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•' It will flourish, if naturalists, chemists, antiquari 
in different parts ot Asia will commit their observatic 
Asiatic Society at Calcutta. It will langruish if such 
mitted ; and it will die away if they shall entirely ceaae,"— Sir Wm . Jones. 




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Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar with some notes and remarks on 
the History of the Western Jumna Canals, By Lieut. Yule, Engineers, 
First Assistant W. J. C, 213 

Coast of Coromandel, from Pennour to Pondicherry ; Notes, chiefly 
Geological, on the. By Capt. Newbold, 204 

Coins of Arakan ; The Historical. By Capt. A. P. Phayre, Principal 
Assistant Commissioner, Arakan, 232 

; The Symbolical. By Lieut. T. Latter, 238 

. the Independent Muhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal, 

by J. W. Laidlay, Co-Secretary, 323 

Fauna of the Nicobar Islands ; Notes on the. By E. Blyth, Curator of 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society, • 367 

Geological features of Zillah Behar, Note on the. By W. S. Sherwill, 
B. N. I. Revenue Surveyor, 55 

Hill Tribes on the Kuladyne River ; a note on some. By Lieut. T. Latter, 
(67th N. I.) of the Arakan Local Battalion, 60 

Koompta on the Western Coast (S. India) by the Devamunni and 
Nundibannama Passes, easterly to Cumbum, and thence southerly to 
Chittoor ; Notes, chiefly Geological, from ; comprising a notice of the 
I>iamond and Lead Excavations of Buswapur. By Capt. Newbold, . . 380 

Mammalia inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands ; Catalogue 
of : Collected or Observed by Theodore Cantor, M, D. Bengal Medi- 
cal Service, i .,• . . . 171—241 

New or Little known Species of Birds, Notices and Descrifttions of vari- 
ous. By E. Blyth, Esq., Curator, Museum Asiatic Society, 1 — ^280 

Nicobar Islands ; Notice of the. By the Rev. P. Barbe, 344 

Proceedings of the Asiatic Society for January, 1846, (79) i; for 
February, (171) xvii; March (241) xxiii; for April (323) xxvii ; for 
May (397) xxxm ; for June xti ; for July xlvii ; for September Ixvii. 
— ^Ixxv; for October Ixxix ; for November Ixxxv ; for December ciii. 

Seiingapatam, by the Hegulla Pass, to Cannanore; Notes, chiefly 
Geological, from. By Capt. Newbold, 315 

Shatool and Booran Passes over the Himalaya, Diary of an Excursion 
to the, in September 1845. By Capt. Madden, Bengal Artillery,. ... 79 

Tibetan Antelope ; Description of a new species of; with plates. By 
B. H. Hodgson, Esq. Darjeeling, 334 

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iv Index. 

Western Coast ofSouth India ; Notes, chiefly Geological, on the. By 

Capt. Newbold, ' 224 

Zoology of Candahar and the neighbouring districts ; Rough notes on 
the. By Capt. T. Hutton of the Invalids, Mussoori, with Notes by 
Edward Blyth, Esq. Curator, Museum Asiatic Society (continued 
from Vol. XIV. page 354), 135 

Index to Names of Contributors. 

Barbe, Rev. P. Notice of the Nicobar Islands, 344 

Blyth, Ed. Esq. Notices and Discriptions of various New or Little 
Known Species of Birds, , 1 — ^280 

Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands, 367 

Cantor, Theodore, M. D. Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting the Mala- 
yan Peninsula and Islands, ^ 171— r24l 

Hodgson, B. H. Esq. Description of a new Species of Tibetan Ante- 
lope, 334 

Hutton, Capt. T. Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar and the 
neighbouring districts, 135 

Laidlay, J. W. Esq., on the Coins of the Independant Muhammadan 
Sovereigns of Bengal, 323 

Latter, Lieut. T. A Note on some Hill Tribes on the Kuladyne River, 
Arakan, 60 

■^ The Symbolical Coins of Arakan, 238 

Madden, Capt. Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool and Boorun Pass- 
es, over the Himalaya, in Sept. 1845, . , ,. 79 

Newbold, Capt. Notes, chiefly Geological, on the coast of Coromandel, 
from Pennaur to Pondicherry, 204 

Notes, chiefly Geological, on the Western coast of South 

India, , 224 

— — ^— — — Notes, chiefly Geological, from Seringapatam, by the 
HeguUa Pass to Cannanore, 315 

Notes, chiefly geological, from Koompta on the Western 

Coast (South India) by the Devamimni and Nundibunnama Passes, 
easterly to Cumbum, and thence southerly to Chittoor ; comprising 
a notice of the Diamond and Lead Excavations of Buswapur, 380 

Phayre, Capt. A. P. The Historical Coins of Arakan, 232 

Sherwill, Lieut. W. S. Note on the geological features of the Zillah 
Bahar, 55 

Yule, Lieut. A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar with some notes and 
remarks on the History of the Western Jumna Canals^ 213 

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Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known Species of 
Birds, By £o. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum, 

[Continued from Vol. XIV, p. 602]. 
Buzzards. Archibuteo hemiptUopus^ nobis. Nearly allied to the Mexican 
Arch, regalis, figured by Mr. 6. R. Gray in his illustrated work on the 
' G^era of Birds' ; having the tarsi, as in that species, feathered to the 
toes in front and externally, bare and scutated behind, and reticulated 
for a slight distance on either side, the latter being hidden by the 
feathers. Length, of probably a fine female, about twenty-eight inches, 
the wing twenty and a quarter, and tail thirteen inches; beak, from 
point to gape, two inches ; and tarse exceeding three inches. Colour 
(of the only specimen examined) a rich deep fuscous-brown, slightly 
glossed with pink on the; the inter-scapularies shading 
laterally to fulvescent : on the nape, the feathers are merely tipped with 
dusky-brown, the remainder being pure white, which shews very conspi- 
cuously : head mingled whitish and brown, the latter predominating 
on the crown, the former on the lower ear-coverts and throat : from the 
base of the lower mandible proceeds a large blackish moustache : breast 
fulvescent, the feathers more or less largely tipped with deep brown ; 
and the abdomen, flanks, vent, lower tail- coverts, with the long tibial 
and the tarsal plumes, are of an uniform rich very dark brown throughout, 
approaching to blackish : primaries dusky, paler above the emargination 
of their outer webs, and the smaller primaries and the secondaries are 
No. 169. No. 85, Nbw Sebibs. b 

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2 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

obscurely, though distinctly, banded : internally, the large alars are white 
at base, as in other Buzzards : tail barred throughout with many narrowish 
undulating bands, alternately dusky and paler, becoming successively 
more obscure towards the base, and the subterminal dusky band 
broadish ; beneath, the tail is albescent to near its base, and the stems 
of. the caudal feathers are very white, both above and below. Beak 
dusky horn-coloured, yellowish laterally at base of mandibles, and with 
apparently a livid wax-coloured cere : the toes also, and hind portion of 
the tarsi, livid waxy ; and the talons horny-black. A very splendid 
species, from Darjeeling. 

Another fine Buzzard, the Buteo aquilinus, Hodgson, nobis, J, A. S. 
(March) 1845, p. 176, has since been described by Mr. Hodgson by 
the name B.^leucocephalus, in Proc, ZooL Soc, (April) 1845, p. 21, 
where he speaks of it as " peculiar to the Gachar and Tibet." I repeat 
my former suggestion, that it is probably the Falco asiaticus of Latham, 
described to inhabit China. 

A third was described by Mr. Hodgson, in the ' Bengal Sporting 
Magazine,' for 1836, p. 182, by the name Circus plutnipes, which he has 
since altered to Buteo plumipes, Proc. Zool, Soc. 1845, p. 37, though 
retaining his opinion of its near affinity to Circus* 

A fourth is the B. canescens, Hodgson, (vide J, A. S, XII, 308,) which 
is decidedly the ' Nasal Falcon' of Latham ; and Mr. Jerdon now iden- 
tifies with it his B. longipes, and I much suspect that B. rufiventer, 
Jerdon, is merely a small male of the same. Also, I think that B. pec^ 
toralis, Vieillot, will prove to be no other, in which case this last speci- 
fic name will have to be retained. I have procured specimens of this 
bird in the neighbourhood of Kishenaghur and Moorshedabad* in Lower 
Bengal, and have picked up an undoubted feather of it in a mangoe tope 
much nearer to Calcutta ; but in the vicinity of Calcutta it must be 
very rare, if it occurs at all ; preferring a more open country. 

* Mr. Hodgson has recently written me word that the Buteo plutnipes^ loc. cit.^ ** is 
a Circus osculant to Buteo, as B. aquilinus (v. leucocephalus ) is a Buteo osculant to 
AquUa. The latter is not a typical Buteo or ^rcAi&u^eo, "^witness its reticulate tarse, 
.&c. &c. This species is inserted incorrectly in the * Proceedings of the Zoological 
Society.' instead ofplumipes belonging ** to Buteo proper and not to Circus," it should 
have been * belongs not to Buteo but to Circus.*— This species 1 have never seen, 
but must confess to theoretical doubts of its truly connecting Circus with Buteo: the 
latter genus and Aquila, on the other hand, are very closely allied, in fact but slight 
modifications of the same immediate subtype ; and species of intermediate character 
might have been looked for. 

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1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 3 

B, pygmteus, nobis, J, A, 3, 1845» p. 177, is a fifth decided species, 
from the Tenasserim provinces. 

To the genus Spizaetus of Vieillot, Mr. G. R. Gray refers Nisa^tus of 
Mr. Hodgson as a synonyme (as I formerly did, in J. A, S. XI, 456, 
and XII, 305) ; thus bringing together certain species of the Old World 
and of the New, concerning which suspicion at least of respective generic 
diversity had been entertained. Morphnus of Cuvier, however, which had 
generally been placed as synonymous with Spizaetus, is confined by Mr. 
Gray to certain naked-legged species of South America, as M, urubi- 
tinga and its affines ; and, finally, Limna^tus, Vigors, is referred by the 
same systematist to Spizaetus, though to judge from Dr. Horsfield's 
figure and description of L. unicolor (its type), he would scarcely seem 
justified in doing so. 

Upon a former occasion (ante, p. 176), I indicated the four Indian 
species of undoubted Spizaetus (vel Nisaetus), after describing what I 
conceived to be a new species of the form from Malacca, by the name 
NisaStus alboniger,* This last, however, proves to be decidedly the 
true Falco caligatus of Rafiies, (as was first pointed out to me by my 
friend Dr. Cantor,) and will therefore now range as Sp, caligatus, 
(Rafiies) : consequently, it remains to determine what specific name 
the common Bengal species, which I formerly conceived to be cali- 
gatus, should retain; and this will probably be nipalensis, (Hodgson,) 
since considerable doubt must attach at present to the identification 
of it with the Javanese Falco niveus of Temminck. The species in 
question is the Bauj Eagle and Nerwied Eagle of Latham, but does not 
appear to have received a distinctive systematic name prior to that 
bestowed by Mr. Hodgson, and which should refer exclusively^ to his 
supposed crestless variety of the species, which usually presents a mere 
rudiment of an occipital crest, very rarely further developed ; though I 
have obtained one middle-aged specimen (out of several dozens,) with a 
crest two inches long.f This bird would appear to be very rare in the 
Himalaya, while in the plains of Lower Bengal it is extremely numer- 
ous. I lately saw one specimen in a large collection from Darjeeling : 
but Mr. Hodgson's supposed crested variety of the species, subsequently 

* Also described under this name by Lord Arthur Hay, Madr* Journ. No XXXI, 

t More recently, also, another and younger specimen, with a slight crest, though still 
very unusually developed for the species. 

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4 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

termed by him N. paliidus, and which I refer to Falco indicns cirtatus 
of Ray (v. F, cirratus, Shaw), seems to be exclusively a hill bird, as are 
also our other crested species, Sp, pukher and 8p, Kieneri. 

The variation in development of crest here noticed of Sp. nipaknsis, 
is both curious and instructive : a tendency to such prolongation of the 
central occipital plumes being observable in various other F^lconidte, 
as especiaUy in HieraStus (Kaup, v. AquUa,) pennmtus, and slightly in 
Buteo caneseens ; while in the Indian Pemis, which is currently regarded 
as a peculiar species by the name P. cristata, the crest is very com- 
monly reduced to a mere rudiment (which might remain unnoticed if 
not looked for), while in other specimens the feathers composmg it are 
prolonged an inch beyond those they immediately impend. Hence I 
have some suspicion whether the species is really distinct from P. 
apivora ; and I also doubt whether more than a single species of this 
very variable l»rd has been yet discovered. All those which are men* 
tioned by Mr. G. R. Gray, I would thus provisionally reduce to one, 
with the exception of my Lophastur Jerdani, (J. A. 8, XI, 464,) which 
is erroneously referred by Mr. Gray to this genus ; it being strictly 
an aberrant Baza, and perhaps identical with B. nmgnirostris of the 
Philippine Islands, mentioned by Mr. G. R. Ghray, though I suspect as 
yet undescribed.* While on this group, I may further remark that 
Buteo cristatus, Vieillot, has been currently regarded as a synonyme of 
Baza lophotes ; but, as described in the Diet. Class. ^ where moreover 
Australia is assigned as its habitat, it can neither be B. iophotes nor 
B, subcristata figured in Goukl's ' Birds of Austndia' ; and if not a *' Bus9 
Bondr4e Hupp4e" as he terms it (or Honey Buzzard), it is not impro- 
bably the young of Aquila ? morphnoides, Gould, exhibiting a coloration 
analogous to that of the immature plumage of its nearly allied congener, 
Hiera^tus pennatus, and in such case ranking as H, cri9$atus, (Vieillot). 

* I had scarcely written the above, when the Society received a second fine collection 
of Scandinavian objects of Natural History from the University of Christiania. A 
specimen of Pemia aipwora is included, and I find the species is distinct from P* 
eristata : the great variation of plumage is the same in both, and the varieties corres- 
pond; but in P. apivora^ in addition to there not being the slightest tendency to the 
formation of an occipital crest, the beak is conspicuously smaller, and the toes are 
much shorter. Thus, in two specimens of exactly the same general dimensions, the 
middle toe of P. apwora^ from its separation from the next to the insertion of the 
talons, measures an inch and a half; while in P* crisiata it measures an inch and 
seven-eighths, with the rest of the foot in proportion. The reticulate flcutatioB pf the 
leg and foot is also much mora prominent than in P. apivora. 

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1846.] or LiHlt Known Specu$ of Birds. 5 

Among the true Hawks, we have a similar occipital crest in Aatur 
trwirfmtuSi (Tern.,) to whkh may be referred A. miicui, Hodgson, (Beng. 
Sp, Mag, 1S36, p. 177.) it being also the supposed A, palvmbarims of 
Mr. Jerdon's Catalogue. The Society has lately received fine specimens 
of this Goshawk from Y^ (Tenasserim), formu:^ part of a valuable collec- 
tion from that province, presented by the Rev. J. Barbe, R. C. M.**" 

Of Indian true Afuila, as Mr. G. R. Gray now adopts the genus, 
as many as nine species exist, wluch are as follow :«^1. Tohna^tutf 
Bonellit the Niea^us grundtM, Hodgson, and ' Genoese Eagle' of I<atham : 
peculiar to hilly regions.'*^2, Aq. ehrysaetot: Himalaya, and perhaps 
Col. Sykes's Dukhun bird, though Mr. Jerdon's supposed 'Golden 
Eagle' of South India, refers to die next species.*— 3, Aq. mogUnik^ 
imperutlis, and heliaca^ Auct. India gena«lly, chiefly however the 
mountains. Of this robustly formed Eagle, there are two phases 
of plumage. One is liie dark brown, with pale head and nuchal plumes, 
bkcki^ forehead and throat, and often a great white patch on 
the shoulder: the other has pale central stripes to the feathers of the 
back, which are much broader on tiiose of the neck and under-parts, 
where they have merely dark lateral margins, and the wing also is more 
(MT less spotted ; in the latter plumage, the feathers of the back and 
especially those of the breast and under*part8 are considerably more 
lengUiened, attenuated and pomted, than in the other ; uid the dress 
certainly does not appear to be juvenile, • but analogous rather to the 
^K>tted garb of Aq, ntevia. To judge from Hardwicke and Gray's 
figure, it might be thought the immature plumage of Aq, bt/asdata, but 
such is not the case. — 4, Aq. bifasciata. Gray, v. nipalensis, Hodgson, 
As. Res. XVIII* pt. II, p. 13. Eqind to the last in size, but less 
robust ; and ocdour a dead brown, with the secondaries and great ruige 

* Dr. M*CleIUad has lately favoured me with pennission to look over his drawings 
of Assamese animals ; among which is one of his Spizaelus ruJUinctus, Proc. Zool. 
Soc. 18S9, p. 153, which I consider merely to represent the adult female of Astur 

t This group comprises T. BonelH of Southern Europe and Asia, and I believe North 
Africa; and T. helUcosus, v. armiger, (Shaw,) of South Africa. Mr. Hodgson thinks 
tiiat his name Nieaetus shoold now stand for this form ; but as he has figured nipalen^ 
sis as the *' type of the new genus Nisa'iius,** J. A. S. Y. 227, and subsequently charac* 
terized that form as short* winged, VI, 361, and elsewhere spoken of ^am2i« as «*an 
aberrant species," 1 am compelled in this case to dispute his claim to the sponsorship^ 
however unwillingly. 

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6 Notices and Descripiiotts of various New [No. 169. 

of coverts tipped with fulyou8-white» forming two conspicuous bars on 
the wing ; lower tail-coverts also fulvous-white, and tail tipped with the 
same : wing twenty-two inches. A rare species, inhabiting mountain- 
ous territory, and chiefly the Himalaya. Gapt. Phayre has favoured the 
Society with a very fine specimen from Arracan. — 5, Aq, ncevia, (Om,) ; 
' Spotted Eagle/ * Rough- footed Eagle/ and ' Brown-backed Eagle, Var. 
A', of Latham. A beautiful and very variable species in its colouring, 
allied in form to the last, but smaller ; and larger, but less robust, than 
the next. Fine adult males are richly empurpled brown, with fulvous- 
white terminal stripes, more or less developed, on the interscapularies, 
scapularies, and smaller wing- coverts ; larger and pure white spots on the 
greater coverts, and two white bars tipping the secondaries and largest 
coverts, as in Aq» Tfi/asciata ; tibial plumes similarly spotted, the under 
tail-coverts and generally the short tarsal plumes white, and the abdomen 
streaked with fulvous ; cere, orbits, and toes, beautiful yellow : wing 
generally about twenty inches. Others have the streaks of the upper 
parts much more developed, but the white dingy and subdued, and 
the dark colour generally paler : such are mostly females ; and 
others again, especially of the latter sex, are dull brown throughout 
(inclusive of the lower tail- coverts), with sometimes paler head and 
neck-hackles, the latter being however generally, though still not 
always, tipped paler. This Eagle is very common in the Bengal Soon- 
derbuns, and I have seen it also from the Himalaya, and from Central 
India. — 6, Aq,fulvescens, fusca, and punctata. Gray and Hardwicke : Aq. 
vindhiana, Franklin. Smaller and more robust than the last, a miniature 
of Aq. mogilnik ; wing eighteen or nineteen inches, rarely twenty. Some 
(females ?) are uniformly deep fulvous-brown throughout : others light 
fulvous, brightest upon the head and throat, obscured and dingy on the 
back and scapularies, and whitish below, with dark shafts and bases of 
feathers ; these appear to be the young : but the most characteristic 
plumage (that of the adult male ?) is tawney or fulvous-brown, more 
fulvous on the neck-hackles, which are tipped paler; head and throat 
dusky, the coronal feathers tipped paler ; wings, breast, and lower-parts, 
deep fuscous, the breast slightly speckled — and the belly and wings 
spotted and streaked — with light tawny-brown; wing-bars, and tail- 
tip, as in the two preceding species. Common in the plains of Upper 
India, and along the banks of the Ganges above Monghyr, also in the 

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1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 7 

peninsula ; but I have never seen it from the Himalaya, nor from the 
Soonderbuna, where Aq, ncsvia is so abundant. — 7, Aq, hastata,* Morphnus 
hastatfis. Lesson : SpizaHus punetatus, Jerdon, Supp, This so much resem- 
bles Aq, netvia, that it requires some practice to distinguish the two species 
always, wilii certainty ; and the same may be said of Aq, ntevid and Aq, 
/ulvescens ; but the last named species could never be confounded with 
the present one. It is altogether a more feeble bird than Aq, nama^ with 
smaller bill and feet, and proportionally somewhat longer tarsi, but 
which appear considerably more so from their slendemess. Plumage 
variable ; but colour always a dead brown, as in Aq, hifasciata ; the neck- 
hackles smaller than in the other species. The finest adult male 
which I have procured has the coronal feathers lanceolate, and edged 
paler ; a sort of supercilium formed by a range of feathers with small 
whitish tips ; the nuchal hackles also tipped whitish, and the feathers of 
the lower neck have each a terminal white speck ; three distinct ranges 
of white terminal spots on the wings ; the tertiaries broadly whitish- 
tipped ; the breast and flanks beautifully striped with a whitish medial 
streak to each feather, those of the belly having a furthier central dark 
one ; and the lower tail-coverts and tarsal plumes are pale and mottled. 
Another adult male has the spots generally much less developed, but is 
otherwise nearly similar. Females are commonly darker brown, with no 
spots, except occasionally some on the smaller wing- coverts, and especi- 
ally about the bend of the wing. The young are lighter brown, with 
sometimes, traces of streaks on the pectoral and abdominal feathers ; and 
the interscapularies and tertiaries are dark, contrasting strongly with the 
whitish inner scapularies adjoining. — 8, HieraStus pennatus, (Br.) Kaup ; 
SpizaStus milvoides, Jerdon : F, lagopus, Bengal variety, Latham. This 
form chiefly deviates from the robust typical Eagles in its small size» 
and proportionally small and Buzzard- like beak ; abo in shewing a ten- 
dency to exhibit an occipital crest; in which respect, as also in the 
whiteness of the under-parts in the young bird, it approximates the 
SpizaHi, H, pennaius has invariably a white shoulder-spot at all ages, and 
almost as constantly a white forehead. It is extensively distributed 
over the country. — 9, Ictinaetus malaiensis, (Reinwardt) Jerdon ; 
Aquila, Heteropus, and Neopus, pemiger, Hodgson : SpizaHusf? ovivorus, 
Jerdon, Supp, Remarkable for its very long wings ; its blackish colour 
throughout, varied with white bands under the tail ; and for the extraor- 
dinary disproportion of its front toes and claws, of which the inner is 

Digitized by 


8 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

particularly large, and the outer singularly email. Peculiar to mountain 
regions. This bird conducts in some respects to Arekibuteo^ 

These several Eagles exhibit variation of habit, as of form. The 
Ictinaetua is pre«eminently a nest-robber, and feeds much on eggs : vide 
J. A, S. XII, 128 ; where also is a notice of the nest-plundenng pro- 
pensities of Aq. kastata, under the supposition of the latter species being 
Limna'ettu unieohr. The more powerful of the tribe do not di^lain to 
feed on carrion; and Mr. Elliot remarks, of Ag,/ulv0$C0ns,'^**The 
Wokhah is very troublesome in hawking after the sun becomes hot, 
mistaking the jesses for some kind of prey, and pouncing on the Falcon 
to seize it. I have 6nce or twice nearly lost ShMkeens" (F. psregrinator,) 
he adds, *' in consequence, these flyi|ig to great distances for fear of the 
Wokhab" This is probably, therefore, the Jimach mentioned by Bu- 
chanan Hamilton, (in Montgomery Martin's compilation from his MSS* 
I, 505). " The only pursuit worth notice which I saw in several days* 
hawking," observes the author, " was from a large bird of prey named 
Jimach, which attacked a very strong Falcon as it was hovering over 
a bush into which it had driven a Partridge. The moment the Falcon 
espied the Jimach it gave a scream, and flew off with the utmost 
velocity, while the Jimach eagerly pursued. They were instantly 
followed by the whole party, foot, horses, and elephants, perhaps 300 
persons, shouting and firing with all their might, and the Falcon was 
saved, but not without severe wounds, the Jimach having struck her to 
the ground. I have never been able," adds Buchanan, " to procure a 
Jimach ; but it appears to be a small Eagle, and is said to live entirely 
on other birds of prey." Aq.fulvescens, however, is a very indiscriminate 
feeder, preying on rats, lizards, snakes, insects, and sometimes even 
carrion ; besides hares, and in fact whatever, living or dead, it happens 
to meet with : still the fact of its attacking Falcons, or indeed of any 
bird of prey attacking another, except for combat, or as when a tame 
Falcon is flown at a Kite, (of Hawks thus ** picking out Hawks' een,") 
is, I apprehend, little known to the majority of naturalists. Lastly, 
Hieraetus pennatw is a noted robber of the dove-cot and poultry-yard ; 
whose depredations, as Mr. Jerdon remarks, are probably often mistaken 
for those of the Kite. 

Ephialies spilocephalua, nobis, n, s. ? Noctua auribarbis (P), Hodgson, 
mentioned in J. A, 8. VI, 369 : Athene badia, (?), Hodgson, enumerated 
in Mr. G. R. Oray's list of the Raptorial birds in the British Museum. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds, 9 

Thia little Owl is certainly an Ephialtes (vei Scops^ Aact., though it 
appears this latter name was first appropriated to the Crowned Cranes)* 
and probably a young bird, from the loose and floccose character ofits 
plumage ; but the aigrettes are not easily made out in the only speci- 
men examined, though I believe that I have distinctly traced them. Its 
size is that of Eph, lettia, but the bill, feet, and talons, are eonsiderably 
smaller. Length about nine inches, of wing six, and tail three and a 
quarter ; bill, in greatest vertical depth, seven- sixteenths of an inch ; 
feathered tarse an inch and one-eighth ; length of middle toe and claw 
but an inch, the claws slender, delicate, and of a whitish hue ; beak pale 
yellowish, or yellowish- white. The plumage of the head is very full 
and puffy, the feathers loose and light; each of them having two 
pale-coloured spots, set off with blackish, and the rest of the feather 
a dull light bay or tawney, a little pencilled : facial disk fulvescent. 
Upper- parts uniform dull tawney, pencilled with blackish; and the ordi- 
nary white spots occur on the outer scapularies : the primaries have also 
a series of three white bands on the unemarginated portion of their 
outer webs (the emargination being very- slight) : the secondaries and 
tertiaries are principally bay on their outer webs, with imperfect blackish 
bands ; and the tail is barred with the same colours in about equal 
proportions, the central feathers having six tawney-rufous bands. Under« 
parts paler than those above, minutely speckled with dusky, and 
with some larger whitish spots set off with blackish : lower tail- coverts 
white, a little barred, except the longest which are distinctly so ; the 
tarsal plumes tawney-rufous, with dusky bars. From Darjeeling.* 

Symiumnivicolum, Hodgson, XIV, 185. Since describing this species, 
I have seen several fine specimens. One, from near Simla, presented by 
L. C. Stewart, Esq., now of H. M. 50th Ft., has the wing twelve inches 
and a half: colour dusky above, mottled with larger spots of fulvous* 
white than in that formerly described ; but the under- parts are much 
the same. Two males and a female, the former with wing eleven inches. 

* Id the * Madras Journal,' No. XXXI, 120, Mr. Jerdon describes a Scops 
CBpMaUesJ griseus, which s lettioides^ Jerdon, nobis, J, A. S. XIV, 182. Dr. 
Stewart has recently favored the Society with a specimen, from near Futtehpore, 
OD the route from Allahabad to Gawnpore^ which tends to indicate the speoifical iden- 
tity of Eph. lettia and Bph. lettioides^ 


Digitized by 


10 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

the latter twelve and three-quarters, from Darjeeling, are dusky, with 
the light mottlings much deeper fulvous, and there is a considerable 
admixture of pure white below the facial disk. Not improbably these 
were younger than the others.* 

In XIV, 188, I suggested that Bueeros hicolor, Eyton, is probably the 
B, malaharicus apud Raffles, and B, albirosiris apud Horsfield ; but I have 
since seen several specimens of a Malayan species intermediate to those 
two, combining the bill and casque of B. albirosiris with the size and 
white outer tail-feathers of B. pica (vel malaharicus) : this. Lord Arthur 
Hay considers to be B. vioiaceus, Waglerf; and the Society lately 
received a young bird of the species in question from Penang. The 
large head and casque referred to B, albirosiris in XII, 995, I now 
consider to belong to the allied Penang species. The Society has 
lately received specimens of true B* albirosiris from the Tenasserim pro- 
vince of Y6, undistinguishable from the bird of Bengal, Nepal, Assam, 
and Arracan : we had previously a Tenasserim specimen of the young 
of B. albirosiris, presented on a former occasion by Mr. Barbe. 

* The Norwegian collection has supplied us With three fine specimens of S, aluco^ 
all of the non*rafou8 variety, and very different from the one we previously possessed. 
S. nivicolum is very nearly allied, and the under>parts of some specimens of the two 
species are undistinguishable : but the dusky ground-tint is much more predominant 
on the upper-parts of S, nivicolum, to an extent that the two could scarcely be con- 

Here it may be remarked that the common Ninox scutellatus, which occurs in most 
collections from Malacca, has, in addition to its various other synonymes« been re- 
cently designated Athene malaccensis by Mr. Eyton, An. and Mag, N, H, 1845, p. 
228: and in the same paper,— Crtmper gularis, (Horsfield), is termed Pycnonotus 
ru/icaudatus;^Ixidia cyaniventris, nobis, ssMalacopteron aureum ;^Timalia peC" 
toralis, nobis, ^Malacopteron squamatum ;^T. striata, nobis, —Brackypteryx ma* 
culatus;—T. erythronotus, nobis,=-Br. nigrogularis ;^T. erytkroptera, nobi8,=^r. 
acutirostris ;^Muscipeta plumosa, nobis, (of which it seems I described the female 
only f)=^Phihntoma castaneum, which must accordingly be altered to Ph* plumO' 
Mim;— and a state of plumage of the bird 1 described as Hemicercus cancretus (XI, 
195,) is described by the name Dendrocopus sordidus, Mr. Ey ton's Ixos metallicus 
would seem to be nearly allied, except in sise, to the species which I designated Bra* 
chypodius melanocephalus, XIV, 176. 

It is to be regretted that Capt. Charleton did not permit me to look over his collec- 
tion of Malayan birds, when he had them in Calcutta; for all these useless synomymes 
would then have been avoided. I offered to have them labelled for him. 

t Described by his lordship in the Madras Journ. No. XXXI, p. 148: and follow- 
ing this are descriptions of B. comaius, B. mahyanus, and 17. Elhoti, which last is B, 
bicolor, Eyton, apud nos, and, as I still think, rightly identified with the latter. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 1 1 

Hoopoes. This group is treated of in XIV, 189. I haye now to add 
that the Tenasserim Hoopoe equals Upupa epops in size, but is consider- 
ably more rufous, and conspicuously so on the crest, which resembles 
that of U. minor of S. Africa : one specimen is also very rufous at the 
shoulder of the wing, and another moderately so; bill of each two 
inches and a half to forehead; and wing fire and a half to five and 

Haleyonida.—Todiramphus varius; Halcyon varia, Eyton, P. Z. S, 
1839> p. 101. What I take to be the adult male, (and perhaps the 
adult of either sex,) df this species, is a beautiful bird, the colouring of 
which serves to connect Todiramphus (as exemplified by T, collaris and 
T. sacer,) with Halcyon atricapillus (v. albiventer of Scopoli, a name 
too inappropriate to be retained) ; but the beak is strictly that of Todiram- 
phus. Length about nine inches, or nearly so ; of wing four inches, 
and tail two and three-eighths ; bill to forehead (in rather the larger of 
two specimens,) an inch and three-quarters ; and the gape two and a 
quarter ; taise fiye-eighths of an inch. Cap green, rufescent on forehead, 
and margined posteriorly with verditer ; a broad black stripe commences 
at the lores, and meets its opposite behind ; above this is a slight rufous 
supercilium, and below it a broad rufous streak continued to the nape, 
and comprising the lower ear-coverts ; below this again, is a very large 
rich purplish-blue moustache, commencing at the base of the lower 
mandible : the nape and breast are brilliant ferruginous, paling on the 
throat and belly, and the mantle, wings, and tail, are deep purplish- 
blue, each feather touched with ultramarine-blue on the wings, while 
the rump and Upper tail-coverts are vivid verditer : bordering the ferru- 
gii|ou8 of the nape is a band of deep black. Bill dusky above, the rest 
apparently bright yellow ; and legs probably coral-red. From Malacca. 

In XIV, 1 90, 1 described a new Kingfisher from Darjeeling, by the name 
Alcedo grandis; which otherwise resembling A, ispida, is as much 
larger than that bird, as A, bengalensis is smaller : A. ispida is common 
in Afghanistan. Another closely allied species, which perhaps has not 
yet been distinguished from A, bengalensis, inhabits the Moluccas, and 
which I may provisionally call A, moluccensis: this differs from A^, 
bengalensis in having a vertically much deeper bill, and from all its allied 
species in having the ear-coverts not rufous, but deep indigo-blue ; the 
mottled feathers of the crown and neck, moustache, and wings, are also 

Digitized by 


12 Notices and Descriptions 0/ various New [No. 169< 

more of a Prussian blue than in A, grandis, ispida, and hengalensis: wing 
three inches; depth of bill about three-eighths of an inch. Another 
closely allied species is the A, meninting, Horsf.» v. asiatica of Swain- 
son's Illustrations, which has the crown, neck, and wings, mottled indigo 
blue, scarcely any moustache, the back and upper tail- coverts ultrama- 
rine, and the breast and flanks deeper and richer ferruginous than in the 
others. — A, biru, Horsf., is another beautiful little Malayan Kingfisher, 
of a predominating light verditer-blue above and across the breast, but 
the marking of its under-parts allies it to certain African Kingfishers, as 
A. setnitorquatus, and another which I have been unable to determine. 

Bucconida (Barbets). There are three, if not four, species of Indian 
Barbets, having the general plumage of B. caniceps, Franklin, the dis- 
tinctions of which may be advantageously pointed out. — 1. B, lineatus, 
Vieillot, apud Diet, Class, ; described to inhabit Sumatra. Length about 
ten inches, the wing five to five and a quarter. Upper-parts green, 
weaker on the flanks, and still paler and more yellowish on the vent 
and lower tail-coverts, spreading over the abdominal region in some: 
head, neck, throat, and breast, whitish, confined on the crown to an ill 
defined medial streak on each feather, the rest being dusky; on the 
nape, these streaks are contracted and better defined, often upon a green 
ground, and they gradually disappear on the back ; throat spotless 
whitish ; the sides of the neck and breast having each feather laterally 
margined with dusky-brown, the whitish however much predominating. 
Common in some parts of Bengal, and in Nepal, extending westward to 
the Deyrah Doon; also in Assam, Sylhet, Arracan, and the Tenasserim pro- 
vinces, whence it probably extends into Sumatra. — 2. B, caniceps, Frank- 
lin ; B, lineatus, apud Tickell. Rather smaller, the wing measuring 
from four inches and a half to four and seven- eighths, though rarely 
exceeding four and three-quarters. The general plumage also similar ; 
but the head, throat, and breast, much darker ; the throat dusky-brown 
instead of whitish ; and pectoral feathers with merely a narrow, ill 
defined, pale central streak, often scarcely present ; lower breast paler : 
the back commonly more streaked with whitish than in B, lineatus : 
and, what constitutes a ready distinction of B, caniceps, the wing-coverts 
aud tertiaries have each a terminal whitish speck, of which there is 
never the slightest trace in the other. This species inhabits the penin. 
sula generally, and Upper India, meeting B, lineatus in the Doon ; but 

Digitized by 


i846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 13 

I have not seen it from Nepal, Bengal, or «ny of the eastern countries 
which are tenanted by B. lineatus. — 3. B, viridis, Gmelin. Much smaller 
than the preceding : the crown spotless dusky-brown ; mere traces of the 
lineation on the neck, and scarcely any on the breast ; the throat and 
breast paler than in B, caniceps ; and no whitish specks on the wings. 
Inhabits the Indian peninsula, and chiefly, I believe, to the southward.-— 
4 ? B. zeylanicus, Gmelin, founded on the " Yellow- checked Barbet" of 
Brown's Illustrations. This is described (but not figured) to have the 
*' coverts of wings green, with small white spots in the middle of each 
feather :" hence, Mr. Jerdon has referred to it the B. caniceps; but as 
the figure is stated to be " more than two- thirds of the size of the living 
bird/' whereas it is but one-third of the linear dimensions of B, 
caniceps, and but half that of B, viridis, it probably represents a distinct 
species, approaching the last in size, and with the wing- specks of 
B. caniceps. 

Of the other Indian Barbets, two are confined to the Himalaya, B. 
yrandis, Gm., and B. Franklinii, nobis. /. A. 8„ XI, 167. B. indicus 
(vel philippensis) is common throughout the country, also in the 
Tenasserim Provinces, and Sir Stamford Raffles includes it in his list 
of Sumatran birds ; but I have never seen it from Arracan. B, asiaticus 
(the Trogon asiaticus of Latham and Gmelin), vel cyanocoUis, Vieillot^ 
and cyanops, Cuvier, abounds in the Sub- Himalayan region, in Nepal, 
Bengal, Assam, and Sylhet, but becomes comparatively rare in Arracan, 
and also in the Indian peninsula. B. barbiculus, Cuv., or a species which 
agrees sufficiently with the description of this in the Diet, Class., inha* 
bits Malabar ; though barbiculus is said to be from the Moluccas. I add a 
description of an Indian specimen, sent on loan by Mr. Jerdon. Length 
five inches ; of wing three and one-eighth ; and tail an inch and three- 
eighths ; bill to forehead five-eighths ; and tarse three-quarters of an inch. 
General colour deep green; the forehead, around the eyes, and the 
throat, crimson, the last margined with yellow; occiput and cheeks 
pale blue. In Arracan, there is further the B. australis, Horsfield, v. 
gularis, Tem. ; but the crimson of the cheeks, sincipita, and moustaches* 
seems invariably to be much less brilliant than in Malacca specimens. 

Five species occur commonly in collections from Malacca, (besides the 
Caloramphus Lathami, v. Megalorhynchus spinosus of Eyton, which is there 
common) : viz. B. ckrysopogon, Tem,; — B. versicolor. Raffles.; — B. armiU 

Digitized by 


14 Notices and Descriptions 0/ various New [No. 169, 

laris. Tern. ;— J5. quadricolor, Eyton ; — and B, australis, Horsf. : — a B, ^ 
trimaculatus. Gray, is also mentioned by Mr. Eyton from the same locality ; 
and without having a specimen of his B, quadricolor, P, Z, S, 1839, p. 
105, for present comparison, I rather suspect its identity with B, mysticO" 
phanes, Tem., and with B, Rafflesii, Lesson, Rev, ZooL de la Soc. Cuv,* 
1839, p. 139. The following description is from specimens in Lord A. 
Hay's collection. Length about nine inches ; of wing three and three* 
quarters ; and tail two and a quarter : bill to forehead an inch and three- 
eighths ; and tarse an inch. Colour green, with an emerald margin to the* 
feathers of the nape ; forehead bright yellow ; crown, throat, lores, and a 
spot on the side of the breast, crimson ; beneath the eye, and middle of 
fore- neck, also crimson ; sides of the crown, above and posterior to the 
bare ocular region, black ; and a yellowish tinge towards the base of the 
lower mandible: emarginated portion of primaries edged with dull 
yellow ; and tail bluish underneath : bill, legs, and the bristles at base of 
bill, black. A presumed female has the crown, lores, and spot at side of 
breast, crimson, but less defined than in the (presumed) male ; throat 
mingled green and yellowish, passing to bluish on the fore-neck ; fore- 
head bluish, with yellow shafts to feathers, and some blue beneath the 
eye and at the base of the lower mandible ; the latter is for the most 
part white. Length of wing, three inches and three-quarters. 

Picida. Woodpeckers. Typical Pious, apud G. R. Gray : Dendrocopus 
of Swainson. I attempted a synopsis of the Indian species of this 
group, in XIV, 1 96 et seq. ; since the publication of which, the Society 
has been favoured by the Natural History Society of Batavia with a very 
interesting collection from Java and the Moluccas, which has enabled 
me to compare various Indian species with their Malayan represen* 
tatives. Among them is the little Picus moluccensis, which, though 
closely approaching to the Indian species referred to the same, 
yet exhibits some differences upon minute comparison. Both are 
certainly distinct from P. canicapillus of Arracan. As compared with the 
Indian species, that of Java has rather larger bill and feet ; the crown 
is darker-coloured, passing to blackish, or deeply infuscated, on the 
occiput and median line of nape ; the wings are shorter, measuring two 
inches and seven- eighths, while in the Indian species they are three and 
one sixteenth ; and, lastly, there is a diffierence in the barring of the 
tail-feathers, and in the form of the tips of the more outer ones, which 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 15 

in the Indian bird are more rounded, or somewhat truncated, with a 
slight emargination at the tip of the shaft, while in the Javanese bird 
they attenuate and are obtusely pointed ; the white bars also assume 
more the appearance of transverse bands in the Javanese species, and 
of separated round spots in that of India ; while the outermost feather 
is in the former tipped with white, and the penultimate has an all but 
terminal white bar, both these feathers in the Indian bird being broadly 
black-tipped, with a more interrupted white bar above. Should these 
'differences prove constantly distinctive, Mr. Jerdon proposes the name 
Hardwickii for that of Southern India,* and which Dr. Stewart has re* 
cently obtained near Cawnpore, a vicinity in which it was also procured 
by Gen. Hardwicke. 

With a few Australian birds, I lately purchased a Woodpecker, allied 
to P. Macei, which I have not been able to determine. There is no 
season to suppose it inhabits Australia, where not a single Woodpecker 
has yet been discovered ; and while the known Australian species in 
this small collection (including Eudynamys australis, Sw., quite distinct 
from the Indian Coel,) were brought as skins, the Woodpecker alone was 
mounted and wired. General aspect that of P. Macei ; but with merely a 
faint tinge of red on the lower tail-coverts, and that of the crown is also 
much less developed, but slightly tipping the feathers, which elsewhere 
are black (there is an appearance, however, of the crimson having been 
much abraded on the crown of this particular specimen) : all the tail* 
feathers are barred with white, the middle pair on each web alternately , 
and the rump is confusedly rayed with white and dusky black : breast 
spotted with linear streaks ; and the flanks and belly marked with 
obscure transverse rays. Length nearly seven inches ; of tail two and 
a quarter ; (wings imperfect in the specimen ;) bill to forehead (through 
the feathers) barely seven-eighths of an inch. If new, P. pectoralis^ 
nobis. Hab. ? 

Sub-genus Gecinus, The Picus affinis. Raffles, is identified with 
P. dimidiatus, Tem.. in the Zoological Appendix to Lady Raffles's ' Life of 
Sir St. Raffles, p. 668 ; and Gecinus viridanus, nobis, is certainly ano- 
ther synonyme of the same. This bird seems common throughout the 
eastern coast of the Bay of Bengal, as in Arracan and the Tenasserim 

« Madras Journal, No. XXXI, 138. 

Digitized by 


16 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

provinces ; in which latter range of territory C occipitalis, (Vig.,) v. 
barbatus, (Gray,) undistinguishable from the Himalayan bird, appears 
likewise to be of plentiful occurrence. 

G, chlorigaster, Jerdon, Madr. Joum. No. XXXI, 138 : Picus mentalis 
apud Jerdon, Catal, Though closely allied to G. chloropus, Vieillot, v. 
nipalensis. Gray, with which I formerly identified it, this Woodpecker 
proves on comparison to be a distinct species. It is rather smaller than 
G. chloropus, and readily distinguishable by the crimson of its whole 
occiput, which is transversely separated from the dark green of the 
crown, and forms a pointed crest behind, which completely overhangs 
the silky yellow feathers of the nape : in G, chloropus, this yellow nuchal 
crest is much more developed, and the crimson is confined to the sides of 
the occiput, the central portion being green continued from the forehead, 
and the partly red and partly green occipital crest is not prolonged to 
the length of the yellow feathers beneath it. G, chloropus has the colours 
generally brighter and more contrasted than G, chlorigaster : the dusky 
green of the neck and breast contrasts with the brighter green of the 
upper-parts ; there is a greater admixture of white about the throat and 
ear-coverts, which last are uniform dark green in G, chlorigaster; and the 
loral feathers are conspicuously white, with a black streak above, this 
white being scarcely observable in G. chlorigaster : the mottling of the 
flanks is also of a different pattern. Length of wing four inches and 
three-quarters; in P. chloropus, five inches to five and a quarter. 
Inhabits Southern India. 

In XIV, 193, 1 distinguished three species of the three-toed Wood* 
peckers forming the division Tiga of Kaup ; and in a note to p. 551, I 
mentioned the existence of a splendid fourth species from Malacca. The 
latter proves to be the P. Rafflesii, Vigors, of the ' Appendix to Sir St» 
Raffles's Life' by Lady Raffles, p. 669. I took the following description 
of a female, in the collection of Captain Thomas, of the 39th Regt. B. N. L 
Length a foot ; of wing five inches and three-quarters, and of middle 
tail-feathers four and three-quarters: bill to gape an inch and five- 
eighths. Colour dull uniform golden-green above; the crown, much 
lengthened occipital feathers, primaries and their coverts, and tail, dusky 
black, with whitish tips to the primaries ; forehead ruddy orange ; throat 
and moustaches, pale yellowish-buff ; and lower parts of a dingy, ruddy, 
somewhat dusky, greenish* brown, with some transverse whitish spots 

Digitized by 


1846] or Little Known Species of Birds. 17 

oa the flanks; ear- coverts blackish, bordered aboye and below with a 
white streak, and bounded posteriorly by a white patch ; and below the 
inferior white line and patch is another broad streak of black. Bill 
dusky-greenish towards base of lower mandible ; and the legs appear to 
have been green. The male (describing from memory, assisted by the latin 
definition cited,) resembles the female, except in having the whole crown . 
and the much lengthened occipital feathers, very brilliant crimson.* This 
beautiful species obviously connects the subdivision Tiga (v. Chrysonotus, 
Swainson,) with Gecinus (v. Chrysoptilus, Sw.) : indeed, were it not for 
the absence of the fourth toe, I should scarcely have hesitated in refer- 
ring it to Gecimts, regarding it, however, as a link between that division 
on the one hand, and Brachyptemus and Tiga, on the other. In 
the Appendix to Lady Raffles' work cited, P. Rafflesii is stated to 
be of the size of P. tiga ; which latter (as here referred to) I believe 
to be my T. intermedia, which is common in the Tenasserim Pro- 
vinces, and that it is the Sumatran P. tiga of Raffles ; while the Malacca 
species is of the same small size as that of Java, lately received by 
the Society, (the females of which have the head differently spotted 
from those of T. intermedia,) and to which I have appropriated the 
name Tiga tridactgla,f 

With regard to the species of Brachyptemus, (p. 550 and note), Mr. 
Jerdon informs me that the common species of Southern India is 
identical with true Aurantius fv. hengalensis), of which I sent specimens 
for comparison ; and the same gentleman has favoured the Society with 
an example of his P. (Microptemus) badius of Southern India, which 
Lord A. Hay considered (p. 551) to be distinct from both its Bengal and 
Malayan representatives : it is, indeed, intermediate to the other two, both 
in size and colouring ; and combines the infuscated crown of M, phcsoceps 
with the dark throat pf M. badius (verus), its tail-bars being also closer 
than in the others, amounting to six in number on the middle feathers, 
additional to the dusky tips, whereas the other species have only five. 
Mr. Jerdon designates it M, gularis.t The range of M, plusoceps ex- 

* Correct ; and the colours also generfklly somewhat brighter. 

t In the same Appendix, I find described a Phoemcophaus caniceps, which is the 
young ofRhinoriha chlorophaa; ^IHcoeum croceaventresssD. trigonostigma, ( Scopoli), 
V. catUiUansi Chkropsis zost&ropss:=Phyllomis Sonneratii, foem.;— and Vinago gi- 
ganteuM, which there can be little doubt refers to Treron Capellei. 
X Madr. Jour. No. XXXI, 191. 


Digitized by 


18 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

tends southward to the Tenasserim Provinces, and one female from 
thence has the wing fully five inches long ; that of M, gularis measures 
four inches and three-quarters.* 

Cuculida, The oriental species of true Cuculus are still far from heing 
definitively understood. First, there is the deep-coloured hird, otherwise 
resembling C. fugas «f India, described as C nisicolor, Hodgson, in 
XII, 943, but which I renounced as a species in XIV, 204. A Ma- 
lacca specimen in Lord A. Hay's collection, however, renders this again 
doubtful, and it will perhaps prove to be the veritable C/ugax of the 
Malay countriea.f Then, I suspect that I have confounded three species 
under C. micropterus, Gould : viz. — 1, C. saturatus, Hodgson, (XII, 
942,) the supposed old birds, with upper-parts "uniform pure dark 
ashy," mentioned in my description of C. micropterus, in XI, 903 ; and 
these seem also to have the under-parts more closely barred than in true 
C. micropterus, and are altogether more complete miniatures of C. eano- 
rus, having the dimensions of C. micropterus. It inhabits the Hima- 
laya. (This must be regarded as a doubtful species, however, as yet.) — 
2, C. micropterus verus, with a larger bill than in C, canorus, the under- 
parts more distantly barred, the upper-parts of a bronzed ash-brown, 
and not pure dark ashy, the irides pale dusky, and the orbits and feet 
light wax- yellow : the Bokuttdeko of the natives. Inhabits India generally, 
but is more numerous in the hills. — 3, C affinis, A. Hay. Decidedly a 
good species, resembling C canorus in size, and C. micropterus in form 
and colouring ; length of wing eight inches and a half, or an inch more 
than in C. micropterus. Common in Malacca, and not improbably 
the Javanese Variety of C. canorus of Dr. Horsfield's list. In addition to 
these, we have C sparverioides, of the same minimum group as C. fugas 
and C. nisicolor ; and also C canorus, and the little C. poliocephalus (v, 
himalayanus. Vigors), pertaining to the same minimum group as the 
other species mentioned. I kept for about a year a pair of C. canorus 
(indicus), for a long while in the same cage : upon separating them, the 

* P. ceyhnus, Forst, (v, P. neglectus, Wagler,^ is a species obtained in Ceylon by 
Lord A. Hay. 

t Since writing the above, I have seen Mr. Jerdon's statement to the same effect, 
Madr. Jour, No. XXXI, 140. Mr. J. thinks that the common Indian species should 
be termed C. Lathami, Gray. I may add that his specimen of C. Sonneratii which 
he refers to, is perfectly identical in species with others from Malacca. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Knwon Species of Birds. 19 

male soon began to utter his cry, cuckoo, generally of a morning and 
evening, ten or twenty times successively. The note was certainly 
harsher and less musical than that of the English bird, whether heard 
near or at a distance. It is very desirable that observers who have the 
opportiinity, should strive to elucidate this very difficult little group of 
Cuckoos : it is probable that attention to their notes would essentially 
assist the study of them ; and to naturalists located in the hilly parts 
of the country, we must chiefly look for conclusive information on the 

Simoies, nobis, it. g. Nearly allied to restricted Cuculus, but differing 
in the great breadth and depression of the beak, which considerably 
resembles that of Casmarhynchius, Tern., in general outline, being 
however flatter, especially underneath, where the rami are united for 
their terminal half or more, measuring from the gape ; the nostrils 
being also formed as in other Cuculi ; and the tip of the upper mandible 
entire, or unemarginated. Rest as in ordinary Cuckoos. 

8. ttlbivertex, nobis. Glossy black, with a broad white vertical 
medial band from the forehead to the occiput. Some white feathers 
also on the throat ; and slight whitish tips to the outer tail-feathers. 
In immature plumage, the black is less intense, and the feathers are 
looser in texture ; but there are no cross-bars. Bill black, paler below ; 
and the interior of the mouth wholly yellow : legs dark brown, the 
tarsi half-feathered externally. Length about fourteen inches; of 
wing six and a half, or seven inches ; and tail the same : bill to gape an 
inch and three-eighths, and half an inch broad at the nostrils : tarse 
seven-eighths of an inch. From Borneo (I have reason to believe) ; 
being sent with other birds from that island b^ Mr. Jerdon. 

Taccocua ajffms, nobis. Three species of this division are distin- 
guished in Vol. XIV, p. 200; and subsequent observation has con- 
firmed the propriety of the separation : but I find that the Sirkeer 
of the Rajmahl and Monghyr hills requires further to be distinguished 
from that of the Cawnpore district, higher up the Ganges in the 
WNW. direction. Dr. Stewart has favoured the Society with a 
Rajmahl specimen, which he justly remarks can be reconciled with 
neither of my descriptions. It combines the size of T, sirkee with the 
colouring of T. in/uscata ; but has the bill rather more abruptly curved 
over than in either, and coloured as in all its congeners. Wing six 

Digitized by 


20 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

inches ; middle tail-feathers nine inches ; and tarse an inch and a half. 
The deeper shade of colour of this hird distinguishes it from T, sirkee, 
to which it approximates most nearly, as also the decided brownish hue, 
concolourous with the back, of its tibial plumes, which in the other are 
highly rufescent ; and a further marked distinction from T. sirkee con- 
sists in the hue of the pectoral region, which has no rufescent tinge in 
the specimen before me of T. affims, while in T. sirkee, the ferruginooa 
tinge of the abdomen suffuses the breast and throat, passing insensibly, 
with no decided line of demarcation. The abdominal plumage of this 
bird is of a less dark tinge than in T. in/uscata ; but the general co- 
louring is much the same as in that species, from which the more slen- 
der legs and vertically deeper and more abruptly curved bill help to 
distinguish it. A further description is quite needless. 

Centropus bicoior. Lesson ; C. eelehensis, probably of Temminck. A 
description of this species will be acceptable to British students of orni- 
thology. Length of wing seven inches, of middle tail-feathers a foot, the 
outermost shorter by one-half; bill large, measuring to gape an inch and 
three-quarters in a straight line ; long hind-claw seven-eighths of an inch. 
Colour of wings and tail, a peculiar dull vinous-ruddy, nearly the same on 
the fianks, vent, and lower tail- coverts, and with a ferruginous tinge on 
the rump and upper tail-coverts : head, neck, throat, and breast, dull 
isabelline, paler towards the throat, and browner on the crown and back ; 
wing-coverts tinged with the same brown; and all passing backwards 
into the vinaceous hue of the great alars and tail. Bill blackish, with 
homy- white tip : legs apparently plumbeous. Plumage not very spinous, 
\X» general character and colouring being much that of the Sirkeers (TaC' 
cocuaj. Inhabits the Celebes and the Moluccas. 

CaprimulgidcB. The Indian and Malayan species of true Caprimulgus 
resolve into three different subgroups, each characterized by a particular 
style of marking : viz. — 1, the C. macrourus group, comprising C. albo- 
notatus, C. macrourus, C. mahrattensis, and C. asiaticus, which last differs 
from the three others in having unfeathered tarsi ; these have the two outer 
tail-feathers on each side broadly tipped with white, which in the females 
is sullied, more or less reduced in quantity, and sometimes altogether 
wanting: — 2, the C indicus group, with a terminal or subterminal 
white spot on all but the middle pair of tail-feathers, rarely seen, and 
the white then much reduced in quantity, in the females; — probably 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 21 

three species, at present not well determined (vide XIV, 208*) : — 3, 
the C. monticolus group, of which the males have their two outer tail- 
feathers wholly white to near the tips : also apparently three species, — C 
monticolus, — another allied to this in Scinde, — and C. affinis, Horsf., of 
the Malay countries, which last merely differs from C, monticolus in its 
smaller size, and the greater admixture of black on the upper-parts, 
more especially upon the crown. Length of wing six inches and a half, — 
that of C. monticolus being an inch more, — and the rest in proportion. 
The Scindian species (?) is figured in one of Sir A. Burnes' drawings, as 
mentioned in Vol. XIV, note to p. 547. It would appear to be still more 
uniformly coloured in the drawing than C. monticolus, of a light fulves- 
cent-grey or sandy hue, with dark pencillings, but no scapulary pale 
streak nor white mark crossing the breast ; tail closed, but its middle 
feathers (which alone are seen in the drawing) have narrower cross 
lines than in C. monticolus ; the lower parts are represented somewhat 
paler than the upper, as is also the inner anterior margin of the wing 
(towards the body). Length of wing six inches and a quarter (not 
*' nine inches and a quarter," as formerly misprinted). Should this be 
verified as a distinct species, it might bear the name C. arenarius, in 
allusion to the sandy soil which its colour would certainly denote that 
it frequented, and which is a very prevalent hue of the birds and other 
animals from Sdnde, as M. Temminck has remarked of those from 

Cypselida. Macropteryx coronatus ; Hirundo coronata, Tickell, J, 
A. 8. II, 580. This has hitherto been undistinguished from M. klecko 
(Horsf.,) V. longipennis, (Tem.,) of the Malay countries, which in India 
is represented by the present species. The two are, however, obviously 

* The true C indicus extends its range to Malacca. It is not rare in the Calcutta 
Botanic Garden. — C monticolus I lately observed in a patch of open jungle, surrounded 
by cultivated fields.— C. pukher, A. Hay, Madr, Joum. No. XXXI, p, l6I,»Z«yn- 
cornis Temminckii, Gould. The Society has specimens of this bird from Malacca and 

t The Norwegian collection before referred to, contains a female of C. europaus ; 
and the resemblance of this to some speciniens of C. indicus is extremely close : but 
the latter may always be distinguished by having the tarsi wholly feathered ; by the 
abdominal region being much less rayed ; and the males by having a white spot on four 
of the primaries, and upon the four outer tail-feathers on each side. The Society has 
also a Tenasserim specimen of undoubted C. macrourus, which very much resembles 
both C. indicus and C. europaus; but may be distinguished from the latter by having 
the tarse wholly feathered, and by the white basal portion of its rictal bristles. 

Digitized by 


22 Noticet and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

distinct upon comparison of specimens. M. coronatus has the tail 
much more deeply forked, and its outermost feathers are much more 
attenuated, heing commonly prolonged two inches heyond the extremi- 
ties of the next pair, and an inch and a half heyond the tips of the 
wings ; whereas in M. kiecho, the tail does not reach to the tips of the 
wings, and hoth alars and caudals are considerably broader than in the 
Indian species. The colour of the upper-parts is also much greyer in 
the latter, with but a faint tinge of green, instead of being brightly 
glossed with green ; and the chin and sides of the throat of the male, 
besides the ear-coverts, are ferruginous. Colour greyish above, darker 
in the male, and glossed with purplish-green ; the tertiaries more or less 
pale, but never albescent- grey as in Af. kiecho: lower-parts ashy, with 
a slight green gloss, and passing to white on the belly and lower tail- 
coverts. Crest as in the other species, and structure in all respects 
typical. Length eight inches, by thirteen in alar expanse ; of wing six 
and a quarter ; and of outermost tail-feather five and a quarter. Com- 
mon in Central and Southern India, and most probably the only species 
met with in the country. 

We have accordingly now four species pf this beautiful genus, which 
appears to be peculiar to India and the Malay countries : — viz. M, corO' 
natus, — Af. kiecho, — ^the very beautiful M. comaius, (Tem.,) — and M, 
mystaceus, (Lesson,) of which last I have seen neither figure nor des- 
cription : the three others are in the Society's Museum. 

Collocalia, O. R. Gray. Several specimens from the Nioobar Islands 
differ a little from C. fuciphaga of Java, in having more white under- 
neath, the crown and back darker and tinged with blue more than green» 
and the wing somewhat longer, and straighter or less sickle- shaped. 
These characters obtain, both in the old and young ; but separation of 
them seems hardly justifiable. In specimens recent, or preserved in 
spirit, the outer toe is as opposable as in other Swifts.* 

* Since the first portion of the present paper was printed off, the Society has been 
favoured by Gapt. Lewis with numerous specimens, of various classes, collected in the 
Nicobars, and comprising several interesting novelties. In the class of birds, the most 
remarkable discovery is that of a species of Megapodius, having the same extraordinary 
habits as Mr. Gould's Af. iumtUus of Australia: there is also a new Macropygia^ 
more nearly resembling M. phasianeUa of Australia, than Af. amboinensis of Java 
and the Moluccas; specimens of a new Treron, previously however brought from thence; 
also of a new Heron, which likewise inhabits Arracan ; and some Insessores which I 
shall describe in their respective places in the present paper : but the following species 
can only be introduced here, instead of in p. U, passim. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 23 

Corvida. The Indian true Corvi, though so particularly numerous 
in individuals, are referable to but three species (that I know of), and 
of these the Raven (C. eorax, Lin.) is confined to the north-western 
Himalaya and its vicinity, being unknown at Daijeeling, and equally so 

Todtramphus occipitalis nobis. Nearly allied to 7*. coUaris and T, sacsr^ but es- 
pecially distinguisbed by its strongly marked rufescent supercilia, wbicb are continued 
quite round tbe occiput, forming a narrow band ; beneatb tbis is a broader black band, 
continued from tbe ear-coverts; and tben a still broader fuUescent-wbite collar, as in 
tbe allied species : immediately bordering the last, tbe back is more infuscated than 
in the other, and tbe crown is likewise very dark, with some rufous lateral edges to 
tbe frontal feathers : under-parts white, a little tinged with fulvescent, but less so than 
in T. sacer; and the back, wings, and tail, are much, as in T. coUaria: bill black 
above, and the tip of the iQwer mandible ; the rest of the latter white : legs brownish. 
Length of wing four inches and a quarter ; tail three inches ; and bill to gape two and a 
quarter. Young rather smaller, with dusky margins to the pectoral feathers ; and the 
beak shorter, with a white and hooked extreme tip. It may be remarked that in T, 
coUaris and T. sacer^ there is a much less developed white occipital band concealed 
beneath the surface of the feathers, but which shews conspicuotisly when the coronal 
plumes are a little raised. 

The following two species of PaUsornis appear also to be quite new. 

P. canicepSf nobis. This is a very strongly marked species; but I can now 
merely indicate rather than describe it, as but one specimen was obtained (alive, from 
a native), which had lost its tail, and the wing-primaries were also mutilated. The 
size approaches that of P, Alexandria which at once distinguishes it from all other 
known species of the group. General colour vivid yellowish-green, with the winglet 
and base of the secondaries indigo*blue, and the medial portion of the seconda- 
ries inclining to emerald-green; primaries black, the longest of them tinged with 
indigo towards their base: cap grey; a broad frontal band continued to the eyes, 
(this mark corresponding with that of P. pondicerianus^ but very much broader,) 
and likewise a broad black moustache, with some black feathers also on the throat : 
above this moustache, between it and the frontal band, the feathers are of the same 
grey as those of the crown. The beak has the upper mandible coral-red, with a white 
tip; and the lower mandible black: the form of the bill is both narrower and less 
deep than in P. Alexandria and angulates above towards the base. 

P. erythrogenySy nobis. Allied to P. malaccensis; but readily distinguished by 
the blossom -red hue of the cheeks not being continued round the nape, and by its 
larger size, and differently shaped tail. Length of wing seven inches and a quarter, 
and of tail ten inches; the middle pair of tail-feathers exceeding the next by three 
inches and three-quarters. General colour bright-green, more yellowish below, 
and tinged in the male with hoary greyish-blue on the nape and back ; winglet 
and primaries blue, the latter margined and broadly tipped with green ; middle tail- 
feathers also blue, margined with green for the basal half, and the rest of the tail- 
feathers chiefly or wholly green above, and all of them dull yellow below; the cap is 
not of a distinct emerald-green, as in P. malaccensis, but uniformly coloured with tbe 
back (save where the latter is tinged with grey in the male) ; there is a well defined 
narrowish black streak from the nostril to the eye, and the same black moustache as in 
P. malaccensis; and the lores, cheeks, and ear-coverts, (only,) are blossom-red. Upper 
mandible coral-red, with a white tip; the lower one black. The female merely differs 

Digitized by 


24 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

throughout India generally.* The common Indian Black Crow (C. cui- 
minatus, Sykes.f is often erroneously termed 'Raven' by Europeans, 
and as often confounded with the European C, corone : it is eminently a 
" Carrion Crow" in its habits, and especially frequents the vicinity of the 
great rivers, being less confined than the next species to the immediate 
neighbourhood of human habitations. The common Indian Crow (C splen- 
dens, Vieillot,) has sometimes been mistaken for the Jackdaw (C. mone^ 
duh), and sometimes for the Hooded Crow (C. comix), of Europe; 
as in the 'Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for 1839, p. 163, 
where the specification of the '* Rook" and " Carrion Crow" both refer, 
as I believe, to C. eulminatus, and the Raven is also there mentioned as 
an inhabitant of Assam (a statement which it would be satisfactory to 
have verified). C. eulminatus is the Common Crow of Arracan ; the 
C. splendens being only known in the northern part of that province, as 
about Akyab, (according to Capt. Phayre,) — and to the southward, upon 
the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, I am told that it is the species of 
the Tenasserim Provinces. Proceeding further southward, a very distinct 
species of black Crow (C. macrorhynchos, Vieillot.) abounds towards 
the Straits of Malacca, which is probably the Sumatran C. corax apud 
Raffles ; and the Javanese C enca, (Horsf.), is distinct again, as I 
am informed. I have also been told that C, macrorhynckos is a much 
shyer bird than C. eulminatus, with a very different caw ; and the elon- 
gation of the beak, remarkable in C macrorhynckos, would seem to be 
still further carried out in C. enca, insomuch that the latter species was 
ranged by Dr. Horsfield as a Chough {Fregilus), Professor Temminck 
states that the European Raven, Carrion Crow, Hooded Crow, and 

in having the crown, nape, and back, quite uniform green, without the hoary-blue 
tinge conspicuous in the male; and the upper mandible is more or less black, like the 
lower one. 

in P. pondicerianus, the upper mandible of the female is usually black, but often 
more or less mingled with red ; that of the male being always bright coral-red : and 
the same is probably the case with both the foregoing new species, as well as with P, 
malaccensis. The young female of P. pondicerianus has recently been described by 
Mr. Fraser, by the name P, modestus. This latter species is common in Bengal, 
Assam, and along the eastern side of the Bay to the Malay countries generally; but is 
very doubtful as an inhabitant of Pondicherry, or any other part of the Indian 

* It is common at Feroxepore, at least during the cold season. 

t In the Diet, Class, d* Hist. Nat,, this bird is erroneously referred to C. mc^or of 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 25 

Rook, occur in Japan* ; but Mr. Gould has diatinguished the so called 
*' Rook" of Ckusm by the name C. pastinator (P. Z. S. 1845. p. 1) ; 
and another species inhabiting China and Chinese Tartary, is the C 
dmaicus, Pallas, which should be looked for by our trans- Himalayan 
travellers. Mr. Oould has also recently distinguished the common Aus- 
tralian black Crow by the name C coronoides. 

The Red-legged Chough (Fregilus graadus,) and Alpine Chocard 
(Pyrrhocorax acinus,) are both well known tenants of the bare Hima- 
layan crags, and appear to be identical in species with their European 
brethren. Captain Hutton mentions the former as a winter visitant in 
Afghanistan ; and also that the Raven {Corvus corax,) and the Rook 
(C, frugiiegus,) occur in that country, the former in summer, the latter 
in winter.t 

Of the Nutcrackers (Nueifruga,) but three species have been ascer- 
tained ; N, hemispila of the Himalaya, N, caryocatactes of Europe, 
and N, columbianus of North America (the Corvus columbianus, Wilson, 
first properly classified by the Prince of Canino). These birds are 
peculiar to the pine-forests, and the Himalayan species appears to be 
particularly abundant. 

Magpies. Pica, Ray. The only species of true black and white 
Magpie proper to Indian Zoology, is the P. bottanensis. Ad. Deless., v. 
megaloptera, nobis, J, A, 8„ XI, 193. It is remarkable for its great 
size, very large wings, and tail of moderate length. Inhabits the more 
eastern Himalaya. 

The other species of this genus, which I at present know of, are as 
follow: — 

2. P, media, nobis, J. A. S., XIII, 393. The next in point of size. 
From the Chilian Andes. 

3. P. caudata, Ray. The common European Magpie. This appears 

* Some of the Japanese birds referred by M. Temminck to European species, are 
certainly quite distinct ; e. g., the Jay. which differs from Garrulus glandarius in 
having the space between the eye and mousUche filled up with black (1 think the 
same as in the Syrian Jay, G, atricapillus, Geoff., which has additionally a black cap) ; 
also the Japanese Robin, which has a rufous tail ; and the Bullfinch, of which the male 
has a pale abdomen and lower breast, and both sexes are without the red mark on the 
outer margin of the smallest tertiary, which is constant in the European species, and 
in P. nipalensis becomes deep shining crimson ; the female is also of a different shade 
of colour from that of its European congener. 

t Calcutta Joum. Nat. Hist, 1, 558. 

Digitized by 


26 Ni)tive8 and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

to be the species of Afghanistan, though I have never had the opportu- 
nity of comparing an Afghan with an European specimen. One I 
examined some time ago, from that country, had the wing seven inches 
and three-quarters long ; tail eleven inches ; bill to frontal fbathors an indi 
and a quarter ; and tarse an inch and three-quarters. Mr. Yarrell gives ^ 
wing of the English -bird as seven inches and a quarter, and Mr. Jenyns 
as seven inches and eight lines: that of a Britislr specimen in the 
Society's Museum (probably a finale,) has it but seven inches. I fully 
believe that the Afghan Magpie is identical with the British i^cies.* It 
has also been generally considered identical with that of China and 
Japan, and with the ordinary species of Western North America. 
Mr. Gould, however, has recently described the Chinese Magpie as 
distinct; but it would seem that the European is one of three species 
inhabiting the North American continent, all ditiPerent from P, media 
of South America. For the identity of the North American species 
found westward of the Rocky MounCains^ with that of Europe, we 
have the authority of Mr. Swainson ; though he also regards the Chinese 
Magpie as the same : remarking-^" We have been able to compare En- 
glish and Arctic [American] specimens, with one from the interior of 
China, and we cannot perceive the slightest difference wlmtever to build 
even the character of a variety, much less of a species. The tails of the 
Arctic specimens are very beautiful." Fauna Amepicana''berealis, II, 
292. Perhaps, therefore, there may be two species of Magpie in 
China, one of them identical with that of Europe. . ' 

4. P, sericea, Gould, Proc. ZooL 8oc. 1845, p. 2. From Amoy. 
*' Closely allied to the common Magpie, but diflfers in the wings,- being 
blue instead of green, in the rather less extent of the white, and in hav- 
ing a longer bill and much longer tarsus ; the latter measuring two 
inches and a quarter." 

5. P. hudsonia, (Sabine), 'Appendix' to the Narrative of Franklin's 
first Polar Expedition, p. 671. The Magpie of Hudson's Bay. " Of 
less size m all its parts than the European Magpie, except in its tail, 
which exceeds that of its congener in length ; but the most remarkable 
and obvious difference consists in a loose tuft of greyish and white feathers 
on the back : * * * tail from eleven and a half to twelve inches long." 

* A Norwegian specimen just arrived, has the wing fully eight inches, and the rest 
as in the Afghan specimen above noticed. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or UUle Knawn Sfitcies of Birds. 27 

&|<»8t of the Magpies have more or lesa greyish over the rump, and the 
absence of this is one distinguishing character of F. battantnsis, 

6. P, Nuttalli, Audttbon« ' Ornitbologieal Biography/ This species 
is at once kndWn by its yellow bill. From Western North America. 

7. P. ? The small species noticed in /. A. 8, XIII, 398, 

which is considerably inferior in size to the European Magpie, and has 
the tail glossed as in P. Nuttaili. I certainly do not think that it eould 
have been P. h^dsonia, and am unaware of its habitat. The only spe- 
cimen I hare seen was an unmounted skin in the collection of the Zoolo- 
gical Society. 

Ptilorhinus, Ruppell. The Blue Magpies. Mr. O. R. Gray, in his 
recent enumeration of the species of this group^ gives only four ; three 
of these being American, and the fourth Asiatic. I find, however, that 
several nearly allied Asiatic speeies, as many as five apparently, require 
to be diaeriminated. 

1. Pa. 9metm$; Cuculus smensit, Lin., founded on the StM^km of 
Boffoa : Certms erythrorkfnchos, Latham, founded on le Geai do la Chine 
d bee raufe of Bufibn ; also Coraciae melanocepkaia, Latham. This 
Chinese Inrd, aoo^i^g to Levpullant's figure and deseription, has 
too much white upon its craum for the common Himalayan species, 
figured as Pica ^thr^rkifneka in Gould's ' Century' ; and as the 
other oriental species of this group differ espeeially in thia particular, and 
u LevaiUant exaniiaed '' at lenst six specimens" of his Pie Bfeae, I think 
we may confide in his eoourscF ^^ J9g9id& the marking in question. He 
ezpresfily states that the forehead, cheeks, throat, and the firont and sides 
of the ne^, are of a decided black ; fhe whole tep qftke head is covered 
with Uuish*grey feathers^ which are long and broad, and form a kind 
of pendent cre^ : but he is 4<mbtlea» wrong in correcting Bufion res- 
peet^g the colourmg of the beak, the original bright coral-red of which 
had faded i^ the specimens which he saw and drew from* 

2. P«. oceipiialis, nobis : Pica erythrorh^ncha, apud Vigors and Gould. 
Bill eor^l-ii^ ; a lar^^ oval white patch oonQned to the occiput, and 
pointed posteriorly^ wi|Ji terminal white spots on the hinder corona^ 
feathers immediately impending it. The common species of Nepal and 
to the NW., as at Mussoorie, &c. 

3. P», magnirostrie, nobis. Resembles the last, but is still more richly 
coloured, especially on the wings ^ the bill much larger than in the 

Digitized by 


2B Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

others ; and a great naked space sarrounding the eyes ; the legs and 
claws also are large and strong. Length of bill to gape, an inch and 
three-quarters, that of Ps. occipitalis barely exceeding an inch and a 
half; and its depth and strength also considerably greater! Inhabits the 
Ya-ma-dong mountains, separating Arracan from Pegu. 

4. Ps, albicapillus, nobis. This is evidently distinct, though I only 
know it in its immature garb, which differs from that of Ps. occipitalis 
in having the entire cap white ; the extreme frontal feathers, and those 
impending the nostrib, being alone black. From the neighbourhood of 
Simla. The Chinese species would seem to be intermediate to this and 
Ps, occipitalis* 

5. Ps. flavirostris, nobis. General plumage of a much duller colour 
than in the others ; the bill of the recent specimen bright yellow, 
instead of deep coral-red ; and the white of the occiput reduced to a 
narrowish transverse band, with a broad collar of black below it, sur- 
rounding the hind- neck, and never any white tips to the feathers imme- 
diately above it ; legs and toes small and slender. This is the most 
distinct from the rest of all the species here indicated ; and it is the 
first which I distinguished from Ps» occipitalis, though I waited to 
obtain the young of the latter before attempting to describe it as a 
separate race. It is the common species of Daijeeling, and the only 
one I have seen from that locality ; but I have now seen many speci. 
mens from thence, all true to their distinctive characters. Upon shewing 
the three Himalayan races to Mr. Hodgson, fPs. albicapillus, Ps. occi- 
pitalis, and Ps. flavirostris y) that gentleman informed me that he had 
long ago distinguished them, and that he had exhibited coloured draw« 
ings of the heads of each at a meeting of the Zoological Society in 
London. It is probable that natur^ists in Europe will not at once be 
prepared to accept the distinctions that have been here indicated, but 
I am content to await their future decree, when they shall have obtain- 
ed the requisite data to judge from; as in the matter also of the 
Hoonuman Monkeys, (XIII. 470,) concerning which Mr, Ghray, I per- 
ceive, regards as varieties merely of the same species, the very distinct 

* Lord A. Hay writes me word, that he has recently obtained this white*capped 
species at Simla : it being the only specimen of the genus which his lordship did there 
meet with; though Ps. occipitalis abounds at Mussoorie, and as Capt. Button informs 
me, is very terrene in its habits, feeding almost entirely on the ground. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or LittU Known Species of Birds. 29 

races which I still insist upon are different species, if any meaning 
is to be attached to the latter term. With sufficiently perfect sped- 
mens to form an opinion upon, I own I cannot conceive how any other 
conclusion can be arrived at, in the latter instance, than that upon which 
Mr. Elliot and myself are agreed. 

Cissa, Boie : Corapica, Lesson : Chhrismna^ Swainson. Here, again, 
I think that three species require to be distinguished. 1, Cissa sinensis, 
(6m.), founded on Buffon's plate, of which a copy has been obligingly 
sent me by Mr. Jerdon. This would seem to be distinguished from C. 
venatariust (Gray,) of the Himalaya, Assam, Sylhet* and the Tenasserim 
Provinces, by having much less black behind the eye; and it would 
appear also to have the wing entirely blackish, except the tips of the 
tertiaries which are white : and as the upper*parts are represented more 
green than blue, the inference is, that the hue of Buffon's specimen had 
not faded. — 2, C venatoHus, (Ghray );— and 3, C. thalassinay (Texn.) — C. 
venatarius, when newly moulted, is of a lovely green, with the wings 
bright sanguine-red ; and the bill and legs deep coral : but whether alive, 
(wild, or in confinement,) or mounted as a stuffed specimen and exposed 
to the light, the green soon changes to verdigris^blue, and the red of 
the wings to dull ashy : at this time of writing, a specimen in the 
Museum which was of the finest green and red when set up, has com- 
pletely faded on the side exposed to a moderate light, and retained its 
pristine colours on the other side; and I am obliged to keep another 
specimen protected from the light, to shew the gireat beauty of the 
species in its unchanged verdure, I have had many of these birds alive, 
which combine in their manners the traits of the Jay and Shrike ; they 
are very amusing birds, soon become tame and quite fearless, are very 
imitative, sing lustily a loud and screeching strain of their own, with 
much gesticulation, and are highly carnivorous in their appetite. The 
8hrike-like habit, in confinement, of placing a bit of food in each interval 
betwixt the bars of their prison, is in no species more strongly exempli- 
fied then in Cissa venatorius. 

The genera Psilorhinus and Cissa, with Cyanacorax of South Ame- 
rica, form a little group by themselves*; and I consider that Mr. 
Strickland was quite justified in separating from the last the blue Jays of 
* Corvus cyanuSt Pallas, exemplifies another form that should rank with them. 

Digitized Jay 


30 Notices and Deseffs^tUmi of various New [No. 169. 

North America, whieh constitute bis Oyanocittat An, and Mag, Nat, Hist, 
1645, p. 260 ; but as Corvua cristatus, Liu., is the type of Mr. Swain- 
son's Cfannrus, I conceiye that this must take precedence of CyangdUa, 

Crypsirina, Vieillot : Phrenotrix, Horsfield : Dendroeitta» Gould. Some 
attempt was made at oolktiog the Indian species of this group of Mag- 
pies, in XII, 932. I now add another species, and shall endeavour to 
assort the synonymes. 

L Cr. rt/c ; Corvus n^, Seopoli, Lath., founded on la Pie roasse 
die la Chine of Sonnerat, badly ^ured by LevaUlant : also Cataews vaga* 
knnda^ Latham ; and perhaps Pica ru/iventris, VieiUot, Shaw's Zoology. 
XIV, 73. India generally. 

2. Cr. pallida, nobis. Distinguished from the last by its oonatder- 
ably amalier size and paler colouring. Length about fifteen inches, of 
which the middle tail-featiiers measure eight and three*quarters, the 
outermost four inches and five-eighths less ; wing five inches and a half; 
bill to gape nearly an inch and a quarter ; tarse an inch and one-eighth. 
Plumage as in CV. rufa^ but altogether mueh paler : the back and sca- 
pularies ijBabelline with a shade of dusky, but devoid of any decided 
rufous tinge ; rump paler, the belly and lower tail-cov^rts pure isabel- 
line, or buflPy oream*eolour. The hue of the lower-parts approaches 
that of the young of Cr, rufa ; but the much firmer structure of the 
plumage, indicative of maturity, at once distinguishes it from the latt^. 
Hab^ Western Himalaya. This species, and the young of Peilar^ 
hinus albicapiUus, were obtained in a junall ooUection from that part, 
purchased in Gdcutta by Prof. Behn, of Kiel University, who first 
called my attention to the distinctness of each of them horn its near 
congener, and kindly permitted me to draw up descriptions for publica- 
tion.* ^ 

3. Cr. sinensis.-f — 4. Cr, leucogastra, — d, Cr, rufigastra (nan vidij, 
vide XII, 933.*— And 6. the Cr, altirqetris will, I suspect, prove to be the 
same as Cr, frontalis, from the description of which it deviates only in 

* Both would seem to be rare. Capt HuUon never met with Ps, albicapiUus, 
during the long time that he has collected in the W. Himalaya; and Capt. Boys has 
only once obtained Cr. pallida, many years ago. 

f Very doubtful as an inhabitant of Southern India. Jerdon. 

Digitized by 


1846.] w LiUh Known Specie^ of Birds. 31 

haying the vertejp black like the forehead, not grey like the occiput.''' 
Hab. Daijeelhig, and the momtains of Assam. This last species has 
the beak compressed so as to resemble that of a CaUaaay Forster (o. 
Giaueopis, QmJ), to which genus M. Temminck has referred certain 
other C9fp8irin4e, as nko the Tnnnarus hucopienu, (Tern.), Lesson. 

Of the two Himalayan species of Onrruius, or true Jay, Mr. O. R. Qray 
arranges the synonymes as follow:-^!, Q, amatus, Oray» Hardwicke's 
///. Ind, ZooL ; O. hiipeeuiaria. Vigors and Qould.«-^2, G, fulartg, Gray, 
Hardw., ///. Ind. ZooL; G. lonoeolatw. Vigors and Gould; and G. 
Vigorni, Gray, Hardw., ///. Ind. Zoo/.~The G. siriatuo. Vigors and 
Gonld, though extremely Jay<*like in form, pertains to a different series 
of birds ; and Mr. G. R. Gray ranges it under Jktmagra of Lesson, 
which he considers synonymous with his own Keropia, G, guhcans is the 
great Kemaon Shrike of M'Clelland's ' Gkology, &c. of Kemaon,' p. 244. 

After the CorvidA, might be arranged the Purndiseida; to which 
family I s|ispect the curious AmMralian genera P^inorhynchms and 
Chlamidera should be referred. Then the great family of Stumida, com- 
mencing nHth an Australian sub-family, which comprises the genera 
Strepera, Gymnorhimi, Cractieus, Vanga, Noomorpha^ and Graiiinn, Then 
the great series of Old Worid Stumidmy forming the sub-family Stuminm ; 
from which perhaps that of Lamprotominte might be separated, though 
it is not easy to trace the line of demarcation of this group. I described 
apart the two Indian Graeula in XII, 178 (l>isj; but Lord Arthur Hay 
has since distinguished the Malayan Graekle from that of Bengal, &c., 
which necessitates a revision of the synonymes of all three species. 

1 . Gr, religioaa, Lin. (apud Lord A. Hay) : Gr, indica^ Cuvi^ ; Pa$* 
tor ntusi^mst Tem. ; MaimUus javanua, Lesson, apud Jerdon, J, A. 8. XII. 
178 (h%&) ; Lessor Mina of Edwards, quoted by Latham and Gmelin as 
Gr. reiijiosa, L., var. A, (the Greater Mina of Edwards being quoted by 
die^ as var. B.), Inhabits Southern India. ' 

2. Gr. javanensis, Osbeek : Greater Mina of Edwards ; and no 

doubt Sturmts indicus Bontii of Ray and WiUughby ; probably also 

Mainatus major, firisson. This, the common Malayan Graekle, differs 

* Dr. fifcOlelland's coloured drftwiog of Or, frontalis aocovds with the description : 
having the forehead broadly black, paieing laterally over each eye to beneath the 
vertex, as in Cr. sinensis, and leaving the vertex greyish-white, continuous with 
that of the occiput and nape ; whereas in Cr. altirostris, the black anterior portion 
comprehends the vertex, as in Cr» leucogastra. 

Digitized by 


32 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

from that of Nepal, Bengal, Assam, Arracan, and the Tenasserim 
Provinces, (the common Hill Mynah of the Calcutta dealers,) in its 
rather larger size, as regards linear dimensions, but much more robust 
conformation, with much larger occipital lappets, &c. The closed beak 
measures eleven* sixteenths of an inch in vertical depth, whereas in the 
Bengal species it does not commonly attain to half an inch ; the feet 
are also much thicker and stronger, with far more powerful toes and 
claws, the tarse measuring an inch aiid three-eighths, and middle toe 
and claw nearly one and seven-eighths ; while in the Bengal species the 
former measurement is one and a quarter, or less, and the latter about one 
and five-eighths ; wing respectively seven inches, and six and a half or 
less ; and tail the same in both. All the specimens I have seen have 
been from Malacca"': of a number received from the Tenasserim Province 
of Y^, not one could be mistaken for this Malayan bird. Edwards' state- 
ment that his " Greater Minor, or Mina, for bigness, equals a Jackdaw 
or Magpie," is intelligible of the present species, but scarcely so of the 

3. Gr, intermedia, A. Hay, probably the Mainate of Buffbn, and 
perhaps Mainatus sumatranus, Lesson : Gr, reliffiosa, apud nos, 
J. A. S, XII, 178 fbisj. The range of this species has already been 
indicated. It is always less robust, with a less powerful beak, and 
smaller occipital lappets, than in Gr. javanensis.f 

Ampeliceps coronatus, nobis, J. A. 8. XI, 194. In XII, 985» I 
indicated a grand defect in the specimen originally described, and noticed 
the near affinity of this genus to the preceding one. Our indefatigable 
contributor Mr. Barbe has now supplied us with fine specimens of both 
sexes, of which the beak essentially resembles that of Gracula, but is 
smaller and shorter, and of a dark greenish colour with yellowish tip 
and along the tomise (in the scarcely dry specimens). There is a 
tolerably large naked space surrounding the eye. which appears to have 
been yellow ; but the orbits are black,; and there are no short velvety 
feathers on the sinciput, or nude skin beneath and occipital lappets, 

* It likewise inhabits the N isobar Islands and Penang. In this species, the oc- 
cipital lappets are generally united at base, but sometimes only approximated ; in Gr, 
intermedia they are smaller and more distant apart. 

t In the * Madras Journal', No. XXXI, p. 154 et seq»t Lord A. Hay terms these 
three birds Gr. religiosa,javanay and indica (nee intermedia). 

Digitized by 


1346.] or Liitle Known Species of Birdt. 33 

as in Graeula; thoagh in other respects the form is barely separable. 
The presumed female differs from the male in having less yellow on the 
crown and throat : in the male, the whole crown, lores, throat, extending 
laterally to the naked skin beneath the eyes, are bright yellow ; where- 
as in tiie females, the lores, and a considerable space both above and 
below the nude orbital skin, are black. The rest of the plnmage is 
exactly as in the Oraeuke, with yellow instead of white barring the 
primaries. Inhabits the Tenasserim Provinces. This is an exceedingly 
pretty Mynah, and I doubt not would be much esteemed as a cage 

The other Mynahs were treated of in XIII, 361 et eeq.: and the 
common arboreal Bengal species there referred, and also by authors gene* 
rally, to AeridMeret cristatellus, (L.), of China, proves to be distinct, 
and apparently referable to Pastor griseus, Horsf., of Java, which that 
naturalist imagined to be the same as the cristatellus. To Lord Arthur 
Hay, I am indebted for the loan of a Chinese specimen of true Acr. 
cristaieUus, the young of which I described as Acr, fuliginosus in XIII, 
362. I now supply descriptions of each, which will suffice to shew 
their differences. 

Aer, cristatellus, (Lin.) ; figured by Bdwards, pi. XIX : Acr, faHgi" 
nosus, nobis (the young). Length about eleven inches : of wing five 
inches and a half; and tail three and three-eighths ; bill to gape an inch 
and three-eighths ; and tarsi an inch and a half. Colour throughout 
greyish-black, with a bronzed gloss on the upper parts ; tail-feathers, 
except the middle pair, and the lower tail*coverts, tipped with white ; 
base of the primaries, and greater portion of their coverts, also white, 
forming a broad band on the under surface of the wing ; erect frontal 
feathers above three-quarters of an inch high, in the specimen under 
examination : the bill appears to have been yellow, with the base of 
the lower mandible carrot-red; and the legs arie also yellow. The 
young is browner, with the white patch at the base of the primaries 
much more developed : but there is no white at the tip of the tail, or of 
its under-coverts ; and the frontal crest is barely indicated. 

Aer, griseus, (Horsfield) : Pastor cristaUoOes, Hodgson. Smaller 
and paler, with the under- parts of a much lighter asK- colour, paling 
and in some specimens passing to vinaceous- white on the abdomen, and 
always to pure white on the lower tail-coverts : the tail-feathers are 

Digitized by 


34 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 160. 

much more deeply tipped with white than in Acr, eristatellusr; there 
is a similar white wing-patch ; and the frontal crest is commonly under 
half an inch in height. Terminal half of the bill orange-yellow, the 
remainder with the inside of the mouth deep black : legs orange-yellow : 
irides bright yellow. Length nine inches and a half, by fifteen inches ; 
wing five inches ; and tail three inches : bill to gape an inch and a quar- 
ter ; and tarse one and three-eighths. The young are browner than 
those of Act, cristatellus, and are at once distinguished by having the 
throat whitish, more or less pure, and the middle of the belly and 
lower tail-coverts white. This bird takes much the same range as 
Graeula intermedia, only that it is not confined like that species to 
the hill country : it is common along the eastern coast of the Bay of 
Bengal, to the Tenasserim Provinces at least ; and it appears to be Dr. 
Horsfield's Javanese Pastor griseus* 

Also very closely allied to the latter, is the Acr.fuscus of the Indian 
Peninsula, which is distinguished from Acr. griseus by its smaller size, 
browner colouring, white abdominal region, and greyish-white irides. 
Wing four inches and three-quarters. 

The Acr. ginginianus, one of the commonest birds in the vicinity of the 
great rivers of Upper India which have high banks, does not occur so 
low down the Hoogly as Calcutta, but abounds as soon as the banks 
of the Hoogly become of sufficient height for it to burrow in with 
tolerable security ; and on ascending the river makes its appearance 
soon after the common Indian Bank Swallow {Hirundo sinensis, Ghray). 
Mr. Hodgson well named this species Pastor gregicolus, for it con- 
stantly associates with the herds of cattle on open pastures ; and popu- 
lous communities of them perforate deep holes in the perpendicular 
banks of rivers, in which they repose and breed. This bird is the Tar- 
dus suratensis, var. A, of Latham ; his T. suratensis being no other 
then Pastor roseus : it is also the Gung-Salik (* Ganges Mynah') of the 
Bengalees, and should be compared with the African Martin gris^de-fer 
of Levaillant, upon which is founded Graeula grisea, Daudin, and 
Cossyphus griseus of Dumeril. 

Sturnia erytkropygia, nobis, n. s. This beautiful species would seem to 
be nearly allied to the Javanese St, tricolor, (Horsfield), v. melanoptera, 

* I think that I have seen it from Malacca, but am not quite sure. A gentleman 
from Java considered it to be, decidedly, the species common in that island.' 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Specie$ of Birds. 35 

(Waglcr). Head, neck, and lower-parts, pure silky-white ; the wings 
wholly shining black ; the scapularies and interscapularies pale satiny- 
brown ; the rump, vent, upper and lower tail-coverts, deep ferruginous.; 
and the tail black, with more than half of its outermost feather ferru- 
giQous, and the rest successiyely less deeply tipped with ferruginous to 
the middle pair : bill yellow, with the base of the lower mandible livid 
blue ; and legs (apparently) orpiment-yellow. Length approaching to 
nine inches ; of wing four inches and a quarter to four and a half ; and 
tail three and a quarter to three and a half ; bill to gape nearly an inch 
and a quarter ; and tarse an inch. Fron^ the Nicobar Islands. 

To the same genus, Stumia of Lesson, must be referred the Pastor 
wuUayensis, Eyton, P. Z, S. 1839, p. 103 ; but as an aberrant species, with 
the bill short, and approximating that of Caiomw,— more slender, however, 
Ihan in that genus, and having the outline of its upper mandible less curv- 
ed. Length about seven inches and a quarter, of wing four and one-eighth, 
and tail two and a quarter ; bill to gape seven-eighths, and tarse an 
inch. Head, neck, and under-parts, of a silky subdued whitish or drab- 
white ; whiter on the belly and lower tail-coverts, and tinged with pur- 
plish on the crown and nape : an occipital spot, the interscapularies, prox- 
imate scapularies, shoulder of the wing, and rump, black with a rich 
purple shine ; outer scapularies, and the second range of wing-coverts, 
subdued white ; as also an elongated central terminal spot on some of 
the greater wing-coverts, and more or less developed on the tips of the 
tertiaries ; rest of the wing, and the tail, glossy green-black, with some 
admixture of purple ; the secondaries shaped at tip and margined with 
deep black, as in Stumus vulgaris ; the outermost tail-feather having 
a whitish-brown exterior web, and most of the upper tail-coverts are 
of the same dull pale brown colour : bill dusky, whitish towards base of 
lower mandible ; and the legs apparently plumbeous. What appear to 
be the females have a large triangular drab-coloured spot at the base 
of the secondaries, and the exterior half of the outer webs of the pri- 
maries are of the same hue ; a trace of this appears also on the wings 
of some (presumed) males. The young are brown above, paler be- 
neath, passing to whitish on the belly and lower tail« coverts ; the back 
and scapularies are darkest ; and there is a blackish occipital spot in 
place of the shining black spot of the adult : the wings are marked 
nearly as in the adult, but are much less bright ; the secondaries brown 

Digitized by 


86 Noiiees and Deseriptums of various New [No. 169. 

with pale outer margin ; and the bill pale, with dusky on its terminal 
half. Common at Malacca.* 

Calomia affinis, A. Hay. This differs from the Malayan C. cantor in 
its larger size. Wing four inches to four and a quarter, instead of 
three and a half to three and fiye-eighths : and tail three inches to three 
and a quarter, instead of two inches and a half ; tarse seren-eighths^ 
instead of three-quarters of an inch ; and bill about the same in both : 
plumage of the two species absolutely similar at all ages» and glossed 
as brightly in fine specimens of either. C. affinis inhabits Tipperah, 
Arracan, Tenasserim (?}, and the Nicobar Islands : while C. cantor is 
eommon at Malacca. 

Pastor tsmporalis, (Tem., noticed in Vol. XIII, note to p. 366,) proves 
to be from China, and will rank in Stumoptutor, Hodgson. Lord Arthur 
Hay has favoured the Society with a specimen from Hong Kong : and his 
lordship first called my attention to the dbtinction of size between 
CtUomis cantor and C. t^hUs, Here, too, may be noticed that I no longer 
regard Stumus indicus, Hodg., as distinct from St. vulgaris, 

Fringiilida, sub-fam. Estreldina, In Vol. XIII, 949, I endeavoured 
to give a list of the Indian Mooniahs, &c., which was partly corrected in 
XIV, d54. I now offer a revised list of them. 

1. J. malaeca, (Lin.): Cdccothraustesjavensis, Brisson: White-breasted 
Indian Sparrow of Edwards. Hab. Peninsular India. 

2. A. sinensis: Coccothraustes sinensis, Biiaaoni Logia nuilacca, var. 
J, Latham ; Mania rubronigra, Hodgson ; Lenehura melanocephaia, 
Horsfield : Chinese Sparrow of Edwards. Bengal, Nepal, Assam, Arracan. 

3. A. maja : Loxia maja^ (nee FringUla maja,) Lin. : Loxia leucoce" 
phala, Raffles. As a rare Bengal species, this rests on the authority of a 
most correct observer, Mr. Frith. It is common in the Malay countries, 

4. A, peetoralis, Jerdon. South India. 

5. A. molucca, (L.) : Mwda acnticauda, Hodgson. Nepal, Malacca. 

6. A, striata, (L.) : Fringilla leuconota, Tem. South India, Arracan. 
Such at least is the range of the Indian species, which Mr. Jerdon 
thinks is distinct from its Malaj^an representative : the latter I have not 
seen ; but, if different, it will retain the name and synonyme here applied 
to the Indian bird. 

* Pastor ckmensis, (L.), u figured in the PL Bnl,, to judge from a copy of that 
figure sent me by Mr. Jerdon, would seem to be an aberrant species of Stumia, 
having some affinity for St. sericea and St, malayensis. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or LiUU Known Species of Birds. 37 

7. A. tindulata, (Lath.) : also Lona punctularia, yar. A, Lath. ; 
Jtftmui limeoventer, Hodgaon. Lidia generally. From the nearly allied 
Malayan species — L. pMnctularia, (L.)» ▼. nisoria, (Tem.), — this Indian 
bird is distingnished by having its upper tail-coyerts ochreous, and tail 
tinged with the same; whereas A, puactularia (vera) has the tail ashy, 
and its coverts barred dusky-ash and white. Mr. Jerdon first informed 
me of their distinctness. 

8. A, malabariea, (L.) : Lonchura cheet, Sykes ; Loma hieohr, Tickell 
(nee Latham). India generally ; common in Bengal. L. malabariea apud 
Latham, is the young of A, sinensis; and his L. bicolor is evidently the 
immature plumage of some other species. 

The Estrelda formosa, (Lath,) as I am informed by Capt. Wrough- 
ton, occurs in immense flocks in the high lands where the Nerbudda 
takes its rise. 

FrinffiUidiB,* Several of the species described in my ' Synopsis of Indian 
Fringillida,' J. A. S. XIII, 944 etseq, (1844), have since been described 
by Mr. Hodgson in the ' Proceedings of the Zoological Society' for April, 
1845. Pyrrhuloides epauletta is there termed Pyrrhoplectes epauletta. 
The generic name Propyrrhula is transferred to Pyrrhospiza of my 
synopsis, and Pr. punicsa described as Pr, ruheculoides, Carpodacus 
(v, Erythrospiza, Bonap.) erythrinus, is designated Pyrrkolinota rose- 
ata; and C rodochrous and C. rodopeplus are styled Propasser. — I 
lately saw fine specimens of Pyrrhospiza punicea from the Boorendoo 
Pass ; and with them a new species of restricted FringiUa, from Huttoo 
mountain, near Simla, in the collection of Capt. Thomas, 89th Regiment 
Bengal Native Infantry. Pyrrhospiza is but slightly removed fropi typi- 
cal Fringilla, which group it connects with the various roseate Finches ; 
and will most probably contain the Fr. sanguinea of Gould : and another 
nearly allied form is Leucosticte, Swainson, figured in the Fauna Ame- 
ricana-borealis, to which may seemingly be referred Mr. Hodgson's 

* It may be remarked here that Passer nunUanus is the common Sparrow of Ja^a, 
from which iiland it was long ago mentioned to have been received, in the Diet. Class. 
1 had before traced it to Arracan and Malacca, and suggested its being the Siamese 
Sparrow of Crswfnrd. It is common In China and Japan, also in the Himalaya, and 
in Afghanistan, extending westward to the British Islands. 

Of the common Indian Sparrow (P. indicus of Jardine and Selby, and * Black- 
breasted Finch' of Latham), I find that some males, especially in breeding aspect of 
plumage, are fully as rufous as represented, and the under- parts of both sexes are 
always whitish : but the sise accords with that of the ordinary European Sparrow, to 
which it is so very closely allied. 

Digitized by 


38 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

Fringillauda; and his Procarduelis is also not far removed. A new 
species of Leucosticte has lately been figured by Mr. Gould, in the 
'Zoology of the Voyage of the Sulphur/ by the hybrid name griseogenys, 
under which it is described in P. Z, S. 1843, p. 104. The new Finch 
may be thus described — 

Fringilla erythrophrys, nobis. Length of male about seven inches ; wing 
three and seven-eighths ; and tail two and five-eighths ; bill to gape 
above five-eighths, and tarse three-quarters of an inch. Female 
rather smaller. Colour of male ruddy«brown above, darkest on the tail- 
coverts ; below dull bufiy-red, mingled with weak crimson on the chin 
and throat, also on the forehead, and this red passing as a broad streak 
over the eye, and becoming deeper crimson posteriorly : fine specimens 
in summer dress have probably the whole under-parts, with th^ 
forehead and eye-streak, crimson, and the back deeply tinged with 
the same : the crown, ear-coverts, wings and tail, are black, not very 
deep, with the three outer tail-feathers chiefly white towards the 
tip. and with dark outer webs to near the end; and the other tail- 
feathers are white-tipped, except the middle pair: wings marked with 
white, the greater coverts of the primaries having their terminal half white, 
those of the secondaries broadly tipped with the same, as are also 
the outer webs of the tertiaries, and (successively more slightly) those of 
the secondaries and primaries. Bill yellow, and legs light* coloured. 
The female is plain brown, paler and tinged with yellowish below, darker 
and a little tinged with yellowish on the crown, and having a bright 
saffron eye>streak, and duller saffron-coloured or ochreous forehead; 
the wings and tail are marked as in the male, but the white is less 
developed; and the back is yellowish- brown. This is a true restricted 
Fringilla, of the form of Fr. monti/ringilla, &c. ; but having obvious 
affinities for the red Finches (Carpodacus, &c.), and shewing also a 
marked relationship for Coccothraustes, and even for Carduelis,* 

* Lord A. Hay informs me of what he suspects to be a new Finch, and terms 
Fringilla ruhrifrons, procured during his sojourn at Simla. ** Size very small ; and 
colour olive-green, striate and mingled with dirty yellow : forehead red." The parti- 
cular subdivision of Finches is not stated. 

There is also a very curious-looking, diminutive, Finch-like species, figured among 
Dr. McClelland's drawings of Assamese birds. The size and plumage are very Wren' 
like ; with a bill approaching in form that of a Chaffinch : colouring deep isabelline or 
buff, with dusky rays on the wings and tail, and the primaries edged with white. The 
immediate affinities are by no means obvious. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 39 

Emberisa da, Lin. (mentioned in Royle's list) : E. barbata, Scopoli ; 
E, lotharingiea, Qm, Length six inches and a half : of wing three inches ; 
and tail two and three-quarters. Upper^parts mfescent-brown, brighter 
on the tail-coverts» and marked, except on the latter, with a black central 
streak to each feather : crown dosky, with some inconspicuous rufous 
edges to the feathers, a pale medial coronal line, and a broad whitish 
superdlium ; a black line passes beneath the latter through the eye, and 
partly surrounds the pale ear-coverts, and another black streak proceeds 
downward from the base of the lower mandible ; the chin, throat, and 
breast, are dingy grey, with slight dusky spots in front of the neck ; 
and the rest of the lower-parts are uniform light ruddy-brown, with 
traces of dark streaks on the flanks: wings dusky, the feathers mar- 
gined with the rufescent-brown of the back; and the two outermost tail- 
feathers on each side are chiefly white, except on their narrow outer webs. 
Bill pale plumbeous, and legs light-coloured. Also procured in the vici- 
nity of Simla by Capt. Thomas, who has obligingly presented it to 
the Society.* According to Messrs. Dickson and Ross, this bird is com- 
mon in the vicinity of Erzeroum, being found near mill-streams, and in 
burying grounds. P. Z. 8. 1839, p. 132. 

Mr. Hodgson, in Proc, Zool, 8oc, 1845, p. 35, states that, in Nepal, — 
" We have four species of Emberiza, three of which are the erythroptera, 
chlorocephala, and aureola, of authors ; and the fourth," he adds, *' is, I 
think, new, — Emberiza oinops, mihi, — a new subgenus, Ocyris, mihi." 
Of these four, the first now bears the name Lathami, Ghray f ; the second 
is, beyond doubt, my melanops, J. A. S. XIV, 554, which was recog- 
nized by Mr, Hodgson when in Calcutta, as a species familiar to him, 
and it is quite distinct from E, hortulana (v. chlorocephala,) of Europe]: ; 

* I have since been informed that it is there common. Lord A. Hay procured many 
specimens ; and mentions abo another species ** closely allied to it, but differing in 
having a large liver-brown spot on the cheek, and in some other particulars." The 
liver-brown spot in question is possessed by B,/ucata and by B, pusiUa (fj. 

t Lord A. Hay possesses this bird from Hong Kong; and Mr. Jerdon considers it to 
be the Moineau de Macao of Buffon, ** and if so it will bear the prior, but certainly in- 
appropriate, name of melanictera, Vieillot." 

X Since the above was penned, the Norwegian collection has supplied us with a 
specimen of the European Ortolan, B, hortulana : its upper-parts are nearly as in B. 
mekmopt, but the face and abdominal region are wholly different; the latter is nearly 
of the same rufous tint as in B. da, but mingled with yellowish ; while in B. melanops 
the abdominal region is pure light yellow, with dusky streaks on the flanks. 

Digitized by 


40 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

the third, E. aureola, is common also in Tipperah and Arracan ; and the 
fourth, I greatly suspect, is E, pusUla, Pallas, and certainly the same 
as that described from a female specimen in XIII, 958, by the name JS. 
sordida, Hodgson. I add the description of a male, which I lately 
saw from Daijeeling. 

E. pusilla (?), Pallas. Length about five inches and a half, wing 
two inches and three-eighths, and outermost tail-feather two and a 
quarter ; the tail forked to the depth of five-sixteenths of an inch : bill 
to forehead three-eighths, and tarse above five-eighths, of an inch; 
Upper-parts streaky, the feathers black-centred, set off with rufous, and 
this margined with greyish-brown ; the rufous colour more developed on 
the scapularies and rump : crown, lores, and ear-coverts, rufous ; super-^ 
cilium and chin pale rufescent, and above the superciUum is a broad 
black streak, the feathers of which are slightly rufous-edged : wings 
dusky, the feathers externally margined with ruddy*olive, and tipped 
paler: tail having a broad oblique white streak on the outermost 
feather, and a narrow one on the penultimate : lower- parts whitish, with 
a dusky line on each side of the throat, and streaks of the same on the 
breast and flanks. Bill horn-coloured, and legs pale. This species is 
somewhat allied to E./ucata, Pallas.* 

Alaudina. Alauda raytal, Buch. Ham., nobis, ^XIII, 962. This bird 
abounds on the white sand-dunes of the Hooghly, where the stream, un- 
checked by the tide, deposits only fine sand, and the alluvial country 
round (from this cause) is everywhere light and arenaceous : this Sand 
Lark being scarcely ever seen except on the flat deposits of white sand 
within each bend of the stream ; but there they are very numerous^ 
and (as usual) their colour approximates that of the surface. Fine 
specimens measure five inches and five-eighths, by ten inches ; wing 
three and a quarter ; and tail two inches : bill to gape five*eighths, 
and tarse three-quarters of an inch ; toes short, the hind -claw 

* Loxia Jlavicans, var. ^., Latham, =^Bmh, icterica^ Evenh. : his Emb» luteola is 
perhaps the female of E, melanocephala, but agrees with that of B. aureola : his 
* Goura Finch* is B, Lathami (w. fnelanictera f) i his FrmgiUa biUyraeea, L., is 
CHthagra chrysopogon^ Sw. (* Birds of W. Africa'), which is occasionally brought 
alive to India from the Mauritius, and kept as a cage-bird : FringUla stuHa, Ind. 
Tar., is doubtless Gymnoris JiavicoUis : and his Loxia totta and madagaseariensis of 
India,=sCarpo<lactf« erythrinuSy as was long ago pointed out by Mr. Jerdon. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birde. 4 i 

barely exceeding a quarter of an inch.* Irides very dark brown ; bill 
wkitiBh, with a slight tinge of doaky above ; and legs albesoent>oome- 
ouB, the toes pale dusky-brown. The young have a very whitish ap- 
pearance, from the downy character of their feathers ; and all the usual 
mottlings of young Larks are exhibited by them, though less oonspi- 
CQoualy than in most other Larks. A, rayial is not much of a mu- 
sician ; but often ventures on short snatches of song, frequently without 
rising from the ground, and I never saw it mount high like its musical 
neighbour, the A. gulgula, whose habits and song closely resemble 
those of A. arvensit : the haunts of these two species border, and 
they may commonly be seen and heard at the same time ; but this will 
be on the confines of each others territory. Upon ascending the river 
Hoogly, a considerable change both in the animal and vegetable pro- 
ductions of its banks is soon perceptible, with the change of the hce of 
the country that has been alluded to. The White Vulture (Neophron 
perenopterue) makes its appearance, which is never seen lower down 
upon the argillaceous or mud soil ; Buteo eaneecena is common ; and 
various little insessorial birds which I have never seen near Calcutta, 
as Mttlaeocercus caudatue, Chrysomma sinenee, Cietieola cursitam, 
the true British Curruea gnrrula, Amadina malabarica, &c., &c., abound 
more or less ; the fauna altogether more approximating that of Hin- 
doostan Proper, and I have no doubt that it would soon yield various 
novelties to a diligent collector. 

Genua CerthUauda^ XIII, 962. There are two closely allied species 
of Indian Certkiiauda, differing only in size : the larger of which, with 
wing four inches long, must be the true C. ckendoola, (Franklin,) des- 
cribed to be of the size of the British Sky Lark ; while the smaller, 
referred to C. ehendooia, loe» cii., has the wing but three inches and a 
half, or less, and the rest in proportion: the latter may now rank, 
is CBofsU, nobis (the Society being indebted to Captain Boys for 
a fine specimen of the former species, which has led to its descri- 
mination). One of them is the ' Crested Calandre Lark' of Latham.f 

• The hind-daw of this Alauda resembles that of the CerthUaudm and Pyrrhuktudm, 
u does also its light sandy-coloured plumage ; but its other characters are those of 
restricted Alauda. 

t Latham's * Aggta Lark' is Alauda gulguia ; his * Finch Lark'sA/trq/f-a assa- 
mtca; his *Baag-geyra huk' asCalandrella hraehydactyla ; his * Slender Lark's 
Antims tnalayensis; his * Yellow-headed Lark' can only be Budytes citreola; and 
his * Wagtail Lark' is the female common Budytes, 

Digitized by 


42 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

In the ' Madras Journal/ No. XXXI, 136, Mr. Jerdon considers hur 
A, deva (A. malaharica apud nos,) to be an aberrant Certhilauda, nearly 
allied to C. Boyn i .* bnt, if so, he must have sent the Society another 
species as his A. deva ; for the specimen referred to, is a true Aiauda, 
closely allied to A, gulptla, but with a pointed crest, and quite agreeing 
with Scopoli's description upon which is founded A. maiabariea, 
Omelin ; whereas Mirafra affinis, Jerdon, which Mr. Strickbnd conn* 
dered to be the nudaharica, has too short a wing for that bird, and also 
does not accord in other particulars. 

Genus Accentor, Bechstein. This remarkable genus seems to come 
in no where better than on the extreme verge of the Frinpllida, which 
I believe to be its natural location.* Mr. Hodgson has recently described 
(in P. Z. 8. 1845, p. 34), in addition to Ace. nipalensis and Ace. 
strophiatus, J. A. S, XII, 958-9, an Aco. eacharensis and an Ace. tin*. 
maculatus. Specimens, however, with which that gentleman fovoured the 
Society, having those names attached, I consider to be decidedly of 
one and the same species in different states of plumage ; and I have 
described each of these phases in my notice of Ace. nipalensis. Refer- 
ring now to Mr. Hodgson's specimens which were so labelled, I 
still consider his Ace. immaculatus to be the adult in worn plumage, 
which I mentioned in my description of this bird to have been forwarded 
as distinct ; but I cannot equally well reconcile the description of Aec. 
eacharensis with the only young specimen retained for the Museum, 
though I still greatly doubt its distinctness. I know four well marked 
Himalayan species of Accentor, all of which have been described by me 
in the Society's Journal, viz. Ace. nipalensis, Aec. variegatus. Ace. 
strophiatus, and Aec. mollis, (vide XiV, 581). 

The Fringillida peiSB to the softer-billed birds through the great 
American series of the Tanagrtnes ; and from them I believe there is a 
pretty complete gradation to the Cerahina, or South American Honey- 
suckers. The latter are quite distinct from any of the nectar-feeding 
genera of the Old World, which may nevertheless follow, and we com- 
mence the series of them with the Neeiariniad^, (passing over the true 
Promeropida, in which Irrisor does not rank). 
Genus Arachnothera, Temminck, treated of in XII, 981, and fur- 

• When writing the above, I had not remarked Mr. Hodgson's expressed opinion 
to the same effect. P, Z. 5. 1845, p. 34. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Kwwn Speciei of Bird$. 43 

ther notieed in XiV, 5S7. The Society has now eight species of this 
genoB, a revision of which has become necessary. 

1. A, magna, (Hodgson) : vide XII, 981. Hah. Nepal, Assam, and 

2. A. flavigaster, (Byton) : vide XIV. 557. Malacca. 

3. A. chryiog9ny9y Tern., vide XV, 98h Malay coontnes. This and 
the preceding species are allied, but differ much in size : and A. fianu 
fatter has a broad drcle of yellow feathers surrounding the eye, in ad* 
diti<m to the ear-tuft ; whereas A. ckrysogemfs is naked under the eye, 
and has a aenii-drde of yellow feathers above it. 

4. A, uwmaia. Tern, (nee apud nos, XII, 982) : dnnyris afiaie, 
Horsfield. Closely allied to the next, but larger, of a brighter and more 
yellowish green above, the under-parts greyer, and marked more decid- 
edly (especially on the breast) with a dark central streak to each fea- 
ther. Inhabits Java. 

5. A. modeita, (Eyton) : A. latirostris, nobis, vide XII, 982. Malacca. 

6. A. ' ■■ - ■ ? Temminek. Allied to the next, but much larger ; 
the throat and breast dull albescent-green, with an obscure central dusky 
streak to each feather ; belly and lower tail-coverts pale yellow ; and a tuft 
of orange-yellow feathers on each side of the lower breast, ordinarily 
oonoealed beneath the wing. Length of wing three inches and a quarter ; 
of tail two and a quarter ; and bill to forehead two inches. FVom Java. 

7. A, langirottrai (Lath.) Smaller than the last, with the same pec- 
toral tufts under each wing ; but the throat and fore-neck are spotless 
dear doll white, and the abdomen is much deeper yellow. Also from 

8. A. affinis, nobis ; A. inomata, apud nos. XII, 982. Very like the 
last, but always smaller, and duller-coloured ; the abdomen of a weaker 
and greener yellow, and rarely a trace (and at most a very slight one) 
of the orange pectond tufts. Inhabits the Eastern coast of the Bay of 
Bengal, from Arracan to Malacca; and Mr. Jerdon obtained a single 
specimen of it in the Mysore district, bordering the Neilgherries. 

Respecting the other genera of this group, I have little now to add : 
the Nectarinia are treated of in XII, 969, et seq., and XIV, 557 * ; and 

• Nectarinia malaccensis, (Scop.), lepida, (Lath.)» and/owrnica, Horsf., refer to 
the same species. 

Digitized by 


44 Notices and Descriptimu of various New [No. 169. 

the Dicceum group also on the latter occaftion.'^ Mr. Gould has rec^itly 
figured a curious little Australian bird by the name Smikromis flaveacena, 
the form and colouring of which approximate those of Piprisama agile ; 
and it seems to lead thence to the hitherto isolated Australian genus 
Pardalotus, Should this affinity be real, a gradation would be here shewn 
from the Malayan Prionochilus to the Australian Pardalotus; and the 
position of the latter genus be thus affirmed. 

Fam. Meliphagida. The most decided Indian representative of this 
Australian group, occurs in the genus Zosterops,- treated of in XIV, 562 
et seq. ; and the sole Indian species is evidently the Sylvia palpebrosa, 
Temminck, p. c. 292, f. 3, as described in Griffith's ' Animal Kingdom/ 
VI, 451 ; but whether this, or the name annulosus, (Swainson), should 
hold precedence, I have not the means of determinmg. The Z. borbonicus 
doubtfully referred to this genus in XIV, 564, is, I perceive, on more 
minute inspection, a decided Zosterops, having the same circle of fea- 
thers round the eye, only of a dusky hue, instead of the silky- white 
which renders this circle so conspicuous in its congeners. It Ib the 
Z. cinerea, Swainson, ' Menageries,' p. 294 .f Perhaps the genus lora 
(treated of in XIII, 380, and XIV, 602,) may come within the 
extreme confines of. the Meliphagida : and though not much aUied to 
lora (so far as I can perceive), I have less hesitation in bringing the 
Orioles under the same group.| An Australian species of true Oriole 
(Gracula viridis of Shaw) has, indeed, been long regarded as a Me/t- 

* Lord Arthur Hay has discovered a new Dicceum in the neighbourhood of Simla, 
which he designates D. sangwmifrons. ** Forehead, occiput, and chin, a rich bloods 
orange red — more orange than red in dry skins; lower-parts golden-yellow : upper>parts 
the same, mingled with olive." Dr. Horsfield's Javanese D, cruentatum^ described in 
XIV, note to p. 558, is Z>. rubrocanum^ (Tern.) 

t I named one Mauritius species, Z. curvirostriSt in XIV, 563 ; but I find this 
name has been anticipated by Mr. Swainson, for the ** Dicceum chloronotus of the 
Paris Museum" (vide * Birds of W. Africa,' Nat. JJbr., Orn., VIII, 44). If, how- 
ever, the latter had been described by the specific name eMoronotus^ Mr. Swtiinson 
could have no right to change it, at least without assigning a sufficient reason for so 
doing; and if undescribed before, it does not appear that Mr. Swainson has published 
any description of it, that should establish his right of nomenclature. 

My Z, mcobaricuSy XIV, 563, would seem to be merely the young of Z* patpehro^ 
9U9; though I have never seen an Indian specimen in the same plumage. Examples 
in the ordinary adult garb of Z. palpebrosus have now been received by the Society 
from the Nicobars. 

% This is an opinion to which I have long been leaning ; and I pointed out the affi- 
nity of Plectrorhynclia lanceolata^ Gould, to the Orioles, even to the form of its 
nest, in XII> 180 (bis). 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 45 

pkoffuhms bud, and nnder the generic name Mimeta, has been dassed 
in the present fiunil]^. Mr. Qould, in his great work on the birds of 
Aostndia, has lately established its trae generic position; which in« 
deed had been previously indicated by varioos other systematists. 

In XI, 797, 1 made some attempt to review the Asiatic Orioles, and 
shall now (with much more extensive materials) resume the subject. 
The species are as follow : — 

1. O. 7Vat//tt; Pastor TraUiii, Vigors. and Gould. Common in 
the eastern Himalaya, and occurs in Assam, Arracan, and Burmah. This 
bird has been placed* in all sorts of genera, certain of which have been 
established for its reception, as Psarophiius of Jardine and Selby : Mr. 
Hodgson long ago recorded his opinion that it is a true Oriole, 
and in this I qmte coincide. Mr. G. R. Gray refers it to Analcipus 
of Swainson, founded on Ocypterus sanguinolentus of Temminck, p, 
e. 499 ; and another species which Mr. Swainson arranges with 
it, is his An. hirundinaeeus, (Nat. Libr., ' Menageries', p. 284,) a 
bird which he also assigns to India; but Mr. Strickland, who has 
recently examined the originals (now at Cambridge) of many of Mr. 
Swainson's descriptions, writes me word that the species in question is 
scarcely separable from Artamus (u, Ocypterus) ^ and that it is labelled 
from Madagascar. How, therefore, such a bird can have any near 
affinity for an Oriole, and a most decided Oriole (in my opinion), is far 
from being easy to understand. 

2. O. melanocephalus, lin.: 0. maderaspatanus, Franklin (the female) ; 
O.McCoshii, Tickell (young male). Very common in Bengal, also in 
Nepal, Assam, Arracan, and southward to the Tenasserim Provinces ; 
and in some parts of the Peninsula of India, whilst in other parts it is 
radier scarce. Length of a male nine inches and a half, by sixteen 
inches ; wing five and a quarter, and tail three and a half ; of a female 
nine and a quarter, by fifteen inches : bill to forehead an inch and 
three-eighths ; to gape, one and five-eighths ; tarse seven-eighths of an 
inch. The black-headed Oriole of South Africa, considered identical by 
Sykes {P. Z. S. 1835, p. 62), is a conspicuously different species, with 
no yellow on the wings: it is the Tardus monaehus, Gm., termed 
0. capensis by Swainson ; who also names another black-headed Oriole, 
more nearly allied to the Indian species, but from Sierra Leone, O. 
hrachyrhynchus, (* Birds of West Africa.* Nat, Libr,) 

Digitized by 


46 Notices and De»cnpiion$ of various New [No. 169. 

In his *' Two centenaries and a quarter of new or little known birds." 
appended to his yolume on * Menageries/ in the ' Natoridists' library,* 
Mr. Swainson has also described an Oriolui Hodgsom, said to be from 
Nepal ; but of numerous Nepalese and other Himalayan specimens, 1 
have seen none that could be referred to it. It is stated to resemble 
O. melanocephalua, except that it is " much smaller, and the tips of the 
quills are white instead of yellow : middle feathers of the tail yellow, 
with a black bar nearly across their centre. Total length about seven 
inches : bill from gape, an inch ; to front, eight«tenths : wings four 
inches and eight-tenths ; tail beyond, seven-tenths : tarse seven-tenths." 
This notice may perhaps lead to its recognition. 

3. O. chinet^ais, Lin. : 0. cochinchinensist Brisson ; O. acrorhynehos^ 
Vigors, P. Z. iS. 1831, p. 97: CauUxuan of Bujffbn. This bird, which 
is not Indian, is remarkable for its very large and highly carinated beak, 
which is particularly deep at base, and drawn out to a fine point. 
Forehead yellow, not extending back beyond the hind-part of the eye : 
lores, spreading above and below the eye, and forming an occipital patch 
broader than the yellow of the forehead, deep black ; this does not, 
however, reach forward quite to the nares : posterior half of the wing, 
comprising also the winglet and coverts of the primaries, black; 
the rest of the wing, or anterior half, bright yellow : tail black, its 
middle feathers tipped with yellow for three-eighths of an inch, the next 
for an inch and a half on its outer web, and the outermost for two 
inches on both webs. Length of wing six inches ; of bill to forehead an 
inch and a half, or nearly so ; and of tail four inches. Inhabits China 
and Manilla. 

4. O. macrouruB, nobis. Closely allied to O. ehinensis, from which 
it is distinguished by its longer tail, n^er smaller and less carinated 
beak (which however is always conspicuously larger than in the next 
species), and by the greater patch of yellow upon the forehead of 
the male : another distinction consists in the disposition of the yellow 
upon the tail, which has scarcely any of this colour at the tips of its 
middle pair of feathers, while the outermost is in old males wholly 
yellow, with merely the shaft black towards the base, — some specimens 
shewing one or two insulated patches of yellow, chiefly at the extreme 
base of the outer web, — and younger males having the tail coloured more 
as in the adults of the Chinese species, but still with scarcely a trace 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Sirde. 47 

of yellow at the tips of the middle pair of feathers. The wings have 
their longest primaries slightly margined externally with whitish, and in 
some specimens there is a slight yellow horder to the secondaries and 
tertiaries ; while younger males have the whole exterior portion of the 
seeondsries and tertiaries washed with yellowish-olive. The coverts of 
the primaries are always tipped with yellow, producing a slight spot of 
this hue, which does not occur (tX least in the adult male of) O. chmen* 
eie. Younger males have, as usual, the back and wings tinged with dusky 
greenish; and in females (and perhaps still younger males), the same 
dnll colour prevails on the head and neck, the broad black occipital 
crescent is merely indicated, the feathers of the under*parts haye 
eadi a black central stripe, and the tail is wholly dusky yellowish above, 
prevailing throughout the outer webs of all the feathers, while the inner 
webs are successively more deeply terminated with yellow,— this colour 
being alone seen underneath, in adults of both sexes'. Length about 
eleven inches, or rather more ; of wing six ; and tail four and a half to 
five inches : bill to gape an inch and a half, and tarse an inch. Inhabits 
the Nieobar Islands. 

5. O. indicw, Brisson, Jerdon, III. Ind. Om, pi. XV : O. cMneneie 
et eoehinchinensie of India, auctorum : k Loriot dee Indee, Buffon. This 
differs from the two preceding in its considerably smaller bill ; in the 
yellow of the forehead extending further back beyond the eye, reducing 
the black occipital crescent, which latter is continued forward in adults, 
through the ocular region, quite to the nares ; in the greenish tinge of 
the back, even of old males; and very conspicuously in the much 
greater extent of the yellow upon its wings, while the tail has less than 
in O. chineneie, and its middle feathers have rarely distinct yellow tips : 
in 0. chineneis, and some specimens of 0. macrourue, the secondaries 
and tertiaries are wholly deep black ; whereas, in the present species, 
the secondaries are broadly margined, and the tertiaries have their whole 
outer web and part of the inner web, greenish-yellow ; the pri- 
maries are tipped with the same; and a bright yellow wing-spot is 
formed by the tips of the coverts of the primaries. Younger males 
have much more of the green tinge above and on the wings, and the 
nnder-parts are much weaker yellow, with black stems to the breast- 
feathers, more or less developed. They evidently increase in bright- 
ness of colouring for several years. Females are yellowish'green 

Digitized by 


48 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 169. 

aboye, with little or no trace of the occipital crescent; whitish be- 
neath, with dark central lines; bill infuscated, instead of pinkish* 
white, as in the males ; and the shape of the beak will always readily 
diiitinguish them from the same sex of O. kundoo. Length of wing six 
inches to six and a quarter in bright old males, often not more than 
five inches and a half in younger males ; bill to forehead an inch and 
one*eighth, or a sixteenth more. Rather a rare bird in India generally, 
and I have never seen it from the Himalaya. About Calcutta it is very 
rare ; but in the countries eastward of the Bay it is generally common, 
as in the island of Ramree (Airacan), in the Tenasserim Provinces, and 
Malay peninsula. The Society also possess it from China. 

6. 0. coronatus, Swainson ; O. hippocrepis, Wagler. With this Ma- 
layan species I am unacquainted, and shall merely cite the following 
passage from Mr. Jerdon's description of the last, in his ' Illustrations of 
Indian Ornithology.' " Swainson's 0. coronatus from Java (as described,) 
differs from our peninsular O. indieus, in its smaller size, shorter wings, 
tail, and tarsus, and in the narrowness of the black nuchal band. Its 
bill appears to be somewhat larger than in ours, but shorter than in 
chinensis, Wagler's description of 0. hippocrepis (which he considers 
the same as ehinensis, auct.,) corresponds with it in the yellow tips 
of the central tail-feathers, and with our peninsular bird in having the 
black ocular band extending to the nares, and in other points. As, 
however, his specimens were obtained chiefly from Java and Sumatra, 
it is most probably Swainson's coronatus, with which it indeed agrees 
pretty nearly in dimensions. The latter are given as nine inches and 
a half total length, wing five and three-tenths, tail three and a half, bill 
to forehead an inch and two-tenths, and tarse eight-tenths." 

7. O. tenuirostris, nobis. An evident young male, resembles the corres- 
.pondingage of O. indicus, except in the shape and colour of its bill, in 
the much greater extent of the yellow on its forehead, and propor- 
tionate contraction of the black occipital crescent, also, in its rump having 
much less yellow, relieving the greenish hue of the back and wings. As 
in the young male 0. indicus, and fully adult O, cMnensis and O. macrou' 
rus, the black of the lores is not continued forward to the nares ; but the 
separation of colours is abrupt and decided, probably indicating a simi- 
larity of extent in the adults : the whole crown is yellow, the black of the 
occiput not rising above the level of the eye. Wing mostly greenish, the 

Digitized by 


1846.] or LUtie KntnDH Species of Birds, 49 

coverts which show externally not being tipped with yellow, as in the 
corresponding age of 0. indicus; but the tertiaries have narrow yellow 
tips, which also are less developed on the secondaries, and upper- 
most primaries. Bill longer and much more slender than in 0. indicus, 
and of a slightly arched form; its colour fleshy apparently at base, but 
red for the remainder as in 0. ffalbula. Length about ten inches, of 
wing five and three-quarters, and tail three and a half; bill to forehead 
an inch and a quarter, and tarse seven-eighths. I believe, but am not 
sure, that the specimen here described is from Central India. There 
can be no doubt of its distinctness as a species. 

8. O. ktmdoo, Sykes (the female) : O. galbula apud Sykes (the male), 
and of Franklin's catalogue : 0. aureus, Jerdon's CataL : and doubtless 
0. galbuloides of Gk>uld, mentioned in P, Z. 5. 1841, p. 6. This is 
the Indian 0. galbula, auctorum. It invariably differs from the Euro- 
pean speeies in having a larger bill, and in the black streak from the 
bill being continued backward beyond the eye in the males : from the 
African O. auratus, Swainson, it differs in the colouring of its wings, 
which resemble those of 0. galbula. This bird, so very common in the 
Indian peninsula, and which extends up to the N.W. Himalaya, occurs 
also in the hilly parts of Bengal, as Rajmahl and Monghyr, and at 
Midnapore; these hills being off-shoots from the ranges of Central India, 
and partaking of the fauna of the latter in numerous other instances ; 
but in the vicinity of Calcutta I have never met with it, nor seen it 
in any collection from the countries eastward : the Calcutta specimens 
which, on a former occasion, I referred to 0. galbula (and afterwards 
termed aureus), proving to be females of 0. indicus. 

9. 0. xanthonotus, Horsfield : 0. leucogaster, Reinwardt : O. casta- 
nopterus, nobis, J, A, S, XI, 795, (the young male). Peculiar to the 
Malay countries. 

Another very distinct group as a genus, which, though less allied to 
other Meliphagida than I consider the Orioles to be, yet offers (in at 
least the majority of its species) those adaptive characters which many 
would term the essential features of the family, is that of Phyllornis 
(vel Chloropsis), treated of in XIV, 364 et seq. To what is said there, 
and before, concerning this group, I shall now only add that the young 
of Ph, Hardwiekii may as well be described, in order perhaps to check 
its being brought forward as a new species. The plumage is green, 
more yellowish underneath, the throat pale yellowish, and there is a 

Digitized by 


50 Notices and Descrtpticms of various New [No. 169. 

little blue mingled with the yellowish on the moustaches : a trace of 
blue also on the shoulder of the wing, and upon tke outer primaries 
and butermost tail-feathers.* 

The PbyUonds group conducts to the Bulbouls, treated of in XiV, 
566 et seq, : and the affinity of this distinct family for that of the Meli^ 
phaffidee is, I think» undeniable. I have little now to add elucidative 
of a group so lately under review ; but may remark, that Lord A. Hay 
considers the Pyenonotus htemorrhmis of the Upper Provinces to be dis- 
tinct, from that of S. India,, and proposes the name int^rmedius for the 
former. There is this much dijSerence, that it would be generally easy 
to pronounce \diether a specimen was from Northern or Southern 
India, the formter having the colours generally better defined, especially 
the pale margins to the feathers of the upper-parts, and the tail also 
is commonly longer : but loolcing to a series of these Inrds, from Qoom- 
soor, Agra, and Arracan» I do not see that they can be defined tipart. Ot 
P. leucogenySy Capt. Boys informs me, that it is common down the Indus 
from Buhawulpore ; and that he has lately obtained it near Ferozepore. 
A P. ru/ocaudaius has recently been described by Mr. Eyton, An, 
and M<Mg, iST. £/. 1845, p. 228, which must be put as a synonyme Of 
Criniger gularis (Horsf.), J, A, S., XIV, 571. Mr. Eyton also des- 
cribes an Ia:os metallicus, which would seem to be allied, except in 
size, to Braehypodiua melanQcephalus, XIV, 576* The Dirdusindicus, Gm., 
as represented in Buffoa's figure,, of which a copy has been obligingly 
sent me by Mr. Jerdon, would certainly appear to be a very difierent 
species from Criniger ? icterieus, Strickland, which Mr. Jerdoo had re- 
ferred to T, indictts (as noticed in XIV, 570). Lastly, the name Ixodia, 
nobis, XIV, 577, has been forestalled in Botany ; as Ixodes (as I first had 
it) had been previously applied to a genus of Spiders ; so I shaH now take 
refuge in Ixidia, which I trust has remained^ hitherto unattached. f 

Among our late acquisitions from the Nicobars, I must not omit to 
mention several specimens of Ixodnda virescens, nobis, XIV, 575 ; and 
of all ages« from youth to maturity. The species is quite distinct from 

* The * Blue-cbinned Thnuh' of Latham refers to PhyUomi» Jgrdoni ; and CJkio^ 
ropsis gampsorhynchus (mispelt ceesmarhynchos)^ apud Tickell, should have been 
assigned to the same : my originally mistaking this bird for the female of another spe- 
cies, ocoasioned me to give it as a synonyme of the latter. 

t Latham's ' Hooded Tbrush' refers to Pycnonotus leucogenys ; his Twdus eopeis- 
sis, Ind. var., probably to P.Jlavirictus; his T. caJeTf from India, to P. benffalensis; 
and his * Tufted Thrush* to P. mektnoeephaius. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or LUtle Known Species of Birds. 5 1 

Hypsipetes malaccensis, nobis, but can scarcely be placed in a different 
sob-generic gronp ; and I think it will rank best as an aberrant Hypsi* 
petes, showing a marked affinity for Iole» The bill is rather shorter 
than in H. makKcensis, and the coronal feathers tend less to assume 
the pointed form : length about eight inches and a half, of wing from 
three and a half to nearly four inches, and tail three inches and a half; 
bill to gape an inch, in some, an eighth more; tarse three-quarters 
of an inch : the tail is a little graduated, but inclines to assume the true 
Hypsipetes shape. Plumage of a unifoign olive-green above, thp crown 
infuscated, or of a brownish-nigrescent hue : throat and breast dingy- 
whitish, a little tinged with yellow ; the rest of the lower-<parts more 
deeply and conspicuously tinged with yellow. Bill dusky, with yellow 
tomiae, and elsewhere an appearance of its becoming ultimately wholly 
yellow : the tarsi plumbeous. The nestling tertiaries remaining on the 
specimen formerly described, and the outer webs of the nestling prima- 
ries, are of a dingy chesnut colour ; and there is a shade of the same 
upon Uie tail. The same appears to be the case with the young of 
H» malaccensis ; and the two species considerably resemble at first sight, 
hot the present may readily be distinguished by its infuscated crown, 
and its uostreaked throat and breast. £. B. 

(To he continued* J 

Postscript. — I have already to acknowledge another interesting col- 
lection, partly from the Nicobars and partly from Penang, just received 
from our esteemed contributor, the Rev. J. Barbe. 

Among the birds, is a finer male of Palaornis erythrogenys (note to 
p. 23, ante,) than that previously described ; having the nape and inter- 
scapularies light yellowish, rather than tinged with hoary-grey, and 
the under-parts also more yellowish than in the other.* 

Of Todiramphus occipitalis (loc. citj, it would seem that I described 
females and young only ; for what I take to be the males are consider- 
ably brighter, with the wings and tail much bluer, of a decided Prussian 
bloe, the black nuchal collar (continued from the ear-coverts) is much 
narrower, and in some tinged with blue, and the white supercilia (carri- 
ed round the occiput) have little or even no tinge of rufous. 

* Dr. Cantor poMesses a female of P, caniceps, nobis floe* cU,Jf from the Malay 
peninsula. It has the tail developed to the usual leng^th in this genus ; ind green 
above with some blue on its middle feathers, and dull golden-yellowish below; the' 
head less pure grey than in the male ; and the bill wholly black, as I suggested it 
would be in this sex. 


by Google 

52 Notices and Descriptious of various New [No. 169. 

Picus moluccensis {vems, p. 16), identical with the Javanese species, 
is sent from Penang ; and I find that it is Mr. Eyton's Tripsurus auritus. 
An, and Mag, N, H,, 1845, p. 229, — another synonyme to be added to 
those reduced in p. 14 : Mr. Eyton also describes fioc. eit,) a Ptci» 
rubiginosfts, which is a Gecinus most nearly allied to G, malaceensiM, 
and has been subsequently described by Lord A. Hay as P. melanogaster, 
Madr, Joum. No. XXXI, p. 153 : but Bucco quadricolor, Eyton, is dis* 
tinct from both the species with which its identity is suggested at 
p. 14 ante, « 

The most interesting specimens, however, in this collection, are a pair 
of adults of the Megapodius of the Nicobar IsUnds, and also two undoubt- 
ed ' eggs of this bird, of which Captain Lewis prepared only a chick. 
So remarkable a species may be at once described^ however, out of its 
place in «the present series. 

M. nieobariensis, nobis. Length about fifteen inches, and of wing 
nine inches ; tarse two inches and a half; middle toe an inch and five- 
eighths, and its daw three-quarters of an inch ; hind-claw seven-eightiis. 
Foot rather small for a Megapodius, the middle toe and claw but litUe 
exceeding the two lateral in length. General hue of the upper- parts deep 
olive-brown with a tinge of ochreous, which becomes more decided on the 
wings ; lower-parts dingy greyish-brown, with a slight tinge of ochreous 
on the breast, and which prevails throughout the under- parts of a presum- 
ed female : crown slightly rufescent-brown, prolonged into a short crest, 
and the occipital feathers impended by the coronal are light greyish : 
lores, cheeks, and throat, almost naked: the primaries light ochreous on 
their outer webs, and dusky internally : bill yellow : and legs and claws 
dark horn-coloured. The chick is coloured nearly as in the adult, but is 
mottled with faint russet on the wings, and the abdomen has a rufous 
tinge ; the feathers of the head, neck, and breast, having a peculiar hair- 
like structure. The presumed egg is of a true elliptical shape, or with the 
small end just distinguishable, measuring three inches and a half in 
length, and being of an uniform somewhat ruddy stone-colour. The habits 
of this bird would appear to resemble precisely those of M. tumului des- 
cribed by Mr. Qould. Captain Lewis had seen the mounds, and the 
birds upon them ; but was unaware that the latter had been the accu- 
mulators of such huge heaps of material. Upon shewing him Mr. 
Gould's description of the habits of the Australian species, he remarked 
that the same account would equally apply to the Nicobar bird, except 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 53 

that he had observed no heaps quite so large as some of those des- 
cribed by Mr. Gould. The eggs were sent by Mr. Barbe, with merely 
a notice that they had been " found in the sand." 

I have further to acknowledge a rich collection of New Holland 
specimens, just received from the Australian Museum at Sydney. In 
Vol. XIV, p. 546, I made a few remarks on Mr. Gould's magnifi- 
cent work on the birds of Australia, and therefore I shall further notice 
here, that Mr. Gould's Carpophaga leucomeia is not a Carpopkaga, but 
a Dendrotreron apud Hodgson, ranking with C Hodgsonii, C, arquatris, 
and C guinea, auctorum, having but twelve tail-feathers, &c. &c. : and that 
Mr. Gh)uld's distinctions of Ewrystomus australis from Eu* orientalis are 
very erroneous ; as these two species exactly agree in size and structure : 
but the former is readily distinguished by having the black of the head 
confined to the lores, and by the brownish hue of the crown and nape, 
of which no trace occurs in the species of India and the Malay countries ; 
which latter has the whole head and cheeks blackish, and the nape and 
back concolorous with the scapularies, in addition to its blue being of a 
deeper tint. Lastly, the Anous melanops figured by Mr. Gould, is cer- 
tainly identical with a species in the Society's Museum, from the Bengal 
Soonderbuns ; and which I can scarcely doubt will prove to be the Ster* 
na tenuirosiris, Tem., from the western shore of the Indian Ocean, or, 
in other words, the eastern coast of Africa. 

Chrysocoecyx smaragdinus, nobis. In XI, 917, I considered certain 
little Cuckoos to be specifically identical, which are respectively inhabi- 
tants of India, the Malay countries, and Australia. A better series of 
specimens now convinces me that three species are here confounded. 
That of India has already received a name, being the Trogon ntaculatus, 
Gkn.. founded on the spotted Gurucui of Brown's Illustrations, which 
certainly represents a variety, or incidental state of plumage, of this 
species ; but the name is so very inapplicable to the species generally, 
that it cannot justly be adopted. The presumed male and female des- 
cribed, loc. cit., as C. lucidus refer to this species : another presumed 
female, from Arracan, tends to the hepaticus, plumage common to many 
Cuckoos, having the head jshesnut, the back still more cupreous than in 
the supposed female formerly described, and the lower-parts closely 
barred throughout with coppery-green upon a white ground, except the 
lower tail-coverts' which are chiefly banded with green and deep rufous: 

Digitized by 


54 Notices and Deseriptians, 8fC. 

the tail has its middle-feathers shining green, with a dusky purplish 
band at tip, — the next pair similar, but with deep rufous broadly margin- 
ing the basal half of their outer webs,— -this rufous is successively more 
developed on the two succeeding pairs, — and the outermost has its ex- 
terior web and the contiguous portion of its inner web pure white, 
banded with shining green, which extends also over the rufous portion 
of the inner web : terminal third of the bill dusky, the rest translucent 
pale straw-yellow in the ^dry specimen. Another supposed female is 
throughout in the hepaiicus plumage, or rufous above, white below, 
with greenish- dusky bars throughout, the outermost tail-feather marked 
with white chiefly on its exterior web, and the two next tail«-feathera 
slightly tipped with white : bill, with the basal half amber-colonr- 
ed, the remainder dusky. Another, again, is of a predominant dull 
glossy green above, with the same rufous and white on the tail, but its 
middle-feathers are also obscurely barred with rufous, and most of the 
wing- feathers are margined with the same : bill wholly dusky. Lastly, 
another is chiefly of a dusky hue above, scarcely glossed with greenish, 
the feathers having slight rufous margins more developed on the wings ; 
and tail as in the last. In all, however, the under- parts are much more 
closely banded than in the Australian species ; and the wing measures 
generally four inches, or sometimes four and a quarter in adults. In* 
habits the hilly parts of India, but seems to be everywhere rare. Brown 
figures it from Ceylon ; and I have seen it from Central India, Rajmahl, 
Arracan, &c. 

Chr, basalis : Cueulus basalts, Horsfield : C. chaldtes, Tem. : C. 
malayanus, Raflies. This seems exactly to resemble the last, except in 
its constantly smaller size; and it is equally variable. Wing three 
inches and a half to three and three-quarters. It holds the same rela- 
tionship to the Indian species, which C. lugvhfis, Horsfield, does to C. 
dicruroides, Hodgson, and C. flavus does to C. tenuirostris. The specie 
men described in XII, 944, was not, I believe, from Macao (as I was 
informed), but from Malacca. Specimens corresponding to the adult 
male of Chr, smaragdinus, have not hitherto fallen under my observation. 

Chr. lucidus (?), Gm. ; C. metallicua, Vig. This is the Australian 
species, corresponding in size to the first, but having constantly, so far 
as I have seen, a black bill, the under- parts much more distantly banded, 
and presenting various other distinctions. 

Digitized by 



Note on the Geological features of Ziliah Behar, By Lieut, W. S. 
Shkrwill, B.N. I., Revenue Surveyor, 

The geological feature* of ziliah B^ar may be dirided ioto four great 
diviaons, viz. — the granitic, the qnartzose, the homstone, and the sand- 
stone. Commencing from the eastern boundary of the ziliah, where it 
alnits upon ziliah Mongfayr, the hills are in general composed of confused 
masses of fatty quartz abounding wi^ mica, which is generally found 
adhering to the quartz. In many places fine veins of mica are worked 
and the produce exported to Patna. The principal mines are to the 
south of Rujowlee, both in the granite and quartz ranges. The country 
at the foot of these hills is thickly strewn with minute particles of silvery 
mica, brought down from the hills by the rains, and entering largely 
• into the composition of the soil : much of it is collected by the natives 
and used for whitewashing their houses, ornamenting pottery, toys, &c., 
giving to the artidea thus smeared, a lively sparkling appearance and an 
unctuous fed ; the roads and beds of Nullahs sparkle in every direction 
from the abundance of this mineral. Immediately on the boundary of 
ziUah Mongbyr the granite peak named Kawa Kho rises, from out of 
the quartz hills, to the height of 1,165 feet ; another small patch of gra- 
nite also appears about five miles to the S. W. from the peak. The quartz 
hiUs are covered to their summit* with forest trees, brushwood and 
bajoaboos, but as they advance to the westward and become granite, 
they rise into bold and lofty peaks» some upwards of a thousand feet in 

After leaving Rnjowlsee, the granite of these hills is found of- every 
hue and texture that it is possiUe granite can possess or be composed of. 
In some places porphyritio granite is found, the individaal component 
parts of which are enormous ; in others eurite, where the individual com- 
ponent parts are undistinguishable from their minuteness, and in other 
I^acea syenite is found. Also occasional masses of ponderous black mica 
are found scattered about in company with large masses of the gassy 
and fatty quartz so common to granite formations. 

At the spot where the Calcutta Trunk Road crosses these hills, large 
blocks of gneiss are seen protruding from the fine black soil, and in 
moat of the ravines and deep water-courses the same mineral is found. 
In the bed of the Mohunneh river, to tiie west of the Dunghye Ghat, 
on the old Calcutta Road, and where it issues from the hills, the water 

Digitized by 


56 Geological features of Zillah Behar. [No. 169. 

has laid bare a beautiful bed of gneiss several miles in extent, cross- 
ing the Behar boundary and entering zillah Ramgurh : but from the 
great depth of soil and from the dense forest on the banks of the 
river, I was unable to trace how far it extends east and west. In the 
Dunghye Pass, gneiss of peculiar beauty is scattered about in every 
direction. The summit of this pass at the village of Tillee Tand I found 
to be 1,300 feet above the level of the sea : it is covered with thick 
forests, haunted by tigers, who destroyed some men of my establish- 
ment wlulst engaged surveying these hills. A spur of this granitic range 
strikes off from the main body and suddenly terminates in the bold 
mountain, known as the " Muhair hill," (vide map and vignette.) The 
volcanic range of hornstone hills appear at this spot to overlay the granite, 
which again appears on the other side of the hornstone, distant about 
eight miles. This granite extends westward to ten miles beyond the 
Koel river, or 120 miles from the mica mines at Rujowlee, varying in 
height from a hundred to a thousand feet : some of the peaks are bold 
and imposing, but much of this range is composed of alow, undulating and 
broken plateau of table land, especially the great mass which forms a 
spur from the Vindhya mountains and lies in pergunnah Sherghotty. 
This irregular mass, averaging from five to eight miles in width, is com- 
posed of coarse granite, covered with a dense jungle of underwood, in- 
termixed with forest trees, affording an inexhaustible supply of the 
coarser wood, for building, manufacture of ploughs, yokes, sugar mills, 
&c. besides yielding a plentiful supply of bamboos, grass, a variety of 
medicinal herbs, barks, roots, leaves and fruits which are collected at 
various seasons, and used in the zillah or exported. The wild silk (tusser) , 
is also collected from the Asun trees (Terminalia alata tomentosa) and 
exported. The principal tree is the Saloogunje or Sal^, a tall hand- 
some tree, with a smooth shining white bark, high clear stem, wide 
spreading branches, and of a highly resinous nature, and from which 
a gum or resin is collected and used as a varnish chiefly by the Palan- 
quin makers. This tree answers to the description of the North- African 
frankincense tree. The dhak tree, byre, kheir, mimosa and semul, are 
the most common trees in these woods. 

The Samba stag (Rusa), spotted axis, neelghaee, tigers, leopards, 
and a variety of smaller animals inhabit the depth of these woods. 
At Deoree, a series of low hills are detached from the body of the table 
land, and are much impregnated with veins of serpentine. Near the 

Digitized by 


1^46.] Geological features of ZiUah Behar. 57 

village a meagre bed of this mineral has been quarried for a few years 
by natives, who manufacture cups, knife-handles, &c., from the best speci- 
mens. Captain Richard Ousdey, Principal Assistant to the Qovemor 
General's Agent S.W. Frontier, had a shaft sunk, or rather a huge pit 
opened, in the hopes of reaching a good bed, but without success ; at 
the depth of thirty feet only a coarse friaUe granite was fpund ; nor did 
I perceive in the sides of the pit any traces by which hopes could be 
upheld of ever finding any at that spot. Perseverance may perchance 
yet discouver a valuable bed of this huidsome mineral. Several slabs, 
three feet in length, were obtained by the Honourable E. Drummond, 
Magistrate of Gya, but being from the surface and much decayed, were 
good for nothing, although very handsome both in colour and texture. 

To the north of this great plateau, numerous little granite hillocks are 
dotted over the plain, extending for twenty-five miles north, amongst 
which is the large Chirchanwan hiU, five miles in length, but to the 
N.E. they extend for forty miles as far as the Burabur hiUs, a range of 
black sterile granite rocks, in which are some very curious groups, 
peculiar to the granitic formation ; particularly that of Kawa Dhole, a 
coiucal peak, rising to 365 feet in height, on the summit of which 
rests a conical block of granite of immense proportions. It is upwards of 
forty feet in he^ht, standing on its base, without flaw or crack, a land- 
mart for miles around. 

On the summit of this group, iron ore of a rich quality is scat- 
tered about in profusion. This is the most northern point to which* 
granite can be traced in Zillah Behar. 

Returning to the west, a group of very curiously formed peaks are 
clustered togedier, six miles south of Kootoombeh. One in particular 
from its appearance is styled the Kothila (vide Map and Vignette) or 
granary. In these hills is found, in small quantities, the sulphate of 
alumina adhering to some of the rocks; it is styled silajeet by the natives. 

The granite range after crossing the Koel Nuddee suddenly ceases in 
numerous small hiUodcs, and^is here joined by the sandstone, an offset 
from the Kymoor sand and limestone range. Eighteen miles furtiier 
up the Sone river, the granite again appears in one or two hillocks 
piercing the sandstone. After crossing the Ko^ river from the east the 
country undergoes a complete change. The Tar tree (palm) becomes 
scarce and eventually ceases altogether, the surface of the country be- 


Digitized by 


58 Geological features of Zillah Behar. [No. 169. 

comes covered with the Mimosa catechu, a few ebony trees and an 
abundance of saloogunje trees. The hills are clothed with the fragrant 
rhousa grass, from which a powerful spirit is extracted, so beneficial in 
rheumatism, and known in Malwa as " Grass oil." The surface of the 
country is undulating, the soil tinged with bright yellow and red hues, 
the effects of the oxide of iron, which ore is found in its soil. The hills 
are low towards the north, and higher to the south; exceedingly steep 
to the south, and sloping away gradually to the north. The long range of 
hills skirting the Sone river, are so steep to the south that a stone may 
be jerked from the summit to the base, but on the north the termination 
of their base is a mile removed from the plumb-line of their crest. Ten 
or fifteen miles south of the Sone river, on the table land of Oontaree, 
iron ore is collected and smelted by the Aghurreeas. Immediately under 
the ruined fort of Srinugger, the waters of the Sone have denuded a 
series of nearly vertical strata of homstone, arranged in narrow serpen- 
tine ribbons ; this homstone again appears about half a mile down the 
river, at Darehdeh, and has the appearance of having been fused, being 
of a dark pitchy hue, smooth, rounded, sonorous when struck, difficult 
of fracture, and heavy. A belt of the same rock appears in the bed of 
the Sone jutting out from the Shahabad or north side, about two mUes 
above Darehdeh: the rock at this spot has exactly the same burnt 
appearance. Embedded in this homstone are found masses of a hard 
daystone of a bright red colour, also common amongst the pebbles of 
«the river, which pebbles generally consist of rounded pieces of agate, 
homstone or quartz, possessing but little beauty or variety. The rocks 
at this spot, projecting more than half-way across the stream of the 
Sone, create rapids of about six feet fall in a quarter of a mile. At a 
village named Phoolwurreea, about four miles inland from the Sone, 
there is a spring of good water. At this spot a fair is held during the 
months of Kartik and Chait, At a spot (marked S.) in the sandstone a 
small quantity of alum is manufactured from alum slate, but by what 
process, I could not learn. Specimens of the slate were sent marked 359. 
The natives call this sulphate of alumina, silajeei : it is the same sub- 
stance as that brought from Nepal, and sold under the same name at 
the enormous price of one rapee the tola. The sandstone, on the eastern 
and western banks of the Koel river, is similar to that in which are 
situated the Rajhurrah coal mines, eighteen miles from the Behar 

Digitized by 


1846.] Geological features of Zillah Behar. 59 

boundary, and is of various textures, some exceedingly hatd, others very 

The stone from the Khyra peak, which rises to 1:,086 feet, is much 
used for hand-mills, curry- stones, and for other domestic purposes. The 
whole of this sandstone is covered with a thin covering of forest trees, 
underwood, and bamboos; the Saloogunge tree predominating every 
where. The valleys are filled with the Mimosa catechu, many hundreds 
of which trees are yearly destroyed in the manufacture of the catechu. 

The next group is that of the homstone, or Rajgheer range of hills, 
which although slightly mixed with quartz and jasper, must nevertheless 
be considered as a homstone range. The homstone is of both kinds, 
conchoidal and woody : the former is found of endless varieties, bright- 
red, purple-blue and other lively colours, uniting to render this an elegant 
stone : the latter is universally of a greyish-green colour. This double 
range of hills presents a series of ragged peaks, offering views of great 
beauty : their extent is about forty miles from S. W. to N.E. A small hill, 
evidently a portion of the range appears at Behar ; another small hill, 
about eighteen miles due east of Gireenk, and another again twelve miles 
to the south, uniting with the quartz range and granite peak of Kawa Kho. 
in this range are numerous hot and cold springs, especially at Rajgheer, 
where there are nineteen hot wells and four cold : on the southern face 
of the hiUs, th^e are a few hot springs similar in character to those of 
Rajgheer. Half way between the Rajgheer and Burabar hills is situated 
a collection of hillocks, from which is quarried hornblend of a beautiful 
texture ; the crystals are large and glossy : also a quantity of potstone, 
which is much used at G^a by the natives in the manufacture of dishes, 
plates, mortars and pestles, likewise by the image cutters, who are fa- 
mous for the elegance of their carvings. A small quantity of potstone, 
but of an inferior quality, is quarried from the Bmhmjoonee hill, over- 
hanging the city of Gya. A small hill, west of the station of Gya, yields 
an indurated reddle used for dyeing clothes of an orange colour, also for 
metalling the roads in the station ; this mineral is either of an orange, 
purple, light-red or yellow colour. 

These few notes, combined with the accurate and minute details by 
Dr. Buchanan, will I hope, render the accompanying Map intelligible. 

Digitized by 



A Note on some Hill Tribes on the Kuladyne River ; — Arracan. By Lieut. 

T. Lattkr (67 Ih N. IJ, of the Arracan Local Battalion, 

<l>ocT^ yap vnip aypiav vSav, ava T*avTpo Kai nerpag. 

There are few facts more remarkable in India, than the vast number 
of tribes which occupy its mountain fastnesses, and which roam through 
its interminable forests ; all speaking distinct dialects. In many in- 
stances such tribes are, as far as distance is concerned, near, neighbours ; 
though in reality almost perfect strangers ; a state of alienation, in a great 
measure arising from the dense and impervious vegetation, always occu- 
pying the lower mountainous ranges of this country. And in no part 
perhaps is this peculiarity more strikingly exemplified than in the 
Yooma range of hills, which separate the province of Arracan from the 
Empire of Burmah. On the banks of the Kuladyne river, which runs 
down the 93^ parallel of longitude, and within a space over which a 
bird might speed in a summer's day, may be found the following clans — 
the KhunUs, the Mrus (of which there are two tribes, speaking distinct 
dialects), the Anoos, the Kyaus, the Kh6n$, the Shentoos, and finally 
the Khyoungthas. Although the languages of all these may have 
originated from the same stock, yet there is quite as much difference 
between them as between French and English. The most powerful 
among them are the Shentoos, who being beyond our frontier, are known 
to us only by their devastations on those tribes which pay us tribute ; 
the suddenness, secrecy, and nev6r- failing nature of these attacks, cause 
them to be held, by the rest, in a dread of which it would be impossible 
to give an idea. The Khdns, who are likewise beyond our frontier, are 
employed by the Shentoos as guides and spies, and are on that account 
obnoxious to the vengeance of those clans, who may owe a blood feud 
to the Shentoos. They reside during the night in. huts built on high 
trees, and return with the day to their regular habitations below. The 
remaining tribes are all more or less under our rule, aud have conse- 
quently given up their feuds. With the exception of the Khyoungthas 
or " Sons of the Stream," all the rest of the tribes, above enumerated, 
go under the general term of Toungthas, or " Sons of the Hill." I shall 
proceed to give a slight sketch in the following order of the Khyaung- 
thas, the Khumis, and the Kyaus, which three clans fell under my 
observation during a short trip up the Kuladyne. 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 


Digitized by 


1846.] A Note on some Hill Tribes, ^c. €1 


The Kkyoungtkas are only found on the banks of the Kuladyne river, 
and their livelihood is principally gained from plantations on its banks. 
They may be viewed as the type of the Arracan race ; they speak the 
Burmese language, but with all the harsh provincialisms of the Arra* 
canese. There are many terms in the Arracanese dialect totally distinct 
from Burmese : as'^Aoy, " little, small ;" ara, ** more ;" Mkdn, " thing," and 
many others, just in the same way as words are foun^ peculiar to certain 
counties in England. The Kkyoitrngthas appear to have been a portion 
of the original inhabitants of Arracan, driven up the river at the time of 
the invasion and occupation of the province by the Burmese. Their 
religion is a simple type of Boodhism, but mixed up strangely with the 
Ndt or " spirit" worship of the hills ; which appears in some instances 
almost to have absorbed their original faith. Their parent stream is 
looked upon with a holy love, not only as aflfording them sustenance, but 
likewise a ready passage by which to flee from the attacks of their foes. 
At the northern outskirts of each village from which quarter alone they 
dread the advent of any danger (all to the south being in possession of 
the English), in the direction of the forest, and under the shade of the 
comeliest tree may be seen the shrine of their two NdtSt the one male* 
the other female. They are represented by two pebbles picked from the 
banks of the river. The female is considered the most powerful, and is 
meant to represent the Mayoo Ndt, or spirit which presides over the 
mouth of the Mayoo river : she is believed to be a most powerful spirit, 
the guardian of Arracan from all the dangers from the sea. The road 
from Akyab to Chittagong crosses the mouth of the Mayoo river ; here 
all natives, whatever may be their faith, invariably, make their offering 
to this powerful spirit by letting loose fowls, &c. The other or male 
siHrit is styled RwdUamg Ndt or *' the village guardian," to whom, 
as his name implies, is intrusted the care of the village. They believe, 
to use their identical words, that ** should he withdraw his favour, 
the evil eye would glare upon their children; sickness would de- 
vastate their hearths; the floods would^ sweep away the foundations 
of their homes ; and their most favourite haunts would become the 
prowl of the tiger, and wild cat o'mount." Whenever a new shrine 
is to be erected, fresh stones are chosen, the village is tabooed for 

Digitized by 


62 A Note on some Hill Tribes [No. 169. 

seven days, sientinels are placed on all the surrounding heights to 
prevent the ingress or egress of any person, and sacrifices of fowls, 
and pigs are made. Around each stone is wound some cotton thread, 
coloured yellow with turmeric* These objects however are still further 
curious, for it wiH be perceived by inspecting the plate that they are 
rough representations of the lingum, and yont The colouring with 
turmeric is Boodhistic, for yellow is the sacred and royal colour of 
Boodhism. In the simpler types of Boodlusm which have come under 
my observation, whenever the worship of the powers of nature has been 
introduced, it has been invariably that of the united male and female ; 
of wluch the latter has been the most powerful. This is the true ex- 
planation of those monuments which abound in the Cossyah hills, 
figured in a very interesting paper from the pen of Lieut. Yule, in a 
volume of the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta. Another inter- 
esting fact illustrated by these objects, is the invariable predilection of 
the human mind to identify the object of its worship with the realities 
of its every- day life. This circumstance might be exemplified by 
instances throughout the whole history of man; whether we take the 
objects of worship themselves, as that god, " downwards fish, and 
upwards man,*' worshipped in the fish coasts of Azotus ; or their conse- 
crated residences from the dark cave temples ^f the Troglodyte, to the 
spired fanes of the dweller in tents. And, as we shall see, whilst the 
Toungtha, or " Son of the Hill," looks for sustenance to the clearings 
of the forest patch, or the scant verdure -of his rock-bound hills, and 
conformably represents the idea of his adoration ; so here we find the 
" Child of the Stream" fitly choosing from the rolled pebbles of his 
parent flood a simple fetich, wherewith to identify the object of his 

worship, and his love. 


The KhUmis, as I have already remarked, are a member of the general 
family of the Toungthas, or '* Sons of the Hill." They are a numer- 
ous tribe, having several villages, each under a distinct Toungmeng, 
or " mountain chief." This authority appears originally to have been 

* These stones are represented two-thirds their real size in Plate I, fig. a being the 
female, and fig. h the male. They are shewn erect for the sake of giving their forms; 
they are in reality however placed lying down in a flat position ; each having a sort of 
baby house erected to receive it; they are in the Plate shewn in their relative positions 
with one another. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Kuladyne River: — Arracan, 63 

hereditary ; whilst in those villages within the British territory, it heing 
necessary that the village chief should be acquainted with the Burmese 
language for the purpose of transacting Government business, an indi« 
vidual on account of such qualification is often raised to that dignity ; 
and thus in some viUages there ezist two Toungmengs, the one hereditary, 
the other elected. The religious system of the Khtimd appears to be 
very vague ; it consists of the worship of numerous Ndts, gt spirits, and 
indeed of every thing that strikes their fancy. They worship the earth 
as the author and giver of all they possess ; the sun also, in its noon- 
day height, as the pledge of safety from their foes — ^for the attacks of 
these mountain tribes are never made except during the night; no 
single night passes over their head that is not replete with terror. They 
reverence also the spirits of the dead ; these, they say, at times flit over 
their ancient haunts, at others wing their way like birds over mountain 
and vale. The spirits of the good they think ever happy, those of the 
wicked miserable. Each house likewise has suspended from its walls the 
skulls of the animals it may have killed for food ; to these likewise they 
pay a simple adoration, by placing before each individual a handful of its 
wonted food, as an acknowledgement of the sustenance it h&s afforded 
them in its time. The skulls also of the animals slaughtered by their 
fathers are in like manner preserved as much in remembrance of those 
deceased relatives as a monument of their wealth ; frequently will a 
chief point to them with pride, and tell you how many mountain 
bulls his father could spear for a marriage feast. Their religion may be 
said to consist of nothing but the worship of spirits ; to every object that 
strikes their fancy, they accord a spirit of its own. Each peak in their 
native hills, they hold to be the mountain watch-tower of a god. No- 
thing could illustrate this better than the accompanying translation of 
part of a KkdmW prayer. Previous to an undertaking or expedition he 
lets loose a fowl as an offering to the spirits, and utters the following : 
" Oh ! spirit of the day-sun ; Oh ! spirit of the rock*ledged gate* ; Oh ! 

* These are two very singular wall-like' ridges of sandstone, running across the 
Knladyne, about twe;nty miles the one above the other. They are not rocks like those 
of Colgong on the Ganges ; but ridges perpendicular on each side, and only a few feel 
in width ; the river has forced itself a passage through the centre* The tradition is that 
when the spirits found their domains invaded by a new faith from the plains, they en- 
deavoured to raise a barrier; this was forced : a second attempt in like manner failed, 
and in despair they have given up the idea of a third. 

Digitized by 


64 A Note on some Hill Tribes [No. 169. 

spirit of the streams of the Hoosalong* ; Oh ! spirit of the surges of 
the Kolakf ; Oh ! lords of the mountain peaks:t ; One, two, three, 
four, five, six, seven, eight times ; take ye this my offering." 

Every object which is in motion they conceive to be so, in virtue of 
a spirit, and a motion of its own : in fact to be animate. This is a 
belief which has been shared by all primitive and savage tribes ; and 
is one that will at once appear to be most natural. The simple savage, 
judging from the movements of his own person, gives a spirit and a will, 
as inherently the cause of movement in all things. It is the predi- 
lection of the modern mind to count all as phoenomena ; the cold results 
of causal agencies beyond. And when in this its last stage the mind 
carries itself back to the first ; when it spiritualizes the dull realities of 
this every- day world ; and writes down every sensuous object in nature 
as impelled by a spirit and motion like its own ; then, having achieved 
a communion with all existing things, it becomes seized of the highest 
poetry, and purest ideality. This is the simple reason why the poetry of a 
rude age is to us, as rich in its ideality as is that of the most polished 
epoch. In this respect the human mind may be conveniently classed into 
three stages — The 1st and savage, where it believes all objects whatever to 
hav« life and spirit. The 2nd, where it has so far advanced as to accord 
a separate individuality to the spirit, and to hold that, like a guardian, it 
presides and watches over the inanimate. And finally, the 3rd and last, 
that which we have above described. Those peculiarities which are the 
source of poetry in the last, are unideal, mere common place matters of 
belief in the first. And even in poetry, such as that of Homer, which we 
may look upon as the annals of the mind in what we have described as its 
second stage, many of those wondrous figures which appear to us, the 
living transcripts of mysterious portraitures traced upon the secret wall 
of the chambers of the poet's imagery, may in reality be but the simple 
and unimaginative record of the beliefs of his every day existence. 

The Kh^mis have no religious superiors, although they pay a certain 
respect to some who, profess to have converse with familiar spirits. 

* The name of a stream among the Hilb. 

t The original is v6m of the Kolakf the latter being the name of a stream ; vtfm, 
in their dialect is a place partaking of a character of both, a waterfall and a rapid : at 
the mouth of the Kolak, the river rattles its way over a shallow rapid, and being im- 
peded in its coarse by a great number of ridges of rock, it has the appearance of a 
huge seething chaldron. 

X Here they generally enumerate the most remarkable peaks. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Kuladyne Rwer:^Arracan. 63 

When a man marries, ,he gives what he can to the parents of his bride, 
feasts his native village^ and the ceremony is concluded. The dress of 
the KhiM female, in common With that of the Twrngthas, is a parody on 
five's apron } the men have a small doth over the loins but iite leitill next 
to naked ; the women wear a petticoat about a cubit in length, which is 
kept on in a most indescribable manner by heaVy strings of brass rings. 
They have a ^gular tradition accouating for the scantiness of their 
costume. In fortner ages* say they, idl the world was of one tongue, 
and of one kind ; there was then a god upon the earth— ^his name they 
do not know, — when he was about to depart from among men, he 
divided them into nations and tongues, and gave to each the peculiar 
costume by which it was to be distinguished^ The poor Ta/ungthai, 
however, were at the time wandering over their native mountains, and 
engiAgckl in their pkntations in the hills, so that they came last. The god 
tdd them he had given away all that ha had, except one small piece of 
elotb, a cubit broad, which their wometi were to wear ; the men to shift 
as tfaey cduld. The only risible objects of worship of the KMmCg, are the 
trunks of three or four trees, which have been cut down in clearing a 
spa6e for th^ vUlage ; also the same number of pillar^like stones. These are 
fixed in tiie earth together^ in the middle of a large shed, which is also 
employed as the; place of reunion and festirity of the village. 

llie ctdtitation of the TomgthM is styled Jhoim, A hill, the bfest 
covered with vegetation, is cleared, the rubbish buTnt to fertilize it, and 
the Space sown with an indigenous species called hill or red rice. As 
the soil on these steep hills is necessarily scanty, and becomes more 
liabk to be washed away by the periodieal rains wheA denuded of its 
forest coverklg, a piece of ground rarely 3fields more than one crop; in 
each successive yesr other spots are in like manner chosen, till all those 
around the village are exhkisted : a move is then made to another loca- 
lity, fresh habitations are erected, and the same process gone through. 
These migrations occur about ev^ third year, aiid they are the means 
by winch long periods of time are calculated ; thus a Twmgtha will tell 
you that such and such an event occurred so matty migrations since. 
In forcing one's way through the forest, one often comes suddenly on a 
deserted village, which presents a peculiarly melancholy appearance ; a 
dense vegetation rapidly reclaims it as a domain of ancient wood ; the very 
bamboos long since decayed and old, the materials of a once merry home, 
become covered with luxuriaikt creepers, and appear modkingly to vegetate 

Digitized by 


66 A Note on some Hill Tribes [No. 169. 

with a new-born life at the absence of man. Compelled thus to wear 
away an errant life, and in continual dread of being massacred by their 
foes, the poor Toungthas know not what comfort or secureness is : all 
their valuables are secreted in some hidden cave, known only to them- 
selves. Should the maiden weave for herself a choice petticoat, or the 
young man fashion a favourite bow, it is forthwith taken and stowed 
away : and yet, in spite of all, they are a merry and laughter-loving race, 
fond to a passion of beads, with which they profusely decorate every 
thing that belongs to them : one little Khdm{ damsel showed me her pet 
pipe so ornamented. 

Having thus endeavoured to give a general sketch of the Khdmiis, 
I will proceed to a few remarks on their language. 

The KMmis, in common with all the Toungthas, have no written 
characters. Their dialect is evidently cognate to the Burmese, that is, 
the pure and original Burmese, but it presents itself under the harsh 
type of the Arracanese, not softening down any of its sounds in the 
usual manner of the Burmese language. It is monosyllabic, and ex- 
presses the relations of its parts of speech by means of affixes ; of these 
some seem to be merely euphonic, as ma, gd, v4, td, &c., these gener- 
ally occur between the root and its affixes. In like manner, for the sake 
of euphony, some of its roots are slightly inflected, as tchau, " to eat," 
when preceding the past affix hau, or bank, is changed into ieha. It is 
moreover necessary to premise that all final consonants such as the k 
in the above word bauk, are invariably mute, that is, not pronounced, 
hut formed in the mouth. Indeed by a person whose ear was not ren- 
dered sensible to the value of these finals by an acquaintance with the 
Burmese language, of which they are a marked characteristic, the above 
word bank, would be written ban. As we might expect in a rude, and 
unformed tongue, the affixes, above alluded to, are omitted whenever 
the sense can be conveyed without them; as A:at, 1st pers. pron.and 
p^, " give/' form hat ph ** give me," or it might equally convey 
" I give ;" kai, " as above." and yn, " wife," kai yu, " my wife ;" bok 
" food," and tekau, " eat," bok tchau, " eat food." 


Mail signifies "in;" as ummau, " in the house." Hlogd, "under;" 
as trm hloyd, " under the house." . Hi loungd, "on the top of;" tm At 
lovngd, " on the top of the house," Ted, "near ;" as um t46, " near the 

Digitized by 


1846.] on ike Kuladyne River : — Arracan. 67 

house." Bdd, •* from ;" as urn hd/6, " from the house." Br&n, " outside ;" 
as urn bran, " outside the house." W6, " by or by means of." The final 
d, in all these, implies " to, towards," which sometimes for the sake of 
euphony, is pronounced w$. 

Tehee is the affix of the plural number with nouns, but it is not made 
use of when numerals are employed, they being sufficient to express 
plurality ; as urn, " a house," and mi, " two ;" urn nu, ** two houses." 

Like the Burmese, the KhumCe have only one affix to express the 
female, whilst several affixes express the male of animals. 

TchCdu is a male affix for human beings. Tchd is a female affix for 
human beings. Nil is the general female affix. Pok is a male aflbc ; as 
tcMpoh " a son ;" tchi nu, " a daughter." 

P'ting, is a male affix for large animals ; as tchie pUing, '* a bull ;" tch(e 
nu, "a cow." Painoh p'ting, "a male buffido;" painoh nu, "a female 
ditto." Kounggnau p'ting, "a stallion;" kounggnau nu, <<a mare." K'sai 
p'ting, " a nude elephant ;" k'sai nu, *' a female elephant." 

Lok is a male affix for smaller animals ; as uS loh, " a dog ;" ui nu, 
*' a bitch." Miyaung loh, " a male cat ;" miyaung nu, " a female cat" 
A'lik loh, '* a male hog ;" <fuA; nd " a female hog." 

Luhi is a male affix for birds ; as da luhi, ** a cock ;** da nu, "a hen." 
Tawo luhi, '* a male bird ;" tawo nu, "a female bird." 

Hdi is a superlative affix ; as houi hdi, *' very beautiful." 


The relations of verbs ar^ expressed by affixes. 

Au is the substantive verb ; as kai au, " I am." 

The present tense has properly no affixes ; as y^, " to fear ;" kai y4, " I 

The future tense and present tense are often used synonymously. 

There is an affix ^dn, implying present time, used with some roots 
signifying " quality ;" as khumdi tdn, ** is cold," roch tan, " is dear ;" but 
it is very irregular in its application. 

The future is formed by the addition of the affix ndk, which, when the 
roots end with a mute consonant, often has the euphonic vocal gd in- 
tervening ; kai tdi ndk, " I speak, or will speak ;" kai tchik gd ndk, '* I 
go, or will go." 

Digitized by 


as A ^ote on same Hill TribeM [Na. 169. 

The past tense is e^presBed by the affile h9,uk; as hai (eUk bauk, '* I 
have gone." 

The imperative is expressed by the simple root, and is distinguished 
from the present tense by having no nominative <?ase, 

Mdn, or matoi, are interrogative particles. 

With reference to the negation of sentences, there appear to be vari- 
ous negative particles. E is used to negative the substantive verb t 
as kai b'au, f' I am not." Mok, mauk, auk, au, fmdn, are all variously 
used as particles of negation, the first two are prohibitive. 

They do not appear to have an affile of number for verbs ; the upun 
which is the nominative being sufficient to shew the time of the verb ; 
as kai tch^k gd ndk, " I go, or will go ;" kai tcMe tch^k §d fi4i« " we 
go, or will go." 

In the formation of septences, the nominfttive pomes first, the objectiye 
next, and the verb last. There are however som^ eases in which this 
order appears varied. 


We now come to the mode of numeration, and ia this dialect it pre- 
sents some interesting peculiarities. The numeral system of the KkikiUs 
is emphatically decimal ; of the ten fingers. It is moreover so intricate 
as to be somewhat difficult of explanation. This fact admits us into 
a very peculiar phase of " savagery." We are apt to consider the mode 
of reasoning and every thing appertaining to an uncivilized race, as 
necessarily bearing the impress of simplicity : and this may be said to be 
generally the case, but at times the savage mind seems to take to itself 
flights of intricate and almost obfuscated reasoning. 

The first peculiarity which we shall notice is, that the decades, or 
multiples of ten, up to himdreds have two names ; thus as they count 
on their fingers when they get to ** twenty," they call it first horS lath 
hor^, which means literally " ten and ten," and then throiHng their fin- 
gers on an imaginary heap they exclaim ap4n§f ri, " a score," and 8Q 
on. R^ is an affix used with numbers, and implies ^ * full." 

The next circumstance to be noticed is, the number of diffisrent 
terms used to convey the idea of ** and, more." 

1 , hndk, 2, nu, (u, like the simple French uj. 3, fkeoH, 4, p*in. 5, pdn§. 
6, fru. 7, «Vti. 8, t^a. 9, t'khau. 10, ho, or hor^. 11, har4 Ukik hndk. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Kuladyne River : — Jrracan. 69 

{km here laik implies "aDd, more"). 19. horilaih t'kh^u, 20, Korihik 
M, or ap(kg r(f, H, Qpdng p'hai hndk» (bere p'hai commences to con- 
vey " and, more"). 29, tipdng p'hai fkhau, 30, (ipdng p'hai hor^» pr p'haird, 
31, p*hair^ ph hndh, (here p*lu conveys " and, more"). 34. p'haird p'lu 
p'lu. 39, p'h^ir^ plu t'khau. 40, p'haird p'fu hori^ or t9i>7ti r/. 41, tp| 
p'In j»^ m in^t (here |»4fi^ mo represents *' i^nd, more"). 44, toip'/n 
p<lii9 sa j»7ti. 45, v>% p*iu pdng no pdag. 50, wl p7tf ^^^nf na Aonf, or wl 
|K^ r^r 5 1, tol piling fr¥ hniik, (bere ^'rv expresses ** and, more"). 55, wi 
pdng t'ru pdng. 56, wi pdng fru Vru. 60* wi pimg fru hor4, or w% fru ri. 
61, vt /'rtf s*ru hndk, (here a'rtf expresses " fmd» more"). 6^, wi fru t*ru 
I'rs, 67, wifru a'ni 9'n$. 70, ipf i'rw 9*ru hard, or wf a'n« ri, l\,wi M*ru 
i^a hn(Ui, (here t^9 represents " and, more"). 77, wi M*ru tdya s'ru. 
7$, tpt 9'Hk tdga tiga. BO, wi $*ru tdga hori, at witdgard. 81, wi tdga fkhau 
h94k, (here fkhau conveys ** and. more"). $8. wi idga fkhau tdga. 69, 
vt tiga fkhtm fkhoH, 90, ^( t4ga fkhau hard, or w( fkhau rd. 91, ter/ 
thhw ho hnak, (here hq expresses '' and, more"). 99, wi fhhau ho fkhau, 
100, wi fkhau ho hard, or tchoon wairdn 101, UhQon waird aiklddk hndk, 
(here oikhlok signifies ''and"). 110, ichoon waird aikhldk hard, 120, 
tchoon waird aikhldk apdngrd. 200, tchoon wai nurd, 202, tchoon wai nurd 
aikkldk nu, 303, tchoon wai fhoon rd aikhldk fhoon, 1000, tchdngrd, 
aOOO. tehdngnurd, 

1845 would be thus writteun-lcMnpr^ aiktidk tchoon wai tdga rd 
mkUdk vd p'lu rd pUng no piing. 

It will be remarked in the above, that not only for 3 1 do they 
ny *f thirty and one," or ^' thirty more one ;" and for 45 '* forty and 
five,'' or " forty more five ;" but that moreover they have several differ- 
ent terms to express this increment '* and, more." We will reoapitu* 
late them. Between 10 and 20, the term is laik; between 20 and 
30, it is p'hai, which it will be seen is likewise the term for " thirty ;" 
and from " thirty" upwards each decade has the unit next above its 
own to represent the increment " and, more." Thus the third decade, 
^t of '< thirties," has " four }" and for " thirty more one," they say 
"thirty four one," &o. The fourth decade, or " forties," has '* five," 
wd for " forty ware five," they say ** forty five five ;" and so on with the 
rest. Above a hundred, aikhldk represents the same term. 

it would not be easy to give a reason for this peculiarity, unless 
P^hsps that the true ** more" of a number is the one immediately 

Digitized by 


70 A Note on some Hill Tribes [No. 169. 

above it ; and that therefore the " more'* of the third decade is aptly 
"four," and so on. It will be remarked, that from 40 to 90, the 
term vd represents " ten ;" thus wi, " ten,** and p'ln, " four," make 
w{ p'lu "forty." It will be moreover perceived, that between 40 
and 50, the term pangno, is used instead of pang. It is probable that the 
first is the correct term, and that the latter is merely an abbreviation. 
The name t'hoon, " three," is the same as in the Burmese language, 
only that in the latter it is pronounced softly thoon. The term pang or 
pangno, ** five," is evidently derived from the same root pdgnya, " wis- 
dom," as is the Pali term p^gntsa, '* five.'* 

A peculiarity which so remarkably characterizes the Indo-Chinese 
languages does not exist in this dialect ; and that is, that there are no 
numeral generic affixes ; thus um, " a house," and na " two." are suffi- 
cient to express " two houses." In the case however of human beings 
there is a kind of adjunct used either with or without numerals ; as 
khum{, " a man ;** khtimi laangnu, " two men ;*' tchipau, " a child ;" 
tchipau laung t'hoon " three children." 


There is only one village of this tribe in existence ; it is situated on 
the banks of the Kuladyne, and in the midst of the large dan of the 
Khiimis. The Kgaus relate that their tribe was originally numerous, 
but that now this single village is all that has been spared from the 
attacks of the Shentoos and other powerful neighbours. The Kgaus 
are viewed by the rest of the Toangthas, with a kind of estrangement ; 
few among these latter being able to master their dialects. The first 
thing that strikes one on entering the village of the Kgaus is their 
marked difference in physiognomy from that of all the other hill 
tribes. Indeed the general physiognomy of the Toungtka is a Tar« 
tar-like family face, but the Kgaus in feature, dress, and appear- 
ance could scarcely be distinguished from the lower class of the 
Bengali peasantry of Chittagong. The Khdmis are fair, with small 
features : the Kgaus are dark, with large features. The Khumia 
invariably wear a cotton head-dress, and their hair tied upon the crown, 
and shave no portion of their head : the Kyaus on the other hand 
shave a few inches of hair from the forehead, tie it low down on the 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Kuladyne River : — Arracan. 71 

neck, and wear no head-dress. On first seeing them I felt convinced 
that I had fallen in with the original type ; the etymon, as it were, of the 
Bengali. Though repeatedly asked whether they had any tradition 
of having come from Chittagong, they invariably replied they had none. 
On this however much stress could not be laid, as from the wandering 
and miserable life they lead, no tradition could well extend among them 
above a couple of hundred years. I consequently turned to their Ian* 
guage, and found it presenting the marked characteristics of the dialects 
of Trans- Gangetic India, being monosyllabic, and having affixes to express 
the various relations of its parts of speech, and even not possessing the 
euphonic inflexions which sometimes occur in the Khumi, If the Kyaua 
are an archaic type of the Bengali, as their extraordinary physiognomi- 
cal similarity and their marked estrangement from the tribes around 
renders to my mind most probable, it goes far to prove that the original 
dialect of Bengal was monosyllabic and consequently rude ; and that its 
nature and structure has been entirely revolutionized by the polished 
polysyllabic languages of Hindoostan. The Kyaus' ideas of worship 
are very rude and simple like that of the rest of the hill tribes. They 
erect upright stones in different portions of their village, which they 
consecrate to the Ndis, or spirits of the hills. 

With reference to the dialect of the Kyaus, not having had the same 
time at my disposal, or the same means of making enquiries into it, as 
I had for that of the Khumis, my remarks are necessarily more scanty. 
The Kyaus dialect, as has been already remarked, is monosyllabic, and 
possesses affixes. 

Ka is the nominative affix, chiefly used with a noun, in construction 
with a verb in the present tense ; in which case the verb dispenses with 
its own affix of time. This idiom is singular, as it shows that the time 
of the nominative case, and that of the present tense are the same. 
Tk*ti, or fk'tau are future and present affixes. The two finals id and 
tau, I suspect to be nothing more than expletive. In this dialect as well 
as in that of the Khumis, the future and present tenses are the same. 

Mau, affix of the interrogative mood, occurs last in a sentence after all 
others. It may also be applied directly to a noun without the inter- 
vention of the substantive verb, as sipa " child," and mau interrogative 
from sipa mau " child ?" t. e. *• Have you any children ?" This is one of 
abundant instances of how crudely ideas are expressed among a rude 

Digitized by 


72 A f^ote on some Hill Tribes [No. 169. 

RtM and frAu ; impenitive termination : iis Uh4 '* to go," t$h4 t'rau, 
" go." Md is a negative affix, and alwa3rs occurs after the root ; 
as tsh^ fn'rau, " dont go." In this it differs frotn most dialects, the parti- 
cle of negation, generally and correctly, preceding the statement of 
the act which it is meant to cancel. In asking however a negative 
question, the order is somewhat varied. The interrogative pronominal 
occurs first, the negative next, then the personal prononn, and finally 
the verb ; thus arong, " why—" ma, " not—" na, " you—" and kouitff, 
** come," make aroung ma nakmrng, " Why don't you come ?" In this case 
it is peculiar that the interrogative modeKafiix it not nsed* the intenroga- 
tive pronommal being snftcient to mark the clause to be a question. 

Ak is an auxiliary affix of negation used only with the substsmtive 
verb dm, " to be," in which case the true negative md is united with it, 
into one word m'ak ; m't^hdt " husband," Am " is," m'ak '* not." 

len is likewise an auxiliary affix of negation, similar to the Burmese 
bkoof as tshem'ien " (I) won't go." 


The numeral system of the Kt/aus id not intricate like that of the 
Khumis, It is decimal. 

1, khdt.--^, niek.^Z, i'Aoom.— 4, m'rt.— 5. nga.-^G, dfook. — 7, 
«Vetf.— 8, nfe/.— 9. iferf.— 10, tcMom.-^ll, s'mr^ khdt^\2, s"mr4niek. 
— 13, s*mri /'Aodm.— 20, tcMom nteA;.— 31, tchuom niek t4 khdt.*-^ 
22, tchAom niek 14 ntek.-^ZQ, ich^om tchoom.-^SZ, fch4om fhoom 14 
Vhoom, — 40, Vchfiom m'lL — 50, tchfiom nga, — 60, tchfiom dtaok. — 70, 
/cAlJom *Vw.— 80, /<f*iiom n#rf.— -90. teh4om *<^.— 100. r'jra.—iOl. — 
r'zal4 khdt.-^^QO, r'za niek.--^222, r*sta niek 14 tchuom niek 14 niek, — 
1000, sankha, — 2000, sankha mVA;.— 1846, sankha 14 r'za tHet 14 tehiiom 

It is to be noticed that one very peculiar aiid characteristic idiom of 
the Indo-Chinese languages, such as the Burmese. Siamese. Malay, is 
entirely wanting, as far as I could make out. in thes^ two dialects above 
described. I allude to numeral generic affixes. The numeral, as in 
English, is placed in immediate relation with the noun, whereas in the 
others it is placed in relation to a generic affix ; as where the Burmese 
say " dog," two animals ; the Kya$is and Khdmis say merely '* dogs two.** 
But stiU as these hill dialects are so evidently cognate to the Burmese, 
it is singular if they do in reality lack so characteristic a trait ; and 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Kuladyne River : — Arracan, 73 

therefore I cannot but suspect, that a better acquaintance with these 
dialects would reveal them ; and that I was unable to make myself un- 
derstood in that part of my enquiries. 

Mone of the tribes to which we have referred in the above pages are 
in possession of any alphabetical system. Unless indeed we except the 
Khyoungikas, who being in reality pure Arracanese, have consequently 
the Arracanese or Burmese characters. With reference to the remain- 
der, it is as yet a matter of doubt, among those who have turned their 
attention to the subject, whether, for the purposes of education, their 
dialects should be adapted to the Roman, or the Burman alphabet. 
With reference to the first, the only thing that can be said in its favour is, 
that it will save their European instructors the trouble of learning the 
Burmese alphabet. With reference to the second, a crowd of arguments 
appeal in its favour. In the first place all these dialects are evidently 
cognate to the Burmese language, not only so in sound, but also in 
structural peculiarities ; all their finals are exactly similar to those of the 
Burmese language, being required to be formed in the mouth but not 
uttered ; this single peculiarity, which in Burmese is represented by a 
mark called that, would require some outlandish configuration to be 
conveyed in an European alphabet. Secondly, the instruction which 
these people could possibly receive directly from European instructors 
must be comparatively small; as with the exception of a few short 
months, their mountain- fastnesses are inaccessible to an European con- 
stitution ; and therefore native teachers formed in the plains, where Bur- 
mese is vernacular, would necessarily become the principal instruments. 
Thirdly, the Burmese language is used as the medium of communication 
with the English Government, and thereforie there are,i^ways a numb^ of 
persons in every viUage familiar with it. Fourthly, there are fewer sounds 
foreign to the Burmese than to the English language. I remarked but 
two, viz. the t; in " van" and the u in the French ** plume" " a feather ;" 
these could easily be supplied by characters conformable to the general 
type of those of the Burmese alphabet ; as has been done by the Ame- 
rican Missionaries at Tavoy in the cade of the Karen language. 

In the following list the coronna as in the word pHaung, represents 
the a considered by the Burmese as inherent in every consonant, similar 
in sound to the fiirst a in " papa :** the u with a dot under it represents 
the tt in the French word plume, "a pen." The other accentuated 
letters will expljiin themselves. 

Digitized by 



A Note on some Hill Tribes 

[No. 169. 




. KUmi. 








hpin yra 


parwottshiet par6ttshiet paleng 



























ay6 or j6 








































nlding ta 











to-morrow nSthpftn 




























































































































[- tchaung 



k6ia ka 


nghet py- 

ngha pyau 

kiluen na 






ngh^t pyau 

ngha pyau 





nghet pyan 

L ngha pyau 



k6ia p'hol 





dawn light lenp: 

















Digitized by 



on .the Kuladyne River : — Arracan. 





. Kh&mi. 





































n rming 



























koungkeng goungkan 























16ngtchaung lung 
t'kii km 





























t6i 4 


















































tsha m&k 












tsha mak 

^mm noi 








thSng or 






he and she thOO , 



nengm^ta 6\ 

to go 
to fear 






shie or hie 




d6rr ash 

to be 





to give 






to speak 






to come 

la or youk 









Digitized by 



A Note on some Hill Tribes 

[No. 169. 

English, Burmese, Arraeanese. KMmi. Kyau, 

year fthneet ahneet 

milk n6 n6 

child akhAl^ ashay 

ofiBspring tha tha 

male youky& youkya 



a boy loogftl^ 

miemmft miemmft 

kolay shay 

a girl miemmft gft- miemmft 

1^ shay 


^ tehok 


tehipau sip4 
nomigboo m'tshi 

noungboo n'pang 

nomigboo m'tshU 
nomiigboo noukti 
tchft domiig- 










The following is a list ofKhitmi words. The English is the meaning 
they have in that dialect. The Burman is the term that comes nearest 
to them ; although often the Burman term does not express all the mean- 
ings of the KMmi one. 






to abandon, leave, let go 

shie or hie 


to be, remain, abide dwell in 



to be able, can 

hpooftt or khy6 . 


to bathe, wash 



to rub 



to put, or place 









to, in direction of 






to abuse, insult 

pyoo or look 


to do, act, work 



marry a husband 



marry a wife 



to die 



to live 



to laugh 



to cry, weep 



to breathe, pant 



now, soon 

1.6 k6kway 


to worship 







Digitized by 



on the Kuladpne River : — Arracan. 



hneet thet 


mdgh yw^ 



tsiet tsh6 














hpan k5ing 





tsiet padie 




tU thwii 






dayay thameng 




nwl poo 









to love, to want 



k'ni nSIk 

to rain 


alike, similar 

tAkft or kxi 





to sleep 

anlau - 

to wake 




a basket 


a bamboo 




to break, snap 


to bring 

to take 


to bum 


to bury 


to call 


to catch, hold, seize 



dear in price 




a bead 


a necklace of beads 


a fowl 


to cut, carve 


wet, damp 


to die 


deep, as water, also to drag, 
to drink [pull, draw 



dry . 






tchoo tchook 

a deer 

touk d&i 

a feather 







to find, get, obtain 


to meet with, find 


a stream, a bird 


to fly as a bird 
to play, jest, amuse 


k'ni y'16ng 


Digitized by 


78 A Note on some Hill Tribes, SfC. [No. 169. 

Burman, KMmi, English, 


* the an- m^ f mii " fire" a musket 

th6 nat I gel of pauk \ pauk "tube" 


bhayhneet ay6 r6 how many 

htameng b6k dinner 

The Bengali terms given' in the first part of the above are those of 
the dialect of Chittagong. With reference to the KMmi and Kydu, 
there are some that are interesting, as presenting instances for that pre- 
dilection to onomatopseia so characteristic of archaic dialects. The first 
we will notice is the term tawd, a sound which may be heard echoing 
through the still forest, and emitted by many of its winged denizens. 
The next oak, ond w*-d, especially the first, admirably represent 
" a crow." The term Ai ** a, dog" is uttered with a strong and sudden 
intonation on the first syllable ; it is a sound constantly in their mouths 
employed to frighten those animals from their never-varying occupation 
of pulling every thing about in search of food. It is probable also that 
the Burman term khwe, had the same origin. The terms m'-e " any 
thing of the goat species," and Mk " a hog," mi-yaung " a cat," are like- 
wise instances of the same kind. It will be remarked, that in the KMmi 
dialect the term for *' Sun" enters into composition for that of 
" God ;" as also that in Burmese, KMmi, and Kyau, the term for "Sun" 
conveys also the idea of ** day," in contradistinction to " night." 

Digitized by 





Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool and Boorun PaiMes over the Hima^ 
iaya, in September, 1845. By Captain Maddbn, Bengal Artillery, 

The writer of the following notes hae been induced to commit them 
to paper, in the hope of their proving interesting, from the fact that 
a portion of the route traversed is comparatively little known, and so far 
as ^abluBhed information is concerned, is nearly new ground in botany ; 
though of ornithological and entomological tours, several have appeared 
from the pens of Captains Hay, Hutton, &c. Thtf tract in question is 
scarcely ever quoted for plants in * Royle's Illustrations,' and the writer is 
therefore induced to believe that the new habitats here given, may not be 
without their use to some of the many travellers, who now annually 
cross the Himalaya, from Simla to Kunawur. To those amongst them 
who are novices in the mountains, he would recommend attention to the 
following particulars, as tending considerably to remove the difficulties, 
and enhance the pleasures of the trip. 

Ist. Avoid forming a party of more than three, in consequence of the 
difficulty, increasing in a geometrical ratio, of obtaining supplies and 
porters for a greater number. 

2nd. Ohdnge the latter daily ; one may tiius hdt at pleasure without 
expense, when desirable ; the rate of payment is only three annas per 
diem instead of four, as near Simla, and the difficulty, often a serious 
one near the snowy range, is obviated of procuring large supplies, and 
of adjusting the fair rate to be paid for them ; a frequent source of angry 

No. 170. No. 86, New Series. m 

Digitized by 


80 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

and interminable discussion. It is also advisable to secure the coolies 
from fraudulent deductions by paying or seeing them paid in person. 
A heavy bag of pice is useful in many villages, where the inhabitants 
cannot often produce change for a rupee. 

3rd. Encumber yourself with the least possible number of servants ; 
but let these be able-bodied, in sound health, and warmly clothed ; their 
« falling sick will cause much delay and inconvenience : and on no account 
start without a small tent for their use. 

4th. Let this tent (and your own) be only of such a weight that one 
strong man can carry it well, even when soaked with rain; and to 
effect this the better, let each of the party have his own tent. 

5th. As the heat in the low vallies is very great, take some light cloth- 
ing, and a copious sola- feather hat. If inclined to hepatitis, a doablj- 
lined umbrella is indispensable ; and a green gauze veil or pair of gog- 
gles to protect the eyes from the glare of the snow, especially in spring: 
many have been temporarily blinded from this ' cause defective.' The 
traveller should avoid the vallies as much as possible ; many of them are 
infested by flies of which the bites are exceedingly poisonous, and when 
irritated, terminate in dangerous sores. A double wax* cloth, to keep 
one's bedding dry, is essential, and five times as many pairs of shoes 
as you would expend at Simla in an equal period. The country-made 
articles sold in the shops there, will not, particularly during wet wea- 
ther, stand more than a hard day's work on the rugged paths of the 
interior ; and in the end, the purchase of European shoes will be found 
to economize cash, space, and skin. 

6th. Let your cups, jugs, plates and dishes be of metal; with these 
only may you defy fete and falls ; and as for provender to adorn them, 
an ample supply of tea, sugar. Carr's biscuits, hermetically sealed soup 
and bouilli, fowls, sliced bread re-baked into everlasting rusks, with a 
liberal allowance of beer, wine^ and brandy, the latter precious article 
insured against damage by being decanted into cura^oa or other stone 
bottles. Nor lastly, must a liberal proportion of tobacco be excluded 
from the category ; be assured Moli^re was not far wrong when he said 
' Quoique puisse dire Aristote et toute la Philosophie, il n'y a rien 
d'^gal au tabac' — at all events when jaded by a severe walk, and all other 
creature-comforts out of sight. Amidst the fulness and listlessness of 
Simla, one may dispense very stoically with many of these things, bat 

Digitized by 


1846.3 ^^ Boorun Passes over the Hmtdaya. 81 

after the hard exercise and keen air of the mountain tope, nature asserts 
her rights, and speaks through the stomach, in tones which can he 
neither mistaken nor denied. The direction of the journey being deter- 
mined before-hand, much trouble and expense will be saved by the esta- 
blishment of a dep6t at some convenient spot on the return route. 

7th and last. Some quarter of a century since. Stalker, Welsh, and 
other out-fitters used to furnish the innocent Cadet with certain pounds 
of tobacco to be given to the sailors " for doing little jobs ;" such, as well 
as presents of coarse powder and small shot — will be found really ser- 
viceable in the Himalaya, where they are all scarce and bad. A judi- 
cious exhibition of these coveted articles will often secure a cheerful 
endurance of cold, wet, danger, and fatigue ; the fumes of the tobacco 
stimulating the sensorium of the mountaineer, as those of loyalty and 
chivalry do, or did, that of the Frenchman. It is needless to add that 
the contrary method of abuse, blows, and violence, irrespective of its im- 
morality in contravening the expressed will and orders of our honourable 
and honoured masters, is almost sure to defeat its intention, and to lead 
to the desertion of those subjected to it. 

September Zrd. — ^Left Simla with Lieutenant Bourchier, of the Artil- 
lery, and walked to Fagoo, distant eleven or twelve miles, in four hours 
and forty minutes. The rocks at Simla are chiefly clay and mica slate, 
with quaftzose sandstone towards the west, and a crystallized lime- 
stone at Jutog ; the road lies along the northern face of Jaka mountain, 
which is here composed of a deep-blue clay slate, and not of limestone, 
as erroneously stated by Captain A. Gerard. The forest is here chiefly 
formed by the Ban oak (Quercus incana) ; and in the steep precipitous 
ravines to the right, grows abundantly the Deutzia Brunoniana, which 
bears a considerable resemblance to the common Syringa. Quitting this, 
the road gradually ascends the south or bare side of the ridge which 
connects Jaka with Muhasoo : the north side is covered with a forest 
of Mohroo oak (Quercus dilatata) : and at 8 or 9 miles from Simla, the 
summit of Muhasoo is attained, upwards of 9.000 feet above the sea ; 
the route is latterly through a fine forest of cedar, Rai (Abies Smithi- 
ana), and the Kreoo or Kurshoo oak (Quercus semicarpifolia), and des- 
cends to Fagoo, 700 feet below, through beautiful hanging woods of 
maple, pindrow, or Jhunera pine (Picea pindrow), horse chestnut (Pavia 

Digitized by 


82 EHary of an Excurshn to the Shatool [No. 170. 

indica), below the road, and a multitude of shrubs. Viburnums, Leyces- 
teria formosa, Limonia laureola, black currant, &g., under which in May 
and June, the large pure white ladies' slipper (Cypripedium oomigerum) 
flowers in abundance. The Putees (Aconitum heterophyllum), Gircsea 
cordata, and the blue-flowering chereyata (Hatenia elliptica) are also 
both common on Muhasoo and at Faguo. On the pleasant downs behind 
this latter, the Plrimula denticulata, the sundew (Droaera musdpula), 
WkA& ccebpitosa, and the {uretty little eye-bright (Euphrasia officinaMs), 
are all common, though less so than in the intmor. 

To the resident of Cawnpore or Ferozepoor, nothing can be more 
delicious than the freshness of the Fagoo woods in spring. The lofty 
stems of Hie pines are enyeloped by the huge ivy and Ampelopsis dimb-* 
ers ; and vH the autumn, ifhea the leaves of this last turn bright red 
and copper> the effect is very rich, and is said to resemble that produced 
in the Nwth American woods by species of oak, maple, and sumach. 
All otur oda here are evergreens. Hie Tree- Rhododendron and Andro- 
meda, which cover whole mountains of the outer ranges, become rare 
at Fagoo, and are seldom met with in the interior : so very limited in 
width is their favourite belt. They are however abundant on the Sutlej 
between Seran and Tiranda. The boiling point of water is 198^ at 

SepienUfer 4^.— ^Detained iot coolies ; all diose availabfe being 8e<^ 
cured for Prince Waldemar and suite proceeding to Simla, aiid Colmiel 
FuUarton and his party bound for the Roopin Pass. 

September 5th, — ^To Puralee, ten miles, in four hours ; tiie first seven 
miles, as far as Synj, are for the most part a steep and uninteresting des- 
cent to the Girree ; the Morina wallicfaiana, which flowers in May and 
June, and the Scutellaria angustifolia are common. The glen of the 
Oirree is so warm for most months of the year, that it is advisable, if 
practicable, to descend in the afternoon and merely pass the night in it ; 
but fishermen will run all risks, and there is said to be good fishing ten 
miles lower down. Puralee is about two and a half mfles up the valley 
from Synj on the same bank of the river, which, between these villages, 
forces its way through a deep rocky defile on the brink of which the 
road is carried for half a mile. There is a good breadth of arable 
land in this part of the valley, and the climate being veiy warm, 
the products are nearly those of the plains-^barley, wheat, kodab 

Digitized by 


1846.] and Boorun Poists over the Himalaya, 83 

(Elensiiie coracana), cheena (Panicnm miliaoeam), till (Sesamum ori- 
entale)» and yarioas spedes of Phaaeolus. Puralee boasts a small bungalow 
of one Fooin» which is oookr than a tent, bat by no means so clean, being 
infested with almost all the insect plagues of Egypt. 

September 6M.«— To Kotichaee, twelve miles, which we walked in 
five hours ten minutes. The road lies for three miles or so, up the 
right bank of the GHrree, and then crosses by a good Sanga to the left 
bank, along which it continues for the rest of the route in a constant 
and rather wearisome series of ascents, descents, and sinuosities. 
Kotkhaee, " the Fort of the Fosse," is a picturesque spot at the junction 
of seyeral streams from the east and north, which first here give the 
Girree the character of a small reach, about liie same size as the Hosilla 
in Kemaon, and like it rising short of the snowy range. The thermo* 
meter boils here at 202®, which gives about 6,000 feet elevation, about 
500 more than is generally allowed to Kotkhaee. An exodlent bunga- 
low of two rooms had just been finished by Mr. Brskine, 150 or 200 
feet above the left bank of the river. Across the stream, on a precipitous 
Tock at the angle formed by the Oirree, and a stream from Huttoo, is 
" the palace" of the Kotgooroo chief ; it is an emblem of his own mind, 
being a ruin, which only shines under the brush of the painter. Conse- 
quent on the imbecility of the chief, the district has long been under 
British management. A clump of cypress (Cupressus torulosa) grows 
in the vicinity of the palace ; the other trees are chiefly Kail pine 
(Finns exoelsa.) On the route to-day I noticed in the com fields abun- 
dance of the pretty Hibiscus trionum, for which Dr. Royle goes as far 
as China. A species of Vida, resembling V. cracca, is common amongst 
the thickets. Considerable quantities of iron are smelted at and around 
Kotkhaee, and conveyed on mules to Simla and the plains. 

September 7/A.—- To Deorah or Dehrah, about twelve miles, in five and 
three-quarter hours. Three miles from Kotkhaee the road crosses to the 
right bank of the Girree, and tiben leaves the glen to ascend the Shnnkun 
Ghatee, over the high neck jmning the Koopur mountain on Uie SB., with 
Toomliroo and Huttoo on the left. The Pass is probably from 9,000 to 
9,500 feet above the sea, and on the ascent occur Abies smitiiiana, Picea 
pindrow, and in considerable numbers, Populus ciliata : this I find, the 
natives of the plains invariably mistake for the peepul. If the word 
papuhie comes from peepul, it would go to prove that the separation of 

Digitized by 


84 ^ Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

the Latin nations from the Hindoos took place after the establishment 
of the latter in India ; the peepul not being known in the high countries 
to the north, whence the Hindoos are supposed to have emigrated. 
Tlie converse may indee'd be true, that the northern tree is the original 
peepul. On the grassy summit of the Pass, the Morina longifolia, the 
Sibbaldia procumbens, &c. are in abundance. From this point the 
source of the Girree may be seen to the right, at about 10,000 feet 
elevation on the Koopur mountain, below which the stream penetrates 
by a deep rocky and wooded chasm, a spur from Koopur which would 
otherwise turn it down by Deorah to the Pabur. The locality is well 
worth a visit, especially following the Ghumba range from Bulsun 
and PuthemuUa. A little beyond Koopur, and connected with it by 
the Puthemullah Pass of the map, is the still loftier three-peaked range 
in the Tiroch territory, called Kunchooa ; the Urrukta ridge of Royle 
and Fraser, an appellation apparently taken from a fort now dismantled, 
and scarcely known to the present inhabitants. From the presence of 
birch, silver-fir, Anagyris barbata, &c. the Kunchooa summits are pro- 
bably little under 12,000 feet elevatioa ; there is a difficult route over 
them from Deorah to Choupahl vid the Puthernullah Pass of the map. 
The view is fine from the Shunkun Pass, including the Jumnootree 
peaks to the east, the Choor, Shallee, Huttoo, Fagoo, &c. The Koopur 
mountain is composed of gneiss rock, like Huttoo ; but the Shunkun 
Pass is of a decomposing micaceous shale, down which the road, some 
times steep and rocky, proceeds for four or five miles to Deorah, which 
is seen directly beneath. Deorah, often called simply Durbar, is the resi- 
dence of the Rana of Joobol. The last Chief, Poorun Chund, was drug- 
ged to imbecility by his Wuzeers, in order to ensure the management 
of the country remaining in their own hands ; this policy failed, as our 
Government assumed and still retains the management; but the legiti- 
mate claimant, an intelligent boy of eight or ten, is prondsed the restoration 
of the Raj when he attains his majority. His palace is an extensive 
and lofty square pile, surmounted by turrets, slated in the concave 
Chinese style, not uncommon in the Himalaya ; it is picturesque and has 
often furnished a subject for the tourist's sketch book ; the best view 
is from the Saree road. It stands from 6,000 to 6,400 feet above the 
sea, the thermometer boiling at 20 1^°, and being surrounded by high 
mountains, is rather a warm spot. But the traveller has the advantage 


Digitized by 


1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 85 

of a small bungalow, the last on the route to the snowy range. Here 
commences the rice cultivation so general in the valley of the Pabur. 
Bathoo (Amaranthus anardana), kodah, cheena, and tobacco, are also 
cultivated. The country is fertile and populous ; the neighbouring 
mountains, especially to the south, where a long and lofty spur from • 
Koopur extends to the Pabur — are beautifully diversified with fields, 
thriving villages, and pine forests, chiefly of Kail, the only species at 

September 8/A.— To Rooroo Kothee in four and three-quarter hours, 
called fourteen miles in the route book, but perhaps not above twelve. 
Soon after leaving Deorah, the road enters the domain of the Ranee of 
Syree, leading down over gneiss rock, along the left bank of the Beeskool 
river, which rises from the Koopur mountain. Its banks are regularly 
fringed with elder trees (Alnus obtusifolia) here called Koonch, the New 
of Kunawur. Saree is about half-way to Rooroo, and is the lair of an 
old Ranee, once famed for her beauty, and now for litigation with her 
neighbours, and oppression of her people. The old lady visited Cal- 
cutta about 1822, where I saw her on a tisit to the late Sir Robert 
Stevenson. From near Saree, which is a poor hamlet, the Pabur river is 
first seen, with the Beeskool flowing into, it, through some flat alluvial 
ground by Goonsa village. Across the Pabur, on a nearly isolated hill 
perhaps 500 feet above it, stands the fort or castellated mansion of 
Raeengudh or Raeengurh, once a Ghoorka, then a British post, and 
since ceded to the Rana of Kjoonthul in exchange for Simla. Far 
above the fort, from amidst a group of minor mountains of very pic- 
turesque outline, spring the richly wooded peaks of Boorhun and 
Godar Deotah, to the height of nearly 9,000 feet above sea level, 
a branch of the Ghangsheel — or as it is here softened, Ghaheel range. 
The road descends by easy gradations to the level of the Pabur, and 
crossing the Nye, Noye, Pursrar ^or Dogra, a tributary from, Thana 
Keeshain, continues along or near its right bank to Rooroo, a few hun- 
dred yards short of which, it crosses by a Sanga, or wooden bridge, a 
icocky narrow chasm, ninety*nine feet deep, through which flows the 
Shikree Nuddee. The Pabur is here a fine, strong, and perfectly clear river, 
occasionally forming formidable rapids. A species of trout is abundant 
in it and in the Shikree, but is said to be prevented by the snow water 
from ascending more. than ten or twelve miles higher up. The cliff 

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86 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

Bection of the Shikree exhibits strata of a micaceous sandstone, but 
Rooroo, Ghergaon, and several other villages on the Pabur, stand on 
elevated plateau of gravel and boulders, from 100 to 150 feet above 
the present level of the river. These are chiefly devoted to rice culti* 
. vation, for which this valley, here and upwards, known as Cbooara, is 
celebrated ; the fields are abundantly, and to the traveller often incon- 
veniently, irrigated by rills skilfully led along artificial cuts from the 
Pabur, originating at a sufficient distance above to admit of the highest 
levels being watered. 

Rooroo Kothee is 5,200 feet above the sea, and is rather a hot place. 
The barley ripens in the latter half of May, the wheat in the first half of 
June ; the heat is then excessive. It is not a very large village, and 
has a kind of square in the centre, which, were it a little cleaner, would 
remind one of a substantial fann-yard in England. The Mnhnnt or 
Chief Gooroo of Busehur resides here, and has large endowments in 
land. Owing to the neglect of the smooth-tongued Mookheea of Deonh, 
who promised everything and performed nothing, our baggage did not 
arrive till sunset, so that our breakfast and dinner merged into one, at 
i past 7 p. M., thirteen hours after leaving Deorah ; a place which eccmo- 
mizes cash better tiian temper. During the day, a general assembly of 
(the mountaineers took place under the Gooroo's auspieea, £or the purpose 
of dancing round tiie gods. These, however well^gilt, appear to be 
aired and ventilated but once a year, and were deposited in littens 
beneath the trysting tree in the village square, round which the pec^sle 
formed themselves, men and women apart, into seven equares, single 
rank of eight or ten each, holding each other's hands, extended behind 
their backs : then by a curious and by no means inelegant step, or set of 
steps, in excellent time, they gradually completed the dreuit, the move- 
ment being combined with c^hets to the front and rear, with repeated 
bowings in concert to the deities ; this continued the best part of the 
day to the mnsic of pipe and drum, the perfomiers being oceanom^y 
relieved from the surrounding crowd, all seeming equally adefyts. Gon- 
sidoraUe practice must have preceded so oneditable aa exeeutbn ctf tins 
dance, and once or twice tiie gods even joined in the fun, whidi then 
grew more fast and ftinoos than ever ; and from the exceeding elasticity 
of the ash-poles on which tiiey were carried, " their worships" got such 
a shaking as gods in the plains can never hope to enjoy. 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 87 

The mountaineers of the Himalaya, like those of Oilead, invariably 
conyert the letter s into sh : so that the Shibboleth test must be revers- 
ed to detect a Paharee ; they have also retamed in common use a great 
natnber of Hindooee words, which are seldom heard in the plains. 

Rooroo Kothee is situated about 150 feet above the right bank of the 
Pabor, which, at this season is fordable here with difficulty. In com* 
mon with similar valley sites in the mountains, the village is infested 
with a small species of fly, which, without giving any notice, inflicts a 
bite that is frequently attended with much irritation. The higher 
mountains have also in the spring, their pest, in the shape of a large 
gad-fly, a pitiless enemy of man and beast. 

The low glen of the Pftbur, while it boasts abundance of the Rosa 
brnnonis, Indigofera dosua, Hypericum cemuum, Deutzia staminea, and 
other flowering shrubs, possesses few or none of the beautiful her- 
baceous plants of the Alpine rocks and pastures. The Marvel of Peru 
(Mirabilis jalapa) however, grows in the greatest abundance and 
luxuriance about Rooroo and several other villages, as well as about Kot- 
kfaaee on the Girree, and on the outer range about Barh and Kalka ; 
the climate of the Himalaya between 4,000 and 7,000 feet elevation, 
brings it to such perfection that in aU these places it is so completely 
naturalized as to appear wild. Another American plant, the Martynia 
diandra, is equally abundant near villages in the Turaee of Kemaon 
towards Bhumouree. The Hypericum perforatum is a common shrub 
in the cornfields of the Pabur and Oirree vallies ; and on the rocks near 
Rooroo and Deorah, I noticed the Linaria incana, resembling in habit 
the L. cymbalaria of Europe. Desmodium tomentosum is also a com- 
mon shrub on the rocks in the Pabur valley hereabouts, and on the 
Satlo] above Wangtoo bridge, preferring the wannest exposures. 

There is an interesting route of three marches, from Rooroo Kothee vid 
the Shikree Nudee, and over the Moraul ka Dunda, to Rampore on the 
Sutluj, halting at Samurkot and Neura (or Neheree.) The country is 
well peopled, and beautifully varied with forest and cultivation. In 
May and June nothing can exceed the beauty of the wild roses, 
(R. Brunonis) climbing up the dark pines and alders, and falling down 
in splendid festoons of the most fragrant blossoms. Snow will be 
foimd early in June on this route, when the heat at Rampore, imme- 
diately below is almost intolerable. 

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88 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

September 9th. — To Chergaon, an easy stage of ten miles up the right 
bank of the Pabur, which we walked in three and a half hours. The cur- 
rent of the river becomes more and mbre furious as we approach its source 
in the Boorhun Ghatee ; and in several places, dashes along with the 
greatest noise and violence amongst the granitic and other boulders, 
which lie in its bed. 

* * Vexed Scylla and the sea that parts 
Calabria from the hoarse Trinacrian shore," 

are smooth water compared with it even in poetry; for it must be 
acknowledged that in reality these classic rapids are wonderfully calm 
and gentle. After a few miles, the road passes under a high range 
of slaty mountains of a curious formation, presenting an appearance 
more like a series of gigantic pine-apples or cheeses, than any thing else 
I know of. This is owing to the inclination and interruption of the 
strata, which on one side present steep faces of shattered rock, while 
the. reverse side of the hummocks, though steep, is covered with grass. 
There are no trees on these mountains, exposed as they are to the 
withering influence of the southern sun ; the Desmodium tomentosum 
is, however, abundant, and the Capparis nepaiensis creeps in patches 
along the face of the sunny cli£fs. About eight miles from Rooroo» we 
passed the village of Mundlee, held in free gift by Brahmans, but also 
inhabited by a colony of Moosulmans, whose ancestors emigrated here 
from Jounpoor, three or four generations ago. They still possess the 
true faith and a supply of fowls and eggs. This is properly the first 
village of Ghooara. The land is here almost wholly devoted to rice, 
which will be ripe in October : till, koolthee, mash, &c. are still sown, 
but not in any quantity ; and in spring, the poppy is rather largely cul- 
tivated. Across the river on a spur from the mountains stands the 
romantic fort of Butolee, near a large village called Musoola ; above 
these rise the densely wooded flanks of the Changsheel range, facing the 
north, and in full contrast to the mountains on the right bank, covered 
with forests of pine (Pinus excelsa, Abies smithiana,) &c. Should the 
traveller prefer it, he may, if bound from Simla to the Roopin Pass, 
strike up from the glen of the Pabur at Raeengurh, and follow the 
summit of the Changsheel range to Doodoo. This route is much cooler 
and more interesting than that by Rooroo ; but there are no villages, and 
two or three days supplies, a good map, pocket compass, and guides from 

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1846.] and Boorun Paises over the Himalaya, 89 

Mandil village, are indispenBable. A little aboye Batalee, the Pabur 
receives on the right bank the Mutretee river, from the Moral ke 
Dhar, consisting of lofty, broken, glacis-like ridges, the strata lying 
over towards the Sntluj, and probably rising to 13,000 feet. It is the 
continuation of the Shatool range, and divides Ghooara from Dusao. 
By fording the Mutretee at a mill in the line of the Pabur, a considerable 
detour to the bridge up to its glen and a subsequent ascent of several 
hundred feet may be avoided ; the short cut keeps close to the Pabur, 
but it requires a steady head to pass in safety some narrow ledges 
of rock, against which when the water is high, the current sets 
»trongly, and none should then attempt it, who cannot depend on 
their nerves. On our return, the Pabur had fallen considerably, and 
we effected the passage without further inconvenience than what arose 
from the chilly waters of the Mutretee, which must be forded. About two 
miles on is Chergaon, a small and poor hamlet, about 6,000 feet above the 
sea, in the angle formed by the junction of the Undretee or Indravutee 
river with the Pabur. This impetuous torrent which is about equal in size 
to the Pabor, pours down south from the Shatool Pass ; the bridge 
having been carried away, we were forced to cross its angry waters by 
a smgle tree, which my companion did unaided^ while I was glad to ac- 
cept the assistance of a neighbouring miller. Al-sirat itself could scarce be 
more narrow, or destruction more certain in the event of a slip. Cher- 
gaon is well supplied with apricot and other fruit trees, and the brink of 
the Pabur is shaded by alder, &c. The Toombroo peak, north of the 
Shnnkun Ghatee. erroneously written Toongroo in the maps, is a con- 
spicuous point from Chergaon down the glen of the Pabur. 

September lOth* — To Moojwar village in Rol, twelve miles, a fatigu- 
ing march, during which we accompanied our coolies, who halted 
liberally to rest and smoke, so that we were eight hours on the road. 
For three miles the path lies through rice cultivation and brush- wood, 
np the left bank of the Undretee ; then crosses and ascends about 500 
feet to Dugol, a Brahman village of eight or ten families on the right 
bank, but in the map erroneously placed on the left. It is reckoned 
6,800 feet above the sea, but the warm clothing of the inhabitants in- 
dicates a much colder climate than would be due to such an ekva- 
tion nearer the plains. The holy fathers are small, well made, well clad 
men, but being afflicted with the itch, accompanied us to Rol for medi- 

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90 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

cine, of which, by the way, every trayeller should carry a small supply 
to meet the demands, which will be almost daily made by patients suf- 
fering from liver, spleen, dysentery, and in short all the ills that flesh is 
heir to, save blue cholera ; and if unflinching faith in the skill of the phy- 
sician be conducive to a cure, the practitioner here should be successfid 
indeed, for not iEsculapius himself was invested by the Greeks with 
more certain healing powers than is every European — however modest 
his pretensions in this department — by the mountaineers. From Dugol, 
the path again descends to the river, and for two or three miles keeps 
near its bank through beautiful English-like woods of elm, poplar, 
alder, cornel, (Comus macrophylla) and birch (Betula cylindrostachya,) 
with Abies smithiana on the heights. A little beyond Dugol, I found 
by a stream a species of Eupatorium in flower, much resembling £• 
cannabinum. We next recrossed to the left bank and followed it for 
several miles by a path often bad and rocky, and impracticable to 
ponies ; the scenery is very wild and beautiful, the Undretee forming 
here, and indeed throughout the march, a series of foaming rapids : it is 
quite unfordable. We now once more recrossed to the right bank, and 
in a mile or two reached the junction of the two streams which iorm 
the Undretee — viz., the Byansoo from the left, the Sheear from the right, 
both flowing down from bare russet-coloured ridges, far above the re. 
gion of forest, and evidently buried in snow for three-fourths of the 
year. The Byansoo, I believe, originates in the Jalsoo Pass, about 
13,000 feet high, which afforids a passage to Seran on the Sutluj. We 
finally gained the left bank of the Byansoo by a fallen spruce, and aa- 
cended the fork between the streams by a long and steep ascent to 
Cheechwar, one of the Rol group of villages, 8,600 feet above the sea, 
a pretty large and well-bmlt place, one and a half or two nules above 
which, by an easy acclivity, we reached Moojwar. A blue aster, quite 
similar to the Swiss A. alpina ; a large and handsome Inula by rivulets, 
(I. royleana ?) the Parochetus oxalidifolia, the large-leaved elm (Ulmus 
erosa ?) much like the Wych ehn, here called Mored and Paboona, afford- 
ing much fodder to the cattle, with the walnut, peach, and oak, (Q. 
semicarpifolia), are common in this district. Across the Sheear to the 
east, the mountains present a lofty precipitous front to the we8t» clothed 
with spruce and cedar. Across the Byansoo to the west are more bare, 
brown, and very rugged mountains. On the north, the Shatool is cono 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 91 

cealed by rising land, but so far as one can see, the great range here is 
deficient in the magnificent cliffs and crags of the Roopin and other 
Passes to the eastward, but one is not yet high enough to judge fairly. 
Moojwar is about 9,000 feet above the sea ; the houses large, of two 
stories, very substantially constructed of stone and timber. The culti- 
vation is chiefly Bathoo (Amaranthus anerdana,) and Phaphur or Buck- 
wheat, with a little tobacco. The climate is severe and capricious, 
and the people seem to consider the passage of the Shatool by no means 
a trifle, and, as we afterwards found, endeavoured to intimidate our 
people by the threat that not one of them would ever return ; nor was 
a stonn of rain and thunder in the afternoon, much calculated to en- 
courage them. The villagers have, however, agreed to accompany us, 
and promised to have jsupplies for three days all ready in the morning. 
They are said to have been recently implicated in a foray on their 
neighbours beyond the next ridge whose sheep to the number of 1,500 
they carried off after the manner of Rob Roy and his Gaterans. There 
is no king in the land, and every man does that which is right in his own 

September 1 UA. — To Kala Koondar, ten or eleven miles, which took 
OS eight hours, being much delayed by the constant halts of the coolies, 
by my own rests and search for plants, and, after quitting the forest, 
by a very diflicult path. The distances indeed are but approximations, 
and are perhaps exaggerated; experience has shown that to the direct 
map-distance about one-third must be added for the road- distance, 
instead of one-seventh as in the plains; but Kala Koondar, and the 
next two stages* being " vox et prseterea nihil" are not inserted on the 
maps. Soon after leaving Moojwar, we passed the hamlet Jutwar, 
the last and highest (9,200 feet,) on the route. Brush- wood and meadows 
succeed, the first formed by Rosa sericea (a 4-petalled white species,) 
Berberis brachybotrys (with bright red fruit,) and abundance of the 
beautiful yellow Potentilla dubia ; while the pastures abound with the 
sessile flowered Ins kemaonensis ; all these plants are equally charac- 
teristic of the corresponding sites above Junglig and Jaka near the 
Boorun and Roopin Passes. The late Dr. Hoffmeister shewed me 
specimens of the above Potentilla, if they were not varieties of P. atro- 
sanguinea, gathered at and above Ghitkool on the Buspa, in which 
some of the petals were yellow and some carmine. On quitting the 

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92 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

meadows, the route enters and ascends steeply through a forest of 
Abies smithiana, Pinus exceka, Picea pindrow and P. webbiana, Quercus 
semicarpifolia, Tazus baccata, Ribes acuminjltum (red currant) the 
lemon-scented LaurustinuB (Viburnum nervosa,) Rosa sericea, &c., none 
of the trees remarkable for size. The Picea pindrow and P. webbiana are 
here and at Jaka, confounded under the name of Kulru, perhaps the 
Chilrow of Royle, and these unconscious disciples of Lamark insist, that 
the difference in the size and colour of their leaves is solely owing to the 
inclemency of the wind and weather, on the exposed sites where the 
Webbian species is found. We emerged from the forest at a spot called 
Bhoojkal, 1 1 ,700 feet above the sea, and about three miles from Moojwar ; 
the rest of the day's journey lies along the east or SB. exposure of the 
mountains, destitute of trees, but covered with a new and rich aeries 
of Alpine plants. A little beyond Bhoojkal and on the same level, 
Reoonee, sometimes used as a halting place but a very bad one, occurs ; 
and hereabouts much ground is lost by several steep descents to torrents 
by rather dangerous paths. Above, to the left, the mountains exhibit 
bare, but not precipitous shelves of gneiss rock, inclined from the route ; 
to the right are deep glens, woods, torrents, and a few beds of snow, 
all wild, lonely, and sublime. Kala Koondar is an open but steep spot in 
a grassy, flowery glen, facing south, about 300 feet above the forest, and 
12,000 above the sea, on a level with the Choor summit, which is 
visible to SSW. We encamped amidst heavy rain and hail from the 
north, which rendered the grass very cold and wet for our people and 
ourselves too, having been compelled for want of hands, to leave our 
charpaees on the road to-day. In these difficult tracts a good tarpaulin 
under one's bedding is much more conveniently carried than a bed-stead, 
and excludes the damp almost equally well; where both are absent, 
a very excellent substitute is a thick layer of pine or yew branches. 

The creeping juniper, here called Theloo but in Upper Kunawur 
Pama (Juniperus squamosa), commences from 800 to 1,000 feet below 
Kala Koondar. The open pastures are covered with a profusion of 
alpine flowers among which are the Cyananthus lobata (called Kheeree), 
the Dolomicea macrocephala (Dhoop or Googul), Saxifraga pamassiae- 
folia (or a species very like it, also found on the Choor), and (on rocks) 
Saxifraga mucronulata, Sieveisia elata, Swertia coerulea and several 
other species, (one, a large plant with pale blue blossoms is probably 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya, 93 

Royle's S. perfoliata), the Sphelia latifolia of Don, Polygonum moUe (or 
polystachyum), branonis, and vacciniifolium, (the last on rocks, a beau- 
tifol species), Lonicera obovata, Senecio nigricans, Achillcea millifolia, 
a yellow Tanacetum, Oxyria elatior, Sibbaldia procumbens, Spiroea 
kamschatkika, (very like meadow-sweet), several Sedoms ; Morina lon- 
gifolia, Caltha himalensis, Delphinium vestitum, Aconitum heterophyl- 
lum, Phlomls bracteosa, Corydalis govaniana, Geranium wallichianum, 
Picrorhiza kurrooa, and many more. Rhododendron campanulatum, is 
common in the region of birch, and is called Ghumreesh. Simreesh, 
Simrat, Simbur, &c. ; and above it is the much smaller Rhododendron 
lepidotum or anthopogon with aromatic leaves, smelling when bruised 
like those of walnut ; it is called Talsur. The capsules are in dense ter- 
minal clusters, and the flowers are said to be red. Gualtheria tricho- 
phylla with its beautiful azure fleshy calyx abounds on the sunny banks. 
The above are so general in all the region above the forest on the 
Snowy range, that it will be needless to specify them on every occasion. 
The Cyananthus lobata covers extensive tracts with its blue (occasion- 
ally white) periwinkle -like flowers ; at and above Nooroo Bassa on the 
north side of the Roopin Pass, I found the seed ripe on the 20th of 
September, while lower down, the plant was still in full bloom. In the 
same way, on the Changsheel Range, Morina longifolia was all ripe on the 
25th September, while on the 30th, it was still in full flower on Huttoo. 
Rhododendron arboreum flowers in February and March at 7,000 feet, 
and is not ripe till Christmas ; but R. campanulatum and anthopogon 
(Talsur) which flower in May, June, and July, at 12,000 feet, are ripe 
by the end of October. A strange alchymy of nature this, to ripen her 
products first in the colder sites, but perhaps necessary to the existence 
of plants in these elevated spots, where but for this provision, the early 
winter would prevent their ever coming to maturity. " II est demontr^ 
(says the brilliant Frenchman,) que les choses ne peuvent 6tre autre- 
ment : car, tout ^tant fait pour une fin, tout est n^cessairement pour la 
meilleare fin. Remarquez bien que les nez ont 6t6 faits pour porter 
des lunettes, aussi avons nous des lunettes. Les jambes sont visiblement 
instittt^ pour ^tre chauss^, et nous avous des chausses. Les pierres 
ont 6t6 form^es pour 6tre tailldes, et pour en faire des ch&teaux, aussi 
monseigneur a un tres-beau chateau ; et les cochons ^tant faits pour 6tre 
mang^, nous mangeons du pore toute Tann^.*' 

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94 Diaty of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

The Dolomioea macrocephala is a very common plant in all the upper 
Himalaya : Royle's plate, perhaps for want of space* represents the leaves 
erect, which are naturally quite procumbent ; the root is highly valued 
as incense, and as such, is presented to gods and rajas. The Picrorhiza 
kurrooa grows abundantly on dry rubble from Kala Koondar to a great 
height on each side of the Shatool Pass, but I did not notice it else* 
where ; the root is excessively bitter, and is sold under the name of 
Kurrooa in the Simla Bazar ; it is the Kutkee of Kemaon. 

September I2th, — To Doodach, eight or nine miles, which our 
coolies performed in four and a half hours. The route is much better 
and more easy than yesterday's, gradually rising over slopes, for the 
most part gentle, and crossing many rivulets from the left, some of them 
chalybeate. The banks of these exhibit in some places great walla 
of gneiss rock. The forest is now entirely lost sight of, and fuel 
must be brought in from Kala Koondar. Doodach is an open and 
level spot, well adapted for an encampment; it must be fully .13,000 
feet above the sea, and is probably identical with the Kuneejan, of 
Gerard. We had hard frost at night. The Undretee, a mere rivulet, 
rises in a bed of snow, a little higher up, and flows about 200 feet 
below us. Immediately above it, the opposite bank rises to a very 
great height, in a magnificent facade of bare gneiss cliffs, the ledges 
supporting deep beds of snow, and terminating to the north in a steep 
conical peak, called the Dhuneer ka Thood. From these crags several 
avalanches of rock fell down at night, with the noise of thunder. 
Between our camp and the base of the Pass (about a mile,) the rock is 
quartz, in immense coulees of shapeless masses, heaped together without 
order and very difficult to climb over. They have fallen from a huge 
and very curious rectangular mass, which forms the western side of the 
Pass. Several interesting plants abound here ; the Sausstirea or Aplo- 
taxis gossypina, clothed in dense wool, raises its conical form every 
where on the rocky rubble to the top of the Pass, resembling a vegeta- 
ble spectre. It is called Kusbul, Munna Kuswal, and Bhoot-pesh, and 
is offered to the gods, who have evinced their care and favour by cloth- 
ing it so warmly, exactly as they have protected the yak and alpine 
goat with a thick waistcoat of pushmeena: Another Aplotaxis is defended 
by a different contrivance ; the leaves are gradually converted into large 
yellowish transparent bracts, enclosing the colts-foot-like blossoms as 

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1846.] t^nd Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 95 

if in a head of cabbage. This plant is common amongst the large rocks 
from Doodach nearly to the summit of the Pass, and is also sacred. It is 
called " Birm (or Brem) Kounl (or Kouwul)," i. e. " Brahma's Lotus ;" 
a similar species on the high mountains behind Gheenee, has a strong 
odour of musk. 

Eraser found the " Birmah Gounla" on the Bumsooroo Pass, between 
Sookhee and Jnmnootree, and describes it thus — Stalk covered with 
large and long leaves, somewhat like those of a primrose, ending in a 
cup like that of a tulip, appearing merely the continuation of these 
leaves, closing and forming the petals of a very noble flower, in the 
centre of which the stamina and pistil are seen. Petals greenish to- 
wards the base, but the middle and higher parts are black and yellow, 
as is the centre of the cup, but more vivid. The latter part of the des- 
cription appears derived from a Fritillaria, and very possibly from the same 
plant which, " Pilgrim" (pp. 66, 67) says is so beautiful aft Kadamath in 
April : and though growing on the hard ground and out of the melting 
snow, is called " Lotus." In Kemaon, the Iris nepalensis is known as the 
Neda Kumul, or blue Lotus ; and is a favourite plant with fukeers, &c. 

Amongst the other plants found at Doodach and on to-day's route were 
two species of Aconitum. One, which seems to be known as A. dissectum 
(Hamiltonii or Speciosum) abounds at this elevation, and has the leaves 
cut into 'five segments, with light blue blossoms. It is called here 
Doodhiya Moura, but in Kunawur, Tilia Kachung. The other species, * 
Aconitum ferox, is called Moura-bikh, or simply " Mora" (from mri, to 
die,) and is reckoned extremely poisonous. It only occurred in one spot, 
a mile or two above Kala Koondar, growing in an extensive patch, the 
stems from four to six feet high, with long dense racemes of splendid 
deep blue flowers : the follicles three. The mountaineers were shocked 
when I told them that an equally deadly species was a favourite flower 
in our English cottage gardens, where they concluded it could only be 
planted in the view of occasionally getting rid of a superfluous boy or girl. 
The handsome Ligularia amicoides (figured by Royle,) was in full bloom 
every where about and above Doodach, and in similar situations all over 
the Snowy and Changsheel ranges. On the south side of the Roopin 
Pass there is another species, with reniform leaves. By the rivulets 
on the route, and high upon the Pass, the Primula stuartii and 
P. purpurea are abundant, and now with ripe seed. They are both 

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96 LHary-ofan Ejccursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

called *' Jy-be*Jy*' or " Jyan," and are very ornamental in May» 
June, and July. With these occurs a very handsome species of 
Dracocepbalum or Lamium, called Ghirounta, with a strong camo-. 
mile odour when hmised. On hare rocky ground from 12»800 feet up- 
wards is found the Gentaurea (Aplotaxis) taraxicifolia, the " Dhoopree," 
with heads of purple blossom and a delicious fragrance like that of the 
sweet colt's foot. The showy musk-scented Delphinium (brunonia- 
num ?) grows near the foot of the Pass, and is called " Soopaloo," 
" Ruskur," " Ruskachung :" it is, I believe, the " Liokpo," of Upper 
Kunawur, and is a curious illustration of the association in these lofty 
regions of musk in the vegetable as well as the animal kingdom. The 
Hymenolaena Govaniana, and several similar Umbelliferae, with bracts 
greatly developed and beautifully fringed with white, are common, some 
of them attaining the crest of the Pass ; among those lower down is 
one with decompound leaves, of a strong aromatic parsley-like fra- 
grance, here called Nesir, and mentioned by Eraser as occurring near 
Jumnootree, under the name of Mahee. All this lofty region (from 
12,000 to 13,000 feet) abounds with the Kanda, a species of prickly 
Meconopsis, probably M. nepalensis, in form like Royle's M. aculeata 
(which in his plate seems too deeply coloured,) except that the flowers 
are of the most lovely azure. Amongst the Doodach rocks grows the 
Sedum himalensis, very like the Rhodiola rosea of England, and 
amongst the rocks and snow at the source of the Undretee I found the 
Saxifraga granulata of England, and a Ranunculus (choorensis ?) much 
like the R. gladalis of Switzerland. Such are a few of the plants 
which '* blush unseen" on these desolate wilds ; a more leisurely exa- 
mination would easily double the niuiber. Nature, where she cannot 
be useful, seems determined to be ornamental, and converts these tracts 
where grain will not ripen, into pastures and flower gardens, where 
thousands of butterflies and insects enjoy their brief existence. The 
utility of nature must not indeed be limited to man, for there is scarcely 
one of these plants, the seeds of which do not support myriads of in- 
sects as well as many birds ; and the highly successful experiment at 
Muhasoo is a sufficient proof that many of the forest tracts at least, 
and perhaps even the pastu^ lands above them might, by a moderate 
expenditure of industry and enterprise, be rendered available for the pro- 
duction of excellent potatoes, and thus enable the Himalaya to support 

Digitized by 


1846.] attd Boorun Passes over ike Himaiaya^ 97 

doable or treble its actaal population. Judging by the produce of the 
flocks and herds which now partly graze on these pastures, the soil and 
grass must be faultless ; every traveller is struck with the quality of 
the milk — as rich as cream — at Rol, Jangleeg, and Jaka, placed at 
ther lower limit of the belt where cultivation now ceases. 

September ISth, — From Doodach over the Shatool Pass to Ateeng 
Wodar, twelve to fourteen miles, in somewhat under seven hours. An 
experienced native of Rol had eamestiy advised ua not to attempt the Pass 
unless the day were fine, and we were so far fortunate as to have a cloud- 
less morning, and reached the summit, perhaps four nules, in three hours, 
mounting at a very easy pace ; the ascent, indeed, is less fatiguing 
than that of the Choor from Seran ; and on its completion we expe- 
rienced none of those feelings of headache, giddiness, distress in breath- 
ing, &c., described by many travellers, and very sensibly felt by myself 
on a former occasion on the Roopin Pass. The route lies up over the 
frozen snow bed of the Undretee, and. then up one steep continuous 
tract of broken, angular, masses of gneiss rock, of which there is a steep 
escarpment to the right, capped by a thick bed of the purest snow. 
The col, or semicircular summit of the Pass, is in its whole extent fur- 
nished with numerous piles of stones called Shoogars or Thooas— ^the 
'* Sbenezers" of gratefid and successful passengers ; in number and 
height far exceeding those on the Roopin and Boorun Ghatees ; the pil- 
lars being apparenUy in a direct ratio to the piety and the fear of the * 
passengers, and the difficulty and danger overcome. Our men had 
provided themselves with stores of fiowers, chiefly the Kounl and Munna- 
kuswal saussurea, and the musk larkspur, which they tied in long 
garlands, and with which they decorated, first the pillars, and then,'on the 
Hindoo principle of *' Piirmeshwur-hai," ourselves. They cleurly fancy 
their gods to be as fond of musk as they are. On sa cold a site, a few 
faggots of wood would be a more rational offering; but as their evil 
genii and demons are lodged in eternal fire, it is quite logical to locate 
the gods in eternal cold and snow, and it is remarkiable that he who 
was prophet at Medina, and impostor at Mecca, also patronized this 
notion, for he affirmed that, when touched by the hand of Allah, the 
sensation was that of intense cold. On our return by the Roopin Pass, 
the garland ceremony was dispensed with, each man merely teieuing a 
small portion of his clothes, and suspending it 6n the pillars, a cufttom 

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98 Diary of an Etewrmn to the Shatool [No^ 170. 

universal in these mountains, where we observe a bush or tree on each 
more eminent pass, ornamented with votive rags of all colours, precisely 
similar to those about holy wells, &c., in Ireland. With respect to 
vegetation, the Primula purpurea and Sibbaldia purpurea grow very 
high upon the south side of the Pass; the two Saussureas, a large 
Sedum (probably S. asiaticum,) a Rumex, and a pretty pink Corydalis 
(either hamiltonii or meifoha) reach the crest ; and above that of the 
Roopin, I found patches of Potentilla inglesii ; so far are these elevated 
ridges from being entirely forsaken by Flora ! 

The right or eastern portal of the Shatool Pass is formed by the. pin* 
nacle of rock, 1,500 feet high, and 17,000 above the sea, visible from 
Doodach ; it is called Dhuneer ka Thooa (the Dunerko of Gerard,) from 
the Mookheea of Rol, who bribed a bold adventurer with a hundred 
rupees to scale it, and erect a pile of stones in honour of the Deotahs and 
himself. Moore tells us, that the schoolmen used to debate how many 
angels could dance on the point of a needle without jostling each other ; 
and some of these Himalayan needles are so sharp, that the same ques- 
tion naturally suggests itself with respect to the thirty million of gods 
which the Hindoo Mythology has peopled them with. The Dhuneer 
ka Thooa sends down to the north a broken serrated spur, which falls 
to the west in a lofty and most superb escarpment of naked rook, which 
lay on our right as we descended. Looking down to the north, through 
• the long vista of the glen, we had a glorious though somewhat limited 
view of the lofty peaks of the snowy range beyond the Sutluj, separating 
the Busehur district of Wangpo, north of the Wangtoo bridge, from the 
districts of Manes and Dunkur, in Speetee, and crossed by the Taree 
Pass, 16,400 feet above the sea. In some of our maps this range, or its 
outliers behind Kanum and Cheenee> is called tb^ Damak Shoo, proba- 
bly from the prevalence of the Dmnak, or various species of Astragalus, 
Caragana, &c. which grow there, and which our travellers in Upper 
Kunawur call Furze. 

The Shatool Pass is 15,550 feet above the sea level, nearly 100 feet 
below the top of Mont Blanc: and was first crossed in June 1816 by 
General Hodgson, Kt is distinctly visible about £. 24^ north from the 
top of Jaka at Simla, a degree or two to the left of Colonel Chadwick's 
iKHise on the Muhasoo ridge, lying between two of those conspicuous 
inclined peaks of which the rocky planes slope down to the east and 

Digitized by 


1846.] and Booruu Passes over the Himalaya, 99 

£S£. at angles of from lO"" to 20^ considerably to the right of the 
three^grouped and similarly inclined peaks, often but erroneously 
pointed out as the Boorun Pass. It is owing to this conformation of 
the strata that the routes up the Tallies near this portion of the Snowy 
range invariably keep to their western and S W, sides ; on the opposite 
ones, the strata '* crop out" in inaccessible crags. 

Beautiful are the " balancings of the clouds" at this and the past 
season in the Himalaya, and the endless variety of light and shade, 
which they cause on mountain, forest, field, rock, and meadow. No 
sooner has a shower feUen, and the sun shone out, than the process of 
evaporation commences in the heated vallies ; the rising vapours are con- 
densed at a given devation into clouds, which, with a snaiUlike move- 
ment, creep up the mountain sides, and invest the summit or languidly 
tumble over the ridge into the next valley ; " even in their very motion 
tki&ce is rest." Occasionally an entire valley or large tract of the moun* 
tain is covered with one fleecy mass, on which the spectator looks down 
as on a sea, a lofty peak here and there jutting up like an island. It 
must be confessed, however, that they are best at a distance and in 
poetry. Disagreeable at Simla, they are dangerous on the Shatool, 
where we had not been above half an hour, on the narrow crest, when 
from the south, douds 

** Rose curling fast beneath us, white and sulphury, 
Like foam from the roused ocean of deep hell. 
Whose every wave breaks on a living shore. 
Heaped with the damned like pebbles ! ! !" 

The wind also being very keen, and our only seat the snow, we effected 
a speedy retreat down the great northern snow-bed, of which we only 
reached the termination in an hour and three-quarters. The upper por- 
tion had been covered to the depth of two or three inches by a recent 
fall. To this succeeded a wearisome and, in many places, very steep and 
difficult moraine composed of enormous sharp, shapeless, fragments of 
gneiss piled on each other in wild confusion, the lowest ones resting on 
frozen snow. TJ^ese would indeed prove " destruction's splinters" to 
the unfortunate, overtaken here by a snow storm, which would paralyse 
his hands and feet, and blind his eyes — all most essential accessories now ; 
and accordingly this was the scene where Dr. Oerard in September 
1820, had two of his people frozen to death at midday, and escaped 

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100 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

himself with great difficulty and the loss of all his baggage. In no 
month is the passage perfectly secure. It is effected with least difficulty 
early in spring, as the snow then covers all the rocks which so much 
impede one*s progress ; but I am not aware that the natives ever attempt 
the Shatool till the rains have set in ; and even on the other Fuses 
clear and perfectly calm weather is indispensable to safety. 

The scenery on the northern declivity is wild and savage indeed r to 
the right are the magnificent black cliffs before mentioned, which, from 
the summit, slope back gently in great fields of snow, of the most 
dazzling whiteness ; deep beds also lie at their base. Ta the left the 
mountains are more bluff and rounded but still greatly shivered. The 
Moraine ends to the north in a steep esluirpment, and latterly our 
route over it, lay on the ridge of a very curious bund of snow, nibUe, 
and rocks, about sixty feet high, and very steep on both sides, and 
apparently artificial as any railway embankment. Except that frozen 
snow is substituted for ice, the whole scene greatly resembles the Mer 
de Glace, and other glaciers of Savoy and Switzerland. A turbid stream 
issues from the base of the great snow-bed, and is joined by several 
torrents from the left ; the combined stream a little below flows placidly 
for a while over a nearly level dale. During the day time the powerful 
rays of the sun melt the whole surface of the snow beds, and these tor- 
rents become unfordable : but at night, when all is re-frozen, they 
are dwindled to mere rivulets, only supplied from the bottom of the 
snow-beds being melted by the heat of the earth, and hence they are 
easily crossed in the morning. Below the moraine, the mountains rise 
steeply on each side, covered, especially on the left, with grass and 
herbage, now of a rich raw-sienna tint forming a strong contrast with 
the great beds of white-quartz masses, which on this side extend down 
to the valley, reflecting a most intolerable glare. The path, a very narrow 
and bad one, finally keeps dose to the left bank of the stream, and so 
continues to Ateeng Wodar, a summer station for shepherds, equivalent 
to the ehaUta of the Alps, except that the Hisudayan mountaineer is 
generally content with the shelter of a cave in the rocks, sometimes a 
little improved by a rude wall in front. Ateeng is nearly in the latitude 
of Rampoor, a short distance above the birch forest, about 12,000 feet 
above the sea, and perhaps nine miles from the crest of the Pkkss. The 
valley is narrow, and destitute of the savage features it possesses above,. 

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1846. jl and Boorun Passes aver the Himalaya. 101 

bat across the torrent to the east, the mountaus are still very, steep, 
bold and lofty, with many deep ravines filled with show. 

The vegetation consists here of Delphinium vestitum, Dolomioea ma- 
crooephala, Cyananthos lobata, Onosma bracteata, aromatic rhododen- 
dron, and Gassiope fastigiata (" Talsiree") the " heather" of Fraser ; with 
it grew a shrub with all the appearance of a Vacdnium, but with neither 
flowers uor/raockatu to enable one to decide. Between Ateeng and 
the moraine, the Salix lindleyana creeps abundantly on the ground, 
and Royle's Arenaria festucoides is not uncommon ; on the moraine 
itself was a plant very like his Saxifraga imbricata, abundance of Ra- 
nunculus choorensis, and one or two Gentians, in flower. These 
mountains no where exhibit the carpet of blue Gentians and Campa- 
nulas so lovely in the Alps. On the gravel beds and banks of the 
stream, the Epilobium speciosum, perhaps the finest species of the 
genus, grows in abundance. 

The chief reasons for the Shatool Pass being so much dreaded are 
first — the intrinsic difiiculty of the northern moraine, as well as the 
descent from Ateeng to Panwee, where the path is so narrow that evea 
laden sheep pass with some risk : and secondly, the remoteness of sup- 
plies, fuel, and places of refuge. The Roopin and Boorun Ghatees 
have each a village within one stage of their southern base, and on the 
north, the valley of the Buspa is easily gained in one day by tolerable 
paths. Laden men cannot reach the Shatool from Rol in less than two 
days ; and at Ateeng Woodar, on its north side, they are still distant a 
very hard day's« journey, by an execrable path, from the valley of the 

September 14th. — From Ateeng Wodar to Panwee, near the Sutluj 
above Wangtoo bridge, a distance which we estimated to be sixteen 
or seventeen miles, with a descent of 6,000 feet ; a very fatiguing march, 
which we walked in eight hours, inclusive of several halts. In the 
contrary direction, it would indeed be a tremendous journey, and should 
be divided by all who travel for pleasure or profit. The route, by a 
bad. pathway, gradually rises along the Alpine pastures, occasionally 
traversing a dense coppice of Rhododendron campanulatum, R. anthopo- 
gon (or lepidotum, the aromatic species) and mountain ash (Pyrus foliolosa 
or ursina,) the latter in full fruit, the berries occasionally of a beau- 
tiful waxy white, a variety probably of the usual red-fruited species. 

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102 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

which I have also received from the Harung Pass ahove Sungla. It 
forms a favourite food of the bears which are numerous hereabouts. 
Mingled with and below the Rhododendron and mountain ash to 
the right, are extensive shaggy woods of large white-barked birch 
(Betula Bhojpatra.) recalling many a romantic spot in the Trosachs, Glen- 
gariff, and Capel Carrig. The bark consists of as many as twenty layers, 
and is much emp%yed in Kunawur in the flat roofs of the houses, where 
it is laid under a stratum of clay. Supposing ^e Himalaya to have 
emerged gradually from the ocean, this " tree of knowledge" may be held 
the last best gift of heaven to man in the vegetable way, for it could not 
exist till the mountain had attained an elevation of 9,000 or 10,000 
feet; the silver fir, (Picea webbiana) must be nearly of the same 
age, and thus we may form a comparative chronology of the dates 
at which the various trees were successively produced. Quitting the 
birch braes, we encountered a steep ascent under fine gneiss crags 
and pinnacles, with tremendous declivities on the right hand, which 
brought us to the crest of the Ootulmai Ghatee, (called Gongrunch 
or Shaling by Alex. Gerard,) where the path turns to the left, and 
leaves the Shatool glen. Hence to Panwee is one almost uninter* 
mitted and generally extremely steep descent for a few hundred feet, 
over loose rugged rocks, covered with the large and now scarlet leaves 
of Saxifraga ligulata, and then through a superb forest of Picea web- 
biana and Quercus semicarpifoHa, both streaming with long white 
lichens, also birch, and a dense underwood of mountain ash, Rhododen- 
dron campanulatum, Rosa webbiana, Syringa emodi (Lilac,) black and 
red currants, yew, &c. At the bottom of this glen, perhaps a mile 
down, we reached a small romantic dell, through which flows the 
Skooling or Shaling stream, and here the scenery is of a Titanic gran- 
deur and wildness. On all sides, feathered with the dark silver fir, vast 
precipices spring up perpendicularly, and seem utterly to preclude 
further progress ; it seems as if one had reached the gates of Hades. On 
the brink of the stream the Greek Valerian (Polemonium caeruleum,) 
and the lovely azure blue hound's tongue (Cynoglossum uncinatum,) 
were flowering in abundance. God might have made a more beautiful 
flower than this last, but he never did^ as some one has justly observed 
of the strawberry as a fruit. Exit from this spot seems as imfuracticable 
as from the happy valley of Rasselas, and is only obtained by a short 


ed by Google 

1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 103 

sharp clamber, which introduces the wayfarer to the Panwee Dhunka, 
a distance of three miles, the most dangerous I ever travened ; the path 
so called* being excessively narrow, and carried along vast ledges of 
rock, inclined at a high angle to a bottomless pit on the right, from 
which they rise at an equally steep angle on the opposite side. I cannot 
reoollect such enormous shelves of rock elsewhere, nor, exeept the Via 
Mala on the Spliigen road, and the gorge of Oondo on tlse Simplon Pass, 
an abyaa more profound. Neither of these, however, can compare with 
the Panwee ka Dhunka in the extent and luxuriance of forest, which here 
cbthea the mountains above and below, to the right and to the left 
The Skooling falls in a fine cascade doWn to the right at such a depth, 
that one can scarce bear to glance at it, save from such " coigne of 
vantage" as a tree growing from the cliSs. " The least obhquity is 
fatal here," and no one should attempt the passage who is not well 
assured of his nerves, or weary of his life. Bossuet has a passage so 
doquent, and so apt to such a situation, that my readers, if any, will 
be pleased at its insertion here. 

*' La vie humaine est semblable k un chemin dont Tissue est un pr^- 
piee affireux. On nous en avertit d^ le premier pas : mais la loi est 
port^, il faut avancer totgours. Je voudrais rotoumer en arridre : 
Msrohe I marche { un poids invincible, une force irresistible nous en- 
trs&ient; il faut sans cesse avancer vers le prMpioe. Mille traverses, 
miUe peines nous fatiguent et nous inquietent dans la route. Encore si 
je pouvais ^ter ce pr^pice affreux ! Non, non ; il fsut marcher, il 
hxLt courir ; tdle est la rapidit6 des ann^es. On se console pourtant, 
psrce que de temps en temps on rencontre des objets qui nous divertis- 
Bsnt, des eaux courantea, des fleura qui passent ! On voudralt s'arr^ter : 
Marche ! marche ! Bt cependant on voit tomber derri^re soi tout ce 
qu'oA avait pass^ : fracas effiroyable ! iniSvitable mine ! On se console, 
pafce qu'on emporte quelques fieurs cueilUes en passant, qu'on voit se 
fitter entre ses mains du matin au soir, et quelques fruits, qu'on perden 
les go6tant : enchantement ! illusion ! Toujours entrsdnd, tu approches 
da gouffine affreux : di^jk tout commence fi s'effaeer, les jardins moins 
flenris, les fieurs moins brillantes, leurs oouleurs moins vives, les prairies 
moins riantes, les eaux moins claires ; tout se tnmit, tout s'efface. L' 
ombre de la mort se pr^iente ; on commence £ sentir Tapproache du 
goufire fatal. Mais il friut aller sur le bord. Encore un pas: d^jk 

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104 LHary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

I'horreur trouble lea sens, la t^te tourne, les yeux s'egarent. U faut 
marcher : on youdrait retoumer en arri^re ; plus de mojens : tout 
est tomb^, tout est 6vanoui, tout est ^happ6 !" and it was our fate to 
escape these very literal precipices by an abrupt descent to Panwee, all 
through a dense and lofty forest, excepting the last 500 feet, which 
lead to the village through terraced cultivation. l*he forest trees occur in 
the following descending order — Picea webbiana, first alone, and then 
mixed with P. pindrow and Quercus semicarpifolia ;.then Abies smithiana 
and Pinus excelsa, many of the latter fully 150 feet high. Lastly, the 
cedar feathers all the bold crags about the village, which across the 
Skooling torrent to the east rise precipitously into a lofty peak, arguing 
no easy marches ahead. 

We encamped by a temple where our people found excellent shelter 
from the brisk showers which fell in the afternoon. A thick bush of 
sacred juniper grows in the enclosure, and the vicinity is well shaded 
by horse chestnut (Pavia indica), elm, peach, apricot, walnut, and mul- 
berry trees. Panwee is a middling- sized village, above the left bank of 
the Skooling river, two or three miles from Wangtoo bridge, and from 
1,300 to 1,500 feet above it. From several points above the village, the 
Sutluj, with the road to Chegaon, is visible ; as well as the wild glen of 
the Wungur, which joins at the bridge in one succession of cataracts. 
By visiting Panwee, we have enjoyed some of the sublimest scenery in 
the world, at the expense of a stage on our way to Sungla, for the 
direct route follows the Shatool stream to Melum, but our guides were, 
or pretended to be, unacquainted with it, and on enquiry here, we 
found that it is really impracticable to men with loads ; and have every 
reason to believe it must be extremely difficult without that encum- 

September I5th, — To Melum or Rarnn^ (the Melung of the map), 
about ten miles in seven hours, by a difficult route, the path being for 
the most part as rocky, and in some places as dangerous as any we 
have traversed. At one almost impassable ledge, one of our dogs fell 
and had a narrow escape. (By the bye, dogs should not be brought 
into these parts — being perpetually in the way, to the risk of their own 
and their master's necks.) In several places jutting crags are only passed 
by the aid of the ladders, scaffoldings, and steps, so familiar to the tra- 
veller in Kunawur. On leaving Panwee, there is a steep declivity to 

Digitized by 


1846.] and Boonm Pastes over the Hmulaya, 105 

the torrent, which here forms a pretty cascade, as does that under 
Melum, about a mile short of the viliage. The vegetation here consists 
of rank grass, reeds, &c. Hence there is a considerable ascent to a 
point affording an interesting view of the Sutlaj, and its picturesque 
rocky gorge where spanned by the Wangtoo bridge. Our path then led 
us down to the left bank of that river, now rolling along an impetuous 
torrent of milky water. A long ascent succeeds, with the river from 
300 to 1,500 feet right below; and above us to the right hand long 
craggy fii^ades, bristling with cedar which abounds hereabout. The 
road to Cheenee lies down on the opposite bank of the river. From the 
brow of the last ascent our path turned to the right up the glen of Me- 
lum, and met the Shatool Bus torrent in about two miles, where it has 
deposited an immense accumulation of drift timber, the spoils of the 
forests above. The trees on its banks here are chiefly Alnus obtusifolia, 
Rhus buckiamela, and Spiraea lindleyana. A gentle ascent of about a 
mile and a half brought us to Melum, also called Ramn6, a small but 
well built village, about 7,000 feet above the sea, standing on a plateau, 
closely backed by steep woody mountains. By avoiding the last steep 
ascent to-day, and keeping direct on to the mouth of the Melum river, 
we might perhaps have reached Keelba ; but the gentlemen and ladies 
who carried our baggage assured us, we should repent if we tried the 
very bad ascent from that stream. 

September 16M. — ^To Keelba, about nine miles, which from the 
excessive ruggedness and difficulty of the worst path in the world, and 
its manifold steep dips and rises, we only accomplished in five and a half 
hours. First we descended to, and crossed a torrent below Melum, 
and then mounted by Yana or Janee village, till we came abreast of 
Chegaon or Toling, and on a level with it, 7,225 feet above the sea. It 
consists of a group of villages, with several large temples and extensive 
cultivation. On the crags at this point, I noticed the Incarvillea diffusa 
of Royle, an elegant plant which is also found on the Wangtoo rocks. 
Hence the path falls to the Sutluj, and leaving Poonung above to the 
right, continues along its brink for a few miles over boulders, gravel, 
and sand, overrun by a shrubby, silvery, and very aromatic Artemisia ; 
the river is fringed by the " Wee," a species of olive, probably Olea 
ferruginea. The toom or ash, Fraxinus xanthoxylloides, is common, 
but of no great size. It is frequently met with in the higher parts ot 

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106 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

Kunawar, and is known about Rampoor, as the Gaha or Ungah. The 
▼erj jaw-breaking specific name is very justly applied. The Daphne 
mucronata of Royle here becomes a common shrub» called jeekoo ; 
and near Yana, I first met a species of Celtis, called koo, of which the 
drupe» now ripening, of the size of a small cherry, is sweet and edible. 
There are two species or varieties ; one a large tree called Ro-koo, with 
black or dark purple fruit; the other, Cho^koo, smaller, has yellow or 
orange fruit. This, and not Elseagnus, as surmised by Royle» I take to 
be the " red and mawkbhly sweet berry," produced on a shrub in 
Hungrung, as mentioned by Herbert (Asiatic Researches, XV. 392.) : 
as his " yellow and acid berry about the size of a currant," is no doubt 
the fruit of the Soorch (Hippophae salicifolia). The Koo is pretty 
common nearly up to Brooang, at Meeroo, &c. It has been mention- 
ed to me by a friend as occurring under the name " Kaksi" near Jungee, 
where, however, a subsequent enquirer couid hear nothing of it : in all 
likelihood because the first had been misinformed as to the name; 
" Kagshee" being the Cornus macrophylla, which has a leaf like the 
Celtis. Both the Geltis and the Zizyphus have been identified with the 
famous lotus of the Lotophagi ; but assuredly one may devour any 
quantity of Koos or Bers, without risk of forgetting one's home and 
friends. A little below Panwee, and generally up the left banks of the 
Sutluj and Buspa to Brooang, at an average of 6,000 feet, there is abun- 
dance of a species of oak, which I have not met elsewhere, though it 
seemft to be the Quercus cassura, of Don's Prodromus. The leaves are 
exceedingly waved and spinous, tomentose below (as are the cups of the 
acorns, which are produced by six to eight) or solitary, on spikes or 
peduncles of five or six inches. They are now nearly ripe. The tree 
is called " Br^," but this seems to denote the genus only. Pinus 
gerardiana is pretty common, but not very large on the crags, during 
this day's journey : — and in the coppice, Abelia triflora occurs abundant- 
ly, here called " Spung :" the " Takla" of Bulsun and Bhujee. 

From the river-bank, the path now ascends for two miles or so, to a 
few hundred feet above its level : another rainy season will, to all 
appearance, render it impassable, and it is now as dangerous as 
can well be imagined, crossing a vast landslip with a most precarious 
footing on loose sand and rocks, highly inclined, where each step 
receives and requires more deliberation than an act of Parliament. 

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1846.] and Boarm Passes over ths Himaiaya. 107 

What has been done once may be done agam» but no reasonable man 
would attempt this a second time. The reward consists in the view 
of the river* here not above ten yards over, *< a hell of waters" rushing 
on, like Pyriphlegethon, in perfect cataract, boiling, foaming, and tossed 
up vertically in one continuous mass of spray in its ungovernable career, 
amidst immense boulders, and under the tremendous precipices of 
the right bank, which it seems bent on undermining. What an anti« 
thesis between its recent quiescent state and gentle fall as ice and snow» 
and this unruly turbulence, and then its almost stagnant course onward 
to the ocean, where it enters on its final probation as vapor, realizing 
the hell imagined by Shakespeare :— 

" To reside 
In thrilling regions of thick-ribbed ice ; 
To be impriBoned in the TiewleM winds, 
And blown with restless violence about 
The pendent world/* 

Above this, the river receives an affluent from Meeroo, and on 
an isolated rock, just above the junction, stands the Raja's Castle 
of Gholing, the Chalgee of the map : still higher up, the Channel 
widens, and the river flows with a strong uniform current, bounded by 
a broad bed of shingle on its right bank. The Sutluj may here be said 
to effect its passage through the great range, and^ generally, the travel- 
ler cannot fail to be surprised at the manner, almost resembling instinct, 
in which the river finds its way through such a labyrinth of mountains. 
It has here indeed followed the natural line of a vast echellon formed 
by the Shatool ranges to the south, and those of Speetee and KooUoo to 
the north : and from the Thibet frontier at Shipkee to Rampoor has an 
average fall of sixty feet per mile. The absence of lakes, and the ex^- 
istence of so general and efficient a system of natural drainage seems 
to argue the vast antiquity of the Himalaya, and may also serve to 
establish Lyell's theory of a gradual upheavement of mountain chains, 
which afforded time for the water to adjust their levels ; and to fill up 
the basins with those deep deposits of gravel and boulders, through 
which they are so often found to excavate their beds. The planes are 
indeed still far from uniformity ; and the roar of the torrent and the cas» 
cade, the sound of many waters, is rarely out of our ears as we approach 
the higher mountains. 

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108 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

From the rapids of the Sutlaj an abrupt ascent of several hundred 
feet leads to the cultivation, chiefly buck wheat, and finally under 
vineyards, to the romantic village of Keelba, situated immediately above 
the river, surrounded by great niunbers of fine peach, apricot, walnut 
and elm trees ; while some superb weeping willows flourish by the 
beautifully clear rivulets which gush down on every hand from the 
lofty mountains to the south. These are densely wooded, and shew a 
front of splendid precipices to the north or north-west, ending in 
a high bluff of rock, which seems' the " Yana Bui" of the map. Seen 
from near Meeroo across the river, the appearance is as if a great tract 
of ground had here subsided, having a high wall of rock on one sidci 
reaching up to the Snowy range near the Boorun Ghatee. Meeroo 
itself is hidden from Keelba, but the neighbouring village and cul- 
tivated slopes of Oorinnee, 400 to 500 feet above us, are visible to 
the north-west ; and to the east, the snowy peaks of the Ruldung just 
come into view. The grapes here and at Brooang, &c. have totally 
failed this year, probably from the prevalence of unseasonable rain, 
which fell in drizzling showers to-day and yesterday, but cleared up 
this afternoon. At Melum, a good room was placed at our disposal, 
with a second for our people : and we have the same advantage at 

September 17 th. — ^To Brooung, Booroo, or Brood, eight or nine miles. 
We marched at 20 minutes to 8 a. m. and descended to the Sutluj, 
which here flows in a broad and comparatively calm stream : the path 
generally bad, lying up and down the crags, which are finally wooded 
with ash, olive, and neoza pine (P. gerardiana.) At half past nine we 
reached the confluence of the Buspa, which flows into the Sutluj like a 
mill-race, and is equally muddy, marking its source in a granitic tract. 
'* Pilgrim" attributes the turbid waters of the Neelung to its source 
amongst mountains of slate clay (p. 33.) but on inspection of the Rul- 
dung cluster, which may be called the cradle of the Buspa, with its great 
scars and flaws of whitish granite, induces me to conclude that the dis- 
coloration is due to the decomposition of this rock : it is exactly the 
same with the Arveron at Chamouni. The bluff crags and cliffs, 
feathered with cedar, and the twisted neoza, are very grand where the 
rivers unite : the Sutluj comes down through a narrow rocky gorge, 
a little above the point of confluence ; a good Sanga, 5,968 feet above the 

Digitized by 


1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 109 

sea, is thrown across the Buspa, for the Pooaree and Gheena road ; but 
our route lay up the rough, stony path on the left bank— -the river a per- 
fect torrent, in a very deep confined gully, where the channel is 
choked by huge boulders. At the fifth or sixth mile, we should have 
quitted the gorge, and ascended to firooung: but we had loitered 
behind the coolies, and proceeding to the Brooung stream, were in fall 
route to Sungla, when we fortunately met its Mookheea on his way to 
Ralee, who shewed us our mistake, and directed us back up a steep 
ascent of about 800 feet, where we lost our way again in a wilderness 
of firuit trees, and got at least 500 feet above the village, which, after 
two hours' wandering in complete uncertainty, we at length hit on quite 
accidentally. It is a poor scattered place, just above the left bank of 
the stream from the Boorun Ghatee, the snows and peaks of which 
are seen above : the inhabitants are a meagre, sickly race. It seems 
to be the place called Soorung, in the trigonometrical map— <)ne 
of its manifold errors in typography. The elevation is generally given 
7,411 feet, but in a German map, publbhed at Berlin, it is stated to be 
8,820 feet, (Paris) or 9,400 English, which is certainly too much. 

On rivulets flowing into the Buspa, I noticed to*day a species of 
Tussilago (colts-foot) with the habit of T. petasites ; it is said in May 
and June to produce fragrant yellowish flowers. With it grew the 
Polygonum runcinatum of Don's Prodromns. 

September 18rA.— From Brooung to Sungla, about twelve miles, in 
seven hours. For half this distance the path rises and fidls along the 
left bank of the Buspa through beautiful scenery, the precipitous rocks 
feathered with the neoza pine, here generally called Shungtee and Ree. 
The course by the river then becomes impracticable ; and a steep ascent 
of 2,000 feet succeeds nearly up to Ghansoo, with a line of stupendous 
precipices to the right, the pents and ledges of which are clothed with 
splendid cedar and kail (Pinus excelsa,) many of the latter not under 
150 feet in height. To the left, the Buspa rages in a series of cataracts 
through a tremendous abyss, which succeeds its comparatively level 
course over the Sungla valley. Boisterous indeed is the career of this 
aquatic Richard : its average fall being 250 feet per mile. The brink and 
face of the steep on this side is fringed with many superb old tabular- 
headed cedars, their gigantic boughs thrown about in wild disorder, like 
Lear, with outstretched arms, appealing in vain to the unpitying heavens. 

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110 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

The tree constantly prefers the steepest acclivities, a peculiarity which 
must be respected by those now trying to naturalize it at home : it 
will infaUibly perish if planted. in any ground approaching a swamp, a 
condition unknown to the Himalaya. Near the foot of this ascent there 
is a dogra or hamlet, belonging to Chansoo, with orchards of apricot, 
walnut, and peach trees, of which last the very abundant fruit was 
sweet and juicy. The people and the bears divide the prise ; the former 
securing their share by day, which is dried in the sun for winter con- 
sumption. The bears, who are said to be very numerous, devour their 
portion by night. Ghansoo is 9,174 feet above the sea, and is a most 
lovely and picture9que spot ; the continuation of the difb before men* 
tioned, extending behind it in a lofty amj^theatre, the brow of which 
is clothed with birch, now falling into the sere and yellow leaf of winter. 
The fields of Ghansoo are shaded by very large walnut and cedar trees : 
we measured an elm twcnty«niile feet round, at five from the ground. 
From Ghansoo there is a route via Soangor Sheong. (9,000 feet), over 
the Sheoo Ghatee, (13,350 feet), to Paneemor and the Boorun Gbatee. 
It is very interesting from its carrying the traveller amongst the most 
splendid cliff-scenery : and from the summit of the Sheoo Ghatee seve- 
ral shadowy ranges, covered with snow, are seen to occupy the horizon 
from north to north-east^-^the far away mountains of Ladakh and Thibet. 
Our descent towards Sungla was amongst huge detached masses of 
gneiss, and at about one*third the height ascended, we again reached the 
Buspa, no longer roving like a maniac in a strait waistcoat, but flowing 
rapidly, and frequently in three or four streams, along the open valley 
of Sungla : Kumroo, the old capital of Busehur, is seen across the river, 
and devated several hundred feet above it: it is about a mile from 
Sungla; the intervening tract being a high plateau, a forest of fruit 
trees. The rajas found themselves Tartar up here, and determining to 
become Hindoo, removed to Rampoor, as-^arvM componert nui^fnu*^ 
Peter the Great left Asia and Moscow for Europe and Petersburg. 
The banks of the Buspa are here fringed with the willow and " Soorch," 
(Hippophse salicifolia) ; and in three or four miles from Ghansoo, we 
crossed to the right bank by a good Sanga, immediately under the 
village of Sungla, close to which we encamped, by a temple adorned as 
usual in these parts, with many beads and horns of wild sheep, deer, &c. 
Some of them belonging to an animal called kin, skin, or sikeeng, are of 

Digitized by 


1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya, 111 

monstrous dimensioiis. The very general practice of deconitmg the 
temples (not of the men but) of the gods, with horns, which prevails 
£ven amongst the Mohammedans of the Hindoo Koosh, reminds ns of 
the expression-^" horns of the altar"-*-among the Jews, as well as of the 
altar of Apollo at Delos, which is reported to have been wholly formed 
of them. There is perhaps a reference to the rays of the son, which are 
denoted in Hebrew by the word Kiran, which also expresses horns; 
hence, when it is said " Moses' face shone," the Vulgate chooses to render 
it — " was horned ;" and the Italian painters have ever since represented 
the prophet with horns just as Alexander the Great (" Dhul," Kamein) 
wears them in right of his father Jupiter Ammon. The sun would 
naturally play a prominent rdle in the primeval worship of the Himalaya, 
and I remember once at Paikha, on the upper Pabur, when marking out 
a short vocabulary, having " Purmeshwur" given me as the name for 
the sun : a significant commentary on the Gayatri ! 

Sungla is rather a large village, built on a slope facing the south- 
east, about 150 feet above the Buspa, and 8,600 above the sea. There 
seems no medium in the looks of the inhabitants* who are either very 
handsome or very ugly. Of the extreme beauty of the valley there can 
be but one opinion : the river flows swiftly down the centre over gravel 
and stones ; above this, on plateau of various levels, is an abundant ter- 
raced cultivation of cheena, bathoo, tobacco, kodah, and the beautiful 
buckwheat, diversified by occasional woods of cedar, poplar, and the 
usual fruit trees, irrigated ad libitum without labour ; the difficulty in the 
hills being to level the ground, and in the plains to water it. To the 
south the base of the outer Himalaya is sloping and verdant, with 
woods of cedar and kdil firs : and immediately above the valley to the 
north-east, rise the enormous bare, grey, rocky scarps and pinnacles of 
the Ruldung group, with considerable snow beds wherever the slope 
allows, and still resisting the force of the southern sun. This magni- 
ficent group extends far up the Buspa towards and beyond Rukchum, 
above which a single pyramid of rock springs up nearly to the height 
of the loftiest peaks behind Sungla, 21,500 feet : but to see the valley 
and its setting in all its perfection of pinnacle, crag, and fields of the 
purest snow, one must mount to the highest hamlet towards the Roopin 
Pass. The scene strongly recalled Chamouni to my mkid : the Buspa 
enacts the Arve well, and in each situation the mountains actually rise 


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112 Diary of an Eseursion to the Shatooi [No. 170. 

about 13,000 feet right above the spectator. Seen laterally from Gheenee 
at only seven miles distance, the Ruldung presents the additional 
feature of dark and extensive forests, and the sharp needles are there 
mingled with long dome-shaped ridges, all invested in perpetual snow, 
from which, in June and July, is heard the frequent crash of the ava- 
lanche. *' Ruldung" is the Kunawuree name for Muhadeo, who resides 
here, as Jove 

* On the snowy top 
Of cold Olympus ruled the middle air, 
His highest heaven.' 

The legend is, that Ruldung is a chip of the true Rylas near Mansoro- 
wur, brought here at the desire of an ancient king and penitent : and 
it is considered meritorious to perambulate the mountain, keeping it 
always to the right hand, exactly as the cairns, &c., are circled in Scot- 
land and Ireland, and for the same reason, i. e. because the sun goes 
round the earth in this direction."' Amidst all this superstition, the 
sublimity and immaculate purity of the Ch'hota Kylas render it no 
mean.emblem of "the high and holy one that inhabiteth eternity ;" and 
we may quote with admiration, if we do not adopt with conviction^ the 
lines of the poet, written under the inspiration of similar scenery— 

* Mighty Mont Blanc 1 thou wert to me 
That moment with thy brow in heaven. 
As sure a sign of Deity 
As ere to mortal gaze was given, &c.* 

There does, indeed, appear to be both benevolence and design in the 
existence of these great mountain chains, and we may consider the 
Himalaya as nature's vast reservoir for the irrigation of empires ; opened 
every spring by PhcBbus Apollo, when like Amram's son, he ascends from 
the south and causes the waters to gush from the flinty rock. It is 
probable, that a portion of the Hindoo veneration for the range is owing 
to its containing the springs of so many of the rivers which fertilize their 

When at Sungla, the traveller should not fail to ascend the Harong 
Ghatee, over a brown sterile spur of the Ruldung, on the route to Me- 

* I have seen a Sikh soldier go through exactly the same ceremony at a shrine near 
Makhowal Anundpoor. From how much superstition would a knowledge of the aolar 
system hfive rescued the world ! 

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1846.] and Bowrun Passes over the Himalaya, 113 

bur and Cheenee, for the view of the snowy range and Passes to the 
south. The scenery on the Buspa at Rukchum is said to be of the 
finest description : want of time prevented our seeing them. At Sungla is 
first met the petit shrine called Chasiun by the Buddhists ; in one of the 
four sides a small cylinder revolves on an axis, which the passenger 
puts in motion. Such a cylinder on a great scale may be seen in the 
temple at Soongnum, inscribed all over with ' om mane pudme hom/ 
which Klaproth interprets ' oh ! the Jewel is in the lotus :" of which the 
esoteric meaning is very deep. The prayer is considered as good as said 
by each revolution ; an idea which could never have originated but in 
the mechanical and material mind of the Mongolian race. 

This day, the 18th, was cloudy, and snow fell on the Passes to the 
southward, but the afternoon was fine. We halted on the 19th. 

September 20th. — From Sungla to Nooroo Bassa, about ten miles, 
in six hours, generally up an easy ascent by a path which is perfection, 
compared with any between this and the Shatool : traversing first some 
woods of cedar and koil, and then over the cultivated slopes of one or 
two small hamlets, where the wheat and barley were being cut, and sent 
down to Sungla. Above this, the path lies over grassy mountains, 
with wooded crags across the torrent to the left-hand; the whole 
somewhat tame after what we have seen, but for the Ruldung. The 
Chough abounds amidst the cliffs in all this and the upper portion 
of Kunawur. On the way to-day« we met a herd of the Yak, which 
supplies the Chownree. In Thibet, or the neighbouring districts of 
Toorkistan, we have the origin of the Pashas of one, two, three, or many 
tails, who once carried terror over Europe. About 1,000 feet below 
Nooroo, the path turns to the right, the glen of the Nu^oon Pftss being 
straight ahead. About here large beds of ligularia amicoides were in 
seed fully ripe, while on the south side of the range, it is still in fiill 
blossom : 700 feet higher, the declivities are covered with Anagyris 
barbata ; the seed nearly ripe, but much injured by grubs. The roots 
are much branched, and extend several feet under ground. The plant 
is here called Bkaloo ka buroot; it flowers in May and June, and 
resembles a lupine of the deepest purple. Nooroo Bassa is an extensive 
open piece of grassy land, 12,985 feet above the sea, and a few hundred 
feet above the highest birches, which afford abundance of fuel. A 
stream flows about 100 feet below to the south amongst beds of 

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1 14 Diary of an Eacuraion to the Shatool ' [No. 170. 

snow; its right bank is rugged and craggy; the left sloping and 
covered with Cyananthus, &c., the general prospect limited and rather 
uninteresting. A bitterly cold storm of sleet came down from the Pa88» 
just as our tents arrived, and we had hard frost all night, fully a 
month before it is thought of at Simla. 

September 2l8t. — Over the Roopin Pass to Rasur or Rasrung. called 
also Si^a Peechoo, distance eleven or twelve miles. We left Nooroo 
at twenty minute past six a. m., and by an easy ascent reached the 
crest of the Pass at a quarter past nine, including, as elsewhere, several 
stoppages to collect seeds, &c. Heavy and suspicious masses of douda 
accelerated our departure, but the sun soon dispelled them, and re* 
vealed the gigantic forms which, surrounded us — the embodied frost — 
giants of the Edda, and very unlike the guardian angels seen by 
Gehazi to encompass the prophet. The northern declivity of the Pass 
is quite a trifle in comparison with that of the Shatool. On the 20th 
of September 1833, it was an unbroken and extensive sheet of snow, but 
to-day we only met two beds of it near the summit ; nor is there any 
Moraine, so terrible at the Shatool (torn its chaos of sharp gneiss 
masses. Here the rock is chiefly flat micaceous slate, sometimes ap- 
proaching to sandstone, and therefore of easy passage^ though not 
macadamized. The grand cliffis of the Shatool are also wanting here, 
but on the left or east, there are some flue shivered pinnacles of rock, 
plentifully strewed with snow- beds and sufficiently high 

• To shew, 
That earth may reach to hea?en, 
Yet leave vain man below.' 

And nowhere does he appear vainer and more insignificant than 
here, if we regard only his physical strength and size ; at the same 
time, the mind of a Shakspeare or a Newton is more truly wonderful 
and sublime than all the Ossas heaped on all the Pelions in the world. 
The glory of the Roopin Pass consists in the cascades on its south side, 
in its lovely valley, and in the views of the Buspa Dell and the Ruldung 
pinnacles, which (torn this point are seen from N£. to E. rising from 
great fields x)f the purest snow, untrodden by man, and probably by any 
living thing. On the 21st September 1833, the thermometer boiled on 
the summit of the Roopin at 186^: the elevation is reckoned to be 
15,460 feet : and on that day about noon it stood in the shade at 49**, 

Digitized by 


1846.] tmd B&onm Passes wer the Himalaya, 1 15 

uid in the sun at 68^. It is the Pass marked Goonaa in the map, 
which is another error, the Ooonaa being more to the west. " Pilgrim" 
refuses to all this range the honour of being the veritable Himalaya, and 
Captain Herbert considered, that the true continuation of this latter 
was in the Ruldung group, penetrated by the Sutluj near Murung : it 
is however merely a question of more or less ; and there is, at all events, 
no denying that from the Shatool Pass eastward, there is a snowy 
range, inasmuch as even on its south exposure, the snow never dis- 
appears : nor can the ftict of its gradually declining below the zone of 
perpetual snow in the Moral ka Kanda, between the Sutluj and the 
Pabur, detract from its claim ; though it must be allowed, that the moun* 
tains and Passes are inferior in altitude to those of Kemaon ; nor can the 
north-western mountains, any more than the whole world, furnish the 
prospect of overwhelming sublimity which the spectator enjoys from 
the Gragur, Binsur, and many more points near Almorah. Still the 
easternmost Pass into Kemaon from Thibet, the Byans, is under 
16,000 feet elevation, and of so gentle ascent, that it is crossed on horse- 
back : and the Chinese invasion of Nepal proves that, still more to the 
east, the Passes can scarcely be so difficult as the Shatool. 

Like Dean Swift, the mountains die at top first, and except a small 
white Heliehrysum and the fragrant Centaurea, the vegetation on and 
near the Pass is now being rapidly burnt up by the frost : two or three 
Gentians, the Aconitum dissectum, and the Delphinium vestitum, seem 
alone to defy its power : but few flowers remain of Saxifraga pamassiae- 
folia (orglandulosa ?), Sieversia elata, Ligularia amicoides, the yellow 
Tanacetum, common Senecio, and a Polygonum like the bistort of the 
Alps. On the crest of the Pass grow the Aplotaxis gossypina, Poten- 
tilla inglesii, HymenolsBua govaniana, Corydalis meifolia, and Saxi- 
fraga imbricata; the last two in flower. 

We quitted the crest at quarter past 10 a. m., the wind being bitterly 
cold, and descended 800 feet or so, over loose stones and frozen snow, 
by a steep rocky kloof to a kind of oval basin, extending in length 
from NNW. to SSE. from six to eight miles, by two or three across* 
enclosed by a barrier of black broken crags, debris, and snow beds ; the 
8ur£ace covered with snow and mica slabs, thrown about in great con- 
fusion ; a scene of utter silence and desolation. Here and there, there is a 
pool of water, and a multitude of tiny rills trickled under the stones, the 

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116 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

sources of the Roopin river, of which the glen below this valley, is 
found, after a long and steep descent, to be completely blocked across 
by a precipitous wall of black rock, from 250 to 300 feet high. Over 
this the accumulated streams leap down by two falls, which, to the best of 
my memory^ surpass in beauty the finest in Switzerland : the water 
perfectly clear, and reduced to white mist like the Staubbach, falls in 
the softest wreaths over succesive tiers of ledges, and about a mile lower 
down, where the two falls are brought into one line, the effect is exceed- 
ingly fine. The path has hitherto kept on the right bank of the stream, 
but crosses between the falls, where in 1833, a deep snow-bed supplied a 
bridge ; but this year, it is much melted here, though at the base of 
the lower fell, the river passes under an enormous mass of it. Here the 
path improves, following the narrow glen alongside the river, now 
flowing gently for a few miles as if to rest after its great leap. The 
mountain-cataract, which, having leaped from its more dazzling height, 

* Even in the foaming strength of ita abyss, 
(Which casts up misty columns that become 
Clouds raining from the re- ascended skies,) 
Lies low but mighty still.' 

The lateral cliffs all down to Rasrung are continuous on each side of the 
valley, and so whitened with cascades, that the scene considerably 
resembles Lauterbrunnen, in the Canton Bern, and fully deserves that 
name — ** nothing but springs." There is here indeed no wood, the whole 
being quite above the region of forest ; but the grassy or rocky talus at 
the base of the crags, as well as the small levels by the water, are richly 
enamelled with flowers : — such as Primula stuartii, purpurea, and glabra : 
Sieversia elata, Aconitum dissectum, Ligularia amicoides and another, 
Polemonium cseruleum, Scrophularia urticsefolia, the blue Meconopsis, 
and a host of Compositse and Labiatae, especially near the falls; the 
Greek valerian is very common, and in full^ bloom, as is a very pretty 
species of Forget-me-not ; these, and the Lotus comiculatus are amongst 
the many examples which in these mountains frequently replace us for 
a moment or two in our native land : 

* And, as in forts to which beleaguerers win 
Unhoped-for entrance through some friend within, 
One clear idea wakened in the breast, 
By Memory's magic, lets in all the rest.' 

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1846.] and Boarun Passes over the Himalajfa. 117 

Many of our Himalayan tourists, especially the earlier ones, have allow- 
ed their imaginations to run away with their judgments, and have 
dressed up their descriptions more in the style of Macpherson or of 
Harris than of sober prose : but it must be admitted in extenuation, 
that the reality of the scenery, and the champagne atmosphere, able to 
drive all sadness but despair, have an inevitable tendency to exalt the 
spirit to the etherial regions, which there, Ghamaeleon-like, naturally 
assumes the tint of their deep native blue. Even in the physical de- 
partment of the man, a greatly diminished dose of alcohol will suffice to 
produce intoxication. The daily repetition, however, of the sublime 
and beautiful, is very apt to create a revulsion of feeling, till at length, 
to get rid of the perilous stuff which preys upon the heart, we take 
refuge in apathy, and perhaps fall so low as to adopt the Frenchman's 
panegyric, '* Grande, magnifique, superbe — pretty well I" or at least to 
swear with Akenside— * 

* Mind, mind alone, bear witness heaven and earth. 
The proper foantains in itself contains 
Of beauteous and sublime.' 

After many delays from seed and plant-collecting, and a heavy storm 
of lain and hail at the falls, we reached Rasrung at half-past 3 p. m. ; a 
small sloping plot, covered with grass and flowers, just below the highest 
birches on the right bank of the Roopin, which is here crossed by a 
natural bridge of snow, still from twenty to twenty-five feet thick. 
The usual encampment is a little lower down and on the opposite (or 
left) side of the river, under a high cliff called Jeyral, where water 
boils at 194®, which gives an elevation of 10|,800 feet. Rasrung is about 
11,000. The sward here, and at Seetee, is much cut up by an animal 
like "a rat without a tail," which is figured in Royle's Illustrations, 
and is also found on the choor. It takes two hours to reach the upper 
water-fall from Jeyral, and four, the crest of the Pass. We had frost 
all night at Rasrung. 

September 22nd. — To Jaka, ten miles, in six and a quarter hours. A 
a cloudless morning, but we only reached our tents at 2 f. m. in time 
to escape a heavy rain, which fell in snow on the Passes. The climate 
up here is as " perfidious" as that of England : a sky without a speck 
at six A. M. is overcast by noon : at 2 or 3 p. m. we have a storm, and all 
is blue again : often however — and the phenomenon seems hitherto unex* 

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118 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

plained-^no rain falls, but heavy clouds rest on all the mountains, which, 
notwithstanding the increase of cold, altogether disappear during the 
night. In Kemaon, when all else is perfectly serene, a fine thin wreath 
of cloud may be seen to issue from the summits of Nunda Devee (No. 
XIV. of the great map) and the Panch Choola (No. XIX.) which has 
led Europeans to the conclusion that a volcano exists there : while the 
natives solve the appearance by the supposition that culinary operations 
are going on amongst the immortals. 

The route to-day was by a very rocky and often tree-encumbered 
path, but never difficult to a footman, following for some miles the 
right bank of the river, which is then crossed by a snow-bridge. It 
continues for a greater distance on the opposite bank, and finally re- 
turns to the right side by another snow bed, which must be perma- 
nent, being entered in the Trigonometrical Survey map^ made about 
twenty-five years ago. For the first half or better, the glen, about 200 
yards wide, is bounded on each side by noble-bastioned crags, in several 
places rising vertically from the river full 1,500 feet, and terminating 
in picturesque shattered pinnacles. The vegetation though luxuriant is 
still herbaceous, only consisting of Aplotaxis aurita, Polygonum moUe, 
Aconitum heterophyllum, Cynoglossum uncinatum, Sedum purpureum. 
Spiraea kamtchatkica (Meadow-sweet), Polemonium cceruleum. Gera- 
nium wallichianum, PotentUla atrosanguinea, Corydalis govaniana, 
Scabiosa candolleana, Achillcea millefolia, a straggling Cerastium with 
flowers like Stellaria holosteum, called Gundeeal, and used as a vege- 
table. But the birch soon clothes the cliffs, and then fine clumps of the 
dark silver fir (Picea webbiana) like so many gigantic cypresses, 
appear and become the predominant tree, with maple, and a rich under- 
wood of lilac or " Shapree" (Syringa Emodi), the lemon-scented Lau- 
rustinus, " Tealain" or " Thelain" (Viburnum nervosum of Royle), Rho« 
dodendron campanulatum, Lonicera obovata and bracteata, Rosa seri- 
cea, Ribes glaciale and acuminata, several Salices, &c. Amongst the 
shady rocks here and on the eastern side of the Ghangsheel, &c. grows 
a large tall composite plant of the Gorymbifene, with a very strong 
smell of raw carrots ; and on the cliffis of the right bank I found large 
tufts of a very elegant Dianthus, in full bloom, of a pink colour. 

The levels on the river banks are delightfully wooded with birch, 
pine, maple, &c. : the scenery is so exquisitely beautiful, combined with 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya. 119 

the grandeur of the rocks, that one is tempted to reverse the Persian 
proverb and ask what was the purpose of creating heaven while this 
vaUey existed ? The Roopin, occasionally bridged and banked by snow- 
bedsy and clear as crystal, dashes on from rock to rock, augmented every 
half mile by rivulets firom the lateral cliffs and glens. These are gene- 
rally constituted of mica-slate, but at the lowest snow- bed, the rock 
alters to quartzose strata, with a corresponding change in the scenery. 
Crossing to the right bank, the path ascends a steep of 800 to 1,000 feet, 
and the silver fir gives place to a dense and lofty forest of koil and 
pindrow pines, yew, hazel, Rosa webbiana, &c. The glen narrows to a 
gorge, the left bank presenting a wall of magnificent cliffs, perhaps 
2,000 feet high, facing WSW., the brow splendidly wooded with pine. 
These cliffs soften down opposite Jaka into steep declivities, covered 
with forest and spacious grassy glades. The river raves below, and 
is no more approached in this stage. On leaving the forest, we 
reached Jaka by about a mile of more open country, interspersed 
with thickets of Rosa sericea, Berberis brachybotrys, &c. The pasture 
is covered with Iris kemaonensis, Inula royleana, the scarlet and orange 
varieties of Potentilla atrosanguinea, ^&c. Jaka is but a small village, 
overhanging some huge crags, and surrounded by great horse -ch^snuts, 
wahiuts, peaches, &c. under which we pitched, but found their shade 
much too chilly. Water boiled at 198, which gives under 8,000 
feet: but the place is probably higher. We found the people very 
dvil; a frank, rough, good-humoured set, the Mookheea especially, 
bemg a pattern of these excellent. adjectives, and like Democritus, meet- 
ing every difficulty with a laugh or a loud whistle, the Lillibullero of 
the Himalaya. The people are of small stature and dark complexion, 
negroes almost compared with the fair faces of the vallies below Simla, 
which proves, if proof be wanted, that the colour is not entirely depen- 
dent on climate. 

September 23n}.-*To Kooar, nine miles, in four and a quarter hours, 
an easy stage in this direction. For about a mile and a half the path 
18 execrably bad, rocky, and steep, descending about 1,500 feet to the 
river, and reaching its bed by a short but rather difiicult ledge of rock, 
known as the Tunkoor Ghat, which reminded us in a small way of the 
Panwee ka Dhunka. The Roopin seems here to have several names, 
Sheelwanee, Gosung, Tous, &c. We soon quitted its bed, and re-ascend- 

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120 Diary of an Eseurtion to the ShatoQl [No. 170. 

ed some 800 or 1,000 feet, through forests of pindrow, large hazel 
trees (Corylus lacera), Grewia (or Celtis), Rhur buckiamela. Milling* 
tonia dillenifolia, Staphylea emodi (nagdoun, the snake-subdner), Sym* 
plocos panicolata, Betola cylindrostachya, elm, and maple ; the vege- 
tation of Nagkunda. The opposite bank is one series of huge crags 
and cliffs, falling sheer down to the riyer, with a " boundless conti« 
guity" of pine above. A large tributary here joins the Roopin from the 
wild shattered glen of the Nulgoon Pass. Open, grassy, and rather 
warm mountains succeeded, on which the path gradually declines to 
the river, where we reached the left bank by the sanga-^called in the 
map, Wodar — from an impending rock, used as a sheep-fold. From 
this an easy ascent of two miles, shaded by elm, Horn-beam (Carpinua 
viminea), horse-chesnut, Comus macrophylla, rhus. Alder birch, 
maple, and Mohroo oak— brought us to Poojalee, a very well-built 
village, one of the group of four or five collectively, called Kooar, situat- 
ed on the sunny slope of the mountains, amidst a profusion of the usual 
fruit trees, and with a spacious tract of terraced cultivation, now one 
rich glow of the splendid carmine, orange, and yellow hues of the 
Bathoo, and the more delicate pink of the Phuphur or Buck- wheat. A 
fine stream rattles past the village from the mountains above, which 
extend from N£. to SB. covered with forest, and reaching the region of 
birch. They slope up easily, but from N. to NB. several bold peaks 
and bluff rocky promontories stand out in all the " wild pomp of 
mountain majesty." 

Though now uncommonly low, the Roopin is here quite unfordable ; 
its general temperature from Rasrung down to Kooar, is in the day-time 
from 46® to 50® at this season ; from the clearness of its water and the 
beauty of its banks is most likely derived its name, which I think 
signifies ** beautiful/' as " Pabur" means " clear" — ^Tous (or Tamasa) 
" dark blue," &c. All the advantages indeed, of this valley, Paradise are 
counterbalanced by some serious drawbacks, one of which, the goitre, 
deforms rather than afflicts almost every inhabitant of Kooar ; for while 
it shortens the breath, it does not, they say, shorten life or cause pain. 
In so far as it disables its subject from climbing the mountains, nature 
may seem to fail in adapting man's organization to his circumstances : 
but I could not learn that with his breath she takes away his mind too. 
as in those shocking samples of humanity, the cretins of the Valais, &c. 

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1846.] and Boorun Pa»$es over the Himalmfa, 121 

Water boils ha« at 198, which would give about 8,000 feet elevation. 
The villagers are of dark complexion. They keep numerous bee-hives, 
as usual located in the walls of the houses, which are very substantial, 
of atone and timber, roofed with thick slabs of mica^slate, 

September 24M.— To Kala Panee, ten miles or perhaps more, in five 
hours and fifty minutes, of which the minutes were spent at Doodoo« 
The path fslls in about 600 feet to tiie Roopin, passes it by a sanga, and 
continues for about a mile on the right bank through grass ; then crosses 
a torrent firom the Changsheel PaM, and finally quits the Roopin river 
and gkn by an ascent of 1,200 feet up the steep grassy mountain to 
Doodoo or Doodrah, a considerable village, reckoned 8,732 feet above 
the sea, and the chief place of the district called Ruwain in NW. 
Ghirhwal ; the locality of which, I^insep in his account of the Ghoor- 
ka war declared himself unable to assign. The Iris nepalensis is 
plentiful here on the damp shady ground, as Iris decora is on the 
sunny meadows below. The Mohroo oak (Quercus dilatata) grows at 
Doodoo in great beauty and perfection : one specimen by the wayside 
measured nineteen feet round at five from the ground, and possesses so 
superb and verdant a head, that it would have been deified in the time 
of the Druids. It does not appear that any superstition attaches in 
these mountains to the oak similar to those which made the Greeks 
people it with dryads and oracular demons, and the Celts to regard it as 
the habitation of Damaway, their Jupiter Tonans, as apostrophized in 
masonic strains by one Vettius Valens Antiochenus ; 

' By the bright circle of the golden sun, 
By the bright coarses of the errant moon, 
By the dread potency of every star, 
In the mysterious Zodiac's burning girth**- 
By each and all of these supernal signs, 
We do adjure thee, with this trusty blade, 
To guard yon central oak, whose holy stem 
Involyefl the spirit of high Taranis :~ 
Be this thy charge.' 

Our mountaineers are too much accustomed to lop oak branches and 
leaves for their cattle to beUeve there can be any thing very sacred 
about it. 

At Doodoo, the path turns to the right, and after rising for a mile or 
more through an open cultivated country, enters the forest, in which it 

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122 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

contiimeB generally ascending, for three miles more to Kala Panee, 
which is a very damp confined spot, so closely hemmed in by the 
trees as scarcely to afford space for a tent. This forest, covering the 
north side of a spur from the Changsheel, is very dense and chilly, 
consisting for the most part of tall pindrow firs, yew, maple, hazel, 
cherry (Cerasus comuta), white-beam (Pyrus lanata), with a very rank 
undergrowth of Nepeta govaniana (a very aromatic plant), Adenostem- 
ma, and a tall shrubby species of Strobilanthes, which also abounds on 
Huttoo and Muhasoo, and which the hillmen fancifully assert to flow- 
er only on the year of the Muha-koomb at Hurdwar. The truth is, that 
the plant is greedily eaten by sheep, and that perhaps not one in a 
myriad escapes being browsed too low to admit its flowering, which 
this season occurred from August till October. 

Water boils here at 197^, and the elevation is probably about 9,000 
feet. There is no village nearer than Doodoo, from which supplies 
must be brought on. Heavy storms of rain, hail, and thunder all the 
afternoon from 2 p. k. made this uncomfortable spot doubly wretched. 

September 25th, — Over the Changsheel Pass to Looloot or Lourrot, 
about eleven or twelve miles, which took us eight hours, including 
many stops and a long rest on the Pass : the marph may be easily 
performed in six hours. The route continues up the forest, which 
abounds in streams ; path rather rocky, and blocked up by fallen trees. 
The black bear is common and dangerous : we saw a man at Doodoo 
who had been terribly torn by one without any provocation ; the white 
or yellow species is also said to abound, but frequents the crags on the 
heights above the forest. Emerging at length from its chilling shade, 
we reached an alpine glade, like all the higher parts of the Changsheel, 
a perfect carpet of flowers of all forms and colours ; the Botanic Garden 
of Asia. Amongst them were conspicuous the Anagyris barbata, Morina 
longifolia, and Codonopsis rotundifoUa; and now the Picea webbiana, Rosa 
webbiana, lilac, currant, &c., appear, followed, as we rose, by Dolomiaea 
macrocephala, Cassiope fastigiata, Ldgularia arnicoides, sweet Centaurea, 
Polygonum vacciniifolium, tansy, and other plants of the snowy range. 
On the western side, the Caltha govaniana (or Himalensis), the marsh 
marigold of England, the azure Meconopsis, and a large Cynoglossum 
(grandiflorum) resembling the common English hounds-tongue, are 
abundant, as the Cyananthus lobata is on both sides. The crest 

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1846.] a$ui Boonm Passei aver the Himalaya. 123 

of the Pass, 12,871 feet above the sea line, is attained after a consider^ 
able ascent in the region above the forest, with lofty grey crags and 
spires of gneiss and mica slate above on the right hand ; and is conside- 
red high enough to be worthy of the stone cairns which mark the fear 
and the gratitude of the mountaineer. Being fortunate in a cloudless 
day, we rested a considerable time on the summit to inoculate our 
minds with the most extensive and magnificent panorama around us. 
The snowy range, that embodied eternity, <* shining like truth" or 
rather considerably more brilliant, is seen to perfection, and not looking 
the worse for a good sprinkling of snow yesterday; the Changsheel 
itself is perceived in this direction emanating from the parent mass in a 
ridge of shattered crags and pinnacles, on which summer may be fimded 
to have been just impaled by the frost-giants ; and the range from the 
Boorun to the Shatool Pass, with its lofty, shelving, and now russet- 
tinged continuation towards Rampoor and Huttoo. It is interesting to 
observe how regularly the forest all round ceases at a regular level, or 
at best creeps beyond the line of demarcation a little in the ravines, to 
be succeeded by the zone of grass and flowers. Kooar is seen below 
to the east, and on the west the view reaches down the vale of the 
Pabur to Chergaon and Rooroo. To the SW. is a great reach of the 
Changsheel, the rounded and almost tabular summits rising consider- 
ably above the luxuriant forest which clothes their lower declivities, and 
presenting, a gently sloping surface of the finest yellow autumnal tints ; 
a most inviting though rather remote site for a settlement. The supply 
of wood for fuel and timber is inexhaustible ; and the rice of Chooara 
would supply abundance of one important element of food : — at all events, 
it would furnish a most eligible spot for the head- quarters of a summer 
party from Simla. The circle of vision is completed on the south by 
a dreamy, mystic, " multitudinous sea," with the snowy range for the 
bounding surf, the swelling outlines melting into each other, and the 
whole seeming as if it reposed to all eternity after the enormous efforts 
by which it was upheaved. The Himalaya is seen to the best advantage, 
not at noon, but a little, before sun-set, when, especially in the cold 
season, its whole extent is at once, and most gloriously lit up to a rose 
or copper colour, <* one living sheet of burnished gold." Gradually the 
"sober livery of grey twilight" creeps up towards tHe loftiest peaks, 
extinguishes all their *< bright lights" and replaces them with the deadly 

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124 Diary of an E»cwr$uM to the Shatool [No. 170, 

pale hue of a corpse ; the soul of the mountaina has departed ; and if 
the spectator be contemplating the rai^s north of Simla, he says or 
MDgs its requiem with the pun — " Sic transit gloria Mundi / 

The descent from the Changsheel Pass to Looloot is by the south side 
of a great spur of the mountain, and is so gradual and winding that the 
forest is not reached for above two miles; the first trees met are the 
birch, the homed cherry, the mountain ash, the Kurshoo oak, the silver 
fir, and most abundant coppice of Rhododendron campanulatum and 
Rosa webbiana. The oak and far soon predominate; lower down the 
forest is almost exclusively pindrow, with koil, rai, cedar and the sweet 
Viburnum : and lastly, the usual thickets of Rosa sericea, Berberis, and 
Indigofera, lead to the arable tracts. Except in the pindrow forest, 
where it is steep and slippery, the path is generally very good this 
stage« Water boils here at 198^, indicating an elevation of from 8,000 
to 8,500 feet : but the thermometer had not been verified, nor the water 
distilled, both very necessary to the accuracy of the process. Looloot 
is an insignificant place, and the inhabitants seem a poor, filthy and 
rather ill-looking race. They have had however, the spirit to introduce 
the cultivation of the potato, of which we obtained a small but wel- 
come supply. This is the only site beyond Muhasoo where we observed 
any. A stream fiows towards the Pabur below Looloot; the opposite 
side of the glen, to the S W., is thickly peopled, and beautifuUy cultivated* 
the Bathoo as usual in the greatest proportion. With all its brilliuicy, 
the bread made from its flour seems bitter and unwholesome. 

September 26th, — ^To Chergaon, eight or nine miles, in three hours : 
the first part of the toute is a descent of from 1,500 to 2,000 feet down 
grassy mountains to the Pabur, which we crossed by a sanga of two 
spars opposite Tikree. The path then keeps the right bank to Chergaon, 
and is good, except in one place where it passes for a few hundred 
yards on a narrow rocky ledge, about 200 feet above the river. Here, 
in 1833, a friend of mine lost his ghoont by the Ml of a small bridge, 
and in general, it is not advisable to take ponies beyond Chei^j^n. 
In May and June, when the glen of the Pabur is excessivdj warm, 
the traveUer to the Shatool and Boorun Passes may avoid it by keeping 
the heights above the right bank by a route from Huttoo, given by 
Captain Hutton, in one of the volumes of the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal. Even at this season we found the temperatnie 

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1846.] and Boorun Pastea over the Himalaya. 125 

disagreeably warm, till the Bunny forenoon was succeeded by a cool 
doody day. On the 27th we walked to Rooroo Kothee in two and a 
half hours. 

September 28f A.— To Thana Kashain, ten and a half miles, in four 

hoars and forty minutes : the road is good, chiefly through cultivation ; 

quits the valley of the Pkbur about three miles below Rooroo, and in 

two more, by an ascent of 1,000 feet, reaches Krassa, an exceedingly 

well-built and comfortable looking village ; the Kunaits, or descendants 

of the Rajpoots and aborigines occupying one department, and the 

Kholees, or Helots, a separate one. These poor outcasts are held in 

great contempt, and are never allowed to mix in society with their liege 

k>rds, the Kunaits. In a pine-wood here, the downward traveller should 

hreakfisst and pass the heat of the day. Hence the road undulates up 

the left bank of the alder-fringed Pursrar or Dogra Nuddee, formed 

by two branches which unite below Kuskain. We ascended the fork 

for 600 or 800 feet, and encamped a little above the village in a very 

airy spot, shaded by some fine cedars, with the twin-village Thana 

a little below to the west. The elevation is probably 7,000 or 7,200 

feet, which ensures a delicious climate after Rooroo. About 500 feet 

higher, and a mile distant on the ridge above to NW., is the small but 

rather inaccessible fort of Tikhur, formed by two square-roofed bas« 

tions, connected by curtains, all of good masonry, and held by a garrison 

of one man, who refused to surrender till my companion climbed over 

the wall and opened the gate. The walk command an interesting 

view of spacious and well-cnltured mountain slopes, with several large 

vilkges, above which the koil pine abounds, erowned by the lofty 

Ghumba ridge and Suraroo Pass. This is the Nawur District, rich in 

iron ore, which is found disseminated in grains like iron*filings in a 

grey, friable micaceous sandstone, which is quarried from mines a little 

below the village, pulverized, and then washed in running water, which 

carries off the earthy matter ; the ore is then smelted, and as much as 

a thousand maunds are said to be made in favourable years : most of 

which is carried on mules to Simla and the plains. The shafts or mines 

dip at all angles, and are very like the dens of wild beasts ; they are 

more or less inundated during the rains, and the work can consequently 

only be carried on during the cold and dry seasons. Some of the ore 

is sent to Shyl to be smelted, probably to economize wood. The usual 

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126 Diarff of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

rock here is a silvery grey mica slate, containing a very large proportion 
of quartz. There is also a blue clayslate, with which the houses are 
roofed in the concave style. 

September 29/A.— -To Shyl or Hurrela» ten miles, in six hours ; we 
had considerable difficulty in getting coolees ; Kushain brought np its 
quota punctually, but on applying to Thana, we found that the 
Mookheea, having forgotten or disregarded, if he had ever heard, the 
precept of the Temperance Societies — 

*' There's not a joy this world can give like that it takes away, 
When the glow of slight excitement yields to drunkenness the sway," 

lay gloriously or hopelessly drunk — ' o'er all the ills of life victorious ;' — 
so that we were compelled to assume his official functions, and use a 
little gentle coercion. The route lies up the mountain a little to the left 
of Tikhur, and on reaching the crest of the Ghumbee range, continues 
along it to the right, gradually ascending. The mountain, hitherto 
smooth and grassy, with a mica slate basis here changes to gneiss, 
which occurs in a labyrinth of great blocks and crags, with a coppice of 
Kurshoo oak. Viburnum nervosum, cotoneaster, &c. The more common 
plants are Nepeta govaniana, Impatiens (glandulosa ?), Potentilla atro- 
sanguinea. Polygonum moUe, Delphinium vestitum, several umbelliferae, 
and the Anemone discolor, " Kukra," which in May covers the moun- 
tains with its white and blue. The acrid leaves are used by the moun- 
taineers to raise blisters ; but they are said to produce bad sores, leaving 
a permanent scar. The " Chitra" or Drosera muscipula — " Sundew" — 
a curious little plant which abounds between Kotgurh and Simla is 
applied in the same way. The elevation of the Suraroo Pass is 9,875 
feet, commanding a glorious and extensive view, which includes the 
Koopur and Kunchooa ranges, the Moral and Changsheel up to the 
snows, with a long segment of the great range itself, in which the posi- 
tions of the Shatool and Boorun Passes are well fixed by their p3n:amid8. 
On the other side the huge wooded and grassy range of Huttoo is the 
most prominent object, its base watered by the Chugountee Nuddee, the 
opposite or western bank of which presents one of the most beautiful and 
extensive sheets of cultivation in these mountains. Chumba, Chumbee, or 
Chamee is a term very generally used in the Himalaya to express a moun- 
tain range. The road to the summit of this Ghumbee is good, and we 
reached it in three hours very quiet walking ; but the descent to Shyl is the 

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1846.] amd Boorun Passes aver the Himalaya, 127 

very reverse, the path being very steep, bad, and rocky, oyer a most daz- 
zling decomposing micaceoos shale near the top, and with some awkward . 
steps near the bottom, where several streams are passed — the head waters 
of the Chngountee, one of the main feeders of the Girree. Shyl is a 
considerable village, or rather group of villages between two of these, 
and possesses a good share of arable land. It belongs to Basehnr, and 
is about 8,000 feet above the sea. Passing the villages we descended 
by a rough flight of stone steps to a stream, and then re^ascended the 
opposite or Huttoo side, till about 100 feet above Shyl. where we 
pitched our tents by a Bowlee amidst woods of young cedar. Supplies 
are got with difficulty from Rutnaree, a village, about one mile south, 
which shares alternately with Shyl. the charge of hospitality, and which 
would apparently transfer to it willingly the whole honor and merit of 
entertaining strangers, perhaps from having hitherto been so unlucky 
as to chance on few or no angels amongst them. 

September 30M. — ^To Nagkunda, eight or nine miles, over Huttoo 
mountain, of which we reached the summit, 10,670 feet, (water boiling 
at IQO'') in 1 h. 50 m. by the Pugdundee route, which keeps to the left of 
and below the made road, and, which from precipitous rocks, is impractica- 
ble for ponies. The made road passes under a ruined fort called Kurena, 
and then over the north shoulder of Huttoo, within 400 feet of the 
Bttmmit, on which we passed some hours. Huttoo or Whartoo, may be 
called the Righi of the Himalaya ; but it must be confessed, that we are 
here totally deficient in three main constituents to the attractions of the 
Alps: first, their exquisite lakes; second, their equally exquisite hotels 
and markets ; and third, their historical or legendary associations, such 
as those of William Tell, and the confederates of Griitli. In Hindooism 
the gods interpose so constancy, that man is nothing. But so far as 
natural scenery is concerned, I do not know a more delightful walk than 
that along the rounded swelling knolls of the Huttoo range, with its edg- 
ing of " castled crags" of gneiss rock to the north-west, its alternate 
coppices of Kurshoo oak, and meadows enamelled with flowers, and its 
spacious views. Those of the snowy range are inferior to few, extending 
from (probably) the Peer Punjal of Kashmeer by the Chumba, KooUoo, 
and Shatool ranges, to and beyond Jumnootree, which rises over the high 
slopes of the Ghangsheel like a double-poled tent. Choor, Koopur, Kun- 
phooa, Moral, are all conspicuous features ; Huttoo itself being protract- 

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126 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

ed towards the last in the darkly wooded summit of Kot, below which to 
the right is Nowagurh, once a garrison of the Ohoorkas, who had also 
several posts, now dilapidated, on Hattoo, and who indeed, Kenite-like, 
made their nests on the rocks of every commanding height in these pro- 
vinces. Half way between the Ghoor and Kunchooa range in Tiroch (the 
Ootroj of the map,) appears an isolated -summit, probably Deobun, on the 
Mussooree road, between the Tons and the Jumna. On the W. and SW. 
are the Shallee and Muhasoo mountains, and on a clear day the houses 
of Simla may be discovered on the distant and hummock-like Jaka, 
which, after the grander features of the interior, looks small indeed. All 
around is the same ocean of summits and ranges which render the 
Himalaya rather one vast mountain of 1,500 or 2,000 miles in length, 
than a series of mountains ; for no where do we find the comparatively 
broad rallies of other systems, and this character may be best expressed 
by a different reading of one of Campbell's lines, *' its peaks are a thou* 
sand, their bases are one.'' In the absence of lakes it is apparently 
parallel to the Andes. Including the charming walk from the summit 
of Huttoo down to Kotgurh, and the ascent thence to Nagkunda, the 
ix)tani8t will enjoy a rich treat on Huttoo and its great buttresses. The 
summit pastures are alive with Fritillaria verticillata, Morina longifolia, 
Aster alpina. Anemone discolor, Corydalis govaniana, Potentilla atrosan- 
guinea, Viola reniformis, Hemiphragma heterophylla, Veronica, &c. &c. ; 
and the crags with Lloydia Himalensis, Saxifraga ligulata and parnas* 
sisefolia, the shrubby PotentiUa rigida or arbuscula, Anemone villosa 
(which is very common on the rocky banks of rivulets above the forest 
belt of the great range), two species of Lonicera, one of which greatly 
resembles L. alpigena, Ribes acuminata, Pyrus fdiolosa and lanata, 
and a few very stunted specimens of Rhododendron lepidotum. The 
Roscoea alpina is found up to 9,500 feet. The declirities of the monn* 
tain are clothed by a magnificent forest of Abies smithiana, Picea pin* 
drow, Quercus semicarpifolia, maple,, yew, and towards Nagkunda, 
sweet scented Viburnum (Thelain), Kadsura grandiflora, Deutzia corym- 
bosa, Philadelphus tomentosa, Symptocos paniculata (Lodh, Loj — a sheet 
.(5f white bloom in May), the scanitent Hydrangea, (H. altissima), Rhus 
buckiamela, Jasminum revolutum, and many species of Desmodium, 
Indigofera, Berberis, Clematis, &c. form a dense brushwood or coppice ; 
while the mossy rocks and shady banks are covered with Wulfenia am- 

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1846.] and Boarun Passes over the Himalaya. 129 

hentiaaa. Primula dentioulata, Pedicolaris megalantha, Gypsophila oeras- 
tioides, " Bhatlee," several beautiful species of Impadens ; and in the 
deepest recesses of the woods Actsoa acuminata, AcoBitum palmatum, 
Angelica glanca, Adenostemma, Strobilanthes, Liliom giganteum, called 
*' Book," and Arum speoiosum, '* Oangsh or Jungoosh/' a curious plant, 
the spathe of which beautifully striated with green* and ending in a long 
thread, bears an alarming resemblauoe to the hood of the cobra di capello. 
In autumn the bushes towards Kotgurh are matted with the leafless and 
sweet-scented Dodder (Cuscuta grandiflora), which, having no root, the 
natives may safely promise boundless wealth to the ludcy man who finds 
it. The Akash-bel, or heavenly twiner of the plains, Cuscuta refleza, 
may be considered the Mistletoe of the Brahmans. 

Huttoo only requires a deep lake and a slide of Alpnach to be a mine 
of wealth in its timber ; at present it lives, dies, and roU uselessly. In 
several places large tracts of pine have been killed, perhi^s by lightning, 
and remind us of Milton :«- 

'* As when heaven's fire 
Hath scathed the forest oaks or mountain pine^, 
With singed top, their stately growth, though bare, 
Stands on the blasted heath." 

The Berbery at Nagknnda, &o. is a distinct species, which is now 
covered with the most profuse crop of fruit, of a fine blue, with a bloom 
of a pink or lilac colour. It makes excellent jam, and I have had the 
pleasure of seeing young plants raised in Dublin from seeds which had 
undergone that fiery ordeal unscathed. 

The descent to Nagkunda occupied us one hour and twenty- five 
minutes ; there is a good bungalow, and two or three buneeas. As is 
frequently the case in this direction, the waters flow on one side to the 
Bay of Bengal, and on the other to the Arabian sea. The elevation of 
the bungalow is 9,000 feet. In one of the shady glens to the north, 
snd about 1,000 feet below, there is a most copious chalybeate spring, 
known as the Lal-panee. 

Hie Polygonum molle or polystachyium is very luxuriant about 

October \st, -^From Nagkunda to Muteeana, by the Pugdundee route, 
over the back of the Kumuloree or Sheerkot mountain, about ten miles, 
which we walked in three and three-quarter hours. The path rises 

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130 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

through brushwood immediately behind the bungalow for about 4,000 
feet, or 10,000 above the sea. and in about two miles enters the 
forest of pindrow, yew, maple, white*beam, Cerasus comuta, Co- 
toneaster affinia (Rous) and acuminata, with occasional glades covered 
with the richest beds of flowers, Potentilla atrosanguinea. Anemone dis- 
color, Gkranium wallichianum, Aplotaxis aurita, Spirsea kamtchatkica, 
Campanula latifolia. Ranunculus, &c. In the forest we find Erysimum 
alliaria, Strobilanthes wallichii, Nepeta govaniana, Aconitum palma- 
turn, Callimeris flexuosa, and a species of Diplopappus resembling it, 
Senecio canescens, and a very elegant species, perhaps asplenifolius, also 
common on the north side of Huttoo : on the rocks, Mulgedium macror* 
hiza, Saxifraga ligulata, mucronulata, and another : and under the 
shadiest crags, the may-apple of N. America, Podophyllum emodi, 
and the enchanter's night-shade, Circaea interknedia, whose only connec- 
tion with the black art seems to be the fact of its loving the absence of 
the sun. The views of the Chumba and KooUoo snowy ranges are 
magnificent, seen over and through the primeval forest, with the great 
range of Mundee to the right or north, the base covered with villages 
and cultivation, and the crest reaching up to about 1 1 ,000 feet, reported 
to afford cedar of the first dimensions. Huttoo lies on the left hand, 
and, latterly, Shallee, Muhasoo, and Simla, in front. At an abrupt 
turn, a path strikes down to the right towards the Sutluj and Koolloo, 
which must be carefully avoided, as well as another a little further on 
to the left, which will equally, though not so fatally, mislead the way* 
farer, and beguile him of his summum-bonum, which, under present 
circumstances, is probably his breakfast. A convenient and most 
romantic spot for this is on some crags about half way, where there is 
a small spring just below the path to the north. So far the difficulties 
of this route have consisted mainly in the fallen trees ; but beyond this, 
both in and out of the forest, it becomes so rocky in several places, as 
to be totally inaccessible to ponies, and very difficult to jumpans. On 
leaving the forest, there is a rapid descent of about 600 feet to some 
crags, under which a multitude of sheep are tended, and on which will 
be found a very pretty white Sedum or Sempervivum, and the shrubby 
Polygonum graminifolium : after this four miles of pleasant walking 
along and down the southern and grassy face of the mountains, latterly 
through cultivation, lead to Muteeana bungalow, 7,900 feet, which 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes aver the Himalaya. 131 

having neither doors nor window-frames, offers bat a cold welcome, 
with a roof, too, resembling the sieve of the Danaides : they manage 
these things better in the plains and in Kemaon ; but a decree has 
I believe gone forth for the erection of a new bungalow in a more con- 
venient site than the present, which is more suited to the herald Mer« 
cnry than to the mortal, weary, and thirsty traveller. It was the full 
intention of the late Major Broadfoot, C. B., to open the Pugdundee 
nmte, so greatly superior in scenery and shade to the made road, 
which, besides being nearly two miles longer, dips deeply into the hot 
glen below Muteeana, and is uninteresting till within a few miles 
of Nagkunda. It will always, nevertheless, be necessary as the winter 
medium of communication with Kotgurh, when the northern exposure 
of the mountain is buried in snow. In this warm glen, and in that of 
the Girree, grows the shirsha, a species of Acacia, perhaps A. smithiana, 
with flowers in May of the size of A. speciosa or Lebekh, the Siris of 
the plains, except that its long tassels of stamens are rose-coloured, and 
that it has not the delightful lemon fragrance of the latter. The 
shirsha greatly resembles A. julibrissi^ (i. e. gul-i-reshm or silk-flower), 
a Persian species, which is naturalized about Como. In the same glen 
will be found the pretty little Parochetus oxalidifoha or communis, the 
Cedrela serrata, Populus ciliata; and in the cornfields on the way side, 
the Nepal wall-flower (Erysimum robustum), Silene inflata, Carduus 
nutans (the fine purple thistle), &c. 

October 2nd, — To Fagoo, fifteen miles in five hours : the road rises 
to die Punta Ohatee, 8,500 feet, 100 feet above which to the right, 
stands a ruined post of the Ghoorkalees, who near this inflicted a 
decisive defeat on the mountaineers. Hence it descends and makes a 
great circuit to, and up the Kunag Ghatee, 8,400 feet, with the Teeba, 
^00 feet higher to the right ; it then passes a little under Theog, and 
leaches Fagoo by a long but gentle ascent. Except some koil and 
oak woods below Theog, and the forest of Mohroo oak on the Kunag 
mountain, there is but little wood in this stage ; the Mohroo oak (Quercus 
dilatata) considerably resembles the beautiful evergreen oak of Nynee 
Tal, and the Binsur and Gagur ranges in Kemaon, where it is known 
as the Illonj, Kilonj, or Timsha : it is the Quercus kamroopii of Don's 
prodromus : this botanist was afterwards inclined to identify the two 
trees, but they differ considerably in several particulars. A few specimens 

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132 Diary of an Excursion to the Shatool [No. 170. 

of QuercuB kamroopii may be seen on a south aspect at Simla on the 
lower bazar road, near Lord Combermere's bridge : and far down in the 
▼allies grows the " Banee/' (the Funiyat of Kemaon), or Qaercos annu* 
lata, which Don calls Quercus phollata. T|}e handsome globe-thistle, the 
Echinops cornigera, is very abundant on the sunny rocks of the Punta and 
Kunag ghats, and Morina longifolia flourishes on the Kunag Teeba : net* 
ther of these plants occurs nearer Simla, though Muhasoo would at first 
sight promise them : but the neighbourhood of the plains seems 
inimical to many Himalayan plants : just as thyme is plentiful at 
Almorah, but unknown at Nynee Tal and the Gagur, with a much 
more favourable elevation. The Iris decora is common on the grassy 
slopes of the Kunag mountain, and towards Fagoo, the Spiraea cunei* 
folia, " Takoo," in May and June, whitens as the roadside*like haw- 
thorn. The red Potentilla (P. nepalensis) and the deep*blue Gynoglossum 
furcatura abound at Theog, and tufts of the delicate little Androsaoe 
sarmentoea hung, as at Simla, from the sunny rocks. 

This stage is generally decried as the most uninteresting near Simla, 
BX^d it is assuredly rather bare : yet the views are fine ; the bold bare 
precipitous peak and ridge of Shallee, like a lion couchant, are no 
where seen to such advantage, and are novel features in the more 
usual scenery of Simla. On the left hand are the snowy range, Jum- 
mootree, and the Choor ; and latterly in the same direction the great 
northern spur of this last "cloud compeller" with its seamed and 
scarped flanks, pleasant meadows, and beautiful woods, reminds the 
traveller towards Mussooree, of one of the most picturesque excursions 
short of the snows ; and the botanist, of Trillium govanianum, Actaea 
acuminata, Paris polyphyllum. Podophyllum emodi, and several Poly* 
gonatums and Smilacinas, which Fraser, by a pardonable deviation from 
botanical orthodoxy, calls the lily of the valley. The mountaineers 
commonly distinguish the Choor as the " Choor ochandnee" or " crest of 
silver," the original having no reference to any abstraction of silver 
spoons, as some, impelled thereto by Indian experience, have supposed. 
The summit exhibits the only granite hitherto discovered amongst the 
outer ranges of the NW. mountains, and is apparently a continuation 
of the line of granitic out-breaks traced by Mr. Batten in Kemaon, 
inside of the Gagur, which, in all likelihood, owes its superior altitude tor 
the vicinity of this great natural lever. The granite of the Choor is* 

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1846.] and Boorun Passes over the Himalaya, 133 

however, aomewhat different from that of Kemaon and the snowy 
range ; and it is a remarkable fact, that this last (1 speak from specimens 
of the vast precipices of Sookhee. near Gungootree) is identical in its 
abundance of felspar and black schorl crystals, with the granite of the 
Ajmeer hills; where, by the way, is an example never yet, I think, pub- 
lished, fully as conclusive on the igneous origin of this rock as the more 
celebrated Olentilt in Perthshire. The exact locality is three or four 
miles west of Nusseerabad, on the way to Rajgurh, where the granite is 
seen penetrating the stratified rocks in a complete and very extensive 
network of veins, and in several places imbedding large masses of them» 
in a manner that must satisfy the most sceptical, it was once in a state 
of fusion. The Choor also, which like another Briareus, with a hun- 
dred arms, domineers over the outer Himalaya, is the nearest point to 
Simla, where we meet with the silver fir ; and separated as it is by com- 
paratively low ridges from the great ranges which form the natural 
habitat of the tree, the fact necessarily gives rise to speculations on its 
origin, and as in the similar case of the Alpaca and Llama of the isolated 
Cordilleras of the Andes, and its own Lagomys or tailless rat, induces 
the question whether nature does not necessarily and independently 
give birth " automate" to like forms of organization under similar cir* 
cumstances. Every traveller in the colder tracts of the Himalaya must 
remark the resemblance of the genera to those of Europe : while, with 
very few exceptions, the species are different ; so much so, that as Mr. 
Batten observes, though our oaks have acorns all right, the absence of 
the sinuous leaf of the English tree is enough almost to excommuni' 
cate our spinous brethren. The only exception to the above rule appears 
to be in New Holland, as compared with a like soil and climate in South 
Africa, where her productions, animal and vegetable, are so dissimilar 
in plan from those of all the world besides. 

The homeward route from Muteeana to Simla may be agreeably 
varied by a diversion to the Shallee mountain. From Muteeana to 
Bhogra» 1,500 to 2,000 feet below its summit, is a walk of six or seven 
hours by a path scarcely practicable for ponies. Back to 'Fagoo, via 
Kiarree, is about the same distance, including a long and tiresome ascent 
from the Nawul Khud : or one may return to Simla direct by Deotee in 
the Kotar state. Bhogra is the most southern of the cluster of &ve 
villages visible from Fagoo, on the east face of Shallee, the property of 

Digitized by 


134 Diary of an Exwrsian to the Shatool [No. 170. 

the Thakoor of Kiaree Mudhan. Though very steep and rocky, there is no 
difficulty in the ascent to the summit, (9,623 feet above sea level,) where 
Bheema Kalee or Devee * towers in her pride of place', in a small octa- 
gonal temple, and as nature personified, enjoys, when she pleases to 
look out, an exceedingly extensive and impressive view of her own 
woiks and votaries. Her character and attributes seem as severe as 
those of the Taurian Diana ; and the mountaineers, who scarcely acknow- 
ledge any other god or goddess, hold her in such awe, that I have known 
one of them positively refuse to approach nearer than 300 or 400 yards to 
her fane, though it was our only shelter from a cutting blast. Hence, 
no doubt, she is said in Hindoo mythology to be the daughter of Hima- 
laya. The entire northern face of Shallee is covered with dense forest, 
amongst which the Cupresseus torulosa is found in considerable quantity, 
being the only site in these Provinces where it appears to be truly indige- 
nous. The day-lily, Hemerocallis disticha, is common by the water- 
courses, as is the Abelia trifiora on the warmer exposures. On the sum- 
mit grow Ephedra saxatilis — *' syr" — and a silvery Artemisia, very like 
the A. rupestris of the Rhine. 

" All things are full of error" said one of the ancients ; and it is at best 
but a quixotic procedure to wander out of one's way to refute it» at the 
imminent risk of encountering controversial wind-mills, Biscayans, or 
Crowderos ; and truth when found, may, like Mademoiselle. Cun6gonde, 
prove less attractive than had been anticipated. All that can be done 
discreetly is to knock an error on the head when met privately ; and it 
may be accomplished with the less scruple on this occasion, as the 
present is, so far as I know, the only one into which the late Captain 
Herbert has fallen. I allude to his Geological Map of our Himalayan 
Provinces, where Shallee is included in the micaceous slate district; 
whereas it is in fact, one great mass of very compact, splintery, light-blue 
Hmestone, apparently very pure, with the exception of a small proportion 
of magnesia. Several plants will be found, which are, I think, peculiar 
to limestone, as Cytisus flaccidus. The mountain is very deficient in 
springs, and in the warm season is dependent for water on the pits 
called " Jors," which is of so vile a quality, that all Hudor-men-ariston 
men should carry up a supply from the Nawul stream. 

October Srd. — To Simla. The distant view of the hospitable homes 
of our countrymen identifies our feelings with those of the Mesopo- 

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1846.] and Boonm Passes aver ike Himalaya. 135 

tamian soothsayer, and we adppt afiur off his exclamation-—' How goodly 
are thy tents, O Jacob, &c/ but the nearer and beatific vision of the 
bazaar and its brimful stores, exalts our enthusiasm to the pitch of the 
wizard of the north, and we end our pilgrimage by a gastronomic ap- 
plication of his famous lines. — ' Breathes there the man, &c.' Those 
heaps of flour and Shajehanpoor sugar are worth more than the purest 
cones of snow in the frosty Caucasus ; those gram-fed fleeces than its 
shaggiest woods; those cases of aqua-vitae, more soul-satisfying than its 
loudest water-falls. Rapt into future dinners, the Deotahs of the un- 
friendly rocks and snows of Emaus descend to insipid nonentities in 
comparison of Messrs. Barrett and Company, who are confessed the true 
dispensers of the good things of this life to all who can pay for them 
and to some who cannot. 

Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar and the neighbouring Districts. 

By Captain Thomas Hutton, of the Invalids, Mussoori ; with Notes 

by Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. 
(Continued from Vol. XIV, p. 354 J 

No. 20. The Wild Hog. These are plentiful among the high rushes 
at the lower extremity of the Bolan Pass, where they conceal themselves 
during the day, but issuing forth at night, they proceed to ravage the 
cultivation around Dadur. They are also numerous in similar covers 
on the Helmund and in Seistan around the lake. 

They are hunted but not eaten. They do not appear to differ from 
the common wild hog of the Upper Provinces of India.^' 

%. In Mr. Gray's catalogue of the specimens of mammalia in the British Museum, 
the "Indian wild boar" is styled Sus indicus: and Mr. Elliot had previously 
pointed out the following differences between it and the European one. "The 
Indian wild hog," remarks the latter naturalist, ** differs considerably from the Ger- 
man. The head of the former is longer and more pointed, and the plane of the fore- 
head straight, while it is concave in the European. The ears of the former are small 
and pointed, in the latter large, and not so erect. The Indian is altogether a more 
active-looking animal ; the German has a stronger heavier appearance. The same 
differences are perceptible in the domesticated individuals of the two countries." 
{Madr. Journ. No. XXV, 219.) Vide Curier's • Ossemens Fossiles*, pi. Ixi, for figures 
of the skull of the European boar, but which would seem to have been taken from a 
domestic individual. 

In the Society's Museum are two very different forms of Indian wild boar skulb, 
especially characterised apart by the contour of the vertex and occiput. In a particu- 


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136 Ro9§k Notes on the Zoology of Candahtar. [No. 170. 

I beard of an animal^ however, which had boeB killed near Waaher, 
OB the frontier towards Herat, and at the death of ^riiich my informant 
was present, which leads me to suppose (if the story be tme,) that the 
*' Babaronssa" {Sua babmrouooa, Luin.)f or some alUed species, is an in* 
habitant of those parts. My informant was one of the party who ae- 
companied the Gandahar Sirdars as fieur as Washer, on their disastrons 
expedition against Herat in the years 1838-9. He described the animal 
as like a hog, with tusks and two homt on tho nose; now the Babaronssa, 
according to Fred. Guvier, haa four tusks, two of which, by piercing 
through the skin of the muzzle, give the animal the appearance des- 
cribed by my informant. He declared, that it charged the party of 
hunters and overthrew a horse, but was shot and speared before it could 
do further injury. I have seen no spoils of the animal, and merely give 
the story as I heard it, from one who, by the way, was found in other 
respects, like most of his countrymen, to be an unblushing fobulist.'^ 

Wild hogs are plentiful in Scindh, and especially around Shikarpore. 

No. 21. Hystrue cristata. Common Porcupine. 

This animal is very abundant around Candahar and in the neigh- 
bouring districts ; it hides in the deep fissures and caves which abound 
in the limestone ranges that divide the valleys, and issuing forth at 
night-foU, they commit sad havoc in the grain-fields and gardens. They 
are entrapped in pit-falls^ and likewise shot. I once asked an Afghan if 
he would eat one, and he replied with a start of astonishment-—'* toha, 

larly fine fpecimsii, ttom Catftack, measuring fourteen inches and a kalf above, along 
the mesial line to tip of nasal, and the lower tusks of which (withdrawn from their 
sockets) measure seven inches and a half long following their curvature, the vertex 
narrows posteriorly to an inch and three-eighths ; whereas, in another skuU of the 
same length, or a trifle longer, with lower tusks measuring six inches and a quarter, 
the vertex is two and a quarter across where narrowest, and the whole vertical aspect 
of the cranium is broader and more convex. Where the latter specimen was obtained 
1 cannot learn; but 1 have seen others like it from Bengal and Arracan. 

Wild hpgs are very generally diffused throughout India, and they occur in the 
Himalaya at all altitudes. Mr. Hodgson informs us that there are not any in Thibet; 
but in the country of the Usbegs they would appear to be very numerous. Thus, Lieoft. 
Wood, in his * Journey to the Source of the Oxus,' mentions that^** Descending the 
eastern side of Junes Durrah, our march was. rendered less fatiguing by following 
hog-tracks in the snow. So numerous are these animals, that they had trodden down 
the snow as if a large flock of sheep had been driven over it." They are also < 
in Persia, and in the countries eastward of the Bay of BengaL— Gur* As* Soc, 

23. Possibly a species of PhachochiBrei.^Cur, As» Soc» 

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1846.3 ^^9^ ^^^^ ^ ^^ Zochff of Candalur. 137 

Ma, look at the animal'B feet ; do you not peroeiTe the iimilitnde to 
your own ?" And be then proceeded serionsly to inform me, that onoe 
upon a time, there lived a race of men so exceedingly wicked, that 
God at length laid hit corse npon them and changed their forms to that 
of the porcapine, oUiterating all trace of the human form divine, except 
the feet, whidi were left to mark the accursed and fallen race, and to 
serve as a warning to other evil doen. The hoUow ({oiUs which form 
a tuft OB the tail, are said, by the marvel-loving vulgar, to be used for the 
purpose of carrying a supply of water, but bow the animal is to make 
use of tbe same is not stated ; their true use, however, appears to be to 
give warning of approaching danger, and to alarm an assailant, as they 
emit a loud rattling noise when shaken.-^" Sahee^' of Indm.'^ 

No. 22. lAlactapa acontivm, (Pallas): A. indica*^ Ghray, Jn. and 
Moff. Nat. Hi8t. Vol. X, 362]. The Jerboa. This beautiful little animal 
IS abundant over all the stony plains throughout the country, burrowing 
deeply, and when unearthed, bounding away with most surprising agility 
after the manner of the Kanganx). It was known throughout the 
srmy by the name of the Kangaroo-rat. They are easily tamed, and 
live happily enough in confinement if furnished with plenty of room to 
leap about. They sleep all day, and so soundly, that they may be taken 
from their cage and examined without awaking them, or at most they 
vill half*open one eye in a drowsy manner for an instant, and immedi- 
ately close it again in sleep. The Afghans call it " Khanee.** It retires 
to its burrow about the end of October, and remains dormant till the 
Mowing April when it throws off its lethargy and again comes forth. 
It is doubtless the *' desert rat'* mentioned by my friend the late Cap- 
tam Arthur Conolly, in his Overland Journey to India, (page 54, Vol. 1.) 
No. 23. GerbiUus Indieue. The Indian Gerbil.«« 

M. Tke speeks tt Hffttritt, aa the genvs it mom tiMted, bm groafkly in nMd of eliici- 
4atiiHi ; 1 am ol opiaiom, that several are at preaent confounded nnder S, crutata 
and fl. lemcura, and 1 have been endeaivouriag for iome tiBM peat to odleet moro 
ezteiMive data far determining thoae ef India. The AJj^haaiitan speeiet, aa figarad by 
Bones, has aUack crest, and a nmcb longer tail than the trae €ri8te4a, or than either 
of the Indian species with which 1 am at present aeqnainled, which latter sre at least 
twe^ if not three, in number.— Clur. A»* See- 

25. It cerlMftly does not occur in *< India. *'-**€lMr. As, See* 

%, Twospecies of Indian Gerbib hare been indieated, but their distinctions are by no 
meaos satisfactorily mndeout Mr. Waterhowe^ in Free. Zed. See. 1S38, p. 96, has 
eadeavoured to characterise n O. Cmvkri, with tarse an inch and three-quarters long, 
though smsUer th«a a; speeiman of O, muUous, in which tho tarse measured but one 

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138 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

These beautiful field rats abound at Neemuch and about Muttra ; as 
likewise in the sandy tracts north of the city of Bhawulpore, where the 
country is absolutely riddled with their burrows. I think I have some- 
whei^e read that they live singly, i. e. that each pair is found separately 
and widely scattered over the pluns; but this is incorrect, for they 
form large colonies like rabbits, and live in regular warrens wherever 
they are located ; these colonies are usually situated in the neigh- 
bourhood of cultivation, which suffers much injury from their depreda- 
tions. It has also been said that they do not venture out in the day- 

and a half. He remarkf, also, that **in the specimen of (?. mdicus, and that of 
O, Cuvierif belonging to the Zoological Society's Museum, there is a considerable 
difference in the colouring, the latter being paler, and of a much brighter hue than 
the former; but whether this difference is constant," he adds, ** I am not aware." 

Mr. J. B. Gray, in his * Catalogue of the Mammalia in the British Museum/ identifies 
Mr. BUiot's G.intUcus of S. India {Madr, Journ. No. XXV, p. 211), with the 6. 
nuUcus of Waterhouse, but applies to it the name Hardwickii ; reserving the appellation 
indicus for some Bengal specimens presented by the late Major Gen. Hardwicke, 
while he makes no allusion to 6. Cuvieri of Waterhouse, as if regarding this as a third 
Indian species, not in the British Museum collection. Specimens from S. India, how- 
ever, presented to this Society by Mr. Walter BUiot, of the Madras C. S., (who also sup- 
plied the British Museum,) differ in not the slightest respect from at least one Gerbil 
of Lower Bengal. Of two specimens of the latter, from the vicinity of Berhampore, 
(for which the Society is indebted to the obliging exertions of my friends Capt. 
Thomas, 39th N. !•, and Dr. Young,) and which accord in their general dimensions, 
one has the tarse to end of claws fully an inch and three-quarters, the other but 
an inch and five-eighths ; though the former is the more usual admeasurement in tha 
full grown animal. 

It would seem, however, that we have a second species in Lower Bengal, which 1 
take to be 0» Cuvieri of Waterhouse, and the skull of which corresponds exactly with 
that of Capt* Button's species, No. 24: having the auditory bulla considerably mor« 
voluminous than in (?. indicus, and the incisive tusks larger and longer, and fronted 
with much paler enamel. Long ago, as mentioned in Jour. As. Soe. XI. 890, 1 found 
the remains of one of these animals in a paddy-field, half devoured by some carnivore: 
of this I preservfd the skull, and what I could of the skin, with the tail and limbs ; but 
I unluckily gave the fragment afterwards to some sMkarree who was to have endeavoured 
to procure others, but of whom I never heard again. At that time I had no suspicion 
of the existence of a second species of Bengal Gerbil, and it is only very recently that 
I have succeeded in procuring Bengal specimens of the other. 

Captain Button's species. No. 24, agrees so very nearly with the common Indian 
Gerbil, that I can perceive no very satisfiEtctory external distinctions. The tarse, 
however, to end of claws, of an adult male, barely exceeds an inch and a half long; 
the general colour is also much paler, both of young and adults ; and the fur generally 
is longer, especially that growing on the tail : the anterior limbs are either white, or 
have but a faint tinge of colour; whereas the hue of the back is, I think, always toler- 
ably deep on the fore-limbs of (?. indicus. The surface hue of the upper parts is of 
that light arenaceous, so very prevalent among the animals of Scinde and Afghanistan, 
as among those of Bgypt and other sandy and stony countries.— C^. As, Soe, 

Digitized by 


1846.] Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 139 

time, but this too is incorrect, for they may be seen the whole day 
through, popping out of their holes, nibbling the long grasses, and 
bounding off from hole to hole. This is the desert rat of Elphinstone's 
Cabal. (See Introduction.) 

No. 24. Gerlnilus [Cuvieri (?), Waterhouse.]'^ This species is plen^ 
tifiilly scattered over the arid and stony pbuns of Afghanistan, but they 
do not form colonies like the last named. The Afghans call it " Juwee." 
A full grown male specimen measured nine inches, and the tail seven 
inches and a half, equal to sixteen inches and a half over all. This, like 
the last, although perhaps strictly speaking nocturnal; is nevertheless ac- 
tive during the day, popping occasionally out of its hole to feed. They 
form no colony, but are numerously scattered in pairs over the plains. 

No. 25. Gerbillus [erythroura, Ghray, An, and Mag. Nat, Hist, Vol. 
X. 266]. This likewise is abundant over the same tracts as the last, 
and goes by the same name ; it is more abundant around Quettah, while 
the former affects the tracts around Candahar. All burrow in the 
ground, and are seen during the day at times. The naUs of the feet in 
this last are black, but in the former (No. 24) they are white or colour- 
less in living specimens. 

N. B. — You will see one specimen of Gerhillus distinguished by a X 
on the enveloping papers. No. 25^. It is, I consider, the same as No. 25, 
the black colour of the nails being, however, the consequence of death, 
for in tlie living specimen they were colourless. Found in wide stony 
plains with the habit of the last.*^ 

No. 26. Arvicola IMus Huttoni, Blyth.]^^ I am doubtful whether 

27. Vide preceding note, No. 26.^ Cur. As, Soc, 

28. I do not think that it differs from No. 25.-^CIur. As. Soc, 

29. This belongs to a particular and very separable division of Mus, having much 
the appearance and also the habits of Artieola, Among Indian species, it comprises 
the Al. ffiganteus of Hardwicke, or great Bandicoot-rat, and the presumed Af. intU' 
eus, Geoff, (v* Arvicola indica, Hardw., M, kok of Gray, and M. (Neotomaj prtmdens 
of Mr. Elliot's catalogue.) The latter naturalist having expressed to me his intention 
of appljring a particular name to this group, 1 shall not forestall him in so doing ; but 
1 entirely agree with him in the propriety of the separation. Mr. Gray (in Af. N* H, 
18S7, p. 585,) regards it as the typical form of Mus, 

In size and proportions the present species bears a near resemblance to M. indicus 
(v. kok), but the tail is shorter, and the general colour much lighter, resembling that 
of the Gerbils. On comparison of the skulls, the zygomatic arch is seen to be conspi- 
eaously broader anteriorly ; and the palate is much narrower, and contracts to the 
front: but the most obvious distinction consists in all the teeth, both incisive tusks 
and grindert, being considerably broader and stronger. In other respects the skulls of 

Digitized by 


140 Rwgh Notes on the Zoolofy b/ Candahar. [No. 170. 

tliu is A. uuHem of Hardwioke or not. It oocura south of Bhowolpore, 
and is abundant in Afghanistan from Quettah to Oirishk, throwing op 
the mould after the manner of the mole. It feeds on herbs and seed, 
and burrows in the ground beneath hedge-rows and bushes, as well aa 
along the banks of ditches. Its nest is deep-seated, and it constmcts so 
many false galleries immediately below the surfaee, that it is diffi- 
cult to find the true passage to its retreat, which dips down auddenly 
from about the middle of the labyrinth above. In the gardens and along 
the sides of water-courses in the fields at Candahar, their earth-heaps 
are abundant. 

No. 27. Mus [baetruMus, Blyth, n. mJ]^ This is the common house 
mouse of Candahar, but the house rat is I believe unknown there ; at 
least so all my informants agreed in stating, and I certainly never saw 
one, although for two years I was in charge of extensive grain godowns, 
which would naturally have attracted them had any existed. 

No. 38. Lagomys Iru/eseene, Gray, An. (md Mag, Nat. HiH. X, 

these two species bear a very close resemblance. Length, minus the tail, about six 
inches': the tail (vertebras) four: tarsus, with toes and claws, an inch and three- 
eighths : ears posteriorly half an inch ; to anteal baa« lhree*qaarters of an inch. 
Fur soft and fine, blackish for the larger basal half of the piles, the surface pale ra- 
fescent-brown, deepest along the crown and back, pale below, and whitish on the 
throat: whiskers small and fine, and chietfy black: tail naked: feet light brown : 
incisive tusks buff-coloared, the enamel of tkia hue partially worn away on these ef the 
upper Jaw.— Q«r. As, Soc, 

30. This little animal presents a very close approximation to A/, musculus in size, 
proportions, and structure, inclusive of the confonnatiott of the skull; but the fur is 
much denser and longer, and its colouring absolutely resembles that of a pale specimen 
of QerbiUus indicus^ except that there is no whitish about the eyes, nor ia the crown of 
a deeper hue, and the tail is thinly clad with short pale hairs to the end. CoBspariaoa 
of recent spacimens would probably elicit some further diatinctioas from M, muscuitu, 
especially in the larger eye, and somewhat more predaced muaile ; but 1 eannet ve** 
tare upon describing such differences from a single skin. The entire under-parts and 
feet are white; and the upper parts light isabeliine, with dusky extreme tips to the 
hairs, and their basal two-thirds deep ashy.— (^r. At. Soc, 

31 , Length about six inehes : tanus to end of claws an iiach and tfatae-eighths. The 
skull exhibits good specifieal differences from that of L, Hodffeoni, nobis, J. A. S. 
X, 816; being in particular much narrower between the erbits. Mr. Gray, in his 
« Catalogue ef Mammalia in the Bcitish Museum,' refeis L. H^djfsom to X. RtiyUi 
with a mark of doubt; and alfcerwaiids seeoM to identify it with L, ntpelsfUM, Hodgson 
— a very different species ; but the plates te accompany the descriptions of L. Btdf* 
sami and L. nipaknsis were unfortunately transposed. L. r^tttem exhibits the same 
sandy colouring so pievalent aneng the animals of Seinde and Afghanistan, and also 
those of Egypt— C«r. A^ Soc. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Bmigh Naie$ am tie Zooh99 of CmuMttr. 141 

This species inhabits the rocks of A^hanistsu from the Bolan Pass, 
where they were first sees, to Oirishk and elsewhere northerly. They 
shelter beneath ledges of rock, and make their nests in the fissures, 
where it is next to impoesttile to get at them; and althomgh I psid high 
for all specinieas, and kq>t two men porposely to faring me the produc* 
tions of the oottntry. I only succeeded in proenring two examples of this 
animal, one of which escaped during the night; the other I send for 
in^[)eetion. It is probably the " Coney" of Scriptore.^ 

No. 29. [MyotptiUs fiueoou^lbu; Qtarychmt fiueocainlluB, Blyth, 
/. A. S, XI, 887.]^^ The Quettah Mole, ss it was commonly called, is 
I think, a species of A$feia» ; it barrows like the mole, throwing oat 
heaps of earth. It is difficult to dig out, and is said to make long 
horizontal galleries, with earth-heaps thrown up at intervals. It pro- 
bably feeds v^n bulbous roots with which the plains around Quettah 
abound, such as red and yellow tulips, &c. I never saw or heard of the 
animal except around Quettah in the valley of Shawl, about 6,600 feet 
above the sea level, and I am indebted to the kindness of Lieutenant 
Holroyd, 43rd Light Infantry, for the specimens which are sent for in- 

No. 30. Lepus ? Hares are common all over the plains, 

and I kept several tame ones at Candahar. I have, however, unfortunately 
lost my notes, and have preserved no specimen. It is said by several 
who have written upon Afghanistan, that there are two species, a large 
and a small one. the latter somewhat like a rabbit. I cannot positively 
deny the correctness of this assertion, although I have strong doubts on 
the subject ; the small hares that I saw both at Quettah and Candahar, 
being nothing more than immature specimens or leverets of the same 
i^iecies, and I suspect that observers have mistaken the Lagomya for a 
small hare, an error by no means of infrequent occurrence. They are 
said to be remarkably strong and swift m some parts of the country, 
and the dog that can catch one single-handed, is reckoned a good one. 
Having neither notes nor specimens to refer to, I cannot pronounce upon 
the species, though it appears from memory to correspond with the 

32. The ** Coney" of our Englifh version is, beyond doubt, the Hyrtut syrktcut, 

! Bchreber.*- Cur. As^ Soe. 

\ 33. This type differs from Myodes^ or the Lemminjjf genns, in the much greater size 

and strength of the feet, in the elongation and protrusion of its upper incisive tusks, 
&c. I will describe it more particularly with some other new rodents.— >Ctir. ds, Soe, 

Digitized by 


142 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

common hare of the Deyra Dhoon. [L. rufictmdaius. Is. Oeoff.] This, 
however, is conjecture. " Khor-gosli/' i. e. Ass^eared.^ 

No. 31. — Bo8 6«Wt».— The Buffido is scarce and does not occnr 
wild ; the few that are kept are evidently from the east of the Indus, and 
are precisely the same as the domestic bnffido of the Bha^ulpore conn- 
try, where they occur in immense herds along the bankfe of the Ghurra. 
There they are kept for the sake of the milk and ghee, and during the 
heat of the day they forsake the jungles and repair to the river, where 
they immerse themselves in the water, leaving only the head on the sur- 
face. I know not if it be the same as the Mysore bufiiEdo, but it differs 
greatly in its horns from those commonly met with in our Provinces. 
They are of large size, chiefly black, sometimes with a white forehead 
and white tip to the tail, which reaches to the fetlock, hairy on the 
neck and shoulders ; withers not raised above the rump. Some are dun- 
coloured, and among these, also, the white forehead is occasionally seen. 
Irides often white ; forehead prominent ; the horns in all curving up 
strongly and closely from the base, and forming a curl at the side of the 
head instead of lying back along the neck, as in those of the Provinces. 
The only domestic buffaloes that I saw in Afghanistan were a few kept 
at Candahar, for the sake ol the milk and ghee.^^ 

34. From the skull of an immature specimen of the Afghan Hare in Capt. Hutton's 
collection, it is easy to perceive that the species differs from the northern Indian one : 
as is especially shewn by the greatly diminished horizontal elongation of the descend- 
ing angle of the lower jaw, by the difference of the condyle, &c. It is only within 
a comparatively recent period that the common hare of Bengal and of the Upper Pro- 
vinces has been recognised as a peculiar species by Zoologists. According to the ob- 
servation of Mr. Vigne, it is remarkable that there are no hares in Kashmir. "One 
of the most singular facts connected with the natural history of the valley," writes 
that gentleman, <* is that of there being no hares there. As a sportsman, I could not 
have believed it to be the case, as I have nowhere seen more likely ground. I am 
assured that they do not exist there, and I have never seen one myself, although I 
have traversed every quarter of the valley. It is probably too cold for the Indian 
hare ; and that of the valleys of Thibet is an Alpine hare [L» oistoius, Hodgson, 
V. iibetanuSt Waterhouse,] that has its dwelling amongst rocks, sand, and Taitarian 
furze. 1 should think that the European hare would thrive very well there."— Cter. 
As. Soc. 

35. The above description applies better to the tame buffaloes of Italy and Hun- 
gary, than to those ordinarily met with in India ; the former having besides a longer 
tail, and they are very commonly more or less marked and splashed with white. A 
skull of this race is figured in the * Ossemens Fossiles.* An Egyptian cow-buffalo 
which I saw in London approached more to the degenerate tame Indian breed, and had 
small, but elongated horns, similarly directed ; and the late Mr. John Stanislaus Bell, 
(of * Vixen* celebrity,) who favoured me with some interesting particulars respecting 

Digitized by 


1846.] Romgk Noiei on the Zoology of Candakar. 143 

No. 32, fi. tmama.'^Tht Cow is a handsome animal, and generally 
a good milcfaer ; this is doubtless owing in a great measure to the rioh 
artificial pastures on whieh they feed; the hump is generally reduced to 
an almost imperoeptihle rise at the withers, and in many it is not at all 
presoAt. They are shoit-legged, and have good barrels, being altoge- 
ther a fox more Buroptan*looking breed than any native cattle on this 
aide of the Indus. They do not appear to give the same quantity ef 
milk in India, unless well fed. 

No. 33. B. p&ephagui.-^The Yak is seen to occur wild in the 
Huzara ranges, but for this I cannot vouch ;'^ it has been said, by 
more than one traveller^ also to occur wild in the higher parts of 
Kunawur and Tartary, and Lieut. Smith is quoted by Mr. Qg^by as 
having seen them wild on the confines of Bhootan; but these herds, 
I suspect, were nothing more than the tame y^ks turned adrift, ac- 
cording to the custom during the summer, and left to roam at hvge 
until the winter sets in, when they are reclaimed and housed. The 
same custom may probably prevail among the Huzarrahs, and so have 
given rise to the tale of wild herds.^^ (Perhaps this is the " Gow^cohi*' 

many of tke animalf of Circaasia, informed ma, that the Circaaiian bui&loet ** agree 
with the Italian in their bombed forehead, maasive and ponderoui eonformation, and 
also in the abundanoe of excellent milk afforded by the female* often for two yean ; 
but the horns, especially those of the female, are very large, inolined backwards, mu<:h 
curved, annnlated and serrated. The oommon aUitude ii that of the Indian buffalo, 
with the head horiiontaUy held out; and the tail, with its terminal tuft, does not reach 
mnoh more than half way to the ground. The young are of a dusky-brown colour; 
but the full grown are almost invariably bUok, without a tpot of white. Their stature 
fxeeeds conaiderabiy that of the largest British cattle. 

U should have been premised, that I furnished Mr. Bell with tketches from life of 
the Italian and common domestic Indian buffaloes, the principal distinctions of which 
races 1' pointed out to him, and this drew his attention to the minuUie which he has 
partifiuiamed. Certainly, the Italian tame buffalo is a very different looking animal 
fiom that of Bengal, and the buffeilo of Afghanistan if evidently the same; but this 
Circassian would seem identical with the ordinary (and wild) Indian race.^C't<r. 4^. 

36. My friend the late Sir ▲. fiumes replied to my inquiries on thif tubject* ** The 
Yak is, i hear, wild in Pamir, or some animal very like it*"~T. H, 

37. Various authors have mentioned wild Yaks, though some at least of them haf e 
beea doubtlew misled by the circumstance mentioned by Captain HuUon, of the tame 
herds being turned loose in summer upon the mountains. According to Lieut. Irwin, 
** Yaks are found in a wild sUte on the Pamir, and on the upper parts of Budukhihun." 
Mr. Vigae also informs us, that there are wild Yaks on the northern slope of the moun- 
laina towanis Yarkund ;" and Timkowski mentions, that this species '* is found, both 
wild and tame, in the western frontiers of China, in all Tangout and Thibet." So 
Captain Broome assured me, that he heard of wild Yaks being seen about Hodok, aaid 
lo be in herds, and exceedingly savage and dangeroui to travellers in the passes. 

Digitized by 


144 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

of the Persian physicians, also Gowzen; vide Cuvier's 'Synopsis Mam- 

No. 34. To the Horses I paid no attention, but believe there is no 
good breed proper to Afghanistan, or at least not in the neighbourhood 
of Candahar ; all coming from other countries, as Herat, Toorkistan, &c. 

No. 35. Asset are as common at Candahar as elsewhere, and do not 
differ from their brethren of other more civilised countries ; they aie 
used as beasts of burthen, and have no more mercy shown to them than 

Of the many notices I have seen of the habits of this animal, one of the moat 
interesting is that given by Lient. Wood. *' The Yak/* he remarks, ** is to the inha- 
bitants of Thibet, and Pamir, what the Rein-deer is to the Laplander of Northern 
Europe. Like the Elephant, he possesses a wonderful knowledge of what will bear 
his weight If travellers are at fault, one of these animals is driven before them, 
and it is said, that he avoids the hidden depths and chasms with admirable sagacity. 
His footing is sure. Should a fall of snow close a mountain pass to man and hone, a 
score of yaks driven ahead answer the purpose of pioneers, and make, as my informant 
expressed it, a * king's highway.' In this case, however, the snow must have recent- 
ly fallen, for when its surface is frozen over and its depth considerable, no animal can 
force its way through it. Other cattle require the provident care of man to subsist 
them through the winter; but the Kash^gow is left entirely to itself. He frequents 
the mountain slopes and their level summits. Wherever the mercury does not rise 
above zero, is a climate for the yak. If the snow on the elevated flats lies too deep 
for him to cross the herbage, he rolls himself down the slopes, and eats his way up 
again. When arrived at the top he performs a second somerset, and completes hit 
meal as he displays another groove of snow in his second ascent The heat of summer 
sends this animal to what is termed the old ice, that is to the regions of eternal snow; 
the calf .being retained below as a pledge for the mother returning, in which she never 
fails.* * * The Kash-gows are gregarious, and set the wolves, which here abound, 
at defiance. Their hair is dipt once a year in the spring. The tail is the well 
known ehowry of Hindoostan ; but in this country, its strong, wiry, and pliant hair, 
is made into ropes, which, for strength, do not yield to those manufactured from hemp. 
The hair of the body is woven into mats, and also into a strong fabric, which makes 
excellent riding trowsers. The milk of the yak is richer than that of the common oow, 
though the quantity it yields is less." 

It is a very prevalent opinion, that the Yak has never yet been taken alive to Europe. 
But Captain Turner long ago stated,—-** 1 had the satisfaction to send two of this 
species to Mr. Warren Hastings, after he left India, and to hear that one reached 
England alive. This, which was a bull, remained for some time after he landed in a 
torpid and languid state, till his constitution had in some degree assimilated to the 
climate, [or had got over the effects of the long voyage,] when he recovered at once, 
both in health and vigour : he afterwards became the sire of many calves, which all 
died without reproducing, except one,^a cow, which bore a calf by an Indian bull. 
Though naturally not intractable in temper, yet soured by the impatient and inju- 
dicious treatment of his attendants, during a long voyage, it soon became dangerous to 
suffer this bull to range at liberty abroad, for which reason, after destroying a valuable 
horse, he was finally secured alone.".— CWr. At. Sec* 

Digitized by 


1646.} Roufh Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 145 

Dozens of these aQimals are driven into Candahar every morning dar- 
ing the fmit season, each carrjring a pair of panniers loaded with grapes, 
figs, pears, peaches, apricots, nectarines, plums, cherries, green-gages, 
and melons. Latterly, also, from the difficulty and expense of procuring 
cameb for commissariat purposes, we used to hire asses, and found 
them to be quick travellers, under loads of. two puckah maunds each, 
(160ft8). The Bokhara breed is very large and often white. These 
animals are subject to swellings or tumours in the throat, from which 
secretions of lime are extracted, often as large as a pigeon's egg^ and 
formed similar to the gravel stones in the human bladder. I send one 
for analysis.'^ 

No.. 36. Mules are good, and often high-priced, especially riding 
mules, which sometimes seU from 250 to 300 Go's. Rs. each. I do not 
think any are bred in Afghanistan, but suspect they come from Mooltan 
and the Punjab. 

No. 37. Equus hemiomu. The Oorkhur, or wild. Ass, I never saw, but 
it occurs in the southern deserts, and in Ghirmsail ; also in the neighbour- 
hood of Herat and in Persia. It is difficult to capture alive. They occur 
also in Cutchee and in Ouzerat. I heard a Bombay Engineer Officer 
state as a fact, which he backed moreover by the authority of Capt. 
Harris, of the same Presidency, (Author of ' African wild Sports') that 
stallions of the wild ass were very seldom met with, and the reason 
assigned was, that as soon as the young one was bom, the old sttUlion 
immediately castrated it with his teeth! ! This very marvellous story 
was evidently believed by the gentleman from whom I heard it, but I 
strongly suspect that if it really originated with Captain Harris, that 
Officer must have been quizzing. One very simple reason against the 

38. Of this, Mr. Laidlay has favoured me with the following report :— 
** The calculus submitted for examination weighed 237 grains, and had a specific 
gravity of 1.81. Exactly in its centre was found what appears to be the husk of some 
grain, (paddy ?) which served as a nucleus around which the chalky deposit accreted 
in concentric layers. Its composition is 

Carbonate of lime, • • • ^ • • • • 89'0 

Carbonate of magnesia, 1 *9 

Phosphate of lime, 1*6 

Animal matter (mucus and albumen,) .. 7*5 


Corresponding with the ordinary composition of salivary concretions.*'— Gmt*. Am, Soc. 

Digitized by 


146 Rwgh Noh$ en the ZO0IO fy 9/ CkifUhhar. [No. 170. 

trath of the »t)ory ariMS from the fact» that in newly bora ammalB* the 
testiclee are not apparent, nor do thej drop for some time after their 
birth; nor is it at all likely that tiie fttallion is in attendance as accoa*- 
dieur, for the female knowing the propensity of the male to attack her 
offspring, would assuredly take Ite necessary precaution to prevent it. 
Besides, if this be the rule, the continuance of the race of wild aneB» 
mast be altogether fortuitous ! The story speaks ft^r itself ; but I men- 
tiou it as iUttStrative of what people, and clever people too» will swallow 
frdm thd mou^ of one supposed to be an orwA:^ '* Ok&rkkm'" quere 
from '* Ghora*' a horse, and '* Kkur,"m ass^ literaHy "Equus Asiaus/' 

No. 38. Cervida. Of the true Deer there are none in the lower tracts 
^ Afghanistan around Candahar, nor is there any cover for animals of 
thin tribe, the whole country being a sucoeMioB of bare hills and arid 
stony plains, with scarce a shrub of any kind larger than the camels 
thora. I was once informed, that the Fallow deer occurred near Herat, 
but acting on the hint and making every enquiry from competent 
authorities, I failed to get th^ least ccmfirmation of the report, and 
believe my informant had nefver seen the fallow deer even in Europe.^ 

it may not be amiss to eay a word here regarding the Hippelaphtts 
of Aristotle, whidi Mr. Ogiiby has applied to tiie Nylghau (Partejr 
jfdctia), I should not have ventured on the subject had not that gentle- 
man pointed to the modern Punjab, as i^rsc^osie, which Aristotle gives 
as tkt habitat of Hippekphus. Finding no other animal in the Punjab, 
to which the description will apply* Mr» Ogiiby decided that the Nylghau 

39. Aristotle, as quoted by Colonel Hamilton Smith, remarks of the common Ass, 
that the more poweffol males thus attack t)ie weaker, ** Tandiu illtim perteqauntai' 
donee aiseeuti ore int^r poBteiiora crura tuserto testicuies ^vs e?tU«it.*' And isr this 
reason, observes Colonel Smith, it is held dangerous to allow a male ass to pasture ia 
the same field where there is a stallion. With the Ghorkhur, as with the Ass, the males 
%ht with the teeth rather than with their hoofs ; nor are they the only animals which 
evince a propensity fo¥ gelding their antagonist. Br. Bachman relates the same of 
certain of the American Squirrels; tfnd 1 hare observed it in Shrews, fhers is sa 
interesting notice somewhere in the * Asiiitic R«v^ew,' of a number of Qborkhuts takea 
in pit-falls in Scinde or Guzerat; among which, I think it is remarked tibat not a siB|^e 
entire male occurred. In a note to Vol. XI, p. 286, I expressed doubt respecting the 
alleged identity of the ** Kyang*' of Tibet with the QkorkhMr; but the Society has 
recently received (from 6. T. Lushington, Esq., of Almorah,) a nearly perfect skin of 
a Kyang, which completely settles the question in the affinnatiTe«*^0<r. At. Soc. 

40. There is a magnificent true Elaphoid stag in Persia, known as the Moral, of 
which a pair were taken to England by Sir John McNeill, and deposited in the 
Zoologtcal Gaidens.^Cter. As, SifC. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Roufk Notes on the Zoology of CantUikar, 147 

iiiiwt be the specks sUuded to. To this view of the ease, I hxw to 
oSbt the folbwiog objections and suggestions ; 

U^.— As regards tike country called *' ArfhoHa" it would appear 
firom various sources, and among others from Professor Lassen,^' that 
Arachosia was part of the country called ** Aritma," and situated in 
that part of Afghainstan of which Candahar is the capital. Such being 
the ease, it is at once evident* that the aninud alluded to by Aris^ 
tolie under the name of Hippelaphus, could not have been the Nyl* 
gfara, inasmudi as that animal does not anywhere occur, within the 
Ihaiti of A%haiU8tan, and hi all probabiUty it does not even cross 
the Indus. The same remark will equally apply to the Saumer 
deer of India, and indeed to all the deer tribe, as none of them, as 
te as I could learn after two years' inquiry, are found in that part of 
the country ."M It would seem proved, therefore, that neither the Saumer 
■or the Nylghni can be the Hippelaphus of Aristotle. Mr. Ogilby says, 
the name Hippelaphus is now applied to the Saumer, but in the English 
' R^ne AramaU' t^e specific title of ** ArvUote&i*' is given to that animal. 
It is «B yet undetermined, I beJieve, whether the Saumer and Jmrrew are 
the same species or not, and until such is proved, the name of <' ArietoteUi" 
mnit ap^y to the latter deer,'*' 

4K JtQtttasl ▲«. Soo. BM^ftl, Nm* 86 and 101 paisiia. 

42. The 'AradiMian Ox' of Aristotle ig, beyond doubt, the Bufialo.— CVr. A». 

4S. Vide Jtmrn, As. Soc. XI, 449, for some remaits on this subject, which further 
ebserrattOB has confifsnd, as regards the distinctness of the * iurrow' (ۥ ArittoteUsJ, 
the * Saumer* (C, hippelaphtu, Cuv.^, and the Malayan Busa (C. equinus. Cuv.J 
The Jurrow is peculiar to the Himalaya, and iu antlers are always much larger, and 
more ditergent than in theotheie; and the prongs composing their terminal fork are 
generally about equal in length $ sometimes the inner and sometimes the outer, being 
the longer. In the Saumer, which inhabits Bengal, Arracan, and the hill forests of 
Peninsular India (it being doubtless also the Cingalese species), the antlers very 
rarely, if ever, exceed two feet and a half in kngth, and are mudi less massive than 
those of the Jurrow ; of the prongs of their terminal fork, the outer is usually the 
longer. In the Malayan Husa, inhabiting the Malay Peninsula and Java, the con- 
tiiryebtaitts; the iimer prong lieing nsaally much the longer, and the reverse of this 
is observable in a still greater degree an the conuaon Axis or epotted deer« In addition 
to series of each of the above in the Society's museum, are three pairs of antleis of a 
Busa, now common in the Mauritius, and which nearly resemble those of the Malayan 
C. tgMM is i^ but are remaricable for a strong sigmoid flicxsosily of the beam. There 
are also two frontlets from Assam, which eeem to be referrible to the Saumer, having 
the antlers unusually robust but short, and (as hi ordinary Saumer J much less diverg* 
Mt than those of the Jurreit0.^Cur. As. Soc. 

Digitized by 


148 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahnr. [No. 170. 

2Hd. — From Aristotle's description of the animal, and the habit 
furnished by him, as well as from Mr. Ogilby's remarks thereon, I 
would beg to suggest, that the Hippelaphiis is nothing more than the 
** Copra €sgagru8** 

I found this opinion on the following facts, namely : — 

1«^.— Hippel8{^us inhabits the country of Arachosia, in which the 
C 0igagru8 abounds, but where neitiier the Nylghau nor the Sammer 

2nd, — " The Hippelaphus," says the Qteek philosopher, *' has a mane 
(like a horse) above the shoulders, but from this to the head, along the 
top of the neck, it is very thin; it has likewise a beard on the hrynM; 
it is about the size of a stag— the female has no horns — thone of the 
male resemble the horns of the Dorcas (Gagella dorcasj : — ^it inhabits 
Arachosia." (Royle's Him. Bot., Mamm., p. 74.) Now a reference 
to the figure of C ^ogrus given in the * Calcutta Journal of Natural 
History,' No. 8, will show the nume and beard alluded to by Ariatode ; 
in the figure, however, the hair on the shoulders or not repre- 
sented long enough, nor so thick as in the living animal. This animd 
therefore possesses precisely such a mane as Aristotle describes, it bong 
longest on the shoulder and growing thinner and shorter towards the 
head : it has likewise a long and bushy beard depending from the throat. 

Mr. Ogilby, after declaring that it can be easily proved, that the 
Dorcas is the OazeUe of Egypt, goes on to say that—'* Theodore Gaza, 
himself a Greek, and the first translator of Aristotle, very properly ren-^ 
ders the word by Capra." Here then is a corroboration of my opinion, 
for according to Aristotle and his first translator, the Hippelaphus inha- 
bited Arachosia, i. e. Candahar ; it had a mane and beard ; so has C. 
agagrus : it has horns like the Dorcas or goat ; C. agagrus is a 
horned goat. The only dissimilitude is in the female having no horns, 
whereas all the specimens I have seen of the female agagrus were 
homed. Even this, however, is in a measure nullified by the statement 
in the English RSgM Animal, that the female has " short or nio honu.*' 
If, therefore, the horns are sometimes wanting, it may have been from a 
hornless specimen that Aristotle's description was drawn up. 

The Capra agagrus will consequently be found in every respect to 
answer the description of Hippelaphus, both as to its appearance and 
habitat ; while in the latter respect at least, neither the Portax picta nor 

Digitized by 


1846.] Eougk Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 149 

any of the Riua tribe, can possibly agree, fornone of them occur across 
the Indus or in Arachosia. The only wild ruminants that I could hear 
of in the country, were C. mgugrus, C. megaeeroo (nobis), Qvw Vignei 
(Blyth), Gazdia oubgutiurooa, and in Gutchee and Upper Scindh, west 
of the Indus, the Cenms poremus, GoMelia Bemioitii, and G. Christiu 
To none of these, with the exception of the first, can the description above 
quoted vppLj ; and if it be rejected, then there remains no animal in 
Arachosia to which we can refer that notice. In the ' Penny Cyclopae- 
dia,' art. Ariana, we are informed that " Ariana was the general appel* 
lation given by andent authors, subsequent to the age of Alexander the 
Great, to the eastern portion of those countries which form the high- 
land of Persia. According to Eratosthenes, Ariana was bounded on the 
north by the Paropanmsus mountains, and their western continuation 
as far as the CaspisB Fylse ; on the south by the great sea (the Indian 
Ocean) ; on the east by therwer Indus ; and on the west by the chain of 
bills which separate Parthyene from Media, and Karmania from Parai- 
takene and Persis. Its shape is by Strabo compared to that of a paral- 
lelogram, the dimensions of which, reckoned from the mouths of the 
Indus to the Paropanmsus, he estimates at 12,000 or 13,000 stadia; 
and in a straight line from the upper Indus to the Caspise Pylse, on the 
authority of Eratosthenes, at 14,000 stadia; the length of the -southern 
sea coast from the mouths of the Indus to the entrance of the Persian 
Ghilf is stated at 12,900 stadia. The countries properly belonging to 
Ariana are, according to Strabo, in the east, the Paroparmisadse, the 
Arachoti, and Gtedroseni, along the Indus proceeding from north to 
south ; the Drangse towards the west of the Arachoti and Gedroseni ; 
the Arii towards the west of the Paroparmisade, but extending consi- 
derably to the west and south, so as nearly to encompass the Drangse, 
the Parthyaei west of the Arii, towards the Caspise Pylse ; and Karmania 
to the south of the Parthyaei." 

From this it becomes abundantly evident, that Mr. Ogilby is altoge- 
ther wrong in placing the modem Punjab within the ancient Arachosia, 
and consequently that his views with regard to the identity of Hippela* 
phus and Porta* picta or Nylghau, are wholly inadmissible. 

If therefore we reject the Capra egagrus ba Aristotle's Hippelaphus, 
the matter is left in more doubt than ever, for there is now no other 

Digitized by 


150 Rough Notes m the. Zoology of Candakar. [No. 170. 

ruminant inhabiting Arachosia to- which his deseription can posaibly 

No. 39. Cervttf porcimu/ Hog deer — Parah. Thia species occurs 
abundantly in the preserves at Shikarpore, and is also found in the jangles 
of the Bhawulpore territory. While returning to Ferozepore by water 
from Sukkur, I saw a hog deer some miles below Ooeh^ suddenly spring 
off the bank into the river» and strike out for the opposite shore ; short- 
ly afterwards, the reason for this was apparent, as a common village dog 
took the water at the same place in pursuit of the deer. The river was 
here very broad, and must have been dose upon two miles across aa the 
animals were steering ; the deer made good way, and kept well np 
against the current, which was running strong ; the dog seemed tired 
and was carried far down the stream, and while he was still struggling 
in the middle of the river, the deer had gained the shore and galloped 
off to the jungle. I did not see whether the dog got across or not, as a 
turn in the river shut him out from view. 

This animal does not occur in Afghanistan. 

No. 40. The Nylghau-^-For/ajr picta. This is said to be found 
in the northern poition of the Bhawulpore country. It is not found in 

No. 41. Antilope certncopra— •Sarsinee, or Indian Antebpe. It is 
said to occur in the northern portion of the Bhawulpore country, but 
does not appear to cross the Indus, and none are found in Afghanistan. 
It is common in the Upper Provinces of India and also at Neemuch. I 
do not think that this species is an inhabitant of the countries west of 
the Indus, and in Cutchee it appears to be replaced by the Gaxelim 
Benmttii and G. Ckriatii, while again these two do not cross the moon* 
tain barrier into Afghanistan, but are there represented by G. «ic6. 
guiiurosa, which extends into Persia. If this conjecture be true, it is 
probable that A, cora and arahica are distinct from A. Betimttii? 
This is hazarded however as a mere surmise. 

No. 42. Gazella ^f»M/^tt-^Ravine deer. Ooat-antelqie of Euro* 
peans ; '* Chikara** of Neemuch ; Kalaeepee of Mahrattas. GtuteUa Co. 
ra ? Antilope Arabiea ? 

This species is abundant at Neemueh, where it roams over the wide 
and sterile plains in small groups of five and six. The natives there oali 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Rtmgh Note$ on the Zoology of Condakar. 151 

it " Chikara" or " Shikara/' a name which is elsewhere applied to the 
Four-horned Antelope. Tlie female has horns, but these are very short 
and slender, and invariably crooked in growth ; they are blackish and 
smooth, with alight indications of wrinkles at the base. The same spe- 
cies likewise occurs in Gutchee, but does not pass the mountains into 

No. 43. GozoUa Ckristii, Gray. — ^This species approaches very nearly 
to the last named, and occurs in Gutchee also, but not in Afghanistan. 
A fine specimen was brought to me at Dadur, and the skull was carefully 
preserved and brought to this country with my other collections ; but 
since my arrival at Mussoorie it has most unaccountably disappeared.^^ 

No. 44. Gagella st^ttwroBa.-^The Ahu. (N. B. The word " oAv," 
though applied to this species by the Afghans, is used only as a generic 
term ; the specific name I cannot now remember, and my note is mislaid.) 

Althou^ I have referred the Afghan Gazelle to G. tubgutturosa, still 
I do so with diffidence, on account of the remarkable difference between 
the horns of my specimens and the figure of a skull given in the English 
'lUgne animal.' In that work the horns bend outwards at the tip, and 
it is said in the text that such is their direction in the Persian Antiiope 
tubgutturosa, I am strongly inclined to think, that the horns on the skuU 
figured in the ' R^gne animal' have been transposed, namely, the right 
horn on the left core, for if they were again changed they would exactly 
represent the horns of the Afghan species. In my largest specimen the 
horns are fourteen inches long measured over the curve; they have 
twenty annulations, and are seven inches and a quarter apart at the tips, 
which turn inwards and almost form a hook ; indeed, with the exception 
of the above difference in the direction of the horns, the two animals 
precisely correspond.^^ The Ahu of the Afghans is found from Quettah 
to Candahar and Girishk, and it probably extends thence vik Herat into 
Persia ; they are found in small flocks of six or seven, and roam over 
the wide and sterile plains of Afghanistan, occasionally committing great 
havoc in the grain-fields. 

I do not know whether it extends upwards to Gabool, though such is 
probably the case, as I heard of its occurrence near Ghuznee. In the 

41 For Mme notice of thii species, vide XI, 452.— Cur. As, Soe, 
45. The honu are those of a typical CfatfeUa, rather stout, and abruptly hooked in 
It the tip.— G<r. As, Soc. 


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152 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, [No. 170. 

winter time they travel farther south, and skirt the sandy desert wl^ich 
stretches along from the Sooliman ranges into Persia.^^ 

In the young males, the horns nearly touch at the apex in consequence 
of their inward turn, but they afterwards separate and diverge as the 
animal advances to maturity. 

As regards the female, however, if mine be in reality the Persian 
Gazelle, there is still greater difference between the Afghan species and 
the published description in the English edition of Guvier's ' R6gne 
Animal ;' for it is there stated, that ** the females have smaller horns, 
and are destitute of lachrymary sinus and of tufts on the knees;" 
In the Afghan Gazelle, on the contrary, the female is hornless ; she has 
a lachrymary sinus as well as the male, and she has tufts at the knee, 
although they are perhaps smaller than in the male. In all other res- 
pects of marking, colour, &c. the description of Cuvier corresponds ^tfa 
my specimens, which I can regard as none other than G. subguttttrosa, 
and I conclude that some mistake must have led to the erroneous 
account in the English 'R^gne Animal/ I am the more inclined to 
believe this, since I find an equally glaring error regarding the '* GoraV' 
(Kemas goralj, it being stated that the female is hornless and possessed 
of only two mamnue, whereas she has horns (generally), and /ovr mamnue f 

The Afghans have a mode of catching or destroying these animals 
when they repair to a river to drink ; a net is erected along the bank of 
the stream, and a single opening is left for the antelope to enter at ; 
after satisfying their thirst the animals proceed to wander along the 
stream, and the ambushed hunters springing up and securing the open- 
ing or door way of the net, capture or kill the whole batch. The car- 
case was often brought into the market at Candahar and sold. 

No. 45. Ovis Vignei, ** Koh-i-doomba^' of the Afghans — O. cy- 
eloceros, Hutton. 

When I named this species, I was not aware that it had passed 
through abler hiwds, but of course my trivial name must give place 
to yours. I have nothing to add to my former account in the ' Calcutta 

46. M. Meneiries remarks, that this animal ** is very common in winter on the vast 
Steppes which border the Caspian sea, from Bakou to Koo; living in small troops, 
which once a hundred and fifty paces fro^ the hunter, remain tranquil and fearless. 
It is easily tamed, so that it may be suffered to run at large without danger of ioting 
it"— CVir. Jj. Soc. 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Rough Notts on the Zoology of Candakar. 153 

Journal of Nat. Hist' The animal ia abundant throughout the 
higher mountains of Afghanistan and is said to extend into Persia.^' 

No. 46. OvU stoaiopgga — ^Var.^" Doomba." or broad-tailed sheep. 

The domestic sheep of the Afghans are all DoomboM or '* broad-tails, 
but the deFelopment of this singular feature is dependent apparently 
upon climate and perhaps pasture, although certainly not to such an 
extent as some h&ye supposed : for instance, Pallas ascribes it to the 
prevalence of wormwood in the pastures, but if such be the cause the 
feature should become lurger or smaller according as such pasture 
abounded or decreased ; why then have the sheep around Shawl and 
among the tribes which frequent the mountains of the Soolemaun range 
a les9 development of fat than those sheep which are found around 
Gandahar, for wormwood and saline soils abound there? why again 
have the sheep of the Khyber Pass and Peshawur the broad tail, for 
wormwood I am told does not occur there ? why have not the sheep of 
Upper Kunawur and Hungrung in the Himalaya, the broad tail, for 
wormwood ohounde there, and forms one of the chief plants in the 
pasture of those elevated tracts ? 

The 'SBroad-tailed Sheep,'' which is but a variety of the "Fat- 
ramped" species, or " Oma 9ieatopyga,*\ occurs throughout hill and vale, 
extending into Bokhara, Persia and Palestine ; it occurs also with some 
modification in Africa and elsewhere. If the prevalence of wormwood 
and saline pastures had the effect of producing the broad fat tail of this 
breed, so ought they to have enlarged the tail of the wild race (Ovis 
VigneiJ, and the Camels and other cattle which feed upon the same 
pastures ; yet such is not the case.^^ Again, if the fat is engendered 
by such causes, it should disappear gradually when the exciting cause 
had ceased to operate, and by xemoving the 0. steatopgga to pastures 
where neither wormwoo^d nor saline plants prevail, the singular enlarge* 

47. There is a brief notice and very panable figure of thii species, taken from 
an animal killed in the vicinity of Persepolis, in Lieut Alexander's * Travels from 
India to England,' &c., p. 136 (1827): and I may take the present opportunity to 
remark, that the Society is indebted to the obliging exertions of G. T. Lushington 
Esq., of Almorah, for a noble specimen of the true Ovis amnum of Pallas, which is 
quite distinct from O, moniana of N. America, and to which must be referred my 
O. HodfftotUit founded on Mr. Hodgson's figure and description of the head and 
horns of a young ram, since called by him O. amwumoides,-^Cur, As, Soe, 

48. The fighting rams of India seem to me to be of a race descended from O.Fignei, 
of which they preserve the crescent-horns and short tail. — Cur. As, Soc» 

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154 Rough Sotes on the Zoology of Candahar. £No. 170. 

ment of its tail should disappear and become as in other breeds. This 
however is also not the case, for the doomba has long been tended in dif- 
ferent parts of India and other countries without a reduction in the size 
of the tail, which still continues enlarged as in the original stock. This 
fact, therefore, goes directly to establish the 0. steatopyga as a dtMtmet 
and original species, which has descended from none of the living stock, 
whether domesticated or in a state of nature.^^ Let us examine the 
grounds on which this opinion can be maintained. First, we find thai 
sheep taken to the pastures of the broad*tails, do not gain an accession 
of fat on the rump and tail, but remain precisely as they have always 
been. Secondly, the broad-tails, when removed from their own pastures, 
do not lose the singular feature from which they take their name. 
Pasture, therefore, is clearly not the cause of this enlargement. Thirdly, 
proofs may be given that the 0. steatopyga is the original breed ccm-* 
fided to the care of men even from the dawning of hid abode on earth. 
It is however contended, that all our domestic stock has sprung from 
some one of the existing wild races, and as regards the Sheep, the 
Musmon fO, musimonj is supposed to be the origin of our flocks.^^'— - 
Now, if we are to attend strictly to the generic characters assigned by 
naturalists to the Musmon and our Sheep, we shall at once perceive the 
absurdity of assigning such an origin to the latter species, — for while all 
accounts agree that the true Sheep possess " no lachrymal sinus" and 
that they have an iaterdigital hale or sac ;" the Musmon has actually 
been removed from the genus and ranked as a Goat by no less authority 
than C. L. Bonaparte, the present prince of Canino, because that animal 
does possess a lachrymal opening f^ and because it possesses no uUer* 
digital hole ! 

If the absence of a lachrymary sinus in the domestic sheep were 
true, which it is not, the want of it would prove that none of the wild 

49. Certainly not an aboriginal race, but one highly altered by domestication.— 
Cur. As. Sac* 

50. Whether any long-tailed sheep, with horns describing more than a spiral circle, 
could have descended from the orescent-horned and short- tailed O. fnusimon (which \b 
closely allied to O. Vignei), is extremely doubtfuL^GKr. As. Soc. 

51. The presence of a lachrymary opening proves, however, that it is not a Goat, 
because that genus does not possess it. T. H.— If I mistake not, (writing from 
memory,) the Prince of Canino states, that the tachrymary shuts is wanting in the 
Moufflon, as it is certainly is in O. tragelaphus and O. nahoor; whereas I believe, all 
sheep possess the interdigital sinus (an easy mode, by the way, of distinguishing a leg 
of goat-mutton ^i^m one of mouton proprement di<).—Ct<r. As» Soc* 

Digitized by. 


1846.] Ra^h Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 155 

sheep known to us conld have furnished the original stock, for all of 
them possess that character ;«-the assertion, however, that the genus 
Ovis does not possess the lachrymal sinus is erroneous, for both the 
broad-tails and every other domestic variety that I have seen, decidedly 
possess ii ; it varies in size in different breeds, but I will venture to 
assert that it will always be present. Still, notwithstanding the occur- 
rence of a sinus both in the musmon and domestic sheep, the latter 
must nevertheless be a distinct species, because it possesses a character 
common to all sheep, but which in the musmon is wanting, namely, the 
inteidigital opening sac. 

Having given proof therefore that our domestic flocks have not been 
derived from the musmon, I shall now endeavour to establish my third 
porition, by proving that that the Ovis stemtopyga is a remnant of the ori- 
ginal breed confided to man in the infancy of the world. I have already 
said, that I am inclined to think the Ovis steatopyga, with its varieties, 
as altogether distinct firom the races now living in a state of freedom, 
and in this opinion I shall now attempt to trace back its origin from 
the earliest to the present time, leaving it to others to form their own 
conclusions from the facts here brought to their notice. 

The earliest mention made of man's possessing flocks is in the 4th 
Chapter of the Book of Genesis, where, at the 4th verse we are informed, 
that Abel "brought of the firstlings of his flock," as an offering to the 

Since then, at this early period, a sufficient number of animals were 
domesticated to enable man to offer up the daily sacrifices which it 
appears was then the custom, and since, moreover, we know that the 
animals were created especially for man's use and comfort, it is evident 
that some of the more usefol races must have been placed from begin- 
ning under his controul as domestic stock, for it is clearly impossible 
that he could, by any exertions of liis own, have captured and subdued 
a sufficient number of the wild mountain breeds, at the period alluded 
to, to enable him to offer up such sacrifices. 

In this case, such cattle would necessarily have descended from gene- 
ration to generation, even to the period when Ood commanded Noah to 
build the Ark, and they consequently formed part of the stock preserved 
alive with him, and became the foundation of his domestic flocks after 
the flood, and were diffused again with his descendants from the coun* 

Digitized by 


156 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

try where the Ark rested. They were therefore part of the stock which 
Abraham and Lot possessed, and which, after them, Jacob tended while 
serving Laban for his daughter Rachel. This opinion seems moreover 
to be well supported by the fact, that the general colour of the breed is 
the same now as in that early period ; for we read that Jacob's lure was 
to consist of all the ring-straked, speckled, and spotted among the goats« 
and of all the brown among the sheep ; and it is easy therefore, without 
the aid of a miracle, to see how his flocks inoreased while those of 
Laban diminished ; since to this day, there are few domestic goats with- 
out some speck or spot of white, and since the prevailing colour of the 
Tymunnee broad-tailed sheep is brown of various shades ! 

It was indeed an arrangement well calculated then, as it would be 
still, to enrich the one party and impoverish the other, and if we only 
allow that Jacob was an observing shepherd, and had learned by expe- 
rience that " Uke breed like" the secret of his great success is at once 
made manifest. 

With Jacob therefore and his sons, they were taken up into Egypt in 
the time of the famine under Pharaoh's reign, when the land of Goshen 
was allotted for a residence to the Israelites ; and of course, from thence 
they accompanied that people throughout their wanderings into the 
promised land, after the Exodus from Egypt, and from thence again they 
became diffused through all the neighbouring states and kingdoms: 
unless, indeed, as is most probably the case, they occurred there already, 
as the nations which were then in the land had equally with the Israelites 
descended from the Ark.^^ 

Now, that the sheep known to the Jews was the OvU steatopgga, 
would seem to be amply proved from the 29th Chap, of Exodus, where, 
at the 22d verse, in describing the manner of a certain sacrifice to be 
offered up, it is written, " thou shall take of the ram the fat and the 
rump, and the fat that covereth the inwards, and the caul above She Iwer, 
and the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, and the right should- 
er ; for it is a ram of consecration." 

Here there is evidently a marked difference made between the fat of 

the tail and the fat of the inwards and kidneys, for the words " the fat 

52. So, Captain Hutton might also argue, are the aborigines of both Americat, 
of Australia, Polynesia, and the countries generally to the E. and SB. of the Bay of 
Bengal, in which latter Sheep have only recently been introduced, and are as yet pos- 
sessed wholly by the European residents.«CiMr. As, Soc, 

Digitized by 


1846.] Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. 157 

and the rump/' clearly show that they were distmct parts of the anima], 
otherwise it would have heen written, " the fat of the rump.** 

It is likewise held distinct from the fat of the other parts, as " the fat 
of the inwards" and " the fat of the kidneys." Now it is a notorious 
fact, that the fat here mentioned is literally all that the animal possesses, 
unless kept up and fed with grain, which Asiatics never do ; so that the 
passage reads " the fat tail and the rump," &c. We have consequentiy 
a true description given us of the " Ovis iteatopyga" in which there is 
" a solid mass of fat on the rump, which falls over in the place of a tail, 
divided into two hemispheres^ which take the form of hips with a Uttie 
button of a tail in the middle."^' 

Again, all doubt upon the subject appears to be removed by a passage 
in the dd Chap, of Leviticus, where, at the 7th and following verses, in 
explaining the method to be adopted in "offering up a sacrifice for a 
peace offering," it is written — "If he offer a lamb for his offering 
then shall he offer it before the Lord. And he shall offer of the peace 
offering an offering made by fire unto the Lord ; the fat thereof and 
the whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone ; and the fat 
that covereth the inwards, and all the fat that is upon the inwards, and 
the two kidneys, and the fat that is upon them, which is by the flanks, 
and the caul above the liver, with the kidneys, it shall he take away." 

Here then it will be observed, that not only is the distinction between 
the fat of the hinder parts, and of the inwards again repeated, but 
we are instructed more particularly that the tail was the part alluded to, 
since " the fat thereof and the whole rump," were to be taken " off hard 
hg the backbone,** thus clearly pointing out the part where the feX allud- 
ed to was situated, namely, in the rump and tail, which takes its origin 
fit)m, or is a continuation of, the end of the backbone. 

It must farther be remarked, that the word " and,** written in italics 
in the Bible, does not occur in the original Hebrew, but has been add* 
ed in the English translation in order to show the connection of the 
words *' the fat thereof** with those of " the whole rump.** Therefore, 
in the original, the passage would stand thus — " the fat thereof, the 
whole rump, it shall he take off hard by the backbone;** and that the fat 
rump of the sheep is the part alluded to is clearly proved by the word 

53. Nat. Library. 

Digitized by 


158 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

•* it " otherwise if " the fat thereof" and '• the whole rump" had been 
separate parts, they would not have been specified in the singular num- 
ber, by " it shall he take oflf," but by " them shall he take oflF." We 
thus at once perceive, that the allusion is made to the peculiar formation 
of the hinder parts of the "Ovis steatopyga," in which the fat of the rump 
actually descends in two lobes on either side of the tail, which it so 
completely envelopes as to leave only tiie tip of it apparent, and thus 
while it coAtributes to form the broad tail which characterises the spe- 
cies, it still remains likewise a part of the rump, commencing at the 
end of, or ' hard by the backbone* as correctly alluded to in the above 
passage of Leviticus. 

Further evidence, if such were necessary, may be probably gathered 
from other passages, such as that of the 15th Chapter of Samuel, where 
the prophet in reproving Saul, declares to him, " behold, to obey is 
better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the /at of rams** Now, since 
the Asiatic sheep are notoriously devoid of fat, unless kept up and fed, 
the repeated mention in the Scriptures of the fat of rams, would seem to 
point most particularly and plainly to the species under consideration, 
which thus becomes doubly interesting, as being not only an Ante- 
diluvian species, but a descendant from the original stock bestowed upon 
mankind by the Almighty in the earliest ages of man's existence upon 
the earth, and as being moreover the animal which was used in the 
ancient sacrifices of the Jewish people. 

Thus we perceive, that so far from this animal having sprung from 
any living wild breed, it is in all probability the most ancient of all 
our sheep, and the stock from which the numberless domestic varieties 
which now contribute to the comfort of mankind, have themselves 
descended .^^ 

In the same manner it might be urged, that as from the earliest 
periods after the fiood, we read in Scripture of camels, asses, oxen, 
sheep, goats, pigeons and doves, being in a state of domestication, 
a strong probability would seem to rise that all these species had been 
reserved to himself by man from the period of the descent from the 

54. Capt. Hutton has, at least, here shewn satisfactorily, the great historical anti- 
quity of the Doomba race of domestic sheep, by proving it to be the variety (and it 
would seem the only (variety, as to this day in Afghanistan,) tended by the Hebrew 
Patriarchs, and familiarly referred to in the Mosaic writings.— Oir, As, Sac. 

Digitized by 


1646.] Hough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar, 159 

Ark, and therefore that none of them have now, in a state of freedom, 
the original stock from which they sprung. 

It should also be remembered, that if the animals at present distri- 
buted over the earth, are all to be considered as honing descended from 
the Ark, (which I deny,) we ought rather to seek among our domestic 
breeds for the original stock from whence they have become diffused, 
than that the converse should be the case ; for it can scarcely be sup- 
posed with any show of reason, that man, who had once held every 
species in captivity under his immediate controul, would have suffered 
them to escape and roam over various quarters of the earth, until they 
had become wild and difficult of approach, and that then he should have 
turned, his attention to the means of recapturing and reducing them 
again to subjection.— If, therefore, any of the existing wild breeds of 
oxen, sheep, or goats are identical with our domestic species, (which is 
not proved,) it should rather be supposed that the /ormer had descended 
from the latter, and that they gained their freedom after the flood, when 
the then existing families of men had selected from among them a suf- 
ficient number to serve as the foundation of their domestic flocks and 
herds.^^ But as the Scriptures declare, that only seven pairs of each of 
these animals. were preserved alive, and as we read that some of each 
kind were sacrificed by Noah on his descent from the Ark, it becomes 
very improbable that any of them regained their freedom, and conse- 
quently the domestic breeds of camels, goats, asses, oxen, sheep, and 
some others have descended from stock which lived before the flood, 
either wild or in a state of domestication. Therefore, we perceive that 
neither can our domestic breeds be traced to any of the wild stock of 
the present day, nor can the latter be traced from them ; and the wild 
races are consequently distiact as species, and have been created since 
the flood ; — of this however more will be said elsewhere. 

The treatment of the flocks in Afghanistan appears in many respects 
very similar to European methods. One ram is reckoned sufficient for 
a flock of a hundred ewes. At the rutting season the ewes are kept 
in ah enclosure and passed to the rams until all are served, the shep- 
herd assisting in the operation by holding up the tail, without which it 

55. The writer of the article * Sheep/ in the ' Penny Cyclopoedia,' alludes only to 
the Moufflon and Argali (O. musimon and O. ammon^) among wild races; absolutely 
stating of them, that ** They are descendants of those which have escaped from the do- 
minion of man, and are retreating from desert to desert in proportion as the population* 
of the country increases." ! ! \—Cur, At, Sac 


Digitized by 


160 Rmu^h Notes os the Zoology of Candahar. [No, 170. 

is asserted the animala cannot consummate. When all have been passed 
to the male in succession, the rams are tamed in with them, aad shoidd 
any ewe have been passed oyer or not served, the ram detects her by 
the scent. The runs sdected to serre afe fed np with bavley and 
melon-rinds, and in the antiimn, which is ^e ratting season, they are 
rendered furious with lust. Another mode of treating them is, to torn 
tiie rams out with tiie locks in the autumn time, when those ewes 
wlueh are ready f (»r the male will leave their food and fofiow him about, 
upon observiDg which, the shepherd separates them and puts them to 
the serving ram. 

In the spring months, the young are yeaned at tlie very o ea s e n when 
the grass is again springing up« Some fematos cobmt in heat after 
yeaning, but they are never served then, beeanse the young would be 
dropped at the «id of tite year when the grass is fading: when dw lambs 
are bom, the mother is milked to prevent the laaib firom tasting the 
first milk, which the Afghans reckon to be inguiious;*^ after this 
the lambs are allowed to suck sparingly in the nmning and evening, 
and after the tiiird day, they are att §ocked together during the day, 
and only allowed access to the mothers at sucking-time ; the surplus 
milk is manufactured into eroot and ghie, as cows' milk is not mack 
esteemed by the Afghans. If the rains of winter have been plentifal 
and the spring grass is in cwisequence abundant and rich, the lambs 
are allowed to suck for four months, as the milk is good ; but if dm con- 
trary has been tiie case, the lambs are taken up at three montha old, 
in order that they may not weaken the mother. 

I was informed by a person who possessed large iocks, and who had 
ng reason to deceive me, that sometimes the tail of tiie Tymnmieft 
doombas increased to such a size, that a cart or nnaU truck on 
wheels was necessary to su^^rt the weight, and that without it the 
animal could not wander about; he also declared that he had produced 
tails in his flock which weighed twelve Tabreez-i-munds or forty-eight 
seers puckah, equal to about 96fts. It has been remarked by CVed. 
Cuvier, that the fiat of these tails, when zaelted, does not return on eool- 
ing to the state of fat, and this assertum is a fact well known to the 
Afghans, who sell and use it mixed with the ghee formed from milk- 
Some objections were on this account offered to the ghee by our 
sepahees, but their scraples soon vanished. 

56. The reverse ia the opinion in Europe.—T. H. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

1846.] Ro¥gh Nates oh the Zoaiapf of Cmuiahar. 161 

For purticiilani regarding the irool of these sheep, I must refer the 
reader to a former papar» published in the Journal of the Asiatic 
Society of Bengal, No. 99, and likewise to some very pertinent re- 
marks by Dr. Griffith, in the 120th No. of the same Journal.*' 

No. 47. Ckprm megaoeros^ (mihi. For remarks on this species, see 
MeCMand's ' Journal Nat. Hist/) This I consider to be a true wild spe- 
cies, and not an accidental race as you auf^pose. It is the " Markhore" 
or aiiake*killer of the Afghans.*' 

No. 48. Capra mgagrut : " Booz,** of the A%hans : Ibex, of writers 
on Afghanistan. 

I have nothing to add to my former notice of this animal in 
McCleliand's ' Journal Nat. Hist:' the experiments, howerer, which I 
was maldng on the cross between it and the domestic goat, have all failed 
hitherto, in so far as the production of offspring, inter ee, is concerned. 
I brought from Gandahar a half-bred female, the produce of a wild 
female by a domestic male ; this female was again crossed by a tame 
goat, and brought forth two fine male aniouds, by one of which she 
subsequently had kids which lived and gnw up ; none of her offispring 
however, have as yet bred inter ee, and most of them, together with 
the half-bred mother, are now dead; I have still a few of the young 
ones left, and shall notice any produce diat may occur from them. As 
yet, however, we have gained nothing in regard to the opinion that the 
mgagm is the original stock from which our domestic breeds have 

57. Tkey are sometimes four or five- homed, but this is only an exception, not a 
general role, as some accounts would have us believe. — T. H. 

58. In my description of the spiral horns of this animal, Proc* Zool. Soc, 1840, p. 80, 
I made a grand mistake in stating the spirature. to be inwardly directed, as in all spiral- 
homed diomefitc goats ; the fact being, that in the Markhorty as in every other species 
I know of, which has spiral horns in its natural wild state, (e. g> the Indian Antelope, 
the Addax, Koodoo, and Caffrarian Impoof,) the twirl is in the opposite direction. Capt 
Hiitton mistook my meaning in his remarks, {Cat, Joum, N. H* II, 541,) upon the 
*' mward tendency, at least at the tips," which 1 mentioned as being almost invariably 
observable in the endlessly diversified races of domestic goats; supposing that I intend- 
ed the convergence generally observable towards the tips of the long arched horns of 
the Buuority of wild Capr«,~a character of very trifling importance, even if constant, 
which it is not. And I may here also remark on the subject of the Himalayan Ibex 
( Capra sakeen, nobis), of which my notice was briefly commented upon by CapL Hutton, 
that, in addition to the difierences which I indicated as distinguishing its horns from 
those of the Swiss Ibex, the existence of a well developed beard (four inches long, in 
the head of a young male in the Society's Museum,) affords a conspicuous differential 
feature; for the beard of the Swiss Ibex is constantly reduced to the merest rudimentary 
tuft, inch as would remain unnoticed if not specially looked for.—Ctir. As. Soc, 

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162 Rough Notes on ike Zoology of Candahar. [No. 1 70. 

sprung, but as far as experiments have been carried, strong doubts arise 
in my mind as to the correctness of such a doctrine.'^ 

No. 49. Domestic goats. The domestic Goats of the Afgham are 
chiefly long-haired, with an under-coat of fine soft dowxk They Tery 
much resemble the Goats of the lower Himalaya and Kooloo, and ap- 
pear to be a degenerate breed or perhaps variety of the true Shawl 
Goat. The prevailing colour is black, or parti-coloured. 

No. 50. Camelus dromedarius. The Dromedary or Arabian Camel. 
'• Shootur'* of Persians, &c,«® 

59 • Capra agagrus is stated by Menetries to be '* not uncommon on the Caucasian 
Alps, seldom if ever descending below an elevation of 1000 feet, and then not in conse- 
qaence of severe weather." It appean to be generally diffused over the mountains of 
Persia and Asia Minor, and the adjoining regions of Western Tartary. The London 
Zoological Society possess a fine specimen of it from the vicinity of Erzeroum. The 
finest pair of horns of this species which I have seen, is in the British Museum. They 
measure four feet and a quarter over the curvature, and diverge to sixteen inches 
apart where widest, not very far from the extremity, the tips returning to fourteen 
inches of each other : basal circumference nine inches ; and depth inside three and 
three-quarters : they number ten years of growth. It is not usual, however, for this 
species to exceed three feet and a half in the length of its horns, though these are not 
unfrequently four inches, or even more, deep at the base.— Cur. As, Soc» 

60. The two species of Camel are better denominated the one-humped and the two- 
humped Camels, and the name * Dromedary' (from Spo^ac) ehould be restricted to 
the swift-running breeds which occur of both of them. Hitherto, the Camel and Dro- 
medary have been continually spoken of as distinct animals, sometimes the one, and 
sometimes the other, bearing either name. Thus Burkhardt refers to the two- humped 
species by the name dromedary, when he affirms that " the Armenian or Caramanian 
camel is produced by a he-dromedary and a she Arab camel. The people of Anato- 
lia," he adds, " keep their male dromedaries to breed with the females of the smaller 
Arab race, which the Turkomans yearly bring to market, if left to breed among 
themselves, the Caramanian camels produce a puny race, of little value." (* Travels 
in Nubia,' p. ^2.) By the French writers more particularly, the one-humped species 
(having indeed been termed C. Dromedarius by Linneeus,) is commonly styled the 
Dromedary, as Capt. Button also designates it. The mixed race was long ago describ- 
ed by Oleareus, as ** a hybrid between the male two-humped and female one-humped 
camels. They are the most esteemed of all, so much so, that some sell (in Turkey) at 
1,000 crowns a piece. They carry 900 or 1,000 weight, and are in a manner indefati- 
gable. They are muzzled. The camels which come of these degenerate very much, and 
are heavy and slow, being not worth more than 80 or 140 crowns." At Aleppo, the usual 
price of one of these hybrids is double that of an Arab camel : they are extensively 
employed in Turkey and Persia; and Sonniui observed a few in Bygpt, where they 
are still rare. These hybrids are, I believe, always of the dark colour of the male, or 
two-humped parent. The common Indian race, which is diffused hence westward to 
Senegambia, appears to be constantly of a pale colour in this country ; and it is perhaps 
only the Dromedary, or fleet race of it, which is occasionally variable in hue. Thus, in 
Arabia, we are informed that a lady of Nadj a considers it a degradation to mount any 
other than a black camel, while an Ozanian beauty prefers one that is grey or white. In 
the continuation of Clapperton's Journey by Lander, we are told of the arrival of 50O 

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1846. J Rotigh Notes on the Zoology o/Candahar. 163 

The Camel with one hump is in use thronghout Afghanutan, but is 
of a much more robust and compact tasrm than our Indian variety, and 
weii aoited to die hilly regions it often has to traverse. 

Nothing can be more erroneous, however, than the common belief 
that the Camel is a hardy animal ; so opposed to this is the Afghan opi- 
nion, that they used to exclaim with astonishment at the indifference 
generally shown by us to the comfort of this useful creature. They 
were often heard to say, " you take immense trouble, and incur great 
expense in pampering your men and horses, but the camel is altogether 
neglected, although if you wish him to thrive and do his work, you 
must both feed him well, and clothe and house him too, in winter and in 
wet weather." In every case where practicable, they acted up to this 
advice themselves, and no sooner does an Afghan cafilah come to its 
ground after a march, than the camels are seated round a heap of leaves, 
straw or gram. With us, on the contrary, our poor brutes after wander- 
ing along from four o'clock in the morning till two or three o'clock in 
the afternoon, with heavy loads badly fixed upon their backs, no sooner 
arrived in camp than they were turned out to pick up a morsel around 
the tents over stoney plains, which produced scarcely any plants of suf- 
ficient size to furnish a bite even for sheep, and after a couple of hours 
passed in an ineffectual search for food, the starving brutes were driven 
back to camp, and tethered for the night, in most instances without a 
particle of grain or other food. What wonder then that dozens could 
not rise beneath a load on the following morning, and were left to be 
the prey of ravens or the prize of the almost as ravenous Afghan ! Let 
those who prized their cattle, and made some efforts to clothe and feed 

cameU laden with salt from the borders of the great desert, which " were preceded by 
a party of Tuarick merchants, whose appearance was grand and imposing. They en- 
tered all full trot, riding on handsome camels, some of them red and white, and others 
black and white." (*Clapperton's' 2nd * Expedition,' p. 266.) These parti-coloured 
individaaU remind us of the Peruvian Alpaca. In Arabia, and in all northern Africa, 
much attention is bestowed upon regulating the propagation of the best sort of camels, 
but especially of the lighter kinds or dromedaries,— termed Asharry and Mahairy^ 
in Barbary. *' Those of Oman," writes the late Lieut. Wellsted, ** enjoy a deserved 
celebrity for strength and swiftness. Nejd is equally the nursery of the camel as of 
the horse; but the Omary, in all ages, is celeorated in the songs of the Arabs as 
producing the fleetest; their legs are more slender and straight; their eyes more pro- 
minent and sparkling ; and their whole appearance denotes them to be of higher line- 
age than the ordinary breed of the animal." ('Travels in Arabia,' II, 291.) The 
smallness of the head is a conspicuous and characteristic feature of a true dromedary. — 
Cur. As, Soc. 

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164 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

them on the march, epeak as to tiie benefit they derived from their hu- 
manity; camels thus cared for, ivere hron^t in safety and in health 
from India, and again returned to it after marching through the coun- 
try;, and passing through the first campaign. 

Numbers of camels liiat were abandoned on the line of march every 
morning, firom their inability to caxry a load, were afterwards hawked 
about for sale by the country people who had housed, fed, and recoveied 
them. This I know to be a faet, for being in the Shah's commissariat at 
Candahar, I purchased several of them. That the animal is patient un- 
der privations, and will endure to the death, is quite true ; but his con- 
stitution is tender, and his power of endurance, unless well fed and 
cared for, is not equal to that of the horse. Rest, food, and warmth, in 
a word — comfort, is more necessary to the camel than to his cruel lord 
and master. 

The Dromedary of Central Asia difiers much in its external characters 
from the animal domesticated in India. In the former we perceive a 
shortness and a strength of limb, and bulk of carcase, which form a 
marked contrast to the tall and stately " desert sheep" of India ; the one 
is a short, thick-set, powerfully-made animal, well clothed with a thick 
close curly hair, to protect it against the cold of winter ; the fore-arm 
often enormously thick and muscular ; the hump rounded and comptet, 
and on a ievel with which the crotm of the head is dmost immnMy ctur* 

The other is a taU, long-limbed, long-necked animal, which placed 
beside its congener of Korassan, reduces the latter to a mere athletic 
dwarf ; — the thick coat of hair is wanting or considerably reduced, and 
the head is carried high above the hump. Yet notwithstanding the 
marked dissimilarity in their general configuration, the two animals can 
only be regarded as varieties of the same species, the differences observ- 
able being, I think, solely attributable to climate, domestication, and 
the different circumstances under which both individuals are placed. I 
am aware, that in advocating the agency of climate and food, as the great 
causes which have served to modify the species, I am in a measi^ re- 
viving an exploded doctrine, yet I am not sure that absolute rejection of 
the doctrine is altogether warranted or wise ; for Cuvier himself declares, 
" that the wild herbivorous animals feel the influence of climate some- 
what more extensively (than the camivoraj, because there is added to it 
in their case, the influence of the food, which may happen to differ both 

Digitized by 


1846.] Rmifk N^ies an the Zoohsf of CtuuMmr. 165 

aft to qnantily and qmlit^f. Thus, the Elephants oi one forest are ofken 
larger than tiiose of anotitier ; and their tusks are somewhat longer in 
l^aces where tiieir food may happen to be more favourable for the pro* 
duetion of ivory.' * 

Now, piecisdy the same remarks will ai^ly to the camel, and while, 
in a eoontry deficient in woody prodncticms, the animal is of small 
stature, the very reverse is found to be the case in India, where the camel 
browses entirely <m leaves and woody branches favourable to his grow^. 
Every consideration tends to point ont to as, that the Indnn dromedary 
is not in its original country, and that adapted as it is by nature for 
existence in the dry and sandy plains of an arid region like Arabia, its 
eccnrrence at all widiin the infiuence of the monsoons, is entirely to be 
attributed to the agency of man, who has brought it with hun in a state 
of d<Mneatication from the Postdiluvian focus of diffusion, across moun- 
tains and Inroad rapid rivers, which in its natural state of freedom would 
have formed insuperable barriers to its further progress eastward, than 
the k«g range of mountains estending downwards from the great 
mMrtiiom chain through Beloodustan even to ^e sea, forming a well- 
worked natural boundary between India and the states of Central Asia. 
The eamel of KcMTOssan is formed for grazing in a country where its 
food is gathered from the grtnind, and where it has to perfwm long 
journeys through mountain passes and defiles ; its shortness and strength 
of Hmb are therefore well adapted to its mode of life, and the severity of 
its dimate ; while on the other hand, the Indian variety ha^ng a range 
of long and atsftoet interminablelevel country to travel over, where its chief 
food consists of the leaves and tender branches of trees, has beccnne mo- 
dified by domestication to meet the circumstances of its present condi* 
tion, and ^ras its Hmbs are less powerfully built, its body less clothed 
with hair, and its proportions adapted to reach tiie food by which the 
enrage has been efifeeted, and in which it delights. 

Much has been said regarding the existence or non-existence of this 
smssal in a state of freedom, and as yet all tends to prove that neither 
the camel nor the 'dromedary have been known wild smce the present 
Ustorical era commeaced. It can scarcely be thought possible, that 
animals of such magnitude as these, can be still living wild in henb 
upon any country of the known eaith, and yet t^t they should have elud- 
ed the reseasches of naturalists ;. for although it has been stated l^ 

61«. CiifieT*8 « Theory of tke eaiili.' 

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166 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candakar. [No. 170. 

some of the older writers, that in their times the camel was found in the 
regions of Tartary, yet as their accounts have been corroborated by no 
later travellers, and as I feel assured, from information carefully collect- 
ed during a two years' residence at Candahar, from traders to Bokhara 
and other neighbouring states, that none are found wild in our days, it 
is most, probable that the herds described as once existing in a state of 
freedom within the modern era, were either as Cuvier has suggested, 
individuals let loose from religious motives by the Calmucks, or that 
they were troops of young or even fold animals, turned out to graze to- 
gether in the breeding districts, as is the custom where pasture is 
plentiful and the animal not required for immediate labour. This con- 
jecture would more particularly apply to the two-humped or Bactnan 
camel, which, from its constitution being suited more especially to the 
cold regions of the northern Steppes, is unable to perform long journeys 
southward during the heats of summer, and they may therefore be left 
at that season to roam and feed in herds upon the plains of the Khozzak 
country to the north of Bokhara, which appears to be the proper habitat 
of the species, until the winter setting in again enables them to travel with 
kafilahs of merchandise, into Russia and other states. It is very certain* 
however, that if the camel seen by the old authors, or even by Mr. Trebeck, 
in his tour to Ludak,^^ was on the Steppes of Tartary, it could have 
been no other than the Bactrian species, for the Arabian camel would be 
wholly unable to endure the rigours of the climate in those northern 
latitudes. Balkh and Bokhara, appearing by all accounts to be the most 
northern limit in which it can live, and even there it requires the great* 
est care and the comfort of wai^ clothing and shelter, to enable it to 
survive the cold of the winter months. Thus, after all, even if the 
Bactrian camel could be proved to have been wild within the historical 
era, we should still require proof that the dromedary had been so found, 
and as all the arguments, hitherto have had reference to this last species, 
we are still authorised in believing that it at least has never been 
known to man in a state of natural freedom since the present order 
of things commenced. 

From strict and careful inquiries instituted during a two years' resi- 
dence in Afghanistan, through traders of all classes who were in the 
constant habit of travelling into the Tartar countries, as well as through 
some Khuzzak camel drivers, I am unhesitatingly inclined to adopt the 

62. Vide E;ditor's Note.— Journal As. Soc., No. F. 

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1846.] Rm^gh Nates on the Zoohffy of Candahmr. 167 

belief, fhat ndther the one nor fhe other camel exists wild at present, 
or has done so since the flood of Noah. The late Sir A. Bumes, with 
whom I corresponded on such subjects, replied to one of my last letters 
as follows : "Caubul, 26th May, 1841. 1 have never seen or heard of 
the camel being wild, nor do 1 credit the report if from Moorcroft ; but 
that the animal, at some time or other, must have been, like all other ani- 
mals, in a state of nature is dear, though certainly not in the historical 
era : the natives all say the same/' lUs was written in answer to 
repeated inquiries from me regarding the existence of wild camels in 
the northern Steppes ; and Sir A. Bumes, after a careful examination of 
all who were likdy to throw any light upon the subject. Came to the 
only condusion that any one can arrive at, namdy, that ndther spedes 
has been known to Postdihrnan man, in a state of freedom. 

This species (C. dramedariusj is not only useful as a beast of burthen 
to travd with merchandise, but yidds a soft and durable wool, which is 
converted into doth. In tiie valley of Pisheen, I have likewise seen them 
yoked together in the plough, and compelled to till the ground. 

No. 5h Gsm^/tif iac^fiaiiiM.-*Two-humped camel. "Bagdad-i," of 

This animal is too impatient of heat to undergo even the climate of 
Candahar for more than a year or two. His true habitat is in the 
Khuzzak country ; he is found in cafilahs which journey to the south, 
but is not kept in Afghanistan. While this two-humped species cannot 
undergo the heats of the south, the dromedary on the other hand can- 
not endure the rigours of the north. To obviate the inconvenience which 
might arise from this circumstance, the A^hans, or rather the tribes of 
the northern Steppes, have produced a crossed breed between the two 
animals, which is enormoudy powerful and of large stature. Its gene- 
ral appearance varies according as the dam has been a camel or a dro- 
medary, and it is asserted, that if the hybrid animal is bom in the 
northern Steppes its constitution unfits it for a continued residence in a 
hot country, whileon the other hand, if bom in a warm climate, it cannot 
endure a great degree of cold. This circumstance is worth attending 
to, since I heard of several persons, who were anxious to introduce the 
hybrid into India, in order to strengthen our dromedaries. The cross 
however, should be obtained from the camd and female dromedary, 
and die produce be bom in our own provinces, if the assertion of the 
Afghans is to be relied on. I do not think, however, that any good 

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168 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

would result from crossing our breed, which is admirably adapted to 
the Indian climate and the work it has to perform, and we may perhaps 
in this case, follow with advantage, the old adage of " Let well alone." 

The species said to exist among the Kirguise, and supposed to be 
distinct from the two forementioned species, is,' in all probability, nothing 
more than the hybrid obtained from the camel and dromedary. I heard 
of no instance of the hybrids breeding inter se, but at the same time I 
do not consider the point decided, or even of consequence, either one 
way or the other ; as the fact of hybrids breeding inter se cannot prove 
identity of speciefs in the original parent stock, since I have more than once 
obtained and reared offspring from hybrid birds, which offspring more- 
over again bred inter se. Yet, notwithstanding this, the original species 
were distinct, being the one a female canary, and the other a common 
linnet. Such being the case, it must be evident that if the offspring of 
the domestic goat and the wild segagrus were proved capable of breed* 
ing inter se, it would not show that the wild and domestic breeds were 
identical ! 

In respect to the stock from which the camels originally descended, I 
hold the same opinions as those set forth in regard to the domestic 
sheep and goats, namely, that they never had, during the historical era, 
any wild representatives, the whole having been retained by man after 
the exit from the Ark. The camels, therefore, like most others of our 
domestic cattie, I hold to be species whose original stock perished in the 
waters of the Noarchian deluge. These opinions will elsewhere lead me 
to remark upon the habitats of the modem camels, with a view to as- 
certain whether both could have spread from the focus of Postdiluvian 
diffusion, or whether the country of Armenia be in reality the true resting 
place of the Ark, a point on which I am inclined to be sceptical. 

No. 52. Sdurus paltnarum. — The Palm Squirrel. 

This littie animal is found in the Bhawulpore country, and extends 
into the jungles of Cutchee as far as the borders of the " Putt,'* or de- 
sert between Poojaun and Burshore. It does not appear to cross that 
desert, and is not found in A%hani8tan. 

P. S.— I think I may venture to say, that very few wild mammalia 
occur below Ghuznee, which have not been here noticed, and those will 
probably be small species. 

In the northerly mountains of Cabul, &c. doubtiess many are found, 
but as my personal observations were confined to the neighbourhood of 

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1846.] R^h Notes on the Zoolo^ of Candahar 169 

Candahar and the route to that city, I shall not venture further on the 
subject. I do not think, however, that any large ruminants will be 
found even there. 

I will send you a notice of the birds collected also. 

These notes are not arranged in order, but that you can easily rectify. 
I have been obliged to write them for you as I could lay my hands on 
my old memoranda, which hlive become confused. You are at liberty 
to describe, and name any species that may appear new. 

Thomas Button. 

Additions and carrectUmt io former Notes, Fol, XIV, p. 340 et seq» 

NoTB % p. 841.— With reference to the range of the Tiger on the Himalaya, I 
should have quoted the Rev. R. Everest's paper * On the power of enduring cold in 
the mammalia of hot coantries,' published in An, and Mag, Nat. Hist., VI II, 325. 
•• The Tiger," remarks that gentleman, ** is very scarce in the Himalaya, even in sum- 
mer time, being too large and unwieldy an animal to follow the caprine races over the 
precipitous ground* I, however, met with their tracks on the snow near my house; 
and while shooting in the oak-forest, from 5,000 to 6,000 feet above the sea, had one 
of my people carried away by one* They can go wherever the [Jerrow {Cervus Arts- 
totelis, ) ] can obtain a footing, and. remain on a mountain north of Mussoorie, ( Nagtiba, 
near 10,000 feet in height,) all the year round. They live principally on stags and 
also bears." 

NoTB 6, p. 342.— Prof. Behn, of Kiel University, and now with the Danish expedi- 
tion on board the Galathea, pronounces this to be distinct from the European Felis 
sylvesiris. The state of the skin does not permit of a satisfactory description being 
taken from it ; but it may be briefly characterised as of a light fulvous colour, mottled 
or varied with blackish on the back, which colour forms somewhat large, transverse, 
ill-defined stripes on the sides and limbs, and more distant spots on the under-partB : 
the tail tapering, with five or six rings of black, and a black tip ; and the fur mode- 
rately long and dense. Length about two feet, the tail a foot more. If new, F, 
HuUoniy nobis. 

NoTB 8, p. 343.—** The Afghan pointer," remarks the late Migor Brown, <* has 
been long known, having occasionally been brought down for sale by the fruit-mer- 
chants ; but they have never been considered equal to the English dog. In Afghanis- 
tan they are called Boders, and are used for shooting pretty generally throughout that 
country, including Cashmere. They have rather a coarse heavy appearance, and 
the one now described resepibles a Beagle a good deal ; otherwise it has much the 
appearance of an India-bred English pointer. The hair is smooth, of a red and white 
colour : it stands short on the legs, with a large double dew-chiw on each hind-leg, 
which has a very ugly appearance. Its ears are well hung but short; the breadth 
at the forehead is great, but the muzzle small, and it has great natural courage. Ap- 
parently it has never been broken in, and some large scars about the head testify that 
it has fought some hard battles in its day." * Gunga,' in Bengal Sporting Magazine, 

NoTB 15, p. 346. Mangusta palUpss. Since the note referred to was written, the 
Society has received specimens of M, EdwardsU (apud Ogilby) ftrom Agra, which 
render it extremely doubtful whether the Afghan species can be considered more than 
a variety of the same : upon comparison of the skulls, however, the first false molar of 
both jaws is much smaller in Afghan than in Bengal specimens. The last appear 

Digitized by 


170 Rough Notes on the Zoology of Candahar. [No. 170. 

always to be of a much darker and browner colour, resembling tliOBe from Nepal— 
M. auropunctata of Hodgson, which name will, I believe, stand. 

Notes 19 and 20, p. 352 el seq. Hedgehogs. The Indian species of this genus 
are still much in need of investigation. Four have received names, as follow : — 

1. S, coUaris, Gray : founded upon Gen* Hardwic]ie*s figure of a specimen obtained 
in the * Dooab.' This is represented to have uniformly blackish spines, rather 
large ears, which are greatly emarginated posteriorly, a blackish face, more rufous 
chest, and a narrow band of pare white on the throat, commencing from the ear. In 
Mr. Gray's recent catalogue of the mammalia in the British Museum, three specimens 
referred to this animal are enumerated, one of them from Madras, presented by 
Walter Elliot, Esq. 

2. B. spatanguSf Bennet, Proc» Zool, Sac. 1832, p. 123. 

S. S. Orayi, Bennet, ibid. p. 124. Both from the Himalaya, and referred ■* to that 
extra European form of the genus BrmaceuSf which is distinguished by the possession 
of large ears." 

4. J7. mentaUSt Gray; "Black-chinned Hedgehog," from the Himalaya*~Seem« 
ingly undescribed, being merely enumerated with the preceding three in Mr. Gray's 
catalogue of the British Museum mammalia. 

Capt. Hutton's No. 19, from Afghanistan, to which 1 gave the provisional name 
megaloHSt would seem to approximate the E* spatangua; but the difference of sixe is 
too great to admit of the probability of their being young and adult of the same, the 
advanced dentition of Mr. Bennet's specimen leading him to suppose it ** probably 
not fully adult, there being only two false molars on each side of the upper jaw." The 
head and body of B» spatangus are given as but three inches and a quarter, t^l a ^ 
quarter of an inch, ears three inches and a quarter, and tarse to end of claws an 
inch. Capt. Hutton's recent Afghan specimen is described as about a foot in length, 
minus the tail, the latter measuring an inch and a half. (?) The example of it sent, it 
about the size of a moderately large European Hedgehog, with great ovate ears, an 
inch and a quarter long, and sevenoeighths in extreme breadth : tarse to end of dawe 
an inch and a half, tail but five-eighths; entire length of skull, with projectiag upper 
incisors, two inches and a quarter. 

Of Capt. Hutton's No. 18, the first and second specimens mentioned by him are, I 
suspect, rightly referred to S, coUaris: but his third specimen seems, from the dee- 
cription, identical with one in the Society's museum, the locality of which is unknown, 
and also with others from S. India, obligingly sent me on loan by Mr. Elliot, and to 
which I suspect that Mr. Gray's * Madras' specimen (presented by Mr. Elliot>) and 
probably the two others referred by him to S, eoUarig, likewise appertain. The 
crania and dentition of an adult sent by Mr. Elliot, and that of the Society's specimen, 
correspond exactly: but Capt* Button's skull of the Bhawulpore Hedgehog presents 
some differences ; the general form is rather shorter and broader, it is more constricted 
between the orbits, and the zygoms are considerably ipore projecting; the small 
upper pre* molar anterior to the scissor-tooth is less minute ; and in the lower jaw, the 
second lateral pair of incisors from the front are much smaller, as indeed are alto the 
next or last pair of the true incisors. If new, I propose to call this species S» micro* 

Another Asiatic hedgehog, additional also to S, auritus of Siberia, and BMriy 
allied to the European species, is B. eoncohr, Martin. P. Z, 8» 1837, p* 103, dee- 
cribed from a specimen received from Trebitond.—- Our. As. Soc. 

Digitized by 





Inhabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 

Collected or observed by Theodore Cantor, M. D., Bengal 
Medical Service. 

\ ^ Localities printed in Italics signify those from whence the animals of the Cata- 
! logos were obtained; in ordinary type those previously given by authors. 



Gun. — P1THECU8, Geoffroy, 

PiTHBCus Sattbus, Geoffroy. 
Stk. — Simla Satyrus, Linn^. 
Simia Agrias, Schreber. 
Singe de Wurmb, Audebert. 
Papio Wurmbii, Latreille. 
Pithecus Satyrus, Desmarest. 
Simla Wurmbli, Kubl. 
Drang Pandak, Raffles. 
Simla Satyras, "^ 
Simla Abelil, \ apud Fisher. 

Simia Wurmbii, J 

No. 171. No. 87, New Sbbibs. 

2 a 

Digitized by 


172 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No 171. 

Simla Satyrus» apud Ogilby. 

Satyras rufus, Lesson. 

Pithecus Satyrus, apud Martin. 

Simia Satyrus, apud Schinz. 

" O'rang U'tan" of the Malays. 
Hab. — Borneo, Sumatra, 

The physiognomy and the colour of the face exhibit a marked dif- 
ference in living individuals from the two localities.* 

Gbn. — Hylobatbs, llliger. 

Hylobatbs Lar, Ogilby. 
Syn. — Ghrand Gibbon, Buffon. 

Homo Lar, Linn^, Mantiss. 

Simia longimana, Schreber. 

Simia longimana. Grand, et Petit Gibbon, Brxleb. 

Simia Lar, Linn^ Syst. 

Le Gibbon, Audebert. 

Pithecus liar, Desmarest. 

Simia albimana. Vigors and Horsfield. 

Simia Lar, apud Fischer. 

Hylobates Lar, Lesson, apud Martin. 

Hylobates albimanus, apud Schinz. 

'* Ungka ^tam" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Siam, Burmah, Tenasserim. 

Light- coLOTTBBD Var. 
Syn.— Petit Gibbon, Buffon. 

Simia Lar, 3. Linn^. 

Pithecus variegatus, Geoff. 

Pithecus variegatus, apud Kuhl. 

Pithecus variegatus, apud Desmarest. 

Hylobates variegatus, Ogilby. 

Hylobates leuciscus, apud Cantor. Ann. and Mag. of Nat. Hist. 

•* Ungka puti" and " Wow- wow" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

* An excellent likeness of a young male Bornean Orang Utan, living in my posses- 
sion upwards of two years, has lately been taken by Mr. Thomam, one of the artists 
of the scientific expedition on His Danish Majesty's Ship * Qalathea/ 

Digitized by 


1 846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 1 73 

The colour Taiiea from blackish-brown to light«brown, yellowish or 
dirty-white, sometiittes uniform, sometimes mottled. The index and 
middle toes, of both or of one foot, are in some individuals, of whatever 
sex or shade of colour, united by a broad web throughout the whole of 
the first phalanx ; in some partially so, and in others not. The ribs 
vary from twelve (7+5) to thirteen pairs (7+6,) as observed by Mr. 
myth, (Journal Asiatic Society 1841, Vol. X. p. 839.) 
Hylobatbs A6ILIS, F. Cuvicr. 
Var. Ungka btam, Martin. 
Stk. — Ungka etam, Raffles. 

Oungka, Hylobates Lar, F. Guv. 

Simia Lar, Vigors and Horsfield. 

Hylobates Rafflesii, Geoff, apud Ogilby. 

Hylobates variegatus, Miiller apud Schinz*. 

" Ungka etam" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
^AB.— Malayan Peninsula, (Malacca, Purlis, KSddah, PUngah,) 

The first phalanges of the index and middle toe are in some individu- 
als of either sex, partially or entirely united by a web. Sometimes the 
first phalanx of the middle toe is partially united to the fourth. 

An adult male examined, had thirteen pair of ribs (6+7), an adult 
female fourteen, (7+7), a young male on the left side thirteen (7+6), 
on the right twelve (7+5). In these three individuals the stomach 
was constricted at the fundus and the pyloric part, which characters, when 
compared with specimens of Hylobates agilis from Sumatra, will go far 
to decide the identity of that species and H, Rqfflesii. On the Malayan 
Peninsula, the latter appears to be less numerous than H. Lar, The 
light-coloured Var. of H. agilis I have not seen. 

Hylobates leuciscus, Kuhl. 
Syw. — " Wou-wou," Camper. 

Simia leucisca, Schreber. 

Simia moloch, Audebert. 

Pithecus cinereus, Latreille. 

Pithecus leuciscus, Geoffrey. 

Pithecus leuciscus, apud Desmarest. 

* Schinz gives as a synonyme : Pithecus variegatuSy Geoff, which, however, is Hy- 
lobates LaVy Var. 

Digitized by 


174 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 171. 

Simla leucisca, apud Fisher. 

Hylobates leuciBCUS, apud Ogilby. 

Hylobates leuciscus, apud Schinz.* 
Hab.— J5onwo, ? 


Gbn. — Sbmnofxthbcus, F. Cttv. 
Sbmnofithbcus obscubus, Reid. 
Syn. — Simla maora ? Lin. Lotong, apud Raffles.f 

Semnopithecus leucomystax, Temm. in MSS. 

Semnopithecus obscurus, apud Martin. 

Fresbytes obscura, Gray, List of Mamm. B. M. 

Semnopithecus sumatranus, Muller, apud Schinz.l 

Semnopithecus halonifer, Cantor, Proceed. Linn. Soc. 

*' L6tong" or " L6tong ^tam/' of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore, 

District adjacent to Singapore, in the Malayan Peninsula. 
Sbmnofithbcus albocinbbeus, Schinz. 
Stn. — Cercopithecus albocinereus, Desmarest. 

Simla albocinerea, Fiaher. 

Semnopithecus dorsatus, (young) Waterhouse MSS.§ apud 

Presbytes cinerea. Gray, List. [Martin. 

Semnopithecus albimanus. Is. Geoff. ? 

" Ka-ka" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

* Among the Syn. occurs Ungka putt. Raffles, which is Hylobates agtUs. 

t The Hab. Pinang and Singapore, in neither of which islands Semnopithecus /e- 
moralis appears to occur, tends to prove, that Sir S. Raffles did not, as it has been sup- 
posed, refer to that species. His short description indicates ^. obscurus (Lotong.) the 
most common species in both islands. Sir S. Raffles evidently did not describe the 
living animal, or he would not have omitted one of the most striking characters, viz. 
the white marks of the face, which, in preserved specimens, become obliterated, so that 
the face appears uniformly black. The omission of this character by Sir S. Raffles, 
and subsequently by later describers of this species, has given rise to confusion. 

X Schinz repeats S.femoraliSf Martin, as a Syn. for^. sumatranus, and says in a 
note, that MUller in his monograph of Semnopithecus refers that species to his S. 
sumatranus (Schinz Syn. Mam. I. p. 39, note.) Were even the two identical, the 
species should not have been renamed, as S. femoralis, Bortifield, not Martin, would 
take precedence, being the denomination under which Dr. Horsfieid described it in 
the Appendix to the Life of Sir T. Stanford Ri^jffleSt 1830. 

§ Martin, p. 481, refers the young 5. dorsatus to S. femoralis, but the description 
is that of the young of the present species. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 175 

The young of this species, described by Martin, p. 48 1 , is from the pecu- 
liar distribution of the colours, as easily distinguished from the young of 
8. obseurus, as it is difficult to distinguish the adults of these two species. 
Both attain. to the same size, hare in common the shape of the body, 
the white marks of the fEu:e, and the general distribution of colours. In 
the adult of the present species the prevailing colours are clear ashy- 
grey above, and white below. On either parietal bone, the hairs form a 
whorl, and the anterior are directed forward, projecting beyond the eye- 
brows. The two whorls are distinct in the young, though the hairs of 
the head are too short to mingle with the long, erect, divergent, black 
hairs of the eyebrows. Just below the spot where the two whorls come 
in contact, the skull is naked, thus forming a rather broad, triangular 
forehead. The general colour of S. obscurus, both in the young and 
adult state, is considerably darker. On the upper parts a blackish, 
or brownish ash colour prevails, lighter below, which acquires in some 
individuals a whitish appearance, from the white skin of the stomach, 
which is but scantily covered with hairs. Of parietal whorls there is no 
trace; the hairs of the head, directed backwards, originate in a peak as 
far down as the glabella, and are smoothed down on the top of the head 
from the occipital crest backward. 

Semnofithecus cristatus, Horsfield. 
SrN. — Simia cristata, Chingkau, Raffles. 

Semnopithecus pruinosus, Desmarest. 

Semnopithecus pruinosus, apud Lesson. 

Semnopithecus cristatus, apud Martin. 

Presbytes cristata, Gray :* List. 

Semnopithecus cristatus, apud Schinz.''^ 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, 

Sumatra, Borneo, Banka. 
The whitish colour round the eyes and the mouth is present, though 
less distinct in this than in the preceding two species. 

Semnopithecus femobalis, Horsfield. 
Syn. — Semnopithecus chrysomelas, Muller, apud Martin and Schinz. 

* Gray quotes S, maurus, Horsfield, and Schinz S. femoraiiSt Martin, as synonyms, 
both of which are species, in physiognomy, colours, and, as far as S* maurus is con- 
cerned, in habits distinctly different from the present one. 

Digitized by 


176 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 171. 

Hab. — PurUs (on the Malayan Peninsula. J 
Borneo, Java (?), Sumatra (?). 
In a young male of this, apparently everywhere difficultly procurable 
species, the face during life was intense black, except the white-haired 
lips and the chin, which were of a milk-white colour. In the preserved 
specimen, the latter soon changed into the dull brownish-black of the 
rest of the face. The interdigital membrane, often loosely connecting 
the first phalanges of the four fingers and toes in S. obsettrus, alboci- 
nereus, cristatus and other Malayan monkeys, was also present in this 
individual, in which even the first and second phalanges of the index 
and middle toe were thus connected. In preserved specimens, the in- 
terdigital web becomes shrivelled and indistinct, and therefore, being at 
all times a very questionable, if not altogether inadmissible, specific 
character, ought in such state to be least relied upon. On its arrival at 
Finang, the animal was in too sickly a state to allow of its natural habits 
being observed. 

Gbn, — Cbbcopithecus, apud OgUby* 

Cercofithecvs CYK0M0L6US, Ogilby. 
Syn. — Simia cynomolgus, Linn^. 
Simia aygula, Linn6. 
Simia attys, Schreber. 
Macacus cynomolgus, Desmarest. 
Simia fascicularis, Rafiies. 
Cercocebus aygula, Geoff, apud Horsfield. 
Macacus cynomolgus, apud Grray : List. 
Macacus cynomolgus, apud Schinz. 
" Kra" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab.— -Ptitan^, Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Java, Banka, Borneo, Celebes, Timor, Tenasserim, 
Nicobar Islands. 
The first phalanges of the four fingers and toes, and in some in- 
dividuals also the second phalanges of the toes, are united by a mem- 

Gkn. — Papio, apud Ogilby. 

Pafio nembstrinus, Ogilby. 
Syn.-— Simia nemestrinus, Linn6. 
Simia platypygos, Schreber. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 1 77 

Simla fasca, Shaw. 

Macacus nemestrinus, Desmarest. 

Simia carpolegus. Raffles. 

Macacos nemestrinus, apud Ghray, List. 

Macacus nemestrinus, apud Schinz. 

" Broh" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab.— Pinaii^, Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The interdigital membrane of the first phalanges of the four fingers 
and index, and middle toe, occurs also in this species. 


Gbn. — Ntcticbbxts, Geoffrey. 
Ntcticbbus tardigradus, Waterhouse, Cat. Zool. Soc. 
Stk. — Lemur tardigradus, Linn^ apud Raffles. 
Nycticebus bengalensis, Geoff. 
Nycticebus jayanicus, Oeoff. 
Loris tardigradus, Geoff. 
Stenops javanicus. Van der Hoeven. 
Stenops tardigradus, Wagner, apud Schinz. 
" Kdkang" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Siam, Tenasserim, Arracan, Bengal, Sylhet, Assam. 
The sublingual appendage is cartilaginous, of a white colour ; the 
apex divided in a number of fine points. The new-bom is of the same 
colour as the adult, but paler, and has the dense, soft fur, mixed with 
a number of long hairs, grey at the base, white at the point. In a male, 
measuring from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot 
two and a half inches, the tail fi?e*e}ghths of an inch, the dimensions 
of the intestinal canal, were : 

Small Intestines, 3 feet i inches. 

Large ditto, , . . . 2 „ SJ „ 

Caecum, „ 3^ „ 

Gbn. — Galbofithbcus, Pallas. 

Galbofithbcus Tbmminckii, Waterhouse. 
Stn. — Lemur volans, Linn, apud Marsden and Raffles. 

<* Kdbong" or " Ktirbong" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Digitized by 


178 Catalogue of Mammaiia inhabiting [No. 171. 

Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, and other Islands in the Straits of Malacca, 
Lancavy Islands, Malayan Peninsula, 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Pelew Islands, Siam. 
Two individuals are never of precisely the same design and ground- 
colour, which latter varies from clear ashy-grey to greyish.brown or 
chesnut. The white spots on the back of the anterior extremities, 
appear to be constant in every age. Though there are four mamm», 
situated in pairs one above the other, close to the axilla, of a number of 
females with young, none had more than one offspring, which was car- 
ried wrapped in the wide mantle-like membrane. In several shot on 
the hills at Pinang, the stomach contained vegetable matter, but no re- 
mains of insects. In confinement, plantains constitute the favourite 
food, but deprived of liberty the animal soon pines and dies. The ante- 
rior margin of the broad smooth tongue has a fringed appearance, pro- 
duced by a number of rounded papillae. In a male, measuring from the 
apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot four inches, the tail nine 
inches, the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . . . 4 feet 4 inches. 

Large ditto 7 „ 7 „ 

Caecum, » H .. 

Costse verae seven pairs, spuriae six pairs. 



Gek. — Rhikopoma, Geoffroy, 
Rhinofoma, Habdwickii, Gray. 
Syn. — Vespertilio (Rhinopoma) Hardwickii, Elliot. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Southern Mahratta country, Calcutta, Allahabad,* Agra,t 
A single male, in no way differing from Bengal individuals, was ob- 
tained by Captain Congalton, H. C. Steamer ' Diana,' in a cave on an 
island in GKrbee river, in Latitude 8^ 0', on the Malayan Peninsula. 

This species is provided with a true caecum, the existence of which 
in all Cheiroptera has erroneously been denied, or restricted to the car- 

* Numbers inhabit the subterraneous Hindoo place of worship within the Fort at 

t In the Tiy-Mahal. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Pmiiusula and Islamds. 179 

diac csBCum observed in the genera Vampftus and Pterojnu. The pre- 
sent species, and Megaderma spasvui, also possessing a tme csBciim, 
thus present a higher organisation than has hitherto been attributed to 

Length of the small Intestine 7^ inches. 

large ditto, . . . . ] 

„ „ caecum, .. .. Wj^g „ 

Gkn. — Mbqadbrma, Geofroy, 
Mbgadbrma sfasma, Geofiroy. 

Sth. — Vespertilio spasma, Schreber. ' 

Megaderma trifolium, Geoffroy. 

Megaderma spasma, apud Fisher. 

Megaderma spasma, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, 

Singapore,, Java, Temate. 

Incis.—r" Canin.- — - Molar, ■ ' ■- 

4 1 — 1 O . 6 

Length of the head and body . . . . 3-^ inches. 

„ „ „ inter-femoral membrane, 1 inch. 
Extent of the flying membrane, . . 14 inches. 

The five caudal vertebrae project one quarter of an inch beyond the 
pelvis, but are completely enveloped in the inter-femoral membrane, and 
therefore not apparent. The inguinal warts are, as in the Rhinolophi, 
most developed in the adult female. A true caecum, though smaller 
than in Rhinopoma Hardwicku, is present in this species. 

I Length of the small Intestines, 7 inches. 

p „ „ large ditto, li*e inches. 

: . „ „ caecum, Oig inches. 

j Qbn. — Nyctinomus, Geoffroy, 

j Nyctinomus tbnuis, Horsfield. 

Snr.^Nyctinomus tenuis, apud Fisher. 

Molosse gr^le, Temminck. 

Dysopes tenuis, Schinz. 
Hab.— Ma/ajfan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 


Digitized by 


180 Catalogue of Mammalia inhahiting [No. 171. 

Two individuals had the back of a velyety snuff colour, becoming a 
shade lighter on the under-parts. Entire length of the larger four 
and four-eighth inches, of which the tail one and two-fourth inches. 
Extent of the flying membrane ten and four-eighth inches. In the size 
of the ears some difference exists in the two. 

Gbn. — Taphozous, Geoffroy, 
Taphozous mblanopooon, Temminck. 
Stn. — Taphozous melanopogon, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Pulo-THkua, Pulo-Lancdvy, Malayan Peninsula, 
Java, Caves of Kannera. 

Temminck's description, as quoted by Schinz, is taken from the adult 
male, the Malayan individuals of which differ in having the black beard 
surrounded by a broad light-brown band, covering, like a pelerine, the 
chest and shoulders. The rest of the lower parts are either white or 
brownish- white. The flying membrane in the adult male is whitish ; 
in the females and young males it is blackish or brownish between the 
legs, along the sides of the body and the arms. The colour of the 
female and young male is on the back of a more or less brownish 
mouse-grey, becoming much lighter or whitish beneath, but both are 
destitute of the black beard, which, out of a number of between forty 
and fifty from different Malayan localities, occurred but in seven males, 
although some of the beardless males in size and extent of flying mem- 
brane equalled, or even slightly exceeded, the bearded. The entire 
length of the largest male was four inches, of which the tail measured 
one inch. 

Extent of flying membrane fifteen and four-eighth inches. 

x^ . . • . ^ . 1—1 »^ , 4.4 
Dentition: Incis. ^ Canm. = — - Molar, -— ^ 

4 1 — 1 O . 5 

Taphozous saccolaimus, Temminck. 

Syk. — Taphozous pulcher, Elliot MSS. apud Blyth. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Celebes, Southern India. 

In two males captured at Pinang in houses in the valley, the colours 

somewhat differ from Temminck's description, quoted by Schinz. In 

the larger, the head and back are of a sooty black, with a few white 

dashes, the lower parts of a pure white. The flying membrane ii Uack 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Mokyan Pmimula and Islands. 181 

between the legs, along the sides of the body and the arms, and between 
the index, second and third fingers ; the rest being dull semi-transparent 
white. The length from the apex of the nose to the posterior margin 
of the inter-fen^oral margin, is four and seven-eighth inches, of which the 
tail measures one inch. The extent of the flying membrane eighteen 
inches. Dentition as in T. melanopogon. The smaller differs in having 
the chest of a pale brownish- white, the abdomen and the pubes light rust- 
coloured, leaving the sides pure white. Mr. Blyth quotes Taphogaus 
pulcker, Elliot, from Southern India, as being " black-brown above with 
white pencillings, and pure white below," (Journal As. Soc. XIII. 1844. 
p. 492,) from which, as well as from Mr. Elliot's specimen, at present in 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society, it appears that the Indian more 
resemble the Malayan individuals than those of the Indian Archipelago, 
described by Temminck. The internal surface of the gular sac secnretes, 
an odorous oily fluid, of a light brown colour. 

Gen. — Rhinolophtts, Geoffray, 

Rhinolophus, Gray. 
Rbinolofhus atfinis, Horsfield. 
Hab. — Pinang. 
Of two individuals, the male is reddish-brown above, light greyish- 
brown beneath ; the female is above golden fulvous, which becomes 
lighter on the lower parts. 

4 7 

Entire length of the male, . . 2^- inches — female, 2^ inches. 
Tail, • • . • .... I* „ female, ^ „ 

2 4 

Extent of flying membrane, . . 11 s* ** female, 12^ „ 
Incis. •- Canin. -H- Molar, ~^ 

4 1 — 1 . 6 

The inguinal warts are highly developed in the female. 

HiFPOsiDBBos, Gray. 
A, Adult male with a frontal pore, with a tuft of rigid hairs. 
HipposiDBBos DiADBMA, Gray ? 
Stn. — Rhinolophus Diadema, GeoflEroy ? 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 
The Malayan individuals are, according to age and sex, of a more or 
lew int^ue reddish or greyish-brown above, under certain lights assum- 

Digitized by 


182 Catalogue of Mammalia inbabUing [No. 171. 

ing a golden lustre, owing to the whitish points of the hairs ; beneath, 
they are of a lighter greyish-brown. IndiTiduals occur of a light golden* 
brown, in colours resembling Rhinolophus larvatus, HorsfiekL In the 
adult male, the livid flesh*(»loured nasal appendage is larger, more com* 
plicated, and somewhat different from the figure given by Geoffroy 
St. Hilaire, (Ann. du Museum XX, PI. 5 and 6), which resembles the 
female in the simpler appendage and in the absence of the frontal pore. 
The latter organ, in the adult male, is large, secreting a yellowish 
brown oily fluid, the odour of which resembles that of Arctietis Bintu- 
roTig, Fisher. A female, during lactation, presented a great inequality 
in the development of the inguinal warts, of which the right measured 
one-quarter of an inch in length. At the time of her capture, it wis 
reported that a young one had been " sucking" the right wart. Not 
having myself observed the young clinging to that organ, I cannot 
vouch for the correctness of a statement which, if authentic, would tend 
to explain the use, being to afford support to the young, when not suck- 
ing. The size of the Malayan individuals appears to exceed those from 
Timor, the entire length of the former being five and six-eighth inches, 
of which the tail measures two inches. Extent of the flymg membrane 
twenty-one and a half to twenty-two inches. The extremity of the 2nd 
phalanx of the fourth and fifth fingers is bifid, or terminating with two 
minute diverging joints, a structure also existing in the Malayan indivi* 
duals of the following species. 

Incis. ►- Canin. ; — - Molar, --^ 

4 1 — 1 5 . 

HiFFpsiDERos NOBiLis, Gbray. 

Syn. — Rhinolophus nobilis, Horsfield. 

Rhinolophus nobilis, apud Fisher. 

Rhinolophe fameux, Temminck. 

Rhinolophus nobilis, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Timor, Amboyna. 
The frontal pore is less developed than in the former species, as com- 
pared with which the present is of a more slender form, diough of 
a size little less inferior. Entire length five and four-eighth inches, of 
which the tait measures two and one-eighth inches. Extent of flying 
membrane twenty-one and four eighth inches.. Dentition similar to that 

Digitized by 


1846.] tie MOtofan Pemnsuia and Islands. 183 

of H. Dimdema. In the valley of Pinang single indindnals of both 
species are at night abroad at all seasons, but during the rains they 
are particularly numerous. 

Hiffosidbhos tulqabib, Gray. 
Stk. — Rhinolophus vulgaris, Horsfield. 

Rhinolophus insignis, Var. apud Temmiuck. 

Rhinolophus insignis, Horsf. apud Schinz. 

Rhinolophus vulgaris, HaiBf. female of insiguis, apud Schinz.* 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Entire length four inches, of which the tail measures one and three- 
eighth ; extent of flying membrane fourteen inches. 

Incis. -T- Canin. --^ Molar, — -^ 

* 1 — 1 O . 5 

Stk. — Rhinolophus murinus, Elliot. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Southern Mahratta Country, Nicobar Islands. 
Entire length two and four-eighth inches, of which the tail measures 
one inch. Extent of flying membrane nine and four-eighth inches. 
Dentition similar to that of the last species. 
B. Forehead simple. 


H. prosthematis simplicis membrand transversa lat&, alt^ erectd, auri- 
culas tangente ; auricularum, lat^ pyriformium, apicibus lacinid exsertis, 
besse postico lobuloque basali villosis ; vellere longo, denso, mdli, bico- 
lore ; supr& saturate, subtus pallidius-fusco-rufescenti. 
Latet fsemina. 
Hab.— -Pmao^. 

Entire length three inches, of which the tail meaaures one inch. Extent 

of the flying membrane ten and four-eighth inches. 

T • 2 _, . 1-1 _^ , 4.4 
Incis. — - Canin. - — - Mol. --— — 

4 1 — 1 .6 

The livid flesh-coloured nasal appendage is simple but large, occupy- 
ing the whole upper part of the face and the forehead ; the horse-shoe or 

* The only individttal of Rhinolophus mdgariSt Honfield, observed at Pinang, hap- 
pened to be a male. 

Digitized by 


184 Catalogue of Mammalia inhalnting [No. 171. 

nasal disk covers the short, rounded, hairy muzzle, which has two leaves 
on either side; the transversal membrane is concave, as broad and long u 
the horizontal horse- shoe, which it joins under a right angle, while its 
sides are almost in contact with the ears. The latter are sub-erect, broader 
than long, their breadth equalling the length of the head ; the shape is 
broad, pyriform, narrowing towards the apex, which appears like a small 
artificially rounded flap, scarcely elevated above the level of the for co- 
vering the vertex. More than two- thirds of the back of the ear is 
covered with fur, leaving a narrow naked line along the external mar- 
gin, which, as well as the singular shape of the ear itself, a£fords a dis- 
tiuguishing character. The hairs are buff or whitish at the base, the 
other half of their length brown. The general colour of the upper parts 
is deep-brown, with a slight reddish hue, becoming a shade lighter be* 

This species somewhat resembles Hippoiideros apiculatus, Gray fVeS' 
pertilio speoris, Schneider, apud Schreber ; Rhinolophus speoris, Geof- 
froy,) from which it however differs in the absence of the frontal pore, 
in the shape of the ears, and in colours. A solitary male was captured 
in the valley of Pinang. 

Obn. — Vbsfbbtilio, Linn4, 

Vjcsfebtiuo, Grray. 

Vksfbbtilio advbbsus, Horsfield ? 

Stn. — Vespertilio adversus, Fisher ? 

Vespertilio adversus, Temminck ? 

Vespertilio cineraceus, Blyth MSS. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Java, Calcutta. 
This bat having the characteristic distinction of the upper incisor, 
described by Horsfield, is above greyish-brown, beneath light-greyish, 
measuring in length three and two-bighth inches, of which the tail is 
one and four-eighth inch. Extent of flying membrane ten and 
four-eighth inches. It differs from V. adversus in having on each side 
five molars, of which but two are spurious, which character also obtains 
in F. cineraceue, Blyth MSS. and specimen in the Museum Asiatic 
Society, which (as observed by Mr. Blyth,) as well as the present, may 
prove varieties of V. adversus, Horsfield. 

Digitized by 


1846.J the Malayan Penimaula and Islands, 185 

KiBivouLA, Gray. 

KiEivouLA PicTA, Gray. 
Stk. — ^Vespertilio ternatanus, Seba ? 

Vespertilio *pictus, Pallas, apud Horsfield. 

Vespertilio kerivoula, Boddaert. 

Vespertilio kerivoula, apud Geoffiroy. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Ceylon. 

KiaiYouLA TENUIS, Ghray. 
Syk. — ^Vespertilio tenuis, Temminck, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 
A single male, in colours slightly differing from Temminck's, being 
above of a dark greyish -brown, many of the hairs with white points; 
beneath of a lighter shade. Entire length three and two-fourth inches, 
of which the tail one and four-eighth inch. Extent of flying mem- 
brane ten inches. 

Incis. -r- Canin. , — - Mol. r-^ 

o 1 — 1 0.0 

Trilatitus, Gray. 

Tbilatitus Hobsfibldii, Gray. 
Stn. — ^Vespertilio tralatitius, Horsfield. 

Vespertilio Gartneri, Kuhl, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java, Sumatra. 

Scotophilus, Leach, apud Gray. 

ScoTOPHiLus Tbmminckii, Gray, 
Stn. — ^Vespertilio Temminckii, Horsfield. 

Vespertilio Belangierii, Isid. Geoff. 

Vespertilio noctulinus, Isid. Geoff. 

Scotophilus castaneus. Gray. 

Nycticeius Temminckii, Schinz. 

Nycticeius Belangerii, Temminck, apud Schinz. 

Nycticeius noctulinus, Temminck, apud Schinz. 

" KUwah" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Timor, Pondicherry, Calcutta. 

Digitized by 


186 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabitiMg [No. 171. 

As observed by Schinz, this species is very variable in its colours 
according to age^ all of which variations occur in individuals inhabiting 
Pinang and the Malayan Peninsula. The following are the specific 
names attributed to different individuals of this species : — 

1. Vespertilio Temminckii, as originally described and figured in 
Zoological Researches in Java, Back dark-brown; greyish-brown 
underneath. Entire length four inches six lin., of which the tail one five- 
eighth of an inch : Extent of flying membrane twelve inches. 

2. Scotophilus castaneus. Gray. 

3. Ngcticeius Belangeri, Temminck, apud Schinz. Hairs of the back 
brown at the base, chesnut or olive-chesnut at the apex ; beneath 
light yellowish-brown, Isabella or whitish. Entire length 3^" of which 
the tail 1" 11"' Extent of flying membrane 13". 

Incis. -r— Canin. ; — r Mol. --^ 
o I — 1 6 . & 

4. Nycticeius noctulinus, Temminck, apud Schinz, is the very young. 
Above more or less intense brown or rust-coloured ; beneath isabella or 
light greyish-bx^)wn. Entire length three to three two-eighth inches, 
of which the tail seven-eighth to one two-eighth of an inch. Extent of 
flying membrane eight six* eighth to nine inches. In this state it has 
frequently been observed clinging to the mother. 

2—2 1—1 4 . 4 

Incis. -^- Canin. , — ■ Mol. — -v 

O 1 — 1 o . o 

This species is exceedingly numerous, forming large congregations in 
sheltered situations on the Malayan Peninsula, and in the caves on the 
numerous islands of limestone which stud the shores from Maulmein to 
Java, and in such localities large deposits of Ouano occur. The latter, 
(" Ty Kldwah" of the Malays, i. e. bats' manure,) has been tried by 
agriculturists at Pinang, but has been found much less efficacious than 
the Guano obtained from the swift fCoUocaliaJ, producing the edible 


Gkn. — Ptebofus, Brisson. 

Ptbbofus BnuLis, Geoffiroy. 
Stn. — Pteropus javanicus, Desm. apud Horsfield. 
Pteropus Edwardsii, Geoffroy. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 187 

" Kalong" of the Javanese. 
" Kldang" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 
Java, Sumatra, Banda, Bengal, Assam. 

Gbn. — Ctnoptbrtjs, Fred, Cuvier, 
Ctnoftbbus maroinatus, F. Cuv. 

Stn. — ^Vespertilio marginatus, Buchanan Hamilton, MSS. 

Pteropus marginatus, Geo£froy. 

Pteropus titthsecheilus, Temm. 

Pachysoma titthsecheilus, Temm. 

Pachysoma brevicaudatum, Is. Geoff. 

Pteropus brevicaudatus, Schinz. 

Pachysoma Diardii, Isid. Geoff. 

Pteropus Diardii, Schinz. 

Pachysoma Duvaucellii, Is. Geoff. 

Pteropus pyrivorus, Hodgson, apud Gray. 
Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 

Java, Sumatra, Southern Mahratta Country, Bengal, Nipal. 
The colour is very variable, not only individually, but according to 
age and sex, which has given rise to several supposed distinct species. 
Bat they all resemble each other in habits and dentition, they occupy 
one common place of rest, and their new-born, or very young, are of a 
umform colour. The ears of the adult are, in all, more or less distinctly 
margined with white. 

1. Cynopterus marginatus. Back reddish, or brownish- grey ; lighter 

2. Pachysoma titthacheilus, 3. Pteropus brevicaudatus, Male : back 
reddish or olive- brown ; a tuft of hair on the sides of the neck, the 
chest, and the sides of the greyish abdomen rusty, or orange-coloured. 
Female : above yellowish, or greyish-brown ; beneath lighter. In some 
individuals from Malacca, the flying membrane is of a light reddish- 

4. Pachysoma Diardii : Back greyish-brown ; abdomen greyish, 
lm>wn on the sides. / 


Digitized by 


18S Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiiing [No. 171. 

5. Paekysoma Duvaucellu: pale greyiflh-brown. 

The following is a description of a new-born. The upper part of the 
head, the ni4)e of the neck, the back and the posterior surface of 
the humerus and femur, were covered with dense, soft, short hairs, 
of a dark greyish-brown ; all the rest of the body was naked, of a grey- 
ish-black* colour. The eyelids were not yet separated. The joints of 
the bones of the extremities were cartilaginous. The nails of the thumb 
and index were developed, but the feet and nails of the toes had already 
attained the sice of the adult. The tongue was considerably extensile. 
The teeth present were : 

Incis. i Canin. J^ Mol. -jy^ 

Entire length, one and four-eighth of an inch, of which the slightly 
projecting tail two-eighth inch. Extent of the flying membrane, six 
and four-eighth inches. 

In an individual measuring two and four-eighth inches in length, with 
an extent of the membrane of nine inches, the face and the lower parts, 
excepting the throat, had become scantily covered with light brownish- 
grey, short hairs. The eyelids were separated. The shoulder, elbow, 
hip, and knee-joints, had become ossified, the other joints still remaining 

Gbn. — TuFAiA. Raffles. 


Stn.— " Tupai Press." Raffles and Horsfield. 

Cladobates ferrugineus, F. Cuv. apud Schinz. 
Sorex Glis, Diard and Duvaucd. 
Qlisorex ferruginea, Desmarest. 
Hylogale femiginea, Temminck. 
Herpestes, Calcutta Joum. Nat. Hist.* 

* Vol. II, p. 458, PL XIII|. The explmatton ucompaaying this figim if m 
follows: ** Searchin{f for Col. Farquhar't drawing of Rhufomys Sumatrensit almAf 
referred to, I found in the Society a drawing of a bushy-tailed Herpestes^ differing 
merely from Mr. Hodgson's Qvio Vrva, in having the tail of one uniform colour with 
the body, without the yellow tip. There it no name or letter on the drawing tothew 

Digitized by 


1846J tkt M^i&jfMn PflttMn/a mtd /jkjub. 189 

"Tapai tana" of the Malays of Pinang. 
Hab. — Puumg, Sm^apore, Mtdaptm Pntmula. 

Sumatra^ Java» Borneo. 
The young of this Tery nomeroiis speciea in hilly >ungle, is easily 
tamed, and becomes fiuoailiar with its feedor^ though towards strangers 
it retains its original mistrust^ which in matore age is scarcely reclaim- 
able. In a state of nature it lives sin^y or in pairs, fiercely ^HaM^lfing 
intruders of its own species. When several are confined together, they 
fight each other, or jointly attack and destroy the weakest. The natu- 
ral food is mixed insectivorous and firugivorous. In confinement, indivi- 
duals may be fed exclusively on either, though preference is evinced for 
insects ; and eggs, fish, and earth-worms, are equally relished. A short 
peculiar tremulous whistling sound, often heard by calls and an- 
swers, in the Malayan jtkngle, marks their pleasurable emotions, as 
for instance, on the appearance of food, while the contrary is ex- 
pressed by shrill protracted cries. Their dispositioa is very restless, 
and their great agility enables them to perform the most extraordi- 
nary bounds in all directions, in which exercise they spend the day, till 
night sends them to sleep in their rudely constructed lairs in ^e highest 
branches of trees. At times they will sit on their haunches, holding 
their food between the fore-legs, and after feeding, they smooth the head 
and face with both fore-paws, and lick the lips and palms. They are 
also fond of water, both to drink and to bathe in. The female usually 
produces (me young; she has four mamme, the anterior pair of which 
is situated on the lower lateral part of the chest, the posterior on the 
side of the abdomen. On the lower surface of the tongue, the frenum 
is continued to within a short distance of the apex in a raised line, on 
either side of which the skin is thickened, fringed at the edges^ and 
thus presenting a rudimentary sublingual appendage, somewhat similar 

from whence it came, and to preyent its following the &te of Colonel Fai^uhar's 
BMzomys, we here afford a copy of it." PI. XI 11^ represents no Herpeste^i the 
elongated muzzle, the proximity of the large eye to the ear, which is exposed, and not 
hidden hy the hairs of the cheek, are characters foreign to every known species of 
Herpesteg* The draughtoman hat very cortectly represented a Tupeda, and the draw- 
ing, reappearing as a Herpesies in the Cqleuita Journal qf Natural History, has, hy 
Mr. filyth, been traced to be the original of PI. IX, Asiatic Researches, Vol. XIV, 
where it properly accompanies the detcription eUSorw QUss, (u e. TupoMaferrugi" 
nea) of MM. Diard and Duvaucel. 

Digitized by 


190 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 171. 

to that observed in Nycticebus tardigraduB ; though in Tupaia ferruginea 
the fringes of the margin only are free, the rest being attached to the 
tongue, but easily detached by a knife. The lateral raised lines of the 
palms and soles, the posterior part of the first phalanges, and the third 
phalanx (second of the thumbs,) which is widened into a small soft disk, 
in fact all the points which rest upon the ground, are studded with little 
transversely curved ridges or duplicatures, similar to those observed 
under the toes, of some of &e Geckotida, which fully account for the 
precision, the ' applomb,' with which these animals perform the astound- 
ing leaps from below, barely touching with the soles the point d'appui 
above. In a cage, the Tupai will continue for hours vaulting from 
below, back downwards, poise itself for an instant, continuing back 
downwards under the horizontal roof, and regain the point of starting, 
and thus describe a circle — ^the diameter of which may be three to four 
times the length of the animal, — in far shorter time than is required for 
the description. In a youug male, measuring from the nose to the root 
of the tail seven and three-fourth inches, the tail six and a half inches, 
the dimensions of the intestinal canal were : 

Small Intestines, 3 feet 4\ inch.; diameter ^ inch. 

Large ditto,, „ 3f „ „ i „ 

Caecum, „ Of 



GostSB verse : 8 pairs ; spurise : 5 pairs =^13 pairs. 
This species'*" is infested with^ a Tick of the following description : 
Ixodes Tupaia, Body suboval, shining dark-green olive; scaly plate, 
palpi casing the pointed sucker, and the legs : pale reddish-brown. 
Length, when swollen, three-eighth inch. 

Gen. — Gtmnura, Raffles. 

Gtmnuba Rafflbsii, Vigors and Horsfield. 
Stn. — Viverra gymnura. Raffles. 

** Tikns ^mbang bdlan," Raffles. 
Hab. — Malacca. 

Sumatra, Singapore, 
In a district not distant from Malacca, the animal is said to be numer- 
ous, though not to be seen in other localities. 

* Single light coloared individuals occur with the back, limbs and abdomen grey- 
ish, whitish, or isabella* 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Muia^an Pemtuuia mut Islands. 191 

Gbk. — SoASX, Linn4. 
SoRBX MUBiNUS, Liim^.* 
Stn. — SoKX myosuros, Pallas, apud Schinz. 
Sorex cserulescens, Var, Rafflea ? 
" Chinchorot" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, 
Dark brownish-grey above ; beneath light brownish-grey. Feet and 
tail flesh-coloured in the living animal» changing to cinereous after 
death. In the young the colour is more of a bluish-grey, slightly mixed 
with brown on the back. Length of the head and body five and half 
inches ; tail three inches. 

Incis. — Canin.- Molar, ---- 

2s U 5.0 

The present differs from the 'Musk Shrew' of Bengal ("Choochundr,") 
in its proportionally broader, more developed, and from the head more 
diverging ear, which characters also distinguish it from Sorex nigres" 
eens. Gray, which it somewhat resembles in its colours. The smell of 
musk, emitted by the adult animal, and which in the young is barely 
perceptible, is much less intense than that of the Bengal Musk Shrew. 

Gbk. — Ubsus, Linnd 
Hblabctos, Horsfield. 
Hblabctos Malatanus, Horsfield. 
Stk. — Ursus Malayanus, Rafiles and Horsfield. 

" Brdang" of the Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Tenasserim Provinces, Assam, Nipal. 
Colour of the young : snout and lips pale femigineous. Head, back, 
and outside of the limbs black, mixed with pale rust colour, in conse- 
quence of many of the black hairs having the point, or a part next to the 

* The following Syn. are giyen in Gray's List of Mam. in British Museum : Sorex 
mi^asurus, Pallas. Geoff. Ann. Mas. XVII. S, SonneratO, and S, giganteus, I. Geoff. 
Mem. XV. 8. indicus^ Geoff. Mem. Mas. I. S, capensis, Geoff. Ann. Mas. XVII. S, 
Pihrides, Shaw» Mus. Lever. S, carulescens^ Shaw, Zool. S. crassicaudatus^ Licht. 
Satigeth. 8, nepaknsis, Hodgson. 8. moschatus^ Robinson, Assam. Olivier, Voy. 
Bnffon. H. N. Suppl. VII. 

Digitized by 


192 CtUalogue of Mtmmalia inkMiing [Mo. 171. 

point* of the latter colour. Ears, tail, paw8, and inner side of the ex- 
tremities shining black. The somewhat woolly hairs of the abdomen 
are faintly marked with ferrugineous, and are mixed with longer stiff 
black hairs. As observed by Schinz, the mark cm the breast is very 
variable in its form. It may be compared to a crescent, assaming 
according to the smaller or greater breadth of the limbs, the shape of 
the letter U, of a horse-shoe, or a heart. In the living animal it is 
of a pale rust, or orange colour, in some individuals with a few small 
blackish spots, fading after death to a yellowish-white. A very old 
male presented the following dentition : 

Incis. ' — • Canin. Molar. — ' — 

6 1—1 ' 6 . 6 (3+3) 

In a young female, three feet in length, the intestinal canal measured 

fifteen feet. It had neither ciecum nor valve to mark the transition. 

She had ten grinders in either jaw, of which four were spurious, six true. 

Gbk. — Abctictis, Temminck, 
Arctictis Bintubokg, Fiachei. 

Stn. — ^Viverra ? Binturong, Raffles. 

Paradoxurus albifrons, F. Cuvier. 

Ictides ater, F. Cuvier. 

Arctictis penicillata, Temminck. 

Ictides ater, Blainv. Calcutta Joum. of Nat. Hist.* 

" Unturong" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Tenasserim, Arracan, Assam, Bhotan, NipaL 
Java and Sumatra are quoted by M. Schinz, but neither Dr. Hors- 
field. Sir S. Raffles, nor M. Temminck, {Diseowrs Prelimkuure, Fmma 
JaponicaJ mention the Binturtmg as inhabiting either of the two islands. 

* In the 3rd Vol. of Calcutta Joum. qf Nat. Hist. p. 410, occurs the following 
paisage : "The Bmiuronff was fint discovered in Java, bnt the fint notice of its existence 
on the continent of India will be found in the second volume of this Journal, p. 4&7»" 
(sic !) '*&c." Sir Stamford Kaffles, who published the first account of this animal, dis- 
tinctly states, that it was discovered at Malacca, (not Java, as erroneously stated,) by 
Mi^or Farqnhar, and Malacca is utuated on the continent of India as well as Tenas- 
serim. The fact of its inhabiting Bkotan, was according to Cuvier (K^ne Animal,) fine 
made known by Duvaucel, and the author of the article ^* JeUdes** in the Peamg 
Cyelopifdia^ 1838, gives Mr. Hodgson's authority of the BuUyromg't inhahitiBS 
Mipal, (Kachar, though they occasionally occur in the central region of Nipal.) 

Digitized by 


1846.] the MukyoM PemMuh and Islands. 193 

The genenl colour of either sex is hhxk, sprinkled on the body and 
extremities with pale fermgineous, produced by some of the hairs having 
a part next to the point of that colour. In both sexes nearly all the hairs 
of the head, face and throat are thus marked, which communicates to 
these parts a whitish or greyish appearance. In the young of either 
sex theie is a faint trace of a white spot over the eyes. The long ear- 
tufts are always black, the margin of the auricle being either white, or 
pale rust-coloured. The tail is black, but the hairs of the anterior or 
basal balf* are whitish at the root, or in some uniformly of that colour. 
The pupil is vertically contracted by the influence of light ; the iris is 
of a beautiful Van Dyke brown. In its habits the Bmturong is both arbo- 
real and terrestrial, and nocturnal, sleeping tUl the sun is below the 
horizon, when it displays great agility in searching for smaller quadru- 
peds, birds, fishes, earth-worms, insects and fruit. The howl is loud, 
resembling that of some of the Malayan Paradoxuri. The young are 
easily tamed, but the old animal retains its natural fierceness. Between 
the anus and penis is situated a large pyriform gland, exceeding two 
inches in length, partially divided by a deep naked fossa, commencing 
from the latter organ. The gland secretes a light-brown oily fluid, of a 
peculiar intense, but not fetid or sickening odour. In a young male, 
measuring from the nose to the root of the tail, two feet three and five- 
eighth inches, the tail two feet two and a half inches, the intestines were 
of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . 7 feet 1 1 inches. 

Large ditto, 1 foot 10 inches. 

Caecum, .. .. .. l^inch. 

The circumference of the small intestines about seven-eighth inches • 
of the large but little more, but the rectum was thickened two inches 
in circumference. 

The short caecum is crescent- shaped, or lengthened pyriform. The 
stomach is remarkably lengthened cylindrical, the parietes much thick- 
ened towards pylorus. Oesophagus enters close to fundus ventriculi, 
in consequence of which there is but a slight difference between the 

Length along the greater curvature, . . 1 foot 2 inches. 
i» )i »* smaller „ .. 1 ** 1 »« 

Digitized by 


194 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 171. 

The circumference from cardia round fundus ventriculi measured fire 
and a half inches; round pylorus two six-eighth inches. Both the gall- 
bladder and the spleen presented a remarkably elongated shape. The 
former organ, lengthened pyriform, measured in length two inches; 
ductus cysticus two and a half inches. The spleen^ tapering to a narrow 
point, was half an inch broad, and eight and a half inches in length. 
Costae ver», nine pairs ; spuriae, five pairs = fourteen pairs. 

Gbn. — MusTELA, Linn4, 

PuToaius, Cuvier. 

PuTORius NUDiPBs, Fred. Cuvier. 
Stn. — Mustela nudipes, Desmar. apud Schinz. 

** Pul^an" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
HAB.-^il/a/ayait Peninsula, 
Sumatra, Borneo. 
The muzzle and the soles of the feet are pale flesh-coloured. The 
animal is said to inhabit the densest jungle, and is most difficult to 

MusTBLA, Cuvier. 
MusTBLA FLAYiGULA, Boddaert. 
Stn. — Viverra quadricolor, Shaw. 

Marte ^ gorge dor^e, Desmarest. 

Mustela Hardwickii, Horsfield. 

Martes flavigula, Hodgson, apud Gray. 

" Anga Prao" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Nipal. 
The Malayan individuals diflfer from those from Northern India, 
originally described, in having the fur shorter and less dense, the head 
pale-brown, the neck and back pale yellowish-brown, becoming darker 
towards the tail, which, as well as the posterior extremities, is black. 
The anterior extremities are greyish-brown; the feet and the streak 
behind the ear deep brown ; the lips whitish ; the throat and chest 
yellowish- white or ochreous; the scanty hairs of the abdomen pale 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Mula^M Penmsuia and Islandt. 195 

G«w. — LuTRA, Starr. 

LxjTRA Naib, FVed. Cavier. 
Stn. — Lutra indica. Gray. 

" Anjing Ayer" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

China, Bombay, South Mahratta Country. 

Lutra Barano, Raffles. 
Stk. — " Barang Barang" or '* Ambrang," Raffles. 

Lutra leptonyx, Wagner, apud Schinz. 

Lutra Simung, Schinz ?* 

"Mumrang" or '^ Amrang" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan PenmnUa. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The young are very playful, and soon become sufficiently domestica- 
ted to roam about the house, and to appear when called. Its voice is a 
short shrill whistling, not unlike the sound of the cricket, but stronger. 
Its food is not confined to fishes and Crustacea ; birds and insects are 
equally relished. The muzzle is hairy, but in the old animal the hairs 
become rubbed off. The Malayan individuals appear to attain to a 
greater size than the Sumatran, described by Raffles. An old male 
measured from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail two feet eight 
and a half inches ; the tail one foot eight inches. In a young male two 
feet and two inches, and the tail one foot two-eighth of an inch in 
length, the simple intestinal canal measured nine feet and one inch, with 
a circumference throughout of about two and two-eighth inches. No 
caecum. Each of the kidneys consisted of ten loosely connected glands. 

AoNTx, Lesson, 

AoNTX LBFTOKTx, Gray : List. 

Stn. — Lutra leptonyx, Horsfield. 
Lutra cinerea, Illiger. 

* In Schins's diagnoiis of Luira Simung is said ** ungyibus robustis falcuUribus/' 
("die Nagelan den Zehen tind stark und gekrUmmt") which if the passage refers 
to Lutra lepUmyx, Horsfield, must be a mistake, at the original diagnosis expressly 
atatet ** ungvibus brevibos sublamnaribos." As Schini describes £jiUra Barang 
" nngvibos minntissimis obtusia" iMira leptonyx is probably meant, and thus the one 
species is mistaken for the other. 


Digitized by 


196 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiiiag [No. 171. 

Lutra perspicillata, U, Geoff. 

Mustek Lutra, Marsden. 

Aonyx Horsfieldii, Gray. 

Lutra Barang, apud Schinz ? 

" Anjing Ayer" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Singapore, Nipal. 
This, as well as the two preceding speoies, inhabits numerously the 
banks of the Malayan rivers, and all are at times used by the Malays 
in river fishing. 

Gen. — Canis, Linn4. 

CvoN, Hodgson. 

CuoN FRiMAVUs, Hodgson. 

Stn. — Canis primeevus, Hodgson.* 

Chrysseus primsevus, Hamilton Smith. 

ChryssBus soccatus. Cantor. 

** Anjing dtan" of the Malays of the Penin«ula. 
HAB.-*Afa/ayan Peninsula. 

Bengal, Nipal. 
Some slight differences occur in the Malayan individuals. The infe* 
rior surface, the inside of the ears and limbs, the lips and throaty are of 
the same colour as the back, but much paler. A black carpal spot, 
like that of the wolf, is very distinct in the male, less so in the female. 
The young animal of either sex has a faint white spot with a few black** 
ish bristles, situated nearly midway between the angle of the mouth and 
the ears. Of the wavy wool of th^ Buansu, the Malayan wild dog, 
inhabiting a tropical climate, has but a little on the inner side of, and 
immediately behind the ear ; the posterior part of the abdomen is almost 
naked. The short bristles of the lips, cheeks, throat, and above the 
eyes, are all black. In habits, so fully described by Mr. Hodgson, and 
in size, the Malayan agrees with the Nipalese. In a young male, from 

* Mr. Ogilbj coDfliders Cams Dukhunemis, Sykes, and Canis prmmims, Hodgwn, 
to be identical, and apparently not different from C. sumatrensis, Hardwicke, (Mem, 
on the Mammalogy qf the Himalayahs, apud Royle,) Colonel Sykee, on tke contrary, 
describes C. Dukhunensis as being *' essentially distinct from Canis Quao, or Suma* 
trensiSf Hardwicke/' 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Pemn$ula und Isiands. 197 

the nose to the root of the tail two feet eight and a half inches in length ; 
the tail one foot, the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 
Small Intestines, • • 6 feet 2 inches. 

Large, ditto, . . . . • . . . „ 10|^ „ 

CsBcum, .. .. •• .• „ 4 „ 

The latter intestine is spiral, moch widened at the origin. 

Costae verae 8 pairs, spurin 5 pairs » 18 pairs. 

The Malays mention another, black wild dog (" Anjing dtan 6tam,") 
as also inhabiting the densest jungle. A Hyena is also reported to 
occur on the Peninsula. 

Mongrel curs, "pariah dogs," of every description, infest erery vil- 
kge, but apparently not uninhabited places, nor localities far distant 
from the dwellings of man. As they all may be said to be in a state of 
half domestication, and are of forms very different from the wild dog, 
which shuns the human presence, their origin cannot with certainty be 
traced to the Malayan Peninsula. 

Gbn.— VivKBRA, Linn^, 


Stn — ^Viverra undulata. Gray. 

Viverra melanurua, Hodgson 'I 
Viverra orientalis, Hodgson I ^ j /i ¥ • -. 
Viverra civettoides. Hodgson >^^ ^^^ • ^*- 
Undescribed Civet, McClelland j 

" Tanggallong" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 

Southern China, Siam, Bengal, Khasyah Hills, Nipal. 
Judging by the comparatively few individuals observed in the Straits 
of Malacca, this species would appear to be far less numerous, than the 
following. Of several, the largest, which was a female, measured from 
the apex of the nose to the root of the tail two feet and eight inches ; 
the tail one foot eight and a half inches. 

ViVBBBA Tanoalunoa, Gray. 
Syh. — ^Viverra Zibetha, Lin. apud Raffles. 
"Tangalung," Raffles. 
Viverra Zibetha, Lin. apud Horsfield. 

Digitized by 


198 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiiing [No. 171. 

Viverra Zibetha, apad Fred. Cuvier. 

ViTerra Zibetha, Lin. apad Schinz.* 

" Mdiang jeb6t" of the Malays of the Peniiuiila. 
HAB.*-Ptfiaii^, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula, 

Samatra, Borneo, Celebes, Ambo3rna, Philippines. 
This species is readily distinguished from F. Zibetha by a continuous 
longitudinal black band occupying the upper surface of the tail, the 
numerous irregular rings being separated only on its inferior half. (Gray : 
Proceed. Zool. Society, 1832, p. 63.) The number and distance of the 
half rings on the lower surface of the tail, vary in different individuals, 
some of which have either the entire tul, or the anterior half or third 
of the tail, thus marked, the rest being black. The very young animal 
is generally of a much darker ground colour than the adult, and the 
black marks are therefore less conspicuous. Under certain lights the 
colour appears uniformly black. Viverra Tangalunga and Zibetha^ how- 
ever similar in habits and general colours, neither live nor breed toge- 
ther. Placed side by side, the living animals present a marked dissimi- 
larity of countenance, which although obvious to the eye, would be most 
difficult, if possible at all, to convey in words. The female has three 
pairs of Mammas, and produces, from one to three young. The Malays 
of the Peninsula distinguish by different names the Zibetha and the 
Tangalunga, but as they suppose the civet of the former species to be 
of better quality, perhaps because it is scarcer, they will frequently offer 
for sale individuals of the latter, exceedingly numerous species* impos- 
ing upon it the name of V. Zibetha: *' Tanggalong" of the Peninsula. 
The largest individual of the present species observed, measured in 
length from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail three feet and oae 
inch ; the tail one foot five and a half inches. In a younger, a female, 
three feet five and a half inches in length, of which the tail one foot and 
one inch, the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . . . 7 feet 5 inches. 

Large ditto. „ 9 „ 

Caecum, „ 1 „ 

Costae verae, seven pairs ; spurise, six pairs = thirteen pairs. 

* The true Fiverra Zibetha, Linn^, is quoted by Schins under the denominations 
ofF. bengtUentu, Hardwicke (?), and F, melanura, Hodgson. 

Digitized by 


1846.] ike Malaymi Peminsuia amd Islands. 199 

ViYBBRicuLA, Hodgson. 


Stn. — ^Viverra malaccenais, Omelm. 

ViTerra Rasse. Horsfield. 

Viverra Chinda, Buchanan Hamilton MSS. 

ViTerra indica, QeoSroj. 

Viverra bengalensis, Gray : lUustr. 

Viverra pallida. Gray : lUustr. 

Genetta Manillensis, Eydoaz. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

China, Philippine Islands. Java, Singapore, Cochin-China, Tenas- 
serim Provinces, Bengal, Nipal, Hindoostan, Dukhun, Bombay. 
On the Malayan Peninsula this species appears to be more numerous 
than F. Zibetha; less so than F. Tungalnnga, and in size inferior to 
either. The largest observed was three feet four inches in length, of 
which the tail one foot three and a half inches. In a male, measuring 
from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, two feet and three- 
fourth of an inch, the tail one foot one inch, the dimensions of the 
intestinal canal were : 

Small Intestines, . . . . . . 4 feet inch. 

Large ditto, .. .. *•• •• 0„8 „ 

Caecum,.. .. .. .. .. „ Of „ 

The three preceding species have the foUowing characters in com- 
mon — The pupil is vertical, oblong ; the iris of a rich brown. They are 
arboreal as well as terrestrial, preying upon the smaller, quadrupeds, 
birds, fish, Crustacea, insects and fruit. Naturally very fierce, they are 
scarcely reclaimable except in youth, but with age the original disposi- 
tion returns. Their voice is peculiar, hoarse and hissing. 

Gbn. — Peionodon, Horsfield. 
Pbionodok gbacilis^ Horsfield. 

Stw.— Viverra J Linsang, Hardwicke. 
Felis gracilis, Horsfield. . 
Viverra Hardwicke, Lesson. . 
Viverra gracilis, Desmarest, apud Schinz. 
Linsang gracilis, Miiller, apud Gray : List, and Schinz. 

Digitized by 


200 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 171. 

Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Samatra« Borneo, Siam. 

The ground colour is buff» and the dark marks are of a deep snuff 
colour, inclining to black with purple reflection. Length from the apex 
of the nose to the root of the tail : one foot six inches, the tail one foot 
three six-eighth inches. 

Mr. Rappa, for many years a dealer in objects of natural history 
at Malacca, who previously had been supplied with a figpcure and descrip- 
tion of Prionodon gracilis, reported in a memorandum accompanying the 
specimen, that it had been captured in the jungle at some distance from 
Malacca. It was unknown to himself and to the natives. At first the 
animal was fierce and impatient of confinement, but by degrees it became 
very gentle and playful, and when subsequently suffered to leave the 
cage, it went in search of sparrows and other small birds, displaying 
great dexterity and unerring aim in stealthily leaping upon them. Fruit 
of every description it refused. Another younger individual was cap- 
tured about the same time, but contrived to make its escape. 

Gbk.— Pabadoxubus, Fred. Cuvier. 

Paguma, Gray. 

Paguma leucomystax. Gray : List ? 

SYN.-^Paradoxurus leucomystax. Gray ? 

Amblyodon auratus, Jourdan ? 

" Mdsang bdlan" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Singapore, Sumatra. 
In a single individual observed, the hairs of the body, limbs and an- 
terior third of the tail, are greyish-yellow at the base, next bright rust- 
coloured, with the apex shining black, which produces a mixture of 
ferruginous and black, the latter prevailing on the nape of the neck, mid- 
dle line of the back, and the anterior third of the tail. The hairs of the 
vertex and the ridge of the nose are dark at the base, with yellowish 
points. The large oblique whitish spot in front of the ear, produced by 
uniformly whitish hairs, is on either side blended with the whitish 
vertex and ridge of the nose, and is continued down the sides of the 
neck, forming a large broad arrow-shaped mark. The orbits are 
dark brown, the face, lips and throat pale brown. The long rigid white 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Makftm PmUtuuh and Jakmds. 301 

wfaiskms are mixed with a few shorter black bristles. The feet are 
dsrk brown* the posterior two-thirds of the tail uniformly blaek. The 
lower sorliBuse and the inner side of the extremities are pale femigi- 
Boos. From the apex of the nose to the root of the tail : two feet three 
inches, the tail one foot eight inches. 

Paguma tkivikoata, Gray : List. 

Stv. — Viverra tri?irgata. Reinwardt, Mus. Leyd. 
Paradoxunis trivirgatus, Gray. 
" Mtisang 6kar" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
liA»,'^Malayan Pemntula. 

Singapore, Tenasaerim. 
The ground colour varies from yellowish, or brownish, to blackish- 
grey* Fur short, peculiarly soft, silky. The dorsal streaks are either 
continued, undulated, (the central nearly always,) or composed of separate 
black spots. Some indiyiduala hare a short white streak on the ridge of 
the nose. The largest male measured from the apex of the nose to the 
root of the tail, two feet two and a half inches ; the tail two feet three 

Pakdoxubus Musakoa, Gray. 

Stn.— Viverra hermaphrodita, Pallas, apud Schinz. 
Viverra fasciata, Gmelin ? 
Viverra Musanga, Marsden, Raffles. 
Musang bulan, Raffles. 
Viverra Musanga, Var. javanica, Horsfield. 
Ichneumon prehensilis, Buchanan Halmilton MSS. 
Platyschista hermaphrodita, Otto *] 
Paradoxurus Pallasii, Gray I . o i.- 

Paradoxurus Crossii, Gray ( ^^^^ S®*^""' 

Paradoxurus dubius. Gray J 

Paradoxurus Musangoides, Gray. 

Paradoxurus typus, apud Schlegel. 

Paradoxurus felinus, Wagner, apud Schinz. 

" Musang" or " Mdsang P6ndan," (when the tail is with white 

point: "Mtisang Bdngkwang,") of the Malays of the Penin- 

^AB.-^Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula, 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Timor. 

Digitized by 


202 Catalogue of Mamnuilia inhabiting [No. 171. 

The ground colour and dorsal marks of this exceedingly numeroui 
species are liable to considerable variations, the principal of which 
are noted by Schinz: individuals occur (probably of every species) 
with the apex of the tail white, with elongated white spots on the ab- 
domen, with the tail spirally twisted. In most the dorsal marks 
become indistinct, or invisible in certain lights. The female has from 
one to three young, of colours similar to the adult, but less distinct, 
their fur is softer, somewhat woolly, mixed with longer stiff black hairs. 
The young is tamed without difficulty, and is sometimes kept in houses 
to destroy rats and mice. The Paradoxwri are in habits like the Cioets. 
They have an elliptical pupil, vertically contracted by the influence of 
light. Their glandular secretion is of a peculiar, not civet or musk-like 
odour. The largest specimen of a great number, measured from the apex 
of the nose to the root of the tail two feet and half an inch ; the tail one 
foot four and a half inches. In a male, measuring three feet one and 
a half inch in length, of which the tail, one foot four and a half inches, 
the intestinal canal were of the following dimensions : — 

Small Intestines, . • . . . . 5 feet 8 inches. 

Large ditto „ 5 „ 

Caecum, „ IJ „ 

Costse verse, seven pairs ; spurise, six pairs = 13 pairs. 
Pabadoxubus (?) DsEBTANUs, Gray. 

Syn. — Paradoxurus ? Zebra, Grray. 

Hemigalea Zebra, Jourdan. 

Viverra Boiei, Muller. 

" Musang Bdtu" or " Sfingah Prao" of the Malays of the Penin- 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

The ground colour varies from pale ochreous to buff, and the dsrk 
marks in shape and number scarcely alike in any two individuals, from 
snuff colour to black. The species is apparently not numerous, and is 
celebrated among the Malays for its great agility. It is said chiefly to 
feed upon the larger birds, such as the Argus pheasant, which it 
will hunt down, following its prey till the strength of the latter is 
exhausted, when it falls an easy victim to the indefatigable pursuer. 
The slender vermiform make, the countenance and distribution of 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 203 

colours ; the serrated, flattened false molars ; the soles, hairy between and 
under the toes, and slightly in the centre ; the somewhat removed thumb, 
are characters by which this animal differs from Paradoxurus, and forms 
a link between that genus and PHonodon in the same manner that 
Vmerricula connects Viverra to Prionodon. The largest male observed 
measured from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail two feet ; the 
tail one foot and four inches. 

Gen. — Ctkooalb, Gray. 

Otnogalb Bbnnbttii, Gray. 

Syn. — Viverra (Limictis) carcharias, Blainville. 

Potamophilus barbatus, Kuhl. 

Cynogale barbata, Schinz. 
Has. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The very young, of which two individuals, a male and a female, were 
found with the mother, differ from the adult in having a very soft, silky, 
dense fur, mixed with longer hairs, which are black, except on the 
chest and abdomen, where the apex is silvery. Over the tarsus and on 
the upper surface of the feet some of the hairs have a subterminal white 
band, dose to the black apex. The posterior margin of the ear is hairy 
and of a silvery colour. This animal appears to be of rare occurrence 
on the Malayan Peninsula, and the natives are consequently not ac- 
quainted with it. The largest male examined measured from the apex 
of the nose to the root of the tail two feet three inches ; the tail eight 

CTo be continued. J 

2 b 

Digitized by 



Notes, chiefly Geological, on the Coast of Coromandel^/rom the Petmaur to 
Pondicherry, By Captain Nbwbold, 
The coast from the mouth of the Pemnaur to Madras, is a sandy 
plain, covered with reddish sandy loapn which occasionally passes into 
clay, and generally rests upon the hluish-black marine clay of the Coro- 
mandel. It has heen already said, that the breadth of the latter stratum 
varies, and is interstratified with layers of sand and reddish clays ; — the 
whole resting usually on granitic or hypogepe rocks : nodules and 
masses of a concretionary sandstone are found imbedded in the sands 
close to lugh- water mark, Qft^A perforated by Uthodomi. Magnetic iron 
sand is found in many situations mingled with the sea. sand, derived 
probably from the hornblende and basaltic greenstone rocks. This iron 
sand occasionally, I suspect, contains potassium, and strongly resembles 
iserine in external character. 

Farther inland, between the base of the ghauts and the sea, extend 
thin beds of laterite, and sandstone closely allied to laterite, passing 
into puddingstones and soft shells of various colours. 

The puddingstones usually imbed rounded pebbles of white quartz, 
ai^d pf the older sandstcme which crests the eastern ghauts near Nag- 
gbery, Udegherry, &c. 

The beds of this sandstone rarely exceeds three or four feet in thick- 
ness, ap4 may be seon near Sri Permatoor, on the great western road, 
(vide Notes from Mangalore to Madras), and, according to native inlor* 
matiQQ, in the vicinity of Parmaulnaigpel, about si^ and a half 
miles to the B. by 8. of Tripassore, a little north of the road to 
Madras. Their continuity, and that of the laterite beds, with which 
they are probably contemporaneous, has been much interrupted fay 
aqdeous denudation, which probably took place while the Coromandd 
Coast was emerging from the bed of the sea. 

It is also probable that these sandstone strata were once continuous 
with those imbedding silicified wood at Pondicherry and Verdachellum 
in south Arcot. 

These remarks are merely thrown out to elicit farther investigation 
and research into the age, and extent on the coast, of these interesting 
littoral deposits, by which we may be enabled, probably, to mark out 
the ancient lines of coast formed, as the land gradually rose. 

Digitized by 


NoieB, ckUt/fy Geohgietti, 8fC. 205 

FiDin its flatness the plim of Goromaadel has been usually neglected 
by geologists as of little promise, but I trusti these remarks will prevent 
obsenrets from running over it in the dark. 

The sandstones and slate elays should be diligently examiiied for or^ 
ganiii remahis, M alter all^ it is possible, they may be freshwater deposits^ 

Of the sea and its inroads upon the land, from the Penuaur to the 
mouth of the CauTery» the natives preserve many wild tradition^, 
which I hate httki doubt originated in a sinldng of this part of the 

In ft Mahratta MS. of the Mackenzie collection,* there is a legend 
of the origin of the town of Sri<^hari*oota, on the south boundary of 
Telinghana, close to the west shore of the Pulicat kke^ which states the 
submersion of another town ; the ruins of which, according to the 
MS. are still to be seen UttdemeAth the water. Trisancu, a kmg of the 
Solar race, is sdd to hate been founder of it. 

The miracle of the sea Shell passing by a subterranean passage to the 
Pandurangha temple, might hate originated from the chrcumstanoe 
of subterranean beds of marine shells being found, as at Madras, &o. 

The Pulicat lake is & lagoon running down the coast from Deraz* 
patumam on the north, to Pulicat on the south, nearly forty miles 
long, and tarying in breftdth f^Om ft few yards to twelte miles. A spot 
of sand ftonk a quarter 6f ft mile to fite miles broad, running parallel 
with the coast, separates it, excepting four narrow openings, from the 
Bay of Bengal. Three of these openings are at its northern and southern 
extremities, and the other between the hamlets of Ryadooroo and Day- 

The lake is studded with numerous islets : its inland or western 
shore is low and sandy, furrowed by numerous rills which run down 
during the monsoon f^om the sides of the eastern ghauts, (here hating 
the local name of the Pulicat hills), about eleten miles to the west- 

The lake is in general shallow, and its formation is attributed to the 
sea bursting through the sand-bank in front on the low ground inland, 
now its bed. I am not aware of any other ^ tradition which refers its 
origin to the historic period, except that just alluded to. 
• Madras Journal, No. 30, p. 86. 

Digitized by 


206 Notes, chiefiy Geological, [No. 171. 

Madrae, — Granite and the hypogene schiats, have been before stated 
as the rocks basing the more recent deposits covering the level plain 
of Madras. In the bed of the river (Adyar) near Marmalong bridge, and 
on its right bank at the quarries for the old breakwater, in the park of 
Goindy, around the race course, it usually contains but little mica, being 
composed of grains of a greyish quartz, with white felspar usually wea- 
thered and earthy on the exposed bosses and blocks in which the rock 
makes its appearance. Much of the granite near the Little Mount I found to 
be pigmatitic, that is, a binary granite of felspar and quartz, without mica. 
Laterite is seen overlying the granite at the breakwater quarries 
before mentioned, and I am informed by Capt. Worster, that beds of this 
rock occur about a mile north of Nabob's Choultry on the Poonamalee 
road ; — also near Tremungalum, about two miles N£. of Santivellore ; 
near Vungada, about two miles S£. from Sri Permatoor ; at Cotrum- 
baucum, half a mile north of Raja's Choultry, and about two 
miles north of Balchitty Choultry ; besides the beds at the Red hills, 
about eight miles NW. from Madras, so ably described by Mr. Cole, 
and which occupying an area of about fifty miles, cover an undulating 
tract, elevated usually forty or fifty feet above the general level of the 
country. Those near Sri Permatoor tank, I have already noticed (vide 
notes from Mangalore to Madras.) 

At the bases of St. Thomas' Mount and the Palaveram Hill, granite 
is seen outcropping, and it also forms some of the smaller hills in the 
vicinity of Palaveram. 

Both the Palaveram Hill and that of St. Thomas' Mount, are com- 
posed for the most part of a massive variety of hornblende rock» in 
which stratification is indistinct. 

This rock, though often entirely composed of black brilliant horn- 
blende, at Palaveram is usually a dull olive-green colour, translucent at 
the edges, and appears to be a mixture of hornblende and felspar, 
with a small proportion of quartz, in an almost homogeneous mixture. 
This rock occasionally imbeds garnets, crystallized schorl, hornblende, 
and a little dark mica. A little to the SSB. of the Mount, near the 
tank, is a lateritic bed. 

The height of the Palaveram Hill, on which the bungalow built by 
Col. Coombes stands, Lieut. Ludlow informs me, is nearly 345f feet 
above the plain at its base. 

Digitized by 


1846.] frfm Fennmr to Pandicherry. 207 

Chinghput. — ^This is the judicial bead-quarters and capital of the 
Jaghire of the same name ; it is situated about tbirty-six miles to the 
SSW. of Madras, at the base of a small cluster of hills ; the loftiest 
not being higher than the Flagstaff hill at Palaveram, and composed of 
a precisely similar variety of hornblende rock (garnetiferous), and as- 
sociated with binary granite, or pigmatite. 

The hornblende rock passes into light shades of green. It has been 
largely used as a building stone in the construction of the fort, which 
is extensive^ and said to be nearly two miles in circumference. It, as 
well as the town, lies on a stream, which falls into the Palaur, about half 
a mile to the west, almost surrounded by this hilly cluster. A wet 
ditch surrounds the outer walls which enclose a citadel, — the remains of 
the ancient palace of the native princes, government offices, and bar- 
racks, &c. Near the outer gate is a weaving establishment : and on a 
neighbouring eminence stands the European burial ground. The na- 
tive town is populous ; the houses are, for the most part, built of mud, 
thatched^ or tiled. 

Chingleput was early a place of importance, and for some time the 
residence of the Hindu princes of the Bijanugger dynasty. 

During the early wars, when the French and English were strug- 
gling for empire in the East, the occupation of Chingleput, which lies 
on the great southern road to Madras from Pondicherry, was a point of 
much consequence. It was captured by the French in 1761, but 
retaken the following year by Capt. Olive. It was here the English 
army under Sir Hector Munro retreated (11th September, 1780) from 
Conjeveram, after the fatal massacre of BaiUie's detatchment near 

The soil in the vicinity is sandy, but in some places overlies a stiff 
day used for bricks and tiles. The cultivation is principally of rice, 
irrigated by a tank which lies to the east of the Madras road. 

Carangooly* — The sandy bed, sometimes occupied by a muddy torrent 
of the Palaur, is crossed about two and a half miles S W. from Chingle- 
put. It is about three-quarters of a mile from bank to bank. This river, 
which takes its rise in the table lands of Mysore in the elevated 
tracts, (their water sheds) between Colar and Nundi-droog, pursues a S£. 
course by Baitmungalum and Watlaconda-droog, to the Pullur gap in 
the eastern ghauts, whence it descends to the vale of Amboor. Here, 
following the north-easterly direction and slope of the valley which it 

Digitized by 


208 N^te§i chiefly Qeohgi<mi, [No. 171. 

^srtUizes, it wariuM Htxe hut of th« eaBteifii ghauts, rdCeiting itiftny moun- 
tain tribttti^ei to th6 base of Ataboor-dtoog ) whenoej turtiitig ti^e 
iiDrth«rft flank of the RajabpolUum and Jatadle hilis^ which bound the 
right of the yalley, it dseapes easterly by Palicoiidft td Vellofe. Thenee 
it crosses the Gamatio increased by the Poni ; by Arcot^ Wallajahbad, 
Conjeyeram, and Chingleput to the Bay of Bengal* into Which it flows 
about three and a half miles, south of Sadras, in latitude 18^ 28' N. 
after a course of about 990 miles, m^ked during its prepress through 
the Caruatic by a uarrow, verdant, winding isone of Hch v^tfttioii. 

The road from Chingleput to Gctfangooly ll^b at uo gr«at distukoe, 
for the firi^t and greater part of its course, ftt>m the right bank of the 
river, over the plaiu ou which the town imd fbrt of Ctttaugo^ MaaAi tc 
the eastward of the large tank, and about thirteen miles 8SW^ from 
Chingleput. A few low hills iu thd vicinity mark the prolcmgation 
of the bed of hornblende rock observed nt 6t» Thomas' Mount, Palavc'- 
ram, and Chingleput^ The prevailing soil is n dandy loami 

Carangooly, like Chingleput, during our early wars with the French, 
was a military post of great importauce, though uow reduced to 
insignificance. The gates of the fort Wtfe blowu opCU} and the place 
stormed by Capt. Davis (January a4th, 1781) t Hyder's garridon was 
700 strong* 

The fort wus dismantled by General Stu&rt, in February 1788. 

PermacoiL^^The route to Piprmaooil lies oVer a pkin l^ss cultivated 
and more jungly than hitherto ; varied &t Acherowauk by a range of 
hil^ running for two or three miles in a 8W. direction, flankitig the 
tight of the road. At Permacoil the granitic rooks rise above the sur^ 
face in clusters varying from 100 to 300 feet high. The Ohief mass is 
composed of felspar, quarts, mioa< imd horubleude, in some places 
veined by u porphyritio grmiitie with large plates of miott. The mica is 
sometimes entirely replaced by hornblende in the same mass, and would 
be termed a syenite by many geologists. 1 picked up a few crystals of 
adularia in the gravelly detritus of a weathering vein, aitd som« fiiie 
specimens of an iridescent felspar. The febpar^ which prevails in the 
substance of the rocks, is reddish, and the mica dark coloured, bat it 
sometimes occurs in rich gold coloured scaled and plates. 

The soil is a greyish* friable loam, passing into reddish and sandy, 
and usually rests on a bed of kunker ; below which, in a bed of sand and 
gravely water is found at depths of from eight to fourteen feet £rom the 

Digitized by 


1846.] fr(m Pewumr to Pondkskerry. 209 

»ar&oe« The surrounding country is generally rocky and jungly. Rice, 
nggi, ko?aloo, and bajra are the staple articles of cultivation. 

With the exception of two or three fiuniliei of Falioare and Brahmins, 
spoakiBg Telinghi, the inhabitants are chiefly of the Pallay war caste, 
and speak T^amul : there are still a few Mussulmen left here. The 
town is situated a little south of the tank bund, at the western base 
of the reeks, and is said to contain about 600 houses. 

The remains ol the fort stand on a steep rock, overlooking the town, 
about 300 feet high, ipid not commanded by any of the sunounding 
heights. Like Garangooly and Chinglepiit, it became of importance as a 
military post during hostilities with the French. In 1760 it was taken 
after a severe assault by Sir Byre Goote, who was wounded here; 
beiieged by Hyder in 1781 but not taken, and again in combination with 
the French in 1782, to whom it was compelled to capitulate on the 6th 

It was subsequently bloim up and dismantled : but in the succeeding 
war with Tippoo, it was held as a post of observation by a company 
vuiar an officer, which was cut off by Tippoo in 179K 

ilAtrteiHft CkwUry.-r^Tlm place is situated on the celebrated Red hills 
which run to the rear of Pondicherry, from which it is about four and a 
half miles NNE. These beds of sandstone, which extend probably 
tether to the NS. will be deeeribed more fully when speaking of Pon* 
dichenry. They overlie the Neooomien limestcme beds, which are seen 
outcropping nearer the sea to the NB. in the vioinity of Co^jimere, 
about ten miles north from Pondieherry, on the Madras along shore 
ntad, &c. which passes by Sadras and the seven Pagodas-*^the ruins of 
Mahabalipuram, or Mavellipuram, as it is called by natives. These ruins 
lie among a cluster of low rocks which project from a sandy spit run* 
nmg down the coast from Covelong to Hedoor, a distance of about 
aateen miles in breadth. It veries froni half a mile to one and a quarter 
of a mile. In front, dashes the everlasting s«ff i in r«ar lies a salt marsh 
of upwards of a mile broad in some parts, and oonununicating with the 
•oa on the south and north extremities of the aand hank in its front, by 
two nairow openings. The prin<»pal sculptured rocks He about two 
and three-quarter miles from the south extremity cl the bank, almost 
abreast, but a little south of, the CUngleput hilla ahready described. 
In the monsoon they are insulated from the main^lnnd by the inundation 
of the salt marsh in their rear. 

Digitized by 


210 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 171. 

' A series of bare granite rocks, naturally of fantastic contour, nearly 
a mile longhand 120 feet high, has afforded the Hindu artist ample 
scope for the exercise of his chisel, which must have been wrought of the 
finest tempered steel, for which India, since the dawn of history, has been 
justly celebrated. The bronze tools of the Egyptians might answer 
well enough in the limestone quarries around old Cairo, in work- 
ing the blocks which constitute the great bulk of the pyramid, but 
would be of little avail in the quarries of Syene, a type of whose gra- 
nite we find in the redder felspar. Quaternary granites compose the 
great monolith raths of the seven pagodas — a mixture of red and 
white felspar, white quartz, dark mica, and h!omblende. It is more 
than probable that Indian steel found its way into £g3rpt during the 
early traffic that is known to have subsisted between India, Judaea, 
Yemen, and Egypt. It is absurd to suppose, that the sharply cut and 
deeply engraved hieroglyphics which cover the granite obelisks of 
Egypt, were done with chisels of bronze, even armed with corundum 

Quintus Curtius informs us, that Poms presented Alexander with a 
quantity of steel as one of the most acceptable and valuable gifts India 
could offer. 

The granite blocks here, as elsewhere in India, are subject to spon- 
taneous concentric exfoliation and splitting. The globular mass ap- 
parently about sixty feet in circumference, which we see nicely poised on 
a convex mass of granite — the pat of butter petrified by the god of milk- 
maids, Krishna — is ascribable to the first process ; and the rents in the 
sculptured rocks— one of which cleaving the monolith pagodas, was as- 
cribed by Mr. Chambers to a violent earthquake — have doubtless been 
caused by the latter process of spontaneous splitting. 

With regard to the firahmanical history of the seas overwhelming the 
ancient city and rolling over its ruins at the fiat of the God of the Heavens, 
Indra, who, it is said, loosed th6 chains of the ocean and overwhelmed 
its wicked ruler Malecheren, there are few facts that can be relied 
on — except that pieces of pottery, Roman and Chinese coins, are occasion- 
ally washed ashore in storms, and the remains of ruins and sculptured 
rocks are at a little distance in the sea. 

From a multitude of enquiries which I have made regarding the 
encroachment of the sea on various parts of the Coromandel Coast, I am 
led to think, that the shore has been subject^ like that of the Baltic, to 

Digitized by 


1846.] frwm Petmmtr /o Poitdieherry. 21 1 

undulations, causing the sea to eneroadi and recede in different parte. 
Marks on the rocks, as on those of the Baltic and Caspian, would serve 
to determine the question. ^ 

FVom the inscriptions hitiierto deciphered, nothing decisive has heen 
obtained as to the date of the sculptures. In the 3rd report, by Taylor, 
on the Mackenzie MSS. section 9, we find it stated that in the Call 
Ynga, Singhama Nayadu, a zemindar of the Vellugotiyara race, ruled 
at Mallapur, (Mavellipoor). In that time during a famine many artifi- 
cers resorted hither, and wrought on the mountain a variety of works 
during two or three years. Ignorant people term these things the work 
of Visvacarma ; but, (says the writer) the marks of the chisel remaining 
disprove that opinion. Besides Singhama Nayadu built a palace on the 
hill, of which a few fragments now only remain. " In another MS. 
we find a Singhama Nayadu mentioned as son of Vennama Nayadu, 
and who became head of his race, and whose brother made successful in- 
cursion against Canchi and the Pandya kings, 9Bd beat the Musul- 

There must be always some doubt until the identification of this 
Singhama of the Cali Yug and the Singhama who lived at the time of 
the Mohomedan invasion, a period not more remote than the 7th cen- 
tury of the Christian era. 

Mr. Walter Elliott, with the aid of inscriptions he has lately brought 
to light at Idian Padal, two miles north of Mavellipoor, in old Tamul 
characters, one of which bears the name of Tribhuvana Vira Deva, a 
Chola king — and other collateral evidence — infers that its rulers were in 
a state of independence during the 6th and beginning of the 7th cen- 

None of these inscriptions bear the special number of the year, but 
Mr. BUiott mentions one, in the neighbouring hamlet of Parajaskaran 
Choultry — in the same character as those of Idian Padal, and Varaha 
Swami — as bearing the name of the reigning sovereign Vikrama Deva, 
and the date of 1157 of the Salivahana era. The other names of sove- 
reigns that occur, are Kama Raja and Ati Rana Chanda Pahava. 

These inscriptions referred merely to grants and sales. The time in 
which Tribhuvana Vira Deva ruled remains to be fixed. But even when 
this is accomplished, we shall be still in the dark as to the exact date of 

• Madras Journal, No. 30, for June 1844. 


Digitized by 


212 NoieM, chiefly Geological, [No. 171. 

these singular sculptures which resemble,'*' as Mr. Fergusson justly 
observes, in plan and design the Hindu series at Ellora, though many 
of their details are only to be found at Ajunta and Salsette. It is evi- 
dent, however, that the rocks were executed under the direction of 
priests of Siva and Vishnu, as no traces of Buddhism or of the Jains 
are seen. 

From the inscriptions hitherto brought to light, I coincide with Mr. 
Elliott in supposing that the character in which some of them are writ- 
ten. (Ghrantham and Nagri) are not older than the 6th century. The 
freshness of the chisel- marks on the granite on which Mr. Taylor and 
some other antiquarians found, in part, their suppositions of a still more 
modern origin, (viz. from 300 to 500 years) cannot be relied on, as 
the marks in the quarries of Syene, and in the defile leading from Thebes 
to Cossier testify. 

One general remarkable feature in these sculptures remains to be 
noticed, viz. that they have been left apparently in haste, being all un- 
finished. Mr. Qoldingham mentions a tradition of the workmen, who 
had emigrated from the north, having suddenly been recalled by their 
prince before they had completed them, lliis tradition, and the similarity 
of the sculptures to those of the Deccan, are in favour of the theory that 
they are not the work of the inhabitants of the country, yet the inscriptions 
in the old Tamul character must have been executed probably at a 
later period than the others, under the directions of the Tamul or Chola 
princes, or priests. 

I am not aware whether the inscriptions on the monolith Rwiit 
have as yet been fully deciphered. It is probable they may throw light 
on the era of the Ati Rana Chanda, the lord of kings, who is declared by 
the inscription on granite, (north of the pagoda, two miles north of 
the place) to have built it; and of the Kama Rajah who founded the 
temple to Siva, according to the Sanscrit inscription in the temple of 
Ganesa. The antiquity of these inscriptions beyond a certain era may 
be negatively inferred from the absence of the date either Vikramaditya 
or Salivahana. 

The Revd. Mr. Taylor, who has catalogued the Mackenzie inscriptioDS, 
states, that he has not met with inscriptions with a defined year higher 

* Journal Royal As. Soc. Part. 1, No. XV, p. 88. 

Digitized by 


1846.] from Peimaur to Ptmdicherry, 213 

up than the 10th centiuy*. I have only met with one of the 9th 
centory on stone, hut copper grants have been found with earlier dates 
extending to the 5th century. 

Pondicherry. — From Murtandi to Pondicherry, the loose sandstone of 
the Red hills extends on the right, and a sand-covered beach on the 
left. The nature of the substrata at Pondicherry has already been de- 
scribed in the notes from Pondicherry to Beypoor. 

A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar, with eome notea and remarks on the 
History of the Western Jumna Canals. By Lieut. Yulb, Engineers, 
First Assist. W. J. C. 

For the following translation of a Decree of the Emperor Akbar« 
forming an interesting Appendix to the History of the Canals, given by 
Colonel Colvin in the 2nd volume of the Journal of the A. S., I am 
indebted to the kindness of Capt. S. A. Abbott, in charge of the Kythal 
district, who obtained the Persian copy from the parties named below, 
residents of Dh&trat, a town on the southern boundary of Kythal, just 
at the point where the Hansi branch of the Western Jumna canals 
enters the Chitang Nalli, in the old channel of which, deepened and 
widened, the canal waters flow to their termination at Bah^eri, in the 
Bikaner territory. 

Translation of a Sanad of Akbar Sh&h B&dsh&h, dated month of Shaw^, 
A. H. 978, [A. D. 1568] at F^ozptir, in the Province of Lahaur. 
Obtained from Abdul Samad and Abdul Mustakim, Pirz&dahs at 
Dhtoat, being four leaves abstracted from a book which bears the 
appearance of considerable antiquity. 

" My Government is a tree, the roots of which are firm in the earth, 
and being watered by the waters of God's grace, its branches reach to 
Heaven. In acknowledgment of God's mercy in establishing this great 
empire, my desire, purer than water, is to supply the wants of the poor ; 

Madras Journal, No. 30, p. 41. 

Digitized by 


214 A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar, [No. 171. 

and the water of life in my heart is larger thui the sea, with the wish to 
dispense benefits, and to leave permanent marks of the greatness of my 
Empire, by digging canals, and founding cities, by which too the 
revenues of the Empire will be increased. 

** God says, sow a grain, and reap 8evenfold(a). My desire is to reap 
one-hundredfold, that my crown may become wealthy, and that the 
zamindars may obtain double returns. 

*' The seeds sown in this world, are reaped in the next. 

" The Omnipotent God gives power to whom he pleases. 

" The following is the best purpose to which my wealth can be applied, 
viz. — 

" The Chitang Naddi, by which Firoz Sh&h B^sh&h, two hundred and 
ten years ago, brought water from the nfilto and drains in the vicinity 
of 8&dhaura(6), at the foot of the hills, to H&nsf and Hiss^. and by 
which for four or five months in the year water was then available, has, 
in the course of time, and firon numerous obstades, become so choked, 
tiiat for the last hundred years, the waters have not flowed past the 
boundary of Kythal, and thence to Hiss&r, the bed has become so ohok* 
ed, that it is scarcely disoemibk ; since which time, the inhabitants of 
those parts have become parched with Uurst^c), and their gardens dried 
up. ^ 

'^ Now that I have given the district (Sark&r) of Hiss&r to the great, 
the fortunate, the obedient, ^e pearl of the sea of my kingdom, the star 
of my government, the praised of the inhabitants of the sea and land, 
the apple of my kingdom's eye, my son Sultioi Muhamad SaMm 
Bah&dur(d), (may God grant him long life and greatness) ; my wisdom 
wishes that the hopes, like the fields of those thirsty people, may, by 
the showers of liberality and kindness, be made green and flourishing, 

(a) <* The umilitude of those who lay out their substancet for advancing the religion 
of God, is as a grain of corn which produceth seven ears, and in each ear a hundred 
gninB "^Sale's JTordn, CA. //. 

(5) S&dhaura, a town of the Amb&l& diatrict, about twenty miles wes4 of th^ Juana. 
The river flowing past S&dhaura is the Markanda, but the sources of the Chitang are 
only seven or eight miles distant 

(c) In Haii&n& the springa hav« been vaised, aince the canal waa re-opaned, in 
some instances as much as sixty feet.— Capt* taker's Report on the Sutl^ and Junna 

id) Afterwards the Emperor Jah&ngfr, who was at this time under two years of 
age, ** The Sirk&r of Hiss&r Firozeb, ever since the conquest of Hindoostan by the 
Moguls, has constituted the personal estate of the heirapparentof the empire"— iteiwc^ 

Digitized by 


1846.] <w /A« Western Jumna Canals. 215 

and that the canal may, in my tune« he renewed, and that hy conduoting 
other waters into it. it may endure for ages. 

" For God has said, from water all things were made. I consequently 
ordain, that this jungle, in which suhsistence is obtained with thirst, be 
converted into a place of comfort, free from that evil, 

" Consequently, in the year of the Hijra 977, my Farm^, bright as the 
sun, and obeyed by all the world, went forth ; that the waters of the n^Ms 
and streams at the foot of the hills at Khizr^bid(e), which are collected 
in the Sonb river and flow into the Jumni^ be brought by a canal, deep 
and wide« by the help of bunds, &c. into the Chitang Naddf, which is 
distant from that place about one hundred kos(/), and that the canal he 
excavated deeper and wider than formerly, so that all the waters may be 
available at the above mentioned cities, (Hansi and Hiss^) by the 
year 978. 

" Behold the power of God, how he brings to life land that was dead(^). 

" Truly a canal is opened, aud from the source to the mouth, although 
the zamindars and cultivators take by cuts abundance for their crops, 
it is still sufficient to meet the domand. 

" Because this canal was renewed for the sake of my beloved son, in 
eompliment to him, whom, in his childhood, I call Shekho, and because 
in Hindustani a canal is called Nat, I have called this canal the Shaikh 

" And whereas Muhamad Kh^ Tarkh^ was superintendent of this 
work from first to last, I have conferred upon him the office and title of 

[Here follows a flourish of the writer of the Sanad.] 

" The following vcqrses have arisen from the ocean of my heart to the 
shores of my lips : 

" Muhamad Akbar Ghazi Jal^uddin. 

" He is the king of this age, and equal to king Jamshaid. 

(c) Khizr&b&d, a Sikh town near the debouchement of the Jumna from the Hills, 
and the present Delhi Canal head. 

(/) Dh&tMt, where the present canal joins the Chitang, is by the line of the banks 
about 130 miles (pretty exactly 100 kos of the country) from Khisr&b&d. 

(g) God sendeth down water from Heaven, and causeth the Earth to revi?e, alter 
it hath been dead.— iS'afe'^ Kor^, Ch, XVL 

(A) This title appears to haye been very short lived. I am not aware that the word 
"Hai is now applied in this sense in any of our canal districts, but 1 learn that it is the 
Pai44bi corruption of AEaddt, and is comiiionly applied hy the Sikhs to a viveror water- 
course. The valley of the Ghagar is called Va^u 

Digitized by 


216 A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar, [No. 171. 

*' His throne is the throne of Fariddn and Kai. 

*' He is like unto Khizr, and from the waters of his generosity every 
thing has life. 

<* He is sach a king, that from the canal of his liberality, the garden of 
the world is green all the year roond. 

" A canal by his orders was carried to Hiss^ ; 

" For the sake of the Prince Salim of blessed steps. 

" A canal like milk, and that milk full of fish ; 

" Its waters like honey, and pleasanter than wine. 

" The king in his great kindness gave Muhamad Salim the title of 
Shekho, because his Fir (spiritual patron) was a Shaikh(t). 

« He consequently called this canal Shaikh Nai. 

" May the Bddshdh and Prince live for ever. 

" The date of excavating this canal is to be found in the following 
words : — 


** Tarkh&n obtained the title of Mir-^b for his labours, because he car- 
ried the waters of the canal in every direction. 

** As long as the new moon, like a boat, sails in the waters of the blue 
heavens, so long may the waters of this king's generosity irrigate the 
garden of the world. 

" Whereas I have ordered that the waters be collected in this canal, 
and that it be made so wide and deep to Hiss&r, that boats may ply 
upon it in every part ; it is my will that the superintendent build bridges 
and bunds wherever nece8sary(A), that at the season of cultivation a 
sufficient supply of water be given to all who aided in excavating the 
canal, and they obtain water all the year round. 

(t) It is said that Akbar having had no child who survived infancy, made a pil- 
grimage to offer his prayers for posterity at the shrine of Mugfnuddin Chishtfat, 4)- 
mir. He was there directed to seek the intercession of the Shaikh Salim Chishtfa 
Sfkrf ; and shortly afterwards the favourite Sultana was delivered of a son, who in 
honour of the saint was called Shekho SaHm. A village on the canal near Hiss&r 
bears the name of Salfma Shekhopoor. 

^•^"^ hf ii) t cf ir <> S-* ' 

(k) The only old bridges now existing between the canal head and Uansi are, that 
called the Gharaunda bridge, near Karnal, and one at Safidan ; both massive 
structures with pointed arches. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Western Jumna Canals. 217 

" Also, that on both sides of the canal down to Hisa^r, trees of every 
description, both for shade and blossom, be planted(Q, so as to make it 
like the canal under the tree in Paradise, and that the sweet flavour of 
the rare fruits may reach the mouth of every one, and that from these 
luxuries a voice may go forth to travellers, calling them to rest in the 
cities where their every want will be supplied, and I trust that, from the 
blessing attending this charity, the garden of goodness may remain ever 
green, that the benefits of the blessing may be incalculable, and that 
from it, I may obtain eternal reward. 

" Thanks be to God who has enabled me to do this, which, without his 
instruction, I should not have performed. 

" It is necessary that every one acknowledge the person appointed to 
this work, and recognize no partner with him. 

" Should it be necessary to construct a bund, or any other work on the 
canal, all Shikkdars(m), Ghaudris, Mukaddams, and Rayats, whether 
of the Khalsa or of other Parganahs, will give the necessary assistance 
in labourers, &c. and delay not. 

" Every Parganah will be satisfied with the number of cuts made by the 
Mir-&b, and take no more, and on every occasion abide by his directions. 
He has the power to punish as he sees fit every one who takes water 
out of season ; whoever disobeys his orders will, after investigation, be 
.punished as an example to others. 

*' The superintendent is particularly cautioned to see that the cuts in 
every Parganah are equally and justly distributed, and in this matter to 
consider every one on an equality ; not to permit the strong to oppress 
the weak, and so to act as to please both 6od and man. 

". The inhabitants of both sides of the canal will abide by these orders, 
and obey all the high, enlightened, concise. &c. &c. farmans of the king." 

This document will be regarded as a very curious one by all who 
take interest in the past history, as well as in the present and prospec- 
tive utility of the canals of Hindustan, suggesting as it does a fact which 
history appears to have forgotten, and which we have not ascertained 

(/) Excepting a few of the different kinds of Fict», scarcely any old trees now ex- 
ist on the canal banks. , 
(m) S/ukkd&r, a revenue officer. 

Digitized by 


218 A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar, [No. 171. 

without Bome degree of pleasure, namely, that the Jumna canals, as a 
perennial eource of supply to a thirsty land» owe their origin to the great- 
est of Indian princes. 

The question, however^ is a difficult one on account of the univeml 
prevalence of the belief that Firoz Shdh drew a canal /rom the Jumna to 
HissAr, and from the obscurity of the accounts of the various cha&neli 
excavated by that king. The only books bearing on the subject to 
which I have access, are Dow's Firishta, and Rennel's Memoir on the 
Map of India. 

The words of Firishta are as follows :— " In the year 757, between 
the hills of Mendouli and Sirmoor, he (Firoz) cut a channel from the 
Jumna, which he divided into seven streams ; one of which he brought 
to Hansi, and from thence to Raeesen, where he built a strong castle, 
calling it by his own name. He drew, soon after, a canal from the 
Gagar, passing by the walls of Sirsutti, and joined it to the rivulet of 
Kera, upon which he built a city, named after him Firozeabad. This 
city he watered by another canal from the Jumna. "(ii) 

The seven streams I cannot explain. " Raeesen, (though this name 
is not now recognizable) where he built a strong castle, calling it by 
his own name," is doubtless Hissar Firozah, or "the castle of Firoz." 
The remainder of the sentence seems almost inextricable from its 
obscurity, and probably, as Major Rennel suggests(o), contains a jumble, 
arising from the multitude of excavations made by King Firoz, and the 
number of cities to which he gave his name. There appears, however, 
no reason to believe, according to Rennel's hypothesis, that a canal 
was ever brought to Delhi before the time of Sh4h Jah&n. 

The city of Sirsutti, which Major Rennel is a little puzzled to 
fix, would seem to be Sirsa, for the following reasons — It was (Rennel 

. fn) Dow's Firishta, I* 305. A more exact translation than Dow's of the passages 
relating to the excavations of Ffros, fnnn a copy of Firishta in the palace library 
at Delhi, is given by Mr. Seton, Resident at Delhi, in a letter to Government, on the 
subject of restoring the canals, dated September lith, 1807. But, in the words quoted, 
there is no material difference, except in the names of Hansi and Raeesea, which 
Dow writes HoMt and Beraittn, Bat the system of water carriage on the canals 
which Dow attributes to Ffros in the following sentence, appears to be a mere em- 

(o) ** It may probably be a jumble of two sentences, which relate to diffsrdnt cities 
together. The rtoer JSTera, and Firozeabad may relate to the city of Ffroiepoor, at 
the conflux of the Sutlege and Beyah, and the canal from the Jumnah to Ffroseabad, 
a city founded by FfroE in the vicinity of old Delhi. « « « • Capt. Kirkpatriek 
notices an obscurity in the text of Firishta in this place.->il«fiiie/, page 74. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Western Jumm Qmah. 219 

p. 76) at the end of Tonor's third march from Bhatnor to Samluui, and 
four marches diatant from the latter place. Now Sirea lies directly 
in tiie road from Bhatner to Samfina; it is upwards of forty miles 
distsat from the former and about eighty-five from the latter. This 
is easily reeondlsMe with the number of marches given, especiaUy 
as two of these seven are stated to have amounted to 32 kos; which, 
if we take somewhat under 60 miles, the remaining five marches would 
average 14 miles each, and three such marches would just give the 
distance from Bhatner to Sirsa. Eirishta also states that Timur having 
taken and pillaged tiie town of Battenize (Bhatner), and after that 
Smmsth advanced to Fattehabad(p). This seems to fis the identity of 
Sirsutti with Sirsa. But again, Ibn Batnta relates, that on his journey 
from Muk6n to Dehli, after travelling four days from Ajddahan, he 
arrived at the city of Sirsutti, a large place abounding in rice, which was 
carried thence to Dehli. And from Sirsutti he proceeded to HansiC^). 
Now Sirsa is about 100 miles distant from Ajodin, (or ¥iik Patau) 
on the Gharra, in the direct line towards Hansi. And the rich valley 
of the Ghagar might weU supply the abundant rice crops. 

The canal then which Firoz drew from the Ghagar under the waUs of 
Sirsutti, is in all probability the Cho]ra nlili, which issues from the 
Ghagar near Mdnak, passes close to Krsa, and bears erident traces 
of having been piurtially, at least, an excavated, channd(f). The men- 
tion of its junction with " the rivulet of Kera" is indeed unintelligi- 
ble. The nlil6 in fact joins the Ghagar again, not hi from Sirsa, 
and a short distance bek)w their union, the Revenue map shows a village 
called Firoaabad. I should be curious to know if at this village exist 
any remains of greatness, from which we might suppose it to be the 
dtf alluded to by Fiririita. 

The remainder of the senlenee we must leave alone. Hissir Flrozah 
might indeed have been watered by a canal from the Ghagar as weU as 
from the Jumna(«), but certainly not by a canal from the GHiagar 
passing under the walls of Krsutti or Sirsa. 

(p) Dow II. p. 4. 

(9) Ibn Batata, p. 110. 

(r) See Gapt Baker's printed report on the Ghagar. 

(s) An(l probably was. For the late M^or Brown traced an old channel from the 
▼icinlty of the Ghagar, in the direction of Hiss&r. This, however, the natives called 
an old bed of the Sirsatti river. But the Sirsatti has a gift of ubiquity I 


Digitized by 


220 A Canal Act of the Emperor Akbar, {No. 171. 

Major Rennel's words with regard to the Hisa&r canals are as follows : 
*' It appears that previous to the building of Hiss^, Firoz had 
made a canal from the Jumna, near the northern hills, to Safid^ 
a royal hunting place ; for the purpose of supplying it with water. 
This canal was in length. 30 royal cosses or full 60 G. miles; and it 
passed by KamlU and Toghlukpoor. After the foundations of Hisa^ 
were laid, he drew two principal canals to it ; one of which was a pro- 
longation of the canal of Safiddn, the whole extent of which was then 
80 (common) cosses, or about 1 14 G. miles. The other principal canal 
was drawn from the Sutlege river to Hiss&r Firozabad. The outlet 
and course of this canal is not so clearly defined as the other : Capt. 
Kirkpatrick, to whom I am indebted for the information concerning 
Hissdr and its canals, had it from a history of Firoze written by 
Shumse Seraje, soon after the death of that great monarch which hap- 
pened in 1388." 

With regard to this Sutlege canal to Hissar Firozah having ever 
been successfully executed, we may feel sceptical. The only line within 
possibility would be from the neighbourhood of Rupar to the Sirhind 
n^&, and thence crossing the Ghagar into the Hiss^ district, according 
to the general line sketched by Capt. Baker in 1841. But leaving this 
and turning to the Safiddn canal, we remark that in Hodgson and 
Herbert's map, a branch of the Ghitang is represented as quitting the 
main channel and passing within a short distance of Safiddn(Q. And this, 
guided by the Sanad before us, we might suppose to be the original canal 
of Firoz, were not the statement so distinct that his canal was drawn 
from the Jumna. Toghlukpdr I have no knowledge of, but the mention 
of Kamid points to the existing line of canal, as the Chitang is ten 
miles distant from that city. It is difiicult to doubt this evidence, and 
yet it is almost equally difficult to throw overboard the clear statement 
of Akbar's Sanad, It is indeed possible that Firoz may have connected 
the Chitang at a much higher point of its course with the Jumna, by 
a cut which could only convey a supply of water into the niM when the 
river was at high levels ; or that a canal from the Jumna was by Firoz 
Sh^ attempted unsuccessfully, upon which recourse was had to the 

(<) ** Of this branch all I am aware of is, that in seasons heavy of rain great floods 
pour into the canal near Barod, said to be consequent on the destruction of the earthen 
dams of the ChiUng.— Co/. Coltfin in J. A, S. 11. 106. 

Digitized by 


1846.] oa the Wetterm Jmnna Canals. 221 

temporary supply derivable from the Chitang, and as the latter flows for 
sixty miles almost parallel to the Jumna and at no great distance from 
it, a misrepresentation thus arose. Otherwise we can only suppose that 
Akbar, in self-glorification, falsely represented his own renewal and re- 
pair of lus predecessor's work, as an original enterprize of his own. 

Singularly enough the SoMod itself does not speak of the new canal 
having been fed from the Jumna, but " from the n&Uis and streams at 
the foot of hiUs which are collected in the Sonb river and flow into the 
Jumna." But the Emperor speaks of his canal as capable of supplying 
water all the year round, and the Jumna is the only accessible source of 
such a supply. Doubtless then as noijr, the supply of water crossed the 
Sonb, that is, flowed inio it and again out of it, so that the canal 
might with truth be said, to be drawn from n^^ collected in the 

It is certainly somewhat singular that Firishta, who flourished in the 
latter part of Akbar's reign, and has made prominent mention of the an- 
cient excavations of Ffroz, should not have alluded to this work. But 
the historian residing in the Deccan had probably no personal know- 
ledge of the work, whilst contemporary documents would be less ac- 
cessible than those relating to past times. It is true also that the 
Hansi canal is still known universally as the Canal of Firoz, and the 
name fondly bestowed by Akbar in honour of his infant heir has been 
utterly forgotten(tf). But new names always adhere loosely among 
the many : DeMi and Agra are likely to outlive the remembrance of 
Shdhfdhdudhdd and Akbardbdd, and though the canab have had as many 
names as a Parisian place during the Revolution(v), yet Nahr Ffrozah, 
the first name known to the people, keeps its place in their mouths. 

There seems no good reason to doubt the genuineness of the Sanad. 
It is dated in the month of Shawfl A. H. 978, from Firozpdr in the 
Sdbah of Lahaur. Now it appears from Firishta, that Akbar, on the 

(ti) Akbar appears to ha?e been particularly fond of this kind of nomenclature. 
He called the new Sdbah of Kandfsh Ddndish, after his son Daniel.— f'/Zenne/.j 
(0) Some of these names are— 

Nahr Ffrozah. 

Shaikh Nai. 

Nahr Bihisht. 

Fyz Nahr, 

Sh&h Nahr. 

Digitized by 


222 A Canai Act of the Emperor Akbar, C^o. 171. 

birth of his son Marid, in the first month of 978, went on a pilgrimage 
to the shrine of Muyinuddin at Ajmir, thence by way of Nagor and 
Ajodin on the Sutluj to Lahaur, which he qtiitted for Ajmir and Agia 
in the second month of 979. So that he might well have been at 
Firozpdr on the date g^ren. 

It is easy to concdTe how the canals fell into decay. In the decline 
of the imperial power, when the irrigated country was a seat of constant 
war, and the lands along the banks were aiienated among Tarious chiefs, 
any system of conservancy became impossible, and the works most ra- 
pidly have been mined. The Hansi canal was the first to suffer, as 
early as 1 707, we are told(i9), the 6ikhs taking advantage of the weakness 
of government during the contentions of Aurang Zeb's sons for die 
empire, converted the whole of the canid waters to theur own nae. 
And this at once reducing the country around Hiss^ to its original ste- 
rility, forced almost the whole of the inhabitants to seek a more favour- 
able soil. A hundred years afterwards, in 1807 (as we are told by an 
officer on Survey in the Sikh States at that time), there was not a single 
inhabitant in the extensive city of Hissfir(d?). The Dehli canal, or 
Ali Mardin Khan's branch, continued to flow to a much later period. 
The officer just referred to learned, from aged zamindars, that the oonn- 
try had been deprived of the advantages of this canal since the accession 
of Alamgir II. in 1 763. The same authority informed him tiiat for pur- 
poses of canal police, and the ready repair of accidents, a Darogha was 
stationed at every three or four koss, with peons and beld&rs under him. 
The water rent appears to have been regulated by the time that the 
outlets remained open. 1000 armed peons and 600 horse, as Mr. 
Seton was informed by the son of one of the last native superinten- 
dents,(y) were maintained on the establishment. According to a pro- 
verlnal expression current at Dehli, the net revenue from the canals 
was reckoned equal to the maintenance of 12,000 hane{z). 

As Colonel Golvin's paper on the history of the canals contains few 
dates, it may be worth while to add the following : — 

(w) Letter dated May 1807, from Lieut F. White, Surveyor to the Resident at 
Dehli. In the Office of the G. G. A. N. W. P. 
(«) Ditto ditto. 

(y) Letter from Mr. Seton to Govt. 11th September, 1807. 
(«) Ditto ditto. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC I 

1846.] an the Western Juwum Canals. 223 

CkrontUofify of the Western Jumna Canals, 

A. D. 1351, — Firoz Sh4h brought a stream down the channel of the 

. Ohitang to Hansi and Hiss^. 
Abwt 1468.-^The watmn of the above named channel ceased to flow 

fbrther than the lands of Kythal. 
A. D. 1568.-«Akbar re-excaTated the work of Firoz and brought a 

supply from the Jumna and 8onb, by the present line, 

into the Chitang. 
Abemt l626.-^Firom the last named line, Ali Mardfin Khlb drew a 

canal to Dehli; first by way of Goh&n&, and afterwards, 

on that failing, by the present channel, passing near 

Paniput and Soneput. 

A. D. 1707. — ^The water ceased to reach Hari^a. 
„ 1740. — Ceased to flow at Safiddn. 

.. 1753 1 

to VThe Dehli branch ceased to flow. 
,. 1760 J 

„ 1817.-— Gapt. Blane appointed to restore the Dehli Canal. 
„ 1820. — ^The water again entered Dehli. 
„ 1823.— Restoration of Firoz's, or the Hansi branch commenced. 
„ 1825.— The water turned down. 
SMa : November ist, 1845. 

P. 8.— Oapt. Abbott having, since the above was written, famished 
me with a copy of the ori^nal Persian of the Sanad, it is enclosed. I 
have also since ascertained that the Ayin Akberi makes no mention of 
Akbar's having engaged in this work, which is singular. 

Digitized by 



Notes, chiefly Geobgkal, an the fVeatem Coasi of South India. 
By Capi. Nbwbold. 

I have not yet had an opportunity of examining the Western Coast 
from Cape Comorin to Beypoor, but by specimens received thence, 
and by information from General Cuiien^ l^terite is doubtless the pre- 
valent surfitoe rock. General CuUen writes me that he has found a bed 
of lignite, in the laterite at KarkuUy, about fifteen miles south of Quilon, 
in a stratum of dark shales and clays. At Cape Comorin itself are 
beds of sandstone, and shell limestone^ of which a good account is adesi- 

CaHeui.'^ At Calicut^ the ancient capital of the Zamorin, (a cormp. 
tion by the Portuguese for Raja Samudri) and the landing place of 
Albuquerque on the shores of India, laterite is also the prevalent rock. 

The modern town exhibits few traces of this once frimous city. Of 
the old fort scarcely a vestige remains beyond a ruined doorway, the 
traces of a fosse and counterscaip, some mounds marking the southern 
gateway, and the site of a few bastions. 

Another fort, it is said, was built by Tippoo; but this too has been 
destroyed ; and the present shoal of Calicut was pointed out to me 
by an old native as the site of a still older fort overwhelmed by the 
sea. Tradition states that the place where the Syrians landed near 
Quilon is also engiilfed.* 

The modern town is a large assemblage of garden houses, on a low 
sandy sea coast, under a grove of cocoanut and jack trees, and extend- 
ing a considerable distance inland. A broad street runs down to the 
sea through the midst of this scattered town. The houses flanking 
it are usually contiguous, built of laterite, or brick and chonam, 

The streets, that branch off from it to the right and left, are narrow, 
winding, and dirty, like those in the oldest parts of Lisbon. Here 
dwell the Moplay and other native merchants. 

On the beach fiicing the sea runs a row of warehouses for timber, 
coir rope, split bamboos and other marine stores. The rope is manu- 
factured on the spot. 

* Madras Journal, No. 30, p. 146. 

Digitized by 


Notes, chiefly Geological, Sgc. 225 

In the roadsteftd I observed native craft only. The boats used for 
oommanication with the shore, though composed of planks sewn 
together with coir» like the Massoolah boats at Madras, differ from them 
in being lighter, lower, and flat-bottomed, and are extremely pointed at 
the stem and stem. As the surf here is much less powerful than on 
the Coromandel Coast, a boat of a heavier description is not required. 

The laterite continues, by Mahe and Tellicherry, to Cannanore, a 
little north of whidi it overlies some carbonaceous looking clay, and 
slate clay. Lateritic iron ore is found at Augadipur, Satimangalum, 
and many other places throughout Malabar ; iron sand (magnetic) in 
most of the ghaut streams. Gold dust is also found in similar localities, 
especially in Wynaad and Emaad, and other places elsewhere specified. 

Payengal^, — Payengady is about sixteen miles NNW. from Ganna- 
nore, and stands on the sea coast near a back water. A coup dtceU from 
the rising ground near the village presents a low flat, stretching between 
an inland ridge and the sea ; and which has all the appearance (tf 
having been covered by the sea up to the base of the laterite cliffs. 
This flat is for the most part covered by marine sand, and thinly 
scattered with houses shaded by cocoanuts. A few marine shells 
were found at the base of the difb about a mile inland. Whether 
drifted by the wind or conveyed here by the sea under former condi- 
tions is uncertain. 

The hills in the back ground stretch out like promontories, termina- 
ting abruptly at the inland edge of the flat. 

The laterite overlies granitic and hypogene rocks. Between Covai 
and Cautcutcherry the Nelisir back water is crossed from Malabar to 
Circar Canara, or from Malayala to Tuluva, where Canarese is spoken 
and Malayalum ceases. 

Casaergode* — The laterite continues the sur&ce rock by Hossdroog, 
Bekul, and Chundergherry, to Cassergode. It rests as usual on gra- 
nitic and hypogene rocks ; which, near fiekul, are veined with quartz, 
and imbed garnets and amethystine quartz, fragments of which are 
numerous in the sand on the shore. There is also a black magnetic 
iron sand derived probably from the dark and beautifully crystalline 
hornblende schists. The strike of strata is westerly : the dip is confused, 
often vertical. The fort stands on laterite, capping basaltic greenstone. 

Digitized by 


226 Noies, chiefly Geological, [No. 171. 

The soil on the rice flats is a rich mould, deposited in part by the 
rivers in their passage to the sea from the ghauts. These bring down 
a considerable portion of the decayed vegetable matter of the deaae 
jung leson their banks, mingled with Uie detritus of granitic hypogene 
rocks, and of the laterite. When lateritic detritus is in excess, vege. 
table matter is added by the natives as a manure. Inland, to the 
NE., the granitic masses of Jumalabad, Murbiddry, and CareuUa rise 
above the sur&ce, the former to a great height, almost inaccessible from 
the steepness of its sides. 

Mangalore. — Laterite is stiH the surfiMse rock as before obserred. 
The numerous back waters or marine lagoons, which lie along the 
Malabar Coast, are formed at the mouths of rivers by sand bars thrown 
up by the antagonizing forces of the mountain torrents and the tidal 
wave. These sand bars are liable to be broken through, and alter their 
position by the force of extraordinary storms. Their beda afford ia* 
struetive examples of the manner in which both fresh water aod 
marine exuviss may be mingled and embedded in the same stratam. 
Numerous sand dunes also occur at the embouchures of rivers near 
back waters. These tranquil marine lagoons greatly facilitate native 
commerce along the coast* 

Kundapur.-^khoMi a mile inland from the present embouchure of 
the Kundapur river, stands the town of Barcelore, the supposed 
Barace of Ptolemy: a place (d great traffic in former tines with 
Arabia and Egypt, and which is supposed to have stood upon the \)ld 
embouchure of the river before the land gained upon the sea. 

Vicramaditya, or his dynasty, is said to have ruled 2,000 years at 
Barcoor (Barcelore), and, afiber him Salivahana, to whom tucoeeded 
Buddha Penta Raja and the Bijanugger dynasty. A human aaerifiee, 
offered up to increase ito oommeree, is alluded to in the Mackeiine M8S. 

I observed near the old Pagoda at Knndapur, an inscription en stone, 
which opportunity did not permit me to copy. Barcelwe is stiU a place 
of great native trade. 

The present bar at the river's mouth does not admit vessels of 
more than fifty or sixty corges, whidi find secure anchorage under the 
lee of the north bank. Its entrance was protected by a battery built 
by Hyder, and an old fort now in ruins. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Western Coast of South India. 227 

Honafwr (OnoreJ and Sedaakepur. — ^Tbe geology of Honawer, or 
Onore, has already been touched upon. SuflSce it to say, that laterite 
is the prevalent rock. 

Sedaehegur is about 168^ miles, northerly from Mangalore, about 
three miles south of the southern fnmtier of the Portuguese terri- 
tory of Goa. The western ghauts here advance boldly to the ocean 
and affbrd some points of view, which truly approach the magnifi- 
cent. The back ground of the picture is filled with the wild moun- 
tain scenery of the ghauts, from whose forests issues the Kali, or 
Black River, to the Indian Sea in the fore ground, expanding into a 
broad and beautiful lake near its embouchure, and stretching between 
two bdd promontories, the northernmost of which is crowned by the 
picturesque ruins of the old fort which once guarded the entrance. 

Across the mouth of the river runs a sand bar, over which at high 
water there is a draught of about two and three-quarter futhoms. Vessels 
of about forty corge^ find a snug anchorage within the bar ; and boats 
of frt>m twenty to twenty-five corges pass up the river eighteen miles 
to Mallapur, where there is a salt depot. They carry, up salt-fish 
and salt from Gokum, and bring back rice and firewood, chiefly for 
the Goa and Bombay markets. Mr. Oakes attempted to make this a 
depot for the cotton shipped from the interior to Bombay, &c., as 
being a much more convenient harbour, and nearer Bombay than that 
of Kompta. But the project failed in consequence of the opposition 
of the Gujerati merchants of Kompta, who were averse to quitting 
their Mamool village. 

The formation of the ghauts near Sedashegur to the south, is chiefly 
granite with gneiss and hornblende schist, penetrated often by large 
dykes of basaltic greenstone, which at their base are covered partially 
by laterite. Their summits, I had no opportunity of examining. 

A little south of Sedashegur, between Ancola and Chendaya, the 
beach of a small and pretty indentation of the sea is strewed with nodules 
of a stiff black day, resembling in colour that of the lignite deposit at 
Beypoor : the situs cannot be very far distant. Iron is said to be smelted 
at Gopdiatta. 

The soil is usuaUy a sandy loam. The staple articles of cultivation 
are rice, cocoanuts, sugarcane and raggi. The latter and hill.rice 


Digitized by 


228 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 171. 

occupy the dry lands and cleared sides of the moantains (like the 
wheat on the high sierras of Spain,) while the irrigated flats of the Tal- 
lies smile with abundant crops of paddy and sugar-cane. Yearly the 
mountains blaze with the fires of the clearers, who are obliged, like 
the Malays, to shift from one spot to another as the soil of the clearing 
becomes exhausted. 

. The fort, it is said, was built by the Soday Rajas of Sircy, from whom 
the Portuguese wrested* it. It next fell with Anoola and Gokum 
into the hands of Hyder, and eventually into those of the English. 

I observed about thirty-two guns, apparently of Portuguese manu- 
facture, lying about. 

At present (1840), Sedashegur (Siveswargur) contains about 600 
houses, inhabited principally by Concanni Mahrattas engaged in culti- 
vation, by Christians from Goa, Cojnarapaiks, and Mussulmans. Three 
n\iles north commences the Kankana region, where that of Tuluva 
terminates. Near the junction, the two languages, viz. Canarese and 
Mahratta, are mixed. The old inscriptions on stone at Ookurn and 
other places /south of this, are mostly in the old Canarese language 
and character. Some of the earlier ones belonging to the ninth century 
of the Salivahana era, show that this part of the country was under 
the sway of the kings of the Cadumba dynasty of Bunwassi ; and those 
of the fifteenth century show the extension of the Bijanugger empire 
to the western coast. 

Gokum, about thirty miles south of Sedashegur, is one of the sacred 
places of Hindu pilgrimage, ranking with Tripati, Ramisseram, Jug- 
gemath, Sondur and Sri Sailam or Perwut. 

It is the reputed scene of Parasuram's exploits, who raised the whole 
of the western coast from the ocean's bed to the base of the ghauts, and 
divided the new born territory among the Brahmans. Many subdivi* 
sions of this tract, and other changes, are known to have taken place at 
various historical epochs ; for instance, the tract from Honawer to 6o- 
kurn was called Haiga ; but it is probable the three provinces as they 
now exist, viz. the Concan, (or Kankana) ; Canara (or Tuluva) ; Mala- 
bar or Travancore (or Kerala), distinguished by the Mahratta, Canarese, 
and Malayalum languages, were the original geographical and political 
divisions of the western coast of India, After descending the ghauts. 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Western Coast of South India. 229 

with the physical aspect of the country, the vegetable, animal, and 
social systems undergo a striking change. A new language strikes the 
ear, and the eye is astonished at the sight of the wives and daughters 
of the upper classes, walking abroad naked from the waist upwards. 
The houses of towns and villages, instead of being huddled together as 
in the Carnatic, are widely separated in gardens or desams like the 
Malay Campong, and the generality of inhabitants struck me as re- 
sembling Malays in their habits and customs. The singular right of 
inheritance enjoyed by the sister's son is precisely similar to that of 
the Menangcabowe Malays. Sheep are no longer seen, and instead of 
the fine oxen of Coimbatore, one sees a miserable breed of black cattle, 
hardly larger than donkies. The peculiar manners and customs of the 
various castes are too various for detail here. 

Goa and Maiwan. — Laterite covering granite and the hypogene 
rocks, continues from Sedashegur to Goa, and probably from Goa by 
Vingorla to the north of Maiwan. 

At Maiwan gneiss occurs, and a bright magnetic iron ore, resem- 
bling that of Salem, disseminated in grains and nests, or in alternate 
layers with quartz. The rocks off the coast, washed by the breakers 
from their white colour and shape have the appearance of a boat under 

Mr. Eraser describes the overlying trap as coming down to Maiwan, 
but I did not meet with it on the coast till 1 rea(fhed the village of 

Sarki, — I had no opportunity of examining the rock^ at Ratnagherry, 
which lies between Maiwan and Sarki : but the contour of the ghauts 
here is apparently trappean. At Sarki the trap hills descend towards 
the coast in long, flat-topped, walUlike promontories, becoming higher 
and wilder around Sevemdroog. 

Bancoot or Fori Victoria, — Th6 trap rises from the sea beach in a 
high steep rock, on the western extremity of which stands the fort com. 
manding the entrance of the river. The citadel and flag-staff |ire 
conspicuous objects at sea. The town extends, at the base of the rock, 
towards the sea, and is well studded by cocoanut trees. 

The rocks in the little bay of Shiwurdin are dark basalt and amyg. 
daloid, imbedding zeolites, geodes and veins of chalcedony and quartz. 
At the water's edge the basalt is much honeycombed. 

Digitized by 


230 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 171. 

The outline of the ghaats in the back ground is bold and pictur- ' 
esque. A little to the north, the mountains of overlying trap attain 
their maximum elevation, which never approaches that of the peaks 
of granite and hypogene schist farther sou^h, although they sometimes 
attain 4,500 feet of altitude above the sea's level. 

They usually rise from the low maritime tracts of the Concan in bold 
escarpments, broken by steps or terraces, to the table land of the Deccan. 

The Cancan, — The foregoing observations from Goa were made 
as I was sailing up the coast from Sedashegur in a native pattamar, 
with a foul wind to Bombay. After leaving Fort Victoria the wind 
became fair, and consequently I had no longer any opportunity of 
going ashore and examining the Concan between Bombay and Ban. 
coot. The ghauts in this region, we know, are of trap from the obser- 
vations of Colonel Sykes. Their long horizontal outline, varied occa. 
sionally by truncated conoidal peaks, are characters in which their na- 
ture is plainly written. 

The rock composing the Concan is chiefly trap. My lamented fnend 
Malcolmson found beds of sandstone at Atchera, dipping at a consi- 
derable angle to the NW. 

As the existence of fossiliferous deposits is by no means improbable 
on this low maritime tract, through the rocky fissures of which many 
hot springs find vent, and which have not yet been fully examined, 
I should strongly recommend its minute geological exploration. 

Bombay, — The geology of this and the neighbouring beautiful islets 
of Elephanta, Salsette, &c. has been so well and minutely described 
by Dr. Thomson, that I shall content myself with observing that th^ 
> are all of the overlying trap formation, and the rocks composing them 
embrace every variety from dark basalt to light coloured amygdaloids 
and wackes, from compact to crystalline and porphjrritic. 

I must not however omit to mention a curious variety termed 
while basalt, of which the base of Sir John Malcolm's statue at 
Bombay, if I recollect right, is composed. Externally it often re- 
sembles a soft felspathic granular sandstone, white, with a slight shade 
of yellow, but it is clearly seen passing into a true, rough, crystalline 

It is dug at the quarries of iSalsette, and composes a large part of 
the island; some of the granular varieties are extremely hard, and 

Digitized by 


1846.] on the Western Coast of South India. 231 

take a fine polish. Crystals of glassy felspar occur imbedded when 
the rock passes into trachyte porphyry ; but I have never seen it with 
scales of mica, assimilating granite, like th^ trachytes of Smyrna and 
Mitylene. In some places it has the appearance of a stratified sand, 
stone, and in others there can be no doubt of its volcanic origin. In 
one place it is felspathic; in the other imbedding rock crystal, and 
globules of quarts. 

As this curious rock is without parallel in India, a detailed descrip- 
tion of its relations with the contiguous trap, and a series of specimens 
exhibiting the dilBerent mineral alterations the rock undergoes in 
various parts of its mass from the line of contact to its most dis- 
tant point from the trap, would be. highly interesting and instructive. 
It 18 probable that the molten mass of trap and trachyte may have 
here invaded the sandy bed of a lake or sea, and thus become 

The amygdaloid of Bombay, among other beautiful specimens of 
the zeolite family, contains that rather rare mineral (in Europe), 
apophyllite. Chalcedony in most of it9 varieties, and beautiful agates, 
are common. 

The temperature of sea water in the harbour of Bombay in April 
was 87^ Fahr. a foot below the surfiice. The temperature of air in the 
shade was 85'' the time of observation 3 p. m. 

The temperature of water in a well at Bombay, 20 feet deep, was 
82'' ; (which approaches the mean temperature of the place) : the tem- 
perature of air in the shade was 86^ ; time, noon ; month, April. The 
temperature of the cave of Elephanta — same month— time, noon — 
was 85^ ; the temperature of the water of a well in Elephanta was 
750. 5' — temperature of air in the shade at the moment was 8^** ; time 
of observation, noon. 

Digitized by 


232 [No. 171. 

The Coins of Arakan : — The Historical Coins, by Capt, A. P. Phatbb, 
Principal Asst, Commr, Arakan, 

The art of coining appears to have been introduced among the Ara- 
kanese only at a very late period. Their oldest legendary coins were 
suggested to them by the coined money of the Mahumudan sovereigns 
of Bengal. I say their legendary coins, since it is probable that a medal 
similar to that described, and so happily explained by Ideut. Latter 
(in the Jour. As. Soc. Vol. XIII. p. 571) was struck in Arakan at a 
period much earlier than were the coins now to be noticed. It is indeed , 
certain, that to coin money is a but lately known art among the Bur- 
mese race. The term in their language for coin, — ding-ga, — seems not to 
be a native word, but adopted from the Hindooee, tu-ka. In ^e domi- 
nions of Ava, coined money is still unknown ; payments are made by 
silver ingots weighed out as required. 

The Arakanese sovereigns no doubt wished to follow the kingly prac- 
tice existing in Bengal, of coins being struck in the name of the reign- 
ing monarch. We learn from their annals that about the middle of the 
fifteenth century of the Christian era, they conquered Bengal as far as 
Chittagong, of which they kept possession for about a century. It was 
then, that they first struck legendary coins. On the obverse of the earliest 
of these, we find the date and the king's nances written in the Burmese 
character, together with barbarous attempts at Mahumudan names and 
titles ; these they assumed as being successors of Mussulman kings, or as 
being anxious to imitate the prevailing fashion of India. Indeed, there is 
some reason to believe that Ba-tsau-phyii, a Bdddhist king like the rest, 
who ascended the throne A. D. 1459, obtained among his own subjects 
the epithet kalamashd, (the son of the Kalama) from havings issued a 
coin with the Mahumudan kulima inscribed upon it. The reverse of 
most of the earlier coins, contains unintelligible Persian and Nagri in- 
criptions. The Arakanese kings were frequently known to their subjects 
by names and titles different from those which appear on their coins. 
This circumstance will explain a discrepancy observable between the coin- 
names of kings given here, and the sovereigns of the same period found 
in the list of Arakanese kings, published in the Society's Jour. Vol. XIII. 
page 50. The coin-date generally coincides with the year of the king's 

Digitized by 


1 846] T^e HistoriaU Coitu of Arakan. 233 

accession to the thione ; but in some instances it does not : more than 
one coinage having occasionally been issued in the same reign. 

Old coins are frequently discovered buried in the ground in various 
parts of Arakan. Several valuable ones thus found have been kindly 
sent me by Major David Williams, Principal Assistant Commissioner 
(then) of Ramree. Many have also been met with, hung as charms or 
ornaments round children's necks, which have been retained in families 
for several generations. At present I have the means of describing only 
a few of those I once possessed ; the greater portion having been lost 
when the Society's cabinet was robbed some months ago. All those 
now described are of silver, for though a few of mixed metal are to be 
met with, their legends do not differ from these. 

The oldest Arakanese coin I now possess is that marked No. 1. The 
obverse is as follows : — 

qq^ Qo6g^ ooo(S ^Gp8gc8ca)oo85og|o 


963. Lord of the White Elephant, Nard-dib-ba-di Tshau-Um Shyd, 

Here 963 in the Arakanese era is equivalent to A. D. 1601. Sard- 
dih-ba-di is a Pali title signifying I believe " Ruler of men ;" while 
Tshaulim Shyd, is nothing more than a barbarous attempt at the Mahu- 
mudan title Zalim Shah I The reverse of this coin bears some unintel- 
ligible compound of Persian and Nagri letters. The above king stands 
No. 17 in the list of Arakanese sovereigns of the Myouh-il dynasty, in 
the Jour. As. Soc. 1844, p. 50, under the name of Meng-Rd-dzd-gyL I 
long considered the date of this coin to be 863, the first figure on that 
I possess being imperfect, and the date 863 corresponding with the 
accession of a king styled Meng Rd-dzd in the above mentioned list 
No. 8. However, on seeing a duplicate of this coin in the possession of 
Lieutenant Fytche, I was struck with the resemblance of the first figure 
to a 9 and looking into the Rd-dzd-weng or Arakanese history, I found 
Meng»Rd'dzd-gyi mentioned with the Pali and Mahumudan titles (the 
latter differing slightly in the spelling) as inscribed on the coin. The 
coin must have been struck in the eighth year of his reign. 

Digitized by 


234 The Historical Coins of Arakan. [No. 171. 

No. 2. The next coin is that of the son and succeBsor of the preced- 
ing king ; the obverse bears the following date and inscriptioii : — 

e^q Qo6g^ odq6 OG[ogcpG)0 gcogjD^o^o 

974. Lord of the White Elephant, Wa-ra-dham^ma Rd-dzd 
This date is equivalent to A. D. 1612. Wa-ra-dham^ma Rd-dzd is 
a Pali title said to signify " Excellent-law-observing king ;" while in 
Oo'Shyoung'Shya we have another instance of the barbarous adoption of 
a Mahumudan name, it appearing to stand for Hoosein Shah ! This 
king was commonly known to his subjects by the name Meng khamoung,* 
The reverse of this coin bears like the preceding one an illegible in- 
scription in Persian and Nagree. 

No. 3. The obverse of this coin has the following date and inscription:— 

goq 3o6g^ odq6 Qo6f coo6 c8£[cqogGpG»o 


984. Lord of the White Elephant, Lord of the Red Elephant, 

m-ri'thU'dham-ma Rd^dzd. 

This date is equivalent to A. D. 1622. There is no Mahumudan 

name on this coin. The Pali title is translated " Excellent righteous 

king.'* On the reverse is an illegible Persian and Nagree inscription. 

No. 4. This coin, and all those posterior to it, have the same inscrip- 
tion on the obverse and reverse. On this one the date and inscription 
are as follows : — 

0000 s)0(S^ odqS 3o6? odqS ^Q\pS^ 


1000. Lord of the White Elephant, Lord of the Red Elephant, 


This date answers to^. D. 1638, the very year in which the Historj 

of Bengal informs us that the " Mugh Chief who held Chittagong on the 

* Khamounff, in Bunnese writing signifies, the '^canopyof state"— being part of 
the regalia of their Kings. It is probable that this title Meng Khamoung^wai a 
translation of some Mahumudan epithet, which this King took to himself. It may be 
rendered, " The Canopy of Kings."— T. L. 

Digitized by 


1846.] 'ne Hiitancal Coin$ of Arakan. 285 

part of the Raja of Arakan/' delivered it up to the Mogul Viceroy, 
Islam Khan. This circumatance accounts for the Persian inscription 
bong wanting on this coin. This chief is called in the Bengalee His- 
tory, Makat Ray, a corruption of his title Meng*r4, i. e. « War Chief." 

No. 5. The date and inscription of this coin are as follows :— 

oooT^ Qo6f ooo6 ^>o(Sg ooo(S 000^6 oSsoocps 

1007. Lord of the Red Elephant, Lard of the White Eiephent Tha-dd 
the monarch* 
This king does not appear to have been known by any other name 
than that here mentioned. The date is equivalent to A. D. 1645. 

No. 6. Date and inscription are thus : — 

oooq og^^ ooo6 0|o^ogcpGiO 


1014. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan-da Thoo-dhaw^ma Rd-dzd. 

llie date answers to A. D. 1652. The style of the king is here al- 
tered ; he is no longer Lord of the White Elephant, but of the " golden 
Falace.*' This style was retained until the fall of the kingdom in A. D. 
1784. The Pali title signifies " The moOn-like righteous king." 

No. 7. The obverse and reverse run thus :— 

1047. Lord of the golden Palace, Wa-^ra^dJuKBuma Rd-dtd. 
This date is equivalent to A. D. 1685. In the list of Arakanese kings 
^ore referred to, the date of this monarch's accession is erroneously 
given as 1054. 

No. 8. The date and inscription are as follows : — 
^0\ J Og^$ 0096 0|8CMXX) 

^ Translation. 
' 1072. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan-^a Wi-dza-yd. 

This date answers to A. D. 1710. 

* The words meng tard might perhaps be interpreted ** Lord pf justice*" Whilst 
*«"«w generally refers in the Burmese Language to the " sacred law," tard alludes 
to *e "law of the land."-.T. L. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

236 The Historieai Coins of Arakan, [No. 171. 

No. 9. Date and inscription. 

0069 og|^^ 0098 OlO^^OdCpOtO 

1093. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan-da Thu-n-ya Rd-dzd. 
This date answers to A. D. 1731. 

No. 10. Date and inscription. 
00 6 @ Og|^^ OD9(S QSq6lGpG»0 
1099. Lord of the golden Palace, Mu'da-rit Rd^dzd, 

No. 11. Date and inscription. 
1104. Lord of the golden Palace, Na^ra-a^pa-ya Rd^dzd, 

No. 12. Date and inscription. 

00 J 9 og|^$ 0006 ojoqocpao 

1123. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan-da Pa-ra-tna Rd^dzd. 

No. 13. Date and inscription. 
00 J e Og^^ 0006 90ODO0OOD0CpO>0 
1126. Lord of the golden Palace, A-pa-ya Ma^hd Rd-dzd. 

No. 14. Date and inscription. 

0^93 99?? ooo(S o|o:^Q^cpo»o 

1135. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan^da Thu-ma-na Rd-dzd. 
For this coin I am indebted to the kindness of Ueatenant A. Fytcfae» 
Jnnior Assistant to the Commissioner of Arakan. 

Digitized by 



1846.] The HisioriciU C(nn$ of Arakan. 237 

No. 15. Date and inscription. 
009 e Cg^^ 0006 0|00§OOCpGkO 


1139. Lord of the golden Palace, Tsan-da'tha-di'tha Rd-dzd. 

No. 16. Date and inscription. 
OOqO Cgg^ 000(S OgGp(SGpO>0 
1140. Lord <f the golden Land, Dham-ma-rit Rd-dzd. 

No. 17. Date and inscription. 

OOqq Cg^? 0006 QCX)OOOQCX)Gp0>O 

1144. Lord of the golden Palace, Ma-^d Tha^ma-da Rd-dzd. 
This was the last native sovereign of Arakan. In the second year of 
his reign being 1146 or A. D. 1784, the Burmese conquered the coun- 
try. They immediately issued the next coin. 

No. 18. Date and inscription. 

1146. Conquered country of the Amarapura, many 'White* Elephant -Lord, 

This coin was also placed at my disposal by Lieutenant A. Fytche. 
Daring the forty years the Burmese held Arakan, they did hot, I believe, 
issae a coin with any other date stampt upon it. 

There is another coin which has been lent to me by Lieutenant 
Latter, and which should have come immediately after No. 9. I now 
mark it. 

No. 19. Date and inscription. 

1097. Lord of the golden Palace, Na-ra-pa-wa-ra Rd-dzd. 
The date is equivalent to A. D. 1735. 

Digitized by 


238 [No. 171. 

V The CoiM of Arakan-^The Symbolical Coins. By Lieut, Thos. Lattbb. 

The coins of which the accompanying facsimUes are given, are inter- 
esting, in that they represent whatever ideas they were intended to con- 
vey, by means of pure symbolism alone ; and afford no clue by which 
to connect them with any particular prince. They are all, I believe, of 
a type peculiar to Trans- Gangetic India. No. 1, was found in the city 
of Haleng, in the Empire of Burmah, and has been already described at 
some length in a former number of the Society's Journal. It is placed 
here for the purpose of shewing how the same type of symbol runs 
through the whole. The remainder are peculiar to Arakan, the last 
being somewhat common. Knowing these coins to be Buddhistical from 
their being found only in localities*^ where no other than that faith has 
obtained, and having, as I have already said, no due to justify our con- 
necting them with any particular monarch ; it is only by viewing them 
as representing by means of symbols certain dogmas, or tenets, (whe- 
ther religious, or philosophical) of the Buddhist faith, that we can 
hope in any way to resolve their meaning. 

In the description of No. 1, I speculated that the side (6) might be 
intended to convey a symbolical representation of the cosmology of 
Buddhism. The twenty-eight circular figures in the outer ring repre- 
senting the twenty-eight Buddhs characteristic of a Mahdgabhha, oc 
grand period of nature ; and the five drop-shaped figures within the 
circle representing a Buddhagabbha, or lesser period of nature, the pre- 
sent period being characterized by the presence of five Buddhs ; which 
are therefore made to preside over a curious emblem composed of certain 
triangles representing this world in particular. Although I could not 
at the time account for the reason why this singular combination should 
be able to convey such an idea ; yet in a subsequent paper, (on the 
Buddhism of the emblems of architecture), I ventured to suppose (taking 
the triangles with their points downwards to represent " water ;" and 
those with their apices upwards to typify *' fire ;" that their being made 
to meet in a circle, (the universe) with a point in it, (this earth) meant 
to convey the belief in the reiterated destruction of the world by fire 
and water, whence its PaU name, kmga, from lau, " to be again and 
again" renovated and destroyed. It is singular that in the two coins, 
Nos. 2 and 3, my interpretation is indirectly corroborated, for in them 

Digitized by 


1846.] Tk0 SffmbolktU Coins of Arakan. 239 

this emblem of " renovation and destruction/' ia conformably repre- 
sented by tbe Bull Nimdi^ the peculiar cognizance of Shiva, the Ood of 
" destruction and renovation." 

The two last coins are Shivite, but probably appertain to a time when 
the emblems of the worship of Shiva, and those of Buddhism had 
something in common. Struck perhaps by this similarity as well as 
by their novelty, they seem to have been adopted by some of the 
Princes of Arakan. The fact of the characters on them being Pali does 
not in any way militate against this supposition, as the Burman Alpha- 
bet IB but a modification of the Pali, and the similarity of the two in- 
creases in proportion to the earHness of the date. We see on these coins 
the Buddhist triglyph represented by the trident of Shiva. On each side 
is a scroll; and beneath are certain round dots. These dots are curious, fcnr 
they here occupy the same position in reference to the triglyph of Shiva, 
that the guttse do to the trigljrph of architecture. In three coins in 
my own possession, evidently of two different dies, their number is 
" five." In another from the collection of Gapt. Phayre, figured No. 3, 
their number is " nine ;" this last, however, is a peculiarly expres- 
sive and powerful number in Buddhism. The legend over the Bull 
varies in three coins, they are given separately, (a. b, c. No. 5,). (c) 
presents the characteristics of the old Pali alphabet, with the exception 
of the first letter ; I read it " Skri Frieghau, the last member of the sym- 
bol of the last vowel being effaced ; so that it appears to the eye 
Vriegh^, The other two may be determined by those better versed in 
the old Nagri character. (6) ia of a more ancient type than (a) ; which 
last ia of the same class as the characters composing the inscription on 
the temple of Shiva in the village of Harshi, described in the Society's 
Journal, No. 43, July, 1835. 

The popular tradition connected with these coins is the following : 
There was a king who set off to China to find the skuU which he owned 
in a former state of existence when he was in the body of a dog ; his 
astrologers having told him that this skull being wedged into the cleft 
of a tree was the reason why he was troubled with such incurable head- 
aches, and that on removing it he would be cured. On his departure 
he left with his wife a ring, and told her that in case he should not 
come back in seven years, she was to raise to the throne, and marry 

Digitized by 


240 The SymboUcai Coins of Arakan. [No. 171. 

that one of her subjects whom it would fit. On his way back the 
daughter of the Ocean king who was in love with him, begged her fa- 
ther to raise a storm to drown his fleet, and thus procure her lover. 
This being done, the prime minister who escaped informed the queen of 
the death of her husband ; she immediately gave out throughout her 
kingdom that he should be her husband whom' this ring would fit. 
Though numbers tried, it was not till an herdsman from the hills with 
his brother and nephew came down, that it was found 'to fit any one. 
It fitted them all three, the queen married the eldest brother, who thus 
became king, and he, in commemoration of his origin, put an ox upon 
his coins, as also the goad (the trident), the implement of his craft. 

The coin No. 4, is much more modem in appearance than any of the 
others. It would be impossible to determine its age, its appearance 
would not give it more than 100 years. It is evidently the handywork 
of an artist who has concocted together a quantity of symbols that 
most struck his fancy from coins of a more ancient date. On the side 
(a) we see the parasol roof ; being a part of the ts^ya emblems. On 
each side are figures appearing to guard it. Below is that flame-shaped 
symbol, mistaken by Marsden, if I remember right, for the conch of 
Vishnu. On the obverse (b) is the symbol of combined triangles, over 
which are three ** Z" shaped figures. 

No. 6. The coin No. 6, though not belonging to the country, is re- 
presented here, having been found on the sea shore of the Ishmd of 
Ramree with several others. It is of gold, and thin. The central portion 
represents an animal like a pig, with the representation of the Bo-tree 
above, and a monographic character b beneath. Around are certain cha- 
racters which an intelligent Buddhist priest declares to be old Cinga- 
lese, and to compose the words, "Pawaraganran thooradza" commenc- 
ing from the letter marked (a). The first letter appears to have been 
mistaken by him ; the first half composing it, being indistinct, appears to 
. have escaped his attention. The name he gives is that of one of the 
old kings of Ceylon. 

Digitized by 


fftstcrical Coirvs cf ^rouk^xJiy. 

y 1 ' a 







Digitized by 


Fl ■■ UL 

SymiolicaL Coirv^ of ^raJuMri . 




J-WX^Lidit^ UL 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 





IfUiabiting the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 

Collected or observed by Theodora Cantor, M. D., 
Bengal Medical Service. 

^ Localities printed in Italics signify those from whence the animals of the Cata- 
logue were obtained : localities in ordinary type those previously given by authors. 

[Continued from p. 203.] 
Gbn. — Herpbstbs, Illiger, 

Hb&pestbs JAVANICU8, Desmarest. 

Syn. — Ichneumon javanicus, Gteoffroy. 
Mangusta javanica, Horsfield. 
" Garangan," Horsfield. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 
The species is numerous. The largest male measured from the apex 
of the nose to the root of the tail one foot four and a half inches ; the tail 
one foot one and a half inch. 
No. 172. No. 88, New Sbbibs. 2 k 

Digitized by 


242 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

Hbbpbstbs aukopunctatus, Hodgson. 

Stn. — Mangusta auropunctata, Hodgson. 

Herpestea nepalensis, Gray. 

Herpestes Edwardsii, apud Ogilby (?) 

Herpestes javanica» Hodgson, apud Gray : List. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Bengal, Nipal, Scinde, Afghanistan. 
This species somewhat resembles H. javanicus, but the ground colour 
is lighter, and the lower surface uniformly pale yellowish- grey ; whereas 
in the former species it is similar to the back, or a shade paler. A sin- 
gle female observed, measured from the apex of the nose to the root of 
the tail one foot one inch ; the tail nine inches. 

Hbbpbstbs 6BI8BUS, Dcsmarcst. 

Stn. — Ichneumon griseus, GeofFroy. 

Mangouste de Malacca, F. Cuvier, \ 
Mangusta malaccensis, Fischer, / 
Mangusta grisea, Fischer, V Apud Schinz. 

Herpestes Edwardsii, Fischer, 1 
Mangusta Nyula, Hodgson, J 

Herpestes griseus, Nyool, apud Ogilby. 

Herpestes pallidus, Schinz. 

Forsan H. nipalensis, Gray, Var. apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Bengal, Hindoostan, Scinde, Nipal. 
The present differs from the other species not only by its grey colour, 
but by its broader head, particularly between the prominent eyes, and 
by its shorter, blunter nose, which places '^e eyes comparatively nearer 
to the muzzle. In a single female, measuring from the apex of the 
nose to the root of the tail one foot two and a half inches, the tail nine 
and a half inches ; the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . . . 3 feet H inch. 

Large ditto „ 5^ „ 

C»cum „ I 

By a contraction in the middle of the greater curvature, the stomach 
is distinctly separated into a cardiac and pyloric cavity. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 243 

Hbkpbstbs bbachtubus. Gray. 

Stn. — " Musang Tdroa" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

The largest male measured from the apex of the nose to the root of 
the tail one foot six and a half inches, the tail nine inches. It is distin- 
gaished from the other species, not only hy its colours and comparatively 
short tail, but by its larger size and much more robust make. 

Gbn. — Fblis; Linne. 
Fblis tigbis, linn^. 

Syn. — Hgris regalis, Gray : List. 

" Harfmau" or " Rimau" of the Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Lieut. Colonel James Low has communicated the following denomi- 
nations, by which the Malays of the Peninsula distinguish different varie- 
ties : 

" Rimau Sipai," reddish coated, striped. 

" Rimau Bdllu," darker coloured. 

*' Dautt Pinang," reddish coated, without stripes. 

" Tuppu Kassau," darkish, without stripes, but with longer hairs 
than the others. 

" Puntong Prun," very dark, striped. 

Fblis lbopabdus, Schreber. 

Syn. — Fells Pardus, Linn6, } 
Felis varia, Schreber, 
Felis Panthera, Erxleben, 

Felis chalybeata, Hermann, ^Apud Gray : List. 

Felis antiquorum, Fischer, 
Felis fusca, Meyer, 
Felis Nimr, Ehrenberg, 

Leopardus varius, Gray : List. 

Felis Leopardus, apud Schinz. 

" Rimau Bintang" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 


Digitized by 


244 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

Dakk Vak. 

Stn. — Felis melas, P^ron, apud Gray : List. 

*' Rimau Kdmbang/'* of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

The ground colour is a shining beetle-brown, mixed with white 
hairs, not however sufficiently to impart a grey appearance. The black 
spots become distinctly visible in certain lights only. The skin of a 
male killed at Malacca, measured from the nose to the root of the tail 
four feet four and a half inches, the tail two feet ten and a half inches. 

The Leopards of the Malayan Peninsula appear to attain to a larger 
size, and to be more ferocious than is generally the case in India. In- 
stances of their having killed and carried off Malays are on record. 

Fblis mabmorata, Martin. 

Syn. — Felis Diardii, Fischer, apud Schinz. 

Felis Diardii, apud Jardine. Tab. 21 and 22. 

Leopardus marmoratus. Gray : List. 

*' Rimau dahan" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

The ground colour varies from rusty-grey, or fulvous to grey, and the 
black markings are scarcely quite alike in any two individuals, nor is the 
extremity of the tail constantly black. The adult exceeds the size given 
in the original description; a female measured from the apex of the 
nose to the root of the tail two feet half an inch ; the tail one foot nine 
inches. The species is numerous. 

Fblis javanbnsis, Desmarest. 

Stn. — Felis javanensis, Desmarest, apud Horsfield. 
" Kuwuk," Horsfield. 
Felis minuta, Temminck, "j 
Felis servalin, Temminck, I ^ j o i.- 
Felis sumatrana, Horsfield, (^^''^ ^^^'"'^• 
Felis undata, Desmarest, J 

* ** Ktimbang" signifiei a beetle ; applied par excellence to a ipeciet olOryctet, 
resembling Scarabeus nasicomis, Linn6, which is ?ery de8tructi?e to cocoanut planta- 
tions. " Rfmau Kdmbang," Raffles, is by Schinz referred to FeUt Pardus, Temmiack, 
Var, nigra, Muller; Felis melas, F. Cuvier, the habitat of which is saidtobe Jtfa 
and Sumatra. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 245 

Felifi Diardii, Griffith, \ . , ^ t . . 

. J . • . > Apud Gray : List. 

Leopaidus javanensis, J ^ ^ 

" Rimau dkar" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Hab. — Pinang, Malayan PeniMula. 

Java, Sumatra ? 

The ground colour in the Malayan individuals varies from pure grey 

to greyish brown or ferruginous. The largest adult male measured 

from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot eleven and a 

half inches, the tail ten inches ; another of equal dimensions of the body 

had the tail eight inches in length. The intestinal canal was of the 

following dimensions : 

SmaU Intestines, .. .. .. 3 feet 8 inches. 

Large, .. 9^ „ 

Caecum, .. .. .. .. „ 1|^ „ 

In the scansorial habits of this very numerous species originates its 

local denomination " &kar," signifying a climber as well as a root. 

FxLis PLANiCBPS, Vigors and Horsfield. 
Stmt. — Chaus (?) planiceps. Gray : List. 

" Kdching-titan," or " j&lang" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
UnB.'^Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The Malayan individuals of this apparently not numerous species 
di£Fer from the Sumatran, originally described, in having the whitish 
throat, chest and abdomen, and the inner side of the limbs undulated 
with brown, transversal, interrupted bands. In none of the Malayan 
wild cats is the length of the tail more variable. In a male, measuring 
from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail two feet one and a half 
inch, the tail, consisting of twelve gradually diminishing caudal vertebrae, 
measured five and a half inches ; in another, one foot ten and three- 
fourth inch in length from the nose to the root of the tail, the latter 
organ measured two inches, consisting of four slightly decreasing verte- 
brae, the last one of which was broad, flattened, and rouhded at the poste- 
rior extremity. It is of most ferocious habits, and untameable. In the 
smaller individual the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions ; 

Small Intestines, . . . . 3 feet 6i inches. 

Large, „ 5J 

Caecum, „ 0| 

Digitized by 


246 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 


" Kdching" of the Malays. 
The Malays, like most Muhamedans, are as partial to cats as they are 
the reverse to dogs. As observed by Sir S. Raffles, some of the Ma- 
layan, like the Madagascar domesticated cats, have a short twisted or 
knobbed tail, others are tailless. Among those of an uniform colour, a 
light ashy and a bluish (or slaty>grey) variety, with single longer black 
hairs on the back and tail, are conspicuous. They frequently relapse 
from a state of domestication, resort to the jungle, and shun the pre- 
sence of man. 



Gen. — SciuRus, Linn^. 

SciUKUs BicoLOR, Spamnaun. 
Stn. — Das javanische Eichhorn, Schreb.* apud Horsf. 

Sciurus giganteus, McClelland MSS. 1 Apud Horsfield, Proc. 
Sciurus bicolor, Sparrmann, / Zool. Soc. 

Sciurus madagascariensis, 1 . , ^ . . ^ 

Sciurus macruroides, Hodgson. / ^P^^ ^'^y • ^»^- 

" Chingkr^wah ^tam" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Siam, Tenasserim, Assam. Nipal. 
The original diagnosis will prevent misunders'tanding as to the species 
under consideration. "Sciurus supra niger, infra fiilvus, auriculis 
acutis imberbibtts, palmarum ungue pollicari magno rotundato." (Sparr* 
mann, apud Horsfield.) The colour of the head, back, tail, outside of 
the extremities, and the feet, is intense shining black, the single hairs 
being bhu;kish-grey at the root, those of the tail blackish-brown at the 
root. In some individuals the black hairs generally, in others those of 
the tail, or some part of the back only, have a broad subterminal band 
of bright cinnamon, or Indian red, which imparts a reddish tint to the 
general black colour. The mostachios, whiskers and the superciliary 
bristles are black ; those of the throat and forearm are black in some, 

* Sciurus Javensis^ Schreber, and bicohr^ Sparmann. apud Gray : List, is Sciatriu 
LescAenaultii, Desmar. apud Honfield. Syn. S. hypoleucut, Honfieid. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 247 

ferruginous, or with the apex of that colour, in others. The under* parts 
vary from a deep golden fulvous to isabella colour. Whatever be the 
prevailing shade, it is always most distinct on the lateral line, which, 
commencing from the cheeks, passes along the sides of the body. The 
fur of the lower parts of the body, and of the inside of the extremities, 
is much shorter, softer, and less dense, than that of the back. The sin- 
gle hairs are greyish, or blackish at the root, with the apex of the shade 
of yellow prevailing in the individual. Single long bristles» either uni- 
formly, or partially black, or fulvous, appear on the chest and abdomen. 
The species, under the present garb, is very numerous in the Malayan 
forests and hills. 

Vab. P^ Horsfield. 

" Sciurus supra fuscus, varians a fusco-nigricante ad sordide fulvum, 
pilis velleris fulvis et canescentibus intermixes, subtus fulvus vel pallide 
flavescens." — Horsfield. 
Stn. — Sciurus auriventer. Is. Geoff, apud Schinz. 

Sciurus aurei venter. Is. Oeoff. apud Gray : List. 
" Chingkrawah" or '* Chingkrdwah puteh" of the Malays of the 

Single individuals, resembling the Javanese one figured in ' Zoological 
Researches in Java,' occur at Pinang, but there, as in Java, tawny of 
different shades, with a greyish cast, is more frequent. In some the 
head is of a darker colour, in others large spots of dark appear on the 
back, or the tail is above barred with dark. The upper part of the nose, 
a ring encircling the eyes, and the ears appear 'in all individuals to be 
of a darker brownish colour, and all have a more or less distinct large 
white spot on the anterior and upper part of the thigh. The back of 
the feet is either dark brown or fulvous. The palms, soles, mammae 
and genital organs, are black in all. The single hairs of the back are 
greyish-brown at the root, darker than the apex, which imparts the 
general colour to the back. With the hairs of the tail the reverse is 
the case, the basal half being isabella or white ; the apical darker. On 
the lower surface of the distichous tail, the roots of ^the hairs form a 
white line on either side of the vertebrae, which are covered with short, 
dark-brownish, or fulvous hairs. The under- parts of the body are of 
the same colours as those of the black-coated animal, but their roots 
are yellowish-white. The mustachios, whiskers, and other bristles, are 

Digitized by 


248 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting ' [No. 172. 

in all of a blackish-brown ; but the single bristles of the abdomen are 
sometimes fulvoas. 

The black-coated individuals stand in a similar relation to the light- 
coloured varieties, as that in which the black-coloured Hylobates Lar 
stands to the light-coloured. Such differences of colour» wide no doubt, 
are of no uncommon occurrence among the Malayan Mammalia, and 
ought to be well considered by Zoologists, who have not the oppor- 
tunity of studying the living animals. 

This, as well as the rest of the Malayan squirrels, is capable of being 
tamed to a certain extent, and evinces attachment to those who feed 
them, but the appearance of a strange person, animal, or even an unu- 
sual sound, startles them, and recalls their natural shyness. The largest 
of a great number, measured from the apex of the nose to the root 
of the tail one foot six inches ; the tail one foot nine and a half inches. 
The intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . ^ . . . 9 feet 6 inches. 

Large ditto, 4 „ 9 ,. 

Csecum, .; I „ 2 „ 

SciuBUs Kafflbsii, Vigors and Horsfield. 
Syn. — Sciurus rufogularis, Gray. 

Sciurus rufoniger. Gray. 

Sciurus Prevostii, Desmar. apud Schinz. 

*' Tiipai baling** of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Borneo, China* (Canton.) 

* China is the habitat assigned to Sciurus rufogularis^ Gray. Without doubting the 
anthenticity, it is perhaps as well to observe, that skins of the more showy animals and 
birds of India, Malacca, and the Indian Archipelago, are (^ered for sal« as indige- 
nous productions in the shops of Canton and Macao. Skins of Halcyon Smymensit 
for instance, and other birds from different parts of India, are bought up by the 
Chinese merchants of our colonies in the Straits of Malacca, who annually, on Chinese 
Junks, ship quantities of considerable value to China, wher« tbey are manufactured 
into fans and artificial flowers. In a list of birds, contained in a collection of 
T3hinese productions, exhibited in London in 1842, Mr. H. E. Strickland observes 
in his communication to the Zoological Society, that some of them appear to 
have been imported from Malacca. Skins and other parts of a host of animals, from 
the most distant parts of Asia, form items in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. On my visits 
to Chinese Dispensaries in China and in our Malayan Colonies, 1 have been shewn 
horns of rhinoceroses and deer, tusks of the Duyong, beadi of Buceri, tortoise-shells, 
and well preserved skins of Trigonocephalus Blomhoffii, from Japan ; Ammonites and 
other fossils, cum multis aliis^ all supposed to possess specific virtues, and accordingly 
prescribed by Chinese Medical practitioners. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 249 

This species, numerous in the Malayan countries, occurs with the 
following individual variations of colour — 

Cheeks and throat iron-grey, shoulders uniformly, or mixed with red. 
(Sciurus ru/ogularis. Gray. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, p. 263.) 

The cheeks are sometimes dark-brown, or ferruginous. 

In some the white lateral line commences from the side of the nose, 
passing over the cheeks, the side of the neck, and over the shoulder. 
The lateral line is either pure white, more or less distinct, or mixed 
with single longer hairs with black apex. 

Some have a short black line immediately below the white ; in others 
there is above the latter a grizzled line, sometimes continued over the 
outside of the thigh. The tail is seldom uniformly black, frequently 
partially black, reddish or grizzled, owing to the apex of the hairs being 
white. The tuft is frequently reddish or rust-coloured. 

The feet are sometimes white or pale ferruginous. 

The Museum of the Asiatic Society possesses a specimen from Java, 
differing from Sciurus ru/oniger. Gray, in having the tail grizzled instead 
of black. Sciurus redimittis. Van der Boon, is probably another variety 
of S. Rafflesii. 

A young male, about a fortnight in confinement, after having finished 
his usual meal of cocoanut, seized and devoured an lora typhia, which 
had just been shot, and happened to be placed within reach. Sparrows 
and other smaller birds were subsequently eaten, and apparently relished. 

The largest male measured from the apex of the nose to the root of 
the tail eleven and a half inches ; the tail one foot two inches. 

SciuKUS HiFFuaus, Is. Geoflroy. 

Syn. — Sciurus erythrssus, Pallas (?) "| 

Sciurus caudatus, McClelland ? >Apud Gray : List. 
Sciurus anomalus, Kuhl. J 

Sciurus rufogaster. Gray. 
Sciurus castaneoventris. Gray. 

" Tdpai Jinjang," " Ummu," or ** Jau" of the Malays of the 
Has. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Assam, China (Canton). 


Digitized by 


250 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

The ground colour of the Malayan individuals differs but slightly, 
accordmg to the more red or yellow rust colour of the bands of the hairs. 
The anterior part of the tail above is of the same colour as the back, 
the rest is either uniformly black, reddish, or with transverse bands, or 
has the tuft of that colour. The colour of the ears is brownish in 
some, but generally of the leaden grey, grizzled colour of the head, cheeks, 
chin and outside of the limbs. The feet are black or slightly grizzled. 

The largest individuals of this numerous species measure from the 
apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot ; the tail one foot and 
half inch. i 

SciuRus viTTATUs, Rafflcs. 
Stn.— T6pai. Raffles. 

Sciurus bivittatus. Raffles, Desmar. 1 ^ ^ u i: i ^ 
EcureuU Toupai, F. Cuvier, / ^P'*^ Horsfield. 

Macroxus Toupai, Lesson, apud Gray : List. 

Sciurus flavimanus. Is. Geoffroy, apud Schinz. 

" Tdpai" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Borneo, Canton. 
This is the most numerous species in the Straits of Malacca, the larg- 
est individuals measuring from the apex of the nose to the root of the 
tail eleven inches ; the tail eleven inches. 

SciuBus NiGBoviTTATus, Horsfield. 

Syn. — Sciurus griseiventer. Is. Geoffroy, apud Schinz. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Canton. 
Not numerous ; the largest individual observed, a female, measured 
from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail nine inches ; the tail 
eight and half inches. 

SciUBUs TBNuis, Horsficld. 
Stn. — Sciurus modestus, S. Miiller ? 
Hab. — Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Canton. 
Of two individuals observed, the larger, a male, measured from the 
apex of the nose to the root of the tail six inches ; the tail seven inches. 

Digitized by 

Google , 

1846 ] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 251 

SciuBUs LATiCAUDATUs, Diard, Var. 

Stn. — Sciunis laticaudatus, Diard, apud S. MuUer ?* 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

The present squirrel differs from the diagnosis of Sdurus laticaudatus 
from the west coast of Borneo, (communicated in Natuur en Genees- 
kundig Ar chief, ^c. II Jaarg, I Aflev. p. 87,) in having neither the first 
nor the fifth molar of the upper jaw very large. Both are of nearly 
equal size, and much smaller than the rest. The following is a descrip- 
tion of the Malayan animal. 

The shape of the head is depressed, elongated, conical, gradually 
attenuated towards the laterally compressed nose. The whole outline, 
the slender form, and general colours, render the animal strikingly simi- 
lar to Tupaia ferruginea. The eyes are large, hrilliant, dark ; the ears 
large, oval, with smooth short hairs; the mouth is small, the upper 
incisors are very minute, the lower slender, flattened, and almost 
straight ; the black mustachios, whiskers, superciliary and gular bristles, 
and the few white ones of the forearm, are all shorter than the head ; 
the muzzle hairy, leaving the margins of the small, and at the apex 
laterally pierced nostrils, naked. The limbs and feet slender ; the 
nailless tubercle of the thumb rudimentary, barely perceptible in the 
living animal. The claws are small, sharp, compressed, whitish. 

The colour of the head, back, outside of the limbs and feet, is a rich 
rusty- red, mixed with shining black, particularly on the occiput, the 
back and the feet, less on the sides, where the ferruginous prevails ; 
the throat, chest, abdomen and inner side of the limbs, whitish ; in some 
individuals pale- yellowish. The fur is soft and delicate. The separate 
hairs are leaden-grey at the base, shining black, or with a broad subter- 
minal ferruginous band. The tail is shorter than the body, distichous, 
broadest in the middle, attenuated at the root, terminating in a 
thin tuft. It may be compared to a feather, black on each side 
of the quill, successively ferruginous, again black, margined with buff. 

* In the lAtt qf Mammalia in the British Museum occurs a genus : Rhinosdurus, 
Gray, and a species 12. tupaiddes. Gray, Syn. Sciurus laticaudatus, Muller?? Generic 
or specific characters being neither given nor referred to, it is impossible in India to 
decide whether the specimen in the British Museum thus labelled, is identical with 
the animal here characterised. 

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252 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

Such is the succession of the bands on the separate hairs. This organ 
is less full and ornamental than in the generality of squirrels. The 
species is apparently not numerous ; the largest out of five examined, a 
female, was of the following dimensions — 
Length from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, 10 - inch. 

„ of the tail, • . . . . . . . . 6 1 „ 

„ of the head, . . . . . . . . . . 2 f ,, 

„ from the apex of the nose to the anterior angle 

of the eye. . . . . . . . . . . 1 - „ 

„ from the posterior angle of the eye to the ear. . -f ., 

Breadth above the apex of the nose. . . . . . . ^ 

.. between the anterior angles of the eyes. . . -^ .. 

,. between the ears, . . . . . . . . ^ „ 


Diameter of the head at vertex.. . . . . . . . 1 

Its habits in confinement presented nothing remarkable. 
Gbn. — Ptbromts, Cuvier. 
Ptbbomts nitidus, Geoffroy. 
Syn. — Sciurus petaurista, Lin. apud Cuvier ? 

Sciurus petaurista. Chin Krawa, Raffles ? 
Pteromys albiventer. Gray lUustr. 

•' Tdpai T^rbang" or *• Kdbin" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, 
Java. Sumatra, Borneo. 
The part of the head anterior to the ears, the cheeks, the chest, and 
the abdomen, are white in some individuals of either sex. one of which 
is figured in Hardwicke's Illustrations of Indian Zoology, under the de- 
nomination of Pteromys albiventer. Gray. 

The black, or dark- brown eyelids, nose, chin, feet and tip of the tail, 
appear to be constant characters. The shade, and intensity of the red 
colour is liable to considerable variations.* In the very young, there is 
a short black stripe behind the ears ; and the posterior part of the back 
and anterior half of the tail are shining black, from each separate hair 
having the apex of that colour. Traces of these characters occur in 
some adult individuals. This species is very numerous in the Malayan 
countries. It is not strictly nocturnal, for it is frequently seen abroad 

* la an individual from Malacca, the back was very dark Indian-red. with a few 
dashes of pure white. The identity of the species is. however, doubtful. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 253 

during the day. It is particalarly fond of the Durian, the fruit of 
Durio Zibet hinus, Linn6. The flying squirrel has this partiality, in 
common with various other animals, as monkeys, Pteropi and Para- 
doxuri; nay, the Malays assert, that they have to watch this, their 
favourite fruit, against tigers. 

In a female, measuring from the extremity of the nose to the root of 
the tail, one foot six and half inches ; the tail one foot nine inches : the 
intestinal canal was of the following dimensions — 

Small Intestines, . . . • 7 feet 4^ inches. 

Large, 5 „ 2 „ 

Caecum,.. .. .. .. .. 2 „ 4 „ 

SciuBOPTBRUs, Fred. Cuvier. 

SciUROFTBRus HoBSFiBLnii, Waterhousc, 
Syn. — Pteromys aurantiacus, Wagner, apud Gray : List. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 
Java ? Sumatra ? 
A single skin, brought from K^ddah, measured from the apex of the 
nose to the root of the tail eight and three- eighth inches ; the tail eleven 


Syn. — Pteromys genibarbis, Horsfield. 

" Kechubu" Horsfield. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Of two, the larger, a male, measured from the apex of the nose to the 
root of the tail seven and half inches ; the tail seven inches. 


Gbn. — Mus, Linn^. 
Mus BAKDicoTA, Bccbstein. 

Syk.— Mus giganteus, Hardwicke, 
Mus malabaricus, Shaw, 

Mus perchal. Shaw, ^Apud Gray : List. 

Mus Icria, Buchan. Ham. MS. I 
Mus nemorivagus, Hodgson, j 

Tikus bes&r of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab.— Pfjiflny, Malayan Peninsula. 

Southern Mahratta Country, Bengal, Nipal. 


Digitized by 


254 Catalogue of Mammalia inkabiting [No. 172. 

Mu8 DBOUMANUS, Pallas. 

Syn. — Mus javanus, Pallas, apud Schinz. 

Mus norvegicus, Brisson, apad Qray : List. 

*' Tikus" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang. 


Mus ssTiFBB, Horsfield. 
Syn. — • Tikus virok/ Horsfield. 

Mus giganteus, Temminck, apud Gray. 
Hab. — Pinang. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Van Diemen's Land. 
The larger of two individuals, captured in gardens, measured head 
and body, ten and one-eighth inches ; the tail seven and four-eighth 


Syn. — Mus flavescens, Elliot, \ . , ^ • • * 

Musrufus. Elliot. | Apud Gray : Lut. 

Hab. — Pinang, 

Dharwar, Madras, Bengal, Arracan. 

In the young, the brown bristles are fewer, and leave the lead- coloured 
under- fur more apparent. The colour of the abdomen is paler yellowish- 
grey than in the adult. The species is numerous at Pinang in out- 
houses. In the largest observed, the head and body measured seven 
and six-eighth inches; the tail (mutilated,) four and two-eighth inches. 

Mus MuscuLus, Linn6 ? 
Syn.—" Tikus rdma" of the Malays. 
Hab. — Pinang, 

In colours, this slightly differs from the European mouse, the upper 
parts being a mixture of shining grey and tawny. The separate bain 
are leaden- grey at the base, then tawny with black apex ; some are 
longer and uniformly dark-brown. Beneath pale- ash. The ears are 
large, more than one-half of the length of the head, with very short 
hairs, rounded, blackish. Toes, palms and soles, whitish. Tail slender, 
dark-grey, with very short appressed brown hairs. Length of the head 
and body, two and five-eighth inches : tail two and four-eighth inches. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 255 

Gbn. — Rbizomts, Gray. 

Rhizomts sumatbbnsis^ Gray. 

Stn. — Mus sumatrensis, Raffles. 
•• Dekan," Raffles. 
Hypudeus de Sumatra, Temm. ' 


Nyctocleptes Dekan, Temm. ^ A pud Gray: List. 
Spalax javanus, Cuvier» 

Rhizomys chinensis. Gray, apud Schinz. 

Rhizomys cinereus, McClelland.* 

Rhizomys Decan, Schinz. 

" Tikus bdlow" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

China, Moulmein, Assam. 
Although the animal was first described in Sir Stamford Raffles* 
catalogue of collections, made in Sumatra, the author distinctly states 
that it was forwarded from Malacca by Major Farquhar ; nor does it 
appear to inhabit Sumatra, although the specific name would lead one 
to suppose that such is the case. The colour of the adult is liable to 
individual variations, from grey of different shades to isabella or silvery- 
buff. The separate hairs are mostly of the colour prevailing in the 
individual, mixed with single dark-brown hairs with whitish apex, parti- 
cularly on the vertex, continuing along the centre part of the back. On 
the nose, anterior part of the head, and on the cheeks, the hairs are of 
a pale rust colour. On the vertex some white hairs form either a spot 
or a short line of that colour. The scanty hairs of the abdomen are all 
of a pale-greyish or isabella colour. The mustachios, whiskers, superci- 
liar and gular bristles, are either of a pale-brown or buff colour. The 
young are above of a dark-grey, with a brown streak on the vertex and 

* The description of this supposed species f Calcutta Journal qf Nat. Hist. Vol. II. 
J)'4S^, PL XIV.) states, ** There are four toes to each fore-foot, and five to each 
hind-foot." The draughtsman of PI. XIV, ** Rhizomys cinereus,** has, at all events, 
observed, that all the feet are five-toed, however incorrectly he has represented the 
animal. Another error occurs in the description, viz : ** Sir Stamford Raffles describes 
a species of Bamboo Rat found in Sumatra by Colonel Farquhar," &c. Sir S. Raffles* 
words are these : ** Mos Suuatrbnsis. A drawing and specimen of an animal, which 
appears related to the Mus Pilorides, was forwarded from Malacca" (not Sumatra, 
as erroneously asserted) *< by Major Farquhar, to the Asiatic Society at the same time 
with the Binturong. I am informed by him that it is not uncommon at Malacca, 
and is perhaps to be found in most parts of the Malay Peninsula," &c. Transact 
Unn. Society, Vol. XIII. Part II 

Digitized by 


256 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

back ; beneath pale-grey. The forehead, nose, temples, and cheeb, 
are ferruginous. The adult, like some squirrels and rats, is subject to 
enlargement of the scrotum. In confinement, it is very savage, scarcely 
tameable. The length of the tail varies from about one-third to little more 
than one-fourth of the length of the body. It is blackish, or brownish ; 
the apex whitish. The largest male examined, measured from the apex 
of the nose to the root of the tail one foot seven and a half inches ; the 
tail five and a half inches. The female, in size and colours equalling 
the male, has ten mammae, viz. two axillary, and three inguinal pairs. 

Gen.— Hystbix, Cuvier. 

Hystkix lokgicauda, Marsden. 

Stn. — Acanthion javanicum, Fred. Cuvier ? 
Hystrix brevispinosus. Schinz.* 
*' Bdbi L^dak" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 
Sir Stamford Raffles has pointed out the inaccuracy of Marsden's 
figure, representing the fore-feet with five toes, instead of with four, and a 
rudimentary thumb with a flat nail. The figure also has a few mane-like 
long bristles on the head, whereas the mustachios are situated on the 
side of the nose, the whiskers below the ear, and one or two bristles 
above the eye. In colours, this species resembles Hystrix leucurut, 
Sykes, from which it differs in the absence of the long mane- like bristles 
of the head and neck. Although single, scattered, thin, flexible spines, 
upwards of twelve inches in length, occur on the posterior part of the 
back, the majority of inflexible spines are much shorter than in Hystrix 
leucurus or H, cristatus, and are either pure white, or with a blackish 
band in the medial portion. The short, blackish, slightly iridescent 
spines of the neck, anterior part of the back, the limbs, and abdomen, are 
generally grooved on the upper surface. The short white pedunculated 
tubes of the posterior part of the tail are at first closed, terminating in 
a short spine, which latter wears off, leaving the tubes open. The pubes 

* In *' Nachtrdge zum *lUn, Bande" this species is supposed to be identical with, 
and substituted for Atherura fasciculata^ although a very correct description is giren 
of both. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, ^57 

are disposed in a wreath of stiff bristles, frequently of a deep rust 
colour. The epidermis of this species, as well as of Atherura is 
remarkably thin and liable to be torn. Beneath the skin appears a 
fatty tissue, upwards of an inch in thickness. The anterior molars are 
slightly larger than the rest. Viewed from above, tit situ, the crown of 
the anterior lower molar of either side presents the form of two letters 
S, facing each other (S8). In a foetus, — of which the head measures 
two and one-eighth inches, the body four and three-eighth inches, the 
tail one inch in length, — ^the whole of the body, and the anterior half of 
the tail have numerous short hairs, disposed on separate transverse lines 
of six to eight distant black hairs, becoming longer on the posterior 
part of the back and sides. The posterior part of the tail has longer 
and closer hairs. In a female, measuring from the apex of the nose to 
the root of the tail two feet five inches, the tail four inches ; the intes- 
tinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, 21 feet 6 inches. 

Large ditto, 5 j, 10 „ 

Caecum, 1 „ 7 „ 

The stomach is of a heart-shaped outline, with thin membranes 
externally smooth, internally with a few longitudinal rugae near the 
narrow fundus. 

The species is numerous, and, as it is considered a delicacy by the 
Chinese population, is frequently brought to market. 

Gbn. — Athbbuba, Cuvier. 

Athebuba fasciculata, Cuvier. 

S^.— Hystrix fasciculata, Lin., apud Cuvier.* 
Hystrix orientalis, Brisson, apud Gmelin. 
Hystrix macroura, Linn6. 
Pore- epic de Malacca, Buffon. 
Hystrix fasciculata, Shaw, apud Raffles. 
Mus fasciculatus, Desmarest. 
Hjriitrix fasciculata, Linn6, apud Gray : Illust.f 

* No species of that name occurs in Systema NaUinSy Ed. XIII. Gmelin, 1788, 
but Hystrix macroura is described <*cauda longitudine corporis" (??) *' apice fasciculo 
pilorum** &c. 

t In the figure, the anterior foot has one toe too many, the animal having four toes 
and a rudimentary flat-nailed thumb. Nor is the back of the hind foot naked, unless 
indeed become so by accident. 

2 M 

Digitized by 


258 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

Acantbion jayanicum, F. Cut. 

Atherurus lasciculatos, Schinz. 

AtheruruB macrouros, Scbinz. 

" L^dak" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Has. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula. 

Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 
The nose, lips, forehead, and bade of the feet, are covered with 
greyish-brown hairs. The body and limbs at the root of the spine, are 
covered with dense soft silky hairs, grey on the upper parts, and silvery 
on the abdomen. Single longer flexible spines, white with a dark 
central band, are scattered over the back. Hie anterior part of the tail 
is, like the back, covered with fUit- grooved spines, white at the root, 
then slightly iridescent brown* and frequently with white apex. The 
centre part of the tail is scaly, with very short spines between the scales. 
The posterior part is white ; with white or silvery, flexible, and in length 
gradually increasing, spines, which Buffon has aptly compared to nar- 
row slips of irregularly cut parchment. The pubes are of a deep rust 

This species is very numerous in the Malayan valleys and hills. ^. In 
fretful habits, and in its food, it resembles the preceding porcupine, 
like which, it is carried to the market at Pinang and Malacca, where as 
many as twenty to thirty may frequently be seen. In a male, measur- 
ing from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot ten inches, 
the tail ten inches ; the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines. . . 19 feet 4^ inches. 

Large. 5 „ 3 „ j 

Caecum, 1 „ 3 „ 

The stomach is of a general outline, resembling that of H. longieaudat 
but it diflers in having an external deep vertical sulcus, dividing the 
stomach into a pyloric and a cardiac portion, which latter presents 6 to 7 
deep oblique sulci. The membranes of the stomach are thick and mos- 
eular. Internally the cardiac portion is transversally divided by six or seven 
ridges, corresponding to the external sulci, intersected by numerous con- 
centric rugse. The pyloric portion, separated from the cardiac by the 
rugae produced by the external vertical sulcus, is much smoother, and 
has but few rugae. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Mi^an Peninsula and Islands. 259 


Gek. — Manis, Linn^. 
Mahis jayanica, Deemarest. 

Stn. — Mftnis pentadactyla, Lin.» &pad Raffles. 
Mahifi aspera, Sundeval. 
M. qttinqaedaetyla. Raffles, apad Gray : List. 
** Ptengdling" or " Tangiling" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Malayan Peninsula, 
Java, Sumatra, Borneo. 
The series of dorsal scales vary in individuals from 16 to 19. The 
number of central dorsal vary from 20 to 22 ; the central and the mar- 
ginal caudal from 26 to 29 : in the young all the scales are finely linea- 
ted and the rounded apex only is smooth. With age the lines become 
obfiterated on the exposed surface of the scales, between which appear a 
few long whitish bristles. The very young animal corresponds to the 
description of Manis aspera, Sundeval. The eyelids, the margins of 
the ears, and the scaleless parts, except the palms and soles, are scantily 
prorided witih short whitish habs. The two pectoral mammse are 
situated at a short distance from the axilla. Its habits present nothing 
difierent from those of Manis crassicaudata (M, pentadactyla , Linn6), 
of which an interesting account is communicated by Lieut. R. S. Tickell 
in Journal Asiatic Society, Vol. XI. 1842. p. 221. 

The present species, although nun[ierous in rocky situations, is not 
often captured, as it is seldom abroad till after sunset. The largest male 
measured from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail one foot nine 
and a half inches ; the tail one foot eight inches. In a younger mEile, 
the entire length of which was one foot eleven inches ; the intestinal 
canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . 8 feet 4 inches. 

Large ditto, „ 6 „ 

Caecum is rudimentary, indicated by a slight, yet distinct widening of 
the intestines. The stomacb is capacious, the pyloric region thickened 
and gizzard-like. On the external surface, where the greater curvature 
begins to ascend, is situated a small (one inch in length, one and three- 
eighth in breadth) triangular, externally gyrated, glandular body, firmly 
attached to the stomach, but not communicating with the cavity. Its 

Digitized by 

y Google 

260 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

external appearance might be compared to that of a crest of ostrich fea- 
thers. The narrowed apex, towards the pylorus, is provided with 
a small, thick, rounded and wrinkled opening, surrounded by concentric 
fibres, leading by a common, short, cylindrical duct to the broader cavi- 
ty, which latter is divided by two longitudinal parietes into three sepa- 
rate portions. If a tube is introduced into the common duct, the 
air injected will simultaneously fill all three portions of the cavity, bat 
if the tube is inserted into any one of the three separate portions, the 
air will fill that particular portion, leaving the two others collapsed. 
The interior surface of this organ secretes a whitish mucus. Adjoining 
the common opening, from ten to eleven small rounded glands com- 
mence, arranged on a line towards the pylorus. Each gland has, in its 
centre, a minute wrinkled opening, leading into a small cavity secret- 
ing mucus. 

The stomach was extended by the remains (heads and legs,) of a pro- 
digious quantity of large black ants, inhabiting the hills. The contents 
of the stomach were involved in mucus, deeply tinctured with bile, and 
among them appeared five small rounded fragments of granite. Another 
individual expired after 10 days confinement, during which period it took 
no food, although it was repeatedly placed among swarms of the black 
and red ants, so excessively numerous in the valley of Pinang. Water it 
always took when oflfered,. lapping it up with the tongue in the same 
manner that serpents drink. 

Costae verse 8 pairs ; spuriae 7 pairs =15 pairs. The ensiform process 
of the OS sternum is greatly elongated, terminating in a broad, rounded, 
thin cartilaginous plate. 



Gbn. — Elbfhas, Linne, 

Elephas indicus, Linn6. 

Syn.— " G6jah" of the Malays. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

India, Burma, Siam, Ceylon, Sumatra, Borneo. 

Digitized by 


200 ., 
220 .. 
400 ,. 
420 „ 
an advance on the last 

1846.] tke Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 261 

Elephants are very numerous on the Malayan Peninsula. They may 
be procured at the following, rates : — 

" For an elephant 4 feet 6 inches high, .. 120 Dollars. 

Ditto, 5 „ 3 „ 

Ditto, 6 „ 

Ditto, 6 „ 9 „ 

Ditto, 7 „ 6 
Those exceeding this height are paid for at 
mentioned rate of 20 dollars for one foot six inches. If ahove eight 
feet and three inches, then an addition of 40 doUarHor each one foot six 
m\itiS is charged. Elephants ten feet six inches in height are taken hy 
the Siamese to the Capital, and it is not permitted to sell them. The 
Keddah chiefs used formerly to breed elephants, a speculation rarely, 
if ever, attempted elsewhere. Coromandel Native Traders were, until late 
years, constantly in the habit of loading vessels with elephants for that 
Coast." (Extract from Lieut. Colonel James Low's ** Dissertation" *c.) 


Gen. — Sus, LinnS, 
Sus iNDicus, Schinz. 
Syn.— Sus Scrofa, Linn^, apud Elliot. 

Sus indicus, f Ap^j Qrav List 

Sus Scropha, Hodgson, ^ ^ ^' 

Sus vittatns, Schlegel. 

Sus cristatus, Wagner, apud Schinz. 

" B&bi titan" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, Singapore, Lancavy Islands, 

Bengal, Nipal, Southern Mahratta Country. 
The difference between the Indian and the German wild hog (^us 
Scrofa ferus, Lin.) have been pointed out by W. Elliot, Esq. ("Madras 
Journal, Vol. X. 1839, p. 219.) The colour of the adult is brown- 
ish-black, scantily covered with black hairs, of which few retain 
^e infantile yellowish sub-terminal band. Besides the black recum- 
bent mane of the occiput and back, the whiskers and bristles above 
^d below the eye, there is a bundle of long black bristles on the 
^oat. The hairs of the throat and chest are reversed. The tail is 
scantily covered with short hairs, the apex compressed, with long 

Digitized by 


262 Caialegue of Mammalia mhabiting [No. 172. 

lateral bristles, like those of the elephant, arranged like the wings of an 
arrow. The young is more hairy, with the plurality of hairs tawny or 
fulvous, some with black root and apex, which, as they are more or less 
mixed with black hairs, .produce on the sides of the body saturated 
fulvous stripes. The hairs of the throat, chest, abdomen, and elbows, 
(in the two latter places very long,) are black at the basal, and white at 
the apical half. Wild hogs are exceedingly numerous on the Peninsula, 
and most of the Malayan Islands. The largest boar examined measur- 
ed from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, five feet ; the tail 
one foot. The stomach of a young boar, examined shortly after it had 
been speared, was extended with food, principally consisting of the re- 
mains of a very large coleopterous larva, some small seeds of difierent 
kinds> leaves, grass and roots. 

Sirs ScBOFA, Vae. siksnsis, liinn^. 

Syn.— " Babi" of the Malays. 

Introduced by the Chinese settlers. 

Gbn. — RHiNOCBRoa, Linne. 

Rhinoceros unicornis, Linn^. 

Syn. —-Rhinoceros indicus, Cuvier. 

Rhinoceros asiaticus, Blumenbach. 

Rhinoceros inermis, lesson. 

" B^dak" of the Mahiys of the Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Bengal, Assam, Nipal. 

Rhinocbros sondaicus, Cuvier. 

Syn. — Rhinoceros sondaicus, Cuvier, \ a a u^ 4i^^A 
" W^ak," - Bddak/' f ^P'^^ Horsfield. 

Rhinoceros javanensis, F. Cuvier, apud Schinz. , 
HAB.-^MalayMn Peninsula. 

This, as well as the former species, appears to be numerous on the 
Malayan Peninsula. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Muiafan Pemnwla and Islands. 263 

A two-homed Rhinoceros is stated by the Malays to inhabit, but rare- 
ly to leave, the densest jangle. The Museum of the Asiatic Society 
possesses a skull, and also a head with the skin on, of Rhinoceros 
Simatranus, Raffles, from the Tenasserim Provinces, in which locality 
the existence of the species has been recorded by Dr. Heifer and 
Mr. Biyth. This fact would seem to corroborate the statement of 
the Malays, and the habitat of Rhinoceros Sumatranus may reasonably 
be expected to be hereafter found to extend over the neighbouring Malayan 
Peninsula. As such, it has indeed been enumerated by Capt. Begbie, 
the author of " Malayan Peninsula" 4c., Madras, 1834. In lieut. 
Gol. Low's History of Tenasserim (Journal Royal Asiatic Society* vol. 3. 
1 1836J is figured the head of a young Rhinoceros, which, from the con- 
nderable protuberance between the eyes, appears to represent a two- 
homed, probably the present, species. 

Gen. — ^TAPiaus, Linn4. 

Tapirus malatanus, Raffles. 

Stit. — Tapirus malayanus, apud Horsfield. 

Tapirus indicus, Fred. Cuvier. 

Tapirus sumatranus, Gray. 

Me des Ohinois, Remusat, young ? apud Gray : List. 

Tapirus bicolor, Wagner, apud Schinz. 

" B^dak/' «• K6da Ayer," " Tennd" of the Malays of the Penin- 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The body of a newborn male, found in Province Wellesley in August 
1844, was shortly after its death carried over to Pinang. As described 
by Colonel Farquhar, it was of a beautiful black velvet colour, with purple 
reflections, with numerous small, and other larger, irregular spots on 
the body, arranged in longitudinal stripes, above of a rich gamboge, 
beneath and on the inner side of the extremities, paler yellow. The 
under-lip was white. The shrivelled remSdns of the black funiculus 
umbilicalis were upwards of four inches in length. The fur very short, 
dense, and velvety. The separate hairs, of either of the two prevailing 
colours, slightly curly. 

Digitized by 



Catalogue of Mammalia ifikabiting 

[No. 172. 


Length from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, 1 foot 10 inches. 
,, of the head, . . . . . . . . . . ,, 7 i, 

„ of the tail, . . . . . . . . . . „ 1 i „ 

„ of the ear „ 1| „ 

Diameter of the head from vertex, . • . . . . „ 5 „ 
Height of the shoulder, . . . . . . . • „ 8^ „ 

„ „ „ haunch, „ 9 „ 

The animal, from which a sketch was taken on its arrival at Pinang, 
was the property of the Rev. R. Panting, a. m. The skin, imperfectly 
preserved, has lately been deposited in the Museum of the Asiatic. 

On the 16th of May 1845, I obtained a living young female Tapir, 
captured in Keddah a few days previously. Though still in its infan- 
tile garb, it was older than the preceding. The ground colour was a 
brownish-black, like worn-out velvet ; the spots, stripes, and the poste- 
rior part of the abdomen were of a dirty-white. The separate hairs were 
longer and curly ; the hairy ears retained numerous white spots on the 
margins and external surface. The lips were blackish, with numerous 
short distant bristles, which also appeared round the nostrils, on the 
ridge of the nose, above and below the eyes, on the cheeks and on the 
throat. Two black mammae were situated between the hind legs, three 
and a half inches behind the large naked cicatrix of Funiculus umbOicalis. 


Length from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, 3 feet 4f inches. 

„ of the head, 

„ of the tail, . . 
„ of the ear. 
Diameter of the head from vertex,. . 
Height of the shoulder, 
„ „ haunch. 

Greatest circumference round the body. 
Circumference at the root of the ear. 







4 .. 





6 .. 



6 „ 


6 ., 

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1846.] the M^OM Penmsuia tmd liknds. 265 


6 ^ . 0.0 . , , 3.3 

Incis. -^ Canin. "fTT "*°**"*» 3.3 

From the fint, although fresh from its native wilds* this young Tapir 
shewed a remarkably gentle disposition. The daytime it spent in 
sleeping in a dark recess of the portico of my house, though it would 
rouse itself if noticed. Towards sunset it became lively, would bathe, 
feed, saunter abroad, and with its lengthened nose examine objects 
in the way. Within a few days after its arrival, it commenced to 
exhibit a marked partiality to the society of man, not indeed to its 
keeper in particular, whom it scarcely had discrimination enough to 
distinguish, but to any body who happened to notice or caress it. 
Towards sunset, it would follow a servant on the green in front of 
the house, and punctually imitate his movements, Whether standing, 
walking, or running. If the man suddenly hid himself, the Tapir 
would hasten to the spot where it had lost sight of its leader, look 
about in all directions, and, if unsuccessful in discovering him, express 
its disappointment by a peculiar loud whistling. On the re- appearance 
of the man, it expressed its pleasure by rubbing its side against his 
legs, running between them, occasionally giving out a short singular 
sound, resembling that produced when the larger wood-peckers tap 
the trees, but more sonorous. When of an evening it heard the voices 
of people in the verandah above the portico, it exhibited strong marks 
of impatience, till let loose, when of its own accord it would, awkward^ 
I7 enough, ascend a flight of stairs leading to the verandah. It would 
then quietly lie down at their feet, and by stretching its limbs and shak- 
ing its head, express the satisfaction it derived from being caressed ; 
and it was only by compulsion that it could be made to leave the 
company. Ita* food consisted of plantains, pine-apples, mangustins, 
jambu, leaves of Ficus pipul, sugar-cane, and boiled rice, of which 
latter it waa particularly fond, if mixed with a little salt. Its drink 
was water, and also milk and ooooanut oil, which latter taste the 
Tapir possesses in common with the O'rang-dtan. It delighted in 
bathing, and was otherwise cleanly. When roaming about the garden, 
(its walk was like that of the elephant,) it would select a spot with soft 
earth, and like a cat form with its hind legs a small excavation, and 


Digitized by 


2BS Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting [No. 172. 

again coyer it. The whole body has a peculiar, and by no means offen- 
sive exhalation, somewhat resembling that ^oted of Arcticiis Binturong, 
Indeed* this is so tenacious* that although the skin of the individual above 
described has been preserved more than a twelvemonth, and kept in a 
strongly camphorated case, the odour is still perceptible. 

On the 27th of June 1845, the subject of the preceding notice 
expired after two days' illnes?, from inflammation of the lungs, brought 
on by the strong southerly winds, prevailing throughout the Straits of 
Malacca during the season, which in man produce a slight influenza, 
in animals frequently terminating fatally. The few adult Tapirs* 
which occasionally have been kept in confinement by residents at Ma- 
lacca, have acquired the character of being hardy animals. During the 
short period that the present lived in my possession, no perceptible 
change appeared in its growth, but a striking alteration took place in its 
colours. Nearly all the white spots on the head, nape of the neck, and 
back of the ears, gradually disappeared, and the upper part only of the 
margin of the earis remained white, which colour it retains in the 
adult animal. On the posterior part of the back and sides, the black 
and white stripes were in a state of progressing obliteration, their hairs 
had faded to a brownish colour, and were about being replaced by a 
shorter and less dense fur of the fresh white hairs, which were to form 
the characteristic permanent white mark, already appearing in outline, 
when death terminated the unfinished process of nature. 

Vertebrae ; cervical seven, of which the atlas and epistrophseus are the 
largest; dorsal twenty; lumbar four; sacral seven; caudal three. 

Sternum. The anterior extremity cartilaginous, sharply keeled, arched, 
continued over manubrium, composed of two rounded angularly-joined 
pieces, as far as the second pair of ribs ; corpus composed of five pieces, 
of which the two posterior, in a pair, are connected by cartilage. 

Gostse verae, eight pairs; spuriae, twelve pairs = twenty pairs; the 
last spurious rib is rudimentary, and absent on the left side. 

Femur, five and two-eighth inches long ; the large bony sub-troclian- 
teric process, described by Sir Everard Home, is developed, though partly 
cartilaginous, measuring one inch in length at the base. 

liver of mod^te size, each lobe divided into two portions of nearly 
equal size. 

Gall-bladder; none. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Malayan Peninsula and Islands , 267 

Spleen ; tongue-shaped, flattened, with catting marginfl, seyen and a 
half inches in length, one and six-eighth in breadth. 

Pancreas ; in a state not to admit of accurate examination. 

Kidneys ; three and six-eighth inches in length ; one and six-eighth 
in breadth. 

Renes succenturiad ; none. 

Urinary bladder ; very large. 

Stomach ; capacious. Its dimensions in the state in which it appeared, 
distended with food, were — 

Length along the smaller curvature, . • . .^ feet 5 i inches. 

» »> greater, „ .. .. 1 „ 9^ „ 

Circumference from cardia round fundus, . . 1 „ „ 

„ round pylorus, . . . . . . „ 3^ „ 

The internal surface smooth, villous. 

Where the duodenum joins the pylorus, it is considerably widened. 
Length of the intestinal canal : 

Small Intestines, 27 feet 7 inches. 

Large, „ 6 „ 4 „ 

Caecum, „ 6 ,*, 

Average circumference of small, . . „ 2f „ 

„ „ larg^, . . • . ,t ^\ ,t 

Caecum sacculated, with a longitudinal band on either side. Distend- 
ed with faeces as it appeared, the greatest circumference close to the 
fundus was one foot one and a half inch. 

In the adult Tapir dissected by Sir E. Home, and which was according 
to Mr. Yarrell eight feet in length, the relative proportion between the 
length of the intestinal canal and that of the body, was as eleven to one. 
In the present young female, the relative length of the intestinal canal 
is proportionally less than in the adult, being less than as tea to one. 


Gbn. — ^Bquus, Ltita^. 
Bauus cABALLus, Liuu^. 
The horse, " Kuda" of the Malays, appears not to be indigenous in 
the Peninsula. The few ponies, which the wealthier use for ordinary 
purposes, are imported either from Siam, Burma, or Sumatra. The 
Malays either travel by water, or prefer the elephant- as a locomotive 
more dignified than the horse. 

Digitized by 


268 CtUMlague of MtmmMlia tMhabitiMg [No. 172. 


Gbn.-*— M08CHV8, Linnd. 

Tragulvs, Brisson. 

Tbagulus Kanchil, Gray : List. 

St27. — Chevrotain adulte. 

-SZS5fS?i, }<>^.'^o^r. 

Javan Musk, Shaw. 

Moschos Palandok, Marsden. 

Moschud Kanchil, Raffles. 

Pelandok, Raffles. 

Moschos fulviventer, Ghray. 

'* Kanchil" or *' Peldndok" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Singapore, Pinang, Lancavy Islands, Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Java. 
In some individuals the back is nearly black. The colour and distri- 
bution of the marks of the chest and abdomen are also liable, to individual 
variations^ one of which gave rise to the supposed species: Moschms 
/ulviventer. The animal is by the Malays indiscriminately denominated 
" K&nchii" and *' Pel&ndok ;'* the latter denomination is sometimes par 
excellence applied to the young, and this circumstance in all probability 
gave rise to the supposed species Moschus Pelandok. The species ib 
astonishingly numerous. In Prince of Wales* Island, any number may 
be procured within a short notice, at the rate of one Spanish dollar per 
dozen. Knowing the partiality of these deer to the leaves of the swe^ 
potato, plant fComvolvolus batatas J the Malays either use traps, baited 
with this vegetable, or lie in ambush in moonlight nights in fields where 
it is cultivated, and disable the intruders by throwing sticks at their 
legs. In confinement, in its native climate, the animal becomes rather 
delicate, though it occasionally survives, and even breeds. The female 
has four mammae, and one or two young at the time. The new* born 
measures eight and six-eighth inches in length, of which the head is 
three inches, the tail one inch. The skin of the upper parts is of a pale 
blackish colour, scantily covered with short, fine, brown hairs. The 
abdomen and inner side of the limbs are pale yellow; the throat and 
chest have the dark marks of the adult, but paler. The largest adults 
measure from the apex of the nose to the root of the tail, me foot six 
and a half inches ; the tail three inches in length. 

Digitized by 



1646.] the Malayan PemnnUa and Islands. 269 

Tbaqulvs jayanicus, PallaB, 

Stit. — Moschus javanicus, Omelin. 

Moschos jayanicos, Pallas, apad Raffles. 

Napu, Raffles. 

Moschos indicus, Ghanelin, I * _ , f^^_ 
Cervu8javamc5iis.08bek, ppuaway. 

Moschos Napa, Fred. Cuyier. 

" N&pu" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Hab. — Malayan Petunnda. 

Sumatra, Jara, Borneo. 

On the Malayan Peninsula, the species appears to be far less numerous 

, than the preceding. The canines of the female are very small. The 

\ four mammae are situated at the posterior part of the abdomen, a little 

in front of the hind legs. The anterior pair are half an inch apart ; the 

posterior two-eighth of an inch apart. The two pairs are half an inch 

distant from each other. In an adult female, measuring from the apex of 

I the nose to the root of the tail two feet, four and two*eighth inches ; the 

I tail five inches : the intestinal canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, Id feet 6 inches. 

Large ditto, 7 „ 10 „ 

Csecum, .. .. •• •• ••0„ 6,, 

The gall-bladder is very large ; immediately behind it is situated Um 
right kidney. 

Gbn.— Cbbvus, Linnd, 

Sttlocibos, Hamilton Smith. 

Sttlocbbos Mxtntjak, H. Smith. 

Stv.— GheyieuiL des Indes^ AUamand. 

Cenrus Muntjak, Zimmerman, apud Horsfield, Sykes and Elliot. 

Cenrus Muntjak, Boddaert, ^ 

Cervus vaginalis, Boddaert, 

Cervus Muntjak, Schreber, 

Cervus Muntjak, Marsden, 

Cervus moschatus, Blainville, ^Apud Horsfield. 

Cervus subcomutus, Blainville, 

Cervus Munljak ? Shreb, apud Raffles, 

Cervus Muntjak, Desmarest, 

Cervus moschus, Desmarest, 


Digitized by 


270 Catalogue of Mammalia inhabitmg [No. 172. 

Cervus aureus, Ham. Smith, "| 

Cervus Ratwa, Hodgson, J 

Muntjacus vaginalis, Gray : List. 

Cervus Muntiac, Linn^, apud Schinz.'^ 

" Kidang*' of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo, Tenasserim, Nipal, Assam* Ben- 
gal, South Mahratta Country, Dukhun. 
In a young male* measuring from the apex of the nose to the root of 
the tail three feet and one, inch, the tail seven inches ; the intestinal 
canal was of the following dimensions : 

Small Intestines, . . . . . • . . 13 feet 10 inches. 

Large* 22 „ I „ 

Caecum, .. .. .. .. .. „ 9 *, 

The right lobe of the liver lies in contact with the right kidney ; the 
spleen with the left. 
Gall-bladder ; none. 

Axis, Hamilton Smith. 

Axis maculatus, Hamilton Smith. 

Stn. — ^Axis, Plinius. 

Cervus axis, Erxleben, apud Gmelin. 

Cervus nudipalpebra, Ogilby, (black Var.) 1 

Axis major, Hodgson, > Apud Gray : lost. 

Axis minor, Hodgson, J 

" Rdsa Btinga" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 

Hab.— Ma/ay an Peninsula, Pinang. 

Sumatra, Bengal, Assam, Nipal, Southern Mahratta Country* 


* In *' Nachtr'age zum 2ten. Bande," the author suggests that six distinct species 
are supposed to lie hid under the denomination of Cervus Muntiac, vis : 

1. Cervus styloceros, Schinz, Syn, C, Muntiac, Lin. apud Ogilby. Hah. Hina- 
lay ah. 

2. Cervus Ratwa, Hodgson. Hah. Himalayah. 

3. Cervus albipes, F. Cu?ier. Hah. India. 

4. Cervus Mun^ac, Raffles and Horsfield. Hah* Java, Sumatra, Banka, Borneo. 

5. Cervus Reevesu, Ogilby. Hah. China. 

6. Cervus antisiensis, Pucherank Hah. Andes. 

Digitized by 


1846.] the Mda^an Peninsulu and Islands. 271 

Sir Stamford Raffles thinks it probable that the Axis in Sumatra has 
been introduced from Bengal. It is numerous in Keddah, and at 
present in Pinang. But it did not inhabit Prince of Wales' Island till 
one of the last Governors of the late Presidency took the trouble of im- 
porting from Bengal some pairs, which were kept in the park adjoining 
Government House, (Suffolk House.) When the Presidency of Prince 
of Wales' Island was abolished, and with it all its paraphernalia, ex- 
cept the titles of as many of its officers as were necessary to the con- 
tinuance of H. M. Court of Judicature, the deer of the quondam Gover- 
nor's park found their way into the jungle, where they have multiplied 
to a prodigious extent. 

RiTSA, Hamilton Smith. 

RusA EQUINA, Hamilton Smith. 

Stn. — Oervus equinus. Cuvier. 

Cervus Rusa, Raffles. 

Rusa etam or Kumbang, Raffles. 

<' Rdsa" or ** Rdsa ^tam" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula, Pinang, 

Sumatra, Borneo. 
The Malayan individuals correspond with the description given by Sir 
S. Raffles of Cervus Rusa. The lips are whitish ; the posterior part of 
the lower, sometimes dark- brown. Round the &yes and the lachrymal 
sinus, on th« side of the forehead, root of the ears, and on the throat, 
the hairs are either uniformly pale ferruginous, or have a subterminal 
band of that colour, the effect of which is to impart a pale rusty tint to 
these parts. Normally, each horn has three antlers, of which the lower 
or anterior, commencing from the burr, is directed outwards till towards 
the apex, which turns slightly inward. The second and outward turned 
antler commences at the root of the third, and is the shortest of the 
three. The third is directed inwards, and is the longest of the three. 
In the number, direction, and size of the antlers, numerous individual 
variations occur. 

According to Mr. Blyth*s observations, Cervus Hippelaphus has, 
normally, the third antler much longer than the second ; Cervus AHsto^ 
telis has much larger and more divergent horns, of which the second 
and third antlers are about equal. Considering the similarity of colours 

Digitized by 


2712 Catalogue of Mammalia imkabitmff [No. 172. 

and size of Cervus equiwus, Hippelaphus, and AriatoUUs, Mr. Elliot is pro- 
bably right in considering all three as varieties of the great Indian stag, 
described by Aristotle nnder the designation of Hippeiaphus, (Madraa 
Journal, 1839. p. 220.), and Cervua Peronit, Cuvier— Cerf da Timor— - 
may probably be added as a fourth variety. 

Panolia, Gray : List. 

Panolia acuticobnis, Gray : List ? 

Stw. — Cervus frontalis, McClelland ? 

Cervus lyratus, Schinz ? 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula. 

A single skull of a stag, killed in Keddah, has the horns so like those 
of the Munneepore animal, that the species might be taken to be identi- 
cal, but that the Malays assert theirs to be maned, and of a dark colour, 
with white spots, like the Axis. This stag is further described as being 
extremely wary, and therefore seldom seen but on heights inaccessible 
to man. The skull is of an old male, with the teeth, canines in particu- 
lar, much ground. 

Gen. — Antilopb, Linn^, 

Njcmobpbdus, Hamilton Smith. 

Njcmobhedus suuatbbnsis, Hamilton Smith. 

Stk. — Kambing utan, Marsden. 

Antilope sumatrensis. Pennant, apud Raffles. 

Cambtan, Fred. Cuvier. 

Antilope interscapulars, Lichtenstein, apud Schinz. 

" Kdmbing dtan" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Malayan Peninsula* 

Sumatra, Tenasserim. 
It appears to be numerous on the Malayan Peninsula, but exceedingly 
difficult to obtain, as it frequents the steepest hiUy localities, and is very 
shy and active. 

Gbk.— Bos, Linn^. 

Bos oouB, Trail. 
Stk. — Bos Oaurus, Ham. Smith. 
Bison Gaums, Ham. Smith. 
Bos aeuleatus, Wagler. 

Digitized by 


1846 J tke Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 273 

The Bison, Low : Hist, of Tenasserim. 
Bos (Bibos) cavifrons, Hodgson, apud Elliot. 
Bos frontalis, Lambert, apud Gray : List. ( ? ?) 
'* S&pi titan" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Has. — Malayan Peninsula. 

Tenasserim, Hindoostan, Assam, Nipal, Southern Mahratta 
Numerous in the Malayan Peninsula. 

Bos Taurus, Vab. Indigus, Linn^. 

Syn.— " Sdpi" (S. jdntan. Bull ; S. betina. Cow) of the Malays of the 
Although this kind of cattle is plentifully bred in some of the Malay- 
an countries, it is not in general use, and is less numerous than the 

BuBALus, Hamilton Smith. 

BuBALUS Abnbb, Hamilton Smith. 

Syn. — Bos indicus, Plinius. 

Bos bubalus, Brisson. 

Bos amee, Shaw. 

Bubalus ferus Indicus, Hodgson, apud Gray : List. 

Bubalus Buffelus, Gray : List. 

" Karbau" of the Malays of the Peninsula. 
Hab. — Pinang, Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 

Tenasserim, Southern China. 
The wild buffalo is reported, but apparently without proof, to be in- 
digenous in the Malayan Peninsula. Domesticated, it is very plentiful, 
and is the principal draft-cattle employed by the Malays and the 
Chinese settlers. The black-coloured, apparently the hardier, is prefer- 
red by the Malays ; the reddish- white, freckled with brown, is the 
greater favourite of the Chinese. Both are very slow, and as observed 
by Lieut. Col. Low, delicate, and liable to sudden attacks of disease if 
worked in the sun. 


Digitized by 


274 Catalogue of Mammalia itAabiting [No. 172. 



Gbn. — Halicobe, Iliiger. 
Halicobb Indicub, F. Cuvier. 

Stn. — Dugon, Buffon. 

TrichechuB Dagong, Erxleben. 

Halicore cetacea, lUiger. 

Halicore Dugong, Cuvier, apud Raffles. 

Halicore Tabemacularom, Ruppell. 

Dugongus marinas, Tiedemann, apud Schinz. 

*' Ddyong" or " Farampuan Laut" of the Malays of the Fenin- 
HiLB.'^Singapore, Malayan Peninsula. 

Sumatra, Philippine, Molucca and Sunda Islands, New Holland, 

Red Sea. 

The Duyong appears not to be numerous at Singapore, still less so 

to the northward, and has but in few instances been observed in Kw^ 

Mi)Lda, the mouth of the river, which forms the northern boundary of 

Province Wellesley. 


QxN. — Dblphikus, Linn^, 

Dblphinus FLX7MBBUS, DusBumier. 

Stn. — Delphinus malayanus. Lesson, apud Cuvier. 

" Farampuan Laut" of the Malays of the Feninsula. 
Hab. — Coasts of Pinang. 

Malabar Coast. 
The species, although very numerous, and rather heavy in its move* 
ments, is rarely captured, except by chance in fishing stakes. The 
stomach, of a single young individual observed, contained remains of 
small fishes, apparently Clupea, and Glyphisodon calestinus, Cuvier. 

Digitized by 



the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 


Numerical List of Mammalia mhalntmg the Malayan Peninsula and JiUmde, 
and other localities* 


Hfflobates lar, Ogilbj. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Siam, Burma, Tenasserim. 


Hylobates agilis, F. Cuvier. 

Malayan PenioBula, 




Malayan Peninsula, 
Pinang, Singapore. 


reuSt Schini. 

Malayan Peninsula, 




Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Sumatra, Borneo, ^anka. 



Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra ? Java ? 


Cercopithecus cynomolgus, 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Sumatra, Java, Banka, Bor- 
neo, Celebes, Timor, Te- 
nasserim, Nicobars. 


Papio nemestrintis, Ogilby. 

Pinang. Malayan Pe- 

Sumatra, Borneo. 


Nyeticehus tardipradus, 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

nasserim, Bengal, Silhet, 


Oaleopithecus Temminckii, 

Malayan Peninsula 
and islands, 

Pelew Islands, Borneo, Java, 
Sumatra, Siam. 


Rhinopoma HardwickU, 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Southern Mahratta country, 
Calcutta, Allahabad, Agra, 


Megaderma spttsmUy Geof- 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Temate, Java. 


Nyctmomus tenuis, Hon- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Taphozous melanopogon, 

Pulo TfkuB, Lanc&vy, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Caves of Kannera. 


Taphozous saccokumus, 


Celebes, Borneo, Java, Su- 
matra, Southern India. 






Bipposideros diadema, 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 



Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Amboyna, Timor, Java, Su- 


Bipposideros vulgaris, Gray. 




Bipposideros murinus, 


Southern Mahratta country, 


Bipposideros galerituSj Can- 


Digitized by 



Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting 

[No. 172. 


VespertUio adversus, Hora- 


Java, Calcutta. 


Kirivoula picta. Gray. 


Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Kirivoula tenuis, Gray. 


Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


TrUatitus Hor^ldii, Gray. 


Java, Sumatra. 


ScotophUus Temmincka, 

Malayan Peninsula 
and Islands, 

Timor, Borneo, Java, Suma- 
tra, Calcutta, Pondicherry. 


Pteropus edulis, Geoffroy. 

Malayan Peninsula 
and Islands, 

Java, Sumatra, Banda, Ben- 
gal, Assam. 


Cynopterus marginatus, P. 

Malayan Peninsula 
and Islands, 

Java, Sumatra, Southera 
Mahratta country, Bengal, 


Tupaia ferruginea. Raffles. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Gymnura RafiesU, Vigors 
and UorsEeld. 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Sorex murinus, Linn6. 


Java, Sumatra. 


Helarcios malayantts, Hors- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Sumatra, Tenasserim, Assam, 


Arctictis Binturong, Fischer. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Arracan, Tenasserim, Assam, 
Nipal, Bhotan. 


Putorius nudipes, Fred. Cu- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Mustetajtavigula, Boddaert. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Nipal. 


Lutra Nair, F. Cuvier. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

China, Bombay, Southera 
Mahratta country. 


Lttira Barang, Raffles. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Aonyx lepUmyx, Gray. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Nipal. 


Cuonprimatms, Hodgson. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Bengal, Nipal. 


Fiverra Zihetha, Linn6. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Southern China, Siam, Ben- 
gal, Khasyah HUls, Nipal. 


Viverra Tangalunga, Gray. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Amboina, Celebes, Borneo, 
Philippine Islands, Suma- 


Fiierricula malaccensis. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

China, Philippines, Java, Co- 
chin China, Tenasserim, 
Bengal, Nipal, Hindoostan, 
Dukhun, Bombay. 


Prionodon gracilis, Horsf. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Paguma leucomystax, 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Paguma trivirgata, Gray. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Moluccas, Tenasserim. 

Digitized by 



the Malayan Peninsula and Islands. 




Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Timor, Borneo, Java, Suma* 


Paradoxurus Derhyanus, 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Cynogale BenneUii, Gray. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Herpestes Javanicus, Des- 

Penang, Malayan Pe- 



Herpestes auropunctaius, 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Bengal, Nipal, Scinde, Af- 


Herpestes griseus, Desma- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Bengal, Hindooetan, Scinde, 


Herpestes brachyumSy 

Malayan Peninsula. 


Felis tigris, Linn6. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Ceylon, India. 


Felis leopardus, Schreber. 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Felis marmoratay Martin. 

Malayan Peninsula. 


Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Java, Sumatra? 



Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Felis domestica. 


Sdurus bicolor, Sparrm. 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Siam, 
Tenasserim, Assam, Nipal. 


Sciurus Rofflesii, Vigors and 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Canton Pro- 


Sciurus hippurusy I. Geof- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Java, Sumatra, Assam, Can- 
ton Province. 


Sciurus vittatus. Raffles. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Can- 
ton Province. 


Sciurus nigrovittatus, Hors- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Can- 
ton Province. 


Sciurus tenuis, Horsfield. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Can- 
ton Province. 


Sciurus laticaudatuSyBidLTd. 

Malayan Peninsula. 


Pteromys nitidus, Geoffroy. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Sduropterus Hor^eldii, 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Java? Sumatra? 


Sduropterus genibarbis. 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Mus bandicotQy Bechst. 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Southern Mahratta country, 
Bengal, Nipal. 


Mus decumanus, Pallas. 

1 Cosmopolita. 

Digitized by 



Catalogue of Mammalia inhabiting 

[No. 172. 


MusseUfer, Horsfield. 


Borneo, Java, Sumatra, Van 
Diemen's Land. 


Mus rufescens, Gray. 


Oharwar, Madras, Bengal, 
Arracan. ^ 


Mus musculus, Linn^ ? 



Rhizomys sumatrensis^ 

Malayan Peninsula, 

China, Moulmein, Assam. 


Hystrix kmgicauda, Man- 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Atherurafasciculata, Cuv. 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Manis Javanicat Desmarest 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Borneo, Java, Sumatra. 


Elephas indicus, Linne. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Burma, Siam, India, 


Sus indicus, Schinz. 

Pinang, Singaoore, 
Lancavy, Malayan 

Bengal, Nipal, Southern 
Mahratta country. 


Su8 scrqfa, Var. Linne. 

Malayan Peninsula 
and Islands, 



Rhinoceros unicomiSf 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Bengal, Assam, Nipal. 


Rhinoceros sondaicus, Cuv. 

Malayan Peninsula, 



Rhinoceros sumatranus, 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Sumatra, Tenasserim. 


Tapirus malayanus, 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Equus caballus, Linne. 

Introduced in the 
Malayan Peninsula 
and Islands. 


Tragulus Kanchil, Gray. 

Pinang, Singapore, 
Lancavy. Alalayan 

Java, Sumatra. 


Traffulusjavanicus, Pallas. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Sumatra, Java. 


Styloceros Mun^ak, Ham. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Borneo, Banka, Java, Suma- 
tra, Tenasserim, Nipal, 
Assam, Bengal, Southern 
Mahratta, Dukhun. 


ila;t« maculatust U, mith. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Sumatra, Bengal, Assam, 
Nipal, Southern MahratU 
country, Ceylon. 


/2u«a e^uma, H. Smith. 

Pinang, Malayan Pe- 

Borneo, Sumatra. 


Panolia acuticomis. Gray 7 

Malayan. Peninsula, 


Ifamorhedus sumatrensiSt 
Ham. Smith. 

Malayan, Peninsula, 

Sumatra, Tenasserim. 

Digitized by 



the Malayan Peninsula and Islands, 



Bos gour. Trail. 

Malayan Peninsula, 

Tenasserim, Hindoostan, As- 
sam, Nipal, SouthernMah- 
ratta country. 


Bos taurus. Far. indicus, 

Introduced in the Ma- 
layan Countries. 


Bubalus amee, H. Smith. 



HaUcore mdieus, F. Cav. 


Philippines, Moluccas, Sun- 
da Islands, Sumatra, New 
Holland, Red Sea. 


Delphmus plumbeus, Dus- 

Malayan Seas, 

Bay of Bengal. 

Note to Gen. Ntctinomus, p. 9. A male Nyetinomus bengalensis, 
Geoffroy, {8yn.. Vespertilio plicatus, Buchan. — AT. bengalensis, Geoffroy, 
apud Horsfield. — Dysopes plicatus, Temminck, apud Schinz.) examined 
after the Catalogue had passed through the press, exhibited a true 
caecum. The entire length of the animal was 4f inches, of which the 
tail measured If inch. Extent of the flying membrane : 1 foot 0-ginch. 

Length of the small Intestine, 9i inches. 

„ .„ large ditto, . • . , . • . . 4^ „ 

caecum, 0^^ „ 

The caecum is crescent- shaped, with the concave curvature firmly 
adhering to the external surface of the small intestine. The convex 
curvature presents near the apex a sacculated appearance ; the mem- 
branes are thickened. Where the caecum joins, the small intestine and 
the rectum are narrowed. 

Fort William: Dec. IIM, 1846. 

Digitized by 



Notices and Descriptions of various New or Little Known Species of 

Birds. By Ed. Blyth, Curator of the Asiatic Society's Museum. 

[Continued from p. 54, ante.] 

In the intervals that elapse between the publication of successive 
portions of these notices, it regularly happens that further collections 
are received by the Society, and that some additional informatioii is 
derived from them relative to groups that had already been treated of. In 
the present instance, we have been indebted to Dr. R. Templeton, of 
Colombo, for two collections of birds from Ceylon, in which some in- 
teresting novelties have been comprised, and much information gained 
respecting the ornithology of that island, which of late years has been 
very little investigated. Among the species sent is a little Owl, which 
appears to be the true Strix castanoptera of Horsfield; one of three 
nearly allied Indian species, as follow :-— 

I. Athene castanopterus, (Horsf.) : Strix spadicea, Reinwardt. Entire 
mantle and wings uniform deep chesnut-rufous, more or less obscurely 
barred with subdued dusky : primaries weak dusky, faintly banded with 
rufous on the inner web, and with a series of spots of bright rufous on 
the outer web : tail dusky, with eight or nine narrow white or whitish 
bars, the last of them terminal : head and neck closely barred with light 
rufescent on a dusky ground, and contrasting strongly with the rufous 
of the back : breast nearly similar, but the colours deeper; the abdomen 
white, with longitudinal dusky streaks ; and the vent and lower tail- 
coverts pure white : bill pale yellow. Length of wing about five inches. 
Three specimens received are essentially quite similar, and a fourth is 
mentioned in XIV, 185. Inhabits Ceylon. 

2. Aih, malabaricus, nobis : Aih. castanopterus apud nos, doubtfully 
cited in XIV, 134, and of Jerdon, Madr. Joum. No. XXXI, 320. 
Size of the preceding, or a little shorter in the wing : the head, neck» 
and interscapularies, uniformly coloured, of a lightish rufous with nar- 
row and close dusky rays ; wings the same, but the colours deeper, 
and the dusky bands considerably broader : primaries deep rufous, the 
three first barred throughout with dusky, the rest mostly immaculate (or 
with comparatively obscure bars) for the basal half, and distinctly 
barred for the remainder^ secondaries with broad distinct bands 
throughout, rufous and dusky; and tertiaries with the scapularies 

Digitized by 


1846.] Notices and Descriptions of various New, 8fC. 281 

barred rufescent-whitish and dusky, the outermost scapularies having 
the large white spots (common to most Owls,) in general conspicuously 
developed : the lower- parts are barred throughout, dusky and white on 
the belly and flanks, rufous and dusky on the breast, except the vent 
and lower tail-coverts, which are spotless white ; tail dusky, with eight 
or nine whitish bars, somewhat broader than those of the preced- 
ing species. This inhabits the Malabar Coast and Travancore ; and the 
Society is indebted for specimens of it to Mr. Jerdon. 

3. Ath. radiatus, (Tickell} : Ath. erythropterus, Gould ; Noctua perli- 
neata, Hodgson ; N, cuculoides (?) apud Jerdon, CataL Upper-parts 
uniformly barred with close rays, rufescent-whitish and dusky; the 
wings more distantly barred with the same, but the rufous tinge deeper, 
and some of the greater coverts have, in general, conspicuous white 
spots; the great alars are still deeper rufous, barred with dusky 
throughout, and marked much as in the first species; lower- parts barred 
whitish and light dusky, and the under tail-coverts white as in the 
others. This species occurs in most parts of the country, as in the 
Himalaya, Upper and Central India, the eastern coast of the Peninsula, 
and Mr. Jerdon says " Travancore and Malabar ;" but it is probable 
that he here refers to Ath. malabaricus, in which case the synonyme of 
cuculoides apud Jerdon, must be transferred. About Allahabad, as Dr. 
Stewart informs me, it is particularly numerous. 

Although the first of these three species accords with the descriptions 
of Ath. castanopterus of Java, it may yet prove (upon comparison of 
specimens) to be an allied species rather than the same ; but it would 
not be the only Malayan species that has turned up in Ceylon, and in 
no part of Continental India as yet : the same collection contained ex- 
amples of Vespertilio pictus, (or Kerivoula picta, apud Gray,) perfectly 
identical with Javanese specimens ; whereas, from Continental India, I 
have only seen a nearly allied species, which I presume to be Kerivoula 
Sykesi of Gray. The curious Bittern, Tigrisoma melalophos, (Raffles,) 
is sent from Ceylon, and this is new to the fauna of cis-Gangetic India, 
though the Society has received it from Arracan : Ephialtes lempiji of 
Ceylon and Malabar is again identical with the species common 
throughout the Malay countries ; but it has been erroneously identified 
with Eph. lettia, (Hodgson,) or the closely allied (if different) Eph, 

lettvAdes v. griseus of Jerdon. Athene castanopterus I have never seen 


Digitized by 


282 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

from the neighbourhood of the Straits, but Heifer (a very unsafe autho- 
rity) mentions it to inhabit the Tenasserim Provinces. Probably the 
Aih. badius, Hodgson, from Nepal, mentioned in Mr. G.R. Gray's Cata- 
logue of the British Museum Raptoree, butf as yet (I believe) undescribed, 
pertains to the same little sub-group. i 

In p. 12, ante, I suggested that Bucco zeylantcus, Ghmelin, founded 
on the '* Yellow- cheeked Barbet" of Brown's illustrations, would pro- 
bably be found to differ from JB. caniceps, Franklin, which Mr. Jerdon 
had assigned to zeylanicus. There is now more reason to incline to 
that naturalist's opinion, as the B. caniceps is very common in Ceylon, 
being rather smaller, on the average, than specimens from Upper India, 
as indeed are those of the Peninsula generally, so far as my observations 
have hitherto gone. 

The Picas ceylonus, Forster, mentioned in a note to p. 18 ante, is a 
true Brachyptemus, which appears to be as common in Ceylon 
as Br, aurantius is in India generally : and as there can be no doubt 
of its specifical distinctness, any more than of the distinctness of Tiga 
Rqfflesii (p. 16, ante,) from T. tridactyla and its immediate allies, this fact 
of the existence of a plurality of decided species of these types— of an 
undeniable repetition of their peculiar and marked characters — ^adds 
much to the probability of the more closely allied species — Br. micropus 
(XIV, 194), Br, dilutus of Scinde (XIV, 550),— r. Shorei, (Vigors), and 
r. intermedia (XIV, 193), being also severally distinct from and not mere 
local varieties of Br, aurantius and T, tridactyla. Other examples of this 
close affinity occur in Microptemus badius, M. phaoceps, and M. gularis ; 
and Mr. Jerdon, in the third No. of his ' Illustrations of Indian Ornitho- 
logy', has contended that his Hemicercus cordatus is probably an ana- 
logous representative of H. canente, (Lesson), of the countries of the 
eastern side of the Bay of Bengal. That he is right in this conjecture n 
not improbable ; though the two are absolutely similar in structure, colour- 
ing, and markings : but the South of India species appears to be constantly 
smaller than its representative on the opposite side of the Bay. Mr. Jer- 
don gives the length of wing of the former as three inches and three-quar- 
ters, that of a female in the Society's Museum being only three inches 
and a half : but of several specimens received from Arracan and Tenasse- 
rim, the length of wing of the males averages four inches, and of the fe- 
males three and three-quarters ; the latter being conspicuously larger than 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds, 283 

the only South of India female that I have to compare them with. Small 
as this difference may seem, it is very perceptihle in the general size 
of the birds ; and ornithologists will form their own opinion as to its value. 
In the Hemilopkur Hodgsom, Jerdon, the size of this species of Peninsular 
India, exceeds that of the nearly allied H.javensis, Horsfield, v. leuco- 
gaster, (Reinw.), of Tenasserim and Malacca. I might mention several 
more instances of the kind, but will merely observe that further obser- 
vation has confirmed the propriety of separating Caprimulgus albonotatus, 
C. macrourue, and C. mahrattensis, (which last occurs in Ceylon,) these 
species scarcely differing but in size ; also C. monticolus and C. affinis, 
but C. arenarius of Bumes' drawings seems merely to be the nestling 
plumage of C. monticolus, to judge from a specimen of the latter 
with which the Society has been recently favoured by Dr. Stewart. 
To return to the Woodpeckers, Gednus chlortgaster {ante p. 16,) b an 
inhabitant of Ceylon ; and this species, though well distinguished in 
the colouring of its ocdput more particularly, is as closely allied to 
G. chloropus, as mutually are many of the approximate races to which 
I have been adverting. 

Simotes albtvertex, nobis (ante p. 19,) is not from Borneo, but from 
an islet off the coast of Waigou : and so likewise is the Carpophaga 
with knobbed bill, referred to the ' Sumatra Pigeon' of Latham in XIV, 
857 ; while the small C. tsnea, supposed to be from the same region 
{loc. cit.Jt proves to be from the Neilgherries. What farther informa- 
tion I have obtained on the Columbid^e may be reserved till their turn 
arrives r but in reference to the remark in a note to XIV, 846, that per- 
haps some of the Gourina may prove to have more than twelve caudal 
rectrioes, I may here mention that Goura fv. Lophyrus), and also the 
great Phaps group of Australia (including Leucosarcia, if not also, as I 
suspect, Ocyphaps and PetrophassaJ, possess fourteen — as in Treron, 
Carpophaga* and PtUinopus ; while Chalcophaps, and apparently Peris^ 
tera, have only twelve. Of three specimens of Calanas nicobarkms in 
the Society's Museum, all have the tail imperfect ; and it is curious that 

* The curioas Australian Pigeon, Lopholainuis aniareUcus.iy, Cot^dUopkOy Tern.,) 
which in XIV, 686, 1 suggested was probably a subgeneric formofCay^popAa^o, is allied 
rather fas I now find from inspection of specimens) to that Carpophaga-like group of 
true Columbma, having twelve tail-feathers only, which is referred to Dendrotreron, 
Hodgson, in p* 53 ante, but which will bear the prior name AUocomus^ of Tickell, as 
Cot, punicea must also be assigned to it. 

Digitized by 


284 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

the rectrices of this bird, which are pure white in the adult, are, in the 
young of the same, green-glossed black as the wing-primaries : — at 
least I presume the species to be the same, the Society's black<tailed 
young one being from the Nicobars, and one of the adults from the 
Cocos Isles (a group of rocks lying northward of the Andamans,) the 
other from the Malayan Peninsula, 

Zanclostomus viridirostris, Jerdon, would seem to be a common 
species in Ceylon ; thus confirming my suspicion (XI, 1096,) of its 
being Daniell's Handee Kootah, as well as the supposed Indian rac^ 
(mentioned by Levaillant) of Serisomus cristatus of Madagascar. 

Captain Tickell has favoured me with the following description of a 
new Spiny-tailed Swift :— - 

" Acanthylis sylvatica, Tickell. Entire length, from tip of bill to 
end of tail, four inches and a fifth ; wing from shoulder to tip four 
inches and a half, and reaching an inch and a half beyond the tail. 
Form typical : the details being as in Ac, nudipes, (Hodgson)^ Wiry- 
tips to the shafts of the rectrices well developed — sharp and stiff. 
Thumb versatile but opposive (as in Ac. nudipes^ of which I killed a 
fine specimen at Daijeeling'*'). Colour — BiU, iris, and legs, black. Rictus, 
auriculars, chin, throat, and breast, iron-grey, with a dash of ashy-brown. 
Belly pure white, the feathers black-shafted. All the upper-parts 
black, with dull blue metallic reflections. Remiges brownish-black : tail 
and its shafts black. Across the lower back passes a broad defined 
space of white, including in fact the whole rump, but not the upper tail- 
coverts which are of the same colour as the upper-parts generally. 

'* I shot a specimen of this bird so far back as Nov. 1835. It haunts 
open cultivated ground in the midst of forest ; also the cleared patches 
on the sides and sunmiits of the hills [in Central India]. Is common, 
but local; gregarious and noisy: being often seen in company with 
Cypselus melba. When my duties call me next into the wooded regions 
of my jurisdiction, I will do my best to shoot some specimens and send 
you the dried skins, as vouchers for the above description." 

Psilorhinus, p. 27, ante. Lord Arthur Hay mentions, in epistoid^ 
— " It b very curious that though the Red-billed Jay is found alone at 
Simla, I should have procured only the Yellow-billed one after leaving 

* Mr. Bardett informs me that he had lately seen a specimen of this Himalayan 
bird shot in England, at or near Colchester, in Bssez.— E. B. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 285 

Jummoo, and in Cachemere." His lordship's description of the latter 
identifying it with Ps.fiaviroatrie of Darjeeling, while by the " Red-billed" 
he probably means P$, occipitalis, 

Gracula, p. 3i> ante. Two species of this genus inhabit Ceylon : one, 
the Gr. religiosa (apud nos)» of southern India,'*' — the other new, which 
may bear the name 

Gr, ptUogenys, nobis. This has no bare skin on the cheek, but the 
occipital lappets are well developed, and the basal half of the lower man- 
dible is black : bill moderately strong. Length of wing six inches. 
Colouring as in the others.f 

Amadina, p. 36, ante. The A. malacca, or " White-breasted Indian 
Sparrow" of Edwards, common in Southern India, occurs rarely in 
Bengal, mingled in flocks of A, sinensis, or the " Chinese Sparrow" of 
Edwards ; from which, indeed, it only differs in having the lower-parts 
pure white, with the same abdominal black patch : and it is curious that 
a third race inhabits the Malayan peninsula, similar to A. sinensis, 
excepting in having no black patch on the abdomen ; whence the name 
maiacca is ill applied to the white-bellied bird of Peninsular India.} 

* Mr. Jerdon designateB this Or, minor {Madr. Joum. No. XXXI, 134) : but if it 
be not admitted as Or, reUgiosa (vera), as it ia certainly the Bulahes indicus of 
Cuvier, it would therefore rank as Or. indica. 

f Add, as a synonyme to Stumia pagodarum, the Turdus melanocephalus, Bahl 
(nee Gmelin), Trans. Nat Hist, Soc. Copenhagen, 1792,— -Bmberiza brumceps, 
Brandt,=17. icterica, Evenham ; and Coccothraustes speculifferus, Brandt, is proba- 
bly no other than C. camipes, Hodgson. 

X Immediately as the above was consigned to press, Mr. B. W. G. Frith kindly 
allowed me the pickings of an extensive Malayan collection just received, wherein 
are four species of Amadma^ comprising one that I have been unable to identify. The 
Malayan peninsula yields, at least, the following six species of this genus of Finches. 

1. A, oryzivora^ (L.), which deviates a little from the type of all the rest 

2. A, majat (L.) : Loxia leucocephalat Raffles : L ferruginosa^ Latham; whose L, 
bicolor is probably the young. 

3. A, ? The race resembling A. sinensis^ except in wanting the black patch 

on the abdomen. 

4. A, punctularia, (L.) : Fringilla nisoria^ Tem. Distinguished from A, undulata, 
(Lath.), V. Munia lineoventer, Hodgson, of India, by the whitish«grey on the rump, 
upper tail-coverts and tail, which is represented by glistening fulvous in the other. 

5. A. molucca (?), v. Munia acuticaudat Hodgson, which is dbubtless Mr. Jerdon's 
supposed A, striata (v. leuconotOt Tem*,) of the Malayan peninsula. This agrees pretty 
well with Latham's description of A. molucca, except that the striation of the upper- 
parts is not mentioned ; Griffith adds, however, ** rump, and under breast, cross-barred, 
black and white." The belly in the Malacca species is pencilled with dusky, but 
not the white patch over the rump. Mr. Hodgson's Nepal specimens merely differ in 

Digitized by 


286 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

Certhilauda, p. 41, ante. My suggestion that Mr. Jerdon had sent 
me a distinct species as his Alauda deva, tarns out to be well founded: 
the A, deva of his catalogue is a Certhilauda which I have not seen yet; 
and he has recently again obtained the true Alauda with pointed crest, 
referred by me to A. malabarica in XIII, 962. 

In XIII, 567, it is remarked, that I had not actually compared Ma- 
layan with Bengal specimens of Pycnonotus jocosus, but had an impres- 
sion that the crimson sub-ocular tuft is considerably less developed in 
the former. Dr. Cantor's rich collection from the Malayan peninsula 
comprises several specimens of the bird in question, which is common 
at Fenang ; and it is remarkable that the crimson sub-ocular tuft does 
not attain to a third of the length which it does in Indian specimens. In 
fine examples of the latter, the longest of the hair-like plumes compos- 
ing this ornamental tuft, measure above five-eighths of an inch, passing 
considerably beyond the extremities of the white ear-coverts, and im- 
pending their upper half; while in equally fine specimens of the Ma- 
layan bird, they appear as if truncated, and impend only the basal third 
of the white ear- coverts : in other respects the two birds exactly resem- 
ble ; as does^ likewise the P. monticolus, (McClelland and Horsfield,) 
from the mountains of Assam, which is described to have " a scarlet ring 
about the eye, but no tuft beneath this organ." This, and the Amadnia 
malacca group, are accordingly further exemplifications of that repetition 
in different districts of the Fauna Indica, of the same specific types with 
merely a variation of size, or some trivial but constant difference of 
colouring, or (as in the Pycnonotus jocosus group) a variation in the 
form or degree of development of an ornamental tuft : the specific value 

bein;^ somewhat paler, and what white remains on the rump appears to be a little 
striated ; but they are in very bad condition. A, striata f (v. leuconota Tj of India 
accords with Latham^s description, except that the white on the rump is not men- 
tioned. Its upper-parts, and those of A, molucca (?) of the Malayan peninsula, are 
nearly similar; but the lower are very different: the Indian (and Arracan) bird 
having the throat to breast inclusive, uniform blackish, and the belly, vent, and flankst 
white ; whereas the Malacca bird has the chin and throat only blackish, the breast 
dark brown, with whitish shafts and borders to the feathers, and the belly dull white, 
with dusky pencillings. 

6. A» leucogastra, nobis, n. $, (?). Size and proportions of A, punctularia^ haviof 
the upper-parts throughout dark brown, with whitish shafts to the feathers more or less 
developed ; throat, breast, and flanks, brown-black ; the lower tail-coverts quite black ; 
and belly white, narrowing to a point in front: margins of tail-feathers yellow-fulvoos: 
bill and feet blackish in the dry specimens. Individuals vary in the iutensity of their 

Digitized by 


1846.] or LUtU Known Species of Birdi. 287 

of which differences will probably be ever a subject of dispute. Ana- 
logous slight differences occur in certain of the mammalia, reptiles, 
fishes, and insects, of the same regions, which are variously set down 
as allied species, or local varieties of the same, as the opinions of in- 
dividual naturalists vary : but if the distinctness of such races be not 
admitted, there is no demarcating the line between them and what are 
conceded on all hands to be allied but distinct species, as every grade 
of approximaticm is abundantly manifested.* 

RMgula gularis, XIV, 576. This bird is figured by Mr. Jerdon, in 
the third No. of his ' Illustrations of Indian Ornithology ;' and besides 
the ruby throat, it is both represented and described to have a black 
chin-spot, and the tail is represented as greenish like the back. The 
following, however, may yet prove to be the female. Length about six 
inches and a half; wing two inches and seven-eighths ; tail two and three- 
quarters : bill to gape three-quarters of an inch, and tarse five-eighths. 
Colour olive-green above, below yellow throughout, sullied with greenish 

* The opposite opinion is ably maintained by M. Schle^l, in his 'Essay on the 
Geographical Distribution of Serpents,' contained in Dr. Traill's abridged translation 
of Schlegel's great work on serpents : but that naturalist's hypothesis of climatal and 
local varieties carries him so far as to consider the Himalayan Jay (of course meaning 
Gorrulus cfmatuSf V. bispecularis,) as a "variety" only of the European species; 
and he states—" The Paradoxurus typus is spread over Bengal, Siam, Sumatra, 
Borneo, Amboyna, Timor, &c., and forms, in these different places, numerous varie- 
ties, which are chiefly distinguishable by the tint and difltribution of the colours, but 
sometimes also differ in size ; in Sumatra, for example, the species is stronger than in 
Java; in Java than in Timor, &c. ; there appears to exist in several places a variety 
with a white tip to the tail ; and the individuals from certain parts of the island of 
Java have a pale yellow fur, with three stripes down the back." JNow this amounts, 
in fact, to a reduction of all species that are nearly allied, to the rank of varieties only 
of the same one, however different their locale ; and so far as climatal or local influ- 
ence is concerned, it happens that several of the supposed ** varieties" of Paradoxu- 
rus typus co-exist abundantly in the Malayan peninsula, and without intermingling 
80 far as I have ever seen or heard of, which there can be little doubt they would do 
freely, were they really the same. The white tail-tip is of no consequence whatever, 
and occurs not unfrequently in several species of Paradoxurus, without affecting their 
other distinctive characters : white feet are also common, and occasionally these animals 
are largely pied with white also upon the body. If the different races of Paradoxuri 
inhabiting the Malayan peninsula are not to be regarded as species, all discrimina- 
tion of species is at an end ; no two naturalists will agree respecting the amount of 
specifical variation ; and no confidence can be reposed in any list of names represent- 
ing the fauna of a region. Therefore, (at all events in the present state of knowledge,) 
I think it right to distinguish species or permanent races to the fullest practicable ex- 
teat ; and 1 even do not see that identity of origin is implied by absolute similarity. 

Digitized by 


288 Noiices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172, 

on the breast and flanks : cap and ear-coverts black, but no black cbin- 
spot : the tail dusky or blackish, laterally edged with green towards its 
base ; its four outer feathers having a largish white spot at tip, and the 
two central pairs being successively more narrowly tipped with the same. 
Bill and feet black. From Ceylon. If new, R. aberrans, nobis ; but I 
repeat my suspicion of its being the female of R. gularis. 

Genus Calamoherpe, Boie. In my notice of the Indian species of 
this genus, XIV, 594, 1 cited C. arundinacea, (Lin.), with a mark of 
doubt, in referring to it the Agrohates brunnescens of Jerdonf. By the 
kindness of H. £. Strickland, Esq., the Society has now been favoiired 
with a specimen of the European bird, which proves, though very closely 
allied, to be certainly a distinct species from its Indian representative. 
It is rather larger, with a longer wing, the latter measuring above three 
inches and three-quarters ; and a good distinction is afforded by the 
European bird having its first primary somewhat longer, if anything, 
than the next ; whereas the Indian species, which will now rank as 
C brunnescens, (Jerdon,*) has the first primary constantly three-six- 
teenths of an inch shorter than the next, the third being, if ^ything, 
longer than the second : the general colouring of the European species 
is also rather more intense, and especially the russet hue of the flanks 
abdomen, and lower tail-coverts, is considerably more developed. 

Another result for which we are indebted to the fine British collec- 
tions just received from Mr. Strickland, — Mr. Kirtland, of the Ashmolean 
Museum, Oxford, — Mr. Bartlett, of London, — and Mr. W. Davison, of 
the Alnwick Museum, — is that the British Nuthatch is a different species 
from that bearing the same name of Sitta europcea in Norway, which 
latter Scandinavian bird is doubtless the true S. europaa of Linnseus. 
The Norwegian Nuthatch has the whole under-parts white, with the ex- 
ception of the deep russet hue of the flanks and variegating the lower 
tail-coverts, which is the same in both species.f In other respects they 
resemble ; but the difference is as marked as between various acknow- 
ledged species of Budytes, or the Motacilla alba and id. Yarrellii, ^c. ; 

» Provided, however, that it also proves distinct from C. olivetum ff or olharum f), 
Strickland, another allied species which that gentleman procured in Greece, and which 
is figured in Gould's * Birds of Europe ;' but no description of Mr. Strickland's bird is 
here accessible. 

t Some specimens have an exceedingly faint tinge of fulvous on the abdomen only. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Utile Knoum Species of Birds. 289 

and a Himalayan Nuthatch is equally approximate (S. cinnamoventris, 
nobis, considered to be probably the S, Atma/oyana, J. & S., in XIV, 
579), this having merely the deep russet of the flanks spread over the 
whole under-parts of the male, and similarly diffused but much paler 
in the female, — the chin and sides of the throat below the ear-coverts 
being alone white, except the white variegation of the lower tail-coverts 
in which it resembles the two allied European species under consider- 
ation ; another very slight distinction of this Himalayan Nuthatch 
appears also to be constant, namely that the outermost tail-feather has 
either no white, or the merest trace of white, on its exterior web : but 
its affinity with the two western European species is so close, that if the 
latter are held to be varieties of the same, so also must the Himalayan 
bird, notwithstanding that its deep ferruginous hue is as much developed 
as in S. castasieoventris, though still not so dark as in that smaller and 
slender-billed species of the hilly parts of India generally. Referring 
to the notice of S, europtea in the Diet, Class., I observe that the British 
Nuthatch is there described, and hence infer that it is the species inha- 
biting France ; the Scandinavian bird being probably confined to the north 
of Europe : and presuming that the latter is true S. europaa, Lin., I pro- 
pose for the British species the name Sitta affinis.* 

Passing now to groups which have not yet fallen under review, I shall 
commence with that which should have received the name 

Muscicapida. The Flycatchers (MuseicapiddR of authors) are an as- 
semblage from different natural families of birds, many of which are 
little connected by the physiological proximity we style affinity, but 
by analogy rather, or similarity of external adaptations to a particular 
mode of life. A large proportion of those of the Old World appertain 
strictly to the great group, branching off from the Thrushes, which is 
now currently known by the name Saxicolina. Of these I have many 
species to describe; but the group under consideration is altogether 
distinct from the Flycatching Saxicolince, and though the different 

* It has lately been suggested to me that S. nipalensis, Hodgson, is identical with the 
British Nuthatch ; bat it is a widely different species, distinguished by its much smal* 
ler size, proportionally very short bill, and by the belly, flanks, vent, and lower tail- 
coverts, being uniform light ferruginous : iu some (males?), the throat and fore-neck 
are white, passing laterally into pale buff; while in others (females ?), a light buffy tint 
pervades the whole throat and fore-neck. The two outermost tail-feathers only, on 
each side, are marked with white. 


Digitized by 


290 Notiees and DeBcripiioM of various New [No. 172. 

Inditm genera have all the Muscicapa adaptations fully developed, it 
branches off to such forms as Piezorhynckns and Monarcha of Australia, 
wherein those particular adaptations are much reduced. At the head 
of the group may be placed the Tchitrea; nearly allied to which are the 
Myiagr€e of Swainson, as exemplified by M. aerulea, (Vieillot), of 
India (which is Muse, occipitalis^ Vigors, and the female — M, caruko- 
cephala of Sykes, iiec M. cyanocepkaia, Gm., and 'Azure-headed 
Fly catchy' of Latham.*) As seen alive, or in the recent state, the 
approximation of Myiagra carulea to Tchitrea paradisi is extremely 
close : there is a near resemblance in general structure ; the same deli- 
cate blue bill, which loses its colour a few hours after death ; and the 
lengthened occipital crest of the Paradise Flycatcher is represented by 
the short velvety occipital tuft of the other, the plumelets af which 
are similarly erected 4 even the black pectoral cincture of Myiagra 
carulea defines the boundary of the black throat and fore-neck of Tchitrea 
paradisi. Allied to these, again, we have Leucocerca, Sw.f (the Indian 
species of which are referred to true Rhipidura in XII, 935) : and Rhi- 
pidura (vera), v. Chelidorhynx, Hodgson, XII, 936, almost equally allied 
to Leucocerca and Cryptolopha, shews that the last-named genus comes 
also under the present series. The Indian Cryptolopha is Muse, griseo- 
capilla, Vieillot, (apud Griffith, An. Kingd. VI, 343,) and was figured 
by Mr. ^wainson as Platyrhynchus ceylonensis, afterwards altered by 
him to Cryptolopha poiocephala. It is also Muscicapa nitida, var A, of 
Latham. Its real name will therefore be, I believe, Cr. griseocapUh. 

• The type of this genus is M. plumbeot the male of ^hich^ Muscicapa leucogastra, 
nobis, XIII, 336, and the female is the supposed female of my M. rubeeuia, toe. cU., 
whichs=Af^'apra rubecutoides. Vigors and Horsfield : but the supposed male of my J/. 
rubecula would seem to be the female of another species, to which may probably alio 
be referred the Platyrhynchus riifiveniris of Vieillot That I did not recognise the 
Myiagra plumbea, was owing to the overcbloured figure of this bird in both editioni 
of Lewin's work. 

t The name Leucocerca is not felicitous, as shewn by Mr. Swainson's own L. lati' 
Cauda, ** remarkable for its broad and perfectly black tail." ( Nat. libr., ^Flycatchen.') 
The Society has also a species from Java or the Moluccas, with a wholly rufous tail 
The common species of Lower Bengal, L. fuscoventris, (Franklin), was subsequently 
named Muse. (Rhipidura) sannio, by M. Sundevall ; and Mr. Strickland, in referring 
the latter appellation to Franklin's species, erroneously adds L, pectoraHs, Jerdon. as 
a synonyme. L. fuscoventris is the * Broad-tailed Flycatcher' of Latham, and L. 
albofrontata, the * White-browed Flycatcher* of that author. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Littie Known Species of Birds. 291 

This bird is generally distributed over all India, from the Himalaya to 
Ceylon, and it is common enough in mango groves in Lower Bengal. 

Of the Tchitrea, I am acquainted with three Asiatic species which 
have the middle tail-feathers elongated, and the Muscipeta airocaudata 
of Byton is perhaps a fourth. 

1. Teh. parodist, (L.), the fully mature bird : Muscicapa indica, Stephens, 
and M. castanea* Tem., the once moulted bird.f It is not at all uncom- 
mon to get specimens of this bird in a transitional state of plumage, 
variously intermediate to the phase& above referred to ; and not merely 
when moulting from the rufous to the white garb, but a variously in- 
termediate dress is occanonally put forth. Thus, among a number of 
specimens before me, one white male has a considerable intermixture 
of rufous on many of its back and rump feathers : another is almost 
unmixed rufous above, and pure white below ; some of the upper tail- 
coverts are white, and there is a streak of the same on one of the mid- 
dle caudal feathers : a female is very similar to the last, but has one 
primary on each wing — and not the corresponding feathers — white- 
edged r another and remarkably fine rufous male has a single white 
dorsd feather only : and another again has only a single outermost 
caudal feather chiefly white, with a black outer margin. Females do 
not appear to assume the white dress until they are several years old ; 
and it is usual, therefore, to see a white male paired with a rufous 
female : but, in general, the females have the whole neck and throat 
glossy-black, like the male, though in some the lower portion of the 
black passes into grey, and rarely the whole throat is ashy, with the 
lower half of the neck behind. In adults of either sex, the crest-feathers 
appear never to be under an inch in length, and vary from- that to one and 
a quarter : but the nestling-bird is crestless, and has the head of a pale 
dull ehesnut, with the clothing feathers altogether extremely downy 
and unsubstantial. Lastly, the black exterior margin to the caudal 
feathers occurs only in the white or fully mature livery, and the 
elongated central tail-feathers are never thus margined (as in the next 
species), but have a black shaft for about half their length. This species . 
is more or less common throughout India, from the Himalaya to Ceylon. 

* Perhaps, however, this name belongs rather to the next, or common Malayan, 
t Muse, mutata of India, Lath., can only refer to the same. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

292 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

2. Teh, affinis, A. Hay, MS. : Malayan Teh. paradisi, aactorum ; 
Muscipeta castanea (PJ, Temminck. In any state of plumage, this 
species may be distinguished from the last by having the crest never 
more than seven-eighths of an inch in length (generally less), and 
the feathers which compose the crest are broader and muck more com- 
mingled into a uniform smooth surface than in the other. The middle 
tail-feathers of the male rarely, if ever, attain a foot in length ; where- 
as in the Indian species, they often exceed fifteen inches ; in form, 
too, they are very much narrower than in Teh. paradisi (vera). 
The adult male is white, with glossy-black head and neck* as in 
the other ; but the black on the shafts of the feathers of the upper 
plumage generally, is much more developed; and the middle caudal 
feathers are black-shafted throughout their whole length, or nearly so, and 
are more or less conspicuously margined throughout, both externally and 
internally, with black, often broadly so throughout. A mature female 
received from Malacca is wholly white, with black head and nape, and 
black centres of feathers and edges of caudals, as in the male ; the can- 
dais being however broad, instead of narrow as in the other sex. 
Young males in the chesnut plumage seem never to have any black on 
the throat and fore-neck, which, with the nape, are whoUy ash-colonr, 
as in some young females of Teh. paradisi ; these rufous males, and also 
the younger rufous females, have little or no trace of the black centres to 
the feathers, — but in older rufous females the latter are well developed on 
the tertiaries, and the ash- colour of the nape, throat, breast and flanks, 
is very dark"*" : the inner portion of the . large alars, which in the corres- 
ponding plumage of the Indian species is commonly chesnut throughout, 
is in its Malayan relative always dusky black. This species is also 
smaller than Teh. paradisi. It is common in the Malayan peninsda 
the Tenasserim Provinces, and occurs rarely in Arracan ; replacing Teh. 
paradisi of India Proper. 

The advance from rufous to white occurs in several other species ; as 
somewhat fantastically shevm in one or two of Levaillant's plates : and 
it is also instanced by Mr. Swainson's figure of his Muscipeta rufiventris, 
in the ' Birdsof western Africa,' Nat. Lihr., wherein an admixture of 
white is exhibited upon the wing of a rufous specimen. 

* The Society has one chesnut female with shining black throat and fore-neck, as 
commonly occurs in Teh. paradisi. 

Digitized by 


1846] or Little Known Species of Birds, 293 

Teh. leucogaster, (Swainson), Nat, Libr., * Flycatchers/ — is an alleged 
species founded on (apparently) a female specimen, which was in the col- 
lection formed in India by the Countess of Dalhousie. It would seem to 
agree with Teh. affinis (in the rufous dress), except in its larger size, 
measuring " no less than five inches from the tip of the bill to the 
vent/' and in having the posterior crest-feathers long and narrow, as in 
Teh, paradisi. If a true species, the form of the tail would indicate that 
the central caudal feathers of the male are elongated ; which is not the 
case in all the genus, for instance in the small Teh, borboniea of the Isle 
of France, the general structure of which comes very close upon 

Teh, atrocaudata, (Eyton), P. Z, S, 1839, p. 102. " Toto eorpore pur-, 
pureo-atro, sed peetore imo abdomineque albis. Long, tot, 9 uneias" 
Hab. Malacca. Lord Arthur Hay possesses what I take to be a mature 
female of this species, having the head and neck glossy black, the rest 
of the upper parts beautiful glossy maroime, or deep chesnut-bay, with 
a very strong maronne gloss, — and of the lower-parts dark ash-colour, 
passing to white towards the vent and lower tail-coverts, which last 
are tinged with chesnut: shafts of the tertiaries black (as in Teh. 
affinis) ; and the primaries and secondaries dusky-black, margined ex- 
ternally with dark rufous ; axillaries white : the central caudal feathers 
are scarcely developed beyond the rest ; and the crest is still shorter 
than in Teh. affinis. Young females are scarcely distinguishable from 
those of Teh, affinis ; but have a shorter crest, the middle tail-feathers 
about equal with the rest on either side, and more or less of the beau- 
tiful maronne gloss is generally perceptible. In this state of plumage, 
they constitute Museipeta atrieeps, nobis, XI, 203, 790. 

Teh. prineeps, (Tem.), p. c. 584. This superb species inhabits China 
and Japan. Lord Arthur Hay has received it from Hong Kong* t and 
1 should acknowledge that I have been indebted to his lordship for the 
loan of some specimens of Teh. affinis, SfC„ which first enabled me to 
come to some understanding of these different species. 

In immediate proximity to Tehitrea, we have the new genus Philen* 

toma of Eyton, of which two species inhabit the Malayan peninsula : 

* Mutdpeta atrocattdata, Eyton ?, apud Lord A. Hay, Madr, Joum, No. XXXI, 
159. His lordship, however, does not agree with me in the above identification of his 
specimen with Teh, princeps. Perhaps Teh. atrocaudata may, indeed, yet prove to 
be no other than Teh. prineeps* 

Digitized by 


294 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

viz. PA. pectoraie {Muscicapa pectoralis, A. Hay, Madr. Journ, No. 
XXXI, 161,) and Ph.plumosum (vide p. 10, ante) : this is a genus which 
I had long instituted in MS,, when I found that I had been anticipated in 
publication by Mr. Eyton. 

Dicrurida, Drongos, or 'King Crows.* A very distinct group, 
one marked character of which is to have constantly but ten tail-fea- 
thers. An attempt was made to reduce the synonymes of the Asiatic 
species in XI, 799 et seq.; and Mr. Strickland made a further attempt 
in the Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844, p. 36. Mr. G. R. Gray, again, 
has more recently tried his hand at the whole series of them, and 
he adds the genera Artamus and Irena to his Ampelida Dtcrurina, m 
which I cannot think of following him. The generic subdivisions I 
would retain the same as formerly. 

1 . Chibia hottentota ; Corvus hottentotus, Lin. : Edolius barbatus. Gray ; 
E. crishna, Grould ; Criniger splendens, Tickell ; Chibia casia, Hodgson. 
Common in Bengal, Nepal, Assam, Sylhet, and in Central India ; rarer in 
Arracan ; and partially distributed in S. India. This beautiful bird is re- 
markable for the arched form of its bill, which is high and carinate at 
base, and attenuates gradually to a point, with scarcely a trace of emargi- 
nation. It has a frontal crest of a few hair-like stems, which hang over 
the nape ; and its outermost tail-feathers are very much twisted over, 
forming a singular ornament. 

2. Chaptia anea, (Vieillot) : Dicrurus (eratus, Stephens ; Ch. muscipe- 
toides, Hodgson : Butchanga of the Bengallees. This beautiful species 
resembles the last in the character and lustre of its feathers, but has 
the general form of a Flycatcher. It is a loud and very respectable 
songster. Inhabits India generally. 

3. Ch. malayensis, A. Hay. Very similar to the last in plumage, but 
the size inferior, the tail much less deeply forked, the biU deeper, and a 
considerable development of the peculiar crest impending its base, of the 
next species. Lord Arthur Hay will describe it more particularly in the 
' Madras Journal.* From Malacca. 

4. Bhringa remi/er, (Tem.) : Bh. tectirostris, Hodgson ; Eddhu 
rangonensis apud Horsfield, from Assam. This is peculiarly a hill 
species, common in the eastern Himalaya, and extending^ to the moon- 
tains of Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan. It much resembles the preceding 
in the general character and lustre of its plumage, but has a nearly 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 295 

square tail, with the stems of the outermost feathers excessively elongated 
beyond the rest, and harbed only for the terminal four inches (or there- 
abouts), nearly equally so in both webs, and this barbed portion is not 
twisted as in the following species ; the stem, however, which is much 
smoother or more completely barbless than in the others, takes half a 
turn, 80 that the barbed tips remain vertical, to the axis of the body, 
with the upper side inwards. 

We come now to tbe Edolii, as I restrict this division : and are pre- 
sented with a series of species closely allied in other respects, but 
shewing every gradation in the degree of development of frontal crest, 
from the total absence of such an ornament, to one flowing backward 
over the occiput. Their synonyme, as may be supposed, is much 
involved. All have a moderately furcate tail, with the stems of its 
outermost feathers prolonged and naked for a considerable space, and 
broadly barbed on the inner side towards the extremity ; the stem how- 
ever giving one twist, so that this inner web appears to be the outer 
one : in younger specimens, the inner side has conspicuously a short 
web throughout its length (which is considerably less than in mature 
birds), and the rudiment of this inner web is seen, upon close inspection, 
in adults, as also a very slight rudiment of an outer web, which latter 
becomes further developed towards the extreme tip of the feather. Fi- 
nally, the barbed tip is more or less twisted inwards, and has 
always its inferior side uppermost. It is worthy of remark, that the 
crested birds are successively larger as the crest becomes more deve- 
loped ; while the crestless species are smallest : also, that the latter have 
the longest and most spirated outer tail-feathers ; while in the former, 
these are successively shorter and less spirated. 

5. E. malaharoides } Chibia malabaroides, Hodgson, Ind. Rev, 1837, 
p. 325 : Lanius malabaricus, as figured by Latham and Shaw, but not 
L. malabaricus as described by Latham from Sonnerat : E. grandis apud 
DOS, XI, 170, and Ann. Mag, Nat, Hist, XIV, 46. In this species, the 
frontal plumes attain a length of two inches and a half, and flow back- 
ward over and beyond the occiput. The hackles of the neck are also 
decidedly more elongated than in the others. Length of wing com- 
monly six inches and three-quarters. Inhabits Nepal, Tipperah, and 
the Tenasserim Provinces. 

Digitized by 


296 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

6. E. grandis, Gould^ Proc, Zool. Soc. 1836, p. 5 : j&. bengalensis, 
A. Hay, MS. Crest-feathers attaining to an inch and a half, or in verj 
fine specimens a trifle more, and reaching to the occiput, but scarcely 
ever overhanging it.* Fine specimens are of equal size with the pre- 
ceding race ; though, in general, the present one is rather smaller. It 
is common in Assam and Arracan, and occurs in the Bengal Soonder- 

7. E. paradiseus ; Cuculus paradiseus, Lin. : Dicrurus platwus, Vieil- 
lot ; Edolius reti/er, Tem. ; E. crist&tellus, nobis, XI, 171 ; i^. interme- 
dins. Lesson, apud G. R. Gray. This is the common species of the Te- 
nasserim provinces, with crest generally from an inch to an inch and 
a quarter long, and the wing usually six inches and a quarter. It is not 
well distinguished from the last ; but when a number of specimens are 
seen together, with a corresponding series of the Arracan bird, the aver- 
age size and development of the crest-feathers of the present race is 
shewn to be inferior, and the tendency of the crest is always to curve 
back more abruptly. 

Two specimens from southern India (locality not mentioned), with 
which the Society has been favoured by Mr. Jerdon, do not — at least that 
I can perceive — differ in any respect from the common Tenasserim race; 
but Mr. Jerdon informs me, that he possesses three Edolii from the 
Indian peninsula, — " one from Malabar, one from the Eastern Gh&ts, 
and one from Goomsoor. This last (E. orissaj" he adds, " has the 
bill much smaller than in E. dentirostris of the Eastern Gh&ts. llie 
Malabar species is crested, and therefore does not correspond with Son- 
nerat's figure** below referred to. 

8. E, malaharicus, (Scopoli), founded on le Grand Gohe-mouche de k 
c6te de Malabar of Sonnerat : E. rangonensis, Gould. That two races 
even here remain to be distinguished is still my suspicion, one being the 
bird described as E. rangonensis in XI, 172, and represented in the 
plate to XI, 802. figs. 8 and 9 ; the other, the bird of Sonnerat, devoid 
of the slightest trace of a frontal crest, and of which (if I am not greatlf 
mistaken) I saw a Singapore specimen in the collection of a French 
gentleman some time ago, who forwarded that collection to Pans be- 

* Mr. Gould, in his description of £. grandis, states—*' The recurved feathers of 
the upper part of the head measure an inch and a half in length." 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 297 

fore I had examined it more particularly, as it was my intention to have 
done. That such a cresUess Edoluts exists, however, in Peninsular 
India is extremely doubtful."*" 

In fine, I should not now be surprised if a most complete gradation of 
specimens from the E, malabaroides of Nepal, with frontal crest two inches 
and a half long, to the entirely crestless bird figured by Sonnerat, should 
prove to be obtainable (as we proceed southward) in the countries lying 
eastward of the Bay of Bengal ; and such a gradation would, I think, be 
due to the intermixture of a succession of allied races, rather than to clima- 
tal or local variation of the same aboriginal race : such intermixture 
decidedly taking place between Coracias indica and C. affinis, and be^ 
tween Treron phcenicoptera and TV. chlorigaster, as also between the 
different Kilidge Pheasants (as I shall take another opportunity of 
shewing)t. The EdolH of peninsular India, I am not yet sufficiently 
acquainted with. 

9. Dicrurus edoli/ormis, nobis, ». s. This well marked species 
would seem to be a common bird in Ceylon. It much resembles the 
ordinary sub-crested bird of the Malayan peninsula, except that its tail 
is formed as in D. macrocercus, the caudal feathers being however some- 
what broader. Three specimens are quite similar. Length of wing 
fire inches and three-eighths, of middle tail-feathers five inches, the out- 
ermost an inch and a half, to an inch and three-quarters more ; bill to 
gape an inch and three- eighths ; and tarse an inch. The form of bill and 
plumage is as in j^. malabaricus, the frontal crest being rather more de- 
veloped than in the next species. 

10. D. viridescens, Qould, vide XI, 173 and 802. figs. 10 and 11. 
Tail almost quadrate, with but a slightly furcate tendency. Both this 
and the preceding are, in fact, Edolii, with the outermost tail-feathers 
not prolonged as in that series of birds. 

* Since the above was written, the Society has been favoared by Mr. E. Lindstedt 
with a fine specimen of an Bdolius from Malacca, having a frontal crest half an inch 
in length ; and I feel doubtful whether this and other Malacca specimens can be safely 
identified with the bird having very long and very spiral outer tail-feathers, noticed in 
the description of ^. rangonensiSt XI, 172, and the bill of which is figured at p. 802, 
nos. 8 and 9. 

t Canms corone and C. cornix, and MotacUla lugubris and Af. alba (apud Tem- 
minck), afibrd similar cases of intermixture of wild races in Europe. The Society's 
Museum contains a specimen of what is certainly the hybrid between Corvuf corone 
and C. comix, received from Norway ; and we have also the well known hybrid be- 
tween Teirao urogaUus and T. tetrix, from the same country. 

2 R 

Digitized by 


298 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

1 1 . i>. balicassius ; Corvus balicassius, Lin. : Oriolus furcatus, Gme- 
lin, apud G. R. Gray ; Bhuchanga annectans, Hodgson ; Dicrurus affinis, 
nobis, XI, 1 74 ; Corvus qfer, Licht. ; and C. assimilis, Bechst., apud G. 
R. Gray. Inhabits the Malay countries^ and occurs also in Nepal.'*' 
The Australian species referred to this by Messrs. Vigors and Horsfield, 
is the D. hracteatus, Gould. 

12. Z>. macrocercu^, Vieillot : Muscicapa biioba, licht.; D. indicus, 
Stephens, and also of Hodgson, As, Res, XVIII, described and figured in 
part II ; likewise Bhuchanga albirictus, Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1837, p. 326: 
Edolius forficatus, Horsfield (apud Strickland, in epistold) ; D. baUcas- 
sius apud Sykes and Jerdon, also apud nos, XI, 1 74 ; and D, fingah 
apud nos (passim). The common Fingah, or ' King Crow,' of India 

13. 2). longicaudatus, A. Hay : D, macrocercus apud Jerdon, et nos 
passim : Neel Fingah of the Bengallees ; described in Ann. Mag, Nat, 
Hist. 1844, p. 46. Inhabits India generally, but is much less common 
than D, macrocercus. 

14. 2>. ccerulescens, (Lin.) : Lanius Fingah, Shaw : both founded on 
Edwards' figure. Described in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 1844, p, 47. Not 
common in Lower Bengal. 

15. D. leucopygialis, nobis, ». s. Similar to the last but smaller; the 
tip of the upper mandible (it would seem constantly) more produced ; 
and the white confined to the lower tail- coverts, the abdominal region 
being merely somewhat paler than the breast. Length of wing five 
inches and three-eighths. This appears to be a common species in 

1 6. D. intermedius, nobis, n. s. Also closely allied to D. carules' 
cens, but having no white whatever on the under- parts, which are dark-* 
er than the throat and breast of D, carulescens, and have a faint steel- 
blue gloss. The upper-parts are also glossed with steel-blue instead of 
steel-green. Length of wing five inches, of middle tail-feathers three 
and a half, and of outermost tail-feathers an inch and five-eighths 
more. From Penang. In general aspect intermediate to />. cerulet' 
cens and D. longicaudatus. 

* Captain Lewis took a specimen at sea, when within a few leagues of one of the 
Nicobar Islands. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 299 

17. D. cineraceus, (Horsf.) : — leucophaus, Vieillot; — ceylonensis, 
Stephens. Lord Arthur Hay has presented the Society with a Malacca 
example of this species. Its length, to tip of middle tail-feathers, is 
ahout ten inches, the outermost exceeding them hy ahout an inch, and 
the tail-fork much divaricated ; wing five inches and three-quarters : 
hill as in D. longicaudatus and D, c^erulescens, hut less carinate ahove, 
especially towards its base : general plumage deep ash-grey, passing to 
blackish jost over the beak, also on the exterior web of the outermost 
tail-feathers and on the wing- primaries ; ear-coverts, and around the 
eye, with the vent and lower tail-coverts, albescent grey : bill and feet 

Respecting the remaining semi-described species of oriental Dicruri- 
d€C, I have no information to contribute. 

Artamus^ Vieillot : Ocypterus, Guv. ; Leptopteryx, Horsfield. I do not 
range this very peculiar genus here from any belief in its affinity for the 
DicntridtB, but simply because I have no idea where else to place it. It 
is chiefly an Australian group, though one species inhabits the Philip- 
pines, another Java, and a third occurs throughout India. This is the 
A./useus, Vieillot, and Oeypterus rufiventer of Valenciennes, referred to 
0. leucorhynckos in P. Z. S. 1839, p. 158. It is also the Murasiny* 
Chatterer, and Broum-coioured Swallow, var. A, of Latham. An allied 
form, the Analcipus hirundinaceus, Swainson, was erroneously assign- 
ed to India by that author. f A. fuscus has quite the same habits 
as the various Australian species observed by Gould : except that 
I coald never hear of its clustering in the very singular manner 
stated of A, sordidus ; f . e. a number of them clinging together, like 
a swarm of bees, even to the size of a bushel- measure, pendent 
from a high and bare branch of a tree. In other respects, Mr. Qould's 
description of the habits of A. sordidus might be transferred to the 
Indian species. Wherever a high tree rises above its fellows, and projects 
a bare or dead branch commanding a wide view around, there may 
commonly be seen a party of these birds, one minute sitting together 
in a close row, anon sallying forth in quest of insects, and soon return- 
ing (each separately and independent of the movements of the rest.) to 
alight and perch together as before. Yet they are not very common, 

* Mispelt Murasing^ 
t Vide p. 45, ante. 

Digitized by 


300 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

but the parties are met with here and there, sometimes at long inter- 
vals through a tract of favourable country ; but wherever they are seen, a 
number of specimens may be procured with the greatest facility. 

Laniada, Of the true Shrikes (Lanius), the following Indian species 
may be enumerated. 

I. L. lahtora, Sykes; L. excubitor, var. C, Latham : Doodea lahtora 
(< Milky Shrike'), Hind. This differs from L. excubitor in having a 
narrow black frontal band, and in the secondaries having their whok 
inner webs, and a broad tip and margin to the terminal half of their 
outer webs, white. It does not seem to occur in Lower Bengal ; nor 
have I seen it from the Himalaya, or from the countries eastward : but 
it is of general occurrence on the plains of Upper India and the Northern 
portion of the peninsula, extending to Scinde, and it is likewise found 
at Rajmahl. 

There is a remarkable specimen in the Museum, with the habitat of 
which I am unacquainted, and which is probably not Indian : but it 
seems to be a new species, and as such may be here described : — 

L. longipennis, nobis. A large grey Shrike, with a fine blush on the 
under-parts, a very broad black frontal band, and singularly long 
straight wings, having the first primary very short, and the second near- 
ly as long as the third. It is, therefore, a Lanius of Vigors, as opposed 
to his CoUurio ; to which latter all the other Indian species belong, 
even L. Hardwickii. Length about eight inches and a half, of wing 
four and three-quarters, its first primary but seven* eighths of an inch ; 
and middle tail-feathers three and three-quarters, the outermost three- 
quarters less : bill to gape seven-eighths ; and tarse an inch. Upper- 
parts ash-grey, darker and less pure than in L. excubitor and L. lahtora, 
except over the rump ; throat, middle of belly, and lower tail-coverts, 
white ; the rest of the under-parts subdued white, with a roseate blosh ; 
broad frontal band to a level with the eyes, and streak comprising the 
ear- coverts, black ; wings and tail duU black ; the basal third of the 
primaries white, forming a wing-band ; tertiaries slightly tipped with 
the same ; and outermost tail-feathers wholly white, the penultimate 
with only a dark spot on its inner web, and a dark shaft, with a narrow 
contiguous stripe on its outer web, and the two next tail-feathers white 
at base and tip ; the ante- penultimate more broadly so. Bill black, with 
white spot at extreme base of lower mandible ; and legs brown-black. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds, 301 

The following is a series of allied species, certain of which have not 
hitherto been distinguished. 

L. schach, lin. : L. bentet, Horsfield, Lin. Trans. XIII, 144 ; Lesson, 
in Belanger's ' Voyage/ Length eleven inches or less, of wing four and 
one-eighth, and of middle tail-feathers five inches to five and three- 
quarters, the outermost an inch and three-quarters to two inches short- 
er. Head and neck ashy, passing to whitish on the vertex, tinged 
with rufous on the back, and passing to bright light rufous on the rump, 
upper tail- coverts, scapularies, and flanks : lower-parts delicate rufoud- 
white, whitest on the throat and middle of belly : a very broad frontal 
band, and streak through the eyes, comprising the ear-coverts, deep 
black : wings also black, with lufescent- whitish margins to the tertiaries, 
and white edge anteriorly : and the tail black, with rufescent- white tips 
often obsolete on its middle feathers, and successively more developed to 
the outermost ; the two or three outside feathers merely blackish, and 
margined round with light rufescent, which colour predominates on the 
outermost feather of all. Described from three Ghusan specimens, which 
seem to be identical in species with the Javanese bird. This is the 
largest species of the sub-group, and is particularly distinguished from 
the others by having the black band on its forehead fully five-eighths 
of an inch broad. 

2. L. nigriceps, Franklin : L, nasutus, Scopoli, and L, antiguanus, La- 
tham, both founded on Sonnerat's figure of his Pie-gri^che d'Antigue; but 
the former name is objectionable, as referring to an individual deformity 
of the specimen figured, and the latter, as likely tp convey the idea that it 
is a West Indian bird, from th/e more familiarly known island of Antigua, 
instead of the province of Antigue in Panay. It is also L. tricolor , 
Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1837, p. 446; and /ntftan Shrike, Latham. This 
species is at once distinguished by having the whole cap black. The 
rufous hue of its upper-parts varies much in depth, and many have the 
nape more or less ashy. Inhabits all northern and central India ; being 
common in the Soonderbuns of Bengal, and on many of the churrs (or 
alluvial banks and islands) in the Ganges and its branches. It is also 
common in Assam, Sylhet, Tipperah, and Arracan. 

3. L. tephronotus, Vigors, P. Z. S. 1831, p. 43: L. nipalensis, 
Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1837, p. 445 : Grey-backed Shrike of Latham. Size 
of the last species : wing three inches and three-quarters. Colour of 

Digitized by 


302 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

upper-parts dusky -grey, faintly washed with rufous on the back in most 
specimens ; the rump and upper tail-coverts dark rufous : lores and 
streak through the eyes, black ; as also the feathers immediately impend- 
ing the nostrils in fine adults : a slight pale streak over the eye, more or 
less developed : throat, fore-neck, and middle of belly, white ; the rest 
of the under-parts rufous. The females and young have the breast, 
flanks, and sides of the neck, rayed more or less with dusky : wings 
dusky, with rufescent margins to the tertiaries and coverts, more or less 
developed ; and tail nearly uniform brownish, with its outer feathers and 
the tips of all paler. Common in Nepal and Bengal, and has been re- 
ceived from Tipperah and Arracan ; frequenting the same haunts as the 
last species. 

4. L. erythronotus. Vigors and Gould (nee Jerdon). Wing three 
inches and five-eighths to three and three-quarters : middle tail-feathers 
four and a half to five inches. Has a broad black frontal band, three- 
eighths of an inch and upwards ; a dark ash-coloured head and nape, 
a little albescent in some towards the frontal band ; and sometimes the 
whole back deep rufous up to the neck, at other times the upper back 
is merely tinged with rufous. A good distinction from the next species 
consists in the broad black streak through the eyes bemg continued for 
some distance beyond the ear-coverts, instead of terminating with them. 
Appears peculiar to the NW. Himalaya. 

5. L. caniceps, nobis. Nearly similar to the last but smaller; the 
black frontal band much narrower ; the grey of the head much paler, 
and spreading considerably more upon the back, becoming also much 
more whitish towards the front and over* the black eye-band : below, 
the breast is whiter, and the rufous of the flanks more defined ; and 
above, this is often confined to the rump and upper tail-coverts, and the 
posterior scapularies only ; whereas in L, erythronotus (verus), the entire 
scapularies seem to be always deep rufous, and sometimes the whole in- 
terscapulary region, which is never more than tinged with rufous in the 
present species. Wing three inches and three-eighths to three and a 
half, and middle tail-feathers four and a half. A marked indmdnud 
variety of this species — with grown tail only three inches and three- 
quarters long, the whole back and scapularies grey, and scarcely 
any rufous on the flanks, (but its plumage altogether much abraded)— 
I referred doubtfully to L, minor, in X, 841. The present is the 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 303 

L, erythronotus apud Jerdon and others, of India generally ; extend- 
ing to Scinde on the west, and eastward it would appear to inhabit 
Assam, as Dr. Horsfield remarks of the Assamese bird that—" compar- 
ed with the figure in Gould's ' Century of Himalayan birds/ it is con- 
aiderably smaller, and the colours are more dull than in the Himalayan 
bird." It also occurs in Arracan, and in the Rajmahl hills in Bengal, 
but not lower towards the mouth of the river. 

Col. Sykes remarks, of the L. erjfthronotus of his list of Dukhun 
species, that " this bird differs from L. bentet, Horsf., only in the crown 
being ash-coloured instead of black, and in the defined black bar across 
the forehead." L. schach (v. hentet), however, as described by Dr. 
Horsfield, has no black crown, but a black forehead C*L.fronte lateribus 
colli alis cauddque nigris, vertice dorsoque griseis,** 8(c), L. erythronotus 
and L, hentet are successively larger than L, caniceps, with a suc- 
cessively broader black frontal band : but in other respects all three 
bear a near resemblance ; L, nigriceps chiefly differing in its black cap, 
which indeed constitutes its only marked distinction from L. erythro^ 
notus ; and among some birds which Lord Arthur Hay collected in the 
vicinity of Benares, is a specimen which has every appearance of being 
a hybrid between these two : it has the cap mingled fuscous and ashy, 
and the forehead above deep black as in L. erythronotus. We may ac- 
cordingly look for the latter species at that distance from the Himalaya, 
probably as a cold season visitant. 

6. L. phanicurus, Pallas : L. cristatus, Lin., founded on Edwards' 
figure (but the species is not crested); L. rutilus, var. A., and L. 
superciliosus, var. A, Latham : L. melanotis, Valenciennes : and L. 
ferrugicepst Hodgson, Ind, Rev, 1837, p. 446. Brown, with more rufous 
head, tail, and its upper coverts ; streak over the eye and the throat 
white, and the rest of the under- parts whitish with a fulvous tinge : lores 
and ear-coverts, forming a broad band through the eye, dull black. 
Females and young much rayed. This is one of the commonest of Indian 
birds, and as its particularly harsh chattering affords one of the earliest 
intimations of the advent of the cold season in Calcutta, its note is then 
far more acceptable than is warranted by the music of it. A few indi- 
viduals, however, are procurable at all seasons within a few miles. This 
species is also common on the eastern side of the Bay of Bengal, ex- 
tending southward to the Straits : where it is found together with the 

Digitized by 


304 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

£. superciliosus and with L. tigrinus of the Diet. Class, (y. L. magni' 
rostris. Lesson, and L. strigatus, Eyton). Another allied species, but 
inhabiting farther eastward in the Philippine Isles, is the L. lucionensis, 
Lin. I mention these to shew that I do not confound them.* 

A marked variety of L. melanotis (for it can scarcely be admitted as a 
separate species) was found abundantly by Capt. Boys in the country 
lying between Scinde and Ferozepore. It is distinguished by its pale co- 
louring, a predominant dull sandy-grey, scarcely tinged with rufous, : 
except on the rump and tail ; the lores being whitish (in a male and 
female presented to the Society by Captain Boys), but with a slight 
black spot adjoining the orbit above. If regarded as new, L. arenarhts, \ 

7. L. Hardwickii, Vigors : Bay -backed Shrike, Latham. Of this beau- 
tiful species, some females perhaps resemble the males ; but they usually 1 
differ in their generally duller colours, in the total absence of the black j 
upon the forehead, and over and before the eye, while the ear-coverts 
are nearly brown-black : some of them have a grey head and neck, not • 
however very pure ; and others a brown head and neck, the latter having 
also rays on the under-parts. This Shrike is common in most parts of 
the country from the Himalaya southward, but does not occur below ^ 
the Rajmahl hills in Bengal, and I have never seen it from the < 
countries eastward. | 

Tephrodornis, Swainson. To this genus must be referred — ] 

1 . T, sylvicola, Jerdon, Catal. S. India. 

2. T,pelvica: Tenthaca pelvica, Hodgson, Ind, Rev, 1837, p. 447. { 
Nepal, Tipperah, Arracan. 

3. T. gularis; Lanius gularis. Raffles : L. virgatus,f Tem. Ma- 
lacca, Sumatra. 

These three species are very closely allied. The last is distinguished 
by its small size, and otherwise resembles T. pelvica. Length of wing 
three inches and seven- eighths. In the two others the wing measures 

* There is a L. ferox deBcrihed in the Diet, Class.t from Java, which I cannot iden- 
tify ; probably a female or young bird of its species. Also L. vittatus, Val., assigned 
to India, but with which I am unacquainted; the latter is probably not a true Lammt: 
L. collurioides of Lesson, in Belanger's Voyage, is described from Pegu.— Mr. Strick- 
land suspects that L» tigrinus (v. magnirostriSf) is probably a variety of L. phanieu' 
rus ; but it is a well marked distinct species. 

t Misprinted vfi^^a^titf, in the Diet, Class, 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Kmowm Species of Birds. 305 

four inches and a half: the male of T. syhneola having the head dark ash- 
colour, and that of T, pelviea light grey ; an invariable distinction. 

4. T. pomUeeriima, (Gm.) : Lmuus keromla. Gray ; L. mMseipetoides, 
Franklin ; L. griseus, Hckell ; L. sordidus. Lesson ; MusekapaphUippensis 
of India, Liatham ; Tephr. s^ercUiosus, Swainson ; probably Tenthaea 
kwmrusy Hodgson, Ind. Rev. 1887, p. 447. A very common Indian 
bird and generally diffused. 

5. T, grisole, nobis, XII, 180 (his). I killed an adnlt female of 
this bird with the same shot that brought do^mi a young one of the pre- 
ceding species, and I have never since met with it here : but the Society 
has recently received an undoubted specimen from Java, and another 
from Penang, so that the species has probably been named by M. Tem- 

Hemipus, Hodgson, Ann. Mag. N. H. 1845, p. 203. This genus 
n founded on a near affine to the Musdcapa picata, (Sykes) : but 
a more typically characteristic species is 

1. H. obseurus; Musdcapa obseura, Horsfield : M. hirundinaceus, 
Reinwardt; Tephrodomis hirundinaceus, Swainson. Common in the 
Malay countries. This bird was referred to Tephrodomis by Mr. 
Swainson, and subsequently by Mr. Strickland ; and there can be no 
doubt of its affinity for that group ; but its generic relationship is with 
H. pieatus and H. capitalis. I observe that different specimens of this 
bird vary remarkably in length of bill ; thus, of two males before me, one 
has the bill fully a fourth longer than that of the other ; but interme- 
diate specimens prove their identity, and there is not the slightest differ- 
ence in other respects. In the short-billed specimen, that organ is in 
form and size absolutely similar to that of the larger-billed examples of 
the Indian species. 

2. H. picaia, (Sykes): Musdcapa tyrannides, Tickell, II, 574 ; Muse, 
hintndinacea of Jerdon's list.* Common in the hilly regions of Central 
and Southern India, and in Arracan. 

3. H. capitalis, (M'Clelland,) P. Z. S. 1839, p. 157: H. picacolor, 
Hodgson.f Very closely allied to the last (indeed I am not satisfied 

• Mr. JerdoB Boggetti that Muse* variegata, Auct., is perhaps the female of this 
biid.«»l#. maculaia, Tickell, Mr. Strickland suspects to be the European M. atrica- 
piUa (▼. iuctuosa. Tern.), pertaining to another group of Flycatchers. 

t Dr. McClellond's coloured figure (unpublished) of his Muse. eapUaUs is decided- 
ly Mr. Hodgson's bird, not very well reprssonted. 

2 s 

Digitized by 


306 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

of the propriety of its separation) ; but the back and scapularies appear 
always to be of a pitchy- brown colour instead of green-glossed black; 
while the cap of the male is as black as in the other, and in the female 
18 marked by a blackish tinge: the tail, too, is, I think, generally somewhat 
longer, and the scapularies are often more or less brown, like the back. 
Inhabits Nepal and about Daijeeling, as also Assam. 

A closely allied diminutive of these is the Muscicapula meldnoieues, 
nobis, XII, 940 : a species common in the Himalaya and in Arracan, 
and which the Society has lately received from Java, so that M. Tern, 
minck has probably named it. By this and other MuscicapuUc, the 
present group would be linked to the various black- billed blue Flycatch. 
ers ; but I cannot pass conveniently to these just now. 

Laiage, Boie. This genus connects the preceding birds with the Gram- 
culince. I know but of two species, the L. orienialis Gm., v. Turdut 
striga. Raffles, and Sylvia leucophcsa, Vieillot, — and another nearly 
allied, but without the white supercilium, and shewing less white on 
the distal half of the wing, from Australia ; this I take to be Campe- 
phaga leucomela of Vigors and Horsfield, Lin. Tr, XV, 215, — those 
authors describing only a mutilated female. 

GrauctUus, Cuv. The G. papuensis, Cuv. (v. Maeei, Lesson, and 
nipalensis, Hodgson, If^d. Rev. 1837^ p* 327*) is a tolerably common 
bird throughout India, as well as eastward of the Bay. Wing six 
inches and a half, and tail five and a half. Cehlepyris javensis, 
Horsfield^ is perhaps distinct, as Mr. Strickland writes me word that 
its wing measures but six inches, and total length ten inches instead 
of a foot* 

Campephaga, Vieillot : CeblepyriSy Cuv. 

1 . Cfimbriata, (Tern.) apud Strickland (in epistold) : Laniussilens, 
(Tickellt); Volvocivora melaschistos, Hodgson ; Grauculus macuhsus, 
M'Clelland and Horsfield; Ceblepyris lugubriSs SundevaW ; Blue-grey 
Thrush of Latham. Tolerably common in Bengal, Nepal, Assam, 
and in Central India ; but has not hitherto been observed south of 

* Mr. Jerdon remarks of the ladian species — *' It appears doubtfal if this be 
the true papuensis — if not, it is perhaps the Or. Macei of Lesson." Madr.JMm. 
No. XXXI, p. 122. 

t The South African L. silens of Levaillant is a true Curruca^ of which Mr. Strick- 
land has lately favoured the Society with a fine specimen. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 307 

2. C. melanopiera, nobis, n. s. Nearly allied to the next, but larger, 
and of a deep ash-grey colour, paler on the belly, and passing to white 
on the lower tail.coverts ; the wings wholly black ; and tail the same, 
with large white tips to its outermost and penultimate feathers, and 
successively smaller ones to the rest. Bill and feet black. Length 
about eight inches, of wing four and a quarter, and tail four inches, 
its outermost feather an inch shorter than the middle ones. Discover* 
ed in Arracan (with so many other new species) by Capt. Phayre. 

3. C. Sykesi, (Strickland), Ann. Mag, N. H. 1844, p. 36: Cebl. 
fimMatus apud Jerdon, and probably C. canus apud Sykes (the 
young) : Eastern Thrush of Latham. Adults of either sex of this 
species have the body light pure ashy; the head, neck, and breast, 
deep black; the lower breast and abdomen pale grey, passing gra^ 
dually to white on the lower tail-coverts, &c. The young (or appa. 
rently one-year old birds) have the head grey, like the back; the 
throat and the entire under- parts whitish, with dusky cross-rays, and 
the rump also rayed less distinctly. It is about equally common in 
Lower Bengal with C^fimbriata, perhaps rather less so; I have never 
seen it from the Himalaya, or the countries eastward, and it seems 
to be tolerably common in Southern India. 

A Ceblepyris cinereuSy Lesson, from Java, is described in the * Zoo* 
logie du Voyage de M. Belanger,' of which I have taken the follow- 
ing rough note. Length eight inches. Bill robust, hooked, toothed, 
dilate at borders ; wings short, scarcely passing the croup. Tail of 
mean length, rounded as in the others. Colour ash-grey above, be- 
Death whitish-grey ; a little brown spot before the eyes; wings brown, 
the primaries slightly edged with white, and secondaries tipped with 
pale grey* Approaches the Shrikes in form of wings, tail, and tarse ; 
and the Ariami and Drongos in its beak. 

There is also a CebL culmintUus, A. Hay, from Malacca, described 
in the Madr, Journ. No. XXXI, 157. 

The following species, from the Isle of France, I presume to be Tanagra 
capensis, Om., referred to Campephaga in the Diet. Class. The beak 
is much stouter than in the Indian species, also straighter, and more 
strongly toothed at tip, but not very strongly hooked : the tip of the 
lower mandible curves upward, to lock within the notch of the upper one. 
Length of an adult female nearly nine inches ; wing four and an eighth ; 

Digitized by 


308 Notices and DescfiptioM of various New [No. 172. 

and tail three and a half: bill to gape above an inch ; and tarae an indi. 
Upper:-part8 wholly deep cinereons, darker on the crown, and paler on: 
the rump and upper tail-coverts ; lores, and a streak beyond the eye, 
blackish-cinereous, surmounted by a slight whitish supereiliam ; 
wings blackish, the feathers margined with grey, and two or three of 
the primaries slightly with whitish ; winglet and coverts of the prima* 
ries wholly blackish, and anterior two-thirds of the wing white un- 
derneath ; the throat and lower tail-ooverts are white, the breast light 
ashy, with faint traces of cross-rays in the specimen ; belly slightly 
fulvescent white ; and the tail is black, its feathers successively more 
deeply tipped with white to the outermost ; form of the tail slightly 
graduated, its outermost feathers being half an inch shorter than the 
middle ones ; bill and feet dull black. A young male differs in having 
its upper-parts tinged with rufous^brown, deepening considerably on 
the rump ; breast and belly also with ferruginous patches ; tibial fea- 
thers the same ; and I am informed that the old male has the under- 
parts light ferruginous. Gmelin describes his TVina^ra capenais to be 
yellowish, and such is likely to be the case with a still younger spe- 
cimen than the male here noticed. 

In XI, 463, 1 described a species from the island of Luzon, by the 
name Ceblepyris ccerulescens. This is a very interesting bird, from 
its close affinity for Irena, which genus I had considered to approxi- 
mate to the Grauculinte, previously to remarking the affinity of this par- 
ticular species. In the female and immature plumage of Irena, the 
resemblance to the Graueulince is seen more especially. Campepka^ 
coerulescens is probably allied to C. cinerea, (Lesson), just noticed; 
having a larger and stouter bill than the Indian species, more as in 
Irena, only that the tip is more abruptly hooked and emarginated. 
Size and general characters of Irena, but the rump-feathers spinooa 
to the feel, and the tail sub^uadrate, except that its outermost fea. 
thers are three-eighths of an inch shorter than the penultimate, which 
latter are also very slightly shorter than the rest. This bird might 
be regarded as the type of a new division, to which C cinerea should 
also probably be referred. 

Irena, Horsfield. A curious distinction between the Indian and 
Malayan /. pueHa, auetorum, has been pointed out by Lord Arthur 
Hay ; to whom we are indebted for the discrimination of numerous 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds, 309 

other closely allied species. In Ihe Malayan bird, the under tail, 
coverts reach quite to the end of the tail ; while in L indica, A. Bay, 
they are never less than an inch and a quarter short of the tail-tip 
in the males, and generally an inch and a half short in the females. 
I have verified this observation upon so many examples from both 
regions, that there can be no doubt of the fact ; and the Arracan 
Irena, and I think also the Tenasserim one, are identical with that 
of India. A third beautiful species (!> cganogastra, VigO> from the 
Philippines, has been recently figured by Mr. O. R. Gray, 

Pericrocotus, Boie : Phcenicornis, Swainson ; Acts, Lesson. This 
genus has been approximated by Mr. Swainson and others to the 
GrauculincB; but the affinity is not particularly close. The follow- 
ing species are comprehended — 

1. P. miniatMS, (Tem.) Malay countries. (Non vidij. 

2. P. speeiosus; Turdus speciosus. Lath.: Muscipeta princeps, 
Vigors and Gould. Himalaya, hill ranges of Central India^ and 
sparingly those of South India; common in Arracan, and extends 
southward to the Malayan peninsula. A few visit Lower Bengal in 
the cold season. 

3. P.flammetis ; Muscicapaflammea, Forster, figured in Pennant's 
' Indian Zoology,' also in Swainson's Illustrations, and more recently 
by Mr. Jerdon : M, sub/lava, Vieillot ; Phcenicornis elegans, (?) 
McClelland and Horsfield, P. Z. 5. 1839, p. 156 ; August Flycatcher of 
Latham, but the preceding species also referred to. Hab. South India 
and Ceylon. The description and unpublished figure of P. elegans, 
from Assam, would seem to indicate this species of Southern India. 

4. P. brevirostris ; Muscipeta brevirostriSy Vigors and Gould. 
Himalaya, and more sparingly the hill ranges of Central and Southern 

5. P. igneus, nobis : Malayan P. Jiammetis, auctorum, and pro. 
bably of Temminck, p. c. 263.* Size small, barely larger than P. 
peregrinus, the wing measuring but two inches and seven-eighths, 
and the rest in proportion ; bill to gape five-eighths, and tarse nine- 
sixteenths of an inch- Colour as in P. speeiosus, except that the outer 
tail-feathers are less deeply red, and the wing. band is proportionally 

* If this be the Muse, jffammea of Dr. Honfield's Javanese list, it would account 
for hia describing what appears to be the irvtejiammea from Assam, by another 

Digitized by 


310 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

smaller ; the fore-part of the wing underneath, with the band as there 
seen, is deep yellow, and the axillaries are yellow, irregularly tipped 
with red. Altogether the red is of a shade more igneous than in P. 
speciosus, but considerably less so than in P,flammeus. The female 
I have not seen. Described from Malacca specimens. 

6. P. Solaris,* nobis, it. s. Length about seven inches and a half, of 
wing three and three-eighths, and tail four inches ; bill to gape five, 
eighths, and tarse nearly five-eighths. Male fuliginous-ashy above, 
verging to black on the wings, and quite black on the tail ; the rump, 
wing-spot, greater portion of the three outer tail-feathers, and the 
under, parts, bright reddish flame-colour (or as in P. Jlammeus) ; 
throat orange. yellow, and the ear-coverts pale grey: bill and feet 
blackish. The female has the head dark ashy, like the male, but the 
back olive-green, and the flame-colour of the male is replaced by 
yellow ; sides of the throat whitish. The bill of this species is broader 
and shorter than in the others. It is common at Darjeeling. 

7. P. roseus; Muscicapa rosea, Vieillot: Phcenicornis affinis, 
McClelland and Horsfieldt. Not rare in Lower Bengal ; and occurs 
also in Assam, Arracan, and in the forests of Malabar. 

8. P, peregrinus ; Parus peregrinus, Lin. India generally. 

9. P. erythropygius ; Muscicapa erythropygia, Jerdon : Cawnpare 
Flycatcher, and Turdus speciosus, var. B., of Latham. — South India, 
Upper Bengal. (?) This is a very aberrant species, and even separable 
as a subgroup ; deviating, as remarked by Mr. Jerdon, in ** its more 
depressed bill, weaker legs and feet, and in the mode of variation of 
the female. In its colour," he adds, *' the male resembles most of the 
species of PericrocotuSy except in having a white stripe on the wings, 
and on some of the tail-feathers. The female differs from the male 
in having ashy.brown instead of glossy-black, and cinereous. white 
where the male has bright orange-red. The irides also are light- 
coloured." It seems, in fact, to be an intermediate form between 
Pericrocolus and Hemipus of Hodgson (p. 305 ante) ; near which latter 
Mr. Jerdon formerly arranged it, considering it allied to H. picaiusX, 

• Id some collectionB which have gone to Europe, I have called this speciet P. 
Aavogularis, MS, 

t Identified from Dr. McClelland's unpublished figures. 

X Add» as a doubtful member of the group, P/uBnicomist aureopygia, A. Hay, from 
Hongkong; Madr, Joum, No. XXXI, 158: also, probably, Lanius crttentus of the 
Diet, Class, D'Hist, NaU^ from Java. 

Digitized Jay 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 311 

Eurylaimua, Honfield. This group, the geographic limitB of which, 
according to Mr. Swainson, *' seem to be restricted to the hottest parts 
of India/' is only admissible into the Fauna Indica from the occur- 
rence of two Himalayan species^ the range of both of which extends to 
Assam, Sylhet, and Arracan. These birds are the Raya sericeogula 
and R. rubropygia of Mr. Hodgson, J. A, S. VIII. 36; the former 
standing as Psarisomus Dalhousia, (Jameson) Sw., and the latter 
falling under Mr. Swainson's Serilophus, being very closely allied to S. 
lunatus, (Gould), for which it was mistaken in Proe. ZooL Soc. 1839, 
p. 156. The differences are as follow : — 5. lunatus has the whole upper, 
parts rufescent, including the crown and cheeks ; and it exhibits a re- 
markable structure of the tips of its primaries, the third and fourth 
especially, which terminate in acute points, as if artificially clipped, 
while the secondaries and tertiaries are truncate, and strongly emar. 
ginate at tip; moreover the third and fourth primaries are termi- 
nated by a large triangular white spot, and the secondaries and tertiaries 
have no white bar near the end of their outer webs:— *5. rubropygius 
has the upper- parts deep ash-colour, with a faint rufescent tinge on 
the back ; the primaries rounded at their tips, and narrowly termi- 
nated with white; the secondaries and tertiaries slightly truncate 
and emarginate at tips, with a triangular white spot near the end of 
the black outer web of each, beyond which the colour is bluish-grey. 
The white lunate mark tipping certain feathers of the sides of the neck 
is alike in both species, and does not seem to be a sexual distinction, 
but, I suspect, is attained after two or three moultings by both sexes. 
S. lunatus occurs in the Tenasserim Provinces, where also are found 
the Corydon sumatranus (which is the species described by Capt 
Hay, in X, 575), — Eurylaimus javanicus (the range of which extends 
northward to Arracan),— £u. ochromalus (v. cucullatus, Tem.), — and 
Cymbirhynchus nasutus (v. lemniscatus. Raffles), all common 
Malayan species, to judge from their frequency in collections from the 

Cymbirhynchus was separated by Mr. Vigors on account of the for. 
ward position of the nostrils and some other particulars; and Mr. 
Swainson lays much stress upon the vertical depth of its bill, which cer- 
tainly is a marked feature in the common Malayan and Tenasserim 
species (C. nasutus); but there is a very closely allied species in 

Digitized by 


312 Notices and Descriptions of various New [No. 172. 

Arracan, which, until I had obtained a good series of both, I declined 
to venture on distinguishing, but which I shall now designate 

C. afinis, nobis. In this, while the general characters and colouring 
are the same as in C. nasutus, the bill is invariably much smaller and 
flatter, as in the restricted Eurplaimi, but the nostrils are placed for. 
ward as in the other. The general dimensions are also less, the usual 
length of wing in C affinis being three inches and a half, rarely thre* 
and five^^ighths, and the middle taiU feathers three inches ; in C. namtius 
the wing measures three and seven-eighths to four inches, and the tail, 
three and five-eighths to three and three-quarters. C. affinis has also, 
constantly, an obloug red spot margining the tip of the outer web of 
two of its tertiaries, and a third margining the inner web of the up. 
permost tertiary : in what appear to be the females, the latter spot is 
red as in the supposed males, while the former are white : these spots 
do not occur in C. nasutus. Lastly, the white upon the tail is more 
developed in C. ejinis, and placed nearer the tips of the feathers: a 
white spot at the base of the inner primaries is also larger and more 
conspicuously shewn. 

If the affinity of the Eurytaimi with the South American Pipridas 
admit of doubt, the question would seem to turn on the relationship of 
the former for Calyptomena; for this Malayan genus appears truly to 
approximate to Pipra and more especially to Rupicola.* Mr. Swainson 
distinguishes two species of Calyptamena {Lardner's Cyehpcedia, * Me. 
nageries', p. 296), as C. Rafflesii and C. caudactUa; and he assigns 
India as the habitat of the latter, erroneously unless by that word he 
means vaguely '^ the East Indies'*, a term now rapidly and properly fall- 
ing into disuse. Notwithstanding, however, the difference in the form of 
the tail, and which is not so great as Mr. Swainson represents it, I feel 
satisfied that his C. eaudcteuta is the young of C. viridis. Raffles, who 
states that '* the female does not differ in appearance from the male." 
The tail is a little graduated in these presumed young birds, but I have 
never been able to recognise the pointed form of the feathers represent, 
ed by Swainson, nor the difference of size which he indicates ; indeed 

* Another Malayan genus with syndactyle feet, and which I have not yet i 
is the Crataionyx of Eyton, P. Z, S. 1839, p. 104: and to judge from the brief Latin 
definitions of his two species, Cr, JIavus and O. ater^ I think there is every reason 
to suppose them to be the sexes mer^y of the same species. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 313 

he adds, as a note, that he had entertained saspicions that C. catida- 
cuta was merely the young of the other ; but continues — " and yet the 
different form of its tail-feathers is so totally opposed to this supposi- 
tion, that until such a similarity" (meaning specifical identity) '' is 
established beyond all doubt, I must continue to hold the opinion 
here acted upon." That his C. caudaeuta is a bird in immature 
plumage, I feel no doubt whatever ; and I can only say, that I have 
again and again seen it associated with adult C. viridis in Malacca 
collections, the two being evidently intended by the dealers who 
prepare these collections for male and female of the same.* 

Near the Pipridce of course rank the AmpelidcB, to which Mr. 
Hodgson refers his genus Coehoa (since called by him Prosorinia), 
V, 359, XII, 450; but this remarkable genus wants one noted charac- 
ter of the Ampdidce, (including the Waxwings) and Pipridce, in 
common with various other South American groups, having the 
first primary but one third of the length of the second, which again is 
considerably shorter than the third. Of the two species, C. purpurea 
seems common in the S. £. Himalaya, as at Darjeeling ; C. viridis, 
decidedly rare. For a specimen of this latter beautiful bird, the 
Society is indebted to the lady of W. H. Oakes, Esq., C. S. ; and the 
late Mr. Webb, of Darjeeling, among numerous other specimens with 
which he favoured the Society (including Alcedo grandis. Accentor 
mollis, Pericrocotus Solaris, Troglodytes punctatus, Tesia pusilla, 
Pomatorhinus ferruginosus, Certhia discolor, Chleuasicus ruficeps, 
and other novelties yet to be described), obliged us with what is 
evidently a male, in nestling plumage, of C. purpurea^ which is 
worthy of a particular notice. The wings and tail are as in the 
adult male; but the back is quite black, the scapularies and smaller 
wing-coverts having a central brown spot on each feather ; coronal 
feathers broadly tipped with white, having a black margin at their 
extreme tips; a portion of the ear-coverts similarly marked with 
white ; and the entire are light ferruginous, with a broad 
black tip to each feather, less developed on those of the middle of the 
throat. The plumage of the back, scapularies, and under-parts^ recals 
to mind that of a young male English Blackbird. 

* Since writing the above, I have had an opportunity of examining several dozens; 
and should remark that I could find no instance of a transitional moult, or indeed of 
any moulting bird among them. 

2 T 

Digitized by 


314 Notices and Description of various New [No. 172. 

Po8T8CBiFT.*»A farther collection of Cingalese birds has just been re- 
ceived from Dr. Templeton, including some of considerable interest, — ^aa 
the Gallus stanleyi of Gray, hitherto I believe only known from Hard- 
wicke's published figure of the hen, — and the Tetras bicalcaratus of Pen* 
nant, which is quite distinct from the ' Curria Partridge' of Latham (Per- 
dijf benulasa, Val., v. Hardwickii, Gray, and Francolinus spadiceus. Ad. 
Delessart), but ranks with the latter and G, spadiceus in my genus GaUo- 
perdix, which represents, in India^ the Polyplectrons of the countries 
eastward, to which they are much more nearly allied than is generally 
suspected.'*' Col. Sykes thought he recognised the Gallus stanleyi in 
what he terms a short-legged variety of G. sonneratii, occurring at an 
elevation of 4000 feet above the sea on the Malabar coast ; but Mr. 
Jerdon and other subsequent observers know of but one species of 
jungle-fowl in that part of the country — the ordinary G. sonneratii, and 
the females of this bird have not (as Col. Sykes states) the " cartilagin- 
ous spots on the feathers," but young males have, when in plumage 
otherwise resembling that of the females. Moreover, G. stanleyi is 
quite as high on the legs as G, sonneratii ; and, lastly, Mr. Jerdon has 
found no indications whatever of G. sonneratii having ever been domes- 
ticated, such as would have appeared in the plumage of its tame de- 
scendants — or of its having mingled its blood with the ordinary domes- 
tic stock, as Col. Sykes' remarks lead me to suppose. 

It is worthy of notice that specimens of Acridotheres tristis from 
Ceylon are considerably darker-coloured than any I have seen from the 
mainland of India ; whence the contrast between the vinaceous-brown 
of the body and the blackish hue of the neck is very much less decided, 
and the white of the vent and lower tail-coverts is in like proportion 
more strongly contrasted with the blackish vinaceous colour of the 
breast and flanks. 

A similar relationship seems to hold between Dierurus leueopyyuUit 
(p. 298 ante) of Ceylon, and D. aerulescens of continental India : the 
latter I have never observed to vary ; but some specimens of the Cin- 
galese bird have the corresponding portion of the abdominal region albes- 

* This affinity is well exemplified by the general plumage of the females, and by 
the vertical carriage of the tail, as well as by the form of beak irregular number of 
spurs, &c. The Polyplectron NorthuB^ of Hardwicke*s ' Illustrations' is thus the 
female of OaUopercUse spadiceus. Ithaginis of Wagler, with which Mr. Q. B. Gnj 
confounds these birds, is an allied, but very distinct division. 

Digitized by 


1846.] or Little Known Species of Birds. 315 

cent, which in the continental race is pure white ; the upper-parts being 
also a shade blacker ; and the bill (as previously remarked) seems always 
to be more strongly falcate at tip than in 2>. carulescens. The average 
dimensions, too, of the continental race are decidedly greater. 

Pofnatorhinus horsfieldii of South India has an analogous representa- 
tion in P. melanurus, nobis, of Ceylon, which I shall describe with 
other species of this genus. Though approximating very closely, it is 
as well characterized as several admitted species of Malacocercus, 

From these and similar instances, it would appear as if several species 
had a tendency to become more intensely coloured towards the equator ; 
Gallus bankinus of Malacca is much deeper- coloured than that of India : 
and the difference of Halcyon capensis of India and of Malacca (pointed 
out in XIV, 190) is so marked that Mr. Jerdon proposes to oall the 
Indian bird H. brunniceps (Madr, Joum. No. XXXI, 143 ;) but if con- 
sidered distinct, it would" bear the prior name of H, gurial, (Lath.) 
Pearson, X, 633."*" Our little tailor-bird of India (Orthotomus longi- 
Cauda) occurs, but of a considerably darker colour, at Malacca, and to- 
gether with two other species of its genus, Orth, edela and 0. cinera- 
ceus, I could mention two or three more instances ; but nevertheless, 
in the great majority of cases, examples of the same species from the 
most various localities are absolutely similar.f 
(To be continued J 

Notes, chiefly Geological, from Seringapatam, by the Hegulla PasSy to 
Cannanore. By Caft. Nbwbold. 

The geology of the country around Seringapatam I have already no- 
ticed, j: Having passed its walls, my route lay westward over a strong, 
kunkerous, uneven, and rather sterile tract to Hussairpore (eighteen 
miles), on the banks of the Lachmi Thirth stream, a tributary to ihe 
Cauvery, where stands a ruined bungalow, built by the Hon. Arthur 

Hussairpore,— 'The formation is a micaceous gneiss with veins of 
quartz, and beds of the same mineral, evidently interstratified with the 
layers of gneiss. These beds, on weathering, leave the surface soil 

* The Malacca H, capensis is also smaller than its Indian representative. 
t On the question of the very close approximation of numerous allied species, tick 
Agassiz, in the Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, 1842, p. 97. 
X Madras Joamal, January 1840, pp. 129—33. 

Digitized by 


316 Noies, chiefly Geological, [No. 172. 

covered with their angular and rust-stained fragments. Glimmering 
hornblende rock, veined with milky quartz, and a pale flesh-coloured 
felspar alternate with the gneiss. The outgoings of two or three dykes 
of basaltic greenstone are passed on the roadside. The surface of the 
country from Seringapatam gradually rises as it approaches the ghauts. 

Periapatam. — This place is twenty-five miles westerly from Hus- 
sairpore, and forty-three miles from Seringapatam. It stands on the 
rise of the western ghauts from the table lands of Mysore, on the 
frontier of the wild territory of Coorg. To the west the scenery is 
mountainous and clothed with forest ; fifteen miles to the north rises 
Bettadapore to the supposed height of 6,000 feet, one of the loftiest 
summits of this part of the western ghauts : the elevation of Periapatam, 
barometrically calculated, is 4,000 feet above the sea's level. 

The country between Hussairpore and the ghauts is a succession of 
rocky risings and falls of the surface, covered for the most part with 
reddish alluvial soil, over the face of which are scattered numberless 
angular fragments of the surrounding rocks; especially white and 
iron-stained quartz, and occasionally kunker. Some of these alluvia 
have not travelled far, since we often find the colour of the surface 
soil a true index to the nature of the rock beneath : viz. dark-red or 
coffee-coloured soil over hornblende rock and trap ; light-red to sandy 
soil over gneiss and granite ; light greenish.grey over talc-schist, and 
white, or what is nearly white, over felspar and quartz rocks. 

The quartz beds, being usually harder than their neighbours, are 
written in white bas-relief characters over the face of the country. 
They never weather — like the felspars, hornblendes, and micaceous 
rocks — into clay, but usually break up into fragments by imperceptible 
fissures, into which water, impregnated with iron from the surrounding 
weathered rocks, soon insinuates itself and stains the rock. At length 
the particles, composing the fragments themselves, lose their cohesion, 
and break up into an angular gritty sand. 

In the low grounds, intervening between the rocky swells, is a black 
or dark-coloured mould, which I should hesitate to call regur. It ap- 
pears to me to be the result, first of vegetation produced by water rest- 
ing there (like the oases of the desert), and finally of artificial culture, 
manuring, &c. 

In these vallies flourish groves of palms and wild dates ; and here 
the ryot carries on his simple process of cultivation. 

Digitized by 


1846.] from Seringapatam, to Cannanare. 317 

At Periapatam itself, basaltic greenstone is seen in the bed of a 
nullah crossing the gneiss and hornblende rock, and veined with 
kunker. Large blocks of fine red granite are seen in the rained fort 
walls, brought evidently from no great distance. 

The ghaut line west of Periapatam presents a succession of round- 
backed hills and smooth knobs» which continue to Verajunderpetta in 
Coorg. Their surface is covered with dark vegetable mould, and 
shaded by a fine forest, the roots of which strike into the red loam or 
clay on which the vegetable mould rests. It produces excellent san. 
dal wood for which Periapatam is a depot. It was formerly the capital 
of Coorg, but fell under the Mysore Rajas in 1744, A. D. A little to 
the west, General Stewart in 1799, with two regiments of Europeans 
and three of Native Infiintry, repulsed the Mysorean army under the 
personal command of Tippoo. The fort was blown up during the 
preceding campaign in 1790 by Tippoo, in anticipation of General 
Abercrombie's advance from Cannanore. 

Verajunderpetta. — About eight miles from Periapatam the Mysore 
frontier is crossed into Coorg. The soil is so thick as to cover the 
rocks of the ghauts from observation in most part, and the dense forest 
adds to the difficulty of getting a good expos4 of the strata. In one 
place I saw gneiss veined with a fine crystalline reddish granite. Both 
rocks rapidly weather from the moisture and heat of the climate. 

A well, dug on the side of the road, exhibited a stratum of red 
clayey loam, about five feet thick, underneath which lay a bed of gra- 
velly local detritus ; about three feet below which, was gneiss with 
much silvery mica. The gneiss was penetrated by a large granite 
vein which appeared on the summit of the hill in blocks. This gra~ 
nite passed into pigmatite. Scattered blocks of hornblende rock, and 
basaltic greenstone also occur, the outgoings of dykes or beds. 

Laterite. — About seven miles east of Verajunderpetta, I first observ. 
ed laterite capping, and partially covering, a small round-topped hill. 
Its surface was bare, and cleared by the rains of the ochreous and 
lithomargic earths, which usually fill the cavities, and keep soft and 
sectile the weather-protected under-lay ers of this rock. It had almost 
the dark scabrous aspect of an iron slug in some parts, but in others, 
might be seen distinctly passing into the sectile lithomargic laterite, 
so much used in building. Like sandstones and other rocks, it varies 
in mineral composition even in the same mass— being, in one place, 

Digitized by 


318 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 172. 

argillaceous or felspathic ; in another, quartzose ; now^ so ferruginous 
as to pass into clay ironstone ; and at another time, presenting nothing 
but a bed of compact iithomarge. 

The soil in the flats and vallies, where the Coorgs cultivate rice, is 
generally of a pale ochreous colour ; and is clayey from the disintegra- 
tion of the felspars which prevail now in the hypogene rocks. Frag, 
ments of quartzy iron, aggregated garnets, and quartz, mica slate, 
schorl and kaolin were picked up loose on the road. 

Junction of laterite with granite. — The hill on which the Coorg 
Raja's palace stands at Verajunderpetta is of granite, capped with late- 
rite. This granite is composed of a brownish felspar, resembling that 
of Mount Horeb, of quartz, black mica, and hornblende. The line of 
superposition is seen on the descent towards the Portuguese Chapel. 
The granite is hard and crystalline at the junction, and not in the 
least soft or friable, as it would have been had the mass of laterite, 
which caps it, been nothing more than its weathered (in siid) upper 
portions ; as supposed by many theorists and speculators on the origin 
of this singular rock. 

Quarries of laterite, — At a little distance are the quarries whence the 
blocks of laterite used for building are excavated. The laterite here 
lies under a thick layer of moist turfy earth, which keeps its surface 
from hardening under the sun's rays or atmospheric exposure, and is 
80 soft and sectile as to be cut out with the Indian spade, like turf 
from a peat bog. 

The /onrn.*— The palace of Verajunderpetta was built only two 
generations ba<*k, by the then Raja of Coorg, whose name it now bears. 
It is a large building, partly in the European style, on the top of a 
hill or rising ground to the west of the Pettah. The portico is sup- 
ported by two elephants, twelve or fourteen feet high, constructed of 
stucco and brick, over iron frames. 

The woodwork, glazed windows, roof, and every thing about the 
palace, is finished in a massive style ; and convenient outhouses are 
enclosed, with the palace, within a high and massive wall. 

The town is said to contain about 300 houses, inhabited princi- 
pally by the Coorg Lingayet cultivators of the soil, a few Telingas, 
Bengalis, Mussulmans, and a flock of Roman Catholic Chrutians 
(about 100), under their Portuguese pastor. There are two Jw^m 

Digitized by 


1846.] from Seringapatam, to Cannanore. 319 

The honses are neat, usually thatched, and shaded hy a small ve- 
randah in front : all romantically situated in a sylvan amphitheatre, 
surrounded hy mountain peaks and ridges. 

It being market day, the bazar was so crowded that I could scarcely 
pass. Here were Mapillays groaning under bundles of odoriferous 
lalt-fish from Malabar and Canara, and hundreds of bullocks laden with 
salt fronoi Cannanore and Tellicherry, which is sold all over Mysore. 
Then came the Coorg market people from their sequestered villages, 
with bags of rice and paddy, baskets of eggs, fruits, fowls, dec. &c. 

The clean, neat, white dress of the Coorg females is pleasingly con- 
trasted with the gaudy dark petticoats of the wandering Brinjaris, 
who never wash or change this article of dress until it drops off, 
heavy with filth and vermin. 

The Coorg men generally wear a sort of smock-frock, like the Baju of 
a Malay or Bedouin woman, and usually go armed with their peculiar 
knives which serve as weapons of defence, and also to clear the jungles 
they daily tread. 

The larger of these knives (a sort of hatchet), is carried unsheathed 
in a brass socket, attached to the btelt on the right side ; the smaller is 
in front. 

The Coorg does not differ much in feature from the Mysorean^ but is 
invariably fairer, from the sandy forest and moist climate in which he 
lives. He is grave in manner, and in general studiously civil to Euro- 
peans. They are nearly all Lingayets, and I observed many of them 
worshipping the numerous images of the Indian Apis-Nundi, set up in 
in the recesses of the forest. 

Like the i\lalays, they usually live in separate campongs, on the 
edge of the rising swells which divide the rice fields, and which are 
well shaded by cocoa, jack, and other fruit trees. 

The HeggtUla Pass — From Verajunderpetta to the top of the Heg. 
gulla Pass, is about five miles of forest, ascent and descent, but rising 
on the whole to the edge of the pass at Bokerah. 

Gneiss — in some places overlaid with laterite and penetrated by 
dykes of basaltic greenstone — massive hornblende rock, and glimmering 
hornblende schist, are the rocks seen both in detached blocks, and tn 
sUH at this watershed of the great line of elevation. The dense na. 
ture'of the jungle and the rain which now began to pour down, were 
great obstacles to a full examination of the geological features of this 

Digitized by 


820 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No 172. ^ 

chain : a few angular blocks of a large grained, and a syenite, granite 
were also seen. 

The descent to the foot of the pass is about six miles, and extremely 
steep. At its upper extremity I observed in a road section, first a thin 
layer of dark vegetable mouldy then a thick bed of red clay, under 
which lay a stratum of laterite. Farther down in the pass, gneiss ouu 
cropped. Some of the cavities, in the laterite, contained a black bole. 

Fragments of white quartz, imbedding large crystals of felspar, often 
pinkish, were picked up imbedding a silvery- white mica, in large plates. 

Farther down the pass I did not see the laterite. Hornblende schist 
with garnets of a massive thick-bedded structure was the prevalent 
rock. This had often been blasted to improve the road ; and the beds 
of clay, which covered it, had been removed, exhibiting the different 
stages of weathering which this rock undergoes. 

Blocks of this kind not only often exhibit a concentric structure 
like that of granite, but still oftener a pseudo internal structure, from 
weathering internally in layers conformable to their exterior surfaces. 

Fragments, several feet in diameter, are seen thus weathered ; with 
nothing but a dark crystalline nucleus of the rock in its original state 
in the centre, to tell us what the variegated soft mass before us once 
was. Even the nucleus disappears before the ravages of this maladie 
dugranit in due time. 

This decay does not commence from the core, but from the exterior 
of the block, whence it sinks by successive phases from the circam- 
ference towards the centre. 

The effect of these different stages of decay is to produce, in the 
substance of the block, differently coloured bands, one within another, 
(like the lines of agate) often arranged around a nucleus of sound 
dark crystalline hornblende rock in the centre. The first band around 
this nucleus is of a grey colour, from the felspar whitening, and the 
segregation, &c. of the iron, which coloured it. The hornblende 
crystals are little affected, and the felspar is often seen running among 
them in whitish reticulation. 

The next band exhibits the rock in a state of greater decay. In 
this the hornblende crystals have commenced to oxidize; and, without 
mingling with the felspar, assume an orange-brown hue, still mottled 
slightly with dark specks This band has a mottled appearance, and 
resembles a w&thered granite. 

Digitized by 


1846.] /roM Seringapatam, to Cannanare. 321 

The third stage shows the felspar reduced to a white clay, and the 
oxidated hornblende crystals losing their shape, spreading their colour- 
ing matter in irregular patches through the clay. Where nests of 
garnets occur, their disintegration imparts a crimson.mottled appear- 
ance, often seen in the white lilhomargic earths of the ghauts. The 
faint violet, or lilac-coloured, spots result from the decay of amethystine 
qaartx or other minerals, impregnated with manganese which imparts 
this beauttfal colour : mica u^ially imparts a light 

Lastly, the whole of the colouring matter—iron, titanium, and man. 
ganese — become equally doused through the day, which is now either 
of a light ocfareous- brown colour, or reddish-brown, according to the 
greater or less ferruginous character of the rock. Where quartz prevails 
the decayed mass is more friable and earthy, and the colours are in 
general lighter than in the days resulting entirely from the disintegnu 
tion of felspar rock ; a fact probably to be attributed to the action of 
the alkali, contained in the latter mineral, on the metallic oxides. 

The red variety of clay prevails most on the hornblendic rocks 
of the Heggulla pass: near the base of the pass it lies in a stratum 
twelve feet thick, imbedding angular blocks of hornblende rock, fast 

It rests immediately on hornblende rock in siitl, and is covered by 
a light brown earth, of mixed alluvial and decayed vegetable matter, 
intersected by rooto of trees, shrubs and grasses, and three or four feet 

The roots of the larger forest trees descend into the clay bed, which 
is sometimes intersected by crumbly veins of white quartz, which may 
be seen continued into the substance of the clay from the subjacent 
bed of rock ; proving the disintegration to have taken place in siiti ; 
and that these clay beds are not the result, in general, of aqueous 
transportation. Where much iron and quartz prevail, the clay is apt to 
become cellular, an appearance which must not induce observers to 
confound it with true laterite. The pass is much steeper than those 
of Devamunni, Hossamucki, and Bisly, farther north, but is never- 
theless practicable for lightly laden bullocks. The Bombay army, in 
1791,. advanced towards Mysore by this route, and expended two days 
in dragging twenty light field guns up two miles, and three weeks 
to bring up fourteen battering guns with their tumbrils, none heavier 
than eighteen-pounders. Near the bottom of the pass, the true laterite 


Digitized by 


322 Notes, chiefly Geological, SfC. [No. 172. 

18 found, which, from the base, coven the low hills and knolls westerly 
to Vyathoor. 

Siany River : /ooi of Hegg%dla pass.-^ln the bed of this river lie 
large irregular blocks of massive hornblende rock with garnets, and a 
granite with both mica and hornblende, evidently rolled down (like 
those on the slope of the pass«) from the adjacent heights. The horn- 
blende rock is usually crystalline, but there occur globular masses of 
compact basaltic greenstone, with needle-shaped crystals of augite 
shooting irregularly through its substance ; those probably are from 
some large dyke in the vicinity. The garnet occurs both massive, 
dodecahedral, and semi-foliated ; the last is the most common variety. 

Fyathoor. -^The Coorg frontier is crossed into Malabar, close to the 
Stony river, from which the first Malabar village, Vyathoor, is about 
five and a half miles distant, and about twenty-nine and a half miles 
inland from Gannanore. The adjacent country is rocky, and covered 
with jungle: laterite continues capping the granitic and hypogene 
rocks, principally granitic hornblende schist. The beds of the mountain- 
streams abound with fragments of garnet. I found none of the crystal- 
lized specimens of any magnitude. Magnetic iron-sand also is found 
in their beds in small quantities. The Moplay town of Ercoor lies 
about eleven miles farther, on a fine clear stream, called the Rokaat, 
which debouches near Mount Delli at Markaree. The houses have 
upper stories, are built of laterite, and have a remarkably substantial 
and neat appearance. 

Cudulfy.^^ThiB place is about ten miles inland from Gannanore. 
The surface of the country is rugged and uneven, with low hills and 
clifb of laterite, and still covered with luxuriant jungle. In many 
places the jungle has been fired, leaving the black precipitous tabular 
masses of laterite, which cap them, exposed. The hornblende schist is 
still seen in low situations. Black pepper, betel and rice, are exten- 
sively cultivated. 

Caitnanor^.— -Nearer Gannanore, passes are cut through high diOt of 
laterite, and steps planed down the sides of the terraces, which descend 
towards the sea coast. Hornblende schist veined with quarts is still 
seen as the underlying rock. At Gannanore, the laterite terminates in 
high, sea- washed cliffs. 

Digitized by 




On the Coins of the Independent Muhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal, 
By J. W. Laidlat, Esq.* Co-Secretary Asiatic Society, 

Some months ago, as most of the readers of this Journal are perhaps 
aware, the greater part of the collection of ancient coins belonging to 
the Asiatic Society was abstracted horn the Moseom, and along with 
these, a valuable gold medal, the gift of the present Bmperor of Russia. 
About the time when this unfortunate event occurred, I was engaged in 
arranging a series of the coins of the independent Muhammadan sove- 
reigns of Bengal, and had reason to believe, that with the assistance of 
the Society's cabinet, which contaiaed many rare and unique specimens 
of that type, I should succeed in filling the gaps in my own collection, 
and render the series tolerably complete. As misfortunes, however, 
rarely happen singly, it occurred that just about the same time, my own 
little cabinet sustained a similar loss. At a moment of neglect,-— for 
we have in general but our own negligence to blame for mishaps of this 
nature, — ^nearly the whole of my gold and silver coins, including many 
nniques, and almost all of the series now under consideration, a series 
which had employed many years and much labour to collect, were 
purloined from my cabinet, those of copper only being spared to me, 
as being of too little intrinsic value to be worth the labout of removal. 

No. 173. No. 89. New Seriis. 2 x 

Digitized by 


324 On the Coint of the Independent [No. 173. 

The ooins which record the names of the obscure Muhammadan 
dynasties of Bengal have, it must be confessed, nothing in common with 
the high interest attached to the relics of ancient India and Bactria, 
which bring us in contact with times and persons of classical renown ; 
or illustrate those dark but profoundly interesting periods in the world's 
history, upon which the light of tradition fells but dimly. Yet, even in- 
dependently of their more important use in correcting or in confirming 
the narrative of the historian, they have an interest of their own in their 
very rarity, which is such, that it is far easier to procure the coins of 
Alexander or his successors, than those of the Sultans of Bengal, of 
whom indeed few other monuments, and scarcely even these, remain. Of 
Oour, or Laknauti, the once vast and magnificent seat of their govern- 
ment, the capital whose wealth and splendour chumed for it the title of 
the ' seat of paradise,' scarce a vestige is ta be seen : over its entire site, 
once instinct with thronging multitudes, nature has resumed her quiet 
sway, and the last traces of the mighty city are fast disappearing under 
the peaceful labours of the husbandman. 

It is with the view of preserving a few authentic memorials of a dynasty 
of kings, of whose history so little is known, that I venture to submit 
a series of such coins as escaped the disasters above alluded to, or were 
happily figured before them. Some of these are in less perfect preser- 
vation than is desirable ; but let us hope, that such collectors as may be 
in possession of better specimens, will be induced to supply impressions 
of them, by means of which, these defects may be remedied on some 
future occasion. 

The first of the Muhammadan rulers of Bengal who attained any 
thing approaching to real independence was Iliyas Shah, who success- 
fully resisted the arms of Feroz Shah, and concluded a treaty of peace 
with that Emperor at Akdala, a. h. 757. He caused the coin of \m 
kingdom to be struck in his own name, the least equivocal sign of inde- 
pendent soveieiglity, without experiencing that immediate interference 
on the part of the Emperor of Delhi which attended all similar manifes- 
tations of his predecessors. In this respect, as well as in the permanence 
of his dynasty, IHyas Shah must be regarded as the first independent 
Sultan of Bengal ; for his predecessor Fakhar ud-din, who is generaily 
considered so by native historians, had scarcely thrown off his allegiance 
to Delhi, when his unstable authority was subverted by Ali Mobarik, an 

Digitized by 


1846.] Muhammadan Sovereigns ef Bengal. 325 

officer acknowledging the supremacy of the emperor, who put him to 
death and himself assumed the emblems of independence. His reign, 
however, if a short usurpation may be so designated, was soon terminated 
by lliyas Shah, who assassinated Fakhar ud-din, and took possession 
of the kingdom, which he governed with vigour for sixteen years, and 
transmitted to his descendants. The coins Nos. 1 and 2 were struck by 
this prince ; they bear no date, and their execution is sufficiently rude — 



He* died in a. h. 760, and was succeeded by his son Sekandar Shah. 

This prince reigned, according to Ferishteh, for nine years and some 
months, maintaining by the prudent adoption of his father's policy, 
the independence and integrity of his kingdom, when the utmost efforts 
of Feroz Shah were once more put forth to reduce him to a state of 
vassalage. No. 3, is a coin of Sekandar. It is in good preservation, 
and was procured at Santipore, near Culna. It records the titles and 
paternity of this prince, but no date — 


The inscription on the margin is not legible. Sekandar Shah died, 
or according to some, was killed in an engagement with his son and 
successor Gheias ud-din, in a. b. 76d. 

Nos. 4 and 5, are coins of the last named Sultan. As usual with the 
coinage of that period, they bear no date — 

* Before ascending the throne he was known as Heyi lliyas ; he is said to have 
founded the town of Hiyypore. 

Digitized by 


326 Oil the Coins of the Independent [No. 173. 



Gheias ud-din seems to have been a gay and accomplished prince. He 
was in correspondence with the poet Hafiz, who addressed an ode to 
him. He died according to Ferishteh a. b. 775, having re^ed six 
years and some months. 

His son Seif ud-din succeeded on the throne with the pompous title 
of Sultan Assulatin. I have not been fortunate enough to procure any 
coins of this monarch, but copy that figured No. 6, from Marsden's 
' Numismata Orientalia*~^ 



Historians ascribe to him a reign of ten years. He died in a. b. 785, 
and was succeeded by his son Shams ud-din Sani, the last of a dynasty 
unusually long in those times. The author of the Tabq&t-i-Akbari, 
Nizam ud-din Ahmed, ascribes a short but prosperous reign to tlus 
prince; but Ferishteh describes him as young and inexperienced; 
from which we may infer, that he was most probably assassinated by his 
successor, a powerful Hindu nobleman, named Raja Kanis, (Ganesa ?) 
No coins have been found of Shams ud-din Sani, who died in 787. 

As Raja Kanis never openly embraced the Muhammadan ftdth, it is 
most probable that he never issued the coin of the realm in his own 
name. To have omitted the usual symbols of Muhammadanisin 
would have been a perilous experiment on the forbearance of the bigot- 
ed followers of the prophet, and to insert them would have compro- 
mised the Raja with the adherents of his own faith. Either alternative 
was, perhaps, avoided by the issue of no new currency during his reigo, 

Digitized by 


1846.] Bfuhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal. 327 

which lasted seven years. He died in a. b. 794, and was succeeded 
by his son Junmnl, or Cheitmal. This prince avoided the perplexities 
of his father's anomalous position by summoning the nobles on the 
death of Raja Kanis, and publicly professing his conversion to Islam, 
which he artfully insinuated had taken place in his early youth, but had 
remained unavowed in deference to his f&ther. He assumed with the 
emblems of sovereignty, the title of Jellal ud-din Muhammad Shah. 
There are, I believe, many of his coins bearing dates, according to Mars- 
den, from 819 to 823, although the commencement of his rdgn is 
fixed by historians in 795 and its termination in 812. The specimens 
Nos. 7, 8, and 9, are very much defaced, and bear no date. The first 
two are taken from impressions presented to me by the late James 
Prinsep. The inscription upon the obverse seems the same in all — 

and on the reverse in Nos. 7 and 9 ^^| ^\j &c. In No. 8, apparently 
the Kalmeh. This prince took much pains to improve and adorn the 
city of Oour, and there may be still some few remains of public build- 
ings erected at his expence. 

No. 10, is a coin of his son and successor, Ahmed Shah, who died 
according to Ferishteh and Nizam ud-din, in a. h. 830 ; but this coin 
does him the good service of prolonging his life to 836, which date it 
bears. His reign, however, must as to its earlier part be curtailed by the 
evidence of the dates on those of Jellal ud-din — 


^IkLJI sU «>4.flr« ^.t sU «>4^l 
On the reverse, the Kalmeh and date :— ATI 

After an interregnum of a few days, during which, a slave of the royal 
household having usurped the throne, caused the sons of Ahmed Shah 
to be murdered, and was afterwards destroyed himself. Nasir Shah, a 
remote descendant of Iliyas Shah, the first of our series, was summoned 
by the nobles from the plough, to which the adverse circumstances of his 
family had driven him, to sit on the throne of his ancestors. Being 


e'd by Google 

328 On the Coins of the Independent [No. 173. 

unable to record a royal paternity on his coinage, he seems to have con- 
tented himself with the simple repetition of his name and title — ^^UaJL 
sift yo\i in seven little circlets, occupying the obverse of his coin 
No. 1 1 . The reverse is illegible. I have met with no other coin of this 

The next king of Bengal recorded by historians is Barbek Shah, 
whom they designate the son of Nasir Shah. But there is reason to 
reject this affiliation as incorrect ; for Barbek Shah describes himself on 
his coinage as the son of Mahmud Shah, as does also Yusuf, the son 
of Barbek, as will be seen. The same Mahmud is also recorded on a 
subsequent coin of Fatteh Shah. But historians make no mention 
of such a prince. Can it be that his reign has been entirely overlooked 
by history ? or did Nasir Shah, at any period of his liJFe subsequent to 
ascending the throne, change his name for that of Mahmud ? There 
are great difficulties in either view of the matter, but it does not seem 
a very bold conjecture, considering the imperfect history of those times, 
that Mahmud Shah may have been omitted in the roll of princes that 
has reached us.* The remarkably long reign ascribed to Nasir Shah 
seems to afford room enough for the interpolation of another king ; bat 
on either supposition, I incline to ascribe to the father of Barbek Shah 
the coin No. 12 ; for an impression of which, I was indebted to the kind- 
ness of the late James Prinsep. The cufic characters on the reverse are 
not usual upon the Bengal coinage ; but the small curclets, with the 
monarch's name on the obverse, seem to establish a relationship between 
this coin and the preceding one of Nasir Shah. The only words legible 
on the obverse are — 

On the reverse, the Kalmeh. 

Of the coins of Barbek Shah, I have met with none ; but to render as 
complete as possible the present series, I borrow that figured in phte 
No. 13, from Marsden's work — 

* That there is nothing very extravagant in this coigecture may be inferred from 
the circumstance of the omission of one entire reign (that of the last Mahmud) by 
Ferishteh. The reign of Yusuf Shah is in like manner omitted in the TabqAt-i- 
Akbari ; but this may possibly be the fault of the transcriber who made the copy in the 
Society's Library. Since the above was printed, I have met with a coin of Mahnnd, 
which bears a strong family likeness to those of Fatteh Shah in the Plate. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Muhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal. 329 



The Kalmeh and date 873. 

The next. No. 14» is a coin of his son and successor Yusuf Shah. 
For this handsome specimen I am indebted to the kindness of my friend 
Mr. Maseyk of Junghipore, whose skill in the acquisition of these re- 
lics is unrivalled. This coin confirms the affiliation of Barbek Shah, 
and leaves no room to doubt that a prince named Mahmud Shah sat on 
the throne of Bengal; but whether identical or not with Nasir Shah, 
we have at present no monuments to determine. It is most singular, 
however, that no mention should be made of this name in the history of 
the times — 



The Kalmeh and date— MP iGljaL 

After the death of Yusuf Shah, a youth of the royal family was raised 
to the throne, with the title of Sekander Shah, but was, after a few 
weeks, deposed for incapacity, and was succeeded by his uncle Fatteh 
Shah. Historians do not mention the genealogy of this king ; but his 
coins, Nos. 15 and 16, which are, as far as I am aware, unique, make him 
the son of Mahmud Shah, and consequently the brother of Barbek 
Shah. The inscription on these coins runs from reverse to obverse — 

Fatteh Shah was killed according to Ferishteh, in a. h. 896, by 
Barbek, a eunuch, who usurped the throne under the tide of Sultan 

Digitized by 


330 On the Cains of the Independent [No. 173. 

Shahzada, and reigned about eight months. He was, in his turn, 
assassinated by an Abyssinian, named Mulk Andiel, who setting aside 
the legitimate heir, a son of Fatteh Shah, assumed the royal authority 
with the title of Feroz Shah. We must not be surprised if there remain 
but few coins or other monuments of those barbarous and unsettled 
times, when, as the Persian historian naively remarks, " to have killed 
the murderer of the king was deemed in Bengal a sufficient title to the 
vacant throne."* Of Sultan Shahzada there are no coins extant: 
perhaps none were ever struck ; but Marsden has preserved one of 
Feroz Shah, of which, to continue the series, I here give a copy — 


^j3aLJ\ sU ^^ vsM»^!> '^•^'s^ 

♦ * ♦ ♦ ^LjJJ^ j^l ^^IfcJUJl 

Date on the margin of the obverse — A^ V> 897. 

At the death of Feroz Shah, he was succeeded on the throne by Mah- 
mud Shah, stated by Ferishteh to have been his son. Of this prince 
I have met with no coins ; at least with none that can be, with certainty, 
ascribed to him. His reign was a very short one, and specimens of his 
coinage are not likely therefore to be numerous. Amongst the coins 
figured by Marsden, as those of the Patau dynasty of Hindoostan, is one 
of Mahmood Shah, so palpably that of a Bengal king, that it is difficnlt 
to imagine how it could be ascribed to any other. There is no date 
upon it to enable us to fix it with certainty upon the son of Feroz Shah; 
but the execution of the coin and the locale of coinage, ^tiUf^ 
of which several letters are legible, leave no doubt of the class to which 
it belongs : and as there is no other Mahmud with whom he can be 
confounded, unless it be the apocryphal father of Barbek (for the coins 
of Mahmud, the son of Husein, are very distinct from this), I have little 
doubt that this is the appropriate place for it — 

\j 3^ ^ U \^>l£^ 9^y> ^ A^ rilio j^j ^\ oJL^ ^U ♦ 
FerUteh, jJL^ C^ ji ^J j^lsrf »^ «3^b ull^y ^ aSj! j ^J^. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Muhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal, 331 

No. 18. Obybhsb. 

sl^ Ay^S^ JJ^JS!^1yJ} ^Si\^ l-JjJf jJ^^ JaWI vj;lkJUJI 


The reign of Mahmud Shah was a short one. In a. h. 900, he 
was murdered by Seddee Badr Dewaneh, who ascended the throne with 
the title of Moza£fer Shah. No. 19 is a coin of this execrable prince, 
which Marsden has erroneously ascribed, as the foregoing, to the Patan 
sovereigns of Hindoostan. In execution and other respects, it is so per- 
fectly coincident with other Bengal coins, that there need be no hesita- 
tion in appropriating it to the present king, the only one of the name 
among those of Bengal-— 



The Kalmeh. 

M ozaffer Shah reigned about three years, during which he rendered 
himself hateful to his subjects by his many atrocities. He suffered in 
turn the same fate which he had inflicted on his predecessor; and 
Ala ud-din Husein Shah, a nobleman of distinguished but not royal 
rank, ascended the throne by the usual path of blood. This prince 
enjoyed a degree of authority and safety, which had not fallen to the lot 
of any of his recent predecessors. Of his coins numerous specimens 
are extant, bearing testimony by their number and variety, to his peace- 
ful and prosperous government. Nos. 20 and 21, are two out of many 
that have passed through my hands. The inscription continues from * 
the reverse to the obverse — 

2 Y 

Digitized by 


332 On the CoinB of the Independent [No. 173. 

Husein Shah reigned twenty-four years, and notwithstanding some 
unjustifiable proceedings in the early part of his career, was deserredly 
beloyed by his subjects, and respected by surrounding governments. 
The emperor Sekandar, who had subdued the proyince of Behar, 
marched against Husein Shah ; but found it conyenient to arrange a 
treaty of peace with so vigorous a prinee, and withdraw towards Delhi, 
ere the commission of aggression on either side rendered a friendly 
adjustment impracticable. Ala ud-din died in 927 at Oour, where his 
tomb still exists. Many monuments of this reign are scattered oyer the 

Husein Shah was succeeded by his son Nasrat Shah, or, as he ii 
improperly styled by historians, Naaib Shalu From the accession of 
this prinee may be dated the decline of the independent kingdom of Ben« 
gal. The chronology of his reign is inyolved in much perplexity, which 
unfortunately the dates upon the coinage of the times, do not assist in 
unravelling. Historians seem to have fused the events of two reigns, 
those of Nasrat Shah and his successor, into one ; and notwithstanding 
their comparative recency, there is more uncertainty and confusion in 
the history of those times, than in that of the earlier periods of the 
kingdom. The coins Nos. 22 and 23. are two of several that have pasted 
through my hands. They have no date, but their legend and the locale 
of their coinage leave no doubt as to the propriety of their ascription to 
this prince. The inscription reads from reverse to obverse — 

Nasrat Shah came to the throne under the most favourable auspices, 
as far at least as regarded the internal condition of his government as 
bequeathed by his wise and vigorous father ; but from his cruel and 
tyrannical disposition gave great disgust to his subjects and dependents. 
He was assassinated by his own servants after a reign, (according to 
historians) of eleven years. This would make the date of his death 938, 
(according to others it was 940 or 943.) but this does not agree with 
the date inscribed upon the next coin. 

Nasrat Shah was succeeded by Mahmud Shah. This king is altoge- 
ther omitted by the author of the Tabqftt-i-Akbari, who ascribes all 

Digitized by 



Iivfl^t^p CtiAJie.nh MvUfxt^nvrrv tx^thuLn. Kiyrvtfs of H eJt^jfixJ . 

. ' ig i t i zGcl by VJ - OQrjif ii '"' 


Digitized by 



1 rt /Jf n^.n^^rd/ 3/^ t hrtr^rtri rr^cZcc^ t l\i n^^^^ rT B fyn rfn / . 

Digitized by 


1846.] Muhammadan Sovereigns of Bengal. 333 

the e?ent8 of his reign to that of his predecessor. Ferishteh briefly men- 
tions Mahmud as a nobleman of Bengal ; but he is oorrectly described 
in a Persian history of Bengal now before me» as the brother of Nasrat 
Shah. I have had several of his coins in my possession, but find room 
in the present plate for one only, No. 24. They are all distinguished 
by having a small circle on each face, concentric with the rim of the 
coin, containing what appear to be the words ^lA .5»5 

Revbrsb and Obvbbsb read continuously— 

and on some of the coins the place of coinage ^\xx^. ^^ ^ ^^® 
date upon this coin 933, which is so irreconcilable with the chronology 
of written history. Mahmud died according to Ferishteh in 945, and 
with him was extinguished the independence of the kingdom of Bengal. 
The city of Gour was invested by the hostile armies of the emperor 
Homayun, who, on its capitulation, held his court there for some months.* 
Sometime, however, elapsed ere the kingdom of Bengal was finally at- 
tached to the Moghul empire ; for the different rulers, who were from time 
to time appointed to administer the government in the name of the em- 
perors of Delhi, omitted no opportunity of seeking to throw off their alle- 
giance, and occasionally to a considerable extent succeeded in doing so. 
The coins of these rebellious subjects, from Shir Shah, who usurped under 
Homayun, to Daud Khan, when the kingdom was finally absorbed by 
Akbar, as well as of those who a^ttempted independence before the dynasty 
of kings which we have just been considering, may furnish an interesting 
subject of future notice ; more particularly, if collectors who may be in 
possession of specimens, would be good enough to communicate impres- 
sions or drawings of them. 

* For an interesting account of the state of Bengal at this period and the cir- 
cumstances attending its conquest by Homayun, the reader may consult Joao de 
Barros' work, Dos feitos que os Portugueses fizeram no descubrimento e confuista 
dos mares t terras do Oriente; fourth decade, ninth book. 

Digitized by 


334 [No. 173. 

Description of a new species of 7\beian Antelope, with plates* By B. H. 
Hodgson, Esq., Darjeeling, 



Genus, — Gazella ? Cafra ? New Genus, — Pbocafra mihi. 

Generic Character, — Horns in the males only. Nose ovine ; no 
lachrymal or inguinal sinuses ; interdigital foss small ; mammae two. 

Type, — P. Picticaudata mihi. 

lUg^ and G6& of the Tibetans. 

Sp, Ch. — Goat antelope ; with medial, elliptic, black horns, inserted be- 
tween the orbits, and directed upwards and backwards with a bold curve 
and slight divergency ; the tips being again recurved forwards but not 
inwards, annulated nearly to the tips ; the rings being complete, separate, 
and 25 to 27 in number ; short, deep head, finely attenuated ; large eyes ; 
long, pointed, and striated ears ; very short, depressed, triangular tail, 
and long and delicate limbs. Pelage consisting of hair only, of medial 
uniform length and fineness, varying with the seasons like the colour. 
Above, sordid brown,t tipt with pale-rufous ; below, with the lining of 
the ears, the entire limbs almost, and a small caudal disc, rufescent- white; 
no marks whatever ; no tufts to knees ; tail black. Length from nose 
to anus about three and a half feet. Height about two feet. Horns 
along the curve, thirteen inches ; straight, eleven inches. Habitat : the 
plains of Tibet, amid ravines imd low bare hills : not gregarious. 

The above generic character, it will be seen, is drawn up in con- 
formity with the system of Mr. Ogilby,} who, being the latest, is 
probably the least inaccurate investigator of the vast and heterogeneous 
group of antelopes. But the fact is, that by far too little is yet known of 
the real and intimate structure of the majority of the species of this 
group, to admit of any present arrangement of its contents into generic 
divisions being satisfactory. A long tract of time will be needed to 
perfect our knowledge of recorded species ; and in the meanwhile, it 
seems better to distinguish generically new species whose organization 
cannot be reconciled with the results of existing systematic researches, 
than to go on loading the antilopine mass with additional discordant 

* The plates are being coloured and will shortly be published with the title page 
and index of the present volume.— Eds. 

t In summer.— In winter canescent-slalf, smeared on the pale surface with fawn* 
Internally the hairs slatv blue. 

X Proceed. Zoological Society for December, 1836. 

Digitized by 




■ ■ ■-; - 




• • 1 





' .\ V, 




1;' fi 

) i&/. 






Digitized by 


Digitized by 





Digitized by 


Digitized by 


1846.1 Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope. 335 

materials. Having said thus much in apology for bringing forward a 
new genus, I should add in explanation of my lengthy specific character, 
that a necessary regard to precision must render a dispensation with the 
canons of Linneus indispensable, so long as innumerable, vague, and 
shadowy species shall continue to be the plague of Zoological science. 
The exceedingly graceful little animal, which is the subject of our pre- 
sent description, is called by the Tibetans IUig<$&, or Q6i simply, and they 
allege that it is found generally throughout the plains of middle and 
eastern Tibet. But those plains, it must be remembered, are, for the 
most part, broken by deep ravines or low bare hills, and it is in such 
situations more especially, that the Q66, dwells, either solitarily or 
in pairs, or at most small families, never in large flocks. The 
species is said to breed but once a year, and to produce ordinarily 
but one young- one at a birth, rarely two ; and it is added, that it browses 
rather than grazes, preferring aromatic shrubs and shoots to grass, 
of which latter, indeed, its habitat is nearly void. I have not heard 
that the G6k is ever tamed, but it is killed for the sake of its flesh, 
which is esteemed excellent, and is free from all caprine odour, even 
in the mature males. In size, proportions, and superficial aspect, our 
animal bears considerable resemblance to Antelope a/ricana and to 
bennettii; but not to gutturosa, with which last named species Mr. 
Blyth supposed it to be identical, upon inspection of a female transmitted 
last year by Dr. Campbell to the Asiatic Society. But the following 
description and drawings will serve clearly to distinguish it from all 
those species. The G6d is in size equal to bennettii, and is remarkable 
for the same exquisite grace and delicacy of form. The head is short, 
compressed, deep towards the horns, and thence much attenuated to the 
nose, which is neither bluff nor bristly, as in the Dseren and Chird, but 
smooth and fine. The nostrils are narrow, nor do they, or the lips, show 
the least trace of a nude moist muzzle : the chaffron is straight ; the 
eye very large, and (I am told), dark ; the ears long, narrow, pointed, and 
striated. The horns, which rise between the orbits and are of medial 
size, larger considerably than in a/ricana or bennettii, proceed upwards 
and backwards with a bold ibex-like curve, the last inch and a half only 
being somewhat recurved, and the divergency moderate and gradual, in- 
creasing almost uniformly from a basal interval of half an inch to a ter- 
minal one of four and a quarter inches. In young specimens the tips of 
the horns incline inwards as well as forwards, and as the backward 
arcuation of the horns is in them much less than in maturity, the horns of 
the young thus come to possess the lyrate form, which is hardly, or not 

Digitized by 


336 Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope. [No. 173. 

at all, noticeable ia the mature animal. The boras are equally rounded 
to the front and back, compressed considerably on the sides, so that 
their basal outline is elliptic, and the compression and annulation extend 
to within one and a half inch of the tips. In a very perfect specimen 
now before me, there are twenty-seven rings, which go entirely round the 
horas, each ring being separate and distinct, and the longitudinal stria- 
tion too faint to impair the continuity of the annulation. In the 
younger spedmen, the compression of the horns is very trifling, and the 
rings j larger in front than elsewhere, are only six or seven in number; 
the animal being rather more than a year old. To proceed with the 
description of the mature male of the species, I may next note that the 
neck is rather thin, the body short and compact, the limbs long and ex- 
quisitely fine, the low hoofe compressed anteriorly, wide and rounded 
posteriorly, and ttuX the false hoofii are large, but obtuse and adpressed. 
The tail is a mere rudiment, depressed, broad, triangular, enturely nude 
below, and furnished with radiating hairs, about one and a half inck 
long, on the sides and tip. The pelage or fur offers no peculiarity, con- 
sisting of hair only, neither fine nor very coarse, and of equaUe leng^ of 
about one and a half inch. The scull presents the Cervine and Antelopine, 
not the Ovine and Caprine* form. There is no trace of suborbital, 
of superorbital, of maxillary glands or pores, nor of moiBt muzzle, 
nor of inguinal pores ; and the interdigital pores, though distinct, are 
small. The females are hornless, and have only two teats, which are 
perfectly developed in the males also. There are no tufts to the knees, 
nor any of those marks upon the face, flanks, and limbs, which are so 
frequent among the antelopes. In regard to colour, my two specimens, 
which were brought here in November, and killed, no doubt, in summer, 
exhibit above and laterally, a dull and somewhat purpurescent-brown, 
freckled with hoary, owing to the pale fawn tips of the hairs, and below 
rufescent-white, which colour likewise is extended all over the limbs, 
over the insides of the ears, the back parts of the head (in the old ani- 
mal), and the posteal margin of the buttocks, whence it spreads like a 
small disc round the tail, becoming also more rufous there ; and thus the 
tail, which is black itself, assumes that contrast of colours that has sug- 
gested the specific name-— Picticaudata. Dr. Campbell's specimen of a 
female is paler in colours than my males, the superior surface being 
hoary-blue or canescent-shity ; and as such, is the winter hue of so many 
other Tibetan ruminants; it is probably also that of the Q6k. 1 have 
said that the limbs are entirely colourless ; but there is, especially in 
* Ste Journal Asiatic Society of Bengal, No. Ill, for 1841. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope, 337 

young animals, a faint list of colour passing down .their outsides to the 
hoofs. This species is said to be totally void of caprine odour in the 
living state. The skins certainly are so. The small testes are lodged 
in a neat hairy scrotum, and all the adjacent parts, including the groins, 
are entirely clad in hair, there being no tface whatever of those sinuses 
in the groin which are so highly characteristic of the most typical genera 
of the antelopes, that is to say, AntUopa et Gaselia of the modems. 
Still the Gd&, in my judgment, is closely and essentially affined to the 
antelope group, by the extreme delicacy of its form ; by its manners ; 
by the cervine shape of its scull ; by its black, round, and ringed horns ;* 
and lastly, by the absence of caprine odour, notwithstanding that its 
structure, according to modern views, is caprine, not antelopine : and, 
in fact, it is throughout structurally a true Capra of Ogilby, save that 
the females are hornless. This character, together with the others just 
mentioned, forbid me, however, to class the delicate graceful Q66l with 
the goats proper, whilst the ovine nose, and the want of suborbital as 
well as of inguinal sinuses, renders it impossible to range our animal 
with the proper Antelopes or Gazelles, though it is more nearly affined to 
the latter than to the former. The ovine nose seems to me a very im- 
portant character ; and Mr. Ogilby, when he classed the antelopes pro- 
per, typed by Cervicapra, in a family characterised by ' Rhinaria nulla,' 
ought apparently to have given them as a subordinate and generic mark 
« Rhinaria parva,' because the nude moist muzzle is a material diagnosis, 
very decidedly forthcoming in the Antelopes, less so in the Gazelles. Col. 
H. Smith considers that Mr. Ogilby has laid undue stress upon the inter- 
digital pores as a generic character ; and yet Mr. O's. most accredited 
predecessors in classification had insisted upon the presence or absence of 
this character, together with that of the suborbital pores, as constituting 
the distinctive marks of Ovis and of Capra. True, they were in error 
in this instance, for goats havef interdigital, though not lachrymary, 
pores, and consequently Mr. Blyth's suggested genus Ammotragus is 
based on misconception, though accidentally true to nature, at least in 
my view of her, and without reference to systems. But, however falsely 
used heretofore, still it does not follow, that each of these characters (the 
pores) is not of importance, and there can be no doubt that either of 
them may be rationally presumed to be so, and to affect the conditions 
of existence, the habits, and eeonomy of the animals ; whereas, several of 

* The form of the horos is rejected from modem definitions of genera, and wisely 
so quoad the particular flexure. But still 1 incline to the older notion that round, 
black, and ringed horns, as opposed generally to grey, angular-keeled, and nodose horns, 
serve well to indicate Antelopine or Caprine tendencies. 

t Mr. B. expressly says not, and thereon founds his genus. Let him look at nature 
instead of books, and he will see his error. 

Digitized by 


338 Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope. [No. 173. 

Col. Smith's proposed diagnostics of genera have no pretensions to be 
so regarded. 

With regard to the specific distinctness of the 0<5d, there must remain 
some doubt, until its essential and trivial characteristics, as above given, 
have been compared with those of the species it most resembles. Books 
cannot well be trusted on this head, and the whole of my collections 
have been deposited in the British Museum. The size and proportions 
of the Gdd are quite those of bennettii, and both species are alike dis* 
tinguished by black tails and horns of somewhat similar form. But the 
difference of habitat, of pelage, of colour, the inguinal pores, knee tufts, 
and females horned of bennettii, not to mention differences of detail 
and of size in the horns and tails, sufficiently distinguish this species 
from the G6&. Antilopa arabica, or the Ariel, has (like bennettii ?) the 
structure of a true Gazella of Ogilby, which at once suffices to prove 
its distinctness from our species, not to dwell on diversities of colour, 
manners, habitat, &c., all very obvious. Lastly, gutturosa, or the Dseren, 
is a much larger animal,* with much smaller horns ; and its suborbital 
pores, its knee tufts, its protuberant larynx, and glandular preputial bag, 
are all marks impossible to be mistaken, and not found in the Q6§l. 
The following are the dimensions of a fine old male of the G6k : 

Snout to rump, • • 3 7 

Height at shoulder, r 2 

Head to occiput, 8 

Head to base of horns, 6 

Tail, 3-4 

Ears 5 

Fore-legr, top of cannon-bone to end of hoof, 9 1-8 

Hind-lesr. ditto ditto ditto, 10 

Horns, length bj curve, ... .•••• 1 1 

Ditto ditto, straight, 11 

Ditto, greatest divergence, 4 3-10 

Ditto, basal interval, 4-10 

Ditto, terminal interval, ••.. 4 3-10 

Ditto, periphery of base ,,, f 

On the Wild Sheep of Tibet, with plates. 
Genus. — Ovis. 
Species, — O. Ammonoidbs mihi. 
In No. Ill of the Bengal Asiatic Journal for 1841, I have described 
two species of wild sheep belonging to the Himalaya and Tibet. Hav- 
ing recently received a splendid specimen of the male of one of these 
species, I recur to the subject with a view of more fully fixing the cha- 
racters of this animal, whose close affinity to the Argali of Pallas renders 

« The Dseren is 44 feet long, and 24 feet high. Horns 9 inches, 
t Sic in MS.^Eos. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Deieriptian of a new spechi of Tihtian Antelope, 339 

it somewhat difficult of satisfactory discrimination. To Dr. Campbell's 
kind arrangements in my &Tonr, I am indebted for this specimen, as well 
as for the G^ which were all received^^in November and killed in the 
summer, and hence exhibit the summer dress of the animals. 

The present specimen of the OvU amwumoides is that of a male of 
eight years, and having the scull and members complete, and being 
otherwise in perfect condition; it displays the characteristics of the 
species in a most satisfactory manner. 

This magnificent species of riieep measures from five and a half to six 
feet in length, exclusive of the tail, and from three to three and a half feet 
high at the shoulder. My undistorted specimen, as laid simply on the table, 
gives the former dimensions, and the latter, with a slight degree of ten- 
sion. The head to the occiput (straight) is seventeen inches, and twelve 
inches to tbe base of the horns. The tail is but two and a half inches long, 
or three and a half with the hair ; and the ears are four and a quarter 
inches. The horns, by the curve, are above three feet, and they have 
a basal girth of fifteen inches ; the age of the animal being eight years, 
as marked on the horns. The stately and rather large head, has great 
breadth^ and still greater depth at the insertion of the horns, and is 
thence gradually narrowed to its fine nasal extremity. The forehead is 
concave,'*' exhibiting a considerable dip from the crest of the frontals to 
the fore-angles of the eyes. The chaffiron is straight, or arched only in 
the slightest degree. The nostrils of the ordinary ovine shape, have 
their mere margins, and a confluent stripe down the front of the upper 
lip, nude. The eyes are of medial size, and beneath them are the 
usual lachrymal sinuses, deep but immobile, and of good size, but hid by 
hair which clothes them inside and out. llie ears are small, narrow, 
pointed, and striated. The massive horns are inserted obliquely on the 
top of the head, considerably behind the orbits and in contact. They 
are triangular and compressed, having nearly twice as much depth as 
breadth at the bases. Their frontal aspect, which is presented directly 
forwards, is flat, and is extended nearly to their tips with gradually dimi- 
nishing breadth. Their dorsal aspect is in general, cultrated, but 
widened roundwise towards their bases. Their lateral aspects or sides 
are, the inner one, nearly flat, or somewhat concaved, and the outer 
one more plainly convexed; and thus, though the trigonal form of the 
horns is decided, it is not perfect; the outline of the base being ovoid. 

♦ Cnvier layi, Ovis hai a convex, Capra a concave, forehead ; and he even makes 
SMenc marks of these peculiarities. But in Cuvier's day, genuine wild specimens of 
aiUiar genaa were too rare to admit of just discrimination and definition of generic 


Digitized by 


340 Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope. [No'. 173. 

The transverse wrinkles are very numerous and conspicuous, exhibiting 
on the frontal surface a succession of large ridges and furrows : on the 
sides of the horns they are much less developed, particularly on the 
inner side, and they gradually diminish from the bases of the horns to 
the tips, the last five inches being void of them. The curvature of the 
horns describes a fine backward and outward sweep, and thence down- 
wards and forwards, so as to complete about two-thirds of a circle, 
when there is a second retroversion, leaving the points directed forwards 
and outwards with an inclination backwards, as though, in old age, 
there would be a second spiral curve. The neck is rather thin, the 
body full, and somewhat elongate ; the limbs elevated, clean, and strong. 
The hoofs, which are very fine, hard and black, are less deep and per- 
pendicular than in tame sheep, and rest on longer laxer pasterns. The 
hoofs are compressed and scooped beneath anteriorly ; broad, full, and 
rounded posteriorly, or in the position of the frog of solid ungula. The 
false hoofs are large, but not salient or pointed, being blunt tubercles 
rather. All the four* feet have interdigital pores of good size, in which 
some cerous matter is lodged. The small stag-like tail is cylindrico- 
conic, clad beneath towards its tip, and scantily furnished with hair, 
which seems as though it had been rubbed off. 

The pelage, or vesture, consists entirely of hair, without a trace of wool 
beneath it. The hair is of the usual coarse, brittle, quill>like, and 
internally wavy character, and on the body generally is only three- 
quarters to one inch long ; on the under-surface of the neck two and a half 
inches, and on the limbs and head is close and fine, with not half the 
length it has on the body. The elongation of the hair on the abdomi- 
nal surface of the neck, extends from the throat to the chest, and is 
distinct upon close examination, but not otherwise, for there is no ap- 
pearance of a pendant mane. The colour on the dorsal surface of the 
animal is saturate dull-brown ; on the flanks, entire head and neck, and 
fronts of the limbs, the same, but mixed largely with hoary, so aa to 
create a pepper-and-salt hue almost ; on the belly, insides of the limbs, 
margins of the buttocks, tail, and a large disc round it, rufescent- white. 
There is no black or dark stripe down the vertex ; but the highest part 
of the body is the darkest, and is nearly black, the colour being extended 
in a line to the tip of the tail, so as to divide the white disc and tail in t 

« 1 am thus particular as to this organ, because there is much yet to be learnt aboat 
it in re{;ard to all the Ruminants : for example, the Mantjac of the Subhimalayas 
(Cervusratwa) has these digital pits only in the hind-feet, and the Saumer (Cerrui 
aristotelis) is devoid of them entirely, though the best books say otherwise. 1 speak bv 
' virtue of old memoranda, havine no specimens of these deer now to refer to ; but those I 
examined were alive j and 1 think 1 noted carefully. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Description of a new species of Tibetan Antelope, 341 

notable manner, though the disc itself be vaguely defined. Such is the 
summer garb. In winter the dark hues are much paler ; the back and 
flanks being slaty-blue internally, but canescent-fawn on the surface. 
The female of this splendid species is worthy of her mate, being little 
inferior to him in size, and provided with a fine pair of horns. I possess 
two good specimens respectively, of eight and nine years old ; and, as a 
very slight degree of tension applied to the skin of the larger, (which is 
not distended in^the curing) gives five and a half feet for the length, and 
three feet for the height of the animal, I apprehend that the male can- 
not be less than six full feet long, and three and a half high, and conse- 
quently, that six and five and a half feet, and three and a half and three 
feet, may be safely assigned as the respective sizes of the sexes in length and 
height. These females were killed, like the male, in summer,'*' and they 
resemble him in colour and aspect so closely, that it becomes only neces- 
sary to add to the subjoined details of dimensions a notice of the female 
horns. The horns, then, have the same characteristics as those of the male, 
but softened and exhibited on a smaller scale. They are, in fact, about half 
the size of the male's horns, but being less curved, they make a greater 
longitudinal show in proportion to the size than his. Their thickness, 
like their length, is about half that of the male's horns. They are very 
much smoother, and by their diminished thickness, they are separated 
at the bases. Their flat frontal aspect is not extended far up, owing 
to the greater compression of the horns ; but that aspect, being pre- 
sented directly forwards, as in the male, is very palpable towards the 
base of the horns, which ascend with a sickle-like bend upwards and 
outwards, greatly divergent, but not describing more than a half of the 
concentric or circular curve. Thus their points are bent down with 
yet a faint indication of the second retroversion, so that there is a slight 
obliquity outwards of the blunt downward tips. The suborbital and 
interdigital sinuses are very distinct in these females, but the caudal disc 
less so than in the male. Their tails are very short, and the chaffron of 
the females is perfectly straight, from the setting on of the horns to the 
nose. The teats are two. 

The following are the detailed dimensions of both sexes : — 

Male, Female. 

Length from nose to anus, •••..••• 5 8 5 4 

Height at shoulder, •••.. 3 2 2 10^ 

Head to occiput 15 12 

Head to base of horns, 1 U Oil 

* One of the females still retains enough of the winter garb to show that the winter 
colour of the species is slaty-blue, overlaid on the surface with fawn, or pure fulvous. 
In the summer garb the dark or black-brown of the upper-parts is extended very low 
on the flanks, behind the elbows ; and the dark list down the limbs is very palpable, 
though much mixed with hoary. 

Digitized by 


342 Description of a new species of Tihetan Antelope. [No. 178. 

Hsad, width ot between the outer margins of orbits, .08 7| 

Head, depth of, from frontal crest to lower edge o^ { n 94 

jaws,..- I ^ 

Head, length of, from nose to fore-angle of eye, 91 8| 

Fore>lee, top of cannon-bone to tip of iioof, • 1 2 t 1 0{ 

Hind-leg, ditto ditto • 1 41; 12 

Bars...... 4 - 

Tailonly, 2; 

Tail and tuft, 8 . 

Length of fore-hoof, : 3 3 

Breadth of ditto 21 2 


Length by cunre, 3 1 17;; 

Basal, depth of. ^ 6 2i 

Basal, width of, 31 1; 

Basal interval, o| J 

Terminal interval, ^ ^ ^ ^i 

Circumference of base, 1 ^ 8 

Remarks, — No great while ago only two or three species of wild sheep 
were recognised by men of science. But Mr. Blyth has all at once pro* 
duced a splendid cornucopia of species,"*^ founding many of them however, 
upon an inspection of the horns solely. I question the possibility of so 
establishing species or genera in this group ; and, as a proof of the neces- 
sity of examining carefully the entire structure of the animals, I need 
merely refer to Mr. Blyth^s signal error, already adverted to, in 
reference to the organization of Capra or the domestic goat, and to 
an oversight equally important to be mentioned presently. A strong 
conviction of the necessity of extreme caution in the examination 
of the CapridsB, while it must serve as an apology for the tediousness 
of the present paper, will, I trust, by its results, enable those who 
are in possession of Pallas' Ovis ammon and Dseren, to determine whe- 
ther I have, or have not, justly made out the distinctness of my anuno' 
noides and Q6i, In further proof of the necessity of extreme caution 
and of research carried into the entire structure of the Capridae, I may 
mention that my Ovis nahoor is, like Tragelaphus, devoid of the sub- 
orbital sinus, whether m the scull or skin. In drawing up my original 
description of this species, I too easily presumed that these organs were 
forthcoming ; but in my amended description I noticed the absence of 
all trace of them in the scull, though still without advertence to the 
skin. Further conversancy with nature has, however, since then given 
me a greater distrust of books, and, hanng recently procured a fine 
specimen of the Nahoor, I ascertained beyond a doubt, that the animal, 
though possessed of interdigital, is entirely devoid of suborbital, pits. 
Simultaneously I obtained two specimens of Mr. Blyth's Ovis barkal, 
and found them also provided with interdigital, but wanting suborbital, 
sinuses, as in the Nahoor, from which species I now incline to regard 

• Proceed. Zool. Society, August, 1840. 

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1846.] Descr^tion of a nmo ipecks of Tibetan Antelope, 343 

the Barhal as distinct. And, as these round-horned sheep, void of the 
lachrymal pits, unmaned, and furnished with a well developed tail, ap- 
pear to form a natural group, distinct from the Argalis, and from Tra- 
gelaphus — also a separate type apparently, however misdiscriminated by 
Mr. Blyth, — I beg leave to suggest for this group the generic appella- 
tion Pseudois (^cvSoc et oic) lest, as has too frequently happened to 
me, some closet systematizer, who never was at the pains to examine 
nature for himself, should step in *' to name and classify" (the work of 
a moment, as ordmarify done,) my discoveries. The Argalis and Mouf- 
flons (not to mention the Tragelaphi) seem to form two striking groups 
among the wild sheep : our Nahoor is a complete Moufflon : hence it 
occurs to me to ask, if the Corsican animal is, like the Himalayan, de- 
void of suborbital sinuses ? This query may seem presumptuous ; but 
any one who will refer to the Proceedings of the Zoological Society for 
March 8th, and November 8th, of 1836, may satisfy himself that this 
sort of analogical inference led me justly to determine, without having 
seen it, the structure quoad hoc of an animal (Cambing titan), which the 
learned of Europe had long been in possession of, and yet had mis-stated 
that structure. To come nearer to the point, Mr. Blyth, a professed 
naturalist, even while writing a monograph on Ovis, and insisting on 
the distinctness of his Ovis barhal, has entirely neglected to notice that 
striking structural peculiarity, the absence of the suborbital sinus. 
Should the Barhal and the Nahocnr prove to be distinct species, and I 
now think they may, we shall have, already, two types of Pseudois, and 
I suspect the Moufle will make a third. Mr. Blyth's industrious re« 
searches indicate at least, if they do not prove, the existence of many 
wild species, which, if substantiated, will doubtless be found to present 
several peculiarities of organization of generic or sub-generic value. 
That gentleman is still sanguine as to the discovery of more new species : 
but I cannot agree with him, when he insists that none of his numerous 
wild species can be regarded as the type of the tame animal, because all 
varieties of the latter exhibit long tails. Now the several varieties of 
the tame sheep in the Sub-himalayas and Tibet, six in number, as known 
to me,^ have all of them short deer-like tails, and some of them in the 
form of their horns resemble ammonoides; and all, like ammonoides, 
possess the feet and eye pits. The Highlanders have such a horror of 
long-tailed sheep, that they wiU not even let them graze in their fields ! 
Wherefore, Mr. Blyth has not far to look for tame sheep with short tails. 

* The Hdnis, the P^Kik, the SiliDgia, the Barw&I, the C&gia, the H&Idk. 

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344 [No. 173. 

Notice of the Nicobar Islands, by the Reverend P. Babbb. ' 

The Nicobar Islands, lying between the sixth and tenth degrees 
of north latitude, have for sometime attracted very much the atten- 
tion of the public in India, not so much on account of the productive 
qualities of their soil, but because of the Islanders having comniitted 
repeated murders on the crews of several vessels under the British Flag. 
Vessels sailing from the Coast or from Penang have, for a long period of 
years, touched there during the N£. monsoon to take a cargo of cocoa- 
nuts, as do also large China junks, Malay prahus, and Burmese boats 
from Bassein, Rangoon, and the Tenasserim Coast. Not a single year 
has passed without hearing of some vessels or boats being lost. But as 
no one suspected the Islanders to be capable of piracy, the loss was 
always attributed either to bad weather or to the incapacity of the 
captains. It is but a few years since Government has been convinced, 
that the Nicobarians, although destitute of real courage and bravery, 
have been guilty of the greatest crimes, in murdering peaceful people, 
who could not suspect that the natives, whose appearance is so simple 
and timid, would ever conceive and dare to execute such treacherous 
designs. So there is very little doubt now, that a great part of the 
vessels which were supposed to be lost in the Bay, have been cut off 
and plundered by the natives of these islands, and their crews fonnd 
there a watery grave. 

The various islands forming the group of the Nicobars are Chowry, 
Teressa, Bompka, Tilhanchong, Karmorta, Nancowry, KatchaU, Car- 
Nicobar, the Little Nicobar, the Great Nicobar, and some other smaller is- 
lands. The SW. monsoon begins in the latter part of May and lasts till Oc- 
tober. During that period, rain falls in great abundance, and the wind 
blows hard : there is a heavy swell, and it is dangerous to approach the 
islands. Few vessels touch there during that monsoon ; but in the N£. 
monsoon, vessels, and Burmese, Chinese, and Malay boats are seen 
there taking a cargo of cocoanuts, betelnuts, and collecting birds' nests, 
trepan or sea-slug, ambergris, tortoise-shell, &c. They give in barter 
black and blue cloths, coarse handkerchiefs, red cloth, cutlasses, Bor- 
mese daws, silver or German silver spoons, ardent spirits, tobacco, red 
woollen caps, old pantaloons and jackets, black hats, &c. When a vessel 
reaches the place, the people of the village contract for supplying a cargo 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands, 845 

in so many days, and they seldom fail to fulfil their engagement ; they 
take in advance generally the goods given in barter. 

The Nicobarians are not very expensive in their dress : a small piece 
of blue cloth, from three to four inches broad, and four or five feet long, 
tied round their loins, is the covering of a man ; sometimes they encircle 
their heads and loins with young branches or grass. When the head- 
men of the villages go on board the vessels, they are more decently clad : 
they have a black hat or red cap, coat, jacket, pantaloon, &c. The wo- 
men in opposition to the custom of persons of their sex in other coun- 
tries, shave their heads, wrap round their loins grass tied with a 
string, about a cubit broad; and on great occasions a piece of blue 
doth over the grass. When they appear in public, they generally 
cover their breasts. Men and women use so large a quantity of betel- 
nuts, lime, and betel leaves, that their teeth are as black as ink ; and the 
space between them, being fiUed with that matter, they appear as a solid 
piece,' much like the horn invested in the jaws of the tortoise. 

It is very difficult to have an accurate notion coneerning the origin of 
the Nicobarians. They have projecting cheek-bones, flat visages, flat- 
tened nose, scanty beard, straight black hair, and Chinese eyes. Their 
complexion is dark- olive ; they are corpulent, muscular, and well-made ; 
but their legs are rather short in comparison with the trunk ; the lower 
extremity being more developed than the upper one. Their general size 
is horn five feet to five feet two inches. But the inhabitants of Chowry 
are of a darker complexion, more muscular, and have an air of indepen- 
dence, which is one characteristic mark of the Burmese. I saw some 
men and women at Teressa belonging to Chowry, and judging by them, 
the general height of these Islanders must be from five feet five inches to 
five feet ten inches. Although these people appear to hold some relation 
to the Malays on account of the resemblance of many of their features, yet 
the shape of their eyes, their manners, religion, language, and many cha- 
racteristics are so different, that they must be considered as a particular 
race. The Malays having not settled there, the Nicobarians have pre- 
served the pure blood of their ancestors. I am not far from thinking 
that they belong to the same race of people who formerly lived 
on the sea- shores of Sumatra. When the Malays settled in the 
island, they took possession of the whole of the level country, and 
compelled the Battas, the original inhabitants., who would not mix with 

Digitized by 


346 Notice of the Nieobar Islands. [No. 173. 

them, to take refuge in the mterior of the island, so that race is now 
master only of the mountains. 

There is a tradition amongst the Nicobarians, that the first stranger 
who came to their island, seeing something moving on the sand, 
perceived small persons of the size of an ant* He took care of tkB 
till they attained the common size of men, so began the origin of 
the Nicobarians. According to another tradition, a man sprung out 
from the ground, and taking a bitch for his wife, had two children, who, 
in the course of time, peopled the island. A man murdered was 
buried, and from his head sprung the first cocoanut tree; sometime 
after all the inhabitants were destroyed by an inundation, with the 
exception of one man and one bitch, who again peopled the island. In 
the course of time a vessel having a prince for captain, visited Tereni, 
who on his landing was murdered by the inhabitants ; his wife wm 
taken on shore, and treated with the greatest respect, but the spot 
on which was shed the blood of her husband, being always befoie 
her eyes, she was very unhappy. On one night she was advised in t 
dream by her mother to remove that bloody spot from Teresaa : she did 
so, and then Penboka was separated from that island. 

The inhabitants of Teressa believe that the peofde of Nancowry are 
the descendants of Malays, who, visiting in their fishing excursions that 
island, lost their boats and settled there. The Car-Nicobar people ar^ 
according to them, descendants of the Burmese, who in a revdntioB 
which took place in their country, were obliged to run away from the 
Tenasserim Coast, and landed at Nieobar. 

The dialects spoken by the Islanders differ more or less; and the 
difference does not arise only from pronunciation, but from a gtttX 
many words which are not the same ; so that the inhabitants of one d 
the islands can scarcely make themselves understood by the inhabitaati 
of another. 

The Islanders having no written language, the few words to be 
found at the end of this letter, have been therefore orally commnoi- 
cated to me. I wrote them as the sounds occurred to my ear ; without 
presuming to say that I have succeeded in representing them correctly. 

The Nicobarians shew great skill in the building of their houses and 
boats. Their dwellings are strongly built: they are supported bf 
large posts, and are elevated above the ground from ^ht to nine 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands. 347 

feet. The flooring, which is made of planks, has a circular form, and 
the roof, which has the shape of a bee-hive, is covered with grass called 
Lalang by the Malays, about a foot thick. They are without windows, 
nor have they any partition. The entrance is from below : these 
houses will last from ten to twelve years without repairs ; and there is 
no other furniture but earthen pots, cocoanut-shells to carry water, a 
round piece of wood which they use for a pillow, spears, knives, swords, 
and the ika, which is their general food. 

Their boats vary in size from six to twenty feet long, and from two 
to four feet broad, having an outrigging : they are generally safe : two 
or three poles support their sails. It is a pleasure to see how well 
these natives manage their canoes when meeting the surf. 

These Islanders are lazy and inactive, cowardly, treacherous, drunk- 
en, and I am sorry to say, that crimes against nature are not un- 
known to them. Every evening the villagers meet in one of the houses, 
and there they spend part of the night in drinking, singing, and dancing. 
Like children, they desire every thing they see, without troubling 
themselves whether the object be useful or not. When a vessel arrives, 
the headman of the village in his best dress goes on board, accompani- 
ed by some other persons, whom he always calls his children. They 
offer to the captain young cocoanuts, yams, and plantains. If asked 
what they wish to have in return, their answer is — Hahekienten man, 
which means, 'You are my father.' Although they seem to have no 
wish for all that they see, yet they expect to get drink or some- 
thing else. The headman then hands the certificate he has received 
from former captains. It is impossible to avoid laughing when 
the high sounding names of Byron, Smith, Rodney, Nelson, &c. are 
given to the bearers of the certificate. If a captain treat some of 
them very kindly, and make to them some presents, he is sure that some 
of the Islanders will be called after his name. In the year 1832, I saw 
at Rangoon two persons from Car-Nicobars ; they paid a visit to the 
Italian Bishop who was there, and they were so much pleased with 
some trifle they received from him, that the old man told him, ' My 
name being Captain John, I cannot take your name ; but my son not 
being Captain yet, he shall be henceforth called Captain Bishop.' The 
Nicobarians have different names. If they go on board an English 
vessel, they take an English name; if on board a junk, they take 
a Chinese name, &c. 

3 A 

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348 Notice of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

The Nicobarians appear to have a great facility for learning languages. 
1 do not mean to say, that they speak the languages very well ; but 
they are able to make themselves understood in many. The Portuguese, 
spoken in Mergui, is their favourite language; and the respectable 
people of the different islands are more or less acquainted with it. The 
Malay is well understood by some of the people of Nancowry, and the 
Ghreat and Little Nicobars ; some of the people can speak a little English, 
Burmese, Chinese, Hindustanee, &c. &c. 

In mentioning the character of these people, I have stated that they 
are treacherous, and as a proof of it, I shall relate the following facts : — 
In 1833, a Cholia vessel was cut off in the false harbour of Nancowry, 
and every person on board murdered. In 1839, the pilot of a Whaler 
being anchored at the same spot, the captain, some of the offi- 
cers, and the greater part of the crew, were slaughtered by the na- 
tives. In 1 844, Captain Ignatius Ventura, from Moulmein, command- 
ing the Mary, anchored on the north side of Teressa, at two o'clock in 
the afternoon : one hour after, the captain and crew were murdered. In 
the same year. Captain Law met the same fate at Karmorta. Another 
vessel, three years ago, after having taken part of her cargo at Katchall, 
sailed to the false harbour of Nancowry to complete her cargo, 
there also the captain and crew were slaughtered by the natives. The 
headman of Katchall, who had given a part of the cargo to the above 
vessel, related the fact to me. He spoke in the highest terms of the 
captain of the said vessel, as likewise of Captain Ventura. I was well 
acquainted with the last mentioned person; he was most kind and 
honest, consequently incapable of provoking any person. But it appears 
that it was not so with the vessel first mentioned, they highly exas- 
perated the natives by their conduct. 

It does not appear that the Nicobarians have any exact idea of a 
Supreme Being. They say, it is true that there is a great spirit, whom 
they call Reos* But I suspect that this word they have received from 
the Christians of Mergui, who have been visiting these islands during 
the last two centuries : the words Deos and Reos are so nearly alike, 
that the one appears to be a corruption of the other. They admit the 
existence of spirits to whom they attribute sickness, death, and scarcity 
in the crops ; they offer them pigs, fowls, &c. to propitiate them. Onoe 
in the year, and sometimes when great sickness prevails, they build 
a large canoe, and the Minloven, or priest^ has the boat carried dose 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Notice of the Nieobar Islands. 349 

to each house, and there, by his noise, he compels all the bad spirits to 
leave the dwelling, and to get into the canoe ; men. women, and chil- 
dren assist him in his conjuration. The doors of the house are shut ; 
the ladder is taken out ; the boat is then dragged along to the sea-shore, 
where it is soon carried off by the waves with a full cargo of devils ; those 
malignant spirits are effectually prevented from taking their abode 
again in the village by a screen made of pieces of cloth, which keeps 
out of their baneful sight, the place where the houses stand. This 
feast, which takes place at the end of the SW. monsoon, is called by 
the Nicobarians Kew Hivee. In the beginning of the N£. monsoon, 
all the women are obliged to fast for three or four days. During that 
time, they dress as mad persons, and go from house to house singing 
and dancing. The Nicobarians have also in their houses idols of the 
most ugly shape, representing men and women ; some with European 
dress, and some with the scanty dress of the natives. They have short 
and thin legs, and a large belly, and from their necks hang spoons, 
cocoanuts, &c. 

The Nicobarians have such a high idea of the power of Europeans, 
that to them they attribute the creation of their islands, and they think 
it depends on them to give fine weather, nice breezes, &c. They are 
convinced that the Minhven, can cure every disease, make people sick, 
and also deprive them of life. Should any one be suspected of causing 
death, the villagers would immediately kill him : this has been the case 
several times. When the French Missionaries were living at Teressa, 
the villagers went to them on several occasions, saying : ' Senhor Padre, 
give us some rain if you please ; our yams are dying, we know you can 
do it if you like.' And on one occasion, the priests were threatened 
to be murdered if there was no rain. On the following day, fortunately, 
a strong shower fell during the night, and the people thanked them 
most cordially. One of the clergy, being on board of their canoe in his 
way from Chowry to Teressa, the crew told him—' Senhor Padre, some 
breeze if you please' : sometime after, the wind blowing a little fresh, 
* basta/ cried they, * it is enough, do not give any more of it, otherwise the 
boat will be capsized.' One day, Gold Mohur, who is the most respected 
man of the Laxis, a village situated at Teressa, went to the Missionaries, 
telling them — ' You think perhaps that the inhabitants of this place are 
bad people. I will convince you of the contrary j to-morrow I will 

Digitized by 


350 Notice of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

take all the inhabitants to you, and by examining their hands, yoa i^nU 
see that there is not a single murderer amongst them.' When I was at 
Katchali, speaking to some of the people about the murder committed 
on board of vessels, every one of them showed me the inside of their 
hands, saying, ' Is there any spot of blood on them ?' These people are 
convinced that Europeans, by looking into their hands, know if they 
have been guilty of some crime. 

The population of the Nicobar Islands is from six to seven thousand 
souls. The whole of them live on the sea-shore : their villages, which 
are surrounded by cocoanut and betelnut trees, are small ; seldom more 
than three or four houses are seen on the same spot. The men have only 
one wife with the exception of those of Chowry island. The women enjoy 
the privilege of divorcing when they think proper ; so, should another 
man captivate their heart, they send away the first husband, and associate 
with the man who has been fortunate enough to please them. Not 
having children being considered as a curse, in that case the separation 
always takes place. I saw at Teressa, a woman who had been married 
on that account nine times. It 'is the custom for young people to live 
one year as husband and wife before the marriage ceremonies take 
place. Should they live on good terms, and be happy during that period, 
then the couple is united in the presence of the villagers, and of the 
Minloven. A feast is given to all the friends and relations ; large pigs 
are killed ; those that are invited daub their faces with the blood, &c. 
Should the husband die, the wife is seldom married again. 

The women during their course, daub the whole of their body with 
the blood of pigs and fowls ; and they drink freely the water in which 
they have infused several roots. When enceinte dancing and singing 
are not allowed in their village; nor can the relations sell pigs or 
fowls to make curry. When a child is born, it is a great rejoicing 
amongst them : they feast for several days. When a person is sick, they 
hang to his neck young cocoanuts, a spoon, and small carved figures, 
to amuse the spirit ; small baskets filled with betel leaves are suspended 
to the trees, and the Minloven is sent for. He never gives any medi- 
cine, but excites friction on the different parts of the body : he binds 
the members of the sick in different directions ; claps his hands, and 
makes a great deal of noise. He gives orders to the relations to cat 
some of the trees, and to tie to the posts of the house some of their 

Digitized by 


1 846] Notice of the Nicobar Islands. 35 1 

branches, with young cocoanuts. Should the person be in his last extremi- 
ty, the Minloven gives a song of farewell. Friends and relations never cry 
at the death of a person : their mourning is in the shaving of their heads : 
the villagers go to the house where the corpse is, and there they drink 
till they are intoxicated. A coffin is made of a boat cut in two, and some 
hours after the death, the body is carried to the grave, on which they 
put cocoanuts and plantains ; the Minloven, taking wooden poles, goes to 
the sea- shore, and fixes them in the sand in such a manner, that when left 
to themselves, they fall ; he then takes them again and throws them in 
the sea : when he reaches the village, he makes a great noise, and the 
villagers throw out immediately the ashes they have in their houses. 
If the dead be poor, a few days after the burial the corpse is taken out 
from the grave ; they bring it to all the houses of the village, and from 
thence to the place where are the bones of the persons who died before 
him. They hang the coffin between two trees, six or seven feet 
from the ground : when the string is rotten, the coffin falls, and the bones 
are partly eaten by the pigs. Should the dead be one of the captains, 
the corpse remains in the grave for three or four months. Some people 
in their best dress go to call relations and friends from the other vil- 
lages to remove the bones ; the pigs of the largest size are killed, and 
singing, dancing, and particularly drinking, are kept up for several days. 
When a person dies, the villagers cannot go on that day to the jungle, 
fearing to be killed by the Hivie or spirit : they abstain also from the 
food to which the deceased was partial. 

The Nicobarians give credit to dreams; and are much addicted to 
superstition. They will not cross a jungle carrying any box, nor will 
they use nails in the construction of their houses. They never bathe 
alone ; nor will they go to the burial ground ; nor will they cut large 
trees in the forest, before offering to the spirit, who resides there ; nor 
will they eat at the same meal, pork and turtle. When in their 
boats, after drinking the water of young cocoanuts, they are very 
careful not to throw into the sea, the shells. Before they build a house, 
the Minloven is called to choose the spot, and by different ceremonies, 
he compels the Hivie to leave the place. When a new canoe is to be 
launched, a fire is lighted round it to compel the spirit to quit the boat. 
These people have the idea, that some have it in their power to cause a 
person's death merely by thinking of it ; and should a villager dream 

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352 Notice of the Nieobar Islands. [No. 173. 

that such a one is doing so, there is no other means to escape but by 
going immediately to another island. The greatest part of persons 
seen in islands where they are not born, have been compelled to leave 
their own on this account. If the dreamer mention his dream to no 
one but to the heads of the village, the sentence is passed, and the 
eaters of men, as the Nicobarian call them, are taken and fastened to a 
tree close to the village, leaving them to perish by hunger : no friend, 
no relative, would give them any thing to eat. Some years ago, a young 
woman of Teressa was starved on that account, and it was but on the 
seventh day that death put a stop to her sufferings. 

The Nicobarians never use any thing taken from a vessel on which a 
murder has been committed, before the Minloven has, by prayers 
and supplications, purified the articles ; being under the persuasion, that 
if they did not resort to such expedients, the spirit of the murdered 
person would inevitably kill them. 

In Nieobar, every one is his own master, even children. Persons who 
have been in foreign countries, are respected, and have some authority over 
their countrymen. Such is the case also with aged people, and persons 
who have a great number of cocoanut trees and many pigs. But there is 
not a single person in all the Nicobars, who has it in his power to exercise 
controul over, I will not say one of the islands, but even a single village, 
should a person be guilty of a grievous offence, or of repeated thefts, he is 
compelled to leave the island. Some years ago, a person who had been 
sent out of Teressa for robbery, returned thereto ; and as he was follow- 
ing again his old trade, he was stabbed to death by the order of the head 
people of the village. I think that such occurrences are very rare, as it 
appears that there is a general good understanding and union amongst 

The prevailing food of the Nicobarians are pigs, poultry, turtle, fish, 
cocoanuts, yams, ika and fruits. 

The pigs, which appear to be derived from the Chinese breed, being fed 
on cocoanuts, are very fat, and their flesh is of a superior flavour. Al- 
though they are to be found in every island, Teressa is the place where 
they abound. Some of the villagers of Laxis, have as many as sixty or 
seventy. They are let loose in the jungle ; the owner calls them every 
day by striking on a plank with a stick ; on their hearing the noise, 
they run instantly in the direction of the shed where the cocoanuts are 

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1 846.] ' Notice of the Nicobar Islands. 353 

kept. After they have fared on the allowance, which consists of two 
cocoanuts for each, they return to the forest. Although there are many 
sheds to which the pigs are called in the same manner, those brutes, 
however, never mistake the place where they have to look for their food. 
This mode of living, gives to those animals the appearance of wild pigs. 
I saw some of the young ones variegated, reddish, and whitish. A large 
pig is sold for four or five rupees ; but if cloth or knives are given in 
barter, then it may be had at half that amount. White pigs are very 
scarce. I saw two at Teressa, and the owners would not part with them 
on any account. Should the authors of culinary books require a new 
system for cooking meat, I will gratify them with a receipt on that 
imvigor in use amongst the Nicobarians. Having killed the pig, daub 
your face with its blood, cut the animal in pieces, put it on the fire 
for one or two minutes, until the hair is burned off, then take off 
instantly and eat. 

. The fowls are scarce, and if bought with silver, they give but two or 
three for a rupee ; but the same number may be had for a common table 
knife, old or new. 

Although there is plenty of fish about the islands, the natives having 
no nets, catch but very few. Their only mode of fishing is with a 
basket and harpoon. Great skill is displayed both by old and young 
in using this instrument ; seldom missing their aim. A part of the fish 
caught is generally eaten raw on the spot, and the remainder is taken 
home to the family to be eaten in the same plain manner. 

Different species of turtle are found at Nicobar ; amongst them is the 
imbricated turtle which furnish the tortoise-shell : the flesh being un- 
wholesome, cannot be eaten. But it is not the same with the green 
turtle, whose flesh supplies good food, and whose eggs are fine eating : 
they are particularly common at Car- Nicobar. The natives take ad- 
vantage of the time when the turtle deposit their eggs in the sand dur- 
ing the night, they approach them slowly, and turning them on their 
carapans, they leave them in that position till next day, when they 
carry them home. These turtles, lay about one hundred eggs at a time. 

The group of the Nicobar seems to be the land of cocoanut 
trees. I have never seen any country where they grow so well and in 
such abundance ; the water of the young cocoanuts is superior in flavour 
to any I have tasted elsewhere. If Providence had not provided those 

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354 Notice of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

islands with these useful trees, I kaow not what would become of the 
inhabitants ; and I am sure, that the greatest punishment which could 
be inflicted on them, would be the cutting down of these trees, on 
which they mostly rely for their subsistence. Having no rice, the 
nut is its substitute ; and the cocoanut water is their general drink. 
Being very lazy, they never climb up the trees to get the ripe fruit, 
but let them fall of themselves, leaving them at the foot of the tree till 
they are wanted. The only thing which can induce them to climb up, 
is to get the young cocoanuts, in order to obtain the water to drink or 
the toddy, which, when fermented, is an intoxicating liquor ; there is no 
house without a supply of it, and the first thing that is offered to a 
visitor, is a cocoanut filled with that stuff. Men and women indiscrimi- 
nately climb the trees, except at Chowry, where none but persons of the 
fair sex enjoy that privilege. 

The Nicobar yams have a particular taste and flavour, which they lose 
in part when transplanted in other countries. Although very little 
trouble and care is necessary for their growth, yet the Nicobarians, 
through carelessness and indolence, aUow themselves to be deprived of 
that wholesome root, during six months in the year. 

The eka, or ika, or milor, as it is called by the Portuguese, is a fruit of 
the size and shape of the jack ; weighing from ten to fifteen pounds. It 
grows on a tree which is from twenty to thirty feet high, the trunk is 
funili formis, foliis pinearis. The fruit being boiled, the edible part 
is separated from the filaments with a sheU, which, for greater con- 
venience (the women alone perform that work) is held between the 
toes. This being done, they make it into loaves, weighing from ten 
to twelve pounds each ; it will keep for several months. When the 
natives take their meals, they cut a slice of it, which being mixed with 
the kernel of the cocoanut, affords them substantial food. This bread 
resembles much in taste and colour the sweet potatoe. These trees 
grow in all the Islands. 

The fruits the most common are plantains, papayas, and jacks. 
I have seen some oranges and sweet lime, but of an inferior quality. 
There is scarcely any marked difference in the soil of the various islands 
of the group ; and therefore what grows in one of the islands would 
equally be found growing in the other. To certain islands, however, 
is allowed by natives the privilege of growing certain articles, which is 

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1846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands, 355 

denied to the other : thus Nancowry is the only island in which paddy 
can be sown, &c. These restrictions extend not only to planters but 
affect also tradesmen : for instance, boats are to be built at Nancowry : 
earthen pots are to be manufactured at Ghowry : lime is to be burnt at 
Gar-Nicobar. The Islanders are obliged to have recourse to the above 
mentioned places for those articles. This practice seems to be the 
result of a rather sound policy, the object of which is to establish, and 
keep up an uninterrupted intercourse between the people of those 
various islands. Who would have suspected the Nicobarians capable of 
so wise a political institution ! ! ! 

The Oreat Nicobar is remarkable for the height of its hills, rising 
in succession, and covered with thick jungle. The inhabitants are few 
in number, and for their having an almost continuous intercourse with 
the Malays, some of them are tolerably acquainted with their language. 
The captain of the Steamer Ganges paid a visit to that island, and 
having anchored his vessel in the bay on the south-east side of the 
island, proceeded in his boat to survey the river as far as twenty miles 
up. The soil appeared to him to be very rich, particularly on the left 
side. He saw some deserted huts and a few plantations of cocoanuts. 
In some places the river was very wide, and he never found less 
than two fathoms of water. He reached a place where there was 
a fence, about two feet high. A shed was erected inside, but the 
inmates having, it appears, heard the noise of oars, had all fled : on the 
fire was ika half-boiled, not in earthen pots, as used by the Nico- 
barians, but in the broad and thick leaves which surround the betel- 
nut, made in the shape of a pot. In the same enclosure were also pigs 
and fowls. 

The interior of this island is inhabited by a race of people distinct 
from those of the Nicobars. It is said that this tribe is barbarous, and 
much inclined to warlike excursions to the great annoyance of their 
neighbours ; they are of a dark complexion, and have curled hair. It 
is a great pity that we know so little about a people, who having 
had hitherto no intercourse, nor the least communication with any 
other race, and being left to their own resources, could give us an idea of 
what man is when he has no other guide for his conduct, but the 
dictates of his vitiated nature. This tribe, with a dark complexion and 
curled hair, whether they are Papawans or Andamans, is a question 

3 B 

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356 Notice of the Ni^ohar Islands, [No. 173. 

which no one could answer, except a person who had seen them both. 
Some persons iiave been brought from the Andamans to Penang, and no 
doubt has ever been entertained, but they are unquestionably of African 
extraction. I had occasion to see at Nancowry a man from Mozam- 
bique, who had seen several times persons from the Andamans, and who 
assured me that they were people belonging to the same race as 
himself. It is not to be supposed that the above mentioned person 
could have confounded two races so distinct as are the Africans and the 
Papa wans. The hair of the last mentioned race grows in small tufts, 
each having a spiral twist. The forehead rises higher ; the nose is more 
projecting from the face ; the upper lip is longer ; the lower projects 
forward from the lower jaw to such an extent, that the chin forms as it 
were no part of the face. This description given by Sir Everard Home, 
forms a striking mark of the dissimilarity between the two races. 

The Little Nicobar has a beautiful anchorage ; the Steamer Ganges 
anchored opposite to a sandy beach, close to Pulo Beloo, at a short dis- 
tance from the sea-shore. There is between the hills a beautiful valley, 
irrigated by a small river running from the south to the north ; at the 
mouth of that river is a cave, in which numbers of the Colloealia Jmci' 
phaga build their nests : the bottom of the cave is filled several feet 
deep with guano. Coal has been found towards the northern point oi 
the island ; but it appears that the product would not pay the expenses 
of working it. The hills, which cover the interior of the island, may be 
estimated from one thousand to twelve hundred feet high. The sea- 
slugs called trepan, which is such a delicacy for the Chinese, abound 
in the harbour. 

The beauty of the harbour, the safety of the anchorage, and the 
fertility of the soil, induced the Danish Government to choose this 
island for their head-quarters. The Steamer Ganges, which was 
bought for the use of the new colony, went in December last to 
Penang, in order to procure coolies ; of the forty Chinamen taken on 
board, a part of them were unfortunately opium smokers ; the conse- 
quence was, that when the supply of that drug which they had brought 
from Penang, was exhausted, being unable to procure any at Nicobar, 
they had no strength to go on with theu: work : after lingering for 
sometime, they feU victims to the deadly effect of that most pemidoiia 
habit. The remainder of the Chinamen have been employed in clearing 

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1846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands. S5 7 

a place for the storeB, and making roads; they have planted samples 
of sugar-cane, coffee, nutmegs, &c. It appears that the luxuriant growth 
of these plants exceeds the planter's expectation. 

I entertain very little doubt, that the Danes will finally succeed in 
colonizing the Nicobar Islands ; but great patience is required, and much 
money is to be expended for clearing the land. The fever, which attacks 
the natives, and particularly foreigners trading thereto, especially when 
they sleep on shore, is to be no doubt attributed partly to the dense 
thick forest covering the ground. Of the four French Missionaries who 
lived at Teressa, one of them died of fever soon after his arrival ; a 
second one, after having been laid up with the same disease for more 
than a year, breathed his last at Mergui. The two surviving are still 
lingering under the same complaint, although they have left Teressa 
almost two years since. The natives of Gar-Nicobar, when attacked 
with fever, rub themselves all over before a fire with hogs' lard. I do 
not know how far this remedy, which affords relief to those Islanders, 
would succeed with foreigners. 

Should the Danish Government wish to go on with the colony, the 
best plan in my humble opinion would be, to employ Malays or Siamese 
to clear the forest ; they are the people most fit for that purpose ; the 
Chinese are most certainly the best cultivators amongst the Asiatics, 
but not being accustomed to the clearing of jungle, their work in that 
line would not compensate for the high salary which they receive. They, 
being accustomed to live on a good and abundant food, would certainly 
prove a heavy burden on a new settlement, such as the Nicobar, where 
provisions are, with so great a difficulty, to be had. The planters of 
Penang, having been annoyed by the importunities of the Chinese la- 
bourers, who are never satisfied with their present condition, have partly 
employed labourers from the Coromandel Coast; these coolies are a 
hard-working people, receive low wages, and are not impertinent towards 
their employers as the Chinese commonly are. It would be very easy 
for the Danish Government to procure labourers from the Coromandel 
Coast : rice and salt- fish being their food, they would be a lesser burden 
to the colony. Should Government take a couple of hundred Malays 
about the end of October, they would be able to cut down a consider- 
able extent of the forest before the end of January : then their services 
might be dispensed with. In March or April fire could be set to the 

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358 Notice of the Nicobar Islands, [No. 173. 

wood, then fully dried up ; this being done, the planting could com- 
mence. There is very little doubt, but the clearing of the jungle 
will put an effectual stop to the Nicobar fever. When the English 
took Arracan from the Burmese, that place was for some years 
called the grave of the troops; but the jungle having been cleared up to 
a considerable distance from the station, it is at present as healthy a 
place as any station in Bengal. 

Province Wellesley, on the western coast of the Malayan Peninsula, 
was so unhealthy twenty years ago, that a European would not venture 
in the interior without being almost certain of catching the jungly 
fever ; but the province having been in part cleared of jungle, it is con- 
sidered by Europeans to be as healthy as Penang Island. 

To colonize the Nicobars, a good manager is absolutely necessary, 
and much money must be expended at the commencement, and as aU 
depends on the beginning, so the Government should be prepared to sup- 
ply the settlement with means adequate to the undertaking. Should 
the establishment be properly managed at first, there is no doubt but the 
Malays and Chinese would go and settle there with their families, and 
cultivate the ground on their own account, as they do in English settle- 
ments ; but on the contrary, were the Danish Government to go on slowly 
to the work, then the present settlement will be a failure, as was their 
first one at Nancowry. Nothing is to be expected from the natives ; 
they are too lazy ; they wiU never work except by compulsion. 

The Nicobarians are averse to Europeans settling in their islands ; 
this I heard from the most respectable of the Islanders, and but lately 
they gave a proof of it by making an attempt on the Government estab- 
lishment. The natives being without courage, and not having among 
them a person who could succeed in forming them into one compact 
body and direct their united efforts, little fear is to be entertained about 
their future desultory attacks. 

The sight of the south-west entrance to Nancowry harbour, afifords a 
magnificent spectacle, and inspires the soul with emotion and pleasure. 
The passage which is about one hundred feet wide, has on each side a 
bare and rugged rock, having in the centre an opening much resembling 
the side gates of . a citadel ; these rocks lie adjacent to the hills riaiog 
from two to three hundred feet above the level of the sea, and are co- 
vered with a fine and ever-green vegetation; on entering the harbour. 

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1 846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands. 359 

which appears as a large hasin, the eye meets with some hamlets sur* 
rounded by cocoanut and betelnut trees ; many of the houses are built 
like the Malay huts, and some have the shape of bee-hives, llie whole 
circumference of the harbour is lined with hills varying in shape, size, 
and height : some rising in the form of inclined planes, some towering 
perpendicularly ; and some having several escarpments ; these hills, from 
four to five hundred feet high, are covered with luxuriant vege* 
tation. In vain the eye seeks for cultivated ground to embellish the 
scenery ; nothing is to be seen but the savage grandeur of a vigorous 
vegetation, which characterises this part of the world. The harbour 
communicates with the sea by another entrance towards the east, which 
is the general passage for vessels to get in : there stands a village called 
Malaca ; when vessels anchor close to it, both of the passages may be seen. 

The inhabitants of this village, which has ten or twelve houses, are far 
from making a favourable impression on the visitor. By their features 
the Nancowry people resemble the Malays so much, that they appear 
to have some of the Malay blood in their veins ; and there is no doubt, 
that if they rightly deserve to be considered as the wickedest amongst all 
the inhabitants of the group, it is owing chiefly to their frequent inter- 
cour9e with the Malays. Some days previous to my arrival at Malaca, 
a young East Indian, William Goldsmith, who had resided there several 
years, died in that village. On enquiring about the particulars of his 
death, I was far from being satisfied with their contradictory, and on all 
respects, unsatisfactory answers. This young man must have known a 
great deal about the doings of the natives : it is not therefore improba- 
ble that his death had been hastened by the suspicious Islanders who 
feared he might make known their mischievous deeds. In the same 
village an African Christian, named John, who speaks tolerable Portu- 
guese, and was employed as gunner by the Danes when they were in 
that island, came on board dressed with a miserable rag which the 
natives wear around their loins, he had for a neckcloth a fine panta- 
loon, which he received a few days before from one of the Danish offi- 
cers. I put several questions to him concerning the inhabitants, but in 
vain ; he only told me that the natives were very good, with the excep- 
tion of the inhabitants of the False harbour. 

The first Danish settlement was at Karmorta, opposite to the village 
of Malaca; the remains of a few brick houses may be seen still on a 

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360 Notice of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

rising ground. I dp not think that the spot was well chosen for an 
European settlement, the harbour being surrounded on every side by 
hills with the exception of the two entrances. This site must have 
proved unhealthy to the settlers ; the low ground is very sandy, and the 
soil appears to be inferior to that of Nicobar. 

Teressa Island appears to be ill adapted to be the head-quarters of a 
colony ; the south of the island being an open place without a harbour, 
is too much exposed to be a safe anchorage, the surf is tremendous, and 
the only place for landing, is a small passage amongst sweeps. The 
breakers in the N£. monsoon are also terrific. The northern part of 
the island is partly protected by Bombaka, a small island, distant two 
miles from Teressa, the hills of which rise suddenly from the beach ; but 
that side being exposed to an easterly gale, the anchorage is not safe. 
The low ground of Teressa is very sandy, and although the hills are 
composed of red clay, they are covered in part by a coarse grass called 
Lalan, and the vegetation does not appear to be so strong as in some 
other islands. Lackshee is the largest village in the island: it is 
situated towards the south, and contains seventeen huts, numbering 
one hundred and four persons. It is in that village that the French 
Missionaries dwelt, living in a native hut. The Islanders would not 
allow them to build a house, although they had brought the materials 
from Penang; being under the ridiculous impression, that if a house 
were built different from theirs, they would all inevitably die. The Gar- 
Nicobarians have not those prejudices, having allowed the Missionaries 
to build a house in 1836 in any shape they thought proper. 

The Missionaries entertained at first great hopes of converting the 
natives ; the Islanders visited their houses frequently, and though they 
did not appear to take much interest in their instructions, it was thought 
that this might be attributed rather to the unsteadiness of their charac- 
ter than to any determined aversion to their becoming Christians. 

The priests on becoming better acquainted with their character, 
found that the trifles they had brought with them to the Nicobars, were 
partly the cause of the seeming affection shewn to them at the begin* 
ning. A school was opened by the Missionaries ; as children do what 
they please, and parents having no controul over them, the school was 
attended only by a few, and that for a very short time, so that not a 
single boy could derive any benefit from it. 

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1 846.] Notice of ike Nicobar Islonde, 36 1 

The Jesuits* about two hundred years ago, were the first who brought 
to those Islanders, the light of the Gospel : their exertions were crown- 
ed with success at Car-Nicobar» but these Missionaries being anxious 
to give the same benefit to the other islands, went thither on that pur- 
pose. Their zeal was rewarded with the crown of martyrdom. The 
neophytes being left to themselves, fell again into their former paganism. 

In the beginning of this century, an Italian clergyman was sent from 
Rangoon to Car-Nicobar, his zeal, charity, and simplicity of manner in 
his living, gained him the hearts of the natives ; several of them were 
baptized ; and there is very little doubt, that the whole island would 
have been converted, had he not caught the fever, in consequence of 
which, he had to return to Rangoon, where he died shortly after his 

In 1835, two French clergymen were sent by the Bishop of the 
Straits to the same island. The natives were shy at first, but after a few 
days of intercourse, they shewed a more friendly disposition, and allowed 
them to build a house. The Missionaries found that their frequent 
communication with foreigners was far from having improved their man- 
ners. They were no more that simple, innocent, and harmless people 
as they were formerly represented to be. When the natives became 
more acquainted with the missionaries, they paid them frequent visits ; 
bringing with them trifling presents, such as yams, fowls, &c., some of 
them being anxious to learn the Christian religion, went every evening 
to their house to be instructed : after a few months' residence there, the 
priest had gained so much the affection of the people, that their house 
was crowded every day ; and they were permitted to visit all the parts 
of the island without excepting even their inland establishments, where 
they keep their most valuable articles: a privilege which had never 
hitherto been granted to any foreigner. Every thing went on prosper- 
ously, until the arrival of a Cholia vessel, whose Nakoda, by misrepre- 
senting the character of the priests, withdrew from them the confidence 
of the natives. He told them, that the Missionaries were English spies 
sent there, for the purpose of enquiring into the produce of the country, 
and that in consequence of the information furnished by them, that 
Government would soon take possession of their islands. The Nico- 
barians having given credit to this tale, would hold no more communi- 
cation with them nor sell them any provisions : two of the natives who 

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362 Notice of the Nicohar Islands. [No. 173. 

continued faithful to the Missionaries, told them that the people were 
80 exasperated against them on account of these false reports, that if 
they remained any longer, there was no doubt, but they would become 
victims to their rage. As the Missionaries could not succeed in con* 
vincing the Islanders of the untruth of the report, and seeing that any 
further stay among them was useless, they quitted the place, having 
remained in the island about a year. It is impossible to form an adequate 
idea of the hardships which the Missionaries underwent during their stay 
in the Nicobar Island. They were deprived of every comfort of life ; their 
food frequently consisted of nothing but cocoanuts and yams. The Rev. 
Mr. Lacrampe, who spent the SW. monsoon at Chowry, had no rice to 
eat during his stay ; and had it not been for a native who brought 
him one yam every other day, and which he was obliged to share with 
a servant boy, he would have starved. This gentleman being attacked 
with fever, cocoanut-water was the only drink he could procure to 
quench his burning thirst. The Rev. Messrs. Chopard and Borie, soon 
after their arrival, were taken ill at Teressa, and so seriously, that 
they could not render each other assistance : both were lying on mats 
in the same place, without remedy, and receiving no assistance from the 
natives, but the hand of Him who had guided their steps in that foreign 
land, supported them amidst such trying afflictions. At last Mr. Borie, 
though of a strong constitution, fell a victim to repeated attacks of 
fever. On that very day, in the evening, Revd. Mr. Chopard was so 
very ill, that he was not at first aware of the death of his companion. On 
the following morning, having recovered his senses, he then only found 
that his friend was but a corpse lying by his side. On the same even- 
ing the natives removed the mortal remains to the grave they had pre- 
pared : and he, though scarcely able to creep along, attended the funeral. 
A worldly-minded person might mistake this pure zeal of the mission- 
aries for blind fanaticism; but their conduct cannot but be admired 
and praised, when we consider and reflect on the fact, that these nus- 
sionaries were led by no possible earthly motives, but guided solely by 
the earnest desire of making known the saving truths of the Gospel to 
their fellow-creatures. Nothing but a belief grounded on the strongest 
evidence, and deeply rooted in their souls would have led them to 
the field of their labours, and supported them through the severest 

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1846.] Notice of the Nicobar Islands. 363 

Ghowry Island, seen from the east, presents a ragged and abrupt 
rock, resembling the walls of a citadel or old castle. The other part of 
the island is flat. Although cocoanut trees grow well there, the 
quantity is not sufficient for the support of the inhabitants ; in conse- 
quence of which, many are obliged to proceed to other islands. The 
emigrants being generally men, it follows, that the female sex are more 
numerous ; I suppose this is the cause why the privilege of having 
several wives is allowed in that island. No fresh water is to be had 
at Ghowry ; the inhabitants therefore have no other drink but cocoanut- 
water. Vessels or boats touch seldom at Chowry, because there is 
no safe place of anchorage; in consequence of which the natives are 
the poorest among the Nicobarians ; and when they have to buy or sell 
any articles, they go to the other islands where the vessels are lying. 

In all the group of the Nicobars are found, more or less, birds' nests, 
trepan, ambergris, and tortoise-shells. The first vessel that touches 
there, when the SW. monsoon is over, might make good bargains with 
the natives, provided the purchasers be well acquainted with the quality 
of the articles brought to them. 

The Collocalia fuciphaga is smaller than the common Swallow, brown 
above, and whitish below. The nest is a whitish gelatinous substance, 
arranged in layers and secreted by the salivary glands of that species of 
Swift. These birds, common in the Archipelago of Mergui, the Nico- 
bars, &c. build theur nests in the cavity of the rocks, where it is most 
difficult and perilous to have access. The nests are of six qualities ; 
the first, of a fine whitish colour, is obtained by taking the nest before 
the Swift has layed its eggs. This quality is sold at Penang from 
forty to fifty dollars the katee. The second quality of a brownish 
colour, is obtained by taking the nest when the bird has layed her eggs. 
It is sold at Penang at from twenty to thirty dollars the katee. The 
third quality is of a dark colour, mixed with blood and feathers, it is ob- 
tained by taking the nest when the young birds have flown ; the price 
of this sort is very low. The Ghinese say, that when the nest is taken 
before it is completed, the Swift makes another but of an inferior qua- 
lity : and it appears that the bird exhausts itself in building the second ; 
the next being spotted with blood. The manner in which the Ghinese 
prepare the' nest is to steep it in water during one night ; then with great 
trouble they clean it ; this being done, they boil it in water to which 


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364 Notice of the Nicobar islands. [No. 17S. 

they have added some sugarcandy, till the whole forms a jelly: one 
nest prepared in this manner, is sufficient for one person. 

Birds' nests being very dear, the wealthy Chinamen only can enjoy 
this delicacy. The rich opium smokers take in the morning a cup of it, 
for the purpose of refreshing and strengthening their debilitated frames. 
Persons attacked by consumption, are advised by the Chinese physi- 
cians to take these nests; they prescribe the same to those who are 
reduced by a protracted illness ; and I have seen several persons, who, 
having made use of this remedy, declared that they found a temporary 
relief from this refreshing and nourishing food. 

Formerly, both Malays and Burmese, procured at the Andamans a 
considerable quantity of these nests : collecting them themselves, or 
receiving them from the Island^s in exchange for their tobacco, &c. I 
was told by an old Caffrey, who is still living, that when young he had 
been several times at the Andamans ; that the inhabitants were then a 
harmless people ; that they brought on board, trepan, birds' nests, &c. ; 
taking in exchange several articles. The above person attributed the 
change in their manners to the misconduct of some Malays and Bur- 
mese, who taking advantage of the time in which the natives were on 
board their vessels, tied them up and carried them off as sUves. It is a 
fact, that several persons at different times have been brought to Ran- 
goon as weU as to Penang. How could it be expected that the natives 
after such treatment, would keep the least intercourse with foreigners. 
At present theur antipathy to strangers has risen to such a degree, that 
it is most dangerous to approach their shores. It is said, that the Anda- 
man people are Cannibals ; but the assertion is hitherto destitute of un- 
questionable proof: and it would appear rather strange, that a people, 
who are reported to have been harmless forty or fifty years ago, could 
have fallen into such a state of barbarism in so short a time : be that as 
it may, it is certain, that peaceful persons who have called to thdr 
island, to procure a supply of water, have been murdered by the natives 
without provocation. 

Ambergris is found in all the group of the Nicobars ; and some yean 
in such quantities, that this article is scarcely of any value in these islands. 
In the various islands I visited, the natives brought me ambei^ris for 
sale ; but its having been mixed with the wax of a small bee, which 
establishes itself in the trunk of decayed trees, it was of a very inferior 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Notice of the Niecbar Islands. 365 

quality. The genuine amber is sold very dear at Penang. The Chinese 
and Bormese use it for medicinal purposes. 

The trepan, or bichoo*de-mar, is a leech-like animal, from fifteen to 
twenty inches long, to four or fire inches broad. Some are of a reddish- 
brown, and some of adark-brown colour. These animals lay in the sand or 
coral rocks, without shewing any a^>earance of animation* The Malays 
have two ways to catch them ; first by spearing, and second when the 
water is not too deep, by diving and taking them with their hands. The 
Malays are, I think, the only people who prepare the trepan^ They 
start for the Nicobar Islands in November and December, and remain there 
till the end of April. The way of preparing these leeches for the market, 
is to boil and dry them in the sun or at the fire : they are then packed up 
with lime, brought to Penang, and sold to the Chinamen, who are the 
only people, I think, fond of that delicacy* The price varies according 
to the quality; some trepans are sold at the rate of thirty dollars 
per peeul^ some at a lower price. The Chinese alone have the skill to 
find out a dii&rence between the various kinds of trepans. A Malay 
boat made last year^ fifteen hundred dollars by merely collecting trepans. 

Having been in the different islands for a short poriod of time only, I 
could not ascertain what are the different species of trees growing there, 
but judging by those I saw, I think they are, with a few exceptions; 
of the same species as those growing at Penang ; the dammer tree parti- 
cularly, is very common. The overseer employed by the Danes at Little 
Nicobar, says, that teak is found on the island, but I am inclined 
to believe that it is a mistake^ 

The soil on the sea-shore of the Nicobars is sand, coral, lime, and 
vegetable mould, more or less thick. The hills are red clay, as the 
Penang hiUs s the rocks are limestone, sandstone, clay and slate. As 
rain seldom falls in the months of December, January^ February, and 
March, I do not know how far the plantation of spices would suc- 

When at Nicobar, I collected different species of birds which were 
sent to the Calcutta museum. I saw at Katchall and at Little Nicobar 
monkies of the species Macacw Cffnomolgus, The natives told me that 
several species of snakes were found in the islands^ some being very 
venomous. The boa conetrietor i$ found also in the islands, particularly 
at Teressa. 

Digitized by 



Notice of the Nicobar Islands, 

[No. 173. 

The shells which I collected were the following : ammoDites virginea, 
conus generalis, cyprsea, exenthama, cassidaria chiasphora, ceritheam, 
murx tenuispiaa, pteroceras scorpio, anodon dipsus, cardita calicalata. 

Before concluding this notice, I beg to return my most sincere thanks 
to Captain R. Ashland, commanding the Danish Steamer Ganges, for 
having afforded me, with the utmost kindness, the means of visiting 
several of the islands above-mentioned, as also for the unceasing kind- 
ness shewed to me when on board of his vessel, both by him and 
his officers. I was seventeen days in the group, and I am indebted for 
the foregoing detailed accounts, partly to the natives themselves, bat 
chiefly to the Reverend Mr. Lacrampe, who accompanied me to the 
Nicobar Islands. As this clergyman had previously resided for more 
than one year on these islands, and was tolerably well acquainted with 
the language of the natives, I have unhesitatingly relied on the infor- 
mation he 80 readily gave me. 

It is as weU to add, that in mentioning the harbours, their entrance, 
&c., I may have mistaken with regard to their exact position, but I beg 
the reader to bear in mind, that I am not a seaman, and therefore no 
one can expect from me that exactness in such matters, which can be 
fumbhed but by persons brought up to that profession, and who are 
supplied with the requisite instruments. 

Small Vocabulary of thb Nancowbt Languagb. 





Young man. 

















































Birds' nest. 


Digitized by 



Notice of the Nicohar Islands, 




















1. King. 

4. Faan. 

7. Hakiat. 



2. Hahoo. 

5. Thanin. 

8. Infuan. 



3. Looha. 

6. Thafool. 

9. Inhatta. 



Notes OH the Fauna of the Nicohar Islands, By £. Bltth, Curator of 
the Museum of the Asiatic Society, 

The Vertebrated Fauna of the Nicobars, to judge from the collection 
with which Mr. Barbe has favoured the Society, and also from a nearly 
parallel series of specimens collected and presented to the Society by 
Capt. Lewis, would seem to be remarkable for the paucity of terrene 
species ; while a large proportion of such as do occur are apparently pe- 
culiar to the locality. 


Of this class, I have examined four species only, of which three are 

Macacos cynomolgus : which is also an inhabitant of the Tenasserim 
Provinces and Malayan peninsula, but in Arracan is represented by the 
allied M, carbonarius, I have been presented with two living specimens 
from the Island of Timor, which do not appear to differ from those of 
Malacca ; the species being everywhere subject to some individual vari- 

Pteropus edulis : Pt. javanicus, Horsf., &c. &c. Three specimens are 
alike remarkable for having the throat and front of the neck black, the 
head blackish, the nape dull reddish-brown, the back shining black, 
flimks and vent dull black, and the rest of the under-parts dull reddish- 
brown, much paler in the centre. 

Digitized by 


368 Notes an the Fauna of the Nicohar Islands. [No. 173. 

Cynopterus marginatus, (B. Ham.) Inhabits India generally, as also 
the countries eastward of the Bay of Bengal to Malacca, and the great 
eastern archipelago. 

Hipposideros murinus, (Elliot) : vide /. A. 8. XIII, 489. Identical 
with specimens from Southern India, and from the Malayan peninsula. 

In addition to the above, Capt. Lewis informed me of a large Monkey, 
evidently a Presbytis (vel Semnopithecus) from his description, of which 
he vainly attempted to obtain specimens, from its remarkable wiidness ; 
also of a large Squirrel, distinct from .any in the Society's Museum, and 
therefore probably new, considering the locality. 

Capt. Lewis likewise obtained, in the immediate vicinity of the Nico- 
bars, an example of Delphinorhynchus rostratus, F. Cuv., as identified 
from its skull which he has presented to the Society, and which entirely 
accords with that of a specimen captured in the Red Sea. 

Sue '— ^- The Nicobarian Pigs appear to have been derived from the 
Chinese domestic species, turned loose upon some of the islands."*" 

It can scarcely be doubted, however, that several additional species 
of mammalia remain to be discovered, as particularly Bats, with proba- 
bly more Squirrels, and at least two or three species of small Camivora, 
and perhaps Insectivora, 


Paiaomis caniceps, nobis, ante pp. 23, 51. Capt. Lewis obtained a 
living specimen of this bird, with the wings and tail mutilated by its 
native captor. Dr. Cantor has another and very fine specimen, evidently 
a female, with black beak, from the Malayan peninsula. 

P. erythrogenys, nobis, ante p. 23. Specimens of this bird were pro- 
cured both by Mr. Barbe and by Capt. Lewis ; and a living male was 
given by the latter gentleman to Mr. Halfhyde, of the Preventive ser- 
vice, who, when it died, presented it to the Society. This individual was 
in far more beautiful plumage than the specimens previously examined: 
it measured eighteen inches and a half in length, of which the middle 
tail-feathers w;ere ten and a half ; expanse of wings twenty-two inches 
and a half ; and closed wing seven inches and five-eighths : irides dull 
greyish. The cheeks and ear-coverts, continued forward to the beak. 

* It may be here remarked, that Capt Lewis has himself turned a pair of Cermu 
axis iooee, in a locality where they are likely to propagate. 

Digitized by 


1846.] Note§ on the Fauna of the Nieobar Islands, 369 

are of a beautifully bright cherry*red» devoid of the lake or " peach- 
blossom** tinge prevailing on the same parts of P. malaccensis, and 
which, in the latter species, is continued round the nape : the crown 
also is not of the deep emerald-green of that of P. malaccensis ; 
the occiput and nape incline to light straw-yellow ; and there is a well 
defined black line from the nostril to the eye : all which combine with 
its superior size, and other minutiae that might be pointed out, as the 
absence of red above the ear- coverts, to distinguish it from P. malae- 
censis. Indeed, it holds much the same relationship towards that 
species, which P. Alexandri does towards P. torquatus ; and P. eanieeps 
fitandsin the same position towards P. pandicerianus ; P. sehisticeps, also, 
towards P. cyanocephalus,-~'P. erythrogenys, so far as we are yet aware, 
is peculiar to the Nicobar Islands, where it occurs abundantiy. 

Bulaca seloputo, (Horsfield) : Strut pagodarum, Tem. Capt. Lewis 
informed me of a very beautiful Owl which he obtained, but the speci- 
men was lost through the carelessness of a servant : he could not re- 
cognise the species among the fine collection of Owls in the Society's 
Museum, but identified it positively from a Malayan specimen belonging 
to Dr. Cantor. The present species has been much confounded with 
its Indian representative -, which latter has been referred, not very satis- 
factorily, to Strix sinensis. Lath. A very large white Eagle was also 
shot by Capt. Lewis, but he could not succeed in penetrating the very 
dense jungle into which it fell : this was probably Blagrus dimidiatus, 

Todiramphus occipitalis, nobis, ante pp. 23, 5 1. Peculiar, so far as has 
been yet observed, to the Nicobars. 

T. collaris, (Scopoli and Swainson) : Alcedo chloroeephala, Omelin. 
Nicobarian specimens of this bird are remarkably brilliant, with much 
less of the green tinge than usual upon the crown and back. 

Merops philippinensis. Found also throughout India, and in the Ma- 
layan peninsula and archipelago. 

Collocaliafuciphaga, (Thunberg), vide p. 22, ante. 

Gracula/avanensis, vide p. 3 1 , ante. Inhabits the southern Islands only. 

Stumia erythropygia, nobis, ante p. 34. Hitherto observed only upon 
the Islands. 

Calomis affinis, A. Hay, ante p. 36. Upon the average, this bird is 
less brighUy glossed than C. cantor, of the Malayan peninsula and archi- 

Digitized by 


S70 Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

pelago. It waa observed by Capt. Lewis in the central and aoathero 

Nectarinia peetoraiis, Horsfield : N. eximia, Temminck (nee Hors- 
field). Inhabits also the Malayan peninsula and Java, but in the Te- 
nasserim provinces and in Arracan is represented by the allied N. fiam- 
nuunllarist nobis. 

Zosterops palpebrosus, (Tern) : Sylvia annulosa, var. A. Swainson. 
This species inhabits the hilly parts of India, from the Himalaya to 
Ceylon inclusive, and also those of Arracan and Tenasserim : but I have 
never seen it from the Malayan peninsula, and it is represented in Java 
and the Philippines by Z, flavus, the Dicceum flavum, Horsfield. The 
specimen described as Z, nicobaricus, J. A, 8. XIV, 563, would seem 
to be merely the young ; though I have never seen an Indian specimen 
in corresponding plumage. The Society has, however, subsequently 
received Nicobarian specimens in the ordinary dress of Z. palpebrosus. 

Oriolus macrourus, nobis, ante p. 46. A very distinct species, ob- 
served only in the central Islands. I may here remark, that since my 
Synopsis of this genus was written floe. dt.J, I have discovered that 
females of O. melanocephalus very commonly assume the plumage which 
is generally thought to be characteristic of the adult male ; and I greatly 
suspect that the same obtains in the various other species of Oriole. 

Hypsxpetes virescens, nobis, vide p. 51, ante. Inhabits the central 

Geocichla innotota, nobis, MS. (described in the sequel to my * Notices 
and Descriptions of New Birds'). Both Mr. Barbe and Capt. Lewis pro- 
cured what I infer to be a female of this well marked species ; and Dr. Can- 
tor's Malayan collection contains what I incline to regard as the male. 
The colouring is considerably more intense than in G. citrina, and 
there is no white upon the wing- coverts ; the presumed female only has 
a white throat, and the scapularies and interscapularies are olivaceous. 

Dicrurus balicassius, (Lin.) A specimen of this common Malayan species 
was obtained at sea, by Capt. Lewis, when nearing one of the Islands. 

Tchitrea — — — P A species of Paradise Flycatcher, or Shak Bulboul of 
the natives of India, was observed but not obtained*by Capt. Lewis. 

Myiagra carulea, (Vieillot). Common. 

Treron chloroptera, nobis, XIV, 853. A very distinct species, hitherto 
only observed upon the southern Islands. 

Digitized by 


1846] Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar lelands, 371 

Carpophaga sylvatica, (Tickell). Nicobarian specimens seem inva- 
riably to di£Fer from those obtained throughout the eastern coast of 
the Bay of Bengal (from Arracan to the Straits), and also from Java, 
Sylhet. Assam, &c., all of which are quite similar, in the green of 
of the upper-parts being wholly unmixed with bronze, and the ash-grey 
of the head, neck, and under-parts having no tinge whatever of vina- 
oeous ; the primaries also are devoid of the grey tinge ; and the lower 
tail-coverts are much less deeply tinctured with dark vinaceous. Hence 
the ensemble, when several specimens of each are examined together, is 
conspicuously different. This species occurs in the central group of 

C. myristicivora, (Scopoli) : Coiumba alba, Gm. : C. littoralis, Tem. 
Both this and the preceding species are very common. 

Calcenas nicobariea. Found also in the Andaman and Cocos Isles, in 
the Mergui archipelago (according to Heifer), and in the Malayan penin- 
sula. Two young ones procured by /[?apt. Lewis have the tail greenglos- 
sed black, whereas in adults the tail is pure white. The elongated nuchal 
hackles do not exist in the garb of juvenility. 

Chalcophaps indieus. This differs from the Indian race in the deeper 
ash-colour of the nape, and bluer rinaceous hue of the under-parts; 
while the bands on the rump (so conspicuous in the Indian bird, and 
also in its Australian near ally, Ch, chrysochlorosj are very indistinct. 
It abounds in the central Islands. 

Maeropygia rufipennis, nobis, a. s. Most closely allied to M. phasic 
anella of Australia, but rather smaller in all its proportions, and best 
dbtinguished by the uniform bright rufous hue of the entire under- sur- 
face of the wings, which occupies the whole of each feather except to- 
wards its tip. The primaries are also externally somewhat broadly 
margined with the same. There is really no other difference: but 
another species, M. amboinensis, of Java and the Moluccas, differs only 
from M. phasianella in its much inferior size. Specimens of all three 
are in the Society's Museum, and there can be no doubt of their dis- 
tinctness. I have also a living specimen of M. phasianella, caught at 
sea about sixty miles from the Australian coast. It is kept in an 
aviary with a variety of other birds, and prefers plantain to any other 
food : so eager is it for this fruit, that of a morning it will alight on a 
bunch of plantains as the latter is carried into the aviary, and when the 


Digitized by 


372 Notea on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 

plantains are hung up, it combats with the different species of Hurrials 
fTreranJ and other birds, in a singular manner, to obtain undisturbed 
possession of the fruit. Its manner is to horer round them, and not 
exactly to strike with its feet, but to push with them the intruder off 
its perch, and this it will sometimes repeat two or three times in suc- 
cession without alighting. It never descends to the ground, except to feed 
on fruit that may be lying there ; yet, though so fond of this aliment, it 
was fed, when on board-ship, exclusively on maize, and in defoult of fruit 
will thrive on rice and otker grain. This bird is chiefly active in 
the morning and evening, and scarcely moves from its perch daring the 
day. Its coo is hoarse, deep, and subdued, a sort of croaking sound, 
only audible when very near, and resembling ' o-o-o*o-ah' repeated sever- 
al times successively.* M, rufipennie was observed only in the South* 
em Nicobars. 

Turtur suratensia, (Lath) : Columba tigrina, Temminck. Common to 
India and the Malayan peninsula and archipelago. 

Megapodius nieobarieneie, nobis, ante p. 52. Of this very interestiDg 
bird, Capt. Lewis obtained the egg and chick, and Mr. Barbe an adult 
pair, with also two eggs, which latter are noticed in my description of 
the species. That procured by Capt. Lewis was uniformly tinged with 
reddish-brown, which still further bears out Mr. Gould's description of 
M, tumulus of Northern Australia, the eggs of which he describes tp vary 
somewhat in hue, according to the soil in which they are deposited.f 

Demigretta eoncolor, nobis, n, s» This Demi-Egret was long ago 
forwarded from Arracan by Captains Phayre and Abbott, and I am 
assured that it also occurs in Assam. In the central Nicobars it would 
seem to be not uncommon. From D. asha, (Sykes,) it is readily dis- 
tinguished by its shorter legs ; the tarse measuring but three inches 
instead of three and three-quarters : wing eleven inches, or eleven and 
a half, in adults ; about an inch shorter in the young : bill to forehead 
three inches and a half, and to gape four and a quarter : middle toe and 

* This bird is since dead ; its plantain diet by no means agreeing with it so well as 
the maize on which it was kept formerly. As for its mode of fighting, 1 lately saw a 
pair of Doves {Turtur suratensis) on the ground, which repeatedly flew up and 
attacked each other much in the same way. 

T Mr. Barbe informs me that this bird is common on all the Islands ; bat that he 
never saw it perch, as Mr. Gould represents M. tumulus to do, in the back-ground of 
his plate. The pair he shot were together, upon a hillock, and upon his shooting one, 
the other did not make off, upon which he killed it with his second barrel. 

Digitized by 


1 846.J Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Mands. 873 

ciaws two incheB and three eighths, the claws short and much curved. 
Colour uniform dark slaty throughout ; some specimens having a white 
line on the chin and throat. Adults have narrow lengthened plumes 
on the hack and hreast, similar to those of Ardea cinerea : the occipital 
plumes also are somewhat lengthened, as in Herons generally ; hut I 
have seen no defined occipital crest, and douht its ever possessing one. 
Beak mingled dusky and dull yellowish ; and the legs appear to have 
been oHve-green. 

Npciiearajt grigeut, (LAn.) : Ardea nyetieorax, L. 

StrepeUae mierpree, (Lin.) Common along the coasts of the Bay of 
Bengal ; and the Society has received a specimen from the Mauritius. 
One of the most universally distrihuled of hirds. 

Totanus hypokueos, (Lin.) Excessively numerous in the Bengal 
SocHiderbuns ; and the Society has also received it from Ghusan. Of 
▼ery general distribution throughout Europe and Asia. 

Thala»9eiu hengaleneis, (Lesson). Nearly allied to Sterna veiox and 
8i. ajfinis of Ruppell (nee St. affinis, Horsf.), to which it would seem 
intermediate. St, crhtata, Sw. (nee Stephens), is also closely allied, hut 
remarkable for its very pale colour. From the European Th. Boyni, 
(Pen.), which it also greatly resembles, this species diSers in having the 
lull wholly ydlow, and the tail uniform grey with the back. Another 
allied species, which was procured by the late Dr. Heifer in the Tenas- 
aerim Provinces, agrees with the description of Sterna poliocerea, Oould, 
and is perhaps the St, cristata of Stephens. 7%, bengalensis is not un- 
common in the Bay of Bengal. 

Sterna (?J melanaucien, Tem. : figured in Gould's 'Birds of Australia.' 
This species breeds abundantly in the Nicobars. 

Another species common in the Bay, is the Melanostema anasthcBtua, 
(Scopoli), V. Sterna panaya. Lath., St. infuacata, licht., and St, 
antaretica, Lesson : and allied to this is a species which is perhaps 
St, griaea of Hocsfield, and which was obtained by Prof. Behn, of the 
Danish expedition, as he was approaching the mouth of the Hoogly. 
If new, I am enabled by the politeness of that naturalist to subjoin the 
accompanying description of it.* Anoue tenuirottris, (Tern.), is also a 

• Hydrochikdon grisea ( ? Honfield) : n.s.f H. marginata, nobis. Kesembles 
H. nigra in winter plumage, except in being much larger, and in having the nape 
(surroanding the black of the occiput) pure silky white, as are also the entire under- 

Digitized by 


374 Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Ishnds. [No. 173. 

marine species of Tern« which I have obtained in the Bengal Soonder- 

PhaSton athereus. The only Tropicbird, (or " Bo'sw'n-bird,") I haye 
seen from the Bay of Bengal. Ph. candidus abounds near the Mauritius, 
and Ph. phanicurus towards Australia. 

Pelicanua philippensis. The smaller Indian Pelican, which seems to 
be the predominating species throughout the Malay countries. 

It thus appears, that of thirty-two ascertained species of birds, procur- 
ed either upon, or in the immediate vicinity of the Islands, (which number 
includes Bulaca seloputo, Dicrurua balicaanua, bxkd Phaeton athereus,) u 
many as eight are peculiar to the locality, — so far, of course, as has been 
hitherto ascertained ; for it is likely that most of them inhabit also the 
northern part of Sumatra, and perhaps the Andamans, and the province 
of Mergui and its vicinity. These eight comprise several remarkable 
and conspicuous species, and are as follow : — Paligomis erythrogeiiys, 
Todiramphus occipitalis, Stumia erythropygia, Oriolus macrourus, Hyp- 
sipetes virescens, Treron chloroptera, Macropygia rufipennis, and Mega- 
podius nicobariensis. 

parts, including the sides of the breast: the mantle is also much paler, and the tail 
more deeply forked and differently coloured. Length, to end of middle tail-feathers, 
ten inches and a half, or to the outermost a foot; wing nine inches and a half; middle 
tail-feathers two and three-quarters ; bill to gape one and seven-eighths ; tarse three- 
quarters ; middle toe and claw an inch ; the webs of the toes more developed than 
in H, nigra. Bill reddish-dusky, redder towards base of lower mandible ; the interior 
of the mouth apparently coral-orange ; and legs, toes, and membranes, the same, 
with black claws. Colour above pale ashy, with sullied whitish margins to the 
scapularies and wing-coverts ; a defined blackish band, half an inch broad, extends 
along the outside of the radius, bordering the upper-part of the wing anteriorly, as in 
the winter dress of H, nigra : crown and occiput black, embracing the orbital 
region; towards the forehead the feathers become graduaUy more deeply margined 
with white, and the forehead and entire under-parts are pure white, extending on the 
nape : the great alars are silvery-ash externally, except the first, which has its outer 
web, and half the breadth of its inner web, with the tip, black, tinged with ashy 
towards the tip and on the inner web ; the extent of the dark ashy tip increases suc- 
cessively on the other primaries, the shorter of which have a narrow white border to 
their inner webs; while the secondaries are tipped externally with the same : the lesMr 
coverts of the primaries, with the winglet, are mostly dusky : middle tail-feathers pale 
grey, with a whitish tip ; the rest white on their inner webs, and successively darker 
till they become blackish on the outer: underneath the wings and tail appear 
margined externally with blackish-grey. 

* The Society's specimen of this bird is not a very good one ; and 1 can distinguish 
it neither from A. melanops nor A. kncocapiUuif figured in Gould's * Birds of 

Digitized by 


1846.] Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islandi. 375 

Four others exist as yarieties, more or less marked, of species met 
with elsewhere : viz. TodWamphus collaris, Coilocalia /uciphaga. Car- 
pophaga sylvatica, and Chalcophapg indieus. 

Of those which are not peculiar to the Islands, twenty-one are known 
to occur in the Malayan peninsula (including PaUBomis canicepn and 
Geocichla innotata, which were discovered in the two localities ahout 
simultaneonsly) ; and the remaining three inhabit Arracan, and pro- 
bably Tenasserim — certainly as regards Zosterop» palpebrosus, the others 
being CalomU affinis,* and Demigretta concolor. It is probable, in- 
deed> that the whole twenty-four occur in the Malayan peninsula, with 
also some of the remaining eight, which appear to have been hitherto 
observed only on the Islands. 

Of the species found likewise in India, the majority are more or less 
aquatic, belonging chiefly to the Zoology of the Bay and its vicinity : 
such is Todiramphua coUaris, which abounds in the Bengal Soonderbuns, 
and along the whole eastern shore of the Bay, but is very rare on the 
Coromandel coast of the peninsula : but Merops phiiippinensis, Zogte* 
ropg palpehro8U8, Myiagra cdoruka, Chalcophaps indicua (Ind. var.), 
Turtur suratensis, and even Carpophaga aylvatica,^ are inland species, 
which are pretty generally diffused — though the last is much more com- 
mon in the countries eastward (as Assam, Sylhet, Arxacan, and Tenas- 
serim). Dicrurus balicaasius I have only seen from Nepal, it being the 
Buchanga atmectans of Mr. Hodgson : and the remaining species includ- 
ed in the Fauna Indica are Nycticorax griseus, Strepsilas interprea, 
Totanus hypoleucoa, Thalaaseus bengalensis, PhaSton athereus, and Pelt- 
canus philippensis. 

Hence, the data supplied by the highly interesting Ornithology of the 
Nicobars, (so far as we have yet the means of judging,) connect those is. 
lands with the Malayan Zoological province, as their position on the map 
would indicate : at the same time that they possess several peculiar and 
remarkable species, not hitherto discovered on the neighbouring lands. 

* I have unfortunately retained for the Museum no Tenasserim specimens of Cahr- 
nit, not having suspected the distinctness of C. t^ffinis from C. cantor, until Lord A. 
Hay called my attention to the fact. C. cantor is common at Penang : and I may add 
that Mr. Barbe has just assured me that the Tenasserim species is C. cantor, and 
not C. affinis. 

t The very small specimen mentioned in XIY, 857, proves to have been from the 
Neilgherries ; but virhether the race of Southern India is constantly thus diminutive, 
I am not yet avrare. 

Digitized by 


376 Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands. [No. 173. 


My materials for illustratiog this class are rather scanty, although 
it would appear that the Nicobars possess many species, more especially 
of Ophidia. 

Of the Testudinatat Mr. Barbe mentions two, recognizable portions of 
both of which were brought by Capt. Lewis : ^z.-^ 

Chekmia tnrgata ; the edible Turtle of the Bay of Bengal : and 

Ch. imbrieaia ; the " Tortoise-shell" TurUe. 

Of the Sauria, Capt. Lewis cdleeted four species : 

Monitor salvator, (Laurent) : Tupinambis bivittatus, Kuhl ; Varmms 
bwittatus, Dumeril and Bibron, Hist, des Reptiles, III, 486. 

M, neMosus, Gray: Varanus nebuiosus, Dum. and Bibr., Hist. Rept. 
Ill, 483. 

Both of these spedes inhabit the Malayan peninsula, and the first 
occurs abundantly in Lower Bengal. According to M. M. Dumeril and 
Bibron, the second also was sent from Bengal by M. Belanger; but I 
have never succeeded in obtuning an Indian specimen. 

Calotes ophiamaehms, (Merrem), Dum. and Bibr., Hist. Rept. IV, 482. 
This agrees sufficiently well with the description cited, save that the 
terminal four-fifths of the extremely long tail are white, instead of being 
annulated with white. I have no Indian specimen with which to com- 
pare it. If truly identical with the Indian reptile, the analogy of other 
Nicobarian species that occur also in India, renders it probable that 
it likewise inhabits the mainland forming the eastern shore of the 

C. mystaceus, Dum. and Bibr., Hist. Rept. IV, 408. The autiiors 
cited found this species upon a single specimen received from Burmah. 
One from the Nicobars accords with their description in all respects as 
regards structure ; but the specific name does not apply. As far aa can 
be judged from the example before me (preserved in spirit), the brilliant 
colours of which are now little more than indicated, it would seem that 
the entire head and throat, if not also several of the anterior dorsal 
spines, had been bright red, or the throat and lower jaw may perhaps have 

* Referring to Merrem's figure, Hist. Nat. des Rept. Ill, 361, I cannot hesitate in 
considering the Nicobarian species to be the same. 

Digitized by 


1 846.] Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands. 377 

been orange- red ; while the body has evidently been vivid green : colours 
which probably depend partly on season, over and above the change- 
ableness of hue which these reptiles exhibit at all seasons. The Nico- 
barian specimen is a male, in apparently the full brilliancy of its colour* 
ing indicative of the season of propagation, when no doubt it had the 
mishap to be secured. 

Of the Ophidia, I can only enumerate three species. 

Python (probably P. Schneideri). This was observed both by Mr. 
Barbe and Gapt. Lewis ; but I have seen no specimen. 

Trigonocephalus Contort, nobis, n. s, A typical member of this genus, 
having 169 abdominal plates, and 214 subcaudal scutellse. Length of one 
specimen thirty inches. This large one was much injured when it was kill- 
ed, and appears to have shrunk considerably from drying before it was put 
into spirit ; from which causes it is not easy to describe its markings, 
but it seems to have been curiously blotched with red — which colour is 
not observable in a young specimen, fifteen inches and a half long. Both 
have a distinct lateral whitish line, bordering the abdominal scutse and 
ceasing at the vent. Scales slightly imbricated. The young appears to 
have been dull olive-green above, mottled throughout with a double series 
of dusky blotches, semi-altemately disposed, with smaller spots and 
blotches on the sides, below which occurs the whitish lateral line : under- 
parts greyish, from a freckling of minute dusky specks on a pale ground t 
on the head the markings tend more or less to be obsolete ; but a whitish 
band proceeds backward from below the eye, and in the young is con- 
tinued upwards almost at a right angle, and there is also a whitish patch 
posterior to the broad angle of the jaws, but unconnected with the lateral 
line of the body. The adult appears to be farther variegated above, by 
scattered white spots composed of one, two, or rarely three scales each. 
The young is proportionally much more slender than the adult, and 
the triangularity of its head is less strongly marked. 

Pelamydes piaturus : having a much greater portion than usual of its 
tail banded ; the bands diminishing to festoons anteriorly, until they are 
gradually lost. 

The few Reptilia here enumerated, do not require any comment : three 
of them are marine species, viz. the two Turtles and the Pelamydes ; 
but the former are, I believe, more nearly connected with the Islands by 
depositing their eggs upon the shores of them. 

Digitized by 


378 Notes on the Fauna of the Nicobar Islands, [No. 173. 


The marine Zoology of the Nicobars being properly that of the Bay 
of Bengal, it would scarcely be worth while here to supply a catalogue of 
well known inhabitants of the Bay, even if I possessed sufficient materials 
for the task. The freshwater species would possess more interest in the 
present instance : and of those I have not seen any, either vertebrate or 
invertebrate, or any land Mollusca. Capt. Lewis, on nearing the Islands, 
took a flying fish, which is Exoeatus Commersoni ; and in a native hat 
he found a rudely prepared skin of Batistes conspicillum, Schn. fB. 
bicolor, Shaw^ ; he obtained also a fresh specimen of B. rectanguins, 
Schn. (v. medinilla, Quoy and Oa3rmard, aadfasciatus of Shaw) ; also a 
beautiful wholly green Parrot-fish, allied to Scarus gibbus, Ruppell, 
Cuv. and Val. Hist. Poiss. XIV, 231, upon which Mr. Swainson founds 
his Chlorurus, * History of Fishes, &c.' II, 227 (in Lardner's Gydopsedia). 
Capt. Lewis brought also a few specimens, chiefly small fry, from the 
myriads which, (like the Scarus last mentioned,) resort to the coral-beds : 
and among these the Dascyllus aruanus, (L.), Cuv. and Val. V, 325, 
would seem to be particularly common. 

Lastly, he procured three species of saltwater Eels, which I have 
submitted to the inspection of Dr. M'Clelland, whose valuable labours on 
the very difficult group of apodal fishes require no eulogy from me; 
and that gentleman has favoured me with the following result of lus 
examination of them : — 

** Two of them are known species, I think ; namely, Dalophis geome- 
trica, (Ruppell), 'Fishes of Northern Africa,' pi. XXX, fig. 3, and Cat, 
Joum. Nat. Hist. V, 21d,~and Tharodontis reticulata, M'CleUand, 
C. /. N. H., V, 216, and pi. VII, fig. 1. The third is, I thmk, a new 
species, of which the following will be a sufficient description. 

** TharodofUis maculata, M'Clelland. Two rows of distinct dark spots 
on either side, of an oval or somewhat oblong rounded form, and placed 
transversely, the rows extending from the head to the caudal extremity; 
also a row of more elongated spots on either side of the dorsal and anal 
fins, parallel with the rays. — Obs. This species bears some resemblance 
to Dalophis tigrina, v. Mureena tigrina of Ruppell, • Fishes of N. Africa,' 
pi. XXX, fig. 2 ; but is more robust, and the spots are without an areola 
as in that species, and differently placed." 

Digitized by 


1846.] Notes on the Fmma of the Nicobar Islands. 379 


The only terrene species pertdning to an invertebrate class, which I 
have yet seen from the Nicobars, is the common Scolopendra morsitans. 
Of marine species, Capt. Lewis brought a Loligo, and various species of 
Testacea common in the Bay : also two species of AsteriaSt and specimens 
of Fungia patella^ TuHpora musica, and a few other common corals. 
Of Crustacea, he preserved the claws of an extraordinarily large speci- 
men of the common edible crab of India {Lupa tranquebarica), with 
examples of one of the species confounded under Matuta lunaris, and a 
small crab which accords perfectly with the figure and description of Grap' 
sillus dentatus, Macleay, in Dr. A. Smith's ' Zoology of S. Ahics. i* also 
a Pagurus, and a fine specimen of Palinurus omatus, and one of Thenus 
orientalis ; with a small Alpheus, and one or two other minute Palemo- 
nida which are probably undescribed. 

(To Mr. Barbe, the Society is further indebted for numerous speci- 
mens of mammalia, birds, &c. from Penang, and from the Tenasserim 
Province of Ye ; also from the interior of the Tipperah hills. Among 
the Tenasserim specimens are a new Monkey (Preshytis hutneralis, 
nobis), three new Squirrels (Sciurus chrysonotus, Sc. melanotus and Sc. 
Bar bet, nobis, — the last being allied to Sc, insignis, M'Cleilandii, and 
trilineatusj , — fine specimens of Ampeliceps coronatus (p. 32, ante), TVeron 
viridi/rons (XIV, 849), and various other species of much interest, 
including several that had only previously been obtained further to the 
southward, in the Malayan peninsula and Islands.) 


Digitized by 


380 [No. 173. 

Notes, chiefly Geological, from Koompta on the Western Coast (S. India) 
hy the Devamunni and Nundi Cunnama Passes, Easterly to Cumbum, and 
thence Southerly to Chittoor; comprising a notice of the Diamond and 
Lead excavations of Bustoapiir, By Captain Newbold. 

Koompta is a sea-port on the coast of North Canara, in latitude N. 
14® 26', about 119 miles travelling distance, northerly from Mangalore. 
It stands at the mouth of a river of the same name ; into which, from the 
shallowness of the narrow passage through the bar which blocks its 
embouchure, vessels of more than five corges burthen pass with diffi- 
culty. It is a dep6t for the produce of Sircy, Yellopur, Hoobly, Darwar, 
and much of that part of the Balaghat. 

Laterite here forms the surface stratum : the fundamental rocks are 
gneiss and hornblende schist. 

The town itself contains about 400 houses, inhabited chiefly by Gou- 
ras and Halipaiks, Concani Brahmans, Hurkunters, Karins, Gaveets, and 
Mussulmans. The Haiga Brahmans live usually in d^ams scattered 
about the country. 

The trade is chiefly in cotton, cotton cloths, rice, betelnut, dried 
cocoanut, cardamoms, black-pepper, sandal wood, coir-rope, salt, salt-fish, 
and cashew-nut. 

Near this the river cuts through a bed of rich reddish alluvium, 
mingled with decayed vegetable matter, evidently a fluviatile deposit 
from the western Ghauts, and from the intervening low jungly country 
through which the river passes. This stratum covers an almost flat, 
highly cultivated plain, bounded on the north and south by long, low 
ranges of laterite hills, which have apparently formed the ancient banks 
of a great stream, which is now confined to a small space in its centre. 

The cultivation is chiefly rice, sugarcane, betel, and cocoanut trees. 

We landed at Oopenputtun, a salt dep6t, about 4 miles from the foot 
of the Ghauts. Here the lateritic banks had closed in towards the river. 

Laterite continues to the foot of the Devamunni pass, shaded by thick 

The temperature of the water in the Oopenputtun river was 78® Fah., 
which was about the temperature of rain water. Temperature of air in 

Digitized by 


1846.J NoU$, ckie/fy Geological, SfC, 3$1 

shade, at noon 79® ff. Temperature of sea water on the coast at Koompta, 
78" 5'. 

The temperature of the soil, eighteen inches deep, was 78® 8', which, 
according to fioussingault, would be the approximate mean temper- 
ature of the country. The temperature of most of the streams at the 
base of the Ghauto I found to be from 78® to 79®. 

The month in which these observations were made was August. 

The enormous quantity of 144 inches of water is supposed to fall in 
Lower Canara, from the end of May to the middle of October. 

I%e Devamunni pass. — This pass in the western Ohauts, from Lower 
to Upper Canara, is about three and a half miles from bottom to top. 
The formation is much similar to that of the Hossalmucki pass, described 
in the paper ' On the Falls of Oairsuppa.' The stratification is simi« 
larly confused and contorted, and the dip irregular. At the base of 
the Ohaut, the strike is N. 20® E. ; the dip 35® £. 20® S. Near the top 
of the Ghaut, the strike is N. 5® W., and dip nearly vertical, £. 5® N. 

The vallies, at the bottom of the Ghaut, run W. 15° S. towards the 
sea, while those on the top have a SSB. direction ; but the transverse 
vallies by which they are crossed and drained, run in a NE. direction, 
from the great watershed of the Ghauts to the table lands of the 
Balaghat, where the course of drainage is again modified by the physical 
contour of the country, but following generally the easterly slope of the 
peninsula to the Bay of Bengal, where the rivers disembogue. 

The contour of the Western Ghauts at the top of this pass, as well as to 
the southward, is not that of an escarpment facing to the westward, and 
gently sloping off to the table lands of the Balaghat, as supposed by 
many, (a feature which is in fact confined to the more northerly portion 
of the ridge where the overlying trap affects their configuration,) but 
is a series of broken peaks, and ridges running generally in a S. by E. 
direction, and crossed by high transverse vallies, the descents of which 
are, however, shortened and most abrupt to the western coast, though 
rarely precipitous as at Gairsuppa. The height of these passes, on the 
line where the abrupt descent to the western coast commences, is rarely 
greater than that of the general level of the adjoining table lands from 
which they lead; and, in some cases, I am inclined to think, even 

Digitized by 


382 Notts, chiefy Geological, [No. 173. 

The elevation of the top of the Manantoddy pass, determined barome- 
trically by Mr. fiabington, is 2,732^ feet above the sea. That of the 
Devamnnni Ohant, taken approximately by myself, (boiling point) 
2«498 feet. This observation was taken at Manjogong, which is proba- 
bly a littie lower than the true anticlinal line. At the falls of Gairsup- 
pa, a little below the summit of the Hossamucki pass, a similar obser- 
vation made the elevation 2,235 feet. i 

The extreme height of the table land of Mysore, at Bangalore, reaches i 
(roughly) 3,000 feet; at Seringapatam 2,412 feet; Colar 2,732)^ feet; r 
Mysore 2,695 feet ; Baitmuogalum 2,435 feet ; Bellary 1,500 feet ; Bd- ;. 
gaum 2,500 feet ; Poonah 2,500 feet. While the insulated granitic I 
masses on these table lands frequentiy vie with those of the Ohauts^ | 
Sivagunga, in Mysore, is calculated at 4,600 feet, and Betrosson, at the 
slope of the Ghauts, 6,000 feet. These are only excelled (as far as 
known) by the Ohaut peaks of Bonasson, 7,000 feet, and that of 
Dodabetta 8,700 feet, and some others of the Neilgherry and Koonda 

The passes of the eastern Ohauts, as might be expected, have a lower 
level than those in the western sierra. One of the highest is that of 
Naikenhairy, 1,907 feet. That of its neighbour, the Moogly pass, 
from Palamanair to Chittoor, is only 1,635)^ feet^ (The foregoing mea* 
surements are taken chiefly from Dr. Babington's and General Gullen's 

The height of the Heggulla has not, as far as I am aware, been ascer- 
tained : it is probably of considerable elevation, since Periapatam, which 
stands on the western slopes of the Ghauts, two marches east of it, 
has an elevation of about 4,000 feet. 

Munjguny, — Between this place and Devanary, which is usually consi- 
dered the top of the pass, the Beni river is crossed, which I was assured 
be the natives is identical with the Oopenputtun river, below the Ghaut 
If this be the case, the watershed must be east of Devanary, and pro- 
bably between it and this place* The stream, swollen by the rains, was 
unfordable, but is crossed by a rude bridge, called a ear, constructed 
of trunks of trees bound together by leaves, and supported on piers of 
large rough stones piled up. and secured from being washed away by 
cases of strong hurdle work thrown round them. The stream was 

Digitized by 


1846.] from Devamnaad and Ntmdi Cwmama passes, 383 

about thirty paces broad, and mnning towards the south with great 

Granite is seen in this yicinity outcropping from the laterite. 

The black exterior of the rocks I found to be occasioned by a thin 
coating of mixed vegetable and ferruginous matter. 

The jungle still continues, but is lower than below the Ohauts. 
The cinnamon tree is abundant: the natives here class it into two 
species, viz. the male and the female : the former they distinguish by the 
greater size of its leaf, and the less aromatic and more bitter taste of the 

From the top of the Ghauts to Strcy, — ^The hypogene schists, princi« 
pally gneiss and hornblende, and a coarse-grained felspathic granite, 
appear occasionally from beneath the laterite. The low hill, on which 
the ruins of the old town of Sircy are still to be traced, is covered with 
a thick stratum of laterite imbedding angular fragments of quartz. The 
laterite is here used extensively as a building stone ; and the quartz 
is pounded into an excellent sharp sand for mortar. 

The indented and more abrupt features, which distinguish the anti- 
clinal line of the Ghauts, are here softened down into smoothly swel- 
ling hills, with round tops, in general thickly covered with wood, and 
vallies in which, and on the hill sides, the cultivation of cardamoms, 
black-pepper, and the areca nut, is carried on with great success, chiefly 
by the Haiga Brahmans. The areca trees are planted in rows on strips 
of ground five or six paces asunder, and separated by channels of run- 
ning water, two or three feet deep. The pepper vine entwines its cling- 
ing tendrils around the tall stems of this graceful tree, covering it thyr- 
sus-like, with its foliage ; while the long, flag-leafed cardamom shoots 
out its string of aromatic seeds along the ground shaded by groves of 
plantains, which form a sort of underwood beneath the tall arecas. These 
gardens of spices growing in the midst of forests still uncleared, have a 
unique and very beautiful appearance. The extreme fertility of the 
reddish-grey vegetable mould, (in spots where the woodman's axe has 
not yet been felt,) shows that much stUl remains to be done. 

Sircy is a place of considerable traffic, and a depot for the cotton and 
other produce of the Southern Mahratta country, ceded districts, and 
part of Mysore, on its way to Koompta on the western coast, whence 

Digitized by 


884 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 173. 

it is shipped for Bombay, &c. It is sent down the Ohaut on loaded bul- 
locks ; the pass not being practicable for bandies. 

The present town of Sircy comprises between 5,000 and 6,000 inha- 
bitants; principally lingayets and Concany Brahmans. The chief 
bankers and merchants are of these different sects : about 800 Mussul- 
mans, Mahrattas, and a few Jains. The custom-house and betelnut 
dep6t are the principal public buildings. There are three distinct ba- 
zaars, with one or two broad but dirty and badly-drained streets (1839). 
The better class of houses are tiled, and often double-roofed. 

The ruins of an old but small fort, said to have been built by the 
Rajas of Soonda, and of a still more ancient one, the work of the 
Jaina Skeri Rajas, still remain. On the rising ground in this vicinity, 
foundations of houses and numerous wells attest the former existence of 
a large and populous town. There is a temple to Virabhadra, and one 
to the goddess Manama, whence a snake, patronized by the Brahmans, 
is said to make its appearance twice a day, probably to be fed. I had 
not an opportunity of testing this story ; which however is by no means 
unlikely. I have often seen offerings of milk and plantains before the 
holes of the Cobra, which is held in superstitious veneration by 
most classes of Hindus. This is the veneration bom of fear, which in- 
duced the Egyptians to worship the evil principle Typhon, — produced 
the Devil-worship of Ceylon, — and compelled the poor foresters of the 
Eastern Isles to make offerings to Thunder and Lightening. Hence the 
ancient ophitic worship which prevailed so extensively in Southern India, 
the emblems of which may still be seen piled up carved on rude stones 
round the walls, or under the trees which shade the older and more 
secluded pagodas. 

From Sircy to SavanUr and Lakiiwar. — The foce of the country is 
undulatmg and interspersed with low, rounded hills to Savanur, in the 
Southern Mahratta country, about forty-four miles NE. of Sircy. The 
Canara boundary is crossed about thirteen and a half miles NE. from 
the latter place. The country is more open ; the Ohauts are left be- 
hind, and the table land of the Southern Mahratta territory fiairly 
entered on. 

The intervening rocks are chiefly the softer members of the hypogene 
series, as seen at Darwar, viz. argillaceous slate clays, white and van- 

Digitized by 


1846.3 from Devamunni and Nundi Cunnama passes, 385 

ously tinted with oxyde and hydrate of iron, and earthy chloritic schists. 
Some of these schists are highly ferruginous. Farther south they pass 
into the soft, talcose, and chloritic schists, west of Bangalore. Dykes 
of basaltic greenstone, with beds of kunker, become more frequent as 
Savanihr is approached. The latter mineral fills up seams in the sub- 
jacent rocks. 

The breadth of this band of soft schists extends easterly to the town 
of Lakiswar, and from its northerly strike is evidently the prolongation 
southerly of similar strata at Darwar already described. The dip at 
Savanfir was 40^ easterly. 

R^gur was first observed a little to the west of Bankapur ; near which 
town the vegetation, peculiar to the Ghauts, terminates abruptly. 

From Lakiswar to Gudduck, granite, gneiss, and hornblende schist 
are the prevalent rocks, and easterly to Bellary, in the ceded districts ; 
but, as the geology of the country between Gudduck and Bellary, 
has already been noticed, I shall not dwell farther upon the subject 
here, but proceed at once on our easterly journey from Bellary towards 

Bellary to Davankonda, — Gneiss is the principal rock between Bellary 
and Davankonda, (a distance of fifty- three miles) basing a plain sloping 
northerly towards the Tumbuddra, the surface of which (with a few 
interruptions of reddish alluvial patches) is covered with a thick bed of 

The Hogri river is crossed about twelve miles from Bellary, at the 
vilkge of Moka. It is here about 700 yards broad : its bed is now 
(May) a dry extent of sand, and its banks barren with the heaps, and 
hills of drifted sands. The prevailing westerly winds, cause the dunes 
to march in an easterly direction, north of Auspari. The next march 
from Moka, the granite is seen bursting through the gneiss in a low 
ridge : oxydulated iron replacing the mica in gndns and nests : east of 
Auspari a large trap dyke is seen running ESE. 

Davankonda is situated at the base of one of the granitic outbursts, 
on the borders of the Andhra kingdom. Telinghi is much mixed here 
with the Canarese, or Kam^ta, of Bellary. 

The soil at the base of the granite is reddish, and sandy to a certain 
distance round the base : at the edges of this upper layer the r^gur will 
be found underlying it ; and below the r^gur either the gravel result- 

Digitized by 


386 Notes, chiefly Geologicai, [No. 173. 

ing from the weatheriDg rock, or a bed of kunker. Actynolite, colouring 
both compact felspar and quartz in dnisy crystals in pegmatitic veins 
of red felspar and quartz in the gneiss, is of common occurrence. 

KupputraL — Is a polegar stronghold, formerly of great notoriety in 
this country, which bristled with polegar fastnesses and strongholds. 
The granite rises here into steep bosses, cliffs, and tors, of no great 
height however. 

On the summit of a rocky shelf, crowning the rock, and insulated by 
a broad fissure in the granite cliff, is perched a small watch-tower, 
whence there is a good prospect of the surrounding country, the 
features of which to the south and east are savage and rocky. The 
nearest approach from Bellary is by rocky ascents and descents, and by 
defiles not practicable for a cart. On the ascent I picked up a fragment 
of a very beautiful rock which may be termed actynolite porphyry, being 
composed of a bright green actjrnolite felspar (compact), imbedding red 
felspar crystals. 

About a mile east of Kupputral the granite is overlaid by sandstone, 
which forms the range of Cowilhutty, supporting a flat cultivated table 
land. I had not an opportunity of examining these rocks at their junc- 
tion line. A greenstone intersects the granite in the plain. 

Codamoor, — At Codamoor, direction S£., fragments of altered sand- 
stone abound : the next march the country is a wide plain, watered by 
the Hendri river, and studded with bare granitic rocks in small piles and 
clusters. Gniess, basaltic greenstone in dykes^ and a porphyritic granite 
are the prevalent rocks. A little north of the town runs one of these 
singular abrupt beds of compact red&h quartz rock, which evidently 
belongs to the hypogene series by position, interstratification, and 
conformable dip. It forms a short abrupt ridge, apparently about 100 
feet high, and passes into a coarse jasper, penetrated with numerous 
veins, strangely contorted, of a whiter quartz, with iron glance in nests. 
It is also veined with siliceous earth, of a grey or bluish tinge^ imbedding 
crystals of felspar, and is often porphyritic in structure. 

A thin purplish-black enduit, which coated some of the fissures, gave 
evident traces of iron, and faint traces of manganese on being fdaed 
with borax before the blow-pipe. 

On the western flank of this range, which runs nearly north and south, 
a dyke of basaltic greenstone intersects the plain ; and near it, one of a 

Dtgitized by 


1846.} from Devamwmi and Nundi Cunnama passes, 387 

dark chloritic felspar porphjrry, which is seen in a section afforded by 
a well about 40 feet deep, at the south extremity of the ridge. It is 
overlaid by a stratum of kunker ten feet thick, which has evidently been 
deposited by water, charged with lime, rising through fissures in the 
subjacent rocks, which are often encrusted with kunker. 

The Hendri river is forded about a mile to the west of Codamoor. It 
is 220 paces broad ; banks and bed of silt and sand, imbedding tuface- 
ous concretions of carbonate of lime, *which encrust the roots of grasses, 
&c. The shallow water in the channel of the river had a temperature 
of 7 1° 5' Fah., which is a little lower than the average temperature of 
rain water in this part of the ceded districts. The temperature of the 
air in shade at the time of observation was 81^. The great evaporation 
going on from the wide, flat, sandy bed, may have diminished the 
temperature of the shallow stream which slowly trickled along its 
centre. At Codamoor, the temperature of a brackish well, sixteen feet 
deep, was 81^; that of a sweet water well, of similar depth, 84®; and 
that of a third slightly brackish, and thirty feet deep, 83^. 

KumooL — From Codamoor to Kurnool, at the junction of the Tum- 
buddra and the Hendri, extends a plain covered with little interrup- 
tion, by r^gur. In this plain the diamond limestone and sandstone 
formation meet with and overlie the hypogene schists ; over which we 
have so long been travelling. The sandstone is seen in the low hills, 
about one and a half miles south of Perla, which lies ten and a half 
miles westerly from Kurnool ; near this are numerous dykes of basaltic 
greenstone and deposits of kunker. 

A little to the NB. of Peddapa, five and a half miles westerly from 
Kurnool, the Umestone was first observed in sitd as a slightly elevated 
bed, crossing the Kurnool road, running in a southerly direction, and dip* 
ping towards the east at an angle of 35® ; while the hornblende schists, 
on which it rested unconformably, were nearly vertical. 

The limestone is of a reddish-brown colour externally, but internally 
of a pinrplish-red ; structure, schistose. It effervesces feebly with acids, 
and fuses into a light greyish-green enamel, leaving a white calx of 
caustic lime. It passes into cream-coloured, dull yellow, and green 
varieties, which were analysed for me by my friend Dr. Macleod, In- 
spector General of Hospitals, and found to contain so much magnesia 


Digitized by 


388 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 173. 

as to give them the character of dolomite. It often contains translucent 
nodules of a siskin green nephrite. In some places, elliptic and tabular 
cavities are observed in the massive varieties: the more exposed of which 
are generally empty; while others are seen filled with a ferruginous 
clay or earth, which is magnetic after exposure to heat. The elliptic 
cavities often occur in strings. 

A bed of ferruginous sandstone is seen in the limestone, a little far- 
ther eastward. 

The hornblende schist has evidently been greatly waterwom near its 
contact. Its surface, to the depth of several inches, is much weathered, 
and has sometimes crumbled into a dark-green sandstone, cemented by 
calcareous matter from the superincumbent limestone ; at others it 
assumes the aspect of a rust-coloured siliceous schist, impregnated with 
calcareous matter. Many of the loose blocks of hornblende schist have 
been much corroded, apparently by aqueous action. 

As the edges of the limestone are left behind, and as we advance 
soon towards the centre of its area, the disturbance and dip become less, 
till near Kurnool, as seen in the banks of the Hendri and Tumbuddn. 
the beds are nearly horizontal. Another change of dip, from the nearly 
horizontal to the vertical, may be seen in the space of a few yards in 
the limestone beds to the right after entering the western, or new gate 
of Kurnool fort. 

The colour of the limestone at Kurnool is generally a light bluish- 
grey, which passes into a deep blackish-blue. Near trap dykes, it often 
becomes crystalline, magnesian, and cream-coloured; or speckled and 
variegated with green bands, like some varieties of serpentine. 

It usually abounds with iron pyrites ; and to the right of the 
western gate in the fosse of the fort, may be seen to imbed a fine layer 
of red jasper, often reticulated by bluish quartz, and calcedonic veins. 
This jasper also runs in veins, and occasionally in nodules. Near 
this, the limestone strata have evidently undergone plutonic disturbance, 
being elevated with waving and bending of the layers into a nearly 
vertical position as before mentioned. 

From Kurnool to the Eastern Ghauts, — After having forded the Hendri 
to the eastward, low rugged hills, the outgoings of a great dyke of 
basaltic greenstone, having a westerly directioiu. are crossed, altenog 

Digitized by 


1846.] from, Devamunni and Nundi Cunnama pastes, 389 

the limestone and its associated purple shales in a singular manner. 
The latter are converted into a compact jaspideous rock, and the 
former loses its carbonaceous colouring matter, and becomes siliceous, or 
magnesian, or both, and is often coloured, with green bands and specks. 
The portions nearest to the dykes sometimes break, when struck by the 
hammer into fragments with smooth sides, marked with dendritic deline- 

Beyond these hills, the head of the central sandstone range of Kur- 
nool, is rounded to the broad and almost flat valley of Nundial, based 
on the limestone and its shales, which are generally of a chocolate and 
reddish hue, with thin seams and layers of faint green. The surface soil 
is for the most part r^ur : on a sub-soil of limestone debris, or on beds 
of kunker, a poor pisiform iron clay is sometimes found, mingled in the 
lower portions of the r^gur. 

Eastern Ghauts. — Having crossed the valley of Nundial, the eastern 
Ghauts are approached at Oazoopilly, a pleasant village at their western 
base. Their outline is apparently pretty level, continuous, but broken 
now and then, by a hog-backed ridge, or the rounded frustrum of a cone, 
rising above the general elevation of the central anticlinal range, which 
may be about 1,000 feet above the plain; though few of the highest 
peaks attain the elevation of upwards of 3,000 feet above the sea. The 
base, sides, and most of the summits, are clothed with jungle infested by 

Lead Mines and Sulphate of Barytes, — After ascending the Nundi 
Cunnama pass, about three miles, and crossing the first chain of hills, 
we turned from the bullock-road into the jungle on our right, and 
ascended a steep rocky hill. The descent on the other side brought us 
on the Mahdeopur wood cutters' tracts, along which we proceeded 4 or 
500 yards easterly, passing a small, rough, stone enclosure, formerly used 
for washing the diamond alluvium. We now again turned into the 
jungle on the right of the path, and passed up the dry channel of a 
brook, which ran westerly in a deep defile. After a few minutes' walk, 
two jungle-covered hills rose on each bank from the brook's margin. 
The one on our right was covered with clumps of bamboos, and rugged 
from top to bottom with choked up excavations. I traversed an area 
thus broken up, upward of half a square mile in extent. These excava- 

Digitized by 


390 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 173. 

tions are of irregular shape and size, and vary now from five to fifteen 
feet deep. 

The formation is the shales and schists of the diamond limestone and 
sandstone, here of a dull greyish-blue, and green hue, argillaceous in 
character, and veined in all directions by white quartz and chert. 
These veins are the matrix of the galena and sulphate of barytes. The 
former new mineral occurs in nests and strings of great brilliancy and 
purity, but I did not observe any thing like a continuous lode. The 
sulphate of barytes is in large masses, nodules, ai^d short veins, associ- 
ated with a dull-green crystallized mineral, calc spar, a white mineral 
like calamine, iron pyrites, and a faint reddish mineral, sometimes com- 
pact, and sometimes approaching saccharine in texture ; which, Mr. 
Piddington, after analysis, has pronounced to be tiiat rare mineral, car- 
bonate of cerium. The quartz composing these veins is often honey- 
combed, and its cavities lined with an orange-brown coloured dust, as 
we see in the vein stuff of European mines. The excavations are over- 
grown with brushwood, and apparently have long been deserted. They 
are about six miles east of Gazoopilly, and within a short distance of 
the principal coast communication of Nellore with the table lands of 
the ceded districts by the Nundi Cunnama pass ; and the jungles yield a 
cheap and never-failing supply of fuel ; but until the discovery of a con- 
tinuous lode, it would hardly be advisable to enter deeply into any 
mining speculation in those plumbiferous tracts. However, there can 
be no doubt, that these localities have not yet been fairly tested by 
European practical skill and experience. 

Buswapdr Diamond Mines, — ^The diamond pits of Buswapdr are still 
nearer to Gazoopilly, extending from about quarter of a mile NW. from 
the present village of Buswapdr, easterly towards tbe base of the eastern 
Ghauts, and covering an area of certainly two square miles. They are 
even more overgrown by jungle than the lead mines, and have evidently 
been given up at a more ancient date. 

About three-quarters of a mile SE. from the modem Buswapdr, near 
the ruins of the old village, are about twenty other excavations over- 
grown with thicket, like the rest ; and ten more midway between them 
and Gazoopilly, a little to the south of the foot-path to the pass. 
These excavations vary from two and three yards to fifteen yards in 

Digitized by 


^846.] from Devamutmi and Nundi Cunnama passes. 391 

length, and fiom one to four or five yards in breadth : their present 
depth (much choked up by rubbish) is from five or six feet to sixteen 
feet. The only stratum cut through is a thin layer of reddish alluvial 
soil, into a bed of gravel of unknown thickness in some parts. The 
pebbles composing these gravels have evidently been derived from tiie 
limestone and sandstone hills of the Ghauts, at the western base of 
which they immediately lie, and consist principally of cherts of various 
colours, quartz, compact sandstone, and a few of basanite. Layers 
of sand are occasionally interstratified. 

Some of the pebbles are as large as a cocoanut, but the generality not 
larger than an orange or walnut ; most of them rounded, and lying on 
their flat sides, having the major axis in an east and westerly direction, 
I cannot find that the rains of present monsoons add to some of these 
gravel beds, many of which are situated far from the reach of present 
torrents, and through which the streams often cut deep channels ; but 
am rather inclined to believe, that some of them must have originated 
during the elevation of these mountains from the bed of the ocean. 

Nundi Cunnama pass, — This pass lies in the direct line of commercial 
communication from the coast and ports of Nellore, Masulipatam and 
Ramapatam, with Kumool, the ceded districts, and Southern Mahratta 
country. It is steep, and can only be traversed like the HeguUa pass, 
by bullocks lightly laden, but is susceptible of great improvement. Yet 
with the exception of those of Sidhout, Jungumrazpilly and Yeddedgoo, 
the Nundi Cunnama is the most practicable, and certainly in the most 
direct Ime. Loaded bandies are compelled to take the circuitous route 
of Guddapah and the Yeddedgoo pass. 

The improvement of the Nundi Cunnama into a road practicable for 
bandies, would much improve the trade of the districts to the west of it. 
In 1836, from imformation'Obtained on the spot, about 1,000 bullocks 
pass over from the eastern coast laden with its fialt and cloths, and 
returning with iron for ploughs, the produce of hill furnaces, and cocoa- 
nuts, betelnuts, and teak and other timber. Remnants of wells in 
the forest, and a small ancient temple to the Bull Nundi, (hence its 
name) attest the antiquity of this channel of commerce. The formation 
is similar to that described around the lead mines : but the higher ridges 
are capped with sandstone. That singular aboriginal race, the Chen** 

Digitized by 


392 Notes, chiefly Geological, [No. 173. 

suara, act as a hill police. I have given an account of them elsewhere. 
They may be seen usually at Metta and Pacherla, two police stations 
in the forest. 

The pass itself is not much more than two and a half miles, but the 
breadth of the hilly and jungly tracts from Gazoopilly to Kistnashetty- 
piUy, on the eastern side of the range, cannot be less than twenty-three 

Cumhum. — Cumbum is nineteen and a half miles to the eastward of 
Kistnashettypilly. The hills near the bund of the large and beautiful 
tank, are of sandstone. This fine sheet of water is about five miles 
long by three or four broad. It is nearly surrounded by picturesque 
hills, and several rocky islets stud its bosom. 

From Cumhum to Budwail, — We shall now turn southerly, down the 
Cummum or Budwail valley, which is chiefly based on the shales of the 
diamond sandstones and limestone formation running southerly, and 
containing veins, and large beds of white quartz. Near Yelmacul a mass 
of porphyritic syenite is seen rising abruptly through the shales at its 
base. A pagoda built on its summit renders it conspicuous. The wells 
near its base exhibit the fissures of the shales, encrusted with carbonate of 
lime. This is the case also farther south, in the valley at Poormiwala, 
when the quartz veins frequently imbed iron pyrites. The summits of 
the range running down the centre of the valley from Poorm&wala by 
Budwail to the Pennaur, I found capped with compact sandstone, in al- 
most tabular masses, associated with arenaceous schists. The lower 
parts and base are composed of the shales or slates. 

From Budwail to the Auripoya pass, — From Budwail, southerly to the 
Auripoya pass, the shales prevail, and become softer and lighter colour- 
ed. The soil is chiefly reddish, light, fertile, and generally well water- 
ed. Subsoil — ^a bed of kunker, nodules of which and fragments of 
quartz, often honey-combed, are scattered over the surface of the lower 
part of the valley. 

Auripoya pass. — ^This is a rugged pass, about eight miles long, 
through the Sidhout ranges into the transverse valley by which the 
Pennaur passes, through the Ghauts to the maritime plain of Nellore. 
Here sandstone and arenaceous schists prevail ; angular blocks of 
which, and fragments of a white and a grey smoky quartz, encumber 

Digitized by 


.1846.] from Devamufmi and Nundi Cunnama passes, 393 

the bottom of the pass ; till, at length, it debouches on the sandy bed of 
the Pennaur, a little to the east of Sidhout fort. 

Sidhout, — The blue limestone is said by the natives to be found un- 
der the sands of the river ; and it is seen in blocks in the walls of the 
fort ; but the hills, which I had an opportunity of examining, were all of 
sandstone, and sandstone conglomerate. 

A beautifully variegated variety of sandstone is quarried near this. 
The Hindu pillars in the fort gateways, which are carved out of it, have 
the appearance of an elegantly veined wood. The tints are often waved, 
or acutely angled bands of different shades of brown, resembling on 
a large scale those in agate. 

Diamonds, I was informed, during the rule of the Patau Nawabs of 
Guddapah, who often made Sidhout their place of residence, were dug at 
Duijipilly, and, at another place among the neighbouring hills. 

The Pass of Sidhout, — The pass of Sidhout is a transverse valley, 
as before stated, through which the Pennaur flows from the table lands 
of the ceded districts, through the Eastern Ghauts to the Goromandel 
Coast. There does not, however, appear to be any great or sudden 
lowering of level to the coast-land, as we find that the height of Gudda- 
pah, 507 feet above the sea (Gullen), hardly exceeds that of the plain 
at the eastern base of the Ohauts. The course of the Pennaur, there- 
fore, at Sidhout, from the little inclination of its bed to the eastward, 
is not more accelerated than when winding its way over the gently slop- 
ing table lands. The general direction of this transverse break in the 
Ghauts is easterly ; though, like that of Gundicutta, it makes consider- 
able angles. It is about twenty- four miles long, and about two and a 
half miles broad at Sidhout. I have not had an opportunity of examining 
its eastern exit near the Someswar pagoda; where, I understand, 
the river is confined between two rocky ridges, about half a mile 

From Sidhout to Cuddapah, — The road lies along the valley of the 
Pennaur, which opens out to the westward into the horizon-bounded 
plains of Guddapah. The rock seen in the lowest situations, is a bluish 
and rather grey crystalline limestone, bounded on either side by the high 
sandstone ranges of the easterly ghauts. The limestone is veined with 
quartz and calcspar, and imbeds cubic crystals of iron pyrites. A few 

Digitized by 


394 Notef, chiefly Geological, [No. 173. 

miles from Caddapah, it crosses the valley of the Pennaur in a well de- 
fined ridge, across which the road lies by a small pass, called the Bondi 
Gunnama, The ridge to the south I found to be capped by sandstone. 
The limestone here has an external scabrous aspect, owing to the less 
rapid weathering of the veins of chert which run through it, and which 
project in relief from its surface. At the eastern foot of the pass the 
rock has been excavated for the sake of the dark flint-like chert it im- 
beds, which was formerly used for gun-flints by the armies of the Cud- 
dapah Nuwabs, and by those of Hyder and Tippoo ; but the material 
is too brittle to make good flints. It is veined with quartz which often 
forms a perfect network of cells, lined and stained with an orange- 
coloured ochre. 

Cuddapah. — The limestone formation in the vicinity of Cuddapah and 
the sandstone ranges to its south, have been described in notes from 
Madras to Goa. The latter range I crossed to Govincherroo, in the 
plain on the other side, by the Bankrapett pass. 

Govincherroo to Rachooty, — At Govincherroo granite is seen in low 
bosses and large blocks, in ntd, at the base of the sandstone range ; and 
is thus occasionally seen in tors and logging stones, and in the beds cS 
nullas, in the plain to Rachooty, about thirty-four and a half miles south 
from Cuddapah. Near Rachooty, it often passes into pigmatite ; actyno- 
lite and chlorite are seen in its veins. This granite formation evidently 
extends to the eastward to the bases of the sandstone ranges of Chen- 
dorghirry and Tripati, which are seen in picturesque outline, flanking 
the plain and bounding the view to the fight. 

The drainage lines of this part of the plain from Punganore, converge 
in a N. by E. direction, to the singular gaps of Mandasir and Cheysir, 
in the chain through which they find their way northerly to the bed of 
the Pennaur near Sidhout, which we have lately left. It might be 
worth while to examine the configuration of these gaps, and the sections 
afforded by them. Dykes of basaltic greenstone are occasionally seen in 
the granite. 

Rachooty to Chittoor, — ^The road lies over a flattish valley between 
irregular clusters of granite rocks on either side, which occasionally 
approach and recede, and sometimes disappear for a while, appearing agtin 
at irregular intervals. Spurs of the rocks occasbnally cross the valley or 

Digitized by 


1846.] from Devamunni and Nundi Ctmnama passes. 395 

plain; and also dykes of basaltic greenstone, which were numerous south 
of Peelair. 

About ten miles from Peelair, and six from Damulcherry, a short and 
easy pass in the granitic ridge to the left, leads the traveller almost 
insensibly over the great line of elevation, by the vOlage of Damul- 
cherry, into the plains of the Camatic. About seven miles north of 
Damulcherry, runs the modem boundary of Cuddapah and Arcot, pre- 
cisely on the ancient position of the Andhra and Dravida regions. At 
Damulcherry both Tamul and Telinghi are spoken, and the latter lan- 
guage I found much in vogue at Chittoor. 

At Peelair, gneiss and hornblende schists appear more frequently 
near the bases of the granite hills; and, at Damulcherry, the same 
rocks, with a leptinitic gneiss veined with eurite and small grained gra- 
nite, are the prevailing rocks. 

From Damulcherry to Chittoor the floor of the break in the Ghauts, 
is an undulating bed of gneiss and hornblende schists. The more 
abrupt and peaked elevations on the north and south of the break, ap- 
pear to be of granite. 

About ten or twelve miles WNW. from Chittoor the descent to 
the last is palpable, but easy and gradual, very unlike the abrupt and 
high pass of Naikanairy farther south. The country is open and free from 
jungle, which is confined to the ravines and sides of the lofty hills of 
gneiss. The latter in their bold, rounded contour, and partially wooded 
sides, reminded me of the Pyrenees near Rosas. 

In the distance to the north of the foot of this descent, is seen the 
high columnar rock of Pillyconda, (Tiger's hill) a striking object on 
the horizon. 

Chittoor. — Chittoor stands in the plain at the northern and western 
base of a granitic range which runs south-westerly towards the Javadic 
ranges, which skirt the eastern flank of the Amboor valley. The gra- 
nite composing the rocks, close to the travellers' bungalow, contains 
large crystals of foliated hornblende, sometimes curiously interlaminated 
with olive-green mica. The crystals of felspar are usually white, with 
red and faint green crystals interspersed. The felspar is occasionally 
translucent, and assimilates albite in external characters. 

The exterior of many of the large masses of granite, which cover the 
hiU, abounds with little cavities, from the size of a pea to that of a wal- 


Digitized by 


396 }^ote8, chiefly Geological, S(C. [No. 173. 

nut, occasioned by the weathering and falling out of the nests of mica 
and hornblende just mentioned. 

Actynolite, chlorite, and pale rose-coloured garnet were the other 
minerals obsenred in this granite. 

The range of hills, having a north and south direction, and though 
a break in which the Chittoor river runs easterly to the Poni river, I 
found to consist of gneiss often highly contorted and penetrated by gra- 
nite in large dykes. Some portions of this gneiss are granitoidal, and, 
in hand specimens, would be set down as granite; dykes of basaltic 
greenstone also penetrate both granite and gneiss. 

Before closing this paper I must remark, that the soil from the plain 
of Rachooty to Chittoor, has been generally of a reddish and sandy 
nature, evidently the alluvium of granitic and hypogene rocks. 

The great sheets of r^gur end abruptly near Cuddapah, their barrier 
to the south in this direction appears to have been the Bankripattah 

Digitized by 


Proceedings of the Asiatic Society of Bengal^ January^ 1846. 

The stated monthly meeting was held on Wednesday evening, the 
7th of January, W. B. O'Shaughnessy, Esq., M. D., senior member of 
the Committee of Papers, in the chair. 

The Proceedings for the month of December were read and confirmed. 

The Secretary referred to what had passed at that meeting in refer- 
ence to an Iron Railing, and it was resolved that the following gentle- 
men be nominated a committee to take this matter into consideration : 

Captain Marshall, B. N. I. 

W. Tayler, Esq. C. S. 

R. Frith, Esq. 

W. Elliot, Esq., Madras C. S. was ballotted for and declared duly 
elected and the following new member was proposed : 

Lord Arthur Hay. 

Proposed by E. Blyth, Esq., seconded by R. Frith, Esq. 

The following gentlemen were also elected as members of the com- 
mittee of papers for 1846 : 

G. A. Bushby, Esq. C. S. 

J. R. Colvin, Esq. C. S. 

W. Tayler, Esq. C. S. 

The Secretary stated that, through the Rev. J. Long, Raja Sreesh 
Chunder Bahadoor of Nuddca had placed at the disposal of the Socie- 
ty for copying, a portrait of his ancestor the learned R^ja of Nuddca, 
wluch was in the hands of a competent artist. The thanks of the Socie- 
ty were voted by acclamation to the Raja. 

Read the following Ust of books, presented, exchanged, and pur- 
chased : 

Litt of Books received for the Meeting of Wednesday , the 1th January, 1846. 

1. The Calcutta Christian Observer for December, 1845, and January, 1846.— By tlie 

2. The Oriental Christian Spectator for December, 1845.— By the Editor. 

3. Sepulchres of Ancient Etruria. — By H. Torrens, Esq. 

4. Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan, 2 vols.^By H. Torrens, Esq. 

Digitized by 


ii Proceedings of the Asiatic Society, [Jan. 1846. 

5. General Report on the Sanatory condition of the labouring population of Great 
Britain.— By H. Torrens, Esq. 

6. Actes de L'Academic lloyale des Sciences, Belles-Lettres, et Arts De Bordeaux, 
vol. 5th. parts I. II. III. IV. and vol. 6th. parts I. II. III. IV.— By the Society. 

7. Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, vol. 15th, part Ist, 1845.— 
By the Society. 

8. Transactions of the Geographical Society of L6ndon, second series, vol. 7th, parts 
I. and II.— By the Society. 

9. Life of Rammohun Roy.— By Babu Kissory Cband Mittra. 

10. Proceedings of the Hindu Theo-philanthropic Society, vol. Ist, 1844.— By Babu 
Kissory Chand Mittra. 

11. Religrious Hymns in Bengalee, composed by R&j& Rammohun Roy, 2 copies.— 
By Babu Kissory Chand Mittra. 

12. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, for 1845, part Ist. 
— By the Society. 

13. Proceedings of the Royal Society, for November, 1844.— By the Society. 

14. Proceedings of the Geological Society of London, vol. 4th. No. 101. 

15. ^sop's Fables in Ordoo. By J. F. Corcoran, Esq. (35 copies.) 

16. Meteorological Register for September, 1845, from the Surveyor General's Office. 
The London, Edinburgh, and Dublin Philosophical Magazine, Nos. 178, 180. — By 

the Editor. 
Histoire des Sultans Mamlouks De L'Egypte, par M. de Quatremere.— Tome second. 


17. The Classical Museum, No. 9. 

18. Southey's History of Brazil, 3 vols. 

19. History of Ancient Philosophy, 3 vols. 

20. Journal des Savans for August, 1845. 

21. The Annals and Magazine of Natural History, No. 105— September, 1845. 

22. The Zoology of the Voyage of H. M. S. Sulphur, under the command of Capt. 
Sir £. Belcher R. N. C.B. F.R.G.S. &c. during the years 1836 to 1842, Nos. 4 and 5. 


23. Athenaeum, No. 936, 937 and 938, for October, 1845. 

24. The Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Nos. 77 and 78. 

25. Proceedings of tlie Royal Society of Edinburgh, vols. 1 and 2, Nos. 25 and 26. 

26. Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. 

27. Mackerstorm's Magnetical and Meteorological Observations, for 1841 and 1842. 

28. Proceedings connected with the Magnetical and Meteorological Conference, held 
at Cambridge in June, 1845, during the Meeting of the British Association for the Ad- 
vancement of Science. 

The Secretary presented the following list drawn up by Dr. Roer : 

Ahiiract of the List of Books received into the Library from Jan, Wh, to Dec. 3d, 1845. 

English Books. 

1. Annals and Magazine of Natural History, vol. 14th, 1844, No. 92, 94, 96, 99, 100, 
103 and 104. 

Digitized by 


Jan. 1846.] Proceedings of the Asiatic Society . iii 

2. Archaeologia or Miscellaneous Tracts, relating to Antiquities. 

3. Arnold (T.) Introductory Lectures on Modern History. Second edition. London, 
1843, 1 vol. 

4. Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register. Third series, vol.9, November and Decem- 
ber, 1844, Nos. 19 and 20 ; January, 1845, No. 21 ; No. 24. Fourth series ; 1st vol. No. 1. 

5. Athenaeum, 1844, Nos. 844, 897, 1845, Nos. 898,907, 913, 921, 923 and 935. 

6. Beresford, (H. B.) Arabic Syntax, London, 1843, 8vo. 1 vol. 

7. Blacker, (V.) Memoir on the Mahratta War. London, 1821, 4to. 1 vol. 

8. Brougham, (H.) Political Philosophy. London, 1843—1844, 8vo. 3 vols. 

9. Buist, (G.) Vid. Observatory at Bombay. 

10. Calcutta Christian Observer, vol. 14, 1845, January to September and November. 

11. Calcutta Journal of Natural History, 1845, Nos. 20—23. 

12. Classical Museum, 1845, Nos. 6—8. 

13. Correspondence relating to Persia, 1841, fol. 1 vol. 

14. Ditto and AfFghanistan, fol. 1 vol. 

15. Crawford, (J.) History of the Indian Archipelago. 

16. Donaldson, (J. W. ) New Cratylus, Cambridge, 1839, 8vo. I vol. 
Varronianus. 1 vol. 

17. Dawson, (J.) Geographical Limits, History and Chronology of the Chera King- 
dom of Ancient India. 

18. Elliott, (H. M.) Supplement to the Glossary of Indian Terms, 1 vol. 

19. First Report of a Committee of the Statistical Society of London, on tlic state of 
Education in Westminster, 1837. 

20. Gibson, (A.) Notes on Indian Agriculture. P. 

21. Grey, (H.) History of Etruria, part 2. 

22. Hamilton, (W.) Description of Hindosthan. London, 1820, 4to. 2 vols. 

23. Heeren, (A. W. L.) Reflections on the Political Intercourse, &c., of the ancient 
. Nations of Africa, 2 vols. 

24. History of the Reign of Tippoo Sultan, 1 vol. 

25. Hiigel, (v.) Travels in Kashmir and the Punjaub, 1845. 

26. India-House Papers, Marquess of Hastings, 1824, fol. 1 vol. 

27. Ives (E.) Voyage from England to India. London, 1773, 4to. 1 vol. 

28. Jameson's Edinburgh New Philosophical Journal, Nos. 73—75. 

29. Jerdon (J. C.) Illustrat