioo o€ 
the event the name of the hills was changed to Para, whicli in the <lia« 
lect of Assam sig^fies ' the burnt/ a name they still retain. I thought 
it possible this obscure tradition might be connected in some way with 
the existence at a former period of voloanos, but after an active ecra-^ 
tiny of the spot no traces of subterranean fire were discovered to beac 
ont the supposition. I had taken up my abode temporarily in the 
neighbourhood, when I accidentally learnt there were some gigaatic 
ruins to be seen in the wilds, respecting which the natives could for^ 
nish no satisfactory information : on proceeding ta the direction tn- 
dicated, I found it impracticable to conduct the seardifrom thedenskj 
of the jungle, which consisted of lofty trees entwined with paraaitioal 
plants, and reed^grass upwards of twenty feet high swarming widi 
wild animals ; these obstacles were partly removed with the aeeistance 
of some peasants, and opened to view many interesting remains of an- 
ttquity which amply recompensed me for the tromble I had taken. 

The first temple I examined appeared to have faced the north, and 
to have been provided with a portico supported en three cirfumna of 
sixteen sides ; each shaft, not including the plinth and pedestal whiGb 
stand fonr feet above the ground, • measured eight feet high and five 
and a half in girth, and was wrought from a single block of fine granite. 
The shafts have sculptured capitals, while the surfoasea take the form 
of an octagon, and the plinths are circolar at top, and ^read into 
four feet, making a sort of cross that measured fomr and three quartern 
feet each way. Three gigantic stones, with the fragments of a fourth* 
each hewn from a single block fourteen feet long, and cut into five irre* 
gular sides of which the total showed a circumference of eight feet» 
seem to have formed the entablature of the entrance porch, which I 
judged to have been fifty-six feet long. The frieze has three tiers of 
carving in basso relievo representing scrolls of fiowers ; the aper« 
tures in which iron rivets were introduced can be distinctly traced, and 
it is evident that no cement was employed to unite the materials. TTie 
other members were too much shattered and dispersed to enable me 
to conjecture the form of the temple ; from a great portion of the aor* 
rounding works being in an unfinished state, it affords the presumptioQ 
that the architect must have met some unlooked-fOr interruptioir ; and 

1B95.] Rmne at CUrdwdr in Aasam. \B1 

that this mnd the other buildings were OTerthown at the same period 
by some hostile power opposed to the propagation of Hinduism, as* 
listed perhaps snbseqaently by a conrulsion of nature. Earthquakes, 
I need scarcely observe, are more frequent in Assam than in any other 
quarter of our Indian possessions, and that they accomplish so small 
an amount of miecfaief must be attributed to its never haying been the 
custom to employ stone and brick in the construction of dwellings. 
All classes, from the king to the serf, build with such slight and pe« 
ririwbie materids as grass, bambus, and timber ^ thus houses sustain 
little injury from a shock liowever violent, and even if thrown down 
coidd net do much mischief to their inmates*. Had tioie been the 
sole instmmeut ol overthrowing these structures, it is but fair to sup- 
pose from the great solidity of the materials that the ruin would have 
been less complete; and that the £ragments would have lain in a nar* 
ffvwer compasB. 

Chiirdw&r at one period undoubtedly formed a part of the ancient 
and extensive kingdom of KimrCip, but whether the city at Pora was 
destroyed by the Muhammfidans dunng their invasions, or by the 
Ahom kings prior to their eonversion to the Hindu faith ; or was 
nm e r tli w wy n at a later period by the Vaishnavas in their struggles 
4ov pre-eminence with the Saivas, is alike matter for coojiecture. In 
the abstfice of icscnptions and other precise information we must 
iMtve reoonrse to the traditions current 4n the country, and to such 
historical records as are within onr reach ; these I now purpose to 
advert to. 

The inhabitants of Chirdwar assert, that R^a &anh, the founder 
vof Fori, was a demi*god» sixth in. direct descent from Buahma. ; they 
add on the authority of some work whose name has escaped. me, that 
his dominions were situate on the banka of the Nermada river ; that 
-he joomeyed into K^r^ Giiardwir, and other parts of Assam, aud 
<,was the irst person vriio introduced the worship of Mah4db'va into 
-that quarter- of India. The extensive walls which encompass the tem- 
ples at Pori» are said to have made part of a fort or city founded by 
him called , Lofaitpir, Sonitpdr or Tejpdr, all three signifying the 

* In SB ancieiit MS.. I have met with, written According to the custom of the 

country on the inner surface of the bark of the secM tree, a very destructive 

earthquake is. recorded to have happened in the A. S. 1529 (A. D. 1607), when the 

earth opened and vomited a vast quantity of sand and water. On the 3UZ March 

last, two severe shocks were ffelt throughout Assam ; the first cast down the stone 

c j|rire of a temple ai BishnAth, fraetured an idol within the shrine, and effected 

-odMr damage in tiie province, and on the 3rd of November following there was 

aaothflv qaake of less violence* 

B B 2 

W$ Description €f AMeteiU Temptt» and [Apfutj,. 

city of blood, perluaps in commemoratioa of a battle stated to have- 
been foaght there between Krishna and the Rija. The ' Srf 
Bhag&vat,' to which I referred, informs as that Bahh was the son of 
Bai.i', tlie generous, and that he had a thousand arms, which probablj 
means in a figurative sense that he waa endued with immense strength ; 
this power is said to have been conferred on him by Siva, who also 
promised to defend his capital against external foes, in return for tha 
pleasure he derived from the rajli's musical performance, (a talent 
in which he excelled,) when he played on some occasion before the 
god who was dancing with his votaries. On obtaining this boon, the 
invincible Banh subdued both gods and men, and ratnming to SottH** 
p^ surrounded his capital with fortificatioaa of water, wind and fire. 
«ad lived there in perfect security ; but when he found after a short 
time that none were able to oppose him^ his heart was swoileB witk * 
pride, and repairing to the court of Siva be declared, that as be was 
indomitable the boon bestowed was worthless, and wished to know 
if there really was any one capable of resisting him. The god, dis^ 
pleased at his arrogance, presented hiss with a flag, which he desired 
him to hoist upon his palace, and promised that whenever it should 
fall an antagonist would appear to humble his power : delighted with 
the gift Banh returned home, and waited patiently the fulfilment of 
the prophecy. 

The narrative goes on to say, that Bank had a daughter called from 
her extreme beauty, U'sa, or ' morning,' who was visited in a dream 
by Anixud the son of Pradtu'mna and grandson of Kamdb'va- 
that on awaking from sleep the damsel indulged in k>ud laments 
and was inconsolable at missing the lovely form imprinted on her 
memory, and which had occupied so large a share of her midnight 

One of her handmaidens, by name CHrrxA-LiKB/ w ' The Limner,' 
daughter to Ku'mbhand her father's minister, moved by her excess 
of sorrow, inquired its cause, and U'sa, reposing confidence in the 
attendant, related her eventful dream regarding * a man of sable hue 
with lotus-eyes, long-arms, and clad in yellow garments, belored 
among women, who had abandoned her in the ocean of distress.' 
Chitra-likba soothed her afOiction by engaging to produce the object 
of her love: she painted the images of gods, of demi-gods, sages and 
powerful kings of the earth, of the house of BaisRNr, of Anu- 
©u'NnAVi'*, of BALAaA'Mt, and of Pbadyu'mna, which last (being the 
likeness of her father-in-law,) as eoon as (J'sa looked npon she waa 

... , 

♦ Vasu.diVa the father of Kaishna. f Pbster brother of Kbibbwa. • 

18S5.] Itmm at Ckaritmdr m A99am. \B§ 

ashamed. Tlie limaer next painted the likenesa of Anirdd, and 

when U'sA saw it she modestly hung down her head, and exclaimed 

sniling. ' This is he who has robbed me of my heart.' Recognieing 

the portrait to be that of 'Kkishna's grand*son, Chitra-likha left her 

mistress and departed for Dwdrikd (on the sea coast near the gulf of 

Caeh, at that period governed by Krishna,) and seeing Anirud, 

deeping on a coach, she by means of enchantments spirited him away 

and brought him in safety to Sonitp6r. U'sa, overjoyed at the sight 

of her beloved, introduced him to her private apartments, and he intozi-^ 

cated with pleasure took no accoant of time. The military guard in 

attendance on U'sa suspecting that some atrianger had gained access 

to the harem and seduced the lady from her maidenly vows, waited 

on the prince, and apprised him his daughter's conduct had 

broi^ht a stain upon bis lineage. Banu. distressed at the news, 

repaired with some armed followers to his daughter's apartments, and 

surprised the loverp playing the game of chess : Anieub starting 

up on their approach, seized his bow and discharged a flight of 

arrows with so much precision against the hostile party that they took 

to flight; Bamh, however, whose rage had now passed all bounds, 

disr^arding the tears and lamentations of his daughter, seized upon 

AxiauD and bound him with cords. 

Meanwhile Krishna, having missed bis grand-son during the four 
rainy months, was filled with anxiety for his safety, a feeling in which 
the other friends of Anirud participated, and at length intelligence 
of his confinement reaching them through a sage called Na'rad, the 
race of Brishni' of whom Krishna is the lord, went up to Sonitpdr 
with twelve legions, and attacking the city on all sides broke down 
the walla and buildings and destroyed the orchards. Exasperated at 
the mischief that was done, Banh came forth with an army whose 
divisions equalled in number tiiose of the foe, and assisted by Siva who 
rode on his ball, and came attended by his son and votaries, g^ve battle 
to Balaram and Krishna : a bloody engagement ensued ; but at length 
Krishna bewitched Siva whose votaries fled, and slew a vast num* 
ber of Banh's army. 

Furious at the prospect of defeat the prince sought out KrishnI 
and encountered him in single combat, but the god cut through his 
adversary's bow-string, destroyed his car, slew the charioteer and 
horses, and sounded his shell in token of exultation. Ku'tabi' the 
mother of Bank, trembling for the life of her son, appeared naked and 
with dishevelled locks in presence of Krishna, and he ashamed at the 
q>ectacle cast down his head, an occasion which the lord of Sonitpdr 
wnnediately seized upon to make his escape, and fled for refuge to hia 

' l90 Description t)f Ancient Tenqpks and [Apstiv 

After this event, Siva visited Krishna's army with 'fever ; btit the 
latter not to be outdone in modes of annoyance created another fever to 
contend with that of his adversary, and came off victorious. The 
riji now advanced a second time to give battle, holding a variety 
of weapons in his thousand hands, which he hurled at Krishna, who 
brolce them with his discus and hewed off the prince's arms like branches 
from a giant tree ; seeing the peril in which he stood, Mahads'va 
advanced and besought his brother deity to save the life of his favtnir<^ 
ite. Krishna made answer, that he was bound to gratify Mabadk'va, 
and that he intended to spare the prince because he was the son of 
Bali and grand-son of Prabl/d, whose race he had promised De5^ 
to destroy — * What I have done,* continued the god, ' was to subvert 
his pride, I have lopped off his superfluous arms, and the four which 
remain are quite mifficient to enable him to enjoy elemal life.' Thus 
assured Banh fell at Krishna's feet, and brought forth Amirvd and 
his daughter, seated in a car richly apparelled and ornamented, and 
surrounded by countless armies ; Krishna was content, and retaraed 
to his kingdom of Dw^riki. 

The next account, which has less admixture of the fabuloos an4 
appears the most deserving of attention, is taken from ancient records 
in MS. of the Assam kings, which speak of a place called Pratippdr, 
the splendid city, the capital of Ramachandra, usually known under 
the name of the Prat^pptHriya raj£, and which can, I think, be no 
other than Fori. This town is stated in the MS. to have beea 
placed on the north bank of the Brahmaputra, a little below Bishnith ; 
and as the entire country bordering the river from Pori eastward to 
Bishn£th, with the exception of a range of hills three miles above the 
former, where the Bhairavf enters the great stream, is covered with 
swamp to the extent of several miles inland ; there are strong grounds 
for supposing that Prat£ppiir and Pora are the same. The present 
path from Por& to Bishnith, which is only practicable in the dry 
months, often runs so far as six miles from the river, and the travelliiig 
distance does not exceed twenty-six or twenty -eight miles ; while to 
the eastward of the Por& chain, extensive morasses skirt the Brahma* 
j)utra, without interruption, as far as Ch^teih, from twenty-five to 
thirty miles distant. No ruins have been discovered nearer to Biah- 
iiith than the spot indicated, and though it is possible the site of 
Prat&ppdr may have disappeared in the lapse of ages, it must not be 
forgotten that it was always usual with the kings of Assam to fomid 
their capitals on the bank of the Brahmaputra or other navigabie 
streams, and to choose a situation removed alike beyond the reach of 
inundation, and the chance of being swept away by the floods — advRA* 
tages which are possessed by Poii in an admirable degree. 

1S35.] MmM8 ut Cidrdwdr in Assam. 191 

Ram ACHANDRA was, according to the volume I consulted, the twenty- 
fourth sovereign of a kingdom wliich embraced part of ancient 
Kimr6p» and made the eleventh of a third dynasty of its kings, 
Sbubahu the thirteenth sovereign, and ninth and last of the second 
dynasty, was vanquished by ViKaAMA'iHTrA, and was succeeded by 
JtTAni, a pious Cbhatri from Dabera in tbe Dakhan, who overcame 
K^riip. and on ascending the tbrone, assumed the title of Doar* 
MA-PA'i.. He was the progenitor of Ra'mach andra, who began to reign 
A. S. 1160, (A. D. 1338-9.) and is the first prince the date of whose 
iccesaion is commemorated in the volume. Ra'machandra is stated to 
have wedded with a daughter of the Kiat R4)a, who ruled a conu" 
try on tbe south bank of the Brahmaputra, and whose subjects followed 
tte ooeupation of fishermen ; some remains of his capital are to be 
seen, it is affirmed, on the Bakani Chapri, an extensive island 
supposed to have been separated from tbe main land, or thrown up. 
by the river. The princess, his daughter, was known among the peo< 
pie by the name of the KamaiiA KuNal^ but in books she is styled 
Chandra Prabha. She was walking one day during her husband's 
absence on the bank of the Brahmaputra when the god, becoming 
enamoured of her extraordinary beauty, fell a prey to sensual desires^ 
and ejected his purpose by embracing the princess with his waves ; 
but another account attributes her impregnation with greater show 
of probability to a young brahman of the prince's household, and 
declares the amour with the river god was a fabrication of the lady to 
conceal the lapse of which she was guilty from her parent. Passing 
over that part of the narrative which details the discovery of her 
incoBStancy, and the means to which Ra'machandra had recourse to 
put a termination to her existence, all of which failed of success, we 
come to the period when the princess, who had taken refuge at her 
father's coart, gave birth to a son who was called from his beauty 
Shabbank ; his head bore the impress of an dri-fish, which marked his 
parentage, and hence he acquired the surname A^riuastha, or A'ri? 
KATB, f» e. having the head of an ari-fish. He passed his early 
years with the father of his mother, and subsequently removed to the 
north bank of the Brahmaputra, where he acquired territory ; he 
made war upon Bij£ Phxnda of Phenuagarh, in Kamrup, where 
the remains of a small fort are still to be seen, and reduced that 
prince to subjection ; and afterwards constructed a fort called Bad* 
yagarh at H£thimor£. in Kachiri mahal, which is still in exist- 
ence, and made it his residence. In the course of his wars A'rimath 
extended his conquests to the kingdom of Ra^m acbanora, of whose re^ 
latioaahip to himself he was ignorant ; he laid siege to Prattppdr^ 

192 Description of Ancient Templet and [ApriIt, 

End through the treachery of a drummer of the garriaon, who gave 
Dotice of a fitting time for attack, he sarprised a part of the works 
that were imperfectly defended, made himself master of the fortress, 
and beheading Ra'machandra returned in triumph to Badyagarh. 

Some discrepancies are here apparent in two MSS. I consulted ; one 
account states A'rimath slew Phbnua, while another maintains that 
Phbnua usurped the throne of A'rimath on the death of the latter, 
and abode in Phenuagarh. Gajank, the son of A'riuath, succeeded 
Phbnua, and made his residence near PratippUr, in the vicinity of 
Agnig^h, and it is provoking that from this time no further men- 
tion is made of the place. I shall merely add, that the last named 
prince was followed by his son Sukrank, who died without issue A. S. 
1400, (A. D. 1478-9,) when the dynasty of Jitaii became extinct. 

The destruction of the temples at Fori is ascribed by some to an 
apostate br^man of Kinoj, called PorX Suthan, or Kalapahar, 
who was compelled to embrace Muhammedanism, and at whose 
door the Chirdwarians and others in Assam lay all the sacrilege and 
mischief that has been consummated in the province. From their 
massive proportions, and the carving and ornaments being so much 
worn by time and exposure, the fanes are evidently the work of a 
remote era ; I sought in vain for an inscription, and neither the priests 
of the district, nor the ancient families whom I consulted, could assist 
my researches, or point with an approximation to accuracy, to the date 
of their origin. 

Unconnected with the first temple, and retired some yards deeper ia 
the wood, or rather grove of trees, which was in likelihood planted by 
the priests who ministered at the temples, I found the ruins of six or 
seven other enormous structures of granite, broken into thousands of 
fragments, and dispersed over the ground in the same extraordinary 
manner as those already described. Altars of gigantic proportions 
were among the most remarkable objects : one of these measuring 
upwards of six feet each way, and eighteen inches thick, was elevated 
from seven to eight feet above the level of the plain, and approached 
on each side by layers of stone disposed in the nature of steps. It 
was hewn from a single block of granite ; underneath was a sort of 
cavern : the top had holes for iron links, and a receptacle to receive 
flowers and water to bedew the Nandi or sacred bull of Siva, who was 
placed, my informants imagined, on the brink of the reservoir. Six 
or eight other altars, one of them making a square of forty- six feet, and 
eighteen inches thick, are to be seen in other parts of the ruins, and 
several square blocks, each measuring from twenty to thirty feet, con- 
cave in the centre, and sculptured in imitation of circlets of flowers. 


■Jijvi tif- tpiM. 

I t| I .,.'«^ 

!> ^ 5- 

\m.] Hums Mt OdrduHir im ^ItiaM. ' 19S 

moMt have formed tbe Bedl or altar-pleoe of Sita, as there is a teat 
for tbe Liag or symbol of the deitj ia the middle of each. 

Among' the apedmeoB of ■culptnred figures that fell onder obaerva* 
tion, I diecemed on a portion of friese, nine images, each about a foot 
kigh, of whom K amhbta plapng on a flute, and flanked bj two Suhelis 
(damaeli), were the only persons I ooald identify, though assisted by the 
priests of Chardwir. There were four figures of naked children eight 
inches high, that looked very much like Cupids ; they were executed 
like the rest in basso relievo and were dancing or gambolling together 
in pairs, and another groope of five figures, eight inches high, two of 
them in an obsoene attitude, appeared like the others to have formed part 
of s cornice. 

It will be seen from the sketch which accompanies this description, 
that the reins are partly encompassed by walls, which extend in so 
many directions that it is scarcely possible to guess at the purpose of 
the architect. The walls have their foundations laid very deep in the 
esrth : they are in an unfinished state, and were evidently ooastnicted 
at a period long subsequent to the temples ; they are built of massive 
blocks of cut stone, sometimes disposed in a double row, and exhibit 
a good deal of carving. The stones are of various shapes, and rise three 
or foar feet from the ground, and were all intended to be united with 
bands of iron. The entrance of the principal enclosure appears to 
have been from the south, where lie some pedestals, and three or four 
wedge-shaped stones, about five feet long and three broad» of a flattened 
pentagonal shape, intended I presume to have formed the voussoirs of 
an arch ; and the middle of the key-stone is decorated with a hand- 
tome diadem or plumed tiara. 

A little to the north of the wood, buried in a forest of reed grass, 
which an elephant penetrated with difficulty, I discovered a very in- 
teresting fragment ; this was a solid mass of granite, of a much finer 
grain than the kind used in the temples, measuring ten and a half feet 
in length, two and three-quarters in breadth, and two feet in depth. 
On this were sculptured, in very high relief, eighteen figures of gods, 
partially mutilated, but generally in a good state of preservation. 
Fifteen of the figures correspond in size, and are each eighteen inches high, 
and placed lengthwise In compartments, in gproupes of threes. Of these 
the two external groupes, and the centre one representing, I think, 
Paoma' (Laoshmi), supported by two females, are raised on the 
•tone more than half a foot above the others ; and again, each centre 
figure (Paoma') of the compartments is more in relief than its fellows. 
The whole of the images have high cone-shaped head-dresses and 
ssr-ringe, and Padma' is represented standing on a snake, and the 
c o 

1 94 Ik$eription rf Ancient Teng^lA and [Ai»iLik« 

attendants are supported on or rising from lotos flowers. The gronpe^ 
of the two divisions, which are less elevated than the others, exhibit, 
I believe, Duaoi, flanked hj Lacbhmi and Sa&aswatx; five of 
these figures are crowned with a sort of tri-pointed diadem, while the 
sixth has a round turban or cap. One of the forms of Duroa^ has 
the right foot on the head of the demon, while the left is twisted vp 
at her side, and the hands are elapsed over the breast, in the attitude of 
supplication ; under the central groupe of the whole, and forming part 
of what may have been intended for the ornamented frieze of the tem- 
ple, is a seated figure of Ganbbh in relief, five inches high, flanked by 
two other persons, one of them playing on a stringed instrument, and 
the other wielding a club. The lower part and sides of the block are 
decorated ^ith a band of carving, showing beasts of different kinds, 
encircled by wreaths of flowers* in relief, and the gods are placed in 
scalloped arches, spppprted by pillars, which divide each of the images 
from its neighbour. 

The priests are so little versed in the distinguiahipg characteris- 
tics of the Hindu deities, that they could not determine whom the 
figures were intended to represent- 
Near the images are nine square pedestals of l^^ge dimensions^ with 
three carved feet» which must have been intended to give support to aa 
many columns : of these, several have almost disappeared in the earth ; 
and it is likely, others are lost altogether. It ahows at all events the 
design of the temple must havf been projected on a large scale. 
These pedestals do not appear to .have been moved from the spot 
where they were or^inally carved, and they are so little impaired by 
time and exposure to the elements, that I feel assured they are of 
modern date» compared with the buildings in the plantation and on 
the adjacent plains ; they were, indeed, as fresh to look at as if but re- 
cently executed by the mason's chisel. Vast fragments of the epis- 
tylium and frieze, carved with beaded drapery, also lie half buried in 
the soil. The people at one time commenced fracturing the stones, 
from an idea that gold was concealed in their cavities, but desisted, on 
a mysterious warning of the goddess PaaoA'^ who threatened to 
visit such sacrilegious attempts with death. 

In the south-west angle of the Por£ plains, there is another curious 
remnant of sculpture, also wrought from a single mass of granite^ up- 
wards of ten feet long, and two and a half feet thick at the middle ; 
it appears to have formed the side of a gate, and has a band of carv* 
ing three inches broad on each side^ showing in relief elephants, 
tigers, deer, rams, cattle, and swans, encircled by scrolls of flowers. 
The stone has in all twenty-five figures of Hindu deities, disposed 


1885.] Rmns at Chirdwdr in Asiam. 1 96 

'eroM-'wise upon it ; of these, the eighteen tipper ones are in six row^, 
three of a row, and each in a separate compartment, while the centre 
figure is much more elevated than its fellows : they represent male 
and female divinities, twenty inches high ; among them I recognized 
Hannm£n. Another image has a fish's tail, and represents, I think, 
'Ac M^chh Avat&r or first incarnation of Vishnu, who is recorded to 
lave appeared in the form of a fish to Satyavruta, to warn 
him of the great flood. Several other figares are playing on stringed 
instruments, and the three lower ones are merely husts, with hands 
elapsed over the hreast. The lowest compartment embraces three 
images, of whom Siva occupies the middle place, and is provided with 
a venerable flowing beard ; be stands thirty inches high, and on each 
side of him are females, twenty-six inches high: one has been destroy- 
ed, but the other is playing on a strmged instrument, and her ears are 
strung with a pair of enormous circular rings. Over this compart- 
ment are two groups of dwarf figures, six inches high, in a sedentary 
posture^ and the whole sculpture bears evident marks of having been 
mutilated by a barbarian hand. 

Nu quarries were discovered, to indicate that the stones were dis- 
embowelled from the hills; but quantities of chips were seen in places: 
and once I came upon pillars and altars in an unfinished state, shaped 
from blocks of granite, on the surface of the earth ; and there seems 
no question that all the material employed on the fabrics was similar- 
ly procured from the masses of rock that cover the hills in great abun- 
dance. Once or twice only 1 fell in with well-burnt bricks ; they were 
smooth and thin, of rather a large size, but not badly shaped. Great 
part of these extensive ruins are'buned or have sunk into the earth, 
and they cover altogether four 6r five acres of land. I have 
been thus particular in noticing them, because there are not, so fer 
as I Vnow, any architectural remains in Assam, that can challenge e^ 
comparison with them for durability of material and magnitude of 
design ; and it is certain, from the prodigious number of ruinous and 
deserted temples, all of which appear to have been dedicated to Siva, 
being within the circuit of a few miles of Port (I discovered twelve 
or fifteen in as many days on the hills and highlands at their feet), 
that this spot must have been the capital of a sovereign Prince, or 
& principal seat of the Hindu religion, and enjoyed a large share of 
prosperity at some remote period*. 

• The records of Aaaam, which I consulted, mention, that Chu Cheng Pha', the 
•evcntccnth sovereign of the Ahom dynasty, in a direct descent from Chu Ka Pha', 
the conqueror and founder of tlie kingdom, being stung with remorse for the 
c c 2 

196 Remarh m am Imcr^ium [AntUi, 

II.— Rmarib on on InscriptUm m the Rta^d and THbeiam fU^ckkAO 
Charaeter». taken from a TempU am the Caa/n^ of the VaUey of 
Nepal. By B. H. HoDOtoM, Eeq. ReMeai. 

On the main road from the valley of Nepal to Tibet, by the Eaatera 
or Kdti Pass of the Hemichal, and about two miles beyond the ridge 
of hills environing the valley, there stands a diminutive stone ehaitya, 
supported, as usual, by a wide, graduated, basement. 

Upon the outer surface of the retaining walls of this basement are 
inscribed a variety of texts from the Bauddha Scriptures, and amongst 
others, the celebrated Shad-Akshari Mantra, Dm Man* Padme Horn. 
This is an invocation of Padma Pami, the 4th Dhyiiii Bodhisatwa. and 
prsesens Divus of the Theistic school of Baddhists — ^with an accessary 
mention of their triad, under that symbolic, literal form which is com- 
mon to them and to the Brahmani&ts'*'. It is not, however, my present 
purpose to dwell upon the real and full import of these words ; but to 
exhibit the inscription itself, as an interesting specimen of the practi* 
cal conjunction of those two varieties of the Devan&gari letters which 
may be said to belong respectively and appropriately to the Saugatat 
of Nepil and of Tibet. Not that 'both forms have not been long 
familiar to the Tibetans, but that they still consider, and call, that 
one foreign and Indian which the Nipalese Bauddha Scriptures exhi- 
bit as the ordinary ecriture; and which, though allowed by the 
Nipalese to be Indian, and though most certainly deduceable from the 
Devanagari standard, is not now, nor has been for ages^ extant ia 
any part of India. 

cold-blooded eiecatioiit which be caused to be done upon maay innocent penonst 
erected a temple to MABsiWAa (Siva), and firit eetablUbed Uinduiam as tbe 
religion of tbe realm. According to one anthor, Cbu Cbjkno Pha' ascended the 
throne in the year of SakAdityi 1524 (A. D. 1602), While another antbor placee 
the occurrence fourteen years later. He died A. 6. 1563, (A. D. 1641.) 

I think Dr. Buchanan mutt hare been wrongly informed, when heaaserti tbe 
conversion of the royal family to the new faitk waa effected in the reign of 
Gadadhar Singh, who he calU the fourteenth prince of the family ; while 1 make 
him out to be the twenty-ninth in succession to Cao Ka Pha'; he waa howttver 
the first Ahom sovereign who took the Hindu title, which may have led the Dr. 
to credit tbe information communicated to him. 

The proper name of the king Qada'dhab Sinob was Chu Pat Pba', and he 
reigned from A. S. 1603 to 1617, (k. O. 1681 to U^b.) In A. D. 1692-3, he 
dispossessed all the fihukuts of their possessions, and compelled them to reside 
together in K^rup, in Upper Assam ; and in tlie year following, he cast all the 
images of the votaries of Vishnu into tbe Bruhmaputra. 

* Vis. the triliteral syllable Om, composed of the letters A, U, and M, typifi* 
ing, with the Brahmanists, Brahm4, Vishnu, and MahesA — but with the Buddhists i 
Buddha, DharmiL, and Sanga. 


1835.] taken fnm a TmpU <m the Omfine$ of Nepdi, 197 

It ia peculiarly Nipilese ; and all the old Sanscrit works of the 
Bauddhas of Nepil are written in this character, or, in the cognate 
atyle denominated Bhujin Miiili—- which latter, however, 1 do but 
incidentally name. I wiah here to draw attention to the fact that 
that form of writing or system of letters called Lantza in Tibet, and 
there considered foreign and Indian, though no where extant in the 
plains of India, is the common vehicle of the Sanscrit language amongst 
the Bauddhae of Nepal proper, by whom it is denominated Ranji, and 
written thus, in Devanigari t^ ; Ranjd therefore, and not according 
to a barbarian metamorphosis Lantza, it should be called by us ; and, 
by way of further and clearer distinction, the Nipilese variety of 
Devanagari. Obviously deduceable as this form is, from the Indian 
standard, and still enshrined as it is in numerous Sanscrit works, it is 
an interesting circumstance to observe it, in practical collocation with 
the ordinary Tibetan form — ^likewise, undoubtedly Indian, but far less 
easily traceable to its source in the Devanagari alphabet, and devoted 
to the expression of a language radically different from Sanscrit. Nor 
when it is considered that Ranja is the common extant vehicle of 
those original Sanscrit works of which the Tibetan books are transla- 
tions, will the interest of an inscription, traced on one slab in both 
characters, be denied to be considerable. Singular indications, indeed, 
are these of that gradual process of transplantation, whereby a large 
portion of Indian literature was naturalized beyond tlie HiiniiHya, as 
wen as of the gradual eradication of that literature from the soil of its 
birth, where, for four centuries probably, the very memory of it has 
passed away* ! Those who are engaged at present in decyphering 
ancient inscriptions would do well, I conceive, to essay the tracing, 
through Ranji and Bhujin M(d£t* of the transmutation of Devan&gari 
into the Tibetan alphabet. In conclusion, I may observe, that this 
habit of promulgating the mantras of their faith, by inscriptions patent 
on the face of religious edifices, is peculiar to the Tibetan Buddhi»ts, 
diose of Nep4l considering it a high crime thus to subject them to 
vulgar, and perchance uninitiated utterance. 

The Tibetan sentiment and practice are, in this respect, both the 
more orthodox and the more rational. But in another important re- 
spect, the Nipilese followers of Buddha are far more rational at least, if 
far less orthodox, than their neighbours : for they have utterly rejected 
that absurd and mischievous adherence to religious mendicancy and 
monachism which still distinguishes the Tibetans^ 

* The very iiunes of the niimeroas Sanscrit Bauddba works recently discovered 
in Nepil were totally unknown to the Pandits of tke plains, who received the 
auunmoement of the discovery with absolute disbelief. 

t All the four systems of letters are given in the I6th vol. of the As. Researches. 

X The carious may like to know that Tibetan Buddhism is distinguished from 

f$8 Rmarh on an Inscription from a Tanple in NtpcU. [Apiiffi; 

I need hardly add» after what has been jast stated, that the oircam- 
etance of the inscriptians being mantras proves the temple or chaitya^ 
adverted to, to be the work of Tibetans, though existing on the very 
confines of Nep£l proper — a fact indeed which, on the spot, wants no 
such confirmation. It is notorious; and is referrible to times wheir 
Tibetan influence was predominant on this side of the Himiilaya. 
The great temple of Kkdsa chit, standing in the midst of the valley of 
Nepil, is still exclusively appropriated by the Trans- Hiroalayans. 

NoU». — So much has been published on the subject of the mystical man- 
tra above alluded to, that it is unnecessary to do more than direct the 
attention of the reader to the learned dissertation by Georoi in the Alpha- 
betum Tibetanum, page £00, &c. and to a more reoent (duoidation of Ch« 
lame subject in Ki/aproth's Fragmensfiouddhiquesin the Joum. Aaiftiifne, 
Mars^ \^%\, p. 97. — The mantra is qiute unknown to the Buddhists of Ceyloa 
and this Eastern Peainsulay and it forms a peculiar feature of the Tibetan 
Buddfaitm* shewing its adoption of much of the Brahmanical mystic philo- 
sophy. A 'M'oodea blockj out in Tibet for printing the very passage in the 
two characters^ and from its appearance of some antiquity^ is deposited in 
the museum of the Asiatic Society.— En. 

Note, — M. Klaproth, in his memoir in the Nouveau Journal AsiaCiqve, 
where he has brought so much of tiie erudition of Eastern and Centtai Asia 
to bear upon this^ Buddhist formulary, attaches himself to two versiaosiniiu 
eipally, ae preferable to all that he finds elsewhere among Tibetans, Moa. 
golians, and Chinese^ The former iA, " Ok precieux Lotus ! Amen/' on the 
sapposhioa of ^r vfwini V being the true reading ; but if it be ready as he 
justly prefers, ijj l y ftm ^ If, " Oh ! le joyau est dans le Lotus. Amen.'* 

There is no ol^ection to the former translation^ that of " Om manUpad* 
ma him :" for the two nouns cannot be read as separate vocatives, << Oh 
jew«l i Oh Lotus !" (as M* CeoMA db Koaos informs us it is understood m 
Tibet,) without rMding monif m^ instead of nfiicr. 

The latter translation of (hn moM padm4 h&m'' is net equally adnMssi. 
hie : foir it would require iadiapeosiUy by granimaticid rule» either the in. 
aertion of a Visttrga after omim, or the aubstttution of along i £ar the short 
one, so distinctly marked in the inscription; i e. the nominatiye irfvr: or IfSTt 
instead of the crude form irfVT* The junction of the two nouns iAoneoampouiut 
is therefore as necessary in the reading of the locative eaae^ aainthat of the 
vocative ; and this makes it necessary to translate it thus: '* AUM (i. e. the 
mystic triform divinity) is in the jewel-like Lotus. Amen."' Tlf» legends 
cited by M. Klaproth respecting BtmnBTA apply as well to this versioa 
•f the formulary as to his. I hope that Mr. Hooosotr may hereafter fa. 
TOUT us with the import of these words, as explained in the yet unexplored 
treasures of Sanscrit Buddhist literature in NepaL" W. H. M. 

mpilese, toUt^ hy the two feAtures above pointed out — unless we must add a 
qualified subjectioa on the part of the Saugat^s of Nep&l to caste, from which thS' 
Tibetans are free ; but which in Nep4l is a merely popular usage, atript of the sase- 
tion of reUgioni and altogether a very different thing from caste, properly so called* 

HS5 J Journal of a Tbvr Urtmgh the Island of Rambree^ 199 

III. — Journal of a Tour through the Island of Rambree, ("R&mri; Sans, 
XdmdvatiJ on the Arracan Coast. By Lieut. William Folbt. 

[CoDtinaed from page 95.] 

The town of Rambree*, with iU meandering creek, fine wooden 
bridges, and the handsome temples that surround it, is perhaps the 
prettiest spot upon the island ; and from no place is it seen to Buch 
advantage as from the hill of Koyandoung. The creek is not very 
broad, but it contains sufficient water to admit of the approach of 
hsg^ boats to the market place — a matter of some importance in a coun« 
try where land carnage is not to be obtained ; or U procurable, would 
fearoely be available* from the absence of good roads, bridges, and 
ferries, thronghoat the island. The towp is divided iato the foUowing 
eompartments ; viz. Ounff-tshiet, Skmse*d6ng^ Wedt-cku, Tatk-twenif^ 
and Taing- human. The former commemorates the lauding of the first 
Barmah chieftain at the ghaut of Rambree, when the iskmd was first 
annexed to the dominions of Ava. In Shuwe-dong, a large pole, 
covered at the top with gold, was erected ; and in its immediate 
vicinity, stood a house in which the conjurorsf used to dance, invoking 
the aid of their favourite idol on. tjho occasion of any calamity. Wedt' 
eksL was so called 6rom the great assfsmblage oi^ pigs in that quarter. 
Tatk*tweng was the site of the Bannah stockade, and now the lo- 
cality of the 'Go^rernment jail, finrmed ehiefly from the materials of 
that stockade. Ibing - human ih the place oociipied by tihe Kumai^ths{» 
a class that shall be more particularly noticed' hereafter. It is gene- 

• Also called '* Tding,*^ or " Vding-nuah*' hj the M^ghi ; th^ province! 
Bambree, Mwmg^ and Themdowey having suffered considerably from the iaearsions 
of the Bttrmahs and Thaliens during the year 791 M. S. theH^^il CHO0ifoaKe» 
on his restoration to the throne oiJiiukkhwK-pii^ (Arraean), adopted nch Beaas 
as were likely to restore them to their former flonrishing condition ; and for that 
pnrpoae, deputed his minister Anukda'-Sxtta'h to prooaed to those provinces, 
talking nillh 1dm sndk Barmafti or Thallen agricaltiinBta a»d artisans as had been 
able to i^itt the coantry. AKokba^Suta'b, ia tiie first place, TisUed IZam^^e 
lalaad, Ibriaiag ooloaiea, andgivhig names to the several new settlements, accord*. 
lag to the varions maiaona appearaneet that presented themseltes. It is said, 
that dnritigihe night his vessel lay at aacbor ia the JBam^ree Oreek^ a voice was 
heaid to atdsim, 

^*^Thim4or* **7%Am'loP' Stop! Stop I a favourable omen, inducing a 
farther stay at ^ place, and the foundation of a town that received the name of 
** T6img'* or '' Tdtrng-Buoh:* 

t A set of vagabonds, receiving little countenance from the people at large. A 
man, attired in woman's apparel, connects himself with another of the profes- 
sion, whom he calls his husband, and obtains for this husband a woman as fa£s 
second wife, with whom both cohabit ; every respectable native looks upon this 
dass witb disgust and horror. 

200 Jownal of a Tour tirougk the I$kmd ofRambree^ [Ant^ 

rally admitted that the town hat inqreased in size (though ptylMygl 
not in wealth) since it fell into the hands of the British ; bat this 
augmentation has been slow, and by no means equal to the expectationa 
that might have been indulged on the change of role. It vooki \m 
foreign to the purpose of this brief sketch of Rambtf to enter into 
a detail of those causes that seem to obstruct the accamalatioa of 
capital ; but this much may be said, that the maltiplication of ta^m^ 
by the intrica^'e division of trades, and the vexatious nature of manj 
of these taxes, is one grand check to the industry of the popalation ; 
and from thence it is easy to deduce its consequences, aa tbey may 
a£fect the revenue, or the morals of the people. 

The whole of those improvements which have been made in tiia 
town of late years, and contribute so much to the comfort and conya« 
nience of the inhabitants, it owes to the taste and liberality of the 
magistrate* (now residing there), who has devoted large soma of mo* 
ney from his private purse towards the erection of bridges, market 
stalls, and other public buildings. 

Noticing each class under a separate head, with the distinction of 
sexes, the number of souls residing in Rambree town will be aa moch 
a^ follows : 

Moghs^ .... 
BormahB, . . , 

Adult females. 






Total of saolt. 


Grand total of loals, 



i#> • 

In addition to the above there are a few Musulmaiis and Hindus* 
but their number is comparatively small, and their residence in tha 
town (especially of the latter), attended with so much uncertainty, that 
I have not thought it necessary to include them in the census. The 
Musalmans were either (originally) adventurers from Cathai and Ava, or 
owe their extraction to the Musalmans of Bengal, who fell into the hands 
of the Rukkhein marauders in earlier times, and were taken prisoners 
during the wars of the Rukkhein prek\ R£)la with the Naw&bs of 

• Captoin Williams, 45th Regt. B. N. I. 

t Arracan, known in past timei aa Rekkd-jntrm and so called from its hariag 
been the abode of the ** Rakkhui .'* a fabaloos monster, said to devour the inba. 
bitsnta. The scene of this monster* s aReged depredations seems to have been in 
tb« aeigbboarhood of what is now termed the " Fort of Arraeaa I** (Mlrom. 
«.MV, built by lUjii Croumobno, in the year of Oaotama llftO, and ia 
the common era 792, or A. O. 1430.) On the eztirpatioa of this moastar, Ar- 
racan was termed •« Rukkkeim-preh,'' or ** Bukkkem-tAmg,'* the country of the^ 
Rukkheints an api>eUation equally common to the natites of Arracan with that 
ifi Mujh, or Moifkf tha Bormaha aabatitatiag tha letlar F, for JB, call them 
** rukkkeim.** 

1MS.1 • JwtnatoftL Tour through the Island of Aamhree. ' 201 

OMM^gliiog'aM Dficea. They are now so assimilated to the rest of 
tlto poiNilation in dress,' language, and feature, that it id difficult to 
eofteeitne adistbctfon ever existed. As if ashamed of their Muham- 
medto descent, individuals of this class have generally two names, 
one that they derive ft-om hirth, and the other such as is comraoif to 
the liatiTea of Arracan, and hy which they are desirous of heing 
k*Pwn. The Hhidus, again, are generally natives of Chittagong and 
Duea, who came down into Arracan to pick up what thev can, 
retitrning to their homes so soon as a certain sum of money shaU have 
h6eo collected. 

Under the head of Mughs (Tiagas) are included many inferior castes, 
sdch as the Hyah, Phrd-gyoung, and Dhiing. Much uncertainty 
pterails with respect to the origin of these castes ; it is either involv- 
ed in obscnrity, or totally lost to those with whom I have conversed 
npoD Ac sttbject. By some, it is nflSrmed. that the Hydhs were ori* 
ginaDy natives of a country beyond Manipur, but nothing further 
could be obtained, so as to facilitate a discoverv of their descent or 
account for thefr settfement in the province. In former days, the 
Hyita ^ed the crown lands, were exempted from taxation, and 
gave one-half of the produce to the sovereign. It is insinuated by the 
Rtkkkeiiu, that not a few of the Hydh caste were employed as ennuchs 
in the service of the Arracan R^as. They now occupy themselves 
in the cultivation of pawn and chilly gardens, but are looked upon as 
an inferior caste, and consequently never intermarry with the Rak- 

The caste termed Phrd-gyoung now no longer abound in Arracan, 
or are so concealed, that it would be difficult to point out one parti- 
cular person to whom this term can be properly applied. In Ava this 
class is still very numerous, more especially in the neighbourhood of 
the most celebrated temples'^ and Kioums ; it being the duty of the 
Phrd-gyoungs to perform the several servile offices required, such 
as sweeping the sanctuary, lighting the fires, and spreading the mats 
in the monasteries. As a reward for these services, they are permitted 
to remove, for their own consumption, the fruits, grain, &c. that may 
be 6lRfred up to the Phrd, The Phrd-gyoungs are said to have 
^ong from those who, in a distant period, had been convicted of sonie 
offeooe^ and were made slaves for the service of the temples as a pu* 
niahment for the same. 

The D4mg9 «re believed to be of Hindu extraction ; their appellation 
•o iike to that of the Dhdms of India would seem to corroborate 

. * Sach as Skuwe-Zfttan aad ^AiiaM-42a^-^MM. 

G C 

Wi Jimnu^ of a Tarn' tkrwgh the hUmd of Bamhree, [Af utt^ 

tliis statement; and it must be further remarked, that their oOeu- 
pation in former days ia said to have resembled that now allotted to 
their namesakes in Bengal. The Dhdng$ of Arracan will not. how- 
ever, so employ themselves at the present day; endeavoaring to 
Conceal their true descent, they are generally rope-makera and fiali- 

Bitrmahs of pure extraction are rare in Rambree ; thoee that rt- 
teun the name are of mixed blood, and properly termed " BunddiiL*' 
They are the descendants of those Burmahs who accompanied the 
several Mey-o^wlins to the province; uniting themselves wi<li t^e 
Mugh women, and remaining in Ramhree with their families on its 
being given over to the British. 

The class of Musalmaiis termed Kuman-tM* are particolaffly de- 
serving of notice. There is little doubt but this interesting people 
owe their descent to that devoted band of warriors which ac<5Mxipa- 
nied the unfortmiate Sba'h Sctja'h into Arrnean. As is well known, 
both the Sha'b and hii followers, (who were numerous) met at first 
with a friendly reception from Meng-ka'^mcn^t the Riji of JSaA- 
hhetH'preh. But the repeated representations of the cold-hearted 
AuRANOZBB indoced the wretch to adopt another line of conduet; 
the Sha'h and his troops were several times attacked, and finally 
defeated. The prince was put to death, and such of his followers as 
survived the slaughter were made prisoners, and eventually distri- 
buted in different parts of the kingdom. Lands and hni^ements of 
husdandry were assigned to them, and they were further encouraged 
to marry with the women of the country. Many availed tkemtaelves 
of this permission, and their wives did not object to embrace the faith 
of Isl&ro. There is a curious circumstance connected with the distri- 
bution and final settlement of the Kuman-thsi in the province. When 
brought to the presence of Mtng-ka-mong, and asked what pfTofeaaion 
they were individually desirous of adopting, a few who were unable to 
speak the language of the country, put their hands up to their heads, 
and pointing out the two fore- fingers, endeavoured to represent an 
animal with horns ; thereby intimating that they wished to follow 
the occupation of herdsmen. Upon this the Rijk directed a supply 
of cattle and goats to be given to them, and those who received the 
latter were placed upon a small island that has since been termed 
Tckgerklibil (Goat Island). In the time of the Arracan Rjjis. 

* ltaiiiaiidar> Bowman? (Jtata^ficAi nore probably.— Bi».) 
t I feel a pleasure in giving the name of this iadividaal, in tiM hope tkat it 
may tend to perpetuate his infamy. 

: CaUed '* 8tuUi€ Aland** by the British. 

16di^.] Jmamal of • Ikmr tkrtmghtke Iskmd nf iUnidrte. S08 

and eren so kite m daring the Burmah tenure of the country, the 
KtrmoM^tkgCa invariably attended the prince royal, or governors on 
tiietr journey through tiie several provinces of the empire ; preceding 
them apon the road, and hearing their bows and arrows in their 
handa. These implemeBts of war are now laid aside, and the Kumtm* 
thsi are, in common with others, occupied in such pursuits as are 
more congenial to the age ; being for the most part weavers and 
ihreca, and residing in a sepamte quarter of the town, the avowed 
adherents to the Mahammedan faith, but ignorant of the ptiecepts it 
iacvkates, and assimilattag in practice to the rest of the population. 
Sefven generations'*^ are said to have passed away since the event above 
described ; yet notwithstanding this lapse of time, and in i^ite of the 
similarity of langu^e and attire, the features of the Kuwum-tkei still 
betray tbeir superior descent ; while for beauty of statave, and agility 
of limb* they surpaaa the Mohammedans of India. 

With the view of ao many houses, and such a population as that 
contained in Rambree, together with the fact of its being the second 
^Sty ta Arraca^ it is surprising to witness such apparent poverty in 
the show of empty ahops on each side of the street. Here and there 
a Manchester shawl, a piece of chinta« or printed handkerchief might 
be seen, hung op to view, surrounded with the more homely produc- 
tiona of the country ; but the largest and best supplied shop of Ram- 
tree viwiold scarely be deemed worthy of notice in any one of the 
aoilar ^ojdrt of India. Few engaging in trade : the greater part of 
^he population are either idlers, day-labourers, agriculturists* or fish- 
eraaen, {as circumstances may induce,)- having no regular occupation 
caUing for the exercise of a dexterous and eontmued application. .It is 
^ttBcult to ascertain with precision the period of the greatest known 
{MToeperity in the town of Bambree, . Diffinrent accounts are given by 
different people, according to th«r views* or the ideas they may enter* 
tain. Those who admit the population and wealth of Rambree to have 
hcen greater than they are at present, fix the date of such alleged 
pro^ierity during the administration of the Burmah Mey-O'Vun, Keo* 
dm^^Yiyah (A. D. ISOo). . At that time Rambree was the grand 
eosporium of trade ; so many aa 60 large godaha were known to 
enter the creek from difierent parts of Bengal, and proofed. from 
thence to Rangoon and Tavoy» receiving at Ramhree rowannahs. spe- 

• By Dcrw's secoanti it Is 170 yesn ago. I must notice aa error thst the 
Uitorian of ladls bas fimsa into ; there is no river nurning from any part of 
JkriMsa iato Pegfm t the nativo name for Arracan proper is *\P^f0rV' or 
'' P^gi,** (figniffiBg a large country,) sad this word has beea erideatl| oea- 
firaaded widi Pegu. 

d04 JtmnUil of a Ttmf tkr<m^h the I^nd of Bamhie. [Apkil. 

eifying the duties they had paid, to aeonfe theift frooi tether taxation 

on their arrival at any iiitennediate Burmdi port. The Unm of Mam^ 

hree, and iiMleed the whole iakiid, Rufiered much in later years in oen* 

aequence of the incarrection of the Mughpi escited by the' Rama 

Riija KmiiRASio, and oidy eabdned by the energetic conduct, ai 

NxKTo-auTA^H*. the Bnrmah chief to whoatthiD Mpjr^o^-inii Baovi'ja^ 

had entrusted the defence. Thia rebellion waa followed by a. sp«oiea 

of retaliation that deprived the town of Rmmbree of neaiiy the lahole 

fkf its Mugk populaition. All the 9dgn»^ merchants, and othen sna4 

peoted of having conspired againet-the govemaaent were- put to^eathi 

or obliged to fly the country. 

It was thie invariable, .and» m aom^ instances, neeeesery poHc^ of 

theiBuroiese ta trust as little aa possible to the good will of tte^aonr* 

^aemad^ Seearing their position by a strong stockade^ and aefarsting 

iJiemaelvea from the ifihabkanlsv they formed a litlite garnaon a£ thehr 

OKtn in Rambvm ; within thia stockade albnffiiira hoChr caviiniid nili* 

tary were: transacted, The Bnrmah M^^te^wtuu ware not; hosMver^ 

iaatttnttvfr to ihe comfort of tho'peopie, orthttiembelhdmieDl! of thn- 

towA? the large/tanks, £m^ and J^uacaia , iw^ Bmmbne, 

were, either oooatrncted- by .the Mvyno^wwu^ or by thorte who kald' 

situations of. emolmnent, nnder them.. Some of< these ttmplea nua- 

elill esiatm^,! nnscathed by the hand-of .maarorthe leas^ htotils ele« . 

menta. Odnas, ngain, hfetve onunbled into, dust; the tenunns of>thaae ■ 

stupendons saonuihents that have marked ^tkepr(lpagation'1]f^ the'fiud<» 

dhist creed in the most distant parts of the workL lufeemallf tfae^^ 

are filled np wkh «arth, the walk being of hricki>weU<oemeaifted togie- 

ther. Relics of Gajdtaica, such aa the hair,- feathers, bones^ i&c. 4d the 

several creatnree.v^iose Io0m:he assumed previoss fco his heeotniBg 

man* with g^djmd silver images, dishes, gobiets^ and other utensils, 

are deposited in the iateriflr : ^n osrtain portion of each placed 'in the 

upper» middle, and lower paart'Of the- temple... The Kiamma at lieai&r«t 

town arev 9b might bcj ezpceted, larger than- those commoniy ^met 

witfi on the island. One of these nttraots attention from its sapenor 

siae, end the elegance of it8.conAtrttction. It was built by n native of 

iZoaifcrar, named £oauN««asowa«iBOi.who had beett.dew4n to the Bmr«> 

mah Afiry-a*4nm gi.on'jA'H, and^was^one^' those to whomeuB|noion.of 

conspiracy was attached, but saved from death at the intercession of 

the ChiUd\ Moung-bo. Komsng-sbuwb-bo was in later years exalted 

to the effice of Aisy*o-«nM over the island^* circles^ t^e ^vnaxikkM^^'' 

•' A:ftef#ardB Iffly-o-lMSil St ltasidr#e. 

t The nttme for the Burmah SuperintHkdiiU Hf RbU6$.' 


1685.] Jemma rf a T^r through ihe himd of Rumkr^. 90^ 

win 60Q(WS-oONQ*«A^A*0u rmdiii^ at JB#iiiliiw^ The Utter was rab- 
•eqttettfeljT sent on a miaaiott t^ BeiUMresj aod Ub- brother M4ung0 
apfioiiiUid to offidate during hi% absenee*. The nuation was direo^ 
to aiceitain theeziatence of the Bhodibemg tree, ee well aa the site of 
natty phuses Jcnown to have been the aoene of Gavtaka'b eariy labour. 
On the return of Sa«w»-soiHO«eV'*OA*Ba to the eouit of Ara, with the 
islbvnaniioa obtainsdt he took the opportunitf of effecting -by the moat 
neena the dimniaaal of hia rind from office, and from hie 
naatdaokg but fttkile eodeaToiira to regain that plaee by a method 
eqoaliy espenam» K<nijnro«a]ivwx*>BO ia now living in. oomparatifidy 
reduced circnmatancea at the town of Ramhrn^^ 
' The uban^eof rale haa perka^ been aa latal to the proaperity of the 
mamalift aecta, aa it^haa been dieadvantageooa to thoae who onee 
emtititftd the higher okaeea of the peopAe. The inflHeaee voluatarily 
oontedaditOKtbei^ArffiyfifAby the fiarmah lf«f-e»vrfee iwaa-aateniah* 
ingi^ gaeatr' andiMatiBda.ane moDh of the power< onee pnaaeaadi by the 
pii i ealwnfl otfAe Clathoiae hingdbnaa ittltoe^. Ideaaeawhere amore 
pnaniibhrnpfirifli etf intarTaatiOft had proved una o cceaaftii^ it 'Waa ttot- 
uneetnmnn for the Fhtbtgw^^ aaeaoablo iaf the Eoacia*. of a ^iminal 
aboat to-vnflhr exeention. The^apot eelotted for tbapiocea8«f decapi<> 
tataon vfraa in iktt neighbonrhood of enlarge tree^ at theB.> E. eztramli 
ty of the town* The nafavtanate efiminal, hnviai^ beeaiprewionaljtf 
manaded, waaled ott for' eneeation hetween ilea of Bueaaaii tolditie^ 
and when arrived ait the gmnod waa* kneel, with the keaid 
ineftiiied, aa a mark of obeiaanoe to the mier of the kad/aad avowal 
of the jaathse ofthe aentenoe. in the meantime, the head.wiM aevered 
from the body ^neraily with a aingloblow of the dao) by the execo-' 
tiener*, who alood Uiind waiting the aignal lor the atroke« It being 
deemed a crime to take away lile» it ia ooneeived, by tlie worahippoia- 
of BunnuA^an act of piety to endeavoor to aave from death eeen* 
thevileat of animated beinga; and aa little reaiatanoe was evinced 
towarda a olaaa held in aoch peeniiar veoenitien. the FhAagrit not 
nnfreqnetttly anooeeded in earning off the criminal before exeontioii> 
had been effected* Tahing him to the Ajaaia* he remained thera 
nntil deaih or a diange of Government aecored him from the nndloe 
of hiaieneaateat and the vengeance of the law in paniahment of hia 


• The eatteMuttrt ^ere ladiYfAvai* .who had been coadtfundd to dealh 
for heinous offences, and lubseqaently spared, on condition of their devoting- 
their litres to the performance of this odious service. They were at the aame; 
♦i ptf* branded. upon Iha cheek to gaard agaiast the chances of desertion. 

206 Jtntmd of a Tour through the likmd of Rmnhree. [A^mi 

' At some little distance below the town, and on the right bank of 
the creek, is a small village, inhabited by that extraordinRry race the 
Kaengs, of whose origin still less seems to be known than what has 
been imperfectly detailed of other castes. The Kmemgt of Rtamimt, 
by their own account, came down many 3rears ago from the movn^ 
tainoas regions of Koktdong and Kyen^tkung^my^t, in Anraoia pro- 
per ; and as they can give no information whatever respect i ng their 
first settlement in those places, it b possible that they may be the 
iAorigin/e» of the country. Divided into dana^ and differing . fnom 
both Maghs and Burmahs in fsalore as well as attire, the JSecn^ 
have many pecaliar customs of their own, some of which deserve to 
be noticed. When any one of a dan dies, the body ia laid upon a 
ifuneral pile, and consumed : the ashes, carefully colkcled wkhin an 
eflurthen vessel, are conveyed to the mountain Irooi whence the clan 
was known to have originally cone, and there d^M>sited in.the earth. 
There is something awfully grand in thia manner of disposing of their 
dead, bespeaking the extstence of that leve of liberty and of country 
still engrafted in their souls, which had in some initaoces render- 
ed them* secure from their enemies. That same spirit of Freedom 
dictated an observancet which, however .revolting it may appear ^o 
European ideas, cannot -faH to attract thcvadmiration due to a virtuous 
leding, that deema honor and reputation of more account than beauty* 
and has induced the father of a family to disfigure the faces of his 
daughters the more .effectually to preserve them from the contamina* 
tion of strangers. The mode of performing the operation is as follows : 
The young maiden is enveloped in a mat« and forcibly held down to 
the ground, while gun-powder or indigo is rapidly. pricked into the skin 
(over the whole of her face) by means of a pointed instrument. This 
is generally done at an early age, and the pain produced by it ceases 
after the lapse of three or four days. So soon as released from 
the hands of her tormentors, the poor girl is present!^ to the daga of 
the village, and should they evince auy signs of anger or surprise, the 
operation is deemed to have been effectually performed. The Kaerngt 
are hot very numerous in Arracan, being found more plentifully dis- 
tributed along the Yumadimg, and the less elevated mountains m their 

* The Kaengi of Arracaa were oa some oc<A8lonfl particulsrly triMible- 
■ome to the Barmese invaders, who feared to follow them to their moantaia 

f The Kaenff women are generally very handsome, and the Buimahs, as 
well aa their predeceasora, aereral timea attempted to poaaess themaeWea of their 
personi : it was with the view of aaving their daughters from such degradation 
that the Koimgs instituted the obsenrance here described. 



Ok. the amouMi of Rain-fMat CakuUa. 


neighbourhood. ReAiding^ in the thickest part of the forest* and su* 
perior to the Rahkhms in hardiness of ooiutitntion, as well as bravery 
of soul, they are chiefly occupied in the porguit of game, or io the 
ooUection of honey, wax, elephants' teeth, and such other forest pro- 
duce ms may meet with a ready sale in the plains. The Kaengs of 
Rambree are for the most part engaged in the coltivatioo of vegetables, 
and the manufsctnre of spirituous liquors, which are in general demand 
with those of their own class^ forming an essential ingredient on aU 
occasions of festivity, whether in the celebration of a marriage, or in 
^fape more important ceremonies of a foneraU Indifferent to the nature 
and quality of their food, they not only subsist on vegetables and 
grainv hut eat the flesh of most animals*-* preference being given to 
^at of dogs and swine. 

The Kaeng9 poeseas no written recorda whatever of their deaeeot ; 
aiid as they can neither read nor write, deeming it superfluous to in- 
stmot their children in such ma/tters, it is not auaprising that all traces 
of their origin should be either loet« or ea^visloped in total .obscurity at 
the present time. 

iV.^^On fke amMkt of Ram-fM at Ckdeutia, as itgeeted by the 2V- 
cHnaii&n of the Mom. Bj^ tke Rev. R. EymaMn. 

Since my last paper upon this subject I have been enaMed to com- 
pare the meteorological registers with the Nautical Almanacks. In 
doing this I have made out a table of the average daily quantity of 
rain that fell in each rainy season with every 2^ deg^rees of the 
moon's declination. I have now the honotn* to lay it before the So- 
ciety, and to add, that where the registers were complete, I have be- 
gun the average with the flrst rain ttait fell in April, and ended it 
with the last that fell in October. 

Average Q^uaUUy qf Raim tii deeimale </ Hoket in tkeyean 






dacU- sad 

1823 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 





















































































































•622| -432 






NoTB. — ^The periods for which these averages were taVen, are for 1823; the 
month! of Augost and September ; for 1824 lind 1825, Nov. 1>ec. Feb, and 
March; for 1826, May, June, July, Anpist, Sept. Oct; for 1828, July, Aug. Sept. 
■ad Oet.; for the other years, from tlJe first raia in April to the last in October. 

208* On the mna^nt of Raln-faU at Calcutta, [AfaiVi 

It will be obsenred that the nnmbert in the General Mean (the last 
colnmn) are aomewhat irregular/ which I apprehend is owing to the 
serlef of years being too short for the snbdi vision I have adopted, viz. 
2^.90^, 'if instead of that we take 5^ as the'subdiviaion* the nombera 
oome otit regalarly, as follows : 

Jfooa'* deettmiti&u, OmerMi Average of Bam-fiUl. 
5 degree*. *321 ineh. 

10 do. -271 

15 do. *256 

30 do. -259 

25 do. .347 

The results are somewhat different from what I expected, for they 
shew an increase of rain, not only towards the maximum, bat towards 
the minimam declination of the moon. Had it been towards the 
mwmavi only, we might have SDOonnted for it by feappasing die niiit 
to vary with the principal tide, either superior, or inferior ; and had it 
been towards llie minimum only, we might lurm supposed timt tttm 
rain was the effect of the mean tide, as in all latitudes, less than 45\ 
the mean tide increases as the declination of the moon dtmiaishea. 
However, when our data wrt more perfect, we may be able to get an 
explanation of the phenomena. In the meanwhile, lest any one' 
should obfeot ikat the seriea of yeatt for which the average has "been 
taken* ia twi short to eotabliih the ftttt of an increase towards the 
mazimvaa declination, I beg now to oflfer some other reasons wldeli 
led nae to the oonclasion befiore I obtained a sight of the Almateeltt. 
I ttoat first lemind yon tJMit, owing to the revohition of the node* 
of the moon, her msadmom osonthty decliaatioii decreases for a aeriea 
of yeace, and then laereaBee. ThiM if we turn to (he TVible, we find 
that in the year l9Q9t and far two years both' before and after'it, tiie 
maximnm declination was always less than fKf* This revolution of the 
nodes is eoospleted in a period of nbont 18} yeairs> or more oorree^, 
€803 days, 3 honrs, 55 minutes. Now then* wapp M Ug it to be true tiiat 
the rain-fslls vary with the dcdinatioa -oi the moon ; in those years in 
which the declination is small tlw nine oi^ht to be seanty, s»d viet 
vertd to incresae as the former increases. We havn no register of 
rain for a long series of years^ hot we have.a vahiable record left ns 
for the illustration of this part of our subfeot, stmtlsr to that r ey n t et 
of the height of the annual innndattoaa of the Nile» whieh the ttncient 
Egyptians measured by means of a NtiAorjiSMio*, or Nilomater, pkoed 
on the bank of the nver ; I allude of course to Mr. Kyd's Register of 
the height of the Hooghly in different years*. In the map No. 4^ 

f See Us paper on tlu» catiect, (Psrt 1. Trsiis* Pkys. Clais» As. 8oc.) snd 
Ihe aaap wkich sccompsaiet it. 


«f influenced hf the wuHm*8 declination* 


subject, (Part 1 . Trans. Phys. Class, As. 8oc.) and map to accompany it. 
In the map No. 4, we have the line of the highest high water, and of 
hifi^hest low water in the different years, and I have transferred those 
heights into nnmbers (as nearly as could be done by common roeasnre- 
ment), and then taken the mean of both for the mean height of the river 
in each year daring the rainy season. Recollecting then, that the month- 
ly maximum declination of the moon was at its least aboat Michaelmas 
1829, its greatest would be about the end of May, 1820, and its least 
again, very early in 1811 : — ^and regarding the Hooghly as the 
general rain gauge of the country*, we have the mean height of the 
river in each seaeoD, as follows : — 

ft: in. 



ft. i«. 
15 5 









15 11 


15 6 

14 4 

15 • 


14 10 

13 10 


14 9 









16 4 

15 8 

15 9 

15 9 

16 7 

19 3 

15 10 

15 5 


of ^. 



15 4 


15 10 


14 1 



There i» aB iiregalaritf in these nvmhers ; and both the mininem and 
mpyimiyn height of the river appear to have occurred from two to three 
y^iun jkftcf the mashnum dechaation of the moon ; hot if we teke the 
evemgf of five or seven years nearest the maximum, and tompare it 
wtfi th« jprev^e of a eiailar number of years nearest the minimum, 
at^ diUmnce will be striking. A curious question here arises-^Have 
we it histpiy e&y reeord of inundations, or tironght and famine corre- 
ipoodingp ia the timeeol their occurrence with these different positions 
of the aQOon ? I thiak we have. But the question ie one that de- 
mande e very wide reiBeareb, muoh more so thao, with my present 
limited wean* oi refeience, I am eble to give it; but I hope at a future 
tine loi he ehle to kf a few iteass of wfonnation respecting it b^re 
the SoBtdy. Ii^iny lest pi^ier, I enggested that the great abundance 
ofi reim^hen the moon's dedinetioB was greater than 22*30" might 
beeoftoattfaed for by the localit]^ of Calcutta, but on consulting my 
own Ti^aler^ I find Ihat a similar effect was perceptible at Dehli 
Get 2a^4(X) last year. An a aample of it, I subjoin the days in the 
menth ' of Jidy oa which rata fell, with the amount, and declination 
of^e motm at noon. 

• It mast be rem«mbered that the level of the Hooghly at Calcatta is abe 
iffMtgil wiatnrinilj h$ the tides- of the Bay and by the prevailuif winds of (he 
season.— Ed* 


Influence of the moon on the amount oj Ram-fM. [Af sii., 

July 3, 




3-49 17 5411. 

1-58 21 6 

007 23 18 

0-34 24 16 

7, 201 23 49 

13, 0-08 2 24 b. 

14|* ■•••■•• V'OO. .••••• • a 5 

15 2-16 13 19 



17 48 

24 18 

Inekea Moott't 

Rain-falL declination, 
1824. • ' 

July 16, 0-48 

19, 2-66 

20,... 0-35 

.21, 2'70 

23 1-18 15 

29, Oil 12 35 n. 

30, 0-50 16 39 

31, 0-90 20 6 





I have not yet had leisure to compare the bAroinetric and other 
indications with the moon's declination, but I shortly intend to do so. 
From present appearances I cannot help feeling sanguine that the 
moonls declination will be found to be the principal cause of th« dif- 
ferent atmospheric variations, exclusive, of course, of those which are 
occasioned by the regular annual progress of the san. However, 
whether there be any thing of truth in these inferences, or whether 
I have been misled bv a series of chance co- incidences, time only caa 
determine. If those inferences are well founded, the 3'ear8 of drought 
are past, and the years of plenteous rain approaching. By this test 
let them be tried, for no one can desire a fairer. 

Moon's Dec. 
June 1, 23Ml'a. 

2, 20 1 

■ 5,. 4 56 B. 

6, 1 12 8. 

9, 18 39 

10, 22 24 

U, 25 10 

12, 25 50 

13 24 44 

14, 22 7 

15, 18 21 

18 33 5s. 

19, ]3 9 n. 

■ 23,. • • • • 19 &«J n. 

24, 22 54 

25, 24 56 

26 25 48 

27, 25 24 

28, 23 42 

29, 20 41 

July 3, 23n. 

7, 21 20 b. 

8, 24 23 

9, 25 46 

10, 25 22 

11 23 19 

12 19 54 

16 05 n. 

20, 18 54 

— - 21, 22 10 

22, 24 30 

23, 25 42 




Moon^e Dee. 

24« 25039' 

25, 24 17 

26 21 36 

27 17 46 

30, 1 34 n. 

31, 4 28 8. 

4, 23 43 

5, 25 35 

6 25 41 

7, 24 16 

8, 21 19 

12 138 8. 

13 34 4n. 

16, 17 53 

17, 21 23 

18, 24 1 

19, 25 35 

20, 25 57 

21, 24 59 

22, 22 40 

23 19 7 

26, 3 1 u. 

27, 3 10 8. 

30, 19 39 

31, 23 17 

1, 25 29 

2 26 3 

3, 25 

4, 22 28 

5, 18 43 

8......... 3 26 8. 


2 3n. 

Moon'e Dee. 

Sept. 13, 20*.'W 

14, 23 30 

16, 26 12 

17, 25 42 

18, 23 52 

19 20 45 

23, 1 8f. 

26, 18 44 

-. 27, 22 47 

28, 25 22 

29 26 18 

30, 25 36 

— 2 1955 

— 6,.. ...... 23 n. 

10, ..19 40 

— 11, 22 53 

-" ' **y . • • • • . •• •O 5f 

— 13 26 18 

14 2614 

15, 24 53 

16, 22 16 

17, 18 28 

— 20, 13 9ii. 

— 21, 4 51 s. 

— 24, 22 41 

— 25, 24 54 

— 26, 26 23 

— 27, 26 6 

— 28, 24 11 

— 29^ 20 57 

1885.] Farther Note om the InBcripticnfirom Sdmdtk, 21 1 

P. S. — I have added the above table of the days in the ensuing rainy 
season (1835) in which the declination of the moon is greater than 
17* 30' and less than 5^, in the hope that those who keep rain gauges 
in difierent latitudes and who have not the Almanacks to refer to, may 
take an interest in the subject, and favour us with some further in- 

y •^—Further Note on the Inscription from Sdmdth, printed in the last 

No. ofthisJovmaL — By B. H. Hodgson, Esq, 

[la a Letter to the Secy. Af . Soc, read at the meeting of the 6th May.] 

I have just got the 3dth Number of the Journal, and hasten to tell 
you, that your enigma requires noCEdipus for its solution at Kathmandu, 
^here almost every man, woman, and child, of the Bauddha faith, can 
r«peat the comfessio fidei (for such it may be called), inscribed on the 
Samath stone. Dr. Mill was perfectly right in denying the alleged 
necessary connexion between the inscription, and the complement to it 
prodoced by M. Cboma db Koaos. No such complement is needed, nor 
iafouad in the great doctrinal authorities, wherein the passage occurs 
in numberless places, sometimes containing but half of the complete 
dogma of the inscription ; thus : — " Ye Dharmd hetu-prahhavd ; hetu 
teshdn Duhdgata." Even thus curtailed, the sense is complete, 
without the " Teshdn cha yd nirodha, evang (vddi) Maha Sraman'a," 
aa you may perceive by the following translation : 

" Of all things proceeding from cause, the cause is Tathigata ;" or, 
with the additional word, " Of all things proceeding from cause ; the 
cause of their procession hath the Tathaguta explained.'* To complete 
the-dogma, according to the inscription, we must add, " The great 
Seaman^a hath bkewise declared the cause of Uie extinction of all 
things." With the help of the commentators, I render this passAge 
thus, " The cause, or causes of all sentient existence In the versatile 
world, the Tathagata hath explained. The Great Sraman'a hath like- 
wise explained the cause, or causes of the cessation of all such exis^ 

Nothing can be more complete, or more fundamental, than this 
doctrine. It asserts that Buddha hath revealed the causes of (ani- 
mate) mundane existence, as well as the causes of its complete cessa- 
tion, implying, by the latter, translation to the eternal quiescence of 
Nirvritti, which is the grand object of all Bauddha vows. The ad- 
dition to the inscription supplied by M. Csoua, is the ritual application 
merely of the general doctrine of the inscription. It explains espe- 
cially the manner in which, according to the scriptures, a devout 
Buddhist may hope to attain cessation from mundane existence, viz. 

D D 2 


•Sl^ furtn^ Note on tie Inicription from, Sdmath. [April, 

t)y tlie practfce of all virtues, avoidance of all vices, and by complete 
•mental abstraction. More precise, and as usually interpreted here, 
more tbcistic too, than the first clause of the inscription ie the ters^ 
sentence already given ; which likewise is more familiar to the Nipss 
lese, vir. *' Of all things proceeding from cause ; the cause is tfc 
Tathigata :"— understanding by Tatbagata. Adi Bcddha. And when- 
fver, in playful mood, I used to reproach my old friend, Aui«tk Nah- 
«A, (now alas! no more) with the atheistic tendency of his^^reed, he 
would always silence me with, «* Y^ Dharmd k^tu-prahhava ; hetm 
fcBkdn Tathd^ta ;* insisting, that Tathigata referred to the supreme, 
melf-eufi^tent (Smayambku) Buddha*. 

N^r ^id I often care to rejoin, that he had taught me to to inter- 
|>ret that important word (Tathignta), as to strip the dogma of its 
nectMarily theistic spirit ^ I have idready remarked in your Journal, 
that'the SwoUUrrika texts, differently interpreted, form the ground- 
work of the Aisw&rika tenets. It will not, however, therefore, fol- 
lcyw,th«l the thelstio school 6f Buddhism is not entitled to distinct 
Ytoog^kion upon the ground of original authorities; for the oldest 
and highest aatbority of all — the aphorisms of thefbunder of the 
ereed*— are justiy deemed, and proved; by the theistic school, to 
bear legitimately the constmetion put upon th€m by this school — 
fvoved in matter ancient books, both Puranika and Tantrika, the 
Bcnptuial validity of which commands a necessary assent. As it 
^ seems tcr be supposed, that the theistie school has no oth^r than 
Tantrika autfaoritie* for its support, I will just mention the Sipoy- 
90ihhig Pwtdna and the BAotfra il[«i|^tfa«f(m, ils instances of the con- 
trary. In a word, the llieietic school of Buddhism, though not so an- 
cient or prevalent as th^ athebtic and the sceptical schools, is as 
. autheAtic and legitimate a scion of the original stock of oral dogmata 
whenoe this religion sprang, as any of the other schools. Nor is it to 
be confounded altogether with the vile obscenity and mystic iniquity of 
jth9 TtaUraa, though acknowledged to h^veconsidettible connexion with 
them. Far less is it to be considered peculiar to Nepal and Tibet, 
.proofs of the contrary being accessible to all; for instance, the 
fanehtt Buddha Dhydni are inshrined in the cave at Bdgh, and in the 

* The great temple of Swatambqu Na'th is dedicalwdto /M»Buddha: whence 
its name. It stands about a mile west from Kathmandu, on alow, richly wood- 
ed, and detath'ed niil, and consists of a hemisphere surmounted bj a ^prsdnated 

Tkfl iBijsstiei size, and severe sitnplletty of outline, of this temple, with its 
hanilshed com, setoff >by the dark garniture of woods, constititfe the Chaityt of 
SwAYAMSBu Na.'th ft \trj besttteoos objsct. 

18350 JPvrthr Nate on the Inscription f rem Snirndth. 813 

Bunor temples sorrounding. the great edifice at Gyd ; and the aaaer* 
lioa of oar Ceyloneae autiqaaries, that there are only five Buddhaa* 
is. no other than a confaeioa of the ^^q celeetial, with the seven 
martal, Baddhas i As I was looking over your Journal* my Newari 
painter came into the room. I gave him the catch word, " Ye 
.Dha^mi," and he immediately filled up the sentence, finiaiUng with 
Tatkdgota^ I then uttered " teshHii cha/' and he completed the doctrine 
accurdiAg to the inscription. But it was to no purpose that X tried to 
scarry him on throogh Dn Koaos's ritual complement : he knew it not. 
AftedT I had explained, its meaning to him> he said, the substance of 
the passage was familiar to him, but that he had been taught to otter 
the seatiments in other words, which he gave, and in whieh, hf the 
way« thje ardimary Buddhist acceptation of Kushal and its opposite, or 
tAiMshml, came out. Kushat is good. Akmhat is evil, in a moral or 
religious aense. Quod licitum vel maodatum ; ^lAod iUicttam vel 
prohibitum. ' 

I will presently send you a correct transcript of the wordb of the 
inscription, from some old aad authentic copy of the Raksha Bhag^" 
vatit or Prajnd F^iramitdp as you seem to prefer calling it. 60 vriU I 
of Ds Koaos's supplements so soon as I can lay my faaads on the Bkn* 
mngama Samddhi^ which I do not think I have by me. At all evenfli, 
I do not at onoe recognise the name as that of a distinct Bauddha work. 
, Meanwhile, yon will notice, that as my draftsman, abovts spoken of, is 
no pandit, but a perfectly illiterate criftaman merely, his familiar ac- 
quaintance with your inscription may serve to show how perfectly fit- 
miliar it is to all Buddhists. And here I would observe, by the way, that 
I have no doubt the insaription on the Dehli, Allahabad, and Beblr 
pillars is tome such cardinal dogma of thtsfmth. 

In the "quotations in proof of my sketch of Buddhism," which I sent 
home last year^ I find the following quotation in proof of the Aiswirika 

. " All things existent (in the versatile world) proceed fvasa some 
cause ; that caose is the Tathagata (Adi Buddha) ; and that which 
is the cause of (versatile) existence is likewise the cause of its total 
cessation. So eaid Sakta Sinba*/ The work from which this pas- 
sage was extracted is the Bhadra KalpavadoH, 

1 am no competent critic of Sanscrit, but I have competent autho- 
rity for the assertion, that Dbarrai, as used in the inscription, means 
not human actions merely, but aU sentient existences in the three ver- 
satile worlds (celestial, terrene,, and infernal). Such is its meaning in 
the extract just given from the Bhadra Kalpavadin, and also in t&e 
famous Yd Dharmanitya of the 8ata Sahasriku, where the sense is 

** The words bracketed are derived from oommentators. 

!fel4 Further Note on the Inscription from Sdmdth. [Apmiii, 

even larger, embracing the eubstance of all inanimate as well as ani- 
mate entity, thus : " All tbinga are imperishable/' or, " The universe 
is eternal," (without maker or destroyer.) The passage just quoted 
from the Sata Sahasrika aervea likewise (I am assured) to prove that 
the signification of ye is not always strictly relative, but often exple- 
tive merely : but let that pass. 

The points in question undoubtedly are, — existence inthe Praoriitika 
or versatile world, and cessation of such existence, by translation to 
the world of Nirvritti ; and of such translation, animals generally, 
and not human beings solely, are capable. Witness the deer and the 
chakwa, which figure so much in Bauddha sculptures ! The tales of 
their advancement to Nirvritti are popularly familiar. The word 
nirodha signifies, almost universally and exclusively, extinction, or total 
cessation of versatile existence ; a meaning, by the way, which con« 
firms and answers to the interpretation of dharmd, by general exis- 
tences, entities, and not by merely human actions. 

It is scarcely worth while to cumber the present question with the 
further remark that there is a sect of Bauddha philosophers holding 
opinions which confound conscious actions with universal entities 
throughout the versatile world, making the latter originate absolutely 
Siud physically from the former, (see my remarks on Rrmusat in the 
Journal, No. 33, p. 431.) 

It is not, however, admissible so to render generally received texts, 
as to make them correspondent to very peculiar schismatic dogmata. 
*' Dhdranatmika iti dharmd,*' the holding, containing, or sustaining, 
essence (ens) is dharmd. The substratum of all form and quality in 
the versatile universe, the sustainer of versatile entity, mundane sub- 
stances and existences, physical auH moral, in a word, all things. Such 
is the general meaning of dharmd. How many other meanings it 
has, may be seen by reference to a note at the foot of p. 502, No. S4, 
of your Journal. The root of the word is dhri, to hold. Wilson's dic- 
tionary gives Nature as Amera Sinha's explanation of dharmd. This is 
essentially correct, as might be expected from a Bauddha lexicographer. 

Note.^^li Mr. Hodgson's general interpretation of t|Jl is the tnw one, 

(which seems most probable, though its specification in the sense of nwrai 
dutie* is more agreeable to M. Csoma*8 supplement) — its implication, in the 
present reading, at least, appears manifesdy atheistic. For that it cannot mean 
' ** Tathligata or the A'di Buddha it the canse/' is evident from the accnsativo 
h^tCm (which is also plural causasj. Even if we were to strike out the word 
avadat or Aha — the former of which is on the inscriptions, and the latter repeated 
in Ceylon — still some word of that meaning is plainly understood : and ^is 
may help to shew that the explication given by the Aisvaraka Buddhists (as though 
the words were ^11 ^ n j TrtHnf: h^tus t^sham Tathiigatas^ is a more recent 
invention, — and that the Buddhist system properly recognises no being superior 
to the sage expounder of physical and moral causesi-^whose own exertions alons 

1835.} 7Wo new speciea of Car'tnafia. 21 f 

have raifod him to the highest nnk of eiistences, — the Epicubus of this great 
Oriental system, 

qui potuit RvmtTM cognescere o a us as, 
Atquemetiis onoBes etinexorabile faCam 
Subjecit pedibus. 
What is mere fljjnre of speech in rhe Roman poet, to express the calm dignity 
of wisdom, becomes religious faith in the east ; viz. the elevatioo of aphilosophi- 
cal opponent of popular superstition and Brahnianical caste, to the character of a 
being supreme over all visible and iUTisible things, and the object of jiniversal 
worship. — W. .H. M. 

Vr. — Description o/ttoo new species of Carinaria, lately discovered in the 
Indian Ocean. By W. H. Benson, Esq. Bengal Civil Service. 

Class. — Gasteropoda, Cuvier. 

Order. — Nucleobranche, Blainville. — Heteropoda, Lam. 

Fam. Firolida, Rang. 

Genus. Carinaria ; — Bory. Lamarck. 

Sp. 1. C. Cithara. Testa dextra ; ultimo an/ractu recto^ compressor 

conico, versus spiram gradatim et elegant er attenuato, spiram terminalem 

Jerk amplectente, rugis obliquis ornato ; aperturd obliqud, oblongo-ovatd, 

versus carinam coarctatd ; carind mediocri, striis sub-rectis signatd. 

Habitat in Oceano Indico. 

Shell dextral ; the last whorl straight, compressed, conical, gradually 
narrowing towards the apex, nearly embracing the terminal spire, 
marked with oblique wrinkles ; aperture oblique, oblong ovate, narrow- 
ed towards the keel ; keel moderate, marked with nearly straight strise. 

The animal of this shell is more narrowed and cylindrical than in 
any other described species, but as the Carinariae are said to have the 
power of inflating themselves, too much stress should not be laid upon 
this character. The body is attenuated and pointed at the posterior 
extremity. It is by a line, witb not very apparent asperities on the 
surface, and has a central swimmer (on the side opposed to the shell) ; 
but I found no appearance of the caudal swimmer, which is represent- 
ed in the figures of C. Mediterranea. The male organ, and the parts 
about the mouth are pale crimson. The viscera contained in the shell 
are brownish, and the stomach yellowish or brownish, passing into red 
posteriorly. Alter death, this red colour is often diffused through the 
neighbouring parte. The scarf skin is very tender, and strips off the 
animal* aoon after death, in ragged portions. 

This shell, with that next to be described, approaches in form to 
the scarce and precious C. vitrea, which is, with good reason, supposed 
to be an inhabitant of the Indian Seas. Four specimens, of which 
two were without the spire, were taken by myself and my companions, 
between S. Lat. 4" 30", and N.Lat. 4"" 30', and £. Long. 87" 30', and W. 
Long. 90* SO'. They were all taken after ni^t-fall, and from the eagcfr- 
Dees with which we plied our neta after I had made known the Value 

of oar dieeo^eff, md our wtnt of greater tmeeew* it immld appear that 
Aw attd the followiiig tpacies are icaroe, evea in. that region. Bath 
species, Hke all the others known, are hvaltae, aad wwj IragUe. IkM&t 
eptree censiet of three whorh. The oiiliqaitf of the nig» of the htft'' 
or etmight whorl, together with its etnugfatatssmod gnuliia] -atteniui^ 
tion, will serve to distiDguieh Carinaria Citharafrotn any other «peeiesv' 
It is named from its resembkaoe in form andacolptiiM to ahs^ . 

Sp. 2. C. GkUea. Tnta thgtra, n&tsio amff^du uMwrw, 
cmho» spVNtm ietminaiemferiampheiemie, mgh tnm&veniB mntUo, 4$^ 

versus ctrinam coarcMd. HMUtt atm pmedmU. 

Shell dextral, with the last whorl incoryed, conprtasedtOnHHli; 
nearly emhracing tibe terminal spite, marked with transverse mgae, 
broadly keeled. Keel with very oblique mgse, wldtb are carved^* 
wards in the dirMtion of the wpm, Apertose transverse, ovate, nar- 
rowed towards the keel. 

The animal resemblea that of the preoeijfag species; but f^e yellow- 
ish or brownish colour in the stomach is replaced entirely by pale 
carmine. Belonging to the same ^pe aa the laat spdcies, and rriwiw i 
1)ling in form a compressed helioet, the shell is . easily distiisgiiiBhaMd 
by the greater curve of the outer edge of the last whorl, whidi doei 
not decrease so delicately as in that species, as well as by thf» iaii. 
obliquity of the rug» on the body whorl, and the greater obliqnily aeif 
curvature of thos€ on its very bitxMt heel. Tlie body atdsa haiagf 
parallel with the edge of the c^rtove, it follows that ia the epeoiad 
under review, the mouth is less oblique thsQ in C. Cithara* Its hasl^ 
€ie dose embrace of the spire by the hut wherU aad the bteailth of 
the latter at this point, will ahaadmidy serte to dfatiagiiiahr it homH^ 
^itrea. The keels of both C. galea and C. Cithara are fveii jtfaeic 
fiunness and excessive fragility, very tiahle to ii^oryeeea. ht 
native dement. 

The addition of these two species of Carmaria* iaeredeea the 
ber known to naturalists to sit, 4he others' beiag O. Me diter tt w ga^ 
firagilis, vitrea, and depressa. Of these one is from the ICeditemDieaii* 
two from the seas washing the Westerri Coast ef A^ioa ahdr ^^^* 
gascar, and the fourth is supposed to belong to the eastern acaa. 

InK. Lat. 4* SC, £., Long. 9ir Lieet. McNiiia took £we tmeOari- 
naris, the shells of which were replaced by - a pkle eoBsntiBg' b£ 
agglutinated pieces of broken shell, adhering to the auepeadiai'-JneoBnu 
We captured also Several species of naked FiroUdse bebagieg to the 
genu! Pterotracniea. '1 

Calcuiia, March, 1835. 

IjMM.) ; New $pacm iff Smk0 i$H9fm9d.m'* tkg Doab. %\f^ 

VIL-^On a new ffmet pf Simke dinovei^d m ti^ Ih§b* 
J A yrmdty of Oohiber, «^cte9cnbe4 m &r m mj BMttts of tehnmpt 
d]o«r me lo note with regerd to Hie Ophiology of In<Ha» having hJ^ 
Ijr edme under my obserration. it may be worth while to describe thft 
animali «b I obeerve at {mge 159 of the 15th vol. of the Gncydopedia 
Bfitaiwaca niider the head of ' Coluber MTcteriaaas' a variety deaoribed 
as belosgteg ta North America, very closely resemUing that in qnes* 
tioR. The animal was killed in the dry stony bed of a branch of the 
throji^h; which the Doab canal mas. near the Sewflik.moim- 
ita- motion, aa described to me by the person who killed it, was 
i^Bailar te that ol some varieties of caterpillar, who in their progrssa 
forwards, elevate the body nntil the extremities meet* contioaiBg their 
jpBiDej^ in a system of jerks or steps. 

The great peculiarity of this speciea con- 
sists in the proportion of length to breadth* 
and the extreme prominenee of the af^jser 
'^--^'^^ jaw — a sketch of which wfll be the only 
way of making it intelligible. 

ft. in. 

LsBgtik of animalr ^ ^i 

Wtam aaeat to vent, 2 H 

Wnttowidoltail, 1 H 

plates, 206 

,,;.. 170 

ter of middk mud thirkfuf part of the body, | of an inch. 

rcfnect. i ditto. 

Ae^sotien olvpper jaw over lower» * i ditto. 

Qilm gfMW gieen,.with a ydlowiah white line running from the 
check to the end of the tail on each side at the junction at the abdomi^ 
•id«nd eabcaudai ^^atea with the dorsal scales: a doable line of the 
■>i^ oolor iwimng also oentricaUy from the chin to the vent in tho 
centre of the abdominal plates ; nose very pointed, and upper jaw ex- 
Isoiding i »eh beyond the lower ; head flat, one indi long, and | inchea 
Oivfdie oce^put, color of eye raw terra sienna (light) ; not poisonous, 
.Iianbyoin an extraet from the Eneydopsedia Britannica, as above* 


If OainberMyctemans, < Loag-«nouted snake ;' 1 93 abdominalplfites^ 
167:.:aahoaBdal aonle^, slender, with a sharp pointed snout: color grass 
wkh a yallow. line on each side of the abdomen. About three 
and a hatf io lengths and half an inch in diameter. Native of 
North America, where it is often seen on trees, running very quickly 


in pursuit of insects." 



VII. — Notice of an Extraordinary Fbh. Bf H. Pisdisgton, E$q.' 

The following notices of a new and monstrous fish may probably be 
worth recording in the Journal. They do not altogether agpree with 
those of the fish described in your January No., by Lieut. Foley, 
but there may be more than one species of these monsters. 

In December, 1816, I commanded a small Spanish brig, and waa 
lying * at anchor in the Bay of Mariveles, at the entrance of the Bay 
of Manilla. One day, about noon, hearing a confusion upon deck, I 
ran up, and looking over the side, thought, from what I saw, that the 
vessel had parted, and was drifting over a bapk of white sand or c6ra1, 
with large black spots, I called out to let go another anchor, but my 
people, Manilla men. all said, " No Sir ! its only the chacon f* and 
upon running up the rigging, I saw indeed that I bad mistaken the 
potion of the spotted back of an enormous fish passing under the ves- 
sel, for the vessel itself driving over a bank ! Mv boatswain (^contra" 
mestre), a Cadiz man, with great foolhardiness jumped into the boat 
"^ith four men, and actually succeeded in harpooning the fish! with the 
common dolphin-harpoon, or grains, as they are usually called, to 
which he had made fast the deep-sea line ; but they were towed at 
such a fearful rate out to sea, that tliey were glad to cut from it imme- 

From the view I hadof the fish, and'the tim^ It took to pass slowly 
under the vessel, I should not suppose it less ' than 70 or 80 feet in 
length. Its breadth was very great in proportion ; perhaps not less 
than 30 feet. The back so spotted, that, had it been at rest, it must 
have been taken for a coral shoal, the appearance of which is familiar 
to seamen. I did not distinguish the head or fins well, from being 
rather short-sighted, and there being some confusion on board. 

As my people seemed to look upon ** the chacon," as they called it, 
almost in the light of an old acquaintance, which indeed it was to 
many of them who had served in the Spanish gun-boat service, J 
made many inquiries of them, of which the following is the result. 

1 . That there were formerly two of these monsters, and that they 
lived ftenian su casaj in a cluster of rocks, called Los Pijercos, at the 
S. W. entrance of the Bay of Mariveles ; but that, about ten or fifteen 
years before this time, or say in 1800, one was driven on shore, and 
died close to the village in the bay ; the inhabitants of which were com- 
pjsUcd by the stench to abandon their houses for a time. 

2. That the remaining one frequented the bay of Mariveles and that 
of Manilla,* and it was supposcid, that it often attacked and destroyed 
^mall fishing bo^ts, which never appeared after going out to fisl^, 

though no bad weather had occurred. This last aocoant I afterwards 
iamsA eingwlarly corroborated. 

3. That it was considered as dangerous by the Spanish gun-boats ; 
that thej always when there kept a swivel loaded, the report of which, 
they said, drove it away. My principal informant was a man em« 
ployed as a pilot for the ports in the Phillippine Islands, whither I was 
bounds who had passed his whole life in the gun-boats. He said that 
one imtance of its voracity occurred when he was present. A mao» 
who was pushed overboard in the hurry to look at the monster, being 
instantly swallowed by it. 

4. The native fishermen of the Bay of Manilla quite corroborate this 
accouot, and speak of the monster with great terror. 

About 1820 or 1821, an American ship's boat, with an officer and 
few men, was proceeding from Manilla to Cavite ; but, meeting with a 
severe squall and thick weather, they were driven nearly into 
the middle of the bay. They were pulling in what they thought 
the beat direction, when on a sudden the sailors all dropped their oars { 
But the mate, who was steering, looking astern of the boat, saw the 
open jaws of a huge fidh almost over him ! Having nothing at hand, 
Jie threw the boat's tiller into the mouth of the fish ! shouting as loud 
as possible ; when, the jaws closing with a tremendous crash, the 
whole fish, which they described to be more like a spotted ibkdte ! 
than anything else, dived beneath the boat, and was seen no more, I 
do not now recollect the names of the ship, or of the captain, but I 
thoi^ht the circumstance of the spotted appearance a remarkable proof 
that the story was not an invention. " We do not like to tell it,*' said 
the American Captain, " for fear of being laughed at ; but my officer is 
quite trust- worthy, and we have learnt from the fishermen too, that 
there ia some strange species of large fish I^hly dangerous to their 

Like the American officer, I fear almost being laughed at, were it 
not that, could we collect more facta relative to these strange mon- 
sters, they might perhaps at least explain some of the " coral spots,'* 
so often mentioned in our charts* : independent of its bemg a matter 
of great interest to the naturalist. I therefore add here a vague notice 
of monstrous spotted fish, which are known in the Moluccas. 

These are called by the fisherman of Ternate, Celebes, &c. a '* tkad 
BitUOMg" (or star- fish,) from the bright light which they occasion, and 
by which they are recognised at great depths at night, in calm weather. 
The Malay fishermen describe them too as spotted, as large as a whale, 

* BossBUBoft tflvdca to shoals of Peenl fisb. Lophius bejjig perhaps mistakea 
Isr shoals. 

s ■ 3 

^^ . Nifiice of mi Mrtraord^ry FM. [ApKSfi, 

litbd highly dedtmotive of their nets ; which they inetHiftly take up when 
they see the fish, if they can get time to do eo ; for it is Iniowii to 
destroy boats, aod whole lines of nets and fishing stakes, if it* once 
becomes entangled amongst them^ to the ruin of the poor fishermen. 
I had the same account corroborated at the Soolo Islands, both by 
Malay and by Chinese fishermen ; as also at Zeb6, in the Phillippioe 
Islands. At Sook) I was shewn large quantities of the skin of a spotted 
fish, cut into pieces and dried, for sale to the Chinese janks, which my 
people said was the skins of young " €hac(m9*'^-*" Pero n& $om estoa 
crnno nwitPQ ckaoon de alld, Scnor" " Bat these are not like ««r 
ektteon yonder, Sir," was always added. This skin I should have called 
tiiat of a spotted shark**" : the tubercles were excessively coarse amd 


Itsetima thus ^rtain, tiiat some immense spotted €t^, of highly - 
destructive propensities, resembling in this respect the gigantic shark « 
6f the West-Indiea, (which is often known to attack a^d devour the 
Eegroes In iMr canoes, and recently even a man and boat in Boston 
Bay,)t exisrts in the teas of the Eastern Archipelago. It is difficult to 
say, whether the one seen by Lieut. Folst was an individual of the 
same species or not. As already stated, I was unable to see miae with 
safficient distinctness, to ascertain any thing beyond its enormous sne, 
great breadth, and spotted appearance. I add sach conjectures as 
my limited knowledge and confined means of reference have enabled 
me to collect : I olPer them only as conjectures. 

We look naturally, from the voracious habit of these monsters, amongst 
the Rays or Sharks*->jS^iNi/«9 and Raja — for something to throw light 
upon what they may be ; and it appears that, thorigh these two genera 
have been classed by Brovsbomnet, Bloch, and Lacbpb^ob, there is still i 
nradi uncertamty existing as to some of the known species, " which 
may be placed indifferently in either genus, for the distinctive charac- 
ters of the Roys are derived from the flatness of their bodies, and 
those which are least flattened, and the squake which are so in some 
degree, approach much to each other." — Bosc m Nimoeau Dkt. Hist. 
N^t. Art. Squak, As to their size, the largest individual which has been 
subjected to trust-worthy measurement seems to be that mentioned by 
Lacbpb'db; a Sfualus nuufimus, driven on shore near St. Malo; 
which was thirty-three feet long, and twenty-four in circumference ; 
but this is far surpassed by the size of those of which, m Europe at 

• The tiger shark Beems to he rather a ttriped than a spotted shark. 

t That some of them are sufficiently formidahle, we have lately had eTidence. 
la Boston Bay, a man was recently attacked in his boat, and deyoured by one of 
these aniniOs.— SiiejreAytfcfM Americai^, Art. Shark, 1832. 

1865*3 Notice 0/ oil £9iriordmary FM. 3tt 

leaat, only the fbioil remains areibuad. Boec, epcaktn^ of the squalb 
KocasMTTB, Squalus eatuiw et camatUt, Linn., «ay8 of the fossil teeth» 
'* There is in the maseum of Natural History at Paris, a tooth, an inch 
and ten lines long, and two inches nine lines broad ; which according 
to a very moderate calcolatioo. by LACsra'DB, must have belonged to 
an indlTidual fifty feet in length ! Art, Sfuale, and in another place he 
says. Art, Uflyitwi/'— 

" The length of the front teeth of a shark thirty feet long is about 
tworinchesj and their breadth at the base two and a half p bnt 
shewn at the Moseom Nat. His. at Paris, a petviied shark's tootb» 
foond at Dbx, near the Pyrenees, which is« also, exclusive of the root« 
neady four inches long. The animal to. whidi. it belonged must theft 
have been more than sixty feet in length ! (Lacbps'ds, from an uni|uee* 
tiottable ealcolation, estimates it at sevisi4y-oike fret ! and. tibat.the 
jaiBvs.were nine £^ in .diamet^ S") The authority of Lac^ rn'os. is s<» 
lugk, ^at we may fairly eoqjectufe the qaestkm of metct be so ftursilt 
i^. ieflli» that Lient. foi^av; aiod rmy^eV will be . aofiutted of .any 
exaggerMion; and th^faol ftf tihetr (RmHhmu^ heatiand fishermetl 
tooi is farther confirmed by Bl40C^^(ago<kd authority*) who n^, speak* 
ingof the prefereuce. given by the-shmrkA toputrid ieahr-lhat "the 
Greenlanders, who fireqnent n sea abounding in sharks^ >in'little oanoee 
made. of the skin of this fish, are careful to make as little 'noise as po8« 
sihle, to avoid the chmnce of being swallowed togHk€v> with, their hoU 
by these monsters." Jtscoloar is the next remarkable cirotimstanoei 
and it is worth noticing, tiiat in thi» all parties agree* The dorsal 
fin mentioned by lieut. Folet and the Uzard>like head I am un«'* 
ble to speak to. It is quite possible however • that there may be a 
genos of these monsters which have the head far less-ftsttened than 
in general. Raja rhinoImtuB^ which seems to connect the two genera, 
has the snout lengthened. 

I suspect the name chacon to be a West Indian (Carib or African) 
one for a shark. I do not find it in any Spanish Dictionary, and I am 
not aware that it is derived Irom any of the dialects of the PhiUippine 
Islands. We may hope that ere long some of our whalers may meet 
with one of these monsters, and thus enable naturalists to form some 
judgment of what they are. It would be a highly interesting circum- 
stance could we procure some of the teeth, and these should be foivftd 
to correspond with those at Paris. Perhaps some of your Singapore 
readers may be enabled to furnish us with more information from the 
Malay fishermen, if the Ikan Bintang is known in those seas. 

I had just finished this paper, wheu I received from my friend Dr* 
Harlan, of Philadelphia* the first number of the Transactions of the 

iJ9 Tables and B,Hle$ for the Chains [AfniL; 

Geological Society of Pennsylvania, in whicli h a most interesting 
** Critical notice of varioas organic remains discovered in North 
America," by Dr. Harlan. At p. 8&, is the following: 

** The bones of one species of shark, upwards of forty feet in length, 
allied to the Carcharias, have occasionally been found in several loca* 
lilies. In Ccvirb's Theory of the Earth, by S. L. Mitchell, p. 400, 
it is stated, ' The skeleton of a huge animal was found on the bank of 
the Meherrin river, nearMurfreesborongh, N. C. It was dugout of i^ 
hill dista&t sixty miles from the ocean. Captain Nbvills and Dr. Fow^ 
LBB, who Tisited the spot, gathered the scattered vertebrae and laid 
them in a row thirty-six feet in length. If to this the head and taH 
b^ added, the animal must have been fifty feet or more in length, &c. 
We have recognized them as the remains of a gigantic species of 
shark.' " 

He refers to other specimens, indicating sharks of forty feet or inore 
in length ; bat this will, I doubt not, be suflicient to show that H is quite 
probable the fish seen by Lieut. Folbt and the chaeon of the Bay 
of Manilla may be Individuals of the same fikMily ajs those only known 
to us as yet by their fossil remains. 

IX. — Rules for Calct^ating the Lengths rf the Drop^bdrs of Svepenekn 
Bridges, the Length and Deflection of the Chain, Rise of the Rpadwayg 
SfC, By Captain J. Thomson, Engineers. 

The appUoalioa of the fbllowing firohlein in statbtics, to find the 
length of the drop-bars and links of a suspension bridge, has, I be- 
lieve, the mierit of originality ; nrhile it will be loaad extiviiMdy ooni* 
veaient in practice, in determining at once the requisite proportions,- 
and obviating the necessity of after adjustment, which will alwaya occhT 
where the evrve of «uoh a bridge is assumed as a true catenarian. 

If a be t)ie. angle of auspeouon, 

b the length in feet of one of the links of the chain, 

d the number of drop-bars in each chain ; then the tangent of thtf 

apgle a, divided by one-half rf « n = -1-. i« the constant dif- 


feretiee between the tangents of the angles formed by ^e links of the 

chain with the horizon. These tangents will be as follows : upper link 

« Tan. «, 2nd « Tan. « — ii, 8rd === Tan. « -> 2 ii &c. and the lowest 

«Tan, a — n. The sines to radios b, corresponding to these 

angles, are the differences of the lengths of the drop-bars; and the 
cosines of these angles are the horizontal distances between the drop. 


imd Drop-bars (tf S^spmsi^ Bridges. 


bars, or the spaces whicb each link of the chain ocoi^iea in the spate 
of the bridge. If therefore the sum of these cosinss, multiplied by the 
radius b, be deducted from the span of the bridge/the difllerence will 
be the length of the horizontal space occupied by the two upper links; 
and half of this space» multiplied by the secant of a, will be the length 
of one of those links. The sum of all the links will be the length of 
the chain. The sum of the diflferences of the drop-bars, added to the 
deflection of the apper link» will be the total deflection of the chain. Tba 
roadway may be made to rise with a fair curve, by making the rise 
bear a certain proportion to the fall or deflexion of the chain. 
. ThC; sum of the deflexion of the chain, the length of the centre drop* 
bar, and the rise of the road, will be the height of the point of suspen- 
sion at the standard. 


a = 1«5* = angle of suspension. 

6 z= 5 feet =: lengtk of each link, 

^ =: 17 =: number of drop*bars. 

^8.623 =: distance between the points of suspension, 

3.5 feet = length of centre drop-bars. 

The rise of the road =: j the deflection of the chain. 

Tan. • =.2679432 — j» = 

2 Tan. a 



Upper'IstHAk, .... 
Iflt drop-bar, .. %.• 



3rd ^ 












9th, r 

Pentre drop-bar, • . 

Tanir. of 

of deflec- 


of de- 

of drop- 
bar^ in ft. 


Rise of 













































Length of 



7.9175 s: sum of the cosines multiplied hj 
5 =z X ft 

39.5875 = horixl. diit. between drop-bars. 
49.3125 = i span. 

9.5250 :=: difference. 


Tables and Rules for Suspension Bridges, 

1.0352 X secant of 15*. 


9.8602 =: length of upper link. 
.2588 = X sine of deflexion 15*. 

2.5418 = deflection of upper link, 
ft. in. ft. in. 

5 X 16 4- 9.8602 X 2 := 99.7204 length of cliain. 
The sum of column No. 5 = 7.5068 deflection of ditto. 
Ditto No. 6 == 1.5014 rise of roadwa J. 

7.5068 -I- 1.5214 + 3.5 = 12.5082 hei^^ht of the point of tns. 

pension at standard. 
N. B. Column 5 is found hy multiplying column 4 by 5 feet. 
Column 6 is one-flfth of column No, 5. 
Column 7 is equal to columns 5th + 6th -f 3 .5 feet. 

The geometrical construction of this problem will answer as a 
proof to the foregoing ralcj and will be of assistance in making plana 
of suspension bridges. 

In the right-angled triangle ABC make the angle A = 15* = 
angle of suspension, and the side AB = 5 feet = length of one link 
of the chain. Divide the side CB into as many spaces, commencing 
at C, as there are drop-bars in ^ the space = 8^ :$p&ces, and join An 
A 2 II, ^c. From the centre A with the radius AB describe the arc BD, 
vxd complete the lines shewing the sines and cosines of the ftngteft 
formed by the line AB and the radii Aji, A 2 m, A 3 », &c. Then as 
these radii are parallel to the links of the chain, the sines of the 
angles E 1, £ 2, £ 3, &c. are the difFerences between the lengtba of 
the drop-bars 1, 2, 3, 4, &c. and the cosines of these angles are the 
spaces which the links of the chain occupy in the space of the bridge. 
Supposing II =: length of the centre drop-bar, the other drop-bars will 
be as follows : 
Centre bar ». 

8th, n + E 8. 

7th, « + E 8 + E 7. 

6th, fi + £84E7 + E6, and so on. This does not in- 
clude the rise of the road, however, wjiich is an arbitrary quantity. 


TabU of the strength tf Iron bolts. 


X. — Table skewmg the Weight or Pressure wluch a eyUndrical i6romght' 
troA Bolt will sustain when supported at the ends, and bonded in the 
muddle of its Length. Bg Captain J. Tuomsonl, Engineers. 










Ids. ilna. 


























Dm. 'Dm. 



Dm. Dm. 











Ins. ;Ios. 



Ins. laj. Ilns. 





1*3 11*44 


l*S 1*95 










1*64 1*8 


2-98 9*46 


f « 

1- • 






1*64 1*88 9*06 


9*6 9-81 


■; 8 








1*8 9-07 9.98 



3*09 3*98 









9*08 9-37. 9*6 



1-54 8.7 












3*98 3-69 1 

































. «3 

• • • • 














• St 

• • • • 








3*99 3*69 1 





.. ^ 




9*46 9-64 








6*99 5*61 



• ■ • • 



9.61 9-81 












9*75 9-96 
9*87 13-09 








5 99 





• • « » 

.-« « • 

619 16*56 


• • • « 

• • • • 


3* • 3*91 





4 74 



6*43 1 



3*33 '3*33 
J'66 A-44 











$■18 A'S-r 1 






• « • « 

• • • • 















« » • • 

• . . • 

• ■ • • 

• . » • 









7 08 

7 63 



• • • • 

« . • . 

• • • • 

, , , , 



Observati&tss on the foregoing TWe. 
There are two ways ia which the bolt may be broken, either by a 
cross strain, or by detrasion, which is the pulling out the part of the 
bdt from between the points of support : besides these two ways in 
whidi the fastening may be broken» the bolt may crush and cut away 
the eye of the link which presses upon it. . 
i If V:= weight or pressure in tons, 

/^length of the bolt between the points of support in inches, 
if= diameter of the bolt in inches, then d^(.37 w /)« to 

support a cross strain ; but when /becomes less than 

^ 267 >' 


bolt wiU be liable to detrusion, to avoid which, d^(.08 w) • But 
detroflion can never take place when both the bolt and the link are 
fonned of iron, or the same metal, becanse when / becomes less than 

t -y y the link may be cut by the bolt ; to obviate which, the 

vsloe of d should be » 


This last equation supersedes the first 

X These ndef are taken from Taa0OOL9, the arbitrary qusntittes assumed by 
liim beiag coRtoted by a oomparisoa made, and a mean, taken from the best aai' 

326 0» the strength of iron UU$^ Stc. [Apeil. 

when t0=>71.5 I*. This place is marked '*' in the table. 

RemarkM m keys, hold-fasts, 8fC. 

Put 6 s the breadth in inches, 
il=the depth in inches, 
ws weight in tons, 
lealength of \itB,mg in inches ; then the breadth shoold never 

be made less than rrrj and the section htP^.BI ip /, w rf»»l . / 

24 /j ^ o 

As an example, soppoee a bar 1 inch square to sopport 8 tons was 
fastened by a key ; rehired the breadth and depth ? 

19 1 

«=8. — /=*1 and -— j =« —— ^ ~-. » ^ or the breadth required, 

•*. o = I — r*"/ "* "n/S.SS ck 2*98 inches, the depth required. 

To support the accnracj pf this table, a set of experhnents was com- 
menced, but the resulte from them were so aiisali8lMtory,r that they 
were not continued. But dnriBg the p«^x)f of three bii%ea in which 
bolts of from 1^ in. to 2^ in, were oaecL vith vwions lengths of bear* 
ing, and pressurea of from 20 to IS tonsi the^mensiDBa narked in 
the table were Ibiind anfficientiy atrong in every tnetance; but the 
diameter of the bok thua given covdd not be redveed mudi, or vdunt 
was the same.thisg, the length of bearing eoold not be decreased with 
out a riik of ftolurei* 

*^ Tb» best Svedidi in>n bolts did notswtaDli greater pressure 
I^^^Y? than the ordinary Engliahbolt iro«« (rolkd^not hammered.) The 
Swedish irea when strained in ezcese bent, and beoame dented earn 
the maxgmal figure i the jude m was bulged or reee half as much as h 
was indented or bent, on the other side ; when the bolts were formed 
of English bolt iron (utthfunmered), nuaaerone eraeks opened on Hie 
convex surface of the bolts at a and c e, when the JAdentation at b 
amoante4 to i\ of the diameter of the bolt ; the hcikt failed by these cracks 
meeting each other, and the centre part of ^ bolt waa dmwn out. 

The bars, which these bolts copneetedt were oalcidated loaustein-d 
tons per square inch of aection, and the eyta 7 tone, hnt wiienthe 
whole were proved by a tension Jrd greater than the oahwilated 
strength, the eyes broke more frequently than etiher the har» or bolts. 

The fd^oiring table, for which we are alw indebted to Captam 
J. THOMSQif, Bngintets» >vjil serve at a praeiieal oofilittttation of the 
obeervalsQos on roofing, in the laat number «f the Jouraai. 

1835.] TtiUe of lit Seanilbigt of Beam/or Reofi. 397 

id. — A Table 0/ the Scantlingt of Beatn of TVaft or SmI Wood, to tm- 
taim a Temee Roof not exceeding leven mehe$ » thicineto ; tJie de. 
Jkxion not to exceed one^fortteth of an inch for each foot of length. 

u*." "" 

• 1 • 


















:^ i!.'*' 


i,':' r 





*m\ 7« 

f!t\ ■« 


lis IW 

BiU|«Il* leqaire b) be made rii timM itllTer than buma, in order to prevcdt 
■Mdu^lB Aetettaee toot; indu tfaey ur« IntarhUr plated dob foot ■part, and 
Imm *Jmullkorai«e laclie*, tliar>hoa)d btf m m$aj Inaha in depth m tbtf 
tit Imtim laugh Dt beuiag betmea lihe beam*. 

£xplaMatim of the IbM*. wM Mtmiptn tf itewe. 
L The t^le Aem on idspeotioB the ccaottidg* of beams to sapport 
WDfimot ezoeBAkig 8(Mbs. per ■^Brafoot.ittcliMtin^ Hm ifeigfit of the 
tiiDber. It hax beem cdmlat«d, snwrdiftg'te' tha tidd in TuiMoLD'a 
Oarpeatrj; Sfeclion il.'pie.SO, the vAbwof- lb»«onsttirf qnaatTty, 
tibeiag taken at '01. The scantling* given in the laUe'irre tneasure4 
m-thetttkkUe'of tkataflBD; the'iower aideia aoppftledtoWeut straight, 
and th« «pper aide iritb « diirv« of oiie 6r two inches, versed sine, for 
ocfa 10 feetfn length of'tbe bMOli; 

Aa thestiAat Jieam that, can be c«C ontof arowdlimher-haa'ha 
bnadth tvitidqithln the proportion Of "^6 ttf I betarlvt the' proportion 
if the bMMlth'totbe'di«iM«er wiU'b« aa ^Sto ],'«r the hr^adth 1KII 
beltkBtteptJE. ' 

' AathniKMtofiimbvr'iitfartly pr«t>orfioned to ha contents; the deep< 
er ^tfac'tenfavare'intukf, the cheaper thoraedrill he wthin certain 
liintet fiodaJ tiWcutttnff of'tinAera-throogh 'tho heart or centre of 
tta ttood it nippoMd to rendw ih« beams more durable, all the M<a- 
bMtafevaldbe cat Into' tvo hrams, particolarly u the stteagth of the 
llmbertaBatat aU rsdonidby tbia. mflaenre. 

There is, however, a proportion -between the depth and breadth 
ifhipb ownot be ewatdfid without.tlieiidcof tiwheambraakiogbide^ 
.■aja. TupoefaD'^jflk h> (&«.< U.^pae. 62>)-" tha-hrsKlth in inches 
dwoldnothe Itaathftp ai««leBgtkin>iN*i^dmdad bftb* 
■qoare root of the depth in inchea," 

828 Rules fi» the scmUUtif 9f Ra^mif timbers. [Ami.* 

Ab th$ weight .on etoh of the he«iD8 ii p wip or tioped to Hie 4i*taiice 
between them ; find aa the 8tren|^ of the beam b proportioned to its 
breadth : tie breadth in inches^ as marked hi the first column of the 
table, must be moltipJied by the distance in fieet between eaeh bean, 
measured from oentre to oc«tre ibr the breadth of the beam ; or, if tiie 
breadth of the besmsaregiven* the distance in feet between them is {btti|4 
by dividing their breadth by the breadth in the first cobiinn of the table. 

. A ro«m» 22 feet by 3d feet, has. to be roofed in« the timbert provided 
for wkiQh are rodnd,: 18 iaohf« diameter in- the middle; and 25 Ceet 
long. It is required to know the most eoonomieaL laanner of -ciMtiBig 
them u|)b the scantUiigs of the beams, aitd their distance apart. 

The Btiffest beam that oan be cntoot of an 18 hioh .tree is 9 X 15, 
or if cat iute^ two timbersi.4^ X 15; t» ascertaiaif thisudmber will 
beso.thta'as'beliable'tq break sid&i ways,/ the rak for. this pittpose 

l^ill b,e applied as fcdlow;: . * .^ ^ — .=? Ffir" ^^s 3. 4 in, the lewt 

breadth ; the beams 4| x 15, are therefore not too thin. By refer- 
ring to the tatle, under 22 feet length of bearing, a depth of 15 inches 
requires a breadth of 1^ inches. The breadth of the timber, 4^, being 
divided by r|, gives 3 ft, the distance frqm centre to centre of the beams ; 
this dist^ce give& 1 1 Bpiv:es, or 10 beams, or 5 timbers iu the 33 ft. 

The timbers of the dimensions above stated could be cut into two 
b^ams 12.7 X 6.4, having ,a greater section than that given above, 
15 >< 4^; but on a reference to the table in the column of 22 feet 
length, and 12*9 in depth, the breadth is 2^ inches, and 6*4, divided 
by 2*5, gives 2 feet 8 in distance from centre to centrj&, if beams re- 
quiring 12| spaces, or 12 beams, or 6 timbers. 

2nd Example, 

beams 8^ X 12, having been provided for a.voof>>of 22 feet span— 
required to know the distance they are to be placed apart. In co- 
lumn of 22 feet span, opposite a depth of 12 inches, is a breadth of 3 
inches, and 8§ divided by 3, gives 2 feet 10 inehes as the ^stance* 
from centre to centre, at which the beams ought to be placedw 

Qrd Escsmj^. 

Proposed to roof a room 18 feet wide, with tiosber j^koed I loot. 3 
inches from centre to centre, so: as to beoover9d with tiles instes^d Qi 
burgaha, the deepest timber pf oeuflable beic^ 9 inches^ re%aired the 
breadth of the beams. 

In the colamo of the span of \% feet> aad a depth of B inches, tlie 
breadth is 4 inches, which multiplied by 1^, gives 5 inches for the 
breadth of the beam. J. T. 

XIL^Oh the Temperohwe ^ Deep WelU to the wett of the Jamna. 

By the Rev. R. ErsABarr. 

During the kst cold weather and the present* I hove paid some 
stteatmi to the temperature o£ wells in the ooantry to the west of 
-the Jiunna« Tbey^ nre not osually more than '30 or 40 feet deep 
withm a few miles of the river, but beyond Rholak, aboot 50 miles 
to the wMt of this, on the road to Hansi, they are not less than 1 \0 
or 120 feet deep, and, in one instance I have met with (that of the 
iwtt at jia«si) 1 60 feet . Farthor than that I cannot speak from exami- 
nation, bot aU aoeonnta agree in stating these in the Bilranlr cJdUntry 
tote the deepest, probably not less than 3d0 feet. I have almost 
invariably' foand ^e temperature to ineneaae with the depth, bat the 
iiici^se is modified by three oircamstanoea. 

Isr. Bf the locality, as in the case of m po<^ of water beiitg 'near, 
or the, month of tiie well b^ng broad in proportion to its depth, both 
which causes tend to lower the temperature in the cold weather. 

2ndly. By the season of the year at which the observation is 
ina4c. The tendency of the rains is to reduce all wells to the uniform 
temperature of 78^ which is about that of th^ rain* water when it 
falls* From this cause the deep wells are ^t thei^ minimum about 
the autumnal eq^uinox, and get warmer during the cold weather. On 
the .contrary, the more superficial ones become colder during the. same 

3rdly. By the quantity of water that is drawn from them. Those 
that are not used are usually the lowest, and those where oxen are 
working for the purpose of irrigation by a great deal the highest. I 
have only to premibe further that the mean temperature of the year 
here, according to Major Oliver's observations, ia 76*. The general 
results I have obtmned are as follows : 

No. of wells. Depth to bottom. Teroperature at the bottom. 

1. Mean of 10 observatUms 

nude at nearly equidistant pe- feet. 

riodsthrougboat the year,.. .... .. 42 78*6 

3 observatioii*, 60 , 79-2 

6 dittos .80 to 100 79*0 

5 ditto, 110tol20 79-8 

1 ditto, 160 80-0 

The increase in Europe is eakl to be 1^ centigrade, or 1**- 8 Farht. 

fox' every 35 or 37 metres (about 105 or 110 feet English), of depth. 

Were I to select (torn my observations those made where bullocks 

'were workifag for t^e pntrposes of irrigation, the increase would be 

mnch more rapid than what I have above stated. Tlins : 

No. of wsHs. Depth to bottom. ' Teaipentore/ 

2 60 81 

3 90 81-9 

2 120 827 

I do not publish these obserrations with the idea that they aro 
sufficiently ntimeroa& to establish any general law on the subject for 
this conntry^ bat becaose my avocation here does not permit me to 
extend them» and in the hope that some one who may hereafter travel 
through the Bikanir country may be inddoed to take up the anbjeet, 
for there alone can any considerable depth beneath the surface be 

F. S. — LleuteYMint TilkiiIbnhebkk, of fhe Engineers, in leaving this 

en the Shekawalti campaign, bad the kindness to promise that he 

would make some observations on the temperature of the deep wells 

that lay in his route* and this he has performed with great zail and 

assiduity. He has now placed the results he obtained in my hands, 

and I have drawn up the foUowing abstraet of them: 

N«. of Wells! 


A*M» • • • 

6. • • • 


Aver. Temp. 


40 to SO feet. 
80 to 120 . . . 
4. ...(120(0 140.... I 81<^ 

These observations were made throughout a large tract of country 
lying between 28 and 26^ N* Lat. and 78 to 76* £. Ltmg. And the 
tiine of the yeaf in which they were made was from the 26th October 
to the 28th February. The mean temperature of the year for the sur- 
face may be reckoned at 75*, if, as stated by Laeut.-Col. OLivsa,. that 


I see that in the above ]ia|>er on this subject I have misquoted this 

same datum of Colonel Oi.ivsa'8, calling it 76''« I took the luimber 

carelessly fVom the wrong column, owing to its suitihg so well to Dr. 

Rotlb's observations at Seharanpur, who makes the^ Qiean of that 

place, I believe, 73®. 5. One or other of the two observations must 

now be rejected. 

Ill » ii « I I ■ Il l 111 ■■■■ 

XIll. — Abstracts of a Meteorological Register kept at " CainepUU 

Musooree (MasuriJ £y S,M, BovLDsaaoN, JSsf « 
1834* TneirMim 

Bar,' 0ttd* '- 

From 15tfa to end of M^y, 8 observatioiu it 10 a. h, 2^.919 75 78.1* 

9 „ at 4 p. u* 2;i.894 75.6 ;9*9* 

10 „ at 10 P. M. 23,905 74*8 7ft.7 

Mean temperature at. 10 a. m* and 10 p. m. 7|6^. 
Bar. at 4 p. m. compared with 10 a, m. Bar. at 4 p. m. ooofmred witk 10 p. m. 

Mean djff. greatest. .least. Mean 4^, greaie$t, Ua$i^ 

(6 obfrsO-— 0.043 —0.060 —0.026 (7 obsrt.)— 0.034 —0.066 0.0U4 

ji Mera^. 
Bar* aH4» rffidL 
June, 25 observations at 10 A. ic. 23,897 71.8 .70.3 

22 „ at 4 p. M. 23.815 71.4 71.1 

23 „ at 10 p. ic. 23.870 71.5 68.0 

* I think that the temperature at 10 a. m. and 4 p. u. was eonsiderably raised 
by reflection. This was modified or obviated in the subsequent month^. 

1835^] . Metforobffkal O^em&ii&m ut Mttmiri. HZl 

Mean temperttnre at 10 A. m. and 10 p. m, 69*1 » 
Bar. at 4 p. v. compared with 10 a. m. Bar. at 4 p. u, compared with 10 p. ir. 

Jf «ra d^, *^ pr§ai€$t, htuf, %fettn ^. ^preatut, least, 

(18 obns.}~0.073 -4).2i2 +0.040 (18 ol)iii«.)-H).048 —0.210 40.014 

Bear, eittd. detd. 

Mj, ,. 25 obMrvatioikt at 10 A« M. 23.606 69.d t7J& 

13 „ at 4 p. ir. 23.830 69.2 68.5 

- 28 „ St 10 p. M. 23.879 69.6 67.2 

Mean temperature at 10 a. m . and 10 p. m. 67«35. 
Bar. at 4 p. M. compared with 10 a. v. Bar. at 4 p. m. compared with 10 p, ir. 

Meeoi ^, gntihet, Uoit, Mian dijf, greateet. iemei, 

(12 iib99B.y-^M6 *«-0ai8 -f 0.032 (12 otaa.)***O.U43 «*4I.1«4 44).0I» 

Bar. aitd. detd. 

A.ifiiaft»»..^.. »..«.25ofannrationaat 10 A. v^ 25.917 69.1 68.5 

19 f, at 4 p. M. 23.864 66.3 67»5 

28 „ at 10 K. u. 23.900 68.9 66.4 

Mean tMBperatare at 10 a. h. mad 10 p. v. 67M. 
Bar. at 4 p. m. compared with 10 a. m . Bar. at 4 T* m« compared with 10 p. m. 

MtemSf. greaieet. ieati. Meandif, greateet. leaet^ 

(17 obana.)— 0.060 — 0*090 --0.022 (16 obsmu)— 0.023 —0.066 +0.018 

Bar. attd. detd. 

September, 25 obfeenratipiia at 14^ a. v. 23.994 67.7 67.2 

13 „ at 4 p. M. 23.918 67.5 66,8 

24 n at to P. M. 23.960 68.1 65.5 

MfMi t<nipen4«re at 10 a. h. aad 10 f. u. 66*35. 
bar. at 4 p. JC compared with 10 a. m. Bar. at 4 p. n. compared with 10 p. h. 

Mean d^. greateet. teaet. Mean d(g^. greateet, leaet^ 

(12 ohas.>-^a064 -^^.IM +0«006 (11 obiiia.)— a.031 —0.086 -f 0.036 

Bar. T. att4. detd. 
October, 23 obierratlona at 10 a. m. 24.084 61.5 62.2 

19 „ at 4 p. If. 24.012 61.5 61.96 

20 „ at 10 s. u. 24.050 6U8 58.63 
Mean temperature at 10 a. m. and 10 p. m. 60*>4l. 

Bit. itt-4 p. m. eompared with 10 A. m. Bar. at 4 p. ii. compared with 10 p. m. 

r Metmdii^. grmieat* Umt. Mem dif* greateet. Iaa«#» 

(17 obana.)~0.072 —0.140 ■M).032 (16 obsna.)— 0.043 —0.128 —0.008 
K^6T».<^n«m^the 2i!fdrtothe 9di, no obaervationa taken. 

Bar. 7. aitdh detd. 
KoTCmber lit to 21at . . 17 obserrationt at 10 a, m. 24.158 57.5 57.4 

10 „ at 4 p. M. 24.104 57.6 56.4 

19 „ at 10 p. V. 24.129 57.8 53.9 

Mean temperature at 10 A* u* and 10 p. m. 55* 6. 
Bar. at 4 p. h. eompared with 10 a. m. Bar. at 4 p. m. compared with 10 p. m. 
Mean i^. greateet. ' teaet. Mean diff. greateet. leaet. 

(9 obanA»)-^.052 —0.074 —0.026 (10 obsns.)— 0.034 —0.058 —0.014 
Mmb of &• aaean UMnperatnres from 15th May to 21at November, 66^17. 

Height of CMTC^ille, by bompariitous with Calcutta Barometer. 
Sf mean of 80 obiermtioiis at 10 a. m. from 16th May to Above Calcutta. 

81st Amgoat, feet 6287.5 

l8j maan of 40 obaeriratfona, at 4 P. v. do. do. 6285.9 

By mettft of QlOtftto, tt 10 p.if. Jnly to August; 6274.7 

Mean» ^82.7 

9f tfl obaermtioBSi GaineTille above Seharanpur, 5346.7 

above Caloutia, 1012.3 


332 Amtic Society. [Apmi., 

XrV. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society. 

Wednesday Evening^ the 6th May, 1835. 

Captain M. G. Wbttb, Seni<»r AsRigtant Commissary, Arracan, propoeed 
at the last Meeting, was duly elected a member of the Society. 

Professor Lb a and I>r. R. Harlan, of Philadelphia, proposed as honor, 
ary members at the laat Meeting, were upon the faTorable report of the 
Committee of Papers, balloted for and duly elected. 

Read the following report of the Committee appointed, at the last meet, 
kigof th« SfHtiety, to eonsult with the Banm nxror.L on fhe exp^^diency 
and on the best means of procuring from Europe a competent Curator for 
the Mu»enm. 

*' Althoagh tbe mea8tt<*e of seoding to Barope for a qualified curator would 
ensure th^ estalAtohmeut of a museum in Calcutta, upon a footing such as has not 
hitherto be«n known here, and perhaps on a par with those in .more favorable 
climMM f aAd mkh^gh t^e ttuexfflOred and extensive field around ns promiaes an' 
amplii.atdra of- abv«lti«s, «ueh as would render our moseusa in time an object of 
attention to naturalists both here and at home, still it cannot be oovee^led that 
tbei^isiiftiSfenarBl'pQftitsof «iew under which tiie sehens of proonriug a curator 
from.fiuTope does not appear the meat fiivorahlo for the end to be aaoompUehed. 

*' The Baron Hugrl h^ favored 4i»e ConuaiUee with Insopiajoii, that a compe- 
tent naturalist, that is, a person acquainted with the branches of Zoology, might 
be induced to accept the situation on a salary of 200 rupees a month. By making 
this kum payable fsom'the day of his embarkation from Europe, a separate allow, 
anoe for passage money and outfit might perhaps be obviated, and a similar pro- 
vtste might be mada in ease of his rstam hoaie : The Baron's recommendations 
through his friends at Vienna or Paris, would also be a guarantee that the person 
selected. aMottUb meat tho Society's expeetatioas, and faitfaAilly perform the duties 
assigned to bfan, while health should last i b«t he. most ae^fM^ iacar.mtteh' 


ezp^m^i OB^hie ^a^nig4iis owwk country s be would heva beMlto^ether ikprniiimtt 
on the Society in case of sickness, or be might beooaie a bnrdea* •reta'-h^to ' 
pr<^ iAjSdf^uate to peKorm .hi» du^. U could not Jbei i^xpscUtdiksX the same hs^ 
dividual ' should be a mineralogist or a geologist : these branches therefore ^m*^^"'' 
thej are inportai^l to ns,) woi^ still be defideat, ^flWN^thOH^bia mi^i iaas^t 
a little English on his way out, he would hardly be able to write descriptispa»: ■ ^ 
for jpublication, of the new oby^ta of Natasai jSisMryi* whioh might fiilf unto' 
his notice. ,- . * 

** These considerations have led .your C(>mmittoa43»lislaaCaiNwi3>I|[;tD AasoiUB*' 
catioa of. the original plan, which ofoa the opportaioity of piimding a camtor 
on Ihe spot. 

** Dr. PxAasoN, your late honorary curator, in resigning this situation a short 
time since, stated that he had found it impossible to do mucH hitherto for the 
museum, while acting gratuitously: his discaaoe fh>m the premnes ; Wir'attentibn 
to his own collection, naturally interfered to prevent his attealiou beteg given to a 
secondary object. These difficulties would however be in a gma0 measure renMiired ' 
were he to receive such allowance as the Society might determlBe to 4m4te to the 
purpose of creating aad maintaining a museum i indeed he would ba^ williu|^to 
accept the office at 150 rupees per month, which weuld bo a poaitiva aavil^^ (tf - 
50 to the Society, a material consideration in the actual state of its fiaaiicea s 
This sum would enable htm to take a house near the spot, or tofcoaare the means 
of conveyance till he oould get one suitable : it would purchase as it were his 
ezchuive services : for it he would consent to relinquish the further proeecution 
of his own private collection, and to devote his whole leisure to the Society's 
museum. Ob the other hand, being in the Company's Medical Service, he ebttld 
at no time become a barthen to the Society, iriiich would be at ]shef|y>lK> amu! 
iu eugagem^ot with him at any time, shonid a lair trial prouethat tl!e ebj^Qt of 
IbraUng ^ creditable maseum was aot attained^ or vma mo. longordiatHMe. ^> 

1835.3 Atiatic Society. 233 

«< Tour Conmittee therefore is vna&imoiis in reeommending , in modification of 
the raeolQtioB of the lit April, that the services of Dr. pExmsoN be secured at 
ih» rate of 150 mpees per mensem, for a limited term' at first, say one year, at the 
eipintion of which it would be seen whether or not it would be desirable to eon- 
tiave the syatom, or to hare recourse to the ohUgiiif aisistance of the Bafoa 
HvofiL lo procure a regular curator from Europe." 

(Signed) £• Rtan. 

W. MoRRIflON. 


J. T. PlAftSON. 

iktier 9ome discDSsioii, it wa« reflolved ; that the Society thould avail it* 
telf of the servicei of Or. J. X. VmAuaoN as curator, and that a sum of 800 
rupees per menaem should be devoted to the purposes of the muaeum for 
the period of one year: the SO rupees etcess beixig intended for con- 
tingencieSy cabinets^ &c. or for an astiistant^ for the ofElce of which M* 
BonCHS' of Chandernasore was an applicant. 

A letter from J. £. Gardner was read, proposing to repair the menu* 
meat of Sir W. Jovm, in the church^yard^ for rupees 250. Referred to the 
Coaamittee of Papers. 

iLead a letter from Mr. J. K. Kan a. Secretary of the Asaericaii Philo* 
sophical Society, forwarded by Mr. T. Rtan, acknowledging the reeeipt 
of Part 52nd of volume zviii. of the Asiatic Researches. 


Read a letter from Monsieur M. D'Avrzac Dt; Maoata, Secretary to 
the Geographical Sooiety of Pans, &c. &c. presenting two pamphlets. 

L — *' Examen et Rectification des Positions determines Astronomiquemeat 
en. Afrique. par MuagoPark.*' 

9. — "Notice sur L'apparition nouvelle D'an Proph^te Mutfsulmaa ea Afirk|aB." 

TIm following books were also presented. 

Tisasawfiflns of the If edieal and Fhysteal Society of Calcutta, Part 2 of volume 
vii.'— Jy tk9 AMM#y, ihnmgh Dr. IIurcBiN80N, Secretary, 
ne Indian Journal of Medical Science, volume 2nd, Nos. 16, 17 — hy the 

Madias Jouraid of literature and Science, No. 7 — 5y tke Madras Literary 

Saerrr WAmnra's Tour to Shtrss by the route of Kairoon and Feerosabad — 
ly H. N. Thakuk. 

Hitlanroktgical Register tor Marofe, 188t-^^'Me Purveyor General. 

Dr. R. Hablaw's Fima Americana, presented for the author— ^y Mr. H. 


AJatffr was read horn Mr. J. B. Eumtt, Gemmissieaer of Pataa, for. 
WMxguiis #n impressiea taken in oheetplead of an inseription on the plinth 
of fOBN^ figures- ef the Avmtatf9, senlptured on a black stone which he ob« 
taioed at Kesariah in the ne^beorhood of the mound depicted in the 
last No« of the JonmaL 

A note on the interpretation of tlie line was read by the Rev. Dr. 


Bztneis of a letter from Captain Wadb were read^ communicating 
interesting aceounts of farther progress made by M. Masbon in bis ex- 
pkmtiDB of the A%hdn topes. 

JBeir«r/« (//«r/er fivm Mr. Mamvm to Captam Wade, dated tka IStk July, 1834. 
,i Mlthe plessare of addressing you from Pesh4 war about the middle of May, 
fww avaii * myself of a Cossid psoeeeding to Cabfil to transmit through 
Agent. Mum St^a JUrassat. AIi1# a bnsf aoessmt ef my proeeediagt Mnce 



234 Awtic Society. [ApRit, 

" In Ibree or Ibnr dcjri sftw I wmte yon, 1 left Peshiinkr for S6i«an Maho- 
WAD Kra«*b Ctap tt Sheikanv and-tboioe prooeededta JalkUbwL bf Um .conte 
«C AbkanQ. On arrhral there, I reoommeaced operations on tbe topee reoneiKiag 
in that vicinity, and these labore have fallj oeonpied eee until this lime^ ^nd 
i can ti i u ne to do so* 

" I rejoice to say that yery fair mocea has attended ny o pwa bons ; of nomn 
naproBiising topes, as to appearance, opened near Chaharb4gh of JaUIabad, four 
yielded results satisfactory, one of which will be interesting fVom the coins therein 
diseoYored. Of fourteen topes and tumuli opened at Hidd&h, the greater por- 
tion have alike yielded the wisbed-for results in relics and medals ; one 
produced a yery splended collection of relics snd a great number of coins, 
the mijor part silver SassaniaD, but also seven gold ones, of which siogu- 
' lar U> T^titt) are five of Eoman RmperftrB, two of TitsoDoffrra, two of Lro, 
and'titte of MAnorlNva. Thes^ coins are themselves eurions, andthediisoyeiry 
^them in such a plsee is not less so, and they may be of great use- in aasisCing 
•to asoortain the^cpoeh when the ntmument containing<thena mny have been <bttilt. 

" I note the legends of the coins*, 1 havedisc^ered lor yowrinfiursMtioVi iftd 
•when I receive your reply to this letter, shall forward to ltfjr« Pniifanjr, for ]pub. 
licMtlon in his Journal, an aoMMWtof this interaating tope, and of the reiki, and 
coins extracted. 

" I oontiDue to hear of or to fill upon others of these monuments in a variety of 
«iMiiitioiiS) and ss their importance is obvious, shall not relet In the p«r«ait of 
^leir ident^tation t they will fiilly occupy me ttntfi tiie winter, therelDfe I^nitKt 
dalbr a visit to the countries north of the Hindu Kush until the neatt season* 

" The 30M SepUmber, 1834. Nearly a month since I arrived in Cab<U and took 
in hand a tope which had been opened and abandoned by M. Ao^fiGBBRoan, a^ a 
^spot called 6ool Darah : from this were extracted eight fine cold coins with 
etcetera, seven of them of the king Kadfhjcbs : the eightii of a pnnce of the same 
family. I am now in the Kohistan for the purpose of operating on two topes in 
critical spots, availing mysdf of the presence of Mahmad Akbab, Dost Mahowbd 
Khan^s son. My coUection of cojins this year will far exceed that of.the las^,. and 
I have found several new ones* Last night t procured a copper Menander ^of 
very large sise, and at CahiU I gti^ed a silver one more large and beautiful ^an 
any that I have seen or heard of* When the year's labors close I shall draw up 
the result, and I hope to be able to identify another Greek monarchy distinct 
from those of Bactria and Nysa.*' 

In a letter to Colooel Pottin6eb,M» Masson gives further particulars of the 
Biddhh Tope. *' The relics found there comprise a handsome g<4d box with cover 
set with gems, and at the top a fine blue stone ; this was ori^aUy filled with a 
liquid peHume, In which musk predqminsted. This box was enclosed in a larger 
eilver one : with this .was also a smaller silver one, containing four Sassanian 
' coins, one or two gems, and an unctuous substance. The whole was contained 
in a box of iron, gUt, and this again was enclosed in a Urge copper vessel hand- 
somely washed with gold, which was half filled with a liquid mixed with earth 
and impregnated wiih the oxyd of copper. In this copper vessel were 180 sil- 
ver Sassanian coins, and two golden, probably Hindu, with three copper ones of 
Koveen (?) types. In the iron gilt box were three foldm Somen coim, and in 
the golden box within it, two othm of Tasoo obiub ; the former were one of Ma,b>^ 
CIANT7S and two of Lko. In the copper vessel moreover were two gold rings, 
on one of them the gem engraved with the head of a sovereign, and among tho 
detached gems is another one engraved. Besides the gold ones there is a mul- 
titude of plain silver ones, and a variety of frsgments of ornaments : upon the 
whole this has been the richest prise yet produced from any of the topea open- 

[M. Ma880m*b correspondence with Col. Pottinobr, with a sight of wliich 
we hsve been favored, contains lists of all the relics hitherto collected by hin, 
.and held at the disposal of the Bombay Govenunent, in consideration of the 

• As we may expect a full account hereafter, it is needless to insert the legends 
here ; they are evidently genuine Roman coins. 

1 835 .] A9iatic Society. 335 

peciinimry auistaiiM accorded him throngh Coloael Pottikgsk. The numher 
of eaia< sanC to this oflieap affioimt* to upwards of 2290. Tiiey coidkl not ho 
t* 'beMer hands, and we trast sooo to hear of their intradiietioD to puUk aotfoa 

-wHh the adtaatage of hk learned ehuadations. The numher of topes aaeaiTated 
tip to the present noawnt h«s been in Duroonter, 10; at Ghaharbi^gh 7 ; and* at 
HiddiLh 14. Mr. Ma8son*8 promised communication to oursBlves will, without 

' doubt, cotftato tte partioulan of all theie.] 

A notice by Mr. B. H. Hodoson on the B^niith inscription was coniniti. 

[Printed in the present No.] 


A ^Iter Irem Colonel C^bmutt, Secretary to Crovemmeqt^ Military 
DeputaMAfty WW read, forwarding aa extract of a dispatch Iram the Ho. 
. Borahle Court of Phreotors, expressive of the interest taken by them in the 
toper kweatai hovki|^in Fort WiUiani, for tfaa siicoessful proseeut«oa of which 
they have oausad a supply of tubes and rods to he sent otst ; and diffe«tiQff a 
tuU report on the farther progress of this interesting object of puMic 
Qtility. The following men^raikdiem on the Society's report by the H. C. 
Inspector of military stores was appended. 

Ahaioi'sarfwiN on ih^MuijHt t^fBttmngfor wtifr, with rrftrmt0 to tka Bsfrn't 
^m Gamamtiee app0mt€4 ttg th* i4n«/ie SjatuU^ qf CaUutta t^^om tuspfr^mtnt€ 
wmd» Mi Fori WiiMm m , /or tAf fiurpoee V* o^^wii^ a mpplff qfjt^taktt watmr^ 

"' la sabmittiag a statement herewith, of ^ pipes, rods and tools for boring 
iior water, now uader supply for Bengal, in addition to the ten sets of boring 
apparatus provided upon the indent of 18th December, 1832, I beg to observe* 
that anticipating the objection made to the length of the rods formerly supplied 
* to Bengal, vix. six feet, I had already caused those for the ten sets famished upon 
the indent above mentioned^ to be made in lengths of 10 feet each, and have now 
dkeriniUed upon making the additional rods to be provided, iif lengths of 20 
feet* similar to those sent to Madras, and Bombay. If these lengths are found 
to be more eenerally useful thdn the old ones, "^le short rods wbich the Bengal 
Government at present possess, ean easily be leh^thened by cutting them in two, 
ind welding in the centre of each a piece of the lengtlh required. 

" A^ the screws of each description of rods are exactly similar in the thread, they 
tnay he used iogether, which wul enable tiie operators to penetrate to any depth 
the soil, 9u:, w^ permit. 

** With regard to the pipe, so necessary to the successful prosecution of the 
work, (and the want of which has been so much dwelt upon,) 1000 feet of cast 
iron pipe hat been provided of the following interior dimensions, viz. 8 inch, 
,6 inch, and 4} inch ; which wiB admit of the one being passed through the 
othejf, but as it will not be necessary to use cast iron pipe 3ie whole depth, sheet 
iron jpipe (which can be readily made upon the spot of any size required) should 
be used wherever it may be practicable. Two lengths of these of ft} inch dia- 
ipeCer are sent as patterns. 

" With regard to the alleged breakage of augers ; the second page of the Report 
^ihe Cbmmittet appointed by the Asiatic Society, forwarded from Bengal, pre« 
' ^nts an abstract of the several experiments in boring : from which it would ap- 
pear, that iu no less than eleven instances the work tras given up In consequence 
.of the aug^r breaking, and in no on^case the rod. I am inclined to think there 
must be some mistake in this, for from the formation of the auger it is scarcely 
possible to break it in the act of boring, it being stronger than the rod. In the 
seventh page of Dr. Strong^s Report^ allusion, however, is made to two instances 
In which the rods broke and remained in the ground ; and in the ninth page, 
he again snentions, that the borer broke, and i^l feet of rod were lost. From 
this I infer, that in most of the instances of failure, it was the rod, and not the 
anger that broke ; and that the accident would probably not have occurred, had 

%B6 . 'AfHaik Society. [hrfiXL, 

the ]iliDi$er and drill been ttsed' before the aug^r ; or If it bad occtkn^d, tbat 
the broken rod mfghC hare been extracted by means of a proper tool. 

^ The Diagram and plan afinded to in the Report, have not been forwarded 
to fiSngl&ttd, which ia to be resetted. 

" Upon the whole, it doe* not appear that the resnlts of these experiments, to 
such extent as they ha^e been carried, are at all disconragihj!:, or that the failures 
attending ttieir progress have been more than might have been expected, consi- 
dering the defective knowledge of boring in the early stages of the operation at 
Calcutta, the deficiency of tools for piercing the various strata, and the' want 
of pipes to prevent the Mling in of sand, or the irruption of the land springs. 

" The progressive improvement in carrying on the Work, is evinced by the fadt, 

tiiat the same d^thhas of late been attained in six montlfs, that formerly occa- 

pied two years.. It may therefore reasonably be hoped, thnt upon bei^g provided 

- idifh further faclKties, and such tools as experience in this country has stiewn 

to be necessary, the undertaking if vigorously prosecuted will evebtnally be 

• t5h)Wiied with ^uccess.^ ,. - 

(Signed) **J. T. BONTNEft, r}M}Mtf/df." 

' . A-l^Ui^T ftionlMi^or J. €0LVIN« Engineers^ dated 1 1th April> 1836, an- 

^nooBiwd the ^spatdi of six cfaests of fowdls from the lower hills^ in fur. 

therance of his promise to present the result of his labors to'thir Sod^t/g 

jThe^'Wffl be noticed foHter tm eatifval.] 

; . A UU^r frozn Condiuior.pitwis, Delhi Caaaal. Department, dated 17(h 

. Api'i)* Aoticed the discovery oS a i^aeaX JBuffalo^'s head ^f Jar^ dimeoaioo, 

found in the vicinity of the Haripur pass, in the lower range ef hlUs. 

A Bketokaeooropanied, and Mi^ Dawv ezpressed Mn wiUingnaaa te present 

ihe spedmen itmf la th^ Society.''^ Aooepted with thanks^ 

A M«m6ir bn the strata' «nd flirmatfon of the aUarimn bf tfae^«n«a 
and l>ORb, With nt]rA^i!H>UB dfaiting^ and sections, was reeeived frdm i9er. 
geant Deai^^ in illustration of the series of specimens^ presented Ift Ids 
name At the lart Meeting". . '."'', 

[This paper will be published in an early hnmbei^. J , , ' ' 

. Fm*tHer observations, on tbe mopn's inAueace oa raiiji were, aiibQutted by 
the Kev« R. £vfiBj^8T. 

J. T. Pbarsokf brotrglit forward « motion to> the following' purport; 
> *^ th9X the committee of papen^' be requested to consider the vfropfriety 
of admitting a new order of^ members into the 'Society, to be ct^ed A99(^ 
date Members of the Asiatic Society ^ and to consider upon the terms of their 

* Tlie object of this resolution, he explained, was to obtain the assistance of 
many scientific men who were now prevented from joining the Society by their 
inability to pay the quarterly Subscnptions. The dignity of Honorary Member- 

'ship sliould be reserved for those distinguished orientalists Out of IndTa whose 
' contributions to our Transactions or our Library, or whose successful promotion 
of the objects of the Asiatic Society, should merit such a rewaird.' The grade of 
iU90Ciates would merely imply admission to all the privileges of ordinary payii^g 
members, conferred upon those whose labours would be valuable in their respec- 
' tive departments, and who were unable to pay. It was so understood in the lin- 
nean Society, which derived material aid from its associate members. 

The resolution was seconded by Mr. W. H. Macnaghten and adopted by the 

The Secretary called the attention of the Society to the late important 
resolution of the <jiovernment, suspending the printing of all tke.Ontentsl 
works hitherto in the course of publication under the auspices of tlie Q^ 
nasal Committee of Public Instruction. 

He had ventured to bring forward a nrotion on the subject at the last meetitttr 
but had withdrawn it, under the impression that it was premature, and that 

1835.] Jsiatic Society. r^WJ 

GoTemioent jnkbt be indaced to reooDsidcr thfi effect ot «noh a xneMiire. He 
however now held iu bis hand a copy of the order to the Frintera, directing them 
. te discoiLtinue all the works in hand (with one ezceptioD)i ajnd to dismisa the 
establishment hitherto entertained for the transcription and. coUation of MSS., 
$nd for the correction of the Sanscrit and Arabic Press. 

The principal Sanscrit works thus consigned to sudden destruction were : 

Xst. The Aahdbh^ratai expected to form five quarto volumest and printed nearly 
, to the Diiddle of the 2nd ▼olume» 1400 pp., or little more than OAe-third of the 

2nd. The R^atarangini^ compriaing one q«arto Tolfime of 620 pages, of which 
About 200 remain to be printed. 

3rd« The Nauhada ; of this 600 pages or rather more than one -third harebecii 

4th. The Susruiat to occupy 2 vols, royal octavo. Of these 714 pf^#» |oi9»iftg 
thc^ first Tolume, und three-fourths of the docond, are already priuted. 

5th. Tbe Sarirai vidya, a translation of an English wofk on Apaitomjr ifito 
SaiMcrit, of which 20 pages remain unprinted. 

Of Arabic works, tbe order of Governraent will extend to 

6flt. The fatiiwM Aletmffiri, of which one-half of the sixth andliiC volMae,'On]y, 
ia>dcficieiit. (The GoomiMee of Edvcatton have hawcver reoommeftded tMa work 
t#*^(Min9^ted.) . . 

' 7th. The Kkazdnat al Ilm, a yalnable ezpos^ of European mathemitiotf -In 
Persian, of which ^OO pages are ptinted*. $saA U)6 ^eipaia, 

8th« The In&ya, of which the last two volumes are printed, and 450 pages of the 
eecond Sr^ume. 159 pagee of the latthi', aiid the wivole or the ftrst fotume (of 
which a correct tnanueeript hat with great difficulty been obtained), remain to'be 

tttik. A tnatise on Algebra byDr^MiLC, prAceAlingion theba«ief«traDSlaiiDttof 

Bridge's Treatisey hot nittoh vwdified and enlarged; withrwa Appendix on the 

' ^iqpUbation of analysia to geometry itnd trigoiiQinetry. Tbe two fint parti ti» the 

utA. of plaae tdgononetry are finisbed a l^ a -contMinMiw Pl the Appendix to 

^ jyh^i^lLseiB^i^f^ to be passed throngh the press. 

Many other w^orks might be enumerated, particularly the translations into Ara- 
bic of Hutton*^ Mathematics^ HooPBa'sVademecum, andCAOCxca^s Land Sur- 
yyinir by Dr. JoHN Tytlcr, which are left in an unfinished state. Butprospective- 
"^, witftenfiction extends to a!! the Oriental dassies selected by the late Comntittee 
and by Mr. Wilson as eminently fit to be preserved in a printed form: TheR^m4- 
yana»and so^e of tbe Fecanat } the HugdlMUMdha,* with eomvientary, And ether 
iroiM eup tSraasosar % various staadaird trcntiseg.oa Law, Rhetocic, and Logic ; and 
eveptvaB^Fr ^he Vedas the«self«a:'-aUo. the standard Bauddha works in Sanserit 
brought totight by Mr, Honosov* ; the Surya Siddhknta, and the works of BhaV 
zan A'cHA^RYA, urgently recommended for publication by Mr. Wilkinson ; and a 
• Taat number of others which might have been gradually undertaken as the means 
of the Committee should permit, 

"Wttlmut entering into any discussion as to the propriety of the measure as 
regarded the great ol^ect of Education, he deemed it his duty as Secretary to bring 
to the notice, of the Society a resolution fraught with such destructive results to 
the axicieni Hterature of tbe countrv, and opposed so sternly to the interests and 
objects QJ the Asiatic Society, which seemed called upon not only to remonstrate, 
but in erery way to exert its influence to save the venerable fabric of Indian 
literature from such a catastrophe, and to rescue our national character from 
the stigma of so uiyust, unpopidar, and impolitic an act, which was not 

• A Mend bat pointad out to roe the following paange of a letter published by Lieut. Wbbb iaa 
Calcutta periodical in the year I88S. 

M.v«u iHt wt 41 in tbe deck, sort wUl rsmaia sq» until you bare eaplond the gnmd ttbraries 
of Pataa.a Sty in R^iputAna— and JeMelmere, a town north-weet or Joudpur— and Cambayi 
. Idiigftii iritli tbe trwdung lihcsiies of the Jain MefamM. These eontaio tensof thouiaodt ar 
v&iBA and i have endeavouzed to open the ey«a of lome echolan heie on the aaliiiacu^ At 
jSSmc aie'die eriSbmrhoolis of Bhauda (Buddha), the SyhUUne volume* which none dare 
even handle. Until aU thete have been euunised« let us declaie our Ignorance of Hindu Utetsturt. 
%ar we.^ava only aleeaed in. the Add contaminated by oonqueit. and wbeie no genuiaa isooid 
eSilSrSSped fcfr.'^^ . . 

238 Asiatic Society, [April, 

far outdone by tKe desfcrucHon of the Alezaadrine library itself I Bat ft could 
not be supposed, that the Government of a great country could mean to with- 
draw its support and patronage altogether from the indigenous Hterature of 
India, however it miffht have determined to separate this objbct from the busrnesi 
of the Committee of rublic Instruction, and to confine the efforts and tho funds of 
the latter to the support and superintendence of schools and purely normal educa- 
tion. It only required a public body, independent of such functions, and offisHng 
a guarantee of competency for the ta^, to step forward and solicit to be entrusted 
by the Government with this momentous ol^ect. None could so properly prqf^ 
it9 services as the Asiatic Society, supported by all the eminent Orientalists of the 
pountrv : he had already the assurance of many both in Calcutta and In th^ fasterior, 
that they would cordially join. He would then move the follovribg resqiufloits : 

** 1st. That a Committee be formed in the Asiatic Society^ to be cafied tfae'''Orf. 
ental Publication Committee,** consisting of the President, Vice-Presidents, and 
Secretaries asex>officio members, and of such members as maj^ express a desire ti> 
join it ; as well as of all distinguished Oriental Scholars, or patrons of 'Oriental 
literature, Europeans or natives, resident in India, who nOt l^eing rtieui li er s of tht 
Asiatic Society may be desirous of joining in the objects of the Committee. 

2nd. That the Governor General be requested to accept the office of 'ftrtftni. 

3rd. That no monthly contribotion shall be expected from ordinary or 1h>in 
f^ociated members, but that subscriptions for specific bbj^ts may be ocettion- 
ally invited, as may be determined on iii committee. ......; 

4th. That the principal object of the Association is tbt6 cdm|fletibft M^'tim 
publication of those Oriental works which have been hitherto printed undetl the 
auspices of the Committee of Public Instruction '; but which, by ai late resohxtidu 
of Government, have been s&^pended, In order that the ftands demoted theiKfio, 
might be wholly appropriated for purposes of Education V^mettis Of the E^gtttlk 
language. ' ' ' . 

5th. That the Asiatic Society do present an humble but urgenfMemoriia t6 tlie 
Government oflndia, or if necessary, to the Court of Directors, i|ettiu|^foilh thegreet 
national importance of continuing the pbblicati'on of the series df Ch-iental Clascal 
literature it had commenced ; the high value set upon this ttiidertakiBg%3^''all 
the learned of Europe ; the difficulty of re-organizing the same estabBshmettt^ er 
one equally well trained for conducting through (he Press any Saaseiit or Arable 
works, if the Pandits, Maukvfs, and compositors now employed IMi £ftcWged 
and dispersed ; — and soliciting, therefore, that the Government wfll stiA condn^ 
its patronage to these Oriental works, granting as a separate booii a mxm tX 
money equivalent to what has hitherto oeen expended', or sudh sum as may fie 
sufficient for the object, and placing its expenditure under the Asiatic Societf, ekr 
the Oriental Committee, with Btxdh means of audit or control ttS may' fteem 
advisable, to prevent misappropriation. 

6th.. That the Society iiU engage to devote its attention grattrftoiisly Mr the 
careful and creditable execution of the important charge entrusted to it. 

7th. That itvrill bring to the notice of Government other works whidi «e 
WortliT of being printed, and use its utmost exertion to secure the ctfeful colkt- 
^on of manuscripts and correction of the press. 

. >{th. That it requests of Government the same adfUktages at the Cotomlttte of 
Education has hitherto enjoyed for tills ^nrposci in the tise of the Pjandlts ttid 
Maulavls of the P^ts&U and MadrassiL 

9th. That the Oriental Translation Branch of the R6yel A^irde 9ackftf of 
breat Britain be invited to unite witii the Committee, as-ftir ai ther faftte % oom- 
mon object in view, namely, that of pladng in n permanent fern Ae Kaeieat 
classical literature of the country — ^by the printing of ■tandard editions, wUh 
or without translations In the English or Latin language. That to Hikt evid ^ 
Oriental Fund Branch Committee of Celcutta aii^t prepeily Meffe U^ the 
new Association." 

The Secretary concluded by reading a letter from Mr. Hooasozr, Reaideat in 
Nipal, whose experience of the natives, and a^pRitttSBoe'Witii BavddlMi'andBealu 
mi^cal literature, entitled his opinions to the utmost respect. (We mkf perkqit 
And room hereafter for the inaertion Of this letter at leagt^] 

1835.1 Asiatic Society. ^89 

Mr» W. H. Mackaohtin thougYit it wouM be nteleffs In the Socf^ to fohn 
« CominitUe, until it were assared that Governmeot would grant the same pecu- 
juary aa|ipQrt. ai heretofore, or at any rate, a sufficient aid ; be would therefore 
iirst propose that a memorial should be pre9ented to Government, or if necessary, 
to tbe Court of Directors, expressiog the sentiiuents of the Society as a body, 
on tbe late resolution, and praying to be allowed to continue the suspended pub- 
lications nt the public expence, in case no other arrangement was contemplated 
^pr their completion. 

EUs own view of the eiTectt of the measure on the education of the people, he 
tuid expressed in another place — but he could not consent to f ellnquish these 
Vguments in an appeal from the Society, which was aa much aa any body opea 
tO( ^DOBTictioA that the improvement of th^ vernacular dialects, nay the very 
j;raniin«tic«l formalion of them, required the cultivation and preservation of the 
pareAt afid clasaical languages. 

Tke Rev. Dr. Miiii. entirely concurred in these views. To discourage sys- 

temiiti gaily. the study o/ the learned languages of the east, — was, as far as in u» 

lies, to berbaribe the native dialecta, and render them incapable of being tlie 

If h^fifs 4>f ecience ^nd improved knowledge. Tliis capability was now eminently 

oofiei^eed, by -many oif tnem, entirely through their oatural conne:uoi^ with the 

SsMprit, an advantage which, It was chimerical to think of supplying by 'means of 

artificial and exotic derivation from the English. Anoth,er observation had forcibly 

tXtf^jf I4a with retMCt to the late measure, t^ere were tivo distlni;^ cl«««eB 

eJElpi|j^)^u:a^iOi^ overtnrown. by it, of which he feared only on^ would or could 

beiorofide^ for by t^ Society's proposal ; namely, the perpetuation of the most 

i«nei7l|epi#MMii!imeata of SanjM^ntf Arabic, or other oriental literature, — but t)M 

.tttWf eM^irCQtn|Mrising the 5th, 7th, 8th, end 9th of the works enumerated above, 

which are intended to communicate the advanced knowledge and science oi 

B«r<ippi, ^M^IV^ the medium of the lemnedUmgw^e of India, either by trans- 

Moiuio94)rigin«l ti^attaes, and thus indirectly, but most powerfully, to encourage 

|lie ijtiidy, <)^ .|Uc4f^ amomjp learned natives, fell peculiarly under the scope of aa 

:j{d9aa(jm C^ppi^ittBep It did, Aot come within the Asiatic Society's province to 

9ttii^pttb»r otherwise than by commenting on existing native systems of science ; 

llil4.9ltWiigh.the o^ect wai so important as to warrant some latitude in the exer. 

jeita jq^ iti) pinposed functioos. it seemed doubtful whether they could properly 

.l|^4wMdK«tbe«ompl^ of the four works tbua auj^pended, already prepared and 

^hali printed at so great an expence. 

Mx* TsLMYii^YMi cane purposely to aupport the formation of the new Com- 
nittee. He thought the preservation of standard editions of the classics of the 
eountrj a natipnal object, although he had done his .utmost to disconnect it from 
the business of national instruction. Be had himself had a narrow escape of 
■Wi^ a gieat ofientalistv ^f ^ ^^ attained some oredit for bis progress in San- 
scrit at Colk^ :• but bis Dictionary fell overbosrd on his voyage to this country, 
and Ifaiia he waa saved from the bias which an enthusiastic devotion to this ancient 
tongne might have given to his views of education. 

"Die PaasiDBNT thought, it would be proper to confine the olject of the Sbciety^s 
SioUem to the simple question of the completion of the oriental works, which it 
«as g&veBi ta i^iderstsAd had been discontinued. He also agreed with Mr. 
If ACKAGRTBiv, that the first step must be to ascertain whether Government 
•woidd continve its anpfort, and to whet extent ; for this he recommended, that 
Mr. Macw AOHirVN and Dr. Mul should be requested, in conjunction with the 
$eerelarisi^ Mr« J^PaxNaap and Eibu Ram Komvl Sen, to draw up an urgent 
iWMP^rial ita the Government, avoiding to the utmost ^1 controversial points, 
and to sujlKait it for the approval of the Society at the next meeting. 

Tkuje pwiposiriew ifas nnanimously agreed to. 

i^fTlie meetlpg me lees niuner^nsly attended than usual, in consequence of the 
atSH4 notiee members having been omitted. At the last meeting it was direct- 
efl, " that in fiiture the d|iy of meeting should be fixed regularly for the first Wed- 
of every month, and that notice should be onl> inserted in the '* public 
t ' eoMUBD of tiie deily papers. J 



UHeonloyieat Regitter. 

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No. 41.— May, 1835. 

h'^^keteh of th0 fimr Mendngkih&we States, in the interior of thk 
Malayam Peninsula. Bf Lieut. J. T. Niitbold, 23rd Regt. Madrak 
Mtftoe Infantry. 

[See Proceeding;! of the Asiatic Society, 11th March, 1835.] 
Thb Inhabitants of the states in the interior of the southerly part of 
the Malayan Peninsula, particularly those of Sungie-ujong, or SirnH- 
Jong^Ramhowe,JohoIe, and Srimindnti, derive their origin ftrorothe parent 
empire of Mendngkdbowe, in Sumatra, more directly, than the natives 
of the neighbouring states. This peculiarity, with respect to Rambowe 
alone, has been cursorily noticed by Mr. Marsdbn and Sir Stamford 
Rafflbs. The former, quoting the Transactions of the Batavian 
Society, observes, that the interior boundaries of the Malacca territory 
are '' the mountains of Rambowe, inhabited by a Malayan people 
named Mendngkdbowe ; and Mount Ophir, called by the natives Ganong 
Leddng. These. limits, say they, it is impracticable for an European 
to pass ; the Whole coast for some leagues from the sea being either 
Ik morass or Impenetrable forest ; and these natural difficulties are 
iggravated by the treacherous and blood-thirsty character of the 
latives." If we give the author of this unpropitious account due 
eredit for veracity, we must, in justice to the MenaDgbibowes, and the 
tract they inhabit, acknowledge at the same time that the progress of 
mvUization has been rapid, and the change in the face of their country 

^e forests are, at the present time, certainly thick, and some of the 
morasses deep ; but during a recent ascent to the summit of Mount 
Ophir, and a journey along the foot of the Rambowe mountains, t 
fonnd neither the one nor the other impenetrable or impracticable* 
ftnd experienced nothing but kindness and hospitality from the natives. 

242 Sketch of the/our Meningkdbawe 8taU$, [Mat, 

Sir S. Rafflbs» in a letter to Mr« Mabbdbn, thas notices the state 
of Rambowe : " Inland of M^^l^^^ca. about sixty miles, is situated the 
Malay kingdom of Rambowe, whose Su1t£n, and all the principal <^oers 
of state, hold their authority immediately from Meuiiigkabowe, and 
have written commissions for their respective offices. Tiiis shews the 
extent of that ancient power, even now reduced as it must be in com- 
mon with that of the Malay people in general. I had many opporta- 
nities of communicating with the natives of Rambowe, and they have 
clearly a peculiar dialect, resembling exactly what you mention of 
substituting the final o for a, as in the word Amho for Amba. In fact; 
the dialect is called by the Malacca people the language of Me- 

The foregoing remarks apply equally to the three vicinal states, 
Songie-ujong, Johole, and Srfminanti, and as has been already 
observed, to N£ning. It is also worthy of remark, that in the ancient 
records of the Dutch, preserved in the archives of Malacca, the natives 
of Rambowe and N£ning are invariably styled " Men^ngkibowes." 

The period when these colonies, from the heart of Sumatra, settled 
in the interior of the peninsula, is unknown. It is generally admitted, 
that Singapore and the extremity of the Peninsula were peopled by a 
colony from Sumatra in the middle of the twelfth century, by the 
descendants of which Malacca was founded nearly a century subse- 
quent ; as well as other places on the sea-ooast, as Perak, Quedah, 
PiEihang, Tringano, &c. 

Antecedent to this, according to the best native information, thfs 
coasts of the peninsula and adjacent islands were inhabited, tboagh 
thinly, by a savage race, still known under the name of Rdyel Lautt 
(subjects of the sea,) the Icthyopophagi of the ancients, and termed 
by Valbnttm, probably from their situation, *' Celiates." The interior 
was peopled by those singular aborigines, the Rdyet Utan^ (subjects of 
the forest,) of whom there are various tribes. Those that have hitherto 
hWtxk under my observation have all borne the Mongol stamp on their 
features ; though the 86nang in the interior of Quedah is said to bo 
characterized by the woolly hair and thick lips, &c. of the P^dan. 

Tradition ascribes the peopling of the interior of the peninsula by 
the Menftngkabowes to a more recent and direct emigration from 
Sumatra than the one above alluded to. In absence of all historioal 
information, the following story, as current among the better informed 
descendants of this colony, may perhaps not be out of place. 

'* After Sri Iscandbr Shah had fled from Singhapura to Malacca, 
in the seventh century of the Hejira, a Menangkabowe chief, named 
Td Pattair, came over to Malacca attended by a numeroos retinue. 

1835.] M the imeriar of the Mchytm Penmtuia. 248 

He ascended the river to Naning, where he found no other mhabitanta 
than the Jacoons, (a tribe of the Rdyet UtanJ, and settled at Taboo 
and took to wife one of the Jacoon damsels ; an example speedily 
followed by his vassals. This little colony gpradually spread itself over 
Single- ujong, Rambowe, Johole, and other places, chiefly inhabited 
by the aborigines, (who g^daally betook themselves to the woods and 
mountains, as the intruders encroached,) vis. Jompole, S^rling, Jella- 
bd, SrfminHnti, and Terlu:hi. 

In course, of time, Tu Pattair died, and was buried at Ldbo Kop« 
pong, in Nining, where his tomb is to this day venerated as a KrdmeL 
From these accounts then it would appear, that the present inhabitants 
of the interior of the part of the peninsula here spoken of, are chiefly 
de5cendants from the Men6ngk6bowes and Jacoons ; and those on its 
coasts, from the Malays who fled from Singhapura, and the Rdyet Lout, 
. The new settlers, rapidly increasing in numbers, divided themselves 
into nine petty states, under as many PoMpkdlus or chiefs, feudal to 
the Malayan Sult£ns of Malacca, and after their expulsion by Euro« 
pean powers, to those of Johore, by whom they were consolidated 
ander the name of the N^gri SambUam, or the nine territories. 

The names of these states, and the titles bestowed on their chiefs 
by the Sultins of Johore, are as follow, viz. Segimet, under Orano 
Kayo Mif'OA ; Johole, Johan Ls'lah Pbbcassbh ; N£ntng, Mahi- 
riji Lb'lab ; Simgie-^ong, Klana Pu'tra ; Jellab^, Akhib. zbma'n ; 
Rambowe, Lb'lah Mahir&ji; C4lang or Salengore, Tu'nku Ca« 
tANO, Ulu Pahdng, including Serting and Jompole, Kaji Anpra 
Sbka'ba, and Jellye, under Maharaja Pu'rba. 

These titles were hereditary, and their possessors used to present 
themselves (Mengidap) once a year at the court of Johore. 

In a manuscript collection of treaties made by the Dutch in the east, 
are found contracts principally of a friendly and commercial character, 
with Rambowe and the Nigri Samh(UM» itom 1646 down to 1759. 
Prior to this period, the Dutch had assumed considerable influence over 
the nine S6griB : and, with the formal consent of the king of Johore, 
Sultin Abdul Jalii. Sbah elected a Bogia prince, named Dtbn Cam- 
bodia, as chief over the whole nine. Nining had long fallen into the 
bands of the European Government at Malacca, and Srimin£nti rising 
into importance, tacitly assumed its place among tlie nine Negris, 

The Meningkibowes, disgusted with the arbitrary proceedings of 

their Bugis ruler. Invited over one of the princes of the blood royal of 

Meningkibowe from Sumatra, named R£j£ Malatwab. The Pan* 

ghdbt$ of Siingie-i!ijong, Rambowe, Johole, and Srunin£nti espoused 

H ■ 2 

aM 8k§tei o/the/mut iimangkibewe States, [Mat. 

Ihe cause of the latter, ivhikt the five remainuig states took op araui 
in favor of the former* 

The Dutch, it woald appear from an official oomraniiication address- 
ed to the Panghiila of Nining, in answer to a requisition made by that 
chief for ammunition to defend himself against the Bugis, did set 
take any active part in these disturbances, but pithily advised the 
PanghUlu to obaerve a state of neutrality, and in no case whatever ts 
intermeddle with such intestine commotions ; and refusing the- supply 
of ammunition solicited, informed him that, being a subject of Uw 
M4laehappy» he had not the slightest cause for fsar. 

In the eveftt, the Menlingkibowe claimant, Biji M^aATwaR* «■■ 
successful, and Dtbn Cambodia retired to Rhao» where he died aboof 

The PanghOm of the four states, which had espoused his eeuaew 
with the assent of the Sultin of Jobore, and the government at Ma- 
lacca, elected Rkj&. Malatwau as tiieir sovereign, under die title of 
Mmf d^feriutm Betdr*, renowsciag at the aame time tiieir aHegiance 
to Johore. 

Bi)& Majlatwae was the first pnace of the If es^kiboime dy- 
nasty in the interiov. 
* The five other states remained as before, feudal to Johore. 

The following stipulations, a copy of which is said to be in- possa* 
qion o£ the chief ol ^^fmin^ti, were then agreed on : vis^ that the 
Menangkabewe sovereign, on all afaiBB of state, should asseBoble the 
four Pcm^Mlm^ and sfaoold submit to a anjont^ ; that hie naiaite-'' 
nance should be supplied equally by the tnhabkaats of the four ststes^' 
each house eontnAmting aannatty one gantam of rice, two ooooa^uts* 
and one gdhu. 

The P§mgh4hu bound themselves to fumiah a ocrtain eomplensent 
of men, arms, ammunition, and provtsion&, in case ol a war ; also on oo*- 
casioos ol deaths, raairiages, cireumcistOn, &c. in the roy^ family* to 
sandf eaeh of them, three head of buffaloes, and to difltriksite a eertson- 
sum in sadhek (alms). 

The inatakseBt of the Sunf dep$rtiian Besir devolved upon liie fimn 
PmtffhdUte, hence termed Punfhdlu Befintye. 

To them also, on the decease ol their sovereign, fell the duty «f 

transmitting the newa of the event by letter to &e Riji d -Menluig^ 

klibowe, who on its receipt deputed one of the prinoesol hishouse* 

with pompous credentialsf* ▼)& Siac, Malacca, and Nining, to Ram* 

* Th« title ■■iramod hy Mealuigklbowe prinees of ths Wood, 
.f A tnnaUtloii of theso orodontiaU.iB snoesed: tbsy bear a strong 
bUnoe to the Mes^kibowe docnaieat pablishsd \gg Mr. IdAaanav* . 

1995.] in the interhr t/ th» Mahifm Ptnnuula. 945 

hdiwe, where he was met and crowned in state by the fotir Pangh^h 
Drfdniye. Hence Rambowe is termed tdnnah kr^an. 

From thenee the newly elected prince proceeded to his aBtamih, or 
pakce, at Snminioti, which is tiie royal burial place» and also called 

Feealiar Bileis are elected by the PangkHu$ in their respective ter* 
fitories. fbt the reception of their feudal chief, the shape and fashion of 
^iok it woeld be deemed high treason, Angkdm Mmhdrc^d Uiak, to 

That at Sungie-djong is called BdM MeUndt^mg, fran the ciream* 
stance of its being built at right angles with the ri?er ; and that at Jo« 
hole, BdUi BertMtat^ having two stories. 

T%e revenne of the four Panghdliu is derived from the power they 
possess in the states under their, sway, of inflicting ines and levying 
diaorelionaryeDBtribations, enforcing gratuitous labour, Itc. The levy- 
nig of the tenth on the crops is not in general usage. 

The real power is inottop<^zed by them, that possessed by the Jbnif 
departdan Besdr, being only nominal, and depending on opimea. 

On the deoease of die first deputed prinee, firom Meii£ngkibowe» 
fiiji Malatwar, Bij£ Adil was nominated by his fitthcv, th* 
reigning sovereign in Menangkabowe, as his sneceesor ; and having 
anived at Rambowe, was thefe duly installed. 

BIji Ann. died in 17M or 6, leaving three chikbreii, Biji Aunt, 
B4ji SAsnir, and Tuawku Putei, a daughter. He was socoeeded 
hf Bijfi Itam , also deputed frpm MeningUlbowe ; and Ibf^ Assil, 
eMcat mm of the deoeased iUji AniL, became the first S9Mf dtptr^m 
tMBs Mdim. This innovation was made with the oonomrence of the 
four Pomfkdhs, 

Blq£ Itam died in 1808, succeeded by Riji Li'ifOAwe Laot, who 
wtts the Ibfuth dieted prince from Mentngfcibowe. 

in 1819^ B^ Hadji, one of the sons of the Bmf depertdim Mdda\ 
R^ AsMi*, canted off by force his sister-in*law, hi consequence o# 
the Pm^kdht of Rambowe's refiasing his consent to their marriage 
Oft the gvomid of its illegality. A war ensued, in which the Btmg de^ 
pertdam Mdda, lUj£ Assiii, who had sheltered the fagitiye eouple at 
Ghiminint^ took an active and decided part in their defence against the 
PmfMiu and Ampt^t Bdka of Rambowe. The latter then sent te re* 
qfuast the eo-K^petation of Rij£ A&i*. This notorious^ chief, whose life 

* RiQfc Au is about 50 jesri of a^, low in ttature, dark in complexion, of a 
forbidding and rather feroeiont aspect ; negligent in drem and person ; grossly 
igaoffttat sod anpetetitioiit : tbengh, for a Ml enjoyment of the drug opium, hs 
woold wiUinglf vnUaqaiahhis hopes of the /mmm/ «/ ^Irifotf*, in the seventh hea* 

246 Sketch of the four Mendngkdbowe States, [Mat, 

has been passed in fends and bloodshed, and whose ambition baa 
since elevated him to the dignity of the Bang deperiilan Besdr, was the 
son of the wife of the Menangkfibowe prince Riji Itam, by her for- 
mer husband, Raji Ham an, brother of Salt&n Ibrahim, late R£j£ of 
Salengore. Rija Ali's mother is the daughter of the second deputed 
prince from Men£ngk&bowe. . . 

Raj£ Ali, who had fled to a place called Sdngie Nfpab, beyond 
Cape Rachado in Salengore, lent a ready ear to this proposition, and 
repaired to Rambowe, accompanied and supported by the Dattu Mdda 
of Lingie. His weight turned the scale of events, and the Bang de* 
pert dan Mdda, Biji Assil, after some fruitful efforts at negotiation, 
retired to Nining (1813), and eventually to Malacca (1814), where 
he appealed to the then British Resident, Colonel Farquhar ; nothing 
however favorable to his cause resulted. 

Having obtained a private loan of 2,000 dollars in Malacca, he again 
proceeded to Rambowe, but failing, retreated to Naning, where he died 
shortly afterwards (1814-15) ; and was interred at the green knoll on 
which stood the mosque of Bdkit Tdtu, near Alor Gmjeh. 

He left four sons and two daughters. 
: R4j£ Ali, this obstacle to his ambition being removed, was elected 
as Bang depertdan Mdda, under the ^fi^ depertdan Besdr Linoano 
Laut who died in 1824, leaving two sons, Raji Radin, of Srimndnti 
^nd Hkji U'JONG ; both by his wife, the daughter of the R^ji of 

. In consequence of intrigues and dissensions among the four eleetrve 
chiefs, artfully fomented by Riji Ali, a successor was not appointed 
until 1826, when Raji Labu, a son of the Raji of Men4ngk(bowe, 
bearing the ancient credentials from his father, and a letter froa 
^e chief of Siac, arrived. 

He was preceded by an adherent named Rijl Kbb'jan, and having 
presented his documents at Malacca, went up to Naniog. From thence, 
escorted by the chief of that place, the present e»^Panghdkf, he re-^ 
paired to Rambowe, where he was installed according to custom. . He 
married with Tuanku Itam, daughter of the late Tdan Mdda, R&j4 
Assil, and proceeded to his astdnah in Srimininti. 

veil, with all its black-eyed houris. In disposition, he is eralty and determined $ 
ttcitom and deliberate in coancil ; but prompt and decided in action— ^neKtiea 
of which I had opportunities of judging daring a recent straggle between tha 
Rambowe and Lingie chiefiB. These, added to his high connexions, which how- 
ever were not sufficient to give him a lawful title to the eminence wUicb he haa 
attsiaed, mainly contributed to his success. 

1835.] til the interior of the Malayan Peninsula, 247 

In 18d0> in consequence of his countenancing the licentious pro- 
ceedings of his follower, Raji KRs'jAN.and the intrigues of his wife ; 
and above all from the ambitious machinations of Riji Ali, he was 
compelled to quit Sriminanti, but shortly afterwards, having gained 
over to his cause three out of the four elective Panghulue, viz. those 
of Johole, Srfminanti, and Sdiigie-djong, as also the chief of Jom- 
pole, besieged Rija Ali, in his mud fort of Bander in Rambowe. 

Raja Axi held out resolutely against the formidable confederacy ; 
till at length, through the pacific mediation of the Panghulu of Nan- 
iog, after having lost one of their principal leaders, who was killed by 
a cannon shot from one of the old iron guns on the fort^ they with** 
drew their vassals, and retired to their respective states. 

Raja Ali, his son-in-law, Stbd Saban, and Rij£ Radin, of Sri- 
mininti, shortly after this seized on an opportunity afforded them by 
the abaence of the Biang depertHan Be far at Stngie-djong, of sur- 
prising Sriminlnti. and repossessing themselves of the guns which 
Raji Labu had formerly taken from Radin, under the pretext of 
their forming part of his regalia (Kaheedran.) 

When tidings of this reached Rliji Labu, he marched, supported 
by the Panghulu of S<!ingie-iLJong, Klana Kawal, against Rambowe ; 
bat ia coaseqnence, it is said, of some horrid cruelties perpetrated 
upon a female by some of their followers, they were deserted nearly to 
a num. 

Raji Labu did not advance further than N£ning : whence, after 
a abort stay, he went down to Malacca, and finally, in 1832, recrossed 
the Straits to Sumatra. His adherent, Rija Kbbjan, fled to Pah£ng, 
and thence to Md&f^ and finally, to Johole, where he is now engaged 
in fruitless intrigues. 

He assisted the ex-Panghdlu of Naning during his rebellion against 

' Such is the origin and decline of the MeningUkbowe dynasty in the 
interiiNr of the peninsula. 

Rij£ Au was elected as the Eang depertuan Besdr over the four 
states, and his son-in-law, Shhbiip Stbd Saaban, as Eang depertdan 
Mdda of Rambowe at Bander, on the 13th September, 1832. 

The question of succession still remains unsettled : among the elec- 
tive Panghdhu, great discordance of opinion prevails, arii^ing principally 
from the premature and impolitic revival of old but contested rights 
appertaining to their titles by Riji Ali and Stbd Saaban. This has 
led to rebellion, and the strangulation of the tin trade in Sdngie- 
^jong ; and to bloodshed and disturbances on the banks of the Lingie ' 
river, unadjusted at the present moment. 

148 Shtck of the /our Mendngkabowe 8tat€9» {Max» 

An innate antipathy to innovation, and a secret iri«h to revert to 
the Men£ngkibowe dynasty, prevails more or less throoghoat the four 
•tatea, and in case of the demise of Raj£ Au, if not previously, a 
severe straggle may be expected between the partizans of the Emm§ 
departHam Mdda, Stad Saaban, on the one hand, and the advocates 
for tlie addat dhamlu, or ancient custom, on the other. 

Stbd Saaban, by no means insensible that in this case, the best 
way to secure an advantageous peace is to prepare betimes and vi- 
gorously for war, has been for some time past actively engaged in 
atrengthening S^mpang, a post advantageously situated on the apex 
of the delta, formed by the junction of tlie Lingie and Rarabowe 
streams, and about six miles from tbeir debouch^nient into the sea* 
Here he has lately been joined by a chief from Sumatra, with a au^ 
flierons train of followers. 


IVtmiUtiam qftke CredmHah ctJUd ike Tromba MenAngkiibowe yl^SLiA\XAjy» 
irwtffki 09erfram 8um&irm bf the Uui dtfuitd frinet tUf^ Lab'u. 

TIm seals at the top are placed finom the right to left, aeeordiBg to te order of 
]^i«SedeBoeof Ihs priaoes whose titles they besr; aU feudal to Mwi<agk4bows. 

Aooordiag to the etiquette of Malay letter writing, the ** place of honour,*' for 
the impreaaioa of the seal, is about the commencemeat of the epiatle, to ita ez« 
treme right, and oa the highest MUtar, la letters from a subject to a sover^ga, 

the impressioD is made near the foot. 

6 S 4 S t I 

Sttltaii inatailUia, 

R^a Magat, Sultto Saltan Saltan Saltia I7 Um gnn at 

fromRogum,Ma Bwkumteh of iadTaghlii, of JaaaMs, eT Palambaag, ASUh,ttmgnmi 
of Um Bangda- Puteh, from Sulta'n Sri entitled Bag- ton at SulUli U'n MahSra'jV dhli 
fnc4aa or Snngia Pi^ Kaliil,MKi IdndsTuan, Indn Rahlm, aon «f cha dasaat- 
Pagoaru- ku, the ion ot, itc toaaf, tan of, Sultarn Abdul 

of, iM. te. Jkc Jam itBrfa- 


U 10 t S 7 

Sultan Snlta'a SuHa'a 

SalU*Q of Bintan, Of Achia, Sulia'n of Indra'i 

Tttaaknof oatitlad Snlta'n entitled Sri ofPriamah, la, entlUc 

Siac, lOD Mohikat, Paduka Barpa- entitled Ma- U'n 

ef,*& nnof, kat Rahlm, haraja'aoa 8k'ali,aoB aoaaf tfaa' ^ 

te. wn of, of , Ac of , &c SulU'tt Abdul 

Ac JaUlMatfa- 

r Indra pu- by tb* gnoa of 

entlUedSul- Alla% tfaa giaat 8ii» 
Mahomed u'n Maha'raXdhinla', 

2. Soltio IndrA Rahim waa the firit moaareh of PalemhaUg, and grsad^lhCher 
of the Bang depertfian Makat Denam, brother of Baghiada Ahraa. 

3. Baghiada Taan waa the fouader of the dynasty of Jaoabie^ uideh eitaadi 
to Chi Jaaihle, of niue districts. 

4. Sultia Sri Kahil was the founder of the dynasty of Indriighiri, which ex* 
tends to the sea. 

5. Sultiua Berkampa Pateh was the fouader of the dynasty of Siiogio Fakil, 
which exteada to Bandar Sapuloh. 

6. R4ji Magat was the founder of the dynasty of Rogasa, which astands tsi 
M&Af In the Blampawa territory. 

1 W5.] ^ the interior of the Malatfan Peninsula. 64S 

7. SnlUft Mahomed Shfth wai tlie founder of the dynasty of tndripuri, which 
extends to Moeo Moco. 

8. Sttiti^ii MahirAjA wu the founder of the dynaaty of Pri^man^ whieh ex. 
tfndm to Tiko and KakaBili. 

9. &n Padnka Berpakat was the founder of the dynasty of A«hin, which ez^ 
tends to Telabn and Battu Barra. 

10. Saltin Mohikat was the foander of the dynasty of Bintan, extending to 

11. Sultan Suankn was the founder of the dynasty of Siac, which extends to 
Fatta PlAan, to Pulo Sawan, and Kasang Bunga. 

• " Oh God, look dowB upon the greatest of Sultans, prince of great 

SKB, the shadow of Allah in this world, renowned among Arab» and 

harbariana inhabiting this material world, (created for) the cfail4rcn of 

Adam t Oh Lord of the kings of the earth, it hath been declared in 

the Koran that every day and night is to be accounted as void of light» 

until the dawning of the true faith in the appearance of Muhammkd 

Seto-al-Mursalim, the last of the prophets. Amin ! Oh God of 


: Tha Almigl^ty hath caused this firman to appear in the Kor£n in 

resfMatto priaces, via. V I have cifaated man infinitely superior to the; 

angelSt the stm and the moon. I have given him sovereignty on earth. 

I have created genii and mankind* in order that they may worship me.'* 

The Almighty caused the dry land called Pulo Langk£wi to descend 
between Pal^mbang and Jambie, as the place of residence for the ori- 
ginal sovereigns of the world, viz. the descendants of Sultan Hwatbt 
AEfM,jLa Ta-ALA. whom he had brought down from the clouds. 

Among these descendants was Raja IscANoaa zer Alkurnein» 
whose country is Srang»and who is possessor of the iron lock intense- 
ly green ; sometimes assuming a red, sometimes a yellow, and some- 
times a white hue ; and, in short, possessing all colours so vividly as to 
daazle the eye of the beholder; this forms part of the kahesdran- 
(regalia) of the three royal brothers, who scatter profusely their jus- 
tice aod munificence to all the slaves of AUah, and to all princes who 
are feudal to them and derive favor and advancement from the be- 
loved of Allah» MuBAMMBD. These three Sultans were yery wise and 
Mthfol protectors of all the slaves of AUah. 

It hath been declared that the fountain in paradise, Jtmnai umnakim^ 
causes the young shoots to spring' up from witWn the earth j in lilte 
manner, the slaves of Allah exist by inhaling the fragrant odours ema- 
nating from the glorious Bdlie (a sort of hall of audience) of their 


Odoriferous as ambergris and musk are the prosperity and power 
of the three royal brothers, viz. the Sultan of RUm, Sri Maharaji 
I 1 

250 Sketch of the four MeMngkdbowe Statee^ {Mat* 

Alif» the Soltfin of China, Sri Mah£rij£ Dbpanq, and the Sultiin of 
the Golden Idand, in the territory of Menangkabowe, Sri Mahluiji 
dhi Bijk BBRnouLBT. Amin, Oh God of worlds ! 

Whereas the following are declared to compose the kaheedran 
(regalia) of his majesty the lord of the state of Menangkibowe* viz. 
the diadem of the prophet Solomon : the web called Sotufstrnff kdla, 
which weaves itself, a thread every year, until the completion of the 
duration of the world. The wood Kdyu Gimet. which is divided into 
three portions, one of which is in the possession of the King of R6m, the 
other in that of theKing of China, while the third remains with the King 
of Menangkabowe. Theratan termed Mdnno ghiri, which erects itself. 
The Pdrang (chopper) of gold. The Chonfka Chongkye (a tray with a 
pedestal) . The mass* of gold, K^dah AUah^Qit. the tinder box of AUah,), 
resembling a man in shape. The gold Jattah Jatti, to be suspended 
across hb shoulder. The tree^a^af Torm, studded over with precious 
stones and rubies. The S^pitt Pinang, (betel*cntter,) Kapdla hdra, 
which performs its offiee spontaneously. The Choie SimeMUmg gklri§, 
with one hundred and ninety notches, occasioned by the wounds it 
inflicted on the serpent SieatimdHa, The monntam Bongsgi, from whence 
the Snlt£n ascends to the fiery mountain, and by whose supernatural 
influence the rivers which flow from it possess rocks of gold, and 
waters emitting odours delicious as those of flowers. The lance whose 
shaft is of theSdggar edmtan. The spear called Sambirah, with a sheath 
of Gdrda wood, on which is inscribed a passage from the ICoi^n. The 
kus Ailang bora. The mat composed of SUUang leaves, which is worn aa 
an ornament to the head by Mah4 Ra'tb, but forbidden by Mah&RirN« 
jvr, who were ootempomry with the origin of this country. 

The elephant Sacte. The fresh «water seaezteDdiuga day's sail. The 
mountain emitting flames of its own accord, where grow the plaintive 
bambuB, which entrap wild birds by the fascination of their melody. 
The petrified cotton. The Gdndang Valigdri (a sort of drum). The 
Gong Jejdtan. "The Gong eemdadrmg, the sound of which reaches to 
the clouds. 

• This mass of gold, aceording to the Informatioii of a native of Manangka- 
bowe, was what remained after the making of the crown of one of the ancient 
piinoea of that empire. 

t The NAffa TMn is ampposed to be a tree transmuted into gold. 

X This instrament is said to be endowed with the faculty of asoendiiig the Areoa 
trees, and cutting the nut without human assistance. 

( Vide Sej^ MaUyu for an account of the combat which terminated by the 
serpent's being cut into three parU by the invincible sword of Sangsapwba, tredi- 
tionally the descendant of Albxaitdbb the Great, and founder of the dynasty of 

1 635 .] in the interior of the Malayan Penvaula. 251 

The hall of andience BdUe, whose columnB are of the Seldtang (a 
^>eciefl of lofty nettle), and the beams of Lendang root. The drum 
PHUutpHhit, headed with the skins of lice. The horse Sambarani^. 

The bell SnmMro Sdmbang hdie, whose perfect sound from the left 
daily sommons petitioners to the right of the imperial throne. 

The boflalo SiUnoang Sdeti. The cock B(rang Sangundnf. The well 
Sikatang. The cocoanut Nira Balie, The black Sanghudi, which is pro- 
duced spontaneously. The j^diddi, Sitanjo Bdnit on which his majesty the 
Eang depert6an feeds at mid-day. The paddi called Saran^mn dMtom 
knmirm. The flower Sri, the odour of which extends a day's journey; 
it is soikn, grows up, produces leaves, flowers and brings fortii fruit in 
the space of a single day, and the azure Champaka. 

Sodi form the Sabeedran of the Eang depertdan of Menfingk£bowe» 
the Solt4n who reposes cradled in the east, and on whose arising 
from slumber the noubet is sounded. Hie Caliph of AUah, his majesty 
the Eang depertdan Sdti. 

These are the eredentials of the belored grandson oi the Eang do* 
pertdmn of Paggardyong. 

The bearer of ^is friendly document must be assisted and well 
entjreated both by sea and land whenever encountered ; for the High 
God hath saidt '* First set your trust on me* next on MuHAMinB 
and doubt not/' 

Do ye, tberefoM, att our children and grand-children, noblemen, 
merchants* and nakhodas, agree in standing by and npholding our 
ancient usages, which have been handed down by our forefathers. 

Should this doeunient be brought to Siao, Nila l£wan or Patapaio, 
to Campar kfri or Campar kinan, molest not the bearer by sea or by 
land. These iiyunctions extend to Pali6mbang, Indxaghiri, to Rogum, 
to the villages and forests of Tambusai, to Battu Bara, to Pulo Pe« 
nang, to Malacca* Q^dah, Java, Batavia, Susn, Telab^ah» Guttar, 
and Bencoolen, which is aulyeet to the Company, together with other 
places on the west coaat of Pulo AndnUe. 

Let us all, therefore, to the utmost of our power, place firm confi- 
dence in the great and gbrious God, according to our solemn oatfas» 
and the oath " Biea Gemge" of our ancestors. 

Should any person therefore molest the bearer of these, he shall 
draw down on himself the ban of the Eang depertdan of Paggadiyong ; 
lufl crops shall fsil, and his subjects shall not thrive; bat on the other* 

* The Sttttharitti tJij^^^^ is a fabulous horse, celebrated in Malay romance^, 
geaerally said to be winged. 

252 Influence of the Moon's DecUnatUm [Mat; 

hand, wlioever receives the bearer with kindness, shall be rewarded 
with abundant harvests, and increase of subjects, and whithersoever he 
may go and settle, prosperity shall attend him, whether on the coast 
of the Island of Pulo P&cha or any other place by sea or by land. 
Oh Lord of lords and Helper of helpers, the most wise God." 

XI. Comparison of the Heights of the Barometer, with the Distance of 

the Moon from the Celestial Equator. By the Rev. R. Everbst. 

[See ProceedingB of the Asiatic Society, 6th May, 1835.] 
In my last paper, I shewed, that on an average of ten rainy sea* 
sons, the daily amount of Rain-fall diminished, as the declination of 
the moon increased, until it reached between 10' and 15« ; but that 
after that distance, the reverse took place, and the amount of Rain- 
fall increased as the declination increased. The general average of 
the 10 years for every 5* distance from the Equator gave the following 

results : 

Declination 0*»5»10<»15»«0*25* from the Equator. 
Inches of Rain wi -an -Ma -vo w 


It was but natural to suppose, that the height of the Barometer 
would vary in a similar manner, or rather the reverse, i. e. as the 
one increased, the other would diminish, and vice versi^-*>with this 
expectation, I made a Table of the heights of the Barometer^ as I 
had before done of the Rain-fiill. The 4 p. u. observations were 
selected from the Registers, as being nearest the time of noon at 
Qf^enwich, when the declination of the Bioon was taken ; but I did 
not at first obtain results so satisfactory as I had expected. On taking 
the general average of the 10 years, a considerable depression (as 
much as '040 in.) appeared, when the dedination was greater than 20*; 
but from that to the equator, the heights were irregular, and nearly 
on a level. Bat in examining the Registers, for the purpose t^ making 
out the tables, I could not help observing, that though all the greatest 
depressions coincided (or nearly so) with the times of the moon's 
maximum declination, yet that many of the greatest elevations held 
a similar situation. The inference of conrse was, that a prihciple of 
compensation was somehow or other at work. I now became ac« 
quainted with the opinion of an eminent philosopher, that any eleva- 
tion of the barometer in southern latitudes must have the eflfect of 
producing an equal depression in a corresponding northern latitude. 
If we only generalize this assertion a little, and say, " that any de* 

1835.1 m the Htigkt of the Strometer. 253 

prewHHi in any particular spot mnat have the effect of prodacing an 
dev&tioD somewhere else," then, we may see why in any one place 
(taking the year throughout) the maumum elevations and miDimum 
depressions on the same days of the moon's courses coincide, &c. But 
it is straying Erom the subject, to attempt to reason upon phenomena, 
while we are as yet only in the threshold of our inquiry. 

In pursuance of the idea I faaTc above mentioned, I next took the 
maximum elevation that occurred in each successive division of 5° of 
the moon's distance from the equator in each year, and then took the 
general average of the nhole 10 years. I did the same with the 
minima, and obtained the following General Average. 

Declination 20* 13° 10» 5' 0* Equator. 
Bar. maT. iflches 30-03:i | 033 I -026 I 036 I 023 I 
Do. minima. . . 39-236 | -313 | '333 | -379 | -375 | 

These two series of numbers would very nearly form two curves, 
with their convex HOrface* to each other, thus : 

y. usiiou. [Wa ire sorry to perceiT« tkat 

*'^''*"3SF "*" disgrsni which wu copied 

■m» p from the rough iketch in the HS. 

jj* L MtaiBi*. wlthoat sdverMncB to the test, 

.goo r doei not bithfulljr represent the 

-Ma|: figaredststenieDtibuItheauthar's 

,unn " IntentloD will be esiilf oadsr- 

stood.— Bd.] 
I will DOW leave this part of my subject, as I shortly expect some 
farther Registers and Nautical Almanadis for comparison, and I will 
hereafter revert to it more in detail, uid make out a Table more at 
length, shewing the results of each year. I have brought it forward 
now somewhat prematurely, because from sickness and consequent 
removal from home, my labottra ntuat be suspended for some montba, 
and I am desirous bafore that h^pena, to bring forward the following 
note, which i humbly hope may not be without its use to s large aod 
important class of the oonunonity. This was the end which I pro- 
posed to myself in commencing a long and laborious investigation, 
and, if I attain it, in any degree, my purpose will have been more pr 
leas answered. 


Shevinff, that lie grtateit depressions of the Baromeler do not, fat 

time ktcue eonjeetvredj caimetde mtk the daj/t o^ amjuiKtion and offO' 

tition of the moon, neither toUh the day» of her perigee, but that ihey 

coincide, or iiear^ to, loilh the days of her maximum monlUf deelina- 

Ar RrampU. 
In the tea* yesn of which the bsrometrical dsil; chsuEes hsTs been re> 
• The ten yon slioded to srs: IB23, 1826, 182/, I82B, 1829, 1630, 1831, 
H32, 1833, 1834. 


lufiuence of the Moon*s DecUnaikm 


giftered at Calcutta, there are (6) ri* instanees in which ^e barometer l»a 
fallen below the height of 29*200 inches. — I here add the dates of each instaneey 
with the heights of barometer and declination of moon three days before, and three 
dajs after; also the day of nearest new or full moon. The hour of 4 v, u, hat 
been chosen, as corresponding better than any other to the hour of noon at Green- 
wich, at which time the declination of the moon was taken. 


5th, noon, Perigee. 

6th, nearest. 








4«. u. 







• / 

18 29 S. 
22 8 

24 41 
26 3 
26 12 

25 9 
22 59 





1 s 

1 *» 



1829. Jane, 21st, noon. Perigee. 30 days, 16 hours, new moon. 



39 th 




18th, midnight. Perigee. 
30 days, 5 hours, new moon. 













14 13 N. 

16 34 
18 27 

17 55 

17 36 N. 

18 20 
18 5 
17 a 
15 6 
12 33 

The declination at noon, 27th, b, 18* 20' 5'', and the dedination, 27th, at mid. 
night, is, 18* 20' 22", so that the real maximum is within I day, 12 hours of the 
depression of Barometer. 
1833. Bfay, 24th, noon, Perigee. 19 days, 1 hour, new moon. 

21st, . 










Moon's Dec* 
15 49 N. 

19 11 

21 30 

22 32 
22 7 

20 7 

The real maximum declination is 22 days, 6 hours, Greenwich time. 
1830. May, 20th, midnight, Perigee. 21 days, 19 hours, new moon. 

2l8t, . 


4 P.M. 






13» 5' N. 

16 i 

17 56 

18 36» 
18 7 
16 36 
14 15 
11 18 

7 55 

^o/e.— The greatest depression of barometer occurred at noon on the 26^ 


on tke Height of tie Barometer. 


when it stood at 29*008. and leduciog this to the lord of 4 p. ic.» bj lubtncdng 
(•087), the aTerage monthly difference between noon and 4 p. m., there is left 
28*921 inches for the theoretical height of Barometer at that time. Noon 26th 
is, of ooarsoy by Greenwich time, 25 days, 18 hours, nearly. 
1834. Angnst 7th, midnight. Perigee. 4 days, 18 hours, new moon. 



Moon's Dec. 


. . 

22*» 40' N. 



24 6 



24 11 



22 47 


« • 

19 55 



The real msTimnm is on the 2nd, nearly at midnight, or 2 days, 13 hours, 
Greenwich time. 

The Perigee is OTidendy out of the question. The comparison between the 
time of conjunction, and that of moon's maximum declination, with the barome- 
tric minimum, may be more clearly stated in a table, shewing the distance of each 
of the former in days and quarters of days from the latter, thus : 


Time of moon's maximum declination. 




rime of new moon. 





From the 
nearest ba- 
rometric mi* 

1823, Aug. 15th, 

1829, June27th, 3 

1829, July 29th 1 

1830, May 26th, 1 

1833, May 2l8t, 1 

1834, Aug.3rd, , 

Making the same allowance as is done in the case of the tides, riz. three dajri 
before, or three days after the event, for a coincidence ; all these instances of moon's 
ma-Hmwm docUnation may be considered as coincidences with their respectiye 
barometric depressions : it is erident, that the times of conjunction cannot be so 
considered* We must obsenre that the only instance of great separation between 
the time of moon's maximum declination and the barometric depression, was in 
1829, when the maximum declination of moon was at its least (not abore 18^ 20'), 
and consequently only faintly felt. 

It now only remains for us to notice the minor barometric depressions, which 
have occurred during the same period, and we will first take the minima of the 
years which were above 29*200 inches. From the increase of rain, which occurs 
when the moon gets within 10 degrees of the equator, we might have supposed 
that the next lowest depressions would probably be found there — and this turns 
out to be the case. I here snbjoin the details. 







1st, . 

4 p. M. 





9 40 N. 
5 45 

1 31 N. 

2 51 S. 

Nearest new moon, Jane, 23 days, 22 hours; say 24 days, or 7 days' distance 

from the depression. 











4 p. M. 



• . 

15 51 S. 



12 31 



8 34 



4 US. 

. -697 

• • 

28 N. 


Infitience of the Mhtm on the Barometer. 


Nearest full moon, 9 days, 7 honn ; or 2 days, t hourt* «>itttfHiiCT from thft 

The minimum depressions of the remaining years are still higher, ft^d inc. 
guhurly placed with regard to the mooa*s dedioation, as follows : 







31st, . 

4 p. M. 





I 08 

16 40 N. 

19 5 

20 41 

21 22 
21 3 

Nearest new moon, August, 3 days« 7 hours ; or 6 days, 7 hotofv' distaooeihnn 

the depression. 

4 p. u. 



21st, . 




25 th,. 

14 17 S. 

16 47 
18 22 
18 48 

17 /m 

Nearest ftill moon, 26 days, 10 hours ; or 3 days, 10 hours' dfitanoe from the 






















•54^ f 







19 26$. 
19 31 
18 40 
16 M 
14 19 
7 6 

Msximnm declination, 4 days' distance from depression. 
, Nearest full moon, 24® 9^, or nearly %i days, distance from depression. 

There are yet some further minor depressions, which we must not omft, as 
though they are not the minima of any particular years, they are much lower than 
spme of those we have been considering. I subjoin the details of all under 
2^9*300 inches. 





«th, . . 


9th, .. 


10th, .. 


nth, .. 


12rti', . . 




Nearaet new mooxi, 8th. 



irth, 29-391 

18th, -245 

19th, -252 

20th -404 

21st -459 

22nd, ^509 

23rd, -473 

24th, -486 



25.47 S. 
26 12 
24 41 
21 25 
16 48 



• t 

6 18 N. 
10 12 
13 36 
16 22 

18 25 

19 39 

20 2 
19 31 






19th,. . 






Full moon, 22nd. 


16th .,.. 

1 / en, •••..•.«•••• 




2l8t, • . 

Rain 1*66, 

Declination at time of depression, 
10* 12^. Rain, 1*90. | 




19 43 S. 

25 13 
26; l/i. 

26 4 


16 33 

17 49 
19 18 . 
19 55 

•396,19 41 


Ii^httnce ^fikM Maom w tkt BaramiHtr, 







Sain, 2*10. 






Bar. I Mo 
1 ^' 








17 28 
15 45 
U 21 


18 53 S. 

22 4 

23 53 

24 16 
23 16 






Bain, 0*87. 





Rain 0*75. 







20 50 
19 26 
16 39 
12 48 


11 IS. 
6 22 
1 32 

6t freatett, (aU below 29-200.) In one InitaBoe only, 3 dayi batwean 

time of dap. aadinax.deeL 

9, leaaer,. . (betvreen 29-200 and 29*220.) Both within 10* of eqoator. 
10, loaat, ..(hatwaan 29-220 and 29*300.) Of whioh, in aU inalaneee, the time 
b elnaaa laTinimM dadiaation and depreaaion ia not mora than two daya ; in 
one inatnnee, three days; in one inatanee, moon'a declination waa leaa than 
10*; two inatancet, irrefolar; one, 12' more than 10* from the eqnator; one 
(•291), of fear daya* diatance between time of depreaaion and mazimnm dedina- 
tion. I mnat now end tliia paper, begging permiaaton to reanme the anbjeat, aa 
1 may ind opportonlty to do ao. 

Babbat KrB&naT* 

It may not be deemed ont of place to notice here the amount of wind and rain, 
which aeoompanied each depreuion. In Oto oasea ont of the aiz, a depth of rain 
af from 61 tv 9 inchoa waa depoiited within three daya of the depreaaion. In 
1823, mm notiae ia taken of the wind in the Kegiatar, bnt the iLadgaree report 
fCalaa, " light mra" on Aagnat 15th» (the day of the depfamion,) and ** hard 
gakn from aonthward and eaatward" on the (16th), the day after. The Gasetta 
lamanta innndationa in the npper parte of Bengal, lorn of life, Tiliagea awq^ 
away, and dcTaatation of the crops. In Jnne, 1829, the Ragiater notaa on the 
day of depremion ** Tiolent wind all night, with thnndar and Ughtniag.'* In 
May, 1830, and May, 1833, were Tiolent atorma or hnnioaaaa, the eiboln off 
which mnat be yaC remembered by nmat of na. In Angnat, 1834» waa a hanfyr 
gala of wind. In Jnly, 1829, aloae, neither the qnantity of wind nor of nlm 
appeara to haTe been great. Tlie former ia not noticed, &e Utter waa lam than 
1*75 inchea. We may remark too, that in the flrat instance alone. Til. that of 
Angnat 15th, 1823, waa the declination of the moon south. The reat haTe all 
ooenrred between flie 20th May and 4th August, or from 31 daya before the 
aammor aolatice, to 44 dnya after it. 

258 CoUimatkn Error of AstrofUmUcal In$irmkelU$. [MAt, 

III. — CoUimation Error of Astronomical Instruments. By J. G. Tatlok, 

Esq, H, C. Astronomer, Madras. 

Ten years bave now elapsed since Captain Kats&'s plan for deter- 
mining the position of the line of colli mation by means of a floating 
collimator was brought before the public, and his ingenuity rewarded 
by the gold medal of the Royal Astronomical Society. It has happened, 
however, with this, as with many other great and good inventions, 
which are trae in theory, that the application to practice is attended 
with so much uncertainty, as almost completely to render the plan 
unavailable ; hence it is, that the results of observations made with 
the assistance of the floating collimator (if any there be) have never yet 
been made public. I offer these remarks with a view of saving the 
amateur astronomer from the vexatious disappointments which he may 
expect to meet with in the employment of the floating collimator ; and, 
at the same time, of offering a plan to supersede its use, which is 
totally free from any sort of uncertainty : and can, moreover, be applied 
with much greater facility than the floating collimator ; the plan in 
question consists of making the telescope a collimator to itself, b v viewing 
the image of the wires reflected from a basin of quicksilver, at the same 
time that the direct image is viewed in the ordinary way through the 
eye-piece; to accomplish this, it is only necessary to exhibit a. bright 
light behind the wires, so as not to interfere with the eye of the observer 
when applied to the eye-piece — in the case of the Madras Mural 
Circle, to which this princi^jle was lately applied, I introduced a plain 
silver speculum into the eye-piece of the telescope between the eye - 
glass and the wires, having its polished surface directed towards the 
wires; the speculum was suspended in the cell of the eye-piece by two 
screws, allowing it to revolve. on them as an exis, and was furnished 
with a small hole in the centre, through which the wires in the tele- 
scope could be seen ; the telescope being now directed to the nadir to 
a basin of quicksilver, the speculum was turned on its axis until a ray 
of light (admitted through a hole about ^9 of an inch diameter, drilled 
in the side of the telescope), was reflected from it, and made to fall per- 
pendicularly upon the wires (an operation occupying about five minutes 
to adjust, and not afterwards requiring alteration), by this means, in 
addition to the ordinary direct image of the horizontal wire, a reflected 
image was obtained, situated as much to the north of the nadir as the 
other was to the south, and vice versft ; nothing more was necessary 
now than to clamp the circle and bring the wire to cover its reflected 
image by the tangent screw, when the reading gave (the circle being 
adapted to measure north polar distance) ISO^-f colat. -f* E; subtract- 
ing the two former or 256* 65' 50" E., the error of colliniation, became 
known. Since establishing the above mode of observation, which I 

1835.] CoiHmatian Brror of Aitrommieai IiufrwmenU. 259 

propose to call tbe r^Uethuf cMmatar, the error of coUimatioa (or 
index error as it is generally called) has been read off five times every 
day, viz. at 6 ▲. m., at noon, at 6 p. m., at 8 p. u., and at midnight ; 
taking the mean of these, the error of observation is necessarily very 
small, and the effect of any accidental difference of temperature in the 
room, which might alter the figure of the circle at any one time of the 
day, ia at the same time greatly diminished. 

To shew to what extent this mechanical measure, as it may be 
. termed, can be depended upon, I here subjoin the result of the last ten 
days' observation compared with the index error determined by astro- 
Bomical means, thus : 

Index Baaom of thb Madbas Mubal Cibclx. 
By the Reflecting Collimator, By Aetrwiomicai Oheerttation. 

No. of ObB. Index Error. No of Obi. Index Error. Difference. 


/ // 

/ // 




— 2-27-36 


— 2-27-39 

























































Asa further proof of the efficiency of the reflecting collimator, I 
may adduce the result of observations made at this observatory with 
the transit instrument. Here we read off twice the sum of the errors 
of level and collimation, either of which being known leaves us ac- 
quainted with the other. In the case of the Madras transit instrument, 
which is furnished with a micrometer, giving motion to a wire parallel 
to tbe vertical wires^ I have always preferred measuring the error of 
collimation, and computing the corrections rather than attempting by 
mechanical adjustment to get rid of it, as is usual with small instruments ; 
and, on the same principle have always allowed the axis to take up its 
own position with regard to level ; hence we hare only to apply to 
half the micrometer-reading of the reflecting collimator, the error of 
level with the proper sign, and the sum or difference, as the case may 
be, gives the error of collimation, thus : 












Feb. 7 



































Refn. Coll. 




































* I increased the collimation error. 

t0O CoUmtOhn Error of AHrmtomUsd lutnmentM. [May, 

. The above retdioss of the refleofeiagooUiBiatDrare the reBolt of three 
BDeaeures Docopying oX moet abont aa many uunutea to make ; and the 
coUimatiou error by iaveraioa ia from one iDveraton only* Aa regards 
the wants of the Avnatear aatrooomer iii.lDdia« the reflecting collimator 
will I apprehend be eminently serviceaMe, if (as is very often the case) 
the level attached for levelling the axis is dull in its movements, or 
should it unfortunately be broken ; and should moreover the observer's 
situation preclude the erection of a mark to examine the collimatioa 
error — ^nothing more is necessary than a basin of quicksilver and aa 
eye-piece fitted np as above. 

We will suppose that on looking into the eye-piece the centre 
wire and its image are both teen, and that the reflected image 
appears 10 diameters of the wire by estimation to the east of the 
direct image ; this may arise from error of level or error of collimation, 
or from both ; to decide this question, we must invert the axis and 
again estimate the distance between the direct and reflected images 
of the centre wire—suppose the reflected image to be now situated 
6 diameters of the wire to the west of the direct image : we have, 

2 (L CI — — 6 ''•^^®"*"*fi» + ^^' eaatem and -»- finr western devi- 
ation : from the sum we find (i =r ^. 1 . 
diflPerence, C rr -|- 4. 

Shewing that the east end of the axis is too higb by a space corre- 
spending to the thickness of the wire, and that the centre wire must 
be moved towards the east fonr times its thickness. Other instances 
inight be adduced of the efficiency of the reflecting collimator, but the 
above will I apprehend be considered sufficient. 

A mere glance at the accompanying figure will explain all that is 
necessary to the construction, which I need hardly remark can be per- 
form^ by any common workman. 


MadrMs Obienrntory, -i 
5M jiprU. 1835. / 

[The elQgaooe, the suDpUoity, «m1 dw grest praotieal aseaniey of the method 
^escribed abore by the MmdrM astronomer, wiU we have no doubt raooBneadie 
^ vary geaena ado|itioii.— Ed. j ^^^ 

1835.] Om Ik StmMqftie Ddab Jlkvim, Ml 

TV, — Or the Strata f)fthe Jwmiim A^avhtm, oi etempUfled in the Rocks 
and Shoide lately removed /ram the bed of the river ; and of the eitee 
cf the FosmH Bonee discovered therein. By Serjeant Eomukd Dban. 

[The SpeeimeuB aUaded to are deposited in the Sodety't mateum.] 
It has always been a matter of speculation with me, since mj first 
acqaaintance with the Jumna, that presenting the obstacles to naviga-* 
tion, which it, undoubtedly, does at the present day, after seven yearii' 
application of great talent, and a very considerable expenditure, what 
a gigantic work it must have appeared at its commencement. Expe- 
rience, however, and a careful research have confirmed me in the opi- 
nion, that many of these impediments in one shape or another, were 
then, and are now, not only such as, their existence once known, could 
easily be removed, but there is every probability of some of the most 
dangerous of them being at this instant in a state of active formatipa 
and increase. 

Taking a general view of the whole, as they occur between Agra 
and Allahabad, I have found it convenient tp class the obstacles most 
to be dreaded by navigators, as follows : 

Ist, Clay-banks or shottls ; 2ftd, Rodci; 3rd, Kankar shoals, and 
4th, Sunken trees. This classification is adopted with reference to 
the supposed degree of danger to the navigation that may be attached 
to each, a detailed description of which I have endeavoored to ar- 
range in this order. 

The grand and perfect section of the Delta of the Jumna and Gam^' 
fee, (or I should rather say. from experience lately gained to the west- 
ward, of the immense general alluvium of Hindustan^ opened by iha 
channel of the former,) presents a regular alternating stratifipation <rf 
the different modifications of which the general Duab alluvium ia 
fomied ; which consists (as far as the section has allowed me to 6ju» 
mine), of ^ve distinct strata, interspersed with imbedded substances 
which from their irregular growth, positions, and occurrence, cannot 
be classed among the more regular strata. The regular strata occur 
as follows, namely, 1st, Superior sandstone ; 2nd, Shale, and 3rd, 
4th, and 5th, Alluvial, (fig. 1. PI. XIII.) 

Only two strata of the superior sandstone occur within the above 
bounds that I am aware of. The elevated positions of both decidedly 
have been produced by volcanic irruption, and will be described under 
the head of rocks. 

ne SAo/e which approaches nearest to rf, var. of A . in the first division 
of McCulloch's synopsis, described as passing into clay, appears very 
i^om. Note. The specimens marked •• y, I, 2, and 3/' all Mtaod th^ 

iC^ On the Strata of the Dddb Allmoium, [Mat» 

test of adhering on being applied to the tongue or lips. (Specs, jr. 
Ut. Alluvial Clay, corresponding with a. Tar. of C, first division ; 
is tnach intersected with seams of kankar | of an inch in average diame- 
ter, colour dull yellow, grey, and dirty white, and is interstratified with 
beds of nodule kankar varying between 20 yards, and half a mile in 
length (as exposed by the river), and from one foot to 15 in thickness. 
2nd, Alluvial Compact Sand would form a var. e, of C, first division ; 
does not agree with e, of the same division, as there is no por- 
tion of clay, and it is only partially consolidated by the pressure of 
superincumbent strata. It occurs both above and below the 1st allu- 
vial stratum from 3 to 1 8 inches thick, and of indefinite length and 
breadth ; in some places a few yards, in others several miles. 

Zrd. Alluvial Clay, with a large proportion of sand b, var. of C, 
first division of Mr. McCulloch's synopsis. This stratum is frequent- 
ly varied in colour, giving it an appearance of divisibOity ; but on ex- 
amination, this difference will be found to extend to colour only, which 
varies in many places between dull yellow and grey. 

Ut. Of Clay Bank$ or Shoalt, 
These banks (fig. 2. PI. XIII.) so justly dreaded by navigators of the 
Jumna, are quite as unwelcome to those engaged on the Jumna works, 
as their removal is both troublesome and expensive. They are formed 
of isolated and detached portions of the Ist alluvial stratum, by an 
accumulation of sand forcing the stream into a new channel, formed by 
the whole of the 2nd and 3rd alluvials, and least tenacious parts of 
the 1st alluvium, having been swept away at high levels, leaving such 
portions of the last as were sufficiently compact to withstand the force 
of the stream, which are generally those where the natural toughness 
of the clay is increased by the seam kankar before mentioned, (spec. 
X,) which runs in every direction through it, literally lacing it toge- 
ther, and giving the clay a durability which the action of the strong- 
est current has, perhaps, less effect upon, than it would have on a 
similar mass of stone of average texture. 

The stream, which is generally confined in its course by these ob- 
stacles, rushes past them with violence, polishing (as much as clay is 
capable of such an operation) all those parts exposed to its action. 

It was in the crevices formed by the washing away of the softer 
parts of a bank of this description, (figs. 1 & 2, PI. XIV.) that the speci- 
men of fossil bones, which were, I believe, presented by Capt. Smith, 
and the tulwar, by Lieut. Burt, were found, whilst the clay bank vraa 
being removed, the whole upper surface of which was covered with from 
two to four feet of kankar, of the conglomerate formation. I sboold 
wish this to be remembered, as I consider finding the latter in sach a 

pr— ^'»^sjiB^ 


1 835 .] mid Site of Fossil Bones in the Jumnd. 263 

situation as peculiarly corroborative of my remarks relating both to 
thefce banks and to the kankar formation. No instance, however, has 
ever been known of petrified or fossil animal, or vegetable remains^ 
having been found fairly imbedded in or under this stratum. 

Another formation of these banks is occasioned by the current sap- 
ping the high and abrupt banks of the river, by washing out the stra- 
ta of compact sand, when such large masses of stiff clay are detached 
and thrown into the channel, as to defy the efforts of the stream to 
dislodge them, which if not speedily effected, a sufficient time has only 
to elapse to clear the onter parts of the earthy matter which may have 
fallen with them« which together with sand immediately deposits It- 
self in rear, when every hour secures and strengthens them in their 
position against the stream, (fig. 3. PI. XIV.) The interstices (should 
there be any) are soon filled up with any extraneous substances that 
may be lodged by the current. Those organic remains which may 
happen to be imbedded, or rather buried under this sudden deposit, 
if petrified in that situation, may be easily distinguished, as they inva- 
riably adopt in the process of petrifaction, the hue of the mass with 
which they are in contact, and which, when the process is complete, 
nothing will remove, and the porous parts of the bones either re- 
main empty, or are filled with carbonate of lime, infiltrated, whilst 
in solution. The same remark applies to wood or any other substance^ 
In every other situation the interstices of the fossil to which the water 
has unrestrained access, is filled with either silicious or argillaceous 
matter, and frequently with a composition formed of both. For the 
proper consolidation of either of which, however, the presence of the 
carbonate of lime is necessary. 

Both these formations may be, and frequently are, instanced in one 
specimen, where from fracture or decomposition, sand or clay may be 
admitted to one part, when the composition is formed, whilst it is ex- 
cluded from those more perfect, the pores of which will be either filled 
with crystallized carbonate, or remain empty as above stated. 

By the continual cutting away, and falling in of the banks of the 
river, the accumulation of alluvial matter in some places is neces- 
sarily very extensive. The strength of the current preventing its 
deposit in the channel, it is carried down to the bend of the river, 
next below whence it has been dislodged, in the shape of thick sedi* 
ment, and deposited there ; the sand which accompanied its removal is 
from its greater specific gravity deposited in the bed of the channel. 
This alluvium forms in banks from 6 to 14 feet thick, and composes, 
on a rough calculation, not less than 80 or 100,000 acres of arable 
land, of the first quality, between Agra and Allahabad ; producing by 

2e4 On the Straia of the Dddb Jttwmm, OtAY^ 

far the best crops of tiny land in the neigfabonrhood of the Jamna. 
Many of these deposits (which occur at eTery tarn of the river) are 
several feet above its present highest lev^s ; these, however, the river 
by having deepened in its coarse since their formation, rather dimi- 
ntshes than increases by washing out those veins of sand, (parallels 
to the 2nd regalar alluvial stratam of the DMb general aUnviam.) 
from one to six inches thick, which are invariably interstratified with 
this deposit : the more compact allavial stratam above these veins be* 
ing deprived of their support, separate and hl\ into the water in 
flakes, when, if the current is not too violent, the base of another de» 
posit is formed, corresponding to the leveb attainable by the river iu 
its present bed, causing the upper snrfaoe of the united deposits, either 
to slope gradually towards the deep part of the channel, or the junc- 
tion to be marked by a step or steep slope. All those, however, 
which are covered with only a few inches of water at the highest 
levels receive an additional deposit of sediment, which, however tri- 
fling, answers the purposes of the beet manure. 

2nd. 0/ the Rocks. 

This term (as understood on the Jumna) is applied to four distinct 
formations, namely — 1st, superior sandstone; 2nd, volcanic; 3rd,iBoiat« 
ed masses, the remains of beds of nodule kankar, and 4th, conglome- 
rate rocks, composed of kankar and extraneous substances. 

1st. Cff the wpmar Sandstone. The only strata of this formation 
occur at intervals between the neighbourhoods of B£rriari and 
Dhowrie, two villages on the right bank of the river, and near Mhow, 
a village in the Bondelkhand. 

Near Barriari a g^eat deal of good stone for building purposes, and 
of any dimensions, is quarried, (fig. i. PI. 3. spec. 1.) and sent to 
Allahabad. Very good stones are also procured from many parts of 
the bank near the above places, by removing two or three feet of 
loose earth or clay* It is fine grained, and very similar in colour 
and quality, to that procured from the neighbourhood of Bhortpoi^. 
In fact I believe them to be portions of the same stratum, but am not 
sufficiently acquainted with the geological features of Bnndelkhand (the 
intervening tract) to make the assertion. 

A portion of this stratum, thrown together in large masses by vol- 
canic irruption, forms the curious little rocky island on which a Shiwa- 
la is so picturesquely perched in the centre of the river opposite the 
village of Dhowrie, about two d^ys' journey from Allahabad. 

The other stratum occurs at Mhow only, and extends more than one* 
third cross the river, and is so friable and coarse as to be totally 
unfit for any useful purpose. Occupying its present situation, it 

) aas.] Md SUe of Po8iU Bones in the Junma. 265 

hu caused infinite trouble, not only by the interruption a body of 
any sort most be to the navigation in such a place, but by the irre- 
gularities of its surface (forming the bed of the river), acting as reoepta* 
des for the moving kankar and other extraneous substances passing 
over it, in which have formed irregular masses of conglomerate rock 
occupying two-thirds of the whole width of the river. These, per* 
haps, at the time of their formation did not stand more than a few 
inches above the bed of the river, (the upper surface of the sandstone 
rock,) but the river deepening its bed in the course of ages has gradu- 
ally worn away the sandstone, leaving the masses of conglomerate 
(on which it can make no impression), in the awkward and danger- 
ous positions which they now occupy, with deep water all round them ; 
and although some of the most dangerous have been removed, the 
passage down with a side wind is often impracticable to the clumsy 
boats used on the Jumna. It has this advantage over Karim Khin, 
(the worst pass in the river,) that the stream is not near so rapid. 

Those portions of this stratum which lie near the edge are exposed 
to the effects of the stream in a minor degree, and stand from one to 
five feet above the lowest levels, presenting pea^fcs and heads of masses 
at irregular intervals over a space of about 500 by 200 yards. The 
exteriors of these are of a dirty green colour, which penetrates about 
one-eighth of an inch, and is, I imagine, caused by the action of the 
atmosphere. Under this coating, the natural colour of the stone appears, 
var^ng between every tinge of yellow and red, and pure white, which 
would indicate the presence of some portion of iron : but one sight of 
the accompanying specimens will convince you. Sir, that but for the 
presence of some consolidating medium, the sand of itself would never 
resist the action of any stream. This consolidation occurs in the 
shape of numerous veins, from one-fourth to two inches in thickness, 
and from three inches to many feet ift width, passing through it in 
every direction, and rendering it quite impervious to the stream 
with which it has to contend ; and from the feeble attempts of which 
it is in fact defended by some masses of volcanic origin, which are de- 
scribed' below. These veins (spec. 2) are either the deposit of some 
ferru^ous spring, which has had a passage over the stratum, and oa 
which the sand has from time to time accumulated, or is a lignitioua 
lava ; they occur in every position, horizontal, vertical, and at every 
possible angle with each of these : their outer edges are black, and bear 
a very high polish, produced by the action of the water. The fracture 
presenU an appearance which would justify the conjecture of this 
aubstance having passed into the present position in a state of fusion, 
as it encloses a substance within itaelf, having a vitrified appearance.. 

L L 

2£6 On the Strata of the Dddh Atluvium, [Mat, 

The total absence too of iroa within the bounds I am endeavouring to 
treat of, in any of the alluvial formations, and the inthnate connexion 
existing between the sandstone, and substances of undoubted volcanic 
origin, strongly incline me to the opinion, that the heat necessary for 
the production of the latter, might have split the former, and that the 
interstices thus produced, have filled with the lava, (the present veins,) 
in a state of fusion. Another circumstance, confirmatory of this, la 
the fact of the sandstone being in a state of transition with the vitri* 
iied substances ; but owing to the brittleness of the intermediate sub- 
stance, (spec, d.) it was with the greatest difficulty I could procure 
the accompanying specimens. 

0/ the Volcanic Rocks. 
These occur in two separate situations, namely, at Murka and Mhow. 
You will perceive, Sir, that the specimens from the former place, agree 
with Nos. 4, from the latter, although the shortest distance between 
these places cannot be less than 20 miles, perhaps more. 

The mass at Murka, consisting of rough spheroidal blocks, varying 
from one by two, to three by five feet, lies on the right bank of the 
river ; their peculiar shape, appearance, and position, leads me to 
imagine, that they have been ejected in a partially vitrified state, and 
lodging in the water, the outer and angular parts have become slack- 
ed, and have been swept away by the stream, leaving these blockf, 
which, under these circumstances, are exactly similar to the core of 
badly burnt lime ; in no other way can I account for their peculiar 
formation, which had it been produced by rolling, the same cause 
would have scattered them widely, but this has not been the case, a» 
they lie in a clearly defined mass, (fig. 2. PI. XV.) and in this instance* 
have no other connexion with any other stratum than being super- 

They correspond exactly with Nos. 4, from Mhow, both in the de«- 
gree of vitrification, colour, texture, and every thing but position ; 
thoee at Mhow overlie, but are entirely detached from their bed, 
(sandstone,) and the same quantity is scattered over a greater space 
than at Murka. Their exterior is jet black, and so highly polished, 
that it is impossible to examine them for any length of time when the 
sun shines, the great light and heat they reflect during the day is pe- 
culiarly distressing to the vision. The interior is a mottled dark, and 
light red, one view of which is conclusive of its volcanic origin. 
(Specs. 3 and 4.) 

Nos. 5, are specimens also from Mhow, the originals, (spec. 5,) 
occur in very considerable masses, having both sandstone and cluy at 
a base, and standing above it from 1 to 20 feet ; the largest of these 

1835.] and Sii€ of Fossil Bones in the Jumna. 267 

Busses is aboat 45 feet in diameter, of irregular shape and lighter color, 
than the detached masses, and evidently has not been nearly so much 
subjected to the action of fire as the latter ; they are much softer, and 
have interstices filled with earthy matter, which has been subjected to 
great heat, but are only partially vitrified. 

This substance either passes into unburnt clay of the Ist alluvial 
stratum, or the stratum of superior sandstone, on both of which it 
rests, (Specs, c and d.) 

The singular appearance and conformation of the detached masses 
could not fail to attach something of the marvellous to them. Native 
tradition states them to be the stones which the army besieging Lunki, 
onder R£ma and Lutchmun, were enjoined to bring for the purpose 
of building the celebrated bridge ; but enough having been accumulated, 
messengers were despatched with the news, two of whom posted 
themselves at Mnrka and Mhow, two ghauts on the Jumna, and each, 
Lungoor and Talak, arriving with his load, hearing the welcome tid- 
ings, it was deposited here, and he proceeded lightly on his journey* 
I had this version from a Brahmin, who begged me, whilst getting my 
specimens, to remember that such relics should on no account be 

Of Isolated Masses, the Remains of Beds of Nodule Kankar, 
Whenever these remains occur, the river is by their considerable 
extent generally contracted in its course, causing the water to rush 
through the narrow but deep passages between isolated masses of 
what was once one continuous bed. 

The passage at Karim Khan (fig. 1, PI. XVI.) (the point d'appine of 
the Jamna works.) is now and has been perhaps for centuries, solely 
affected by the presence of the remains of an extensive bed of no-* 
dnle kankar, and is at the present moment the worst pass in the river 
for boats passing downwards at all seasons and upwards in the mon« 
soons. As a description of this is applicable in its general outlines to 
every locality where these remains occur, I shall confine myself to it. 
This bed has originally been and is still partially connected with 
and resting on the right bank of the river; its surface I imagine to be 
about 75 or 80 feet below the average level of the Bundelkhand bank, 
and the bed of the river to be about 1 6 feet below the surface. The left 
or Ddab bank is not above two-thirds the height of the opposite one, 
and is protected by a very extensive shingle shoal; had it been a bank 
on which the stream would have made any impression, the river would 
have certainly taken a course more free from impediments than the 
one it now pursues. The stream being thus confined, has, by the 
gradual deepening of the river throughout its course, been at last 

2BB Cn the Strata of the Dudb AlUtuwm, [Hat. 

tbrown over this bed of kankar with sufficient force to break it up 
partially, and the remains' present a number of detached masses pro- 
truding across two-thirds of the river, firom the right bank, standing 
from four to five feet above the surface of the water at low leve]8, ex- 
posing the whole thickness of the bed, which varies between three and 
five feet, and an average of two feet of its substratum a stiff day, and 
between them deep channels are worn. The action of so rapid 
a stream on all sides of these bases of clay (the supports of the 
superincumbent kankar) is gradually but surely reducing them, and 
in the course of time, becoming too feeble to support its weight. The 
kankar will be deposited in the bed of the river some 12 or 14 feet 
lower than its present position. 

These masses, which vary from a few feet to many yards in size, 
are externally very compact and hard ; but on penetrating 18 inches, 
it will be found, that they maintain inside this crust a similar appear- 
ance and quality with any bed that might be opened in the centre of 
the Dd&b, namely, the interstices between the nodules being filled 
with a loamy clay, and having every appearance of having been un- 
disturbed since the formation of the bed. 

It was on the strength of the unsuccessful search I have insti- 
tuted in and under such strata as this, that I hazarded the opini- 
on that I should consider the slightest discovery of fossil (animal) 
remains at a level corresponding with the deepest parts of the river, as 
the merest possible accident : perhaps I should have rather said, fosail 
remains may possibly be found in the D{nib general alluvium ; but it 
must be under parallel circumstances with those producing the Jumna 
fossils, as it is impossible to suppose that during the accumulation of 
this immense formation that such a space was void of animal life. 

The question mooted by Griffiths in speaking of the fossil remains 
of elephants, *' Can we suppose that none are buried there (in climates 
to which the elephant is native), or that the bones have been decom- 
posed by the force of heat;" chimes so much in tune with the idea 
that possessed me on examining every excavation in the D(i£b to 
which I could get access, previous to being acquainted with the sec- 
tion formed by the Jumna, that even now I should feel little difficulty 
in asserting, that unless some sufficient body intervenes between or- 
ganic remains and the decomposing power of the sun's rays, soon after 
their assuming a morbid state, no vestige of them ultimately remains. 
Experience has proved that they are buried, fossilized, and petrified 
within the limits of this general alluvium ; but in my opinion they are 
not even cotemporary with this formation, but of a date more recent : 
for with such an ample section before us. ae is presented by. the Jamaa, 

1835.] tmd Site of Fotsil Btmei in the Jumma. 269 

would it be possible* where from tbe presence of strata of the secon* 
dary series, the complete section of the alluvium must be exposed, that 
within the limits I have examined, not one instance of fossil remains 
has occurred imbedded in it ? To what cause then can their absence be 
attributed, but that they have been decomposed by the force of heat, 
before they could attain a state necessary for their preservation ? To 
what then do the present specimens owe their existence ? I must sup- 
pose either to the interposition of some body (water for instance) 
between them and the sun's rays, or to their having been petrified in 
the colder latitudes of the Him&laya, and lodged in the situations from 
which they were procured by the action of the current. 

The fact of their being found in every stage between freshness, fos* 
silization and petrifaction entirely excludes the idea of their having 
been uncovered by the deepening of the river having washed among 
any portion of the secondary strata, by which they would have been ex- 
humed from the stratum in which they had been petrified : had the 
petrifaction taken place there, they must have all occupied that posi* 
tion from the Vnown age of the general aUuvinm ; a sufficient time to 
have been all alike or nearly so, which is not the case. 

The following observations made on the conglomerate formation 
may throw some light on the subject. 

The Congiameraie Rodce, 

Are composed of nodule kankar and extraneous substances— and 
consist of two separate formations, both of which are strictly mechanic 
cal, together composing one- third of the rocks of the Jumna. Their 
difference consists in one formation being consolidated by means of 
cement, the other by the intervention of carbonate of lime deposited 
whilst in solution in all the interstices of any mass, thus connecting 
the whole together. 

Before proceeding further, it will be necessary to explain how 
these nodules of kankar and extraneous substances are accumulated, 
and then show the method of application of the consolidating bodies. 
In all the high and nearly perpendicular banks of the Jumna, ravines 
are cut out by heavy runs of water at short and irregular intervals, 
which serve as drains to the surrounding country. During the heavy 
pericxiical rains, considerable bodies of water rush through these ra« 
vines with great violence, bringing down drift wood, rubbish of every 
description, nodule kankar, and large portions of clay detached by 
the water from the sides and beds of the ravines. The latter gene- 
rally arrives in the river rolled into figures varying between a prolate 
ellipsoid and spheroid, (spec, i,) of all sizes, and from 20 lbs. to ^ of an 
ounce in weight. The clay being softened in its rolling progress. 

273 On the Strata of the Ddab Alluvium, [M^n 

attaches to it» circumference every sabstance hard enough to make a 
sufficiently deep impression to secure its bold ; this continues until 
every portion of the outer surface is covered, when, of course, the 
accumulation ceases; in this state it is washed from the ravine into the 
bed of the river, on reaching which, it is carried forward in a new 
direction of the current of the river, which deposits it in the nearest 
hollow in its bed, where after lying a sufficient time, the body disunites ; 
the lighter earthy particles are swept away by the stream, whilst the 
clay kankar, and other substances which may have been brought down 
with them, remain as deposited there : thus are all the necessary ingre* 
dients at once provided for the formation of a conglomerate rock 
except the sand, which in the course of a few hours generally proves 
the most abundant article of the composition, when only a sufficient 
time for the cement to set is necessary to present a rock, which the 
carbonate of lime (which fills all interstices that may be left) ultimate- 
ly renders the hardest, and from their situation, very frequently the 
most dangerous rocks of the Jumna. (Specs. 6.) 

The conglomerate in which carbonate of lime is the consolidating 
medium is generally produced by the breaking up of the beds of no- 
dule kankar, by the supporting pillar of clay (its substratum) being 
washed away, or other causes, the loose or interior nodules, of which 
are then deposited in the nearest hollow lower down the stream that 
can detain them, when from the absence of clay (excepting this dis- 
lodgement occurs in the monsoon), the cement cannot be produced, and 
the deposit remains until by the usual process of tufa formation, the 
whole becomes one consolidated mass, (spec. 8,) this, however, must 
be the work of time, during which, sand often fills many of the inter- 
stices, and becomes a part of the conglomerate body. 

The fractured edges of remains of nodule kankar beds often present 
this formation, although from the difficulties it has to encounter, a 
very sfcnall proportion of the conglomerate rocks of the Jumna belong 
to this class. The principal tufa formation that I am acquainted with, 
was removed by Lieut. Martin, Engineers, from near the village of 
Orowal, where the accompanying specimens were collected. (Spec. 8.) 

Most of the specimens in your hands. Sir, will speak for them- 
selves. I select, however, one instance of the cement formation, in 
which the fossil remains of an elephant are imbedded, which I con- 
sider, claims a particular description. 

- The site of the mass containing these interesting remains <Mi the 
right bank of the river, about 12 miles from Korah Jehanabid on 
the high road to Cawnpur, directly under the village of Pachkowrie. 
which stands nearly 80 feet above it, lying amongst an immense as- 

1835.] and Site of VoBiit Bones in the Jumna. 271 

0emb1age of kankar deposits of Tanous ages and ap|)earance where it 
is conspicaous by its size and thickness*. The bank on which these 
have been formed, is a portion of the first allnvium stratum. 

The existence of these remains, in the position they occupy, bears 
me oat in the assertion that one-third of the rocks of the Jumna arc 
of a mechanical formation, and some may even possibly date their for- 
mation within the memory of the present generation, that are now 
some feet in thickness, and of very considerable extent ; others only in 
embryo which may, on arriving at their fall size, be able to turn the 
coune of the river. As I imagine three feet to be the maximum, 
and half an inch the minimum, thickness in ordinary cases of any lay* 
er deposited in one monsoon ; for at this season only does it receive 
any considerable addition : the product of a heavy shower or short 
eontinaance of anseasonable rain, I imagine to be very trifling ; the 
groand being generally in so parched a state near the banks of the 
river (where the drainage is so rapid and complete), that an ordinary 
shower is absorbed, or nearly so before reaching it, producing no other 
efi^t than a run in the deepest parts of each ravine, which ceases 
almost as soon as the shower. 

Others, however, of the sasse formation are entitled to be consider- 
ed of proportionally great antiquity ; for if my position be established, 
that it is to some peculiar qoality of the water, combined with the 
other consolidating bodies, we owe not only the majority of the rocks 
of the Jumna, bat the organic remains that have been or may be dis- 
eovered, there must be some instances of both existing, whose ages 
mast be coeval or nearly so with the river itself, as the same causes 
mast always prodace the same effects, and once produced, their post* 
tions and appearance may be altered ; but the greater their age, the 
toore combined and natural do these substances become, antU their 
appearances present so little in consonance with conglomerates of the 
most ancient structure, that nothing, bat an examination equally mi- 
nute with that I have bestowed on the subject, can distinguish between 
them« Those having pretensions to antiquity are the ones occupying 
levels to which the river seldom now ascends, and never continues at 
sach heights more than a few hours together, with others quite out of 
the reach of the present highest levels. 

In tiie specimen before us, the form of each bone in its position in 
the deposit has been accurately preserved, but not in a state in the 
riightest degree approaching what it would have been, had they been 
exposed to the uninterrupted action of the water, which proves that 

• The plate referred to here in the MS. is omitted.— Ed. 

272 On the Strata of the Dudb Alluvium, {May, 

the ammal has either' died id. or has been after death washed, to, the 
position it now occapies, on which the deposition of kankar and other 
substances has still eonttaued, thils rapidlj enveloping it in a crust, 
whidh accounts for the absence of petrifaction, (specs, a and b ;) for I 
have observed that in very few instances, where organic remains have 
been iinbedded in the kankar deposit, has the bone materially differed 
from the present specimen. Instances have occurred, and still may be 
referred to, as existing at the present moment, whereon the deposit 
having attained the highest level of the river, or from the sinking of 
the river in its bed, it has been left at a level scarcely ever attained 
now at its highest rise ; where the formation has necessarily ceased in 
these cases, those bones which with other extraneous substances lielp 
to form the upper crust or surface of the deposit, are generally from 
their being larger than the nodules of the kankar, but partially imbed* 
ded ; that part which has been exposed to the action of the water, is 
perfectly petrified, and is rather darker than the surrounding kankar : 
whereas the part below the surface maintains the same colour, ap* 
pearance, and quality, (fossilized, but not petrified.) as this specimen or 
nearly so, allowing for the difference in the size of each, (spec. 7,) 
and the proximity of the petrifying medium to the former, which, I 
consider ample proof of the rapidity of the formation ; as, if the process 
was slow, many instances must occur of bones or wood in a thorough- 
ly petrified state, being met with imbedded in these masses, I have 
found, however, nothing approaching nearer a state of petrifaction 
than specimen Nos. 7, which are completely fossilized, but not 

Another proof of the rapidity of the formation is. that the interior 
is not much more consolidated than the interior of a bed of loose no- 
dule kankar, and the only difference between them is, that the inter- 
stices between nodules in the latter are generally filled with loamy 
clay, whilst here sand occupies its place. 

The antiquity of this particular specimen must be very considerable. 
as I question if the upper parts are covered during the highest leveb. 
The river has deepened its bed abreast of it about 25 feet, which even 
supposing it- to have never oocupied a higher level than at present, 
which cannot of course be now ascertained, precludes the possibility 
of any addition having been made to it for ages. . 

Numerous instances of organic remains occur in other masaes of 
different deposiu lying in all directions round it, bat the gt«a4 stale 
both of these remains and of the mass in which they are intbeidedc 
eompletely throws them into the shade. 

t dda.) and Site of FvitU J^ojiet ui the Jmm. ^U 

The sides of the niaas presented to view in the aooompanying sketch"^ 
are evident fractures caused by the breaking ap of the field by the 
deepening of the river in its course^ and although the present mass is 
of the largest dimeosions met with of this formation, I have no doabt 
it forms bat a mere particle of the field as it originally stood> the re- 
mains of which now occupy various isolated positions in the river 
abreast of it, which run across two-thirds of the whcde breadth. 

Many other observations might be made on this deposit (and this 
specimen of it in particular), that do not now occur to me ; but they 
will readily suggest themselves to some more intelligent visitor, who 
may be induced, from these remarks, on passing the spot, to give it an 
Bourns examination. 

As I believe no instance is on record of any other organic remains 
than shells having been found in those strata of kankar opened in so 
many parts of the Ddab, in excavating wells, and for the purpose of 
b^ing burnt into lime, &c., the conclusion I draw from the observa- 
tions I have been enabled to make, are all in favour of the opinion 
given in my letter of the 2nd of August, that I do not consider the 
fossil remains of the Jumna, as at all connected with the natural kan- 
kar formation, for wherever the specimens hitherto collected have been 
found, circumstances quite as conclusive as those above pointed out 
attend to shew that only these mechanically formed masses are in the 
slightest degree connected with the fossils, and that the formation ia 
decidedly confined within the action and limits of the river, either 
' past or present ; but very possibly similar ones may be met with in 
parallel situations in other parts of the Duab, generally alluvium, as 
yet unrecorded. 

In your note on the Narsingpor fossils, I consider A A, the rooks 
in which the bones are imbedded, to be a most accurate description of 
the deposit rocks in the Jumna, if kankar was lubetituted for rounded 
pebbles : of course, this difference the localities of these specimens has 
iJone effected, as the distance from the hills (which alone could sup- 
ply rounded pebbles of the Nerbadda, at Narsingpur) is so much less 
than the Jumna at Pachkowrif* 

* A roagh pencil sketch is here given in the MS. of the mass of kankar *' of the 
deposit formatioB,*' containing th^ foisU elephant near Pachkowri{ it lies 4^ 
feet above water-mark: the deecription in the text has been deemed luificient 
without the plate.— £o. 

■f This conglomerate varies its character according to the rocks which have 
•appttod the rounded pebblea of which it is composed ; these are sometimes gra- 
aile, sometimes kankw, and soaietfanea jasper or vitrified elay.— A deseriplion of 
extensive deposits of it in the B^jmahal hills will he the extraot- from 

274 On the Strata of the Dudb Alluvium, [Mxf , 

The position too of the rocks shewn in section, (fig. 1, PI. 21, of 
Vol. II.) as containing fossils, is such, as I should have given them, 
had au elevation of the hank of the Jumna heen required of me. Of 
course, I have had no opportunity of comparing the specimens from 
the ahove places; but from their general coincidence in position, and 
the fossil remains found in each, I am led to believe an intimate 
connexion exists between them in date, formation, and structure, and 
if, Sir, you think I have satisfactorily shewn the system of the deposit 
kankar formation in the Jumna, I think the same description would 
apply to similar formations in the Nerbadda. 

Srdly. Of the Kankar Shoals. 

These are composed of every variety of substance that is ever in 
motion in the Jumna, the most common of which are broken bricks, 
bones, shreds of earthen vessels, wood, fragments of granite, sand- 
stone, quarts, agate, water pebbles, petrified clay, and composition 
shingle, of every variety of mixture that the clay of the surrounding 
country and sand of the Jumna will admit of. This last bears a pro- 
portion of four-fifths to the whole, which being mistaken for kankar, 
(of which the quantity is very trifling,) has occasioned the misnomer 
of kankar shoals. 

It is among this heterogeneous assemblage of substances, that the 
best specimens of petrifaction are to be found. Bones, however, in 
every stage between freshness and a state approaching the hardest 
stone are procurable by turning over the surface about a foot deep ; 
but I imagine, in fact I have ascertained, that not only more perfect, 
but a considerable abnndance of the best specimens would be found 
at greater depths ; as, during levels of the river sufficiently high to 
cover these shoals, the fragments near the snrface are subject to vio- 
lent attrition, and bones and other fragile substances, to total demoli- 
tion, from the masses which are at such times continually roUing over 
them. Numerous instances occur in some of these shoals to support 

Buchanan's MSS. published in the Gleanings, vol. iii., vrhere abo its 
cbaracteriitic of containing " gianti' bones" is preserved in the Terynameof 
the place, Ajmrhdr : — this circumstance has been bronght to our notice lately by 
Mr. Stsphenson, who has lately learnt that a gentleman at the Burdwan colliery 
has collected a number of fossil bones, and shells from the sides of other hills of 
the same range. Being very anxious that this field should be again and more 
thoroughly explored, we have republished the passage from Dr. Buchanan on 
the cover of the present No., and would direct the particular attention of our 
correspondents at Monghyr, and of the engineers engaged on the Rijmahal canal 
snrvey, to the whole Une, which will probably prove as proliftc as the Nerbadda or 
the Jumna. It may also aiford proof against Mr. Dban'b account of the formatioa 
of the conglomerate, and iatrodnction of the bones within it by the action of th* 
river.— Ed. 

1835.] Md Site of Fos$U Bones in the Jumna. 275 

the opinion before advanced, namely, that the force of heat is capa- 
ble of causing the decomposition of bones, unless shielded by some in- 
tervening substance, applied daring a state of freshness, and conti- 
nued up to a certain period, the time of which must vary according to 
the quality of the bone ; but my experience does not enable me to set 
bounds to the time necessary to render one of any quality proof to the 
effects of the sun's rays. I imagine, the seasons may cause so much 
variation, that the exact time necessary for them to continue under 
this protection, cannot be better defined than between the time of 
their deposition in a state of freshness, and the extinction of every 
animal or vegetable property, when they become nothing more than 
consolidated earth ; (see specimens, the remainder of a pfpal tree, 
Nos. A 3.) and even in this state I am led to believe, that exposure 
to tlie sun would cause decompoeition, and to this, as well as to the 
eflects of attrition, must be attributed tbe very few perfect bones found 
in these positions. I once found the femur of a camel, the middle of 
which was covered by a large damp stone, the portion covered was 
perfectly petrified in its mhxAe circumference, whilst both ends were 
decomposed ; but the absence of fossi) remains in the whole section ci 
this general alluvium is more conclusive than any minor proofs that 

can be adduced. 

Very few specimens of wood occur in these situations. To the rea- 
sons advanced in explanation of the imperfect state of the bones is to 
be fkdded the greater degree of brittleness of this substance in a pe« 
trified state. I have never procured more than three specimens from 
the kankar shoals^ which I will forward with the other specimens of 
the collection. 

Petrified day (Specs. 9,) is found generally in small portions, and 
is transmuted by the same process as the earthy sub/»tanoe< to which 
wood is reduced previous to petrifaction, (spec. A 3») which to aU 
appearance has every property of indurated day* the specific gravity 
of each being nearly the same. 

Composition shingle, or cement pebbles, are produced by the admix- 
tose of day or sand in almost every proportion of each : the most com- 
soon process of the formation is as follows : 

After a heavy shower, the water in its passage through the ravines 
near the river brings down with it clay in the shape of a thick sedi- 
ment ; this in many instances, after leaving the mouth of the ravine, 
has to run over large sand beds before it reaches the river, through 
/which any considerable body of water cuts deep passages or gulleys, 
^i^iidi nm nearly horizontal 10 to 20 yards, and tlien fall 4 to 12 feet ; 
running on again, they faU and run on irregularly, until reaching the 

276 On the Strata of the Dddb Jlhviam, [Mat» 

river. When the priiici|>al body is jmssed, the sediment becomes thidcer, 
and dropping over these fialls, mixes with the sand of the horizontal run 
beneath, forming first a single irreguhir mass on the upper side, whilst 
the under is pretty irregular, and of a rounded form : in this at first 
the sand predominates, the sediment continues dropping and adding to 
the stone, until all the sand within reach has been sucked in, when tlie 
formation ceases, and all the sediment that continues to fall on the same 
spot, adds nothing to, bat merely rests on the comiH>sition, and is washed 
off by the next run of water, leaving a perfect stone. Six or eight 
stones are very frequently formed in this manner, of diftrent shapeis 
and varieties of composition, under the same falT, which is entirely re» 
gulated by accident ; in some of these sand predominates, (specs. 10 
and 1 1 ,) in others day : ag^in, the composition consists of neatly equal 
portions of each. One fall may produce 10 or 12 stones separate* 
which another -run of water may from the sediment fiilling on a layer 
of sand deposited aince their formation unite, thus forming one ttoae. 
(spec. 12,) the difierence between the fint formed and their cement 
being very perceptible. The cement becomes set and at hard as dry 
mortar in two hours after the mixture has taken place, and alter three 
days' exposure to the sun, they attain the substance of stone more or 
less hard, according to the justness of the proportion of the oomposi- 
tton ; these stones being generi^y round» are more frequently in motion 
than any other substance, and is owing to mistaking them for nataral 
kankar, (I say natural* as I believe the substance to be kankar* of 
mechanical formation, the same ingredients forming in my opinioa 
both») that the term kankar shoals has been applied. 

0/ the SmkeM J^eee. 

This dangerous obstacle to navigation i« so well known from its 
occurrence in almost all navigable rivers* whose banks are covered with 
wood, that little need be said of it here. 

The trees have originally occupied a position on the verge of the 
bank, which the stream having undermined* they have fallen into the 
river* with a quantity of earth attached to the roots* the weight of 
which firmly anchors them to the bottom, the head laying with the 
stream. In the Jamna any portion visible above the lowest levels is 
cut off to the water's edge by the inhabitants of the nearest village, 
leaving the bluff stumps of the large branches in the most dangerous 
position possible, at average levels. In 1833, the whole of these be- 
tween Agra and Allahabad were sought for and taken out;, and by the 
precautions then taken by the superintendant* it is next to impossible 
that any other instances can occur for many years^ as every tree withp 

1835.] ond Site of F099U Banea w the Jumna. 27 7 

in a certain distanoe of the river has been cut down> and others still 
ferther back marked for the eame purpose 10 or 12 years hence. 

A few may perhaps be drifted oat of the Chambnl and other tribu- 
tary streams, but of so little consequence from their small size (the 
Urge^ and dangerous ones lying where they fall), that this obstacle may 
be said to be almost entirely surmounted. 

Deseription of a cluster of four pahne and aptpal tree. These re- 
mmiw have belonged to trees once growing on the general level of 
the Bundleeund bank» which having been sapped by the stream, they 
have aHpped down with the earth, in which they grew, in the manner 
^epieaented in sketch No. 7, (7. fig. 1. PI.)* The plpal having been 
nearest the riyjer haa fallen lowest, and according to their distance 
from the edge do they now occupy their present positions, forming as 
it were a graduated scale, proving more strongly than any other in- 
stance I am awar^ the petrifying qualities of the water. All I 
eoald write on this subject would not be so conclusive of this asser- 
tion as one glance at the specimens* which I shall merely describe. 

A is the bark of the pipal stump, five feet in diameter, and about 
14 feet long, lying on a slopiiig bank, with the root towards the river. 

A 3 are portions of the body or trunk, which is reduced to that 
state, which I conceive necessary for any subsUnce to attain before 
petrifiiclion commences, viz. a total extinction of all its animal or ve- 
getable properties: whether the wood is actually changed intostone^or 
the gradual formation of stone merely destroys and ti^es its place, I 
am not able to deeide ; I can only say, when once properly petrified, the 
rings, the marks of annual growth of the tree, remain as apparent as 
when in a vegetable state. 

A 2 roots of do. in a similar state to A 1. 

B remains of the palm No. 1 \ 

C do. of do. No. 2 f f gj^^^i, No. 7. 

Ddo. of do. No. 3C 

Edo. of do. No. 4 J 

The very apparent difference of texture between specimens Nos. I 
and 4, is caused by the former lying lower; it has been more frequent- 
ly exposed to the action of the water than the latter. Nos. 2 and 3, oc- 
cupy intermediate levels. 

In adopting the term " petrified," as regards the palms, it is ne- 
cessary to observe, that the striated fracture precludes the idea that this 
is the wood, the grain of which would be loogitudiual. and confirms it 
as a tufa formation, enveloping the several parts of the tree expos- 
ed. Still I imagine, there arc sufficient portions of fibres really petri- 
fied, to warrant its being applied as a general term to these specimens. 
* We have conceived it wmeceisary to iaaert this sketch.— £o« 

278 On tAe Strata of the Dudh AUuvktm. [Mat, 

; P, S. I h^ve found on coropanson that I had oome to wrong conclu* 
sionB, with respect to Bome of the vertebrsBj I had the honor to send 
with the last parcel, of which opportunity I availed nijraelf to send all 
cf which I had the least doubt. The teeth too, which I have hitherto 
called camel's, cannot have been . rightly classed, as they bear 
not the least appearance of having belonged to the existing species, at 
least, the evenness of the crown differs entirely from any anatomical 
specimen to which I have access. 

I should have forwarded the whole of the undermentioned speci- 
mens before, but obvious reasons induced me to wait the present op- 

LUt qftpeeimem illustrating observationt on the obstacles to navigation in the 
Jumna, forwarded from Delhi, 22nd October, 1834. 

A, B, C, D, E. Specimens of the remains of a cluster of one pipal and foor 

F. Fared containing 10 apecimens of petrified animal remaini, vis. Nos. 2 
and 3y teetfa. Unknown. 

„ 14 portions of Asiatic elephants* jaw and tooth. 
„ 38 and 39, upper extremity of femur and kneepan. 
(Of these I had myself no doubt, as having belonged to a camel ; but some doubt 
having been expressed in another quarter, I have left it to your decision.) 
Nos. 40, 41, 45, 48. 49. VertebrB. 
' jr. Specimens of pipe kankar. 

y. Supposed shale. 

g. Rolled clay connected with the formation of conglomerate rocks. 

a and b. Fossil remains of an elephant from Pachcowrie. Femur and ena- 
mel of toodi. 

e. Specimens of day passing into or vitrified clay, 

d. Specimens of sandstone passing into ditto. 

1. Fine sandstone from Buniarie. 

2. Coarse ditto, from Mhow. 

3. Specimens of vitrified clay from Mnrka. 

4. Ditto of ditto, from Mhow. 

5. Ditto of ditto, from ditto. 

6. Cement formation of oonglomerate rock. 

7« Tofti ditto, of ditto, containing blade bone of csmd and other animal re* 

8. Spedmens of outer edge of beds of nodule kankar, conglomerated by car* 
bonate of lime. 

9. Specimens of petrified clay. 

10. Composition shingle, in which sand predominates. 
' 11. Ditto ditto, in which day ditto. 

12. Ditto ditto, of separate formation, cemented Into one msM* 

13. Spedmens of sandstone peculiar to the Jumna. 

NoTB. — ^We intended to have given plates of the principal fossils forwarded by 
Serjeant Dban, but the friend who had kindly undertaken to draw them has 
been prevented from accomplishing his task in time ; we must therefore rdue* 
tantly postpone their insertion and notice.—- En. 

1835.] Note on thM Gold lVa$hmg9 of the Gdmti River. 279 

V. — Naie on the Gold Wia$hing9 of the Gumti River, By Lieut. 

Cautlst, Beng. Art, 

In the 1 8th volume of the Asiatic Researches (Physical Class), the 
occurrence of gold in the line of mountains skirting the foot of the 
Himaliyas has been brought to notice by Captain HbeBbrt, and as in 
his specification of the points where it has been found, he has drawn 
oar attention chiefly to the mmgunga, and its tributaries east- ward of 
the Ganges, and has not noticed the tract of mountains upon which the 
town of N&hun stands : and as in the system adopted by the natives 
in washing the sand, as described in the paper alluded to, there is 
some difference from that of the Nahun washers ; it will be perhaps 
interesting, not onlv to bring forwar4 this new locality, but also to 
shew the simple means adopted in procuring the mineral. 

The late grand discoveries ef organic remains in the hills under 
N4han, and the consequent desire of prosecuting the inquiry as far as 
means would allow, have like many other searches led to the discovery 
of an object of a totally different nature from that in pursuit ; nor may 
we be far wrong in agreeing with Captain Hbrbsrt, that the ultimate 
discovery of gold in abundance in these regions will eventually either 
benefit some fortunate individual, or else come at once under the eye 
of the ruling power of the district. 

I will however ent<ir upon the subject of this note, previous to dis- 
cussing the probabilities of discovering the ore in situ. 

The rivers from the beds of which the sand containing the ore it 
procured derive their sources solely from this lower tract of mountaine^ 
and are not in any way connected with the Him&layas ! There does 
not appear to be any river free from the ore, although many of them 
are considered by the washers as more abundant than others, and con* 
sequently more worthy of their labor : that to which I shall particularly 
refer is named the GiimU river, which leaves the mountains at the 
village of Ch^ran ; Giimti being the name of two villages on the 
right and left of the stream, about three miles in the interior, at which 
there is a main junction of tributaries ; the river opens into the 
plains opposite to the town of Sidoura, to the westward, and parallel 
to the Cboura Pani and Markunda river, which carry off the greatest 
portion of the drainage from the hills directly under the town of 

The gold- washers are by no means numerous, and are of the poorest 
class, depending entirely on their trade for support. The Rija of Nahun 
levies a tax of a masha per annum on each trough : but although there 
is no restriction to the number of people employed, as long as this 

280 Ifote on the Gold Waohmga of the Oiimti River. [Uax, 

toll is paid, there does not appear to be any desire or competition on 
the part of the natives to carry it on, by which we may draw a tole- 
rably accurate conclasion on the retams of the trade as it now exists. 

The apparatus used by the washers consists simplv of a trough, a 
sieve made of the Sirkunda grass, a flat piece of board, with an iron 
edge for scraping up the sand, a plate or dish for carrying it away, and 
triturating the sand with mercury,' and a ladle or spoon made of a 
gourd, for raising water : with these and a little mercury in the end 
of a hollow bambu our gold-washer starts on his pilgrimage. I have 
endeavoured in the accompanying sketch PI. XVII. to give some idea of 
the process, and this will perhaps be dear enough without much expla- 
nation. The gold washer, in the first instance, examines the soil by 
washing a small quantity in his hand, the smallest particle or partidei 
of the metal are easily detected : the soil holding the greatest quantity 
appears to be that in the line upon which the drainage of the river takes 
place, for these mountain streams occupy but a small space uf their chan- 
nel during the dry months, or even at any time, with the exception of 
those periods, during the rainy months, when very heavy and succes- 
sive falls of rain charge every channel with its full supply. The 
situation proving favorable, the washer then establishes his trough ; 
the sand is placed on the sieve, and water thrown over it with the 
spoon : the coarser particles are thus separated and thrown away ; the 
man still continues pouriug water through the sieve over the sand in 
the trough, until nothing remains there but an almost impalpable 
blackish powder ; in this powder the gold dust is perceptible. This 
powder is then collected and taken out of the trough, forming a mass 
capable of being held in both hands : this is triturated with a small 
quantity of mercury on the dish or basin B, and the whole is again 
sabjected to a careful washing with the hi^nd on this dish : this latter 
washing removes every thing, but a small piece of mercury and gold 
in amalgam. The gold- washer then lights a piece of cow- dung, upon 
which he places the amalgam, and (as far as I observed in their manu- 
factories) his labor was repaid by the smallest piece of the precious 
metal imaginable. The rains are said to be the best and moat profi- 
table season : at this period, two rupees per day may be the return o^ 
one trough under a gold- washer and one assistant, the worst day's pro- 
duce about two annas; the gold is either sold to the bumids at the 
large towns in the neighbourhood, or given to zamlndirs for an 

There is a great loss of partides of the gold m the sytlem of wasth- 
ing adopted here, many of which roust pass off through the trough ; 
there is also a total loss of mercury : the latter might be easily reme- 

Id35.} Note an the Gold Waskmga of the GUmti River. 281 

died, we should imagine, were the washerv in the habit of giving the 
amalgam to their employer, who might complete the process in close 
retorts. It is evident that under the eye of an active and interested 
person, a trade might be carried on here of a description by no means 
contemptible : a much greater quantity of the mineral might be pro- 
cured ; and that on the adoption of a trade in the article, an improve- 
naent of the apparatus might be effected, tending much to that point. 
I have much pleasure in sending you three packets. 
. N9. 1, containing, the saod as found in the bed of the river. 

2, the black powder» the result of the first washii^ in the 

3, the gold ore ; and shall hope to see your note on the quality 
as well as the natural state in whieh the ore exists : it would appear 
from the account of the, washers that lumps or . larger particles than 
tho^e sent are not found, although it is by no means an easy mutter 
to get correct information on points of this sort*. . 

That the gold exists in any other shape than that of the present 
specimen in these lower mountains js very improbable. The particles 
may differ in size ; and we may in all probability detect the stratum 
C9nta^ing the gold dust, and so procure it before it has undergone 
further atjtrition in the river's bed ; but y^t. must look to the Uimal&ya^ 
themselves for. the auriferous strata^ from the disintegration of which 
the sands of these lower hills have been supplied with the mineral. 
Captain Hbrbbrt alludes to the occurrence, of the ore having been 
jtraced up to a certain point in one of the tributaries of the Rlungonga, 
a fact corroborated by Mr. Ravbnsbulw of the CivU Service, in a note to 
the Society. My inquiries establish a similar limit in the Gkimti river : 
this is a point, however, that would require very careful examination, 
and that examination under the eye of an experienced person, who, 
after all, in such a mase of mountains and rivers, would perhaps have to 
depend upon chance for successful prosecution of his labors. 

The o^nrvence of g^ld in alluvial soil is common to every quarter of 
the glpbe« although South America and Africa provides the greatest 
supply of cammerce. and in all probability there is no extensive chain 
of primary inojintain that does not charge its drainage with the mineral 
in question 1 Its incorruptible nature, and its not being subject to the 

* These have not yet reached us. Th^ bliick powder is however doabtfess 
siipiW to tkot which aooompanies the gold dost ia the rivers of Aistm and 
Ava &-*for th» most part magnetio oztda of iron. Platina nay alao be found in 
it but rarely. The use of a strong magnet would perhaps preva advantageona, 
before rubbing in the mercury for amalgamation.— >E o, 
N N 

SS3 n^ I^otic9 of the Nifdlese Sptrit StilL [M at. 

effects of oxidation from common caasee, is a sufficient reason for the 
presence of this mineral, unaccompanied by others*. 

With regard, however, to the N&hun and Rlungnnga gold, we are 
perfectly decided on one point, viz. that the rivers bearing the dost have 
no connection whatever now with the great Himal&yan chain, and there- 
fore, that if the mineral exists in abundance at any one point, it will 
be found in the hills from which these rivers derive their sources; and 
it is to be hoped, that we may even look forward to the ultimate disco- 
very of gold in comparatively as great abundance as the present fosaila, 
the existence of which, six months ago, would have been as much 
doubted as the possibility of finding gold now may be* 

Northern Dudb, April lOtk, 1835. 

VI. — Notice of the Nipdiese Spirit StilL By A. Campbbli., Esq. 

M. D. attached to the N>pal Residency, 

The accompanying <P1. XVII.) is a rough sketoh of the still in univer- 
sal use throughout the valley of N^p£l Proper, as well as its neighbour- 
ing hilly country ; and so far as I can learn in the portions of eastern 
Thibet, usually visited by Nipilese traders, on the beaten commercial 
routes, by the Kerim and Kuti passes of the Himalaya, to Digarchi 
and Lhissa. I believe it to be as different from that commonly used 
in the plains of India, as it assuredly is from any with which I am 
acquainted as existing in Eiuropean countries, and as its use is con- 
fined here chiefly to the New&r population, it needs no apology for 
intrusion on the public attention. 

In India, (so far as my recollection is £sithful,) Ntp£leee men, man- 
ners, and things are regarded, as pertaining exclusively to the mling 
dasa of the communitfy yclept Gurkh£a ; this arises partly from 
want of better information on, or curiosity regarding, N^p£l afi^rs ; 
partly from the common habit of identifying the whole people of a 
country, with the few, who may for a time direct its destinies, bnt 
chiefly from N^plU being best known to as, as the theatre of a two- 
years' war between one power and the afore-mentioned tribe. 

The Newirs, as is well known, were down to the Ghrkh£ conquest 
the rulers of this valley, and were, as far as at present ascertained, its 

* In the gpedmens from the alluTial soil of the BraiiUy the particles of gold 
nmch larger than those found in the Nkhun sand, appearing like tittle boulders, 
or Touided masses of the mineral. In my cabinet the Brazilian allurium is clay, 
or argillaoeons matter, with rounded pebbles of white quarU, Mr. Mxwa hsv- 
fag provided the specimen. 

1835.] Notice of the jttipHeee Spirit Still. 283 

original inhabitants*. At the present time they -form the great mass 
of the agricnltural and artisan popnlati<Ni, and the ruins of their well- 
bailt temples and towns painfully manifest the giving place of their 
civilization to the rude and barbarian horde of monntaineers who 
now consume in military idleness the fruits of their fertile fields. 
Like other tribes of the human race, the New^rv hare lost their day 
of progress, and little remains to them now, save their eminently in- 
dostriooa habits, and a skill in agriculture far exceeding in efficiency 
that iittained and practised in the neighbouring plains of Hindi!ist£n. 
The fate of the New&rs, and the many good qualities by which they 
are distinguished, renders all connected with them of much interest* 
Their original country, previous to their advent in N^p&l, remains aa 
yet undecided. The decidedly Tartarian cast of their physical form.aad 
monosyllabic structure of their language, makes Thibet claim them aa 
her's. The most popular fabulous traditions of the race point to India 
as the source of their existence, while the religious creed as a meana 
of arriving at a correct knowledge of then: origin has, aa yet, I be- 
lieve, proved defectivef. 

The manners and customa of a people, when known, go far to shew 
the intimacy of connexion with neighbouring countries ; and, I be- 
lieve» that were those of the Newlirs (in such purity as they existed 
before the Gdrkhi conquest) taken as an index to their original 
country, few links of close connexion would remain to bind them to 
India, while many and strong onea woukL shew their fihoteah origin. 
The still, then, as an instrument of universal use, supposing it un* 
known in India, and to be the only one used in neighbouring Thibet* 
will go for something (trifling enough it is true) in the enumeration 
of domestic usages; and I now return to it. 

. The furnace on which the still is represented aa resting, while at 
work, is commonly the day ckula of India, or made of unbumed 
bricks. The body of the still (phud) is of copper* and is seldom 
made to contain more than 15 or 20 gallons, and costs from 30 to 40 
mohuri mpeest. Over the open month of the pMsi is placed the 
portion marked (3) named p»/a9t; it is of burned day, about the 
same size aa the body of the still, and has a drcle of round perfora* 
tions, each the size of a crown-piece, flanking the large opening at its 
base, as represented in (7) of the sketch. The junction of the pkiJisi 
and pmtoii being secured by a luting of moist clay, the receiver nam- 

* See Mr. Hodoson'b paper on the Aborigines of N^p&l Proper, in the Jour- 
nal of the Asiatic Society, for May, 1834. 

f It is calcnlated that about two-thirds of the Newir populatioii of N<iptfl art 
BoMhists, the remainder Brahminical Hindus. 

X One mohnri mpce is equal to 12i annas sicca* 

N N 2 

284 NoHce of the Nipdleee Spirit StiU. [Mat, 

ed ddbli, and marked (6) is put into the putasi; its base, corre- 
sponding in circumference to the large opening in the latter, fills it op 
completely, and leaves the circle of smaller holes free, for the passage 
of the spirituous vapour, to ascend into the still head, or patasi. 

The receiver being placed as above noted, within the portion mark- 
ed (3), the vessel (5), named hatta, or condenser of copper, is fiUed 
with cold water, and placed over, and into the mouth of the pmtasi^ 
or still-head, fitting so close, as to prevent the escape of any portion 
•of the spirituous vapour from the latter. Thus fitted, the distillation 
is accomplished, care being taken to remove the condenser so often aa 
is necessary to replace the water become warm, by colder, fit for the 
condensation of the spirit uons steam. 

The shape of the condenser suits the performance of its office ; the 
vapour rising through the smaller holes around the receiver comes in 
contact with its entire surface, and being there condensed, runs to- 
wards the apex of it, and thence falls into the sub-incumbent receiver. 

The still is charged, of necessity, previous to the fixing of the le- 
ceiver and condenser, and these portions are removed at each fresh 
charge; the receiver being either emptied of its contents and replaced, 
or a spare one introduced. 

At each removal of the condenser there is of course some loss 
from the escape of vapour, but it is trifling, as there are usually two 
of these vessels attached to each still, and thus the time occupied in 
replacing a warm condenser, by a cold, is very inconsiderable. 

It must be admitted, that this process is rather rude, and it wUl be 
eeen, that the construction of the still has not reference to the most 
approved principles for economising fuel. It is deep and narrow, in- 
stead of broad and shallow, yet it is very efficient ; and it must be re- 
membered, that the shallow broad stUl even in Europe is of very 
modem date, and the result of the severe excise laws, existing in our 
own, and more civilized countries. 

' There is one peculiarity in the working of this still, worthy of re- 
mark, and the advantages of which in saving fuel compensate in some 
degree for its rudeness. So soon as the still is in full play, and a por- 
tion of vapour has been condensed, and reached the receiver, a fresh 
distillation commences. 

The receiver heated from below causes the spirits to be converted 
into vapour, which is again condensed, and thus a constant round of 
distillation is carried on between the receiver and condenser, in addi* 
tion to the proper distillation of the contents charging the body of 
the still. Alcohol, at the specific gravity of 863, can be produced 
from this still, and I have used it with complete success, in making the 


JT^alut, StUl and: ecmf>fiiuii£j>ara. 

Jig. 6. 

1 835 .] Notice of the NipaU$e Spirit StUL 2d5 

Bpiiits of turpentine, and the reeiduam of yellow resin from the Ganda 
firoza of Nfepfl*, both of these articles, being equally good for medi- 
cinal and other purposes, as that to be had in Calcutta, and, I believe, 
much cheaper. 

The ubiquity of this still throughout the valley arises from the free- 
dom of distillation sanctioned by the rulers. Excise laws for whiskey- 
making are as yet unknown here, and were their executives to ap- 
pear among the peaceable Newirs, I fear the fate of some of them 
might resemble that of Robert Burn's man of this craft. 

Every Newar, who can nfford it, distils his own Rakshi (spirits from 
rice), and all the lower orders of this people, and many of the respec- 
table ones, are greatly addicted to the use of spirits. They are not 
by any means given to habitual drunkenness, but they indulge for the 
good of their healths, regularly and moderately. In the rice- field, 
cold and wet as it is, the bottle is a great and ever present comfort ; 
while at a religious meeting, or on the celebration of a birth or mar- 
riage, it g^es merrily and rapidly round ; males and females, young 
and old, alike partaking of it, to the increase of social happiness and 
joy in all. 

Few sights in N^p&l are more grateful to the foreign visitor, than 
the feasts and merry-makings of the Newars: on such occasions they 
congregate on some green and sunny spot, near a temple, or old 
image, with a running stream of limpid water passing through it, and 
there, for the live-long day, in the idle seasons of the year, do they 
ting, play on the musical instruments of their tribe, often dance and 
ever laugh, enlivened by the rakshi stoup it's true; but the main- 
spring of their joy is the cheerful and happy temperament they pos- 
sess, to an eminent degree, in strong and pleasing contrast with the 
sour looks and arrogant demeanour of the Gurkhas, or the melan- 
choly and apathetic countenances of the inhabitants of Uinddstfin, 
who sojourn for a time among them. 

Reference to Plate of Still, and its component portions. 

Names in Newiri language. English synon3rme8. 

1 Phdsi, 1 Body of still. 

2 Sachi 2 Luting (of clay). 

3 Put&i 3 Still-head. 

4 Bhuta, 4 Furnace. 

5 Batta, 5 Condenser, (copper.) 

6 Dubli 6 Receiver, (earthen.) 

7 Putasi, (section of,) 7 Section of Still-head), 

* Commonly cslled Ganda Biroza; it is well known to be the exudation from 
the denuded trunk of the different species of the pine throughout these mountains. 

286 Inscription from Kesariah, [Mat, 

YII. — Note on an Inscription found near the Kesariah Mound, in Tirhdt. 
By J. B. Elliott. Esq, (PL XVII. fig. Q.) 

[In a note to the Editor.] 

Having seen mention of the Kesariah Mound made io the last No. 
of your Journal, I beg to enclose the impreseion of an inscription cut 
below the figures of the Avatars, sculptured on a black stone, which I 
obtained at Kesariah several years ago from a fakir. The figures being 
small and rudely sculptured, it is not worth while making a copy of 
them ; but as the inscription could not be made out by the Pandit of 
the Chaprih Committee, it may be worth deciphering. I visited and 
made some notes on the subject of the pillars, and other antiquities in 
Champ&ran. whicb I may. perhaps, hereafter communicate. 

Note. — ^ThiB fragment, which is Brahmanioal, not Buddhist, is in an 
ancient form of D^vanagari, diflPering little from that noticed on the 
Bakra image of Mr. STtPHBNsoN, It breaks off abruptly with an 
initial i .* — for it id only to kirttir iha that any meaning can be traced : 
while the diphthong ai or ^ is plain over tke last letter, which I con- 
clude to be an h. The reading in modern D6vanagarf will be as 
follows : I have added a literal Latin version. 

P«srpetuu8 B. Candradattvs Sv'atadatti "6Akti*''.(recttaiidi).proprlo.tem. 
poTe*(8e.)-8olis»die«>ii«tiif « Gloria hlo 

The interpretation of which in English will be : — 
" The ever-living Chandradatta Was born on the Sunday appro- 
priated to the reading of fhe Sdkta by his father Su^rtadatta. dory 

here • " (The S^ta is the most sacred h3rmn of the Rig Veda» 

closing its 8rd Ashtaka or Ogdoad — and has for one of its verses 
the celebrated Giyatri.) 

W. H. M. 

pJoTB. — ^I take this opportunity of pointing out, in reference to my observrntioa 
on the Bakrk image inscription, (page 131,) that I had overlooked a plate ia 
Franklin's Palibothra, of a Baddhist image, with an inscription, to which Looiit, 
CuNNiNOHAif has since drawn my attention. On turning to it, I perceive, that 
the two lines separately given are, though miserably perverted by the copykt, 
procisely the same as the ye dktarmmd kdtum, Stc. of SirmAth. Hie thr«e lines 
on the pedestal, though stated in the text to be different, would appear to be the 
same also ; at least the two first words, ye dharmmdf are distinct.---^. P.] 

1835.] Asiatic Society, 2S7 

VI 11. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 

Wednesday Bwnhtg, the 3rd June, 1835. 

The Honorable Sir Eowaud Rtaiv, President^ in the chair. 

Read the proceedings of the last meeting. 

Mr. John Richards^ proposed by Mr. Baosbaw^ seconded by Mr. Tub- 
?ELTAN, was duly elected a member. 

Mr. J. P. Gkant was proposed by Mr. Trbvbltan, seconded by Mr. J* 
CoLviN. Mr. Wm. Adam, proposed byCapt. Forbes, seconded by Mr. Harr. 
Mr. Wm. Hy. Benson, proposed by Dr. Mill, seconded by Mr. Prin8bi». 

Captain Tatlor, Madras Cav. proposed by Mr. Macmaobtbn, seconded 
by Sir £. Ryan. 

Dr. Evans, Mr. Phayre, 7th Regt. Bengal S. I., Mr. Stocqueler, and 
Lieut. MoNTRiou, Ind. N. were proposed by Dr. Pearson, and seconded 
by Mr. J. Prinsep. 

The Secretary brought up the following : 

Report of the Committee of Papere on Mr. J. T. Pearson' a proposition Jhr 

creating a new order of Membere, to be denominated ** A$eociate Membere qftha 

Amatie Society,*' 

1. *' We consider Dr. PcAaaoN's propositioQ for ereatiag Aeeoeiate Members 
to be worthj of adoption by the Society, and we would propose that they should 
enjoy all the priTileget of ordinary members ; but we would suggest, that by way 
of maintaining more than the mere distinetionof name between the iAttocMlvaad 
the Honorary Members, some contribution, however trilliog, should be re* 
quired from the former class. The Aeeoeiatet, it may be presumed, would be 
composed of men, whose reputation would not be anffictently briUiaot to admit 
of their being classed among our Honorary Members* They would, in all prolMu 
biHty, did their circumstances admit, become ordinary paying members, and the 
principle upon which the present proposition rests, is, tSiat the Society de« 
sirous of removing this obstruction, and encouraging their labours, is willing 
to admit them on a less expeasire footing : at the same time, lequlring a moderate 
contribution to distinguish them from those eminent men, whom it considers 
an honor to itself, to enrol in Hs Hat of members. 

2. " Under the above considerations, we concurin recommending that the anno* 
al payment of Associate Members be fixed at four rupees. Their election to pro- 
ceed in the mode presc ri bed for honorary members, that is, to be previously sub- 
mitted to the Committee of Papers for report. 

** For the Committee of Papers, 
'• Mth May, 1835. *< J. PRINSEP, Secy.'* 

The President,followed by Mr. J. R. Colyik, proposed that ** the first 
part of the Report be adopted, " That there should be Associate Members, 
naving all the privileges of ordinary members." 

Mr. D. Ross, seconded by Mr. McFarlan, moved as an amendment, that the 
words " with the exception of any power of voting on money questions" be ad- 
ded. This amendment was lost, as was another proposed by Mr. N. B. E. Bail- 
LiR, seconded by Capt. Forbbs, *' that they should have all the privileges of 
ordinary members, except the right of voting." 

The motion was then put and carried ; the second proposal was also 
nmde into a resolution, viz. '' That Associate Members shall pay an an- 
miRl ooiitribatio& of four rupees." 

The Secretary aabmitted also the— 

Mspart i^iha C&mmittes ofPapere, on Mr, Gardnbr*s appUeation and ettimats 

for Repakrmg the MeimumaU ^f Sir Wilmam Jon as. 

" The Committee find on inquiry that the repairs may be executed at an ex- 
penoe of about 150 rupees. 

" They trust the members will be unanimous in thinking it desirable, to evince 
the respect of the Society for the memory of its illustrious founder, by authoris- 

5ea Asiatic Society. [MaY , 

Ins the triHiBg espance which will be raqnirad to repair hie moniiiiient» and U 
preaer^e from oblilermtioii that beautiful epitaph which he wrote for himaelf, and 
which is so characteristic of the indepeadeal nprig htneas and the nnaiected piet j 

of ita author. 

*' For the Committee of Paperst 

«• 20a May, 1835. " J- PRINSEP, S«ry." 

Proposed bv the Rev. Dr. Mill, Vioe-President, eeconded by Mr. Coi- 
TIN. and reeolvedy that the Report of the Committee be adopted and acted 


The draft of a Memorial to Government, regarding Oriental Pubtica. 
lions, prepared by a Spedal Cmnmittee, appointed at the hist meetiai^, was 
then read by the President^ Uking the sense of the meeting on each panu 
graph. The fbUowin§p it the Memorial^ as finally adopted : 

2\> the Hon'hh Sir C. T. Mbtcalfb, Bart. Gov. Oeneral of India in Council, 

O^. cyC. <!yC 

Honorable Sir and Sirs, 

The Members of the Asiatic Society, now resident in Calcutta, liava 
requested me, as President of their body, to address the Honorable the 
Governor General in Council, on a subject which engages their deepest 


3. It has come to the knowledge of the Society that the funds which have 

been hitherto in part applied to the revival and improvement of the lite, 
rature and the encouragement of the learned natives of India^ are hence- 
forth to he exclusively appropriated to purposes of English education. 

21. — The Asiatic Society does not presume for a moment to doubt the pow« 
er of the Government to apply its funds in such manner as it may deem to 
be most consistent with the intentions of the legislature, and most advan. 
tageous for the great object of educating its Indian subjects ; but they 
contemplate with the most sincere alarm the effect that such a mea<Nire 
might produce on the literature and languages of the country, which it 
had been hitherto an object both with the Government and with the £du. 
cation Committee, under its orders, to encourage and patronize^ unless 
the proposition which they have the honor to submit^ meet with the favo- 
rable attention of Government. 

i. — The Society has been informed, that this departure from the coarse 
hitherto pursued has been ordered to take such immediate effect, that the 
printing of several valuable oriental works has been suddenly suspended, 
while they were in different stages of progress through the press ; and that 
the suspension has been alike extended to the legendary lore of the East, 
and to the enlightened science of the West, if clothed in an Asiatic lao. 

5. — ^The cause of this entire change of cr^stem has been, the Sociaty un. 
derstand, a desire to extend the benefits of Englinh instruction more widely 
among the natives of India ; the fund hitherto appropriated to that piuw 
pose not being deemed sufficient, 

6. — The Members of the Society are individually and collectively warm 
advocates for the diffusion, as far as possible, of English arts, soienoesy and 
literature ; but they cannot see the necessity, in the pursuit of this £ava. 
rite object, of abandoning the cultivation of the ancient and beauUfiii 
languages of the East. 

7. — The peculiar objects of the Asiatic Society, and the success with 
wliich its members have, under the auspices of their iUustriotts IbuAder, 
prosecuted their researches into the hidden stores of oriental knowledge, 
entitle them to form an opinion of the value of these ancient tooguea, inti» 
mately connected as they are with the history, the habits^ the langnaffea, 
and tne institutions of the people ; and it is this which emboldens them 

IddS.] Asiatic Sodeif. S69 

to step forwftrd on soch «i occasion as the present to offer an humble but 
earnest prefer^ that the encouragement and support of the British Govern^ 
meat imj not be withdrawn from the languages and literature of the vast 
and ▼nried p opa la t ion, whom Pvovidenee has committed to its protectioHb 

8. — Many arguments of policy and humanity might be advanced in sup» 
port of their present solicitafeion, upon which the Society do not deem it 
within their province to expatiate. There is one argument^ however, which 
appears to be of so eonelusive a character as to require distinct notice 
in this AppeaL 

9. — It is admitted by all, even the most enthusiastic advocates of the Eng. 
Itsh 83rstem of tuition, that this language never can become the language of 
the greae body ef the people whose moral and intellectual improvement is 
the benevolent object of tiie British Government. It is moreover admitted, 
that the Sanscrit language, while it is directly the parent ef the dialects 
spoken from Cashmere to the Kistna, and from the Indus to the Brahma* 
putra, is also the source from which every other dialect of the Peninsula, 
and even many languages of the neighbouring countries, have been for 
ages dependent for every term extending beyond the merest purposes 
of animal or savage life. If it were possible to dry up this source of 
literarv vegetation, which gives beauty and fertility to the dialects of 
India in proportion to the copiousness of its admixture ; the vernacular Ian. 
guages would become so barren and impovenshed, as to be wholly unfit to 
be the channels of ele«int literature or useful knowledge. The same may 
be said of Arabic and Persian as regards the Hindustani language. 

10. — ^The Society are far from meaning to assert that the withdrawal of 
the aupport of Government, from the cherished languages of the natives of 
India, would put an end to the cultivation of them. On the contrary, they 
think that the natural and necessary effect would be that both the Hindua 
and Muhammedans would, in that event, adhere with tenfold tenacity to 
those depositaries of all they hold sacred and valuable. But, incalculable 
mischief, in a variety of shapes, would nevertheless be effected. If the 
British Government set the example of neglecting oriental studies, it can 
hardly be expected that many of their European subjects will cultivate 
them. The field will then be left in the undisturbed possession of those 
whose unprofitable husbandry is already but too visible, and who will 
pursue it with a view to the perpetuation of superstition and defective 
morality among the people. An influence will tnus be lost, the benefit of 
which to the more intellectual classes of natives can scarcely be estimated 
too highly, arising from the direction given to their studies and pursuits 
by those who can freely acknowledge what is intellectually and morally 
woable in their previous systems, and distinguish it from what is of an 
c^poaite character: and who take the first and most neoesaary step for 
removing the wrong prejudices of others, by proving that they are without 
imfust priJQdice themselves. It- needs no laboured nroof to shew how 
imnitety more powerful must be our protest against what Is demoralixing 
or deboAng in the natiye institutions, when we act with this knowledge 
and this spirit, than if we commenced by repudiating every thing Aslatio, 
ae contemptible, and acknowledged no basis of intellectunl communication 
with them, bnt what was formed in the peculiar fashions of modem Europe. 

11. — If the Sanscrit andAn^ic languages,con8ecrated as they are by ages 
of the remotest antiquity— enshrined, as they are, in the affections of vener- 
ating millions — the theme, as they are, of the wonder and of the admiration 
of nil the learned nations of Europe ;^if these languages are to receive no 
OQPpert from a Government which baa been ever famed for its liberality and 
Uo jnetioe,— from a Government which draws an annual revenue of twenty 
■aiUioiM fkron the people by whom these languages are held sacred, it is the 
stoeided opinion or the Astatic Sodetywan opinion whidi they want words 


MO Asiuiic Sodetjf. [M^r. 

to express with adequate force, that the eaose of eivilisiitloa and the 
character of the British nation will alike sustain irreparable injury. 

13. The Society, therefore^ earnestly beseech the Honorable the Governor 

General in Council, that if,on full consideration, any reasonable doubt shall 
be entertained by the Supreme Government of the right of the native lite, 
rature to a fair proportion of the sum appropriated by Parliament, ** for 
the revival and improvement of literature, and for the encouragement 
of learned natives of India," he will then be pleased either himself to 
grant, or if necessary, to solicit from the Court of Directors, some spe* 
cific pecuniary aid to be annually expended on these objects. And the 80. 
cicty will be happy to undertake the duty of superintending the expendi. 
ture of this sum, under such checks as it may please the Government to 

impose. ' 

13. — But whatever may be the determination of the Government on this 
point, the Society respectfully intreat the Governor General in Council, 
that he will be pleased to aiford to them the assistance of the learned na. 
tives hitherto employed in these literary undertakings, together with such 
pecuniary aid as may be necessary, to complete the printing of the oriental 
works, which has been interrupted by the resolution of Government to direct 
the funds hitherto expended upon them to purposes of English education. 

14. — Should Government be pleased to accede to this request, the Socio, 
ty will furnish with as little delay as possible an estimate of the amount 
which wiU be required for the attainment of this object. 

15. — The Society cannot doubt that the Governor General in Council will 
support their appeal to the home authorities with his powerful advo. 
cacy, nor Uiat the earliest opportunity will be taken of bringing the 
merits of the important and entirely national question it embraces, be- 
fore the Honorable the Court of Directors, in all its bearings. This 
address has been dictated solely by the desire of proffering to Go. 
vernment the services of an appropriate organ, through which the pub. 
lication of the oriental classics may be continued, and that further 
patronage extended to oriental studies, which it cannot believe the Govern, 
ment to have any intention of altogether abandoning. 

Edward Ryan, President 

Atiatic Sodetffs ApartmenUy 1 
June Srd, 1835. J 

Upon the first five paragrAphs one or two verbal alterations only were suggested. 
On the 6th, which originally ended, '* bat they would deeply regret if, In the pursuit 
of this favorite object, it were thought necessary or advisable to abandon, &e." 

Mr. CoLViN b^^d to propose the omission of the word ** favorite," as ap- 
plied' in the abo?e paragraph of the Address to the object of extending the meaas 
of English education. It appeared to him to convey an unnecessary imputa- 
tion, as if of prejudiced fkvoritism or partiality. He would here say (al« 
ludiag to some remarks which had passed in conversation), that he enter* 
tained as cordial a desire, as any one could do, to promote the literary par- 
poses, with a view to which the Society was formed. He, as a member of the So* 
ciety, fully sympathised in the feeling which would se^^k to maintain the know- 
ledge and cultivation of the oriental languages and literature, and he wooM rea« 
dily join in an address to Government to obtain its patronage and pecuniary lup- 
port for those studies; but he had hoped that the proceedings of the evening w«re 
to be firee from controversy. He had not been present at the meeting of the 
previous month, but he had seen with great gratification, that the proposition 
then adopted was for the preparation of a memorial, '* which should avoid to tiie 
utmost all controversial points.*' He feared from the observations which had 
been made that he should be disappointed in this respect. He had, however, been 
unintentionally led, by what had passed, into a digression ; returniBg to the 
object for which he had risen to speak, he proposed the omission of the word 
** favorite" in the passage which had just been read. 

ISd5.] Mmiic Society. 99.1 

Mr. W. H. MACiTAOHTBir could not help exprening hi« astenfslimeiity «t tlie 
obserrmdoni which had been made by the gentleman who had just aat down. He had 
hoped that in this place at least, oriental literature would have found protection and 
lavor : that, howcTer ruthlesaly and auccessfally the opposition to this cause ought 
have manifested itself in other quarters ; here, at least, no enemy would be per- 
mitted to enter under the garb of a votary, and that this sanctuary of scienco 
might not be polluted by any unhallowed voice. Now he was tempted to exclaim, 
Procut, O proeul nte pro/ani ! 'When be heard a gentleman coming fomard with 
such an objection as has been made, he could not help ascribing it to something 
more than a dislike to the epithet. What expression could possibly have been 
used more innocent or more appropriate ? Here was the fact before them, that the 
fVinds dedicated to oriental literature had been entirely carried off ; that works of 
all descriptions, scientific as well as others, had been strangled in the very 
act of coming into the world, and thrown aside as useless and pernicious ; and 
after aH this, when they said that the authors of this to them grievous calamity 
were actuated by another /ovort/e object, they were taken to task for the ozprea« 
■ion. He really wanted words to express his surprise at sueh a frivolous objection 
being urged, and he trusted the Society would evince the same sense of it as he 
entertained, that it wa» wholly unworthy of being attended to. 

Mr. CoL vim's proposition was not seconded. 

Mr. PftiNStP, thought that the terms ' deeply regret* were not nearly strong 
enough to show the sentiments of the Society — he would suggest * eaimoi see the 
meeemty as more appropriate. 

This expression after some discussion was substituted. 

On the perusal of the 12th paragraph, which stood originally as follows : 
. '< The Society therefore earnestly beseech the Honorable the Governor Oeneral 
in Council, that he will be pleased to eQlieit pecuniary aid from the Court qf JH^ 
reetore^ to be mmuaUy i^^propriated to the revival qf the oriental literature, and 
the encouroffemeni qf learned natipee, and the Society will be happy to under- 
take the superintendence, &c.'* 

Mr. H. T. Pbinssp moved as an ai^endment, that the sentence be altered, (as 
it now stands in the memorial,) to convey a stronger expression of the So« 
ciety's feeling on the recent measure. 

Mr. CoLviN said, that he must oppose the amendment. He tooV the liberty 
of again addressing the meeting, as he was desirous to record his opinion on the 
question which had now been brought under discussion. He would not enter 
into an argument on the point of law which had been mooted. He had himself 
always considered, and still considered, the orders of the Government to be fully 
eoBsistent both with the terms and the spirit of the act of Parliament. He must 
tbink it difficult to believe, that the legislature, in the first, and only specific 
appropriation which it had made with a view to the mental advancement of the In- 
4/Hua people, had intended not to entrust to the Government, to which it has com- 
nitted the immediate control of these territories, the discretion of applying the 
land as it might judge most expedient and practicable, in order to the cultivation 
of the most improved literature, and the communication of the most enlightened 
systems of knowledge, which its sulgects mig^t be found willing to receive at its 
kands. It appeared to him a strange conclusion, that it had been meant by the 
Bferitiflh Parliament to render compulsory the maintenance of a system calcinated 
ta perpetuate the ignorance and pjrejudioes of the people — that it had been 
4csigBed to fetter this Government and to restrain it from measures of 
improvement. But he had said, that he would not go into a discussion of the 
point of. law. He would rather state what he considered to be the duty of the 
Society in regard to the address which was now to be presented. Was it propeiv 
he would ask» — ^was it respectlult in going up to Government as applicanto for iti 
•eeiatanee, that they should assert, by implication, that it had, in its late measure, 
deviated from ita proper course ? Was that a subject which the Society ou^t to 
entertain at all ? Farther, he would urge that it would certainly be most disad* 
wutageow lor their own purpose, were they, in appealing to the liberality of 


1292 Anatic Society. [Mat, 

Goyernment, to express m any manner disapprobation of Hs prooeedinga. Look- 
ing only to the motive of securing the sncoess of the apptieation which they were 
about to make, he would say, omit in the address all and every topie of oontro- 
Yersy. The Government, in receiving an address snch as was now proposed, 
would appear called vpon to vote its own condemnation. He would, on these 
grounds, give his voice against the amendment. 

Mr. Macnaghtbn again rose, and spoke to the following effect r 

Mr. Peksidbnt, we have been assured by Mr. Colvin more than once, that he 
is no lawyer. He could not have asserted with equal truth, that he is no preach- 
er, for he has favoured us with a very lengthy discourse on our duties, both to 
the Government and the people. But I must take the liberty of differing with him 
altogether, as to the doctrines he has propounded. We are an independent, and 
I trust, a respectable body, congregated for the purpose of promoting by . every 
means in our power the cause of literature and science. As the guardians ik 
that sacred cause, it is not only our privilege, but our duty to appeal, respectfully 
it is true, but earnestly, to that power which is competent to rescue it from im- 
pending danger. 1 would go further and say, thnt if the Government could be so 
infatuated as to declare open hostility against the languages and literature of tha 
people of India, it would be an obli|^tion, of which we could not divest our- 
selves without disgrace, to remonstrate against such a proceeding with all our 
energies. If we think ^rs have the law as well as the justice of the case on our 
side, no liberal, no equitable Government would be offended by our pointing it 
out.— Mr. Colvin has sgain returned to the ground which he first took up, and 
has indulged in the use of slighting and contemptuous language as applied to ori- 
ental studies. He has moreover asserted, that such sentiments are entertained 
by the natives themselves. Gentlemen, I have now been resident in this country 
.upwards of twenty-six years, and, I believe, I may say, that I liave not been defi* 
cient in my attention to the genius of the people, their languages, their literature, 
their habits, or their prejudices, and I will venture to affirm, that nothing can be 
more without foundation than the supposition which Mr. Colvin appears to enter- 
tain. Oriental literature has much to recommend it, and the natives of the coun- 
try are passionately devoted to that literature. It cannot be otherwise. I cannot 
sit down without again expressing my astonishment, that this place should have 
been selected for such an attack. If havoc and desolation rage around us, we 
may not be able to prevent it ; but here in the citadel of our strength, that an effort 
At our overthrow should be made, is to me astonishing. I have no fear, however, 
that it will be successful, or that there will be difference of opinion as to the cha- 
racter of the proceeding. ' 

The P&B81DKNT, however unwilling to offer an opinion from the chair, must 
object to the amendment, because it appeared to entertain a doubt of the legality 
of the course pursued. Government acted by advice, and there remained an ap. 
peal to the proper tribunals if any interest were aggrieved. He was anxious to 
unpress on the Society the necessity of abstaining from legal and political dis- 
cussions, as quite out of character in a literary and scientific institution. Otherwiae 
they must lose many members who could not vote, nay, could not sit, where 
such topics were to be canvassed. The case was strong enough of itself ; tkt 
application for continuing the suspended oriental publications was a most proper 
object for the Society to urge ; it should have his warmest support, provided it 
were unmixed with other matters which had been the subject of discussion dse- 
where, and upon which the Government had expressed their opinion. He had a 
very strong opinion on the necessity of excluding debatable topics of this nature 
from the Society, and If they were to continue such discussions he for one should 
be compelled to retire. Literary and Scientific subjects seemed to him the only 
matters proper for discussion with them, except the little usual businats which 
tnust of course be disposed of. 

' Mr. M ACN AOHTEN, with the most unfeigned deference and respect to the learned 
President, must take leave to express his doubts, as to the doctrine which he had 
delivered, or at all events to seeic for some explanation which might solve his dif« 
ficttkies. He understood from him, that in this place, they irere never competent to 
touch upon a question of law, and that if they did, those who are connected witlk 

1835.1 A9iatk Society. 99S 

tlie legal p rofcw lon nnttt eene to be memben of the Society. Tliis doctrine teemed 
to him to involre the Becessity of nibmittf ng to eveiy epeeies of ipoliatioa. More- 
orer that they were not competent to advert in any way to themeaaniea of Gorern- 
meat. Now it appeared to him, that they were not here aa lawyen or as civil or 
military lerTanta of the Company ; and that when they met in this hall, they di- 
Tested themseWes of those characteriyand appeared only in the character of the ser- 
▼ants of science and of literature, the guardians of oriental learning, and the re- 
presentatives of its interests both in Asia and in Europe. In that sacred character 
they were bound to be vigilant and active. Indeed, he could conceive cases involv- 
ing questions of law, in which they should feel themselves compelled to act. Snpw 
posing the Government were to be advised that they held a mortgage in the So- 
ciety's premises, and that upon this hint, they were to proceed nutanter to tan eject- 
ment. Ought they in such a case tamely to resign their right, because there hap- 
pened to be lawyers among them ? He could understand the motive which should 
restrain particular gentlemen from expressing an opinion, but he could not con- 
ceive any circumstance which would justify their surrendering without a struggle 
the rights of their constituents. Those constituents are, he said, the literary men 
of all nations. They had an awful trust imposed upon them, and they must ex- 
ecute it fidlhfully and conscientiouslj as a great public body, without any per- 
sonal motives, or any personal scruples. 

Mr. pRiNSET felt great diffidence in expressing his dissent fh>m what had 
fallen from the President, the more so, as he was himself a most unworthy 
member, whereas the President's merits towards the Society were of the highest 
character. But he could not think, under British Government, any society, ot 
even any individual could have the least hesitation in expressing respectfiilly an 
opinion, that the Government had misconstrued a law, when that misconstruction 
was likely to do injury to the rights or the feelings of so large a portion of ita 
tnbjects as the native community formed in thia country. No wihTul error or wrong 
was imputed to the Government : but surely it was not too much to say, as he was 
confident was the case, that Government had in this instance been ill-advised and 
misled. He did not speak as a lawyer, but as a member of this Society, whose 
position in respect to the literature of India had been well described by Mr. 
Ma CN A6BTBN. That there could be no possible oiTence to Government in so 
expressing themselves he felt assured, by seeing members and high officers of the 
Government ready to join in so doing. He was somewhat surprised at what had 
fallen from Mr. Colvin, as to the ancient literature of India, being calculated 
only to perpetuate idolatry and superstition. What would be thought, if 
England had possessed herself of Greece, a part of which was under her dominion, 
and had bestowed funds for reviving its language and literature, — would .any one 
be listened to who should urge, that with the language of Greece one would be re- 
viving her mythology ? The most advantageous thing for the advancement of 
European literature in India was to revive that of the country, and place them in 
contrast aide by side : it was easy to see which must then prevail. He did not 
think the Society should take so humble a tone as to ask, as a charity, that which 
Parliament had given as a right, and would rather not succeed in the object that 
aO had equally at heart, than take it in the shape of an eleemosynary donation. 

Mr. H. T. Prinsbv quoted the words of the act, which he believed had been 
grounded on a minute of Mr. H. Colbrookb's, specially pointed to the literature 
and learned nativea of the country. He thought there could be no doubt aa to 
the meaning of the clause, and if such were entertained by any present, he 
should not hesitate to take the votes of members as to the construction to be put 
upon the words. Entertaining this opinion, he thought the Society ought to have 
no hesitation about expressing it ; and as for the fact stated, that the Government 
had put a diiferent interpretation upon the law, he knew not how the Society 
could know that these questions had ever been determined by the Government. 
Bat even if thia point bad been so ruled, tnat was no reason why the members 
of this Society, if their opinion was clear as to the legal rights of this literature, of 
which they were the patrons and protectors, should not express that opinion even to 
the Government. He was quite sure it was the general feeling, that the grant waa 
made by Parliament to the literature of India, which ought not to be robbed of 

' H4 Astatic Saaety. [Mat, 

the proTiiton to made to it. By the amradmft, it was ioteaded to expresa 
this as delicately and respectfully as possible. 

Sir J. P. Grant thought it right to state, that in Totiog for the ameiidmeiit> be 
did not mean to give an opinion upon the question of law. He did not think 
tbat the amendment went to express any opinion upon the question of law, and 
if it did, most certainly he neither would nor ought to vote upon it. It merely, 
in his opinion, asked of the Government to give its consideration to the question, 
and in case they should be of opinion that oriental literature had not a legal 
and parliamentary claim under the words of the act, then to make a new and 
specific grant of funds for this important purpose. 

Mr. W. (in ANT was not disposed to blink the question which the Society wish* 
ed to bring under the reconsideration of Government, and did not see that any 
disrespect was implied in urging, however strongly, such reconsideration. The 
Society had for a long time believed, that a particular fund was appropriated by 
Parliament to objects in a manner confided by the public to the Society's peenliaf 
care, and they, now learned that this fund was no longer to be so applied. The 
Society was bound to undertake tbe cause of oriental literature, and to uige 
Government to reconsider a resolution so inimical to it. And if upon serious 
reconsideration. Government should continue to be of opinion, that no fund was 
by law appropriated at present to its conservation, then to uige an application to 
the proper quarters for a fund which should be so appropriated. 

Mr. CoLviN asked Sir J. P. Grant, whether the words of the amendment 
which he read did not at least by implication convey an opinion upon the ques- 
tion of law. 

Sir J. P. Grant said, tbat in his opinion they did not, but that the words 
in tbe Act of Parliament being such as they had that night been stated to be, the 
amendment suggested to tbe Government, that it was a grave question, of which 
it desired their reconsideration, and upon this view be was prepared to vote for 
the amendment ; but the suggestion being made that it might be otherwise inter* 
preted, he should not vote. 

The amendment was then put and carried^ The revised memorial was once moiv 
read through, and, on the motion of Mr. H. T. Prinskp, seconded by Biba 
Rasumay Dutt, it was adopted nem. con. 

Read a letter from Captain Wadb, enclomiig one from the Chevalier 
Ventura, acknowledging his election as an honorary member. 

Read extract of a letter from Lieut. A. Bcbnes, enclosing copies of desl. 
derata in Botany from Professor Graham^ and in Geology from the London 

Read a letter from Thomas Dickenson, Esq. Secretary to the Bombaj 
branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, acknowledging the receipt of M. 
Csoka'b Tibetan Dictionary and Grammar^ and expressing the brat thadcs 
of that Society for the same. 


Read a letter from Edward T* Bennett, Esq. Secretary to the Zooleu 
gical Society of London, forwarding its proceedings for the years 1830, 
31, 3S, and 33, with the 3nd part of the Ist volume of their Tranaactaoos, 
for presentation to the Society. 

Read a letter received through M. L. A. Riohy, from Monsieur Oaron 
Db Tasby, forwarding for presentation copy of a work entitled '^ Let 
CEuvres De Wall, ( DewdvuWaliy) recently published by himaelf in fiin. 
dustani at the royal press of Paris. 

The Indian Journal of Medical Science, No. 18, was presented by the 

Meteorological Register for April, 1835, bv the Surveyor GeneraL 

The following books were received from the book^aeulBri. 

Lardner*s Cabinet Cjcclopedia — Simson*s Roman Empire, vol. 2nd. 

■ , Germanic Empire, vol. 1st. 

Library of Useful Knowledge — Natural Philosophy, vol. 3rd. 

1635.] J$iaiic Society, 293 

A List of the Pali, Burmese, and Sing^lese worlcs, in the Buraiese cha- 
racter, (some with Burmefle interpretations) in the Asiatic Society's library, 
was submitted^ and ordered to be printed in the out-coming catalogue. 

Museum and AntiguiHee, 

A model of the Ti) Mahal at Agra, in ivory, was presented on the part of 
Messrs. W, Carr and J. Psinsep. 

A note from the Baron Von Huobl, on the variance of the Tope at S^. 
n^th, from the Dehgopas of Ceylon, was read. 

fThis will find a place in a future nomber.] 

A letter from Col. S^ P. Stagy announced, that he had despatched for 
the inspection of the Society, to the charge of their Secretary, his very ex. 
tensive collection of Baclrian, Indo-Scythic, ancient Hindu, and Muham- 
raedan eoins, of which he also forwurded a detailed catalogue. 

This collection is more than usually valuable from its having been made prin- 
cipally in central India, and it is mainly rich in Hindu coins, of wliich it will 
serve to devolope many series with names hitherto unknown. 


' Specimens of Copper Ore from the Ajmir mines, with a descriptive ac 
count by Captain Dixon, addressed to the Governor General, were present, 
ed through Captain Smyth, Mil Sec G. G. 

An account of the bearded vulture of Nipal, Gypaitoe barbatus, by Mr. B. 
H. Hodgson, was submitted, with an aGcarata painting by his native artist. 

Mr. Hodgson is in possessioif of upwards of 2000 illustrations of the Fauna, 
and the Ornithology of the valley, which he is now seeking to publish in a wor- 
thy manner, in conjanction with eminent naturalists at home. The plates and 
descriptions of the Mammalia are already gone to England, and the others ?rill 
soon follow. The whole will form a memorablo monument of his seal and in- 
defatigable industry. 

Extracts of a letter from Professor WujBon were read. 

The Ashmolean Society, is anxious to obtain through the Asiatic Society, aa 
entire skeleton of an alligator, for the purpose of perpetual comparison with the 
fossils of the Saurian tribe at home. An inquiry has arisen which can be solved 
only in this country, Do Elephants shed their tusks ? The immense supply of 
them brought from Africa to England, if derived from the death or destruction of 
the animal, must it is thought soon lead to its extermination. 

fMx. Wilson, hn, vre are happy to remark, prepared the Vi$hnu Par6na, the 
Bankhya Chandrika, for the press, and only waits the casting of a new fount of 
type. The Hindu theatre has passed through a new edition. MooacaoFx^s 
Journals are still in Mubaat's hands, and the bust not commenced upon, bf 

Notice on the fntus of the basking shark (squalai mtuthnus), and a pre^ 
served specimen, were submitted by Dr. J. T, Pearson 

A paper was submitted by Mr. F. G. Taylor, H. C. Astronomer at 
Madra% on a new method of ascertaining the error of collimation in 
aatronomicBl instruments by reflection from a surface of the mercury. 

[This very valuable and simple method is described in the present number.] 

A note on the mummy brought by Captain Arcbbold from Egypt was 
jrobmitted by Dr. Evans. 

From the lateness of the hour the reading of the papers presented was 
postponed to the next meeting. 

Metnrologicai Regiittr. 




No. 42.'-' June, 1835. 

I. — On the Government and History of Naning in the Malay Peninsula* 
By Lieut. J. T. Nswbold, 2Srd Regt. Madras Nat. Inf. 

Native Government of Naning.-^The Government of Naning, set 
ting aside its connexion with the Eoropean powers at Malacca, which 
Interfered very little in its internal organisation, was at once feudal 
$nd pastoral in its character. The classification of the people into 
tribes was nearlv as well defined as that oi the children of Israel, 
described by Moses in the Fentatenclu 

Panghulus. — The ofilice of FanghuU has been hereditary, subject to 
the approbation of the Government at Malacca, agreeably, generally. 
to the Men&ngkibowe law of succession of the Anak Perpdti Saba* 
iang» or the Tr&mba Pusdka Mmdnykdbowe. The right of saccession 
devolving upon the eldest male child of the sister ; who however 
may be set aside in case of imbecility or other causes. This singular 
law of succession prevails throughout Naning. 

The last PamghMs of Naning were of the tribe 8e Jielongdn. 
They were generally brought down by the four heads of tribes, or 
Ampat Sdkii, to Malacca, to be confirmed by the European Government. 

JvitjS Maoab, the ^x%tPanghAld of the last line, arrogated to him^ 
self the power of inflicting capital punishment on the inhabitants con- 
ned to his oharge. It was exercised and abused by bis successors 
imtil 1809» when it was rescinded by the British Resident, Colonel 
Faaquhab ; a gentleman whose name is held in affectionate remem* 
brance by most of the Midays» both of Malacca and the neighbouring 
independent atates. 

The last death sentence passed by Abdul Satad (or Dhol Satad), 
the ex»PanghM» was on a Queda man, named Sali, in 1805. This 
Malay had carried off from Malacca two Chinese slayes^ <«i man and 
p p 

298 On the Gwermnent and History of [Junb, 

woman ; meeting some resbtance from the former, he had murdered 
him« with his his, in the forest of Londoo, and proceeded with the 
woman to Pfla, in Sr(min4nti« where he sold her. 

The present saperintendent of Naoing. Mr. Wvstbkhout^ who waa 
an eje-witness, described to me the ceremony of his trial and ezeca- 
tion. The criminal waa conducted bound to Buket Peuidlang, or 
" execution hill/' near Tabu. The PongHlil, the An^t SukU, the 
12 Panglimds, the Bandhdra» and the Makddm were all seated iu 
judgment under a cluster of Tambuseh trees, on the skirt of the hill. 
The witnesses were brought forward and examined by the Ptmgk^id 
himself. The evidence against the prisoner being deemed oonduaiTe^ 
according to the forms of the Muhammedan law, he was sentenced^ 
agreeably to the Adat Mendngkdbowe, to pay one Bhdr (equivalent to 
24 Spanish dollars, and 30 cents), or to suffer (SalangJ death by the 
kris. Being unable to pay the fine, preparations were made for his 
immediate execution. The grave was dug on the spot, and he was 
placed firmly bound in a sitting posture, literally cm its brink. For 
forther security, two Ptmglimds sat on each side, whilst the Poa^r* 
lima Besdr Sum un unsheathed the weapon that was to terminate tha 
trembling wretch's existence. On the point of tha poniard, the 
kria poMJang^ the PtrngUmd carefully placed a pledget of soft cottoDi 
which he pressed against the man's breast, a little above the right 
collar bone. He then slowly passed the weapon's point through the 
cotton, on which he k^t the fingers of his left hand, firmly pressed in 
a direction obliquely ^o the left, into his body, until the prcjectkm of 
the hilt stopped its &rther progress. The weapon was then alowly. 
withdrawn, the Panglimi still retaining the cotton in its place by the 
pressure of his fingers, by which the effusion of blood externally waa 
effectually stanched. 

The criminal, convulsivdy shuddering, was instantly preciptated into 
the grave ; but on his making signa iot water, was raised* He had 
barely time to apply his lips to the cocoanut ahell» in which it waa 
brought, when he fell back into the grave quite dead. The earth 
waa then hastily thrown over the body, and the assembly disfieraed. 

The Ampat Sl^Att^— Next to the Pmigkdbi, were the four headaoc 
representatives of the four SMUs, or tribes, into which the popuhlion 
oi Naning was divided. 

In the eX'Panghdld'a time, the head of the 

Sdkd Sa Melongam, waa Mahiraji Nunkaio. 
Anak Malacca^ „ Andika' Mahiriyi. 
Tigd Baiid, ,• Dattu Ambamoav. 



Munkdk, ,, Ojlang Kaio Ki'biii. 

IS35.] Ntming in the Malay Peninsula. 299 

There are three other SdMs or tribes in Naning, viz. those of Battd 
Balong, Tigd Neyney, and Bodoandd. The number of individaals com- 
posing these tribes being so insignificant, they were incladed in the 
fboT general divisions. 

T%e office of the head of the 8dkd was not exactly hereditary. In 
the event of a casualty, the place was generally filled up by the remam- 
ing three from the most eligible of the deceased's family. Their 
office was to assist the Panghdld with their counsel and advice ; 
if unanimous, they could carry their point against him. 

They were always consulted in any matter of importance, and af- 
fixed their seals to all deeds and agreements. Letters to the Govern- 
ment at Malacca, and to the heads of independent states were invaria- 
bly written in the name of the Panghutd and Ampat Sdkd. Each was 
individuaDy responsible for his tribe to the Pangkdld, in matters of 
revenue, levying men and settling disputes. 

Thar revenue was derived principally from the power they enjoyed 
of levying fines on their own particular tribe, and from a portion allot* 
ted to them by the Pangkdld from his annual levy on each house of 
five gantams of paddy. 

' Jftf tfiifriir.— The Mantr{$ were a species of privy councillors to thtf 
Ptmghdldi, two in number. The last were Mvla'va' Hakim and 
GoMPA'B. They fied with the Pangkdld to Miko in Rambowe, but 
have since returned. 

PangUmde or IMubahngB.-^The Panglimds are the war chiefs. The 
tOL^PangkUd had 12 ; viz. PangUmae Bewdr. Jati, Arrip, Beibas, Sul' 
idn, Tamhi^ Prang, TVoA, 2 Bangsahs, Kiodm, and Rdjd Balang, 
Taar of these were personally attached to the Panghdld ; viz. 
PangUmdB Be$dr, Pranff, JoH, and Arrip : the rest to tiie Ampai 

• Besides the levying of men in vmr, and leading them to combat, 
building stoekades, &o. the duty of a PangUmi is in peace, the appre- 
hension of criminals, bearing official messages and letters, and making 

On these occasions, the PanghdWs spear Tmnbok Bandaran was 
sent with "diem, in 'token of their authority. 

This custom prevails generally among Malayan chiefs. 

Tlie above form of government was entirely abolished on the set- 
tling of the country after the disturbances in 1882, as will appear 

JSRflor§f.-— Natring Was taken possession of, together with the Ma- 
kicea lands, by the Portuguese, shortly after the capture of Malacca by 
AuPROvao ALBUQirsaq!im, in 1511. IVevious to this, it had formed an 
F p 2 

SOO On the Gwemment an^ History of [Juns, 

iotegrdi part of the domiiiions of Muhammbd Snius II.> Suhio of 
Malacca ; who, on the fall of hi& capital, fled to Muar, the&oe to Pa« 
hang, and finally to Johore, where he estahliahed a kingdom. Nan- 
ing remained nominally under the Portuguese, till 1641*2, when with 
Malacca it fell into the hands of the Dutch, and their allies the sore- 
reiicofl of Johore and Achin. According to a Malay manuscript in 
my possession, " the Hollanders made many honds with the king of 
Johore, on golden paper, including numerous divisions of shares 
and territory," among which are specified the interior boundaries of 
Malacca, viz." From the mouth of the Cassang to its source southerly ; 
from the mouth of the Lingi river to Ramoan China northerly to Buket 
Bruang, Bakowe Rendah, BAmenia Ghondong, Padang Chftchar, Da- 
son Mariah, Dason Kappar U14 Malacca to the source of the Cassang 
civer. Done, written, and sealed by the Hollanders and king of Johore,- 
on paper of gold." 

Valvnvth, however, asserts, that the 1st artide of the treaty be- 
tween the Dutch and the king of Johore was, that the town be given 
op to the Dutch, and the land to the king of Johore, reserving, how^ 
ever, to the Dutch so much territory about the town as is required, and 
license to cut fire* wood. Be this as it may, Dutch policy voaa extended 
liie meaning of ihis into the possession of an area of jieariy 50 miles 
by 30, which comprised the whote of Naniog up to this frontiers ol 
Rumbowe and Johore. 

This line of latter d|iys has been extended beyond Buket Rruang 
and Ramoan China, to the left bank of the.Lmgt river, which it now 

History of iVomft^.-r-The Dutdi, on their takmg possession of Ma- 
lacca in 1641, found Naning under the government of the Amjuit 
Sdkd, or heads of the four tribes, into which the inhabitants ar0 di« 
yjded. In the Dutch Governor General Anthonej Yak DfsjiBN's 
administration, an agreement was made by the first Land-voogd, or 
Governor of Malacca, Job an Van Twist, on the 15th of August, 1641, 
with the chiefs of Naning and the neighbouring villages : by which' 
the latter promised fidelity to the States General and the Company, 
and abjured their former, engagements with the ^aodards and Por- 
tuguese. The property of all persons dying without issue to be di- 
vided between the Company and the native chiefs ; that of persons 
guilty of murder, to be appropriated half for the use of the Company, 
and the remainder for their heirs. The company to be entitled to one* 
tenth of the produce, and to a duty of 10 per cent, on the sale of 
estates. Such taxes to be collected by native s«rvaAts« who will be 
.DBwarded by Governor General A, Van PiajqiN. . 

I835J Naninfii m tie Mahty Perniuuh. 801 

In the old Dutch records, preserved in the archives of Malacca, we 
find, in 1643, the inhahitants of Naning and Rumbowe, particularly 
thoee of the districts of MuUikey, Periing, and inac, noticed as being 
in a very rebellioas and disorderly state, refusing to obey their chief- 
Baji MsaAH, the first Panghdld of Naning, on account of the banish* 
ment by the Dutch of one of their chiefs, named Msni Tuan Lblah 
fisAWAN, from the territory of Malacca : and complaining that tiie 
administration of justice was not according to their customs* 
. In 1644, the Dutch Gk>veimment resolved to depute commissioners 
to Naning, in order to restore tranquillity, to take a survey of Naning 
and its districts, to apportion lands to the inhabitants, (who, it ia wor- 
thy of note, are always styled " MmUkdlwweB," or settlers from 
Men4ngkibowe in Sumatra,) to in fuse intotheir minds the advan* 
tagea resulting from habits of industry, to turn their attention to 
agricultural pursuits, to persuade them to *' depart from the state of 
Iwrbarism under which they then laboured," and finally, to furnish 
Rliji Mbkah, the chiefs and inhabitants there, with instrnctions how 
they were to oonduet themselves towards the Government of Malacca 
in respect to the admiustration of justice in civil cases, and above all. 
to take cognizance of every criminal case that occurred there. 
■.To fulfil the objects of this mission. Government selected senior mer* 
chant SifouBQ. But citizen Snoubq, the minute drily observes,- 
" brings in various excuses, saying he is unwell, and that the road to 
Naning is impassable, that his legs are bad, and that he is not profi- 
dent in the Malay language." 

Shortly after this, Snoubq still persisting in his objections, aa 
expedition is ordered to proceed to Naaing, under Captain 8. Albx- 
AMOBE Mbnoob aud Aktovio Gomio hovtn PtNjBBo, consisting of 50 
Netherlands, and 60 Malacca soldiers, with SO peons, to convey pro- 
visions and baggage, and a number of boats and boatmen— 4n all 180 

The following is the official account of the mission written by the 
Governor Jbbbmias Vak Vlibt, who, it appears, proceeded himself to 
Waning in the room of SMOVBa* 

"On the third day, about three hours before the sun went 
down, we arrived with the whole retinue at Fankallang Naning, as 
fiur as is navigable, with a boat. Here we rested during the night, and 
fonnd Biji Mbbah, with some of the principal chiefs of Naning, who 
abewed us every mark of respect and obedience. 

" Early on the morning of the fourth, we marched forward with the 
whole retinue, through forests, to Melecque (Mullikey). We reached 
ihia place at 10 o'clock^ wkfa the princ^al part of the troops, and 

102 On the GwemmmU and HUt&ry 0/ [Jmne, 

awaited the arrival of our baggage. After taking tome refreslunents. 
we proceeded on our journey to Naning, and arrived at this place 
two hours before the rising of the sun. Riji Msrah, with aome of 
the principal chiefs of Naning, and a great concourse of people, came 
to receive us and pay their homag^. They conducted us to Naning, 
and had a band of musicians marching before us. 

** The inhabitants of Naning and the other districts under our sub* 
jection came ^o us to pay their homage. Thus every thing promised 
a favorable result to the object of our mission. The chiefs and inha« 
bitants of Naning had constructed a sumptuous bungalow for our 
reception, and shewed us every attention and respect. 

*' We received their compliments with every token of good will, and 
so we past €bt day. 

'* In Naning we desired R£ji Mbrah and the ddeh to be called ; 
and pointed out to them the atrocities which had been committed by 
them and the inhabitants during the past year, viz. that murder and 
robbery were common practices with them, arising from no other 
cause than a state of ignorance and idleness. It is therefore advise- 
able, that they should devote their time to agricultural pursuits, such 
as planting a more considerable quantity of pepper or paddy. Were 
they to lead an industrious life, it would prove much to their benefit ; 
malignity would then, no doubt, be entirely eradicated.'' 

The following points were laid before them : 

Ist. '* That Imcbi Wodoat, one of t^e chiefs and head-men at Melic- 
que (Mullikey), having proved himsdf unworthy of that situation, 
and on whom no confidence could be placed, it is required that they 
should select three qualified persons at MeKcque, out of which num- 
ber, one would be chosen to fill the vacant stet." 

2nd. " That they should keep the river, from Pankallang Naning 
to Pftnkallang Nanwar, dear, and make it navigable for prows.'* 

3rd. " That one-tenth of the produce of the Naning rice-fidds 
should be paid ann^lally, either in kind or money." 

4th. " That Riji Mssah, with the chiefh, should come down per- 
sonally, or d^ute persons to pay their homage/' fThe records hers 
are almost obliterated.) 

6th. '' That lUji Mbrar shaU invite, by beat of gong, dl tike in* 
habitants in the dbtriots under subjection, in order to ascertain if they 
hava any oomplaints to bring forward against Biji MnuH, or the 
otiier chie& ; and if they have no reason of complaint, notice shodd' 
be taken of thdr diaobedienoe." 

€th. " That we shodd furnish Riji Mbkah and the chiefs widi 
mst r uotions, and point out to them die line of eonduiet which th^ 

1835.] NatuMji m th€ Malay PeninMuk. d03 

sboald inTariably pur»ue» and how far their authority exteads in the 
adminiBtration of civil cases." 

" These points having been translated into the Malay language, we 
had it proclaimed* and made known to all people, through the medium 
of lUya Mbeah, who informed us, that the inhabitants accepted these 
roles with due deference, but made some difficulty in complying with 
the contents of that paragraph which enjoins them to keep the river 
dear, for they consider themselves as his (Raji Mbeab'b) subjects^ 
not his slaves. Raj4 Mxbah further states, that the limited authority 
with which he is invested is not calculated to command obedience* 
But it is our wish, that IUj& Mxrah confer with the chiefs and inha« 
bitants on the matter, and inform them that what we had resolved is 
principally to promote their interest. The clearizvg away on the bank* 
of the river is a service which could be performed by four persons, 
and in a short space of time. The banks of the river should be cleared, 
widened, and made navigable from Naning to the town ; but they ar^ 
required to keep the river dear only as far as PankaUaog Nauwar^ 
from thence it vriU be the business of oor inhabitants to preserve tha 
dj^anliness of the river. They ought to repoUect, that this improvement 
would, in a great measure, promote the prosperity of Naning; and 
how convenient it would be fdt by every body in the transport of 
paddy, sirih, and other produce. Perceiving their objection, we de«, 
dred, that the inhabitants should be summoned by beat of gong, in 
order that they might consider this object Qiore attentivdy. B£ji 
MB&A.B and chiefs did accordingly hold a consultation with the inha* 
bitants* We directed Albxanox* Mbndos to be present at this 
meeting, and to inform himself of every drcuqistance which might 
oocor, and instructed him how h^ should conduct hjmoelf towards 
these obstinate people. 

** AiiBZANnBR Mbndos having appeared in the meeting, and hearing 
some of the Marnkdhotoea making difficulties to obey the order regard- 
ing the clearing of the river, alleging that their houses were too far 
situated from the river, replied, that they should not murmnr at such 
a trivial labQur, considering that the Governor himself had left the 
town, and come up here for the purpose of punishing the widced and. 
disobedient, and protecting the innocent aikl faithfd» it would there- 
fore be very imprudent to resist his wishes. Mbndos and lUji Mb*^. 
BAB, iospressed these sdntary prec^ts on the minds of the inhabitants 
of the villages, under subjectioD, who with one consent and loud voice 
exclaimed, " the will of the Governor of Mdacca be done," and pro* « 
mixed to be obedient to all his orders. In this manner did lUji 
Mxbah, the chiefs, and inhabitants declare their willingness to accede . 
to the rules which we had prescribed to them. 

304 On the Gwemment and History of [JvvB, 

** We directed all the men in the distrietH under tubjectioa to i^ 
proach our dwelling, and demanded to know if they were satisfied with 
IUj£ MsRAH and the other chiefs, and would submit to their orders. 
If any person should be injured, and could procure no redress from 
them/' (here again the record is undecipherable.) 

" We addressed the people in such a manner that they unammonsly 
declared, that they had nothing to bring forward against Riji Ms- 
BAB, and consented to place themselves under his pontroL We hare 
in consequence read in the Dutch, Portuguese, and Malay languages, 
in the presence of the inhabitants of the districts onder subjection, viz. 
Naning, Melicqne, Inak, and Perling, the commission appointing 
Rijah Mbrah as our subordinate chief over the above-mentioned dis- 
tricts ; and the tenor of the commission is noted down in the accom- 
pany copy^ 

" Raja Mbrah had selected three persons from each of the districts 
Melicque and Perling ; out of which one will be chosen, in order to 
increase the number of the members of the council in Naning, and 
each of them should be a head man over a village. 

" Whilst Raj£ Mb&ah, ^e chiefs, and the inhabitants were hiding 
a council, we took a survey of the lands and paddy-fields in Naning, 
and proceeded nearly so far as the forests of Rumbowe. It is indeed 
a fine and fertile land, bounded on both sides by forests. It is to be 
desired, that Malacca could possess such advantages. In the districts 
of Naning there is much waste and uncultivated land, which is w^l 
adapted for planting pepper. If we coald pnt our plan into execu- 
tion, it is certain that the Company will derive great profit in time. 

'' After the trial of many delinquents, there was one man, named 
U'anq Cata Pbr Mattu Mbrah, who was once one of the chiefs at 
Naning ; who, having evinced symptoms of disaffection, proceeded to 
Rumbowe, where he had spent his days in cock-fighting and gaming. 
This man was ordered to be apprehended and fined in our council, with 
the concurrence of Bij£ Mbrah, in a sum of 50 crasadoes. 

" The enormous crime committed by Contblla LascArra, late head 
man at Perling, for which he had been imprisoned here for a length 
of time, was also investigated in the presence of the said chiefs. Re 
was condemned to pay a fine of 100 crusadoes. In failure of this, 
he shall be scourged and banished the territory of Malacca. 

" The instructions, which we intended to furnish Raj& Mbrah 
with, being ready, we intimated the tenor of the same to him and 
the other chiefs, and they appeared to be perfectly satisfied with them, 
which gives us every reason to hope, that they would promote the 
happiness and comfort of the people, and increase the oonfloenoe of 
the Manikdbowes, when the villagers of other places shall hear Naning 

1885.] ' iVoiiw^ m the Malay Pemmala. a05 

iir become a wril-regulated Goyernment, and the cbaraeter of the inha- 
Maots peaceable and indmtrioos, and that vice i» severely panished. 

*' Everf thiog at Naaing has turned oat to oar wishes. R£j£ 
MnuLB and the chiefs were verj aabmisiive, and the inhabitants Tery 
obedient to oar orders/* 

Governor Van Vlist had not long to felicitate himself on the sab- 
nissiTeness and obedience of the inhabitants of Naning ; for shortly after 
his retom to Malacca, an extensive conspiracy was formed, in which 
they aseamed a prominent part against the Dutch Goveroment, in the 
denoaement of which, two Datch officers lost their lives at the hands 
4)f the natives. The following paragraph from the records gives ns an 
insight into the method employed by the Datch of this peritid, in 
"penaadmg the refractory Maaikfbowes to return from the state of 
barbarism nnder which they had the misfortane to labonr." 

Well might Lord Minto, the oonqaeror of Java, commit to the 
flames with Indignant hands, those instruments of tortare, so long 
a disgrace to a city over whose ancient rains the British flag 

Hiis docnment is dated *' Malacca, 16th Aogost, 1644." 

" What an abominable treason and conspiracy have we not dis- 
covered in Naning in the condact of fi^e Malays, named Inchi Itam, 
BoMoaox, SiLLAP, PoBTAaA, and a slave ofthename of Patchuibt, 
who bad been compelled by his master to join the conspirators against 
Malacca. We have often trosted Itam with letters to the chiefs at 
Naning and Rambowe, bat he has performed oar commands in a very 
nnfsithfai manner, by laying secret schemes with the sud chiefs 
against ns, and three different times he swore fealty in favor of them, 
against oar Government, that he woald not discover and make known 
to ns any plan which our enemy might project against our interest, 
and if we should purpose to despatch a force thither, he would give 
timely notice to them of our design. Moreover, he had undertaken to 
lead 1,000 Manikdhowea to Malacca, in order to attack and destroy the 
settlement. All this he did, and dissembled with us. Incbi, Sillap, 
BoaiasoB, andPusTAEA were for a considerable length of time our inhabi* 
tants* and were together vrith the troops where Captains FoassNBSRo 
and Mbhix were mardered ; since which time, they have taken uparms 
against our Government, and threatened to murder us in our council 

* His LordtUp, alter the taking of lata, preaeaied Malaoea with a Aill length 
portrait of himself, in whieh the barning of the inatramenta of tortnre it repre- 
seated. The pietore was fonaerly taapcnded in the Stadl-hoaae, bat now adoras 
'the eourl*honae of Malaeea.- 

306 On the Gwernmeni and HUtwrff vf [Juns« 

chamber, and to run a muck againet any one who woukt oppose them. 
They did also pledge that they would set the town on fire, and retire 
to the country with their wives and children. We were long of inten* 
tton to punish these traitors, but have with the advice of oar council 
defered the execution thereof until the return of our eommiaaioner 
Snoubq from Johore. But the following is now resolved : 

" That Inchi Itam be tmlwred to death, and his body be exposed 
on a gibbet." 

'' That SiLLAP and Bonosob be decapitated, and their bodies be 
divided into four parts, and exposed in several conspicuous places.** 

*' That PoBTARA be beheaded, his head placed upon a gibbet, hit 
body separated, and exposed in several conspicuous places. He has 
confessed to be guilty of horrid crimes." 

" That Patchium the slave, be acquitted, and set atlarge,as it is provw 
ed that he has not taken up arms against us, and has been constrained 
by his msster to join the said conspirators. Moreover, he was die 
medium of discovering the conspiracy.*' 

" God preserve Malacca and all states and fortresses frocn such 
evil-designing people." 

<* The villages of Naoing and Rumbowe continue in a rebellious 
state, the blockade of the river Panagy, (the Rumbowe and Naning 
branch of the LingI river,) by us is still carried on. Some days past, 
two Rumbowe people have been seised by our inhabitants in the 
river Muar. We had them executed ; their heads were placed oa 
stakes, and their bodies on gibbets.'* 

*' God grant that we may apprehend some more of Hiese traitors* 
they shall all be dealt with in this way." 

" By the disasters which had taken place at Naning, the continn- 
ance of the rebellion excited by the insolent MtmikMawe9, and the dif- 
fidence subsisting between this republic and the states of Johore, the 
minor trade of this place has of late been decreasing, the supply of 
all necessaries prevented, and the plantations along the river-side 
deserted and abandoned ; for fear of the Manikdhawes, nobody would 
venture to cultivate their gardens in those places. The revenne of 
the settlement has in consequence diminished, and the inhabitants 
very much disheartened. Even the people in the surrounding states 
are not exempt from fear on this account. We shall find it there- 
fore expedient to conclude a permanent peace with the states of Johore, 
t)y which means, it will be in our power to punish the Naning and Rum- 
bowe people. We shall endeavour to treat all the subjects of the 
chief of Johore in a friendly manner, and permit them to visit our 
settlement without nK>lestation." 

1835.] Kanmg ifk the Malay PenintiJM. 807 

The Doteh for a considerable period afterwards experienced muck 
■jmoyance from the daring aggressions of these hardy natives* who 
advanoed in hordes within a mnsket shot of the fort, and up to the 
very borders of the entrenchments, plundering and laying waste to the 
gardens and houses in the vicinity, and destroying the plantations at 
Bakit China. (Government, at last, though not without considerable 
expenoe and bloodshed, succeeded in restxmng tranqailHty. 

In 1651, the Panghiilti Sri Rdji Msuah was publicly thanked for 
bis services in the apprehension of a runaway slave from Malacca, 
guilty of murder. In 1652, he, with his three sons and two of the 
principal duefe of Naning, came down to Malacca, and presented to 
Government a quantity of pepper as " an ordinary tribute." On this 
occasion, he was honored in return by the. gift of a Malay «amsaA» 
one piece of red doth, <me of white dotli, and a piece of white 

Inferior presents were l&ewise bestowed upon his thiee sons and 
the two chiefs. 

In November, 1652, we find the following minute, which goes to 
disprove the power of inflicting capital punishment, without reference 
to the Malacca Govermnentp which of later years the ex-Pan^gMH 
Dhol Sat ad arrogated to himself. 

*« Pursuant to our order of the 30th October last, a letter waa 
wrttteu in reply by Mr. Emamubl du Moultn to the chiefs of Nan- 
ing, conveying our sentunents and snrpriae at the atrocitiefi which 
had been of late perpetrated at Naning, and the summary manner 
with which the offender wae put to death by the commands of the 
chiefs in the case of Rajah Mbuab's son-in*kw, who attempted to 
destroy his wife and father-in-law. This we must confess is a hor« 
rid deed, but at all events, the offender should have been delivered an^ 
to our hands, and a regular course of trial in our court be instituted 
against him. But when we take into consideration the sincere contri^ 
tion expressed at what they have done, we could not but impute it to 
their ignorance, and it is therefore proper that we should not notice 
it this time with that severity and censure, which under any other 
circumstances it would be our bounden duty as lord paramount to 

*' We obiserve that there is another individual of the name of Inghi 
JvxAT, who has shewn many instances of insubordination, and is 
fully proved to have run a muck, and attempted the life of his chief at 
Naning. We have rcflsolved in council, at the suggestion of the chiefs 
and inhabitants of Naning, and places subordinate thereto, that the 
said Inchi Jumat be put to death, and sincerely trust, that after the 
d 2 

808 On the Gcvemment and HtBiory of [Jum. 

eztinctioii of such a dangerous character at the said Jvuat, the dia- 
trict of Nauing will revert to its former tranquillity and happinosa." 

The subjoined document, dated 27th May, 1664, hwura upon the 
collection of the duty on the produce of Namng. 

" The captain of Naning and the chiefs preferred in coimcil a 
complaint against Maria Silybns, collector of the customs on Sirih 
brought from Naning, that he has not attended to ^e usual mode of 
levying the duty on this article.'* 

" The measure which it seems he has adopted is thi»— after recdv- 
ing the duty, he would detain the people about five days, until the 
quantity collected by him has been disposed of, by which means, the 
Sirih remaining on their hands, became unfit for consumption, and 
consequently not saleable. Through his negligence, the Bim^stti, (reve^ 
nue store*house) in which this article is deposited, and wheran the 
Naning people are compelled to take shelter at night, had become 
very dilapidated ; nor has he troubled htms^ in the least to put the 
building in a proper repair for the accommodation of these persons, who 
were under the necessity of violatittg the prescribed rules, by taking 
up their lodgings in different parts of the town, which expedient has 
been attended with much inconvenience and disagreement amongst 
the Naning people." 

*' With a view to preserve good order and tranquillity, another in- 
dividual shall be a{^>^nted in the room of Mama Sxlvbms, who it 
would appear is also desirous to tender his resignation. We have 
therefore deemed it advisable, at the suggestion of Riji Msrab, 
and the chiefs of Naning, to nominate Anthony Pinjbro and Makubl 
FasRB, as collectors of the duty on 8mh brought from Naning. The 
president of our council having observed, that Manvbl Fbbrb is more 
conversant in Malay language, and customs of those people, than tiie 
first mentioned individual, has considered it expedient to propose him 
for the performance of this duty, in which motion we unanimously 
ooncmred, and have consequently nominated the said Mancbl Frxbb 
prorisionally, to execute the functions of a collector of the aforesaid 
duty, and superintendent of the Bongsal, until our further orders." 

" Early in 1680, the agreement made in 1641, by VakTwi8t, 
was renewed, during Governor General Ruhloi* Van Gobn's adminis- 
tration by the then Land-voogd of Malacca, Jacob Jabissoon Pttb. 
* with the ambassadors of Naning and Rumhowe, on behalf of the 
king of Johore,' with these additions, viz. * that a duty of ten per cent, 
adffahriM be paid to tiie Company on the sales of the pepper.* The 
Company promise to give an adequate subsistence to the chief at 
Naning, besides one^tentfa of the collected ravenue/' 

1835.] Nmtim^ m the Malay Pemnmda. 909 

*' Each boat coming down from Naningp wiU pay adaty of one cra- 
eadoe to the Company." It appears by this treaty that the cuBtom of 
dividing the property of the nativea of Naning. dying withoat heirs, 
was introduced by the Portuguese prior to the capture of Malacca by 
the Dutch ; we also find that all slaves fljring from Naning to Malacca 
with intent of embracing the Christian faith will be emancipated, and 
the value of the same will be paid to their ancestors. 

The Naning people likewise bound themselves not to trade with 
foreign ttations* bat to convey their merchandiae down the river to 

In 1708, the Malacca Government appointed Sri Mah£rij&JirARA 
Maqat, a« Pangh6M of Naning, for a service done to the king of 
Johore, which will be shortly mentioned, and in cooeequenoe of the 
incapacity and infirmities of the then Pangh^ii Sri B£j£ Mseah, 
who had forwarded to Government the Company's signet, which he 
had been permitted to use as a token of his delegated anthority. 

The following are the instructions received by the commisaioners 
deputed for the installation of the new chief at Naning. They present 
a cnrioua specimen of the native policy of the Dutch. 

" Malacca, 6th May, 1708. 

'* Instructions given by BsaNAan Phoonsbn, Governor and Direc- 
tor of the town and fortress of Malacca in Council, to Pbtjib Amthont 
FiGARBDO, burgher, and Imcbi AaooM, head man of the Malays at this 
place, for their guidance in respect to the installation of the newly 
nominated chief at Naning Sri Biji Mbbah, and the conduct which 
they khould pursue during their stay at that place." 

1st. '* On your arrival at Naning, you shall wait upon the Orang 
Kiji Sri Rai& MaaAQ, in our name, and present him Uie accompanying 
letter, and congratulate him on his retiring from office, which we 
have granted him at his own request, and in consideration of his ad- 
vanced age ; and inform him, that his brother has been nominated to 
fill the vacant office, for which he has received the arms of the East 
India Company as a mark of his authority." 

2nd. " You shall require the chiefs at Naning to pay all due re- 
spects and submission to the authority who holds the said seals, and 
with regard to the navigation of the river by boats, they shall invari- 
ably conduct themselves as we have desired." 

%d. " Two days after your arrival, yon shall nominate and appoint 
the new chief in the name of the East India Company, and command 
all persons to pay every respect, and shew due submission to him ; 
in failure thereof, they shall be liable to punishment." 

4th. '* You shall diligently inquire into the case of Sbatbum and 
hiafoUiowerSy in order that we might be thoroughly informed whether 

310 Oh the Gwemment and History of [Junb, 

he has been jostlj oi* unjustly accused, as we have heard repeated ' 
complaints against the present reigning chief ; but you must not omit to 
caution Sbatbum. as well as his followers, to attend to all orders and 
requisitions enforced by the East India Company/* 

6th. " That the sentence, which shall be pronounced by them 
against an offender, must, in the first instance, be approved of, and 
confirmed by us, before it can be put into execution. Such sentences 
are also liable to be cancelled and altered by us, and our will must be 
punctually attended to." 

6th. " They shall apprehend and send to town all evil disposed 
persons and offenders, who may from time to time take shelter in the 
districts of Naning. If reustance should be made on the part of 
these persons, they shall use violence in seizing them, for we would 
rather see them fut to death than that one should escape with impu- 

7th. " No individual from town, or plantations on the river side, 
shall be permitted to proceed to Naning without previous intimation 
being given to the Shahbandar, or Malay translator, who will issue 
on application a written permission to that effect ; and we direct that 
all persons, not furnished with such license, be ordered to quite Nan- 
ing, and return to the place from whence they came.'* 

8tli. " The inhabitants of Naning shall be permitted to export and 
bring to market in town all sorts of minerals, timbers, fruits, &c., ex- 
cept Sirih leaves. Our reason for forbidding the importation of this 
article has been several times conveyed to them. In return tiiey 
ahall be permitted to take to Naning from hence all sorts of provi- 
sions and necessaries.'* 

The following account of the circumstances attending Juaba Ma* 
oat's elevation is related on native authority. 

Sultan AnnuL Jalil Shah III., king of Johore, wrote a letter to the 
chief of the Malays at Malacca, then Capitan Malayu, Dattv Aru'm, 
stating, that one of his subjects, Ganta Dblanoit, had carried offTone 
of the royal concubines to Malacca ; and desiring him most earnestly 
to render assistance in wiping off this stain on his honor. The CapUam 
on the receipt of this epistle summoned Juara Maoat from Naning, 
and ordered him to seek out Dblanoit, to put him to death, and to 
bring down the concubine of the Sultin to Malacca. 

To this, it is said, Juara readOy assented, but requested a krU from 
the Capitan for the purpose, who gave him the choice of the whole 
of his weapons, and on Juara's not finding one " lucky" enough, 
desired hiite to go to the armourer's shop in town, and make his own 
selection. Juara turned into a Chinese shop, near the Trangueira 
gate, where after rejecting all the inlayed and beautifully damasked 

1835.] Naming in the Malay Peninsula. 311 

weapons offered him by the armonrer, selected an old rasty looking 
kris, blackened by the smoke and resin of the dammer torches, to the 
trimming of which it had been constantly applied. He then returned 
to the Capitan, and informed his astonished employer that the rejected 
weapon he held in his hand, was the krie destined to pour out the 
blood of Djblanqit as a sacrifice to the insulted honor of the Sult£n. 

With this wonderful weapon (fit companion for the enchanted 
sword of king AaTBua). Jitara returned to Naning. But Dblanoit, 
hearing of his purpose, had already fled thence into Muar, and concealed 
himself with the concubine amid the fastnesses of that wild country. 
Tliither the persevering Jvara tracked his victim, and coming up 
with him at the mouth of the river» plunged the fatal steel deep into 
his heart. 

The concubine he conveyed in safety to Malacca, whence she was 
sent, with an account of what had occurred, by the Capitan, to the 
Sultin of JoHOEB. The Sultin recommended Jcara to the Dutch 
government, who made him PanghiUd of Naning ; and bestowed on 
him as mark of royal favor, two slaves, a man and woman ; (from 
whom the Suku or tribe at present known by the appellation of Tigd 
Nenek sprang;) a sword, termed Uldr-kenydng, *' the satiated serpent/' 
a silk bdjd or vest, and lastly, a tract of the Gominchi territory, hence 
called Pembdehd !lungan. To the Capitan Malayu was given a piece 
of land extending from Kleybang to the Sungi Baru river, and inland 
to Bertam. The title Sri lUja Mbrah, the sword, Baju, and a genea^^ 
logical book, generaUy preserved in the families of Malayan princes 
and noblemen, called Silselah, have descended to Jcara 's aucces* 
sors as a Kabesaran, or regalia. 

JuARA Mao AT was succeeded, agreeably to the Mendngkdbowe law 
of succession, by his sister's son, Kukah ; to Kukah succeeded Ean- 
QARANO or Mni^NA Garanq^ Jangot, Tambah, and Anjak or Bukit 
JooTOR. The present er-Pangh^H Abdul Satad or Dhol Sat ad, sue- 
oeeded his uncle Anjak, in 1801, when he was confirmed in his 
office by the British Resident at Malacca, colonel Taylor. 

When Abdul Satad had control in Naning, the Kabesdran of his 
ancestors was kept in a house-shaped chest, and was only publicly 
produced once a year. Its contents were perfumed with the smoke 
arising from a censer of odoriferous gums, and washed with water and 
rioe-flour« by the sacred hands of the PanghUlu himself. On their 
being exhibited, the superstitious natives, not even daring to look at 
these miraculous relics, fell prostrate with their foreheads pressed to 
the earth, exclaiming, Dowlet, dowlet ! 

The properties ascribed to the sword are those generally known by 
Malays under the term Betuah, which, among other meanings, has that 

312 On the Gmf^mmmU and HUtory 9f [Jum, 

of any thing imparting invnlnerability and irresiatability to the wearer. • 
Secret enemiea are detected, by their involantarily trembling in the 
angnat presence of the weapon. The ailk hdjii^ it is believed, will fit 
Bone bnt the PanghdH or the person destined to become his succes- 
sor. And to this day, it is firmly credited by many of the Malayn, that 
the elder brother of Abdul Satad was rejected from the Panghuli&ship 
solely on account of his inability to get his head through the neck of 
the vest, which is represented to be so small, as scarcely to admit of 
the insertion of two fingers. 

The truth of the matter is, that he was set aside by the Ampat 
Sukd, on account of his unfitness, and unpopularity. How the ex- 
Panghiild contrived to slip his large head through the silken vest 
must still remain matter of conjecture to the learned. 

In 1 795, the English took possession of Malacca and Naning ; 
of the latter, under the same terms as the Dutch had held possession. 
In 1802, Colonel Taylor, the Resident at Malacca, made treatv with 
the tX'PanghUld and the Ampat SUkd. Among jother stipulations, it 
was agreed on that the Panghdld chiefs, Menlngklibowes or Malays 
of Naning, do pay one- tenth of the produce of the soil to the East 
India Company ; but in consideration of their poverty, it is resolved, 
that instead of paying the tenth, the Panghulu come in person an- 
nually to Malacca, and present 400 gantams of paddy to Government. 
And farther, that " the PanghiUti and chiefs promise, in the name of 
the said community of Naning, that whenever the chief rulers happen 
to resign the Government, or any misfortune befal them, they shall 
in such case propose one of the nearest and most qualified of his 
family to the Governor of Malacca, for bis successor ; but it is not 
expected that such a proposal must always meet the Governor's ap- 
probation ; on the contrary, it is optional with him, whom he thinks 
proper to appoint." 

Colonel Farquhar became Resident of Malacca in 1803, and in 
1809, reserved to the British Government, the power of inflicting 
capital punishment on criminals in Naning. The duty of one crusadoe, 
on boats coming down from Naning, was withdrawn. 
. In 1810. the Dutch again assumed possession of Malacca. In 
1822, Governor Timmerman Thtssbn, had caused a statement of 
the land's produce of Naning to be drawn out, and transmitted it to 
the Netherlands Government at Batavia, with the ulterior view of 
levying the tenth. But before their decision was received, the British 
flag was again hoisted at Malacca. This took place in April, 1823. 
Up to this period, the 400 gantams, in lieu of the tenth, had been 
annually paid by the different PaiiyAi»/ii» of Naning. In 1827, the 
PamghM and Ampat SUkH, came down to Malacca to pay their re- 

1635.] Naning in the Malay Peninsula, 313 

spects to the new Resident, Mr. Garlino, who had been appointed in 
1826. In 1828, Mr. Lbwis, Assistant Resident, proceeded to Tabu, 
the capital (if a village be so called) of Naning, with the view of mak« 
ing arrangements with the chiefs, for patting that territory on the 
same footing as the Malacca lands, which, in pursuance of Mr. 
Fi7LLARTON*s plans, had been transferred, on the 15 th of March, 
1828, by the private landholders, for the aggregate annual sum 
of 17,000 Sicca Rupees, to Government, from the Ist of Novem- 
ber, 1828, but afterwards fixed from the Ist of June, until such period 
as the British flag should continue to fly at Malacca. Mr. Lswis was 
. empowered to offer the PanghClU the sum of 600 Spanish dollars, 
and each of the Ampat SitkA, 50 per annum, provided they would con- 
sent to transfer their lands to Government, in order that the tenth 
might be levied thereon, as well as on the Malacca lands. 

These proposals met with a refusal. 

In 1829, Mr. Church, Deputy Resident, was sent to Sungi-puttye, 
on the Naning frontier, to confer with the PanghM, with instructions 
to make known to him that Naning was an integral part of Malacca, 
and that it was intended by Government to subject it also to the 
general regulations affecting the rest of the Malacca territory, bat 
directed no immediate levying of tlus duty. He was further instructed 
to take a census, and to make it known, that all offenders, except in 
trivial matters, must be sent down in future to Malacca for trial. Mr. 
Church, on the part of Government, offered the Pangh4l4 and Ampat 
8tk(k pensions as a compensation. 

The census was allowed to be taken, but the rest of these conditions 
met with an absolute negative. 

When Mr. Fullarton arrived, he wrote to the Panghiilii, who had 
not presented himself with the annual tribute, summoning him to Ma- 
lacca, but without effect. An expedition was then proposed to be sent 
to chastise the sturdy chief; but deferred, pendbg a reference to the 
Supreme Government. The PanghUld still further committed him- 
self by the forcible and injustifiable seizure of a Duson, at Panchdr, 
within the Malacca boundary, the hereditary property of Inchi Surim. 

This man preferred his plaint to Grove rnment, and in consequence 
another message was dispatched. 

The PanghalU's answer set forth a determination to retain the 
Dusam, affirming it to be his own property, and impeaching the right of 
Government to interfere. A proclamation was now published, declaring, 
that Aboul Satad had forfeited all his daims, and was thenceforth no 
l<M9ger Panghalti of Naning. 
a a 

31 4 On the Gwmmment cwd. Histovy cf [Jonsi 

Saeh are the priooip^l circaoittwices ieadiog to tlie expeditiaA ia 
Aagttst, 1831, its failure, and the subsequent successful operatioiiA io 


Tabu fell on the loth June, 1832, Aanu^ Satad having barely tine 
to carry off his family and his KaheifaraM, The chest in which these, 
reUcs were deposited fell into the hands of the troops. The P^mgiUU^ 
fled first to Condong in Bombowe, thence to Miko, and finaUy to Passiri 
in Brirainiinti. Here he left his family, and has been waadenog; 
about the interior for some time past. After the evacniatipe of Tal|u^ 
he paid 9everal pious visits to the tombs of his ancestors, vho t^evOi 
lie burled ; he has since returned to Sriminl^ti, where he livies in iiidi* 
gence, and would probably come in on terma and deliver hiascdf op 
to Goveniment. 

His privajte property and landahave beea confiscated. 

The Ampai Sdkii fled to Sabang, bat finally separatted and sought 
asylum in the neighbouring states. The.two>MBiitris, Mblana UAXfU 
and GoMPOB, who principally imtigated their. diitC to.rebeUioii» ave at. 
Miko, (since returned.) 

Mr. Ibstson visited Naning in the ensuing Odtober, apid creafec4 
15 Panghllut over the different Mukt/M^ or parishes, into which the 
country is divided, and thereby abolished the ancient pow«r of 1^. 
PangkdU and Ampoi 8ihu. 

The office of these newly elected cbieft is to presenre peace and quiet 
in their respective M^ktms.^ to ezaieine into and decide matters of little, 
importance. Gases of a heavy nature are to be referred invariably te. 
Government, and not as formerly to the Ampai SuM, or hn^M of trttes» 
whose authority is now at an end. 

They are to assisi in the collection of thereirenue, and apprehension 
of criminals ; and are constituted as.anthorized chaonelaof communioe* 
tion between the Government and the peaaantry. 

They derive no further emolument from their qfl^oe, than part, of* 
their own lands, and produce being exempt firpm duty: this ia a^> ea* 
joyed by the four priests of each mosque. 

On the 27th of October, 1832, Government took tlie jiidioioua.sti|ir 
of placing Nsning and its new system of internal administration, 
nnder the superintendence of Mr. WssmnBovr, a gentleman not. 
only eminently qualified for the task by his perfisct knowledge of the 
Malay character and capabilities, bat on account of his extensive sin- 
fluence with the principal persons of the district and qeighbouing 
independent states* 

The terms nnder which Mr. WxsnEHOu:r undertook, the setQenent; 
of the country are principally as foUows : that he shall lun^ the whole 

18M.] Nmimg ta the Mtday Penmiuh. 31 5 

of tfa« tenth ealieoted in Niniing, totil the 80th April, 1834, his travel. 
hag ezpenee« to be de^yed on the usual scale. Mr. Wbstsrhout 
it to introduce and establish the collection of the tenth, he shall make 
a census of the population, number of houses, &c. The quantity of 
grain isown by each indiridual is to be ascertained by him ; also the 
tstent of ground belonging to those indiTiduals who are exempt 
from paying the duty. He shall Hkewise ascertain the quantity and 
BStiire of the lands, lately the property of Dhoi* Satad, and send in a 
retam to Gotemment of the new Ptmghid^ and plaoes under their au« 
tii e iity. Tb» expediency of a number of wells being sunk at intervals 
of half a mile apart, along the Naning boundary-line with Rumbowe 
and J<AoVe, was also suggested by Government. 

On the ^h of Janoary, 1833, Mr. Wxstbrhout met the Rumbowe 
chiefe at Sungi seaport, near the frontiera of Rumbowe, to arrange 
the pespeetive boundaries. The boundary line agreed on follows the 
aneiBMit one as far as JCrat Gunjf, from thence as stated before. 

The Ra»bo#e Mvh revived some old claims to the Ramoan Chi- 
nas, stating, that in their old boundary papers, the line passed from 
QaaHa Lingl over Buldt Bruang, and through Ramoan China, &c. to 
Padnag Chachar. 

We alas find the BS^ of Salangore making a somewhat similar 
slaim, in 1804, encroaching on the Company's territories as far as SaD«> 
gi Baru. (Vide Andsuson's Considerations, page 203.) 

Vliey however readily ceded the point, when informed that accord- 
ing to sU fiufopean^ oopies of former treaties, the boundary-line in that 
quarter waa the Lingf river, and that the Ramoan Chinas had always 
been private property und^ the Dutch and English Grovernment. 

Thecoontry.sinee thtetekingofTabu, has been occupied by the Madras 
troops » but as fto security has progressed, and the inhabitants have 
became more and more settled, the force has been gradually diminished. 
Diatvesa and poverty are still too visible. These powerful agents, ope- 
ntiiig on a few desperate characters, have produced, in many instancea* 
the nateralresttlte, robbery and murder. The newly-created Pangh(UC9, 
wilii'£utilies» crying oat lor food at home, and fearful for their own 
pesBoaal eafety, «e sA present very far from being useful as a police. »' 
in time to come, after the maehine has once received a proper impulse, 
tho takabitante retemcd to their rice-fields, and the es,'PanfhiUti, now 
dwelling in the neighbouring ttete of Srimin^ti, disposed of, then 
tiie troops may be withdrawn, or cofieantrated in a centrical post, and 
Hw FtmphMb, with thek MaTa MMtu, may then be found sufficient 
§09 Hm datiea t eqoitvd of Hiem ; but at present they stand more in 
R r2 

816 On the Government and History of [Juki, 

need of support themselves, than they are able to aflford it to the 
wretched rayats under them. 

Most part of the above was written while in camp at Alor Gajeh, 
a place situated nearly in the centre of Naning, about 12 miles from 
the Rumbowe frontier, during part of 1832, and the banning of 
1838. Since this period, up to the present (1884), the inhabitants 
have, with few exceptions, returned to their native villages. The 
tX'PanghM came down from Srimininti, and surrendered himself 
unconditionally to Government, on the 6th of February, 1884. 

He has been permitted to reside at Malacca, and draw a salary fixim 
Government of 30 Sicca Rupees per mensem ; has been sanctioued on 
this condition of his binding himself in 1000 Spanish dollars, and 
finding two securities in 600 Spanish dollars each, that he shall be 
forthcoming whenever called upon. 

He has since this resided at Malacca, where he has received much 
attention from all classes of the native population. He is a hale, stout 
man, apparently about 50 years of age, of a shrewd and observant dis- 
position, though highly imbued with the superstitions of his tribe. 
His supernatural efficacy in the cure of diseases is still firmly believed 
in as that of certain kings of England was at no very remote period 
by their enlightened and scrofulous subjects ; and his house is the 
daily resort of the health-seeking followers of Muhammed, Fob, Brah- 

ma, and Buddh. 

The census of 1833-4, has exceeded those of former years, amonnt- 
ing to men, women, and children, 5,079. Although by the Muham* 
medan law, a Musalman enjoys the privUege of possessing four wives, 
provided he can maintain them, yet we find in Naning the number of 
males exceeds that of females by one hundred and sixty-one. 

MoNTBSQUiBU, I beUcve, in a defence of polygamy among Asiatics, 
adduces as a cause the superior comparative number of females pre- 
vailing in the East. The population of Naning, like that of other 
Malayan states of the peninsula, is in a low state ; in absence of oUier 
causes, generally assigned by political economists for this deficiency, 
may be ascribed the natural unproductiveness of the females : few 
bearing more than six children : the ravages of the small-pox, nn* 
checked by inoculation or vaccination ; the immoderate and constant 
practice of smoking opium, by those able to purchase this pemidoos 
drug ; and, perhaps, may be added, the poverty prevailing in many of 
its* villages. The Malays, equally with other followers of Islam, are 
religiously bound to marry ; hence we perceive few unmarried persona 
who have arrived at years of puberty. Prostitution and ito attendant 
evils are extremely uncommon. 

1835.] Naming m the Malay Penmsuia. 817 

I have observed many instances of longevity in the interior ^ seven- 
ty or eighty years is an age by no means rare. An instance of 1*20 
years, has been related to me» on respectable authority, occurring in the 
person of Dattu Puan, a native of Lubo Koppong, in Naning, who 
died some years ago at Sungi Baru. This truly patriarchal old man 
lived to see his descendants in the fifth generation. 

Produce of 1833-4. — ^The last rice crops were not so abundant as 
expected, owing to a bad season, and the employment of the newly 
returned inhabitants in rebuilding their houses, repairing the Ampan* 
gma, or dams thrown across the rivers, for purposes of irrigation. The 
total produce of paddy amounted to 137,985 gantams. The tenth 
levied on this, and the other articles of produce, covered the ezpences 
of the district of Naning with a small overplus. The face of the 
country now presents every where the prospect of a plentiful harvest. 
The Malacca lands, ceded during Mr. Fullabton's administration, 
by the Dutch proprietors to the British Government, in 1828, have 
however by no means repaid the ezpence of holding them, being a 
heavy annual loss to the Company. This I think is principally to be 
attribnted to the extravagant compensation sums paid yearly, for the 
tenure right to the proprietors. Other causes operating indirectly 
on the revenue, to account for a small portion of this deficiency, exist ; 
for instance, the Birih farm. 

Collection of the Revenue.— Tht tenth* on the rice crops is levied 
in Naning mnch in the same manner as in the ceded lands, just men« 
tioned, in the vicinity of Malacca. 

When the grain is ripe, a person on the part of Government visits 
the rice-fields, attended by the owner, the Panghulu, or Mata Matas of 
the village, and several of the oldest inhabitants on the spot, in 
order to agree on and assess its value. Regarding this point, a differ- 
ence of opinion is naturally to be expected to arise between the taxer 
and the taxed. This is generally submitted to the arbitration of the 
Pangkiia and the village elders. But should these persons again 
assess the crop at a lower value than the collector's agent really 
thinks it worth, the latter has still the resource of offering to purchase 
the whole of the crop on the part of Government at the price the 

• The sovereign's right to the tenth has been from time hnmemorial tcknow- 
ledged in Malayan states. This custom is very andent, and appears to have pre- 
Tailed orer a great portion of the known world, and among nations of a very dif- 
fei«nt character and religion ; for instsnce, the Jews, the Ganls, the Chaldeans, 
the Egyptians, the Greeks, and the Romans. It was origfaially offered to the gods, 
•Bd their priesto ; and then to sarecelgns, who not frequentty united the saoer- 
dotal functions with their temporal powers. 

318 Oh the Government and Htetmrf of Naninf, SfO. [Jims, 

owner has jastiy valoed it. This has been done in a few oases, I 
believe, and has been invariably refased. It is not therefore improba- 
Me, all circumstanees taken into consideration, that not more than 7 or 
8 per cent, at the most ever finds its way into the Company's godowns. 
The tenth in kind on paddy is sold whenever a good price can ba 
procured for it on the spot, and the proceeds lodged in the treasury. 
The tenth on the other articles of land produce is levied at tolls 
placed at the entrances into Naning from Malacca, and there imme« 
diately sold. 

Much inconvenience and loss is experienced by Government, throngh 
this uncertain mode of collecting the revenue. The tax itself too, as 
it rises with the produce, operates practically as a check to progresaive 
in<»'ease in the cultivation. 

A pecuniary compensation, or commutation, of the duty on tke 
emoake, or wet lands, fixed for a definite period, not less than five 
years, would be far more advantageous and convenient to both parties* 
It should be very moderate for the first period, during which the 
amount of the crops for each successive season should be carefully 
ascertained, as well as the increased quantity of land that would na« 
torally be brought under cultivation. To such an arrangement the 
Naning cultivators are by no means averse, but they object to it with 
regard to the ladang, or dry land crops. 

The desultory mode of cultivation known under the term ladang, 
of which Mr. Marsdbh has given an excellent description in his 
History of Sumatra, chap, iv., forms one oi the principal obstacles 
to the introduction of the new land regulations into a Malayan coun« 
try. Added to this, is the notorious dislike the Malays entertain to 
innovation and change, and their innate love of liberty and freedom 
Irom all shackles. They have a strong aversion to be bound down 
to the performance of any thing, even in matters which would afibrd 
them much amnsement and pleasure, were they to act from free will 
and choice. 

I am not aware of the kulanff mode of cultivation offering any other 
advantages to the Malays, further than the charms of a wandering 
and shifting state of life. 

The ladang rice, however, is affirmed by some to be sweeter and 
whiter, and to keep better than the produce of the sawak. 

Although it is certain, that the chief present object is to impixive 
and extend the agriculture of Naning, stiU its mineral resouroes 
should not be neglected. 

At Bukit Bertam, gold was fbrmorly proowed^^nd eonaidcraUs 
quantities of tin are known to exist tiufottghoat ^ district. 


1835.] Survey of the Maldive lelande. 319 

larly at Bokit K6kdBaD, S6ngi BiUi, U\& Pondoi, and BAa^, naat 
Tabu. At the latter place, Mr. WssisaHOUT has opened a mine,, of 
the first produce of which I posseas a very favorable qiecimen. There 
IS in. fact but little doubt that the mines in the vicinity of Malacca, 
if scientifically worked by persons of some little capital and persever- 
ance, would prove of much intrinsic value ; and otherwise benefit the 
country, by attracting into it an enterprising and industrious pecu- 

The want of capital, and consequent haste to convert the prodooa* 
into cash, is the great drawback, not only to mining speculations, but. 
to the cultivation of pepper, and other spices, requiring still more time 
before yielding any return to the cultivator. 

Colonel FAJtavBAE might perhaps have been a little too eothusi- 
astic io afiirming, that " nature has been profusely bountiful to the 
Malay peninsula, in bestowing on it a dimate the most agreeable and 
salubrious, a soil luxuriantly fertilized by numerous rivers, and the: 
face of the country diversified with hills and valleys, mountains and 
plains, forming the most beautiful and interesting scenery that is pos* 
sible for the imagination to figure," &c. &c. But nothing could be 
truer and betfer founded thau his observation, via* " We have only 
to lament that a more enterprising and industrious race of inhabitants, 
than the Malays should not have possessed this deligbtful region." 

II. — Description of Heonandoo Pholo, the Northern AtoU of the 
Maldive Islands, By Lieut, T. Powbll, J. N. Assistant Surveyor, 
Plate XVIII. 

GaooaAPHiCAii sitb. The Atoll Heavandoo Pholo« or head of the Mal- 
dives, situated upon the meridian of Bombay, and between the paralleU 
of 7* 7' and &^ &o\ north latitude, oonsists of twenty<-two islands, two, 
islets, and two sand-banks, besides several small shoals and two large 
barrier reefs; the latter form the boundary of the AtoU to the S. W., W., 
and N. W., and along the outer age are dry at low-water spring-tides s 
ofitside.they are steep, having 50 and 60 fathoms dose to Uiem» and 00 
ground at 150 fathoms, at the distance of 300 yards. 

The northern or principal barrier has 10 islands, and two small 
islets on it : one of the latter, on its southern extremity, being close to 
Heavandoo : these are all situated on the inner side of the reef, having 
three or four, and in some places si:t fAthoms watei* between them and 
its outer edge, with small channels for boats between each, formed by 
the natives having cleared away the coral rocks. Nearly in the centre 
of the Atoll there are three smaU ishmda ; the eastern side ia dear of 

S20 Survey of the Maldwe Islandi, [Junb, 

shoals/ with the exception of two small patches between Gullandoo and 
Slooradoo ; but on the western, there are several nearly dry, and some 
sunken patches, having from 3 to 10 fathoms on them. The soundings 
vary from 20 to 34 fathoms, the latter being the greatest depth of 
water obtaii^ed. 

PopuLATio^. Of the twenty-two islands composing this Atoll» there 
are only seven inhabited, viz. Heavandoo, Koorafooree, Katefooree, 
Turracoon, Colligaum, Beeramerdoo, and Mooradoo. In the margin* I 

• • • • 

have noted the number of inhabitants and boats upon each, by which it 
will be seen, that the population, including men, women, and children, 
does not exceed 760 individuals. The boats are all employed in fishing : 
the trade betv?een this Atoll and Tilla Dow Madow, whence they are 
supplied with such articles as they require, being carried on in those 
of the latter. 

The islands are so similar in form and natural productions, that 
it would be a waste of time to describe them separately. I shall there- 
fore give a sketch of Heavandoo, the island of greatest importance in 
this group : not so much on account of its size, as from its being the 
residence of the Sult£n's Vizier when he visits the Atoll. It is of a trian- 
gular form, about one mile in length, and is composed of coral, eleva- 
ted about 1 2 feet abo