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THE 



JOURNAL' or BOTANY, 



BEITISH AND FOREIGN. 



EDITED BY 



JAMES BRITTEN, K.S.G., F.L.S., 

Bbhiob AmiBTAifT, Dbpabtmbnt of Botany, British Mdsbdii (Naturai. History). 



VOL. XXXVII. 



ILLUSTRATED WITH PLATES. 



LONDON : 

WEST, NEWMAN & CO., 64, HATTON GABDEN. 

1899. 



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A' 

I 



LONDON 

WEST, NEWMAN AND CO., PRINTEU8, 

HATTON OARDEN, E.G. 



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CONTRIBUTORS 



TO THE PBBSENT VOLUME. 



C. R. P. Andrews. 

E. A. Newell Abbeb^ B.A. 

J. £. Baonall, A.L.S. 

E. G. Bakeb, F.L.S. 

Ethel S. Babton. 

E. A. L. Batters, LL.B. 

John Benbow, F.L.S. 

Arthur Bennett, F.L.S. 

G. S. BOULGEB. F.L.S. 

James Britten, F.L.S. 

N. Colgan, M.R.I.A. 

W. A. Clabkb, F.L.S. 

H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

A. H. Wolley Dod. 

M. S. Evans, F.Z.S. 

0. A. Fabwell. 

David Fby. 

Alfbed Fbyeb, A.L.S. 

Antony Gepp, M.A., F.L.S. 

Hbbbebt Goss, F.L.S. 

Edmund Gbove. 

Henby Gboves, F.L.S. 

Jambs Groves, F.L.S. 

H. C. Habt, F.L.S. 

W. P. HiEBN, M.A., F.L.S. 

E. M. Holmes, F.L.S. 

E. 0. HOBBELL. 

A. B. Jackson. 

B. Daydon Jackson, Seo.L.S. 
SiB Gkobge King, K.G.I.E. 
M. J. Leebody. 

F. A. Lees. 
AuGUBTiN Ley, M.A. 
Abthub Listeb, F.R.S. 
Symers M. Macvicab. 

E. S. Mabshall, M.A., F.L.S. 
M. T. Masters, M.D., F.R.S. 



J. Cosmo Mblvill, M.A., 
F.L.S. 

W. F. MlLLEB. 

H. W. MONINGTON, F.L.S. 

Spencbb lk M. Moobe, F.L.S. 
G. R. M. MuBRAY, F.R.S. 
R. P. MuBBAY, M.A., F.L.S. 
W. H. Pbabson. 
Reginald W. Phillips, M.A., 

F.L.S. 
Henry Pierson. 
W. H. PuRCHAs, L.Th. 
R. Frank Rand, M.D., F.L.S. 
A. B. Rendle, D.Sc, F.L.S. 
William Robinson, F.L.S. 

W. MOYLB ROGEBS, F.L.S. 

P. A. Saccardo. 
C. E. Salmon. 

E. S. Salmon. 
James Saunders. 
R. Sohleghteb. 

K. W. Scully, F.L.S. 

W. A. SiiooLBBED, M.R.C.S. 

Annie L. Smith. 

W. G. Smith, F.L.S. 

S. A. Stewabt. 

A. G. Tanslby, B.A., F.L.S. 

C. H. Waddbll. 

G. S. West, B.A. 

W. West, Jun., B.A. 

James W. Whitk, F.L.S. 

J. A. Wheldon. 

W. Whitwell, F.L.S. 

W. H. Wilkinson. 

F. N. Williams, F.L.S. 
Albbbt Wilson. 

J. Medley Wood, A.L.S. 



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Tabs. 894 


-896 ... to face 


page 49 


Tab. 897 


. 


241'^ 


„ 898 




U6^ 


,, 899 




289 ^ 


., 400 


. 


887 ^ 


Tabs. 401 


,402 


869 ^ 


Tab. 408 


[Phyllactinia, incorrectly numbered 402) ,, 


449 «^ 


„ 404 


(Xyns, incorrectly numbered 408) ,, 


497 - 



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THE 

JOURNAL OF BOTANY 

BRITISH AND FOREIGN. 



THE BERMUDA JUNIPER AND ITS ALLIES. 

By Maxwbll T. Mastbrs, M.D., F,R.S. 
Ck>rre8pondent of the Institute of France. 

Until oomparafcively recently some doubts have existed con- 
cerning the species of Juniperus found in the island of Jamaica and 
in the Bermudas respectively ; and there has been a corresponding 
difference of opinion as to the nomenclature to be adopted. The 
difficulties of the case were primarily due to the absence from our 
herbaria, until quite lately, of any modem specimens of the tree 
native to Jamaica. 

Another source of confusion has arisen from the polymorphism 
BO constantly presented by certain species of juniper, etc. : thus 
there are the linear primordial leaves, which are free at the base, 
and spreading ; and there are the adult leaves, closely appressed, 
ovate, acute, convex, and often glandular at the back. Between 
these two forms are others, intermediate in form, according to the 
age of the shoot and its rate of growth. A particular tree, or more 
frequently a particular branch, may, as is well known, produce only 
primordial, spreading leaves, or only imbricate scalelike leaves; 
or, again, both forms may coexist on the same branch with or 
without intermediate forms. 

The receipt of excellent specimens of the Bermuda juniper 
through the kindness of Mr. Haycock, as well as of equally satis- 
factory specimens of the Jamaica species with which I have been 
favoured by Mr. Fawcett, induces me to offer a few remarks on the 
history and position of the two trees. 

In the first place, it is obvious from the comparison of the 
specimens from the two islands that the Bermuda tree, generally 
called Juuiperua bermudiana, is quite distinct, alike from the species 
growing on the mountains of Jamaica and from that (now uni- 
versally known as J. virginiana) which occurs from New Brunswick 
to Florida on the eastern side of the United States, whilst the same 
or representative forms occur in the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, 
in British Colombia, and southward in Texas and New Mexico. 
Extending over so vast an area, exposed to widely different environ- 

JouBNAL OF Botany.— Vol. 87. [Jan. 1899.] b 

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2 THE BfiBttUDA JUNIPBB AND ITS ALLIES. 

ment, it is no matter for surprise that the species presents much 
variation. Many of these variations are in cultivation in this 
country, and are among the most elegant of hardy Conifers. 

The history of the Bermuda tree has been sketched by Mr. 
Hemsley in the Gardeners' Chronicle for May 26, 1888, p. 666,* and 
in the Report on the Botany of the 'Challenger' Expedition. The 
name bermudiana has been adopted by Mr. Hemsley ; but whether 
the tree is really the original J, bermudiana of LinnsBUS is open to 
question, as will be shown hereafter. 

Of the Jamaica plant, at the time Mr. Hemsley originally wrote, 
there were no specimens at Eew, though specimens existed in the 
Sloane Collection in the British Museum. This West Indian species 
was referred by Grisebach {Flora of the British West India Islands 
(1864), p. 508) to J, barbadensis of LinnsBUS. Leaving for the 
moment the question of nomenclature, it may be repeated that an 
examination of Mr. Fawcett's specimens leaves no doubt that the 
Jamaica tree is specifically distinct from that of Bermuda. More- 
over, as suggested by Mr. Hemsley and others, it is, in spite of 
some variation in habit, specifically identical with the J. virginiana 
of the main land. 

There seem, therefore, to be only two species. One is Ber- 
mudan, and known as a cultivated plant in the Azores, Antigua 
{De Ponthieul)^ and Saint Helena. Possibly the same species may 
occur in Jamaica and other West Indian islands, but there is at 
present no adequate evidence on this point. The other species, 
J, virginiana L., is, as has been said, distributed over a vast area 
in the United States, and has long been known as an inhabitant 
of the Blue Mountains of Jamaica. It occurs also, as seems most 
likely, in Cuba {Wright, 81871), in the Bahamas {Eggers, 4868!), 
and in Antigua, f 

Three specific names have been allotted to these two species. 
Although a matter of less importance than the determination of the 
species, it is nevertheless of much consequence to come to a decision 
concerning the names to be given to them. A brief summary of 
the history of the plants will facilitate the unravelhng of the 
tangled synonymy, and aid us in the adoption of the most ap- 
propriate nomenclature. 

The Bermudas, or Sommers' Islands, were discovered in 1515. 
In some of the records of the early voyages mention is made of the 
*' cedar" that then, as now, was very common in the island ; thus 
it is recorded that in 1598 one Henry May was shipwrecked on the 
north-west part of the Isle of Bermuda. May, as cited by Hemsley, 
l. c, describes the island as covered with woods, but *' Cedar is the 
chiefest.*' It wiU be noted that at that time cedars and junipers 
were not considered as separate genera. 

In 1609 S. Jourdan was also wrecked on the same island. He 
speaks of an '* infinite number of cedar trees (the fairest I thinke in 

* See also Joarn. Bot. 1883, 250-260. 

t Prof. Sargent in litt, inoliiies to the view that the Florida form of 
virginiana is identical with the Jamaica species, and sufficiently distinct to 
constitute a separate species. 



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THE BERMUDA JUKlPElt AND ITS ALUBS. 8 

the world), and these bring forth a very sweet berry and wholsome 
to eat." In 1611 the islands were colonized from Virginia, the 
establishment of which latter colony dates only from 1607. Clearly 
the cedar existed in Bermuda ages before the island was settled 
from Virginia. 

The earliest mention in any botanical book of the West Indian 
junipers, so far as has been yet discovered, is in Parkinson's 
Theatrum (1640), p. 1029, though it may be inferred, from what he 
says, that the trees were already fairly well known. Parkinson 
gives no figure, and only the following brief mention : — <* Juniperus 
major Americana, West Indian Cedar or Juniper.-^This tree which 
they of our English colonies in the Bermuda and Virginia etc. call 
Cedar." It seems, then, that from the very first the Bermuda and 
the Virginian trees were confounded one with the other. 

The next reference we meet with is in Paul Hermann's Hort. 
Acad. Lugd. Bat. Catalogus (1687), p. 845. Here the tree is called 
Junipenis Boitnudiana^ and we are told that it grew in England 
from seeds *'ex Bormudos Insula delatis." A description and a 
figure are given in which one kind of foliage only, the primordial, 
is represented. The berries are represented as globose, and de- 
scribed as being as large as hazel nuts. There can be no doubt that 
the size of the fruit is exaggerated both in the description and in the 
illustration ; nevertheless it is certain that the globose berries in 
the Bermudan plant are generally, if not always, considerably larger 
than the ovoid ones of the Virginian species. 

Following the chronological sequence, we come now to Bay's 
Hutoria Plantarum, vol. ii. (1688), Dendrologia, p. 1418. Here we 
find the two species treated of as one under Parkinson's name. 
** Jwniperus major Americana Park. Cedrus Americana vuigo dicta, 
Janiperus virginiana et barbadensis. Nostratibus The cedar of 

Virginia, Bermudas, Barbados '* A short description is 

given, in which the leaves are said to be very like those of the 
common juniper, but smaller, and the berries small. As to the 
locality, Bay says ''multis AmericsB locis provenit v,g. Virginia, 
Bermuda, Jamaica, Barbados." Bay considered that there were no 
differences between the tree of the mainland and that of the 
islands, except such as were due *'acoidentibus nonnuUis a loci 
natalis diversitate ortis." Here we see Bay taking what is now 
called a '* broad view" of species, and in modern fashion ap- 
preciating the influence of the "environment." Nevertheless he 
quotes from Hermann the description of both J, bermudiana and 
(/. virginiana. 

In Plukenet's Almagestum (1696), p. 201, ''^ mention is made of 
two forms, one ^^Junipems Virginiana Cupressi foliis rarioribus 
acutis Sabinam redolens," and the other *^ Jumper us Barbadensis 
Cupressi folio, ramulis quadratis. Savin or Cypress tree nostrati- 
bus dicta. Phytogr. 1. 197, f. 4. Juniperus forti major Americana, 
Parkinson Theatr, 1029. VastsB magnitudinis est hujus {sic] Arbor ut 
et alic»rum relatu nos monuit D. Jacobus Petever." rlukenet's figure, 



* See Joorn. Bot. 1883, 259, footnote. 

B 2 



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4 THB BEBMUDA JUNIPEB AMD ITS ALUBS. 

above referred to, resembles J. hermudiana in its four-cornered 
brancblets, but no fruit is shown, and its identification is doubtful. 
Plukenet also refers to Hermann's J, hermudiana above mentioned — 
to ** Juniperus e Terra Mariana" and to ** J. Caroliniana ThuysB 
ramulis fusis.*' Phytog. tab. 40, f . 9. All these are probably referable 
to J. virginiana. 

In the Mantissa (1700), p. 109, Plukenet has 'sTuniperus 
Barbadensis, Cupressi folio Arbor prsBcelsa, tetragonophyllos, sive 
foliatura quadrangulari," and he then, with extraordinary disregard 
to name and locality, asks the question, ''An Juniperus arbor 
Sacrorum Biblioru'm ? " ; possibly, however, not referring specially 
to the American species. In the Amaltheian Botanicum (1705), p. 125, 
he has ''Juniperus Barbadensis Cupressi folio, ramulis quadratis ; 
Almag, Bot. 201." To this the following localities are assigned: 
*'regnum Oongianum,** Ind. Or., Terceira, Andes of New Spain. 
" provenit etiam in Virginia et Florida." 

Plukenet's plants are preserved in the Sloane collections at the 
British Museum. Among them we find one of J. hermudiana with 
dimorphic foliage (H. S. 100, 154 & 96, 121). Another specimen 
(H. S. 88, fol. 88), obtained from the garden of Mr. Edward Morgan 
in Westminster, is doubtless J. virginiana with primordial foliage 
only. A third specimen in the " Herbarium vivum Plukenetianum " 
(H. S. 91, fol. 51), which is inscribed " Cedrus Juniperus InsulsB 
BermudaB, B. H. 1414," is J. communis L. From all this it seems 
that the '' Queen's Botanist " must, like his successors, have been 
somewhat confused with these junipers. 

At about the same date are specimens in the Sloane Herbarium 
from Banister, to which my attention has been called by Mr. Britten, 
to whose courtesy I am indebted for the opportunity of inspecting 
many of these older specimens of whose existence I should otherwise 
have been unaware. Banister has two specimens, one labelled 
" Juniperus s. Cedrus Novaa Angliaa an Sabina foliis Cupressi altera 
C. B. P. etc.'* This has primordial foliage only, but is doubtless 
referable to J. virginiana^ as is likewise a second specimen (H. S. 
168, fol. 88) called " Cedrus virginiana " ; this also has only 
acicular leaves. 

In Petiver's "Botanicum hor tense Indicum," a collection of 
garden plants, is a specimen (H. S. 76, fol. 85) inscribed as 
follows : — " Bermuda Cedar. I have it elsewhere in fruit from that 
very island, and is a true Juniper, B. H. 1414." This is the true 
Juniperus hermudiana L. The exact date of this specimen cannot 
be assigned. 

A similar remark applies to the " collection of plants gathered 
and dried by order of Mary Dutchess of Beaufort and given by her 
to Sir Hans Sloane." In vol. iv. of this collection (Herb. Sloane 
188), fol. 60, the " Cedar of Burmuda" with subulate intermediate 
foliage only, appears to be J. virginiana. In vol. x. fol. 5 (H. S. 
189), is a specimen inscribed with Parkinson's name, "Juniperus 
major Americana. West Indian Cedar or Juniper, Cedar of 
Virginia." This is J. virginiana with primordial foliage only. 
In another volume (H. S. 285, fol. 16) are specimens of <* Cedar of 



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THB BBBMTJDA JUMIFEB AND ITS ALLIB8. 

Bunnadas " with primordial foliage only, of *' Cedar of Virginia/' 
also with primordial foliage. 

In 1720 Boerhaave, in his Index alter plantarum (ii. 208), has 
the following species : — 

''8. Juniperos; Bormudiana H.L. 845. Oedrus Bormadiana, 
vnlgo. 

4. Juniperus ; Virginiana H.L. 846. Folio ubique juniperino. 
Cedrus Virginiana vulgo. . ." 

5. Juniperas; Virginiana; foliisinferioribusjuniperinis, super!- 
oribus Sabinam vel Gypressum referentibns. Juniperus virginiana 
.... Plukn. Aim. 201 ; Juniperus Virginiana dt Barhadensis 
Baj. H. 1418. Bami hoic pendali. 

6. Juniperus ; Virginiana ramis intortis pendulis expansis folio 
toto juniperino.*' 

In Boerhaave's Hortus siccus (H. S. 82, fol. 185) is a specimen 
with very densely set primordial foliage, with the inscription. 
<* Juniperus Bormudiana Herm. Gatal. ex horto curiosissimi D. 
Philippi de Flind." This is probably the true Bermuda plant, the 
primordial foliage of which is often, but not invariably, densely set 
as in the specimen just referred to. 

In Sloane's ** Voyage ... to Barbados .... and Jamaica,'* 
ii. p. 2 (1725), we get more satisfactory evidence in the shape of 
descriptions and figures, and Sloane's specimens are in his herbarium 
at the British Museum. Sloane's description runs thus : — *' J. maxima 
Cupressi folio minimo, cortice exteriore in tenues philyras spirales 
ductili Oat. p. 128, tab. 157, fig. 8." The figure with imbricate leaves 
and the corresponding specimen in the herbarium (vol. v. fol. 51) 
show conclusively that one of the Jamaica plants collected by 
81oane is what we now call J, virginiana, Sloane quotes with 
donbt the Juniperus barbadensis Cupressi folio of Plukeuet's 
Mantissa, p. 109. 

What is specially interesting from our present point of view 
is the specimen on fol. 52 of the same volume of the Sloanean 
herbarium. It is labelled **PraBcedentis varietas?" ♦'Juniperus 
barbadensis cupressi folio ramulis quadratis savin aut Cypress tree 
nostratibus dicta. Pluk. Phytograph. t. 197, fig. 5 (sic),"' This 
specimen corresponds, so far as it goes, with J. bermudiayia, and, if 
so, it would appear either that that species occurs in Jamaica, as 
well as in Bermuda, or that Sloane obtained his specimen from the 
last-named island, of which there is no evidence. 

In the British Museum Herbarium is also a specimen from the 
Bahamas from Francis Dale (1780) ; this is J, virginiana. 

Philip Miller, in the first edition of the Gardener's Dictionary 
(1781), mentions our plants in the following terms : — 

** 8. Juniperus Virginiana, H.L. folio ubique Juniperino. Boerh. 
Ind. The Cedar of Virginia.'* This must have been the form with 
primordial foliage only. Miller's No. 4 had both kinds of foliage. 
^^Junipei-us Virginiana fohis inferioribus Juniperinis, superioribus 
Babinam vel Cypressum referentibns. Boerh. Ind. Bed Virginian 
Cedar.'* Miller^s n. 6 is 

" Juniperus Bermudiana, H.L. The Cedar of Bermudas. , . , . 



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6 THB BBBlfUDA JUNIPEB AMD ITS ALLIES. 

The Bermudas Cedar oomiDg from a more temperate climate is 
somewhat more tender than the former and more impatient of onr 
cold (especially while the plants are young), but afterwards it 
endures it very well, as may be seen by divers trees which are now 
growiug in England, some of which are upwards of twenty feet 
high and have resisted several severe winters without injury." 
Further reference to Miller's plants will be made under the head of 
his 8th edition. 

In the Hot-tm CUffortianua (1737), p. 464, LinnsBus gives a de- 
scription of J. virginiana with the two kinds of foliage. Plukenet's 
barbadensis (''Almagest. 201, t. 197, f. 4, mala") is cited as 
synonymous, as also the plant described in Plukenet*s Mantissa^ 
109, previously mentioned. The '^Juniperus maxima^** &o., of Sloane 
and of Ray are also referred here. The localities given are, ''Vir- 
ginia, Carolina ahisque Americie prsBsertim septentrionalis regioni- 
bus.*' Two specimens in the British Museum from Hort. Cliffort. 
labelled *^Juniperu$ barbadensU virginiana " are referable to what we 
now call J. virginiana. 

In the first edition of the Specie* Plantarum (1758), p. 1039, we 
find three species briefly described in the following order. The 
descriptive phrases, with such only of the synonymy as is requisite, 
are here cited : — 

**J, barbadensis; J. foliis omnibus quadrifariam imbricatis, 
unioribus ovatis, senioribus acutis. Hort. Angl. t. 1, f. 1. 

** J. bermudiana ; foliis inferioribus ternis, superioribus binis 
deourrentibus subulatis patulis acutis. Hoy. lugd. Bat. 90. J. ber- 
mudiana, Herm. Lugd. B. 845, t. 847. 

**J. Virginiana; foliis ternis basi adnatis : j unioribus imbricatis, 
senioribus patuhs." Hort. Cliff. 464, Roy. lugd. B. 90. Gron. 
Virg. 194. Juniperus major Americana, Bay Hist. 1413, 1414. 
Juniperns maxima, cupressi folio minimo, cortice exteriore in 
tennes philyras spirales ductili. Sloane Jam. 128. Hist. 2, p. 2, 
t. 157, f. 8. Ray Dend. 12." 

In Omelin's edition of the Syntema^ ii. p. 1004, the description 
of J. virginiana is given differently, as follows: — **J. Virginiana 
foliis ternis omnibus patentibus. Du Roi, harbk. Baumz, 1, 
p. 846." 

These desciiptions are, unfortunately, not adequate, in the present 
state of our knowledge, to enable us to allot them with precision. 
That of (7* barbadensis most nearly corresponds with the Bermudan 
species as we now know it. 

An examination of the specimens in LinnsBus's herbarium does 
not throw much light on the question, for the specimens do not in 
aU cases tally with the descriptions, and no localities are indicated. 
** J. bennudiana " of the herbarium is a form with primordial leaves 
only, each leaf being linear-acute, about 9 mm. long. The speci- 
men is not sufficient to justify us in allotting it to what we now 
call Bermudiana, as it may be a form of J. Virginiana. 

'* J, barbadensis " of the herbarium has tetragonal branchlets and 
densely packed foliage, the individual leaves being all subulate- 
acute, and provided with a small dorsal gland near the base. 



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TOE BEBICUDA JUNIPEB AND ITS ALLIES. 7 

There can be no doabfe that this speoimen may be referred to what 
we now call J. Virginiana. 

** J. Virginiana *' has loosely disposed ramification with two 
forms of foliage, the primordial leaves spreading, about 1 cm. long, 
linear, pointed, with a small gland at the base. The cauUne leaves 
are much smaller, appressed, deltoid-ovate, subacute, with a dorsal 
gland. 

So far, then, as the Linnean specimens permit us to form an 
opinion, it may be said that ^* bermudiana** cannot certainly be 
identified, and that '' barbademis " and ** virginiana,*' though differ- 
ing in habit, are forms of one and the same species, — that now 
generally known by the latter name. 

In 1756 Patrick Browne issued his Natural History of Jamaica, 
At p. 862 we find the following reference, which we quote on 
account of the doubt therein expressed as to the identity of the 
plant: — " Juniperus foliolis inferioribus ternis, superioribus binis 
decurrentibus patulis. L. Sp. PL an potius. Juniperus foliolis 
omnibus quadrifariam imbricatis ; junioribus ovatis senior ibns 
acutis. Boy. et L. 8p. PI. The Bermudas Cedar. This is a 
native of Jamaica, and grows very plentifully in most of the Blue 
Mountains." Browne, therefore, like most of his predecessors and 
successors, confounded the Jamaican and the Bermudan species. 

In the eighth edition (1768) of Miller's Qardener*8 Dictionary 
we find — 

<' 8. Juniperus {Virginiana) foliis ternis omnibus patentibus .... 
Juniperus Virginiana. H. L. Folio ubique juniperino. Boerh. Ind. 
Cedar of Virginia, or Red Cedar. 

•* 4. Juniperus {Caroliniana) foliis ternis basi adnatis, junioribus 
imbricatis, senioribus patulis. Hort. Cliff. 464 .... Juniperus 
Virginiana, foliis inferioribus juniperinis, superioribus sabinam 
vel cypressum referentibus. Boerh. Ind. Carolina Cedar. 

•*5. Juniperus (Bermudiana) foliis inferioribus ternis, superi- 
oribus quadrifariam imbricatis .... Juniperus Bermudiaiia. 
H. L. Cedar of Bermudas 

'* 9. Jtiniperus (Barbadensis) foliis omnibus quadrifariam imbri- 
catis junioribus ovatis, senioribus acutis. Prod. Leyd. 90 

Juniperus maxima cupressi folio minimo, cortioe exteriore in 

tenues pbilyras spiralis [sic] ductili. Sloan. Cat. Jam. 128 

Jamaica Berry-bearing Cedar." 

Miller's types are preserved in the British Museum, and on 
examining them I find No. 8, inscribed J. Virginiana, to be a form 
with primordial leaves only, but probably correctly referred to 
J. Virginiana. No. 4, J. caroliniana , has, as described, dimorphic 
foliage, and is referable to J. virginiana. No. 5 was called by 
Miller J, Bermudiana, and was so considered by Mr. Carruthers, 
but on the whole it has more of the appearance of «/. virginiana. 
No. 9, inscribed J. barbadensis, has adult foliage, and is no doubt 
Juniperus virginiana. 

With reference to the Bermuda Cedar, Miller somewhat 
modifies what he had said in the first edition ; he now says, 
*' There are few trees in England of any great size, although I 



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8 THE BBBUUDA JUNIPER AND ITS ALLIES. 

have received very fine specimens from Bermudas.** He goes on 
to say that the trees are destroyed in winter when they are not 
sheltered. A page or two further on Miller mentions the Ber- 
mudas Cedar as a native of the Bahamas, but it is possible that 
this was a slip of the pen, or that the Virginian Cedar was really 
meant, as there is no other evidence of the existence of the Ber- 
mudan species in the Bahamas. Of J. baibadmns he says : '* This 
sort is generally confounded with the Bermudas Cedar, and taken 
for the same, but the specimens of it which were sent me by the 
late Dr. Houstoun prove them to be different trees.*' 

The Jamaica Berry-bearing Cedar mentioned as No. 9, and con- 
cerning which Sloane's Catalogue is cited, grows, according to 
Miller, in Jamaica, and also in the other islands of the West 
Indies. This, he goes on to say, ** is generally confounded with 
tbe Bermudas Cedar and taken for the same ; but the specimens of 
it which were sent to me by the late Dr. Houston prove them to be 
different trees.*' 

Lunan (Hortus Jamaicends, i. 88, 1814) quotes Sloane and 
Browne, and adds, *' The Bermudas Juniper, commonly called 

Bermudas Cedar, is a native of Jamaica It appears doubtful 

whether Sloane's tree be the same as Browne's, and, indeed, 
whether either of them be exactly the same species as the 
bermudiana,'* 

In 1848 Sir William Hooker published in the London Journal of 
Botany, ii. 141, t. 1, an account, accompanied by a description, of 
JuniperuB bermudiana of Linnsdus from Bermudan specimens. Sir 
William figures both the spreading acioular and the imbricate ovate 
forms of foliage. 

Endlicher (1847) included barbadensis under virginiana^ and 
kept up betmudiana as distinct. 

Orisebach (1864) cited J. barbadensis of LinnsBUS, referring to it 
J. bermudiana of Lunan (not of LinnsBus), together with speci- 
mens from the Bahamas, Jamaica (Sloane), Antigua, and Bar- 
bados. These localities point to the conclusion that Grisebaoh's 
barbadensis is referable to virginiana, 

Parlatore (1868) considered barbadensis and bermudiana to be 
two names for one and the same species, but which he considered 
different from J, virginiana. 

CarriSre (1865), Gordon (1868), Kent (Veitch, Manual, 1881), 
and Beissner (1891) all make two species, — virginiana and bermu- 
diana. The three first named refer the barbadensis of LinnaBus to 
bermudiana, 

Sargent, in his Siiva of North America (1896), treating of 
J", virginiana, gives a very full list of synonyms, but does not 
include among them the barbadensis of LinnsBUS, The bermudiana 
of the Swedish botanist is seemingly referred to as J. virginiana var. 
bermudiana of Vasey. 

To complete our record of publications referring more or less 
directly to the Bermudan and to the West Indian species, we may 
again call attention to the publication of Mr. Hemsley*s articles 
already mentioned. In tbe Botany of the Challenger (1884), p. 81, Mr 



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THB BEBMUDA JUNIPEB AND ITS ALLIES. 9 

Hemsley gives faller particnlars oonoeming the history, and a good 
representation, tab. 5, of the Bermuda species. The fruits repre- 
sented are considerably smaller than those sent me by Mr. Haycock. 

Taking into consideration the foregoing historical details, the 
following synonymy is offered as representing the present state of 
our knowledge : — 

J. BBRMUDiANA, Liuu. Sp. Plant, ed. i. 1089 (1758) ; W. Hooker, 
in London Joum. Bot. ii. 141, t. 1 (1848) ; Endlicher, Synopsis 
Conif. 29 (1847) ; Carriere, Traits G6n6ral, ed. 1, 49, partly (1865); 
Gordon, Pmetum (1858), and ed. 2. 141 (1875), partly; Parlatore m 
DO. Prodr. xvi.* 490 (1868) ; Kent in Veitch, Manual, 285 (1881) ; 
Hemsley in Gard. Ghron. May 26, 657 (1888), and in Joum. Bot. 
1888. 259; Botany of 'Challenger,* 81 (1884), tab. v.; Beissner, 
Handbuch, 115 (1891) ; Sargent in Garden and Forest, June 24, 
c. io. (1891). 

? J. Yirginiana, var. bermudiana, Yasey ex Sargent, Silva z. 
28 (1896). 

J. ViBGiNiANA, Linn. Sp. PI. ed. 1, 1089 (1758); Richard, 
Conif. 87, t. 6, f. 2 (1826); Loudon, Arboretum, 2495 (1888); 
Parlatore in DC. Prod. xvi.« 489 (1868) ; Koch, Dendrol. 2, 188 
(1878) ; Wilkomm, Forstliche Flora 257 (1887) ; Sargent, Silva of 
N. America x. 98. tab. 524 (1896) ; Bntton and Brown, lUust. 
Flora, N.U.S. i. 60, fig 188, et auctt. plurim. 

J. barbadensis Linn. Sp. Plant, ed. 1, 1089 (1758) ; Grisebach, 
Flora of the West Indian Islands, 508 partly (1864). 

J. bermucUana, Lunan, Hort. Jamaic. 88. 

The plant known in gardens as Biota meldensis of Gordon is 
referred to J. befmudiana by Parlatore, but it is almost certainly 
a form of Thuya (§ Biota) orientalis with primordial or acicular 
foliage only. It is quite devoid of the characteristic juniperine 
odour. 

It is curious to note that the true Bermuda Juniper, which is 
now seldom or ever met with in cultivation in this country, was 
grown here towards the end of the seventeenth century, for it is 
mentipned as having been grown from seeds received from England, 
Id Hermann's Catalogue of the Leyden Garden (1687), and by 
Miller and Evelyn. 

Juuiperus virginiana, the so-called ** Red Cedar," is mentioned 
in the same catalogue, and is said to have been introduced into 
cultivation by Evelyn. Evelyn's account, Silva, p. 125 (1679), is 
worth citing, not only as showing that the Bermudas tree was 
known to him, but that his knowledge was so little critical that he 
confounds both it and the Virginian "cedar" with the Cedar 
of Lebanon. 

**The Cedar? which grows in all extreams; In the moist Bar- 
bados, the hot Bermudas, the cold New- England ; even where the 
Snow lyes (as I am assur'd) almost half the year ; (for so it does 
on Mount Libanvs, from whence I have received seed of those few 



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10 THE BERMUDA JUNIPER AND ITS ALLIES. 

remaining Trees). Why then it should not thrive in Old England, 
I conceive is from our want of Industry : It grows in the Bogs of 
America, and in the Mountains of Asia : it seems there is no place 
affrights it ; I have frequently rais'd it of the Seeds, which I set 
like Bay 'berries ; and we might have of the very best kind in the 
World, from the Summer Islands, though now almost utterly 
exhausted there also, and so the most incomparable of that sacred 
wood, like to be quite destroyed by our negligence, which is by nature 
almost eternal: But that which we have ^om Barbadoes and 
Jamaica, is a spurious sort, and of so porous a nature, as, that 
Wine will soak through it ; yet that which they so call in New- 
England, is a lofty grower, which being saw'd into Flanks makes 
excellent floonng, and everlasting : They shingle their houses with 
it, and use it in all their edifices : why have we not more of these 
species brought over amongst us both to plant and work out ? " 

The *' Bed Cedar " is quite hardy, and is represented in British 
gardens by several elegant varieties. 

Another matter may be briefly referred to. In order to account 
for the presence of the juniper in the islands of Bermuda, it is con- 
jectured that the seeds may have been transported from Florida or 
other points of the American coast. Long separation and adaptation 
to new conditions are assumed to have been among the factors in 
gradually bringing about the very marked difference that now exists 
between the '* Bed Cedar" of the mainland (J. virginiana) and the 
Bermuda Juniper (J, bermudiana). This is plausible enough, but it 
suggests the enquiry how it is that the Jamaica Juniper, though 
so much further from the North American Continent, is nevertheless 
indistinguishable from J. virginiana ? Tbe only explanation that 
suggests itself is that the Bermuda plant was transported from the 
mainland at a very much earlier period, and hence a much longer 
time may have been available for evolutionary changes than in the 
case of the Jamaica Juniper. These are interesting matters for 
speculation, but, in the absence of means of confirmation or 
refutation, have little practical importance. 

It may be convenient to add a brief description of the Bermudan 
and of the Jamaican specimens kindly furnished by Mr. Haycock 
and Mr. Fawcett : — 

J. BERMUDIANA ; arbor, dense ramosa, ramulis confertis ascend- 
entibus tetragonis ; foliis adultis oppositis decussatis arete quadri- 
fariam imbricatis, singulis circa 2 mill. long, appressis lineari- 
oblongis subacutis dorso convexis glandula mediana lineari notatis ; 
foliis caulinis a sese remotiusculis basi aduatis superne subulato- 
acuminatis ; amentis masculis lineari-oblongis obtusis fere 1 cent, 
long. ; antheris aurantiacis ; fructu stipitato globoso purpureo- 
aurantiaco, 6-7 mill, diam., seminibus 2-8. 

Ex ins. Bermud. misit cl. Haycock ! 

The sap-wood is of a pale fawn-colour, and the heart-wood of a 
rich reddish brown. 

J. virginiana; arbor diffusa, ramis laxiusculis, ramulis ultimis 



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THE MOSSES OF SOUTH LAN0A8UIBB. 11 

graoilibus pinnatim dispositis snbteiragonis ; foliis adoltis arote 
appressis quadrifariam imbrioatis, singulis oirca 1 mill, long, eonvexis 
ovatis acutis glandula majuscula lineari manitis; foliis caulinis 
adnatis subulato-acuminatis ad 4 mill. long, parte superiore 
libera appressa vel patola ; floribus masculis (in spec. Jamaio.) baud 
visis ; fruotn in stipitem foliosum imposito 4-5 mill. long, sub- 
globoso^vel ovoideo purpureo abortu 1-loculari, 1 spermo. 
Jamaica. Coll. W, Harris \ 



THE MOSSES OF SOUTH LANCASHIRE. 
By J. A. Wheldon. 

Since the publication of my first list (pp. 188-140, ante) I 
have obtained much additional information £rom various sources. 
Through the kind help of Mr. G. A. Holt, I am able to add a large 
number of records, some of which I had previously held over as 
doubtful for various reasons ; some now first published ; and others, 
old records with which I was previously unacquainted. Amongst 
these latter are many from Buxton's Botanical Guide, 1849 (B. G.), 
which have frequently been repeated in the later Floras of the 
district by Grindon and Whitehead. Where these and similar 
corrections are necessary, I have bracketed the names of locality 
and collector, showing that the former was quoted in my previous 
list, but that a prior discoverer is now named. I am greatly 
indebted to Messrs. Holt and Cash for much advice and assistance 
in clearing up the history of some of the components of the Man- 
chester Florula. To go fully into all the questions raised would 
be out of place in such a list as this, but they will have to be 
approached when a complete flora of the vice-county is attempted. 
I most also express my thanks to Miss Armitage (A.) and Mr. 
Horrell for aid freely rendered. Where no collector's name follows 
the locality, it has been added from my own observation, and for 
the determination or confirmation of some of these I have cordially 
to thank Messrs. Dixon, Bagnall, Slater, and Mons. Benauld. In 
some cases, where the stations given in my previous list were few 
or doubtful, also where the plants are extinct or liable to become 
so soon, I have given fresh localities ; and I have, too, included 
some old records of plants no doubt now extinct, but which are 
historically interesting. Species not in my previous list are indi- 
cated by an asterisk. The number of records followed by H., and 
the many corrections enclosed in brackets, will indicate how large 
a share Mr. Holt has had in the preparation of the Ust ; and the 
majority of the Wilsonian records have been supplied by Mr. 
James Gash. 

Sphagnum cymhifolium Ehrh. Woolston Moss, Wihon, Whiteley 
Dean, H. Pendle Hill!! — Var. sqttarrosulum N. & H. Whiteley 
Dean, H. Pendle Hill !!— *-S. papillosum Ldb. Eooley Moor, 



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12 THE MOSSES OF SOUTH LAN0A8HIBB. 

Whiteley Dean, and Syke, H. — *S, subsecundum Nees, Pendle 
Hill II — Var. contortum Schp. Rooley Moor, B, G. Whiteley 
Dean, H, Bowlsworth, Dearden (A.). Netherton II — ^Var. obesum 
Schp. Whiteley Dean, H, — S, teres *var. squarrosuLum Wamst. 
Netherton !l — S* sqxunrosum Pers. Whiteley Dean, Belfield, Nether- 
ton! I — 8. acutifolium *var. late-virens Braith. Whiteley Dean, 
BeJfield, — S. fimbriatum Wils. Whiteley Dean, H, — *5. intermedium 
Ho£Fm. Pendle Hill I! Netherton !I— S. ciispidatum Ehrh. Wool- 
ston Moss, Wilson, — *Var. inajus Russ. Rooley Moor and Whiteley 
Dean, H. II — *Var. falcatum Russ. Whiteley Dean, H. II — *Var. 
plumosum N. & H. Whiteley Dean and Rooley Moor, H, !! 
Netherton II 

Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. Near Bolton, Perdval S Rogets. — 
*T, Browniana Grev. Healey Thrutch, near Rochdale, Wilson. 
Rooley Moor, B, G. The Jumbles, Bolton, Perdval S Rogers, 
Rivington, Scholejield {A), 

Catharinea undidata var. Haussknechtii Dixon. I was able to 
supply Mr. Dixon with later specimens from near Walton, with 
apparently lateral setflB, the stem having lengthened by innovation 
at the apex, thus confirming the determination. — C. ciispa James. 
(Cheetham Hill, Wild. Rochdale and Prestwich Clough, H.) 

Polytrichum aloides *var. Dicksoni Wallm. Prestwich, B. G, — 
P, nanum Neck. Reddish, B, G. Mere Clough, Perdval. — P. 
gradle Dicks. Clifton and Chat Moss, B. G, (Cheetham Hill, H.). 
^Oligotrichiim incurvum Ldb. Rooley Moor, G, B, 

Pleuridium axilla re Ldb. Wilgrave and Hulme, near Warring- 
ton, Wilson, Levenshulme, Rogers. Whiteley Dean, H, — P, subu- 
latum Rab. Gate Wharf, near Warrington, Wilson, Pilkington 
and Blackley, B, G, 

Brachyodus trichodes Fiimr. Windy Bank, near Littleboro, 
Wilson, 

Dichodontium pelluddum Schp. (Clifton and Bamford, B, G.) — 
Var. fagimontanum Schp. Pendle Hill II — *D. flavescens Ldb. 
Bamford, B, G, Pendle Hill I! 

Dicranella Jieteromalla *var. interrupta B. & S. Sand-pit near 
Rainford II — D, cerviculata Schp. Mam M.osSf Cash (A,), — *Var. 
pusilla Schp. With the type on Simmons wood Moss 11 and at 
Kirby 1 — D, secunda Ldb. Radclifife, J5. G, — D, rufescens Schp. 
(Sailors-shore and Prestwich, Htint, Boggart Hole and Rochdale, 
H,),—D, Schreheri Schp. Radcliffe and Irlam, B, G, Clifton 
Junction, Perdval, Kersal Moor, Wild, (Bamford, H,), — D, 
squarrosa Schp. Healey Thrutch, Wilson, Ashworth Valley, B. G, 
Rooley Moor, G, F, Whiteley Dean, H, 

Dicranoweissia dtrata Ldb. (Bamford, H,), Chatburn I! — D. 
crispula Ldb. This was found in the Rochdale locality given in G. 
F, by Hobson, 

Gampylopus flexuosus Brid. (Bamford, H,), Pendle Hill, with 
fruit 11— C. pyriformis Brid. Pendle Hill 11— 0. fragilis B. & S. 
Whiteley Dean, H, — Forma densus. Botany Bay Wood, Astley, 
Hunt. 



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THB MOSSES OF SOUTH LANOASHIBE. 18 

Dkrawum scopaHum "^yar. orthophyllum Brid. Pendle Hill!!, 
Hightown!!, and Simmons wood Moss!! — *Var. tw/osum Milde. 
Pendle Hill !!—*!). majus Turn. Bamford, H. 

Leucobryum glaucum Schp. Mere Clough, Percival. 
*Fimdensi osmundioides Hedw. Scoud Moor and Fo Edge, 
Percival. Whiteley Dean, H. — F, admntoides Hedw. Netherton !1 
—F. taxifolius Hedw. Prestwich, Percival. Bamford, Holt. 

Qrimmia apocarpa vars. rivularis W. & M. and gracilis W. & M, 
Occasionally by the Bibble and its tributaries, from Preston to 
Clifcheroe ! I — Rhacomitrium fasciculare Brid. Pendle Hill ! ! — Vtycho- 
mitrium polyphyllum Fiimr. Worston !! The two last-named are 
extinct in the localities named in my former list. 

Acaulon muticum C. M. Near Blackley, B. G. 

Pkascwn cuspidatum Schreb. Broughton, B. G. 

Pottia liUoralis Mitt. (Southport, Percival). — P. HeinUi Fiimr. 
Gate Wharf and Fiddler's Ferry, near Warrington, Wilson. 

Tortilla aUndes De Not. Burnley, Scholefield (A). — T. muralis 
*var. rupestris Wils. Worston and Chatburn!! — *T. inter- 
media Berk. Pendle RillU — T. subiilata Hedw. Dallam, near 
Warrington, Wilson. — *T. miitica Ldb. Mitton, Olitheroe, and 
Chatburn !I 

Barbvla tophacea Mitt. Broughton, B. G. (Eersal Moor and 
Clifton Junction, Wild). Cheetwood, H. — *5. spadicea Mitt. 
Pendle Hill 1! — ^ B. cylvidrica Schp. Chatburn !! — B. vinealis Brid, 
Hightown!!, Grossens!!, Walton !!, and Clitheroe !1 — B. ngidula 
Mitt. Mr. Holt points out that Mr. Wild's Broughton record is 
erroneous. The specimens (which Mr. Holt has shown to me) 
were B. tophacea (Bamford, B. G.), B. revoluta Brid., Hough End 
Hall, and (Clifton Junction) B. G. 

Weisia microstoma C. M. Eersal Moor, B. G. — W. sgnarrosa 
C. M. Near Parkside, Wilson, — W. i-upestris C. M. Bamford, B. 
G.), Simpson's Clough Bridge, G. F. 

*Triehostomnm ctispulum Bruch. Chatburn !1-t-*7'. nitidum Schpr. 
Pendle Hill!! — *T. tortuosum Dixon. Worston!! — "^Yslt. fragili' 
foUum Dixon. Chatburn !! 
*Zygodon Mougeotii B. & S. Fo Edge, Percival. 

Oi-thotrichwn affine Schrad. (Jackson's Boat, B. G.). — *0. 
rmlare Turn. Sparingly about Clitheroe !! 

Schistostega osmundacea Mohr. Stirrup Brook, Martin. Chad- 
wick, near Bolton, Wilson. Clifton Junction, Hunt. 

Splachnum ampuUaceum L. Woolston Mobs, Wilson. Near 
Blackley, B. G. Unsworth Moss, Percival. — 8. spharicum L. f. 
Woolston Moss, Wilson. Eochdale, Belfield. Whiteley Dean, H. 

Tetraplodon mnioides B. & S. Woolston Moss, Wilson (Chat 
Moss, B. G.). 

Disceliutn nudum Brid. Mr. Cash thinks that Caley's original 
record refers to the Boggart Hole Clough locality. There are 
specimens £rom Caley in the British Museum, dated '* Manchester, 
1795." Bamford, and between Badcliffe and Pilkington, B. G. 
Patrioroft, Prestwich, and Blackburn, Hunt. 



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14 THB MOBBEB OF SOUTH LANOASHIBE. 

Ephemerum sermtwn Hpe. Wilgrave and Dallam, WiUon, 

Physcomitnum pyrifonne Brid. Old Trafford, Sailors- shore, 
and Clifton, Hunt, Cheetham Hill, Wild. — Funaria Tmpletoni Sm. 
Prestwich, Horsefield. 

Aulacomnion androgynum Schwgr. Barton and Hough End 
Hall, B. G. 

Catoscopium nifftitum Brid. Freshfield, P. G. Gunliffe, Birk- 
dale, Cash 

BreuteUa arcuata Schpr. Near Manchester, Bradbury in Turner's 
Bot. Guide, 1806. 

Leptobryum pyriforme Wils. Worsley, Whalley, and Clifton 
Junction, H, Busholme, Cash. 

Wehera elongata Schwgr. (Shawfoi-th, Horsefield). — W. annotina 
Schwgr. Winwick and Padgate, Wilson. (Clifton and Bamford, 
H.). Kir by! I, Rainfordll — "^Yax. angustifolia Schpr. Sandstone 
quarry near Kirby II — W. commiUata Schpr. Pendle Hill !I 

*Bryu7n filiforme Dicks. Clifton Viaduct, B. G. — B. incUnatum 
Bland. Chatbumll — B. palleiis Swartz. (Boggart Hole Clough 
and Sailors- shore, B. G.). Old Traflford, Huiu. — B. turbinatum 
Schwgr. (Broughton, Dr. Wood. Clifton, Mahin). — B. bimum 
Schreb. (Clifton Junction, H.). — B. pseudo-iriquetrum Schwgr. 
Netherton !I, Walton, and Hightown !l — jB. neodamense Itzig. Fruit- 
ing specimens were first found in Britain at Southport by Messrs. 
Percival and Bogers, June, 1875 [Holt). In the British Museum 
Herbarium there are specimens in young fruit collected at Ainsdale 
in September, 1860. — B. intermedium Brid. Cheetwood, H* — 
B, Donianum Grev. (Winwick, Wilson), — B. enjthrocarpon Schwgr. 
Newton, Warrington, Wilson. — B. roseum Schreb. Blackley, Hobson, 
in a letter to Wilson, 1839. (Cash). 

Mnium ajfine var. elatum B. & S. Southport, Percival d Rogers. 
Netherton II — M. punctatum L. Ince Blundell and Clitheroe. — M, 
serratum Schrad. (Clifton, H.). — M. snhglobosum B. k S. Rooley 
Moor and (Reddish) B. G. Dean Clough, Turner. Clayton, War- 
burton. Rochdale and Whiteley Dean, Belfield. 

Fontvnalis antlpyretica L. Extinct at Bootle and Fazackerley. 
Common in the Ribble district I! — F. squamosa L. (Blackley, Miller.) 
*Neckera crispa Hedw. and *var. falcata Boul. Near Worston tl 
— "^N. complanataKuhn. Worston II Clitheroe I! 

*Homalia trichomanoides Brid. Clitheroe II, Cash. Mitton I! 
Worston II 

* PterygophyUum Imens Brid. Mere Clough, B. G. Bamford, 
Percival. Near Mitton 1 1 

"^Porotrichum alopectirum Nutt. Worston II 

Leskea polycarpa Ehrh. Dallam, Wilson. (Jackson's Boat, B. 
G.). Clitheroe II — *Var. paludosa Hedw. Chatburn II 

Anomodon vitictdosus H. & T. Worston II 
*Thuidium recognitum Ldb. Near Chatburn II 

Climaciwn defidroides W. & M. Broughton and Chorlton, B, G. 

Heterocladiwn heteroptervm B. & S. Rowley Moor, jB. G, Jumbles, 
Percival d Rogers. 



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THE MOSSES OF SOUTH LANOASHIBB. 15 

Camptothecium luteseens B. & S. Sonthport, Holt, High town II 

Brachythecium MiUieanum Schpr. Crossens II — B, popuUum 
B. & S. (Bamford, B, G,). Clifcheroe II — B. rutahulum *var. longi- 
utmi Schpr. Walton II — *Var. rohustum B. & S. Walton and Ince 
Blandell II — *Var. pJumulostini B. & S. High town II — B. rivulare 
B. k S. Ashworth and Bamford Wood, B, G. Mitton II Chat- 
bum It and Glitheroe II — B. plumosum B. & S. Walton II Mitton II 
Chatham II and Clitheroe II — B. caspitosum Dixon. Dallam and 
Longford, Wilson. Now lost in both localities owing to chemical 
refuse in the streams, Ca$h, 

*Hyocomium flagellare B. & S. Rowley Moor, B, G. Jumbles, 
Percival d Rogers. Bamford and Whiteley Dean, H. Clitheroe 
and Worston II 

Eurhyiwhium pili/erum B. &S. Worston II — E, cramnei-vium 
B.&S. Mitton II Clitheroe 1 1 — J^;. Swartzii Hobk. (Winwick, 
WUson). — E. pumilum Schpr. Wiuwick, Wilson. — *E. murale 
Milde and *yar. jidaceum Schpr. Chatbum II — E. stiiatum B. & S. 
Abundant in the Bibble district 1 1 — E. ruscifonne Milde. Clitheroe 
and Pendle HiU II 

Plagiothecium dmticulatum *var. majus Boul. Warbreck Moor, 
Walton II This may have been the '' P. Bylvaticxim *' recorded from 
tbis locality by Marrat. Bainford II Nether ton II — P. sylvaticunt 
B. & 8. Mitton II Clitheroe II — *Var. succulentum Wils. Win- 
wick, Wilson, — P. Bonenanum Spr. (Bamford, H.). Pendle Hill II 

Amblystegium radicate P. Beauv. Paddington, Wilson, In view 
of recent views regarding this plant, modern confirmation is 
required. — A.ftUcinum De Not. High town II Burscough Junc- 
tion II — ^Var. elatiun Schpr. Southport, Holt. 

A. JUicinum var. Whiteheadu mihi. Dull greenish yellow. 
Stems tall and slender, erect csespitose, or floating ; more gracile 
than the type; very slightly, usually scarcely at all pinnate, 
but rather irregularly branched, many stems being almost simple. 
When branched the pinnsB diverge at a more acute angle than in 
the type. Paraphylla few, and the conspicuous reddish tomentum 
of the type almost absent. Leaves narrower, more distant, less 
strongly acuminate, and not at all secund or falcate, but straight 
and erect patent even to the extremities of the branches. There 
is some doubt as to whether this is identical with the forma 
prolixa De Not. Mr. Dixon thought it was, but Mons. Benauld 
seems inclined to the contrary opinion. Until it can be com- 
pared with authentic examples of the plant of De Notaris, 
the point must remain doubtful. But I am strongly of opinion 
that this plant deserves to rank as something more than a mere 
form, and I am supported by Mons. Benauld in according it 
varietal rank. He says, in litt,: — ** J'ai trouv6 en 1888 une forme 
analogue quej'ai nomm^e var. subsimplex. Lorsque Mons. Husnot 
pubhait son ' Muscologia Gallica ' je iui ai communique cette var. 
mbsimplex, et j 'ignore pourquoi il ne Ta pas fait figurer dans son 
ouvrage. Ce nom n'ayant pas ^t^ public, c'est celui le var. While- 
headii Wheldon qui doit etre conserve.'* Mr. Dixon writes: — ** It 



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16 THE MOSSES OF SOUTH LAM0A8HIBE. 

is certainly a marked variety, but in such. a protean moss as 
A.filicinum one hesitates to create varieties; bat it seems more 
deserving, however, than many varieties, and the name you suggest 
is appropriate.'* The more distant, erect patent leaves; the 
slender, slightly branched, less tomentose stems ; and the peculiar 
dull ochraceous green colour, together impart a characteristic and 
untypical facies to the plant which is remarkably constant* in 
specimens I have from widely separated locaUties. It grows in 
wet sandy ground, where liable to inundation, in South Lancashire 
at Southport, Birkdale, and Ainsdale, and in West Lancashire be- 
tween Lytham and St. Annes. Mr. Dixon has kindly sent me 
specimens gathered by himself on Oullane Links, Haddington, 
N.B., July, 1897; and Mons. Benauld sends it from Boussens, 
Haute-Garonne, May, 1888. 

Hypnum Hparium L. Bruch, near Warrington, Wilson. — H. 
polygamum Schpr. (Rochdale, H.). — Var. stagnatum Wils. Burs- 
cough Junction !I — H. stellattim Schreb, Mitton !! Worston !! — 
*Var. protensum B. & S. Chatburn and Pendle Hill II — H. dodes 
Spr. Hightown and Burscough Junction!! — H, chrysophyllum 
Brid. Orford, Wilson. Old Trafford, Hunt. Clitheroe I! — JE?. 
aduncum Hedw. (typicwn). Southport !! Netherton !! — *Var. tenue 
Schpr. Southport, H. !! — *Var. pateiTium Sanio. Southport !!, H. 
Walton II Birkdale, and Ainsdale. — *Var. intej-medium Schpr. 
Southport II, ii. Ince Blundell II Burscough Junction II — *U. 
Smdtneri Schpr. Southport II, Wilson [Braithwaiie), where it still 
abounds ; also at Burscough, Ainsdale, Birkdale, and Netherton I! 
— H. Wilsoni *var. haimtum hdb. Southport II Ainsdale II — H. 
fluitans L. Woolston Moss, Wilson. Rooley and Eersal Moors, 
Percival. — *Var. falcatum Schpr. Pendle Hill !! — H. exannulatum 
Gumb. Pendle Hill. — Var. HotiB Be Not. Southport, in plenty II 
— *Forma falcifolium Ren. Southport I! — *Var. purpwascens Schpr. 
Blackston Edge, fZ. I! — H. intermedium Lind. Southport and 
Whiteley Dean, H. II — *Ysir. falcatum Sanio. Southport, H. II — . 
H. uncinatum Hedw. Pendle Hill II — H. commutatum Hedw. 
Eersal Moor, Percival. Newton Heath, Lees. Common in Ribble 
district II — H. falcatum Brid. Burnley, Scholefield {A). — H. 
cupressiforme var. resupinatum Schr. Clitheroe II Worston I! — 
{H. ciista-castrensis L. This, Mr. Holt tells me, is generally 
regarded as an error by local botanists, and it should be excluded.) 
— H. Patientia Ldb. Newton and Warrington, Wilson. Hale, 
Mar rat. — H. palustre L. (Bamford and Rochdale, H.). — *Var. sub- 
spharicarpon B. & S. Rill on Pendle Hill I! Chatburn II — H. ockra- 
cewn Turn. Whiteley Dean, H. — H. cordifolium Hedw. With fruit 
at Netherton and Rainfordll 

Hylocomium triquetrum B. & S. Fruiting in Botany Bay Wood, 
near Whalley, Hunt, Common in Ribble district II as are also 
H. splendens B. & S. II and H. squarrosum B. & S. II The latter in 
fruit. Chat Moss, H., and Clitheroe II — *H. brevirostre B. & S. 
Clitheroe and Worston II 



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17 

BADNORSHIRE AND BBECONSHIRE PLANTS. 
By the Rev. W. Moyle Rogers, F.L.S. 

HAYiNa spent the latter half of last July and the whole of 
August on the borders of the counties of Radnor and Brecon, I 
have thought that some account of the plants I saw in my botanical 
rambles may be not altogether without interest to others. Twice, 
for two or three days at a time, I had the great advantage of 
the Rev. Augustin Ley's companionship. My son, P. A. Rogers, 
was also with me for the first fortnight. To their more extended 
exploration I am indebted for several interesting records, as they 
examined ground which I could not reach; while Mr. Ley's 
guidance and advice as to the best locahties was invaluable. 
Omitting for the present all mention of the Rubi, I give a com- 
plete list of the other plants seen. When the species are really 
common ones and have been already recorded for the two counties, 
the specific name alone will be given, without localities. When the 
comital number (42 for Brecon, or 48 for Radnor) is added in 
brackets, it must oe understood that I have seen the plant, not (as 
.in the case of those to which no comital number is attached) in 
both counties, but only in the one county represented by the 
number. An asterisk will be prefixed in those cases where I 
beheve (Mr. Arthur Bennett assenting) that there has been no 
previous record for the county. 

The districts examined were (to describe them very briefly) the 
neighbourhood of Presteign, at the S.E. corner of Radnorshire; 
the Wye Valley for some twenty-five miles, from Rhayader in the 
N.W. to Hay in the S.E., with part of the Yrfon Valley near 
Bnilth, together with portions of the Llangorse and Talgarth 
neighbourhoods, further south in Brecoushire. The exceptional 
heat did much to curtail my expeditions, and I reached only a very 
moderate height on the hills ; but I botanized pretty steadily from 
day to day for six weeks, and so was able to explore with some 
thoroughness a fair amount of interesting ground in the two 
counties, though seldom going far from the actual Wye Valley. 

The following list will show that I altogether failed to find 
many of our common S. England plants, including Eupatorium 
cannabinuntf Oentiana Amarella, Erica Tetralix and E, cinerea, 
Myototis repens, Veronica Anagallis and F. scutellata, Lycoptis euro- 
paus, Thymus ChamadrySj Solanum nigrum, Plajitago Coronopus, 
Euphorbia amygdaloides, and Molinia varia, I was also much struck 
with the extreme rarity of (among others) Papaver Rhceas, Lyth-um 
Salicaria, Oalium Mollugo, Solanum Dulcamaraf Ballota nigra, 
Lamium album, and Scleranthus annuus. Moreover, the long 
drought had quite dried up an unusually large number of early- 
flowering species. 

Anemone nemx)rosa L. (42). — Raiiunculus circinatus Sibth. 42. 
Llangorse Lake, F. A. Rogers I — R, hederaceus L. — R, Flammula L. 
~R. aeris L. — R, repens L. — R. bulbosus L. — R. Ficaria L. (42). — 
CaUha palustris L. 

JouBNAL OP Botany. — Vol. 87. [Jan. 1899.] o 

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18 RADNORSBHtB AND BRECONSHIRB PLANTS. 

Castalia speciosa Salisb. 42. Llangorse Lake» F. A, Rogers 1 

Papaver ^Rliceas L. Seen only at Presteign in Radnorshire, 
and not at all in Breconshire. — P. dtihium L. a. Lamottei (Bor.). 
42. About Builth, in several places ; near Three Cocks Junction. 
*48. Presteign. — Mecouopsis cambrica Vig. 42. Duhonw Glen, near 
Builth. — Chelidonimn ma jus L. 

Fumaria Borai Jord. 42. Near Three Cocks Hotel. — F. confusa 
Jord. 42. Hay Hill. 48. Presteign.— F. officinalis L. (48). 

Nasturtium officinale R. Br. — N, sylvestre R. Br. 42. By R. Wye 
at Hay. *48. Opposite Hay. — Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. — Carda- 
mine pratensis L. — (7. hirsvXa L. (42). — C, fiexuosa With. — C tm- 
patiens L. 48. Aberedw. — Erophila vulgaris DC. 48. Presteign. — 
Sisymbnum Thalianum J. Gay. 48. Builth Road. — 5. officinaU 
Scop. — S, Alliaria Scop. — Brassica Bapa L. c. Bnggsii H. C. Wats. 
42. Builth and Yrfon Valley, in good quantity. — B, Sinapistrum 
Boiss. — B, aWa Boiss. 42. Builth. — Bursa Bursa-pastotis Weber. 
— Coronoptis didymus Sm. 42. Hay, in plenty. — Lepidium hirtum 
Sm. Frequent. 42. Yrfon Valley; Newbridge-on-Wye. 48. 
Builth Road ; S tanner Rocks. — Teesdalia nudicaulis R. Br. Stan- 
ner Rocks, F. A. R)gers\ 

Reseda Luteola L. 42. Hay; near Three Cooks Junction. 
48. Near Hay ; Boughrood. 

Helianthemum Chamadstus Mill. 48. Stanner Rocks. 

Viola odorata L. 42. Near Builth ; near Three Cocks Hotel. — 
V, Riviniana Reich. — R, tncolor L. 42. Builth, garden weed. — 
R, ai^emis Murr. 

Polygala oxyptera Reichb. 42. Furzy slope between Maesmynis 
and Builth. — P. serpyllacea Weihe. 

Silene Cucubalus Wibel. — Lychnis alba Mill. — L. dioica L. — 
L. FloS'Cuculi L. — Cerastium qnateniellum Fenzl. 48. Hillside (near 
the top) above Llanelwedd. — C. glomeratum Thuill. — C, tHvialeJAuk. 
— Stellar ia aquatica Scop. 42. Streamside near Three Cocks Hotel. 
— S, media Cyr. — S. Holostea L. — 5. graminea L. — S. uUginosa Morr. 
— Arenarla trinenia L. — A, serpyllifolia L. — Sagina apetala L. 42. 
Hay; near Three Cooks Junction. *48. Presteign; Erwood; 
Boughrood. — S, cUiata Fr. *48. Llowes ; Llanelwedd. — S, pro- 
cumbens L. — Spergula arvensts L. 

Hypericum perforatum L. Fairly common, but much less so 
than the next species. — H, dubium Leers. Common everywhere, 
and usually most abundant. — H. quadratum Stokes. — H, humifusum 
L. 42. Yrfon Valley. 48. Frequent. — H. pulchrum L. — H. Mr- 
siitum L. 42. Hay Hill; Three Cocks; near Talgarth. ^^48. 
Presteign neighbourhood ; Stanner Rocks ; Rhayader. — H. mon- 
tanum L. *48. Stanner Rocks and neighbourhood. 

Malva moschata L. Remarkably common in both counties. — 
M, sylvestiis L. — M. rotundifolia L. 42. Apparently scarce. Hay ; 
near Three Cocks Hotel, in one spot. '''48. Sillia, Presteign; 
Llowes; Glasbury. 

Linum catharticum L. 

Geranium pratense L. 42. Near Three Cocks Junction. 48. 
Near Builth ; Llowes. — G. moUe L. — G. dissectum L. — G. colum^ 



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BADNORSHIRB AND BBECON8HIKB PLANTS. 19 

Innum L. Bare. 42. £7 railroad near Three Cooks Junction, one 
plant. 43. Stanner Rocks. — G. Robertianum L. — Erodium cicu- 
tarium L'H^rit. Seen only at Stanner Bocks, *43. — Oxalu 
Acetoselia L. 

lUx Aqui/olium L. — Euonymus europaus L. Seen only in the 
Talgarth and Glasbuiy Road, 42, where it is locally frequent, 
especially at the Talgarth end. 

Acer paeudo'platanus L. Frequently planted. — A. campestre L. 
Very common. 

Genista Unctoria L. Local. 42. By B. Wye at Bailth ; near 
Llangorse. 48. Near Builth Boad, abundant; Llanelwedd. — 
UUx europaus L. — U, Gallii Planch. Very common. — Ononis 
repens L. a. inermis Lange. 42. Brecon Boad, Builth. — b. honida 
liknge. 42. The Warren, Hay. — Medicago lupidina L. 42. Com- 
mon. *48. Aberedw. — Trifolium pratense L. — T, medium L. 42. 
Hay Hill, abundant ; near Builth ; Yrfon Valley ; Llangorse. 48. 
Stanner Bocks. — T. arveme L. 48. Sillia, Presteign. — T. striatum 
L. *48. Sillia, Presteign. — T. hyhndum L. A frequent colonist 
in both counties. — T. repens L. — T, procumbeiis L. — T, dubium 
Bihih.— Lotus corniculatus L. — L. idiginosus Schkuhr. — Oi-nithopus 
perpitsillus L. 48. Llanelwedd. — Vicia hirsuta Gray (43). — V, 
gemella Crantz. 48. Boughrood. — F. Cracca L. — V, Orobus DC. 
48. Bhayader, Ley I — F. sepium L. — Lathyrus pratensis L. — L. mon- 
tanus Bemh. 42. Builth; wood-border between Builth and 
Maesmyuis. 48. Llanelwedd, abundant. 

Prunus spinosa L. — P. Avium L. — P. Cerasus L. 42. Near 
Builth. — Spiraa Ulmaria L. — Geum urbanum L. — G. rivale L. 
42. Near Builth, abundant. — Fragana vesca L. — Potentilla Fragan- 
astrwn Ehrh. — P. silvestris Neck. — P. reptans L. — P. Anserina L. 
— Alchemilla arvensis Scop. 48. Erwood and Llanelwedd, in great 
quantity. — A, vulgaris L. — Agnmonia Eupatoria L. — A, odorata 
Mill. Apparently rare. *42. Yrfon Valley, Ley \ Also found by 
Mr. Ley in the Honddu Valley in 1897. — Poteiium officinale Hook, 
fil. 42. Builth neighbourhood, common. 48. Builth Boad; 
Bhayader. — Rosa mollis Sm, I saw no bush that I could thus 
name with certainty, but Mr. Ley and I were agreed in thinking 
that a small form growing on a steep furzy slope on the Brecon 
Boad near Builth, 42, looked like a weak state of this species. — 
IL tonientosa Sm. Common. — R, micrantha Sm. Seen only by 
B. Wye, near Builth, 42. — R, obtusifolia Desv, The typical plant 
frequent. — b. frondosa Baker. 48. Near Builth. Just the plant 
that Mr. J. G. Baker has often so named for me. — c. tomentella 
(Leman). Typical. 42. Yrfon Valley, near Builth. — R. canina L. 
Very common. — a. liUetiana (Leman). Distinctly the most frequent 
form. — e. dumalis (Bechst.). Fairly common. — Forma verticilla- 
cantha (Merat). 48. Sillia, Presteign. — Forma aspemata (D^s^gl.). 
42. Between Talgarth and Three Cocks Junction. — ^i. urbica (Leman), 
42. Hay Hill; near Builth; Altmawr; Three Cocks. 48. By 
B. Wye, opposite Hay. — Forma Kosinciana Baker. 42. By B. Wye 
near Bmlth. — Forma platyphylla Bau. 42. Frequent near Builth 
and Three Cooks Hotel.— j. dumetorwn (Thuill.). 42. Near Builth. 

o 2 



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20 RADNORSHIBB AND BREOOMSHIBE PLANTS. 

— k. ai-vatica Baker (non Puget). 43. Near Presteign ; near 
Builth. — R. glauca Vill. 48. By R. Wye, near Builtb, fairly or 
quite typical in one place. Elsewhere in both counties forms more 
or less intermediate between R. canina and R, glauca are frequent, 
some of which, aud perhaps most of them, might be divided between 
R, subcanina Christ and R, subcollina Christ. — R, arvensis Huds. 
Common. — Pyrus Aucuparia Ehrh. — P. communis L. By R. Wye 
near Builth, 42; and near Builth Bead Junction, 48. Probably 
not indigenous in either place. — P. Mains L. b. mkis Wallr. 
Frequent. — Cratagus Oxyacantha L. d. monogyna (Jacq.). 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium L. 48. Rhayader. — Ribes Grossu- 
laria L. and R, rubrum L. Fairly frequent in 42, but not, I think, 
certainly indigenous. — R. alpinum L. 42. Well established by 
R. Wye near Hay, but probably enough planted there originally. 

CotyUdon Umbilicus L. 42. Here and there in some quantity 
between Talgarth and Glasbury. 48. Stanner Rocks ; Llowes ; 
Rhayader. — Sedum Telephium L. a. pwpureum L. 48. Clearly 
indigenous. Aberedw Rocks ; near Builth Road. — 8. anglicum 
Hu&. Common on rocks by R. Wye and on stony hillsides near, 
in 42 and 48. — S, acre L. — 8, refleanim L., a glaucous-leaved 
form. 42. Apparently indigenous in Duhonw Glen. Rather 
frequently planted on walls. — 8. Forsterianum Sm. 48. Stanner 
Rooks, in great quantity. 

MyiiopiiyUnm spicatum L. 42. Llangorse Lake, F. A, Rogers \ 
— Callitriche stagnalis Scop. (42). 

Peplis Portula L. Apparently rare. 48, Near Builth Road. — 
Lythrum Salicaria L. Seen only near Llangorse Lake, 42. 

Epilobium angustifolium L. 42. By Llangorse Common. 48. 
Boughrood. — E, hirsutum L. Frequent in 42, but less so in 48. — 
E. paimflorum Schreb. Very common in 42 and *48. — E. mon- 
tanum L. — E, roseum Schreb. 42. Stream, Hay ; stream near 
Three Cocks Hotel. In plenty in both locahties. — E. ob- 
scurum Schreb. — Circaa lutetiana L. — C alpina L. 42. Yrfon 
Valley, Ley I 

Bryonia dioica Jacq. Uncommon. 42. Hay; Three Cocks. 
48. Llowes; Boughrood. 

Hydrocotyle vtdgaris L. Only seen near Builth Road Junction, 
48. — Sanictda europaa h. — Cenium maculatum It. 42. Hay; Three 
Cocks. 48. Common. — Apium nodiflorum Reichb. fil. 42. Hay ; 
Llangorse Common. 48. Llanelwedd (c. ocreaium Bab.). — Sison 
Amomum. L. *42. Road near Three Cocks Hotel, and again half a 
mile from it ; locally abundant. — Mgopodium Podagraria L. 42. 
Hay; Builth. 48. Newbridge; Boughrood. — Pimpinella Saxi/raga 
L. One of the two or three commonest umbellifers. — Conopodium 
denudatum Koch (42). — ChcerophyUum temulum L. — Anthriscus 
sylvestris Hoffm. — (Enanthe crocata L. — ^thusa Cynapium L. — 
Silaus fiavescens Bernh. 42. By Tal-y-llyn Junction and in field 
near. — Angelica sylvesttis L. — Heracleum Sphondylium L. Also the 
var. angustifolium Huds. 42. Near Three Cocks Junction ; Builth, 
Hay Road. — Daucus Carota L. (48). — Caucalis Anthriscus Huds. 

Hedera Helix L. — Comus sanguinea L. Remarkably common. 



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BADN0B8HIBB AND BBE00N8HIBB PLANTS. 21 

Sambuetu nigra L. — 8. Ebulus L. 42. B. Wye bank, abundant. 
— Virbumum OpuluB L — Lonicera Periclymmum L. 

Galium Cruciata Scop. — G, verum L. — G, Mollugo L. Singularly 
rare. Seen only near Presteign, 43. — G, saxatile L. — G, palicstre L. 
Common, and usually, if not exclusively, the var. Witheringii (Sm.). 
— G. Aparine L. — Asperula odorata L. 42. Duhonw Glen ; xrfon 
Valley. — Sherardia arvemis L. (48). 

Valeriana Mikanii Syme. 48. Sillia, Presteign. — F. sambudfolia 
Willd. — Valerianella dentata Poll. 42. Hay Road, Builtb. 

IHpsacus sylvestris Huds. Seen only at Presteign, 48 ; and in a 
garden near Three Cocks Hotel, 42. — D. pilosua L. 48. Llowes, 
F» A, Rogers I — Scabiosa succisa L. — S. arvensis L. Decidedly local. 
42. Near Builth ; between Talgarth and Three Cocks Junction. 
48. Aberedw; Boughrood. 

Solidago Virgaurea L. — Bellis perennis L. — Filago germanica L. 
Bare. 42. Duhonw Glen. 48. Stanner Bocks. — F. minima Fr. 
42. Llanelwedd ; Erwood, in great quantity. — Gnaphalium uligi- 
nosum L. — G, sylvaticum L. 48. Newbridge-on-Wye. — Inula 
Conyza DC. *43. Stanner Bocks. — Pulicaria dysenterica Gaertn. 
Decidedly local. 42. By Tal-y-llyn Junction ; Llangorse Common, 
abundant ; Talgarth and Three Cocks Boad, frequent. *4d. 
Builth Boad. — Achillea Millefolium L. — A, Ptarmica L. Un- 
common. 42. Near Builth. 48. Llanelwedd ; Builth Boad, 
abundant. — Chrysanthemum Leucanthemum L. — C, Parthenium 
Pers. — Matricaria inodora L. — M, Chamomilla L. Bare. 42. 
Hay ; Talgarth and Three Cocks Boad, a few plants. *48. 
Clyro, between Hay and Llowes. Tanacetum vulgare L. — Artemisia 
Absinthiwn L. Only in more or less waste spots near gardens and 
Dftrmyards. 42. Near Builth. 48. Erwood ; Boughrood ; Clyro. 
A. vulgaris L. — Tiissilago Far/ara L. — Petasites officinalis Mcench. — 
Senecio vulgaris L. — S. sylvaticus L. Bare. 43. Bhayader. — 
8. Jacobaa L. — S, aquaticus Huds. — Carlina vulgaris L. Local. 
42. By B. Wye, near Builth. 43. Stanner Bocks; Llanelwedd; 
Erwood. — Arctium majus Bernh. Seen only at Clyro, 48. — ^. 
iiemorosum Lej. Common in *42 (Builth, Newbridge, &c.) and 
*48 (Aberedw, Llowes, &c.), though not always quite characteristic. 
— A. minus Bernh. — Carduus nutans L. Seen only by roadside 
about a mile from Builth on the Swansea Boad, ten to twelve plants 
near together, nearly opposite a farmhouse. — C, crispus L. 42. 
Common. *48. Near Hay; Llowes; Builth; Boughrood; Pres- 
teign. — Cnicus lanceolatus Willd. — C. palustris Willd. — C, arvensis 
Hoffm. — Senatula tincto)ia L. Uncommon. 42. Near Builth. 
48. Llanelwedd. — Centaurea nigra L. — Lapsana communis L. — 
Picris hieracioides L. *42. Frequent between Talgarth and Glas- 
bury. 48. Llowes. — Crepis virens L. — Hieracium Pilosella L. — 
H. sciaphilwn Uechtritz. Frequent. 42. Hay Hill; Builth neigh- 
bourhood. 48. Sillia, Presteign ; Bhayader. This hawkweed and 
the next were pointed out to me by Mr. Ley. — H, rigidum Hartm. 
g. triderUatum (Fr.). 42. Brecon Road, Builth; Yrfon Valley. — 
H, boreaU Fr. — H. umbellatum L. 42. Boadside bank between 
Talgarth and Three Cocks Junction. 48. Bhayader. — Hypocharis 



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22 BADN0R8HIBB AND BBECONSHIBB PLANTS. 

radicata L. — Leontodon hirtiis L. Locally abundant. 42. By 
E. Wye near Builth. *43. Builth Road ; Erwood. — L. hispidtu L. 
Common. One plant of the form with glabrous involucre (L. has- 
tilis L.) occurred on the Hay Road near Builth, 42. — L. autumnaHs 
L. — Taraxacum officinale Web. — Lactuca muralis Fresen. — Sonchns 
oleraceus L. — S. asper Hoffm. — S. arvenm L. — Tragopogon pratente 
L. Fairly frequent. 42. Newbridge. 48. Presteign; Builth Road; 
Aberedw. 

Jasione montana L. 42. Brecon Road, Builth. 48. Presteign 
Rhayader. — Wahlenbergia hederacea Reichb. Seen only by R. Wye, 
above Builth, 42. — Campanula Trachelium L, 48. Presteign. — 
0. latifolia L. 42. Roadside about half-way between Talgarth and 
Three Cocks Junction. 48. Near Llowes ; Wye banks at Bough- 
rood. — C. rotundifolia L. — C, patiila L. 48. Bushy banks by road- 
side between Stanner Rocks and Presteign ; near Llowes. 

Vaccinium Myrtillm L. 42. Wood between Maesmynis and 
Builth. 48. Presteign. — Calluna Eiica DC. No true heath seen. 

Primula acaulis L. — Lysimachia vulgaris L. 42. Near Builth, 
l^^y 1 ; by Llangorse Lake, F, A. Rogers ! — L. Nummularia L. 42. 
Brecon Road, Builth ; Duhonw Glen. 43. Boughrood, by R. Wye. 
— L. nemorum L. — Anagallis arvensis L. Rather uncommon. 

Fraxinus excelsior L. — Ei-ythraa Centaunum Pers. 42. Frequent. 
*43. Builth Road ; Llowes. — Menyanthes trifoliata L. Seen only in 
boggy meadow near Duhonw Glen, 42. 

Symphytum officinale h. Uncommon or rare. 42. Near Builth; 
near Three Cocks Junction. 43. Near Clyro. — Myosotis caspitosa 
F. Schultz. Very common. — M, palustris B^lh, 42. Abundant on 
Llangorse Common and by the streams near Three Cocks Junction. 
43. Presteign. — M. arvensis L. 

Volvulus sepium Junger. Common in 42 and *43 (Builth Road, 
Erwood, &c.). — Convolvulus ai-vensis L. Seen only at Llowes, *48. 

Solanum Dulcamara L. Uncommon. 42. Llangorse Common. 
48. Builth Road ; Llowes. — Lycium harha^-um L. 42. Established 
as an escape, two or three bushes, in corner of field opposite Three 
Cocks Hotel. 

Verbascum Thapsus L. 42. Seen only near Three Cocks Hotel. 
'''43. Frequent and locally abundant. Sillia, Presteign ; Llanel- 
wedd ; Aberedw Rocks ; Erwood ; Boughrood ; Llowes. — Linaria 
Cymhalaria Mill. Seen only on walls at Presteign, 43. — L. vulgaris 
Mill. — L. viscida Moench. Seen only on railroads, but there often 
abundant. 42. Tal-y-Uyn Junction. 48. Near Builth Road; 
Boughrood. — Scrophularia aquatica L. 42. Hay ; Three Cocks ; 
Talgarth. 48. Llowes. All the plants examined by me belonged 
to the form b. cinerea Dum. — S, nodosa L. — Digitalis purpurea L. 
— Veronica polita Fr. 42. Common. *43. Boughrood, &c. — F. 
agrestis L. — F. Tournefortii C. Gmel. 42. Common. *48. Llanel- 
wedd ; Boughrood. — F. arvensis L. — F. serpylli/olia L. — F. hyhnda 
L. 48. Stanner Rocks, F. A. Rogers \ — F. officinalis L. — F. Chama- 
di-ys L. — F. montana L. Seen only near Maesmynis, 42. — F. Becca- 
bunga L. — Euphrasia officinalis L. — Bartsia Odontites Huds. — 
Pedicudaris sylvatica L. Apparently far from common. By R, Wye 



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BADNOBSHIBE AND BBEOONSHIBB PLANTS. 28 

in the Boilth neighbourhood, 42 and 48. — Rhinanthus Crista- 
gaUi L. — Mdampyrum pratense L. 42. Near Builth. 48. 
Bhayader. — e. hians Druce. 42. Yrfon Valley, near Builth ; 
near Maesmynis. 

Verbena officinalis L. Seen only near Three Cocks Hotel, 4'2, 

Mentha longifolia Huds. 42. Streamsides near Three Cocks 
Hotel, in considerable quantity. — M. hirsuta Huds. — M, tativa L. 
(48). — Jf. rubra Sm. 48. Hillside stream, Erwood. — M. arvettsis 
L. — Origanum vulgare L. Uncommon. 42. The Warren, Hay. 
48. Near Builth Road ; Llowes ; Stanner Rocks. — Thxpnus Ser- 
pyllum Fr. Fairly frequent. — No T. Chanusdrya Fr. seen. — Cala- 
mmtha Clinopodium Spenn. Very common in 42 and *48 (Presteign, 
Hay, Builth, &c.). — Nepeta Glechoina Benth. — Prunella vulgaris L, 
— Stachys Betonica Benth. Very common. — S, palustris L. Com- 
mon. — X sylvatica (ambigua Sm.). 48. Builth Road; Newbridge. 
— S. sylvatica L. — S, arvensis L. (42). — Galeopsis Tetrahit L. 42. 
Frequent. — Lamium purpureum L. — L. album L. Uncommon. 42. 
Near Duhonw Glen; in one spot near Three Cocks Hotel. 48. 
Presteign; Rhayader. — L. Galeobdolon Crantz. 42. Glen between 
Maesmynis and Builth. Apparently rare. — Ballota nigra L. Seen 
only near Three Cooks Hotel, 42 ; though there fairly abundant (a. 
fcBtida Eoch). — Teucrium Scorodonia L. — Ajuga reptans L. Seen 
only in the glen between Maesmynis and Builth, 42. 

Plantago major L. Type and b. intennedia (Gilib.). — P. lanceo- 
lotah. 

Scleranthus annuus L. Seen only near the base of the hill 
above Llanelwedd Church, *48. — 5. perenins L. 48. Stanner Rocks. 
Still in good quantity. 

Chenopodium album L. — C, Bonus- Henricus L. Locally abundant 
near farms and villages. — Atn'plex patula L. 42. Near Builth. 
48. Near Presteign. — c. angustifolia (Sm.). Common. — A. hastata 
L. 42. Builth; Hay. 

Polygonum Convolvulus L. — P. aviculare L. — P. Ilydropiper L. 
— P. Persicaria L, — P. lapathifoliiim L. 42. Hay. 48. Bough- 
rood. — P. amphibium L. 42. Llangorse Lake, F, A, Rogers \ *48. 
(b. terrestre Leers) Llanelwedd. — Rumex conglomeratm Murr. — R, 
sanguineus L., b. viridis (Sibth.). 48. Llanelwedd. — R, obtusi/olius 
L. — R, crispus L. Common. — x obtusifolius [acutus L.). 42. 
Maesmynis. — R. Acetosa L. — R, Acetosella L. 

Euphorbia Helioscopia L. (42). — E. Peplus L. Common, 42 and 
♦48 (Builth; Newbridge). — E\ exigua L. 42 and *48 (Boiigbrood). 
— Mercwialis perennis L. 

Ulmus montana Stokes. — Humulus Lupubts L. Doubtfully indi- 
genous at best. 42. Three Cocks; Talgarth. *48. Near Pres- 
teign; Llowes. — Urtica dioica L. — U, urem L. (42). 

Betula verrucosa Ehrh. 42. Builth. *48. Aberedw. — B. pu- 
bescens^hi. 42. Builth. — Alnusglutinosa Medio. — Corylus AveUana 
L. — Quercus Robur L. — Fagus sylvatica L. 

Salix fragilis L. (42). — S. cinerea L. — S, aurita L. — S. Caprea 
L. — 8, repens L. Seen only in Duhonw Glen, 42. — 8. viminalis L. 
*42. Near Builth, 48. Presteign. — Populus alba L. 42. Near 



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24 BADNOBSHIBB AMD BBEOOMSHIBB PLANTS. 

Builth. 48. Builth Eoad. — P. tremula L. *42. Near Hay ; between 
Talgarth and Three Cocks. 

Orchis latifolia L. 42. Yrfon Valley, Ley 1 ; Newbridge. — 0. 
macuLata L. 

Tamus communis L. — Rusciis aculeatus L. 48. Planted. Sillia, 
Presteign. — Allium vineale L. — A, Schcenoprasum L. 48. On rooks 
in B. Wye, between Builth and Builth Boad Junetion. 

Junciis bufoniuB L. — J. glaucus Leers. 42. By Brecon Boad, 
Builth ; Three Cocks Junction. — J, conglomeratus L. — J, lampro- 
carpus Ehrh. — J, acutiflorus Ehrh. — Luzula vernalis DC. 48. 
Corton Wood, Presteign. — L. maxima DC. — L. campestris DC. (48). 
— L, erecta Desv., a. umbellata* 48. Corton Wood. — b. congesta. 
42. Glen between Maesmynis and Builth. 48. Corton Wood. — 
-^. pallescens Besser. *42. In the same glen as the last, sparingly. 
48. Pointed out to me by Mr. Ley in good quantity in Corton Wood 
(see Joum. Bot. 1896, 868). 

Typha latifolia L. — Sparganium neglectum ? Beeby. 42. Llan- 
gorse Common. The plants were too young for certain determi- 
nation. — Arum maculatum L. — Lemna minor L. (42). 

Triglochin palustre L. 42. Boggy meadow, Builth. — Potamo- 
geton lucens L. 42. Llangorse Lake, F, A. Rogers I — P. perfoliatus 
L. and P. crispus L. 42. With the last. 

Scirpus setaceus L. 48. Bhayader. — Carex murimta L. — C, 
divuha Good. *48. Llowes. — C echinata Murr. — C remota L. 
42. Duhonw Glen ; near Hay. — C ovalis Good. 42. Brecon Boad, 
Builth. — C, acuta L. 42. Duhonw Glen, small form. — C. flacca 
Sohreb. — C. pallescens L. 42. Yrfon Valley, Builth. *48. Bocks 
in E. Wye, near Builth Boad. — C, pauicea L. (48). — 0. sylvatica 
Huds. 42. Duhonw Glen. — (7. flava L., c. Ooderi Betz. — C. hirta 
L. (48). 

Phalaris arundinacea L. (42). — Anthoxanthum odoratum L. — 
Alopecurus geniculatu^s L. Common, and all, I think, the b. pronus 
Mitt. — A, pratensis L. (48). — Milium effmum L. Seen only by 
B. Wye near Hay, 48. — Phleum pratense L. Type and b. nodosum 

gj.). — Agrostis canina L. 42. Near Builth, abundant. 48. 
hayader. — A, palustris Huds. — A» vulgaris With. Type and 
b. pumila (L.). — Aira caj-yophyllea L. — A, pr<£cox L. — Deschampsia 
caspitoia Beauv. — D. jiexuosa Trin. — Holcus mollis L. — H. lanatus 
L. — Trisetum pratense Pers. — Arrlienatlierum avenaceum Beauv. — 
Sieglingia decumbens Bernh. — Cynosurus cristatus L. — Melica uniflora 
Betz. (42). — Dactylis glomerata L. — Poa annua L. — P. nemaralis L. 
— P. compressa L. *42. Builth. 48. Presteign. — P. pratensis L. — 
P. tjiviaUs L. — Glyceria fluitans E. Br. — G, plicata Fr. Type and 
h.pedicellata (Townsend). — Festuca Myuros L. 42. Hay, abundant; 
near Three Cocks Hotel. *43. Presteign. — F. sciuroides Both. — 
F. ovina L. — F, rubra L. 42. Builth. *48. Presteign ; Llanel- 
wedd. — F. elatior L. — Bromus gigaiUeus L. — B, ramosus Huds. — 
B. stenlis L. — B. mollis L. — Brachypodium gracile Beauv. — Lolium 
perenne L. — Agropyron caninum Beauv. 42. Builth; Llangorse 
Common. *48. Presteign; Llanelwedd. — A. repens BeskUY, — 
Nardus sUicta L. 48. Hill-top above Llanelwedd, — Pteris agtUlina 



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AN AOOOUNT OF VBLEZIA. 25 

L. — Ij)mafia Spicant Desv. Observed only near Presteign, 48.— 
Asplmium Ttichomanes L. — A. Ruta-Muraria L. — Athyiium Filix- 
fttfmna Both. — Polystichum lobatum Presl, b. aculeatum Syme. 42. 
Hay Hill ; Yrfon Valley. — P, angulare Presl. 48. Presteign. — 
Lastraa Oreopleris Presl. 42. Yrfon Valley, near Builth, Ley ! — 
L. FiUx-mas Presl. — L. dilatata Presl. 48. Near Presteign. — 
Polypodiwn vuigare L. (42). 
Equisetum arvense L. 



AN ACCOUNT OF VELEZIA. 
By Fbedbbio N. Williams, F.L.S. 

When Caspar Baahin was forming bis herbarium, he received 
specimens from most of the herbalists of his time. In a parcel of 
plants sent him by Joachim Burser, probably in the first decade of 
tbe seventeenth century, were specimens of a plant gathered by 
him near Florence, which he labelled ** Tunica." He recom- 
mended Caspar Bauhin to compare his plant with other specimens 
of the group of ** Tunici,** which was a name first applied to 
Caryophyllaceous plants by Manfredus de Monte Imperiale, who 
herborized about 1420. These specimens are in Bauhin's her- 
barium at Basel, and belong to Velezia rigida. They were first 
described by him in Prodromus Theatn Botanici, p. 103 (1620). The 
description is so characteristic of Bauhin's lucidity that, as the 
earliest reference to a species of Velezia^ I here transcribe it: — 
*' Lychnis sylvestris minima exiguo flore : ex radicula oblonga, 
tenuis cauliculus rotundus, rufescens, geniculatus, trium quatuorve 
unciarum, in alas minimas brachiatus exurgit, foliolis binis 
exiguis, acutis, ad quemlibet geniculum et alam, et ex qualibet 
ala, pedicelli oblongi, angustissimi, rigidi, quibus fiosculus pur- 
purascens, ex quinque foliolis, singulis cordis formam referentibus, 
compositus insidet. Hsac circa Monspelium, in pede mentis qui 
est prope Boutonet copiose reperitur, quam Centaurium minimum 
appellabant. Verum ante quadriennium eandem, sed palmum 
superantem, et Florentise ad agrorum margines natam, TunicaB 
peculiaris nomine, a D. Bursero accepimus.*' The plant is next 
mentioned in the more classical Pinax (1628), under the same 
name, and as a fifth form of Lychnis hirsuta, but is not again 
described. 

In Jean Bauhin's Historia Plantaru^ Universalis, iii. p. 852 
Q651), the plant is again described, and for the first time figured 
from specimens collected by Cherler at Nimes, in Languedoc. The 
description of these French specimens is as follows : — ** Eigidula 
est planta, dulim triumve unciarum altitudine, raro palmum attin- 
git, colioulis duris, rigidis, ramosis ; folia ad nodes bina ex 
adverso posita, semiuncia breviora, perangusta, pilosa, e quorum 
alis nascAtur calyces semiunciales, bimuli, perquam graciles, sequa- 
biles, hirti et asperi : h quorum apice flogculus prosilit, quem prss 



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2d AN ACCOUNT OF VELEZIA. 

exiguitate vix visas oapit, pnrpureus : radix dura lignosa : colleota 
per Genemm Cherlerum prope Nemausum juxta molendinum." 
In honour of Cherler the plant is here referred to as "Lychnis 
minima rigida Cherleri/' which suggested to Linnaeus the '* nomen 
triviale.*' 

The next reference to Velezia ligida is by Paolo Boccone, 
who figures an Italian specimen in Museo di Piante Rare, p. 60, 
t. 48 (1697), under the name of ** Lychnis corniculata, minor, sive 
angustifolia, saxatilis," giving as its habitat " campagne sterili di 
Boma, vicino al Monastero di Tre Fontanel* It is figured and de- 
scribed under the same name by Barrelier, PL Gall. Hisp, Ital, obs. 
p. 665, t. 1018 (1714). Buxbaum describes and figures specimens 
of this same species from the Caucasus in his Plantarum minus 
Cognitarum, cent. ii. p. 41, t. 47 (1728), under the name of "Knawel 
minus, foliis caryophylleis," collected ** in montosis aridis Iberiee." 
The last of the old botanists to mention the plant is F. B. de 
Sauvages in his Meth, PI. MouspeL p. 146 (1761) ; and he refers 
to Silefu these specimens which were collected near Montpellier : 
*' Silene foliis subulatis cauli appressls, calycibus rigidis intermedio 
longioribus." 

From these notes on the early history, it is clear that only one 
species of Velezia was known to botanists and the old herbalists 
until the beginning of the present century ; though there is evi- 
dence from the comparison of descriptions and figures cited that 
the less common variety of V. rigida, described further on in this 
paper, in which the calyx is much longer than in the type and 
nearly sessile, was certainly known to some collectors. Buxbaum's 
figure of specimens from the Caucasus represents this less common 
variety, and it also agrees with Laupmaun's specimens from Sudak 
in the Crimea, collected more recently. 

The genus Velezia was founded by Linnaeus in honour of Fran- 
cesco Velez, a Spanish traveller. Linnaeus says that in the dried 
specimens of F. rlyida he counted five stamens, but that Loefling, 
who suggested the generic name, observed six in the living plant, 
and that therefore, in deference to him, he placed the genus among 
the Hexandria Digynia. This is an instance of unusual modesty 
on the part of Liunaeus. Subsequently, however, in Maut, Plant- 
arum (p. 869), he transferred the genus to Pentandria — ** ad 
Pentandriam digyniam amandata.*' The genus was defined in the 
following terms : — 

** Calyx, Perianthium monophyllum, filiforme, pentagonum, per- 
sistens ; ore quinquedentato, acuminato, erecto, minimo. — Corolla. 
Petala 6, brevissima, emarginato-bidentata ; unguibus filiformibus, 
longit. calycis. — Stamina. Filamenta 6, capillaria, vix calycis 
longit. ; antherae cordatae. — Pistillum, Germen cylindricum, breve, 
receptaculo stylorum termiuatum. Styli 2, filiformes, longit. 
staminum ; stigmata simplicia. — Pericarpium, Capsula cylindrica, 
tecta, unilocularis. — Semina plurima, simplici serie imposita.'* 

The genus at present includes four species, and its geographical 
range is co-extensive with that of V. rigida, the only species de- 
scribed in the Species Plantarunu This plant occurs in the countries 



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AN A0OOUKT OF TSLBZU. 27 

round the Mediterranean, and extends as far east as Turkestan and 
Afghanistan. 

Velezia. 

Linn. Sp. Plant. 832 (1753) ; Gen. Plant, ed. v. 166, n. 403 
(1764); Benth. d Hook. Gen. Plant, i. 144 (1862); Boiss. Fl. 
Orient, i. 478 (1867) ; Enyl. d Prantl, Natiirl. Pflanzenf. iii. abtg. 
1 b. 78 (1889) ; WUlianu, Pinks Centr. Eur. 2 (1890). 

Calyx anguste tubulosus, cylindricus, sulcatus, 6-dentatus, 6- vel 
16-co8tatus, basi nudus. Petala 6 ; uugue elongato piano non 
lamellato, lamina parva bilobd emarginatd bidentata vel quadri- 
dentata, fauce coronate vel gibboso-crassata. Stamina 6, uni- 
senata. Torus baud elongatus. Gynoeoium meiomerum ; ovarium 
uniloculare ; styli 2. Capsula cylindrica, lineari-teres, in dentes 
4 dehiscens, oligosperma. Semina peltata, hilo faciali excentrico, 
in placentam filiformem imbricata, subsessilia, Isevia, demum mar- 
gine involuta bine dorso convexa facie sulcata ; embryo rectus, 
radicul^ prominente. — Herbse annuas, rigide dicbotomaB. Folia 
angnsta, margine scabra. Flores breviter pedicellati, in axillis 
BoUtarii vel ad apices ramulorum approximati. Petala inoonspicua 
rosea. 

Genus a Diantho imprimis calyce ebraoteato, staminibus uni- 
seriatis, toro baud elongato, seminis hilo exceutrico, distinguendum. 

1. V. BiGiDA Linn. Sp. Plant. 332 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, i. 478 ; 
Williams, Pinks of Oentr. Eur. 3. 

Iconogr. Lamk. Tabl. Encycl. Meth. t. 186; Gdrtn. Fruct. 
Sem. Plant. Carp. i. t. 24 ; Nees, Gen. Plant. Germ. 31, f. 3 ; 
Sibth. & SmUh, Fl. GrsBca, iv. 80, t. 390 ; Reichb. Ic. Fl. Germ. 
Helv. 6007. 

Glanduloso-puberula, 10-20 centim. et ultra. Badix fusiformis 
vel subramosa, brevis, flexuosa. Caulis erectus rigidus teres, saspe 
inde a basi subdichotome et divaricato-ramosus, saape rubescens, 
inferne glaber, supeme pubescens. Folia 3-6nervia ciliata, basi- 
laria rosulata spathulato-linearia, caulina erecta vel erecto-patentia 
anguste linearia longe acutata margine involuta, ssepe falcata. 
Flores seous totnm caulem ramosque ad nodos solitarii aut gemini, 
altemi, apicem versus distichi, pedicellis crassis calyce plerumque 
6-plo brevioribus suffulti. Calyx anguste cylindricus, pentagonus, 
ffiqualiter 16-nervius, dentibus longis lesiniformibus erectis. Petala 
contigua apice acute bidentata; lamina brevis oblonga ungue 
exserto 3-4-plo brevior supra faucem saturatius maculata, fauce 
pilis paucis (6-7) erectis albis obsita. AntheraB purpuresB ovales ; 
polline albo. Ovarium elliptico-cylindricum, translucens. Capsula 
inclusa, calyce paullo brevior. Semina primum fusca oblongo- 
ellipsoidea plana, postea nigra marginibus involutis angustiora in 
sulco prope ambitum umbilicata. 

a. typica Williams. 

Caulis superne calycesque puberalo-hirsutiusculi. Flores dis- 
tincte pedicellati ; pedicelli calyce plerumque 6-6-plo breviores. 

Forma glahrata. — Caulis a basi ad apicem calycesque glabri; 
folia bracteaaque margme denticulato-ciliolata. 



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28 AN AOOOITNT OF YEUfiZU. 

8yn. y. ligida var. glahrata Regel, Descr. Plant, nov. rar» 
Fedtsohenko, p. 13, ex Bull. 8oc. Nat. Hist. Petersb. 1882. 

^. sessiHflora Williams. 

Planta tota puberula. Flores brevissime pedicellati. Calyx 
quam in typo longior, pilis rigidioribus obsitus. 

The arrangement of flowers on the stem in V, rigida is very 
curious and worth noting. The plant is often very much branched, 
and its flowering branches, which spring immediately above the 
first, or from one of the first two or three internodes, bifurcate and 
invariably produce unequal branches. The shorter branch is, as a 
rule, more inclined than the longer branch, and the latter always 
deviates a little from the direction of the preceding axis. Further, 
if we note the position which the short branch assumes in a series 
of successive bifurcations, we see that this position is rigorously 
maintained in the whole length of the flowering stem and its 
branches. Thus proceeding from below upwards, note the relative 
position at the first bifurcation ; if the short branch is placed on the 
left of the observer, the short branch of the bifurcation immedi- 
ately above it will be placed in front of him ; at the third bifur- 
cation it will be placed to the right ; at the fourth behind ; at the 
fifth it is finally placed immediately above the short branch of the 
first. It is further to be noted that in the branches as they are 
given off higher up along the stem, the short branch referred to is 
shortened more and more, and at last disappears. In the lower 
part of the flowering stem it is unusual to find a flower in the 
angle of the fork terminating the preceding axis ; indeed, where the 
two branches of the fork are developed, and where there is there- 
fore the greater vigour of growth, the terminal flower is most often 
absent, as if the vegetative force exhausted itself in the production 
of the two lateral branches. Herein, then, is a fact in which the 
law of organic balance recognized by naturalists is explained. But 
then again let it be noticed that about the middle of the flowering 
axis of the stem, as one of the branches of the fork in each con- 
secutive bifurcation becomes shorter in the manner noted above, 
the terminating flower of the preceding axis reappears in the angle 
of the fork. Higher up on the stem it seems that from each node 
spring two lateral geminate flowers ; but the outer one of the two 
is borne on a very short stalk or peduncle, and provided at the same 
time with two small opposite leaves. Still further along the stem, 
this short branch is still further reduced, and then disappears 
altogether ; but it is otherwise with the flowers which terminate 
the upper internodes of the flowering axis. These are present, and 
are alternate on the stem ; they seem to be lateral and form a 
loose spike, of which the axis is formed from a succession of inter- 
nodes, each being a growing axis different from that which precedes 
it and that which follows it. Vigorous specimens of the species 
furnish good examples of this interesting mode of branching of the 
flowering stems. They further afford a satisfactory explanation of 
the succession of flowers on the stem, which in the growing axis are 
alternate and solitary, though sometimes in pairs, and near the top 
become distichous. 



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AN AOGOUNT OF VELBZIA. 29 

The alteration in form of the ripening seeds is not accurately 
given in the few descriptions of the genus. Bentham & Hooker 
write "semina orbiculata vel ovata, ad medium faciei interioris 
concavffi umbilicata." F. TornabenC; on the other hand, says 
** semina linearia." 

I have not seen any quite glabrous specimens similar to those 
recorded by De Kegel from the river Sarawschan, in Turkestan, 
though some specimens in Herb. Eew. from ^'Turcomania'* are 
nearly glabrous. The name of ** Turcomania," however, does not 
apply to Turkestan, but at the time these specimens were collected 
was applied to the region otherwise known as Mesopotamia. All 
the specimeas from Crete which I have examined seem to be nearly 
glabrous, but they have been so crushed and rubbed in the process 
of roughing it between the collector and the species-cover in the 
herbarium that they cannot be relied upon for extending the geo- 
graphical range of the glabrous form. 

Geographical DistribtUion, 

Portugal. — (Ferreira, Fl. Lusit. exsice. No. 178), {Daveau, Herb. 
Lusit. No. 1181), Penedo da Saudade near Coimbra (1886), prov. 
of Estremadura {WdvdUch, No. 181), Vimioso {Mariz, 1888), 
Montargil in prov. of Alemtejo (Cortezao), Faro in prov. of Algarve, 
near Lisbon (Wdwitsch, No. 68). 

Spain. — Gravelly places, dry hills, and borders of fields. — Aragon : 
Bodanas {Asso)^ Ghiprana {Loscos), — New Castile: environs of 
Madrid {Lange), Mentrida {Cavanilles), Chamartin {Prohngo), 
Aranjuez [Boutelou], Almaden (Torrepando), — Leon : Valcabado de 
Paramo (Lange). — Murcia: near Murcia {Lange), — Andalusia: round 
Granada (WUlkomm) and Malaga (Doissier), 

Fbamoe. — ^Dry places, waste-land, and borders of fields. — North 
slopes of the Pyrenees in the dept. of Pyr6n6es-Orientales, near 
Montpellier (Planchon) in the dept. of H6rault, Avignon and 
Carpentras {Siuart Mill) in the dept. of Vaucluse, Le Luc in the 
dept. of Var {Billot, exs. No. 1622), Nimes in the dept. of Gard 
{Cherler'n specimens), also in the dept. of Aude, Bouches-du-Rh6ne, 
and Drome ; and at C. Corso, in Corsica {Soldrol^ No. 888). 

Italy. — Along roadsides and on dry hills. — Piedmont: near 
Mondovi. — Tuscany : Romola (Parlatore), fields at Pelago, 8^ kilo- 
metres from Pontassieve railway station {Beccari), Mte. Senario 
to the north of Florence {Parlatore), Mte. Cecioli (Bertoloni), 
Impruneta to the south of Florence {Bucci), valley of the Mugnone 
{Baroni), near Florence (the earliest recorded specimens collected 
by Joachim Burser). — Prov. of Rome: Valle dell' Inferno, in the 
Boman Campagna {Sanguinetti), — Campania : Benevento (Calded), 
— Apulia: Gallipoii {By. Gloves).— Calabria : near Reggio (Tenore). 
— Sicily : near Messina {Chussone), Mandanici (iVicotra), Naso {Todaro^ 
PI. Sic. No. 696), Monticelli {Mina), Mt. Etna at Bronte, 600 
metres {Strohl), Palermo (Reimbole, It. Sic. No. 1035). — Sardinia : 
environs of Cagliari, Mte. Urpino, and C. Carbonara {Oennari), 

According to Bertoloni, the Italian name is '<garofanino 
beccuto." The plant has also been recorded by Stur (1857) from 



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80 AN ACCOUNT OF YELEZIA. 

the Island of Lido, near Venice, bat has never been verified, and 
has not been seen since. On a recent visit to Venice, I went 
one afternoon to the **bagni" of Lido, and looked for the plant 
without success. Sig. Adriano Fiori, of the Botanic Garden of 
Padua, informs me that he does not believe the species is found 
in the Island of Lido, or, in fact, in any part of the province of 
Venetia. 

Austria. — Dalmatia : Stretto di Morter, Vodiza near Sebenico, 
and island of Lesina (Vidani, Fl. Dahnatica). 

BussiA. — Prov. 01 the Don Cossacks : R. Don {Henning), 
Crimea (Bieberstein), Trans- Caucasia : W. Caucasus (Wilhelms, 
Eichwald), in the govt, of Baku, near Lenkoran on the west shore 
of the Caspian Sea (Hohenacker), and at Limar, 840 metres, further 
inland (0. A, Meyer). Transcaspia: on the east shore of the 
Caspian Sea {Karelin), and along the B. Sarawschan {Mdme. 0. 
Fedtschenko), 

BuLQABiA. — Dermendere and Stenimakhos, in E. Bumelia 
(Velenovsky), 

Turkey. — Vilayet of Constantinople : near Constantinople {Hit- 
cheli). Vilayet of Adrianople [Grisebach), Vilayet of Salonica: 
near Salonica {Jurisic, 1889). Vilayet of Epirus : Mt. Zalougo, 
near Prevesa {Baldacd, It. Albanicum iii. 1895, No. 12 bis) ; and 
near Janina (Baldacci, It. Albanicum iv. 1896, No. 108). Vilayet 
of the -^gean Islands: Karpathos {Pichler, 1888). Vilayet of 
Anatolia ; Assos (Sintenis, It. Trojanum, 1888, No. 978), Borlu 
{Tchihatcheff), Vilayet of Adana: village of Bouloukli, near Mer- 
sina {Balansa, Pi. de I'Orient, 1855), Mt. Taurus (Kotschy, PL 
Taur. 1836, No. 67, — ** Saponaria Cretica," not cited by Boissier). 
Vilayet of Erzeroum {Szowits, No. 224). Vilayet of Orfah (Hauss- 
knecht, It. Syr. Armen. 1865, at 860 metres). Vilayet of Damascus: 
Ddma, near Damascus {liev. H. E. Fox, in Herb. Kew., 1865). 
Vilayet of Tripoli: the Lebanon [Kotschy, It. Syriac. 1855, No. 269). 

Cyprus. — Near Kythera (Sintenis et Rigo, It. Cyprium, 1880, 
No. 288). 

Crete. — Mt. Lasithi, in eastern Crete {Sieber, — ^not cited by 
Boissier). 

Greece. — Nome of Larissa : near Phersala [Pharsalia] {Hauss- 
kiiecht, 1885). Nome of Lamia: between Stylida and Neraida 
(Formdnek, 1896). Nome of Attica : on the sunny slopes of Mt. 
Hymettus {Heldrekh, Haussknecht, 1885). Nome of Achaia: moun- 
tains of Boura (Stiiart Mill, — specimens labelled ** Erythrasa rigida " 
in Herb. Kew.). Nome of Laconia {Heldreich, 1844) ; on dry hills, 
— Heldreich, Herb. Graec. norm. No. 694 ; Orphanides, Fl. Grseo. 
(exs. No. 929). 

Persia.— (iu9/«c/ty, PL Persiae aust. 1842, No. 457, PI. Persiae 
bor. 1848, No. 214, Bange, exs. 1858). 

Afghanistan. — {Griffith, No. 1647, 1839-41), the eastern limit 
of the species. 

Algeria. — Dept. of Constantine : near Constantino {Choulette^ 
Fragm. fl. Alg^r. No. 211), lake of Thelazi {Le/ebvre). Dept. of 
Algiers : near Algiers {Durando), Sahel d*Alger and forest of 



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AK ACCOUNT OF VELE2SIA. 81 

Esemma, Adjida {Battandier and Trabut), Hammah {Jamiiij PL 
d'Alg. 1861, No. 184). Dept. of Oran : Arzeu {Munh). 

Mabocco. — Agadir, on the west coast, the western limit of the 
species {Hooker, 1871). 

This is as full a list of localities and authorities as is desirable 
for showing the general distribution of the species, from Marocco 
in the west to Afghanistan in the east. To var. p sessiliflora belong 
the specimens from Piedmont, Campania, Albania, most of the 
Russian specimens, especially those from Crimea and the Caucasus, 
and Griffith's specimens from Afghanistan. In the specimens 
from the south of France, Sicily, and Marocco, the longer peduncles 
supporting the flowers are more noticeable. 

2. V. FAScicuLATA BoUs, Diagn. PI. Or. nov. Ser. i. viii. 92 
(1849); Fl. Orient, i. 478. 

Glanduloso-hispida, 10-15 centim. Caulis supra basin dichotome 
ramosus. Folia linearia rigida acuta ciliata subtus trinervia. 
Flores ad ramorum brevium apicem in fascicules 5-9-floros congesti. 
Calyx cylindricus, subaaqualiter 16-nervius, dentibus lanceolato- 
linearibus inaBqualibus acuminatis. Petala angustissime linearia 
pallide rosea saturatius trilineata apice retusa; lamina minima, 
lauce nuda imberbis. Capsula calyce paullo longior. Semina 
demnm nigra oblonga. 

Affinis praBcedenti, diflert florum dispositione petalisque minoribus 
imberbibus ; calyx fructifer minus tenuis et paullo brevior ; semina 
latiora. 

In the type-specimens the calyx-teeth do not seem to be '* breviter 
subulatis,*' as stated by Boissier, but the calyx is somewhat shorter 
than in V. rigida. In a medium capsule I found eight seeds, and 
under the lens the hilum of the seed seemed almost at the edge, 
more so than in the seeds of V. rigida. The structure of the petals 
is well seen in a magnified drawing by E. Desvaux attached to 
Blanche's specimen in Herb. Kew. The coloured lines are con- 
tinued right down to the insertion of the claw. 

Habitat, — Asiatic Turkey. Vilayet of Anatolia: Valley of 
Meander, near the ruins of Denislu (Laodicea, in Phrygia) (Boissier, 
1842). Vilayet of Acre : between Beirut and Brummdna in the 
Lebanon (Blanche, 1849). Vilayet of Tripoli: between the E. 
Orontes and the town of Latakiyeh (Laodicea, in Syria) {Boissien-, 
1846). 

8. V. QUADRroENTATA Sibth. d SiH. Fl. GrflBc. Prodr. i. 288 (1806), 
et Fl. Gr©ea, iv. 81, t. 891(1823); Boiss. Fl. Orient, i. 478; 
WiUiams, Pmks of Centr. Eur. 8. 

Parce glanduloso-hirsutiuscula vel rarius glabra, 10-15 centim. 
Caulis rigidus, saape inde a basi subdichotome divaricato-ramosus. 
Folia 8-5-nervia ciliata, basilaria rosulata spathulato-linearia, cau- 
lina anguste linearia longe acutata, subfloralia margine hyalina 
distinctius ciliata. Flores solitarii vel gemini et terni, pedicellis 
crassis calyce dimidio triplove brevioribus suffulti. Calyx oblongo- 
oylindricus 5-co8tatus glaber, costis approximatis carinato-sub- 
innerviis, dentibus lanoeolatis rectis apice aciculato-aouminatis. 
Petala contigua apice quadridentata, dentibus lateralibus minoribus. 



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82 AN ACCOUNT OF VELEZU. 

faace barbulata maculata, ungae exserto. Gapsula inclasa, calyoe 
brevior. Semina nigra oblongo-ovata. 

Habitu F. ligida similis, sed robustior ; specifice diversa calyce 
costato, ac petalorum margine et faace. 

Specimens found by Dumont d'Urville in the island of Astro- 
palia in 1820, and named by him F. clavata, are identical with this 
plant. The original ** description " of 7. quadndentata is, ** Calycibus 
clavatis glabris, petalis quadridentatis." Sibthorp*8 own specimens 
in Herb. Mus. Brit, are labelled '* Saponaria pathmica/' which 
seems to imply that he thought the plant came from the isle of 
Patmos. The calyx- teeth are not *' ovatis apice subulatis," as 
stated by Boissier. 

/?. Lycia Williams. 

Magis glandulosa. Calyx valde glandulosus, pilis sparsis prsd- 
sertim ad costas obsitus. (7. guadridentata Stapf, Beitr. fl. Lycien, 
Garien, Mesopotamien.) 

The type specimens of this var. are in the Vienna Herbarium. 

Geographical Distribution, 

Austria. — Dalmatia {Visiani), 

Greeob. — Nome of Corinth: between Nauplia and Port Tolou 
{Haussknechty 1885). Nome of Attica : Mt. Parnassus at 600 metres 
[Heldreich, Herb. Graec. norm. no. 698), where it grows with V. 
rigida, east side of the island of -^gina {Heldreich), Nome of the 
Cyclades : island of Syra {Boissier). 

Asiatic Turkey. — Astropalia, the only Turkish island of the 
Cyclades group (Urville, 1820). Auatolia: Smyrna (BaZa?wa, PL 
d'Orient, no. 118), Tralles (Boissier), river banks nr. Chertek 
{Stap/),—Y&T. /3» at Gjolbaschi {Stapf). 

4. V. mspmA Boiss. et Bal. in Boiss. Diagn. PI. Or. nov. Ser. ii. 
V. 57 (1859) ; Fl. Orient, i. 479. 

Glanduloso-hispidula, a basi (radice subramosa) divaricatim 
perramosa, ramis altemis et dichotomis. Folia lineari-lanceolata 
acuta stricta, inferiora 3-5-nerYia, superiora 3-nervia. Fasciculi 
2-8'flori et flores inferiores solitarii, pedicellis crassis calyce 2-4- 
plo brevioribus ; pedicelU bracteis subulatis instructi. Calyx 
breviter cylindricus basi attenuatus costato-nervosus viridis demum 
rubellus acute pentagonus coriaceus, costis rotundatis trinerviis 
intervallo membranaceo sejunctis, dentibus subulatis acutatis sub- 
divergentibus. Petala acute bifida, fauce nuda. Gapsula calyce 
subbrevior. Semina oblonga. 

Species prtecedenti atque V. fascicuhata affinis, petalorum forma 
omnino distincta. 

Both the authentic specimens cited by Boissier are in Herb. 
Eew. and Herb. Mus. Brit., and the above description is based on 
the examination of these specimens. 

Habitat. Asiatic Turkey. — Anatolia : orchards on Mt. Boz-dagh 
{Balansa, PI. d'Orient, no. 117 [1854] ), and hills nr. Ushak at 
900 metres {Balama^ PI. d*Orient| no. Id05s) on argiUaoeous 
limestone. 



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steudbl's 'synopsis plantabum glumaobabum.' 88 

Poitscript. — The distribution of the species has been worked 
out from the specimens as far as they afford information of locali- 
ties. It is to be regretted that the localities written on the labels 
of collectors* specimens generally are so often unsatisfactory. Even 
when legible, they are frequently no more than the names of 
villages or hamlets, which are not marked in the best maps or 
atlases available, or the names of mountain-spurs known to the 
natives but never indexed in any gazetteer. In the case of Turkish 
localities, no clue is given either to the vilayet or to the mudirieh 
in which the place is situated, and there is confusion in the use of 
Turkish, Prankish and Latin equivalents of place-names. Again, 
for specimens collected in Greece and the Greek islands, it is 
desirable to give the modern Greek rather than the ancient Greek 
or Latin names, and to mention the eparchies and nomes in which 
these unmapped hamlets are situated. This especially applies to 
the region comprised in the Flora Ofientalis, where so many 
localities have both Turkish and Greek names. The location of 
streams and hamlets in ** Phrygia " or ** Oappadocia " conveys no 
information. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
XVII. — St£Udel*s * Synopsis Plantabum Glumaoeabum.' 

It seems to be generally assumed that Steudel's Synopsis ap- 
peared as a whole in 1855, the date on the title-page. Pritzel 
states this, and the new genera are cited in the Index Kewensis as 
of that year. It is probable, however, that the whole of part i. 
(Graminea) appeared before that date, presumably during 1854. 
I have got together the following information, which may interest 
other workers and be worth putting on record. The book was 
published in fascicles, of which there were to be eleven, according to 
a statement in the Botanische Zeitung for Jan. 27, 1854, p. 68, 
where fascicle 1 (pp. 1-80) is noticed ; and in the Bulletin de la 
SocUtS Botanique de France, i. (1854), p. 145, where fascicles 1-5 
are reviewed. The Paris publication also states that fascicles 1-5 
contain fifty sheets. There are eight pages to a sheet, and, as 
fascicle 1 contained eighty pages, we may assume that each fascicle 
contained ten sheets. 

Part i. {Graminea), with 474 pages, was issued in six fascicles, 
as appears from the review in Flora, xxxviii. (1855), p. 251, of 
foscicles 7-9, where it is stated that the sixth fascicle contained the 
end of the true grasses. The reviewer also expresses the hope that 
partii. will be complete before the end of the year, and on p. 604 of 
the same volume rejoices in its fulfilment, as the concluding fascicle 
now lies before him. As the subject of this final notice is always 
referred to in the singular, and as it obviously takes up the work 
where the previous notice left it, it seems as though there were only 
ten fascicles, and not eleven, as originally intended. This is also 

JOXTBMAL OF BoTANT. — VoL. 87. [JaN. 1899.] D 



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.. 8] 




„ 4 


i» 


,. 6j 




Parti.(fasc 


1.1-6),, 



84 STEUDEL's 'synopsis PLAMTABUM aLUMAOEABUM.' 

borne out by the number of sheets, supposing that the fascicles 
remained equal to the end. As regards the date of publication of 
individual fascicles, I have gathered the following from the various 
notices in current periodicals : — 

Fascicle 1 was reviewed in Bot. Zeit. xii. 68, Jan. 27, 1854. 

„ 2 „ (with 1) in Flora, xxxvii. 126, Feb. 28, 1864. 

in Flora, xxxvii. 708, Nov. 28, 1864. 

„ xxxviii. 261, Apr. 28, 1866. 

This means that fascicles 1-6 appeared before Nov. 28, 1864. 
Fascicles 8-6 may have come out together ; at any rate I find no 
separate notices. Moreover they probably appeared in July or 
August, 1864, as fascicles 1-6 are reviewed in the Eevue Biblio- 
graphiqiie attached to the account of the Proceedings of the Soci6t6 
Botanique de la France, on the sitting of July 12 (Bull. Soc. Bot. 
Fr. 1854, 145). This number of the Bulletin was probably pub- 
lished at any rate before about the beginning of Septismber, as the 
death of Philip Barker Webb, a member of the Society, which 
occurred in Paris on Aug. 31, is not recorded till the next number, 
which contains an account of the proceedings at the sitting of 
July 29. 

There is, in fact, evidence that the whole of part i. appeared in 
1854, for N. T. Anderssen, in the Berdttelse om Botaniska Arbeten^ 
under **Aren 1853 och 1864" (a review of botanical literature for 
the two years, published at Stockholm in 1856), notices the part 
thus : — ** Gramineae. Synopsis Plantarum Glumacearum. Auctore 
E. G. Steudel. Fasc. i— vi. Esslingen, 1854." The preface, 
which with the title-page was issued with the last fascicle (see 
Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. Lc), is dated August, 1854. Furthermore, 
fascicles 7-9, containing the greater part of part ii., were reviewed 
in the same number of Flora (Apr. 28, 1855, p. 253) as part i., and 
it would seem, therefore, unless fascicles 6-9 succeeded each other 
very rapidly, that part i. at any rate was complete some little time 
before that date. 

For part ii. (VyperaeeiB, Restiacea, &c.) we have the following 
dates : — 

Fascicles 7-9 (pp. 1-240), reviewed in Flora, xxxviii. 268, April 28, 
Fascicle 10, reviewed in Flora, xxxviii. 604, Oct. 14, 1866. [1866. 

Fascicles 7-9 contain almost the whole of Cyperace€B, which end 
on p. 246, the rest of fascicle containing the remaining orders. 

A. B. Bendlb. 



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TWO NEW HIEBAOIUM FOBMS. 
By thb Bey. AuausTiN Ley. M.A. 

HiEBAOiUM ofsiuM Ft., Yar. ooBAoiNUM, DOY. Yai. Original root- 
leaves rounded, later elliptic and elliptio-lanceolate ; these latter 
acute or acuminate, with pointed teeth, the blade shortly decurrent, 
with 2-4 larger ascending teeth at base; all bright yellow-green^ 
lighter beneath, firm in texture. Stem 6-15 in., leafless or with 
one nearly linear leaf, slightly tomentose, with short white soft hair, 
branched only at summit. Heads 4-8, on short spreading and 
ascending peduncles. Bud OYal, its phyllaries bending over so that 
their tips touch at a very acute angle, not tucked in as in ordinary 
H. murorum L. pt. Peduncles with rather dense white tomentum 
and a few setae. Phyllaries densely clothed with long white black- 
based hairs and Yery few setae, subobtuse ; the shorter outer ones 
Yery few. Ligules rather bi-oad, full yellow, their tips naked or 
almost so, in bud. Style rather dark. 

Differing from typical H. casium Fr. (which grows in the same 
locality) in the light yellow-green of its leaves, with blade decurrent 
and deeply toothed at its base; in the compact corymb of sub- 
umbellate heads, and in the very hairy phyllaries. 

Loc. Craig Gledsiau, Brecon Beacons (sandstone), scattered 
over the cliff, alt. 1500-1800 ft., but not abundant. First observed 
in 1895, and cultivated since that date. 

In cultivation the peduncles lengthen, and the leaves develop 
more of their characteristic toothing. 

HiESAOiuM sciAPHiLUM Ucchtr., var. pulchbius, noY. var. Stem 
about 1 ft., bearing 2-3 leaves, stout ^ erect, shaggy at base, with 
long white hairs. Boot-leaves obovate, coarsely toothed with shallow 
teeth, obtuse: petioles and back of the midrib shaggy like the 
base of the stem. Stem-leaves elliptic or the uppermost ovate, 
toothed as those of the root, somewhat acute. Corymb subumbeUate; 
pedancles straight, floccose but not hairy, beset, as are the dark 
phyllaries, with numerous setae. Ligules naked-tipped, style not 
quite pure yellow. Pappus tinged with reddish brown. 

Differing conspicuously from the type in the shorter, stouter, 
less leafy stem ; obovate, coarsely toothed leaves ; subumbeUate 
heads with brownish pappus ; and darker phyllaries with longer 
setas. Growing with the tyye, but quite distinct, and showing no 
intermediate forms. In cultivation, during a series of years, it has 
preserved its distinctness. 

This plant seems to be quite intermediate between typical 
H, sciaphilum Uechtr. and H, murorum L. pt. var. pulcherrimum 
(differing, however, from both in the colour of the pappus) : hence 
the varietal name seemed appropriate, as at once marking the 
handsome appearance of the plant, and suggesting a passage to 
fl. pulcherninum, 

Hab. Mountain cliffs on sandstone and limestone. 

Loc. Breoonshire : Craig Du and Craig Gledsiau (sandstone), 

D 2 



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86 THE AUSTRALIAN FLOBA. 

abundantly; Summit Crag, Brecon Beacons; Craig Gille (lime- 
stone). Carmarthenshire : Cliffs of Llyn-y-fan-feohan (sandstone). 
All these cliffs have a northern aspect, first observed in 1895. 



THE AUSTRALIAN FLORA. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society on November 17th, Mr. 
Spencer Le M. Moore read a paper on '' The Botanical Results of a 
Journey into the Interior of Western Australia, with observations 
on the nature and relations of the Desert Flora, and on the origin 
of the Australian Flora as a whole." 

The author briefly sketched the physical and botanical features 
of the district visited, which comprises the country lying east and 
north-east of Southern Cross, to Mount Margaret and Lake Darl6t. 
The latitude of 80"^ S. was indicated as marking, at least in the 
neighbourhood of Coolgardie, the boundary between two floras ; for 
whereas, to the south of that line, gum-trees {Eucalyptus spp.) are 
common in all districts suitable to their growth, north of 80'' they 
are almost entirely restricted to the banks of creeks, their place 
being taken there by '<mulga'* scrub. The soil is usually a red 
sandy loam, with occasional areas of yellow sand of which Myrtacea 
are the predominant inhabitants. The isolated dome-like granite 
masses known as ** gnamma-rocks " have their peculiar flora ; such 
genera as Kerau^renia, Stackhousiay Cryptandra, Drosera^ Kunzea^ 
Isotoma, Thelymitrot Pterostylis^ Borya, CentrolepiSf Noihol(Bna, Gym' 
nogramme, &c., being found there alone. Flowering takes place 
chiefly in the spring, sheets of everlastings (species of Helichrysum 
and Heliptei-um, Cephalipterum Drummondii, &c.) being a prominent 
feature in the landscape at that time of year. Considering the 
extremely scanty rainfall, the amount of vegetation carried by the 
desert is truly marvellous. 

From the West Australian Desert, including under that term the 
country south of the tropic of Capricorn, and east of the 118th 
degree of east longitude (of the 119th degree south of lat. 82°), 
867 species have been obtained, all but seven of which are 
Phanerogams. One of these is a Conifer, and ninety-one are 
Monocotyledones. The Phanerogams are ranged under 78 orders 
and 819 genera: of the latter nearly one-half are restricted to 
Australia, seventeen per cent, of these latter being endemic in the 
desert. The total number of West Australian desert species is 
estimated at from 1000 to 1200. 

Coinposita (ninety-seven species) make up eleven per cent, of the 
desert flora, and Leguminosa with ninety- six species nearly attain 
premier honours. Myrtacece follow with eighty-nine species ; next 
come AinaranthacetB and Proteacea each with forty-seven species, 
Goodeniacea with forty-two, Graminea with forty-one, and Myo- 
porinea thirty-flve species. Nearly fifty-eight per cent, of Uie 
entire flora consists of species belonging to these eight orders; 



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SHOBT MOTES. 87 

leaving forty-two per cent, to be shared between the remaining 
sixty-five orders. 

The current ideas, according to which the flora of Australia, 
like its marsupials and monotremes, is regarded as a geographical 
sorvival, and Australia itself as a sort of ** dumping ground" for 
anything exotic which may be able to reach its shores, were then 
criticized. While immigration has doubtless taken place, it was 
held that the extent of it has been greatly over-estimated, and a 
natural explanation was endeavoured to be given for such im- 
migration, in opposition to the prevalent theories of exotic '* pre- 
dominance.*' 

The •• Primitive Tertiary Floras " were regarded as mixed xero- 
philous and hygrophilous ones. In Europe changes of climate 
caused elimination of the xerophilous element ; whereas in Eastern 
Australia, until the period of desiccation set in, the climate pre- 
vailing in Europe during Eocene, Oligocene, and Miooeue times 
persisted there: hence the mixed hygrophilous and xerophilous 
nature of its flora. The difiference in the floras of Eastern and 
Western Australia was held to be the result of an earlier desiccation 
in the western portion of the continent ; so that, directly contrary 
to what occurred in Europe, the xerophilous element flourished at 
the expense of the hygrophilous. And this, together with its 
isolation, which has prevented much intermingling of species, 
explains the floristic peculiarities of Western Australia. 

It will be remembered that Mr. Moore described some new species 
met with during his journey in his pa^r, *' The Camel-plants of 
Western Australiai," published in this Journal for 1897, pp. 161-172. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Orchis obuenta in Cumberland. — When I was staying in Cum- 
berland last Jane and July, I found a species of Orchis plentiful in 
two or three bogs on the fells— about 1000 feet above sea level — 
between Borrowdale and Watendlath. I thought the species was 
a very stunted form of 0. latifolia, and therefore did not trouble to 
gather more than about ten or twelve specimens. The plant has 
been submitted to Mr. B. A. Bolfe, who identifies it with Orchis 
cruenta, Muhl. in Oeder PL Dan. t. 876 j Retz Prodr. Fl. Soand. 
ed. 2, p. 205 ; 0. lati/olia var. cruenta, Lindl. Gen. and Sp. Orch. p. 
260: and adds, ** Rchb. f. (Fl. Germ. xiii. p. 58) makes it a form 
of 0. incamata^ a plant much confused with 0. lati/olia in books, 
if indeed both are not forms of one species. It is, however, an 
interesting discovery, as the plant is not previously recorded from 
Britain. Nyman gives its habitat as *' Norv. bor. centr., Suec. 
bor., Finn." I have placed specimens in the British Museum and 
the Eew Herbaria. — Herbert Goss. 

^ Btkllabia media. — This name stands in the Index Kewensis and 
m ,\he London Catalogue on the authority of Cyrilli (Char. Comm. 
36.(1784)). He was undoubtedly the first to place the plant in 



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88 SHORT NOTES. 

SteUaria^ bat purists point out that he did not absolutely conjoin 
the generic and specific names — the plant stands in his book as 
** Stellaria. Linn. Gen. PI. 686. Alsine (media) petalis bipartitis '' 
&c. — and seek another authority. This has been found in Withering 
(Bot. Arr. ed. 8, ii. 418 (1796) ), who seems to have airived indepen- 
dently at the conclusion that the plant was a Stellaria, and calls it S, 
fnedia, thus retaining the original specific name. Unfortunately this 
name had been applied in 1794 by Sibthorpe (Fl. Oxon. 141) to a plant 
which he was apparently the first to name specifically. Withering 
{Lc. 420) renamed this S, glauca, saying in a note, *' As it appears 
necessary to introduce the AUim media into this genus, the trivial 
name affixed to this plant by Dr. Sibthorpe could not well be 
retained.'' A conflict between those who uphold the oldest specific 
name and those who maintain the earliest name in the genus is 
happily averted by Mr. F. N. Williams, who points out that Stellaria 
media should be cited as of *' Villars, Hist. Ph Dauph. iii. 615 
(1789)." — Jaues Britten. 

Clasmatocolea cuneifolia (Hook.) Spruce in Scotland. — This 
extremely rare species has to be added to the numerous important 
additions to the list of Scottish HepaticaB made by Mr. Symers M. 
Macvicar, who has sent me very fine specimens for confirmation, 
collected on birch trees at Moidart, West Inverness. Hitherto it 
has only been collected sparingly in the British Isles, in the south 
of Ireland. In the recently published (1898) ** Beitrage zur Leber- 
moosflora Norwegens," Dr. B. Eaalaas recorded its discovery by 
him in 1895 at Udburfjeld, near Fossan, Norway. These are the 
only known stations for this pecuhar species. The fine specimens 
sent by Mr. Macvicar would have delighted the late Dr. Spruce, 
who in a letter some years ago lamented that he had only seen very 
meagre examples. — W. H. Peabson. 

Oebastium arotioum Lange (Joum. Bot. 1898, 498). — The 
British plant so called in recent years is, I believe, identical with 
the C. lati/olium of Smith and Babington, which Sir J. D. Hooker, 
following Syme, places (as var. Smithii) under C. alpinum, with the 
synonym "0. lati/olium, Sm. not L." I have only once collected 
true C. lati/olium in Switzerland, and feel much difficulty about 
identifying it with our plant; but on this question experts like 
Messrs. Williams and N. £. Brown are more likely to be right than 
an amateur field-botanist. However, Dr. Lange himself appears 
to have accepted our Scottish form as his C, arcticum, and de- 
termined Mr. Beeby's specimens from Unst as a modification of 
that. My point is, that we have a species in Britain, whether it 
should be named C. arcticum or C, lati/olium, distinct from (though 
nearly aUied to) C alpinum ; and that it is not a hybrid between 
two varieties of the latter. That hybrids may occur between 
alpinum and our *^ arcticum'* is probable enough; but I am not 
aware that any such have yet been found in Britain. — E. S. 
Mabshall. 

Habenaria viridis var. bbaotbata ^Journ. Bot. 1898, 488). — 
The first publication of this name should stand as *' [Heiohenbaoh 



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IRISH BOTANY. 89 

ex] A. Gray, Man. Bot. Northern United States, 5th ed., p. 500 
(1867).*'— O. A. Farwell. 

BuBus Bakbbi. — The Rev. W. Moyle Rogers has now identified 
the small rhamnifolian hramble reported from Cantire and Argyle 
(Joam. Bot. 1898, 888) as R. Bakeri F. A. Lees, described in Bot. 
Record Club Report, 1887, 120.— 0. E. Salmon. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Contributions toward* a Cyhele Hibemica, being OvtLines of the Geo- 
graphical Distribution of Plants in Ireland, Second Edition, 
founded on the papers of the late Axexamdbb Goodman Mobs, 
F.R.S.E., F.L.S., M.R.I.A., by Nathaniel Colgan, M.R.I.A., 
andRBOiNALDW.8ouLLT,F.L.S. Dublin; Ponsonby: London; 
Gomey. 8yo, cloth, pp. xcvi, 588, map. Price 12s. 6d. net. 

Flora of the County Donegal, or, List of the Flowering Plants and 
Ferns, with their localities and distribution. By Henby 
Ohichbstbb Habt, B.A., F.L.S. Dublin; Sealy : London; 
Nutt. 8vo, cloth, pp. xxiv, 892, map. 

A NEW edition of the Cybele Hibernica has been for many years 
a desideratum, as the earlier issue (1866) was not only difficult to 
procure, but was practically obsolete. Although there is even now 
plenty of room for work in Ireland, and discoveries of interest 
doubtless remain to be made, the pages of this Journal during the 
last thirty years have shown that a great advance has taken place 
in our knowledge of the << distressful country" in its botanical as 
well as in other aspects. Many important papers on the Irish flora 
have appeared also in the Irish Naturalist and in the Proceedhujs of 
the Royal Irish Academy ; while separate works, such as The FUna 
of North-east Ireland, Mr. AUiu's Flora of Cork, and now Mr. Harts 
Flora of Donegal, have dealt more or less exhaustively with definite 
districts. It was high time that all this material should be correlated. 

It is of course well known that the production of a new edition 
of this Cybele had occupied the time and thought of Mr. A. G. 
More during the last ten years of his life, and the present editors 
have carried out his wish in bringing his undertaking to a satis- 
factory issue. Well qualified for the task by their own acquaintance 
with Irish botany, they had the additional advantage of close 
intimacy with More, and, as they say in their preface, **a fuller 
acquaintance with his views than was possessed by other Irish 
botanists.** 

The hundred pages of introductory matter include lists of the 
principal books, papers, MSS., and herbaria relating to the Flora of 
Ireland, followed by the introduction proper, in which the physical 
features and climate of the country are dealt with, the flora is com- 
pared with that of England, and other preliminaries connected with 
distribution are discussed. A table of distribution throughout the 
twelve districts, originally suggested by the late Professor Babington, 
is followed by the body of the work. The ** excluded species " are 



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40 nasH botany. 

placed in an appendix, and this is the only part of the arrangement 
which we are inclined to criticize. It is probably a reaction from 
the undue prominence which is sometimes given to these '* errors, 
casuals, and aliens not fully naturalized'' in some floras: but we are 
of opinion that it is better to include them in their proper places in 
the general enumeration, indicating their comparative unimportance 
by a difference of type. The absence from the flora proper of such 
plants as Ranunculus arvensis, Helianthemum vulgarej Stellaria 
aquatica, and many more, is, however, perhaps rendered more 
striking by the arrangement here adopted. 

To criticize the book in detail would require a far more extensive 
knowledge of the Irish flora than the present writer can boast. 
Nor indeed is such criticism necessary, for the Cybele Hibemica will 
of course be the text-book for all who are concerned with botany in 
Ireland, and will thus be put to the best of all tests. We note that, 
although the arrangement follows that of the ninth edition of the 
London Catalogue, the nomenclature is that of the earlier Cybele — a 
compromise which is probably convenient for Irish botanists, who 
may justly plead the stiU unsettled state of our nomenclature. 
Care seems to have been taken with the genuine Irish names, 
although nothing like an exhaustive catalogue of these is attempted ; 
but we regret that the absurd convention that every plant must have 
an ** English name'* is adhered to. We trust that no self-respecting 
Irishman will allow himself to mention such Saxon absurdities as 
the ** Paradoxical Sedge," which would seem more in place in 
Lear's * Nonsense Botany* than in a scientific work. We note that 
the name ** St. Patrick's Cabbage," commonly applied in books to 
Saxifraga umbrosa, seems to have been a mistranslation of the Irish 
name ** Fox's Cabbage," due to ** the close similarity of sound of 
the genitive forms of the Irish words for * Patrick ' and ' fox * " ; 
the other Irish name, *'Good People's Cabbage,*' confirms this 
view, the connection in folklore between foxes and fairies being 
closer than might be supposed. 

A word must be said in praise of the admirable arrangement 
and general '* get-up" of the book. It is printed in clear and well- 
contrasted type, and bound in such a manner as to open easily. 
The heading of each page shows the order and genus under treat- 
ment ; and we are glad to note that everything is included in one 
index. It may be said that these are small matters, but they are 
of a kind which materially afifect the practical use of a book. 

In the. Flora of Donegal^ the outcome of Mr. H. C. Hart's 
thirty-three years* work on the botany of the county, we have 
another evidence of the influence of A. G. More ; it was with his 
*< advice and assistance that this flora was commenced and carried 
out,*' and to his memory it is fitly dedicated. 

A fourth part of the volume is taken up with introductory 
matter — topography, geology, geographical distribution, and the 
like : and another hundred pages at the end of the work are devoted 
to considerations connected with climate and an appendix dealing 
with plant-names and plant-lore — matters which we think might 
well receive more attention thto they usually do at the hands of 



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AN BLBMBMTABT TEXT-BOOK OP BOTANY. 41 

loeal workers. All tiiese aooessories are oarefdlly and — so far as 
the observations in climate are concerned— -even elaborately worked 
out ; it is evident, indeed, throaghout the book, that Mr. Hart has 
spared neither time nor pains in its compilation. 

The flora proper contains many interesting notes which could 
only have been written by one who was well acquainted with the 
plants in the fleld, but we are glad to see that Mr. Hart does not 
encumber nomenclature by bestowing names upon the forms he 
indicates. He has been fortunate in obtaining Mr. Hanbury's help 
for the Hieracia^ while Mr. Arthur Bennett has been consulted with 
regard to Potamogeton and Carene. We note that Mr. Bennett con- 
firms Arabii ciliata as a Donegal plant : we are inclined to agree 
with the authors of the Irish Cybele (who do not give it for Donegal) 
that this plant is '*very doubtfully entitled to sub-specific rank." 
The natunJization of Veronica peregrina as a garden weed and the 
phenomenal rapidity of its repix>duction suggest that this may in 
time extend itself beyond cultivation and become an integer of the 
local flora. Another complete naturalization is Mimulus luteus of 
our English books, which Me^rs. Colgan and Scully more correctly 
name M, gwtaius DC. The note on Meuyanthe^ may be taken as an 
example of those scattered through the book: — *<This species is 
more effective than any other bog plant in overgrowing and filling 
up shallow boggy lakes. Growing from the margin outwards, it 
speedily spreads a mat over the surface of the water or soft mud, 
which in time harbours other species and at length converts to peat. 
Its great power of root- spreading enables it to act thus, and also, 
perhaps, renders it less dependent for its existence upon seed- 
reproduction. The quantity of buckbean to be seen flowering bears 
a very small proportion to that occurring barren." We are glad to 
see that Mr. Hart does not feel it incumbent on him to bestow a 
manu£actured <* English name " on every species he enumerates. 

The weak point of the book is its bibliogrf^phy. There is no list 
of works quoted, and the references in the text are absolutely useless 
for the purposes of consultation. Our own journal, for example, is 
quoted simply as '< Jour, of Bot.," neither name nor year being 
added ; and this is practically no information at all, seeing that the 
Journal is now in its thirty-seventh year. '' Proc. B.I.A." is scarcely 
more useful : indeed, it must be allowed that this department of the 
Flora has been practically neglected, to the detriment of the work 
as a whole. With this exception, the book, which is creditably 
printed although many misprints have escaped notice, is a valuable 
addition to our steadily increasing series of local floras. 

An Elementary Text-book of Botany, By Sydney H. Vines, M.A., 
D.Sc, P.B.S. 8vo, pp. XV, 611, with 897 figures in the text. 
London: Sonnenschein. 1898. Price 9s. Weight 21b. 8 oz. 

The preparation of this work was undertaken to meet a demand 
which appeared to exist for a less bulky and expensive volume 
than the author's 8tudent*$ Text-book of Botany. The new book is 
intermediate in size between the last English edition of Prantl's 

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42 AN ELEICENTABY TEXT-BOOK OP BOTANY. 

Text-book and the Student's Textbook, It strongly recalls the 
latter, of which it is practically an abridgment, brought more np 
to date, with *'the omission of certain difficult and debatable topics, 
such as, for instance, the details of nuclear division, or the alterna- 
tion of generations in the Thallophyta." Prof. Vines hopes at 
some future time to render the difference between the two more 
marked, by preparing an edition of the larger book of a more 
advanced character and on a somewhat larger scale. Unless this 
is done, the Student's Text-hook will probably fall into disuse, for 
the new book contains sufficient subject-matter for the majority of 
those who would buy one or the other ; while as regards difficult 
and debatable topics it is better for the student to hear about these 
directly from his teacher. We are glad to note one alteration, 
namely, the placing of the section on Physiology after the Anato- 
mical, instead of at the end of the book after the Systematic 
portion, as in the Student's Text-book; except for this the book 
rans on exactly the same lines as the larger work. Parts 1 and 2, 
dealing respectively with external morphology and anatomy and 
histology, are good introductions to the study of plant structure, 
while Part 8, on physiology, is excellent as far as it goes. We 
miss, however, from the latter, that side of the study of plant-life 
in relation to its environment which the Americans call ecology, 
and which is perhaps the most attractive pai-t of botany, for it is 
the study of plants living and growing out of doors. In fact, Part 8 
as a whole savours rather of the laboratory. Part 4 deals with 
classification and special morphology. The plant-world now falls 
into five groups ; the recent discoveries which have emphasized the 
nearness of Gymuosperms and Pteridophytes have caused the eleva- 
tion of Gymnosperms and Angiosperms, formerly regarded as sub- 
divisions of one group — Phanerogamia — into distinct groups, each 
comparable with Thallophyta, Bryophyta, or Pteridophyta. The 
account of Group I., Thallophyta, differs only from that of the 
Student's TextBook in the omission of detail. The AlgaB are 
arranged under the four old colour-groups, while Fungi comprise 
the six subclasses, Schizo-, Myxo-, Phyco-, Asco-, Ascidio- and 
Basidio-mycetes. We should like to have seen some revision of 
this arrangement, bringing it more in accordance with recent 
views. The treatment of Group II., Bryophyta, also follows closely 
the larger work. As the blocks of Marchantia are getting very 
worn, we will hope for the detailed description of a more typical 
thalloid Hepatic in a fixture edition. In Pteridophyta we note that 
the Eusporangiate and Leptosporangiate character takes precedence 
of that based on homospory and heterospory. This brings Isoetea 
next to the Ophioglossacea and Marattiacea, The account of the 
Angiosperms differs only in the omission of the less important 
orders, and the transference of Euphorbiacea from Disciftora to 
Monochlamydea, The systematic arrangement of this group is the 
least satisfactory part of the book. Owing largely to the work of 
the Berlin school, considerable advance has been made in sys- 
tematic botany during the last few years ; the classification both 
of Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons adopted by Professor Vines is 



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PFLAMZSN-OBOGBAFHIB AUF FHTBIOLOGISOHB OBUNDLAGE. 48 

like a look back into the dark ages, and one is not surprised to find 
that Najas flexUis is still the only British species of the genus. 
We would suggest that in his contemplated more advanced text- 
book, which we shall anxiously expect, Professor Vines should get 
a systematist to do the systematic account of seed-plants, and 
thereby recognize that differentiation of labour which, we were wont 
to learn in t^e old days, is a criterion of development. 

A. B. R. 

Pflanzen- Geographic auf phyHologischer Qrundlage, Von Dr. A. F. W. 
SoHiMPBB. Pp. xviii, 876, with 502 drawings and repro- 
ductions from photographs, 5 collotypes, and 4 geographical 
maps. Jena : Verlag von Gustav Fischer. 1898. Price 27 m. 

Thb science of (ecology is defined by Haeckel to be **the 
knowledge of the sum of the relations of organisms to the sur- 
rounding outer world, to organic and inorganic conditions of 
existence; the economy of Nature, the correlations between all 
organisms living together in one and the same locality, their 
adaptations to their surroundings, their modification in the struggle 
for existence, especially the circumstances of parasitism,'* &c. In 
the cheap and handsome volume before us, Dr. Scbimper, in applying 
the science of (ecology to the vegetable kingdom, has made an 
exceedingly important contribution to botanical literature, and the 
book will be eagerly welcomed and read by all who are in any way 
mterested in plants. 

The author treats his subject under three great divisions. In 
the first, entitled *' Factors,*' he discusses soil, temperature, light, 
&c., and, as of especial importance, the presence or absence of 
water. Thus we get the three great vegetation types, Hygrophytes, 
Xerophytes, and Trophophytes — those that are adapted to moist 
regions, to desert lands, or to recurring wet and dry seasons. The 
conditions that have developed these different classes of plants may 
be due to climate or to the state of the ground (adaptive influence), 
and these two influences may come into play in very close proximity. 
On the Sahara we should look mainly for Xerophytes, though here 
and there in the scattered oases we ^ould find colonies of Hygro- 
phytes. 

The second great section of the book deals with <* Formations 
and Associations." These formations of various kinds of vegetation 
are also due to the influence of climate and ground. Under 
*' Associations** he includes those plants that depend on others for 
support, shelter, or food. The final division is devoted to <* Zones 
and Begions," and to the flora more particularly characteristic of 
each. This is by far the largest section of the book, and deals in 
succession with the tropics, the temperate and the arctic zones, the 
plants that inhabit mountain regions, and water flora. In the 
tropics the periodic alternations of wet and dry seasons, the intense 
sunlight, and hot wind have all to be met by the plants with 
corresponding protective adaptations. In the arctic regions the 
climatic conditions are also paramount; the plants have to encounter 



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44 SBLBOTED PAPBBS FROM THE KBW BULIiBTIN. 

intense cold, and the long season when they can absorb no moisture 
has caused them to develop characters such as we find in desert- 
plants. 

Dr. Schimper has treated the whole subject in an exhaustive 
and scientific manner, and has shown how outward form and 
internal structure are modified in order that the organisms may 
adapt themselves to their environment and live under the most 
adverse conditions. Copious bibliographies and a wealth of illus- 
trations enhance the usefulness of the book, of which we understand 
an English translation is in preparation. 



Selected Papers from the Kew Bulletin. I, Vegetable Fibres, H. M. 
Stationery Office. 8vo, boards, pp. 280. Price 8s. 6d. 

Fbom the prefatory note contributed by Dr. Dyer to this volume, 
we learn that it '*may from time to time be followed by similar 
collections.*' We venture therefore to offer a few suggestions 
which, if adopted, will contribute materially to the usefulness of 
future issues. 

It seems incredible that a collection of this kind should be 
issued without the faintest ghost of an index ; but such is the case. 
There is an entirely inadequate ** table of contents,** in which 
each paper is entered in the order of its appearance, prefaced by the 
number of the ** article *' in Boman numerals — surely an obsolete 
and inconvenient method of enumeration — but of index there is 
none; and the '* convenience** of reference, which is the ostensible 
object with which this collection is issued, could not be more com- 
pletely ignored. And, to make matters worse, there are no head- 
ings to the pages I 

The articles seem to have been brought together without any at 
tempt at combination ; so that, for example, the entry ** XXI. Ramie " 
is followed by four other numbers called ** Ramie (continued),'* and 
this heading duly figures as many times in the body of the book. 
The purely formal headings to what is often a purely formal corre- 
spondence are published in full ; many of the letters — mere official 
acknowledgements of documents or specimens — cannot be of the 
slightest possible interest or value. We have always wondered 
why they were included in the Kew Bulletin, h\xt their republica- 
tion is incomprehensible. :> - 

It is probable ,that in these pages there is much information 
of practical importance, although we fail to see the necessity for 
reprinting matter which has already been made publicly accessible, 
and some of which must be already obsolete ; but those who wish 
to find such information about any given plant will have to hunt it 
out for themselves. If books of this kind— representatives of the 
class of biblia a non biblia — are of any value (as to which we express 
no opinion), that value depends mainly upon the readiness with 
which their contents are made available for consultation. 



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45 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 

Annals of Botany (Dec). — W. F. Ganong, < Comparative Mor- 
phology of embrjos and seedlings of Cactacese * (1 pL). — H. H. W. 
Pearson, ' Anatomy of seedling of Bowenia spectabilis ' (2 pL). — 
J.B. Green, * The alcohol-producing enzyme of yeast.' — H. Wayler, 
*The nucleus of the Yeast-plant' (2 pl.).--S. H. Vines, * The 
proteolytic enzyme of Nepenthes,* 

Bot. Centralblatt (Nos. 49, 61). — B. H. True & 0. G. Hunkel, 

* The poisonous effect exercised on living plants by phenols ' (cont.). 
—(No. 49). B. Schmid, * Bau und Functionen der Grannen un- 
serer Getreidearten ' (concl.). — (No. 60). E. Schwabach, *Vor- 
gange bei der Sprengung des mechauischen Binges bei einigen 
Lianen ' (1 pi.). — (No. 61). C. Warnstorf, * Zur Kenntniss 
exotischer und europaischer Torf moose.' 

Bot, Gazette (19 Nov.). — E. A. Bessey, * Comparative morpho- 
logy of pistils of Ranunculacea, AlismacecBy and Rosacea ' (1 pi.). — 
L. C. Biddle, 'Embryology of Alyssum' (8 pl.)._C. L. Pollard, 

* Eastern acaulescent Violets.' — E. B. Copeland, *A new self- 
registering transpiration machine.' — W. W. Bowlee & Q, T. 
Hastings, * Seeds and seedlings of Amenti/era * (1 pL). — J. J. Davis, 
Doassansia Zizania^ sp. n. 

Bot. Zeitung (1 Dec). — C. van Wisselingh, *Ueber den Nu- 
deolus von Spirogyra* {1 pl.^. 

Bull, Soe. Bot. France (jIy. 8-4 ; Sept.).— A. Chatin, • Nombre 
et sym^trie des faisceaux lib^ro-ligneux du petiole.' — C. Picquenard, 

* Lichens foliac6s des forets du Finist^re.' — A. Francbet, Omphalo* 
gramma (gen. nov., PrimulaceaB). — P. Candargy, * Flore de I'ile de 
Lesbos' (concl.^ (xlv. 6, Oct.). — P. Van Tieghem, 'Structure du 
fruit, germination et structure de la plantule de la Nuytsia.* — M. 
Gandoger, * Plantes de Bussie.' — J. A. Battandier, ' Quelques 
plantes d'Alg^rie.' — F. Debray, * La maladie de la brunnisure.' — 
E. Boze, ' Des, Bhizotomes, les premiers batanistes Grecs.' — 
E. Mer, ' B^serve amylac^e des arbres.' 

Erythea (8 Nov.).— J. B. Davy, Stapjia (n. gen. Meliceai) (1 pi.). 

Gardeners* Chronicle (26 Nov.). — C. T. Druery, *Fern crests' 
(10 Deo.). G. C. Jenman, Danaa nigrescens and Pteris Harrisona, 
spp. nn. Ctnhopetalum appendiculatutn (fig. 118). — (17 Dec). Neo- 
benthamia gracilis (figs. 124, 125). 

Journal de Botanique (** 1-16 Octobre," received 7 Dec). — 
E. Bescherelle,' BryologiaB Japonicsa Supplementum I. ' (concl.). — 
E. Gadeceau, ' Lobelia Dortinanna dans la Loire-InfMeure.* — 
A. Franchet, 'Plantarum Sinensium ecloge secunda' (Aristolo- 
chiacea (** 1 Novembre," received. 14 Dec). — A. Franchet, * Chinese 
JuglandaceaB.' — A. Le Jolis, < Protestation contre le Bevisio 
Generum Plantarum.' — E. G. Camus, * Plantes by brides de la flore 
europ6enne' (cont.). 

Oesterr, Bot, Zeitschnft (Dec^. — E.^.Schlechter, * Eevision der 
Q&itxmg Hohthrix ' (cont.). — E. Nikolic, * Phanologische MittheU- 
ungen aus der Winterflora Bagusas.' — J. Bornmiiller, Vinca Hauss- 
knechtiij sp. n. 



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46 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, BTO. 

Philosophical Transactions (Nov.). — G. Murray & V. H. Blaok- 
man, ' The natare of the oocoospheres and rhabdospheres ' (2 pL)« 
Y. H. Blaokman, < Cyfeological features of fertilization and related 
phenomena in Pinus sylvestris * (8 pi.). 



BOOK'J^OTES, NEWS, dc. 



At the meeting of the Linnean Society on Dec. 1st, Mr. B. H. 
Biffen read a paper on the biology of Agaricus {CoUybia) veltUipes 
Fr. Pure cultures of this fungus were grown on blocks of sterilized 
horsechestnut wood kept moist with wads of cotton- wool soaked in 
water, under varying conditions of aeration and illumination. Four 
weeks after infection minute sclerotia were produced analogous to 
those found in some other species of CoUybia — e. g. in C. tuberosa. 
From these one or two sporophores were formed directly, similar, 
except in size, to those found in nature. They dry up in a week or 
two, and appear to be dead, but then produce a second crop of 
sporophores, which may in turn produce others, either from 
the piieus or stipes. It is therefore suggested that the great 
reduction in the sclerotia is to be correlated with this mode of 
vegetative reproduction, the sporophores themselves being able to 
function as sclerotia under certain conditions. On tracing the 
development of the sporophore, it was found that the gills were 
exposed from the first, and that the only approach to the formation 
of a velum partiale was afforded by the hairs of the recurved margin 
of the piieus pointing towards the stipes. It is thus completely 
gymnocarpic. A ** conducting- system" was found running through 
the stipes and lower part of the piieus into the gills, where it ended 
in bulbous dilations, or in the cystidia. The hyph» of the cortex 
of the upper part of the piieus turn outwards and give rise to three 
distinct sets of hairs. As no evidence could be found for the 
formation of mucilage by these, it was suggested that the sliminess 
of the piieus is due to a quantity of water being held among them 
by capillarity. Microscopic examination of a series of infected 
blocks showed that the mycelium first formed in the wood elements 
became broken up into oidia, which quickly germinated and so gave 
rise to a large mycelium. The destruction of the wood is due to 
the corroding out of definite tracks in the cellulose walls of the 
thickening layers of the wood elements. The lignin of the middle 
lamella is left unaltered even in much-diseased wood. If, however, 
xylose-yielding substances are extracted from the blocks before 
infection, the lignin is attacked ; although, if the extracted blooks 
are treated with a dilute solution of cane-sugar, the hyphsd again 
attack the cellulose only. 

Mb. J. B. Cabruthebs, who went to Ceylon in the autumn of 
1897, is expected home about the end of this month. He went out 
at the request of the Planters' Association of Ceylon to investigate a 
disease that was working havoc among the cacao trees, as much as 
fifty per cent, of the cacao crop being *< destroyed or rendered of much 



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BOOK-NOTES, MBWS, ETO. 47 

inferior valne." The two reports which Mr. Garruthers has already 
issued in March and October indicate most successful results, not 
only in diagnosing the disease but in suggesting cures, and, what 
is of still more importance, in advising measures that will prevent 
it from spreading. 

Dante's Garden, " with legends of the flowers,** by Rosemary A. 
Cotes (Methuen ; sm. 8vo, pp. 110, price 8s. 6d. net), is a very 
pretty and entirely unnecessary little book. If Dante had said 
much about flowers, and if the author had dealt only with this, 
the collection of passages might have been interesting; but he said 
very little. Mr. Paget Toynbee, who writes a short preface, says 
" sometimes a point has been stretched in order to include such 
flowers as the narcissus, the veronica, and the passion-flower [not 
to mention the daisy and the star of Bethlehem] , to which Dante 
does not actually refer, but the reader will probably not be inclined 
to cavil on this account." That depends on the reader : for our- 
selves, we not only ** cavil " at, but regard as absurd, the introduction 
of the passion-flower, which was not known to exist until long after 
Dante's time. As to the '* legends," they are of the baseless order 
which cause confusion and despair to the critical folklorist : anything 
more ridiculous than the story of what happened to St. Augustine 
"on his tours round the south of England" we have never met 
with, and his sermon on the daisy chain must be entirely the out- 
come of the author's by no means brilliant imagination. 

The Boyal Horticultural Society has published a Catalogue of 
the lAndley Library ^price 2s. 6d.), which should be of service to the 
Fellows of the Society and to others who may wish to consult the 
books stored at 117, Victoria Street, and who for that purpose need 
to know of what the library consists. A short introduction gives 
the history of its formation, the body of the book being occupied by 
the catalogue proper, arranged under authors. It appears to be 
carefully done, but it is to be regretted that each page is not headed 
with the name of the author under notice, as is done in all good 
catalogues : at present one opens upon ** Text Book of Botany " or 
" French edition," and it is necessary to turn back to find the con- 
text. A short list of the MS. Journals and correspondence and of 
the portraits in the Society's rooms is appended; the former 
include those of G. Don (1821-28), D. Douglas (1823-27). J. Forbes 
(1822-28), R. Fortune (1842-46), T. Hartweg (1886-47), J. Macrae 
(1824-26), J. D. Parks (1828), and J. Potts (1821-22). 

The Annals of Botany for December contains a very interesting 
biography of George Bentham by Sir Joseph Hooker. 

Althouqh the language in which Dr. Grecescu's new Flora of 
Boumania {ConspectuL FLorei Romaniei : Bucuresti, Tipograflca 
Dreptatea; Berlin, Friedlander: 8vo, pp. 886: 'price 16 lei) is 
unfamiliar, it is evident that he has given us in this handsome and 
well-pruited volume an extremely careful account of the botany of 
that region. The bibliography is both full and critical, and includes 
the plants of both early and recent collectors : thus the species 
enumerated by Robert Townson in his Travels in Hungary (1797) 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



48 B00K-M0TB8, MBWS, BTO. 

are duly taken up, and are sometimes referred to species other than 
those to which they have been assigned — e. g. '* Saxifraga nvularU 
Townson non L." = S. carpatica. There are new species — e. g. 
four Hieracia, and new names — Ononis tpinescmt, which = 0, spinosa 
M. Bieb. non L. ; these, we think, should have been accompanied 
by a Latin diagnosis. The book is clearly one which will repay 
careful investigation. The vernacular names, which look very odd 
to English eyes, are very fully given. 

Mr. J. Q* Bakbb, who retires from the Keepership of the Eew 
Herbarium on the 12th of this month, will be succeeded by Mr. 
W. B. Hemsley. 

Wb are glad to see that the second part of Mr. Fryer's Mono- 
graph of British Potamogetons has appeared. 

A MBW part (the 24th) of M. Pierre's Flore ForesUere de la 
Cochinchine has been issued, bearing the date Sept. 1, 1898. It 
contains numerous new species, with figures, of Anacardiaceay 
Connaracea, and LeguminoscB, We observe that, either by accident 
or design, the name Buchanania is printed throughout Buchaniana 
— a form hitherto unknown. 

Wb have received the first part of what will evidently be an 
important work — Symbola Antillana, <'seu Fundamenta Flora 
IndisB Occidentalis," by Prof. Urban (Berlin, Bomtraeger : Byo, 
pp. 192, price 10m. 80). This instalment is devoted to the biblio- 
graphy of the subject, and is very carefully and exhaustively done 
— indeed it seems to us almost ot^^rdone, so full is the information 
given as to individual papers of comparatively little importance. 
We cannot think that it is necessary to furnish papers which can 
only be referred to once in the work with an abridged title and a 
place in the bibliography ; thus — to take the first example we open 
at — Mr. G. L. PoUard'd paper entitled *' Cassia proboscidea u. sp." is 
abridged *' Poll. Cass, prob.," and similar examples are numerous. 
But the more important contributions to our knowledge of West 
Indian botany are admirably treated ; to Patrick Browne and his 
work, for example, eleven pages are devoted, full of important and 
useful information. We are glad to see abundant testimony to the 
usefulness of the Biographical Index of British. Botanists^ first pub- 
lished in this Journal. 

A YEAB ago we noticed the first volume of a Botanisches Bilder- 
buck fur Jung und Alt^ by Franz Bley, and we now receive from 
the publisher (Gustav Schmidt, Berlin) the second instalment, 
containing the plants to be met with from June to September. As 
in the first volume, there are twenty-four plates, each containing 
nine small, but very pretty and accurate, coloured figures. There 
is appropriate text, by H. Berdrow, and the volume (in a pretty 
cover) is not dear at 6 marks. 

Thb third part of Mr. Hiern's Catalogue of the Welvidtsch 
Collections makes its appearance as we are going to press. W« 
hope to say something about it in our next issue. 



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49 

THE ALGA-FLOBA OP OAMBBIDGESHIBE. 

By G. S. West, B.A., A.E.C.S., 

Soholar of St. John's OoUege, Cambridge. 

(Plates 894-896.) 

YsBT little is known concerning the Freshwater Alg® of the 
eastern counties of England, only a few scattered records for 
Norfolk and Essex'*' and two lists of Hertfordshire Diatomsf having 
been published. As yet no work has been done at the algte of 
Cambridgeshire, and Uie present paper is one which will serve as a 
basis upon which the alga-flora of the county can be gradually 
accumulated. It is the result of an examination of a large quantity 
of material collected systematically from various parts of the county 
during the past few years, the collections being made at all seasons 
of the year, and often in this way from the same locality under 
varying conditions. The greater part of the collections were made 
by myself, but I am also indebted to my brother, W. West, Jun., 
B.A., for some gatherings from several places in the county. The 
whole district yields but a meagre assortment of this class of plants, 
and I doubt very much whether any other county in England, of 
equal area, possesses so poor an alga-flora. Taken as a whole, the 
collections were exceptionally poor, little variety in the way of 
species being found; and it has only been by a very diligent search, 
in the light of much previous experience, that I hskve been enabled 
to obtain many of the species included in the following account. 
Most orders of the Ohlorophycesa (or green alge) are represented to 
a greater or less extent, and the Myiophycese (or blue-green algsd) 
are moderately represented, those forms bearing heterocysts being 
fewer than those without ; but the Floridesd (or red algse) are only 
represented by a single species, and the FucoideaB (or brown algsd), 
of which only a few freshwater genera exist, not at all. 

The geological formations of the county, factors which play 
such an important part in determining the alga-flora of a district, 
are particularly unsuitable for the existence of an extensive and 
varied collection of alg», although it is highly probable that many 
good things existed on Gamlingay Heath (situated on the Lower 
Greensand) prior to the time it was drained. The topography of 
the county is not sufficiently diversified, and, owing to the general 
low level, none of the peculiar mountain gatherings are forthcoming, 
few Myxophycete being found, and, comparatively, still fewer Des- 
mids. The scardty of the latter is remarkable, only ten out of 
twenty-four British genera being represented, and these but scantily. 

The two most fruitful localities for Desmids are undoubtedly 
the fens at Wicken and Chippenham, each being a small remnant 

* M. G. Cooke, British Desmids^ and also in Grevillea at various times ; 
W. West & G. S. West, *Contrib. Freshw. Alg. S. of England,' Joum. Boy. 
Mier. 800. 1897, 467-511, pi. vi. & vii. 

t I. Bobinson, Trans. Hertfordsh. Nat. Hist. Soo. iii. 1-9 (1884) ; iv. 196- 
200 (1887). 

JouBNAL OF Botany.— Vol. 87. [Feb. 1899.] b 

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50 THE ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGESHIBE. 

of almost primsBval fen ; but even these are far from prolific. The 
small pools on the latter, containing Chara hUpida and a reduced 
form of Uti-icidaria vulgaiis, yielded some rather striking species, 
as also did the pools and peaty ditches on Wicken Fen containing 
UtficiUaria vulgaris and Nympkaa alba. The straage appearance of 
Cosmarium anceps, C, angustatiim ^ and C Holmiense at Chippenham 
is worthy of mention, these species being as a rule entirely confined 
to upland or snbalpine districts, being a marked feature of the 
dripping carboniferous grits and shales of the Pennine Chain and of 
similar situations among the older rocks of the Lake District, North 
Wales, &c. They are notably absent from the south-eastern 
counties of England, and to them may be added C. speciosum, 
which may be placed in the same category, although it is found in 
Epping Forest, Essex. RosweU Pits, Ely, was found to be a 
locality productive beyond the average, and not a few uncommon 
species were obtained from Dernford Fen, about one mile south of 
Shelford. The chalk districts of the south-east of the county yield 
practically no algsB, and the numerous ditches and drains of the 
northern and central parts — ^many of the larger of which have been 
in existence since the seventeenth century — exhibit a monotony 
which could only be found in a low-lying level country. The entire 
absence of submerged Sphagnum and Sphagnum bogs causes a 
corresponding absence of many forms of algffi, and especially 
certain Desmids, which are more or less exclusively found in such 
localities. Some of these, such as Cylindrocystis Brebissonii, 
Clostei'ium sttiolatum, Tetmemorus gramUatus^ MicrasUrias ttimcata, 
Euastrum binale^ Staurastrum, margaritacsum, &c., are really common 
and widely distributed species throughout the British Isles, and their 
absence from Cambridgeshire is therefore all the more noteworthy. 
On the whole I think the Diatoms may be considered as mode- 
rately representative, although most of the upland forms are 
naturally absent, and there is a marked absence of species belonging 
to the genera Eunotia and Melosira. I say "most of the upland 
forms " because there are a few found at Wicken and Chippenham, 
such as Achnanthulium flexsllum, Epithemia Argus var. alpeslris, 
and Eunotia flexellum var. biceps, which are precisely analogous in 
their distribution to those Desmids (Cosmarium ancepsy 0. angus- 
latum, and C, Holmiense) previously mentioned, and the presence of 
these species in the marshes of a flat country only about ten feet 
(or less) above the sea-level is quite inexplicable to me, as their 
natural home is amongst the mosses and algsd of the rocky gills and 
glens of the mountainous portions of the British Isles and other 
parts of Europe ; it is one of those strange facts in the study of the 
distribution of these plants which are being continually brought 
forward by the advancement of our knowledge in this direction, and 
concerning which algologists can at present offer no opinion. A 
precise parallel to this is found in the occurrence of Cetrariaidandica 
(Iceland moss) on some of the Lincolnshire heaths, a species v^ith 
the distribution — ** Frigid and Alpine Europe, N. America, and 
Himalayas.'** 

* LeightoD, The Lichen-flora of Great Britain, 1879, 91. 

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THE ALOA-PLOBA OF OAMBRIDOBSHIRE. 51 

Of recent years, and since the publication of the latest English 
text-books, the classification of the freshwater algaB has changed 
very greatly. Many of the old orders and families, founded on merely 
transitory or conditional characters, have had to be abolished, and 
a state more or less of chaos has had to be reduced and consolidated 
into what may now be fairly claimed to be the foundation of a 
natural system. In the Ghlorophycesd many of the genera con- 
sidered at one time as doubtfully distinct have been proved either 
to be valid or identical with others. Uormiscia and Ulothrix have 
been xmited under the first-named genus, GlceocystU and Chloro- 
eoceum under Glcsocystis, taid the characters which constituted the 
genera Mougeotia, Mesocarpus, Staurospermum, Plagiospermum, and 
CraUrospermum have all been found to be present in one species.* 
Wille's discovery of the occurrence of oogonia and antheridia in 
Cylindrocapsa\ has necessitated the removal of this plant from the 
Palmellacesa to a new order — Cylindrocapsaceae — in close proximity 
to the CBdogoniacesB ; and the discovery of sexual organs in Aphano- 
chaUX also requires a transference of this genus from the Ghsato- 
phoreffi to the GoleochaBtaceffi. The energetic investigations of 
Prof. G. von Lagerheim and others have shown that many of the 
Protococcaceaa, which were regarded at one time as doubtfully 
distinct and in consequence relegated by Bennett and Murray§ to 
the " Protophyta," are really distinct organisms possessed of a 
complete, if simple, life-history of their own. 

Bornet and Flahault's Revision des NostocacSes Heterocy$tSes\\ and 
Gomont's Monographie des OscUlariSes,^ two splendid works the 
value of which cannot be over-estimated, have put the filamentous 
Myxophycesd in a new aspect, but the Ghroococcacesa yet remains 
in a state of considerable confusion. The comparative neglect of 
this order by many algologists is clearly shown by the fact that in 
The Freshwater Alga of the United States , by the late Rev. Francis 
Wolle, it occupies only eleven out of a total of 889 pages. An 
explanation of this may be forthcoming from the following passage 
quoted from his book. On p. 880 he says: — **It is now clearly 
evident that all of these so-called unicellular plants constitute 
nothing more or less than conditions in the plant-life of higher 
forms.'* I maintain that this statement is by no means proven. 
As is well known, those habitats in which Ghroococcaceous plants 
mainly flourish are those which also furnish a prolific growth of many 
Nostoceaa, Scytonemaoesa, ctnd SirosiphoniaceaB ; but, does the fact 
of their association together and their ability to live only under the 
same conditions of environment necessitate that they should be 

• Mougeotia calcarea Wittr. * Om Gotl. och 01. S6tv.-Alg.,' Bih. till K. Sv. 
yet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 1, no. 1, 40-42, t. ii. 

t WUle in Warming, Haandbog i den Syst. Botan. 80. 

I Huber, * Sur V Aphanochate repeiis et sa r^produotion seza^e,' Boll. Soc. 
Bot. Fr. torn, zli, Sess. extraord. p. xciv. t. vii. 

S A. W. Bennett & G, Murray, A Hatidbook of Gryptogamic Botany, 

II Ann. des Soi. Nat. 188&-8, 7e s^e, iii.-Yii. 
ir L.c. 1892, 7e s^rie, xv.-xvi. 

E 2 



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52 THE ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDaESHIBK. 

stages in the growth of some higher forms of Nostooaoe®? Is 
this a saffioient reason for Wolle*s statement* that '<all the forms 
of this family are probably mere conditions of development of 
higher forms " ? Or for Itzigsohn's statement! — " I have observed 
these dimorphose Chroococcus cells associated with species of To/y- 
pothrix, and believe that all the forms described as Chroococcus are 
nothing more or less than spores of Nostocesd*'? I have studied 
these plants in their native habitats for many years, at all seasons 
of the year and under a great variety of conditions of humidity, 
light, and temperature, and the answer I unhesitatingly give is — 
No: certainly not. Nor is it for me to comment here on the 
]9recipitation with which most of Wolle's observations were made, 
that having been done elsewhere, | but rather to indicate the 
difficulties which beset the investigator of this problem. The 
reproduction of the NostocesB, ScytonemacesB, &c. by means of 
homogones is a fact which can be studied and confirmed even by 
the most casual observer, and the presence of spores other than 
homogones in Hapalosiphon,^ Plectonema,\\ and other genera, is not 
a very difficult matter to demonstrate. These spores may be in 
some cases " Chroococctu-hke forms," but a critical examination 
will, as a rule, readily discriminate between the stages of the higher 
plants and the Chroococcaceous algsd with which they are inter- 
mingled. The difficulties in attempting to follow out the Ufe-histories 
of these algsa are not merely due to the confused intermingling of 
various stages of plants belonging to many different genera, but 
also to the fact that these plants, if isolated for cultivation from the 
polymorphic matrix in which they occur, will, if they develop at all, 
often do so in an unnatural manner. This being so, may not some 
of those observations which have been put forward as a definite 
proof that the ChroococcacesB are merely rudimentary stages (which 
pass through many generations before going on to the next stage) 
in the growth of higher plants, be based upon observations which 
in reality include stages of development of more than one species, 
or even more than one genus ? However, be that as it may, when 
we find a plate of the very crudest drawings, including many genera 
which are at the present day accepted as valid, all intermingled in 
a confusion similar to that in which they naturally occur, and a 
ticket at the side stating that they are all forms of one plant,1F is it 
to be accepted without a call for more evidence concerning the 
reproduction of these forms of plant-life ? 

* Freshwater Alga of the United States, 824. 

t Cfr. Wolle, L e. 834, a translation of a passage in Itzigsohn^s Skiszen zu 
einer Lehenegeechichte dee Hapaloeiphon JBrounlt, 1858. 

{ West & G. S. West, * N. Amer. Desm.,' Trans. Linn. Soo. bot. S ser. ▼. 239. 

§ Hansgirg in Oesterreioh. Bot. Zeitsohr. 1884, xz3dy. 898 ; West in Joom. 
Linn. Soo. bot. xzx. 272, pi. zv. f. 28-88; West & G. S. West in Joam. Bot. 
1897, 241. 

II In Plectonema peculiar roanded thiok-walled cells of a yellowish odour 
are sometimes met with at or near the bases of the branches. 
% WoUe, L c. pi. olxzxiv. and pi. cxoi. 

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THE ALOA-FLORA OF OAMBRIDOESHIRE . 



58 



The arrangement of the alg» in this paper is based upon a oon- 
rideration of all the recent work at the groapi and follows with few 
deviations that which is set down in the Jouitial of the Boyal 
MicroscopuMl Society^ 1897, 467-611.* The few alterations consist 
in the elevation of the subfamily Conferveas to the rank of a family 
— ConfervaoesB — and the removal of the genus Ophiocytivm from the 
&mily Palmellace» to the &mily Gonfervacead, reasons for which 
are given under the genus. 

Much trouble has been taken to ensure that the nomenclature 
employed is as accurate as possible, and in the many instances in 
which synonyms have been given this has been rendered necessary 
owing to the inaccurate nomenclature of the latest British text- 
books on this subject.! The descriptions and figures in these 
compilations by Cooke are too imperfect and inaccurate to be of the 
real service they ought to be to a thorough student of this group of 
plants, and| in addition to this, the books do not contain more tlian 
half the known British species, including many of the most abundant. 

All measurements are given in microns or /a (1 /a = '001 mm.). 

SUMMABY OF GeNEEA AND SpEOIES. 



Floridem. 


OSNXBi. 


8PB0IIB. 


TABIETIES 
AMD rOBMS. 


1 

6 

2 

18 

12 

28 

14 
12 
82 


1 

20 
4 
28 
97 
62 

39 

21 

187 


^^ 


CMorophycea. 

Gonfervoidesd HeterogamaB... 
Siphonese 


— 


GonfervoidesB Isogamaa 

Goniufiratffi 


2 

8 


ProtocoocoidecB 


8 


Myxophycea. 

HormofifonesB 




GhroococcoideaB 


___ 


BticilLariea 


34 






Total 


124 


409 


47 



Of this total of 409 species and 47 varieties, 85 species and 
8 varieties have not previously been recorded for the British 
Isles, these being denoted by an asterisk {^) placed in front of 
them. There are also 9 species and 2 varieties which are here 
described for the first time. 

The localities are arranged under the eight areas into which the 
county is divided by Babington in his Flora of Cambridgeshire, 
These areas are certainly convenient, but hardly natural, and have 
little or no significance with regard to the distribution of the algaa ; 
they are as follows:— 1. Gambridge; 2. Royston; 8. Wimpole; 

• West & G. S. West, « A Oontrib. to the Ereshw. Alg. of the S. of England.' 
t M. C. Cooke, BriHsh Fre$hwater Alga, 1882-4 ; also BrUUh Desm^t, 1887, 



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64 THB ALOA- FLORA OF OAMBBIDOESHIBE. 

4. Cottenham; 5. Bnrwell; 6. Ely; T.Chatteris; 8. Wisbeach. 
The first two are the least productive, the Cambridge area being a 
particularly barren one. , 

The county is by no means well investigated ; those (Edogonia- 
ceaB and ZygnemacesB which I have been unable to obtain in proper 
fruiting condition (and there are many of them) are not recorded, 
and there are whole districts, such as Wisbeach and Whittlesey, 
from which no collections have been made. Yet, notwithstanding 
these and other defects, I hope this paper will help to fill up one of 
those gaps in the alga-flora of England, the knowledge of which is 
essential before the singular distribution of these small plants can 
be adequately understood. 

Class FLORIDE^. 
Fam. Chantbansiaoeje. 

1. Chantransia ohaltbea (Lyngb.) Fries. 8. Sheep's Green , 
Cambridge : June, 1898 ; growing on Amblystegium nparium at the 
mill-race. 

Class CHLOROPHYCE^. 
Order CoNFEBvomEiE Heterogamy. 

Fam. CoLEOGHiETAGE^. 

2. CoLEooHJETE souTATA Br^b. Generally epiphytic on aquatic 
phanerogamous plants, and probably abundant, though easily over- 
looked. 8. Hardwick; Wimpole Park. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 
7. In ponds near March. 8. In ponds, Guyhirne, attached to 
Vaiichetia dichotoma. 

8. C. IRREGULARIS Pringsh. Rare. 6. Pools, Chippenham Fen, 
attached to the submerged stems of Phragmites communis, 8. In 
ponds, Guyhirne, attached to Myriophyllum, 

4. ApHANocHiETE REPENS Berth. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; 
Lord's Bridge. 5. Fordham. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. The bristles 
of Aphanochate Berth, are of a simple nature, sheathed at the base, 
and not septate ; the chlorophyll masses are parietal. 

*6. A. piLosissiMA Schmidle, *Beitrage zur Algenfl. des Schwarz- 
walds und des Oberrheims,' Hedwigiay Bd. xxxvi. 1897, 6 (sep.), 
t. ii. fig. 1-8. Diam. cell. 19 ft ; altit. circ. 9-10 fi. 8. Wimpole 
Park, attached to (Edogonium sp. 

Fam. (Edogoniackb. 
*6. BuLBooofiTE sEBsius Wittr. ' Om Gotl. ooh 01. Sotv.-Alg.,' 
Bih. till K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 1, no. 1, 18, t. i. f. 2. Forms 
with large oogonia. 5. Wicken Fen: Aug. 1898. Crass, cell, veget, 
19-28 ft ; altit. 4-plo major ; crass, oogon. 69-70 ft ; altit. 59-68 fi; 
crass, nannandr. 11-18 ft; altit. 24-29 ft. 

7. B. ellipsospora, sp. n. (PL 894, figs. 1, 2). Gogoniis magnis, 
depresso-globosis, sub setis terminalibus sitis ; episporio laevi ; 
dissepimento cellularum sufiultoriarum in suprema parte harum 
sito; nannandribus bicellularibus in parte superiori oogoniarum 
sedentibus, multe breviori quam oogoniis, oellula basali (stipite) 



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THE ALeA-FIX)BA OP CAMBBIDOBSHIRB. 55 

panUo onrvato. Grass, cell. y^et. 19-21 fi ; altit. 8-5-pIo major ; 
orass. oogon. 67-69 fi ; altit. 59--^l fi ; orass. nannandr. 10-18*5 /x ; 
altit. 25-84 /a. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely ; among Utricularia vulgaris^ 
Jiilj, 1898. 

Perhaps the nearest species to this are B. borealis Wittr. and 
B, setigera (Both) Ag. From the former it is distinguished by its 
comparatively longer cells and much larger oogonia, and from the 
latter by its smaller cells, the form of the oogonia, the smooth 
oospores, and the position of the septum cutting off the supporting 
cells. 

8. B. suBsncPLBx Wittr. 7. Ponds near March. 

9. B. BBOTANouLABis Wittr. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

10. (Edogonium ourvum Pringsh. 8. Wimpole Park. 

*11. (B. FBAGiLB Wittr. 7. Ponds 8. of March. Crass, cell, 
veget. 12*5-14*5 fi; altit. 8^5-plo major; crass, oogon. 44 /a; 
altit. 50 fi ; crass, oospor. 40 p, ; altit. 41 ft. 

*12. (E. Pybulum Wittr. var. obesum Wittr. 2. Dernford Fen, 
1 mile 8. of Shelford. Crass, cell, veget. 12*5-18*5 /a ; altit. 2^- 
plo major; crass, oogon. 84-85 /a; altit. 84*5-87 /a; cr&ss. oospor. 
28-80 fi ; altit. 28-80 /a. 

18. (E. 7EBNALB (Hass.) Wittr. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 8. of 
Shelford. 

14. (E. Vauohebh (Le CI.) A. Br. 8. Wimpole Park. 

15. <E. OBLONOUM Wittr. 8heep's Green, Cambridge. 

16. (E. Boran (LeCl.) Pringsh. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. 
of Shelford. 

17. CE. UNDULATUM (Br6b.) A. Br. *var. MosBiusn Schmidle 
(Sussw. Alg. aus Austral., Flora, 1896, Bd. 82, Heft 8, 297, t. ix. 
f. 1). 5. Chippenham Fen. 

18. CE. orassipellitam, sp. n. (PI. 894, figs. 8-5). (E. dioicum, 
nannandrium ; oogoniis singulis (raro binis), subglobosis vel glo- 
boso-oboviformibus, poro superiore aperto; oosporis globosis vel 
subglobosis, psBne oogonia complentibus ; membrana oosporarum 
matararum crassissima glabraque; cellulis suffultoriis paullo 
tumidnlis vel eadem forma ac cellulis vegetativis ceteris; uan- 
nandria longis et subrectis, in cellulis suffnltoriis sedentibus, 
antheridio nnicellulari. Crass, cell, veget. 81-86 /a ; altit. 8-4-plo 
major; crass, oogon. 57-68 /a; altit. 61-77 ft; crass, oospor. 
54-65 /a; altit. 54-71 /a; crass, nannandr. 18*5-17/^; altit. 86- 
95 /a; crass, cell, antherid. 7*5-9*5 /a; altit. 18*5-16 /a; crass. 
membr. oospor. 5*5-7*5 p,. 8. Twenty-foot Kiver, between March 
and Guyhirne ; July, 1898. 

This species seems to be quite characteristic, being the only 
dioecious nannandrous species having vegetative cells over 80 /x in 
thickness and at the same time globose oogonia ; moreover, the 
mature oospores, which scarcely fill the oogonia, have a singularly 
thick wall, and are of a golden-brown colour. It is probably nearest 
(E. HutchifiM Wittr. (Cfr. Bcergesen, * Nogle Ferskv. al^. fra 



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56 THE ALGA-FLORA OF GAMBRIDaBSHIBE. 

Island/ Sflsrtryk af Botanisk Tidsskr. Bd. 2^2, hft. 2, Ejobenhavn, 
1898, 186, f. 2.) 

19. (E. Boson (LeOl.) Br6b. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

20. (E. liANDSBOBOUGHn (Hass.) Kiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 
S. of Shelford. 

Fam. CTLINDBOOAPSAOBiE. 

*21. Oylindbooapsa geminblla WoUe, var. minob Hansg. Very 
scarce. 8. Sheep's Green, Oambridge. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 
Grass, cell, yeget. 15 /x. DUtrib, — Bohemia and TJnited States. 

Order SiPHONEiE. 

Fam. YAUOHEBIAOEiE. 

22. Yauohebia sessilis (Vauch.) DO. 8. Sheep's Green, Oam- 
bridge ; Orwell ; Wimpole Park. 5. Ohippenham Fen. 8. Guy- 
hime. In a gathering of this species from Sheep *s Green, Oambridge, 
in July, 1898, some carious globular swellings were noticed at 
intervals in many of the filaments, frequently situated quite close 
to the oogonia, and generally giving rise to one or more branches 
of varying length. They were most probably " galls " produced by 
one of the Botifera. 

28. V. DioHOTouA (L.) kg. 4. Biver 0am, between the " Pike 
and Eel" and Baitsbite. 5. BurwellLoad. 8. In ponds, Gay hime. 

24. V. TEBBESTBis Lyngb. 2. Great Shelford, by the road- 
side. 6. Near Ely, on damp ground. 

Fam. Hydbogabtbaoea. 

25. BoTBYDiUM GBANULATUU (L.) Gtcv. 4. Abundant on mud 
in a drying ditch by the side of the Madingley Boad, about 1 mile 
from Oambridge : Oct. 1898. 5. Between Swaffham Prior and the 
Beacon Oourse, Newmarket Heath, on drying-up chalk mud : July, 
1895 ; W. West, Jun. 

Order OoNFBBvomKS Isogahb. 
Fam. Ulvaobjb. 

26. Pbasiola obispa (Lightf.) Ag. 1. Trumpington Streety 
Cambridge. 

27. Entebomobpha intestinalis (L.) Link. This plant appears 
to be generally distributed in the rivers and drain-dykes throughout 
the county. 8. B. 0am, Sheep's Green. 4. B. 0am at Baitsbite. 
5. Burwell Load. 6. B. Ouse, Ely ; Sutton and Mepal, in ponds. 
7. The Washes, Sutton ; Old Biver Nene, March. 8. Guyhirne. 

Fam. Ulotbiohaoea. 
Subfam. Ulotbiohe^. 

28. HoBMmiuM PABiETiNUM (Vauch.) Eiitz. 1. Frequent about 
Oambridge. 5. Burwell. 7. March. 

29. HoBinsciA subtilis (Eiitz.) De Toni. 5. Ohippenham Fen. 
Var. vABiABiLis (Eiitz.) Eirchii. Syn. Uhikrix variahHU Eiitz. 

1. Oambridge. 8. Ooton ; Wimpole Park, 



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THE ALOA-FLOBA OP OAMBRmOESHIRE. 57 

80. H. TENUIS (Eiitz.) De Toni. Syn. Ulothrix tenuis Eatz. 
8. Wimpole^Park. 

81. H. MONiLiFOBMis (Eiitz.) Babenh. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

82. Badiofilnm flavescens, sp.n. (PL 894, figs. 10, 11). B. 
cellolis submediocre, late et transverse ellipticis, ceUulis conjunctis 
arete in filis longis flexuosis ; contentum chlorophyllosum cellularom 
cum pyrenoidibus singulis, luteo-viride delude virideo-fuscescente. 
Long. cell. 6'5-8*5 ft ; lat. cell. 7-5-10*6 /a. 

6. Wicken Fen : Aug. 1898. 

This species possesses a very distinct mucous envelope which 
exhibits a well marked radial striation, and the cells contain a 
parietal chlorophyll-plate with one pyrenoid, the remaining space 
being occupied by a yellowish fluid and a number of small granules. . 
It is distinguished from R, conjunctivum Schmidle ('Aus der 
Chloroph.-Fl. der Torfstiche zu Virnheim/ Flora, 1894, Heft 1, 
47, t. vii. f. 4, 5) by its elongated flexuose filaments, and its larger 
cells, which are broadly elliptical, as well as by the distinctive 
colour of the older plants. From R, apiculatum West & G. S. West 
in Joum. Bot. 1895, 52 (cfr. also Enut Bohlin, * Die Alg. der erst. 
Begn. Expedit.,' Bih. till E. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 28, Afd.iii. 
no. 7, t. i. f. 7, 8), it is distinguished by its larger size, the form of 
its cells, which are not apiculate, and the colour of their contents. 

Subfam. Ohatophobbjs. 

88. Hbbpostbibon rbpens (A. Br.) Wittr. Syn. Aphanochate 
repena A. Br. non Berth. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
8. Wimpole Park. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely, and ponds about Ely. 

The bristles of HerposUiron N&g. are articiUar and very similar 
in nature to the piliferous apices of a Chatophora. Both this plant 
and Aphanochate repens BertJi. occur as epiphytes on larger algsd, 
especially on Cladophora and large species of (Edogonium, and on 
Lemna (especially L. trisulca), Elodea, &c. Very fine specimens of 
Herpogteiron repens (A. Br.) Wittr. were observed on Elodea cana- 
demis, thickly covering both faces of the leaves, the procumbent 
branches of the alga in some cases closely following the contours of 
the cells of the Elodea^ and for this reason exhibiting a marked 
reticular structure. In some of the examples hypnospores were 
present. 

84. NoBDSTBDTiA OLOBOBA (Nordst.) Borzi. 8. Hardwick. 

85. Ghjetophoba pisifobmis (Both) Ag. 1. In ditch, Trumping- 
ton. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Hardwick. 7. Near March. 

86. G. GoBNU Dahs: (Both) Ag. Syn. C endivafoUa auct. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Hardwick. 

87. G. SLBOANB (Both) Ag. 6. Near Ely. 

88. Dbapabnaudia plumosa (Vauch.) Ag. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

89. STiasooLONiuM TBNUE (Ag.) Babcuh. 8. Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge. 

40. 8. FAsnoiATUM Eiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 



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58 NEW SOBfALI-LAND PLANTS. 

*41. Pbotodbbica yibidb Eiitz. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford, on Cladophora cmpata. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge, 
on Elodea canade^isis, 6. Burwell Load, on Glyceria fiuitans, 
7. The Washes, Sutton, on Olycena fluitans. 

Although this plant is as yet unrecorded for the British Isles, 
I have no doubt that it is more or less generally distributed 
throughout the country, as I have met with it from several widely 
separated districts. It agrees well with Kiitzing*s description, and 
also with the description and figures given by Borzi {Studi Algologicif 
Fascioloii. 245-287, t. xxi.-xxiv.). It occurs as an epiphyte on the 
leaves of many aquatic phanerogams, forming a closely adherent 
subparenchymatous stratum, which is generally fringed by fila- 
mentous outgrowths of unequal extent. These characters are also 
possessed by Rntocladia gracilis Hansg. (' Ueber Entocladia Beinke 
und Pilinia Kiitz.,' Flora, 1888, no. 88, t. xii. f. 6-15), a plant 
which was placed under the genus Endoderma by De Toni in 
Notarisia, iv. (1888), 678, and shortly afterwards referred by 
Hansgirg (in Floray 1889, 58) to Eiitzing's genus Periplegmatium 
as P. gracile Hansg. Moreover, the cells of Protoderma viiide and 
Penplegmatium gracile are of the same size, and, as the plants have 
the same habit, I think they may be justly regarded as forms of 
one and the same thing. 

(To be oontinned.) 



NEW SOMALI-LAND PLANTS. 

TflE following are descriptions of some new species collected in 
Somali-land by Mrs. E. Lort Phillips and her friends in the winter 
of 1896-7 and presented to the British Museum. 

Otomeria oalycina Hiern. Sufi&utex ramosus lucidus fere 
glaber, ramulis foliosis apicem versus subglutinosus foliis op- 
positis anguste ellipticis lanceolatisve utrinque angustatis firme 
chartaceis 8-11 cm. longis 1-8^ cm. latis margine integerrimis 
tenuissime revolutis venis lateralibus 4-6 utrinque notatis super 
saturate viridibus subtus glaucescentibus, petiolis 8-12 mm. longis, 
stipulis brevibus apice lobulis 1-8 lanceolatis prsBditis, cymis termi- 
nalibus brevibus paucifloris vel dense plurifioris corymboso- 
hemisphsaricis, fioribus 5-7 cm. longis breviter pedicellatis, calyce 
turbinato-campanulato longitudinaliter 10-costato 12 mm. longo, 
limbi 5-partiti lobis omnibus subfoliaceis paulnm insBqualibus, 
basi intus cum corniculis parvis alternantibus, corollsB tubo elongate 
gracili faucem ovoideo-oblongam dense barbatam versus leviter 
dilatato, limbi lobis 5 subsBqualibus ellipticis 8-9 nmi. longis in 
SBstivatione induplicatim valvatis, staminibus 5 faucis basi insertis 
inclusis, filamentis brevissimis, antheris dorso affixis linearibus 
4 mm. longis bilocularibus nee reticulatim locellatis apice integris 
basi bifidis, polline globose IsBvigato, disco parvo annulari-lobulato, 
ovario bilooulari, stylo filiformi elongate exserto, stigmate bipartito, 



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NEW SOMALI-LAND PLANTS. 59 

segmentis brevibos incums, ovulis in locnlis numerosis, capsala 
depresso-obovoided 6 mm. longd, endocarpio comeo, seminibas 
numerosis. 

Hab. Prope Dimoleb. 

Otomeria rupestris Hiern. Frutionlus dicbotome ramosns 
fere glaber, ramalis foliosis divaricatis, foliis oppositis patulis 
elliptieo-lanceolatis utrinque angustatis cbartaceis 2-8^ em. longis 
5-12 mm. latis margine integerrimo tenuiter revolutis venis 
lateralibns 8 vel 4 ntrinqae notatis super yiridibns subtus pallidi- 
oribus, petiolis 1*5-8 mm. longis, stipulis brevibns apice dentibus 
1-8 pneditis, floribus solitariis vel in cymis pancifloris terminalibus 
abbreviatis dispositis subsessilibus 2 cm. longis, calyce 5-6 mm. 
longo, tubo 1*5-2 mm. longo turbinato-campanulato subanguloso 
costato, limbi partid lobis 5 vel 4 insequalibns nonnuUis subfoliaceis 
intns glandolis parvis interpositis, coroUsd lilacinsB tubo elongato 
iiauoem infundibuliformi-oblongam barbatam versus leviter dilatato, 
limbi lobis 5 snbaBqnalibas ovatis 8 mm. longis, staminibus 5 
faucis basi insertis inolusis, filamentis brevibus, antheris lineari- 
oblongis dorso affixis 2 mm. longis bilocularibns nee reticulatim 
locellfl^s apice integris basi emarginatis, stylo exserto apice bilobo, 
lobis linearibus apice incurvis. 

Hab. Prope Wagga ad 1890 m. alt. supra rupes nudas repens. 

Oldenlandia fasoionlata Hiern. Stirps ramosa, ut videtur 
perennis; ramis tenacibus, tenuiusculis, fere glabris, infra sub- 
lignosis, super herbaceis; foliis patentibus oppositis cum caateris 
paribus in axillis additis fasciculatis, sublinearibus, apice plus 
minusve acutatis basi cuneatis sessilibus hispidulo-scabridis 
6-25 mm. longis, marginibus lateralibus ssepius revolutis ; stipulis 
connatis vaginantibus brevibus truncatis in dentibus apicalibus subu- 
latis parvis deciduis desinentibus ; floribus axillaribus, patulis, tetra- 
meris, solitariis, subsessilibus, folia excedentibus, 24-86 mm. longis ; 
pedunculo florifero brevissimo ; calyce 4 mm. longo, tubo infundi- 
buliformi-obvoideo extus hispidulo, lobis 2^ mm. longis aequalibus 
ereotis persistentibus lanceolato-subulatis acutis breviter ciliatis ; 
corolla graciliter tubulosa, tubo 20-80 mm. longo extus minute pube- 
rulo, fauce infundibnliformi nud^, lobis lanceolatis obtusiusculis 
patulis 4 mm. longis ; staminibus 4, antb^s oblongis, sessilibus, 
2 mm. longis ad f aucem inseailiiyittehisis; stylo breviter exserto glabro ; 
eapsulis nonnunquam pedunculatis (pedunculo 8 mm. longo), cum 
sepalis persistentibus 5 mm. longis, bispidulis. 

Hab. Ad monte Wagga. 

Affinis 0. hngitubm Bitter v. Beck in Paulitscbke, Harar, p. 461, 
fig. 2 (1888), differt foliis magis fasciculatis brevioribus et corolUe 
lobis longioribus lanceolatis. 

Oldenlandia {Kohautia) Sohimpebi T. Anders, var. somalense 
Baker fll. Caulis erectus ramosus, foliis linearibus sessilibus 
quam iis O. Schimperi Anders, inferne minus fasciculatis et floribus 
capsulisque maj oribus. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 

An erect branching annual about 80 cm. high, branches pube- 



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OU NBW SOHALI-LilND PLANTS. 

rulona or sabsoabrid. Leaves linear, pointed, sessile, 2*5-8 om. 
long, tbe uppermost smaller, margins revolute, stipnles shortly oon< 
necting the leaf-bases, cuspidate. Flowers tetramerous, appa- 
rently purple, pedicellate in few-flowered cymes, pedicels 1 mm.- 
1 cm. or sometimes longer. Calyx ± 4 mm. long, very shortly 
hairy, lobes lanceolate-acuminate. Corolla-lobes of larger flowers 
about 6 mm. long, tube 8-9 mm. long. Stamens and style included. 
Capsule 8 mm. long. 

Differs from 0. Scfdmperi T. Anders, by its larger flowers and 
capsules. Leaves not so inclined to be fasciculate below. The 
flowers vary somewhat in size, the measurements given are 
applicable to the larger specimens examined, and are considerably 
in excess of those of typical O. Schwiperi ; even the smaller flowers 
are rather bigger than those in the type of this latter plant. It 
difiers from 0. obttuUoba Hiem by having larger capsules and 
larger coroUa-lobes. 

Heliolurysiim somalense Baker fil. Nanum ^ticosum divari- 
catim et copiose ramosum ; f oliis sessilibus lanceolatis acutis 
utrinque cinereo-tomentosis ; capitulis parvulis teretibas panel- 
floris corymbum densum terminalem capituliformem oonstita- 
entibus, involucri fohoUs imbricatis aureis scariosis oblongis vel 
ovato-obloDgis subacutis, floribus femineis ± 8 hermaphroditis 
centralibus sspisshne 5 vel 6; carpellis papillosis; pappi setis 
barbellatis. 

Hab. Upper Sheik. ** Flowers yellow.*' 

Dwarf, firuticose, root descending, 10 cm. long; divaricately 
and copiously branched, branches more or less cinereous-tomentose. 
Leaves sessQe, lanceolate, often about 7-8 mm. long. Capitula 
small, terete, congested at the ends of the branches (often about 
5-8 capitula together). Bracts of involucre imbricate, pauci- 
seriate, varying in shape according to position, oblong or oblong- 
ovate ; apex subacute or almost obtuse, scariose, varying somewhat 
in length, often about 2*5-8 mm., and about 1 mm. broad, of a 
shining deep straw-colour. Female florets frequently 8. Her- 
maphrodite florets 5 or 6. 

Allied to H, cymosum Less., and H. LastU Engler, Hochge- 
birgsflora, p. 480 (1892). 

Diooma (§ Eu-Diooma) somalense S. Moore. Fruticosa, ereota, 
intricate ramosa, ramulis strictis sparsim foliosis sursum nudis 
obtuse quadrangularibus minutissime albido-pruinoso-tomentosis 
deinde glabris, foliis parvis sessilibus auguste linearibus breviter 
apiculatis margine revolutis subtus cano-tomentellis, capitulis 
mediocribus vel parvis, involucri late campanulati phyllis multi- 
seriatis exterioribus recurvis lanceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis spinoso- 
acuminatis; pappi duplicis setis breviter barbellatis interioribus 
basi amplificatis exteriores SBquantibus. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain, and tops of hills above the Upper 
Sheik. 

Rami 0*8-^-5 cm. diam., cortice cinereo hao atque iliac rimoso 
obducti. Bamuli 0-1-0*28 om, diam., glandulis minutissimis im- 



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NBW SOMALI-LAND PLANTS. 61 

mersis ciebro induti. Folia 0*5-2*0 cm. long., 0*1-0'15 cm. lat., 
smmna sparsa et gradatim miniata, nonnnlla usque ad 0*2 cm. 
leducia, ereota vel patula, ima basi ampliata, costa media subtus 
eminente peroursa. Gapitula circa 1*8 cm. long., 1*8-2*0 cm. lat., 
pallide straminea ; phyUa extima 0*2-0*4 cm. long. ; media circa 
1*2 cm. long., deorsum 0*2 cm. lat. ; summa latiora et lineis 
duabus interruptis brunneo-rubris notata. Flores albi. Styli rami 
elongati. AchsBnia obscure oostata, more generis basi dense villosa, 
0*2 om. long., 0*15 cm. lat. Pappus 0*8 cm. long., albus. 

A very distinct species, with beads somewhat like those of 
D. tomentosum Cass. The densely branched habit, small leaves, 
and heads set on the top of the branchlets some distance above the 
uppermost leaves, are points by which this species can easily be 
distinguished among North-African ones. 

The style-arms of Dicoma are usually described as **very 
short," and this, at least in the case of specimens examined by me, 
is a mistake. The organs in question are elongated and thong-like, 
and, except at the tip, very closely adpressed, — so closely, indeed, 
that it requires a little patience to separate them, though in all pro- 
bability they come asunder spontaneously at an advcmced stage of 
flowering. What I mean will be readily understood on reference to 
Fitch's excellent figure of D. karagumm Oliv. in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
vol. xxix. t. 70. I have no doubt that the whole of what looks 
like the swollen upper part of the style in fig. 4 of that tab. is 
really the appressed style-arms, the style of species examined by 
me having had exactly the same appearance until separation of the 
two arms had been effected. 

Lasiostelma somalense Schlechter. Bamis virgatis, teretius- 
oalis, giabris, aphyllis, squamulis tantum minutis acuminatis hinc 
inde obsessis; racemo elongato laxe plurifloro; floribus Ulis L. 
Gerrardi Bchltr. {Brachystdmaf-ia Oerrardi Schlecht.) paulo minori- 
bu8 geminis in aullis sqoamorum, graciliter pedicellatis; pedicellis 
filiformibus giabris, flori fere SBquilongis ; calycis segmentis lanceo- 
latis aoutis giabris, erecto-patentibus, coroUaa tubo SBquilongis, 
0*4 cm. longis ; corolla campanulata 1*5 cm. longa, alte fissa, tubo 
cupuliformi hemisphserico, segmentis erecto-patentibus ligulato- 
spathulatis, conspicue apiculatis, extus giabris, intos marginibus 
pills fusoato-purpureis dense barbatis ; corona cupuliformi, seg- 
mentis 5 exterioribus bifidis, foliolis 5 interioribus ligulatis obtusis 
foliola exteriora duplo fere excedentibus, giaberrimis. 

In terra 8omalorum, loco speciali baud indicate. 

The genus Lasiostelma was founded by Bentham in the Gen. PL 
and placed by him into the tribe Marsdenieaiy and the first species 
was published by Oliver in Icones Plantarum^ t. 1449. 

In 1898 a plant was sent to me by Mr. J. M. Wood in Natal, 
which I found to be a genus of Ceropegiea and published it as 
Brachystelniaria, not thinking that Bentham could have made the 
mistake of placing it in Marsdeniea. After consulting the type in 
Eew during my last visit there of Lasiostelma Sandersoni^ I saw to 
my great surprise that it was my Brachystelmaria. 



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62 NEW SOMALI-LAND PLANTS. 

The genus Lasiostelma contains seven species — viz. L. Sandersoni 
Oliv. (Brachystelmananatalensis Schlecht.), L. Geiranii (B. Qerrardi 
Schlecht.), I/, longifoliuin (B, lontjifolia Schlecht.), L. viacropetalum 
(B, macropetalum Schlecht.), L, ramodsdmum (B. ramosissimum 
Schlecht.), L. somalense, and L, subaphyllum {Brachystelma sub- 
aphyllum K. Sch.). 

As to its affinity, our plant resembles most in habit L. sub- 
aphyllum, also from Somali-land; but it is very different in the 
shape of the petals and the structure of the corona. The colour 
of the flowers in the specimen at hand is pale brown with dark 
reddish spots, dark purple inside. 

Pterodiscus saccatus S. Moore. Subsucculenta, pusOla, 
minute lepidoto-pruinosa, caulibus abbreviatis simplicibus, foliis 
approximatis ascendentibus subsessiiibus lineari-lanceolatis margine 
undulatis raro denticulatis, pedicellis calyci subaequilongis, calycis 
lobis lanceolatis breviter acuminatis, coroUaB mediocris tubo satis 
angusto postice breviter sed distincte saccato deorsum coartato 
sursum cylindrico limbi lobis abbreviatis late rotundatis margine 
crispis anticis posticos paullo excedentibus, staminum longiorum 
fllamentis coroilaB tubum fere semiaequantibus, ovario ovoideo- 
oblougo, stylo crasso stamina excedente, lobis stigmaticis ellipticis. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 

Ehizoma deest. Exemplum unicum a nobis visum circa 
8*0 cm. alt. Gaules in sicco angulati, 0*18-0*2 cm. diam. 
Foliorum laminaB 1*0-1*7 cm. long., 0-2-0*25 cm. lat., apice 
plerumque curvataB, basi in petiolum alatum perbrevem desinentes. 
Pedunculi basi 2-glandulosi, 0*15 cm. long. Calyx 0*25 cm. et lobi 
ejus 0*2 cm. long. CorollsB purpureo-aurantiacesB ? tubus vix 
2*5 cm. long., deorsum 0*2 cm. diam., sursum gradatim usque ad 
0*5 cm. amplificatus, ipso sub limbo ad 0*4 cm. miniatus ; saccus 
obtusus 0*18 cm. long. ; limbi lobi antici 0*25 cm. long., circa 
0*4 cm. lat. Discas posticus ovario semisBquilongus. Stamioum 
longiorum fllamenta 1*1 cm. long. ; antherae omnes 0*28 cm. long. 
Staminodium 0*8 cm. long., sursum discolor. Ovarium 0*2 cm. 
et stylus 1*5 cm. long.; lobi stigmatici 0*15 cm. long. De fructibus 
inquirendum. 

This has much the look of very diminutive forms of P. speciosusy 
but it is entirely different from that plant, e.g. in its saccate 
corollas with much narrower and, indeed, altogether diversely 
shaped tube, and dissimilar limb. Judging from the description, 
P. angustifoliiis Engl, has some points of resemblance to the new 
spocies, from which, however, among other points, its very slender 
corolla serves at once as a distinguishing feature. The well- 
developed sac of P. saccatus is a noteworthy character. 

Pterodiscus undulatus Baker fil. Caulis basi incrassatus 
succulentus simplices vel ramosus; foliis superne approximatis 
inferne remotis erecto-patentibus viridibus oblongo-ovatis vel ovatis 
vel ellipticis utrinque plus minusve lepidotis in petiolum longius- 
culum basin versus angustatis margine undulatis vel obtuse 
dentatis ; pedicellis brevibus quam calycem vix longioribus ; sepalis 



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NEW SOHALl-LAND PLANTS. 68 

lanoeolatis, corolla externe lepidota qnam sepalis ± 9-plo loDgiorei 
antheras localis triangularibus, filamentis basin versus hirsutis, stylo 
tenui filiformi ultra stamina exserta, fruotus alatns. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 

Perennial, branches succulent somewhat lepidote, those in the 
specimen seen 14-18 cm. long. Leaves oblong-ovate, ovate or 
subelliptical, narrowing gradually to the petiole ; lamina 2^ to 
nearly 4 cm. long, 1*8 to nearly 2 cm. broad, lepidote below, less 
lepidote above, margin remotely and grossly crenate-dentate, un- 
dulate ; petioles ±1*2 cm. long, lower intemodes often about 2 cm., 
upper intemodes much shorter. Flowers borne on pedicels ± 2 nmi. 
long. Calyx 1*5-2 mm. long, sepals lanceolate, pedicels and lower 
part of calyx ± covered with lepidote scales. Corolla trumpet- 
shaped, about 1*6 cm. long, more or less lepidote externally. 
Fruit winged, 1-5 cm. long, a little broader than long. 

Hsemacanthas S. Moore. Acanthacearum e tribu Buelliearnm 
genus novum. Calyx tubulosus, oblongus, 5-angulatus, apice 5- 
lobus hand contractus. CorollsB tubus cylindraceus, superne leviter 
ampliatus, nequaquam ventricosus ; limbi lobi 5, subaequales, SBsti- 
vatione contorta? Stamina 4, ffiquilonga; filamenta per paria 
lateralia deorsum dilatata et longe connata infra medium tubum 
affixa, longe exserta ; anthersB oblongaB, loculis SBqualibus, parallelis, 
muticis ; pollinis grana sphsaroidea, faviformi-insculpta et revera iis 
Satanocratens similia. Discus inconspicuus. Stylus longe exsertus ; 
stigmatis lobns posticus obsoletus ; ovula quove in loculo 2. — 
Su&utex humilis ? Folia parva, integerrima. Flores majusculi, 
axillares, solitarii, parvibracteolati. 

H. ooooinexLS 8. Moore. Foliis oblongis vel oblanceolatis 
obtusissimis minute lepidotis petiolis circa 0*2 cm. long, albo- 
tomentosis fultis, pedunculis foliis brevioribus juxta medium 
bracteolatis, calyce fere glabro eminenter 5-nervoso nervulis 
transversis crebro percurso, coroll» calycem fere duplo exce- 
dentis vivide coccineas tubo extus hirsute pubescente limbi lobis 
amplis obcordatis, ovario oblongo, stylo calycem fere 8-plo exce- 
dente. 

Hab. Somali-land. 

Fragmenti tantum mihi obvii ramuli subteretes, 0*12-0*15 cm. 
diam., cinerei, minute puberuli vel pubescentes. Folia 0*8-1*2 cm. 
long., 2*5-4*0 cm. lat. Pedunculi 0*5 cm. long., ascendentes. 
Bracteolaa lineari-subulatsB, pabernlaB, 0*8 cm. long. Calyx in toto 
1*4 cm. long., basi 0*4 sursum 0*5 cm. lat., integer obtuse 5- 
angalatus, sed in segmentis 5 faciliter et verisimiliter interdum 
naturaliter divisus ; lobi calycis integri triangulari-deltoidei, acuti, 
0*2 cm. long., margine breviter gossypini. Corollaa tubus deorsum 
angulatus, fere usque 2*5 cm. long., 0*25 cm. diam., sursum 
gradatim usque ad 0*6-0*7 cm. amplificatus ; limbi 8*0 cm. diam., 
lobi vix 1*5 cm. long., glabri. Filamenta ad 0*6 cm. supra basin 
tubi inserta, 8*5 cm. long., dimidio inferiore per paria connata; 
anther® 0*85 cm. long. Ovarium sursum leviter attenuatum, 
pabescens, 0-6 cm. long ; stylus fere glaber, 4*0 cm. long. ; stig- 
matis lobus evolutus 0-8 cm. long., filiformis. Capsula ? 



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64 NEW SOMALI-LAND PLANTS. 

The afiSnity of this smgalar plant is doubtless with the Abyssinian 
Satanocrater Schweinf. The short lobes of its transversely-nerved 
angular calyx seem at once to indicate its probable position in the 
order; but the calyx is not ventricose, and the lobes are easily 
separable, e. g, when placed in boiling water. The corolla with its 
narrow tube and deeply divided limb, and the exserted stamens and 
style are quite different from those of Schweinfurth's genus. More- 
over, the pairs of filaments of Satanocrat^ are stated in the Genera 
Planter am to be approximate merely ; and, if this account be correct, 
the union of the pairs for half their length which one finds in the 
case of Uamacanthus is another distinguishing feature. I have not, 
however, been able to examine a flower of Satanocrater, owing to the 
small amount of material in the Museum, and it is quite possible to 
conceive Mr. Bentham's statement as implying union of the pairs 
of filaments. The pollen is exactly like that of the older genus as 
figured by Lindau (Bot. Jahrb. Bd. xviii. p. 40), except for the figure 
in question showing three pores, which seems to imply that they 
are equatorial, whereas I could never see more than one pore at a 
time. 

Coleas ouneatus Baker fil. Gaulis erectus, lignosus, dense 
rufo- vel fulvo-pubescens ; foliis breviter petiolatis, cuneatis vel 
ouneato-ovatis, marginibus apicem versus serratis vel orenato- 
serratis, basin versus integris, coriaceis, subtus minute bullulatis ; 
verticillastris inferioribus ± 2 cm. distantibus, simplicibus, pedi- 
oellis pubescentibus quam calyce florifero longioribus ; calyoe extns 
hirto intus glabro, calyce fructifero dente supremo ovato acute 
reliquiis triangularibas acuminatis; corollsB tubo quam calyci 
florifero longiore, labio superiori recurvato, inferiore magno 
naviculari, staminibus labio inferior! SBquilongis vel longioribus. 

Hab. WaggaMt. 

Leaves thick cuneate, serrate or crenato- serrate at the apex, 
lamina longer than the petiole, below minutely bullulate, lamina 
with petiole 1*6-8' 5 cm. long, when leaves fall conspicuous scars 
are left. Verticillasters simple, lower about 2 cm. apart, upper 
closer. Sepals unequal, uppermost ovate, acute, rest triangular 
acuminate. Calyx-tube ribbed after flowering. Corolla-tube ab- 
ruptly bent 8 mm. from base, longer than calyx, upper lip sharply 
reflexed, lower lip much longer, boat-shaped (lower lip about 1 cm. 
long). Corolla hairy externally. Stamens longer than corolla. 

Coleus speciosus Baker fil. Herbaceus perennis, caulibus albo- 
hirtis ; foliis oblongis vel ovato- oblongis in petiolum sensim atten- 
uatis, margine serratis vel crenato -serratis utrinque hirtis, lamina 
quam petiolo longiore, verticillastris simplicibus ± 6-floris laxis, 
pedicello glanduloso-hirto ssBpissime quam calyce longiore, bracteis 
ovatis; calycis tubo campanulato dentibus inaequalibus supremo 
ovato aouminato reliquiis lanceolatis acuminatis, coroUsB tubo 
quam calyci florifero longiore, labio superiori reflexo lobato, in- 
feriori magno oblongo-naviculari ; staminibus quam labio inferiori 
brevioribus. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 



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NEW 80HAIiI-LAND PLANTS. 65 

Noticeable on account of its showy flowers. Belongs to the 
section Calceolus. 

Perennial, stems covered with white hairs. Leaves oblong or 
ovate-oblong, margin serrate or crenate-serrate, base narrowing 
gradually to petiole, hairy on both surfaces, lamina longer than 
the petiole. Leaf including petiole 6-7 cm. long. Bacemes 
elongate, lower verticillasters 4-5 cm. apart, upper closer ; pedicels 
hairy, not branched, 6 mm. to nearly 1 cm. long. Verticillasters 
often about 6-flowered. Calyx externally hairy, villous internally, 
uppermost sepal ovate*acuminate, lower sepals lanceolate-acuminate. 
fVuiting calyx 8-9 mm. long. Gorolla-tabe sharply bent about 
8 mm. from base, longer t^an the sepals, upper lip reflexed, lobed, 
lower lobe much longer, boat-shaped. Corolla ± 2*8 cm. long, in 
dried specimen purple. Stamens shorter than lower lip, style 
slightly longer than stamens. Seeds brown, shining. 

Allied to C. Penzjgii Baker in Gard. Chron. 1898, ii. p. 616, 
and 0. vesiitus Baker in Eew BuUetifiy 1895, p. 224. 

Otostegia modesta S. Moore. Humilis ? sparsim necnon de- 
biliter spinosa, ramulis patentibus crebro foliosis, foliis parvis 
petiolatis ovatis vel ovato-subrhombeis obtusissimis crenatis vel 
crenato-deiltatis supra minute pubescentibus mox puberulis subtus 
arete incano-tomentosis, floribus in axillis solitariis, calycis pubes- 
centis tubo attenuate eminenter nervoso labio postico perbrevi 
tridentato dentibus late triangularibus labio antico undalato, 
oorollsB calycem fere duplo excedentis tubo attenuato. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 

Caules exempli, duorum parvulorum mihi solummodo obviorum 
sat tenues, in longitudinem rimoso-striati, pallide brunnei, arete 
tomentosi dein glabri. Foliorum laminae 0-7-l'8 cm. long., 
0*6-1*0 cm. lat., basi leviter attenuatsB, subtus eminenter nervossB, 
petiolis 0*3-0*5 cm. long. fultsB. BraotesB nunc spinosaB nunc 
nequaquam induratsB, tenuissimsB, usque ad 0*4 cm. long. Calycis 
in sicco subsmaragdini tubus basi attenuatus, 0*7 cm. long., 
0*2-0*8 cm. diam. ; labium posticum vix 0*8 cm. long. ; ejus 
dentes basi 0*8 cm. lat., apice obtusi ; labium anticum circa 0*5 cm. 
long.; calycis limbus totus 1*0 cm. diam. Corollaa tubus calyci 
SBquilongus vel revera eum pauUo excedens, 0*25 cm. diam. ; labia 
SBquilonga ; labii antici lobi laterales ovati, integri ; lobus medianus 
laterales longe excedens, reniformi-obcordatus, 0*85 cm. long. 
Stylus 1*5 cm., et stigmatis lobi 0*1 cm. long. 

Near 0. repanda Bth. and O, arabica Jaub. & Spach. To be 
distinguished from small-leaved forms of 0, repanda by the leaves 
soon becoming glabrous above while they remain hoary beneath ; 
by the solitary flowers — though this may eventually be found to be 
no absolute character ; and by the longer and slenderer calyx- tube 
and different calyx-limb. 0. arabica, according to the excellent 
analysis of Jaubert & Spach. {lUust, PL Orient, t. 880), besides its 
somewhat differently shaped leaves, has not spiny bracts, its calyx 
is quite different, and the side-lobes of the lower lip of its corolla 
are broader and retuse at the apex. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 87. [Feb. 1899.] f 



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66 NOTES ON 8AXIFRAOA. 

GhloriB Bomalensis Eendle Grameu gracile, elatmn, foliis 
glauoo-viridibus, anguste lineari-lanceolatis, longe aouminatis, vel 
lineari-acuminatis, ligula subobsoleta, scariosa, fimbriata; spicis 
quaternis, confertis, tripoUicaribus, angostis, densis, atro-viridibos, 
spiculis lanceolatis, bilinealibus, unifioris; glomis vacuis Talde 
insBqaalibas, exteriore miuore, nervo ezcepto byalina, acute-lanceo- 
lata, interiore spiculam sBquante, oblongo-lanceolata, acata, carina 
scabridula ; glama fertili, quum aperta est, ovata, nervis marginali- 
bus snperne oiliolatis exceptis glabra, ex apice vix bilobulato aris- 
tata, arista glumam duplo excedente, palea vix breviore, ovali, 
yiridi, glabra; gluma superiore ad radimeutum pedicellatom, 
aristatum, reducta. 

An elegant plant, apparently perennial and csBspitose, glabrous, 
erect, slender, the single culm including the inflorescence 8 ft. high, 
sheathed at the base by distichous flattened glabrous leaf-sheaths 
about 8 in. long; cauliue internodes 6, terete and smooth, the 
lowest only i line in diameter, except the lowest increasingly 
longer than the loose submembranous leaf-sheaths; basal leaf- 
blades reaching 9 in. long, 2^ lines broad, often plicate on the 
conspicuous midrib, or convolute, apex subaristate ; cauline leaves 
shorter, base of the blade sometimes sparsely pilose on the upper 
face. Edges of subflattened green rachis scabridulous, spike } to 
scarcely 1 line wide, outer barren glume 1 line long, inner l}-2 
lines, fertile glume 1^ line, awn 8 lines, straight or slightly bent at 
the base, pedicel of upper aborted glume slender, glabrous, i line 
long, glume-rudiment i hue, awn nearly 1 line. 

A well-marked species, perhaps nearest to C. radiata Sw., but 
distingnished by habit, single-flowered spikelet, glabrous flowering 
glume, &c. 

Hab. Wagga Mountain. 



NOTES ON SAXIFBAGA. 
By James Bbitten, F.L.S. 



The following notes have been made during a revision of the 
Saxifrages in the National Herbarium. They are mainly based 
upon the types of David Don's Monograph in Trans. Linn. Sec, 
xiii. 841-452 (1822), from the collection of Pallas, which was 
formerly in Lambert's Herbarium, and was bought for the Museum 
at his sale in 1842, at the cost of £49. To Uiese I have added such 
other matters of interest as came in my way, including certain 
corrections of Mr. Jackson's invaluable Index KewensU, with a few 
additions thereto, indicated by a prefixed asterisk. 

*S. adjugifolia Haw. Misc. Nat. 168 (sphalm.) = ajugifolia. 
"5. adscetidms Pav. ex D. Don, I, c, 420 = cuneifolia. 
S. AizoiDEs L. 8p. PI. 408. I observe that Dr. Britton and his school 
retain this name, but if the neo- American rule of priority of 



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NOT£S ON SAXIFRAOA. 67 

pliAce is to beenfoFoed, it must surely yield to 8. autumnalis L. 
i.c. 402? 

8. androsacea Pursh, Fl. Ainer. Sept. 810 (** Nelson in Herb. Banks '*) 
certainly = S. Hirculus, although Pursh describes the flowers as 
white. It is given as **= csBspitosa ? *' in Ind. Kew. 

S. angiisti/olia Haworth, Misc. Nat. 166, is, as is generally under- 
stood, a form of S, hypnoides, to which, indeed, Haworth later 
(Saxifr. Enum. 88) referred it. He says: '*I gathered this 
species on a mountain in Westmoreland in the year 1795. My 
friend Mr. Dixont has also found it growing spontaneously 
there ; and informs me it is the S, angustifolia of the Banksian 
Herbarium, which name I have therefore adopted." The 
Banksian specimen, which is described in Solander's MSS., 
came from Eew Gardens in 1774. 

S. angustiftda Hort. should stand as ''ex D. Don in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xiii. 460." 

8. BKACTEATA D. Dou, I. c. 867. I do not find this apparently very 
distinct species in Engler's monograph, although it is duly 
recognized by Seringe (in DC. Prodr. iv. 87), who follows Don 
in placing it near cemua and rioidaris. The type-sheet from 
Herb. Lambert contains many excellent specimens. 

5. hryoides? Pall, ex D. Don, I, c. 882 = bronohialis (not nitida as 
in Ind. Kew.). 

8. ceratophylla Dryand. in Hort. Kew. ed. 2, iii. p. 70. I do not 
find Dryander's types in Herb. Banks, nor his MS. description. 
The two sheets from Pavon, on which D. Don based his 
description of 8. ceratophylla^ are now in Herb. Brit. Mus. 

8. coRDiFOLiA Haw. is generally recognized as very distinct from 
8, crassi/oliay to which it is referred in Lid. Kew. 

*5f. davurica Hort. ex D. Don, l. c, 864 = cuneifolia. 

8. diversifolia^ 8. microphyUa, and 8. protensa Schleich. Oat. PL 
Helv. ed. iv. 68. I do not understand on what principle these 
names are selected from others which stand on precisely the 
same footing for inclusion in the Kew Lidex. At the end of 
Schleicher's Catalogue — a mere list of names — is an ** appendix 
plantarum exoticarum," consisting of a number of names under 
8axifraga and Aconituyn, attributed to various authors under 
abbreviations which, in at least one instance — **Angz."t — have 
an unfamiliar aspect. Of the three names I have cited, the first 
two are localized in the Index *'Eur. centr.," and the third is 
given as from ** Helvet." ; but as absolutely nothing beyond the 
name is known about the plants, this localization must be pure 
guesswork. All who use the Lidex know that the geographical 
distribution is its weakest side. It is, I think, much to be 



t '* Mr. J. Dixon, of Clapham, an assiduous and successful cultivator of 
Saxifrag©.**— Haw. Syn. PI. Suoc. 325. 

t I have a suspioion that this means ** Anglorum/' but this is mere oon- 
jeotore. 

F 2 



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68 N0TK8 ON SAXIKBAOA. 

regretted that in such cases as this the word ** nomen *' should 
not have been added after the name, which I also think should 
have been placed in italics ; appearing, as these do, as if known 
and retained species, they most cause much trouble to mono- 
graphers who have not access to a library in which such lists 
are to be found. I purposely refrain from citing certain other 
names which are not taken up in the Index, for it seems worse 
than useless to burden literature with such encumbrances. It 
would appear that such of the names in Schleicher*s list as were 
capable of identification are taken up by Seringe (in DO. Prodr.), 
who cites them with a mark of certainty ; the rest need not be 
resuscitated. 

8. ELEGANs Nutt. in Torr. & Gray, Fl. N. Amer. i. 678 (1840) and 
in Herb. 1 (in Mus. Brit.) is omitted from Engler*s monograph. 

8. degarut Mackay should stand as '' ex D. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
xiii. 860." 

8. Jiabellifoiia Br. Brown contributed the description of this plant 
to Fl. N. Amer. i. 669 ; it is not mentioned in his collected 
works. 

*S. GiLLn Trimen m Gill's ' Eiver of Golden Sand,* ii. 426 (1880) 
(nomen), and in Herb. Mus. Brit. ; Bretschneider, Hist. Eur. 
Bot. Disc. China, 786. This is, as Dr. Bretschneider supposes, 
the <* Saxifraga species nova ?" of the Index Fl. Sinensis, L 269. 
Mr. Hemsley {L c.) says : '' This is very distinct from any other 
Chinese species that we have seen, and apparently equally so 
from the new species described by Engler which we have seen" ; 
he diagnoses it : '* Folia desunt ; scapus gracihs, nudus, glaber, 
pauciflorus, floribus rubris." It was collected on Ba-ma-la 
mountain, 14 Aug. 1877. 

S. ORANULATA L. The following note of the occurrence in a wild 
state of the double-flowered form seems worth transcribing : — 
** [This] was found wild bv Mr. Joseph Blind, gardener at Bams, 
who transplanted it into his garden, and afterwards distributed 
it to several curious persons; since which time it hath been 
multiplied so much, as to become a very common plant in most 
gardens near London, where it is commonly planted in pots, to 
adorn court-yards, &c. in the Spring." — Miller, Gard. Diet. ed. i. 
(1781). 

8. inctirva Mackay should stand as '' ex D. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. 
xiu. 428." 

8. irUetmedia Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed.i. 181. This name, retained in 
Ind. Eew., results from the transference by Sweet of Haworth's 
Chondrosea intermedia, which Ha worth (Saxifr. Enum. 11) thought 
was probably a hybrid between 8, pyramidalis and 8. langifolia. 

'^8.jumpenna Bieb. Fl. Taur.-Cauc. i. 814 (1808) = juniperifolia. 

8. lanceolata Haw. Syn. PI. Succ. 824. This is an obscure plant, 
and may be a form of hypnoides. Localized as *' Eur. austo." in 
Ind. Eew., but Haworth, I. c. says : <' I had this plant from Mr. 
J. Donn ns a Scotch species." 



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MOTES ON flAXIFBAGA. 60 

8. lat^ida. The two Tef erenees placed together under this name in 
Index Kewemis indicate two very different plants. The latifida 
of Hawortih— ''a Scotch plant"— (Syn. PI. Succ. 825) =, as 
stated by Mr. Jackson, 8. hypnouUi. 8. latifida D. Don in 
Trans. Linn. Soc. xiii. 420, fonnded on a Spanish plant from 
Pavon in Lambert's Herbarium (now in the British Museum), 
was subsequently referred by D. Don (in Herb.) to 8. cunei/olia 
Cay. (8. euneata Wilid.), with the figure of which it agrees very 
well; it has nothing to do with 8. decipietis Ehrb., under 
which it is placed by Engler. Don's name is not taken up by 
Willkomm & Lange in Prodr. Fl. Hisp. 

*8. liguLata Haw. Misc. Nat. 159 (sphalm. ?) = lingulata. 
*8. marilandica Hort. ex D. Don, I, e. 885 = 8. marylandiea, for 
which the page in Sternberg should stand as ** i?," not ** 4.'* 

8. usdul Gouan. This is properly retained in Ind. Eew., but 
8. media Sibth. & Smith, Fl. OrsBca, t. 876 (1828) (which should 
stand as Sm. Fl. GrsBc. Prodr. 275 (1806) ) is given as if another 
plant, and referred to 8, porophylla Bertol. On turning to this 
last we find it in italics, but referred to no other species. The 
name for all is 8. media Gouan, lUustr. 27 (1778). 

*8. fdvalis Herb. Banks ex D. Don, I, c. 888 = hieracifoHa. 

8. nuUM$ D. Don certainly = Eomanzoffia unalaschcenm only, not 
R. sitehensis, to which it is also referred in Lid. Eew. 

8. obhtsi/olia D. Don, L c. 416. This name is kept up in Lidex 
Kewensis and omitted by Engler. On the type- sheet Don has 
crossed out his note, **8. pentadactylae Lapeyr. valde affinis sed 
abunde differe censeo " ; and has sabstitated *' S. pmtadactyla 
Lapeyr. si non sit eadem certi nimis affinis." His later opinion 
is, I think, clearly correct. 

*8. perUadactyla D. Don, I.e. 419. I do not find in Herb. Banks 
the specimen from La Fe^rouse cited by Don. This form of 
the name pentadactylis, adopted '*on the suggestion of Sii* J. E. 
Smith," is not in the Index Kewensis. 

8. petioliirit should stand as <* K. Br. in Boss Voy. cxlii. (1819) 
(nomen) ; Ghlor. Melvill. cclxxiv. (1828)." The other names 
cited by Mr. Jackson from ed. 2 of Boss's Voyage will all be 
found in ed. 1. 

8. pHosa Haw. 8. virginiensis Mich, ad S. pUosa Haw. were pub- 
lished independently in the same year (1808), the latter name, 
as appears from Bot. Mag. sub t. 1664, being taken from 
Solander's MSS. in Herb. Banks. Haworth's preface is dated 
July, so probably Michaux's name is entitled to the precedence 
accorded to it. Haworth (Saxifr. Enum. 8) says *<in Scotia 
montibus teste Dom. Geo. Donn [sic] , cujus filius mecum 
communicavit." D. Don does not mention this as British in 
his monograph, and some confusion with 8. nivalis (cfr. Bot. 
Mag. /. c.) is to be suspected. The Banksian specimen of 
8. pilota is quoted by Parsh (Fl. Amer. Sept. i. 811). 



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70 BOTANICAL EXCUBSI0N8 IN WEST DONEGAL. 

8. retroftexa Hort. should stand as ** ex D. Don in Trans. Linn. Soc. 

xiii. 460." 
*S. rivularis Townson, Trav. in Hungary, 487 (1798) = carpatica. 

[** S. Schleicheri D. Don ex G. Don in Loud. Hort. Brit. 176 = 
stellaris." This name should be deleted ;* G. Don (i. c.) merely 
enters it, as D. Don had done previously, as a variety of 
stellaris,] 

*S. sedioides D. Don, /. c. 408 (sphalm. ?) = sedoides. 

8. serratifolia Mackay should stand as ** ex D. Don in Trans. Linn. 
Soc. xiii. 862.'' 

8. spicata D. Don, I.e. 854. 8. Geum Pursh, Fi. Amer. Sept. i. 
81 1» non L. The type represented by these names is a plant in 
Herb. Banks collected in Sledge Island, on the north-west coast 
of America, by David Nelson. The former name is not taken 
up by Engler, The plant is no doubt correctly referred by Mr. 
B. D. Jackson to 8. cuneifolia L., but is a somewhat extreme 
form of that variable species, remarkable for its shortly branched 
spicate panicle. This seems to be the 8. Geum of recent American 
authors, but cannot be synonymous with that species, which, so 
far as I know, is confined to the Old World. Torrey and Gray 
adopt the name 8. astivalis Fischer for the American plant, but 
I f(dlow Engler in taking up 8. cuneifolia L. 

8. verna Hort. should stand as ** ex Haw. Saxifr. Enum. 9 (1821)." 



BOTANICAL EXOUBSIONS IN WEST DONEGAL, 1898. 

By H. 0. Habt, F.L.S., &c. 

On the 17th July I crossed the Moross ferry into the district 
known as the *< Between Waters," that part of Fanet lying 
between Mulroy Lake proper and its eastern arm running 
north. The ferry is interesting as being close to a site for a ra;:e 
shell, Lhna hians, and for the great beds of ZosUra marina^ pro- 
fusely adorned with a species of Sagmtia (sea anemone), whioh is 
determined to claim a botanical character, since it is called here 
*< nettles," and they say it stings tender parts of the body. Thence 
I crossed the hills Leat and Truskmore, on the former of which is 
a good growth of Pyrola media , and made my way down to the 
western shore of Fanet by Lough Nagreany to Doaghmore Strand, 
a very remote district. By a small stream, over sandy mud, 
Ranunculus trichophyllus was found, and a considerable stretch of in- 
teresting-looking sandhills yielded nothing. A little further on, on 
a rocky coast, Ligusticum scoticum was in full blow, and right on the 
rocky edge of the ** Narrows " of Mulroy I found a very handsome 
Anthyllis variety, two feet high, with erect hardly branched stems, 
lemon- coloured flowers larger and fewer in number thatx type, and 



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BOTANICAL BXCUB8I0N8 IN W£ST DONEGAL. 71 

the swollen woolly snow-white calyx very conspicaons. I brongbt 
home roots to my garden, I believe it goes by the name of 
A, maritima, 

A few miles farther on the rocky coast ends at Sessiagh Bay, 
and I left it to cross a wide district inland. In dykes leading to a 
small lake — Gortnatra or Groo Lake — a very remarkably broad- 
leaved Potamogeton of the puuUm type turned up. At first 
Mr. Bennett reiferred it to P. FriesUf bnt asked for more later in 
frait, when he decided it was only a form of P. pusillus. It is a 
kng way o£f from the var. tmniisimiis, found later in Inishowen. 
About two miles farther on, in a bee-line to Kindram, I found 
quantities of Scleranthus annuus in waste cultivated land, making 
the third time of seeing it in Donegal, always in Fanet ; and not far 
from this, between Lough Shannagh and Doaghbeg, I found Vicia 
anguMti/oUa^ very rare in Donegal. 

July 81. — Starting from the same point, I followed the Mulroy 
coast round most of its north-western shores of Fanet. Near the 
ferry, in a boggy brackish lakelet, is a plentiful growth of Scirpus Tahn- 
lUBmantani, which is very distinct, and also rare in the north-west. 
Near Olinsk bay or boat-harbour I was glad to get a comfortable 
home of StaMce bahmietisis (rariflora), the first Fanet locality. It is 
very rare in Donegal, occurring on the opposite shore of Mulroy, in 
Bossgull, and not again till Donegal Bay is reached. The present 
locality is the extreme northern point of its range iu Ireland, and 
its western range is broken from Donegal to Southern Mayo, and 
from that to Limerick. Visiting ** Groo Lough " again, I obtained 
some Characea of no great interest, and more Potamogeton pmiHus 
of this *< latifoliate " variety. At Tallyconuell Lake, ou the way 
back through another inland section of this considerable peninsula, 
there was abundance of CJuira {fragilis) delicatula and Potamogeton 
ZizU, but the latter was barren, and I cannot vouch for it. On a 
later date (Aug. 21), when I returned for fruiting Potamogeton^ I 
followed the extreme norih-west coast of Fanet, by Ballywhorisky 
Point and Island round to the Bottom shore. Some of tiiese 
walks (especially this) were very severe. On the storm-swept 
oceanic verge there was still something to be found. North of 
Sessiagh Bay there is a good habitat for Euphorbia pottlatulica and 
Ciithmum maritimum. These are both rare in this district, especially 
Crithmum, which suffers a good deal from human interference. 
Sagina mantima is remarkably persistent on the wave-washed 
granite at the edge of this low rocky coast. It ia often hard to dis- 
tinguish from S. apetala, of which it is now considered to be a form 
by some. 

About Sessiagh I found a very odd little Daucus, with convex 
fruiting umbels. It was about half-way between the type and what 
botanists called Z>. gummifer. Its peculiar habit is largely due to 
sheep-grazing, like that of Euphrasias and ErythraBas in similar 
places. Further round the coast, between Binboy Point and Bin- 
boy Lough, I lit on a good growth of Ononis repens {inernm Lange). 
This is the third and the most western Donegal locality. Both the 



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72 BOTANICAL BXGORSIONS IN WEST DONEGAL. 

others are on the Foyle coast, in Inishowen. In a ditch fr6m this 
lake, between it and Lough Doo, grows a huge Carex arnpullacea, 
Mr. Bennett refers it "probably" to var. planifoluis of Norman. 
The type, over which it towers by a foot, was alongside. I 
gathered a similar form once near Churchill by Lake Akibbon, 
which had also markedly floating leaves, but it was not as aberrant 
as this. One of these days a flight of about eight choughs flew 
over me, a very rare bird now in Fanet. In several places along 
this extreme coast I gathered Erythnra Centauritcm var. psetuto- 
latifolia^ very condensed. Cladium Martscus was seen at Tullyconnell 
Lake. It occurs in several Fanet lakes, and marks at once the 
gUding into the western flora. It is very rare (a single station) in 
Inishowen. Near the Enockalla end of Ballinastocker Bay I 
gathered, a few days later. Polygonum Rdii, and by one of the lakes 
in the mountain above Vaccinium VitU-Idea^ in flower and fruit ; 
and in the lake, Isoetes and Sparganium alpinum. At the foot of the 
mountain (Magherawarden) a remarkably narrow-leaved Achillea 
Ptarmica occurs, and close by, Rubus hemistemon. 

On August 8rd I found myself in very uncomfortable quarters in 
Glonmany, the district at the eastern entrance to Lough Swilly, 
stretching round towards Malin along the Atlantic. Ere long, when 
the railway is opened to Gamdonagh, four or five miles from my 
headquarters, this country will be transformed. A more delight- 
fully pretty country could not be found. Owing to the high-lying 
moors and mountains of central Inishowen, and its western margin, 
where there is much of the country from 1000 to 2000 feet above 
sea-level, there are several good-sized streams which flow through 
steep-sided, well-wooded, and beautiful valleys. The sea-coast has 
every variety of cliff and strand, and no doubt there is a great 
future ^in front of Bally liffin and Glonmany. I have been through 
this district somewhat too rapidly on previous occasions, especiaUj 
with the hope of rediscovering Crainbe maritima, a long-time missing 
quantity. Further, I had hopes of other rarities in this little - 
known county, on to the extreme northern point in Ireland — Malin 
Head. The rivers, all of which I examined from source to mouth, 
generally about ten miles long, with occasionally tremendous 
torrents, were a disappointment. Facing north, and with every 
requisite condition as they have in sheltei;, cliff, and inaccessibility, I 
could not have believed they would prove so bare of interest 
botanically. Not a hawkweed, not an interesting willow; so 
different from the west of the county. Fanet has no rivers, so the 
comparison does not exist. The Inishowen Hieracia are all on the 
rocl^ hills, spinks, and mountain declivities, such as The Mintiaghs, 
Grock-Augrim, Bulbin, Goolcross, or Slieve Snaght. 

Aug« 8. — Followed the Glonmany Biver to the sea from the 
** Gross," a couple of miles or less. Nothing remarkable occurred ; 
tansy and comfrey and very tall Polygonum amphibium, three feet m 
height, arrested my attention. A wide extent of sandhills lies 
along Glonmany Bay, with the usual assemblage of maritime 
plants, Houkeneya, CakiU, Eryngium, and Salsola, There is 



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BOTANICAL BX0UBSI0N8 IN WSST DONEOAL. 78 

oarioQS consolidated sand formation here, which occurs also along 
Ballinastocker strand on the Fanet coast. It has the appearance of 
being laminated externally, but when broken up presents no signs 
of stratification. Tbe parallel external layers seem to be the work 
of excavating wind and sand, and I suppose the regularity may be 
illustrated by that of ripple-marks. What binds it together is not 
very clear, as there is no lime about. I have noticed it elsewhere 
in Donegal. Along these low sand-escarpments Poa loliacea is 
not uncommon. Here I had much conversation with fishermen 
and those gathering seaweed for manure (for there is little kelp 
burned now) with reference to their names for various seaweeds, 
which they know only by their Irish equivalents, " liagh," ** slat- 
maragh," "dulse,*' ''doolaman," ** carrigeen," "rappan," ** fam- 
milyagh," and '* mechals." These in tbe order mentioned signify 
Laminaria generally, the stalks of Laminatia, Rlwdymenia palmata, 
Fucus ceranoides, Chondrus crispus, Laminaria saccharina (but in 
Fanet a name for a variety of dulse), Fucus generally, and Alaria 
esculeiita. Here I procured two ** ould reaidenters *' to help me to 
search for Cramhe maritima along the heavy shingles of Norway 
Point, Mr. C. Moore's original discovery-spot. I had no need to 
describe or assist these old '* shell-backs,'* they knew Cramhe well as 
*' Strand-cabbage." But it was seven years or eight since it had 
been seen there. It is generally devoured at once by rambling 
sheep. At another point further west some younger men tried to 
pass off Beta maritima upon me, with radical leaves and no stem- 
growth. They had seen the white flowers on it ! This was the 
season for drying the carrigeen, or Irish moss, which has also the 
name of '^ mother-of-dulse/' I found that as they gathered the dulse 
and carrigeen these amphibious people kept on nibbling mechals, 
the lower appendages of the Alaria frond, which they call also 
** purses " (pursill). Groups of people, young men and maidens, 
from the far back of the parish, were rambling amongst the tidal 
rocks, gathering limpets and making very merry over it. They 
came from afar off, put up their carts at a friend's house, and, pro- 
vided with porringers, tin cans, or any sort of vessels, and a blunt 
" gallion " or old knife, they keep holiday, and bring home 
quantities of these " barnyeuchs " as a *' kitchen " to their 
** praties." Dulse, they say, keeps off starvation, and carrigeen 
is good against consumption. The Cramhe grew at the extreme 
end of Norway (Tullagh) Point. These heavy shingle plants, such 
as Euphorbia, PepUs, Mertensia, Glaucium and Cramhe get terribly 
knocked about by exceptional storms. 

From Tullagh Point I went west to Dunaff Head, determined 
to leave no Cramhe nook unexamined. This headland has on its 
magnificent cliffs the only Donegal station for Silene acaulis. It is 
there still in about the same quantity for upwards of twenty years, 
in a place that some people would not care to linger over. Not far 
o£f another very rare Donegal plant grows, towards the south face 
of the Swilly headland, Vicia lathyroides. From Dunaff Head 
I followed the Swilly coast southward to Leenane, anxious to 



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74 BOTANICAL EXGU&SIONS IN WAST DONBOAL. 

rediscoYor Merteruiay which is said to have been found here some 
fifty years ago. Bat it has disappeared. There are fine dumps of 
Ligusticum scoticum along here, bat nothing else of interest. 
Radiola millegrana is common on Danaff Head ; it certainly affects 
peaty pastures by the sea, and Senecio sylvaUca, a plant with a 
vagae sort of distribution, nowhere continuous, also appeared. 
This latter has a f^noy for the roofs of old cabins, or the crumbling 
remains of sod-dykes ; and it also puts in an early appearance on 
burnt heather. From Leenane I made my way home in the dusk, 
gathering Arctium minus by the roadside near Olonmany chapel. 
A, intermedium is the commonest Donegal form. A, major seems 
to be absent. 

Aug. 4. — Yesterday I was informed that on a rocky islet, 
Garthan Island, I would find the *< Strand-cabbage.'* As this islet 
is accessible at low water, I felt bound to return and search it, 
which I did with two assistants, and only felt that I had wasted 
half a day. However, had I not gone, I should have for ever 
reproached myself. There was a wreck here some twenty years 
ago, and all the rats took up their abode on this island, which 
possesses about a rood of soil, the rest being naked rock with Aster 
and Anthemis iu abundance. This soil was riddled with their holes. 
After several years' residence the rats left in a body. Perhaps 
they had finished the Cramhe, Two odd modern geological pheno- 
mena are observable here. In one case there is a raised beach up 
to twenty feet above the tide which is turning to green sward with 
grass and a few weeds over heavy shingle. This growth and con- 
solidation is largely aided, and even started, by blackthorn and 
bracken. The reverse process is carried on by human beings. As 
soon as this scraw is of any solidity they carry it off for fuel, turf 
being very scarce, from just above high -water mark. This lets in 
the tide in a heavy gale. The shingle becomes again movable, and 
quantities of dead blackthorn scrub attest the result. 

From this time-wasting island I wended my way eastward, 
along Olonmany sirand. At a group of cabins, known as Tullagh, 
I found considerable quantities of three interesting plants amongst 
waste ground: Carduus ciixpus, Ballota nigra, and AUiwn Babingtonii, 
all under suspicious circumstances, to say the least of it. Even as 
an established waste-ground species Balhta is very rare in Donegal. 
Of the thistle more by and by. The Allium, or ** potato-garlic" as 
they call it, is often seen estabUshed, but never (as is Aran) 
removed from cultivation to any distance. 

Following the margin of cultivation I saw a few stray scarlet 
poppies (P. dubium). There is an interest in noticing various less 
ubiquitous weeds here, since we are at their northmost limits in 
Ireland. Presently I had to remove my low^r garments and wade 
the mouth of the Olonmany Biver. Below Tullagh House there is 
abundance of Blysmus (Scirpiis) rufiis. Further on, at the end of 
the bay, we come to steep roclr^ bluffs, flanked at first with sand- 
hills, which form the sea-margin of a bold face of cliffis known as 
Binnion (818 ft.). On the first bluff I gathered a Hieracium (un- 



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BOTANICAL BXOUBSIONS IN WEST DONEGAL. 75 

determined), and immediately alongside of it Euphorbia pofHandica, 
which Mr. 0. Moore has recorded from here. On the sandhills Viola 
Curtisii is plentiful, and for the first time I saw a Hieracium in 
reach of the sea-spray ut ordinary high tide. A rooky, pretty little 
point, " Soil Point/' stretches out here from a considerable tract 
of dunes. On the way to it I found Viola canina in plenty ; it is 
rare in Donegal : also two extensive patches of Xepeta OUchoma, which 
ia most unaccountably scarce in this region ; a small scrap, not fit 
to record, near Ballyshannon, and a plentiful but single patch at 
Bay, near Baymullan, is all I know of it in Donegal. Ranunculus 
buibosuSf said formerly (and still) to be rare in Donegal, is always 
abundant. The name of this point set me thinking. It is a time- 
honoured belief, which is rigorously taught to all new-comers, that 
Lough Swilly is derived from an Irish word signifying shadow, and 
that the name signifies, so appropriately and poetically, the Lake 
of the Shadows. Alas I suU means an eddy or whirlpool, literally, 
'*an eye." The river Swilly is fall of these, and gave its name to 
the lough. From Binion I made my way back by a very pretty old 
lane to the ** Cross of Olonmany." On the ditch-bank, at a place 
ealled Tanderagee, a tiny hamlet, Lycopus europaus, very local in 
Donegal, occurred, as did also Bidens tripartita, 

Aug. 6. — Went in for a long day's work. Leaving early, I went 
through Ballyliffin to PoUan Bay. About Olonmany village walls 
Asplenium Ruta-viuraria is commoner than usual in North Donegal. 
Close to Ballyliffin, at Cloghorna, Mentha pipenta is well-established. 
Cardutu sstosusy a variety of C. arvenm, is frequent. The most 
attractive object here was a magnificent Yankee work of art, a 
giantess scarecrow, fully dressed, in a tragic attitude and a 
wonderful hat. PoUan Bay is a dreary waste of recently tide- 
invaded sandhills — a waste which stretches across to Trawbreaga 
Bay, leaving seaward Doagh Island. The coast here is com- 
plicated. At the head of this bay Ues Malintown, on an estuary of 
the same name. This forms the eastern boundary of Doagh Island. 
I took some wide casts through these Pollan sandhills, seeing 
nothing except some remarkable Eryngium. These plants were a 
couple of feet high, with ivory-white or greyish polished stems, and 
very brilliant petals, — a really beautiful plant. It is odd how 
beautiful anything a little nice becomes in such a place. Always I 
was looking for Crambe. On the first shingle of the island was a 
dwarf Silene mantima, with an equally dwarfed Senecio vulgaris, the 
latter having very distinct dark markings on the involucral bracts, 
giving the heads a speckled appearance ; I have seen this form 
before on sea shingle. About a small and ruined castle — Carrick- 
abreaghy, on the north-west coast of Doagh, Senebiera Cororwpus 
occurs. It has only one other locality in the county that I know 
of. There are many likely beaches, and here and there a sea- 
weed-man along here. Neither silver, nor blandishments, nor 
untiring search will produce Crambe. Along here there were many 
evidences of the effects of the terrible *' Christmas storm " of 1894, 
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76 BOTANICAL EXGUBSIONS IN WEST DONEGAL. 

One inhabitant told me it took twenty men to get the big *' bnrlian " 
(heavy shingle) stones out of their house, that came in with the 
sea and up a drain-pipe I On the east side of Doagh I sat down 
with one Toland — ^honest man — who saw me picking "yerribs," 
and unsoUcited brought me to where Crambe had been in plenty two 
years before. Of this man's evidence and description I had no 
doubt, so that the plant evidently appears occasionally. This strand 
is a very likely one, and better sheltered from the sea than most. 
It is called Lagacurry. In a small marsh close to the beach the 
form tenuissimus of Potanwgeton pusillus was plentiful ; it does not 
seem to have been noted in Ireland. Mr. Bennett named it for 
me. On round Doagh, Senecio flosctdosn8, BLysmus, Lycopm^ 
(Enanthe Ldchenalii, RanimciUus sceUratus, and Hippuris vulgaris 
were the only plants of the least interest. Carex ovaUs 1 saw, too ; 
it seems to be of sporadic occurrence in Donegal. Doagh Island is 
about eight or ten miles round. It was probably a true island 
within the historical period. 

Aug. 6. — I heard much of a waterfall at Glenhouse, near Olon- 
many, and a very pretty little sheer fall of about fifty feet it is. 
About it Lastraa amula is plentiful, a very western fern, but never- 
theless it occurs frequently east of Donegal. Digitalis is fax 
commoner in Inishowen than in Fanet. The glen below the fall is 
most picturesque, and holds the record for ''clegs** (horse-flies). 
Instead of a good hawkweed along this glen, there was only the 
impostor Crepin pulmiosn. Up this fall, across the moor, lies a 
round-topped hill, Baghtinmon, 1657 feet. There is no land in 
Ireland higher than tibis to the north of it, but it is of uncom- 
promising quartzite, and utterly uninteresting. Hyjnmophyllum 
unilaterale lives close to its storm-swept summit. A very large 
cairn adorns the summit of Bathliu, of Ordnance Survey construc- 
tion. There is however an ancient one close by known as " Mes- 
caun Maiwa," and thereby hangs a tale pertaining to legend and 
folklore which cannot be told here. From this summit I crossed a 
valley and another lower top — Shevekeeragh, and thence down to 
Effishmon. Here there were some interesting bluffs which yielded 
a hawkweed, H, Schmidtii. Thence I followed a stream down to 
Glonmany, where Lastraa Oreopteris abounds. This fern is quite 
characteristic of the Inishowen glens. Oamumla and beechfern 
seem to be wholly absent. The rarity of Osnxunda in Inishowen 
is most remarkable. At this point (Effishmon) I was on the slopes 
of Bulbein Mountain, where several good alpines grow, which 
(some of them) were first made known by the great Bobert Brown. 
But I had no excuse to climb that dainty little peak, so often have 
I examined it. A little down the stream Lychnis Githago was very 
plentiful in vetches, as usual. Sat up late gleaning legends and 
tales of evil eye and butter-witches &om an *' ould residenter.*' 

(To be oontlDued.) 



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77 



BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IRISH 
BOTANISTS. 

By Jambs Bbittsn, F.L.S., and G. S. Boulger, F.L.S., F.G.S. 

FmsT Supplement (1893-97). 

(Condnded from Joarn. Bot. 1898, p. 446.) 

Bobertson, Rev. Andrew (fl. 1780-1846). Minister of Inver- 
keithing, 1792-1845. Botany of parish in ^ New Statistical 
Account of Scotland,' vol. ix. 280-4, 1845 ; and list in Trans. 
Bot. Soc. Ed. XX. 85. 

Robertson, David (1806-96) : b. Glasgow, 28 Nov. 1806; d. Mill- 
port, Cumbrae, 20 Noy. 1896 ; bur. Oumbrae Cathedral. LL.D., 
Glasgow, 1894. F.L.S., 1876. Algologist. Pres. Nat. Hist. 
Soc. Glasgow, 1887-90. * Botany of Loch Ryan,' Proc. Nat. 
Hist. Soc. Glasgow, i. 21. * Algae on Buoys in the Clyde,' Proc. 
Phil. Soc. Glasgow. R.S.C. v. 280; vui. 760; xi. 194; 'The 
Naturalist of Cumbrae,' by Rev. T. R. R. Stebbing, 1891 ; 
Joum. Bot. 1897, 82; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 66; Trans. 
Nat. Hist. Soc. Glasgow, 1896-7, 18. 

Rivers, Thomas (1798-1877) : b. Sawbridgeworth, Herts, 27 Dec. 
1798 ; d. Sawbridgeworth, 17 Oct. 1877 ; bur. Sawbridgeworth. 
Nurseryman. Rose-grower and pomologist. Joum. Hort. 1877, 
xxxiii. 827, 842 ; Loudon, Arboretum, ii. 850 ; Diet. Nat. Biog. 
xlviii. 888. Portr. (1870) at Royal Hort. Soc. 

Romanes, George John (1848-94) : b. Kingstown, Canada, 
20 May, 1848; d. Oxford, 28 May, 1894; bur. HolyweU 
Cemetery. B.A., Camb., 1870. LL.D., Aberdeen. F.L.S., 
1875. F.R.S., 1879. Founded Romanes Lectureship at Oxford. 
Experimented on graft-hybrids. ♦ Life and Letters,' with portr., 
1895 ; Diet. Nat. Biogr. xlix. 179 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1898-4, 
84; R.S.C. viii. 772; xi. 211; AUibone Supp. 

Romans^ Bernard (fl. 1748-88) : b. Holland; d. at sea between 
Jamaica and U.S.A., 1788. Educated as engineer and surveyor 
in England. King's botanist in Florida, 1768-71. * Nat. Hist, 
of Florida,' 1775. Sargent, Silva of N. America, iv. 5. 

Roper, Freeman Clarke Samuel (1819-96) : b. Hackney, 28 Sept. 
1819 ; d. Eastbourne, Sussex, 28 July, 1896. F.L.S., 1857. 
* Flora of Eastbourne,' 1875 (portr.). 'Ranunculus Lingua,' 
Joum. Linn. Soc. xxi. 880. Collection of diatoms bequeathed 
to Brit. Mus. Herb, bequeathed to Sussex County Museum, 
Brighton. R.S.C. v. 271; viii. 777; xi. 215; Jacks. 251; 
Joum. Bot. 1896, 480, with portr. ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 67. 

Rotherham, John (1750 ?-1804) : b. Hexham? c. 1750; d. St. 
Andrews, 6 Nov. 1804. M.D., Upsala. F.L.S., 1788. PupUof 
LinnsBus. Prof. Nat. Phil., St. Andrews, 1795; * Sexes of 
Plants vindicated,' 1790. Pritz. 270 ; Jacks. 8 ; R.S.C. v. 808; 
Gent. Mag. 1804, ii. 1079; 1880, ii. 565; Diet. Nat. Biogr. 
xlix. 800 ; AUibone. 



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78 BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BBITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 

RotUer, Johann Peter (1749-1886) : b. Btrasburg, June, 1749 ; 
d. Madras. 27 Jan. 1886. Herbarium at Kew. R.S.C. v. 804 ; 
Journ. Bot. 1851, 67 ; Bot. Gazette, iii. (1861), 56. 

Roxburgh, John (fl. 1809). Son of William Roxburgh. Resided 
at Cape four to five years for purpose of collecting. Sent pi. to 
Lambert. Plants in Brit. Mus. D. Don, Appendix to Lam- 
bert's * Pinus,' p. 15. 

Roy, John (1826-93) : b. Ardoch, Fowlis Webster, Perth, 24 Feb. 
1826; d. Aberdeen, 18 Deo. 1898. Of Aberdeen. LL.D., 
Aberdeen, 1889. Desmidologist. Contrib. to Cybele Brit., 
Top. Bot., and Eng. Bot. ed. 8. * Notes on Japanese Desmids,* 
Journ. Bot. 1886. MS. • Flora of N.E. Scotland ' (with Rev. 
John Fergusson). R.S.C. xi. 284; Journ. Bot 1894, 159; 
Ann. Scott. Nat. Hist. 1894, 72 (portr.). 

Radge, Samuel (1728-1817): b. Thornhaugh, Northampton, 
1728 ; d. Watlington, Oxon, 24 Jan. 1817. At Elstree, Herts, 
thirty-eight years. High Sheriff of Northamptonsh., 1792. 
Studied Botany from 1760, and made '^ innumerable MS. notes 
in almost every botanical work that he possessed.*' Nat. Hist, 
library bequeathed to his nephew, Edward Rndge. Qent. Mag. 
1817, i. 181 ; Druco, Fl. Berks, cxlvi. 

Russell> Isaac (fl. 1820-48). Of Oxford. ** Botanical draughts- 
man and glass painter.*' Largely illustrated Baxter's 'British 
Plowermg Plants,' 1884-48. Baxter, Brit. Phaanog. Bot. 606. 

Salesbury, or Salisbury, William (c. 1520-c. 1600) : b. Llan- 

sannan,Denbighsh.,G. 1620; d.c. 1600. Lexicographer. Wrote 

a Welsh Botanology (unpublished), *<an original work, showing 

close observation of plant life." Diet. Nat. Biogr. 1. 196. 

Journ. Bot. 1898, 12. 
Salter, Samuel James Augustus (1826-97) : b. Poole, 10 Aug. 

1826 ; d. Basingfield, Hants, 28 Feb. 1897. Dental surgeon. 

M.S., London. F.R.S., 1868. F.L.S., 1868. * Pollinif erous 

Ovules in Passiflora,' Trans. Linn. Soc. xxiv. 148. R.S.G. v. 

884 ; viii. 820 ; xi. 268 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 68 ; Proc. 

Roy. Soc. Ixi. p. iii. ; Gard. Chron. 1897. i. 168. 
Sandys, Edwin (1689-1724) : b. Petherton, Somerset, c. 1689 ; 

d. Oxford ?, 1724. M.D., Oxon, 1718. Prof. Bot. Oxon, 1720- 

1724. Alumn. Oxon. 
San Giorgio, Contessa Anna di {nee Harley) (1808-74) : b. 

Florence, 81 July, 1808; d. Florence, 18 May, 1874. * Cat. 

poUglotto delle piante,' 1870. Jacks. 9 ; Saccardo, La Botanica 

in Italia, 146. 
Scampton, John (fl. 1716). **A curious Botanist." Sent Oala- 

Diagrostis lanceolata to Petiver from Leicestershire. Cone. Oram. 

69 ; Clarke, 90. 
Semple, Charles Edward Armand (1846-96) : b. 1845 ? ; d. 

5 March, 1896. B.A., Camb., 1867; M.B., 1878. 'Aids to 

Botany,' 1877. Jacks. 68. 
Shepherd, Joseph (1807-69) : b. 1807 ; d. Sowerby, Halifax, 

Yorksh., 7 June, 1869. 'List of pi. of Halifax,' 1886. Con- 



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BIOGRAPHICAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 79 

tribnted to * Flora Maucuniensis/ and to completion of Baincs's 

• Flora of Yorkshire,* 1840. A founder and president of Tod- 
morden Bot. Soc. Herbariam in possession of family. 

Shore, Margaret Emily (1819-89): b. Bary St. Edmonds, 
Suffolk, 26 Dec. 1819 ; d. Madeira, 7 July, 1839 ; bur. Strangers' 
Burial-ground, Funcbal. Numerous notes on plants in * Journal 
of Emily Shore,* with poitr., 1891. 

Sim, John (c. 1812-98) : b. Aberdeenshire, c. 1812; d. Dunferm- 
line, 1898. Assoc. Bot. Soc. Ed. Herd-boy ; afterwards in 
92nd Eegiment (1882-55) ; then Sergeant instructor of Militia 
in Perth. Contrib. to Phytolpgist, ii-vi, n.s. (1857-68) and to 
Midland Naturalist, 1864-5. Letters in Wilson*s correspondence. 
Herbarium at Perthsh. See. Nat. Science. B.S.G. v. 699. 

Simmonds, Peter Lund, ne Lund (1814-97) : b. Aarhuus, Den- 
mark, 1814 ; d. London, Oct. 1897. F.L.S., 1886. Knight of 
the Legion of Honour, 1878. Knight of the Crown of Italy, 1878. 
Brother of the Charterhouse. Exhibition Commissioner. * Waste 
Products and Undeveloped Substances.* ' Commercial Products 
of Vegetable Kingdom,* 1858. Edited * Technologist ' and 

* Journ. of Applied Science.' R.S.C. v. 700; viii. 957; Jacks. 
192 ; • British Roll of Honour,* 1887, 479 ; AthenaBum, 1897, 
ii. 498. 

Smellie, William (1740-95): b. Pleasance, Edinburgh, 1740; 
d. Edinburgh, 24 June, 1795. Printer. Zoologist. Pupil and 
deputy lecturer of Hope. Gained Hope's gold medal. Formed 
a herbarium of Scottish plants. Memoir with portr. engr. by 
Lizars in Jardine*s * Birds of Great Britain,* vol. ii. 

Smiles, F. H. (d. 1895) : d. Korat, Siam, May, 1895. Of Royal 
Survey Dept. of Siam. Sent plants to Kew. Kew Bull. 1895, 
88, 198. 

Smith, Christian (1785-1816): b. Drammen, Norway, 17 Oct. 
1785; d. Congo, 21 Sept. 1816. Travelled in British Isles, 
1814. Prof. Bot. Univ. Christiania. To Madeira, Teneriffe, 
&c., 1815. Congo Expedition, 1816 ; Journal in Tuckey's 
' Narrative,* 229-886 ; PI. described by R. Brown in Appendix, 
v. 'Dagbog paa Reisen til de Canariske, 1815* (ed. F. C. 
KisBr), 1889. PI. and MS. Biography in Bot. Dept. Mus. Brit. 
Jacks. 846 ; Tuckey's Narrative, Ixiii. 

Spmoe, Richard (1817-98) : b. Ganthorpe, N. Yorkshire, 10 Sept. 
1817 ; d. Coneysthoi-pe, Castle Howard, N. Yorkshire, 28 Dec. 
1898; bur. Terrington, Yorkshire. Ph.D., Berlin, 1864. 
RB.S.Ed., 1842. A.L.S.. 1898. Bryologist. 'Mosses of 
Eskdale,* Phyt. i. (1841), 540. In S. America, 1849-64. 
'Palmsd AmazonicsB,* Journ. Linn. Soc. 1871, 65. 'Hepatics 
of Amazons and Andes,* Trans. Bot. Soc. Ed. vol. xv. R.S.C. 
V. 785 ; viii. 998 ; xi. 469 ; Jacks. 877 ; Journ. Bot. 1894, 50 ; 
Trans. Bot. Soc. Ed. xx. 99; Proo. Linn. Soc. 1898-4, 85; 
Diet. Nat. Biogr. liii. 481. Sprucea Wilson. Sprucella Stephani. 

Stables, WilUam Alexander (fl. 1886). Of Cawdor. Gordon, 
Fl. Moray. Murray, Northern Flora. Top. Bot. 556; Ann. 
Beott. Nat. Hist. 1894, 66. 



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80 BIOGBAPHIOAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 

Steuart, James Henry Angnstns (1885 ?-95) : b. Snaningdale, 
Berks, 1886 ? ; d. Ventnor, I. of Wight, 26 Feb. 1895 ; bur. 
Kensal Green. Captain in Surrey Militia. Memb. Bot. Exchange 
Club. * Geniiana Amarella var. pracox,' Joum. Bot. 1889, 217. 
Herbarium in Nottingham Museum. Jouru. Bot. 1895, 128. 

Stonham, William Bume (d. 1896) : d. Maidstone, 6 Dec. 1896. 
F.L.S., 1895. Collected in Kent when young. **An ardent 
botanist." Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 68. 

Sullivan, David (1886 ?-95) : b. 1886 ? ; d. Moyston, Victoria, 
Australia, 2 June, 1895. Schoolmaster. F.L.S., 1884. Cor- 
respondent of F. von Mueller. • Census of Grampian Plants.* 
♦* An enthusiastic botanist." Proc. Linn. Soc. 1895-6, 47. 

Suttor, George (1774-1859): b. 1774; d. Alloway Bank, near 
Bathurst, N.S. W., May, 1859. F.L.S., 1848. Went to New 
South Wales at Banks's advice to collect, and to introduce 
fruit trees, 1798. * Culture of the Grape-vine and Orange in 
Australia,' 1848. * Timber-trees of Australia,' Proc. Linn. Soc. 
i. 177. Proc. Linn. Soc. 1859-60, xxxiii. 

Taylor, John EUor (1885-95) : b. Levenshulme, Manchester, 
1835; d. Ipswich, Suffolk, 28 Sept. 1895. F.L.S., 1878. 
Editor, ' Science Gossip,* 1872-98. Curator, Ipswich Museum. 
'Flowers, their Origin . . . ,' 1878. 'Sagacity and Morality 
of Plants,' 1884. Jacks. 611; R.S.C. viii. 1064; xi. 558; 
Journ. Bot. 1895, 852; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1895-6, 47. 

Taylor, Simon (fl. 1750-94) : d. 1794, 1797, or 1798. Botanical 
painter. Painted for Lord Bute and Fothergill. Paintings 
bought by Empress of Bussia. Linn. Corr. i. 255; Pilkington, 
Diet, of Painters ; Bryan ; L. B. Phillips, Diet. Biog. Reference. 

Thomson, Joseph (1860-95) : b. Penpont, near Thomhill, 
Dumfries, Feb. 1860; d. London, 2 Aug. 1895. African 
traveller. Collected in Eastern Equatorial Africa, 1882-8, 
Journ. Linn. Soc. xxi. 897. R.S.C. xi. 591 ; Geogr. Joum., 
Sept. 1895; Athenaaum, 1895, ii. 195. Impatiem Tfwmsoni 
Hk f. 

Tinker, Jethro (1788-1871): b. 25 Sept. 1788; d. Staleybridge, 
10 March, 1871. Working-man. Botanist and entomologist. 
Contrib. to Buxton, Bot. Guide (p. ix). Herb, in Stamford 
Park Museum. Monument in Stamford Park, between Ashton 
and Staleybridge, inscribed '*our local Linnaaus." 

Traill, George William (1886-97) : b. Kirkwall, Orkney, 26 Oct. 
1886; d. Joppa, near Edinburgh, 7 April, 1897. Algologist. 
*Alg8B of the Forth,* 1885. *AlgaB of Joppa,* 1886. 'Algffi of 
Orlmey,* 1890. Herbarium in Herb. Bot. Soc. Edin. Jacks. 
246 ; R.S.C. xi. 681 ; Orkney Herald, 14 April, 1897 ; Ann. 
Scott. Nat. Hist. 1898, 7 ; Journ. Bot. 1896, 10 ; 1897, 440, 
with bibliogr. Trailliella Batters. 

Trimen, Henry (1843-96) : b. Paddington, 26 Oct. 1848 ; d. 
Peradeniya, Ceylon, 16 Oct. 1896; bur. Kandy. M.B., Lend., 
1865. F.L.S., 1866. F.R.S., 1888. Assistant Bot. Dep. 
Mus. Brit., 1869-79. Bot. Lecturer, St. Mary's Hospital, 1877. 



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BIOOBAPHIGAL INDBX OF BBITISH AND IRISH BOTANISTS. 81 

Director Bot. GarJ. Peradeniya, 1879. Disoovered Wol/fia 
arrhiza, 1866. 'Flora of Middlesex' (with W. T. T. Dyer), 
1869. Edited 'Jonrn. Bot., 1871-79. * Medicinal Plants' 
(with Robert Bentley), 1875-80. • Handbook to the Flora of 
Ceylon/ 1893-95. R.S.C. vi. 40; viii. 1115; xi. 644; Pritz. 828 ; 
Jacks. 614. Joum. Bot. 1896, 489, with portr. ; Proc. Linn. 
Soc. 1896-7, 70; Kew Bull. 1896, 219. 

Trimmer, Sarah, nSe Eirby (1741-1810) : b. Ipswich, 1741 ; d. 
15 Dec. 1810 ; bur. Ealing. < Introduction to the Knowledge 
of Nature,* ed. vi. 1789 ; ed. xi. 1802. * Life,' 1814. Portr. by 
H* Howard, R.A., in Nat. Portr. Gallery. 

Trowe, Gilbert (1685-1734) : b. Abingdon, Berks, c. 1685 ; d. 
Oxford ?, 1784. B.A., Oxon, 1704. M.D., Oxon, 1728. Prof. 
Bot. Oxon, 1724-8. Alamn. Oxon. 

TaUidelph, Walter (d. c. 1789). Amanuensis to James Douglas ; 
afterwards planter and medical practitioner in Antigua. Cor- 
respondent of John Martyn. Plants in Herb. Sloane, Ix. and 
Ixxxii., with letters to Sloane and lists of plants. Other letters 
in Sloane MSS. 4064. Oorham, 19. 

Tnnstal, Mrs. Thomazin (fl. 1629). Of Bull-banke, near Hornby 
Castle, Lane. '*A great louer of these deUghts." Sent many 
plants to Parkinson, and botanized at Ingleborough. Parkinson, 
• Paradisus,* 848, &c. ; Pult. i. 154. 

Turner, John (fl. 1795). Of Lympston, Exeter. Added Oxalis 
comiculata to Brit, flora, 1795; Berkenhout, Syn. ii. 141; 
Clarke, 21. 

Tyaoke, Nicholas (fl. 1820-40): b. Cornwall. M.D. Orig. 
Member Bot. Soc. Edinb. Distinguished Lamium intermedium 
as British. Bept. Bot. Soc. Edinb. 1886-7, p. 88. E. B. S. 
2914, 2988. Herbarium in Chichester Museum. 

Vasey, George (1822-98) : b. Snenton, Yorks, 22 Feb. 1822 ; d. 
Washington, U.S.A., 4 March, 1898. To America, 1828. M.D., 
Pittsfield, Mass., 1846. Curator U.S. National Herbarium. 
Wrote on grasses and forage plants. ' Forest Trees of the United 
States,' 1876. Jacks. 860; B.S.C. viii. 1144; Bot. Gazette, 
1898, 170 (portr. and bibliogr.). Vaseya Thurber = Muhlmbergia, 
Vaseyanthus Cogn. 

Veitch, James (1792-1868) : b. Killerton, Exeter, 25 Jan. 1792 ; 
d. Exeter, 14 May, 1868. Nurseryman. Cott. Gard. xiii. 278 
(portr.) ; xxix. 862. 

Veitch, James (1815-69) : b. Exeter, 24 May, 1815 ; d. Chelsea, 
10 Sept. 1869 ; bur. Brompton Cemetery. Son of preceding. 
Nurseryman. Bought Knight & Perry's Nursery, 1858. P.L.S., 
1862. Portr. in Lindley Library. Gard. Chron. 1869, 990 ; 
Proc. lann. Soc. 1869-70, 114. 

Wager, Sir Charles (1666-1748) : b. 1666 ; d. Fulham, 1748 ; 
bur. Westminster Abbey. Admiral B.N., 1781. Knighted, 
1708. M.P., Westminster, 1782-42. Friend of P. Collmson. 
Had a garden at Fulham. Bose ; Trans. Linn. Soc. x. 282. 
Journal op Botany.— Vol. 87. [Feb. 1899.] o 

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bZ BIOGBAPmOAL INDEX OF BRITISH AND IBI8H BOTANISTS. 

Wall, George (1821 ?-94) : b. 1821 7 ; d. St. Thomas's Home, 
London, 18 Deo. 1894 ; bar. Bromley Oemetery. Pperidologist. 
F.L.S., 1872. In Ceylon from 1846. Friend of Thwaites. 
'Catalogue of Ceylon Perns, with notes,* privately printed, 
1878: <Check List,* 1879. Had a large fern herbarium. Jacks. 
896 ; Journ. Bot. 1895, 68. Trichamanes Wallii Thw. 

Waller, Rev. Horace (d. 1896): d. Twymell, Northamptonsh., 
22 Feb. 1896. Missionary in Central Africa. Rector of Twy- 
mell, 1874. Mozambique plants at Eew. Journ. Bot. 1896, 
190. Walleria Kirk. 

Walker, Frederick (1829-89) : b. Soutbgate, Middlesex, 4 Deo. 
1829 ; d. Soutbgate, 20 Deo. 1889. Collected near Abmgdon. 
Druce, Fl. Berks, clzxx. 

Warner, Frederick Isaac (1841-96) : b. 1841 ; d. Winchester, 
8 Nov. 1896. F.L.8., 1872. Sec. Winchester and Hampshire 
Scientific Society, 1871-6. PI. of Winchester in Proc. Wm- 
chester Sci. Soc, 1871. Contrib. to Townsend*s * Fl. of Hamp- 
shire.' Had a Hampshire herbarium. R.S.C. viii. 1197; Journ. 
Bot. 1897, 82 ; Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 70. 

Warren, John Byrne Leicester, 3rd Baron de Tabley (1885- 
95) : b. Tabley Hall, Enutsford, Cheshire, 26 April, 1885 ; d. 
Ryde, I. of Wight, 22 Nov. 1895 ; bur. Lower Peover, Cheshire. 
M.A., Oxon, 1856. F.L.S., 1864. Poet and numismatist. 
Correspondent of Watson. Critical in RuM^ Rumex^ Bromui, 
CalUtriche^ &c. Discovered Rumex maximus. Described CalU' 
triche Lachii. • Flora of Hyde Park,' Journ. Bot. 1871. * Flora 
of Cheshire' (posth.), 1899 (portr.). Jacks. 249, 256; B.S.O. 
viii. 1198 ; xi. 752 ; tfourn. Bot. 1896, 77 (bibliogr.) ; AthenflBum, 
80 Nov. 1895 ; Contemporary Review, Jan. 1896 ; Spectator, 
7 Deo. 1895 ; preface to Fl. Cheshire. Rumex Warrenii Trimen 
= R. Knafii, 

Weir, John (d. 1898) : d. East Bamet, 28 April, 1898. Collector 
for Royal Hort. Soc. in Brazil and New Qranada, 1861-4: 
returned to England, 1865. Lists and journal in Proc. Hort. 
Soc. 1868-5 ; mosses in Journ. Linn. Soc. xii. Plants at Brit. 
Mus. and Kew. Card. Chron. 1898, i. 801 ; Kew Bull. 1898, 176. 

Westcombe, Thomas (1815-98): d. Worcester, 9 May, 1898. 
Collected British plants. Qrew Stapelias; collection to Eew 
Gardens. Helped E. Lees in Botany of Malvern, ed. 2 (pref.). 
Journ. Bot. 1898, 192; Eew Bulletin, 1898, 186. 

White, Charles Frederick (1818-96): b. Poplar, 12 Feb. 1818 ; 
d. Clapton, 20 Nov. 1896 ; bur. Ealing. Drew Mosses, Micro- 
scopic Fungi, and pollen. F.L.S., 1876. * Poppy Pollen from 
Egyptian Funereal Garlands,' Journ. Linn. Soc. xxi. 251, t. 6. 
Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 72. 

White, Eliza Catherine, nie Qnekett (1812-75) : b. Langport, 
Somerset, 1812; d. Ealing, 14 Nov., 1875. Sister of John 
Quekett; wife of foregoing. '*A good British botanist, a keen 
collector of mosses and micro-fungi.*' Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 78. 

White, Francis Buchanan (1842-94): b. Perth, 20 March, 
1842 ; d. Perth, 8 Dec. 1894. M.D., Bdin., 1864. F.L.8., 



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BI06BAPHJOAL INDEX OF BBniSH AMD IBISH BOTANISTS. 83 

1878. One of founders of Pertbsliire Soc. Nat. 8ci., Scottish 
Cryptogamio Soc, and E. of Scotland Union of Nat. Soc. 
Edited 'Scottish Naturahst,' 1871-82. 'Revision of British 
Willows/ Joum. Linn. Soc. xxvii. (1889), 888. 'Flora of 
Perthshire' (posthumous), with memoir and portr., 1898. 
Jacks. 474; R.S.C. viii. 1229; xi. 795 ; Trans. Perthshire 
Soc. Nat. Sci. vol. ii. pt. 8, 1894-5 (portr.) ; Joum. Bot. 1895, 
49 ; Proo. Linn. Soc. 1894-5, 88. 

White, Rev. Gilbert (1720-98) : b. Selbome, Hants, 18 July, 
1720 ; d. Selbome, 26 June, 1798 ; bur. Selbome churchyard. 
M.A., Oxon, 1746. Marked Selbome pi. in a copy of Hudson 
Fl. Angl. ' Natural History of Selbome,' 1789. * Naturalist's 
Calendar,' 1795. Jacks. 218 ; Joum. Bot. 1898, 289 ; Alumn. 
Oxon. 

Whitehead, John (1888-96) : b. DuMnfield, Cheshire, 1888 ; d. 
Oldham, 6 May, 1896. Cotton operative. Bryologist. Added 
Chara Braunii to Brit. Flora. First President Manchester 
Cryptogamic Soc. Lists of Mosses in Naturalist, 1886, 85, and 
Joum. Bot. 1894, 198. Cott. Gard. xxviii. 585 ; Joum. Bot. 

1897, 89 (portr.). 

Wickham, William (1881-97) : b. London, 1881 ; d. Binsted 
Wyck, Hants, 16 May, 1897 ; bur. Binsted. M.A., Oxon, 1857. 
F.L.S., 1879. "Investigated botany of East Hampshire." 
Proc. Linn. Soc. 1896-7, 78 ; Alumn. Oxon. 

Wiles, James (fl. 1790-1805). Gardener to R. A. Salisbury. On 
Bligh's voyage, 1791-8, with Christopher Smith. In charge of 
the Bot. Garden, Liguanea, Jamaica, 1798-1805. PI. coll. with 
Smith in Herb. Mus. Brit. Sent about 800 specimens to 
Lambert. Kew Bulletin, 1891, 800-1. 

Williams, George (c. 1768-1884) : b. Catherington, Hants, 1768?; 
d. Oxford, 17 Jan. 1884. B.A., Oxon, 1781. M.D., 1788; 
P.R.C.P., 1799. F.L.S., 1798. Prof. Bot. Oxon, 1795-1884, 
*' although an elegant scholar, added nothing to botanical 
science." Gent. Mag. 1834, i. 884; Bot. Misc. i. 57-61 ; Druce, 
Fl. Berks, clviii; Gard. Chron. 1871, 1427; Munk, ii. 467; 
Alumn. Oxon. 

Williamson, Rev. Alexander (1888-90) : b. Scotland, 1888 ; d. 
Ohefoo, 28 Aug. 1890. LL.D. To Cfhina, 1855. * Elements 
of Botany ' (in Chinese), 1858. * Journeys in N. China,' 1870 
(plants in vol. ii. 489-42). R.S.C. viii. 1244 ; Bretschneider, 690. 

Williamson, William Crawford (1816-95): b. Scarborough, 
Yorkshire, 28 Nov. 1816 ; d. Clapham, Surrey, 28 June, 1895. 
LL.D., Edin., 1888. F.R.S., 1854. Prof. Bot. Owens Coll. 
Manchester, 1851-92. ♦ Fossil PI. of the Coal Measures,' Phil. 
Trans. 1871-98. Assisted Lindley and Hutton in 'Fossil 
Flora* from 1882. Curator Mus. Manchester Nat. Hist. Soc, 
1885. 'Volvox Globator' (with George Busk), 1858. * Remi- 
niscences of a Yorkshire Naturalist,* 1896; R.S.C. vi. 880; 
vii. 1245 ; xi. 817 ; Jacks. 178 ; Joum. Bot. 1895, 298. 

Wilson, Alexander Stephen (1827-98) : d. Aberdeen, 16 Nov. 

1898. Civil Engineer. Experimental and practical botanical 

o 2 



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84 SHORT NOTES. 

researches. * Tlie Botany of Three Periods/ 1878. 'A Bnshel 
of Com/ 1888. 'Ergot,' 1876. B.S.C. viii. 1248; xi. 820; 
Jacks. 21, \6d ; Joum. Bot. 1894, 81 ; Gard. Ghron. 1898, ii. 665. 

Wilson, Charlotte (fl. 1847). Discovered SimethU at Bourne- 
mouth, 1847. Qard. Ghron. 1847, 467 (misprinted Wilkins, and 
80 entered in ' Biogr. Index,' p. 182). 

Wilson, John Braoebridge (1828-95): b. Topcroft, Norfolk, 
1828 ; d. Geelong, Victoria, 22 Oct. 1895. B.A., Gamb., 1895, 
F.L.S., 1882. Head-master Geelong Grammar School, 1868. 
Phycologist and marine zoologist. Algaa in Bot. Dep. Brit. Mus. 
Joum. Bot. 1896, 48 ; * Eagle,' xix. 500 ; Memorials G. G. 
Babington, 269 ; Proc. Lmn. Soc. 1895-6, 48. 

Wilson, William (1808-76) : b. 8 March, 1808; d. 18 June, 1876; 
bur. Gartmel Priory Church, Lane. Gardener to Duke of 
Devonshire at Holker. Plant-list for Gartmel in Jopling's 
Sketch of Furness and Cartmel, 1848. Naturalist, 1894, 124. 

Woolls, Rev. William (1814-98) : b. Winchester, March, 1814 ; 
d. Burwood, near Sydney, 14 March, 1898. Ph.D., Gottingen. 
F.L.S., 1865. Went to N.S.Wales, 1827; ordained, 1878. 
Incumbent of Bichmond, Tasmania. * Gontribution to the Flora 
of Australia,' 1867. *Bot. Discovery in Australia,' 1869. 
•Lectures on the Veg. Kingdom,' 1879. 'Species pi. para- 
mattensium,' 1871. R.S.G. viii. 1274 ; xi. 850 ; Pritz. 851 ; 
Jacks. 622 ; Joum. Bot. 1898, 128 ; Proc. Lmn. Soc. 1892-8, 
27. Woollsia F. M. = Lysinema. 

Young, Rev. James Reynolds (c. 1810-84): b. circ. 1810; d. 

Whitnash, Wantrick, 1884. M.A., Camb., 1840; Oxon, 1844. 

Bector of Whitnash, 1846-76. Hon. Ganon of Worcester. 

' Gat. Warwicksh. Plants ' (with B. Baker) in Proc. Warw. Nat. 

Hist. Soc. 1874. Had a herbarium. Fl. Warwicksh. 506 ; 

Alumn. Oxon. 
Young, William (fl. 1758-71); b. Vurginia?; d. Vhrginia? 

"Botanist to theur Majesties," 1764. Introduced Dionaa to 

England. Pupil of Sir John Hill. In England, 1765-6, 1768. 

MS. < Natural History of Plants of S. Garolina ' (802 figures), 

(1767), and specimens in Bot. Dept. Brit. Mus. Dryand. Oat. 

lii. 186. Joum. Bot. 1894, 882. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Bebkshirb Plants. — On July 18th, in the course of a walk from 
Wellington College to Sandhurst, and thence along the Blaokwater 
stream to the Boyal Military College, I noticed a few local plants 
in what appear to be new stations : — SuUatia umbrosa Opiz. By 
the river a little below Sandhurst, in considerable quantity. — 
Hypericum dubium Leers. Oopse by the river, about half a mile 
higher up ; one good-sized patch. — Rubmfissus Lindley. Boadside 
near Wellington GoUege. — R. suberectus grows dose by, R. plicatus 



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SHOBT NOTBS. 85 

being frequent thereabouts, as is also R. holerythros. — R. erythrinus 
Oenevier. Between Wellington College and Sandhurst ; tiie first 
certain record for Berks. Bev. W. Moyle Bogers endorses the 
name, but adds that the leaves are untypical. — R. calvatm Blox. 
Plentiful in a boggy fir-wood, B. M. College. Determined by Mr. 
Bogers as exactly Bloxam's plant. New county record. — R. Koehleri 
W. & N. var. cognatus (N.E.Brown). Plentiful between Wellington 
College and Sandhurst. — Epilobium obseurum x roseum. With the 
parents, on a bank near the river, about a mile and a half below 
Blaekwater village. — Hieracium rtgidum Hartm. var. acrifolium 
Dahlst. Near Blaekwater, less plentiful than var. seabrescens 
Johanss. — Thymus Ckamadrys Pr. Common. — Sparganium ramomm 
Curt. var. mierocarpum Neuman. Pond at B. M. College. — Carex 
dongata L. Swamp near the river, about a mile and a half below 
Blaekwater, with C. vesiearia L. My present colleague, Bev. C. B. 
de Jersey, tells me that he has found Coral-root {Cardamine buUd/era 
Br.) in Bisham parish — a good patch, in fine flower. This is an 
important addition to the county list. — ^Edward S. Mabshall. 

PHTsooioTBinM sPHABicuH IN SuBBBT. — This interesting little 
moss was originally found in Britain by Wilson at Mere Mere, 
Cheshire, in 1884, and has since appeared in a few other localities, 
from which, however, it is said to disappear for many years. This 
was the case at Mere Mere, where Mr. Hunt refound it in 1868. 
Mr. Dixon, in his £bkndbook, adds Derbyshire and Staffordshire. 
Its range is now considerably extended by its observation so far 
south as Surrey. It was found last December on the muddy shores 
of a large pond near Felbridge, in the S.E. or Eden district of the 
county, and when detected by Mr. Holmes — the first of a small 
party who saw it — was in excellent condition and growing in some 
abundance. Another interesting addition to my list of Surrey 
mosses was Weisia rostellata Ldb., which Mr. Horrell and I found 
the following day on the bottom of a drained pond near Dormans. 

^H. W. MONINOTON. 

Chbnopodium oapitatum Aschers. — This plant, more commonly 
known by the Linnean name BUtum virgatum^ was found by me at 
Craig-y-don, Llandudno, not far from the Little Ormeshead, in 
September last, growing very locally, yet plentifully, in a patch of 
waste land. It has from time to time been recorded as a casual in 
the British Islands, e. g. by Mr. Alexander Irvine (Phyt. iii. n. s. 
p. 866) as occurring at Wandsworth ; while Mr. P. J. Hanbury in- 
forms me he has a specimen collected by Dr. Boswell (Syme) at 
Fisherrow, near Edinburgh. It is figured by Curtis, Bot. Mag, 
t. 276, and used formerly to be cultivated for ornament, the round 
scarlet axillary bunches of fruit being conspicuous, and suggesting 
the popular name " Strawberry Blite.** — James Cosmo Melvill. 



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86 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

History of European Botanical Discoveries in China. By E. Bbet- 
souNEiDEB, M.D. London: Low, Marston & Go. 2 vols, 
large 8vo, pp. 1167. Price 80s. net. 

In this handsome work Dr. Bretschneider has brought together 
what is practically all the information available as to the history 
and progress of European knowledge of Chinese plants. For nearly 
tiiirty years he has been engaged in researches into the history of 
Ohinese botany as recorded in ancient native botanical works and 
by early European travellers, and now he brings his labours up to 
date with this very exhaustive book, in which the history is brought 
down to the present day, and the investigations of living workers 
are duly recorded. Dr. Bretschneider had intended to delay until the 
Index Flora Sinensis had been brought to a conclusion ; " but," he 
says, '*we cannot afford to wait any longer, for it is not to be fore- 
seen when Mr. Hemsley's admirable work, interrupted more than 
four years ago, will be brought to an end." It must be confessed 
that Dr. Bretschneider has not overstated his case, for the more or 
less regular publication of the Index stopped in 1891, only one 
small instalment of about fifty pages having appeared since July of 
that year. Now that the Flora of Tropical Africa and the Gape 
Flora have at last been taken up, it is to be hoped in the interests 
of science that the Eew authorities who have the work in hand will 
not allow the Ghinese Flora to fall into abeyance for an indefinite 
period. 

Dr. Bretschneider divides his history into five periods : — ^i. The 
Pre-Linnean period (from the Middle Ages down to about the 
middle of the eighteenth century); ii. The Linnean period, ex- 
tending to 1793 ; iii. The period from 1793 to the first war between 
England and Ghina in 1840 ; iv. from 1840 to 1860 ; v. from 1860 
to the present time. Each of these periods is divided and sub- 
divided, always with much care and judgment, into numerous 
sections, which considerations of space will not allow us to 
enumerate. It must suffice to say that the author passes in review 
the work of all those who have either described or collected Ghinese 
plants, enumerating the species and giving full reference to the 
place where each is described : of both writers and collectors he 
gives a biographical sketch and an account of their work, as it 
affects Ghina, with indications of anything bearing even indirectly 
upon the subject. There are two admirable indexes, one of the 
persons mentioned, the other of the plants ; the book is well and 
carefully printed, and may stand as a model for publications of its 
class. 

We are glad to note that the pages of this Journal are frequently 
laid under contribution, and we propose to give here one or two 
items of information which to a small extent supplement Dr. 
Bretschneider's account. For example, we note (pp. 251, 257) a 
reference to a collection of Ghinese drawings executed for John 
Reeves as "still existing in the Hort. Soc. library." In this 



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HISTOBY OF £UBOPSAN BOTANICAL DIBOOYEBI£S IN CHINA. 87 

Journal for 1894 (p. 298) we stated that these drawings ooold not 
then be found at the Hortioiiltaral Society's rooms, nor have they 
been discovered during the recent cataloguing of the Lindley 
Library ; and there is little doubt that these form, as is suggested 
in Joum. Bot. 1897, p. 427, the collection now in the Botanical 
Department of the British Museum, to which Dr. Bretschneider 
refers on p. 258. We think, by the way, that the learned author 
somewhat over-estimates the number of specimens from Beeves to 
be found in the Museum and Eew herbaria. 

The collection of drawings formed by John Bradby (not 
"Bradley*') Blake merits more attention than might appear 
firom Dr. Bretschneider*s reference (p. 152). It is described by 
Dryander (Gat. Bibl. Banks, iii. 188) as *<Volumen continens 
icones plantarum 62, Cantoni eleganter pictas, cum anatome 
partium fructificationis.'* Dryander (Trans. Linn. Soc. i. 172) 
says that the Chinese artist had been instructed by Blake '< in the 
art of making botanical drawings"; but this instruction was no 
doubt limited to the botanical details, as the figures are the work 
of an accomplished draughtsman. The volume contains MS. lists 
of determinations (none of them complete) by Banks, Solander, 
Dryander, and J. J. Bennett. In some cases — e.g. Polygonum 
tvHetoriwn — ^the drawings are correlated by Dryander with specimens 
in Herb. Banks which bear the same native name in the same hand : 
in this particular instance the specimen and drawing form the type 
of the description in Hort. Eew. (ii. 88), although, as Dr. Bret- 
schneider points out, the date 1776 is a mistake, as Blake died in 
1778. 

Another collection of Chinese drawings in the Botanical 
Department might interest Dr. Bretschneider, although the 
plaiits are drawn in a conventional and unpleasing manner. 
It is mentioned under "Anon." in Dryander's Catalogue of the 
Bauksian Library (i. 252), but no light is thrown upon its history. 
The title-page of each of the two oblong folio volumes (each con- 
taining 100 plates) bears the inscription <* Le Ch' de Bobier, Canton 
en Chine, ann6e 1776." The plants are named in Chinese. 
Dryander enters another collection {L c. iii. 183) as " Codex 
foliormn 96, quorum singula continent iconem plantsB, coloribus 
fncatim a pictore quodam sinensi" (quarto), but this does not seem 
to be in the Botanical Department. 

Our author has not identified the '' Bobertson " mentioned on 
p. 154 with the James Bobertson of the Biographical Index ^ which, 
it is pleasant to note, hsks been of much use to him in his researches. 
Nor is this to be wondered at, for when the Index was compiled we 
were not aware that the pupil of John Hope in Edinburgh who 
found Eriocaulon in Skye in 1768 was the Bobertson who was 
subsequently sent through the influence of Banks to Calcutta, 
where (it would appear from an interesting letter in the Banksian 
correspondence written from Calcutta, 20 Feb. 1776) he subse- 
qnently obtained employment in the East India Company's service. 

On his way to Cucutta he collected at St. Jago, Bombay, 
MadraS; and Johanna Island, and sent plants from all these places 



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88 LA BOTANIQUE BN PROVBNOE. 

to Banks, which are now in Herb. Mns. Brit.— there are some 
from Johanna, although in his letter Robertson speaks of having 
had the misfortune to lose the (about 200) specimens he gathered 
in that island, ''and was very near being drowned myself." I do 
not know under what circumstances he collected at Whampoa, but 
it was before the date above mentioned, for his specimen of Adina 
glohiftora is labelled in Herb. Banks **Wampo, Mr. Robertson: 
gathered Novemb. 1772.** 

Dr. Bretschneider does not seem acquainted with the short 
paper <'De Plantis Sinensium, adconfinia Siberiore australis nuper 
observatis** contributed by J. P. Henckel in 1732 to Act. Acad. Nat. 
Cur. iii. 854-856. This is a list of twenty-six plants, seeds of 
which were brought to him by his Mend Johannes Godofredus 
Heydenreich, who collected them '* in ChinsB confinibus.*' But the 
mention of so small an omission as this is in itself a tribute to the 
wonderful completeness of the work. 

The number of typographical errors is astonishingly few: nor 
do we find anything of moment in the text which calls for correction. 
An inspection of Solander*s MSS. shows that Martyn was right in 
saying that Bradleia was dedicated by Banks to Richard Bradley, so 
that Dr. Bret8chneider*8 suggested substitution (p. 154) of Henry 
Bradley falls to the ground. The dates of death — 10 Nov. 1896 and 
14 June, 1894, respectively — ^may be added to the notices of Alfred 
Chandler and W. Wykeham Perry; and additional information as to 
John Potts and J. D. Parks will probably be found in their journals, 
which are in the possession of the Royal Horticultural Society. 

Jambs Bbitten. 

LeobA (Ludovio). La Botamque en Provence au XV P Steele; Purre 
Pena et Matkias de LobeL Marseille (Barlatier), 1899 [i.e. 
1898] . 8vo, pp. viii, 268. 

Tras well-printed volume is in reality a careful and minute 
analysis of the SHrpium Adversana of the two authors named in 
the title. Other volumes are referred to, but always for the light 
they shed on the subjects treated of in the Adversaria; even later 
works by Lobel himself are barely mentioned, the Kruydtboek once 
only in a passing mention, and the final issue of the Adversaria 
itself in 1605 is passed over in silence. 

The field of discussion being thus narrowed, the survey of it is 
very thorough. The volume contains three main divisions : — 
I. Le Stirpium Adversaria^ 59 pages ; II. Herborisations en Pro- 
vence, 85 pages ; and III. Herborisations en Languedoc, 95 pages ; 
the triple index brings the whole to a conclusion. 

To English readers the first portion will be by far the most 
interesting ; the author here handles the topic of the relative share 
of the co-authors in their joint production. It further has the 
novelty of introducing to us a man whose personality has been 
completely overshadowed by his partner in the work. Even MM. 
Planchon, in their well-known Rondelet et ses disciples, speak of the 
strange mystery enveloping the work of Pena, at one and the same 



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LA BOTANIQUB EN PROVENCE. 89 

time celebrated and obsoare, only known in conjunction with Lobel, 
the dates of his birth and death, his birthplace, and details of his 
life a sealed letter; a citation from the register of Montpellier 
University and an obscure hint giving us no real knowledge of 
the man. The conspicuous merit of the volume under review is 
the flood of light thrown on this hitherto unknown personage and 
his life. 

When Morren's Mathias de UOhel, sa vie et son auvre was 
reviewed in this Journal (1876, 814-316), we regretted that so 
many statements were given without reference to the authority for 
them. Here, every statement is supported by an extract, with the 
actual reference ; consequently we not only feel confidence in the 
good faith of the author, but we are able ourselves to check his 
statements, and are not dependent entirely on his judgment. 

Pierre Pena was born at Jouques, a small town in the 
arrondissement of Aix, in Provence ; the year of his birth is 
unknown, but he was, as we shall see, several years older than 
Lobel, who was bom in 1588. He was the youngest of three 
brothers — Andr^, who became "ConseiQer au Parlement d'Aix"; 
Jean, a mathematician and professor at the College of France ; and 
Pierre, who was intended for a soldier. When twenty years old, 
he was taken by his brother Jean to Paris to study medicine, and 
supported by him during his residence in the capital. After leaving 
Paris, Pierre visited the northern provinces of France, Flanders, 
Germany, the Tyrol, Switzerland, Italy, Piedmont, Spain, and 
Portugal, citing them as given by M. Legre. He was at Antwerp 
in 1558, Italy in 1560-64 ; in 1562 a second time at Padua, in 1568 
making an excursion to Verona ; in 1564 at Ziirich with Conrad 
Oesner, thence he travelled to Venice ; the next year, 1565, he met 
liobel at Montpellier, having signed the register there in April, a 
few weeks earHer than Lobel. 

Their stay at the southern University was but short, contrary 
to the received belief — a year and a half at the outside. We And 
them botanizing with the students in June, 1566 ; their teacher, 
Bondelet, died on 80th July of the same year, and in October they 
were both at La Roohelle on their way to England. Why was their 
stay in Montpellier so short? It is suggested that the death of 
their teacher was a determining cause ; another that the muttering 
of the storm which broke out in 1567 was already marked by them, 
that, being probably both of them Protestants, they turned to the 
realm of England, where, under Elizabeth's sway, profound peace 
reigned. Be that as it may, they travelled by way of Agen, Bordeaux, 
Saintes, and Normandy, reaching our shores before the end of the year. 

How the next three or four years were passed we have only 
slight indications. They seem to have been well received, and, as 
shown in their Adversaria, travelled about the country ; by the end 
of 1570 their volume was printed, the preface being dated 24th 
I>ecember, and the printer's note 1st January, 1571. 

What was the relative share borne by these two friends in the 
work thus produced ? M. Legr^ unhesitatingly says Pena did the 
most, and on the following grounds : — 



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90 LA BOTANIQUE EN PBOTEMOB. 

The plural is used throughout, except in four instanoes, when 
the first person singular slips in, when speaking of Spain and 
Portugal. Now, it has never been claimed for Lobel that he ever 
visited the Iberian peninsula ; it is tolerably certain, therefore, that 
in these cases Pena is the author. Again, the intimate knowledge 
of southern plants, places, and native names could hardly have been 
acquired by Lobel, a Fleming, in a period of less than eighteen 
months, whilst Peua, bom in country, would naturally be familiar 
with them ; an additional corroboration is the use of '* nostras '* as 
applied to Proven9al plants, which Lobel, from Lisle, in Flanders, 
would not have been likely to use. 

Lobel was thirty-two years old when the Adversaria came out, 
yet the phrase ^'multis abhinc annis" occurs more than once; a 
conversation with Gesner is cited ; we do not know that Lobel ever 
was at Ziirich, while Pena was, a short time before Gesner died. 
Next the authority of authors who were contemporaries is cited : 
Garidel, Dalechamp, Gohory, all speak of Pena's Adversaria, Caspar 
Bauhin, who was on excellent terms with Lobel, and had also 
studied at Montpellier, joins in the same story. 

The last argument which may be brought in is from the style of 
the book ; Pena was bred to arms till he was twenty, and then, 
changing his profession, he would have but httle time to acquire 
the graces of a correct style : hence the harshness of the text ; 
Lobel's own language is less open to reproach. 

Why, then, were the two names associated in the title-page ? 
Lobel was of a vain nature, and would not have acquiesced in his 
own name standing second, out of alphabetic order, unless his part 
was really subordinate. The conclusion probably is that the idea 
of the work and most of the text is Pena*8 ; that he had more slender 
means than Lobel, so the joint issue was the result. This will be 
noticed again. 

Pena remained in England till 1572 at least, as a passage cited 
by the author shows; Lobel remained with us till his death in 
1616 at Highgate. Pena's after career was a prosperous one ; he 
left England for Antwerp, finally settled in France, attained great 
reputation in syphilitic affections, cured Henry III. of some disorder 
of that character, and died worth <' 600,000 livres," the year not 
being known. 

Here we have a key to the mystery why Pena disappears 
botanically after the production of the Adversana. The bulk of the 
book remained with the printer till Lobel produced his supple- 
mentary work, his Stirpium Observationes, in 1576, with the 
Adversaria appended, the introductory matter being modified. 
M. Max Booses, curator of the Mus^e Plantin, states that that 
celebrated printer Plantin bought 800 copies, paying 1200 florins 
for them. This did not exhaust the stock, for Purfoot's reissue of 
the Adversaria, with other additions by Lobel, came out in 1605 ; 
it was not a reprint, as may be seen by certain accidents in the 
type. 

These later issues have not been attentively examined by the 
author under review, or he would hardly have charged Lobel with 



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LA BOTANIQUB BN PBOYBNOE. 91 

the offence of deliberately ousting Pena's name from their joint 
production. M. Legr^ says the supersession was done gradually. 
Thus the epistle to the Queen was signed only by Lobel, and he further 
mystifies the pubHc by the form of the title and the index, '* In 
Stirpium Observationes et Adversaria Mathias de Lobel index 
copiosissimus.*' The author here exclaims : ** The trick is played; 
he has succeeded ; Lobel has gained possession in the eyes of 
posterity." This language is too strong for the actual fact, for in 
the title-page of the 1605 complete volume we find: *<Delucidae 
simplicium medicamentorum explicationes, & Stirpium Adversaria 
.... authoribus Petro Pena & Matthia De TObel, medicis .... 
quibus accessit altera pars . . . opera & studio Matthia de L'Obel *' 
(note the variation in Lobel's own name). The index of the 
Adversaria is identical with the original^ and especially curious 
in the heading, << In Stirpium Adversaria Matthiae de Lobel & Petri 
Penae Index." This shows the danger of building too much on 
slight foundations. 

Although we have not been able to follow our author in this 
matter as far as he would lead us, yet on the whole he has made 
out a strong case for his view of the matter ; we have to thank him 
for his exertions in the cause of Pena, both natives of the same 
district. Our author is naturally disposed to take a favourable view 
of his fellow-countryman, just as M. Ed. Morren was equally 
naturaUy predisposed in favour of his own compatriot. 

The space we have given to the above statement precludes our 
mentioning the remainder of the work in similar detail ; besides, 
it appeals more particularly to those who concern themselves with 
the local ^botany of the old **Narbonaise." We must mention, 
however, one or two points of interest : thus, with regard to the 
** Paysage de la Craie," near Aries, the authors of the Adversaria 
translate the vernacular into '' Greta" (Phalangium cretm salonensis 
= Asphodelus ftsttdosus Linn.) ; our coimtryman Johnson in his 
turn further translated it into •* Candy," as Crete was then termed 
in English, when treating of this plant in his edition of Gerard's 
Herball, p. 49; the mistake does not exist in the corresponding 
entry in the original, as may be seen by comparing the two entries 
(Gerard, UerbaU, 1697, p. 45). 

A reader of the Adversana must be struck with the frequency of 
<< Norbona" and *^Norbonensis '* in place of the correct appellation ; 
it seems that the London printers misread the word, and it passed 
uncorrected by the authors at a time when spelling was uncertain, 
or carelessly employed. 

The mountain L'Aigoual was locally the "Ort de Dieu" or 
** Hort-de-Diou," rendered in French by **Jardin de Dieu," and 
latinized by our authors variously as "Hortus Dei," **Dei virid- 
arium," and «Dei paradisus." It was a noted place for rare 
plants, but is now greatly altered for the worse by the waste of 
the forest- vegetation (d6boisement). Nardus gavgitisy &c., is not 
Indian, but derived from a small town, Ganges, not far from 
Montpellier. 

We should have been better pleased had the three indexes, of 



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V^ aBUNDZUaE DEB aEOaBAPHISGH-MOBPHOLOaiSOHBN MBTHODB. 

names of persons, places, and modern scientific names, been com- 
bined into one alphabet, and the Adversat-ia synonyms incladed ; 
but this is almost the only word of fault-finding we feel disposed to 
utter. We close the volume with a feeling of gratitude to the 
author for much that is novel, not only in the actual facts brought 
together, but in the new light shed on old familiar things. The 
satisfactory accomplishment of this must have entailed an amount 
of labour incredible to any who have not themselves taken part in 
similar work. M. Legr6 says that this is an instalment of work on 
the flora of the south ; when we next meet with him, may we find 
him equally interesting. g P^^don Jackson. 

Grundzuge der geographisch-tnorphologisohen Methods der Pflaiizen" 
systematik. Von Dr. R. v. Wbttstbin. 8vo, pp. 64, 7 maps, 
4 figs. Jena : G. flscher. 1898. Price 4 marks. 

Db. Wettstbin*s essay consists of four chapters. In the first he 
discusses the present-day problems of systematic botany and the 
attempts which have hitherto been made to answer them. On the 
one hand, it has to supply a clear and concise review of all known 
plants ; on the other, to give an idea of their phylogeny. The 
older school of botanists were occupied merely with the former 
task ; a newer school, often with a contempt for earlier work, goes 
to the other extreme, and loses itself in theoretical speculation on 
affinities. Most sy^tematists will agree with Dr. Wettstein*s dicta 
that (1) a complete phylogenetic system is impossible, and we must 
be satisfied if our system represents as far as possible views on 
phylogeny ; (2) only well-founded evolutionary considerations must 
be employed in systematic work. Such considerations, however, 
though useful in indicating affinities between the great groups of 
plants, are entirely at fault when we descend to genera and species, 
and we need here some other criterion. Such a one the author 
claims to have established. But, before elaborating the new method, 
he dilates (in Chapter II.) on the inadequacy of morphological 
(including anatomical) comparison for a natural system. He cites 
as an instance the season-dimorphism demonstrated by himself in 
species of Gentiana and Euphrasia, and by Sterneck in AlectoroU)- 
phuSf where early and late flowering forms of the same species are 
characterised by marked differences in the form of the lesd and the 
development of the stem. In Chapter III., after pointing out the 
uselessness of paleontology and ontogeny in working with species, 
he expounds his objective method, which gives the title to his 
essay, the geographic-morphological; and in Chapter IV. gives 
examples of its working in the genera Gentiana and Euphrasia. 

In the words of the author, the application of the geographic- 
morphological method to the systematic arrangement of a poly- 
morphic group of species is as follows. The first task is the setting 
down with as little confusion as possible the forms to be observed, the 
separation by means of experiment and observation in free life of 
varieties caused directly by external influences and not hereditary, 
the separation of unimportant hereditary forms due to subordinate 



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ARTICLES IN JOURNALS. 98 

individual Tariatiozis, and the determination of the geogiaphioal 
distribution of single forms by means of the largest possible amount 
of material. A morphological comparison of the discriminated 
forms will immediately lead to the recognition of certain indubitable 
groups. The general distribution of these groups, and the mutual 
relation and character of the areas occupied by the forms, will, in 
many cases, lead to natural views on the genetic relations of these 
forms, and their systematic value. The experiments thus made 
with different groups of species will correct and control each other. 
One of the examples is supplied by the European species of Gen- 
tiana. Section Endotricha. The first map shows by lines of different 
form and colour the range of ail the fourteen species, and, as Dr. 
Wettstein remarks, is as confused and useless as are generally 
maps in monographs; when, however, the fourteen species are 
spread over three maps (Nos. 2-4), order reigns in place of con- 
fusion. By devoting a map to each set of species with adjoining 
but distinct distribution areas, he obtains several geographically 
distinct sets. As the members of each set have common morpho- 
logical characteristics, they are reduced to a group of subspecies of 
one species which is adjudged the type. The result is that the 
whole section comprises, in Dr. Wettstein's view, six species with 
twenty-two subspecies. In the working out of these examples the 
author displays considerable ingenuity, but one would like to have 
seen an instance dealt with where the distribution of the same or 
nearly-allied species is strikingly discontinuous. The ge(^raphic- 
morphologioal method, moreover, demands considerable knowledge 
of the factors of distribution, both present and past, as well as 
accurate information on distribution areas at the present time. In 
fact, we fear it would be quite impracticable outside a comparatively 
well-worked province such as Europe. Be that as it may, Dr. 
Wettstein's essay is a suggestive one, and will call attention to the 
importance of geographical distribution as a not-to-be-neglected 
quantity in taxonomic problems. ^^ 3^ g^ 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS* 

Bot. CsrUralblatt (No. 1). — F. W. Neger, Arnica alpina in 
S. America. — P. Magnus, • Ueber die von 0. Kuntze vorgenom- 
menen Aenderungen der Namen einiger Uredineen-Gattungen.' — 
B. Heinricher, * Die Lathraa-krten Japans.* — (No. 2). N. C. 
Kindberg, < ^ber die systematik der pleurocarpischen Laubmoose.' 
— (Nos. 2-4), G. Kiikenthal, * Carex orthostachys und ihr Ver- 
wandtschaftskreis.' — (Nos. 8, 4). G. Bode, * Zur Beindarstellung 
des Chlorophylls.' — P. Hock, * Centrosperma und PolygonaUs des 
norddeutsohen Tiefiandes.' 

* The dates assigned to the nombers are those which appear on their covers 
or title-pages, but it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
pablioaiion. 



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94 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETO. 

Bot. Gazette (22 Dec). — F. L. Stevens, * Effect of aqueous 
solutions on germination of fungus spores.' — R. H. True, * Physio- 
logical action of certain plasmolyzing agents.' — F. A. Waugh, 

* Early botanical views of [concerning] Pruntis domestica,' 

Botaniska Notiser (haft 6: 9 Dec). — S. Murbeck, * Der nord- 
europeiska formerna af slagtet Cerastium.' — S. Almquist, * Om 
Agrostis scabra och perennans,* 

Bull, de VHerh. Bomwr (26 Dec). — R. Schlechter, 'Mono- 
graphic der Disperideea ' (concl.). — H. Christ, * Foug^res de 
Mengtze, Chine.* — Id., * Fougeres de TAmazone.* — J. Freyn, 

* Bemerkenswerthe orientalische Pflanzenarten.' 

BuLL Torrey Bot. Club (Dec 16). — B. D. Gilbert, ' Revision of 
Bermuda Ferns.** — J. K. Small, • Botany of Southeastern U. S.' 
— B. D. Halsted, 'Exposure and fungous diseases.' — R. A. Heller, 

* Plants from Western N. America.* — L. M. Underwood, * Two 
recently named genera of Basidiomycetes.* — H. E. Hasse, *■ New 
lichens from S. California.* 

Erythea (6 Jan.). — T. S. Brandegee, * New plants from Mexico.' 

Gardeners* Chronicle (14 Jan.). — Pelargonium crithmifoUum 
(fig. 5). — (21 Jan.). J. Lowrie, * Seeding of Bambusa arundinacea.* 

Journal de Botanique (* 16 Nov.,* received 80 Dec). — E. G. 
Camus, *Plantes hybrides de la flore europ^enne* (cont.). — A. 
Finet, * Orchidees nouvelles ou peu connues * (2 pi.). — P. van 
Tieghem, • Avicenniac6es et Symphor6mac6es.' — (* 1-16 Dec,' 
received 16 Jan.). — P. Gu^riii, * Structure particuli^re du fruit de 
quelques Gramin6es.* — M. Goldfius, 'Assise 6pith^liale et antipodes 
des Compos6es.* 

Oesterr, Bot, Zdtschrift (Jan.). — W. Schmidle, * Vier neue 
Siisswasseralgen.' — J. Kerner, ^Gentiana vema & G. astiva,' — R. 
Schlechter, 'Revision der Gattung Rolothnx^ (concl.). 

PharmaceuticalJournal (21 Jan.). — E. M. Holmes, ' West Indian 
Sandal-wood Oil * {Schimmelia, gen. nov. : RutacesB). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

The Rev. C. Casey, the author of Riviera Nature Notes, has no 
need to veil his identity under initials, for he has produced an ex- 
tremely interesting and suggestive book. It is described in the sub- 
title as " a popular account of the more striking plants and animals 
of the Riviera and the Maritime Alps,*' and is a chatty account by 
a careful observer of the many delightful things he has seen during 
"as many as twelve summers in the villages of the Maritime 

* It may be worth noting that the earliest list of Bermadan Ferns— that 
by the Rev. B. Hanter in this Journal for 1877, p. 867 — is not mentioned by 
Mr. Gilbert. The ferns were collected in 1843 and 1844, not in 1863 and 1864, 
as stated in the paper. — Ed. Journ. Bot. 



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BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 96 

Alps" and an intimate acquaintance with ''the sheltered coast 
which he has known since 1859. He talks about plants and their 
names, their uses, their legends and associations — always with 
intelligence and in a pleasant readable way; and a good many 
amusing anecdotes diversify the narrative. The illustrations, with 
the exception of those which represent some of the delights of 
Mr. Thomas Hanbury's garden at La Mortola, do not add to the 
attractiveness of the volume, but this might be said of many books 
nowadays. We do not always agree with the author in his expla- 
nation of plant-names. For example, he supports '' beadstraw " 
instead of ** bedstraw," by saying that '* a pious peasant who had 
no rosary to hand might find the Galium useful ** as a substitute ; 
but we can assure him that as such it would be entirely useless. 
Books like this may not add much to definite scientific knowledge, 
but they fulfil a useful purpose by encouraging that faculty of 
observation on which science so largely depends. 

M. Lb Jolis has published in no. 21 of the Journal de Botanigue 
for 1898, and issued as a separate tract, a '* Protestation contre le 
Bevisio generum plantar am III.**-,*' in which he indignantly replies to 
the free criticism Dr. Euntze has indulged himself in with reference 
to his treatment of the nomenclature of Algae. The paper is too 
full of personalities to be altogether agreeable reading, but there 
appears to have been provocation. Some of the contentions have 
arisen out of the worship which most modem foreigners render to the 
assumed eternal value of the trivial part of specific names without 
r^^ard (except generally as to gender) to the dominant or generic 
part. The article in the Revisio on Tnfolium charlatanicum 0. E., 
constituted as a facetious creation, with the varieties a levieiianum, 
P UjoUsianum, and y aschersoniaiium as the types, may be a scientific 
pleasantry, but it is calculated to be unilateral in its pleasantness, 
and has obviously given keen offence to the botanist in whose 
honour the second variety was ironically named. In quoting the 
Revisio Ul.^ some confusion occurs (as was likely) in consequence 
of two series of pages being each numbered in arable numerals. 

Wb have received the first number of Rhodora, the Journal of 
the New England Botanical Club, of which Mr. B. L. Bobinson is 
" editor-in-chief." The number contains a monograph of New 
England Qoodyera — a name which we are glad to see retained in 
preference to Peramium of Salisbury, which, although earlier, is a 
nomm nudum; numerous notes on various groups of plants ; and a 
description and figure of a new Lactuca — L, Morssii Bobinson. We 
wish the new venture every success. 

Thb first part of the Archives de Vlnstitut Botanigue of the 
lii^e University (Brussels, 112, Bue de Louvain) is mainly devoted 
to the anatomy of the Ranunculacea, in which Dr. Lenfant deals 
with the genus Delphinium, Dr. Mansion with Thalictrum, and Dr. 
Sterokx with the ClematidecBf especially with Clematis Vitalba. Each 
memoir is illustrated with numerous plates. Dr. Gravis, who 
edits the Archives, contributes some '* notes de technique micro- 
graphique." 



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96 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

Dr. Dyer has been appointed K.C.I^.G., ** in recognition of 
services rendered to colonial governments." The Gardeners* 
Chronicle notes that ** the honour is timely and appropriate, as 
it coincides with the completion of the great temperate house 
in the Royal Gardens." 

The Geographical Society of Lisbon has published a Flora de 
Goa e Savantadi by Dr. D. G. Dalgado, ** catalogo methodico das 
plantas medicinass, alimentares e industriaes.'* There are no 
descriptions, but the useful properties of each species are briefly 
indicated. 

Amy addition to our knowledge of the flora of the Argentine 
Republic is welcome, but it is not easy to see what purpose will 
be served by the very crude coloured lithographs by F. Bur- 
meister which form the most prominent feature of a new Flora 
Argentina^ of which the first part has lately been issued by Messrs. 
Van Woerden, of Buenos Ayres. Each plate is accompanied by a 
page of descriptive letterpress in Spanish by 0. Bettefreimd, who 
edits the work, and there is a short introduction on collecting and 
preserving. There is no attempt at systematic arrangement. We 
fear that the laudable object of the editor to encourage ''en la 
juventud argentina el iuter^s y el amor por la Flora du su patria " 
will hardly be greatly advanced by this publication. 

The second part of Mr. Fryer's Monograph of British Potamo- 
getons contains descriptions of two species — P. alpinum and P. 
Grijfithii — and two hybrids — P. BUliipsii and P. Drucei — the last 
being the very interesting plant recorded by Mr. Druce in his 
Berkshire Flora as P. alpinus. In the '* additions and corrections*' 
to his book, Mr. Druce notes " put ? to P.fluitans,'* and expresses 
an opinion that the plant is ** a hybrid either of P. natans or P. 
polygonifolius with P. alpinus,*' and Mr, Fryer confirms this view so far 
as P. natans is concerned. We mention this because when speaking 
of Mr. Druce's plant in this Journal for 1898 (p. 856) we omitted 
to notice his later qualification of the definite statement as to the 
occurrence of P. alpinus in Berkshire. Mr. Morgan's plates in this 
number are, as always, excellent : the publishers, we regret to see, 
stiU make them inconvenient for reference by placing their name 
where we should expect to find that of the plant. 

The Gardeners* Magazine of Jan. 14 has a biographical sketch 
of Mr. Hemsley, accompanied by an excellent portrait. The writer 
says : ** The history of his Hfe, with its many interesting associ- 
ations, appears * like a tale that is told,' and one is fully persuaded 
that there are Whittingtons even at the end of the nineteenth 
century." We trust that several chapters remain to be added 
before ** the tale" of Mr. Hemsley 's life "is told." 

The last instalment of Prof. Saccardo's Sylloge Fungorum con- 
sists of an " Index universalis et locupletissimus nominum plant- 
arum hospitum specierumque omnium fungorum has incolentium 
qusB usque ad finem anni 1897 innotuerunt," compiled by Dr. 
Sydow. 



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97 



A BEVIEW OF THE LATIN TERMS USED IN BOTANY 
TO DENOTE COLOUR. 

Bt B. Daydon Jaokson, Seo.jL.S. • 

Rbobntlt I have had oooasion to examine the various definitions 
of colours as given by botanic authors, and have been much surprised 
at the contradictory senses in which the same term has been em- 
ployed. In this aorticle I give a condensed account of the results 
of my researches, with a brief list of the chief works which have 
helped me. 

Naturally my first idea was to take Saccardo's Chromotaxia as 
the standard, that being the latest work, and widely known ; but 
difficulties arose. Thus, the selected terms are rarely defined; what 
serve as definitions are the polyglot translations, and therefore not 
critical ; then the synonyms are not particularized, their differing 
quality being unexplained. Further, the kindred tints are seldom 
defined, so that widely diverse tones are grouped together as 
"Golores affines." Nor do the appended tables of colours supply 
all that is required ; the colours shown do not embrace the whole 
scale, with the combinations of primary, secondary, and tertiary 
which go to make up the tints we have to describe, and in the 
selected examples many persons would disagree with the names 
assigned. For instance, ^e colour to exemplify purpureus is the 
crimson of artists. 

A much more elaborate attempt at a complete scheme of 
notation for colour as regards naturalists is Ridgway*s Nomenclature, 
but here again we find hindrances. The examples given are not 
equally graduated ; some are very close to each other, others are 
widely separated. The names propounded are somewhat arbitrary, 
and therefore not likely to be adopted universally; consequently 
the terms coined by the author would not be understood, save by 
those who had access to the book itself. These objections seem to 
hold good more or less to every manual which has come under my 
observation. 

If we turn to classical authors to try and get to the foundation, 
we are still worse confounded. Classical writers, mostly poets, 
have indulged in more than poetic licence in their allusion to 
colour. Then, too, our knowledge of their pigments and dyes is 
fragmentary; their choice of dye-stufb was limited, and the 
resulting hues probably crude. The love of landscape, with its 
varying subtle effects of delicate light and shade and colour, was 
very Uttle felt, only the more obvious and striking effects of 
tempest, sunrise, or sunset would attract attention; hence no 
terms would be needed to express what was unfelt. Lexicographers, 
having only this material to work upon, are equally uncritical in 
their definitions, and give us such stuff as '* Miniatus, scarlet or 
crimson," ^'Gilvus, a carnation or flesh colour; the colour of 
brioki half burned; of an ash or ashen colour." The same 

JouBNAL OP Botany. — Vol. 87. [Maboh, 1899.1 h 



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98 LATIN TERMS USBD IN BOTANY TO DENOTE COLOUR. 

looseness prevails in common speech, where such exaggerated 
expressions as ** red-haired ** or ** black in the face** pass 
current. 

Without wasting time in endeavouring to ascertain the precise 
use of colour-terms during the period when Latin was in common 
use, I next tried to find out the actual usage of botanists. After 
spending much time on this quest, I have been forced to the 
conviction that great confusion actually exists as to the meaning of 
many of the words employed to connote colours. Botanists can and 
do give actual measurements of the specimens they describe, and 
the terms for form and structure are fairly well understood and em- 
ployed, but when colour has to be expressed less care is shown. 
No colour-scale is used : guess-work is the rule. Colour-blindness, 
partial or complete, is responsible for some of this, no doubt, and 
the pre-occupation of a desired word may also conduce to the same 
result ; thus, if albus is not available, candidus may be employed, 
without regard to the difference in quality implied in the two terms. 
Many words are really generic, not specific ; purple, for instance, 
embraces nearly every conceivable admixture of red and blue ; these 
again may be varied almost infinitely by dilution or the addition of 
white, forming «* tints," or of black to form "shades.** The 
resultant hues of the blending of so many secondary and tertiary 
with primary colours is to produce mixtures which an artist, whose 
business it is to handle colours constantly, would only attempt to 
describe by indicating the actual pigments needed. It is therefore 
too much to expect scientific nomenclature of colour from a 
naturalist, whose concern is naturally chiefly engrossed with 
questions of form and function. 

In connection with this I may mention that I have found 
botanists who work chiefly from dried material trust very little 
to colour, while, as might be expected, the genera which are 
largely cultivated afford many indications of the colour of their 
flowers. The foregoing applies principally to flowering plants; 
among the cryptogams the fungi are often particularized by hue, 
and the most valuable help I have derived in this search has been 
from the late Mr. Wharton's paper in the Woolhope Club Traru- 
actions, in which he has summarized the whole of Fries's terms of 
colour in the Agarics. 

I subjoin the gist of my enquiries, hoping that I have succeeded 
in indicating the central idea of each tint, and adding conspicuous 
contrasts of opinion ; vague and unsatisfactory it must often be, 
from the impossibility of getting absolute unanimity on so many 
details which remain a matter of taste or perception. 

In describing the various tints, a linear order must be observed ; 
the mutual relationships of the hues form a plexus such as we often 
find sketched out by monographers to indicate genetic affinities. The 
arrangement is to some extent arbitrary, but following the spectrum 
as far as practicable. Grey and brown have been assigned sections 
on account of the numerous terms centering round them. Many 
compound terms exist, but only those which are often used are cited 
in this list. 



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latin tebms used in botany to denote coloub. 99 

Conspectus of the Sections. 
I. Terms implyiDg absence of colour. 
n. White. 

III. Grey (cold neutrals). 

IV. Black. 

V. Brown (warm neutrals). 

VI. Red. 

VII. Orange. 

VIIL Yellow. 

IX. Green. 

X. Blue. 

XI. Purple. 

XII. Terms implying colour, without defining it ; and vague terms. 

I. — Amongst the terms expressive of absence of colour we 
find hyalinm, vUreus, vitricus, glassy (but used by Charleton, 
foUowing classical usage, as a light green) ; aquem, clear as water ; 
erystalliniiSf clear as ice ; pellucidus, also implying clearness ; seini- 
pellueiduSf some amount of opacity ; diaphanus, transparent ; achroos 
and incolor for scarious. Bischoff also &dds fenestratus, but this use 
of the word is certainly very unusual. 

IL — WmTB is not a colour, but it produces a feeling of absolute 
tint, not the negative considered in the foregoing section. Beginning 
with the most general and characteristic of the words expressive of 
white, we have albus, a dead white; niveus, and occasionally nivalis, a 
brilliantly pure white (as in Oaleandra nivalis Hort., from its snowy 
lip; being a native of the tropics, it cannot be ascribed to its 
habitat) ; virgineus, unblemished white ; papyraceus, paper- white ; 
candidtis and candidissimus, shining white; then the four terms, 
cretaceus, calcareus, creteus, gypseus, seem synonymous, chalk-white ; 
eerussatusy plaster-white or white-lead-coloured, must mean the 
same ; argillaceus, white clay (but also used for a yellower tint). 
Albidus, aUnduluSf alhinus^ alHneuSf alhellus, candidulus, exalbidus, 
all mean whitish, with probably but little to choose between them ; 
milk-white, that is, having a suffusion of blue, is represented by 
lacteus, lacticolor, galactites, galdcticolor, galachrous. Silvery white 
is argenteusy argentaceus, argentatm, argyraceus. Something short of 
absolute purity is suggested by albicans, albescens, candicans, becoming 
white; ivory-white by eburneus and eborinus; a yellower tinge by 
ermineuSf cremeus, cremicolor, cream-coloured; and an ill-defined 
** marble- white ** by alabastrinus and mannoratus, but the latter is 
used in another sense, and therefore ambiguous. 

m. — The lightest tone of Gbet is denoted by canus and incanus; 
cineieus is the grey of wood-ashes, with its allies, cinerascens (becoming 
gTey)» cinencius, cineraceits, tepkrem, tephrus; cretaceo-pallidus seems to 
come here ; leucophaus must be near this. Oriseus is darker, hni griseolus 
and grisellus are perhaps intermediate ; lixivius, darker than griseus, 
with a suspicion of brown. Casius and casiellus originally represent 
the blue-grey of the iris of the eye ; livem, livius, lividus, lividxdus, 
duller, with less colour ; pavonianm is also added by Charleton. 

H 2 



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100 LATIN TEBMS X7SBD IN BOTANY TO DENOTE OOLOUB. 

Spodochrous is grey in general. Molyhdus^ molybdinus, plumbeus are 
lead-colonred ; about the same intensity with more sheen are 
columbianus and palumbinusy which, meaning dove-coloured, seem 
misappropriated by a grey pigeon. Darker still are ardosiacus 
and schistaceus, slate-coloured ; while tylicolor and oniscm are 
the tints of the wood-louse, and elephines and elephintu the deep 
colour of an elephant's hide. Ckalybeus and 8ubu$tulatu$ stand 
for steel-grey; munnus and myochrotu are mouse-coloured (Fries 
distinguishes between these, the former the lighter) ; atro- 
schistaceuSf very dark grey ; fumoaus, fumeus, fuliginetu, fuUginosus, 
capnodes, capnoides, mbfuscm^ subaquUus, represent smoky or sooty 
tints (Charleton adds septaceus, which should be ranked amongst 
the browns) ; elbidust *' saddest grey " ; nigrescens and nigricans are 
greys which turn black. 

Other terms which are too vague to be precisely localized are — 
nebtdostii (BiBohoS = fumoms) ; ferreus^ ** iron-gray,'* — Charletoni 
who also renders '< peach-colour *' by fidgenSf fiUgidus^ splendens ! 

IV. — Various qualities of Black have received distinct names ; 
thus ater is pure black, without a trace of brown or blue in it ; 
atricolor cannot be far off the same ; atrammtarius, inky ; niger^ 
glistening black, perhaps a trifle rusty ; nigerrimits, intense black ; 
anthradnusy coal-black ; pieeus^ pitchy ; piceo-ater and finvus are 
swarthy and lustreless; atratus and nigntusy garbed in black; 
puUus and puUulatmf about the same tint ; memnanius, nearly the 
same as piceus, perhaps a little browner ; athiopicusy negro-black ; 
coracinuSf corvinus, metallic lustrous black with a tinge of blue ; 
rdgellusy blackish, and denigratus^ blackened, are wanting in 
precision. 

V. — ^Brown, a warm tertiary, is treated separately, because of 
the numerous varieties tending either towards the yellows or reds. 
Brunnetu or brunetts is a general term for brown, but when restricted, 
represented by Vandyke brown as a pigment. Chocolatinus, theobro- 
minim, and cocainus, which represent the same thing ; coffeatus, the 
colour of roast coffee-beans ; tabacinus, nicotianus, offer a wide range, 
but are practically restricted to a deep brown. Less precise are 
btunnescens and bruneolus, lighter tints. Umbriniu would seem to 
imply the colour of the native earth, but, as we are informed that 
it is deep brown, it probably is that of burnt umber ; umbricelltis 
seems ancillary ; baticus, ** Spanish brown," must not be confused 
with the same adjective when used locally ; eastaneuSf chestnut- 
brown, brings us towards badius, bay ; russus, nearly the same ; 
helvus and vaccinus, <* cow-colour,*' said to be near bay ; hepaticiu, 
liver-coloured, redder; hiberus, "red and black mixed, murrey " ; 
deeper tones being atro-brunneus, blackish brown ; ustalis and 
ustulatuSf scorched or charred wood. Lighter browns, akin to 
yellow, are spadiceus, date-brown; aveHaneus, avellinus, corylinus, 
tint of a new hazel-nut, glandulaceus, a ripe acorn, come near the 
tawny shades named under orange, as also Ugno-brunneus, ligneus^ 
lignicolor, presumably the tint of recent wood before it becomes 
grey by exposure, hence yellowish brown. 



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LATIN TBBHS USED IN BOTANY TO DSNOTB OOLOUB. 101 

VI. — Buber embraces the various forms of Bbd as a whole : the 
purest being earmineus, cochineal; cocdneust perhaps identical; while 
kermerinta and ehermmnus are the same, and eoccinellus a lighter tint. 
Phcmiceus is scarlet a little duU, einnabarinus and searlatinus being 
the fullest in hue ; miniatus^ miniaeeuSf the more orange-tint of red- 
lead. Verging towards crimson, that is, with blue instead of yellow 
as the tingeing colour, we have sanguinevu^ sanguinolenhu^ eruentus, 
eruentatuSf kamatinuSf JuBtnatiteSf Jumnatitius, hamatochroos, and 
hamaticui, all denoting blood-colour ; pumceus is crimson ; burrhus^ 
deep crimson, passing into xerampdinus, atro-carmennuSf atro- 
cocci$ieu9f towards rtKtZta, rutilam, defined by some as purplish 
brick-red, but usually brighter in hue ; Uttaceus^ brick-red, which 
approaches gilvia, JigUnw, terracotta; ItUeritius, also brick-red; 
still deeper in tone, vinacetu, and vinostu^ wine-colour. Rosy reds 
are camsus, carn^lw, incamatus, flesh-colour; hytginus, distinctly 
redder; earyophyUaceus, '* pink "-colour; erubescenSf blush; roseus, 
rosaeeus, roseUus, rhodellus^ rose ; corallinus^ coral-red ; salmonaceus, 
talmofdcolor, salmoneus^ pink with a dash of yellow ; persicuSf persi- 
dmUf peach-flower colour. 

Terms used laxly are rubeseens, rufesems, rtifidtUuif rufiduSf 
rubietmdus, rufus or ruffus^ sandaricus, sandarichiniu, robeus, robus^ 
rubens, itibeUus, itibeolus, rubidtiSt subruMcundtts, subtubensj sub- 
laUritiuSf helvolus, the last also used for a yellowish drab, but 
probably pale red, according to the mycological usage of the term ; 
ruisus is also placed amongst the ill-defined reds by some. 

Vn. — Obangb in its full glow is denoted by aurantitu, and Fries 
uses attrantUiem as a lighter tint ; croceus, crocatus, crocinus^ rich 
orange ; then we have a doubtful set of names, igneust ignescens, flam- 
meus, jiammeolus, which have been applied to varied tints of orange, 
yellow, and red ; auroretu perhaps should come here, but it is also 
vague. Armeniacus, dull orange, apricot-colour; gihus by some 
ranked here, yellower than cinnamomeus ; crustvlinus, the colour of 
a cracknel biscuit; uabellinus, a dirtier tint ; rhabarbarinus, rhubarb 
colour; cuprem and cuprescens, copper-coloured, sometimes with 
metallic lustre ; rubiginottu, ferrugineus and feiruginosus, rusty ; 
niuUnus, dormouse-colour, paler and less definite ; tofaceus or tophaceus, 
the colour of tufa ; cotmeus, ** horn-colour," whatever that may be ; and 
argillaceus, improperly used for a fawn-coloured clay. 

The fulvous tints are given under yellow. 

VIII. — The type of Yellow is flavtiSy without tending to orange 
or green or brown (sometimes indeed used for ochraceus) ; flavisnmus^ 
an intense shade, ^avtca>i«,^vu£ttj(, being tendencies towards /ai^us; 
byssvnus is the yellow of raw silk; citnnus, citreus, citrellus, citnnelltu, 
the pure yellow of the ripe lemon-rind ; lutetis is a full strong hue, used 
by Pliny to denote the yolk of egg, hence synonymous with 
vkelUnus, having a tinge of orange in it. The Greek forms are 
xanihtu and its diminutive xanthelhis; aureus, auticolor, chryseusj 
ehrysellus, ckrysUis, express not only the tint but the lustre of gold ; 
auratuif gilt ; aureolus, golden ; lutsolus and subflavus, lighter and 
less pure (but scarcely buflf, as given by Bidgway) ; eUotncm wid 



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102 LATIN TERMS USED IN BOTANY TO DENOTE OOLOUB. 

succmeuSf amber ; svlphureus^ mlphurellus, stUphurinus, snlphar- 
jellow, pure but light ; pnmulinui, a shade greener than the last ; 
Btramineus, straminellus, paleusy straw-Golour, like the last, but 
browner ; huxeus^ colour of box- wood ; cerinus, beeswax when in the 
comb ; melleus, mellinm, honey-colour, the former ambiguous, being 
also used for smelling of honey; ochraceus^ ochroleuciis, lutosua, 
ochre-colour, that is, yellow broken with a tinge of red. 

Connected with the foregoing are many mixed tints, tertiaries, 
such BkQ fidviut, buff, with its v&nB,ntafulvidu8tfulvellu8,fulveseens; 
Uochromifs, leoninus, cet-vinus, cervineus, cervicolor, cametinus, mustel- 
Unus, taking their names from the prevalent hue of the lion, stag, 
camel, and weasel, varying buffs and drabs ; hinnuletu, fawn-colour, 
tawny cinnamon. Stronger in tint, but impure, are galbanus, the 
colour of gum galbanum, greenish yellow, and icteticus, icterinus, 
the colour of a person suffering from jaundice. Wharton gives this 
as '* gall-stone," but in error; gall-stone is a gorgeous full-toned 
yellow, while the name implies a muddy hue ; he also cites Fries as 
using luridtu for wan yellow, dirtier than meUeuSt and almost 
*< stone-colour," that is, white broken with ochre, and sometimes 
umber. Bavus and its diminutive ravidus seem to be between 
yellow and grey. 

IX. — Green is termed viridis without more critical definition, 
its synonyms, more or less accurate, being virens^ viridansy virescens, 
viridescem, viriduliis. Orass-green is herbeus, herbaceus, gramineus 
(these are practically obsolete) ; pradnm is leek-green, practically 
the same tint as the last ; smaragdinus, emerald-green ; berylintu, 
resembling the last; psittaceuSf parrot-green, deeper; orobitinus, 
defined as vetch-green, that is, with a dash of black in it ; atrovirms^ 
atroviridis, melanochlorus, nigro-virens, very deep green ; and flavo- 
virenSf a bright yellowish green. Chlorascens, chlorinu9, chlorotictu 
are greenish. 

jiEneua is brassy ; (Brem, bronze ; (Brugineus, antginosuSf verdigris- 
green ; saligneus, willow-green, that is, low-toned ; siibviridis may be 
the same. Olivascens, olivaceus, oliveus^ olivicolor, olivinust eliBodeSf 
patisidcus, all express the tint of a ripe olive. 

GlaucuBy glattcimis, glaucesceitSy thalasaintis, thalassicits, light sea- 
green, to which may be added vitreus of some authors ; aquamariiiuSf 
a clear sea-green verging towards blue; and venetus, a deep sea-green. 

Githaginosus (Hayne, Bischoff) and githagineus (Lindley) are 
defined as greenish red, a contradiction ; tiie name is derived from 
Qiihago, and it refers to red or purple ribs on a green calyx, such 
as occurs in some species of Silene, 

X. — ^Blue has a comparatively small list to express its varieties ; 
canUeus, calestis, azureus, ccelicolor are sky-blue ; cobalHntu some- 
what paler, as is ccerulescens ; cyanellus, deeper, and tending towards 
cyaneus, cornflower-blue, cizatinus being given as about the same ; 
lazulinui is ultramarine, a pigment of various shades, but always a 
clear bright blue ; turcoisinus and turcosus stand for turquoise-blae, 
that is, with a hint of green in it ; cadus and camlltu are the blue- 
grey of the eye ; sribc(Bi'uleus and lividulusy less clear, and not very 



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LATIN TERMS USED IN BOTANY TO DENOTE COLOUR. 108 

definite; scyrieum is gived by Charleton as " Gentianella blew"; 
glatHnm, by the same writer as **woad, watchet and light blew" ; 
indicvs, blue inclining to purple ; indigoticus^ indigo-blue, having a 
tinge of black in it ; and dark blue, cyanater. 

XI. — PuBPLB is very variously understood ; practically it is any 
mixture of blue and red ; Saccardo treats it as synonymous with 
crimson, but the majority regard it as having more of blue in its 
composition. Purpureus, porpkyreus, therefore, are general in their 
application, followed by purpurascens, purpurellus, purpurimu, and 
porphyreo'leucus ; atropurpureus is familiar to most in the old 
cultivated " Sweet Scabious," ScaHosa atropurpurea. Boyal purple, 
a warm deep rich tint, is represented by ostrinus, tynta, hlatteus. 
Charleton gives *^dibaphii8, purple-in-grain " as different. The 
previously mentioned vinaceuSf vinoms, and vinicolor come near 
these hues. Of a lighter tint we find molockinm and malvinus^ both 
expressing the bluish pink Malva flowers ; lilacinus, lilacem, syringm 
recall the tint of Synnga vulgaris. Colder in hue we have violaceus, 
vioUucenSt violeus, ianthinuSf ionides to recall the violet in all its 
shades, deeper tones denoted by amethysteusj amethystinus^ hya- 
cinthinus, and atro-violacens: 

Bischoff ranks porphyreus as amongst the browns ; it seems 
erroneously. 

XII. — Amongst the vague terms must be cited igiteus, ignescens, 
flammeus, flammeolm^ as they have been used to express different 
colours ; paUidus has also been made use of for almost every pale 
tint of the artist's palette ; luridiis is nearly as indefinite ; ti-utis and 
sordidusy any dull uninviting hue, obscurus being perhaps a truer 
term ; cormcans must mean any strikingly brilliant colour or 
combination ; mrtaliicun, any glistening tint suggestive of a metal. 

Fnlminens, ** lightning-coloured,** according to Wharton, is 
" fulvus, fere brunneus '* of Fries ; it is employed in CorH^ianm 
fubninetts Fr. 

Another subsection consists of terms implying colour, but 
abstaining from indicating it, such as culoratus, concolor, bicolor, 
mutabiliSf varieyatus, pictus, guttatus, punctulatus, and the like. 
Maimoratm has also its place here, although it has been used 
as synonymous with alabastrinuiy etc. 

I have purposely abstained from augmenting my list from the 
dictionaries, confining myself to those terms which are supposed to 
be adapted to the use of naturalists, especially botanists. Had I 
chosen to put in all the tints which are related to kelvuSf for instance, 
I must have given many more than seemed appropriate. Indeed 
the dictionary translation of helvus and its satellites is pale red, 
which is not its present day use. 

There yet remain more than a score of terms proposed to express 
colour, which have not been adopted by others ; as they seem to 
be on record only in the original place of publication (Hayne, De 
coloribus, 1814), I prefer to give them in a separate paragraph in 
the order chosen by the author, omitting the zoological and 
mineralogical terms. 



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104 LATIN TERMS USED IN BOTANY TO DENOTE OOLOTJB. 

Betulinus, the brownish white of birch-bark ; amiantus, greenish- 
white ; cycaceust " sago-grey '* ; roborinus, the grey of last year's 
oak-twigs; stryehninm, the colour of the seeds of Su-ychnos Nux- 
vomica ; foenimis, ** hay-grey " ; morinm, mulberry-black ; ureaceus^ 
charred black ; cascarUlus, the colour of the inner bark of Cascarilla ; 
guajacinus, greenish brown ; junipennus, bluish brown ; ranunculaceus^ 
buttercup yellow ; laureolaceiu, the tint of the flowers of Daphne 
Laureola ; pomaceus, apple green ; pUacem, the green of unripe peas ; 
populeus, the blackish green of poplar leaves ; capparinw, brownish 
green; endiviaceus^ light blue; nuhilus, greyish blue; myrtUlinuSf 
bilberry blue ; pruntnus, plum blue ; pareUinus, litmus violet : 
ii\fumatu8 is the same Mfumigatus. 

BiBLIOOSAPHT. 

I purposely abstain from including those works which deal with 
the subject from a purely artistic point of view, such as quality and 
pigments, contrast and harmony. The following appeal especially 
to natundists : — 

1. Ghableton (Walter). Exercitationes de di£Ferentiis & nomini- 

bus animalium ; quibus accedunt • . • di£Ferentiis & nomini- 
bus colorum. Ed. 2. Oxoniae, 1677. Fol. Of. pp. 66-78. 

2. Hatne (Friedrich Gottlob). Termini botanici iconibus illustrati, 

etc. Berlin, 1807 [i. e. 1799-1812] . 2 vols. 4to. 

Vol. i. p. 7-9, 1. 1 , nn. 1-86. Small but excellent examples 

of the colours mentioned, which are described in parallel 

columns in Latin and German. 
8. De coloribus corpornm naturalium prsBcipue animalium 

vegetabiliumque, etc. Berolini, 1814. 4to. 

For an enumeration of the names here suggested, see last 

paragraph of text. 
4. Gandolle (Augustin Pyramus de). Thtorie ^l^mentaire de la 

botanique, etc. Paris, 1818. 8vo. — * Modifications des 

couleurs,' p. 484-494. 

Practically the same account will be found in ed. 2 (1819, 

p. 519-528) and ed. 8 (1844, p. 429-486). These terms 

with condensed descriptions are given by Germain de St. 

Pierre in his * Guide du botaniste ' (1852), vol. ii. p. 495-6 ; 

and the second edition, re-entitled * Nouveau dictionnaire de 

botanique* (1870), p. 887-8. 
6. Syme (Patrick). Werner's Nomenclature of Colours, with 

additions arranged so as to render it highly useful to ^e 

Arts and Sciences, particularly Zoology, Botany, etc. 

Edinburgh, 1814. 8vo. Ed. 2, ib., 1821. 8vo. 

The purples in this work are very cold; possibly the 

combined reds have faded somewhat. 
6. MmBEL (Charles Fran9ois, nomms Brissean). Tableaux chro- 

matiques oomprenant 88 teintes aux quelles toutes les 

couleurs peuvent Stre compar^es. In his <E16m6ns de physi- 
ologic v6g6tale,' 1815. The last plate (t. 72); it has no 

explanatory text. 



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lATIM TBBMB USED IN BOTAKT TO DSNOTB OOLOUB. 105 

7. Spsbnobl (Kurt). Anleitong zur Eenntniss der Qew&ohse. 

Ed. 2. HaUe, 1817-18. 2 vols. 8vo. 
Von der Farbe der Bliithen, i. 147-156. 

8. Hattbb (George). Copy of a letter to his Grace the Dake of 

Bedford. Forms Appendix, p. 89-41, with diagrams of 
colours and plates of gradations from black to white and 
brown to white, in J. Forbes's 'Hortus erioaens Wobomensis.' 
London, 1825. 4to. 

9. BiscHOFF (Gottlieb Wilhelm). Handbnoh der botanisohen Ter- 

minologie and Systemkonde. Niimberg, 1880-44. 8 vols. 4to. 
Vol. i. p. 107-115, contains a long list of terms, which 
will be foond translated in Lindley's * Introduction.' 

10. Lnn>ijBT(John). An Introduction to Botany. London, 1882. 8to. 

Of Colour, p. 402-408.— Ed. 2 (1885), the same, p. 408- 
409.— Ed. 4 (1848), the same, ii. p. 869-878. 

Admittedly from Bischoff, whose arrangement is followed. 

11. Henslow (John Stevens). The Principles of Descriptive and 

Physiological Botany (Lardner's Cyclop, vol. 75). London, 
1885. 8vo. 

On Vegetable Colours and Colours of Flowers, p. 195-201. 

12. Hat (David Baymsay). A Nomenclature of Colours, etc. 

Edinburgh, 1845. 8vo. 40 coloured plates. Ed. 2, ib., 
1846. 8vo. 

18. Boon (Ogden Nicholas). Modem Chromatics, etc. (Intern. So. 
Ser. vol. 27). London, 1879. 8vo. Reissued as Student's 
Text-book ot Colour, etc. (Intern. Science Ser. vol. 27). New 
York, 1881. 8vo. 

(French and German versions respectively of 1881 and 
1879). 

14. Bezold (Wilhelm von). Die Farbenlehre im Hinblick auf 

Eunst, etc. Braunschweig, 1874. 8vo. 

The Theory of Colour . . . translated by S. R. Eoehler, 

virith an introduction by E. C. Pickering, etc. Boston [Mass.] , 
1876. 8vo. 

This has a bibliography from both physical and artistic, 
points of view. 

15. Du PoBT (James Mourant). On the Colours of Fungi as indi- 

cated by the Latin words used by Fries. Trans. Woolhope 
Club, 1888-85, p. 118-115. 

16. Wharton (Henry Thornton). On Fries's Nomenclature of 

Colours: an examination of the epithets used by him in 
describing the coloration of the Agaricini. Trans. Woolhope 
Club, 1888-85, p. 252-257 ; repr. in Grevillea, xiii. (1884), 
24-81. 

17. BmowAT (Bobert). A Nomenclature of Colors for Naturalists, 

etc. Boston [Mass.] , 1886. 8vo. 

With 9 coloured plates, of combinations with 184 tints ; 
ft valuable work. 



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106 THE ALOA-FLOBA OP CAMBRIDOESHIBB. 

18. Saooabdo (Pier* Andrea). Chromotaxia, sea nomendator 

colorum polyglottus additds speciminibus ooloratis ad nsum 
Botanicorum et Zoologorum. Patavii, 1891. 8vo. 

19. PiLLSBXJRY (J. H.). On the colour descriptions of flowers. 

Coulter's Botanical Gazette, xix. (1894), 15-18. 
With symbols for notation. 



THE ALGAPLORA OP CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

By G. S. Wbbt, B.A., A.R.C.S. 

Scholar of St John's College, Cambridge. 

(Plates 894-896.) 
(Continued from p. 58.) 

Fam. CoNFEBYAOEiE. 

42. CoNPEBVA BOMBYoiNA Ag. 8. Shcep's Green, Cambridge ; 
Harlton; WimpolePark. 5. Borwell; Chippenham Fen. 6. Bos- 
well Pits, Ely ; Sutton. 8. Guyhirne. 

Forma minor Wille. 8. Harlton. 5. Burwell ; Wicken Fen. 

48. C. AFFiNis Eiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge: July, 1898. 

44. MioBospoBA FL00C08A (Vauoh.) Thur. 8. Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge. 

45. Ophiooytium cochleabe (Eichw.) A. Br. 8. Sheep*8 Green, 
Cambridge ; Harlton ; Hardwick. 5. Burwell ; Wicken Fen. 6. 
Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Near March. 

The removal of the genus Ophiocytium (inclusive of Sciadium) 
from the ProtococcoideaB need hardly occasion any surprise, as its 
position in the subfamily Pseudocoenobieaa of that order was obviously 
one of convenience rather than of accuracy; a few remarks are 
necessary, however, concerning its present position. Quite recently, 
Enut Bohlin, in a most interesting paper entitled * Studier ofver 
nagra slagten af Alggruppen Confer vales ' (Bih. till Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. 1897, Bd. 23, Afd. iii. no. 8), has conclusively demonstrated, 
by an exhaustive study of the structure of the cell- wall, the close 
affinity which exists between the genera Ophiocytiuin and Conferva. 
Many of the earlier stages in the development of Ophiocytium are 
also strictly comparable to correspondingly early stages in the 
development of Conferva; cfr. Knut Bohlin, Lc. t. ii. f. 47, 51, 52, 
54-56; Wille, *0m Hvilceller hos Conferva,' Ofvers. af K. Vet.- 
Akad. Forh. 1881, no. 8, t. ix. f. 15, 17, 18, 21-26. I also figure 
a few stages (PI. 894, figs. 18-22) in the development of Ophiocytium 
which may be compared with the illustrations already mentioned. 

46. 0. PABVULUM (Perty) A. Br. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Chip- 
penham Fen. 8. Guyhirne. 

47. 0. Abbuscula (A. Br.) Rabenh. Syn. Sciadium Arbuscula 
A. Br. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. I(o8well Pits, Ely. 



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THE ALGA-FLORA OF GAMBBIDOE8BIBB. 107 

I follow Babenhorst (Flor. Europ. Algar. iii. 68) in the inolusion 
of Sciadium A. Br. in the genus Ophiocytium. The former consists 
merely of an aggregate of individuals of the latter genus, and in 
many cases the cells composing this aggregate are coiled quite as 
much as an individual Ophiocythim, a fact which still further 
increases the resemblance between the two genera. I have observed 
coiling of the cells in specimens of 0, Arbuscula from Westport, 
Go. Galway, Ireland, equal in extent to that found in 0, cochleare. 

Fam. Chboolepidaoeje. 

48. MioBOTHAicNioN EuTziNouNUM Nag. 5. Wicken Fen : Aug. 
1898» amongst Chara hhpida. 

49. Pilinia stagnalis, sp. n. (PL 894, figs. 6-9). P. Crustacea, 
sordide viridis; ca3spitibus densissime aggregatis, circiter 500 fi 
altis; filamentis ereotis fasciculatis brevibus, hinc inde breviter 
ramosis ; filamentis procumbentibus in stratum cellularum pseudo- 
parenchymaticum concretis ; cellulis filamentorum erectorum sub- 
cylindricis, diametro 2-6-plo longioribus, cellulis terminaUbus 
Bubtnmidis, inflatis, interdum subirregularibus ; cellulis filamentorum 
procumbentium plerumque paullo minoribus brevioribusque, dia- 
metro aaqualibus vel duplo longioribus ; membrana cell alarum firma 
homogenea ; contentum chloropbyllosum cellalarum IsBte viride et 
granulosum; zoogonidangia terminalibus, subsphsBricis ovatis vel 
subpynformibus. Crass, cell. fil. erect. 16-25 fi ; crass, cell. fil. 
procumb. 16-81 fi ; crass, zoogonidang. 80-48 fi. 

7. The Washes, Sutton, forming a tough dull green stratum on 
shells of Limnaa peregra. 

This genus was established by Eiitzing in 1848, and up to the 
present it includes only two known species, P. Hmosa Eiitz. and 
P. / diltUa Wood. The former is a small marine species found on 
wood, stones, and shells on the shores of continental Europe and 
N. America, and the latter is a freshwater species from Pennsylvania. 
P. stagnalis is distinguished from P. Hmosa by its much larger size, 
its less branched filaments with comparatively longer cells, and by 
its freshwater habit. From P. ? diltUa it is distinguished by the 
different character of its stratum, the larger size of the cells, and by 
the swollen terminal cells of the less branched filaments. 

The genus appears to me to be intermediate between Trente- 
pohlia Mart, and Gong rostra Eiitz., a striking resemblance in form 
being apparent between the filaments of Pilinia stagnalis and many 
other alg8B belonging to ChroolepidacesB, such as Gong rostra trente- 
pohliopsis Schmidle (Oesterr. Botan. Zeitschrift, 1897, no. 2) and 
many of the arboreal species of Trentepohlia (of r. Schmidle in Flora, 
1897, Bd. 88. heft 2, 812, f. B 6, 7, 9). An analogous state of 
branching is also shown in some much larger plants belonging to 
GladophoracesB (cfir. Schmidle in Engler's Botan. Jahrbiich. 1896, 
Bd. 28, 268, cum f. 5, 6). 

Fam. Cladophobaobje. 

50. Cladophora obispata (Both) Eiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 
S. of Shelford. 8. Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 4. Pond near 
Girton. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 7. Near March. 



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108 THB ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDaESHIBB. 

51. C. GLOMEBATA (L.) Kiitz. 8. B. Cam at Cambridge; Coton. 
6. Near Ely. 

52. C. FLAYESCENS Ag. 2. Ootagon Pond, Wimpole Park. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

58. BmzocLONiuM hieeogltphicum Eiitz. 2. Demford Fen, 
1 mile S. of Shelford ; Octagon Pond, Wimpole Park. 8. Sheep's 
Oreen, Cambridge. 6. In ponds near Ely. 7. Sntton West Fen. 
8. In ditches near Gayhime. Frequent, May to Aug. 

Order Oonjugatje. 

Fam. Ztgmbhaoea. 

Subfam. Mesooabpeje. 

54. MouGBOTiA soALABis Hass. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely : July, 1898. 

55. M. PABVULA Hass. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 7. In ditches 
near March. This species is somewhat scarce in the county, 
although I believe I have seen sterile specimens from other 
localities; also conjugating examples, but without ripe spores, 
from Chippenham Fen. 

56. M. genuflexa (Dillw.) Ag. Syn. Mesoearptu pJeurocarpm 
De Bary ; Mougeotia mirabilis (A. Br.) Wittr. 2. Dernford Fen, 
1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Hardwick. 
6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen; in ditches about 
March. 8. Guyhime. Frequently met with in a state of con- 
jugation, but rarely with mature spores. 

57. M. paludosa, sp. n. (PI. 895, figs. 4>6). M. oellulis 
vegetativis diametro 6-14-plo longioribus, chlorophoris brevibus 
plerumque tertiam longitudine cellulsB partem occupantibus, cum 
pyrenoidibus 5 includentibus ; oellulis conjugatis valde genuflexis ; 
sporis subrectangularibus vel subellipticoangularibus, lateribus 
brevioribus concavis et lateribus longioribus valde convexis, angulis 
truncatis et biundulatis, mesosporio glabro achrooque. Crass, cell, 
veget. 11'5-18'5 ft ; long. spor. 44-49 ft ; lat. spor. 82-88 ft. 

5. Burwell Load, abundant : Aug. 1898. 

This species, which belongs to the section Staitrospermea, is 
readily distinguished from M. vindis (Kiitz.) Wittr., M. quadrangu- 
lata Hass., and M.gracillima (Hass.) Wittr. by the greater thickness 
of its vegetative cells, the short chromatophore, and the peculiar 
form of the spore. From 3f. capucina (Bory) Ag. it is distinguished 
by the smaller diameter of its vegetative cells, which never assume 
the purple colour so characteristic of that species, by the chromato- 
phore, and the different form of the spore. The greater diameter of 
the vegetative cells and the form of the spore also distinguish it 
from M. calcarea (Cleve) Wittr. 

58. M. viBmis (Eiitz.) Wittr. 8. Hardwick. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

59. M. GBAoiLLiMA (Hass.) Wittr. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 
5. Wicken Fen. 

60. M. ELEOANTULA Wittr. * Om Gotl. och 01. Sotv.-alg.,' Bih. 
till K. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 1, no. 1, 1872, 40. t. iii. f. 5-8. 
Crass, cell, veget. 4 ft. 5. Chippenlxam Fen ; Wicken Fen. TbiB 



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THE ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGESHIBB. 109 

species was not observed in the coDJogating state ; bnt the extreme 
slendemess of the sterile cells, which were thirty to thirty-five times 
longer than their diameter, does not admit of its being any other 
species. Moreover, the chromatophores were restricted to the 
median portion of the cells exactly in the manner figured by Witt- 
rock. Distrib, — Westmoreland, West Ireland, and Sweden. 

Snbfam. Ztonemba. 

61. Ztombma OBuciATUM (Vauch.) Ag. 8. Wimpole Park : Jnne, 
1898. Sterile examples of a Zygnema, which was probably this 
species, were observed from the ditch by the Botanical Gardens, 
and from Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

62. Z. EBiOBTOEUM (Eiitz.) Hansg. Syn. Zygogonium ericetorum 
Entz. 6. Chippenham Fen, the aquatic form [fonaeh fluitans (Eiitz.) 
Babenh.] , abundant, Aug. 1898. 

68. Z. Ralfsh (Hass.) De Bary. 8. Chippenham Fen. The 
zygospores were rather larger than the average size for this species. 
Crass, cell, veget. 16 /a; long, zygosp. 29-81 ft; lat. zygosp. 28-24 fi. 

64. Spirogtba arota (Ag.) Eiitz. var. oat^niporhis (Hass.) 
Eirchn. Syn. 8. eataniformis (Hass.) Eiitz. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

65. S. VABiAMS (Hass.) Eiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 5. Chippenham Fen. 6. In ponds near Ely. 

66. S. COMMUNIS (Hass.) Eiitz. 6. Ditches near Ely. 

67. S. NiTiDA (Dillw.) Link. 6. Ditches near Ely. 

68. S. MAjuscuLA Eiitz. Syn. S. orihospiraK&g. 5. Chippenham 
Fen : very fine, Aug. 1898. Several irregularities were noticed in 
the conjugation, more particularly the presence of double spores, 
one in each filament; cfr. West and G. S. West, *Obs. on Conj.,' 
Ann. of Botany, xii. 1898, t. v. f . 78-80. Spores were also observed 
which had been formed from only part of the contents of the con- 
jugating cells ; cfr. West & G. S. West, I, c. f . 74. 

69. S. MAXIMA (Hass.) Wittr. Syn. S. orhiculans (Hass.) Ei3tz. 
6. Boswell Pits, Ely : July, 1898. The ripe zygospores are of the 
same rich brown colour as those of S. nmjtiscula, and, although they 
are of considerably greater diameter, the spore- wall is comparatively 
thinner. The proportion of the thickness of the spore-wall to the 
diameter of the ripe spore is as 1 : 17*44 ; in the case of S, majusctda 
it is as 1 : 12*5. 

70. S. OBAoiLis (Hass.) Eutz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; 
Wimpole Park. 

71. S. PBLLuomA (Hass.) Eutz. Spec. Algar. 489; Babenh. 
Flor. Europ. Algar. iii. 247. Syn. Zygnema pdludda Hass. Brit. 
Preshw. Alg. 148, t. xxv. f. 1, 2. (PI. 896. figs. 1-8.) 

S. dense csdspitosa, lubrica, fiavo-viridis ; celluhs vegetativis 
diametro 8^9-plo (usque ad 12-plo) longioribus, extremitatibus 
non replicatis; chromatophoris 8-4 (plerumque 4), sublatis cum 
marginibus multe irregularibus et pyrenoidibus magnis, subrectis 
vel' anfiractibus laxissimis ^1^ (rarissime 2-4); conjugatione 
sealariformi, oellulis fructiferis valde tumidis in parte mediana 



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110 THE ALGA-FLOEA OP GAMBBIDOBSHIRE. 

et panllo abbreviatis ; zygosporis sublentiformibnB, in altera 
positione orbioalaribas altera late ellipticis, cellulas fructiferas 
non complentibns. Grass, cell, veget. 45*5-49 fi; diam. zygosp. 
77-86 fi ; crass, cell, fruct. ciro. 95 ft. 

1. Ditch by the Botanical Gardens, Cambridge : June, 1897, 
intermingled with 5. bellis, 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge: Aug. 
1898. Distiib. — England (Herefordshire ; Yorkshire 1). 

This plant, which was originally described by Hassall as a 
species of Zygnema from specimens obtained from Cheshunt, Hert- 
fordshire, is placed by De TodI in his Sylloge Algarum, p. 776, under 
the section <' species incertissimsB, auctoram fide hue* relataa," and 
on p. 777 of the same work he says *' A d. Cooke rite omissa." In 
this I do not agree with him, as there is no other species of 
Spirogyra more characteristic than S. peU'iudda, and Cooke was 
distinctly in error in omitting it from his British Freshwater Alga. 
Hassairs description is very imperfect and his figures are not good, 
and for this reason I feel bound to give an accurate description and 
figures of the plants I have observed. The vegetative cells oc- 
casionally attain a relatively great length (as much as 540 fi); and 
the chromatophores, which are generally four in number, exhibit 
a considerable range of variation with regard to their disposition, 
sometimes being arranged in a very lax spiral manner, and at other 
times being quite straight. The nucleus is a narrowly elliptical 
body placed transversely across the centre of the cell, and is clearly 
visible in living specimens ; in fact, I know of no species of this 
genus in which it can be so readily seen without the use of staining 
reagents. The peculiarly inflated portion of the fructiferous (female) 
cells is a noteworthy character, and, so far as I am aware, is pos- 
sessed by only one other species of Spirogyra, viz. S. sphmraspora 
Him in Acta Societatis pro Fauna et Flora Feimica, xi. (1895), 
no. 10, p. 10, t. i. f. 2. 

72. S. BELLis (Hass.) Cleve. 1. In the ditch by the Botanical 
Gardens, Cambridge : June, 1897, intermingled with 8. pelhicida 
(Hass.) Eiitz. 

78. S. GBEvmiiEANA (Hass.) Eiitz. 8. Sheep*s Green, Cam- 
bridge ; Hardwick, in ponds. 

Fam. DESMmiAOE^. 

74. GoNATozYGON BALFsn Dc Bary. 5. Chippenham Fen, 
amongst Utricularia vulgaris ; Wicken Fen, amongst Myriophyllum 
spicatum. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

75. G. BrAbissonh De Bary. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

76. G. EiNAHAKi (Arch.) Babenh. 3. Sheep's Green, Cambridge : 
in pond amongst Spirogyra sp., July, 1898. 

*77. Mesot-senium Ebamstai Lemmerm. in Forschungsberichte 
aus der Biol. Stat, zu Plon, iv. 1896, 115-117, c. fig. 8-10. Long, 
cell. 42-77 fi ; lat. 9-10-5 p.. 5. Chippenham Fen, in small pools 
amongst UtnculaHa vulgaris: Aug. 1898. This species, the most 
elongate of the genus, was discovered by Lemmermann in Aug. 
1895, in small pools on the ''Biesengebirge," between Bohemia and 



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THE ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBRIDGBSHIBE. Ill 

Prussian Silesia. The Cambridgeshire specimens were of variable 
length, and all had the poles truncately rounded ; certainly more 
troncaie than figured by Lemmermann. With regard to the cell- 
contents, Lemmermann states (Lc, 116) : *' Das Ohlorophor besteht 
aus einer axilen Platte, wie sie sich in ahnlicher Weise bei der 
Gattung Mougeotia Ag. vorfindet." All the examples observed were 
packed with contents of an oily nature, as is so often the case in 
species of this genus. 

78. PsNiDM DIGITUS (Ehreub.) Brib. 7. Ponds 8. of March. 

79. P. sp. Long. 27 fi ; lat. 18 fi. Only one specimen of this 
species was observed; the cell was oblong-elliptical, with semi- 
circular poles, and in the middle there was a faint constriction. 
8. Ouyhime. 

80. P. oBuoiFEBUM (De Bary) TVittr. Syn. Cosmarium cruciferum 
DeBary. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

81. Clostebium PBiELOMouM Br6b. forma bbeviob West. 8. Lord's 
Bridge. 

82. G. Pbitghabdianum Arch. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

*88. G. PEBACEBosuM Gay, Essai Monogr. Gonj., Montpellier, 
1884, 75, t. ii. f. 18 ; Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 1884, xxxi. 889. 

Var. BLBGANs, var. n. Var. cellulis elegantulis, apices versus 
plus attenuatis curratisqae, ventre paullo tumidioribus, apicibus 
angustis sed obtusis ; pyrenoidibus in semicellula unaquaque 5-8 ; 
locellis apicalibus parvis subterminalibus et corpuscuhs singulis vel 
binis includentibus. Long. 196-258 /a; lat. 14-15 fi (PI. 896, 
figs. 1, 2). 

8. Comberton. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

This variety is easily distinguished from the typical form by 
its somewhat more pronounced curvature, its greater attenuation 
towards the apices, which are rounded, and by the different nature 
of the apical locelli; it is also slightly larger, and has a more 
prominent ventral inflation. 

84. G. ACEBosuM (Schrank) Ehrenb. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 
S. of Shelford. 8. Hardwick; Lord's Bridge. 5. Wicken Fen. 

An elongated variety of this species was observed from Sheep's 
Qreen, Cambridge, which possessed parallel margins in the central 
portion of the cell, and attenuated rounded apices. The cell- 
membrane was of a pale straw-colour and very finely striated, 
and there were 10-11 pyrenoids in each semicell. In its dimensions 
and in the parallel lateral margins it agrees with var. angolense 
West & G. S. West (• Welw. Afric. Alg.,' Journ. Bot. 1897, 79), but 
ttie cell-membrane is quite different. Long. 725 fi ; lat. 29 /a. 

*Var. ANOOLBNSB West & G. 8. West, /. c. 6. Koswell Pits, Ely. 
Long. 778 /x ; lat. 80 /i. 

85. G. LANOEOLATUM Eutz. 7. The Washes, Sutton. 

86. G. Lunula (Miiller) Nitzsch. A rather small form with a 
faintly straw-coloured cell-membrane ; long. 875 /a ; lat. 58 /a. 
B. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 



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112 THE ALQA-FIiOBA OF OAMBBIDaBBHIBB. 

87. 0. EHRENBEBGn Moiiegh. 2. Demford Feiii 1 nule 8. of 
Shelford. 8. B. Gam at Cambridge; Sheep's Green, and in a 
ditchby the Barton Road, near Cambridge; Orwell; WimpolePark. 

7. Sutton West Pen. 8. Twenty-ft>ot Biver, between March and 
Guyhime. 

Many examples of this species were obtained from Sutton 
West Fen agreeing almost exactly with the " forma ventre levis- 
sime inflato, dorso majus curvato qaam in f. typ." mentioned 
by Borge ('Siissw. Ghlor. Archangel,' Bih. till E. Sv. Vet.-Akad. 
Handl. Bd. 19, Afd. iii. no. 5, 16, t. i. f. 11). Long. 500-541 /ut; 
lat. 114-187 II. Lat. : long. = 1 : 8-9-4-4. 

88. C. Maunybbniamum De Not. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Wimpole Park. 

89. C. MONiLiFEBUM (Bory) Ehrenb. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 

5. of Shelford. 8. In a ditch by the Barton Boad, near Cambridge ; 
Hardwick. 7. The Washes, Sutton ; in ponds, March. 

90. C. IiEiBLBiNn Kiitz. 8. Hardwick. 7. Sutton West Fen ; 
ponds S. of March. 8. Guyhirne; Twenty-foot Biver, between 
March and Guyhime. Two very distinct forms of this species were 
seen from the ponds in the neighbourhood of March : (a) a small 
form, lat. 22 fi, apic. inter se distantibus 188 /a; (b) & larger, more 
curved form with a comparatively smaller ventral inflation, lat. 
88-87 ft, apic. inter se distant. 154-202 fi. 

91. 0. DiANJB Ehrenb. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 5. Chip- 
penham Fen. 

92. C. PABVULUM Nag. 5. Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 

6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 7. Near March. 

98. C. Venus Kiitz. 8. Hardwick. 

94. C. Jennebi Balfs, var. bobustum, var. n. fPl. 896, fig. 9). 
Var. cellulis curvatioribus apices versus et apicious crassioribus. 
Lat. 12-5 ft ; lat. apic. circ. 6-7-5 ft ; apic. inter se distant. 61-77 ft. 

8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and Guyhirne. I have also 
examined specimens of this variety from N. Yorkshire. 

*95. C. LATEBALE Nordst. in Wittr. et Nordst. Alg. Exsic. 1880, 
no. 888. Long. 477 ft ; lat. 57 ft ; lat. apic. circ. 7-5 ft ; striis 12 
in 10 ft (PL 896, fig. 8). 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
Since the original discovery of this rare species of Clostenum at 
Paste de Olaria, Pirassununga, Brazil, in Jan. 1880, it has not 
been placed on record for any other locality, and its extraordinary 
occurrence in Cambridgeshire is deserving of particular mention. 
It is at first sight remindful of a short stumpy form of C. Ralfrii 
Br6b., and, although it possesses the tinted, delicately striated 
membrane of that species, it is readily distinguished by its outward 
form alone. I did not see any living specimens, and I am therefore 
unable to comment on the structure of the chlorophyll, which is 
peculiar for a Clostenum of this type ; cfr. Nordstedt, Lc, ** laminis 
chlorophyllaceis circiter 5 sublateralibus nucleos amylaceos multos 
in qnaque lamina in seriem unicam ordinatos indudentibus, loc^o 
apicali granulis (circ. 10) repletio." 

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THB ALOA-FLOBil OF CAMBBIDOBBHIBB, 118 

^6. 0. LuvsATXTM EHrenb. 5« Chippenham Fen; very large 
forms : long. 690 fi ; lat. 29 ft ; lat. apio. oiro. 7 /a. 

97. G. BOSTBATUM Ehrenb. 2. Octagon Pond, Wimpole Park : 
frequent amongst Potamogeton natans. 

98. C. EuTzn^on Br6b. 5. Wioken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

99. C. GBAoiLB Br6b. 6. Chippenham Fen : somewhat scarce, 
Ang. 1898. Long. 188-288 /a; lat. 5-6-6 fi. 

100. C. PBONUM Br6b. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen ; 
Chippenham Fen. 7. Near March. Long. 884-428 /a; lat. 8-8*5 /a. 

101. 0. suBFBONUM Wcst. 5. Wicken Fen. Long. 716 /a; 
lat. 5 fi. 

102. C. AOUTUM ^yngb^ Br6b. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 
5. BorwellLoad; Wicken Fen. 

108. PiiEUBOT^MiUM GORONATUM (Br6b.) Babenh. var. nodulosuh 
fBr6b.) West. Syn. PleuroUmium nodtUosum (Br6b.) De Bary. 5. 
Chippenham Fen. The specimens possessed a circlet of eight smaJl 
grannies at the apex of each semicell ; long. 400-441 /a ; lat. ad bas. 
semicell. 52-57 fi, ad apic. 24-25 /a. 

104. P. Tbabkotjul (Ehrenb.) Nag. 5. Chippenham Fen ; 
Wicken Fen. 6. BosweU Pits , Ely. A large specimen of this 
species was noticed from Wicken Fen with two undulations at 
the base of each semicell ; long. 664 /a ; lat. ad bas. semicell. 46 /a, 
ad apic. 82 /u. 

Forma qbanulata (PL 896, fig. 6). Forma membrana distincte 
grannlata, grannlis irregulariter ordinatis. Long. 486 [a ; lat. ad 
bas. semicell. 8*5 /a, ad apic. 25 /a. 5. Chippenham Fen. This is 
an analogous form to P. Ehrenbergii var. granulatum, 

105. P. EHBBNBBBGn (Br6b.) DeBary. 5. Chippenham Fen. 
A form of this species was noticed with three undulations at the 
base of each semicell, the third one being very slight, and with a 
distinctly narrowed apex ; long. 582 fj, ; lat. ad bas. semicell. 87 /ia, 
ad apic. 18 /a, infra apic. 28 /i (PI. 896, fig. 4). 

Another form (PI. 896, fig. 5) somewhat approached var. undu- 
latum Schaarschm. (in Magyr. Tudom. Akad. Math. s. Termtezettud. 
Kozlem^nyek, xviii. 1882, 278, t. i. f. 21), but the upper third of the 
semicells was destitute of undulations. It is intermediate between 
tiie two forms figured by Schmidle in * Einige Algen aus Sumatra,' 
Hedwigia, Bd. xxxiv. 1895, 800, cum fig. Cfr. also the form of P. 
Ehrmiergii described by Borge (^Siissw. Chlor. Austral,' Bih. till 
E. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 1896, Bd. 22, Afd. iii. no. 9, 26, t. iii. 
f. 46^ as '^ Docidium bamtndatum forma diametro 17-19-plo longior, 
afdoions attennatis"; this form of Borge's is certainly not Fleuro- 
tamum bantuidatum West & G. 8. West (* Freshw. Alg. Madagascar,* 
Trans. Linn. Soc. hot. ser. 2, v. 1895, 45, pi. v. f. 85). Long. 
709 fi ; lat. ad bas. semicell. 40 fi, ad apic. 27 /a. 

106. EuASTBUM nisuLABE (Wittr.) Boy in Scott. NaturaUst, 
April, 1877. Syn. E. hincde (Turp.) Ehrenb. var. insulare Wittr. in 

JouBNAL OF Botany. — Vol. 87. [Mabch, 1899.] i 



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114 T^B ALOA.-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDeBSHIBB. 

Bih. tm. K. Sv. Vet..Akad. Handl. Bd. 1, no. 1, 49, t.iv. f. 7. 
A form with the base of the semicells on each side less rectangular; 
Ipng. 28 fi; lat. 19 /a; lat. isthm. 5 fi; crass, ll/i (PI. 896, fig. 11). 
6. Wicken Fen. This form resembles in some respects Cosmarium 
sublobatum var. crispvlum Nordst. 

107. CosBfABiuM QUADBATUM Balfs. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

108. C. HOLMiENSB Land. var. intbobum Lund. 5. Chippen- 
ham Fen. 

109. C. ANGBPs Lund. 5. Chippenham Fen, abundant in a 
ditch: Aug. 1898. Long. 25-27 fx; lat. 14-5-15*8 /a; lat. isthm. 
10^6-11'6 fi; crass. 10-5 ft. The forms observed were a little 
smaller than the type, but otherwise exactly similar. In Bospraw 
Wydz. matem.-przyr. Akad. Umiej. w Krakow, 1896, xxxiii. 48, 
Outwinski .describes a "forma glabra'' of Dysphinctium anceps 
(Lund.) Hansg., but, as the typical form is perfectly smooth, the 
reason for this is not quite apparent. Moreover, following Hans- 
girg, De Toni, Schmidle, and others, he places the plant under the 
genus Dysphinctium Nag., and about this genus I should like to offer 
a few remarks. It is regarded as identical with Calocylindrus 
(De Bary) Kirchn., and the characters differentiating it from the 
genus Cosmarium are supposed to be — (1) the cylindrical cells (in 
vertical view circular^ ; (2) the very slight median constriction ; 
and (8) the absence of a basal inflation. But circular vertical views 
are met with along with every possible grade of constriction (cfr. 
Cosmarium. annvlatum (Nag.) DeBary, C. Welwitschii West & G. 8. 
West, and C. globulatum West & G. S. West^ ; and species are 
known, which, although but very faintly constncted, yet possess an 
elliptical vertical view (cfr. C aneeps Lund., C Oocystidum West & 
G. S. West). To which genus do these species belong? Also, is 
it possible to draw any demarcation in the depth of the constriction, 
and to say definitely, in all cases, which species belong to Dy- 
sphinctium and which to Cosmarium ? Even those who most strongly 
uphold the genus Dysphinctium include in it species of Cosmarium 
with a narrowly linear sinus, such as 0. speciosum, C. quadratum, 
&c.f and at the same time leave out many others which are less 
deeply constricted. C. miaosphinctum has also been placed as a 
Dysphinctium^ and this species not only possesses a linear sinus, but 
also an inflation on each side of the vertical view. In addition to 
instances of this kind, it seems somewhat paradoxical that two such 
closely allied species as 0. speciosum and C, subspeciosum should be 
placed in different genera. 

To sum up, Dysphinctium is a genus based upon no definite 
group of characters, and includes species about the position of 
which opinion must always remain divided. There is no doubt the 
genus Cosmarium is very large and unwieldly, including, as it does, 
some 700 species, and for this reason a division into smaller genera 
would be very acceptable. A noteworthy suggestion was made by 
Turner (* Fresbw. Alg. of E. India,' Kongl. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
Bd. 25, no. 5, 1892, 78) to divide the genus into sections according 
to the outward form of the semicells, but it is more probable that 



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THB ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGESHIRB. 115 

the nhimate division of the genns will have to be based rather upon 
combinations of characters than upon mere difference in outward 
form alone.* It appears to me that as yet we know but little con- 
cerning the Cosmaria of the world, there bemg as many as two hun- 
dred and sixty species recorded as British, and only about one 
hundred for the whole continent of Africa ; and, until our knowledge 
of the genus has been much augmented by future research, any 
attempt to subdivide it into other genera, which, far from fulfilling 
the requirements of the case, only render matters more complicated, 
is to be strongly deprecated. 

110. C. OBANATUM Br^b. 5. Wioken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 
6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and 
Guyhime. A number of forms of this very variable and cosmo- 
politan species were observed, notably one agreeing with that 
mentioned by Gutwinski in Olamika Zejnalsjskog Mtueja u Bomi i 
Hereegovini, viii. 1896, 874, t. i. f. 2 a' ; and Borge, * Subfoss. sotv. 
alg. fran Gotland,' Botaniska Notiter, 1892, t. 1, f. 4. Long 41 fi; 
lat. 26'5 fi; lat. isthm. 7*5 ft. 

Var. suBORAMATUM Nordst. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 5. Wioken Fen ; Chip- 
penham Fen. 6. Boswell Pits, £ly. 7. The Washes, Sutton, and 
Sutton West Fen ; March. 8. Guyhime. 

Several small forms were observed intermediate between 0. gra- 
natmn var. subgranatum and 0. Meneghinii var. granatoides Schmidle in 
Berichte der Naturf. Gesellschaft zu Freiburg i. B. 1898, 28, t. vi. 
f. 15 (since placed by him as a species — 0, granatoides Schmidle in 
Flora^ 1894, 52, t. vii. f. 12). Many of these forms had the upper 
margins of the semicells concave, a character on which Lagerbeim 
founded his var. concavum ('Contrib. Fl. Alg. Ecuador,' Extr. Los 
Anales de la Universidad de Quito, 1890, 16). 

111. C. EiiEBsn Gutw. *Materjaly Flory Glon6w Galicyi,* 
Sprawozd. Eomisyi fizyog. Akad. Umiej. w Erakowie, xxviii. pt. ii. 
125, t. iii. f. 8. Long. 81 fi ; lat. 29 /a ; lat. isthm. 10-5 /x. Also 
a proportionately longer form; long. 41 [i ; lat. 82*5 /a ; lat. isthm. 
10 /A. 5. Wicken Fen. 

A somewhat depressed form was noticed from Boswell Pits, Ely ; 
long. 87 /a; lat. 85 /a; lat. isthm. 11 /a; crass. 18 /a. This form 
approached C Phaseolm Br^b. var. achondnim Boldt (* Siber. 
Chlorophy.,' Ofv. af K Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1885, no. 2, 108, t. v. f. 7), 
but I fully agree with Schmidle {Flora, 1896, Bd. 82, heft 8, 807) 
that the latter has nothing to do with C. Phaseolm, a species I know 
well from both Europe and America. Perhaps Boldt's variety 
really belongs to 0. Scenedesmus Delp. 

112. 0. BiooTJLATUM Br6b. 5. Wicken Fen. 6. Boswell Pits, 
Ely ; long 17 /a ; lat. 17 /a ; lat. isthm. 5 /a. Bather larger forms 
from 5. Chippenham Fen ; long. 21 /a ; lat. 21 /a ; lat. isthm. 6 /a. 

* It is a strange fact that Turner does not attempt to arrange his 137 Indian 
roeoies ol Cotmariwn onder the seven subgenera into which he proposes to divide 
.the genus. Had he done bo, it would have been possible to form some idea as 
to the comparative usefulness of his proposed divisions. 

I 2 



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116 OBITIOAL MOTES ON SOMB SPEGIB8 OF OBRASTIUM. 

118. 0. PBOTUBSBANS LuDcl. ' Dosm. Saeo.' in Aoia &• Soo. 
Scient. Upsal. ser. 8, viii. no. ii. 1870, 87 (sep.), t. iii. f. 17. The 
forms noticed were rather more deeply constricted than the Swedish 
ones, the apex of the sinus was more conspicnonsly ampliated, and 
the protuberance in the vertical view considerably reduced. The 
membrane was minutely scrobiculato-punctate, as in the type. 
Long. 22-28 /ci ; lat. 19-21 /ci ; lat. isthm. 5-2 /a ; crass. 12 fu 
5. Chippenham Fen (PI. 894, fig. 12). 

(To be continued.) 



OBITIOAL NOTES ON SOME SPECIES OP CERASTIUM. 
Bt Fbbdebio N. Williams, F.L.S. 
( Continued from Jonm. Bot. 1898, p. 387.) 

85. C. ABYBNSB L. Sp. Plant. 488 (1758).— Eew Herbarium 
lacks satisfactory fruit-specimens of this very common plant. The 
species is cosmopolitan. In the Old World it ranges from the 
Arctic Sea to Cochinchina (Loureiro), and in the New World from 
Labrador to the island of Tierra del Fuego {Hookei'f.). Hooker 
mentions its occurrence in the Himalayas, but it is omitted from 
Fl. of British India. As regards altitude, specimens of 0. ai-vense 
var. sttictum have been collected at 2750 metres in the Eastern 
Caucasus (C A. Meyer), and specimens of C, arvense var. arvetmforms 
at 8500 metres in the Andes of Bolivia {Mandon). 

86. C. ABVEMSiFOBMB Wodd. in Ann. Sc. Nat. 1864, 296 [= C. 
arvense var. arvennforme Eohrb. in Linnaa, xxxvii. 805] . — Founded 
on specimens collected by Weddell and Mandon in the Andes of 
Bolivia, as mentioned above. The following characters distinguish 
the plant among the many forms of O. arvense: — 

Caules diffusi; folia lanceolata vel lineari-lanceolata, obtusi- 
uscula vel mucrone obtuso subcalloso acuminata; fiores ma^; 
sepala 6-8 mm. Differt habitu magis prsesertim foliis numerosiori- 
bus ac latioribus quam certis characteribus. 

87. C. Atlanticdm Dur. in Duch. Rev. Bot. ii. 487 (1846-47). 
From an examination of authentic specimens in Herb. Eew., I 
should be disposed to reduce the species to C Duriai^ which has 
not hitherto been recorded in Algeria, but which occurs in the 
south of Spain and in Asia Minor. The specimens of both species 
seem to match, and the description of C. Atlanticum is almost 
a verbal transcript of C. Duriai. It is also allied to 0. echinulatum, 
which, according to Battandier and Trabut, is **voisin du 0. Ri€n." 
I have little hesitation, therefore, in adding 0. Duriai to the flora 
of Algeria, as represented by these specimens. In the Index 
Kewensis Spain is given as the habitat of C, Atlanticum^ which is an 
obvious slip. According to Durieo, it ranges from Constantino to 
Tlemcen. 

88. 0. ATBATUM Lapeyr. Hist. Abr. Pyren. 265 (1818) ; et Fig. 
PI. Pyren. t. 102 (1795-1801) : = 0. alpinum var. atratum Bouy & 



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GBinOAL NOTES ON BOMB 8PB0IB8 OF OBBASTIUM. 117 

Fone. FI. de Franoe, iii. 205 (1896).— A typo C. dlpim differt, 
plantd luride viridi yillosiore, dichasio yisoidiore, pilis longis et 
glandnlis atricoloribos commixtis. 

Syn. C squalidtm Bam. in Mem. Aoad. Paris, vi. 158 (1826). 

By Willkomm this variety is sunk in (7. alpinum var. lanatum, 
from which it is distingnished by the viscid dichasia, and shorter 
villous hairs. The plant grows on steep rooks in the Pyrenees. 

89. G. ATBOvntENS Bab. in Mag. Zool. & Bot. ii. 817 (1888) ; 
Hook. f. Stud. Fl. Brit. Isl. ed. 8, 59. — Specimens so named with 
straight capsules and flowers mostlv tetramerous are not distinguish- 
able from C. tetrandrum. Overlooked by Grenier. 

40. 0. Amauu Boiss. & Heldr. Diagn. PL Or. nov. Ser. ii. L 98 
(1858). — This species was subsequently reduced to C. hraekypetalum 
y^x. luridum; but after examining authentic specimens recently 
received from Prof, von Heldreich, Herb, Qracum norm, n. 1218 
(1895) I find that there are certain characters which refer the 
plant to the C, triviale group, rather than to the group containing 
C. brachypetalum and C. ruderaU, In these specimens examined 
the filaments are glabrous as in C. triviaU, and the petals are 
distinctly ciliate towards the base at the margin, constant characters 
of specific importance. From these specimens I have drawn up a 
description somewhat modified from the original : — 

Annuum, pallide viride, totum pilis moUibus patulis non glut!- 
nosis velutino-hispidum. Caules humiles simpUces erecti in di- 
chasium pluries dichotomum laxum multiflorum soluti. Folia 
ovata vel oblonga, obtusa. Bracteas herbaceaa villosas foliis con* 
similes. Pedicelli post anthesin tandem erecti, 1^-2-plo calyce 
longiores, capsulam inclinatam ferentes. 

Hab, Greece: Mt. (Enos, in the island of Cephalonia, and 
Mt. Ozea (Fames), in the nome of Attica. 

41. 0. AzoBiGUM Hochst. ex Seub. Fl. Azor. 45, t. 14 (1844). 
A species endemic in the Azores, of the C tomentosum group. 
Among European species seems nearest C. Orbdicum and C. 
Apuanum in specific characters. I know of no other species of 
Certutwm from these islands. Some specimens collected many 
years ago were referred to C, campanulatum, but they prove on 
examination to belong to this species. I have examined the 
specimens collected by Prof. William Trelease in August, 1894, 
at Ponte Flores (n. 120) and at Ponte Delgada (n. 122), received 
at Eew in January of the present year, and from this material have 
drawn up a fresh description. These specimens represent all the 
three forms mentioned by Seubert. The other specimens in Herb. 
Eew. were raised from seed by Mr. H. 0. Watson, and are not so 
satisfactory, though they are readily recognizable from the figure 
given by Seubert. 

Planta perennis, dense pubescens, pilis fiavescentibus. Caules 
ramosi. Dichasium 7-10-florum; pedicelli calycem superantes, 
fruotif eri basi ad apicem recti ; bracteaa lanceolato-lineares acutaa 
anguste scariosaB. Calyx basi subtruncatus ; sepala exteriora lanceo- 
lata subobtusa anguste scariosa, interiora paullum angustior^ acuta 

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IIB CRinOAL NOTES ON SOME 8FE0IEB OP OEBABTfUM. 

late soariosa. Petala obovato-cuneata bidentata oaljoem sBquantia. 
Gapsula recta oalyce paullum longior. Semina triangalari-sub- 
auriformia echinato-tubercalata, dorso sulcata. 

Forma communis (1) : Caules basi prostrati, pumili; folia spathu- 
lato- vel oyato-lanceolata. 

Forma elatior (2) : 45-60 centim. ; caules adscendentes (semina 
in capsula mediocri 45). 

Forma latifolia (8) : Folia ovato-oblonga 87-49 mm. 

42. C. Baloanioum Vandas, Beitr. fi. Bolgar. in Sitzgsber. E. 
Bohm. Oesellsch. Wissensch. 1888, 486 ; Velen. Fl. Bulgarioa, 87 
(1891) : = C. grandiflorum var. Balcanicum Williams. — ^This plant 
from the Balkan Mountains can only be considered one of the 
many forms of G. grandiflorum, agreeing perhaps most nearly with 
var. alpinum Boiss. I was at first disposed to reduce it to var. 
speciosum Boiss., but further examination of specimens of the latter 
collected by Haussknecht on the siliceous serpentine rock of Mt. 
Zygos in Epirus, which have been very carefully dried, seem to 
show that they cannot be referred to 0. grandiflorum at all. The 
following characters readily distinguish the plant from the normal 
forms of C grandiflorum : — 

Planta laxe csdspitosa, 20-85 cm. alta. Caules apice ramosi, 
remotius foliati, infeme pilis pubescentibus sparsim vestiti vel 
glabri, supeme pilis densis brevibus glanduliferis pilisque longioribus 
eglandulosis vestiti. Folia lanoeolato-linearia glabrata vel sparsim 
puberula. Dichasium 8-7-florum. Sepala lanceolata minus obtusata. 

Hab, In stony places and among juniper shrubs near the top of 
Mt. Osogovska Planina, above Eostendil in N. Bulgaria, dose to the 
Turkish frontier-posts. 

48. C. banahoum, Bochel, ex Ind. £ew. i. 488. — ^Referring to the 
work cited in the Index Kewensis, I find that the plant is there 
described as C grandiflorum var. baruLticum^ p. 88, t. 2 (1828). It 
is true that the name occurs in specific guise in the index, but the 
index is in that vicious form in which the specific and varietal 
names are in a single alphabetical series. The name is first used 
in a specific sense by Heuffel, Enum, pi. Banal. Temes. (1858). 
Eoohel, in the former work, says, '* capsula calyce 2-8-plo longior." 
There are some specimens in Herb. Eew. labelled 0. hanaticum 
Bochel, received from Mr. Lujo Adamovic, of Pirot, in Servia : in 
these the capsule is only slightly longer than the calyx. I wrote to 
this accomplished botanist for further information about these 
Servian specimens, and cannot do better than quote his letter : — 
''Possideo enim formas capsulis calyce sesquilongioribus (et non 
rare 2-8-plo sesquilongioribus) atque individua capsulis calycem 
vix superantibus. Dentes calycum sunt nunc hand vel vix refiexi 
nunc evidenter revoluti. Ceterum variat planta atque indumento 
nunc densiore nunc sparso, glabriusculo. Sitne magnitudo cap- 
sularum (et lusus indumenti) factoribus geographicis (oeconomicis) 
potius adtribuenda?" It is pointed out elsewhere that the ripening 
capsule increases in length considerably in some species, and there 
is often a difference between the capsule of a central flower and the 
less developed capsule of the alar flowers, whether in the primary 



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<mTIOAL NOTES ON SOmS SPffOIBS OP OBRASTIUM. 119 

or in the secondary branches of the same dichasiHrn. The specific 
character is therefore to be sought in the dry dehiscent capsule of 
a terminal flower. 

There are certain characters which individually and collectively 
seem to separate the plant from. C grandiflorum, and it must be 
remembered that specimens of this species, in one of its poly- 
morphoos forms which are distributed in Hungary, Servia, and 
Boumania, have been labelled <* 0. Banaticum " without due regard 
to its distinguishing characters. The following characters seem to 
separate it from C grandiflorum: — Multicanle dense caBspitosum, 
80 oentim. Gaules ad medium dense foliosi supeme in cymam 
laxam multifloram longe ramosam divisi. Folia acuminata margine 
hand revoluta. Diohasium saape 7-florum; bractesd ventricos® 
ovat£e dorso herbacesB ; pedicelli calyoe 2-8-plo longiores. Capsula 
elevatim nervosa 18~I5 mm. Semina angulata echinato-tubercu- 
lata. Indumentum nunc evanescens, nunc glandulosum, nunc fere 
^landuloeum canum inventum. 

The correct authority for this plant is 0. banaticum HeufT., 
Enum. pi. Banat. Temes. p. 61 (1868) ; Velen. Fl. Bulgarica, 88 (1891). 
In an additional supplement (1898) to the latter, Yelenovsky says : 

" Species hsBC in Bulgaria sat polymorpha videtur Folia 

nunc latiora, nunc tenuiora prsestaot. Florum fructuumque 
oharacteres immutati permanent, quare nulla ratione cum affini 
C, grdndifloro coadunandum est.*' The revolute margins of the 
leaves in the latter is certainly a distinctive character. Grenier 
mentions the plant under the name of C. grandiflorum var. glahratum^ 
and distinguishes it by <' pedunculis orispule pubescentibus et piiis 
in basi foliorum fleiLUosis,*' and does not note any of the characters 
mentioned above. Janka states that it is quite a distinct species, 
and separated from C. grandiflontm by the following characters : — 
'' Glabritiey pube scilicet in tota plantsl brevi reverse, bracteis dorso 
herbaceis, sepalis toto dorso herbaceis, apice augustissime mem- 
branaceis, seminibus numerosis minoribus." Whereas in C grandi- 
florum^ — ''indumentum lanuginosum, intricatum, bractete dorso 
membranacead vel hyalinsB, sepala a medio dorsi vel paulo altius 
hyalina, semina pauca (2-8) minora." Janka overlooks the cha- 
racter of the capsule, which, as Seringe rightly states in DC. Prodr., 
is not longer than the calyx. Again, Visiani says of C grandi- 
florum: *'Oapsulam duram, opacam, nee membranaceam, pellu- 
cidam, .... ealyci aaqualem vel paulo longiorem, dentibus 10 
tnmcatis varie connatis, nunc 6 bidentatis, nunc uno alteroque 
toidentato aut indiviso, demum basi rimis 6 debiscentem.'' There 
is scarcely any doubt that Reichenbach's figure of C suffruticosum 
represents C. banaticum; and, apart from the plane capsular teetb, 
the latter much more resembles in habit C. aroense than 0. grandi- 
florum. But it would be unwise to attempt to identify the Linnean 
<7. suffruUco9um with the plant from Banat, from the vague 
diagnosis, "caule perenni procumbente, foliis lineari-lanceolatis 
sabhirsutis." 

I have reason, therefore, for believing that the interesting series 
of specimens oolleoted by Mr. Lujo Adamovic in Servia do not con- 



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120 OBinCAL NOTES ON BOMB BPBOUSS OF OSaABTIUM. 

sist wholly of C. banaticum, bat in part of C. grandiflorum. The 
leaves of C. banaticum are altogether glabrous, thoagh oiliate at the 
margin towards the base : the sepals are not slightly membranous 
at the tip, as Janka states, but all along the edge, so that the 
hyaline margins taken on both sides of each sepal are together 
about equal in breadth to the central herbaceous portion. I have 
discussed these specific differences at length, after the examination 
of authentic specimens, in order to justify the raising of this plant 
to specific rank, since it has frequently been regarded as a variety 
only of C. grandiflorum. 

Hah. Hungary : counties of Temes and Torontal (the original 
specimens). Servia (Adamovic). Boumania: the Iron Gates of 
the Danube (Borhm, 1878). Bulgaria : Mt. Bilo, in the Balkans 
{Velenovskif) ; also Mt. Teteven-Balkan. 

Iconogr. Sturm, Deutschl. Fl. h. 64 (1884) ; Beiohb. lo. Fl. 
Germ. Helv. 4987 b (C. mffrvHcomm). 

44. C. BABBULATUM Wahlcub. Fl. Garpat. Princ. 187, n. 446 
(1814); Link, Enum. Hort. Berolin. i. 488 (1821): = 0. hrachy- 
petalum var. prostratum Williams.— Wahlenberg describes two forms, 
of which he refers the first (var. a) to 0. rotundifnlium Kit. MS., and 
a second with '* foliis oblongis " to C brachypetalum Kit. MS. The 
former was taken up and described by Fischer (1812). There is no 
reason for separating the two, which I propose as a var. of 0. 
brachypetalum. The specimens were collected in the counties of 
Lipto and Szepes, in Hungary. In a note by Gay attached to his 
specimens (December, 1881), comparison is suggested with a plant 
labelled ''0. barbatum*' in Ducros' herbarium. The character of 
the hairs is described by Wahlenberg: — *« Villi totius plants 
glandnlis omnibus carent, et ssBpe tarn tenues ut articnli eorum vix 
conspiciantur, sed longitudine diam. caulis plerumcjue superant. 
Calyces duplo minores quam in CerasUo vulgato ; foliohs exterioribus 
sine marginibus diaphanis, villis extra apicem sat longe promi- 
nentibus.** Without having seen specimens, Grenier reduced the 
plant to C. glomeratum from Link's observation, ''Oaulis magis 
viscosus, folia subrotunda, hirsuta, viscida." 

45. C. Bbhrinoianum Cham, et Schlecht. in Linnaa, i. 62 (1826) 
[Beeringianum] : = 0. alpinum var. Bekringianum S. Wats. Biblio- 
graph. Index, 100 (1878). — The original description of this plant is as 
follows : — <* Caules basi cespitosi et decumbentes, dein fioriferi 
erecti, strictissimi 8-pollicares, infeme dense foliosi, in erecta 
parte uno alterove pari foliorum instructi. Folia oblonga obtusa 
aut acutiuscula, 6 lin. et ultra longa, 1^ lin. lata. Panicula 
terminalis diohotoma, 5-7'flora, pedunculus alaris eirciter poUi- 
caris, rami laterales duo eum superantes iterum pedunculo alari 
et ramo uno alterove bibracteato unifloro terminantur. Bami totius 
paniculse patuli. BracteaB ad basin paniculie ramificationum parv» 
lanceolatsB pilosaB non scariosas. Pedunculi peracta florescentia 
declinati subhorizontales, fiore nutante aut cemuo. Sepiala elliptica 
acuta margine lato scarioso. Petala alba calyce sesquilongiora. 
Gapsula cylindrica curviuscula calyce sesquUongior. Planta tota 



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OBITIOAL MOTBS ON BOMB BFEdES OF OBRASTnTM. 121 

piUs rigidiasoalis insaqoalibas hirta, glandolis stipitatis immixtis ; 
superiores paries, praBsertim inflorescentiaB, viscossB." 

De Begel has made a very careful study of the East Siberian 
forms of C. alpinum in Bull. 8oc. Nat, Mosc. 1862, pt. ii. 815. The 
geographical distribution of the various forms of this variety are for 
the great part taken from his memoir. The result of his exami- 
nation and comparison of these forms from East Siberia and the 
neighbouring territory of the United States is set forth with that 
critical appreciation of the relative value of subspecific characters 
and lucidity of treatment, which both he and Maximowicz have 
brought to bear with so much success on the systematic elucidation 
of the Bussian flora. 

C alpinum var. Behringianum. — Inferne plus minus tomentellum, 
0upeme pilis glandulosis intermixtis viscididum. Gaudiculi decum- 
bentes, et h&c. ex re plus minus dense caBspitosi, cauliculis ad- 
scendentibus vel erectis, nunc unifloris, nunc cyma 2-pluriflora 
terminatis ; folia oblonga, quam in typo minora. 

Lusus 1, typicus. — Hab. Siberia : R. Argun in prov. of Trans- 
Baikalia ; B. Eolyma in prov. of Yakutzk ; E. Eaja in prov. of Irkutzk, 
near Irkutzk; Maritime Province, Unalaschka, in the Aleutian 
Islands. United States : Alaska, 0. Hope, Eotzebue Sound, and 
island of Sitka; Bocky Mountains of Colorado and Arizona. 
British Columbia. Bocky Mountains of Western Canada {Pro- 
vaneher). 

Lusus 2, pauciflorus. — Hab, Maritime Province of Siberia: 
Eamtschatka, and island of S. Paul in Behring Sea. United 
States : island of Sitka, off the coast of Alaska. 

Lusus 8, grandifloru$. — Hab, Siberia : Ajan Mtns. in prov. of 
Yakutzk ; Eamtschatka, in the Maritime Province. United States : 
Eotzebue Sound, in Alaska. 

Lusus 4, Mertensianus, — Hab, Siberia: Unalaschka, in the 
Aleutian Islands. 

Lusus 6, Jlavescens. — Hab, Siberia : island of S. Paul, in Behring 
Sea. Japan : Eurile Islands. 

The usual forms of this polymorphous variety are sometimes 
difficult to distinguish from stunted short-leaved forms of C 
arvense, but the flowers are less densely aggregated, and have the 
slightly larger, firmer, and more herbaceous sepals characteristic of 
C. alpinum, 

46. C. BiBBEBSTEiNH DC. iu M6m. Soc. Phys. Qenev. i. 486 
(1828) ; Prodr. i. 418 (1824) ; PI. Bar. Jard. GenSv. t. 11 (1829). 
Type-specimens in Herb. DC. at Geneva. A species founded on 
PaUas's and Steven's specimens from the Crimea first referred to 
by Georgi in Beschr. Russ. Reiclis. iv. 987 (1800), under the name 
of C. repms. This is probably the plant figured by Morisoui 
PL HUt. Univ. Oxoniens. iii. t. 22, f. 44 (1715). The species 
seems closely allied to C. grandiflarum, from which it differs in the 
leaves not revolute at the margin, and in the form of tiie sepals. 
In recent authentic specimens (A, Callier, It. Tauric. ii. n. 46 
[1896] ), and in others from the Crimea, the leaves seemed to me 
to be ahnost acute, not obtusci as generally stated in descriptions. 



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122 OBITICAL NOTES ON BOMB 8PB0IBS OP CEBASTItTM. 

In a medium capsule I counted nineteen seeds. Namecl after 
Bieberstein, the botanist of the Crimea, who, like Georgi, referred 
his specimens to C repens. In the specimens examined in Herb. 
Mus. Brit., which were three on a single sheet from Herb. Auerswald, 
the only capsules which had split were certainly notexserted beyond 
the calyx. 

47. G. BiFLOBUM Kit. ap. Kan. in Linnaa, xxxii. 525 (1868). A 
species near C, arverue : a much smaller plant with usually bifloral 
stems. Found by mountain streams in the county of Szepes, in 
Hungary. 

48. G. BLSPHABOPHYLLUM Lcdcb. Fl. Bossioa, i. 408 (1842) = 
C, longifolium, 

49. G. BiiEPHABosTEMON Fisch. et Mey. ap. Hohenack. Enum. PL 
Talysch, in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1888, 408 ; Boiss. Fl. Orient. 1. 
722 (syn.) ; = C. longifolium. Not mentioned in Grenier's mono- 
graph (1841). Derives its name from the ciliated filaments. 
According to the authors in the original description, '* Species 
distinctissima habitum StellaricB dichotomcB quodammodo simulat; 
a proximo C, dichotomo et ejus varietate C glanduloso Hort. Berolin. 
dignoscitur petalis calyce longioribus et filamentis ciliatis. Nnm 
C. longifolium W. ? sed cum descriptione a Willdenowio data, baud 
quadrat." Though it is here stated that the description does not 
tally with that given by Willdenow, it applies, however, very well 
to the authentic specimen in Herb. Mus. Brit. The original 
specimens were collected by Hohenacker in the Buwant district of 
the government of Baku, in the Gancasus. 

50. G. BoissiEBi Gren. Monogr. Gerast. 67 (1841) = C. Gib- 
raltaricum Boiss. (1888). The latter must stand as the name for 
the species. 

51. G. BOMBYciNUM Schur, Enum. PI. Transsilv. 128 (1866); 
Nym. Gonsp. Fl. Eur. 108 (1878) ; Jacks. Ind. Kew. i. 488 (1898) 
= C. alpinum. This is an example of the unnecessary multipli- 
cation of synonyms. No plant of this name has been described or 
published by Schur or anybody else. It is to be regretted that the 
vicious method of overstocking his herbarium adopted by the late 
Prof. Ferdinand Schur and the wholesale issue of still-bom names 
for which he was responsible were pursued with a heedless disregard 
for the conglomerate mass of synonyms. Schur seems to have 
gathered specimens, placed them in his herbarium, and, without any 
serious attempt at discrimination, have dubbed them with new 
names, and there left them. Subsequently, with further exami- 
nation of materials for his Enum, PL Transsilvani<B^ he considerately 
reduced some, but cited them by the unpublished names written on 
the labels hurriedly attached to his specimens, which names became 
synonyms immediately on publication. Instanced of tliese tauto- 
logical encumbrances are everywhere in evidence in the work 
mentioned. It is bad enough for some authors to encumber 
synonymy by publishing herbarium-names which have little or 
no connection with the history of tbe species, whose distribution 



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GRmOAL NOTBS ON SOm 8FB0IE8 OF OEBASTnTM. 128 

the speoimens examined may not affect ; but it is &r worse for an 
author to cite manuscript names from bis own herbarium, which 
serves only to draw attention to his tendency to the indiscriminate 
multiplication of species. After thus bringing to notice early in 
^s list a category of names which have no sort of status, it is not 
intended in this series of notes to take further note of names which 
have been published in this way, though they find a place in the 
Index KewensU. 

52. G. BosNiAOUM G. Beck ex Nym. Consp. Fl. Eur. suppl. 62 
(1889), et Hort. Eew. 1898. This plant was described by Prof. 
Beck V. Mannagetta as a form of C, tomentosum ; and it is only the 
fiaulty compilation of the index to the work in which it is mentioned 
which misled Nyman into citing it as a species. In the present 
year some specimens flowered in the alpine house in Eew Gardens, 
and these Hving specimens I was able to compare with C. tomen- 
tosum. From them I have drawn up a brief differential diagnosis 
of the characters which distinguish the plant from typical C 
tomentosum. Prof. Beck refers only to the different form of the 
leaves. 

C. tomentosum var. bosniacum, — Planta lanugine minus intricatim 
tomentosa vestita ; folia caulina elliptica vel ovato-elUptica rotun- 
dato-obtusa, inferiora ovata; dichasium 6-9-florum; flores centrales 
erecti, alares nutantes ; bracteaB lanceolatsB subacutaB ; sepala ovato- 
lanceolata: C. Masiaco Friv. simillima, haBC quidem O. tomentosi 
variotas. 

Hab. 8. Bosnia. 

58. G. BRAGHYPETALtJM Dcsp. in Pcrs. Syn. PI. i. 520 (1805). 
This is a species of wide distribution in Europe, Asia Minor, and 
North A&ica, and extending eastwards to Siberia, if one may rely 
on specimens in Herb. DG. labelled ''G. ruderale," collected by 
Fischer, which belong to this species. The geographical area of 
the species, as to its extreme Umits, works out as follows : — 

N. — Sweden; Branningeklint, in the Ian of Sodermanland, 
lat. 59° (ex Harttnan, Skand. Flora, ed. 1876, 128. 8.— Gyprus 
{Sintenis et Rigo, It. Gyprium, 1880, n. 1012). J5:.— Siberia 
(Fischer). W, — Spain; nr. Yillafranca del Vierzo, in province 
of Leon {Lange), long. T W. 

If the authenticity of Fischer's Siberian specimens should be 
doubtful, the eastern limit would be the government of Tiflis, in 
Trans- Gaucasia (Ekhwald). G, canescens Uornem. is reducible to 
this species, but Boyle's specimens thus labelled, collected in 
Kashmir, belong to C. triviale. 

54. G. BBEViFLORnM GiUb. Fl. Lithuanica, ii. 158 (1782). 
I have not been able to refer to a copy of this work, but the 
following description is from the same author's ExercUia Phyto- 
logica in Lithtuinia, p. 298 (1792) : — *' Gaulis simplex seu vix 
ramosus, triuncialis. Folia ovata, hirsuta ; paribus paucis. Flores 
parvi, longitudine oalycis ; petala emarginata; stamina 5; styli 8." 
Ledebour sinks the species in C semidecandrum^ ignoring Gilibert's 
mention of three styles, which is possibly an error. Otherwise, 



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124 OBinOAL NOTES ON SOME SPB0IB8 OF OERASTIUM. 

there is nothing in the brief description to distinguish the pUmt 
from 0. semidecandrum, 

55. G. BULOABiGUM Uecht. in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. xxvi. 221 
(1876) ; Velen. Fl. Bulgarica, 86 (1891). Political changes have 
rendered the name of this species a misnomer. When the plant 
was described, the locality in which the specimens were found was 
in that portion of the Turkish pachalio of Bulgaria which was 
afterwards incorporated in the kingdom of Boumania. The species 
does not occur within the confines of the principality of Bulgaria. 
It is very near the Spanish C Gayanum^ with which the authentic 
specimens in Herb. Eew. have been compared ; and from which it 
is distinguished by the more compact cyme and the distinctly ribbed 
character of the calyx. 

Hob. Boumania: mountain pastures at Grecii» near the town 
of Macin, in the province of Dobrudscha. 

56. C. BUSAMBABBNSE Lojac. Fl. Sicula, 181 (1888). le, Beichb. 
Ic. Fl. Germ. Helv. 4984 [C. repens), — Lojacono says that at the 
time he described this plant from very incomplete material, and had 
not examined fruit-specimens. Becently, however, further speci- 
mens in better condition, with ripened capsules and seeds, have been 
received at Herb. Mus. Brit, from the Sicilian botanist ; and these 
specimens I have compared with good examples of C. tomentosum, 
C, alpinumj and others, and have drawn up from them a fresh 
description. They seem to agree well with Beichenbach's figure of 
C. repens. The species seems closely allied to C, orbelicum and 
C. apuanuMf both of which some might, perhaps, be disposed to sink 
in C» tomentosum. Lojacono's description is, for the reason men- 
tioned, very fragmentary, and as the species seems to be well 
defined and marked off from others, I submit the following de- 
scription from the recent specimens examined, collected in the 
original locality: — 

Obscure virens, glandulosum, supeme viscidum. Bami steriles 
numerosi graciles intricati diffusi teretes repentes non radicantes ; 
rami floriferi insequaliter stricte cymoso-corymbosi. Folia inferipra 
spathulata, reliqua sessilia subconnata sparsim albo-villosa ad- 
scendo fere lanata lanceolato-linearia vel late linearia acuta. 
Flores erecti; pedicelli e basi erecti calyce longiores; bracteaa 
ovales acutse late scariossB. Sepala oblonga obtusa late scariosa. 
Petala obovata retusa calycem duplo superantia. Gapsula e calyce 
vix exserta, oblongo-cylindrica. Semina ferruginea subauriformia 
tuberculata, margine sulcata, faciebus concava. — A C. tomentoH 
omnibus formis diversa, habitu diffusiore obscure virente, foliis 
evidenter acutis, petalis retusis, capsula erecta. 

Hab. Busambara, in Sicily. 

(To be cohUnued.) 



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125 



BOTANICAL EXOUBSIONS IN DONEGAL, 1898. 
By H. 0. Habt, F.L.S., &o. 

(ContinQed from p. 76.) 

Aug. 7. — Followed the Cloninany river up to Meendoran Lake 
about four or five miles. A most remarkable flood wetted me through 
and through in about three minutes, and raised the river three feet 
vertioally in half an hour, flooding all sorts of crops. It fell nearly 
the same in an hour and a half. The lake above, about two miles 
round, rose six inches in the same time. Along the stream Salix 
pmtandra and 8. Caprea were noted. Lots of Oreopteris, Biver- 
bank botany was buried in a yellow flood. About the lake shores 
Lobelia^ Isoetes, and Carex JUifofmU occurred, but of the latter I 
entertain some doubt. It was not in a fit state for determination, 
and, further, I was unable to get at it properly, on account of the 
flood. It is a western plant, appearing for the first time freely in 
Fanet (like C, litnosa), and I doubt if it grows in Inishowen. 
Rhynchospora alba is plentiful here. It is rare in Fanet, but 
common westward. On the shore, bits of a pond weed looking like 
pr<Blongus were blown ashore, but quite indeterminable. Betuming 
I took up the part of the stream the flood drove me from, finding 
Lycopus in two places, and Carexflava {^enuina). 

Aug. 8. — ^Drove to the Mintiagh, south from Clonmany, leaving 
the car at *' Grookeys," the former home of a rebel pike-making 
blacksmith, with a record. Up Croaghnamaddy (1255 feet), which 
is a southern prolongation of Slieve Snaght (2019 feet), the highest 
mountain east of Muckish, in Donegal. Here we are in District II. 
of Flor. Donegal, i, e. South (West) Inishowen. On the summit 
Salix kerbacea and Vacciuium Vitis-idcBa occur freely. Following the 
high land northward along some low blufiEs, we reach SUeve Main with 
an additional alpine, Lycopudium alpinum. At the summit of Slieve 
Snacht these occur again, and close by Hieracium anylicum ; and 
between that and Slieve Snacht Beg, at about 1750 feet, I gathered 
a very sparing growth of Lycopodium clavatum, the highest I have 
seen it in Donegal. It seems to like drier mountains than the 
higher western Irish hills. On the summit of Slieve Snacht I was 
favoured with the most extensive view I have ever had from it, or 
indeed anywhere that I can recollect. 

From Slieve Snaght Beg, a long stretch over tussocky moor- 
land northwards brought me to the source, or near it, of Strass 
Biver (" Straid " on the map). From this, after a mile or two, a 
very heavy scramble down a series of wooded glens, cut through 
metamorphic schists, and often forming impervious thickets of 
hazel, gave me no results of interest. In one gravelly margin I saw 
Viola canina, Qnaphalium sylvaticum, and Lastraa Oreopteris. Not a 
hawkweed was observed, though a more likely valley could not be 
foond. This was a heavy day's work, and a car to meet me at 
Siraih's Bridge was most welcome. 

Aug. 9. — l)rove to Strath's Bridge and followed the remainder 
portion of yesterday's river to its estuary in Trawbreaga Bay. 



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126 BOTANICAL EXGUBSI0N8 IN DONEGAL. 

By the muddy coast by the Poa maritima zone, which the people 
aptly call the ** selvage/* from the river-mouth eastward occur 
(Enanthe Lachenalii and Ranunculus sceleratus. There mip;ht be 
nice plants here, but what the sheep leave the geese gobble up, and 
most of the brackish pool vegetation is swallowed by ducks, for this 
is by no means a sparsely peopled district. At the creek of the 
Donagh river mouth, on a muddy point, left bank (a river from 
Glentogher previously examined and containing little except Scirpus 
sylvatica) a goodly patch of Zostera nana rewarded my search. 
This is the second Donegal locality. It has one in Kerry, in 
Wexford, and in Dublin. In another part of this estuary I gathered 
previously Z. marina angusdfolia, Ruppia rostellata is in many of 
the brackish pools. By the estuary, near Malin town, a pale yellow 
ragweed reminded me what a constant colour yellow is, and how 
effective a white variety would be. Changed my quarters to-night, 
with great satisfaction and comfort, to Malin town, where I was 
well cared for at Doherty's, a branch of the capital hotel in Camdo- 
nagh, a neighbourhood I have often botanized. 

Aug. 10. — Left Malin early and followed the coast north- 
westward for Malin Head. This was a long and glorious day. At 
Goorey (three miles) I made a detour into an ivy-clad series of 
bluffs, where I formerly found Orohanche Hedera. I searched 
carefully in other parts, and noted nothing except plenty of Eupa- 
tonum and THfoLium medium, the former often white. It has a 
decided affection for the margin of the sea in Donegal, and all 
round the west of Ireland. Agnnumia Eupatoria is frequent here 
also. Along the mud flats before opening out of the Matin estuary 
(on whose north coast I am) (Enanthe Lachenalii is everywhere, 
and evidently specially avoided by cattle, who eat the rushes all 
around it. Emerging from the mud on to the sandy beach of the 
Back Strand, which forms the connecting link between the cliff- 
bound coast of Malin Head and the foregoing estuary, I gathered 
Vicia hirsuta, Habenaria vindis, Euphorbia poi-tlandica, Viola CurttsU 
and MacJcaian^f the Euphorbia being plentiful. I searched in vain 
for E, Paralias. Hieracium anglicum grows on the sandhills and 
the bluffs above here. Chenopodium maiitimum is commoner than 
Salicomia northwards. Here I made a detour upwards to Knock- 
glass in search of Dickie's old record '*near sea-level at Knock- 
glass " for Saxifraga umbroaa, but I failed. He says it is ** rare and 
barren " here {Flora of Ulster), words which should not have been 
omitted in the Cybele Hibeiixica (ed. 2). This is an important 
locality, the most northern in Europe by a long way for London 
Pride. A third search (for I was there before) a few days later 
was also unsuccessful. Along this sandy shore I came upon the 
most wonderful CakiLe maritima I have ever seen. It was in great 
beds, a foot high, making a pleasing mauve effect, visible at a con- 
siderable distance. The stout woody root-stems were nearly an 
inch in diameter, and the sprawling branches, woody, whitish, hard 
and hollow, were a yard in length. Here I was exactly opposite the 
Lagacurrey station on Doagh Island for Cramhe, and my hopes ran 
high for a few minutes, to no purpose. At the first rocky point 



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BOTAiaOAL BX0UBSI0N8 IN DONEaAI^. 127 

below Enookglass Critkmum tnaritimum has a safe home. Here the 
scenery becomes very pleasing, and an effort to get a boat to Glas- 
beedy Island, a small rock with some vegetation, a couple of miles 
to the west, failed on account of the sea being up. Doagh Island 
would be the place for it, but it is not worth the time, I feel sure. 
Along the base of these disintegrating rocks, sometimes of a black 
basaltic nature, many land-plants occur. They are brought down 
by sheep and detritus from the pastures above. At the base of one 
dolerite boss I found a nice lot of Raphanus maritimvSf a rare plant, 
which has, however, two other Donegal localities, both in Inishowen. 
It and its cultivated field congener are not very far removed botaui- 
oally. All along here Eupatorium is characteristically common, and 
samphire, as usual, inaccessible, that within reach being picked. 
About a mile along the base of these cliffs there is a grand show 
of Statice hinervosa. This is C. Moore's old record, *' rocks of Dun- 
argas.*' It is a soul-satisfying haunt for a brilliant form of a very 
pretty plant. Formerly when I worked this coast the tide was too 
high to permit access to the base of these cliffs, and I missed 
several species. Two cheerful sorts of birds enliven these sohtary 
places, the *' garrabrack " or oystercatcher, and the strand-curlew 
or whimbrel. Several grey crows are about too, a fine bird that 
has decreased in an extraordinary way in Donegal in my memory, 
not in the least owing to human agency, so far as I can make out. 

At Guloort, or White Strand Bay, we reach the western 
extremity of a valley running N.W. and SE. across to the north- 
east side of Malin Head, and almost isolating that fine headland. 
A small river, the Keenagh, reaches its shore, and by its bank I 
met a well-known character of the district, fishing. Seeing me 
searching for plants, he supplied me with some folklore thereof. 
One statement interested me, that there was a rare spring plant 
there, on the pasture inside the strand in his farm, which was in- 
stantaneously fatal to sheep. But he didn't know what it was. 
His predecessors knew it, and had got rid of it, but now it had 
appeared again, and he had seen a perfectly healthy sheep fall dead 
firom it, and its flesh turn black in the course of an hour or two. 
I asked him to open the next at once, and try to find bits of the 
plant to be identified. 

I had intended to turn back here, but the coast ahead was too 
tempting to leave. After White Strand Bay there are clayey and 
fiertUe low steep banks above the sea. They were, however, so 
clean grazed, search was useless. At the first strand, a couple 
of miles on, Ineuran Bay, or inmiediately after it, there oc- 
curred a nice patch of Mertenna maritima, and in a gully a little 
further on, just before the imposing surroundings of Breasty Bay 
under the extreme nose of Malin Head, Ligusticum occurs in some 
quantity. Beta marUima is very large here on the cliffs in inacces- 
sible spots, and even in this northernmost bit of Ireland, fenced in 
from grazing, it is quite possible a rare plant might be found. As 
it is, there is nothing more than an inch or two high. Of course 
the desperately storm-swept nature of the place is partly the cause 
of this. The adpressed growth that wasn't commoner grasses, 



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128 BOTANICAL EX0UBSI0N8 IN DONEGAL. 

sedges, rashes, or plantains, was often AnagaUu teneUa and Radiola 
Millegrana^ the latter being at a maximum here, as about the old 
signal- tower. Compressed Erythraa (pseudo'latifolia) abounds too, 
and Gentiana campestris. Carex externa occurs right round the Head. 
I was interested to see oom-buntings, several pairs, at this in- 
clement limit of Ireland. Here I found an hospitable dame with 
whom I had once lodged, and after most welcome tea I trudged 
back to Malin town in heavy rain, and a dark night and a bad 
road over some ten Irish miles. A heavy day's work. 

Aug. 11. — Back to Malin Head by car. Taking up the coast 
again near the signal-tower, I followed it southwards and east- 
wards. On the way from the car I observed a good deal of Cardutu 
crispus at a place called Lag, which I had passed close to yesterday. 
Tansy occurred several times along this road. It is one of the 
most noticeable of thoroughiy-estabUshed introduced plants. Her 
Majesty's mail to Malin is the most leisurely conveyance I have 
ever travelled on. From start to finish it is more or less a revel of 
chat and chaff. About a mile or less south-east from the coast- 
guard station is a magnificent growth of Mertensia. This I ob- 
served in 1882, and recorded in my paper on Inishowen (Joum. 
BoU 1888). I am happy to say it is at least as extensive as it was 
at that date. Following the coast cliffs, the scenery becomes superbly 
grand, and the walking is very good. But there is little to record. 
Quantities of Sedum Rhodiola decorate the shady wet precipices 
and gully sides, and Eleocharh mvlticauLU, a thoroughly western 
plant, is here and there commoner than elsewhere so far east in 
Donegal. An island rock below me, with a boiling surge breaking 
on it, annoyed me greatly. It could only be reached by boat, but 
there was a luxuriant plimt-growth on it I could not make sure of, 
of a darkish hue, and I guessed Atriplex deltoides. It is close to a 
grand '* Stookaun " or '' Stack," Stookaruddan by name, which is 
an interesting breeding-place. I hope to invade these premises. 
The cliffs rise rapidly now to about 600 feet sheer, mostly meta- 
morphic Silurian schists or quartzite. Birds are more interesting 
than plants. Peregrines and ravens inhabit here, and a pair of the 
latter were scared from a dead sheep, whose eyes and rib-coverings 
they had devoured. Browsed Carex binervis assumes quite a habit 
of its own, with ver^ rigid and deeply channelled leaves. All three 
heaths occurred white along here freely, apparently a sea-tendency 
to some extent. The peregrines appeared to have a second brood, 
and the female's cry, last off the nest and the bigger bird, has a 
shriller scream. What a row they kicked up ! Further south- 
east the cliffs become even grander towards Glengad Head. From 
about three miles to one mile from that point, at a place known as 
** The Cruach ** (Croagh Glengad), they rise to about 800 feet, with 
a fine steep grassy talus at the base, flanked on the water's edge by 
very heavy shingle and fallen boulders. Tired as I was, I tMnk I 
would have descended by one accessible track, but I was thankful 
to observe the inevitable sheep. Therefore it would be wasted 
time. Along the very summit-margin of these olifb I found Saxifraga 
opposiHfolta in good quantity in several places, a new record for a 



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BOTANICAL BXOUBSIONS IN DONEGAL. 129 

scarce Donegal alpine. As it is, I believe, extinct in Ben Eve- 
nagh, in Derrj, this is probably its eastern limit in Ireland. 

Along some steep grassy slopes here there was a remarkable 
pattern of absolutely parallel and equidistant pads or tracks, due 
to sheep-grazing. This curious feature has often been commented 
upon, and even traced to geological agencies. Another quadru- 
pedal result, in wet moorland, is due to cows, who travel through 
in search of food, breaking up the sod into tussocks, and finally 
producing the most diabolical surface possible to walk over. In 
Mayo I have watched this process, which is usually the result, of 
course, of many generations of cow-kind. 

At Glengad I left the cliffs for home. The lack of gullies along 
this coast renders them, perhaps, botanically, barren and shelterless. 
But what might grow on the bases of some of them could only be 
found out from a boat. An interminably long grassy road fetched 
me due west off my course, but when I set foot on it I felt I would 
presently be certain to tread upon Anthemis nobilis, and sure enough 
it was abundant ere long. It is a rather rare or very local plant, 
and these old packhorse roads are its favourite abode. The name of 
this place on the map is Lagawollan. 

Aug. 12. — Beturned to Enockmany to have a further search 
for London Pride. On the way I explored the hills about Lag, 
which are infested with rabbits. I found Carduus crispus to be 
quite common here, evidently its headquarters in Donegal. I have 
found it near Garndonagh (not far oS) sparingly, and elsewhere in 
Donegal only near Belleek, a habitat as far as possible apart from 
the present, in the county. In steep waste ground of nettles and 
coarse weeds, AlliaHa officinalis occurs in quantity. This is also a 
very rare Donegal plant, for which I had only two other localities 
in the county, neither of them in Inishowen. Agrimonia here 
grows very large. The form odorata was, I think, unmistakable, 
though the smell was, as usual, a rather imaginary adjunct. The 
montane silvery form of Alchemilla vulgaris is well marked. 
Lycopsis occurs in the potato-fields. A plant or two of poppy have 
straggled so far north (Papaver dubium), P. Rhceas hardly reaches 
Donegal. Trifolium medium occurs occasionally. Failing to find 
the London Pride, I followed the upper margin of the cliffs, beneath 
which I had walked two days before, back to Guloort, and examined 
the Eeenagh stream up to near its source for about three miles. 
Being the most northern stream in Ireland, I thought it deserved 
attention and might yield something creditable. But it wasn't 
worth it. Its banks are the home of sand-martins in some places, 
not at all a common Donegal bird. (Enanthe crocata occurs here 
and there ; it is quite scarce in many parts of Donegal. A large, 
branched, coarse Leontodon, with very black involucres, agreed with 
L. autumnalis var. sordida of Babington. I believe this is a capital 
trout stream, but I left it in great disgust and a toiTent of rain. 

Aug. 13. — Drove to Glengad. About a mile from Malin, on 
the roadside, Inula Helenium is an established plant, and nearer 
Malin is a good patch of Allium Babingtonii naturalized. Along 
the roads in here there is a variety of Carduus palustris, of which 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 87. [Maboh, 1899.] k 

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180 LAMIUM MOLLS. 

I regret I did not secure specimens, but will hope to do so. It is 
remarkably floriferoos, and more branched than the type, with the 
flowers of a brighter colour, the whole plant stronger-looking, 
almost as sturdy as C. ctispus. I do not know C, ForsUn. Can this 
be it ? At Portlean, a new fishing quay, I took to the cliffs for 
Culdaff. The coast here is a low, prettily diTcrsified, rocky one. 
LigusHcum occurs plentifully near Culdaff. Inside the estuary, 
Stachys aiuensiSf Lycopm^ and Senecio flosadosm. The umbellifer 
occurs on both sides of the estuary. I spent the rest of the day 
botanizing about this pretty fishing village, on the sandhills and 
about the coast, but got nothing of note, except signally wretched 
quarters at night. 

(To be oontiDued.) 



LAMIUM MOLLE Arr. 
Bt James Bbitten, F.L.S. 

This name is reduced by Mr. Jackson in his Index to a synonym 
of I/, purpuretm. Steudel more correctly assigns it also to L. 
parietariafoliwn Benih., in this following Bentham, who (LabuUa^ 
p. 512) first placed molle under pturpurmm as a variety, but later 
{L c, p. 789) established his parietaruBfoUuni and placed under it 
*' L. inoUe Hortul. et Ait. Hort. Eew. ii. 297 ex parte ? " As pointed 
out by Bentham, two species are on the same sheet in the Banksian 
Herbarium which is written up by Solander as L. moUe, and this is 
the source of the confusion. 

The description in the Hortw Kewensis* runs thus : — 
'*L. foliis petiolatis subdentatis: inferioribus cordatis ; superiori- 
bus ovatis. 

Lamium parietariaB facie. Mor. [Morison] blm. 278. 

Pellitory-leaved Archangel. 

Nat. 

CuU. 1688 by Mr. James Sutherland. 8uth$rL hort. edin. 181. n. 1. 

Fl. April and May. 

Obs. Facile dignoscitur foliis subintegerrimis, neo serratis, neo 
crenatis. Flores albi." 

This description is amply sufficient to show which of the two 
plants on the Banksian sheet is intended, for the specimens of 
L. purpureum (although having less deeply crenate leaves than 
usual) are fairly typic^ for that plant, and moreover still have a 
tinge of purple lingering in the flowers ; whereas the others, whose 
affinity with Morison's plant is pointed out in a pencil note by Sir 
J. E. Smith, agree exactly with the description, and have flowers 
which were originally white. But a reference to the authorities 
cited in Aiton places this point beyond doubt. Sutherland's de- 
scription runs : *' Lamium ^bum ParietariaB facie Hort. Reg. Bles. : 
White Archangel with leaves like Pellitory of the wall"; and 

* Solander's original description is not among his H88. 

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LAMIUM MOLLB. 181 

Morison says: <<Lamium parietarisd facie: in omnibus Lamio 
yolgari accedit. Facild autem dignoscitur, ex primo, intuitu ^ 
foliorum cum parietarisB foliis, similitudine '' (Hort. Beg. Bles. 
p. 279 (1669) ). 

In his Hist. Plant. Oxon. Morison gives a fuller description, and 
figures the plant : the description runs : — 

*' Lamium Amencanum album Parietaria foliis, Lamio albo 
Yulgari satis accedit, tenuius tamen. Foliis marginibus integris 
donatis, mucronatis. Parietarisa semulis, perfacUe dignoscitur. 
Vid. icon. tab. an. 11. Virginiae incola est ** (i. c. iii. 885) (1699). 

Morison's figure, though small, excellently represents the plant. 
It is not easy to explain the introduction of *<Americanum" and of 
"Virginia" into the description, but there can be no doubt as to 
what plant was intended. 

Plukenet (Almagestum, p. 208 (1696) ) enumerates and (Phyto- 
graphia, t. 41, fig. 1) figures the plant, and his specimen is preserved 
in Herb. Sloane (Ixxxiii. f. 288). It is mentioned in the Hortus 
Cliffortianus as a variety of L. album ^ and GlifTort's specimen is in 
the National Herbarium, where, besides the type of Alton's plant 
from Hort. Eew. (1781), is an imperfect specimen from Yalden's 
garden which seems to belong here. 

There are numerous other specimens of the plant in the Sloane 
Herbarium: from "the Physick garden in Westminster, 1687 " (H. 
S. XXV. f. 82) ; in " a book of dried plants gathered at Padua by John 
Machionuss a gardner there, which belonged to Dr. Merret, with 
many specimens and notes of him ; from whose son I [Sloane] bought 
it " (xxix. f. 155) ; in ** George Loudon's Hortus Siccus " (H. S. dxvii. 
11, and f. 877) ; in Miller's Chelsea Garden plants (H. S. ccxxx. f . 9) ; 
in Uvedale's Herbarium (H. S. cccvii. 84) ; and in the volume of 
Banister's plants ''probably gathered by him before he went to 
the West Indies in the Garden of Oxford & in the fields " (H. S. 
dxviii. f. 188). 

From these references it would appear that the plant must at 
one time have been frequent in cultivation — a view put forward by 
Bentham {Labiata, p. 789) under L. parietaruB/olium. Bentham's 
specimen was sent him by De CandoUe from the Paris Garden, and 
his note runs : '* Planta in hortis botanicis antiquioribus cnlta, a 
L. vulgat4) [albo] differt foliis etiam infimis rarissime cordatis, 
supremis multo angnstioribus et saapius integerrimis et corollis 
minoribus. An L. vtUgaU var. insignis in hortis orta?" There 
can, I think, be little doubt that the plant should be referred to 
L, album. 

The only wild specimens I have seen are in Hansen's Herb. 
Slesv. Hoist., no. 1028, where it is correctly identified with L. molU 
Ait., and bears the name L. album var. integrifoUum Nolte, which 
I have not found in print: it is localized: ''Unter Zannen, an 
Wegjen u. Deichen ; bl. Jun." Mr. Rolfe tells me there are no wild 
specimens in the Eew Herbarium. 

It should probably be mentioned that the phrase ** parietari» 
foliis" was also applied, though less frequently, to a form of L. 

K 2 

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182 GARNABVONSHIRE MOSSES. 

pwpureum^ and the confusion on the sheet of L. molU in Herb. 
Banks may perhaps have resulted from this. It originated, so feur 
as I have been able to ascertain, in Morison's Hist. PI. Oxon. iii. 
885, where the following description is given : — 

** Lamium annuum rubrum Parietaruzfoliis, Ubi sponte nascitnr, 
nobis non compertum. Ex horto Dom Edw. Morgan, prope cceno- 
bium Westmonasteriense, plurimis abhinc annis ipsi compara- 
vimus. Badice, caulibus, floribus, seminibus, modoque crescendi, 
ik vulgari non dignoscitar. Folia dumtaxat discrimen faciunt; 
qu89 inferius locata minora sunt, & pauUulum crenata, superiora 
vero marginibus asqualibus, mucronata & Parietaria asmula appa- 
rent, semperque eandem facultatum retinent." 

This name is taken up in Hort. Cliffort., where, notwithstanding 
the excludent word "annuum,'' it is placed as a variety under 
L. album, Gliffort apparently did not preserve a specimen, nor do 
I find Morgan's among his plants in Herb. Sloane. Perhaps this 
may be the plant intended by Bay (Hist. i. 560) under ** Lamium 
Novae Anglise Parietarisa foliis," for he savs : *' In reliquis ad Lamium 
minus accedit; foliis Parietarite aemulis ab eodem differt:" and 
adds ^'Cantabrigiaa olim in hortulo nostro columns." But all the 
MS. references to Herb. Sloane added by Solander in the margin 
of our copy (most of which have been cited above) belong to tiie 
white-flowered plant — L. parietaiiiBfolium Benth., which = L. album 
var, integnfolium Nolte in Herb. 



CABNABVONSHIEE MOSSES. 
By H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.S. 

The following species and varieties are additional to those 
recorded for this county (V.O. 49), in Griffith's Flora of Carnarvon^ 
shire and Anglesey. Except in one or two cases (where I have given 
the collector's name), they are of my own collecting on two or three 
visits during the past ten years. Several varieties and one or two 
species mighfc be aided to the list, but as there is a slight doubt as 
to the identification, I have preferred to withhold them altogether. 
It will be seen that several are quite common species which had 
accidentally escaped observation, or for some similar reason had 
failed to be recorded, though the list in the above work is in all 
respects an admirable one, and leaves little room for further 
additions. I have given a single locality for each, though in many 
cases several might be cited. 

Sphagnum subsecundum var. ohesum Schp. Llyn Dinas. — S, acu- 
tifolium var. late-virens Braithw. Penmaenmawr. — S. intermedium 
Uofifm. Snowdon. 

Catharlnea crispa James. Llyn Dinas. 

Polytrichum strictum Banks. Moel Hebog. 

DichodonHum flavescens Lindb. Aber. — D. pellucidum var. fagi^ 
montanuui B. & S. Llyn-yr-Afon. 



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OARNABTONSHIBB MOSSES. 188 

Dieranoweida citrata Lindb. Beddgelert. 

Campylopus atrovirens var. epilosus Braithw. Penmaenmawr. — 
C. brevipilus B. & S. Llyn Idwal. 

Dieranum fuscescens Turn. Y Foel Fras. 

Fissidens Cumomi Mitt. Aber. 

Grimmia rohmta Ferg. Aber. 

Rhacomitnum heterostichum Brid. Llanfairfeohan. 

Coscinodon cribrosus Spr. Portmadoc. 

Tortida princeps De Not. Moel-yr-Ogof (E. Oh. Horrell & D. A. 
Jones). 

Ulota Bruchii Homsoh. Aber. — U. Hutchvina var. rufescsns 
E. G. Britton. Pont Aberglaslyn. 

Ortkoirichum LyeUii H. & T. Beddgelert. 

Splachnwn spharicum L. fil. Snowdon. 

Tetraplodon angustatus B. & 8. Snowdon (J. LI. Williams). 

PhUonoHs asspUota Wils. Aber. 

Webera albicans Sohimp. Snowdon. 

Bryum inUrmediumBndi, Beddgelert. — B. erythrocarpum Schwgr. 
Snowdon. — B, MUdeanum Jnratz. Llyn-yr-Afon. 

Mnium stellar e Beioh. Aber. 

FontinaUs antipyretica var. gigantea Bull. Llyn-yr-Afon. — F. 
Dixoni Card. Beddgelert. 

Neckera pumila Hedw., and var. Philippeana Milde. Pont 
Aberglaslyn. 

Thxddium delicatulum Mitt. Aber ; Fairy Glen, Penmaenmawr; 
Llyn-yr-Afon. 

Orthothecium irUi-icatum B. & S. Snowdon. 

Isothecium myut-um Brid. Aber. 

Brachytheciutn rkulare B. & S. var. cataractarum Saater. Llyn- 
yr-Afon. 

Eurhynchium crasdnerviwn B. & S. Llanfairfeohan. — E, stfuUnm 
B. & S. Aber. 

Plagiothecium sylvaticum var. succulentum Wils. Llyn-yr-Afon. 

Hypnum flmtam var. /alcatuni Sohp. Y Foel Fras. — H, examm- 
atum Gdmb. Snowdon. — H, uncinatum Hedw. Snowdon. — H, 
eupressiforme var. minus Wils. Aber. Var. mamillatum Brid. Llyn- 

C'-Afon. — H, dilatatum Wils. Aber. I have a specimen of this 
belled •* J. Whitehead, May, 1866, ex herb. H. Boswell " ; and 
another from Boswell himself labelled <* prope Aber, H. Boswell.'* 
I gather that Whitehead was the discoverer, and possibly Boswell 
gathered it there at a later date. I have not gathered it in North 
Wales myself. It is curious that it is not mentioned in Griffith's 
list. 



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184 



REPORT OF DEPARTMENT OF BOTANY, BRITISH MUSEUM, 1897. 

Bt Gbobob Mubrat, F.B.S. 

The following additions have been made by presentation: — 
488 plants collected in Somali-land by Mrs. E. Lort Phillips; 
162 £omean Plants by Governor Greagh, C.M.G. ; 160 Bomean 
Plants by Dr. G. Haviland ; 681 Idaho Plants by the United States 
NationiJ Museum ; 75 Canadian Plants by Dr. Maooun ; 75 West 
Tropical African Plants by B. Webb, Esq. ; 21 Australian Plants 
by Miss J. L. Hussey; 85 Thibetan Plants by Capt. Gordeaux; 
186 Jamaica Flowering Plants and 55 Cryptogams by the Hon. W. 
Fawcett ; 150 Philippine Flowering Plants and 2 Fungi by John 
Whitehead, Esq. ; 58 European Plants by Arthur Bennett, Esq. ; 

87 New Zealand Flowering Plants and 8 Fungi by T. Kirk, Esq. ; 
188 Australian Plants by F. M. Bailey, Esq.; 26 Orchids and 
1 Conifer by Messrs. Veitch ; 8 Orchids by Messrs. Lowe; 8 Orchids 
by Messrs. Sander ; 2 Orchids by Messrs. Williams ; 2 Orchids by 
F. W. Moore, Esq. ; 5 Orchids by Sir Trevor Lawrence ; 1 Orchid 
by Messrs. Measures ; 1 Orchid by E. Ashworth, Esq. ; 1 abnormal 
Orchid by H. Druce, Esq. ; 9 Conifers by Dr. Masters, F.B.S. ; 

88 Australian, Indian, and Cape Algae by Dr. Braithwaite ; 150 
Indian Cryptogams by J. F. Duthie, Esq. ; 100 Tasmanian Mosses 
and 1 Flowering Plant by W. A. Weymouth, Esq. ; 2 specimens of 
Allium by F. H. Perry Coste, Esq. ; 60 North American Mycetozoa 
by Prof. F. L. Harvey ; 1 type specimen of a Minnesota Moss with 
description and plate by the author, J. M. Holzinger, Esq. ; 
21 Ceylon Cryptogams by Mrs. Bose Boughton Leigh ; 42 Marine 
Algse from Western Australia by J. Markwell, Esq. ; and single 
specimens by E. B. Woakes, Esq., W. S. Dun, Esq., Prof. L. H. 
Bailey, Dr. W. Newton, Lieut.-General Godfrey, F. Townsend, 
Esq., Colonel Feilden, H. Fisher, Esq., and — Ginnis, Esq. 

The following additions have been made by exchange of dupli- 
cates: — ^78 Nortib American Carices from Prof. L. H. Bailey; 
798 Indian Plants from Sir George King, E.C.S.I. ; 99 Brazilian 
Flowering Plants and 884 Cryptogams from Africa, Asia, and 
South America, from the Director of the Boyal Botanical Museum, 
Berlin. 

The following specimens have been acquired by purchase: — 
1010 South African Plants by B. Schlechter; 1180 Costa Bioa 
Plants by Durand and Pittier ; 224 Phanerogams and 55 Crypto- 
gams from Persia by Bormiiller ; 100 Phanerogams from Poland 
by Woloszczak ; 110 Californian Plants by Parish ; 488 Phanero- 
gams, 28 Cryptogams, and 40 wood specimens from West Africa by 
Zenker; 100 specimens of Eoehne's Herb. Dendrologicum ; 800 
European Plants by Schultz ; 800 Mexican Plants by Pringle ; 
100 Gaboon Plants by Bates; 100 Greek Plants by Heldreioh; 
50 Swedish Plants by Tiselius ; 700 Plants from Asia Minor by 
Siehe ; 158 Natal Plants by Wood; 270 Phanerogams and 7 Crypto- 
gams from New Mexico by Heller ; 545 Orchids with sketches by 
Weathers; 150 North Ainerican AlgsB by Collins, Holden, and 



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8H0BT NOTES. 186 

Setohell ; 200 North Amerioan Fnngi by Ellis and Everhart ; 250 
Fungi by Sydow; 172 North American Sphagna by Eaton and 
Faxon; 260 North Amerioan Lichens by Gummings, Williams, 
and Seymonr; 200 Amerioan AlgaB by Tilden; 50 AlgsB from 
Florida by Curtis ;. 50 Colorado Mosses by Holzinger ; 275 Crypto- 
gams from Newfoundland and Labrador by Waghorne ; 100 Saxon 
Fungi by Krieger; 25 Parasitic Fungi by Briosi and Cavara; 
200 Freshwater AlgaB by Wittrock, Nordstedt, and Lagerheimj 
100 South European Mosses by Fleischer and Warnstorf ; 842 
Cryptogams by Brunnthaler ; 50 Charace® by Migula, Sydow, and 
Wahlstedt; 275 French Mosses by Hnsnot. 



SHORT NOTES. 



PaAMMA BALTioA Bosm. & Sohult. — ^Last year this plant flowered 
freely at Caistor, Norfolk, and could be seen from the train. In 
their Flora dn Flaeklanda, now publishing, Drs. Ascherson and 
Oraebner still mark this as a hybrid — Psamma arenaria x Calama- 
grostis Epigejos. I know of no locality for C Epigejos nearer Caistor 
than Filby (eight miles away^ ; and no G. Epigejos is known within 
many miles of the Boss Links station in Northumberland. Of 
eoorse it may be urged that it has "died out"; but is this scientific 
arguing ? In favour of the hybrid origin may be put, that the two 
supposed parents are recorded as growing together in mainland 
Holland on the sand dunes. In the North Sea Islands, out of 
twenty-three islands P. arenatia occurs on all, and C. Epigejos on 
thirteen ; while the only island on which P. baltica occurs in which 
C» EpigijoB is not recorded is Wangeroog.* P. arenaria and C 
Epigejos occur in all six of the Dutch islands of the North Sea ; 
P. balUea is wanting only in Ameland. Another way would be to 
explain our plant as an introduction, but at Boss Links, Messrs. 
Baker, Fox, Bichardson, and Madagan all deny this ; in fact, Mr. 
Baker doubts whether '* ballast*' could be discharged there. — 
Abthub Bbmnbtt. 

NoTB ON CfliNBBE Plants. — On p. 68 I printed a note on Saad- 
fraga Oillii — a name published (without description) in Gill's River 
of Golden Sand, ii. 426 (1880). It may be well to dispose of two 
other names which appear on the same page of Captain Gill's book, 
as these have been taken up (one incorrectly) in Dr. Brctschneider*s 
History oj European Discoveries in China, 785. Primula Giliii 
Britten, /. c. (nomen) is probably, as Mr. Hemsley (Ind. Fl. Sin. 
ii. 42) suggests, a reduced state of P. sikkimensis; Pedicularis 
ramalana Britten, Lc. (nomen) I have not been able to identify, 
but the material at my disposal does not enable me to determine 
whether it is new : as in the case of the other plants mentioned, 
there is only a single specimen, to which Mr. Hemsley does not 

• L. Vayok, De Plantenproei der l>uinenj 1898. 

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186 SHOBT NOTBS. 

refer. This appears in Dr. Bretsobneider's work, by a misprint, as 
Primula ramalana. Perhaps it should be stated, in explanation of 
these nomina nuda, that when we supplied Captain Qill with the 
determinations of his few plants we were not aware that be intended 
to publish a list of them ; nor had I even seen his list until Dr. 
Bretschneider's encyclopaadic work directed my attention to it. — 
Jambs Bbitten. 

Primula sgotiga Hook. — In the original description of this plant 
(Curt. Fl. Lond. t. 188 (1819) ) Hooker says that it had been ** for 
some years known in gardens'* by the above name, and was at that 
time cultivated in the Botanic Garden of Edinburgh. From a 
passage in Loudon's Gardeners' Magazine, vi. 718 (1880^ it would 
seem that the name may have been originally given oy James 
Smith, a nurseryman at Monkwood Grove, near Ayr. In a note 
prefixed to a list of *' Varieties of British Plants cultivated and sold " 
by him, Smith says : *' I have put in the Primtda scotica, as it was 
I who named it, and, I believe, first detected it as a new British 
plant. John Dunlop, Esq., brother of the late General Dunlop, of 
Dunlop House, brought it to me for the Primula farinosa, as he 
supposed he had found a new habitation for it. I said, when 
I received it from him, I was truly obliged to him for it ; for, if not 
a new species, it was a singular variety: this happened eighteen or 
nineteen years since." Smith also says : ** I have some information 
that the Soldanella alpina is a native of Wales : please let me know 
if it is generally known as such." — Jambs Brittbn. 

Sussex Plants. — In Science Gosaip for January, Mr. T. Hilton 
has recorded Potamogeton trichoides Cham, and Sporting alterniflora 
Lois, for Sussex. He has kindly sent me specimens, and I find the 
Spartina is Townsendii; it was gathered in Chichester Channel, 
Aug. 1896, by Mr. Hilton ; this is in W. Sussex. The Potamogeton 
is from the neighbourhood of Lewes, E. Sussex, where it was found 
by Mr. Hilton in 1897. The Eev. E. F. Linton has gathered 
Spartina Grovesii in the Isle of Wight, so that the plant is recorded 
for three vice-counties. — Arthur Bennett. 

BuBus EALTBNBAomi IN Lbioestershibe . — Amoug a number of 
brambles which I recently forwarded to Mr. Rogers for determination 
is a plant which he says must bear the name of R. hirtus var. 
Kaltenbachii (Metsch). The specimens, which are quite typical, 
were collected by me last year from the border of Buddon Wood, 
Leicestershire. Its occurrence in this county is particularly in- 
teresting, as it has previously been seen by Mr. Rogers from the 
south of England only. — A. B. Jackson. 



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187 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 
Plant Physiology. 

Umng Plants and their Properties, A Collection of Essays by J. C. 

Arthub, So.D., and D. T. MaoDouoal, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. ix, 

234 ; with 28 figures. New York : Baker & Taylor. 1898. 
Plant Life considered with special reference to Form and Function. 

By G. B. Babmes. 12mo, pp. x, 428 ; with 415 figures. New 

York: Holt. 1898. 
GesammeUe Botanische Mittheilungen von S. Schwendeneb. 2 vols. 

pp. It, 458, 419 ; tt. 26. Berlin : Borntraeger. 

Living Plants and their Properties is a collection of thirteen 
essays selected from popular addresses and articles presented by 
the authors within the last five years. In order to ** meet the 
requirements of their juxtaposed position/' some have been revised 
and rewritten or amplified *' to meet the demands of continuity, 
clearness, and harmony with current botanical thought." The 
result is an eminently readable and charming little book, sufficiently 
popular to be widely interesting without descending to the silly 
chatter or wild speculation which often spoil the so-called popular 
scientific book. The philosophically- minded reader will find plenty 
of food for thought in Dr. Arthur's essays ; such, for instance, 
as that on <' Universality of Consciousness and Pain." Though it 
may be impossible to prove that plants experience pains and 
pleasures, yet the more we realize that the vitality of plants and 
animals are comparable phenomena, the nearer we shall be to the 
correct interpretation of the properties of living plants. Another, 
''The Bight to Live'* (no. xi.) supplies a better conception of a 
plant than that so often conveyed, namely, a seed-bearing machine. 

Dr. MacDougal confines himself more to the ascertained facts 
of plant-hfe. Manifestation of sensitiveness illustrated by Mimosa 
pudica is the subject of an interesting chapter, admirably helped out 
by some clear but simple pictures showing the position taken by 
the leaves under various circumstances. As the essay was written 
before the publication of StahPs recent paper on leaf-movements, 
the most probable explanation of the night-position as preventing 
deposition of dew, and therefore allowing transpiration to begin 
with the first sunlight, finds no place. A second suggestive and 
well-illustrated essay, entitled ** Chlorophyll and Growth,' is adapted 
from a paper read before our own Linnean Society in 1896, on ** The 
Relation of the Growth of Leaves and the Chlorophyll Function." 

Besides the figures in the text, which are clear and serviceable, 
there are two photographic plates illustrating the wild lettuce or 
compass-plant in its dual function of weed and pole-star. The 
volume is well printed and neatly bound, and is quite the kind of 
book for which we could wish wide circulation. 

Professor Barnes's Plant Life is a more serious book, but not the 
less usefol. In the words of the author, it is an attempt to exhibit 
the variety and progressive complexity of the vegetative body ; to 



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188 PLANT PHT8I0L0OT. 

discuss the more important fonotions ; to explain the unity of plan 
in both the structure and action of the reproductive organs ; and, 
iinallj, to give an outline of the more sfcrilang ways in which plants 
adapt themselves to the world about them. Briefly, it is an 
elementary text-book on a physiological basis, and at the same 
time a welcome addition to the long list of text- books, good, bad, 
and indifferent. 

The subject-matter is divided into four parts, under the headings 
'*The Vegetative Body,*' "Physiology," '* Reproduction," and 
" Ecology.'' Part I. consists of a short introductory chapter on 
the cell, followed by a series of ten chapters in which the gradual 
differentiation of the plant-body is traced from the unicellular 
condition upwards, the last four chapters dealing with the general 
morphology of the root, shoot, stem, and leaves, as we find them in 
the higher plants. Part II. treats of nutrition, growth, and move- 
ment ; and Part III. of the morphology and physiology of repro- 
duction, both vegetative and sexual. Part lY. is an excellent 
account in eight chapters of the relation of plants to their environ- 
ment, inorganic and organic. There are also five appendices, 
comprising directions for laboratory study, for collecting and 
preserving material, a list of apparatus and reagents, and of 
reference-books, and an outline of classification. The last is 
based on the most recent German system elaborated in Engler and 
Prantl's Pfiatizenfamilim, The work concludes with a useftd index. 
The text is profusely illustrated with figures borrowed from very 
various sources, which we are glad to notice are duly acknowledged, 
and the whole forms a neat and well-produced volume. 

The two volumes of Dr. Schwendener's "collected botanical 
communications," capacious though they be, are not exhaustive. 
One of his best known pieces of work, that on the constitution 
of the lichenthallus, an epoch-making contribution to special 
morphology, is not included. The reason for this and other 
omissions is that the author has brought together only those 
publications which have appeared since his residence in Berlin, 
that is, between 1879 and 1897 inclusive. This work of less than 
twenty years makes a goodly show, and speaks well for the energy 
and devotion of its author. There are in all thirty-one papers, 
which, except for a few brief additional comments, reappear in 
their original form, presenting an excellent and solid contiibution 
to the literature of plant- physiology, especially to that of the 
mechanics of growth and movement ; and botanists interested in 
this phase of the science will be glad to have in one book so many 
important papers the majority of which it is impossible to obtain in 
the handy form of the separate copy. 

The papers are arranged chronologically under a number of 
subject-headings. The first, entitled "Trajectory Curves," com- 
prises a paper of thirty pages which have a stem mathematical 
look. Then follow two communications on " Stomata," in which 
their structure and mechanism are discussed ; then half-a-dozen on 
" Leaf -arrangement/' including researches into lateral outgrowths 



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ABTI0LB8 IN JOUBMALS. 189 

generally. The next beading inolndes investigations into, and 
criticisms on, the much vexed *' ascent of sap" question. A com- 
ment, dated 1897, on Messrs. Dixon and Jolly's recent physical 
explanation of the process, while admitting the great suction-power 
of the supposed continuous water-film, denies its existence in the 
conducting tissue. After papers on the '* Swelling and Double- 
refraction *' of plant-membranes, we come to the important one on 
the mechanism of twining stems (1881). Schwendener, it will be 
remembered, attributed twining to the mechanical result of circum- 
nutation and stem-torsion; phenomena which are both specially 
characteristic of twiners. 

The second volume opens with a discussion on the mechanical 
stability of plants called forth by Detlefsen's work on the subject. 
Then follow papers on growth (especially apical), laticiferous vessels, 
and ** mechanical" tissue. A section entitled *'Pulvini" deals 
with the structure and physiological mechanism of these remarkable 
developments of the leaf-base in plants like Mimosa, Oxalis, and 
otiiers, which respond by movement to variations in light-intensity 
and other stimuli ; while the next and last section comprises two 
recent and important papers by G. Erabbe and the author on 
subjects allied to this, namely, changes in position of leaves and 
flowers, and the relation between rate of growth and variations in 
tnrgidity. 

Finally, it remains only to say that the text is remarkably clear, 
and that the twenty-seven plates (many of them double) are well 
reproduced, and form a valuable addition to, and elucidation of, 
the subject matter. ^ 3 Rendlb. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 

Bot. Centralblatt (Nos. 6-8). — E. H. L. Krause, « Floristisohe 
Notizen.* — (Nos. 6-7). J. F. Zawodny, * Die Entwickelung der 
Znaimer Gurke.' — N. J. Kusnezow, * Der Bot. Garten der Eaiser- 
lichen Universitat zu Juijew (Dorpat).* — (Nos. 6, 7). F. Hilde- 
brand, ' Ueber eine zygomorphe Fuchsia-Bliite.' — (No. 8). B. 
Nemec, * Zur Physiologie der Kern- und Zelltheilung.' — 0. Kuntze, 
• Protest gegen die Schweinfurth'sche Erklarung.' — (No. 9). H. 
de Vries, * Ueber die Abhangigkeit de Fasciation vom Alter.* — 
D. T. MacDougal, * Transmission of impulses in Biophytum,' — 0. 
Kuntze, ' Ueber Puccinia und betreffende Magnus'sche Einwande.' 

Bot. Gazette (21 Jan.). — E. Warming, ♦ The Vegetation of 
Tropical America.' — E. 0. Jordan, * The production of fluorescent 
pigment by bacteria.* — 0. W. Caldwell, * Life-history of Lemna 

TttinOT, 

Bot. Notiser (2 Feb.). — S. Murbeck, • Die nordeuropischen 
Formen der Gattung Rumex.* — N. Svedelius, * Microspongium gela- 
tmosum.* 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their oovers 
or title-pages, bat it mnsi not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
pablioation. 



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140 BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, ETC. 

Bot. Zeitung (14 Feb.). — G. Gotz, *Ueber die Entwiokelung der 
Giknospe bei den Characeen.* — (16 Feb.). H. Solms-Laubach, 
'Die MarchantiacecR CUveidea und ihre Verbreitung.* 

Bull, de I' Herb. Boissier (24 Jan.). — H. Christ, * Foug^res der 
Mengtze ' (concl. : 1 pi.). — ^H. Schinz, * Beitrage znr A&ikanischen 
Flora ' {Leguminosa & PedalinecB, H. Schinz ; Asclepiadea, B. 
Schlechter ; Convolvulacea, H. Hallier ; Graminea, E. Hackel). — 
J. Bornmiiller, *Drei neue Dionysien' (1 pL). — Id., Merendera 
kurdica, sp. n. — G. 0. A. Malme, * Die Xyridaceen Paraguays.* — 
G. Schweinfarth, ' Sammlong Arabisch-aathiopischer Pdanzen.' 

BtdL Torrey Bot. Club (16 Jan.). — De Alton Saunders, * Four 
Siphoneous AlgaB of the Pacific Coast * (1 pi.). — A. Nelson, * New 
Plants from Wyoming.* — B. D. Halsted, • Mycologioal notes.* — 
H. Ness, Lacinaria cymosa, sp. n. (1 pi.). 

Erythea (6 Feb.). — G. Hansen, * Calochorti in the Sierra Nevada.' 

Journal de Botanique (Jan. : received 11 Feb.). — J. Nadeaud, 
'Plantes nouvelles des Ues de la Soci^t^.* — M. Goldfuss, 'Assise 
^pith^liale et antipodes des Compos^es.' — 0. Kuntze, 'Nomenclature 
r^form6e des AlgsB et Fungi.* — E. Eoze, ' Flore fran9aise de Charles 
de TEscluse.' 

Malpighia (xii. fasc. 7-10 : Jan.). — 0. Mattirolo, * Illustrazione 
del volume 1° dell* erbario di Aldrovandi.* — L. Buscalioni, * H 
nuovo microtomo *Buscalioni-Becker.* * — 0. Penzig, Prosopia casa- 
pensisy sp. n, — E. Chiovenda, * Piante nuove e rare della Flora 
Bomana.* — L. Buscalioni, 'Un nuovo reattivo per Tistologia 
vegetale.' 

Nuovo Gioj-n. Bot. Ital. (Jan.). — A. Baldacci, * OoUezione 
botanica d'Albania, 1896.* — G. Arcangeli, 'Escursione a Moncioni 
ed a Brolio.' — P. Pellegrini, * Funghi della provincia di Massa- 
Carrara.' — G. Crugnola, 'Analogic fra la flora italiana e quella 
deir Africa meridionale.' — A. Pallanza, Linaria Jatta, sp. n. (1 pi.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschrift (Feb.). — B. v. Wettstein, 'Der bot. 
Garten und das bot. Institut in Prag.' — J. Bornmiiller, Celsia 
Carmanica, sp. n. — J. K. Urumoflf, ' Zur Flora von Bulgarien.* — 
F. Arnold, • Lichenologieche Fragmente : Labrador.* — A. Wais- 
beoker, ' Zur Flora des Eisenburger Comitats * (Filices). 

Tratis. Linn. Soc. 2nd s. v. pt. 9 (Feb.). — G. Murray & F. G. 
Whitting, ' New Peiidiniacea from the Atlantic * (7 pL). 



BOOK'NOTES, NEWS, do. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society on Jan. 19th, Mr. A. J. 
Maslen read a paper on Lepidostrobus. After remarking that the 
late Prof. Williamson's collection of fossil plants in the Natural 
History Museum contained a number of slides which he had 
associated with Lepidostrobus, but which could not be referred with 
certainty to the particular vegetative organs to which they belonged, 
while it was difficult also to refer isolated sections of the same type 
of Strobilus to one another, he explained that the present paper gave 



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BOOK-MOTES, NEWS, BTO. 141 

tiie result of a re-examination of Williamson's slides at Lepidostrobus, 
undertaken at the suggestion of Dr. D. H. Scott. His object and 
endeavour had been to make out, if possible, at least some distinct 
forms ; but he had found great difficulty in determining whether the 
observed structural differences in isolated sections were really of 
specific value or not. He considered it safer to adopt Williamson's 
Lepidostrohus Oldhami for a common type of structure, and by com- 
parison to describe three marked variations. A clearly distinct 
form he described as a new species under the name Lqndostrobus 
foliaceus. 

At the meeting of the Linnean Society of London on Feb. 2nd, 
Mr. E. S. Salmon read a paper entitled ** Notes on the genus Nano- 
mitrium Lindb." This genus had hitherto been regarded as cleisto- 
carpous. Examination of ^esh specimens of N. tenerum showed, 
however, that the capsules possessed a distinct zone of specialized 
cells— delicate, narrow, and transversely elongated — clearly marking 
off the upper part of the capsule as a lid. The same structure was 
found in the original specimens collected by Breutel, in Mitten's 
Sussex specimens, and in various continental examples. The re- 
maining four species of the genus were then examined. N, synoicum 
and iV. Amtini agreed with N, tenerum in possessing the zone of 
differentiated cells, and in these species, although no opened capsules 
were found, the author expressed the belief that a complete separation 
of the hd takes place in nature. It seemed to him probable that the 
very thin cell-walls of the zone, which become partly disorganized, 
aid in affecting the dehiscence. The above-mentioned structure 
satisfactorily accounted for the regular dehiscence which had been 
observed by various authors, and figured by Sullivant. N. aquU 
noctiaU showed no differentiation in the cells of the capsule-wall, 
and was truly cleistocarpous. The inflorescence of this species 
proved to be polyoicous (autoicous-f dioicous). In N, megalosporum, 
also, no differentiated cells occurred. Contrary to what had been 
stated by Philibert, the capsule of this species was found to possess 
stomata, and generally to show a structure similar to that of 
Ephemerum. The author pointed out that the characters by which 
Nanomitrium had been separated from Ephemerum were insufficient, 
and considered that the former genus should be limited to N, tenerum^ 
N. Austinif and N, synoicunif referring N, megalospomm (and perhaps 
also N, aquinoctiale) to Ephemerum, The essential character of the 
genus Nanomitnum was the presence of a zone of differentiated cells, 
by which a regular dehiscence is effected. In conclusion, the author 
remarked that, since his paper had been written, he had noticed 
that, in the last part of his Orgauographie der Pflanzen, Goebel had 
investigated the capsule of Nanomitrium tenerum ^ with special 
reference to the development of the columella. In one of the figures 
given of a longitudinsJ section of a ripe capsule, the differentiated 
cells of the capsule- wall are shown, and are referred to in the 
explanation of the plate as the annulus. Nothing further on 
this point is mentioned, and the dehiscence of the capsule is not 
referred to. 



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142 BOOK-KOTBS, MEWS, BTO. 

At the same meeting, Mr. F. W. Stansfield, M.B., read a paper 
"On the Production of Apospory by Environment in Atkyrium 
FUix-famina var. uncoglomeratum^ an apparently barren Fern.** 
This had been effecfced by cutting off parts of the immature fronds 
and allowing them to expand during eighteen months in a 
uniformly humid atmosphere. The result was the production in 
the ultimate divisions of a meristematic tissue which gave rise to 
(1) gemma or bulbils ; (2) prothalli, producing both apogamous buds 
and ordinary sexual axes of growth. One of the prothsdli had been 
examined, and found to bear both archegonia and antheridia. On 
layering the primary fronds produced by apospory, it was found 
that these readily gave rise to fresh aposporous growths. The ease 
with which apospory was induced in the primary fronds, as com- 
pared with the extreme difficulty in the case of fronds from an older 
plant, was said to be characteristic of aposporous ferns in general, 
Mr. Stansfield having observed it in every case (eight in all) in 
which he had raised ferns by apospory. Assuming the truth of the 
<* recapitulation" theory, he suggested that this fact indicat-ed that 
apospory was an atavic trait in ferns. Mr. Stansfield's culture 
was exhibited, and showed the primary aposporous prothalli with 
fronds of the sporophyte proceeding from them, the latter being 
layered and having secondary aposporous prothalli, bearing root- 
hairs, growing from them. 

Newspaper botany is always entertaining, but we doubt whether 
any better example of journalese has ever been produced than the 
following, which seems to be a popular appreciation of the important 
work on Sikkim Orchids reviewed in our December number. Com- 
ment is unnecessary, and indeed could hardly do justice to this 
wonderful presentment of facts. It need hardly be said that the 
extract is from the Daily Mail (of Jan. 26), which in matters of this 
kind has far outstripped all competitors : — 

"8,000 NEW ORCHIDS FOUND. 

** Details concerning the successful prosecution of the search of 
Sir George King and Mr. Eobert Pantling (of Alnwick) for orchids 
in a prolific district of the Himalaya have just reached England. 
The enthusiastic savants, who have been engaged in the search for 
several years, have discovered and classified almost 8000 new species. 

** They have been particularly fortunate in their search in the 
tropical valleys in the Sikkim Himalaya, one of the most weird and 
romantic parts of India. There they found the beautiful exotic 
plants growingevery where in extraordinary profusion and bewildering 
variety. 

'* The supply of these exquisitely fascinating plants will soon be 
increased, and the botanical followers of the right hon. member for 
West Birmingham will find their growing demands more easily 
attended to." 

It will probably be long before bryologists in this country are 
sufficiently numerous to support a periodical of their own, devoted 
entirely to the study of mosses. This is a serious hindrance to the 
study, for there is no better stimulus to such a pursuit than a 



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BOOK-NOTES, MBW8, 8T0. 148 

jonmal in which beginners may get hints as to methods of work, 
and which is open to contributions hardly adapted for the more 
learned periodicals or such as have a wider scope. We may there- 
fore recommend to the notice of such students The Bryologist, a 
small American paper, edited by Dr. A. J. Grout, author of several 
valuable publications on North American mosses, which is pubUshed 
quarterly by the Fern Bulletin Co., Binghamton, N. Y., at 25 cents 
a year. So large a proportion of our species are common to both 
this country and the U.S.A., that even beginners will find much in 
this little magazine to interest them. For example, out of 208 
species given in a key to the North American Dierana in the 
January number, fourteen are British. — H. M. D. 

Mb. Pstbb Ewnvo announces for publication a work on '* The 
Topographical Botany of the West of Scotland," to consist of about 
200 pages, which will be sent to subscribers post-free for Is. 2d. 
Subscriptions should be sent to Mr. E wing at The Frond, Uddingston, 

We are glad to announce the publication of Mr. William 
Hodgson's Flora of Cumberland, which we hope to notice in our 
next issue. 

The last issue (vol. v. part 2) of the Transactions of the Natural 
History Society of Glasgow contains papers on Ayrshire micro-fungi 
by Messrs. T. A. Scott and D. A. Boyd ; ** the Mosses of Gampsie 
Olen," by Messrs. James Murray and B. D. Wilkie; a note on 
Baspberry roots ** and a paper on '' Limits to the range of Plant- 
species," by Mr. G. F. Scott Elliot. 

We are sorry to note that the Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information 
issued at Eew has again suffered eclipse, no number having appeared 
since the November issue. We are thus prevented from giving our 
usual list of the actual dates of publication of the numbers forming 
the volume for 1898. Meanwhile it is curious to note that <* Ap- 
pendix I. 1899," bearing the date *' 1899 " upon the wrapper, was 
issued in November, 1898 ! 

In the Gryptogamio Herbarium of Charles Lyell the British 
Museum has secured a very valuable and interesting possession. 
Charles Lyell was bom (1767) and died (1849) at Einnordy, in 
Forfarshire. From 1797 to 1825 he resided at Stoney Cross, in 
Hampshire, and it was at this time that he rendered his greatest 
services to botany by studying diligently the mosses, hepatics, and 
lichens in the New Forest and in Scotland. Sir William Hooker 
was then elaborating and publishing his beautiful classical work on 
the British JungermannuB, which set the hepatics on a footing of 
their own as a distinct class of plants; and he was in frequent 
communication with Lyell. How highly he appreciated LyelPs 
industry and assistance is shown by his dedication of the species 
Jungermannia Lyellii to him, speaking of him as '* a gentleman to 
whose unwearied researches almost every page of this work bears 
unequivocal testimony, and to whom I am happy in being able thus 
pubhcly to express my gratitude and esteem " (Brit. Jung. t. 77). 



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144 BOOK-NOTB8, NEWS, BTO. 

Further reoognitions were the dedication to Lyell of a botanical 
work by Hooker, of another by Lindley, of the Australian moss- 
genus Lyellia by Robert Brown, of Orthotrichum Lyellii by Hooker 
and Taylor, and Opegrapha Lyellii by Sir James E. Smith. In 1825 
Lyell returned to his paternal home and devoted himself chiefly to 
the study of Dante, in connection with which he published two 
works. It should be added that his eldest son was the distinguished 
geologist, Sir Charles Lyell (1797-1876). For the acquisition of 
Lyell's herbarium the British Museum is indebted to the kindness 
of Mrs. E. M. Lyell and Sir Leonard Lyell. The great value of the 
collection y which comprises upwards of 1500 specimens, centres in 
the originals of the types gathered by Lyell, and in the authentic 
specimens from Hooker, Taylor, Miss Hutchins, George Don, and 
others. — ^A. G. 

Teodobo Cabuel, who died on the 4th of December last, was 
one of the most distinguished of Italian systematic botanists. He 
was director of the Botanic Garden at Florence, editor of the 
Nuovo OiomaU Botanico Italiano, a man of considerable intellectual 
attainments, and an elegant classical scholar. Prof. Caruel was 
responsible for the continuation of Parlatore's Flora Italiana^ an 
imposing work, begun in 1848, and still unfinished, as voluminous 
in bulk as it is luminous in treatment of the subject. His Fensieri 
sulla Tassiuomia Botanica^ a work published in 1881-, is remarkable 
for the philosophical grasp of the subject, and classical vigour of 
the style in which it is written. We hope to give some account of 
his life and work in a subsequent number. 

The second part (issued Jan. 20) of Mr. C. B. Orcutt's badly 
printed and expensive ( — 1 dollar for twenty-four pages — ) Review 
of the Cactacecu of the United States shows no improvement in any 
respect upon the first, which we noticed last year (p. 71). The 
addition of certain coarse and ugly cuts, which apparently come from 
a seedsman's catalogue, add to the unattractiveuess of the work. 

Mb. John Lee, who died on the 20th of January, in his ninety- 
fourth year, was the last surviving representative of the once well- 
known firm of Lee and Kennedy, who more than a hundred years 
ago did so much to introduce horticultural and botanical novelties 
to this country. The Gardeners' Chronicle of Jan. 28 gives a brief 
sketch of the Lees and their work. It is to the kindness of Mr. 
John Lee that the Botanical Department is indebted for the valuable 
series of drawings of plants by Francis Masson, to which reference 
is made in this Journal for 1885, p. 227. 

Mb. J. W. Cabb publishes a long list of Nottinghamshire 
Fungi in the Proceedings of the Nottingham Naturalists' Society 
for 1897-8. 

The Messes. Gboves are making steady progress with the new 
edition of Babington's Manual, The printing of Lord de Tabley's 
Flora of Cheshire is practically completed, and this, like Mr. Han- 
bury*s Flora of Kent, will be issued in time for use daring the 
coming summer. 



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Journ.Bot. Tab. 398. 



.isterdel Digitized by LjOOQIC 



146 

NOTES ON MYCETOZOA. 

Bt Abthitb Libtsb, F.B.S. 

(Plate 898.) 

The following notes refer to some interesting species of Myoetozoa 
that have come under the notice of myself and of my daughter, 
Miss O. Lister, during the last twelve months. 

Badhamia UTRI0ULABI8 Berk. In the years 1877, 1887, and 
1898 Stereum hirmtum grew on logs of oak, beech, and hornbeam 
in greater luxuriance than in the intervening years. B. utrictdaris 
feeds mainly on that fungus, and was equally abundant at those 
periods, but was not generally common in other seasons. 

I have maintained cultivations of Plasmodium from a gathering 
in January, 1887, for twelve years, and during that time have 
allowed some to dry into sclerotium and some to produce sporangia. 
In these fruitings the spores have shown considerable variation in 
the looseness or compactness of the clusters they form, but in all 
of them a cluster consisted of about 7 to 10 spores. In the 
autumn of 1898, gatherings in Eppiog Forest and at Lyme Regis 
had the spores in large clusters of &om 10 to 25, such as we 
usually £uid in B, hyalina. In December, 1898, we gathered Plas- 
modium and also sporangia with spores in large clusters, from a 
felled beech with a rich growth of Stereum. A cultivation was 
made from the Plasmodium, which, as it increased in quantity, was 
divided into several colonies. Towards the end of February, 1899, 
three of these changed to fruit ; in two the spores were in large 
clusters of 17 to 25, in the third, consisting of from 8000 to 4000 
sporangia, the spores in all examined were in small loose clusters of 
about 7 to 10. The number of spores in a cluster, hitherto given in 
the books as a specific character, is thus proved to be inconstant. 

B. ovispoRA Bacib. On April 14th, 1898, Mr. J. Saunders 
gathered this species on straw, at Nether Crawley, Beds. This is 
the fourth Brituh locality in which it has been found. 

B. BUBiGiMosA Bost. The large form with globose sporangia, 
obtained at Llan-y-Mawddwy, North Wales, in September, 1895,* 
appeared in profusion in the same situation on a mossy rock in 
September, 1898. 

B. FOLncoLA List. During some weeks in October, 1898, this 
species was in great abundance on the open meadow-land in Wan- 
stead Park, Essex ; patches of yellow Plasmodium, and sporangia 
in all stages of growth were scattered over an area of about 100 
square yards ; they were mostly on tufts of dead Aira prcscox ; it 
was also found in large quantity on dead leaves, at the spot where 
it was first obtained in September, 1896,1 and in other parts of the 
park. The sporangia were either sessile or on slender buff-coloured 
stalks from 0*2 to 0-6 mm. long. 



• Journ. Bot. 1897, 210. t Ibid, 309. 

JouBMAL OF Botany.— Vol. 87. [Apbil, 1899.1 



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146 NOTES ON MYCETOZOA. 

Physarum globuliferum Per 8. Mr. Robert E. Fries gathered 
this species near Upsala, in August, 1898. It is the finest Euro- 
pean example we have seen. The sporangia are white and rugose ; 
the stalks creamy white, with a short conical columella ; the capil- 
litium rigid and persistent, with small rounded lime-knots. 

P. MUBiNUM List. This species was found in perfect condition 
and in great abundance at Llan-y-Miiwddwy in September, 1898, 
on mossy fir stumps. The sporangia were pale mouse-brown with 
brown stalks ; the sporangium -walls had often fallen away, and lay 
in cup-shaped fragments on the moss ; the persistent capillitium 
retained the globular form; the colour of the lime-knots differs 
in the growths on different stumps ; in some they are pale buff, 
and in others dark brown. This species agrees in all its characters 
with P. globuliferum except in the colour of the lime ; the con- 
stancy of the brown colour, however, from different parts of the 
world, appears to establish a specific distinction. 

P. cTTRiNUM Schum. In July, 1898, we received an extensive 
growth of this species on moss, gathered by Mr. G. H. Fox, at 
Glendurgan, Falmouth ; the sporangia are of the normal character 
except that the columella in some is unusually long, often 0*25 mm. 
in length. In August, 1898, Mr. Cran sent us P, citrinum, which 
he found in great abundance in the Den of Craig, Aberdeenshire, 
** chiefly on a stump, but also spreading on moss and even earth.'* 
This is the first record of its occurrence in Scotland to my know- 
ledge. This species, again, corresponds with P, globuliferum and 
P. murlnum in all respects except in the colour of the lime, which 
is bright yellow. 

P. vARiABiLE Rex. Mr. Fries found this form on dead leaves 
near Upsala in October, 1897, and again in abundance at the same 
spot in September, 1898. The sporangia are subglobose, yellow, 
sometimes shading into orange at the base, rugose with thick 
deposits of lime in the wall ; the stalks vary in colour from 
yellowish buff to white ; they are stout, and densely charged with 
white lime, without an apparent columella ; the spores are similar 
to those in Rex's type of P. variabile, and are decidedly darker than 
those in P. nielleum Mass., as represented by our specimens from 
the United States and the West Indies. Were it not for the dark 
spores and highly calcareous sporangium-wall, the Upsala gather- 
ings would naturally be placed under P. melleiuny recent gatherings 
of which show considerable variation in the colour of the stalks. 
Indeed, after a careful examination of our series last autumn with 
Dr. Sturgis, of New Haven, U.S.A., we doubted whether sufficient 
grounds exist for placing P. varialnle and P. melleum as distinct 
species. This view is strengthened by the evidence afforded by the 
Upsala gatherings, which hold an intermediate position between 
the two. Although P. variab'de and P. melleum. are allied to P. 
citrinum, they differ essentially in the large angular lime-knots and 
weak hyaline threads of the capillitium. 

P. coMPREssuM Alb. & Schw. var. I, Mr. Saunders collected 
this form in November, 1898, on dead leaves near Bedford. We 
have also a very similar growth obtained by Mr. Fries near Upsala, 



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KOTBS ON MTOBTOZOA. 147 

in September, 1897. In both gatherings the sporangia are nearly 
globose, though in that from Bedford an almost equal number are 
compressed; the stalks are either white or dark brown, about 
0-5 mm. in length ; occasionally two sporangia have the stalks 
united ; the capilitium and spores are of the usual type of P. com- 
presmm. The var. ^ (figured in the Brit. Mus. Catalogue, PL xvi.) 
is common in the United States, and has been described by Mr. 
A. P. Morgan as a distinct species under the name P. connexum Link ; 
the shape of the sporangium constitutes the only divergence from 
the type, and the specimens under consideration support the view 
that it is merely a variety of P. compreasum, 

P. ecliinosporum, sp. n., PI. 898, fig. 1. Mr. Cran has 
obligingly sent me specimens of Mycetozoa from Antigua, which 
have been collected and transmitted to him since he left the island, 
by Mr. Forrest. They are species already obtained by Mr. Cran, 
with the exception of one which appears to have been not hitherto 
described. Although a single gathering, it possesses characters so 
distinct, especially in the remarkably spinose spores, that, with Mr. 
Gran's approval, I propose to name it as above ; the description is 
as follows : Plasmodium ? Sporangia chalk- white, usually curved 
plasmodiocarps, laterally compressed, culminating in a thin ridge, and 
with the base narrow ; sporangium-wall of two layers, the outer 
smooth, eggshell- like, uniformly charged with minute lime granules; 
the inner layer membranous, separating from the outer, iridescent, 
f&iniij purple ; capillitium of short hyaline threads connecting 
numerous smooth lime-knots of irregular shape and size, consisting 
of densely compacted minute lime-granules enclosed by a firm faintly 
purple membrane ; spores purple, 8 fi diam., marked with strong 
spines and ridges. On dead leaves. The species is allied to P. 
bivalve^ from which it differs in the more smooth and brittle outer 
sporangium-wall, the more strict capillitium, and in the strongly 
echinnkte spores. 

P. QuLiBLMA Penzig. Mr. Fries has kindly supplied me with 
this specimen, collected by K. Hedbronn, Upsala, 1898 ? on dead 
wood. It has a superficial resemblance to dark forms of P. virescens ; 
the crowded sessile sporangia are rugose, mottled orange-brown in 
colour, seated on a profuse pale spongy hypothallus ; the sporan- 
giam-wall is rimose and charged with yellow and brown Ume- 
granules in dense clusters, with intervening hyaline spaces; the 
capillitium consists of large irregularly shaped white lime- knots 
connected by a network of hyaline threads; ihe spores are dark 
purple-brown, minutely spinulose, 11-12 fi diam. The only speci- 
men we have seen corresponding with this gathering is that obtained 
by Prof. 0. Penzig in Java, described by him in Die Myxomyoeten 
der Flora von Buitenzorg, 1898, p. 84. We do not find a double 
sporangium-wall which is difficult to detect in the Java specimen, 
nor the ''calcareous concretions" which Prof. Penzig refers to as 
similar to those in the wall and lime-knots of Craterium leucocephalum ; 
but as these are not always present in the latter species, it may not 
b^ nn important character. 

L 2 



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148 ^OTES ON HTCETOZOA. 

FuLioo ooHBAOEA Peck. Mr. Fries has submitted to me a speci- 
^men of this species, the first we have recognized of European growth. 
The SBthalium has no distinct cortex ; the surface is tesselated with 
the rounded tops of the component sporangia ; the capillitium has 
almost the character of a Badhamia in the numerous branching 
yellow lime-knots, with few connecting hyahne threads ; the spores 
are dark purple-brown, spinose, 9-10 /a diam. This specimen 
corresponds with those received from the United States, with even 
less of the hyaUne element in the capillitium than in Dr. Bex's 
type, and with rather smaller spores. 

F. ELLiPsospoRA List., PI. 898, fig. 2. In June, 1898, Miss 
Agnes Fry found the specimen represented in the plate, in a wood 
at Yatteudon, Berks. The gathering consisted of two or three 
white sethalia, measuring from 1 to 8 cm. across, and more or less 
connected together ; they are without a superficial cortex, and are 
seated on a white hypothallus spreading in membranous interwoven 
folds on dead leaves and beech-husks. The walls of the convolute 
sporangia are membranous, charged with innate clusters of white 
lune granules ; the capillitium consists of a network of confluent 
white lime-knots with few hyaline threads, and has much of a Bad- 
hamia character ; the spores are violet-brown, minutely spinulose, 
and almost globose, 10-11 x 9-10 /i diam. A somewhat similar 
ecorticate form, though consisting of smaller sBthalia composed of 
more compacted sporangia, was received from Mr. F. H. Eoberts, of 
Manhattan, Kansas, in March, 1898 (PI. 898, fig. 8); it was 
found on ** stipules and leaves of Quercas Muhlenbergii'* ; the capil- 
litium is like that above-described, except that the hyaline threads 
are more numerous ; the spores of both gatherings are exactly 
alike. The two specimens present considerable difficulty, but I 
would suggest that they. are forms of F. eliipsosporay a species not 
hitherto recorded as British, The objections to this sugges- 
tion are the absence of a cortex to the sBthalium, and the aknost 
globose spores. With regard to the first objection, it may be 
remembered that in F, septica the cortex is formed by the super- 
ficial portions of the sporangia becoming dried before complete de- 
velopment has taken place, and if this species be matured in a 
moist chamber or under similar conditions in the open air, no 
cortex is produced, and the component sporangia take a perfect 
form, giving a brain-like appearance to the surface of the ssthalium. 
May it not be that the absence of cortex in the Yattendon and 
Kansas specimens is in consequence of development in a moist 
atmosphere ? I should consider the objection that the spores are 
not conspicuously ellipsoid as a serious one, were it not for the 
variety we find in the shape of the spores in undoubted specimens 
of F. ellipsospora from America and elsewhere. The following are 
the measurements of those I have examined : — Type of Enteriditim 
cinerewn Schwein. (syn. Physarum ellipsosporum Bost.), 10-12 
X 10 fi; from Aiken, S. Carolina, B. M. 846, 11 x 9*5 f*; 
from Cuba, type of Badhamia coadnata Rost., Strasburg coll., 
10-11 x 10 /x; from Java, Penzig, 10 x 8-9/* (Prof. Penzig's 
measurement is 18 x 10'5 p) ; from Antigua, W. Cran, 11-12 x 



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\ 



NOTES ON MYOBTOZOA. 149 

10 fi; from Iowa, Maobride, B. M. 810, 18 x 8/i; from Ohio, 
A. P. Morgan, 18 x 9-10 /x; from Philadelphia, Rex, 15-17 X 
12 /A. The measarements of the spores given in B. M. Cat., p. 67, 
are too high for the general range. 

Chondbiodebica Ltallh Mass. Collected by Mr. E. E. Fries on 
dead leaves of Asplenium^ 1000 metres above the sea at Areskultan, 
Jamtland, Sweden, Sept. 7th, 1898. The specimen corresponds 
with the type in the Kew collection. 

DmTinuM DUBiuM Host. This species is in the usnal abundance 
this winter on dead ivy-leaves in the ivy-covered hollow on the 
Undercliff, Lyme Regis, where it was first collected in this country, 
to my knowledge, in 1888 ; it is also not uncommon on dead holly- 
leaves in other parts of the district. 

D. BFFUSUM Link var. tbnub. This slender plasmodiocarp form 
was found in the same great abundance on dead leaves in Wanstead 
Park, as in the autumn of 1896.* The oapillitium in all the 
sporangia examined was purplish brown. In February, 1898 
specimens were gathered at Failand, near Bristol, similar in general 
appearance to those from Wanstead; they are ring-shaped, or 
long plasmodiocarps with a deep central depression; but the 
capiUitinm is colourless, resembling that of the type of D. efftuum. 
This gathering supports the view that the form should be con- . 
sidered as a variety and not as a distinct species, notwithstanding 
the constancy of its characters in Wanstead Park. In ** The Myxo- ^^.^^ 
mycetes of the Miami Valley," Mr. A. P. Morgan has described "" 
as a new species *' Didymiwn anellus,'* which from the description 
appears to be a similar form to the above. 

liEPiDODEBBfA Cabbstianum Rost. On a stick, Areskultan, Jamt- 
land, Sweden, R. E. Fries, July 9th, 1898. This species appears 
to have been only known hitherto from the gathering by Ab. 
Carestia at Riva (Yalsesia), N. Italy, in 1861. It was distributed 
among various collections through Rabenhorst's Fung. Eur. Exsio. 
Mr. Fries*s gathering is a plasmodiocarp form, generally resembling 
the type, but the spores are larger, viz. 16-20 /a, and the coarse 
capillitium threads contain vesicles charged with amorphous or 
roughly crystalline masses of lime similar to those found in Phillips's 
** Didymium granuliferumy" from California (B. M. Cat. Pl.xlii a). 
There can be little doubt that these vesicular expansions of the 
capillitium are abnormal, for we frequently find them in imperfect 
developments of Z>. effusum, D. Trochus, and in species of Chondrio- 
derma. On this supposition I place Mr. Fries's gathering under 
L. CaresHanum, and I should take Phillips's specimen to be another 
form of the same species. It is probably distinct from L. tiijnnum, 
but we require more material to arrive at a satisfactory conclusion. 

8. PU8CA Roth. var. FLAOomA. The form genuina of this species 
has grown for several years in large quantity on a fir- log in my 
garden at Leytonstone, during the summer months. In December, 
1898, a mass of white Plasmodium emerged from this log, and, 

• Joum. Bot. 1897, 214. 

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160 NOTBS ON MYOBTOZOA. 

instead of matoring to the usual form with a complete superficial 
net to the sporangium, it produced slender stalks and a lax capilli- 
tium without a definite net, closely corresponding with the var. 
flaccida of S. spletuiens ; the spores were typical of S, fusca. Mskj it 
not he the influence of climate that occasioned this form ; and may 
it not explain why the perfect development of 8. spletidens is met 
with so seldom in this country ? 

Stbmonitis splendens Rest. var. P Webbebi. We have received 
from Mr. G. H. Fox, of Falmouth, a fine specimen of this variety, 
gathered by him at Olendurgan on March 10th, 1899. The sporangia 
are perfectly matured, about 8 mm. in height, with a complete but 
wide-meshed surface-net of the capillitium, and here and there broad 
flakes of persistent sporangium-wall. The specimen corresponds in 
all respects with the type from Philadelphia furnished by the late 
Dr. Bex. Although 8. splendens var. flaccida is often met with in 
this country, and was very abundant in the New Forest last summer, 
this is the only British gathering of the var. Webbeii we are acquainted 
with. The var. genuina, which is common in hot regions, has not, 
to our knowledge, been found in England. The gardens in the 
neighbourhood of Falmouth are celebrated for their half-tropical 
vegetation, and, if we are correct in the view set forth in the notioe 
of the last species, that the different forms of capillitium in the genus 
'Stemotdtis may be attributed to the effects of climate, it is not 
surprising that this more perfect American type should be found in 
Cornwall. 

OoMATBioHA LUBiDA List. This spccics has been found plenti- 
fully on dead holly-leaves by Miss Margaret Phear, at Witley, 
Surrey, during the last three winter months; it has also been 
common in the wooded hollow at Lyme Begis where it was first 
discovered. 

0. BUBENS List. In February, 1899, this inconspicuous species 
was in great abundance on dead leaves in the wooded hollow just 
mentioned. 

Lampbodbema phtsaboidbs Best. var. p sessile. Mr. Cran has 
sent from Bhynie, N.B., an interesting sessile form of this species, 
differing from those referred to in B. M. Gat., p. 126, in the 
presence of a short columella, and in one instance the rudiments of 
a stalk. The sporangium-wall is mottled with the usual purplish 
shades ; the capillitium and spores may be considered normal. In 
November, 1898, Mr. Fries supplied me with a specimen he 
gathered at Upsala in October of the same year, which I cannot 
doubt is also a sessile form of L. physaroides. The sporangia are 
irregularly shaped pulvinate plasmodiocarps, with no trace of a 
columella, but with membranous, iridescent, hyaline walls, and with 
capillitium and spores corresponding with those of the gatherings of 
the sessile yariety before met with. The typical stalked form was 
sent from N. Wales in January, 1899, by Miss Boberts, who states 
that there must have been thirty or forty large growths on moss 
and fir-stumps, in a glen opening into the upper Dovey valley. 



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NOTES ON MYOBTOZOA. 151 

Gribrabia violaoba Rex. This beantiful but inconspicuous 
species was found by Mr. Gran at Rhynie, in November, 1898, in 
fine condition. The specimen corresponds with the type from Dr. 
Rex, and with the gatherings in Buckinghamshire by Mr. Saunders, 
It is the third record of the occurrence of the species in Europe. 

LiNDBLADiA TUBULiNA Fr. In September, 1898, several asthalia 
of this species were gathered at Llan-y-Mawddwy, on firwood; 
they are argillaceous in colour, and the surface is tesselated with 
the shining membranous tops of the component sporangia. 

Tbichia verbucosa Berk. Miss Roberts gathered this species 
at Llan-y-Mawddwy in January, 1899. The specimen resembles 
the New Zealand type in the sporangia being clustered two or more 
together on a common membranous stalk about 1 mm. long. It is 
the second British gathering we know of. 

T. ATFiNis de Bary. In February last we received by post from 
the West of England an immature specimen of this species ; it 
eonsisted of about 150 newly-formed sporangia on a beech leaf. It 
was placed in a moist chamber, and in two or tliree days the 
central sporangia became yellow, while those on the margin of 
the patch remained white ; eventually most of these acquired the 
mature colour, but others never recovered from the shock of the 
journey and dried into hard balls. On examination, it was found 
that the elaters of the central sporangia were perfectly formed, with 
regular spiral bands; but in many of those on the margin the 
elaters were beset with rings and strong scattered spines, the spiral 
bands being either absent or imperfect ; the apices of the threads 
often terminated abruptly, or were bifurcate with diverging points. 
The spores associated with both normal and abnormal elaters were 
of the J\ affinis tjrpe. We have known a growth of this species 
that had been caught by frosty weather to produce similar abnormal 
elaters in all the sporangia. This is an instance of how external 
conditions apart from climate may afifect the development of capil- 
litium. To those who are accustomed to collect Mycetozoa and to 
mature unripe sporangia in a moist chamber, such experience is 
not unfiamiliar. Among species in which variation in the capil- 
litium is frequent, Prototnchia flagellifera and Enerthenema elegans 
are examples of great sensitiveness to disturbance. It may, how- 
ever, be worth while to c^ll attention to the subject, as our books 
have been cumbered with descriptions of forms held to be distinct 
species on the ground of some divergence in the capillitium from 
the usual characters. 

T. Botbytis Pers. var. munda.* We have a typical example of 
this form, gathered by Dr. Sturgis at Shelburne, N,H., U.S.A., in 
October, 1896. 

Hemitbichia chrysospoba List. A good specimen of this beau- 
tiful species was obtained at Beaminster, Dorset, on the leaves and 
stalks of ivy, under larches, in February, 1898. The remarkable 



• Journ. Bot. 1897, 216. 

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152 BOTANIOAL BXOUBSIOMS IN DONEGAL. 

spores correspond exactly with those of the type. The capillitiam 
consists of long branching elaters, more or less combined into a 
network : it has not therefore the complete Hemitrichia character 
of the original gathering in November, 1886. 

H. iNTOBTA List. var. leiotrioha was gathered at Witley, by 
Miss M. Phear, on Dec. llth» 1898. 

Abotria Obbstedth Bost. Miss Agnes Fry obtained this 
species at Failand, near Bristol, in December, 1898. It was first 
observed in white plasmodiam, and in maturity it assumed an 
unusually brilliant red colour; the papillose plates or persistent 
portions of the sporangium-wall adhering to the long columns of 
expanded capillitium are present, as is nearly always the case in 
this species. 

DiANBMA ooBTioATUM List. Mr. Cran gathered this species more 
than once, near Bhynie in December, 1898, on dead wood. The 
specimens are similar in all respects to the type collected in 
Norway. It was also obtained by Mr. B. E. Fries, at Angermanland, 
Sweden, on July 25th, 1898. Beyond these three gatherings there 
appears to be no record of the species having been found. 

Desobiption of Platb 898. — 1. Physarum eehinosporum : a, sporangia x 20 ; 
b, capillitiam and spores x 280 ; c, spores x 600. 2. FuUgo elUpsospora, ool- 
leoted at Yattendon, Berks: a, part of a large lethaliam x 20; 5, oapillitiani 
and spores x 280; c, spore x 600; d, lethaliam, natural size. 3. FuHgo 
eUiptospcrat oolleoted at Manhattan, Kansas : a, small fethaliom x 20. 



BOTANIOAL EXCURSIONS IN DONEGAL, 1898. 

By H. 0. Habt, P.L.S., Ac. 

(Condaded from p. 180.) 

Aug. 14. — ^Followed the Ouldaff river up from its mouth. CuldafF 
lies at the mouth of an estuarine valley which stretches westward 
to Malin on the Trawbreaga estuary, on the west side of Inishowen. 
The river flows in a zigzag course through peat-beds lying on an 
old raised beach — the 20-foot beach — for the last few miles of its 
course, and at the period when this was sea-level, probably no 
remote date, outer Malin, as well as Doagh Island and Inishowen 
itself, were all three isolated. The river is sluggish, and was much 
swollen by the still continuing heavy rain. Ooarse common 
herbage lined the banks, such as Aira ctBsjdtosa, Petasites vulgaris, 
broom, Avena elatiory Equisetum maximum, Lythrum, but nothing of 
interest occurred. Near Gleneely there is a very perfect '* Danish '* 
earthen fort. At Eilcooly Bridge, in Gleneely, I noticed a good 
settlement of Sambucus EbuXus, 

In my ** Flora of Inishowen *' (Joum. Bot. 1888) I made an 
analysis of the Inishowen plants according to Watson's types, and 
also a comparison with the Flora of Fanet west of Lough Swilly. 
Later research, which is embodied in the present paper, and in 



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BOTAMIOAL BX0UB8I0MS IN DONSOAL. 158 

the Flora of Donegal will modify some of these remarks. The 
materials for such comparisons are now fully available, and it is 
not my intention to dwell on them. The flora of Inishowen is 
ehiefly interesting for its introduction, travelling westward across 
the Foyle, of several boreal and Atlantic ' species not met with in 
the nortb-east, and occurring, as groups, still more plentifully the 
furtber west we go. Such are, of the Atlantic group: Raphanus 
marUimuSf Orobanche Hedera, Statice occidentalism Euphorbia hyhernay 
E, porUandica, Barlsia viscosa. Some of these reach north as far 
as Down, or even the south-east of Antrim, but none can face the 
austerity of the North Channel coast, or that of North Antrim and 
Derry. Once Lough Foyle is crossed and Malin Head is rounded, 
things begin to improve for more delicate species, under the soften- 
ing surroundings of the Gulf Stream. Lough Foyle forms a bio- 
logical boundary in several respects. 

Of the boreal species (alpine and northern) several might be 
mentioned, but I have dealt with this subject elsewhere, and 
this feature is not well marked till we travel farther west than 
Liishowen. 

I will now proceed to enumerate, in proper order, localities 
additional to those in my Flora of Donegal. 

The Boman numerals appended refer to the districts in the Flora. 

Banunculus trichophyllus Ohaix. By a rivulet in Doaghmore 
Strand, Fanet ; III. 

R. sceleratus Linn. About Bumfoot, J. H. ; II. 

Chelidonium majus Linn. Old graveyard. Inch Island, J. H. ; II. 

Sitymbrium AlUaria Scop. Steep banks above the sea-road at 
Lag, near Malin town; I. The third locality for a very rare 
Donegal plant. 

Cochlearia grcnUandica Linn. Omitted accidentally from Flora 
of Donegal. North-west coast of Bossgull in several places. 
Determined by Mr. Bennett. See Journ. Bot. Sept. 1896, p. 899 ; 
TTT- A variety of C. officinalis not recorded elsewhere in Lreland. 
Treated as a species in Lend. Cat. 1895. 

Crambe tnariUma Linn. Grew (according to good testimony) on 
the strand of Doagh Island, below Lagacurry, in 1895-6. Not 
seen in the original locality (Norway Point) for about eight years 
apparently; I. 

Raphanus marUinms Sm. Coast below Knockglass, Malin ; I. 
A third locality for a very rare Donegal plant, which is confined 
to Inishowen in Donegal. 

Viola sylvestiis Beich. (F. Reichenbachiana Boreau). Carrablagh, 
Fanet; m. 

V. Cartigii Forster. Clonmany and Knookmany; I. Below 
Buncrana Castle, J. H. ; II. 

F. canina Linn. (F. lactea Sm.). Sandhills near Suil Point, 
Clonmany; gravelly margin of Straas Biver, below Cloghorna 
Bridge, Clonmany. Seems to be at least scarce in Donegal ; I. 

Lychnis diuma Sibth. L. dioica Linn. Hedges at Bridgetown, 
J. H. ; U. 



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154 BOTANIOAL BXOURSIONS IN DONEGAL. 

L. Githago Scop. Amongst yetohes by Effishmore stream, above 
Gross of Glonmany ; I. 

Gerastium triviale Link. At 2100 feet on Lavagh More ; VUL 

Radiola linoides Both. Bemarkably abundant at the extreme 
north of Malin Head ; I. 

Oxalis Acetosella Linn. At 2050 feet on Lavagh More ; YIU. 

UUx GaUii Planch. Roadside halfway between Moville and 
Tremone, J. H. ; I. Not unfrequent about Grianan, near Burt, 
J. H. ; II. These two records of Mr. Hunter cover the unnatural 
gap for the dwarf furze between Derry county and Fanet, where it 
seems to cease in Donegal. 

Ononis repens Linn. Coast below Binboy Lake, towards Bin- 
boy Point, Fanet ; III. The third locality in Donegal. Both of 
the previous ones are in Inishowen. Sparingly at this new station, 
and var. inermis, 

Anthyllis maritima Schweig. West coast of Fanet on the 
margin of Mulroy, south of Doaghmore strand. " Agrees very 
well with the description of A, maHtima Schweig. = A, Vulneraria 
var. maritima Koch," J. G. Baker. A very handsome form. 

Vicia angustifolia Linn. In a dry pasture-field looking south, 
between Lough Shannagh and Doaghbeg Barracks, Fanet. A third 
locality for a very rare plant in Donegal ; III. 

* Lotm tenuis Waldst. & Kit. Introduced and established at 
Bosapenna Hotel, Bossgull, in new laid grass. Becorded as adden- 
dum in Flora of Donegal. See Journ. Bot. 1896, p. 899 ; UI. 

f Prunus Padus Linn. A few bushes half a mile east of Burn- 
foot, on rising ground. Perhaps introduced, J. H. ; II. 

Rubus plicattisy&r, hemistemon P. J. M. Maghera warden, at the 
foot of Knock Alia, in Fanet. A variety with 7- to 9-petalled 
blossoms. Determined by Bev. Moyle Sogers ; III. 

Potefitilla (Torm^ntilla) procumbens Sibth. Common on ditch- 
banks about Bridge End and on to Galliagh, J. H. ; II. Not 
previously recorded from Donegal. 

Agnmonia Eupatoria Linn. Hedge beside the main road be- 
tween Bumfoot and tbe Manse ; also at Boylett, Inch, J. H. ; II. 

A. odorata Mill. Lag, near Malin Town ; I. 

Saxifraga oppositifolia Linn. On the marginal brow of sea- 
cliffs north of ** The Cruach " (Croagh Glengad) at about seven to 
eight hundred feet above sea-level. Probably the east limit of its 
existing Irish range ; I. 

Hipputis vulgatis Linn. Pool near the summit of Inch Top, 
J. H. ; II. 

Callitriche autumnalis Linn. In clear drains at Bridgetown and 
Bonnenaine, Bridge End, J. H. ; II. 

Peplis Portula Linn. Sandy pools at Dunbery, 'Bridge End ; 
also marshy ground, Carroreagh, east side of Grianan, J. H. ; 11. 

Conopodium denudatum Koch. At 1800 feet. Gray Mare's Tail, 
Bluestacks; YIII. 

^Myrrhis odorata Scop. Well established at Bridge Town, 
Bridge End, J. H. ; II. 

Crithmum maritimum Linn. Coast a little north of Sessiagh 



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BOTAMIOAL BX0UBSI0N8 IN DONEGAL. 156 

Bay, on the Mulroy shore of Fanet» with Euphorbia portlandica. 
Very rare m Fanet ; III. 

(Enanthe crocata Linn. By Eeenagh Brook into Culoort Bay, 
Malin Head ; I. 

iMfusiicum scoticum Linn. Breasty Head, at the extreme north 
of Malin Head ; both sides of Ouldaff Bay. I. 

[Daucus gummifer Lam. Mr. Bennett remarks on specimens from 
near Sessiagh Bay, Fanet, ** about halfway to D. gummifer Lam.'*] 
*Sambucus Ebulus Linn. Boadside, Gleneely Bridge, above 
Ouldaff; L 

"^^ Galium MoUugo Linn. Introduced in laid-down grass at fiosa- 
penna Hotel. See Joum. Bot. 1896, p. 899 ; lU. 

Scabiosa arvensis Linn. Railway banks between Fahan and 
Inch ; n. Field at Boylett, Inch, J. H. ; 11. 

Filago minima Fries. Railway bank north of Fahan Station, 
east side, immediately after the '' cutting ** ; and at gravel pits 
near Bridge End Station, J. H. Two new localities for a very rare 
Donegal plant, not found west of Inishowen ; II. 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum Linn. Abundant in a field, east side of 
Grianan, J. H. ; II. Near Ologhorna Bridge, by Straas River, 
Glonmany ; I. Like several other northern species, grows com- 
moner westwards. 

*Inula Helenium Linn. Roadside between Malin Town and 
Glengad ; I. 

Pulicaria dysenterica Gaertn. ** Neds Point," Lough Swilly, in 
Flora of Donegal belongs to 11. 

• Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. Frequent by the west coast of 
Malin, irom Malin Town to Guloort. This species has a preference 
for sea-gullies in Donegal ; I. 

Bid£fu tripartita Linn. By an old lane at Tanderagee, Glon- 
many; I. 

Anthemis nobilis Linn. Plentiful by an old grassy road from 
Glengad, due west, near Lagawollan ; I. 

*Tanacetum vtUgare Linn. Roadside between Malin Town and 
MaUn Head, in several places ; I. 

Senecio Jacobaa [flosctUosv^s Jord.). Doagh Island and Gnldaff. 
I. Sandy ground, very sparingly, above Lady's Bay, Buncrana, 
J. H.; n. 

Arctium m4nus Bemh. Roadside near Glonmany Chapel ; I. 
Carduus crispus Linn. TuUagh, Glonmany ; and Lag, near 
Malin Town, plentiful. Finds its Donegal headquarters here ; I. 
0. crispus X C. paluslris (?). Between Malin Town and Glengad, by 
the roadside ; I. 

0. arvensis (setosus Bess.). Cloghorna, near Ballyliffin, Glon- 
many ; I. 

Crepis paludosa Moench. Glenhouse Waterfall and Straas River, 
Glonmany, and along Guldafif River. I. Bridge End Glen, J. H. ; 
n. Apparently the only (and uninteresting) Inishowen represen- 
tative of the fine group of riverside hawkweeos found in West and 
Sonth Donegal. 

Vaccinium Vitis-Idaa. Summit of Groaghnamaddy ; 11. 



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156 BOTANIOAL BXCUB8I0N8 IN DONEGAL. 

Pyrola media Sw. Heathy places on Inch Top, and sides of 
Bridge End Glen, J. H. ; II. 

Statice ranflora Drej. Drumnacraig Bay, below Glinsk, on the 
Mulroy coast of Fanet ; III. This is the first Fanet record, and 
the eastmost in Donegal. It is also its northern limit ; and the 
next station, after rounding Malin Head and all northern Ireland 
east of it, is in South-east Antrim, at Larue, In tracking out this 
range, I find it necessary to apologize for the map my pubUshers 
supplied my Donegal Flora with, which was against my selection. 
It makes Mulroy an inland lake! No doubt it commits other 
monstrosities. 

S. auriculafolia {intermedia) Syme. Bocks north of Enookglass, 
Malin Head. This is G. Moore's old record, '* Dunargas." The 
form is abundant and beautifully luxuriant here, and Mr. Bennett 
referred specimens as above. The present locality is its outlying 
north-eastern and northern limit, and the rock sea-lavender is not 
met with again round the coast till Louth, in the Dublin district. 
Yar. S, intermedia seems to be the commonest form in Ireland, as 
it is in nearly all the western stations in England. 

Anchusa sempervirens Linn. •* Near the clmrch at Churchtown," 
Fakan, J. H. ; II. Mr. C. Moore's old record in Gyb. Hib., which 
has been identified as above. 

Lycopsis arvensis Linn. Fields at Linsfort, Ballynarry Strand, 
J. H. ; U. This plant seems to be increasing in Inishowen and 
Fanet. 

Mertensia maritima 8. F. Gray. Small strand north of Ineuran 
Bay, Malin Head ; and abundant at the old station on the north- 
east side of Malin Head ; I. 

CuMcuta Epithymum Murr. Natural ground close to Eosapenna 
Hotel, BossguU (the locality is close to some newly laid-down 
ground). See Journ. Bot., Sept., p. 829 (1896) ; III. 

^Hyoscyamus niger Linn. A single plant at Greencastle, Inish- 
owen, W. E. Hart {ante, 1888). Except for the known wayward- 
ness of this species in its appearances, this record would not be 
deemed worth insertion. Omitted accidentally firom Donegal 
Flora; L 

\Ldnaria vulgatis Mill. Plentiful in a- hedge at Elaghbeg, three- 
quarters of a mile east of Bridge End Station, looking native, 
J. H. This is the third, and perhaps the best locality in the 
county for this species ; U. 

*MimuluB guttatus DG. Abundant on the banks of a stream 
between Bridge End and Burnfoot, J. H. ; II. 

Veronica montana Linn. Plentiful by the Swilly River below 
Ballymacoole ; III. and V. In the glen above Glen House, Clon- 
many ; I. Ditch at Bridgetown, and in wood beside the old castle, 
Buncrana, J. H. ; II. 

^Mentha piperita Sm. Ditches at Gloghoma, near Ballyli£Sn, 
Glonmany; I. 

Lycopus europaus Linn. By an old (and pretty) lane at Tan- 
deragee, Glonmany; and in two places by the Glonmany Biver, 
below the lake at Meendoran ; I. 



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BOTANIOAL BX0UB8I0M8 IN DONBOAL. 157 

Nepeta Gleehoma Benth. Sandhills between Binnion and Soil 
Point» Olonmany, in two patches of some extent ; I. Hedges at 
Bridgetown, Bridge End, J. H. ; U. I have already commented 
on the unexpected rarity of this plant in Donegal. These two 
localities make three good ones only, known to me, in the county. 
At Gliusk, "Between Waters,** Fanet, Rev. A. Delap; III. 

[8 tacky 8 Betcnica Benth. Recorded in CybeU Hibemica (2nd 
ed.) from "Portsalon ' by Mrs. Leebody, who first discovered it in 
Donegal. I have not seen this second locality (though I live at 
Portsalon), so am unable to say if it is undoubtedly native. The 
plant is sometimes introduced as ornamental ; lU.] 

t5. atveruis Linn. Cultivated ground by Culdaff estuanr, north 
side (with Carduus crispus) ; I. A plant of very uncertain distribu- 
tion, and more frequent in Fanet than elsewhere, under my obser- 
vation, in Ireland. 

Lamium intermedium Fr. Near Bridge End, in cultivated ground, 
J. H. ; II. 

*Ballota nigra Linn. Waste ground by cottages (with Carduus 
crispuB) facing the sea at Tullagh, Glonmany ; I. 

Scleranthus annuus Linn. Plentiful in waste ground between 
Gortnaglar and Kindrum, Fanet. The soil had fallen out of culti- 
vation. The third time of finding in Donegal, but sure to occur in 
Inishowen ; III. 

Su<Bda mariiima Dum. Commoner than Salicomia northwards, 
as below Knockmany, Malin Head and elsewhere in Inishowen ; I. 

SaUola Kali Linn. Shore below the golf links, Buncrana, J. H. ; 

n. 

Polygonum Raii Bab. At the Knockalla end of Ballymastooker 
Bay, Fanet. Shore west of Fanet Point, J. H. ; III. 

Euphorbia portlandica Linn. Suil Point and Binnion, Clon- 
many, plentiful; and about Enockglass, Malin Head, abundant; 
I. Sessiagh Bay and Bally whooriskey, north-west point of Fanet ; 
HL Does not appear to round MaUu Head, and appears next in 
Co. Down. A distribution parallel to that of the two Statices. 

\Salix Orahami Baker. (-S^. herhacea X phylicifolia ?) = S, Moorei 
H. C. Watson ? Recorded by Dr. Moore ** from amongst moss on 
the top of Muckish Mountain, 1868" and overlooked in my 
Donegal Flora. - 1 have spent many hours, on various occasions, 
doing penance on my knees all over that most unproductive 
plateau (perhaps a square mile in extent), but could never find this 
Salix, and feai' it has disappeared. This locality is so suggestive of 
Rubus ChamamoruSf alpine Junci, &c., that it has been most 
thoroughly thrashed.] 

Juniperus communis Linn. Near Culdaff ; several bushes, J. H. ; I. 

Habenaria conopsea Benth. On the Einnegar, near Rathmullan, 
J. H. ; m. 

* Allium Babingtonii (A, Ampeloprasum Linn.). Waste ground 
near Tullagh, Clonmany; and by roadside to Malin Head, near 
Malin Town ; I. 

Sparganium simplex Huds. Ditches near Bumfoot Station, on 
east*side of line ; U. 



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158 BOTANICAL BXOUBSIONS IN DONEGAL. 

? Potamogeton praUmgus Wulf. Fragments on the shore of Meen- 
doran Lake, above Clonmany, after a storm. Apparently this 
species, but material insufficient ; I. 

P, pusillu9 var. tenuissimus Eoch. Small marsh at Lagacnrry 
Strand, Doagh Island, Inishowen ; I. Named by Mr. Bennett. 
Apparently not hitherto noticed in Ireland. 

Zostera nana Both. Slob at the mouth of the Donagh Biyer, 
at a muddy point on the left margin, plentiful ; I. The second 
locality in the county. 

Scirptis fluitans Linn. Ditch leading into the Waterworks, 
Buncrana, J. H. ; II. 

8. Tabernamontani Gmel. By the embankment between Letter- 
kenny Junction and Farland Mill, north side, J. H. ; II. Brackish 
swamp on the '* Between Waters," a little north of Boross Ferry ; II. 

S. {Blysmus) rufus Schrad. Below Tullagh House, by a little 
stream, Glonmany ; and on Doagh Island, south side ; I. 

Cladium Mariscus B. Br. Tullyconnell Lake and Gortnstglar, 
Fanet; m. 

Carex dioica Linn. Wet places on the east side of Grianan, 
Inishowen, J. H. ; II. 

0. vuipina Linn. Shore of Mulroy at Glinsk, Fanet ; III. 

C ovalis Good. South side of Doagh Island ; I. Bridge End 
and Buncrana, J. H. ; II. 

C, f-igida Good. At about 1000 feet on Enockalla (sparingly), 
Fanet; III. 

C. Goodmovii J. Gay. At 1400 feet above Croghanard Lake, 
Lavagh More ; VIII. 

C limosa Linn. " Gamble's Lough," west of Murren, Fanet, 
accompanied as usual by C Jiliformis ; III. 

C. IcBvigata Sm. Wet glen, a mile south of Bridge End Bail- 
way Station, J. H. ; II. 

C, externa Good. At the northern extremity of Malin Head, 
and elsewhere near it ; I. Castle Biver, between old pier and the 
bridge, Buncrana, J. H. ; II. Mulroy, from Boross to Glinsk, Fanet; 
III. 

C flava Linn, (genuinn). Stream from Meendoran Lake, Glon- 
many ; I. By Lough Doo, near Binboy Lake, Fanet ; III. 

Cfiliformis Linn. See under C. limosa. 

C. ampullacea Good. (C, rostrata Stokes) var. planifolius. In a 
dyke out of Lough Doo, a small lake near Binboy Lake, Fanet. 
This sedge grows here with the common form, over which it stands 
conspicuously about twice the size. Mr. Bennett writes, " probably 
var. planifolius of Norman, Fl. Arct. Novegica " ; III. 
. 'Agrostis pumila (vulgaris var.) Linn. Omitted by accident from 
Donegal Flora. At 1550 feet on Sheve Main, in Inishowen ; H. 
I have met it elsewhere in the county, but omitted to preserve 
record. It is recorded in Flora of Inishowen. 

[Avena strigosa Schreb. Casual about Bridge End; 11. And 
Portsalon, J. H. ; III.] 

Hclcus mollis Linn. Bridge End Glen, J. H. ; H. Quite rare, 
apparently, in Donegal. 



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BOTANICAL BXCtJBSIONS IN DONEGAL. 159 

Catabrosa aquatica Beaav. Brickworks, Burnfoot, abundant, 
J. H.; n. 

Poa nemoralis Linn. Plentiful in Lord Templemore's wood on 
Lich Island. Recorded as an addendum in Donegal Flora. Dis- 
covered by Mr. Hunter ; II. 

Giyceria dUtans Wahlb. Farland Pier, south of Inch Island, 
J. H. ; n. 

Festuca sciuroides Both. District 11. omitted in Donegal Flora. 
Frequent there. 

F. (loliacea) rottballoides Eunth. Shore at Buncrana, J. H. ; 11. 

F. elatior Linn. Railway embankment near Letterkenny 
Junction, seven or eight feet high, J. H. ; II. 

Bramus asper Murr. {B, ramosus Huds.). Castle Wood, Bun- 
crana ; apparently very rare in II. J. H. ; II. 

Pteris aquUina Linn. To 1200 feet at Grey Mare's Tail, Blue- 
stacks ; vm. 

Asplenium Ruta-Mumria Linn. Unusually common at the Gross 
of Glonmany ; I. Railway Station at Fahan and Buncrana, J. H. ; 
n. Perhaps it is hardly correct to call this fern " scarce " in 
Donegal, but it is rare apart from old walls, and does not take to the 
limestone in the south-west as it does in the Burren (Clare) district. 

Ceierach qfficinarum Willd. Sparingly on old approach wall to 
bridge at Greenfort, foot of Grianan, on the Derry side, J. H. ; II. 

Hymenophyllum unilaterale Bory. Close to the barren and 
storm-swept summit of Raghtin More ; perhaps the bleakest spot 
obtainable in Ireland ; I. 

Axpidium actUeatum var. lobatum Swartz. Castle Ross river- glen 
near Dunree, J. H. ; II. 

Loitraa Orsopteiis Presl. Abundant in Bridge End Glen, J.H. ; 
II. A characteristic plant of the glens of Inishowen from Moville 
to Clonmany ; I. 

Osmunda regalis Linn. Still obtained sparingly from Inch, 
where no doubt it will presently be extinct, J. H. ; II. 

Opkioglossum vtilgatuvi Linn. Greenfort Island, Carrablagh, 
Fanet; lU. 

Botrychium Lunaria Sw. Mulroy shore, between Roross and 
Glinsk, Fanet; III. Carrowreagh, east side of Grianan, J. H. ; II. 

Equisetum maximum Lam. Culdaflf River, above the village ; I. 

Lycopodium alpinum Linn. South side of Slieve Snaoht at 
1750 feet, and elsewhere on this mountain ; I. 

L, clavatum Linn. North side of Slieve Snacht at about 1700 
feet ; very scarce ; I. 

Chara fragUis var. delicatiUa Braun. Tullyconnell Lake, Fanet, 
very abundant ; III. 

C. contrana Kuetz. Gortnaglar Lough, near Doaghmore 
Strand, Fanet ; III. 

C. aspera Willd. With the last. 

C. hUpida Linn. With the above. These have been deter- 
mined through the kindness of Mr. H. C. Groves. 

In the above list I am indebted for many localities to Mr. J. 
Hunter, of Bridge End (J. H.), which have filled up several gaps 
in District II. (South Inishowen). 



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160 



RELATIONSHIPS op thb INDEFINITE INFLORESCENCES. 

£t E. A. Newell Abbeb, B.A. 

In recent years comparatively little attention has been paid to 
the study of inflorescences. The entire literature on the subject is 
not large, and writers in the past have directed their energies 
ohiedy to the elucidation of the definite or cytnose type. The 
equally important problems connected with the indefinite inflores- 
cences, particularly as to their relationships, have been largely, if 
not entirely, overlooked. It is customary at the present day to 
regard all indefinite forms as << obvious modifications of the 
raceme/** As far as I am aware, there has been little attempt 
made to substantiate this statement. It has been regarded as 
manifest. The object of this paper is to trace as far as possible 
the relationships of these inflorescences, and, among other things, 
to examine the truth of the axiom above stated. An attempt will 
also be made to answer the question why nearly related species 
often possess very different inflorescences; a problem which is of 
especial interest to the systematist. 

SeLF-APPABENT RELATIONSmPS. 

In this paper only the chief forms of indefinite inflorescences will 
be dealt with ; these are, the raceme, spike, corymb, panicle, capit- 
ulum, and the simple and compound umbels. Several of these 
forms present relationships which are perfectly obvious. The spike, 
for instance, is related to the raceme, the raceme to the compound 
raceme or true panicle, the umbel to the compound umbel. The 
corymb also shows some points of relationship to the raceme, and 
at first sight also to the umbel. The relationships of the umbel and 
capitulum are not, however, so self- apparent. But the fact that 
undoubted affinities exist between many of the forms of in- 
definite inflorescences is, I think, a strong a ption argument 
in favour of a complete relationship throughout. Taking this into 
account, I have endeavoured to formulate a theory to fit in as far 
as possible with the observed facts. 

Theory of Intbbnodes.I 
In the first place, it will be necessary to examine the factors 
which determine the form of an inflorescence. These are generally 
thought to be: — The presence or absence of terminal or axillary 
floral shoots; the presence or absence of leaves or modified 
leaves (bracts), and their arrangement; the presence or absence 
of peduncles of the 1st, 2nd .... nth orders. It is true that these 
are factors of extreme importance, but they are not the prime factors. 
As will be seen later, the real causes of the different forms of inflor- 
escence are connected with : — (1 ) Questions of vital energy ; (2) 

* Hooker*B Trans, of Le Maout and Deoaisne's Syttem of Botany , p. 88. 
t I have called the principles which onderlie the relationships assorted here 
M the theory of intemodea," in order to faoihtato easy reference. 



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BBLATI0N8HIP8 OF THB INDIVINITB INFLOBB80BN0BS. 161 

physiologioal adaptation u> mrcmnstanoes. The &ctor8 hrm men- 
uoned are but the expression of these two fondamental causes. 

In order to make this point dear, it will be necessary to 
consider the development of inflorescences in some detail. For 
simplicity we may stady the development and formation of the 
inflorescence of a plant of simple anbranched habit, snch as 
Aconitum Napellvs L., the Monkshood. In the spring the plant 
begins to develop a main stem or rhachis. At the growing point 
leaves are formed one after the other ; the lower ones, being the 
older, are naturally the first to attain fall development. As summer 
advances there comes a time when, circumstances being favourable, 
the well-known terminal raceme begins to be developed. If we 
examine the tip of the rachis after the formation of several floral 
shoots, the chief point of interest which will be noticed is the 
relative length of the intemodes. Near the growing point will be 
seen a number of very crowded nodes, some of which — ''the highest" 
— bear modified leaves or bracts, in the axils of which the floral 
shoots are developing. Below these are similar nodes bearing the 
last-formed unmodified leaves. At the extreme apex the intemodes 
are so short as to be practically non-existent to the naked eye, but 
as we descend the stcon they become longer and longer. The older 
the leaf the longer the intemode. In this way the flowers and 
leaves are developed and matured in acropetal succession. 

Such an inflorescence owes its form to the development or 
elongation of the intemodes of not only the primary, but also the 
secondary floral axes. It is obvious that to fulfil both of these 
conditions the plant must be able to command a considerable 
supply of vital energy over and above that required to carry on the 
various other functions of plant life. Further, the energy'*' required 
to produce a complicated inflorescence such as the panicle or the 
compound umbel must be greatly in excess of that required for the 
formation of a solitary flower. A forest tree or one of the larger 
herbs, such as Diptacm sylvestris L., Epilobium angustifolium L., or 
Arundo Phragtnites L., is able to command a far greater supply of 
vital energy than smiJl alpines, such as Draba aismdes L. or Stlene 
aeaulis L., whose height does not exceed a few inches. 

Let us imagine ttie probable course of events in the case of 
species whose supplies of energy available for flower production are 
strictlv limited. Alpines are of great interest as affording instances 
of Buch plants. Many such are only free from snow for a few weeks 
in the year, and in this short interval they have to produce the leaf 
surface necessary for the food supply, and in most cases to store up 
reserves against the approaching winter. The chief object of such 
a plant is to reproduce itself: to flower and if possible disseminate its 
seed before it is again buried beneath the snow. It is easy to 
understand how important in such cases any expenditure of energy 
becomes, and how carefully it is husbanded. To such a plant the 
form of inflorescence best adapted to its needs, and which involves 

• The word •* energy '* is used in this paper in the sense of *• the vital 
energy of a plant of which growth is the expression or result." Vide Bailey, 
Swrvinal of the UnUke, p. 25, <feo. 

JouBNAL OF Botany. — Vol. 87. [Apbil, 1899.] m 

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162 BBLATI0N8BIP8 OF THE INDEFINITE INFLORKSCBNOBS. 

a minimam of energy, is, provided the plant tends to branoh mono- 
podally, the solitary axillary flower. It is generally agreed that 
this is the simplest possible type of indefinite inflorescence.* 

Next we may consider the case of a (monopodal) plant which has 
slightly more energy available for flower development than the 
instance just mentioned. There are two distinct ways in which 
such energy might be expended with the advantage of an increased 
production of floral shoots. In the first place, a series of sessile 
flowers might be produced on the primary axis. If the intemodes 
of the primary axis continued to develop normally, but the axes of 
the floral shoots remained undeveloped, the resulting inflorescence 
would be a spike. It is, however, important to remember that, to 
produce such a form, energy must he expended in two distinct 
ways, VIZ. the production of a certain number of floral shoots, and 
the elongation of the primary intemodes. 

But there is a second method, which would be even simpler. 
If a series of sessile flower-buds were produced on a primary axis 
without at the same time elongating the intemodes of that axis, the 
resulting inflorescence would be a oapitulum. A oapitulum differs 
from a spike in that the whole of the energy is expended in the 
production of flower-buds, and none of it is devoted to the intemodal 
elongation of the primary or secondary axes. It is obvious that with 
the same supply of energy in each case more flowers can be produced 
by adopting the capitulum rather than the spike. It is also obvious 
that in either case, if the energy were strictly limited, none of it 
would be expended on details of secondary importance, such as the 
elongation of the axes of the floral shoots, however advantageous 
such might be to the plant. 

There are, therefore, apart from the solitary axillary flower, 
two courses open to such a plant, in one of which the intemodes of 
the floral shoots develop normally — the racemose type, and the 
other, the umbellate type, in which certain intemodes remain 
undeveloped throughout. It is at this point that the divergence 
between the two types of inflorescence begins. 

Next, we may suppose, for the purpose of simplifying matters, 
that at a later stage these two forms, the spike and the capitulum, 
have acquired an additional supply of energy available for flower 
production. Such energy might be spent in several ways, each 
being advantageous to the plant. One would consist in the 
elongation of the secondary axes, transforming the spike into a 
raceme, and the capitulum into an umbel. 

Lastly, the development of a compound raceme from the raceme, 
and the compound umbel from the simple umbel, can be readily 
imagined to take place in a similar manner. 

AH these forms belong to one or other of the two original 
types. The Racemose, in which all the intemodes are normally 
developed : — the spike, raceme, and panicle. The Umbellate, in 
which certain intemodes remain undeveloped throughout :— the 
capitulum, umbel, and compound umbel. 

• J. H. Balfour, Class Book of Botany, 8rd ed., p. 169.* 

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RELATIONSHIPS OF THE INDEFINITE INFLOBBSCENGES. 168 

There still remain to be considered one or two special cases. 
In the capitalam a special method may be adopted to find 
accommodation for a large nmnber of flowers by the formation 
at the end of the primary axis of a swollen receptacle or torus. 
As, however, the internodes remain throughout quite undeveloped, 
we need not consider this modification further here. The corymb 
appears at first sight to be a connecting link between the raceme 
and the umbel, as indeed it is stated to be by Kerner;* but if we 
apply the principles involved in the theory of internodes, this is seen 
to be a misconception. For the corymb has its primary internodes 
fully developed, and hence belongs to the racemose type. As will 
be seen later, this view is supported by evidence from systematic 
botany. 

We may turn now to the evidence which may be brought forward 
in support of the relationships demonstrated by the theory of inter- 
nodes ; but, before doing so, I wish to lay special stress on one 
point. It is in no way implied here that any given species which 
to-day possesses a complicated inflorescence has at some time or 
another passed through all the stages from a solitary flower 
upwards. In some cases this may have happened to a limited 
extent ; but the majority of plants were evolved from ancestors, who 
were able to bequeath to their offspring a heritage of vital energy 
sufficient to at once maintain any such complicated form as a panicle 
or an umbel. As to the inflorescence of some far-away primitive 
ancestor we are not here concerned. The only consideration with 
which we have to deal is the relationships of these inflorescences, 
and the capses which have led to their adoption. 

The EvmENOE fob these Relationships. 

The relationships here presented have the merit of simplicity, 
and, with one or two exceptions, the links in the chain are fairly 
obvious. The gradual increase in complexity as we pass along each 
of the two hues of development, the Racemose and the Umbellate, 
is in accordance with the axiom that complexity of structure indi- 
cates high development. If it were not for this axiom, a complicated 
form of inflorescence such as the compound umbel might be regarded 
as the type, and all the other forms derived from it. There is, how- 
ever, no reason to believe that the indefinite inflorescences form any 
exception to the rule, and therefore a form such as a raceme may 
be looked upon as derived from the spike. 

The non-development of certain internodes in the capitulum and 
umbel is an anatomical fact. Many authors, Asa Gray f among others, 
have long ago called special attention to this point. Another fact 
which has a remarkable bearing on this subject is that in nearly all 
flowers, with a few exceptions, such as the Passion-flower, &c., the 
internodes remain undeveloped. If the non-development of certain 
internodes is characteristic of the flower, it is not surprising that a 
similar phenomenon should take place in the floral axes of whatever 



• Eemer and Oliver, The Natural History of Plants, i. 739. 
t Asa Gray, Structural Botany, § 246, p. 129. 



M 2 

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164 RBLATIONSHIPS OF THE INDEFINITB INFLOBBSOENGBS. 

order. It is these two principles — namely, the degree of morpho- 
logical development and the development or non-development of 
certain internodes, together with the axiom of the maximum seed- 
production possible — which form the basis of the theory of intemodes. 

Considerable support in favour of the naturalness of these 
relationships may be gained from the facts of systematic botany. 
Thus it is possible to find all gradations between the solitary flower 
and the capitulum. Some Composita, for instance, have many 
hundreds, even thousands, of sessile flowers crowded into a single 
head, while in others there are only a few. In Echinops (the Globe- 
Thistles) each true head contains only a single flower. In some 
species of TrifoUum, such as T. alpinum L., the capitula are few- 
flowered, while in the majority of species the heads are crowded. 
That the capitulum is related to the umbel is shown in several 
Umbellifera, such as Kryngium, Sanicula, &c., where the inflorescence 
is a capitulum. In the Araliacew and Comace<B, orders nearly 
allied to the UmbellifercB, the inflorescence is either an umbel or a 
capitulum. 

Many instances might he quoted as to the near relationship of 
the solitary axillary flower and the members of the racemose 
family. It will perhaps suffice to mention the Orchidacem^ where 
the inflorescence is either a solitary flower, a spike, a raceme, or a 
panicle; and the Monotropem, where the inflorescence is either 
solitary, spicate, or racemose. The obvious relationships between 
the spike, raceme, and panicle need no special illustration ; examples 
may be found in many of the larger families. Lastly, the corymb 
is related to the raceme, since in most Cmcifei^a the immature 
inflorescence is corymbose, becoming, when fully developed, a 
raceme. 

The value of such evidence is not, however, very conclusive, 
since many nearly related geuera, and particularly species, possess 
inflorescences often very diverse. Such inflorescences may belong not 
only to the different types of the indefinite group, but also to both the 
indefinite and definite orders, or to a combination of the two. In 
the genus Trigouella, for instance, the inflorescence of nearly related 
species may be a solitary flower, a cyme, a capitulum, or a raceme. 
Apart from the causes which may have brought about these different 
forms, their development may perhaps be explained somewhat as 
follows. The inflorescence of all species of Orchids may be looked 
upon as having developed along the lines of the racemose type only, 
as demonstrated in the theory of internodes. In the genus Phytevma 
(CampanulacecB), where the inflorescence is either a spike or a 
capitulum, development may have taken place in some species 
along the racemose, in others along the umbellate lines. In the 
same way, in the genus TrigoneUa^ some species may have developed 
like those of Phyteuma, while others again have proceeded along a 
totally different line of development, the cymose. Mixed inflor- 
escences may perhaps be explained in the same way by assuming 
that a species has pursued both courses of development, definite 
and indefinite, at the same time, owing to a capacity for producing 
both axillary and terminal floral shoots. 



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sblati0n8hips of thb indefinite inflobb80bnce8. 165 

Inflobbsobngbs as Adaptations. 

The greatest support which can be brought forward in fovour of 
the relationships suggested in this paper may perhaps be gained from 
a consideration of the question why a particular form of inflorescence 
has been adopted by a plant. It is obvious that the varying forms 
possessed by nearly related species must have some special signi- 
ficance, and in light of modem research it can hardly be doubted 
that the explanation is to be found in the study of adaptation to 
environment. In the last few years great, perhaps the greatest, 
progress in vegetable biology has been made along these lines. 
This subject has engaged the attention of many of the greatest 
continental botanists, who have in the course of their magnificent 
researches ably expanded the principles which we owe in the first 
place to Darwin. Much of this work has a direct bearing on the 
relationships suggested by the theory of intemodes. 

In many cases one of the chief differences noticed in plants 
under altered conditions is an elongation or contraction of the 
intemodes. Thus, among the phenomena of ebiolation the elongation 
of the intemodes is a fairly constant feature, and has been shown by 
Godlewski* and by Mr. F. Darwin t to be a form of adaptation to 
droumstances. 

Bonnier,! in his researches on the effect of continual illumi- 
nation on plants, and particularly in his observations on the 
anatomical and morphological differences between species which 
grow both in alpine and arctic situations, has shown that one of 
the chief effects of such continual illumination is a contraction or 
rather a non-development of the intemodes. The development or 
non-development of certain intemodes, which is assumed as the 
basis of the above relationships, is therefore an extremely likely 
phenomenon under processes of altered conditions. There can be 
no doubt that plants do constantly change their habit, and in doing 
so most come face to face with altered conditions. In the Alps, for 
instance, many species essentially lowland in origin ascend even to 
high alpine places, where it is obvious that a very serious change 
of conditions in the plants' environment takes place. In our 
British flora there are many instances of species or varieties of 
plants found along oar coasts which differ more or less markedly 
from the inland mother species. In fact, the whole focies of a 
marine, an inland, and an alpine flora are altogether different, and 
it can hardly be doubted that these differences are due to the 
nature of the habitat of the plant. If this is the case, there is no 
reason why the inflorescences of a plant should be less liable to 
modification than any other detail ; on the contrary, we learn from 
Bonnier's researches that intemodal changes are most marked 
under altered conditions. The extreme modification which the 
flowers themselves undergo, and which have been shown by 

* GodlewsM, Biolog. CentralblaU, Oct. 15, 1889, Ao, 

t F. Darwin, Joum. B. Hort. Soo., March, 1896. 

X Bonnier, Bev. G6n. de Botan. vols, yi, A yii., 1894-5. 



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166 RBLATI0N8HIP8 OF THR INDBFIKITB INFLOBB80BNOB8. 

Darwin and others to be adaptations for oross-fertilization, is an 
additional argument in favour of the view that inflorescences form 
one of the simplest cases of adaptation to environment. 

Objbotions to thbsk Bblationships. 

I pass now to a brief consideration of the more obvious objections 
which may be raised to the sequence of these relationships. As has 
been already stated, most authors regard all indefinite inflorescences 
as modifications of the raceme. Thus iu Le Maout and Decaisne*s 
System of Botany the raceme is taken as the type, and the other 
forms derived ^m it. The umbel, for instance, is regarded as a 
raceme whose primary axis is undeveloped ; the spike as a raceme 
whose secondary axes are undeveloped ; the capitulum as a spike 
with vertically thickened and dilated primary axis. In the case of 
simple and compound umbels, since the outer flowers open first, 
'< we may conclude that the umbel is a compressed raceme."* 

In a recent paper on Inflorescences by M. Hy,f the following 
table is given : — 

Pbinoipal Vabiations of thb Bagemb. 

PeduncUs distinct. Peduncles short. 



( Elongated. Raceme. 
Internodalaxes | Very short. Umbel. 



Bpike. 



Capitulum. 



I have quoted these authors as typical of the views at present 
accepted, and it is obvious that they are directly opposed to the 
relationships set forth by the theory of intemodes. 

The main underlying principle of the at present accepted view 
is one of vertical suppression or contraction. For example, to get 
the umbel firom a raceme we must have direct contraction of tiie 
primary axis, just as one sees illustrated by the shutting up of an 
extended telescope. "Telescoping,** in fact, would take place. 
Such phenomena are extremely rare in the vegetable kingdom, and 
I venture to think that the view put forward by the theory of 
intemodes, namely, that the elongation of certain intemodes never 
takes place at all, is preferable to imagining that the same intemodes 
were at one time fuUy expanded, and afterwards contracted, as they 
must have done if the umbel was formed from the raceme. It is 
hardly possible, I think, to interpret Le Maout and Deoaisne's 
words to mean non-development in the first place. If, however, 
they are to be regarded in that light, then we have at once the 
theory of intemodes, and the derivation of all these forms from the 
raceme falls to the ground. The derivation of all types of indefinite 
inflorescence from the raceme also involves the development of 
simpler from more highly organized forms, and this, as has already 
been pointed out, is far from natural. There is also evidence that 
the chain of relationships is in many cases closer than any that can 
be imagined, if these forms are all derived from a raceme. 

* Hooker, ibid. p. 38. 

t M. F. Hy, Bev. (Hn. de Bot. vols. vi. A vii., 1894-^, p. 891, Ao. 



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BBLATIONSHIPS OP THE IKOBPINITB INFLORBSOBNGBS. 167 

Lastly, with regard to some of the weak points in the relation- 
ships alleged in this paper. The affinities of the capitulam are not 
perhaps so clearly marked as some of the other relationships, hut 
the parallelism between the oapitulum and the spike, and Ibetween 
the umbel and the raceme, as indicating the same degree of develop- 
ment along different lines, is an argument in favour of the position 
assigned here. The evidence of systematic botany is also strong, 
and several writers have more than hinted at the fact. Thus Asa 
Gray"*" says: '*An umbel with pedicels much abbreviated passes 
into a head, such as Eryngiwn, &c." 

The reasons for regarding the solitary flower as related to both 
the spike and capitulum have been fully dealt with in the theory of 
intemodes. It has been shown there that these are the two next 
simplest types, and, granted the two lines of development, the 
naturalness of the step is evident. 

With regard to the two lines of development, I may add that 
several authors have arrived at practically the same conclusion, 
approached from quite different points of view. Vinesf classifies 
simple indefinite inflorescences : — (a) With an elongate main axis : 
the spike, spadix, and raceme, (fi) with a short main axis : the 
capitulum and umbel. Goebel| : — {») Spicate inflorescences with 
an elongate rachis: the spike, spadix, and raceme. (/9) Spicate 
inflorescences with a shortened rachis : the capitulum and umbel. 

If, on the other hand, it is to be believed that all these forms of 
inflorescence can be traced along a single direct line of descent, and 
that, as Eemer asserts, the corymb is intermediate between the 
umbel and the raceme, then the relationships must be as follows: — 
Solitary axilliry — capitulum — simple umbel — corymb — raceme — * 
panicle. In this sequence it is obvious that the spike, a highly 
important form, has no place. That such a classificatiou is neither 
in accordance with the observed facts, nor with the principles 
involved, I have endeavoured to maintain in this paper. 

Relatumships of the Indefinite Inflorescences, 

SOLITABY AXILLARY. 

! 

SPIKE . OAPITULUM . 



COBYMB. 

I 

BAOBMB. BAOEIOB. UMBEL. 

I I 

COMPOUND COMPOUND 

BACBMB. UMBEL. 

* Asa Gray, Structural Botany, § 275, p. 147. 

t Vines, Text Book of Botany, p. 490. 

} Qoebel, Outlines of Classification, dbc, p. 407. 



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168 

ALABA8TBA DIVEBSA.— Part IV. 

Bt Sfbnobb Lb M. Moore, F.L.S. 

(Gontinaed from vol. zriii. p. 8.) 

Eurya amplexioaulis, sp. noy. Fratioosa, glabra, oaole folioso 
satis valido tereti leviter undulato-genioulato, foliis amplis breyissime 
petiolatis late ovatis basi oordatis necnon amplexicaulibus apice 
breviter cuspidatis obtusis serrulatis nitidis egregie reticulato- 
neryosis, floribus unisexaalibus mediocribas breyissime peduncu- 
latis, stylis florum a nobis soratatoram 4 liberis. 

Hab. Mt. Dnlangau, Mindoro ; John Whitehead ( Herb. Brit. Mus.) 

Gaulis 0*8-0*4 om. diam., apioem yersus pamm miniatus, 
mbesoens deinde plus minas oinereus, lentioeUis minutis emi 
nentibus oopiose instruotas. Folia ooriaoea, pleromque 8*0-11*0 cm 
long, (neonon minoribns 2*0-8*5 om. long, hao atque iliac inter 
calatis), juxta medium 4*0-6*0 cm. lat., snbtas pallidiora; costa 
media pag. sup. impressa, pag. inf. maxime eminens et rabescens 
et transyersim rugulosa; petioli 0*2-0*4 om. long., yalidi, rnbes- 
oentes. Fasciculi 2-8-flori. Pedunouli 0*1-0*2 cm. long., sub- 
tiliter pubescentes. Flores 0*6 cm. diam. Sepala rotnndata, 
margine breyiter membranacea, 0*25 cm. long. Petala deorsum 
connata, late oboyata, retusa, 0*6 cm. long. Oyarium sabglobosum, 
0*28 cm. long.; styli recuryi, 0*12 cm. long. Baoca et flores 
masculi baud obyii. 

The affinity of this seems to be with E. Macartneyi Champ., 
from Hong Eong; but it can readily be distinguished from all 
species of the genus by means of the amplexicaul leayes. The 
details of the floral structure— of the female flowers, that is — are in 
close agreement with those of E. Macartneyi^ as shown in Seem. 
Bot. Herald, t. 74, except that the flowers I examined haye four 
styles, whereas the styles of the other are described as being either 
three or four in number. 

NmoRBLLA ?PBDUN0XJULTA OUy. iu Jamos k Thmpp, Unknown 
Horn of Africa^ 819. Professor Oliyer was led to attach a query 
to the genus of this plant on account of the larger and less con- 
gested capitula, which giye it a somewhat difierent appearance ^m 
other Nidorellas. I haye recently dissected the flowers of the species 
under notice, two specimens of it, collected by Mrs. Lort Phillips 
in Somaliland, haying been, a few months ago, presented to the 
British Museum. Like Professor Oliyer, I failed in finding any 
floral characters to separate it from Nidorella ; the only additional 
feature noticed by me being that the ligules of the ray-florets are 
longer than usually obtains in the genus. The interesting point 
is that, while one of the two specimens just alluded to is exactly 
similar to the type-specimen at Eew, the second of them looks 
decidedly more lUie a Nidorella, inasmuch as its somewhat smaller 
heads are more congested than are those of the oUier. I can not, 
howeyer, see any ground for distinguishing this second specimen 
eyen by a yarietal name. 



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ALABABTBA DIYBBSA. 169 

CsMTAUEBA TiBGATA OsY. lo. tab. 280. This is referred by 
anthors {s.g. DeCandoUe, Prod. vi. 588 ; Njman, Conspeotas, 427 ; 
Willkomm & Lange, Prod. Fl. Hisp. ii. 156) to C. aBrtdescem 
Willd., a member of the § Aerolopkus, Among a large number of 
Compodta recently incorporated into the collection at the British 
Mnseam is Gavanilles* type of C. virgata, which, instead of being 
C, ctBnUescens, is reaUy C. intyhacea Lamk., belonging to the 
§ Ckeirolopkus. From this it might be supposed that the figure 
is very bad ; but such is by no means the case. The mistake made 
by the artist consists in carrying the oiliation too far down the sides 
of the involucral leaves, and this it is which has caused the plant 
to be wrongly placed in the genus. But for this slight though 
unfortunate blunder, the figure is really a fair one. 

Gbmtaurba oanabiensis Brouss. in Willd. Enum. Hort. Berol. 928. 
Three specimens of this extremely rare plant are in the British 
Museum Herbarium. Ail are labelled Teneriffe, and two of them, 
dated 1812, are Broussonet's own types. In an interesting collection 
from the Canary Islands purchased by the Museum from the Bev. B. P. 
Murray, of which a number of specimens have been passing through 
my hands, is a Centaurea wilh capitula exactly like those of C\ 
canarieiisis, bat its leaves, instead of being pinnatifid, show no sign 
of division. I therefore propose to distinguish it as : — 

Var. iNTEGBiFouA, var. uov. Folia oblanceolata, in petiolum 
alatum ima basi leviter ampliatum desinentia, deorsum remote 
denticulata, circa 5*0 cm. long., juxta medium 0*8-1*8 cm. lat. 
Tenerifie, June, 1895 ; Bev. R. P. Mwray (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

The Eew Herbarium has no specimen answering to the type 
form, but, on looking through the Canary Islands Centaureas there, 
I recognized the above-described variety (Orotava ; GusUiv Mann, 
Nos. 2459, 2479 in Herb. Kew.). 

Centaurea (§ Plbctooephalus) Bridgesii, sp.nov. Fruticu- 
losa ?, erecta, parce ramosa, scabriuscula, ramulis strictis deorsum 
foliofiis sursum nudis, foliis mediocribus sessilibus subdistanter 
pinnatisectis 5-6-jugi8 jugis anguste linearibus neo revera rhachide 
angustioribus, capitulis ramulos elongatos singillatim coronantibus 
late campanulatis glabris, involucri phyllis oblongis exterioribus in 
appendicem scariosam stramineam pectinato-partitam productis 
intimis quam exteriores longioribus apice membrana scariosa 
pectinato-ciliata coronatis. 

Hab. Coquimbo, Chile ; Bridges, No. 1897 (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

Planta saltem 80 cm. alt., verisimiliter altior. Badicem non vidi. 
Caulis ligneus, sursum obtuse angulatus, in longitudinem egregie 
striatus, 0*25 cm. diam. Internodia solemniter circa 1*0 cm. long, 
(ramuli vero unici juvenilis brevissima). Folia 5*0 cm. long., 
pleraque vero breviora, in sicco olivacea, eorum lobi 0*5-1*5 cm. 
long., foliorum summorum revera miniati. Capitula 8*0 cm. diam. 
Involucri phylla extima 0*2-0*4 cm. long. ; interiora circa 0*8 cm. 
long, et 0*2 cm. lat., eorum appendix 0*17 cm. long, et (cilioUs 
induMs) 0*4--0*5 cm. lat., dliola ntrinque 4-5, debilia; phylla 
intima 8*0 cm. attingentia, margine hyalina, interioribus sub- 



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170 ALABABTBA DIVBBSA. 

SBqailata ; phylla omnia plane in longitudinem pluristriata. Flos- 
cull S'5 om. long., verisimiliter albi. De reliquis inqaitendum. 

Apparently allied to C, chilemin Hook. & Arn., though the 
involucral scales show a decided approach to the § Cheirolophus, The 
habit is that of C. chilenm, but the leaves are more scattered and their 
lobes slenderer ; the capitula also are smaller and relatively longer. 
The narrow involucral leaves serve to distinguish it at once from 
C. ckilensis. The Museum specimen having but one mature capit- 
ulum, and that only in flower, it has been thought better not to 
remove a floret, as the head might thereby be injured at the 
insufficient cost of getting a sight of the immature achene and 
pappus. 

Cabbbnia benedicta Adans. (Cnicus benfdictus L.). A small but, 
to botanists, interesting result of the ** forward policy " in India is 
the inclusion of this plant in the flora of British India. A speci- 
men collected by Surg.-Lieut. Harriss, I.M.S., in the Dir Valley 
(Chitral Belief Expedition, 1895, No. 16281), is in the British 
Museum, and, coming from so isolated a spot, is not at all likely to 
have been a cultivated one. 

Crepis (§ Globcerat^e) Gillii, sp. nov. Subacaulis, caule crasso 
sparsim folioso mox furcato araneoso, foliis oblougis ^iouato-lobatia. 
vel subruncinatis obtusis plantas ipsse subeequilongis summis sc. iis 
ipsis sub pedunculis insertis flliformibus, capitulis numerosis con- 
gestis anguste cylindricis glabris vel fere glabris pedunculis com- 
planatis ea subaequautibus sufTultis, involucri phyllis exterioribus 
1-8 quam interiora 4 obloiiga vel ovato-oblonga obtusissima bre- 
vioribus, achaeniis oblongo-ovoideis sursuin brevissime sed eximie 
attenuatis eminenter 10-costatis pappo stramineo coronatis. 

Hab. Ba-ma-la Mountain, W. China ; Capt. Gill, Aug. 1877 
(Herb. Brit. Mus.). Also W. China; Pratt, Nos. 466, 482, 876 
(Herb. Kew.). 

Tota planta 60 cm. alt. et totidem diam. Caulis usque ad 
1*0 cm. diam., ejus r^imuli sub floribu;) parum ampliati. Folia 
inferiora usque ad 6*0 cm. long., modice 1*0 cm. lat., scabriuscula, 
ciliolata, eminenter 1-nervia; folia summa 2'0-2'6 cm. long., 
deorsum ampliata ibique decoloria, puberula. Pedunculi 1*0- 
1*6 cm. long., usque ad 0*15-0*28 cm. complanati, glabri vel 
puberuli. Involucri glabri vel puberuli 1*6 cm. long, vix 0*8 cm. 
diam. phylla exteriora flliformia, basi leviter ampliata, 1*0-1*2 cm. 
long.; phylla interiora 2 oblonga 0*8 cm. lat., 2 ovato-oblonga 
0*6 cm. long, semi-amplectentia, omnia margine hyalina, sursum 
atrata. Gorollsa tubus 1*0-1*8 cm. long. ; ligulsa anguste oblongSB, 
lutesB, deorsum in sicco atratas. AntheraB 0*6 cm. long., ^si 
setaceo-appendiculatsB, in sicco atrataa. Stylus ad 0*17 om. supra 
antheras exsertus, una cum ramis crebre papillosus. Achasnia 
0*2 cm. long., 0*16 cm. diam., basi leviter attenuata, sursum in 
coUum distinctum 0*06 cm. long, attenuata. 

Closely allied to G, glomerata Decaisne, from which it differs by 
reason of its less araneose stem, the greatly flattened peduncles, the 
longer and relatively narrower capitula, longer inner involucral 



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ALABA8TBA DIYBBSA. 171 

leaves, of which there are, at least in Gapt. Gill's specimen, always 
four, the two exterior considerably narrower than the two interior ; 
and lastly the aohenes, which are smaller than and dififerently shaped 
from those of C glomerata, and much more markedly costate and 
beaked than they are. 

The largest Eew specimen is about 8 cm. high, and nearly 
9 cm. in diameter at the top. 

Lagtuca Watsoniana Trelease. The identity of a plant alluded 
to in Mr. H. C. Watson's list of Azores Plants (Hook. Lond. Joam. 
Bot. iii. 615 (1844) ) as a '* larger-leaved plant, probably a Cmn- 
posita,** has never been cleared up. In Godman's Azores, Mr. Watson 
wrote (p. 187): — ** Another Lactucay of uncertain specific name, is 
mentioned by Droaet [Flore de$ Ilea Azores, p. 98] as inhabiting the 
Caldeira in Fayal. This may be the larger-leaved Oomposita men- 
tioned at the end of my former catalogue." In 1896 appeared 
Professor Trelease's Botanical Observations oii the Azores, and there 
(on p. 127) is shortly described, and in tab. 89 is figured, a large- 
leaved Lactuca, to which is applied the name L. Watsoniana, 
Professor Trelease remarking that it appears to be the Composite 
referred to by Watson and by Drouet. This surmise turns out to be 
correct, for Drouet's own specimen, which agrees perfectly with 
Trelease's figure, is in the British Museum Herbarium. Moreover, 
on looking through the undetermined Cmnposita at the Museum, 
I was fortunate in finding an old specimen, collected by Masson at 
Fayal in 1777, which Mr. Britten and I at once recognized as 
L. Watsoniana. To the fact of this specimen being without flowers 
is doubtless due its relegation to the end of Composita, a very good 
''shot" at ^e natural order having been made. The leaves of 
Masson's specimen are larger than those of Drouet's, the largest 
reaching 20 cm. in length by 18 cm. across at the widest part. 
The longest petioles are no less than 24 cm. long. This very fine 
plant I could not find in the Herbarium at Kew. 

Aptosimtun Randii, sp. nov. Pilis patulis hirsutulo-pubescens, 
ramuUs ascendentibus abbreviatis dense foliosis, foliis elongatis 
anguste lineari-oblanceolatis in petiolum brevem gradatim desi- 
nentibus apice pungenti-apiculatis membranaceis in sicco Itete 
viridibus, floribus subsessUibus, bracteis linearibus calyci sub- 
lequilongis, calycis brevissime tubulosi lobis linearibus corollam 
semisBquantibus, coroUsd tubo deorsum attenuato mox ampliato 
ipso sub limbo iterum leviter attenuato ejus lobis inter se sub- 
fequalibus, staminum anticorum antheris eas stt. posticorum duplo 
excedentibus, capsula obovoidea sursum compressa ibique pubescente. 

Hab. Buluwayo ; Dr. R. Frank Rand, Dec. 1897 (Herb. Brit. 
Mns.)* 

Caulis 5*0-6*0 cm. altus, rigidus, rufo-villosulis. Internodia 
pauoa inferiora usque 0*5 cm. long., pleraque vero breviora. Folia 
modice 6'0-8*0 cm. long., medio 0-85-0*5 cm. lat., puberula, 
marginibus albo-villosulis mox ciliolatis. Bracteaa vix 0*1 cm. lat., 
snrsnm attenuatsB, villosulsB. Calycis lobi lisque ad 0*15 cm. coaliti, 
1*0 cm. long., acuminati, villosuli. Corolla tota 2*0 cm. long., ejus 



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172 ALABASTRA DIVEBSA. 

tubus yillosulo-puberulus, juxta basin 0*1 cm. et medio 0*5 cm. 
diam., sub limbo usque 0*46 cm. attenuata; limbi circa 1-8 cm. 
diam. lobi late obovati, 0*7 cm. long, et lat., medio oculati. 
Staminum anticorum filamenta vix 0*5 cm. et anthersd 0*85 cm. 
long. Ovarium 0*2 cm. long., compressum, stylo 2*0 cm. long, 
coronatum. Gapsula 0*5 cm. long., vix totidem lat. Semina atra, 
subcylindrica, minutissime rugulosa. 

A species with the habit of A, pumiliim Bth. and the flowers of 
A» elongatum Engl. I have seen specimens of almost all tiie species 
of this genus, of which a considerable number have been described 
of recent years by German authors ; and, after comparing with the 
present plant the descriptions of those not represented in this 
country, have failed in finding one which will fit the former. Dr. 
Band informs me that this is a common plant at Buluwayo. 

Rhigozom linifolimn, sp. nov. Bamis sparsim foliosis tetra- 
gonis striatis spinas rectas validas hac atque iliac ferentibnsy 
ramulis foliiferis pulvinatim congestis ex axillis spinorum oriundis 
fulvo-tomentosis, foliis pro genere comparate elongatis congestis 
integris sessilibns vel brevissime petiolatis linearibus obtusis minute 
stellato-pubescentibus, pedunculis quam calyx brevioribus, calycis 
ampli stellato-pubescentis dentibus rotundatis, corollsd tubi parte 
oontracta calycem subaBquante parte superiori maxime ampliata, 
staminibus 5 quarum 2 altius insertis, ovario sessili compresso, 
fructu ? 

Hab. Damaraland ; T. G. Em, 1879 (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

Bami glabri, 0*2 cm. diam. ; intemodia 1*5-2*5 cm. long. 
Spinarum paria inasqualia vel subaBqualia, 0*5-0*8 cm. long., basi 
ipsa amplificata, mox glabra, eximie striata. Bamuli foliiferi 
0*2 cm. long., circa Ofoliati. Folia 1*0-1*5 cm. long., 0*1-0*2 cm. 
lat., deorsum leviter attenuata, membranacea. Pedunculi 0*2- 
0*8 cm. long., pubescentes. Calyx totus 0*5-0*8 cm. long, et 
totidem lat. ; ejus lobi 0*1 cm. long., 0*25 cm. lat. Corolla tota 
2*0 cm. long.; tubus extus puberulus, deorsum 0*4 cm. lat., ad 
0*5 cm. supra basin subito usque 1*4 cm. dilatatus ; limbus paullo 
ultra 2-5 cm. diam. attingens. Filamenta 0*5 cm. long., complanata; 
antheraB oblong», 0*85 cm. long. Ovarium ambitu oblongum, sur- 
sum gradatim et leviter attenuatum, 0*8 cm. long. Stylus com- 
planatus, sub apice parum clavatus, 20 cm. long. ; stigmutis lobi 
ovati, 0-1 cm. long. 

This is a noteworthy addition to a small South African genus. 
The lateral branches transformed into spines, together with the 
linear leaves and broad calyx, are points by which it can easily be 
recognized. 

Triohospomm (§ HAPLOTKicmuM) Forbesii» sp. nov. Epi- 
phyticum, caule sat tenui elongato radicante sparsim ramoso, 
foliis mediocribus ovatis vel lanceolato-ovatis rare lanceolatis 
acuminatis, pedicellis binis raro solitariis foliis multo brevioribus 
tenuibus tomentellis, corolla 4*0 cm. long, a basi gradatim ampli- 
ficata coccinea. 

Hab. Sogeri Begion, New Guinea; H. O. Forbes^ Nos. 48, 
218a, 880 (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 



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ALABA8TRA DIVERSA. 178 

Gaulis pilis spargis patulis plus minus obteotus, deinde glaber. 
Rami angulati vei subteretes, pallide straminei, 0'2--0*4 cm. diam. ; 
internodia 5-0-10*0 em. long, ramulorum juvenilium vero breviora. 
Folia 6*0-10-0 cm. long., 1-2-4*0 cm. lat., basi cuneata, ooriacea, 
obscure nervosa, evanide puberula; petioli 0*5-1*0 cm. long., 
incrassati. Pedicelli 0*5-1-8 cm. long. BractesB bracteol»que 
lineares, 0-2 cm. long., in exemplariis scrutatis nonnunquam 
obsoletflB siqnidem baud dilapsaB. Calycis pubescentis segmenta 
0*5 cm. long., linearia. Corolla juxta basin vix 0-2 cm. lat., sub 
limbo fere 1*5 cm. attingens, deorsum glanduloso-pubescens sursum 
glabrior; lobi erecii, glanduloso ciliolati, anteriores late ovati, 
1*8 cm. long., posteriores late oblongi. Filamenta breviter exserta, 
pilosula; anthers ovataB, 0*1 cm. long. Stylus vix exsertus, 
glandulosO'puberulus. Capsula ? 

A species allied to T. longijUtrum 0. Euntze {Mschynanthut 
Umgifiora T>G.), but differing from it in the smaller leaves, short 
calyx, shorter and relatively broader corolla with broad lower-lip 
lobes which are markedly larger than those of the upper lip, and 
smaller anthers. 

Trichospomm (§ Haplotbiohium) breviflorom, sp. nov. 
Glabra, foliis lanceolato-ovatis caudato-acuminatis, floribus sparsis 
parvis brevipedunculatis, calycis glabri alte 5-partiti segmentis 
0*5 cm. long, linearibus, coroll» extus glabrsB tubo vix 1*0 cm. 
long, a basi gradatim et pro longitudine insigniter ampliato, ore 
parum obliquo, staminibus vix exsertis. 

Hab. Negros Island; John Whitehead (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

Bamuli subpatentes, elongati, attenuati. Folia carnosa, modica 
4-0-4*5 cm. long., juxta medium 1*0-1*5 cm. lat., basi acuta, 
petiolis glabris 0-2-0-4 cm. long, fulta. Pedunculi 0*2-0*45 cm. et 
pedicelli usque 0*4 cm. long. Gorollsd verisimiliter coccineaB vel 
purpureo-coccineaB tubus ima basi 0-2 cm., medio 0*5 cm., sub 
limbo 0*7 cm. diam. ; limbi lobi anteriores ovatorotundati, ob- 
tusissimi, anteriores fegre 0*6 cm. long., posteriores quam anteriores 
altius connati. 

This seems to come nearest T, philippinense 0. Euntze {M. phi- 
lippinensis Clarke), with which, except for the flowers, it is remark- 
ably homoplastic. The flowers are, however, quite different. The 
small calyx and the very short and relatively broad corolla are 
points by which the new species can at once be told, not only &om 
T. phUippinensey but, indeed, from all its known congeners native to 
the Indian Archipelago. 

Trichosporam (§ Haplotbichium) nmnmulariom, Burkill & 
8. Moore, sp. nov. Bepens, radicans, foliis miniatis subsessilibus 
late ovato-cordatis obtusis subtus minute tomentosis, pedunculis 
nunc sparsis nanc approximatis abbreviatis 1-2- rarissime 8-floris 
fulvo-tomentellis, calycis alte partiti segmentis oblongo-linearibus, 
corolla 8-0 cm. long, deorsum plus minus fulvo-tomentella sursum 
glabriore coccinea vel purpurea. 

Hab. Sogeri Begion, New Guinea, 2000-2500 ft. ; H. O. Forbes, 
No8. 114, 181, 511, 801 (Herb. Brit. Mus.). Between the south coast 
and the Owen Stanley range, 4000-5000 ft. ; Burke (Herb. Eew.). 



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174 ALABA8TBA DIVBRSA. 

Gaolis orebru ramosus fulvo-tomentosus deinde glaber ; ramuli 
nonnnnquam elongati ; internodia 0'8-l*5 cm. long. Folia modica 
10-1*8 cm. long, (pauca vero 1-8 cm. attingnnt), 0-9-1-2 cm. rare 
usque 1*5 cm. Tat., carnosa, obscure nervosa; petioli 0*1-0*2 cm. 
long., tomentelli. Pedicelli attenuati, 1'0~1'2 cm. long., tomentelli. 
BractesB et bracteolaB obsolete. Galycis segmenta 0*25 cm. long., 
0*07 cm. lat., obtusa, puberula. Corolla infundibularis, deorsum 
fere usque ad 0*12 cm. diam. attenuata, ima basi subito dilatata 
ibique 0'22 cm. diam. attingens, sursum gradatim usque ad 0*6- 
0*8 cm. amplificata; os parum obliquum; lobi erecti, anteriores 
0*85 cm. long, et 0*4 cm. lat., labium posticum 0*5 cm. long. 
Stamina breviter exserta; filamenta pilosula; anthers oblongsB, 
0*18 cm. long. Stylus abbreviatus, inclusus, fere omnino glaber. 
Capsula non suppetebant. 

A very distinct species, apparently coming nearest T, podocarpum 
0. Enntze (/E. poiiocaiya Clarke), a plant known to me only by the 
description in Mr. Clarke'H excellent monograph. The peculiar 
leave-s, the relatively long pedicels, the small calyx, and curiously 
shaped corolla, together with the oblong anthers a!nd short included 
style (though the latter character may, of course, not be constant), 
are features whereby it may be easily distinguished. 

Mr. H. 0. Forbes*s rich collection, made in the Indian Archi- 
pelago, contains further examples of this genus, namely — 

T, longifiorum 0. Euntze (/©. longiflora DC), 

South-east Java. No. 10486. 

Has all the characters of T, longifiorum, as distinguished from 
those of 7\ speciosum, except that the calyx is short like the latter's. 

T. Teysmannianum 0. Euntze {M, Teysmanniana Miq.). 

South-east Java. Nos. 817, 1000, 1010, 1048c. 

A fine series of specimens of this exceedingly rare species. The 
only authentic specimens of this seen by me are two small garden 
scraps in the Eew Herbarium. As might be supposed, the leaves 
of some of Mr. Forbes's specimens diverge somewhat from the 
typical form ; others are typical except for possessing fewer hairs. 
The Sowers of all agree closely with those of the Eew specimens. 

T. Zollifigeni 0. Euntze (jE. ZoUingerii Clarke). 

South-east Java. No. 1009. 

The species was founded on a specimen in the British Museum 
collected by Zollinger. Mr. Forbes's has a somewhat longer corolla 
(4*5 cm. long), with the tube broader under the limb, and the limb 
itself somewhat larger ; in other respects it agrees with the type. 

T, geminatum 0. Euntze {M, geminata Zoll.). 

South-east Java. No. 1011. 

I have adopted D. Don's earlier name for this genus. Much as 
one regrets disturbing established nomenclature, there seems no 
possibility of ignoring Don's work. 

DioHOTBioHUM PAPUANUM {Chalmersia papuatia F. MuelL). A fine 
speoimen at the Museum gathered by Mr. Forbes in the Bogeri 



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MEBI0NBTH8HIRS MOSSES. 176 

Region of New Guinea (No. 776) agrees precisely with Baron 
Maeller's type at £ew. 

Chirita (§ Eu-Ohirita) Forbesii, sp. nov. Foliis ellipticis 
breviter acumlDatis supra scaberrimis subtus hirsutis, pedunculis 
fascicnlatis, involucri phyllis late ovatis 0*5 cm. long., pedicellis 
solitariis vel binis 0*5-2*0 cm. long., calycis 1*0 cm. long, dentibus 
0*8 cm. long, triangulari-deltoideis. 

Hab. Sumatra ; H. 0. Forbes, No. 1880 (Herb. Brit. Mus.). 

Planta verisimiliter erecta facie C, Blumn Clarke. Gaulis pilis 
strigosis artioulatis albis onustus, in longitudinem sulcatus. Folia 
opposita, oonsimilia, insequalia. majora 16*0 x 9*0 cm., minora 
7*0-8-0 X 8*5 X 4*5 cm., basi rotundata, ooriacea, crenulata; 
coste secundarife utrinque 12-17, raro pauciores; petioli 1*0- 
5*0 cm. long. Pedunculi plerique 2-4ni, 8*0-4*0 cm. long., 
pnbernli, mox fere glabri. BracteaB more eectionis omnino liber®, 
extus paberulse. Pedicelli fere glabri. Gal.vcis fere glabri dentes 5, 
acutflB. Corolla 8*0 cm. long., infundibularis, extns fere omnino 
glabra. Stamiuum fertilium filamenta vix 1*2 cm. long., deorsum 
oomplanata, sursum teretia; antiierse fulvo-barbatffi, 0*12 cm. long.; 
staminodia 0*5 cm. long., apice villosa. Ovarium cum stylo 1*5 cm. 
long., minutissime fulvo-pubescens. Capsula nondum matura 
7*5-8*0 cm. long., 0*15 cm. diam., subteres. 

A plant treacberously like 0, Blumei Clarke, but the free bracts 
must keep it out of § Liebigia, The corollas are somewhat different 
from those of C. Blwmi, being a little shorter and narrower in the 
tube ; the anthers are smaller and bearded on the connective ; the 
ovary is slender and not flattened, and the subterete capsule is 
quite different from the broad capsule of the other species. Some 
of the Museum specimens referred to C, Blumei, however, and 
notably Zollinger's (No. 911), have slender capsules, and this 
creates the suspicion that two distinct species may have been given 
this name. 



MERIONETHSHIRE MOSSES. 
By J. E. Baonall, A.L.S. 

In July, 1898, I spent a week with Alderman Holden at his 
bungalow on the banks of the Afon Prysor, a mountain stream 
rising in Llyn Conlog, about four miles and a half north-west of 
the Arenig; and as my host was as keen a lover of mosses as 
myself, most of our time was spent in collecting and studying those 
growing within a mile radius of the bungalow. 

The valley of the Afon Prysor is narrow, surrounded by moun- 
tains, and near the source of the river is crossed by the beautiful 
viaduct of the Bala and Festiniog railway. In its upper reaches both 
the valley and the river bed are filled with boulders of every shape 
and size, many of them being quite colossal ; these are clothed with 
AndreaBas, Grimmias, and other rock-loving species, and yielded us 
many charming and interesting species. The rocks of the valley 



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176 MBBI0NBTH8HIRB M08BB8. 

are similar to those of the Arenig, the Lower Ordivician, I believe, 
greyish igneous rocks, with here and again sparkling white masses 
of auriferous quartzite. The subsoil is a cold, compact, impervious 
boulder clay, apparently perfectly free from any trace of calcareous 
matter ; nor did we find any evidence of lime in the district, the 
river- water being as soft as rain-water, hence probably the absence 
of many of the limestone-loving species. The mountain sides, 
which are thinly clothed with grass, are to a great extent unpro* 
ductive marsh and bog. The flora seems scanty, and scarcely 
alpine in character, belonging mostly to what Mr. Hewett G. 
Watson termed the '* British Type,'' and, with one or two excep- 
tions, all of them plants we find on our Staffordshire moorlands. 
The more noticeable are Nymphaa lutea* Ccutalia 9peciota,\ Drosera 
rotundifoliay Viola palustrisy V. lutea^ Ssdum anglicum^ Wahlenbergia 
hederacea^* Vaccinium Vitis-Idaa,\ V. MyrtiUus, Myosotis repmSf 
Menyanthes trifoliata* PingiUctda vulgarU, Envpetrum mgrum^\ 
Habematia chlorolettca, a few specimens ; Nat-thecium omfragum^ 
Soirptis caspitosuSf Eriophorum vaginatum, E. angusH/oUum, Carex 
curta,* G, binerviSf C. acutiformis,* Nardus^ Molinia varittf Festuca 
vivipara, and allies ; Lomaria spicant, Asplenium Trichomanss^ A, 
Adianlum'tUgt'um, Athyrium FUiX'/cBminay A. erectum, Lastraa Oreo- 
pteris* L. paleacea, Phegopteris polypodioides, Lycopodium Selago^ 
L. clavatumy\ L, alpinumyi and at from 1000 to 1200 ft. above sea- 
level, Rubus id(BU8, /?. obtusifoUus,* R, Selmeri, R. leucostachy$y 
R, pallidus Bab., Rosa tomentosa and R. dumalis were growing, 
vigorous and full of promise for fruit. But the mosses were abun- 
dant. Sphagnum growing by the acre, rich in variety and with great 
masses fruiting freely. The season was a dry one, or many of the 
places we visited would have becQ impassable. The following are 
the localities we collected from, with their height above sea-level, 
and to save space I have numbered each of these, quoting these 
numbers after each species collected there. 

1. Llyn Tryweryn; 1267 ft. This is near the Arenig, two 
miles south-east of the Afon Prysor, and its waters flow into an 
affluent of the Dee. 

2. Llyn Conlog-mawr ; 1877 ft. 
8. Llyn Conlog-bach ; 1880 ft. 
4. Llyn-du-baoh ; 1440 ft. 

6. Lljrn-y-garn ; 1449 ffc. 

6. Llyn-corsy-bocud ; 1500 ft. 

7. Afon Prysor ; 1000 to 1200 ft. 

8. Corsant-y-Gasey ; 1000 to 1600 ffc. ; a beautiful waterfall by 
Moel-y-Slates. 

9. Moel-y- Slates; 1871 ft. 

All these form part of the watershed of the Afon Prysor, whose 
waters fall into Cardigan Bay. 

* The plants above named marked thus * are not recorded in Topographical 
Botany for Merionethshire; those plants marked f are given wi&out an 
authority attached. 



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VBBIOMBTHBHIBB 1I088B8. 



n1 



Sphagnum cymhifolium Ehrh. ; 1, 6, 9. — y congeatum Sohp. ; 4. 
— S. papillosum Ldb. ; 1, 8, 6, 9. — p confertum Ldb. ; 1, 7, 9. — 
y ftsnophyllum Ldb, ; 7, 9. — S» rigtdum Sohp. ; 1,2, 8, 6, 7, 9. — 
ji campactum Schp. ; 9. — 5. molle /3 Mullen Braith. ; 7. — y tenerum 
Braith. ; 4, 9. — S. teneUum Ehrh. ; 1, 4, 9. — S, subsecundum Nees ; 
4, 6, 9. — 13 contortum Schp. ; 4, 6, 9.—^ obesum Schp. ; 7, 9. — 
» viride Bonl. ; 9. — S, teres Angstr. ; 9. — S. acutifolium Ehrh. ; 1, 
4, 8. — P rubellwn Buss. ; 1, 7, 9. — y teiiellum Schp. ; 4. — • eUgans 
Braith. ; 1, 8, 9. — f purpureum Sohp. ; 1, 4, 8. — tfuscum Schp. ; 
4, 9. — X arctutn Braitii. ; 9. — h luridum Hiib. ; 9. — ja patulum Schp. ; 
9. — V IceU'Virens Braith. ; 1, 4. — 5. Jimbriatum Wils. ; 1, 4, 7. — 5. 
intermedium RoSm, ; 1, 7, 9. — 8. cuspidatum Ehrh. ; 4. — y plumosum 
N. & H. ; 4. 

Andreaa petropkila Ehrh. ; 1, 7. — A. rothii W. & M. ; 7, 9. — 
y hamata Lind. ; 1,—^falcata Lind. ; 7, 9. 
Tetraphis pellucida Hedw. ; 7. 

Catharinea undtdata W. & M. ; generally distributed. — C erispa 
James ; 1, 7. 

Oligatrichum ineurvum Ldb. ; 1, 4, 7, 8, 9. 
Polytrichum aloides Hedw. ; 7. — P. umigerum L. ; 7. — P. rtZpintiw 
L. ; 4, 7. — P. piliferum Sohreb. ; generally distributed. — P. juni- 
perinum Willd. ; 4, 9. — P. strictum Banks ; 8, 4, 9. — P. formosum 
Hedw.; 1, 4, 7, 9. — P. commune L. ; generally distributed. — 
)8 perigoniale B. & S. ; 9. — ? mtnt« Weis. ; 7. 
Diphyscium foliosum Mohr ; 1, 2, 7. 
PUuridium axillare Ldb. ; 7. — P. suhulatum Bab. ; 7. 
Ditrichum homomallum Hpe. ; 1, 4, 7, 9. 
Ceratodon purpureas Brid. ; general. 

Bhahdoweima Jugax B. & S. ; 7, 9. — R. denticulata B. & S. ; 
7.8. 

Dichodontium pellu^ddttm Schp. ; 8, 4, 5, 6, 9. — D, flavescens 
Ldb.; 7. 

Dicranella heteromalla Schp.; general. — ^sericea Schp.; 7. — 
D, cerviadata Schp. ; 7. — 1>. rufescens Schp. ; 7. — 1>. varia Schp. ; 
7. — Z>. Schreberi p elata Sohp. ; 8. — 1>. squarrosa Sohp. ; 4, 7, 9. 
Blindia acuta B. & S. ; 4, 8, 9. 
Dicranoweissia cirrata Ldb. ; 7. 

Campylopus fleamostu Brid. ; 4, 7, 9. — y paradoxus Husn. ; 9. — 
C. pyri/ormis Brid. ; 7, 9. — C. /ro^/w B. & S. ; 6, 8, 9.— C. atro- 
virens De Not. ; general. 

Dicranum Bonjeani De Not. ; 7, 8. — ^forma rugifolium Bosw. ; 
7. — 1>. scoparium Hedw. ; general. — y orthophyllum Brid. ; 4. — D. 
majus Turn. ; 7, 9. 

Leucobryutn glaucum Schp. ; 1, 7, 8, 9. 

Fisndens exilis Hedw. ; 4. — F, incurvus Starke ; 7. — F. tama- 
rindifolius Wils. ; 7. — /*'. bryoidrs Hedw. ; 7. — F. osmundoides Hedw. ; 
4, 7. — F. adiantoides Hedw. 6, 7. — F. decipiens De Not. ; 7. — F. 
taxifoUus Hedw. ; 7. 

Grimmia apocarpa Hedw. ; general. — /3 rivxdans W. & M. ; 7. — 
ygraeiUsyf.&'Mi.; 7. — 6^. puZvtnato Sm. ; general. — G. trichophyUa 
Journal of Botany. — Vol. 87. [Apbil, 1899.] n 



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i?8 MBStONBTHBHIBB llOBSSS. 

Grev. ; 6, 7. — G» decipiem Lindb. ; 4. — G. patens B. & S. ; 8, 9. — 
G, Doniana Sm. ; 6, 7. — G. ocata Schwgr. ; 5, 9. 

Hhacomitnum elUplicum B. & S. ; 4, 9. — R. acictUare Brid. ; 1, 
2, 8, 4, — (i detiHculatum Wils. ; 1, 4, 6, 7, 9. — R. protensnm Brann. ; 
1, 4, 6, 7, 9. — R. fasciculare Brid. ; 4, 7, 8, 9. — R. heterostichum 
Brid. ; 1, 8, 7, 9. — ^ alopecurum Hiib. ; 8, 7. — obtusum Lindb. ; 
7, 9. — y gracile$cen$ B & S. ; 7, 9. — R. sudeticum B. & S. ; 4. — jR. 
lanuginosum Brid. ; general. — R, canescens Brid. 8, 7. — p ericoides 
B. & S. ; 7. 

Ptychomitrium polyphyllum Fum. ; general. 

Hedwigia ciliata Ebrh. ; 7. 

Phascum cuspidatum Sobreb. ; 7. 

Pottia truncatula Ldb. ; 7. 

Tortula muralu Hedw. ; general. — p rupeatris Wils. ; 7. 

Barhula rubella Mitt. ; general. — ^ dentata Mitt. ; 8. — B. 
tophacea Mitt.; 7. — ^B. fallax Hedw.; 1, 7. — B, rigidvla Mitt.; 
7. — B. tpadicea Mitt. ; 8, 7. — B. cylindrica Schp. ; 1, 8. — B. 
vinealis Brid. ; 4, 8. — J5. revoluUt Brid. ; 7. — B, convoluta Hedw. ; 
general. — B. mguiculaUi Hedw. ; general. — p cmpidata Braitb. ; 7. 

Weissia viridula Hedw.; 7. — W. tenma C.M. ; 4. — W. rupestris 
CM. ; 2, 8, 4, 7, S.—W. cuiDiroHiis C.M. ; 8. 

Tiichostomum crispiUum Brucb; 1, 8, 4, 7. — T. tenuiroMtre 
Ldb. ; 4. — T. toftuomm Dixon ; 6, 7. 

Cinclidotus fontinaloides P.B. ; 4. 

Eficalypta streptocarpa HedW. ; 7. 

Zygodon Mougeotii B. & S. ; 7, 8. 

Ulota Bruchii Hornsob. ; 7. — U. aispa Brid. ; 7. — fi intermedia 
Dixon ; 7. 

Onhotrichum rupestre Scleiob ; 7. — 0. leiocarpwn B. & S. ; 7. 
— O. a/^ii« Sobrad. ; 1, 7. — straminetim Homscb. ; 7. 

SpLachnum sphaticum L. ; 2, 8, 4, 7. 

Physcomitrium pyrifotine Brid. ; 7. 

Funaria fascicularU Scbp. ; 7. — F, eticetorum Dixon; 7. — F. 
Templstoni Sm. ; 7, 8. — F. hygrometrica Sibtb. ; 7, 8. 

AtUacomnium palustre Scbwgr. ; general. — A. androgynwn 
Bobwgr. ; 4. 

Bartramia pomiformis Hedw. ; 6, 7, 9. 

Philonotis Jontana Brid. ; general. — P. caspitoaa Wils. ; 1, 9. — 
P. calcarea Sobp. ; 1, 

BretUelia arcuata Sobp. ; general. 

Webera polymorpha Scbp. ; 7. — W, acuminata Sobp. ; 7. — W. 
elongata Scbp.; 5, 7. — W. nutans Hedw.; general. — filongiseta 
B. &8.; l.—W. albicans Scbp.; 4, 1,—W. camea Scbp.; 7.— 
W. annotina Scbwgr. ; 9. 

Plagiobiyum Zierii Lindb. ; 4. 

Bryumjiliforme Dicks ; 7, 8. — B. lacustre Brid. ; 7. — B. incU- 
natum Bland. ; 7, 9. — B. pallens Sw. ; 4, 7, 9. — B. bimum Sobreb. ; 
8, 7, 9. — B. pseudo-ttiquettum Scbwg. ; 4, 7, 9. — B. cmpiUcium L.; 
general. — B, capiiiare L. ; general. — tflaccidum B. & 8. ; 7. — B. 
aipinum Huds. ; 1, 7. — B. argenteum L. ; 7. 



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HERI0NETH8HIBB MOSSES. l79 

Mfdum undulatum L. ; general. — M, hojtium L. ; general. — M, 
serratum Schrad. ; 1. — M. punctatum L. ; 7, 8. 

Fondnalis antipyretica L. ; 1, 7> 8. 

Neckera cn'spa Hedw. ; 5. 

Homalia trichomanoides Brid. ; 7. 

Pterygophyllum lucent Brid. ; 7. 

PterogorUum gracUe Sw. ; 6. 

Porotrichum alopecurum Mitt. ; 7. 

Heterodadium heteropterum B. & S. ; 7, 8, 9. 

Thtndium tamariscinum B. & S. ; general. — T. r^co^ittim Ldb.; 
8,7. 

CUmacium dendroides W. & M. ; 8, 7, 9. 

Isothecium myurum Brid. ; 4, 7. 

Plefiropus sericeiu Dixon ; 7. 

Braehyihecium albicans B. & S. ; 7. — B. rutabulum B. &. S. ; 6, 
7. — B, velutinum B. & S. ; general. — B. populeum B. & S. ; 7. — 
B. plumosum B. & S. ; 7. — /3 homomaUum Scbp. ; 9. B. purtim 
Dixon ; 7.. 

Hyocomium flagdlare B. & S. ; 1, 4, 7, 9. 

Eurhynchiwn pralongum B. & S. ; 7. — ^^ Stokesii L. Cat. Ed. ii. ; 
7. — E, myosuroides Scbp.; general. — E, striatum B. & 8. 7. — -E. 
ruseiforme Br. & Schp. ; general. — E. murals Milde ; 7. — J&. con- 
fertum Milde : 7. 

Plagiothecium Borrerianum Spr. ; 7. — P. denticulatum B. & S. ; 
7. — y majtis Boul. ; 7. — P. sylvaticum B. & S. ; 6, 8. — P. wndu- 
ia<i«»» B. & S. ; 4, 7, 8, 9. 

Amhlystegium serpens B. & S. ; general. — ^i^. varium Lab. ; 7. — 
A.filicinum De Not. ; 1, 8, 7, 8, 9. 

Hypnum lipanum L. ; 7. — H. stellatum Sohreb. ; 6, 7, 9. — H. 
aduncum Hedw. ; 1, 7, 9. — H. fluitam L. ; 1, 7, 9. — H, exannvlatum 
Giimb. ; 7. — H, uncinatum Hedw. ; 7. — H. revolvens Sw. ; 7. — H. 
intermedium Ldb. ; 1, 4. — H, commutatum Hedw. ; 7. — H./alcatum 
Brid. ; 7, 9. — H. cupressiforme L. ; 7. — yjiliforme Brid. ; 7.-8 mmu« 
Wils. ; 9. — f ericetorum B. & S. ; 7. — v tectorum Brid. ; 7. — if. mol- 
luseum Hedw. ; 7. — H. palustre L. ; 4, 7. — y subspharicatpoH B. & S. ; 
8, 8. — ^H. eugyiium Schp. ; 7. — H, ochraceum Turn. ; 7. — ffjlaccidum 
Milde ; 7. — ti. scorpioides L, ; 1, 4, 7, 9. — H, stramineum Dicks. ; 
1, 7, 9. — H. sarmentosum Wahl. ; 2, 7, 9. — H, cuspidatum L, ; 
general. — H. Schreberi Willd. ; 4, 7, 9. — H. splendens B. & 3. ; 
general. — H. loreum B. & S. ; 7. — H. «^i«arro«t«»» B. & B. ; general. — 
$ ealvescens Hobk. ; 7. — H. triquetrum B. & 8. ; 8. 



N 2 

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180 



SHORT NOTES. 

De Ghbomotaxia in ubum Botanicobum et Zoologorum. — Cnm 
esset jam compertum quam vage non raro et incerte nomina colornm, 
praBcipue latina, naturalistsB interpretentor et quo scientiaB damno, 
anno 1891 non sine longo examine et studio opellam digerere oonatus 
sum, praxi tantum dicatam, qusB auxilio speciminum coloratorum 
stabilitatem et claritudinem quandam in hoc gravi negotio afferret. 
PrsBfationem opellsd his verbis ooncludebam : *' naturalistsB si in hoc 
Chromotaxia tentamine mendas inveniant, velint benigne corrigere ; 
approbatum vero jugiter sequantur, ut ubique nomenclatura colorum 
unica et certa habeatur." Bevera cum plurimi naturalistsB, tam 
ex Europa quam ex America et Australia, conatum meum non solum 
approbavissent sed etiam in scriptis suis adhibuissent, exhausta jam 
prima opellsB editione, anno 1894 alteram edidi in essentialibus cum 
prima identicam ; quo factum est ut et, quoad colores, naturalistarum 
nomenclatura magis uniformis et certior de die in diem facta sit. 
Bebus sic stantibus, non sine stupore in hujus Diarii n. 486 perlegi 
dissertationem eruditissimi B. D. Jackson, titulo : A Review of the 
Latin Tenns used in Botany to denote Colour, CI. auctor, qui certe 
difficultates Botanices descriptivse nunquam expertus est, cum 
validitatem Chromotaxia objectionibus sane futilibus infirmet, cum 
dubia prisca renovet et potissimum cum exhibeat Gonspectum 
colorum multo magis vagum et incertum et nullis speciminibus 
coloratis declaratum, in confusionem pristinam nos jactat. Ubi 
scientise utiles esse velimus oportet, si aliqnid castigemus, opera 
nostra sit aptior et utilior.* Non negarem Chronwtaxiam meam, 
maxime quoad colores ajfflnesy leviter claudicare (nam quid certi 
scimus de iis ex auctoribus antiquis et ex lexicis ?), at cum sit soli 
USUI dicata, cum sit jam fere a novennio a compluribus acoepta et 
adhibita, cum postremo sit speciminibus coloratis oonstantibus 
exacte prsefinitam, Botanicos et Zoologos enixe rogo velint ea uti 
pergere. — ^P. A. Sacoardo. 

Lamium album iNTSGBiFOLiUM Noltc (p. 181). — Mr. Arthur 
Bennett, whose sharp eye nothing escapes, sends me the following 
references to this plant : — 

'* L. album p integnfoHum Nolte, foliis integerrimis vel sub- 
denticulatis." Bonder, Fl. Hamburg., 828 (1851). 

" L. albiwi p integrifolium Nolt. (Hans. Herb. 1028). L. parte- 
tariafoliwn Benth. Bladene heelrandede, fegformede, de ovre 
smalere.'' Lange, Handb. Danske Flora, ed. 8, 440 (1864). 

•* L. album (L.) f. parietaruBfolium (Bentham) (integrifoUum 
Nolte in Hansen Hb. 1028 ohne Beschreibung und Fundort) : 
Blatter ganz randig ; niolle Nolte bei Beichbach fil. S. 26. Deezbiill 
in der Tonderner Marsch (Jorgensen) (Henniges 29 !) ; Flensburg : 
bei Jiirgensens Villa (Griinwald 71) 1 '' — Prahl, Krit. Flora Prov. 
Schleswig-Holstein, ii. 169 (1890).— James Bbitten. 

* Laadandus ol. Jackson ob Bibliographiam operom de ooloribuB traotan- 
tiom, sed multo magis esset laudandus si multa nomina nova oolonun, ^U89 ez 
libris variiB hausit, Chromotaxia nomeris insemiBset, potios quam— oonfasionein 
angens I — in sais novis seotionibos. 



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FBANOIS BAUEB's * DBLIMBATIONS OF BZOTIO PLANTS.' 181 

PsAMicA BALTioA. — Sino6 writing the note on p. 186, I see that 
the Bev. E. Trimmer, in his Nori^olk Flora, gives *' Titohwell" as a 
looalitj for Psamma arenaria and for CalamagrosHs Epigejos, Titoh- 
well has salt-marshes, brackish ditches, and a sandy shore, so that, 
though probably not in juxtaposition, the two plants would be not 
very distant from each other. I can find no other record of the two 
species in Britain growing so close together. — ^Abthub Bbnnett. 

N. Hants Plants. — On June 17th, 1898, I found the following 
near Fleet Pond; — Rubus Koehleri W. & N. var. cognatus (N. E. 
Brown). By the road on the N. side. — Orchis incanmta L. A form 
with pate white flowers abounds in a swamp at the S.W. end, the 
rosy-flowered plant being much scarcer. — Enophortim angusHfolium 
Both, var. longifoUum Hoppe. Plentiful about a mile to the S.W. 
— Carex Homschuchiana X Oedsri, Near the 8. shore, sparingly ; 
I am not sure whether type- O^ci^ri or var. oedocarpa Anderss. {flava, 
mmor of Townsend) was the second parent, as boUi grew at the spot. 
— ^Edwabd S. Mabshall. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTES. 
XYJJI. — ^Fbanois Baubb's ' Dblineations of Exotiok Plants.' 

This is not a very important work from a botanical point of 
view, but as we have in the Department of Botany a copy containing 
its history, it may be worth while to place this on record. The copy 
in question belonged to Sir Everard Home, and was purchased for 
the Department in 1886. 

The title-page of the book, which was issued with the first 
number, runs : 

*' Delineations of Exotick Plants cultivated in the Boyal Garden 
at Eew. Drawn and coloured, and the botanical characters displayed 
according to the Linnean System,by Francis Bauer, Botanick Painter 
to His Majesty. Published by W. T. Aiton, His Majesty's Gardener 
at Eew. London : Printed by W. Bulmer k Go. for George Nicol, 
Bookseller to His Majesty, Pali-Mall. 1796." 

This is given in Pritzel, no. 494, with the date *< 1791-1800*' 
and ** EricacesB '' added, but the latter indication does not seem to 
have suggested to Pritzel the identity of the book with his no. 498, 
** Triginta tabulsB Ericarum ineditsB, a Mackenzie sculptsB. Londini 
1790-1800. folio. Bibl. Begia Berol." The two are of course 
identical. 

These plates represent three numbers (of ten each) of what was 
evidently intended from the preface to have been a much more 
extensive work. The following account of its production is given 
by Sir Everard Home on the blank page before title : — 

<* Of the first number there were 90 copies & 10 were spoiPd in 
colouring k hot press'g. Of the second there were 80 and all were 
distributed. Of the third there were only 50, and four of the plates 
are lost. 



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182 



FBAN0I8 BAUEB's < DBLINBATI0N8 OF EXOTIC PLANTS.' 



** Mackenzie had 4 guineas for engraving each plate, when he 
died Bazier [Basire] did the rest which he could not refuse Sir 
Joseph, he said, as he engraved for the B^- Soc. for 8 guineas, and 
one was engrav'd by Mr. Ferdinand Bauer. 

'< The dedication and preface is by Sir Joseph Banks. 

•* From the iuformation given to me by Mr. Fr, Bauer. 

**E. Home.** 

To this is added in pencil in what may be the same hand : — ** The 
diawings are with Sir Joseph^s other drawings in the British 
Museum." 

Mackenzie was one of the engravers employed by Banks in 
preparing the large series of plates of plants collected during 
Oook's First Voyage. Impressions of twenty-eight of these, according 
to Pritzel, who describes them as *'tabulsB seri insculptsB inter 
omnes summi artificis facile pulcherrim»,'* are in the Berlin 
Library. The proofs in the Department of Botany are signed 
«< D. M«Kenzie " or " D. Mackenzie ** indifferently. I can find no 
information about him : I am told that his name and works are 
alike unknown in the Print Boom of the British Museum, and he 
does not appear in any dictionary of artists. After his name on 
plate 28 (dated 1800) someone — I think Home — ^has added in pencil 
the words ''and died." He engraved twenty-seven of the plates 
of Erica ; only two fnos. 24 and 27) were engraved bv James Basire, 
whom I take to be tne second of that name in the well-known family 
of engravers; and one, as has been said, was engraved by Ferdinand 
Bauer (no. 29). 

The following is a list of the thirty species of Erica figured, with 
the year of publication appended as engraved on each (in every case 
preceded by *' Jan. 1)'* and certain marks prefixed. The * indicates 
that Bauer's original finished drawing for the plate is in the 
Department of Botany ; the \ indicates that his sketch or certain 
details, but not the completed drawing, will be found there. The 
f is prefixed to those of the drawings for the work which, Mr. 
Hemsley informs me, are in the libraiy of the Eew Herbarium. 
It will be seen that drawings for some of the plates are both at the 
Museum and Eew, and that one or two are at neither. 









ERICA. 










Pabt I. 






Pabt II. 






Pabt TIT. 




*1. viRcaria 


1793 


•11. 


sexfaria .... 


1793 


t21. 


corilolia .... 


1800 






tl2. 


oonspiooa . . 




122. 


baooans .... 


1793 


•3. obUqua 




•13. 


omenta .... 




•t23. 


ramentaoea. . 


1800 


•4. lon^olia .... 




•tl4. 


marifolia .... 




tt24. 


Leeana 


1802 


*5. ambellata . . . . 




•tl6. 


mucosa .... 




t26. 


ooooinea 


1800 


*6. titBoioolaris . . 




16. 


uroeolaris . . 




t26. 


vestita 


}, 


•7. MonsoniiB .... 




•tl7. 


glutinosa .... 




t27. 




II 


*8. nandiflora .. 
*9. Plukenetiana. . 




18. 


oomosa....... 




♦28. 


tubiflcura 


1* 




tl9. 


taxifolia .... 




tJ29. 


Banksii . . . • 


1801 


♦10. Sebana 




{20. 


MasBoni.. .. 




•30. 


oerinthoides . 


1793 



The dates of publication as given in this table cast some doubt 
as to the value of this information, which is usually, I think, taken 
as evidence of actual issue. It will be observed that nos. 1-^, 



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BAMUBL OUBSIB's 'BKAUTIBS OF FLOBA.* 188 

forming parts 1 and 2, are all dated Jan. 1, 1798 ; but the first 
number appeared in 1796, and the second in 1797.''' The third 
part, which Appeared in 1808, contains plates dated 1798, 1800, 
1801, 1802— the last of the number bearing date 1798. Pritzel's 
dates for the work, *< 1792-1800," are thus both inaccurate, as is 
1790, which is given under his other title for the book. 



XIX Samuel Oubtis's *Bbautib8 of Floba/ 

A MOTE maj be made of another little-known work, of no 
botanical importance, which we have in the Botanical Department, 
where it is bound with Samuel Ourtis*s Monograph of CcmeUia. 
This is a series of ten folio plates, to which is prefixed an orna- 
mental engraved title-page, running as follows : — 

thb 
BEAUTIES 

OF 

FLORA 
bbino a Sslbotion of Flowebs painted fbom Natxjbb by 

ElONBNT AbTISTS, 

WITH AOOUBATE DeSOBIPTIONS IN EnOUSH AND FbENOH, TOOETHEB 

WITH THB MOST APPBOVED METHOD OF CuLTUBB, BT 

SAMUEL CURTIS, F.L.S. 

FBOM WHOSE GoLLEOTION THE SPECIMENS ABE SELECTED. 

[Here an allegorical picture of Flora (?).] 

Published by 8. Cubtis, Gamston, Notts. 

1820. 

The work is not mentioned by Pritzel, though it is included in 
Mr. B. D. Jackson's Guide, There is no letterpress, and I think 
none was ever issued, notwithstanding the statemeut on the title- 
page which was no doubt issued with the first (? only) instalment. 
I find no reference to it in the scanty biographies of Samuel Curtis. 
It seems to be rare, as there is no copy in the British Museum 
Library, nor at Eew. 

The ten plates (which are not numbered) represent groups of 
flowers, as follows : — 

^- 1 Dahlias ^' Hyacinths, 

gjl^amias. rj Carnations. 

8. Anemones. 8. Pinks. 

4. Auriculas. 9. Tulips. 

5. Polyanthus. 10. Ranunculus. 

None of them bear any title : the name of Weddell as engraver 
appears on Nos. 1, 2, and 6. On Nos. 9 and 10 is printed 

* See AmaU of Botany, i. 16 (1806). 

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184 FLORA OF OUMBBBLAND. 

«« Published by 8. Curtis, Gamston, Notts, 1820 '* and on No. 9 is 
also printed *< painted by T. Baxter,*' who evidently executed all 
but the first two, which are unmistakeably the work of Clara Maria 
Pope. So far as dates are concerned, this Baxter may be identical 
with the Worcester cliina- painter Thomas Baxter, of whom a short 
account is given in the Diet. Nat. Biogr. iii. 487, and who died in 
London, April 18, 1821. The Sowers are beautifully drawn and 
coloured ; each is backed by a conventional landscape, in the style 
of those similarly placed in Thornton's Temple of Flora, 

That the work was never carried to completion seems clear from 
the absence of letterpress and the incomplete lettering of the plates. 
Mr. Hemsley directs my attention to an advertisement on the 
wrapper of the Botanical Magazine for August, 1881, which seems 
to show that only the above-named ten plates were issued, and that 
these were obtainable separately. After a reference to the Monograph 
of Camellia, the advertisement proceeds: — ^'Also some splendid 
Cabinet Pictures of the same size as the Work on Camellias, 
consisting of a Series of Ten highly-finished Oroups of the most 
esteemed Flowers amongst Florists : viz. Tulips, Hyacinths, Ran- 
unculuses, Anemonies, Carnations, Pinks, Polyanthuses, Auriculas, 
and Two of Dahlias. These splendid coloured engravings may be 
had separate at 12s. each ; or the whole Series of Ten, for £6, with 
a very highly ornamental Title to the whole. The Series of these 
superb coloured Plates, in appropriate Frames, would grace any 
Drawing Boom." j^^g Bbttten. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Flora of Cumberland, containing a fvll List of the Flowefing PUaUe 
and Feme to be found in the County, according to the UUest and 
most reliable Authorities, By William Hodgson, of Working- 
ton, A.L.S. With an Introductory Chapter on the Soils of 
Cumberland by J. 6. Goodohild, H.M. Geological Survey. 
Carhsle : W. Meals & Co. 8vo, cloth, pp. xxxvi, 898. 
Price 7s. 6d. 

Mb. Hodgson has given us a nicely-printed and interesting 
volume, and one which will be of service to future workers. He has 
devoted many years to its compilation, and has himself thoroughly 
investigated the botany of the county, and has secured much local 
help. As far as the author's quali^cations go, it is a conscientious 
and painstaking piece of work, and the Flora, more than any with 
which we are acquainted, is an individual undertaking. To this 
indeed it owes both its interest and its defects. Notwithstanding 
the reference in the titlepage to 'Hhe latest and most reliable 
authorities," we cannot find from the preface or from the book 
itself that any British botanist of note, with the important excep- 
tion of Mr. J. G. Baker, has been consulted ; the Bev. Hilderic 
Friend, whose help is specially acknowledged, can hardly be con- 
sidered a critical, although he may be, as Mr. Hodgson says, " a 



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VLOBA OF OUMBBRLAND. 185 

▼ery oompelent," botanist ; and the names of the other helpers are 
even less familiar. 

As a consequence of this isolation, it is to be feared that in such 
genera as Rubus, Rosa, Hieracium^ Potawogeton, CareXy and Charoy 
besides others which might be mentioned, Mr. Hodgson's book will 
be of small value to students, for we find no reference of any sort to 
those who are recognized as authorities upon these critical groups 
of plants. This does not imply, as has been said already, that 
Mr. Hodgson and his friends have not taken all reasonable pains in 
arnviog at their conclusions, but it is certain that these conclusions 
require checking and comparison before they can be accepted as 
authoritative. In Hieracium, for example, the need of some sudi 
comparison is manifest, not only on account of the difficulty pre- 
sented by the species themselves, but because the records of Back- 
house and Baker, which represent at any rate one period in the 
history of our knowledge of Hawkweeds, are placed side by side 
with those of the author, Mr. Friend, and others, whose qualifica- 
tions are not so well known. 

The same want of critical method is noticeable in other ways. 
Undoubted aliens and errors, for instance, are placed on exactly 
the same footing, so far as typc^^raphy is concerned, as genuine 
members of the flora. There is, we have always maintained, 
much to be said in flavour of placing these in their proper sequence 
instead of relegating them to an appendix ; but they should be 
differentiated by clumge of type, absence of number, use of brackets, 
or in some other way. The very first plant in the book, Clematis 
Vitalba, is noted as '' Alien : an occasional straggler from cultiva- 
tion " ; and the localities given suggest that it hardly even <* straggles 
from " gardens and houses. Then, in the same Order, we have 
Adonis auttmnalis, '' a weed in gardens where it has probably been 
an object of cultivation " and once seen in a flax crop ; Ddphimum 
Ajacis and D, Consolida (were both species accurately determined?); 
Aet4Ba Bpicata, '* in the grounds " of a mansion, '' doubtfully 
native" ; Helidxtrus fatidus^ '* a specimen *' in a collection, ** pro- 
bably an outcast " ; Ranunculus parviflorus, ** not regarded as indi- 
genous, gathered with other casuals." Among the Batrachians 
we find Ranunculus circinatusy *< given in Black's Guide as a plant 
of Ullswater," but doubted by Mr. Baker and not confirmed by 
Hr. Hodgson, and reported by others who '* now regard their 
identification as open to doubt ; " R. Baudotii, in one locality, on 
the authority of the Rev. B. Wood, an excellent man but hardly a 
critical botanist; we have also Thalictrum saxaiMe^ of which Mr. 
Hodgson says **a solitary plant " gathered by him was identified 
by Mr. Watson as this species, but that he liimself *< failed to dis- 
cover any striking difference between this and T, minus *' — a local 
worker adds another locality. Even if we accept as accurate all 
tbe other Batrachian records (many of which seem doubtful) and 
allow that Aconitum is naturalized, it would seem that out of thirty- 
seven numbered species in RanuncuLaceay ten at least must be regarded 
as having little or no claim to rank as integral portions of the flora. 
An analysis of other parts of the book yields similar results. 



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186 SOMX SOOK8 ON OKASSB8. 

So far as Mr. Hodgson's own observations are concerned — his 
references to local names and uses, and the incidental information 
by which he is enabled to throw light upon the introduction or dis- 
appearance of certain plants — the book is, as we have said, both 
useful and interesting. He has given us an excellent biographical 
introduction, which, like Mr. Goodchild's essay on the Soils of 
Cumberland, is of just the right length. The bibliographical refer- 
ences are less satisfactory ; and the proofs might have been more 
carefully read. The printers have, for some reason, almost invari- 
ably used a small instead of a capital initial for generic names 
when occurring incidentally in the text; and there are puzzling 
abbreviations, such as " Web. ex-P." as the authority for Ranunculus 
heterophyllus ; the oddest slip is perhaps ** Mentha requiem^*' for M, 
Rsquienu. Mr. Hodgson's volume, which is arranged in accord- 
ance with the eighth edition of the London Catalogue, will find a 
place on the shelves of all those who collect British Floras ; and 
although it will not take rank among the best examples of that 
class of literature, it goes some way towards supplying a gap in our 
list. Had the author, when dealing with certain groups of plants, 
consulted those authorities who are always willing to impart to 
others the knowledge they have themselves obtained at the expen- 
diture of time, trouble, patience and perseverance, he would have 
produced a more satisfactory book. j^^^ Bbitten. 



Some Books on Grasses. 

A Manuid of the Grti»svs of New South Wales, By J. H. Matoen. 

8vo, pp. 199, with 20 plates. Sydney: GuUick. 1898. 

Price 4s. 6d. 
Synopsis der Mitteleiiropdischen Florti, Von P. Asohebson k P, 

Grabbner. Lief. 6. 1898; Lief. 7, 1899. Leipzig: Engel- 

mann. Price 2 m. each part. 
Graminees, Descriptions, figures et usages des GraniinSeSy spontavees et 

cultiveesy de France, Bflgique, lies Britanniques, Suisse. Par 

T. HusNoT. Livr. 3. Folio, pp. 49-72, tt. 18-24. Cahan : 

T. Husnot. 1898. Price 6s. 
The paper-covered book on New South Wales Grasb-es, by Mr. 
J. H. Maiden, Government Botanist and Director of the Botanic 
Gardens, Sydney, is a Government publication issued by authority 
of the Minister for Mines and Agriculture. It is primarily 
intended to help '* the farmer and pastoral is t," to assist them not 
only in identifying the various kinds of grasses, but also in apprais- 
ing their value, and as a guide to their cultivation and improve- 
ment. With this view the author has inserted under each Grass, 
besides the botanical name, description and usual information, any 
agricultural notes which he has been able to glean from his own 
experience or the writings of practical agrostologists. Thus 
copious references occur to such works as Duthie's Fodder Grasses 
of Northern India, F. M. Bailey's Monograph of Queensland Grasses, 
Vasey's Agncultural Grasses of the United States, and others. In 



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sou BOOKS Otf OBA88B8. 187 

the arrangement of genera and species and the botanical descrip- 
tions he copies Bentham's Flora Atutrali&nsu, Reference is made 
to previous figures of the species, though Romewhat inadequately, 
as only the name of the author or publication is cited — thus 
•' Trinius,'* *• Agricultural Gazette," *• Bailey." The •« list of works 
consulted ** (pp. 5-7) will supply the missing titles ; but the number 
of volume, and page or plate, should also have been given. The 
twenty plates included in the volume give a fair idea of the habit of 
as many species and include also useful enlargements of spikelets 
and fioral dissections. We regret that Mr. Maiden has thought 
it necessary to coin several so-called popular names. Surely 
Agropyrum pectinatnm is as good and serviceable a name as *' the 
comb-like wheat-grass," which, by the way, is printed ** wheat- 
Feni " in the plate. Another bibliographical error is the spelling of 
proper specific names with small letters ; thus we find Panicum 
erusgaUi, P. helopus, Cynodon dactylon, though the capital is used in 
the case of personal names, e.g. Brownii, Munroi, Apart from 
these matters of detail, the book forms a well- arranged and useful 
manual, and will prove a serviceable handbook to those interested 
in the grasses of the colony, either from a purely botanical or from 
an agricultural point of view. 

Part vi. of Drs. Ascherson's and Oraebner's Synopsis contains the 
conclusion of vol. i. (pp. 401-415), comprising the completion of 
Hydroeharide€B and the index, with title-page, author's preface, and 
dedication to *' Ihrem Freunde und Gonner Georg Schweinfurth." 
The rest of part vi. consisting of pp. 1-64 of vol. ii. and part vii. 
(pp. 65-144) are occupied with the Grasses, and include the 
greater part of the order. Their arrangement differs somewhat 
both from that of Bentham, elaborated for the Genera Plantarum, 
and from the more recent one adopted by Hackel in Engler's and 
Prantl's Pflamenfamilien, Thus, while accepting Bentham's two 
great subfEunilies, Panieoidea and PoaoidetB, the authors have 
adopted a somewhat different arrangement of the individual tribes. 
Panicea contains the following: — (1) Coleanthea; (2) Ot-yzea; (8) 
Phalaridea; (4) Andropogonea ; (5) Maydea ; (6) Zoysiea; and (7) 
Panice4B. Tribes 1 and 8 are placed both by Bentham and Hackel 
in the second set. Coleanthea contains the single genus Coleanthus 
Seidl., which, by the way, must give place to Antoschmidtia Steud. 
Both Phalaridea and Oryzea might be included in the second series, 
where they stand side by side in the arrangement of South African 
Grasses recently adopted by Dr. Stapf. The second subfamily 
comprises nine tribes, viz. (1) Chlondea ; (2) Stupea; (8) Nardea ; 
(4) Agrottidea; (5) Avenea; (6) Pappophorea; (7) Arundinea ; (S) 
Festucea ; and (9) Hordeea. Stupea is from Stupa, a form of spell- 
ing adopted by Dr. Ascherson in 1864, in his Brandenburg Flora, 
on the ground that Stipa, the name given to the genus by LinnsBus, 
was nonclassical. Classical or not, Stipa must stand ; we note, 
however, that Dr. Smith, in his well-known Latin Dictionary, gives 
under Stuppa, also Stupa and Siipa, A similar change, on etymo- 
logical bat insupportable grounds, is Dinaeba Delil., which i& 



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188 ABTI0LB8 IN JOURNALS. 

adopted for the original Dinebra Jaoq. Fortunately such details 
do not detract much from the great value of the work as a whole. 
We regret to note that the issue of the parts in question was 
delayed by the veteran Dr. Aschersons illness. We wish him good 
health and strength, and a speedy completion of the Synopsis. 

The third part of M. Husnot's work on Qrasses, on the same 
lines as parts i. and ii., carries us from Atropis to Serraf ulcus. The 
plates are poor, and distinctly inferior to those previously published 
in spite of the hope expressed with part i. that an improvement 
would be manifest in subsequent issues. The author is also 
draughtsman and lithographer, and has likewise compiled and 
illustrated books on the Mosses and Hepatics of France and the 
neighbouring countries ; and one is fain to doubt whether he has 
been able to give that critical attention which so critical a family 
as the Grasses demands. At any rate, the British botanist will 
still want a satisfcu^tory account of the order, an account to which 
the accompaniment of good plates, showing both habit and floral 
dissections of every species, is indispensable. The part, like 
parts i. and ii., is issued without date. It was received in the 
Department of Botany of the British Museum on Dec. 8rd, 1898. 

A. B. Bbndlx. 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS.* 

Annals of Botany (March). — D. T. Macdougal, ' Symbiotic 
Saprophytism ' (2 pi.). — F. 0. Newcombe, * Cellulose-Enzymes.* — 
H. H. Sturch, ' Harvey ell a mirabilis' (2 pi.).— E. S. Salmon, *The 
genus Fissidens' (8 pL). — A. H. Trow, * Biology and Cjrtology of 
Achlya americana var. cambrica ' (8 pL). — I. H. Burkill, • Pelargonium 
rapaceum,* — D. H. Scott, * Medullosa anglica, sp. n.' (Gycado-iilices). 
—J. LI. Williams, * New Fucus hybrids.' 

Bot. Centralblatt (No. 10). — H. de Vries, * Ueber die Abh&ngig- 
keit der Fasciation vom Alter bei zweijahrigen Pflanzen.* — H. 
Hallier, * Was ist Boldoa repens Spr. ? * — K. Friderichsen, * Die 
Nomenclator des Rubus thyrsoideiis.* — (No. 11). F. Ludwig, ' Ein 
neues Vorkommen der Sepultaria arenosa.* — (Nos. 11-18). M, 
Britzelmayr, * Revision der Diagnosen von Hymenomyceten- Arten.' 
— (No. 12). N. G. Emdberg, * Studien iiber die Systematik der 
Laubmoose * (cont.). — (No. 14). V. Gr^goire, * Les cindses pollin- 
iques dans les Liliac6es. — B. Gutwinski, < Ueber in der Umgebung 
V. Karlsbad gesammelte Algen.' 

Bot. Gazette (18 Feb.). — wC. S. Sargent, 'New or little-known 
N. -^nerican trees.' — H. 0. Oowles, * Dune Floras of LakaMichigan.' 
— B. M. Duggar, Sporotrichum globuliferum. — W. W. Rowlee, Salix 
Pringlei, sp. n. — W. M. Ganby, Silphium lanceolatum, sp. n. 

Bull, de VHerb. Boissier (16 Feb.). — R. Chodat, * Alphonse de 
Gandolle k I'Universit^ de Geneve.' — ^F. Stephani, * Species Hepati- 

* The dates assigned to the nambers are those whioh appear on their oovers 
or title-pages, but it most not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
pnblioation. 



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BOOK-NOTBS, MBW8, BTO. 180 

eanim ' (cont.). — 0. & B. Fedtsohenko, ' Plantes de Boakharie.* — 
J. Bommiiller, Silens schizopetala, Aspenda asterocepkala, Staehys 
fragiUimay spp. im. — ^A. Cogniaux, Bulbophyllum cryptanthum, sp. n. 
— A. Finet, * Notes sur les Orchid^es' (1 pi.). — J. Huber, Diptero- 
siphon, n. gen. (BurmanniaceaB : 1 pi.). — F. N. Williams, • Les 
CeragUum da Japon.' 

BuU. Soc, Bot. France (xlv. 6-8 ; March). — C. Guflfroy, 
'Anatomie y^g^tale et olassifioation.' — E. Drake del Castillo, 
'Deux genres de Bubiac^s d'Afrique* {Danais & Gaertnera), — 
— . Perrot, * Theories morpho-g^ograpbiques de M. de Wettstein.* — 
E. Malinvaad, Agrostis fiUfoLia var. narbonmsis. — D. Clos, * Vicia 
narhonentis L. & F. serratifoUa Jacq.' — L. Lutz, ' Boses prolifdres.* 

— B. Zeiller, • Glossopteris dans le permien der Bnssie.* . Hy, 

'Variations de VEqnisetutn arvense,' — P. Gu^rin, * Teguments 
sdminaux des Gramin^es.' — E. A. Finet, ' Orchid^es reoueiUies 
an Yunnan et au Laos.* — A. Dezanneau, * Sur le genre Nasturtium.* 

— De Coincy, * Junipfrus thurifera.* — E. G. Gamus & — . 
Doffbrt, ' Orchid^es hybrides du Gers.' — E. Heckel, ' Germination 
du Ximenia.' — G. Camus, ' Flore de la Chaine Jurassique.' — F. X. 
Gillot, < Pteiis aquUina var. eristataJ' 

BuU. Torrey Bot. Club (8 Feb^. — W. M. Kozlowski, • Primary 
synthesis of proteids.' — C. W. Hope, AspUnium Glennei. — C. H. 
Peck, * New Fungi.' — B. D. Halsted, ' Myoological Notes.'— E. G. 
Britton, * A new Tertiary fossil Moss ' (Bhynchostegium KnowUont). 

Eryihea (1 Marcb). — G. Hansen, * Lilies of Sierra Nevada.' — 
W. A. Setohell, * Collecting and preserving Marine Algaa.' 

Gardeners^ Chronicle (11 Marcb). — Pvntis Montezuma (fig. 68). 

Journal de Botanique (March). — P. van Tieghem, * Sur les 
Coulac^s.' — M. Tswett, • Sur la membrane p^riplasmique.' — E. 
Bonnet, ' Plantes vasculaires de la Tunisie.' — M. Goldfius, 'Assise 
6pitb^liale et antipodes des Compos^es ' (6 pi.). — E. Boze, ' Florule 
fran9aise de Charles de TEscluse' (contd.). 

Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschnft (March). — V. Folgner, * Zur Eenntniss 
der Entwickelungsgescbichte einiger Siisswasser-Peridineen.' — E. 
Bechinger, * Vergl. Untersuchungen iiber die Trichome de Gesneria- 
ceen' (1 pL). — F. Arnold, ' Lichenologische Fragmente' (cont.). 



BOOK'NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

At a meeting of the Linnean Society on Feb. 16th, Mr. Clement 
Beid exhibited some fruits of Nc0as minor and N. gramineay found 
daring a further examination of the interglacial deposits at West 
Wittering, in Sussex. Dr. A. B. Bendle exhibited specimens of a 
freshwater alga {Pithophora) new to Britain, which wUl be described 
in this Journal. Messrs. I. H. Burkill and C. H. Wright read a 
paper " On some African LabiaUs with Alternate Leaves," a 
peculiarity which had been recently used by M. Hua to charac- 
terize a new genus, Icomum. To this genus three new species were 
added. Its affinity was said to be with ^olanthus, in which certain 



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190 B00K-N0TK8, NEWS. BTC. 

irregularities in the arrangement of the bracts of the inflorescence 
and flowers might be observed. 

At a meeting of the same Society on March 2nd, Mr. Q. G. 
Druce read a paper on the occurrence in Ireland of Carex rhyncho- 
physa, as reported in this Journal for 1898, p. 88 (t. 882), and gave 
reasons for believing that Carex rostrata var. la ti folia had been mis- 
taken for it. Typical specimens of both were exhibited, and also a 
coloured drawing by Mr. N. E. Brown of one of the plauts collected 
by Mr. Lloyd Praeger near Mullaghmore Lough, Armagh. At the 
same meeting Mr. Edward Step read a paper on the fertilization 
of Olaux mantima. After examining some hundreds of flowers 
gathered along the coast near Portscatho, Cornwall, he had come 
to the conclusion that the flower is protogynous. When open, the 
calyx-lobes at first separate but slightly, affording only a narrow 
entrance. The curvature of the style is sufficient to bring it within 
the fold of a cnlyx-lobe, from which the stigma projects so as to 
be in tbe way of any insect that visits the flower for tlie liquid that 
exudes from the ovary and base of the style. When the yellow 
pollen is shed, tbe style is either quite erect, or retains its original 
bend sufficiently above tbe antbers to make self-fertilization probable. 
Owing to the lowly habit of the plaut and its customary crowding 
in with sea sedge and grasses, it is not an easy one to watch. Doabt- 
less it is often fertilized with its own pollen by .the agency of flies 
and other insects ; but, from the position and precocity of the stigma, 
Mr. Step considered that cross-fertilization is quite as frequent. He 
was consequently unable to agree with Mr. Henslow (Trans. Linn. 
Soc., n. s. Bot. i. 1880, p. 877, pi. 44, fig. 85) as to self-fertilization 
in this plant, believing his conclusion to have been drawn from the 
examination of an abnormal specimen. 

Mb. F. N. Williams has published a second edition of the 
<* Provisional and Tentative List of the Orders and Families of 
British Flowering Plants," which was noticed in this Journal for 
1896 (p. 47). Copies may be obtained &om the author, 181, High 
Street, Brentford, for sevenpence, post-free. 

Thb Strand Magazine for March prints a letter by General Qordon 
on the Garden of Eden, in which occurs a reference to '< The Lao- 
dicean Seychellarum, or Coco di Mir " t 

Mr. I. H. BuBKiLL has been appointed assistant to the Director 
of Eew Gardens ; Mr. C. C. H. Pearson has joined the Kew staff as 
assistant for India. 

In Wood and (Harden (Longmans: 8vo, pp. xvi, 286, price 
10s. 6d. net) Miss Gertrude Jekyll gives us one of those delightful 
volumes about cultivated plants which, although not strictly 
botanical, no plant-lover can read without profit. Under her 
guidance we pass from month to month in her delightful garden 
at Munstead, near Godalming, the place of the flowers being 
supplied by an admirable series of illustrations, excellently re- 
produced horn photographs; and when we arrive at December, 
she has all sorts of interesting supplementary information for us 



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BOOK-NOTB8, NBWS, BTC. 101 

about the colonrs and scents of flowers and varions other matters 
incidental to her subject. Those who have had the privilege of 
walking with Miss Jekyll through her beautifully because naturally 
arranged acres of garden and woodland, know how carefully the 
habit of every tree and flower has been studied, and how, as far as 
possible, the circumstances under which each occurs in its native 
state have been reproduced. No one who has seen it is likely to 
forget the effect of a clump of Lilium giganteum^ ten or eleven feet 
high, when suddenly perceived in the distance through the wood- 
land in which it is planted. Miss Jekyll knows books as well as 
plants, and the bright vigorous English in which she conveys 
her varied information adds an additional charm to an attractive 
volume. 

We ought to have mentioned sooner the issue of the fourth part 
of Dr. Trimen's Hamlbook of the Flora of Ceylon (Dulau & Co.), 
which has been continued by Sir Joseph Hooker since the lamented 
death of the author. The present instalmeot, extending from Ku- 
phorbiacea to XaiacUa, has been almost entirely worked out by Sir 
Joseph, as only the first order mentioned was left by Dr. Trimen in 
a state nearly readv for press. For the Oraminea Dr. Trimen left 
no material, and this wUl be dealt with entirely by Sir Joseph, 
whose monumental enumeration of the order in the Flora of BritUh 
India will render this an easy task. The fifth and concluding part 
will also include a key to the natural orders, a complete index of 
scientific and vernacular names, biographicHl matter, and maps of 
the rainfall and forest areas. Sir Joseph is of opinion that the 
flora of the island has not yet been exhaustively explored : '* There 
are still large tracts of the Forest region which await the visits of 
keen collectors, and there are not a few common (some amongst 
the very commonest) plants of the plains of India that have not as 
yet been collected in Ceylon." 

Mb. Hibbn's Catalogue of WelwitMh's African Plants continues to 
make steady progress, contrasting favourably in this respect with 
most of the work done for African botany in this country. In the 
third portion, issued at the end of last year, the orders firom 
Dipsacea to Scrophulariacea are dealt with in the careful and ex- 
haustive manner which has characterized the previous portions of 
the work. Mr. Hiern's methods were commented upon and com- 
mended when the previous instalments of the Catalogue came under 
notice, and there seems no need at present to say more than that 
they have been adhered to in the part before us, with results as to 
nomenclature which will not commend themselves to those who 
would make consistency and historical accuracy subservient to 
oonvenienoe. The importance of the magnificent set of Welwitsch*8 
plants in the National Herbarium is shown by the number of new 
species here described of genera which have already been worked 
up, 80 far as the material there went, at Berlin. The bibhographical 
part of the work is, as usual, most accurate and thorough. It may 
he noted that Welwitsch's genus Adenogonum, figured in this Journal 
for 1898, is reduced to Engletia, of which it forms a new species. 



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192 BOOK-NOTKS, NBW8, STO. 

The Annates du MtuSe du Congo are to be issued in four series, 
and the first two instalments of the Illustrations de la Flore du Coifgo, 
by MM. Em. de Wildeman and Th. Durand, are before us. Each 
contains twelve admirably executed plates of interesting and new 
species, with full descriptions, each of which occupies a separate 
page, so that when the work is complete it will be possible to 
arrange the whole systematically. Among the more remarkable 
plants figured may be named the Leguminous genus Dewevrea, 
establisbed last year by M. Micheli, the exact position of which in 
the order is for the present doubtful, owing to the absence of fruit ; 
Scaphopetalwn Thonneri, an addition to the plants which furnish 
homes for ants; two species of Cogniauxia; a new TurrtBa (T. 
Cobra); 0. Hoffmann's genus Msuata, alhed to Herderia; and 
representatives of various species of Vemonia^ Oxalis, and other 
large genera, the illustrations of which, in the absence of specimens, 
are extremely valuable. 

The Gardeners* ChronicU for March 4 contains a notice of the 
Rev. Canon James Mourant DuPort, who died at Denver Rectory, 
Norfolk, on Feb. 21. He was bom at St. Peter's Port, Ouemsey, 
on April 14, 1882, and graduated B.A. at Cambridge in 1855. He 
had a good general knowledge of botany, but was best known as a 
mycologist, and for many years attended the *< forays" of the Wool- 
hope Club, to the Transactions of which body, as well as to those of 
the Norfolk and Norwich Natural History Society, he contributed 
papers. His name is commemorated in Russula DuPorti Phillips. 

Thb latest (March) issue of the Icones Plantarum contains an 
important series of plates illustrating the genus Hevea, of which Mr. 
Hemsley describes a new species. Mr. Hemsley, who is responsible 
for the bulk of the number, also figures the male inflorescence of 
his Pandanaceous genus Sararanga, and describes as a new genus 
{Moseleyd)^ Sibthorpia (Hornemannia) pinnata Benth. We are sorry 
to see that the useful practice of lettering the plates has been dis- 
continued. 

Bbtolooigal science has sustained an irreparable loss in the 
death of its greatest master. Dr. Carl Miiller, of HaUe, on the 9th 
of February. Though in his eighty-first year, this venerable 
botanist manifested to the last an unexampled vigour in his special 
line of research, and has left behind him papers which are still in 
course of publication. Indeed, it is doubtful whether at any period 
he surpassed the rate of production of new species with which he 
has marked the closing years of his life. It should be noted that 
he has already celebrated the jubilee of the earlier parts of his 
Synopsis Muscorum, which was issued in ten fascicles between 
November, 1847, and August, 1851. At the time of its appearance 
it described all the known mosses of the world — ^two thousand 
three hundred and three species ; now-a-days, however, the burden 
of species has been raised to nearly fourteen thousand, mainly 
through the continued efforts of the veteran bryologist, now alas ! 
taken from us. — ^A. G. 

Erratum.— P. 148, 1. 10, for •* 208 " read " 28." 

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198 



RADNORSHIRE AND BREC0N8HIRE RUBL 
By thb Rev. W. Moyle Roobbs, F.L.S. 

These notes are supplementary to those on the general Flora of 
Radnorshire and Breconshire published in the January number of 
this Journal, and so refer only to Rubi seen by me in those 
counties last summer, in the vast majority of cases in the living 
bushes, but in the few instances where the name of the locality is 
followed by that of Rev. A. Ley or F. A. Rogers, in the form of 
freshly cut specimens. As in the former paper, an asterisk will be 
prefixed in tiiose cases where I believe there has been no previous 
record of the plant for the county. 

The common brambles of the Wye Valley throughout that part 
of it in which the river marks the boundary between the counties 
of Radnor and Brecon, or, in other words, from Rhayader in the 
N.W. to Hay in the S.E., are R. LindleianxiSj Silurum, clivicola, 
rxuHcanuSy Uucostachys, paWdus Bab. (non Wh. et N.), and dunu- 
torum. These are so generally distributed throughout the district 
that one can hardly fail to find them all in the course of an hour's 
search in any part of it which may be favourable to the growth of 
brambles. Fairly frequent and locally abundant in the same 
district occur R, Idaus, plicatus, incurvatus (forma), pulcheriimust 
viUicaulis, Selmerij hirtifolinsj pyramidalisy angxistifolixis, longithyrsiger 
and bntarmicus. All the other species and forms that I saw are 
distinctly local, though two or three of them are found in such 
quantity as to be characteristic of certain localities. 

In the Presteign neighbourhood, at the eastern comer of Rad- 
norshire, the brambles mentioned above as generally distributed in 
the Wye Valley, are still the common ones, though here R, longi- 
thyrsfger must be added to that list ; while R.pUcattutf villicaulis and 
hritannkuB must, so far as my observation went, be taken from the 
list of the '* locally abundant.'* The central and N.E. parts of 
Radnoirshire, and most of Breconshire S.W. of the Wye Valley, I 
was unable to reach. 

For help in determining some of the forms I am much in- 
debted to Dr. Focke and Mr. Ley. 42 and 48 are the comital numbers 
assigned to Brecon and Radnor in Watson's Topographical Botany, 

Rubtis Idaus Linn. Apparently far from common. 42. Duhonw 
Glen, and occasionally by the Wye near Builth. 48. Hills near 
Rhayader, abundant. Llanelwedd. Near Presteign. 

Var. aspetrimus Lees. *42. By the Wye at Builth. *48. Llan- 
elwedd. A mere form rather than a distinct variety. 

SUBERECTI. 

R.fiism Lindl. 42. Glanau Wells, Builth; a very strong tall 
form of this species. 48. Hillside, Rhayader, in plenty. 

R, mberectus Anders. 48. Thickets near Rhayader, apparently 
in no great quantity. 

M. pli4)atu$ Wh. et N. Near Glanau Wells, Builth ; a form with 
exceptionally long acuminate leaf-point. By the Wye above 

JouBNAL OF Botany.— Vol. 87. [May, 1899.] o 

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194 RADNOBSHIBB AND BRECONSHIBK BUBI. 

Builth. Altmawr. 48. Hillside, Bhayader; in great quantity. 
By Newbridge-on-Wye. Near Builth Road Bailway Station. The 
plant growing above Builth, by the Wye, 42, is var. BertramU 
Q. Braun, or a long-stamened form intermediate between it and 
typical plicatus. 

BHAMNIFOLn. 

This group is far more richly represented than any other. 

R, carpinifoliua Wh. et N. Uncommon. 48. Near Presteign. 
Newbridge. 

R. incurvatus Bab. Quite the typical plant (as I understand 
it) occurs in Duhonw Qlen *(42), and on a hillside near Bhayader 
*(48). A second form, distinct enough to be recognized at a glance 
and yet perhaps hardly needing a varietal name, is quite frequent 
and locally abundant. 42. Newbridge, in great quantity. About 
Builth and in the Yrfon Valley, abundant. 48. Bhayader ; New- 
bridge ; near Builth Boad Jimction ; Llanelwedd ; Aberedw. This 
second form differs from the type in leaves thinner, with closer, 
greyer felt beneath, and teeth much less compound and less deeply 
incised, and terminal leaflet usually narrower and less cordate ; and 
especially in the broader and more leafy panicle, with longer lower 
branches and with leaves nearly to the top (instead of with upper 
half or *' two-thirds " leafless). The stem is also less deeply furrowed, 
the prickles are slenderer and longer, and the sepals are more con- 
spicuously sub-patent on the fall of the petals. So it may be said 
to go off from typical incurvatus towards i?. carpinifolius and R, 
rhombifolim. 

R. LincUeianus Lees. Undoubtedly one of the most generallj 
distributed, as it is one of the most constant and easily recognized 
species. Noted for six distinct localities in 42, and for fourteen in 48. 

R, erythnnus Genev. 42. Llangorse Common, F. A. Rogers ! 
Near the junction of the Yrfon and Wye above Builth (42) Mr. 
Ley showed me an interesting form, growing in fair quantity, 
which was new to both of us, and seems intermediate between R. 
erythrinus and R, durescens W. B. Linton. 

R, rhamnifoUus Wh. et N. Bather local. 42. Near Builth, 
A. Ley\; Llangorse Common. *48. Near Presteign; Llowes; 
Llanelwedd. 

R. Silurum A. Ley. Quite common and constant in character. 
42. Builth neighbourhood, everywhere ; Newbridge ; Altmawr ; 
Llangorse Common; Talgarth and Olasbury Boad. 48. Most 
abundant at Bhayader, Newbridge, Builth Boad, Llanelwedd, and 
Aberedw ; Boughrood ; Presteign. A very handsome and ex- 
ceedingly well-marked bramble. The long ultra-axiUury panicle 
and liglit green foliage are constant and conspicuous features. 
The pale petals have a peculiar lilac tint, and the bracts are 
usually gland-ciliate. 

R. pulchernmus Neum. Widely but rather thinly spread. 
42. Builth neighbourhood ; Llangorse Common ; Talgarth and 
Glasbury Boad; Three Cocks Hotel neighbourhood; Hay Hill. 
48. Bhayader ; Clyro ; Boughrood ; Stanner Bocks ; Presteign. 



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BADNOBSBIRB AND BBS00N8HIBS BUBI. 195 

Var. or snbsp. cinerosut Rogers. *48. Sillia ; Presteign. This 
is the highly glandular pulcherrimtts-Uke bramble for which I sug- 
gested this name in Bot. Exch. Club Report for 1896, p. 518, 
substituting cinerostis for setosua, which I had adopted before dis- 
covering from Index Kewensis that there is an older R. setosus Bigel. 
For descriptive notes, and some account of its distribution in 
England and Ireland see Joum. Bot. 1891, 240; 1895, 48, 49; 
1897, 410. First observed by me in 1890, in several places near 
Helmsley, in N.E. Yorkshire. Apparently unknown on the Con- 
tinent. 

R.Lindebergii'B.JMxxeW. Local. 42. Yrf on Valley. 48. Corton 
Wood, Presteign ; hillside near Builth Road Station. 

R. vilUcaulis Koehl. Locally very abundant. *42. By the Wye 
above Builth and at Altmawr; Llangorse Common. ^^48 Near 
Builth Road Railway Station. In all these localities like the 
common Scottish and Dorset plant which Dr. Focke tells us is the 
typical villicaulis of E. Germany (see Joum. Bot. 1897, 45). In 
the Welsh plant, especially as it grows on Llangorse Common, the 
leaves are, however, more frequently 8-4nate (instead of 5-nate) 
than I have seen elsewhere. 

Var. Selmeri (Lindeb.). Less frequent than the typical plant. 
42. Yrfon Valley and by the Wye above its junction with the Yrfon; 
Llangorse Common, abundant. *43. Newbridge ; Presteign. 

R, leucandim Focke. *42. Yrfon Valley, near Builth, A, Ley\ 
Thus named without qualification by Dr. Focke, and perhaps 
rather nearer to the typical plant of the Continent than our Hants 
and Dorset form ; but the name as applied by its author seems to 
cover a considerable range of variation. 

R. argentatus P. J. Muell. Decidedly uncommon. Builth 
neighbourhood, 42 and 48. Llowes, 48. 

Var. Clivicola A. Ley. One of the commonest and most charac- 
teristic brambles everywhere in and near this part of the Wye 
Valley. 42. Hay and Builth neighbourhoods ; Three Cocks Rail- 
way Junction ; Talgarth ; Llangorse Common. 48. Rhayader to 
Glasbury, and Llowes. Quite a brief study of the brambles of this 
part of Wales and of the neighbouring county of Hereford is 
sufficient to familiarize one with R, clivicola and R, Silurum, and to 
show how real is our debt of gratitude to Mr. Ley for distinguish- 
ing and naming them. In R. clivicola the roundish-obovate, cuspi- 
date-acuminate terminal leaflet is especially characteristic, with its 
wavy edge, and its ashy felt and prominent ribs beneath. The 
petals seem uniformly pink in the freshly opened flower, though in 
bright sunshine they soon fade to white. 

Unless we include R, argentatits and its varieties in our small 
Discolores group (as I am now disposed to include it), R, rtisticanus 
Merc, would be the only representative of that group that I saw. 
It is widely distributed, without being always very abundant. 
42. Builth and Hay neighbourhoods; Three Cocks; Talgarth; 
Llangorse. 48. Stanner Rocks ; Presteign ; Wye Valley from 
Builth Road to Boughrood and Clyro. 

o 2 

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196 RADN0B8HIBB AMD BBB00N8HIBB BUBI. 

SHiVATICI. 

R. marrophyllm Wh. et N. Apparently very rare. *48 Between 
Clyro and Llowes, F. A. Rogers ! So named by me with some hesi- 
tation, and then submitted to Dr. Focke, who wrote, '* Not very 
typical, but I agree in naming the specimen." This criticism 
would, I believe, apply equally well to most of our British " R, macro- 
phyllus/' Quite the typical plant I believe to be rare amongst us. 

Var. Schlechtendalii Weihe. Uncommon. 42. Between Hay 
and Cusop Dingle. 48. Aberedw ; Boughrood ; Llowes. 

R. Sprengelii Weihe. Seen only in one spot, near Glanaa Wells, 
Builth, 42 ; but quite typical there. 

R, hirtifolins Muell. et Wirtg. I agree with Mr. Ley in thus 
naming one of the more frequent brambles throughout that part of 
the Wye Valley which I explored. 42. From Newbridge to Three 
Cocks R. Junction. *48. Aberedw ; Boughrood, &c. 

R. pyramidalis Ealt. At least as widespread through the same 
country as the last, but often seen only in small quantity. 42. 
Builth and Three Cocks Junction neighbourhoods. Llangorse 
Common. 48. Bhayader ; Newbridge ; Aberedw ; Boughrood. 

R, lencostachys Sohleich. Very common in 42 (Hay, Builth, 
&c.) and 48 (Bhayader, Llanelwedd, Llowes, Presteign, &c.). 

Var. augusti/olius Rogers. '*'48. Stanner Rocks ; Old Radnor, 
F. A. Rogers \; Aberedw; Erwood; Llowes. 

EoBEon. 

This and the three following groups, — ^in other words, the more 
glandular brambles generally, — are very thinly represented through- 
out the districts visited. 

jR. mucronatus Blox. Typical plant not seen. In Corton Wood, 
Presteign (48), Mr. Ley pointed out to me an allied form, abundant 
there, which he distinguishes by the MS. name R. mucronatoides. 
Perhaps it may be included in an aggregate sense under mucro- 
7iatus, but it goes off from ordinary forms of that species somewhat 
towards R. melanoxylon. In the same wood (as also, in greater 
quantity, in the neighbouring Stapleton Wood, Herefordshire) 
occurs a handsome bramble which Dr. Focke considers '' allied to 
R» OelertiV* In some respects it is intermediate between that and 
our British var. criniger, which it reminded me of before I sent it 
to Dr. Focke. 

R, Drejeri Q. Jensen. *42. Talgarth and Builth Roads, near 
Three Cocks Junction. The typical plant, I believe, but seen onlv 
in two spots. Near Hay Bridge (48) grows what may be a weak 
shade form of the same species, though apparently somewhat inter- 
mediate between it and R. mucronatus, 

Subsp. or var. Leyanus Rogers. 48. By the Wye at Bough- 
rood, abundant ; near Llowes, 

Radula. 
R, echinatus Lindl. '*'42. Roadside, about a mile N.E. of Three 
Cocks Hotel ; a few bushes only seen. 48. Llowes. 

R, oigocladus Muell. et Lefv. Seen only near Llowes (48). 



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BADN0B8HIBB AND BBBOON8HIBB BUBI. 197 

R. Babingtonu Bell Salt. 48. Roadside by B. Lug, W. of 
Presteign. 

R. Lejeunei Wh. et N. 42. Wood near Olanaa Wells, Bailth, 
A. Ley ! Clearly the same plant as one thus named for Mr. Ley 
by Dr. Focke in 1897 from Llanwrtyd in the same oounty. 

Yar. ericetorum Lefv. ^48 Near Llowes. A frequent plant in 
some neighbouring parts of Herefordshire. 

R. pallidus Wh. et N. *42. Near Glanau Wells, Builth, A. Ley I 

R. langithyrdger Bab. 48. Bhayader; Presteign, My failing 
to find any form of R. radvla is remarkable. 

EOBHLBBIANI. 

R. rosaceiu Wh. et N. A handsome form, with narrow leaves, 
and showing some resemblance to my yar. Purchasianus, is abun- 
dant about Llowes, *48. 

Yar. hystrix Wh. et N. 42. Builth, Hay Boad, and near the 
junction of the Yrfon and Wye. *48. Hillside, Bhayader. 

R. Koehleri Wh. et N., var. or subsp. dastphtllus. I venture to 
snggest this as an appropriate new name for the widespread and 
looidly abundant bramble which we have long tried to distinguish 
as ** R. pallidus Bab. (non Wh. et N.)." It is far the commonest of 
all the glandular forms seen by me in Mid- Wales, as throughout 
most of Central and N. England ; and as the true R, pallidus of 
Weihe and Nees is now also found to be widely spread in England, 
the continued use of the name for a plant to which it was originally 
given by mistake is peculiarly inconvenient. A fresh description is 
unnecessary here, as the form is (on the whole) so carefully and 
fully distinguished from its allies in Brit. Bubi, pp. 204-206. But 
I should perhaps point out that the leaves are far from being uni- 
formly 5-nate, or the filaments uniformly pink, as there described ; 
and that the sepals are, as a rule, strongly reflexed, though often 
rising for a short time on the fall of the petals. I think it may 
remain under Koehlen as a strongly marked var. or subsp., readily 
recognized as a rule by its long, narrow, lax panicle ; its long, 
prostrate, very prickly and aciculate dull-red hairy stem ; and its 
thick, patent-toothed leaves, yellowish green and very soft beneath. 
In weak forms, however, only the stem armature keeps quite 
Eoehlerian, the intermediate prickles and strong acicles becoming 
comparatively few on the panicle. This common British bramble 
is certainly distinct from R, hostilis Muell. et Wirtg. (as represented 
by Kent and Sussex specimens named for me by Dr. Focke) ; and I 
have seen nothing from the Continent that could be placed with it. 
42 & 48. Quite common. 

Yar. eognatus (N. E. Br.). *48. Llowes. 

jR. Marshalli Focke & Bogers, var. semiglaher Bogers (See Bot. 
Exch. Club Beport 1896, 479, 480, and Joum. Bot. 1895, 108). 
42. Builth neighbourhood, especially near the junction of the 
Yrfon and Wye ; Llangorse Common ; between Glasbury and 
Talgarth ; Hay Hill. LcNoally abundant. Chiefly a form of hedges, 
and at times recalling R, dumetorum ferox^ but with the rather large 
drupelets epruinose and not caesian in flavour. This variety is 



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198 APODAGHLTA, A GBNUS OF FUMGI NBW TO BBITAIN. 

widely spread in Wales, and somewhat variable in character. It 
also crosses the border into Herefordshire, and is especially abundant 
at Gosop, near Hay. 

Bellabdiani. 

R. ochrodermis A. Ley, 48. Sillia, Presteign. 

R. britannicuB Rogers. Fairly frequent. 42. Newbridge ; near 
Builth ; Hay Hill ; Brecon side of Cusop Dingle. *48. New- 
bridge ; Aberedw. 

Gabsu. 

R, dumetorum Wh. et N. In an aggregate sense common in 
both counties, and very variable. 

Var. /^oa? Weihe. 42. Builth neighbourhood ; Hay Hill. 48. 
Llanelwedd; Llowes; Glyro; Boughrood; Presteign. 

Var. pilosus Wh. et. N. *48. Presteign ; well-marked, I think, 
and in good quantity. 

R. corylifolius Sm. Remarkably scarce. 42. Seen only in the 
Hay and Three Gocks Junction neighbourhoods, and there rarely 
if at all typical. '*'48. Presteign, in good quantity. Ghiefly var. 
cyclophyllus (Lindeb.). 

J^. casius L. Local. 42. Llangorse Gommon ; from Glasbury 
to Hay and Talgarth. *48. Glyro ; Llowes ; Presteign. 

Of hybrids I saw only two that I should speak of as quite 
unmistakable, viz. R. casius x rusticanus, 42. Near Three Gocks 
Hotel, in some quantity; and R, clivicola x rmticanm^ 48. Llowes. 
Other crossings that I thought I recognized were the following : — 

R, btitannicus X Marshalli (forma). 48. Gusop Dingle. 

/?. leucostachys x longithyrdger, 48. Slope below Gorton Wood ; 
Presteign. 

jR. pulchenimtis x SUurum, 48. Rocky cutting by roadside, 
Rhayader. 



APODACHLYA, A GENUS OF FUNGI NEW TO BRITAIN. 
By Antony Qbpp, M.A., P.L.S. 

The list of Saprolegniaceous Fungi recorded as occurring in this 
country is a meagre one, and calls for extension. There is little 
doubt that several additions could easily be made, if collectors would 
give their attention to the group and search for the plants described 
and figured by Winter in Rabenhorst's Ki-yptogmnm- Flora von 
Devischlandy and by Humphrey in his " Saprolegniacea of the 
United States" (Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc. xvii. 1898). As the 
existence of Apodachlya in this country does not appear to have 
been noticed hitherto, a brief account of this genus and of a few 
other Saprolegniacea recently found with it in Shropshire may be of 
interest. 

Last January my brother. Dr. Maurice Gepp, was investigating 
the state of purity of the water-supply of Meole Brace, near Shrews- 
bury. The water is pumped up out of an isolated coal-mine in an 
agricultural district, and, flowing for nearly a mile through an 



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APODAOHLTA, A GENUS OF FTTNOI NBW TO BRITAIN. 199 

nndergrotod pipe, runs into a filter-tank, and then into a roofed 
reservoir. Tufts of a filamentous fungus were found floating in, 
and attached to, the filter-tank, and entering it from the inlet-pipe. 
These tufts proved to be Apodya laetea Gomu, a rather rare plant, 
which is distinguished from most of the Saprolegniacea by the con- 
strictions of the hyphsd at intervals of about 0*25 mm. The hyphsd 
are about 0*015 mm. in diameter, contain in each joint a few 
oellnlin-spheres of doubtful nature, and are often plugged at the 
constrictions with similar spherical or ellipsoidal stoppers. The 
tofts were from one to three centimetres in length, and were so 
obscured by a brown deposit that the details of the filaments were 
difficult to make out. This deposit was found to be rust. It was 
soluble in dilute hydrochloric acid, and, upon the further addition 
of potassium ferrocyanide, yielded an abundant formation of prussian 
Uue. The water in which the plant grew contained a small quantity 
of iron in solution. Now, it is known that some of the lowest fungi 
— LeptothriXf Crennthrix, and Cladothrix — ^have the power of con- 
verting ferrous bicarbonate to ferric hydrate, and they are even 
credited with the formation of deposits of bog-iron ores ; but that 
Apodya should be capable of dealing with iron in a similar way 
seems to be a novel fact. The plant is saprophytic on organic 
matter in running water, for instance, in streams which receive the 
effluent waters from distilleries and paper-mills. Apodya laetea was 
originally described as an alga, and appears in English Floras under 
the name Leptomitns lacteus Ag. It should be added that there is 
still some doubt as to how the plant found its way into the Meole 
water-pipe ; but the probable source was not the coal-mine, but a 
water-course near to the filter-tank, and flooded by a long rainy 
season. 

A few days after sending me the Apodya, my brother found a 
broom-handle floating in the reservoir that adjoins the filter-tank. 
He sawed off a length of this — a stout hazel-stem — and sent it to 
me. It had a number of fungoid tufts upon it, chiefly springing 
from the lenticels ; and these tufts proved very interesting when 
examined under the microscope, for they contained the following 
four or five Saprolegniacea. There was a small quantity of Apodya, 
but now clear, and not obscured by a rusty deposit ; also a strong 
growth t)f Achlya raeemosa Hildeb., producing abundant oogonia 
and zoosporangia ; and with it was associated a very small quantity 
of its var. stelUgera Gornu, and of another species — A . spinosa De Bary , 
each with oogonia ; and finally a strong growth of Apodachlya pyn- 
fera Zopf, with zoosporangia. These four plants do not appear to 
have been found in this country before, or at least to have been 
recorded; and in that case Apodachlya is an addition to our fungus- 
genera. It resembles Apodya in consisting of filaments constricted 
at intervals; but the intervals are much shorter — about 0*1 mm., 
and the filaments are only about 0*007 mm. in diameter. The 
specific name refers to the zoosporangium, which is usually pear- 
shaped. It is always formed from the apical cell of a filament or 
of a new branch which has sprung from immediately underneath 
the last-formed sporangium. When ripe, the sporangium ruptures 



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200 APODAOHLTA, A GENUS OF FUNGI NEW TO BRITAIN. 

at the top, and the contents are extruded as a cluster of some dozen 
encysted spore bodies, which remain for a time attached to the top 
of the empty sporangium. Then one by one the zoospores squeeze 
their way out of the cysts and escape. The zoosporangia vary much 
in size, but roughly are about 0*05 by 002 mm. They are produced 
abundantly ; but as the crown of extruded spore-bodies is readily 
detached from the empty sporangium, it is well to harden the 
specimen with osmic acid before teasing it out. Apodachlya may be 
sought for on rotting Characea, as well as in the haunts of Apodya. 

In passing on to Achlya, it is worth while to call to mind the 
difference between the zoosporangial formation in this genus and in 
Saprolegnia, In the latter the zoosporangium is apical, and each 
new sporangium grows up inside the empty tube of the other one. 
In Achlya the first zoosporangium is apical, and each new one is 
produced at the apex of a branch emitted horn immediately below 
tiie preceding sporangium ; and thus the axis of the hypha becomes 
sympodial. In Achlya also the extruded zoospores are retained for 
a time encysted in a cluster attached to the top of the empty 
sporangium, as in the case of Apodachlya^ but are much more 
numerous — perhaps a hundred or more. Achlya racemosa is a 
common species which deserves the recognition of our myoological 
authorities. It had a congenial matrix in the sodden broomstick, 
but adapted itself readily to a diet of dead fiies. Its oogonia are 
terminal on lateral branchlets, are spherical, contain from two to 
seven oospores, and are each provided with a pair of antheridia arising 
from the stalk-cell or from the oogonium itself. The var. stdltgera 
has oogonia of similar dimensions — about 0*06 mm. diam. — ^but of 
rather angulate outline, owing to the presence of a few low promi- 
nences of the oogonial wall. The oospores are but two, and the 
antheridia solitary. Finally, our specimens of Achlya spinosa are 
distinctly interesting as being somewhat of a link between De Bary's 
types of A, spinosa and A. stelUUa, The oogonia measure 0*06 mm. 
in extreme diameter, and approach those of the latter species in 
their regular, stellate, unflattened outline ; but the spines are fewer, 
sharper, and more prominent ; moreover, some of the oogonia are 
provided with an antheridium springing from the stalk-cell, and in 
this way they are referable to A. spinosa; but the oogonia of our 
plant are always terminal on the main filament, or more often on 
short branchlets, and are never intercalated in the filament, as in 
the type of A. spinosa or in ^. cotmuta Archer, nor do they bear the 
strong terminal spine so characteristic of these two species — or rather 
synonyms — ^for it is doubtful whether these plants can be maintained 
as distinct species. They require further investigation, as also does 
A, steUata. 

It would be well worth the while of mycologists to give a little 
time to the study of our native Saprolegniacea, How to do this for 
the best is well told by Humphrey, and also by Trow in his ** Kary- 
ology of Saprolegnia" (Annals of Botany, ix. 1895). Samples of 
water-plants from clean streams or ponds should be collected and 
put in pots of pure water ; and freshly-killed flies should then be 
added. In three or four days the flies will almost inevitably be 



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CANABIAlf AND MADKIRAN 0BA8SULA0EA. 201 

inyested with a halo of Saprolegniaoeoas fangi, the growth of which 
can then be studied for weeks. The fiies, however, should first be 
dipped in spirit to remove the air, and then washed in water to 
remove the spirit; for otherwise they float high and dry on the 
surface of the water. When flies are abundant, a store of them 
should be killed and desiccated, to enable the cultures to be carried 
on through the winter. 

My thanks ^re due to Miss A. L. Smith for her kind help in the 
determination of the specimens. 



OANABIAN AND MADEIRAN CRASSULAOE^. 
By R. p. Mdbbay, M.A., F.L.S. 

Sedum lancerottense, sp. nov. Glabrum, tortuosum, foliis 
subovoideis, floribus breviter pedicellatis in cymam anfractam 
bipartitam terminalem soorpioideam bracteatam dispositis ; sepalis 
5| obtusis ; staminibus 10. 

Hab. In rupibus abruptis el Risco dictis ins. Lancerottensis. 

In May 1892 1 obtained a single specimen of this species, leafless, 
and with only the remains of a cyme, on the cliffs of el Risco in 
Lanzerote. It is a most interesting addition to the Ganarian 
flora, which, though so rich in Sempervivuniy has till now possessed 
not a single Sedum, with the exception of the widely spread South 
European S. rubeiis L. Sedum lanceroiterue is nearly allied to S. 
nudum Ait. and S, fwiiforme Lowe, both endemic in Madeira. To 
the former of these it perhaps comes nearest by its leaf characters 
and in the number of its stamens, but it differs widely in habit. 
Leaves pale green. Gymcd remarkably wavy, almost recalling the 
arched intemodes of Bauunculus reptam L. Perennial. Described 
from cultivated specimens. 

SemperviYTim percamenm, sp. nov. S. caule frutescente, 
ramoso; foliis anguste spathulatis glabris, acuminatis, serrato- 
ciliatis; floribus camosis in thyrsum latum digestis; ramulis 
puberulis; calycis puberuli dentibus lineari-triangularibus; squamis 
perigynis inconspicuis (aut nuUis). 

Hab. In insulis Ganariensibus. 

One of the most conspicuous plants of the genus in Gran 
Ganaria. It is difficult to understand how it has so long remained 
without a name. It grows abundantly about Gnia, and also in and 
near the Galdera de Bandama, both these localities being in the 
north of the island. The only specimen which I have seen from 
any of the other islands is at Eew, where it is placed in a packet 
marked ** S. Youngianun Webb." The sheet is labelled, I believe, 
in Gay's handwriting, from whose herbarium it was received, 
'' fleurs violettes He de Fer, in rupestribus el Golfo, 2 Mai 1855. 
H. de la Perraudi^re," and bears a MS. name. It agrees exactly 
with Ganarian specimens. There is a single sheet of S. pereameum 
in Webb's herbarium at Florence. To show the confusion into 



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202 OANASIAN AND BfADSIRAN OBABSULAGBJS. 

which these plants have fallen, it may be worth while to notice the 
mixture of species which have been associated with it. There are 
two packets each labelled jE, Dorama. The first contains (so far 
as my notes record) only one sheet from Gran Canaria. it is a 
plant with the habit of S, barbatum, and was at first so labelled. 
Can it represent the Monium Bentejui of Webb's syn. ined., of 
which nothing definite seems to be known ? The second packet 
contains three sheets: — No. 1, a plant with yellow flowers and 
glandular pedicels, marked ** Monium DoranuB / / " A second label 
with the suggestion of S. holochrysum has been crossed out. No. 2 
is, if I rightly remember, the same. No. 8 is marked " 882 8, 
ciUatum Willd. fleurs rouge4tres. Gd. Canaria." Nob. 1 and 2 
are probably jEmi. Manriqworum BoUe ( = y®. Dorama Webb), 
that is, in my belief, S, arboreum L. No. 8 is 8, percameum. This 
is a very easily recognizable species, quite distinct from all others 
in the colour of its flowers, and in the peculiar slight, almost scurfy 
clothing of the flowering branches. Mr. Gelert, who was kind enough 
to make a re-examination for me of fresh specimens in 1896, could 
find no *< perigynous glands." I sometimes thought that I could 
detect them, but was never quite satisfied as to their presence. 
Flowers in May. 

Sehpebyivum arbobeum L. Lowe (Man. Fl. Mad., 887, 888) 
says that he found this species abundsmtly and apparently quite 
wild in two or three islands of the Canarian archipelago ; and quotes 
Tenerife (Barranco de Martianez), Hierro (Gl Golfo), and Lanzerote 
(El Valle). There are specimens from Tenerife and Hierro at Eew, 
but I cannot think that they are rightly referred to 8. arboreum. 
Indeed, so far as the Barranco Martianez is concerned, I feel 
perfectly sure that 8, arboreum does not occur there, but that 8, 
holochrysum was mistaken for it. I think that the Hierro plant is 
also probably 8. holoch-ysum. The Eew specimens from both 
localities seem to have the panicle branches quite glabrous, which 
would not accord with 8, arboreum, I have not seen the Lanzerote 
plant. But in 1894 (^ April 80), I gathered a plant at El Dragonal 
in Gran Canaria which I was able with considerable assurance to 
refer to 8, Manriqueorum (Bolle) = 8, Dorama CVf ehh), a plant which 
I now believe to be identical with 5. arboreum L. It agrees perfectly 
with a Portuguese specimen of this latter, and is well distinguished 
from any other Canarian species of this group by the clothing of 
the panicle, which is well described by Lowe as • furfuraceo-pu- 
berulous.' My plant grew on a wall, close to a small hamlet, so 
that the locality may not be quite above suspicion, though I do not 
think it had been planted. It was in fair quantity, but only one 
specimen was in flower. Bolle says of his ionium Mantiqueorum, 
* Hab. in Canaria Magna frequens : La Vega de S. Brigida : Barranco 
de Tenteniguada : El Dragonal : Monte Doramas.' It is a great 
satisfaction to have solved (as I hope) the problem of the original 
home of 8. arboreum, 1 believe that all the European and North 
African localities quoted for it are open to doubt, and I suspect 
that <* garden escapes, naturalized,*' would be their proper de- 
scription. 



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OANABIAM AMD MAPRIBAN 0BA88ULA0EJB. 208 

SsMPEBViYnM BABBATUM Chr. Sm. This species derives its 
name from the long capillary adventitioas rootlets with which it 
is said to be clothed, but I have never seen such a specimen, 
and most of the Ganarian species of the genus are liable to the 
same peculiarity under certain circumstances. There is only a 
single sheet of the species in Webb's herbarium. The specimen 
has no radicles, and is labelled ** Hort. Paris.*' My own plant, 
collected above Agua Mansa, in Tenerife, shows no trace of them, 
and Bourgeau's exsiccata under this name are in the same con- 
dition, so far as I have seen them. I can in no way distinguish 
these Tenerife plants from those which I collected in many places 
in Palma, which are the Momum cri/LetUum of Phyt. Can. Pro- 
bably M, BenUjui Webb and M. atrepncladtmi Webb Berth, should 
also be placed under 8, barbatum, which, being the oldest name, 
mast be retained, however inappropriate to the usual condition of 
the species. 

SfiMPEBVivuH METEBHEnm (Bollc). In 1859 BoUe described 
(Bonpl. vii. 239), under the name of Monium Meyer heimii, a 
Seffipervivum from Madeira which does not seem to have been since 
noticed by any other botanist. In June, 1895, I found a few 
plants, which I think may belong to it ; at least the single root 
which I was able to coax into flower answers fairly well to his 
description, as does also the locality ** in rupestribus apricis non 
procul ab urbe Funchal.** My plants were collected near the base of 
the sea-clififis, about two miles to the east of that town. I believe 
that they were of hybrid origin (S. glandtUosum x silutinosum), and 
that they do not constitute a distinct species. The inflorescence is 
quite that of 8, glandtUosum Ait., while the leaves are much nearer 
those of 8. glutinosum Ait., and do not form a flat rosette as in 5. 
glandulomm. The ciliaa, which are nearly as broad as long, and 
transparent, also agree with those of 8. glutinosum. The few plants 
which I saw all grew close together, and both the supposed parents 
are exceedingly common in Madeira. I should add that the 
peculiar and (from a collecting point of view) most unpleasant 
viscidity of 8. glutinosum was entirely absent. 

Hybrids seem to be extremely rare in the genus, but I see that 
Nyman quotes two or three in his Conspectus, 

Sempebvivum PAiviB Lowe (Hook. Bot. Mag. t. 5598). This is 
the oldest name : Monium CasteUo- Paiva Bolle is the same plant. 

Sbmpebvivum sedifolium H. Chr. {Aichryson sedifolium Bolle. 
Greenovia sedifolium Webb, syn. ined. ex Bolle.J I found this 
species very sparingly in Palma, on rocks by tne roadside near 
OEUidelaria, in June, 1892. It was before this known only from one 
spot in Tenerife, La Hermita de Masca, near Santiago. The habit 
is much like that of 8. 8aundersii H. Chr. 

Sempbevtvum TABULiBFOBME Haw. Wc must, I think, on the 
whole, hold Lowe correct in supposing a mistake to have been 
made in ascribing this species to Madeira. Haworth's description 
is very brief, and runs thus : — <' S. tabulaeforme, subcaulescens 
foliis densissime imbricatis et in planum rotundatum absolute 



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204 WAYFARINO N0TB8 IN BH0DB8IA. 

depressis, ciliatis nudis. Hab. in Madera.'* Bat the leaves in 
the Madeira plant are always more or less pubescent, whereas in 
the allied species, so common on the north coast of Tenerife, they 
are always glabrous, which I suppose to be what Haworth means 
by ** nuiiis.'* Therefore I follow Lowe in adopting S. tahiUaforms as 
the name for the Canarian plant, especially as no great stress can 
be laid on the accuracy of localities in Haworth's time. 

At a later date the Teuerife plant has received two other 
names : JEonixim Berthelotianum Bolle (Bonpl. 1859) and Semper- 
vivum macrolepum H. Ohr. (taken up from Webb, syn. ined.). It is 
quite certain that these two names refer to the same plant. I have 
examined both in the localities ascribed to them (they are only a 
few miles apart) by their respective authors. 

I am unable to say whether Lowe is correct in his statement 
that S. glandvlosum Ait., so often supposed to be Haworth's plant, 
occurs in small quantity, intermixed with abundance of S. tabula- 
forme, between Icod de los Vinos and Garachico (Tenerife). I have 
only seen the latter there. 

Sempebviyum visoatum H. Chr. The representative in Gomera 
of the Tenerifian S. Lindl^yi H. Chr., under which I think it should 
be placed as a geographical race or subspecies. Bolle distinguishes 
it by the more sparing pubescence, the brighter green of the leaves, 
the weaker resinous smell, and the floral divisions, 12- instead of 
6-partite. This last character was taken from dried specimens, 
but he believed it to be constant. It is, however, not so. In all 
that I was able to examine (May, 1894) the calyx was 6-partite. 
The leaves are, however, distinctly longer and narrower than in 
S. Lindleyi. The other differences pointed out by Bolle seem to be 
of little moment. 

Dr. Christ seems to have been the first author to place several 
of the Canarian species in their correct genus {Sempervivum) in the 
list published by him in Engler's Bot. Jahrbiichern, 1887. I have 
therefore ascribed them to him. They were for the most part 
originally published under jEonium, 



WAYFARING NOTES IN RHODESIA.— No. HI. 
By R. Fbank Rand, M.D., F.L.S. 

(Continued from Journ. Bot. 1898, p. 348.) 

Septembrb may be regarded as the first month of spring in 
Mashonaland. In Matabeleland, lying to the S.W., the season is 
about a fortnight later. Few rains have fallen at this time, October 
being the first month in which they may be confidently looked for. 
The veldt, black hitherto from the veldt fires, is now bright with the 
early spring flowers. These come up in advance of the rains. 
Notable among the trees which are coming into foliage is the 
Masasa {BrachysUgia), whose remarkably rich spring tints have 
already been referred to. 



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WAYFASING NOTES IN BHODBSIA. 205 

The early flowers of this spring season come up most abondantl j 
and readily where the ground has been cleared of grass by fire, or, 
as in the neighbourhood of Salisbury, by scythe. As explanation, 
it seemed to me. that the clearing enabled the sun's rays to get at 
the ground, so warming these firstlings into activity ; but a more 
potent factor, I think, is the one suggested by my friend Mr. Wm. 
Smith, of Salisbury, viz. that the dew is now condensed directly 
upon the ground, and not upon the tangle of dry grass stalks as 
before, whence most of it would be dissipated by evaporation. 

Among the earliest and most striking of the veldt flowers to 
appear are the following; they are all abundant, and their rich 
colours beautify what has hitherto been sun-baked and fire-ridden 
veldt :— 

Gnidia, Four species noted. Two of them tender herbaceous 
plants with yellow flowers; one glabrous-leaved, the other with 
leaves coated with soft silky hairs. A third species, a foot or so in 
height, is inclined to be woody, the flowers rather larger than in the 
first two species. A fourth species grows in *<vley " ground, i.e. 
ground which is marshy during the rainy season ; the colours of 
this species are vivid, and range from yellow to a deep Tangerine 
orange tint. — Combretum Oatedi. A low-growing procumbent species 
whose branches radiate out upon the veldt; its deep cherry-red 
flowers at this season, and its no less gaily-coloured fruits later on, 
make it very conspicuous. There are many other Gombretums, some 
shrubby, oUiers arborescent. 

Wormskioldia Petersiana, The flowers of a pure red, outvieing 
the red of the pimpernel. — Hibisctut. A small herbaceous species 
with flowers of a deep red colour. — Melhania, A small herbaceous 
species, in great abundance, the flowers yellow. — Ipomcea sp. Many 
Ipomoeas appear later on ; but this early species springs in tufted 
branches from close to the ground. The flowers are blue-purple, 
and nearly as large as those of the greater Bindweed. — Tryphostemma 
Mastersii is very abundant. A quaint plant with its greenish yellow 
flowers and bladder-hke fruit, A large number of papilionaceous 
LeguminossB, purple and yellow being the colours mostly seen. — 
Trichodesma, Two species were noted; one darker, both in the 
flower and in the leaf, than the other. The flowers fade with great 
rapidity. — Thvnbergia lancifolia T. And., about 1^ ft. in height, 
forming a dense green cluster amidst which the beautiful dark blue 
flowers are partly hidden. 

Among the Monocotyledons, the early members noted were a 
Gladiolus, bright salmon-pink in colour, and Brunsvigia, the 
flowers of dull red colour, the yellow anthers standing out con- 
spicuously. The ridges upon the ovaries, which later develop into 
wind- vanes to aid the dispersal of the globular mass of fruits (see 
Joum. Bot. 1898, 142), are only faintly indicated. The flowers open 
as soon as the end of the scape issues from the bulb ; the stalk then 
rapidly lengthens. The leaves appear later. 

Several species of Aloe were noted in rocky situations, from 
8 to 4 ft. in height. 

Several terrestrial Orchids were noted, among them a new 



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206 WATFARINO NOTES IN BHODBSU. 

Holothrix, of which a description by Dr. Bendle is appended to 
these notes. The flowers of the bulbous plants are most plentiful 
later in the season. 

Amongst trees a Dombeya is striking, recalling a cherrj-tree in 
blossom at distant view. KryHinna also claims notice. It is usual 
to find it about the sites of old native kraals. In youth its stem and 
branches are very spiny, but these are worn down in mature growth 
and in age; in this regard, perhaps, political analogies are not 
wanting. 

My joumeyings aroimd Salisbury were mostly upon foot ; the 
distant ones were made upon the bicycle, usually to lower levels, 
down the valleys of the Hanyani and Mazoe rivers. After descending 
1500 ft. or 80, one sees palms of 20 ft. in height. With a little 
practice one can cycle over the Kaffir footpaths. Two very light 
boards of three-ply veneer made a little larger than the sheets of 
botanical drying paper, strengthened by cross-pieces at the back, and 
drilled through wiUi sundry auger-holes, do not incommode much 
when strapped upon the back. A heavy revolver is more of a burden, 
and is a necessity, for not infrequently some very sharp and distinct 
footprint of lion serves as reminder that the collector may himself 
be collected. 

It is quite remarkable how many plants, belonging to widely 
different natural orders, come into blossom before the leaves appear. 

A few like Aptosimum and Blepharis flower nearly the whole year 
through, but in general there is a hastening to get the work of 
flowering and fruiting over. A plant that is quite plentiful may 
thus be easily missed, so far as the collection of satisfactory botanical 
material is concerned. The terrestrial Orchids are cases in point. 
I am inclined to think that some of these rest over a season. 

Calm days are rarities in Bhodesia. Yet, windy as it is, few 
flowers appear to be fitted for fertilization by the wind. As regards 
fruits and seeds it is otherwise, a very large proportion of them being 
adapted for dispersal by the wind. Wind-pressure is so constant a 
factor that one would suppose it must influence the plant-structure 
of the country to some extent. Euphorbia abymnica^ which grows 
in the most exposed places, and has but slender hold upon the thin 
soil upon and among granite boulders, could not stand against the 
wind were it provided with leaves. As one watches the beautifully 
delicate pinnate leaf of the acacia yielding lightly to the wind, the 
thought comes that this may have been evolved from some simpler 
form which offered more resistance. Certainly the pinnate type of 
leaf is very often met with in Bhodesia. 

Frequent mention has been made of the fires which ravage the 
veldt. The gourd family are well protected, for the merely super- 
ficial roasting that the gourds get does no. damage to the seeds 
within. Again, the yellow, tough-rinded, ball-like fruit of Solanum 
does not sudffer ; indeed, it becomes the more conspicuous against 
the charred background of the surrounding veldt. 

The ripe legumes of Brachystegia are borne in rather a curious 
and conspicuous way, being held aloft slightly above the general 
contour of the tree's leaf-outline. The tree was just coming into 



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WAYFARING NOTBS IN RHODESIA. ^7 

flower again at the end of September. The flowers are sweet- 
scented. At certain seasons much astringent gum exudes from the 
trunk and branches. Individual trees standing well apart from 
others sometimes attain a large size. 

In former notes I have referred to Pretrea, which is very widely 
distributed. Its fruits are the despair of .cyclists, for no more 
effective tyre-puncturer could very well be devised. I found these 
fruits in great quantities in the deep sand round about the post- 
stations where the mules for the coach service are stabled. Evidently 
the mules bring them in from the veldt around, and manage to free 
themselves from the incubus by rubbing their feet in the sand. 
I travelled between Bulawayo and Tati early in October. The 
railway passes, for much of the way, through forest of moderate 
density. Most of the trees were bare, and the ground parched- 
looking. The association of this wintry look with the burning sun 
that tyrannizes at midday astonishes when seen for the first time. 

In going over one's dried specimens, one realizes how in- 
adequately they represent the plant in life. There must be many 
contrivances to ensure fertilization yet to be worked out among 
these African plants; in the Asclepiadacea, e.g., which are well 
represented in Rhodesia. The subject of packing is not without 
interest to the traveller, and certainly one of the marvels of packing 
in the vegetable kingdom is the disposition of the seeds with their 
silky appendages in the capsules of many of the Asclepiadacea, The 
apparent disproportion as to bulk between the seeds as they emerge 
from the ripe capsule and the space within which they were confined 
reminds one of a conjuror's box. 

The thorns in many species of Acacia are fistulous ; some are 
very terrible, approaching in size to a meat-skewer. They bulge at 
about the junction of the lower third with the middle third of their 
length, much as the scape of the onion does. These formidable 
thorns would appear to be associated with the extreme delicacy of 
the leaves of the Acacia. 

Myrotkamnus is doubtless abundant enough, but I have only 
notic^ it at Fort Gibbs, in Matabeleland. There it was plentiful 
in the shallow soil, lying in the hollows of the exposed granite. 
I found many female individuals ; males were rare. I found Canna 
mdica growing in a spot where it was not likely to have been intro- 
duced. 

The Mopani (jCopaifera) is very abundant. The wood is prized 
for mining purposes, as weevils and termites do not touch it. The 
crushed leaves have a terebinthous smell. The gum exudes natu- 
rally, and should prove a useful Bhodesian export. This tree grows 
in some localities almost to the exclusion of others. Its bUobed 
leaves make a mournful sighing in the wind, but it is scarcely correct 
to describe the tree as affording no shade. 

There are several species of Ficus ; they deserve attention as 
possible sources of rubber. I noticed one species with abundant 
latex ; this had bled from the upper shoots upon the leaves below, 
staining them white. The first impression I got upon seeing this 
partionlar species was that some colony of birds had made it 



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WATFABING NOTES IN BHODBSU. 

their home. One oan asnallj identify the fig-trees from some 
distance, their foliage being of a rich dark green. They afford 
excellent shade, and are often to be found among the granite kopjes 
so common all over the comitry. 

Bound about Bulawayo acacias are common; the pods differ 
very much in the different species ; in many the pods tend to hang 
in drooping clusters. The pink and yellow tassels shown by one 
species in flowering are very beautiful. The pink colour rapidly 
fades, even upon the tree, and dried specimens do not in the least 
indicate the natural beauty. 

There are several species of Protea, I am inclined to think that 
after fertilization the involucre contracts upon the fruits until the 
seeds mature, expanding again later on to set the ripe seeds firee. 
The veldt fires would seem to hasten this secondary opening, a^ the 
seeds may be noticed being blown about in great abundance ifter 
a fire. 

In vley ground, plants tend to form cushiony tufts, even when 
in other places the habit may be tree-like. Of such, Eugenia is ^kn 
example. 

I have again to express my thanks to the botanical staff of &ie 
British Museum, and also to Mr. Spencer Moore, for much valuable 
aid. 

The following is the description of the new Holothrix referred io 
above : — 

Holothrix RandU Bendle, sp. n. Planta vix pedalis ; foliis . . ; 
scapo basi puberula excepta glabro, cum squamis brevibus ovato- 
acuminatis suffnlto; racemo spirali, floribus 11-12, candidis, de- 
coris; bracteis pedicellos breves vix superantibus ; ovario glabro; 
sepalis ovatis, lateralibus asymmetricis, apiculatis, basi cordatis, 
sepalum dorsale subobtusum parvo superantibus ; petalis pateutibus, 
obcuneatis, inaBqualiter longe-fimbriatis, labello simili at majore cum 
basi subventricosa et calcare brevi recurvato. . 

Plants 26-80 cm. high, scape 8 mm. thick at the base ; scales 
thinly membranous, 7-5 mm. long, diminishing upwards. Raceme 
10-12 cm. long, lower flowers 2*6 cm. long, the upper successively 
smaller; lower bracts 5 mm., ovary 1 cm. long; lateral sepals 
4 mm. long by 2 mm. broad, the dorsal 8'7 mm. long ; petals 1*7 cm. 
long, the lower undivided part 5 by 4 mm., seginents filiform 
(10-11), undivided part of lip 7-8 mm. by 7 mm., segments (15) 
reaching 1*7 cm. ; Column scarcely 8 mm. long, auricles large 
prominent ; spur when straightened 6-7 mm. long, In a smaller 
flower the petals were 1*6-1'6 cm. long, with entire portion 
8-4 mm., and the lip 1*5 cm., with entire portion 7 mm. long. 

Hab. In shady woods ; only two specimens found. Salisbury, 
Ehodesia ; Sept. 1898. No. 696. •* Flowers pure white, of great 
beauty and delicacy." 

Near H. longifiora Bolfe, but distinguished by its glabrous 
scape and flowers, shorter petals, and longer spur. 



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CRITICAL NOTES ON SOME SPECIES OP CERA8TIUM. 

Bt Fbbdbbio N. Williams, F.L.S. 

(CoDtmued from p. 124.) 

57. G. OASFiTosuH Gilib. Fl. Lithuanioa, ii. 159 (1782), et 
Exercit. Phytol. i. 299 (1792) = G. tnviale (lusus hirsutus). The 
description fits this species rather than C^glomeratum, as given in 
Index Kewensis. By Giirke, PL Europaa, ii. 222 (1899), revived in 
place of C. tnviale. 

58. G. 0£8PiT0suM Kit. ap. Kan. in LintuBa^ xxxii. 524 (186S). 
A name given by Kitaibel to some Hnngarian specimens, to which 
be applied the meagre note, '' Cerastio Szalabereiisi simile, sed petalis 
calyce longioribus diversum," which scarcely suffices to establish a 
species. The specimens were collected at Nagy Szollos, in the 
county of Ugocsa, and at Nagy Varad, in the county of Bihar. 
Beichenbach seems to have examined specimens, and referred them 
to C. laricifoliton, citing the impublished name attached to the 
specimens as a synonym {Fl. Germ, excurs. 799 [1882] ). This 
determination is probably correct, and Eitaibers plant may therefore 
be reduced to (7. arveme var. laridfolium Car. et St. Lag. !^tude des 
Fleurs, 129 (1878). 

59. C. ofSPiTosuM Malmgr. in Vet. Akad. Oefvers. 1862, 242. 
A reference to the work cited shows that Malmgren describes this 
plant only as a var. of C. alpinum. 

60. C. c-EBPiTosuM Schur in Verb. Siebenb. Ver. ii. 177 (1857) ; 
et in Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. viii. 22 (1858) = C. Carintkiacum 
(Transylvanian specimens). 

61. C. OASPiTOSUM Tr. & Planch, in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 4, xvii. 
152 (1862). Closely allied to O. alpinum, but more distinct from it 
than the preceding. 

Hab. Colombia and Ecuador. M. Wagner's specimens were 
collected at the top of Mt. Pichincha, in the Andes of Ecuador, 
4600 metres, a greater elevation than that recorded for any other 
'species of CerasHum. 

62. C. CAMPANULATUM Viv. AnnoUs Botanici, i. pt. 2, 171 (1804). 
The same author's C, ligusticum {Elenchue Planturum Hort, Botanicif 
J. C. Dinegro, p. 15 (1802) ), which is not distinguishable from C 
eampanulatum, has never been taken up in floras. There is a note 
by J. Gay, attached to authentic specimens, that in the original 
publication of this part the title-page is dated 1802, but this is not 
the case. There seems, however, no occasion to displace this 
well-established name."*" The type-specimens are in Herb. Mus. 
Florent. There are no type-specimens of C. Ugneticum, 

Geogr. Range. Italian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Dalmatia, 
Herzegovina, Montenegro, Greece {HaussJcnecht, 1885, and Balearic 
Isles (MareSf 1855). Included by Boissier in FL OrientaliSf with 
the reservation, '*dabia civis ditionis nostrsB." Its admission to 

* [We oamiot ooncur with Mr. Williams in this opinion. — ^Ed. Joubm. Bot.] 
Journal of Botany.— Vol. 87. [May, 1899.] p 



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210 OBITICAL NOTES ON SOMB SPECIES OF 0EEA8TIUM. 

the Turkish flora is on the authority of Grisebach {SpiciLfl. Rumd. 
Bithyn, i. 209), who, however, states that the petals in the Balkan 
specimens are ciliate. If this is so, the specimens cannot be 
C. catnpanulatumy but almost certainly belong to C, petricola Pancic, 
a species found on Mt. Rilo, on the Bulgarian side of the Balkans. 
The specimens so named from the Azores belong to an endemic 
species, (7. Azoncum, 

68. 0. CANESCENS Homcm. in Herb. Balbis, ex DC. Prodr. i. 
416 (1824) : = C, brachypetalum Desp. In referring the specimens 
to C. brachypetalum, Seringe notes a slight variation, **caulis 
foliaque pilosissima.'* Boyle's specimens under this name, collected 
in Kashmir, belong to 0. iriviale, 

64. C. CAPENSE Sond. in Harv. et Sond. Fl. Capensis, i. 181 ( 1859). 
An annual species with the habit of C, Wiviale, In an average 
capsule I found twenty- seven seeds. The type- specimens of this 
species are Ecklon & Zeyher, n. 265 (0. semidecandrum), n. 266 
(C pentandrum), and n. 267 (0. vulgatum). Quite different from 
any other South African species. 

Hab. Cape Colony : sandy places below Table Mountain and 
at the summit, in the Cape District; nr. Caledon Baths, in the 
Caledon District ; B. Zwartkops and Addo, in Uitenhage District ; 
on the Bosch-berg, in Cradock District (MacOwan, PI. austro-afr. 
n. 288); Bosch-kloof, in Clanwilliam District {Scklechter, Pi. 
austro afr. 1896, n. 8471). 

Var. Transvaalense Williams. Canles 22-28 centim. Folia 
inferiora lanceolata basi longe petiolato-attenuata, superiora lanceo- 
lato-linearia sessiUa. Braotes foliis similes. Petala oblonga 
bideutata. 

Hab, Transvaal Bepublic : Pilgrim's Best, in the mountainous 
Lydenberg District {Rev. W. Greenstock, 1879). 

65. C. CARDiopETALUM Naud. in C. Gay, Fl. Chilena, i. 274 
(1845) : = 0. Commersonianum Ser. So named from the oboordate 
petals. 

66. 0. CARiNTmAouM Vest, in Botan. Zeitung, vi. 120 (1807). 
An earlier name for C, ovatum Hoppe (1809), which it supersedes. 
It has been attempted to distinguish these as two species. The 
differences, however, *<on paper" are very slight, and in the plants 
themselves do not exist at all. 

67. C. cARNosuLUM Turcz. ex Ledeb. Fl. Bossica, i. 418 (1842) : 
= (7. arvense var. ambigiium Williams. 

68. C. Carpetandm Lomax in Journ. Bot. 1898, 881. The 
nervation of the ripe capsule places this Spanish species near 
C, rtideiale, 

69. C. CA8TEATUM Kittcl, Tsschb. fl. Deutschl. 1074 (1887) : = 
C. glomerattim var. castratum Wohlfarth in Koch, Syn. fl. Germ. 
(ed. 8), 808 (1892). Stamina fertilia 5. 

Hab. Prussia : nr. Himmelpfort, in prov. of Brandenburg (not 
to be confused with Himmelpforten, in Hanover). 



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OBinCAL NOTES ON SOME SPEODSS OF GEBASTIUM. 211 

70. C. Oauoasicum Pisch. ex 8er. in DC. Prodr. i. 414(1824): 
= C. nemorale var. glabrescens Ledeb. Fl. Bossioa, i. 400. The 
original brief description is, **caule erecto dichotomo, ramis 
elongatis, foliis canlinis lanceolatis glabris margine scabris, petalis 
longitadine calycis glabri, oapsulis pedicello pabesoente breviori- 
bns." In habit this glabrescent variety is less branched, and the 
stems less distinctly farrowed. 

71. G. Ghassium Form, in Yerhandl. Naturf. Ver. Briinn, xxxv. 
(1896). 

Hob. Greece : Mt. Gaka, in the Ghassia Mountains. The spe- 
cimens I examined were not very different from C. pumUum, 

72. G. Ghilense Bartl. in Presl, Beliq. Haenk. ii. 17 (1880) : 
= C. arvense var. Chilenum Williams. Bohrbach (in Linnaa, xxxvii. 
804) would consider this a form of typical C. arvense, differing only 
in the larger flowers, and in the calyx 8 mm. long. Mr. E. G. 
Seed's specimens from Yalle del Jeso (1878), in which the hairs 
are distinctly adpressed or reflexed, may properly be referred to this 
variety. "Ghilenum" is a more correct Latin form of Ghilean 
than « Ghilense." 

C arvenss var. Chilenum. Caules pills reflexis deorsum fere 
adpressis vestiti. Bracteaa oblongaa. Flores majores; calyx 8 mm. 
longns ; sepala interiora margine membranacea. 

78. G. oHLOBiBFOLiUM Flsch. ct Mey. Ind. Hem. Hort. Petropolit. 
iv. 84 (28 December, 1887) ; Boiss. Fl. Orient, i. 719. A glabrous 
annual, like C. perfoliatum, from which it differs in the divaricate 
flowers, with large petals ciliate at the base, and 10-nerved capsule. 

Hab. Asiatic Turkey: between Hamanli and Safranbol, in 
prov. of Anatolia ; at Ispir, in prov. of Erzeroum. 

74. G. cnjATUM Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1888, 89 
(nomen); Ledeb. Fl. Bossica, i. 410 (1842) (nomen sub syn. 
C. vulgati) ; Turcz. in Bull. Soc. Nat. Mosc. 1842, 616 : = C. tnviale 
var. ciliatum Williams. — Lsete virens. Turiones elongati, cauliculi 
sffipe inferne florigero-virgato-ramosi, unifariam hirsuti. Folia 
lineari-oblonga oblonga vel ovato-oblonga. Gyma subtrichotoma, 
dichasio 8-10-floro ; bracteaa apice late scariosaB. Galyx plerumque 
purpurascens. Petala biloba infra medium reverse ciliata, calyce 
snbdupto longiora, lobis rotundatis sepalis sBquilatis. Gapsula 
calyce duplo longior. Semina exigue striato-tuberculata, margine 
Isvia. 

Hab. Siberia : banks and islands of B. Eoksun, in the Altai 
region, and gravelly places on banks of B. Snicznaja, in Trans- 
bukalia. 

The type-specimens are no. 267 of Turczaninow's Baikal plants. 

75. G. CILIATUM Waldst. & Kit. PI. Bar. Hung. iii. 250, t. 226 
(1812). This plant represents Groatian specimens of C. m-vense, 
which scarcely differ from the type in more than the less hairy 
surface of the leaves; and this scarcely applies to the cauline 
leaves. In fact, the plate is an excellent figure of the Linnean 
species. 

p 2 



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212 GBITIGAL NOTBS ON SOME SPB0IB8 OF OERASTIUM. 

76. C. ooLLiNUM Ledeb. in Hort. Dorpat, ex Del. Sem. 1882 in 
horto Bonn. coll. ; ap. Tausch, in Flora, xvi. 122 (1888) ; et Ledeb. 
in Herb. Strassburg : = C piayurascens Adams. Cultivated speci- 
mens were submitted to DeOandolle, who considered that they 
might be a distinct species. ''In hortis botanicis sub nomine 
0. collini Ledeb. et C macrocarpi Steven, saepe colitur." 

77. C. coLLiNUM Salisb. Prodr. 800 (1796) : = 0. arvense. The 
'dpecio^ens so named, cultivated in Salisbury's garden at Chapel 
Allerton, were gathered on uplands at Wentbridge, in Yorkshire. 

78. C. CoLSMANNi Lehm. in Spreng. Syst. Veg. ii. 418 (1826). 
Chilean specimens of C. arvense, 

79. C. CoLUMNiE Tenore, Prodr. fl. Napol. i. xxvii. (1811), et PI. 
Napol. iv. 285 (1880) : = C. tomentosum var. Coluuma Tenore, Syll. 
PI. Neap. 221 (1881). This is the plant figured and described as 
"Ocymoides Lychnitis, reptante radice" in Fabius Columna's 
Phytobasanos, p. 20 (Naples, 1592). 

80. C. ooMATUM Desv. Joum. Bot. iii. 228 (1814): = C. lUyricum 
var. androsaceum Williams. I did not venture to give a varietal name 
to C, androsaceum Ser. (see no. 20 of these notes), before considering 
•the claims of other plants which may be reduced to C. lUyricum, 
The type-specimens of C, comatum are in Herb. Mus. Paris., and 
are without doubt identical with the Turkish specimens labelled 
" Cerastium pilosum '* which Castagne sent to Seringe. The former 
were from Calvi, in Corsica (cf. Soleirol, PL de Corse, n. 1007). The 
name of *' C. pilosum " has been applied to so many different plants, 
that, to avoid needless confusion, it is not desirable to use it as a 
varietal name. The species now recogniztd as C. pilosum is a 
Siberian plant. The Eew copy of the volume in which C, comatum 
is described is imperfect, and ends at p. 147; this probably accounts 
for its omission from the Index Kewensis. The Corsican specimens, 
which may be considered the type of this variety, differ from the 
normal form of C, Illyiicum in the following characters : — 

Caulis 4-8 centim., ramis rectis brevibus, intemodiis plernmqne 
remotis. Dichasium contractum rectum ; pedicelli fructiferi oalyce 
sublongiores, nunquam 2-8-plo longiores. 

Hob, Corsica, Greece, and near Constantinople. 

81. C. CoMMEBsoNiANUM Scr. in DC. Prodr. i. 417 (1824). 

Var. Dabwinianum Williams. — Subglabratum. Folia inferiora 
50-70 centim., angustiora quam in typo. 

Hah, Coast of Argentina {Darwin, 1882, n. 45, in Herb. Eew.). 

A species of the habit and facies of C, semidecandrum, and among 
B. American species nearest to C, triviale var. andinum Williams. 

Geogi\ Range, Uruguay, nr. Montevideo {Commerson); Chile, 
Bancagua {Bertero, **C. cardiopetalnm"), Concon [Poeppig^ «« C. 
macropetalum ") ; Argentina, Bahia Blanoa (G, G, Claraz, 1881, 
n. Ill), var. Darwinianum {Darwin, 1882). 

82. C. coNNATUM Beck, Bot. N. & M. States, 55 (1888). In the 
second edition (1848) of this manual, reduced to C, tnviale (or 
perhaps the less common 0. giomeratum is intended). 



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OBITIOAL NOTES ON SOME 8PB0IBS OP OSRASTIUM. 218 

88. C. ooNNATUM Pisoh. in herb. DC, ex Gren. Monogr. 18 
(1841) : = C, pilosum. With this are also specimens collected by 
Steyen in Siberia. 

84. C. ooNNATUM S. G. Gmelin, Reise d. Bussland, ii. 196 

i 1774-88) : = C, davurimm Fisch. This is the reference queried by 
jedebour, and indicated in Index Kewensis. I could not fiud the 
name in the place cited, and, in the absence of an index, turned 
over many pages of the volume without succeeding in running it 
down. 

85. C. ooNSANOuiNEUH Wcdd. in Ann. Sc. Nat. ser. 5, i. 296 
(1864) : = C glomej'atum var. comanguinewn Williams (0. viscosum 
var. cofuangmneum Bohrb.). Gaules pilis brevibus subreourvis 
vestiti. Folia anguste lineari-Janceolata. Flores apetali ; sepala 
apioem versus glabra neque pilis terminata. 

First collected in Peru by Weddell; afterwards in Bolivia by 
Mandon at 4000 metres. 

86. 0. OoNSTANTiNOPOLiTANUM Nym. Consp. fl. Eur. 109 (1878). 
Turkish specimens of C, glomeratum in herb. Gosson, collected by 
Steven near Constantinople. 

87. C. ooRONENSE Schur, in Verb. Naturf. Ver. Briinn, xv. pt. i. 
164 (1877) ; Simk. Enum. fl. Transsilv. 148 (1886) ; Nym. Cousp. 
fl. Eur. suppl. ii. 62 (1889) ; Grecescu, Consp. il. Bomaniei, 119 
(1898)'. The specimens were afterwards referred by Schur to C. 
Cannthiacum^ and by Fuss to C, ttigynum. There are examples 
authenticated by Schur in Herb. Eew. I have examined these 
specimens, and they certainly belong to C, ai-vense; the seeds are 
not large, angular, and invested with a crumpled testa as in C. lati- 
folium and in Parlatore's description of C. Carinthiacum ; but the 
testa is covered with comparatively large tubercles, and closely 
investing the nucellus. The surface of the leaves is somewhat less 
hairy than in typical specimens of (7. arvmse, as in Waldstein and 
Kitaibers plate of the form tbey call C. ciliatum, but this is the 
only shght difference. 

88. G. GoBsicuM Soleir. ex Gren. Monogr. 71 (1841) ; et ex Bouy 
et Fouc. Fl. de France, iii. 204 (1896) [C. Cornea] ,— Soleir. PL de 
Corse, n. 110 : = C. Thomasii Tenore. Soleirol's specimens were 
collected on Mt. Benoso, at 2200 metres, and were described by 
Seringe as C, Soleirolii in Duby, Bot. Gall. i. 87. According to 
Mr. G. C. Lacaita, they certainly match specimens from the Italian 
province of Abruzzi {H. Groves, 1874) in Herb. Kew., and from 
Sardinia {W. Barbey, 1888). Prof. Ascherson, on the other hand, 
refers the Sardinian specimens to C. Qihraltaiicum. If C Thomasii 
is specifically distinct firpm C, arvense, 1 certainly think that the 
Corsican specimens which I have examined should be referred to 
the former. The viscidulous stem is terminated by one or two 
flowers, and invested with short crisp hairs. 

89. G. OBASsiPEs Bartl. in Presl, Beliq. Haenk. ii. 18 (1880). 
Not mentioned or referred to in Grenier's monograph of the genus, 
although he describes at length and figures C. racemosum, which is 
described by Bartling on the same page. Bohrbach says " csBspitem 

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214 OBinOAL NOTES ON SOME SPECIES OF OERASTIUM. 

laxam/' but the authentio Pemvian specimens I examined were 
certainly more tufted than in most species of Cerastium. A medium- 
size capsule contained nine ripe seeds. 
Hab. Chile, Peru, Bolivia. 

90. C. cuspiBATUM Hemsl. Diagn. PL nov. Centr. Amer. 21, et 
Biol. Centr. Amer. Bot. i. 67 (1879). Closeljr allied to the preceding 
and to C. gluHnosum, From the latter it is distinct in the stems 
covered with reflexed white hairs, in the membranous pellucid 
cuspidate leaves, and the shorter less evidently curved capsule. 

91 . C. DAvuRicuMFisch. ex Spreng. Fl. Halens. app. PL min. oogn. 
Pngill. ii. 65 (1815) ; Ledeb. PL Rossica, i. 401 ; Boiss. FL Orient 
i. 717 ; Hook. f. Fl. Brit. Ind. i. 227. A species of wide distri 
bution. In European Russia found in the province of Astrakhan 
on hills near the Volga above Tzaritzyn and Astrakhan ; and nr, 
Slatoust, in the province of Ufa (the northern limit of the species). 
In Asiatic Russia it is recorded from the Western Caucasus at 
2500 metres, the western limit of the species (C. A. Msyei', 1880) 
in the Eastern Caucasus at 2200 metres (Ruprechtf 1869) ; and in 
Siberia its distribution extends from Lake Balkash eastward to 
Davuria, beyond Lake Baikal. In Asiatic Turkey it occurs at 
Djimil, in the vilayet of Trebizond, at about 2000 metres (Balansa) ; 
and in N. Persia on Mt. Elbruz {Buhse). In the Himalayas the 
species is recorded from Gilgit, in Dardistan [Dr, Giles, 1Q87), 
eastward to Eumaon (Strachey), the latter specimens marking the 
south limit of the species. In the Damdar Valley, in Garhwal, 
Mr. Duthie collected specimens at 8800 metres (1888), and Mr. 
C. B. Clarke gathered the plant at a lofty station above Alibad, in 
Kashmir (1876). 

92. C. DBOALVANs Schloss. ct Vukot. Fl. Croatica, 860 (1869) : 
= C, tomentosum var. Moesiacum Boiss. Fl. Orient, suppl. 120 
(C, Mcesiacum Friw.). According to Borbas, this should be kept up 
as a species, of which C. Mcesiacum should be considered a locsd 
form. From the series of specimens I examined in Herb. Ziirich, 
I do not think the characters are sufficiently distinct to separate it 
specifically from C tomentosum. These specimens are distinguished 
from the normal forms of 0. tomentosum, by the following cha- 
racters : — Indumentum minus canum ; caulis erectus crassior hand 
vel vix ramosus ; folia inferiora late elliptica (20 x 17 mm.), media 
lanceolato-oblonga (20 x 11 mm.) ; dichasium pluriflorum; sepala 
latins scariosa; petala longiora semper calyce duplo longiora. 
Haussknecht refers the plant to C. lanigerum, so also does Giirke. 

Hah, Roumania, Bulgaria, Servia, Montenegro, Epirus, Bosnia, 
Greece, and Albania (for this last, see Baldacci in N, Giom. Bot. 
Ital. Jan. 1899). 

98. C. DBNsiFLOBUM Guss. Fl. Sic. Prodr. suppl. i. 186 (1882). 
For the reasons for retaining this name, see C. aggregatum. There 
is an original specimen of 0. densiflotum in Herb. Eew. authenticated 
with Gussone*s signature (Sicily, 1888). This specimen is 7 centim. 
in length, and in a medium-size capsule there were eleven seeds. 
In this, as in other specimens labelled *< C. Siculum," the daws of 



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GBinOAL NOTES ON 80MB 8PB0IB8 OF OBRASTITTM 215 

the petals as well as the filaments are quite glabrous, and an- 
proTided with cilia. Under the lens the rust-ooloured seeds show a 
farrowed depression along the dorsal margin, characters not noted 
in the published descriptions of the species. These characters serve 
to separate it from C. glomeratum, to which it is united in some 
floras. Gay has the following note on a specimen labelled ** C. ag- 
gregatum," from the dept. of Var: — **Cum C. glomerato convenit 
inflorescentia glomerate, bracteis omnibus herbaceis ex toto, pedi- 
cellis fructiferis brevibus, petalorum longitudine et forma. Differt 
floribus pentandris non decandris, sepalis apice nudis non barbatis, 
emarginatis non integerrimis, petalis glaberrimis non basi ciliatis, 
et capsuU minus exserta, rect4 vel rectiuscuU non incurvd. Gum 
C, pumilo convenit numero staminum, sepalis apice emarginatis 
Dudisque non barbatis, longitudine pedicellorum fructiferorum et 
capsuU rectiuscul& parumque exserta. Differt ramis panicul® 
glomeratis, bracteis omnibus herbaceis (quarum superiorea in C. 
pumilo apice et margine membranacesB), petalis brevioribus angusti- 
oribus." The stations for Gussone's original specimens are given 
as *<in campis calcareis submontosis inter segetes/' in Sicily, at 
Chiaromonte, Bagusa, and Modica. Tornabene, however, in his 
recent Flora Aetnea, includes the species in C. viilgatum. 

The species occurs on the south coast of France from Toulon to 
Hydros, the Ues Sanguinaires off the west coast of Corsica, and in 
several localities in Sicily. Battandier describes a 0. SictUum var. 
tetrandrum from Algeria, but the plant seems to me to belong to 
C. tetrandrum. The geographical range of the species is therefore 
extremely restricted. 

94. C. DiAzi Phil, in Anal. Univ. Chil. 1862, pt. 2, 891 ; et in 
Ldnnaa^ xxxiii. 21 (1864-65); Rohrb. in Linncsa, xxxvii. 808 
(1871-72). Insufficiently characterized. Does not seem to differ 
sufficiently from C nercosiim, unless indeed it should be united with 
C. pauciflorum Phil. (= 6\ oliganthum Williams). The specimens 
collected by Hohenacker at 1100 metres in the Chilean Andes, in 
PkU.y PL Chilen, no. 180, may possibly be referred to it. 

95. C. DicHOTOMUM L. 8p. PI. 488 ; Greu. Monogr. 44. — This 
was one of the plants known to Lobel, and described by him under 
the name^of '* Alsine corniculata" in Adv. SHrp, Xov. 246 (1576). 
He receivecl the specimens from Clusius, who collected them near 
Madrid, probably in the same locality from which afterwards 
Loefling sent specimens to Linnaeus, which are the type-specimens 
preserved in the Linnean Herbarium. The brief diagnosis is — 
" Ceroitium foliis lanceolatis, caule dichotomo ramosissimo, capsulis 
erectis"; and references are given to previous authorities. In 
Europe the species occurs in Spain, Portugal, and Greece {Heldreich, 
1884). The geographical limits have been worked out from the 
specunens examined. 

Geogr. Limits. N, — Spain; the mountainous district of the 
province of Galicia, in the neighbourhood of Santiago de Com- 
postella, lat. 48° (Texidor in Revista de las Progresos de las CiencUts, 
xviii. no. 899 [1869] ). 5.— British Beluchistan, lat. 80° (J. H. 



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216 THB ALGA-FLOBA OF 0AMBBIDGE8HIBB. 

Lace, 1888, ex Journ. Linn. Soc. xxviii. 814 [1891] ). S.— Affehan- 
istan; Kurrum Valley, long. 70° (Dr. Aitchison, 1885, no. 205, etex 
Trans. Linn. Soc. ser. 2, iii. 41 [1888] ). PT.— 8.W. Morocco ; Ida 
Ouchemlal, and Adrar Mgorn, long. 10^ (Cosson, 1876, in herb, pro 
Compend. fl. Atlant. ined.). The discovery of the plant by Heldreioh 
at the base of Mt. Pateras, in the nome of Attica, in 1884 (Herb. 
Grac. Noi-m. no. 829, "FloraB GraecaB civis nova"), is a moBt 
interesting extension of the range of the species. 
(To be oontmued.) 



THE ALGA-FLORA OF CAMBEIDGESHIBE. 

By G. S. West, B.A., A.B.0.8. 

Scholar of St. John's OoUege, Cambridge. 

(Plates 894-^96.) 
(Continued from p. 116.) 

114. 0. ABBBBViATUM Bacib. in Pamietnik. Akad. Umiej. w 
Erakowie, Wydz. matem.-prz. x. 1885, 88, t. x. f. 18. A rather 
small form with a narrower isthmus ; long. 12*5 fi ; lat. 18*5 fi ; 
lat. isthm. 2 fi. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

Several larger forms were also seen with more rounded lateral 
angles; long. 20-22 fi; lat. 22 fi; lat. isthm. 4-8-5-5 fi. 6. Bos- 
well Pits, Ely. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and Quy- 
hirne. 

115. C. BEONELLn Wille, *Bidrag til Sydamerik. Alg.-fl.,' Bih. 
till E. Sv. yet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 8, no. 18, 1884, 16, t. i. f. 84. 
The specimens observed approached the variety madagaseariense 
West&G. 8. West (Trans. Linn. Soc. hot. ser. 2, v. 1895, 58, t. vi. 
f. 89), but were proportionately longer, and had a very narrow 
isthmus. Long. 16 fi ; lat. 14*5 fi ; lat. isthm. 8 fi. 8. Twenty- 
foot Biver, between March and Guyhirne. 

116. 0. IMFEBSSULUM Elfv. 2. Domford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March 
and Guyhirne. 

117. C. LAVE Babenh. var. sbptentbionale Wille. 8. B. Cam 
at Cambridge. 5. Wicken Fen. 

118. C. MENEOHiNn Br6b. 8. Hardwick. 7. The Washes, 
Sutton ; in ponds, March. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March 
and Guyhirne. 

Forma ootangularis WiUe. 5. Wicken Fen. 6. Boswell Pits. 
Ely. 

119. 0. ANGULosuM Br6b. forma (PL 894, fig. 18). 2. Demford 
Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 5. Wicken Fen. Long. 14-5-18 fi ; 
lat. 18*5-15 fl ; lat. isthm. 8-2-8-8 fi ; crass. 7*7 fi. These forms 
are almost identical in outward form with C. rsctanguLare Gran. 



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.THB ALOA-FLORA OF OAMBBIDOSBHISB. 217 

forma Boldt (• Ddsm. bin Gronl.,' Bih. till K. Vet.-Akad. Handl. 
Bd. 18, Afd. iii. no. 5, 1888, t. i. f. 18), but are of coarse much 
smaller. They approach nearly to 0. El/dngii Bacib. in Pamietnik. 
Akad. Umiej. w Krakowie, Wydz. matem.-prz. x. 1885, 88 ( = 
G. hexagonum Elfv. in Acta Soc. Fauna et Flora Fennioa, ii. no. 2, 
1881, 12, t. i. f. 8 : non 0. hexagonum Nordst. 1870). 

120. 0. ANGUSTATUM (Wittr.) Nordst. Syn. Euastnim binale 
(Torp.) Ehrenb. var. angustatum Wittr. ; Euastrum polare Nordst. 

5. Chippenham Fen. 

121. C. DiFFioiLE Lfitkem. 5. Chippenham Fen ; WickenFen. 

122. 0. BxionuM Arch. 5. Chippenham Fen. Long. 14*5- 
16 /*; lat. 9*5-11*5 /a ; lat. isthm. 8 /x. 

128. C. suBSTBiATUM Nordst. 5. Burwell Load ; Wicken Fen. 

6. Ro8wellPit8,Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, 
between March and Guyhime. 

124. 0. TBTBAOPHTHALMUM (Eutz.) Meucgh. 5. Chippenham 
Fen; Wicken Fen. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

125. C. MABGABiTATUM (Luud.) Boy et Biss. Syn. C. latum 
Br6b. yar. margarUatum Lund. Very large forms: long. 105 /a; 
lat. 77 II : lat. isthm. 29 /a. 5. Chippenham Fen, abundant, Aug. 



126. C. MABGABiTiFSBUM (Turp.) Mcncgh. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

127. C. BENiFOBifE (Balfs) Archer. 5. Wicken Fen. 7. Sutton 
West Fen. Most of the forms from Wicken Fen had the basal 
angles of the semicells subrectangular, and in this respect they 
resembled var. elevation West & G. S. West (* Some Desm. of U. S.,' 
Journ. Linn. Soc. hot. xxxiii. 1898, 807, pi. 17, f. 11). Long. 58 ft ; 
lat. 46 /x; lat. isthm. 14*5 fi. 

Var. coMPBBssuH Nordst. in Bot. Notiser, 1887, 159 ; in Eongl. 
8v. Vet.-Akad. Handl. xxii. no. 8, 46, t. 5, f. 5 ; West & G. S. 
West, /. c. f . 10. Long. 46 ft ; lat. 48 ft ; lat. isthm. 14 ft. 8. Twenty- 
foot Biver, between March and Guyhime. 

128. 0. PUNOTULATUM Br6b. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken 
Pen. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty- 
foot Biver, between March and Guyhirne. 

*129. C. BBOKn Gutw. in Glamika zemaljskog Muzeja u Bomi % 
Hercegovifd, 1896, iii. 876, t. i. f . 7. Long. 29 ft ; lat. 25 ft ; lat. 
isthm. 6 ft ; crass. 14*5 ft. 8. Guyhime, in ponds (PI. 895, fig. 11). 
This resembles 0. subcostatum Nordst. (in Wittr. et Nordst. * Desm. 
et (Edog. in Ital. et Tyrol.,' Ofv. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1876, 
no. 6, 87» t. xii. f . 18) very closely, the semicells being a little more 
elevated, and the central granules having a slightly different 
arrangement ; there is also but one pyrenoid in each semicell. 
The outline and the radiating granules agree exactly with the form 
of C. subeostatum figured by Schmidle in Berichte d. Deutschen 
Bot. Gesellsch. 1892, Bd. x. Heft 4, t. xi. f. 12. Gutwinski's 
name is unfortunate, as there is a widely distributed species of this 
genus with the name C. Bceckii Wille (*Bidrag til Kundsk. om 



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218 THE ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDaBSHIBB. 

Norges Perskv.-alg.,' Christ. Vidensk. Forh. 1880, no. 11, 28, t. i. 
f. 10). 

180. C. suBcosTATUM Nordst. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 

181. C. oosTATUM Nordst. * Desm. Arct.,* Ofv. af K. Sv. Vet.- 
Akad. Forh. 1875, no. 6, 25, t. vii. f. 17. Long. 27-29 [i ; lat. 
25 ft; lat. isthm. 10-5 ft (PI. 395, fig. 12). 5. Chippenham Fen. 
This rare species has up to the present only been recorded for the 
British Isles from two locahties in Scotland, and its occurrence in 
the fens of the east of England is most unaccountable, being strictly 
•comparable to those cases of C^ anceps, C. Holmierue, &c., already 
mentioned. 

182. C. Qbboobii Roy et Biss. 7. The Washes, Sutton, and 
Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and 
Guyhime. 

188. C. FOBMosuLUM Hoff. 5. Chippenham Fen. 7. Sutton 
West Fen. 8. Guyhime. 

184. C. QuiNABiUM Lund. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

185. C. PBAMOBSUM Br^b. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. B. Cam at Cambridge; Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Wimpole Park. 5. Chippenham Fen ; Wicken Fen. 0. Boswell 
Pits, Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Guyhime. 

186. 0. BoTBVTi8(Bory)Menegh. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Trumpington ; Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen. . 7. The Washes, 
Sutton ; in ponds, March. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March 
and Guyhime. 

Yar. ifEDioLJEVB West. 8. Lord's Bridge. 

187. C. TuBPn^n Br6b. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
7. The Washes, Sutton. 

188. O. basiliciun, sp.n. (PI. 896, fig. 7). C. submagnum, 
prope 1^-plo longius quam latius, profunde constrictum, sinu 
angusto-lineari extremo valde amphato ; semicellulce subsemicircu- 
lares, angulis basalibus subrectangularibus et leviter rotundatis, 
apicibus levissime depressis; membrana granulata, granulis sub- 
Bparsis in seriebus subirregulariter ordinatis, medium versus 
granulis minoribus, ad medium supra isthmum cum seriebus 
transversis irregularibus tribus granulorum parvorum 5-6^ minu- 
tissima punctata inter granules; a vertice visaB ellipticss polis 
rotundatis ; a latere visas circulares. Long. 79 ft ; lat. 65 /ca ; lat. 
isthm. 17 ft ; crass. 89 ft. 

5. Chippenham Fen : Aug. 1898. 

This species may be compared with 0. Kirchnen Bosrjg;. (' Bidrag 
till Bornholms Desm.-Fl.,' Sasrtryk af Botan. Tidsskrift. Ejoben- 
havn, Bd. 17, Hafte 8, 1889, 148, t. vi. f. 8) and 0. drntifet-um 
Corda (cfr. Nordst. *Desm. fran Bornholm,' Yidensk. Meddel. nat. 
Foren. Kjobenhavn, 1888, 192, t. vi. f. 4, 5), although it diflfers 
considerably from either of them. It is of the same outward form 
as C. radiosum WoUe (Desm. U.S. 90, pi. xix. f. 21, 22), but other- 
wise very different. 



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THE ALaA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDaBSHIBS. 219 

189. C. BiRETUM Br6b. 7. The Washes, Sutton, abundant: 
July, 1898. 

140. C. ooHTHODEs Notdst. 5. Chippenham Fen. 6. Boswell 
Pits, Ely. 8. Guyhime. 

Var. suBciBouiABE Wille. 8. Wimpole Park. 

141. C. 8PB0I08UM Lund. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

142. Staubastbum apioulatum Br6b. 5. Wicken Fen. 

148. 8. pazUHfernm, sp. n. (PL 896, fig. 8). S. submediocre, 
paullo longius qnam latins, profunde oonstriotum, sinu aperto sub- 
rectangulo cum apioe submammillato ; semicellulsB subeUipticsd, 
yentre quam dorso convexiores, angulis subacutis et apioulatis, 
dorso cum apiculis ciro. 6 et ad marginem inferiorem apiculis 2 
prope angulos utrobique, apiculis in seriebus sparsis concentricis 
circa angulos ; a vertice visflB triaugulares, lateribus subrectis vel 
leyiter convexis, angulis subacutis apiculatisque, cum apiculis 
parris sparsis in seriebus transversis circ. 8, in oentro glabro. 
Long. 86*6-40 fi; lat. (cum apic.) 82-88-6 ft; lat. isthm. 12-6- 
18-5 fi. 

6. Wicken Fen : Aug. 1898. 

This species I have also observed abundantly from North York- 
shire. It may be compared with 8, hrachyacanthum Nordst. 
[Hedwigia, 1888, 171), from which it is distinguished by its larger 
size, its much more open sinus and consequently differently shaped 
semioells, as well as by tbe somewhat different arrangement of the 
apiculations. It will also bear comparison with S. lunatum Balfs 
var. Bubarmatum West (Journ. Roy. Micr. Soc. 1894, 10, pi. ii. f. 47) 
and with S. lunatum forma alpextrU Schmidle (Oesterr. Botan. 
Zeitschr. 1896, 24, t. zvi. f. 27), and also i^. tristkhum Elfv. 
(* Finsk. Desm.,* Acta Soc. pro Fauna et Flora Fennica, ii. no. 2, 
Helsingfors, 1887, 8, t. i. f. 4) is an allied species. 

144. S. AviouLA Br6b. Most of the forms observed were finely 
granulate, and the spines at the angles were reduced. Long. 
84*6 ii.\ lat. c. spin. 84*6 /x; lat. isthm. 11 /a (PI. 896, fig. 10). 
6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

146. S. obbioulabb (Ehrenb.^ Balfis var. dbpbbssum Boy et Biss. 
2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Snelford. 6. Wicken Fen. 

146. S. PUNOTULATUM Br6b. 6. Wicken Fen. A form with the 
lateral angles in the front view slightly produced ; long. 81 ft ; lat. 
81 IK ; lat. isthm. 8*6 n. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile B. of Shelford. 

147. S. HEXAOBBUM (Ehrcub.) Wittr. Syn. S. tficome Balfs. 
6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

148. S. INFLBXUM Br6b. .2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

149. S. GBBNULATUM (Nag.) Arch. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. 
of Shelford. 

160. Htalothboa dissiliens (Sm.) Br^b. 6. Wicken Fen; 
Chippenham Fen. 



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220 



THB ALGA-FL0B4 OF OAMBBIDaESHIBB. 



Order PBOTooooooiDEfi. 
Fam. VoLvociNB«. 

151. GoNiuM PBOTOBALB Muller. 8. In ditch, St. John's College 
*< baoks," Cambridge ; Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 5. Bnrwell Load. 

152. Pandorina morum (Mtill.) Bory. 3. Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge ; Hardwiok. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. The Washes, Sutton ; 
ditches and pools about March, in immense quantity : Aug. 1898. 

158. Chlamitdomonas PuLvisouLUs (Miill.) Ehrenb. 5. Chippen- 
ham Fen. 6. In ponds near Ely. 7. Near March ; Sutton West Fen. 

154. Hamatocooous laoustbis (Girod.) Bostaf. Syn. ClUamydo- 
coccus pluvialis (Flot.) A. Br. 6. Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 

Fam. PALHBLLAOBJifi. 

Subfam. C<bnobibj£. 

155. CcBLASTBUM ouBiouM Nag. 5. Wicken Fen, amongst Utri- 
eularia vulgaris, 

156. C. 8PHSBI0UM Nag. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen ; 
Burwell Load. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. The Washes, Sutton. 

*157. C. PULGHBUM Schmidle (Berichted.Deutsch.Bot.Gesellsch. 
Bd. X. 1892, 206, t. xi. f. 1 ; Ber. d. Nat. Gesellsch. zu Freiburg 
i. B., Bd. vii. H. 1, 12, t. ii. f. 10). 7. The Washes, Sutton, and 
Sutton West Fen. 

158. Pbdiastrum Boryanum (Turp.) Menegli. 2. Dernford Fen, 
1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Lord's 
Bridge. 5. Fordham; Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 
7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot River, between March and 
Guyhime. 

Var. oRANULATUM (Kutz.) A. Br. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

159. P. coNSTBioTUM Hass. 0. Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 

160. P. DUPLBX Meyen. ^yn. P.pertusumKuiz. 5. Wicken Fen. 
7. Sutton West Fen. 

161. P. TBTBAs (Ehrenb.) Ralfs. DisposUio cellularitm 4 :- 6. 
Roswell Pits, Ely. DUpositio cellularum 1 + 7 : — 5. Wicken Fen. 
6. Ponds about Ely. 

162. P. INTEGRUM Nag. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

168. Crucigenia rectanoularis (Nag.) A. Br. 5, Wicken Fen, 
very fine, 1896 and 1898. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 

""164. C. QUADRATA Morrcu. 5. Chippenham Fen: families of 
sixteen cells. 7. The Washes, Sutton. 

Subfam. Psbudoccenobiks. 

165. M^soHocooous conpervicola Nag. 8. Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge : June, 1898. 

Subfam. RHAPmniKfi. 

166. Daotylocooous infusiomum Nag. 6. Sutton. 

^ 167. SoKMBDESMUs BuuGATUs (Turp.) Eiitz. Syn. 8. obtusus 
Meyen. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Hardwick ; 



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THB ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDOESHIBE. 221 

Wimpole Park. 5. Wioken Pen. 7. Sutton West Pen ; in ponds, 
Maroh. 

168. 8. QUADBicoBDA (Tutp.) Br6b. 2. Shelford. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge ; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wioken 
Fen ; Burwell Load. 8. Quyhime. 

Yar. ABUKDANs Eirchn. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Lord's 
Bridge. 5. Wicken Fen ; Burwell Load. 8. Guyhime. A granu- 
late form of this species was observed from Demford Pen, 1 mile 
8. of Shelford ; long. cell. 16-18 ft ; lat. cell. 5-7 ft. 

169. S. ALTBBNANS Boinsch. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

170. 8. oBUQUTJs (Torp.) Kiitz. Syn. S, acutus Mejen. 2. 
Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. B. Cam at Cambridge ; 
Trampington. 6. Wicken Fen ; Burwell Load. 6. Boswell Pits, 
Ely. 7. The Washes, Sutton, and Sutton West Fen. 

171. 8. ANTENNATVs Br^b. 5. Wicken Fen, abundant: June, 
1896. 

172. S. DENTiouLATUs Lagcrh. var. lineabis Hansg. 5. Wicken 
Fen. 6. Boswell Pits. 8. Guyhime. 

'*'178. S. AouTiFOBMis Schroder. 5. Chippenham Pen. 6. Bos- 
well Pits, Ely. The coenobia observed invariably consisted of four 
cells, and, seen from the edge view, the terminal cells possessed only 
three ridges, not four, as figured by Schroder, * Die Alg. der Ver- 
suschst. Schles. Fischer, zu Trachenberg,' Forschungsberichten 
der Ploner Biol. Stat. Heft 6, 1897, t. i. f. 46. Long. ceU. 16-6- 
21 II ; lat. cell. 6-7-6 ft; long, coenob. 22-28 /n (PI. 896, figs. 18-16). 
174. BHAPmniuM polymobphum Presen. var. faloatum (Gorda) 
Babenh. 8. B. Cam at Cambridge; Hardwick; Lord's bridge. 

6. Wicken Fen. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

Var. AcicuukBE (A. Br.) Babenh. 2. Dernford Pen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Sheep's Greeu, Cambridge ; Comberton ; Wimpole 
Park. 6. Burwell Load; Chippenham Fen. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

7. Near March ; Sutton West Fen. 

Some forms were noticed from Sheep's Green, Cambridge, 
which were distinctly tumid, and had slightly produced, very acute 
poles ; they are comparable to var. tumidum West & G. S. West 
(Joum. Boy. Micr» Soc. 1897> 601, pi. vii. f. 8). Long. 48-68 ft; 
lat. 4-6*6 fb. 

176. B. ooNvoLUTUM (Corda) Babenh. 6. Burwell Load. The 
cells were only three or four times longer than their diameter, and 
many of them approached var. lunare Eirchn. Diam. cell. 8*6-4*6 /a. 

176. TbtbaIedbon minimum (A. Br.) Hansg. 2. Demford Pen, 
1 mile 8. of Shelford. Many faintly scrobiculate forms were noticed, 
and these might have been placed as var. scrobiculatum Lagerh. in 
Notaruia, 1888, 691. 

177. T. TBiGONUM.(Nag.) Hansg. 6. Wicken Pen. 6. Boswell 
Pits, Ely. 

♦178. T. MUTiouM (A. Br.) Hansg. 6. Sutton. Diam. 16-17 ft; 
crass* 6 ft. . 



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THB ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGESHIBB. 

179. T. TETRAGONUM (N&g.) Hansg. *var. inerhe Wille'm Bih. 
till Sv. Vet.-Akad. Handl. Bd. 8, no. 18, 12, t. i. f.;25/ SmaU 
forms: diam. 18*6-18-5 /a; crass. 9*6 /x. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

180. T. CAUDATDM (Oorda) Hansg. Syn. Polyedrium pentagonum 
Reinsoh. 8. Wimpole Park. 

181. T. BBGULABB Eiitz. Sjn. Polyedrium tetraedricum Nag. 
5. Chippenham Fen. A very minute form ; diam. sine spin. 8 /x, 
com spin. 14 ft. 8. Guyhirne. 

182. Cerastbbias longispina (Perty) Reinsch. Syn. PolyedHwn 
longispinwn'Pertj. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," Cambridge. 

Snbfam. Chabaoieje. 
*188. Chabacium subulatum A. Br. 8. Wimpole Park. 
184. C. MiNuruM A. Br. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
*185. C. AMBiGUUM Herm. 5. Wicken Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

186. C. HETEBOMOBPHUM Rcinsch; Syn. Hydnanum hetero- 
moi-phum Reinsch. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Hardwick. 

5. Wicken Fen. 

187. C. LONGiPES Rabenh. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

188. C. oBNiTHOGBPHALUM A. Br. 5. Wickcn Fen. 

189. C. sp. This large and very stout species possesses oblong- 
elliptical cells ; the apex is acute and minutely apiculate, and the 
base is shortly stipitate, there being a distinct disc for attachment. 
The chlorophyll is in numerous parietal cushions of rather small 
size. Long. 86-46 /n ; lat. 11-5-15-5 ft (PL 896, fig. 7). 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge. Also abundant ^om Keighley Moor, W. York- 
shire. 

Subfam. Endosph^bbea. 

190. Chloboohytbium LEBfN£ Cohn. 6. Near Sutton, on Lemna 
tnsulca, 

Subfam. Tetbaspobe^b. 

191. Sghizoohlamts delioatula West. 5. Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge ; June, 1895. 5. Chippenham Fen : Aug. 1898. 

192. Apiooystis Bbauniana Nag. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford: Aug. 1898, very fine. 8. Hardwick. 5. Wicken Fen. 

6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 

198. Tetbaspoba gblatdyosa (Vauch.) Desv. 1. In the ditch by 
the Botanical Gardens, Trumpington Road, Cambridge : June, 1897. 

Subfam. Diotyosphabiejb. 
. BoTBYooous Bbaunu Eiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 
Washes, Sutton, and Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot 
between March and Guyhirne. 

. Ineffigiata neglegta West & G. S. West. 2. Dernford 
mile S. of Shelford : Aug. 1898, very abundant. 8. Wim- 
rk. 6. Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Ponds S. of 
8. Twenty-foot River, between March and Guyhirne. 



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THX ALOA-FliOBA OF GAICBBIDOSSHIRE. 

Subfam. Glceooystidea. 

196. Nbphrocytium lunatum West. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 

5. of Shelford. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely: fairly abandant, Aug. 1895, 
and July, 1898. Distrib. — Westmoreland! Yorkshire! Surrey! 
N. Ireland I Paraguay. 

197. N. Nagblu Grun. 6. Chippenham Fen; Wicken Fen. 

6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Ponds 8. of March. 

198. N. OBBSUM West. 5. Chippenham Fen. Distrib. — Cum- 
berland ! Brazil. Paraguay. 

Two forms of this species were noticed in addition to the type. 
One had somewhat narrower cells with the cell- membrane slightly 
thickened at the sides ; long. cell. 47 /x ; lat. cell. 27 fi. The other 
was a large form with a very thick integument ; long. cell. 49 /x ; 
lat. cell. 88 /x ; integ. 126 /x x 104 /x ; crass, integ. 10 /i. 

199. OoGTSTis souTABiA Wittr. 5. Chippenham Fen; Wicken 
Fen. 8. Guyhirne, in ponds ; Twenty-foot River, between March 
and Guyhirne. 

200. 0. PARVA West & G. S. West, 8. Guyhirne. This species 
not having yet been figured, I give some illustrations taken from 
Yorkshire examples (PI. 394, figs. 14-17). 

201. Gl<£Ootstis gioab (Eiitz.) Lagerh. Syn. Chlorococcum 
gigas (Eiitz.) Grun. ; Glceocystis ampla (Eiitz.) Rabenh. 5. Wicken 
Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Ponds S. of 
March. 

202. G. VESICULOSA Nag. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. Guyhirne, in ditches. 

208. G. iNFusioNA (Schrank) West & G. S. West. Syn. Chloro- 
eoceum infimonum (Schrank) Menegh. 5. In ditches, Burwell Load; 
Wicken Fen. 

204. G. BEGUiiABis West & G. S. West. Syn. Chlorococcum 
regulare West. 6. Wicken Fen, in peaty pools. 

205. Ubooocous insionis (Hass.) Eiitz. Syn. Chroococcus macro- 
coccus Rabenh. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

Subfam. P&otogocoaoks. 

206. Stiohogogcus bagillabis Nag. 1 and 8. On old wood and 
damp ground, not uncommon about Cambridge ; Orwell, on damp 
stones and wood. 

207. Pleubococous vuloabis Menegh. Abundant in most 
localities, and very finely developed on some of the hedges. 

208. P. BUFEsoENs (Eiitz.) Br6b. 1. Very fine on a wet spout, 
Cambridge: June, 1898. 

209. P. NiMBATDS De Wildem. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford, attached to leaves of Nuphar luUum. 5. Wicken Fen, 
attached to leaves of Nymphcsa alba. 

210. Tboghisoia hibta (Reinsch) Hansg. 1. Forming dark green 
masses on damp ground at the bases of trees, Cambridge, along with 
Stichococcus hacUlaris Nag. 



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224 THE ALGA-FLOBA OF (lAlffRBIDQBSHIBE. 

211. T. BBTiouLABis (Beiiisch) Hausg. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

212. PsoTooooous TiBiDis Ag. 8. On stones, Orwell. 

Class MYXOPHYCE^. 

Order Hobmooonejb. 
Snbord. Hbtebogystba. 

Fam. KlVULABIAOEiB. 

"^213. Galothrix fusoa (Eiitz.) Bom. et Flah. in Ann. Sol. Nat. 
7e s^rie, Hot. iii. 864 (1886). 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Wimpole Park. In both instances the plants occarred either as 
solitary filaments or slightly gregarious, attached to Vaucheria 
sessilis. Crass, fil. 7-18 fi ; crass, trich. 5-8*5 fi. The heterocysts 
were basal, single or in pairs, and difficult of observation, owing to 
a thick, opaque mass of extraneous material usually found aggluti- 
nated round the bases of the filaments at their point of attachment. 
This is the first instance of this alga having been found in Britain, 
and its occurrence as an epiphyte on Vaticheria is rather remarkable, 
as it is usually found on such algSB as Batrachospernium, Chato- 
phora, &c., which possess a more gelatinous thallus. 

*214. C. EPiPHYTicA West & G. S. West, • Welw. Afric. Alg.' 
Journ. Bot. 1897, 240. 8. Guyhirne, on Vattcheria dichotoma. 
Crass, fil. 8 fi ; crass, trich. 4 ft. A much smaller species than the 
preceding, and only previously observed from West Africa. 

215. BivuLABiA DURA Roth. 5. Wicken Fen : very abundant in 
pools and peaty ditches, Aug. 1898. Forming olive- or dark green 
hemispherical masses of small* size, attached to MyriophylLum 
spicatum and Chara hispida. Crass, trich. 6*5-10 p. (usque ad 
11*5) ft; heterocysts ovate oblong, lat. 5*5-10 p, long. 6-18*5 p. 

*216. B. mNUTULA (Eiitz.) Born, et Flah. 5. Chippenham Fen. 
This species was attached to the submerged portions of Phraffmites 
communis, forming little pulvinate masses of a bright blue-green 
colour. Crass, vagin. 16-25 p; crass, trich. 9*5-18*5 fi; hetero- 
cysts subglobose or hemispherical, diam. 9-11 p. Although this 
interesting species has not been previously recorded for England, it 
has a wide distribution on the continent, and may probably have 
been overlooked in this country. 

217. GLCEOTRiomA PisuM (Ag.) Thur. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, 
between March and Guyhirne : very scarce, July, 1898. 

Fam. SiBOSIPHOMIAGBJB. 

218. Stioomema oGELiiATUM (DiUw.) Thur. 5. Chippenham Fen, 
among Utriculatia vulgaiis, 

Fam. SOTTONBMAOBA. 

219. ToLYPOTHMX LANATA (Dcsv.) Wartm. Syn. T. coacHlis 
Eiitz.; T, agagropila (Eiitz.) Babenh. 5. Wicken Fen, on the 
leaves of Nymphaa alba. 7. In large quantity in a pond about two 
miles S. of March. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and 
Guyhirne. , . - 



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SHOBT NOTES. 225 

220. T. TENUIS Eiitz. Syn. T. pygmaa Eiitz. 5. Chippenham 
Fen, forming thick, felted, gelatinous masses among Utricularia 
vulgaris. 

(To be continued.) 



SHORT NOTES. 



Scottish Bubi. — The following brambles were collected by me 
in July, 1898, chiefly in the neighbourhood of Coatbridge, Lanark- 
shire ; the Rev. W. M. Rogers has kindly determined them. Few 
of these plants seem able to stand the smoke, those most frequently 
met with being R, Selmeri Lindeb., R, cotn/lifolius Sm., and R. danicus 
Focke, dwarfed probably by the smoke. Although careful search was 
made, nothing was seen of R. rusticanus Merc, in the parts of Stirling, 
Lanark, Dumbarton, and N. Ayrshire visited. — R. fissus Lindl. 
Wood by Woodend, Loch Gartcosh, Lanark ; new record for v.-c. 77. 
A plant from Bishop's Wood, Gartcosh, too young for naming with 
certainty, seems to be R, plicatus W. & N. — R. Rogersii Linton occurs 
sparingly in thickets in the King's Park, Stirling ; new for v.-c. 86. 
—R. hirtifolius Muell. & Wirtg. var. danicus Focke. Abundant in 
hedges, New Monkland, Lanarkshire; new for v.-c. 77. **A re- 
markably dwarf form.** — R. corylifolius Sm. var. sublusttis Lees. 
Douglas Support, near Coatbridge; new for v.-c. 77. **A very 
singular little form." A luxuriant form of R, coryli/oUus grows in 
hedges near the Bore Stone, Bannockburn. — C. H. Waddbll. 

CuMBEBLAND Plants. — There are a few omissions from Mr. 
Hodgson's Flora of Cumberland that students of Topographical Botany 
would like to see explained. There may be good reasons for their 
exclusion, but, as the plants have certainly been recorded, it would 
seem that these reasons should have been stated. Astragalus glycy- 
phylloSf Potentillu verna, P. alpestiis^ Statics bahusiensis, Epipactis 
violacea, are all given as Cumberland plants by Mr. Watson {l. c) : 
I have seen a Cumberland specimen of the Statics in Herb. BosweU- 
Syme. Rumex domesticus, with a mark of doubt, is also given for 
Cumberland in Top. Bot. Goody era repens, another omission, is 
recorded in the Bot. Record Club Report for 1879, p. 72, from a fir- 
plantation near the Eden at Armathwaite, *' possibly introduced 
with seedling fir-trees"; the specimen is in the British Museum. 
The Derwentwater locality for ** Potwnogeton lucens" doubtless 
belongs to P. Zizii, which is not in Mr. Hodgson's book ; it was 
collected there by Mr. C. Bailey in 1882. It is to be regretted that 
so manifest an error as P. lanceolatus should have been entered, in 
&ce of Mr. Baker*s cautionary note. I note that Mr. Hodgson 
gives no Cumberland locality for Lastraa i-igida, although he includes 
it in his book. — Abthub Bennett. 

[From Mr. Watson's MSS. in the National Herbarium it appears 
that the Astragalus and Potentilla vema rest on the old localities in the 
Botamsfs Chdds; for the latter he also gives '* Hill between Borro- 

JouRNAL OF Botany.— Vol. 87. [May, 1899-1 q 



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226 SHORT NOTES. 

dale and Newlands," adding later " P. alpestrU /," an uncertainty 
recorded in Cyb, Brit. i. 843. P. aipesti-is be records from •* Vale 
of Newlands,** and it appears in Top. Bot. with a mark of certainty. 
The Rumex stands only on the old authority of Hutchinson's History 
of Cumberland. As we hinted in our review, Mr. Hodgson's pains- 
taking work must be considered rather as an important contribution 
to our knowledge of Cumberland plants than as a complete history 
of the botany of the county. — Ed. Joubn. Bot.] 

BuxBAUMiA APHYLLA IK WoRCESTEBsmRE. — This rare and in- 
teresting moss has been recently found on the Worcestershire side 
of Wyre Forest by an earnest and very successful moss-student, 
Mr. J. B. Duncan, of Bewdley, who has a most happy faculty of 
finding really good things. Mr. E. Clemingham and myself have * 
confirmed this record. The plant was in nice characteristic form, 
and is, I think, fairly abundant, our station being some few yards 
from Mr. Duncan's original one. It would be well for the Shrop- 
shire botanists to hunt for it on their side of Dowles Brook, as it 
may extend over a wider area than at present appears. It seems to 
choose the exposed surface of trees that have been cut down to near 
the earth's surface and are partly decayed. — J. E. Baonall. 

Terms used to demote Colour. — On reading the remarks on 
pp. 97-106 on the terms used in botany to denote colour, Mr. C. Q. 
Lloyd, of Cincinnati, was kind enough to send me a copy of Prang's 
work, entitled The Prang Standard of Color: Popular Edition, 
No. 1. (Boston, Mass. : Louis Prang. [1898] : obi. 4to, pp. 6-7). 
Had I known this work, I should certainly have included it in my 
bibliography, for it is the most complete and carefully graduated 
colour-scheme which has come before me. The seven plates are 
wonderfully well printed in colour, showing no less than eleven 
hundred and seventy-six different tints and shades; in the first 
plate are given twenty-four divisions of the "colour-unit," 
corresponding as nearly as may be to the spectrum ; these are 
succeeded by the same colours diluted with white, forming tints; 
the rest of the plates deal with shades — that is, the same colours, 
but blended with black, each series of oblong patches progressively 
darkened in the succeeding plates, but forming tints as in the first 
plate. No printed tints can quite equal the purity of a wash of 
water-colour, but, that much being granted, the result is excellent, 
and, if not exposed to strong dayhght or the sun, likely to prove 
fairly permanent. The body colours used in Saccardo's Chromotaxia 
already show signs of deterioration by the reduction of the oxides to 
their metalUc bases. Prang's ** Standard'* is relatively weak in 
browns, and perfectly neutral grey is absent ; this emphasizes one 
difficulty felt in the description of natural objects, the extreme 
wealth of variation in their coloration. A simple method of notation 
enables the user to identify the colour-patch selected as matching 
the required tint. Finally, I may note the cheapness of the work, 
priced, I believe, at fifty cents (= two shillings), the sum whioh 
Sacoardo's Chromotaxia costs in London. — ^B. Daypom Jackson. 



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SHORT NOTES. 227 

Clashatagolea ouneifolia Spruce. — I desire to point out SpII 
error in the name of a species published in the Moss Exchange Club 
Catalogue of Hepaticm in 1897. No. Ill, Mylia cuneifolia (Hook.), 
should be placed under Clasmatocolea, a genus of Spruce's which I 
had overlooked. This genus was formed to include two South 
American species, and its place in our list will be between Lapho- 
coUa and Chiloscyphus, Although it has not yet been found in fruit, 
the British species has been referred to this genus by Spruce. 
Acrobolbus Wilsoni Tayl., recorded by me from Colin Glen, Co. An- 
trim (Journ. Bot. 1893, p. 118), should be Jungemiania turhinata 
Baddi. It occurred through a slip of the pen, as the latter is some- 
times called J. WiUoniana. Acrobolbus Wilsoni is confined to S.W. 
Ireland. — C. H. Waddbll. 

Pbtiyeb's Exsiogatje. — Je yous prierais d'appeler Tattention des 
botanistes anglais sur ce fait. James Petiver en 1700 ou peu apres a 
pubh6 k Londres : — 

1. Hortus siccus chirurgicus . . . 

2. Hortus siccus pharmaceuticus . . . 

8. Botanicum anglicum, **or the english Herball, wherein is 
contained a curious collection of real Plants ; being the 
true Patterns of such Trees, Shrubs and Herbs, as are 
observed to grow wild in England,*' etc. 
Ce sont trois catalogues imprimis d'un seul c6t^, renfermant de 
tchedulm k couper et k coUer sous les exsiccata. Chaque schedula 
contient '*an account (affixed to each Plant) of their Names, 
Places where growing, and Times of flourishing; as also, what 
parts and preparations of each Plant are most use '* : et sous cette 
indication on lit : " Sold by Samuel Smith at the Princes Arms in 
St. Paul's Church-yard, London."* Je ne crois pas de me tromper 
en pr^sumant que ces collections dCexsiccata ^taient vendables. 
Or, comme dans notre si^cle, le coutume de publier et divulguer les 
collections uniformes de planta sicca est devenu habituel et a rendu 
et rend d'immenses services k la science, il n'est pas sans int^ret 
de savoir qui a initio ce proc6d^. Je pense que ce m6rite appartient 
k James Petiver, au moins je ue connais rien de semblable ant6ri- 
eurement k lui; car les Manifesta publics en 1668 par Paul 
Boccone (cfir. Pritz. Thes. p. 80, n. 858) avaient un autre but. 
J'espdre que les botanistes, et surtout les anglais, voudraient 
soumettre la question k leur 6tude et decider si James Petiver a ^t^ 
r^llement le premier k publier et divulguer des exsiccata comme 
on le fait aujourd'hui. — P. A. Sacgabdo. 

• On iroaye oes trois catal. de Petiver & la ^n du Ilmo vol. de Jacohi 
Petiveri Opera Historiam naturalem spectantia, Lond. 1767 (au moins dans 
Texempl. de la Bibl. botanlqae du Jardln de Padoue). 



4 2 

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NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Recherches anatomiques et physiologiques sur le Tradescantia virginica L, 
Par A. Qravis, Professeur k P University de Liege. Bruxelles: 
Hayez, 1898. 4to, pp. 804, U. xxvii. 

Thb work before us belongs to a class of which there are too few 
examples. The author presents us with a strikingly complete struc- 
tural and morphological monograph (including an admirably thorough 
account of development from the seed) of a single flowering plant — ^the 
well-known Tradescantia virginica — to which are added, here and there, 
interesting physiological observations. Current anatomical literature 
is mostly made up of comparative observations, more or less thoroughly 
carried out, on special points ; and comprehensive works on single 
types among the vascular plants are nowadays rarely written, except 
in the case of isolated plants — mostly Pteridophytes — the details of 
whose ancestry are expected to throw light on their systematic position. 
Indeed, we know of only one anatomical monograph on a conunon 
plant carried out with anything like the completeness of the work 
before us, and that is the same author's Eecherches anatomiques sur 
les orgaues vSgStatifs de /' Urtica dioica, published in 1885. The cause 
of the scarcity of this type of work lies on the surface. Interest is 
excited and reputations are made far more easily by conclusions, 
even of very partial application, based on comparative work, than by 
painstaking description of the anatomical structure, much of it of 
course familiar enough, of a single typical flowering plant presenting 
no very remarkable peculiarities. But the latter kind of work is 
nevertheless of great importance for more than one reason. In the 
first place, the investigator of the special point necessarily has to 
restrict his attention to a very limited field in each plant he examines, 
and in doing so he often altogether misses relations of structure 
which would have thrown a flood of light on his problem. We are 
far too much in the habit of forming a number of isolated pictures 
of the structure of different parts of a plant, without enquiring as 
to their connection — and so in attending to the trees we are apt to 
lose the wood. The state of mind of the average student who is 
supposed to have had a decent training in anatomy is sufficient 
evidence of the general tendency, and we have even known expe- 
rienced botanists who had absolutely no notion of the course of the 
vascular bundles in the leaf- stalks of some of our common trees, 
with the structure of whose stems and leaf-blades they were familiar 
igh. It may perhaps be said that such matters are of little 
>rtance from the scientific point of view, but in reality this is 

means the case. 

Dhe object of pure descriptive anatomy is to enable us to oon- 
3t at will a complete mental picture of the structure of plants 

1 their parts, and in this the connection of the different tissues 
le plant is as essential a part as the agreements and differences 
m by the same tissue in different plwts. We cannot build a 
re morphology on descriptive anatomy without both kinds of 
riedge. To take a single instance, the phylogeny of the steles 



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BB0HXB0HB8 SUB LB TBADB80ANTU YIBGINIO/k. 229 

of Pteridophyte stems cannot be understood without reference to 
that of the vascular strands supplying the leaves, nor can a rational 
classification of the arrangements of the vascular strands in fern- 
petioles be arrived at till we know their connection with those of the 
stem ; and yet both these problems have been attacked in ignorance 
of the necessary complementing data. And in the other science of 
which descriptive anatomy is a necessary basis — we mean the 
fascinating and difScult subject of physiological anatomy — the 
tracing of the different tissue systems throughout the entire plant 
IB even more obviously an essential preliminary. We cannot hope 
to arrive at trustworthy results without a most minute and accurate 
knowledge of the distribution of tissues and their elements in the 
adult plant, and in all stages of growth. 

The &bric of our anatomical knowledge has not been built up 
on systematic lines. After the work of the great founders. Von 
Mohl, N&geli, Unger, Sanio, CasfM^ry, Hanstein, Bussow, De Bary, 
Van Tieghem, had placed the subject on a secure base, it has been 
added to by subsequent workers as fancy or opportunity dictated, 
and with the most various objects in view. Hence it is not surprising 
that from a comprehensive point of view the most extraordinary gaps 
should appear in our anatomical knowledge, gaps which are often 
scarcely obvious till one takes in hand the task of finding what data 
do actually exist for settling outstanding general problems. 

It is for reasons such as these that we should be especially 
grateful to workers like M. Gravis, who undertake the somewhat 
ungrateful task of writing careful anatomical monographs of single 
pliuits. They give us the most valuable detailed pictures of the 
whole of the tissue systems of a given plant in their mutual con- 
nections, thus forcing us to attend to relations which we are too apt 
to ignore, and, in doing so, also help to fill up lacunar in oar scheme 
of comparative knowledge, and thus furnish fresh data for the future 
maker of generalizations. However neglected an anatomical point 
may be, whatever the difficulty of finding reliable information upon 
ity we can turn to M. Gravis's monographs in the full confidence that 
it has not been passed over in the plants which be has investigated. 

It must not be supposed that M. Gravis confines himself to mere 
description without reference to the work of other observers. His 
reading has been exceptionally wide, the bibliography of the present 
volume containing the names of no less than two hundred and ten 
works — a sufficiently impressive number even in these days— and 
each section of his book is full of references to, and critical dis- 
cussions of, the works of others. In this way, as might be expected, 
there are very few questions of general anatomical interest on which 
he fails to touch m the course of his systematic treatment of his 
subject. 

This systematic treatment makes it delightfully easy to find 
what one wants on any special point, and a quick comprehension 
of the author's results is still further facilitated by twenty-two pages 
of careful rhumS. Finally, we have the author's conclusions on new 
or disputed points in forty-seven concise paragraphs. The whole 
work is indeed a model of arrangement. 



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280 RB0HBBGBE8 BUB LE TBADBSOAMTIA VIBOIMIOA. 

M. Gravis's description is extremely lucid, and his critical jndg- 
ment in most cases excellent. A detailed discussion of his results 
would scarcely be in place iu these pages — we need only call attention 
to one or two points of general anatomical interest. One of the most 
interesting of M. Gravis^s results is in the matter of the anatomical 
structure of the seedling, a topic of great and, as we think, of 
increasing importance in morphological anatomy. In the resting 
embryo there is already a central cylinder sharply marked off from 
the surrounding tissue in the region of radicle and hypocotyl. The 
seedling possesses a hypocotyl which, though very short when 
germination takes place in full light, has a well-marked structure 
of its own. There is, as usual, a well-defined central cylinder, 
surrounded by a typical endodermis, directly continuous with that 
of the root ; but the stele is distinctly bilateral about the plane of 
symmetry of the cotyledon, and exhibits a mixture of, rather than 
a transition between, the characters of root and stem. It contains 
five protoxylems, three belonging to three complete collateral end- 
arch bundles which descend from the first epiootyledonary leaf, 
the remaining two, with centripetally developed xylems, placed right 
and left of the plane of symmetry, and continuous with the two 
bundles of the cotyledon petiole. All five xylems, though perfectly 
distinct in origin, eventually come into contact, forming an irregular 
xylem mass in the centre of the stele. The three former (first leaf- 
traces) lose themselves at the base of the hypocotyl in a mass of 
tracheids, on which the steles of three lateral roots are inserted. 
The two latter (cotyledon-traces) are continued straight down to 
form two of the poles of the triarch primary root; the third (anterior) 
pole, traced upwards, ends blindly at the base of the hypocotyl. 
The three phloem-strands of the root-stele are continued straight up, 
and thus form the phloem-strands of the first leaf-traces, while the 
phloems of the two cotyledon- traces are formed by branches from 
these. 

It is clear that here the general statement of Gerard as to the 
connection of the vascular strands of root and stem, embodied in 
Van Tieghem's TraitS and usually taught as of universal appli- 
cation, does not fairly represent the facts. The symmetry of the 
root is not completely ** determined'* by the cotyledon- traces, as in 
the typical case among dicotyledons, but incompletely by first leaf 
and cotyledon-traces conjointly. Further, Gerard's account of the 
passage of the xylem-strands from the centripetal (exarch) arrange- 
ment found in the root to the centrifugal (endaroh) characteristic of 
the stem as a '' torsion" through IdO*" is not in this, as indeed it is 
not in many other cases, a happy or instructive one. Sometimes it 
applies well enough. For instance, where a xylem-strand of the 
root-cylinder doubles as it is traced upwards, each half may fairly 
be said to rotate through IdO"", till the protoxylem which was at first 
directed away from, finally becomes directed towards the centre of 
the stele ; but in others, where no such division takes place, the 
protoxylem plunges, so to speak, through the xyjem-strand, and 
comes out the other side, while in others again, as in Tradescantia^ 
one or more of the root-stele protoxylems are not continued up into 



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RBOHBB0HB8 SUB LB TRADESOANTIA VIBOINIOA. 2B1 

the hypocotyl at all. What happens in the transition from the 
exarch to the endarch type in the two cotyledon-traces here is not 
clear from M. Gravis*s description or figures, but it is almost 
certainly not ** rotation." The primary fact in all cases is the 
continuity of some or all of the root-protozylems with the cotyledon- 
traces, and sometimes also with those of the first epiootyledonary 
leaf. This continuity is in direct relation to the first physiological 
needs of the seedling. The exact distribution of the later-formed 
xylem about the protoxylem-strand in the di£ferent parts of its 
course is a matter of secondary importance. 

Thus in the present case the physiological utility of the primary 
distoibution of the strands is clear enough. The primary root is 
first placed in direct relation with the cotyledon by the initial 
di£ferentiation of two continuous protoxylem- strands. This provides 
for rapid water-supply to the cotyledon in performing its function of 
first foliage leaf. The first epiootyledonary leaf, on the other hand, 
developed a little later, is placed in immediate relation with the 
later-formed absorbing organs, viz, the three rootlets, as well as, 
through lateral contacts, with the xylem of the primary root. Now 
also phloem channels are developed, connecting all four of the first- 
formed nutritive organs. We cannot hope to understand different 
types of tissue arrangement unless we are constantly prepared to 
consider how far they can be referred in this way to the immediate 
needs of the organism. 

It follows from all this that the phenomena of transition between 
root and stem are in need of a general restatement in view of the 
facts already known. We want a thoroughgoing rational treatment 
of the whole subject of the hypocotyl in immediate connection with 
the needs of the seedling, in place of the present formal classification 
into Van Tieghem's three " types.'* Those types apply well enough 
to a certain number of cases among the dicotyledons, but even there 
they only represent a classification of phenomena which appear to 
be of secondary importance. Whether the treatment suggested 
would disclose morphological — i. e. ancestral— as distinct from 
physiological ''plans of structure,'* must remain for the present 
doubtftil. 

M. Gravis insists that the hypocotyl is the region where the 
root-strands join the foliar strands, declaring that there is no 
passage between them, but that in the course of the hypocotyl the 
one type is substituted for the other type. The data he furnishes do 
not, however, enable us to decide whether the transition from 
exarch to endarch orientation in the cotyledon-traces occurs suddenly, 
which is rather what his language would seem to suggest. Such a 
sadden change is certainly not the rule. 

The course of the bundles in the leafy stem is fully worked out, 
and the accoimts of earUer observers corrected in several points, 
the most important being the demonstration that the so-called 
" cauline" bundles of earlier observers are in reality the sympodia 
formed by the bases of the leaf-traces. These are called by M. 
Gravis ** faisceaux anastomotiques** when the system of strands is 
traced downwards from the leaf into the stem, Lestiboudois' term 



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282 mSTCHBE DB LA POMME DB TBRBB. 

*< faisoeanx r6paratears" being used for the same bandies when the 
system is traced upwards. The *< nodal plexus'* is formed in reality 
by a <*r6seau gemmaire" giving origin to the bundle system of the 
axillary branches, a phenomenon which has not been previously 
described. The type of bundle-course found in the Commelinaeea is 
shown to be a modification of the general monocotyledonous type. 

M. Gravis distinguishes separate ''histogens'* at the apex of the 
stem, a distinct periblem with a single layer of initials giving rise 
to the cortex. He states that the plerome of the stem gives rise to 
a median layer of leaf -tissue including the veins and an intermediate 
*' median mesophyll." We are sorry that he introduces heavy lines 
to separate his '* histogens.*' They seize the eye at once, and make 
it impossible to arrive at a fair conclusion as to whether an author^e 
figures really bear out his conclusions on this point. The point is 
difficult enough to decide in most cases (frequently indeed im- 
possible), even from the examination of numerous preparations. 
M. Gravis's work lends no support to Baranetsky's recent surprising 
conclusions on the differentiation behind the growing point of the 
monocotyledonous stem. 

Of the numerous other points of interest elucidated in this work, 
such as the aqueous function of the epidermis and hypoderm in the 
leaf, the function of the subsidiary cells of the stomata, the true 
nature of the inflorescence, etc., we have no space to speak. We 
can only again congratulate M. Gravis on having done most 
admirable service to botany in carrying out his task so compre- 
hensively and effectively. We cannot take leave of his work without 
noticing the twenty-seven beautifully executed plates by which it is 
illustrated. A G T 

Hhtoire de la Potnme de ten-Cf traitSe aux points de vue historique^ 
biologique^ pathologiquSf culturalf et tUilitaire, Par Ermbst 
BozE. Ouvrage om^ de 168 figures expUcatives et d'nne 
planche colorize reproduisant une aquarelle dn xvi« siecle. 
Paris: Bothschild. 1898. Large 8vo, pp. xii, 464. 16 francs. 

Thb author claims for this handsome volume the merit of being 
the first on the complete history of the Potato ; previous notices 
having been confined to partial views of that esculent, without 
giving all the documents relating to it. The title is comprehensive, 
but the author has judiciously restricted his account to the more 
important and interesting points, as noted below. An attempt to 
say all that might be said on so important an item of our daily food 
would obviously need not one volume, but many. 

The work is divided into two principal divisions — the first, on the 
potato from its original home to its introduction into European 
cultivation, and especially into France; the second, the tuber 
regarded hrom its biologic, pathologic, cultural, and utilitarian 
standpoints. The three chapters devoted to the former division 
treat of the wild species of Solanum which produce tubers, with the 
views held as to their affinity by systematic botanists, such as 
Dunal, Alphonse de Candolle, and J. G. Baker. The author con- 
siders that the potato as we know it has been subjected to so long a 



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mSTOIBE D8 LA POIOIB DB TBRBB. 288 

period of onlidvation that it cannot be referred to any one of the 
wild forms. He narrates the history of its introduction into 
Europe, beginning with the first mention of the plant by Spanish 
writers, from Pedro Cieca de Leon, onwards ; then its introduction 
amongst us, giving extracts from the respective writers, translated 
into French. 

It is remarkable that we are still ignorant of the precise method 
of the introduction of the potato from its home into Europe. M. 
Boze points out that there were two distinct centres of distribution : 
(a) its cultivation in England by John Qerard in 15d6; and {b) by 
Charles de TEsduse (Clusius) on the Continent in 1588. In con- 
nection with Clusius's distribution of the plant, M. Boze gives a 
coloured facsimile of the drawing which Philippe de Sivry, Prefect of 
Mons, in Hainault, Belgium, sent to Clusius at Vienna, with two 
tubers also, which preceded the drawing. The original sketch is pre- 
served in that storehouse of interesting memorials of the end of the 
sixteenth century, the Mus6e Plantin at Antwerp, and not long ago 
was among the drawings exposed to public view in one of the 
galleries ^ere. It is astonishing how slowly the plant was ap- 
preciated, for though Clusius was, according to his wont, generous 
m distributing to his friends, it was not till towards the close of 
last century that the cultivation became general in France. Amongst 
those honourably distinguished in spreading its use, Antoine Augustin 
Parmentier's name is pre-eminent ; he was unwearied in urging its 
culture, and so identified himself with it as to cause the word 
"parmentiire" to stand as a synonym of ** pomme de terre.*' 

The second division of M. Boze's book is concerned with a life- 
history of the plant ; a sketch of the various varieties existing early 
in the century and at the present time ; the diseases to which it is 
subject, from insects and fungi, including the " curl," the *' scab," 
and the '* mildew" ; its cultivation and propagation by tubers, and 
the raising of new varieties by seed, by crossing, and by grafting ; 
harvesting ; preservation ; utilization ; and such details as the 
preparation of bread, ''rice," cheese, starch, spirit, and dextrin 
from it. The account of the cultivation seems confined to small 
areas, for there is no hint of the American ** spinner," which, 
drawn by horses, ploughs up the ridge, separates the tubers from 
the soil, and deposits them in two lines behind the machine, only 
needing to be picked up ; in some patterns the sacks are filled at the 
same operation. 

There are a few slips in the work, as must occur : the names of 
Cruckshanks, Hemsley, and Gerard are wrongly spelled ** Cruck- 
shands," ** Hensley," and ** Gerarde "; the last, indeed, is natural, 
for it is misspelled on the title-page (see note in the Gardeners' 
Chromcle, 22 Nov. 1879, pp. 660-1). Phytophthora is invariably 
printed Phytophtora; Clusius is claimed as a Frenchman, whereas 
he died more than half a century before that part of Flanders was 
taken possession of by Louis XIV. in 1667; other mistakes will be 
alluded to presently. But these are trifles compared with the bulk 
of the work, which compresses into one volume a valuable and 
interesting array of facts. 



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284 HISTOIBB DB LA POMMB DB TBBBB. 

After all that has been written on the topic, the precise way in 
which Earope became possessed of the potato is still a mystery ; 
nevertheless there are a few facts worth noting about it. Closins, 
to use his latinized and more familiar name, gives this account of 
his acquisition of the plant, which he calls " Arachidna Theophrasti, 
forte, Papas Peruanorum/' from a false belief that it might be one 
of the plants described by that Greek writer : — '* Primam hujus 
stirpis cognitionem acceptam fero N. V. Philippo de Sivry Dn. de 
Walhain et Prflefecto urbi Montium in Hannonia Belgic83, qui ejus 
bina tubera cum fructn, Yiennam AustriaB ad me mittebat sub 
initium anni M«D.xxGvm. sequente autem anno rami ejus cum Acre 
picturam.'* 

This sketch M. Boze has reproduced, and it bears this note in the 
handwriting of Glusius : *' Taratoufli k Philipp. de Sivry acceptam 
ViennaB 26 Januarij 1588 Papas Peru&num Petri GiecsB." This 
date was a few months before Glusius quitted Vienna for Frankfort, 
whither he transferred his belongings and choicest plants ; whilst 
he was there, one of his Loudon friends, James Garret, sent him a 
drawing of the plant, which statement was misconstrued by Gharles 
Morren into an assertion that Jacob Garet cultivated it at Frank- 
fort. Glusius's own words are : <' Mittebat deinde ad me Jaoobus 
Garetus junior, integrsB stirpis iconem Francofurtum." 

The cuts which are given in the Rariorum Plantarum Historia 
were not from either of these drawings, but were taken from plants 
in his own possession. To sum up the account of this continental 
introduction, Glusius had it from Philippe de Sivry, who again had 
it &om one of the retinue of the Papal Legate, whose health was 
delicate, and it was stated that the use of the plant was extending 
in Italy, whence the Legate had brought his supply; the Italians 
most probably received the plant from a Spanish source. 

It is more interesting to us to trace, as far as it is traceable, the 
steps by which the potato came into cultivation in this country. 
The assertion that Sir Walter Raleigh was the actual introducer is 
palpably wrong, but the date 1586 is assigned by tradition as the 
year when- our country first received the esculent. Gerard's state- 
ment is explicit: — **It groweth naturally in America where it was 
first discovered, as reporteth C. Clusitis, since which time I have 
received rootes hereof from Virginia, otherwise called Norembega, 
which growe and prosper in my garden, as in their owne native 
countrie." — Rerball, p. 781 (with a woodcut, the first published of 
the plant). 

And from this it has been maintained that it must have been 
from Virginia that our supply came. On the other hand, the 
potato is not a native of that part of the New World. Raleigh's 
attempts at colonizing Virginia were disastrous ; the second expe- 
dition left England in 1585, and came home again with Drake in 
the following year. Sir Francis Drake had cruised amongst the 
West Indies during the winter months, harrying the Spaniards, and 
had taken Garthagena, accepting a heavy ransom for that city ; he 
then sailed to Virginia, and so home. It is possible that some 
potatoes may have been part of his spoils, for this plant was culti- 



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A BIOORAPHIOAL IMDRX OF BRITISH AM]) IRISH BOTANISTS. 285 

yaied in New Qvanada at that period. As Virginia was the last 
place touched at before reaching England, a confusion as to the 
actual place of production may very easily have come about, just as 
the Gape of Good Hope has been credited with plants which are 
natives of Tropical or Eastern Asia, but brought home by vessels 
which called at the Cape. The record of Baleigh's second venture 
was drawn up by Thomas Hariot, as he speUs his name on the 
title-page of his account; but his name was spelled ''Haryot," 
*' Heriot," " Herriott,** and other variations, to which M. Boze adds 
the impossible '' Hariot.*' In this little volume, one of the *' roots" 
found edible was that of the "Openauk," which some authors have 
unjustifiably identified with the potato. 

It is quite possible that Gerard obtained his tubers from this 
expedition, and that James Garret, who was well known to him — 
•• my brother apothecarie/* a •* curious searcher of simples " — should 
have sent a sketch of Gerard's plant to Clusius amongst his corre- 
spondence. It is probable that Clusius replied to this, as otherwise 
Gerard's statement "as C. Clusius reporteth*' could hardly have 
been made, the Herball appearing at the end of 1597, and the 
Historia, which contains the whole of Clusius's remarks on the 
plant, not till 1601. Very little is known of James Garret, or 
Garet, the esteemed correspondent of the Flemish botanist; M. 
Boze has been misled by the epithet ''Belga," applied to him 
(Hist. i. 177), and supposes him to be a native of Belgium ; but 
"-Belga" applies also to the inhabitants of Hants and Wilts, so that 
Garret probably came from that part, possibly the neighbourhood 
of Venta Belgarum, the modern Winchester. Garret is mentioned 
by Clusius in his Historia no less than nine times, always in terms 
of commendation and esteem ; had he been a fellow-countryman, 
he would doubtless have given a strong hint of it. 

There remains one point perhaps worth noticing, that of some 
of the names in common use. Potato is well known to have first 
designated the Sweet Potato ; but the Italian name given by Clusius, 
" Taratouflai '* [= Tartuffoli] became converted into " Tarteuflfel '* 
by the Swiss, '' Cartoufle," old French, and survives to this day as 
the German <' Kartoffel." 

Here we must pause ; the volume before us invites ampler dis- 
cussion, but our space is exhausted. With this introduction to 
M. Boze's work, we commend it to the attention of our readers. 

B. Datdon Jackson. 

A Biographical Index of British and Irish Botanists. First Supplement 
(1898-97). By James Bbittbn, F.L.S., and G. S. Bouloeb, 
F.L.S. London : West, Newman & Co. 8vo, pp. 84. Price 
Is. 6d. net. 

Thb size of this work bears no proportion to its usefulness, as 
will be seen when it is stated that it contains more than two hundred 
—228, to be precise — brief biographies of deceased botanists, in- 
cluding not only those who died in 1898-97, but a considerable 
number who were accidentally omitted from the original under- 



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ABTI0LB8 IN JOUBNALS. 

taking. Among the latter will be found oolleotors like the Forsters, 
who, though not, strictly speaking, coming within the scope of the 
work as first defined, were so intimately associated with the progress 
of botany in this country that their exclusion seemed undesirable. 

The list is so familiar to readers of this Journal that any review 
would be out of place. It may be well, however, to point out that 
the Supplement contains many additions and corrections which 
have been made since its serisJ issue, of which its present form 
may be regarded as a second and considerably augmented edition. 
Owing to the small sale of the original Index, the number of copies 
of tlie Supplement is intentionally limited. 



ARTICLES /iV JOURNALS* 

BoU Centralblatt (Nos. 15-17). — N. Westermeier, * Ziidtungs- 
Versuche mit Winteroggen.* 

Bot. Gazette (18 March), — D. H. Campbell, ' Structure of 
embryo-sac in Spargamum and Lysichiton ' (1 pi.). — H. G. Cowles* 
' Dune Floras of Lake Michigan * (cont.). — B. £. Smith, CoUeto- 
trichum Viola-tricolotis, sp. n. — £. J. Hill, Quercus eUipsoidalUt 
sp.n. (2 pi.). — E. Nelson, * Antennatia,' 

Bot, Notiser (1 April). — N. Bryhn, * Mosliste fur Norbyknol.' — 
H. W. Arnell, *Mos8-8tudier* (Bryum). — E. Almquist, * Biologiska 
Studier ofver Geranium bohemicum,* — A. Nilsson, * N&gra drag ur 
de svenska vaxtsamh&llenas utvecklings historia.' 

Bull, de VHerb, Boissier (25 March). — B. Maire, Hypomyces 
VuUleminianm & H. Thiryaniis, spp. nn. (1 pi.). — G. E. Post & E. 
Autran, • PlantaB Postianas,* fasc. ix. — D. Prain, * Cof-ydalis persica ' 
(1 pi.). — B. Fedtschenko, * Prnngos," — Id., *Conif6res du Turkestan 
Busse.* — F. Stephani, 'Species Hepaticarum* (cont.). — G. A. N. 
Malme, * Pyxine.* — G. Schweinfurfch, * Sammlung Arabisch-SBthio- 
pischer Pflanzen ' (cont.). 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (12 April). — K. M. Wiegand, * Bevision 
of LMt<ra' (2pl.).— H.Kraemer, « Morphology of FtoZa.'—D. Griffiths, 
Ampelomyces quisqualU (1 pi.). — H. H. Rusby, * S. American Plants ' 
(cont.). 

Ei-ythea (1 April). — De Alton Saunders, ' Algao of Pacific Coast * 
(IIup(dosp<mgidion, gen. nov. : 1 pi.). 

Gardeners' Chronicle (15 April). — M. Foster, Iris Tubergeniana, 
sp. n. — (22 April). M. T. Masters, Thamnochortus vtiignis^ sp. n. 
(fig. 98). 

Journ. Linn. Soc. (xxxiv, no. 286 : 1 April). — B. H. Biffen, 
* Biology of Agaricus vetutipes * (8 pL). — E. S. Salmon, * Notes on 
Nanomitrium ' (1 pi.). 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their ooverB 
or title-pages, but it mast not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
publication. 



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287 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

At a meeting of the Linnean Society of London on March 16th, 
Dr. John Lowe communicated some obseryations on the fertilization 
of Araujia albens G. Don, a Brazilian climber, which in the south 
of England grows in the open air. Last summer it was blooming 
freely in Lord Ilohester*s garden at Abbotsbury, where the flowers 
were visited by numbers of butterflies, diurnal moths, humble-bees, 
wasps, and large flies, many of which were captured and imprisoned 
for a time in the pinching-bodies {Klemm-kdt-per of Miiller). All 
these insects, with the exception of some humble-bees, in their 
visits to the nectar left their proboscis behind, and sometimes a leg, 
being not strong enough to detach the pinching-body. Dr. Lowe 
described the structure of the pinching-bodies, which are flat horuy 
plates situated, above the nectar cups, at each angle of a five-sided 
hollow cone in the centre of the flower, in which is placed the 
stigma. There is only a small opening at the apex, and a narrow 
slit at the base of each facet of the cone. To the upper point of the 
pinching-body the pollinia are attached. When an insect has its 
proboscis caught in the slit, which narrows always to its point, it 
can only escape by tearing away the body with its pollen-masses or 
by leaving its proboscis in the slit. In the former case it carries the 
pollinia to the next flower it visits, and ihus effects cross-fertilization 
by leaving the pollen-mass between the anther-wings, whence it 
rapidly passes into the cone. He had received a number of flowers 
of Araujia from Mr. Benbow, the gardener at Abbotsbury, in some 
of which he found the proboscis of a butterfly or moth in each of 
the five angles of the cone, showing the great destructioa of insect- 
hfe caused by the plant. 

At a meeting of the same Society on April 6th, Dr. 0. Stapf 
exhibited specimens of Stapjia cylindiica, a freshwater alga discovered 
by him in a small pond near Hallstatt, Upper Austria, and described 
by Prof. Chodat, of Geneva, as a new genus of Tetrasporea. Although 
not unlike certain species of Tetraspora in outward appearance, it 
differs from them in the perfectly solid gelatinous structure of the 
thallus. The cells, which exhibit the essential characters of the cells 
of Palmellea, are arranged one to three deep in an almost superficial 
layer on the surface of the colourless matrix; they possess two 
sheathed olLia each, which penetrate the matrix and extend into the 
Borroanding medium. The only modes of reproduction so far known 
are by two subsequent divisions, rarely by simultaneous division, 
into four daughter-cells, the grouping of which into tetrads is, 
however, soon more or less obhterated, and by the formation of 
hybemating resting- spores. Prof. Chodat suggested that Stapjia 
eylindrica might be identical with Tetraspora cylindrica Eiitz., which 
in that case would have to be quoted as a synonym ; but Dr. Stapf 

Sve reasons for not sharing this view. This antedates Mr. J. B. 
bvy's recently published Stapjia, for which he proposes to substitute 
Neoitapjia, 



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BOOK-NOTES, NBW8, BTO. 

At the same meeting, Mr. 0. B. Clarke read a paper on Carex 
Wahlenhergiana Boott, of which he exhibited the type-specimens 
figured in the lUtutraUons of the Genus Carex (vol. ii. 1860, p. 101, 
pis. 801-805). He showed that the plants figured by Boott on these 
plates (figs, a, /3, y, ^ i& i) were not all referable to the same species. 
He considered that the name Wahlenhergiana should be restricted to 
the plant a, from which P and y (regarded as identical) diflFered by 
having the spikes more clustered and the utricles conspicuously 
hairy, and for this form, from Bourbon, he proposed tiie name 
C, Wahlenhergiauay /3 & y, pilosus Boott, The variety 8, collected in 
Abyssinia at an elevation of 10,000 ft., differed in possessing a long 
stalked utricle of quite a different shape, and was apparently identic^ 
with Carex Steudneri Boeck., one of the best marked species of the 
group. The variety i (of which the type, having been only lent to 
Boott, was not now accessible) was procured in Bourbon, and only 
differed from var. /? pilosus in its shorter leaves, a character to which 
he attached no importance. A plant from Madagascar, named Carex 
Wahlenhergiana by Boott at a date subsequent to the pubhcation of 
the plates referred to, bore no obvious resemblance to C Wahlen- 
hergiana even in external aspect ; and, having regard to the* deeply- 
stained utricle, Mr. Clarke proposed to name this Carex hcBmato- 
saccusy sp. n., although it was perhaps hardly separable specifically 
from Carex Benschiana Boeck. , also from Madagascar. The specimens 
from Fernando Po, collected at an elevation of about 8000 ft., and 
inscribed Carex Wahlenhergiana by Boott's own hand, Mr. Clarke 
proposed to distinguish as Carex chlorosaccus, sp. n., from the green 
utricle. 

In asserting that the three species, Carex Steudneri of Abyssinia, 
C, hamatosaccus of Madagascar, and C chlorosaccus of Fernando Po, 
had no external resemblance to (7. Wahlenhergiana (with its var. 
/3 pilosa)y Mr. Clarke admitted that they all belonged to the section 
IndiccBy and were allied ; but he maintained that if they were 
regarded as one species, there were at least twenty Indian admitted 
species of Carex (besides others from Africa) that should be oon- 
specific with it. The difference even between Carex Wahlenhergiana 
var. a and var. fi pilosus appeared to him greater than the differences 
existing between many achnitted species of the section Indices* 

The little volume on The Principles of Agriculture, which Prof. 
L. H. Bailey has edited for the Macmillan Company of New York 
(4s. 6d. net), contains a chapter by Mr. B. M. Duggar on "How 
the Plant lives," which is a model of clear and simple teaching, and 
other useful essays on pastures, meadows, forage, and the like ; bat 
the volume hardly calls for more extended notice in these pages. 

Thb Rev. G. Henslow has published his collection of Medical 
Works of the Fourteenth Century , which we referred to some time 
since as in preparation. It contains much interesting matter con- 
nected with the old names of plants, but, as we have received no 
copy for review, we are unable to notice it at length. 



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BOOK-NOTBS, NBW8, BTO. 289 

Herb J. Dokflbr, of Vienna, is preparing a new edition of bis 
very useful Botanists' Directory, which will be issued in 1900. He 
will be glad to receive any corrections of addresses, &o. 

Under the title The Strength mid Decay of Nations^ Mr. G. A. 
Daubeny has published ** two essays with notes/* dealing respectively 
with *• Forestry" and ** British Forestry** (Simpkin, Is., pp. 48): 
the former, the author tells us, *' was dated Aug. 24th, 1898, before 
the day of Omdurman and the Fashoda incident.'* In his con- 
cluding paragraph be claims to have shown that ''forestry is a 
subject of the very highest importance ** (which most of us knew 
before), and continues : — *' It is worthy the attention of great men ; 
it enables us to read with accuracy the past history of the world ; 
it also enables us to look into the future ; it shows how the pillars 
of the earth have been shaken and thrown down, and how they can 
and will be rebuilt and re-erected.*' 

Sir John Lubbock contributes to the ^* International Scientific 
Series'* a volume On Buds and Stipules (Kegan Paul & Co., 5s.), 
which is practically a popular abstract of the papers previously 
contributed by him to the Journal of the Linnean Society. The 
author has brought together a vast amount of information bearing 
upon *' the structure of buds, and the diversity and ingenuity of the 
devices by which plants protect the young and tender tissues from 
heat, cold, drought, moisture, insects, and other animals**; and has 
thus furnished proof, if proof be needed, of the scope for observation 
presented by the most ordinary phenomena of plant life. There is 
a large series of illustrations, many of them original, others from 
various sources (duly acknowledged) ; we think it would have been 
wiser to have reduced the number of these and to have improved 
the remainder, as some of those from process-blocks are very poor. 
The four coloured plates first appeared, we believe, in the Linnean 
Society's Journal. A useful bibliography and a good index are 
important features of the book. 

Opportunely enough, we read in the Daily Graphic (of April 19) 
of a form of stipule whidi Sir John does not mention, and to which 
he will no doubt be glad to have his attention directed. The paper 
in question figured what it called a '* knotted radish,*' of which Dr. 
Aruiur E. J. Longhurst, of 4 Eaton Square, sent some ingenious 
" explanations " which seem worth reproduction in their entirety : — 

*< Sir, — It is difficult to judge of a specimen without seeing it, 
and though I do not pretend to be an expert in botany, or in the 
laws which regulate the germination and growth of seeds and plants, 
as I have not seen any reply to your query as to the * knotted radish ' 
depicted in your issue of the 10th inst., I venture to offer the fol- 
lowing explanations : — 

*' 1. That it may not be a real knot in the root at all, but a 
bulging of it, due to uneven pressure from a stone or other hard 
snl^tanoe in the soil at a given spot above or below the site of the 
lamp, which is a lociJised enlargement of the root rather than an 



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240 BOOK-MOTBS, NBW8, BTO. 

aotnal knot. 2. That if really a knot, it is the result of an irre- 
gularity in the germination of the seed, by which the stipule and 
tiie root became knotted in the process of development and subse- 
quent growth. 8. It may be the result of either the stipules or the 
roots of two seeds having grown together at the site of the bulging 
in the form of a knot, followed by arrest of further normal develop- 
ment, resulting in a monstrosity, as in twin conception in animal 
life. In any case the specimen is an interesting one, and worthy 
the notice of the Botanical Society.*' 

Dr. Boeblage has issued the first fascicle (Ranunculacess — 
Polygalaceae) of what will evidently be a useful new Catalogue of 
the trees and shrubs cultivated in the Buitenzorg Garden. It 
contains short diagnoses of several new species and varieties, and 
of a new genus of Anonacesa (Platymitra), An index makes the 
part easily consultable, but it is to be regretted that the name of 
the order under consideration does not appear at the top of each 
page. We doubt whether, from a bibliographical standpoint, it is 
correct to cite ** Dryand. et Ait." as the authority for the new species 
published in ed. 2 of the Horttu Kewensis. 

Mb. C. a. Babbeb has been appointed Qovernment Botanist in 
the Madras Presidency. His principal duties will be the prose- 
cution of the systematic botanical survey of the Presidency. 

*' Appendix III. 1898 " of the Eew Bulletin , bearing the Stationery 
Office date '' 8/99,*' was issued during April ; it contains a " list of 
the staffs " of Eew and the establishments in correspondence with 
it. So far as Eew itself is concerned, the list — owing presumably 
to the period which has elapsed between its compilation and its 
publication — is inaccurate in many important particulars. The 
number for December, 1898, has not yet appeared ; and nothing 
has been issued for the present year except '* Appendix I. 1899,*' 
which appeared in November last. This method of publication 
may have its advantages, but the general effect is somewhat 
confusing. 

The most recent part (vol. vii., band 1) of the Denkschriften der 
KgL hot. Gesellschaft in Regensburg contains the first instalment of 
an enumeration of Regensburg Mosses by Dr. I. FamiUer, papers 
on Willows (including the results of an examination of Eooh*s types) 
by Dr. Anton Mayer, an important paper by Dr. H. Poverlein on 
Bavarian Potentillas, and other systematic and biological papers, 
relating for the most part to the flora of Regensburg. 

The Gardeners' Chronicle for April 15 gives a portrait and 
biography of Mr. Henry Thomas Soppitt, of Halifax, formerly of 
Bradford, in which latter town he was born on June 21, 1858. 
The biography, by Mr. C. B. Plowright, contains an account of Mr. 
Soppitt's considerable work among the fungi, which had been pre- 
:viously commemorated in the genus SoppiUella. He died at Halifax 
on April 1. 



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'AVatiNevrmaT. irrr 



241 



A NEW MOSS FROM AFGHANISTAN. 

By Ernest S. Salmon. 

(Plate 897.) 

Tortnla (Ptbrtgoneurum) media, sp. nov. Autoica, humilis, 
Cffispitosa, terrioola. Oaulis brevis (2 mill.), simplex vel ramulis 
fertUibus brevibus di-trichotome ramosus. Folia obovato-oblonga, 
imbricata, superiora erecta, inferiora patentia, valde concava, mar- 
gine erecto integro ssBpe apicem versus ob parietes transversos 
prominentes asperulo, nervo basi tenui, supra valido primum folli- 
coloso demum 2-4 lamellas ferente, apice in pilum plus minus 
longum (interdum obsoletum) exeunte, pilo subdenticulato, hyalino 
vel infeme rubro-ferrugineo, cellulis laevibus, inferioribus hyalinis 
rectangularibus laxis (45-70 x 20-25 /x), superioribus chlorophyllosis 
plus minus quadratis (15-20 /a). Capsula emergens, pro plantula 
magna, 1 mill, longa, oblonga, gymnostoma, seta erecta crassa 
capsulsB longitudinem circiter sequante, vaginula brevi appressa 
Integra, operculo oblique roskellato, calyptra cucullata, sporis 
l£8vibus 80-88 fi diam. Flos masculus femineo approximatus (ut 
in T, subsessill (Brid.) Mitt., sessilis, foliis perigonialibus enervibus 
vel subenervibus latis concavis plus minus longe apiculatis, para- 
physibus subclavatis. 

Patria. Afghanistan {Dr, Aitchison (1884-5), no. 188 in Herb. 
Kew.). . 

Inter T. subsessilem (Brid.) Mitt, et T, piisillam (Hedw.) Mitt. 
ponenda ; a priore capsula emergente oblonga nee subglobosa, a 
posteriore et minutie et floris masculi positione, ab utraque folii 
cellulis superioribus majoribus differt. 

T, media is perhaps most nearly allied, structurally, to T, pusilla 
var. incana (Nees & Hornsch.) Braithw. T. pusiUa var. Perraldieri 

iBesch.) I have not seen. Bescherelle describes his variety as 
ollows (Cat. des Mousses observ. en Alg6rie, p. 9 (1882)): — 
** Feuillea tr^s concaves, arrondies au sommet, h, marge cr6nel6e- 
dent^e k la naissance du poil denticul^ qui d6borde assez longue- 
ment la feuille ; capsule port^e sur un p6dicelle grele, qui ne d^passe 
pas 8 millim., vaginale comprise.*' From the description this variety 
seems very near, if indeed it is distinct fi'om, the var. incana. 

Pottia chottica Trab. appears, from the description and figures 
given by Trabut (Battandier et Trabut, Atlas de la Flore d* Alger., 
p. 12, pi. 7, figs. 10-16 (1886) ; Rev. Bry. 1887, p. 18), to be 
Bomewhat intermediate between Toitula subsessilis and T, pusilla, 
and must be referred to the genus Tortula, It resembles the former 
in the "capsula immersa obovato-sphaerica,'* but in other respects, 
as the author says, is **tr6s voisin du P. cavifolia [T, pusilla], 
dont il diffSre surtout par le poil denticul6 qui termine les feuilles, 
par les feuilles plus etroites, llgSrement dent^es au sommet." 

T. media differs conspicuously from T. chottica in habit, the 
capsule emergent, not overtopped by the perichsstial leaves, shape 
ol leaf, &c. 

JouBNAii OF Botany. — Vol. 87. [June, 1899.] b 

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242 A NEW MOSS FBOM AFGHANISTAN. 

Although T, media shows a resemblance to certain forms of 
T. pusilla on the one side, yet, on the other, in the small size, and 
large, shortly stalked, hardly emergent capsule, it approaches 
T. subsessilisy with which it must certainly be considered congeneric. 
T. subsessilis is often placed by itself in the genus Pharomitnum, 
characterized by the mitraeform calyptra. The shape of the calyptra, 
even if constant, could not be considered a character of sufficient 
generic value ; it is, however, in T, subsessilis^ liable to variation, as 
I have found calyptraa distinctly subcucullate, t. e. deeply split on one 
side, and opposite to this, on the other side, only one very short sht 
Moreover, T, mediae and perhaps 2\ chottica also, link T, subsessilis to 
1\ pusiUut and further prevent T. subsessilis being placed in a special 
genus. It is more difficult to decide if the above species should be 
included in the genus Tortula, or, together, should constitute a 
separate genus. The latter view has been taken by Juratzka 
(Laubmoosfl. von Oest.-Ungarn, p. 95 (1882)), who placed T. sub- 
sessiliSf T.pusilla^ and T. lamellata Lindb. in his genus Pterygoneurum, 
and this arrangement has been followed by Limpricht (Die Laubm. 
i. Abth. p. 520 (1888) ). 

The three species just mentioned above form, with T. media and 
T, chottica (Trabut), a group of live species, all of which show the 
same pecuhar leaf-structure. T, lamellata^ however, is peristomate, 
and moreover forms so evident a connecting link with other species 
of Tortula, that it seems, I think, far more natural to regard, as many 
authors have done, the peculiar structure of the leaf in these species 
as a character of only secondary generic importance, and to give, 
therefore, Ptei-ygoneuruvi a sectional or subgeneric rank under 
Tortula, It may be pointed out that if we consider the peculiar 
leaf-structure of T, pusilla, &c., a character of sufficient value for 
establishing a genus, then we must allow . such genera as Aloina 
for T, abides, &c. — species which, except in leaf-structure, are in 
all respects typical species of Tortula. 

T, pusilla, as well as T. media, occurs in Afghanistan ; there are 
specimens in the Kew Herbarium collected by Dr. Aitchison (1884-5), 
no. 186, as well as older ones collected by Griffith, **Otipore (Afghan 
Coll.) 98 '' [1889] . Afghanistan extends the range of distribution 
of T. pusilla, as Persia has hitherto been recorded as its eastern limit. 



Explanation op Platb 397. — ^Fig. 1. Tortula (Pterygoneurum) media, sp.nov., 
from Afghanistan (Dr, Aitchison, no. 183 in Herb. Kew.), two plants, nat size. 
2. Plant, with two capsules x 12. 3. Leaf x 25. 4. The same, flattened out 
X 25. 5. Areolation of leaf at one-quarter from the base x 255. 6, 7. Areolation 
of leaf at one-quarter from the apex x 255. 8. Transverse section of leaf at 
about one-third from the apex x 68. 9. Part of same x 255. 10. Capsule, 
showing very short seta and vaginula x 12. 11. Calyptra x 25. 12, 13. Two 
perigonial leaves x 68. 14. Antheridium and paraphyses x 68. 

(Note to Fig. 8. — A slight error appears in this reproduction of the drawing 
of the nerve-section. The four smaU cells, shown with shaded walls, in the 
centre of the nerve are the *'Begleitergruppe," and the cell- walls of this group 
should be represented as very thin and delicate.) 



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248 

NOTES ON CAMBKIDQESHIRE PLANTS. 

By Abthub Benhett, F.L.S. 

The interesting notes on Cambridgeshire plants by Mr. W. West, 
Jun. (Joum. Bot. 1898, 246-259), caused me to look up some of my 
own notes on that county ; in addition to these, I have extracted 
others from the copy of Babington*s Flora of Cambridgeshire that 
belonged to the late Mr. W. Marshall, of Ely, kindly lent me by Mr. 
W. Cross. A few species gathered by Mr. Fryer are given ; these 
are either of interest as very rare, or supposed to be extinct, or 
stand for additional districts to the Cambridge Flora. Mr. Fryer 
possesses a large series of observations, which I hope will some day 
be printed. Unless otherwise noted, the Chippenham Fen localities 
are those noted by Mr. Fryer and myself in a visit to the Fen in 
1883. The other localities rest on my own authority. 

Myosurus minimus L. 7. Chatteris, A, Fryer, — Ranunculus 
circinatus Sibth. 5. Burwell Fen, 1888. — R. Lingua L. 5. Bur- 
well Fen. — R. auricomus L. 6. Ely, hedge on the road to 
Stretham, April, 1894, Marshall. 

AqtUlegia vulgaris L. 5. Chippenham, W, Cross, 1888. 

Nymphaa alba L. 5. Burwell Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

Diphtaxis muralis DC 5. Chippenham, 1888; between Wicken 
and Burwell, by the old footpath ; on the bank on this side of 
Soham Mere, 1869, Marshall, — Alyssum calycinum L. Waterbeaoh 
Station, Fordham, 1894, Marsliall. 

Viola hirta L. 5. Chippenham, W, Cross ; Wicken Fen, Marshall, 
April, 1896. — F. stagnina Kit. 6. West Fen, Ely ; Roswell Pits, 
Marshall. 

Drosera rotundi/olia L. 6. Chippenham Fen, W. Cross, — 
Parrutssia paltutris L. 5. Chippenham Fen, Marshall^ about 1894 ; 
B'ryer d Bennett^ 1888. 

Polygala depressa Wender. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

Sapauaria officinalis L. 6. Fordham, bank opposite cottages !, 
W. Cross, 1888. — Silene infiata Sm. 6. This is getting common 
along the railway sides, brought in by ballast, Marshall. — S, nocti- 
flora L. 5. Between Wicken and Burwell, by the old footpath. 
6. This has become a somewhat common weed in the arable land 
in the fens, probably introduced with the seed wheat from the high 
country, Marshall. — S. Otites Sm. 5. Chippenham Gravel-pit, 
Hailstone herb., 1848. — Sagina apetala L. 1. Gogmagogs, Baines 
herb, at York. — Malachium aquaticum Fries. 8. Ditches about 
Grandchester Mills, Aug. 1889, Hailstone herb. 

Hypericum perforatum L. 6. Ely Common, near Roswell Hill, 
Marshall. 

Geranium pratense L. 6. This used to be in Lower Barton next 
Potter's Lane, but it is now gone, Marshall. 

THfolium ochrolmcum Huds. 6. In one field only in Barton, 
Marshall, 

Prunua Padus L. 5. Chippenham, W. Cross \ — Comarum 
paUu^re L. Wimblington-in-the-Firelots, 4 ft. high, 1884, A. Fryer \ 

B 2 



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244 MOTES ON 0AMBRID6ESHIRE PLANTS. 

— Geum rivale L. 6. Fordham, one plant 1, W. Cross, 1888. — Eosa 
vUlosa {mollis) L. 7. Pringle*s Dune, Chatteris, ** teste J. G. 
Baker,' Fryer. 

Myriophyllum veHidllatum L. 5. Chippenham Fen. 
JEgopodium Poda gratia L. 5. Fordham. — (Enanthe LachenaUi 
C. Gmel. 5. Burwell Fen, 1882. — (E, silaifolia Bieb. 7. Sides 
of Bedford E., Button Chain, Fryer, — (E, Jiuviatilis Colem. 5. 
Ditch by Burwell Fen, 1882. — Peucedanum palustre Moench. 
6. Roswell Hill of late years (1869) ; it was not there twenty years 
ago, Marshall, — Sila^ts pratemis Bess. 5. Fordham, 1883. — Dauctis 
Carota L. 5. Chippenham Fen. — Selinnm Caivifolia L. 6. In 
1888 Mr. Fryer and I made a careful examination of the locality of 
this plant, and though we were unable to cut through the raised 
ground on which it principally grew (to see if it was made ground), 
the conclusion we came to was that it was not an indigenous species, 
but probably introduced with the belt of trees ; there may be sixty 
to eighty years of growth. The plant in 1883 was evidently ex- 
tending itself into the fenny ground around, by plants here and 
there. Doubtless, in Relhan's time, this fen (or moor) was very 
much wetter than it is now, hence more difficult of access ; but he 
could not have failed to see the plant when in bloom (if it was 
there ?), aud there is no record of Petccedanum thence, for which it 
might have been mistaken ; and the Bev. J. Holme, of 8nailwell, 
who gathered Senecio paludosus and Eriophorum latifolium^ would 
surely have found it. To me, the whole aspect of the plant and its 
growth is against it being indigenous. Is the Lincolnshire station 
more likely to be indigenous ? Of course, it is quite naturalized and 
wild at Chippenham. 

Vihui-num Opulm L. 5. Chippenham. 
Valeriana dioica L. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

Dipsactis pilosus L. Devil's Ditch, Miss Jane Hailstone in kerb. 
Hailstone, — Scabiosa Succisa L. 5. Chippenham. 

Senecio palustfis DC. ** West Fen, Ely, W. M,,'* Top. Bot. 
ed. 2, 1883. This is not correct ; I never found it but once, and 
that in Methwold Fen, Norfolk, Marshall, I know of no recent 
occurrence of this in the county. — S. patudosa L. 6. Isle of Ely, 
2 sp., Winch herb, at Linn, Soc; Littleport; Burwell Fen, quoted 
in Eng. Bot. t. 660 ; Barraway Wash (formerly, 1789, Barway), 
Marshall, extinct. 5. Wicken Fen. I have seen many specimens 
(and possess one), gathered by Bev. J. Holme between about 1820 
and 1838 (some earlier?). Since 1857, when it was taken to the 
Botanic Garden at Cambridge (see Babington's Journal, p. 186), 
other specimens have been gathered. — S, sylvaticus L. 5. Between 
Soham and Wicken, 1888. — Artemisia campestris L. Sarein How's 
Phyt. Brit. — an error ? — Seiratula tinctoria L. 6. Chippenham 
Fen. — Carduus pratensis Huds. 5. Chippenham Fen. — 0. acaidis L. 
6. Not common at Ely, Marsfiall, — Sonchus palustiis L. 5. Bot- 
tisham Fen, opposite the ** Knave of Clubs " ale-house, 1848, 
Hailstone herb, 6. *Burnt Fen, J, Crowe in Hudson's Fl. Angl. I, c, — 

* This is partly in Suffolk and partly in Cambridgeshire, or it may refer to 
a small fen in Norfolk. 



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NOTES ON OAMBBIDaBSHIBE PLANTS. 245 

Lactuca Scariola L. 6. I introduced it at Boswell Hill, where it 
still remains, Marshall. 

CMoraperfoliatah, 5. Chippenham Fen. 7. Chatteris, F;y^, 
— Menyanthes trifoliata L. 6. Chippenham Fen. 6. I detected a 
small piece of this in fioswell Hill, many years ago, where it still 
remains ; in dyke on washes of river, Marshall. — Gentiana Amarella 
L. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

Lithospermum officinale L. 5. Chippenham Fen, in 1888. 6. 
Boswell Pits, Ely, where it has been many years, Marshall. — 
MyosoUs caspitosa F. Schultz. 7. Chatteris, Fryer, 

Linaria spuria Mill, and L. Elatina Mill. 5. Chippenham. 6. 
(spuria) Turnip-field between Ely and Downham, G. R. W. B. ; 
Marshall." — PediciUaris palustris L. 6. Used to grow in Padnal 
Fen ; now extinct, Marshall. — Veronica spicata L. Mr. West 
(Joum. Bot. 1898, 255) remarks that he knows ** nothing concerning 
the Top. Bot. (Wardale's) Norfolk record.** In the British Museum 
Herbarium there is a specimen from ** Bawsey, near Lynn, Aug. 
1845, B. D. Wardale,** who also sent specimens to the Botanical 
Society of London. 

Salvia Verbenacea L. 6. Used to grow in Spring-head Lane, 
Ely ; now only to be found on the Cherry Hill, Marshall. — Teucrium 
Scorodonia L. To Hen8low*s ** Ely I H.*' Marshall has put ** never ! ** 
— T. Scordium L. 7. Hundred Foot, Fryer sp. 

Pingidcula vulgaris L. 5. Chippenham, Marshall. 1888 I F. d 
B. — Utricularia vulgaris L. 6. Chippenham Fen ; Burwell Fen. — 
U. minor L. 5. Chippenham Fen, W, Cross, 1881. F. d 5., 1888. 
— U. neglecta Lehm. 6. Probably occurs in Burwell Fen ! but the 
specimens, not being in flower, are not certain. 

AnagaUis tenella L. 6. Downham West Fen, but I fear gone, 
Marshall. 

Statice caspia Willd. 8. Sp. in Herb. Brit. Mus., Sept. 1796, 
J, Sowerby. 

Ceratophyllum mbmersum L. 7. The Gull, Sutton Gault, 1888, 
Fryer. 

Myiica Oale L. Wimblington-in-the-Firelots, 1884, Fryer I 

Daphne Laureola L. 6. Also at the entrance of the village 
(Witchford) from Ely, years ago, but now gone, Marshall, 

Euphorbia exigaa L. 6. Stutney Field, 1877, Marshall. 

Hydrocliaris Morstisrana L. Isleham, Fryer. 

Stratiates Aloides L. 6. Near Stretham Ferry, in old gravel- 
pits, Marshall. 

Orchis maculata L. 7. Chatteris, 1883, Fryer. — 0. incarnata L. 
5. Chippenham Fen. — Habenaria vindis B,. Br. 6. Ely; Soham, 
Marshall. — Gymnadenia conopsea Brown. 5. Chippenham Fen. — 
Ophrys api/era Huds. 5. Chippenham Fen, plentiful in 1883, 
W. Cross. 6. Appeared in Ely Cemetery, and now abounds there, 
Marshall. — Epipactis palustris Crantz. 5. Chippenham Fen, 1883. 
— Cephalanthera grandifiora Bab. **Babraham in 1859 I Mr. Josh. 
Clarke.'" This is an error ; Mr. C. B. Clarke sent me the two spe- 
cimens gathered, ** on the authority of which it was inserted in the 
Fl. Camb.*' ; they are certainly Habenaria viridis R. Br. — Liparis 



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NOTES ON OAMBBIDOESHIBE PLANTS. 

LoeselU Bioh. 5. Three specimens in Wicken Fen, 1896, I. H. 
BurkiU. As noted by Mr. West, plentiful in this district over a fair 
extent of ground. 

Omithogalum umbellatum L. 6. Near Ely, W, Cross. — AUium 
oleraceum L. The Coton plant was oleraceum, 

Juncus acutiflorus Ehrh. 7. Doddington, Fryer. — J. obtusiflorus 
Ehrh. Chippenham Fen. 

Butomns umbellatus L. 5. Between Soham and Wicken, 1888. 
6. "Ely, Marshall. — Alisma ranunciUoides h. 6. Chippenham Fen; 
Burwell Fen. 

Triglochin palmtre L. 6. Chippenham Fen ; Wicken Fen. 

Sparganium simplex Huds. 5. Chippenham Fen ; Burwell Fen. 

Potamogeton natans L. 5. Chippenham Fen, Fryer. — P. poly- 
gonifolius Pourr. 5. Burwell Fen, Relhan, 1806, sp. in herb. DaUon 
at York. Bottisham Fen, 29.5.1829, J. DaUon ! The Gamlmgay 
plant was correct ; there is a specimen in herb. Watson at Kew. — 
P. plant€Lgineu8 Du Croz. 5. Burwell and Bottisham Fens, 29.6.1829, 
J, DaUon ! 7. Chatteris and Benwick, Fryer. — P. heterophyllus 
Schreb. 6. Burwell Fen, 1829, Dalton herb. I. c. ! 7. Plentiful, 
Fryer. — P. lanceolatus Sm. 6. Burwell Fen, 1880. — P. Ixicens L. 

6. Burwell Fen. — P. decipiens Nolte. 6. Between Burwell and 
Fordham, 1888. 7. Plentiful, Fryer. — P. pralongus Wulf. 6. 
Burwell Fen ; between Burwell and Fordham, 1888. — P. per/oUatus 
L. 6. Burwell Fen ; Bottisham Fen, 1845, Hailstone ! — P. crispus 
L. 5. Between Soham and Wicken, 1888. — P. zosterifolius Schum. 
5. Bottisham Fen, 28.5.1829, J. Dalt^nl — P. (cmnpressus) Friesii 
Bupr. 5. Bottisham Fen, 1829, J. Dalton ! Between Soham and 
Wicken, 1888 ; Burwell Fen, 1881 ; Mepal, Fryer ! In the Vienna 
Herbarium there is a specimen from ** Cambridge, Churchill Babing- 
ton.'* — P. pusillus L. 5. Between Wicken and Burwell ; Chippen- 
ham Fen ; Isleham Fen, Fryer. — P. pectinatus L. 6. Burwell Fen, 
1888.— P. flabeliatus Bab.* 5. Burwell Load, 1888.— P. deyisus L. 

7. Welch's Dam, Fryer. 

Cladium Mariscus Brown. 5. Chippenham Fen, 1888. — Eleo- 
cJiaris acicularis R. Br. 5. Wicken Fen, plentiful, 1888 ; Burwell 
Fen. 7. Chatteris, Fryer ! — Scirpus lacustris L. 5. Chippenham 
Fen. — S. Tabemamontani Gmel. 7. Welch's Dam, Fiyer. — Carex 
paradooca Willd. 5. Wicken Fen, Fryer ! — C. prolixa Fries. 1. 
Wilbraham Long Dune, 12.5.1848, W. W. Newboxdd in herb. Brit. 
Mus. — C. panicea L. 5. Wicken Fen. — C. Ooodenovii Gay. 5. 
Chippenham Fen. — C. pracox Jacq. 6. Ely ; Barton Meadows, 
1894, G. R. W. B. MarshaU.—C.fiava L. 5. Chippenham Fen.— 
C. distans L. 5. Chippenham Fen. — C. filiformis L. 5. Chippen- 
ham Fen. — C. Pseudo-cyperus L. 6. Once found this on the Long 
Wash, near the overfall mill ; Ely, by the White Bank side, Marshall. 
— C. ampullacea Good. 5. Seen in Relhan's station in 1888 ; Isle- 
ham Fen, Marshall, — C. vesicaria L. 5. Burwell Fen. 

Phleum Boehmerl Schrad. 5. Hedgebank beyond Bottisham, 
on the road to Newmarket, 1889, Herb. Hailstone ! — Calamagrostis 
lanceolata Roth. 5. Chippenham Fen. 7. Chatteris, Fryer. — C. 
epigejos Roth. 5. Wicken Fen; this species was certainly not 



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TWO UTTLE-KNOWN AUSTRALIAN MYRTAOEiE. 247 

plentiful here in 1880-1888. Ditch, Burwell Fen. 7. Chatteris, 
Fryer. — Bromus erectus L. Dallingham, Herb. Hailstone. 

Tolypella prolifera Leonh. 7. Vermuden's Drain, Fryer, 1884 I 
I saw it there with Mr. Fryer in 1886. — T. glomerata Leonh. 5. 
Wicken Fen, 1882 ; Bottisham Fen, Messrs, Groves, 1882. — T. intri- 
cata Leonh. 4. Harston, 1880. — Chara tenuissima Desv. 6. 
Wicken Fen, by the Lode, very abundant, 1882. Hundreds of 
specimens might have been gathered. — C. vulgaris L. 6. Burwell. 
7. Linguard Fen, Fryer. — C. polyacantha Braun. 5. Wicken Poor's 
Fen, 1882; Chippenham Fen, 1881, W. Cross \ A beautiful un- 
incrusted form occurred in 1888 near Chippenham. — C. hispida L. 
6. Burwell Fen. — C. aspera Willd. 6. Burwell Fen, 1881. 7. 
Yermuden's Drain, Fryer, 1888 ! — C. fragUis L. 5. Chippenham 
Fen, W. Cross, 1881 ! Wicken Fen, 1882 ; Burwell Fen, 1883. 



TWO LITTLE-KNOWN AUSTRALIAN MYRTACE^. 

By James Britten, F.L.S. 

In Graertner's De Fructibus et Seminihus Plantarum (vol. i. 1791) 
are figured and described two Myrtacece which have not hitherto 
been identified with any recent species: even their names, until 
the Index Kewensis again brought them to light, have dropped out 
of books — neither, for example, is cited in De Candolle's Prodromm. 
In the course of my recent work at the Australian collections of 
Banks and Solander I have been enabled to dispose of these little- 
known species, one of which presents features of considerable 
interest ; and I propose to put on record the identifications which 
have been made. 

1. Eugenia paniculata 

Banks [& Sol.] ex Gaertn. Fruct. i. 167, t. xxxiii. 1 (1788) et 
in Herb. I R. Br. MSS. : non Lam. Encycl. iii. 199 (1789). 

Syzygium paniculatum Gaertn. I. c. 
Myrtus paniculata J. F. Gmel. Syst. 792 (1791). 
Eugenia myrtifolia Sims, Bot. Mag. t. 2230 (1821) ; Benth. Fl. 
Austral, iii. 286 (1866). 

The specimens collected by Banks and Solander at Botany Bay 
in 1770 are identified by Bentham, who does not cite the Banksian 
name (Fl. Austral, iii. 286), with E. myrtifolia of Sims, which is of 
course of much later date. Brown, in whose MSS. there is a long 
description of the plant, identified it with specimens collected by 
himself at Shoalwater Bay and Hunter's River, which are likewise 
named by Bentham. There is also a brief description in Solander's 
MSS. 

In the Index Kewemis, E. paniculata Lam. is placed with this, with 
which, however, it has no affinity, and the locality " Ins. Borbon." 



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248 TWO LITTLE-KNOWN AU8TRALLLN BCTBTAOBJS. 

is applied to both : Lamarck's plant was published a year later than 
Gaertner*s. 

2. Mtrtus nitida 

J. F. Gmel. Syst. 792 (1791). 

Syzygium lucidum Gaertn. Fruot. i. 167, t. xxxiii. (1788). 

Eugenia lucida Banks [& Sol.] ex Gaertn. L c, et in Herb. 1 

Bol. MSS. 
Myrttis monosperma F. Muell. in Victorian Naturalist, ix. 9 

(1892). 

This interesting and distinct plant seems to have remained un- 
noticed for more than a hundred years since it was first obtained 
by Banks and Solander in the same district — Endeavour River — ^in 
which it was collected by Mr. W. Persieh about 1891. The Banksian 
specimens, with Gaertner's names attached to them by Dryander, 
have remained in the Herbarium at the end of Eugmia ever since 
they were first placed there, and were overlooked by Bentham when 
he was engaged upon the Australian Flora. Gmelin's name, which 
the plant must bear, was given when he transferred Gaertner's 
Syzygium to Myrtus ; he had no other knowledge of the plant than 
that afforded by Gaertner's meagre description. 

An examination of Banks's specimens, which are in fruit, 
showed that they belonged to a species of Myrtus not included 
in the Flora Australi^nsis, Mr. E. G. Baker was good enough to 
look through the Australian species in the Kew Herbarium, and 
some fragments of M, monosperma F. Muell. suggested to him its 
identity with that plant. A comparison of Banks's specimens with 
Mueller's description entirely confirmed this view ; the only differ- 
ence is in the size of the firuit, which is somewhat smaller (perhaps 
because unripe) in Banks's specimens. The single seed at once 
distinguishes M. nitida from any species included in the Flora 
AustraliensiSy and, so far as I know, from those more recently 
described. 

The following description is extracted from Solander's MSS. : — 
** Arbor parva, cortice hevi. Raini tenaces, teretes. Folia opposita, 
elliptica, acuminata, Integra, lucida. Petioli breves, supra plani- 
usculi. Pedunculi axillares, interdum solitarii, ssBpius aggregati, 
plerumque simplices, raro ramosi, teretes, filiformes, 1-unciales. 
Drupa globosaa, immatursB magnitudine pisi, glabrae, monospermaa. 
Calyx persistens, quadripartitus : laciniis subrotundis, obtusis, vix 
1 -linearis. Nuces immatursB odorem fortem terebinthi spirant." 

It may be noted that the oldest specific name cannot in this 
case be employed, as there is already a Myrtus lucida of Linnseus 
dating from 1768. 

The examination of the Banksian MSS., drawings, and herbarium 
has convinced me that the names published by either of them in 
connection with their voyage should stand as of ** Banks & Sol.": 
Banks had much more botanical knowledge, and much more to do 
with these determinations than is generally supposed. 



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249 

NOTES ON WEST SURREY PLANTS. 

By the Rev. E. S. Mabshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

DuBiNa the last three seasons I have met with a few local species 
or hybrids, which it may be worth while to place on record ; some 
of them were observed in the company of Capt. Woiley Dod, R.A., 
or Mr. 0. E. Salmon : — 

TrigoneUa purpurascens Lam. On the edge of Thursley Common, 
oloBd to the village, and west of the cricket-groand ; scarce, but seen 
there two years in succession. 

Rubus suberectus Anders. Roadside near Cntt Mill, towards 
Elstead. 

EpUobium hirsutum x obscurum. Boggy meadow between Little 
and Great Enton, Witley. Several plants of E. hirsutum x parvi- 
florum grew in a ditch close by. 

Hieradum cantianum F. J. Hanb. Roadside bank near the top 
of Wareham Hill, Witley, and between Munstead and Bramley. 
A form differing considerably from the type by the shape of its duller 
and deeper green leaves and by its greater hairiness, but placed here 
by Mr. Hanbury, is plentiful near the top of Church Lane, Witley; 
I have failed to find it elsewhere in the neigbbourhood, as yet. Var. 
coronopifolium (Bernh.) is, I think, the prevailing form of H. umbel- 
latum hereabouts. 

Wahlenbergia hederacea Reichb. In 1898 Miss M. Phear found a 
single specimen on the wet heath close to Milford Vicarage — a new 
station for it. 

Orobanche Hedera Duby. Mr. Joseph King, of Lower Birtley, 
Witley, sent me a fresh specimen which he had found growing in 
his garden, last August ; I suspect that it was of casual occurrence. 

Salix tnandra L. The usual, if not the only form of this willow, 
so common by the upper Wey, is var. Hoffmanniana; I have seen 
no female bushes. 

Epipaciis media Bab. Near Cosford House, Thursley, and near 
Hilford. This is our more frequent plant in S. W. Surrey ; in 1888 
Prof. Babington wrote to me that he believed it to be the true media 
of Fries. 

Iris fcBtidissima L. Two clumps in a hedge about a quarter of a 
mile S.W. of Thursley Church. 

Juncus effusus x glaucus (J, difusus Hoppe). Near Hammer 
Pond, Thursley, with the parents ; almost, if not quite sterile. 

Potamogeton obtusifoHus Mert. & Koch. Pond east of the ** Half 
Moon," Thursley. 

Carex dioica L. Swamp below Furzehill Pond, Brookwood; 
plentiful for about twenty yards. Capt. WoUey Dod and I found it 
in 1896 on the north side of the railway, not far off. At the N.E. 
comer of this pond (by the road to Pirbright) an Eiatine was 
abundant, last June, which, from its habit, is almost certainly 
E. Hydropiper; but I was unable to revisit the spot in autumn for 
verification. 



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260 NOTES ON WEST 8URBBY PLANTS. 

C. armaria L. In the Addenda to my friend Mr. Dunn's Flora 
of S. IV, Surrey, p. 96, I am credited with having found this in a 
marsh under Belmont Oopse, Albury. We were together on that 
occasion, but I do not remember what sedge was really seen : any- 
how, not areiutna, which inhabits dryish sands. 

C, paniculuta x remota [C, Boenuinghatuiana Weihe). A oarefal 
search in several likely spots has been rewarded by the discovery of 
a single tussock in an alder-bed below Bake Mill, Milford, and four 
tussocks in an alder-bed near the Wey, a little above Charles Hill, 
between Tilford and Elstead; in both cases the trees had been 
recently cut, or it would probably have escaped notice. Herr 
Eiikenthal has confirmed his former naming of C paniculata x 
vtdpina from Witley, which I collected afresh towards the end of 
last June. 

0. actUa L. Plentiful and variable on the east side of the 
Basingstoke Canal, a little south of Frimley. Besides the type and 
a slender spiked form, approaching var. gracilesceru Almq., I came 
across some striking plants which might have passed for acuta x 
Goodenowii, on the acuta side, but were quite fertile. The female 
spikelets are remarkably erect, rather stout, shorter than in the type 
(1-1^ in.), subobtuse, the upper ones frequently male at the top ; 
male spikelets long-stalked. Herr Kiikenthal names my two 
gatherings '*(7. gracilis Curt, subsp. erecta m. (in Kneucker's 
AUg. Bot. Zeitschr.)" and ** forma brachystachya m." of the same. 
I have not had access to his descriptions, but consider these Frimley 
plants to be a well-marked variety. Typical G. Goodmowii and var. 
juncella both grow here. My record of C, acuta from Waverley 
(Fl. of S.W. Surrey, p. 79) is erroneous ; I could only find C. 
acutiformis last June. The plant was misnamed for me in 1883 by 
a friend who was supposed to know sedges rather well ; I took no 
specimens, and had omitted to verify his opinion. 

C, Oederi Retz, var. oedocarpa Anderss. About a year ago 
the Bev. E. F. Linton suggested to me that this (as figured in 
Andersson's Cyperacea Scandinavicm) was identical with our Cflava 
var. minor Towns. I therefore sent specimens of characteristic 
jninor from Fleet Pond, Brookwood, and elsewhere to Herr Kiiken- 
thal, who confirmed this view in every case, writing as follows 
of the Brookwood plant : — ** Carex Oederi (Betz) var. oedocarpa 
Anderss. This form agrees completely with Fl. Danica, fig. 279i, 
and with Andersson's description. The character consists in the 
long beak of the fruit, which, however, points straight forward, and 
is not reflexed as in C lepidocarpa. Here, also, the spikelets are 
more spherical, in C lepidocarpa more ovate-oblong." The Fl. 
Danica figure certainly represents our minor very well indeed, and 
it is probably better placed under C. Oederi than under restricted 
G. flava ; indeed, where Oederi and var. oedocarpa grow together, 
as at Fleet Pond, forms occur which are just intermediate and quite 
fertile. I am disposed to group our plants as follows : — 1. G, flava 
L., with b. elatior Schlecht. (if that is really synonymous with 
G. lepidocarpa Tausch). 2. G, Oederi Retz, with b. cyperoides 
Marsson, c, elatior Anderss., and d. oedocarpa Anderss. Of G, flava 



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NEW NATAL PLANTS. 261 

var. argiUacea Towns. I have not seen any specimens ^from the 
description, Herr Edkenthal is inclined to refer that also to C 
Oederi) ; nor is there any authentic example of Andersson's variety 
in the foreign bundle at South Kensington. The Yarmouth plant 
from Herb. Sowerby, gathered by Dawson Turner and figured in 
£. B. ed. 1 as C Oederi, is var. oedocatya. One of the specimens 
on my sheet of C, Hornschuchiana from Pirbright Common is a 
hybrid with oedocarpa. 

C. aeutiformu Ehrh. In the Wey valley, about Elstead and 
Tilford, the usual, perhaps the only form is that with cuspidate 
glumes (C spadicea Both). 



NEW NATAL PLANTS. 

By J. Medley Wood, A.L.S., and M. S. Evans, F.Z.S. 

(Oontinned from Joam. Bot. 1897, p. 490.) 

DECADE m. 

21. Scilla palustris, sp. nov. Bulbus ovoideus coarctans supra, 
J-lf poll. diam. ; folia 4-6, lanceolata, 6-12 poll, longa, i-J poll, 
lata ; pedunculi 4-6 poll, longi, racemi oblongi, 1 J-2 poll, longi, 
laxe mnltiflori ; pedicelli tenues, inferiores 5-6 lin. longi ; bractesa 
minntse, deltoides, perianthi segmenta ereota, 1^-2 lin. longa; 
ovarium stipitatum ; semina magna. 

Hab. Natal : in swamp near Newcastle, 8900 ped. alt., December ; 
J. Medley Wood, No. 6601. 

Differs from S. polyantha Baker by its shorter and narrower 
leaves, which are usually more than four, by its shorter and denser 
raoeme, and erect not cemuous pedicels. 

22. Albnca afflnis, sp. nov. Bulbus ovoideus, ^1} poll. diam. 
cum tunicis diffendentibus numerosis fibris apice ; folia 4-10 
utrinque pedunculo, angusto-linearia, profunde alveata in facie, 
8-6 poll, longa, glabra, setosa, interdum duo pedunculi bulbo, 
2-12 poll, longi; racemus laxus, corymbosus, 1^8 poll, longus, 
pedicelli adscendentes, recurvi, inferiores, pervenientes ad 2^ poll. 
longos; bracteffl late lanoeolatfiB cum longo cuspide acuminato, 
psBne omnino pedicellum amplectentes basi, scariosaa, pluribus 
venis, media parte nervosa, subfusca, cum lata alba margine mem- 
branacea, attingente dimidiam longitudinem bractete rotundataa 
basi, inferiores f poll, longaa ; flores perpetuo erecti, perianthium 
5-9 lin. longum, album cum lata linea viridi; stamina omnia 
f ertilia, tria autem exteriora minora, et cum minore polline ; stylus 
prismaticus, stigma conicum. 

Hab. Natal : on grassy hills. Van Beenen*s Pass, Drakensberg 
Mtfl., 5-6000 ped. alt., November; J. Medley Wood, No. 6508. 

This plant seems to be nearest to A. pachychlamys Baker, a 
plant we have not seen ; but the raceme is much shorter, bracts 
are a different shape, and stripe on the perianth is green, not brown. 



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252 NBW NATAL PLANTS. 

The three outer anthers are very much smaller than the inner ones, 
and sometimes have no pollen, never much. We notice that in the 
Flo7'a Capensis the stripe on the perianth-segments of A, Nelsord 
N. E. Br. is said to be greenish or reddish brown, and that of 
A. crinifolia Baker to be reddish brown ; both of these plants have 
flowered in the Natal Botauic Gardens for several years past, and 
the band in both is certainly green, only becoming brown in the 
dried state. 

28. Fadogia humilis, sp. nov. Suffruticosa, non plus alta 
quam 6 poll. ; caules multi, ex radice ligneo, crasso, ramosi ; foUa 
. conferta in superiore parte caulium et ramorum, elliptico-oblongai 
oblonga, vel oblanceolata, obtusa vel subacuta ad apicem, coarc- 
tantia ad brevem petiolum, integra, venis conspicuis utrinque 
lamina glabra, cum paucis crinibus distantibus subtus in vena 
media, ciliata, 1-8 poll, longa, ^-1 poll, lata ; stipulsB cuspidatas ex 
basi lata amplexicaule includentes numerosas albas setas; Acres 
fasciculati in axibus foliorum, pedunculis ^-f poll, longis; calyx 
turbinatus, 6-lobatns, 2 lin. longus, lobis acuminatis, tubam 
SBquantibus; corolla 5-lobata, tuba cylindrica lobio breviore in- 
terne tecta criuibus albis, lobis angusto-oblongis, bis longioribns 
tuba, cum albis crinibus basi; antheraa oblongsB, aoutaa, sessiles 
parum infra sinus corolles, exsertaa ; stigma capitatum, intmsum 
basi, bifidum apice, exsertum; ovarium 2-loculare, loculis 1-ovu- 
latis, ovula pendula ; flores lutei ; drupa globosa, coronata vestigiis 
calycis loborum, carnosa, viridis, f poll. diam. 

Hab. Natal : near Van Beenen's Pass, Drakensberg Mts., 
6-6000 ped. alt. ; J. Medley Wood, Nos. 4528, 6248. 

A low-growing plant with thick, spreading, woody roots, and 
numerous short stems and branches which are clothed at nodes 
with remains of stipules and the bristles with which they are 
furnished. In appearance the plant is very like Vangueria pygnuea 
Schlechter, and is about the same in size and habit of growth. 
Differs from F. Zeyheri in size of leaves, shape and size of stipules, 
and mode of inflorescence. Our plant is found amongst grass fully 
exposed to the sun, while F, Zeyheii is said to be found in '' stony 
places in woods." 

24. Aster uliginosus, sp. nov. Caules ssBpe caaspitosi, herbacei, 
ex radice perenne, ascendentes, tecti in parte inferiore ; foliis flac- 
cidis, teretes, cum paucis sparsis pilosis crinibus ; 6-8 poll, longi ; 
monocephali ; folia alterna, conferta in parte inferiore caulis, 
linearia, integra cum marginibus reflexis, vena media prominente 
infra, margine ciUato cum longis crinibus albis, ^-1 poll, longa ; 
capitula radiata, floribus radiis purpureis, discis luteis, f-^ poll, 
diam. ; squamsB involucrales 8-4-seriat8B, librae basin, lanceolataa, 
exteriores breviores, cum numerosis pilosis albis crinibus ex tnrgido 
fusco basi; flores radii feminei, 80-40, ligulati, disci numerosi, 
5-dentati fertiles, omnes cum paucis minutis sparsis crinibus in 
tuba; setsB pappi multaB, serratae, l-seriatsB; achsBnia tecta paucis 
setis minutis. 

Hab. Natal: in damp places, sources of Tugela river, sum- 
mit of Mont-aux- Sources, March, 1898; M. S. Evans, No. 758. 



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NEW NATAL PLANTS. 258 

We have no Natal species of Aste}- at all like this plant, nor does 
the Colonial Herbarium contain any species with which it would be 
confused. 

25. Felicia pinnatifida, sp. nov. PlantsB plernmque 2-8 poll. 
altflB interdum attingentes 5-6 poll., hirsuta; caulis brevissimus, 
copiose ramosus ex basi, ramis ascendentibus, teretibus, purpureis ; 
foha alterna, simplicia, petiolata, exstipulata, d-4-pinnatifida, lobis 
linearibus, oblongis, variantibus ex } ad 1 poll, longos ; petiolus 
altus et dilatatus basi, semiamplexicaulis, 2-12 lin. longus; capitnla 
solitaria, multiflora, radiata ; floribus radiis purpureis ; discis luteis, 
f-f poll, diam., involncrales squamae 2-4-8eriataB, lineari-lanceolatae, • 
cum marginibus membranaceis, exteriore brevissimse et augustis- 
simae, subspinossa in dorso, atropurpurae ; flores radii ligulati, 
obtusi, disci tubulosi, 5-dentati ; setaa pappi multae, serratas, uni- 
seriatae ; achaenia compressa, minute pubescentia. 

Hab. Natal: sources of Tugela River, summit of Mont-aux- 
Sources, 11,000 ped. alt. ; A/. S. Evans, No. 789. 

Differs from all the South African species of Felicia known to us 
by its deeply pinnatifid leaves. Always found in wet gravelly places 
at or near heads of streamlets. 

26. Felicia drakensbergensis, sp. nov. Sufi^ticosa, 6-12 
poll, alta, rami lignosi, erecti, seniores glabri, juveniores puberuli, 
cortice cano ; folia conferta ad extrema ramorum, linearia, sessilia, 
rugosa, erectiformia, pilosa cum albis articulosis crinibus ; 1^12 
lin. longis ; capitula solitaria, caarulea, in }-l poll, longis pedunculis 
pilosis ; squamae involucrales 10-12, 2-seriataB, lineares, vel lineari- 
lanceolatsB, acutae, pilosae, 2-8 lin. longae ; radii flores late ligulati, 
4-venati; disci tubulosi, 5-dentati; setaa pappi multae, serratae, 
nniseriatae. 

Hab. Natal : Sources of Tugela Biver, summit of Mont-aux- 
Sources, 11,000 ped. ; M. S. Evans, No. 747. 

This is quite unlike any other Natal species known to us ; it 
appears to be near to F. ahyssinica Sch. Bip., but differs in the 
following respects : — The involucral scales are fewer, and in two, 
not three to four series ; acute, not acutely acuminate ; the leaves 
differ in shape and indument ; and the receptacle is fimbrilliferous, 
not naked. 

27. Berkheya maritima, sp. nov. Herbacea, erecta, ramosa 
in Buperiore parte, 8-4 ped. alta; caulis et rami striati, sparse 
araneoso-lanati, virides; folia alterna, sessilia, deourrentia in brevem 
caulinam alam spinoso-ciliatam, lamina oblonga, irregulare sinuata, 
lobata, lobis praeacutis, spina 1-2 lin. longa ; rotuudatis interstitiis 
ciliatis cum minoribus spinis variantibus, longitudine ^1 lin., 
tenuiter araneoso-lanata et cum articulatis crinibus glandulosis 
supra, dense albotomentosa infra; venis venulisque conspicu is infra, 
minus quidem supra, 4-8 poll, longa, lJ-8 poll, lata, minus sursum; 
inflorescentia corymbosa, capitula pauca, radiata, pedicellis longis, 
cum foliis depauperatis in nodis, lanceolatis, summis minus 1 poll, 
longis ; squamae involucrales squarrosae, 4-5-seriatae concretae nasi, 
armatse spina terminale 1^ lin. longa, 1-4 magnis et multis minori- 



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254 NBW NATAL PLANTS. 

bus spinis marginalibus, lanceolataB, 4-6 lin. long® inoludentes 
spinam, dense albo-tomentosaB infra, araneoso-lanataB supra ; flores 
radii 80-40, ligulati, elongati, 8-neryii, 4-dentati apice, f poll, longi, 
neutrii; disci i-} poll, diam., tubulosi, 5-lobati, 4-5 lin. longi, 
lobis lineari-lanceolatis sequantibus tubum; receptaculum con- 
vexum; squamaB pappi latse, lacerated apice; achsenia turbinata, 
angulata, glabra, nitida. 

Hab. Natal : near Durban ; J. Medley Wood. 

This appears to come near Stobaa scolymoides DO., a plant of 
which we have not seen specimens. We have only met with it near 
the sea-coast. 

28. Oncinotis inandensis, sp. nov. Gaules scandentes, ra- 
mosi, teretes, cum cortice obscuro, teneres tenuiter pnbescentes, 
seniores psBue glabri, ramis oppositis, turgidis basi, et plerumqne 
conjunctis annulo duro et ligneo nudis glabrisque infra foliosis 
supra; folia opposita, petiolata exstipulata, sed juncta annulo 
interpetiolato, late oblanceolata, obliquo-acuminata apice, basi 
coarctantia ad petiolum, cum venis venulisque prominentibus infra, 
et manifestis supra, et cum margine omnino integro, glabra, 2^-4 
poll, longa, }-l^ poll, lata; petiolus 2-8 lin. longus, curvatos, 
atro-viridis et basi turgidus ; racemi axiUares, pauciSori, interdnm 
ramosi, et multo breviores foliis; bracteaa minimsB, ferrngineo- 
pubescentes, decidn®, exorientes ex annulo vel vagina basi calycis ; 
calyx 5-fidus psane basin, tubo turbinate, lobis deltoideis, obtusis, 
erectis, tenuiter ferrugineo-pubescentibus, 1^ hn. longus ; discus 
5-lobatus ; corolla hypocrateriformis, 5-lobata, lobis lineari-lanceo- 
latis, reflexis, paulo longioribus tubo, sinistrorsum tortis in SBsti- 
vatione, cum 5 deltoideoacuminatis squamis in fauce, alternis cum 
lobis et sextens eorum longitudinis, exsertis, tubo tenuiter pubescente 
in parte exteriore, et cum albis pilosis crinibus intus ; stamina 5, 
basi tubi corollaa; filamenta brevissima, expansa et pilosa cum 
crinibus albis basi; antheraa lineari-sagiitatas, acuminata apice, 
2-loculare, introrssa, conniventes et adhasrentes medio sti^mati; 
stylus brevis ; stigma incrassatum elongatum, divisum apice duobus 
brevibus acutis lobis ; oarpella 2, ovulis numerosis ; folliculi 2, 
divergentes vel paralleli, cylindracei, acuti, 6-8 poll, longi, glabri ; 
semina lineari-oblonga, minute verrucosa, fusca, comosa apice cum 
numerosis crinibus albis, semine dimidio longioribus. 

Hab. Natal : in woods, Inanda, 1800 ft. altitude, September ; 
Wood, No. 1009 ; October, with follicles, Wood, No. 6159. 

Hitherto only found in the locahty indicated, where it climbs to 
the tops of the highest trees, and there bears its leaves and flowers. 

29. Chlorophytom Haygeurthii, sp. nov. Badicales fibne 
cylindricaD, carnosaa, 8-4 poll, longa; folia radicalia 6-8, late 
linearia, textura firmissima, obsoleta, scindentia, basi fibris nume- 
rosis, 8-12 poll, longa, 4-7 lin. lata, gradatim angustata et basi et 
apice, tenuiter ciliata, alias glabra, cum 80-40 costis prominentibus; 
folia caulina multo minora, gradatim diminuentia sursum amplexi- 
cauUa ; pedunculus robustus, teres, simplex, 4-6 poll, longus basin 
inflorescentis, pubescens sursum, glaber deorsum ; raoemus 6-9 poll. 



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MIDDLESEX BUBI. 256 

longus, multiflorus, bractese duo atrinqne flori, exterior lata basi, 
loDgo-acumiuata, scariosa, 10-18 lin. longa, 4-5 lin. lata ; interior 
mnlto brevior, laoerata apioe ; pedicelli erecto-patentes, 1 lin. longi, 
solitarii; perianthium 7 lin. longum, oblongum, angustatum ad 
apicem; carina 8-costata; stamina parum breviora perianthio; 
capsula OYoidea, triqaetra oum obtusis angulis ; semina numerosa 
in loculis. 

Hab. Zululand : near 'Nkandhla Mts., 4-5000 ft. alt. ? Legit 
W. J. Haygarth, December, 1898 (Wood, No. 7448). 

Amongst South African species this comes nearest to C. vagi- 
natum Baker; is more robust but not so tall, the racemes are 
longer, the bracts and perianth much larger, leaves are more 
distinctly ribbed and firmer in texture, and the flowers different 
in colour. 

80. Alepidea natalensis, sp. nov. Herbacea, caulis erectus, 
12-15 poll, altus ; folia radicalia, integra, petiolata, elliptico- 
oblonga, mucronata, gradatim coarctantia ad planum petiolum 
alatum, cum margine ciliato setis, aliquando 8 lin. longis, et 
aliquando extendentibus basin petioli, 8 poll, longa includentia 
petiolum vaiantem, ex dimidia ad totam longi tudinem laminsB ; 
folia caulinia angusto-oblonga, acuminata, amplexicauUa, oiliata, 
rapide diminuentia sursum et cum numerosioribus longioribus setis 
basi ; umbellsB in laxo paniculo, ramis inferioribus paniculi 8-4 lin. 
longis, pedicellis superioribus 1 poll, vel minus longis, involucrum 
6-7 lin. diam. ; foliolis obovoideis, mucronatis, alternis minoribus, 
omnibus 8-6-nervis ; fructus non visus ; flores rosei. 

Hab. Natal : Karkloof range, 4-5000 ft. alt., February, 1894. 
Legit J. Wylie {Wood, No. 6248). 

This plant appears to come nearest to A, lorujifolia E. M., but 
differs in the following particulars; — ^Leaves are petiolate, not ses- 
sile, cilia of radical leaves are much more numerous, and generally 
shorter ; segments of involucre are broader, obovoid, and mucronate 
not lanceolate, and flowers are pink not white. In the Flora 
Capensisy A. longifolia E. M. is said to be a synonym of A, Ama- 
tymbica E. & Z., but specimens in the Natal Government Herbarium, 
which have been certified at Kew, show that the two species are 
quite distinct. 



MIDDLESEX RUBI. 
By John Benbow, P.L.S. 



The following list, though far from exhaustive, will serve to 
indicate the distribution of the commoner forms, and help to fill 
a few of the gaps in the scanty records of the Middlesex brambles. 
The numbers follow the botanical divisions of Trimen and Dyer's 
Flora of the county. My thanks are due to the Bev. W. Moyle 
Bogers for his kind help in naming and verifying the specimens 
submitted to him. 



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256 MIDDLESEX BUBI. 

Rubus Idmis L. 1. Woods about Uxbridge Common and Icken- 
ham ; North Wood ; Pinner ; Stanmore Heath ; Bentley Priory ; 
Harrow Weald Common, &c. 2. Littleton, by Bushey Park. 8. 
Whitton Park, 4. Hampstead Heath ; Bishop's Wood ; Highgate 
Woods. 6. Whetstone ; Hadley Wood. 

Var. Le^m (Bab.). Wood near Uxbridge Common. 

R. nitldus W. & N. (?). 4. Hampstead Heath. •* Apparently 
R. nitidm,'' W. M. R, 

R. rhamnifolim W. & N. (^sp. coll.). 1. Uxbridge Common; 
Hillingdon ; Ickenham ; Ruislip ; North Wood ; Pinner ; Harrow 
Weald Common ; Stanmore Heath ; Mims Wood ; Harefield Com- 
mon. 2. Crauford; Feltham; Hanworth; Hampton; Fulwell. 
8. Whitton Park; Hoanslow. 4. Harrow; Hampstead Heath; 
Bishop's Wood ; Highgate. 6. Perivale ; Horsenton ; Greenford. 
6. Whetstone ; Colney Hatch ; Finchley ; Enfield Chase. 7. South 
Heath, Hampstead. 

R, neworalis P. J. Muell. var. puJcherrimus (Neum.). 1. Woods 
about Uxbridge Common ; Hillingdon ; Buislip and Harefield 
Woods, &c. 2. Feltham ; Hanworth ; Ashford Common ; Little- 
ton, &c. 8. Whitton; Hounslow; Hospital Bridge ; Twickenham, 
&c. 6. Perivale Wood. 6. Winchmore Hill Wood ; Hadley Wood; 
Enfield Chase. (The common bramble of Districts 2 and 8 ; but 
Rev. W. M. Rogers says, •* not the typical plant.") 

R, rmrcicus Bagnall, var. bracteatus (Bagnall). 1. Ruislip Woods. 
2. Littleton Park. 

R. carpimfoUus W. & N. 1. Wood by Uxbridge Common; 
Harefield Common. 

R, vlllicaulis Koehl. var. Seimert (Lindeb.V. 1. Woods about 
Uxbridge Common ; Ruislip Woods. 4. Near Harrow. 

R. Lindleianus Lees. 1. Uxbridge Common ; Hillingdon 
Ickenham; Ruislip; Northwood; Pinner; Harefield. 2. Hampton 
Hanworth; Feltham; Littleton; Fulwell; Teddington; Twicken 
ham. 8. Whitton; Hospital Bridge. 4. Hendon; Mill Hill 
Bishop's Wood. 5. Eahng ; Perivale. 6. Edgware ; Enfield 
Chase. 7. South Heath, Hampstead. 

R, ru8ticanu8 Merc. Common. 

R. jnibescens Weihe, var. mhinermis (Rogers). 1. Top Wood, 
N. of Harefield. 

i?. sUvaticm W. & N. 1. Harrow Weald Common. 6. Perivale. 
6. Botany Bay, Enfield ; Enfield Chase. 

R. macrophyllm W. & N. 1. Woods by Uxbridge Common ; 
Ruislip Woods ; Harefield Common ; Old Park Wood ; Top Wood ; 
Garret Wood ; Mims Wood. 4. Hampstead Heath ; Bishop's 
Wood; Highgate Woods; Scratch Wood, between Edgeware and 
Edgewarebury. 6. Perivale Wood. 6. Winchmore Hill Wood; 
Hadley Wood; Enfield Chase; woods near Potter's Bar. 7. Hedge 
by Vale of Health, South Heath, Hampstead. 

VskT. Schlectendalii (Weihe), 1. Ruislip Woods. 2. Lane between 
Harmondsworth and Stanweli. 

R. Sprengelii Weihe. 1. Harrow Weald Common; Stanmore 
Heath; Bentley Priory. 4. Hampstead Heath. 6. Enfield Chase; 



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MIDDLESEX BUBI. 257 

woods between North Lodge and Potter's Bar. 7. South Heath, 
Hampstead. 

R, leucostachys Schl. 1. Uxbridge Common and Woods ; Cowley; 
Hillingdon ; Ickenham ; Ruishp Woods ; Duck's Hill ; Harefield ; 
Pinner; Headstone Lane; Stanmore Heath; Mims Wood, &c. 
2. Feltham. 8. Cranford; Northolt. 4. Hampstead Heath; 
Bishop's Wood ; Highgate Woods ; Harrow ; Sudbury ; Wembly ; 
Scratch Wood; Edgewarebury ; Edgeware ; Hendon; Mill HiU; 
Whitchurch; Stanmore, &c. 6. Horsenton; Perivale; Greenford. 
6. Winchmore Hill Wood; Hadley Wood; Whetstone; Enfield 
Chase ;^ Potter's Bar. 7. South Heath, Hampstead. 

R. mucronatus Blox. 1. Ruislip Woods (Bayhurst Wood). 

R, radula Weihe. 1. Cowley; Hillingdon; woods about Ux- 
bridge Common ; Swakeleys and Ickenham ; Kuislip Woods ; Hare- 
field ; Old Park Wood ; Pinner Wood ; between Potter's Bar and 
South Mims. 2. Pole Hill ; Hayes ; Ashford Common ; Hanworth ; 
Fulwell. 8. Whitton ; near Hounslow ; Hospital Bridge and 
Twickenham. 4. Wembly Park; Harrow; Kingsbury; Edgeware; 
Bishop's Wood. 6. Enfield Chase. 7. Hedge by Vale of Health, 
Hampstead Heath. 

R. Bloxamianm Colem. 1. Wood by Swakeley'p Lodge, near 
Uxbridge Common. 

R. echinatus Lindl. 1. Long Lane, Hillingdon ; Ruislip Woods ; 
Duck's Hill ; Northwood ; Harefield ; Old Park Wood ; Top Wood. 
2. Feltham; Hanworth; Bedfont; Sunbury. 8. Hatton; Whitton 
Park, 6. Hadley Wood. 

R, Babingtonii Bell- Salt. 1. Wood by Uxbridge Common ; 
Swakeleys; Ickenham; Ruislip Woods; Old Park Wood; Hare- 
field. 5. Perivale Wood. 

R. scaher W. & N. 6. Horsenton ; Perivale Wood. 6. Hadley 
Wood. ** All, I believe, R, scaher ; certainly the Horsenton plant," 
W. M. R. 

R. pallidus W. & N. 1. Ruislip Woods (in Bayhurst Wood 
abundant.) 

R, foliosus W. & N. 1. Woods about Uxbridge Common and 
Swakeleys ; Ruislip Woods ; Northwood ; Pinner and Pinner Hill ; 
Harefield and Woods ; Harrow Weald Common ; Stanmore Heath ; 
Bentley Priory, &c. 4. Bishop's Wood ; Highgate Woods ; Scratch 
Wood ; Edgewarebury ; Barnet Gate Wood. 6. Perivale Wood. 
6. Winchmore Hill Wood ; Hadley Wood ; Colney Hatch ; Enfield 
Chase ; North Gate Woods ; near Potter's Bar. 

R. rosaceus W. & N. 5. Perivale Wood. 

Var. infecundm (Rogers). 1. Woods about Uxbridge Common ; 
Duck's Hill ; Ruislip Woods ; Harefield ; Old Park Wood ; Top 
Wood ; Garret Wood ; Pinner Woods ; Pinner Hill ; HaiTOw Weald 
Common ; Mims Wood, &c. 4. Bishop's Wood ; Highgate Woods ; 
Scratch Wood; Barnet Gate Wood. 6. Horsenton HUl; Perivale 
Wood. 6. Winchmore Hill Wood ; between Southgate and Whet- 
stone ; Enfield Chase ; Potter's Bar. 

R. adomatus P. J. Muell. 1. Duck's Hill. 4. Bishop's Wood ; 
Highgate Wood. 7. Parliament Hill, Hampstead. 

JouBNAL OP Botany. — Vol. 87. [June, 1899.] s 

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258 TEODOKO OABUEL. 

R. Koehlen W. & N. (sp. coll.). 1. Uxbridge Common ; Cowley ; 
Hillingdon ; Park Wood, Swakeleys ; Mims Wood. 2. Near Ful- 
well and Teddington. 8. Wliitton Park; near Hounslow and 
Twickenham ; Northolt. 4. Bishop's Wood. 5. Between Harrow 
and Northolt. 6. Winchmore Hill Wood; Enfield Chase. 

Var. pallidus (Bab.). 1. Woods about Uxbridge Common; 
meadows between Cowley and Hillingdon; Hillingdon Heath; 
Park Wood; Ickenham ; Ruislip Woods; Northwood; Old Park 
Wood; Harefield; Top Wood. 2. Teddington; 8. Whitton; 
between Whitton and Hounslow. 6. HadleyWood; Enfield Chase; 
North Lodge Woods ; Cooper's Gate. 

R, Marshalli Focke & Rogers. 1. Park Wood, Swakeleys. 

R. viridis Kalt. 1. Bayhurst Wood ; Old Park Wood ; Garret 
Wood. 8. Headstone Lane and copses. 4. Harrow; Sudbury; 
Wembly Park; Bishop's Wood; Highgate Woods; Hampstead 
Heath. 5. Northolt Lane. 6. Highgate Wood. 7. South Heath, 
Hampstead. 

R. BalfounauKs Blox. (typical forms). 2. Between Harlington 
and Hatton. 8. Near Hospital Bridge. 4. Wembly Park. 6. By 
the Brent near Peri vale, and canal side by Perivale Wood. 

R. dumetorum W. & N. (sp. coll.). Common. Very variable ; 
many hybrids. 

i?. corylifolius Sm. (sp. coll.). Common. 

R, ccBsim L. Frequent. Forms from — 1. Stanmore Heath; 
4. Bishop's Wood ; 6. Between Southgate and Whetstone — ^though 
** peculiar," the Bev. W. M. Rogers is unable to name. 



TEODORO CARUEL.* 

On June 27th, 1880, Teodoro Caruel was born at the settle- 
ment of Chandarnagar in Bengal, a French enclave on the banks 
of the Hugli. His father was a French official, and his mother an 
English girl from Calcutta. From the latter he inherited the 
tenacity and firmness of his character, and from the former his 
affable disposition and courteous manners. He came to Italy at 
the age of fifteen, and, after the family had settled in Florence, was 
carefully educated, and showed an early aptitude for scientific 
observation. The genial surroundings of his youth, the stimu- 
lating life of the Tuscan capital, his inborn sense of the charm of 
nature and art, the wealth and variety of the flora of his adopted 
country, ail combined to imbue him with the idea of devoting his 
energies to some department of science in which he might do some 
useful work; and thus he almost naturally became a botanist. 
Early associated with Pietro Savi, PuccineUi of Siena, Orsini of 
Ascoli, Filippo Calandrini, and Tozzetti, a band of enthusiastic 

* To a certain extent translated and condensed from a biographical memoir 
by Prof. Oreste Mattirolo, in a recent number of Mal^ighiat sapplemented by 
information from other sources. 



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TBODOBO OARUEL. 259 

and devoted students of botany, with whom he became acquainted 
about 1850, he undertook with them a series of excursions in the 
plains of Tuscany, and to the islands off the west coast of Italy, 
and also to various points of interest in the Apennines. As a 
result of these excursions there was accumulated a store of 
materials for study which formed more than a nucleus of the 
important collection which, at his death, was to go to the university 
of Pisa. These early years of Caruel were entirely devoted to the 
study of botany, chiefly in the field ; and, in recognition of his 
industry, in 1858 he was appointed by the Granducal Adminis- 
tration assistant to Filippo Parlatore. Under the direction of his 
distinguished chief, his natural love of science absorbed all his 
energies, and consolidated on a firm basis his scientific training. 

After acting as assistant to Parlatore for four years, he was 
appointed coadjutor witb him in his official duties; and from this 
time forward the life of Caruiel has been the history of Italian 
botany, so far as it has been contributed by the Florentine school. 
At this time the metbodical and organizing mind of Parlatore, 
engined, as it were, with the tenacity and characteristic zeal which 
was his own, was raising a scientific monument which became a 
precious heritage to his successors. Florence very justly became 
the scientific centre to which botanical aspirants in the several 
Italian states repaired. The Central Italian Herbarium was 
founded ; the Botanical Museum took formal shape ; a large amount 
of material from all parts of the world was assorted, examined, and 
then placed or mounted in cabinets and cases. The collections 
were arranged to afford facilities for the examination and com- 
parison of floras of many countries, with special reference to the 
vegetation of the Italian peninsula. Parlatore then made elaborate 
preparations to take in hand the Italian flora, and to formulate the 
systematic arrangement of the plants found to occur therein. 

It was at this time, and for some years afterwards, that political 
events and the factors which were making for the unification of 
Italy exercised a profound influence on the character and aspira- 
rations of Caruel. He was deeply imbued with the hopes and fears 
and enthusiastic feelings called forth by the political awakening of 
his country, and the passing away of the old order of things ; and 
he threw heart and soul into the movement. It is perhaps to be 
regretted that a man of science should so far forget his lofty 
mission as to take any serious interest in the ephemeral affairs of 
politics ; but few at that time could help being influenced to some 
extent by the forces which emancipated men from the coarser 
associations of what was left of medisBval rule. 

GarueFs first contributions to botany, which appeared about 
this time, showed a sagacious and intimate acquaintance with the 
Tuscan flora ; and soon assured for him a position of recognition 
as an authority in scientific botany. The herbarium of Andrea 
Cesalpino, founded about 1568 — the most valuable acquisition 
which the Florentine Museum has the honour to possess — afforded 
Caruel the opportunity of producing his first important memoir, 
which followed some short studies on the flowers of Arum macu- 

8 2 



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260 TEODORO OABITBL. 

latum (1851), and on the formation of the tuberous roots in the 
Orchidacea, The Illiistratio in Hortum slccum Andrea Cesalpini, 
published under the auspices of Parlatore, and dedicated to the 
memory of his father, was published in 1858, when he was in his 
twenty-eighth year. It not only shows his critical acquaintance 
with the plants passed in review, but also his felicity of expression 
in rendering the subject of a modern essay in the academic idiom 
of classical Latin. This scholarly style, so evident in his first 
memoir, Caruel utilized with conspicuous success in all his future 
work, adapting the fluent diction of a classical language to the 
exigencies of scientific exposition. The Frodromo della Flora 
Toscana, an important manual, published two years later, is the 
only complete work dealing exclusively with the Tuscan flora, and 
has fully merited the extensive use which has been made of it for 
thirty years. He acknowledges in it his indebtedness to Parla- 
tore's ripe experience. 

On October 18th, 1862, Caruel was appointed Extraordinary 
Professor at the University of Pavia, a chair destined to continue 
the traditions of the school of anatomy and morphology founded by 
the famous Gasparrini, at that time transferred to Naples. For 
various reasons he did not take up the duties of the appointment, 
and on Nov. 11th, less than a month afterwards, he was appointed 
Extraordinary Professor at the Scientific Academy of Milan, where 
he remained for a year, and gained many friends. The memories 
of Florence, however, were dear to CaruePs refined and artistio 
temperament, and he quitted the industrial centre of Northern 
Italy. He returned to Florence, as professor of botany at the 
Medical School, in November, 1863. A few months later, **la 
bella Fiorenza *' supplanted Turin as the capital of Italy. 

From the beginning of the sixteenth century a botanic garden 
had been planted in Florence, near the hospital of Santa Maria, 
and was under the control of a custodian, who gave occasional 
demonstrations on the properties of plants used in medioine. 
Caruel remained Professor of Medical Botany, attached to the 
school, until April, 1871, after the seat of government had been 
transferred to Rome. During the eight years* residence in 
Florence he published twenty-seven memoirs, various in length 
and scope, and his scientific reputation was now well established. 
On the death of Pietro Savi he was appointed to the chair of 
Botany at the Athenaeum of Pisa. At Pisa, under more favourable 
circumstances than those which the medical school of Florence 
afforded, Caruel found the scientific environment more suitable for 
the encouragement of pure science, and devoted himself to it with 
renewed energy. In the prolific period of his residence at Pisa he 
produced forty memoirs, including works of some length. During 
these years also he made preparations for continuing Parlatore's 
monmnental work on the Italian Flora, an imposing undertaking, 
of which the first volume had been published as long before as 
1848, and for which Parlatore had pigeon-holed an enormous mass 
of notes and manuscript for the use of future collaborators in oom- 
pihng subsequent volumes. The first part of the continuation of 



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TBODOBO GABUKL. 261 

the Flora Italiana under Oaruers direction was not, however, issued 
till September, 1884. 

In November, 1880. Caruel once more returned to Florence, as 
Director of the Boyal Botanic Institute, and henceforward devoted 
himself almost entirely to systematic work, concentrating his attention 
on the phanerogamic orders which had not been elaborated in the 
earlier volumes of the Flora Italiana, He critically examined the 
systems of taxonomy adopted by diverse schools of botanists ; and in 
the following year published his Penderi sulla Tassinomia Botanica, a 
work remarkable for the philosophical grasp of the subject, and 
classical vigour of the style in which it is written. A further outcome 
of these studies was his Epitome Flora Europa, published in parts 
in 1892, 1894, and 1897. As stated in a brief notice of the work in 
this Journal (1894, p. 258), ** it is accurate and scholarly, and its 
value is increased by the full and carefully compiled bibliography 
attached to each genus.'* In both these works Caruel proposed to 
placed the Loranthacea in a separate division, which he called 
'* AnthospermsB," intermediate between Angiosperms and Gymno- 
sperms, though for reasons phylogenetically different from those 
adduced by Melchior Treub for the segregation of the Casuarinacea, 

Recognizing the misfortune of tiie suspension of Parlatore's 
great work, and the possibility of its remaining unfinished, Caruel 
induced the Accademia dei Lincei to guarantee expenses connected 
with its continuation, and applied himself assiduously to editing 
the manuscript left by Parlatore. He also secured, as collabo- 
rators, Caldesi, Tanfani, Mori, and Terracciano. In a few years, 
the species of flowering plants, which reached 1881 in Parlatore*s 
volumes, extended to more than 6000 species. A few orders, how- 
ever, remain still to be taken in hand, and another small volume 
would probably complete the work.* 

The work undertaken by Caruel from time to time, in the ad- 
ditions and continued improvements of the ori^^inal Garden of 
Simples, and the formation and extension of the Herbarium of the 
Botanical Institute, occupied not only his official time, but the 
hours which would otherwise have been available for leisure and 
less exacting pursuits. Though ably seconded and assisted by his 
colleagues and those under his authority, it may be said that the 
immense resources of botanical study available in Florence are 
actually the creation of one master- worker. In August, 1892, 
Camel experienced the early symptoms of a malady to which he 
was a martyr for six years, and was unable to take part in the 
International Congress of Botanists held at Genoa. He had now, 
however, the satisfaction of witnessing the prosperous career of the 
Italian Botanical Society, which he had launched under favourable 
auspices, having been a vice-president from 1888. The foundation 
of such a society was proposed by Parlatore in 1874, but was not 
carried out by him. Towards the close of a long and painful 



• From a letter recently addressed by Prof. Leopoldo Niootra to Signor 
Stefano Sommier, President of the Italian Botanical Society, it appears that 
this final volume is now in preparation. 



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THE MiGA-FLOBA OF CAMBBIDGESHIBE. 

infirmity, borne with exemplary fortitude, it was his lot to pass 
through the trial figured in Dante's Purgatorio : — 

" Memory, intelligenoe, and will, in act 
Far keener than before ; the other powers 
Inactive, almost mate.*' 

Caruel died Dec. 4th, 1898, at the age of sixty-eight; his funeral 
took place two days later at the Cemetery of the Allori at Florence. 
As he was a Protestant, the chief pastor of the Waldensian Church 
in Florence officiated, and at the ceremony the whole of the staff of 
the Institute and many of his pupils assisted. 

As a man, as a savant y as a teacher, Teodoro Caruel has left in 
his life-long work a splendid monument to his memory ; and his 
career is an example of devotion to science for its own sake, un- 
ceasing toil in the field of intellectual work, assiduous attention to 
academical duties, and, combined with these, a refined sense of all 
that is fair and good in nature, in science, in art, and in common 

*^^' Fbbdebio N. Williams. 



THE ALGA-FLORA OF CAMBBIDGESHIBE. 
By G. S. West, B.A., A.B.C.S. 

Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge. 
(Plates 894-896.) 
Continued from p. 225.) 

Fam. NosTOCBiE. 

221. NosToo MioBOsoopiouM Carm. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

6. Chippenham Fen. 

222. ANABiENA vABiABiLis Kiitz. 8. Shcep's Green Cambridge. 
228. A. iNJBQUALis (Eiitz.) Born. & Flah. 6. Sutton, in ponds. 

8. Guyhirne, in ponds. 

"'224. NoDULABu SPH^BOCABPA Bom. & Flah. 6. In ditches near 
Ely : July, 1898. Crass, fil. 6-7 ft ; crass, spor. 7-5-9 /a. The 
filaments possessed an excessively thin hyaline sheath, and the 
spores were noticed 8-11-seriate. Distrib, — France, Belgium, Italy. 
225. Cylindbospebmum stagnale (Kiitz.) Born, et Flah. 6. 
Chippenham Fen, in peaty pools ; Wicken Fen, in peaty ditches. 

7. March, in ponds. 

Subord. HOMOOYSTEJE. 

Fam. Lynobyejb. 
Subfam. LTNOBTomE^. 
*226. Lyngbya majob Menegh. 8. WimpolePark: June, 1898. 
Trichomes up to 18 /i diam. 

227. L. iBBUGiNEO-o(BBULEA (Eiitz.) Gomont. 8. Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge. 



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THB AIiGA-FLOBA OF OAMBRIDOBSHIRE. 268 

228. L. OOHBACBA (Eiitz.) Thar. Syn. Leptothnx ochraeea Eiitz. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. Chippenham Fen ; WickenFen. 

Subfam. OsoiLLATOBiomEJs. 

229. Phobbodium mollb (Eiitz.) Gomont. Syn. Anabana mollis 
Eutz. 7. In ditches, March. 

*280. P. LUBiDuu (Eiitz.) Gomont. Syn. Leptothix lutidaKutz.; 
Hyphaothrix lunda Rabenh. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. Coton. 5. Wicken Fen. 8. Guyhime, in ponds. 

*281. P. VALDEBiANUM (Dclp.) Gomont. Syn. Leptoth-ix Valdeiia 
Delp. ; Hyphaothrix zonata (Ces.) Rabenh. 8. In ditch, Comberton, 
attached to Cladophora crispata. 5. Chippenham Fen ; Wicken Fen. 

^282. P. LAMmosuM (Ag.) Gomont. Syn. Osdllatoria laminosa Ag. 
6. Wicken Fen. 

288. P. TBNTJE (Menegh.^ Gomont. Syn. Anabaiia tenuis Menegh. 
8. Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 7. In ditches, March. 

*234. P. ANOusTissiMUM West & G. S. West. 6. Wicken Fen, 
forming, with Phormidium Retzii (Ag.) Gomont, a tortuose, intricate 
stratum. 

285. P. nojNDATUM Eiitz. Syn. Lyngbya inundata (Eiitz.) Cooke. 
8. Guyhime. 

286. P. Betzh (Ag.) Gomont. Syn. Osdllatoria Retzii Ag. ; 
Phormidium rupestre Eiitz. ; P. papynnum Eiitz. ; Lyngbya inipestris 
(Eiitz.) Cooke. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. Wicken Fen. 

*287. P. UNCiNATUM (Ag.) Gomont. Syn. Osdllatoria imr.inata Ag. 
2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Wimpole Park. 

288. P. AUTUMNALE (Ag.) Gomout. Syn. OseUlntona autumnalis 
Ag. ; O. antilaria Mertens ; Phormidium vulgare Kiitz. ; Lyngbya 
vulgare (Eiitz.) Eirchn. ; Osdllatoria subfnsca Eiitz. 8. Barton 
Boad, near Cambridge. More or less frequent about Cambridge on 
damp sandy ground, at the latter end of the year. 

289. OsciLLATOBiA PBINCEP8 Vauch. 2. In the R. Cam, Great 
Shelford. 8. In a ditch parallel to Burwell Load ; Wicken Fen. 
Crass, trich. 24-26-5 fi. 

"^240. 0. PBOBOsciDEA Gotuont. 5. In a ditch parallel to Burwell 
Load. Crass, trich. 18-14 /x. Not previously recorded from Europe. 
241. O. LiMOSA Ag. Syn. Osdllana Frallchii Eiitz. 2. Shel- 
ford. 8. In a ditch, St. John's College ** backs,'* Cambridge. 4. 
Histon. 5. Chippenham Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Near 
March. 

*242. 0. oBNATA Eiitz. 5. Chippenham Fen. Distnb. — France ; 
Germany ; Galicia ; United States. 

248. 0. iBBiouA Eiitz. 8. Mill-race, Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 
5. Chippenham Fen. 

244. O. deoolorata, sp. n. 0. non in strato distincto sed inter 
alias Osdllatorias reperta ; trichomatibus subrectis et brevibus, in- 
oonspicue coloratis, apicibus non attenuatis nee capitatis (cellula 



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264 THE ALGA-FLORA OF OAMBBIDGESHIBB. 

apicali hemisphsDrica), ad dissepimenta non constricta; cellnlis 
diametro paullo brevioribus, dissepimentis disfcinetis et non granu- 
latis ; protoplasmate reticulato decoloratoque cum granulis minutis- 
simis numerosis. Crass, trich. 12-18 fi. 

6. In diteh parallel to Burwell Load : Aug. 1898. 

This species occurred in considerable quantity amongst (>. pro- 
hoscidea and 0. splendida. The individual filaments are apparently 
quite devoid of colour, and are never attenuated at the apices, the 
apical cell being almost semicircular. The cells contain large 
vacuoles, thus causing the cell-contents to appear somewhat 
reticular. I can find no species sufficiently near it to deserve 
mention. 

245. 0. siMPLioissiMA Gomont. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Chip- 
penham Fen. 

246. 0. TENUIS kg. 2. Great Shelford ; Dernford Fen, about 
1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Comberton ; 
Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 6. Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 
6. Roswell Pits, Ely ; Sutton. 7. March. 

247. 0. AMPHiBU. kg, Syn. Oscillaria tenerrima Kiitz. 8. Wim- 
pole Park. 6. Chippenham Fen. 7. In ditches, March. 8. Guy- 
hime. 

248. 0. sPLENDmA Grev. Syn. Oscillaria leptotricha Eiitz. 5. 
In a ditch parallel to Burwell Load. 

♦249. 0. ACUMINATA Gomont. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 
Crass, trich. 8*6-4 p.. This striking species I have obtained only 
once, in July, 1898. It has previously been seen only from 
Italy. 

250. Spirulina hajob Eiitz. Syn. S. oscUlanoides Eiitz. Crass, 
trich. 1*8 p, 5. Wicken Fen. 

Fam. CHAMAOSIPHONUOEiB. 

251. Sphjerooonium inorustans (Grun.) Bostaf. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge, on Vaucheria sp. and (Edogonium sp. 8. 
Twenty-foot River, between March and Guyhirne, on (Edogonium 
crassipelUtum. 

Order Chroooooooidea. 
Fam. Chroococoaoeje. 
Subfam. Chroooysteje. 

*252. Glceooh^ste Wittrookiana Lagerh. ('Bidrag till Sver. 
Alg.-fl.,' Ofvers. af E. Sv. Vet.-Akad. Forh. 1888, no. 2, 89, t. i. 
f. 8, 4; in Ntwva Notarida, 1890, 227-281). Syn. Schrammia 
harhata Dangeard 1889. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

The cell-contents of this plant are most brilliant blue-green in 
colour, and very granulose; they are the contents of a typical 
Chroococcaceous alga, and I fail to understand why some authors 
place this genus in the ChlorophycesB. Dangeard (*M6moire sur les 
Algues,' Le Botaniste, s^r. i. fasc. 4, 1889) refers it for the time 



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THE ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGBSHIRB. ^SOD 

being to the Tetrasporeaa, but this I cannot agree with. The 
bristles are excessively thin, 190-260 fi in length, and are attenu- 
ated to a very fine apex, near which minute branches or spurs are 
occasionally developed. In addition to mentioning the presence of 
zoospores, Lagerheim, in Nuova Notarisia^ 1890, 231, says ''nucleus 
singnlus," and, as this plant is undoubtedly a member of the 
ChroococcacesB, it would appear that at least one member of this 
order, and therefore at least one blue-green alga, is possessed of a 
definite nucleus. I may mention that one of the most conspicuous 
features to be noticed is a clear space in the centre of each cell, as 
though for the retention of a nucleus, and, in fact, this plant appears 
to be a very convenient one for an experimental attempt to solve the 
vexed question of the presence or absence of a definite nucleus in 
any of the MyxophyceaB. 

Subfam. Euohboocoooacba. 
263. Glceothbob oonplubns Nag. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. 
of Bhelford. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

254. Aphanothbob miobosoopioa Nag. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

256. Stneohogoccus majob Schroter. Syn. S. crassus Arch. 6. 
Chippenham Fen ; Wicken Fen. 

256. S. roseo-purpurens, sp. n. (PI. 396, fig. 10). S. cellulis 
minutis, singulis vel geminis, oblongis et subcylindricis, polls 
obtaso-rotundatis, diametro ad 1^-plo longioribus ; cytioplasmate 
roseo-purpureo cum granulis conspicuis paucis. Long. cell. 3*8- 
9-5/*; lat. cell. 3-&-6 /x. 

5. Wicken Fen, in ditches, amongst Mougeotia sp. 

This occurred in immense numbers in several ditches at the 
margins of Wicken Fen ; it has characteristically short cells, is rarely 
much longer than broad, and is of a marked rose-purple colour, the 
few large granules in each cell being dark and conspicuous. 

267. Glaucooystis Nostoobineabum Itzigsh. 6. Roswell Pits, 
Ely. 

268. Mbbismofedu htalina Eiitz. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

269. M. vioLACBA (Br6b.) Kiitz. 6. Wicken Fen. 

260. M. GLAUOA (Ehrenb.) Nag. 3. Trumpington ; Lord's 
Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 7. Ponds S. of March. 
8. Twenty-foot Biver, between March and Guyhime. 

261. M. PUNCTATA Meyen. 8. Guyhirne, in ponds. 

*262. M. ELBOANs A. Braun. 6. Wicken Fen. Diam. cell. 6-6- 
9*6 fi. This fine species, much the largest of the genus, has only 
previously been met with from a few localities in Germany. The 
cells are somewhat angular by compression, and are of a brilliant 
blue-green colour. The families attain a very large size, and 
contain more numerous cells than those of any other species of 
Merismopedia ; those observed were composed of 644-1866 cells, 
and reached a diameter of over 220 /x. 



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THB ALGA- FLORA OF OAMBBIDGBSHIBB. 

268. Tbtrapedia glauoesoens (Wittr.) Boldfi. 2. Demford Fen, 
1 mile S. of Shelford. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

264. GoMPHosPHiEBiA APONiNA Eiitz. 5. Chippenham Fen ; 
Wicken Fen. 

265. Clatheooystis boseo-persioinus (Kiitz.) Cohn. Syn. Proto- 
coccus roseo'persicinuu Kiitz. ; PolycystU roMo-persicinus (Kiitz.) Gutw. 
5. Chippenham Fen; Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely. 8. 
Guyhirne, in ponds. 

This plant, described by Kiitzing as a species of Protococcus, 
was placed by Cohn (in Rabenh. Alg. Europ., Dec. 232-288) under 
the genus CLalhrocystis Henfrey, and still later referred by Gutwinski 
(* Fl. Algar. Galic.,' Rospraw. Wydz. matem.-przyr. Akad. Umiej. 
Krakow, torn, xxviii. 1895, 489) to Polycystis Kiitz. Many of the 
Cambridgeshire ponds and ditches contain a large amount of 
decaying vegetation, thus affording very suitable conditions for 
the growth of this alga, and the finely-developed specimens which 
are found in these situations are quite as '* clathrate *' as any 
specimen of GLathrocystU cBruyinosa Henfrey. From a consideration 
of this character I certainly agree with Cohn in placing the plant 
under the genus ClathrocysHs, although young specimens would be 
quite correctly referred to the genus PolycystU, The former genus 
appears merely to include the more finely-developed examples of 
species of the latter genus. 

266. PoLYGYSTis MARoiNATA (Mcnogh.) Richtcr. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge. 

*267. P. ELABENS (Br6b.) Kutz. 5. Wicken Fen. 7. In ditches, 
March. 

268. PoRPHYRiDiuM CRUENTUM (Ag.) Nag. 1. Wall of the Senate 
House, and by the Leys School, Cambridge. 8. Newnham Mill, 
Cambridge. I fully agree with Hansgirg in referring this plant to 
the Myxophyceae, but think it better to retain it under its original 
genus than to place it under Aphanocapm Nag. No species of the 
latter genus ever has the cells so compact as Porphyndium, in which 
at times they become almost polygonal from pressure of contact. 
There are many red and reddish-purple forms of blue-green alg», 
and Batters has given instances of marine blue-green algaB becoming 
red owing to adaptation to greater depths and less light. Moreover, 
Porphyjidiiun is almost always found solely in association with 
other MyxophyceaB. 

269. Cmtoooocous TURomus (KiitzO Nag. 5. Wicken Fen; 
Chippenham Fen. 

270. C. PALUDus Nag. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

271. C. RUFESCENS (Br6b.) Nag. 5. Chippenham Fen. 7. Ponds 
S. of March. 

272. C. MINOR (Kiitz.) Nag. 5. Wicken Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, 
Ely. 



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THB ALOA-FLOBA OF 0AMBRIDGE8HIRE. 267 

Class BACCILLARIE^. 

Order Baphidiea. 

Fam. Cyhbellea. 

278. Amphora ovalis Kiitz, 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 

Shelford. 3. Ditch, St. John's College "backs," Cambridge; 

Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Wimpole Park; Orwell. 5. Fordham; 

Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. Sutton West 

Fen ; near March. 8. Gujhirne. 

Var. PBmcuLus Kiitz. Syn. A. minutissima W. Sm. 3. Lord's 
Bridge ; Wimpole Park, attached to Nitzschia sigmoidea, 5. Chip- 
penham Fen. 

274. Gymbella Ehbbnbbbgu Eiitz. 3. Wimpole Park. 5. 
Wicken Fen. 

275. G. cuspiDATA Eiitz. 8. Cambridge; Orwell. 5. Fordham; 
Wicken Fen. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

276. 0. APPiNis Kiitz. 8. Comberton; Wimpole Park. 6. 
Sntton ; near Ely. 

*277. G. delioatula Eiitz. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

278. C. LJBYis Nag. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

279. G. oASTBOiDEs Eiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 

280. G. LANOEOLATA (Ehronb.) Eirohn. Syn. Cocconema lanceo- 
latum Ehrenb. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 3. Ditch, 
St. John's College '< backs," Cambridge ; Sheep's Green and Barton 
Boad, near Cambridge ; Hardwick ; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 
5. Fordham; Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 

281. G. OYMBiPOBMis (Eiitz J Br6b. Syn. Cocconema cymbi/omie 
(Eiitz.) Ehrenb. 3. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Hardwick; Wim- 
pole Park. 4. Histon. 6. Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 6. 
Near Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

Var. PABVA (W. Sm.) Van Heurck. Syn. Cocconema patriun 
W. Sm. 8. Harlton ; Comberton ; Orwell. 5. Wicken Fen. 

282. G. CiSTULA (Hempr.) Eirchn. Syn. Cocconema Cistula 
Hempr. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 3. Ditch, 
St. John's College ** backs," Cambridge; Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 6. Bos- 
weU Pits, Ely. 

288. Encyonema tubgidum (Greg.) Grun. Syn. Cymbella turgida 
Greg. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Lord's Bridge. 

284. E. c£SPiTosuM Eiitz. 3. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Comberton ; Lord's Bridge ; Orwell. 4. Histon. 5. Wicken Fen. 

285. E. vENTBicosuM (Ag.) Eiitz. Syn. Cymbella ventricosa kg, 
2. Dernford Fen, I mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

286. Mastogloia lancbolata Thwaites. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. 
Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

287. M. BxiQUA Lewis. 8. Guyhime. 



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268 THB ALOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBmOESHIBE. 

288. M. Dansbi Thwaites. 8. Gnyhime. 

289. Stauboneis Ph(enicentebon (Nitzsch.) EhreDb. 8. Hard- 
wick; Wimpole Bark. 5. Burwell; Wicken Fen; Chippenham 
Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

290. S. anceps Ehrenb. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Wim- 
pole Park. 5. Burwell. 

Var. AMPHicEPHALA (Kiitz.) Van Heurok. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

291. S. Legumen Ehrenb. Syn. Pleurostauron Legumen (EhreDb,) 
Babenh. ; Stauroneis linearis W. Sm. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Ford- 
bam. 

292. Navicula nobilis TEhrenb.) Kiitz. Syn. Pinmilaiia nobiUs 
Ehrenb. 8. Wimpole Park. 

298. N. MAJOB Eiitz. Syn. Pinnularia major (Eiitz.) Babenh. 
2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College •'backs,*' Cambridge; Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Oom- 
berton ; Wimpole Park. 5. Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. 
Near March; Sutton West Fen. 8. Twenty-foot Biver, between 
March and Guyhirne. 

294. N. viBiDis Kiitz. Syn. Pinnulatia viridis (Ehrenb.) Babenh. 
2. Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Coton ; Wimpole Park. 
5. Burwell ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Sutton. 7. Near March. 

295. N. BOBEALis Ehrenb. 4. Histon, in a ditch, among Oscil- 
latoria limosa, 

296. N. DiYEBGENS (W. Sm.) Balfs. Syn. Pinnularia divergent 
W. Sm. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

297. N. Bbebissonii Kiitz. Syu. Pinnularia Brebissanii (Kiitz.) 
Babenh. ; P. stauronei/onnis W. Sm. 7. Near March. 

298. N. suboapitata Greg. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Chippenham 
Fen. 

299. N. APPENDicuLATA Kiitz. 8. Orwell ; Wimpole Park. 

800. N. MESOLEPTA Ehrcnb. Syn. Pinnulana mesolepta (Ehrenb.) 
W. Sm. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen : a form with the 
lateral margins almost straight. 

801. N. OBLONGA Kiitz. Syn. Pmnii/aruio6Zon^a (Kiitz.) Babenh. 
2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ''backs," Cambridge; 
Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Wimpole Park. 6. Burwell; Wicken 
Fen; Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. Near March. 
8. Guyhirne. 

802. N. PEBEGBiNA (Ehrenb.) Kiitz. Syn. Pinnularia peregrina 
Ehrenb. 8. Ditch, St. John's College** backs," Cambridge; Wim- 
pole Park. 

*Var. Mbnisculus Schum. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8, Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Orwell. 5. Burwell. 6. 
Sutton. 

(To be concluded.) 



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269 



BEMARKS ON THE 'OYBELE HIBERNICA/ Ed. 2. 

By Rev. E. S. Mabshall, M.A., F.L.S. 

It may be thought presumptuous on the part of an English- 
man, who has not had very frequent opportunities of botanizing in 
the Emerald Isle, to offer any comments on this admirable reissue 
by my friends Messrs. Colgan and Scully, who have done their 
work loyally, conscientiously and well. I have, however, followed 
the progress of Irish botany with some attention for a good many 
years ; and these brief observations may serve to supplement Mr. 
Britten's more general review. 

Under EanunculvA triclwphyllus (p. 5) we read : — ** The form 
with floating leaves, variously named R, Godrmni (Gren.), R, 
Drouetii (Godr.), and R. radians (Rev.)." This is loose writing ; 
typical jR. Dronetii has no floating leaves ; and I understand that R, 
radians is now referred by our experts to R. heterophyllus auct. 
angl. 

jR. parviflof-us (p. 9). ** Perhaps introduced in all stations.** 
Certainly native at Rossiare (Wexford). 

Caltha palustris var. procumbens Beck (p. 10). I believe that the 
Brittas Lake plant cannot be separated from C, radicans var. 
zetlandica Beeby. 

Fumaria Bored (p. 18). Add : IV. About Gorey, Macmine 
Junction and Wexford; apparently frequent in the east of this 
county. 

Teesdalia nudicaulis (p. 38). '' Open to some suspicion of being 
introduced in its only recorded station for Ireland.** Unless the 
Editors have some special knowledge, not here indicated, it is 
difficult to share their scepticism. Teesdalia is a plant of open 
heaths, banks and sandy wastes, rarely straying into cultivated 
ground, and then only if adjoining natural habitats. 

Brassica Rapa (p. 476). A dwarf state of var. Bnggsii H. C. 
Watson is abundant, at least in some years, on the southern (lime- 
stone) shores of Lough Mask, both in Galway and Mayo ; here it 
grows at a good distance from cultivation, looking thoroughly wild. 

Helianthemum Chamad'Stiis (p. 478). **In Donegal and Antrim 
the species was either planted or derived from cultivation.** Mr. 
Hart recorded this in Journ. Bot. for 1898, p. 218 (as a native) 
from **the limestone between Donegal and Ballyshannon.** If the 
Editors possess evidence to the contrary, it should have been given ; 
in its absence, I should prefer to trust the resident author of the 
coQDty Flora. Is there a well-attested instance of this rock-rose 
having been planted out, anywhere ? 

Viola stagnina (p. 25). Add : IX. Limestone hollows at the 
south end of L. Mask, Mayo, in considerable quantity {Shoolbred 
d Marshally 1895) ; hybridizing with V. ericetorum Schrader (7. 
caidna auct.). 

CerasUum trigynum (p. 479). Doubtless rightly discredited as 
ftn Irish plant (a remark which also applies to Draba rupestris) ; in 



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270 BEICABKS ON THE *OTBELE HIBEBNICA.' 

Scotland it is practically confined to the coldest parts of the higher 
granitic mountains, seldom descending below 8000 feet. The 
Portrane locality for Silene conica (p. 479) in Co. Dublin, though 
distrusted by Messrs. Colgan and Scully, appears to resemble those 
on the Kent and Sussex coasts, where it is certainly wild. 

Geranium pnsilluni and G, columhinum (pp. 72-3). Why are 
these marked as doubtful natives ? The latter is unquestionably 
wild on limestone near L. Mask, in Mayo. G, pyrenaicum occupies 
a very different position in this respect. 

Medicago »ylvestris (p. 488). The reasons given scarcely justify 
the relegation of this species to the Appendix ; so far as I know 
(unlike M.falcata), it is not a plant of sporadic or casual occurrence. 

Trifolium glomeratum (p. 86). A true native at Rosslare ; T. 
subterraneum (marked with a sign of distrust) is more likely than 
not to be equally so at Wicklow. Lotus tenuis, ♦* perhaps always 
introduced *' (p. 89), may well be wild on the coast ; e,g. ** edge of 
cliffs at Balscadden, Howth.*' 

Rubtu ohscurna (p. 106). I noticed this beautiful bramble in 
considerable quantity near Wexford, on a second visit. 

Bosa involuta (p. 118). Add : IX. In several places near 
Clonbur, Mayo (jR. pimpinelltfolia x tomentosa). Too many absurd 
** English " names, such as '* Unexpanded Bose,'* encumber the 
book. — E. stylosa var. systyla (p. 486). Placed among the excluded 
species, as ** no doubt planted.'* Has anybody ever seen this in 
cultivation ? 

Sedum album and dasyphyllum (p. 184). These are starred, as 
if certainly introduced. Considering that the first is frequent in 
W. France, Spain and Portugal (it is truly wild in Somerset), and 
that the second (also a plant of S.W. Europe) was thought by the 
discoverers to be native in two of its Co. Cork stations, a little 
more reserve might not have been amies. The present Editors, 
however, have only followed Mr. A. G. More*s example. 

EpUobium Lamyi (p. 489). The Cork specimen determined by 
Haussknecht is in the British Museum Herbarium. I see no 
ground for assuming it to have been a '* casual," particularly as it 
was associated with E, obsciu-um ; in S.E. and S.W. England it is 
certainly wild. 

(Enanthe pimpinelloides (p. 166). A frequent coast-plant of 
S. England, S.W. France and Portugal ; and thus more likely to 
be native in Co. Cork than *' accidentally introduced *' : as, indeed, 
the Editors themselves appear to think. 

Valeriana Mikanii Syme (p. 170). In view of Mr. Beeby's ex- 
haustive experiments, this might well have been retained as a dis- 
tinct species. 

Anthemis nobilh (p. 188). Add : VII. Near MuUingar, towards 
Knock Drin. To the best of my recollection, Mr. Levinge informed 
me that it was not uncommon in that neighbourhood. 

Cnicus Forsteri (p. 194). Having seen the L. Owel x)lant grow- 
ing with the supposed parents, I feel satisfied that it is a hybrid 
(C palustris X pratensis). 

Crepis taraxacifolia (p. 199) is more open to the suspicion of 



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REMARKS ON THE 'OTBELE HIBEBNIOA.* 271 

being origiDally introdaced than some other species which are dis- 
credited, though the Editors accept it as a native ; in England it 
has spread a good deal within living memory. C, paludom descends 
almost to sea-level in the marshes of the Slaney, near Macmine 
Junction (Wexford), where it is locally abundant. 

Taraxacum palustre var. iiduin (Jord.). Probably frequent in 
Ireland. I have noticed it near Wexford, at Castletown (West- 
meath), near Clonbur and Gong (Mayo and Galway), &c. 

Erythraa lati/olia Smith (p. 288). Admitted by the Editors 
without question ; but is the Irish plant really Smith's segregate ? 

CuscuUi Epithymum (p. 249). ** Doubtfully native." Mr. Hart 
evidently thinks otherwise (see Joum. Bot. for 1896, p. 899) ; and 
there is no obvious reason for considering his view as erroneous. 

Polygonum maculatum (p. 807). Add : IV. Shore of Lough 
Derevaragh, Westmeath. 

Rumex acutus (p. 812). Being accepted by the Editors as R. 
crispiu X obtusi/oliuSf this should not have been called a variety 
of the former. 

Euphorbia Peplis (p. 520). " No doubt extinct." An annual 
plant may be really or apparently absent one year, reappearing the 
next season; so that this judgment is perhaps premature. E. 
amygdatoides (p. 815), which occurs in Portugal, may quite reasonably 
be claimed as a true native of Cork. 

Salix fragilis X pentandra {S. cuspidata Sohultz). I have seen 
this at Maam (Galway) and Cong (Mayo), leaf-specimens from 
Cong having been so named by Bev. E. F. Linton; but in both 
places it was obviously planted. 

Under Orchis incamata (p. 845) the Editors say that '* restricted 
0, laUfolia has not yet been satisfactorily shown to occur in 
Ireland." This is a mistake; for in the British Museum Herbarium 
there are specimens from Kilmacthomas, Co. Waterford, collected 
by Messrs. Britten and Nicholson in June, 1882, which were 
determined by H. G. Reichenbach as his O. latifoHa var. brevifolia. 
These are identical with plants found by myself at Kosslare and 
near Baven Point (Wexford) ; I have also seen true lati/olia about 
Maam (Galway), Cong (Mayo), and elsewhere ; but it is certainly 
much scarcer than O. inca^mata. 

Iris fcetidissima (p. 850). *' Nowhere native ... No doubt in 
all cases a relic of ancient cultivation.'* Some of the stations 
mentioned appear to be quite satisfactory. As it is a purely western 
and southern plant in Europe, extending into Spain and Portugal, 
there is great antecedent probability of its occurrence in a wild 
state in Ireland. Such a locality as ** cliffs on Lambay Island, 
looking native," does not seem open to any strong suspicion. 

Sisyrinchium califomicum (p. 852). I fail to understand what 
the proximity of this plant to Wexford Harbour has to do with the 
local rank assignable to it ; for it is about a quarter of a mile away 
from the shore, and three or four miles in a direct line from the 
port of Wexford, the harbour in this part forming extensive mud- 
flats at low tide. The Slaney mouth is still further off, and no 
stream exists by which roots or seeds could have been conveyed. I 



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272 REMARKS ON THE 'OTBELE HIBBRNIOA.* 

find no oanse at present to abandon my deliberate conclusion tbat 
the case is probably one of survival, rather than of introduction. 

Leucqjum ofstivum (p. 612). This should not have been placed 
among the excluded species, being thoroughly established near 
Macmiue Junction, and looking as wild as possible. I hope that 
some Irish botanist will take the trouble to explore systematically 
(in May or early June) the Slaney marshes below Enniscorthy, 
where I expect that the Snowflake will be found to occur pretty 
generally; it was impossible for me to do this during my short 
visit. 

Sparganium ramosum (p. 865 J. Var. microcarpum Neum. is the 
only form that I have met with in Galway, Mayo and Westmeath. 

Potamogeton angmtifolius (p. 876). The plant recorded by 
Messrs. Linton from L. Derevaragh as P. decipiens is this species, 
which abounds at Cong, both in Galway and Mayo. 

P. piisiUus (p. 880). Var. tetimssitnus Eoch (confirmed by Mr. 
Bennett) grows in a slow stream north of Wexford Harbour. I 
have found P.Jiliformis floating loose in L. Mask. 

Zostera manna (p. 883). Var. angustifolia Fr. is omitted, though 
generally (if not always) a well-marked aod constant plant ; it 
occurs in profusion on the mud-flats of Wexford Harbour, where I 
could not find the type. As usual, it is associated with Z. nana. 

Carex teretiuscula (p. 894). Add: IV. Near Wexford (1897). 
An additional Westmeath station for 0, paradoxa is Tullaghan Bog, 
near Lough Owel, where it is locally abundant. 

C. trinervis (p. 400). This is too cavalierly treated by the 
Editors as '*a critical plant scarcely deserving of specific rank; " 
the Norfolk form, however, comes closer in appearance than the 
ordinary Continental coast-form to 0, Goodeiiowii, though quite 
well-marked under cultivation. 

0, extensa (p. 407). Var. pumila Anders, is very characteristic 
on damp ground at the south side of Wexford Harbour, towards 
Bosslare. 

Brachypodium pinimtum (p. 518). This should, I think, have 
been removed from the Appendix, on the evidence given respecting 
its occurrence at Tramore. 

Phegoptrris Dnjopteiis (p. 462). IV. In 1879 I discovered this 
fern iu good quantity, on a hillside overlooking Glendalough, Go. 
Wioklow ; no specimens were kept, as I was then unaware of its 
rarity in Ireland, and had no herbarium. 

In conclusion, I beg leave to express my conviction that the 
book has few faults and many merits ; and that Messrs. Golgan 
and Scully thoroughly deserve the thanks and congratulations of 
all who are interested in the botany of the United Kingdom, on the 
completion of their arduous undertaking. 



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278 

SHORT NOTES. 

Gabnaryonshire Mosses. — In a tuft of moss sent me for deter- 
mination by Mr. W. Ingham quite recently, I detected a few stems 
of Hypnum kamulosum B. & S. The specimen was gathered on the 
Glydwr Vawr, Carnarvonshire, in May, 1897, by Mr. W. H. Pearson. 
This is a new record for the Principality, and deserves publishing, 
as it is a high alpine moss which has not been recorded, so far as 
I am aware, from any station in Great Britain south of Perthshire. 
H, callichroum Brid., which Wilson records (as a var. of H, hamu- 
lomm, which it was then supposed to be), from Suowdon, but which 
is omitted from Griffith's Flora, is a much less distinctly alpine 
plant. Mr. Bagnall agrees with me that there can be no doubt about 
the identity of the present plant with H, hamulosum. — H. N. Dixon. 

Gladiolus oppositiflobus = flabelliper. — In the Index Kewensis 
two names in Gladiolus are retained as distinct which seem to 
represent the same species, and, as the earlier of these is not taken 
up or cited by Mr. Baker, either in his monograph of the Iridea or in 
the Flora Capensis, it may be well to call attention to it. The two are : 

FLABELLIPER Tausch. in Flora, xix. 421 (1836), with synonym 
'^G.florihundus Hort. Holland, (non Jacq.).'* 

oppositiflorus Herbert, AmaryllidaceaB, 866 (1837) — **now sold 
by Dutch nurserymen under the na,me flonbundus** : Bot. 
Reg. 1842, Misc. 98. 
The citation of the same synonym by each author seems to leave 
little doubt that the same plant was under consideration, and there 
is nothing in the two descriptions to show the contrary. Another 
species, G. marmoratus, published by Tausch in the same place, is 
not quoted in the Flora CapemU ; in Index Kewenm it is cited as if 
synonymous with some other species, but no equivalent for it is 
given. — James Britten. 

Staohts Betonica in Donegal (p. 157). — I have never gathered 
Stachys Betonica at Portsalon. The note to that effect in Cybele 
Hibernica referred to by Mr. Hart is an error. The only station in which 
I have seen it in Donegal is near Lough Fern. — M. J. Leebody. 

Galium sylvestre Poll, in Subbet. — Some time ago Mr. H. W. 
Pugsley, of Wimbledon, sent me two specimens of a Galium which 
he had gathered in June, 1894, near Beigate Hill, and which he 
thought was G, sylvestre var. niUdiUum (Thuill.). I sent the speci- 
mens to Mr. Arthur Bennett, who kindly forwarded them to Mr. 
W. H. Beeby. Both these gentlemen considered the plant to be 
Gf sylvestre; but Mr. Beeby expressed a desire to know more about 
the locality before admitting the species to the Surrey list. Mr. 
Pugsley informs me that the plant was quite sparingly distributed 
over a limited area — that there were a few small patches on the 
open hill-side. It is difficult to see how this species could be any 
other than a native in such a station. The only previous record for 
the Thames province is that on p. 262 of Mr. Druce*s Flora of 
Berkshire. In the locality there given Mr. Druce is disposed to 
think the plant (the var. nitidulum) << may be a native." From a 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 87. [June, 1899.] t 



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274 SHORT MOTBS. 

oomparison of the acootmts of the station given in the two editions 
of Mansell-Pleydell*8 Flora of Dorsetshire it would appear that there 
is an element of doubt as to the indigenous character of the species 
in that county; the nearest recorded stations in which it is un- 
doubtedly native are those on the carboniferous limestone in 
Somerset and Gloucester. — W. West, Jun. 

Epipagtis atbobubbns Schultz. — Miss E. Armitage sends from 
near Symonds Yat, West Gloucester, a specimen of what is certainly 
the plant so named by British botanists, but which Nyman {Con- 
spectus, p. 688) places (under Babington's name of E. ovalis) as a 
subspecies of E, latifolia All. This is an addition to the vice- 
county. Miss Armitage writes that the Doward Hill (Hereford) 
plant is quite extinct, the place being converted into a deer-forest. 
— Arthub Bennett. 

MABSBA.~In taking up this genus (Bev. Gen. iii. 546), Dr. Otto 
Euntze, in accordance with his usual custom, sweeps together all 
the species of Covyza, and places them under Marsea with '* OK " 
attached. He has overlooked that one of these was published in 
the place which he cites from this Journal, and with the oldest 
specific name. This, with synonymy, is — 

Mabsea visoosa Britten, Joum. Bot. 1898 (Feb.), p. 58. 
Conyza viscosa Mill. Diet. no. 8 (1768) ! 
C. lyrata H.B.K. Nov. Gen. iv. 70 (1820). 
Marsea lyrata 0. Kuntze, Rev. Gen. iii. 546 (Sept. 1898).— 
Jahes Bbitten. 

DioBANUM MONTANUM IN LBioBSTEBsmBE. — This interesting ad- 
dition to our local moss-list was made by me last month while 
botanizing on the outskirts of the Ohamwood Forest district. 
I found the species occurring in good quantity on the trunks in 
Sheet Hedges Wood, near Groby. There appears to be no previons 
record of it in this county, although its presence here is not a 
matter for suspicion, in view of its occurrence in similar localities 
in Warwickshire, Staffordshire, and Bedfordshire. Sheet Hedges 
Wood is well known to local botanists, yet this moss seems hitherto 
to have escaped their notice. The specimens, although of course 
sterile, were markedly characteristic, and I may mention that 
Messrs. Dixon and Ba^all agree to the naming. Mr. E. G. Horrell 
informs me that D, ynontaymm is now recorded for eight vice-counties, 
including one Scottish (Forfar). I think it not unlikely that careful 
search would ensure the detection of this species in other Leicester- 
shire woods. — A. B. Jackson. 

New and Babe Scottish Hbpatiojb. — The following species 
recently collected by Mr. Symers M. Maovicar are to be added to 
those collected by him, and recorded in the pages of this Journal 
for 1898-9. Further particulars as to localities, &c,, will be given 
in the list of Hepaticsd of West Inverness which Mr. Macvicar is 
preparing for publication : — 

New to Scotland : — Lejeunea calcarea Lib., Kantia arguta (Mart.), 
SeaparUa aspera Mull. & Bern. 

New to West Inverness: — Eadula aquUegia Tayl., Lepidozia 
cupresnna (Sw.), Cephalozia lunulafolia Dum., C. fluUant (Nees), 



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BRmSR BOTANT. 275 

Hygrobiella laatifolia (Hook.), H. myriocarpa (Carr.), Scapania if^igua 
(Nees), Jungermania exsecta Schmid., J. lycopodioides Wallr., J. gra- 
cilis Schleich., J. bicrenata Schmid., Fossomhronia cristata Lindb. — 
W. H. Pbabson. 

Draba muralis L. in Kent. — On May 21 st I found Draba 
muralis growing on bare chalky ground at the edge of a wood near 
Olantigh Park, Wye. The wood borders on the Downs, and the 
plant grows in considerable quantity just outside the wood and for 
a few yards inside. There is a specimen in the British Museum 
Herbarium from " Oxford/' with no fuller details of the locality, 
and another from Bedfordshire — presumably in both cases from 
chalk. Otherwise the nearest localities in which it has been pre- 
Tionsly noticed appear to be on limestone in Dorset and Somerset. 
—Cecil R. P. Andrews. 

[The Oxford specimen to which Mr. Andrews refers is from 
Bobert Pocock's herbarium; Mr. Druce (Fl. Oxf. 84) says, on 
Baxter's authority, that it was a weed in the Oxford Botanic 
Garden in 1881. Bedford is queried in the first edition of Top. 
Bot., and omitted from the second, but without reason : the figure 
in English Botany (t. 912) is taken from specimens ''gathered by 
the Bev. Mr. Abbot, in flower April 14 last [1801] , on the Warden 
Hills, near Barton-in-the-Clay, Bedfordshire," as indicated on the 
original drawing and in the text accompanying the plate. The 
specimen in Abbot's herbarium is correctly named (see Joum. Bot. 
1881, 46).— Ed. Journ. Bot.] 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

British Botany. 

Flora of Kent : being an account of the Flowering Plants, Perns, 
etc., with notes on the Topography, Geology, and Meteorology, 
and a History of the Botanical Investigation of the County. 
By Frbderice Janson Hanburt, F.L.S., and Edward Shearburn 
Marshall, MiA., F.L.S. London: F. J. Hanbury, 87 Lom- 
bard Street. 8vo, cl., pp. Ixxxiv, 44 ; 2 maps. Price 12s. 6d. 

The Flora of Cheshire. By the late Lord Db Tablby (Hon. J. Byrne 
Leicester Warren, M.A.). Edited by Spencer Moore. With 
a Biographical Notice of the Author by Sir Mountstuart Grant 
Duff. Longmans: 8vo, cl.,pp. cxiv, 899,portr.,map. Price 
10s. 6d. net. 

The Glasgow Catalogue of Native and Established Plants: being a 
contribution, to the Topographical Botany of the Western and 
Central Counties of Scotland. [By Peter Ewino, F.L.S.] • 
Second Edition. Glasgow: P. Ewing, Uddingston. 8yo, 
cloth flush, pp. 166. Price 2s. 

If we were influenced by externals, we should not be prepossessed 
in favour of any of these additions to our knowledge of the distri- 
bution of British plants. We have never seen a book with an uglier 

T 2 

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276 BBinSH BOTANY. 

or more unsuitable binding than that of the Flora oj Cheshire. 
Undertaken as a memorial to one who as a man was shy and 
retiring, and whose fame as a botanist rests largely on his know- 
ledge of the genus Rubus, it bears on its front a gilded coronet and 
a representation of a bramble the like of which never has been and 
never will be seen so long as the world lasts. The Flora of Kent is 
inoffensive compared with this, but the green of the cover is not 
pleasant, and is easily soiled, while the lettering is ugly. The cover 
of the Glasgow Catalogue is a dirty grey with hideous black lettering. 

Fortunately it is with the contents of the books that we are 
mainly concerned, and here we are able to give a very different 
verdict. Mr. Ewing has done good service by bringing together in 
a handy and cheap form the numerous scattered records for Western 
and Central Scotland, including Watson's Vice-counties 76-110. It 
forms an important and indeed a necessary supplement to Topo- 
graphical Botany, and we think it is unfortunate that this should 
not appear more prominently in the title, which, as it stands, hardly 
indicates the importance of the work. The introductory remarks 
are not well expressed, but the author's meaning is usually dear : 
though we confess we do not understand the remark on nomen- 
clature — ** this is a botanical subject where silence is more precious 
than rubies ! " Mr. Ewing says he has *Hried to use** the spelling 
of the London Catalogue^ but the printer has sometimes thwarted his 
attempts, as the second genus stands as ** Thalictrium.'' The list 
of *' names of authors commonly cited " (t. e. an CKplanation of the 
abbreviations in general use) would not, we think, be useful, even if 
it were accurate, which, in the only example we have tested, it is 
not ; and the spelling of the names sadly needs revision. 

Mr. Spencer Moore, in his short introduction to the Flora of 
Cheshire, explains the reasons which have led to its publication, not 
only as a contribution to science, but as *< a fitting memorial " to 
its lamented author. Botanists had almost ceased to hope that the 
task to which Warren — for by that name he will always be remem- 
bered among those who knew him during the best period of his 
botanical work — ^had devoted so much patient investigation and 
careful study would ever be completed ; and although in its present 
form it has not the completeness which its fastidious and critical 
compiler would have desired. Lady Leighton has conferred a benefit 
upon science by its publication. Mr. Moore, while scrupulously 
following the author's MSS. and directions, so far as these lait^ 
existed, has wisely supplemented the work by the insertion of later 
records culled from various publications, all such additions being 
placed in []; localities, similarly indicated, have been contributed 
by Captain A. H. WoUey Dod ; and Mr. Moyle Rogers has revised, 
and *' as far as possible brought into line with present-day know- 
ledge," the Boses and Brambles. 

The memorial character of the work is indicated by a charming 
memoir of Lord de Tabley, from the practised pen of his friend Sir 
Mountstuart Grant Duff, containing specimens of his published 
verses and of his unpublished correspondence. It is, we think, to 
be regretted that the notice which appeared in this Journal for 1896 



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BBinSH BOTANT. 277 

was noi reprinted, as it gives a fuller record of his botanical work 
as a whole than is to oe fonnd elsewhere, and also a botanical 
bibliography, which is wanting in this volume. It would also have 
supplied certain information bearing on the flora which seems to 
have been overlooked ; e, g, we find no reference to the plant which 
Warren called Callitriche Lachii (from the Lach Eye meadows near 
Chester, where he found tbe plant), and described as a new species.'^ 
The same notice contains an account of the genesis of the Flora, 
which will not be found in the book itself. 

Those who remember the old days when Trimen, Warren, New- 
bould, and one or two more, were the leaders amoug field botanists, 
will be glad to find in this Chesbire Flora a tribute to the accurate 
and painstaking work of F. M. Webb, who was intimately associated 
with them in their work. Like Newbould, Webb was averse from 
publishing, and the entries standing under his name in our cata- 
logues are but few. '* During the early seventies Mr. Webb was 
engaged by the author to assist him in elucidating the Cheshire 
Flora, and to the energy and success with which he applied himself 
to this task the following pages bear eloquent testimony." An 
example of his careful methods of investigation will be found under 
Vicia lutea (p. 89). 

So much had been done by Warren towards the completion of 
the work, that the <* preliminary explanations," the '^comital 
districts," and the very interesting accounts of the Bucklow 
Hundred and the Wirral district are printed as he left them; these, 
especially the latter, are excellent examples of botanical topo- 
graphy. The habitats of the species are often described with much 
care and accuracy, and, Uke the notes upon certain species, bear in 
certain terms of expression the stamp of the author's individuality. 
The ** list of persons connected in the past with Cheshire botany " 
is full and interesting ; we are inclined to think that the cautionary 
note regarding J. F. Bobinson's inaccuracies might have been even 
more strongly worded, and that certain plants which stand only 
upon his authority — e. g. Pyrus tonninalis — require confirmation 
before they can be accepted as accurate. 

A word of praise is due to Mr. Spencer Moore for his careful 
editing of this important Flora. 

The London botanist has for many years looked forward to the 
completion of the Floras of Kent and Surrey, and it may be hoped 
that the appearance of the one may be followed at no distant date 
by the publication of the other. It is twenty-six years since Mr. 
Hanbury announced in this Journal that he had taken up the pre- 
paration of a Flora of Kent, and for many years afterwards his 
hoUdays were spent in the coimty in the collection of material. 
Li the life of a busy man work of this kind must necessarily occupy 
a secondary place, and it is not to be wondered at that the publica- 
tion was delayed, and that Mr. Marshall's aid had be called in for 
the completion of the book. It was emphatically worth waiting 

* It is now referred to C, obtuBangula, and is doubtless included in the 
Flora under that name. 



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278 3BITI8H BOTANY. 

for, as it may take rank with the very best of our coimty floras, if 
indeed it may not be placed at their head. 

Had the Flora of Kent been compiled on the lines of the Flora 
of Berkshire, it would have occapied something like 1200 pages; 
as it is, we have an easily portable volume, more than a ti^ird 
smaller than Mr. Druce's book. In order to facilitate use in the 
field, an edition on thin paper has been provided suitably bound in 
limp leather, which is far from dear at its price of 15s. We believe 
that subscribers received in return for their guinea a copy of each 
impression, and they certainly have good value for their money. 
There is a careful repression of irrelevances, and an equally careful 
avoidance of repetition ; the introductory essays on the geology and 
meteorology, and especially Mr. B. D. Jackson's *< historical sum- 
mary," condensed with much skill into twenty pages, are models of 
what such things ought to be. It is possible that in their anxiety 
to avoid occupying space by details of the coimty distribution of 
common plants, the authors have occasionally erred in an opposite 
direction. But opinions will always differ in matters of this kind ; 
and the authors have no doubt good reason for considering Carum 
segetum so general as to need no specific localities, and Lydmachia 
Nummtdaria sufficiently uncommon to occupy a page, although our 
own experience would lead us to an opposite conclusion. We think, 
too, that it would have been well to have included in [ ] , as is done 
in the Flora of Middlssex, localities in which a plant must for very 
many years have been extinct, although Londoners, of course, do 
not expect to find Slum latifolium or Eanuncultts Lingua *'in the 
ditches between Bedriff and Deptford.*' A valuable feature of the 
book is the notes upon forms and varieties occurring in the county; 
in this respect it approximates to Mr. Archer Briggs's Flora of 
Plymouth, The critical genera and species have received much care, 
and the assistance of experts has been obtained when needed. 

We note only one omission of importance, but that is sufficiently 
remarkable to demand attention; we refer to the almost entire 
absence of any recognition of Bobert Pocock (1760-1880). So 
far as we can see, the only work for which he is cited is his Natural 
History of Kent ; he is hardly more than named by Mr. Jackson 
in his lustorical summary, nor is any reference made to his 
herbarium, or to the biography, including his journal which 
abounds in notes on plants, published by Mr. O. M. Arnold in 
1888. This is the more remarkable because in this Journal for 
1884 (pp. 58-55) we called attention to the biography and its 
botanical value, and to the presentation of Pocock*s collection to 
the National Herbarium ; and we then extracted some of his notes 
on Orchis hircina, to which some reference should have been made. 

We see that the authors have not heard of the Lizard Orchis 
having been gathered *' during the last few years.'* A paragraph 
has lately gone the round of the papers mentioning its rediscovery 
in East Kent ; of this Prof. Percival, of the Boyal Agricultural 
College, Wye, has kindly sent us particulars. The specimen was 
found in a rough bouquet of wild flowers gathered by a child, and 
was a very fine specimen, the spike consisting of upwards of sixty 



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NATIVE AMBBIOAN FBUIT8. 279 

flowers. The plant is coming np this year, and it is satisfactory to 
know that it is in a position whence it is not likely to be exter- 
minated. 

We are glad to notice the absence from the Flora of Kent of 
the absnrd " English names *' which too frequently disfigure local 
floras, and which are painfully conspicuous in the Flora of Cheshire^ 
where even the critical species of Ruhi are furnished with these 
useless appendages. Plants with well-known English equivalents 
here appear with new names, e.g., CetUaurea Cyantis is called 
**Gorn Knapweed." This seems the more ridiculous, inasmuch 
as Mr. Holland's Cheshire Glouary contains a fuU list of the 
plant-names in use in the county. As a set-off it may be men- 
tioned that Mr. Moore gives us a full index, in which specific 
as well as generic names are included ; in the Kent Mora the 
species of ^ti^ and Carex only are given. Neither flora takes 
eognizanoe of the Cryptogams after Ckaracea. 

In the oareful and excellent printing of both, the Flora of Middlesex 
seems to have been taken as a model, and no better could have 
been chosen. Both Floras are important additions to our stock of 
such works, and both, from the numerous interesting notes they 
contain, are well wordi the attention of botanists who are in no 
way associated with the counties with which the works are con- 
cerned. Our only regret is that the space at our disposal does not 
permit us to dwell upon, or even to point out, the many matters of 
interest which each contains; but we shall have best done our 
duty towards them by sending our readers to the books themselves, 
both of which deserve the highest commendation. 



Jahbs Britten. 



Native American Fruits. 



Sketch of the Evolution of our Native Fruits. By L. H. Bailet. 

8vo, pp. xiii, 472, with 125 figures. New York : The Mac- 

millan Co., 1898. Price 7s. 6d. 
Buih'Fruits. By F. W. Card. 8vo, pp. xii, 587, with 118 figures. 

New Tork : The Macmillan Co., 1898. Price 5s. 

There is a refreshing originality about Professor Bailey's books, 
and the one we have just read is no exception to the rule. This 
sketdi of the evolution of some of the commonest native American 
fruits is historical as well as botanical. With the story of the 
development of the grape, the mulberry, the plum, or the apple, is 
interwoven the history of the workers. The tale of the individual 
is generally one of long struggle with ignorance and want of means, 
ending often in disappointment and sometimes ruin, more rarely in 
snecess. One point comes out very strongly, namely, the latent 
value of endemic plants. It is sometimes suggested that man 
should let well alone, and rest satisfied with the cultivation of the 
products he has already evolved. Prof. Bailey demonstrates the 
advantage of starting afresh in a new country with the native plants : 
of (his the story of the vines is a remarkable illustration. So long 



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NATIVE AMBBIGAN FBUIT8. 

as the old-world stocks were used the new-world growers met 
with nothing but fEkilnre ; success was possible only when the wild 
American vine became the subject of experiment. The result is 
quite a new fruit, essentially a table hruit in contrast with the 
European, which is a wine fruit, or, as the author puts it, 
*' European writings treat of the vine, but American writings 
treat of grapes." 

The systematic botanist will be glad to have the exhaustive 
synopses of native American vines and brambles which form ap- 
pendices to the chapters dealing respectively with these fruits. 
Professor Bailey has been at considerable trouble to get at the 
bottom of things, and his unravelling of the Rubi entailei visits to 
our own and other European herbaria for the purpose of consulting 
the types of Aiton, Willdenow, and others, several of which are 
admirably reproduced as illustrations. Investigation of the brambles 
led to the startling result that the common American species, owing 
to confusion of nomenclature, had no name ! Prof. Bailey proposes 
to call it Rubus nigrohaccus. Besides the grape and brambles, chap- 
ters are devoted to '' The Strange History of the Mulberries," '* The 
Evolution of American Plums and Cherries," ** The Native Apples," 
" The Origin of Raspberry-growing," ** Various Types of Berry-like 
Fruits," and ** Various Types of Tree Fruits," and the book fittingly 
concludes with a few ** General Remarks." The volume is weU 
illustrated, many of the figures being full-page plates. They include 
useful sketches of habit, figures of fruits, and iJso portraits of some 
of the old workers. Those who are interested in fruit-plants from 
a cultural point of view will find much of interest and profit in the 
book, while for the pure botanist it suppUes a valuable chapter on 
practical evolution. 

Professor Card's Bush-Fruits is less generally interesting, but 
more practically useful. It is described as a horticultural monograph 
of raspberries, blackberries, dewberries, currants, gooseberries, and 
other shrub-like fruits, and is the first of a proposed series of mono- 
graphs on the various types of American fruits. Prof. Bailey is the 
editor of the series, and the author of the present volume was a 
bush-fruit grower before he was a university student and a teacher 
of horticulture. 

The ordinary botanist will hardly find time to read a book so 
admittedly technical, unless he is wont to relax in a garden of his 
own and takes interest in the growth of currant- and gooseberry- 
bushes. In such case let him get the book at once, and realize the 
four pounds weight of fruit per plant which may be expected from 
the former, or the prickleless form which is the desideratum in the 
latter. Though written for American growers, the volume contains 
much that will be helpful in this country. It also supplies interesting 
confirmation of the fact so strongly brought out in Prof. Bailey's 
book, namely, the superiority of endemic productions. Thus, in 
speaking of English varieties of the gooseberry, the author says : — 
<* Like all European fruits, they have been tried again and again, 
yet they have only succeeded here and there, when meeting peculiarly 



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LB0TUBK8 ON THB EVOLUTION OF PLANTS^ 281 

favourable conditions . . . the general &ot remains that the English 
gooseberry is not a success in America. It may produce a few good 
berries when young, but is almost sure to fail later." The reason 
for this failure is that the English varieties are constantly attacked 
by mildew, in spite of remedial mulching with manure, stones, tin 
eans, old boots, or other strange material. 

The bush-fruits are treated under three headings : the brambles 
including raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries ; the groselles — 
a word coined by the author *' from the old French word gi'oiselle or 
ffroisselle" — to include both currants and gooseberries, in the original 
sense of the word ; and miscellaneous types. The last contains a 
short account of a few species of minor importance, such as the 
huckleberry, juneberry, barberry, and others. 

In the two more important sections are chapters dealing with 
insect and other pests, and also one on the botany of the 
group. The latter is a useful systematic synopsis of the species 
and marked natural varieties of the genera Rubus and Ribes respec- 
tively which are native to North America or there cultivated. The 
figures, of which there are one hundred and thirteen, form a useful 
addition to the subject-matter, and there is an exhaustive index. 

A. B. Bendle. 

Lectures on the Evolution of Plants. By Douglas Houghton Gamp- 
bell, Ph.D. 8vo, pp. viii, 819, with 60 figures in the text. 
New York : The Macmillan Go. 1899. Price 4s. 6d. 

In this volume the author has endeavoured to present in as un- 
technical a manner as seemed feasible the more striking facts bearing 
upon the evolution of plant forms, in the hope of interesting not only 
such botanists as have not concerned themselves specially with this 
phase of the science, but also zoologists, and those general readers 
who are interested in biological problems. The substance of the 
diapters was recently presented in the form of a course of lectures 
at Stanford Universi^. They make a readable little book for the 
botanical student who has been through an elementary course, and 
will help such a one to correlate the life- histories of the various 
types which he has examined. As was to be expected, the Antho- 
cerotea occupy an important position in the phylogeny of the higher 
plants, but the student who has not had the benefit of Professor 
Campbell's teching will hardly understand the prominence assigned 
to this group of Hepatics. In this and also in other points the 
writer takes too much for granted. For instance, we find *4epto- 
sporangiate " used as a familiar term without definition, and other 
cases might be cited. This assumption of a too high standard of 
knowledge renders many of the chapters incomprehensible to the 
zoologist or general reader, and is the greatest fault of the book. 
We question, moreover, the advisability of putting before either the 
student or general reader the wonderful genealogical trees showing 
the supposed relationships of the subdivisions of Monocotyledons 
and Dicotyledons, and of these two great groups to each other. 
They may embody certain probabilities, but they certainly assume 
much besides for which there is very little warranty. 



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282 M088 BZOHAMOB OLUB BBPOBVS. 

The aathor has been at considerable trouble to prepare the 
drawings for his figures from nature, and we conunend his zeal, 
but we would suggest that some of them would have been olearer 
had they been larger. 

We should like to have been able to write a more appreciative 
review, but our feeling in closing the book is that the aathor has 
been perhaps a little too ambitious. The story of the evolution of 
plants is long and difficult, and still remains to be told within the 
narrow limits of a book such as the one before us. ABB. 

The Moss Exohamob Club : Bbpobts fob 1896-8. 

A SOMEWHAT detailed report of the working of this Club during 
the three years since its commencement in 1896 has recently been 
issued by the Secretary. The Club has each year shown a steady 
increase in the number of its members, of whom there are now 
thirty-six, and during the three years of its existence about 6800 
Mosses and 1000 Hepatics have been sent in and distributed. It 
is not thought advisable greatly to increase the number of members, 
but it is suggested that a junior branch or a section for beginners 
should be organized. Such a section could have more frequent 
distributions, and its chief aim would be to supply beginners with 
correctly named examples of the commoner species, and to name 
their own specimens. It would thus act as a feeder to the parent 
society. It is also desirable to have a section for the exchange of 
foreign species. 

After each distribution a Club note-book has been sent round, 
in which notes and criticisms have been made by the members. A 
selection from these notes is included in the present report, which 
thus affords an opportunity for the correction of a number of errors 
in identification, as well as for the discussion of interesting and 
unusual forms, and the recording of new county records. Among 
the more interesting plants which have given rise to discussion are 
Dicranum Bonjeani var. inigifoliunif Fissidens adiantoides var. colUnus, 
Webera Ludwlgii var. elata, Tortula angmtata^ Barhxda rigidula, 
where the presence of axillary gemmaB was pointed out as appa- 
rently a constant feature, affording a valuable aid in distinguishing 
this species from B, vinealiSy and a form of FontinalU Dixoni from 
Ghatsworth, Derbyshire, which, although coming nearer to F. 
Dixoni, connects it somewhat closely with F, iqaa^nosa, and renders 
the specific value of the former more doubtful. 

A small number of specimens only were sent in to be named by 
the Club referee. The report further contains instructions as to 
the mode of preparing the specimens to be sent in, and draws 
attention to the fact that the plants are meant for the herbarium, 
and should be adequate in amount and properly cleaned. There is 
also a list of the members, with the number of Mosses and Hepatics 
sent in by each, and a balance-sheet, both of which show that the 
Club is in a flourishing condition. It may be convenient to give 
the Secretary's address, from whom further particulars of the Club can 
be procured : — Rev. 0. H. Waddell, Saintfield Vicarage, Co. Down. 



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LA BOTANIQUB BN PBOYBNOB. 

laoaA (Ludovio). La Botanique en Provence au XVP Steele: 
Huffue$ de Solier. Marseilles : Barlatier. 1899. 8vo, pp. 45. 

Bbosntlt (pp. 88-92) we reviewed a previous contribution by 
this author to the history of Proven9al botany in the sixteenth 
century. M. Legr6 has speedily produced a successor, whose title 
is given above. While both works exhibit the same painstaking 
accuracy, the interest in them is curiously diverse. In the former 
essay we had to do with well-known names, and our attention was 
chiefly drawn to the readjustment of merit between the two authors 
Pena and Lobel, with additional information which considerably 
modified previous estimation of their respective share in the Stirpium 
Adversaria, The present essay deals with a man whose name is un- 
familiar ; it does not appear in either edition of PritzePs Thesaurus, 
while in Haller's Bibliotheca Botanica it occurs as that of an editor 
only ; it is also absent from the great French biographies, M. Legr6 
therefore introduces to our notice an entirely new acquaintance. 

Hugues de Solier, otherwise Hugo Solerius, was undoubtedly 
the earliest of Proven9al botanists ; he was born at Saignon, in the 
arrondissement of Apt, near the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
hnt the exact date is unknown. Having decided to adopt the medical 
profession, he studied in Paris under Jacques Dubois, otherwise 
Sylvius, and was there in 1543. From indications given in 
his Scholia, he travelled over France, and was at Lyons in 1547. 
Next we find him in Italy, even as far as Naples ; subsequently he 
settled at Grenoble, where he was living in 1565. Little is known 
of his career, save from chance hints in the correspondence of 
Conrad Gesner and Johann Bauhin, to both of whom he was 
known. His sole contribution to the botany of his native land 
is his Scolia, or Annotations to the first two books of Aetius 
Amidenus, a native of Amida, in Mesopotamia, and a medical writer 
who lived at the end of the fifth and the beginning of the sixth 
centuries. His works were written in Greek, from which they 
were translated by Johann Hagenbut, known as Janus Cornarius. 
Seller's annotations were prefixed to the Lyons edition of Aetius 
which came out in 1549, and amount to twenty-eight pages in 
double columns, folio. This portion of Aetius's work is devoted to 
materia medica, chiefly of plants, and M. Legr6 gives a list of 
two hundred and twenty-eight which are recognizable as being of 
ProveoQal origin ; the list consists of Solier's names, the modern 
equivalent, and the vernacular. It seems that he also occupied 
himself on commentaries on Theophrastus, but these did not see the 
light; M. Legr6 suggests that Solier may have died before their 
completion. 

The author of the essay in question, though restricting his 
attention to the early botanists of Provence, is really adding to our 
knowledge of the botany of the period throughout Europe, when 
botanists were few, but travelled much from one seat of learning to 
another, and the books they wrote were largely taken up with 
criticisms of each other's performances. The entire botanic com- 
monwealth is greatly indebted to M. Legr6 for his assiduity. 

B. Daydon Jackson. 



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284 



Phtoologioal Memoibb. 

Thb Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. iiL, 
vol. i., no. 24, Botany, dated Oct. 81, 1898, has at last reached this 
country. The number consists entirely of work by Mr. De Alton 
Saunders, and is entitled ** Phycological Memoirs,'* a title which 
had been previously applied in this country to the volume edited in 
1892-5 by Mr. George Murray. 

Mr. Saunders's paper is divided into two parts : I. *' Some Pacific 
Coast EctocarpacetBf** and II. ** Sphacelariacea and Enccdiacea of the 
Pacific Coast." A diagnosis is given of the Natural Orders, with a 
synopsis of the genera in each Order represented in California. 

In the first part, which from its title is obviously not meant for 
an exhaustive record of the Pacific Coast, twenty-six species and 
varieties are described belonging to PhycocelU^ Streblonema^ Ecto- 
carpus, and Pylaidla. Among these there are seven new species 
and four. new varieties of Ectocarpus, and although the actual 
diagnosis of each novelty is full, there is much to be desired in the 
way of further comments and comparisons with existing species. 
In a genus of such unstable limits as Ectocarpus, all extra aids to 
the correct naming of species ought to be freely given by the creator 
of new forms. The most interesting of those here described is E. cor- 
ticulatus, so named from its close covering of fine cortical filaments, 
which in the lower portions of the thallus *' apparently " bear the 
plurilocular sporangia. Truly a new departure for Ectocarpus ! The 
plate which is devoted to the figures of this species arouses a desire 
for au examination of the living plant and — more easily obtainable 
—a fuller ** explanation of plate." Under Pylaiella, two new 
varieties of P. Uttoralis are added to the large number of those 
already existing. 

The second part, dealing with Sphacelariacea and Enadiacea, 
describes twenty-two species and varieties, of which only three 
species and one variety are new. These are Sphacelaria didichotoma, 
so called from having ''twice dichotomus" {sic) propagula, Scyto- 
siphon btUlosus, Culpomenia tuherculata, and C, sinuosa var. expansa. 
It is interesting to note that in the figure of this new variety of 
Colpomenia sinuosa the cryptostoma hairs in the centre of the sorus 
are sunk into a depression. This is possible on account of the much 
greater thickness of the thallus as compared with the typical 
C. sinuosa, in which the hairs from lack of space are forced to 
arise from the same cortical row of cells as the sporangia. 

A new genus, Halorhipis, is formed for Punctaria Winstonii 
Ands. This plant has been sometimes confused, in books at least, 
with Coilodesme califonnca Kjellm. To speak of no further diflferenoe, 
the fruits are entirely dissimilar, and the descriptions and figures 
given by Mr. Saunders will doubtless put an end to such confusion 
for the future. 

A somewhat inadequate description of Soranthera uLvoidea Post, 
et Bup. ends these Memoirs. The parasitic nature of this interesting 
plant is not mentioned ; and as the earlier stages of its life-history 
have perhaps not been minutely investigated by Mr. Saunders, the 



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ABTIOLBS IN JOUBNAL8. 285 

possibility (if it amounts to no more) of the bodies which arise from 
the peripheral cells being plurilocnlar sporangia of the Chordaria 
type, is passed over. The twenty-one plates, with numerous figures 
of the algae described in the text, are most welcome, especially those 
of the new species ; and the whole work is a valuable addition to 
phycological literature. 

A list of Algae collected by Dr. Schauinsland in the Pacific 
(Sandwich, Chatham and Samoa Islands, New Zealand and 
Adelaide) is published by Major Beinbold in the Abhandl. Nat. 
Ver. Brem. Bd. xvi. Hft. 2, 1899. This increases the number of 
algae hitherto recorded from the Chatham Islands and Samoa, and 
adds a new species of CoralUna, C. SandwicensUt and a new variety, 
longiJUay of Corynophlaa Cystophora J. Ag. 

Another list of Marine Algae, from Investigator Street (South 
Australia), collected by Miss Nellie Davey, is published by Major 
Beinbold in Hedidgia, Band xxxviii. Hft. 1, p. 89, 1899. This 
part of the coast has not been worked before, but the records are 
not other than might be expected. 

The author describes three new species belonging to the genera 
Cladophora, LomeTUaria^ and Poiysiphonia; and a new variety of 
Bonnemaisonia asparagoides. Unfortunately these are not figured. 

Under the genus Janczewskia, Major Reinbold records a species 
** J. austraiis ? ** Falkenberg, and refers to a plate and the nomen 
nudum as occurring on pp. 481 and 482 in Engler & Prantrs Nat. 
Pflanz. Fam. The only species of Prof. Falkenberg there mentioned 
is, however, J. tasmanica^ not australis. E S B 



ARTICLES IN JOURNALS* 

Bot. Centralblatt (Nos. 19, 20). — J. Stoklasa, • Ueber die physi- . 
ologische Bedeutung der Furfuroide im Pflanzenorganismus.* — 
(Nos. 21, 22). L. J. Celakovsky, 'Das Prioritatsgesetz in.. der 
botanisohen Nomenclatur.' — (No. 22). B. Fedtschenko, ' Uber 
einige H edysar urn- Arien.* 

Bot, Gazette (16 April). — F. A. Waugh, ' Conspectus of Lilium,* 
W. F. Ganong, 'Appliances for study of Plant Physiology.' — C. J. 
Chamberlain, * Oogenesis in Pvius Laricio* (8 pi.). — H. C. Cowles, 

* Dune Floras of Lake Michigan ' (cont.). — J. W. Snow, UlveUa 
(Miericana, sp. n. (1 pi.). 

Bot. Notiier (16 May). — G. Lagerheim, * Ueber die Bestaubungs- 
und Aussaungseinrichtungen von Brachyotum ledifolium' (1 pi.). — 
A. Nilsson, * Nagra drag ur de svenska vaxtsamhallenas utvecklings- 
historia.' — T. 0. B. N. Krok, * Tvanue i Finnmarken aterfunna 
fanerogamer' (Glyceria reptans & Scirptu alpinus), — 0. Nordstedt, 

* Nympkaa fennica,* 

Bull de VHerb. Boimer (29 April). — J. Bommiiller, * Zwolf 
neue xV^^a-arten.' — B. Fedtschenko, ' Liste des espices de Hedy- 

* The dates assigned to the numbers are those which appear on their oovers 
or title-pages, bat it must not always be inferred that this is the actual date of 
pnUioation. 



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ABTIOLBS IN JOUBNALS. 

sarum,* — H. Ross, * Beitrage zur Mora von Sioilien/ — J. OardoC, 

* Flore bryologique de rAmirique du Nord * (4 pL). 

BuIL Soc. Bot, France, xliv. (Session extraordinaire k Barce- 
lonnette, 1897).— L. Legr^, * Notice sur Jean Saurin ' (1647-1724). 
— H. Coste, *Quelques plantes de la valine de TUbaye.' 

Bull. Torrey Bot. Club (16 May). — L. M. Underwood, • The 
genus Phanerophlebia* (2 pi.) ; Id., CantharelluB multiplex, sp. n. — 

E. P. Bicknell, • Studies in Sisyrinchium.* — B. L. Robinson, 

* Revision of Guardiola.' — A. Nelson, * New Plants from Wyoming* 
(Wyotinngia, gen.nov. = Efigeron pulckerrimus'H.dler). — C. H. Peck, 

* Elliot 0. Howe * (1828-99). 

Krythea (1 May). — ^W. A. Setchell, * Notes on Cyanophycea.' 

Journal de Botanique (April). — E. Roze, • Florule fran9ais6 de 
Charles de TEscluse ' (concl.).— G. Sauvageau, ' Les Acitutospora et 
la Sexuality des Tilopteridac^es.' — P. Van Tieghem, * Spores, 
diodes et tomies.' 

Malpighia (xiii. fasc. 1, 2). — L. Buscalioni, 'Un nuovo case di 
incapsulamento dei granuli di amido * (1 pi.). — M. Pallavioini 
Misoiatelli, ' Nuova oontribuzione all' Aoarocecidiologica Italica.* — 
0. Mattirolo, * Commemorazione di G. Oibelli * (1881-98 : portr.). 
— F. Yoglino, ' Di una nuova malattia dell' Azalea indica * (2 pi.). 

Oestetr, Bot. Zeitschnjt (April). — A. v. Degen, • Rheum Rhapon- 
ticum in Europa.* — ^V. Schiffiier, *Zur Lebermoosflora von Bhutan* 
(1 pi.). — E. Haokel, *Ueber die Gramineen-Gattang Stapfia.' — 

F. Bubdk, * Zur Pilzflora von Tirol.'— V. Folgner, * Zur Kenntniss 
der Entwickelungsg.Qschichte einiger Siisswasser-Peridinien ' (1 pi.). 
— K. Rechinger, * Uber die Trichome der Gesneraceen.' — jf^PJ^l * 
May). F. Arnold, * Lichenologische Fragmente.* — K. von Keis^ler, 
' Einige neue Missbildungen ' (1 pi.). — (May). G. Hofmann, ' tlber 
Scolopendrium hybridum * (1 pi.). — J. Murr, * Zur Kenntniss der 
Gattung Capsella ' (1 pi.). 

Bhodora (Feb.). — F. D. Collins, * Case of Boletus poisoning.' — 
B. L. Robinson, * Fairy-rings formed by Lycopodium inundatum.* — 
H. Webster, * Notes on CalosUmia.* — M. L. Femald, HalerUa deflsxa 
var. heterantha. — (March). W. G. Farlow, * Poisoning by Agaricus 
Uluderu,* — M. L. Femald, Anemone riparia ds Eanuncultte aborUvut 
var. eucyclu^ (1 pi.). — (April). E. A. Burt, 'Vermont Helvellea* 
(1 pi.). — M. L. Femald, * Antennarias of Northem New England.' 
(May). M. L. Femald, ' Oxytropis campestris in N.E. America.' 

G. G. Kennedy, Pottia Randii, sp.n. (1 pi.). 



BOOK-NOTES, NEWS, dc. 

PROOBBDiNa much on the lines laid down in Lindberg's Musci 
Scandinavici, Dr. Braithwaite, in the recently published part of his 
Bntish Mots-Flora (Part xix. Feb. 1899. London : 808, Clapham 
Road. Pp. 65-96 ; tabb. 97-102. Price 6«.), gives us the three re- 
maining species oi Amblystegium and about half of the genus Hypnum, 
which is divided into the following sections: — Myuriwn, Sclero* 



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BOOK-N0TB8, NXWS, BTO. 287 

podium^ Panckowiaf Rhynehostegiella, BhynchoiUgium^ Brachytheciunif 
PUuropus, It is in Bhynchostegium that the present part ends. 
Myurium H^tidarum Sohimp. resames its original and forgotten 
name — Hypnum Hochstetteri Schimp., which was interred in 
Seabert*s Flora Azorica in 1844, and has usually been supposed 
to be a synonym of — Berthelottanum Mont. Panckowia represents 
Eurhynchium Sohimp., but the history of the name is not given. 
It appears to be as follows. In 1790 Necker published a natural 
system of plants in which the Mosses and Jungetinanmacea consti- 
tuted one genus — Phryganophytum, and certain unspecified Hypna 
of Linnsaus formed a natural species-r-Pawcov/a (Elem. Bot. iii. 
p. 828, n. 1789). However, Necker*s natural or omologic system 
failed to gain acceptance. But in 1867 Eickx (Flore Crypt, des 
Flandres, i. pp. 75, 91) adopted the name for the genus in which 
he combined Schimper's Bhynchostegium, Plagiothecium, Br achy the- 
ciunif and Eurhynchium. In 1874 Pir6 (Kevue Bryolog. i. p. 8) 
modified Pancovia by excluding the Plagiothecioid species. And 
in 1879 Lindberg (Musci Scand. p. 84) reduced it to subgenerio 
rank, deprived it of all but the Eurhynchioid species, and altered 
its spelling to Panckowia, Dr. Braithwaite*s account of Hypnum 
pralongum and its difiScult allies will be of great use to British 
botanists. The synonymy of Hypnum cirrosum SchwaBgr. is in- 
structive. This plant proved so troublesome to Schimper that he 
distributed it into three genera, four species, and one variety. 
However, Juratzka and Boulay fitted the fragments together, and 
decided that it is a single species with three or four well-marked 
varieties. Another of Schimper's genera which has gone under is 
the plant Scorpmrium rivaled which is now Hypnum circinatum var. 
deflexifolium. Dr. Braithwaite records the following additions to 
our native flora: — Hypnum meridionale Schimp., from Somerset; 
Hypnum atrigosum vhr, prcBcox Weiilenh,, from Scotland; Hypnum 
erassinerve var. tenue Braithw., firom Sussex. — A. G. 

Mb. M. J. Fbbnald sends us a reprint of the able and critical 
review of Dr. Britton's Illustrated Flora of North America con- 
tributed by him to the American Journal of Science for September 
last. He endorses the important criticisms made by Dr. Bobinson 
on "the so-called Botanical Club Check List*' in the Botanical 
Gazette for June last — a paper which, as he truly says, *< shows 
very conclusively that the principles on which the List is based are 
inconsistent*'; and he regrets that ''such names as will be only 
short-lived and which add confusion to the tangle of synonymy** 
have been used. Mr. Femald himself contributes examples showing 
that the " Rochester code " has not been followed in the Illustrated 
Flora, which, however, **in spite of its inaccuracies and incon- 
sistencies is certainly a great convenience.'* 

The note of revolt is also sounded in EJiodora, from the May 
number of which we learn that in the forthcoming ''Check List of 
New England Plants,** " specific nomenclature will be determined, 
at least for the present, by the uniform adoption of the first 
available name under the genus,** the generic names following 



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288 B00K-N0TK8, NEWS, ETC. 

the usage of Engler and Prantl. ''This combination gives, it 
is believed, the maximam of definiteness with the minimnm of 
change," We are glad that Mr. B. L. Bobinson and his friends 
are thus adopting the standard which we have always advocated 
with regard to the specific name. In the specimen list of Ericacea 
given, Calluna vulgaiis ** Salisb/' must give place, by the application 
of the rule, to Calluna Erica DC. (Fl. Franc, iii. 680 (1806)), as 
Salisbury gave no specific name to the plant he took as the type 
of his genus. 

It is not only at Eew that difficulty seems to be experienced in 
filling the Bulletin issued in connection with botanic gardens. 
In the last Bulletin of the Jamaica Botanical Department for 
January, February, and March (in one wrapper), thirty-nine of 
the forty-eight pages are occupied by two papers on *'denitrifi- 
cation" reprinted from the Agricultural Society's Journal, the 
remainder containing a list of presents to the library, and the like. 
The ''botanical" portion is conspicuous by its absence. The 
volume of the Eew Bulletin for 1898 is still unfinished ; but the 
"Additional Series" has just received a weighty addition in 
the shape of a " Catalogue of the Library of the Boyal Botanic 
Gardens." This we hope to notice in our next issue. 

In the April number of the Bulletin Mensuel des nouvelles publi- 
cations frangaiseSf the essay on Tradescantia by Prof. A. Gravis, 
reviewed in our last issue, is classed under " Sciences M^dicales." 1 

Messrs. Lovell Beeve & Go. announce the publication of a new 
and important work on the Hepatica of the Bntish hies, by Mr. W. 
H. Pearson, to be issued to subscribers for the complete work only, 
in twenty-eight monthly parts, each with eight plates, price 7s. 6d. 
coloured ; 5s. uncoloured, net. 

We learn that " The Proprietors of Nature [we presume the 
periodical so called is meant] are about to issue a special Beprint 
of the Third Edition of that well-known work Sowerby's Enghsh 
Botany, to be ofifered on the instalment system which has recently 
become so popular. As in the former editions, all the illustrations 
will be coloured by hand." We trust this does not mean that the 
illustrations will be coloured by hand as in the last edition, for 
nothing could well be worse. We hear that Messrs. Warne will 
reissue at a cheap rate Miss Pratt's Flowenng Plants of Grwt 
Britain. This was a useful book in its time, but Mr. Edward Step, 
who is to edit the new issue, will find plenty to do if the book is to 
be brought up to date. 

At the anniversary meeting of the Linnean Society on May 
24 tb, the gold medal of the Society was presented to Mr. J. G. 
Baker, F.B.S., in commemoration of his distinguished services to 
botanical science. 

The first part of vol. ii. of the Catalogue of Welwitsch's African 
Plants has just been issued. It contains the Monocotyledons and 
Gymnosperms, which have been elaborated by Mr. Bendle. 



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at. 399. 




" 1^1 i-n. jtli 






289 



A NEW BRITISH FRESHWATER ALGA. 

By a. B. Rendlb, M.A., D.Sc, and W. West, Jun., B.A. 

(Platb 899.) 

In the summer of 1896 living plaaats of Najas graminea Del., 
which has become naturalized in the Reddish Canal, near Man- 
chester, were received at the Museum from Mr. Charles Bailey, 
who gathered them in the original locality. Attached here and 
there to the Najas were short filaments of a confervoid alga 
evidently allied to Cladophora, but, as the filaments were purely 
vegetative, determination of the genus was not possible. The 
Najas was put in a large glass jar of water, and kept under 
inspection. It died down in the winter, and the seeds did not 
germinate. The alga, however, grew vigorously, and formed a 
considerable mass of tangled profusely branched light green fila- 
ments. Last autumn it was observed to be forming abundance 
of large dark spores, an examination of which showed it to be a 
species of Pithophora. This genus was founded by Wittrock on 
a plant which appeared in the water-lily tank at the Royal GardenSi 
Eew, and the species, P. kewensis, was supposed to have come with 
the water-lilies from the Amazon. He subsequently wrote a mono- 
graph of the genus, describing a number of species from different 
parts of the world. Pithophora kewensis has long since disappeared 
from Eew, but is doubtfully recorded by Wolle {Freshwater Alga of 
the United States, p. 181) from Florida. Our species shows marked 
dififerences horn P. kevoensis, chiefly in having branches of the third 
degree, and frequently showing several spores aggregated in a 
moniliform chain. It most nearly resembles Wittrock's figures 
and description of P. Oedogonia, a tropical South American species, 
a variety of which (vauchenoides) occurs in the Northern United 
States. As the appended table shows, in general measurements the 
Reddish plant coincides fairly well with P. Oedogonia, but the 
marked aggregation of the resting spores and minor differences 
have induced us to describe it as a new variety. 

The following is Wittrock's description of P. Oedogonia (Nova 
Acta R. Soc. Sci. Upsal. Vol. extraord. edit. 1877, p. 65) :— 
''Principal filament of the cauloid part of the thallus in fertile 
specimens on an average 70 /a thick, with partly solitary, partly 
opposite branches of ^ree degrees ; subsporal branches rather 
common; spores usually single, but not rarely in pairs, partly 
inclosed, partly terminal ; the inclosed spores cask- shaped, on an 
average 114 p. thick and 280 p long; the terminal spores cask- 
shaped, with the upper end conical and the top somewhat rounded, 
on an average 96 f* thick and 214 p long. PI. 6, figs. 1-6.** 

The Reddish plant we describe as P. Oedogonia (Mont.) Wittr. 
var. poLTSPORA Rendle & West fil. It differs from the type in that 
the spores are rarely single, often in pairs, and not seldom three to 
seven together. The cask-shaped terminal spores are on an average 
160 p thick and 266 p long. In some cases the terminal spores 

JouBNAL OF Botany. — Vol. 87. [July, 1899.) u 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



290 



A NEW BRITISH FBESHWATER ALOA. 



were distinctly cylindrical. The included spores vary greatly, but 
between approximately the same limits as do those of the typical 
plant. The branches of the third degree are only about half as 
thick as those of P. Oedogonia, 

The appended table speaks for itself; the measurements are 
given in /a, and are those of fertile specimens : — 





Reddish specimens. 


figures for P. Oedogonia 




Long. 


Lat. 


Long. 


Lat. 


Main filament .... 


565-580 


68-81-5 




56-90 


(crass, membr. 4-7-10-4) 










Branch of 1st order . . 


466 


52-70 


— 


50-70 


„ 2nd „ . . 


266-808 


81-68-6 


— 


55 


„ 8rd ,, . . 


70-228 


20-5-27-5 


— 


58 


fi i> >> ^ter- 
minal cell) 


270 


25 


— 


— 


(crass, membr. 2-4'7) 










Terminal spores : 










Cask-shaped . . . 


228-288 


146-6-156 


160-250 


70-115 


CyUndrical .... 


191-267 


67-91 


— 


— 


Included spores . . . 


147-800 


96-167 


186-820 


70-150 


Thickness of spore-mem- ) 
brane J 


2-8 7-5 







Wittrock states that the length of the vegetative cells varies 
between five and forty-five times the thickness. It was very 
noticeable that in the Reddish plant the terminal cells of the 
ultimate branches were the longest, as usual in this genus. One 
included spore measured only 89 X 100 /a. 

Mr. Bailey states that the water in the Reddish Canal at the 
spot where Najas graminea grows is slightly tepid, being warmed by 
the escape pipe from a factory, and also slightly alkaline from the fact 
that, owing to the warmness of the water, it is a favourite place for 
washing dogs. The }^aja$ is supposed to have been introduced from 
Egypt with cotton; at any rate the plants show an anatomical 
peculiarity which is found also in Egyptian specimens, and which 
led Magnus to distinguish them as a distinct variety (var. Delilei). 

No Pitfwphora has yet been recorded from Egypt, or, in fact, 
any part of Africa. 

It is interesting to note that a new Chara (C Braunii) was also 
found in the same locality in the Reddish Canal. 



Explanation of Plate 399. — Fig. 1. Small portion illastratin^ mode of 
branching; the sketch shows branches of the first, second, and third degree 
with a few included and terminal spores, enlarged. 2. Origin of two brandies 
(a, a) of the second degree, x 45. 3. Origin of branch of the third degree (6), 
X 212; a, branch of second degree. 4. Small portion of branch with two 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THE ALOA-FLORA OF OAMBBmOESHIBB. 291 

incloded spores, enlaiged. 6. Detached fragment of fertile branch, x 90 ; i, in- 
eluded spore ; t, terminal spore ; &, short sporal branch. 6. Moniliform row of 
spores. 7. Two sets of three spores, x 55. 8. Terminal and subterminal 
spores of a sporal branch, x 95. 



THE ALGA-FLORA OP CAMBRIDGESHIRE. 

By G. S. West, B.A., A.R.C.S. 

Scholar of St. John's College, Cambridge. 

(Plates 894-896.) 

(Concluded from p. 868.) 

808. Navioula gbacius Kiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Comberton; Orwell. 

7. Sutton West Fen. 

Var. neglectum (Th waites) . Syn . Colletonema neglectum Thwaites ; 
Schizonema neglectum (Thw.) Rabenh. ; Xavicula gracilis var. schizo- 
nenwides Van Heurck. 8. I)itcb, St. John's College ** backs,*' and 
Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Wimpole Park. 7. Near March; 
Sutton West Fen. 

804. N. vnirouLA Eiitz. Syn. Pinnularia vindida (Kiitz.) 
Babenh. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 4. Histon. 6. Chippen- 
ham Fen. 

806. N. BADiosA Kiitz. Syn. Pinnulana radiosa (Kiitz.) Eabenh. 
2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College ** backs," Sheep's Green, and Barton Koad, Cambridge; 
Harlton ; Hardwick ; Comberton ; Wimpole Park ; Lord's Bridge ; 
4. Histon. 5. Wicken Fen. 6. Bos well Pits and ponds, near Ely. 

8. Guyhime. 

Var. ACUTA (W. Sm.) Van Heurck. Syn. Pinnularia acuta 
W. Sm. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

806. N. GRTPTOOEPHALA Kiltz. 8. Orwell. 7. Near March; 
Sutton West Fen. 

Var. VBNETA (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. ^V. veneta Kiitz. 8. 
Ditch, St. John's College "backs." Cambridge. 4. Histon. 7. 
Sutton West Fen. 

807. N. RHYNCHOOEPHALA Kiitz. 2. Domford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Wimpole Park. 7. Near March. 

*Var. AMPmoBBos Van Heurck. 8. Ditch, St. John's College 
" backs," Cambridge. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

808. N. HUMiLis Donk. Syn. xV. inflata W. Sm. 6. Near Ely. 

809. N. LANOEOLATA Kiitz. 8. Comberton; Orwell; Wimpole 
Park. 6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

810. N. Gastrum (Ehrenb.) Donk. 6. Wicken Fen. 

811. N. TUMmA W. Sm., 1858. Syn. .V. Anglica Ralfs, 1861. 
2. Shelford. 

u 2 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THE ALGA-FLORA OF GAMBftlDGESHIBB. 

812. N. DioEPHALA Ehrenb. 8. Ditch, St. John's College "baoks, 
Cambridge. 

818. N. BLLiPTiCA Kiitz. Syn. N. ovalis W. Sm. 2. Dernford 
Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Gom- 
berton. 6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

814. N. TuscuLA Ehrenb. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

816. N. PusiLLA W. Sm. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

816. N. cuspmATA Kiitz. 2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College ** backs," and Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 4. Histon. 6. 
Wicken Fen. 7. In ponds, March. 8. Guyhime. 

817. N. AMBiouA Ehrenb. 4. Histon. 6. Sutton. 7. Near 
March. 

818. N. spaEROPHORA Kiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken 
Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. Ponds S. of March. 

819. N. ExiLis (Kiitz.) Grun. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Trumpington ; Comberton ; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 6. 
Burwell ; Wicken Fen. 

820. N. Amphisbana Bory. 2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College ** backs," Cambridge ; Wimpole Park. 

821. N. LiMosA Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Com- 
berton; Orwell; Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

7. Near March ; Sutton West Fen. A figure is given of two auxo- 
spores of this species produced by conjugation (PI. 895, fig. 9). 

Yar. GiBBERULA (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. N, gibber ula Kiitz. 

8. Ditch, St. John's College '* backs," and Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge. 6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Sutton. 

822. N. iRmis Ehrenb. Syn. N. Jittna W. Sm. 6. Wicken 
Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

Var. AMPHiGOMPHus (Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. Syn. N. ampin- 
gomphus Ehrenb. 5. Wicken Fen. 

Yar. AMPHiRHYNCHns (Ehrenb.) De Toni. Syn. N, amphirhynchm 
Ehrenb. 5. Wicken Fen. 

Var. APFiNis (Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. Syn. lY. afftnis Ehrenb. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

*828. N. PupuLA Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Wun- 
pole Park. 4. Histon. 6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

*824. N. ATOMoiDEs Grun. 8. Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 

826. N. Gallica (W. Sm.) Van Heurck. Syn. DiadesmU GalUca 
W. Sm. 8. Trumpington. 

826. Vanheurckia rhomboides (Ehrenb.) Br^b. var. saxonica 
(Rabenh.). Syn. Frustidia saxonica Rabenh. 1851 ; Navicula crasn- 
nervia Br6b. 1852. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

827. Amphipleura pelluoida Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cam- 
bridge; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 8. Guyhirne: very 
abundant in some ponds by the railway station, Aug. 1898. 

828. Pleubosioiia attenuatum (Kiitz.) Grun. 2. Dernford Fen, 
1 mile S. of Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College *< backs," and 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THX ALOA-fliOBA OF OAlfBBIDOBSHIBB. 298 

Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington ; Lord's Bridge ; Wim- 
pole Park. 5. Wioken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 8. Guyhime. 

829. P. AouHiNATuu (KiJtz.) Grun. Syn. P. lacustre W. Sm. 
2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College <' backs/' and Barton 
Boad, Cambridge ; Lord's Bridge. 4. Histon. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

880. P. SpBNCEBn (Quekett) W. Sm. 8. Ditch. St. John's 
College " backs," and Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Comberton ; 
Orwell; Wimpole Park. 5. Wioken Fen. 7. Sutton West Fen. 
8. Guyhime. 

881. P. PABKSBn Harrison. 7. Near March. 

882. AupHiPROBA PALUDOSA W. Sm. 7. In ditches near March. 
*888. A. OBNATA Bailey. 7. Ponds S. of March : Aug. 1898. 

Fam. GOMPHONBMEA. 

884. GoHPHONEMA coNSTBioTUM Ehrcnb. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile 
8. of Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College *' backs," and Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge ; Comberton ; Hardwick ; Hariton ; Lord's 
Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 4. Girton. 5. Burwell ; Wicken Fen ; 
Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 6. Koswell Pits, Ely. 7. Sutton 
West Fen. 

Var. oAPiTATuu (Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. Syn. G. capitatum 
Ehrenb. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. Near Ely. 7. Sutton 
West Fen. 

886. G. AcuMDiATUM Ehronb. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College << backs," and Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken 
Fen; Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely ; Sutton. 

7. Sutton West Fen. 8. Guyhirne. 

886. G. Augur Ehrenb. Syn. G. cristatum Ralfs. 8. Wimpole 
Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 

887. G. TENBLLUM Kiitz. 8. Ditch, St. John's College •* backs," 
and Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington ; Coton ; Comberton ; 
Hariton. 4. Girton. 6. Fordham ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

888. G. PABvuLUM Kiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 4. Girton. 7. 
Sutton West Fen. 8. Guyhirne. 

Var. suBCAPrrATA Van Heurck. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 

889. G. iNTBiOATUM Kiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. Wimpole Park. 

Var. ViBBio (Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. Syn. G. Vibno Ehrenb. 

8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Coton ; Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 
6. Burwell; Chippenham Fen ; Wicken Fen. 6. Near Ely. This 
was very abundant from both Wicken and Chippenham Fens, and 
sporangial valves were abundant (cfr. PL 896, figs. 15, 16). 

840. G. ANOUSTATUM Eiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Burwell; 
Fordham. 

841. G. GBAOTLB Ehrenb. 8. Wimpole Park. 

Var. DiOHOTOMUM (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. G. dichotomum 
Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



294 THE ALGA-FLORA. OF 0AMBRIDGB8HIBB. 

842. G. OLivAOBUM (Lyngb.) Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Oreen, Cam- 
bridge ; Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

848. RnoficosPHENiA ourvata (Kiitz.) Grun. Syn. Gomphonema 
curvatum Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Comberton. 6. 
Near Ely. 7. The Washes, Sutton, and Sutton West Fen. 8. Guy- 
hirne. 

Fam. A0HNANTHE£. 

844. Aom^ANTHiDiuM FLEXELLUM (Kiitz.) 6r6b. Syn. Cocconds 
Thwaiusii W. Sm. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

845. AoHNANTHEs HuNOARicA Grun. 4. Histon. 6. Sutton. 

7. Ponds S. of March. 

846. A. MiOROOEPHALA (Kiitz.) Grun. Syn. Achnanthidium micro- 
cephalum Kiitz. 8. Wimpole Park. 6. Burwell; Wicken Fen; 
Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

847. A. ExiLis Kiitz. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 

8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Comberton; Coton; Lord's Bridge. 

4. Girton. 6. Wicken Fen ; Fordham ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Bos- 
well Pits, Ely. 

848. A. LINEARIS (W. Sm.) Grun. Syn. Achnanthidium lineare 
W. Sm. 8. Harlton. 4. Girton. 6. Near Ely. 7. Sutton West 
Fen ; ponds S. of March. 

849. A. LANCEOLATA (Br^b.) Grun. Syn. Achnanthidium lanceo- 
latum Br6b. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Comberton; Wimpole 
Park. 6. Burwell. 6. Sutton. 7. Ponds S. of March. 

850. CooooNEis Pediculus Ehrenb. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile 

5. of Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington. 4. 
Girton. 5. Wicken Fen; Chippenham Fen. 7. The Washes, 
Sutton, and Sutton West Fen. 

851. C. Placentula Ehrenb. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College '* backs," and Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington; Comberton; Hard wick; Lord's 
Bridge; Wimpole Park. 4. Girton. 5. Burwell; Wicken Fen; 
Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. The Washes, 
Sutton, and Sutton West Fen ; near March. 8. Guyhime. 

Order Pseudo-Eaphidieje. 
Fam. Epithemieje. 

852. Epithemia TURomA (Ehrenb.) Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge : pure gatherings ; Hardwick ; Wimpole Park. 4. Bos- 
well Pits and ponds near Ely. 8. Guyhime. 

868. E. SoREX Kiitz. 8. Guyhime. 

864. E. oiBRA Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Wimpole 
Park. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

7. March. 8. Guyhime. 

Var. vENTRioosA (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. E. vmtricosa Eiitz. 

8. Guyhime. 

855. E. ARGUS (Ehrenb.) Kiitz. 8. Hardwick. 5. Chippenham 
Fen. 7. Ponds near March. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THB ALOA-FLOBA OF OAHBRIDGBSHIRB. 295 

Var. ALPKSTRis (W. Sm.) Babenb. Syn. E. alpmtris W. Sm. ; 
E. Argus var. amphicephala Grun. 6. Wicken Pen ; Cbippenbam Fen. 

856. E. GiBBBBULA Eutz. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Cbippenbam 
Fen. 

857. EuNOTiA PEOTiNALis (DUlw.) Babenb. Syn. Himantidium 
pectinals (Dillw.) Kiitz. 8. Sbeep's Green, Cambridge. 5. Wicken 
Fen ; Cbippenbam Fen. A figure is given sbowing tbe reticular 
structure sometimes exhibited by tbe cell-contents, owing to tbe 
presence of large vacuoles (PI. 895, fig. 8). 

858. E. sp. Valve sligbtly arcuate, sides subparallel and mi- 
nutely undulate, apices rounded, sligbtly subcapitate ; strisa 10 in 
10 ft; length 106-111 /a (PI. 896, figs. 12, 18). 5. Wicken Fen, 
frequent. 

859. E. LUNABis (Ebrenb.) Grun. Syn. Synedra lunaris Ebrenb. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington ; Hardwick ; Wimpole 
Park. 5. Burwell; Wicken Fen; Fordbam; Cbippenbam Fen. 
6. Sutton. 8. Guybime. 

Var. BiLUNABis (Ebrenb.) Grun. 5. Cbippenbam Fen. 

860. E. FLBxuosA Eiitz. var. biceps (W. Sm.). Syn. Synedra 
biceps W. Sm. ; EunoHa flexuosa var. bicapitata Grun. 5. Wicken 
Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

Fam. Stnedbe^b. 

861. Synedba PULCHELLA Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; 
Comberton ; Lord's Bridge ; Orwell ; Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 

6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen ; Burwell. 6. Sutton. 8. Guy- 
birne. 

Var. MiNUTissiMA (W. Sm.). Syn. S, minutissima W. Sm. ; 

5, pulcheUa var. lajiceolata O'Meara. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 

7. Sutton West Fen. 

862. S. Vauohebis Eiitz. 8. Coton. 

868. 8. Ulna (Nitzscb) Ebrenb. 8. Ditch, St. John's College 
•* backs," Cambridge ; Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen. 

6. Near Ely ; Sutton. 

Var. splendbnb (Eiitz.) Brun. Syn. S. splendens Eiitz. ; S. ra- 
dians W. Sm. 2. Demford Fen, 1 mile S. of Sbelford. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington ; Hardwick ; Lord's Bridge. 6. 
Wicken Fen ; Fordbam. 6. Near Ely. 

Var. oxYBHYNCHus (Eiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. S. oxyrhynchus 
Eiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Sbelford. 8. Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

864. S. Acus (Eutz.) Grun. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Coton ; Hardwick; Lord's Bridge; Wimpole Park. 6. Wicken Fen ; 
Chippenham Fen. 6. Roswell Pits, Ely ; Sutton. 

Var. DEiiiGATissiMA (W .Sm.) Grun. Syn. 8, delkatissima W. Sm. 
3. Comberton. 5. Fordbam. 6. Near Ely. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

Var. ANousTissiMA Grun. 8. Wimpole Park. 6. Near Ely. 8. 
Gnyhime. A peculiar form of this species was observed from 
Wicken Fen with the median portion of the valve inflated (PI. 896, 
fig. 14). 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



296 THE AliOA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDGBSHIBB. 

865. S. oAPiTATA Ehrenb. 8. Sheep's Qreen, Oambridge: an 
almost pure gathering was made in Oct. 1895 ; Wimpole Park. 5. 
Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Pen. 6. Boswell Pits, Ely. 

866. S. RADIANS (Kiitz.) Grun. 8. Wimpole Park. 5. Burwell; 
Chippenham Fen. 6. Eoswell Pits, Ely. 8. Guyhirne. 

867. S. FAMEUGA Kiitz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shelford. 
8. Trampington, in a ditch. 6. Near Ely. 

868. AsTEBioNELLA FOBMOSA Hass. 5. Wickcn Fen. 

Fam. FBAOILABIEiE. 

869. Fbaoilabia vibesoens Ealfs. 8. Wimpole Park. 

870. F. cAPuciNA Desmaz. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," Sheep's Green, and 
Barton Boad, near Cambridge ; Harlton ; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole 
Park. 4. Histon. 5. Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 7. Sutton 
West Fen. 

871. F. ooNSTBUENs (Ehrenb.) Grun. Syn. OdonUdium Tabd* 
laria W. Sm. 5. Wicken Fen. 

Var. Vbntbb Van Heurok. 5. Wicken Fen. 

872. F. MUTABiLis (W. Sm.) Grun. Syn. Odontidium mutabUe 
W. Sm. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken 
Fen. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

Fam. MEBmioNmEiE. 

878. Mbbidion oiboxtlabe (Grev.) Ag. 8. Coton. 5. Burwell ; 
Chippenham Fen. 

Yar. ooNSTBioTUM (Balfs) Van Heurck. Syn. M, constrictum 
Ralfs. 8. Wimpole Park. 

Fam. DiATOMEA. 

874. DiATOMA vuLOABE Bory. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," Biver Cam, and 
Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. Near Ely. 

875. D. ELONOATUM Ag. 2. Shelford. 8. Sheep's Green and 
Barton Boad, Cambridge; Trumpington; Hardwick; Lord's Bridge; 
Wimpole Park. 5. Burwell ; Wicken Fen. 6. Eoswell Pits, Ely. 
7. Sutton West Fen ; March. 8. Guyhirne. 

876. D. HiEUALE (Lyngb.) Heib. Syn. Odontidium hiemale 
(Lyngb.) Kiitz. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

877. Dentioula tenths Kiitz. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Trumpington ; Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen. 

Fam. Tabellabiea. 

878. Tabellabu floooulosa (Both) Kiitz. 5. Wicken Fen. 

Fam. SUBIBELLIEJB. 

879. Cymatopleuba elliptioa (Br^b.) W. Sm. 6. Ditch, St. 
John's College •* backs," and Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Comber- 
ton ; Orwell ; Wimpole Park. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 
6. Near Ely. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



THB ALGA-FLORA OF OAUBBIDGBSHIBK. 297 

880. C. SoLEA (Br6b.) W. Sm. 2. Dernford Pen, 1 mUe S. of 
Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College "backs," Sheep's Green, 
and Barton Boad, Cambridge; Comberton; Toft; Orwell; Wim- 
pole Park; Lord's Bridge. 4. Histon. 6. Burwell; WickenFen; 
Fordham; Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. The Washes, 
Sutton, and Sutton West Fen. 

881. SuBniELLA BisEBiATA Br6b. 2. Shelford. 8. Sheep's 
Green, Cambridge. 5. Chippenham Fen. 

882. S. LiNBABis W. Sm. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 6. 
Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

888. S. ROBusTA Ehrenb. Syn. iS. noW/w W. Sm. Var. splendida 
(Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. Syn. 8. splendida (Ehrenb.) Kiitz. 5. 
Burwell Load. 

884. S. ovALis Br^b. 8. Wimpole Park. 6. Sutton. 

Var. ANGUSTA (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. S, angusta Kiitz. ; 8. 
apiculata W. Sm. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," Cambridge. 

7. Sutton West Fen. 

Var. piNNATA (W. Sm.) Van Heurck. Syn. 8. jdnnata Vf. Sm. 

8. Coton ; Orwell ; Wimpole Park. 6. Burwell. 

Var. MiNUTA (Br6b.) Van Heurck. Syn. *5. minuta Br6b. 8. 
Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," Cambridge; Wimpole Park. 

Var. ovATA (Kiitz.) Van Heurck. Syn. 8, ovata Kiitz. 6. Sutton. 

886. Campylodisous hibbrnicus Ehrenb. Syn. C. costatus W. Sm. 
6. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 

Fam. NiTzsomEJB. 

886. HANTZScmA amphioxys (Ehrenb.) Grun. Syn. NUzschia 
amphioxys (Ehrenb.) W. Sm. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** backs," 
Cambridge; Lord's Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 6. Chip- 
penham Fen. 6. Sutton. 

887. NiTZscmA Tryblionblla Hantzsch. Syn. Tryhlionella gra- 
cUis W. Sm. 8. Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 6. Wicken Fen. 

Var. Lbytoensis (W. Sm.) Van Heurck. Syn. Tryhlionella Uvi- 
densis W. Sm. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

888. N. coNSTRicTA (KiitzJ Ralfs. Syn. iV. dubia W. Sm. 8. 
Wimpole Park ; Orwell. 6. ]Burwell ; Fordham. 

889. N. ACUMINATA (W. Sm.) Grun. Syn. Tryhlionella acuminata 
W. Sm. 8. Ditch, St. John's College •* backs," and Sheep's Green, 
Cambridge ; Comberton ; Wimpole Park. 

890. N. ciRouMsuTA (Br6b.) Grun. Syn. 8urirdla drcumsuta 
Bail. ; Tryhlionella 8cittellum W. Sm. 6. Chippenham Fen. 

891. N. coMMUTATA Gruu. 4. Histon. 6. Sutton. 

892. N. Denticula Grun. Syn. Denticula ohtusa W. Sm. 6. 
Fordham. 6. Near Ely. 

898. N. smuATA (W. Sm.) Grun. Syn. Denticula sinuata W. Sm. 
5. Chippenham Fen. 

894. N. DiBsiPATA (Kiitz.) Grun. Syn. N. minutisHma W. Sm. 
8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 



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THE ALOA-FLOBA. OF OAMBBIDaBSHIBB. 

Var. MBDU Van Heurck. 8. Ditch, St. John's College ** bftoks/* 
and Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 5. Burwell. 

895. N. PABvuLA W. Sm. 1. On damp ground, New Museums, 
Cambridge. 8. Comberton. 

896. N. sioMoiDEA rEhrenb.) W. Sm. 2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, 
St. John's College ** backs," and Sheep's Green, Cambridge; 
Trumpington ; Comberton; Lord's Bridge; Wimpole Park. 6. 
Wicken Feu. 6. Near Ely. 7. Ditches and ponds near March. 

897. N. vERiacuLABis (Kiitz.) Grun. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College •* backs," Cambridge. 

898. N. ouRvuLA (Ehrenb.) W. Sm. 8. Trumpington ; Lord's 
Bridge. 

899. N. OBTUSA W. Sm. var. nana Grun. 8. Ditch, St. John's 
College '* backs," Cambridge. 

400. N. LINEARIS {kg.) W, Sm. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. o£ 
Shelford. 8. Trumpington ; Coton. 4. Histon. 5. Burwell; 
Chippenham Fen. 

Var. TENUIS (W. Sm.) Grun. Syn. N. tenuis W. Sm. 8. Lord's 
Bridge ; Wimpole Park. 4. Histon. 

401. N. 8UBTILIS Grun. 8. Orwell; Wimpole Park, abundant 
on damp mud: June, 1898. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

Var. PALEAOBA Grun. 8. Wimpole Park. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

402. N. Palea (Kiitz.) W. Sm. 8. Ditch, St. John's College 
•* backs," Cambridge; Wimpole Park. 6. Chippenham Fen. 6. 
Near Ely ; Sutton. 7. Near March ; Sutton West Fen. 8. Guy- 
hirne. 

Var. DEBiLis Van Heurck. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of Shel- 
ford. 7. Sutton West Fen. 

408. N. AMPHIBIA Grun. 8. Sheep's Green, Cambridge. 5. 
Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 

404. N. ACicuLABis (Kiitz.) W. Sm. Syn. Nitzschiella aciculam 
Babenh. 2. Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John^s College " backs," and 
Sheep's Green, Cambridge ; Trumpington. 

Order Crypto-baphidie^. 

Fam. MBLosiREiB. 

406. Melosiba vabians Ag. 2. Dernford Fen, 1 mile S. of 
Shelford. 8. Ditch, St. John's College «* backs," K. Cam (with 
sporangia), and Sheep's Green, Cambridge; Trumpington. 4. 
Girton. 5. Burwell. This plant exhibits epistrophe and apostrophe 
of the chromatophores. 

406. Cyolotella Kutzingiana Chauvin. 8. Biver Cam at Cam- 
bridge, and also many ditches about the town. 

407. C. Mbneohiniana Kiitz. 4. Histon. 5. Wicken Fen; 
Chippenham Fen. 6. Near Ely. 7. Near March, very abundant: 
Aug. 1898 ; Sutton West Fen. 

408. C. OPEBOULATA Kiitz. 5. Wicken Fen ; Chippenham Fen. 



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THE ALGA-FLOBA OF OAMBBIDOBSHIBB. 299 



Fam. GosdNODisoiDBjB. 

409. CosoiNODiscus LAOusTBis GruD. Syn. Cyclotella punctatu 
W. Sm. 8. Wisbeach {W. Smith). 



P.S. — Mr. H. D. Geldart, of Norwich, has kindly drawn my 
attention to a somewhat extensive '* List of Norfolk Diatomace» " 
by the late F. Kitton in Trans. Norf. & Norw. Nat. Hist. Soc. 
(1876) iii. 886-854 ; (1884) iii. 754-770. This I had quite over- 
looked. 

Mr. H. N. Dixon also writes from Northampton that he re- 
members gathering Batrachospermum monilifonns (Both.) Ag. in a 
ditch at Cherryhinton, and in springs at source of the brook at 
Fulbourn (near the Fleam Dyke). This was in 1882. He thinks 
he also found it at Seven Springs, Shelford." 



Explanation of Platbs. 

a, a' =» Front view (a fronte visa). 
b =s Vertical view (a vertioe visa). 
z = Zoogonidangiom. 

Plate 394. — Fig. 1, 2. Bulbochate eUipaospora, sp. n. x 260. 8-5. (Edo- 
gonium crassipeUitumf sp.n. x 220. 6-9. Piliniagtagnalig, sp. n. x 220. 10, 11. 
Radio/Uum fiaveteem^ sp. n. x 520. 12. Cotmarium protuberans Lund, forma, 
X 520. 13. C. angulotum Br6b. forma, x 520. 14-17. OocystU parva West <fc 
G. S. West, X 520. 18-22. Ophiocytium cochleare (Eiohw.) A. Br. x 620. 

Platb 395.— Fig. 1-8. Spirogyra peUucida (Hass.) Eiitz. x 220. 4-6. 
Mougeotia paludosa, sp. n. x 520. 7. Characium sp. x 520. 8. Eunotia 
pecHnalU (Dillw.) Babenh. x 520. 9. Navieula limosa Eiitz., aaxospore, x 520. 
10. Syneeliococctu roseo-purpuretUt sp. n. x 620. 11. Cosmarium Beckii Gatw. 
X 520. 12. C. co$tatum Nordst. x 520. 18-16. Scenedesmus acuHformit 
Sohrdder, x 620. 

Flats 396. — Fig. 1, 2. Closterium peracerosum Gay, var. elegans^ var. n. 
X 520. 3. C, laieraU Nordst. x 220. 4. PleuroUenium Ehrenbergii (Br6b.) 
De Bary, forma; a, x 220; a, x 520. 5. P. Ehrenbergii Tar. ad var. undu- 
latum Schaarschm. accedens, x 220. 6. P. trabecula (Ehrenb.) Nag. forma 
granulata^ X 220. 7. Cosmarium basilicumt sp. n. X 520. 8. Staurastrum 
paxiUiferum, sp. n. x 520. 9. Closterium Jenneri Balfs, var. robustumj var. n. 
X 520. 10. Staurastrum Avicula Br^h. forma, x 620. 11. Euastrum insulare 
(Wittr.) Boy, forma, x 620. 12, 13. Eunotia sp. x 740. 14. Synedra Acut 
(Eutz.) Gran. var. x 740. 16, 16. OompJionema intricatum Eiitz. var. Vibrio 
(Ehrenb.) Van Heurck. x 620. 



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800 



BRYOLOGICAL NOTES FROM THE WEST HIGHLANDS. 
By H. N. Dixon, M.A., F.L.8. 

I SPENT three weeks of last July in various parts of the West 
Highlands, the latter half in the company of the Bev. G. H. 
Binstead. A good deal of time was devoted to collecting mosses, 
two days' work of especial interest being done in the neighbourhood 
of Ballachulish. This district has been little worked by bryologists, 
and as our gatherings proved of some considerable interest as 
regards moss distribution, I propose to give a short account of the 
results, together with some notes on points that may be of interest 
to bryologists gathered in other parts during the same visit. 

I had three days in Mull, at Tobermory, but did little collecting, 
what opportunity I had being principally during an hour or two 
spent, through the courtesy of Mr. and Mrs. Allan, in the grounds 
of Aros House, about the Falls. There I gathered Thuidium deli- 
catulum Mitt., growing luxuriantly on a large boulder, without fruit, 
but showing perichaetia, with ciliate innermost bracts. I am not 
sure that this species has been recorded with certainty in Scotland 
before. It is included as a Perthshire moss by Sadler (Ann. of 
Scott. Nat. Hist. 1894, p. 20), but the record is based, I believe, upon 
a herbarium specimen so named, but gathered before the distinction 
between this and the allied species was well understood, and to 
establish the record it would be desirable to know that the speci- 
men had been re-examined. There is however no other reason for 
doubting its correctness, as the species when clearly recognized will 
doubtless prove to be widely distributed in Scotland, as it has 
ahready been found to be in Wales (even to the extent of meriting 
the term <* common "), since first being detected by Mr. Holt at 
Tyn-y-groes. Indeed, subsequently to gathering it in Mull, I found 
it three times in Scotland during the same visit, in two distinct 
localities near Ballachulish, and also near Tyndrum. 

At Aros I also gathered Zygodon conoideus H. k T., Hylocomium 
umbratum B. & S., and fruiting Hypnum callichroinn Brid. ; while 
on the moors above, Sphagnum cuspidatum var. plumosum was found 
fruiting copiously with S, svbsecundum var. obesum. On rocks near 
Tobermory I gathered a very starved form of Bryum, which 
appeared to be B, concinnatum Spr., though possibly only a starved 
and altered form of B.Jiliforme. 

After leaving Mull I spent a day or two at Spean Bridge Hotel, 
which I reached, almost wet through, after walking over Ben Nevis 
from Fort William^ to find that my luggage, which was to have 
been forwarded by rail, had not arrived. This instance — ^not, as I 
gathered, absolutely unique— of neglect on the part of the officials 
of that railway, was more than compensated for by their activity 
next morning, when the luggage was duly forwarded, and sent, 
part of it at least, to a station beyond its destination ! 

There was a good deal of snow on the summit of Ben Nevis, bat 
I was able to examine the edge of the precipitous clifGa on the north 
side in several places. Andreaa nivalis and its var. fuscescsnt were 



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BBTOIiOOIGAL NOTES FROM THE WEST HiaHLANDS. 801 

both seen in considerable quantity, bat the two forms appeared to 
me to intergrade considerably, and I must confess to finding great 
difficulty, at times, in separating them. A moss which struck me 
as equally abundant, and which I should probably have selected as 
the characteristic plant of the summit, was Wehera commutata^ 
which I do not think has been recorded from this locality ; this was 
growing very freely, and in considerable quantity. There is a 
specimen of Wfhera in the Eew Herbarium, from Ben Nevis, 
labelled W, cucullata, collected, I believe, by Mitten, which I am 
inclined to think, from a superficial examination only, is really the 
above species. The two are much alike in microscopical characters, 
but, besides the difference in the inflorescence, the leaves of W, 
commiUata are markedly toothed above, while those of W, cucullata 
are almost entire ; and the areolation of the latter is far wider and 
laxer than in W, cammiUata. 

The ubiquitous Oeratodon purpureus was not wanting, at 4400 ft. 
Bhacotnitrium sudeticum occurred in very pretty fruiting condition, the 
capsules being just ripe ; the high altitude, apparently, being respon- 
sible for a deLEty of three or four months beyond its recognized 
fruiting season at lower levels. 

A driving mist and rain prevented a systematic examination of 
the **Bed Bum" on the way down, but I gathered Hypnum molU 
Dicks, y forming large, soft, intricate sheets in a semi-immersed con- 
dition, Oligotrichum incurvum var. laxum Braithw., and a form of 
Philouotis seriata Mitt, with male inflorescence, having the leaves 
strongly falcate ; such a form, no doubt, as has led to the confusion 
of this distinct species with falcate forms of ordinary P. fontana. 
Near the '* well ** at the summit various forms of Hypnum exannu- 
latum occur, including the var. purpurascens. A marked form of H. 
sarnientosum Wahl. had the leaves bright green, with only a faint 
tinge of red. 

My purpose in visiting Glen Spean was to collect as &r as 
possible on the mountain the southern end of which is known as 
Aonach Beg, the northern as Aonach Mor. The former enjoys a 
high reputation from a botanical point of view, witness the paper 
by the Be v. E. S. Marshi^ and W. A. Shoolbred in this Journal 
for March, 1897, to the former of whom I am much indebted for 
suggestions and other help. In the limited time at my disposal, 
however, I found myself quite unable to make the necessary 
arrangements for working the southern end of the mountain, and 
was obliged to content myself with part of a day on the lower 
slopes, and one day about the summit of Aonach Mor, the latter 
only to be reached after a long tramp across an uninteresting and 
somewhat wearying stretch of moorland. On the former occasion 
I found practically nothing of interest, a form of Campylopus 
Schwarzii with the leaves somewhat falcate being almost the only 
moss gathered. On the same ground the next day I gathered 
Hypnum stellatum fruiting in some quantity. 

My advice to botanists contemplating the exploration of Aonach 
Mor would be emphatically that of Punch on the matrimonial 
question. In a somewhat careful search of the cliffs above the small 



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802 BRTOLOGIGAL NOTES FROM THE WBST HIGHLANDS. 

tarns which lie in the north-east hollow below the summit, at an 
altitude of close upon 8000 ft., I saw nothing of the comparative 
richness of vegetation described by Messrs. Marshall and Shoolbred 
for the southern end of the mountain. That side of the moimtain 
is indeed almost as barren (though of a totally different character) 
as the summit plateau of Ben Nevis I The one redeeming feature, 
from a bryologist's standpoint, was the relative abundance of Poly- 
trichum sexangulare, which was far finer here than I saw it on Ben 
Nevis. Forming large masses at the heads of the streamlets 
issuing from the snow patches just below the summit of the ridge, 
this rare and distinctively high alpine moss was showing a rich 
promise of fruit, doubtless for the most part destined to fall a 
victim to snow and ice before ripening, as is the common fate 
of this species, on the Continent as well as in the few localities 
where it is found with us. I gathered specimens five inches high, 
and as fine as any continental specimens I have seen in our 
national collections. 

I looked in vain for any trace of Andreaa nivalis, which might 
have been expected on a mountain adjoining Ben Nevis, where it 
is 80 much at home, and practically 4000 ft. high. The crags, 
however, close to the summit, and forming the brow of the preci- 
pitous side, where it would be most likely to occur, were mostly in- 
accessible on account of the snow. Webera Ludwigii was abundant, 
and Philonotis adpressa Ferg. occurred at the head of the streamlets 
just below the melting snow ; and I gathered Dicranum nwlle Wils. 
on the summit of the ridge, with the other species of the group 
which usually occur at this altitude, viz. D. falcatum and D. 
Starkei, but absolutely nothing else of interest. The summit 
itself is more or less covered with Wiacomitnum lanuginosuniy and 
one of the numerous forms of E. heterostichum var. alopecw-um, A 
notable form of Dicranum molle occurred, with the habit and falcate 
leaves of D, Starkei, and the nerve distinctly though shortly excor- 
rent ; but the basal cells decidedly porose. I have gathered some- 
what similar intermediate forms elsewhere, and have no doubt that 
the two plants, though in their extreme forms very distinct, must 
be held to be closely allied. 

On the 15th I joined Mr. Binstead at Ballachulish, and the 
same afternoon we had a ramble in the mountain wood^ Mnging 
the southern shore of Loch Leven. Mr. Binstead had been oyer 
this ground during the previous year, finding several rare mosses, 
and thought it worthy of further search, which the short time we 
spent there certainly justified. Of those previously gathered by 
him we found Dicranum asperulum Mitt., D. uncinatum O.M., Ortho- 
thecium rufescens c.fr., Breutelia arctuUa c.fr., and Hylocomium utn- 
bratum c.fr. ; and to these we added LeptodonUum recurvifolium 
Lindb., Thuidium delicatulum Mitt., Dicranum Scottianum c.fr., and 
Fissidens osmundoides with most copious fruit ; besides a form of, or 
allied to, Weisi^ curvirostris, to which reference vnll be made later. 

On the following day we drove part of the way up Glenooe, to 
explore one of the corries running up into Bidean-nam-Bian, the 
mountain forming the southern rampart of the Glen. By those 



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BBYOLOGIOAL NOTES FBOM THE WEST mOHLANDS. 808 

who know the character of Gleucoe, the comparatively bare and 
rocky character of the enclosing hills, it would probably be the last 
place selected as a likely home of a rich moss vegetation, unless of 
a distinctly alpine character. Our corrie, however, turned out a 
most interesting hunting-ground, and its list of rarities was pro- 
bably by no means exhausted by the few hours' search we were able 
to bestow, although the area is a very limited one. The bed of a 
small mountain stream rising near the summit of the Bidean 
suddenly widens out at about the 1500 ft. level into a flat grassy 
hollow, doubtless an old lake — or rather tarn — bed ; the foot of this 
is barred by a huge rampart of moss-grown boulders, under which 
the stream has to find its way, out of sight but not out of hearing. 
After a hidden passage of a hundred or two yards, it reappears, and 
descends for about half a mile to the main stream of Qlencoe, 
through a narrow, precipitous ravine, the sides fringed with trees 
and clothed with a most luxuriant vegetation of ferns and mosses, 
the oak' fern being especially fine. 

We ascended the ravine from its junction with the main stream, 
and here found Hypnum dilatatum Wils., growing sparingly, Breu- 
tdia arcuata c.&., Thuidium delicatulum Mitt., and Leptodontium 
reeurvifolium growing in considerable abundance, and very fine, 
being as much as five inches tall. There are two slightly different 
forms of this very rare moss, one shorter and stouter, and yellowish 
or brovm, found on bare flat surfaces ; the other, as here, growing 
on wet rock ledges among grass and herbage, taller, pale yellowish 
green, and more slender. 

The bed of the stream soon became somewhat impracticable, 
and we left it and spent the remaining time about the rampart of 
boulders higher up. These were covered with mosses and hepatics, 
and dotted here and there with mountain ash, willow and hazel. 
Here we found again Dicranum uncinatum and D. aspendum 
growing luxuriantly, the former in large tufts sometimes six inches 
deep. Dicranodontium lojigirostre sometimes accompanies D. as- 
pendum in these localities, and the two are then very difficult to 
separate with the lens alone. The leaves in the Dicranum are 
deciduous, as in the more common species. There were also 
Flagiothecium sUiatellum Lindb., in good fruiting condition ; Anti- 
trichia and Breutelia^ in fruit ; Cynodantiuni polycaipiim, Glyphomitrium 
Daviesii^ and the rare hepatic Mastigophora Woodsiif growing in large 
deep tufts, attaining a length of nine inches and even more. 

The chief feature of the moss vegetation, however, was the 
great wealth of Ulota, All our arboreal species were seen (U, 
erizpuLa, should this be reckoned a species, alone excepted) ; ana it 
is quite possible that, had search been made, the only remaining 
British (rupestral) species, U, Hutchinsi(Bf might have been added. 
Some idea of their abundance may be gathered from the fact that on 
one willow-stem were found together U. Drummoruiii, Ludwigii, caU 
vescens, Bruchii, crispa (aggregate) and phyllantha^ a record in Ulota 
which I venture to think will take a good deal of beating I The 
presence of U. ccUvesceru was one of the most interesting features 
of the locality. Mr. Binstead had already found it, the previous 



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804 BBYOLOGIOAL NOTES FBOM THE WEST mGHLANDS. 

year, in another spot in Qlencoe, and here it was growing freely, 
though not abundantly, and evidently in congenial surroundings. 
It was notioeable that the capsules were in a distinctly more 
advanced stage of maturity than those of its near allies, crispa and 
Bruchii, so that the time of ripening might safely be placed a 
month earlier. The capsules, too, are usually less freely produced, 
rather more longly exserted, and of a distinctly firmer texture and 
richer, deeper colouring ; so that it can be known even without the 
characteristic calyptra. The peristome teeth appear to be inserted 
more within the mouth of the capsule than in these species. 

The presence of some of these mosses naturally suggests a com- 
parison with the flora of the south-west of Ireland. It is certain 
that in no other part of these islands (or indeed of Europe) but the 
neighbourhood -of Killamey could the Mastigophora^ Leptodontiwn^ 
Ulota calvescens, U, Ludwigii, and U, Drummondii be found growing 
in close juxtaposition. The sheltered situation, the mildness and 
humidity of the atmosphere, and the influence of the Gulf Stream, 
doubtless tend to render the climate of this, as well as other parts 
of the west coast of Scotland under similar local conditions, as well 
as in a less degree that of Norway, closely akin to that of the 
south-west of Ireland ; and this is fully borne out by the very in- 
teresting additions recently made to our knowledge of the Hepatics 
of the west coast of Scotland by Mr. S. M. Macvicar, in which are 
included several species hitherto altogether or almost entirely con- 
fined to the Eillamey district of Ireland or one or two spots on the 
Norwegian coast. 

The two distinct and primary factors which go to make up the 
climatal conditions of vegetation in the West Highlands were 
curiously illustrated here, since side by side with these shade- and 
moisture-loving and one would suppose somewhat tender species, 
which were growing so freely and luxuriantly as to afiford ample 
evidence of their congenial environment, were found several dis- 
tinctly alpine mosses, notably Dicranum falcatum, Dicranoweisia 
aispula, and Plagiothecium striatellum. 

The remainder of our visit was spent at Tyndrum, in part for 
the purpose of exploring one or two of the hills at the western ex- 
tremity of the Breadalbane range. A few of these, as Ben Ghalum 
and Greag Mhor, have received considerable attention from bryo- 
legists, but the greater number of lesser peaks have been much 
neglected, partly as being difficult of access, partly no doubt 
suffering from the rival attractions of the Ben Lawers group. We 
paid two visits to Ben Douran, and I had a few hours on Ben 
Heasgarnich ; Ben Odhar we had visited the previous summer, with 
disappointing results. I do not know of any previous bryological 
records from these three mountains. Their moss-flora is, on the 
whole, very similar to that of others of the group, such as Meall 
Ghaordie, Ben Ghalum, &c. ; still some plants of considerable 
interest were collected, and it is quite possible that a search of some 
of the other Httle-known summits might afford fresh and equally 
noteworthy discoveries. In this small group there are, within a 
radius of four miles, at least eight distinct mountains attaining 



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BBTOLOGIOAL NOTES VBOM THE WEST mGHLANDS. 805 

8000 ft. or more, besides several only slightly lower ones, all com- 
posed more or less of that friable mica schist to which in a great 
part at least is owed the richness of the flora, and pre-eminently 
of the moss-flora, of this district. And the greater number of these, 
as £eu: as I am aware, are to bryologists still virgin soil. 

After gathering Plagiothecium Mullerianum Schp., near Eillin, 
in 1897, I was naturally on the look-out for it, and had the satis- 
faction of finding it in three or four fresh localities, viz. Ben Lui, 
Ben Heasgamich, Craig Ghailleach, and Ben Douran. 

It was much the same with Thuidium Philib&rti Limpr. Not 
only did we come across it in some quantity on Craig Ghailleach, 
where I flrst gathered it in 1898, but it occurred also on Ben 
Chalum, while on Ben Lui it is the prevailing Thuidium^ and quite 
abundant. On the last-named mountain 7'. delicattUum Mitt, was 
also detected. There is some considerable degree of variation in 
the three closely allied species, lecognitum, PhUiberti, and delicatulumy 
as regards some of the vegetative characters, such as the degree of 
pinnation, the length of nerve in the stem-leaves, and the recurving 
or otherwise of their margins ; and though these are not unfre- 
quently confidently relied upon to provide specific distinctions, and 
are even employed as test characters for artificial keys, I am confi- 
dent that they are unreliable as such. Without doubt, the branch- 
ing in T. recognituni and T. PhUiberti is almost constantly bipinnate, 
that of T. delicatulum tripiimate ; yet luxuriant specimens of the 
former are certainly occasionally tripinnate, while the reverse is not 
unfrequeotly the case with T, delicatulum. There is, however, a 
very useful character to be derived from the position of the stem- 
leaves, which Dr. Best points out in his Revision of the North 
American Thuidiums, and which has not, I think, been distinguished 
in European works on the subject. In J. tamariscinum and T. deli- 
catulum the stem-leaves are very similar, and in the moist condition 
the comparatively short and gradually narrowed acumen is erect or 
even almost appressed to the stem, at the most somewhat erecto- 
patent; and this position is little altered when dry, though the 
acumen, especially in the longer leaves, becomes flexuOse, and, 
occasionally only, slightly recurved. In T. recognitum and T. 
PhUiberti the leaf is more abruptly narrowed into a usually much 
longer, almost hgulate or loriform acumen, which is widely spread- 
ing and towards the apex recurved in the moist state, and when dry 
usually very strongly reflexed. This is especially noticeable at the 
apex of the growing stem, where the leaves are frequently turned to 
the lower side, and may then present the falcate or subcircinate 
condition that one sees, for instance, in the analogous leaves of 
Hypnum molluscum, 

I was a little surprised to find Orthothecium rufescens fruiting 
freely in several looahties. I had always looked upon it as a rare 
fruiter, which doubtless in the main it is ; but we saw it fruiting in 
some quantity in three distinct localities, viz, Ballachulish, Tyn 
drum, and Ben Lui. Nor was it an unusual occurrence induced by 
a peculiarity in the season, for in all cases old capsules and setsa 
were present. 

Journal of Botany.— Vol. 87. [July, 1899.] x 

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806 BBTOIiOOIOAL NOTES FROM THE WEST HIOHLAND8. 

A stream near Tjndmm yielded several interesting plants, the 
Ot-thothecium c.fr., Hypnum stellatufn var. protensum c.fr., H, eu- 
gyrium var. Muchayi, Isothecium tnyurum var. robuatum. Also one 
or two forms of Dichodontium, which, with the Weisia {Hymeno- 
styliiim) before mentioned, deserve faller treatment, and must not 
be dealt with here. 

Ben Douran (Beinn Doireann), which is in Argyllshire, is 
easily accessible from Tyndmm, and still more so &om Bridge of 
Orchy Station. There is a good deal of broken rock and corrie near 
the summit and on the northern side, which would probably repay 
a more careful search than we were able to give. A couple of hours 
spent on the southern shoulder without gaining any great altitude, 
a&)rded Plagioihecium striatellum Lindb., and CynodorUium poly- 
carpum var. laxirete Dixon, making the second locality for this laist 
very marked variety. 

On the 28rd we ascended from Bridge of Orchy Station, striking 
due east for the gap between Ben Douran and Ben an Dothaidh, 
and then following up the stream which rises near the summit in a 
series of springs and pools filling a slight hollow at about 8000 ft., 
where it was evident the snow had not long disappeared. Barren 
as this part of the mountain is of flowering plants, we found here 
some interesting mosses, among them being various forms of Hyp- 
num exannutatunif with which some of the pools were almost filled. 
The most prominent was a fine submerged form of the var. steno- 
phyUum Hobk., (Group Eotat var. fakifoUum Ben.). Another 
noticeable form, and quite distinct from this, was one referable to 
the var. brachydictyon Ben., and very near the forma orthopkylla of 
the same author ; this was on the drier spots by the margin of the 
pools. Immense masses of Hypnum sarmentaum filled some of the 
springs, with here and there a capsule, somewhat immature, but 
welcome in such a rare fruiter. A single capsule in midbog would 
lure one on to destruction — of clothing and comfort at least — 
frequently to prove when gathered only a supposititious child of 
H. revolvens, which has a nasty habit of growing in company witb 
H, sarmAitosum and palming off its capsules upon it. 

One of the most interesting plants we gathered here was a 
floating form of H, trifariumy some of the stems collected being as 
much as a foot in length, without a branch. The moss may be 
gathered on many of these mountains, usually in some such spot as 
where a bog is attempting, with indifferent success, to pose as a 
stream ; but, however good the specimens in such habitats may look 
in situ, they mostly disappoint in the fruition, and rarely make neat 
herbarium specimens; here, however, clean and unbroken speci- 
mens could be obtained without much difiSoulty, eight or nine 
inches long, and even more. 

Plagiothecium MuUei-ianum was found in very good condition on 
crags quite low down, and again at the very summit. Webera 
annoHna was fruiting well, if not abundantly, often mixed with W. 
Ludwigii, A curious form of Leptodontium JUxifoUum was deeply 
tinged with red, and maiw of the leaves^ especially the older ones, 
showed a very clearly denned marginal band of two or three rows 



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BBTOLOOIOAL NOTBS FBOM THB WEST HIGHLANDS. 807 

of pale or reddish cells, at times quite as marked as in L. recur- 
vifoUum, though in other leaves quite wanting. Hylocomium pyre- 
naicum was found, hut in very small quantity and poor oondition. 

At or about the summit, all our five species of Dicranum 
of the Section Arctoa were found, including D. moiled Wils., and the 
rare £>. schisti Lindb. In the uppermost springs of the brae which 
forms the western side of the mountain, Philonotis seriata was found 
in very good condition, but the inelastic conditions imposed by 
railway time-tables on modern botanizing prevented search for 
specimens with perigonia or fruit. 

A visit to Ben Ghalum afforded a new station for AtUacomnium 
turgidum somewhat low down on the grassy south-western slope, 
quite a different part of the mountain from that on which Mr. 
Binstead had detected it many years before. By a curious coinci- 
dence it had been found, not three weeks earlier, on the very next 
mountain, Ben Dheiceacb, by Mr. B. H. Meldrum; it has now been 
gathered in at least five distinct stations in Perthshire, and it is not 
at all improbable that it may turn up in others ; for when growing, 
as it was here, half hidden among herbage on comparatively low 
grassy slopes — that part of a mountain which perhaps least of any 
is likely to tempt search on the part of a bryologist— it is very far 
from being a conspicuous plant, however much it may be when 
forming a patch by itself, as is sometimes the case. A careful and 
systematic search of Bannoch Moor is, by the way, strongly to be 
recommended to any bryologist suffering from too sedentary a life ; 
it woold assuredly provide exercise, without undue excitement, and 
probably would add to the known stations of the AtUacomniutn, 
while it might very conceivably restore to us Paludella squarrosa as 
a constituent of our moss-flora. 

Hypnvm arcticum was fruiting freely in this, the best known of 
its few British stations ; TktUdium PhUiberti was there in some quan- 
tity, as also Plagiothecium stricUeUunif rarely absent from any of this 
group of hills where the summit is at all strewn with boulders. 
Hypnum molluscum var. condensatunif BarbtUa rubella var. ruberrimaf 
Cynodontium polycarpunif Dicranum fuscescens var. congeetunif and a 
dampylopus, which, though showing passably well-marked auricles 
to the leaves, was certainly nearer to C. Schimperi than to C. 
SehwarzU, were other plants of interest. 

A few hours at the head of Loch Long on another day were de- 
voted by me to a search for Plagiothecium Mullejianum, in the spot 
on Ben Namain where it was previously gathered, though at the 
time unrecognized, by Mr. James Murray. The search was unsuc- 
cessful, but a barren Bryum was found, which Dr. Cardot informs 
me he cannot refer to any known species, and is therefore about to 
describe as new. In addition to this, Cynodontium polycarpum, 
Bryum Mildeanum, B.fiUforme c.fr., //. molluscum var. condensatum^ 
and H. stellatum var. protmsum c.fr. were the most interesting 
mosses seen. Beturning the same afternoon to Tyndrum by Loch 
Lomond, I planned a short exploration of the lake-shore near 
Tarbet. I found, however, I was reckoning without my hosts — of 
midgets — and was constrained to beat a speedy retreat, having seen 

X 2 

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808 BBTOLOGIOAL NOTES FROM THB WB8T HIOHLAND8. 

nothing but Grimmia Hartinani, G, subsquarrosa, and Ulota Hut- 
ckinda. 

The large boulders which so often line the shores of our Scotch 
lakes, as well as those of the English Lake District, are frequently 
the home of a short dark-green Grimmia, growing in undefined 
patches, with a sort of unfinished appearance, which, doubtless, is 
the cause that bryologists usually pass it by, probably as an un- 
developed Rhacomitnumy or form of G, trichophyUa, Immersion in 
OH2 and microscopical examination show it to be (7 • subsquarroM, 
which can certainly no longer be considered a very rare plant with 
us. Mr. Binstead has found it around seyeral of the English lakes, 
and I can testify to its presence by Lochs Lomond, Katrine, and 
Tay. I can see no good reason for considering it, with Limprioht, 
a form of G. Mukleiibeckii. 

A day on Craig Ghailleach was not to be expected to reveal 
novelties, but the riches of this group of hills seem to be inex- 
haustible. Plagiothecium MiUUrianuin was found near the summit 
of the ridge — the previous station, where I gathered it in 1897, was 
at the foot of the mountain. Fissideru bryoides and Thuidium abie- 
tinum occurred at 2750 ft., the latter showing the tetracladous 
branching in a most striking manner. Plagiobryum demissum, we 
were glad to see, was still to be found, over some considerable area, 
with Myurella apiculata here and there in close company. A moss 
which had all the appearance of a green-brown form of H. revolvem 
(such as H. intermedium Lindb.) growing in flattish cushions on 
wet sloping rocks near the summit, and which was indeed gathered 
somewhat shamefetcedly and brought home as a mere form of that 
common plant, turned out to be H, Bambergeri. As is not unfre- 
qnent with pleurocarpous mosses growing in this form of cushion, 
the stems at the border of the patch were more pinnately branched 
than the more central stems, thus departing somewhat from the 
typical character of H, Bambergeri^ which is usually more or less 
fastigiate in its branching. This has led more than once to speci- 
mens of this moss being wrongly determined. 

By far the most interesting moss, however, was a Bryum 
gathered on the bare stony soil at the summit of the ridge, at about 
8800 ft. The stems were gregarious rather than tufted, the foliage 
of a bright purple colour ; the capsules, almost mature, were of a 
pale yellowish brown, small, oblong-pyriform with a distinct neck, 
and usually slightly incurved and therefore unsymmetrioal, on 
rather short sette. Microscopical examination showed the peri- 
stome to be imperfect, and taken together with the structure of the 
leaves, the large spores, &c., to indicate something quite different 
from any of our recognized British species, of which B, purpur- 
ascem B. & S. appeared to approach it most nearly. Comparison 
of descriptions seemed to point to B. arcticum B. Br., and this deter- 
mination was confirmed by Drs. Braithwaite and Cardot. At the 
suggestion of the latter I sent it for confirmation to Philibert, who 
fully endorsed the naming. The following is an extract from his 
letter : — ''Le premier, que vous rapportez au Bryum arcticum, appar- 
tient bien certainement k cette espdce ; il en a tons les oaraot&res. 



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BBTOLOOIOAL N0TB8 ntOM THB WBST HIOHLAND8. 809 

8oit da fijstdme T^^taiif, soit dn peristome ; je ne vols pas d'aillenrs 
que sons aucun rapport il diffi&re plus des antres vari^t^s du B. 
arctieum, tronv^es soit dans les Alpes et le Jura, soit en Norv^e, 
que ces diverses variety ne diffi&rent entre elles.'* 

Bryum arctieum is a very interesting addition to our Moss-fiora, 
being quite above suspicion as to its speoifio value. It is extremely 
variable, and many of its races have been elevated to specific rank, 
to which the term subspecies would certainly be most applicable. 
It belongs to the Section Ptychostomum, but the markings on the 
inner face of the outer peristome teeth are far less numerous and 
distinct than in B. pendulum and B. Wameiim, Hence at first 
sight the peristome appears to belong to the Section Cladodium, as 
in B. inclinatum, and it needs carefal focussing under a high power 
to bring out the real character. For a detailed account of the peri- 
stome in this species the reader must be referred to the articles by 
Philibert in the Revue Bi-yologiqxie, &c. The high alpine character 
of the moss and its general features will prevent its being confased 
with any of our species, except perhaps B, purpurascens, which has 
indeed been considered by several authors as a variety of B, arctieum. 
The peristome of B, purpurascens is, however, more truly that of 
Cladodium, the fine papillsB of the dorsal (outer) surface of the peri- 
stome teeth have a tendency to be arranged in horizontal rows, 
causing a very finely striate appearance; and the capsule is usually 
more regular and symmetrical. 

As the name implies, B, arctieum is a boreal species, descending 
into Central Europe only as an inhabitant of the higher parts of 
the Alps, Jura, &c. 

We paid one visit to Ben Lui, confining our search, however, to 
but a small portion of the fine crags on the western side, and with- 
out ascending higher probably than 2500 ft. Although this moun- 
tain has been so well worked, I have little doubt that further 
search would yield mosses that have not yet been detected ; it is 
certainly one of our finest mountains as far as favourable conditions 
for moss-life are concerned. One has only to find out, after some 
hours* careful search, how little space one has actually covered, to 
realize the extent of really fine ground that Ben Lui presents. 

In the small area of crag worked by us we collected, among 
other good mosses, Plagiothecium Mulleriauum, Seligena recuiisata, 
OrthoUiecium rufeseens (in good fruit), Thuidium delicatuhim, T. 
Philiherti (growing luxuriantly and indeed in abundance) ; and a 
Weima {Hymenottylium), before referred to, which is still subjudice^ 
but which at the least is a well-marked and undescribed variety of 
IV, eurvirostris. 

Just before we left Tyndrum Mr. Q. G. Druce came on a short 
visit, and I had the pleasure of visiting Ben Heasgamich in com- 
pany with him and a friend. Ben Heasgamich is not a mountain 
with which the ordinary tourist is permitted to become too familiar ; 
indeed, there is a certain stand-offishness about it that renders it 
far from being easily approachable. Even with the help of a trap 
so far as the road served us, it was a long tramp and a somewhat 
wearisome one to the foot of the mountain on the shore of Loch 



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810 OBinGAL NOTES ON 80MB SPS0IB8 OF OBSASTIUM. 

Lyon ; nor did the prospect of a comfortable hotel and a good 
dmner appreciably shorten the ten miles tramp home (minus the 
trap) over " bog-myrtle and peat." On reaching the shoulder of 
the mountain, while my companions rejoiced their hearts with 
Carex ustulata, I searched some part of the crags which form a bold 
escarpment on the northern side, reaching the summit, which, 
however, is bare and uninteresting. The short time I had among 
the crags yielded Timmia norvegica, Plagiothedum Mi'dlerianum^ 
Hypnum trifanum, Oynodontium virens, Wehera Ludwigii c.fr., and 
W. albicans var. glacialU c.fr., which certainly suggest that a pro- 
longed search, if practicable, would be well repaid. Tetraplodon 
mnioides and Splachnum spharicum were found growing in one tuft, 
the former in more abundant and crowded fruit than I have ever 
seen it, good fruiter though it be. 

Besides the species mentioned in this article, we gathered 
numerous commoner plants which are probably new records for one 
or other of the vice-counties concerned ; but as these will find a 
place in the census of distribution upon which Mr. £. C. Horrell 
is engaged, no good purpose would be served by giving the list 
here. I may add that I have duplicates of most of the plants 
referred to in this article, and shall be pleased to send any of them 
to any bryologist who may care to have them. 



OBITIOAL NOTES ON SOME SPECIES OP CERASTIUM. 

Bt Fbedebio N. Williams, F.L.S. 

(Continiied from p. 216.) 

96. 0. DioHOTOMUM Sohaugiu, Beschr. Min. Botan. Beis. Altaisoh. 
in Pall., Neue Nord. Beitr. vi. 98 (1798-96) ; Ledeb. Fl. Rossica, 
i. 401 : = C, Davuricum, I have not been able to refer to Schangin's 
memoir, as there is not a copy of this publication in Herb. Mas. 
Brit, or Herb. Eew. 

97. 0. DioBOTBioHUM Fcuzl, OX Bohrb. in Mart. Fl. Brasil. xiv. 
pt. ii. 281 (Feb. 1872). At the time of preparing the provisional 
list of the species of Cerastium^ I thought that this plant might be 
identical either with C, Ripartianum or C, nutam, but a re- 
examination of authentic specimens collected by A. F. Begnell 
in 1862 shows many points of difference from these two species. 
The original description here given is verified and slightly modified 
from an examination of these authentic specimens. Bohrbach, in 
his subsequent reference to the plant in Linnaa, xxxvii. 291, while 
comparing it with C. nutans, notes the fragile stems invested with 
both simple and stellate hairs, the petals with acute lobes, the very 
long styles, and the form of the seeds. 

Gaules fragiles, decumbentes, valde ramosi, ramis erecto-sub- 
patulis, infeme teretes, supeme angulati, pilis simplicibus apice 
glandulosis dense vestiti, 45 centim. alti. Folia anguste lanceolata 



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CBinCAL NOTBS ON 80MB 8PB0IBS OP OBRASTIUM. 811 

longe aoaminata sessilia, pilis brevibns plerisqne apice bi- vel tri- 
partitis vel rarissime simplicibus soabriuscula, inferiora 25-40 mm., 
snperiora sensim minora. Flores in diohasiis multifloris, ramis 
yalde divergentibns et superne mox in cinoinnos transmutatis 
(floribus nonnullis alaribus abortu) ; pedicelli fruotiferi centrales 
oaljce aaqui- vel sesquilongiores, alares oalyoe vix duplo longiores, 
densius glanduloso-pubescentes, capsulam nutantem ferentes ; 
bracteaa herbacesB parvsB ovatsa etiam dense piloste. Sepala ob- 
longa subobtusa anguste scariosa sparsim glanduloso-pnbesoentia. 
Peiala oalyce sesquilongiora biloba, lobis acutis, nngue glabra. 
Filamenta glabra. StyU prffilongi. Capsula calyce daplo longior, 
dentibos sabobtusis erectis. Semina fasca, dorso lato leviter obtase 
canaliculata, fociebus plana, obtuse granolata (in capsnla centrali 
mediocri 6). 

P PoHUANUM Fenzl, I. e, Caales saape laxissimi valde fragiles. 
Flores panllnm majores 5-6 mm. ; petala panllum longius exserta. 
Gapsnla oalyoe fere triplo longior. 

Hob. Brazil; in tbe Campos Geraes district of prov. of S&o 
Paulo, — ^var. ff, near the town of Oaldas, over the border of the 
neighbouring prov. of Minas *Geraes (Regnell^ Herb. Brasil. no. iii. 
266, Pohl), and Serra do S&o Bento, in prov. of Sta. Catharina 
(BegneU). 

Oambess^des' original specimens were mistaken by him for the 
previously known G, Commersonianum^ from which they differ in 
the indumentum, inflorescence, calyx not campcmulate, and other 
eharaoters. Placing Begnell*s specimens side by side with those of 
C nutans, they are readUy distinguishable. 

98. C. DiFFUsuM Pers. Syn. Plant, i. 520 (1805) ; DC. Prodr. i. 
417 ; ? C. tetrandrum Curtis. Founded on Tbibaud's specimens, 
doubtfully stated by Persoon to have been collected in Scotland. 
Seringe gives a somewhat longer diagnosis, based on these speci- 
mens in herb. DC, which he examined. He says that it is a plant 
with the habit of Arenaria spathulata, 

99. C. DiNARicuM Beck & Szyszyl. in Rozpr. Akad. Umiej. 
Wydz. Matemat. Przyod. Krakow, xix. 62, t. 4 (1889). Syn. 
C. latifolium (noQ L.) Vis. in Mem. Real. Istit. Venet. xvi. 163 

!1871). C. alpinum (non L.) Pane. Blench, pi. Ornagora, 15 
1875). Sepala margine anguste scariosa teque ac C. latifolio et 
C alpino. Folia lanceolata. 

No specimens in Herb. Eew. ; but the specimens I examined 
in Herb. Ziirich seemed quite distinct from C. alpinum and the 
narrower-leaved forms of C. latifolium. By Qdrke placed between 
C aipinum and C. tnviale. 

Hah. Montenegro, and the Dinaric Alps of the province of 
Dalmatia. 

100. 0. DioicuM Soland. in Aiton, Hort. Kew. (ed. 1) ii. 120 

fi789) ; Fenzl, Verbreit. Fam. Alsin. t. ad p. 56 (1888) ; Gren. 
onogr. 84 (1841) (*• species non satis notsB**). The short original 
description is, ** Hirtum, viscidum, foliis lanceolatis, floribus dioicis, 
petalis calyce triplo majoribus." It was cultivated in the Oxford 



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812 OBinOAL NOTES ON SOME SPEOIES OF 0EBA8TIUM. 

Botanic Garden in 1766. Aiton does not state the source of the plant 
which sapplied seeds for the cultivated plant. There is, however, an 
authentic specimen, about 16 centim. long, in Herb. Kew. ; and this 
is labelled " Gibraltar.'* From a careful examination of this in- 
teresting specimen, after placing it by the side of others, and 
comparing them, I believe it to be a dioecious state of C, Gib- 
raltaricum. Being a cultivated form, the name cannot, therefore, 
supersede the latter. 

101. C. DiVARiOATUM Hcrbich, in Flora, vii. 184 (1824). Over- 
looked in Grenier*s monograph, and not mentioned by Nyman. 
By Giirke placed among the ** species dubiaB vel non satis notaB." 
Herbich says that he found the plant in the Valle di S. Kocco, in 
the prov. of Campania, and growing close at hand was C glomeratum. 
The diagnosis is in German, and the following is a Latin rendering 
of the points of divergence from this common species : — Glaucum, 
pihs brevioribus rarioribus transversis vestitum, baud viscidum, 
magis divaricatum ; folia subfloralia margine baud membranacea ; 
pedicelli fructiferi calyce multoties longiores, basi baud refracti. 
So that it seems rather to be a form or state of 0. ttiviaU, It is 
not mentioned in Grenier's monograph, nor is it referred to by 
Tanfani in Parlatore's Flora ItaHana, If it were a well-marked 
form, it would surely be noticed by Tenore in one or other of his 
numerous contributions to the Neapolitan flora. 

102. C. Dbegkanum Fenzl in Ann. Wien. Mus. i. 841 (1886). 
Ic, Gren. Monogr. Cerast. t. 6 (C. brachycarpum). Named after the 
Dutch botanist who collected so assiduously in South Africa. 
Seems nearest to C. brachypetalum, a Mediterranean species. 

Hab, Natal: between the rivers Klip and Kat, in the Elip 
River district, and on the Lostafelberg, in the Drakensberg Mtns. 
(a smaller form). Basutoland : west slopes of Orange Kloof {Dod^ 
Fl. Cape Peninsula, n. 8608, Oct. 1897). Cape Colony: Baziya- 
berg, in Kafl&raria (Baur, Fl. Transkeiana, n. 500, Oct. 1884). 

108. C. DUBroM Gu^pin, Fl. Maine-et-Loire, 267 (1880) : = C. 
anomalum. Previously referred to as Stellaria dnHa Bast. Fl. Maine- 
et-Loire, suppl. 24. There is no copy of this flora in Herb. Eew., 
neither is the name taken up in Index Kewenm, 

104. 0. DuRLfii Des Moul. ex J. Gay (soli!lm nomen) in Ann. 
Sc. Nat. ser. u. vi. 848 (1886) (Bijei). A species founded on 
Durieu*8 PL sd, Hisp. Lusit. no. 894, collected in flower and fruit 
15 July, 1885, on the mountains of Asturias, near Puerto de 
Leitariegos. On the label attached to Gay's type-specimens in 
Herb. Kew. is the citation, *• Desm. in Act. Soc. Linn. Bord. viii." 
(published in 1886). In what Des Moulins subsequently wrote as 
to the discovery of the plant, and the priority of the specific name, 
there is no mention of this earliest publication, which he would 
certainly have drawn attention to in combating the claims of 
Boissier's C, ramodsiimum, a plant collected by him on Sierra 
Nevada, to supersede Durieu*s plant from the Pico de Arvas, in the 
mountains of Asturias. He intended, no doubt, to pubUsh a de- 
scription of the plant in a future livraison of the work mentioned 



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OBinOAL N0TB8 ON SOME SP£OIES OF OBRASTIUM. 818 

on the label, bub did not carry ont his intention, relying on the 
snfiScient publication implied in the distribution of Durieu's 
Exsiceata. Des Moulins refused to write his name '* Desmoulins," 
as more frequently found in references, and in like manner preferred 
to write Durieu's name incorrectly as **Du Rieu.'* St. Lager 
{Etude des Fleurs) very properly proposed that as the specific name 
was imposed on the plant in honour of Durieu, the least that the 
author could do was to spell it in the usual form assumed by its 
owner. I have therefore acted on St. Lager's suggestion, and 
dropped '* RisBi '* in favour of ** DuriaBi," which at once identifies 
the plant with the collector. 

The seeds of this species are not accurately described in floras. 
An examination of some of the seeds in a capsule from the type- 
specimens show the following characters : — Smaller than in most 
species, one-third the size of those of O. dichotomum, the testa not 
crumpled or ridged but closely applied to the nucellus, reniform, 
rust-coloured but finally a darker brown, at the margin slightly 
concave edged with muricate tubercles, at the sides covered with 
slightly raised granules in concentric series. Algerian specimens 
labelled ** C. Atlanticum'' in herbaria, which I have examined, 
oertainly seem to belong to this species, and thus extend the range 
of 0. Dw-iai into North Africa. As there has been confusion in the 
comparison of specimens referred to this species, I have here de- 
scribed the species from the original specimens, omitting characters 
common to the subsection in which it is placed. 

Monotooum, pilis patentibus glanduloso-hirsutis dense vestitum, 
arense granulis tectum, viscosum, pumilum, divaricatim perramosum, 
plerumque 7-10 centim. Folia sessilia, ovalia lanceolata vel lineari- 
lanceolata, obtusa. CymsB fastigiatsB dichotomse ; flores numerosi, 
in diohasium 11-14 florum dispositi; pedicelli calycem saquantes 
vel eo breviores, post anthesin basi refracti, fructiferi demum iterum 
erecti ; bractete omnino herbacesa. Calyx basi subumbilicatus trun- 
catus ; sepala pilis sparsis rigidis hispida, apice baud barbata, dorso 
nervatocarinata, oblongo-lanceolata subacuta subpellucida, 2 ex- 
teriora omnino herbacea, reliqua anguste scariosa. Petala obovato- 
cuneata breviter bidentata, sinu rotundato, interdum carnea, calyce 
dimidio breviora, vel etiam ^ breviora, saepe abortientia vel in 
summis floribus omnino deficientia. Stamina 10; filamenta glabra, 
antheraB globoso-ellipsoidese flavsa. Gapsula longe tubulosa gracilis 
apice leviter curvula, calyce circiter duplo longior. Semina reni- 
formia primum ferruginea demum fusca, nucellum arete includentia, 
dorso conspicue maricata, faciebus granulate- tuberculata, i eorum 
C, dichotomi tantum adtequantia, seriebus granulorum concentricis 
(in Aruotu centrali 7). 

Geogr, Area, fiance : dept. of Lozere, rocks in the forest of 
Yilleneuve, nr. Mende ; dept. of Gard, granitic soil at Bonheur, nr. 
rEsp6rou, and at Pu^chagut, nr. Le Vigan, Montels, Mt. Saint- 
Guiral, and at Aumessas. — Spain, in sandy and gravelly places on 
the rocky slopes of mountains : in prov. of Asturias, Pieo de Arvas, 
above Puerto de Leitariegos (the original type-specimens described 
above), valley of Naviegi, on the Pico de Canellas ; prov. of New 



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814 OBinOAL NOTES ON SOME 8PB0IE8 OF OBBASTIUM. 

Oastile, above Ohozas on the Sierra de Ouadarrama, Gerro de 
Guelgamoros above the Escorial; pro v. of Estremadora, on the 
Sierra de Majareina above Plasencia; prov. of Aragon, on the 
summit of Tolocha above Penarroya ; prov. of Andalusia, on the 
Sierra Nevada up to 2400 metres, on bare soil. — Algeria (as 
C. Atlanticum), — Asiatic Turkey: vilayet of Anatolia, Mt. Alma- 
dagh above Ushak {Balaiisa, 1857); vilayet of Erzeroum (^uc^^r- 
Eloy, no. 614). — This last specimen cited is that which is taken up by 
Grenier as the type of his C Anneniacum, a species most distinctive, 
in which the teeth of the capsule are circinate-convolute. It is 
quite probable that on the original sheet specimens of C. Dwiai 
and C, Aitneniacum were mixed, which is unfortunate. In Herb. 
Eew. these particular specimens, with Aucher-Eloy's authentic 
label, are affixed to a sheet with undoubted specimens of C. Duriai 
(or rather original specimens of C. ramosissimum Boiss.) ; and in 
both these specimens, which are quite unmistakable, the teeth of 
the capsule have revolute margins. There are also in their proper 
place specimens of C, Armeniacuni^ but these do not include 
authentic specimens (no. 614) on which Grenier founded this 
species, and to which Boissier refers in FL OrientaUs, p. 719. 
An examination of Grenier 's types would not, therefore, clear this 
up. The specimens mixed and distributed under this same number 
include therefore the type of Grenier's species, and specimens of 
C. Duriai, which extend further eastward the range of the latter. 
As Boissier has overlooked this, it is likely that the same misplace- 
ment of specimens obtains in other public herbaria. 

Var. p Lahottei Le Grand (sp.),.Stat. hot. Forez, 284, et snppl. 
6 ; Nyman (var.), Gonsp. Fl. Eur. 110 ; Jacks, (syn.) Ind. Kew. i. 
484; Eouy (subsp.). Suites PI. de France, i. 66; Rouy & Pouc. 
(subsp.) Fl. de France, i. 221 (1896). Folia ovalia, apice rotoudata 
vel perquam obtusa. Flores ovali-cylindrici sub anthesin obtasi. 
Sepala lanceolata-ovalia. Petala calyce pauUum longiora. Gapsola 
quam in typo longior. 

Hab. France : dept. of Loire, at 700-800 metres above Soley- 
mieu, Yerridres, and GumiSres, in the valley of the Yizezi, at 
900 metres, between Fraisse and Courreau. 

Var. y LvDroM Williams ( = C ramosissimum var. rosea Boiss. in 
herb.). 11-14 centim. Dichasium plurum florum. Sepala mar- 
gine rosea. Petala carnea margine saturatiora, calyce ^ parte 
breviora. Semina in capsula centrali 10. 

Hab. Asiatic Turkey : Mt. Mesogis, above Trall^s, in Anatolia 
{Boissier, 1842) ; S.W. Anatolia (Pinard, 1843). 

106. C. BoraNULATUM Ooss. ex Battand. & Trab. Fl. de I'AJg. i. 
148 (1888). The description given in this work is concise but 
meagre, and does not sufficiently place the species. The following 
is based on an examination of Warion*s specimens, PL Atiant. 
seL no. 40 (1876), characters common to the subsection being 
omitted. I received the specimens from Gosson's herbarium. 

Breviter velutino-glandulosum, 10 centim. Gaules erecti vel 
adscendentes, simplices apicem versus in cymam dichotomam 
soluti. Folia inferiora obovato-spathulata in petiolum attenuata. 



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REMARKS ON THB 'OYBSLE HIBBBNIOA.* 815 

saperiora lanoeolata aouta nninervia sessilia. Flores mioropetali ; 
pedioelli fiructiferi caljoem subsBqaantes basi exaofce refracti ; bracteaa 
herbaoeaB, foliis summis similes. Calyx basi trunoatas ; sepala acuta 
late scarioso-marginata petalis aBquilonga. Capsula 12 mm., oalyce 
dnplo longior. Semina ferruginea eohinnlata subaariformia, dorso 
coDcava. Inter species monotocas ad C. fragiUimwm proximum. 
Hah, Bogbar and Daia, in Algeria. 

106. G. Edmonstoni Marbeck k Ostenfeld, ap. Murbeck, Nord- 
europ. formema af slUgtefc Cerastium, in Bot. Notis. 1898, 246. 
I do not tbink that this plant is sufficiently characterized to be 
raised to specific rank. It was first described by H. 0. Watson as 
a variety of 0. lati/olium (Edmonston, FL Shell. 29 [1845] ), and he 
does not seem to be far wrong in his estimate of its systematic 
position. It certainly seems identical with C arcticum, and Shet- 
land specimens, whicb, Mr. E. S. Marshall says, cover large patches 
in the island of Unst, agree very well with the figure of C, arcticwn 
m Ft. Danica, t. 2968 (1880). Whether the latter is an hybrid 
between two forms of C aipinum, or a local form of C lati/olium, is 
a matter of dispute among critical botanists. I certainly regard 
C, latifoUum as a British plant, and have seen specimens firom the 
north of Scotland which well match specimens from the Alps of 
French Savoy, the Alps of Kiistenland, and hrom Lapland, except 
only in the size of the seeds. 

(To be continued.) 



REMARKS ON THE 'CYBELE HIBERNICA,' Ed. 2: 

k Rejoimdeb. 

By Nathaniel Colgan, M.R.I.A., and R. W. Scully, P.L.S. 

We have read with much interest the comments on the new 
edition of Cybele Hibemica contributed by our friend the Rev. E. S. 
Marshall to last month's issue of this Journal. As we were never 
sanguine enough to suppose that our judgments on the claims of 
various plants to native rank in the Irish flora would meet with 
anything like universal approval, we are not surprised to find that 
Mr. Marshall has many objections to make to our decisions. If we 
have erred, we certainly cannot plead haste as our excuse, for the 
claims of each species were weighed with the greatest deliberation 
before we proceeded to assign to each what we held to be its proper 
place in the flora. 

It is hardly necessary to say that objections coming from Mr. 
Marshall are worthy of serious attention, and that we have given 
his "Remarks** all the attention they deserved. We have failed, 
however, to find in them any fresh evidence or any fresh arguments 
sufficient to induce us to alter our decisions. A detailed examination 
of these objections would occupy too much space here, and would 
necessarily drift into personalities, since the habit of mind of indi- 



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816 BKMABKfl ON THB 'OTBBLE HIBBBNIOA.* 

vidnal observers is a very important element in the case for or 
against the admission of a plant to the full honours of nativity. 
Botanists are only human after all : each of us has his more or less 
of unconscious mental bias, his personal equation, as it may be 
called, and in any work founded, as is the Cybele Hibemica, on the 
testimony of a multitude of witnesses, it is unavoidable that the 
editors should form their opinions as to the peculiar quality of each 
witness. No man can be justly charged with presumption for doing 
what his office requires him to do ; and we can only hope that in 
the discharge of our duty as editors we have succeeded in keeping a 
watchful eye on our own peculiar bias, and in avoiding, as we have 
endeavoured to do, anything like partiality or dogmatism in our 
judgments. 

For these reasons we must content ourselves with noticing an 
example or two of what we consider inconclusive argument on Mr. 
Marshnirs part. He contends, for instance, on behalf of Iris 
foBtidiasifna, that its occurrence as native in Spain and Portugal 
is a reason why it should be admitted as native in Ireland. This 
argument, if accepted in all its nakedness, would lead to some 
strange conclusions. But probably the argument took in Mr. 
Marshall's mind some such form as this : the plant occurs native 
in Spain and Portugal, and also in North and Middle England, 
therefore it might be expected to occur in an intermediate latitude 
in South Ireland. So expressed, the argument would have some 
force, but must at once give way to the stronger adverse arguments 
drawn from the rarity of the plant in Ireland and the suspicious 
character of the stations it occupies. Again, in the case of 
Euphorbia Peplis, we are taxed with hastiness in excluding it 
from the actual flora of Ireland, since, as an annual, its appear- 
ances may be irregular. We should have far more justly incurred 
the reproach of negligence had we retained in our flora a plant 
recorded from a single station forty years ago and never found 
since, though sought for at least three times. Botanical patnotism 
is an amiable but pernicious weakness. We have struggled against 
it all along, and hope we have successfully resisted every inducement 
to unduly swell the flora of our native island, poor as it is in com- 
parison with the more highly favoured sister island of Great Britain. 

Once again, we are taxed with want of reserve in our treatment 
of Sedum album and S. dasyphyllum, the latter, as Mr. Marshall 
states, being *< thought by its discoverers to be native in two of its 
Go. Gork stations." The two discoverers here mentioned mast be 
the Bev. T. Allin, who says it ''appears quite wild,'* and our friend 
Mr. Phillips, who says it is found *' abundant and looking native.** 
*< Quite wild" can only mean *< certainly not native,'* and 'booking 
native'* surely implies a doubt in the speaker's mind as to the 
plant's true nativity. Yet Mr. Marshall has carelessly translated 
these cautious statements into a plea for nativity in the mouths of 
both witnesses. As for Sedum album, we never had the least doubt 
of its being an introduced plant ; and we can assure Mr. Marshall 
that in this, as in many other instances, we have not thought it 
necessary to encumber the pages of the new edition of CybeU 



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AL8INB IN THB BRITISH FLORA. 817 

Hibemiea by a setting-out of all the evideDce on which our judgments 
are based. 

It would almost seem from the tenor of Mr. Marshall's *' Be- 
marks," when treating of Geranium columhinum, Lotus tenuis^ and 
Iris/cetidisdma, tliat the writer had fallen into the grave error of 
using the words **wild** and** native" as synonymous. This, 
however, may be nothing more than an instance of *' loose writing," 
a good deal looser, we would venture to suggest, than any we our- 
selves may have been guilty of in dealing with such a pre-eminently 
loose subject as the Batrachian Banunculi. 

As for Orchis latifolia, had the evidence in Mr. Marshall's pos- 
session been in ours when preparing the Cybele MS., we should 
have unhesitatingly admitted the plant to the Irish flora. But, 
unfortunately, that evidence was not in our possession, and what 
evidence we had we then considered, and still consider, insufficient. 
In the case of Brachypodium pinnatum^ the report of its discovery by 
Mr. Phillips reached us barely in time to admit of its finding a place 
in the last sheet of the Appendix. Had it arrived a month earlier, 
we should probably have placed it, with a dagger-mark, in the 
text proper. 

In conclusion, we desire to say that the tone of Mr. Marshall's 
comments leaves nothing to be desired. Outspoken as they are, 
they never transgress the limits of fair criticism, while they give 
evidence of his careful study of the book he reviews. Mr. Marshall 
has already done good service in the cause of Irish botany. We 
trust that he will continue to give it the benefit of his critical 
knowledge, and that a closer acquaintance with our island flora may 
have the effect of converting him to our scepticism. 



ALSINE IN THE BRITISH FLORA. 
By W. p. Hiern, M.A., F.L.S. 

In the Jouimal of Botany for last year (p. 496) I showed that 
the genus Buda Adans. (1768) is not suitable for use, as in the last 
edition of the London Catalogue of British Plants, p. 12, n. 71 (1896), 
to include the species which are well known to British botanists 
under the generic name of Spergvlaria or Lepigonum; for Buda 
really belongs to Spergula L. (1763), and this conclusion is con- 
firmed in the index to Adanson's book, where, on p. 628, the 
Linnean genus is quoted as a synonym. It is now proposed to deal 
with the suggestion that Alsine L. (1768), an adaptation of an old 
classical name, should be retained for the British species, since 
they are cougeneric with the continental A. segetalis L. Sp. PI. 
ed. 1, 27^ (1763); it was in principle so treated by Reichenbach, 
Fl. Germ. Excars. 666 (1882) ; Linnaeus placed his genus in the 
class Pentandria Trigynia. 

The four British species will then, with their principal synonymy, 
stand thus : — 



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818 ALSINE IN THE BRITISH FLOBiL. 

1. Alsinb bubra Crantz, Instit. ii. 407 n. 18 (1766), excl. var. j8. 

ArenaHa rubra « campestrU L. Sp. PI. ed. 1, 428 (1758). 

Spergulatia rubra J. & C. Presl, Fl. Cech. 94, n. 686 (1819) ; 
Syme, Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 129, t. 254 (1868). 

Lepigonum rubrum Wahlb. Fl. Gothob. 45 (1820). 

Buda rubra Dumort. Fl. Belg-. 110, n. 1422 (1827); F. J.Hanb. 
Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 260 (1895). 

Lepidogonum i-ubrum Wimm. Fl. Schles. ed. Goepp. i. 78 (1844). 

Spergularia campestris Aschers. Fl. Prov. Brandeub. 94 (1864). 

Tissa rubra Britton in Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 127 (8 May, 1889). 

T. campestris Pax in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflauzenfam. iii. 1 6, 
85 (June ?, 1889). 

2. Alsinb bupioola. 

Spergularia rupestris Label, Eech. PI. Manche (1848) ; Syme, 
Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 182. t. 256 (1868) ; non Cambess. (1829). 

Lepigonum i-upestre Kindb. Syn. Framst. Lepig. 8 (1866). 

Spergularia rupicola Lebel ex Jolis in M6m. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cher- 
bourg, vii. 274 (1860). 

Lepigonum rupicola A. G. More in Engl. Bot. Snppl. v. t. 2977 
(1 Febr. 1864). 

Spergularia macrorhiza (Req.), var. ji rupestris Camel, Fl. Ital. 
ix. 628 (1892). 

Buda rupestiis F. J. Hanb. Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 268 (March, 
1895). 

Spergularia Lebeliana Rouy in Bull. Herb. Boiss. iii. 228 (May, 
1895). 

'Sole. — Alsine rupestris Fenzl (1888) is a different plant. 

8. Alsinb mbdia Crantz, Instit. ii. 407, n. 19 (1766) excl. syn., 
pro parte ; non L. (1758). 

Arenaria rubra marina L. Sp. PI. ed. 1, 428 (1758), pro parte. 
A. msdia L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 606 (1762), excl. syn., pro parte. 
Alsine rufn-a var. p, Crantz, L c, n. 18, pro parte. 
A, mantima Pall. Reise Russ. iii. 608 (1776). 
A. marina Sm. Fl. Brit. ii. 480 (1800), excl. var. fi] Sm. Engl. 
Bot. xii. t. 852 (1801). 

Spergularia salina J. & C. Presl, Fl. Cech. 95, n. 687 (1819). 
Alnnella media Hornem. Nomencl. Fl. Dan. 82, n. 740 (1827). 
Buda marina Dumort. Fl. Belg. 110, n. 1428 (1827); F. J. 
Hanb. Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 261 (1895). 

Aldne marina Reichenb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. 566, n. 8661 (1882); 

(1826). 

lalinum G. Don in Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 8, 69 (1889); 

Engl. Bot. Suppl. V. t. 2978 (1 Nov. 1868). 

Fries, Mant. iii. 88 (1842). 

I Kindb. Syn. Framst. Lepig. 6 (1856). 

neglecta Syme, Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 129, t. 255 (1868). 

Lrebel in M^m. Soc. Sc. Nat. Cherbourg, xiv. 48 (1868). 

a Britton in Bull. Torr. Club, xvi. 126 (1889). 



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ALSnnS IN THB BBITI8H FLORA. 819 

Note. — Types of Armaria foliis linearibus, loDgitndine intemodi- 
orum, L. Hort. Cliff. 178 (1787) ; Clayton, Fl. Virg. 161 (1748), as 
qaoted in L. Sp. PL ed. 1, /. c, are in the National Herbarium ; none of 
these types belong to the next species. The oharacter given for Alsine 
media by Crantz, Lc.^ is identical with that given by Linnaeus for 
Arenaria media, Lc,\ both authors cite a synonym which belongs to 
Spergula pentandra L. Sp. PL ed. 1, 440; Linn8BUs*s description of 
his Arenana media, /. c. and some of his synonymy certainly include 
the next species. A somewhat similar remark applies to Arenaiia 
rubra p warina L. ; for the synonym, SpergtUa manna nostras Ray, 
Hist. 1084 (1688^, belongs to Alsine marina Wahlenb. ; Bay placed 
it among his Alsines. 

In 1721 Samuel Dale collected at Bamsgate both these species 
together, and he noted their differences ; the specimens with his 
tickets are preserved in the National Herbarium ; one of his speci- 
mens he called Spergula manna 6uxb., and he added, ''Buppius and 
Buxbaum would have this the Spergula marina nostras J. B., from 
whom Dr. Dillenius dissents *' ; the other he called by the latter 
name, and he added the following note : — '* The seeds are brown 
and flat with a white rim as Magnol writes the Monspelier plant 
had. Altho' J. Bauhine doth not describe what seeds his plant 
had, yet finding it there and the figure so well resembling this 
makes me conclude it the same. The plant Morison mentions in 
Prteludia Bot. 229 by the name of Alsine Spergula semine foliaceo 
fusctUo circulo membranaceo alba cincto is a species of the common 
Spurry & not of the sea Spurry therefore MagnoFs caution need- 
less." This plant of Morison which Dale separated was the foundation 
of Adanson*s Buda, and is Spergula arvensis L. 

Dale's allusion to MagnoPs caution probably referred to Magnol, 
Bot. Monspel. 14 (1676), where, after noting the similarity between 
the winged seeds of the sea spurry and Morisou's account of the seeds 
of his plant, Magnol concluded his paragraph with the words ''unde 
cavendum ne multiplioentur Spergulae species.*' 

By limiting Crantz's name so as to stand for Lepigonum medium 
Fries, the giving of a new name under Alsine is avoided. Alsine 
media h. is Stellaria media Vill. (1789). 

4. Alsinb MABn«A Wahlenb. Fl. Suec. 281, n. 605 (1826) ; non 
Beichenb. (1882). 

Arenaria rubra marina L. Sp. PI. ed. 1, 428 (1758), pro parte. 

A. media L. Sp. PL ed. 2, 606 (1762), excl. syn., pro parte. 

Alsine media Crantz, Instit. ii. 407, n. 19 (1766), excl. syn., pro 
parte. 

A. rubra VBi. )3, Crantz, /.c, n. 18, pro parte. 

Arenana marina var. /3, Sm. Fl. Brit. ii. 480 (1800); Engl. Bot. 
t. 958 (1801). 

A. marginata Lam. & DC. Fl. Fr. iv. 798 (1805) ; DC. Ic. PL 
Gall. Bar. i. 15. t. 48 (1808) ; non Schlecht. (1818). 

Lepigonum marinum Wahlb. FL Gothob. 47 (1820). 

Buda media Dumort. Fl. Belg. 110, n. 1424 (1827) ; F. J. Hanb. 
Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 262. 



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ALBINB IN THB BBITISH FLOBiL. 

Alsine marginata Beiohenb. Fl. Germ. Exoors. 556, n. 8662 
(1882) ; non Schreb. (1771). 

Spergvlaiia nmrginata Kittel, Tauschenb. ed. 2, 1008 (1844); 
Syme, Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 181, t. 257 (1868). 

S. manna Label in M6m. Soc. So. Nat. Cherbourg, xiv. 41 (1868). 

The restoration of Alsine L. having been made, it becomes 
necessary otherwise to provide for those plants of ours which at 
present bear names under Alsine Wahlenb. (1812). In the Genera 
Plantarum Bentham & Hooker reduced them all to Arenaria L. 
(1758), but modern authorities on Caryophyllacea agree in keeping 
them distinct from the latter genus on account of their capsules 
opening by only as many valves or teeth as they have styles. 
Among the generic name^ available for the purpose is Minuartia 
Loefl. (1758), the typical species of which is nearly related to the 
groups containing our plants ; one of the latter, a species which was 
long ago reported from Scotland, though it perhaps does not now 
grow there, has already received a name under Minuartia : arranged 
under this genus, our species will stand as follows : — 

1. MiNUABTU STBIOTA. 

Speigula striata Swartz in Vet. Acad. Handl. Stockh. xx. 229 
(1799). 

Arenaria uliginosa Schleich. ex Lam. & DC. Fl. Pr. iv. 786 
(1805) ; Engl. Bot. Suppl. iv. t. 2890 (1 Oct. 1844) ; P. J. Hanb. 
Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 240 (1895). 

Alsine stricta Wahlenb. PI. Lappon. 127 (1812). 

Alsiuella stricta [Sw.] Summ. Veg. Scand. 17 (1814). 

Sabulina stricta Reichenb. PI. Germ. Excurs. 789, n. 4985 (1882). 

Alsinanthe stricta Beichenb. Ic. Pi. Germ. v. 29 (1841). 

A. uliginosa Beichenb. I.e. t. 209, f. 4985 (1841). 

Alsine uliginosa Syme, Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 115, t. 244 (1868) ; 
non Vill. (1779). 

2. MlNUABTIA VERNA. 

Arenaria vema L. Mant. PI. i. 72 (1767) ; Sm. Engl. Bot. viii. 
t. 512 (1 Nov. 1798); P. J. Hanb. Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 288 
(1895). 

Alsine vetma Wahlenb. PI. Lappon. 129 (1812) ; Syme, Engl. 
Bot. ed. 8, ii. 109. t. 241 (1868). 

Var. d Gbrardi (P. J. Hanb. I.e. n. 2886). 

Arenaria liuiftora Jacq. PL Austr. v. 22, t. 445 (1778); non L. 
(1762). 

A. Gerardi Willd. Sp. PI. ii. 729 (1799). 

AUine Gerardi Wahlenb. PI. Carpat. 182 (1814). 

Sabulina Gerardi Reichenb. PI. Germ. Excurs. 788, n. 4928 
(1882). 

8. MlNUABTIA BUBBLLA. 

Alsine rubella Wahlenb. Fl. Lappon. 128, t. 6 (1812) j Syme, 
Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. Ill, t. 242 (1868). 

Arenatia cherlerifolia G. Don, Cat. PI. Porfar Gard. 9 (1818). 



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ALSnOC IN THE BBITISH YLOBA. 821 

A, sulcata Sohleoht. in Ges. Natorf. Fr. Berl. Mag. vii. 212 
(1818) ; F. J. Hanb. Lond. Gat. ed. 9, 12, n. 289 (1896). 

AUinella rubella [Sw.] Summa Veg. Scand. 17 (1814). 

Arenafia quadrivalvis R. Br, in Parry, let Voy. app. 271 (1828). 

A. rubella Sm. Engl. Fl. ii. 809 (1824) ; D. Don, Engl. Hot. SuppL 
i. t. 2688 (1 May, 1880). 

Alsine hirta rubella Hartm. Handb. Skand. Fl. ed. 8, 104 (1888). 

4. MiNUABTiA FA80I0ULATA Belchenb. lo. Fl. Oerm. v. 28 (1841). 

Aretiaria fasciculata L. Syst. Nat. ed. 12, ii. 788 (1767) ; Jaoq» 
PL Austr. ii. 49, t. 182 (1774). 

SteUaria rubra Soop. Fl. Cam. ed. 2, 816, n. 588, t. 17 (1772). 

Arenaria fastigiata Sm. Engl. Hot. 1744 (1 May, 1807) ; non Phil. 
(1856). 

Alniie fasciculata Mert. & Koch, Dentsohl. Fl. iii. 288 (1881), 
excl. syn. 

Sabulina/astigiata Reiohenb. Fl. Oerm. Exonrs. 786, n. 4919 
(1882). 

M. fastigiata Reiohenb. I.e. 28, t. 208, f. 4919. 

Alsine fastigiata Bab. Man. Br. Bot. ed. 1, 51 (1848) ; Syme, 
Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 114, t. 248 {bis) (1868). 

A. Jacquini Eoob, Syn. Fl. Germ. ed. 2, 125 (1848). 

Note. — Reported from the Scotch highlands, but without recent 
record, and not included in the London Catalogue ; specimens from 
Q. Don are in the National Herbarium. 

5. MiNUABTIA TENUIFOIilA. 

Arenaria tenvifolia L. Sp. PI. ed. 1, 424 (1758) ; Engl. Bot. iv. 
t. 219 (1794) ; F. J. Hanb. Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, n. 241 (1896). 

Alsine tenuifolia Crantz, Instit. ii. 407, n. 22 (1766) ; Syme, 
Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 112, t. 248 (1868). 

Sabulina tenuifolia Beichenb. Fl. Germ. Excurs. 785, n. 4916 
(1882). 

Note. — Apparently different from Minuartia tenuifolia Nees ex 
Mart. Hort. Erlang. 44 (1814), which has been referred to M. (Aren- 
aria) mucronata (L.). 

The two following British plants belong to the same genus : — 

6. MiNUABTIA SBDOIDBS. 

Cherleria Sedoides L. Sp. PL ed. 1, 425 (1758) ; Sm. Engl. Bot. 
xvii. t. 1212 (1 Sept. 1808) ; non Forsk (1776), &c. 

C. cespitosa Lam. Fl. Pr. iii. 46 (1778). 

Alsine Cherleria Fenzl ex Peterm. Deutschl. Fl. 85 (1849); 
Syme, Engl. Bot. ed. 8, ii. 108, t. 240 (1868). 

A. sedoides Kittel, Fl. Deutschl. ed. 2, 997 (1844) ; non alior. 

Arenaria Cherleria Ardoino, Fl. Alpes-marit. 65 (1867); Hook. f. 
Stud. Fl. ed. 1, 60 (1870). 

Alsine Cherletiana St. Lager in Ann. Soc. Bot. Lyon, vii. 144 
(1880). 

Arenaria Cherlen Benth. ex Hook. f. Stud. Fl. ed. 8, 65 (1884). 

Journal of Botany. — Vol. 87. [July, 1899.] y 

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822 NOTES ON BA8T ANGLIAN BOTANY. 

Chsrleria sediformUGAnot & St. Lager, J^tud. Fl. 119 (1889). 

Armaria aedmdes F. J. Hanb. Lond. Gat. ed. 9, 12, n. 248 (1896) ; 
non B. D. Jacks. (1898), nee Frdl. ex Beichenb. Fl. Oerm. E&c. 
794 (1882). . 

Note, — Alsine sedoides Froel. ex Eooh, Syn. Fl. Germ. ed. 1, 114 
(1886), wbich in the Eew Index, i. 181 (1898) is also quoted as 
Arenaria sedoides, is Alsine vema var. c. Wohlf. in Eocb, Syn. 
Deutsch. ed. 8, i. 284 (1892). 

7. MiNUABTIA PEPLOIDBS. 

Arenaria pephides L. Sp. PL ed. 1, 428 (1768) ; Sowerby, Engl. 
Bot. iii. t. 189 (1 July, 1794); F. J. Hanb. Lond. Cat. ed. 9, 12, 
n. 247 (1896). 

Alsine peploides Grantz, Instit. ii. 406, n. 11 (1766); Syme, Engl. 
Bot. ed. 8, ii. t. 289 (1868). 

Honkenya peploides Ehrh. Beitr. ii. 181 (1788). 

Honkeneja peploides Bab. Man. Brit. Bot. ed. 8, 48 (1861). 

Honkeneya peploides Syme, l. c, 106. 



NOTES ON EAST ANGLIAN BOTANY. 
By Abthub Bennett, F.L.S. 

The following notes may be taken in connection with those on 
Oambridgeshire plants in the last number of this Journal. A few 
of those for SuflFolk are taken from James Crowe's copy of the 
second edition of Hudson's Flora Anglica in the library of the 
Linnean Society. Many of those for Norfolk are taken from the 
same copy, which supplies the original stations for many Norfolk 
plants; some of these were contributed to The Botanist's Ghdde 
(1806), but the majority were not published. 

The Rev. W. W. Newbould, in his copy of Kirby Trimmer's 
Norfolk Flora (which I possess), speaks rather strongly of the way 
in which Trimmer treats the old authors, with whose records any- 
one who writes a future Flora of Norfolk will have to collate 
Trimmer's work. 

Suffolk. 

Ranunculus fluitans L. Brandon River, 1878. 

Hellehorus viiidis L. Brundish, Herb, Sherard at Oxford {ex 
Bruce), 

Althcea officinalis L. Ditches below Burgh Castle, 1848, Herb. 
Hailstone. 

Genista pilosa L. ** The heaths near Bury are yellow with this 
plant in June, but after it is difficult to find, as it creeps under the 
mosses. T. Woodward," Crowe, 

Epilobium- roseum L. Nayland, E, F, Linton in J. Bot, 1890, p. 4. 

Till(Ba muecosa L. Near Benacre Broad ; Toby's Walks, Blyth- 
burgh ; Tinker's Walk, July, 1896, Salmon, 

(Enanthe silaifolia Bieb. There is a specimen of the true plant 
from Sir J. Cullum in herb. Banks, 1774. Dr. Hind {Flora of 



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N0TB8 ON BAST ANGLIAN BOTANY. 828 

Suffolk, p. 170) thinks it may have been CE, pimpineUoideSf but that 
is not a likely species to occur. 

Samhucus EbtUus L. Long Melford, plentifully, Crows. 

Gnaphalium luteo-album L. In August, 1896, Mr. Burkill had a 
fragment of this, sent for identification, from near Mildenhall ; it is 
given as extinct in the Flora. 

Senecio palustrU DC. Haddiscoe, Suffolk, 1791, T. Woodward ex 
herb. Winch at Linnean Society. Burgh near Yarmouth, Winch herb. 
Sonchus palustris and Lathyrus palustris used to grow in this locality. 

Erythraa ptdchella Fr. There are specimens gathered at Lowes- 
toft, 24 Aug. 1802, in the British Museum Herbarium. 

Orobanche elatior Butt. Found by Borrer near Barton: Fl. 
Shropsh. p. 630. 

Veronica spicata L. Cavenham Heath, 1798, Herb. Hailstone, 
— V. vema L. Plentifully in the fields nearly one mile from Thet- 
ford road to Bury, April 28, 1801 ; the leaves are of a purple-brown, 
and the whole plant in this situation not above an inch high, Crowe, 

FritiUaria Meleagris L. ''Scare Pen" (Suffolk Flora, p. 846) 
should read '* Scare's Farm, 1780," Crowe, 

Potamogeton zosteri/oUus Schum. Ditch by the river Lark, two 
miles from Prickwillow, 20.8.1897, BtUlock-Webster I New to the 
Flora. 

Cladium Mariscus Brown. Burnt Fen, near Eriswell, Crowe. 
The greater part of this fen is in Cambridgeshire, but a small 
portion is on the other side of the river. 

Digitaria sanguinalis Scop. Bungay, Suffolk, J. Tatham in herb* 
Hailstone. 

Chara contraria Kuetz. Benacre Broad, July, 1896, Salmon ! — 
C. canescens Loisel. Benacre and Easton Broad, July, 1896, Salmon 1 

Norfolk. 
Unless otherwise stated, the localities are from Mr. Crowe's notes. 

Myosurus minimus L. Eepps, plentiful 1 

Silens Otites Wibel. Near Narford, in the road to Narboro', and 
ihe whole way in the lane from Narford, as well as both sides of the 
Swaffham road by Sir H. Peyton's house. — Holosteum umbellatum 
li. On the city walls between St. Austin's and Magdalen Gates ; 
Mr. Carter's garden walls at Thorpe ; near the back of Mr. G. 
Haltby's garden; between Magdalen and Pockthorpe Gates. — 
Moenchia erecta Gaertn. Sandy hills, Ditchling ; Porlingland 
Heath ; Mousehold Heath. 

Linum perenne L. Chalk-pit at Marham, and elsewhere in that 
parish where the chalk lies near the surface. 

Astragalus danums Betz. Swaffham Heath ; Marham, and on 
the road thence to Narboro', in good plenty. 

Geum rivale L. Meadows at Marham ; Holt Wood ; Dereham 
Meads ; pastures, right hand, near eighteenth milestone to Walton 
(from Lalbnham) ; Saham, 1800. 

Pamassia palustris L. Costessy Common ; Porland Heath ; low 
parts of Swardeston Common. 

Y 2 



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824 N0TB8 ON BAST ANGLIAN BOTANY. 

Tillaa muscosa L. St. Faith's, Newton Bogs ; Gauston Heath ; 
Felthorpe Bogs. 

Bupleurum rotundifolium L. Among wheat and yetches at Mar- 
ham ; in the road three miles from Narboro' to Fincham. — Caucalu 
daucoides L. Near Marham, among winter wheat, with the Bw- 
pleuruni, — Sium latifolium L. By the bridge at Soole that divides 
Norfolk ; Wroxham. — 8ison Amomum L. Side of road opposite 
Armingale Wood. — Peucedanum palmtre Moench. Forster's Alder 
Carr, East Winch. — Carum segetum Benth. & Hook. f. In the hedge 
on the left side of the road between the pit at Binham, where Crept* 
fatida grows, and Langham Heath, in a thick rough hedge. 

Galium angUcum L. Upon the buttress, south side of Binham 
Church ; wall at Bushford ; road to Snettisham from Thetford. 

Dipsacm pilosm L. Boad leading to Ditohingham Ghorch; 
Skateshill, at Snettisham ; between the ninth and tenth milestones 
to Attleboro*. 

Valeriana dioica L. Linstead Meads, Lakenham. 

Senecio palustris DG. Brakenham-in-Ormsley ; Gaistor Gommon, 
near Yarmouth, 1781 (a specimen thence is in the Winch herb.); 
Halvergate (and there called *' Trumpets'* '*') ; at Antingham, 1781 ; 
Geldeston, Mr. Woodward^ NewbotUd's MS. ; in the road from Nor- 
wich to Yarmouth, J. M., Newbould MS.; Methwold Fen, 1882, 
W. Marshall, sp. in Watson's herb, at Kew ; by Heigham Bridge, 
Paget in herb, Watson ; Wroxham Broad, near Uoveton, June, 1854, 
F. J. A. Hart in herb, Babington I ; Filby, for many years from 1865 ! 
This species is often marked as perennial, but in my garden and at 
Filby it is a biennial. — S, paludosm L. The authority for this in 
Norfolk has been a specimen in Sir J. E. Smith's herb., with the 
note, *' Gathered in Norfolk by Mr. J. Sherard and myself.*' I am 
able to add a definite locality, Bedmore Fen, in W. Norfolk. 
W. Marshall, ** extinct." — Sonchus palustiis L. Meadows at Gay- 
wood. Specimens from two of Eirby Trimmer's localities belong to 
the marsh form of arvensis : I have seen his specimens. — Crepis 
fatida L. In a gravel and clay pit half a mile from Binham on the 
road to Langham, H. B, — Hypocharis glabra L. Between the eighth 
and ninth milestone on Gawston Heath; Narboro'; Great Gressing- 
am; Gostessy, common; field near Narford. 

Campanula Uuifolia L. Old Ganfield (Lakenham?); wood in 
Gressinghall. 

Atropa Belladonna L. Between Downham and Swaffham, 
r. Woodward; near Gann Abbey, 1780; Markin's Farm at Gres- 
singhall ; on this side Thorpe turnpike. 

Veronica montana L. Armingale Wood. — F. triphyllos L. In 
the fields of North Pickenham, sparingly. — V. vema L. Foulden. 

Ciiscuta europtm L. St. Faith's, Newton Heath ; Bawsey white 
sands ; Porlingland Heath. 

Oentiana Pneumonanthe L. Leizate, on the low ground among 
Erica tetralix, 

Orobanche major L. Garter's field at Thorpe ; first hill on the 

* Not in Britten & Holland^s Diet, of Engl. Fl. Names. 

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N0TB8 ON BA8T ANGLIAN BOTANY. 825 

left band in the last thorooghfare field going to Thorpe, in great 
plenty. 

T«ucnum ChanuBdrys L. City walls between Magdalen and St. 
Austin's Gates; between brazen door and St. Stephen's Gate. — 
Mentha sativa and M, gentilis. By the blacksmith's shop at Saham. 
— 3f. piperita, M. hireuta, and M. spicata. By the pnblio-house at 
Saham.— M. i-ubra Sm. Ditch of Clark's field at Saham. ** 1797, 
Saham, with Dr. Smith, 16 Sept." — Lycopue europaus L. Ash- 
wicken ; Shottingham, near the mill ; Saham. 

Utrioularia vulgaris L. and U. minor L. St. Faith's, Newton 
Bogs. 

Statiee reticulata L. Marshes due N. of Blakeney Church ; from 
Brancaster Staith to the town a hundred acres of ground might be 
found coYered with it ; at Holme and Snettisham ; at Wells, sixty 
yards W. of the Old Sluice made by Sir C. Turner on the south side 
of the banks, and the port. 

SeUranthus peretmis L. Snettisham ; Honeybeaoh. 

Chenopodium murale L. Mann's farm-yiurd, Honingham. — 
Atriplex peduneulata L. Marshes by St. Ann's Fort, Lynn. 

Rumea maritimtu L. Allen's Marshes, Halvergate; Scoulton 
Mere ; Gayton Common, near the turnpike ; Stratton Heath. 

Malaxis pahido$a Sw. Between Horsford and Felthorpe, opposite 
the sixth mUestone on Cawston Heath. — Liparis Loeselii Bich. was 
found in a meadow in St. Faith's, Newton, in the year 1767 by Mr. 
Pitchford. I found three specimens of it in same meadow in the 
most boggy part, 1788. 

Herminium Monorchis Br. At Marham Chalk-pit ; in a chalk- 
pit at Heacham, near the road thence to Snettisham, on the bank 
about twenty yards from the entrance to the pit on the right-hand 
side. 

Aeeras anthropophora Br. In several pasture fields at Ashwell- 
thorpe, but sparingly ; from this circumstance being well known to 
botanists, it is now nearly rooted out, 1785. 

Paris quadrifolia L. Overton's Grove at Heydon ; Sexton Wood 
in Hedingham. 

Acorus Calamus L. River by Heigham Common ; Surlingham 
Ferry. 

Iris fcetidissima L. Bradenham. 

Cladium Maiiscus Br. Wroxham Broad. — Schanus nigricans L. 
Bog near Heydon. — Blysmns compressus Panz. Bog at Ditchingham 
past the public-house ; Lower common at Heydon. — Rynchospora 
alba Vahl. Bogs at Heydon ; Felthorpe Bogs. — Scirpus flidtans L. 
Pits on Hainford Heath, by Blaokmere. — S. maritimus L. Yar- 
mouth ; Snettisham ; Wells ; Ade. — Carex curta Good. Caistor 
Camp. — 0. limosa L. Cawston Bog ; St. Faith's, Newton Bogs ; 
Cranberry Fen, East Winch. 

Avena pubescens L. Marham Chalk-pit, Mr. W, Holkham ; 
Forby*s pastures, Saham. — Calamagrostis epigejos Both. Ranaugh ; 
Cawston Decoy. — Aira canescens L. By the rails in the part of 
Yarmouth Common from Caistor Common near the seashore; by 
the Pool Beacon at Wells ; sparingly at Brancaster ; Holme ; 



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826 SHORT N0TB8. 

Snettisham. In several places Yarmouth "deans" are named: 
•* denes " is the present spelling. — Phleum Boehmeri Wibel. Pound 
at Narborough, July, 1780, in company with Mr. Woodward.— 
TriUcum caninum L. Brown's Grove, Tacolstone, by the side of a 
pit there, 1780. 

jMstraa Thdypteris Presl. At Heydon, by the Alder Garrs; past 
the public-house at Ditchingham ; Ashwicken Fen; Bawsey Bottom. 
— Osmunda regalia L. Blackmere, on Hainford (Heath) ; on this 
side Horning Ferry ; St. Faith's, Newton Bogs. 

Pilularia glohulifera L. Hainford and Stratton Heaths. 

Lycopodium clavatum L. Felthorpe Bogs. — L. inundatwn L. 
Cawston Decoy. 



SHORT NOTES. 



Thb GAMBBmoB AND LiNooLN Sblinum. — I am exercised by Mr. 
Bennett's remarks anent Selinum Carvifolia at Ghippenham in the 
June Journal (p. 244). He casts about for the raison of Intro- 
duction, yet concludes his Gourt Inquiry with the finding: "of 
course it is quite naturalised and wild " in its Gambridge station. 
I fail to see what is quite meant by this. Of what species are the 
60 to 80 year's-old trees belting the site? The rise of ground 
(a thing taking place, more or less quickly, all over our fenlands) is 
impugned as possibly not due to natural action ; tho' it is fair to 
say that a statement the deduction of which is opponent to the 
thesis of non-nativity is made also, viz. — the spread of the plant 
into the fenny ground adjacent. Oround growing less fenny, one 
dare swear 1 But, do not plants always spread, by seed or runner, 
from some centre, even if Uie initial colony be natural ? And this 
from the plant first finding, there, and then thereabout, the en- 
vironment and continuing conditions that enable it to Be at all 1 

It seems to me that Mr. Bennett does not sufficiently grasp the 
grand fact showing-through all the petty facts of plant occurrences 
which botanographers note. This grand fact, which I believe 
Gharles Kingsley first adumbrated, is that, independent of Man, 
though helped by him and his works, A natural change is always and 
ever going on in our flora. To the perambulating botanologist of 
25 or 80 years experience, with his eyes open and bis brain apt for 
an effort akin to that of mental arithmetic, no features of Mora 
change are oftener obtruded upon his notice than the regular 
modification ever taking place in the flower integers of any tract — 
the absolutely inevitable, often predioable, replacements of one kind 
of individuals by some other 1 There is the fact, explain it how we 
will. But seeds, we know, kept from air, deeply-buried, as water 
runs away turned up by earthworms, will remain viable for ages ! 

Dozens of instances of striking natural change well up in my 
memory from Lincoln alone. In 1876-9 I knew Linwood warren 
near lUksen thoroughly : wet- shod I wandered over every square 
yard of it, & knew the wet-sand-peat species its conditions permitted 
to exist, ranging as they did from Breutelia arcuata, Aira uUginota, 



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8H0BT NOTES. 82? 

Carex dioiea up to Comarum and Carduus pratenm. Yisitmg the 
moor again in the late nineties, twice I satisfied myself these had 
gone (for a generation or two at least), the ground had grown drier, 
partly from circumferential drainage, partly from the growth of 
aggressive species, rushes, Enophomm vaginatum^ Erica clnerea, 
young Piniu and Abies — ^in the order here given — and now, in 1897, 
what had we there ? Gentiana Pneumonanthe, Hypericum pulchrum, 
Carex binervis by hundreds, other xerophiles in plenty — the Erio- 
phorum vaginatuvi even having gone, the drouth and soil-induration 
too much for it ! Here is a sample of many similar transformation 
scenes I have watched, in slow make and unmake ; and it has its 
Moral and its Application to many mysteries the botanist is faced 
by when he happens to come across a plant almost at the outset of 
itis natural appearance in a locality. To Mr. Bennett's inferences 
regarding what Belhan and Holme found or omitted to record, 
I would say 'ditto,* and — of course they couldn't find what was 
probably not there. 

At Broughton, Lincolnshire, Selinum seemed to me, and my 
companions the Revs. Fowler & Peacock, on the decrease in 1897 
— the wood' shaded marshy pastureland it grew in is getting too dry 
for it; but it was distinctly gaining here & there in the wetter 
thicketous lower levels adjacent, although not as much as it was 
losing on the higher ground. This one expects, and with such a 
class of species as Selinum or Pextcedanum^ Silaus or Cicuta virosa 
(ubiquitous in Lincoln East & West Fen long after Banks' time, 
now nearly gone, dike-banks bordered with Galeopm versicolor and 
clean-kept lodes where it luxuriated, Teucrium Scordium at foot), 
especially with the three first-named, it is my deliberate opinion 
that another 25 or 80 years will see these non-est where we now 
gather them, whilst several other stations in other natural areas 
will have turned up. In this connexion, too, it is interesting and 
suggestive to recall the history of Peucedanum palustre, its life and 
death, on the Burtle peat-moors of out-west Somerset, as elucidated 
by the Rev. R. P. Murray and Mr. J. W. White. — F. Abnold Lees. 

[The author's MS. has been followed implicitly throughout as to 
capital letters, etc. — Ed. Joubn. Bot.] 

Allium Sohcbnopbasum L. in Ibbland. — In July, 1895 (and again 
in 1896), I discovered a flowerless garlic, thinly scattered over about 
two miles of the limestone tract lying immediately south of Lough 
Mask, E. Mayo, extending to within one hundred yards of Co. Gal- 
way, though I could not trace it across the border, where it probably 
occurs, which had quite the habit of Chives ; the blooming of one 
plant now at length justifies my opinion. The nature of the locality 
forbids all reasonable doubt as to its wildness, and I think that a 
careful search will result in its being found elsewhere. The in- 
florescence of A, sibiricum from the Lizard, long grown in my 
garden, hardly differs except in the much shorter styles (perhaps a 
variable character), but their habit is quite distinct ; the stouter, 
very glaucous, recurved leaves of sibiricum contrasting greatly with 
the green, straight fohage of Schcenoprasum, Yet, in spite of their 
constancyi they are scarcely more than varieties of one species, as 

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828 SHOBT N0TB8. 

Babington and Hooker have ranked them. The wild Mayo plant, 
owing to the shallowness of the soil, was only from two to four inches 
high in those dry siunmers. — ^Edwabd S. Marshall. 

EpiPAcns ATROBUBENS Sohnltes. — With reference to Mr. Bennett's 
note on p. 274, 1 may mention that in 1885 1 gathered a Helleborine 
at about 6000 ft. in a rocky wood near the Rieder Alp, Upper Valais, 
Switzerland, identical with the plant of Durness, Inchnadamph, 
and Betty Hill (W. Sutherland), which is also exactly represented 
by the beautiful figure in Max Schulze's Die Orchidaceett Deutsch- 
lands f Deutsch-Oesterreichs und der Schweiz (Jena, 1894), called E, 
rvMginosa Grantz on the plate, but E. rubiginosa Gaud, in the text ; 
E. atrorubens Schult., E, atropurpurea Raf., and E, media Fr. being 
cited as synonyms. According to Nyman, however, Crantz pub- 
lished this as a variety of his E. Helleborine, and Gaudin as a variety 
of E. latifolia. These considerations appear to justify our present 
naming, and to negative Nyman's treatment of E. ovalis Bab. 
What Fries {Mantissa, ii. 54-6) says about his E. media does not 
seem to fit E. atrorubens very well — e,g, ** folia ovato-lanceolata, in 
apicem SBqualiter attenuata"; and the choice of the name w^ia in 
itself suggests an intention of distinguishing his new segregate from 
that species, as well as from E, latifolia, since E, microphylla Sw. is 
not a Scandinavian plant. M. Schulze adopts the name E. sessUi- 
folia Peterm. for what in Britain has been called E. violacea Boreau 
or E, purpurata Sm. ; this, too, is admirably depicted. — Edwabd S. 
Mabshall. 

Plantaoo Psyllium L. — The occurrence of this as a Middlesex 
casual is thus recorded by Miller in Gard. Diet. ed. vi. (1759): — 
« There has been one Species of Psyllium found growing naturally 
in England, which is the Sort used in Medicine, which was in the 
Earth throwd out of the Bottom of the Canals which were dug for the 
Chelsea Water Works where it grew in great Plenty. The Seeds 
of this must have been buried there some Ages, for no Person 
remembers any of the Plants growing in that neighbourhood 
before." — Jambs Bbittbn. 

Abenabia baleabioa n« Sussex. — Mr. G. May has brought to 
the Botanical Department a specimen of this plant, which was 
found in some quantity at the foot of some rocks near East Grin- 
stead during an excursion of the Toynbee Hall Natural History 
Society on May 28th. 

HiEBooHLOB bobealis IN EiBKouDBBiGHTSHiBE. — The Rev. Gcorgc 
McConachie has sent specimens of the above grass from the coast 
of Kirkcudbrightshire, south of the town of Kirkcudbright, where it 
was found by Miss Mittelbaoh. The discovery, with a couple of 
specimens, was communicated to me by Mr. J. McAndrew, of New 
Galloway. The occurrence of the plant on the coast is nothing 
unusual, as it occurs plentifully in Finland in such positions ; north 
to Svjatoj-noss, in Russian Lapland. — Abthub Bbnnbtt. 



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829 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Catalogue of the Library of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Bulletin 
of Misoellaneons ^biformation. Additional Series III. Sold 
at the Oardens. 1899. Paper boards, pp. viii, ff. 790. Price 
7s. 6d. [500 copies printed.] 

It weighs 5 pounds, is nearly 8} inches thick, and contains 
1588 pages, 790 of which are blank. For this last feature there is 
probably some sufficient but not obvious reason. It will be useful 
for the Eew authorities, and will save the trouble of interleaving 
their copy for the reception of additions ; but the 499 purchasers 
of the Catalogue will hardly employ it in this way, and their 
gratitude for the provision of about 800 pages of blank paper will 
hardly compensate for the expense and inconvenience of making the 
book twice as large as it need have been. Such purchasers will be 
inclined also to regret that so portly a volume was not produced in 
a binding more appropriate to its bulk ; and they may justly think 
that some lettering more descriptive of the contents of the work than 
"Kew Bulletin — Additional Series III.'* might appear upon its 
broad back. 

It is, however, by the inside of such a work as this that it must 
be judged, and the fact that the Catalogue has been prepared by 
Mr. B. D. Jackson prepossesses one strongly in its favour. We 
learn from the preface contributed by the Director of the Gardens 
that Mr. Jackson has had <* the assistance of the scientific staff," 
but we are not told in what this help has consisted, or who is 
responsible for the main arrangement of the work. We can hardly 
suppose that Mr. Jackson planned the division of the Catalogue 
into four parts, described as ** General," ** Travels," "Periodicals 
and Serials," and "Manuscripts.'* Common sense as well as 
general practice dictates that a work of this kind should be 
arranged throughout under one alphabet, and this method is 
nowadays adopted in all good catalogues ; the quadripartite plan 
adopted in this Catalogue causes a needless expenditure of time, 
trouble, and temper. To take an illustration, the first name we 
looked up was that of Sir Joseph Banks. . Here we find " Voyage 
in the 'Endeavour.* S^e Hawks worth, J.** For this we have to go 
to "Travels,** where we find it under " Hawk^sworth**; and in the 
same division we find under " Banks '* Sir Joseph Hooker's edition 
of his 'Journal* — there is no cross-reference from the "General** 
section to this entry, and it was only by accident that we came 
upon it. Later on we find five entries under Banks's name in the 
section devoted to " Manuscripts " — again without any cross-reference 
to or from the two other sections in which his name occurs 1 It 
would seem, therefore, that before we can be sure that we have all the 
information contained about only one writer, we must refer to each 
of the four sections of the Catalogue : a waste of time which might 
easily have been obviated by placing all entries in one alphabet, or 
even, to some extent, by the use of cross-references. We can hardly 
suppose that so experienced a bibliographer as Mr. Jackson is 
responsible for this irritating and misleading mode of entry, and it 



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880 CATALOGUE OF THE LIBBABT, ROYAL GABDENS, KBW. 

is difficult to understand how it can have commended itself to the 
Director or to the ''scientific staff/' 

Although it is thus at once evident that the execution of the 
work leaves much to be desired and that its usefulness is materiallj 
impaired by inconvenient arrangement, this Catalogue is an in- 
teresting record of the valuable collection of botanical literature 
brought together at Eew. We do not quite know with what object 
it has been published, for of course the books cannot be borrowed, 
and they are for the most part more readily available at the British 
Museum at Bloomsbury or at South Kensington ; but no doubt those 
responsible for its publication had sufficient justification for their 
action. A very casual inspection, however, makes it apparent that 
its bulk might have been greatly lessened — ^perhaps by nearly one- 
half — without loss to its utility and with gain to the convenience of 
those using it, by the omission of pulls, abstracts, separate issues, 
book catalogues, local guides,