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B B W O ▲ X.< 



VOL. X. 



" It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquaries, phllologers, and men of soienoe, 
parts ot Aiia will commit their observations to writing, and send them to the Asiatic 
in Calcutta ; it will languish, if such communications shaU be long intermitted ; and will die away, 
if they shall entirely cease."— Sik Wm. Jombs. 







No. 109. 


I. — ^Abstract Journal of the Routes of Lieuts. A. Broome ;aiid A. Cun- 
ningham, to the Sottrc» of the Puiyob Rivers, •••• ••• 1 

II. — On Lightning Gondactors to Powder Magaxines. By W. B. O'Shaugh- 

nessy, M. D. AflSistaat Sargeon, Bengal Medital Service, 6 

III.— Memorandum otvthe Trade between the towns of Shikarpore and Ganda- 

har. By Lieut J. Postans* Assistant Political Agent, Shikarpore, Sindh, 12 

IV. — Memorandum on the City of ShikarpoK, in Upper Sindh« By Lieut. 

J. Postans, Assistant Political Agent, Upper Sindh, 17 

V. — Classical terminology of Natural History, By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., Resi- 
dent at the Court of Nepal, • » « 26 

YI.>-Supplementary note to the Memoir on the Hodlsum, vol. is. pp. 694 and 

783. By Lieut. Tickell, Political Assistant, Singbhoom, •••• •••• 30 

y II.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, •••4 ..t* •• ••«• 31 

YIII. — On the Mines and Mineral Resources of Northern Afghanistan. By 
Captain Drummond, 3rd Light Cavalry, communicated from the Political 
Department, Grovemment of India, •••• •«•• •••• •••• ..., 74 

IX. — Opening of the. Topes at the Caves of Kanari, near Bombay, and the Re- 
lics found in them. By Dr. James Bird, «•• 94 

X. — Note on a Copper Land Grant. By Jaya Chandra, •• •••• •••• 98 

No. 110. 

I. — Abstract Journal of the Route of Lieut. A. Cunniiigham, Bengal Engi- 
neers, to the Sources of the Punjab Rivers, ...• .. •• 105 

II.— Extracts tram Deitii-Official Reports. By Capt. Arthur Conolly, on a Mis- 
sion into Khonlssah, communicated to the Editor fVom the Politleal 
secretariat, •••• •••• •••• ••.• •••• •••• •••• 1 lo 

III. — Despatch from Lieut. H. Bigfge, Assistant Agent^ detached to the Naga 
Hills, to Capt. Jenkins, Agent to the Governor General N. E. Frontier, 
communicated from the Political Secretariat of India to the Secretary 
to the Asiatic Society, ..•. ..... «• * 129 

IV. — Note on the Brahooees. By Capt. Hart, Bombay Army, .«•• .... 136 

lY Contents. 


v.— Description of some Ancient Gems and Seals from Bactria, the Punjab, 

and iuaiai •••^ •••• •■•• •••• •••• •••• •••• 147 

VI.^Mode of taking facsimiles of Coins. By Vincent Tregear, Esq., .... 158 

VII. — Report on the Soda Soils of the Bairamahal. By Capt. Campbell, As- 

S sistant Surveyor General, .. •..• .... 159 

^ VIII.— Report on the Kaolin Earth of Mysore. By Capt. J. Campbell, As- 

,' sistant Surveyor General, •••• •••• .... ••«. .... 163 

i I X.— Proceedings of the Asiatic Society • . • • .... .... 165 

No. 111. 

I. — Of the early History of Sindh, from the ** Chuch Namuh," and other 

authorities. By Lieut. Postans, Assistant Political Agent, Shikarpore, .. 183 

II. — Geological Report on the Valley of the Spiti, and of the Route from Kot- 

ghur. By Capt. Hutton, 37th Regiment N. I., .... 198 

III.— On the two wild species of Sheep inhabiting the Himalayan region, 
with some brief remarks on the craniological character of Ovis, and 
its allies. By B. H . Hodgson, Esq. Resident at the Court of Nepal, .... 230 

IV. — On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians. By Johannes Avdall, 

Esq. Al. A. S. &c. •««• •••• a... •••• .. •• <2oO 

v.— On Tabular Retttms of the N. W. Frontier Trade with Afghanistan, . . 251 

No. 112. 

I.— Of the early History of Sindh, from the " Chuch Namuh,** and other 
authorities. By Lieut. Postans, Assistant Political Agent, Shikarpore, 
f Concluded. J •••. •••• •••• •••• •••• •••• 267 

11— Notes on the manners and habits of the Toorkoman Tribes, with some 
Geographical Notices of the Country they occupy. By Edward Stirling, 
Esq. B. C. S. •••• •••• •••• ••.• .••• •••• .... 290 

HI.— Discovery of Coal in a new site. By W. Dunbar, Esq. Assistant Surge- 
on, 5th Irregular Cavalry, •••• .... •••. •••• .... 300 

lY, Succinct Review of the observations of the Tides in the Indian Archipe- 
lago, made during the year 1839, by order of his Excellency the Gover- 
nor General of his Netherlandish Majesty's possessions, 20th October 
1838, No. 3, •••• •••• •••• •••. •••• •••• 0O2 

v.— Journal kept while Travelling in Seistan. By Capt. Edward ConoUy, .. 319 

V I.— M emoir on the Coal found at Kotah, &c. with a Note on the Anthracite of 

Duntimnapilly. (H. H. the Nizam's Dominions.) By W. Walker, Esq. 341- 

VII.— Extract firom Proceedings of the Numismatic Society of London, 1837- 
1838, on the comparative Status of Circulating Media at different pe- 
riods under the Bactrian and Indo-Scythian Kings, , • • • . . . , 345 

No. 113. 

I.— Report on the Island of Chedooba. By Edward P. Halsted, Esq. Com- 
mander of Her Majesty's Sloop Childers, • ••• ••• •••• 349 


II.— Memoranda on the Chnlchulheera of. the HilU, ancl on tome Liehene 
from the Himalayaa in the Collection of the Asiatic Society. By Henry 
Piddlngton, Officiating Curator, Museum, Asiatic Society, •••• •••• 

III.— On the Topes of Darounta and Caves of Bahrabad. By the late Liettt 
P/i^u, Engineers, »••• •••• •••• •••• •• •••• 

I v.— Report on Productions and Manufactures in the district of Hunumkoon- 
dah, in the dominions of H. H. the Nisam of Hyderabad. By A. M. 
Walker, Esq. M. D. Assistant Surgeon, couununicated from the Polt* 
tical Secretariat, Government of Ind ia, • • • • • • . • 

v.— Roree in Khyrpoor, its Population and Manufactures. By Captain G. 
£. Westmacott, 37th Regiment Bengal Native Infantry, •• •••• 

YI. — Report of the Curator, (Henry Piddington, Esq.) of the Society's 
Museum for May, •••. •••• .••• 



• • •• 


No. 114. 

I. — Report on Island of Chedooba. By Edward P. Halsted, Esq. Commander 
of Her Majesty's Sloop < Childers' (Concluded.) , . . . , , 

II. — Examination and analysis of a Soil brought from the Island of Chedoo- 
ba, by Capt. Halsted, of H. M. S. Childers. By Henry Piddington, 
Esq. officiating Curator, Museum Asiatic Society, • . 

III.— Report on the Soils brought from Chedooba, by H. M. S. Childers. By 
the Officiating Curator, Museum Asiatic Society .. ., 

IV.— Illustrations of the Genera of the Bovinas. Part I. Skeletons of Bos 
Biboe, and Bison, the individuals examined being the common Bull of 
Nepal, the Gowri Gao of Nepal, and the Yak, 

v.— On the Geology, &c. &c. of Hu9umkoondah (H. H. the Nizam's Terri- 
tory.) By Dr. Walker, Madras Army, .... « • • . . . 

Vi .—Note and Tabular Statement N. W. Frontier, 

VII. — On the Electro-type. By Charles Huffnagle, Esq 

YIII.— Roree in Khyrpore; its Population and Manufactures. By Capt G 
E. Westmacott, 37th Regiment Bengal N. I. (dmcluded.) 

IX. — Proceedings of the Asiatic Society • ••• 










Abstract Journal of the Routes to 
the SouToea of the Punjab Hi? eiSi 
Bj Lieuts. A. Broome, and A. 
Cunningham, • 1 

Ancient Gems and Seals, Descri|ktion 
of some, ftom Bactria) the Punjab 
and India, •••• •••• 147 

Brahooees. Note on, By Captain 
Hart, Bombay Army, • • . . 132 

Chulchulheera of the Hills, Memo- 
randa on the, and on some Lichens 
from the Himalayas in the Collec- 
tion of the Asiatic Society. By 
Henry Piddington, Bsq^. Officiating 
Curator, Museum Asiatic Socie- 
ty* •••■ •••• •••• vf / 

Classical teiminoloffy of Natural HiS" 
tory. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. 
Resident at the Court of Nepal, . . 26 

Coal found at Kotah, &c. Memoir on 
the, with a Note on the Anthracite 
of Duntinnapilly. (H. H. the Ni- 
zam's Dominions.) By W. Wal- 
ker, Esq 341 

Cooper Land Gknnt Note on a. By 
Jaya Chandra, •• ..98 

Despatch from Lieut. H. Bigge, As- 
sistant Agent, detached to the Na- 
ga Hills, to Caj^tain Jenkins, . . 196 

Discovery of Coal m a new site. By 
W. Dunbar, Esq. Assistant Sur- 
geon, 5th Irregular Cavalry, . • 300 

Electrotype. On the, By Charles 
-' - • - 478 

Huffnagle, Esq, 

• • 

Extracts from Demi-Official Reports, 
on a Mission into Khorassan, com- 
municated to the Editor from the 
Political Secretariat. By Captain 
Arthur Conoll^, •••• .... 116 

Facsimiles of Coins. Mode of taking, 
By Vincent Tregear, Esq. . . 153 

Genera of the Bovinss. Illustra- 
tions of the. Part I. Skeletons of Bos 
BiboSp and Bison, the individuals 
ezammed being the Common Bull 
of Nepal, the Gowri Gao of Ne- 
pal, and the Yak, . • . . 449 

Geology, &c. &c. of Hunumkoondah 
(H. H. the Nizam's Territory.) 
On the, By Dr. Walker, Madras 
Army, •• «• 386-471 

History of Sindh, of the Early, from 
the " Chuch Namuh" and other 
authorities. By Lieut Postans, 
Assistant Political Agent, Shikar- 
pore, ... .... 183-267 

Island of Chedooba. Report on the. 
By Edward P. Halstead, Esq. com- 
mander of Her Majesty's Sloop 
Childers 349-419 


Journal kept while Travelling in 
SeifltML By Captaia Edward Co- 
nolly, •• .. .... 319 

Kaolin Earth of Mysore. Report on 
the. By Captain J. Campbell, 
Assistant Surveyor General, . • 163 

Laws and Law-books of the Armeni- 
ans. On the, By Johannes Avdall, 
Esq. M. A. S., fcc 235 

Lightning Conductors to Powder 
Magaaines. On, By W. B. 
O'Shaughnessy, M. D. Assistant 
Suigeon, Bengal Medical Service, 6 

Manners and HM>its of the Torkoman 
Tribes, with some Geographical 
Notices of the country thev occupy. 
Notes on the. By Euwara Stirling, 
Esq. B. C. S. •• •• •• 290 

Memoir on the Had&um. Supple- 
mentary Note to the. By Lieut 
Tickell^ Political Assistant, Sing- 
bhoom, •••• •••• 30 

Mines and Mineral Resources of 
Northern Afghanistan. On the, By 
Captain Drummond, 3rd Light 
Cavalry, Communicated from the 
Political Department, Government 
of India, .. .. ..74 

Note and Tabular Statement N. W. 
Frontier, .. .. .. 476 

Numismatic Society of London, 
1837, 1838. Extract from Pro- 
ceedings of the, on the comparative 
status of circulating media at dif- 
ferent periods, under the Bactrian 
and Indo Scvthian KLing;8, . . 345 

Observations oi the Tides in the In- 
dian Archipela|(o, made during the 
year 1839. Succinct Review of the. 
By order of his Excellency the 
Governor General of His Nether- 
landish Majesty's possessions, 20th 
October 1838, No. 3 302 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Socie- 
ty, .. .. 31-165-500 

Productions and Manufactures in the 
district of Hunumkoondah, in the 
dominions of H. H. the Nizam of 
Hyderabad. Report on. By A. 
M. Walker, Esq. M. D. Assistant 
Surgeon. Communicated from the 
Political Secretariat Government 
of India. 386 

Report of the Curator, (Henry 
Piddington, Esq.) uf the Society s 
Museum for May, ••415 

Roree in Khyrpoor, its Population 
and Manufactures, By Captain G. 
£. Westmacott 37th Regiment 
Bengal Native Infantry. .... 393-479 






Route of the Journal of Lieut. A. 
Cunningham, Bengal Engineers, to 
the Sources of the Punjab Ri- 
vers, •••• •••• •••• HID 

Shikarpore, in Upper Sindh. Me- 
morandum on the. B^ Lieut J. 
Postans, Assistant Political Agent, 
Upper Sindh. .... .... 17 

Soda Soils of the Barramahal. Re- 
port on the. By Captain Campbell, 
Assistant Surveyor General, • . 169 

Soil brought from the Island of 
Chedooba. Examination and ana- 
lysis of a. By Henry Piddington, 
Es^. officiating Curator, Museum 
Asiatic Society, •••• .... 436 

Soils brought from Chedooba. Re- 
port on the. By the Officiating 
Curator, Museum Asiatic Society, 447 

Species of sheep, On the two wild, 
inhabiting the Himalayan region. 

with some brief remarks on the 
craniological character of Ovis, 
By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Re- 
sident at the Court of Nepal, . . • • 230 

Topes at the Caves of Kanari. Open- 
ing of the, By Dr. James Bird, .. 91 

Topes of Darounta, and Caves of Bah« 
rabad. On the. By the late Lieut. 
Pigou, (Engineers.) 381 

Trade between the Towns of Shikar- 

5 ore and Candahar. Memoran- 
um on the, By Lieut. J. Postans, 
Assistant Political Agent, Shikar- 
pore, Sindh, ••.. .••• 12 

Trade with Afghanistan on Tabular 
Retttrn8ofthe,N.W. Frontier, .. 257 

Valley of the Spiti, and of the Route 
from Kotffhur. Geological Report 
on the. By Captain Hutton, S7th 
Regiment N. 1 198 




Abstract Journal of the Routes of Lieutenants A. Broome and A. 
Cunningham, to the sources of the Punjab rivers. 

The object of the journey which we performed daring the rainy 

season of 1839, was to ascertain the sources of the 
jec o oumey. p^jj^^^j rivers ; and at the same tioie to collect eve- 
ry kind of information that we thought might be useful and interesting 
•regarding the countries through which we were to pass. 

The plan which we laid down for ourselves was to travel in corn- 
Proposed plan of pauy northwards firom Simla as far as Tandee on 
Journey, the Chundra-bhfiga river ; and there separating the 

one to make a detour to the east, and return to Simla by the Spiti 
river ; the other to pursue a westerly course over the liills to Kashmeer. 
The source of the Beeas river having been visited before by three 

different travellers ; Moorcroft, Gerard, and Hender- 
son, all pf whom crossed the Sutluj at Bulaspoor, 
and proceeded through the state of Mundee to Sooltanpoor, the capital 
of Kooloo ; we determined to vary our route from theirs as much as we 
were able ; and with this view we crossed the Sutluj at Rampore on 
the 19th of June, by a jhoola^ or swinging rope, from which a loop is 
auspended in which the passenger sits. On the 20th we crossed the 
mountain spur separating the Koorpua Nullah from the Sutluj by the Gai 
Ghatee, or Cow's Pass, 7,093 feet in height, and descended through a 
rich oultivation to the bank of the Koorpua Nullah, which we crossed 
by a sangOy or spar laid across the stream on the 21st., and ascend- 
ing the Chen^hee Nullah we passed a water-fall of one hundred feet, and 
No. 109. New Series, No. 25. a 

2 Journal of Lieut, A, Broome and Lieut, Cufmingham [No. 109. 

reached the village of Soroua^ situated in a lovely little valley, where 
we saw wheat as fine as any in England. Above the village, the valley 
is a level meadow about three quarters of a mile long by half a mile 
in breadth, surrounded on all sides by thick woods of walnut, chesnut, 
apricot, peach, and cherry, wi^ acacia, mimosa, cypress, cedar, and 
every variety of pine : amongst which were white and red roses, jessa- 
mine, a white flowering thorn like may, and a beautiful large iris, besides 
wall-flowers, forget-me-not, strawberries and poleantus, with flow- 
ers of all shades of red, brown, and yellow. There were three water- 
falls at the head of the valley ; the lowest and least pouring down in 
one unbroken stream over the rock, which is naturally hollowed into a 
deep recess, forming a very pretty, cool, and musical bower. 

On the 24th of June we reached the top of the Pass at the head of 
the Suroan Valley, called Chaol Ghaut, 10,170 feet high, where we 
halted for the night Snow was lying in a sheltered ravine on the 
northern slope of the mountain, which is part of the lofty range forming 
the shed-water between the Sutluj and Beeas rivers. Several of the 
peaks in this range are 18,000 feet in height, and are covered with 
perpetual snow. From this we descended over a clayey soil, made 
dangerously slippery by incessant rain, to the village of B6daU), at the 
junction of the two torrents which form the Teerthun river, along 
whose banks we proceeded for three days to Larjee, where it joins the 
Syneja river, and where about 100 yards lower down the united 
streams fall into the Beeas river, just at that point where the Beeas 
after running for a long course southward turns abruptly to the west 
through a narrow gorge, the channel of the three united streams not 
being so broad as that of any one of them. We were much surprized 
to find that this remarkable junction of three large streams was not 
esteemed holy. We rested in a large cave excavated in the variegated 
marble rock by Munnee Ram, a former Wuzeer of Kooloo ; who, we 
were told used frequently to come to this place for many days together 
to escape from the cares of state ; but more likely he came to bathe at 
the junction of the three rivers, for a more sterile and inhospitable 
place could not be conceived. 

We then ascended the course of the Beeas river, which widened 

after a few miles into a beautiful large valley; 

JSeeaa river. . - - 

generally about half a mile across, and wooded 

down to the water's edge, with a broad winding stream variegated 

i841.J to the sources of the Punjab rivers. 3 

with many islands. We crossed the Gomttttee river, a considerable 
tributary on the left bank of the Beeasi by a ricketty wooden bridge, 
ftnd passed over the Beeas itself upon inflated buffalo skins to the 
fort of Bajowra, where the road from Mundee, by which Moorcroft, 
Gerard, and Henderson had travelled joins the road from Rampoor. 
On the evening of the 29th of June we reached Sooltanpoor, the 
capital of Kooloo^ and found lodgings ready for us in the house of the 
former Wuxeer of Kodoo. On the foUowing day we paid the Bajah a 
visit of ceremony. He was the same Ajeet Singh whom Moorcroft 
had seen ; but when we saw him he was completely at the mercy of the 
Sikhs, who lorded it over him, even in his own Durbar. 

The capital of Kooloo, Sooltanpoor, or as it is sometimes called 
Rughoo N^thpoor, from the chief temple being dedicated to Rughoo- 
nath, could never have been extensivCy and it was then daily becoming 
less. It is situated at the confluence of the Serbullee, a small stream, 
with the Beeas river. It has but two streets, but they are paved with 
boulder stones, as are likewise all the lanes. The houses are built 
of stone and wood, but we saw none of any particular neatness. Goitre 
was prevalent, diseases of the eye common, and extreme dirtiness 
universaL The annual revenue was said to be 1,20,000 Rupees, 
of which the Sikh Government seized 70,000. 

We left Sooltanpoor on the Srd of July ; but instead of crossing 
the river to the left bank, as Moorcroft did, by the two bridges imme- 
diately above the town, we proceeded along the right bank. The 
valley opened as we advanced, and the scenery became bold and 
beautiful. The islands were numerous and well wooded; and the 
banks were alternately gentle slopes covered with grass to the water's 
edge, and steep alluvial spurs overhanging the river, and covered with 
apricots, peaches, apples, pears, figs, and grasses all growing wild ; 
further on, were the pine-clad slopes of the mountains on each bank, 
the nearest green, the more distant blue ; and beyond all, appeared the 
lofty snowy peaks at the head of the river* 

On the evening of the 4th of July we halted on a low bank, close to a 
hot weU, called Seeta Koond. The well was surrounded by a square 
enclosure with a few stone figures of deities placed in the comers. The 
temperature of the water was 104^ of Faht. the spring has probably 
some connection with the hot wells at Biseshta-moonh, on the opposite 

4 Journal of Lieut, A. Broome ajtd Lietit, Cunningham [No. \0d, 

bank of the river, which were visited by Moorcroft, who however does 
not mention their temperature. In the morning we continued our 
journey, and after passing through a forest of noble cedars we reached 
the viUage of Booruwa. There the scenery w^s very picturesque. On 
the left and to the front were snowy peaks ; but to the right there 
were steep cliffs of gneiss, resembling << castellated parapets," as Moor- 
croft described them twenty years ago. At two miles beyond this we 
passed Kothee, the last village in the vale of the Beeas river, and 
proceeded to a very pretty level spot of ground called Ralha, surround- 
ed by high cliffs, and steep green slopes, and where the Beeas was so 
narrow that one might have jumped across it. In the morning we 
made a laborious ascent of two miles by an irregular flight of steps, 
built about 25 or 30 years ago by a Brahmin, who had charge of 
the custom house opposite the village of Koshee. The road was then 
tolerably level for about a mile ; after which it continued ascending 
for two miles, crossing all the ravines on hard snow beds, which 
even then, 7th of July, had not melted, until we reached the head 
of the Pass, where from beneath an enormous block of mica slate, 
the infant Beeas had its birth at a height of 12,941 feet. On the 
top of this block we built a pile of stones, and in the midst erected 
a slab on which we inscribed our initiab. The crest of the Rotung* 
joth, or pass, is a little higher than the mica slate block, or just 13,000 
feet, from which it slopes gradually to the north for about a mile over a 
hard bed of snow. The heat and glare reflected from the snow were 
intolerable, and our faces were completely blistered. From this the view 
of the isnowy peaks of Tartary, the land of uniiissolving snow, was 
extensive and beautiful. Three thousand feet beneath us rolled the 
Chundra river, which even there was a deep stream, 100 feet wide ; 
and on all sides was dazzling snow, from the midst of which towered 
the gigantic mountains, 

Whose lofty peaks to distant realms in sight. 

Present a Siva's smile, a lotus white. 

One of the peaks, about twenty miles higher up the river, appeared 
like a mighty natural obelisk against the cloudless blue sky. It is call- 
ed Indr'sar-deo-ka-thdny or *^ the abode of the supreme deity, Indra." 

The descent was steep and rugged for about three miles to the bank 
of the Chundra river, which we crossed by a suspension bridge made of 

1841.] to the sources (^ the Puf^ab rivers, 5 

birchen twig rope, having a span of 106 feet, and a height of forty 
feet above the stream. We halted at Koksor, the first village in Lahul, 
aod the highest on the bank of the Chnndra, at an elevation of 
10,063 feet. There was not even a bosh to be seen as far as the 
eye could reach, although the vegetation around the village was rich 
and luxuriant, the whole ground being covered with strawberries, 
dwarf irises, hyacinths, and pinks ; there was also one primrose in blos- 
som on the 8th of July. 

From Koksur we proceeded along the right bank of the Chundra for 
five miles to the vilkge of Tehling, where we saw on both sides of the 
river a few poor withered looking yews; snow was lying in all the 
gorges and ravines ; and even in the bed of the main stream there were 
large masses forty and fifty feet thick on each side, which had only re- 
cently been cut through by the current and undermined. In two days 
we reached the village of Gooroo Guntall, twenty miles below Koksur, 
at the junction of the Chundra and Bhaga rivers, whose united streams 
fona the Chundra-Bhaga, or Chenab river, the Sandabal of Ptolemy 
the geographer. There we halted as the birchen bridge over the 
Bhaga river had been swept away ; and on the following morning we 
ascended the left bank of the Bhaga for about four miles,, and passing 
through the laige villages of Gwajun and Kardung, we reached a 
wooden bridge, forty feet span and forty feet in height, by which we 
crossed the stream, and then descended it for four miles to Tandee, the 
chief village of Lahul, which is exactly opposite to Crooroo Guntall, the 
village firom which we had started in the morning. The only trees 
about Tandee are yews and pollard willows. On the banks of the 
Bb^^ however there were pines ; and we found plenty of wild goose- 
berries of which we made very good puddings : some of these gooseber« 
ries that we bottled with snow water remained perfectly good after a 
journey to Simla, where they were cooked and eaten. We saw some 
yellow roses too on the banks of the Bhaga, and some columbine near 
Tandee. The crops consist of buck-wheat, common wheat, and barley ; 
of which buck- wheat is by far the most common. The crops frequently 
fail either through the backwardness of the warm season, or through 
the early setting in of the long winter ; indeed for three years before 
our arrival at Tandee there had been no good crops of wheat or barley. 
The natives however attributed this failure to the displeasure of Provi- 

6 Journal of LkuL A. Broome Sf Lieut Cunningham Sfc. [No. 109. 

dence on account of the conquest of the country by the Sikhs, and the 
ezpoliion of the Raja of Lud&h« 

At Tandee we heard of the death of Runjeet Singh ; and it was 
currently reported that we had been sent to take possession of the 
country : this indeed we might easily have done, for our party mus- 
tered about one hundred people ; and the natives of Lahul are so 
cowardly that Moorcroft relates they on one occasion, when invaded 
by a small party, buried their swords and fled to the more inaccessible 
parts of the mouatAins. Here we parted company on the morning of 
the 15 th of July ; the one ta ascend the Bhaga river and to return to 
Simla by the Spiti river ; and the other to follow the Chundrabhaga 
and to proceed through Burmawur on the Boodhil river to Chnmba» 
and from thence to Kashmeer. 

On Lightning Conductors to Powder Magcusines. By W. B. 0*Sh augh* 
nsssY, M. D. Assistant Surgeon^ Bengal Medical Service. 

The paper now published by Prof. O'Shaughnessy is in continuation of 
his paper on Lightning Conductors, which appeared in No. 99 of this 
Journal. The positions contained in that former essay having been ar- 
raigned in a contemporary publication,* the Professor put forth a rejoinder 
to the exceptions taken against his views and statements by the writers 
above aUuded to, and then placed his rejoinder in my hands for pub- 
lication in this Journal, as a necessary sequel to his original essay* The 
dreumstances under which the paper now published was written, give 
it of necessity a certain controversial tone, which I have felt myself bound 
to account for, while laying before my readers a paper, without which the 
essay on Lightning Conductors, ahready in their hands, would be incom- 
plete. |jj 

To the Editor of the Calcutta Journal of Natural History^ Sfc, 

Illness and absence firom Calcutta have prevented my sending au 
earlier notice of the article which has appeared in your last number re- 
lative to the attachment of lightning rods to Powder Magazines. 

The only point in the article in question, which I feel myself called 
upon to notice in your pages, is the attempt of your correspondent to 
shew that I had falsely described the spear-head of the Britannia on 

• Dr. M'Clelland'8 Quarterly "Journal of Natural History." 

1841.] On Lightning Conductors to Pounkr Magazines. 7 

Government Honae, as having been partially fused by lightnings on the 
occasion of the boilding being struck on the 29th of March 1838. 
Yoor anonymous correspondent accuses me of such shameful falsehood, 
on grounds which I shall take up in the order he gives them. 

Ist That he examined the identical piece of iron, which he states 
now forms the point of the spear on the Britanniai and that he could 
observe no evidence of fusion. 

As the marks of fusion I saw and described, were not larger than 
the size of a grain of duck shot or a small pea, and as the iron (sup- 
posing the piece to be identical, which I shall presently shew strong 
reason for doubting) must have been exposed to the weather for two years 
and ten months, an impartial writer should rather have concluded that 
the marks had been eflhced by the exposure, than that I had stated 
what was untrue. 

Accordingly your correspondent asserts, secondly, that he obtained 
testimony of the individual by whom the repairs were executed ; who 
gave negative evidence to any alteration having been made in the point 

In justice to myself, I am bound to protest against such evidence be- 
ing for one moment attended to-*-^'Anonymous" No. 1, charges me 
with fabehood, and adduces the testimony of '^ Anonymous" No. 2, to 
corroborate his case— and this in a simple matter of fact. Opinions or 
aiguments are as strong in every respect, though expressed anonymous- 
ly as when authenticated by the writer's name. But on questions of 
fsieiSf personal testimony must ever preponderate. Why does not your 
correspondent come forward in his own name f His papers are high- 
ly creditable to his abilities, and his testimony would then be of value 
as to any fact he asserts. 

But receiving the case on internal evidence alone, it might be that 
no alteration was made in the point during the repairs ; it might be that 
the spear-head is the same as that struck, and nevertheless it is but the 
natural consequence of the corrosion of an iron point by the influence 
of climate, that the appearances I saw may have been entirely obli- 

Tkirdlg. He accuses me of error in speaking of the spear-head, when 
I should have called it the spear-point. This is not worth rejoinder. 
Nothing but the mere spirit of hyper-criticism could condescend to 
such trifling. 

8 On Lightning Conductors to Powder Magazines, [No. 109. 

Fourthly. He asserts that the lower portion of the wooden spear 
shews no evidence of the lightning having passed through it. Neither 
should it, as it never was touched. 

The lightning first fell on the point, the concussion shivered the spear, 
and the arm of the statue; from the point it struck the copper of the 
dome, and thence by three divisions it entered the house, as described 
in the accompanying report 

Fifthly. The writer states, ** there is no evidence of a direct or later- 
al discharge on the spikes with which the head of the figure is cover- 
ed." These may or may not have been affected, there was no examination 
made of the spikes at the time, as I had no &ncy to climbing the scaf* 
folding for the purpose, and as &r as their having been struck or not 
affects the question of the point, those who know the freaks and antics 
which lightning displays in its course, wiU readily admit that one metallic 
point may be struck close to another, without this being interfered with 
in the least degree. 

Lastly, He dwells emphatically on the circumstance that neither 
Captain Fitzgerald nor his Assistant Mr. Barnes, the overseer, have in 
any way publicly confirmed my statement, although they are both in 
Calcutta, and could have been appealed to. 

On this I have to observe, that the writer is (perhaps better than any 
other person) aware of circumstances which rendered it difficult for 
me to appeal to Capt. Fitzgerald or Mr. Barnes on this subject— nor 
did I then, nor do I now, feel the necessity of such an appeal. I de- 
scribed what I saw. My character for veracity must stand or hXL 
by the correctness of my statement ; had the graitleman alluded to^ or 
his assistant publicly contradicted me, it would still be a question with 
every impartial man, which statement was to be believed implicitly ; 
and most observers would probably condude, that it was more likely 
that the marks of fusion I described had escaped the attention of 
these individuals, than that I had wilfully and falsdy described tiiat 
which had no existoice. 

I contend, too, that it can never be admitted that a writer^s state- 
ments are invalidated in the least degree by the silence of any persons 
be refers to. The writer cannot force these persons forward in his 
defence, and many reasons may exist, too deep for the world to pene- 
trate, and too powerful to allow the parties to act with perfect candour. 

1841.] On Lightning Qmductors to Powder Magazines. 9 

ioiruds one with whom they may have been placed in disagreeable 
relations. I speak of course generally, and solely with reference to the 
hardship of bmng expected to force forward the testimony referred to. 

Tiiroiighout his remarks, the writer attaches much more importance 
to the question of the spear*point being struck or fused, than it in 
reality deserves; but as he admits, (p. 492, last paragraph) that had 
it been so struck, the fact would have been ''fatal to his pre-conceiyed 
opinion aa to the course of the lightning on that occasion," I am war- 
ranted in adducing some further evidence in support of my statement. 

On the morning after the accident, I was invited by Captain Fitzge- 
rald to visit Government House, and offer him suggestions as to 
the repairs required, and the re-arrangement of the conductors. I went 
there in the evening and met Mr. Barnes, who shewed me the broken 
articles, and the course of the explosion. Captain Fitzgerald I now 
recollect was not present on that occasion. I wrote to Captain 
Fitzgerald next day, and among other suggestions I especially dwelt on 
the necessity of replacing the wooden spear by one of metal, con- 
necting this with the ccqpper of the dome^ and this lastly by metallic 
straps, with four additional conductors to be erected adjacent to the 
dome. Captain Fitzgerald's report, hereunto annexed, shews that my 
suggestions were carried into effect. On this I have here one remark 
to make. If this report be correct, if my suggestions have been 
foUowed, if the metal spear has been erected, what becomes of your 
correspondent's assertions that the identical point has been replaced, 
and that he has re-examined the lower part of the original spear. 
I^ on the other hand, the wooden apear has been replaced as it origi- 
nally stood, then every impartial electrician will admit,* that the Go- 
vernment House of Calcutta will in all probability be again, and at no 
distant period, the scene of a similar casuality to that of the 29th of 
March, 1838. In this case it is in truth provided with a snare for 
every thupder-cloud that passes. 

With reference to my plans, before the writer censures these he 
should in fairness clearly and fully state what they are. This he does 
not do> and for such a statement I refer to the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society for 1839, in which my papers are published. If the Editor 

.* Aa Captain Fitzgerald does Indirectly in his report— W. B. O'S. 


10 On Lightning Condudars to Powder Magazines. [No. 109. 

of the <^ Calcutta Journal of Natural History/' desires to be impartial* 
I claim from him the circulation of these papers to his subscribers, 
with additional notes with which I will supply him with pleasure, 
as extra limites to his Journal All expenses of printing, postage, &c. 
I will cheerfully defray. His subscribers will then see that I have 
never opposed the attachment of conductors to Powder Magazines — 
thiat I freely admitted their value, but contended that under such 
peculiar circumstances, they should be erected in a greater number 
than Mr. Daniell recommended, and at a certain distance from the 

In conclusion, I have to acknowledge the kind exhortation of your 
correspondent that I should conduct this discussion with moderation, 
and that I should refrain from indulging in a spirit of injustice. to Mr. 
McClelland and himself. All this is very amiable in gentlemen who 
are endeavouring to fix upon me an imputation of falsehood, and who 
would hide from the world, that in consequence of the Griffith and 
Wallich controversy, and of another public occurrence of some celebrity, 
I have not for some time had the happiness of being numbered among 
the friends of my commentators on this occasion. The remembrances 
of past collisions has never yet mingled honey with a critic's ink, the 
strongest impulse of nature would, on the contrary, urge him to dip 
his pen by preference in gall or acid. How fiur this feeling has oper- 
ated on the present occasion, those who know the relative positions 
of the parties can readily conclude; to others I shall commit my 
arguments and facts, (if Dr. McClelland will allow me to do so) in the 
confidence that they will be dispassionately considered, and in the feel- 
ing that if I fail, there is no disgrace in being worsted in a controversy 
with an antagonist of Mr. Daniell's deserved reputation. 

I am Sir, with much respect, 
Calcutta, Your obedient servant, 

Ut March, 1841. W. B. O'Shatohnksst, M.D. 

Assistant Surgeon, 

1841.] On Lightning Condudars to Powder Magazines. 11 

Report by Captain Fitzobealo on the accident hy Lightning to Go* 

vemmeni House^ Caicutta, 

To Captain Sandkrb, 
No. 563. Secretary, Military Board, 


I have the honor to report for the information of the 
Military Board, that the Goremment House was struck by lightning 
during the storm which occurred early this morning. The lightning 
seems to have been attracted to the building by the iron at the 
point of the spear attached to the figure of Britannia on the top of 
the dome ; after demolishing the spear, it pursued its course down the 
external copper of the dome, without apparently doing any injury, 
and forced its way into the ball room in three separate places. It has 
left its traces on the ceiling and wall of the southern division of the 
room, where it has injured one of the pier-glasses, and then passed out 
at the adjoining window. Again, on the eastern side of the central di- 
vision it has pursued a similar course, injuring a pier-glass, and again 
passing out of the adjoining windows. On the western side of the central 
division it has done the most injury, for after passing through the ceil- 
ing it has broken one of the pier-glasses at its comer, then running 
down into the marble hall, has escaped out of one of the windows, break- 
ing in its exit, as the others also did, several panes of glass. 

2nd. I requested Dr. O'Shaughnessy to inspect the effects of the 
lightning, and he has expressed his surprize that so little comparative 
injury has been caused by it The sharp point of iron at the end of the 
spear, and the studding of the shoulders of the statue with iron nails 
(intended to prevent birds from sitting on it) has served in the first 
instance to attract the lightning, and that it has never been .struck be- 
fore, he attributes to the . protecting power of the four conductors, 
which, however, he considers to be twice as far from each other as they 
ought to be. 

drd. In repairing the statue, he recommends that the spear should be 
made of metal, and that it should be connected. with. one. or more of 
the comer conductors by means of a continuous metallic rod. It 
would perhaps also be advisable, under the circumstances above men- 

12 On Lightning Conductors to Powder Magazines, [No. 109. 

tioned, to affix four more conductors to the house, to render it more 
secure from a similar visitation. 

4th. With the Board's permission, I will, in rectifying the damage, 
carry the improvements above suggested into effect 

I have, &c. 
(Signed) W. R. Fitzguald, 
FoBT William, Cinnl Architect. 

SOth Marchy 1838. 

Memora$idum on the Trade between the Towns of SMkarpore and 

Candahar,-^Bg Lieut, J. PosTAira, Assistant PoHtieal Agent, Shi- 

harporcy Sindh, 

As it is of importance in connection with the prospects of trade 
with the countries bordering on, or accessible by means of the river 
Indus, to ascertain what return commodities may be looked from these 
quarters, their value and quality as suitable to the European market, 
I have availed myself of the arrival of the annual Kuffillahs at Shikar- 
pore from Candahar, to obtain the following information on the various 
articles composing the investments from the latter place, shewing the 
return trade for English piece goods, metals, groceries, &c. transmitted 
from the former. 

I have ascertained, from good authority, that the market at Oandidiar 
for European &brics of the usual manufactures suitable to the habits 
and tastes of the people of these countries^ is at present unusually 
brisk, and the demand &r greater than the supply; moreover, that 
there is every reason to believe from the increase of security to the 
merchant, decrease of transit dues, impulse lately given to Candahar 
as a mart for the N. W., and the influx of population, that this 
demand will not be likely materially to decline. To the fabrics in 
demand, profits derived, and other particulars, I will refer hereafter. 

The insecure state of the Bolan Pass, has this year retarded the 
arrival of the Caravans, and decreased their number. I shall quote 
the following list of articles received by one : — 

No. l.^^Turquoise Earth — ^mds. 14 — ^price from four rupees to 
twelve rupees per tt>. This article is an important one in the trade to 

1841.] Trade between Shikarpore if Candahar, 13 

Shikarpore from Candahar, but it is doabtfol if it would be adapted to 
the European market The mines are situated at Nishapiir near 
Mesfaidy and the Persian Government has of late years placed agents 
to prevent any large or valuable stones from bdng exported to Herat, 
whenee they find their way to Shikarpore vift Candahar ; there is there- 
fore a great scarcity of the large Turquoises, which are so much prized, 
the smaller are sufficiently plentiful to be worn by all classes. 

The stone is polished from its rough state by means of a vertical 
wheel of baked clay, set in motion by the hand and moistened, the 
value of the stone being entirely determined by the depth of its colour, 
and absence of white flaws. 

2. — Raw Silk (kokanee)— ^ md. price rupees 9*9-0 per fib. 

See memorandum already furnished on this article. 
3. — Ckurus from Bokhara^— 5 mds. — ^price 3 annas per lb. 

An intoxicating drug prepared from hemp seed (Bang), and used 
in these countries for the game purposes as opium elsewhere. 
4. — Own from Candahar— 46 mds. — 3 lbs. per rupee. 

This gum appears of the same description as that which is 
known as <^Gum Arabic,'' and is in most extensive use for 
dyeing, &c. 
S.'^Siik — Manufactured fabrics from Herat of various kinds — 
pieces 1854 : prices not fixed. 

None of these would be adapted for the European Market, being 

entirely manufactured to suit Asiatic tastes, and principally 

used in the wealthier Sindee harems. 

6. — Dried Fruiie of various kinds, kismis^^prunes, dried black 

grapes, walnuts, dried apricots, almonds, and dates, in great 

quantities:— oprices not quoted, as not probaUy adapted for trade. 

7. — Timel Thread for embroidery. — 2 mds. — ^price 1 anna per tolah. 

8. — Khand Seah^ preparation from the sugar cane of Jellalabad — 1^ 

mds.-— price 1^ lbs. per rupee. 
9.— J3!n0iAs» Copper and braes veseeU-^^ mds.— copper 1 rupee 8 
annas per lb.— brass 1 ruflee 7 annas per lb. These are returned 
to Shikarpore to be re-manufactured, for which they do not 
apparently possess the means at Candahar. 
10.— AnImii^. Madder dye— ^0 mds. — price 8 rupees per md. This 
is an important article in this trade,, and brought down in con- 

] 4 Trade between Shikarpore Sf Candahar. [No. 109. 

siderable quantities. There aretwo descriptions called *^ Rodung 
hvkree^ and ^* Rodung phurreeahJ* The latter is cultivated at 
Candahar, is of a larger size, and valued at 16 rupees per md., 
or double that of the other. 

11. — Safiron Bakooee — ^ md. — ^per lb. 15 rupees. ^* Bakjooee^ so 
called from its being produced at Bakwa, to the west of 

12. — Sqffiower from Herat (quantity not known) price 37 rupees per 
lb. about 10 boxes annually, of from 6 to 10 lbs. per box. 

13.— 6rt<9» Salop from Herat (quantity not known) — 5 Rs. per lb. 
Sniall quantities only of this article are brought down^ but it 
is in great request at Shikarpore. 

l^,^^S%T Khishtf a species of manna, price 5 Rs. per lb $ from Herat, 
used medicinally, and about 10 mds. imported annually. 

15.^-Musaghy dye from the walnut tree; Cabool — 8 mds — 1^ lb. 
per rupee. 

16. — Antimony from Bella in Lus — ^mds. 16^ — ^price If lb. per rupee. 
An article in great demand^ from the constant use made of it by 
the natives of these countries. If adapted to the European 
Market, it should find its way to Bombay vi& Soumeany and 

17. — Old paper 6^ mds. — ^price 2 lbs. per rupee. Sent to Shikar- 
pore to be re-manufactured. 

18. — Punvieer (not known)— 20 mds. — 9 lbs. per rupee. Used me- 
dicinally, and produced from some wild shrub in the hills. 

19. — Podeneh — dried mint — 6 mds. — 5 rupees per maund. 

20. — Hingozeh — Assafoetida — 60 mds. — 1^ rupee per lb. This is 
an important article of this trade, being produced abundantly 
in Khorassan and the hilly country of Beloochistan. 

21. — Carraway seeds from Khorassan (quantity not known) — 2 lbs. 
per rupee — about 70 or 80 mds. imported annually. 

22.— ilirmoA, a very fine description of cotton from Herat, about 
80 mds. imported annually — ^price If rupee per lb. ; u&ed in 
embroidery, and highly prized. 

23. — Cochineal from Khorassan (quantity not known) — ^price 9 
rupees per tfo. The amount of annual import may be about 
8 or 10 mds., and its price is occasionally from 18 to 20 

1841.] Trade between Shiharpore Sf Candahar* Id 

rupees per lb. ; it is used in dyeing silks, and also brought to 
Shikarpore from Bombay. 
24. — Bhqfgund (name not known) from Khorassan — ^price 14 to 15 
rupees per md. ; annually about 70 maunds ; in great request, 
and used as a dye to silks. 
25. — GoolfUeel (name not known) from Khorassan — price 15 rupees 
per md. ; annually about 80 mds. ; used as a green dye to silks. 
The following, though appertaining to Cutchee^ are inserted here, 
as they are products of that country^ and imported into the Shikarpore 
26. — Alum from the hilly country of Cutchee, annually about 200 

mds. — -price 8 rupees per md. 
27. — KhiMzulj Colocynth, bitter apple, grows as a perfect weed all 
over the plains of Cutchee^ and to be purchased at Shikarpore 
7 or 8 per one pice. 
28. — SaUpeire can be manufactured in Cutchee and other parts of 
the country in any quantity required ; value at Shikarpore 6 
rupees per md. 
29. — Sulphur produced in the Murree and Boogtie hills, where are 
mines which deserve attention; about 10 or 12 mds., are brought 
annually to Shikarpore, where it is valued at 4 rupees per md. 
30. — Khary a kind of potash, produced by the incineration of the 
Lye, or tamarisk, and other salt shrubs ; it is in great use in 
scouring, ^y^^ng? ^* ^^^ worth 1 rupee per 1^ md. at Shikar- 
pore, 10 or 12,000 mds. are brought in yearly. 
The prices of the above articles include all duties, and few of them 
are exported beyond Rhyrpore, or^the Sindh territories. About four 
Caravans arrive annually, and the profit on this branch of the trade 
is about 10 per cent. 

The trade from Shikarpore to Candahar in British manu&ctures 
consists principally of the articles hereafter enumerated, and the present 
profits, all expences paid, are at least 50 per cent, between the two 
places, notwithstanding the double rate of Camel hire, (52 rupees) 
consequent upon the demands of our troops. As the present state 
of the Candahar market, however, may not be considered a fair cri- 
terion, or average of the profits of the trade, I may mention, that these 

16 Trade between Shikarpare Sf Catuidhar. [No. 109. 

are never leM than firom 16 to 20 per cent, tlie rate of Camel hire 
being 20 mpees a Camel, carrying from 6 to 7 mcUi. 

I learn that comfdaints have been lately made of the great inferio- 
rity of the articles, particularly the want of stability in the colours of 
the chintzes (printed cottons of all kinds come under this denomi- 
nation) always in great demand. 

In the following list of the fabrics above alluded to^ I have also 
given the names by which they are known in these countries, with 
samples of such as are not recognized :«- 

1.— '< Ulwan Makhootie,'' red dyed Cotton Cloth. 

2 Cotton White. 

3. " KessUy^ partly coloured. 

4.—-*' Chukulwel^*' long doth (of apparently very inferior des- 

5._« Chintz pukhtet," (glazed Chintz.) 

6.—'' Budul/* (printed cottons.) 

7. — *^ Madrapai" bleached. 

8 ■ unbleached. 

9. — " Abrahy^ (zebra) red and white. 

10. ■ , yellow. 

11. ■ , Chenay. 
\2.—'' Jamadanee'' 

13 « Mulmui:' 

14.—" Juggemat Muslm." 

15.—" Muhhmul,'* (black velvet.) 

16. — " PaJtan^ bleached, species of sheeting cloth. 

17. ■ , unbleached. 

18. — " McLhoat* coloured (coarse broad cloth.) 

19 " Khinkaubs:* 


Memorandum on the city of Shtharpoor, in Upper Sindh. By Lieut. 
J. PosTANSy Assistant Political Agent, Upper Sindh, 

Shikarpore may be considered the most important town in the 

Shikarpore— its Country of Sindh in point of trade, population, and 

position. influence. It is situated in Upper Sindh, or above 

Sindh proper, at a distance of twenty-four miles NW. from the 

Indus at Sukhur, about forty miles from the edge of the desert at 

Rojhan, which separates Upper Sindh from Cutchee. 

Shikarpore dates its origin to the year of the Hijira 1026, (a.d. 1617) 
Origin. 18 an ill built dirty town, its walls in a state of 

dilapidation and decay, the consequence of the total neglect and 
apathy of the chiefs of the country to the improvement of their posses- 
sions, further shewn in the neglect of the Sindh. A canal flows within 
a mile of the city towards Larkhana, providing means of irrigation 
to a large tract of country, and a temporary, but important water 
communication from the Indus, during a few months of the year. 
The houses in Shikarpore are built of unbumt brick, upper roomed, 
Description of and some of those belonging to the wealthiest 
the city. Sonears are of respectable size, and convenient The 

streets are narrow, confined, and dirty in the extreme ; the great Bazar, 
which is the centre of all trade and banking transactions, for which 
Shikarpore is celebrated, extends for a distance of 800 yards, running 
immediately through the centre of the city. It is, in common with the 
Bazars of all towns in Sindh, protected from the oppressive heat by 
mats stretched from the houses on either side ; this although it imparts 
an appearance of coolness, occasions by the stagnation of air an insuf- 
ferable, close^ and evidently unwholesome atmosphere, evinced in the 
sickly appearance of those who pass nearly the whole of their time in 
the shops and counting houses. This Bazar is generally thronged with 
people, and though there is little display of merchandize, the place 
has the air of bustle and importance which it merits. The walls of 
Shikarpore— also of unbumt brick — ^have been allowed to remain so 
totally without repairs that they no longer deserve the name of a pro- 
tection to the city; they enclose a space of 3831 yards in circum* 



18 Memorandum on Shikarpore, in Upper Sindh, [No. 109. 

There are eight gates. The suburbs of Shikarpore are very extensive 
g , . and a great portion of the population calculated as 

belonging to the city reside outside, particularly the 
Mahomedans and labouring classes. With the exception of one toler- 
able Musjied on the southern side, Shikarpore possesses no building of 

fiy a census taken with considerable case during the preceding 
month, the following is a return of the inhabitants of this city, including 
the suburbs : — 


Males, 9,494 ) 18,913 souls. Houses 3,686. 


, 9,494 ) 
[08,9,419 J 


Males, 4,666, 1 8,647 souls. Houses 1,806 

Females, 4,091 3 

In detail thus : — Hindoos divided according to professions — 

Hindoos. Grain sellers, ... ... ••• ... 64 

Confection^s, ... .«. ... ... 66 

Cotton sellers, ... ... ... .*• 12 

Soucars, ... *• •*• ... 35 

Shroffs, ••* ••• ••* •.• ^^ 

Cloth merchiMits, ••• .«• ... ... 65 

Goldsmiths, ••* .«. ... ... *^ 

Dealers in Drugs, ... .«. ... ... 33 

^-.-»>i.>M«»a^.aa jjOLetaif .*'. ... ... ... ^9 


.™™^.^^>"^— ^— ■ OllKy .« ... ... .*• Vg 

— i— — — — ESnamel, ... , ... ... ... 19 

Perfumes,... ... « ... 11 

Vegetable and Milk sellers, 46 

Dealers in dry fruit, ... ... ... ... 67 

Do. salt and sundries, 249 

Ivory turners, 3 

Total Hindoo Shops, 923* 

* The remaiadfr of the Hindoos are composed of Brahmins, and those who are not 

1841.] Memorandum on Shikarpore^ in Upper Sindh. 19 

The Mahomedans divided according to trades, &c— 


Ma]i<»nedaiii. Weavers of coarse 





Dyers and washermen, 




Oil pressers, ... 

... ... 




Weavers of mats, 

... ... 





... ... 





... ... 




Shoemakers and workers in leather, 

1 .«. 

• .• 


Ironmongers, ... 

... ... 





... ... 





. . 







Cotton cleaners. 


• * . 



• ■ • 



Carpenters, ... 

• • • 



Preparers of woollen mamids, 





... ... 

. • • 



Musicians and singers, 





. • • . 




Syuds and Moolahi 

1, « . . ... 




Cultivators, ... 

... ... 





• •. • . • 

. • • 



Total, ... ... ••. ... 8,647 

Independent of the above, there are altogether 1001 Afghans and 

Afghans to Pattans in the city of Shikarpore, employed as 

Pattans. cultivators, or for Police duties by the Government ; 

they are of the following tribes. — Populzyge — 2. Pishengee (Syuds) ; 3. 

Bamkzye ; 4. Moorzye ; 5. Easakzye ; 6. Mogal ; 7. Lukoozye ; 8. Doora- 

nee; 9. Baber; 10. Oosteranee; 11. Monim; 12. Kakut; 13. Ghilzee; 

14. Bureeh; 15. Burdarame; 16. ; 17. Babee; 18. Doreanee; 

19. Owan : 20. Prumee. 

It will be seen from the above that the population of Shikarpore 

Population of Ma- ^^^ ^ calculated at 29,700, say 30,000 souls, of 

homedans and whom 9,647, say 10,000, or one- third, are Mahome- 

Hindoos. dans. In the above are also included many Hindoos, 

who are employed in distant countries as agents from the Soucars. 

20 Memorandum on Shikarpare, in Upper Sindh. [No. 109. 

The Hindoos carry on all the trade, while the cultivation and arti- 
H' d ' trad z^nsbip of almost every denomination is in the hands 

of the Mahomedans. 
The dress of the Hindoos of Shikarpore varies little from that of 
Condition andman- ^^ same class in other parts of India, except in 
ners of Hindoos. those who are servants of the native Governments, 
as deputies or collectors of revenue, and these invariably adopt the 
beard of Mahomed and costume of Sindh. On their habits of life and 
religious observances, the Hindoos of this city, as indeed throughout 
the whole of the Mahomedan countries westward of the Indus, indulge 
in a degree of laxity, totally at variance with the strict rules by 
which they generally profess tp be regulated; they possess however 
an unusual degree of influence at Shikarpore, and are too valuable 
to the financial resourses of the country not to be permitted to 
maintain it. 

With the exception of the Moolahs and Syudhs, few of the Maho- 
Condition of Ma- medans of this city are either wealthy or influential, 
homedans. rjij^^ AflPghan Zamindars who under that rule held 

important possessions in the vicinity, and were men of note and 
consideration, have been gradually stripped of their rights by the 
Talpur chiefs, although in many cases the same were guaranteed to 
them under promise held to be sacred ; in consequence of this their 
number has considerably decreased, and those who remain are poor, 
and from the connections they have formed in the country have become 
naturalized, and are no longer entitled to be called foreigners. 

The country in' the immediate vicinity of Shikarpore is low, and 
Adjacent country admits freely of irrigation from the inundations of 
and cultivation, the river Indus by means of smaller Nullahs, or 
water courses leading from the Sindh Canal. Cultivation is extensively 
carried on, and the gardens of Shikarpore are rich in all the fruits 
peculiar to the country, though mangoes, neim, acacia, pipul, and 
mulberry trees attain great size. The soil is a rich alluvial, and its 
capabilities for production are no where better displayed than in the 
Mogullee district (that in which Shikarpore is situated), owing to the 
advantages in this respect (possessed by nearly the whole of upper 
Sindh) being turned to due account, still comparatively speaking only a 
limited portion of the land is brought under cultivation. Rice and 

1841.] Mefwn'andufn on Shikarpore^ in Upper Sindh, 2t 

Juwarree fonn the great ''KoireeP or aatasmal, and wheat the 
Crops. « Rabbee" or spring crop ; the former are entirely 

dependent on the inandations, which commence to be available for par- 
poses of cultivation about the middle of April, and continue until the 
middle of September. The ** Rubbee" crops are raised by means of 
wells and bunds formed from the inundation. 
The soil is so rich that no manure of any kind is used ; the inunda* 
Soil. tions bringing with them a certain slimy matter, 

winch appears highly conducive to fertility, the ground is allowed to 
remain fallow from the reaping of one crop in October, to the sowing 
of another in April or May, and the same with the Rubbee lands ; this 
rule appears to obtain all over the country. 

Water is found at an average of about twenty feet from the surface, 
and to a depth of sixty feet the finest description of sand is alone ob- 
servable ; with the alluvial soil is a superstrata ; a stone or rocky founda- 
tion of any description is not to be seen. 

All the approaches to Shikarpore are bad, from the country being so 
Roads. constantly intersected with water courses, and no 

measures being taken to provide bridges, or repair the roads, which are 
cat up by carts, and the constant traffic of camels, bullocks, kc. 
A comparatively trifling outlay would obviate this, as also improve the 
Sindh canal. Sindh canal, which, from having been allowed to 
choak up at its mouth, and get generally into disrepair, is only navi- 
gable from the end of April to the beginning of October, whereas it is 
capable of afibrding an important means of water communication from 
the Indus to Shikarpore, for at least nine months of the year. 

Shikarpore being in the immediate route for the transmission of 

Trade and infiu- merchandize to Khorassan and countries to the NW. 

ence of money tran- by the Pass of the Bolan, has with Dera Ghaze 

Khan obtained the title of one of the gates of 
Khorassan. Its influence is more immediately felt however in the bank- 
ing transactions which by means of agents it carries on in every in- 
termediate place beyond the Bolan Pass, from Quettah and Kelat to 
Bokhara and Herat ; as also in all places of mercantile importance in 
Duties and im- India. Vexatious transit and other duties oh goods 
ports on trade. pursuing the Shikarpore route to Khorassan have 

tended to turn much of its former trade, especially in European goods 

22 Memorandum an Shikarpare, in Upper Sindh. [No. 109. 

received from its port of Karachee, into the channel of communication 
to the NW. by the way of Soomeanee, Beila, and Kelat, the more 
direct, and at present by far the less expensive route. A revisal of 
imposts,* together with a settlement of Cutchee, and the suppression of 
the marauding system in that province and in the Bolan Pass, would 
revive the trade of Shikarpore, and induce its merchants, who do not 
want for energy, to purchase largely of such investments as might 
be cheaply transmitted by means of the river Indus ; with the ab- 
sence of tolls on merchandize in transit, whether by water orland, 
they would be sure of making a favourable market, coupled also with 
the protection afforded them through the deserts of Cutchee^ which they 
could only formerly procure at an exorbitant amount of black mail to 
every leader of a predatory band. 

Shikarpore received from Karachee Bunder, Marwar, Mool^, 
, Bhawulpore, Khyrpore, and Loodhiana, European 

piece goods, raw silk, ivory, cochineal, spices of all 
kinds, coarse cotton cloths, raw silk (China), kinkaubs, silks manufac- 
tured, sugar-candy, cocoanut, metals, kiramee (or groceries), drugs of 
sorts, indigo, opium, saffron, and dyes of sorts. From Cutchee, 
Khorassan, and the NW. raw silk (Toorkestan,) fruits of sorts, madder, 
turquoises, antimony, medicinal herbs, sulphur, alum, saffron, assafca- 
tida, medicinal herbs and gums, cochineal, and horses. 

The exports from Shikarpore are confined to the transmission of goods 
p. to Khorassan through the Bolan, and a tolerable trade 

with Cutchee, Bagh, Gundava, Katria, and Dadur. 

They consist of indigo (the most important,) henna, metals of all 
kinds, country, coarse, and fine cloths, European piece goods (chintzes 
&a) Mooltanee coarse cloths, silks manufactured, groceries, and spices, 
raw cotton, coarse sugar, opium, hemp seed, shields, embroidered horse 
cloths, and dry grains. The various productions of these countries 
and their prices in the Shikarpore marketf have attracted the atten- 
tion of that energetic body, the Chamber of Commerce of Bombay, and 
in the article of indigo alone there can be little doubt but that the 

* See a list of export, import, and transit duties, based on articles of trade at Shikar- 
pore (by the author) published in the Bombay Government Gazettee of the 28th July. 

f A monthly price current of articles in the Shikarpore market is now published by 

1841.] Memaraadum on Shikarport, in Upper Sindk. 23 

produce of the Khyrpore, Bhawidpofe, and the Piuijab ooantriet will 
form a staple return commodity for merchandize to be transmitted 
from the other Presidency ; silk (raw), drags, and dyes may also b0 
enumerated as well worthy of attention. The inflaence of the British 
Government, and the protection it has already affbrded to trade in 
these countries haye had their effect at Shikarpore, evinced in the 
inereasing revenue* and settlement there of influential traders from 
Loodhiana, Amritsir, Bhawulpore, and other places. 
The revenue of Siukarpore derivable from trade amounted last year 

Reyenuofeofm trade to Bs. 54,736 

Other tax and revenue for lands belonging to the 

cown, ••• •• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 10)040 1/ \j 

Making a total of 71,381 

divided between the Khyrpore and Hyderabad chiefs, in the pro* 
portion of ^ the to the former, and ^ths to the latter. The lands and 
villages forming the Shikarpore Pergnnnah, amount to about six 
talookehs, and about sixty villages, of which four talookehs and 
twenty-three villages only belong to the Hyderabad government ; the 
revenue of the wholes deducting jahgirs, may be about two lacs 

The government of the town is vested in two agents, or governors, 
Goyemment of the furnished by the Hyderabad and Khyrpore Ameers, 
town. who have also the duty of the Police of the district, 

and collection of the revenue. 

The climate of Shikarpore is sultry, and the heat excessive from the 
Climate. middle of March until the end of August There are 
no periodical rains, though storms are generally looked for at the end 
of June^ or middle of July. If rain foils at that time, it continues for a 
space of two or three days, but severe falls occur at the vernal equi- 
noxes. The air is remarkably dry and clear. The low situation of the 
town, coupled with its being surrounded by stagnant pools dose to the 
walls, and a large space of the a^iacent country for a considerable period 

* The aoacwB report that the trade haa increased nearly one-third during the current 

24 Memorandum on Shikarpore, in Upper Sindh. [No. 109, 

being completely under water, would warrant a snpporition that this 
place was exceedingly unhealthy ; yet it is not so except for a short 
period from the middle to the end of September, during which the in- 
undations are drying up^ and ague in a mild form is prevalent Exposure 
to the sun of Sindh, whether Upper or Lower, during the hot months is 
invariably attended with dangerous effects, and for a certain period of 
the year the natives themselves aVpid it as much as possible. The hot 
winds of Shikarpore lose much of their intensity, prevailing generally 
from the southward, and passing over a considerable expanse of water ; 
they continue however during the months of April, May, and June, 
to blow till midnight. In the deserts N. and W. of Shikarpore, the 
deadly simoom is often encountered. 

The winds vary generally between W. and S. the former the prevail- 
ing. The Easterly winds obtain for a short period during the autumnal, 
and the Westerly during the vernal equinox. The former often pre- 
cedes rain. Shikarpore is exempted from a great source of annoyance 
experienced at Sukkur, Hyderabad, and all other places on the banks 
of the river, from the Delta upwards, viz. sand storms. The cold 
months may be said to commence in September, and last until the 
middle of March. Frost and ice are not unusual, and vegetation 
assumes all the appearance of winter in a northern climate* After a 
fair experience of a year's residence at Shikarpore, (the season of 1839 
being considered an unhealthy one,) I conceive that with the precau- 
tions considered necessary elsewhere, of good houses and due attention 
to draining, troops might be cantoned at this place without any 
greater disadvantages than are to be met with in most of our stations in 
the interior of India. When it is considered that the officers and men 
of a force stationed here during the most trying months of last year 
were for nearly the whole period under canvas, or in mud huts, that 
afforded even less shelter than a tent, and that the inundations were 
allowed to reach in all directions within 200 yards of the camp, it is 
only surprising that the disease and mortality where so inconsiderable. 
I believe that out of a force of nearly 2000 men, the latter amounted 
to under twelve cases. The mornings at Shikarpore are invariably 

Routes from Shikarpore to various places with which it carries on 
Routes. trade, with the estimated distances. 

1841.] Memorandum on Shikarpore, in Upper Sindh* 25 

From Shikarpore to the North and East 

To MooltaOy by way of Dehi Ahmil, on the river acroM the river to 

,, Mierpore. 
„ Sabzolkote. 
„ Khanepore. 
„ Ooch. 
„ Gollen Crarrat, opening of the Ghaut or 

„ Sooyabad. 
„ Mooltan. 

Estimated distances 215 koss; 23 stages for laden camels; occupies 

from 23 to 26 days. 

From Mooltan to Lahore, by way of Chichawntnee, across the 

Bendee Sheikh Morsa. 

,y Seyud Walloo. 

ff Jambia. 

,y MuDJee Baba Narmac Shah. 

y, Surakpore. 

,y Lahore. 

Estimated distance from Mooltan to Lahore 140 koss; 15 stages, 

and occupies with laden camels about 18 days. 

To Amristse from Lahore 25 koss ; or 2 stages. 

From Amristse to Loodihana 40 koss ; or 4 stages. 

From Shikarpore to Dera-Ghazee-Khan the route is by way of 

Rogan Mittenkote and Dajil, estimated distance 170 koss ; 20 stages, 

occupies 20 to 23 days. 

Shikarpore to Jaysulmere by way of Sukkur and Roree. 

Oodenkote (Oodun ka kila.) 





• If these diftancet are compared with those hud down in the late maps of these 
countries, it would appear that the koss was calculated at about one and half mile ; 
but the idea of distances by the natives is generally very vague, and they calculate 
more 00 the time occupied in a journey. 


26 Memorandum on Shtkarpore^ in Uppw Sindh. [No. 109. 

Estimated distance 100 koss; 15 stages, and occupies from 16 to 
18 days. From Jaysulmere to Palee by way of Porwin and Jodhpore 
120 koss ; 16 stages, and occupies 16 to 19 days. 
Shikarpore to the NW. to Dadur. 


Royhan (edge of the desert.) 
Brushoree (across the desert.) 
Kassimka Joke. 
90 koss; 14 stages, occupying from 7 to 10 days. 

The routes above the Bolan Pass to Kelat, Kandahar, Cabool, &c. 
Above the Bolan. &re now too well known to require repetition. 
From Shikarpore to the south to Karachee by way of Sehewan, 
Shikarpore to Karachee, Lorkhana, distance 160 koss ; 29 stages, 
Karachee. occupying from 29 to 33 days ; this road is imprac- 
ticable from April or May to September as far as Sehewan, and the 
river is the means of conveying merchandize. 

Classical terminology of Natural History. By B. H. Hodgson, Esq., 
Resident at the Court of Nepal. 

(To the Bdiior qf the Bengal Asiatic JournaLj 

Although I think the prevalent humour of the day, which cannot 
tolerate any other than Greek and Roman names of genera in Zoology, 
is, in good part, absurd and pedantic, yet as I am told that continued 
non-compliance therewith on my part will be considered by most per- 
sons as a sort of excuse for past and future appropriations of my disco- 
veries in this branch of science, as described in your Journal, I have now 
the Measure to transmit to you a series of classical substitutes for my 
previous local designations. Many other new forms having originally 
received from me classical appellations (for I am no exclusionist) need 
-not be here noticed : of those that were priorily described by local 
names the following enumeration supplies, on the left hand, the new 

184 1.] GlassiceU terminology of Natural History, 27 

cksdcal substitute, and, on the right, opposite thereto, the old ver- 
nacular term. A few explanations as well as dates are incorporated 
with the enumeration. 

Nbpal, I am, Sir, 

February, 1841. Yours faithfiiUy, 

B. H. HoDosoN. 

1. Muscicapida JEurglaimifUB, 

Simus (<Tt/*oc) Baya 
May 1836. Psarisoma, Sw. Crossodera, Gould, in May and Au- 
gust 1887 respectively. 

2. Meliphagid(B. 

Akopua (a\Kfi et ttovc) Sibia 
See Jour. As. Society, January 1839. 

3. FalconifUB, 

ffyptiopus (vTTTtoc et vovq) Baza 
Journal December 1836, et May 1837. 

4. BuccoifUBf 

Comeris {KOfiti et pig) Sasia 
General structure of Picumnus, but three-toed, Analogue of Ap- 
ternus et Chrysonotus in Piciana. 

5. SturfMe Jeterime f AmpditUe LeioirichafUB f 

Heteronm (cre/ooc et opviq) Cutia 
Nearly allied to Aplonis, a subsequent genus of Gould ; Journal 
December 1836, and February 1837. 

6. Charadriada. 

Pgeudops (ttccvSoc et (»^) Carvanaea 

Ebs the Plover head (and structure generally) with a cultirostral 

Journal, December 1836. 

7. Mustelifue adjfinem. 

Mesobema {fAtgog et fiit/na) Urva 
Closely allied to Helietisy which however has Molars | and is, 
in fact, a Gulo, 


28 ClasMal terminology (^Natural History. [No. 109. 

8-10. StrigidiBf Aberrant group, 

Etoglaux (acroc et yXav^) Huh&a. 

Subtypical group. 

Mesofnorpha (m^COc et ^opi^ti) Vrrua 
Meseidus (jugog et ccSoc Bulaca 
Both from their strictly mediate stracture between the most 
typical and most antipycal forms. Transac. 1836, Journal, 
May 1837. 

11. CoccotkratisUntB, 

Dermophrys {^Bpfia et o^pvg) Muma, 

12^13. Columbidm VinagifkB, 

Ritwpus {pig et trovg) Dueuia. 

Diaynosis being derived from combination of bill and 

feet belonging to different types. 
Ditto, Ditto, 

Bomeris {fiOfiti et pig) Toria. 

14. Sylviada? Certhiadisf MeUyhayida? 

Polyodon (woXvg et oSfov) Yuhina 
A strange form. Andropadus its analogue among Brachypods, 
whilst it types the Honey-suckers among its own Sylvians. 


Decurus (Scica et ovpri) Suya, 

15. Saxicolims. 

Polypeira {voXvg et VBipa) Ddhila. 

Trans. As. Soc. 1836. This form since styled GrUUoora by 
Sw., and Macrourus by Gould. 

16. Mendida Craieropodina. 

Anura (aX^a privitiya et ovpri) Tesia 
Since called Micrura by Gould. Journal Asiatic Society, Febru- 
ary 1837. 

17. Angelina, 

Prosorinia {irpogto et pig) Cochoa, 
A typical ampeline form, though crested and not American, 
stands between Ampelis and Casmarhynchus, 

1841.} Classical terminology if Naiural Hisiory. 29 

18. MiercpidiEy 

NapcphUa (vairoc et ^vXoc) BwAa 
This, or a veiy like fpnn, since called Nycdomis by Swainson ; 
mine the prior appellation. Journal, June 1836. My bird is, in 
no way or degree, a night brid. 

19-20. SaxicolifUB? 

Chaiiaris (x^*^*} ^^ P^^) MUtava 
Dimorpha (Sc et juop^if) Siphia 
India Review, March 1837. 

21. PariafUB, 

Temnoris {revfiw seco et /occ) Suikora 
The tiny stoat bill is trincated and square at tip. 

22-25. Leiotriehanaf 

Proparus (quasi ParusJ Minla. 

PhUacalyx (^ceoc et koKv^) Mesia. 

Calipyga (Ka\oQ et frvyiy) Bahila, 
Nearly allied to Leiaihrix proper. 

HemiipaTus {\ Tit) Siva, * 

Indian Review, April and May 1837. 

26. EdoUafUB. 

Creurgus (ic/ocovpyoc) TenAaca. 
Nearly allied to Tephrodorrds and Nylaus, the hist of which 
genera is of more recent date than ours. 

27-29. Comeies (ico/ii}ri|c) Chtbia, 

Melisseus (Bee-taker) Bhringa. 
Dicrurus (Auct) Bhuchanga. 
Indian Review November 1836, and January 1837. 

30. Buccaida poiius YunxtfUB^ 

Piculus (diminutive of Picas) Vtvia 
Journal, February 1837, nearly allied to Asihenurus. 


Supplementary Note to the Memoir on the Hodisum, vol. is., pp. 694 and 
783. By Lieutenant Tickbll, Political Assistant^ Singhhoom. 

Through the kindness of Major Wilkinson, Resident at Burra Nag- 
poor, I am enabled to correct a mis-statement I made in my Memoir 
on the Ho D^sum, in which speaking of the '' Surrawuks" I described 
them as Bengallee Brahmins. They are, it appears, not Brahmins, 
but Jains, or worshippers of Purusnaih ; and are still scattered over 
several parts of India. In former times there were many of them at a 
place called Aring in Chutteesgurh, and some of their temples are 
there extant to this day. 

Major Wilkinson describes the existence in Burra Nagpoor of the 
remains of a large city in the midst of the jungles on the banks of the 
Mahanuddee, the name of which was Seirpoor.* It flourished in the 
time of a race of Rajahs of the ^' Ho Ho Bunsee" tribe. These were 
Rajpoots, but the similarity of their name to that of the Koles of 
the present day (^' Ho") is curious. 

At Aring, Rajoo, and Dhunteree, Major Wilkinson fell in with 
several inscriptions on stone, in a character unknown to any persons 
in that quarter ; and I trust he will be enabled to fulfil his present 
intention of sending some of these inscriptions to the Museum of the 
Asiatic Society ; where there is a probability of their being decyphered, 
if fisussimiles of them be published in this Journal. 

NoTE.^-I hope to be favoured with the note of a tour recently made 
by M^jor Ouseley through his Agency, in which mention is made of the 
extensive ruins above alluded to, and an interesting statistical account 
given of a r^on very little known. Qj 

* If I read it aright in his letter. 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, 

(Wednaday Evening, fth April, 18«1.) 

The Hon'ble H. T. Prinsbi*, Esq., in the Chaur. 

The following gentlemen proposed at the Meeting of the 5th March last, were 
balloted for, and duly elected : viz. — 
F. Beaufort, Esq. C. S. 
W. 6. Jackson, Esq. C. S- 
W. Masters, Esq, Head Teacher, La Martiniere. 

The necessary communication of their election, and rules of the Society for 
guidance, were ordered to be forwarded to the parties. 

Ubrary and Muteunu ■ 

Cautley's Report on the Central Doab Canal, Allahabad Mission Press, 1840 
(« copies^, •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••« 

Lardner's Cabinet Cyclopcsdia — Biography : Lives of the British Admirals, 

Y0I« Otn •• •• •• •• •• •• •• aaX 

History of the Mohammedan dynasties in Spain, by P. de Gayangos, London, 
18^, vol. Ist •• •• •• •• •• •• •• ••! 

Sleeman's Report on the Depredations committed by the Thug Gangs of Upper 
and Central India, from 1836 to 1841, Calcutta, 1840, 1 

Madras Journal of Literature and Science, No. 28, July — September, 1840, • • 1 

Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, by Professor Jameson, No. 58, October 

X&IU, •• •• •• •• •• •• •• » » M, 

London and Edinburgh Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science, 3rd 
series, No. 3, November 1840, . . . • • • • • • • 1 

Yarrell's History of British Birds, pt Slst, London 1840, . • • • • . 1 

Calcutta Monthly Journal and Repository of Intelligence for February 1841, • • i 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 36, November 1840, . • • • I 

Oriental Christian Spectator, February 1841, vol. ii. No. 2, Bombay, • . 1 

Lectures on the Religious Practices and Opinions of the Hindus, by H. H. 

Wilson, Oxford 1840, .. •• .. •• .. •• •• 1 

Proceedings of the Greological Society of London, vol. iii. Nos. 69, 70, 71, 

lor io4i/, .. •• •• •• «■• •• •• ..Ji 

Bulletin de la Soci6t6 de Geographic, 2nd Sine, Tome 13th, Paris 1840, .. 1 
Glographie D' Aboulfeda, Texte Arabe, 2nd Liv. Paris 1840, • . . . 2 

Nieurve Proeve omal de Arabische, Letters en verdere schr^fteeke door Het 
Gewoon Europeesche Karakter onderscheidenlijk uit te drukken, Voor- 
gesteld door, H. £. Weijers Ze Leyden 1840, •• •• •• •• 1 

The following report was submitted by the Officiating Curator for the month of 
March last:— 

32 Attaac Soeiefy, [No. 109. 

<H. W. ToBRSNS, Esq., 

Secretary Asiatic Society, 


* I have to report for the month of March as follows : — 

' Geological, PakeorUological, and Mineralogical DepartmetUs.—V^e continue to 
catalogue and arrange here, at all spare times. 

" The Analytical Index to papers on these subjects in the volumes of the Researches, 
Gleanings of Science, and Journal up to December 184U is completed, and in the hands 
of the printers. By means of it, future Curators and students can refer backwards and 
fbrwards to papers or collections with great facility. 

< In the Museum of Economic Geology, the collections in Class II (Iron) ; Class III 
(Tin); and Class IV (Copper) ; are arranged. I annex to this a draft of the plan upon 
which this part of the Museun) should, I think, be arranged ; and it will be seen at a 
glance that this system while it affords every convenience as to distinctness of classifi- 
cation, allows of additions to any extent, without disturbing that which is already done, 
and of every facility of reference for the student, visitors, and Curator, which are the 
main requisites in g Museum. The Catalogue to Class III (Tin) is circulated here- 
with, and I shall be glad to have the opinions and suggestions of Members upon this 
subject. Class I (Coal) and the other classes are not yet arranged for want of cases. 

* Mammalogical, Omitholopical, Osteoiogical, and HerpeMogicdl. — Nothing new 
to report beyond the additions noticed below. 

' Additions to the Museum have been as follows :— 

C Seven bottles Snakes and Lizards. 
' Dr. Spry. . • • • < Five ditto water, from various parts of the Bay of Bengal. 

C An owl, Strix ? Skeleton prepared for the Museum. 

' Mr. F. M. BoucHxz.— A Monkey^ SimnopithecuB EntelluB 7-^Stuffed. 
< Lieut . TicKSLi..— Thirty-five Birds' skins. 

< I am Sir, 

* Your obedient servant, 
* Museum, ^\st March, 1841. * H. Piddington, 

* Officiating Curator, As. Soc. Museum.' 

Plan of proposed Arrangement/or the Museum qfSconomie Oeology, 

Cinjis ' Division. Marks. Nos. 

^'^** m Catalogue. 

f A. English C. 1 to 

I. I B. Indian and Asiatic I. C. 1 to 

Coal and Anthracites. { C. Foreign European E. C. 1 to 

V D. American A. C. 1 to 

{A. English I. I to 

B. Indian and Asiatic 1. 1. I to 

C. Foreign European E. I. 1 to 

D. American A. I. 1 to 

1841.] Asiaiic Society. 33 

{A. English T. 1 to 

B, Indian and Asiatic I. T. 

C. Foreign European £. T. 

D. American A. T. 

and so on, of as many classes as may be required, the marks and numbers being 
always, where poesible, painted on the specimens, and the Catalogues printed or 
lithographed. H. P. 

Mr. James Dodd, Assay Master of the Agra Bullion Department, hairing accepted 
the offer of Rs. 600 for his collection of Minerals, the following correspoiidence 
with Mr. Secretary Bushby took place .-'- 

* To G. A. Bushby, Esq. 

' Secretary to Government, General Department. 

* Sib — With reference to my letters of dates quoted in the margin, I have the honor, 
iSthNov. 1840* ^y direction of the Asiatic Society, to state, that Mrt^ Dodd, 
18th Jan. 184t Assay Master of the Agra Bullion Department, has a valuable 

collection of minerals, which it is considered highly deserving of purchase, to be 
placed in the Society's Booms for general reference. The collection in questioii 
can be had for Rs. 600, and I am requested to submit the solicitation of the 
Asiatic Society to be authorized to make the purchase, the means being placed 
at the disposal of the Society, by a grant to that extent by the (Sovemment 

Asiatic Socibtt's Rooms, * I have &c. 

' Ibth March 1841. < H. Torrsns, See, Asiatic Sac. 

* To H. ToRRBNs, Esq., 

' Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 
< Genl. Dept. 

* Sir — I vn directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter dated the 15th instant, 
and in reply to inform you, that before the Right Honorable the (Sovemor General in 
Council can decide upon sanctioning the purchase of Mr. Dodo's collection of minerals, 
it would be satisfactory to His Lordship in Council to receive some general description 
of the collection in question. 

* Council Chambxr, * I am, Sir, 

< 2^h March, 1841. * Your obedient servant, 

* G. A. Bushby, 
' Secretary to the Government qf India.* 

Ordered — That the Officiating Curator be requested to furnish the general descrip- 
tion required, for submission to Government. 

Read a letter from Mr. Secretary Bushby, of 10th February last, communicating 

that the Government consider the authority under which the payment of Rs. SOO 


34 Asiatic Society. [No. 109. 

per mensem is made to the Society for a Cuiator and the preparation of Specimens, 
as a sanction and modification of the allowance prerionsly made to it, and not as an 
independent or additional assignment. 

The Secretary brought to notice, for the opinion of the Meeting, the proposal made 
to him for the support of the Asiatic Society of Bengal for enabling Mons. Calls by 
of Macao, to print a Chinese Dictionary, French and English, now compiling by 

The meeting were of opinion, that as three Dictionaries in the Chinese language 
were already in the Library of the Society's Museum, it was not expedient to encourage 
the patronage solicited, but that a few copies of the work after completion might be 
purchased for the Library and presentation to the learned Societies in Europe, and 
that a recommendation at the same time should be submitted to the Government for 
the purchase by them of, say 25 or SO copies for transmission to the Honorable the 
Court of Directors for their Library. It was accordingly Resolved — ^That a com- 
munication to the foregoing effect be made to Mons. Callery, through Mr. Hubry. 

The Secretary also submitted a proposal for printing Wilford's Manuscript on 
the Ancient Geography of India to complete the Sf d vol. of the Tranaactions of the 
Society, which proposal was negatived, on the consideration that though the paper 
contained much matter to be of interest to the general reader, yet in the opinion <^ 
the Society, the time had gone by for its publication ; productions of recent date from 
other authors on the same subject, containing more correct and valuable infonnatio]i« 
having superceded the object for which Wilford wrote, but that'the Secretary was 
at liberty to use the Manuscript as Editor of the Asiatic Journal, by printing extracts 
of such portions of it as he considered desirable and useful for his object. 

Read letter from Mr. Secretary Bushby, of 30th December 1840, and enclosnzes. 

< To H. ToRBBNs, Esq. 

* No. 995. * Secretary to ike Asiatic Sodely. 

* General Department. . , 

' Sir— I am directed by the Right Honorable the Governor General in Council to trans- 
mit to you the accompanying copy of letter. No. 17 of 1840, from the Honorable the Court 
of Directors in the Public Department, dated the 16th September, and to request that 
the Society will enable the Government to carry into effect the wishes of the Honorable 
Court in respect to all Zoological and Entomological collections deposited in their 
Museum on the part of Government, or by persons conducting Missions on the part of 
the Government, and will assist the Government in giving effect to the commands of the 
Honorable Court in respect to future supplies to their Museum, as also in regard to 
the immediate dispatch of Dr. Hslfbr's and Captain Pbmbbrton's Collections in 
Tenasserim and Bootan. 

' I am also directed to transmit a copy of the list of the present contents of the 
Honorable Court's Museum as far as regards the Mammalia and Birds, that the So- 
ciety piay see the descriptions most desiderated. 

1841.] Askaic Society. 35 

< I am at the same time directed to request that the Asiatic Society will famish this 
Department with a copy of Dr. Hblpbr's original lilt of his Omithologpical coUec* 
tions, forwarded to the Secretary to the Society from the Political Department, with 
Mr. Secretary Prin sbp's letter, dated the Slth October 183S. 

< I am, Sir, 
' Council Ghambbr, < Your obedient servant, 

< dIM December 1840. * G. A. Bushby, 

' Secretary to Oovemmeni tf India. 

« No. 17 of 1840. 
* Our Govbrnor Gbnbral op Indiai in Council. 

Public Dept, 
' Ist The first of these letters refers to an application made by Major Hat, 

1st I 
August las^rNa 26 ^ fon^g^^ cj^jefly j^ southern Africa, and of which you 

Reply to Pteas. 46 and 49 j through the Asiatic Society of Bengal to you, to 
ment <^ lit^, dated^ftst I purchase a large collection of subjects of Natural History, 


To letter from the Secretfffy 1 have justly remarked that it would be better adapted 
to the Government of India, I ^ ., », -« ^l * t j* j. i 

dated 19(31 Januaiy 1880, I to the Museum of Europe than of India, we accoramgly 

^^ ^ J approve of your having declined the purchase. 

2nd. In your letter of the 19th January 1839, you inform us that the collections 
made by Dr. Hblpbr in the Tenasserim Provinces have been shipped on the 
"Madagascar;" a reference to the correspondence accompanying shews that this is 
not exactly correct. The c<41ections of Dr. Hblfbr and of Mr. Assistant Surgeon 
Griffiths, which have been received by the " Madagascar," are exclusively Botani- 
cal, and the other collections were deposited with the Asiatic Society* 

' 3rd. We take this c^portnnity of expressing to you more fully our wishes on the 
subject of collections of Natural History made in India, on account of, or under 
the patronage, of the Government. 

<4th. In our letter of the 18th S^tember 1839, No. 17, Paras. 81 to 87, we replied 
to the applications which you made in August 1837, and in September 1838, on 
behalf of the Asiatic Society of Bengal; and we signified our consent to the 
monthly payment of 200 or 250 rupees to a qualified person to superintend the 
Museum, with an allowance of 50 rupees a month for the cost of preparing and 
preserving specimens besides the former allowance for the publication of Oriental 

' 5th. We now call your attention to several points respecting the relation in which 
the Asiatic Society is placed towards the Company's Museum in England in 
consideration of this grant. It appears from the public correspondence, as well as 
from the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, that the collections made by 
several Deputations and Missions on behalf of Government, which previous to the 
date of our despatch above mentioned (18th September 1839) were provisionally 
confided to the care of the Asiatic Society, have been detained in its custody nearly 
two years, during which period no Zoological collections have been received in 
our Museum from Bengal. 

36 Asiatic Society. [No. 109. 

<6th. We refer here especially to the public letter of Dr. J. W. Hblfbr to 
Mr. Secretary Prinsep, dated Calcutta 16th October 1838, and to a letter from Mr. 
Secretary Prinsbp, dated Fort William, 24th October 1838, to the Secretary of the 
Asiatic Society, ibid to the proceedings of the Asiatic Society of the 5th September, 
10th October, and 14th November 1838, published in the Journal of the said Society, 
also respecting collections made during Captain Pbmbbrton's Mission to Bootan, 
&c. Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of 7th February 1838, Journal p. 90 to 168, 
5th September 1838, p. 749. 

'7th. It is quite apparent that the detention of subjects of Natural History, iu the 
state in which they are usually brought from Missions or Deputations, the movements 
of which are necessarily expeditious, must in the climate of India be highly iigurious 
to ihem, and may in many cases occasion their entire destruction ; we notice this parti- 
cularly with reference to the collections made by Dr. Hblfbr in Tenasserim, and 
by Captain Fbmbbrton during his Mission to Bootan, since both these are new 
localities from which no specimens are as yet contained in our Museum. 

* 8th. In order therefore to guard in future against similar detentions, and to secure an 
early dispatch of any collections made on behalf of Government to our Museum, we 
should wish you to require every naturalist or officer who may accompany any 
Mission or Deputation on behalf of Government, to make at least a provisional report on 
the nature and extent of his collections immediately on the return of the Mission, to 
be forwarded to us without delay ; further, that whenever practicable, the same officer 
who accompanied a Mission be instructed on the arrival of his collections to select from 
his labors the most full and complete series for despatch to England for the Company's 
Museum by the earliest opportunity, and also to superintend in person the packing 
and despatch, in order to secure as far as possible the safety of the same during 
the voyage. In cases in which the collections may have been forwarded to the 
Presidency before the return of tiie naturalist by whom they have been made, and when 
any length of time may be expected to intervene before he can make a selection him- 
self, we are of opinion that it may be expected of the Asiatic Society to make such 
a selection as is above intimated, and to prepare the same for despatch to England. 

'9th. While these instructions apply chiefly to such collectionB as may be made in 
future on account of Government, we are likewise desirous that the necessary steps 
may be taken towards the immediate dispatch to our Museum of a series of the Mam- 
malia and Birds collected by Dr. Hblfbr in Tenasserim, as figur as his collections 
may have been preserved from the destructive effects of the climate, and of such sub- 
jects as may be new to science we desire the supply of several individuals ; at the same 
time we direct that the entire of Dr. Hblfbr's Entomological collection may be .for- 
warded to us, since from the locality which he visited, many valuable and interesting 
subjects may be expected in this department particularly ; and since no copy of Dr. 
Hblfbr* s list of his Ornithological collections, which according to « letter from Mr. 
Secretary Prinsbp, dated Fort William 24tii October 1838, was ibrwarded to the 
Secretary of the Asiatic Society, has been found in our records, we direct that this list 
be transmitted to us with all possible expedition. The directions which we have now 
given respecting Dr. Hblfbr's collections in Tenasserim, apply also to such collec- 
tions in Zoology as may have been made during Captain Pbmbbrtoid's Mission on 
account of Government to Bootan. 


Atiatie Sociefy. 


* 10. In connexion with these specific instructions, we deem it expedient to add a few 
general explanatory remarks, the object of which is to secure to our Museum in 
England, with every proper degree of economy respecting fireight and packing expen- 
ses, the most valuable and interesting results of scientific Deputations and Missions on 
behalf of Government ; we therefore repeat the recommendation, that on the return of 
any Mission to Calcutta the naturalist who may have made any collection, or a proper 
person to be appointed by you, be employed to prepare a single specimen, well 
preserved, of the more common Mammalia and Birds, such as are well known and des* 
cribed ; of those that are rare, and especially of the newly discovered ones, several indi- 
viduals. To afford the naturalist some assistance in this selection, we will supply a 
simple list of the present contents of our Museum as far as regards the Mammalia 
and Birds. By the plan thus recommended we shall become acquainted with the 
zoological productions of regions newly visited, and thus obtain materials for " Local 
Faunas," of which several instructive series already exist in our Museum. Of all Ento- 
mological collections we require that the entire result of any Deputation on behalf of 
Government be forwarded to our Museum, since these cannot be preserved in India 
under the disadvantages of imperfect cabinets, moisture, and general destructive 
effects of the climate ; and being comprised in smaller space, their transmission is 
not expensive. These instructions will apply to all public collections made pre- 
vious to the Mission of Dr. Helpbr to Tenasserim, should any such be still detained 
in the hands of individuals, or remain deposited in the Botanic Garden of Calcutta, 
or in charge of the Asiatic Society. 

* We are, &c. 

* London. 
< IGih September, 1840. 














W. B. Batlbt, 
Gborob Ltall, 


H. Lindsay, 

j. l. lushington, 

John Mastbrman, 

J. W. Hogg, 

J. Thornhill, 

N. B. Edmonstonb, 

R. Campbbll, 


John Shbphbrd, 
F. Wardbn. 

(True Copy,) G. A. Bushby, 

' Secretary to Government qf India.^ 


Asiade Society, 

[No. 109. 

List of Mammalia anOained in the Museum of the East India 


Good Specunens of allQuADBWAHA are Desidento in the Muienm. 


Tribus Quadrumana 

Genus Hylobates, • . 
1 Hylobates syndactylus, 
2 Hoolook, 

Genus Semnopithecus, • . 
1 Semnopithecus melalophus, 

2 cristatus, 

3 ■ femoralisi 

4 i_._- Pyrrhus, 

5 ..^-.-_ maurus, 

6 EnteUus, 

1 Presbytes mitrata. Eschsch, 
Semn. ? fascicularis, • • 
Semn. comatus, 


An A. 

• • 

. . 


• « 

• • 

Raffles^ SunuUra, 

• • 

• • 

Harl, Assam. 

. • 

• • 

Fr. Cuv. 

• • 

• • 


. . 

• • 

Rq^Sr, id. 

• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


• • 

• • 


--• • 

• • 




• . 

Foy. Kotzebue. 

• • 

• • 

Rqff. Sumatra. 

• • 

• • 

* * 

Desm. Mamm. 

Genus Cbrcopithbcus. 

] Cercopithecus Johnii, 


Gbnds Macacus 

1 Macacus Sinicus, . . 

2 cynomolgtts, .. 

3 ■ Silenus, 

4 — — nemestrinus, •< 

5 - Assamensis, • 


Lmn. Siam, 



* Genus Tarsius, 
1 Tarsius Bancanus, 
Genus Nycticebus, 

1 Nycticebus Javanicus, 

2 -. tardigradusi 

1 Lemur ruber, 
* * Galeopithecidse, 
Genus Galeopithecus, 

1 Galeopithecus variegatus, 

. * 

Genus Lemur. 





Java, 4fc. 

1841.] AHaHa Society. 39 


Spedmena of all Chkiroptbra we dMirad, both iUju, and etpedally entire subjects, in Spirits. 

Genus Megaderma, .. •• .. •• .. Geqff^, 

1 Megadenna Lyra, .. •• •• .. .. Java. 

Geniu Rhinolophus, • . . • . . . • • . Oeqiff^. 

1 Rhinolophus affinis, • . • • • . • • • • Javch 

2 ■ minor, •• •• •• •• •• id, 

3 * nobilis, •• •• •• •• ,, id, 

4 - larvatui, . • • • • • • • , , id, 

5 ^ vulgarifl, .. .. .. .. ., id. 

6 - deformis, •• .. •• •• •• id, 

7 -^— insignis, .• •• •• ,„ ., trf. 

8 Dttkhunensis, .. .• .. ., Dukkun. 

Genus Nycteris, ^ • • . . , • • . Oeqffl 

1 Nycteris Javanica, •• .. •• .. .. Geqff^.Java, 

Genus Nycticej us, .. .. .. .. .. Ruibmque, 

1 Nycticejus Temmenckii, .. ., ,. .. Hortf. Java, 

Genus Ysspbrtilio. 

1 VespertUio adversus, •• •• .. .. .. Hor^^ Java^ 

2 -^ Hardwickii, •• •, .. .. „ id, 

3 tralatltius, .. ,. ., .. ,, „^ id, 

4 — — — imbricatua, •• .. •• •• ., ,^ id, 

5 ■ pictus, .. .. .. .. .. Lmn,id, 

Genus Molossus, •• .« .. .. .. Oeqff, 

1 Molossufi tenuis, •• •• •• •• •• Java, 

dilatatus, . • . . • . . . . , id. 

*Genu8 Cheiiomeles, •• .. .. .. .« Horsf, 

1 Cheiromeles torquatus, • • . . . • . . . . id, Java, 

Particularly desirable. 

Genus Macroglossus, .. •• .. •• •» Fr.Cuv, 

t Macroglossus rostratus, •• .. •• •• Java, 

% ■ ■ nanus, •• •• •• .. .. Siam, 

Gbnus Ptbropus. 

1 Pteropus edulis. • • . • ... • • • • Java^ ^c. 

2 Edwardsii, (Medius auctor), •• •• .. Dukkun, 

3 -...»—- Assamensis, • . • • • • . • • • Assam, 

4 — — poliocephalus, • • . • • • • • Siam, 

5 — .-— — marginatus, • • . • • . • . • . Siam, 
1 Pteropus (Pachysoma titthecheilum, ,. .. ,, Java, 


Species of Hysna: 
besides tke vulgaris, are 


The smaUer species ^ 
Q^Felis: several rare | 
species from the Up' S 
per Provinces. I 


f Indian species, 

Lutra, i 


Several new species ( 
are found near the J 
Himalayas. I 

y iverra : Zibetha, O- J 
vetta, any new species f | 

ParadoxuruSf seve- ^ 
ral Indian species, > 

The smaller species 
qf Cams, 


Asiatic Society, 

* FeUds. 

Grenus Hyaena, 
J Hyaena vulgaris, 

Gen OS Fblis. 
I FeliB Tigris, • . 

2 Leopardus, 

3 ^— Pardus, 

4 Ghaus, 

5 — Torqaata, 

6 Javanensis, 

7 — - Sumatrana, 

8 Bengalensis, 

Genus Prionodon, 

1 Prionodon gracile, 

Genus Lutra, . . 
1 Lutra Leptonyx, 
2 Nair, . . 

[No 109. 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

Genus Mustela, . . 
1 Mustela flavigula, 
Grenus Mangusta, . . • • 

1 Mangusta Javanica, 

2 ■ grisea, Herp. gr. Desm. 

3 .~— Pharaonis, .. 

4 -— »— — Auropunetata, • . 


1 Viverra Zibetha, 
2 Rasse, 

3 Indica, 

4 ■ Civetta, 

Briss, Ssc 

Linn. Dukhun. 


Java, Sfc. 

.. ChOdenst, Dukhun. 

Fr. Cuv. id. 




Hor^. lAnsany, Tern. 

Hor^. Java. 


Horsf. Java. 

, . Fr. Cuv. Dukhun. 


HardwickO, Bengal, 


Horsf, Java, 



Hodgs, Assam, 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

lAnn, Sumatra. 

Horsf, JavOf ^c 

Geqffi Dukhun. 


• • 

• • 

Genus Paradoxurus. 

) Paradoxurus typus, 

Genus Arctictis. Actides Valencienna. 
1 Arctictis BintuTong, •• 

Gbnus Canis. 

1 Canis familiaris, var. 

2 — — pallipes, 

3 aureus, . • • • 

4 Kokree, 

5 — — rutilans, 

F, Cuv, 
Java, %c, 



Sykes, id. 

Linn, id, 

Sykes, id, 

Temm, Java. 



ProcHUu one good 




Asiatic Sociefy. 

•• UBSIDiE. 

Genus Ailurus, 
1 Ailurus fulgens, 
Genua Prochilus, 

y 1 Prochilus uninus, 

Genua Helaretos Uiras aurt 
1 Helaretos Malaysmu, .. 

Genus €hilo, . • 
1 Gulo orientalise 

(jenus Mydaus, 

1 Mydaus colkris, 
Arctonyz collaris, 

2 .— melkeps, 




AsUelope. The new I 
ducaoered species J 
from the Himalayas. I 

M. moschiferus, Des, 
Common, y 



M, Crassicaudata 

■ i 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

•• TALPlD-ffl. 

Genus Sorex, 
1 Sorex IndicttS, 

2- Sonerattii, 

***♦ Genus Tupaia, 

1 Tupaia Javanica, 

2 — ferruginea, 


Genus AntUope, 
1 Antilope picta, . . 

2 — fienneitii, 

3 — — — GerTicapra, 

4 Uodgsonii, 

5 Thar, 

Genus Mqsc]ius> 

1 Moschus moschiferus, • . 

2 -^— — Javanicus, 

3 — — Memimay 
Genus Cervu8» . • 

1 Gervus equinus, 
*1 ■ Duvancelii, 

3 — Muntjak, , , 

4 porcinus, 

Genus Tapirus. 
1 Tapirus Malayanus. 
Genus Manis, . . 

1 Manis Javanica, • • 

2 —-crassicaudata, 

F, Cuv, 
F, C, Nepaul, 


^ lUig, Dukhun. 


Hor^, Sumatra, 


Hor^, Java. 

F, Cuv. 


F, Cuv. 

id. Java. 





HoTsf, Java, 

Ra^, Sumatra, 






Hodgs, id. 






Busa Sumatra. 

Cuv, Horns. India, 

Java, Dukhun. 



Derm. Java, 

Griff'. Dukhun. 



Asiatic Socidy, 

[No. 109. 

All the species of Sd- 
urus are desirable. 






Genus Scinnu, • ■ 

1 Sciunis maximus, . • 

2 — 

3 — 

4 — 

5 — 

6 — 

7 — 

8 — 

9 — 
ll — 
12 — 

16 — 

17 — 

.. Elphinstonii 

— Leschenaultii, 

— bicolor, 

.. giganteiu, 

— nigrovittatus, 

— FinlayMnii, 
» affinisy 

— tenuis, 

— Plantaniy 

— Palmarum, 

— bivittatus, 
.- insignis, 
~ hippuTus, 

— Lokriah, 

— Lokrioides, 

Fery desirable. 


Genus Pteromys, 
] Pteromys Petaurista, 

2 nitidus, 

3 Diardii, 

4 genibarbis, 

5 — lepidus 

Genus Lepus, . • 
1 Lepus nigricollis, 

Genus HystrUi 
1 Hystrix leucurus, 

Genus Mus, • • 

1 Mus giganteus, 

2 — setifer, .• 

3 decumanoides, 

4 — indicus, . • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

Schr. Madras. 
Sykes, Dukhun. 
Derm, Sumatra* 
Sparr. Java. 
.. li£*CleUandt Assam, 
Hor^. Java. 
Horsf, Siam, 
Rqj0^, Sumatra. 
• • Hor^.Siam. 

. • Lyung, Java, 

Briss. Dukkun. 
F. Cuv. Sumatra. 
F, Cuv. Java, 
Geqff. Assam, 
Hodg. id,, 
Horsf. id. 
Desm. Bengal. 
F. Cuv. Dukhun. 
HoTSf. Java. 
Temm, Bengal. 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 



Genus Halicorb. 

1 Halicore Dugong, 

Rqf' Sumatra. 

1841.] Anatic Society. 4^ 



Good Specimens of all the Raptores are desiderata, excepting a few of the most com- 
mon species* 

Gbnus Vultur. 

1 Vultur Indicus, • • • . Latk, Dukhun. 

2 ^— ^ Ponticerianus, • • Lath, id, 

3 — — — Bengalensis, . . • . Gmel. id. 

4 leuconotus, .. •• Bengal. 

Subfam. xxxxx. 
Gbnus Neophron, Sav. 
1 Neophron Perenopterus, . • . . Dukhun. 


Subfam. X. Aquilina. 
Genus Pandion, Sav. 
1 Pandion Ichthysetus, • . • • Java. 

Genus HALiiESTUs, Sav. 

Comnum. 1 Halinetus Ponticerianus, . . Java, Sumatra, S^c, 

2 dimidiatus, .. .. Sumatra. 

3 albicilla, . . . , Ltq;^. Sumatra. 

4— Macei, .. .. Assam. 

Genus Limncbtus, Vigors. 

1 Limnoetus Horsfieldii, . . . • Java, 

Genus Aquila. 

1 Aquiln bifasciata, .. .. Dukhun. 

2 ■ Vindhiana? 

3 pennata, . , ., F. pennata, Briss. 

Genus Spizaetus, Vibillot. 

1 Spizaetus rufitinctus, . . . . M'CkUand, Assam. 

2 ■ cristatellus ? . . . . Madras, 

Genus Hjematornis, Vig. 

1 Hsematomis fiacha, . . . . Java, Sumatra. 

2 undulatus, . . . . Fig. Nipal. 


Asiatic Society. 

[No. 109. 

zx. Subfam Accipitrina, 
Genus Accipitbr. 

1 Accipiter Dukhunensis, 

2 ■■■■ ■■■ fringillariuB, 
r3 «j Soloensis, •• 

Genus Astur Auct. 

Good Specimens gene' 
roGy are desiderata. 

Sykes, Dukhun. 


Hor^, Java. 

1 Astur Hyder, . . . . Sykes, Dukhun. 

XXX Subfam Falconina. 
Genus Hibrax, Vioor«. 

1 Hierax c«rule8ceQs« 

Genus Falco. 

1 Falco peregrinus, 

2 — TinnunCuluSy 

3 •<— — interstinctus, 
4 severus, 

5 Ghiquera, 



.. .. Java. 

.. M'CleUand, Assam^ Madras. 

Horsf. Java. 
Lathf Dukhun. 

xxxx. Sub&m Buteonina. 
Genus Circus. 

1 Circus pallidus, 

2 - variegatus, . • 

3 — —— melanoleucus, 

xxxxx. Subfam Milvina. 

Genus Milvus. 
1 Milvus Govindo, 

Genus Elanus, Sav. 
1 Elanus melaHopterus, . . . • 

Sykes, Dukhun. 

Sykes, Dukhun. 


Sykes, Dukhun. 

Java, Siam, 4rc. 

FAM : IV. 
X Subfam Nocturnina. 

Genus Noctua, Sav. 

1 Noctua Indica, .. 
2 hirsuta, .. 

XX. Subfam Bubonina. 

Genus Ketupa, Lesson. 

1 Ketupa Leschenaultii, 
2 Ceylonensis, 




Aiiatic Society, 


UUL. Sub&m Assionina. 
Gbnus Otvs, Cdv. 

1 Otu8 Bengalenf i0» 

2 — *- Onentalii, 

3 ttempige, 

4 — <** rufetcens, 

xxzx. — Subfam StrigpidoB. 
GsNus Strix. 

1 Strix JavaniOi, 

2 -^ b&dia, . . . • 

3 — Selo puto, . . • • 

4 castanopteray 

Tribitfi l.-^Fissiroatres, 
Fam. l.~^Merqpida. 
GeNus Mbrops, Linn. 
Mer^-aU the Indian} i M.n.p.Javaiiicus, .. . 

2 Adansonii, .. 

3 ■ urica, . • . . 

4 _^— viridis, 

Frauhl. Dukhun, 

Hor^, Java, 

Horrf. id, 

Hor^, id. 

Hortf. Java, 

Hortf. id, 

Hor^. id. 


Hortf. id. 

Hor^. Java. 



Hortf. Java. 



GsNus Ntctiomis, Swaikson. 

.. J NycUonii Athertonii, •• 

Fam : II. UirunidoB* 
Gbnus Ctpsbi^us. 




I • • • 

1 Cypselw <x>iaatU9, 

2 — — affinity 
3 Klecho, 



Genus HiRuftDo. 

1 Hirundo eseulentm 
2 fueiphaga, 

• • • I 


4 •* 

5 - 

1 1 I 'I I I 

- Sewaa, 

- concolor, 

— berevinwtruy 
^^ ' brevicaudata, 


Hard and Gray, Dukhun. 

Hor^. Java. 






Sykes, id. 

Sykes, id, 

Sykes f id. 

• • M*CleUandf Assam. 



Asiatic Society. 

[No. 109. 


■ • • • 

Fam: III. Caprimulgidae. 

Genus Caprimulgus. 
1 Caprimalgus affinis, . . . . 

Podargusy ConH- } 

<• • . • • 3 

nenUil species. 



asiaticus, .. 

5 Gaprimulgus Mahrattensis, 

Genus Podargus. 
1 Podargus J a.YemiB, 

Fam. IV. Todidae. 

Genus Eurtlaimus, Horsf. 

1 Eurylaimus Horsfieldii 

2 I ochromalus, 
3 lunatus, 

Hortf. Java. 

Horsf. id. 


Frank, Dukhun^ 

Sykes, Dukhun. 

Hor^. Java. 

Temm, Jana. 

Rc^. Sumatra. 

Gould, Assam. 

Genus Eurtstomus Vibill (Coloris Cuv.) 


Indian species. 

Most qf tk9se are 
common. New species 

Alcedo all the Con' 
tinental species. 

5 Desiderat. 



I Euryetomus Orientalis. 

Fam. y. Halcyonidae. 

Genus Dacelo, Leach. 
1 Z)acefo pulchella, 

Genus Halcyon, Swains 
1 Halcyon leucocephalus, 

2 ^ coromandelicus, 

3 — chlorocephalus, 

4 — — ^— . Sacer, . , 
5 onmicolor,.. 

6 ' ' albicapillus, 

7 Smymensis, 

Genus Alcedo. 

1 Alcedorudis, 

2 ■ Bengalensis, 

3 _«_- MenintiDg, 

4 Biru, 

5 Guttata, 

Gbnus Getx. 
1 Ceyx tridactyla 

Tribus II. Oentirostres, 

Fam. I. Muscicapids. 

Genus MusciPBTAr 
1 Muscipeta Indica, 
2 ..—— Paradisii, 


Hor^, Java. 


Linn. Dukhun, 

Geml. id, 

Horsf, Java. 

Hor^, id, 

Qotdd, Siam, Bengal. 


Stephens, Dukhun. 



Asiatic SoeUiy. 



Genus PfiiSNicoRNis, Swains. 

' 1 PhseniconiiB flammea, 

2 — —— peregrina, 

3 ■ princepSi .. •• 

4 — • elegaiis, 

5 — »— curvirostru, 
6——— affinu. 

Java, Assam. 


Oould, Assam, 

M'CleUand, id. 



Bfuscicapa general' 
bf desirable. 

Genus Muscicapa. 

1 Muscicapa Indigo, • • 

2 Bangupoas, • • 

3 obscuray • . 


4 melanops, 

5 • Poonensis, • . 

6 cceruleocephala, 

7 — picata, 

8 — - capitalis, 

9 — — ^^ coBTulea, 


Hor^. Java. 
Hortf. id. 

Hortf. id. 

Oouldf Dukhun, 

Sykes, id. 


Sykes f id. 

. . Id'Clelland, Assam. 



. . .. 


Cryptolopha— parti- 



Additional common 



Genus Rhipiduea, Vigors. 

1 Rhipidura Javanica, 

2 fuscoYcntris, «. 
3 — albipunctata, 


Genus Cryptolopha, Swainson. 

)1 Cr^tofopAa poiocephala. 

Genus Aitamus, 


XX. Subfam: DicrurinoB, Swains. 

VieUlot. Ocypterus, Cuv. 


• . 

1 Artaxnus leucorhynchus, 
Genus Diermus, 

1 Dicruros foificatus, 

2 • cinereus, 

3 — — -^ Malabaricus, 

4 Balicassius, 

5 ■ grandis, 

6 Rangoonensis, 

7 aneus, 



Horsf. id. 



Gould, Assam. 

Gould, id. 

FieU. id. 



AtiaHc Sacieiy. 

[No. 109. 


GbnUs Tricophorus. Temm. 


1 Tricophorus barbatus, 

2 — " ■ ■■ flaveolus. 

Gouldf Assam. 

XXX. Sttbfam. Laniame. Swains. 
Genus Hypsipetes, Viaojis. 


1 Hypsipetes Granesa, 

2 ■ psaroides, 


4 gracilis. 

Sykes, Dukhun. 

M*OellandU, Assam. 


Other Continental 
specicB desirable 


Common Desiderat. 

Hdrtf. Java. 
Vig. Dukhun. 



Genus Colmjrio, Viooiis. 

1 Co^rto Bentet, 

2 Hardwickii, 

3> — • erythronotus, 

4 — — Schach, 

5 ' Lathora, . . id. 

Genus Lanius, Auct. 

1 LanioB rufus, .. .. Sumatra. 

2 virgatus, . . Temm. id. 

3 ■ muscicapoides, .. Dukhun. 

4 undttlaris ? . . Dukhun. 

xjooL. Sab&m Thamnophil|na. 
Genus Vanoa. 

1 Vanga coronata, • . Vigors, Sumatra. 

xxxxz. Sttbfam CeblepyiinsBy Swains. 
Genus Graucalus, Cuv. 


Graucalus Papuensis, 
— — macnloBus, 

Java, Dukhun. 
M'CleUand, Assam. 

Genus Cebleptris, Cuv. CampephaqAi Vi£ii.l. 

Geblepyris fimtbriatus, 


Temm, Java, Dukhun. 


Hortf. Java. 


All thespecies ofPU 
ta are Desiderata, 



Asiatic Society. 



X. Subfam 

Myiotherina, Swains. 

Gbnus Pitta, 




Pitta cjanura, 

— — brachyuara, 

• • 
• • 


.. Temm, Sumatra, 

. . Temm, Sumatra. 



Gbnus Ginclus, Bbchst. 
1 CincluB Asiatic us, *^* •• Swains. 

XX. Subfam Merulins. 

Gbnus Mtophonus, Tbmm. 

1 Myophonus glacuinus, . • Temm. Java. 

2 metallicus, .. Java, 

3 Temminckii, .. Gould, Bengal. 


• . • • 


1 Cinclofloma strigatum. 



1 Tuidus Saularis, 

AU these species are 
rare and Desiderata. 













> amsnas, 

' macrurus, 
- vividis, 

> concolor, 

• Tacuis, 

• ophiocephalus, 

• • Dukhun. 


• • Java. 

• • Horsf. Java. 

• • HoT^f. id. 

Horsf. id. 

• • Sumatra. 

• • Royle, Bengal. 



Jard. andSelly, Bengal f 

• • Gould, id. 



Gevus Ixos, Tbmm. 

1 1x08 cucullatus, 

2 melanocephalus, 

3 chrysorhoeus, 

4 — Cafer, Boolbool, 

5 Psidii, 

6 Finlanysonii, 

7 — Jocosus, 

Hooded Th. Lathy Bengal. 

• • Bengal. 


• • Dukhun. 





Astatic Society, 

[No. 109. 

S 1x08 fulicatus, .. Dukkun. 

9 — - bimaculatus, . . Java, 

10 dispar, . . Java, 

Gkkus Gakkvlax, Lsss. Iavthocik Old. 

Species of OarrultiXt 
Lesson, or larUhocinii, 
Gouldf are very desir- 
able, ... 

] Grarrulaz gularis, 
2 — pectoralis, 

3 lunaris 

4 — — albogularis, 

5 — — leucolophus, 

Gxinrs Gsocichia. 
1 Qeocichla rubecola. 


Rare and very desirable, 1 Zoothera motUicula, 

I, Subfam Oriolina. 

. . M'Clelland, Assam, 

Gould, id, 

• . M'Clelland, Assam, 

Gotdd, Bengal. 




Particularly. .... 


Gxinrs Oxiolub, Auct. 

1 Oriolus Ghinexuis, 

2 Xanthonotus, 

3 melanocephalus, 

4 Galbula, 

5 Kundii, 

6 TraiUH, 

Unn. Java, 

Horsf. Java. 

. • Siam, S^c, 

• • Linn, Dukhun, 

Sykes, Dukkun. 

. • Gould, Cent,, Assam 

Gxxus IxKHA, Hoxsr. 
1 Irena Puella, F. Cuv, Puella Lath, Java, Siam, 

zxxx. Subfam Cossyphina. 
GxKtrs TiMALiA, Hoxsr. 

Species of Timalia 
generally desirable. 

1 Timalia pileata, 

2 ? gularis, 

3 ' Malcolmi, 

4 ■ Somervillii, 

5 Ghataroaa, 

6 hypoleuca, 

Hor^, Java, ^c. 

Horsf, Java. 

Sykes, Dukhun, 

Sykes, id, 

Frankl, id, 

Frankl. Madras, 



Additional species f 



1 Petrocinela Pandu, . • 

2 Malab, . • 

3 cinchlorhyncha, 

Fam IV. SyWiade. 
Subfam x. 

GxNus loxA, Hoasr. 
1 I5ra scapularis, 

2 Typhia, 

3 meliceps, 

Sykes, Dukkun, 

Sykes, id, 


Java, Siam. 


AHoHc Society. 


Subfam xx. 


r 1 Brachypteryae montana, 

Sei>eral India species j ^ ? sepiaria, 

o/Brachypteryae, which I Subfam xxx. Sylviana. 

have been tnatcated, are ] 
very desirable, | 

Horsf, Java, 

GSWUB Stlyxa. 

, 1 Sylvia JavaDica, 
12 — 




3 Sylvia Rama, 
4 Sylviella, 


{1 Prinia familiaris, 
2 socialiB, 


Beside rata. 


Prinia^ Java^ 

Pvinia, Java. 


Sykes, id^ 

Hor^. Java. 
SykeSf Dukhun. 
' Sykes, id. 
Gen. Zosterops, Vig. and Honf. see below. 


1 Orthotomus sepium, . . Hor^. Java. 

2 Benetti, .. Sykes, Dukhun. 

3 Lingoo, . . Sykes, id. 

xxxx. Subfam Motacillina. 


Species qf Bnicurus 
desired. • • • • 


Continental species 1 ^ 


1 Motacilla variegata, 

2 DukhunensiB, 

Genus Budytes, Cut. 
) Budytes flava (Mat flava,) 

2 -I cilreola (Mat. cit.) 

3 ' melanocephalai 
4 Beema, 

Gekvs Ehicurus, Tehm. 
1 EnicuTus coronatus, 

2 velatus, 

3 maculatus, 

Gekus Anthus, Bechstein. 
1 Anthus agilis, 
2 ? 

Genus Megalurub, Horsf: 
1 Megalun palustris) 
2 ? ruficeps, 

• • 

Stephens, Dukhun. 
Sykes, id. 

Java, Sumatra. 


Sykes, id. 

Sykes, id. 

Temm. Java. 

Temm. id. 

Gould, Bengal. 

SykeSj Dukhun. 

Horsf. Java. 
Sykes, Dukhun. 




xxxxx Subfam Saxicolina. 
Genus Saxxcola, Bechstein. 
I Saxicola caprata. . . Java, S^c. 

2 Rubicola, . . Temm . Dukhun. 

3 Rubicoloides, . . Sykes, id. 

4 ^ bicolor, . . Sykes, id. 

5 erythropygia, . . Sykes, id. 

6 olivea, ,,M*CleUand, Assam. 


Asiatic Society. 

[No. K)9. 


Gsirui PHJivicumA, Jard ajtd Selbt. 

- 1 Phaenicura atrata, Jard. andSelby^ JOuikun. 

2 frontalis, Gould. Cent. Bengal. 

. . -^ 3 canruleocephala, . . Gould. Cent. id. 

4 leucocephala, •. Gould. Cent, id, 

^ 5 Reevesii, . . Gray, Assam. 

Additional Continen- 
tal species f 

en- ^ 

• • • • J 

Several other In- 
dian species are indi- 

Genus Melanochlora. 


Leiothrix is a very 
interesting Genus and 
all Indian species are 



Obkus Zostxrops, Viooma ahd Horst. 
Zoflterops MaderaspatanuB, 


Gekus Parus, Liwh. 
1 Panu atricepsy 
2 zanthogenus, 

3 -^— erythrocephalus, 

4 — - monticolus, 

5 -, 


Horfs. Java. 

Fig. Gld. Cent. Dukhun. 

Gld. Cent. Bengal. 

Gld. Cent. id. 


Gbkus Mslanochlora, Less. Farus. Laf. McClsllamd. 

1 Melanochlora flavocristata, .. Assam. 

Parus flavocristatus, L(tfr. 

GsHirs Caltptomsha, IRafv. 
.. 1 Calyptomen, viridis. 


1 Liothrix lepida, 

2 signata, 

3 omata, 

Raffi. Sumatra. 

McClelland, Assam. 

M*Clelland, id. 

McClelland, id. 

TribuB III. Conirostres, Cuv. 


XX. Subfam Alaudina. 

GsKUS Embxriza, Link. 

1 Emberiza cristata, 

2 subcristata, 

3 malanocephala, 

tI ^^"^"^ v^ia^ • • • • • ■ 

Vigors, Dukhun. 

Sykes, id. 

Sykes, id. 



Species of Mirttfra 

• • • • ■ 

Gehus Alaitoa, Link. 
1 Alauda Gulgula, 
2 Deva, 

Gbnitb Linaria. 
1 Linaria Amandava, 

Genus Mirapra, Horsf. 
1 Mirafra Javanica, 

2 phanicura, 

3 Assamica, 

4 ' JlavelicolliSf 

Frankl. Dukhun. 
Sykes, id. 


Hor^. Java. 

Frankl. Dukhun. 

. . M*Clelland, Assam. 

M'CleUand, id. 





Several other spe- 
eies of Pastor are in- 
dicated and a com- 
plete series is very 
much wanted. 

Asiatic Society. 

XXX. Subfam Garduelina. 


OxNus Cardvslis, Bnxss. 
1 Carduelis caniceps, 
2 spinoides. 

Oould, Cent. Bengal, 
id. id. 

6SKU8 Plocsous, Cxtv. 
1 Ploceus Philippensu, 
3 — ^ Mangar, 

xxxx. Subfam Passemia. 

Hortf. id. 


GxHus Frikgilla. 
1 Fringilla punctularia, 

2 striata, 

3 oryzivora, 

4 Mega, 

5 crucigera, 

6 Rhodopepla, 



1 Passer domesticus, 


1 Lonchura misoria, 

2 Gheet, 

3 leuconota, 

4 ■ sphura, 

5 melanocephala, 

. . Lcep, Linn. Java, 

Ls. lAnn, id, 


• • • . id. 

Temm. Dukhun, 

.... Gld. Cent. Bengal. 

.... Sumatra. 

Briss, Dukhun, 


SykeSy id. 

Sykes, id. 
• • Java. 

• . M*CleUand, Assam, 


XX. Subfam Stumina. 

GsNirs Sturnvs, Lihn. 
I Sturnus vulgaris, 

Gekus Lamprotorkis. 

1 Lamprotomis, 

2 . spHopterus, 


Gxmxs Pastor, Temm. 

I Pastor griseus, 



4 - 

5 - 
7 - 
9 - 


— Mahrattensis, 

— capensis, 

— tricolor, 

— tristis, • • 

— roseus, 

— Pagodarusu, 
■— cristatellus, 

— leucocephalus, 

Cantor t Java. 
Gld. Cent. Assam, 

Hor^. Java. 

Sykes, Dukhun. 

P. Jalla Horsf. Java, 

Horsf, id, 

Gracula lAnn. Dukhun, 

.. Temm. Dukhun, 8^c. 

• • Temm. id. 




• ••• 

Additional species. 

Asiatic Society. 

XX. Subfam Corvina. 

Gemus Pica, Briss. 

{1 Pica erythrorhyncha, 
* 2 caudata, . . 

Genus Dendrocitta, Gould. 
1 Dendrocitta Sinensis, 

2 -: yagabunda, •• 

3 . leucogastra, . • 

4 ' frontalis, . . 

Genus Kitta, Kuhl. 
1 Kitta venatorius. 

Genus Corvus, Auct. 
Corvus Gorone, 

2 splendens, , , 

3 culminatus, 

L 4 Enca, 

XXX. Subfam Coracina. 

[No. 109. 

Gmll. JJnn. China. 
Briss Rajff i^c. Sumatra. 


Gld, Madras. 

M'Cld. Assam, 




Horsf, Java. 



Genus Coracias, Linn. 
1 Coracias indica, 
2 affinis, 

lAnn. Sumatra. 
McCleUd. Assam, 

Genus Gracula, Auct. Eulabes Cuv. 
1 Gracula religiosa, . . Auct, Java, S^c. 

Genus Crypsirina, Vieill. 
Otherspeciesqf Crypsirina fi Crypsirina, .. Java. 

Genus Garrulus, Briss. 
I Garrulos lanceolatus, . . Gld. China. 

2 biflpecularis, .. Gld. Bengal, 

Genus Frkgilus, Coracia Briss, Gray, Gm^ Cuv. 
1 Fregilus graculus, .. .. Sumatra. 


Genus Buceros. 
I Buceros Rhinoceros, .... Linn. Sumatra. 

2 undulatus, .... Shaw, Java. 

3 Malabaricus, •••• Lath, id. 

4 cavetus ? Homrai, Hodgson, Sumatra. 

^ 5 gingeanus, , Madras, i^e. 

Several recently dis- ^ 
covered Indian species 
desired. ,,•• 



Genus Paradoxornis, Gould, Proceed. Zool. Soc. 
I Paradoxornis flavirostris, .. Gould, Assam. 


Asiatie Society, 


All the species of this ( 
Genus. \ 

Species of Palaor- 
nis generaUy desired* 

Addiiional species. 

Additional species j 
desirable f . • . . *S 

A complete series of 
the Continental species 
qf Picus desirabte. 

Tribus IV. 
X. Subfam Psittacina. 

Genus Psittacub. 

1 Psittacus sulphureus, . • 

2 — — — oraatiis, 

zxxx. Subfam. Palaeominia. 

Genub Palceornib, Vioors. 
1 Palsomis Pondicerianus, 


Java, 8fc. 
Sykes, Dukhun. 

2 -^— — torquatus, • • • • 

3 flavitorquis, 

4 Malaccensis, 

5 melanorhynchuB, 

6 schisticeps, •• 

7 ^— — > ery thiocephalus, • • 

xxzxz. Subfam Psittaculina, Vi^n. 
Genub Psittacula, Kuhl. 
1 Psittaculina Galguila, • • 

Genub Bucco. 
Bucco Javensis, 



2 — roseicollis, 

3 -^— Philippenflis, 

4 australis, 

5 yenciolor, 

6 — — de Mainas, 

7 - Lathamii, 

8 ■ caniceps, 

9 -^^— corvinus, 
10 grandis, 
11 cyanops, 

Genus Picus. 
1 Picus leucogaster, 





























• hyperythrus, 

• Himalayanus, 


Hortf. Java* 


B.qff'. Sumatra. 

Temm, Sumatra, 





Cuv. Assam. 

Temm. Java. 

Temm. id. 

Temm. id. 

Lath, id. 

Gmel. id. 

Hortf. id. 

Temm. id. 

Temm id. 

Rfujffl. Sumatra. 

Lath. Dukhun. 

Wagler, Bengal. 

Gould, Bengal. 

Gouidf Bengal, 

Gould, Bengal. 

Jardin, Bengal. 

Gould, Assam. 

Gould, Cent. id. 

Gray and Hard, id. 



Asiatic Society. 

[No. 109. 

Additional species f i 

PedibuB Tridactylis. 
Genus Chrysonotub, Swains. 
1 Picas Chrysonotus, • . Grant, Assam. 

2 tiga, , , Horsf. Java. 

Genus Yunx, Linn. 

1 Yunz torquilla, • • Linn. Assam, S^c. 


Genus Upupa, Auct. 
Upupa minor, • • 

Genus Tichodroma. 
1 Tichodroma erythroptera, 

Genus Sitta, Linn. 
.?,*ZSSS.T "^ ^^ 1 Sitta frontali.. 

ShaWy Dukhun. 


are recorded. 

Horsf. Java. 



Genus Coccyzus, Vieill. 
1 Coccyzus chrysogaster, . • 

Genus Leptosomus. 
1 Leptosomus Afer, 

Genus Endynamis, Vig. and Horsf. 



AU the Indian species. < 

Centropus and Pha- 


1 Endynamis orientalis, 

Genus Cuculus, Auct. 
I Cuculus fugaz, 

2 flavus, 



5 — :- 





- lugubris, 

Java, S^c. 

Horsf. Java, ^c. 

Gmel. id. 


lAnn. id. 

Horsf. id. 

Hor^. id. 

Hor^. id. 

Oould, Bengal. 

Genus Centropus, Illig. 

1 Centropus lepidus, . »Hor^. Java, Assam. 

2 — Philippensis, . . Cuv. id. id. 

Genus Phcenicophaus. Vieill. 

1 Phsnicophaus Rouverdin, .. Java. 

2 — — ^— lucidus, . . Vig. Sumatra. 
3 tristis, . . Lesson, Assam. 



Genus Trogon, Linn. 

1 Trogon DuTancelii, 

2 - Hodgsonii, 

Temm. Sumatra. 
Gould, Assam. 


Asiatic Society, 


Tribus Tenuirostres, Cuv. Fam. Ginnyridae. 
Genus Cinntrib, Cuv. Nectarrina Illig. 

1 Cinnyru lepida, 

Indian species gene-j 
raUy. S 





• • • • \ 

• • •• \ 

• • • • \ 

• • • • ^ 

2 — — pectoralis, 

3 _^ eximia, 

4 currucaria, 

5 ' Vigoraii, 

6 minima, 

7 — ^ Mahrattensis, 

8 — ^— ^ concoloT, 
9 Peronii, 

10 Assamenais, 

U Labecula, 

Genus Arachnothera, Temm. 

1 Arachnothera inomata, 

2 -— longirostria, . • 

Genus Dicosus, Cuv. 

1 Dicoeum cruentatum, 

2 erythronotum, 

Genus Ghloropsis. 

2 Ghloropsis Gochinchinensis, . , 
2 — ^— chrysogaster, 

Javay ^c. 
Hcr^. Java. 
Horsf. id. 
Unn. Dukhun. 
Sffkes, id, 
Sykes, id. 
Shaw, id. 
Sykes, id. 
• • Siafn. 

• . M*Cl€Uandf Assam. 
McClelland, id. 

Temm. Java, 


Additional species of r 
Arachnotheri Dicceum I 
Ghloropsis and Poma-/ 
torhinus particularly I 
desirable. \ 

• • Java, Sgc. 

M'Clelland, Assam. 
Genus Pomatorhinus, Horsf. 
1 Pomatorhinus montanus, ,. Horsf. Java, Assam. 

2 — — Hoisfieldii, • • Sykes, Dukhun. 

3 erythroginys, • • Gould, Bengal. 

ORDO III.— Ra«obbs, Illigbr. 
i Fam Golumbide. 
Genus Yin ago, Guv. 
1 Vinago veruans, • . Java, Sfc. 

Genus Ptilinopus, Swains. 

Species of Vinago, 
Ptilinopus and Golum-^ 
ba are jDesirable. 



1 Ptilinopus Elphinstonii, ^ 
Genus Golumba, Linn. 
1 ColuTnba alba, 

Golumba titonilis, 


— — — tigrina, 



— — — bitorquata, 



— — aenea, 
■ Jamboo, 



11 Aleena, 

12 humiles, 

13 flsnas, 

14 cambi^ious, 

Sykes, Dukhun. 

Temm. Java. 

Gm. id. 

Temm. -id. 

Unn. id. 

Sparm. id. 

Temm. id. 

Temm. id. 

Unn, id. 

Unn. id. 

Gmel. Sumatra. 

Sykes, Dukhun. 






Asiatic Soctety, 

[No. 109. 


Other Indian species f < 


Genus Pavo, Linn. 
1 Pavo cristatus, 
2 muticus. 

Genus Poltplbctron, Temm. 
1 Polyplectron bicalcaratus, 

Genus Lophophorus, Temm. 
1 Lophophorus Impeyanus, 

Genus Gallus, Briss. 
1 Gallus f uTcatus, 




5 — 

> domesticus. 



All the continental j 
species. •••• j 

Unn. Dukhun. 
Temm. Jam. 



Temm. Java, 

Temm. id' 




Temm. Sumatra, 


Additional species. 

Temm. Sumatra, 


A complete 
the Genera 
mily desirablet 


le series of I 
of this fa-^ 

■ •••■ I 

Genus Ecplocomus. 

1 Euplocomus erythrophthalmus, • • 

2 — __ Ignitus, 

Genus Phasianos. 

1 Phasianus albocristatus, 

2 '~—'~-~- leucomelanos, 

3 — Pucrasia, 

Genus Argus, Temm. 
1 Argus giganteus. 

Genus Tragopan, Cuv. 
1 Tragopan comutus, 

Genus Numida. 
1 Numida Meleagris, .. Domestic in Dukhun- 


Genus Grtptontx. 
I GryptonyiE cristatus, 
2 ocellatus, 

Genus Coturnix, Guy. 
1 Cotumix sinensis, 












Genus Perdix, BrIss. 
1 Perdix Javanica, 










Sykes, Dukhun. 

Sykes, id. 

Sykes, id. 

Horsf. Java. 

Horsf. id. 

. . Sumatra. 

Jard and Selby, Dukhun. 



AsicUie Society, 



• • • t 

Good specimens qf 
the G^en^aGrus, Ardea^ 
and Ciconia desired. 

Gbnus Francolinos. 
1 Francolinufl spadiceus, 

2 — Pontecerianus, 

3 — — cruentus, 


Gbnus Ptbroclis. 

1 Pterocles quadricinctus, 

2 — — — exuBtuB, . • 

Gbnus Hemipodius, Tbmm. 
1 Uemipodius Luzoniensls, 
2 pugnaz, 

3 — Dussamier, •• 

4 — — — Taigoor, • • 




Temm, Dukkun. 
Temm. Dukkun. 



Temm. id. 

Sffkes, id. 

Gbnus Otis, Linn. 

(1 Otis nigriceps, . . Oould, Dukkun. 

2 — — fulva, . . SykeSf id. 

I. Fam Gniidae. 













Gbnus Grus, Pallas. 
1 Grus cinerea, • • • • 

Gbnus Ardba. 
1 Ardea cinerea, • • 

2 purpurea, . • • • 

— - Egretta, 
—- Garzetta, 
— - russata, 
— Malaccensis, 


.. speciosa, 

— Sinensis, 

— flavicollis, •• 

— Javanica, 

— cinnamomea, 

— Caboga, 

— Ghrayii; 

— gularis, 

JJnn. var. Java' 
.. Lum, id, 

Omel. Java, Dukkun. 
Linn. id. id. 
, • Temm, Java. 

. • Omel. id. 

• • Mofttif, id. 


Latk. id. 


Omel. id. 

Pemn. Dukkun. 

Sykes, id. 


• • 

Gbnus Botaurus, Briss. 
I Botaurus stellaris, 

Gbnus Ntcticorax, Stbpubns. 
] Kycticorax Europsus, • • 

Gbnus Ciconia. 
Ciconia HxgaXA^A^fUtant,) 1 Ciconia capillatta, 
a good specimen desired ! 2 — — — lencocephala, 

Java, Dukkun. 

Temm. Java. 


• • 

• • 


Asiatic Sociefy. 


1 Phflenioopterufl ruber, 

Genus Mycteria, Linn. 

1 Mycteria australis, 

Genus Pl4talba, Linn. 
1 Platalea leucorodia, 
Genus Anastornus, Illioer. 
1 Anastomus typus, 

Genus Tantalus, Linn. 
1 Tantalus leucocephalus. 

Genus Ibis, Lacep. 
1 Ibis religiosa, 

2 ignea, 

3 papulosa, 

4 falcinella, 

Genus Numenius, Briss. 
1 Numenius Phcoaepus, 

Genus Totanus, Beghstbin. 
1 Totanus affiuis. 

• • 

. * 

[No. 109. 

Linn, Siam. 

Lhm, Dukhun. 
lAnn, Dukhun. 
Lath, Dukhun, 

Cuv, Dukhun, 


Temm. id, 

Temm, id. 


A series qf this Genus, < 




— hypoleucos, 

— acuminatus, 



— Glottis, 

• • 

• • 

• • 




Other Indian,species f 
qf Scolopax and Gal- I 
Unago, • • • • i. 




: • • • • K 


Genus Limosa, Briss. 
1 Limosa melanura, 

2 Terek, 

3 HoTsfieldii, 

4 — Glottoides, . 

Totanus Glottoides, 
Genus Scolopax, Linn. 
1 Scolopax saturata, 

Genus Gallinago, Rat. 

1 Gallinago media, 

2 — ' minima, 

Genus RHTNCHiBA, Cut. 

1 Rhynchsa orientalis, 

2 — — — — pieta. 

Genus Pblidna, Cuv. 
1 Pelidna Temminckii, 

Genus Tringa, Linn. 
1 Tringa subarquata, 

• • 


• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

• • 

HoT^. Java, 
Temm. id. 
Hor^. id. 
Hor^. id, 
Hor^f. id, 
Bechst. id. 
Temm. Dukhun. 
Temm. id, 

Temm, id, 
SykeSf Dukhun, 
Sykes, ^ 

Hor^, Java. 

Java^ Dukhun, 

Harsf. Java. 
Graff, Dukhun, 

.. Stephens, Dukhun. 

, • 

Temm, Java. 


Asiatic Society. 



Other ContinenkU 



ConHnenial spedett 


Indian species gene' 

A series qf Indian Na- 
Utores generally desir* 

Gbnus Sbspsilas, Illiger. 
1 StrepsUa coUaris, 

GxNus Parba, Linn. 
1 Parra supercilioia, ,. 

3 ■ Sineiuis, 

Gbnus Glarbola, Briss. 
1 Glareola orientalis, 

Gbnus Rallus, Linn. 

1 Rallus gularis, 

2 — fuceus, 
3 Akool, 

Gbnus Gallinula, Briss. 
1 Gallinula lugubris, 
2 — ^ chloropus, • . 

3 ^^— Javanica, 

4 ■ superciliosa. 

Temm. Sumatra, 

• • Horsf. Java. 
Chnel. Duhhun. 

Leach, Java. 

, • Hortf. Java, 

• Idnn. id. 
Sykes, Duhhun, 

Hortf, Java. 

• • id. 
Harsf. Java, Dukhun. 

• • jTemm. Java. 

Gbnus Porpbtrio, Briss. 
1 Porphyrio smaragdinus, 

Gbnus Fulica. 
1 Fulica atra, 

Gbnus Vanbnlus, Briss. 

1 Yanellus melanogaster, 

2 -^— — tricolor, • • 

3 — Goensis, , , 

4 — — bilobus, . • 

Gbnus Charadrius. 

1 Charadrius cantiarius, •• 

2 — - pluvialis, • . 

3 — — Asiaticos, • , 

4 ■ pusilltts, 

5 ■ Phillippensis, . • 

Genus Cursorius, Lath. 
1 Gursorius Asiaticusy •• 

Gbnus Himantopus, Rat. 
1 Himantopus melanopterus, • • 

Gbnus ^dicnbmus, Guy. 
1 ^dicnemus crepitans, •• 

I Fam AnatidflB, Leach. 
Gbnus Plbctroptbrus, Lbach. 
1 Plectropterus melanotos, •• Duhhun. 

Gbnus Ansxb, Briss. 
1 AnserGirra, .. Duhhun. 

Java, Duhhun. 
. Java, Duhhun. 


Bortf. id. 

Steph. Duhhun. 


Lath. Java, 

Linn, uk 


Hortf. id. 

Lath. Duhhun. 

Lath. Duhhun. 

Java, Sfc. 



Asiatic Society. 

[No. 109. 

Gbnus Tadorna, Lbach. 
1 Tadoma rutila, 

Gbnos Anas, Auct. 
1 Anas strepera. 

Genus Rhtnchapsis. 
1 Rhynchapsis viresceus, 

Genus Marbca. 
1 Mareca pscilorhyncha, . • 

2 fistularis, 

3 — — . Ardsuro, • • 

4 -- Arcuata, • . 

Steph, Dukhun, 

IMm. Dukhun, 


Steph, Dukhun. 


Sykes, id. 

Cup. Java. 

Genus Querquedula. 
1 Querquedula Circia, . • Dukkun, 

Genus Mbrgus, Linn. 
1 Merges Merganser, . • Bengal, 


Genus Podicbps, Lath. 

1 Podic'eps minor, •• Java. 

2 — i.. Philippensis, • • Dukhun. 


Gbnus Aptbnoottbs, Forst. 
] Aptenodytes, •• Southern Ocean. 


Genus Pblecanus. 

1 Pelecanus onocrotalus, • • 

2 — — Javanicus, •• 

Gbnus Phalacrocorax, Beiss. 
1 Phalacrocorax Javanicus, • • 

Gbnus Sula, Briss. 
1 Sula communis. 

Genus Tachtpetes, Vieill. 
1 Tachypetes Aquilus, 

Genus Phaeton, Linn. 
1 Phaeton sethereus, 

Genub Plotus, Linn. 

1 Plotus melanogaster, €hnl. Java^ Dukhun. 


H.€Tsif. id. 




Genus Sterna, Linn. 
1 Sterna minuta, 
2 Javanica, 

Linn, Java, 
Hor^, id. 

1841.] Astatic Society, 63 

3 Sterna media, . . Horsf. id, 

4 grisea, . . Horsf. id, 

5 affinis, . . Hcrsf. id, 

6 acuticauda, .. Gray, Dukkun, 

7 — —- - similis, . . Cfray, Dukhun. 

* g Seena ? . . Sykes, Dukhun. 

Genus Diomedea, Linn. 
1 Diomedea exulans. 
2 foliginosa. 

Genus Procellaria, Auct. 
1 Procellaria Gapensis, 
L flequinoctialis. 


In the preceding list, subjects of which specimens are particularly desirable have 
been indicated in the margin : of these several specimens will be useful. The more 
common species have also been indicated, and of these a single specimen, in good con- 
dition, especially in an extensive series or to complete a local Faima, will be sufficient. 
The Ck>urt's wishes respecting collections for the Company's Museum have been ge- 
nerally expressed in the public letter; a few explanatory remarks are now added. The 
list exhibits a general view of the present contents of the Company's Museum in 
Manunalia and Birds, and its chief object is to direct Naturalists in India to the disco- 
very of new species, and to the supply of such as are still wanting in the Museum. 
Bespecting M^ammalia generally, it may be observed that specimens of all the smaller 
species in good condition will be desirable ; but the Court particularly recommend A 
very close and persevering search respecting the family of Chiroptera or Bats. The 
list contains only a small number of Indian Bats, and the Court are most anxious to ob- 
tain a large addition of subjects of tiiis family to complete tiiat series. Very few of 
the Bats of Continental India have as yet been collected, and a general, careful, 
lealous search is strongly requested and recommended. 

Of the family of Quadrumana, a general supply of good specimens will also be dc" 
8iTable,especially of the Genera Hylobates, Semnopithecus, Macacus; also of the allied 
Genera Lemur, Tarsius, and Galeopithecus. Among the Ferss the smaller species of 
jPelis, Mustela, Mangusta, Yiverra, Arictitis (or Ictides,) Canis, Ailurus, Arctonyx, &c. 
are requested ; and of the larger species good specimens only of rare or newly discover- 
ed subjects. These remarks also apply to tiie order of the Ungulata, and among these, 
especially to the Genera Antilope, Moschus, Cervus, &c. Of the order of Glires or 
Rodentia, which are generally small, the Court will be glad to receive series as com- 
plete' as possible of the species of all the genera, namely, Sciurus, Pteromys, Le- 
pus, Mus, &c. &c. 

Respecting Birds, the Court would direct particular attention to those Genera which 
are marked in this list. Several of these have only recently been discovered, and they 
are of great value and interest in science : additional specimens will be very welcome, 
and also new species of these, or of previously known Genera. 

64 Astatic Society. [No. 109. 

The Officiating Curator having been requested to furnish his Report on the fore- 
going papers, submitted the following : — 

H. W. ToRRBNs, Esq. 

Secretary^ Asiatic Society, 


In obedience to the desire of the Committee of Papers, confirmed by the Society 
at its meeting of the 5th instant, I have the honour to submit my report on the 
matters relative to the Museum, forming the subject of the letter of the Honorable 
the Court of Directors, No. 17 of 1840, under date 16th September, 1840, and that 
of the Society to the Government of India, General Department, transmitting the 
former to you, date 31st December 1840. For more distinct explanation, it may 
be convenient to state what these matters are : — 

L — The relation in which the Society now stands towards the Honorable the 

II. — Inquiry for various collections assumed to have been detained at the Society's 
rooms : especially those of Dr. Helper and Capt. Pemberton. 

III. — The assistance which may be afforded by the Society to facilitate the early 
dispateh of collections made by Government Officers. 

IV. — Assistance which may be afforded by the Society towards the completion 
of the Honorable Court's Museum. 

The feeling of the Society, and my own views on this head, are, I submit, 

I. The relation in which the 'I fully expressed by the Resolution which I had the 
Society now stands towards > honor to propose, and which was unanimously carried 
the Honorable the Court ) ^t the January meeting of 1841, (see Journal No. 105, 
p. 943,) and which for ready reference, I copy here. 

" The Officiating Curator reported, that a considerable number of duplicate 
specimens, principally of birds, &c. were available for transmission to Europe ; and 
he moved, — that as many specimens of great interest to Naturalists might be collected, 
prepared and sent to England at a small expence, it was worthy the attention of 
the Society, whether such might not be prepared and sent to the Hoiiorable the 
Court of Directors, as due to them from the Society." 

The Society therein adopting this resolution, has fully testified its earnest 
desire to acknowledge, in every possible way which can tend to the general advance- 
ment of science, the liberal assistance which the Honorable the Court has been 
pleased to extend to it I may also here, perhaps, refer to my report for the past 
month, (approved by the Society), in which, after proposing a second dispateh of 
duplicates to the Honorable the Court, I have ventured further to suggest to their 
Curator, how we can mutually assist each other, as follows : — 

<* I may suggest here, that we point out to the Curator of the Museum of the Honor- 
able the Court of Directors the great facility with which, if approved of by the Court, 
he might procure in exchange for such specimens as he already possesses, some of the 
many which we require for the Museum of Economic Geology. It is scarcely possi- 
ble to send home a skin of a bird, a skeleton, or a scull from India, for which some 
duplicate may nofbe obtained in exchange, which would be of utility to us here." 

1841.] AnaHe Society. 65 

II. — In^ouy for yarieiit coUections tuppoted to havie been detuned at tlie Soeiety's 
Booms, especially those of Dr. Hslfbk and Capt Pbmbbrton. 
My report on Dr. Hblvbr's ooDection will I trust have satisfactorily shewn that, 
with respect to them, the Society is exonerated fnm all blaaae. I omitted in it 
to refer to the Bntomologieal part On carefbl inquiry, I find that no collection of 
insects was, at any time, deposited at the Society's Rooms by Dr. Hblfbr. Speci- 
mens of the modi cocoon, ftc. of the Assam silk woims, were only presented by him to 
illostrate his paper on that subject 

With reference to Capt Bbmbbrtoh's collection, you will not ftdl to remark, 
that the collections referred to in those passages of the proceedings quoted in the 
Honourable the Court's letter, are collections placed **in depotif only, and conse- 
quently, I shall inflBr, held by the Society at the disposition of the depositor, who er i- 
dently by Ms letter, at p. 749 of the Journal, it there disposinf of them ; since he 
says, that " under instructions from GoTemment he presents to the Society 145 spe- 
cimens of birds, a selection from the Bootan collection, &c." 

Farther: The collections deposited by Captain Peicbbrton were packed at the 
Museum, and in February 1840 sent to the Marine Board, for shipment to England, in 
four cases. Upon reference to Mr. Gbbbnlaw, who has kindly referred to the agents 
of the Shepherdess, the vessel on which the cases were shipped, I learn that she did not 
arrive in England till the monfli of December; the Honourable Court's letter, it will 
be observed, bearB date the 16th' September 1S40. 

Tliu is what I have been able to ascertain from the assistants and taxidermists- 
at the Museum, and from Capt Pbmbbrton *s official letter; in addition to which 
I maj state, that from the description of the assistants, tiie four cases were about equal 
to half or three-quarters of a ton of measurement Mr. Grbbnlaw has no knowledge 
of their eize, as freight was to be paid at home. 

I have refened to Dr. McClbllaitv, who has furnished me with Mr. Grbbit- 
LAW's receipt, but he has not replied to my official letter, of which copy is hereto an** 
nexed. He however informs me in a private note as follows : — 

" Tlie duplicates only, as far as I recollect of the Bootan collection, were sent to the 
Court of Directors. A complete series was kept with the Society, particularly of 
the insects; (he rest I forwarded myself through the Government on the part of the 
Bootan deputation. 

There is some discrepancy here, which I cannot reconcile with Capt Pbmbbr- 
ton' s letter quoted above ; but as my knowledge stops at this point, I must leave 
it for your consideration. 

Of the insects, there are none in the Societ/s collection noted as from the 
Bootan deputation. The assistants state, tiiat they have no reeollection of any 
coUection having been received at the Museum for the Society as from Capt 
PBMBBRTOif, or fWim the Bootan deputation; nor can I find any in their book, 
which however, is not very carefully kept The insects referred to by Dr. 
McClbllamb, may possibly be those which have no donor's names annexed to 
them id our cases. On my assuming charge of the Museum, I found a tin box of 
insects in the tazxdermists' room, of which they were taking great case, and their 
account of it was, that Capt Pbmbbrton had brought tu/o such boxes to the 
Museum ; Qne of which they packed, and he himself sent it away, for the Court 


66 Anatic Society. [No. 109. 

of Directors; leaving the other under their care as his private property. This 
box has recently (February) been sent, under your directions, to Mrs. Pkmbbrton. 

My report of February also mentions, that in that month I had received from Col. 
Maclbod two boxes, being Geological Specimens collected by Capt Pkmbbrton 
on his Bootan Mission ; but without any catalogue. On these you will doubtless 
take the orders of Government Dc McClblland in his note mentions the collections 
of the Assam Deputation. On reference to Dr. Wallich, he informs me that he has 
reported on this subject to Government 

My report of February last also states, what had been found to be the sad con- 
dition of the three cases forwarded firom Umballa by Mr. Clark, and just received 
at the Museum, where I had recognised the collection as being that made by 
Sir Albxander Bobnbs during his mission to Scinde. You will doubtless take 
the orders of Government on this collection also. The Society is thus, I trust com- 
pletely acquitted of any negligence or detention of any collection which has come 
into its hands of late years. 

HI*— The assistance which may be afforded by the Society to facilitate the early des- 
patch of collections made by Government Officers. 

It appears from the foregoing statements, that the Society, in the case of Dr. 
Hblfbr's and Capt. Pembbr ton's collections have, really in every respect forestalled 
the wishes of the Honourable Court, by assisting as far as possible in the early 
dispatch of them. It is unnecessary here to refer again to its resolution, as already 
quoted at par. 2, when speaking of the relations in which it stands towards the Ho- 
nourable the Court. 

IV. — The assistance which may be afforded by the Society towards the completioa 

of the Court's Museum. 

In reference to this matter, the Society has also done itself the honour to forestall 
in some respect the views of the Right Honourable the Governor General in Council, 
by its resolution and by our first dispatch of duplicates of birds andsnakes, and of Lieut 
Hutton's valuable Geological series from the Himalaya and Spiti Valley. If desired, 
it might employ a few taxidermists at the expence of Government, who could be sent 
at a small expence with gentlemen desirous of contributing to the knowledge of Indian 
Natural History, and under zealous amateurs, many of whom are now deterred by 
their want of knowledge, or want of time, or the expence, much might doubtless be 

I may be excused in remarking in conclusion that it is clear that, in relation to 
the Natural Sciences, as in every thing ebe, if India had all that she requires from 
Europe, and Europe all that flhe wants from India, both must be immeasurably bene- 
fitted. In nothing then, surely, can a scientific body like the Asiatic Society, be 
more honourably employed than in promoting even the smallest fraction of such an 
exchange; and in nothing could it, in its sphere, more effectually confer lasting 
benefit on India. 

I have the honour to be. 
Calcutta, Tour's obediently, 

Asiatic Sodetffs Rooms, H. Piooington, 

iSth March, 1841. Aciing Curator, As, Soc. Museum. 

1841.] AsiaHc Society. 67 

Copy qf a LtUer to Dr. McClbllakd rtftrrtd to m tkef&r^gomg Report, 
Dbab Sir, 

A dispatch having been received by the Government of India from the Honourable 
the Court of Directors, in which, referring to Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for 
February, September, October, and November, 1838, they state, that it would appear 
that collections of Natural History have been detained at the Society's Rooms since 
those epochs, I have been desired to furnish a report thereon. 

2. They refer more particularly to Dr. Hblpxr*s and Captain PBidLBBRToii's col- 
lections. Of the first of these, (Dr. Hrlfbb's,) I have been able to render a full 
account, quite exonerating the Society or its officers from any blame. 

3. Of the second : we have in the Proceedings reference to three collections, mostly 
birds, deposited by Capt Pxmberton, and at p. 749, (Journal 1838,) that 14& birds 
were presented by him '* under instructions from Government" It appears, moreover, 
by the books, that on the 29th February 1840, four cases which the Messrs. Boucubi 
state to have been packed and marked here for the Honourable the Court, were sent 
to the Marine Board for shipment, but they have no receipt for them. 

4. I am therefore desired to request from you, on the part of the Society, the best 
information you can afford us as to these, or any other Government collections of 
Natural History, which may have been received or sent out while you were in 
charge of the Society's Museum ; with any documents or receipts which may enable 
vs to explain to the full satisfaction of Government, what has become of them. 

• I am Sir, &c. 

Calcutta, H. Piddington, 

As. Soey. Booms, I2th March, 1841. Actg, Curator, As, Soey, Museum, 

Ko. 806. To Dr. J. McClbllano, 

Curator, Asiatic Society* s Museum, 

Sib, , 
With reference to your letter dated 29th ultimo, I am directed by the Marine 

Board to inform you of the shipment on the Shepherdess, Capt Biggar, of the 4 

boxes containing Natural Curiosities for England, to the address of the Honourable 

the Court of Directors, at the rate of £ 5-^ per ton of 50 cubic feet; freight payable 

in England on due delivery of the boxes. 

I have the honor to be. 

Fort WilUam, Sir, 

Marinb Board Ofpicb^ Your most obedient Servant, 

The bth March, 1840. C. B. Grbbnlaw, 


Resolved— That Mr. Piooington's report be forwarded to the Government, and 
that attention be particularly directed to the three points suggested in paragraphs iO, 
11, and 13, by the Officiating Curator for the consideration of Government, and 
more particularly for the employment of taxidermists at its expence to accom- 
pany gentlemen desirous of contributing to the knowledge of Indian Natural 
History, but now deterred from doing so, for want of knowledge, or want of time, or 
the expence. 

68 Asiittic Society. [No. 109. 

Read tke followiiig letter of 24th Maich last Iron Mt» Secretary Bushbt >— 

No. 433. * To H. Torbbns, Esq. 

* Secretary to the Asiatic Society, 
* General Department, 

' I am directed to acknowledge the receipt of your letter and iti enchware of the 8th 
instant, and to acquaint you for the information of the Asiatic Society, that the Report 
of the Officiating Curator of the Society's Museum on the Specimens brought out 
by Capt Trbmbnhbbrb, and deposited with the Society for the basis of a Museum of 
Economic Gedogy, will be transmitted to the Hon'ble the Court of Directon by the 
next Overland Mail. 

'2d. I am desired to take this opportunity for forwarding to the Asiatic Society the 
accompanying three specimens of rock from the head of the Pass at the Gurrah Ghftt, 
near Mhow, on the Bombay and Agra road, together with a copy of the letter from 
Captain J. H. Smtth, Officiating Superintendent of the Road, transmittto; the speci- 
mens to the Military Board. 

'3d. In respect to the Society's Museum of Economic Geology, the contributions 
will be obtained gradually by such aids as the Hon'ble the Court of Directon may be 
enabled to procure, or be pleased to sanction, and by the aMistance of priraie indivi- 
duals interested in this department of practical science, and by donation or inter- 
changes with other Societies. 

' 4th. The influence and correspondence of the Asiatic Society will progressively ac- 
complish these objects. 

' 5th. The Military Board will be instructed to direct the attention of the executive 
Officers of public works and roads, to the purposes of the institution of a Museum of 
Economic Greology, and to cause collections to be made of specimens^ and descriptive 
lists to be sent to them, firom which in communication with the Curator of the Society, 
the valuable and useful parts will be selected for transnussion to the Museum at the 
least possible ezpence, and in most cases it is hoped, by a proper arrangement, without 
any charge in excess of the ordinary carriage that would be employed for other 
public uses. 

' Fort William, < I have the honor to be, 

'24<A 3farcA, 1841. <Sir, 

' Your most obedient Servant, 


' Secretary to the Oovemment qf Bengal, 

* No. 143. ' To Major De Budb, 

* Secretary to the MiUtary Board, Fort WUUam, 

' You will receive by Dak banghy, three specimens of the soil at the head of the Pass 
at Ghurra Ghat, forwarded to me by Captain Kbllnbr, superintending the road from 

184L] Anaik Soekt^. 69 

Dewass to Ackberpore. No. 1 abounds in detached maues eight feet below the surface ; 
No. 2 in blocks four to six feet in diameter at the surface, and bedded two to^three feet 
in No. 3, which latter is the prevailing stone at the pass, as far as the excavation has 
as yet been carried. 

' I have &c. 
(Signed) * J. W. Smyth, Captain, 

* Sebprbs 1 Q^y. Supt, qf the Agra and Bombay Road. 
* im February, 1841 . $ (True Copy, ) 

(Signed) * M. Maclboo, Captam, 

'Assist. OtTg- Secy. Military Board. 

(True Copy.) 

(Signed) ' G. A. Bushby, 

* Secretary to the Oovemment qf Bengali 

With reference to the tb^ee specimens of lock received with the fofegoing letter^ 
read the following report from the Officiating Curator of 5th April, 18M, a copy 
of which waa communicated to the Government through Mr* Secretary Bushby : — 

' H. W. ToRBBNs, Esq. 


'Secretary, Asiatic Society, 

' I have to acknowledge receipt of the three specimens of Stone forwarded by Capt. 
Kellnbr, through the Military Board, from the Pass at Ghurra Ghaut, and to say that 
. they are 

' * No. 1. Hornblende Slate (or Basaltic Homble&de.) 

* No. 2. ArgillaoeouB Sandstone, with veins of mica, having a metallic appearance. 
'No. 3. Fdspar Prophyry. 

* I beg to suggest, that if a good series of specimens through the whole line of 
road, with a plan and elevation, and as many barometrical elevatioBS of the heights 
of passes, &c. as possible, could be procured, it would be a great additioB to our 
geological knowledge; as we have but very few sections crossing from the NN£. 
to the SSW. from the valley of the Ganges towards that of the Nurbudda. 

' I further suggest, that a copy of Capt. Trbmbnhbbrb's Memoir be sent to Capt. 
ExLLNBR, and indeed to all officers in charge of road-making duties. The specimens 
are for the present placed in the Museum of Economic Geology. 

<MusBUM, 'lam. Sir, 

' &IA April, 1841. ' Your obedient servant, 


* QfSf* Curator, As. Soc, Museum, 

With reference to the 3rd paragraph of Mr. Bushby's letter, a question having 
been suggested as to the proprietorship of the Museum of Economic Geo- 
logy, the Meeting were of opinion, that as it was not likely that the Government 
would ever recall it, that the Asiatic Society be considerecl virtually the proprietor. 

* Speoimen too imsU to determiae to which variety belonging. 

70 AMtaiic Society. [No. 109. 

Read the following letter, No. 828, from Mr. Secretary Maddocx : — 

To H. Tor BENS, Esq. 


No. 8€€. Secretary to ihs Atiatie Society, 

PolUieai DeportmenL 

I am directed by the Governor General in Council to forward to you the accom- 
panying copy of a calculation by Lieut. Bioos, of the heights of the principal 
Tillages visited by him in the Naga Hills, for such notice as the Society may deem 
it to merit. 

I have the honor to be. 
Fort William, Sir, 

t9th March, 1841. Your most obedient servant, 

T, H. Madoock, 
Secy, to the Govt, of India* 

No. 11. To Captain Jenkins, 

Agent to the Gov, Gen, N, E. Frontier, 


Having by the D&k of yesterday received the Tables necessary to enable me to 
calculate the approximate height of the various points, which have been taken by 
Thermometrical observations, I have the honor to forward the same, and am 
happy to find that they prove nearly correct, when compared with those of yourself 
and Captain Pbmbbrton. 

1st. Observation, camp Semoor river below the Prephamah, tnd February, 1841. 

Thermo, in the shade, • ••• 48o. 

Water boils, 208, approx. height 2,116 feet. 

2nd February. 
2nd. Observ. at wells on S. £. of village of Prephamah. 

Thermo, in shade, 56o. 

Water boils, 206, approx. height 3,235 feet. 

2nd February. 
Srd. Observ. at village of Geroophamah. 

Thermo, in shade, 56^^. 

Water boils, 204, approx. height 4,S40 feet. 

Srd February. 
1st. Observation at village of Sassamah. 

Thermo, in shade, 59^. 

Water boils, 204, approx. height 4,962 feet. 

1841.] Astatic Society. 71 

4th February, 1841. 
isU Observation camp opposite Ronomah in valley. 
Thermo, in shade,. • ••...• 48^*^. 
Water boils, • t05, approx. height S,rt9 feet. 

5th February, 1841. 

ist. Observation top of the pass to the Jolah river. 

Thermo, in shade below the ) ^ t ^ 
pass on W. side,. j ^ * 

Ditto, Ditto, at top, 58i^. 

Water boils, ...••• 201, appros. height 5,Q59 feet. 

5th February. 
Cnd. Observation camp on Jalla river. 

Thermo, in shade, 46®. 

Water boils, • 30S, approx. height 4,rt9 feet. 

6th February. 

1st. Observation at pass of Ronomah or Paplongurge. 

Thermo, in shade, 56o. 

Water boib, <01}, approx. height 5,7SS feet. 

Snd. Observation camp below village. 

Thermo, in shade, 50°. 

Water boils, 204, approx. height 4,€8S feet. 

Tth February. 

1st. Observation summit of pass over great range. 

Thermo, in shade, 47|<'. 

Water boUs, 301|, approx. height 5,615 feet. 

f nd. Observation camp below the pass, N. side. 

Thermo, in shade, 56o. 

Water boils, 205), approx. height 3,51 S feet. 

3rd. Observation Tillage of Jyramah. 

Thermo, in shade, 68)°. 

Water boils, 209, approx. height 1,650 feet. 

8tb February. 

1st. Observation below cane bridge over Kooki river. 

Thermo, in shade, • 58i<>. 

Water boils, 211, approx. height 556 feet. 

2nd. Observation summit of Sumigooding. 
Thermo, at bottom in shade, 58i°. 

Ditto to top, . . ditto, 70|o. 

Water boils, 20r|, approx. height 1,911 feet. 

From the last observation it will be seen, as I have not the report of Captain 
Pbmbxrton at hand to refer to the others from, that by my calculations the top of 


Asiaiie Soeiefy. 

[No. 109. 

the village of Sumigooding, stated by that officer from Barometrical obserration, to 
be 196 feet above the level of the sea, is made 49 feet lees, a very triffing difieraace, 
and one on that accoont highly satialactory to me, for tbe coiroctnete of the others 
as well as of the instnnnent, and I hope the same may prove equally so to yoonelf 
and Government. 

I have, &c. &c« 

Camp Sumsegoodino, 
13th February, 1841. 


(Thie copy,) 

(Trae copy) 

T. Biooi, 
Attt, Agent Oao. Gren. 

F. Jiifxiifs, 

Gov, Gen, Agent, 

T. H* Maddock, 
Secy* to Govt, <f India* 

The Secretary sabmitted to the inspection of the Meeting seveial drawings of 
fishes of the Indus, of the late Dr. Lord's collection. 

The Secretary submitted a Sinde Vocabulary by Lieut* Eastwick. Otrdered to 
be referred to the Committee of Papers. 

Dr. H. H. Sprt submitted in the name Mid on behalf of Capt. Jenkins, 
Commissioner in Assam, a seaes of Geoiogical and Mineralogical specimens 
illustrative of the CSrognostic features of the county of Cornwall, with the following 
note to the Secretary : — 

" This collection, extensive as it is, is only a part of what Capt. Jbnuns designs 
for the Museum ; and it has occurred to him, as well as to myself, that the con- 
tribution now made will not be an unacceptable accession to the Museum of 
Economic Geology, so lately formed through the exertions of Capt. Trbmenhkebb." 

Read a letter from lieut. A. Cunningham, of Engineers, of 25th Match 1841, 
offering for purchase to add to the cabinet of coins of the Asiatic Society of 
Bengal sixty-five Roman coins and fifteen Greek coins, sent from the Mediterranean, 
for Rupees 50. 

lieut. Cunningham ynites, " amongst the Greek coins are two of Melite, the 
ot^er being Carthaginian and Greek -Egyptian coins of the Ptolemies. The 
Roman coins, are of all ages ; several of them being coins of princes of whom 
the Society's cabinet possesses no specimens, such as Decentius, Lucilla, Faustina* 
Constantbe, with the wolf suckling Romulus and Remus, &c. &c." Lieut. Cun- 
ningham also offered a series of the Kashmeer coins, twelve coins of twelve 
Rajahs for It rupees, and to collect some few other series of coins which would be 
interesting and useful. 

It was resolved to purchase the coins from Lieut. Cunningham, and to avail of 
his services for the collection of other series, the thanks of the Society at the 
same time being voted to that Officer. 

1841.] - Asiatic Society. 73 

Read a letter from Capt. A. Troybr of PariB, of 15th October 1840, from which 
the following are extracts :— 

" Whatever the future reBult of operations in Syria may he, they have prevented 
the Asiatic Society of Paris to dispatch to Calcutta a box full of Books, among 
which is the Sanscrit text, and my French translation of the first 6 books of the 

"We have not yet received the number of your Journal which contains the 
account of the most interesting discovery you have made on a gem from the Frontier 
of Seistan, at the ancient Boonaka. It tends greatly to prove the great antiquity of 
buddhism, which antiquity seems to gain from day to day. 

" I am now about to complete the English translation of the whole DAsisTAKy 
which the late Capt. Sues had begun, but left unfinished. I intend to have the 
work printed in Paris for the Translation Fund Committee of London, and hope to 
have the pleasure of sending you a copy in about a year. 

Read Dr. Spry's note on his tour to the Eastward. 

Read letter from Capt. R. Shobtreedb of ftnd March 1811, with a perpetual 
Time Table constructed by him, by " the help of which," says the author, ** may 
be found in less than half a minute the week, or day of any date for thousands 
of years, past or future." 

Read a letter from Lieut. Postans, dated 21st March 1841 ; containing his report 
on a certain branch of the Trade of Shikarpore. 

Read a letter from Capt. Hart of l<$th March 1841, containing an account by him 
of the Brahooees. 

It was communicated to the meeting by the Secretary, that the foregoing four 
papers would be published in early numbers of the Journal by him. 

Read a letter from Mr. Kinney of Bonn, who has been selected by Professor 
LissEN to act as Agent for the Society, containing among other matter, the offer of 
his services in the disposal of the Society's Oriental Publications. 

Br. HsBERLiN was of opinion, that before dispatching the books for sale to 
Bonn their prices should be reduced, as vrithout such reduction, he was of opinion 
that it would be useless to send the works, as the Oriental Scholars of Germany 
would not purchase at prices which he considered to be exorbitant. On this pro- 
posal Dr. HoBBEBLiN was requested to submit a list of the Publications he would 
suggest to be sent to Bonn for sale, vrith a scale of reduction in their prices he 
would recommend, for the consideration of the Committee of Papers. 

On the motion also of Dr. Hiebbrlik, in consequence of the death of Professor 
FEAMk, who was an Honorary Member of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, that that 
compliment be paid to Professor Ewald, of Hanover, one of the best Oriental- 
ists in Germany. It was resolved — That the Doctor submit, formally, a proposition 
to this effect, likewise for the consideration of the Committee of Papers. 

The Secretary submitted a Doguerotype, presented by Dr. Routh, for which, as 
well as for all other presentations and contributions in Books, Natural subjects* &c. 
the thanks of the Society were accorded. 



On ike Mine$ and Mineral Rmoureet of Northern A/ghanuian, Bjf Copt. DKUiriroirB, 9rd Lig^ 
Canahyy eommunieatedfrom ike PoUUeal Dtpartmeni, Qoioemmeni of India, 

[Copper Miiuiig district in the Ghilae tendtoiy, South East of CabooL] 

From Che Talley of Dobiudee, which rommiinlmtw irith Uie plain of Lagor in the diieetiain of 
Koormm, to the district of Mooege, about 14 miles south east of Cabool, and again from Moo^;e to 
Berbund and Rojan in the direction of Feseeni is an elevated and ragged mountain tract highly 

Geologf/ of ike DUiriet<,—ThB Ibrmations of this mineral district are composed principally of Horn- 
blende rock, and Hornblende Gneiss, Primary limestone, and Mica Slate. The hornblende rocks 
are generally speaking of a fissile character, the limestones again are hard, oompact, occasionally 
slaty, and from their feeble effervescence when tried with nitric add, seem to contain a portion of 
magnesia, and may accordingly be referred to the dolomite species. The strike or direction d the 
strata, as may be oberved from the sequel, is nearly N. Bast and S. West, dipping at a considerable 
inclination to the N. West 

Conforming with the homUende rocks of Dobundee is a calcaieous sandstone formation with 
subordinate beds of slate clay enclosing their seams of coal. Thii sandstone is soft and friable, and 
moit be distingnished again ftom another sandstone also cakareous, and of a still softer character. 
The latter formation is of very recent origin, and has taken place subsequent to the upheavement 
of the primary and metalliferous rocks, as may be weU observed in the vicinity of Koh i Aeenuk, 
where it occurs in the fbrm of sand-hill--the sandstone strata are horisontal, the primary again are 
all highly inclined, and sometimes even vertical. 

What the upheaving rocks may be I am yet igntnrant, but believe they wiU be ibund to be grani- 
tic, and if so, they must be of a madt more modem geological era than similar rocks in Kngl a nd, 
fi^m the position of the sandstone of Dobundee, which is evidently a tertiary deposit containing 
lignite coaL A section from the passes in the mountains of the Hindoo Kosh to the Indus would 
be extremely interesting in a sdentiflc point of view, and convey no doubt an accurate idea of the 
structure of the country, but this however would form a separate brandi of inquiry of itself and is 
not of immediate importance to the present research, which has reference only to mining and 

When I lately had occasion to bring the mineral resources of the Himalaya mountsins before 
practical men and capitalists in London, the voluminous Geological Report of the able and intelli- 
gent officer, the late Captain Horbert, was never read by them. All that they cared about was that 
portion of it which related to the metalliferous minerals and means of working them; and what 
chiefly attracted their attention was, his account of the seven localities where copper was produced 
in the Provinces of Gorhwal and Knmaon. 

In an economical point of view, therefore, t e first thing to attend to in a district where metals are 
known to exist, is its probable productiTeness ; uid for this purpose a very dose and minute 
examination of every rock, ravine, and TaUey is necessary to discover if metallic veins, or indiea- 
tions of veins abound. I have found these appearances in all the following localities :— 

Views and indieaiions of Copper t old EweawUion$t ^e. — At Moosye in the psss of Shadkhaaee in 
the limestone range, on the right bank of the Sagur river, and to the west of the village of 
Kuttasung, I found purple copper ore in very small quantity cropping out to the surfoce. 

In the pass of Silawat to the east of Kuttasung, I found copper pyrites in greater ^laatity 
cropping out there. On the crest of the same pass, or rathor ashoct distance from it to the eastward 
indications of the metal appear in that quarter also, and seem to point either to grey copper, or to 
the vitreous sulphuret The strike of the strata is about N. E. by £., and S. W. by W., dipping ait 
an angle of 65' to the N. W. by N. Beyond this also, and still further to the Eastward, spedmena 
containing purple copper ore in small quantity have been brought me lately llh>m Kohl Cha^^igye. 

Again near the ba«e of the same range, and within a short distance of the village of Kuttasung, ava 
three old excavations, blocked up with stones and rubbish. Two of these I have been attempting to 

1841.] On the Mineral resources^ Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan. 75 

dear out lately wiih ihe intention of reporting on them hereafter. The ore if the purple variety, 
and I also fbnnd indications of the yitreovB strike of the strata N. N. E. and 8. S. W. dip 65* 

W. N. wfm 

On entering the Pass of Silawat, there is aravine to the Westward, where a spring with a fisw trees 
may be discerned. About a couple of hundred yards above tills spring is another old excavation, 
blocked up like the former, the declivity of the mountain is here very great; strike of the strata N. 
E. and B. W. dipping about 61* to the K. W. are copper pyrites, in a hard quartaose matrix, 
wall of the vein soft and slaty, and covered with the blue and green stains of copper. Here the 
limestone assumes a slaty struetttre and then verges into a micaceous rock, from which I comeo- 
ture that the ore at a greater depth ^HIl make (as the term hi Cornwall is)to mica slate. The decay- 
ed and withered splinters of this slaty limestone, at first sight have much the appearance of day 
slate-r-East of this again I found anodier excavation in a micaceous rock, evidently a continuation 
of the last mentioned, the direction of the strata the same, and dipj^ng in the same quarter at a 
high angle, ore copper pyrites. In the same line I have traced this deposit to another locally 
a short distance oC 

On the Eastern, or left hand side of the road going up the Silawat Pass, is another old excavatton 
blocked up like the rest Strike of the strata W. 8. W. and dipping about 66' N. N. W. 

I saw stains of copper here, but observed no flirther trace of the metal at the time I visited the 
spot; a specimen of vitreous ore has however been brought to me since, whidi is reported to be 
i^om that quarter. Higher up the hill, and on the same side of the road, is another ttEcavation, where 
I found indications of vitreous ore. Strike of the strata about N. E. by E. and 8. W. by W. 
dipping about 66' to the N. W. by N. 

About a quarter of a mfle to the Eastward of the last mentioned, there is a singular deposit A 
vein or bed of iron ore, upwards of SO feet in breadth, containing another vein of a mixture of iron 
and grey copper in a space about two feet wide. This mixture of copper and iron has been worked 
to the extent of a few feet but the difficulty of separating the copper from so large a proportion of 
iron, was no doubt too difficult an operation for the andent miners to be attended with profit, and 
must have been abandoned accordingly. Strike of the strata here N. E. and 8. W. dip 76* N* W. 
From the direction of the strata, and the external character of this iron ore, it must I think be con- 
nected underneath with a great bed of iron oro nearly 40 feet in width, which I discovered in the 
Silawat Pass. The ore is massive, and is of a steel grey colour ; sometimes it gives a blackish streak, 
and then it affects the magnet considerably, showing the presence o( the protoxide. The great mass 
however gives a red streak, and bdow the surfoce will no doubt be found a wdl-deflned bed of 
specular iron ore. 

To the west of the crest of the Silawat Pass, and near the summit of the range, which I suppose 
must be about 1200 feet above the level of the plain of Moosye, are some extensive excavations. 
The general strike of the strati4cation here is about N. N. £. and 8. 8. W.— in some places it is 
nearly perpendicular, or dipping at a great angle to the W. N. W. ; one of these excavations at first 
appeared to me like an open working, having the form of a perpendicular chasm in the moimtain, 
the depth of which I measured upwards of 40 feet, and varying tcom S^ to 8| feet wide, at the 
deepest part the measurement was 7 feet and three quarters. 

From flirther observation, however, I am inclined to suspect that this excavation, but espedally 
others of a for deeper and more extensive diaiaeter at Kch i Aeenuk and Seestnngee, occupied 
originally the spaces of galleries, or levels, and that these have fkllen in shice, either firom having 
been shaken by an earthquake, as the wreck and ruin foesented by some of them would seem to 
i n d ica te, or what appears probable, the action of water frmn the mdting of snow at the surface, 
peroolating by the walls or sides of ihe veins, has in process of time gradually loos«ied that portion 
of the ground which was left as a protection for the levels, and these levds having been driven 
along veins that preserve their course with the direction of the strata, which are neariy perpendi- 
colar, will aoeount for the chaon-like iqppearanoe they now exhibit 

76 On the Mineral resaurces^ SfV. of Northern Afghanistan. [No. 109. 

. The iystem of milling which h«8 been panned here, differs matexiaU^ from our improved modem 
methods. Instead of taking up a more ccmvenient position for conunencing operations lower 
down the brow of the mountain, and driving a gallery for a considerable distance, perhaps through 
barren ground, so as to reach the yein at a proper depth, and which opoting is made at the same 
time to act as a drain, the plan adopted by the ancient miners seems to have been the "**^«"c of a 
small entrance, about S fiset wide, and 4 feet high upon the vein itself, and having gone down upon 
it at once in a sloping direction, until a certain depth was attained, they pursued a horisontal 
course, and stripped the roof of oxe in thdr progress. This inattention to drainage has answexed 
so long as the ore could be followed without the occurrence of water, butlsuq^ecteventhenin some 
places, they must have felt inco&yenience from the water caused by the melting of the snow in 
spring. Idonot beUerefhmi the appearance of the galleries which are still remaining, flwt timber 
was much used, if employed at all for supporting them. The stmctore of the rocks in most plaoea 
being of a compact character, and the great dryness that prevailed, may have enabled the minem 
to work to a considerable extent without that aid. In excavating the ore and opening ground, these 
people seem to have used a sharp-pointed well-tempered instrument, as may be observed by the 
marks of their work on the walls of the galleries, particularly at the mine of Seestungee. 

As the most important point to ascertain is the appearance of the deposits of ore at a considerable 
depth, the width of the veins, &c. I have been particularly desirous of penetrating so fkr under 
ground as to airive at the different spots where the ancient miners left off working. In some 
instances I got so far, that I believed I should soon accomplish that object, but I have invariably 
had my progress arrested by large masses of rock, stones, and rubbish which have fallen in. A 
native of Moosye lately brought me intelligence of some deep excavations whidi have been 
discovered on the eastern side of the Silawat Pass. Upon asking him why he had not taken a Ugjxt 
to examine the interior, and see if they were more perfect than those I had already discovered, he 
gave me to understand, that like the rest of his countiymen, he had superstitions misgivings in 
regard to the exploring of those old and abandoned excavations, and was ftirther deterred by 
observing the skin of a snake at the entrance of one of the galleries. The dread of meeting reptiles 
of this kind in these deserted mines, is one of the reasons why the people are so ignorant about 
them. The same individual told me, that often as he had hunted over those mountains fhmi his 
earliest youth, he had not the least idea that the excavations were so numerous, only a fiew had 
been observed, or were known to the neighbourhood until I commenced my researches. 

On crossing from the Moosye range to the mountains of Baghgye, I obtained some rich specimens 
of vitreous and purple copper ore in different places, and also copper pyrites, but did not observe 
any regular vein, except one of copper pyrites in hornblende gneiss, which is about 10 inches wide ; 
this is very poor at the surface, but may however at some depth turn out rich. At Kotil i Dushtuk, 
I picked up a good number of stones containing copper pyrites in a hornblende gneiss fbrmation^ 
running N. £. and S. W. and dipping about 55* N. W. 

This rock is very dark in some places from the prevalence of the hornblende, hi otherv it has a 
yellow weathered appearance, and so much disintegrated, that I had not an opportunity of examin- 
ing the locality well ; there are quantities of rock, green-stained from copper. In one place where it 
was more compact, I obtained specimens from some strings or small veins of copper pyrites, in « 
quartz matrix, evidently connected with a larger vein, and from the abundant indications at the 
surface, I suspect that a considerable deposit must exist underneath. From Dundhanee in the 
direction of Jowhar to the south of Rotil i Dushtuk, specimens of green-stained xock. have been 
brouj^t me lately, and said to be in still greater abundance. 

To the south of the Ba^^bgye range is the great mine of Koh i Aeenuk, which I have already men- 
tioned, all in a state of ruin and dilapidation. Purple copper ore crops out to the surllsce ; and Uie 
excavations, as well as a quantity of slag and vestiges of ancient houses that remain, show what a 
productive mine this must have been in former days. The dreary and desolate aspect of the spot, 
with a solitary hut and a few squalid inmates, afford a melancholy contrast to the throng of industry 
which must have been witnessed here in better and more prosperous times.. About a mile West of 

1841.] On the Mineral resources^ Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan, 77 

Aetnuk is the mine of Seestongee, which I have alao mentioned, and which is in a similar condition 
with the former. In this mine there is a diamber, one side of which is covered widi sulphate of 
copper ; the chamher is about 18 feet in length, It in breadtii, and 10 in height,— «nd the end of it is 
blocked np with stones and rubbish. Some of the excavations here are so large, that they have more 
the appearance of caverns than mining galleries. A short distance from this, on the road to Koh i 
Aeenuk, I observed near the summit of a limestone rock several veins of spar carrying copper ore, 
prindpally copper pyrites ; one of these is about U inches wide ; between this again and Aeenuk, there 
is another spot where the green-stained indicaticms of copper appear abundantly, showing, that the 
metal exists there likewise. 

East of Aeennk, in the mountains of Aooorookhail, I found a vein of solid copper pyrites about an 
inch thick in hornblende gneiss ; at Essurtungee on each side of the torrent, I observed copper ore 
in many places, though I was not fortunate enough in finding a regular vein, whole clifib of the 
rocks howevo: are covered with the indications of copper. The richest specimens of red oxide of 
copper and native copper in my possession, were brought to me by a native, and said to be from the 
hills of Goorgee Mydan, not far bom Acoorookhail. Of the locality, however, from whence they 
were procured I am doubtfiil, as the native alluded to was indebted to another for the specimens. 
Lopened the ground in one place to the extent of several feet, and though a few indications of the 
metal appeared, many circumstances rendered it evident, that they had not been procured from that 
exact spot, and that a fkirther search was necessary. 

At Derbund, in Tungee Khooshk, in a gneiss and mica slate formation, I observed abundant 
green stains of copper. At KHa Ataye, there are several veins of quartzoft spar carrying purple 
ore, one of which I measiured about a foot in breadth, the rock is mica slate, and contiguous to 
limestone. In CcHmwall the richest deposits I was told generally occur at the Junction of the day 
slate with the granite ; and in this mineral tract, I believe the most productive will be fbund at the 
point of contact of the limestones with other rocks. 

At Teseen, I discovered small veins or steings of rich ore ramifying in difibxent directions, and 
forming a lund of net-work in a limestone rock. I saw no dedded course of ore of any bulk, but 
what there is of it, is very rich, being composed of the vitreous and red oxide varieties, and native 
copper. The chief of Teseen, I am told, found a mass of the latter close by his house on one occasion, 
and so large, that a copper vessel was manufactured fix>m it This must have been brought down 
by the moimtain stream, and most probably from the quarter I have mentioned. 

In a ravine at Khoondurra, between Seestungee and Dobundee, I obtained some specimens of 
copper ore in small quantity, but did not discover any vein, though a doser seardi may yet 
succeed from the indications of the metal in that quarter. 

At Dobundee, on entering the valley, I found at Shinkye, on the right bank of the rivulet, 
spedmens of red oxide and grey copper, but discovered no r^ular vein at the time. In a ravine 
named Lahasour, about half a mile from Shinkye, I observed in a hornblende formation an outcrop 
of grey, vitreous, and red oxide of copper accompanying a vein of spar prindpally calcareous. 
Beyond this in another ravine named Zeraxour, there is a thin vein of rich copper ore similar to the 
preceding^>formation still hornblende ; the strike of the stratification in this direction, is nearly 
N. E. and 8. W. dipping about 65' to the N. W. 

In the ravine of Chinarkhail, I found a vein* of copper pyrites cropping out in small quantity, and 
higher up at Chenar, less than a quarter of a mile from thence, I found a vein of grey copper, 
about 7 inches wide, with a considerable proportion of iron ; this vela bends a good deal in conse- 
quence of the twisting of the strata, the general direction of which is about N. £. and S. W. dipping 
upwards of 60* to the N. W. The formations here are all hornblende. 

* When I use the term of vein it is to convey my meaning in more familiar language, at the 
same time the Cornish phrase lode, which signifiet a course of ore, would, properly speaking, be 
more correct. All the lodes in this country are what would technically be termed beds of ore 
conforming with the strata, and not veins, which are rents or fissures traversing the strata, and filled 
up vrith mineral substances. 

78 On the Minercd res&uree^y Sfc. of Northern Afghanittan. [No. 109. 

In tlw ravine of JttiobaM then if a flitnngiiiaat looUiig Teln, oimta^ 
copper, fhe latter has a large proportion of iron, and if ftnmd aboat or 6 ywrdi apart from the 
former. On the opposite side of the ravine I ftnmd indications of the metal also, and beyond this in 
the same line, I found similar indications in a small ravi&e adjoining, and believe these to be all one 
and the same deposit e(mnected underneath. The strike of the strata here is N. E. and S. W., all 
highly inclined. About 900 yards to the N. W. of these looalities is another out-ciop of copper ore, 
with a good deal of the same ftrtuginons appearance ; this seems to bend towards tiie odien, 
running nearly Bast and West, but is a distinct deposit in my o^nion, and unconnected with them ; 
these veins are all found in hornblende. 

During my survey of Dobundee, I observed several rolled masses of a dark coloured iron ore 
brought down by the river. This ore yielded a Waekish streak, and aflbeted the magnet, but did 
not attract iron filings. What I observed was evidentiy derived from the surfiiceofabedofironore. 
In the Chenar ravine, about a couple of hundred yards frcmi the vein of grey copper, wliieh I have 
described, I obtained a few fragments of magnetic iron ore wUdi powerftilly attracted the filings, but 
saw no trace of a r^ular deposit in that quarter. These fiicts, however, render it not improbable 
that a bed of magnetic iron ore may esdst in the neighbourhood ; having not yet completed my exa- 
mination of that part of the district, I re|^ I cannot speak decidedly on this subject. 

Bxind of ike Dutriett |>e.— With regard to the extent of this mhieral tract, Teieen is the 
ftiTthest point to ^ Eastward, where I have found copper ore, and specimens of copper pjrrites 
have been brought me from Wurduk to the Westward. Specimens of purple ore have been sent 
me fh>m Spega to the South, and I have traced the metal as fiur North as the hills about CabooL 

The most promising veins I have discovered are those of Derbund and Dobundee,— of the <dd 
mines, Koh i Aeenuk holds out the best p ro sp ect s . I have reason to believe that mrae veins equally, 
if not mora favorable, may yet be ft>nnd, when every rock is suffldentty investigated. A perfect 
examination of this kind, is of great importance, ftnr the two-fold object of showing the external signs 
of the productiveness of the strata, and guiding the miner at <moe to the most desirable points finr 
ei^rimental operations. From the number of natives I have been employing to seardi fiir me 
throttf^out the district, and who well understand now what is wanted, I feel confident that if this 
plan were continued for a short time longer, not a spot would remain unexplored. Specimens have 
been lately brought me from new veins in Derbund, as well as from Rojan, and Sungduira on the 
southern side of Koh i Kubeer, the most elevated of tiie mountains in that quarter of tiie country. 

In my former Report, I mentioned that I had discovered the richer varieties of coppor ore» 
namely the purple and vitreous sulphurets, the ftmner containing 00 per cent of metal, and the 
latter about 80—1 have now the satis&ction of adding to these the red oxide containing 90 per 
cent, and native ooj^r. As far as the character of tiie ore is concerned then, it is of the first 
quality. Ofcouisewhatlallude to is the pure mineral unadulterated by the matrix. What the ore 
in mass will produce should the mines be opened, can only be determined when that takes place ; 
but it will I think, yield about the same as the Chilian, namely, between 40 and 90 per cent The 
average of tiie ore of Cornwall is between 8 and 9 per cent, and, as I stated in tiie Report alluded to, 
it is thii di^renee in tiie quality of the ore, that.enabks the Copiapo Mining Company to dispose of 
their ore in England at a profit, notwithstanding the vast distance of transport The ore is btought 
down on the backs of mules from the heights of the Cordilleras to the seaport fiir £S per ton, 
shipped from thence to Swansea in Wales for £5 per ton, when it is finally smelted, and the produce 
exported abnndantiy (no doubt to India) as English copper. 

Mineral Pratpeet* of the JHatriei. — ^In respect to the capaUlities of this mineral district no one can 
take upon himself to fimn an estimate' of what is underneath the suriSuse, until practioal triala are 
made, but, if we base our calculations on the most reasonable probabilities, tiiere is every eiqpeeta* 
tion that these trials will prove eminentiy successftil. 

By the for^oing^details it is apparent, in the first place, from the number of veins and indications 
of them which have been discovered, that the whole of the stnUa are highly metalliferous. 
Secondly, the quality of the ore is excellent, and the ridiest varieties are to be ftmnd. 

1841.] On ike Mineral resources^ Sfc. of Northern AfphamiUm. 79 

Thizdlj, it ii evidtnt, Aom tlM «xtait ot Um «ioa,'vaftioni ot Koh i Aitmak, fliMwnii^tft, uid 
Mooiye> m well m the quantity of alag ttiU remaining at the fonner place, that the people who 
worked these mines, must, in following the oxe to a oonsiderable depth* hare found it increasing, or 
at any rate not diminishing in quantity. 

Lastly, we may reasonably infer, that these people, by confining their operations to so fbw locar 
lities, found the work suiBciently plentiftil and lucratiTe to give them employment, without being 
under the necessity of opening new ground, and this wQl aeoount for so much behig left untouched. 
The mines also must have been abandon e d in consequence of some poHtleal convulsion or foreign 

FaeUUieif&r working the Mines, 

Of the means of drainage, I may say, that in general there is no want of declivity of 

Iff of DninmflB. ST^*^^ ^^' obtaining adits— the term adU is a technical one in 

mining, used to denote a gallery or passage which acts at tiie 
same time as a drain. In an economical point of view, this is of great importance, as 
the system of working by a succession of galleries above the adit-level in some mines, 
or having to go but a short distance under it in others, is attended with much less 
outlay than when the reverse is the case, and mechanical power must be had recourse 
to, for raising the water from a considerable depth to the drain. In the Gwennap 
mines in Cornwall, for instance, where the deepest shaft is about 1700 feet below the 
sui&ce, there are no less than seventeen steam engines, some of which are of enormous 
sixe, and these, with a water wheel 42 feet in diameter, are employed night and day 
in pumping the water, and railing ore and rubbish from the mines. In the Moosye 
ridge, the principal mines are situated about the summit of the mountain ; at Roh i 
Aeenuk again, which is but a small hill in comparison, there appears to be abundance 
of h)om for bringing in an adit under all the old workings, but at Seestungee, this 
would not be managed so easily. The whole of this metalliferous tract, however, is so 
much more elevated and mountainous than the mineral ground of Cornwall, that the 
unwatering of the mines could be effected with greater facility, and at much less 

Small streams for washing, cleaning the ore, &c. are often wanting in these mountains, 

but this defect may be remedied wherever springs may be 
observable, by piercing the slopes with kareaes, and obtaining 
the necessary quantity of water. At Derbund, there is a small 
stream which passes close by the veins of purple ore I have described. The river of 
Sogur pursues its course along the base of the range at Moosye, where the mines are 
situated ; the rivulets of Dobundee, Tezeen, Chuckeree, &c. at all seasons of the year 
have a sufficient supply for moving machinery, whibt mountain torrents, such as those 
of Esourtungee and Jerobaee, possess I think sufficient water, considering the great- 
ness of their fall, for turning stamping mills, and crushing apparatus of that descrip- 

The pine forests which stretch firom the Sufued Koh to the Southward, will affi>rd 

^-, . a pennanent supply of wood for timbering the mines, and charcoal 
Bupply of Tiinber« 

for the smelting furnaces. The same carriage which would convey 

the ore to the fuel, would bring back timber for the mines. The furnaces best adapted 

for this country, are not the reverberatory ones of Swansea, where coal is the fuel, but 

80 On the Mineral resources^ Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan. [No. 109. 

the blast furnaces of Sweden, where charcoal is employed. It will be a matter for 
future consideration, whether the most desirable site for these would be in the direc- 
tion of Spega and Hazardurukht, or of Tezeen. The former will have the advantage 
of being better situated for labourers, whilst the latter, by being near the Cabool river, 
will have the convenience of raft carriage to the Indus. 
Mining operations may be commenced in this country without incurring much ex- 
pence in road-making at the outset. At present the roads are 

only tracks, but they answer camels, and the mountains afford 
means of txansport. ^ ^ , . . . » i . i «, , 

pasture for the maintenance of these useful animals. Mules, 

ponies, &c are also used for carriage, and the neighbouring district of Koorrum is 
famous for its breed of the former. Roads for wheeled carriage may in process of time 
be made, as improvement advances, and this will create a great saving in transport 
throughout the country generally. An excellent one might be cut from Cabool to 
Dobundee, by the plain of Sogur, and no doubt the same could be continued to the 
banks of the Indus by the valley of Koorrum ; guns at any rate have already been 
taken by that route. As soon as this road is surveyed and repaired, and political ob- 
stacles are removed, the circuitous route by the ELhyber Pass will be forsaken for this 
shorter and safer line of communication with Hindoostan ; meanwhile as far as the 
mines are concerned, the most economical method would be to purchase a certain 
number of camels, the transport management could then be conducted at a moderate 
expence, and occasion very little trouble. 
The occupations of these mountain tribes are partly agricultural, but chiefly 
Habits and character of pastoral and commercial. Those who have flocks of sheep 
the people. migrate from place to place according to the season of 

the year, whilst those who have camels, engage in trading speculations, and. in 
hiring out their camels for transporting wood, charcoal, &c. to Cabool, salt from 
Kalabagh and Malgeen, iron from Bajour and Foormool, and merchandise to and 
from Peshawur, and various other quarters. 

I regret to add, there is another class that I call the predatory, which the poverty 
of the people, the distracted state of the country, insecurity of property, &c. 
appear to have brought into existence, and gangs of these banditti have been 
infesting the country to the no small detriment of the industrious merchant. The 
different tribes which contain this class within them, are the following : — 

Adrumzyes •••••• • Rob by night. 

Muminozyes .•••..•••••• Ditto ditto. 

Ahmedzyes of Spega ••••«•••..• Highwaymen by day. 

Kurrookhails •••• • .« Ditto by day and night. 

Khivazuks • Rob by night principally. 

Ooreakhails ••••. f Ditto ditto. 

GotkhaiU Thieves by day principally. 

These molest the country between Ghuznee and Jelallabad — some rob chiefly 
by night, bfeak into houses, annoy an encampment, &c. others steal in broad day- 
light, in the bazar of Cabool even, and are famous for their dexterity in pilfering; 
whilst others again come down from the mountains in force, attack a cafila, and 
return immediately with the property they have captured. 

1841.] On the Mineral resources^ ^c, of Northern Afghanistan, 81 

It need not be supposed, however, that because a portion of the people have 
hitherto been leading this lawless life, that the hope of establishing useful works, 
even in the secret haunts of these robbers, is by any means impracticable. It 
must be remembered, likewise, that a revolution has taken place in the country, 
and that during the last year, the constant political excitement which was kept 
up, of itself produced much of this evil. Formidable as the state of affairs may seem, 
the difficulty of uprooting the evil is much more in appearance than in reality. There 
is indeed a regular system of robbery carried on, which must be systematically dealt 
with, to be effectually put down. .This I believe may be accomplished without le- 
velling a single fort, ravaging an acre of ground, or spilling one drop of blood. - The 
Ghilzyes of that district, are about the finest race of people I have seen in Afghanis- 
tan, and the predatory portion, though wild, are far from being intractable. But 
they have been long living without the pale of the laws, in a country distracted and 
torn with feuds and dissensions, without any security of property ; the strong ever op- 
pressing the weak, and have in a great measure been brought by circumstances 
into this lawless mode of life. Give them, however, but constant employment, with 
good wages and regular payment ; encourage a spirit of industry, both by precept and 
example ; let strict justice be dealt out to them without respect of persons ; and we shall 
shortly see their swords changed into ploughshares, industry take place of licentious- 
ness, and these people be converted into peaceable and useful subjects. Afiim, but just 
and liberal hand, in my opinion, might mould them into any thing. 

During the late disturbances, it was often remarked to me, what a detestable race these 
Afghans were ; that a man could not stir a few yards from his house or his tent, without 
the risk of assassination ; and that three times the amount of military force was scarcely 
sufficient to keep this unruly country in order ; and yet, I have gone with but a few fol- 
lowers into the midst of them, have wandered amongst the wildest and most desperate 
characters, often without a sword at my side or a pistol in my belt ; and even during 
the very -crisis alluded to, when I returned to Cabool, I did so entirely in opposition 
to my own views and inclination, and only in accordance with an express order 
to that effect 

Since I commenced this research, I have made a point of living with the people, and 
I am of opinion, that in any attempt to develop the resources of a country, an acquaint- 
ance with the character of the inhabitants is a matter of serious consideration. The 
result of my observations are these : that if we take advantage of the keen commercial 
spirit of this nation, and direct its energies into the many useful channels which may 
be opened to them ; if the conciliatory policy be steadily persisted in, all gloomy suspi- 
cions as to our future intentions removed, and the Afghans become persuaded that we are 
really their friends; — there is no quarter of the east where British influence will more 
rapidly take root, and British power be more readily consolidated — whether the nature 
of the climate, the wide field for European improvement, or the freedom from pre- 
judice on the part of the people be considered. 

It is not easy to say exactly, what the rate of payment for labour would be in those 

Rate of payment for la- mountains, when order is completely restored, and a new 
bour, &c. state of things brought about ; but there can be no doubt of 

this, that it will be moderate.* 

* Osman Khan, who is a considerable landed proprietor himself, and experienced, is of opinion 
that only one>third of the available land of Afghanistan is under cultivation, 


82 On the Mineral resources, Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan. [No. 109. 

Osman Khan infonns me, that daring Dost Mahomed's time, he used to hire able- 
bodied labourers for cutting canab, and reclaiming waste land at Balabagh, at 
the rate of two annas per day ; but that now he hires them for about three annas. The 
rate which at present exists in Gabool is a forced one, the result of a combination of 
circumstances, which can only last for a limited period until things find their proper 

The Jajee tribe, and other industrious mountaineeis, are all robust and stout-looking 
people, and during the winter travel as &r as Peshawur for employment, which they 
would not be induced to do if work were afibrded them at home. There are few points 
in the country more favorably situated for a command of good workmen than the min- 
ing district under discussion. 

As the price of labour, however, is directly affected by the price of food, it will be a 
matter of great importance for the successful working of the mines, that the arable land 
in their vicinity be properly attended to. If the mountains bear witness to an extent of 
industry unknown to their present ill-fated occupants, the state of agricultural ai&uis 
in the adjoining fertile plain of Mogur, bean equal evidence of a former state of great 
prosperity, and points, in a significant manner, to the withering effects of Afghan mis- 
rule. The remains of ancient canals and water courses, the quantity of available land 
now lying waste, or in a low state of cultivation, the wretched condition of the people, 
and their inability to procure the necessary means of cultivating the soil, all show how 
much might be done by the application of capital, as well to the labours of the field, as 
to the dormant mineral resources of the country. 

In conclusion, the following facts I would submit, may be considered as fully esta* 
blished, viz. : 

Decided indications of abundance of copper, and of the richest varieties of ore. Wood 
in abundance, for timbering the mines, and for charcoal. 

Water as a moving power for impelling machinery, thus obviating the expence of 
steam, camels, mules, &c. for carriage. 

A hardy and able-bodied population on the spot, anxious to be employed as work- 

Here therefore are the means for the production of this metal, and apparently to any 
required extent It now only remains, that the inquiries 1 have had the honour of com- 
mencing, should be followed up ; arrangements made for the suppression of theprepa- 
tory system ; the providing an adequate capital for working the mines on scientific 
principles; and adopting such measures as will facilitate the tfansit of metallic pro- 
duce to water carriage on the one hand, and the different marts in the interior on the 

Iron qf Northern Afghamstan, 

As no mining operations can be carried on without a command of well-fabricated 
iron, the state of the manufacture of this indispensable metal becomes a primary 
consideration, in any attempt to render the mineral resources of an uncivilized coun- 
try availabb ; and certamly if any thing be required to show the abject state of tho 
arts in this quarter of the globe, the iron trade and manufiuture may be quoted as an 

The iron of Bflyour, which is produced from magnetic iron sand, is not only in use 
throughout the northern districts of Afghanistan; but from its superior quality, is 

1841.] On the Mineral rewurceSy Sfc. rf Northern Afghanistan, 83 

likewise in gre^t demand in the Punjattb. It sells in Cashmeer, for three times 
the price of the conmion iron of that country, and it is used in Gandahar for the 
fabrication of matchlocks. 

Were an improvement in the manufacture to take place, iron might no doubt be 
obtained equal to the Swedish — the best description in Europe. It was my intention to 
visit the district of Biyour at this time ; but having been prevented from accomplish- 
ing my object^ I am dependent on what information I have picked up hastily from 
merchants and others, who have been in the habit of visiting it, for the purpose of 
purchasing iron. The supply of iron, however, which the mountains in that direction 
afford, must be perfectly inexhaustible, from the intelligence I have derived, as to the 
immense quantity of this iron sand, which is annually washed down from their 

A sample of the sand was brought to me sometime ago, and taken from the bed of 
the stream at once, without being sifted and prepared for smelting. On applying the 
magnet, the ore was immediately taken up, and the quartzose and other strong particles 
remained. I then placed a small quantity of iron filings in contact with the ore, and 
the mutual attraction of the filings with the crystals of ore, was easily recognized with 
the assistance of the magnifier. It is described as occurring in great abundance in 
the mountain streams of Deer, Belour, and Mydan, which fall into the river of 
Punjcora, that ultimately joins the Cabool river below Peshawur. 

The methods of reduction in this country, appear to be the same with those 
employed in different parts of India; and the manufacture in the Himalaya mountains, 
already described by Capt. Hbbbbbt, is equally applicable to that of Bajour. 
It is evident^ that whatever quantity of the ore is submitted for reduction, a small 
proportional part of the iron contained in the ore is brought to the state of use- 
ful iron. In the first process, a very crude mass of iron and scoria is produced ; 
this crude mass is then submitted to the fire by a blacksmith, and after an incredible 
sacrifice of labour, a piece of malleable iron, fit for ordinary purposes, is at last pro- 
duced, which, as may well be supposed, is any thing but the purest 

A more rude and inefficient system of smelting could not be devised, nor must 
it be understood from the simplicity of the management, that the processes are 
economical — they are the most expensive which could possibly be employed. It 
would be absurd to suppose that a refractory metal like iron, can ever be properly or 
economically fabricated by means of a great expenditure of manual labour, to 
the neglect of a mechanical power, such as a plentiful stream of water can afford, 
and which is to be obtained abundantly in the district that yields the sand I have 
described* So long as the miserable air bags, and a common blacksmith's sledge 
hammer are used for that purpose, iron inferior in quality, very deficient in quantity, 
and at an extravagant price, must be the necessary consequence. 

But Afghan inexperience and mismanagement does not stop here. The crude 
iron is not converted into malleable on the spot, where charcoal abounds and 
labour is exceedingly cheap ; but is transported slag and all, to Cabool, for instance, 
where both charcoal and labour are exceedingly dear. Again, in working up this 

* Should there be a proportion of titanum combined with thiB ore, I imagine it wiU be trifling. 
When I submit a supplementaxy Report, with the chemical analysis of different ores, this will be ex- 
plained. The ooloui of the iron sand is dark black. 

84 On the Mineral i^esaurceSf Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan. [No. 109. 

crude iron into malleable, one-third is lost, so that the unfortunate purchaser has 
not only to pay for an expensive and ill-manufactured article in the first place, 
and for the difference in the price of labour and charcoal, pointed out in the second, 
but for the carriage of a large proportion of dross. ^ 

The cost of the transport of a khurwar of iron, (13 Hindoostanee maunds,) in Dost 
Mahomed's time, was about Rs. 15 from the Punjcor ariver to Kooner, and from 
thence to Gabool Rs. 10, nuking in all Bs. 25. At present, the hire will I am told, 
be about Rs. 35; but for the sake of example, let Rs. 30 be looked upon as the ex- 
pence of conveying a kkurwar of iron from the Punjcora river to Gabool. A hundred 
khurwars of this iron are said to be about the quantity annually consumed in Gabool, 
in the time of Dost Mahomed ; lately the demand has greatly increased. Taking this 
quantity only, however, as the estimate, we have at the rate of Rs. 30 per khurwar ^ 
an expence of Rs. 3000 for carriage ; but to render the iron fit for use, one-third is 
lost, so that an expence of Rs. 1,000 is every year incurred in Gabool, for the con- 
veyance of slag. The information I have been able to gather respecting the probable 
quantity annually produced in Bajour is so vague and contradictory, that 1 do not 
feel justified in carrying out this calculation farther. At a guess, I believe it must be 
about a thousand khurwars; but be this as it may, there is no doubt that the saving, 
effected by a well manufactured article in the mere transport alone, would in a short 
time cover the expence of erecting an iron work upon the Swedish principle. 

As a set-off to the practical difficulties inseparable from establishing works of this 
kind in a new and uncivilized country, the advantages which the manufacture of 
Bajour would possess over that of Sweden, would be these : — 

First, The difference in the price of labour, the wages of a workman being about 
2 annas per day, according to the present rate ; whilst labour in Sweden, though mode- 
rate, varies from 6(2. to \s. per day. Allowing, however, that the price of labour 
should rise in Bajour, and that able-bodied workmen received from to 2 to 4 annas 
per day, still the rate would be considerably less than the Swedish. 

Secondly, The circumstance of mining being commuted for the easy process of 
collecting and washing the sand, would occasion a great saving of expence ; women 
and children are employed in this operation. f 

Thtr^, The forests are described as being of great extent, and close by the locali- 
ties where the iron sand is collected, and the charcoal used, is made from oak (quer- 
cus beloot,) which is the best adapted for that purpose. This will give the manufac- 
ture of Bajour a decided superiority over that of Sweden, where the light charcoal of 
the pine only is used, oak and hard wood being scarce in that country — the charcoal 
moreover is transported in sledges during the winter, a distance frequently of 30 miles 
to the furnaces. 

I shall here offer a few observations on the subject of the iron in Northern India, 
for the purpose of showing, that if an improvement be called for there, the argu- 
ment applies with still greater force to the remoter regions in this quarter. 

* The iron is sold in the shape of bricks of different sizes. In making a trial the other day of one 
of these, which weighed one seer of Cabool, (equal to six seers of Hindoostan,) I obtained out of 16 
parts, 10 of iron fit for use. 

t The iron sand is brought down annually by the melting of the snow in spring, and in such vast 
quantity, that for one iron work at any rate, the supply is ample without having recourse to mining' 

1841.] On the Minerai resourceSy S^c. of Northern Afghanistan, 85 

It is commonly ima^ned in India, that because English iron is brought out as 
ballast, and landed on the coast for little more than the price it costs in Englatnd, 
that an improvement in the native manufacture would therefore be attended with 
difficulty. But however much this may apply to the coast, the case is altered 
when English iron is transported into the interior. It then becomes enhanced in 
price, and from this cause, as well as the inferior materials of which it is composed, the 
denumd is limited, whilst the native manufacture continues active under all the 
disadvantages of the most wretched system of smelting, and^which, as I have already 
remarked, is in fact, the most expensive that could be employed.^ 

All the iron of England, (with the exception of what is produced at Ulverstone 
in Lancashire,) is made from clay iron stone, which yields about 30 per cent of 
metal, and the fuel used being coal, the sulphur combined with the latter deteriorates 
the iron, and soft or malleable iron cannot be produced equal to the article that is 
afforded by richer ores, and charcoal smelting. In the Northern Provinces of 
Hindoostan we have the richest iron-ores, namely, the magnetic, and also the different 
varieties of the red oxide, such as the specular, red hematite, &c. and these will 
yield from 50 to 65, or perhaps 70 per cent, of metal, which is all in favour of the 
saving of fuel and general economy.f 

At Ulverstone in Lancashire, iron is manufietctured from red hematite ore, yielding 
sometimes 50, and sometimes 60 per cent of metal ; the fuel is oak charcoal, and a 
superior iron is produced, which is of great tenacity, and much used for drawing into 
wire ; steel also is made from it for secondary purposes. 

During my inspection of these works some years ago, I was closely questioned by 
one of the iron masters as to the prospects of establishing an iron work in the Hima- 
laya mountains : for example, I was asked about the nature of the ore, and if a suffi- 
cient supply of charcoal was to be had, if water as a moving power was abundant, 
labour cheap, and if water carriage was procurable, &c. &c. To which I replied, that 
amongst different varieties of rich ore, the red hematite, the same he had at his 
works, existed also in that quarter; that charcoal was to be had on the spot, for the 
price only of cutting the wood and preparing it, as the forests were interminable ; that 
labour was about 3d, or 4d. a day ; streams capable of turning any machinery 
abounded, and water carriage was within a tangible distance of the base of the 
mountains ; that the disadvantages at present, were owing to the want of proper com- 
mercial roads from the mines to the plains, which nevertheless might be made by 
following the course of the principal rivers, as indeed had been done partially in one 
case, for the sake of pilgrims. I then rallied him about the anxiety he seemed to evince 
in the matter, and asked him if he was afraid of my running in opposition to him so far 
off as India, and moreover 1,000 miles in the interior ; to which he replied, *' Why to 
tell you the truth, we send out a quantity of iron to India." 

Now whether the iron of Ulverstone be used in Calcutta for the manufacture of 
suspension bridges, I am not at this moment aware ; but when I left Kumaon two years 

* According to Mr. McCttlloch, three-tenths of British iron are used as cast iron, and prin- 
cipally consumed in the United Kingdom, the other seven-tenths are converted into wrought iron. 

t Some of these iron mines are situated near the plains, some are higher up, and the copper 
mines higher up still. The principal iron mine is at Khetsari, in the broad and fertile valley of 
the Ramgunga. 

86 On the Mineral resources, Sfc, of Northern Afghanisian. [No. 109. 

ago, thirteen of these bridges* had been erected, in a proYince abounding with iion 
mines, and inexhaustible forests, and with reference to which, a celebrated mining 
engineer, in corresponding with me upon the subject, makes the following remark: " It 
strikes me, that if an iron work is begun in the Himalayas, iron can be afforded to 
India at a rate lower than the present to a great degree, and at the same time afford a 
large profit per ton." 

In the district of Biyour, an iron work upon the small scale, and similar to the 
Swedish, might be erected with every reasonable prospect of advantage. When 
water power can be procured, and a steady supply certain, the saving will be great, t 
as compared with the application of steam power; a substantial wheel can be erected 
at a small expence, for working blowing apparatus capable of giving blast to two 
furnaces; commencing in the first place with one, in order to learn by experiment 
the suitable charges of iron ore, charcoal, and limestone; and to find that very little 
iron is mixed with the scoria, which comes off constantly from the iron at the 
bottom of the furnace. 

Should an improvement of this kind take place in the Bflyour manu£Eu:ture^ iron 
of a much better quality, in much greater quantity, and at a reduced expence, 
might be afforded to the whole of those countries situated between Ghuznee and 
Lahore ; from the excellence of the materials, no foreign iron can ever compete 
with it, and superior steel may also be obtained from it No iron manufactured with 
coal can ever be converted into steeVowing to the presence of sulphur in the coal. 
. It is in consequence of this, that the great mass of steel in England is made from 
Swedish iron, and the cast steel for the superior cutlery of Sheffield, is from the 
iron of the mines of Dannemora, the ore of which, (massive magnetic,) differs from 
all the others in Sweden, on account of its purity ; and the iron sells on that account 
for about double the price of common Swedish iron. The other ores of that country 
are, I understand, principally magnetic ; but more or less contaminated with sulphur, 
and had they not the advantage of charcoal smelting, the iron they produced would 
not sell at the high price which is obtained for it 

The prices of crude iron in Cabool in time of Dost Mahomed Khan, and since 

then, have been the following : — 

In Dost Mahomed's time. Latterly. 

Cabool Rupees. Cabool Rupees. 

Bajour iron per md.,} 8 • • • • . , • • 12 

Foormool ditto ditto, 6 •• • 9 

* The transport of the last of these bridges, which was put up at Julc GHiaut on the Kali Gogca 
river, amounted to Rs. 80 per ton. This reminds me of a story that is tdd in the neighbourhood of 
Loch Earn, in Perthshire. In a small glen on the Northern side of the lake, a building was erected 
about a century ago, when there were no good carriage roads in that part of the world, as is the case 
at present. The lime used on the occasion, was brought on the backs of horses ftom a considerable 
distance in Fifeshire, and it was left for the succeeding generation to discover that an excellent bed 
of limestone existed in the^ same glen ; but this was not all, for the house itself was built of 

t Perhaps the finest example that could be quoted of the eflbct of water power in saying 
manual labour, is at Turton near Bolton, where there is an iron wheel at a cotton mill, upon the 
spider arm construction, overshot, sixty feet in diameter, and ten feet broad in the awes or buckets. 
From this wheel, the power is taken for moving all the spinning machinery within the miU, which 
is reckoned equal to 50^000 cotton spindles, or the work of 50^000 people. 

t The maund of Cabool is equal to 8 seers of Cabool. The seer of Cabool, is equal to 6 seers 
of Hindoostan. 

184L] On the Mineral resources^ Sfc. of Northern Afghanistan. 87 

The iron of Fooimool U from the countiy of the Waseereas, in the diraction of 
Kaneegcomim* It wbb my intention to have Tinted this district after aurreying^ 
Bajonr , for though the inm ia much inferior to thnt of Bajoor, it is very abundant, 
and eztenaiTely used for implementa of hnahandry, horae-shoea, cannon balla, &c. 
The apedmena of ore which have been brought to me, and reported to be fi^nn that 
quarter, are clay iron atone, and I belieTe thia to be ore, from the fact of ooal 
eiiating in that vicinity. 

Should a foundry for caat iron be eventually required in Afghanistan, the iron in 
the Wnzeeree countiy will be well adapted for the caating of ahot, ahells, engine 
cylinders, pumpa, &c. ; whilst for ban, roda, fire-arms, &c. the superior iron of 
Bajour will always be prefeixed.^ 

I have mentioned the eziatence of iron ore in the copper diatrict which baa been 
deacribed* The Moosye iron is not conveniently situated for fuel to render it of im- 
mediate importance. A specimen, however, of iton ore haa been brought to me from 
Huryoob in the Jajee countiy, which borders on that diatrict. The ore is of an iron- 
grey colour, and givea a red atreak, but does not affect the magnet. It is re- 
ported to be in great quantity, and the country ia deacribed aa being covered with 
jungle. Should the copper minea in the course of time be worked on a great acale, 
and the conaumption of iron proportionate, minea of the latter metal will also be 
worked there, for the sake of the demand in that neighbourhood, and of CabooL 

In concluding theae imperfect noticea on the aubject of the copper and iron deposits 
of this country, I would beg to observe, that in directing attention to the former 
metal, I do ao, not only on account of the demand of it for coinage, and the 
ready market it meets with from its extensive use for domestic purposes throughout 
the countries to the west of the Indus, but from the known demand for it to the east 
of that river likewise. 

Should gold or silver mines be discovered in these regions, and there is nothing 
unlikely in the idea that they may, the probability is, that they will always, as &r as 
intrinsic value is concerned, occupy a very inferior scale of importance to the copper 

If it be a common saying in South America, (the richest country in the world for 
the precious metals,) that " a copper mine is a fortune, a silver mine scarcely pays it- 
self, but a gold mine ia ruin," we may readily conclude, that in this quarter of 
Aaia, whwe there is such an extensive consumption of the former, the observation is 
still more likely to become applicable. 

But valuable aa these repositories of copper may prove, they again need not be ex- 
pected to equal the results which may be anticipated eventually from working the 
great stores of iron to be met with in Afghanistan. 

By rendering the copper available, however, for which there ia such a great mar- 
ket, a fresh demand is provided for the iron, and an improvement in the manufacture 

* There is aaother iron produced in another locaUtjr in the Wuseeree country, ftom which steel 
is "■■^o The ore I have not yet seen, but it must be firom s diflbrent formation to the one which 
contains the clay iron sttme. I shall adverted to this in my supplementsiy report 

88 On the Mineral resources, ^c, of Northern Afghanistan. [No. 109. 

of the latter will not only directly aid the working of all metallic veins which may be 
found, bat become the basis of yaiious saperstmctures, and when its more general 
use is inducedby a deduction in price, civilization and improvement will rapidly 

It is commonly supposed in this, as in other barbarous countries, that Russia must 
be rich, since gold mines are reported to be there. But the gold, the platina, and 
other metallic produce of the Urals, are well known to be far inferior in financial im- 
portance to the iron, and if in the Uralian chain, the activity and enterprise of the 
Muscovite can fabricate annually the large quantity of 7,400,000 pood, (132,000 
tons) of iron, what may not British energy and industry effect, when they come to be 
applied to the vast deposits of iron, and the deep and endless forests of the Indian 
Caucasus and Himalaya.* 

Remarhs on other Mineral Productions of Northern Afghanistan* 

I proceed now to offer a few observations on the other mineral productions of this 
country j and X may here mention, that the plan I have been pursuing hitherto, has 
been to employ the natives themselves to search in all directions, and bring me 
every kind of mineral''whiQh has the appearance of an ore. The exciting a spirit of 
inquiry in this way, although it has been expensive to myself, is by far the most 
expeditious method of enabling one to arrive ultimately at a general knowledge 
of what the country may possess. During the previous year, the political ferment 
that existed thwarted my succom yery much ; but now that these troubles have 
ceased, and the attention of the people is withdrawn from them, the fruits of this 
plan, if followed up, will become much more apparent. Nothing can exceed the 
avidity withw hich the Afghans enter upon what to them is so novel a pursuit ; and 
the laborious, and ardent manner in which they traverse the most rugged rocks, 
and most unfrequented places, when stimulated by an appeal to their interesta. It 
is my rule to pay them well, when I have any thing like proof that they have 
worked hard, even though they have been unsuccessful ; and, on the other hand, 
if successful, they are sure of a handsome reward. 

Of the valuable mineral coal, there are three directions in which lignite coal is 
Coal. found in the northern districts of Afghanistan. 

The first formation is along the line of the Indus, the most promising locality of 
which appears to be near Kaneegoorum in the Wuzeeree temtory. 

Parallel to this, is a second outcrop of coal in the Ghilzye temtory, which I dis- 
covered lately at Dobundee, and whilst I have been writing this pi^>er, specimens 
have been brought me from Hissaruk. 

The third formation is in the Huzarah countiy ; specimens of this have been 
brought me from the vicinity of Syghan. 

* According to a pamphlet published in 1825, by Mr. H. J. Pkbbcott, for the remoyal of the 
high duty on foreign iron, it is stated : " The quantity of iron exported from Stockhobn in the year 
1822 and also in 1824 was 96,000 tons. Sweden in general exports perhaps 100, or 10f,000 tons." 

184L] On the Mimral resauteesy S^c. rf Northern Afghanistan. 89 

All of these deposits of cofti are of the lignite species ; the mineral is of a velvet 
black coloar, and approaching to jet or picch coal. The Kanaegoonun coal buns 
fteely ; and with much flame and smoke ; the Hissamk is rich-looking, crumhles into 
angular fragments, and particles of it, as well as that of Dohnndee, which I have 
tried in the flame of a candle, bvmed well, considering that they were obtained from 
the surfMe. What I have as yet discorerad at Dobondee is in very thin seams^ pul- 
verulent, and resembling coal-dust more than anytlpng else* The Sygban coal ig- 
nites with great diflicuhy, and the flame, which is very slight, has a greenish tinge. 
Underneath the surface, this character may be expected to alter considerably for the 

Although this coal is of a subsequent geologjkal data to the mineral we are accus- 
tomed to use in England, which belongs to what is technically termed the " indepen- 
dent coal formation," it by no means follows, that profitable beds of it may not be 
discovered, and in time create a great change in the comfort and commercial pros^ 
parity of many parts of this kingdom, where wood is extremely scarce. Coal of this 
description is extensively used in many parts of Euiope, andis frequently of excellent 
quality.* It is mined in the island of V eglia for the use of the Trieste steamers. 
Twenty-eight beds of it are wrought about Toulon and Marseilles. At Golognet.hero 
is a bed of it SO feet thick -, the mines of Styiia, and of Buda in Hungary, are famous 
ibr their immense, supplies of this fiiel ; great beds of it are worked in Switxerland, 
. in the valleys of the Po, the Danube, and other quarters of the continent. 

It will readily be acknowledged, thereloce, that although the coal deposits of this 
country belong to a more recent geological period than that of the independent 
coal frmmation, it would be an unphilosophical conclusion to suppose on that ac- 
count, that they may not exercise the happiest influence on the welfare of its inha- 
bitants. To the Huzaieh, the possession of this substance, if found in suflident 
quantities, would prove most invaluable. It would enable him to worii with eveiy 
advantage his abundant mines of iron, copper, and lead ; and in a country with so 
rigorous a climate, and so destitute of fuel, it would be to him the most useful produc- 
tion. Should profitable beds of the mineral be discovered in the direction of Dobun- 
dee^there ia a level road from it to Cabool, by the plain of Sagur ; and how far the for- 
mation may be traced along the Ghilzye tract is yet unknown. 

Lastly, the coal of the Wnxeeree territoiy may turn out of importance, as well for 
the working of the extensive iron mines in that quarter, as for steam navigation 
OB the Indns. 

Amidst the numerous samples of ores which have come under my observation, 

^ ^^ ^ ^^ 90^ which is brought down by the streams from the mountains 
Goidf sc 

above Lughman and Kooner, is all that I have as yet seen, which 

I can pronounce upon as pertaining to the precious metals. It is stated to be found 

likawise in streams from the Ko^ Baba range, in the countiy of the Hoxaiehs, and 

* At a ringle establishment in Wales, there axe IS large blast iron ftimaces at work, and it is 
estimated that their oonsomptiaii of Aiel is 400,000 tons of coal per annum. Works like these con- 
yej an idea of the stupendous industry of England. 


90 On the Mineral regourceg, Sfc, qf Northern Afghanistan, [No. 109. 

also in some of the stieams of Kohistan ; bat I have not yet received specimens from 
these districts ; the report however, is not at all improbable, and I believe myself it 
will be found all along the line of greatest elevatidi of the Hindoo Kosh and Indian 

Whether this gold occurs originally in a disseminated state throughout the strata 
from which it is detached, or whether there exist distinct repositories of the metal, 
and in connection with some of the beds of iron, which from the iron sand that 
accompanies the ^Id must be intersected by the streams, is a subject for future 
inquiry. To the best of my recollection, all the gold brought to London by the 
Brazilian Mining Company is found accompanying iron, whether in the alluvial 
deposits from which it is washed, or the mines where it is woiked. 

Specimens without number have been brought to me from various parts of the 
country, supposed by the golden hue of the one, and the silveiy whiteness of the 
other, to belong to die precious metals. In none, however, have I been able to re- 
cognise any thing beyond the smlphuret of iron under different forms* loid a compound 
perhaps of sulphur, arsenic, and ilon. There are some specimens, however, respecting 
which I am not quite certain, and these I shall transmit for chemical examination. 
Having nothing but my blowpipe apparatus to depend upon, when any doubt exists 
as to the constitutions of a mineral, it is desirable that they should be .subjected 
to the test of analysis. On one occasion I tried a specimen from a deposit in 
Dobundee, (the ore externally has the appearance of an ore of silver,) and I saw a 
small head which appeared not unlike impure silver, but since then I have repeated 
the trial frequently without coming to any satisfactory result. : The fragment of a 
minend, however, which is submitted to the action of the blowpipe is so very minute, 
being no larger than a grain of pepper, that I should not wish these attempts to be 
considered final . Argentiferous arsenical iron is worked in Germany as an .ore of sil- 
ver, and should that metal be discovered in this country, it will probably be found 
in combination with some of these ores, or what is still more likely, with some of 
the numerous veins of lead which are to be met with. 

Amongst all the specimens of iron pyrites, which have been brought to me, I 
have seen nothing that could be termed curiferous. Latterly, I have heard several 
reports of the existence of silver, but the Afghans are so addicted to the marvellous, 
and so easily imposed upon by designing alchyadsts, that I would never attach the 
smallest credit to tiiem, unless a specimen of the mineral be produced. By all ac* 
counts, the Huzareh country must be the richest in minerab of any other in Af- 
ghanistan, from the number of old mines said -to be there, ond-the remains . of ancient 
cities in their neighbourhood, which would seem to indicate, that its mineral wealth 
in former time^ had been the cause of attraction. Whether silver may exist amongst 
these mines, is a point to be ascertained. 

A story was told me lately by Aga Hoossain, a merchant of Herat, that at Mongh 
in the Eimough or Eimouk country, there is an inscription in the Hebrew character, 
on a large black slab, to the effect, that in th.^ days of king Jumshed, (ltT4 years 
ago,) the following mines were discovered: — 

1841.] On the Mineral resources, fyc, of Northern Afghanistan, 91 

S of Silver, 1 of Copper, 

1 of Lapis Lazuli, 2 of Lead, 

3 of Iron, i of Sulphur. 

I doubt the genuineness of the whole story, but there is I believe no doubt of the 
fact, that old mines do exist there, and what they are, is yet to be ascertained. My 
infonnant says that he saw a number of old grinding stones in a stream close by the 
mines, which are believed to have been used by the ancients for crushing ore. It is 
reported also among some of the Hnsarehs, that a number of golden vessels were 
discovered once in some of the old mines of their country, and there is a tradition of 
gold mines having been woiked, but that the vein or wns are now lost. To tales 
like these I attach no importance, further than as a stimulus to, and a necessity for, 
investigation. I believe, moreover, from the specimens of iron, lead, copper, sulphur, 
and coal, which have been brought to me from thence, that the whole of that country 
is a rich mineral tract, and if the precious metals do exist there, as they are generally 
found in small quantity, it must be remembered, that their discovery is not likely to 
take place all at once, but to be the work probably of idme and patient inquiry. A 
speck of gold in a piece of quartz may point to a deposit of that metal ; or an acci- 
dental circumstance, ^such as tf Populzye chief related to me the other day,) may 
lead to the discovery of silver : namely, that many years ago small particles of it 
had been observed in a stone on which a fire had been lighted. 

A specimen of cinnabar, (snlphuret of mercury,) was brought to me once by a 
villager, who said he had found it in the neighbourhood of Sultanpore near Jelalla- 
bad ; but as I did not find any traces of it in the rocks in that vidnity, tl^e probabi- 
lity is, it may have been dropped there by accident. Cinnabar is a rich ore of quick- 
silver, it is a production of Thibet, and if it be ever found in this country, it will 
more likely be discovered in the direction of the Kohi Baba range than elsewhere. 
I lately heard also of a very heavy red coloured stone, which is used by the natives 
in that quarter as a pigment, and sent for a specimen of it, but the individual I com- 
missioned has not yet arrived. A person who was returning from that country the 
other day with a collection of specimens, was unfortunately robbed of every thing he 
had. Were the Huzarehs any other people, I should conclude from the description 
of the mineral that was given, and their manner of using it, that it was cinnabar, but 
they are such a perfectly rude and ignorant race, that I fear it will be found to be 
simply the red oxide of iron. Should gold dust be ever collected on the great scale 
or vdns of the precious metals be discovered and worked in this country, a mine of 
quicksilver would be of great importance for the necessary amalgamation works ; 
but this is at present a very vague speculation. 

I have mentioned the existence of copper in the Ghilzye and Hnzareh territories. 
Copper. specimens also from Bagour have come under my notice.^ 

Lead seems to abound in the Huzareh districts, in Ghorabund of Kohistan, and in 

Lead. Wurduk. The lead of the former two is of an excellent 

quality, the latter is inferior, and of a harsher character. The ore is the sul- 

* The price of lead in Cabool in time of Dost Mahomed Khan was Us. I^ per Cabool seer, at pre« 
tent its sells for Rs. S. 

92 On the Mineral resources^ Sfc, of Northem Afghanistan. £No. H)9. 

phuzet of lead, and that which I have seen from the Hnzareh coiintiy, occurs in the 
form of the carbonate likewise. Lead is also stated to be found in Bnngesh, and a 
specimen of it from the Sufaed Koh has been brought me lately. 

With regard to antimony, I find that what b soldin^the bazar of dabool as such 
Antimony. is a sulphuret of lead. Occasionally, perhapa, a proportion of anti- 
mony may be combined with it, forming what is called the solphniet of lead 
and antimony. 

I could not convince a vender of antimony, npon one occasion, that what he 
brought me as pure specimen of that mineral, was not so in reality, imtii I sub- 
mitted a fragment of it to the action of the blowpipe, and on disengaging the sul- 
phur, showed him what excellent lead was produced. Having at the time a ■«»•" 
piece of massive sulphuret of antimony in my possession, and which, to the eye of 
the antimony dealer presented very much the same Qztemal character as his own, 
I then placed a fragment of it in the flame of the blowpipe, and the antimony imme- 
diately melted, and was absorbed by the charcoal, giving off the white fumes pecu- 
liar to it, and no trace of lead was observed. 

That antimony, however, exists in this country, is beyond a doubt. It is mentioned 
in the report of the late Dr. Lord on Ghorabund as occurring in that district, and 
I myself saw in the possession of an officer, a mass of pure antimony, which was 
found in the neighbourhood of Quetta. 

Graphite, or plumbago, is a production of this country. I have a specimen of it, 
Fhunbago. reported to be from the vicinity of Kohi Danmun. 

Specimens of sulphur have been brought me frfom the Huzaveh country, and it is 
Sulphur, &c. "P****®*^ ■■ occurring there in vast quantity. Saltpetre is produced 
abundanUy from the soil. Rock salt I observed in the hills near JefaU- 
labad by the Soorkhao river, but in too small quantity to be worth working ; a sample 
of it from Altamoor also has been sent me, but I do not wappoae itis in sufficieirt 
abundance there, to be of any consequence. Marble occun at Mydan, and pro- 
bably in many other phices, but this and gypsum, and minerab of that sort, it wiU be 
time enough to direct attention to, when the country has made sufficient progress in 
the arts, to render them objects of value for economical puiposes. 

The most important minerals of Northern Afghanistan, are the following :— 
Iron. This mineral is found in many parts of the country, particolarly in the 
Huzareh, the Ghilzye, the Bajour, and the Wuzeeree territories.^ 
Lead is found in the Huzareh districts, in Wurduk, and in Kohistan. 
Copper is found in the Huzareh, the Ghilzye, and Bajour territories. 

• In Captain HxassaT's report on the minerab of the Himalaya, published in the 18th volmne of 
the Asiatic Researches, he makes the foUowing ohiervation in his aoeoont of Uie lead mines:— '< A 
singular &ct is, that the ore and reduced metal sen by weight for the same price at KJdd, tto 
esttown. I could not learn the reason of this, but suppose that the produce of sulphur paT. the ex- 
pence of reducing the ore." When I read this, I suspected there might be a portion of the ore. 
known to be argentiferous; but it is evident that the purest is selected at Kalsi as at Cabool, and 
sold under the general term of toormOf or antimony. 

1841.] On ike Mineral resaurceSf Sfc. of Northern Afpkanistan, 93 

Gold is found in Beveral ■treams north of the Cabool iiTer, 

Coal is found in the HoMieh, the Ohilsye, and the Wnaeeree districts. 

Sulphur is found in the Huzsreh districts. 


Here then are materials for commencing the work of ciTilisation in this rude and 
barbarovs region, giving a atimiihui to its commerce* incmasing its rerennes, and 
affording employment to its indigent, hut hardy and industriously inclined popula- 

A remark has heen made, that " the mountains in this world no douht ahound in 
mines, hut that the people nrast be enfightened Mine Aey can be worked." And 
in what way might I ask, is this period of enUghteoment to be bnmght about 1 Are 
these great mineral repositories intended to lie idle in the meantime, to form mere- 
ly the subject of a scientific theme, and furnish a few specimens for the cabinets of 
the curious— or, are they designed by an unening Hand for the great moral end, not 
only of administering to the immediate wants of the people, but in their very extrac- 
tion to be the means of exercising their energies, mental as well as physical, 
improving their habits, and thereby contributing effectually to raise them from the 
brutal condition into which they have fiUlen 1* 

Let this nation be taught the practical manual arts, so as to enable them to torn 
the productions of their country to aocOQnt,<^rlet the hand of the Afghan, under the 
eye of (he European, unlock that wealth which is intended for Ms use, — then may we 
expect to see the rays of civilization break in upon the moral and intellectual gloom 
which pervades this darkened land. 

*Ib a casiul oonvenation I hsd lately with the intelligent Bamksye ehief Ihave alluded to 
(Ooimen Khan) he obwrred :—** If thefeeUogof the Engliah people tofwardi this eoimtry be asyoa 
deieribe it, and its varioiu resouoes receive that attention which it is ontof tho power of nqr own 
ooimti]rmen, from their poverty and ignorance to bestow on them, then not only will Cabool beerane 
hi^py and contented, but suxronnding nationsi on teeing the prosperity of Cabool, wiH desire of 
themselves to come under the protection of the English." 


Opening of ihe Topes at the Caves of Kanari^ near Bombay ^ and the 
relics found in them. By Ds. JAifss Bird. 

The Caves of ELanari, sitoated on the island of Salsette, and two 
miles beyond the village of Tulsi, are distant twenty miles from the 
fort of Bombay, and six from Tannah. The made road from Bombay 
conducts the visitor as far as the village of Vihar, four miles north of 
which is the mountain where the caves are excavated. They hare 
been described by several travellers, and are noticed, in a. d. 399, 
by the Buddhist priest and pilgrim ^* Ea-Hian," who visited the seats 
of his religion in India, and whose travels have been transUted by 
M. Bemosat The cavern temple is described by him to consist of 
five stories, each story containing numerous chambers or cells, cut 
out of the solid rock» and tenanted by Arhats ; a description which 
answers very closely to the circumstances of the Kanari excavations) 
which rise from the base to the summit of the mountain in six stories, 
and are connected to each other by steps cut in the solid rock. Tiie 
kingdom in which they are situated is said to be distant from 
Kia-shi or Varanasi, two hundred yqjans to the south, and is called 
Ta-thsen Dach-chin. 

Immediately in front of the large arched cave, and on a ledge of the 
mountain, some thirty or forty feet below, there are several small 
Thopas^ or monumental receptacles for the bones of a Buddha, or 
Hahat, built of cut stone at the base. These were once of a pyramidal 
shape, but are now much dilapidated, and appear like a heap of 
stones. Several years ago I thought of opening some of them, in 
expectation of obtaining coins or other relics ; but found no favorable 
opportunity until lately, when several lengthened visits, in company 
with Doctor Heddle, gave me the desired means of doing so. The 
success of General Ventura, M. Court, and others, in their search after 
relics from the topes of the Punjab and ELabul, gave me additional 
hope that I should find something worthy of the labour, and I am glad 
to report, that these expectations have not been disappointed. 
« The largest of the topes selected for examination, appeared to have 
been one time between twelve or sixteen feet in height. It was much di- 

1841.3 Opening of the Tapes at the Caves of Kanari, 95 

lapidated, and' was penetrated from Stbove to the base, which was built of 
cut stone. Aft» digging to the level of the ground and clearing away the 
materials, the workmen came to a circular stone, hollow in the centre, 
and covered at the top by a piece of gypsum. This contained two 
small copper urns, in one of which were some ashes mixed with a ruby, 
a pearl, small pieces of gold, and a small gold box, containing a piece 
of cloth ; in the other a silver box and some ashes were found. Two 
copper-plates containing legible inscriptions, in the Lath^ or Cave cha- 
ract» ; accompanied the urns, and these, as far as I have yet been 
able to decypher them, inform us, that the persons buried here were of 
the Buddhist fiiith. The smaller of the copper-plates bears an inscrip- 
tion in two lines, the last part of which contains the Buddhist 
creed inscribed on the base of the Buddha image from Tirhut, and on 
the stone extracted from the Tope of Samath^ near Benares; an 
excellent commentary on which will be found in Mr. Prinsep*s Journal 
for March and April 1835. The last part of the Kanari inscription, 
and the copper-plate of which I have now the honor of laying before 
the members of your Society, corresponds very closely with the text of 
the inscription from Tirhut. The original in the Lath character stands 


Y6 dhanrmihetu prabhav^ t^sham h^tuTathagati suvacha T^shAicha 
yo nirodha €vam Vidi VLSbii Suwanna : 
which transferred to Devanagri 

may be translated : — << Whatever meritorious acts proceed from cause, of 
these the source Tathdgaia (Buddha) has declared; the opposing 
principle of these the great One of exalted birth, has also demonstrated.* 
The only difference between the text of the present inscription and 
the one from Tirhuty is thelast word Suwanna, the Pali for Suvama in- 
stead of iSramana ; and which means the ^oMienoii€^ otoneofanexaUed 
birth or tribe^ and is here evidently an appellative of Bhuddha. In the 
appendix to Mr. B. H. Hodgson's quotations in proof of his sketch of 

96 Openittg of the Topes ai the Caves <^ Kanari, [No. lOa 

Buddhism, one of the principal attributes of Adi Buddha is smnin|T 
Suvama'Wamata. The above sentence, as Mr. Hodgson remarks, 
contains the confessio fedei of the Buddhaist, and is in the mouth of every 
one at Kathmandu. The discovery of it at Kanari confirms an opttiion 
long prevalent, that the cave temples of Western India are exclusively 
Bauddha, and seems to strengthen the theory regarding the origin of 
the Dihgopes of Kanari, ManikycdOf and Afghanistan, that they are 
Bauddha Mausolea, built over the remains of persons of this fkith, 
either of a royal or priestly character. Little doubt can exist of the 
ashes found in the two copper urns being those of the persons buried, 
one of whom, according to the larger copper inscription, was the chief 
of the great Vihar^ or large arched temple at Kanari. The object of 
these monuments was, as Mr. Prinsep says, twofold : a memorial of the 
dead, and in honour of the deity, of which the enshrined saint was only 
a portion, and as legitimately entitled to be worshipped as the souree 
from which he had emanated, and to which, according to their creed, he 
could after a life of virtuous penance and abstraction return. The 
monuments in the Punjab and Cahul appear to be consecrated tombs 
of a race of princes, who were of the Buddhaist faith ; whose coins 
are inscribed on one side with Greek letters, and the other with those 
ef Bactrian Paii, and whose tribe is called KAoranon. They were a 
Graeco-Indo-Scythic race, mentioned by Marco Pdo, and called by him 
KaraunaSf a tribe of robbers who scoured the country, and plundered 
every thing within their reach.* 

I abstain now from offering any remarks on the general prevalence 
of the Buddhaist faith on this side of India, or its connexion with the 
worship of the sun, as my only object is to bring to notice the relics 
found at Kanari, and their similarity to those discovered in the 

* Travels of Marco Polo by Marsdeu^ page 86. 



t * 


1 84 1 .] Opening cf the Tcpes at the Caves cf Kanarl 97 

Literal TranshUkm. 
Salatation to Sarvoffna^ (a Jine or Baud^dha^ or deified sage peculiar 
to those sects.) 

This was founded in the year of the reign of the Trukudaka line 
about 100 years at Bardhamanu,* 54 on- the north, and 85 at Maha 
Behar, by Pushya BumM, whose habitation was in the northern forest 
of the conquered Taromif and who, by his personal beauty, was possess- 
ed of a BuddhisOccU appearance as a Chaiiycty] in honor of the most 
powerful, very wise, and superior Bhagavana Sakya^ Muni, whose acts 
were wonderful, and who was the son of S&taddhaii, for the purpose of 
his studying and practising with firm devotion the famous Bouddha 
religion, the duty of a learned man. 

So long as the revolving waves wherein the MaharaX are swimming 
at night, the milky water of the jErAira ^omtMfra, (sea of milk,) the 
Meru with its abundant gold and the forest of mangoe — the deep 
rivers continuing to flow with their clean streams will endure, so long 
this deed of Pushya, which contributes to the advancement of devotion, 
is durable. 

Note. — I have most unwillingly kept back Dr. Bird's paper for many weeks, in- 
tending to publish it together with a notice of the late Lt. Pigou's Discoveries at 
Buhurabad near JuUalabad, on the frontier of Afghanistan. I thought the almost 
simultaneous examination oi k set of topes situated close to h set of caves, giving si- 
milar results nearly at places so distant as Buhurabad and Kanaii, worthy of being 
placed in juzta-position, as of interest to the investigator of Boodhist antiquities. I 
am extremely sorry that great delay in the preparation of a simple lithograph to 
accompany the Buhurabad paper should have caused the suppression of this inter- 
esting paper for so long a time. Having heard a few days ago from Dr. Bird, with 
the promise of a translation of the inscription on the two copper plates dug from 
the Dehgop at Kanari, copy of which accompanied his paper, I determined on pub- 
lishing the reading of one of them ^subject to correction by Dr. Bird) as given by 
Pundit Kamalakanta Vidyalanka, and the literal translation of that reading, which 
I owe to a native gentleman of much learning and intelligence. Baboo Neelratna 
Holdarof Calcutta. The inscription is numbered zxviii, (and so copied erroneously 
into the lithograph,) in a work shortly, I am happy to say, about to appear on the 
Excavations in Western India, originated by Mr. Wathen, well known as a Sanscrit 
scholar, and carried on by Dr. Bird. iXi 

* This country is also mentioned in the 25th shka of the Pratdpa Eudra inscription, 
vide Asiatic Journal, No 82, 1838, page 906. 

t Place of religious worship. This, if the word druma be added to it, means a sacred 

t A homed fish, or a fabulous animal. 


NoU on a Copper Land Grants by Jata Chandra. 

The copper plate whence the accompanyiog reading in modem Sanscrit character 
and translation are taken, was fonnd near Fyzabad in the Oude, and a fi&csimile of it 
was forwarded to me by Lieut. Col. Caolfield, then Resident at Lncknow. The land 
grants of the donor, Baja Jaya Chandra, are not uncommon. In the first volnme of 
the Transactions of the Asiatic Society there is a notice by the late Mr. Colebrooke, 
(p. Ml,) of a grant by this Raja, which is however described at second-band: 
" Without having seen the original," says Mr. Colebrooke, '* no opinion can be 
offered as to the probable genuineness of this monument ; (date s. If tO, a. d. 1164) 
the inscription is however consistent with chronology ; for Jaya Chandra, who is des- 
cribed in the Ayeen Acberi as supreme monarch of India, having the seat of his empire 
at Canouj, is there mentioned as the ally of Shehabuddin in the war with Prithait 
Raja, or Pithora, about the year of the H^'tra 588, or a. d. 1192; twenty-eight 
years after the date of this grant." 

The date of the grant now published is s. lt4S, or a. d. 1187, twenty-three 
years subsequent to that of the same monarch noted by Mr* Colebrooke, and 
only six years prior to the death of the iU-fated donor, which occurred a. d. 1193. 
With him expired the dynasty of the Rahtore princes of Canouj. 

The genealogy, as given in the grant now before us, differs only in the name of the 
first ancestor mentioned from that found in Mr. Colebrooke's grant. The name 
is there Sri^paU, here Yatoviffra, but the identity of the monarch, known under 
these different appellations, has been already ascertained, and admitted by the 
highest authorities, (As. Soc. Jour. vol. iii. p. S39). 

The phraseology of this grant is not different firom those of Jaya Chandnti which 
have been already discovered : the anathema against the resumers of land granted 
in firee tenure is remarkable for its peculiar bitterness, ^e plate, judging from 
the facsimile, must be in high preservation, and the date it gives is valuable, ai 
bearing corroborative testimony to the accuracy of chronological data. 


rat f?*^«ft^?TfMhf^rt5rc: ^fNj^ 

hit: I ^5ftfTOropfTTwt^imwnnn^f # i ^II'r?^ itpi 


NoU an a Copper Land Grant. 


"^^l II fl«|4nf«^*IHIf|UIHlAl fJt^«4^^5T 9?T1|9^ *^H 

^ciit* II •(*^*<''fl5nl«iiiin*iifw^ f^ irafpni ^f^^^* i 
^<=i^^^^^^ii{*<<^*41<^iO 5Fr«rira«9nrn[T^?T^^ 

fj^*iKfH'llf«7l<f I w(f^ ipfprfir^ niLttriHa^f^ 'wri^T^ir 

fH^lflf'^M'^^H II flWI^^fffilHiMI^W^Ifl^^ir^WR* ^fftr 


*^ ^ r - Lr ^ -N ^ ** 

fqy ^4tf^^iW |iC^nT Nf^^MffMI^^^H^<^|tg|j^ ^ 

^*nifl'^^Brrf^'iM^t^*jj^civ(^i^^*iwMi*i«fn:^ wrr 


fnwrf^^ci^ Tvi*5ix Mi*i^i^w<iMMftf iT^inif?r ^<Mf?T 


100 Note an a Copper Land Grant. [Na 109. 

<w^i^ ^^'CTW itr^^jCirirt wftnr ^i^wfH ^^nfr 

Ml^««4ti!l*<: 4i4|M4^<: il^lTifif^ tff«i(\«i^5r fiHfPfJ 

^«4i4iid^i^iRy41l4jii^i«ifftfrt^i(fifi "^n^ici: n 

^. II 'jf^T^T'fw f^TfSr 'iwi^w^ 5^?^ i» Tfiw^in[W 
ftr ^PT ^TOf?r 'jt^' H ^ir%wr sih*i^ i ^ ?!Ti^ ^^rw 
^^7T II ^yfw^^ gwT ^cnrtiT: ^^iTrf^ffH; 1 inw inw ^ 

1841.] NaU an a Copper Land Grant, 101 

Literal Translation^ by Pundit Sasodaha Peasadh. 

1. May the embrace of Lakshmi, (♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ^^ Vaikantha,) 
contribute to your prosperity ! 

2. The Rajas who were descended from the lunar line having de- 
parted for heaven, one, named Yas&mgrdhai by his natural spirits was 
as the sun himself. 

3. EQs son was Mahi Chandra^ who extended his fame as beams of 
the moon across the sea. 

4. EQs son was Chandra Deva^ who was exceedingly g^ven to justice, 
who invaded the whole cirde of his enemies, and dispelled the dari^ness 
of the gallant warriors. He, by the power of his arms, gained the king* 
dom of Gddhipoora, where all sorts of insurrections have been quelled 
by his power. 

5. He, C Chandra DevaJ who protected the sacred places of Kashiy 
(Benarus,) Kushihotsava KdsheUd, (Oude,) and Indraethdna, possessing 
them, who constantly gave gold equal to the weight of his body to the 
Brdhmanas; made the VasumaHf (earth,) renowned by the hundreds 
and hundreds of Hilds.* 

6. His son MadimapSh^ who was like the moon in his line, and the 
crest-jewel of all the Rigas, was glorious ! By the water of his anoint- 
ment, all the filth of the Kaliyuga has been washed away. 

* A religious ceremony, i. e. giving gold or silver to the Brahmanas, equal to the 
weight of the donor's body ; the ceremony is in these days often practised by weighments 
against grains, or precious merchandise. It is supposed to be efficacious in awarding 
evil, and was constantly had recourse to by Maharaja Rusjeet Sing, (Lahore,) in his 
last illness. ij^ 

102 Neie an a Copper Land Grant [No, 109. 

7. At the time of his expedition for conquests, when the earth was 
as it were crombling under the over-passing of his furious elephants, 
as well as his mighty army, the mouth of Sesha^* smeared with blood 
gushing from the palate pierced by the pressure with his head jewel, 
was for sometime bent down even to his breast. 

8. From him was born Gobinda Chundra, like the moon rising from 
the sea, who by his arms, long and like the creeping plant, kept the 
newly, acquired kingdom — stubborn as the elephant in confinement ; nay, 
who granted a great many cows yielding sweet milk. 

9. His elephants, rivals to that of Indra, having sought in vain in 

the three quarters of the world for elephants, eapable of bearing their 

burdens, came at last in the quarter of Indra^ (east,) and wandered 

, 10. From him was born Raja Fyaya Chandra^ who like SurapaHt 

(Indra,) cut off the Pukshus of all the Bhubhrii^, He at his easy con- 
quest of the world, has extinguished the heat of the earth by the ahim- 
dant tears of * * * * * 

11. EKs renown challenging the three regions of creation des- 
cribed by eminent poets, and which reached as far as the Vishnu 
iokaf (region of Vishnu,) has been ever the terror of Vali i?q/^.§ ' 

12. The earth, at the expedition of Vijaya Chandra to conquer the 
whole world crushed by his furious elephants, ascended, as it were, 
in the dust caused by his numerous army, to solicit refuge from 
PrajdpaHy (Brcbhmd*) 

13. From him who was possessed of wondrous power, sprung one 
named Jaya Chandra, the lord of all Rajas, who was as the N6r6yana 
himself, bom only for the deliverance of the world ; and whom the 
Rajas humbling themselves ceased from contemplating hostilities with, 
and putting a stop to their designs, submitted to. 

14. At the preparation of his warlike affairs, the Phanindra (the 
chief of serpents,) wearied with falling down and again rising from the 
hard shell of the Kurma,\ under the pressure of his elephants the ichor 
from whose temples dropped into the streams, running from the 

* The chief of serpents, supporting the earth on his head. 

t With the view of finding there the rival elephants of Ifidra, 

X The word jTO^^Aa means when relating to Indra the " peaks of mountains ;" and 
** allies" when referring to Hie B^ja. The word Shubhrit has also a double meaning, 
«the mountain" and " the (other) Rajas." 

§ VtUi Rajay ▼. the Srimat Bhdgavata. 

y The tortoise supposed to reside underneath the earth. 

1841.] NoU on a Copper Land Grani. 103 

shaking hills, and panting from his thousand hoods with impatience, 
would without sustenance have fainted, and died. 

He, the glorious Ja^/a CkandrOf whose feet were adored by the cir- 
cle of Rajas, and who was like Vaeh€upata* in discussing on various 
VidydSy (sciences,) the lord of the three Rajas: viz., AmoapaHy GoyapaH, 
and Narapaii, very rich, king of kings, learned and superior to all, and 
who was devoted to the feet of (his father) Vyaya Chandra, who also 
was like VachaspaH in discussing, kc> and devoted to (the feet of his 
father) Govinda Chandra, who also was, he, and devoted to the feet 
of (his father) MadanapdUt, who also was, 8kc. and devoted to the feet 
of (his father) Chandra Deva, who was also very learned, king of kings, 
&c. &c. and who gained the kingdom of Kanyakubja by the power 
of his arms. That proclaims and orders to all the inhabitants of 
Kemali, the village situated at Ashtireshapaitand, to all the rajas, 
princes, ministers, priests, attendants, chiefs of assemblies, warriors, 
(akskapahUkas) physicians, and servants, who were occasionally to 
attend to the female apartments, superintendents of elephants, horses, 
mines, cows, &c« 

fie it known to all of you, that this day, the seventh day of the moon, 
in the month of Ashddha of Samvaisara 1243, we, for promoting tiie 
virtue and fame of our parents and ourselves, having performed 
ablution in the Ganga at Benares, — satisfied as usual, the Gods, 
Munis, men, together with deceased ancestors, with offerings of water, 
adored him whose fervid beams dispel darkness, worshipped him who 
wears the crescent on his forehead (Shiva), and Vdsudeva (Vishnti), 
<^ered oblations to Hutdshana (Fire) with Pd^asha^ and performed 
Aehamana with water, then granted with water in hand to Ahnga 
Ouda Riyuta, who belonged to the Bbfradd^ja line, and was possessed 
of three Provaras, viz. Bharadddja, Angirasa, and VdrhcLsptUya, and 
who was the son oi Indra Rdyuta, and grandson of AtcUa RdytUa 
with a Sdshna, (grant) village above-mentioned {Kemali) which was 
enriched with water and earth, with mines of iron and salts, with 
ponds full of fishes, with caves and fertile farms, mountains and 
forests, with gardens of modhu and mango trees, and which extends 
as far as TrinaytUhi, and the four boundaries of which were undispu- 
table. It is ever to be enjoyed so long as the sun and moon will 
endure. Its revenues, as settled, or are to be settled, are duly to be 
discharged by the tenants. 

« The Guru of the Gods. 

t Rice boiled with milk and sugar. 

104 NoU on a Copper Land Grant. [No. 109. 

SM^, — He who grants lands, and he who accepts, both of those 
virtuous reside in heaven. 

O, Purandara, (Indra.) Sankha (shell) houses^ ensign of ranks, 
(chattah) fine horses and elephants, are gained by granting lands. 

He who grants lands lives 60,000 years in heaven; but he who 
confiscates, or resumes^ or allows others to do so^ is doomed to hell for 
a like period. 

The earth has been enjoyed by many kings, as Sdgara Raja, and 
others, and he who rules it in his turn is the sole enjoyer of its fruits. 

He who resumes lands granted by himself or others, is to become a 
dung fly and to live therein with his ancestors. 

The resumer of lands can never be free from sins, though he grants 
a thousand tanks, a crore of cows, and performs a hundred vc^pejfa 
(a sacrifice.) 

Those who resume lands granted by others, will become black 
serpents in the desert of the forest of the Vindhya mountain. No poison 
is of itself utter poison ; but to deprive a Brahman of his property is 
indeed poison, because the former can kill one alone, but the latter the 
whole of a man's descendants. 

Sovereignty is unstable like the wind ; worldly pleasures are in the 
first instance desirable. The life of man is as a dew-drop on the 
grape, but, aks] virtue is the only friend who accompanies him into 
the next world* 

But what generous man will resume the grants made by Rajas, who 

have gone before him, and whose gifts are like wreaths of flowers 

spreading the fragrance of a good name and of a reputation for wealth 

and virtue ? 

Lineage of Jayaehandra. 




Chandra Deva. 




the donor. 




Abstract Journal of the Route of Lieutenant A, Cunningham^ Bengal 
Engineers, to tite Sources of the Punjab Rivers, 

From Tandee on the Chandra Bhaga river, where I parted with Lieut- 
enant Broome, I continued my way along the right bank of the river, 
with the proud consciousness that 1 was the first European who had ever 
visited that part of the Chundra Bhaga. On the 16th of July, 1839, at 
sixteen miles below Tandee, I crossed the river by a wooden bridge 
called Rocha, or the * Great' Bridge, 85 feet long and 43 feet above the 
Stream, to the left bank, where I once more came upon fir trees which 
I had not seen for a week. After a walk of two miles over a dusty bad 
pathway, 1 had to climb a steep hill on which the celebrated temple of 
Triloknath is situated. On the road I passed a Hindoo Pilgrim, a Gosain» 
who had come from Sunam in the protected Silih States, having visited 
Jwala Mookhee near Eangra, and the various hot wells at the head of the 
Parbuttee river. 

The temple, which is situated at one end of the village of Goonda, is 
square, and is surmounted by the trisool or trident of Siva, who is Trilok- 
nath, or, The Lord of the three worlds. Heaven, Earth, and Hell. There 
was an open Court to the front with a two-storied verandah of wood ; 
the pillars, architectraves, and rails being all richly carved. In the mid- 
dle of the Court there was a block of stone about 6 feet square by 5 
feet high, on the top of which was growing the sacred plant Toolsee, or 
Basil. The figure of Triloknath was of white marble, about two feet 

No. 110. New Skbies, No. 26. p 

106 Sources of tkd Punjab Rivers. [No. 110. 

higb, with six arms ; on its head there was placed a small sqaatted Bod- 
dhistical looking figure which the attendant Brahmin declared to be of 
Anna Pooroos, probably meaning Anna Puma, the beneficent form of 
Parvati, the wife of Siva. In the Court there were many tall poles 
surmounted by cow's tails and pieces of cloth, placed there as ofierings, 
by Tibelan Buddhists as well as by Brahminical Hindoos. 

The village of Toonda in which the Temple of Triloknath is situated^ 
had been overwhelmed in snow in the preceding year, 1838, when all 
the houses which had not been bonded with wood, had fallen down, and 
killed the inhabitants. The Rana or Chief of Toonda Triloknath is 
under (he authority of the Rajah of Chumba,.to which state the lower por- 
tion of Lahul belongs. 

The province of Lahul embraces the whole breadth of the Chundra 
and Bhaga rivers, and extends down their united streams called the 
Chundra Bhaga in a W. N. W. direction to about ten miles below Tri- 
loknath. It is divided into two unequal parts ; the larger belonging to 
the state of Kooloo, and the smaller to Chumba. In the former there 
were 108 villages, containing 740 houses, and 3,764 inhabitants. 

The revenue of the province is derived from two different sources ; a 
bouse tax, and a duty on the carriage of merchandize. Under the Rajah's 
administration each house was taxed at 10 and 12 rupees, but the Sikh 
Government increased the tax to twenty rupees per house, by which they 
raised the collections from 5,000 to 10,000 rupees per annum, the houses 
of the priests and poorer labourers being exempted from taxation. The 
rates of toll were at the same time adjusted by Zurawur Singh, the go- 
vernor of Ladakh, the duty upon each carriage sheep being raised from 
half an anna (or three farthings) to four annas, (or six pence.) This was 
considered very oppressive by the people, but as a sheep can carry 8 and 
10 seers, or one fourth of a man's load, the fair and natural rate of duty 
would be to charge one fourth of the duty levied upon each man ; and 
Zurawur Singh did no more, for a man is charged one rupee. On a pony, 
which carries from 60 to 70 seers, or double the load of a man, the duty 
levied is likewise double or two rupees per pony. 

The grain raised in Lahul is all consumed in the country ; and as 
there are no natural productions, the house tax is paid by the inhabitants 
from the joint Stock, obtained by hiring themselves as porters between 
the states in the lower hills of the Punjab and Ladakh $ the porters who 
bring goods from Eooloo, Mundee and Chumba being changed at Tandeei 
for natives of the province itself, who receive 6 rupees cash, for the jour- 
ney to Ladakh. The hire of a pony to Ladakh is 12 rupees*. 

1841.] Scurces of the Pu^fab Rivers. 107 

The articles taken to Ladalih are : — wheat and rice from Chumba ; Iron 
and Opium from Mandee ; coarse white cottons, and Benares brocades of 
the worst quality from Eooloo ; with goats skins dyed red, chiefly ma* 
niifactiired at Bissowlee and Noorpoor in the Punjab— -in exchange for 
which the following articles are brought to Tandee to be sold to the 
merchants of the neighbouring states. Shawl Wool ; Bang, or Hemp 
prepared for smoking ; silver in wedges, each wedge called Yamoo, 
weighing 180 rupees or 4| lbs. avoirdupois ; Borax, native of Ladakh $ 
Salt, manufactured at some Salt lakes beyond liadakh ; and Tea, brought 
from Yarkund. 

For the two previous years, however, but little trade has passed fh rough 
Lahul, on account of the seizure of Ladakh by the Jummoo family, who 
have established a high road through their own territory of Jummooi 
which throws all the duties upon the traffic into their power. The route 
runs from Jummoo, through Chin6nee and Bhudurivar, both in Forster's 
route to Eishtwar, and thence to Chutogurh and Ladakh. The whole 
of these places, and consequently the entire route, are in the possession 
either of Gulab Singh or of his brother, Dheean Singh. 

The consequence of this change in the direction of the commerce had 
beeii so prejudicial to Lahul, that about 500 people had emigrated to 
other countries ; and many more would have followed them had they 
not been stopped at the Custom houses established on all the passes 
leading from Lahul. Another consequence of this interruption of the 
traffic had been that very little or no Salt had come to Lahul, for the 
two preceding years ; and of this the people complained bitterly, as well 
as of the loss of their hire as porters between the lower hills of the 
Punjab and Ladakh. Many of them were literally starving, having 
nothing to eat, except grass, willow leaves, and strawberries. Even the 
attendant Brahmin of the holy temple of Triloknath was glad to get the 
remains of my Mahomedan Munshi's dinner. 

There are four passes leading from Lahul into Chumba, all of which 
were described as equally bad. Of these the Dogee Pass leads from the 
village of Ruppoo, about 8 miles below Tandee, over the «now, and down 
the course of the Boodhil river to Burmawar. The other passes lead 
from Triloknath. The upper one is called the Bugga Pass and leads 
direct to Burmawar ; the lower is the Humguree Pasfl, and is very little 
used, and the middle is the Ealee Joth, or Pass of Ealee D^bee, which 
I chose. 

On the 18th of July, I quitted Triloknath, and on the following 
evening reached the foot of the Ealee D^bee Pass, so named from. ^ 

108 Sources of the Punjab Rivers. [No. 110. 

black conical peak to the South, dedicated to Kalee D^be e. The place 
was called Hoolyas^ in Sanskrit Hoolyasaca, and waa merely a resting 
place at the foot of the pass ; there I shot some anow pheaaanta and 
Alpine Harea. On Che following morning I began the ascent of the pass 
up steep banks of loose angular masses of rock, and oyer sloping snow 
beds, down which fragments of rock came bounding and dashing along 
with a crash like the rattling of continued and numerous file-firing. The 
porter who carried my iron tentpegs waa struck on the knee by one of 
these stones, and hurled before my eyes down the sloping indurated snow. 
Luckily the snow bed terminated in a fork between two mounds of 
broken^ fragments of rock, and there the man's further progress waa 
stopped, and his life saved. . He was lame however for three weeks after- 
wards. The crest of the pass was a narrow ridge not more than ten and 
twelve feet wide, covered with soft and newly fallen snow. There I 
spread my cloak and found by my thermometer that the height was 
15,700 feet. In the middle of the ridge there were two small slabs erect 
and smeared with vermilion, near which were numerous sticks covered 
with rags. For a few minutes I had a splendid view of the green hiils 
of Chumba smiling in the distance. A thick base then descended and 
obscured even the terrific gulph below, and I commenced the descent 
without seeing where I was to halt for the night. A goat was sacrificed 
by my servants to the Goddess Kdlee, and to that they attributed my 
safety as well as their own. The descent was 5,000 feet to the spot 
were I halted, at the head of the Nye riveii one of the principal tributa* 
Ties of the Ravee. 

On the 21st of July, 1 continued my j.ourney, following the course of 
the Nye river for seven miles to the village of Loondee, below which 
1 crossed the river and halted at the Dhurmsala, or traveller's house. 
The next day I reached Burgaon, a large village on the left bank of the 
Nye, and was much cheered with the sight of a mulberry tree ; and there 
I got some good wheat flour, some excellent milk, and fine honey. On 
the 24th I passed through Footahun, below which the Nye and Boodhil 
rivers join the Ravee, to Poolnee ; and ascending the Boodhil river for 
five miles I crossed it by a very respectable wooden bridge, 68 feet in 
length and 98 feet above the river, with a railing, knee high, on each side. 
There I saw wild grapes and mulberries just beginning to ripen — and 
continuing my journey for an ascent of 1,500 feet, I reached Burmawar, 
oi Vermmawura, the ancient Capital of the Yerma family of Chumba, 
7,015 feet above the sea. The spot was a beautiful one ; but the severity 
of the winter had no doubt led to its being abandoned as a capital fo| 

1841.] Sources of the Puvjab Rivers. 109 

several eeotaiiei* The tall spires of the itone temples, and the profusely 
canred wooden tempks were completely shaded by cedar and walnnC 
trees. One (^edar was 20 feet in circamference. There were numerous 
stone pillars, tradition said 84, dedicated to Siva } and a large brazen 
boUf the size of life, under a wooden shed, besides seteral travellers* 
houses. The figures in the temples were of brass and exceedingly well 
executed, all bespeaking a very ancient origin. I copied three Sanscrit 
inscriptions from the brazen figures, recording the names and families 
of the donors. 

On the S9th of July, 1 left Burmawur, and at four miles reached the 
village of Ehunn, opposite Tootahun, where the Nye and Boodhil rivers 
join the Ravee. From thence the road descended for 1,500 feet to the 
Ravee» which was rushing between steep cliffs of black clay slate ; I 
crossed it by a birchen rope bridge 116| feet span and 60 feet above the 
water : the points of suspension were at different heights, and the fall 
of the curve in the middle was 20 feet, which made the ascent and des- 
cent extremely difficult and dangerous. From the bridge, 1 had to 
scramble amongst loose stones, and up steep banks for an ascent of %000 
feet in a distance of two miles, when I reached Woolas, on the left bank 
of the Ravee, opposite Khnnn and Tootahun, at the junction of the 
three rivers, which 1 was surprised to find was not considered holy. The 
three streams were about equal in s'ze ; but the Boodhil is the one held 
in most esteem, as one of its sources is in the holy lake of Munnee 
Mulcts — ^its other principal source is from the Dogee Pass, on the road 
from Tandee to Burmawur. The Nye River has its principal source in 
the Kalee D6bee Pass ; but a considerable feeder called the Raim River» 
joins it from the Bugga Pass. The Ravee itself rises in Eooloo from the 
Bungall Mountain, and runs in a N. W. direction to Woolas, where it 
is joined by the Nye and Boodhil. 

From Woolas, I followed what is called the royal road, or that used by 
the Rajahs of Chumba when they make their pilgrimages to Munna 
Mnhe's. It was one day's journey out of the way, but as it ascended the 
higher spires of the mountains, I chose it for the sake of the more exten- 
sive view, which 1 should obtain, and for the sake of the survey, which 
1 was making. In three days, I reached Chaitraree, where was a temple 
to Sugget D^bee. The figure was of brass with four arms ; and on the 
pedestal was an inscription, recording the donor's name, which I copied. 
On the next (lay, I reached Bussoo, and on the following day Mahila; 
and on the 4th of August, I crossed the Ranee by a birchen rope bridge 
of 169 feet long, stretching from an isolated rock on the bank to the ClifiT 

110 Sources of the Puniab Rivers. [No. 110. 

opposite, and reached Chumba, the Capital of the state of the same name. 

Chiimba, or Chumpapoora, the Capital of Chamba is situated on a 
level peice of ground on the right bank of the Ravee, at an elevation 
of 3,015 feet There is a tradition that the river formerly covered the 
Chaugann or plain of Chnmba ; which is certainly correct, for the plain 
is formed of large boulders of slate and granite, mingled with rich earth 
above, and with coarse sand below. There are nine good temples in 
Chnmba ; none of them, hom'ever of such beautiful workmanship as those 
at Burmawar. The Rajah's Palace is an extensive buildinor, but it can- 
not boast of any beauty. The houses are not different from those usually 
seen in the hills ; and 1 was altogether much disappointed with Chumba. 

Of seventeen purgnnnahs, through which I passed 1 have a detailed 
account of all the different villages, amounting to 259, containing 1,672 
houses, and 8,849 inhabitants. These seventeen Purgnnnahs form about 
one-eighth of the whole country ; which must, therefore contain, with the 
addition of 800 houses, and 7iOOO inhabitants in Chumba town, 14,176 
kouses, and 77i792 inhabitants. The villages on the lower course of the 
Ravee are however much larger than those upon the higher streams, and 
1 am therefore inclined to rate the population at nearly 100,000; of 
whom perhaps 10,000 may be exempt from paying the house tax— the 
remainder, 90,tX)0, living in 12,500 honses, will give a revenue of 2,50,000 
rupees, if taxed as usual at 20 rupees per house. 

The trade through Chumba, formerly considerable, is now very little, 
owing to the opening of the new route, through Jummao ; Customs are, 
however, collected at Bhudewar, which forms the North Western boun- 
dary of Chumba, and through which merchants occasionally pass, and 
merchants who come to Chumba, sometimes carry goods by the Sajh 
Pass and Chutegnrh to Ladakh ; but the traffic is comparatively trifling ; 
and I do not therefore value the amount of Customs collected at more 
than 50,000 Rs. yearly, making a total revenue of 3 lakhs of rupees, or 

There are no natural productions exported from Chumba, save rice and 
wheat to Ladakh ; and the manufcictures are considerable : the princi|>al 
are thick woollens called Burmawnr, manufactured in pieces eleven yards 
long, and fifteen inches wide, in all the colder parts of Chumba. Some 
are carried to Kooloo for sale, and I have seen a few pieces at Simla. 
Coarse Alwans, or Shawl Cloths, are made in the town of Chumba from 
Ladakh Wool, but they are all used in the country. 

The men wear a long sleeved white woollen cloak, fastened round the 
waist with a black woollen rope ; and on the bead a peculiar peaked cap 

1841.] Sources of ike Pumjah Rivers. 1 1 1 

of thick white woollen; the women wear the same cloak, only black, 
with a white rope round the waist ; and a small sculi cap on the head 
—the men's dress is a very picturesque one. 

From theRajah*8 Pundit I obtained a long list of the Rajahs of Chumba, 
beginning with Brahma of course, and descending through the Surajvansa 
to Sumitra, after whom the list appears to be less apocryphal. The earlier 
Rajahs are said to have resided in Burmawar. 

Oa the 11th of August I quitted Chumba, crossing the Ravee immedi- 
ately above the town by a 'birchen rope suspension bridge, of 187 feet 
span ; and with much difficulty made my way to the village of Kur^dh. 
One of my porters in crossing the small stream, now swollen by rain, loi>t 
his footing and was drowned. On the 1 3th I reached the summit of the 
pass of Chuarhoo, 8,041 feet high, from which I saw the plains of the Pun* 
jab indistinctly through the clouds. In the evening I reached the large 
Village of Chuarhee, where I halted. On the following day I made a 
fatiguing march of 4| miles to Jajeree, on the bank of the Cbukkee River, 
over several high ridges of stiff gravelly conglomerate, alternating in 
strata with sandstone. The next day I crossed the Cbukkee River with 
some difficulty, by swimming. It was 200 feet across and about 5 feet 
deep in the middle, and the rounded boulders at the bottom afforded r.o 
footing whatever ; after a little ascent and descent I came upon a large 
open plain, which I crossed to Nopr[)Oor. 

Noorpoor is a fine flourishing city, 1,924 feet in height, built upon a 
narrow ridge of a sandstone rock, curving to the North $ the houses are 
chiefly of squared stone ; and the main street runs over the solid rock* 
The city was founded upwards of two hundred years ago by the celebrated 
HoorJehan, the beautiful empress, who established a number of Kash- 
merians in it In 1839 there were said to be 7,000 Kashmerians in Noor- 
poor, who were chiefly employed in the manufacture of Shawls. I saw 
many of the Shawls, which were decidedly inferior to the real Kashme- 
rian Shawls, this was attributed to the difficulty of getting the finest wool. 
-The Noorpoor shawls are however of very fair workmanship, and they are 
brought in great numbers to Simla, Delhi, Lucknow, Benares, and Cal- 

On the 18th of August I left Noorpoor, and crossing the Chukkee 
River, I reached Pnthankot in the plains of the Punjab at an elevation of 
1,205 feet above the sea. From thence I passed through Shujanpoor, a 
good sized straggling town, and crossing the Umritsir and Lahore Canal 
near its head, I reached the bank of the Ravee, which was nearly a mile 
in width. The passage was made in about an hour by boat, and I halted 

112 Sources of the Punjab Rivers. [No. 110. 

at a large straggling town called Ruttooa, from that passing through 
Heeranugur, Chungee Marhee, Mud war Harmiinder, Rarha, and Pallee, 
I reached the bank of the Tohi, the Jammoo River which was rushing 
along deep and red, having been swollen by heavy rain in the lower hills. 
There I was detained until the evening, as no boatman even with a bribe 
would venture his boat in the rapid current. At Jammoo I occupied an 
upper room in a gateway prepared for reception by Golab Singh's 
eldest son, Oodhum Singh, who was lately killed at Lahore. 

The town of Jummoo is about the same size as Noorpoor, but it eon- 
tains fewer inhabitants, as there are no two storied houses in it. A few 
Shawls are manufactured at Jummoo, but they are made to order and not 
for general sale. Rajah Oodhum Singh treated me kindly enough ; but 
my servants were watched, and i was unable to procure any information 
of Vhlue, I therefore quitted Junmoo as quickly as possible, and crossed 
the Chenab river 10 miles below Aknoor, near where Taimoor had crossed 
it. The main stream was 920 yards wide, rolling swiftly on with a 
strong current. There were besides six other channels, some of them 
breast deep, and all having a rapid stream ; and beyond these was the 
river Tohi, whieh, rising in the Rutun Punjall mountains, flows by 
Rajaoree, and joins the Chenab above Wazeerabad. It must have been 
between this river and the Chenab that Alexander had pitched bis camp 
about the same season of the year ; for Arrian says, ' The flat coontry is 
also often overflowed by rains in summer, insomueb that the River 
Aoesines, having at that season laid all the adjacent plains under water, 
Alexander's army was forced to decamp ftrom its banks, and pitch their 
tents at a great distance.' 

The Tohi, frequently also called Toh, is, I have no donbt, the Tntapns 
of Arrian, a great river, which falls into the Acesines, for the Tohi of 
Rajavree runs in a direct line upwards of 80 miles, and where 1 crossed it 
near Mumaivur, at the same season in which Alexander had seen it, it 
was a great river running deep and red. It was full of quicksands, and 
the passage was dangerous as well as tedious. On the 3rd of September 
1 reached Bheembur, at the foot of the mountains on the Royal Mogal 
road to Kashmerc- 

On the 5th I proceeded to scale, what Bermier called that * frightful 
wall of the world,' the ' Adi Dak' or first range of mountains. On the 
top of the pass I saw a gibbet with two cages containing the skull of 
Thums and his nephew, the chiefs of Poonch, who had for a long time 
resisted the encroahments of the Jummoo family. A price was set upon 
their heads by Goolab Singh, bat from their known bravery no one dared 

1841.] Sources qf the Punjab Rivers. 118 

atfaek them openly ; and they were at last killed, while asleep, and their 
heads carried to Goolab Singh, who ordered them to be suspended on the 
crest of the Bheembar pass. The next day I crossed the ' Knmaon 
Gosha* mountains, or * sharp ridged bow,' the f ange being narrow at the 
top and bent at each end like a bow. xhence passing through 
the Serais of Noshehra, Inayatpoora, Chungez, and Muradpoor, 1 
reached Rnjaoree on the 8th of September. The Rajah was very atten- 
tive and communicative, and I received much interesting information 
from him. I also procured a history of the country, and some orders 
by Aurnngzebe, and Nadir Shah ; besides a copy of a grant of the 
Rajaoree territory, by Bahadoor Shah ; since then the territory has been 
seized bit by bit by the Jummoo family, until only a small circle of 20 
miles diameter now remains to the present Rajah. 

In the grant given by Bahadoor Shah, the revenue of Rajasore is 
stated to be 77i77i960 d&ms, equivalent to 27,799 Rupees, which with 
the Customs collected, most have been increased to 50,000 rupees. The 
territory now is about one fourth of what it was at that time, A. D. 1708, 
and the Customs have nearly ceased, as the Sikhs give free passes for 
all their own merchandize ; the present revenue cannot therefore be 
more than 10,000 rupees, which was the sum stated to me by many res- 
pectable natives. 

The chief crops in Rajaoree were rice and maize; the maize invari« 
ably occupies the higher grounds, and the rice fields the level alluvial 
formations along the river ; these were kept constantly flooded by streams 
conducted along the hill sides from the neighbouring torrents. Height 
of the city, 2,800 feet. 

The hills between Bheembur and Ratun Punjall are all of a coarse 
greyish sandstone, alternating with loose gravelly conglomerates near 
Bheembur, and gradually changing into a siliceous state in the Rutun 
Panjall range,— at the foot of which there are large blocks of conglo- 
merate in compact masses cemented firmly together. 

I left Rajaoree on the lOth of September, and after an easy march of 
eight miles over a stony road, 1 reached Thunna ; — from whence to the 
crest of the Rutun Punjall the road was good, but steep. The crest 
of the pass, I found to be 7,350 feet in height ; from whence there was 
a noble and extensive view, over the low hills of Rajaoree, of the distant 
plains of the Punjab. From thence the descent was through a thickly 
wooded forest of walnut, elm, horse chesnut, and pine trees to the bank 
of the Bahramgulla river, which I crossed by a bridge, and proceeding 
up one of its tributaries, I halted at Chundee-murg. Rain had fallen 
heavily for some days previously, and the small stream had swept away 

114 Sources 4|/* tki Pw^ Rivers. [No. 110, 

all its bridges, so that I had some difficulty in making the numerous 
croBstngSi which the road took. One of my goats was swept away by 
the ra(iidity of the current. The aseent of the Peer Panjall was ex- 
tremely steep, but the road was good and wide, having been repaired by 
order of the Sikh GoTemment. My thermometer gave 11,324 feet as the 
height of the crest of Peer Punjall Pass. From thence the road was a 
gradual descent for 2| miles to the Serai Aliabad, built by Ali Murdan 
Khan ; height 9»8i2 feet A little below Aliabad the road was narrow, 
but quite safe, a parapet wall having been built on its outer edge over- 
hanging the torrent below. The place is called Lata Ghnlam, after a 
alave who superintended the work, and whom Ali Murdan is said to have 
afterwards sacrificed and buried there. Beyond that, the road was good 
•and broad, occasionally ascending and descending to an open piece of 
ground, called Doojan, below which I crossed the torrent and proceeded 
«long a level pathway to the Serai of Heerpoor. The next day I 
passed through Shoopyen, and crossed the Sboopyen river, reached 
Eamoo ke Serai, where I halted ; and the next day, 15th of September, 
I entered Kashmere city^ having been three months and two days from 

The city of Kashmere is situated on both sides of the river Behut, at 
an elevation of 5,046 feet above the sea. I am aware that Baron Hugel 
made the height 6,300 feet^ but Jacquemont calls it 5,246, and Moor- 
croft says,' that the general level of the valley is about 5,000 feet. It is 
of an irregular shape, the greater part being on the right bank of the 
river ; about one fourth of the houses are deserted ; but the city must 
still contain about 80,000 inhabitants. 

The information which I have collected regarding Kashmere is not yet 
completely arranged, so that I cannot give any general results. I may 
state, however, that I have a list of all the villages in the valley ; a 
minute account of all the passes, including those which are used only 
for contraband trade ; the history of the Shawl Wool from its first start- 
ing from Radakh and Khantan (or Changtang) to its arrival in Kash- 
mere, where it is spun into thread, dyed, and woven into Shawls. I have 
i>esides ten or twelve specimens of Kashmerian songs translated into 
English verse ; and a very good collection of the coins of the Hindoo 
Rajahs of Kashmere preceding the Mussulman conquest. 

Additions made to the Geography, 

I will conclude with stating the additions, which the joint travels of 
Lieutenant Broome and myself have made to the Geography of the 
Alpine Punjab. 

1841.] Sources of the Punjab Riven. 115l 

0/ ike Sutbij. 

h The whole coorge of the Spiti ri?er» one of the principal bran^hjes 
of the Sutlaj, has been sunreyed by Lieat. Broome. 

0/ the Beeas. 

% The whole course of the Teerthan river, one of the principal feeders 
of the Beeas, has been jointly surveyed as weU as the Beeas river itself, 
from its source to its junction of the Teerthun river, in addition to which,, 
the mountain course of the Chukkee river has been laid down by Lieat. 

0/ the Ravee. 

3. The whole course of the Nye river, with a portion of the £foodhil 
river, and also of the upper Ravee, with the further course of the 
Bavee, after the junction of the Nye and Boodhil rivers aa far as Chnmbaa 
have been surveyed by Lieutenant Cunningham. 

Of the Chenab. 

4. The whole course of the Bhaga river, has been surveyed by 
Lieutenant Broome; the source of the Chundra by the same officer, 
and the greater part of its course jointly by Lieutenants Broome and 
Cunningham ; and the course of the joint stream of the Chundra Bhaga, 
as far as Triloknath, by Lieutenant Cunningham. The greater part of 
the course of theTohi river, a principal feeder of the Chenab, has like- 
wise been surveyed by the same officer. 

0/ tie TheHum. 

The Shoopyen river, whieh rises in the Peer Punjall, has been surveyed 
by Lieutenant Cunningham. 

Of the Indue* 

The source of the Yunam Choo, or Yunam river, a lai^ tributary af 
the Indus, has been laid down by Lieutenant Broome. 

(Signed) Alexandbb Cunningham, 

let Lieutenant of Engineered 
Lueknow, 8th Februari/f 1841. 

£ 116 ] 

Extracts from Demi-official Reports.'^By Capt. Arthur GoNOtLT 
' on a amission into Khorasan^ ^communicated to the Editor from the 
Political Secretariat. J 

The Huzarah and Eimauk Coantry which we traversed between 
Bameean and Meimanna, consists of high unwooded mountains, covered 
with grass and various shrubs and herbs which serve for spring and 
summer pasture, and winter fodder, and vallies at different elevationsi 
in the highest of which is grown only the naked Thibetan barley, and in 
the lowest barley, wheat, and millet. 

The Huzarah portion is the coldest and poorest, and the natives with 
difficulty eke out a living from its natural resources ; living in small 
villages of low huts where they herd during the long winter season 
under one roof with their cows and sheep, and using as fuel small 
dry shrubs and the dung of their cattle. An idea of their privations may 
be formed from the fact that the most of the people do not use salt. 
There is none in their own country, and as they cannot afford the price 
which would remunerate importers of this heavy article from Tartary and 
Afghanistan, they have learned to do without it. Their best bread is con- 
sequently very tasteless to a stranger. 

But the Huzarahs are not allowed to enjoy even their limited means 
of existence in peace, for the Oosbegs make occasional inroads upon 
their dwelling places, and sweep away whole villages into slavery, leav- 
ing fertile spots desolate. Their neighbours, but religious enemies, the 
Eimauks, also carry off as many of them as they can, from time to time, con- 
quer or kidnap, and the chiefs of their own race, steal each other's sub- 
jects in their petty wars, exporting all they can thus obtain, through 
Toorkish merchants with whom they have understanding. 

We found the Huzarah people unblushing beggars and thieves, but 
they are mild mannered and industrious, and sigh for the protection 
of a settled government. Were this given to them, their condition 
would soon improve in every way. Their chiefs are * barbarians of the 
rudest stamp, without any of the barbarous virtues.' They reside in small 
mud forts, exact as much as they can from all who come within their reach, 
and form occasional combinations for the defence or attack of each 
other. The Eimauks differ chiefly from the Huzarahs in being of a more 
nomade habit, the chiefs consult their dignity and safety, by dwelling 
in mud forts, but the people reside nearly the whole year in the dry 
Stick and felt tents which are used by the Toorkmans. The chiefs, like 

1841.] Extracts from Demi-official Reports. 117 

the Huzarah meers, ha?e their feadsi which continually break them up 
into parties against each other. The people are bolder than the long 
oppressed Huzarahs, and will get together to attack travellers whom 
they would rather only attempt to rob privately. 

The Soldiers of both tribes are cavalry, mounted chiefly on small ac- 
tive horses of native breed, though some ride horses imported from Toor- 
kistan. Their arms are swords, and matchlocks, the last weapon furnished 
with a prong for a rest. There are clans of military repute among 
both people. Their strength lies in the poorness and natural difllcnlty 
of their country, but the last defence is I imagine greatly overrated. 
Parts of the interior are described as much more steep than that which 
we traversed, but this portion, which is the roost important, as being 
on the high road to Herat, is by no means so inaccessible as it has been 

Neither among Huzarahs or Eimauks is money current, and sheep form 
the prime standard of barter with the traders who come among them from 
Afghanistan, and Tartary. These Merchants establish a friendly under- 
standing with chiefs of different districts, to whose forts they repair and 
open shop, giving their hosts 3| yards of Kerbus, or coarse narrow cotton 
cloth, for the value of each sheep received in barter ; and being furnished 
till their bargains are concluded, with straw for their beasts, and 
generally bread for themselves and their people. Traders from Herat, 
Candahar and Cabul bring their checked turbans, coarse cotton cloths 
and chintzes, tobacco, felt, and carpet dyes, iron spades, and plough ends, 
molasses and a few raisins. Toorkish Merchants bring similar articles 
from their own country, with a little rice, cotton, and salt, occasionally 
horses, which they prefer to exchange for slaves. 

The articles which the Huzurahs and Eimauks bring to market, are men 
and women, small black oxen, cows, and sheep, clarified butter, some 
woven wollens for clothing, grain sacks and carpet bags, felts for 
horse clothing, and patterned carpets, all made from the produce of their 
flocks, for they export no raw wool. They also furnish lead and sulphur, 
and the Eimauks especially speak of copper and silver mines as existing 
in their mountains, but they do not work them. 

Agha Hoossein, a Native of Herat, who had long traded among the 
the Huzarah, and Eimauk clans, occupying our route between Bameean 
and the border of Meimunna, negotiated our passage with a safe guard 
the whole way for 1,300 Rupees, and we marched with him from Bameean 
on the 33rd September 1840, escorted by 80 Huzarahs under a son of 
Meer Sadik Beg, a leading chief in the district of Deb Nangre. Our road 

lis Extracts /ram Demi^Offieial Reports. [No. 110. 

tpok us in 3 marches over spurs from the main ridge of Hmdoo Koosh 
(Koh-I-Baba) to the fertile and well inhabited valiey of Yaikobung, 
which has the breadth of from | to f a mile, in a length of 15 miles, and is 
well watered by a clecn trout stream from the famed * Bendemir/ which 
£fowB on to Bulkh. 

We slept the first might in the cold damp valley of Shebbertoo, which^ 
according to the boiling point of a Thermometer, is about 10,500 feet above 
the level of the sea. The mercury at sunset stood at 37^ ; in the course 
of the next f of an hour it fell to freezing point,in fact before sun rise next 
morning it was down at 10^. The residents say that they have 5 montha 
winter, which commences late, bat is every rigorous, and the deep snow 
which falls, is not all off the ground two months after the vernal equinox. 
The rest of the marcli brought us to the valley of Fuor Behar, about S,10O 
feet lower than Shebbertoo, where the barley crop was not all ripe 
and the Thermometer showed about 11 degrees difference of temperature. 
The third took us 8 miles down the valley of Yaikobung, 1,100 feet still 
lower, where the people had just got in their crops of fine wheat. 

The present chief of Yaikobung is Meer Mohib, a vulgar and coarse 
man. He put Shah Shoojah*s letter to his head, and came to pay his 
respects to us as the bearers of it, when we gave him a suitable pre- 
sent. Having taken leave, he sent to beg for my furred cloak, and on 
my giving his messenger a note which would procure him one from 
Bameean, he sent to say that he must have my girdle shawl and 1,000 
rupees, and he would permit us to depart We were too many to be 
thus bullied here, therefore replying that the Meer seemed to mi sun- 
derstand eur condition, we marched away at once without his daring 
to interrupt us. 

West of Yaikobung, the main ridge of Hindoo Koosh sweeps round 
to the northward, after which turning westward again, it forms the 
northern boundary of the hills which slope down to the right side of 
the Heriroad valley. Our fourth march took us by a very steep defile 
across this ridge, from the base of which we descended through a deep 
valley, about 5 miles westward, to the fountain head of the Heriroad a 
clear pool of gently bubbling springs, where the boiling point shewed 
an elevation of 9,500 feet, 1,100 higher than the bed of the stream flow- 
ing northward from Yaikobung. 

We followed the course of the Herat river, in its clear, quick wan- 
derings through different breaks of the limestone valley, which forms its 
bed, for four marches, the first taking us to the head quarters of Meer 
Sadik Beg in Dab Yungee. This chief, who is a vulgar but well 

1841.] Extracts from Demi^Offidal Repari$^ 119 

disposed man, treated us very hospitably, neither he or his sons read 
the Shah*8 letter, but having heard it perased, he stack it in the top of 
his turban, and declared that he was His Majesty's servant to do any 
thing that lay within his limited ability. We remarked that the chief 
service His Majesty required from the Huzarah Meer was to keep 
their people loyally quiet, to which Sadik Beg replied, that he should be 
truly glad to be quiet, both <ui the king's and his own account, if some 
of his Huzarah neighbours and Eimauks, would only let him. 

We expected to have found awaiting us near this post the Eimauk 
escort which our guide had engaged from Mahomed Areem Beg, the 
Atalik of the Feroozkohee clan ; but we found that in the interim the 
Atalik had been persuaded to march with an Eimauk Army against 
Hussun Sirdar, a powerful chief of the Dah Koondie Huzarahs, and 
that we must in prudence await instructions from him, or an end of 
the war. This Sadik Beg said would not last long, as the Eimauka 
had gone in such numbers, that they would not keep the field for the 
want of provisions, and the danger he most feared for us^ was, our meet- 
ing some of these returning troops ere we got the Ataliks safeguard. 
Oar guide therefore went off to the head quarters of the latter chief 
and finding there one of his sons, persuaded him to come to our, 
eamp. The young Eimauk chief arrived at nighti and nothing 
would induce him to go beyond my Meerzas tent 

The Huzarahs, he said, were his sworn enemies, and were capable 
of any atrocity, why should he put himself within their reach in the 
dark. Next morning he went up to the fact on Sadik Beg send^ 
ing him a solemn oath of friendship, and they presently came in a 
cordial manner together to consult with us about the onward march. 
The son of the Atalik said that he would give an answer in his fa- 
ther's name to any Eimauks who might come across our road, and as 
he appeared to be an un vapouring person, he resolved to proceed with him 
at once. Sadik Beg accompanied us one march with a large body of 
horse, as he had heard that a party of Huzarahs, from another near 
Chiefship, had marched to intercept us, turning back at the end of his 
district^ between which and the Eimauk border a few miles of the valley 
are left waste. Our reported enemy, the Chief of Sal, met us here with 
100 horse, and said that he had ridden to our assistance, on the intelli- 
gence that Hussan Khan of the Tymunnee Eimauks had occupied the 
road ahead, with the intention of plundering us. We understood this 
to be a demand for a present, so adding to our thanks a Cashmere 

120 Extracts fnm Demi-Official Reports. [No. 1 10.' 

shawl, we marched on, receiving from oar way side acquaintance a parting 
caution to put no trust in any Eimauk. 

We safely concluded this day's march of 13 miles, which brought us 
among a quite different people. In point of personal appearance the 
advantage was certainly on the side of the Eimauks, who though living 
closely after the nomade fashion of Toorkmans and Oosbegs, have 
the features rather of Darians then Tartars. The Feroorcokehs indeed 
claim descent from a Colony, which was exported from Feroorkoh, 
in the Persian province of Mazenderan. We encamped upon the right 
bank of the Henrood, among people of this clan, half a mile off on 
the other side of the river was the fort of Dowlut Yar, surrounded by 
villages of Tymunnee tents, to which we learned that Hussan Khan 
had returned the day before, apparently without having entertained any 
idea of barring our road. 

The war, we learned, was ended. It had its origin in an act of vio- 
lence committed 9 years before upon the very Agha Hossein attending us 
as guide, then travelling with a stock of goods from Herat to Cabool, who 
was plundered by the former chief of Dowlut Yar, for preferring the 
quarters of our host the Ferozkohee Atalik. The latter Chief not being 
able with his domestic means to force a restitution of the goods taken 
from his protege, allowed Agha Hossein to call apod his Huzarah friends 
for succour, and the leading chief of Deh Eoondee, Hussan Sirdar, 
glad to indulge a national dislike wtiile defending a commercial pri- 
vilege which it concerned every Chief, whether Eimauk or Huzarah, to 
uphold, came with such a large force that he took the lead in the opera- 
tions against Dowlut Yar, having captured and utterly rased the 
fort ; after killing its Chief and his eldest son, he gave the old man's, 
wife to his own brother, and took his daughter to himself, returning 
home only, when he had captured another fort nearer the border, and 
placed a party of his own men therein. Agha Hossein got all his goods 
that could be recovered, and so retired. But now the Atulik regretted 
the loss of Eimauk reputation to which he had been accessory, so he 
countenanced a stratagem by which the border fort was recaptured, and 
having helped to rebuild that of Doulut Yar, brought back the old chief's 
second son, the present Hussan Khan, to in herit it. The latter had just 
before our coming persuaded most of the Eimauk Chiefs, including his fa- 
ther's first adversary the Atalik, to make on attack upon Hussan Sirdar of 
Deh Koondee, for the cleansing of their national reputation. The quarrel 
was accommodated in a way to make the Eimauks appear superior, by tiie 

1841. J ExiraeU fnm Dem-Offidal Reports. 121 

Dfeh Koondee Sirdai's restoring the arms which he had taken from Hassan 
Khan's father and engaging to give 2 or 3 daughters to the hehr and his 
relatives, to close the Mood account. 

Agha Hossein our guide, who thought it well to remove all ill blood* 
from Hossan Khan's heart for the excusable share that* he had in the past 
disasters, went to Dowlut Yar, with a koran, on which he declared befbre- 
witnesses that he absolved the chief from all obligations to repair hii 
former looses, and called upon him to say in the same solemn way that by- 
gones should be bygones. The Chief consented, and accepted a present 
which we sent with a letter to his address from Shah Shoojah, but hid 
manner on both occasions was so sullen that our guide resolved to givet 
htm- the least possible opportunity of doing us an injury. 

The Atalik arrived in our camp next morning, and speaking with con^ 
fidence about our road forward, sent us on with a small escort under hift 
brother and son, while he went to get back from Hussan Khan a horsd 
stolen from our pickets which had been traced to Dowlut Yar. Whea 
we had got 3 miles down the valley we were met by 6(r horsemeo, who 
called out to us to stop and pay zucat. The Atalik's brother riding a head, 
and explaining that we were envoys on the ETmgfs aflkirsi and not traders,, 
our way layer replied that we had paid our way to others, and why not t6 
him. ' They are guests of the Atalik' exclaimed his brother, * and by God 
and the Prophet they shall not give a needle or a Ch ilium of tobacco.^ 
^Then by God and the Prophet we will take it', rejoined the robber ; where^ 
upon be ranged some of his men in line to face us and caused others to 
dismount upon a rock behind and to set their guns in rest. We lost no 
time in getting ready for defence, but the Atalik's brother riding out 
between our fronts, called a parley, and drew a line which neither party 
was to pass till peace or war had been decided on. Three quarters of an 
hour was consumed in debate, which was thrice broken by demonstration of^ 
attack and by the end of this time 30 or 40 men of the same tribe had col^ 
}ected on foot from a rear encampment, with the evident intention of making^ 
a rush at our baggage in the event of our becoming engaged'in fh>nt« 
We had despatched several messengers to bring up our host, and just 
at the affair had assumed its worst look, a- cry was raised that he was' 
coming. Looking back, we could see horsemen pouring out like bees,' 
from the tents surrounding Dowlut Tar, and all hastening in ouif 
direction, but while our Elmauk escort exclaimed that the Atalik wa^ 
coming in force ta the rescue, our opponents cried out in scorn thafr 
Httflsan Khan was coming to help them to plunder us, and each party^ 


122 JSf tracts /rem Denu-OJUial Reporis. [No. 110. 

xaiaed a jshout for tbe supposed reinfbrcement After about 10 mtnutef 
of the most mtense anxiety during which we and our opponents) as if 
by mutual agreement, waited to see whose conjecture was right, we were 
irelieved by the arrival of the Atalik, who galloping up ahead to us at 
the utmost speed, exclaimed that he had brought Hussan Khan to our 
defence. The announced ally was not long in fallowing with 300 men, 
and our enemies were qiade to understand that they must abandoii 
all idea of attacking us. Hussan Khan declaring that we were envoy's 
recommended to him by the Shah whose slave he was, and that he would 
allow no one to molest us. It seemed pretty clear that the Atalik had 
wrought this loyal zeal in Hussan Khan's mind, and probably, from the 
delay which had occurred, that he had not found the task easy ; but 'twas 
not a time to scrutinize very particularly the motives which had brought us 
a defender, so we gave Hussan Khan the politest credit for his profession^ 
and at evening sent him a handsome shawl from the Atalik's fort, with a 
promise that we would not fail to represent his conduct to the Shah. 

We arrived that evening without further adventure, at Badgah ia 
Cheghehezan« a fort in the Herirood valley which is the family seat of 
the Feroozkohee Atalik, and we shewed our appreciation of the ser-c 
▼ice which this chief had rendered us by giving a very handsome present 
to him» besides gifts according to their degrees to his brother and other ( 


We were detained 4 days at Badgah, first in consequence of the Atalik's 
indisposition, and then in order to get rid of a neighbouring chief con-? 
Iiected with him, Kur^r Beg of Surusghar^ who threatened to attack us 
in our very icamp near the Atalik's fort unless we paid him black mail, 
bis right to demand this, he said, lying simply in his power to enforcQ 
its payment. After causing us several alarms, Eurar Beg listened to the 
Temonstrances of the Atalik, the aid of our host being necessary to 
protect him from another more powerful chief whose son he had mur^ 
dered in his own house, and he came to pay us a visit, attended by dOO 

We npw left th^ Herirood valley, ascending 3 miles through the bills 
pn its northern side to a ridge running parallel with it, and proceedings j 

miles further to the northward over an undulating down to the aommit 
of the main ridge of Hindoo Koosh, which we crossed by the easy pass of 
Sbategh i GhUmee. It is not higher to the eye than the ridge fint 
noted, and there are higher looking jnasses tpthe northward, bat oar 
guides said that it rose again both east an^ westward and their de&u« 

1841.) Extracts from Demi^Ogitial Reports. 128 

tion need not be dispited, for the spring on one side of thie tmnk 
flow to the Herirood, and on the other towards Tartary. We descended 
from it to a deep and rapid brook called the Tangan ; which led ns 4 
miles down with the cultivated valley of Ghilmee to the mouth of a dee^ 
and close pass called the Derah i Khnrgooshi or the Hare*s defile, where 
the boiling point shewed an elevation of 5,200 feet, about 400 feet lower 
ihan our last station in the valley of the Herirood. 

Friday 9th October. Quitting camp at 9, 15, we followed the brook 
Tungan into the Hare's defile, commanding the road at the seeond of 
3 angles. In the first 500 yards, was a brick wall with holes built up 
like a screen upon a not easily attainable portion of the rock, which we 
were told was anciently erected to help the collection of transit duty. 
We next went 13-'^ miles between bare perpendicular mountains of lime* 
stone^ the defile running in acute zigzags which for the most part were 
not more than 50 or 60 yards long, and having but breadth enough for « 
path, and for the brook which we were continually obliged to cross* 
Bnmes, I see, states that after crossing the Dundan Shikan, he travelled on 
northward to Ehoollum between- frequently precipitous rocks which rose 
on either side to the height of 300 feet and obscured all stars a€ 
night, except those of the zenith. I am afraid of exaggerating the 
height of the clifib between whidh our road here lay by guessing 
at their height in* feet, so will only say that th^ir precipitous elevation 
made our horsemen look like pigmies as they filed along their bases- 
in the bed. After this very narrow portion, the defile widened to the 
breadth of 50 yards, but il presently contracted again to that of thirty, 
which may be stated as the average width of its onward windings for 
nearly 5 miles, where the Tangan discharged itself into the river Moor- 
ghaub, which came from the east, in a bed of good width, through a simi* 
lar deep pass. After creeping along the bottom of the defile for the 
first 2i hours of our march, we ascended some way up the side of the 
left mountain, and followed the bends for the next hour and a quarter 
by a narrow path worn upon its slightly sloping edge, a tangled thicket 
now occupying all the spare bed of the stream, Co which we descended 
again i mile before its junction with the Moorghaub. The Tungan is 
a deep brook before its entrance into the Hare's defile. In spring, what 
with the increase of its waters from melted snow, and and their com« 
pression between the sharp turnings of the narrow defile, there is no 
passage from side to side, except such as is afforded for a footman by 
means of a spear laid across its rocky banks; The distances noted 
afford a very imperfect desoription of the quantity of ground that must 

M4 Extracts from Devd-^Offidal Reports. [No. \W^ 

lietrayersedby a traveller through this defile. An idea of its windings 
may be formed from the facts, that oar baggage ponies were nearly 4 
hoars creeping along a distance for which my observations afford a direct 
line of 6i miles, and that the portion of our road which lay in the bed, 
crossed the stream 34 times. 

What is called the Derah i Khnrgoosh ends at the junction of the 
Tungan with the Moorghaub, but the narrowness and difficulty of the pass 
continues for a mile further down the left bank of the latter stream, 
ivhich we forded where the water was up to our ponies' shoulders, ran* 
ning at the 4rate of, I should imagine, 3i miles per hour. A steep road, 
which laden ponies take, ascended a little above the entrance of Derah 
4 -Khurgoosh, which c<»Aes down again just below the junction of the 
•two streams. 

' Afterward ihe tpass opens out into a warm lit^e valley of 250 yards 
width, called Taitak, or under the mountain, at the end of which we 
)ialted near some Eimauk tents* Hence we turned off northerly from 
Ihe Moorghaub, and ascending by a moderate steep pass to the top 
ef the hills enclosing its Tight side, proceeded on a gentle rise over 
an undulatiog surface that gained to a small grassy vale lying at 
Ihe foot of a higher pass. Here we had an unpleasant scene with 
the greedy relatives of the Alalik accompanying us, who announcing 
their intention to take leave, demanded presents extravagantly above any 
elaims that they could prefer for reward, and by their united clamour 
hindered all endeavours to moderate their claims made by our host, 
to whom. alone were we strictly bound to give any thing. After I had 
gone out of the way to satisfy these .beggars, they went off as if they 
were the party robbed, and I have no doubt that they incited the attack 
which was made upon us the next day. 

• October llth. Quitting camp at IQ, we ascended \ mile -op a rocky 
pass to. the spring head of Misree, which waters 4i small grassy level in the 
enclosure of the pass where we found an Eimauk encampment. The pass 
upward from this little platform was steepish, though on an equal ascent, 
and the path waS' tiring, \y\VL% over small loose fragments of slaty lime* 
stone which had fallen from the shelving bases of the decomposed cliffs on 
each side. The defile above the spring gradually narrowed in an ascent of 
about 13-^ miles, which our loaden ponies were 40 minutes accomplishing, 
te a point at which the steep rocks, enclosing it almost met, leaving a short 
psstage^throngh which 3 horsemen could dde abreast. Our foremost 
riSevB had nearly reached this point when a number of armed men 
rilmig with shouts from their ambuscade above it and on either side 

1841 .} Extracts fnm DemuOffieiul Seporis. Ml 

•f us, began with one accord to pelt stones at as and to fire their gunsy 
those who were on oar flanks also loosennig pieces of rock which came 
hounding down the shingle bank with force enough to bear awaf any 
thing occupying the path. Fortunately the cafila was far enough be* 
hind toa^oid the first of the attack, and we retreated to an open part of 
the pass, where, making ourselves masters of the on each 
side, we entered into negotiation with our assailants ahead. After much 
time had been lost in parley, our aggressors agreed to take a few piecea 
ef chintz and 40 rupees (as we had no more goods) and invited us to 
advance, but we had scarcely reached the old pointy when our envoy sent 
with the cloths and cash agreed to, came running down to us stripped and 
beaten ; and the attack upon us was renewed. Our skirmishers having kept 
the shelving flanks, we had not to retreat far, and having briefly con- 
sulted on turning again, we decided that there was nothing for it but to 
Ibrce our way, so advancing with our best musquet men on foot, while 
those 'left with the cafila followed in close order, firing over our heada 
at the cliflfd above, we in less than 10 minutes made ourselves masters of 
the narrow passage, from which our enemies retreated over the hills. 
Some of our men and horses were severely bruised by the stones which 
were raised upon us daring this push, but 20 boxes were broken, and the 
only gun shot wound that could be found was in the eloak of one of my 
Hindoostanee servants. I am happy to believe that none of our 
cowardly enemies were killed or seriously wounded, for we found no 
dead men on the rocks taken, and they retreated too fast to carry off any 
who were much disabled. 

We were 40 minutes more ascending to the summit of the pass, but 
the defile was comparatively open above the narrow passage, the rocks 
on each side being low and rounded. We here took leave of the Atalik 
who had come After us on hearing that we were attacked. I believe him 
to be about the best man in his country.. 

We rested at evening in the small valley of Hushtumee, where we 
found officers collecting the tax of one sheep in fofty for the Walee of 
Meimunna. Our next two marches were over the mountains of the 
Hindoo Koosh, from which we made a steep descent, leaving the mouth 
of the defile by which they are entered nearly Q miles S. S. of Meimunns, 
to which we proceeded through a fertile valley bounded by low and round 
earthy hills, the stream which we had followed from the foot of the 
mountains irrigating countless vineyards and gardens^ the walls and trees 
of which concealed the town till we were inside it. 

12C Exhradsfr^m Dmni-Offiehal ReparU. [No. 1101 

Somes miks befote reaehiiig Meimunna we obtenred a sign that we were 
sppToacbiiig a slave marfc, for an old man who rode out from a small en* 
oanpment to offer his horse to us for sale, said that he woald take » 
young male slate and a pony for it We told him that we were 
mot men sellers, and asked him if he was not ashamed to deal in thd 
KhuIk'Oollah. (God's Creatures.) He replied that he eould only doi 
as every body round him did, but that he did not require the actual' 
alavei only the value of one, shewing that men are here a standard of 
barter as sheep are among the Hazarahs. Herattees,. this old broker 
said, were comparatively speaking a drug in the market, owing to the 
quantity that the vuzeer of that city had exported. Huzarahs were so so, 
and the only captives that would now fetch a good price, were the young 
men and girls of Room and (illeg, in MS.) or other real Kuzzilbashees. 

Mirrab Khan was out upon his annual battu when we arrived, but 
his brother gave us excellent lodging, where our people and horses 
were daily provided with every thing that could be desired. The Walee' 
' returned on the 4th day of our detention, and courteously visited us the nexl 
morning, when after presenting to him Shah Shoojah's letter and a dress 
of honor, I quite won his heart by giving him a double barrelled percussion 
gun, he being passionately addicted to field sports. We went the next 
day to return his visit, and the following is my note of the interview. 

Mirrab Khan bade us frankly welcome, and ordered in breakfast of 
bread, fruit and salted cream tea, of which we partook together, our 
servants carrying off parcels of fine green tea imported from Yarkund, 
and large loaves of Russian refined sugar, which were set before us 
upon large platters of dried fruits, as the host's offering. 

1 could not obtain certain accounts of Mirrab Khan's revenue, for he 
keeps no regular dufter. My Meerza witnessed this irregularity for years, 
and used to remonstrate with Mirrab Khan about it, when the chief 
would reply that it was not the Oosbeg way to take particular account 
of what came and went, a saying confirmed by report of the laxity, 
which prevails in the financial department of Khiva, and even in that 
of the more formally organized government of Bokhara. Mirrab Khan 
expected to be furnished with means for all his expenses by his Dewan 
Beggee, who was able to do this without murmuring, after getting in 
half of the Walee's due from the inferior officers, through whose hands 
it canie^ I have roughly calculated the Walee's annual expenses at 10,000 
tiUas, or 80,000 Caubul rupees, whieh supposing my preceding conjec- 
ture right, would give him a fair revenue of a iekh, and a hall of 

1641.] Extracts from DemUOgickd Meport$. I2T 

TupeeB, ^iit this niif ht be increased vtry grefttly, if aoy thiii|^ like system 
were introdueed into his goyeroment. It is said at Meimuniia that 
Ahmad Shah imposed a tax of ooe toman upon each of 360 ploughs, be* 
longing to as many villages in this district, then registered under Au« 
mtlders, for the support of Hajee Khan's Mehmaa Khanah. Those 
ploughs were understood to be used for the cultivation of lands watered 
by natural streams, (there are no kuhreezes in this country), and some<* 
thing more than 3 times their produce was said to be raised from 
Daimee land or soil watered by the heavens. If we allow 15 khurwars 
for the crop of one plough, we have 5,400 khurwars for the stream 
lands i 3 times this for the rain crops would be 17,200 khurwars and the 
total 2*3,600 Ditto* The country is certainly now better populated and 
cultivated then it was at the beginning of the Doorannee monarchy, so 
a guess may be made at the least amount of its agricoltural produce, but 
I cannot pretend to determine this. Much again is exported from this pro^ 
vince to the Eimauks and Huzarahs, and, latterly, to Herat. In cheap 
times a khurwar, or 100 muns, of wheat is sold for a ducat; we only get a 
third of this quantity for the same money. 

We made 5 marches to the southward of west, via Alma, Keisu and 
Charshumbel from Meimunna to the rise of the Moorghanb encamping on 
its bank at the fort of Earoul Khaneh's a few miles below the fort of BaU 
Moorghaub which we did not see. In view upon our left during these 5 
marches was the northermost ridge of the Hindoo Eoosh mountains from 
which we descended behind Meimunna. Our road lay npon easy rises and 
falls through hills of a light clayey soil, enclosing many well watered 
▼allies and glens, in which is cultivated wheat, barley, millet, sesame, fitun 
and cotton j vineyards and gardwis flourish about the villages at the chief of 
which brisk little fairs are held twice a week for the convenience of the 
country round. It is a fruitful country which only requires more inhabi- 
tants, and I learn that the districts on towards Herat, as well as those under 
the mountains eastward of Meimunna, are of similar character. • 

We found onr road to Karoul Khazeh safe, but vigilantly watched by 
patrolKng parties detached by the Walce of Meimunna, the Jemsbeidclee 
tribe, and the Soonnee Huzarahs of Eillah. Several eofilas passed ns, 
going to Bokhara with merchandiae, or to MeimnniiA for grain, and we met 
single Toorkmauns riding horses to Meimunna which they designed to 
exchange there for slaves. Oo the 4th March, when we had passed the 
ruined fort of Eaomacfa, anciently the Jemshaeddee border mark, w« 
were met by a young ohtef of the latter tribe, who thinking that our in* 
flaence might avail him at Herat, complained that he had been driven 

128 Extracts fnm Demi-Officiat R^pwrts. [Na IlOl 

from his Imme by Mahomtnad Zeman Khan, his more powerful mat of 
the same clan, who on sending a party of those who had followed him, 
to- cultivate land near Nerochok had fairly seised their crops, driven off 
their cattle and sold 25 persons to the Toorkmauns. This eonfinned the 
statement which we had heard at Meimnnna, an J which we soon ceased 
to doubt that the Soonnee reh'gion is no longer a safeguard ag^uainst cap* 
tivity. Every defenceless person who can be used for labor is carried* 
off to the insatiable markets of Tartary. We were followed by a small 
cafila of slaves from Meimunna consisting of Sheah Huzarahs and: Soon* 
nee EUmauks, of all ages fiom 5- to 3(h 

We forded the Moorghaub at Karoul Klumeh, and our onward march 
lay along or near its left bank for 8 marches to Merve. The first took 
ns past the rather imposing, but desolate mud fort and citadel of Meroc* 
hak. Many mud pillars, which were formerly used by watchers of 
crops, yet stand among the weedy bushes that have overrun the chief 
portion of this now deserted valley, and the land retains many traces of 
the industry with which it used to be irrigated. In parts high weeds 
have sprung up thickly where flood water from the Moorghaub has been 
allowed to settle, and its stagnaiion in those marshes is doubtless the 
chief cause of the malaria which makes this district uninhabitable during 
the heat of summer. The next wide break of the Moorghaub valley 
below a broad belt of low dry hills which bound Merochak, forms the 
head of the division called Punjdeh extending 20 miles down to a point 
where the stream of Eooshk joins the Moorghaub, which although it con« 
tains weedy vegetation in standing water on one side, is well inhabited 
by Tookmauns, who are evidently in a flourishing condition They 
breed many horses which they profitably export ; and they find pasture 
for large flocks of sheep, and herds of camels in their range of the valley 
parts of which they cultivate with jewaree wheat and barley. 

These Toorkmauns are a colony of the Ersauree tribe from the banks 
of the Oxus, divided into 4 clans, called Oolle Zuppeh, Kureh ShughseCi 
and Chunghee which they estimate in round numbers at 500 tents each. 

At Punjdeh we laid in 5 days' dry provisions for ourselves and horses, 
there being no encampments upon our road or along the Moorghaub to 
Yellatoon. The right of the valley, which the river favors, is for nearly all 
through bounded by a well defined line of low hills. The left, near which 
our road lay, was sided by hillocks and undulations than positive hills. On 
the 2d March we first observed sand lying npon the hill as if drifted by 
northerly winds from the desert, and a third of our onward way layi 
over loose beds of sand that covered portions of the hard white clay soil*! 

1841.] Despatch /rwn Lieut. H. Bigge. 129 

ivliich forms the proper surface of the eoantry as far as Merve. The hank 
of the Moorghauh upon which we halted each night, was thickly fringed 
with Tamarisk bushes. The water of the river was very muddy, flowing 
ly with eddies at the rate of one and a quarter mile per hour, and having 
many dangerous quicksands. We very nearly lost a man who rode his 
horses a little way in to drink. Though we met no tents we saw vast flocks - 
of sheep which are sent thus far from Merve to pasture with a few shep- 
herds and dogs. We carried chopped straw upon our horses, being ac- 
customed to it, but there was no want of grass on the way for the native 
horses of our fellow travellers who had not gone to this expense. The 
road is by no means difficult abounding as it does in grassi wood and water, 
and it was evidently well travelled formerly. 

Our third march brought us to a very fine caravansary of burned 
bricks, containing accommodation for many men and beasts, which is 
attributed to Abdoolah Khan of Bokhara a philanthropist who has the 
credit of all good works in these countries, as AUe Merdnn Khan does in' 
Affghanistan. Close to it is a mausoleum sacred to the memory of some 
Imaum forgotten. 

Despatch from Lieut. H* Bigge^ Assistant Agent, detached to the 
Naga Hills, to Capt. Jenkins, Agent Governor General, N.E. 
Frontier, communicated from the PoUticai Secretariat of India to . 
the Secretary to the Asiatic Society. 

I have the honor to report my arrival at this Post, (Demalpore) where 
I am happy to state large supplies of grain, &c. &c., are now daily 
arriving for the use of the troops about to accompany me to the Naga 

Having been prevented, from the total want of population on the road 
between Rangalao Ghur and Easirangah, of Mehal Morung, from pass- 
ing up that line of country, I crossed to the north bank of the Burram* 
pooter at Bishnath, and passing through the villages of Baghmaree^ 
Rangsalli, Goopore, and Kolah Barri in the Luckimpore district, crossed 
the Maguli Island to Dehingeahgong, and so through Deergong to Ca- 
charri Hath, where I fell in with the detachment of the Assam Lt. Inf. 
which Captain Hannay had sent off", to await my orders at Nogorah. 

From Caeharri Hath I passed to the Dhunseri river at Golah ghaut 
where I was glad to find that the greatest portion of the supplies of 
rice, &c. dispatched by me from Nogong, had all arrived safely, and 


130 Despalthfrom Lieut, H. Bigge. [No. 110. 

that a large portion had been sent forward ; the remainder "was speedily 
transferred to smaller boats, and is now close at hand, having been brought 
hy water to a small river called Daopani, one march on this aide Hir 
Pathor, (Bor Pbalong of Captain Pemberton's maps) and from whence a 
path through the forests had been previously cleared to the nearest point 
to this. 

From a demi-official letter, received at Golah ghaut from Captain Han* 
nay, I was led to believe that large supplies had been collected for the 
use of his detachment at Nagorah, but in this there must have been some 
mistake, as the Jemadar in command informs me, that, but very little rice 
has been collected, and not much more may be expected at present. 

Never having previously relied on any other arrangements than those 
1 made when at Nogong, hot little, if any delay will result from this 
circumstance ; and the detachment was ordered to leave Nagorah on the 
lat instant at latest, and will, probably, should the heavy rains we have 
had not detain them, arrive here on the 5th or 6th instant. 

I remained 3 or 4 days at Golah ghaut, superintendmg my arrangements^ 
«nd was present at a sort of fair, held there, on the arrival of a fleet of 
boats, laden with cotton from the Lotah Nagah Hills on the Dogong river, 
which folia into th» ^httnsini a short way above ; about 70 of the Nagits 
icame down, with two of their sykeats, many of them understanding the 
Assamese language, and were engaged the whole day in bartering their 
cotton, for salt, dried fish, dogs, fowls, and ducks, with a few brass rings, 
of which they seem very fond, suspending them one below the other from 
iioles bored in the ear. 

The general average of prices was about 

ISeerofSalt 4 toSofCotton. 

1 Dog 3 (they eat this animal.) 

1 FowlorDuck lAto2. 

Ob visiting their ca»p a little above the ghaut, I found several of them 
lying on the ground, intoxicated from the effects of a most disgusting sort 
of spirituous liquor they make from rice, and which they drink hot ; they 
are a very sullen race, and it was with some diffculty I could get any re- 
plies to the few questions I asked them. 

Regarding the madder, with which the hair on their spears was dyed, 
I tried a long time to gain some correct information, but in vain, the 
Sykeah told me, they had none in their own hills, but what they used was 
brought to them by the Ahor Nagas, a tribe I have not yet heard ef, 
but believe it will be found to mean the Amgamees, of whom they 
teemed to stand much in dread, and from whom they said they received 

1841.] Despatch from Lieut. H. Bigge. 131 

a large portion of the cotton, they brought down for sale, acting, it 
would appear from this, more as merchants than the actual growers. 

The country of these Abors, they described as being due south from 
their hills, but they said distant 2 months' journey, an obvious error, as 
such a distance would take them far to the south of Munnipore. As the 
name of this tribe was also made use of by the Rengmah Nagas (inha- 
biting the hill between those of the makers of Nagong and the Dhunsiriy 
I may hereafter be able perhaps to make myself better acquainted with 
their position, though this tribe also seem to fear them fully as much as 
the Lotahs. 

In appearance, the Lotah Nagaa are of a short, though stout build, and 
some of them by no means ill4ooking ; they wear no more clothing 
than their brethren of other parts, and are alike filthy in their persons 
and habits, and have a pompous mode of addressing one, which might in 
some cases be interpreted as insolent. I shewed them some clasp knives^ 
I took down with me for the purpose, at which they laughed, and sneer- 
ingly remarked, * of what use were they ? Naga requires only a dKan, 
and his spears ; such things are of no use or value to us i! before quitting 
*this race, I may as well observe that they carry away about 12 or 1,300 
naunds of salt annually, in exchange for cotton, so that their trade may 
be deemed equal to near 10,000 mds. of cotton in all. 

There are several merchants, chiefly Kyahs, from Marwar, established 
at Golah ghaut, besides Mlisselmans from Goal para, but so little trade is 
there for any thing besides cotton, that I was unable to procnre a brasa 
pot of any sort ; woollens and every other descriptions of cloth are alike 
unsought for, their stock in trade being composed entirely of salt. 

A large quantity of iron being found and manufactured in the neigh* 
borhood of Golah ghaut, the Nagas obtain their dhans chiefly from hence,, 
the price of which appeared to me very high, being 4 as. each, and the 
iron fetching as much as 8 Rs. per maund, unwrought ; the quantity anr 
nually manufactured, I was unable to ascertain. 

Leaving Golah ghaut in company with Mr. Herring who had joined me 
from Bishnath, by appointment, we passed through a long belt of dense 
forest to the Nambur Nuddie, about 10 miles, for the purpose of visiting 
together the salt springs, and lime stone rocks, which are found on its 
banks. The camp was formed for the night on a small sand bank, round 
which the river ran, and in the centre of which was the salt spring, or^ 
called by the natives, on account of the heat, the Jueung pocng or hot 

laS Despatch Jram LieuU H. Bigge. [No. llOi. 

The water from this spring is beautifully clear, and of a temperature 
of 110|® in the well, to 11^^ in the sand, as determined by most accurate 
observation, from a first rate thermometer obtained from London, for 
such purposes : — ^this was at 3h. 33m. p. m., the temperature of the air being 
59|^ at the time, repeating the observations the next morning at ?• a. m. 
when the atmosphere was at 43^. 1 found no difference in the temperature 
i>f the water. 

The water when drank appeared to me to contain but very little salt, and 
flavored ratherofsulphor than any thing else; the spring is a very abun- 
dant one, and would nearly suffice to turn a water wheel, but is so little 
elevated above the level rain, that a rise of only two feet would be suf- 
ficient to swamp it, while from the water marks on the trees, it was ob- 
vious that the whole was submerged in the rains from 7 to 8 feet. 

The neighbourhood of the spring was every where trodden down by ele- 
phants, buf&loes, deer, &c. which animals resort there in great numbers 
to drink the waters, through my own elephant, ponies. See. refused to 
taste it ; in the centre of the spring there is a depth of about 1 foot of wa- 
ter, below which the feet or hand might easily be passed through a thin 
bed of sand, composed entirely of quartz to a bed of large pebbles of ^ 
similar nature, and it was resting the thermometer on the latter bed that 
the greatest heat 113^° was obtained* 

- This spring is situated about 1^ or 3| of a mile from the Dhunsiri, but 
in spite of this, I fear the returns would not be worth any persons while 
establishing a manufactory of salt, as he must leave the place in May, and 
could not expect to return till November, which would be the earliest date 
at which these forests could become habitable after the rains. 
. I boiled a large quantity of water, about 2 gallons, till it was reduced to 
2 of a quart, which was afterwards evaporated at Bor Pathor, but not 
more than a tea-spoon full of salt was obtained, a very poor return, 
I should suppose, though the salt was to the taste extremely good. 

The morning after I reached this spring, as the distance to Bor Pathofi 
was but short, Mr. Herring and myself proceeded through the forest, 
along the banks of the Nambur Nuddie, to visit the other spring, and 
also the limestone beds, distant by the watch 1^ hours, in a S. W. direo- 
jtion. A short way below the springs, in a small stream, running from 
them, on which the water was pleasantly warm. Mr. Herring's dis- 
,covered some trees, which struck us both as being tea, though I am un- 
isert^in as to the fact, but have sent specimens of the leaves, floweiSi 
and fruits, through Capt Vetch, to be examined by Dr. Amott and Mr. 

1841] Despatch from Lieut. H. Bigge. 133 

Watkins, as in the event of their proving genuine, would greatly enhance 
the value of the springs and quarries. 

The salt springs which are 3 in number are situated 950 yards to the 
north of the Nambnr Nuddie, in a small circular space, surrounded by 
forest, but are neither so hot or apparently so strong of brine as that 
we first saw. The temperature being as follows. 

In the shade, 64° air. 

Large spring, 95° water. 

Smaiierone, 98° 

The difference between the larger and smaller springs being doubt- 
less caused by a small stream of water flowing into it. 
• In the time of the Assam Rajahs, it appears, these salt springs were 
regularly worked, and the water dammed up for the purpose, as there- 
mains of the parts which formed the dams are visible in the stream, 
which falls into the well, as also in that which carries off the water. 

The limestone, of which I send specimens, is found in the bed of 
the Nambur Nuddie, close to the salt spring, where it appears at the 
day ; as also in the small stream above mentioned, which runs through 
the larger spring about 200 yards further up, and beyond which, about 
1^ a mile, is found pipe-clay, some detached pieces of which I saw, 
but had not time, on a second visit to these wells, to reach the beds. 

It is a curious fact perhaps, that a large quantity of small fish, inhabit 
the larger of these wells, and it was a subject of much regret, that I was 
unable to procure any, as specimens, as it could not but have been sa- 
tisfactory to ascertain, what description of fish these were, which delighted 
in such a temperature and in such water. 

' The only drawback to the effectually working these spring, and lime- 
beds, for a certain number of months during the year, appears to be the 
want of conveyance to the Dhunsiri river, and I think it might be worth 
the experiment of making an outlay, on the part of Government, of 2 
or 300 rupees to effect the same, either by cutting a road through the 
forest, or by erecting Batahs (or dams) in the river, so as to allow of 
its becoming navigable for small boats, which might easily be dragged 
over the slight falls when empty, and as easily taken down when laden, 
a practice much in use on the Dying river of Cachar, as you have had 
opportunity of observing. 

' Should such a proposition meet with the approbation of Government, 
I believe Mr. Herring would be happy to devote a considerable degree 
of attention and minor expense, so as to render these wells far more 
valuable than they otherwise can become, by sinking shafts at a little 

134 DespaJtchfrom LietU. H. Bigger [No. 110; 

distance from the present springs, with a view of proGuring^ a purer sup- 
ply of salt water, for the purposes of manufacture, and would also work the 
lime stone in conjunction with the salt, but without this aid, situated as 
these productions are, in the midst of an nninhabited forest, and not 
within 8 miles of any population, I fear there is not inducement,, 
sufficient to render it worth his while attempting it, or incurring the 
expense which must necessarily attend such an undertakingi. 

I may here observe that these forests abound with the finest Nahoi^ 
Trees 1 have ever seen, a wood, which, though from its weight and ex- 
treme hardness, is perhaps not adapted for aVi purposes, is most admir- 
ably so for beams, posts, &c. where great strength and durability is 
required, and might be very advantageously used in all Government builds 
ings where obtainable. 

I left Bar Pathor after seeing all my supplies well off in boats en the- 
38th ultimo, reaching the mouth of the Duopani Nuddi on that day, the 
Hurrioghan Mookh on the 29th, the Debopani Mookh on the 30th, and 
arriving here on the afternoon of the 3lst, the road running along the 
line of the Dhunsiri, though straightened in many of the turnings for 
38 miles through the densest forests, the last 10 miles being up the bed 
of the Dhunsiri itself. 

Through all the desolate jungles that I have hitherto travelled, and 
they are not a few, 1 never met with one so completely abandoned by life 
as this ; no animal of any kind was seen, nor was a bird heard from 
morning till night, the death-like silence being only broken by the heavy 
fall of the Otengah fruit, these trees composing the entire forest or nearly 
so. The marks of the river left on the trees was every where visible from 
1 to 9 feet in height, forbidding all idea of making this line, that of 
communication with this post, save during the cold season, and that 
too at a late period from the number of impassable swamps, which every- 
where intervene, and render all attempts at rendering the present path 
any shorter, or much more practicable than it is, alike unavailing. 

Fodder for cattle, especially elephants, is remarkably scarce, my men 
finding the greatest difficulty in obtaining the smallest supply, and that 
too of a very poor description. 

The vast number of trees, which are sunk in the river and on the sands^ 
render the navigation for boats almost impossible, beyond the Daopani, 
unless perhaps during the rains, and even then, it is not without the 
greatest care, that boats can proceed, either up, or still more to, down 
the river ; a very large one last year was swamped close to Bor PathoTi 
while passing down empty, being entangled in a large tree, one of 

1841.] Despatch from Lieut, H. Bigge. 135 

the men being drowned, and the rest with difficulty saved, the boat 
being lost. 

Sttch being the state of the couirtxy on the North side, it will be neces- 
-sary to open a better com muni cation, than at present exists towards 
Blohong Dezooah, and for that purpose, I intend engaging a large number 
of coolies, if possible, from Tuli Ram Senaputti*s country, to construct 
a regular road from Mohong Dezooah to this part, unless a better site 
<can be shortly discoverved, clearing away the jungle, and if he will agree 
to it, locating 10 or 15 families of Meekirs, at this place who shall be 
liept up for the purpose of clearing the roads, &c. for the future. 

Should he agree, I shall farther propose, that the revenue of these 
persons shall be for the present defrayed by government, either by a 
direct payment to the ryotts themselves, of the amount demandable from 
them by the Senapntti, or in case of their objecting, a trifle more, or by 
crediting him that amount from the annual tribute paid by him to govern- 
ment in ivory. . 

Should I be able during my present expedition to reduce the Nagah 
•chiefs to any state of order, it would be desirable further, to try and 
settle a few of these men in the neighbourhood, on the East bank of 
the Dhnnsiri, allowing them to occupy any lands they choose, exempt 
entirely from all rent or taxation, until such time as matters shall be so 
changed, as to seem to call for fresh arrangements ; as however this is 
mere speculation, I shall pursue it no further at present. 

While at Bar Pathor I was visited, on invitation, by the Phokun or 
chief of the Kengmah tribe of Nagas before mentioned, who complained 
•of the loss he had sustained, together with his tribe, by the abolition of 
the former establishment of Kutkees, or, I might call them, supercargoes, 
who were formerly the medium of communication between this race and 
ihe merchants, in all their dealings, through whom all orders, and commu- 
nications to the Nagas passed, begging their restoration, together with 
the small quantity of lands, &c. which these persons enjoyed as a remu- 
neration for their services. 

From the short conversation I had with the Phokun, he was anxious 
not to 8tay,on account of some religous festival which commenced 2 days 
affcefwarde ; he stated that the lands and pykes were bestowed on his 
grandfather and father, for services done in the time of the insurrection 
of the Muttacks or Moamarriah tribe,in preserving the property,&c. of the 
then Bcnr Qohain of Assam $ that he had applied to Mr. Scott, on the sub- 
ject, at Gowhattee in person, and had received assurance that his claims 
ahoolGl be considered as good, bat that now the whole lands have been 

136 Note on the Brahooees. [No. 110. 

taxed, the kutkees abolished, and that his authority and rank have fallen 
80 low, that scarcely his own tribe acknowledge him. 

I regret that I am not acquainted with the reason8,on which the arrange- 
ments now in force were adopted, sufficiently, to enable me to enter into 
a full detail of the case, but you may be able from what 1 have stated, to 
refer to the documents, I have now with me, and form an opinion, whe- 
ther on payment of a small tribute in ivory, which they are, I was informed 
ready, and willing to pay, the remission to the extent required might 
not safely be effected. 

The Fhokun further expressed a desire to be taken under protection 
from the attacks of the Lotah tribe of Nagas,with whom there has been an 
enmity existing for a long time, and he asserts, though 1 fear without any 
direct proof (he promised to produce witnesses before me at this place to 
depose to the fact), of the village called Beloo, not far from Mohong Dezo« 
oah, having been attacked by a party of Lotahs from the village of Tagdie, 
last j^ear, and one man and a child murdered. On this subject I shall 
again address you when the evidence shall have been adduced, but may 
observe that the trade of the Lotah Nagas being completely in the power 
of the Principal Assistant Commissioner of Seebpore, some injunctioot 
might be conveyed to the Naga Hazarri of that tribe holding him respon- 
sible for any repetition of such acts. 

Looking at the map of this country, you may observe that the inclina- 
tion of the lime formation of the Nambur Nuddie will exactly, or within 
a trifle, correct the points at which it has also been found at the Falls of 
the Jumoonah, near Mohong Dezooah at Langolar, spelt ' Lo wrung' in 
Captain Pemberton's Map on the Eopili, and so on towards SylhetT, not 
improbably forming one long line of similar formation throughout. 

Note on the Brahooees. — By Capt. Hart, Bombay/ Army* 

These tribes are the descendants of * Braho,' a Bulooche, who emi* 
grated, about the second century of the Hejira from Aleppo to Mukran : 
some years after his countrymen had settled there, he fixed his 
abode at Eoliva, a few days journey to the westward of Eelot which 
city was then inhabited by the Tajuks, over whom ruled a Hakim from 
Herat, the seat of sovereignty. These Tajuks were a turbulent and 
overbearing race, noted for their hatred to the yoke of Herat Several 
of their Hakims had been slain in popular commotions, and at length 
the part was considered of such danger, that a newly appointed goyemor. 

1841.] Note on the Brahooeeu 137 

exacted an oath from the heads of the tribe, that they would not destroy 
him by the sword or poison, before he ventured to enter the city. On the 
sb^ngth of his fancied security, he harassed the people by his exactions, 
and his death was in consequence decided on. To adhere to the letter of 
their bond while the spirit was evaded, five hundred of the Tajuks baked 
cakes of bread, in which they mixed up stones and cotton with the dough. 
These they concealed under their garments, and attended the Hakim's 
Durbar. A dispute soon arose between him and one of the landholders, 
and the passions of the assembly being excited, they stood up of one 
accord, and slew him by blows with the cakes. They then determined 
on choosing a Governor for themselves, and 'Braho,' mhose countless 
flocks and herds entitled him to consideration in the country, was solicited 
to take up his residence in Kelat as their Lord and Master, he declined 
complying with their request, on the plea of prefering a life in the wilds 
to the confinement of a city, but offered his youngest son ' Kumbur' to 
their notice, as one for whom he had not made' any provision, and who 
was therefore free from those ties which bound his brethren to their 
homes. After much urging, ' Kumbur* consented to become their Chief, 
tjl^ Tajuks stipulating to furnish him with eighty horse as a body guard, 
to build a house, and supply him with every necessary of life. After a 
few years, ' Kumbur' forced the several tribes of Moguls and Baloochees 
in the neighbourhood of Kelat to acknowledge his supremacy, and in 
process of time the whole of Mukran and Northern Eunchee was ruled 
over by his descendants. 
' firaho ' had seven sons : 

1 Meerun, from whom are descended the Meeranees. 

2 Simael „ „ Simalanees. 

3 Roden „ „ Rodenees. 

4 Feerak „ „ Peerkanees. 

5 Yug „ f» Yugur Menguls. 
G Khadr „ „ Khidranees. 

7 Eumbur „ » Eumburanees. 

These are the real Brahoee tribes, but many others subject to them, ard 
now included in that appellation. 


Notice of Arracsau 

[No. lid. 

They are, 





Reissnce .... 

|8hahwanee .. 

'SarpaTTa .... 

Bungoolzye . . 

Mahomed ) 

Shahee ..3 


LaliTeo • . . • 1 

jMogol . . . . 

•Bolooche .. 

iMogul . . . . 

Mogul .... 

Ditto ....{ 

Rind Bu.) 
looche ..3 

Bolooche .. 

Jhalabin ..Zabree Mogol 

Mengnl ....... Bind 

Mahomed 1 Mftn«,i 

HoosaineeJ ^^S^^ 
Beegunlaw .. Pcind 
Zueur Men- 




Place of 

Kuhnak . . 

Moostoong . 

Tepulinjee . 

Moostoong • 



Makron . . . . 

Brahooee .. 
Bulooche ^ 



Kohpoosht . 

Nooshky .. 

Jull and in ) 
: Mukran . 5 














Present CIdef. 

A.8ud Khan, 
r Mahomed 
X Khan. 
Svnd Khan. 


Loll Buksh. 

( Loll Buksh. 
\ Bulooche 
{ Khan. 
( Meer Say 
}. Mahomed, 
( Meer Baker, 



Ahmud Khan. 

Ahmud Khan. 

The Sarabans, or 
those of • the right 
hand * held Inama 
and Jagheers from 
the Kelat Khans 
on whose authori- 
ty they considered 
themselves depen- 

The Jhalabans, 
or those of 'the 
left hand * were 
Zumeendars who 
yielded by slight 
obedience to their 
ruler, their lands 
being hereditary. 

They respectiT»- 
ly occupied seats 
on the WffA/ and 
left in the jDurbar. 

A thru weeks sail in search of Health — Province ofArraean — Kyok Phyoo. 
— Its Harhour^ Productions^ Capabilities^ Geological features^ Visit toon 
active volcano. By Henrt Harpur Spry, M.D., F.6.S., &c.y Secretary 
to the Agricultural and Horticultural Society of India, 

Circumstances rendering it necessary that 1 should have reeoarse to a 
little relaxation, in consequence of a severe attack of illness, I determined 
to take advantage of the sailing of the H.C.S. Amherst, to the coast of 
Arracan, on the Idth of last month (Feb. 1841) to secure a passage in 
her and visit the port of Eyok Phyoo, at Ramree. The ship left Calcutta, 
in tow of the 6ange«, Government Steamer, and reached the Sand 
Heads at the close of the third day. Thence we proceeded under sail, and 
at the expiration of four days, dropt anchor in the picturesque, and most 
spacious harbour of Kyok Phyoo. We were there in exactly a week from 
Calcutta. The cruize from the Sand Heads across to the coast of Arracan, 
was a most delightful one. The wind was gentle, and the sea so smooth, 
that out of a party of 400 sepoys and camp followers who were on board, 
only two that I am aware of, underwent the miseries usually attendant on 
a sea voyage when undertaken for the first time. 

On the morning early, of the day preceding the one '^on which we ar- 
rived, land was visible, and the entire day was spent in coasting along the 

1841.] A VisU to Kyok Pkyoo : 139 

mountainottd, rugged, but thickly wooded ialands, called the Bolongaa or 
broken islands. As night closed in, the anchor was dropt about a leagtM 
Otttaide the harbour of Kyok Phyoo» 

There are two or three ' dangers * in the passage way, and it becomes 
therefore desirable, that day-light should exist while steering through 
the harbour. On one occasion, however, the Captain of the Amherst stood 
in on a bright moon-light night and took up his right position with 
out the occurrence of any accident. With the exception of the rocks 
here alluded to, the entrance of the harbour is deep and spacious* 

I confess, as we sailed in, early the next morning, the general appear- 
ance of the harbour and scenery surrounding it, created a most favorable 
impression. The first object which attracted my attention was the Saddle 
Island. It stands on the south side of the entrance of the outer bar* 
iMrar, (there are, as it were, two harbours) is about- three quarters of a 
mile, or a mile in circumference, and has a peak of about 120 or«150 
feet in height On it, a neat bungalow has been built by the present 
Marine Assistant, Captain Brown. Here it has become the fashion of 
late, for parties of pleasure to resort, to pass the day ia the agreeable 
occupation of shell picking, coral gathering, bathing, ship sighting 
or if it suits them better^ drawing, reading, or geologizing, while the 
bealth inspiring breeee of the sea is blowing on their frames* 

As the ship sails along, new and striking peculiarities claim the obser- 
ver's attention, and some of the earliest of these, are, the cantonment bun* 
galows of the officers which stud the beach at irregular intervals, for a dis- 
tance of three miles as far as ' Sandy Point ;* this forme the northern pro- 
montory of the inner harbour, and on it stands a two 12-pound battery, 
with an appropriate flag staff, under the designation of * Fort JDalhousie/ 
On the land a little elevated abore the sea shore, and about a hundred 
yards from the pebbly and sandy beach, with nothing to impede the cur- 
rent of the refreshing sea breeae as it comes ofT the ocean, are seen those 
cottages on piles, known as bungalows,, overhung and shaded by the lofty 
Dipterocarpi ; the bank on which they stand is of yellow sand, and along 
the beach at sunset, or in the morning, the valetudinarian may gallop 
without intermission en the active sure footed poey of the province for 
three good miles, and court the healthful breese. A small thatched 
bathing house stands conspicuous. It is the resort, every morning, of 
the lovers of bathing, who delight to wrestle with the waves and luxuriate 
in the sea. 

Kyok Phyoo has not reached that pitch of celebrity yet, as to call 
lor the ereetioa of bathing machines, but no beach in the world is 

140 The Harbour and Us Beauties. [No. 110. 

better adapted for them, if the taite of the pablic ahoald ever tarn 
that way. 

The groups of large islands, covered with deep rich foliage, which 
form the harboar of Eyok Phyoo, rise abmptly from the sea, and 
afford water beside them so deep that ships can sail in safety. The 
hills are clothed to the top in dense and luxuriant vegetation, while the 
peaks of some run up to heights that are computed to extend to 7 or 
800 feet. 

The harbour of Eyok Phyoo, as I have before remarked, is extreme- 
ly picturesque, and in its conformation and capabilities, reminds me for* ^ 
cibly of the ooe at Trincomalee— Like the latter, it is divided into 
what may be termed an outer and an inner harbour. The outer one being 
more of a roadsted than the inner, which is sheltered by the point of land 
on which the flag staff stands, and is safe for ships in all weathers. The 
harbour and roadsted, with the contiguous extensive deep bay, known as 
Fletcher Hayes' Straits, which stretches away amidst a series of many 
beautifully grouped islands between the eastern Hside of Ramree and the 
main, constitute an anchorage that I am assured would afford safe shelter 
for the shipping of the whole world. 

With all these new and engaging features before me, it was with no 
ordinary feelings of delight that I stept on shore to investigate and ex- 
amine for myself. I found that a great and most beneficial change 
had been wrought of late in the physical condition and aspect of the 
station of Kyok Phyoo. The dense /otr jungle which formerly choked the 
cantonment grounds, had, through the active exertions of the local au- 
thorities, been effectually removed, as had the brush-wood and most of 
the timber trees which grew on a contiguous low belt of sandstone hil- 
locks, which formed the south western boundary of the station. Drains 
for the outlet of accumulated water had also been cut, and temporary 
bridges erected. The last it may be expected will shortly be superseded 
by more becoming brick ones, as the materials, I was informed, had long f 

been lying accumulated on the ground. I 

The salubrity of the place has by these measures been much impro- 
ved, and the first intimation almost which I received on landing, was 
the gratifying assurance, that during the whole period of service (two 
years) that the regiment then on the island on duty had passed, not 
one death had occurred among the ofllcers^ or, (I believe I am correct 
in this) any one of them been obliged to leave it from sickness. One 
great and powerful complaint still exists against Kyok Phyoo as a regi- 
mental station. The Hindoostanee soldiers suffer dreadfully from 

1841.] The Staiion^its Salubrily. 141 

sicknesg. I was curioas to learn, if possible, the cause of this, and the 
explanations which were offered me, in a great measure satisfactorily 
account, I think, for so unfortunate and much to be regretted an occur- 
rence. The Arracanese or Mogs, as they are usually called, tnvart- 
My (there is no exception to the practice that I oould learn) build 
their dwellings on piles, so that the floor of the room is not only elevated 
a distance of two or more feet above the surface of the ground, but a 
etirrent of air passes freely underneath it. At the jail, which is a series 
of spacious well continued erections, the system of the country has been 
followed, and the prisoners are housed in a number of large dwellings within 
a strong stockade. It is left for regimental sepoys to be experimented on, 
to test the value of Mug wisdom, by doing without piles and hutting the 
unfortunates in the manner now in use. To the men instead of being 
hutted as the people of the province are, and indeed as the transported 
fel&ns are, (for Arracan is a penal settlement and Kyok Phyoo has a party 
of above three hundred convicts stationed at it,) are compelled to live in 
low or unraised huts, which are built in a series of lines forming streets, 
and in such a damp locality, that I (although it was then far advanced in 
the month of February) sprung a couple of snipe out of the grass, within a 
yard of these abodes. 

After strong, and I believe repeated representation, not only on the 
part of the duly constituted medical authorities, whose business it is 
to watch over such duties, but by the chief Military authority 
also, I am told that the Military Board sanctioned the formation of 
raised boardings or tnatehauns tnthin the huts, so as to enable the 
sepoys to sleep off the ground. But this is not enough. Whatever 
dampness or exhalation is emitted from the soil (and that something 
noxious does transude the practice of building, which the genius of 
the people has suggested, proves) is still pent up by the mat walls which 
reach the ground and exclude the free circulation of air underneath, 
an observance which, as I have just remarked, is deemed essential to the 
preservation of health. Common humanity dictates the measure, and a 
State characterized for its considerate attention to its army, ought without 
hesitation to hasten to remove a grievance so fully calculated to produce 
the suffering and disaster ous consequences which are now experienced. 

There is another and I think not sufficiently regarded cause operative of 
the suffering which the sepoys undergo from sickness, a portion of 
the men, in the Volunteer regiments are Mahomedans. They are pro- 
verbial for their careless extravagance. ' A Mahomedan (said Ameer-ul- 
omrah the second son, and for some time minister of Mahommed Ali the 

142 ^be Wood Oil Trees. [No. U<f. 

former Nabab of the Cantatic) was like a seive— 'mttch of what was 
poured in went throagh ; while a Hindoo waa like a sponge which re- 
tained aH, but on pressure gave back, as required, what it had absorbed.' 
And so at Eyok Phyoo. The Mahomedan sepoys to gratify their habits 
of debauchery, borrow from their more thrifty Hindoo brethren who stmt 
themselves of the common necessaries of life ta gratify their saving propen* 
sities, and rather than purchase good sound, hot expensive food pinch 
themselves with half meals of the worst description. The Hindoo 
sepoys of the 65th regiment brought away with them, I was assured by the 
officers, on their return to Calcutta upwards of 40^000 rupees which they 
had saved during their two years and half tour in the Province. 

Leaving this painful subject for others of a more pleasing kind, I hasten 
to complete my observations regarding the site of the Cantonment of Kyok 
Phyoo. The soil is almost entirely sand, but yet much vegetation till 
recently abounded and even now the many lofty Dipterocarpi speak plainly 
of the adaptability of the ground to produce rich and luxuriant growths. 
These Bipterocarpi early attracted my attention. They are the trees, 
whence that (to the London market at least) novel article of commerce,, 
known as the Guijun or wood oil, is obtained. On examining into the 
process by which this most valuable product is obtained, I found that 
the practice was to cut a large notch something^ of the form of a rude areh 
into one side of the tree near its root, a depth of three or four inches^ 
with the base sunk from the external edge inwardly to make it cup-like,, 
so as to hold the oil. A fire is then kindled in the aperture for a few 
minutes, by which means, it appear^, the sap vessels are stimulated, and 
the oil once set an oozing flows gradually down, drop by drop, till 
the cup-like hollow at the bottom of the notch becomes filled, when it 
is dished up, and set aside for use ; successive supplies are for a long time 
in this manner obtained. 

An abundance of these trees are to be seen in every direction 
about Kyok Phyoo, and I am told are equally plentiful on the island 
of Cheduba and elsewhere throughout the line of coast. While on 
the subject of these trees I cannot omit mentioning » circumstance 
connected with the produce from them, which although of somewhat 
a private nature, is yet of sufficient peculiarity to merit recital. More than 
two years ago, when in correspondence with Dr. Royle^ I procured eight 
jarge casks full of the wood oil and shipped it for London to be sold in> 
the London niarket and its value fairly tested. I knew that the Porta- 
gnese in the days of their early career in India had all dealt largely in 
the article^ for Bolt in his < Consideratioos of India/ particularly alludes 


1841 «] * hs Antiqt^ as an Article qf Commerce. 143 

to it. I knew n^oreover that for time out of mind the people of the Pro* 
vince of Arracan and of Burmah in general, had used it for all sorts of 
work ; that moreover Roxburgh alludes to it, and that in fact it was an 
article well known in India. What was my surprise at finding from 
Dr. Royle that so ignorant were, and still are, the authoritfes at the 
London Custom House of the nature of this substance, that they positively 
deny that it is a raw material, and wifl consequently only admit it as a 
* Manufactured article* t which entails the payment of a duty that the oil 
itself would never sell for. In his recently published work on the 
productive resources of India, Dr. Royle has pointedly alluded to this 
lamentable ignorance on the part of the London Custom House authorities 
of some of the products of India. 

To return to remarks on the station. The bazar is clean and well ar- 
ranged. Beside the various roads young timber trees have been planted. 
These are not in the most flourishing condition. It may surprise some 
to be told that after so recently denuding the soil of the jungle, that trees 
should agaio be planted, but arborescent avenues would b^ a great 
ornament, serve to keep down temperature, and not to promote sickness. 
Many of those now planted are dead and it will be many years before any 
will assume a commanding Bppearance. 

The people are decidedly superior in physical conformation to the 
Bengallees. They are an athletic and intelligent race. Their agricul- 
tural and mechanical appliances show it, and in their dealings with the 
Europeans they evince an independence of character tliat surprises a 
person accustomed to the manners of the obsequious Asiatic. 

The harbour abounds with fish, and I was particularly struck at the ease 
.and facility with which a daily supply was obtained for breakfast. 
Half an hour before the usual time for eating the meal the word was passed 
for * Mutchee mar.' At which command the boatmen took the net and 
proceeding to the beech threw in the lines, and in ten minutes three or 
four fine mullet were presented to the cook. 

Besides these mullet, the pomfret are noted for their high flavour, and 
the oysters are of an excellent kind. At certain seasons, at the close of 
the rainy months, innumerable boats go off to Combermere Bay, an ex- 
tensive but somewhat shallow roadsted, contiguous to Kyok Phyoo har- 
bour, and here fish for the polynemoas, the sounds of which they cure in 
large quantities, and sell to the China junks which annually pay a visit to 
the coast for the purpose of trading for these and other articles. It is the 
opinion of a gentleman, who has had opportunities of making abundant en- 
quiries, that tbe fishing for isinglass might be conducted to a great extent. 

* My friend and correspondent alludes to the Salt as sold in the bazaar: it is 

Serfectly white, and pure when first made, but the process of removal, and weighings 
irties it in some degree and the adulteration hj the retail dealer brings on the earth/ 
look he alludes to : 7, not 4, As. is the price given.— I^ T. 

f I beg here to state that what is here stated regarding the coal localities at Kjok 
Phyoo was reported by me to the Secretary of the coal Committee and has since appear- 
ed in Dr. McCleland's Journal. 



144 Fish, Isinglass, Salt, Edible Birds' Nests. *[No. 110. 

Only the day before I arrived, a Chinaman, (the only one indeed who lives 
at Eyok Phyoo) who acts as agent for his conntrymen who trade on the 
coast, bought up five maunds (400 lbs) of these fish sounds for about 25 
rupees a maund. 

A small rock, known as the Pagoda Rock, at the mouth of the harbour, 
furnishes the edible birds' nests in small quantities, and the government 
derives an income from it as well as from wood oil, wax and honey. In 
the year 1835-36, the collections of revenue on account of the edible 
birds' nest found at the island of Ramaee stood at 106 rupees and that 
for the whole Province at 4160 rupees in the Government books, while 
the collections on occount of form of wood oil was 17 rupees— eath oil 
162 rupees— bees wax and honey 660 rupees. The nests the China junks 
carry off. Such are the chief productions of the harbour. Many other 
fish of course abound, but the pomfret, the mullet, the becktee, and the 
oyster stand foremost. 

I must now allude to another subject, and that is one of considerable 
importance. 1 allude to the manufacture of salt. The water of the har- 
bour at Kyok Phyoo contains a much larger quantity of saline matter 
than that in the Snnderbunds. On^comparison it will be seen, I believe, that 
the one holds near 20 per cent more saline matter in solution than the other. 
The government has already taken advantage of this circumstance, and 
has caused Golahs to be erected, whereat they store salt, which the people 
of the Province are but too happy to supply at 4 annas a maand. The 
manufacture is solely by solar evaporation, and the preparation is of the 
finest quality. Such opportunities must demand greater attention, and 
a few years more will probably see this superior article, superseding 
almost to utter extinction, the dirty earthy article which is now obtained 
from the Sunderbunds.* 

One of my earliest enquiries, after landing at the picturesque station of 
Eyok Phyoo, was, to enquire into the progress made in the recent coal 
discovery, t I found that the principal locality here alluded to, was not on / 

the island of Ramree itself, but on a rock off the island about a mile» I 

know by the name of * the Cap Island,' but that minute traces of it had j 

been found at a point of the main island which is nearest in contiguity 

1841.] 2%e Coal Localities. 145 

to this rock. The specimens, which I broaght away will afibrd good 
average pieces of coal and its immediate connected formations. 
1 took an early opportunity of availing myself of the kind offer of 
Mr. Brown, the Marine Assistant to the Commissioner of the pro- 
Tinee, and Col. Hervey, to whose exertions this interesting dis- 
covery 1 believe belongs, to visit the Cap Island and examine the 
formation. I found it partaking, as might be expected, when the general 
character of the line of coast is taken into consideration, of all the 
characters which denote active volcanic agency, — The rock itself is in 
great part make up of sand-stone, but so distorted are the strata by the 
upheaving force, that in places they appear at an acute angle, and even ver- 
tical, while they are so appositely placed as to convey the idea, that at 
this point some confined force had here found an outlet, and split the 
incumbent bed. The rock runs up to a peak. 

On one face of the rock a thick deposit of marly earth is seen^ and on it 
an abundance of vegetation thrives. At the seaward point of the rock, 
and barely above high water mark, the coal is found. The sand-stone 
strata here, though not so highly distorted as in the more central part, 
is still at an acnte angle. It is intersected by a bed of fatty marl of about a 
foot in thickness, and amidst its substance, and sometimes in a shaly depo- 
sit, the lumps of coal are found. I say lumps for as yet no continuous seam 
of coal has been discovered, but all is yet in its infancy, for, besides 
scratching the surface soil for a few inches, nothing has been done to test 
the extent of the formation. 

I confess, when I look at the position of the place, I see no immediate 
prospect of a supply of coals ; and taking the difficulties of keeping out the 
water into consideration, (even supposing that a continuous seam Was 
found) with the great dip of the strata, nothing but an outlay for machinery 
could fairly test it. 

Leaving the Cap island, the next locality that I visited, was the point 
of land oil the island of Ramree, most contiguous to the Cap island. 
From the direction of the outcropping coal strata at the Cap island, it 
was inferred that similar indications might be found at the point of land 
now adverted to, and a close search being made, a formation identical with 
that at the Cap island was found with thin traces of coal. The dip 
here is equally great with that at the Cap island, and would require a 
shaft to be sunk, through the intervening sandstone stratum, to enable 
the searcher to ascertain if a bed of coal of any consistence did e^ist, 
"When I came away Captain Lumsden, the Principal Assistant, was 
sinking two pits at a part of the island, some little way, perhaps half a 


IM TTie CW Locali^g. [No* llO. 

^1 ihnoitibe sfiot where the indScatioDs •£ ooal were obaervedt and the 
laborers had got perhaps ten feet ;* but no effectual effort is likely to be 
madf^nor indeed, is k possible under existing drcumstanees, for it ap« 
pears that no expense is permitted to be inoorred, while of maehinery— 
not even a whim for raising the rubbish or water is erected. 

Every disposition exists on the part of those in authority at Kyok 
Phyoo, to carry out the inTestigation, but they say, and say justly, that they 
have no funds plaeed at their disposal for doing so, and, out of their own 
pocket, it is too much to expect that they should defray the charges. The J 

oonse^ence is, the poor laborers are left to go unpaid, and great disss- < 

tiafaction is feilt accordingly. 

To leave this subject. After visiting the localities now mentioned, a 
proposal was made to sail across the harbour to the eastern point of the 
island, and proceed to the summit of a lofty hill which stood about three 
milesinland, and on which is the cone of an active volcano. The suggestion 
was immediately acceded to, and at four o'clock in the afternoon our 
party began to ascend the n^ged path which conducted to this interest- 
ing object I had heard that two or three other Europeans had already 
visitedthecrater, and that at the close of last year it was emitting smoke 
and ashes* Our companions were several boatmen, and each man, more 
from habit thiMi singularity, carried, the never failing accompaniment of 
a mug a dhoWf which is a large powerful knife .in shape about the size 
of a regulation sword broken of in the middle. 

After various humorous adventures, in the midst of the dense jungle, and 
traversing the cratpr of a small dried up volcano, we succeeded in reaching 
the anxiously sought hill,and when we reached the top,most amply reward* 
ed we were. Never did I behold a more delightful piece of scenery. Ths 
view commanded the whole of the northern portion of the island, and 
that extensively sheltered anchoring ground, before alluded to^ under the 
name of Fletcher Haye^ Straits* 

But to the immediate objects of our visit. The cone was beautifully 
formed of the erupted mud, and covered to the very brink of the centre 
with tbiok verdant grass. Out of it grew luxuriant Casuaiina trees. And 
here I cai^not avoid mentioning a very remarkable circumstance connected 
with the appearance of these trees. Noswhere, as far as I could learn, do 
they appeiur, except on the cones of the volcanos, of which there are 
several, to be found on the island of Bamree. More than once when hid 

* 1 haTe since heard from Captain Lnnuden that the work has been abandoned tf 


1841.] Description of wme JSntietU Gems and Seals, S^c. 147 

•nddst the dense folfflge of the fhreal, and tit a loss in what dirtectioii 
to turn, we songht an open space and searched for the Casuarina trees^ 
and in this manner were attracted to the desired spot On the edge of the 
crater and about the sides of the cone amidst the grass, I picked np shells^ 
(helix P) pieees of indurated clay, qnartz, and clay intersected with 
spar. They all go to show the character of the disrupted material 
The edge of the crater was most uniform, and its diameter wi^ about 
twelve feet. Its interior was filled with warm liquid mad, and on plunging 
down a rod, it passed on for about eight feet, and then stniok in a thick 
pkstic substaiice. After examining it in all directions, and satisfying 
our curiosity to the utmost, we hastened to returti, and at length succeeded 
in reaching the boats, highly gratified and delighted at the soecess of our 
adventure, and the interesting novelty which it had unfolded to ul. 

I left Eyok Phyoo much pleased with the peduliar and many TliriouB 
features which it presents, and returned to Calcutta after an absence of 
three weeks, much improved in health by the excurbidn. 

Description of some Ancient Gems and Se<Js from Jbactria, the 

Punjab and India, 

1. Grbcian. 

Whether it is, that the collection and study of ancient gems and seals, 
is less interesting in itself than the study of coins, or that it leads to less 
immediate and satisfactory results, I am unable to day ; but perhaps both 
of these reasons may have combined to render the one less attractive than 
the other. But whether from one or from both of these causes the effect 
has been the almost total neglect of this study in India ; although the 
sp^mens scattered amongst the numerom individual collections musft 
ndw be valuable, as well as easily accessible. Some of these I have tol- 
lected together in the accompanying plate, in the hope that others may be 
induced to make public what they may have stored up in their cabi- 

The earliest notice of an ancient gem procured in India, of which I am 
aware, is in Vincent's Aticient Commerce, vol. 2, p. 760, where be makes 
mention of * an emerald belonging to the Archbishop of York, engraved 
with a Medusa^s head, of Grecian sculpture, and brought from Benares/ 
And in the Trans, of the Royal Asiatic Society vol. 3, page 139, there is an 
engraving of * an ancient Hindu intaglio,' with a lottg rambling description, 
by Colonel Tod. The gem itself is a beautiful one, representing Hercules 

148 Description of some Ancient Gems and Sealsy Sfc. QNo. 110. 


naked, his head diademed, leaning his left hand on his club, and holding 
out in his right hand a little figure of victory, which is extending a 
wreath towards the hero ; to the right are two Sanscrit letters, one above 
the other, in the same position, and apparently of the same age, as those 
we see on the coins of the Guptas, forming the word Aja ; which is pro- 
bably only a monogramatic contraction for Ajaya^ the invincible, a very 
appropriate epithet for the ever victorious Hercules. 

I have no doubt that many other notices of ancient gems procured in 
India may be found with a little search ; but I have neither the time to 
look for them, nor the ability to elucidate them, should my search be 
successful ; and I therefore trust that the brief remarks, which. I am 
about to make, may be received with indulgence. 

No. 1. Brown translucent agate, procured at Benares. Bare and 
bearded head of Hercules to the left, his hair short and curling ; his great 
strength shown by his short brawny neck ; and his club placed behind 
his head. This seal is of beautiful workmanship, and in exceedingly 
bold relief and the engraved parts are highly polished. 

No. 2. In Colonel Stacy's collection, purchased, I believe, at Delhi. It 
represents Omphale standing, inclined to the left, and bearing the club 
and lion's skin belonging to Hercules ; she having given him her distaff 
and bright colored robe in exchange for them. The engraving of this 
gem is well-done, but it is not in my opinion at all equal to the other — 
and yet her air of fancied strength assumed with the spoils of the Ne- 
mean lion, and the hero's club, is capital ; and the making her grasp 
the club with both hands, displays at once both the woman^s weakness, 
and the nice observation of the artist. 

As these gems represent mythological persons of ancient Greece, they 
must have been brought into India from the North West, and as many 
gems are yearly discovered in ancient Bactria, I have little doubt that these» 
and indeed all gems purchased in India which bear Grecian subjects, 
must have come originally from ancient Bactria, the seat of the nearest 
Grecian colony, and where we know, from the beauty of the earlier Bac- 
trian coins, that the arts must have flourished in the greatest perfection. 

If these gems then owe their origin to Bactria, it is not improbable that 
the two just described may have been, engraved during the long and pros- 
perous reign of Euthedymus, all of whose gold and silver coins, yet dis- 
covered, bear the figure of Hercules ; for it is but natural to suppose, that 
a Prince, who for so long a time exhibited this deified hero upon his coins, 
would likewise have had the head, the figure, and even the history of the 

OEMS an J S 


t it 


es is 



















184L] Description of some Ancient Gems and Seals^ Sfc, 149 

same personage engraved upon his seals.* Such at least is my opinion, 
which is greatly strengthened by the beauty and depth of the engraving, 
and by the peculiar mode of representing the short curly hair, which is 
the very same style that we see upon the tetradrachms of Euthydemus. 

Ko. 3. A red cornelian, much worn and slightly fractured below, 
having a bare youthful head to the left, with a scarcely perceptible beard 
and long curling hair, with the chlamys fastened upon his shoulder. The 
execution of this seal is very beautiful *, and the relief is bold, deep and 
highly polished. It was procured at Lucknow, but I am not sure that it 
may not owe its origin to modern Europe ; the antique chlamys, however, 
gives it a delightful claim to be considered ancient, which the beauty of 
its workmanship makes me unwilling to dispute. 

No. 4. A small red cornelian, purchased at Amritsir. Its execution is 
very inferior, and shows that it must belong to a declining period of the 
arts in Bactria. It represents Mercury half turned to the left, with his 
chlamys or short cloak over his shoulders, his caduceus in his left hand, 
and an undecided object in his right hand. 

No. 5. A Siilimdni, or light brown translucent agate, having a middle 
layer of milk white chalcedony, from Benares. It is of excellent make, 
but is very much worn, only a few strokes of a long inscription being now 
visible. On it are represented two standing figures, male and female. 
The female to the left is clothed to the feet, her head is surmounted by a 
basket, and encircled by a halo — she holds in her left hand a cornucopia, 
and in her right a torch, under which is an undecided object, resembling 
a bird. To the right the male figure is clothed to the knees, — his head 
dress is surmounted by a pair of wings^ and his head encircled by a halo : 
he holds a trident in his left hand, and his right hand is raised towards 
the cornucopia held by the female figure. Between the two figures is 
a pitcher, and over them an indistinct object. 

The two figures on this gem are, I believe, from their peculiar emblems 
and attributes, Osiris and Isis, or the Sun and Moon, as deified by the 
%yptians. Though the worship of these divinities was popular enough 
in later Rome, yet I think it was never so amongst the Greeks, and more 
especially not amongst the distant Greeks of Bactria ; wherefore I am 

Since writiog the above, I have receired from Capt. Hay, impressions of two cop- 
per coins of Demetrius, both of which have the head of Hercules bare and bearded as 
on this seal, and with the club behind the head. I am therefore inclined to belieVb 
Tk ^ ^^^ ^^^^ ^^^ bearded head on the copper coins of Euthydemus is that of Hercules. 
_*he discovery of these coins of Demetrius bearing precisely the same type as the seal, 
in my opinion almost confirms the correctnMS of what I have advanced as to the period 
vnen this may have been executed. 

ISO Deweripium ^mtme AmaetaGem mid Seab^ tec, [No. tlO. 

Jed to mppose that this stone mqrbave been engraired in Egypt daring 
the fostering and happy gofenunent of the earlier Ptolemies. 

No. 6. A red cornelian, of barbarons execation; Two standing figures 
male and female, with a cross be'tween them, the male figure holding op 
a wreath in his left hand. Though this is probably the work of modem 
days imitated from an antique, yet many seals of equally barbarous work- 
manship are yearly found in ancient Bactria, all of which most probably 
belong to the latest period of the Grecian dominion in that country. 

Ko. 7* A white cornelian of milky hue, very thick and round, haying 
a hole piiedrced firom the top to the bottom. It represents a male figure \ 

standing to the front, his face turned to the right, he is dad in the Indian 
dhotif and wears the sacred thread across his breast ; flames spring from 
the top of his head, which is encircled by a halo. In his right hand he 
holds a trident, and in his left hand, which is placed on his hip, he carries 
a lota, or drinking vessel ; and a loose robe, or ehadr hangs over his left 
arm. Legend to the left in Bactrian Pali characters iP'h^n^ which 

is probably some compound of jas (Sanskrit VW) fame; such as 

Jasvatisa (fori|tlfc|(f)) 'of the renowned.' 

This beautiful gem came from Cabool : the execution is good, and the 
design graceful ; the position of the body is easy and unrestrained ; the 
limbs are free, and the outline of the figure and the folds of the drapery 
are naturally and simply expressed. The figure is the same as that we 
find on the coins of the Indo-Scythian Eadphises, excepting that the 
face is turned in a contrary direction. The Indian dhoti, and the sacred 
poita of the superior castes are so distinct on this gem, that I cannot hesi- 
tate in ascribing its origin to India, and in assigning it to the period 
when the Indo-Scythian Eadphises reigned over the Punjab and Cabool. 
In execution this seal is decidedly equal, if not superior, to the finest gold 
coins of Eadphises, and I cannot therefore be far wrong in attributing its 
age to the reign of that Prince, who must have flourished before Eaner- 
ka$ for the money of the latter became the type of several series of the ' 

Indian coins down to so late a period as the Mahomedan invasion : while 
the coins of Eadphises were not imitated except by his immediate succes] 
Bors, who may have issued the barbarous gold coins with a man and bull 
on the reverse, (see Figs. 45, pi. 38, vol. 4, J. A. S. of Bengal.) 

On a few gold specimens, and on all the copper coins of Eadphises, the 
figure which we see on this gem, is represented standing before a bull, and 
not alone, as on the commoner gold coins of that Prince ; and this is also 
the way in which the Deity is placed on the gold and copper coins of the 

1841 •] Vesmptum of mm Ancieni Gm$ tmd Seals, ife. 151 

unknown primee, notioed above u being one of the eaeeeflson of Kad^hiset • 
On those coins we invariably find the legend OCPO. which is no doubt 
tile name of the ignve; and consequently we may pretty safely take thjs 
word OCPO to be the equivalent of the Bactrian Pali legend of the gem* 
Now Professor Lassen has happily explained Okro, by Ugra^ a name of. 
Siva, of whom indeed the trident and the sacred bull Nundi^ are peculiar 
and unmistakeable attributes : and hence it fdlows that the figure on 
the seal must be that of the God Siva. 

No. 8. A Cameo, in the collection of- Sir Alex. Bumes, of most admir« 
able workmanship, in bold and beautiful relief. It represents a half length 
of Silenus tothe right; his head bald and bearded, and bound with a 
wreath of vine leaves ; with a flat nose, sparkling eye, and laughing, all 
betokening the merry companion of Bacchus. He is holding up his left 
hand before his &ce with the fore -finger, and little finger raised, and in 
his right hand he is carrying his drinking can in a sloping direction. 
A thyrsus is placed behind him, and his robe is thrown over his right 

In this exquisite little gem Silenus appears, cup in hand, telling some 
humorous story, replete with the wine-inspired wit, broad fun, and 
shrewd pithy remarks for which he was celebrated : the sly expression of 
his face is excellent; and his jolly corpulent figure reminds us at ,once 
of ' laughter holding both his sides ;' while the sloping way in which he 
holds his cup shows either that it is empty, or that he is so tipsy, and so 
taken up with his story, which he is impressing with the action of his 
left hand more earnestly upon his hearers, as not to know that he is 
losing his wine ; or we may suppose that, having drained the cup, he 
is exclaiming < Papaiapoex !— what a sweet taste it has V 

The exceeding beauty of this exquisite little Cameo of the Grecian 
Falstaff, proves that it must have been engraved at a time when the arts in 
Bactria were in the very highest perfection ; and consequently during the 
earliest period of the Bactrian power : and I think it highly probable 
that this gem may have been executed diuring the reign of Agathocles, 
whose coins usually exhibit devises belonging to the worship of Bacchus ; 
and no doubt upon his seals and gems there were represented stories 
and figures emblematic of the same worship. 

The coins of Agathocles, are, in my opinion, the most beautiful of the 
Bactrian series as works of art, and therefore I am inclined to place him 
before Euthydemus and Demetrius in the list of Bactrian Princes ; and 
to. assign him the country of the Parapamisades as his kingdom, Nysa 
or Diooysopalis for his capital, in which ' City of Dionysus ' I suppose 

152 Description of some Ancient- Gems and Seals^ Sfc, [No. 110. 

that this heaatifal Cameo of Silenus was engraved, at the fome time that 
the Bacchic coins of Agathocles were united ; that is ahoat 240 B.C. 

No. 9. A red cornelian, in the collection of Sir Alex. Bumes. It is 
of coarse execution, although its design is good ; and is probably only a 
copy of a better gem. 

No. 10. Likewise in the collection of Sir Alex. Bumes ; this seal is 
of very inferior execution ; the subject is similar to that of the coins of 
the Grecian colony of Falisci in Italy. 

2. Sassanian. 

No. 11. A red cornelian, from Amritsir, very thick, and with a hole 
near the top for suspension ; the two streamers to the right are just the 
same as those that we see upon the Sassanian coins. 

Nos. 12 and 13. These were sent to Mr. Prinsep by a gentleman re- 
siding in Persia ; on No. 13 there is a Peblvi inscription, but I am not 
able to offer any thing myself regarding its interpretation. 

No. 14. In the possession of Colonel Stacy. 

3. Hindu. 

In the . Journal of the Bengal Asiatic Society for 1837> at page 968 
Mr. Prinsep says — ' General Ventura has also brought down with him some 
beautiful specimens of seals of the same age, which I shall take an early 
opportunity of engraving and describing.' Unfortunately this opportanity 
was lost by Mr. Prinsep's sadden illness. He had however sent me an 
impression of the principal seal referred to, (No. 15) which I will now 

No. 15. A plain thin eomelian, bearing a beautiful female head to the 
right, the hair plaited in two braids over the fore part of the head, and 
gathered into a large bow at the back, where it is tied by a ribbon, the 
ends of which float behind. Her shoulder is covered by a robe, from 
the midst of which her right hand appears, holding a lotus flower before 
her face. Inscription below in ancient Sanscrit, KSsava-Ddsasya^ (Seal) 
of Kesava-Das, the servant of Vishnu. 

At what period this lovely gem was engraved can only be ascertained 
approximately by an examination of the forms of the Sanskrit characters ; 
of which the letters k and rf, and the inflected vowels are similar to those 
found in the inscription recording the repairs of the bridge near Itinagurh, 
which we know must be subsequent to Asoka, or after B.C. 200 ; while 
the s and sy are of a later period, and similar to those found in the in* 
crtptions of the Gapta family, which, in my opinion, cannot be later than 
A.D. 400. The peculiar formation of the sy, I consider to be one of the 

1841.} Deseripticm of some Ancient Gems and Seals^ Sfc. 153 

best tests for ascertaining the age of a Sanskrit inscription, and therefore 
1 feel inclined to believe that this seal is of the age of the Guptas. If 
the name may be considered as a title declaratory of the religion of the 
owner of the seal, we shall have a direct proof that Kesava Dds (the 
servant of Vishnu) was of the Braminical faith ; which, coupled with 
the probable age which I have already assigned to this seal, would fix 
the period of its execution to the reign of one of the earlier Vaishnava 
Guptas, and before the date of the Saiva Skanda Gupta. In the same 
way, taking the name as a declaration of the faith of Kesava Das, we have 
a clue to the owner of the beautiful face engraved upon this seal, who 
can be no other than Sat or Lakshmi, the consort of Vishnu, and the 
goddess of wealth, beauty, and prosperity, who is usually represented 
with a lotus in her hand. It is even possible that this seal may have he* 
longed to Chandra Gupta himself; for the small copper coins of that 
Prince (vide vol. 5* pi. 38. Fig. 13 and 14. J.A.S. of Bengal) bear a 
similar bust with the hand raised before the face, and holding a lotus 
blossom ; beneath which is the Prince's name. This remarkable coinci- 
dence of subject between the seal and the coins, coupled with the simi- 
larity of the characters of the inscription ta those of the age of the Guptas» 
still further strengthens the opinion which I have expressed above, that 
this seal was engraved during the reign of one of the earlier Vaishnava 
Guptas, towards the end of the fourth century after Christ. 

The lithographer has completely failed in copying my sketch of this 
beautiful seal : for, instead of a frowning elderly lady, the original re- 
presents a young and lovely girl with a gentle smite upon her face. In 
beauty and excellence of workmanship this gem rivals the finest coins 
of the Bactrian Mint ; the face is exquisitely delineated, and the position 
of the hand peeping out from the loo3e robe or Hindu chadr, is graceful 
and easy. Unfortunately on the gold coins of the Guptas there are no 
busts with which we may compare the delicate engravingr of this seal ; in 
my opinion, however, it is far superior to many of the Gupta coins, and 
is perhaps even superior to the best of them ; with the small copper coins 
no just comparison can be made, for they are few in number, and are all 
deficient in preservation. 

No. 16. A brooch set round with turquoises, presented to Mr. James 
Prinsep by General Ventura. The engraving is from a rough pen- 
and-ink sketch by Mr. Prinsep— Below the head is an inscription 
in ancient Sanskrit, Sr% Kodhharasya '(Seal) of Sri Kodbhara, the 
upholder or supporter of the fortress*. The initial Sri of this seal, which, 
is of a later form than we find in the Gupta inscriptions, proves that 


1&4 Description of same Ancient Gems and Seals, Sfc. [No. IIO. 

it must have been engraved subsequent to A. D. 450, the latest period 
which 1 can assign to any of the Gupta family. 

No, 17* Likewise in the collection of General Ventura^ there is a 
head upon this seal, but not so beautifully executed as that upon No. 
15. The inscription^ in ancient Sanskrit, is Ajila Vermmasya^ (seal) of 
Ajita ^ Yermma. From the forms of the characters I should say that this 
seal was of the age of the Guptas. 

No. 18. A red cornelian, in the possession of Mr. B. Elliott of Patna. 
This seal is Texy neatly engraved, and is no doubt as old as the most ' ^ 
flourishing period of the Guptas, and perhaps even older. The legend 
of this seal will be found engraved as No. 15. pi. 56, vol. 6. J. A. S. of 
Bengal, where Mr. Frinsep reads it bbSH Lokandvasya, (8eal)of SrlLoka- 
nava, or, the boatman of the world : but on the sealing-wax impression^ 
which I have now before me» the legend is clearly Sri Lakorckhdoastfo^ 
(seal) of Sri Loka-chhava, or the ornament of the world ; from |[[f^ 
beauty or splendor. 

No. 19. A chalcedonic agate, or SuHmdni, from Ujain, in the cabinet 
of the late Mr. James Prinsep. It is published in the J. A. S..of Ben-^ 
gal, vol 6. pi. 36, Fig. 23, where Mr. Prinsep reads the inscription as 
Sri Yati-khuddasya. '(Seal) of Sri Yati-khudd.'* 

No. 20. A small agate, having the letters cut through an upper layer 
of milk white chalcedony. It was originally in Colonel Stacy's col- 
lection, and is evidently only a fragment, for on the left side matks 
of the cutting tools are still quite plain, while the other sides are polished. 
The left side is likewise perpendicular while the other sides are 
sloping towards the face of the seal. The remaining letters in ancient 
Sanskrit are tiasya. '(Seal) of (Da) tta« 

No. 21. In the possession of General Court. It is an oblong staU 
with a recumbent animal above the inscriptions^ which is in ancient 
Sanskrit, and reads Tiva-datasya. * (Seal) of Tiva Datta,* or, the giver 
of wisdom. 

No. 22. A copper seal, originally in the collection <^ Colonel Staeyi 
having a Bull butting to the left^ with an ancient Sanskrit inscriptioa 
on two sides, which is probably Amogha-hhutasa* * (Seal) o£ Amoghac 
bhuta', or the mortal without vanity, that is, the humble individual. 
Now this the very title which Rajah Kunanda takes on his silver and cop- 

* Of the same age as this seal is another small oval one from Pesbiwur, (broDeht 
to my notice by Or. CbaproaD) bearing the legeod Sci Kshatrapasya * (aeal) of art 
Kahatrapa' or the fortunate satiap. 

1841.] Description of some Ancient Gems and Seals, Sfc* 155 

per coins (see Nos. 2, 3, 4 and 7, vol. 7« pi* 32, J. A. S. of Bengal) the 
whole inscription being AnMgha-bhutasa'nuihmajasa'-rnjnyii^Kunandasaf 
(coin) of the humble individual, the great king of kings, Kunanda. la 
the same way we find that the title of Aprati-ratha, or the invincible- 
in-bis- chariot, which is applied in the Allahabad inscription to Samudra 
Qupta, is repeated upon his coins : — ^and I have no doubt therefore that the 
epithet of Amogha-bhuta on this seal refers to Kunanda, and that the seal 
is of the same age as the coins. But on the coins the legends are in 
two different characters, of one common language ; the legend of the 
obverse being in Indian Pali; thus proving that these two characters were in 
contemporaneous use, andiikewise from the occurrence of the Indian PaU 
qn the obverse, or principal side of the coin, showing clearly that Kunanda 
was a native of India proper, and not of India beyond the Indus where the 
Bactrian Pali characters prevailed. The same fact indeed may be gathered 
from the use of Indian Pali only on the seal. But that he possessed terri- 
tory upon the banks of the Indus is undeniably attested by the use of 
the Bactrian Pali upon his coins, and by the localities in which they 
have been discovered, some of which are to the westward of the I ndus, 
even as far as Kabul. Such being the extent of his territory, it now 
only remains to ascertain at what period a, prince nan\ed Kunanda reign- 
ed over Northern India and the Punjab. In the first place then we 
know by the shape of the letter m that this seal must be anterior to the 
period of the Guptas, and the same may be said for the coins, on which 
also we bave the additional evidence from the forms of the h and n, 
that Kunanda cannot be later than Asoka. The occurrence of Bactrian 
Pali on his coins is likewise in favor of this early date, for that charac- 
ter appears to have fallen into disuse towards the close of the second 
century after Christ, or perhaps a quarter of a century later, when the 
followers of the Brahminical faith, with the assistance of the Agniculas 
(whom I believe to have been the fire worshipping Sussanians) had gain* 
ed the ascendancy in India over the votaries of Buddha. The use of 
the Pali termination Sa, for the Sanskrit Sya, proves that Kunanda was 
a Buddhist, and this is still further confirmed by his title, which whe- 
ther it be read as Amogha-UiiUa, the humble mortal, or as Amdya-bhuta, 
the guileless mortal, which is perhaps the preferable reading, is in strict 
accordance with the professed meekness and lowliness of a zealous 
Buddhist, and is at the same time utterly at variance with the grandiloquent 
titles assumed by the arrogant Brahmanists. We have thus deduced 
that Kunanda, who ruled over Northern India even beyond the river 
Indus, was a Buddhist Prince, and that he flourished certainly not later 

tM Description of some Ancient Vlems and Secdsy ^e. [No* 110» 

than the reign of Asoka. Now it is almost certain that the successors 
of Asoka were driven out of the country upon the Kabul river by the 
Bactrian Greeks under Demetrius the son of Euthydemus, and it is 
quite certain that from the period of the war between Eucratides and 
Pemetrius ' King of the Indians,' until the decay of the Indo-Scythian 
power about A. D. 220, no Hindu Prince ruled over the territory on the 
banks of the Indus. We have thus two distinct proofs that Ennanda 
cannot have flriurished later than the era of Asoka, and since we cannot 
identify him with that prince whose other name was Piya-dasi, we must 
look earlier in the list for some king whose recorded history will agree 
with the deductions made from our examination of his seal and coins. 
The name given in the Grecian authors to Asoka's father is Amitrochates, 
which can only be the corruption of some title assumed by Bindusara, 
but notwithstanding the near coincidence of sound which Amilro-chates 
bears to Amaya-bhuta or Amogha-bhuta, it is quite impossible to identi- 
fy them, as the first was a Brahmanist, while Kunanda, as we have 
shown, was a Buddist. It is equally impossible to identify him with 
the Brahmin ical Chandra Gupta Maurya ] but amongst his immediate 
predecessors, the nine Nandast the only difficulty seems to be with 
which of them he is to be identified. This is however a matter of little 
consequence, as the elder Nanda Mdhdpadma, and his eight sons reign- 
ed conjointly for one hundred years previous to the accession of Chan* 
dra Gupta, in about B.C. 312. The nine Nandas were therefore contem* 
poraries of Alexander the Great* 

Of the first Nanda Mah^padma it is said in the Vishnu and Bh^gavut 
Pur^nas ' he will bring the whole earth under one umbrella, his rule 
being irresistible.' He was therefore a powerful monarch. That he 
was a Buddhist however, I cannot affirm ; although the following pas- 
sage from Wilson's translation of the Mudra Rd.kshasa, would seem to 
countenance the opinion that the Prince and even his councillors were 
ofthcitfaith. See Hindu Theatre, vol. 2 pp. 159 60, where Chdnakya the 
Brahman says, 

There is a fellow of my studies, deep 

In planetary influence and policy, 

The Brahman Indaaerma ; him 1 sent, 

When first I vowed the death of Nanda, hither ; 

And here repairing as a Bauddha mendicant^ 

He gpeedily contrived to form acquaintance 

Axxdi friendthip with the royal councillors. 

Above them all does R^kshasa repose 

In him implicit confidence. 

It is hardly possible that King Nanda and his councillors would have 
admitted a Bauddha mendicant to their friendship, bad they been Brah- 

1841.] Description of some Ancient Gems and Seals^ Sfc^ 157 

manists; for there can scarcely have been less pollution to a Hinclu in 
the friendship than in the contact of a Buddhist. The Bb^ganat Fura- 
na also says that Nanda and his successors were ' Sudras, void of piety* 
The Vishna Purina adds that he was avaricious ; and they both agree in 
stating that a Brahman was the chief agent in destroying the nine 
Kandas. Avarice and want of piety are the usual sins attributed to any 
Prince who neither respects nor entertains the Brabmans ; and such sins 
would of course be committed by eveiy Buddhist King ; who like Asoka 
would have turned out all the Brabmans supported at the royal expense 
and have entertained Buddhist priests in their place. 1 cannot there- 
fore help suspecting that as a Brahman was the chief conspirator 
against the Nandas it is more probable that the rebellion was only a re* 
ligious struggle for political ascendancy, in which the Brahman Kautilya 
succeeded in establishing the authority of his own caste and religion 
under the new King Chandra Gupta ; than that it was a justifiable up- 
rising of the people, occasioned by the avarice and tyranny of Nanda. 

Nanda himself was called Mahapadma ; his wife was called Sumanda ; 
and his eight sons, according to the Vishnu and Bh^ganat Pur^nas, were 
* Sumalya and others.* To one of these nameless princes then I would 
attribute this seal, if not to the elder Nanda Mahapadma himself, to 
whom the coins almost certainly belong : — for it appears from the Rajah 
Taringini that the younger or junior Rajas were not allowed the pri- 
vilege of coining in their own names ; and therefore the eight sons of 
Nanda, who reigned conjointly with their father can scarcely have 
struck any coins : — but whether the seal belongs to the father or to one 
of his sons, its age is not affected by the uncertainty ; and we may there- 
fore consider it as old at least as the time of Alexander the Great. 

No. 23. Copper.— This seal cannot I think be more than three hun- 
dred years old, and perhaps not even so much. The inscription in mo- 
dem Devanagari is Sri Hara Deva-ji sahdya pardmanda. The fortunate 
Hara D^va, the companion of happiness. 

Alexander Cunningham. 

Note, — A eem identical with No. 2 of the plate supplied me by Lt. CunniDgham 
is noted by Bayer (the first investigator ofBactrian history) as No. 37 in the splen- 
did collection of gems belonging to Martin Von Ebermayer, a wealthy merchant of 
Nttremburg, which he illustrated in a very erudite work under the following title : — 
' Gemmarum Affabre Sculptarum Thesaurus, quem suis sumptibus baud exiguis, nee 
parvo studio collegit lo. Mart, ab Ebermayer.* The engravings of the collection which 
accompany the letter press are exceedingly well executed : a copy of the work ( Fol. 
ed. prin.) is in my possession and now liesbetore me. The design, from Bayer*8 note 
upon it, would appear to have been a favorite one ; he speaks of two other gems (Thes. 
autiq. Grsec.) not dissimilar, which Angustin held to represent not Omphale but lole, 
but he afterwards abandoned that opinion, and declared the figure (as did also Be^ero 

C 158 3 

Modeof taking facsimiles of coins, — By Vincent TrboeaB, Esq. 

The coin is placed between two dices of lead, and the whole com* 
pressed, either by a lever or screw, till the coin is well indented into the 
lead, from which latter impressions, the wax ones are made, and, being 
in relief, are of course far better than if taken from the coin itself. 

To form the dice, a piece of plank, about one-third of an inch thick, 
is bored though with a centre bit somewhat smaller than the coin to be 
copied, it is then cut into halves, to facilitate the removal of the lead which 
18 cast into it, the mould being placed in a piece of smooth wood, or still d 

better, on a piece of dry brick rubbed very smooth. The bottom of the 
dice may not be smooth at first but will be so after a few castings have 
heated the brick, or it may be heated on the fire while the lead is melting. 
The best mould is a brass ring, the hole being bored or turned slightly 
conical then by merely raising it the lead falls out ; it should be ^ud on 
a piece of brass nicely polished, which will give the lead a bright smooth 
face. A screw press is the best, but a simple lever will answer every pur- 
pose ; care being taken to keep all level that the coin may sink equally 
into the lead, and the pressure must be removed when the edges of the lead 
meet or nearly so, according to the thickness of the coin. There is very 
little danger of injuring the coin, the lead being the softer metal, but if 
from any cause, the relief, for instance, on one side falling opposite a 
hollow or plain surface on the other, there should be a chance of deform- 
ing it, the best plan is to take each side separately, the opposite one 
being imbedded in sealing wax. 

To obtain a perfect impression from the leaden dice they should be 
heated, which is most conveniently done by melting a small quantity of 
sealing wax* and leaving the dice on it while the wax for the impression 

Thes. Palat') to be none bat Ompkale^ * acciiratiore carminis Ovidiani consideratioDe 
inductos, * as Bayer mforms us. He himself is cautious as to ^Ting a decisive opi- 
nion, saying in nis description of the gem, ' Idle, nisi potius OmphaIiB, aroasia 
Hekculis, cajos eaclavam, et leoninum integuinentum jocose oblatum gestat.' The 
identity of the design could not be more satisfactorily proved than by the * jocose obla- 
tum * of Bayer, compared with Lt. Cunningham's similar expression. This instance of 
the discovery in the East of the duplicates oi gems of Grecian origin extant in the 
West is not the only one which 1 shall shortly have it in my power to eit^ pre- 
senting more remarkable features than those of mere identity. 

A gem (No. 4, Tab. YI.) of the Ebermayer collection is also nearly identical with 
No. 9, of the plate beftre us. It represents with better execution, a crow seated on, 
instead of bestde (as in No. 9), a low shrub, in exactly the same attitude as in our 
gem. This may represent the crow, Bayer suggests, sacred to Apollo, ' nisi rectius 
censuit (1 c. 19) Gronovius, quod sit cornix ab ilice jnradicens decanlata Virgilic* 
The attitude and expression of the bird fully favour the ingenious suggestion, but it is 
singular to fiud a passage in the Bucolics £d. iX. illustrated on a gem from, Aff« 

* This wax can be used to heat several seals with. 

1841.] Report on the Soda Soib of ike BarramahaL 159 

18 preparing, for the latter an argued lamp is the best as it does not dis« 
coloor wax. a quantity must be dropped on a card sufficient to form the 
sealf and then the whole re-heated and the warm lead pressed down while 
the wax is very hot, but not so long as any air bubbles continue to rise^ 
and it would be better to mix the wax with a thin bit of stick, drawing it 
aomewbat towards the centre \ the lead should not be removed until the 
wax is quite hard, and then, if the operation has been carefally performed 
the im[»eB8ion will be found as perfect as the coin itself. 1 have found 
the common hard yellow wax of the bazaar to tike the most legible 
impreasion and would recommend the use of it in preference to any 
other colour. 

I beg to suggest that the Society make a collection of such impres- 
sioDSy which would be valuable aa a means of reference, particularly in 
the case of such coins as are taken from the country. They should not 
be shut up in a cabinet, but placed in frames, formed of a thick plank 
bored with holes of a fit size and covered with a glass front fitting close 
to the surface of the wood — the metal of the coin might be indicated,- 
as in engravings, by its initial letter placed between the impressions ; and 
the legend written above it, the whole classed and arranged in chronolo- 
gical order as far as possible. For the sake of uniformity the Society 
might decide on a particular coloured wax to be used in all impressions 
made for their collection, and the cards used should be left uncut, to be 
subsequently fitted to the holes in the frames which, of course, would 
be all of one size. 

The Society would thus have the benefit of a large collection without 
any expense, and I have no doubt that every one who has a collection 
would gladly take the little trouble required to furnish copies of his coins. 
I must repeat there is no danger of harming most coins, as my friend 
Capt. Cunningham and myself have subjected our own to the ordeal 
without rajury. 

Report on the Soda Soils of the Barramahal. By Captai!^ Camf- 

BBLL, Assistant Surveyok General. 

Soda soils are very common in the principal plain of the Baramahal in 
the Salem District, which is bounded on the North by the Hills o£ 
Congoondy, on the East by the Jawaudy Hills, on the South by the. 
id>rttpl break in the levels at the Topeor Ghaut, and on the west by the 

hills of Boycottah. 
In ext£nt they are generally not more than about | a mile square i the 

360 Heport on ike Soda Soils of the Barramahai. [No*. llOl 

soil is sandy and incapable of supporting vegetation, no herb growing on- 
them, but a scanty scrubby grass. In general they lay upon a bed of 
£unkur, which is sometimes, as near Paulcode, of considerable depth. 

These beds of soda soil are well known to the natives, who call them 
in Tamul, Chour Munno— and extract the soda for the purpose of fluxing 
powdered white quartz to make bangles with. The Dhobee& also collect 
the earth, and by lixivating it make a solution of soda which they use in 
washing clothes by adding quick lime, to make the solution caustic But 
80 ignorant are they in general of the principle of the mode of use, that ^ 

they often convey the earth sometimes flfty miles, not being aware that 
the labour of carriage might be decreased by extracting the salt. 

The Bangle makers extract the impure soda by mixing the earth with 
water in a pit, and allowing it to settle, the solution is then drawn off, 
and evaporated by sprinkling it on cowdung spread upon the surface of a 
granite rock. When the cake has become about half an inch in thick- 
ness, it is taken off and is broken into pieces, in which state it is called 
Chour Billah and is stored in houses for use, sometimes to the amount of 
400 maunds. 

The Chour Billah is sold at the rate of 17 i Rupees per ton, and con- 
tains 23 per cent, of insoluble matter, the ^liible part being in greatest ( 
part all carbonate of soda with a little vegetable and extractive matter, 
and some muriate and sulphate of soda in small quantity. A solution of 
it will not crystallize in consequence of the extractive matter, and the 
natives are quite ignorant of the mode of crystallizing it,, and do not 
even know that it contains a salt. 

In Bengal soda soils are also found, but according to Dr. O^Shaughnessy,. 
(Manual of Chemistry, page 227) it contains 15 per cent, of sulphate of 
soda, which salt being more soluble in hot than cold water cannot be se- 
parated by crystallization from the carbonate, and the product of these 
soils in Bengal cannot therefore be applied to any useful purpose unless 
the very expensive process of decomposing the sulphate by fusion in a 
furnace is resorted to. 

Being engaged in an extensive chemical examination of the minerals 
of this district in which pure carbonate of soda is required in consider- 
able quantity as a flux, and as the price of the salt as vended in retail at 
Madras is very great, it has occurred to me to endeavour to supply the 
want from the mineral resources of the country. 

: I have found by experiment that a very pure carbonate of soda may be 
separated from the crude soda, which the soils of Barramahal yield by. 
simply charring the Chour Billah, or the residue, after evaporating to dry* 

1B41.] Report on the Soda Sfnis of the Barramakal. 161 

ness in a gentle heaty b]r which the extractive and vegetable matters are 
eonverted into charcoal, and can then be simply extracted by filterings and 
the solution will then crystallise on evaporating to a pellicle. The first 
crystallization gives a tolerably pure soda, coloured a little by the impuri- 
ties, but after crystallizing 3 or 4 times the crystals are beautifully white 
and transparent, and after six crystallizations, the salt is so pure as hardly 
to give any precipitate wiih nitrate of silver or nitrate of barytes after 
sapersaturation with nitric acid, denoting thereby the nearly total absence 
of any muriate or sulphate. 

In England great quantities of carbonate of soda are required in glass 
making, soap making and dyeing. This was formerly prepared from the 
Spanish Barilla, which contains, according to Dr. I^re, muriate and suU 
phate of soda, lime and abnmina, and only at most 24 per cent, of soda. 
A large quantity was also made from kelp prepared in the Scottish Isles, 
but this is no longer manufactured, as it has been found that in conse- 
quence of the cheap price of sulphuric aoid, soda can be manufactured by 
decomposing the muriate of soda (common salt; at a price which remu- 
nerates the manufacturer. 

In this operation the muriate is first decomposed by heating it in leaden 
vessels with sulphuric acid, by which the muriatic gas is driven off and 
which is condensed and allowed to run to waste as of no value, the demand 
in the arts for muriatic acid being very small. The resnlting sulphate of 
soda is then mixed with charcoal and some lime, and is roasted by a 
powerful heat in a reverberatory furnace by which it is partly decomposed 
and formed into sulphurate of soda, which by further heat and stirring is 
again decomposed and the sulphur volatilized and an impure mixture of 
carbonate of soda ashes, and eharcoal results, which is called in trade 
' black balls,' and is an article of commerce. 

This impure product is then further purified by solution in water, fil- 
tering, and evaporation to dryness without crystallizing, in which state it 
is called * Soda Ash* and is used by the glass blowers. 

The salt is still very impure, being mixed with sulphate and muriate of 
Soda, and does not contain its full equivalent of carbonic acid, being in 
fact a mixture of caustic and carbonate of soda. 

For the makers of plate glass who require a very pure carbonate of soda 
as a flux, to prevent the chance of the glass being discoloured, the soda 
ash is mixed with sawdust, and is again fused in a powerful furnace, by 
which it is fully carbonized and rendered capable of crystallizing. It is 
then dissolved in water, and is crystallized once for the use of the plate 
glass makers, and six or seven times for the use of apothecaries, in the 


103 Repert on iht Soda Soiis of the Barr4m€ihal. [Now 110. 

latter state it is sold for 10 pence per pound retail or 52 per cent wholesale. 
In this state I have found by experiment that the article is exactly the 
same as the product before described, and the two are therefore equally 

For the plate glass makers the necessity of having the fiux pure is 
so great, that the expensive process of decomposing common salt by 
pearlash (carbonate of potash) is sometimes resorted to and the resalt- 
iog muriate of potash being a little crystal lizable, the carbonate of soda is 
separated by evaporation and crystallization. 

The cost of manufacture from the Indian mineral soda cannot be ( 
ascertained but by extensive experiment, bjit as it will be seen that 
the process I hai:e ^described, is very much tne same as that in 
making saltpetre, the inference, that the expense will be nearly the 
same in both manufactures, may be allowed, and as saltpetre is made fot 
2 Rupees per maund, therefore it would seem that nearly pure carbonate 
of soda can be manufactured in South India for less than 5 Rupees per 

As the soils which yield this product, are now.quite unproductive, and 
the time required for the manufacture is during the dry weather when 
the ryots are unemployed, the agricultural produce cannot be affected 
while the revenue will be certainly increased* 

While the cotton trade of South India is so rapidly increasing, at 
article for export which will serve the purpose of dead weight for ballast, 
ing the ships will be much required, and as carbonate of soda is not 
affected by exposure to air or damp, it may be packed in bags and will 
be useful for the purpose. 

As these soils are of limited extent, and as the manufacture cannot be 
carried on during the whole year, therefore the produce must always be 
limited, and the introduction of the article into the markets of England, 
cannot affect the present market price, because the quantity yielded in 
India can only take the place of a certain quantity now produced by the 
manufacturers of England, and the price will always therefore be regulated 
by that at which the English manufacturers can afford to sell. 

On the introduction of the Indian Soda to the market of England the 
manufacturers will doubtlessly endeavour to prevent its sale by endea- 
vouring to undersell it, even going so far as to sell their own manufao 
ture at a loss, but as it has been shewn that the Indian Soda can 
be made for little more than 10 shillings per cent., it would seem im. 
possible that the endeavour to exclude it from the Englis h markets 
could be successful, 

1B41.3 Report an the Kaolin Earth of Mysore. 163 

I have been unable to procure certain inforniRtion regarding the price 
ftt which the mferior kinds of impure Soda are sold in England, but 
when the expensive and laborious process as above described, is con- 
sidered, it seems almost impossible that any product can be made 
at so cheap a rate, as that procured by the simple manipulation required 
for the mineral salu 

1 have endeavoured by sending to England samples through a com- 
mercial gentleman to make this report more complete, by being able to 
state the value of the article on certain grounds, btit have been un- 
successful, the point appearing to depend in great measure on the im- 
port duty which will be charged in England By the present regula< 
lions, natural alkali imported from plaoes within the limits of the Ho- 
norable Corapany's charter pays a duty of 3 shillings per cent, but to 
«8oertaia the point it appears to be necessary to ship a few tons, and 
then try by experiment at what rate of duty the article will be admitted, 
• I am aware that some years ago attempts had been made to introdace 
Indian Soda into the English market, but which failed in consequence 
of the opposition of the English manufacturers, but I submit, that the soils 
BOW pointed oaf> yielding by single crystallization a pure Soda, were not 
%eforfl known, and in consequence, in the former experiments to which* 
I refer, it became necessary to fuse the salt for the purpose of purifying 
it, which expensive process of course prevented a successful competi- 
tion with the manafacturers of Snglanil. 

Report (m the Kaolin Earth ^ Mysore.^^^Y Capt. J. Campbci^l, 

Assistant Surwyor General* 

A great portion of the level surface of the table land of Mysore, is 
fbrmed of a red ferruginous arenaceoas earth, resembling much some of the 
softer varieties of the upper red sandstones of England. 

This formation, which may be called for convenience ' Red Marie,' is 
superposed upon a continuous bed of hornblendic granite, and is con- 
nected with it by a graduation, both in structure and composition, 
through an interposed layer of white kaolin earth which is found be- 
tween the two. 

The kaolin is in some places several feet in thickness, and is generally 
vf a pure white colour, and soft greasy feel, and is sometimes mixed 
with a fine quartoze sand in small quantity. 

This kaolin is mentioned by Dr. Heyne, who mistook it for pipeclay» 

164 Report on ths Kaolin Earth of Mysore. [No. 110^ 

. The extent of this bed of kaolin I have not had an opportanity of 
ascertaining, but I know that it is found from Bangalore as far north a» 

That this kaolin u fitted for the manufacture of the finer kinds of 
pottery and porcelain I have been able to ascertain by direct experiment, 
in consequeuce of the laborious process, and, to an individual, expensive 
apparatus required to grind it down to an impalpable powder, by stones 
of hornstone under water : but from its mineralogical characters I 
believe there can be little doubt of its being of finer tfuality than many 
kinds in England* { 

My attention was called to the mineral in eonse^ence of being en« 
gaged in researches on the f usibifky of the rocks and minerals of the 
Salem district, generally called igneous, in which it was necessary to 
expose them to a very high degree of beat, in a wind furnace sufliciently 
powerful to fuse cast steel, and for which I could procure no crucibles 
at a sufiiciently cheap rate, and I have found this kaolin, when mixed 
with an equal quantity of finely pounded quartz, to fully answer the pur- 
pose of affording crucibles and covers, upon whi«h the most intense beat 
has hardly any effect, the outside being only slightly glazed by the alkali 
of the fuel, and the crucible being very slightly softened. They are 
also much superior to those called Hessian, in net cracking, unless by very 
extreme changes of temperature. 

In Calcutta, there are probably many manufaetories carried on in the 
fusion of metals, &c. where this earth would be of great value, and it 
might even be useful in the manufacture of fire bricks, for lining furnaces, 
&e*, if the carriage by land for 200 miles would not render them too 

At Madras, at the mint for making mufifes and crucibles, at the Gun 
Carriage manufactory, and in several other maniifaeturing depots, this 
kaolin might be useful ; and a manufacture of the articles might be 
either established at Bangalore, or the earth itself might be transported. 

Coarse China ware is an article of import from China, and plates of this 
ware are purchased in considerable quantities by some of the Natives at 
4 annas each, while it is reasonable to suppose that these articles might be 
manufactured in Mysore at a cheap rate, without the necessi^ of any 
very expensive machinery being required. 

1841.] t ^^ 1 

Proeeedtngs of the Aifiatie Society, Wednesday Etening, 5th May, 1841. 

The Honorable Sir £. Ryan in the Chair. 

Library MuseunL-^ChlcuittL Monthly Journal for March, 1841, 

No.76 P. 

The Christian Observer, for May, 1841, New Series, Vol 3d, No. 17, P« 
Annals and Magazine of Natural History, Dec. 1840, No. 37, ....:. P. 
Ochterlony's Mineralogical Report upon a portion of the Districts 

of Nellore, Cuddapah and Guntoor. Madras, 1841, P. 

Samlede Afghandlinger, of R. K. Rask. Kobenhaon, 1838, Tredie 

Del. 8vo 1 

At the meeting of the 7th of April last it was resolved to refer to the 
oommittee of papers (with reference to the offer of Mr. H. B. Koiog, 
Bookseller at Bonn, to be entrusted with the sale of the Society's 
Oriental works) to consider the prices of those works and to reduce 
them to a scale suitable to the means of the scholars and students of 
Germany. Dr. Hsberlin submitted the following list exhibiting the 
rates at which he suggested the books should be priced, viz. 

Mah4bharat4, with contents • Rs. 40 

Large paper, ditto ditto • . . . , „ 50 

Harriwansa • • , „ 5 

Rajah Tarangini „ 5 

Large paper • , • „ S 

Naishada „ 6 

Fat&we Aleurgiri „ 8 

In4yA „ g 

Kbdzdnat al Ilim •••.•• , g 

Jaw4me ul Riazi ,, 4 

Anis ul Musharrahin ,, 5 

Sharaya ool Islam ,, g 

Tibetan Grammar ,, g 

Tibetan Dictionary « ,, 10 

Researches „ 10 

Ordered that the reduced rates be adopted and the list printed in the 
Journal of the Asiatic Society for guidance, that Mr. Eoing^s services be 
accepted and a selection of the Oriental Books be made and forwarded ta 
him by the first favorable opportunity, with suitable instructions, as well 
as regards the disposal of the books as of the funds which may from 

166 Proceedings qf the Asiatic Society, Sfc. [No. UOi 

time to time accrue in his hands as sales are effected. 

Read the following Report submitted by the Officiating Curator for the 
tDonlh of April last* 

H. ToRAEics, Esq., Secretary Asiatic Society, 

Sib. — My report on the Museum, for the month of April, is as follows \ 

Geological^ Mineralogtcal and P(doeontologtcal Departmenti'^Yfe continue 
to arrange and catalogue here at all spare times. Amongst the collections 
lately arranged are Capt. Hutton's yalnable geological series, the frnits 
of his journey to the Spiti valley, to the expenses of which the Society 
I think contributed very liberally. The duplicates of this collection 
have been sent home to the Court of Directors, but we are sadly in 
want of the catalogue to it, were it only that of the localities. You 
have I believe addressed Capt- H. on this subject. 

We have, at last, obtained the first of oar printed catalogues from 
the press, and as completed copies will be placed in the cases, a part 
of the Palceontological collections are labelled, and of these also we shall 
soon have printed catalogues. Our Index, which is wanted at every turn, 
has not yet appeared. 

Osteological Department^-^We have here at length been able to place 
all our small skeletons in two neat glass cases. The large, ske letons have 
been supported by side bars to the upright supports as suggested by 
the Hou*ble the President, and all the akeletons have labels. We have 
added here the skeleton of Mr. Ewbank^s Leopard, as reported in my 

Museum of Economic Geology, -^The Catalogue «nd arrangement of 
the copper series is completed. 

Mammological Department .--^Eeptiles, Fishes, •^'i^othing new to report. 

Omithahgical Department.^We have here added nine new specimens, 
mounted, eight of which are part of Lieut. Tickeli's collection, and one 
Faleo is from Mr. White of Midnapore. 

Presentations this month have been the Gud Faleo, stuffed and mount- 
ed, from C. P. White, Esq., Midnapore. 

I am, Sir, your's, very obediently, 


Officiating Curator ^ Asiatic Society* s Museum^ 

Museum, ^Oth ^pril, 1841. 

With reference to the want of a Catalogue of Captain Hutton^s valuably 
Geological Collections of the Spiti Valley, noticed by Mr.Piddington in his 


1841.} Proceedings of the Asiatic Societify S^c. 167 

Report, it was resolved that a commanication be made to that Officer for 
famishing one. 

. The Secretary reports the receipt of a letter dated the 20th April last, 
from Lieut. W. I. £. Boys of the 6th Light Cavalry, offering a large collec- 
tion of objects of Natural History, < which in making had occupied almost 
his sole attention for the last seven years.' 

. 'The Collection/ writes Lieut. Boys, 'has been made and the objects 
prepared only by myself, and I believe myself warranted in saying that 
nothing superior has ever been made in that line, as no expense has 
been spared. It consists of upwards of 350 species of Birds, the whole 
collected within 50 miles of Mhow Malwa, and of upwards of 200 white 
glass bottles contaming every variety of Snakes, Scorpions, Centipedes 
and other reptiles, together with the fishes of different parts of India, in 
spirits, a quantity of Alligators and Gavialis, Boas, &c , several species 
of the River Turtle and Tortoises, and a superb collection of Insects.' 

The whole Lieut. Boys' offers for Rs, 6^000, a sum inuch below their 
real value. 

It was resolved that before coming to any final decision on Lieut. 
Boys' offer, that that Oiicer be requested to furnish a descriptive Cata« 
logue of the collections referred to. 

Read a Letter from Lt. A. Cunningham of Engineers, dated 29th April 
last, advising the dispatch of coins purchased from him by the Secretary 
for presentation to the Cabinet of the Asiatic Society. Lt. Cunningham 
adds, ' I have decided upon publishing as complete a work upon our 
Indian coins as can be made. It will take some months to complete the 
plates, but I have already done three of them. The 1st Vol. will contain 
the coins of the Bactro- Grecian, lndo*Grecian, Indo-Parthian, and Indo* 
Scythian Princes of Bactriana, Ariana and the Punjab. It will contain 
20 Plates and about 150 pages of letter press, or perhaps 200 pages, and 
will I hope be ready by the 1st January next. The title of the work 
will be ' Coins of Alexander's successors in the East.' 
In another letter that Officer also writes: — 

' I have just read the only one of all my Eashmeerian coins which had 
hitherto baffied me. Sri Foram^ (na). Now Toramana was the Zuvar^ja 
(or Cesar) in A.D. 450, and was imprisoned by his elder brother (the 
Augustus) for coining money in his own name ; and here we have the 
identical coins that caused Toram&na's imprisonment and also a decided 
proof of the truth of the Kashmeerian history. I have the coins of 14 
Rajahs, and of six Moosulman Kings, making a series of 30 Kings, the 
most numerous of any Indian sovereignty that has yet been discovered.' 

108 Proceedings (if the Asiatic Society , ^c. [No. 110, 

The Secretary informed the meeting of Lt. Cunningham's having de- 
clared himself a convert to the identification of the supposed Mea/as, held 
by several authorities to have been one of the early Bactrian Monarchs, 
with Demetrius, a position originally suggested, and maintained at some 
length, by the Secretary, in No. of the Journal of the Asiatic Society. 

Read the following Letters, viz. From the Secretary, Political Depart- 
ment, Government of India, No. 1077, dated the 26th April 1841, transmit- 
ting a Report by Mr. Asst. Surg. Walker, on the Geology and Manufac- 
tures of the Hanum Koondah district of the Nizam^s Dominions, for 
auch notice as the subject may merit. 

N,B. — Specimen of produce, as Indigo, &c. &c. from the province in 
question, have been since received, and will be submitted to the Society at 
their next meeting, with the Curator's report upon the objects to be 

From Mr. C. P. White of Midnapore, of 19th April 1841, sending a 
specimen in Ornithology for the Society's Museum. 

From Mr. R. Clarke, Hony. Secy. Royal Asiatic Society, London, dated 
7th November 1840, acknowledging the receipt of the Journal for No- 
vember and December 1839, and the Mahabharata, Vol. IV. 

Read a letter from Major Thoresby, Jyepore, 5th April 1841, apprizing 
the dispatch of the stone at the gorge of the Teoree Ghat near Boerath, 
bearing the Palee Inscription in ancient characters, a copy of which was 
taken and forwarded to the Asiatic Society by Capt Burt. Also some 
specimens of ores of the mines in the Khetree hills. 

The Secretary submitted to the meeting, presented by Robert Torrens 
Esq., the Magistrate of the 24'Pergunnahs, a quantity of coins of the 
Mussulman Kings of Bengal, found by a Gang of convicts employed on 
the Roads at Howrah. The coins, as read by the Hon. H. T. Prinsep, 
Esq., are as follows : 

N,B, — 0. and R. stand for obverse and reverse of the coins. 
No. 1. 0. Alwasik bu tueed ul Rhuman abooul Moojahid Seconder 
Shah ibn Ulyas Shah ussooltan. 

R. Yumeen ul Ehuleefut lllahi Nasir ameer ul moomuneen, 
Oun ul islam oo ul moosulimeen ; Ehuladu Moolkuhoo. 
( Circular legend not legible. J 

No. ?. O. Ulsooltan ul adil, Ghums ood dunya oo ood deen, Aboo ul 
Moozuffur, llyas Shah ussooltan. 

R. Sekunder oosanee Yumeen ul Ehuleefut, Ameer ul Moo- 

1841] Pribeeedingt of the Anaiic SocUiy^ ^c. lOd 

No. 3. O. {JiToken) Ussooltan nl adil, Aboo MoosufUr Seeunder Shah, 
Ibn Ulyas, Shah ussooltan. 
B. Yumeen .Khaleefat lllahi, Nasir, Ameer ulmoomuneen, 
Oun il Islam oo ul mooslumeen. 
No. 4. Ok Aboo ul moojabtd Secunder Shah, Ibn Ilyas 8hah ul Ben- 
R. Nasir, Ameer al moomuneer, Oon al Islam oo a1 moos- 
No. 5. O. Julal oodunya oo uddeen^ aboo olmooeufiir Mahomed 
R. Nasir, Ameer al moomuneen Oan ul islam oo ul moosulmeen 
No. 6. Ditto to No. 5. 
No. 7. Ditto to No. 3. 
No. 8. O. Mahomed Shah. (Togra), 

R. The Kalma or profession of faiths 
No. 9. (Ditto) Mahomed Shah. 

No. 10* O. Syfooddonya oo ooddeen, aboo nl moojanid Khoosro Shah, 
Ibn Azim Shahi Ibn Secunder Shah, Ibn Uiyas Shah, 
R. Nasir, &c. &c. &c. 
No. 11. O. Shah ul Azim aboo ul Moojahid Secunder Shahi Ibn Ulyas. 

R. >Ullah Nasir, Ameer ul moomuneen, Oun ul Islam. 
No. 13. O. Julal ooddunya oo ooldeen, Aboo ul Moosufur Mahomed 
Shah ussooltan. 
R. Nasir oo Islam oo ul moosulmeen, Khuluda Moolkaoo ! 
No. 13. ( Too much defaced and chiseled to he legible^ J 
No. 14. O. Ulyas oodunya oo oodeen uboo ul moozufur Azim Shah, 
Ibn Secunder Shah> Ibn Ulyas Shah usooltan* 
R. Nasir, &c. (as before ) 
No. 15. O. Sooltan ul adil Julal oldnnya oo ooddeen aboo ul mujahid 
Mahomed shah ! khuladu moolkuhoo ! 
R. Nasir ameer ul moomuneen, Oan ul Islam oo ulmooslimeen.. 
No. 16. (Togra like No, 8 .* nearly illegible,) 
No. 17. (Ditto to No. 14.; 

No. 18. O. Ghyas ooddanya, oo oodeen, ul mulik Azim, Shah oos 
R. Nasir, ameer ul moomuneen, Oun ul islam oo ul moosuU 
Nq« 19. Gbyas ooddanya oo oolden, aboo ul moosufur Azim Shah, 
Ibn Secunder Shah, ibn shums. ooddeen« 


170 Proctedingi of the Asiatie Socieiy, ifc. [No. 110. 

No. 20, (DUio to No. \A.) 

No. 21. 0. Ul mowakul ba taced nl Ruhman, Gbams ooddanya, oo 
ooddeen, Malik Tooabak assooltan, 
R. Nasir, &c. && 
No. 22. O. Ul mooyud ba deen ul Ruhman Ghoms oodunya oo ood- 
deen, Aboo nl moozufar Mahomed Shah Ulyas. 
R. Naair Ameer, &e. &C 
No. 23. (Ditto to No. \\.) 
No. 24. (DiUo to No. 14«; 

No. 25. O. Syfood dunya oo ooddeen, Aboo al moosafur Khoosroo 
9hah| Ibn Aeesim Shah, Ibn Seconder Shah, Ulyas shah 
R. Nasir, &c. &c. 
No. 26. (Ditto to No. 5.; 
No. 27. O. (Ditto to No. %) 

R. (defaced by chiseling.) 
No. 28. O. Ul Mooyud bu taced ul Rahman. 

R. Nasir ooddeen aboo ul moojahid Mahoned Shah ossooltan 
No. 39. 0. Aboo ul Moojahid Sekunder Shahy Ibn ulyas Shah, 
R. Ulla nasir Khuleefut Ameer nl Moosulmeen oun ool Is^ 
lam, 00 nl Moosulmeen, Khnlnda Bioolkuhoo* 
No. 90. (Ditto to No. b.) 

No. 31. O. Ula ooddunya ooooddeen Aboo nl Moosafar Mahomed 
R. The Kulma. 

(The Toghra of this coin is more legible than usual.) 
Of the above numbers 8, 9, 16, 28 and 31 appear to be of Mahomed Shah 
afterwards King of Hindostan, who reigned A. H. 637 to 694 (A. D. 1229 
to 1236.) 

Numbers 2, 7f 32 and 27 are of Ulyas or llias Shah, who reigned from 
A. H. 744 to 760 (A. D. 1313 to 1358.) 

Numbers If 3, 4, 11 and 39 are coins of Secunder Shab son of Ulyas 
Shah, who reigned from A. H. 760 to 769 ( A. D. 13d8 to 1367.) . 
' Numbers 14, 17, 18, 19, 20, 33 and 34 are of Asim Shah, son of Seconder 
Shah, who reigned from A. H. 769 to 775 (A. D. 1967 to 1373.) 

Numbers lOand 35 are of Syfood deen (Khoosroo Shah) son of Azim 
Shah, who reigned from 775 to 785 (A. D 1373 to 1383.) 

Numbers 5, 6, 12, 15, 36 and 30 are of Mahomed Shah^ who reigned 
from A. H. 794 to 81) (A. D. 1392 to 14090 



1841 .] Proceedingi of the Asmtie Society^ SfC. 171 

The coin No. 21, bearing the title of Ghyns ood-deen Malik Toozbuk 
would appear to belong to the king, who in the list of Pathan Monarchy 
of Bengal (Prinsep^s Usefal Tables) is noted as Ikhtiar ooddeen MaUk 
Foozbuk. the only king who bears this remarkable name. The thanks 
of the Soeiety were offered to Mr. Torrensfor his valuable contribution, 
which will be deposited in the cabinet of nttoiismatology. 

Also an old coin forwarded by Capt. Hannyngton, picked up in the 
district of Manbhoom ; doubts were entertained as to the real nature of 
Che 80 called coin. It is of pewter ; the marks, or characters unintelli* 
gible. Further enquiry will be made on the subject, as, if it be indeed a 
coin, the discovery is singular, and may be ultimately highly valuable. 

Read Mr. Secretary Bushby's Letter, No. 888, dated the 14th April 
1811, in reply to the communication of the I2th idem, with the offici-: 
ating Curator's report on the two specimens of rock, of which the follow- 
ing is a copy : 

To H. ToRBBHS, Esq., Secy, to the Asiatie Society. 

Sir,— In reply to your letter and its enclosure of the 12th instant^ I 

am directed to acquaint you that the Military Board will be requested 

to instruct the Superintendent of the Agra and Bombay road, to 

endeavour to procure the specimens and information suggested by the 

Officiating Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, 

2d. The Right Honorable the Governor approves o( Mr. Pidding- 
ton's proposition to supply all officers engaged in the Survey and Con- 
struction of roads with a copy of Capt. Tremenheere's Memoir, 

i am. Sir, your obedient! servant, 


Secretary to the Govt, of Bengal. ■ 

Fwt William, Mth April, 184 1 . 

The officiating Curator submits the following report of I7th April 
1841, on the collection of minerals tendered for purchase to the Asiatic 

Society by Mr. Dodd. ^ . . « . 

To H. To»RE«8, E JQ., Secretary Astatic Society. 

Sm,— With reference to the letter of Mr. Secretary Bushby on the 
subject of the collection of minerals tendered for purchase to the Asiatic 
Society by Mr. Dodd, I have the honor to report that in consequence of 
that gentleman's having failed as yet to transmit me his catalogue 1 have 
been obliged to make a rough one of the collection which has occasioned 

delay in furnishing the report. 

The collection consists of i bout 890 specimens in all; of which about 
180 may be genera and the remainder species and duplicates. The acr 

172 Proceedings of the ^sialic Society, Sfe. [No: 110. 

knowledged genera of minerals being about 360 in number ; Mr. Dodd's 
collection comprises thus about one half of the whole and generally of 
the most useful for reference. 

With this collection and those in the Society's cabinet, we should be 
able to from a nearly perfect series, which is in this country a great scien- 
tific desideratum, for but few have the time, or the knowledge required to 
enter upon a chemical examination of a mineral, and comparison with 
the specimens of a well arranged cabinet will in very many cases ob- 
-viate the necessity of this. The duplicates also will not be useless if (as 
suggested 1 think in one of my previous reports) they be used in the for- 
mation of * Cabinets of Instruction' for tDe Hindoo, Medical and other 
Colleges and public establishments, whenever it may be thought proper 
to furnish them with such. 

As far as I am acquainted with the prices of such things at home- 
though in this respect my knowledge is very limited, I should judge that 
the price asked is not excessive, and we may possibly obtain it at a cheaper 

I have the honor to remain. 
Sir, your obedient servant, 


Assistant Curator Asiatic Society » 

Museumf\7thAprtlf 1841; 

Resolved that a copy of Mr. Piddington's report be submitted for the 
information of Government, in reply to Mr. Bushby's Letter No. 270 of 
the 24th March 1S41. 

Read a letter from Captain F. Jenkins, of 1st April 1841, requesting 
to be supplied with extra Copies of Lt. TickelPs papers on the * Ho ' 
language for comparison with the numerous languages current within the 
valley of Gowhatti, and to trace the dialects connected with the Tibetan 
stock, and the Shan branch. Captain Jenkins writes,' that the most distinct 
language in all this Frontier seems to be the Garrow, as its compound 
and polysyllabic character appears to separate it entirely from the Eastern 
languages, and yet it does not appear to have the least connection with 
the Hindu family of languages. The Garrows are isolated from all their 
neighbours in regard to languages, their country is but a small one; 
whence they come and how they remain in so small a space, are very 
interesting questions ; and with them as with any others on this Frontier, 
the languages are likely to be entirely lost before any philologists arise to 
deterdiine whence they spring. Captain Jenkins concludes his commani* 
cation with some account of the Rajahs of Cachar. 

1841.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Sacietyy.Sfc, 173 

Read a Letter from D. F. McLeod, Esq. of Jubbu1pore» of 31st March 
1841, also requesting to be supplied with Lt. Tickell's papers on the < Ho ' 
language. < Not,' writes Mr. Macleod, * from mere curiosity, but because 
being closely connected with Hill Tribes and greatly interested in them, 
I would anxiously seize upon any means of instituting a comparison 
between the language of our Gonds and the Hill people of other parts, 
and facilitating to myself or others, an insight into the rudiments of their 
still unknown tongue. And being not without hope of hereafter seeing 
one day a mission established amongst these people, I should wish much 
to have by me for distribution one or more copies of a brochure so 
admirably calculated to elicit a further enquiry.' 

' With reference to his (Lt. Tickell's) most admirable paper on Ho-dds, 
I would mention as it may be of use, that Edis still abound in Rewah, in 
t)ar Lohdgpur mahals, and are even found at Jubbulpore and Seoni. 
Hence I should be disposed to presume that the term ' Kdl ' was intro- 
duced by the invaders from Ruhitas, which, as far as I can call to mind, 
not having his paper with me, was not TickelPs impression on the subject/ 

With reference to the two foregoing Letters, it was moved by Dr. 

Hosberlin, that they contained matters worthy of interesting enquiry and 

that some one of the Members cproposing the Committee of Papers 

should be requested to prosecute the enquiry to elicit information on the 

points alluded to by Capt. Jenkins and Mr. Macleod. 

Resolved that Dr. Hoeberlin's services be requested in aid of undertak- 
ing the task of prosecuting such enquiry in conjunction with Baboo 
Prosonocoomar Tagore. 

Read a Letter from Major Burlton of the 14th April, I84I, with a col- 
lection of Bactrian Coins as a loan for the Society's museum. Major 
Burlton further offered the duplicates of this collection to the Society, 
for which courtesy as well as for his kindness in allowing the collection 
to be laid before the meeting, the Secretary was directed . to address that 
officer with the expression of the thanks of the Society. The coins con- 
sisted of some silver Menanders (drach.) in excellent preservation, one 
of the rude silver coins usually believed to be of Euthydemus struck at 
a |9rot7tVtc»a/ mm/, and the rest copper coins chiefly Azes and Kadphisea. 
The barbarous provincial type of silver coin is ascertained to be of the 
time of Euthydemus, (authority — Lieutenant Cunningham) and is found 
in, or at any rate comes from, the Bokhara country. 

Read a Letter and enclosure from Dr. H. H. Spry of the 5th May, 1841, 
of which the following is a copy. 

174 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, ^c. [No. 110« 

Mt Dbar Torbbns,— I have been honored by Dr. Wm. Edwards, 
whose celebrity as the author of more than one important Physiological 
work must be well known to you, with a communication relative to the 
establishment of a * ScdSti Ethnologiqm* at Paris, of which I feel proud 
in having an opportunity of submitting an outline to the notice of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal. 

My distinguished friend desires to call my attention to a subject which 
he says he has close at his heart. He has reminded me of the fact, that 
he has established at Paris an Ethnological Society. It is composed of 
distinguished and able members, and is going on remarkably well. He 
then goes on to say, that his wish is to have some of the most eminent 
scientific men an Calcutta named as members of the Society. He desires 
that the names may be limited to four or five. 

Directions for travellers have been drawn up and published compri- 
sing every point in Ethnology. A few copies have been forwarded and 
I now domyself the pleasure of placing a couple at the disposal of the 

Dr. Edwards alludes to three things that he is solicitous about. The 
possession of drawings, principally outlines, with very little shade, of the 
best characterized heads of the Indian races ; men and women. If by 
any possibility casts could be taken, another great benefit would be con- 
ferred, and lastly, skulls, which Dr. Edwards hopes may without great di- 
fficulty be collected. If cases die in hospital, and opportunities occur 
for possessitig the skull, he wishes much that a drawing of the Indian 
front, of the natural size, should be made in order to arrive at an accurate 
knowledge of the relation which existed betwen the skull and the fea- 

Dr. Edwards asks as a favor if he could be put in possession of any draw- 
ings of Indian races ; — for them, he says, the Ethnological Society of 
Paris would feel deeply grateful. 

I send you these outlines, with the hope, that by giving publicity to the 
objects and intentions of the Ethnological Society at Paris, through so 
scientific a body as the Asiatic Society, assistance may be rendered the 
physiologists of Paris in the pursuit in which they are engaged 

You will see the particulars more in detail in the two accompanying 
brochures of general Instructions, which perhaps you will oblige me by 
laying before the Meeting of the Society to-night. 

1841.] Proceedings of the Anaiic Society^ Sfc, 175 

Sociite Ethnologique, 
Instruction Ge'n&'ralb Adrbssbb aux VoYAOEtJRS, Etc. 

5 '• 


Lb point le plus important de T^thnologie, c^est la connaissance da 
type : on ne saurait en avoir une id^e suffisante sans le dessin. 

1® II faut done dessiner les portraits de ceux que I'on vent faire con- 
naitre ; et avoir soini pour en donner une id^e complete, de repr^senter 
la t^te de deux mani^res : de face et de profil. 

2^ II convient aussi de faire une esquisse de tout le corps, et d*en bien 
itudier les proportions, pour savoir si elles ne pr^sentent pas quelques 
particularit^s. II faut surtout faire attention k la longueur du buste re- 
lativement aux membres supdrieurs et inf^rieurs ; au creux des reins et 
k la saillie de la partie sous-jacente, comme dans le N^gre, le Hottentot, 

3^ II serait bon de prendre la mesure de la hauteur dn corps, et d'^va- 
luer sa force au dynamom^tre d'une mani^re approximative, si I'on n'a 
pas cet instrument. 

11 est extr^mement important d'avoir le portrait de I'horome et de la 
femme, car leurs types tendent k diff6rer d'autant plus qu* on s^^l^ve d' a- 
vantage dans Pdchelle des races. 

40 Tontes les fois qu'on pourra se procurer les cranes des naturels du 
pays, on n'en laissera pas ^chapper I'occasion, et on cherchera de m^me 
k obtenir des naturels qu'ils se laissent mouler leur buste. 

II y a toujours chez une nation plusieurs races ; il faut done chercher 
k distinguer les types purs duproduit des melanges. 

S IF. 


Le point le plus important apr^s, les caract^res physiques, c'est la 
langue. II est Evident que si Tididme est cultiv^, il y aura des gramma, 
maires et des dictionnaires, qu'il sera indispensable de se procurer, s* ils 
sont rares en Europe, Si ces ouvrages n' existent pas, il faudra y sup* 
p^er en formant deux vocabulaires ; I'un bref, I'antre plus ^tendu, selon 
le temps dont on pourra disposer. L*un contiendra les noms des objets 
sensibles, des iddes abstraites mais usuelles ; I'autre les diffilrentes par- 
ties du discours. 

£n second lieu, il conviendrait de faire une ^bauche de grammaire ,* de 

176 Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, SfC. [No, 110» 

8'occuper d' abord du verbe, en prenant les trois temps fondamentaux, 1e 
present, le passo et le futur, avec les modifications des personnes et du 
nombre ; puis du substantif, avec les variations du cas etdu nombre } de 
faire connattre 1' accord de Tadjectif avec le substantif ; les pronoms, les 
propohitions avec an on plusieurs r6gimes, et les adverbes joints k un 
verbe. Si V on pouvait indiquer les rapports de la langiie avec d'autres 
ididmes qui lui sont affilids, ce serait un renseignement fort utile. Quel 
est le mode de numeration en usage ? 



Pour donner une id^e des moeurs relatives k Tindividu et k la famille^ 
il convient de prendre I'homme k sa naissance et de le suivre jusqu' k la 
mort, en faisant connattre les actes solennels qui s'y rapportent. Ainsi, 
quanta ia naissance, il y a peu de nations qui n'en marquent r6poque par 
quelque c^remonie i il faudrait la faire connattre ; indiquer le lieu oii Ton 
depose Tenfant ; d6crire la mani^rede le porter, de le vStir, de le nourrir, 
de lui apprendre k marcher et k parler. Si Ton ezer9Hit quelque com- 
pression sur la t^ieou quelque autre partie du corps, il serait bon d'en 
faire mention, 

Quand Tenfcint sait marcher ou parler, quelle est son Education domesti-^ 
que ; car il n'y a pas de peuple qui n'apprenne aux enfans ce qu'ils doi- 
vent savoir dans la suite. 

Lorsque 1' individu de V un ou de V autre sexe est arriv6 k la puberty, 
y a«t-il quelque c^r^monie qui le constate, et quelles sont ses occupations 
jusqu' k ce qu'il se marie ? Informez-vous avec soin de ce qui vous aveo 
soia de ce qui concerne le choix d'une femme ; ^ quelles conditions on 
Taccorde, et d^crivez les c^r^monies du nviriage. Si dans cette union 
il y a plurality de femmes ou d' hommes, comment vivent-ils entre eux ? 
Quelles sont leurs intrigues pour favoriser leurs fils ou leurs filles, et 
quelle en est la consequence pour le sort de des derniers ? Quelle est 
Tantoritd du pere ou de la m^re ? Quel est le degr^ de respect filial des 
enfans et quels sont en general les sentimens de famille ? 

Faites connattre le regime alimentaire des diffi^rens membres de la 
societ6, suivant leur sexe et leur dge en indiquant : 1^ les alimens ; 2^ 
la mani^re de les preparer ; 3^ les personnes qui les appr^tenr. 

Quels sont les v^temens du peuple, suivant la fortune, le ran4, le sexe 
et V g&ge de chaque individu P 

Etudiez les maladies auxquelles les deux sexes sont sujets aux diverges 
6poque8 de la vie; et les differences qui ont lieu k cet ^gard entre less nattt* 

1841.] Froceedtngt qf the Asiaiic Society , dfc. 177 

rels da pays et lea Strangers ; les rapports de ces maladies arec le climat 
et la mani&re de vivre ; les soins que les parens, les amis et les m^decins 
donnent auz malades. 

Quel est le genre d' occnpation de Thomme et de la femme P Qael est 
lear &ge moyen, et le terme extreme auquel ils arrivent P 

Qaelles sont les ceremonies qui accompagnent ou qui suivent la mort, 
telles r enterrement, le deuil, ect. 

Ces c6r6monies diff^rent-elles pour le mari et la femme ? Quel est le 
sort da sorvivant et des enfans P 



Comme les arts ne se ddveloppent gu^re que par des causes 80ciales» 
nouns devons ies examiner ici. 

1^ Habitations^ Edifices, vaies publiques, etc. 

Le moyen le plus siir et le plus court de donner une id^e exacte d'une 
habitation, c^est d'en faire le dessin ; en marquant par ^crit les mat^ri- 
aux dont on sert. II en est de m^me de tout Edifice, ainsi que des men- 
bles ou des ornemens. 

II convient de faire connattre les diffi^rentes mani^res d'orienter les 
malsons et les Edifices, de les grouper pear former les villages, les 
bourgs, les villes, ainsi que la mani^re de les fortifier et de les distribuer 
dans le pays. Dites si les rues sont pav^es ou non et comment on fait les 

Faites connaiire tons les autres genres de constructions, tels que les 
▼aisseaux et les bateaux, les ports et les chantiers, les arsenauxi etc. Bon- 
iiez une id^e convenable des canaux, des jardins publics, ect. 

2® Agriculture. 

Enumerez les plantes qui servent k ^alimentation, telles que les I6g* 
nmes, les grains as fruits ; puis k la m^decine, k rhabillement, k la 
teinture et aux autres arts. D^crivez la mai^re de les culti?er, en fisant 
une attention particuli^re aux amendemens (ou substances mindrales 
qu'on ajoute au sol), aux engrais (ou substances organiques qu'on j 
m^le) aux moyena de travaiUer la terre avec les instrumens aratoires, aux 
proc6d6s dMrrigation. Dessinez les diverses races d'animaux domestiques, 
donnez leurs caract^res distinctifs et I'usage qu'on en fait. 

3^ Tissage, fabrication de vetemcTis, etc, 

Faites connaitre la mani'parer les diff^rens tissus ^ems ou les pellet- 
eries servant k Ure de fore, habillement et aus autres usages domestiques. 


its Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, Sfc, [No. 110. 

4® Teinture. 

Donnez une id6e suffisante de la mani^re de preparer les couleurs et de 
lea appliqaer. 

5^ Art de travaiUer le hots et les metatuc* 

Marquez le degre auquel les natarels sont arrives dans ces arts, f &di- 
quez les autres metiers exerces dans le pays. 

6^ Professions, Arts libSratut, 

Distinguez les diverses classes de marchands et de tiegocians, les hom- 
ines de loi et les medecins, ainsi qae leur genre d'^tudes et lear mani^re 
d'epercer leur profession. 

Y a*t-il des peintres, des scalptears, des architectes, des ingenieurs, des 
peetes, des orateurs et des savans ? 

Notez le point auqael sont parvenus les arts et les sciences. Rapportez, 
autant que possible, quelques productions qui puissent nous donner une 
id£e de la mani^re dent ils sont cultiv^s. 

7^ Education puhiique, 

n serait tr^s utile d'6numr6er les diverses esp^ces d'6coles publiques, le 
nombre de ceux qui les frequentent compar6 k celui de la population en 
Age de les suivre ; ddcrire le genre de leurs Etudes, et de faire connattre 
les facilit6s ou les obstacles que rencontrent les obstacles que rencontrent 
les 6Uves lorsqu'ils arrivent k I'exercicc de leur profession. 

8® Etahlissemens de bienfaisance, 

D6crivez tons les 6tablissemens de ce genre : bdpitaux, hospiceSi mai- 
sons de prits, institutions pour les aveugles, sourds-muets, etc 

Indiquez les bibli ques et le genre d'ouv rages quipubliquess'y trouvent, 
tela que manuscrits, livres, gravures, cartes, etc. 

9® Droit public et priv6» 

Un objet d'une haute importance serait d'dtudier la constitution de 
V6tat, la hierarchic des pouvoirs, les droits respectifs des gouvemans et 
des gouvemds ; de faire ressortir les divers rangs de la societe ; et de nous 
apprendre s'il y a des proprietes communes ou particnli^reSi leur degre de 
securite, et leur mode de transmission par heritage, par vente, par dona- 
tion, etc. 

Comment r^gle-t-on les discussions qui s'el^vent k leur egard ? 

Punit-on les attentats contre les personnes et contre les proprietes P 

Quels sont les eriraes et les d^lits dont on s'occnpe, les tribunauz qui en 
pretment m>naai88axice, et dans qnielle proportidn ae troav^t ke erittiiiiels 
et les deliaqoAns par rapport k ia popitiaitioD. 

1841.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society^ SfC. 179 

Comment asseoit-on et l^ve-t-on les contributions P Quel est le rapport 
entre Pimp^t et la perception P 

l(P Relations soeiales^ 

Les rapports de la societe m6ritent une attention particuli^re. II serait 
bon de connattre les relations qui subsistent entre les naturels du pays et 
de constater s'il 7 a de la douceur on de la durete, de la probity ou de la 
mauvaise foi, de la securite ou du danger dans les liaisons. 
Les societ6s des hommes et des femmes sont*elIes separees ou melees P 

Les socidte's des hommes et des femmes sons elles sdparees out m616es P 

De quelle mani^re re9oit-on les visites ; et qu\offret-on en pareil cas P 

Donne-t-on souvent des repas ; et qui les compose P 

Quels sont les amusemens publics, les difierentes esp^ces de chasse et 
de p^che P Comment les naturels voyagent-ils dans leurs pays, et se 
deplacent-ils souYcnt P 

n sera bon de constater la facilite ou la difficalte que Ton rencontre & 
gagner sa vie, le nombre ou la proportion des indigens ; la population 
respective des deux sexes, etc. ; le rapport de la mortalite aux naissances. 
S'iln'y a pas de documens statistiques directs, il faudrait donner les 
meiUeures preuvcs de 1' augmentation, de la diminution ou de Tetat sta- 
tionnaire de la population ; le nombre des maries, det celibataires, dea 
enfans legitimes et naturels, etc. 



1^ Institutions militariese, 

Dessinez les armes, si elles ont quelque chose de particulier. 

Faites connaitre la mani^re dont on l^ve les armees ; et dites si ellea 
sont permanentes ou non. 

Quels en sont les grades, les exercises, la discipline P 

Quelles sont en general les causes de guerre P 

Faites savoir s'il y a quelque ceremonie par laquelle on la declare, ou si 
on la &it k Timproviste P 

Quel est le genre de strategic et de tactique suivi P 

Quels sont les rapports entre la cavalerie et Tinfanterie, ou en&n entre 
less difierentes armes 1 II faudrait dire encore s'il y a-un droit des gens 
relatif k la guerre et au maintien de la paix ; comment on r^gle les allian-^ 
ces offensives et defensives ; comment on traite les ennemis pris k la 
guerre ; si. 00 les massacre, ou s'iis sont prisonniers ou esclayes ; et dana 
oes deux cas, qqel est leur sort pendant qu'on les conduU aumarcbe et 
quelle est leur destJLnee dans la suite. 

180 Proceedings qf the AsieUic Societt^f ^c. [No. 110. 

2^ Commerce, 

Donnez un tableau aussi complet que possible des denrees qne le pays 
fournit aux indigenes et aux peuples etrangers, et de celles qu^il en re^oit. 
Faites connattre les moyens de transport et lea ecbanges soit en monnaie, 
Eoit en nature. Quels sont les etablissemens qui peuyent faciliter le com- 
merce, tels que bourse, ban que, etc. Dites le nombre d'et rangers qui 
pen^trent dans le pays, et la mani^re dont ils y sont traites et comment 
ils en peuyent sortir ? 

Quels sont les pays etrangers que les naturels visitent et les moyens de 
communication P 

§ VI. 


Quelle est I'idee que les habitants du pays se forment de Dieu et des 
4tres quails regardent comme superieurs 4 I'humanite ? 

Dites ce qu*ils pensent d'une vie future, de la distribution des peines et 
des recompenses. 

Cherchez k connattre les antres dogmes religieux. 

Quelles sont les formes du culte, les differentes pratiques et ceremonies 
religieuses ? 

Jusqu' k quel point le peuple croit-il aus dogmes ; et comment pratique- 
t-ils les devoirs prescrits P 

Entrez dans quel ques details 8 ur la hierarchic, les droits et I'influence 
du clerge ou de ceux qui representent les pr^trcs ; et faites connaitre 
Taction morale de la religion sure le peuple. 

Decrivez les superstitions et la mani^re dont elles agissent sur les 

5 VIL 


1° Sol. 

La terre est-elle plane ou montueuse P Quelles sont les riviere, les lacs, 
les marais, les marecages ; et quelle est la nature geologique du terrain P 
L'eau estelle contenue dans le lit des fleuves, ou deborde-t-elle P Y a*t-ii 
de l*eau et des terres salees P Dans quelle etendue se trouve la partie 
boisee P 

Indiquez-nous le degre de fertilite de la terre ; et dans quelle propor- 
tion se trouvent les parties productiyes avec les parties steriles. Donnes 
une indication des objects utiles, nuisibles ou curieox qui peuvent exister 
dans les rogues organique ou inorganique. 

r- 1* Latemp^ratnre, ^ 

. 1* ^3* La presiion barom^trique C 

V 3" La quantity deplttie^ j 

^ * f de pluie i 1 

1841.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, ifc. ISl 

Faites connRttre : 

/ !• du jour. 

!• La temperature, -^ ^^^^„„. \oo j 

_. , . . ,. . / moyenne 12" du mois* 

extr6me Sa* du trimestre. 

\^49 de rann^e. 




3^ LMntensite de lumi^re solaire compar^e a la lami&re diffuse (& 
Tombre) ; succession et variation des saisons. 



11 faudra rechercher d'abord quels sont chez un peuple les souvenirs 
qu'il a conserves de son origine et de ses affinit^s avec d'autres peuples; 
quelles sont les revolutions qu'il a 6prouv6es dans sa langue ou dans ses 
mceurs, dans les arts et dans les sciences, dans sa richesse, sa puissance 
ou son gouvernement, pardes causes internes ou des invasions ^trangeres. 

Quelles sont les sources (A Ton pent puiser les instruction demdnd&es P 

Sont-ce des documens historiques ou des monumens de Parts P Dans le 
premier cas, ces documens sont-its consign 6s dans des po^mes ou dans des 
ouvrages purement historiques P 11 serait fort heureux de pouvoir en 
donner une id^e* 

Dans le second cas, il sera n^cessaire de donner an dessin et une des« 
cription pour les parties qui I'exigent, des Edifices monnaies dont on peut 
tirer quelque fruit pour la solution des questions propoa^es. 

Cherchez dans les traditions mythologiques tout ce qui se rapporte k 
I'histoire du pays. 

Quelles sont les opinions des naturels sur la cosmogonie ; quel est leor 
syst^me de chronologie ; et jusqu'^ quelle ^poque remonte-t-elle P 

^•B. — ^The Secretary begs to recommend the above * Instructions' to 
the attention of members of the Society, whose position throws them into 
communications with any of the tribes and races in Central India, or on the 
frontiers whose distinctive characteristics are so strongly pronounced, as 
is generally the case with those semi-barbarous people. The considera- 
tion of thes septs with reference to the several attributes as noted by 
Dr. Edwards, would form a highly interesting and nseful study. The 
Secretary has been fortunate enough to recover among some papers, re- 
cently sent to the Society's rooms, an essay on the principles of Ethno- 
logy by Dr. Woods, a corresponding member of the Parisian Ethnological 

182 Proceedingi ^ the Aiiaiic Sodety, ^f* [[No. IlOf 

Societj* This is placed at the disposal of the Editor of the Joanial of 
the Asiatic Society, for early publication. 

With reference to the request of Dr. Edwards of Paris, ' for Heads of 
the Indian races' to serve as aid to his studies in Ethnology, the Secretary 
suggested a collection of Grant's * Heads,' should be forwarded, but Dr. 
Spry had already anticipated him, and it was resolved to refer the Letter 
to Professor CShaughnessy to ascertain if < Casts ' were not available 
from the native modeller in his employ. 

The Secretary informed the meeting that a * Circular,' by desire of the 
Governor General, has been issued by Dr. Pearson, for contributions of 
subjects of Natural History for enriching the Barrackpore Menagerie, 
the Zoological Society and the East India Company's Museum. 

The Secretary noticed that a Sanscrit work was laid by Baboo 
Sooruj NaraiQ Roy before the Society. It was resolved that it be re- 
ferred to Dr. Haeberlin for examination, and report of the merits of tbe 
publication in question. 

For the presentations and contributions, the thanks of the Society were 

• 4 tet 


op THB 


Of the early History of Sindh^ from the *' Chach Namuh** and other 
authorities. By Libut. Postans, Assist Pol. Agent, Shikarpore. 

[My able correspondent, Lieut Postans, has been for some tune penever- 
ingly employed in tracing out whatever material is available in Smdh, for 
the puipose of throwing light upon its early history. A book called the 
" Chuck Namuh," is the principal authority to which he has had recourse in 
preparing the historical sketch, which he has enabled me to have the satisfac- 
tion of publishing. Both he and Capt. Hart (2d Grenadiers, Bombay army) 
who has been turning his attention to simihir pursuits, despair of discover- 
ing sny more authentic work bearing upon the early history of Smdh, and 
tgree in describing the modem Smdhew as so illiterate and apathetic, as 
neither to have the wiU, nor the power to ftirther their researches. I still, 
however, do not despair of the recovery of other authorities, as the country 
becomes better known to us. 

In the mean time, Lieut Postans has ably and successfully availed himself 
of all the material at his disposal, which, dating from the Mussulman in- 
roads, may be fairly considered as authentic. The short notice of the 
history of Smdh before that period, to be found in the works of Mussulman 
authors, must be necessarily in many respects of a traditional character, 
sad we indeed find, that the Chueh Namuh does not attempt to do more than 
describe the revolution which destroyed the ancient Sindian dynasty in 
the eentnry immediately preceding the Islamite invasion. The use of the 
modem Persim name Bmhmandbad, as applied to a dty in the days of 
ChMchf gives sufficient proof of the loose manner in which the Mussulman 
historian collected his material ; he was perhaps, in the spirit of a genuine 
Moslem, careless of all respecting the iofidel inhabitants of the land, which was 
not in some way immediately connected with the advent of his own people. 
No. 111. New Series, No. 27. z 


184 Cflhe early History ofSindh. [No. 1 1 1. 

We are not the less bound to admowledge our obligations to Lieat 
Postans, for having undertaken the task of laying, compendiously, before an 
English reader, the first historicalnotice of Smdh, which has I belieye appear- 
ed unconnected with the history of other lands and peoples.] iT| 


Smdh — ^its situation — climate — ^name whence derived — early history — ca- 
pital ^^— extent of territory — rule of the Rdhees — appearance of the 
first Brahmin Ckuch — ^his reign and death — ^his son DaMr — account of his 
rule until the Mahomedan invasion. 

Sindh is one of the sixty-one climates of the world; it is ntuated 
Smdh, its situ- ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ climates, belonging chiefly to the second, 
to EMtem^i^? and is in the same region as the holy cities of Mecca 
graphy. i^q^ Medina, The river of Sindh rises in the mountains 

of Cashmeer ; another joins it from the mountains of Cabool in Mool- 
tan; it is met by the river Sehoon^ and thus proceeds to the sea. Its water 
is clear, bright, and cool during the hot season ; in the language of the 
country, it is called Mehran, AU the rivers of Sindh flow towards the 
south, where they empty themselves into the sea, (such as the waters of 
Peelahj Chenab, Lahore^ Suitanpoor^ and Bqfuwarrah.) The climate 
Climate. of Sindh is delightful ; its mornings and evenings cool, 

the country to the north hot, whilst that to the south is cold. Its 
inhabitants intelligent, and of large stature. Sindh is so called from 
Name whence de- tSindhy the brother of Hindy the son of Noahy whose 
^^^' descendants from one generation to another ruled in 

that country ; from them also sprang numerous tribes, such as the 
Nubetehy the men of Taky and the tribe of Moomeedy who governed 
Early History, and possessed it by turns ; no record remains of these, 
and its history commences with the last of the dynasty of the Bdhees, 
or JRajahs, whose capital city and seat of government was Alor, 
Capital Alar, Alor is described as a large^ flourishing, and populous 
city, situated on the banks of the river Mehrany possessing laige 
edifices ; its gardens highly cultivated, producing every kind of tree 
and fruit, where travellers had all their wants supplied. 

This territory extended to the east as far as Cashmeer and Kunooj; 
Extent of Ter- west to Mukran and the sea ; south to the territories 

of the ports of Surat and Deo ; and to the north to 

1841] Of the early HiHory tf Sindh. 185 

KandahaTy Seestan^ and the mountains of SooUeemany, Girwdn, and 
Rynakan. The first JRahee mentioned, is Mahee Dewahey ; he was a 
Rale of the powerful prince, possessing absolute authority over the 
Bahees. territory of Sindh^ as above-mentioned, and formed al- 

liances with many of the rulers in Hind; at his death, he was 
succeeded by his son Mahee Siheenin; he by his son jR^i^ StUiurtee; 
and he by his son Rahee Siheenin the 2nd. During this reign, 
the king of Persia, Ueem Eoz, sent a force by the road of Kirman 
to Muhran and Reech^ which countries they laid waste, and Rahee 
Siheersiny in trying to repel this invasion, was defeated, and he 
himself killed by an arrow through the neck ; his troops fled to Alor^ 
and his son Rahee Sahee was seated upon the throne. During the 
Rahee Sahee's reign, the Brahmin Chuch, (who afterwards possessed 
The Brahmin ^^® country, and bequeathed it to his son,) made his 
^^^^^^' appearance. It is related, that Rahee Sahee's minis- 

ter Ram Rao, was a man of such capability, and so well directed 
the affairs of state, that the Rahee himself seldom interfered with them, 
but passed the greatest part of his time in the sensual enjoyments of 
his harem. Accident brought Ram Rao and the Brahmin Chuch 
together ; the latter is described as having been a very talented and 
eloquent man, well versed in all the learning of the Hindoos. Ram 
Rao appreciating his abilities made him his deputy, and on one occa- 
sion sent him on some affairs, which required the Rahee's attention, 
to the door of the harem: the sanctity of Chuch's priestly office 
admitted of his being allowed to enter the private apartments 
without the formality of a curtain between him and its inmates, 
and so great was his personal beauty, that the Ranee became 
enamoured of him at first sight ; she afterwards made Chuch ac-. 
quainted with her passion, but he declined her overtures, on the 
score of his being a Brahmin, and as such, incapable of treachery to 
the Rahee, whose confidence he had gained. But an opportunity soon 
presented itself to the Ranee for the accomplishment of her designs. 
The talents of Chuch had given him almost universal sway over the 
affairs of government, and the minister Ram Rao was no longer 
thought of; in the mean time the Rahee became dangerously ill, and 
the Ranee formed a plot, by which, in the event of the Rahee^s death, 
Chuch should succeed to the throne of Sindh. She caused a proclama- 

186 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. 111. 

tioD to be issued m the name of the Rahee, for a general assembly of 
all ranks and classes, and placed the throne in the public hall of au- 
dience. When the people were assembled, they were informed that tbe 
Sahee*s health prevented his then being present, or any longer attend- 
ing to the affidrs of his country, but that he had given his signet, and 
delegated absolute authority to the Brahmin Ckuekf whom they wen 
to obey as his deputy. Chuch was thus vested with power, and his 
ability secured him the obedience of the subjects ; the "Raket afterwards 
died, leaving no children ; Chmh married the Sanee, and by universal 
consent was placed upon the throne. The government of five preced- 
ing Rahees occupied 137 years. Chuch was the first Bnahmin who 
Beign of CAttcA, 1^^* Many of the relations of the deceased Rahee^ who 
untu his death, possessed claims to the government of the country, were 
inveigled by the Ranke into the palace, and murdered. CAvcA opened 
the doors of his treasury, and by his bounty secured the good offices of 
the soldiers, and of his subjects generally. He had scarcely however 
imagined himself secure on the throne, when Rana Mihtut ChUtoort^ 
heading the remainder of the relations of Rahee Sakecy came with an 
army from Joudpoor and Chittoor to assert their claims to the throne. 
The Ranee urged Chuch to prepare to defend his possessions ; he again 
propitiated the troops by large presents in money, and prepared to 
meet Rana Mihrut The forces drew up for battle, in the vicinity 
of Alor, but Rana Mihrut advancing in front of his host, challenged 
Chuch to single combat, as the most merciful way of settling a dis- 
pute, in which the two chiefs only were immediately concerned. The 
result of the combat was decided to be final as to all claims of ter- 
ritory ; and whoever fell, his country was to pass to the possession 
of the victor. Chuch consented to this; the two chiefs advanced in 
front of their armies; Chuch directing his servant to bring his 
horse slowly after him, mounted quickly, and treacherously slew 
Rana Mihrut with one blow of his sword. The troops of the latter 
witnessing the &ll of their leader, fled in dismay; C%tfcA pursued 
and killed many of the f^tives ; he then returned with great pomp to 
AloTy the houses and bazars of which city were ornamented upon the 
occasion. His authority was now established, and he became a power- 
ful king. After a reign of 40 years he died, leaving two sons ; tbe eldest 
Dahiry and the younger Dihir ; he had also one daughter. EDs eldest 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 187 

son DdMr imoceeded to the throne, and hui brother Dikir was ap- 
Dahir, the son of pointed govomor of Burka$iumabad. He inade a tour 
CA«cA-iii3 reign. ^ ^ dominions, and after a treaty of peace with the 
governor of Kimum^ retnmed to Alar. When he had for some time 
occupied himself in adjusting and arranging the affidrs of his country, 
he consulted the astrologers aa to his future fate, and that of his do- 
minions ; they told him that neither in his own, nor in his brother^s ho- 
roeoopes could they discover any evil sign, but that in his sister^s it 
was written, that whomsoever ahe married, should possess the country 
of Stndh ; this sorely perplexed DaMr^ who finding the thought of 
his losing power and empire too intolerable to bear, determined to 
eonfound the fates, and avert the evil threatened, by marrying his 
own sister ; liis subjects and those about him tried in vain to dissuade 
him firom so unnatural a proceeding, but his superstition was insur- 
mountable, and with all the forms of his iBligi(m he married her.* 

l/Hien his brother Dihir heard this, he was sorely incensed, and 
wrote a letter fliU of bitter reproaches to Dahirj for the disgrace 
which he had brought upon liis family, adjuring him to make all the 
reparation in his power, by breaking off so unholy an alliance. 

DMf^s in£Atuation would not admit of this, and he excusc^d himself by 
assuring his brother, tliat beyond the mere ceremonies of marriage he 
had committed no sin.t Dihir determined to punish his brother, and 
with this intent collected a large force at Burhamanabadi with which 
he marched upon Alor^ and encamped under the walls of the city ; 
through the intervention of the mother, peaoe was concluded between the 
brothers, and DMr died shortly afterwards of small pox, in the city of 
Alar. Dahir proceeded to BurhamantAad^ and having appointed 
another deputy to govern it returned to Alar^ where he busied himself 
in compleliDg the fortifications, which his &ther Chueh had begun. His 

* Capt Hart in a letter tome footed, in No. 106 (p. 1216 of vol. ik. Asiatic 
Society's Jour.) mentions the remains of an ancient city in Upper Sindh, called by the 
country people *< Dumb-i-Dilora-Shah," traditionally said to have been destroyed on 
acconnt of the king having mairied his sister. He referred me then to the *< Ckuch 
Namuh,'* The tradition refers doubtless to the *< Alor," of the history, making ithow- 
ever the name of the king instead of the city, and to the story of Dahir. Qj 

t It is but just to add, that in all the manuscripts from which this sketch is com- 
piled, Dahir is particularly represented as not having added the crime of incest to his 
oUier follies. 

188 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. III. 

dominions were prosperoos, and his sovereignty firmly established ; he 
made a toar to the East as fiir as Caskmeer^ upon the boundaries of 
which country he planted two trees as memorials of his journey. The 
flourishing state of the country, and the growing power of Dahir^ 
excited the envy of the Rajahs of Hindy and they instigated and sup- 
ported Runmtdy governor of Kunocj^ in collecting a large force to 
descend upon Sindh. Runmul marched to the neighbourhood of Akr; 
Dahir called in the assistance of Arab mercenaries, and sought advice 
as to the best method of repelling the invasion, from Mahamed UUafee^ 
who directed him to dig a ditch in front of his army, one furlong in 
length, and to cover it over with grass, dec. Mahamed UUafee at the 
head of about 6000 men, Arabs and Sindians, made a night attack upon 
the enemy's camp^ then feigning a retreat, led them to the ditch, into 
which they fell, and were for the greatest part slaughtered ; he took 
many prisoners, (80,000 men and 60 elephants.) After this victoiy the 
power of Dahir was more than ever firmly established ; he ruled 
with pride and prosperity for twenty-five years, when his kingdom 
began to decline. 


Reason of sending the army of the FaithM to Sindh — Bmeel killed— ^m 
Cassim appointed to command the army — arrives at Deehtd — takes that 
]dace as well as Nierunkate — ^the governor of Mootian surrenders — Hgjfy 
Bin Sookufie ui^es Bin Casam to attack Alor — ^the tribe of Chunch proffers 
their all^iance — ^the fort of Baumr taken. 

The king of Ceylon, Serundeept sent some servants to the Khaltfof 

Se"^°^*of*^tibf ^^^^^ (Abdool Mulh,J with presents of female 
Faithful to Sindh. slaves, and other merchandize ; the boat which con- 
veyed them, was driven into the port of Detbuly (now called Tatlak 
and Lahuny,) where they were attacked and robbed by a predatory 
tribe, (the Nukamrehs^) some Vere killed, the rest imprisoned. When 
the news of this outrage reached Bijjaj Bin Yusuf Sookufie^ minister 
of Abdool Mtdky he instigated that prince to send an army to Sindh, 
to retaliate upon the infidels, and to release the faithful ; at the same 
time he wrote a letter to the Re^ah Dahiry for some explanation of 
the circumstances. Dahir disclaimed any participation in the afiair, 

1 84 1 .] OfUie early History of Sindh. 1 89 

or any authority over the robbers who had committed it. Hijjaj gained 
the KhdUf*9 permission to send an officer named Buzeel to Mukran, 
where he was instructed to levy troops, and attack Sindh. Dahir 
ilifjree; killed. sent his son Jaiteh^ who defeated BuzeeTs forces, 
killed him, and took many prisoners. In the mean time the Khalif 
H. 92 A. D. 710. died, and was succeeded by his son WuUeed^ {Bin Ab^ 
daui Mulk) ; Hijfqj urged him to renew the war, and to send a force 
under Mahomed Bin Caseim, (a cousin of Hijjaj^) to release the faith- 
ful, and punish the unbelievers, as his father, the former KhaUf, had 
£mCa*iim apgoint- intended to have done. The Khalif WuUeed gave 

ed to command the *^ ^ 

anny. the necessary orders to Hijjaj for the preparation 

and equipment of a force from the public treasury. In one month he 
collected an army of 15,000 men, 6,000 of whom were horse, 6000 
mounted on camels, and 3,000 foot, with 30,000 dinars for expenses ; 
five catapultas for levelling forts were dispatched in boats. Bin Cassim 
Arrives at DeebiU, marched, and arrived at the fort of Beehul, to conquer 
Sindh,, in the year 92 h. (a. d. 710.) Jaiseh, the son of Dahir, was 
at that time governor of the fort of Nierunkote,* and sent intelligence 
of the arrival of the Mahomedan army to his father at Ahr; Dahir 
asked advice of the Ulkfees, (a tribe which he had sheltered after an 
outrage which they had committed on some of the deputies of Hijjaj); 
they counselled him to avoid meeting the powerful army of Bin Cas' 
Takes DeebuL sim, and to entrench himself in the fort of Ahr, Bin 
Cassim took the fort of Deebul, in which was a large Hindoo temple, so 
sacred,']' that it was supposed to act as a talisman, and to prevent the 
capture of the fort. Bin Cassim threw it down with a catapnlta, des- 
troyed the temples of the idolaters, building musjeeds ou their sites, re- 
leased the prisoners of the Faithful who were confined there, and putting 
his material on board boats, proceeded to Nierunhote, After a diffi- 
cult journey of seven days, the roads being blockaded by the Sindians, 
and the troops of Bin Cassim's army sufPering much from drought, 
owing to the river not swelling,^ the army of the Faithful arrived 
before the fort of Nierunkotej the governor of which was Sumnee, 
who had succeeded the son of Dahir (Jaiseh,) in consequence of the 

* Near the modem city of Hyderabad, see Capt McMurdo's paper on SindU, 
t Hence its name from the Hindoo, for a temple, Deebul or Deewul, 
X The Mahomedan army joined in prayer for relief from this calamity ; their 
supplications were answered by a plentiful fall of rain and a swell of the river. 


^ Alor, 

190 Oftheearfy History of Sindh. [No. HI. 

latter being sent to the more important command of Bvrhamanabad, 
The Mahomedans beg^ to soflfer much firom want of sappliea^ but 

after a short siege, the governor Summee wamn" 
Takes Neirunkote. ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ condition of qoarter 

to the garrison. Bin Casnm entered the fort, destroyed the temples, 
built mu^eeds and minareis in their stead, and appointed keepers and 
mauzzins to the same ; he left magistrates to preserve his aathority at 
Neirunkaiey and taking the governor Sumtme with him, proceeded 
onwards. This last wrote to the governor of the fort of Moostan^ 
Bucherim Chunder^ advising him to submit to the invaders, as they 
were too powerful to oppose. Bucherim^s fidelity however was un- 
shaken, but after a week's siege, he was obliged to abandon the 

Tak M tan ^'^ ^^^ ^^ ^ Seem^ of which place Boodeh was 

governor. Bin Cassim took possession of the fort 
of MooUanf and having made arrangements for its government, pro- 
ceeded to Seern^ where he found Bucherim Chunder and Boodeh 
prepared to oppose him. The infidels failed in a night attack upon 
the camp of the Faithful ; and Kahehj BoodeKs fkther, foreseeing that 
the time was arrived when the country of Sindh must submit to 
the Mahomedan arms, came to Bin Cassim to intreat f<Mr quarter for 
his son, and the whole garrison of Seem-^it was granted. Bin Cassim 
took possession of iSSaem, and leaving Abdool MtUh to settle the affidrs 
of that place, pursued his march, daily adding fresh conquests to the 
arms of the Faithful ; he took the forts of BiAuUoor^ Kundabuh, {f 
Gundava,) and Mu$sai(ff\ firom all of which he exacted tribute, leaving 
troops to retain the new possessions thus acquired. At this time a 
HiV/o; urges Bm ^^ »ached Bin Cassim firom Hijffq;\ ordering him 
(^^f» to attack to NeimnhoiSf to cross the river, and prepare to 

expel the Rajah Dahsr firom the capital of tlie 
country Ahr. The large and powerfiil tribe of Chueh profiered 
obedience to Bin Cassim ; . it is also related that they embraced 
Islamssm^ and were the first inhabitants of Sindh who did so. Is 
obedience to the instructions of Hijjaj^ Bin Cassim proceeded to tlie 
fort of EofuniTy which he summoned to surrender ; the governor Jfoieft 
Bin* Bussayeh made a feint to resist, being afnud of the wrath of 
Dahir, but ultimately surrendered the fort, and with the ganisoa 
promised obedience to Bin Cassim, 

1841.] Cf the early History of Sindh. 191 


DcMr alarmed at the successes which attend Bin Casiitn, exerts himself to 
prevent his crossing the Meheran — the Mahomedans suffer from famine — 
Dahhr offers terms — ^not accepted — Hijjaj sends horses and supplies to Bin 
Cassim, who passes the river — Ddfdr's consternation— comes out from Akr 
with a large army — account of his death, and the defeat of his forces — 
the Mahomedans enter the capital Alor, 

The successes which attended the army of Bin Cassimy began to 

Dakir alarmed at ^^^''^fy ^^® Rajah Dahir for the safety of his capital 

the successes of Bin an^ dominions, and he foresaw that if the Md- 

homedans effected the passage of the river, the fate 
of his sovereignty was sealed. He collected an army of the Koordans, 
Opposes the passage an<i arriving at the opposite bank, employed him- 
ot the Mehran. ^^^ .^ obstructing the passage of Bin Cassim ; 

this duty he afterwards delegated to Jah Humeen, and he himself 
returned to Alor. Jah Humeen performed his part so well, aided 
by the BajaKs son, Jaischy (who cut off the supplies of the Ma^ 
homedans,) that these latter began to suffer all the misery and 
Bin Cassim* 8 army horrors of a famine ; they were driven to slay their 
suffers from famine, own horses for food ; coupled with this, Chund Ram 
Halehj the former governor of Secoostan, heading some insurgents, 
seized that fort from a small party of horse, who were left to govern its 
garrison. JBin Cassim^ however, immediately dispatched Muzhuh 
Bin Abdul with 1000 horse and 2000 infantry, who regained the 
fort, and took Chund Ram prisoner. Dahir thinking these mis- 
Dahir offers terms, fortunes would soon dispirit the Moslems, wrote 
but not accepted. to Bin Cassim^ assuring him, that if he wished 
to withdraw his forces, he might do so in security; the latter 
answered, that he had no intention of retiring, until he bad taken 
the capital Alor^ and subjected Sindh and its dependencies to 
the Mahomedan rule. The intelligence of the difficulties encoun- 
tered by Bin CasHm, and the loss of the passes, reaching Htjfajy 
i7i(/<v' finds supplies be dispatched 1,000 others, with fresh supplies to 
and horses. j^^.^ CosHm, urging him to lose no time in crossing 

the river, as the overthrow of Dahir was the first and most important 
step ; OD receiving this, Bin Cassim proceeded to Juhum, where with 

2 A, 

192 Of the early Biskyry cf Sindh, [No. 111. 

the assistance of Mokeh Bin Bussayeh, he collected some boats, and 
filling them with sand and stones, commenced a bridge for the passage 
of his army ; it was under many difficulties and obstructions at length 
Bin Cassim crosses completed ; the first detachment of the Faithful pass- 
the rivers, notvFith- ^ ^j^g river Under a shower of arrows firom the infi- 

standing DaMrs op- 
position, dels, who were collected in strength on the opposite 

bank ; but these being driven back, the whole of the army of Bin 

Ccissim passed without further molestation. It is reported that Dahirs 

/)flAir'* consternation, rage on receiving the intelligence was so great, 

that he killed the messenger who was the bearer of it. 

Bin Cassim now exhorted his soldiers to firmness : " the river was 
in their rear, and the enemy in front, still if any were faint-hearted 
amongst them, then was the time to quit the army, and return to their 
own country." There were only three of the whole host who did so. 
Bin Cassim having thus secured the co-operation of his troops, pro- 
ceeded onwards to Jeyoor, near which place he first caught a.glimpse of 
Dahir's forces ; he detached Muhuzzin Bin Sabit Kiessee with 2,000 
men, and Mahomed Zyad ul Huddee with 1,000, to oppose them. 
In the mean time, Dahir called MaJumied Haris UUafee to him, and 
said : " I have protected and promoted you ; now is the time to requite 
my kindness, and to shew yourself worthy of my confidence." Mahomed 
Haris excused himself by saying, that he could not oppose the Mos- 
lems without being a renegade to the faith he professed. DcJiir therefore 
deputed his son Jaisch to lead his army against Bin Cassim ; he did 
so, but was defeated with great slaughter, and Bin Cassim advai^ced 
upon Alor, which he besieged. 

On the 10th of the month Ramzan, in the year ninety- three H^rOy 
Dahir comes out from Bajah Dahir determined to make one bold stroke 
^for with a large army, for his crown and kingdom; came out firom the 
city of Ahr with an immense army ; they say he had 30,000 
infantry in advance of his cavalry and elephants ; he himself seated 
on an elephant, the howdah of which was richly ornamented, 
passed to the right and left, animating the soldiers, and disposing 
his battalions in order of battle ; seated in the same howdah 
were two beautiful female slaves, one administered wine^ the other 
pan and beetle-nut to him. The battle which ensued is described as 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 193 

terrific, lasting from mom till night. Bin Cassim himself fought as a 

common soldier with his troops, performing deeds of valour ; but the 

day was decided in favour of the fEtithful. In consequence of the latter 

throwing fireworks amongst the Hajah's elephants the hoivdahs took 

fire^ and the infuriated beasts rushed madly through their own troops, 

trampling down all before them until they arrived at the river, 

into the muddy banks of which they plunged. Dahir*s elephant was 

amongst them, and the Mahomedans profiting by the confusion, threw 

showers of arrows, one of which struck Dahir in the 
Ddhiv^s death and 
the defeat of his neck, and killed him; his elephant sunk into the 

'™^^' mud ; and the Brahmins who were behind the hotodahy 

took the body of the Rajah and buried it there. The infidels fied in 

all directions, and the carnage whigh ensued was dreadful ; all the 

approaches to the citadel of Alor were most carefully blocked up^, and 

the Brahmins and two female slaves fell into the hands of an ofiicer of 

Sin Cassim^s army, named Keiss^ to whom they detailed the particulars 

of Dahir*s death, and begged for quarter. Keiss took them to Bin 

Cassim ; the body of Dahir was found in the mud of the river, and the 

head was severed from the body, and stuck upon a spear. That night 

the Moslems occupied themselves in prayers and thanksgivings for 

the victory they had gained. The next morning Bin Cassim caused 

the head of Dahir, together with the two slaves, to be placed over one 

of the gates of the city. Dahir^s wife, Ladee, seeing this, threw herself 

from the walls, and the garrison being no longer able to ofier any oppo- 

,. , ^ ^ sition, opened the gates of the fort. The army of the 

Mahomedans enter ? x- o .^ 

wlA;r93H. (A.D. 711.) faithful entered and took possession of Alor on 
Friday, the 11th of Ramzan, in the 93rd year of the Hejira. Dahir 
ruled 33 years, and the rule of the Brahmins embraces a period of 92 

194 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. Hi. 


The tribe of Soommah and others pay homage to Bin Cassm — ^the rebellion 
of the sons of Dahir — governors appointed to the principal cities and 
provinces Of Sindh — Bin Cassim extends his conquest as far east as Cash- 
meer — ^the story of his death — deputies of the Kings of Ghussnein, Ghoor, 
and Delhi, govern in some of the provinces of Sindh — origin and role of the 
tribe of Soomrah — Nam-ud-^en Kibajeh — ^his rule and death. 

The whole of the rich booty of Alor, including the treasury and 
crown jewels fo Dahir, were collected and placed in charge of Keiss, 
to convey to the Khalif at Sham. The Khalif honoured and pro- 
moted Keiss, and wrote letters of approbation to Bin Cassim urging 
him at the same time to extend his conquest still iurther, until the 
whole of the countries which were dependencies of Sindh, should be 
subjugated and form part of the Khalif* s territories. 

After the defeat and death of Dahir, the men of Soommah came, 

Men of Soommah ^^^^ °*"«^^ *°^ dancing to pay homage to Bin 

andothew pay horn- Cassim i he asked the reason of this, and they told 
age to Bm Casstm. "* 

him that it was their custom thus to greet a vic- 
torious chief. The Lohanas, Battis, men of Suhateh, Koosejeh, HaUh, 
&c. led on by AUy Mahomed Bin Abdool Ruhmun SuUeetee, with 
Rebellion of the sons bead and feet bare, also proffered their allegiance, 
of Dahir, In the meantime the sons of Dahir entrenched them- 

selves in the fort of Sihunder, where they determined to offer opposition 
to Bin Cassim. Burhamanabad having previously been taken, and its tax 
and tribute settled, Bin Cassim marched to besiege the fort of Sihunder, 
and to quell the rebellion of the sons of Dahir, (Jaisch, Toafic, and 
Wukeeah) ; he reduced this place, and although the sons of Dahir were 
sometime before they would believe the death of their father, (even abu- 
sing their mother, who was sent to assure them of it, by calling her 
a har, traitress, and one in league with the " slayers of cows,") a sor- 
ceress assured them that he was dead, whereupon they surrendered. 

The capital city Alor, with all the principal provinces and cities 
of the country of Sindh having thus fallen to the Mahomedan armsi 
Governors appoin- governors were appointed to the following places: 
^^^' Uhnuf Bin Keiss to Ahr, with Moossie Bin 

Yahoob as Cazy; to BurhamancAad, Widah Bin Ameed; and to 

1841.] Gfthe early History cf Sindh. 195 

Rawur, Tobeh Dams, Bin Cassim then proceeded towards Mooitan, 
and on the road, at the fort of Baheeahy Kulsur Bin Chunder made 
obedience to him ; after that, the fort of Sukkeh was taken, and UU^h 
Bin Tumhee left there as governor. MooUan^ with all its strongholds 
and dependencies fell to Bin Cassim^ who appointed Khuzzaneh Bin 
Abdool Mtdk to the fort of Mehpoor^ Dawood Bin Nusserpoor to 
MooUany and proceeded to Ddndpoor ; at this time he is reported to 
have had 50,000 horse and foot under his banners, independent of the 
regular army with which he invaded the country. Having taken posses- 
_. _ . sion of the countries to the east as far as CcLshmeer 

Btn Casstm conquers , «- . , 

as far as the country and Kunnoo^y he returned, having placed trustworthy 

governors and servants in all those places. At the time 
that Keiss was deputed to convey the treasure and booty captured sXAloTy 
Story of his death, ^ith the prisoners to the KhaUfoi Sham, amongst the 
latter were two daughters of DoAtr.* The JOa/^ consigned them to his 
harem until they should recover from the fatigues of travel, and be prepar- 
ed for his service ; their beauty was very great, and the JE^alifwBB about 
to consign one to his bed, when she informed him that Bin Cassiniy 
flushed with victory, had robbed them both of their virginity, and had 
kept them in his harem for three days ; the KhaUfs wrath at this 
knew no bounds, and he wrote an order with his own hand, informing 
his servants to seize Bin Cassim^ to sow him up in a raw cow's hide, 
and send him to Bagdad. This order reached the chief at EfadapooTy 
and he desired the servants to obey the order of their tyrannical 
master ; they did so, and in three days the brave Bin Cassim sunk 
under the torture. Tis body was conveyed to the KhaUfi who ex- 
ultingly shewed it to the two women, as a proof of his absolute power ; 
and of the full measure of revenge which he had taken upon the 
innocent Bin Cassim, They confessed that the accusation was totally 
false ; that they were solely actuated by revenge for the murder of 
their father, and the destruction of his kingdom. The wretched Khaltf 
too late saw the injustice he had committed, and suffered the most 
poignant remorse ; he caused the two women to be tied to horses, and 
dragged to death through the streets of Bagdad. Bin Cassim was 
buried at Damascus. At the time of Bin Cassim^ s death. Bin Keiss 

* Gispul Deo and Sooing Deo. 

196 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. 111. 

was governor of Aior, the other places being governed, as before-men- 
Deputies from the tioned ; five Other governors, deputies of the £3uUif 
hoe, ' ^^ ^^"^^ Oomhae, governed Sindh successively, with 

little or no alteration in the state of affairs, until in the year 133 h. 
the power over that country passed to the Khalifs of the dynasty of Bern 
Abbas, The period of the rule of the deputies of the KhaUfs oiBeni Oamkae 
in Sindh, embraces a period of 40 years from its conquest in 93 to 133 
H. (a. d. 750.) 

Sindh continued to be a dependency of the Khalifs of the tribe of 
Beni Abbas, who sent many deputies to govern the country. The 
only circumstance noted as worthy of observation throughout their 
rule, is, that one of the governors named Tumun; who arrived from 
Bagdad, brought with him many Arabs, residents of Samrah, who 
remained in Sindh, and in the course of time, produced the powerful 
tribe called the Soomrahs. In the year h. 416 (a. d. 1025,) SooUan 
Mahmood Ghuzney sent deputies to the country of Sindh, thas 
terminating the sovereignty of the tribe of Beni Abbas, after a period 
of 283 years. The men of Soomrah had for a period of nearly 100 
years been powerful zumindars ; but as they continued to pay tax and 
tribute, they will be hereafter treated of as rulers. 

The deputies of the kings of Ghuzneiny, Ghoor, and Delhi, possessed 
Deputies of the many of the provinces of Sindh, and sent governors 
Ghoor, and DehU, to them from the time of SooUan Mahmood Ghussei* 

possess some of the _ , . ' 

provinces in Sindh. ny, until a man named Soomrah, of that tribe, dunng 
the reign of SooUan Abool Rusheed Ghuznein, was by the Soomraht 
placed upon the throne, about 446 h. (1054 a. d.) and ruled indepen- 
dently. According to some writers, this tribe were originally Arabs, ftcm 
a place called Samrah ; they became zumindars in Sindh, of some power, 
and after the departure of the tribe of Beni Abbas, their numbers in- 
creased ; whilst the deputies of the kings of Gruzneiny, Ghoor, sjkdBehH 
possessed portions of the country, the Soomrahs ruled independently. 

According to the author of the MuniukhA^ul' Tutoareeh, SooUan 
Origin and rule of the Abool Rusheed being of weak intellect, neglected 

tnbe ot Soomrah. j^.^ dominions, and the men of Sindh threw off his 

allegiance; and in the year 445 h. (1053 a. d.) placed a man 
of the tribe of Soomrah, named Soomrah, on the throne. He mar- 
ried the daughter of Sad, a zumindar, by whom he had Bahoon- 

1841. J Of the early History ijf Sindh, 197 

kur, who succeeded his father, and died in the year 461 h. (a. p. 
1068 ;) he left a son, Deodah, who ruled for 24 years, and died in the 
year 485 H. (1092 a. d.) After him Sunkahar reigned 15 years;, 
Huneef 36 years ; Onmur 46 ; Deodak II. 14 years ; Pustoo 33 ; Kezreh 
16; Mahomeed Toor 15 ; Kuhereh (unknown,) Deodah III. 14 ; Tahee 
24 ; Juneesur 18 ; Bahoankur II. 15 ; Huffeef 18 ; Deodah IV. 25 ; 
Oomur Soamrah 35 ; Bahoankur IIL 10 ; Hutneel succeeded him ; and 
being a tyrant and oppressor, was the cause of the downfall of the 
Soomrah dynasty. But according to others, this tribe was in Sindh 
altogether 550 years, as zumindars and rulers, and their overthrow 
by the men of Soomah was occasioned by the tyrannies of the gover- 

nor Humeely in the year of the H^ra 752 (a. d. 
K'ts^'rSle^'d 1351,) when their dynasty ceased.* Previous to this 
*^®*^- period, Nasir-ud-deen Kubajeh who was deputed at 

the time of Shums-ud-deen Ooltumsh of Delhi, governor of Sindh, 
about the year 610 h. (a. d. 1213,) declared himself independent. A 
force under Jhingiz Khan invaded the country. Nasir-ad-deen not 
being prepared to oppose them, entrenched himself in the fort of 
Mookany where he was besieged for forty days ; but the besiegers were 
obliged to return unsuccessful. Many of the great men of Khorassan, 
Ghoor, and Ghuznein fleeing from the oppression of Jinghiz Khan, 
came to Nasir-ttd-deen at Mooltan. 

In the year 611 b. (1214 a. d.) Mulck Khan Khuljee made an 
incursion upon Seeostan, Nasir'ud'deen marched to oppose him ; the 
army of Mulck Khuljee was defeated, and he himself killed. 

In the year 622 h. (1225 a. d.) Shums-ud-deen took an army to 
Oockehy to overthrow Nasir^ud-deeny who had entrenched himself at 
Bukkur ; to this 'place Shums-ud-deen detached Nizam-uUMoolk ; but 

His death. Nosir-ud-deen in attempting to escape from BtMur, took 
boat, which foundering in a storm, he was drowned. 

* The rule of the tribe of Soomrah in Sindh is far from being clearly made ; but in 
the manuscripts consulted in this sketch, this authors confess their want of authentic 
recoid, and Meer Massoom, after a very unsatisfactory account, closes it by saying : 
" If any of my friends know more on this subject, let them publish it; I have said all 
I can upon the matter." Nor is the author of the Saqfut-al-Kiram more explicit; 
(vide his contradictory statements) ; but it is generally received, that from the date of 
sending Nasir-ud-deen to Sindhy until the rule of the Soomas, (about 200 years,) Sindh 
was annexed to Delhi. 

(To he Continued.) 


Geological Report on the Valley of the Spiti, and of the Route from 

Kotghur, By Capt^ Hutton, Z^tk N. L 

[The paper now published, completes a series of notes of a journey to 
the Spiti Valley^ undertaken on account of the Asiatic Society, by Capt. 
Hutton, 37th Regt. N. I. It was with those which have already appeared 
placed at the disposal of the E^tor of this Journal by the Committee of 
Papers. The results of the author's geological observations have induced 
the adoption of theories, upon which the Editor is only competent to 
remark in so far as the identification of the opinions of a publisher is 
concerned with thoss of any writer, to whom he is enabled to offer a 
medium of communicating his views to the public. 
' In the belief that hardly any novel theory could be broached, which 
would be unproductive of good results, (if not by its intrinsic merits, at any 
rate by the consequence of the discussion it might excite,) the Editor has 
great pleasure in giving publicity to this paper, for the views contained in 
which the author is alone answerable.] i^ 

The valley of the Sutledge is that portion of the western Himalya which, 
as its name implies, forms the tract of country through which the river 
Sutledge flows. 

The term vaUey is however scarcely applicable to it, since it is strictly 
speaking nothing more than a deep and rugged mountain glen, of more than 
ordinary sternness and magnificence, often affording from the abrupt rise 
of its rocky sides, a mere channel for the roaring torrent which winds its 
irresistible and headlong course along its sheltered bed. 

On either side rise high and snow-clad peaks, forming along the river's 
course two mighty walls, whose dark and Arrowed sides proclaim the 
constant warfare which is waged by frost and heat alternately. 

Villages are numerous along the river's course, sometimes placed near 
the water's level, at others raised high above it on the mountain's side, 
surrounded by their cultivation cut in steppes, and sheltered by the stem 
and frowning cliffs which raise their hoary summit far above it. 

In the lower part of the valley, commencing from Rampore downwards, 
to below Ko^urh, vast beds of rolled and water-worn stones are seen ac- 
cumulated on the river's banks, and rising high above the water's present 
level. Such deposits evidently owe their origin to the eddies or back wa- 
ters of some far mightier stream than that exhibited by the Sutledge in the 
present day, even at its greatest height, and must undoubtedly have been 
formed by the rush of water attendant on the outburst of some enormous 
lake or lakes in the higher portions of the hills. ' 

1841.] Capt. HuUofCs Geological Report 199 

These deposits extend in many places along both banks of the river, and 
appear to have been' formerly one solid mass of debris, which as the wa- 
ters gradually disappeared, have become divided by the current of the 

These are for the most part situated at those places where the Sutledge 
takes a rapid turn, and have been evidently thrown up within the elbow by 
the eddies, or back waters. 

On the surface of these broad and flat alluvial deposits, now flourishes 
an abundant cultivation, consisting of barley, wheat, rice, tobacco, pop- 
pies, &c which being situated high above the river's level, are irrigated 
by the minor streams, which are furnished from the heights above them. 

Higher up the river's course the valley narrows, and forming in many 
parts a mural diff on either bank, gives a mere passage to the foaming 
stream, which rushes with a hoarse and deafening roar over the boulders 
which obstruct its progress, and dash its waters in muddy waves on 
high. Some hundred feet above the stream the hiUs are clothed with 
dense and stately woods of oaks and various sorts of pines, among 
which the " Ree," producing the edible seed called by the people " Neosa," 
is in great abundance. Above the belt of wood, are seen to rise 
huge rocky spires, along the rugged line of mountains, bare of all 
vegetation, and crowned by everlasting snows. From these snow-dad 
heights are furnished numerous streams, which rushing downwards in 
a sheet of foam, furrow the mountains sides with minor glens, and join 
the Sutledge as it rolls along below. Now and then the forests cease, 
and wide grassy tracts succeed, affording pasture to multitudes of goats 
and sheep; while here and there the whole hill side has slipped away, 
and left a mural height of predpitous and crumbling rocks, which are 
annually predpitated into the depths bdow by the expansive powers of 
the frost and snow. 

The general features presented by the Geology of these hiUs, may be 
briefly and summarily comprised in the following observations : — 

The main or central range of the Himalya or true snowy mountains, 

luns in a general direction from East-South-East to West-North- West, 

•ending off branches or spurs in every direction, intersected or divided 

ever3rwhere by deep and predpitous valleys, whose narrow bed or bottom 

almost invariably serves as the channel of some mountain torrent or 

rivulet, whose waters are supplied from the snowy heights above. Where 

the sides of these valleys are of suffident elevation to retain the snow 

throughout the year, these rivulets receive a neverfaiiing supply of 

water; but, on the other hand, if the enclosing walls are of moderate 

or medium elevation, the vallies are often dry for several months together. 

2 B 

20Q Capt. HuiUm's OeologietU Report [No. HI 

The Tallies, it must be borne in mind, are not to be attributed, u 
some have contended, to the gradual wear and 4»ar of the weather, 
and the streams which now drain through them, but have been formed 
by the convuLdve uprise and disruption of the lofty mountains irbich 
form tiieir sides ; the glen or valley being thus a mere ravine or trough 
lying between them, and furnishing often just room sufficient for the 
passage of an insignificant stream. 

The existence of the valley is not therefore to be attributed to the 
abrations caused by the constant action of the waters ; but, on tSie 
other hand, the presence of the rivers and streams within them is entirdy 
owing to the configuration of the mountains, which furnishing on the 
heights vast beds of snow, are ever sending down supplies, which naturally 
gather in the hollow troughs below, and gradually wind ihdr way to 
form a junction with some lai^er stream, which in its tam seeb 
out the noble rivers of the plains. 

It would therefore appear, that the existence of these hill streams is 
altogether owing to the previous formation of the vallies by the uprise 
of mountain ridges, the intervention of a glen or khud being the natural 
consequence of disruption in a range, or the sudden alteration of direction 
of the upheaving power, thus often causing ranges to intersect or to 
run parallel with each other. Thus the vallies are in no wise the con- 
sequence of the unceasing action of the streams, which now find a fitting 
channel in their depths. 

In the present day, these glens usually communicate or open into some 
other, and the waters gradually escape, but doubtless time has been 
when their enclosing barriers were continuous, and numerous lakes 
were formed, until the weight of waters accumulated firom the melting 
of the snows, burst through the rocky walls and so escaped. This is 
indeed a fiict and no wild theory, for the people of different parts of 
the hills still hold traditions of such events. Dr. Gerard, I think it is, 
who mentions, that the natives informed him the valley of the Bosps 
was once closed at the lower extremity, and contained a lake, traces of 
which may still be seen along the banks of the present stream. A 
similar lake once occupied the glen in which the town of SoongiHUA 
now stands, and thick alluvial deposits containing rounded pebbles may 
still be seen in some of the higher parts of it ; firom the lower portion 
they have been swept away by the out-rush of the waters. 

Of this, however, I shall speak again hereafter. The dip of the atrati 
is, as might be expected in such a vast and often confused assemblage 
of mountains, excessively variable ; and although previous travellers have 
uniformly insisted much on a N.£. dip, it wiU be quite as often found 

1841.] Capt HuUofCs Geological Rifort 201 

to lie in an Of^posite direction. The prevailing inclination of ihe strata 
may therefore be said to be N. £. or S. W. It is, howeVer, remarkable that 
the latter dip, although perceptible on both sides of the snowy range, 
is more prevalent on the northern than on the southern side. It has also 
been pointed out as matter of astonishment, that while one aspect of the 
mountains presents a gradual and shelving face, rich in soils and forest 
scenery, the opposite exposure is, on the contrary, found to present a bare 
and often mural cliff. This, however, is no just cause for astonishment, 
as the circumstance where it occurs is simply owing to the outcrop of 
the strata being on the precipitous side, while the dip of the other forms a 
more shelving slope. But this circumstance is by no means confined to 
any one direction in particular, for the outcrop of strata is no more preva- 
lent on the northern than on the southern or any other exposure. It may, 
however, be taken as a general feature in all mountains, that ivhile the 
dip or inclined position of the strata gives on the one fiice a shelving sur- 
fiice for the growth of plants, the other face or outcrop must necessarily be 
rugged and nearly barren, as furnishing by its precipitousness no resting 
place for soils. In this respect the Himalya does not differ from other 
mountain ranges. Travellers, however, having no knowledge of geology, 
and witnessing these facts, have sought to solve the problem by brii^ing to 
their aid supposed peculiarities of soil, of aspect, or of climate. 

Viewed at a distance from the plains of India, these hills appear to 
form one long continuous chain or ridge, entirely clothed with everlasting 
snows, and this line has been designated by way of pre-eminence or dis- 
tinction, by the name of the " snowy range," or " region of perpetual 
snows." Arrived within the mountains, and perched aloft upon the sumr 
mit of some portion of this mighty range, the traveller is surprised to find 
that what he had been led to consider one continuous field of snow, is no- 
thing more than a vast assembli^e of scattered and far distant peaks, ap- 
proximated apparentiy by the distance at which they were wont to be 
viewed into one wide-extending line, and forming component parts of the 
same snow-dad range. 

He is surprised to find the greater portion of that line to be absolutely 
devoid of snow during several months of the year, except within the deep 
and sheltered glens, to which the rays of the summer sun can only pene- 
trate for a few short hours during each day, and where frost resumes its 
Bway the moment his beams are withdrawn or intercepted by some tower- 
ing peak. 

Far beyond the ridge which he has hitherto been accustomed to dis- 
tinguish as the snowy range, he now beholds gigantic and frowning 
masses clothed in the winter garment, rising often in isolated peaks to 

202 CapL HnUon's Geological Report [No. 111. 

an elevation exceeding that of the main or central chain on which he 

Around him, &r and wide, he heholds these ragged and awe-inspiring 
peaks rising pre-eminently grand amidst the sea of mountains by whicb 
he is surrounded, and he now first learns that the line of snow he has 
witnessed from the plains, is the wintery sheet which envelopes these 
often widely separated masses, but which to the eye of the far-off observer, 
have become blended by the distance into one long line of continuous 
snowy peaks. 

The central range, and all the hills, with the exception of these loftiest 
peaks and some deep secluded glens, usually lose the sheet of snows 
during the period that the monsoon is raging in the plains. It is at this 
season that the snows send down the greatest supplies of water to the 
rivers, commencing about the end of May and continuing till September, 
when the frosts i^ain arrest the dissolving snows, and the mountains once 
more put on the pure and dazzling robes of winter, and continue thus 
enveloped in one sheet of snows until the approach of summer again re- 
lieves them. 

No sooner has the wintery garment disappeared, than a fine rich sward 
at once springs up, almost as if by magic, so rapid is the v^etation in 
these high tracts, — affording abundant pasture to the flocks and herds, 
which then range over them to the height of 15,000 feet above the sea. 

This smiling and verdant state of things is, however, unhappily of short 
duration, appearing like the transient gleam of sunshine that often precedes 
the fiercest storm, yielding in the space of two short months to the 
drifting whirlwind and wreaths of snow, that soon enshroud the whole in 
cold and dreary solitude. 

Journeying from Ko^rh, in the lower hills, towards the Spiti valley, 
the geological formations which came under my observation from that 
station to the frontiers of Tartary, were exclusively of the primary dass. 

Commencing at Kotgurh, and crossing the brow of the hill above 
Kaypoo, we find strata of mica and hornblende schists, jutting up through 
the surface, interspersed with veins and nodules of quartz. 

These veins are often found to contain iron disseminated in small thin 
scales resembling mica, and in such cases the qttartz is generally in a state 
of decomposition. This ore pays no duty to Government, and the mines, 
if indeed such they can be called, are seldom worked, being so unproduc- 
tive, that out of 14 lbs. weight of the rough ore only 2 lbs. of iron, and 
that impure, can be procured. 

Veins and masses of coarse primitive cole spar or carbonate ofUme are 
also seen to accompany the mica slate. These rocks continue, with an. 


1841.] Capt HuUon's Geological Report 203 

occasional bed of porpkifritie gneiiSf until we reach Rampore, half a mile 
beyond which a fine white gramdar quartz occars, underlying mica slate. 

These strata dip strongly to the N. £., and are seen on either side of the 
liver, by which they appear to have been transversely divided, the lower 
end dipping down on the right bank, while the upper portion forms a high 
mountain on the left. 

I say these strata have been apparently divided by the Sutledge, which 
now flows through them, because such m retdity has not been the case ; 
but the bed of the river lying through them, is entirely attributable to the 
disruption of the strata at this point having formed a fitting channel for 
the waters to escape through to the plains. 

(Seeptatey-YiQ. 1. 
1. 1. Mica Slate, 2. 2. Granular Quartz, 3. Bed of Sutledge, 

The surface of this quartz rock takes a yellowish rusty hue when 
exposed to the weather, but when freshly fractured, it is of a pure white, 
somewhat resembling Carrara marble in appearance, but of a coarser 

Onwards from Rampore, the mica schist is seen in several varieties, 
sometimes appearing to be composed entirely of mtco, at others containing 
a predominance of quartz; in these cases the strata are either soft and 
crumbling, from the mica scaling off, or very hard and flinty, from the 
quantity of quartz. 

Silvery mica passing into chlorite schist is abundant near Goura, and from 
its soapy and decomposing nature, the whole rock has in many places slipt 
away altogether, leaving a constantly decomposing diff, from which in wet 
weather large masses are constantly falling. 

Further on, the mica i» seen to contain numerous small crystals of 
hornblendcj which cause it to pass gradually into hornblende schists. 
Garnets of small size occur occasionally imbedded in the mtca, which 
also contains masses oi white quartz^ in which beautiful crystals of eyanite 
are interspersed, varying in shade from pale sea green to bright blue. 

The characteristic rocks, however, from Kotgurh to Sarahun are mica 
and hornblende slates, frequently alternating with each other, and imbed- 
ding blocks of porphyritic gneiss and white quartz. 

From Sarahun the gneiss begins to shew itself as the prevailing rock, 
and occurs both common, red, and porphyritic ; — mica slate and hornblende 
are also frequent, and when they come in contact, the mica often becomes 
jet black. 

204 Capt HtOtofCs Geological B^fort [Na 111. 

A few miles from Saralum, on the r^t bank of the liver, an interesting 
appearance presents itself in the disposition of the strata. The dip which 
up to this point has been pretty uniformly to the N. £., now gradually rises, 
and preservmg for a short disUnce a nearly horizontal position, at List lifts it- 
self abruptly, and dips back again to the S. W. at the same angle of about 45». 

From this disposition of the strata it becomes evident, that they have 
been lifted or upheaved at both ends, from the horizontal position they 
once had, by some volcanic force. The lowest strata exposed to view 
at this spot are on the right bank of the river, nearly even with the water, 
and form a complete arch immediately under those strata which dip to 
the N. £. I annex a slight sketch made on the spot, which will serve to 
show the position of the rocks, better than a description. (See plate) — ^Fio. 2. 

Beyond this, as we approach Traada, a fine white granite is observed, 
containing large scales or crystals of mica, and farther on still, about 
Nachar, white felspar becomes abundant, imbedding the same vMca crystals, 
and forming the first division of the gramte of some geological writers. 
Quartz also occasionally entered into its composition and formed true 
granite, with which were found hornblende and mica slates, porphyritic and 
granitic gneiss. In some instances where the hornblende and granite were 
in contact, the mica of the latter rock assumed a black and glossy appear- 
ance, producing a variety of granite of some beauty. 

Proceeding from Nachar, the road passes over formations similar to those 
already mentioned, and a few miles lead down to the Sutledge, which is 
crossed by a good broad Sangho. At this point the rocks rise abruptly in 
huge masses on either side, confining the river to narrower limits, and 
affording a mere passage for its waters. 

These rocks are of gneiss, and the stratification which previously had 
often been indistinctly discernible, now ceased altogether, and the beds 
presented a shattered and amorphous mass, — a circumstance by no means 
of rare occurrence among this class of rocks. 

From the sangho to Chei^ong the road still continues along the bank of 
the river over beds of boulders and broken rocks of every size, consisting 
of granite, gneiss, mica, and hornblende slates. Here too cyanite again 
occurred in quartz, and crystals of cryscheryl (^) in granite. 

From Chei^ong to Meeroo the strata of gneiss are often laid bare by 
the descent of streams from the snows above, and the dip is seen fiilling 
to the N. £. at about the usual angle of 450. Beyond this place occur thick 
beds of mica slate, containing garnets in profusion, and often, from the de> 
composition of the rock, the whole road is strewed with garnets of various 
sizes. Beneath this bed occurs one of white quartz rock, which is seen 
rising from the edge of the Sutledge to about 3,000 feet in thickness. 


1841.] Capt. Button's Geological Report 205 

Near Chini, the mka date contams occasional amall crystalB of cyamte, 
and Bometimes paasea into ehUnite slate, 

A short distance firom Chini, the whole hill side has slipped down 
into the Sutledge, firom the action of frost and snow, and the cliff now 
towers up firom the banks of the river, presenting a sheer and perpendi- 
cular wall of between six and seven thousand feet in height. This 
vast mass is composed throughout of gnetsty and the road» which is a 
mere scaffolding, passes along the &oe of it, at 4,000 feet above the 
Sutledge, which is seen foaming below. 

fVom this to the village of Leepee, the formation is pretty nearly the 
same, consisting of granite^ gneiss^ hornblende^ mka, and quartz. 

The granite about Punggee, Rarung, and Junggee, contains a large pro- 
portion of hornblende, and at Rarung it is also seen to assume a brick red 
oolour, often traversed with veins of guartz, both red, amber, and white. 
The red^ofitto appears only in masses imbedded in a yellowish variety, 
which is the true rock, and which towards Leepee gives place to gneise kad 
mica date. Above the last mentioned rock commences the first bed of 
arg^aceous dates, which continues interstratifiied with greywacke echiete 
to the top of Roonung Pass. The alternations of these strata are frequent, 
sometimes the one and sometimes the other rock prevailing in thickness. 

These beds are evidently the first indication of the transition, or lowest 
secondary formation of geologists, and extending across or through the 
Roonung Pass, downwards to Soongnum, they are seen to support strata of 
compact greywacke, and beds of guartzote rock, apparently analogous to 
and holding the place of the old red sandstone of Europe. 

The town of Soongnum stands in a valley inmiediately between the 
Roonung Pass in its front and the Hungrung Pass in its lear. In front, 
the range of hills which form the right side of the Rushkoolnng valley 
are composed of an argillaceous series, consisting of dag stones and grey^ 
wacke dates, of different textures and degrees of induration, and dipping 
to the S. W. The strata in the rear of the town, forming the left bank, dip, 
on the contrary, to the N. £. and are composed of greywacke slates, com- 
pact greywacke, old red sandstone, and a superior stratum of Umestone 
and greywacke. These towards the sununit of the range gradually change 
their dip, and rise up again to the S.W., the whole being surmounted by a 
bed of dark blue secondary Umestone, containing portions of clay and 
eHex. This formation extends along both sides of the Rushkoolnng val- 
ley, even to the Manerung Pass above Manes in Spiti, a distance of about 
seventeen miles. About seven miles from Soongnum, copper veins occur 
in their strata of white quartz rock, and vdnous quartz, lying occasionally 
between, or ramifying through, the greywacke and old red sandstone. The 

206 Capt Huiton's Geological Report [No. 111. 

last mentioned rock varies much in colour and in textore, the lowest strsr 
turn being wMUy and scarcely distinguishable from quartz rock, but chang- 
ing gradually to a faint tinge of pmkj becoming deeper as it passes up- 
wards, until its colour is of a dull purplish hue. 

These strata are sometimes separated by a very thin layer of soft 
whitish marl The crest of the Hungrung Pass is 14,837 feet above the 
level of the sea, and is composed of dark blue limestone. The range on 
which this Pass is situated divides Kunawur from Hungrung, — a district 
inhabited by Tartars, who are subject to Bussaher. 

Descending from the Pass to the village of Hui^o, the road passes over 
numerous alternations of blue UmesUme and greywaeke slates, resting upon 
white quartz, which lower down gradually passes into a greenish variety 
of the same rock. 

These strata all dip to the S.W., and are probably an outcrop of those 
which run in a N.£. direction from behind Soongnum, and thus shew the 
effects of what may be termed a double upheavement, or lifting of the same 
strata at two different points. The lofty granitic peaks which tower up to 
the right of the Pass, at once shew that they have been instrumental in 
forming the S.W. dip, and it is more than probable that the same rock 
might be discovered also protruding through the strata on the opposite 

The following partly imaginary section of Hungrung, may serve to ex- 
plain my meaning : — 

Supposed Section of Hungrung Mountain, 

Strata of greywacke slates are met with for a few miles after leaving 
Hungo; but they disappear as we approach Leeo, or rather, from the 
great descent of the road, they are left far above, while the base of the 
mountain is found to be a dark coloured gneiss, traversed and inter- 
sected in every direction by veins of white quartz, 

Leeo stands in a kind of basin, surrounded on all sides by lofty hilb 
of granite and the same dark gneiss; but the lower parts of them are 
overlaid by strata of the secondary series, consisting chiefly of gregwaeke 
and shales. On the sides of the surrounding hills exist strong indications 
of the former presence of a lake, in the lines of water-worn stones 
and pebbles that now rest many hundred feet above the river Lee. 

These appearances were long since pointed out by Dr. Gerard, who 
though knowing nothing of geology, was at once forcibly struck with 





* p 

o 8- 

JS41.] Ccpt HuUtm's Geological Report 207 

tke conTietion, that nothing but the former presence of deep waters 
could account for the phenomena here so plainly exposed to view. 

In his conjectures on this head, that enterprising and unwearying 
traveller was undoubtedly correct. 

In the bed of the Lee, where it is crossed by a wooden umgha, a thick 
bed of white quartz rock is seen dipping to the S.W^ and as we mount 
the hill in the direction of Chungo, beds of boulder$f and disjointed masses 
oigramU^ ipieiss, and mica dates hurled from above, are passed over, now in 
many places overlying the secondary skale$. 

At the village of Chungo, which is the last on the left bank of the Lee, 
under the government of Bussaher, the most decided indications of the 
former presence of a deep lake again occur. To the eastward of the 
level patch on which the village and its cultivation stands, rise three lofty 
and rugged mountains, whose shattered sides present sections of the same 
strata as those noticed at Leeo : namely, deep beds of dark g^eits and 
mica slates intersected by graaMc and quartz veins of various thickness ; 
these strata dip down towards the west, and as they approach the villi^e, 
are lost beneath the vast accumulations of alluvial soils, which here, as at 
Itceo, mark the former presence of deep and tranquil waters. 

To the southward these deposits consist almost entirely of thick beds 
of daySj sands, and hoMers of every size, rising high above the level of 
the village; while to the NNK are again presented the same alluvial 
deposits of a greater thickness, and accompanied in addition by a deep 
and extensive bed of a pure white and friable gypsum. This bed is per- 
haps a most valuable discovery in a geological point of view, as tending 
to show the nature of tiie waters from which it was predpitated. This thick 
gypseous bed is overlaid by the «afu&, dagsy and bouldersy which have 
already been noticed. At the fort of Skialkur, on the opposite or right bank 
of the river, about 3| miles from the village of Chungo, this gypsum is like- 
wise seen overlying the transition series of alternating shales and sandstones. 

These deposits are now at the height of 2,000 to 2,500 feet above the 
present level of the river's course, or at an elevation of 12,000 to 12,500 
feet above the level of the sea. 

The three mountain peaks of gneiss, which rise up to the eastward of 
Gkungo, are divided from each other by narrow glens, through which 
atreams flow down to join the sea, between which and the base of these 
mountains, the whole alluvial deposits have been swept away, and the pre- 
sent cultivated plain of Chungo is therefore situated far below the surround- 
ing alluvium, which rises like walls on either side of it 

Aa we proceed fr^m Chungo towards Spiti, the road lies at first over the 
alluvial accumulations above-mentioned, for two or three miles, when fr^m 

2 c 

208 Capt HutUm" 8 Geological Report [No. 111. 

the abrupt nature of the primary rocks that are hence met with, they 
cease to exist, except &r below where a wide and shelying plain lies along 
the river's side, and which is entirely composed of them. From the point 
where the road leaves them behind, for a distance of six miles, the strata 
are again of msca, daUf and gneiss, varied with the same carious veins of 
granite and quartz as those of heeo and Chungo. At this point the moun- 
tains are separated by a rapid river called the Paratee^ which runs down 
from Chinese Tartary and joins the Spiti near Skialkur. Here the primary 
series may be said to disappear, and the Spiti road crossing the Paratee by 
a natural bridge of stone, which is formed of several large masses of gntm 
fallen from above, and wedged firmly together over the stream, Inings the 
traveller at once upon the secondary class. The lowest strata are there- 
fore just perceptible where the waters cut their way through, imd we thus 
catch a glimpse of the gneiss of the opposite bank, above which occurs a 
talcose sehkty white quartz rock, and clay slate, dipping to the S. W. Above 
these are alluvial deposits similar to those of Chungo, and extending for a 
mile or two inland from the river, forming a flattened phun, on which stands 
<' Kewiick," the first village of Chinese Tartary. Here again a portion of 
the deposit has been swept away by a descending stream, exactly as at 
Chungo. It is worthy of remark, that all these alluvial deposits are the 
deepest and most extensive when the surrounding hills have the most 
gradual slope, and where they retire so as to form recesses ; while on the 
contrary, as might be expected, where the dip of the strata is rapid or 
acute, scarcely any trace is left of the former exiatence of a lake, because 
the deposit has been swept away by the outrush of the escaping waters. 

These accumulations are likewise the most extensive at the lower end of 
the Spiti valley, where alone the gypsum is to be found. To this fact I would 
beg to call special attention, as it will be hcureafter alluded to, and prove of 
some importance in the explanation of these diluvial and oZ^uoia/ deposits. 

From Kewrick the road runs over hills, which are entirely of the secon- 
dary class, being frequent alternations of the same rocks, as greywaeke and 
claystones, limestones, and sandstones, and in one or two instances a tn^ 
of greenstone is also seen, both stratified and amorphous. 

From Kewrick to the village of Larree, which is the first inhabited place 
in Spiti, we travel first for four miles over the edges of strata of clay dates and 
accumulations of debris. From the decomposing state of these strata, 
caused the effects of weather and a portion of ahtm, which causes them to 
scale off in soft flakes, the whole of the hills on either side of the Spiti river 
have a charred and blackened aspect, which combined with their arid and 
barren nature, gives a sad and melancholy appearance to the country, by 
no means cheermg to the weary traveller. 

1841.] Capt HuUofC 8 Geological Report 209 

The dip of the strata is now unifonnly to the S. W., and generally at an 
angle of 45o, though here and there they rise abruptly to a nearly vertical 
position, denoting an excess of the upheaving forces from below. As we 
approach Larree after crossing the Gew river, the bed of which is of grey- 
wacke slater we come upon a thick stratum of pure white quart% rock, which 
appears to be a continuation of the same rock which was seen at Leeo on 
the opposite side of the range ; in contact with this, and immediately rest- 
ing upon it, is another bed of siliceous rock, which passes gradually into 
thin strata of flinty slate. Upon this rests clay slate, which then alternates 
frequently with greywaeke and sandstones. Further on we perceive masses 
of gypseous breccia formed of angular fragments of aryiUaceous schists, encrusted 
or cemented together by gypsum. This rock, if it be entitled to the name, 
owes its origin to the same waters which deposited the gypsum beds of 
Chungo and Skialkur ; it is found overlying the edges of the true strata 
from which it has been formed, and occurs in rude and mis-shapen masses. 
To this breccia I would also call attention, as serving to shew a change in 
the waters of the lake, or at all events a decrease in the proportion of 
their saline properties. Farther on still, and nearly opposite the village of 
Somra, a stratum of trap is seen to occur between shales above and sand- 
stone below ; it is conformable to the true strata with which it is clearly in- 
terstratified, not causing any dislocation of the series. Beyond Larree, how- 
ever, the same rock occurs again, in one place interstratifled with grey- 
waeke and dark blue limestone, at another running up vertically in an 
amorphous mass through the strata, which it first dislocates and then over- 
lies. In this case, the strata on either side of the Spiti dip to the S. W., 
while the rocks through which the trap has more immediately passed or 
been injected, are thrown boldly and abruptly from the usual course to the 
westward. The strata on the opposite side of the river are at the same- 
time raised from the angle of 45o nearly to a horizontal position, and af- 
ter some twisting of the strata, again with apparent difficulty regain their 
wonted S. W. dip. Here it is evident that the trap in question has been 
the molten vein whose struggles to burst upwards through the superin- 
cumbent weight of strata has been the agent which has thrown them 
into their present inclined positions, and in its upward course has first be- 
come partially interstratified with those which possessed the least indura- 
tion or means of resistance, and then finally, as it burst through all obsta- 
cles, flowed over them in a broad sheet of molten matter, which as it cooled 
assumed the present solid and compact texture. 

Of such having been the fact, we observe proof in the vein of vertical 
trap acting as a support, or upright as it were, from which the strata 
now incline and dip downwards. 

210 Cf^fi. HtOtan's Geological BtparL [No. 111. 

As, however, trap is known to poeseas, <* in a general sense, tfaeuiuTer- 
sal common character of being nnstanUified, and posterior to the rods 
with which it is connected,"* it becomes necessary in here stating, thst 
it is conformable to and interstratified with those of the secondary seiia, 
to offer a few theoretical remaiks on the probable means by which tfaii 
partial stratification has been produced. 

The interstratification of this rock, where it oceors, is of very inc oa side f - 
aUe extent, when compared with that of those with whidi it is associa- 
ted, possessing by no means the wide and almost nniymsal range of the 
primary and secondary series, but being on the contrary, *< in a gresfc 
measure limited to particular spots, more or less extensive, and to be, if 
s^aratdy considered, partial and independent productionB."t 

Lotus then suppose that these secondary strata were once (which in fiiet 
^ th^ really were) horizontal deposits from the wat^s, which it is genenlly 
supposed were instrumental to the fonnation of the series to which they 

We shall thus pero^ve them to have been deep vncomoUdated mi^ssei of 
sands, covered by muddy layers, which we now term shaleM. The strug- 
gles of the molten matter to procure access to the surface would, from the 
heat and pressure engendered by its upward course, have the effect of 
vitrifying and indurating the sands through which it forced a passage, 
and of converting them into strata of sandstone^ while the shek or 
muddy deposit next in succession being lighter and less massive than 
the stream of trap, would probably rise and yield a passage between 
itself and the sa$idsUme for the molten matter to form a stratum, some- 
what in the same manner as oil would give place to a stream of water 
if injected through a tube or aperture below it. 

The muddy deposit, however, being hardened by contact wiih the Ian 
and by the genearal pressure of the uprising strata, would burst as the 
sandstone had already done, and yield a passage to the trap, whieh 
flowed through and overspread them at the surfaccr 

Should it be contended tiiat the outburst of a stream of laoa such as 
that I have described the trap to have been, would have expended 
itself in a shower of ashes or cinders, rather than have assumed tiie 
stratiform structure it now exhibits, I would remind the reader that 
the secondary rocks are supposed to have been deposited in the bosom 
of a tranquil water, and that that water formed either extensiye lakes or 
portions of the sea. 

* t McCttUoch'a Geology, 

1841.] Capt HuUon's Geological Report. 211 

The upheaTUg lava cnrrent had therefore not only the weight of 
the superimposed deposits, hut the pressure likewise of an enormous 
volume of water. It becomes more than probable, therefore, that this 
aqueous pressure would effectually check the tendency to produce cinders 
and ashes, and thus as the stream poured upwards through the deposits and 
came in contact with the waters, the molten matter would extend itself 
along the bottom of the lake, and thus overlie the secondary atrata, 
as in the present instance. 

For &rther information on this subject, I would refer the reader to 
De h Beche'4 Geological Manual, where will be found some yery just 
and apposite remarks on the point in question. 

" It being by no means probable," he says, "that the density of sea 
water beneath any depth which we can reasonably assign to the ocean, 
would be such as to render it of greater specific gravity than liquid 
lava C|}ected from a volcanic rent, situated beneath the sea, it would 
follow that so long as the lava continued in a state of fusion, it would 
arrange itself horizontally beneath the fluid of inferior specific gravity.*' 
The question then arises, how long a body of lava in fusion would 
remain fluid beneath the waters of the sea? The particles of water 
in contact with the incandescent Java would become greatly heated, 
and consequently, from their decreased specific gravity, would immediately 
rise : their places being supplied from above by partides of greater 
density and less temperature. Thus a cooling process would be esta- 
blished on the upper surface of the tavOf rendering it solid. 

Now as the particles of fluid lava would be prevented from moving up* 
wards by the solid matter above, pressed down by its own gravity and the 
superincumbent water, they would escape laterally, where not only the 
cooling process would be less rapid, from the well-known difficulty of heat- 
ed water moving otherwise than perpendicularly upwards, but where also 
the power of the fluid lava to escape resistance would be greatest. 
(See plate)-^FiQ. 4. Let a be a Yolcanic rent, through which liquid lava ia 
propelled upwards in the direction d f: the lava being of greater specific 
gravity than the water b he cit would tend to arrange itself horizontally in 
the directions db dc The sur&ce b d c having become solid, the lava would 
escape firom the sides b and c, spreading in a sheet or tabular mass around; 
and this effect would continue so long as the propelling power at a was 
sufficient to overcome the resistance opposed to the progress of the lava, 
or until the termination of the eruption, if that should first happen."* 

This clearly stated theoretic problem may now be suocessfiilly reduced to 
practice, and will correctiy and exactiy apply to the phenomenon under 

* De la Beche's GMlogical Manual, p. 126. 

212 Capt Hutton's Geological Report [No. 111. 

consideration. The truth therefore of De la Beckers proposition will be at 
once established. 

(See plate) — Fig. 5. Let us suppose these now inclined strata to be in their 
original horizontal position, and 2 and 3 forming beds of unconsolidated 
sandy and muddy deposits beneath the waters of the lake or sea acek 

Then a a a a, &c. is a vein of lava or molten trap, which in its endea- 
vours to find vent, upraises and bursts through the solid primary series 
denoted at 1. 

By the heat and pressure thus engendered, the lava indurates the sand at 
2, and converting it into sandstone, breaks through it also, and is thus 
brought in contact with the muddy deposits represented at 3. This deposit 
being of a specific gravity inferior to the stream of lava, is naturally dis- 
placed and forced to contract and furnish room for a stratum of trap 
at a aa» 

The heat and pressure, however, continuing, speedily and almost on 
the instant, converts the muddy deposit into shale or slate day. And 
the lava current bursting through it and the superior stratum of limestone, 
comes at length to the surfiice, and in contact with the waters. Here 
then commences the facts detailed theoretically by De la Beche, as already 
quoted, and the stratum of trap spread over the surface of the now inclined 
and consolidated strata of deposits ; while the waters of the lake or sea 
being displaced by the upheavement, effected an escape through the 
various channels afforded by the disruption of the uprising strata. 

It may possibly be objected that the occurrence of a compact stratum 
of limestone above the shale, and in contact with the trap, will at once 
invalidate the theory here proposed, firom its being a known fact, that 
when heat is applied to calcareous matter, the carbonic add is driven 
off, and the remaining lime rendered infiisible. 

I shall endeavour therefore to obviate such an objection, by quoting and 
establishing a theory long since propounded by Dr. Hutton, which at the 
time of its proposition was looked upon as an ingenious, but perfectly un- 
tenable, doctrine. 

" He had asserted that calcareous rocks, like every other, had been sub- 
jected to the action of heat. But it was well known that when heat was 
applied to this class of rocks the carbonic acid was driven off in the shape 
of gas, and the remaining quicklime become infusible. Dr. Hutton in- 
deed had answered this by suggesting, that the pressure of the superincum- 
bent ocean was sufficient to confine the carbonic acid, and to cause it to 
act as a flux on the quicklime. His theory, however ingenious, was so 
abundantly gratuitous, that it by no means satisfied even his own disciples. 
After Dr. Hutton's death. Sir James HaU ascertained by numerous experi- 

184L] CapL HuUon's Geological Report 213 

ments that carh<mate of Ume might readily be fused when exposed to 
heat, if it were at the same time under a pressure not greater than Dr. Hut- 
ton's theory required, or about a mile and a half of sea."* 

Now it is easily perceptible, that the result of these expenmentsr is in 
exact accordance with the effects which the theory here proposed would 
give rise to. 

We have supposed that the present solid strata were once soft and 
aqueous deposits beneath a vast depth of waters ; we thus perceive a beau- 
tiftd and conclusive illustration of Dr. Hutton's theory in the £Eu;t, that 
when the heat generated by the pressure and condensation from below 
acted on the superior cakareoua stratum at 4, that very stratum was 
then actually subject to the pressure of the superincumbent waters at A 
C EHf which by preventing the escape of the carbonic acid gas, and causing 
it to act as a flux upon the quickUme, converted the stratum, as Dr. Hutton 
bad suggested, into the compact state which it now exhibits. 

As theoretic speculations, however just, and however much in accordance 
with the phenomena observable, they may prove to be, may nevertheless 
be deemed misplaced in a paper of this kind, I shall leave the subject for 
a more fitting occasion, and now pass on to a consideration of the remain- 
ing facts exhibited in the strata of the Spiti valley. 

From Kewrick to the village of Leedung, the strata may be said to be 
of the same descriptions, namely, talcose schist, quartz rock, greywacke slates, 
clay slates, sandstone shales and trap, all except the last alternating fre- 
quently with each other. 

A precise description of each rock belongs rather to the department of 
the nuneralogists than to that of the geologists, and I therefore content 
myself with pointing out the series rather than individual species, in order 
that I may hasten on to the theory which the appearances presented 

Passing therefore from Larree via I^okh to the fort of Dunkur, we find 
the strata to consist of the same alternations of rocks as those already 
mentioned ; but at this latter spot the appearances denote a struggle for the 
direction of the dip, which merits some attention. The range of hills run- 
ning along the right bank< of the Spiti opposite to Dunkur have a N. W. 
by W., and S. £. and by £. direction, and at four miles below the fort the 
strata dip uniformly to the S. W. From that point, however, or near the 
village of Maness, it would seem that an upheavement had taken place 
through or along the centre of the range, causing the superior strata to 
assume a pent or roof-like appearance, throwing them on one side with 

* Journal of Science, p. 4. 

214 Copt Humn's Geological Report [No. 111. 

an acute dip to the N. £., while the opposite aide preserved the S. W. di- 
rectlon at a less acate angle. In such cases where a section is obtained 
by a water course, the strata forming the heart or interior of the range 
are seen twisted in every^ grotesque direction. These strata consist of 
thick beds of argUlaeeow ichists and sandiUmeSf and what strikes one as 
singular in their disposition is, that the upheavement has had the effect of 
throwing the outcrop of the sandstone, or superior stratum dipping to the 
S.W., higher than the portion which falls to the N.£. Thus the joining 
of the strata is not at the summit of the range, but the rocks of the N.E. 
side are seen lying against those of the opposite direction, whose upper 
edge, or outcrop, juts out above them. (See plate) — Fig. 6. 

Passing on from Dunkur we come to the Lingtee river, which joins the 

Here again a double upheavement of the strata appears to have taken 
place, which will be better understood by a reference to the annexed sketch, 
and which may serve as an example in all similar cases. (See plate) — Fig. 7. 

On the right bank of the Spiti, the strata Ml acutely to the river in a 
N. £. direction, as already pointed out, while on the left bank, although 
they at first dip to the same direction, they are seen first gradually to rise 
to a nearly horizontal position, and then to dip backwards again to the S. 
W. This occurs on the left bank of the Spiti and the right bank of the 
Lingtee at the point where the two rivers meet. 

On the left of the Lingtee the strata first dip to the N. £., and then after 
many extraordinary twists and contortions, yield, as it were reluctantly, to 
the contrary dip, which turns them back to their old and proper direction 
of S.W. 


In aU these cases it will be found that the rocks are rent asunder, and 
the disruption now forms deep khuds or glens, through which at present a 
stream or river descends. 

About six miles from Dunkur stands the village of Leedung, where the 
strata consist, in an ascending order, of greywacke and clay slates, daik 
blue Umestone shales, Umestone and sandstone, repeated in many alterna- 

Leedung stands at the height of 12,037 feet above tiie sea, and the strata 
just mentioned rise precipitously above it to the height of from 3,000 to 
6,000 feet more, or to 15,000 and 18,000 feet above the sea. The highest 
stratum here appeared to be of sandstone, resting upon shale. 

To the N.£. of this village rises a Pass, which has an elevation of 
15,247 feet, and here along its summit, where the streams which descend 



J841.] Capi. Huttm's Geological Report. 215 

from the moyn liaye worn numerous channels through the loose and 
decomposmg thaies, occur the fossils which were long ago disoovered hy 
Dr. Gerard. These consist of various species of ammonUes, helemmtes, 
orthoeeratUea areay and some others ; hut all partaking of the same 
deoomposing nature as the shaUn in which they occur, so that it is next to 
impossible to procure a perfect spedmen, or to prevent its fidling to pieces 
if obtained. 

The UmuUmu which here alternate in Ihe series, are sometimes whoUy 
composed of sheUs, and tare of a dark grey colour, while at the height of 
14,712 feet occurs a bed of a whitish grey colour, and almost free from 
sheUs, but imbedding larg^ rounded masses of various sizes, which when 
broken are found to be composed wholly of the dark shell UmeiUme 
ahready mentioned. 

Among these hills there is great confusion in the direction of the dip, 
the strata sometimes indinii^ to the S.W. or N. £., while at others they 
are N.N.W., and to almost every point of the compass. These masses 
are, however, generally limited to small extent, and appear like fragments 
torn from the true or main direction by the force of the upheaving agent. 
These strata extend along the range for many miles fiirther up the valley, 
but no fossils were apparent at any place, except on the heights above 
Leedung and Larra. They exist, however, in the form of shell limestone 
along the range immediately leading from the lake Chummorareel ; but at 
this season the whole range lay so deeply buried in snow, that the route 
was impracticable, and I was obliged reluctantly to quit the fossil site, not 
half satisfied with its investigation. 

From the nature of the rocks in this part of the valley, and the reports 
of those who have visited lake Chummorareel, I should feel strongly 
inclined to believe that it is situated among the Lias clays. Puttee Ram, 
the Tartar wuzeer, who has often visited the spot, assured me that the 
lake was surrounded by high hiUs composed of earth of various colours, 
red, yellow, blue, &c. and that the country around was all of similar clays, 
and not composed of rocks like the lower parts of Spiti, although some- 
times above the hills of day, large masses of stone were also found. 

Such a description, all rough though it be^ would lead one to expect the 
Lias beds resting on the red nuarle, and surmounted by the sandstone series 
above the ooUte. The subject, I am sorry to think, must thus &r remain 
obscure, until some more fortunate traveller shall venture upon those 
interesting scenes. 

From this slight sketch it wiU be seen that the geological series from 
Kotgurh to the neighbourhood of Soongnum, in Kunawur, is that of the 
primary class; while thence, to the head of the Spiti valley, we find, 

2 D 

216 Capt, HuUofCs Geological Report [^No. Hi. 

with slight interruption, the transition or lowest secondary series con- 
taining fossil exuviae of marine MoUutca. 

From the point of junction of the Spiti and Sutledge to the head of 
the Spiti yalley, we find every thing indicating the former presence of 
an extensive lake. These indications consist in beds of friable or earthy 
gyptttm, clays, sand, and rolled pebbles now left high in horizontal strata 
above the course of the river at the present day. 

These accumulations are also seen to be the thickest and most extensive 
at the lower end of the valley, where the mountains form recesses, and 
where the slope is the most gradual. We find the gypseous beds alone at 
the lower end, and we also find them growing thinner and dying out as 
they approach the higher and narrower part of the valley, until at last 
their presence is only to be traced in the incrustations of other rocks. 

The days and sands which have been deposited upon these beds are, on 
the other hand, universal throughout the valley wherever they could 
find a resting place, and they pass on after the gypsum has ceased up to the 
higher portion of Spiti, where at length they yield to pebbles and boulders, 

I have called attention to these fiicts, because I shall presently show by 
what means such an arrangement has taken place. 

It will, however, first be necessary to state the theory which these ap- 
pearances suggest, and then to show how the phenomena presented to our 
view, are in accordance with that theory. 

Theory of the Spiii Valley. 

We have already seen that the valley bears every appearance of havins^ 
been at some remote period the bed of an extensive lake, which at length, 
by the accumulations of its waters, and its enormous pressure upon the 
rocky barriers which confined it at the lower extremity of the valley, bust 
forth with irresistible power and devastating effects down into the district 
of Kunawur. I shall endeavour to trace in detail the circumstances which 
may have led to this outburst of the Spiti waters. 

The first formation of such a lake may have occurred from one of three 
distinct causes, namely : — 

First, If we allow the existence of these vast mountains previous to the 
flood, the lake may have accumulated in the bosom of the valley firom the 
melting of antediluvian snows, and thus, (suppossing the Mosaic narrative 
to be correct,) it will be seen, that although originally composed of fiesh 
waters, it must have changed its nature and become salt at the period of 
its submersion by the deluge ; and again in after years, when that deluge 

1841.] Capt. Huitm's Geological Report. 217 

had subsided, it would have gradually regained its freshness, and parted 
with its saline properties by the constant accession of streams from the 
beds of snow surrounding it. 

Seeondkf. If these mountain ranges were formed at no remoter period 
than that assigned to the subsidence of the Mosaic deluge, the lake may have 
been formed simply by the accumulation of the snow streams from the 
heights above, since that last grand catastrophe. 

And, ThirdJy, If suppose these mountains to have been upheaved by sub- 
marine volcanic agency durin^^ the convulsions attendant on the subsidence of 
the deluge, we may assign the origin of the lake to tiie enclosing or retaining 
of the oceanic waters, as the ranges rose upwards from beneath the waves. 

I shall presently speak of the most probable of these three causes, and 
in the mean time taking for granted the former existence of the lake, pro- 
ceed to show by what means it has disappeared. 

The walls of the valley, then, we must suppose to have been at one pe- 
riod continuous, without an outlet ; thus forming an extensive basin con 
taining a lake of water, which from its vast expanse and magnitude, might 
have been almost termed an inland sea. . 

The surrounding barriers of tlus lake rearing thdr heads aloft to an ele- 
vation of from 16,000 to 20,000 feet and upwards above the level of the 
prd^ent sea, were then, as they still continue to be, the never-failing 
receptacles of eternal snows, which fumished streams of ever-running 
waters, all emptying themselves into the broad lake beneath. 

This constant increase would of course in a litle time cause the waters to 
rise, and overflow that portion of their bounds which attained the least 
elevation, and accordingly we find it actually to have been so at the con- 
fluence of the present stream with the river Sutledge« 

This overflowing would 'at first proceed quietly, and with a gently exertr 
ed force ; but as the action of the never-ceasing stream gradually carved a 
deeper channel over the rock, a greater body of water would flow down, 
bursting through and tearing away blocks of increasing magnitude, until 
its weight and constant action having loosened and undermined the bank, 
the massive barrier which had hitherto sustained this enormous weight, 
now weakened by the repeated loss of its various supports and out-posts as 
it were, would at length give way before the overpowering pressure of 
the waters, and yield them a passage to the vales below. 

Burstiifg with headlong fury through this, its long sought aperture, 
what devastation must have attended the downward passage of such a bo- 
dy of water f Huge fragments of rocks, together with the soils and pro- 
ductions of whole districts through which the torrent rushed, must have 
been swept off before it, and have been deposited at various distances from 

218 Capi. HtMm's Geological BiporL [No. 111. 

their origmal sites, where combiiiiiig witii other soils, they would form 
slarata pecoliar to tiiose situations. 

It is probable that these sadden OTerwhelmingB of the district now call- 
ed Knnawnr, may have hi^pened more than once, both from tins and from 
other lakes ; for altiiough the Spiti lake had borst through its rocky bar- 
riers and found an outlet fbr the superabundant waters, it would menly 
have expended itself to a level with the opening it had majle, at which 
point it would again remain until ihe accumulating supplies from the 
snow-dad peaks above, and the neveEH:eai^|ng flow and action of the 
waters upon the already ruptured rocks, should again have brought 
about a similar outpouring of its waves, and thus would the lake gradual- 
ly sink by the same nevei^fiuling means, from level to level, untU its 
whole body of waters was expended, and so leave those trickling and ttp- 
parently insignificant snow streams which had ultimately caused its expul- 
sion from the valley, not only to usurp its former bed, but to form by 
their united waters the present river Spiti. 

From these facts a question naturally arises, as to the probable aouioe 
from whence the vast beds of mi^fine exuviae found in the higher portions 
of this valley have been derived, and the answer to it must entirely de- 
pend upon ihe origin we assign to the lake itsel£ That is, if these moun- 
tains and the lake were in existence before the Mosaic deluge took place, 
it wiU follow, that the quality of the waters must have undergone a change 
from fresh to salt by tiie influx of ihe ocean, and it might on this apoount 
be contended by some that the marine shells rising with ihe waters, were 
here left living when that ocean again subsided to its proper bed ; that 
as from that period the waters of the lake would gradually part with their 
saline properties, as the snows around continued to pour down thdr limpid 
streams, causing the lake again to resume its pristine freshness, it becomes 
evident that those marine animals, exclusively formed and adapted for an 
existence in salt waters, could only have survived there for a short time^ 
and would then have been deposited in one vast accumulation. But bad 
this been the case, the exuviae must have belonged to species itiU eaadmg 
in the seas, whereas we find them all to be the spoils of extinct ammab; and 
again, had such been the case, they would have been imbedded in strata of 
the tertiary formation, whereas, we find tiiem in those of the secondary de- 
posits, which are referrible to a period long antecedent to ihe Mosaic flood. 
Thus, we must at once abandon this first position. * 

Secondly. If we suppose that the lake was formed at and by ihe deluge, 
and afterwards by the constant accession of snow water became fresh,—- 
the effect, as regards the marine deposits, will still be the same; and con- 
sequently this second supposition must be abandoned likewise. 

1 84 1 . ] Capt. HuiUm'9 Geological Report. 219 

As it 18 therefore evident that the presence of the fossils can be attributed 
to neither of these sources, we are at once led to the conclusion, that tibe 
vast ranges of the Himalyan mountains were not in exittenee previout to the 
Moetde dektge, but that the rocks and strata which they now exhibit were 
at that time horizontal, and forming part of the bed of the antediluvian 
ocean. Of this I shall adduce positive geological proof in tiie sequd. 

The fossil* therefore which are found imbedded in these higher tracts, 
did not become extinct at the deluge, but at a period long previous to that 
great event, when the secondary formations in which they occur were de- 
posited, and which period though hitherto passed by unnoticed by vrriters 
on geology, is nevertheless dearly pointed out by the sacred historian. 

In order more satisfactorily to ascertain the causes by which animals 
once living in the depths of ocean have been left imbedded in rocks now 
towering to a height of more than 16,000 feet above its present level, and 
at a distance of many hundred miles from it, it will be necessary to skim 
lightly over the events which have occurred on the surface of our globe 
from the time of its creation, *' until that last catastrophe to which these 
mountains owe their existence. '' Geologists, " says Cuvier, " have hitherto 
assigned but two revolutions to account for the phenomena which the strata 
of the ea^ now exhibit, namely, the creation, and the deluge, which he rigkUy 
thinks are insufficient, although he erroneously pronounces them to have 
been numerous." Nor is* it surprising that he should have deemed them in- 
adequate to account for such phenomena, since the first of these periods 
was no revolution at all, but occurred lefore the v^etable and animal races, 
whose remains constitute the chief phenomena of our strata, were created, 
and therefore it could have been in no wise instrumental either to their 
destruction or deposition. It is, moreover evident, that this first revolution 
of geologists could in reality be no revolution, but a creation / A revolution 
must imply the overthrow or upsetting of an already estabUehed order of 
things ; while here in this first period we know that there was no overthrow, 
but a setting in order of things which had not as yet existed; tiierefore it was 
a creation, or calling into being an ordet of things whidi subsequentiy in af- 
ter years was to be overthrown through the disobedience of created beings. 

The separation therefore of land and sea, by which our earth was first 
called into existence, can be looked upon as only a creation, and such indeed 
it is termed by tiie sacred historian, for he teUs us that in the heginmng 
the materials from which our land was to be formed were called into being, 
and that on the third day, tiie interim being occupied in perfecting other 
arrangements all tending towards its welfare, the earth was separated 
from tiie waters, and its existence commenced. True, the record menUons 
two anci only two distinct revolutions, but the Mosaic, equally vdth the 

220 CapL HuUofCs Geological Report. [No. 111. 

mineral geologist, has disr^arded and passed over the first of them which 
oocarred, not during but subsequent to the Creation, when man fiist tniu- 
gressed the commandment of his Maker, and drew down, in consequence, 
the curse of an offended God npon the earth and its productions, ThuB it 
would appear, that geologists are right in referring the fossil exuyue of the 
secondary strata to a revolution long prior to that of the deluge, and they 
have only erred in not assigning to it tiie actual period pointed out hy 
the record. 

The second revolution, or deluge, is too dearly marked, and its consequen- 
ces too obvious to escape the notice of any one ; but the historian enters 
into no details of the means by which the first was effected, although he 
clearly points out the effect of it. This difference in the seeming impor- 
tance of the two revolutions may have arisen from the fact that the first 
did not, like the second, involve the loss of life to the human race, and there- 
fore the record is content to point it out merely by its effects, leaving as 
at liberty to titfer the causes. 

Asserting therefore, with the inspired historian, that our planet, toge- 
ther with all its goodly fiimishing of vegetable and animal life was creat- 
ed and finished in the space of six days, each of the same duration as 
these of our present computation, and that on the sixth and last day the 
progenitors of the human race were also created, and were consequent- 
ly contemporaneous with the whole animal kingdom, as constituted before 
the faU, I shall endeavour to point out the period when, in my opinion, 
the marine animals, whose exuviae are imbedded in the secondary strata 
of the Spiti valley, ceased to exist. 

Within the limits, however, which it is found necessary to assign 'to the 
present paper, it cannot be expected that I should much enlarge upon the 
time at which, or the causes by which this first great change in the tem- 
perature of our earth occurred, and I shall therefore pass it over with 
a slight allusion only, and with the less regret, since I hope at no distance 
of time to lay before the Society a theory of the changes which have 
taken place on the surface of the earth, firom creation to the present time. 

If in succeeding ages a writer were to state that the various countries 
of our present earth had suddenly undergone a great change for the worse 
in the prolificness and character of their vegetation, would not our poste- 
rity justly look upon it as an indication of a well marked revolution and 
change of temperature 1 

And would they not naturally seek for a corresponding change and loss 
in the genera and species of the animate classes ? 

Assuredly they might reasonably do so ; then why do not we, who have a 
parallel case presented to us in the pages of Holy Writ, seek for traces of 

1841.3 Capt Hutton't Geological Separt. 221 

that loss of animal life which must ever be a consequence of any great 
change or loss in the temperature and vegetation of the eavth ? 

Such a revolution, although no details are given of its operatibns, is 
clearly implied in the effects which are recorded in this simple language of 
Scripture : — 

" And unto Adam, he said, Because thou hast hearkened unto the voice 
of thy wife, and hast eaten of the tree of which I commanded thee, saying 
thou shalt not eat of it : — Cursed is the ground for thy sake ; — ^in sorrow 
shalt thou eat of it all the days of thy life; — thorns also and thistles 
shall U bring forth to thee ; and thou shalt eat the herb of the field. In 
the- sweat of thy face* shalt thou eat bread, until tl^ou return unto tiie 
ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto 
dust shalt thou return." 

That earth which had hitherto profusely yielded, freely and gratuitous^, 
its choicest , productions, now shrinking beneath the frown of Him, before 
whose wrath all nature trembles, refused to supply even the common ne- 
cessaries of life, unless wooed into compliance by the sweat of man's brow, 
and the toil and labour of his hands. 

Can a more convincing proof be required of a change of temperature, 
and of the first great revolution on the earth ? 

Or, can it be tiiought necessary to assign to the fossils of the secondary 
strata a more remote period than this, in all probability, the first few 
months of man's existence upon the globe ?t 

Should such proof be required, it may at once be derived firom the charac- 
ter of tiie fossil flora of the earth's strata, which although now abundantly 
found in northern latitudes, is wholly of a tropical form, and consequently 
tiie temperature of those countries must undoubtedly have been much 
higher formerly than at present. 

It is unnecessary to enlarge here upon the several means which were 
instrumental to this change, and enough has been said to show, that to 
this epoch I would refer the extinction, and imbedding in the secondary 
deposits of the exuvise now under consideration, and it therefore only 
remains to state, that these marine formations as they are termed, remained 
in the bosom of ihe deep until the period of the second revolution or 
Mosaic deluge, when ihe mountains in which they now occur were up- 
raised, for the purpose of Rowing back the waters from the surface of the 
earth into their proper beds ; to serve as agents, from their accumulations 

♦ That ia— "by labour." 
t I am well aware, that many will object to this, that man did not exist upon the 
earth until long after the period here spoken of; but I shall be able hereafter to give 
proof that such doctrine is not only unfounded, but actually opposed to fiicts. 

222 CapL HuUon's Geological Rq^t [No. 111. 

of snow, in redacmg still more tiie temperature of tiie earth, and in for- 
nialiing tiiose sapplies to the riTers and streams, which are so essential 
to the VelfBire of organised creation ; and, lastly, perhaps it may be added, 
to stand forth with their imbedded fossils as eternal andconyindng monu- 
ments of man's fidl and punishment, and of the truths so simply stated 
in the Scriptures. 

My own opinions lead me to conclude, that when the waters of the 
ocean had risen over, and, as in the beginning again enclosed the earth in 
its cold embrace, and had effected the puiiitory ofSces for whidi it was 
permitted to transgress its bound, the lofty mountain ranges which now 
adorn the surface of our earth were successively upheaved through tiie 
agency of ntbmarine volcanic powers, forming in the depths of ocean vast 
indentations or depressions,, corresponding in magnitude to the masses 
which were upheaved upon the opposite turface^ and into which depremm 
or vacuiHes, by the laws of nature still in force, the waters would hsTS 
rushed or risen, forced down as they were by the pressure of the superin- 
cumbent atmosphere^ and tiius as each successive upheavement took 
place, the waters being drawn downwards would have again retired from 
the surfleu;e of the earth, into the place appointed to receive tiiem; the 
same as on that third creative day when, as . recorded in the Scriptures, 
they were commanded " to gather themselves together, that the dry land 
might appear." 

Nor does this theory of submarine upheavements appear to be unsup- 
ported by the opinions of able geologists, for we find in the words of Br. 
Buckland, "that trachfte and lava being igected through apertures in 
granUe, prove that the source of volcanic fires is wholly unconnected 
with the pseudo-volcanic results of the combustion of coal, bitumen, or 
stdphur, in stratified formations, and is seated deep beneath the frih art 


Among the vast mountain ranges which were then upheaved, the ICma- 
lya stands pre-eminent, and as it rose towering upwards from beneath the 
waters of the dehige, the lake in question, and doubtless many more, may 
have been borne on high endosed among its loftiest* ridges. If such were 
the case, its waters which at first were salt, would afterwards have be- 
come firesh, from the cause already stated. Or if no such lake were borne 
aloft, then must it have accumulated in after times from the snows aboTe, 
until bursting through the barriers of gneiss f which had hitherto confined 
it, the valley would have been left nearly as we find it in the present day. 

The solution of the problem must therefore be Sought for in the strata 
and appearances which the valley now exhibits. 

* For an illastration of this, see Fig. 5. 


1841.] Capt HuUorCs Geological Report 223 

Those phenomena and appearances have already been stated, and it 
therefore now only remains to show, that they are precisely in accordance 
with the theory proposed, and prove it to be correct. 

When the vast ranges of the Himalya burst upward through the watery 
shroud which had hitherto enclosed the earth, the lofty ridges which sur- 
rounded the lake became at once the eternal reservoirs of everlasting snows, 
from which numerous streams descended, as in the present day. 

The waters of the lake itself were saUy being taken from the ocean, and 
they gradually yielded to the streams which descended from the heights, 
until they became first brackish, and finally /re«A. 

The largest body of water which was supplied from the snows was that 
of the Spiti river, and to its current are partly attributable the appearances 
of the present valley. 

Let us then look well to the mode of operation. 

The lake was salt or marine ; its waters after the agitation caused by the 
upheavement had Ceased became tranquil, and as their nature began imme- 
diately to undergo a change from the influx of the snow streams, a deposit 
from its waters commenced. That deposit I hold to be the bed of fri- 
able or earthy gypsum. 

The reason why it occurs at the lower end of the lake is this : — The 
downward rush of the Spiti waters from the heights of the Paralassa range, 
caused a strong current to advance far onwards into the valley, where it 
became less and less rapid, till it died away, or was checked by the body 
of water below. 

Thus we may at once perceive, that while the fresh waters usurped the 
upper portion of the valley, the middle and lower parts were occupied 
by hracMsh and saU waters respectively — a circumstance that may be frdly 
understood by observing the confluence of a large river with a gulf or 
any part of the sea. The river is fresh, the junction brackish, and the 
ocean salt. 

The gypsum or sulphate of lime would therefore naturally be pre- 
dpitatect in the greatest quantities at the lower end of the valley, where 
the waters were the saltest, and the bed would gradually become thinner 
as it advanced into the intermediate part where the lake was brackish, and 
it would be wanting altogether in the upper part where the waters were 
fresh. This is precisely the fact, for the upper end or head of the Spiti val- 
ley is free from the gypseous deposit, while towards the middle we find the 
rocks often incrusted with it, or forming with fragments of shale and other 
rocks a gypseous breccia, which becomes less crystalline as it advances to the 
lower end of the district, where it yields to the thick beds or deposit of 
friable gypsum, 


224 Capt, Hutton's Geological Report [No. 111. 

While this deposit was predpitating from the changing waters of the lake, 
the streams from the snows were bringing in large quantities of fine allu- 
vial particles, such as sands and days, and water- worn sUmes of various size. 

These were deposited above the gypsum of the lower end of the valley, and 
passing on after that had ceased, reached to the upper end of Spiti. This 
too, is seen to be the fact, for the beds of clay are found not only covering 
the gypsum to a great depth, but also occupying its place at the upper ex- 
tremity of the district 

At the same time, the waters carried onwards an uniform solution of 
days, which they precipitated throughout the valley, the heavier stones 
and boulders were forming beds at the points where the streams fell into 
the lake. A reference to the annexed section will show the order and dis- 
position of the various deposits which this valley contains, and serve to 
illustrate the foregoing remarks : — 

(See plate) Fio. 8. 
Section of tlie Spiti Valley. 

Let 3. 3. represent the fall or present line of descent of the river Spiti 
from Leedung 12,037 feet, to Chungo 9897 feet above the sea. 

It will be at once apparent that the waters of the lake must have had 
an increasing depth towards the lower end of the district, and that they 
were fresh about A ; — brackish about B ; — and salt at C. The gypsum was 
therefore, deposited at the lower end, and is represented as lying witkin 
the triangle 2. 2. 3. 

At the same lime, above this marine formation a thick stratum of alluvial 
deposits took place, forming a fresh water formation throughout the valley, 
as represented within 1.1. 2. 2. 

The height at 1 . on the left hand is 12,037 feet at the village of Leednng, 
and the corresponding elevation at 1. on the right hand is the height of the 
aqueous deposit about Chungreezing above Chungo, which is also 12,037 
feet, thus beautiftdly exhibiting the line of the former surface of the 

Above this the waters rose and filled the valley, till they procured egress 
at the lower end, beyond Leeo. 

Thus from the appearance of the district we gather, that it has once been 
the bed of an extensive marine lake, whose waters having at length hunt 
through their barriers, have escaped by the channel of the Sutledge. 

This fact I consider to be indisputable, and it leads at once to a satis- 
factory explanation of the origin of the deep alluvial deposits of clays, 


1841.] . Capt Huiton's Geological Report. 225 

sands, and pebbles now seen in the lower parts of the valley of the Sutledge, 
to which allusion has been made m the commencement of this paper. 

Having now, T trust, satisfiictorlly showed how the theory proposed, and 
the fiicts observable, are in accordance, it only remains, before bringing 
the subject to a close, to take a brief and rapid glance at the geological 
formations of the lower hills from Kotgurh to the foot of the mountains. 

Taking that station, therefore, again as a starting point, and proceeding 
towards Simla, we find the formation to consist principally of mka and 
clay slates, the one constantly &ding into the other, and occurring in 
frequent alternations. — Quartz veins are numerously interspersed in the 
beds of mka, which is sometimes of a soft and scaly nature, containing but 
little quartz, — at others hard and compact, exhibiting little trace of the mica. 

The mountain of Huttoo, which rises near Nagkunda to the height of 
10,656 feet of elevation above the sea, is composed of mica slate and 
gneiss, while its summit exhibits some rugged peaks of granite jutting 
upwards through the strata. 

The soils which occur from Kotgurh to Simla, are fotmed chiefly from 
the decomposition of the dag and mica slates, with the addition often of a 
rich vegetable mould. 

Descending from Simla towards Subathoo, the primitive formations 
i^ain yield to the secondary series, exhibiting dark blue limestones and 
many alternations of slate clay of different colours ; dull-greenish, yellow- 
ish, and purple. The latter is also seen as the poste or matrix of a quart»- 
ose breccia composed of angular fragments of white quartz. 

Around Subathoo the change becomes the most decided, and the strata 
are there seen in perfection, consisting of the usual thick beds of clays and 
marles, varied with veins of gypsum, and resting on a red marie, apparently 
analogous to the red marie of England. The strata are here often upheaved 
neariy to a vertide position, and thick beds of shell Umestcne* are found 
alternating with thinner strata of compact limestones, containing castes of 
bivalve shells, similar to the " Venus angularis" of the European strata. 
Large specimens of Ostro! also occur, as well as compact strata, almost 
entirely composed of small species' of the fresh-water genera, Melama and 

The presence of these last prove again^ beyond a doubt, that fresh water 
must have occupied eventually the basins in which the. marine strata of 
the secondary series were deposited, and leads to the supposition, that 
nearly the same causes were instrumental to the formation of that series, 
as we have just shown to have been conducive to the deposition of the 
dHuvium and aUuvium of the Spiti valley. 

* Strata composed almost entirely of shells. 


226 Capt HuUon's Geological Report. [No. 111. 

Above these various alternations we find the ooUte, with its strata of 

Captain P. Gerard of the Invalids, informed me that his brother, the late 
Dr. Gerard, had once discovered some Ammonites in the valley below Suba- 
thoo, but although I procured and fractured several of the dark rounded 
balls in which they often occur, I was not fortunate enough to meet with 
a specimen of the shelL 

About eight miles firom Subathoo, in an easterly direction, are rocks 
of a greyish limestone^ rising above the Uas and oolitic formation. Im- . 
mediately underlying this are several strata separated by layers of flints 
of various forms, and imposed upon these, the Umetione is first of all 
stratified and dipping in the same direction, namely, to the S. W.; but 
the superior portion of the beds rises in shattered and amorphous masses, 
giving a picturesque and beautiftd appearance to the range. Thislm^ 
stone is quarried and used for economical purposes ; it is of two kinds, 
one being of a pale dirty white or greyish colour, and is the stone firom 
which the lime is procured, the other being darker and harder, emitting a 
strong sulphurous foetid smell when fractured. This latter is little used, 
and appears to hold the lighter coloured variety imbedded in it in large 

The geological position of this limestone, coupled with the remarkable 
occurrence of layers of rounded and kidney-shaped fiints, leads to the 
supposition, that it may be analogous to the chalk formation of Europe, 
and if so, it will follow, that the vast ranges of the Himalya, so long 
supposed to exhibit strata of gneiss and mica schists alone, will be found 
to present formations entirely analogous to those of other mountainous 
countries, even from the granite upwards to the o^vtum, at present in 
course of deposition and accumulation. 

The range on which Subathoo stands, exhibits another example of the 
effects of what I have termed a double upheavement. 

Seen from the dSk bungalow of Chamier, the outcrop of the sandstone 
strata is seen dipping towards the N. Eastward, while the same rocks 
from which they have been torn, dip on the Chamier side of the Glen, 
towards the S. Westward. 

But the N. Easterly dip is not the true direction, for we see again on the 
opposite side of the same range, that the strata dip likewise to the S. W. 

Therefore, the deep valley or glen between the Subathoo and Chamier 
ranges is the line of disruption of the strata, causing them, as it were, 
to dip outward on either hand. 

From Subathoo downwards to the foot of the hills, the strata belong 
to the lias formation, and gradually fade away until they yield at 

1841.] Capt, HuUofCs Geologiccti Repwrt 227 

length to the sandstones of the tertiary series, in which, at various places 
from Nahn to Buddee, the fossil exavie of extinct quadrupeds are found. 

This, although but a faint and meagre outline of the geology of 
the noble ranges of the western Himalaya, is nevertheless sufficient to 
point out the formations which occur from the base of the mountains 
to Spiti and LudSJc, and is as much as could be done in a hasty tour 
oyer so extensive a field. I shall now, therefore, draw this somewhat 
leng^y paper to a close, by alluding to the means by which the im- 
bedded exuvisB of these formations have been brought to light in these 
latter days. 

I have abready stated, that the fkll of man is the true period to which 
the loss of the fossil marine MoUusea of the Spiti and Subathoo fields 
is to be referred. 

At the . time of their extinction, the secondary strata in which they 
are imbedded were under course of deposition in horizontal beds, beneath 
the bosom of a tranquil water, and thus they remained for a period of 
many years after. 

The increasing depravity of the human race, once more called down the 
vengeance of an offended God, and brought about the second and last grand 
revolution which the ^axQi has experienced, namely, the Mosaic deluge. 

That catastrophe was the means by which the destruction of the lai^e 
terrestial mammalia of the tertiary strata was effected. 

When, therefore, the waters had performed the punitory offices for which 
they were allowed to transgress their bounds, the mountains of the Hima- 
lya were caused, among others, to rise upwards by some vast volcanic 
or upheaving i^ent, in order to throw back the ocean from the earth, and 
gather it again into the place appointed to receive it. 

By that upheavement the primary series of the Snowy Range was thrust 
aloft in torn and ragged spires, while the secondary strata of Spiti and 
Subathoo then first rose upwards from their horizontal plane to the in- 
clined position which they now possess. Consequent on the uprise of this 
secondary series was also that of the tertiary beds, and thus we find one 
single geological revolution to be the sole agent in upheaving the strata of 
three widely distinct and separate formations. 

The Snowy Range or true Himalya, is composed entirely of rocks belong- 
ing to the primary series, while to the north and south of it are found rest- 
ing on its sides, strata of the secondary formatipnsd isposed at high angles 
from the horizon, and usually rich in the exuvite of marine and lacustrine 
MoUusca ; while ont he southern exposure, fdhning the base of the hills, 
and resting on the secondary rocks, occur the tertiary or diluvian beds, « 
which the successful researches of Messrs. Falconer, Durand, and others, in 

228 Capt HtUtotCs Geological Report, [No. 111. 

the present day, have proved to be so rich in the exuviae of the now ex- 
tinct forms which once inhabited these countries. Whether this last series 
occurs also on the northern side, is a point for ftiture investigation ; but as 
fossil bones are sometimes brought down by native travellers from tbe 
Tartar hills beyond Almorah, it would seem that similar phenomena are 
to be expected there. 

The inclined position both of the secondary and tertiary series, is dear- 
ly attributable to the outbreak of the primary rocks from beneath or 
through them and furnishes to the inquiring mind, a sure and beautiftil 
g^de by which the period when these vast mountain ranges first rose 
upwards to adorn our earth, may be satis£Eu;torily and positively deter- 
mined. The conclusion, therefore, to be drawn from the facts observable 
in these strata, are all strictiy in accordance with the rules of geological 
reasoning, and I shall therefore now bring the subject to a dose, by endea- 
vouring to show the reasoning and existing facts to be in unison, and tlms 
fix the period to which must be referred the stupendous and never-fi^idiiig 
monuments of Almighty power, exhibited in the vast upheavements of tbe 
Himalyan range. 

It is a fiEust accepted and admitted by geology as indisputable, tbat 
where one series of rocks having a horizontal position is found to rest 
upon another whose strata are indined, it amounts to positive certainty, 
that the depontion of the former took place subsequent to the upheaving of 
the latter; and vice vers&, where both series are found, the one resting on 
the other at high angles with the horizon, that the deposition of the supe- 
rior strata took place previous to the upheavement of those by which tbey 
are supported. 

Resting on the primary rocks of the Snowy Range, we find on either side 
the strata of the secondary series thrown into an inclined position by the 
upheavement of the ^oni^e and its usual accompaniments oi gneiss and wtiea 
slates, proving by their inclined position, according to the above reasoning, 
that they were deposited previous to the outburst of the fonner through them. 

Again we perceive, that resting on the secondary rocks the tertiary or 
diluvial strata of the Siwalik range have also an inclined position, conse- 
quent on the upheavement of the primary and secondary series, and there- 
fore, that they too, by a parity of reasoning, were deposited previous to tbe 
upheavement of the two former. 

Now the tertiary or diluvial strata containing the fossil exuviae of extinct 
terrestrial MammaUa are clearly attributable to the effects of the last great 
revolution which our earth *has undergone, andconsequentiy, we derive firom 
the phenomena, presented to our notice in the various formations of the 
Himalyan mountains, sure and dedded data for determining the period of 

1841.] Capt. HuUon's Geological Report. 229 

their first upheavement, which period the facts adduced enahle us to as- 
sign to the first subsidence of the waters of the Moasie deluge, — (See plate) 
Fig. 9.) 

We may suppose, therefore, that when the ocean had been permitted to 
transgress its bounds, and had again enveloped the earth as in the time be- 
fore the third creatiye day, or separation of land and water ; and had by its 
devastating effects fiilfilled to the utmost the dreadful doom assigned to all 
organised creation, the vast and imposing ranges of the Himalya and 
other mountains were caused to burst upwards by volcanic agents firom 
below, as a means of throwing back the waters firom the earth into those 
bounds appointed to receive them, and also to furnish, by their subsequent 
accumulations of everlasting snows, a never-failing reservoir from which 
the rivers of the* plains were to be supplied with waters to fertilize the 
soil ; which plains, had the mountains been of inferior elevation, would for 
ever have remained barren and desolate, except during the prevalence of 
the periodical monsoon ; for it is apparent, that in the hot climates of the 
eastern world, no snows could have rested upon mountains of a lesser alti- 
tude «ufficiently long to afford a never-failing supply of waters for irriga- 

Thus, even in the ordering of a mountain range, and the furnishing of 
wintery snows, is the wisdom and unvarying goodness of the Great First 
Cause, made manifest to the minds of his inquiring creatures. 

To enter at length into the means by which these revolutions took place, 
and the reasons why tiiey were allowed, belongs more properly to a sys- 
tem or theory of geology than to a paper professing to be merely an out- 
line of the geological formations of a limited district 
■ I shall, therefore, for the present, leave the question in this imperfect 
form with less regret, since I purpose ere long, (should circumstances be- 
friend me,) to lay before the Society and the Public a theory, which I 
would fain believe worthy of their most serious and attentive consideration. 

\9tkJuly, 1840. 


On the two wild species of .Sheep inhabiting the Himalayan region^ 
with some brief remarks an the craniological character of Oris, and 
its aUies, — By B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Resident at the Court of Nepal. 
The great paucity of uDqaestionably wild species of the genus Ovis 
now found throughout the habitable globe, is a fact that has been em- 
ployed to cast a speculative doubt upon my announcement (Catalogae 
of 1832 and 1838,) of two species in the single region of the Hima- 
laya ; and the circumstance of my not having been able therefore to 
give as full and satisfactory an account of the second species as I long 
ago gave of the first, (see Journal for September, 1835,) from living 
specimens, has tended to confirm the above mentioned doubt I am 
still unpossessed of similar valuable materials for the illusrtation of 
this second species, having never been able to procure the animal alive, 
nor even to obtain a perfect suite of the spoils of a grown male. I 
have horns, however, of the mature ram, and sculls and skins of others, 
varying from one to two years in age ; and from these, not inadequate 
materials, I purpose now to furnish a specific character of the Ammon- 
like, as well as (for the sake of comparison,) of the Musmon-like animal, 
together with craniological sketches and details relative to both ; such 
as will suffice, I hope, to place beyond further question, the existence 
of two entirely distinct, new, and peculiar breeds of Sheep in a state of 
nature in the Himalaya ; where indeed, from the unparalleled elevation 
and extent of the mountains, it need be no rational matter of surprise 
that they exist. 

Ovis Ammonotdes, Nob, — Large wild sheep, with massive strictly 
trigonal sub-compressed hords, deeper than broad at the base, presenting 
a flat surface vertically to the front, and cultrated edge beneath, insert- 
ed not in contact on the crest of the frontals, remote from the orbits, 
directed backwards and outwards with a bold circular sweep : the flat' 
tened points being again subrecurved outwards and the whole surface 
covered with numerous heavy complete wrinkles : the forehead flat and 
broad : the nose scarcely arched, and much attenuated to a fine small 
muzzle : the ears short, pointed, and striated : the tail short and deer- 
like, and the limbs fine and elevated : the vesture composed of dose, 
thick, more or less porrect, brittle piles of medial uniform length, con- 
cealing a scanty fleece : no beard nor mane : general colour dull slaty 

184L] Two wild species of Sheep in the Himalayai* 23 1 

blae, paled on the surface, and more or less tinted with rufous : dorsal 
ridge dark and embrowned : lips, chin, belly, and insides of limbs near 
it, doll hoary : limbs externally, below the central de^cures, rafescent 
hoary : snout to base of tail seventy to seventy-two inches : mean 
height forty-two : head straight to crest of frontals, fourteen : tail with 
the hair, eight : ears, six : horns, along the curve, forty. 

Females smaller, with much smaller, compressed (?) nearly straight 
horns. Young, with the colours deeper and more sordid. Vulgo, 
Banbhira and Bhadrdl. 

Ovis Ndhodr^ Nob. Medial siased wild Sheep, with .moderate, subtrigo- 
nal, uncompressed horns, presenting a rounded surface obliquely to the 
front, and a coltrated edge to the rear, inserted nearly in contact on the 
crest of the frontals, less remote from the orbits, and directed upwards 
and outwards with a semicircular sweep; the rounded points being 
again recurved backwards and inwards, and the general surface va* 
guely marked with infrequent rugoe : fgrehead broad and flat : chaffron 
arctued : muzzle less attenuatei^ : ears erect, short, and stHated, and tail 
short and deer-like, as in the last : vesture or fur also similar, without 
beard or mane : general colour dull slaty blue, paled on the surface, and 
more or less tinted there with brownish or fawn : head below^ and belly 
and insides of the limbs near it, yellowish white : face, or nose rather, 
fronts of the intire limbs, a connecting band along the flanks, whole 
chest and tip of the tail, black : no disk on the buttocks : their mere 
margin and that of the tail, paled. Snout to rump sixty inches : mean 
height thirty-six : head, as before, eleven : tail with the hair seven and 
three quarters : ears Ave and three quarters : .horns along the curve, 
twenty- four. Females smaller, with small straightish, suberect, de- 
pressed horns, directed upwards chiefly, and with the dark marks on 
the limbs and chest less extended than in the male ; frequently the chest 
is wholly unmarked. Young, with the colours deeper and more sordid ; 
the marks stiU less extended, and wanting wholly on the chest and 
flanks. Vulgo Ndhoor of the Nepalese. 

N. B. Since the Prince of Musignano has published his account of the 
Musmon, it has become quite evident that our Ndhoor cannot be 
identified with that species ; and though the vaguer accounts of the 
Asiatic Argali render a like confident judgment in regard to the inde- 
pendence thereon of Ammonoides difficult of attainment, yet all 

2 F 


232 Two wild species of Sheep in the Himalayas. [No. I IL 

appearances warrant that conclusion. I proceed now to the oste- 

Dimensions of sculls and horns of (1) Ammonoides junior, (with 
horns of senior,) ; and (2) of Ndkodr, 

Scull. Length from symp. intermaxi 

to crest frontals, . . ... J 

Greatest height at the cr^t,... 
Greatest width between ex-) 

temal margin of orbits, ... i 

Diameter of orbits, ... 

Symp intermax to tips of nasals, 
Length of nasals, 

Height or length of occiput toi 
lower edge of great condyles, J 
Horns. Length of, along the curve,... 

Basal circuit of, ... 

Basal depth of, 

Basal width of (across, ) 

Terminal interval of. 

Basal interval of, 

Weight, ... ... 

The above are males, of which the Ndhodr is old, and Ammonoides 
about eighteen months to two years *, but the second pair of the horns 
given are those of an old male. 

The sculls of both have the same general character, possessing alike 
large flat foreheads, with the firontals half-developed on the posteal 
plane of the scull, which falls perpendicularly, and nearly at right angles 
from the anted plane, whereon the frontals have an extreme breadth 
exceeding their length by one- third almost. The sculls of both alike 
have, moreover, the nasals somewhat arched ; and half the anteal extent, 
with all the posteal, of the frontals is bounded by the broad proximate 
bases of the horns, which, however, extend over the true occiput 
in neither. The differences observable in the sculls are chiefly, that 
the orbits are more salient in the Ndhodr^ and have no semblance 
before them on the lacrymal and malar bones of that roundish depres- 
sion which in deer and antelc^es holds the cuticular suborbital sinus : 



Ft. In. 

Ft In. 

i H 










1 10 



1 11 

1 li 


1 9 


1 ^ 



1 8 




1 9i 


1841.] Two wild species of Sheep in the Hinmlayas. 233 

whereas before the less salient orbits of the BhdriUy that depression 
is palpably marked. Less marked discrepancies between the scuUs 
are found in the greater arch of the nasals in the Ndhodr ; the more 
complete concealment of the frontals superiorly and anteriorly by the 
bases of the horns ; and the greater attenuation forwards of the max- 
illary and intermaxillary bones. In the horns the distinctions be- 
tween the two species are very palpable ; thpse of the Banbhira being 
more masdve, strictly trigonal, with a fiat surface forwards, far more 
heavily wrinkled, and much more completely curved towards a circle, 
whence it results that the bases are thrown more off the forehead, 
and that the direction at first is parallel to the plane of the face. In 
the Ndhodr, on the other hand, the horns though ample, are neither 
as massive nor as long as in the Banbhira. So far from being a 
perfect trigonal, the anterior half of them almost is broadly convexed : 
their surfiEice is very much smoother ; their divergency greater ; their 
bend towards the circle far less complete, and consequently their bas^s 
lie more over the forehead, and they have for some way upwards, a 
direction much before the plane of the. face. In the NShoik^ the horns 
towards their tips are rounded or cylindrical, and are decidedly revert- 
ed out of the line of the first curve, backwards and inwards.. In the 
other species, or Bhdrdl, the characteristics of the horns in these res- 
pects are compression to flatness, and a less decided retroversion of 
the extremities, leaving the actual points directed forwards and outwards. 
I shall conclude this paper with a general remark, which is, that the 
great depth or extent of the posteal plane of the scuU, (comprehending 
half the frontal and all the parietal bones,) and the acute angle it forms 
with the anteal plane* in the genus Ovis, will be found to be characters of 
more permanency and moment in separating this genus and Capra from 
the nearest adjacent groups of Ruminants, than most of the diagnostics 
now employed ; and that we have Cuvier's example in regard to the 
Bovine group to authorise our adoption of the additional and so much 
required mark as now suggested for the Caprine or rather Ovine. I sub- 
join an outline of the typical Antelopine and Cervine form of scull 
on one hand, and that of the normal form in Ovis and Capra on 
the other; and those only ^ho would reject an essential part of 

* The consequences of these peculiarities in the low position of the condyles of the 
lower jaw, and of the foramen magnum^ are also marked. 


234 Two wild species rf Sheep in the HifneUayas. [No. 111. 

the now generally recognised diagnostics of the groups of the Bmda, 
(Taurus, Bubalus, &c.) or who are ignorant of the shadowy nature 
of the existing marks of discriniination between Antelope, Ovis, and 
Capra, wiU^ I apprehend, refuse to adopt the now suggested Inon 
enlarged application of Cuvier's principles. Either those principles 
are fialse, or this laiger application of them is as l^itimate as it is 
requisite. On these principles, (as on others,) Cervus and Ovis re- 
present the extremes, and Anteiapa and Copra the means : but i^et% 
is a regular graduation from Cervus to Antelopa, from it to Capra, 
and from it again to Ovis ; in such wise, however, that the two former 
fall naturally into one great group, apd the two latter into another, 
Certrws and (Ms being the typical forms. And I may add as a proof 
how useful the new diagnosis now proposed is, and how harmonioas 
in practice with other and admitted criterea, that, meaaured by this 
standard, our Hemitragus (the Jharal) is as clearly a caprine form 
as Ogilvy's Kemas (tiie Ghorcd) is an antelopine one. Thus too the 
affinity df the Musks and Muntjacs to Cervus^ however apparently 
anomalous they seem to be, is rendered palpably evident, and the 
soundness of our diagnosis consequently further corroborated. 

With r^ard to Oris and CaprOt inter-se, Cuvier's * forehead concave* 
iw the latter, and < forehead convex' for the fbimer genus, are deariy 
erroneous marks; but those sometime since suggested by me, of 
' males odorous,' and ' males not odorous^' as respectively characteris- 
tic of Capra and Ovis, I find confirmed by every day's experience: 
nor is this discriminative sign dependent, as supposed^ on season is 
any degree, nor even on age after the animal has reached about four 
months, so soon is the odour developed in C€qpTa> 

Nipaiy Marchy 1841. H. B. Hodgson. 

Explanoition of the lUustraHons, 
I.— -1. 2. Front view of the horns and sculls of our two species of 

Sheep, to prove their distinctness, 
n.— -Sketch of Ovis Niihoor. 

IIL— Lateral outline view of two sculls, designed to exhibit the 
characteristic form in Cervus and Antelope (1) <m the one hand, 
and in Ovis and Capra (2) on the other: and I may add, that 
the animals having been females, and not specially selected, the 
distinction contended for is thus i^own to be peculiarly valid. 


On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians. By Johannks 

Aydall, Esq., M. A. S. &c. 

[This paper, Mr. Avdall informs me, was drawn up at the instance of Mr. J. C. C. Sutherland, 
who having referred to the author for information on the recognised sources of Armenian law, was 
answered by the production of this erudite paper. It contains a very clear exposition of a subject 
wholly unknown to general students, and mooting points of historical as well as legal interest.] 


An account of the first enactment of laws, instituted in Armenia, by 
the Armenian king Valarsaces, a descendant of the Arsacidse, is re- 
corded in the historical work of Moses Chorenensis, a Latin translation 
of which, with the Armenian text, was published at London, in the 
year 1735, by the two brothers, William and George Whiston. This 
Armenian historian, of venerable antiquity, enumerates in a successive 
and proper order, the rules alid regulations enacted by Valarsaces, both 
for the guidance of the inmates of the royal palace, and of the citizens 

in general. ^^ fj^i- onf^^u ftSL ^tautatmaf^ ^ft iuuA P'um^ 
q^uMLnnnt-P-lrutit ["-py ^ ^ J-iutlu npn2k' t-glLtiin^g £l 
[unp^nnMQ II funut/u&MMitnt.p-k'utUg L. ajLOUuHttug ♦ « ♦ 
^ntuiiiiib uauMi jptunut^putglnug tiiuptL^uJit uip^y &. t^uM^ 
tapL ^ftb'i_ ^utii qi^tr tf pii iug ^ &. ^hq^^tug t^uttant-^ 

J^ ^uipft UMtL q^trq^p^o,^ uflrpTSutisutij ly^ trqfUMijptu^ 
PLuan '[wphl diuuU Bt,uMplrbtupq,nt.[iiHruiis tu utiAtu^uib^ 
inu9 ^trbutg ^ np ir 2/iririic.^i&-if/ir L. fuuMqutqnLp-irutb lu 
IflAuMg upuinTSuMn^ ^ II ap f^y %fJaA tyuag^ff X « JpL^ 

7. ** Leg^sqi^e quasdam de aul& suft posuit, quibus exeu&di et intrandi, 
consilioranl, et epularum atque oblectamentarum tempora distribuit. 
Ampliorem dignitatem atqoe hononem civibus, qu^m rosticis haberi 
jubet ; Rusticis, nt cives, tanquam principes, colant, imperat ; CivibiHt, 
ne se erga mstieos superb^ gerant, sed fraternam inter se vitam 
deg«it, honeste institutam, et ab invidift remotam, unde traaqaiUitas 
vitae et securitas, ali^que ^usdem generis sint oritura." Lib. h. 
Cap. vu. — From the foregoing facts it is evident that Valarsaces had 

236 On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians* [No. 1 1 1. 

given a code of laws for the guidance of the Armenians. To have 
oraUy delivered these laws, without committing them to writiog, was 
certainly unbecoming the enlightened and civilised reign of Valanaces. 
But, of all the laws enacted by thb king, one is repeatedly quoted by 
Moses of Chorene, which shall be mentioned below. 

Laws enaded during the reign of the Arsacidmy first by Volar iom 

the Parthian, and afterwards by others. 

In the foregoing chapter Moses Chorenenais writes thus aboot 
Valarsaces :— -^ XS"^ ^uiim^ fuunsasjJT niSJ^n ^najtmtpa f 

fvmof^iifZr Uatnbuig. n<jumwulrani!!b ussLpaJS ^us^h IPf^ 

pJSit I na-p aSbuilfl^p juyUj-atiT fu^tt y^uMwfUsp^li « ] 

JtaiSi nnni ausMJU^f^ Anuau gSbusl^hri^ ^fa tfaa/qduSUu ^<V2r 

mViahn ^ Is^^fa Xnfia %aapfaia uau^aluHah-auij aap 4~ aupataaajfy 

^uaptibaaa « 'A ^aauua [ihaaaipaa/ ijj^iau aumsfbaMaiU ^uili- 

SLtrni jiua.b'inajUMh'aaU daafag autajMaUiKUia | £l saMlSlpa^ 

^fvmL&yfio aaun^aaajbaaajaaa f £l aJj^aaapa quaatjuap^ia "pg.^ 

aap ^fft'p ^p2!Ui ^ "f'^f^ ""'• ("p ^t ^""^P P'tO' 
ajuLaapraa-P-h-aaata ; f^c b-aflt. aaaau jauhaaT ^bragj^ II uaa. 

jauaquaj opl^^ ^p JkP }\p2!F'i'"^^'''S ' '9"U "P^'V 
piaua^hi^ /^"T- "'P'ffjb 9 '^nf^'S'^npt^ [P'^L P-uaaM.aaaajh' 
paa.P'a'aaaiaia ♦ £l tyi^ aiLuaatrptaa II tLuantrpaug aSauai ^p 
^aaappaaiiu ^au2ualriafag J'^VShP^ tf'auaa.aaaiaai^na.p'paia t 

^ Caeterilm quum multos filios haberet, parum utile esse ratus, ut cnocti 
ad Nisibim manerent, in provinciam eos Hastensem dioiisit, et ad 
Zoram, quae fines ejus contingit, trans Taronem sitam; ilUsqueoni- 
versa ea oppida attribuit et stipendia insuper de gaz& regift singulis 
statuit; at ex filiis suis, natu sol&m maximum, Arsaoes ei nomen 
erat, imperio destinatum. Deinceps inde consuetudo Arsacidarom 
fiuit, ut unus de filiis cum rege habitaret, regni successor futunis, 
caeterfque filii ac filiae in regionem Hastensem ad poasessiones 
suas abirent" Artavazd the First, moreover, conferred on the Ar- 
menian princes, possession of the provinces of Aliovit and Arberany. 

1841.] On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians. 237 

^ lltiy J'tutLuAa.lranLguiiff^ qhrnp.uinu pLp II V^nnu ^ft 
a.uMi.Min.u l^T^n^iiiA II. yj^n-fLlrnu/itni | P'''nU}4_^h ^"'^f 
qdiuifii UMpjantitn nn ^n 2^^" utlittP a.uii.JMMn.tua | ^uA» 
n^b'pi tutLu/uifii dinnn II §L,nT£Lu§Q | Py* ^Pp^^^ip "'7* 
a^uii^utUuigU np ^p IjfnqipMAu ^uM2yttAftg « npagf^'u qp 
Mittri %nguB tqUMUint.ut^uibuiq.nlii II tutLtut-irf^ p-tuq.tU" 
Lnptuqitb gRu/b quMjUu Wp2Ui^nAlJtu ♦ Munb opfHtuigLpf^ 

21. ^'Is fratribtts suis ac sororibos possessiones in proyinciis Ala- 
hotensi et Arberanensi dedit, regefimque eis vectigal attribuit, quod 
ex provinciae ejus oppidis redibat, propriumque ipsis stipendiiim in- 
super statuit, de more cognatorum, qui in regione Hastensi habitabant, 
nt honoratiores essent, atque ade6 ad regeam dignitatem propiils ac- 
cederent quam Arsacidae caeteri ; lege tantilm sanxit, ne Araratam, 
quae erat regia habitatio, incolerent." — Lib, ii. Cap. zxi. — Sdndtruk 
also sent the daughters of Abgarus to that part of the country, about 

which Moses of Chorene says :— ^^ ^^tujyiiiutb aiUL.ut^ aiuiUia 
l|JL/E.a.iif/iff f. JiUpb'UiQ upmloLUig juin^J^uiUg | Qnpu cr^uns 

anIAftq $ " tt • 32. << Sed omnem Abgari stirpem, praeter puellas, 
ferro sustulit, quas, ex oppido eductas, in provinci4 Hasteni^ collocavit." 
Lib. II. Cap. XXXII. — Following this example, Artavazd the Second, sent 
the other princes to those provinces. " t^untu^!^ jWjP'^P'"^ 
annf muJ^uijU Irq^jupu ftL.p ^p q^tuLMttLu XSfl^ntlmty 
Ml WtLpLtrpuMby , q^ i^' fSaiu^lruglrb jWjpuMpiutn ^[t 

^lainL-Uiiru tup^uyfi j P-^US '^"U^ T§tp"^ {itlP^P 

^L.p ) iqiu^k^ t^nfuUBUnpgi, Jii^ ♦ q^ npq^ft A^^yp %^: ^ » 

58. '' Artavazdes omnes fratres sues ab Araratft in Aluotam et Ar- 
beraniam provincias pepulit, ut ne Araratam ac possessiones regias 
incolerent. Tiranum modo secum retinuit, regni successorem, cum 
sibi non esset filius." Lib. ii. Cap. Lvni — The royal descendants 
having permanently settled in these parts of the country, began to 

238 On the Laws and Law*books cf the Armenthns, [No. 111. 

increase and multiply, and after the lapse of several years, the number 
of their offspring becaffie very considerable, so much so, that an appeal 
was made by them to Tiran the First, touching the insufficiency of 
the provinces allotted for their habitation, to contain such an in- 
creased and increasing number of inhabitants. Moses of Chorene says: 

2ua^nt!iilruiQ tap t'Jlb ^p IjfandiAu ^aupoftriify | auulrU • 
fitn^utnituLlrui JBsa qj'iun.tititn ni^j-jatitu ^ %lrn (r y 
tpuiUqlt aLUtadtugutj^ ♦ L^ %ub ^nuiatiyf^ nJiitbu ^p %nnmlJ^ 
hnp-uM ^Jm a.tut.uMn5i Ut/^m^*" A ^ Wn.oLb'puAnf ♦ pafi 
ungut tunjUL-Iri Ilu p^nnnj^ Lutfb'urg tun. tup^uiip | fH 
uttL.utt-lr^tta.iyit %lrt^l^ ^Vj "flp^f "'^f^tpp ij^t St' 
putit J u£Jl__ ^ittutaiatttb'uti ^TSkfttt^ n< utji^J'UMtLttiUtfMtJirQ 
tnutt%ttQut J p-'yg Vpp nt^pb ^utt.juutap tttptt^b-g^jpU* 
j9,lrtttbu ♦ JfP PLUiJ'Uiiils'tu^ Py" iIutptEMtp-tttJi q^tamL 
t^utljfutu J'uttt.MMUa.ttt.p'hA aLbtu^tttnugit ^tu2UBlrb^ • 
tfutttU ttpttf BLUMqnL.tljB. yh %ngutU^ IrLlrtui ^ft a.ititjuttut 

X^^ntfutj^ II XJ^tLfLlrputby : " JC « 59. '* Caeterikm brevi 
tempore inteijecto ad eum gens sua Arsacidarum venit, quae Has- 
tenios tractus havitavit, dicens, *^ profer nobis haereditatis fines^ 
quae arctae sunt, cilim simus admodum multiplicati." Ille verd eorom 
nonnullos in Aluotam et Arberaniam provincias migrare jossit; 
ciimque ii ad regem acriiis clamarent, regionem eam ipsos nimis 
coarctare, Tiranus, nihil annuens, Edicto sanxit daturum se eis hae- 
reditatem aliam nullam; quam tenebant, aequaliter inter se divi- 
derent. Quam cum pro hominum numero partiti essent, incolis miniffl^ 
sufficere Hastenia reperta est, ac propterea multi eorum in provincias 
Aluotam et Arberaniam commigr&runt." Lib n. Cap. i«ix.— Imme- 
diately after the death of Khosrow the Great, when Ardashir, kisg of 
Persia, made an aggression on Armenia and conquered the country, he 
extended his royal munificence and support to these descendants of the 
Armenian kings. For the said venerated historian says : ^ f^i 
\S^''nut2pp ^irntrg^iaa^f^u ju»ptLtuplru»^ qtU2pfutp*ii' 

1841.] Oil the Laws and Law-bookg^ rf the Armenians. 239 

slSufn.^ Il fLfrZT^^ apugfro tp^ t^* f^ * 74. Tom Artasires 
Armeniae terram egregi^ ornavit, atqae in antiquum statum reatitoit. 
Arsacidas ab regno et domicilio Araratensi pnlsos, in eundem locum 
reduxit, et eadem eis, quae priils habuerant, stipendia statuit.'' Lib. 
II. Cap. ULZiv. 

€fihe Satraps of Armenia. 
History also tells us, that there were specific laws extant for the 
guidance of the Satraps of Armenia. Faustus of Byzantium, who wrote 
an Armenian histoiy in the fourth century, alludes to the existence of 
certain laws, which seem to have obtained in Armenia only during the 
reign of Khosrow the Little. *< Posterior to this," says Faustus, ** the 
Persians were incessant in waging wars with the king Khosrow. Laws 
were, in consequence, enacted by the king for the guidance of the 
Armenian satraps, grandees, chiefs, and lords, whose nnmber was very 
considerable, and on whom it was made obligatory to remain near to 
their royal master, and none of them were permitted to accompany 
the expedition against the king of Persia. This measure was adopted 
by Khosrow, from a want of confidence in the sincerity of the attach- 
ment of the nobles of his court. The terror of the disloyalty of Databi 
had seized upon his mind, and he apprehended the occurrence of a 
similar event in his own country.'* Faustus. Lib. iii. Cap. viil 

Laws enacted during the reign of the BagraiidcB, 

Of the laws enacted during the days of the Bagratian kings, no 

record has been preserved in the annals of the Armenian historians. 

Bat, from ancient Armenian manuscripts, found at Lemberg or Leopolis, 

a city in Poland, it is ascertained that the Armenians, who emigrated 

in the eleventh century fit)m the thickly populated city of Ani,* and 

other provinces of Armenia to that part of Europe, had carried with 

them the code of laws by which they were guided in their own 

* Ani was a most magnificent and populous city in Annenia towards the close of 
the tenth century, and contained one thousand and one churches I See my History of 
Armenia, vol. ir. p. 92. It is nothing now, but a heap of ruins. 


240 On the Laws and- Law-books of the Armenians. [No. 111. 

countiy. This co<}e of laws was translated into Latin in the year 
1548, by order of Sigismund the First, king of Poland. It \b greatly 
to be regretted that not a single copy of this Latin translation of the 
Armenian code of laws has made its way to British India. It is, 
however, consolatory to learn, that this translation is to this day 
presenred in the library of the Armenian College at Venice. Sigis- 
mund writes thus in the preface to that code of laws : ^^ Although we 
have to this day sheltered and protected the Polish Armenians, cor 
subjects, under their own Armenian privileges and laws, by which our 
predecessors had acknowledged and governed them, but on the occur- 
rence of dissensions and disputes between them and the citizens, it was 
thought necessary to have that law-book of theirs, which was written in 
the Armenian language, and which was only understood by themselves, 
translated by them into Latin, and presented to us in that form, so that 
every cause of suspicion and collusion should be removed, and that we 
should, by the help of the members of our council, make judicious 
inquiries into its contents, and, by a slight alteration, confirm the 
same." After writing thus far, he mentions the name of Johannes, 
the Bagratian king, and cites his mandate in the following manner: 
** Johannes, by the grace of God, king of Armenia, during the days 
of his auspicious reign enjoined, not to open courts of judicature 
on Sundays — ^not to borrow money — not to prefer claims against 
debtors; and made other similar enactments for the observance of 
Sundays*'* After this he adds : '^ It is enjoined by the Armenian king 
Theodosius, (perhaps Ashot,) of happy and blessed memory, and 
other orthodox Armenian kings and princes, to render justice and equity 
to an — to cities, towns, viUages," et hoc genus omne. These quota- 
tions are corroborative of the existence of laws and law-books in 
Armenia, during the reign of the Bagratidae. 

Of the succession rf Kings. 

Although after the subversion of the kingdom of the Bagratidae, we 
meet with a specimen of the law of succession in the commencement 
of the code of Mechithar Ghosh,* yet it is evident that this law was in 

* Mechithar Ghosh flourished in Armenia towards the close of the twelfkh, and the 
beginning of the thirteenth century. Besides his code of laws, he is known to be th0 
author of several other valuable works in the Armenian language, Ghosh is the cor- 


1841.} On ike Laws and Law-books {^ the Armenians, 241 

force in Annenia daring the reign of the Bagratian kings, with some 
riight variatioBa. In the days of the Arsacidae the crown devolved 
&om son to son in a lineal succession ; but the law of the Bagratidae 
* confers the right of succession upon brothers. There are also some 
other laws, of which I shall furnish the reader with an extract: 
'' Although/' says this legislator, " the crown by right devolves upon 
the first-born, yet the most eminent for his wisdom is to succeed to the 
throne. So long as the king's brothers survive him, his sons are 
debarred from a succession to the throne. But, on the extinction 
or demise of the brothers, then the crown devolves Upon the king's 
sons. Should the king leave a daughter surviving him, she is to 
be invested with the title of nobility, and is, together with her hus- 
band, entitled to one-half of a share of a brother. And, on the demise 
of kings, if there be a son from the son, and a son from the daughter, 
the son's son is to succeed to the throne, but not the daughter's. And 
so long as there may be descendants of the son, the daughter's children 
are debarred ftrom succession, at which any attempt made by the latter 
is unlawful and unjust. For, it was in this manner that our king 
Abgarus enacted laws for the succession to the throne of Persia. And 
the patriarch Noah apportioned to the sons and the daughter, the 
regions of the southward, as women also rule over those parts." — 
Then the l^islator describes the manner in which the succession is to 
descend when there be only a daughter, but no son surviving the king. 
Or, if there be no heir to the king, then the right of succession devolves 
on his kinsmen, one of whom only is to reside at the royal palace near 
the king, and the rest are to be domiciled at a distance, according to 
the custom prevalent among the former kings of Armenia. All this is 
written by Mecbithar Ghosh, in the commencement of the second chap- 
ter of his code of laws. By the last quotation, the If^lator means to 
allude to that usage of the kings of the Arsacidae, of which mention 
was made above. l*he law of succession was not, however, kept invio- 
late during the reign of the Bagratidae, among whom there were 

mptionofthePeisianword |ik«iM»y> corresponding with^tffpA or ^tupg or vulgd 

^pOUUiff in Armenian. This appellative cognomen was added to the Christian 

namex)f the Armenian legislator, in consequence of his having very little or no beard. 
By this distinguishing appellation he is invariably mentioned throughout the works 
of his cotemporaneoits writers, and in the page of our national history. 

242 On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians. [No. 111. 

found some pretenders and upstarts, who created distorfaanoes by dis- 
puting the right of snccession. The collision of Atshot with his bro- 
ther Johannes, is a remarkable instance of this dispute.* But, during 
the reign of the Arsaddse, the whole of the royal descendants, with the 
ezeeption of Sdndtr6k, adhered to this law of succession. 

Some other Hems of the Laws of the BagratUkB. 

Taxes are alluded to in the second chapter of the code of Mechithar 
Ghosh, who treats of the royal courts of judicature, and of those 
subordinate thereto: "Kings and princes,'' says this legislator, 
" ought justly to impose taxes on lands and nations, and not to exact 
more than what is tolerated or allowed by inmiemorial usages. They will 
have to render an account of their stewardship to the great God. They 
were appointed for the presenration and welfare of the country, bat 
not to entail ruin and misery upon the people placed under their 
government. The imposition of taxes ought to be in the followiDg 
manner : one-fifth of the produce of cultivated lands is to be given to 
the state. Lands, gardens, and orchards, purchased by the people, are 
not to be subjected to this tribute. Watermills and houses are in hke 
manner to enjoy this exemption. The inhabitants are to be taxed for 
the trade in which they are respectively engaged, and the commodities 
which they ofier for sale. Christians are considered exempt from a 
poll tax, which is only to be imposed upon unbelievers. Irrigated 
lands are subjected to a tribute of one-fifth of their produce, and 
affranchised or quit lands are subject to the payment of tithes. Be- 
cause the right of kings and princes extends only to earth, but not to 
water, affiranchised lands, orchaltds, and gardens, are also exempt from 
taxation. In like manner, of the seven days in the week, one is to be 
devoted to the royal service. To demand from labourers more than this, 
is a great injustice. No specific tax is to be imposed upon oxeo, 
besides that of one-fifth alluded to above. A pound of butter is only 
to be levied upon each cow. Pasture^grounds are exempt from the tax 
which is imposed upon cattle that graze therein. The sheep are to be 
tithed in their lambkins, which can be exchanged with the sheep ad 
libifum. Horses, mules, and asses, are not to be taxed, because by the 

* Vide my History of Armenia, vol- ii. p. 109. 

1841.] On the Laws and Law-boi^ if tik Armenians. 243 

help of these animals eaaential fervicea are rendered to the government 
of the country." 

From the same chapter of the code of Mechithar Ghosh, we shall 
qaote what relates to the administration and law of precedence of the 
ancients. " It is unjost in princes to impose a tax upon believers, be- 
caose the unbelievers are alone to be taxed. It is proper to exact tribute 
from the latter, but not from the former, as it is done by the Greorgians 
to those placed under their subjection. When a tract of land is grant- 
ed by the crown to an Armenian nobleman, — ^if a fort be raised on it by 
the latter in accordance with the royal consent, or if a village be con- 
structed thereon, or if ruined buildings be repaired thereon, — then, and in 
that case, the ^same tract of land is to devolve on him and his heirs in 
perpetuity. The land so granted is by no means to be alienated from 
him without a very serious and heinous offence. And, after the death 
of the person or persons on whom that land is conferred, the gift is to 
devolve on his, her, or their, descendants by order of the king. In like 
nianner, nobles are to be next to princes, according to the seniority or 
priority of the latter, and citizens and peasants ought to be subordinate 
to nobles. — Forests cleared, and ruined places repaired or rebuilt, are to 
be the undisputed and inalienable property of the enterprising persons 
at whose expense the works were performed, and are to devolve on 
their children in perpetuity after their death. On the construction of a 
city or fort, should there be a deficiency of money in the public trea- 
aory, it is incumbent on the people to render their general support 
towards the completion of the building. Citizens are to enjoy the honor 
of precedence to villagers, and inhabitants of villages should precede 
in rank the &rmers and husbandmen. This law of precedence is, in 
like manner, to obtain among the denizens of forts and villages. These 
have been the usual and invariable practices among the ancient kings of 
Armenia." The concluding portion of this quotation alludes to the 
usages prevalent in our country during the reign of Valarsaces, as stated 

Courts of Jtbdieaturey and Codes of Laws in Armenia, 

In our national history mention is made of the institution of courts 
of judicature by Valarsaces, during the days of the Arsacidae, as it ap- 
pears from the testimony of Moses of Chorene, while speaking of the 

244 On the Laws and Law-books of^ Armenians, [No. 111. 

public act8 of this monarch. " \^tut,tapuBpu ^[t muA mpjfnt.^ 

%/r| hntULuinuipu ^fi Munui^u It. ttut.jMMbu I ^* 7^ 

*^ Judices in aul& regi^ judices in oppidis villisqae statuit." Lib. 
II. Cap, VII. Where there are judges, there must of necessity be courts 
of judicature, in which judges and arbiters hear causes, and administer 
justice by the employment of officers and subordinates, without whom 
judicial affairs cannot be properly managed and conducted. 'But, that 
there were actually courts of judicature in existence in Armenia, we 
have conclusive and satisfactory evidence in the work of that ancient 

historian. ^i^f"-^S ^ ^tULUiOLUM^^ Llmm II fttpuB^f^mb^i-p 
tnuJbg uinjubXiiuii^uSiHaifQ^ It. ^utbnLpa ^ut^^aLm 
P'lruSita II if^iMt2Uiitaj u/jJ-tP tun. Jlrq ^muiUfih uibpLUii. 
QpnLjatMiQ duMtalruiitjpj tiig/buMLUibtv. nn ^fi ucrug^iuffUtU 

tamunanLpti l%tufutupuiaaLls'%\ ugtMnatqtutnmtLpt ''S* S» 

^^Quibus adhuc devicis at provinciis, atque etiam rebus sigillatiffl 
dookesticis, publicisque controversiis, ac fcederibos, seripta extant apod 
DOS innumera historiarum volumina, ac praecipu^ dum successio manstt 
libera." Z/t6. i. Cap. ii. It is evident that such codes of laws and 
instraments regarding which disputes and differences might have na- 
turally arisen, by the lapse of several years, among heirs, coheirs, and 
legatees, were carefully kept in courts of judicature, conformably to the 
order of the government of the country. This has been the common and 
invariable practice of civilized nations, in all ages and in all countries. 

We have also incontrovertible proofs of the existence of law-books in 
Armenia during the reign of the Bagratidse, in the Latin translation of 
the code complied and prepared under the auspices of the Armenian 
king, Johannes the Bagratian, of which mention was made above. 
The classification of the chapters of this code is preceded by this sen- 
tence : — *' The Armenian kings lay down this model of justice for the 
guidance of their judges." — Then follow, in separate chapters, laws 
respecting the adjustment of disputes arising from wills — ^laws enacted 
for the settlement of differences among married parties — and laws in- 
tended for the correction of offenders and the punishment of criminals. 

In the face of all these evidences, one cannot but be greatly astonish- 
ed in reading the introduction to the code of Mechithar Ghosh, where- 

1841.J On the Laws and Law-books f^iks Armenians. 245 

in he frequently eUndes to a total absence of laws and law-books 
among the Anneniansy and to the conseqaent necessity of his collect- 
ing data, and embodying them in the form of a code of laws ! In the 
second chapter of his law-book, the heading of which is, '< Why were 
we disposed to compile this book, or what incentives induced us to 
resolve on framing this code ?" Mechithar Ghosh famishes the reader 
with a statement of his reasons for so doing, of which the following is 
an extract :— ^* That we have often been accused not only by unbeliev- 
ersy but by Christians silso, of a total absence of law-books, based 
npon the principles of evangelical laws. That lest, from the non-ex- 
istence of a written law, the Armenians should apply or appeal to un- 
believers for justice. That many, on various occasions, ignorantly 
distort the true meaning of laws, and it is for their information and 
correction that we were induced to compose this code of laws. Not 
content with this alone, we caused this code to be placed in courts of 
judicature, as a record intended for occasional and necessary reference. 
That being destitute of written laws, our predecessors were unable to 
make references, but, on the removal of this want, we shall now avail 
ourselves of this record, and be able to afford a proof to unbelievers of 
the existence of written laws amongst us, by which they will be silen- 
cedy and obliged to desist from heaping on us accusations for the appa- 
rent want of a code. We were for a very considerable time subjected 
to the keenest reproaches of our countrymen and strangers for the ab- 
sence of a law-book, and their censures proved as a spur to us in 
undertaking the preparation of a code of laws.... I was also seized with 
astonishment at the apathetic indifference displayed by our ancestors 
in not supplying this desideratum. " 

These remarks were written by Mechithar Ghosh, towards the close 
of the twelfth century, at which period, as stated above, he flourished 
in Armenia in the character of an Armenian lawgiver, and erudite 
author. But, as the numerous Armenian families that first quitted 
Armenia emigrated to Poland in the middle of the eleventh century, 
it is very probable that these emigrants carried with them their own 
law-book, which it was impossible for Mechithar Ghosh to meet with 
in Armenia. The Armenian colonists in Poland being in possession of 
a law-book of their own, were guided by it in aU their civil and judi- 
cial affairs, as stated above. Yet, upon all tliis, considering the laws al- 


246 On tke Laws and Latihbook* of ike Armenitms, [No. 1 1 i. 

laded to by bim, relatiYe to the prerogatives of kings and tlM rights q£ 
priocesy we are led to conclude that Mechithar Ghosh was at leait 
possessed of some fragments of the laws of the kings of the ancieot 
Bagratidae and Arsacidae, otherwise he would have candidly dedared 
that the code was entirely his own production. This carries with 
it its own improbability. And it is not injudicious to adopt this con- 
clusion from the perusal of the second chapter of the pre&tory ob- 
servations of his law-book, in which he says : — *' This string of lawi 
will perhaps be considered an object of ridicule by those in whow 
hands it may chance to fall ! They will assimilate us in their mind^s 
eye to those who^ in a fit of delusion, dream of kingdoms and of 
royal splendour and gloiy; but no sooner they are awakened from 
their illusive and enchanting dreams, than they see nothing but the 
mere shadow of what their heated imagination had portrayed in glow- 
ing colours ! But, let them remember that I am not ignorant of the 
vanity and transitoriness of all earthly kingdoms ! Of this we have 
a most singular and striking proof in the rise, progress, and annihi- 
lation of our own kingdom. The past has vanished for ever — ^the 
present is a mere tantalising nonentity — the future I can scarcely hope 
to see! Yet, these distressing circumstances and melancholy reflec- 
tions will not be permitted to cool my ardor in prosecuting the task 
of framing a complete code of laws, conformable to the wants and 
present state of the nation, from the conviction, that the utility 
of my production will be generally acknowledged and duly appreci- 
ated. In attempting to publish and promulgate this work, I most 
crave the kind indulgence of unbiassed observers ; and, in so ddng^ 
I stand fully prepared to be visited with the censures of hasty and 
fastidious critics, for such errors and imperfections as may be found in 
this production of mine. Yet I still entertain a hope, that they will 
consider me worthy of credit for good intentions, though they may not 
be disposed to extend to me their pardon for the defects of my worL" 
From these observations of Mechithar Ghosh it is to be inferred, that 
the laws contained in his book were not bondfid^ his sole productioD, 
but a compilation frx>m those framed by ancient Armenian law-givera 
In preparing this article on the laws and law-books of the Armenian^ 
I have availed myself of Inchichian's '^ AniiquUies of ArmeHta,** a 
work published at Venice in 1835, and replete with deep research and 

1841.] On tke Laws and Law-books rf the Armenians, 247 

most ▼alnable information. If the Mechitharif tie Society* of Venice 
be disposed to publish a correct edition of the code of Mechithar Ghosh^ 
and of the book of laws prepared nnder the auspices of the Armenian 
lung, Johannes the Bagratian, — authentic copies of which are preserv- 
ed in the extensive library of that learned body, — they will certainly 
confer a very heavy obligation on their countrymen generally, but 
more particularly on the Armenians located within the pale of the go* 
vemment of British India. An approved and imexceptionable edition 
of these two statute-books of the Armenians, cannot but be most 
servicable to the judges of the Sadder Dewany Adawlut, who will be 
entirely guided by them as by an unerring criterion in their decisions 
OD causes and questions arising from hereditary gifts and testamentary 
bequests of the Armenians residing under the jurisdiction of the 
Mofossil courts. But in the absence of printed Armenian law-books, 
questions of succession to property, in cases in which the litigants were 
known to be Armenians, have been invariably referred in writing by 
the judges of the Company's courts to such of the Armenian bishops 
as happened to sojourn or itinerate in this part of British India, during 
the period of their triennial or septennial episcopal visitation, which 
they performed in accordance with the written and acknowledged 
authority with which they were respectively invested by the pontificate 
of £tchmiatchin,t near Erevan, in the province of Ararat, the arch- 
bishoprick} of Julpha in Ispahan, and the patriarchate of Jerusalem, § 

* This yeteran Society was established in the year 1717, and its membeTS have been 
pre-eminently successful in the revival and cultivation of the classical literature of 
Armenia, by the publication of numerous philosophical, philological, and scientific 
works of sterling merit The members of this Society lead a strictly monastic life. 
The following lines are extracted from the life of its zealous and patriotic founder :— 


fpiAwumMAu m^u gam fippffb 

'* Fttit hoc monasterinm totum tempore Mechithar Petri ex Sebaste I. Abbatis 
Mtructnu. A. D. 1740." 

2 H 

248 On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians. [No. 11 h 

to which each or any of them individually belonged. Sometimes, in 
the absence of Armenian bishops, the officiating Clergy attached to the 
Armenian church of Calcutta have also . been consulted on questions 
of inheritance, or testamentary bequests. The exposition of the 
Armenian law or usage, furnished by these episcopal and clerical 
dignitaries of the Armenian church, in accordance with the specific 
queries put to them, has, almost in all instances, guided the judges of 
the Company's courts, either in determining similar questions pending 
subjudtee, or in pronouncing their decisions in cases of the above men- 
tioned description. The Company's courts, so far as my information ex- 
tends, pursue the practice sanctioned by the precedents alluded to above. 
In connection with the subject of Armenian laws and law-books, I 
think it necessary to add, that in June 1838, I was requested by my 
highly esteemed and deeply lamented friend, Mr. James Prinsep, to pass 
my opinion on a certain Armenian code of laws in manuscript, which 
accompanied his letter, for my perusal and consideration. I cheerfully 
undertook the task intrusted to me, and instantly put him in posses- 
sion of my opinion in a letter, of which the following is a copy : — 

To James Prinsep, Esq. 

Mr^DSAR Mr. Prinsep, 

I have received your note of yesterday's date, together with a 
manuscript volume in the Armenian language, and hasten to put you 
in possession of my candid opinion on the same. 

The book in question is a code of laws, both civil and ecclesiastical, 
written or transcribed in the Haican era 1135, corresponding with the 
year of our Lord 1686, partly by a priest named Alexianus, and partly 
by a bishop named Jacob, native of Ghrim, and pupil of another 
bishop named George, of the see of Ezinka. The transcription thereof 
was made at the desire of another bishop named Thomas, and inscribed 
to Stephanus, the supreme patriarch of the Aluans. The work is based 
on Mosaic laws, and the materials of which it is composed are derived 
from the Old and New Testaments, and from other ancient records. 

Mechithar Ghosh, who flourished in Armenia between the close of 
the twelfth and the beginning of the thirteenth century, and who 
is ieminently distinguished in the page of our national history for 
his unrivalled attainments, is known to have been the author or 

1841.^ On the Laws and Law-hooks of the Armenians, 249 

originator of a code of Anneniaii laws, which was then generally used 
in the courts of judicature of our country. History also tells us that 
another code of laws was in existence in Armenia, so far back as the year 
of Christ 1046, written or prepared under the auspices of the Armenian 
king, Johannes Bagratian. The latter has been in general use among 
the numerous Armenian population of Poland, where a transcript of it 
is presenred, with a Latin translation ; but the text or original work is 
not to be found. As neither of these law-books has found its way to 
India, I am unable to say whether the volume you have sent me is a 
transcript of the one or the other, for the name of the author or legis- 
lator has unfortunately not been inserted therein. I am, however, 
inclined to think it to be a compilation from both, but cannot take it 
upon myself to say, whether it is one of established legal reputation in 
Armenia. It is greatly to be regretted that the code of Mechithar 
Ghosh has never been printed or published to this day. This, under 
existing circumstances, is certainly a very serious evil to the Armenians 
living under the jurisdiction of our Zillah courts. 

The following is a translation of a portion of the Chapter on Inherit- 
ance: — 

** Chapter CIV. — Of the division of Property, 

" Conformably to the rule of division, property must be equally di- 
vided in the following manner: that is to say, the whole of the property 
to be considered as one drachma, and the drachma as six oboli. If there 
be a son and a daughter in the family, the property must be thus divid- . 
ed : that is to say, two and a half oboli to the brother, two and a half 
oboli to the sister, and one obolus to the mother. But, if there be two 
sisters, and both of them married, the two sisters are to be looked upon in 
the light of one brother. Two and a half oboli to be'given to the brother, 
two and a half oboli to the two sisters, and one obolus to the mother/' 

From this it will appear, that the wife or mother is entitled to one- 
sixth of the property bequeathed by the father or husband. This cus- 
tom or usage, so far as my information extends, does to this day obtain 
among the Armenians residing in the various parts of Persia and 
Turkey. It is difficult for me to ascertain whether the Armenians living 
under the rule of Russia,* are equally guided or influenced by this usage. 

* A code of laws, bearine the affix of the imperial jiat^ was concocted and 
published in 1836, for the guidance of the Armenians living in Ararat, one of the 
provinces of Armenia whicn is now under the sway of Russia. A copy of this code of 

250 On the Laws and Law-books of the Armenians, [No. 1 1 1. 

Herewith I retam yon the maauscript vdnme^ with the contents of 
which I have already been made acqoaintedi by the kindness of iU 
former owner.* Another copy of this work, though not so el^antlj 
written, was in the possession of onef of the Armenian priests of 
Calcutta ; but in consequence of his death, it was, together with his 
other books, sent to his son at Ispahan in January last Should yoa 
require an English translation of any other portion of the work, I 
shall feel most happy to furnish you with it4 

Believe me to be^ 

Calcutta, Your*s very truly, 

26/A June^ 1838. Johannes Atdall. 

laws in manuscript having been sent to me from Madras, I instantly put it into the 

Eress, and published a sufiScient number of <sopies thereof for the numerous Armenians 
^ ving in different parts of British India. Tne contents of this code are, however, 
inapplicable and scarcely of any use or benefit to my expatriated countrymen, scatteral 
throughout this portion of the globe. Driven as we are from our country by Modem 
despotism and unrelenting persecution— bereft as we are of our national slory and in- 
dependence — wandering as we are on the surface of the globe like ue scattered 
children of Israel, but partially domiciled here, under the fostering and paternal care 
of the British Government, 1 trust 1 shall not be taxed with presumption in expressine 
a wish, that a string of laws, well adapted and suited to the circumstances and genem 
condition of the Armenians settled in this country, framed and concocted by the 
wisdom of the Legislative Council, be passed and promulgated by the Supreme 
Government of British India, with the view of promoting and securing the welntre of 
the children of their adoption. In asking this boon, 1 rest assured that it will be 
conceded to us by the illustrious and philuithropic head of our government 

* The former owner of this law-book was the late Right Bev. Har6thedn Y&rd&piet 
X^ppuintJb Qutpni-PliJb Hutptituuilrm of ^^ fraternity of the Armenian Con- 
vent of Julpha in Ispahan. In the year 1824, while residing at Sydabad 
with his brother, the late patriotic Manlis&c&n Yardon, the Rev. gentleman was 
applied to in writing by Mr. G. C. Master, first judge of the Provincied Court for the 
division of Dacca, to state his opinion on a certain question of inheritance, arising 
from the will of a certain opulent Armenian inhabitant of that place. In complying 
with Mr. Master's request, this dignitary of the Armenian church availed faimseu 
of the contents of this very law-book. His opinion on the subject is justly and appro- 
priately prefaced by these words—-" All laws of justice, either civil or ecclesiastiod, 
m all Christian nations, have their origin from the Holy Scriptures." The judges, 
I am credibly informed, were guided by his opinion in pronouncing their decisicNis. 
Hence, it is evident, that the book in question was considered by the j adges as a suffi- 
cient authority. Oli the death of Harutheun V&rd&piet, the book alluded to be- 
came the property of his brother, Mr. M&nfis&c&n Yardon, on whose demise it devolved 
on his eldest son, and is now in the possession of his youngest son, Mr. S. M. Yardon. 

t The late Rev. Ter Marcar Ter Carapiet, ^uib^cjlrmi^ X^pm^gA S? 
yyuipt^tup Sp h«'puiinlrmkui% formerly vicar of the Armenian church of Calcutta, 
of hapjpy and blessed memory. 

X Tne utility of piecemeal extracts from these manuscript Armenian law-boola» 
will be temporary and confined to a few only. As several of the Armenian residents 
in the Mofussil, have a large and extensive |)roperty in lands and taltiks, would it not 
be advisable for them to adopt measures for printing at the Armenian press in Yenice the 
code of Mechithar Ghosh, and the law-book of the Armenian king, Johannes Ba^* 
tian ? Let them come forward and supply the sine gud non, and the long-desired object 
will be speedily and satisfactorily consummated. 


On Titular Reiurm of the N, W. Franiier Trade with Afghanutan. 

[Profitiiig by the scope an4 character of thia Joumal, and following 
the aystem of the Society after which it is named, the Editor has 
not hesitated in publishing the following Tables, and the remarks upon 
them, as containing most valuable notice of a subject interesting to all 
in India. The information compendiously given in the above, was the 
result of private perquisitions, made at the instance of the writer of 
this note: it may be relied on as strictly accurate. The allusion to 
disadvantages opposed to traders from Cabool is only made, in order 
to show how great must the contrary advantage be^ and how strong 
the impulse to trade, when, (as the writer believes to be the case,) 
they have now been removed by recent arrangements.] 

British Manufaeiures and Island Produce. 

The statement (No. 1,) embracing the trade of the year 1840, 
(from January to December,) in British manufactures and Island 
produce cannot, it is to be regretted, be pronounced thoroughly 
accurate, inasmuch as it is derived from data which is presumed 
to be imperfect However, the quantity of each staple therein 
exhibited as having been exported to Cabool across our North-west 
Frontier, during the period under review, is, there is every reason 
to believe, by no means exaggerated ; on the contrary, it may be 
said to fall far short of what actually found its way to the Northern 
marts, via Delhi, which is the great entrepSt of the extensive com- 
merce of our North-western Provinces and Central Asia. 

The eorrectness of the staples of trade given in the statement 
ean be vouched for, and it will be observed, that cloths form the 
diief. Of the several descriptions of linen the most prized and 
sought after, is long-doth, (LutkA,) the unbleached being preferred 
to the bleached; the Cabool merchants having discovered that our 
method of bleaching rots the thread, and abstracts a year's wear 
at least from the doth ; bendes it enables them the more readily 
to dye it blue, their fitvourite colour. 

Of all the export staples, British linen is said to give the greatest 
return, yielding a nett profit of nearly 100 per cent, on the outlay, 

252 On Tabular Returns of [No. 111. 

and to meet with the most ready sale, the merchants from Khiva, 
Bokhara, Khorassan, Samarcand, Lodauk, &c &c. buying it up with 

Our broad cloths, too, are eagerly sought after, {sombre coloun 
are preferred to gay,) and immense quantities are said to be ex* 
ported from Bombay. It is only* the coarser quality that is inquired 
after here. The same remark applies to Birmingham and Sheffield 
ware, cutlery, &c which is very much admired and prized ; espeeiatly 
when contrasted with the miserable wares of Russia, specimens of 
which, when contrasted with the rudest workmanship of the Delhi 
artificers, have shown the comparison to be greatly to the prejudice 
of the former. 

The next article in point of importance is metal, (lead^ copper &c. 
the former in pigs, and the latter in sheets,) and of this it need only 
be said, that the demand for the Northern marts is greater than 
the supply here, i. e. the surplus supply — the home c(Misumption 
being enormous. 

Island produce, of which the several kinds of spices compose 
the principal export staple, (black pepper is the chief item,) will 
always exercise a very important influence on the Cabool trade; 
for, although not strictly coming under the term '^necessary," the 
customs and habits of Asiatics render the consumption of Island 
produce, spices, beetlenuts, pigments, &c. a matter of course. 

The trade, as will be seen in Island produce, has been tolerably 
brisk during the past year ; but it would have been considerably more 
so, were it not for customs' restrictions. 

Almost all articles of Island produce are subjected to port duties 
* Spices, beetlenute, when imported seaward into Calcutta, and there- 

logwood, pepper, , 

long pepper and its fore, agreeably to the liberal principle allowed by 
S^r'/sSi-wSJdi Government, ought not again to be taxed any 

SSlr^Smhl'red" "^^^^ ^^*^"* *^® Company's territories. This, 
^®^* however, is not, and cannot be done, inasmuch as 

most of the produce of the Islands is also liable to the payment 
of inland customs' duties ; that is, they (vide margin*) are borne on 
the tariff, which regulates the levy of duty in the inland cus- 
toms' houses. 

1841.] the N. W. Frontier Trade with Afghanistan. 253 

A Cabool merchant, (to give an example,) purchases at Calcutta 10 
maunds of black pepper, which he is told is sea-imported^ and therefore 
not liable to further interference any where within the Company's 
territories. He brings this pepper to the North-west frontier line 
of customs unaccompanied by a rowannah, when, as a matter of 
course, it is seized. The owner urges that he purchased it at Calcutta 
as a sea-import, and the customs' officer demands proof, which is not 
forthcoming. The consequence is, that the ^oods are detained, and 
tlie case is reported to the Sudder office, which is often distant a 
hundred miles from the scene of action. The merchant defending 
the case urges the same plea, and the native appraiser, who cannot 
possibly know the difference, is asked his opinion as to whether the 
article is sea-imported, or country produce. In nine cases out of ten he 
declares it to be the latter, when the custom collector desirous of 
discriminating between zeal to Government and justice to the trader, 
determines upon sending samples of the goods to the custom master 
at Calcutta: meanwhile, the merchant is told that his property 
must remain under attachment, or he must deposit a sufficient sum 
of money to meet a demand for single duty. This latter alternative 
he gladly accepts, considering any sacrifice better than further detent, 
ion, which usually swells out to fifteen or twenty days. 

The samples are. In due course, submitted to the English appraiser 
in Calcutta, who, possibly knowing nothing of country produce, or 
at least of the particular produce in question, pronounces the samples 
to be sea-imported ; consequently, the inland custom collector re- 
solves to release the pepper ; but the owner is no where to be found, 
and his money remains in deposit for three months, when, according 
to the rules of the department, it reverts to Government. 

Subsequently the owner on his return trip to the provinces calls to 
know the fote of his money, and he is told that although the pepper 
was proved to have been sea-imported, the duty was carried to credit, 
as he did not claim it within the prescribed period of three months. 

The above will shew, without further comments, how materially 
this branch of commerce is retarded, (and without help) by the 
frontier customs.* 

* I have reason to believe, that this inconvenience is in course of remedy. 

264 Oh Tahdar Returns of [No. 111. 

Country Produce. 

Statement Na 3, exhibits this section of the Cabool trade during 
the year 1840, and as it is compiled from authentic documents, there 
can be no doubt of its accuracy. Want of time has not allowed of a 
comparison with the exports of previous years, but there are the most 
ample grounds for asserting, that the past has more than quadrupled in 
quantity and value the exports of former years. 

Statements No. 5 and T, shew the exports during January and 
February 1841, which have also been abstracted from the custom-house 
registers. A marked improvement will be observed in these, especial. 
ly as regards the chief staples, cloths and shoes, more than double of the 
former, and quintuple of the latter, having been exported during these 
two months than during the whole of last year. Indigo, which also 
occupies a prominent station, I have reserved for particular notice 

Statement No. 10, gives the exports of the past month, (March 
1841) ; this is not included with Nos. 5 and 7> ^th the view of 
mentioning that measures were taken in February last at all the 
custom posts stretching along the outer frontier line, which extendi 
from Kalsie in the Deyrah Dhoon to Goverdhun on the Eastern 
boundary of the Bhurtpore territory, for the registry not only of all 
country, but British and foreign produce exported to, and imported 
from, Cabool ; and that, therefore, means are obtained for the fiuthfiil 
record of the operations of each month, and in each article. 

From this statement it will be seen, that 92,401 pieces of cloth 
(linen, silk, and brocades,) valued at Rs. 1>82,064 were carried across 
the frontier in March, which was considerably more than any other 
period, and gives evidence of the increasing demand for the productions 
of British India. 

Cloth being the principal staple of commerce in country produce, it 
may be necessary to state what descriptions of cloth are most desired. 
The most valuable, and consequently the least in quantity, are kirn- 
khaubs and doputtas, (coloured,) both of which are manu£Bu;tured at 
Benares, and yield unusually large returns on re-sale at Cabool. The 
largest in quantity, but least in value, are Furruckabad chintzes, and 
Dooab muslins, ghingams, doosooties, and garhas, also Dinapore 
muslins. These latter are preferred to the indigenous cloth of the 

1841.] thAK W, Frontier Trade with Afghanistan. 255 

norths as possessing a fin^r and stronger texture^ being mostly woven 
with English and country thread. 

Country shoes, which it will be perceived are exported in large 
quantities^ are manufactured chiefly about, and exported entirely 
from, Delhi. Indigo, regarding which a distinct notice was reserved, 
possesses the distinguishing feature of being the only article of 
trade contained in the statements, which is not conveyed directly 
by the Cabool (VikUiJ merchants. It is in the first instance 
consigned by the Delhi merchants to Amritsir, from whence it 
finds its way to Cabool. That which is exported across our customs* 
frontier, is raised at Koorjah in the Alligurh district ; but the quantity 
stated in the statements, is perhaps not one-half of what will be 
found in the Cabool market, as large quantities have within the 
last few years been grown in the protected Seikh states* which are 
beyond our line, and from thence imported into the Punjab, and 
countries contiguous to it. 

There was at first room for doubting the &ct, that indigo really 
found a market at Cabool to the extent alleged, and close inquiry 
was therefore instituted of the Cabool merchants; the resjilt has 
proved the correctness of the original information, and the re- 
moval of all doubt on this important question may truly be deemed 
of paramount interest, both to the European who embarks his capital 
in raising indigo, and the exporter, who will be, in a great measure, 
rendered independent of the fluctuations of the European market, by 
the wide field of enterprize opened to him in the vast countries of 
the north; where, as I have before observed, the beautiful and 
permanent dye of indigo will always supersede every other, from its 
being the fiivourite colour, and applied to the commonest wearing 
apparel. However, this refers more to a prospective, than a present 

Indigo produced by a European, whether from its superior qua. 
lity, the result of superior machinery and larger outlay, or enhanced 
price, cannot for a time compete with the inferior and cheaper material 
produced by the native manufacturer, for reasons obvious to those 

* Munny Msgra in Sirhind, a small principality among the states, produces it most 
extensively, and of the best quality. 


256 On Tabular Beiums of [No. 111. 

aoqaainted with the purposes to which indigo is applied/ and the low 
The process of manu- ebb to which the monetary relations of the mats 

facture could not fail to 

produce other than the of the people of the north were reduced; immedi- 

^dalTy M^boiliS^' w M^ a^ely previous to the influx of British enterprise 

Indi'g;,^™ Sdo^la^^^ and British capital. When the operation of these 

than a sparrow's egg, and powerful, and hitherto never.faillnff propellants to 

yield a very dmsj co- "^ or r 

lour compared with that prosperity shall have come into full play, it may 

manufactured by Euro- . i i_ i. j .i. ^ .. i t. ^l '-j- 

peans. The average reasonably be hoped that articles, whether umi- 
Siund/I^'al^'^^iinety ge^ous to Europe or Asia, of European manufiic- 
'"P®*** ture, will be consumed in preference to those which 

are produced from the rude and primitive machinery of India. 

The other articles of export in country produce, with the exception 
of Gotah kenarre, scarcely merit particular mention, as they ard so 
trifling ; but it may be reasonably expected, that as the productions of 
British India become better known, they will be appreciated, there- 
fore more extensively consumed. Already the use of lac is being 
understood, and I am aware of several merchants having carried 
samples of it with them, that they might regulate the supply by the 

Gotah kenaree, (gold and silver tissues,) will, I am assured, in 
time be extensively sought after. The chief-— possibly only— places 
of manufacture are Lucknow and Delhi ; the latter especially.t It 
is impossible to ascertain precisely the quantity exported, as from 
its great value, every expedient is resorted to, and it is said successfully) 
to smuggle it. 

As pertinent to this subject, it is worthy of remark, that in 1837> 
several camel loads of spurious lace were stopped, which were crossing 
the line, packed in bundles bearing the manufacturing mark of 
Moscow. It had been brought from Cabool, and had been sent to the 

* There are yet other reasons which militate against the puichase by 
Afghans of indigo manufactured in the European method, the principal of 
which is the compact pressure given by us to the article. This renden 
necessary the employment of machinery to grind down the dye before 
the colouring matter can be properly extracted, whereas the friable, unoom- 
pact nature of the indigenously manufactured article, admits of its ready 
solution in water. 

t Benares has also, I think, an extensive manufacture of this article. 

1841.] the N. W, Fr&ntier Trade with Afghanistan, 257 

provinces, wirti the view of ascertaining whether sale would be ob- 
tained for it ; since that period no attempt has since been made to 
force the manufactures of Russia into our markets. 


Previously to the opening of the Cabool trade by the result of 
recent political events, exports were greatly disproportioned to im- 
ports ; the dangers of the route, and other obvious causes, rendering 
it most unsafe to convey foreign and valuable articles, which could 
tempt the cupidity of the lawless hordes, inhabiting the countries 
through which the route lay. The imports were, in consequence, 
converted into specie, and not, as now, paid for in kind : so that the 
advantage all lay on the side of Cabool. 

In the statements of import trade, only such articles as yield 
a duty to the British Government are shewn. Of these, the chief 
is assafoetida, which always meets with ready sale in our provinces. 
There is perhaps no country in the world where assafcetida is more 
commonly used than in Hindoostan. 

Saflfron is in less common use ; the price placing it beyond the means 
of any but the rich, and a preference being given to that which is 
brought from Calcutta, imported from the Persian Qulph in Arab ships. 

Besides the duty-paying staples, fruits, sarsaparilla, salopmisry, 
lapis lazuli, medicinal drugs, opium, and churrus, comprize the 
import trade of Cabool. In the margin* is appended a note, shew- 

♦ Raisins 1774 Camel loads. i°« ^^ '^™*^' ^^ «™«1 ^^ads 

Pistachio Nutt, 182 ditto, of fruit, amounting to 4,000, 

>'°°°""' *^2 ditto. ^IjJ^Ij crossed our frontier 

Khobaunies, 90 •. ditto. 

Pears, 108 ditto, from November 1838 to April 

Pomegranates 605 ditto. 1839. The Operations of this 

^'*"**' • i* ^***** period are shewn in preference 

Prunes, 71 ditto. ^ ^ ^ 

Almonds 379 , ditto, to any Other, as being the least 

^"^^ ^ ^^' favourable, in consequence of 

Grapes, 105 ditto. ^- ... 

Fip,^ j4 ^tt^, the mihtary preparations mpro- 

gross at that period, by which 

*'^ the trade was partially check. 

Fruit is only imported in the cold season. « al ^ ^i_ * i<. 

ed ; 80 that there was a falling 
off of nearly one-fourth in the imports of previous years, and one- 
tenth of those of 1840. 

258 On Tabular Returns of [No. 111. 

Mooltan, Bahawalpore^ and Soorutgurh, and Bhutneer, (in the Beka- 
neer states,) mark the route followed by the KajUas before they enter 
the British possessions. From Bhatneer they come to Sirsa, in the 
Bhutty territory ; whence travelling by Ranea, Hansie, and Rhotuck, 
they enter Delhi^ and then diverge to the several marts of the 

The reason assigned for the KaJUas congregating at Delhi is, thit 
by doing so, they avoid the heavy daties imposed at every castoms' 
chofvkeyy which they would have to pass in their progress throagh 
Bekaneer, Lohanee, Kanounie, and other foreign states. 

The nature of these duties will be judged from the subjoined me- 

At Soorutghur, per camel load of fruit, pays a tax of • . 12 annas. 
At Bhutneer, the same, . . . . . . . . 12 aoBas. 

Total, Rs. 1 8 

This amount of duty is paid by the Cabool merchants to the Beka. 
neer state, and it is computed that in good average years a revenue 
of rupees 12,000 ^s derived from this source; which, at 12 annas per 
camel load, would shew the average number of camel loads of fruit im- 
ported every season into our territories to be 16,000. This tax is levied 
without distinction as to the quality of the fruit, all paying alike, and 
when two camels are lightly laden, from their being young or weak^ 
they pay the tax of one proper camel load. ' 

At Naheir, in the Bhekaneer states, an additional duty 
is levied of, per camel load, Rs. 15 

And at Buhadera, also in the Bekaneer states, a further 
duty of, per camel load, . . . • • • . . 2 10 

Making a ToUl of Rs. 3 15 
which, added to the duties levied at Lohanee, Kanounie, &c. aver- 
aging 1-8 per camel load, shew an aggregate of rupees 5-7 per camel 
load, which the merchants would have to pay in addition to the tax 
paid at Soorutgurh and Bhutneer, were they to enter our territories 
by any other route than Sirsa and Delhi. Of course, no reference 
is made to the route running through the Khyber Pass, the Punjabt 
Ferozepore and Loodianah, as the Cabool merchants would at all 
risks avoid it. 

1841.] the N. fV. Frontier Trade with Afghanistan. 259 

It now remains to offer a few brief general observations, premising 
as to the character of the Cabool merchants, that they are remarkable 
for probity and straight-forward dealing, combined with caution 
and great tact in the art of buying and selling, and that it is so high 
in the provinces, that credit to any amount is given to them without 
hesitation. Indeed a striking resemblance in this respect may be 
traced between them and that remarkable tribe the Brinjarruhs. 

After disposing of most of their import wares at Delhi, the mer. 
chants proceed to the lower provinces, furnished with bilJs of exchange 
from the Delhi merchants on their agents at Cawnpore, Allahabad, 
Benares, Calcutta, &c. and having laid in a stock of goods suited to the 
Cabool markets they return to Delhi, and forming a KaJUa, retrace 
their way back to Cabool by the same route* they come. They use no 
other carriage but camels until they reach Allahabad, at which place 
they leave them, and convey any goods they may have purchased in 
the lower provinces on hackeries. 

Mention was not made in the proper place, that besides the trade 
carried on bona fide by the Cabool merchants, which the statements 
appended are intended to shew, immense quantities of every kind of 
goods obtainable at Delhi are consigned to Cabool by the Delhi mer. 
chants, through their agents at Amritsir, and advantage is taken of 
convoys proceeding to Cabool to despatch large consignments. 

As a proof of the growing importance of the Cabool trade, it 
may be mentioned, that an insurance office (Native) has been opened 
in Delhi, which will assure goods to any amount and value to 

The regeneration of the town of Sirsa has greatly contributed 
to the convenience and security of the Cabool merchants. The 
opening of the navigation of the Indus, and the predominance 
given thereby to Ferozepore, has certainly abstracted in some measure 
from the importance of Sirsa, as a grand emporium of traffic. Yet it 
will always be deemed a valuable;tM>f>t/ ctappui to the northern trade, 
especially as the superintendent of the Bhutty territory can protect 
the traders from exactions and vexatious delays on the part of our sub- 
ordinate customs' officers. 

* They usually make trips in the year one and a half. 


260 On Tabular Returns rf [No. 111. 

In conclusion it may be noticed^ that the Cabool merchants being 
totally ignorant of our laws, especially customs^ are shamefully imposed 
upon by a set of law people^ who^ under the pretence of instructing 
them how to avoid rendering themselves amenable to our courts, prey 
upon them in every possible way. It would therefore be very desir- 
able, if the authorities at Delhi were required to direct attention to 
the interests of the northern trade.* 

I am happy to inform you, that since I last tirrote, an enterprizing 
merchant of Delhi, who was formerly an inhabitant of Peshawur 
and removed to Hindostan with Governor £lpbinstone's mission, 
despatched a small consignment of goods (vide margin) to Yarkund via 

Subathoo and Lodauk, with the view of ascertain- 
doputtas and long- mg Whether our exports could not be thrown mto 
sldns and^fewellery * China by way of Yarkuud^ which is I believe situa. 

ted directly on the borders of it. He seems to be 
very sanguine of success ; as he considers that the superiority of our 
manufactures will always secure for them the preference over those 
of Russia, with which alone the Yarkund market is now supplied. 
In a few days I will submit a statement of trade for April, in which 
I hope to be able to exhibit three or four new exports. Until October 
or November, however, the trade altogether will be very slaek. 

* Attention has, I believe, been directed to this point. 


1841.] iheN. W. Frontier Trade with Afghanistan. 


No. 1. 

SUxtement o/ Goods exported from and ma Delhi to Cabool, during the year 
1840, the same being British Manufactured and Sea Imported via Calcutta. 

Names of Articles. 

British Manufactures, &c. 

Idnen doth, white, 



^ad cloths, 

Birmingham & Sheffield-ware cutlery. 


Gun flints, 

I^ead, Pewter, &c 

Copper, ' 


White lead, 

xoiai, ... •»• ,,, 

Sea Importations. 

Species, Drugs, &c 


Beetle nuts, 



Red lead 



Red earth, 


Total, ... 
Grand total, 

• . • 

• . • 
• . . 



ed value. 


30,000 pieces, 


25,000 ditto, 


400 ditto. 


not known. 














100 maunds, 


. •• ... 


3,300 maunds, 


2,000 ditto. 




500 ditto. 


30 ditto. 


200 ditto, 


50 ditto, 


200 ditto. 


200 ditto. 


• . . ... 


•■ . ... 



Ti o 

B O 

o >» 



O H 


» ^ 





Oh Tabular Returru <f 

[No. 111. 

SlateBiait i^ Good* is^orUd from Cabool aeroa lie N. If. Frontier, dunnglit 
ytar 1840. The tame bang UaSle to the Cuilom Tax. 

Names of Arliclea, 

AuafietidB, .. .. 
Zeeiah, Cununin, .• 
ZaSron, Safiron, 


Sumbhoor or Fun. , , 

l,6SC sa 8 

l.SW 16 B 

33 «i 

Slatemetd of Goodt exported to Cabool aerott the N. W. Frontier, dariag Ikt 
year 1S40. Ute tame being Coaritry produee, imdUableto the Ctatont Tax. 

Name, of Article*. 





26,89« nieces 


Cocoasut oil, 

30 maunds 


Kimthab. or Bro-» 
cada., / 

1.639 pieces 

S9,0S7 li 

5 « 

TO Beers 6 chka. 

id 8 

.0 6 



59IS toUhs 


l,31t S 

9 10 



Leather Stockings,.. 

100 pairs 



bS tolabs 



9 8 

Wax Candles, .. .. 

Beetle anlB, country, 

86 mdB. 35 seers 


1 11 

tmdB. I2i»een 

f ( 


La^ Heoka gnakei. 


a c 


SI mds, SO seers 

1 1 

•7* pairs- 

1,3*0 13 

1 6 


2mds. lOseer* 

i 1 

Ballchud, Spikenard, 



s c 

Red Lead, country. 

SO seers 


S 1 

B seers 

Se (1 

9 f 




9 I 

Red Sandal -wood, .. 

11 seen 


(3) seers 

e t 


lii seers 

U 8 

DoQsooty Cloth, ,. 


1 i 


1.989m. ISs. Be. 

!,ie,li6 9 

1 10,906 13 i 

le mds. iO seers 

136 8 

10 3 10 


3,08,98H 14 

1 16,5T8 8 7 


Total Imports and Exports, 

1841.3 the N. W. Frontier Trade mth Afghanistan. 


No. 4. 

SUOement of Goods imported from Cabool across the N, W, Frofaier, during the 
month of January 1841, the same being Uable to the Custom Tax, 

Names of Articles. 

Sumbhoor or Furs, 
Black zeerah, Ni- ^ 
gella, .../ 

GUX18| ... • . • 


180 pain, ... 

70 mds. 23 seers. 

• .• • . • 

Total, ... 


Rs. As. Ps, 

39,361 2 
133 10 

2,752 14 


42,267 10 

Amount of 

Rs. As. Ps. 

16 10 11 

217 5 7 


4,234 6 

No. 5. 

Statement of Goods, exported to Cabool across the N. W. Frontier^ during the 
month of January 1841, the same being Country produce, and IMle to the 
Custom Tax. 

Names of Articles. 


Kimkhabs or Bro- 1 
cades,... •*./ 
Lac, shell and sticK, 
Iron goods, 
Brown sugar. 
Wax candles. 
Indigo, ... ... 

olioes, ... • . . 


987 pieces, 

51} ditto, '. 

20 seers, 
9 mds. 23 seers, 
3d seers, ••• 
2 mds. 10 seers, 
207m.8sr. 6ch. 
1,498 pairs, ... 

Total, ... 


Ms. As. Ps. 

1,076 8 10 

496 12 10 



4 6 


22,728 15 5 

858 12 

Amount of 

25,437 7 1 

Rs. As. Ps, 

26 14 8 

37 4 3 

3 2 

8 8 

3 6 


1,136 7 4 

43 8 4 

1,271 1 3 

Total Imports and Exports, ...67,705 1 1| 5,505 1 9 

These two statements are derived from the Custom House Registers, and 

can be therefore relied on. 



On Tabular Returns cf 

[No. 111. 

No. 6. 

StaUfnaU of Goodt, mporUd from (Mool nfd the N. W, Frontier, dmhig tie 
month ofFebruarjff 1841, the same bemg liable to the Custom Tax, 

Names of Articles. 



Amount of 


Ilmd8.20 seen. 

Bs. As. Ps. 

Rs. As. Ps.\ 




115 0' 


No. 7. 

Statement of Goods, exported to Cabool across the N. W. Frontier, during ike 
month cf Febmary, 1841, the same being Counirg produce, and liable to the 
Custom Tax. 

Names of Articles. 


Cloth, ... ... 

Kimkhab or Bro- 1 
cades,... ...j 


Benares Dooputtas, 
Wax candles. 
Iron goods, 


Mirzapoor carpets, 
Iron wire. 


Lac, shell and stick, 
Embroidered belts. 

Total Imports and Exports. 

66,495 pieces,... 

91 pieces, 


9 pieces, 

2 mds. 30 seers, 

3 maunds, 
959 pairs, 

1 md. 15 seers, 

2 seers, 

1 md. 20 seers, 
2mds. llsrs.8c. 

424 m.37 srs. 2 c 


Amount of 

Rs. As. Ps, 
89,052 510 



139 3 



506 4 

41 4 


7 8 

18 4 3 


46,798 5 11 



Rs. As. Ps 
2,226 10 3 

175 11 

7 8 

10 7 



25 5 

3 16 

2 10 


1 11 4 

2 11 2 
2,339 14 5 

4,817 14 5 

4,932 14 5 

These two Statements are derived from the Costom House Regiatets, and 
can therefore be relied on. 


the N, W. Frontier Trade with Afghanistan. 

No. 8. 


Statement of Goods, exported to Cabool across the N, W. Fron^er, during the 
month of March, 1841, ^ same being British mami^actured. 

Names of Articles. 

Long cloth, muB- > 
lins, &c. 5 

5,250 pieces. 

Ba, As, Ps* 



No. 9. 

Statement of Goods imported from Cabool across the N. W, Frontier, during the 
month of March 1841, the same being liable to the Custom Tax. 

Names of Articles. 

Assafoetida. •• 


Rs, As, Ps, 
9,087 3 

Amount of dutyl 

Rs. As. Ps 
900 12 


No. 10. 

Statement of Goods exported to Cabool across the N. W. Frontier, during the 
month of March, IS^l, the same being Country produce, and liable to the Cus- 
tom Tax. 

Names of Articles. 

Cloth pieces, silk 

and cotton. 
Benares doputtas ) 

and hrocades, &c. ) 


Gotfdi kenaree, 
Shoes^ •••••••• 



Veraigrease> • 





Total Imports and ( 
£aqMrts» » S 

I>itto including J 
British linen, ) 



Amount of duty. 


Rs, As, Ps, 


As. Ps. 

91,419 pieces 

1,60,800 4 


12 3 

982 do. 

21,209 10 



10 8 


428 tolahs 

176 pairs 


S0 seers 



7 mds. 

2 do, 20 seers 


1,087 9 

382 8 


87 8 

09 6 












14 7 
6 1 
S 2 



2,37,909 3 



10 9 

2,46,996 11 



6 9 

2,72,800 11 



NaU to Mr, Viucbnt Trkosa&'s . Process of taking casU if Cams. 

vide No. 110. 

I mu8t not omit to observe, that the above process cannot be applied 
to all coins indiscriminately. Copper and brass coins are sometimes so 
much oxidated as to be unable to bear any pressure, and therefore would 
be broken if put in the press ; those of gold or silver are seldom endanger- 
ed ; but still the operator must use a little discretion. Care must also be 
taken not to continue the pressure further than is required for the per- 
fect copy of the coin, as after the latter has sunk to the full depth of 
the relief, a lateral extension takes place, which will injure it, as I have 
found by experience. 




Of the early History of Sindh, from the " Chuch Namuh*' and other 
authorities. By Likut. Postans, Assist Pol, Agent, Shikarpore. 

[Ck)ncladed from p. 197.] 


Origin of the tribe of Soommah — ^rule of the Jams — ^invasion of Sindh by 
Shah Beg Urghoon — and downfall of the Soommah dynasty. 

The tribe of Soommah^ they say, belonged to the tribe of Ukrumeh 
Oriffin of the tribe Bin Issam Bin Ubhi Jahat^ and according to Meer 
of Soommah. Massoom, embraced Islamism ; and were obedient 

to Bin Cassim when he arrived in Sindhy in the year 92 h. Ukrumieh 
traced his origin, as connected with Jamsheedy hence it is supposed 
their governors styled themselves Jams, Others again trace the origin 
of this tribe to Saniy the son of Noahy from which they derive their 
name Sammahs, or Soommahs, 

They were zumeendars in Sindh of some importance, and on the 
downfiill of the Soomrah dynasty, assumed the reins of government, with 
the title of Jam. Their capital city was Tattah. 
Reigns of the Jams. The first of this family mentioned is 

Jam Oonur, 
who was, by the consent of the tribe of Soommah, proclaimed go- 
vernor. Mulch RfiUun, one of the deputies of the kings of Turhey 
threatened Seeostan ; Oonur defeated him, and after a reign of three 
years and six months died. 

Jam Joonur Bin Babeenah 
succeeded his brother in the government of the country. He ap- 
pointed his brother and relations to various posts in his dominions; 

No. 112. New Series, No. 28. 2 l 

268 Of the early HuUyry of Sindh. [No. 1 12. 

his rule was established in Sindh until SooUan UHahtd-deen sent his 
own brothers, Uglugh Shah and Tartar Khan^ to subdue him. Before 
the arrival of this army, Jam Joanur was seized with quinsy and 
died; he reigned thirteen or fourteen years. UUahfd-deen's army 
reached Bvkkur^ took that fort, and then proceeded to Seeosian. 

Jam Kc^ee Bin Jam Joonur 
succeeded his father, but was deposed by Jam Khier-ud-deen Bin 
Jam Tumachee, who with his father had been taken to Beihh as 
a prisoner, by UUahul-deen, in his descent Jupon Bukkur. He was 
just and good ; he reigned some years and died. 

Jam Babeenar, 

After the death of Jam Khier-ud-deen, Jam Babeenar was, by the 
consent of the nobles, seated upon the throne. During his reign, SooUan 
Feeroz Shah, who had conquered Hindostan and Goajrat, turned an 
ambitious eye towards Sindh, and marched to take possession of that 

Jam Babeenar prepared to oppose him, and after a campaign of three 
months, the rainy season coming on, and the Sh€^*8 army beginning to 
suffer from *the violence of the weather, and myriads of musquitoes^ 
was obliged to fall back upon Goqfrat. 

After the rains he agaio attempted Sindh ; the war was furious, but 
the Shah was at length successful. Babeenar was taken to Deihi, 
where he distinguished himself in the service of Shah Feeroz, who 
honoured him and restored him to the kingdom of Sindh. He died 
after a rule of fifteen years. 

Jam Tumaehee 

succeeded his brother ; he was a rich and indolent man, After a reign 
of thirteen years, passed in luxury and pleasure, he died of the plague. 

Jam SuUahudeen. 
In the beginning of this reign, the dwellers in the des^t disturbed 
the frontiers of his dominions ; he punidied them, and reigned for a 
period of eleven years and some months ; when he died. 

Jam Nizam-ud-deen 
succeeded his father. He was occupied in sensual enjoyments, and 
neglected his dominions. 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 269 

The nobles conspired against him, drove him from the throne, and 
placed Jam Alee Sheer upon it in his stead. He fled towards Goqfrat> 
and died upon the road. 

Jam AlU Sheer Bin Tumaehee 

was just, bountiful, and learned ; he strengthened his power in Sindh^ 
and the country prospered under his rule; but at length he gave 
way to luxury and ease. It was his practice to take his exercise on 
moonlight nights, and the rebellious nobl§s, Sikunder Kirun and 
FiiUeh Khan^ (sons of Tumacheey) who were living in the desert, 
formed a plot, in which they were joined by some of the disaffected in 
the city of TaUahf to way-lay AlH Sheer and murder him. On the 
night of Jwmahy the 13th of the month, Jam AUi Sheer, as usual, 
took boat and proceeded on the river ; when he was about to return to 
the city, these men rushed upon him with naked swords and slew him 
and his attendants, placing Jam Kirun on the throne. Alii Sheer 
reigned seven years. 

Jam Kirun Bin Jam Tumaehee. 

This man did not conciliate the nobles of the city, many of whom he 
imprisoned and punished. He was afterwards murdered at the instiga- 
tion of Futteh Khan and Bin Sikunder Khan, who usurped the throne. 

Jam Futteh Khan 
ruled with justice, and was renowned for his bravery and magnani- 
mity. He reigned for fifteen years and some months, when he died ; 
be bequeathed the throne to his brother Jam Tughluk Bin Sikunder 


Jam Tu^hluk, styled Jam Tugklfik Shah, 

He passed much of his time in hunting and traversing his domi- 
nions. The Belooehees in the neighbourhood of Bukher broke into 
rebeliioii, which Tughlnh put down. He reigned for twenty-eig)rt 
years, aac^ died. 

Jam Sihtmder, son ofFuUeh Khan, and nq}hew cf Tughlnh Shah. 

In the beginning of this reign a man named Moobtmh, a eonnecti9n 
of Tughhik Shah's, tried to usurp the sovereignty of the country, 
styling himself Jam Moobarih; but was deposed by the nobles, after 
a reign of three days. Sounder died after a reign of eighteen 

270 €f the early Hisiary of Sindh. [No. 1 1 2. 

Jam Raedueh, 
After the death of Sikunder^ this man came with a large force to 
Tatiah, disclaiming any intention of seizing the throne^ bat to offer 
protection to the Mussulmans, promising allegiance to whomaoever they 
should elect as Jam; not finding a fit person, they elected Raedyck 
himself to the sovereignty. In eighteen months he subdued the whole 
of Sindh to his authority. When he had reigned for a period of eight 
years and a half, Jam Sunfin usurped the sovereignty, and killed Jam 
Raedueh by putting poison in his wine cup. 

Jam Sunfin 
was a prince noted for his beauty and pleasing deportment* It 
was foretold him by a holy Durwesh that he should govern Sindh ; 
and on the death of Jam Raedueh^ he was universaUy elected to 
the throne. The country flourished under his rule, and was more 
prosperous than it had ever been under his predecessors. The soldiers 
and subjects were happy and at peace; he encouraged learned and 
holy men, and once a week gave alms to the poor. He reigned ^ht 
years, and died. 

Jam Nizam-uddeeUy better known as Jam Nundeh. 

In the year 866 h. 1461 a. t>. on the 25th of the month Rnbeh 
866 H. 1461 A. D. Ul'Uund ascended the throne ; he was well received 
by all classes, and became a powerful ruler. He was on terms of 
great intimacy with Sooltan Hassan Lankar, of MooUan, At the 
end of this reign. Shah Beg Urghoon sent a large army firom Eon' 
dahar^ which laid waste most of the places of Chundooheh and Syn- 
deecheh. Jam Nundeh prepared and dispatched a force to oppose 
this invasion ; the forces met at Dureh Rowuiy (known as Julogeer^) 
where a great battle was fought, in which the brother of Shah Beg 
was killed, and his troops defeated. They fled to Kandahar^ nor 
did they again molest Simi^ during the time of Jam Nundeh, He 
passed the rest of his life in the society of Moolahs, and died 
after a reign of forty-eight years. The country was at his death 
torn with dissensions and rebellion. 

Jam Feeroz, 

After the death of Jam Nundeh^ his son Jam Peeroz was a minor, 
and Jam Stdlahudeen, the grandson of Jam Sunjur, wished to usoip 

1841.] Of the early Bisiory rf SitM. 271 

the throne, but was prevented by JDurya KAan^ a relative and prime 
minister of Jam Feeroz^ aided by Sirkung Khan, The nobles of 
Tatiahy with one consent, placed Jam Feeraz upon the throne of his 
father. Jam Sullahudeen fled to Sookan Muzuffir of Ooqfraif who 
was his kinsman, and favoured his pretensions to the government of 
Sindh. Jam Feeroz being young and inexperienced, neglected his 
affairs, and his court was composed of the gay and licentious. He 
passed most of his time in the harem^ patronizing dancing girls and 
jesters. Durya Khan disgusted at his conduct, left the court, and 
went to his jhageer at Kahan, The afiairs of the country, were spee- 
dily in a state of utter confusion, and the nobles of Tatiah finding no 
longer any safety for the lives and property of themselves or fiunilies, 
wrote to the usurper, Sullahudeen^ to come and seize the throne. 
Sullahudeen shewed the letter which contained this intimation to 
MuzuffuT Khan^ who dispatched a force with the former, with which 
he marched, took Taitah, and proclaimed himself Jam, Jam Feeroz 
repenting of his errors, fled with his mother to Durya Khan at Kahan^ 
who levied troops from the tribes of Belooch^ and other men of the 
desert ; these joined with the armies of Bukkur and Seeostan^ suc>- 
ceeded in expelling SuUahudeen, and once more placed Feeroz upon 
the throne of TaUahy where he remained for some years, until the 
country ofSindh was invaded by Shah Beg Urghoony 926 h. 15 19, a. d. 
926 H. 1519 A. D. from which may be dated the termination of the 

Tenmnatioxi of the "* 

Soommah dynasty. Soommah dynasty in the government of that country. 

272 €fthe early HUtory qfSindh. [No. 1 12. 


Shah Beg Urghooi^-^BJA origin— Death of his father, ^jMcrZtiAioofi— becomes 
governor of Kandahar^^Baber Shah expels him from ZandoAar— he con- 
quers TaUah, and becomes master of <^md%— Reinstates Jam Feeroz as 
governor of Tattdh'-^uaakudem attempts to take Tattah^ is defeated— 
his death—revolt of the Dhareef 09 — punishment of that tribe— drives the 
Syud» fromBMl^tfr— massacre of the Bdooekeet^^eAih ofShah Beg Urghwm, 

Shah Beg Urghoan was the son of Zulnoan Urghoon^ Bin Meer 
Skah Beg Urghoon Bassan Bussein, a noble in the service of Sooiian 
-his origin. Hussein Mirza, of Kkorassan, who gave him the 

govwnment of the countries of Ghoor and Zameendawur. He had some 
difficulty in bringing the unruly inhabitants of the desert and the tribes 
otHizareh tohisauthority ; but after a war of about four years with these 
people, he completely subdued them ; and SooUan Hussein Mirza was 
so much pleased with his conduct, that he added the country of jKoa- 
d^iAar, and the provinces of iSAo^ Sitoonuk^ and Urghoan^ to his rule. 

His power increasing, SooUan Hussein Mirza became jealous, and 
summoned Ameer Zuinoon to his presence, where he detained him 
under trifling excuses for some time. During his stay at that court, he 
formed a firm finendship with Budeh Ul Zerman Mirza^ a noUe^ 
and relative of the king. Being at length disgusted with the 
delays and subterfuges used to detain him, he effected his escape 
to Kandahar, where he proclaimed himself independent He was 
here joined by Budeh Ul Zuman Mirza^ who had quarrelled with 
the kiug^ (SooUan Hussein,) Ameer Zuinoon married his daughter, 
thus strengthening the bonds of andty between them. After some time 
peace was concluded between these two chiefs and SooUan Hussein 
Mirza* Ameer Zuinoon met his death in attempting to resbt an 
Death of ilm€er invasion under Mahomed Khan Shibanee Uzbeek. 
ZuXmon, He left two sons, Shah Beg and Mahomed Muhim ; 

the former by the consent of the nobles, succeeded his &ther as 

Shah Beg governor g<>^e™<>' ®^ Kandahar ; he confirmed aU the app(Mnt- 
of Kandahar. ments held under his father Ameer Zufnoon^ was 

wise, brave, and generous, patronizing learned men. 

When Mahomed Khan Shibanee had conquered Kharassan he me- 
ditated an attack upon Komdahar, but Shah Beg sent ambassadors 

1841.] OfAe early History of Sindh. 273 

to him, with letters of subminion and presents ; he struck his image 
apon the coin, and begged permission himself to wait upon him. Maho- 
med Khan waived this ceremony, and being pleased with the conduct 
of Shah Beg and his brother, honoured their ambassadors, and dismissed 
them with diesses of honour, horses, tents, kc, for the two princes. 
In the year 923 h., 1517 a.d. Baber Shah came from Cabool 

and Ghuznein* to conquer Kandahar: the brothers 

923 H., 1517 A.D. ^ A A' A. *u • 

were overpowered, and driven from their country, 
their father^s treasury was pillaged, and a daughter of Mahomed 
Mukim {Shah Begum^ she married Kassim Koheh, who was killed in 
the wars of the Vzhechs) was taken to Cabooi, Baber Shah left his 
brother, SooUan Nasir-ud-deen^ as governor of Kandahar. The bro- 
thers afterwards collected a large force, and retook Kandahar, (About 
this time Mahomed Mukim died.) Baber Shah, however, continued 
to invade Shah Beg\ country, who was at length obliged to abandon 
„ , ^^ , the possession of it, and having for some time 

Baher Shah ex- '^ ^ o 

]pe\aShahBefftniak contemplated the conquest of Sindh, even as far 

back as the time of Jam Mundeh, he prepared 
an army, and in the year 926 h. 1519 a.d., on the 11 (h of the 
month Mohurrum, crossed the river opposite Tattah. The army of 
Jam Feeroz under Durya Khan was routed, the latter taken, and Tattah 
fell to the arms of Shah Beg. He permitted his troops to pillage the 
city for nine days, the inhabitants being exposed to the licentiousness 
of the soldiery during that period ; on the intercession of Hqfiz Maho- 
med Shurreef it was stopped. 

Jam Feeroz leaving his family in Tattah fled to Peerar, whence he 
sent messages of submission to Shc^ Beg ; this latter not only treated 
him with the greatest kindness, but after settling the affiurs of Tattah 

R * tate J F - ^PP^^°^^ ^™ ^^ governor, placing one-half of the 
roM as governor of whole province of Sindh, viz. from Lukie^ (which 

is near Sehwan,) to Tattah under his dominion ; 
from Luhie higher up, he delegated to his own servants. 

When he had settled the affairs of Tattah he proceeded to Siemer^ 
Sutahmdeen attempts but the usurper SnUakudeen, (who had before driven 

Jam Feeroz from the throne,) having collected a 
large force, threatened Tattah. Shah Beg sent a body of troops under 
his son Mirza Shah Hussein to reinforce Jam Feeroz. 

274 Cfihe earfy Hisitny o/ Sindk. [No. 1 12. 

SuUahudeen retreated bat was pursued, and his troops overthrown ; 
His defeat and ^ ^°' B^bui Khan , being killed. This affliction 

^®^* rendered the lather desperate, and he also met his 

death in the same campaign, in an attack upon the Moffkuls, 

At this time SooUan Makmaud Khany governor of Bukkuty wrote 
to Shah Beg^ who had taken up his residence at BagKbanany that the 
Revolt of the ^^ ^ Dhore^os were in a state of rebellion, re- 

Dhareejas. fusing to pay their taxes, and ill-treating the servanU 

of Shah Befff who were sent to collect them ; and that but for the 
fidelity of the ^lytMif , who had assbtedlfoAfiiotMfiClafi in repelling their 
at^ck% Buhhur must have fallen into the power of those insurgents. 

Shah Beg on hearing this, came himself to the ndghbourhood of 
Buhhur^ where he ordered the Dart^cu to be punished. 

Mahmoud Khan with the cruelty for which he was remarkable, cut off 

Pimialimeiit of the heads of about 60 of these people and threw them 

e^as. fiQf^ the walls of the fort, as a warning to the others. 

The Syudsy who for many years possessed great power in Buhhur^ 
excited the jealousy of S^ah Beg, He removed them from the fort of 
Drives the Syudt Bukkur to a place outside the walls, caUed LohMrrg. 
fnmBuikur. g^^ ^ himself visited the fort, and directed a 

wall to be erected round it, with bricks from the ruins of Ahr. 
The buildings in the vicinity of Buhhur belonging to the Tories and 
men of Soamnuth he also destroyed, employing the materials for the 
same purpose. At that time the fort was surrounded by water. 

Having settled the afikirs of Buhhur^ Shah Beg turned his attention 
to the tribe of BeelooeheeSy who were in rebellion ; this he quelled by a 
Massacre of the general slaughter of the tribe wherever they ooold 
Beioockes. ^ found. In for^-two towns and villages these 

people were put to the sword. 

Shah Beg after this contemplated extending his power to Gotgrai; 
but hearing that Baber Shah had occupied Kooshaby intending to con- 
quer Hindosian, he became thoughtful, and assured his followers that 
he was convinced, Baber Shah would not let him retain the conqoeBt 
of Sindhy but would drive him and his family from all their poones 
sions. A settled melancholy took possession of Shah Begy and on the 
Death of Shah Beg 28th of the month Shuba^y in the year 928 h. 152i 

UrghooH, 928 h. ^ j 

1521 A. D. A. ]>. he died, after a stormy reign in Sindh of two 

1 84L] Of the early History of Sindh. 275 

years. His remains were taken to Bukkur, and thence to Mecca, 
where his son. Shah Hussein, erected a dome over them. 


Mirza Shah Hussein Urghoon succeeded his father Shah Beg — conquers Moolr 
tan — ogives that country to Baber Shah — marches to Kutch — defeats 
Kwngar — Humayun Padshah comes to Svndh — appoints Yad Gar Nasir 
to the fort of Bukkur — Shah Hussein brings Yad Gar over to his inter- 
ests — Peace proclaimed between Shah Hussein and Humayun — The 
latter leaves Sindh — Yad Gar quits Bukkur — Sindh again reverts to 
Shah Hussein — ^he protects Kamran Mirza — death of the latter, and affec- 
tion of his wife — death of Mirza Shah Hussein — and termination of the 
dynasty of Urghoon, 

Mirza Shah Hussein Urghoon succeeded his father Shah Bey in 

MirzaShahHussem ^^® government of Sindh. His first act was to 
succeeds his father, ^^^i j^^ Feeroz, who had rebelled, from the 

government of Tattah, This latter collected a large force, but was 
completely overthrown, and fled to Goojrat, where he died. 

Shah Hussein acknowledged fealty to the power of Delhi, and 
caused the oration delivered on the installation of a prince (hhootbeh) to 
be read in the name of Baber Shah, instead of his own. He took up 
his residence at Tuyhluhabad, near Tattah, Some rebellious amongst 
the tribes of the Beloochees at Oobareh and men of Dihir being put 
down by the sword, ShcA Hussein turned his attention to the con- 
quest of Mooltan, In the year 931 h. 1524 a. d. he reached the fort 

of Sewrae, which he took and destroyed. He then 
proceeded to the fort of Moos, near Kootah, the 
governor of which, Sheikh Rohillah, proffered submission ; 500 horse, 
under Mohib-i'Tukhan, were dispatched in advance to MooUan, 
and Shcth Hussein followed to Oocheh, This fort he besieged, and 
although the troops of Mahmood Lanhar, governor of MooUan, made a 
brave resistance, the fort was taken, and a general massacre followed. 
At the intercession of some holy men the slaughter was stayed, 
but the fort was levelled to the ground, and the gates and other mate- 
rials placed in boats and conveyed to Bukkur. When Mahmood 

2 M 

276 Of the early HisUny ef Sindh. [No. 1 12. 

Lankar heard of the fall of Oochek, he inarched to attack Shah HtU" 
seifiy but shortly after met his death by poison. He was succeeded by 
his son, Hussein Lankavy who was a minor. 

Mirzah Shah Hussein closely besi^ed the fort of MooUan ; the 
Takes the fort of MooUan. siege lasted for a year, and is described as 
having been attended with all the horrors of famine; one ox's head sold 
in MooUan for 100 tanhah, one maund of wheat 100 tankah. The 
inhabitants principally subsisted upon the skins of oxen ; dogs and cats 
were esteemed as great delicacies in MooUan^ as huhoah (sweetmeat). 
Many of the wretched inhabitants threw themselves from the walls 
and sought protection from Mirza Shah Hussein, 

At length the fort was taken, a general massacre ensued of all 
males from the age of seven to seventy, and lasted twelve days. When 
the rage of Shah Hussein had somewhat abated, he stayed this inhu- 
man slaughter, and spared the lives of the survivors. 

Hussein Lankar, the prince of MooUan, was captured, and after a 
stay of ten months, during which period he employed himself in strip- 
ping all the nobles and followers of Mahmood Lankar of their property, 
and imprisoning others, Mirza Shah Hussein returned to Bukkur, 
leaving Khafee Shumsudeen and Dost Meer at Khor with 200 horse, 100 
infantry, and 100 artillery to garrison MooUan, He had only arrived 
at Bukkur a short time, however, when he received intelligence of the 
revolt of the governor of MooUan, who had gone over to Baber Shah; 

GivesAfooftantoHfl- ^^^ ^^^8 *^ ***® ^™® ^""® apprised of an attack in 
her Shah. another quarter of his dominions, at Taitak, he 

preferred presenting the country of MooUan to Bdber Shah, as he 
found its government more than he could manage. The noblee of 
TaUah on the arrival of Mirza Shah Hussein at Bukkur, had in- 
formed him that Kungar was collecting a force to attack Tattdh. 
On receiving this intelligence, he immediately proceeded to that 

place, and before the arrival of Kungar, marched 
to attack him. When he arrived near the eoontiy 
of Kutch, his army suffered much for want of grain ; but Kungar^s 
army shortly after was overthrown, and the country pillaged by 
Skah Hussein of flocks, herds, and property of every de8<^ptioB, 
and the inhabitants of every city, town, and village put to the 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 277 

In the year 947 h. 1540 a. d., Bumayun Padshah^ attended by 

Mahmaud Kamran Mirza, being driven out of Hind 
Humayun comes *o 
8mdk, 947 h. 154U, by Sheer Khan, came to Lahore with the intention 

of making an incursion upon Sindh, on the 13 th of 
Eamazan. In the above year he halted with his force at Paburloo, in 
the neighbourhood of Buhkur. Sooltan Makmood, governor of the fort, 
laid waste the surrounding country, anchored the boats under the walls 
of the fort, and prepared for a vigorous defence. Humayun summoned 
him to surrender, but he refused ; the Padshah*s servants, however, ma- 
naged to trifle with Mahmoud; and he sent 600 hhirwars of grain to 
HumayuiCs camp. / This latter finding his army suffer much for 
want of supplies, wrote in friendly terms to Mirza Shah Hussein to 
come to him at Buhhur ; but after waiting for five or six months in 
expectation of seeing him, he was disappointed, for Shah Hussein 
evaded the interview, and cut off all supplies from the Padshah's 
camp. This, coupled with the swells of the river, occasioned great 
suffering amongst his troops, and desertions became frequent. He pro- 
Appoints Yad Oar c^^ded to Seeoostan, leaving the siege of Bukkur in 
^tasir to Bukkur. ^j^g j^^nds of Yad Gar Nasir, who took the fort. 
At this period, Mirza Shah Hussein wrote to Yad Gar Nasir, offer- 
ing terms of friendship, promising him his daughter in marriage, and 
Brines Yad Oar to ^^ secure him the kingdom of Sindh after his 
his interests. f Shah Hussein'sJ death; enticed by these promises 

Yad Gar Nasir threw off his allegiance to the Padshah Humayun. 

Humayun on hearing this, immediately returned to the neighbour- 
hood of Buhkur, where he summoned Yad Gar to his presence — ^he 
obeyed the order. 

Through the intervention of Benam Khan, who came from Goqfrat 
Peace between the to the service of the Padshah, peace was declared 
Shah Hussein. between him and Mirza Shah Hussein, 

Humayun agreed to leave Sindh, on condition of receiving 100,000 
tniskals in money, and all the necessaries for his army to Kandahar, 
300 horses, 300 camels, &c. This demand was acceded to, and with 
peat rejoicings and promises of friendship, the Sindhians witnessed 
the passage of the river by the Padshah's army, at a place caUed Joan, 
Humayun leaves where a bridge had been erected on the 7th of the 
A. D. month Ruheh ul Uwul, in the year 951 h. 1544 a. d. 

278 Of the early HisUny ^ Sindh, [No. 1 12. 

Shah Hussein after this, evaded the promise of giving his daughter 
Tad Gar guUs in marriage to Yad Gar Nasity who left the coon- 

Sg^^i^^^h ^y» *"^ ^^® P®^®' ^ '^•'^ reverted solely to 
Hussein. Mirza Shah Hussein^ who appointed Meer Shah 

Mahmoud Urghoon governor of Bukhur, 

Kamran Mirza being in rebellion with Humayun Padshahy son of 

„ .,. Baber Shah, fled to Sindh. and sought protection 

Kamran Mtrza. ^ -» -© r 

from Mirza Shah HussHfiy whose daughter, Joiryik 
Begumy he had previously married. Shah Hussein appointed him 
for a residence the place called Shuhperlahy on the river to the west 
of BuhkuTy with the purgunnah of BuUhoora for the expences inci- 
dental to his household. But Kamran Mirza determined to make a 
pilgrimage to Mecca, and there end his days. Shah Hussein tried to 
prevent his daughter accompanying him; but her conjugal affec- 
tion resisted all his persuasions to effect a separation. She observed to 
her father : ^* that he had given her to Kamran Mirza for wife when 
the latter was a powerful prince, and now that misfortunes had assail- 
ed him, he wished to separate them ; but that while they lived she 
would never desert her husband." Shah Hussein finding threats and 
intreaties alike unavailing, gave them every necessary for their joor- 

His death 964 h. « ney, and Kamran Mirza died at Mecca in the year 
1556 a. d. 964 H. 1556 A. D. His faithful wife only survived 

him a few months. 

Mirza Shah Hussein in the latter days of his life became very 
infirm, and suffered much from palsy, from which disease he sought 
relief in intoxication, and dissipated men began to assume an ascen- 
dancy at his court. The men of Urghoon and Tirhhan being dissatis- 
fied, collected round Mirza Eessan Tirhhany governor of Tattahy and 
in the year 962 h. 1554 a. d. broke into open insurrection. Shah 
Hussein sent Mahmoudy governor of Bukhury to quell this rebellion ; 
but he privately made terms with Mirza Eessan Tirhany by which 
after the death of Shc^ Hussein, (an event they plainly saw was £ut 
approaching,) they should divide the government of Sindh between 

Mirza Shah Hussein died on Monday on the 15th of Hubeh-ul- 

mSse^!m^lf^ ^"^ *" ^**® *^^® y®^' ^"8 ^^ ^ road to 
A* D. Seeoosiany (where, by the advice of his physician, he 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 279 

was proceediog,) at a place called AUipaotreh. He reigned 34 years, 
and his remains were conveyed to Meecoy where they were buried 
near those of his father, Shah Beg. His death dosed the dynasty of 

it/trasa Eessan Ttrkhan — dissensions between him and Mahmoud Khan of 
Bvkkur — Tattah fired and pillaged by the Portuguese — ^peace concluded be- 
tween Mvrza Eessan and Mahmoud Khan — brief history of the former dis- 
sensions between his sons— death of Mirza Eessan — succeeded by his son 
Mirza Mahomed Bakee — at enmity with Mahmoud Khan — origin of the lat- 
ter — Mahomed Boitee— opposed by his brother, Khan Baber — ^is murdered 
by Mahomed Bakee — Akhar Padshah sends Mohib Ally Khan to besiege Buk- 
kur — Mahomed Bakee' s a submission to the^^o^^-death of Mahmoud Khan — 
Bukkur becomes a jahgeer of the kingdom of Delhi — Mirza Mahomed 
Bakee destroys himself. 

Mriza Eessan Tirkhan. 
A year after the death of Shah Hussein, rivalry and dissension arose 
963 H. 1&55 A. D. between Mirza Eessan Tirhhan, governor of Tattah. 

Dissensions with. 

SooUan Mahmoud. and SooUan Mahmoud^ governor of Bukkur; the 
pretensions of the former being favoured by the men of Urghoon and 
Tirkhan. Mirza Eessan marched to attack Bukkur, in which 
fort Mahmoud entrenched himself, and was besieged for 15 days ; but at 
this time intelligence reached the former, that the Portuguese merce- 
. .,, naries, whom he had left at Tattahy had set fire 

Tattah fired and pillag- 
ed by the Porlv^M. to, and pillaged that city, he inmiediately raised 

the siege, and returned to Tatted, Mahmoud pursued him as far as 
Seeoostany the country in the vicinity of which he laid waste. On his 
arrival at Tattah, Mirza Eessan learnt that the Portuguese hearing 
of his approach, had decamped ; he repaired the walls of the city, and 
built a small fort to command the creek. After other engagements 
between Mirza Eessan and Mah$naud, peace was concluded be- 
tween them ; the forces of the Mirza retumibg to 

Peace concluded W' 

twBea Mirza Bessan Tattah, and those oi Mahmoud to Bukkur, which 

' places they occupied, and continued to divide the 
government of the country between them. Mirza Eessan Tirkhan 
History of Mirza is described as having been educated by Shah Beg, 
Eessan, .^ whose service and that of his son, he attained the 

280 Of tht early HUtary cf Sindh. [No. 112. 

rank of ameers and on the death of the latter, succeeded to the go- 
vernment of TaUah. He was a good and mercifiil man, noted for his 
courage and eneigy. Two of his sons, Mirza Mahmaud Bakee, and 
Mirza Mahomed Taleb were at enmity ; the latter being favoured by 
his father, defeated Mahomed Bakee^ who fled to Bukkur and sought 
protection from Mahmoud. Mahomed SaUh was shortly afterwards 
murdered by a Beloochee^ who had sworn not to wear his turban, until 
he had revenged himself for some injury committed upon his Cither 
and family. 

Mahmoud interceded with Mirza Eessan for the forgiveness of Maho- 
med Bakee who returned to TaUahy and was kindly received; but 
Death of Mr^^ai^a- ^*^'^ Eessan before his death, which happened in 
'^^ the year 974 h. 1666, a. d. wished to settle the suc- 

cession upon his youngest son. Khan Baber^ as he considered Maho- 
med Bakee of too tyrannical a disposition to rule. 

Mirza Mahomed Bakee Tirhhan 

succeeded his father, Mirza Eessan Tirhhan as governor of Tattaht 
and like him continued alternately at peace and war with Mahmoud 
Khan^ governor of BiMur. A brief account of the career of this 
man, who for nineteen years divided the government of Sindh, with 
two of the rulers of Tirhhan, will not be out of fdace in this part of 
the history. 

Mahmoud Khan was the son of Meer Paxil Kuhultash, in the 8e^ 

vice of Meer Zulnoon ; his fore&thers were residents 
Origin of AfaAmoud of Ispahan. Meer Fazil had five wives, by each of 

Khun, * 

whom he had a son. Mahmioud!s mother was an Aj- 
ghaun. At the early age of fourteen he gave promise of great courage, 
and attracted the attention of jSAoA Beg, who took him into his aet- 
vice ; he accompanied him in the Sindh campaign, where he distinguish- 
ed himself above all the nobles of Shah Be^s army ; he subsequently be- 
came a governed of Buhhur during the time of Mirza Shah ffusseiH, 
whom he futhfully served, until he leagued with Mirza Eessan Tir* 
hhan to divide the government of the country between them after 
Shah Hussein's death. The history of these proceedings, and the fends 
and jealousies which arose between these chiefs, have been related, till 
the acces8ions>f Mirza Bakee, 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 281 

Mirza Mahomed Bahee was opposed by his youngest brother, Khan 

Baber^ who aspired to the government of the coun- 
opposed by h^ %tO' ^* ^^ procured assistance from Mahmaud Khan^ 
ther Khan Sober. ^^ attempted an attack upon TaUah, in which he 

failed ; he was afterwards treacherously murdered by his brother, who 
proved himself, as his father had predicted, a great tyrant. Hearing 

that Akbar Padshah had arrived at Lahore^ and 

sends his servante to ^^^ dispatched Mohih Ally Khan and Mujahid 
con<inet Bukkur, gj^^ ^^ BukhuTy where they besieged Mahmaud 

Khan, and fearing for the safety of his own possessions at Tattah, 
he sent letters, acknowledging his fealty to Akbar^ and according to 
some historians, even sent his daughter, for the service of the king's 

Mahmoud Khan endured a close and harassing siege, during which 
the garrison suffered from pestilence and famine. In the year 982 tf. 

1574 A. D., he began to suffer firom dropsy, and wrote 

982 H. 1574 A.D. ^xi »»..». J . 1 « .1 

to the Padshah to send some one to whom he might 

deliver over the fort of Buhhur^ which MohUf AUy Khan had not yet 
taken. The Padshah Akbar dispatched Kessoo Khan; but Mahmaud 
Death of Mahmoud ^^ before his arrival at Btihkur, on Saturday the 
-*^^»»- 8th of the month Svfur in the above year. 

From this date Bukkur became a Jahgeer of the power at Delhi, 
and various rulers were sent to govern it. Mirza Mahomed Bakee be- 
came insane ; at least the deeds of cruelty he committed were so 
enormous, that they can only be ascribed to madness. The loss of a 

Mirjga Mahomed Ba-^^^^^^^ ®®°' ('^^^ -RooM,) increased his malady, 
itetf destroys himself, and he destroyed himself by rushing on his own 
993 H. 1585 A.D. sword. He died in the year 993 h. 1583 a. d. after a 
rale of 19 years. His eldest son, Pabundah Bey, inheriting the malady 
of the father, was declared incapable of governing, and the power des- 
cended to the son of Pahbundeh and grandson of Mirza Bahee. 

282 Of the early BiHory of Sindh, [No. 1 12. 


MWza Janee Beg Tirkhan — AlAar sends Khan Khanan to iSindA— si^e of 
Schwan — defeat of the war boats — siege of Bohurry — destruction of Tat- 
tah — Janee Beg treats for peace — ^peace concluded — Janee Beg accompanies 
Khan Khanan to the presence — Akbar Padshah honours Janee Beg — death 
of Janee Beg — Sindh becomes a dependency of the throne of Delhi— 
Mirza Ghaxie Beg Tirkhan — ^revolt of Abul Caesm — ^the Padthah sends for 
Ghazee Beg — ^he proceeds to Agra — additional power — ^repairs to Kandahar^ 
where he is murdered — his generosity — ^rulers deputed by the BeHd 
sovereigns of the family of Timoor until the accession of the JToJorMM— their 
rule — accession of the Talpooras, 

Mirza Janee Beg Tirkhan. 
His first act was to punish with studied cruelty, the accused mur- 
derers of the late Mirza, His uncle Muzuffir Khan disgusted at his 
conduct, collected a force to attack TaUah, ; but was defeated. BuOmr, 
as was before mentioned, after the death of Mahmaud Khany became a 
999 H 1590 A D dependency of the kingdom of DeUd^ in the year 

KhanKhananwiit 999 h. 1590 a. d. Ahbar Shah gave it as a jahgm 
if} Sindh. r> j -v 

to Khan Khanan^ with orders to reduce the governor 
of TaWik (Janee Beg^) also to his authority. 

The Shah had previously written to Janee Beg to come to the pre- 
sence, and proffer allegiance, a performance of which order the latter 
evaded. Khan Khanan first determined to take the fort of Sekr 
ran, as it commianded the passage of the river, and then march to 
attack Tattah. He had, however, scarcely commenced the siege, when 
intelligence reached him of the march of Janee Beg, with a countless 
army, to the relief of the fort* Khan Khanan raised the siege of Seh- 
wan, and proceeded to meet Janee Beg, who at a place called Bohurry^ 
(higher up than Nussurpoar,) had thrown up a fort, and strengthened his 
position. When Khan Khanan arrived within six hass of that places 
he learnt that Janee Beg had 300 war boats with him, commanded by 
Khusroo Khan and other nobles. 

Khan Khanan threw up five or six small mud forts, which he 

mounted with guns, on the bank of the river, commanding the passage 

of the boats. On a night of the month Shuwal, 999. h. 1590 a. d. the 

Ascent of the war action commenced, the shot striking the iS'tndAttiA 

boats. boats, threw them into confusion ; eight or nine were 

1841.] Of the early History of Sindh. 283 

captuied and their crews slaughtered. In the morning the boats of 
Mirxa Johm^ conomumded by Ehu9roo Kkan^ finding the passage 
of the river in the face kA the guns impracticable, retreated^ but 
were pursued by the Khan^s boats, and although Khutroo Khan 
behaved well, and shewed good generalship, many of his fleet were ta- 
ken, and the Portuguese mercenaries and other soldiers slaughtered. 
In. short;, Janee Beg was defeated and retreated to Bohurry^ where he 

was invested by Khan Khanan. From this place he 
D^tauetion of wrote to his s<m at Tattah to destroy that city ; it 

was fired in various places, and in a month was a 
complete ruin, and the country laid waste : this was done with the in- 
tention of annoying the^invaders. Repeated engagements ensued^ in 
which Janee Beg^s forces were always worsted ; he was driven firom one 
stronghold to another, his last stand being at Oonurpotm. Here Khan 
KAanan came himself and Jsmm Beg was closely besieged ; finding 

his soldiers snfier, and all his efforts to repel the 
Janee Beg treats Khmis army unavailing, he at last sued for peace, 

promising to surrender thirty boats and the fort 
of Sehwan^ intreating permission at the same time, to be allowed to 
proceed to Tattah^ where he would see Khan Khanan^ and settle 
'Other preliminaries. This indulgence was granted by the Khan con- 
trary to die advice of his nobles, who represented that Janee Beg 
_ , , , wished only to gain time in order to collect fresh 

Peace concluded. w. w5-» 

troops ( but Khan Khanan confident in his power 
to crush Janee Beg^ and anxious to avoid the useless waste of life, 
which a protraction of the war would occasion, acceded to the terms 
ofiered by the Mirza, The two chiefs afterwards met at a place call- 
ed FtiMbaghf where they displayed every mark of friendship and 
consideration towards each other. Khan Khanan proceeded to TaJL- 
tah, the afiairs of which place he settled, leaving DowhU Khan and 
Khawgeh Mukim to preserve the Shah's authority. Khan Khanan 
having expressed a desire to behold the sea, embarked with Janee Beg 
Accompanies Khan ** ^^ P^'^ ®^ Lahurry ; after a short excursion they 
Khanan to Agra. returned, and in obedience to orders, proceeded to 
the presence ofAhbar Shahf where they arrived in the month of Jvana- 
1001 H. 1592 A. D. dee-uUSaneey in the year of the h. 1001, a. d. 1592. 

Akbar Padshah honoured Janee Beg^ making him 


284 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. 112. 

a commander of five thousand, and styling him Khutroo Shah; he 

treated him with every demonstration of kindness. 
1008 H. 1599 A. D. 

In the year 1008 h. 1599 a. d. when the kingmarcbi- 

ed to the Deccan^ and took the forts of Ahmednuggur, Ookkh, and 

^. , ^. „ Asserghur, Mirza Janee Beg died of phrenzy. He 

Dies, and Smdh ^ » y r ^ 

ceases to be an inde- was burled at Tottah^ and his son Mirza Ghazee 

succeeded him in die government of the country. 
.From this date, the whole of the country of Sindh became a de- 
pendency of the kingdom of Delhi, and ceased to be an indepen- 
dent government. The rule of the tribe of Tirkhan* embraces a pe- 
jiod of 39 years. 

Mirza Ghazee Beg Tirkhan 

after the death of his father, by order of the Padshah, succeeded 
to the government of the country of Sindh, He was young, but at the 
beginning of his rule shewed all the vigour and ability of riper years. 
He replenished the treasury and resources of the country, which daring 
his father's reign had been squandered and allowed to go to nuD. 
Revolt of Abool Abool Cassim, son of Shah Cassim Khan Urghoonf 
^^^' (who for years possessed Nussurpore and during the 

life of Mirza Janee also had N^runhote^) rose in rebellion against 
Mirza Ghazee Beg, and having plundered some merchants who were 
travelling from TaXtah, the Mirza wrote to him for an explanation of 
the outrage, to which he received an offensive reply. Ghazee Beg 
thereupon marched a force to Nusserpore, but by the intervention of 
the father, {Shah Cassim Khan,) peace was concluded between his 
son and Ghazee Beg. The latter being afraid of the power of Abool 
Cassim, caught him by stratagem, put out his eyes, and made him 
prisoner. At this time, ambassadors arrived from Ahbar Padshah^ 
The Padshah sends *® Summon Ghazee Beg to his presence ; but he 
for Ghazee Beg. excused himself, as the affairs of the country yet 
required much of his attention. In two years after his father's death 
things were in a prosperous state. The unfortunate Abool Cassim, 
aided by Jaffer Khan, attempted to escape, but was recaptured, and 
the latter killed. Again intelligence was received at Tattah that the 
Padshah being impatient, had dispatched the Nuwab Syud Khan, 

* i. e. As independent governors. 

1841.] Of the earfy History of Sindh. 285 

with orders to bring the Mirza to the presence ; some of the nobles 
expressed a desire to rebel against the PadshaXs authority, and only 
regretted tiieir want of means to assemble a force for that purpose. 
Ghazee Begz prudence, however, silenced their ambitious projects, 
Proceeds to Agra and before the arrival of Syud Khan^ he started 
for Agr€h and met the latter at Bukker^ from whence they proceeded 
together, and arrived at Agra in the year 1013 h., 1604 a* d. 

Mirza Ghazee was honoured* and treated with the same consider- 
ation which marked his father's stay at the royal court* The country 
of Sindh was declared to be ^jahgeer^ and bestowed upon him. On 
the accession of Shah Jahangivy 1014 h. 1605 a. d. the government 
of the country of Kandahar^ part of MooUan, and the fort of Sehwan 
Additional power, were added to his authority, with additional rank. 
The affidrs of Kandahar requiring his attention, he proceeded to that 
He^aiis to Kanda- country, appointing Khtisroo Khatiy governor of 
*^* Tattah during his absence. This man appropriated 

the revenues to his private purposes, which being reported to Ghazee 
Begy he sent Hindoo Khan to supersede him, and to take the manage- 
ment of affairs in his stead. Mirza Ghazee in the very height of 
. .1/^. his fame and prosperity was murdered by a slave 

Is murdered 1021 , , , ^, , r /. . i 

H. 1612 A. D. of his own household, named Abool Lutteef m the 

year 1021 H. 1612 a. d. He left a great name behind him for gene- 
rosity and bravery, and in his praise, is the following couplet : — 

<* Alas ! a rose has been scattered by a slave." 

It is reported of him that he gave all his money to his subjects, and 

although he had the revenues of Sindh, Kandahar 
His generosity. ' 

and part of Mooltan, he was always poor. His mi- 
nister of finance once represented to him that his accounts, which 
had not been inspected for six months, were in confusion, ai%d that 
he had not the means of providing for the MirzcCs household expen- 
ces. Ghazee Beg tore the paper which was presented in pieces, say- 
ing : '* that for himself Grod would provide him with food ; but the 
public money was alone the property of the subject." 

* Jaluxngtr even asked him his advice 83 to the measures he might pursue with 
his son KhusroOf then in rebellion; this is mentioned as a proof of the esteem in which 
the Emperor held him. 

286 Cf the early Hisimy of Sindli. [No. 1 12. 

His remains were brought to Tatk^ and interred near those of his 
father. After his death the Delhi kings, from the time of Jahanigir 
until the accession of the Kaloras, sent various nobles as deputies to 
rule in that country. 

Mirza Rushtm 
was deputed by Jahangift after the death of Gkazee Beff, to pro- 

D 1 A 4 AX. ceed to Taiiah as governor of Sindh ; he had before 

Rulers deputed by o * 

the Delhi sof ereiffils been covernor of Ziumeendarwar and Mooltan during 

of the family of Ti- ® ° 

moor, until the acces- the time of Akbar Padshah. It is said that Jahangir 

aion of the Kalaras. , . t ,, - ^rv^ ■ « « « 

sent with him 5,000 horse, and two lacs of rupees 
to assist him in replenishing the treasury, and settling the affiiirs of 
the country ; but he proved himself unfit to govern, and was dismiss- 
ed. He was succeeded by Moosty Khan, also dismissed ; he by Meer 
Bayeozzeed, 1028 h. 1618 a. d., who had been formerly Fat^dard 
1028 H. 1618. A. D. Bukkur. After him Nuwab Shurf-td^Mulk, in the 
year 1035 h. 1625 a. d. During his time, the son of Jahangir* beiog 
in rebellion, came to Tattc^ where he wished to reside, but Skuff-vl- 
Mulk opposed him and some conflicts ensued. 

Mirza Eesmn Tirhhan, tan of Khan Baber, and grandson cf the 

former governor of the same name. 

He was concerned with Abool Cassimy in the revolt against Mirza 
Ghazee Beg, and after the capture of the former, entered the service 
of Jahangir, who honoured him ; and in reward for various services 
performed, made him a conmiander of 4,000 horse, and in the year 
1037 H. 1627 A. D.^ (the last of the reign and life of Jahangir,) he 
was appointed governor of Tattah, in which situation he died, duriog 
the reign of Shah Jehan. 

Nuwab Ameer Khan. 
In the beginning of his rule he had some diffisrences with the Uf 
meendars, but he settled the affairs of the country, and was a good sod 
just man. So little of interest is recorded in the histories of the 
succeeding governors, that it will be sufficient to mention them is 
chronological order :— - 

* Probably Khurrum Khan, afterwards Shah Jehan, who rebelled against his 
father in 1624 a. d. 


Of the early History of Sindh, 


Dat^ itf Accession, 
6th. Murab MuzufTair Khan, not known. 

7th. Syad Ibrahun, 

8th. Jafor Khan, 
9th. EabadKhan, 


1057 H. 1647 A. D. 

1063 H. 1652 A. D. 
1069 H. 1658 A. D. 

Daring this 
role Aurtunff' 
zehe mounted 
the throne. 

10th. NuwabLashk&T Khan, ... 1071 h. 1660 a. d. 


11th. OhoEUnfur Khan, 

12th. Syud Izut Khan, 

13thi Abod Nosrat Khan, 

14th. Sahadat Khan» 

15th. Syud Izut Kban, 

16th. Khan Zad Khan, 

I7th. Sirdar Khan, 

18th. Moreed Khan, 

19th. Zaburdust Khan, 

20Ui. Aboo Nusrut Khan, ... 

21st Ifuz Ali Khan, 

22d. Saheed Khan, 

23d. Ameer-ud-deen Khan, ... 

24th. Yuzuf Khan, 

1075 H. 1664 A. D. 
1080 H. 1669 A. D. 
1082 H. 1671 A. D. 

1084 H. 1673 A. D. 
1090 H. 1679 A. D. 
1095 H. 1683 A. D. 
1099 H. 1687 A. D. 

1101 H. 1689 A. D. 
1103 H. 1691 A. D. 

1113 H. 1701 A. D. 

1114 H. 1702 A. D. 

1115 H. 1703 a. D. 

25th. Ahmed Tar Khan, 

1116 H. 1704 a. d.^ 

f During this 
died, 1118 H. 
and was suc- 
ceeded by £a- 

[,hadur Shah. 

26th. Nuwab Saheed Khan, ... 
27th. Nuwab Moheen Khan, ... 

1119 H. 1707 A. D. 
1121 H. 1709 A. D. 

28th. Nuwab Maheen Khan ... 1123 h. 1711 a. d. 

9 CBahadoor 

29th. Nuwab Shakir Khan, ... 1124 h. 1712 a. d. { Shah died 

(1124 H. 

30th» KhwijaKuUeelKhan, ... not kAdwn. 

31 St. Attar Khan, ... 




32nd. Lootuf Ali Khan, 

.4 . 



33rd. Shoojat Ali Khan, 

.* . 



288 Of the early History of Sindh. [No. 1 12. 

34th. Nuwab Azim Khan, ... 1128 h. 1715 a. d. 

35th. Mohabut Khan, 1132 h. 1719 a. d. 

36th. Sooltan Mahomoad Khan, not known. 
37th. Serf Ullah Khan, ... „ ,> 

38th. DileerdU Khan, 1143 h. 1730 a. d. 

39th. Hinunut Dileer Khan, ... „ „ 

The above appear to have been Sobadhars who £urmed the revenue, 
at the same time exercising all the functions of governors. The last 
of these mentioned as preceding the KalorctSy is Sadik AUi^Khan, 
who abandoned his contract from inability to perform it, and it was 

taken up by Noor Mahomed Ubbcueer Kalora, son of 
NiHrr Mahomed Yar Mahomed in the year 1 1 49 H. 1736 a. d. He was 
family who ruled the first of the family invested with power as a ruler 
1149 H. 1736 A. D. .^ g.^^^ ^^ although in his father's time the Kahras 

were of some importance as zumeendars, their Jahyeer was at FuUehpoor. 
This family trace their origin to Abbas^ the uncle of the prophet, 
. e^ v^ whence it descends through various generations to 
^<^* Adam Shah of Beelooch extraction, a Sheikh of 

great repute, who possessed many disciples in Sindh, and who was the 
founder of the prosperity and power which afterwards attended the 
Kaloras in that country. 

Noor Mahomed Kalora. 
The b^inning of his government was attended with constant feuds 

and strife with the tribes of JBurhoee and D€iwood 
^e^of Noor Ma^ Pootreh, (Belooches,) the cause of dispute being 

boundary of territory. About the year 1150 h. 
1737 A. D. Nadir Shah when he visited Sindh, took Noor Mahomed 
Nadir SAah mulcts P"8oner ; but on his paying a crore of rupees to 

him a ciore of ru- the emperor, he was released and restored to his 
pees. ^ 

possessions, with the additional title oiKttiiie Khan, 

After this he became firmly settled in the government of the country. 

After the assassination of Nadir Shah, Sindh became subject to 

Sindh subjeet to ^^^'^ ^^^ Afyhan Sudoozie, king of CabooL 
Cabool, Noor Mahomed was succeeded by his son Murad 

Yab Khany who only ruled however for a short time, and was succeed- 
GhuUam Shah, ed by his brother Ghtdlam Shah. 

1841 .] Of the eariy History of Sindh. 289 

In the commencement of his reign he was employed in putting down 
an insurrection under his brother Utiur Khan; but having settled the 
dissensions and civil discords in Sindh^ he made an incursion upon 

Cutchf rendered remarkable for the great battle of 

a e o arra. Jjuirroy which was fought with Boo Gore upon the 

occasion. He died after a rule of 17 years. His brother Uttur Khan 

seized the reins of government, but only retained them for a short time, 

and was succeeded by Sure^az Khan, son of Ghul" 

Surqfraz Khan, , ol l 
^ lam Shah. 

Shortly after coming to power, he allowed his mind to be poisoned 
by one Rcfjak Lechie against a chief of distinction in his service, 
named Byram Khan Talpoor. Byram being informed of the threatened 
^, , „ evil, took counsel with his sons Sobhdar and Beiur 

9Si!di\dB«m Sobhdar. to avert it ; but Surafraz put both Byram and his 
son Sobhdar to death ; Bejur fled to Mecca, 

Futteh Alii Khany the son of Sobhdar raised an insurrection to 
F tih AU Khan revenge his Other's death, and Surqfraz Khan fled 
drives outSitrqfraz, iq the fort of Hyderabad, where he was imprisoned. 
His brother Mahomed Khan succeeded him for a short time ; but was 
deposed by GhuUam NubbeCy brother of GhuUam Shah, Befur 
Khan Talpoor, son of Byram, at this time arrived from Mecca at 
Neirunkote, and Ghidlam Nubbee sought an opportunity to destroy 
Death of GuOam ^™' ^^^^ having collected followers an engagement 
Nubee. ensued, in which GhuUam Nubbee was killed, and 

Abdul Nubbee Befur Khan became master of Sindh, putting Abdul 

placed in power. Nubbee, the brother of GhuUam Nubbee, in his bro- 
ther's place, as governor of the country. Abdul Nubbee^ s first act was 
to destroy Surafraz Khan, Mahomed Khan, UUur Khan, and Meer 
Mahomed, at Hyderabad, where they were imprisoned.* His next, 
to send Ifut Khan with a force to attack Bejur Khan ; the former 
Murders S^ur was defeated. Abdul iV«666e afterwards murdered 

drivrouttiiefiimay* Bejur Khan, when the Talpoors drove out Abdul 
of the Kaloras, &c. ^j^ftgg^ putting the aflWrs of the country in the hands 
of Futteh AUi Khan Talpoor, son of Sobhdar and grandson of Byram, 
in which Timoor Shah confirmed him. He gave a share of his power 

* This wholesale system of putting princes out of the world, is vouched for in the 
" FuUeh Nameh,*' 

290 Of tie early HisUny ^ Sindh. [No. 1 12. 

to each of his brothersi GkuUam AH^ Kurm AU^ and Mwrad AH 
FvUA AH Ehan and QkuUam died ; the fmner in 1801 a. d. 1216 
H., and the latter in 1811 a. d. 1226 h. FaUeh AH left a lOo, (Sdh 
dkwrj and OhttUam also (Mahomed J who with their uncles, Mwad 
AH and Kurum AU, share the government of Sindh^ with the title of 

Note. — It is impossible to add to the already very lominous and interest- 
ing history given by Dr. J. Barnes in his visit to the Court of Sindh, 
of the rulers of the fiunilies of the Kaloras and Talpuras ; as my paper 
would not however have been complete without some notice of their 
dynasties; I have compressed them into a close and small space, leaving 
out most of those incidents which have been so graphically desciibed by 
Dr. Bumes. T. P. 

Nofes on the Manners and Habits of the Torkoman Tribes^ with 
some Geographical Notices of the Country they occupy*— Bj) 
Edwabd Stirling, Esq. B. C. S. 

The khonat of Khiva has been described by Mr. M. Mouraviev, 
who was sent by Russia as an envoy to the Khan, at great lengthi 
and he has given considerable interest in the deplorable tale of his 
sufferings. A barbarous nation, in the lowest state of civilization, can 
have very few objects to engage much attention ; and if we except 
their peculiar manners and customs, and mode of warfore, they sie 
entirely destitute of attractions to the inhabitant of a more refined 
atmosphere. Without antiquities, edifices, laws, learning, edenoe, v% 
and commerce, they have little to satisfy or create curiosity. 

The Torkomans bear the {greatest resemblance of all other natioBB 
to the Arabians ; but they are not decorated with their antiquity of 
origin ; their celebrity, as conquerors, as legislators, and as fimatics; 
their learning, and their reputed science. While the Arabian Ehalijfi 
ruled as the vicegerents of Mahomed, the Torkomans were reckoned 
among the number of their slaves. Their manners are similar ; they 
are equally the children of the Desert, inured to fatigue ; pride them- 
selves on their horses and mares ; infest the high roads for the purpose 
of plunder, and enslaving their victims; war among themselves; 

1841.] Manners and Habits of the Tarkoman Tribes, 29 1 

manufacture their own tents, clothes, and horse famiture ; tend large 
flocks of cattle*; move from place to place ; cultivate small portions 
of land ; eat horse and camel flesh ; and make distant excursions. 

They differ from the Arahs yet in several points; they are more 
wealthy; they have less respect for their ancestors; they have not 
that romantic sort of love for the other sex ; they do not hold the 
rights of hospitality to be so essentially incumbent upon them ; they 
are not so strongly impressed with the obligation of the law of 
lex talumis; they frequently stain their predatory attacks with mur- 
d^> which the Arabs always, if possible, avoid ; they are less subject 
to the vicissitudes of season, as they live in a more temperate climate ; 
they have a less defensible country, and have been frequently con* 
quered; they make captures for the purpose of selling them, and 
this forms their chi^ article of commerce with Bokhara. In their 
enterprises they are bold, bloody, desperate, and cruel; from their 
enemy they do not expect, and give no quarter, unless to make a slave 
of their adversary, for the purpose of disposing of him at the best 
market ; they murder the old men and women, and only take away 
with them such as may bring a good price, and reimburse them for 
their trouble; they are more sordid, less hospitable and generous, 
and inferior in magnanimity to the Arab ; they have larger forms, 
fuller faces, Inroader and more expansive foreheads, smaller eyes, and 
are more ugly and cunning than the Arab; they shew a few hairs 
where we expect to see beard ; large mouths, strong teeth, and moder- 
ate Isized lips. Their cap distinguishes them from the Persian ; from 
bottom to top it is large and circular^ of the same diameter, and not 
conical as that of the Kassilbash cut ; it is placed on an enormous 
head^ seated on a short but thick neck, and this pillar is supported by 
a pair of broad shoulders, which gives the outline of a large and ex- 
panded body and a full chest Their food consists of bread, soup, and 
pillao, divemfied with cheese^ milk, and fruits. 

They generally eat twice a day ; their breakfast is light, composed 
of bread with fruit <Mr syrup. Their dinner is. more substantial, 
meat under some form always forming the chief portion of it. 

The Torkomans are divided into a great many tribes independent 

of each other, who have their respective chiefs and white beards, 

(suffed resh.) 

2 o 

292 Manners and Habits of the Torkoman Tribes, [No. 112. 

The country of the Torkomans may be considered^ generally speak- 
ing, bounded on the north by the river Ammoo, and on the aoath 
by the river Tedjetn i but these rivers wind very muchy and perhaps 
it may be better to state the southern boundary of the country to 
be the Parapamisan range, and from thence north it extends as 
far as the Ammoo river. On the east, it approaches the confines of 
Balk and the towns of Aukoaree, Seripool, Shiberphan, on the bor- 
ders of the Desert On the west the limit is distinct, it is the Cm- 

Khiva is the capital of a portion of this extensive country ; but the 
more distant Torkoman tribes hold themselves, generally speakinj;i 
separate and independent of its rulers. Orgunge is the general appella- 
tion of this state on the north of Khora^san, and among the Torko- 
mans of Shurraks. In ancient times this wild, desert, and inhospita- 
ble country would appear to have been inhabited by the tribes or 
races denominated the Dahce, the Getea, and Massagetes, and the 

They have always been noted for their turbulent character and 
predatory habits, and for rearing that superb horse, which enables 
them to perform t^e most extraordinary journeys. The Sultans of 
Kharizm are famous in history. Malek Shah is represented as a nobl^ 
high-minded, and liberal sovereign ; and the bearing and courage of 
Jillaladeen, the last sovereign of the Seljukan race, excited the enthusi- 
astic praises even of Genjhis Khan, while he viewed him swimuung 
his horse across the rapid current of the Indus, still continuing to let 
fly his arrows at him whilst landing on the bank of the stream^ ad- 
miring his intrepidity. A king of Kharizm is mentioned by the histo- 
rian Arrian, but he makes his residence west of the Caspian, next the 
country of the Amazons : this locality seems in my opinion evidently a 
mistake of the copyist. 

The brave resistance and the frequent revolts of this people aie 
mentioned by Arrian and Quintus Curtius. 

The people of these countries, together with the Sogdians and Scythi- 
ans, appear to have been the first who checked Alexander's career. 
The above-quoted historians allow that his detachments were often 
surprised and defeated ; his campaign in this country would seem to 
have been very harassing, the labour and sufferings of his soldien 

1841.] Manners and Habits oftlie Torkoman Tribes. 293 

very great It is scarcely to be expected from posthumous historians 
that in relating the transactions which occurred in a distant and 
nearly unknown country, where a different language prevailed, that 
the correctness of their geographical information should be such as to 
enable us to trace with minuteness the various cities and petty king- 
doms which they have occasion to mention at the distance of two 
thousand years.* It is with difficulty we can even guess at the 
principal places reported by these historians of Alexander the Great 
to have been subdued by him. 

One of the most interesting places to inquire the situation of, it 
appears to me to be the hill fort, which seems to have been occupied 
by the Sogdians. This I imagine is no other than the Killat Nadir, \ 
which very accurately corresponds with the description given of it by 
Arrian and Quintus Gurtius. The names of nations and cities are very 
much confounded together, and this would appear to be the case with 
the Sogdians, Scythians, and Bactrians.ij: This rock may perhaps be 
thought likewise to answer to that of Aornas, since travellers have 
in vain inquired for it on the banks of the Indus j for Arrian says, 
that Alexander leaving Herat (Aria) went to the cities of Aornas 
and Badria. KiUat Nadir is situated on the borders of the Desert, 

* With reference to the above, the following are submitted ; some of them I 
have endeavoured to settle: — 

Drapsaca? Bndukshan. 

Margiana. Marghina, the valley of the Moorgab river and the territory adjoining. 

Nantaca? Sogdiana. 

Drangoe? People inhabiting one of the mountain ranges of the Parapamisan spine. 
They are characterized by Quintus Gurtius as ** Bellecosa Natione." 

Dai. The Gashgar people inhabiting the Western hills as far as Darwas. These 
hills are called the *< Beeloor Tay" I believe. 

MsBOtis. The lake Aral. 

Paratucas ? 

Ghoriensis Petra ? This is perhaps the present Kellati Nadir in Khorassan. 

Nicssa sacro ? 

Thyrceas ? 

Ara Sacos ? This may be conceived a place of worship of the Sac», who were a 
tribe of Scythians. 

Jenippa 7 Is represented a vastly rich and populous country, which attracted, .by its 
fruitfulness, settlers from all parts. This territory was situated on the borders of 
Scythia and would correspond to the present Fergana. 

f Vide B. Frazer. It is situated north of Meshid, on the borders of the Desert. 

X These are described as all horsemen who exercise the profession of plunderers 
even in the time of peace. The Torkomans of the present day are now more bar- 
barous in their cruelties, if possible, in quiet times, than during war. 

294 Manners and HabiU of the Torkaman Tribes. [No. 112, 

north of Meshid; it is peiliaps as strong as any hill finrt defended by 
natural works can possibly be. It has all the advantages of scarped 
rocks, which form an invincible barrier to an enemy, and must be 
nearly impregnable to a force destitate of shells. It has, moreover, ex- 
tensive pasturage and cultivated fields, together with water in great 
abundance, which probably would never fiul. Of all natural defences 
this is the strongest situated within or near the Torkoman Desert 
In this stronghold an army of many thousands might remain secure 
against every attack of their enemies. It has three gates^ one on the 
north, another on the east, and the last on the south; by these alone it 
can be entered. 

The same mode of war&re, and the same manners of these wild 
tribes exactly tally with those given by Arrian and Quintus Curtins. 
Omnes equites, etiam in pace latrodniis assueti, tam ferocia ingenia non 
helium modo sed etiam venise desperantes asservant.* Their perfidy, 
villany, and barbarity, are as conspicuous now as in the days of Alex- 
ander. The Torkomans and the Usbecks are guided by the same 
principles and sentiments ; are the same lawless, restless, and ungovern- 
able race as the Sogdians, the Dahae, the Massagetes, and the Scythians. 
The introduction of the religion of Mahomed has wrought little change 
in their morals, manners, customs, and socialities. Attached to no prin- 
ciples of moral rectitude themselves, they cannot conceive the existence 
of them in others. From their in&ncy accustomed to wander and to 
change their abodes; habituated to scenes of violence and bloodshed, 
in the perpetration of which no justifiable reason can be assigned, 
and restrained by no sense of order, reason, and humanity, they 
aspire to independence, and shun all subjection, whether of a moral or 
physical nature. Self-defence and preservation are their first consi- 
deration; self-aggrandisement and self-exaltation, the next; and in 
pursuit of this latter object, any and every means, even unto parridde, 
fratricide, infanticide, and regicide ; but even the magnitude of such 
crimes are exceeded, frequently in the extermination of whole commu- 
nities of people and extirpation of nations. 

The Oxus is a river of considerable magnitude ; it has a course of 
upwards of nine hundred miles from its source ; its width and depth 
have not been exactly ascertained, it is however considered onfiiid- 

* Quintus Gurtitts, p. 231. 

1841.] Manners and Jffabiis of the Tarkoman Tribes. 295 

able, and has no bridges. Tbe latest traveller, Mr. Moorcroft, found no 
difficulty in passing it; but unfortunately he omits to state in what 
manner his passage was effected. The 'main stream of the Oxus is 
formed of two branches. The right branch is called the Pin^ Diria, 
and the left branch, which comes from Baduckshan^ is joined in its 
course from the Hindoo Cosh by several streams, and unites with the 
Fing river near Hazerui Imam^ 

Generally the Ammoo or Chcus is represented as a muddy, rapid, 
deep, dirty and sand-bearing river, and to travellers from Persia the 
largeness of the stream, and the quantity of water, is considered as 
somewhat wonderful, and they can only compare it with the' Tigris or 
Euphrates. Mr. Moorcroft thinks it might be rendered navigable* from 
lake Arai to Baduckshan; in support of this supposition it is said, 
that Nadir Shah directed a thousand boats to be made and prepared 
lor transporting his troops from Baduckshan, (or rather Khundooz,) 
to Bokhara and Kharism. According to Mr. Moorcroft, boats might 
be towed up by horses ; that horses for draught might be easily obtain, 
ed at a small expence; but before this could be put into execution, 
some knowledge of the banks oh either side seems to be requisite. 
Alexander found it a difficult matter to cross : h0 could get no 
materials of which to construct a bridge, and was obliged to 
adopt {then as it is now in many parts) the practice used in the 
country, of making rafts by means of blown skins, the buoyancy of 
which had the desired effect; several rafts thus constructed were suffiU 
dent to enable his army to pass this river in the course of five or six 
days. The Torkomans and the AUemaneest are in the habit of swim- 
ming their horses across. The subsidiary branches are frequently 
crossed by individuals on cows, where the stream is very rapid. There 
are various contrivances for passing it in different parts of its course, 
to which the natives are habituated. The Cabool river is passed by 

* The Ammoo has never been navigated ; but as far as I can judge from personal 
observation, there exists not a single obstacle formidable to its navigation. In respect 
to barks of large burden.espeeially, if conducted by a steam apparatus, and if objec* 
tions not foreseen should apply to its agency, I can discover no more against tracking 
than apply to the Ganges, with a superior advantage of the command of as many 
horses as would possibly be required for that purpose, at a very low price. — Mr» Moor- 
crqf^s MS. letter from BokJiara, 

t The name of the gangs that go out forays. 

296 Manners and HcAks of the Torkoman Tribes. QNo. 112. 

means of blown cow or bnffaloe skins, which aie fastened to a slight 
raft of twigs. These rafts are called jaUahs ; they are very troublesome 
to manage, and dangerous, and accidents often happen. While the bag. 
gage and owners are thus ferried across, the cattle following each other 
swim to the opposite side. The Oxus is frequently fipozen over; when this 
is the case, it can be crossed upon the ice. It abounds in fish, but we 
do not know that fishing is an occupation much followed by those 
who reside on its banks. Before it reaches the Aral it would seem to 
be divided into several streams, besides those canals which have been 
cut for the purpose of being conducted to remote spots of cultivation : 
the principal towns situated on these divided streams are Oargunge^ 
KhivOy Toorbaiy Suggur, and Sulughan;* but these are probably 
little better than large encampments, except Khiva and Oorgunge^ 
which are walled, and have ditches ; but these defences are very mi- 
serable even in the opinion of the people of Bokhara. The southern 
bank of the river, and perhaps the other likewise, is covered for a con- 
siderable distance from the river with lofty reeds, which form a kind 
of forest, in which the Torkomans pitch their tents and feed their cattle ; 
and I rather suspect that wild beasts also exist in these nuisses of 
reeds. Whence the ancients called this river the Oxus^ as it bears no 
resemblance to the modern names, the Ammoo and the Jehaon has 
not yet been ascertained. Mr. Moorcroft has offered a supposition, that 
that it is derived from the Turkish word aksoo; this appears to 
me a happy etymology, as it characterizes the river, the word signify, 
ing a white river. 

The banks of this stream are much frequented by the Torko- 
mans; they annually cultivate small patches to supply themselves 
with grain on this side of the river; the best and most approved 
horses are bred, especially the karrabay, reared by the Torkomans. 
It is one of the finest castes which is procurable. The government 
of the Torkoman resembles that of a fiither over his fiimily ; each head 
of a family exercises absolute authority over its members ; these 
consist of his wives, his children, his slaves, and such dependents 

* At Oorgunge my infonnant left the banks of the OxttSf situated eight cossfirom the 
main channel. From this he travelled to the N. N. W. passing the towns of ToorhaHf 
Sugffar, and StUugkan on to the city of Khiva, situated on the banks of a large river 
called the Heelem, nearly as large as the Oxw, — Lieut. Macartney's Memoirs, see 
Appendix to Elphinstone's Cabool^ page 648. 

1841.3 Manners and HabUs of the TorhofAan Tribes. 297 

who are too weak or too poor to have separate establishments^ submit 
themselves to his authority, and live under his protection. These de. 
pendents are frequently relations^ or somehow connected By near 
or more distant ties of blood. The orphans and relations of 
other chie£i^ who have died without leaving any heir of sufficient 
years to provide for their &milies» are also united to them by a re- 
membrance of the friendship which subsisted between the two chiefe 
before one of them died ; and so long as they are treated with con. 
sideration^ they seldom think of separating from the chief who has 
shewn them kindness and assisted them in their difficulties. Several 
heads of fiunilies form an owl, who unite themselves, and in conjunction 
make their annual peregrinations for the sake of pasturing their flocks^ 
or for the purpose of proceeding to a distant spot near some river or 
stream^ to rear their crops to supply them with grain. These migra- 
tions generally commence about the beginning of spring, upon the 
breaking up of the winter, when the snow melts and the weather 
becomes warmer ; at this period of the year, pasturage for the cattle 
is plentiful every where, and water is abundant. This is a season 
in which the Torkoman delights, and his flocks and beasts sympathise 
with him. They yield him their young, and a vast quantity of milk ; 
they become fat and sleek, and travel with alacrity to new pastures. 
It is at this time that parties are made up to go on forays ; one of 
these gangs generally consists of from twenty to sixty horsemen, 
well mounted and armed with swords and spears, and not seldom 
with matchlocks and pistols. Before hand, the object of their expedi- 
tion is settled, which is generally to way-lay a kqfiia, or body of 
travellers; on some occasions very large bodies are united tm make 
expeditions on particular points of attack — such as on the frontier of 
Persia. Meshid was an instance of this a short time before my arrival 
in 1828. The Torkomans on this occasion joined several bodies of 
Hazerahs and Jumshidies, to ensure the success of the expedition ; a 
quantity of booty was obtained, such as horses, mules^ and slaves of 
different sexes. The attack having been made shortly after sunrise, 
when the cattle of the city had left it for the purpose of grazing, they 
found no opposition in driving them away, together with the captives. 

The dress of the Torkomans in general consists of a pair of pijatiu 
mahs or shein^ars, which are fastened at the ancle ; over these they wear 

298 Manners and Habiis of the Torkaman Tribes. [No. 112. 

a pair of high boots, which reach to the knee, commonly made of red 
Russian leather ; for a shirt they wear next their skin a perahan, 
(tunic/; over the pijammahs Bud perahan, they wearacA^j^Aaordoak 
with sleeves, which is fastened by a slender kummarhund made of 
cloth or leather, to which is attached two knives in a case and a 
small purse. Above the under chogha they often put on a second, 
which is allowed to remain loose pending from the shoulders. On 
their head they have a black cap, with the wool of a jet 
colour and naturally curled. 

The shape of this cap is not of a conical form as that of the Persians. 
Its diameter is the same at the top as at the part which immediately 
encircles the head. 

They always wear a sword, (Bhumaheer^) which is either carried 
in the hand or festened to the waist. They seldom wear SLpeshhibz* 
Their ehoghas are made of some blue cloth in the warm months, and 
of coarse woollen cloth in the cold season ; the latter are either grey 
camel hair, coloured or black. The women are remarkable for wear- 
ing lofty turbans ; they are fond of silks and splendid colours for 
their dresses. When young, their hair is allowed to grow long and 
unconfined, divided into plaits, to which are fastened behind small 
pieces <^ silver ; some tribes wear their hair loose and exposed, othen 
conceal it by turbans having loose locks hanging down. Their appear- 
ance has a certain rudeness, but not without something striking and 
interesting. The occupations of the men are predatory attacks; 
the chase ; the breeding and the care, exercise, and instruction of 
their horses ; tending their cattle ; supervision of their slaves and 
their women, who are employed in making carpets, musnuds, (or 
felts,) loose furniture ; overlooking their fields, and directing agri- 
cultural employments^ and ploughing, sowing, and reaping; the setting 
up, taking down, and loading their tents. They are more accustomed 
to oomnMmd than to obey. They exact implicit obedi^ice from 
their wives, childr^ and depaidents of all kinds. Their amuse- 
ments are few. They like music, warlike anecdotes, breaking 
in their horses, exercising themselves in the use of the sword and 
the lanoe, and sometimes in using the matchlock. They delight in 
feasts and the pleasures of the table. They chace deer widi an ex- 
cellent breed of grey.hounds. Their women are employed in house- 

184].] Manners and Habits of the Torhman Tribes, 299 

hoid duties, often have separate tents ; subject to them are female 
slaves, who act under their orders ; they prepare the ordinary food 
of the &mily, wash the linen, make ap clothes for their husbands 
and themselves ; chum and make the coagulated milk and cheese ; 
bake the bread, and bring the water from the rivulet or fountain ; 
they assist in erecting the tents, in laying down the nummud, and 
cleaning the floor. They do not cover their faces with that scrupulo- 
sity that is practised in Persia; they do not hide their faces except 
from newly.arrived strangers; their manners are free and uncon- 
strained; their duties compel them to be much exposed to the climate. 
They are fond of singing and sometimes dance, particularly at marri- 
ages. I found them kind in supplying my wants; both the men 
and the women are much given to pass their time in idleness and 
listlessness, and require much excitement to rouse them to action. In 
physical appearance the Torkomans are very muscular, large-bodied 
men ; they have very thick short necks, enormous heads with a broad 
front ; they have scanty beards which seldom exceed a few straggling 
hairs upon the chin. In their manners they are rude; in their eating 
dirty and uncleanly; their victuals are often imperfectly dressed by 
fire; they are fond of animal food; eat goat's flesh, and that of any 
animal which they can obtain. 

These notes, (written in 1830,) were kindly placed at my disposal by Mr. 
Stirling, and are the result of that gentleman's personal observations 
daring his travels in a part of Asia, little known in 1828. He has also 
obliged me with papers on Bokhara and Kothan, which will appear in 
their course. 



Discovery of Coal in a new sUe. By W. Dunbar^ Esq. Assistant 
Surgeon, S(h Irr^ular Cavalry, 

Camp Burree, 
22 miles from Hazareebaugfa, 

In marching about a week ago from Dorunda to Hazareebaugh, I 
halted one day at BuUea, a very considerable village about fourteen 
miles to the south of the latter station. Having heard reports that there 
was coal to be found in the vicinity, I requested the Kotwal, a very in- 
telligent and obliging man^ to show me where it was^ we proceeded a 
mile up the banks of a considerable nullah, called the Haharoo. The 
soil appeared to be mostly alluvial, containing in some places a good 
deal of kanker. The greater part was cut into rice khets* On the 
banks of the Suneheraie, a small nullah running into the Haharoo^ 
I first saw the coal in a bed about three feet in thickness, with a 
gentle dip or inclination to the west. It was splintery, very black, lying 
below a friable sandstone, and alluvium containing kanker. The 
bed seemed to be of great extent, and I have no doubt that any quan- 
tity of coal can be procured at this place. I brought some specimens 
with me to my tent, and found that those from near the surfisice did 
not bum well; in fact it was with some difficulty I could get them to 
ignite at all. The others burned very well indeed, without a great deal 
of smoke, and leaving an inconsiderable quantity of ashes. The eoal 
bed seemed to have been never worked, and I had some trouble in 
clearing away the grass and bushes, to procure the specimens whidi 
I took with me. I have some of these still in my possession, and regret 
that I have no opportunity of forwarding them to you at present, for 
the opinion of better judges than myself. 

At Bullea there are large and very extensive iron works, employing 
a great many persons, and yet strange to say, though most of the inha- 
bitants are aware of the existence of this extensive coal bed, they never 
use it for their furnaces ; but are at great expense in transporting wood 
and charcoal from the forest, several miles distant. I endeavored to im- 
press upon some of the workmen how advantageous it would be, uxA 
what a saving would accr\ie to them, were they to use this coal ; bat by 

1841.] Discovery of Coalin a new site. 301 

their answers^ they eyinced their utter indifference to the subject, and 
their determination to adhere to the customs of their fathers. The 
coal bed is not above a mile distant from the works. 

The village of BuUea is very prettily situated^ and the view from 
it in every direction very picturesque. Towards the N. W. and at 
a distance of three or four miles, is a semicircular range of hills called 
the Mahoodee Pahar, very much resembling, though scarcely equalling 
in altitude the Salisbury Grags^ at Edinburgh ; that is to say, there is a 
steep talus (formed in a great measure to all appearance from debris, 
which have follen from above) of 200 or 300 feet elevation, and then 
you come on a steep precipice, which it appears impossible to scale. The 
Haharoo Nuddee winds in beautiful meanderings along the base of 
this high range. Hilly ranges of considerable altitude surround the plain 
on which BuUea is situated, and I regretted much that I had no time 
to examine their formiation, or even to visit the Mahoodee Pahar, which 
was not very fiu* distant from my camp. In a commercial point of 
view, little or no importance can be attached to the discovery of coal at 
BuUecLy at least in the present day. It is near no navigable river; no 
public works of any importance are in its vicinity, excepting the iron 
works above alluded to, and it will require more than persuasion I am 
afraid, to induce the natives to abandon the use of wood and charcoal, 
for a cheaper and more useful material. The roads passing over steep 
and rocky ghauts* are by no means in a good state, though it is to be ex- 
pected^ owing to the exertions of Major Ousely^ Governor General's 
Agents that they will soon be much improved. 

[This paper was communicated immediately on its receipt to Government, but having 
been subsequently mislaid, has not appeared at an early date as it should have done.] 



Succinct Review of the Observations of the Tides in the Indian Archi' 
peloffo, made during the year 1839, hy order of his JExceUency 
the Governor General^ of his Netherlandish Majesty^ s possessions, 
20th October, 1838. No. 3. 

[This interesting repovt was transmitted to the Asiatic Society by the 
Society of Arts at Batavia. It has been translated for the Journal from 
the original Dutch, by my friend Dr. Roer, the translator of Lassen's 
Points of History.] 


The tides have been observed at Pulo Chinco on the West coast of 
Sumatra to the southward of Padang, from the 10th February 1839 
to the first of January 1840, being ten months and three quarters, by 
the naval lieutenants of the second class, G. J. Fabricius and J. de 

At Muntock on Bornea, from the 15th January 1839 to the first of 
January 1840, being eleven months and a half, by the naval lieutenant 
of the second class, P. C. Reuchenius. 

On the Island Onrust near Batavia, from the 1st January 1839 to 
the 1st January 1840, being twelve months, by the naval lieutenant 
of the first class, Director of Onrust, J. Sigtorel. 

At Fagol, on the north coast of Java, from the 1st January 1839 to 
the 1st January 1840, being twelve months, by the naval lieutenant 
of the second class, F. J. E. Van Goreum. 

. At Klampsis, on the north coast of Madura,' from the 10th Februaiy 
1839 to the 1st January 1840, being eleven months and three quarters, 
by the naval lieutenants of the second class, J. A. K. Van Hasfelt and 
J. Van Gool. 

At Filatjap, on the north coast of Java, from the 1st of Januaiy 
1839 to the Ist January 1840, being twelve months, by the naval lieu- 
tenant of the second class, J. A. G. Rictoeld. 

To these have been added some less complete observations on 
Amboyna, from the 23rd March 1839 to the 1st January 1840, being 
nine months and a quarter, by the master, J. Kecutebol, and the naval 
lieutenants of the second class, J. A. Ricffer and J. A. W. High. 

At Taparo, from the commencement of May 1839 to the dose <rf 
December 1839, by the assistant resident of Tapora, Winkelman. 

1841.} Succinct Review of the Observatians rfthe Tides, ^c. 303 

Also on the Coriman Islands, from the 18 th July 1838 to April 
1839, by deputy of the cItU service, Siichalosske. 

These two latter observations were forwarded by the favour of the 
Batavian Society of Arts and Sciences, which had already previously 
made (at the request of Prof. Whewell, Trinity College, Cambridge) 
some communications with regard to the tides in this Archipelago, to 
the Asiatic Society in Calcutta ; besides these, there were some obser- 
vations made at Macassar in the year 1840, by the nmster in the navy, 
£. Lagto, after they had been finished at the other stations. 

These observations furnish the following results concerning the 
respective stations : — 

At Pulo Chinco off Fjinks, West coast of Sumatra. The course of 
the flood tide and the rise of the water on the coast was observed 
to run from N. E. to S. W., closely following the direction of the coast. 

The ebb tide ran in the opposite direction, and though both tides 
were very trifling, not exceeding a quarter of a mile, yet the force of the 
ebb generally exceeded that of the flood, though neither were sensibly 
influenced by the wind. 

The tides were, however, very regular. The mean duration was 
about six hours and a quarter, so that as usual, there were two tides 
in a day. 

At new and full moon the high water was generally between 5h. 30m. 
and 6h. 30m. viz. At new moon. a. m. at 6h. 24m. 

p. M. at 6 30 
At full moon. a. m. at 6 28 

p. M. at 5 35 
average time about 6 — 00, and the time of flood tide during the 
other days, followed the common rule, dependant upon the moon's 
passing the meridian, according to which, though not always with the 
same regularity the tide came in every day generally about three 
quarters of an hour later, or rather in the course of a fortnight the 
variation amounted to twelve hours. If then six hours be supposed as 
mean number, it was almost always flood tide when the moon was 
in the horizon. * 

From the time of high water to the time when it again turns to ebb, 
as is here noticed, we may be allowed to fix 5h. 30m. as the mean 

304 SMOtind Review of ike ObservaHons ef {No. 1 12. 

The mean rise and fiJl was about ebb^ 78 

The greatest ditto ditto, ••• ... ••• 1 49 

The smaUest ditto ditto, •• O 6 

The difference in the elevation of the saoceeding tides is remarkable, 
viz. a greater rise and a smaller one were peroeiTed to take plaee 
alternately, and in the same manner also the ebb tides.* This alter- 
nation of flow and ebb which is very regular may hereafter be shown to 
be in connection with the moon's decrease, though perhaps more so at 
this place than at the other stations of the Archipelago. 

The greatest difference between high and low water, as well as 
the highest rise, occurred in October and November, and generally 
in the months when the West monsoon prevaib. 

At PiUtjap^ South coast of Java. 

On the south coast of Java the tides were mostr^ular in all respects, 
consequently the observations made upon them are best adapted to 
furnish a general rule. 

The course of the flood tide was to the West into the outlet, and 
followed the direction of its shore. The ebb tide ran in an oppo- 
site course. In the westerly passage or creek of Segara Anakoo, 
the tides had a course quite the reverse; here the streams met 
consequently the rise and fall took place without stream. In gene- 
ral the stream appears to run, at least in the East monsoon, along 
the coast to the East, at the rate of half a mile in four hours. la 
the straits of Filitjap in the West monsoon, the ebb and flood tides 
ran at the rate of two and three miles, and in the East monsoon at 
five and five and a half miles. The tides evidently follow here, as wdl 
as at Polo Chinco, the conmion rule. The mean duration of rise and 
fall was about six hours and a half, and this took place with much re- 
gularity, two tides in one day ; but also smaller rises and falls between 
the usual ones have been sometimes noticed, amounting to 0-20 ebb. 
The duration of still water is here very r^ular for ten or fifteen ndnntes 
after high and low water. The ebbs and floods are about equal in 
force and duration. At new and full moon the mean time of the flood 
tide was between eight and nine hours, viz. 

*,NoTE.-*>A nautical friend has pointed out that ni^ht tides are generally 
the highest, thus giving an alternation. Qj 

1841.] the Tides in the Indian Archipelago. 305 

At new moon at. 9h. 18m. p. m. 
and at 8 53 a. m. 
At fall moon at 8 45 p. m. 
and at 8 19 a. m. 
Average of the time 8 48 

and therefore as the time of flood tide is noticed to the moment when 
the water again commences to decrease, we may fix here, as mean 
number, 8h. 30m., considering that here also the period of the flood 
tide during the fortnight passed the space of 12h. 

At this station was observed the same remarkable fact as at Pulo 
Chinco, that at new moon it was high water an hour later than at 
full moon. 

The mean rise and fall of the water was 1. 25 ebb. 

the greatest 2. 42 
the smallest 0. 10. 

The greatest difierence in the rise and fall of iliPt tide took place some 
days after the new and full moon, not however exceeding 2.63 ebb. 
The highest water mark was observed in the East monsoon. 

The difference of the rise and fall of the succeeding tides is here 
very notable,' and appears more than elsewhere to be in connection with 
the decrease of the moon. The morning and evening tides are different, 
especially at the decrease of the moon, while they were about equal at 
the time of the moon's passing the Equator. 

At Ambayna. 

Although the streams in the bay are not strong, and sometimes only 
ran from two miles to two and a half, and the turns of the tide very 
irregularly take place, we may state that the stream of the flood tide in 
the East monsoon runs into the bay along the northern coast to the E. 
and runs out along the southern coast to the S. W. The opposite 
course takes place in the West monsoon, while in the middle of the 
bay little or no stream is observed. 

The duration of the rise and &11 of the water is here very regular, 
about six hours and a quarter, so that the flood occurs about twice a 
day, and in a fortnight looses about twelve hours. 

306 Succinct Review €fihe Observations of [No. 112. 

At oew moon the mean time of high water was about 

A. M. Oh. 34m. 
p. M. 46. 
At full moon a. m. 06. 

p. M. 38. 
Average of time 0. 30. or 33m. 

The month of December makes an exception to this, and might en- 
courage the supposition of another mean number during the West 
monsoon, unless the observations made in that month exhibited a want 
of accuracy, on account of which they are not be relied on. 

At new moon here also, as well as at Filitjap and Pulo Chinco, the 
flood tide appears to come in always later than at full moon ; the mean 

rise and fall was about 1. 14. ebb. 

The greatest ditto ditto 2. 50. ebb. 

The smallest rise observed at several places was scarcely perceptible. 
A small rise was alternately taking place with a great one, and the 
same occurred with the &11. The difference of the succeeding rises 
and falls is here likewise deserving notice. The greatest difference 
between high and low water took place in April and July. 

The highest water mark was in April, November, and December. 
These remarks are made on observations taken during the period firom 
April to December, and especially during the East monsoon. 

At BJampsiSy on the Northern coast of Madura* 
It appears from the observations that were made, that there was no 
flood or ebb stream perceptible during the East monsoon, and in the 
month of May the stream had always during the day a Westerly direc- 
tion, with the velocity from two miles to two and a half; while at night 
little or no stream was observed ; it sometimes likewise ran to the East 
The month of July forming the only exception to this, when in the night 
also the stream ran to the West, with a force of about two to three miles. 
In this monsoon the water is generaUy falling during the day and the 
stream then strongest, while during the night the water is generally 
rising ; the stream however has little force. 

These facts suggest the inference, that if ebb and flood tide here ac- 
tually exist, the ebb tide has a Westerly direction, while the flood runs 

i841.] the Tides in the Indian Archipelago. 307 

to the East ; this latter, however, is almost annihilated by Easterly winds. 
In the West monsoons, the stream runs to the East with little force, and 
the water rises during the day ; the flood stream should accordingly 
ran in this season to the East ; bnt then at night scarcely any stream is 
peroeived, and the ebb tide which then rons, was observed to be anni- 
hilated by the Westerly winds. 

East Monsoon, West Monsoon, 

< Wind:B. 5> Wind W. 

Stream during Stream during 

During the day fallg. ^ the day or ebb. During day > the day flood 

Stream during Stream during 

Night rising ^ . the night or flood. Night fidling > the night ebb. 

The mean duration of the rise and fall of the water is during the 
whole year eleven and half to twelve and half, so that here ebb and flood 
occur only once in the same day; nevertheless it appears that here 
often little rises and falls, or those called short tides, have obtain- 
ed alternately with them. It is worth noticing, that during a certain 
. period the flood tide always took place before noon, and during the 
remainder of the year in the evening ; namely, in May, June, and July 
the time of flood tide was daily in the morning about nine o'clock, 
and one o'clock in the afternoon, without regular yet constant retarda- 
tion ; this period from time to time suddenly shifting to an interval of six 
hours. In the first half of August, this period occurred between half*past 
seven and half-past eleven a. m. In the latter part of the same month, 
between half-past fiv^ and eleven a. m. In September between one 
o'clock and half-past ten a. m. In October between midnight and six 
o'clock A. ic In the latter days of November between nine o'clock 
A. ic and midnight In February between three, half-past three, 
and half-past eleven o'clock p. m. ; and so on, until in May this period 
again occurred before noon. 

Thus it can be proved that in the E. monsQon, the flood tide 
took place always before noon, and therefor^ the fall of the water 
and also the ebb was during the day ; and in the West monsoon after 
nooDy so that the fall of the water and also the ebb were in the night, 
while the opposite was observed with regard to high water and the 
flood tide, as the mean interval from the period of the one flood tide 


308 Succinct Retfiew of the Observations of [No. 112. 

to that of the next was about twelve or thirteen. The succeedmg tides, 
or the daration of that of the rise and fall generally decreased in an 
inverted arithmetical precession from between nine to fifteen boon; 
the difference between the rise and the succeeding fall of the water was 
most remarkable at new and full moon. There has been a single in- 
stance, in which the duration of the fall did not exceed an hour, while 
again a rising of three-quarters of an hour has been observed. 

The sum of the two succeeding tides, or the duration of the rise of 
the water and the succeeding fall, always amounted to somewhat 
more than twenty-four hours. 

This was not the case as regards the height of the tide and of the 
succeeding fall, which was almost constantly equaL 

Here also, as elsewhere, it is notable, that a great rise and fidl ocean 
alternately with a small one, and the difference in the rise and fall 
decreases till no . longer perceptible, when it again increases, which 
phenomenon must (at least at the first glance) be accounted for as 
the effect of a powerful cause ; as for instance, the decrease of the 
moon as has been already done. 

The common rules are here also not sufi&cient to calculate the tiine 
of high water. It also deserves notice, that at new and fall moon the 
flood tide generally, excepting some instances in October and April, 
came in between eight and ten o'clock, viz. the morning, when the afore- 
said periods in which, according to the season of the year, the flood 
tide must take place, corresponded with the morning, that is in the 
East monsoon, and in the evening, when the converse took place, that 
is in the West monsoon. 

The flood of eight or ten o'clock, whether in the morning or in the 
evening, took place in almost all periods, as above mentioned. 

The period of the flood tide at new and full moon cannot, however, 
be averaged or used to calculate the mean time of high water for 
another day. 

The mean rise and fall of the water was,... 1* 12 ebb. 

The greatest, 2* 13 

The smallest, 0*11 

T{ie greatest difference between high and low water occurred in May, 
June, and December, after new and full moon, though this by no means 
was always the case. 

1841.] the Tides in the Indian Archipelago* 309 

The highest water*mark was likewise observed about this period. 

At Fagol^ en the north coast of Java. 

It appears that here also, as at Klampsis, no streams of ebb and 
flood, strictly speaking, are to be found, the tides generally being very 
irregular, and the streams, which seem to be dependent on the wind, at 
most amounting to a quarter or half a mile. 

The duration of the rise and fall has a singular course. In January 
it is sometimes six hours, so that there accordingly flood and ebb tides 
occur generally twice in a day ; and only one rise and fall of much 
longer duration than ordinarily is perceived at new and full moon. 
In the succeeding months, these longer tides repeatedly occur after 
new and full moon, so that at this period, for several succeeding 
days, the flood tide comes in but once a day, and thus also the ebb, - 
and the duration of the rise and fall of the water is respectively twelve 
hours. In May, about new and full moon, they continue for eight days, 
and likewise the whole month of June the duration of the ebb and 
flood tide is respectively twelve hours ; so that there is but one flood and 
ebb tide during the day. 

Then again in July, at new and full moon, there are tides of about 
six hours' duration, so that two tides again occur in a day. 

In August and September, the number of days when short tides 
are perceived, is increasing. In October, the duration of all tides is 
about six hours, and in November and December, at new and full 
moon, they again come in some long rises and falls. 

At the period of the change from these common or short tides (of 
about six hours) to the long ones (of about twelve,) a great rise and fall 
generally is alternate with a small one, and it is a remarkable fact, 
that, these smaller rises and falls gradually decrease until they entirely 
disappear, and only one rise and fall takes place in the twenty-four hours. 

The reverse was the case on the change from long tides to the 
common or shorter ones. 

The same also appears to happen as regards the time of rise and 
fall, though, in a less striking degree. 

The time of ^ood and ebb tide is here likewise very uncertain. It may, 
however, be stated, that at new and full moon, the ebb tide comes in 
about three o'clock in the morning, while it is more regular with regard to 

310 Suecind Remew of the ObtervaHans of [No. 112. 

the flood tide, and it is therefore impossible to caloidate with exactness, 
the other days re-appearance of ebb and flood tide at FagoL 

The mean rise and £Edl daring the year was, ... 0* 60 ebb. 

The greatest, ... 0*97 

The smallest, 0*04 

The greatest difference between high and low water was obserred 
in the West monsoon, and scarcely ever at new or full moon ; so that 
there accordingly existed no real spring tide : it never exceeded the 
fidl by 1*03 ebb. 

The highest water-mark, on the other hand, was in the East monsoon, 
especially in the months of May and Jane. 

The difference in the rise and fall of the sacceeding tides is here, 
as well as at the other stations, deserving notice ; and thongh the 
eqaality of the succeeding rise and falls evidently depehds upon cer« 
tain rules, yet it is not to be traced, at the flrst glance at least, to the 
decrease of the moon. 

The monsoons, and likewise the stand of the sun's solstice probably, 
exercise a more than common influence on these tides at Onrust near 
Batavia. No stream of ebb and flood, properly speaking, was observed 
any more than at Fagol or Kkmpsis, the stream which runs cannot be 
subjected to any certain rule, nor does the rise and hHH of the waltf 
proceed with regularity. The stream in aU directions is much influen- 
ced by the wind, and is very triffing, seldom exceeding one mile to one 
mOe and a half. 

According to the observations that have been made, the duration of tlie 
rise and fall of the water in December, January, and Fetoiary, was about 
twelve hours ; so that there is in one day, only once high water and 
once low ; sometimes, however, the water is longer flowing than ebbing. 

In March for some succeeding days, smaller tides were observed be- 
tween them, which being of very unequal duration ordinarily, were al« 
temating in a short rise, succeeding a long one and vice versa. The 
recurrence of these small tides which flrst appeared twice or tlirice in 
the month, may perhaps be brought into connexion with the age of 
the moon ; the number of days they continued decreased about July 
and August, though sometimes a short tide of one or two hours 
occurred ; with these exceptions, there was high and low water only 
once in twenty-four hours. 

1841.] ^ Tides in th§ Indian Archipelago. 311 

In the latter days of Auguflt, the oomber of dajs when the short 
tide comes in, it increases so that almost the whole month, as well as in 
September, two tides took place in the same days, though of a very irre- 
gular duration ; then the number of days when the' short tides were 
observed again decreased, occurring only twice or thrice in the month ; 
till in December long tides almost always return, so that in this month 
there is only one ebb tide each day. 

However, supposing in January and February the short tides have 
been overlooked, which is not impossible, as the character of these 
was not known at the commencement of the observations, or we should 
be able to assign a reason, that in July an.d December long tides, and 
in September and February short tides take place, as well as between 
these months, the number of days when short tides obtain, decreases and 
increases ; something similar to this has been observed at Fagol ; but 
the period of long and short tides does not correspond. 

There is no peculiarity concerning the difference of the succeeding 
tides ; but we must not omit to notice, that there, as well as at Klampsis, 
in December, January^and February, flood tide always comes in before 
noon, and this period is successively retarded ; the flood tide being ob- 
served during May in the night ; during^ June in the evening ; during 
July and August in the afternoon ; in September before and after noon ; 
in October and November in those days where only one tide in one day 
took place before noon. It is evident from these facts, that during the 
East monsoon the flood-tide comes in the afternoon, and in the 
evening ; while during the West monsoon it was before noon, and in 
the morning just the reverse of what has been observed at Klampsis. 

The period of the flood tide at new and full moon, however irregu- 
lar it may be in the interval between them, is always about ten o'clock, 
(or between 9h. SQm. and lOh. 45m.) r. if. from March to December, 
that is in the East monsoon ; and at a. m. from September to March 
in the West monsoon, a singular correspondence with the observations 
at Klampsis. It is evident that on account of the regularity of the 
tides, this period cannot be used as a mean number^ to calculate the 
period of the flood tide for other days. 

The mean rise and fUl was, 0* 67 ebb. 

The greatest, 1*32 

The smallest, 0*02 

3 1 2 Succinct Review of the Observations of [No.. 1 12. 

The greatest difference between high and low water took place in 
the West monsoon, and then especially at new and full moon, in the 
other parts of the year. The position of the moon was not observed 
having any reference to the water-mark. The highest water-mark 
was also in the W. monsoon, and especially in December. 

At Muntok in the Straits of Borneo. 

At this place, a decided stream of ebb and flood took place, and the 
observations seem therefore most fit to establish on them a general 
rule for the tides within the Archipelago, and the short or middle 
tides. The flood stream at Muntok runs six or eight hours in a day to 
the S. £. with a velocity of quarter, half, and sometimes of one and a half 
mile, while the ebb stream runs sixteen or eighteen hours every day, 
at the rale of one or two miles to W. by N. and W. N. W. The 
turn of the streams was not regular, nor to be brought into connexion 
with the rise and fall of the tide. In August, an ebb was even observed 
lasting more than thirty-eight hours, while the water in the mean time 
rises twice. 

After the monsoons, the common duration of the rise generally 
is ten hours, and that of the fall 14-30 ; afterwards at the first and 
last quarters of the moon, ebbs and floods, or the so-called short tides 
take place in one day, which last about six hours, or rather the mean 
duration of two rises is about 11-30, and that of two £Edls 12-35. 

The short tides ordinarily appear at a certain suspension of the 
fall or rise in the ebb and flood tide, called by the natives passing 
hetjU. Should these tides amount to two ebbs and two floods 
in a day, they are called by the natives, ^^ passing onok;^ while ebb 
and flood, which run for a longer time, and precede the conomon tides 
of ebb and flood of twenty-four hours duration, bear the name of 
^^ passing raaP 

On the contrary, during the change of the monsoons, that is during 
April, May, October, and November, these middle tides run at new 
and full moon ; and here also as at Onrust, flood tide occurs during the 
West monsoon, in the afternoon and in the evening, and at new and 
full moon at 8h. 30m. 

1841.] the Tides in the Indian Archipelago, 313 

During these months, when at new and full moon short tides 
were running, the high water generally came in about 6h. 50m. in the 
morning, and at about 7h. 10m. in the evening. However, these numbers 
cannot exhibit a mean number, nor give a direction to calculate the 
high water of the other days, although the time of the flood tide, however 
irregular, seems daily to come in later, being retarded twelve hours in 
a fortnight, while this time on the appearance of the short tides has a 
most irregular course. 

The natives foretell sometimes very exactly the return of the small 
and the short tides. 

The greatest rise and fall was, 4* 26 ebb. 

The smallest, .. 0* 07 

The mean, 2* 17 

The greatest difference between high and low water was at full moon 
in December, in June, and May, and in general when the monsoons 
had passed ; while the difference during the months, while the monsoons 
changed, was less perceptible. 

The greatest rises and falls often took place at new and full moon, 
though by no iheans always. 

The highest water-mark was also observed when the monsoons were 
in their full force. Besides it deserves notice, that during the period 
when flood and ebb tide came in only once a day, that is during the 
common long tides, the rises and falls following each other successively 
increase and decrease ; while when two tides or middle tides occur in 
a day, the succeeding rises are alte^ately great and small, and thus 
also the falls, while the difference in the quantum a£ two succeeding 
riiies, probably depends on the decrease of the moon. 

At Corimony Java. 

An ebb and flood tide is here even less perceptible than at other 
stations. It appears, however, from the observations that were made, 
that here, as at Klampsis on the North coast of Madura, the stream runs 
especially with the rising water to the East, and with the falling water 
to the West ; in the East monsoon in the night, in the West monsoon in 
the day time. 

314 Succinct Review of the Observations of [No. 112. 

The tides are very irregular ; there being only once in a day flood and 
ebb tide, and sometimes of the doration from nine to fifteen hours. 

The period of the flood tide has here, as at Klampsis and Onnut, • 
general though irregular retardation, viz. in the East monsoon, as at 
Klampsis, the high water comes in before noon and in the morning ; in 
September early in the morning ; in October, NoTember, and December, 
in the night ; during the West monsoon in the night and in the even- 
ing ; in April in the afternoon ; while this period is most irregular daring 
the turning months. 

The mean rise and fall was, 1* 25 ebb. 

The greatest, ... 2* 0$ 

The highest water mark is in April, and generally the 21st and 22nd 
of the month. 

At Tapara. 

No ebb and flood stream properly speaking, and the whole course 
of the tides very irregular. With the rising water, a stream was gene- 
rally observed having an easterly direction ; high water only once 
in the same day. Here also the period of the flood tide appears 
to undergo a general, though indefinite annual retardation, viz. the flood 
tides during the month of May and June take place after noon and 
at noon ; the ebb-tide in the morning and about midnight. 

In July, August, and September, they take plaqe successively earlier, 
so that the high water comes in October about half-past five o'clock 
in the morning ; in December about half-past one in the morning ; and 
during the W. monsoon in the night and in the evening ; and consecu- 
tively the flood-tides again occur in the afternoon. The period of ebb 
and flood tides at new and full moon is very irregular. 

The mean rise and faXL is, 1* 31 ebb. 

The greatest, 2* 00 

The highest water-mark was observed in October. 

At Macassar. 

According to some observations of a later date transmitted to iu» 
viz. during the three first months of 1840, the tides are very irregular; 
having a close correspondence with the tides on the Javanese sea. 

1841.^ the Tides in the Indian Archipelago. 315 

The flood-tide, though with little force, runs to the N. £. and N.N.E. 
the ebb-tide to the S. W. and S. S. W. either stream much dependent 
on the wind. 

During the full strength of the monsoons, ther^ appears long tides 
to prevail, being only one flood and one ebb tide in twenty-four hours, 
and as at Muntok and Onrust, during the change of the monsoons pe- 
riodically, returning short tides took place twice in a day ; and during 
this period they were all short tides of about six hours. At new and 
full moon, the flood-tide comes in at about 6h.' 20m. There is no daily 
retardation of the flood-tide. It appears, as at ELlampsis, on the 
north coast of Madura, that during the W. monsoon the high water 
takes place in the afternoon, and most likely the converse during the £• 

A mean number cannot be obtained here. 

The highest rise was during the 3 first months of 1840, 1. 60 ebb. 

The mean, ... ... ••• ... ... ... 0. 75 

If we then compare the course of the tides at the different stations, 
there is evidently observed a sensible difference of the tides without 
the Archipelago, viz. of those on the West coast of Sumatra and 
on the South coast of Java and of Amboyna, from those within the 
Javanese sea. Here we are. able to fix a certain mean number, by 
means of which the time of high water is to be calculated, totally 
different from the course of the tides within the Javanese sea. 

The former it appears follow the well known rules of the tides; 
there is twice in the day ebb and twice flood tide, and two tides take 
place in the space of somewhat more than twenty-four hours in 
the whole, depending on the moon's passing the meridian. 

Here we are able to fix a certain mean number, by means of which 
the time of high water is to be calculated beforehand, totally different 
from the course of the tides within the Javanese sea, which cannot 
be traced to the common rules ; they rather are governed by the locali- 
ty, the position of the sun, and the monsoons dependent on it. 

We may however state, that in the Javanese sea high water is 

only once a day, and that besides these, long tides, or rather rises 

and falls, which of more or less duration last together somewhat more 

than twenty-four hours. Small or short tides prevail, whose very 

regular return depends on several causes, especially on the monsoons 



316 Succinct Review of the Observations of the Tides, Sfc. [No. 1 12. 

and the sun's solstice. They may perhaps be subjected to a certain 
rale ; because the natives of this Archipelago are able often to foretell 
with great exactness the return of the small tides. 

Although (notwithstanding the irregular return of the hour of bigh 
water) at new and fuU moon at the same place, the tides generally 
return at the same hour ; yet these cannot be fixed a mean number for 
the different stations upon this sea. 

In general annual (although irregular) retardation of the daily period 
of the high water, which appears also to depend on the sun's solstice 
like the short or middle tides, is a singular character of the Javanese 
sea, or perhaps of all seas situated within an Archipelago. 

Besides, it must be noticed, that the streams are still more irregular 
than the rise and £edl of the water, and much depends on the prevailing 


E. Lucas, 

Bear Admiral, Commander offf. M. Navy 

in East India, and Impector of Ike Navy, 

Bjf order of the Rear Admiral, Commander of His 
Mufesty's Navy in East India, and Inspector offheHavg, 

W. Djb Constant Rebkcqux, 

Adjutant and NamU LiexUmL 

in the year 1839. 


SUtio^ion. * Velocity. 

Pulo ^• 

' i 


2. mon- 

Fort ^ N.E 
1 S.W. 

' i6h. or 



Little to 2k. 

Onru^i flood tide stream. 


K-laD^n the rise, and Westward 


Xapa^, but it is very irregular, 

Criiai and on the fall Westerly. 


The tideb regularly lofte 12 hours in a fortnight, 
the flood alone the coast runs to N. W., the ebb to 

The tides regularly lose 12 hours in a fortnight ; 
the stream along the coast runs to the East during 
the East monsoon. 

The tides regularly lose 12 hours in a fortnight ; 
ebb and flood run in an opposite direction uong 
the North coast of the Bay. 

Durinff the East monsoon it is always high 
water at 2 p. m. or in the evening; during the W. 
monsoon a. m. or in the morning. 

During the East i^onsoon it is always high 
water at p. m. or in the evening; during the West 
monsoon at a. m. or in the morning. 

During the East monsoon it h flood tide always 
in the morning, and in the West monsoon in. the 

During the E. monsoon the flood tide comes in 
the mommg, and in the W. mOnsoon in the evening. 

During the East monsoon the flood tide comes 
in the evening ; during the West monsoon in the 


of the greatest rise and fall of every month be taken, it is somewhat less. If 

\ral of the Naty in East India, and Inspector of the Navy, 


Adjutant and Naval Lieutenant. 


Journal kept while Travelling in Seislan, By the late Capt Edwabd 


I left Herat on the 1 lib of Augast 1839 in progress to Seistan. All 
, „ . the papers and credentials with which I had been 

famished by H. M. Shah Shooja and Mr. Macnagh- 
ten having been stolen from me near Herat, Mijor Todd wrote out 
p . I a new list of instructions for my guidance, and 

Appendix 1. procured letters of introduction to the chiefs, through 

whose country I should pass, from H. M. Shah Kamraun and his 
Letters of Intro- Vuzeer Yar Mahomed Khan. He also gave me 
auction. letters from himself to the several chiefs. 

The vuzeer appointed two persons of influence and respectability 
to accompany me into Seistan, or as far as I might judge con- 
venient; they were to receive no fixed salary; but I promised to 
^ reward them according to their services and utility. 

Both were accompanied by a few horsemen. 
I had also as an escort, an Ishaukzye, named Sultan Khan, with 
six horsemen, who had been made over to me at Candahar by H. M. 
Shah Shooja. 

The vuzeer sent me before I started a handsome horse, and what 
was more valuable, one of the five mules which were captured from the 
Persians during the siege. This animal was worth at even Herat 360 Rs. 
We reached Subzawar on the evening of the 15th; when about a mile 
from the town, we were met by a messenger from the governor 

(Syed Mahomed, a son of the vuzeer Yar Mahomed 

S 11 D zft wftr 

Khan,) who conducted us to a garden house, which 
had been prepared for our reception. On reaching this, we found 
seated, waiting for us, a Persian gentleman, a sort of mentor to the 
joung lord ; the Sheeghaussee, and several other well dressed persons, 
who repeated *^ You are welcome, you are very welcome,'' a hundred 
times ; a zeajut followed of forty sheep, and attah, barley and ghee suffi- 
cient for my whole camp for six days. Till late at night, message after 
message came from the sirdar to inquire if I was tired, if my brains 
were clear. 

320 Journal kept while traveling in Seistan, |^No. 1 12. 

16th. — This morning I was hardly up, before the sirdar visited me, 

with a long train of followers ; he sat a fatigoingly 
long time, talking nothings. He talks so fast, that 
his servants even confess that they only understand half he says, and 
as he mingles a large proportion of Pushtoo with his Persian, I found 
some difficulty in following him: he has a pleasing appearance and 

I rode out in the evening ; the town is a poor collection of huts, but 

in the fort are some twenty houses of Hindoos, who 
To^"^*'°^ °^ ^^ are perhaps the most contented of Shah Kamraun's 

subjects ; not that they are better treated than the 
rest, but that the oppression to which they are subjected seems less, 
and tolerable in comparison with what they dread from Sheah intoler- 
ancC; should the Persians gain the ascendant 

On my return home I sent my head Mirza, Mahomed Juher, to 
the newly-discovered Prince, with respectful messages, and ^n apology 
for not calling, on the plea of my being a traveller, having nothing 
fit to present, &c The fact was, my tosha khanth was not large, and 
it was necessary to husband my resources. 

The prince at Subzawar is the youngest son of Shah Kamraun, and 

is named Zemaun. One of these princes is attached 

ShahzadehZemaun. i. j ^i. i r au i. -»- 

to every government under the rule of Shah Kam- 
Condition of the Tdxm^ to assist in the administration of justice, since 
pnnces. ^^ ^^^ |^^^ ^ Puddozye could execute a criminal with- 

out fear of retaliation. When the real governor wishes to punish an 
offender, he sends him to the prince, who, dressed all in black, in the 
robes of punishment, poshaki gauzub, himself superintends the execa- 

tion ; besides the more usual punishment of cutting 

off the ears and lips, slitting the nose, &c. tortures 
of several kinds have been common. 

Syud Mahomed paid me another visit in the afternoon, as I had 
announced my intention of pursuing my journey to-morrow. He shewed 

me a letter from his father, begging that I would 
Ma^ome? K^ permit one HubeebooUah Khan to accompany me to 

Seistan, that he might through my influence par- 
chase grain, which at present he said, from Shah Pusund Khan's being 
unfriendly to him, he could not do. He also requested, that I would 

1841.] Journal kepi while travelling in Seistan. 321 

make over any grain, I could buy on tbe public account to the same. 
To the first proposition I made no objection. HubeebooUah I knew 
to be a man of character and respectability ; he is an Ishaukzye, and 
son of the Mir Akbar of Shah Zemaun ; and as he was well acquainted 
with Seistan, where he had Uved for more than a year as the agent of 
the Herat government^ I thought he might prove useful. 

On taking leave of the governor I presented him with a pistol of 

small value, and a shawl, apologizing for the poor- 
M^omed^^. ^^^ o^ ^e P^^ ^J ^peating, what 1 had been re- 
peating, since I arrived but without much efiect, that 
I was travelling as a mere private individual, and uninvested with 
political authority. Syud Mahomed expressed himself quite satisfied 
with the ofiering, and sent me two sorry horses in return ; he also 
pressed a few more horsemen on me, as the road between Subzawar 
and Turrah was not accounted safe. As I was mounting my horse, a 
person slipped a letter into my hand and slunk away ; it was from 
the prince, begging me to mediate with Major Todd, that his allow- 
ance might be increased, and wishii^ me a pros- 

Princc.^'**"* perous journey. Our road lay on the banks of the 

river Adrascund, which shewed traces of having been 

once richly cultivated ; but at present they are covered ^ith grass and 

weeds, on which large numbers of sheep, camels. 

Leave Subzawar. ° *r/ » 

horses, and cows were feeding. We made a detour to 

visit the ELillah Duchter, celebrated in the traditions of this part 

of the country; but were not repaid for our trouble. The Killah 

Duchter is a small ruined fort on the left bank of the Adrascund, 

,^.,, , ^ ^ where that river turns the hills, and on the extreme 

Kulah Duchter. 

edge of these hills is built, just opposite the other 
fort a wall and parapet, now in ruins, with a high tower in tolerable 
preservation, and which is seen for miles. This last is the Killah 
Pisur, and the son and daughter used to nurse each other with 
mutual sieges. While we were sitting on the tower of the Killah Pisur, 
which commands a fine view of the plain below, we perceived a horse- 
man trotting towards us from the town. It appeared that a boy, the 

slave of some person about the sirdar, had ran away 
Runaway Slaye. 

and had taken service with one of my followers. The 

moment the horseman approached, the poor boy went without saying a 

322 Journal kept while travelling in Seistan. QNo. 112. 

word towards him, and jumped up behind him ; the man not even halt- 
ing, turned his horse, and trotted back again to Subzawar with his 
reclaimed property ; for there was no time to interfere if even I had 
the will to do so. 
From Subzawar to Imanet, the villages are inhabited by mixed 

tribes of Durances ; but between Imarut and Jaigee, 
the population is entirely composed of Goorazye 
Moorzye. We met on the road a pleasing sight, — some few Kheils re- 
turning from the south to re- settle in their old lands in Subzawar. The 

Dlehikzye Kheil, with whom T was so near being ob- 
liged to fight at Ahinuk, as related in a former re- 
port, had also just returned to their ancient habitations, laded it was 
said with spoils, of which a part was the Company's camels. I re- 
ported this last circumstance to Major Todd, not thinking the present 
a prudent time for me to stir in the matter. 

At Jaya two gentlemen, who were travelling towards Laush on their 
private affairs, requested leave to accompany my party. One was the 
son of the old Moorzye lord, so well described by Mr. Elphinstone, 
Ahmed Khan ; the other was a relation. Dost Mahomed Popukye, a 
person well known in the modem history of Herat ; they both shared 
in the general ruin which has fallen on all men of rank under the 
rule of Yar Mahomed Khan, whose policy it has always been to allow 
the clans subject to Herat, to be without a head ; so that there should 

. . , . ^ ^ be no one of influence in the country but himself and 

Joined by two Du- ^ 

ranee gentlemen. his immediate adherents. Though I could not bat 

fear that the two nobles came to beg, it was di£Ei- 
cult to refuse giving them the protection they asked for, particularly 
as a few miles from Jaya we had a few hours before met two different 
parties who had been robbed by the lawless inhabitants of the hills. 
Their followers did not consist of more than eight horsemen, so we bid 
them all welcome, and assigned them their station in the camp, they 
agreeing to share in the fatigue of keeping watch at night, in which 
every person with me, of whatever class he might be, took his part. Our 
watches were not indeed kept with the silent decorum of a European 
camp, though perhaps in a manner equally effectual. Several parties 
N' ht t£h. ^^ ^^^^ ^"^ threes sat round fires in different quar- 

ters, and kept themselves awake by singing songs. 

1841.] Journal hepi while travelling in Seistan. 323 

verses of which were taken up by one party from the other ; and by 
calling out to each other at the top of their voices, kosheary << be watch- 
ful," every five minutes. 

You leave the valley of Jaya by a narrow pass, which runs at right 
angles to it, and enter a barren plain called Baboor ; as you approach 

the Bobehi Barran hills, you find the whole country 
Approach Furrah. ^^y^jg^ ^jj^ ^ beautiful grass, 80 that you may sup- 
pose it a meadow in England. But this grass, which is called heertahy 
has some property noxious to cattle, and is therefore useless. After 
this, you come upon the valley of the Purrah road, which was, and 
should be, one mass of cultivation ; the banks of the river presented 
a lively appearance of green gardens, of villages, and fields. 

We now crossed through miles of ruined walls, and did not meet one 
Its desolate ap- iiihabitant till we were quite close to the town. When 
pearance. ^^ Candahar sirdars retired, and the present governor, 

Futteh Khan, was sent to occupy the fort, a scene of desolation presented 
itself to him, which I cannot describe better than in his own words : — 
'< I went to the top of the castle, from whence there is an uninter- 
rupted view for miles ; through all the wide space below me, I could not 
perceive one human being or the smoke of a single fire." The few peo- 
ple he had with him actually lived on the grapes, which were the only 
things the Candaharees had not destroyed. They dried and made sugar 
from them, and sent them to Baudan and other places around, getting 
grain in exchange. We halted on the evening of the 21st on the banks 
of the river, about two mUes from the town ; the next morning Futteh 

Mahomed Khan, who the evening before had been 
amusing himself with the munzud bauzee at a village 
some eight miles off, but who the moment he heard of my arrival left 
his betrothed to come and meet me, rode up with a few followers, and 
escorted me to a wretched mud house in the fort, which I afterwards 
learnt was his own residence, which he had vacated for me. After in- 
ducting me into my quarters he took his leave, and shortly afterwards 
sent me whole maunds of delicious grapes, a mule load of melons, and 
provision for four days for my party. People came in to know whether 
this was sufficient, that more would be sent, &c. A respectable person 

was left to attend on my wants, who every half hour 
brought in a cup of tea and a ktdlian. In the even- 

324 Joutnai kept while traveUing in SeUtany QNo. 112. 

ing the governor called again, accompanied by the heads of all the 
Kheils around, who apologized for not having come out to meet me, as 
they had not expected me so soon. I disclaimed all title to such honors, 
but this they evidently considered as mere words of course. The 
room was so small that it was with difficulty all my guests could 
squeeze in. I had heard reports of Khyrmun Meerza having encamped 
outside Subzawar, and of his having sent to Shah Pussund Khan to 
desire him to get ready 60,000 khurtoars of grain, as he was coming 
with an army. *' I have written," said Futteh Khan to Shah Pussund to 
say, '* that if he does any thing of the kind he shall repent of it." This 
flourish was amusing enough to me, who knew the relative situation of 
the parties. There was much talk of the Beloochee chtyapaoing, 
BelooGhee plunder- <^^ Juma Khan, the brother of the Ex-Candahar 
^^S' sirdar, was reported to have been stripped. 

The many stories I heard of the boldness and strength of these 
plundering bands, and the assertion of several people, who pretended to 
have been well informed on the subject, that there was no grain procui^ 
able at Jorodine, determined me to leave eighty camels, (which I had 
^ ^ . J , brought from Herat with me for Major Todd to load 

Determined to leave ^^ '' 

camels brought for with grain for the use of the mission,) at Forrah. 

grain at Furrah. _,, 

This measure, too, might, disarm any jealousy Shah 
Pussund Khan might have perceived by my bringing these camdb^ 
which he might suppose were sent by his rival the vuzeer, and it wodd 
serve to counteract the prevailing notion of my being laden with 
gold, which caused all the beggars to coUect around me from frr 
and near. I was much annoyed with people rushing into my room 
with a large tray, perhaps containing one melon, or getting introduced 
on the plea of business, and then presenting a pair of gloves, or smne sod 

trifle, and begging f<»r shtrfkut^ which literally means 
ive presen s. j^^j^^^.^ ^^ really money. As all the heads of Khob 

had sent me presents of fruits, we had more grapes and mekms thai 
we could have consumed for several days. I asked Futteh Khan how to 
get rid of the nuisance, and if it was the ^' custom" for travellers ts 
be thus taxed ; he said it was all imposition, and mentioned as aa 
example, that when the king of Persia rides out an order is givea 
that no one should make an ojOTering, I of course profited by the lesson. 
Beggars of this kind are sometimes very impertinent and exacting, and 

1841.] Journal kept while travelling in Seistan. 325 

will return the contra-donation, unless they think it sufficiently large. A 
villager brought a sheep to Shah Pussund Khan's &ther : * Give the man 
a choghu/ said the chief to his Nazir. The Nazir took off his own cloak 
and gave it It was old and torn. The villager looked at it, turned 
it over, and putting it down at the Khan's feet, said, " Here, take your 
old choghu, and give me back my sheep.*' 

23rd. — I called on the prince Saudut-ool-Moolk, Futteh Khan having 
Prince Saadut-ool hinted to me that a present was not required. He 

^ * was seated in a small room in the citadel, and made 

me sit down beside him, without any attempt at formality. He was 
coarsely dressed, and had just the air of a Buniah. He is fat, short, and 
jolly looking, and talked much with a loud voice, smiling all the while, 
and this good humoured personage has lately seated himsellon the road 
between Furrah and Girishk, and in company with his brother of Ghore 
amuses himself with plundering passengers.' From the prince I went to 

the governor, whose house was more wretched than 

Governor's house. __ ,, , , ^ ^- ^ • •4. *i. -z 

my own. We walked out together to visit the pits, 
where they were making saltpetre, with which the whole plain of 
Furrah is encrusted. 

The process of extracting it is simple; a platform of wood and 

branches is thrown across a pit, and covered with 
earth scraped from the surface : this is wetted, and 
the saltpetre drips through into a reservoir below, from which it is 
ladled out into bowls, when it is boiled, and left to crystallize. The 
crystals are as clear and shining as amber. Any quantity may be made 
here ; but at present they only collect enough for their own consump- 
tion, from some foolish idea of its being dangerous to sell it to their 
neighbours, who are, or may be, enemies, chiefly from the general Ian. 
gour of commerce in this part of the country. When Shumsoodeen 
Khan was governor of Furrah, he is said to have exported it with much 
advantage to his revenaes, Seistan for example affording a ready market. 
Nothing but common salt having as yet been found there, a little is still 
sent annually to that country from the pits. We ascended to the top of 
the citadel, and a more melancholy prospect it would be difficult to 
View from the ci- ioa^ue ; of the fort I have sent a pkn to Major 
**'*®^- Todd. The walls are of considerable thickness, 

except in the S. W. face ; the inside of the fort contains only some 


326 Journal kept while travelling in Seisian. [[No. 112. 

twenty bouses with domed roofs built of mud, with the exception of 
perhaps three rather larger places, such as the one I lived in. 

In the centre is a pond of stagnant water, which the inhabitants have 

not enerey enough to drain off, thoush it is the 

Unhealthiness of « ^ 

Furrah. cause of much unhealthiness, and numbers of peofde 

fall victims to fever and ague when the plain is 
inhabited. The rest of the fort is occupied by the mounds raised for 
salt-pits ; some in use, others deserted. Round two or tiiree sides ol the 
fort were the ruins of the town, now containing no inhabitants, nearly 
all of them having fled to Laush. There were no Hindoos, no shops. You 
could not have purchased a rupee's worth of grain. 

24th.— The sirdar proposed a pic nic to a celebrated Hindoo place 

of pilgrimage, called the Bebehi (a corruption per- 
haps of Bebe) Baran, of ike raining laefy^ in the hills 
N. of the town, or and about twelve miles off. A spring from the heights 
above is discharged upon a large table rock, projecting from the side 
of the hill, through which the water filtrates, dropping Hke rain for a 
space of about fifty feet. The effect is very beautiful. On a small level 
space just above the dripping rock, a Biindoofakeer had statiobed himse^ 
and supported by numerous pilgrims, who flocked to him, had lived 
there fourteen years. His visiters built him a very comfortable house 
of two rooms, and outside was a clear place for bathing, a space set 
apart for his cooking, and even a little garden. The Bebehi Baaran is 
situated at the end of a gorge, which on the Persians raising the siege of 
Herat, the Furrahees fortified against the Candaharees, who had posses- 
sion of their fort. The soldiers annoyed the hermit, or perhaps the 
earthen vessels for grain which are remarked round his chamber were 
not filled so regularly in those troubled times — he left his retreat. 

I afterwards met him in Seistan; he was a young man still, not forty. 

XX. , X. . He came to me, as a brother Hindoo, to hes the sift 

Hindoo Fakeer. > --"^ 6 

of five rupees, to take him back again to his old 

house, where he says he intends to pass the remainder of his days. I 
gave him what he wanted, and I afterwards learnt that he has onee 
more taken possession of his house on the Bebehi Baran. 

25th. — ^The two nobles who had accompanied me from Jaujer, sent 
Dumiss my two ^^ ^^7' ^^^^ ^^ ^ would only feed them, they would 
^^^' follow me into Seistan ; there were reasons for not 

1841.] Jowmal k^t wkUe travelUng in SeUtan. 327 

acceding to this ; one of which I may mention, that Ahmed Khan's son 
had some demand to make on Shah Passond Khan, and he thought 
that his being in my saite> would ensure its bdng granted. I therefore 
declined the offer, on the plea of wishing to be as private as possible, 
and not to incommode my generous hosts with a larger camp than 
was necessary. I had been sending them a few sheep and grain and 
fruit out of the superfluity which Futteh Khan and others had forced 
upon me, and through Mahomed Taher, had intimated to them, that I 
had only money sufficient for the expences of the road. I now sent a 
parting present of food for two or three days, and consigned them, 
in the Afghan fashion, to God. 

Mahomed Seddie Khan, one of the persons sent with me by Yar 

Mahomed Khan, had been since odr arrival at his 
KhiS'duiiiBs^eS^*"^ home, a viUage not fer from Furrah. I learnt to-day 

by chance, that this man had a blood feud with the 
chief of Toojk, a place we have to pass on our road to Laush. I im- 
mediately dispatched a letter to Mahomed Seddie, telling him that he 
must take hb leave of me here^ and requesting him to send me some ser- 
vant, or to come himself, for his hhillut. The Cosssid brought back a 
reply, that Mahomed Seddie was coming in person to answer my letter. 
This evening we heard from a traveller of the flight of Dost Ma- 
homed, and the occupation of Caubul. 

The governor called to wish me good bye, as I was to start for 
Laush in the morning, I gave him some gay pieces of cloth, which I 
heard would be acceptable to him, for the lady he was courting ; he 
sent me a horse worth about fifty rupees. Before he took leave, he 
oidered his attendants out of the room, and begged me to intercede 
with Major Todd in his £eivour, that he may not be turned out of his 
government. '^ I have no heart now," he said, ^* to make any improve- 
ments ; for the moment I have made the appointment worth holding, that 
villian Dyn Mahomed Khan, who has the ear of the vuzeer, will be 
sent to supercede me." Futteh Mahomed Khan is a relation of vuzeer 
Yar Mahomed EJian, and is known to us as the envoy who was sent 
from Herat to Teheran. He is a thin, yellow complexioned, insignificant 

looking personage, with a very timid manner, indica- 
KhM?^' °^ ^"**®^ tive of his character, as it was the booiy he de- 
fended, upon which the Persian assault was made at 
the siege of Herat. He has since enjoyed, and makes the most of a 

328 Journal hqU whUe tratfelUng in Seisian. [No. 1 12. 

reputation for bravei^ ; but it is said that on the day of the storm he 
was actually running away, when a young Furrahi seized him by the 
arm, and unconsciously making use of a famous expression, said, " The 
enemy are not there." 

Futteh Khan is, however, a very pleasant companion ; any timidity of 
manner soon wears off, and he has all the polish and address of a 
Persian. His kindness and polite attentions to myself, (not to mention 
the profuse hospitality, for which however the vuzeer of Herat, and not 
Futteh Khan, is to be thanked,) I must confess somewhat blinded me 
as to his real character, which I only discovered at Joroaine, when I 
was thrown among the exiled Furrahees. They perhaps exaggerated his 
demerits ; but it would appear that on his assuming the government of 
Furrah, he persecuted the few inhabitants that still remained in the 
district, on the plea of their having joined the enemy, and thus con- 
tributed as much as the Candaharees themselves, to the desolation of 
the province. 

26th. — We were hardly outside the walls of Furrah, when a letter was 

brought from Shah Pussund Khan to say, that on 
Letter from Futteh account of the danger of the road, he had sent out 


some twenty or thirty horse and foot to meet me at 
his frontier, and that he had prepared a room for me in his house. We 
were catching fish with coculus indicus in the river at Barundnk, 
where as the name implies, there is a water-fall, and a deep pool famous 
for its fish, when we were disturbed by a mounted party. This was the 
escort sent by Shah Pussund Khan, headed, by a person called the 
Shatighfmsseey (because he had formerly served in that capacity to some 
prince at Turrah, Thenazis, and other respectable people.) The Shau- 
ffhoussee apologized for the absence of the Khan's grandson and for 
the paucity of the horsemen ; the young Khan and all the horse they 
could muster, having gone only a few days before to take possession of 
Killah Rab. As we approached Toojk, we could have counted its veiy 
inhabitants, for I suppose there was hardly a male who had not come 
out to see the first real Feringee who had ever visited them. Yi- 
kovitch they consider, what he called himself, a Cossack. We marched 

into the town in a ludicrous sort of procession ; nu- 
merous old women kept throwing water at me, as 
a symbol of welcome; and to keep off the evil eye, beggars burnt in- 

1841.] Joumai kept whik travelling in Seistan, 329 

cense under my horse's belly ; little boys with long sticks in their hands 
were continually crying, " Remember the poor scholars," talib ul- 
ilm ; and a testy fakeer walked just before me, and made my horse 
jump every minute by calling out, ya huk. The custom of throwing 
water I saw in no other place but in the Laush territories; it re- 
sembles the presenting the '* rullus" of Rajpootanna. They have ano- 
ther mode of welcome peculiar to Laush. When a new governor arrives, 
they tie a cow to a platform, which is carried on men's shoulders a 
few miles on the road ; while the chief is coming a man, stands on the 
platfrom with a knife in his hand, calling out '^ Shall I kill, shall I 
kill?" Ifthe governor says, "Kill," they prophecy he will be a tyrant. If 
he spares the animal, they escort him with great joy and acclamation to 
his house. The governor of Toojk, Khan Ishaukzye, named Jaun Ma- 
homed Khan, met him before we reached the town; we sat on a carpet 
under a tree while the tents were pitching; all the house tops and 
branches of the trees around us being crowded with people eagerly gaz- 
ing at us, and bursting into laughter every now and then, at the strange 
dress of myself and the sergeant. Jaun Mahomed, a singularly good- 
humoured-looking and talking person, began the conversation by saying, 
that he had been a rebel for twelve years, and he evidently prided 
himself no little upon it. But said he, ** Yar Mahomed and I are now 
fast friends, and he has just sent me two horses." 

He was very anxious to know, how we could govern Mussulmans. 
<^For instance," he said, ^'suppose you had taken Candahar for your- 
selves, instead of Shah Shooja." After disclaiming the possibility of such 
an event as our taking Candahar for ourselves, I endeavoured to explain, 
that in India we governed Mussulmans according to their own laws, 
with some limitations ; and mentioned as an example the prohibition of 

blood feuds, &c. '^ That may be all very good," he said, 

" but I should like to see any law that would prevent 

me killing a man who had killed one of mine." Hoping to get a little 

quiet, we retired to our tents; but the curiosity of the people could not 

be repressed; a large crowd squatted themselves around the doors, trying 

to peer through the chick to see what we were doing, and every now 

and then some beggar would poke his head in, and whine out, 

Ai berae khoda ! *^ Ah for God's sake." Night only relieved us from this 

persecution ; I became rather alarmed after what Jaun Mahomed had 

330 Journal kq}t wkUe iratfeiUnp in Seisian, [No. 112. 

said regarding blood feuds, that Mahomed Siddie^ who had not yet come 
in or sent his man, might, trusting to my protection join me here, and 
some unpleasant fray might ensue^ in which my name would be nnzed 
up. Sultan Khan reassured me, ^^ that Mahomed Siddie was much too 
knowing to trust himself within the reach of his enemy ; that the 
quarrel was nearly extinct, and propositions for settling it by a marri- 
age had been sent in ; and that as it had lasted 30 years, about an eqosl 
number of lives on each side had cooled it ; they would be unwilling to 
renew the affair by fresh blood ; but of course," he added *' if they meet, 
they will attack each other.'' The two Donranee diiefs who had join- 
ed me at Jaija were halting for a few days at Toojk, having come on 
from Furrah a day or two before me. They were in great distress; two 
of their horses having been stolen, and one having died. I thought this 

a good opportunity of doing a civil thing at a dieap 
ivcawaya otbc. ^^^^ j therefore sent them one of the horses which 

Syud Mahomed Khan had given me. It was a worthless beast, not 
worth its feed ; but I heard that the gift was much appreciated. We staid 
one night at Toojk, which has about one hundred and twenty houses. 
The inhabitants were of the same tribe (Tylshih) as their master, 

Byderzye Ishaukzyes. There were also a £ew of other 
^^ ' tribes, emigrants, and half a dozen chiefs, and altoge- 

ther there was an air of comfort about the place remariuible after ths 
general misery of the country we had been passing through. It has lately 
been made over to Shah Pussund. Jaun Mahomed Khan, who had been 
a most liberal host, insisted on riding out some miles with me. Be 
was accompanied by his son, a young man of about 20, and some five 
or six other pec^le, all his relations ; and all well mounted on horses 
which Yar Mahomed had given the chief on his coming in. We took 
a parting pipe. I threw a choga over his shoulders, and we shook 

That we might get into Laush in good time the next morning, we 
stepped on the banks of the Furrah river, where there was water in 
small pools at Kuriawan Keze, about eight miles from the fort. We 
reached our ground at midnight, and after cooking a rude dinner in the 
A^haa manner, on the ramrods of matchlocks, lay down t» sleep. 
When I awoke in the morning, a man was sitting shivaring bjf 
my bed. To my question, " Who are you ?" he could only answer 

1841.3 Journal kept while travelling in Seistan, 331 

<« They have killed him ; th^ have killed him." ''Killed whom?*' I said» 

starting up in alarm. " Mahomed Siddie." As soon 

Mahomed Siddie. ^u -._ lt ^ ^ 

as we were able to re-assure the trembling wretch 
suiBcientiy to allow of his giying a connected account of what had 
occurred, we learned that Mahomed Siddie, who was desirous of com- 
ing on with me, had determined to. rejoin us by making a detour to 
avoid Toojk; and striking into the road a few miles below, he had 
just reached the road, when he was met face to face by Jaun Mahomed's 
party returning home ; He had but two more with him, his nephew and a 
servant, the man who had come to me. Jaun Mahomed's brother, the 
moment he saw his enemy jumped off his horse and fired his match- 
lock, but missed. Jaun Mahomed called out to let the other party alone ; 
but just at this moment Mahomed Siddie's nephew fired, on which Jaun 
Mahomed's son galloping up, killed him before he could remount, with 
one blow of his sword. The other two fled, and Jaun Mahomed and the 
rest coming up, all dug their swords into the dead body. The last 
circumstance we learnt afterwards ; and such is always the custom in 
similar cases. Somewhat relieved at finding that Mahomed Siddie 
was not himself kOled, (the servant's fright alone having caused him to 
mention his name,) we now consulted how to secure his servant's safety ; 
Cor he was clinging to me for protection, and declaring that he should be . 
murdered by the Ishaukzyes. The Shaughoussee swore that no harm 
should happen to him while he remained with me, and then the man 
consented to accompany us as far as Laush, when he would get a 
present and khillut for his master. As we were riding along ; I asked 

the Shaughoussee, " Is the feud now quenched ; do 
Shah Pussund Khan. ,, «» ▼▼ t i « u. 

you want any more uves r He answered by holding 
out two fingers. Some sixteen lives have been lost in this quarrel. 

We were met at about 200 yards from the fort gate by the Khan, 
l^imself mounted, and his attendants on foot, for all the horsemen were 
either with me or at EJllah Rab ; we dismounted and joined hands, and 
as every one with me had to place his hands between those of the 
Khan, I thought we should never have mounted again. The room 
selected for me was nearly at the top of the castle, and the same in 
which Yikovitch had lived. It was small, not very clean, and but 
poorly furnished ; but to compensate these disadvantages, it commanded 
a view of the plain below, of which we were never tired The fort 

332 Journal h/ept while travelling in Seistan. [No. 112. 

of Jorroaine is about two miles from the rich valley, dotted with villages, 
and the river running close under the walls. From the exaggerated 
accounts of the Heratees, who always speak of Laush as an impregnable 
place, I had expected to find it at least a strong fort It is in fact no- 
thing but a castle, and could soon be reduced by shells, or even storm- 
ed, for it has one weak side. 

The 'appearance of the fort could only be understood by a drawing, 

and unfortunately my views of this and of some 
other places have been, by mistake, left at Canda- 
har. It will be sufficient to mention here, that as the name " Laush" 
implies, the fort is built on the edge of a high '< cliff," immediately 
under which flows the Furrah river ; on the East face it has the 
perpendicular cliff, over which are erected buildings to a height of 
perhaps 400 feet ; a great part of these will, I suspect, fall down 
the precipice in another year, for the water in the spring cuts below, 
weakening of course the upper bank, and already several ominous 
cracks may be observed. I pointed this out to the Khan, and recom- 
mended his turning the stream by a bank from immediate contact with 
the base of his castle ; but he will doubtless forget the advice he pro- 
mised to follow, till half his family are overwhelmed by the M of 
his house. The N. and W. faces are detached from the high]^ 
beyond them by a deep ravine ; but the S. side offers but little ob8tra^ 
tion to a regular army. Laush is an ancient place^ though I do not 
remember its name mentioned in history. The cliff on which it stands 
has many caves cut in it, and there are said to be subterranean pas- 
sages, to which perhaps the women of the garrison could retire in case 
of its being attempted to shell the fort ; but most of these passages 
have neither fallen in, nor have been stopped up. In case it should be 
necessary to take the place, a mine led under only a snoall part of 
the E. cliff, would I suspect on exploding, bring down half the castle. 
Laush and its territories belonged to the Vuzeer Shah Wallee ; it was 
destroyed by Timoor Shah, and remained desolate tiU taken possessioa 
of and rebuilt by Shah Pussund Khan, on whom it was bestowed by 
Mahmood, when he returned from Teheran. The life of Shah Possond 
Khan would occupy a volume. A sketch of it will not be in appropri- 
ate here, as his actions and character have frequently been misrepre- 
sented. There are three principal families among the Ishaakzyes, 

1841.] Journal kept while travelling in Seistan. 333 

wiiich will be best understood by a diagnun. This diagram will 
also senre, to explain mach of the ensuing narative : — 

hhaukzyee Juxoefimr principal dimsians, 
HAWAzrxs. Teroztss. Mundubztss. Ioztss. 

Shudoonzyes, Zadinzyes. Ahmedzyes. 

Shah Passund Khan; Muddut Khan ; Meer Af- Kohun Dil Khan; 
Ahmed Shah's Gene- zul Khan ; Dila Sar Hadgi ; Selah Mahomed Khan, 
ral, his family in po- Dost Mahomed Khan ; Wull (vulgarly called Sauloo) 
verty at Candahar. Mahomed, present head. side of Shah Pussund 

derived from Shah Ma- 
homed Goolsar Khan, 
governor of Feraria, at 

Russool Khan, with • Abdool Hu- Abdool Ma- Mahomed Siddiek 
King of Persia; Ah- beeb, blind at jeet, service Khan, a child; Maho- 
med Khan, governor Laush. of Shah med Hussein,a child; a 
of Killah Rab ; his Shooja at mother ; a daughter of 
mother, a daughter Candahar. Khan Jehan Khan, 
of Shah Pussund Kn. 
broliier of Khan Je- 
han Khan of SeLstan. 

Ahmed Shah, when after the fashion of the Ghilzees he portioned 

out the offices of his household among the Douranees, and made them 

hereditary in particular families, assigned four appointments to the 

Ishaukzyes : Mir Aspaha, master of the horse ; Purawal, leader of the van ; 

I>arogha of camels ; and Mir Shikar, chief huntsman. The grandfather 

of Shah Pussund Khan, (Rumal Khan,) was Mir Aspaha of Timoor 

Shah^ as was Ruheem Dil Khan of Shah Mahomed. Saleh Khan 

followed Mahmood in his wanderings in Tartary ; but alarmed at the 

murder of his clansman, Meer Alum, went over to Shah Shooja, as 

related in Conolly's Travels^ vol, ii. p. 362. 


334 Journal kept while travelling in Seistan. [No. 112. 

Mahmood undentandiDg, doubtless, the tnie motiye for his dewr- 
tioD, wrote him a letter to the following effect : — *' I have made 
you ; if you will not remain with me, do not at least join my enemies." 
Saleh Khan on receipt of this, determined to stand neuter, and went off 
to his fort at Laush. 

Hadgi Feroze wishing to get Jorraine and its dependencies for him- 
self, sent Dost Mahomed Khan Populzye with an army to take it, and 
Shah Pussund, who had no stores laid in to enable him to stand a sicige 
gave up Jorraine, on consideration of being allowed to keep Laush. 
Dost Mahomed soon after, desirous of returning to Herat, insisted on 
Saleh Khan's leaving the neighbourhood, and that Khan, who had no 
power to refuse, went off to Kamraun, who was now governor of Can- 
dahar. The prince received him kindly, and kept him six months ; after- 
wards quarrelling with his manager, (Gool Mahomed Khan Populzye^) 
he gave Shah Pussund his place. In this situation he continued for nine 
or ten years, and Laush and Jorraine had again come into bis possession, 
the garrison having ejected the governor left at the latter by Dost Ms- 
homed, and given the place to the Ishankzyes. 

At the seizure of Shah Pussund Khan at Herat (Conolly, vol. ii. p. 408) 
he led a most eventful life, till the death of Mustapha Khan (Ibid, 413;) 
during that period he wandered from place to place perpetually and 
with much success plotting against Kamraun ; making friends at diffi!^ 
ent times with the rulers of Khaff, Toorbuk, Meshed, &c. He even 
visited Teheran, and was well received by the king of Persia. He 
more than once gained and lost Jorraine, Turrah, Anardurch, and 
Killah Rab ; but he failed to get possession of Laush. 

He was now Kamraun's minister at Herat ; the prince gave inn 
Furrah and Jorraine ; but still with jealous care guarded Laush for him- 
self only. At the request, often repeated, of Saleh Khan, he coDsented 
to sign a paper, purporting that that fort was the Khan's, who pretend- 
ed that his reason for demanding such a document, was to save Ut 
honour in the eyes of his tribe. 

A year had elapsed, Kamraun had forgotten the paper, when all of a 
sudden a messenger of Shah Pussund's arrived at Laush with a letter 
to the governor from the Khan, enclosing the document sealed sod 
attested by the Shafazadah, and requesting the delivery of the fort, ae- 
cording to the tenor of the enclosure to a person of his appointing. Tbe 


Journal kepi while travelling in Seistan, 


governor was completely taken in ; the fort was given up, and Shah 
Possund immediately fled to it ; turned yaghee, (rebel,) and has since 
successfolly resisted every effort to reduce him seven or eight times ; 
and twice in person Kamraun has blockaded Jomdne and Laush. These 
repeated attacks have impoverished the rich valley ; but a few years of 
quiet under Shah Pussund's rule, which is very popular, will render the 
district more fertile and populous than it has been since the days of 
Nowsherwan. The lord of Hak, (for such is the proper name of the 
district,) is now about sixty years old ; in his person he retains none of 
that beauty for which he was remarkable in his younger days, and to 
which, if we may believe scandal, he was indebted for the title to the 

king's favourite. He is very 
lame, which was originally oc- 
casioned by a bullet wound in 
the thigh in the battle of Khoo- 
skh-i-Nukhood, near Candahar ; 
but principally from his having 
been subjected to the torture of 
the tharuih when he was seized 
at Herat. In this torture, the 
victim's foot is fastened to a 
thick wooden pin (driven into the ground) by cords drawn as tight 
as possible over the ankle, a wedge is then hammered into the pin, 
causing by the tightening of the string extreme suffering. It is said 
that the ankle is broken, and that blood, (but this seems false) starts 
out at the toes. 

The address of Shah Pussund is by no means prepossessing, and 
there is a considerable awkwardness and formality in his manner, which 
however wears off, particularly if he has become excited in argument, 
when he speaks with great earnestness, using much gesticulation. 
Though he has been so much among Persians, and speaks Persian flu- 
ently, he appeared alway to avoid talking, if possible, anything but 
Pushtoo. This seems a trifle ; but it is one of those trifles which has 
contributed not a little to his popularity among his countrymen. An- 
other now palpable cause of this popularity is, the simplicity and plain- 
ness, which is the principal feature in his character. He despises show. 

336 Journal hqd while travelling in Seistan. [No. 112. 

When minister at Candahar, though lame from his wound, he would 
never get into a tukhtreuHiny because he said, he was no better than 
any other Douranee. His dress is always plain \ sometimes coarse ; he 
has never since reaching to manhood dined but in public, and the poorest 
persons share his dinner, which is usually composed of only mutton 
broth and bread, but plenty of it My Meerzas felt much flattered the 
first night of our arrival by an invitation to dine with the Khan; but 
on seeing the fare spread for them, they could not taste it, and always 
afterwards avoided as much as possible the honour. 

This simplicity of life, as I have before observed ; these unaffected 
manners ; but above all his hospitality, have gained Shah Pussund Khan, 
the heart of the Douranees. A Douranee in my presence asked an- 
other what made Futteh Khan, the vuzeer, so popular? ^' He was a rob- 
ber, a liar, a tyrant, and addicted to abominable vices." '* One thing 
more," replied the other, " his bread, his hospitaHty." 

The hospitality of Shah Pussund is the theme of praise in all the 

countries bordering on Herat, and what renden it 
the more remarkable is, that he is not esteemed rich; 
nor can he be so, as ELamraun extorted a good deal of money fcom him 
apd his countiy ; for the constant warfare it has been exposed to, can 
have yielded but little. During my stay in his house — ^which circom- 
stances protracted to fifteen days — I could not, though I more tbanonee 
urged him, with all the arguments in my power, induce him to abandon 
the expensive kindness of feeding the whole of my establishment His 
very mode of bestowing his bounty enhances the value of it There is no 
waste, no profusion, every thing is appropriate, and ample. To me a 
dinner was always served up from the anduroon^ and every day different 
sweetmeats were sent in with the compliments of his son. TIm 
Hindus had their grain, ghee, &c. the Mussulmans sheep, — so mack 
apportioned to each man ; even the straw for the horses, for it was a 
scarce article, and was served out by weight. Besides my party, then 
were several others, who were all entertained in the same style. There 
were the servants of Alladad Khan, who accompanied Vikovitchto 
Teheran and died there, who were conducting the taboctt to Candahar. 
They had been robbed in Seistan, and had fled to Laush for assistance 
and redress. There was the famUy of Jooma Khan, brother of the 

1841.] Journal hqpt while travelling in Seistan, 337 

Candahar sirdar, who had been robbed while returning from Beeijund; 
and whose family Shah Pussund sheltered, having sent out a party to 
faring them in as a friend. The son of Ahmed Khan had also ar- 
rived, and an elehee from Meshed, and several others of less conse- 
qaence, not to speak of some lady guests, who were dependent, was evi- 
dently an every day matter. It did not create the least bustle or confu- 
sion. My host used always to visit me morning and evening, sitting for 
about an hour, always in one position, (which like Baber's uncles* 
he never changes,) that called the dayanu. He was generally accom- 
panied by a crowd and by a pet child, whose mother — a daughter of 
Khan Jehan ELhan-^had died a few days before I arrived. He had been ' 
much attached to her, and frequently spoke to me of his loss. I took an 
early opportunity of offering him, on the part of the envoy and minister, 
a diamond ring, and a shawl, and of presenting my credentials and let- 
ters from Major Todd. Shah Kamraun's introduction I thought might 
as well be in my desk, nor did I through my journey find it politic to 
present any of those I had received from him or from Yar Mahomed Khan. 
Saleh Khan at once acceded to my request of procuring grain for 
Major Todd, and in a few days the camels were brought from Furrah ; 
and with some more hired ones were sent to Herat» loaded with 
wheat and barley, which was however procured with much difficulty, 
and had to be scraped together by seers at a time. In a (acknow- 
ledged) letter to Miyor Todd, I have detailed all the conversations I 
held with the Khan on political matters, and the earnestness with 
which he expressed his good will- towards the Shah of Cabul, and the 
English government, and explained the necessity which had forced 
him to have recourse to the alliance of Persia. I need here, therefore, . 
say no more on this subject, and will again continue my interrupted 

August 30th. — The Khan this morning brought in a small bag, and 
told me he had a favour to ask of me. He had been over-looking the 
property left by his wife above mentioned, that he might lock up any 

thing of value for the after-use of her son, and had 

Sn&ke stone. c«i 

discovered, he said, a bag of precious stones. " She 

got them, poor thing, probably after some chuppao : what the greater 

* See Baber's Memoirs, p. 20. 

338 Journal kept while travelling in Seisian. [No. 1 12. 

number are I do not know ;" added he, ''but one of them is I am con- 
vinced a puzur, preserver from stings, or snake-stone ; now just tell me 
what they are all worth ?" The bag on being opened, was found to 
contain nothing but a parcel of agates, cut into different shapes, and 
what evidently once formed the stock of some itinerant seal-cutter. 

He had been so long opening the strings of the bag, that my curiosity 
had been warmed, and on perceiving the contents, I perhaps rather too 
bluntly exclaimed, that they were not worth a rupee. Saleh Khan 
seemed much disappointed, and only half-convinced ; he carefully pat 
the stones into the bag again one by one, only reserving one red one, the 
puzur ; "And this ?" said, he, holding it out (" for God's sake" whispw- 
ed Mahomed Tuher, "say it is something curious;") but I thought 
it wisest to speak truth, and told him, that snake-stones were now 
found to be mere fallacies. He replied, " That is all nonsene ; that the 
puzur cures snake bites is a well attested fact. It was found in the belly 
of a deer, and why should it be there if it was of no use ? Besides yon 
can easily see if this is o, puzur or not, for if it is the real stone it will 
sweat on being put into the sun.'' A plate was actuallysent for, and the 
agate placed in it, and exposed to the sun, and the Khan, though soon 
doubtful of this identical stone being the puzur, believes as firmly as 
ever in the real one. He now put into my hands a small box, which I 
found contained the watch which had been sent to him by Mr. Macnaghtea 
three months before. " I would not open this/' he said, " though they were 
very curious up there" (pointing to the Zenana, which is on the highest 
part of the castle,) "to see what was in it,forfear of spoiling it, and as I 
knew you were coming". He was much pleased when he had learned 
to open and wind it up ; the last of which he would, all I could say, do 
every half hour, and then send the watch to me, saying it would not wind. 
The ignorance displayed on this occasion by Shah Pussund Khan at 
first surprized me. I had expected from his intercourse with Persiani^ 
that he would have been better informed on European matters than his 
countrymen ; but the little of our science he has picked up in his travdi^ 
half.learnt and half-understood, has only served to confuse, and not to 

He thought (and it is a popular belief in Khorassan,) that all the 
Russian gold money was found ready coined every Christmas-day at 
the bottom of a well, which is previously filled with baser metal. Some- 

1841.] Journal kept while travelling in Seistan. 339 

body having tried to make him midergtand the extraction of sugar from 
beet root, he has impressed his whole neighbourhood with the notion, 
that Russian sugar, which they always see in loaves, grows in its pri- 
meval shape like a carrot One of my most acceptable visitors was 
the blind son of my host. He is not yet thirty, and has been blind 
some 12 or 13 years ; one eye has been entirely destroyed by the lancet 
of some Candahar practitioners ; from the other he can see a little, 
and it might I think be cured by couching. I wish indeed to bring him 
with me to Caubul, that some of our occulists might look at his eyes; but 
having thought of trying to cross the Ghore mountains, I feared his 
helplessness in such a region, and only pressed him therefore to go at 
once to Herat and take the advice of the doctors there. Like the most 
educated blind persons, he has a mild placid address, and a very reten- 
tive memory, and it was from him that I learnt the greater part of his 
Other's history. He asked me to dinner, and the Khan, for once in his 
life, consented to be of the party. The host on this occasion would not 
sit down with us, but stood at the door, superintending the relays of 
dishes till we had all finished. 

I mentioned to Shah Pussund my desire of paying my respects to 
the governor of Jorraine ; he evidently was unwilling that I should go 
there, but did not well know how to put me off. He sent one or two 
persons privately to persuade me that the visit would look odd ; that 
Goolzar Khan was a mere cypher, and uf course there was a ready 
answer to such arguments. I have a letter to present, and must go. 
He was, I believe, fearful lest old Goolzar Khan, who is not on very 
good terms with his nephew, and who had all the garrulity of age, 
might speak to his disadvantage, or perhaps let out things he might not 
wish me to know. At last, however, I set out. I was met as usual by 
a large crowd, and by an isHkbal of three or four of the old man's sons, 

and Goolzar Khan himself came down from the fort 
on foot to receive me, though he cannot walk with- 
out difficulty. He evidently was delighted to see me his guest ; he 
began to fear that I should pass him by, and his honour was concerned 
in the matter. Somebody had also told him, that I would not make 
myself understood in Persian ; but when he found that I enjoyed his 
stories of the old times, he told them with all the pleasure one receives 
from finding a new auditor to an old tale. He is a fine old gentle- 

340 Journal kqH wkUe travelling tn SeisUm. [No. 112. 

man, of about eighty, and his whole life has been a series of adven- 
tores. He was very funny and amusing : ^* There^ bring the SaMb a 
kullion. I suppose you smoke welL In my younger days not one of us 

smoked) but those Persians have infected us ; very well, and how 

is my friend the vuzeer ? May his house be blasted ! Look at my feet, 
this is his doing." He held up his feet, of which all the toes had giown 
as it were into one. A very few years ago, Yar Mahomed Khan wrote 
to him addressing him as his feither, as the whole hope of the Douraneea^ 
and sending him a Koran in pledge of his sincerity, and pressed him to 
come to Herat, where he should be treated with every distinction. 
The old Khan trusted him and went; he was seized and brought before 
Jorraine, where they beat the soles of hb feet to a jelly with sticks, to 
make him write to his son to give up the fort. 

I spent a very agreeable day, and returned in the afternoon to Laush. 
Jorraine is still a virgin fort, and could always, if well defended, keep 
out any Asiatic force. The walls, which may be about 200 yards in 
length, are very thick and high. The balls of the Heratees made hardly 
any impression on them. It has but one gateway, which is on the 
north face, and would be difficult to be forced. The base of the fort 
is elevated above the surrounding plain. Its weakest point is, that it 
is surrounded on all sides by buildings, so that it can be securely 
approached. The few measurements we were able to get by stealth, are 
mentioned in the Military Memoir^ There is a dry ditch, but it is now 
half filled up. It was, when we were there, the most populous place I 
had seen since Candahar. All the Furrahees were settled round the 
walls in huts or black tents ; their flocks were feeding in the plain ; 
their cows had been sent off to the Humoon. There was hardly a yard 
of ground within the fort not covered, with buildings. I do not 
exactly understand the relative situation of the governor of this fort 
and of Shah Pussund Khan. The latter is the real head ; but he seems 
to interfere little with the affairs of the fort, and when Goolzar Khin 
dies, it is an understood thing that his son is to succeed to the lands 
immediately belonging to the fort, which yields only some 80 Mur- 
wars. Shah Pussund has three parts and Goolzar two. 


Memoir an the Coal found at Kotah, Sfc. with a Note on the Anthra^ 
cite of DuntimnapiUjfy (H. H. the Nixam'e Dominions. J-^B^f 
W. Walkbb, Esq. 2ith April, 1841. 

Note. — In submitting the accompanying Memoir, I have purposely ab- 
stained from giving any opinion either as to the quality of the Coal, the 
practicability of mining, or the likelihood of a large supply of the mineral 
being procurable at Kotah. 

Destitute at this remote place of aU means of forming any estimate on a 
subject on which I must in a certain degree be one-sided and prejudiced, I 
leave to others the dedsion of the intrinsic worth of the artLde, and both 
the other points. I refer to the practical engineer and miner, who alone, 
after survey, &c. are capable of forming a correct judgment 

Yet, I may be permitted to give it as my opinion, that the river merely 
touches the edge of the Coal basin, and to this I am led by the fiict of no 
carboniferous limestone appearing on the other side, or on any of the 
shallows to the right : the dip too of the stratum to the N. £• would appear 
to be favorable to boring on the left bank. The alluvion there, as noticed 
in the Memoir, is about forty-five feet deep, and is a loose soil containing 
few pebbles. I may also observe as favorable to mining operations, that 
the general complaint of the inhabitants along the river is the great 
depth they are obliged to go before water is reached ; this is particularly 
the case in the fort of Seronge, five miles below Kotah. On account of 
this difficulty of obtaining well water, the inhabitants are compelled to 
use that of the river, much against their inclination ; as at certain seasons 
it is deemed by them very unwholesome. 

At Madhapore, there wece brought to me some minerals from the 
bed of the Oodavery at that place, which it required little discrimi- 
nation to decide were> of the nature of slate coal. Upon inquiry I 
found, that after the monsoon at the Dassara festival^ persons employ- 
ed themselves in gathering these minerals to be vended as medicines ; 
and more particularly as charms to keep off the all-dreaded Evil eye, 
for which purpose they were burnt, incantations being said over them 
while inflamed. Their Tellugoo name is aesoorpoorj/, and it is believed 
by some of the natives^ that they were the weapons with which the 


342 Coal found at Kotak, [No. 112. 

gods contended ; while other maintained the opinions, that theyannu- 
ally grew and were thrown off the river's bed, or sprung like the Cytbe- 
rean goddess from the water foam ; but all agreed that it was the 
Pundeetah river that supplied them. I lost no time in proceeding to 
the Sungum of the rivers Godavery and Pundeetah, and upon receiv. 
ing, what I conceived from specimens shewn me, correct intelligence 
of their origin, I ascended the river to a place called Kotah, a small 
Goand village on its banks, about ten miles from the Sungum, and 
twenty miles N. £. of Chinnore; a space of about eighty yards in 
length, and thirty in breadth was pointed out at the edge of the left 
bank of the river, the alluvial covering of which could not be much 
under forty, five feet, and this I was told was the original seat of the 
coal. Upon examination, I found that limestone, more or less argil- 
laceous, occupied this space ; the upper strata were completely dislocated, 
and deranged by the force of the current ; the inferior, however, appear- 
ed more compact and hard, and as far as could be ascertained, dipped 
to the N. £. at a low angle. Seeing that the water must have com- 
pletely denuded these limestones of any shale or coal that may ever 
have accompanied them, I thought of searching a little higher up in 
the bed of the river, and observing a small rock of the aame argilla- 
ceous limestone just above the water, search was made there, when 
coal along with its accompanying shale and bituminous shale was bro- 
ken off from the sides of the rock : this left no doubt as to the existence 
and position of a coal measure. The rock formation in which it is to 
be supposed this coal measure exists, is that where the mineral is usn- 
ally found all over the world, and in India without any exception. Ac- 
cording to the report of the Calcutta Coal Committee, the depth of the 
alluvium, and the circumstance of the outcrop being in the river's bed, 
precluded all possibility of ascertaining the relative position of the 
several strata ; but as sandstone is found on all sides, and towards the 
north at the short distance of two or three hundred yards, it is more 
than probable that here there is no deviation from the arrangement of 
rock commonly found to exist in such cases. As to the sandstow 
itself, I cannot give a better description than in the words of the late 
Dr. Voysey, who travelled over a great part of this country, and must 
have been perfectly familiar with the sandstone formation of the Go- 
davery : — 

1 d4 1 .] Coal found at Kotah. ^43 

^^ The sandstone varies considerably in composition and colour. Its 
variations however^ occur principally in the neighbourhood of its junc- 
tion with the other rocks. Its most common cement is lithomarge, 
^hich is also found in it in nests and beds of various sizes, and of 
colour both white and reddish white ;" and he might have added^ yellow. 
But I am aware any description I can give of the locality and 
of the accompanying strata^ will be deemed deficient by the geologist^ 
without specimens illustrative of both. I therefore proceed to give a 
brief description of those sent. 
Box No, 1. — Contains specimens of shale^ more or less bituminous, 

which were broken off the rock along with the coal. 
Box No, 2. — Contains specimens of shale found in the same situation. 
Box No. 3. — Contains specimens of the argillaceous limestone^ com- 
posing the dislocated and disturbed strata formerly 
described. Some of these blocks are from a foot to a 
foot and a half in thickness, with a surface twenty to 
thirty square feet 
Box No. 4. — Contains specimens broken off from the compact and hard 

limestone, that has resisted displacement by the current. 
One of these will be observed to be water, worn. 
Box No. 5. — Contains specimens of sandstone in the vicinity of the 

coal measure. 
Box No. 6. — Contains specimens'from a neighbouring hill. 

The river at Kotah is one hundred and fifty yards wide, is propor- 
tionably deep, and is always turbid. It contains, at this season at least, 
more water than the Godavery. The country around is jungly ; Kotah 
itself is the first Goand village on that side of the Chinnore Sircar, and 
is a miserable little place. I sent a party several miles up the river to 
discover, if possible, any sign of another coal deposit; but they returned 
without a mineral of any description. About eight miles up the river, 
among the hills at the village of Yenkatapore, there is found brown 
clay iron ore among the sandstone. I did not hear of this until I had 
reached Chinnore, and an opportunity was thus denied me of visiting 
the locality. I send specimens procured from the place in box No. 7* 
This ore was formerly smelted ; but the works have been abandoned ; 
the natives give a good character of the iron produced. The specific 
gravity is above 3. 

344 Note <m Anthracite. [No. 112. 

Note on the Anthracite that formed the etU^ect of my L^ter of ike 

^8eh uUimo. 


An intelligent Mootsuddy, with a couple of peons, were despatched 
to the Jungaum porgannidi, where the village of Duntimnapilly is situ- 
ated, the nearest to the spot where the anthracite was said to he procuied. 
On arriving at Ghinnore, he proceeded in a north-westerly direction by 
Tandoor and Jungaum to Duntimnapilly, which is distant twenty 
miles from the last mentioned town.* The country between Junganm 
and Duntimnapilly is described as particularly wild, with Goands for 
inhabitants. According to his account, the bed of anthracite is situated 
on the bank of a nullah among hills, (I regret that not having a large 
map I can indicate the situation no better,) that it is three feet at its 
greatest breadth, and that it extends upwards of two hundred feet in 
length. I give these numbers with some confidence in their being 
accurate, as he brought a piece of bamboo with him by which the 
stratum was measured. 

Box No, 8. — Contains a carbonaceous sandstone, through which the 

anthracite was said to pass into the micaceous sandstone, 
both above and below. A specimen of the latter is in 
Box No. 9 — I send also further specimens of the coil 
itself. The rock above the mineral was said to be fif- 
teen feet in thickness. It may be added, that this cod 
is esteemed of great value in the United StateSi where 
seven hundred and fifty thousand bushels were sent 
to Philadelphia alone in one year, (Ure's Dictionary.) 
It is there burned in. peculiar grates adapted toitsdiffi- 
cult combustion. It is used also in South Wales for 
smelting iron. 
Chinnobe, 24th April, 1841. 

* Jungaum is 65 miles to the West of Ghinnore. 

Note — I have used the general term sandstone, although there can be 
no doubt from its position, known connexion, extent, &c. that it is the old 
red sandstone; for the same reason, to avoid all theoretical views, I have 
designated limestone by its mineralogical character. It would have been 
easy to have given more learned terms, but my chief object — ^perspicuity- 
might have been compromised by having done so. 


Extract from Proceedings of the Numisma^ Society of London^ 1837- 
1838, on the eomparcUive status of circulating media at different 
periodSf under the Bactrian and Indo- Scythian Kings. 

The number of coins in the different metals, quoted for each reign 
by Mionnet, are affixed in the corrected series, together with that 
of those given by Professor Wilson from the Masson Collection, in the 
three annexed plates. Of the former, the total number is 166, and of 
the latter, 35 ; which, aided by Professor Wilson's remarks, are enough 
for general conclusions regarding the circulating media of the several 
periods, and thus far elucidating the satistics of this portion of history. 

It will be evident that, under the Greek line in Bactria and India, 
silver and copper formed the commercial medium by which the treasury 
was replenished. A single gold coin, and another of potin, are the 
only exceptions to this remark in a series of 105. 

Then follow ninety- six coins of the barbarous successors of the 
Greeks ; displaying a remarkable decrease of silver, and nearly as 
notable an increase of gold. The whole are distributed in the following 
proportions : 





Greco-Bactrian kings, to Eucratidas I. in- 
dusively. b.c. 255 — 125. Monoling. 

GrsecO'Indian kings, from Eucratidas II. 
to Hermseus. b. c. 125 — 0. Bilingual. 

Grseco-Indian kings of the collateral line, 
from HeHocles to Mayes, b.c. 125 — 
A.D. 100. Bilingual 







• •a 




Indo-Scythian kings, who followed the 
line of Eucratidas II. a. d. — 125. Bi. 

Barbarous princes, who appear to have 
followed the collateral Greek line. a. d. 
100 — 225. Mostlv Bilineual 



• «• 










Indo-Parthian kings, who probably follow- 
ed the Indo- Scythians, and gave place 
to the Sassanians. a. d. 125 — 225. Bi. 



Copper ... 









346 Numismatic Socieiy of London, [No. 112. 

By this statement it would appear, that the proportion of ailyer (the 
standard medium of Asiatic commerce in the age of Bactrian independ- 
ence, as at present) materially diminished under the Graeco-Indians, 
until a substitution of potin, probably to make up the deficiency of 
the former, appears in the coinage of Hermaeus, the last of the Greek 
Soters ; while the silver bears scarcely any proportion to the copper 
under the Indo-Scythians and Indo-Parthians, and, at first, altogether 
disappears ; whereas, the potin (which was used in great extent in the con- 
temporary coinage of Parthia), is continued : and this may account for 
the silver drachms of Menander and Apollodotus being then in circulation. 

The deficiency of silver seems, however, to have been compensated 
by an extensive issue of gold, under the first Indo-Scythic princes ; of 
which there are, likewise, many fine unpublished examples in the col- 
lection of the East India Company. 

The conclusion seems forced on us, that the progressive decrease of 
silver under the Greek rulers, indicates a decrease in commercial pros- 
perity, arising from the Scythian occupation, first of Bactria, and after- 
wards of Bactrian-India ; while this appears to be contradicted by the 
gold issue of the conquerors. 

But, as the latter have left no known remains of a coinage anterior 
to their occupation of Bactrian-India, we may infer, first, that the 
mintage of the line of Euthydemus continued in circulation under the 
Bactro- Scythians, as did that of the line of Menander under the Indo- 
Scythians ; and, secondly, that plunder (of the temples ? in connexion 
with the introduction of the Parthian worship, as above), rather than 
commerce, was the source of the sudden riches evinced by the mintage 
of the latter. 

This view will, besides, afford an additional and weighty reason for 
referring the issuers of the gold coinage — the probable invaders and 
plunderers of the Greek provinces — to the head of the dynasty, as the 
immediate successors of the line of Menander ; to which position they 
are equally referred by their imitations of the mintage of Hermseu^, 

found with the coins of that prince, and by the usurped title of 2ci>n|p. 
In agreement with the above, the Indo-Scythic issue would appear 
greatly to have degenerated under the latter princes of the dynasty, 
when their exhausted dominions probably no longer afforded mateiiab 
for an issue in the precious metals. 

1841.] Numismatic Society of London, 347 

The poor mintage of the Indo^-Parthians might have either been a 
continuation of the latter, or of that of the later Greek princes. It 
presents no sadden alteration of currency, like that just alluded to ; 
and, in either case, has the character of a peaceful revolution, or 
change of dynasty. But as we cannot doubt that the paramount 
Greek domination in India, as well as in Bactria, was annihilated by 
conquest, it seems to follow that the change in question has no con- 
nexion with that revolution, but was a natural one, from a Scythian to 
a Parthian dynasty, as inferred in a former note. Such, at least is the 
conclusion forced on us by the present data, which, we may hope 
that the continued researches of Professor Wilson, with whose invita- 
tion to inquiry the present analysis is an imperfect attempt at com- 
pliance, will either confirm or correct. That there were Parthian 
as well as Scythian rulers in India in the Roman age, is evidei^t 
from the names preserved by contemporary writers (see Table I.) 
They are not those of the Indo-Parthians of the coins, and may have 
preceded them. 




Report on the Island o/Chedooha, — Bt Edward P. Halstbad, Esq. 
Commander of her Majesty* s Sloop * Childers.^ 

Division. 1. General Appearance^ History ^ and Division^ Pfige 

2. PopuUUion^ Revenue, Poliee, ^ „ 

3* Scil and Productions , cuUivaied and natural ; Waste 

LtondSf ••••••• ••••• f9 

4. Clitnate, „ 

5. Manners and Customs, Education, Language, and 

Religion, • , „ 

6. Geology, „ 

TFor much of the information under the head of History, Police, ReTenne, Manners 
and Customs, I have been indebted to the kindness, and long residence in the country 
of Captain D. Williams, Senior Assistant Commissioner at Riunree*] 

Division I. 

General Appearance, History and Division, 
The Island of Chedooba measures 15| miles in length, viz. from 18^ 
A(f to 18^ 55^ 30^ N. Latitude, and 17 miles in width, viz. from 93'' ZQf to 
930 47' E. Longitude, and shews on the map as a square the S. W. 
angle of which has been reduced. With its dependency of Flat Island on 
the South Coast, it covers an area of about 300 square miles. Its general 
appearance and character is that of a fertile well wooded Island of mo- 
derate height, and irregular outline. A band of level plain, but little 
raised above the sea, extends around its coasts, of far greater width on 
ibe East than on the West ; within this lies, irregular, low, undulating 
No. 113. New Series, No. 26. ^X 

350 Bepori <m the Island of Chedooba. [No. 113. 

hills, vftrying in height from 50 to 500 feet, enclosing several higher 
detached moands of steep well wooded sides, the loftiest of which, near 
the south part of the Island, rises nearly 1,400 feet. 

The view from the top of these higher summits, presents, immediately 
helow a scattered irregular mass of hills, confined principally to the west- 
em part of the Island, covered with jungle, interspersed with grass plains 
of more or less extent. To the Eastward a hroad flat plain intersected 
with patches of jungle; and sanounding all, lie the cultivated rice 
fields with the different villages on their verge nearest the sea, the coast 
of which to the Westward is every where strewed with broken and de- 
tached masses df rock jutting far out. 

The History of this Island is involved in all the obscurity which at 
present surrounds that of the neighbouring Continent. Under the name 
of Inaon it constituted in the time of the Mug Rajahs, one of four 
divisions of a province known collectively with the other three, Arracan, 
Ramree, and Sandoway by the name of * Preegree.' 

The head authority in each division was then called ' Jah,* and was 
nominated every three years, to prevent any attempt at independence of 
the supreme power by the Rajah of the Province, a matter not difficult 
in time of oppression, confusion, and general disorder. 

On the conquest of the Province by the Burmese in 1784. its divisions 
were still retained, but their names, as well as that of the collective 
Province were all changed. The latter took the name of * Lemroo,* in- 
stead of ' Preegree,' while the name of Chedooba itself was changed 
from Juaon to ' Mekawuddee,' and its revenue assigned to the support of 
the King's eldest sister, condemned to perpetual celibacy, as being unable 
to obtain a helpmate for her. 

The alteration in the names of the Province and its divisions was 
acompanied by a change in those of the authorities. The provincial Go- 
vernor was called * Lemroowrain' or Governor of four countries, a title 
still given to our Commissioner, while * Juoroowan' took the place of 
* Jah,' as designating the head of each division, and is now applied by the 
inhabitants to the assistant commissioners. 

The division of the Districts into Pergnnnahs was also left undisturbed 
by the Burmese, and the head man of each, under the Mug Raj continued 
to be called ' Soogree.* 

Of these Pergnnnahs or circles with their Soogerees, dhedooba is di- 
vided into seven, viz : Ramman, Krae-rone, Fnrooma, Ineubreng, Kyouk^ 
tan, Tang-roa, and Ree-yueng, the latter its dependency of Flat Island, 
on its southern coast. 


1841.] Report an the Island of Ckedooha. 351 

Of these oilHsles, Kammaa and Tang^roa, which diride the whole western, 
•oatheni, and part of the northern portiont of the lelaads^ are the most 
extensive, bat least populous, Kyouktaii the linallest in extent. The 
other three the most prodoctive and p(^alotts, and Ree^qy oeng the best 

Division II. 

Population — Reven «€— Police. 

The population of Chedooba may perhaps, comparatively with the 
neighbouring countries, be looked on as large, by the census of 1839-40 
amounting to 8,534, and when it is considered that this population is 
confined to the strip of cultivated land surrounding the Island, at least 
that portion of the Island will be esteemed to have a fair share of inha« 
bitants. No great increase from census to census is at present observed, 
but as I was informed that formerly the Island possessed a far denser 
population, evidence of which was afforded in the amount of land now 
waste, which had formerly been cultivated. I have no doubt that the 
effect of its present state of comfort and peace must soon develope itself 
in a large increase of inhabitants, who 1 was informed by one party were 
BO numerous before the Burmese invasion that famine was sometimes the 
consequence of the inability of the Islands to support them, a statement 
I think not to be entirely depended on. As there is but little Influx or 
efflux of strangers, the census from year to year, if coirectly taken, 
presents the changes occurring among the actual Islanders. But from 
what I saw, and from a portion of the revenue being derived from a poll 
tax, i incline to think it is greater than the returns shew. 

With exception of a very small community of Burmahs lately estab* 
lished on one of the eastern villages the whole population is Mug. Their 
account of themselves is that they are descendants of parties who 
originally used to cross to the Island from the mainland and Ramree to 
cut wood, and who eventually and slowly settled on it. 

For sometime subsequent to the English possession of the count ry, 
considerable complication prevailed in the district, and partially in 
Chedooba owing to the mutual ignorance of the governors and. governed* 

The mistaken Revenue system mtroduced in 1827 and 1828, have been 
replaced by an equitable and judicious taxation : its present result is 
content, happiness,and peace, its future in all probability an increase in all 
these, in addition to opulence and prosper ity» The revenue is raised from 


Report an the Island of Chedooba. QNo. 113. 

the prodace of the land, and from a light poll tax. There are no 
diffiealties foand in its collection, nor oppression resorted to; ahout25 
per cent, is absorbed by the payment of the collectors, the ordinary 
. native authorities. The Soogree of each circle receives 20 per cent, on 
his collection, the Ruagon or head villager, 4 per cent., and the Roa- 
charee or Village clerk, assistant to the Ruagon, 1 per cent. These are 
also exempted from all taxes. 

Besides the above, there are two or more officers in each village called 
Leedo-gongR, or heads of men, whose negative payment consists in ex- 
emption from taxation. 

There is a native Police taken from among the people. Their duty 
consists in maintaining peace and quiet among the villagers, for which 
purpose some shady tree or bamboo clump is selected in the centre 
of each village, supplied with a bench and sort of small hut, where day 
and night, the Leedo-gong sleeps his watch. In fact in Chedooba hia 
office is a sinecure, theft or plunder are not known, the men are too 
good humoured to quarrel, and I was told that the only call ever made 
on him, was one only occasionally to settle the few little amiable dif- 
ferences sometimes occurring among the ladies of his jurisdiction. 

At the Town of Chedooba there is a small Sepoy Police, their bnsiness 
is to keep up communication with Ramree the provincial capital, and 
act as letter-men in the conveyance of orders, from the assistant com- 
missioner there, to the different Soogrees. 

. I subjoin the official Statistics of Chedooba, for 1839-40 or Mug 
era 1202.— 

Names of Circlet, 

Maoan,. • 


Kreroo, . • 


Requin, . 



. • . . • 

Total, . .. 

Total of iSouls, 











2,510 2,203 





















• • 

s § e 






1,133 844 

.1841.3 Report on the Island of Ckedooha. 3S3 

Division 111. 
Soil and Productionsy cultivated and natural, — Waste Lands. 

Soil and Produce of Cultivated Lands.— The general character of the 
soil of Cheedooba, is that of a light greyish coloured clay, mixed more 
or less with vegetable mould and on the low eastern parts of the Island, 
this admixture again modified with a large proportion of fine sand. 

The cultivated lands do not generally extend quite to the present beach 
of the Island ; between them and it th^re exists, throughout its circum- 
ference a slip of land varying from 3 or 4 miles on the eastern parts of the 
Island, to sometimes less than a furlong on the western, which about 
90 years since was upraised from the sea during our earthquakes. 

This new land is not yet in general cultivation. On the east-north| 
and north-west it is so in part; on the west it is so thickly strewn over 
with stones as to make it probable it never will be. Throughout the cir- 
cumference of the Island, the old beach line which is distinctly trace, 
able, forms the interior limits of the upraised lands. On the eastern 
parte of the Island, where the soil is sandy, a difference between the older 
and newer is scarce traceable. But on the western and northern, the purer 
quality of the clay in the new lands distinctly marks off their soil from 

that of the older. 

Throughout the soils of Chedooba is a large admixture of stones, with 
exception of those of the sandy plains eastward. They are generally 
small angular fragments of a soft; greenish sand stone, and present no 
obstacle to cultivation, (except where large and numerous, as noticed 
above) the effects of ex|K>sure to climate evidently breaking them down 
into rapid composition with the soil 

Large quantities of Coral and Juadreepore are distributed over all the 
upraised lands. The clayey nature of the soils makes them very 
tenacious of the rains, for which reason they are well adapted for the 
construction of tanks, either for irrigation or for the supply of the 
inhabitants. No water for the former purpose is at present required, 
for the latter, sufficient is found during the dry season, in the holes 
of the aullahs, and other natural reservoirs, and in the few springs 
which exist on the Island. The clay base of the Chedooba soils 
contributes much to endue thpm with a great permanence of productions. 

They are not manured for cultivation though under yearly tillage, no, 
is a change of produce, as a relief to the soil, any part of the system of agri. 
culture pursued, nor is the plan of exhausting the soil, and then allowing 

954 Reptnrt an the Island of Chedooba. [No. lia« 

it to b6 fallow for a season, in practice, year by year the same land yields its 
single crop in due season; the areoant which is exacted from it, and to 
which it is fully equal Landa in fallow are observable, sometimes exten- 
lively ; but on enquiry the account always given of them was either that 
they had fallen out of cultivation from decrease of population, consequent 
on long continued political disturbance, or that they were lands cultivated 
for a season by settlers, who had after a time returned to the comma* 
nities whence they had issued. 

From natural causes connected with the charaeter of the soil, and from 
a practice in use among the people, all the cultivated lands are strictly 
speaking subjected to an annual process if not of manuring, yet of an 
addition iBto the body of the soil of that which must greatly tend to the 
same effect. The heat of the dry season covers the face of the- land with 
a tissue of deep cracks, in these the decay of leaves, grass, &c. during that 
season, makes a considerable deposit of vegetable matter. 

It is also customary with ttie natives to bum their paddy stubble, and 
grass lands immediately previous to the monsoon, whose first rains be^ 
fore closing the fissures, wash into them the ashes thus formed — ^with 
regard to the grass lands they are burnt expressly with the view of im- 
proving the future crop, and the same benefit is doubtless effected to the 
rice land by the practice. 

its effect is particularly beneficial to the upraised plains, by assisting 
greatly the decomiH>sition and diRpersion of the calcareous matter upon 
their surface, and which must contribute largely to bring them into a 
cultivable state. To illustrate the gradual effect produced by the above 
meanson these particular lands; it was stated tome by an eye witness 
that the upraised plain of the N. W. part of the Island was 15 years id 
acquiring its first clothing of grass, not only is it now covered deeply by 
that production, but many parts have for years yielded crops oi rice, and 
all might do so. Jungle also is fast forming over it. Some parts of the 
low lands, both new and old, presented a sort of peat soil, still moist in the 
middle of the dry season, and affording luxuriant and green pasture. 
These grassy patches were most observable in the Krae-rone circle, 
which divides, on the north face of the Island, the more clayey soils of 
the west, from the more sandy ones of the east. 

Rice is the staple produce of Chedooba. It is grown on all the level 
lands which form a land of more or less width around the Island, ta 
which at present all cultivation with slight exception is limited. The 
yearly amount of this necessary produce varies, more through the fttfulnest 
of temper of the people, than from any irregularity of the seasons. TN 

1811.} RejxjTt <m the IJand of Chedooba. S56 

revemie claims mast be defrayed with the proceeds of a portion, with 
another poition the family is to be sustained, the overplus purchases the 
necessaries of the family, and with no people is the list of these a smaller 

From the more populous Eastern circles of Krae-rone, Inrooma, and 
Jaeng-'breng* a large quantity of rice is annually exported, partly in na- 
tive vessels, which come for it from Akyab, and' from the western parts 
of the Bay of Bengal, and partly in native boats, which come for it from 
Baoiree, Sandoway, Gara, and sometimes from Bassein. The vessels 
from the westward, and the boats from the eastward generally purchase 
en their own account, the former bartering some few country goods. It 
k common for native merchants, or their agents to visit the Island from 
Akyab, or Chittagong at the season of gathering in the crop, and 
purchase it up from the different villages, giving a certain amount of 
earnest money, when it is ssbsequenUy collected at a convenient spot 
lor shipment, and vessels sent to take it off. I was very anxiously en- 
quired of by two parties, one from Akyab, the other from Ramree, thus 
engaged, as to the prices of the grain's market at Singapore, whither 
both were bound with their venture. A small barter traffic with rice is 
also carried on by the Islanders with their neighbours of Ramree msinly 
for fowls. * 

. The western and less populous villages of the Island are also annually 
visiied to see if they have grain to part with, a circumstance depending 
entirely on the above peculiar temperament of the people. 
. But independently of the superior advantage to the eastern inhabi- 
tants afforded them for a larger rice produce, in the greater extent of 
their plains, they enjoy also the great benefit of having those plains 
Intersected by deep creeks, generally with a bar at the mouth re- 
quiring the assistance of the tide to pass over, but of considerable 
depth within, where country boats of the largest size, may in perfect 
aecurity take in their cargo, in the manner pleasing to both parties, 
quite at leisure. For large vessels also, especially native ones, the 
anchorage in the straits is safer than that on the western coast, on 
which although there is anchorage every where, practicable and safe, in 
the fine season, for such purposes, yet the want of creeks, wherein to 
keep them safe in the monsoon, at present prevents the inhabitants on this 
part from having any boats for shipment of cargo, which must therefore 
be taken off at the risk of the purchasers in their own. The rice of Che- 
dooba is considered of very fine quality ; a considerable quantity was 
tpttrehased for the use of the erew of the * ChUders,' and the native 

356 Repin-i on the Island of Chedooba. [No. 113. 

boats employed with her ; the price given was 1 rupee for a basket and a 
half or 90 lbs., this was cleaned ; grain paddy was at a much cheaper rate. 
Both with regard to soil and produce, what has been hitherto stated 
of Chedooba stands also trae, of Ree-queng or Flat Island, its dependency, 
and close to its southern shore. 

The adaptation of the lands of Chedooda to the culture of rice, over 
those parts where it is now grown, is so dearly shewn by the quantity 
and quality produced, that it would seem hardly to warrant any ezpoeta* 
tion of benefit to be derived from change of produce to be made on 
them, and those of like character. To such a change also the preocen« 
pation of the present lands in this produce, aud the necessity (if prae« 
tieable) of instructing the natives in the village of any new one in its 
place, present obstacles difficult to encounter, if not insurmountable. 

In considering therefore for any general improYement in the agricultural 
value of the Island, as connected with the grain in question, regard can 
only be had to the extension of its culture where practicable, or to an 
improvement in the method of it» if necessary. On this latter point I am 
not competent to speak. On the subject of its extension I may say, that 
by observation made in passing through the country, from four to six 
times, the extent at present under tillage exists as waste land, applicable 
for rice. Limiting its cultivation to' those flat plains where alone it 
ean be extensively carried on, so that, assuming all rice land to be most 
profitably occupied in this production. 

That the method of tillage does not admit of material improTement, 
and also, that of this grain no second crop can be produced in one year, 
and the above estimate would form the greatest probable increase of 
annual value derivable from this source. It might indeed be increased 
if a second crop of other produce could be procurable from the grounds, 

but even for their full occupation in the staple produce, European energy, 

intelligence and capital must supply the means. 

Tobaeeo forms the next principal produce of Chedooba. In general 

its cultivation is confined to small gardens of about a rood each, in the 

immediate vicinity of the villages. 
The gardens are all clearly kept, and a lighter mould with more vege- 

table matter in it, is preferred for their soiL The plants were nmch 

closer together than I have observed them to be cultivated in Syria, 

and the Levant, and I think mnst want light and air in ripening the 

leaf, as well perhaps as room for arriving at full size. 
I found but one spot on. the Island where its cultivation was at all 

extensive ; this was in a small valley about a quarter mile in width, in die 

IS41.} Report on the Island &f Cliedooha. 857 

interior af the Island, sttaated high, and neaT to the large rolcano of 
Ineog4'birew, thoagh in the Inrooma cirele. The soil was an alluvial one 
with a large proportion of clay. A stream ran through the Talley» 
Here were from S to 10 aeres of tobacco gardens, the plants with much 
mote room given to them, and this spot I was told produced the finest on 
the Isluid.' 

- The Tobacco of Cfaedooba is highly prised, and deservedly so. I pro* 
cored a qaantfty of it to be made up intoeigars fat my own nse, and was 
V>th sorprived and gratified to find among these, several of as high and 
delicate flavour as any from the Havannah' which I had ever tasted, and 
for of which, bat for the manufacture, they might have been mis'- 
taken by anyone, not knowing whence they came. The Tobacco of which 
they were made was grown in the neighbourhood of the South Hill, and 
en examining those which gave ench aatisfaction, they appeared to be 
made from leaves larger and riper than moat. ' 

, The native, though never without a cigar from the timie even before he 
can jBpeak, does not smoke pure tobacco ; the stems and roots of the plant 
are cut up into shreds, and with a small proportion of the leaf, enrolled 
with the leaves of a plant supplied from the jungle, in a wrapper of To- 
bacco. He eannot therefore be considered a judge of the quality of his 
own produce, by those who use the purer article. The leaf when gather- 
ed, is dried in the sun, and when dry, strung throngh the stem upon slight 
skewers of bamboo near two feet in length ; these again are woven together 
with one or two strips of the same material into bundles of between 2 and 
^bs. which sell for our rupee each. This is the preparation of the Urger 
leaves, and is for sale, the refuse snpph'es the family stock. 

Hie whole of this produce wliich, from what hds been said, will not be 
concluded to be extensive, is disposed of from time to time along the 
neighbouring coast, and the Island of Ramree, some of course finding its 
way further, but at present with exception of the larger cultivation 
Boentioned, it ia growA in aafiicient quantity only by each faihily, to 
be kept instead of ready ^ money, wherewith to supply the different 
wants or wishes of its owners, its qimntity and estimation always making 
it ;^ article of ready sale or .barter. 

Tobacco -was always found growing on ground perfectly fiat." It may 
be that the heavy raiits of the moneoon obli^ this, in- order to prevent the 
plant, if on a slope, from being washed away, though thiis wds never assign 
ed as a reason, but simply convenience. Should the abc^v^ supposition havis 
weigM, it wou}d of course tend to limit the citltivati<m of a plant which 
sieeeaaarity standing fcry open^ is therefore mUcheic{>osed to such peril 


358 Report on the Island of Chedooba. [Na. IIT. 

Still there exists throughout every part of the Island, waste lands rwhose 
soil would be found applicable to the cultivation of tobacco to a very 
large extent, even if subject to such limitation, and I am strongly im 
pressed with the opinion that such cultivation would prove one of, if not 
the most valuable to which the unoccupied lands (not being rise grounds) 
could be applied. The present extent in which this plant is grown 
over all parts of the Island, I incline to look on in the light of a experi- 
ment only, but one truly valuable, at once for its extent, and its success^ 
and therefore affording data under prudent precaution of similarity of 
soil, &c., on which to found expectation of great profit to be derived 
from its extension, in which case the present experience of the inhabi- 
tants in its culture, even when necessarily modified with view to im- 
provement, would be found a valuable co-operation. It may be that my 
own estimate of the flavour of the tobacco I have spoken of above, has 
been erroneous, but even if so, the general mildness of all Chedooba 
tobacco, when improved by greater attention to its culture and prepa- 
ration, would give it an extensive preference over the strong Manilla; 
whereas should it be found practicable to grow extensively a leaf of the 
flavour and quantity which I think to have found in the above specimens, 
Chedooba would become a formidable rival to the Spanish settlement 

The employment to be given by the manufacture of the leaf, if exten- 
sively grown and saleable, would add another source of benefit to be de- 
rived from such a step. 

Cotton — Is grown in several parts of Chedooba ; generally spots In 
the jungle are selected and cleared for its cultivation, which is however 
very limited, not affording employment by its manufacture for the women 
throughout the year. The surplus required to keep the looms (of whick 
almost every family possesses at least one) at work, being imported from 
the main land. 

Excepting a few plants in the gardens of the villages, I found no 
cotton in growth, though land were being cleared for it in several puts, 
and some of them extensive. Those few plants appeared to thrive well, 
but from the shortness of the staple of that which I found in use, whe- 
.tl.t-: if the Island ^^roduce, or the Mainland, I conclude that what is 
at present grown is as inferior in quality as limited in amount. It was 
however very clean and white, the articles manufactured from it, a few 
coarse cloths for the person. The soils on which the best Cottons of 
India are grown, I have understood to consists generally of a rieh deep 
mould ; if such be the case, and necessarily so, for the perfecticHi of Uus 
plant, I fear that Chedooba holds out no prospect of benefit from muf 

1841.] Report on the Island of Chedoohd. 359 

extensive calture of it. That soils exist in the Island, where it may be 
grown with advantage to greater extent, and of better quality than at 
present, I doubt not, but I think that the advantage to the Island would 
be limited to the production of a supply of it sufficient to give fuller 
employment to the native looms, as at present wrought for domestic pur- 
poses, without recourse to importation. 

In the gardens of every village Sugar Cane in small patches is to be 
found ; it is mostly of a red kind, small, and woody in stem, with short 
joints. In the Eastern parts of the Island it is grown to extent sufficient 
for the production of a few maunds of jaghery ; but in the Western 
parts, where it is of more recent introduction, a sweetmeat for children 
is the highest object of its growth. 

As with the Cotton, and for the same reason, I incline to the opinion 
that Chedooba does not hold out the prospect of any extensive growth 
of the Sugar Cane. 

The only place where I have seen this valuable produce flourishing 

in this part of the world has been in the Amherst Province of Tenasserim, 

where it was luxuriating in a soil very different from any which were 

found, or are I think to be found, in Chedooba, a dark rich vegetable 

mould. In the neighbouring Island of Ramree it thrives well, and it 

is fair also to state that not only is the Chedooba plant one of very 

inferior quality, but that not the slightest trouble in the way of cultivation 

is taken with it ; portions of the cane being merely put into the ground 

in the month of May, and left to nature to bring to perfection. That 

therefore as with the cotton it might be both improved in quality and 

increased in quantity, admits of reasonable expectation. But there seem 

to be insurmountable obstacles to Chedooba ever becoming of importance 

« as a Sugar Island, arising from the unsuitableness of the soil in general, 

and, (under the supposition of the occupation of all rice grounds in the 

cultivation of that staple,) the too limited extent of surface for such 

purpose, clear of steep hill sides, which would remain. In passing 

through the jungle on one occasion a cleared spot of some 4 or 5 acres 

was found occupied half with hemp, and half with indigo. 

This was a speculation of a native, and the unusual enterprize it dis< 
covered promised to bring its reward, as both crops appeared healthy 
and flourishing. The planting of Indigo is very limited, the plant of an 
inferior quality, and its preparation a very clumsy operation. It is 
not grown for export, but sold in the different villages to dye the produce 
of the native looms. 

S6Q RepoH on the lAand <^ Ckedoobiu [No. 113, 

I could not learn that the Semp was a more common produetion than 
Ihe other ; in fact it is grown in small quantity only oo the Island, to 
whose inhabitants it supplies material for the few nets they posses?. 
I had no means of judging of its quality, other than from the healthy 
appearance of the plant, which at least seemed suited to its soil, and 
therefore to afford prospect that this produce might with success be 
more extensively cultivated in portions of that district of the waste 
lands which lie between the available rice plains and the steeper hills. 
In conclusion of this notice of its agricultural produce, and in contem- 
plation of plans for the future improvement of the laland in this regard, 
the general impression resulting from examinations of its soils, and 
consideration of the character of its inhabitants, was that stich object 
would be effected in the best and readiest manner by increased care 
and attention given to extension and improvement of crops already 
grown on the Island, rather than by attempts to introduce on it exten* 
sively any new produce. 

A good supply of cattle exists on the Island. The bn&lo gives his 
strength for the more arduous agricultural labours. The lighter cattlo 
draft the produce in hackeries with which the Eastern villages are well 
supplied. The breed is small, but strong, and supplies very sweet meat, 
Labour in connection with agriculture is however the only demand 
made on them by their masters^ 

Fruits are not very numerous on the laland, unless the multifarious 
produce of the jungle, familiar alone to a Mug appetite, is to be honored 
with the name. In the struggles of past times between the Miigand the 
Burmab, Cheedooba had its share, and from one of the measures adopted 
cluring those times in connection with this head, viz., the destruction of 
£^IL its cocoa-nut trees, that they might afford no sustenance to an 
invader, it still suffi^s, Qf this valuable fruit therefore there are com- 
paratively few, mostly young trees, but they thrive luxuriantly, and 
a few jeaTs more if attention be paid to their increase, wottld see the 
Island supplied with them in quantity sujBleient for more valuaUe par- 
poses, than that for which alone it is now esteemed-— the means oC making 
compliipeotiiry presents. 

The plaintain flourishes well ; but is not much cultivate^ and it 
generally an inferior sort, containing a large hard seed. 

Th^ p^ppais common, and large in all the village gardens. 

The tamarind flourishes in great luxuriance and grows to a large aiae. 
This tree almost universally supplies shelter and shade to the villages. 

1841.] Report on the Island of Chedooba. 361 

Its fruit ia not much used by the natives. It is found growing indige- 
nously on the second or old beach, bat was observed nowhere else ; 
with scarce an exception, this being also the situation of the Tillages. 

The mangoe grows wild to a great size. I have meaanred some of 
more than 4 feet dianetcr — ita fruit is very inferior, nor is it attempted 
to be improved. 

Both the lime and the orange are found in many of the villages, and 
thrive well* 

The orange is of that sort named elsewhere the sweet lime, and if ex* 
tensively cultivated would form a very grateful addition to the luxuries 
supplied to the capital* 

Vegetables aa fruits, are also of small amount But here again as with 
hia orchard, the Mug looks to the jungle to make up the deficiency of 
his garden produce. 

Yams are good and large, but plentiful only in the eastern parts. 

Many species of pumpkins and gourds are grown in almost every 
garden i brinjala are very fine but not in plenty. 

A small shalot is grown in the gardens generally, and aome fine oniona, 
which I waa taking with me for my own use, were both so much admired 
and demanded for seed, that this improvement to the Kitchen Garden, 
will probably in due time become generaL 

Chillies of all sorts are in every day demand lor the curry. 

)n introducing to notice the more natural productions of the Island, in 
the vegetable kingdom, it may be well aa before first to speak of the soil 
in which they are found. 

This is with little exception of one character, a loose friable earth of 
light yellow colour, having the general clay base much modified with de- 
cayed vegetable matter, the angular fragments of soft sand-stone hav* 
ing passed from a greenish into a dirty yellow colour, and being in a state 
of rapid decomposition. 

The exceptions to this were found in a few spots to consist of a soil 
bearing more of the character of mould. The above soil extends through- 
out the interior parts of the Island, embracing alt the hills higher and 
lower down to those flatter lands which have been noticed aa applicable 
lot the exUnsion of rice cultivation, and constitutes that of the jungles, 
which are co-extensive with it. 

These in tl^ir general character are open, consisting mneh of detached 
clumps of . bamboo or of trees from I foot to 18 inches in diameter, 
well separated below, but in their branches having creepers thickly 
entwined* Throughout the lower jungles, open spaces, some deserving 

3G2 Rep&rt an the Island of Chedooba. [No. 113. 

the character of small plainsi are of very frequent oceorrenee. Oa the 
higher hills, the trees are closest of growth and largest of size, but still 
clear of understuff. Throughout therefore, no serious obstacle is present- 
ed in the task of clearing the land for cultivation, — ^a Mug, with a good 
d^h felling the trees over half an acre a day, and a footman may pene- 
trate without obstruction in any direction. 

The tops of the highest hills were visited with ease, save from the 
steepness of ascent, parts being traversed, which the superstitious fear 
of the Mug would never have permitted his voluntary approach to. 

Timber of great size, and some of valuable quality, is to be found, but 
it is confined to the very summits of the highest hills, and is therefore 
partly inaccessible, nor would its amount ever remunerate the labour of 
constructing roads for its transport. The soil in which these grow is of 
the same nature as that described above, but within a few hundred feet of 
the summits, all of which are very steep, it is piled up in the loosest 
possible manner. The stroke of an axe or ddh on an extensive hill top^ 
would so shake it for a space of 150 yards around, as to make observation 
in the quicksilver of an artificial horizon impossible. 

Precisely at the spot where this loose texture commences — commences 
the growth of the large timber, increasing in size thence to the summits, 
and from the trees not being deciduous (or at least not so at the same 
season) a most marked line of separation is thus traced out between these 
and the smaller leafless jungle below. 

The wood oil tree was the most conspicuous in growth and size, of the 
larger trees of these summits. 

One 'was felled on the west hill, which measured in diameter at the res- 
pective ends, of a 60 feet length, 4 feet 6 inches, and 3 feet 6 inches, and 
another is left standing as a mark, on the summit, which measures 21 feet 
4 inches in girt at 6 feet from the ground. The wood of this tree will 
not, I fear, be found valuable as timber, but its produce, the wood oil, has 
yet to be better appreciated than at present. This substance is produced 
by cutting a hole into the body of the tree,* and kindling a fire in it; the 
flat floor as it were, of the hole, has a groove cut in it, which receives the 
oil as it crudes from the wound, and whence a split bamboo conducts it 
to the pots placed for its reception ; the quantity thus yielded from a large 
tree is surprizingly great. ^ In felling the above mentioned individual the 
oil ran in a stream from it, and it must have contained even tons. The 
strict propriety of designating it an oil may be doubted. It has always 

* See Dr. Spry's Visit to Arracan, No. IIC-^Ed. 

1841 .] Report on the Island of Ckedaoba. 383 

seemied to me more like a varnish ; it speedily forms a highly polished 
surface on wood work, and has a fine aromatic scent, not unlike that of 
cedar ; mixed with reeds and dried, it makes a brilliant and fragrant torch • 
The colour of the wood is a dull pink* 

In the course of clearing these summits for observations connected with 
the survey, many other trees were felled exhibiting characters apparently 
valuable as timber. Among the natives there were differences of opinion 
about their names, and waiving even this obstacle to any description of 
them, the remark already made of the difficulty opposed to their being 
brought down, renders such attempt unnecessary. The oil trees would 
be found most valuable as a source of supply for that material, and per- 
haps many of their neighbours also would be found more useful living 
than dead, by the produce they may be found to yield One of these, of 
large size, and with a bark similar to cork, was foubd to produce caout* 
chouc in great abundance. On cutting through the outer rough coat, a 
soft inner one, nearly an inch thick, is found closely attached to the more 
solid wood; on wounding this, the caoutchouc exudes freely, of a consis- 
tency and colour like thick milk. The tree was much avoided by the 
natives on account of the noxious quality of this milk, which if by accident 
entering the eye, on the tree being struck, so as to wound it, was said to 
produce certain blindness. 

Another tree of very large leaf but moderate size, was also much avoided, 
and great care taken in felling it, to prevent its juice from touching the 
skin, which it was said to blister and poison. The adhesive quality of 
this substance was therefore more taken for granted than proved. 

A plant, with the appearance of a cactus, but growing to the height and 
size of a tree, and known perhaps generally under the name of Sisso 
(not the timber tree of that name) yielded the caoutchouc in the greatest 
abundance. On severing a leaf, it ran forth in a small stream like milk. 
Many of the creepers also contained it in large qualities, and in one spot 
of the jungle of the Erae-rone Circle, I found the Caoutchouc tree of 
South America, affording prospect that as European intelligence and 
enterprize became more attracted towards the products of India, that 
continent may some day find its exclusive trade in this every day in- 
creasingly valuable article, formidably disputed. The wild cotton tree 
grows to a great size, and at the time seen was covered with a mass of 
its beautiful crimson flowers and flocks of birds. Its wool is sometimes 
used for stuffing pillows or beds. 

The Gamboge tree was found of large size, and in considerable quantity, 
in clearing the jungle from the summit of the N. W. Peak ; it was well 

364 Report <m the Island of Chedoobiu [No. 113; 

known to the natives; bat no use is made of its beaatiful giim« which 
vered the stems in considerable quantities. It lives in the higher joagh 

It is not doubtless the only tree in these wilds yielding a valuable 
gum, but want of acquaintance with botanical science prevented re- 
searches of that kind, which might have led to useful discovery. The 
safety and facility, and even enjoyment with which such researches may 
be carried on in the fine season, in the woods of Chedooba, seem however 
to point them out as a spot very eligible for the careful examination of 
an able botanist, unless indeed they be considered too limited in 'extent 
to exhibit a sample of the general character of the jungles of this coast. 

A very brilliant crimson gum was found to flow in great quantity from 
a large creeper (Tallee-medzou-nowy) which is very common. If dried 
speedily in the sun, becoming very brittle, but retaining its color, it is 
of very astringent quality, and is used in some diseases as a medicine by 
the native quacks. 

I may not fail to mention another creeper, whose properties are a» 
valuable as interesting, and not the less so from its being found every 
where, both high and low. It is truly a traveller's friend, and the 
wandering Mug well appreciates is value. With his d4h he cuts off a junk 
and quenches his thirst with its contents, a pure, tasteless, cool water, of 
which it contains as much as its large numerous pores will hold, and 
which are immediately emptied by holding the piece perpendicular. A 
piece about 2 feet in length, and as thick as a small wrist, gave rather 
more than half a pint of water. In the rainy season it / would have 
given doable that quantity. 

In travelling through the jungles, the liquid of this water creeper 
(Jabroon nony) is the constant beverage of the natives, when not other> 
wise supplied with that necessary, and its universal presence makes him 
very independent in his choice of road. 

The rattan is every where found in the jungles, and performs all the 
ordinary duties of rope ; it grows to a great size ; two were taken from the 
West Hill measuring 114 feet in length, and l| inch diameter. 

Although Chedooba may not be looked to for supplying valuable timtber 
to other parts, yet for its own consumption, and most, if not all domestie 
puposes, it possesses amply sufficient to meet any demand. For soeh 
purposes plank may easily be brought down from the hill, whence the 
whole tree must be immoveable. The lower jungles contain wood% per- 
fectly adapted to such uses, and in those of the Eastern Plains waa fovmd 
the Thew-gaan growing plentifully, some of the trees between 3 and 3 
feet in diameter, and which itself would supply material for almost all 

1841.] Report on the Isbmd of Chedooba. 365 

purposes. The wood of this tree is hard and close grained, of a yellow 
coloar and most dnrable. In the Soathem ProTinces of Tenasserim it 
grows to an immense sise, and also in the Sandoway district ; hereafter 
its qualities may be appreciated by other than the Natives, with whom ita 
dorability has given rise to the proverb that * a Cemoe of Thew-gaan 
lasts 99 years.' 

It has been thus seen that the soils of Chedooba to the very summit of 
the Hills, and even there more so^ are both productive and easily wrought. 
That therefore in any future agricultural improvement of the Island, man's 
industry will lay claim to a very large portion of that extent, now entirely 
in a state of nature, there can be no doubt ; and over the face' of all th« 
lower hills, crops of various produce take the place of the jungles, which 
BOW occupy them. Such cultivation, even though limited to the extension 
to the greatest amount practicable of those products which are now 
but so partially grown on the Island, would therefore leave but a narrow 
space to be provided lor, below those steeper^ almost precipitous hills, 
which must always be given over to nature whereon to maintain supplies 
of timber and fuel. What such a space might be most profitably occu-* 
pied with, it is perhaps attempting to look too far into the probable 
future, to make it oth^r than presumption to speculate on. Yet in con- 
sidering the nature of the soil, and eomparing it with that of the spice 
gardens of Penang and Singapore,it has seemed at times likely that a similar 
produce might be found practicable here. For taking into consideration 
the very great disparity in the mod^e of the distiibution of moisture 
between the two localities, still the pepper vine flourished at Sandoway, 
and at Mergiu, if not Moulmein ; places all subjected to the same pecu-» 
liarities of season. ' The growth of the Nutmeg, Cloves, and Coffee, are 
not yet despaired of. 

Of the productions of the animal kingdom, the Island exhibits but e 
limited variety — under the head of agricultural produce it has been 
already mentioned, that large cattle thrive, and are plentiful and might 
be no doubt much improved— not only at present are they not killed 
for food, but even their milk is not used, and authority was obliged to be 
exerted in order to procure this luxury in the midst of herds. 

The use to which they are applied has in'the same place been already 
noticed, and beside them there are none. 

One pony lives on the Island, the property of the Soogrees, and two 
goats are claimed, as belonging to the party of police, which is stationed 
at the chief village of Chedooba. 

» Z 

866 Report on the Island ofChedooba. [No. 113. 

* Of wild animals, the deer is the largest and most plentiful ; they are 
▼ery numerous throughout the Island, though I never either heard or 
saw but one species, that which is generally known as the ' barking deer.' 
The natives run them down with dogs ; they have no means of shooting 
them. The flesh was found less dry and un flavored than was expected. 

Next in size and number to the deer, is the wild hog, the only species 
on the Island. They are not largej but numerous,' especially in the jungles 
which lie closest to the rice lands, on which they commit heavy depreda- 
tions, and our assistance was frequently invoked to destroy at least some 
of the enemy. But in general the labour of the day was deemed enough 
for our party without trenching on the hours of rest, which was necessary 
in order to comply with the request. 

Jungle cats are found but are not numerous, but one was ever seen by 
any of our party. 

' Squirrels are plentiful, and of large size, though of but one species ; a 
dark brown in colour throughout, with exception of the throat, and a nar- 
row stripe along the belly of yellowish white. One was shot of the size 
of a full grown rabbit; it was a male, his lady in company was of mere de- 
licate size. 

Monkeys we heard of, but I much doubt their existence on the Island, 
at least it is strange that in so long and extensive a traverse of it, such an 
animal was neither seen nor heard. 

The freedom from any formidable wild beast is a circamstance of advan- 
tage in these countries, which may not be passed over without remarks ; it 
contributed largely to the comfort and freedom with which we were enabled 
to penetrate throughout the Chedooba, forming a source of congratulation 
when obliged to take up a night's lodging, or a day's journey in the jungle. 

The Natives state that a tiger did once attempt a landing on the 
Island, but fortunately being seen while yet swimming towards the shore 
time was afforded to the inhabitants of the nearest village to prepare for 
his welcome, and before he could gain footing, either for attack or escape, 
he was cut in pieces with their d^hs, since which, his example has never 
been followed. 

I know not how far the swimming qualities of a tiger may bear witness 
to the truth of this story, but the feat in an opposite direction was 
safely performed by one of the elephants which were placed at our ser- 
vice, which after breaking irom his ropes, swam the straits, and landed 
safely on the opposite coast of Ramree, a distance of seven miles at the 
leasti where he was recaptured and sent back. 

1841 .] Rq)ort an the Island qf Ckedooba. 367 

Of reptilesi one snake was seen, and a few lizards arid insects, the most 
numerous and beautiful are the butterflies, which were found even on the 
highest' peaks. Bees are plentiful, but the jungles ' alone supply the 
honey, which is very sweet and good, and serves throughout the Island 
in the place of sugar. 

Fish forms a very important part of the diet of the Mug, and mainly 
in this view; are the villages of Chedooba formed around the shores. It 
is very plentiful though not of any great variety. The most common is 
a species of bonetea, a muscular fish of rapid motion, and great strength, 
though seldom arriving at a weight of 4 lbs. It has a very thick smooth 
skin, without scale, and is of silvery white, longitudinally spotted with 
blue. On the western coast in the sandy bays, they are very numeroiisi 
and are taken in great plenty with hook and line. 

The bamboo supplies the fishing rod, and in the evening, when most 
readily taken, the shore may be seen with 20 natives in aline from the 
nearest village, as close together as they can stand, up to their middles 
in the water, with their baskets slung on their backs, and casttng their 
lines as rapidly as if fly fishing, laughing and joking at their suc- 
cess, without the least fear of driving their prey away, though they 
must be among their legs. The flesh of these fish is very firm and 

Very great quantities of a tiny little fish, most similar to, if not in fact; 
the Anchovy or a small Sardine, are taken on the same coast. ^ They are 
dried in the sun without any preparation, a day or two's exposure being 
sufl&cient for the purpose, and exported in great quantities to Ramree 
and the neighbouring coast; each family also of the western villages 
where it is taken keeps a large supply, and demand is extensively made 
for them by the less fortunate communities eastward, so that they form 
a valuable adjunct to the resources of that portion of the inhabitants in 
whose neighbourhood they are common. The method of taking them is 
perhaps peculiar, and forms an interesting and lively scene. The mom* 
ing is the time of the best * take,' at which time, and when near high 
water, young and old assemble on the sand in groups, with flat open 
mouthed baskets of bamboo work, awaiting the opportunity for a catch. 
This occurs when the shoals of tiny fish are driven for supposed safety 
close into the beach by their larger, persecuting, and ravenous brethren. 
Then away dashes the nearest group of expectants into the water to the 
back of the surf, which is constantly, though not heavily rolling in on the 
coast, and driving back the original pursuers, face round in shore and 
place the flat mouths of their baskets in line together, just outside the 

aeS Rqwrt m the Isbnd of Ckedooba. [No. 113. 

Ntiriiii^ WftTCt reoeifing fnok ttt its fimy coo tents. Sonwtimgt more timi 
a gallon will be thus deponted in a single basket* 

The nneertaint J as to where the shoal will come in, and the rapidity 
and ability with whieh the fortunate gionp take advantage of their oppor- 
tanity, afiord all the excitement and amusement to these eheerfal people 
of a game of cfaaneei and cannot be looked on by a stranger without In- 
tsreat Flocks of cranes, crowSb kites, and gulls of many sises, colours, and 
Toiees, looking out for the stragglers on the sand, who have escaped the 
mouthsof the fishes and thebasketi^ form an additi<m to the scene. 

The grey mullet of good sise and flavour is got from the creeks of 
the east side of the Island. Rock fish are plentiful, but not easily taken ; 
when intended to be preserved, they are split into qaarters, kept together 
at either end, and then opened by strips of bamboo, and the whole hung 
np todiy in the sun. Skate were frequently seen, but none caught, th^ 
were often observed to make very high, though clumsy leaps, a feat not 
often I believe, practised by flat fish, k fish of considerable size from 12 to 
20 lbs. weight apparently, and in form resembling the salmon, was fre- 
quently seen of an evening performing very astonishing leaps. They were 
always quite perpendicular, and therefore appeared as a gambol, more than 
an eflRxrt to take prey, and sometimes extended to a height of 30 feet. 

Of shell fish we found craw fish and prawns, the latter of great aise and 
very delicious ; they are limited to the creeks of the east side of the Island, 
where also the one in the neighbourhood of the Meug-breng village^ 
possesses truly fine oysters* They are large, but of a flavour as delicate 
as our own Colchester luxury. They were in high condition when we 
visited their neighbourhood, and it may be lamented that they are not 
more generally known, and attempts made to grow them elsewhcie. 
They have been transported to Kyouk Phyoo, and do well there. 

Turtle ue common, and are taken by the natives on the sand islands 
and bays. They are of large size and of good species, but I can make no 
mentien of their quality as food. 

Many beautiful and valuable species of shells are to be found on the 
flats off the North Point of the Island, where however but little leisure 
or opportunity of dredging for them was afforded* 

Fowls are plentiful on the Island, and supply the most solid food to 
which the natives are accustomed. The demand for them by our people 
raised the price latterly from 18 to 13 for the rupee. They are of good 
sise, and good flavour. 

Of wild birds, the Sams is perhaps the largest on the Island, and is 
plentiful. They are common in other parts of India, and arc^ I believe 

1841.] RepoN an the I$kmd of Ghxdooba. Ml 

good eating. There are a great many varieties of the Crane, 8ome of 
rery beaatiful plumage and great sise. These constitute the greatest 
portion of the feathered inhabitants, and would supply perhaps some 
new and valuable varieties if not species ; Doves are very numerous $ a 
small green Parrot is found, and some few green Pigeons were seen. 
But in general, other than have been mentioned, the birds are of those 
species most commonly met with in these climates. The jungles are 
however scantily peopled, though I may not omit to notice one which, 
with its sweet and soft note late in the evening, often gratified us, and 
was deemed not an unworthy brother songster of the Nightingale. 

The Mineral Kingdom—Thongh bare of much value, exhibits speci- 
mens of some interest. 

Nodules of Iron ore of rich quality, are, on search, to be found generally 
either embedded in the greenish sandstone, or having been detached 
from it. 

In the former state they were found most numerous, on one of the 
reefs of the North West Point called the * Saw reef,' and in the larter on 
the North beach. But in neither case in quantity sufficient to make them 
valuable for other objects than those connected with science. 

Specimens of copper ore, and some few of silver, were found on oari« 
fal search, lying on the barren surfaces of the different volcanoes. They 
are all of very small size, and their amount limited as those of iron, and 
like them give no indication of the existence of the ore to any greater 
extent. A piece as large as two eggs was recorded as the largest ever 


Petroleum is found on the Island, and might be extensively produced. 

Two wells sufficiently near each other to afford the conclusion of their 
possessing one common source, exist in the Krae-rone circle, yielding an- 
nuaUy about 60 pots each. A third is found in the ' Mroomce ' circle, but 
it has been destroyed by fire, and yields nothing, being the property at 
present of no one in particular, the soil around it, is, however, full of the 
oil. The fourth and most extensive is in the Fangroa circle, and yields 
near 200 pots in the year. 

The method of collecting it is simple ; the earth is turned np to a depth 
of two feet, and a bank of soil raised round a square of about 20 yardSy 
thus disturbed, so as to form it during the rains into a shallow pond of 
about the above depth. The surface of this pond is in a constant state 
of ebullition from the escape of gas, with which comes up the Petro- 

370 Report <m the bland of Chedooba. [No. 113. 

It collects on the surface in three different forms. A green fluid oil 
first spreads itself over the spot where the gas is bubbling up ; as it ex- 
tends, its edges exhibit a brown curdled substance resembling half con- 
gealed dripping, and amongst this, as it becomes thicker, is seen gathering 
in spots, a dark brown substance of the color and consistency of molasses. 
This latter is used to preserve wood, to saturate paper for umbrellas, and 
is sometimes burnt. But the fluid of green color, is that mostly used to 
supply lamps. The curdled substance is used with the dark in the coarser 
purposes to which it is applied. This is the least valuable, and sells at 5 
pots for a rupee. The other two at 3 pots for 2 rupees. 

A bamboo is used to skim the surface of the ponds, and bring the sub- 
stance to the bank, it is scooped up with a cocoa-nut shell and put into 
the pot. It floats so lightly on the water that this process is quickly and 
effectually performed. The break of day is the time chosen for the opera- 
tion as from the cooler temperature, it is then of harder consistence on 
the water, and easier and cleaner skimmed. In the heat of the day it 
becomes so fluid as to make it difficult to collect without a large proportion 
of the water. 

In the months of March and April the pond gradually dries np, and 
tht oil can then be no longer collected from out the soil. The pond is 
then dug, and the whole soil in it as much disturbed as possible ; on this 
operation depends the quantity to be yielded during the next season, and 
the deeper it is dug, the larger will be the produce ; while on the other 
hand, if it be neglected, which is most commonly the case, the quantity 
of oil to be collected will be very materially diminished. A sort of super- 
stitious fear is attached to these ponds, and on no account would a native 
dip his foot in its wat%r, though he will not hesitate to dig the soil when 
dry, nor to handle its produce, to which no sort of deleterious property is 
attached. The state of ebullition without apparent heat may occasion 
this feeling among them. 

The ponds are surrounded by a rough hedge of stout sticks, to preserve 
them from the intrusion of buffaloe or deer. Insects were seen in them* 
I had no means of collecting any of the escaping gas, which I should 
otherwise have done, but no heat perceptible at the surface is em- 
ployed for its extensive developement. The Thermometer where the 
greatest ebullition was going forward shewing but two degrees more than 
the atmosphere, viz. 74^- 

No doubt. this mineral produce, might with ease, and little expense^ 
be increased to a very large amount, and the oil has yet perhaps to be 

1841.] Report an the Island of Chedooba. 371 

better known, and better appreciated than now, when its value will in all 
probability be much increased. 

I know not whether it has ever been thoroughly analyzed, but the 
almost pungency of its scent seems to proclaim the presence of a large 
portion of Naphtha. 

In composition it differs from the tar produced from the wells of Zante, 
or the pitch of the Lake of Trinidad, partaking in ail probability the cha- 
racter of the oil, which is found in the wells of the Irrawaddy. The 
material from these is in considerable use in our Tenasserim Provinces, and 
its native country, as a preservative of wood from the attack of the white 
ant, which it effectually prevents, and it is in considerable demand in the 
construction and preservation of the wooden houses of those countries ; 
affording reason to believe that this, its well known and well tried pro- 
perty, might,with benefit, be more extensively made use of in other placer. 
In a dwelling house perhaps an objection against the painting of the 
beams with petroleum might be supposed to lie in its scent; though 
this may prove but a supposition, and at any rate it can form no objection 
to its use in stores and godowns, and other buildings of that Dature, 
whether public or private. The expense annually incurred in Calcutta 
for repairs, called for, from the above cause of destruction, where it is 
necessary to examine, if not renew timber once in 3 years, seems at once 
U> point out an extensive sphere for the application of this, its valuable 
property, in connection with which is also its employment in the pre* 
servation of spars for shipping. 

The extension of the wells which are all situated in the jungles, and 
an increase of their depth so as to hold water throughout the year, are 
simple means by which this produce of Chedooba might be at once 
largely increased to meet such extended demand, at present I believe 
the use of the petroleum to be almost entirely confined to the limited 
application it finds among the natives. The only other mineral produc- 
tion it remains to notice is coal. This, or a lignite, was found about a 
mile within the western beach in the Circle of Tang-roa. 

It had been known for 2 years, and had been dug into, to a depth of 
perhaps 5 feet without exhibiting any improvement over the sur- 
face specimens. It was found shewing itself for a distance of 20 yards 
in an east and west direction. Its situation, a little above the water 
mark of a dry creek, formed by the first and second lines of Hills, and its 
dip an angle of 45 into the body of the latter, which rose 800 or 1,000 
feet above the spot where it was shewing. In formation it consisted of 
a series of layers varying from ^^ of an inch to 3 inches in thickness, se- 

372 Report am the Iskmd of Chedooba. [No. 112. 

parated from one another hj their laminoB of femiginoos sand. It wai 
Tery brittle, with a dull fracture, and smouldered, but would not ignite. 
Neither from its situation nor its quality does it promise to become of 
any value. 

DlYIStON 4. 

Climate, — Chedooba, in common with the Arracan coast, has been gener- 
ally considered as possessing a climate peculiarly fatal to Europeans, and 
the mortality of the Trooits who occupied it during the Burmese War has 
given but too painful cause for the opinion. 

Nevertheless I cannot but think that its insular situation, and its free- 
dom from that extent of muddy creek, and Mangrove swamp, which pe- 
culiarly characterizes the coast of the mainland, together with the greater 
openness of its jungles, must be the occasion of some difference between 
them, and that in favour of the Island. 

Its seasons are those of the adjoining countries, and may be divided 
into wet and dry ; the rain commences its visit in the beginning of May, 
with variable winds and intermittent showers, which, increasing in fre- 
quency and duration, introduce the delage which pours down incessantly 
from the middle of June to that of September, during which period 250 
inches of water fall. Thence to the month of November is occupied with 
the gradual taking off of the rains, which from that month cease till the 
following May brings them round again. 

In every country subject to such periodical rains there are two seasons 
when the sickness, which is the peculiar one of the climate, prevails, viz. 
at the commencement and taking off of these rains. Even in those conn, 
tries which, but more partiality, are subject to a wet and dry season, as 
Italy, the Levant, and southern shores of the Mediterranean, the same ef- 
fect is produced, and spring and autumn there, bring with them, their 
ever accompanying miasma fever. Under the effect therefore of a tropi- 
cal climate, where the change at this time, in operation throughout the 
whole vegetable kingdom, is so much more extensive and violent, 
the effect of the greater developement of noxious vapour, must be neces- 
sarily looked for; and accordingly these periods are foimd to be the sickly 
seasons of Chedooba, and the coast around, and their regular return 
calls for great care and prudence on the part of the European, for whom, 
occupation of mind and body, as active and full as regard to unnecessary 
exposure will permit, may be strongly recommended then, as perhaps at 
all times, as a valuable addition to other precautions ; as it has frequently 
been found that our sailors and soldiers, have suffered less from the 

1841.] Report on ihe Isiand 0/ Chedooba. S73 

effects of climate when under the exposure, than when mind and body 
have alike been unoccupied and unenlivened. 

Exposure to the direct heat of the sun of Chedooba, and its neigh- 
bourhood, is at all times of the year to be carefully avoided, and such 
imprudence will be the almost certain occasion of illness to ao European, 
to whom the simple remedy of a chattah is always at hand ; some pe- 
culiarity in the atmosphere appearing to make its rays more than com- 
monly obnoxious at all times to bis constitution ; but this is more parti- 
cularly the ease in the months of March, April, and May, when the natives 
themselves are much concerned to avoid the intenseness of its heat. The 
mornings and evenings however, even at this time afford 4 or 5 hours* 
when all out door duties may be performed. 

The above months constitute the hottest season of the year. The Ther^ 
mometer in the day ranging at times to above 90*^, but falling, from towards 
evening till before sunrise, down to a temperature, which is pleasantly 
cool throughout the night, a benefit enjoyed all the year round. On the 
main land, the nights at this season are frequently accompanied by a 
dense mist almost amounting to a rain, arising in all probability from the 
condensation of moisture, attracted from the large extent of water surface 
exposed by the numerous creeks. 

Chedooba, with nights equally cool, and more healthy, is free from this 
peculiarity. But with the mainland, is, during the day, at this season, 
subject to a dry haze, at tiroes to thick as so hide the view of the land ; at 
a very few miles distant. 

The heat at this time is greatly attempered by the fresh sea breeze con- 
stantly blowing, which gradually veering from south-west to north-wes^ 
with only a decrease of strength during the night, takes the place, at this 
latter point, and time, of the direct land breeze, which blows during the 
night in the cool season. 

This cool season, the most enjoyable, and the healthiest time of the 
year, extends from the setting in of the north-east monsoon, towards the 
end of October, to the middle of March, during which time the climate is 
very delightful, the. temperature seldom rising, excepting as the season 
closes to that of the summer heat of our own country. But the sun at 
midday is still very powerful, and direct exposure, to be avoided. 
This was the season during which I traversed the Island, and though coi - 
stantly in the thickest jungles, sometimes by night as well as by day, 1 do 
not remember to have suffered a headache. 

The sea breeze at this time sets in at 10 am , and falls with the sun, 
shortly after which a cool land breese from the eastward takes its place, till 
No. 1 13. New Series, No. 26. ^ A 

374 Report am the Island of Chedoaba. [No. 113. 

about 9 A.1C, when an hoar's calm is ai^ succeeded by a breeie from the 
nort-west The change of tempeiatare was found very great during this 
season, between day and night, with the exercise of walking, the lightest 
clothing was found most suitable during the day, but about two boon be* 
fore sun sef the tempeiature Cslls rapidly, and at night with the land 
breese blowing, two blankets and a counterpane were not too much to pie* 
vent actual cold. This change must always be carefully met, by dieBsmg 
in woollen, a precaution which should never be omitted. 

The same peculiarity of atmosphere, which produces such ill effects 
from exposure to the sun, msy also be the occasion of a greater amoant 
of exhaustion (not fatigue) under the exercise of walking, whichlexpft' 
rienced more in going over this Island, than 1 had ever previously foond, 
in the few other parts of India yet visited. A remedy for this feeling was 
always found by application to the contents of a haversack, andtheiir» 
caution was always taken of not setting out on the day's journey witboot 
the regular meal. It is not altogether from personal experience in this 
particular, during so limited a time, that I would express the opinion, that 
bodily exercise of any sort in this climate, requires for its support, it 
least by the European constitution, a generous diet In its corrobon* 
tion, I was informed, that during the time of service, on this co88t,of the 
65th Regiment Native Infantry, a very fearlnl mortality took place 
among the Sepoys, cot so much from the actual violence of the preraleit 
disease, the well known Arracan fever, as from the consequence of iti 
debilitating nature, from which the constitution of the Native would not 
allow him to rally, though always assisted by liberality administering 
strengthening medicine and means ; while to this mortality among thi 
privates, a strong contrast was exhibited in the constant good health of 
all the officers, throughout the whole period of nearly two years» a cos* 
trast attributed by the medical, and other officers of the regiment to the 
diffisrence of diet of the two parties. During the exposure to which tbs 
crew of the * Childers* were necessarily subjected in the execution of a 
survey on the coast, many cases of the same fever occurred, at the presest 
time amounting to upwards of 60 in number, but of the parties so 8uft^ 
lag there were but few who were not perfectly recovered, and at dotj 
again in 8 days, a circumstance which 1 incline to attribute mainly, not 
•only to the usual liberal allowance supplied to Her Majesty's seamen, bat 
alao to the endeavours (fully appreciated) to supply the crew withasmnchi 
and as great changes of good food as were, under circumstances, procunbla 

There must not be left out of view the great value of the facility of an 
immediate api^ication, on first symptoms, to a medical adviser affi)rded is 

1841.] Rqwrt on ihe Island of Chedooba. 97& 

a nuiii>-of-war. Nor again that of the preeaatioii which tlie service pro- 
vides under raeh circamstancee, by the admiaisteriDg of wine and qui* 
nine to all likely to be exposed. This latter was found of great use, and 
is much to be recommended, while in regard to the other consideration 
it is right to notice, as tending to deprive this fever, of something of its 
formidable character, that in many cases, a simple dose of medecine, ad- 
ministered on first symptoms, has sufficed to drive it entirely away. One 
ease only proved fiital, and with it were connected peculiar cireum- 

The climate during the period of the heavy rains is not an unhealthy 
one, it will be one necessarily of great confinement to the European, 
which is perhaps unfavourable, being inclined to attribute much value to 
personal exercise, but occupation by all who know its value, would no( 
even at such time be found impracticable even for the body, much less for 
the mind. 

The temperature during this season is cool, though the moisture of the 
atmosphere is very destructive to every thing but stone and metal. It is 
the time for the growth of the crops which we put into the ground just 
previous, and it is now that nature puts on her rich clothing of verdure ; 
and vegetation is most rapid. It is accompanied by a constant breete 
from the south-west. The natives enjoy this time as much as their Bur- 
mah brethren, and with their smallest children, like frogs, delight most 
in exposure to the heaviest falls. 

Great importance as a preservative of health in this climate is to be at- 
tached to a very careful watch over the due performance of the digestive 
functions; both speaking from personal experience, and also by observa* 
tion of our sick generally, it being found that inattentioa to this particular 
was not so much the occasion of dysenteric disease, as that it rendered the 
party liable to the prevailing fever, which was found to them a very inti* 
mate connexion with the state of the stomach, any derangement with the 
regular functions of which, if not a certain occasion, being at least a strong 
predisposing cause to taking the disease, and being found in all cases 
more than ordinarily its accompaniment. 

My acquaintance with the climate of Chedooba is but small, and was 
timited to that of the best season of the year. 1 therefore would speak on 
the subject with every deference to the opinions of others of more praetlr 
«al knowledge, and extended experience. But ae the result of what I 
bave found and heard of it ; I am strongly impressed with the opinion, 
that, employment for body and mind— >to avoid direct exposure to the 
sun; — good (not intemperate) living; accommodation of dlothing to 

3916 Rtport M ih€ Island 0/ Chedooha. [No. 113; 

changes of teo^ratim ; cftiefttl attention to the atate of the (rtooudh; 
with dae obserTation of these prccantiooa, in aid of a sound coastitatioD, 
the climate of Cbedooba, would be found not only healthy, batatseme 
seasons most delightful to the European. 

The eastern parts do not enjoy so temperate a climate in the hot season 
as the western, being less exposed to the fresh sea breeze ; and the im- 
mediate neighbourhood of the creeks would be found situations prodeotly 
avoided. The fine pulverulent soil in the east, by the quantity and pell^ 
trating nature of the dust it creates, is also at that season a very gieat 
annoyance ; notwithstanding therefore the greater exposure during the 
monsoon, and that it is at present Car less populous than the eastern. I 
consider the N. W. portion of the Island, as that which, at all seasons, 
would be found the most congenial to the European constitution. 

While speaking of the climate of their Island, it is fair to notice its 
effect upon the natives themselves, as well as upon Europeans, and it was 
found that they also are subject, though but inconsiderably, to occasional 
attacks of the fever. 

All the ablerbodied men on the Island were employed with me on one 
occasion for a fortnight together, and therefore came under my diieet 
notice, and though at hard work all day, and sleeping in the jungle at 
night, it came to my knowledge that fever had been taken by only one 
individual throughout that time, an old man verging on 80 years, and 
who ought not to have been present. 

In traversing the Island throughout, I believe not to have omitted viaiting 
any of its villages ; and whatever sick were in them, always made appli- 
cation for relief, either personally, or by their friends. These cases 
amounted in all to four of fever, one of small-pox, one of dropsy, one of 
paralysis, one of blindness, and one of deformed limb, three cases of 
fever occurred also with our Bengallee attendants. The native popu- 
lation therefore seemed to exhibit no signs of a pestilential climate. 
While on the contrary, throughout the Island, they afforded the clearest 
and most extensive evidence of its healthiness, and suitableness to their 
constitutions, in the great number of old men and women, to be found in 
every village. 

As mere old age entitles to the respect and deference of the whole com- 
munity,' the old people, as elders and leaders, always come forth to meet 
us ; and with few exceptions even to the age of 106 years were found hale, 
if not vigorous in mind and body, much interesting information being 
gotten from parties 80 and 90 years old, with memories as fresh appa- 
rently, and'minds as clear aa they ever had been, men even of that age tak- 

1S4L] MemonMa an Uhe Ckukkuiheera' of the Hills. Zll 

ing their share in abnost hard work. Although this is a double testimony 
iQ its &vor» it is as impossible, nevertheless to deny, as it is painfal to 
acknowledge, that hitherto, these coasts have proved most fatal to 
Europeans, that sailors, soldiers, and civilians, have alike fallen victims 
to its fever, and on Chedooba an ample share ; nor may there be a doubt 
thrown on the attention and ability of those medical officers whose ezer- 
<tions have yet hitherto failed in all attempts to stop its fatal progress. 
Whether therefore this country is one fr<Mn which the European is to be 
ever thus excluded, or whether in the progress of all other improvements, 
and also if the character of his treatment by himself or by others may be 
found hereafter to enable him to make here also his temporary home, and 
introduce, with his wealth, his intelligence, his energy, and above all his 
religion, their attendant blessings, must apparently be left for the future 
to shew. But giving to the facts, which constitute this favorable evidence, 
no more than the weight, they are strictly entitled to— and others may 
be found perhaps to entertain with me, even more than the hope, that 
some such improvement may eventually render the climate of Chedooba, 
and also that of Arracan, no longer so fatal a bar as hitherto, to the 
advance in these provinces of the Civilization of Europe. 

(To he continued, J 

Memoranda on the ' Ckulchulheera^ of the HillSf and on some lAc" 
hens from the Himalayas in the Collection of the Asiatic Society » 
By Henry Piddijxgtos, Offy. Curator^ Mu$. Asiatic Society. 

My attention having been directed to this subject by our President, 
1 took the opportunity, when examining the ' Chulchulheera,* to test also 
some lichens sent to the Asiatic Society from Simlah, in 1838, by Mrs. 
Siddons, which I found in the Museum. I have thought it worth while to 
make known the results of my work, and to add a few remarks which 
have occured to me, in the hope of drawing attention to this very inter- 
esting though neglected subject. 

I subjected the ' Chulchulheera '. to the common ammoniacal test, 
and found that it yielded a tolerably bright red brown liquidy though 
not the violet red described by Hellot; I did not succeed in pro- 
ducing any sabstantive dye with it, though using several mordants, 
I essayed to manu&cture some kind of Cudbear from it also, but 
did not succeed. The preparation of Cudbear however depends upon two 

978 Memormida an the ' Chul<Aulhura * of ih€ HiiU. [No. 113. 

fermenting proeeases, the first of which is the preparation of fennented 
urine, and then a sort of fermentation of the lichen with the prepand 
urine and lime. I am very doubtful whether, at the temperature osoally 
prevailing here^ we can obtain the fermented urine at all, in the state in 
which it is used in Europe, from its passing so rapidly to the incipirat 
putrid state. It may moreover be doubted whether the heat is not also 
too great for the fermentation of the lichen. Hence, and because all fer- 
mentative processes depend so much on heat, and often on the quantity 
of material used, nothing can be predicted of this failure. 

Lichens from the Himalaya. 

These are, as above stated, a box sent down by Mrs. Siddons in 1838. 
I have arranged herewith a box of specimens of them, and one of bottles 
of the liquids produced. I subjoin a note of the colours as they appear 
when fresh, and I have marked their differences when seen by transmitted 
or by reflected light, for this appears worth noticing. To be seen properly 
they must be examined in a bright sunshine. I observe that some of the 
colours change a little, or become uuUer, in a few days. 

JVof . Jy trantmtiUd Light, By reflected LiyhL 

1. Crimson red Lighted and duller. 

2. Rich bright Crimson Deeper but very brilliant 

3. Thin, poor, white-wine colour . The same. 

4.' Deep maroon brown A fine clove, or red brown. 

5. Dull red The same. 

6. Very rich port-wine red The same. 

7. Bright white-wine colour, but > j)„ji«, 

8. Crimson brown The sanve. 

9. Orange crimson The same. 

10. Crimson Crimson brown. 

11. Deep crimson • Brown. 

12. Deep crimson Bright red. 

13. H l^i much like No. 7> but I had but very small quantities to 
use for testing : — 

16. A poor dirty orange brown. . . . The same. 

17. A brilliant crimson The same. 

18. A golden brown Clove brown. 

I should think, from the richness and intensity of the colours, that most 
of these, excepting perhaps, Nos. 3, 7f 5, 13, 14, 15 and 16 are worth 
attention; and it should not be forgotten that they have been certainlf 

1841.] Memoranda on the * Ckulchulheera* of the Hills. 379 

three, and perhaps four years since they were collected. I proceed now 
to set down saeh remarks as occur to me. 

There must be in all countries a season at which lichens and mosses^ 
like all other vegetable productions, possess the largest quantities of 
eolonring matter. At what time this occurs for Indian lichens, we at 
present know not : for those of the Himalayas' it is probably the autumn, 
and in other parts the driest seasons. 

Judging from the under surfaces, some of these which I have tested 
are tree, and others rock-lichens ; but there must be great numbers more 
of both kinds in those extensive regions. The rock lichens of cold 
countries are usually the best, as far as our knowledge yet goes. 

We know nothing hitherto of the forest-mosses and lichens of the 
vast jungles of India, from Assam to Qoandwana, and from the Terai of 
Nepaul to the Sunderbunds, the forests of the Southern Ghats, and those 
of Ceylon, Arracan, and Tenasserim ! It is true that it is, as yet, supposed 
that the lichens of hot and humid climates are little productive of co* 
louring matters ; but I know not on what this notion is founded. There 
would seem to be as many probabilities the other way. 

And when all the lichens, above alluded to, are examined, we have 
other vast fields and these of great promise. I mean the great volcanic 
plateau of Central India, from the basaltic rocks of Bundlecnnd to the 
Toombuddra; the points where, as at Visagapatam and Cape Comorin, 
the granite meets the sea $ those where, as in some parts of Malabari 
th6 trap rocks from the coast i and the whole of the range of coast and 
islands, of every formation, which form the eastern shores of the Bay« 
We may in fact, from the infinitely varied condition of climate, rock, and 
soil, which I can only hint at here* except every possible variety of moss 
and lichen ; and that many of these must be new and valuable. 

Provided a lichen yields a strong and bright colour, we may always 
hope that it may be turned to account It will be noted, that all these, 
which I have now examined, give colours which lie on the yellow side 
of the red, and not on the blue side of it, which would produce the vio* 
lets. I mention this, because there seems a notion abroad, that only those 
which yield at once the violet-reds to the ammoniacal test are of any 
value. In the instructions for Capt. Beechey, on his voyage to the Straits 
of Magellan, this is indeed pretty nearly said in direct words. Now we 
know that, from Lapland to the Mediteranean, the rocks of Europe 
have been pretty nearly stripped of their lichens, by agents sent out from 
the great silk and cotton-printing establishments, for much of the work 
of which the rich Canary lichens are unsuitable, and far too dear. We may 

880 Manaranda on the ' Ckukhulheerm* of ike HUis. [No. 113. 

hope to find some equal to, or indent ical with these, bat we may be 
well content with the goodly supply of the secondary sorts, with oor great 
extent of territory must insure us when they are known. In no tnuie is 
there so much competition and so many secrets as in the dying and print* 
ing of silks and cjttons ; and I take it that none of the published notices 
give any distinct idea of any thing, as to the vtAne and kinds of lichens, 
leyond what is already well known in the business : the secrets are for 
too valuable to be given away. The colouring principle moreover is not 
the only part of the lichens to be turned to account, gummy matter, 
extracted from them by Lord Dundonald's process, supplies the place 
of the costly gums iq many printing processes. 

'J'here is an omission in all the printed notices which I have yet seen, 
whirh in many cases might mislead persons testing lichens. An impor- 
tant process— that of crushing or even pounding the moss or lichen to 
powder— is wholly omitted ? A chemist would of course think of this; 
and Hellot, the inventor of the ammoniacal test, from whose writings ail 
have subsequently copied, mentions it ; but the usual directions lead 
people to suppose that the lichen is merely to be broken to pieces and 
infused, which may often be insufficient to develope the colour properlyi 
and thus lead to a wrong conclusion. 

The single lichen RoeeUa has been a mine of wealth to the CaoariM 
and Cape de Verd islands. We have at least a fair chance that India 
may produce one, if not more, of these productions of a valuable kind, but 
nothing can be properly ascertained on the subject unless a considerable 
quantity-^ay a maund or two of each promising sort — be sent home. 
In the hafids of European dyers and chemists, with their extensive r^ 
sources, great experience, and ample leisure, it is quite possible that resulu 
may be obtained, which, our petty means, and want of experience and 
leisure, are quite unequal to develope. I have, for example, strong reason 
to believe that some of these lichens contain the < Erythrine,' or violet-red 
principle of Heeren and Nees Von Esenbeck ; but the research is one 
of those in speculative chemistry, which I have neither means nor tiioe 
to ondertake. I shall nevertheless be happy at all times to eontribote 
my mite of aid, whenever it can be useful in the search for good dying 

' / 

» 1 

i^m'ms^ 'i 

[ 381 ] 

On the Topes qf Darountay and Caves of Bahrahad, — By the latG 

Lieut. Pigou, (Engineers.) 

At a distance of six miles from JuUalabad ia an easterly direction is 
sitoated the village of Darounta, at the foot of the Roh-i-Surrukh on the 
right bank of the JuUalabad river \ scattered through the village, and in 
its environs are eleven topes, of various sizes, but all much smaller than 
the tope of Manikyala i on some of these are evidences of their having 
once borne external ornaments similar to those found on that tope \ they 
are built of stone and slate, cemented with mortar,and in some cases merely 
with mud ; all of them possess a chamber from 4 to 8 feet square, and some 
of them have in addition a shaft running down the centre ; at the tim^ 
of my visiting them, six of the largest had already been opened by 
Messrs. Masson and Honigberger; in opening the others, the method 
pursued was, to cut, as it were, a slice from the lip to the bottom, reaching 
to the centre by this meams both the centrical shaft, and the chamber at 
the bottom were laid open ; out of the four thus opened, one was empty* 
the contents of the other three were as follows : 

Box No. 1, was taken from the Tope-i-kutchera ; it was found in a 
chamber about six feet below the level of the ground ; it was contained 
in a rough case made of four slates (about a foot square) stuck together 
with clay ; these fell aside on being touched. Within the box were the 
three coins, and a peice of rock crystal ; the coins belong (2) to Ermseiia 
II r. (?) and one to Azos, 

Box No. 2, was found in the Tope-i-fasl, it contained a small gold bot» 
in which were placed several pearls, with holes drilled through the cen- 
tre, and some small peices of what appeared to be bone \ the gold box 
with its contents has been stolen from roe. 

Box No. 3, was found in the Tope-i-Hosen-amanat, covered in a manner 
similar to Box No. 1, it contained a mixture of light red earth, and grey 
ashes, and three coins, all of Asos. 

There can be little doubt but that these topes were built in memory of 
the illustrious dead ; without reasoning from analogy founded on the state- 
ments of a late traveller in the crimea, regarding the sepulchral tumuli 
discovered in the vicinity of the ancient Panticapeum, the metrojK)li8 of 
the famous Mithridates Entapor, the evidence furnished by the relics 
found in the topes, Mrould irresistibly lead to such a conclusion $ with 
regard to the eera when these topes were constructed, it is more diffi- 


382 On the Topes of Darovnta^ and Caves of Bahrabad. [No. IIS. 

cult to give a rational conjecture, but it is at least worthy of remaric, 
that more of the coins formed in them, are of later date than the B^C' 
trian kings. 

Opposite to the village of Darounta, and overhanging the left bank of 
the Jullalabad river, are the caves of B«ihrabad j — these have been ex- 
cavated on the plan of a town, but on a smaller scale, there is a charson 
or meeting of four roads ; that running to the north is the longest, and 
from it, five chambers open, these receive light from apertures imme- 
diately overhanging the river, which runs about 100 feet below then ; 
the passage running to the south leads to a Dall4n or Hall, which also 
opens over the river, the passage to the west leads to the river, white 
that to the east is the general instance to the whole plan. The chambers 
are all lofty, airy, and well lighted, but the passages are very low and 
narrow. The cave mentioned by Honigberger as the Fil-khana, is a little 
to the east, and separated from the principal set of caves. The only 
ant iquity discovered in them, was a small slab of rough reddish marble, 
about 5 inches square ; on this slab was executed in demi-relievo, a pair 
of human feet, the toes, &c. being all distinctly marked ; round the feet, 
are four Lotuses, one at each angle of the slab executed in bas-relievo. 
It is said that similar slabs have been found in Ceylon, if so, a presump- 
tion may be drawn, that if the caves of Bahrabad do not owe their origin 
to the Buddhists, they were at least at one time inhabited by them. 

R. P. 

NoTB. — ^The objects given in the annexed plate were presented to the 
Asiatic Society, with the above memoir by the late Lt. Pigou of the 
Engineers, through our late V. P. Col. Macleod, in his letter to whom 
Lt. Pigou writes as follows of the gold box (unfortunately lost,) which 
was the most valuable in all respects of the remains discovered at 

* I have the pleasure herewith to forward two boxes, and some coins 
taken from the Jullalabad topes ; the three boxes, I had previously pro- 
mised to Dr. Athinem to whom it is now made over, it was similar in shape 
to the box No. 1, but not quite so large. I regret that the small gold box, 
with its contents, has been stolen, as it was the greatest curiosity of all, 
but the precious metal excited the cupidity of my servants, who have 
made away with it. The marble slab is too heavy to send down by d&k, 
and 1 have not got it with me ; indeed I am not sure that it has not been 
lost, but it is possible that it may have been left in my hut at Jullalabad. 
I also send you a rough sketch of the Bahrabad caves, which will give 

1641.] On the Topes o/Darounia, and Caves of Bahrabad. 383 

an idea of the place, I am sorry I have not time to mnke a more elaborate 
drawing, but must forward it rough, just as it was sketched." 

*The death of the writer of the above, by the premature explosion of a 
fuse, wbieh he had with equal coolness, and gallantry laid to the gate of a 
fort in the Bajowur territory, during the recent employment there of 
CoL Shelton's brigade, has destroyed all hope of the recovery of even the 
slab. The presence on it, however, of the most unequivocal of Boodhist 
emblems, obviates all doubt as to the nature of the caves, were there not 
ample reason for coming to the same conclusion on other grounds. I 
alluded (As. Soc. Journ. No. 109| p. 97) to the Darounta and Bahrabad 
discoveries, with reference to those recently made at Eanari by Dr. Bird $ 
the caves of Eanari we know, from the most authentic sources (Travels of 
the *« Chinese Boodhist Priest Ea— Hian." A. D. 399. M. Rerausat's 
Translation) to have been a favorite place of Boodhist pilgrimage ; the 
Boodhist character of those at Bahrabad, is proved by the presence in 
them of emblem peculiar to Boodh ; the topes at Eanari yield an inscribed 
plate which records the dedication of the place * in honor of the most 
powerful, very wise, and superior Bhagavana Sakya Muni* while * copper 
urns, a ruby, a pearl, small pieces of gold, and a small gold box, a 
silver box, and some ashes' were also found there : at Bahrabad no 
inscription is discovered, but * the copper coins, and the rock crystal* 
(types of the wealth of a poorer people) the * small gold box in which 
were placed several pearls with holes drilled through the centre, and 
some small pieces of what appeared to be bone,' all go to prove that the 
races, which at points so far apart, have left these traces of their usages, 
and their religion were equally Boodhist, although the constructors of 
the Darounta tope would appear to be the ruder, and less wealthy of 
the two. They are able it is true to deposit gold, but more sparingly ; 
ruby is replaced by common crystal ; a stone vase, is used in place of 
the copper urn, and copper coins supply the bullion of the Eanari tope. 
The mausolea are evidently those of persons of inferior means, although 
in the character, and nature of the deposits, we trace an intimate con- 
nection with the more gorgeous relics of Manikyala. Mr. Piddington 
has obliged me, with the following notice of the Darounta vases, and 
their contents. 

* Both the vases are turned out of a fine-grained potstone, and have 
the marks of the tool (particularly inside) as fresh upon them as if 

• * Three of my correspondents and contributors in AfFghanistan, and amon^ them, 
not the least valued, Captain £. Conolly, P. B., Lord and Lt. Pigou, were killed iu 
action within the short space of 8 months. 

984 On the Topes of DanmnUa^ and Caves o/BtArabad. [No. iia, 

made yesterday ! The larger one has, beneath itg footi the oblong 
mortise by which it was secured on the lathe. Their dimensions are as 
follows : 

Height, Greatest ex-> Thiekneai, 

laches. teiior dia- about Ins. 

meter, Ins. 

No. 1, Large Vase 30 33 0-4 

Small Vase 0*9 1*45 02 

The state of the coins is curious : three of them, Nos. 4, 5, and 6 of the 
drawing, are completely encrusted with crystalised carbonate of copper, 
with a few detached scales of a whitish oxide, which may be owing to an 
arsenical or zinc alloy in the copper? or to carbonate of lime having 
penetrated to the coins ? though this last seems nearly impossible ; they 
are in very minute quantity, and it would not be worth while to disfigure 
the relics by picking any off for examination. 

The remaining three coins Nos. 1, 2, 3, are marked as having been 
' found in the box/ and they look so clean that we are inclined to suppose 
they have been really cleaned ; especially, as the metal is much eaten 
and worn. No. 2, has still traces of the carbonate of copper on its face. 
No. 3, is the only one which we can suspect of having undergone the l| 
action of fire, but the boxes bear no trace of this, and I am inclined to 
think, that they have not been subjected to it. The rock-crystal orna- 
ment requires no particular remark', — ^beyond, I may add, the peculiar 
trouble, which has been taken in perforating it; it resembles exactly in 
size, form, and mode of perforation, the uncut emerald, now universally 
worn, by native chiefs and gentlemen of rank appended like a drop to the 
surpech, or head jewel. The people who could have bestowed so much 
labour upon so common an object, must have been singularly ignorant 
of the more precious stones, and I might point to this slight index, as 
affording some proof that the deposit at Darounta, was made by the first 
leaders of a new race of conquerors, who subsequently left monuments of 
their rule, then a more polished, and a wealthier people, in the noble 
works at Manikyala. There too (As. Soc. Jour., vol. III. p. 563) we see, 
as on a smaller scale at Kan ari, the practice of placing inscriptions in 
the tope obtained, showing perhaps the progress of science in conjunction 
with that of wealth. 

An examination of the coins before us will lead to the ascertainment, 
with tolerable accuracy, of the date at which the Darounta Topes were 
constructed. The coins are, No. 1 of Azes : No. 2 is similar to No. 12 (As, 
Soc. Jour. Vol, III. PI. XXXIII.) of those found in the Manikyalan 

1841.] On tie Topes of Darounta, and Caves of Bahrabad. 385 

Tope by Mons. Court, in so far at least as the figure and attitude of Her- 
Cttlea is concerned ; the head on the obverse of the coin is too indistinct 
to admit of very accurate identification, but I am convinced that the two 
are similar ; Mr. James Prinsep remarked on the difference obtaining 
between this coin, and the rest of those found with it at Manikyala, and 
(As. Soc. Jour. Vol. YH. p. 646) he afterwards observes of this coin ; 
' on the reverse of the coins of the second Hermaios (or perhaps the 
third) having a Hercules for the reverse, commences another series of 
native names following what we have designated the Eadphises, or Ea- 
daphes Group.' It is in fact a coin of Eadaphes, who invading, and sub- 
duing the country of the last Hermaios, adopted in part, according to the 
wont of the barbarians, the effigy of his coins, affording a strong contrast in 
its classicality, when placed, as at Manikyala, in juxta-position with the 
peculiar coinage of the Eadphesis and Eanerkis, by whom the types of Gre- 
cian domination were foregone. The presence at Darounta of this coin, 
(or coins, for No. 3 seems to be a duplicate though indistinct) with those 
of Azes, goes directly to support the truth of Professor Lassen's Chrono- 
logical Deductions as respects that Eing, and his immediate predecessor. 
•^ The coins of Azes,' he observes, 'are so closely connected with Greek 
types, that he must undoubtedly be a proximate successor of the Greek 
Kings, *♦♦**♦: he must be considered as a cotemporary of Her- 
maios.' (Lassen on Bactrian History, As. Soc. Jour. Vol. IX. p. 662.) 
But Mr. James Prinsep connects Eadaphes with Hermaios ; when there- 
fore we find their coins together, as in the instance now before us, the 
advent of the Saces under Eadaphes, to the destruction of the remains 
Greeco-Bactrian power, and the succession of Azes shortly afterwards, 
(who founded the great empire of that people) may the more readily be 
admitted. Professor Lassen gives the following dates, about which we 
may assign the period of the construction of the Darounta Tope. 

The Graecian Empire of Hermaios subdued by Eadaphes about 120 B. C. 

Great Empire of the Saces, under Azes about 1 16 B. C. 

Azilises succeeds him about 90 B. C. 

I need hardly add that to Kadkpises (a Parthian) Professor Lassen 
assigns a reign about 100. A. D. subsequent to the expulsion by Vikra- 
maditya of Malwa of the Saces, from the countries along the Indus, A. D. 
56, and a re-invasion of the land by new hordes of conquerors. 

The coin No. 4 is so much disfigured by oxidation, that the artist, who, 
in the plate before us, tried for the first time the difficult task of delineat- 
ing on paper the semi-defaced design of a coin utterly new to liim, has 

386 Report on Productions and Manufactures. [No. lld< 

been a little misled. It is simply, like Nos. 5 and 6, the ordinary mounted 
horseman with outstretched arm to the left, and fillets depending from 
the head. The only coin in tolerable preservation is No. 1. 


Report on Productions and Manufactures in the disfrict of Hunum- 
koondahf in the dominion ofH. H> the Nizam of Hyderabad, Bt 
A. M. Walker Esq. m. d.. Assistant Surgeon, Communicated 
from the Political Secretariat, Government of India, 

On the 1 2th instant, I had the honor of reporting my arrival at 
Hunamkoondah, since that time I have been employed in observing 
and noting the most important facts in reference to the object for which 
I am employed, and particularly in making inquiries respecting the 
production and manufactures in this part of the Nizam's dominions. 
As far as I could, 1 have trusted little to mere oral information, but 
have endeavoured to authenticate by actual observation, whatever appeared 
to me interestinor or useful in nature or in art. 

The face of the country in this neighbourhood presents a striking 
similarity to that in the vicinity of Hyderabad. Here are the same 
rounded, dark colored, herbless eminences, solitary, or in groups of con- 
siderable range, rising to the height of three or four hundred feet with 
the same ruinous appearance of the lower hills, and the fantastic piling 
of one boulder of rock on another. 

The tank, with its mound of earth or masonry and the sheet of verdure 
which it nourishes and maintains, serve to complete the resemblance of 
general form and outline, nor does a more minute examination detect 
many decrepancies. The surface rock, throughout, is granite, usually of 
a greyish colour, but varying from a dingey white to a reddish and more 
rarely to a blackish hue, according to the colour and predominance of 
each of its constituent parts, quartz, felspar and hornblende. Where 
quartz is prevalent, the rock is close grained and compact, with little 
tendency to wear, while on the other hand the most superficial examina- 
tion will shew that the excess of the two last, and more particularly of 
the felspar, is the certain cause of decay. 

In one locality in the village of Nagwazum, five miles t^ the north of 
this, so abundant is the homblende and felspar, to the exclusion of quartz 
io several specimens of the rocks, that they might be called sienitic 

1841.] Repori (m Productions and Manufactures. 387 

greenstone. I have nowhere seen mica take the place of the hornblende, 
hence the whole formation might be more properly termed sienitic than 
granite, particularly if the latter term is to be restricted to a determinate 
compound. Sienitic granite, however, a compromise between the two, 
would appear the better and most intelligible term for the rock as it 
exists here. 

In a spur of hills running north south near the vilage, of Erapully ten 
miles to -the west of Hunumkoondah, I remarked that the granite becomes 
stratified or in other words passes into gneiss. 

At the foot of these hills the iron ore, afterwards to be described, is 

. I have not met with lime-stone yet, but from its being very commonly 
employed by the natives, 1 should supp se that it existed in considerable 
quantity. From rheir account it would appear to form nests in the granite; 
the soil is of four descriptions, first the Chilka, a red gritty soil little 
fitted, from the coarseness of its particles, for the purpose of agriculture. 

2nd. Lalzumeen, a soil also of a reddish hue, and evidently the former 
in a more comminuted state *, this is put beyond doubt by the ant hills 
formed on the Chilka soil being composed of this earth. 

We thus see that these insects, usually looked on as troublesome and 
destructive pests, are not without their use in a grand natural operation. 
The peculiar acid, the formic, which is their chief agent, acts on the 
alkali and lime and most probably on the silica of the rockdebris, pul* 
verizing it, and facilitating in all probability fresh combinations ; the soil 
when manured is fitted for the reception of all kinds of crops without 
ireferencti to season. 

3rd. The Regur.soil. As far as 1 have yet observed, this soil is of less 
frequent occurrence than the two last mentioned } as else were it is parti- 
cularly adapted for cotton cultivation, and is generally esteemed the 
richest of soils. It requires little or no manure : yet ^e ryots are in the 
habit, previous to cropping, to let sheep loose upon it, it being supposed 
that their urine is very advantageous to its fertility : this is exceedingly 
probable as ijne salts which the urine contains, and the compounds they 
form, must be very efiicacious in loosening the soil, and preventing the 
formation of clods, the common drawback of argillaceous soils. 

4th. The Talao*ka-jumeen. The black soil found in the bottom of 
tanks. This is little esteemed, being a stifi'clay, little permeable by mois* 
tnre ; it abounds in fresh water shells and at the begmning of the dry sea* 
son, its surface is incrusted with carbonate of soda, of which mineral large 
quantities are collected for soap making. A property, common to all 

388 Bep&rt on Produttkns and Manufacture*. No. 113. 

these soils, is, (hat they effervesce with acids, thereby indicating the pre^ 
sence of carbonate of lime. 

As fiir as our geological knowledge can lead us, the presumption is, that 
these soils in all their varieties are nothing more than the decomposed 
sienitic rock, and considering the number of simple bodies, of which this 
is comi^osed, viz. Oxygen, Silica, Aluminium, Calcium, Potassium, Sodiusl 
Iron, and perhaps Manganese, and the ever varying proportions of its more 
immediate ingredients, we cannot wonder at, althoogh we may fail to ex- 
plam their striking diversity. Our notions of what may be termed th^ 
chemistry of nature ure yet very vague and unsatisfactory, for an appeal 
to the crucible, electrophorus, and the whole machinery and reagents of the 
labo^Htory, has not always been successful in elucidating natural pheno- 
mena strictly chemical. Let us rest on the negative evidence of the im- 
possibility of discovering, with our present lights, any other source for 
these soils than the rocks subjacent or in their vicinity,until strong proofs 
be afforded of their origin elsewhere. We cannot class among these the 
opinion, well nigh become an axiom with certain Indian naturalists, that 
the Regur« soil is always due to the disintegration of basalt; as for this 
purpose we must bring the Kishna or Godavery over heights and ravine^ 
that existed periods of time anterior to a secondary trap rock being 
thrown up. 

When the ground is left uncultivated, even for the short space of a 
year or two, it never fails to be covered with a low jungle, composed 
chiefly of the Cassia auriculata and Zizyphus microphylla, the former 
plant is hardy and luxuriant, and is in every respect the peculiar enemy 
of the cultivator, who certainly does not take the most effectual means to 
rid his fields of it, contenting himself with burning it or cutting it down 
to the level of the soil instead of rooting it op. Of the jungle trees by 
far the most common is the Butea frondosa, now in fall blossom, which 
with the Bombax heptaphylltim, and the Erythrina Indica stand out as 
the most garish of the forest trees. The Garuga pinnata, Hyperanthem 
Moringa^ Cassia fistula, Annbna reticuhita, Melia Aeedirachta, Bauhinia 
parviflora, Capparis trifoliata, Fieus Indica, Ficus religiosa, Bombax 
gossipinum, a species with yellow floM'eni, Feronia Elephantum, with 
four or five species of Acacia make up the list of the more common jungle 
trees. The Borassus flabelliformis, (the Palengra tree) is every where 
seen, which with the Phonix sylvestris, also common, yields in great 
abundance the well known Toddy. Of the common jungle creepers tvo or 
three species of Asclepias,and Capparis, and the ComUretum rotundifoliom, 
are at this season, the most conspicuous. 

1841.] 0/ Hunumkoanda. 369; 

. The Mango and Tamarind treea are eonunon about yiUagefli. 
The grain chiefly cultivated is rice, of which no fewer than eight va«^ 
rietiea are sown. Of these the beele$ wadro9 is the most cultivated, 
being both a rain and a dry weather crop, it is a middle si^d gr^un with 
a husk of a light brown colour j two of the other kinds are mu^h^ 
smaller grains with white husks, the other five diflfer in size, colour of 
bnsks, &c. 

Little of the rice raised is consumed by the inhabitants, but sent to 
Hydrabad forming the principal export ; in the districts its consumption 
is limited to the richer Mahomedans, Hindoo Zemindars, Brahmins, &c. ; 
the poorer classes chiefly derive their subsistence from the rain or 
punass crops. 

The principal punass or khnreef crops, are as follows :--of grains, An- 
dropogon Sorghum (two varieties of jooarry, red and white ; the first, 
only properly a punass crop, Andropogon Sacharatum), Bajree, Paspa- 
lum scrobicttlatum ; Triticum wheat, a red sort sparingly cultivated ; Pa- 
nicum Italioum, Italian millet ; Cynosurua Corocanus (Raggy)t and Zea* 
Mays. Of oil plants, Sesamum orientale, black and white, Ricinus qon^mu- 
nis, two kinds. 

Of Legumes, Dolichos Lablab, Dolichos gladiatus, Dolicfaos fabeefor- 
mis, Phaseolus mungo, Hibiscus cannabinus (Umbarah), a hemp plant, 
(leaves used by the natives as greens) and a variety of cotton called 
Salkapas. The rubbee crop consists of white jowarree, Cicer arietinum, 
Phaseolus mungo (a black variety), Crotolaria juneea (the sunn plants 
and cotton, sugar, and paun; Piper betel is also cultivated to h limited 
extent, and also tobacco of an inferior quality. It is remarked that 
tobacco irrigated from a well of brackish water is- superior in flavor to 
that irrigated from sweet water. 

This c£m be easily understood, as a common means with fraudulent 
tobacconists of heightening the flavor of their tobacco is by dipping it 
in a saline solution. The garden produce consists of red pepper, briojalst 
onions, garlic, carrots, radish, sweet potatoes, dill, coriander and bishop's- 
weed 8eeds> mustard seed for oil, fenugreek and some speices of amaran- 
thus for greens, they use also the flowers of the aeschynomone grandiflora 
as a potherb. 

Melons, cucumbers, and gourds, as in other parts of India, form a oon-> 
siderable article of diet, particularly in the dry season. 

The village cattle are small, and at this season of the year far from 
well flavoured, but is said that a stout breed of bullocks is not to be met 


390 Report <m Produciiims and Manufactures. [No. 113. 

with in the neighbourhood. Flocks of sheep, black and white, are ereiy 
where seen. 
The breed of horses, small, ill-shaped ponies, is very indifferent 
Wool meets a ready market in the districts being brought op for the 
carpet weaving of Warungal, and the manufacture of Eumlees ; a small 
quantity is sent to Chandah in the Nsgpore territory, its price at present 
is nine seers (the seer of 82 Halle Siccas) a rupee, white wool is 25 per 
cent, more valuable than black. 

Hides were formerly exported, their price varies from twelve annas to 
(2) two rupees each. The ceasing of the export of hides within the last 
few years, is a favourable index of the extention of agriculture, as leather 
is employed in a certain quantity in almost every implement of farming. 

The iron ore is found at the foot of a range of hills running N. and 
S. about ten miles to the west of Hunumkoonda. 

It exists in the form of fragments, often of a rhomboidaL shape 
imbedded in a red clay, and accompanied by pieces of gueiss and quarts. 
It is evident that the neighbouring hill is the source from whence it is 
derived, and I have little doubt that a skilful miner with some trouble 
(for the gueiss hill, unlike the granite, is clad with a pretty deep alluvion) 
might come upon the original bed of ore, of which these are mere detached 
portions ; as it is, the demand for metal is sufficiently met by collecting 
and smelting these fragments. It is said that the Iron tract occupies a 
space of ten begahs, the greater part of which is covered by a woody jungle. 
The shafts are of various depths from 10 to 30 feet ; into these the miner 
descends, and detaches by means of a small pickaxe whatever mineral he 
meets with from the red clay containing them, he determines by their 
weight whether they contain ore or not, and thus fills his basket. He 
can gather during the day six or eight small baskets full, one hundred 
and twenty of which are sold to the smelter for a rupee. The ore is 
reduced in the adjacent villages in the usual rude way so well known. 
It occupies six men for two days to turn out a maund (12 seers) of metaL 
The Iron is brought up by Bunyas, for exportation, for R. li a maund, 
and is sold to other customers for two or three annas more. The ore 
is of that kind usually called magnetic iron ore, and black iron ore being 
a compound of protoxide and peroxide of iron ; it possesses the magne- 
tic power but slightly. I have made a number of trials, and have found 
no specimen with magnetism enough to pick up a small needle. The 
circumstance too of the cutlers here having in their possession pieces of 
magnetic iron ore, as heir looms and talismans, sufficiently prove that this 

1841.] ^ Hunumkoonda. 391 

virtue in a high degree must be rare indeed. The Sp. gr. ranges 
from 4-3 to 4-8, which would give nparly an average of 4,-5. From this 
I am inclined to think, that malgre the deficiency of attractive power, 
the ore is a tolerable rich one ; I may add that of all iron ores the black 
is the richest ; by possessing it Sweden is still able to surpass great 
Britain in the manufacture of the metaU 

Besides the morinda citrifolia the wool dye, which is cultivated on the 
regur soil, the Oldenlandia umbellata (Cherwell or chay root) grows wild 
here in great plenty. A man and his wife can easily gather forty bundles 
' in a day, which they sell to the dyer for 4 annas ; it is employed 
to dye cotton of a red and orange colour. The Oldenlandia is cultivated 
on the Coromandel Coast. It is very probable that the dying properties 
ef the wild, excel that of the cultivated, for dyes often follow the same 
law which renders Ihe smell and taste of the wild plant, growing in a 
state of nature, stronger than those carefully attended. 

The dying process is very tedious, occupying forty days and upwards. 
Five or six pieces of Indigofera are met with here, but one species only, 
the Indigofera ceerulea, is used for the preparation of Indigo. It is col- 
lected in the rains when the dye is commonly made, the method of prepar- 
ing which is sufficiently simple. A strong decoction is made of the plant, 
leaves, flowers, pods and twigs, being all Indiscriminately thrust into a 
gurrah ; when this is hot an infusion of Eugenia jambolana (rose apple 
tree) the indigo is immediately precipitated and the superincumbent water 
being drawn off, is dried in the sun. 

The native plan of mounting the indigo vat merits attention : a potash 
ley is prepared from the ashes of the Euphorbia Tirucalli (milk bush 
hedge) and lime ley, mixing them together and then filtering. In this 
ley seeds of the Trigonella fanum-grecum and Cassia Tora are boiled^ 
and the liquor being strained, is poured into the water drawn o% after the 
precipitation of the Indigo, and the Indigo itself is then put in and some 

more potash ley is added. 

Inthreeor four hours the fermentation is perfected, and the vat fitted 
for the purposes of the dyer. The theory of thi^vat is very obvious, ex- 
tractive matter derived from the liquor in which the Indigo was first 
boiled, with the sugar, starch, and mucilage, of the two leguminous seeds, 
cause a fermentation by which the Indigo is vendesed soluble in the 

alkaline solution. 

The process is more simple than that usually followed by dyers in 
Europe, and is in perfect accordance with every rule of practical chemis* 


S08 Report w ProdmUmHS and Manu^aciures, ^c. [No. 113. 

try. Theve is no superfliiityi and no waste ; and on the whole it is a most 
favorable spedmen of native ingennitsr and skill. 

. Indigo £rom MasuHpatam, the pTodaceof Bengal, finds its way to thii 
place, and is sold for the same price as the Indigo mana factored here. 

The carpet mannfactore for which Wanmgal or rather the Tillages, 
Muswarrah, &c., in its. close vicinity are celebrated, does not appear ts 
be an indigenoos art. 

i A distinct tradition «skts of its introduction, «nd also the method of 
preparing -and drying the materials that compose it, being'due to the 
Mahometans, facts countenanced, if not Substantiated, by the present 
weavers and dyers being Uniformly of that religions persuadon. 

The carpet loom is notfhiog more than the common nativ^e loom placed 
veitically instead of horizontally. The waft is of thick strong cotton 
Iwist, being arranged by no wafting mill, bnt by one of the weikmen 
going round and round two stakes fixed in the ground and dropping the 
lliread at each, as he passes ; in the loom it is kept on the stretch by 
two strong billets of wood, the threads being approached by separate 
loops of cotton fixed to a bamboo, which is elevated or depressed at the 
will of the weaver. The worsted is held in the left hand, and a crescent 
shaped knife in the right, the fingers of both being left free ; the inner 
4hread of the waft is then seized, the worsted wound round the outer, 
crossed on itself, and the extremity drawn oat, by which it is made to 
descend in the form of an open figure of eight to be snipped bf 
the curved knife. It is superfluous to say that this is the work of an 
instant^ when the pattern is new or difficult, the order and position 
of the worsted threads is changed by a ooryphoeus in a kind of rhyme. 
On a row being completed, the warp, in the shape of a cotton thtead dyed 
dark brown by the barlL of the Swietenia Febrifuga, is forced down by 
means of an iron toothed comb, in form .something like an adze ; the 
whole is completed by cutting the worsted to its proper length by a large 
scissors held steadily against the waft. It would rejoice a Manchester 
or Glasgow manufacturer to learn that infant labour is employed and pre- 
ferred in Warungal carpet weaving, it being averred that their more limber 
finger joints are best fitted for the finer parts of the woric, but cupidity all 
•over the world is ingenious in finding excuses, and is ever ready to eon- 
found the expedient with the right. Dried springs of Toolsee (ocymoa 
sanctum) and bunches of Lepidigathis Indica are attached to the loon 
frames ; the workmen say that they make their lahour go on more c]ere^ 
ly. Twelve diflferest worsteds are employed. 

1841.] Roree m Kkt^podr, SOS 

The blue is produced from Indi^, the -yellow, the ^Iphtir yellowy 
from boiling the sulphur yellow in water impregnated with carbonate of 
soda, in which a little turmeric has been mixed, the deepest yellow is 
produced by dipfimg the same in potash ley. The iteds are all produced 
by lac dye dissolved by tamarind juice, with sulphcEte of alumina and 
potash as a mordant. The depth of colour depends in 3 cases upon the 
original black, brown, or white colour of the wool { in the fourth on the 
length of time the last description of wool was allowed to remain in the 
dye. The greens are produced by immersion in Indigo, and then in polas 
or turmeric, their degrees also depend on the original colour of the wool. 
Bengal Indigo is always preferred to the home-mannfactnred by the worst- 
ed dyers, cotton -carpeting is also prepared in the same way as the woollen. 

The carpet weavers are described as given up to indolence and dissipa*- 
tioa, to both of which they appeared on a late occasion most anxious t» 
minister by endeavouring to establish a monopoly. Theie are at present 
two hundred looms working ; at the village t>f Hoosun-porti, five miles 
from this, a good many looms are employed in weaving tusser or jungle 
ailk. As this letter is already too long 1 shall defer till another occasion 
the description of this manufacture, and the rearing of the insects producing 
the raw material. 1 cannot conclude this without mentioning an import 
to this place, viz. English cotton yarn, of an orange eoloor, which comes 
from Masnlipatam to be used by the cotton weavers in the borders of saries, 
pnnchees, &c. ; the reason they assign for its employment is the quick 
lading of their native yellows ; in all probability the English thread is 
dyed with fustic wood (Moras Tinctoria) the most lasting of yellow dyes. 
Be this as it may, ita use bodes ought but good to the Indian manufao- 

Roree in Khtfrpoor; its Population and Mannfacturet. — By 
Captain 6.E. Westhacott, 37/^ Regiment^ Bengal N. !• 

Roree or more correctly Lohuree, the ancient Lohurkot, is a town of 
•considerable antiquity, and said to have been founded with Bukur, about 
the middle of the 7th century of the Hejira. It is built on a steep lime- 
stone ridge that sweeps in a crescent form along the. east bank of the 
Indus. The strata of the rook is horizontal, and exhibits marks every- 
where of the the action of the river, which must have risen formerly at 
least fifty feet above its present level in the season of floods, and washed 
the foundation of the houses. In the sandy bays, creeks, and hollows aban- 

394 Raree in Khyrpoor. \JSo. 113b 

doned by the stream, date and peepul trees grow luxuriantly, and rocks 
worn by the water, and shattered and broken into gigantic masses, were 
submerged at no Very remote period. Along the base of the hills, on both 
banks of the river, the land bears the appearance of having been under 
water. The remains of a stone and brick wall, or quarry, built evidently 
to oppose the encroachments of the river, runs along the edge of the 
precipitous ridge which supports the town, and under it is an extensive 
eavem. Clay buttresses shore up the houses, which rise to four and five 
stories, and being composed of frail materials and badly built, threaten 
momentarily to topple over into the great road leading to the watering 
place, which is usually thronged with people. 

The inhabitants affirm that the periodical rains have failed the last 
twenty years, and that the river rises less annually. An old Bnnneah 
pointed to a spot, which he recollects to have seen covered by the river, 
and is now removed at least six feet above its level in the floods. To 
this cause partly, the people attribute the decline of the prosperity of 
Sind, and the extortions of the Talpoor Beloochees and the large ex- 
pense incurred in digging canals and cuts for irrigation, swallow up 
the entire produce of their industry. 

The Bunneah remembers upwards of fifty houses in Roree, being 
washed down about twenty years since by rain, and I can easily &ney 
the havoc a storm would make among the frail and mined tenements in 
the town. The Indus rose, within his recollection, ten or twelve feel 
higher than it does now; for the last four years scarcely any rain has 
fallen, and grain has become progressively dearer, but there was a plenti- 
ful supply in 1839, compared with the quantity that fell in the preceding 

The lime ridge behind Roree is without a blade of vegetation, it 
swells into peaks and eminences, and stretches several miles inland, and 
along the river, to the south. Some of the hills are isolated, — ^and inter- 
sected by little valleys, and some are capped by tombs, shrines, and other 
buildings in ruins. These parched and arid hills are in powerful con- 
trast with the deep verdure of date groves and hajree fields that are 
scattered in rich luxuriance over the low grounds towards the capital of 
the principality. The ledgah of Roree is about five hundred feet above 
the river, and few spots in the Eastern world surpass the view from it in 
beauty, and present a greater variety of objects. In front of the spectator 
are two picturesque little islands ; the one covered with date pains, the 
other with tombs and mausolea, shooting up into innumerable pointed 
spires of glazed porcelain. The fort of Bukur, beyond it, embraces a 

1841.] Rore€ in Khyrpoor* 395 

wast oval rock in the midst of the Indus, and exhibits on this face twentyf- 
three bastions of different forms resting on the edge of the stream ; and 
date and peepul trees spring from the naked rock, and fix their roots in 
the foundation of the embattled curtain. On an elevated citadel in the 
middle of Bukur, floats the small blood-red flag of the Meer of Ehyrpoor, 
emblazoned with the national emblem of a rampant tiger, and near it on 
a loftier staff, the more gorgeous standard of Britain, fourfold the size 
of the banner of the Meer ; above and below the fort, are small wooded 
islands, inhabited by holy beggars, who are fed and attended by votaries 
from both sides of the water. The eye delights to rest on fertile groves of 
lofty date trees, mixed with vineyards and mango trees, and the Indus is 
seen meandering, far away in the distance, in snaky folds, through a per- 
fectly flat and verdant country. The heights of Sukhur are a prominent 
feature in the landscape, and every hill crowned with a tent, a tomb, or a 
ruin. A battery of seven guns is in the midst of the British camp, and 
to the west of it the decayed mosque, the sainted shrine and minaret of 
Meer Masoom. The living objects in the foreground of the picture com* 
municated to it, at the time of my visit, additional interest and anima- 
tion ; an encampment of several hundred camels occupied a small valley 
leading to the river, and their drivers had tents of black goat and camels 
hair raised on sticks. Belooch horsemen, with flowing beards, each in 
his national cap of coloured cotton and accoutred with sword, shield, and 
matchlocks, rode slowly among the hills, and asses heavily laden with 
grass and wood for the citizens, wound up the steep rocky ascent into 
the town. The monotonous song of the washerman filled the air as he 
beat garments of many colours upon planks, and troops of Hindoo an4 
Moosulman women bathed at the different ghats, each of the former, on 
her way home, carried a vessel of river water to lave, with pious reverence 
the roots of a peepul tree, and the emblem of Muhadeva which stood 
beneath it. 

Most of the houses in Roree rise to three and four floors, and some 
have five, and standing on elevated ground they assume an appearance 
of great vastness to the eye. They have no ventilators or towers on the 
roofs, to catch the wind like the houses in Lower Sind and Arabia ^ 
but the walls of the upper chambers are pierced with small windows with- 
out regard to symmetry. They are not glazed, but some of them in 
the harems of the principal residents, are filled with fine gratings of woo4 
or mortar i some are open, and others furnished like the doors 
with folding shutters, which close badly, and are secured on the 
outside with a hasp and padlock ; they are not painted any more than 

9Q6 Roree inKkyrpoor. [Ho^ 113. 

the dooTB. The roofs are sarrounded by a light rail or ballastrade, and 
have spoats to carry off water. The upper story has sometimes a wooden 
balcony, supported on frail posts, and the houses of the rich are con- 
tained in a walled eonrt, along with buildings and sheds for servants. 
The rooms have pannelled ceilings tastefully carved, as are the window- 
frames and door posts. It forms the only ornament, and there is scarcely 
any fumitnre ; coarse woollen carpets, and mats, supply the place of 
tables and chairs; some houses are constructed of burnt brick plas- 
tered with clay; when sun-dried bricks are used, they are not laid 
horizontally, but in a sloping or diagonal direction, (v. Fig. !,) and the 
upper walls, which are extremely thin, are any kind of timber placed 
without regard to regularity, with tamarisk twigs between them, and 
plastered with clay, and chopped straw. Lime abounds every where ; 
but it is not the custom in Roree nor other parts of Sind to white-wash 
the outer and inner walls of houses, and they have a dingy nneomfoit- 
able appearance. The upright posts are chiefly tamarisk, fixed into 
horizontal beams of the same, and set in a stone foundation to preserve 
them from the depredations of white ants. Roofs are flat, and built of 
slight timbers, covered with reeds, and when reeds are not procurable, 
mats are substituted. The frame work is acacia, date, a whitish co- 
loured wood called Bank or Buhan, and any other kind of timber ; the 
acacia is scarce at Roree and Sukhur, and the date never used for door 
posts and pillars. The people put on the rafters a layer of *ieer, then 
'tchupreei and thirdly a kind of reed called Gondnee {Typha), upon which 
they spread a coat of fat yellowish clay (peela miUtee) mixed with 
chopped straw and the sweepings of houses. Those who can afford it 
mix wheat chaff with the clay, and when it is dry lay over it a compost 
of cowdung and clay, to fill up crevices. Dry cowdung is sometimes 
put on the reeds, and covered with chopped straw and clay ; a roof thus 
formed is about a cubit thick ; the wood and reeds occupy eight inches, 
cowdung the same, and clay two inches. The people assured me, that 
a roof properly constructed will endure half a century, and resist for 
twenty years the small quantity of rain which falls in Sind ; a roof 
commonly stands ten years without requiring repairs, but the mats are 
soon rotted by wet. The cost of building a good shop, of burnt brick 
on the ground floor in Roree, is 400 or 500 Rs., and double the sum if 
a story be added to it ; a large shop may be constructed of sun-dried 

* The upper stem of moonj ^a3s called in India Sirkee. 
f The thick part of the stem of moonj grass called in India Surkondx 

1S4].] Roree in Khypaor. 397 

hridk for 300 R3., and a small one for 50 or 100 Rs ; most of the houses 
in Roree are calcined brick. To prevent insects penetrating the floors 
of warehouses, which are intended to receive grain and goods, they are 
sometimes paved with blocks of stone which may be procured in any 
quantity in the neighbourhood ; the stones are covered with clay, and 
plastered with cowdung, and a thick coat of coarse salt strewed over it. 

Houses above one story, belong to, and are occupied by one family, and 
when the children marry, they remove to another dwelling ; all houses 
of this description, were built by wealthy merchants and bankers, before 
the reign of the Talpooras, and through their oppression many have 
been deserted by the proprietors Families occupy the lower floors in 
the cold months, and remove above in summer; they cook and light 
fires, above and below, and there are no chimnies for the smoke to escape. 
The great height of the houses, and narrow streets and lanes, exttlude the 
son's rays, and the heat in the lower stories is quite insupportable to 
an European in summer. A single narrow door gives admittance to a 
gloomy and dirty parlour, which is not furnished with windows nor any 
Bperture for light and air ; to get at the door you mount an earthen stair 
with a narrow terrace at top. Poor people rarely use bedsteads,^ and 
have neither pillows nor sheets; they spread their mats at night on 
the house tops, or terrace in front of their doors, and cover themselves 
with a blue cotton cloth, which serves them for a garment in the day 
time. Others lock up their goods in a back chamber, and sleep in their 
shops, which are open towards the street. 

The principal thoroughfare leading up from the Indus is paved with 
bricks laid edge ways, and some of the lanes and passages in the town, 
wre ss narrow and dirty as the closes in the old city of Edinburgh. The 
baears are covered in with mats like those of Arabia and Egypt, to 
keep off the sun's rays, but so much neglected th:it they are a public 
nuisance, rather than a comfort, and a horseman cannot ride under them 
withont coming in contact with sticks and cotton straw, which cover 
bira with dust. The interior of houses, is extremely dirty ; dunghills 
fill the open spaces and suburbs of the town, and it presents altogether 
A scene of great squalidness and filth: here are neither swine, vultures, 
nor storks to devour the ofiai as in Indian villages, but loathsome, mangy, 
and half-starved dogs are numerous, and almost the only scavengers. 

* A conitnon bedstead, Uced 'vvith r string of moor\i grass, costs eight or ten aonM 
(laor 16 ^oce^v 

^ D 

308 Roref in Khypoor. [No. IIS. 

Roree contains abont forty mosquea, where prayers are recited, and 
more than doable the namber ruined and deserted. The great mosque 
stands on an eleTated platform in the N. £• quarter of the town, and 
was built, according to a Persian inscription on the front, in the year 992 
of the Hejira, or 265 years ago, by Futteh Khan Lieutenant of the 
Emperor Akbur. It is a solid, heavy looking pile of red brick, covered 
by three domes, and faced with porcelain tiles, and on the east or front 
face, are a paved court and cloisters, where travellers formerly lodged, 
but now in ruin. When I entered the court, a traveller was just arrived 
from a long journey, and stretched at length upon his back on the pave- 
ment, while a monjawur, or attendant of the mosque, trampled opon his 
thighs to give relief, I was told, to his weary limbs. 

Near the mosque, in the Hindoo . quarter of the town, the Momb Moo- 
baruk, a hair of Mahomed's beard is preserved in a shrine covered 
with ill painted arabesques. The Sindees say there are only 2| of these 
precious hairs to be found in the world ; the one at Roree, one at Dilbee 
and the remaining half in Persia ; the relic, it is believed, was broogfat 
to Bukur four generations ago. and is enshrined in amber, in a gold ease 
set with rubies and emeralds. The gold case is kept in a golden boZf 
shaped like the pen- holders used by Asiatics, and wrapped in silk, plain 
and worked, with gold and silver flowers, and again enclosed in a wooden 
box clamped with silver. The hair is exhibited to pilgrims, and said 
to change colour like a camelion before their admiring eyes ; a onm- 
ber of Moojaujar or custodians, are attached to the shrine, and fonr of the 
principal families receive among them a duly allowance from Govern- 
ment of If rupee. 

Roree has two great bazars, one filled exclusively by grain*seller's 
stores, and the. other with shops of cloth merchants, fruiterers, fish- 
mongers, et cetera ; people of a trade reside together, and Hindoos 
occupy quarters of the town distinct from Moosulmans. In the east 
quarter are the remains of a mosqne and serai of noble proportions, 
which might be restored and made habitable at a moderate, outlay, and 
would be a great benefit to the town, and convenience to travellers, who 
still lodge under the broken arcades which surround the ample court. 

The town contains a number of shops, where turquoises are set and 
polished, it is a favourite gem but the s|)ecimens shown me were small, 
and of bad colour. People who cannot afford to purchase real stones 
wear false ones set in rings, and women adorn their toes with blue ena- 
melled buckles or clasps, and their nose with a very unbecoming goM 
ornament, one half circular, and i\^t other half moulded in form of a 

1841.] Eoree in Khypoor. 399 

crescent. Silver anklets are common, and females who are too poor to 
buy ivory bangles wear bone , poverty often prevents their appearing in 
gfay coloured raiment, which is nearly confined to the public women, but 
they display their fondness for trinkets, by frequent visits to pedlar's 
shops, where mirrors, combs, leaden rings set with false stones, and other 
female ornaments, are sold. These shops are crowded with the wives and 
daughters of tradesmen, who pass much time turning over and trying on 
baubles, and I observed many sorrowful faces when they relinquished a 
favourite trinket from inability to pay for it. 

In the fish market, a number of women congregate round people who 
sell Singharat a fish like a shark considered to be very unwholesome 
eating, but preferred for its cheapness. The fish is cut in pieces, and 
the women go provided with small bowls to receive any quantity they 
require for their families* 

Roree is divided into 46 Muhullas or quarters, and I add a list, and 
the description of inhabitants in each, which may be received, I think, 
as a close approximation to truth. 

1. — Kanoongo,* Government Officers, Eardars, Moonshees, Putwarees; 
&c. • 

3. — Wutchoowaree, goldsmiths, &c. 

3. — Suthdura, M. (polishers and setters of stones, silk- weavers. 

4. — Thushar (the name of a tribe of Moosulmans), M. cotton weavers, 
agriculturists, &c. 

5. — Arain Khudwala, M. gardeners and fruiterers. 
' 6. — Tukkur (a hill), H. Bahmuns, about 22 families of Hindoo shop- 

7. — Musund, name of a tribe of Hindoo Gooroos. 

8. — Arain (2d) Duiewala, name of a tribe of Moosulmans, M. farmers 
and agriculturists. 

9. — Arain (3d) Ootradee, name of a tribe of Moosulmans, M. Farmers 
and agriculturists. 

10.— Durgah, M. Moojawars, shopkeepers, cloth sellers, and labourers. 

11. — Chyn Rae (name of a wealthy Hindoo living), H. shopkeepers 
and others. 

13. — Chubootru, H. shopkeepers. 

13.— Suyud Yakoob Khan Bazar, M. singers and musicians, H. shop- 
keepers, &c. 

* H. denotes' thftt the Mufaulla is inhabited by Hindoos and M* by Moosulmans. ' 

400 Roree m Khypoor. [No. IIS. 

14.-i«Gttj«anee name of a tribe of MooBiilmans. 

15...Suyud Jan Shah (name of a Suyud living), inhabited exclusiTelj 
by Suyuds ; they are all Sheeas and penait no other class of people to 
reside in the Muhulla with them. 

16.— Suyud Ghoun Sulee Shah (name of a Suyud living), inhabited 
exclusively by Suyuds. 

17. — Suyud Ghoolam Shah (name of a Suyud living), inhabited exclu- 
sively by Suyuds. 

18. — Moonda Kube (Moonda name of a deceased Fukeer), Bf, cotton- 
spinners, H. shopkeepers and labourers. 

19.-— Kazee Ghoolam Mahomed (name of a Eazee living), M. 15 
houses of Hukeems (physicians). 

20. — Moohur Kundee, M. stone and seal cutters^ 

21. — Kussab, M. butchers. 

22 — Jiya Shah (name of a deceased Suyud), M. husbandmen. 

23.-— <Kazee Purel (name of the chief Kazee of Roree), inhabited by his 
family and dependents. I may observe that the names of Muhulias which 
are derived from inhabitants of note are often changed on their decease 
to that of th^r successors. 

24. — Bokharee Shati {jiwait of a peer or holy man living), M, mat, £ui| 
and basket makers. 

25. — Mootrib, M. singers and musicians. 

26. — Boola (name of a deceased Shuekh, a tailor), M. tailors. 

27. — Kazee Wudha, inhabited by the family and dependents of Wudha 
Kazee aud Hukeem. 

28. — Satee, name of a tribe of fish-sellers, Soonee Moosulmans. 

29. — ^Puba, name of a tribe of fishermen who fioat on the Indus on 
earthen vessels, Soonee Moosulmans. 

30. — ^Tukurwala Puba, fishermen, Soonee, Moosulmans. 

31. — Suyud Gholam Ulee Shah, (name of the Moorshid or spiritual 
guide of Meer Roos